(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Proceedings"

DO NOT REMOVE FROM LIBRARY 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIVIL ENGINEERS 



VOL. XLIII— No. 6 



AMERICAN 
SOCIETY OF 

CIVIL 

lENGINEERSi 

^FOUNDEDi 

J652i 



August, 1917 



Published at the House of the Society, 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York, 
the Fourth Wednesday of each Month, except June and July. 

Copyrighted 1917, by the Amerinan Society of Civil Engineers. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter at the New York City Post Office. December 15th. IS Jo. 

Subscription, $8 per annum. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN SOCIETY 



OF 



CIVIL ENGINEERS 

(INSTITUTED 1852) 



VOL. XLIII— No. 6 

AUGUST, 1917 



Edited by the Secretary, under the direction of the Committee on Publications. 

Reprints from this publication, which is copyrighted, may be made on condition that 

the full title of Paper, name of Author, page reference, and date 

of presentation to the Society, are given. 



CONTENTS 



Society Affairs Pages 39.5 to 528. 

Papers and Discussions Pages 901 to 1422. 



NEW YORK 1917 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1917, by the American Society of 
Civil Engineers, in the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



OFFICERS FOR 1917 

President, GEORGE H. PEGRAM 
Vice-Presidents 
Term expires January, 1918 : Term expires January, 1919 : 

ALFRED CRAVEN GEORGE W. KITTREDGE 

PALMER C. RICKETTS GEORGE S. WEBSTER 

Secretary, CHARLES WARREN HUNT 
Treasurer, GEORGE W. TILLSON 
Directors 
Term, expires January, Term expires January, Term expires January, 

1918 : 1919 : 1920 : 

J. VIPOND DAVIES FREDERICK C. NOBLE ALFRED D. FLINN 

GEORGE A. HARWOOD ALEX. C. HUMPHREYS LEWIS D. RIGHTS 

JOHN E. GREINER FREDERIC H. FAY WILLIAM R. HILL 

JOHN F. COLEMAN RICHARD KHUEN, Jr. ARTHUR P. DAVIS 

JOHN B. HAWLEY FRANK G. JONAH W. L. DARLING 

HERBERT S. CROCKER EDWIN DURYEA R. H. THOMSON 

Past-Presidents, Members of the Board: 
JOHN A. OCKERSON HUNTER MCDONALD 

GEORGE F. SWAIN CHARLES D. MARX 

CLEMENS HERSCHEL 



Assistant Secretary, T. J. McMINN 



Standing Coramiittees 

(The President of the Society is ex officio Member of ai-l Committees) 
On Finance: On Publications: On Library: 

GEORGE W. KITTREDGE GEORGE A. HARWOOD ALFRED D. FLINN 

ALFRED CRAVEN LEWIS D. RIGHTS GEORGE A. HARWOOD 

ALEX. C. HUMPHREYS FREDERICK C. NOBLE LEWIS D. RIGHTS 

GEORGE S. WEBSTER JOHN E. GREINER J. VIPOND DAVIES 

FRANK G. JONAH JOHN F. COLEMAN CHAS. WARREN HUNT 

On Special Committees: 
J. VIPOND DAVIES 
GEORGE W. TILLSON 
W. L. DARLING 



Special Coramittees 

On Engineering Education : Desmond FitzGerald, Onward Bates, D. W. Mead. 

On Steel Columns and Struts : Lewis D. Rights, James H. Edwards, Clarence 
W. Hudson, Charles F. Loweth, Ralph Modjeski, George F. Swain, Emil Swensson, 
Joseph R. Worcester. 

On Materials for Road Construction : W. W. Crosby, A. W. Dean, H. K. 
Bishop, A. H. Blanchard, George W. Tillson, Nelson P. Lewis, Charles J. Tilden. 

To Codify Present Practice on the Bearing Value of Soils for Founda- 
tions, etc. : Robert A. Cummings, Edwin Duryea, E. G. Haines, Allen Hazen, James 
C. Meem, Walter J. Douglas. 

On the Regulation of Water Rights : F. H. Newell, W. C. Hoad, John H. Lewis. 

To Report on Stresses in Railroad Track : A. N. Talbot, A. S. Baldwin, 
G. H. Bremner, John Brunner, W. J. Burton, Charles S. Churchill, W. C. Gushing, 
Robert W. Hunt, George W. Kittredge, Paul M. LaBach, C. G. E. Larsson, G. J. Ray, 
Albert F. Reichmann, H. R. Safford, P. E. Turneaure, J. E. Willoughby. 



The House of the Society is open from 9 a. m. to 10 P. M. every day, except 
Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. 

House of the Society — 220 West Fifty-seventh Street, New York. 

Telephone Number 1446 Circle. 

Cable Address "Ceas, New York." 



Vol. XLIII. AUGUST, 1917. No. 6. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PROCEEDINGS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



SOCIETY AFFAIRS 

CONTENTS 

Minutes of Meetings : Page 

Of the Society. May Ifith and June 6th, 1917 395 

Elections and Transfers bv the Board of Direction, June llth-rith, 1917 399 

Of the Board of Direction, May 15th, 1917 402 

Society Items of Interest 403 

Announcements : 

Hours during- which the Society House is open 418 

Future Meetings. 418 

Searches in the Library 418 

Papers and Discussions 419 

Local Associations of Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers 419 

Minutes of Meetings of Special Committees 429 

Privileges of Engineering Societies Extended to Members 433 

Accessions to the Library of the United Engineering Society 436 

Membership (Additions, Changes of Address, Reinstatements, Resignations, Deaths). 453 

Recent Engineering Articles of Interest 487 



MINUTES OF MEETINGS 
OF THE SOCIETY 



May i6th, ipij- — The meeting was called to order at 8.30 P. m.; 
President George H. Pegram in the chair; Chas. Warren Hunt, Sec- 
retary; and present, also, 89 members and 8 guests. 

A paper by J. F, Partridge, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled "Modern 
Practice in Wood Stave Pipe Design, and Suggestions for Standard 
Specifications", was presented by the Secretary, who also read com- 
munications on the subject from Messrs. H. von Schrenk, F. F. Bell, 
H. D. Coale, and D. C. Henny. The paper was discussed further by 
Messrs. Henry P. Rust, H. B. Machen, W. J. Boucher, and F. M. 
Robbins. 



396 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

The Secretary announced the election of the following candidates 
on May 15th, 1917 : 

As MEilBERS 

Charles Eogy Burky, Jerome, Idaho 

Albert Bennett Cudebec, New York City 

Elmer Ellsworth Greenwood, Skowhegan, Me. 

Henry Guttin, New York City 

Harry Allardt Kluegel, Denver, Colo. 

Lamar Lyndon, New York City 

HiSANORi Numata, Yawata-Machi, Chikuzen, Japan 

Jacob Latch Warner, Wilmington, Del. 

Ealph Nims Whitcomb, New York City 

As Associate Members 

Murray Chase Ayers, Pasadena, Cal. 

William Earnest Baldry, Dodge City, Kans. 

John Ealph Bogert, Wilkinsburg, Pa. 

George Hathaway Canfield, Oakland, Cal. 

Earl William Chamberlin, Chicago, 111. 

Joseph Brandly Converse, Montgomery, Ala. 

Daniel Boyden Cutler, Tyler, Tex. 

LoTT Davis Draper, Germantowii, Pa. 

Arthur Hoyt Dunlap, Barstow, Tex. 

Lester Fisher Ellis, Lexington, Mass, 

Lambert Theodore Ericson, Toledo, Ohio 

Chester McKenzie Everett, New York City 

EuDOLPH EvERS, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alvin Bartholdi Eox, Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Charles Grover Gabelman, Fort Mills, Philippine Islands 

Leslie Drew Goddard, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

William Eobert Goodwin, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Howard Allison Gray, West Somerville, Mass. 

Clarence Saylor Gruetzmacher, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Benjamin Mortimer Hall, Jr., Atlanta, Ga. 

Aloysius Frank Harter, Phoenix, Ariz. 

Eugene Eobert Hoffman, Olympia, Wash. 

Joseph Earl Huber, Mt. Vernon, 111. 

William Hill Hulsizer, Omaha, Nebr. 

HoLLisTER Johnson, Albany, N. Y. 

Percival Charles Jones, Cleveland, Ohio 

Egbert Leroy Jones, Sacramento, Cal. 

Gerald Sturtevant Ivibbey, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Paul Eobert Kirstein, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Enno Paul Knollman, Columbus, Ohio 



August, 1917.] MINUTES OF MEETINGS 397 

Adonis William Kueameu, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Edward Allyn Lambert, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Arthur Lewis LaRoche, Binghamton, N. Y. 

MoiffiAN Foster Larson, Perth Amboy, IST. J. 

Percival John MACiSrAUGHTON, Springfield, Mass. 

William Oliver McCluskey, Jr., Wheeling, W. Va. 

Hyman Harry Mandelzweig, Cleveland, Ohio 

William Christian Miller, Sycamore, 111. 

James Shively Neibert, Liberty, Tex. 

George Frances Nicholson, Seattle, Wash. 

Albert Koy Olds, Havana, Cuba 

Frank Hugh O'Rourke, Sellersville, Pa. 

Edmund Addison Pratt, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Maurice James Quinn, Detroit, Mich. 

Charles Ramsay Rinehart, New York City 

W^ilbert Robin Rosche, Pueblo, Colo. 

Charles Christian Scharpenberg, Bakersfield, Cal. 

James Hilton Sherman, Kansas City, Mo. 

Elmer Sigler, Kansas City, Mo. 

Isaac Cleveland Steele, Alameda, Cal. 

.Otto Christian Tretten, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 

William Claude Tyson, Little Rock, Ark. 

Thomas Albert Van Amburgh, Oklahoma, Okla. 

Claude Linn Van Auken, Chicago, 111. 

George Parker Van Vliet^ Cincinnati, Ohio 

Lester Carl Walker, Richfield, Idaho 

Herbert Kirkman Ward, San Diego, Cal. 

Lee Gilbert Warren, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Harry Artemas Wells, Hanover, N. H. 

Herbert James Wright, Philadelphia, Pa. 

As Juniors 
Walter David Binger, New York City 
James DeWitt Bohlken, Blacksburg, Va. 
Arthur Taylor Bragonier, Roanoke, Va. 
John Bernard Breymann, Jr., Toledo, Ohio 
Simon Bricklin, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Clarence Condon Dustheimer, Cristobal, Canal Zone, Panama 
Aaron Herbert Frank, Utica, N. Y. 
Roland Russell Graham, Elmira, N. Y. 
Bernard Henry Grehan, New Orleans, La. 
Harry Neville Jenks, Berkeley, Cal. 
George Seymour McCullough, Evanston, 111. 
Thomas Charles Morgan, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
David Nabow, Charlotte, N. C. 



398 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

William Henri Francais August Pockels, Buenos Aires, Argen- 
tine Republic 
Frederic Borradaile Prichett, Philadelphia, Pa. 
George Francis Sexton, New York City 
William Edward Shea, Remedios, Cuba 
• Walter Raymond Weber, Denver, Colo. 

The Secretary announced the transfer of the following candidates 
on May 15th, 1917 : 

From Associate Member to Member 

Farrand Northrop Benedict, East Orange, N. J. 

Clarence Moore Blair, New Haven, Conn. 

Gustave Maurice Braune, Cincinnati, Ohio 

Frederick Charles Carstarphen, Trenton, N. J. 

John Percival Da vies, New York City 

Farley Gannett, Harrisburg, Pa. 

Otto Henry Gentner, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Samuel Rowland Ginsburg, La Romana, Dominican Republic 

Oliver Zell Howard, Lawrence, Mass. 

John Nathaniel Mackall, Harrisburg, Pa. 

William Hale Phillips, Spokane, Wash. 

Rex Cameron Starr, Los Angeles, Cal. 

From Junior to Associate Member 

Chester Ely Atwood, Yalier, Mont. 

Wilbur Earl Bickerton, Baltimore, Md. 

Guy Hersey Bishop, Oelwein, Iowa 

Frank Leonard Bolton, Erie, Pa. 

Edouard Jean Bernard de Mey, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Harold Lewis English, Washington, D. C. 

William Wetmore Gibbs, Nichols, Fla. 

EwiNG Sloan Humphreys, Richmond, Ya. 

Ernst Gustav Kaufmann, Buffalo, N. Y. 

John Bruce Mailey, Lynn, Mass. 

Clifford Eaton Murray, Newark, N. J. 

Ernest Benjamin Nelson, Chaiiaral, Chile 

Kingsbury Eastman Parker, San Francisco, Cal. 

John Joseph Francis Phalan, Utica, N. Y. 

Charles Lysander Rakestraw, San Francisco, Cal. 

Harold August Hastrup Schultz, Detroit, Mich. 

Yaleriano Segura, Manila, Philippine Islands 

Minton Machado Warren, Cambridge, Mass. 

Maurice Anderson Webster, Philadelphia, Pa. 



AiigU!st, ]!)17.] MINUTES OF MEETINGS 399 

The Secretary announced the following deaths : 

Stanley Alfred Miller, of Paducah. Ky., elected Junior, Febru- 
ary 4th, 1902; Associate Member, April 6th, 1909; Member, June 24th, 
191G; died May 13th, 1917. 

David Simson, of Hitchin, Herts, England, elected Member, Janu- 
ary 8th. 1902 ; died December 16th, 1916. 

John Hatfield Frazee, of New York City, elected Associate Mem- 
ber, December 6th, 1899; died May 4th, 1917. 

Lewis Roberts Pomeroy, of Orange, N. J., elected Associate, April 
2d, 1890; died May 7th, 1917. 

Adjourned. 

June 6th, i9'7« — The meeting was called to order at 8.30 p. m.; 
President George H. Pegram in the chair; Chas. Warren Hunt, Secre- 
tary; and present, also, 196 members and 43 guests. 

The minutes of the meetings of April 18th and May 2d, 1917, were 
approved as printed in Proceedings for May, 1917. 

E. F. Robinson, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., Captain, Corps of Engrs., 
N. G. N. Y., addressed the meeting on "The Work of the 22d K Y. 
Engineers on the Mexican Border", illustrating his remarks with 
lantern slides, and J. H. Granbery, M. Am. Soc. C. E., exhibited 
French and German helmets, gas masks, and other military accoutre- 
ments from the French front at Verdun. 

The Secretary read a communication from J. H. Gandolfo, Assoc. 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., announcing the establishment of an evening 
section of a course of theoretical and practical instruction in military 
subjects by the College of the City of New York, during the summer. 

The Secretary annoimced the following deaths : 

James Walter Grimshaw, of Westminster, London, England, 
elected Member, November 7th, 1888 ; died February 15th, 1917. 

Franklin Buchanan Looke, of North Adams, Mass., elected Mem- 
ber, March 1st, 1893 ; died May 11th, 1917. 

Adjourned. 

ELECTIONS AND TRANSFERS BY THE BOARD OF DIRECTION, 
JUNE iith-i2th, 1917. 

Elected as Members 

Lyonel Ayres, Duluth, Minn. 
Alfred William Bowie, New York City 
Malcolm Colburn Cleveland, New York City 
William Cantrill Curd, St. Louis, Mo. 
David Smith Gendell, Jr., Pottstown, Pa. 
Paul Anthony Trost, West Hoboken, N. J. 



400 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

Elected as Associate Members 
Raymond Ashton, San Francisco, Cal. 
Frederick Andrew Baker, Bogalusa, La. 
Wilbur Vick Banister, Boston, Mass. 
John Robert Biedinger, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Robert Lawton Bowen, Providence, R. I. 
Robert Platt Boyd, Monroe, La. 
Robert Wesley Briggs, Yonkers, N. Y. 
John Henry Brown, Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Charles Homer Buford, Chicago, 111. 
Isaac Jacques Casey, Jr., Irvington, N. J. 
John Hirst Caton, 3d, Providence, R. I. 
Charles Walter Chapin, San Luis Obispo, Cal. 
Francis Dorsey Christhilf, Baltimore, Md. 
George Phelps Clayson, Chicago, 111. 
William Henry Courtenay, Philadelphia, Pa. 
James Cresson, Norristown, Pa. 
Perry Augustus Fellows, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Clarence Stephens Gale, Easton, Md. 
Franklin Joseph Hanmer, North Milwaukee, Wis. 
Neal Hanson, TJte Park, N. Mex. 
Wellington Prescott Hews, San Francisco, Cal. 
Arthur Julius Knight, Worcester, Mass. 
Lyman Calvin Lamb, Youngstown, Ohio 
Henry Lloyd, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
Charles Edward MacLean, Boise, Idaho 
Charles Allen Merriam, Portland, Ore. 
John Earl Morelock, Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Thomas Preston Paxton, Okmulgee, Okla. 
William Clay Penn, Alcoa, Tenn. 
Victor Smith Persons, San Francisco, Cal. 
Percy Lawrence Reed, Philadelphia, Pa. 
William Cathcart Riddle, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Andrew Francis Ross, Powell, Wyo. 
Lewis Pelot Scott, Aurora, 111. 
George Milson Shepard, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Eugene Adalbert Silagi, Columbus, Ohio 
John William Swaren, Hayward, Cal. 
Rock Granite Taber, Dallas, Tex. 
Louis Earle Thornton, Pensacola, Fla. 
Frank Kline Webb, New Orleans, La. 

Elected as Juniors 
Roy Leonard Anderson, West Berkeley, Cal. 
Alfred Andrew Burger, Akron, Ohio 



Au<,nist, 1017.1 MINUTES OF MEETINGS 401 

Charles Michael Carnelli, New York City 
Daniel Wakwick Colhoun, New York City 
Alden Wales Harvev, Coatesville, Pa. 
Alfred John Mahnken, Weehawken, N. J. 
Arthur Clough Nichols, Knoxville, Tenn. 
George Anton Repko, Queens, N. Y. 
Leo Francis Reynolds, St. Joseph, Mo. 
FoNziE Eugene Robertson, Dallas, Tex. 
William Lewis Stanton, Los Angeles, Cal. 
William Robert Swanson, Chicago, 111. 
Charles Laurence Warwick, Narberth, Pa, 

Transferred from Associate Member to Member 

Joseph Chester Allison, Calexico, Cal. 

Charles Terrell Bartlett, San Antonio, Tex. 

Percy Lewis Braunworth, Montclair, N. J. 

Charles Franklin Brow^n, Salt Lake City, Utah 

John Richard Caiiill, San Francisco, Cal. 

Edwin Keen Cortright, Lawrence, Mass. 

George Cromwell, San Diego, Cal. 

William Earle Elam, Greenville, Miss. 

Henry Dievendorf Dewell, San Francisco, Cal. 

William Dewoody Dickinson, Little Rock, Ark. 

Franklin Edward Estes, Petersburg, Fla. 

Harry Carter Gardner, Lancaster, Pa. 

Albert Wesley Gaumer, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba 

Howard Howell George, Newark, N. J. 

Trygve Daniel Bodtker Groner, Springfield, Ohio 

Charles Newton Green, New York City 

Samuel Whilden Henderson, Excelsior Springs, Mo. 

Clarence Decatur Howe, Port Arthur, Ont., Canada 

Walter Leroy Huber, San Francisco, Cal. 

Hinman Barrett Hurlbut, Washington, D. C. 

Willis Ranney, San Antonio, Tex. 

Richard Wood Randolph, Ichang, China 

John Marie Thomas Rice, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Percy Augustus Shaw, Lancaster, Pa. 

Thomas Shackelford Shepperd, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Walter James Spalding, Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama 

Adolpiius Gustavus Trost, El Paso, Tex. 

Hubert Southwick Tullock, Leavenworth, Kans. 

Guy Anderson Watkins, Little Rock, Ark. 

Maurice William Williams, Albany, N. Y. 

William Horace Williams, New Orleans, La. 



402 MINUTES OF MEETINGS [Society Affairs. 

Transferred from Junior to Associate Member 

Richard Henderson Eurich, Montclair, N. J. 

Fred Dailey Hartford, Denver, Colo. 

Jose Justo Manzanilla y Carbonell, Havana, Cuba 

Charles Ernest Ramser, Washington, D. C. 

Neil Thom, Jr., San Francisco, Cal. 

John Malcolm Waller, Kansas City, Mo. 

George Leland Youmans, Tacoma, Wash. 

OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTION 

(Abstract) 

May 15th, 1917. — The Board met at 10.30 p. m., immediately after 
the adjournment of the Membership Committee; President Pegram in 
the chair; Chas. Warren Hunt, Secretary; and present, also, Messrs. 
Davies, Fay, Flinn, Humphreys, Kittredge, and Noble. 

Ballots for membership were canvassed, resulting in the election of 
9 Members, 60 Associate Members, and 18 Juniors, and the transfer of 
19 Juniors to the grade of Associate Member. 

Twelve Associate Members were transferred to the grade of 
Member. 

A Report from the Membership Committee was received and acted 
upon. 

Adjourned. 



Aiimist. I'.lIT.I SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEEEST 403 

SOCIETY ITE/VIS OF INTEREST 

Letter from the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 

"Washington, D. C, June 5, 1917. 
'^Dr. Charles Warren Hunt, 

Secretary, American Society of Civil Engineers, 
New York, N. Y. 

''Dear Sir. — I am sending you herewith a copy of the bill recently 
passed by Congress which includes an item of vital interest to the 
Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

"It authorized the President to turn over to the War or to the 
Navy Department, in time of war, any part of the equipment or per- 
sonnel of the Survey that he may think advisable for the national 
defense and offense. 

"The bill also provides that any of the personnel assigned to duty in 
the War or jSTavy Department shall have proper military status. The 
status of the engineers of the Survey is provided for in the bill. 

"An item of the greatest importance, not only to this bureau but 
to civil engineers throughout the country, is the provision that the 
field engineers, who will be called hereafter hydrographic and geodetic 
engineers and junior hydrographic and geodetic engineers, and aids, 
are to be appointed or commissioned by the President of the United 
States, with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

''Those persons in the Survey who have had the title of Assistant 
and of Aid have already been commissioned by the President and 
these commissions have been confirmed by the Senate. 

"It is believed that the passage of the bill referred to is a recog- 
nition of the engineering profession by the federal governrrient which 
is most gratifying. I feel that you will be glad to bring this action 
of the Government to the attention of the Board of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, 'for their information. 

"Very truly yours, 

"R. L. Paris, 

"Acting Superintendent." 

The Award of the John Fritz Medal for 1917 

The John Fritz Medal for 1917, awarded to Dr. Henry M. Howe for 
his "investigations in metallurgy, especially in the metallography of 
iron and steel", was presented in the Auditorium of the United Engi- 
neering Society's Building, New York City, on Thursday evening, 
May 10th, 1917. 

Mr. Ambrose Swasey, Chairman of the John Fritz Medal Board 
of Award, presided, and addresses were delivered by Dr. Rossiter W. 
Raymond, Secretary Emeritus of the American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, and Dr. Ira N. Hollis, President of the American Society 
of Mechanical Engineers. 



404 SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEKEST [Society Affairs. 

Professor Albert Sauveur, Chairman of the Board at the time the 
award was made, presented the medal, and the ceremonies concluded 
with the response of Dr. Howe. 

List of Eecipients of the John Fritz Medal. 

John Fritz 1902 

Lord Kelvin 1905 

George Westinghouse 1906 

Alexander Graham Bell 1907 

Thomas Alva Edison 1908 

Charles Talbot Porter 1909 

Alfred Noble 1910 

Sir William Henry White. .1911 

Eobert Woolston Hunt 1912 

John Edson Sweet 1914 

James Douglas 1915 

Elihu Thomson 1916 

Henry Marion Howe 1917 

Report of the Committee on Special Committees 
Presented to the Board of Direction, June nth, ip'?. 
and Ordered Printed for the Information of Members 

30 Church Street, New York, 
June 5, 1917. 
The Board of Direction, 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 

New York, N. Y. 
Gentlemen. — At your last meeting, April 17th, 1917, you referred 
to the Committee on Special Committees two matters for investigation 
and report, regarding which we beg to submit the following report: 
1. — Request for the Appomtment of a New Special Cominittee on 
Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 
We have given careful consideration to the possible advantages to 
the Society of continuing the Special Committee on Concrete and 
Reinforced Concrete or of the appointment of a new Special Com- 
mittee. Since the date of the recent report there is nothing new in 
the art which would warrant continuing the old, or appointing a new. 
Special Committee to continue the work beyond the scope of the final 
report which was presented in January. There is no warrant under 
our Constitution for maintaining a Special Committee perpetually to 
watch developments in any particular branch of the art of engineering. 
Our recommendation is that no such Special Committee should be 
continued nor new Special Committee appointed. In the future, when 



August. 1017.] SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST 405 

there shall have been some further advance in the use of concrete and 
reinforced concrete sufficient to warrant a further study and report on 
the subject, the appointment of a Special Committee can be considered 
on its merits. 

2. — Request for the Appointment of a Special Committee of Five 
Members to Investigate and Report on the Conditions and 
Opportunities for American Engineers in Russia and in South 
America. 

Article VI, Section 12, of the Constitution of the Society, pro- 
vides that, "Special committees to report upon engineering subjects 
shall be authorized, except as further provided in this paragraph", etc. 
In our opinion, tlie matter of investigating the conditions and oppor- 
tunities for American Engineers in Russia and in South America 
does not come within the scope of the meaning of "engineering sub- 
jects", and we, therefore, recommend against the appointment of such 
a Committee as is requested. 

In submitting this report, we beg to state that while it is not signed 
by Mr. W. L. Darling, a member of the Committee on Special Com- 
mittees, the recommendations herein made are fully concurred in by 
him. The absence of Mr. Darling's signature hereto is due to his 
leaving this country on government business prior to the report being 
written. 

Committee on Special Committees. 

J. Y. Davies, Chairman. 
Geo. W. Tillson. 

Contingent Fees 

The following letter, relating to contingent fees, was presented 
to the Board of Direction at its meeting on June 11th, 1917, and 
was ordered printed for the information of the membership. 

"New Orleans, La. 
"May 29th, 1917. 
"To THE Board of Direction, 

American Society of Civil Engineers, 
220 West 57th St., New York. 
"Gentlemen. — Referring to the correspondence .published in the 
May number of Proceedings* in regard to the acceptance by engineers 
of a contingent fee, it would appear to the writer that this subject 
is of sufficient importance to justify further discussion, extending 
into fields other than service as an expert witness in Court. It may 
first, however, be proper to express a hearty agreement with the reply 
given by ^[r. Clemens Herschcl to the inquiry of Mr. J. H. Quinton 
as regards testimony given in Court. Our pro fession is in no position 

* Pioceedings. Am. Soc. C. E., May, 1917, p. 3.S2. 



40G SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST [ Society Affairs. 

to regulate the operation of our law Courts, but we can at least apply- 
to our service in connection with those Courts the ideals which we 
stand for in our other relations. In most trials in American Courts, 
the attorneys are not serving as a semi-official part of the Court, but 
as violent partisans, striving, by every means which their code of 
ethics will permit, to secure an advantage for their particular client. 
The net result is that the side which employs the preponderajice of 
ability secures the preponderance of advantage, especially in trials by 
jury and in the lower Courts. To offset, as much as may be prac- 
ticable, this generally admitted pernicious practice, it would appear 
to be the duty of a member of our profession, when employed as an 
expert witness, to adopt the attitude that he is employed by the Court 
(though of necessity in some States paid by the client) to assist in 
arriving at the truth. Owing to the fact that this attitude has not 
been fixed by precedent long followed by all professions, the engineer's 
position might well be stated to the client or his attorney before accept- 
ing emplojanent. 

"The writer has occasionally found practicing attorneys who have 
so departed from the usual custom of their profession that, in the 
handling of some peculiar case, the technical details of which are 
not fully covered by their own experience, they will call in the services 
of some specialist in that line for assistance in the preparation of 
their brief, and more especially in the preparation of questions to be 
asked the witnesses. In such a case, the writer can see no objection 
to the engineer taking a partisan attitude, for he is then an assistant 
to the attorney and not to the Court. The question of a contingent 
fee under such circumstances might be judged more from a business 
than from an ethical standpoint. 

''The average man who maintains a general engineering office is 
probably more often requested to render services for a contingent fee 
in connection with a new project requiring an examination and a 
report than for service as an expert witness in Court. This office 
has had an average of not less than four such cases offered per year 
for the past several years. Such proposals have been uniformly 
rejected for the following reasons : 

"1. — Handling' of engineering work on a contingent fee is con- 
sidered to be poor business policy. 
"2. — It is considered to be unethical. 

"Considering these points in the order named, established custom 
prevents an engineer from charging a fee commensurate with the 
risks involved. Judged by the rule of averages, he would have to 
provide for a prolxable failure of the project (and consequent failure 
to collect his fee) in at least one-half the cases so handled. On all 
lost cases, he would be out, not only his own time, but also for expenses 
incurred. In many instances, these expenses run up into an amount 
which the average engineer is in no position to lose. 

"As regards the ethical questions involved, assume that the engineer 
is employed to make an examination, survey, and report on a projected 
interurban railway. Acting in the capacity in which he is employed, 
he is not only charged with the duty of securing such information 



August, 1 ill 7. J SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST 407 

as is desired by the promoters of the scheme, but, in ;i certain broad 
sense, he is tlie representative of all i)arties concerned. These parties 
are numerous, such as the promoters themselves, the future stock- 
holders, and bondholders, the future patrons of the road, and all 
interests which might be affected by its construction and operation. 
Serving- in such a capacity, the work of an engineer is, or should be, 
exceptionally judicial in its character. The engineer may be able 
to satisfy himself that his report will be in no way colored, modified, 
or exaggerated by the fact that the payment of his fee is contingent 
on the successful financing of the project, but human nature is 
weak, and even though he may satisfy his own conscience in the 
matter, the engineer may not always be able to satisfy the public, 
and more especially the canny investor, that he has been entirely 
unbiased in his presentation of the case, when it is known that it has 
been accepted on a contingent fee. 

''The foregoing applies more particularly to the preparation of 
original plans and reports. After a project has been financed, no 
objection can be seen to the engineer accepting an administrative or 
other position in the concern, accepting in return payment or part 
payment in stock or profits, this again being more a matter of business 
than of ethics. It is obvious, however, that, in connecting himself 
with a project as part owner, the engineer may not consistently clothe 
himself with such broad powers over contractors who may be employed 
as is customarily done by engineers who take the position that they 
are unbiased arbitrators as between the owners and contractors. An 
attempt to lay down rules, however, for all such combinations of 
circumstances, would lead logically to a regulation in minute detail 
of all the acts of the individual, a procedure which is neither possible 
nor desirable. The only safe rule to apply is the Golden Rule, on 
which are based the generally accepted code of ethics of our profession. 
"Respectfully submitted 

"Arthur M. Shaw, 

"Member, Am. Soc. C. E." 



Proposed Revision of the Constitution 

Referring to the note on page 315* with regard to the action of the 
Board in the matter of the proposed revision of the Constitution, the 
following facts should be noted : 

The Report received by the Board was from a Committee consist- 
ing of M. T. Endicott, Chairman, J. A. Ockerson, George F. Swain, 
Hunter McDonald, J. V. Davies, H. S. Crocker, and Chas. Warren 
Hunt, and was not unanimous, the only difference of opinion in the 
Committee being as to whether the Secretary of the Society should be 
a member of the Board of Direction or not, Messrs. Endicott, Ockerson, 
McDonald, and Davies, holding that he should not be, and Messrs. 
Swain, Crocker, and Hunt, that he should be. 

It should also be stated that the proposed By-laws are not intended 
to be passed upon by vote of the Society. They are published with the 

* Proceedings, Am. Soc. C. E., May, 1917. 



408 SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST [Society Affairs. 

proposed Constitution, which is to be voted upon, for the information 
of the membership. Should a new Constitution be adopted, these 
By-hiws will be subject to change or amplification by the Board of 
Direction. 

Bill for the Licensing of Engineers 
Adopted by the State Legislature of Florida 

This bill was adopted by the Senate of the State Legislature of 
Florida on May l7th, 1917, and by the House on the following day. 
A copy of the bill was forwarded to the Society by A. F. Harley, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., and is here printed for the information of the 
membership. 

AN ACT Providing for the Creation and Establishment of a 
Florida State Board of Engineering Examiners, Granting Cer- 
tain Powers to and Prescribing the Duties of Said Board; 
Providing for the Examination and Eegistration of Profes- 
sional Engineers, Regulating the Practice of Engineering in 
the State of Florida, and Providing Penalties for the Viola- 
tion of This Act. 

Be It Enacted hy the Legislature of the State of Florida: 

Section 1. Definitions. As used in this Act : 

(a) The "Board" means the State Board of Engineering Exam- 
iners ijrovided for by this Act. 

(b) A person practices "Professional Engineering" within the 
meaning of this Act who practices any branch of the profession of 
engineering other than military engineering. The practice of said 
profession embraces the design and the supervision of the construction 
of public and private utilities, such as railroads, bridges, highways, 
roads, canals, harbors, river improvements, lighthouses, wet docks, dry 
docks, ships, barges, dredges, cranes, floating docks and other floating 
liroperty, the design and the supervision of the construction of steam 
engines, turbines, internal combustion engines and other meclianical 
structures, electrical machinery and apparatus, and of works for the 
development, transmission or application of power, the design and the 
supervision of mining operations and of processes and apparatus for 
carrying out such operations, and the design and the supervision of 
the construction of municipal works, irrigation works, water supply 
works, sewerage works, drainage works, industrial works, sanitary 
works, hydraulic works and structural works and other public or 
private utilities or works which require for their design or the super- 
vision of their construction such experience and technical knowledge 
as are required in Section 8 of this Act for admission to examination. 
The execution as a contractor of work designed by a professional engi- 
neer or the supervision of the construction of such work as a foreman 
or superintendent for such a contractor shall not be deemed to be the 
practice of professional engineering within the meaning of this Act; 
nor shall this Act apply to a person acting as a public ofiicer employed 
by the State, a County or a Municipality of this State on work where 
the estimated cost of the same is $1 000.00 or less. 



August, 1917.] SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST 409 

(c) "Professional Engineer" means any person who practices pro- 
fessional engineering-. 

Sec. 2. After the first day of January, nineteen hundred and eigh- 
teen, no person shall practice professional engineering without having 
first been duly and regularly registered by the Board as a professional 
engineer as required by this Act, nor shall any person practice pro- 
fessional engineering whose authority to practice is revoked by the 
Board; and after the first day of January, nineteen hundred and 
eighteen, every map, plan and drawing required by law to be certified 
or approved by a professional engineer shall be certified or approved 
by a professional engineer duly and regularly registered by the Board 
as a professional engineer as required by this Act and shall bear the 
date and the number of the certificate of registration of such profes- 
sional engineer. 

Sec. 3. There shall be a State Board of Engineering Examiners 
consisting of five members to be appointed by the Governor, three of 
whom shall be civil engineers, one a mining or electrical engineer, and 
the other one a mechanical engineer or naval architect. Of the mem- 
bers of the Board first appointed hereunder two shall hold office for a 
term of two years ending the first day of July, nineteen hundred and 
nineteen. Two shall hold office for a term of three years ending the 
first day of July, nineteen hundred and twenty. One shall hold office 
for a term of four years ending the first day of July, nineteen hundred 
and twenty-one. The term of office of each member so appointed shall 
begin on the first day of July, nineteen hundred and seventeen. Upon 
the exjiiration of each of such terms the term of office of each member 
thereafter appointed shall be four years. Eacli member shall hold over 
after the expiration of his term until his successor shall be duly 
appointed and qualified. The Governor may remove any member of 
the Board for misconduct, incapacity or neglect of duty. Vacancies 
in the Board caused by death, resignation or removal from office shall 
bo filled by appointment by the Governor for the unexpired term. 
Each member of the Board shall be a professional engineer of at least 
ten years active experience and of recognized good standing in his 
profession and shall be at least thirty-five years of age and shall have 
been a resident of this state for at least three years immediately pre- 
ceding his appointment. Each member of said Board, except the 
members first appointed hereunder, shall also be registered as a pro- 
fessional engineer under this Act, and be also a member in good stand- 
ing of a recognized engineering society. The members of the Board 
shall serve without compensation except traveling and other necessary 
expenses. 

Sec. 4. Every member of the Board shall receive a certificate of his 
appointment from the Governor and before beginning his term of office 
shall file with the Secretary of State his written oath for the faithful 
discharge of his official duty. Each member of the Board first 
appointed hereunder shall receive a certificate of registration under 
this Act from said Board. The Board shall adopt and have an official 
seal. The Board may make all by-laws and rules not inconsistent 
with law needed in performing its duties; but no by-law or rule by 
which more than a majority vote is required for any specified action 



410 SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST [Society Affairs. 

by the Board shall be amended, suspended or repealed by a smaller 
vote than that required for action thereunder. 

Sec. 5. The Board shall biennially elect from its members a presi- 
dent, a vice-president and a secretary who shall also be treasurer, for 
the ensuing biennial term. The Secretary shall give a bond in such 
amount and with such sureties as may be approved by the Board con- 
ditioned upon the faithful performance of his duties and for the 
accounting for, and payment of, all moneys received by him. The 
Secretary shall keep on file a record of all certificates of registration 
issued, and he shall receive and account for all fees derived from the 
operation of this Act. 

The Board shall hold at least two regular meetings in each year. 
Special meetings may be called in such manner as the by-laws of the 
Board may provide. Notice of all meetings shall be given in such 
manner as the by-laws of the Board may provide. At all meetings a 
majority of the Board shall constitute a quorum. 

Sec. 6. The Board shall have power to employ, during its pleasure, 
such clerks and other employees and to rent such offices as may be 
necessary for the proper performance by it of its duties as in this Act 
prescribed. 

Sec. 7. The expenses of the Board and of the examinations held 
by the Board and of any other matter in connection with the provi- 
sions of this Act shall be paid from the registration fees collected as 
herein provided and not otherwise and in no case shall any of such 
expenses be paid by the State of Florida nor be charged against said 
State. 

The members of the Board shall be entitled to reimbursement for 
their traveling and hotel expenses incurred in pursuance of their 
duties. 

Any surplus funds remaining in the hands of the Board or of its 
Secretary and Treasurer shall be subject from time to time to the 
further provisions of the Legislature. 

Sec. 8. The Board shall admit to examination any candidate who 
pays a fee of Fifteen Dollars ($15.00) and submits evidence, verified 
by oath and satisfactory to the Board, that he 

(a) Is more than twenty-one years of age, 

(b) Is of good character, and 

(c) Has been engaged upon engineering work for at least six 
years and during that period has had charge of engineering 
work, as principal or assistant, for at least one year; 

(d) Or, in lieu of requirement (c) specified above, is a graduate 
from an engineering school of recognized good reputation 
and has been engaged upon engineering work for at least 
four years and during that period has had charge of engi- 
neering work, as principal or assistant, for at least one year. 

Sec. 9. Examinations for registration shall be held at regular or 
special me^etings of the Board at such times and at such places within 
the Statein each year as the Board shall determine. The scope of the 
examinations and the metliods of procedure shall be prescribed by the 
Board. The examination may be either oral or partly oral and partly 
written. As soon as practicable after the close of each examination 



August, 1917.] SOCIETY ITEMS OF IXTEBEST 411 

the members of the Board who shall have conducted such examination 
shall make and sign and file with the Secretary a certificate stating 
the action of the Board upon the application of each candidate, where- 
upon the Secretary of the Board shall notify each candidate of the 
result of his examination. 

Sec. 10. Upon receipt of an additional fee of Ten Dollars ($10.00) 
the Board shall issue to any applicant who has been certified as having 
passed the examination conducted by the Board a certificate of regis- 
tration signed by the President and Secretary of the Board under the 
seal of the Board, whereupon each applicant shall be authorized to 
practice professional engineering as defined by this Act. 

The Board shall from time to time examine the requirements for 
the registration of professional engineers in other States, territories 
and countries and shall record those in which, in the judgment of the 
Board, standards not lower than those provided by this Act are main- 
tained. The Secretary of the Board, upon the presentation to him by 
any person of satisfactory evidence that such person holds a certificate 
of registration issued to such person by proper authority in any such 
State, territory or country so recorded and upon receipt by him of a 
fee of Twenty-five dollars ($25.00), shall issue to such person a cer- 
tificate of registration under this Act, signed by the President and 
Secretary under the seal of the Board, whereupon the person to whom 
such certificate is issued shall be entitled to all the rights and privileges 
conferred by a certificate issued after examination by the Board. 

Sec. 11. The Board shall at any time on or before the thirty-first 
day of December, nineteen hundred and seventeen, issue a certificate 
of registration signed by the President and the Secretary of the Board 
under the seal of the Board, upon due application therefor and the 
payment of a fee of Twenty -five Dollars ($25.00), to any professional 
engineer who shall submit evidence, verified by oath and satisfactory 
to the Board, that he is of good character and has been a resident of 
the State of Florida for at least one year immediately preceding the 
date of his application, and has practiced professional engineering for 
at least ten years preceding the date of his application and during that 
period has had charge of engineering work as principal or assistant 
for at least two years. After the thirty -first day of December, nine- 
teen hundred and seventeen, the Board shall issue certificates of regis- 
tration only as herein provided. 

Sec. 12. All certificates of registration issued by the Board and 
its Secretary shall be in such form as the by-laws of the Board may 
prescribe. Before any certificate of registration is issued by the Board 
and its Secretary, it shall be numbered and recorded in a book kept for 
that purpose with the Secretary and the number of the certificate shall 
be noted on the certificate. Such record shall be open to public inspec- 
tion and in all actions or proceedings in any court such record or a 
transcript of any part thereof certified by the Secretary of the Board 
under the seal of the Board to be a true copy shall be entitled to 
admission h\ evidence. 

The Board shall have power at any time to inquire into the identity 
of any person claiming to be a registered professional engineer and 
after due service of a notice in writing, require him to prove to the 
satisfaction of the Board, that he is the person authorized to practice 



413 SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST [Society Affairs. 

professional engineering under the certificate of registration by virtue 
of which he claims the privilege of this Act. 

When the Board finds that a person claiming to be a professional 
engineer registered under this Act is not in fact the person to whom 
the certificate of registration was issued, it shall reduce its findings 
to writing and file them in its ofiice. Such findings shall be prima 
facie evidence that the person mentioned therein is falsely impersonat- 
ing a professional engineer of a like or different name. 

The Board may revoke a certificate of registration of a professional 
engineer for fraud or deceit in the securing of his certificate or for the 
conviction of crime. Proceedings for the revocation of a certificate 
of registration shall be begun by filing with the Board a written charge 
or charges against the accused. These charges may be preferred by 
any person or corporation or the Board may on its own motion direct 
its Secretary to prefer such charges. When charges are preferred 
against a professional engineer, registered under the provisions of this 
Act, the Board shall designate not less than three of its number as a 
committee to hear and determine said charges. A time and place for 
the hearing shall be fixed by said committee and a copy of the charges, 
together with a notice of the time and place for the hearing, shall be 
served upon the accused or his counsel at least ten days before the 
date fixed for said hearing. Where personal service or service upon 
counsel cannot be effected and such fact is certified on oath by any per- 
son duly authorized to make legal service, the Board shall cause to be 
published for at least five times, the first publication to be at least thirty 
days prior to the hearing, in two newspapers published in the section of 
the State in which the accused was last known to practice, a notice to 
the effect that at a definite time and place a hearing will be held on the 
charges against the accused upon an application to revoke his certificate. 
At said hearing the accused shall have the right to cross-examine wit- 
nesses against him and produce witnesses in his defense and to appear 
personally or by counsel. The said committee shall make a written 
report of its findings and recommendations and shall forthwith submit 
the same to the Board. If the Board shall sustain the findings of the 
committee and it is the decision of the Board that said certificate 
should be revoked the Board shall thereupon give written notice to the 
said professional engineer against whom the charges are preferred of 
its intention so to do, whereupon the said professional engineer against 
whom said charges have been preferred shall have the right within 
sixty days to appeal to any court in equity or law, having proper 
jurisdiction, against the action of the said Board and the action of 
the Board shall be subject to review and decision of said court, or of a 
higher court, if appeal is taken. In the event that the said profes- 
sional engineer against whom charges have been preferred shall not 
within sixty days appeal from the decision of the Board in the manner 
above provided, the Board shall have the power and authority to there- 
upon, or as soon thereafter as practicable, annul and revoke the said 
certificate of registration. The action of the Board shall be recorded 
in the same manner as certificates of registration are recorded and the 
name of the person whose certificate of registration is so revoked shall 
be stricken from the list of registered professional engineers and he 



August. 1017. 1 SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST 4.13 

shall be disqualified from practicing as a professional engineer in the 
State of Florida. 

The Board may re-issue a certifiicate of registration to any person 
whose certificate has been revoked, but only after thp expiration of 
one year from the date of such revocation, for reasons which the 
Board shall determine to be satisfactory. 

Sec. 13. Every certified professional engineer so registered under 
this Act who desires to continue the practice of his profession shall 
annually pay to the Secretary of the Board a fee of Five Dollars 
($5.00) on or before a date to be fixed by the Board, for wliich fee 
a renewal certificate of registration for the current year shall be 
issued. 

Sec. 14. It shall be unlawful for any professional engineer to 
participate in or derive any profit from the subject matter of his 
professional employment, either in the matter of construction work 
or materials. 

Sec. 15. Every unrevoked certificate and endorsement of registry 
made as provided in this Act shall be presumptive evidence in all 
courts and places that the person named therein is legally registered. 

Sec. 16. The provisions of this Act shall apply to every corpora- 
tion, domestic or foreign, engaged in the business of professional engi- 
neering witliin the State of Florida, except that certificates of regis- 
tration issued hereunder shall be held by one or more of its officers or 
employees instead of by such corporation. 

Sec. 17. The Board shall, during the month of April in each year, 
certify and publish a complete list of registered professional engineers 
with their business addresses in a newspaper published in the State of 
Florida. 

Sec. 18. Any person who, not being then legally authorized to prac- 
tice professional engineering within this State according to the provi- 
sions of this Act and so registered according to law, shall practice, or 
attempt or advertise to practice, or hold himself out as authorized to 
practice professional engineering, or shall use in connection with his 
name, or otherwise assume, use or advertise any title or designation 
tending to convey the impression that he is a professional engineer, and 
any person who shall buy, sell or fraudulently obtain any certificate of 
registration or who shall aid or abet such buying, selling or fraudulently 
obtaining or who shall practice, or attempt or advertise to practice or 
hold himself out as authorized to practice professional engineering 
under cover of any certificate obtained or issued fraudulently or unlaw- 
fulb' or under fraudulent representations or wilful misstatement of 
fact in a material regard and any person who shall practice, or attempt 
or advertise to practice, or hold himself out as authorized to practice 
l)rofessional engineering under a false or assumed name or who shall 
falsely impersonate any professional engineer or former professional 
engineer of a like or different name or who shall violate any of the 
provisions of this Act, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon 
conviction thereof shall be punished according to law, and in addition 
his certificate of registration shall be automatically revoked. 



414 SOCIETY ITEMS OP INTEREST [Society Affairs. 

Sec. 19. This Act shall not apply to any professional engineer 
working for the United States Government; nor to any professional 
engineer employed as an assistant to a professional engineer regis- 
tered under this Act; nor to any professional engineer coming from 
without this State and employed therein until a reasonable time, as 
prescribed by the rules of the Board, shall have elapsed to permit the 
registration of such person under this Act, provided that before prac- 
ticing within this State he shall have applied for the issuance to 
him of a certificate of registration and shall have paid the fee pre- 
scribed in this Act for admission to examination. 

Sec. 20. This Act shall not apply to any architect registered by 
the State of Florida under the provisions of the Act creating the State 
Board of Architecture nor to any of the provisions of said Act. 

Sec. 21. All laws or parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of 
this Act be and the same are hereby repealed. 

Sec. 22. This Act shall take effect immediately upon its passage 
and approval by the Governor. 

Report of a 

Joint Committee on Organization of an 

American Engineers Standards Committee 

to the Governing Boards of the 

American Society of Civil Engineers, American Institute of Mining 

Engineers, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the 

American Society for Testing Materials.* 

Preamble. 

At the present time many bodies are engaged in the formulation 
of standards. There is no uniformity in the rules for such procedure 
in the different organizations; in some cases the committees engaged 
in the work are not fully representative, and in a considerable propor- 
tion of cases they do not consult all the allied interests. The present 
custom results in a considerable duplication of work, and there are in 
some fields several "standards" proposed for the same thing that differ 
from each other only slightly and that often in unimportant details. 
It is very much more difficult to obtain agreement between the pro- 
posers of overlapping standards after they have been published than it 
would be to get the proposers to agree before they had committed thein- 
selves publicly. 

The American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 
the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and the American 
Society for Testing Materials, having appointed this committee to con- 
sider the advisability of co-operating in Engineering Standardization, 
we recommend that these societies form a permanent organization by 

• This report has not yet been presented to the Board of Direction, but is 
printed here for the information of the membership. The members of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers on this Committee were : W. H. Burr, J. H. Gregory, and 
H. N. Latey. 



August, 1!U 7.1 SOCIETY ITKMS OF INTEREST 415 

Pl)l)oiutiiifi- a ooiniiiittec. as i)ro]i()S("d in tlio foUowinf!: constitution and 
rules of ))roc'edure, tu carry on this important work. 

Constitution. 

1. — The name of this committee shall be the American Engineer- 
ing Standards Committee, hereinafter referred to as the Main Com- 
mittee. 

2. — The object of this committee is to unify and simplify the 
methods of arriving at engineering standards, to insure co-operation 
between the diiferent societies, and to prevent duplication of work. 

3. — This committee shall be composed of three representatives from 
each of the societies mentioned in the preamble and from such other 
societies as may be added later, the appointments to be made by the 
governing bodies of the respective societies. 

4. — At its first meeting the committee shall divide itself into three 
groups, to serve one, two, and three years, one representative of each 
society to be in each group. Each year after the first, each society 
shall appoint one representative to serve for three years. Representa- 
tives may be reappointed. A vacancy shall be filled by the society to 
which the retiring representative belonged. 

5. — Officers. — The committee shall elect annually a chairman and 
vice-chairman from its own membership. Officers so elected shall 
serve for one year, or until their successors are elected. These officers 
shall not serve for more than three consecutive terms. Vacancies may 
be filled by election at any regular or special meeting, providing notice 
has been given in the call for the meeting. 

6. — The committee shall elect from its own members an Executive 
Committee of not less than five, and may delegate to it any of its 
powers, except that of approving "Recommended Practices" and "Amer- 
ican Standards." (See Paragraph 13.) 

7. — The Executive Committee shall engage a secretary who shall 
not be a member of the committee. This engagement shall be made 
annually within three months of the annual election. 

8. — Meetings. — The committee shall hold'at least four regular meet- 
ings each year on specified dates. It may hold additional meetings at 
any time at the call of the chairman on not less than ten days' notice. 

9. — Quorum. — A quorum of the Main Committee for the trans- 
action of business shall consist of at least two-thirds of the member- 
ship of the committee. A quorum of the Executive Committee shall 
be not less than a majority. 

10. — Duties. — The chief duties of the Main Committee shall be: 
a. — To receive and pass upon recommendations for standards sub- 
mitted by Sectional Committees, but not to deal with the 
details of any particular standard; 
h. — To formulate rules under which the Sectional Committees 

shall be constituted, organized, and conduct their work; 
c. — To maintain a central office in the United Engineering 
Societies' Building in New York with a paid full-time secre- 
tary, which office shall also serve as a bureau of information. 



JIG SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST [Society Affairs. 

11. — A Sectional Committee is a committee whose personnel or 
composition has been approved by the Main Committee as being suffi- 
ciently comprehensive and authoritative to prepare a particular stand- 
ard, or group of standards, for submission to the Main Comndttee. 
It may be : the standing committee on Standards of an individual 
"co-operating society"; a special committee appointed by a "co-operat- 
ing society" for the consideration of a special standard, or group of 
standards, within the obvious field of that society; a joint committee 
appointed by two or more societies ; or as in such a case as that of the 
American Society for Testing Materials, the society itself. 

12. — The term "Co-operating Society" as here used refers, not only 
to any one of the societies represented on the Main Committee, but 
also to any other society, a Government Technical Body, such as the 
Bureau of Standards, or an Army or Navy Construction Board, a 
Public Service Commission, or any other significant body vitally con- 
cerned with engineering standards. It is understood, however, that, 
as far as relates to the standards proposed, all co-operating societies 
shall abide by the rules laid down by the Main Committee. 

13. — Any proposed standard submitted to, and approved by, the 
Main Committee shall be known as "Recommended Practice", or when, 
in the opinion of this committee it has proved its suitability, it shall 
be recommended as an "American Standard." 

14. — The approval as "Recommended Practice" of any standard 
submitted to the Main Committee shall require the affirmative vote of 
three-fourths of the committee; the advance of status from "Recom- 
mended Practice" to "American Standard" sliall require an affirmative 
vote of 90% of the Main Committee. Such votes may be by letter- 
ballot. Letter-ballots may be ordered at any regular or special meet- 
ing of the Main Committee. 

15. — Expenses. — As soon as possible after its organization the Main 
Committee shall make an estimate of its expenses for the first year 
and submit it to the governing bodies of the societies represented on 
the Main Committee for their approval; such approval includes the 
pledge of each society for such share as may be agreed upon. After 
the first year the Main Committee shall present an annual budget to 
the governing bodies of the societies represented, not later than 
December 1st, each year. 

Punds of the committee shall be in the custody of the secretary, 
who shall be placed under suitable bond, and shall be disbursed by 
him on vouchers signed by the chairman or vice-chairman. 

16. — Amendments must be proposed in writing at least thirty days 
before the meeting of the Main Committee at which they are to be 
voted on. If passed by a three-fourths majority of those present, they 
shall be referred to the Governing Boards of all the societies repre- 
sented in the Main Committee, and shall become operative only when 
all these Boards have given their approval. 

Rules of Procedure. 

1. — Each co-operating society shall notify the Main Committee of 
the names and affiliations of the members of, and the field covered by, 
any existing or proposed committee dealing with a standard of any 



August, 1917.] SOCIETY ITEMS OF INTEREST 417 

Jcind. It shall also send to the Main Committee not less than twenty 
copies of each standard which it has in force. 

This information shall be assembled, classified, and kept up to 
date by the Secretary of the Main Committee, and sha-11 be accessible 
at any time to each of the co-operatinj2r societies. 

2. — Any proposal for a particular standard or group of standards 
shall be referred to the Main Committee, which shall designate an 
appropriate sectional committee to carry on the work. 

3. — Composition of Committees: 

(a) Sectional Committees dealing with standards of a commercial 
character (specifications, shop practices, etc.), shall be made 
up of representatives of producers, consumers, and general 
interests, no one of these interests to form a majority. A 
producer is a person, or the representative of a firm or corpo- 
ration, directly concerned in the production of the commodity 
involved. A consumer is a person, or the representative of a 
firm or corporation, that uses the commodity involved, but is 
not directly concerned with its production. General interests 
include independent engineers, educators, and persons who 
are neither consumers nor producers, as defined above. 

(h) Sectional Committees dealing with standards of a scientific 
or non-commercial character shall consist of persons specially 
qualified, without regard to their affiliations. 

4. — Sectional Committees may consult specialists, or obtain any 
other evidence they may deem advisable. 

5. — Every report of a Sectional Committee shall include a list of 
its members, with a statement of their business, professional, and 
technical society affiliations. The final vote shall be stated in detail, 
and attested by the signature, personal or authorized, of each member 
voting. 

6. — Should a Sectional Committee be unable to agree on a report 
by a three-fourths majority, then the Main Committee may request 
the appointing society or societies to discharge it and appoint a new 
one; or the Main Committee may, with the approval of the societies 
interested, appoint a special committee to hear both sides and present 
recommendations. 

7. — Co-operating societies shall not, in their publications, use the 
terms "llecommended Practice" or "American Standard" except in 
connection with standards that have received the approval of the Main 
Committee. 

8. — "Kecommended Practices" and "American Standards" approved 
by the Main Committee shall be copyrighted, and shall be printed in 
the official publications of the society or societies proposing them; 
tliey shall not be released prior to such publication. 

9. — Amendments to the llules of Procedure may be proposed at any 
meeting of the Main Committee, and, if so ordered, shtill be sent in 
lull to all members with the notice of a subsequent meeting at which 
they may be voted on. A three-fourths affirmative vote of those present 
will be required to pass an amendment. 

C. A. Adams, 
June 19tii, 1917. Chairman. 



-J 18 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

ANNOUNCEMENTS 

The House of the Society is open from 9 A, M. to 10 P. M., 
every day, except Sundays, Fourth of July, Thanksgiving Day, and 

Christmas Day. 

FUTURE MEETINGS 

September sth, 191 7. —8.30 P. M. — A regular business meeting 
will be held, and a paper by Floyd A. Nagler, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E., 
entitled "Obstruction of Bridge Piers to the Flow of Water", will be 
presented for discussion. 

This paper was printed in Proceedings for May, 191Y. 

September 19th, 1917.— 8.30 P. M. — At this meeting a paper by Ray 
W. Berdeau, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled, "The Three 15-Cubic Yard 
Dipper Dredges, Oamboa, Paraiso, and Cascadas, as Supplied and Used 
on the Panama Canal", will be presented for discussion. 

This paper is printed in this number of Proceedings. 

October 3d, 1917. — 8.30 P. M. — This will be a regular business meet- 
ing. A paper by William Barclay Parsons, M. Am. Soc. C. E., entitled 
"The Cape Cod Canal", will be presented for discussion. 

This paper is printed in this number of Proceedings. 

SEARCHES IN THE LIBRARY 

In January, 1902, the Secretary was authorized to make searches 
in the Library, upon request, and to charge therefor the actual cost to 
the Society for the extra work required. Since that time many 
searches have been made, and bibliographies and other information on 
special subjects furnished. 

The resulting satisfaction, to the members who have made use of 
the resources of the Society in this manner, has been expressed fre- 
quently, and leaves little doubt that if it were generally known to the 
membership that such work would be undertaken, many would avail 
themselves of it. 

The cost is trifling compared with the value of the time of an 
engineer who looks up such matters himself, and the work can be per- 
formed quite as well, and much more quickly, by persons familiar with 
the Library. 

In asking that such work be undertaken, members should specify 
clearly the subject to be covered, and whether references to general 
books only are desired, or whether a complete bibliography, involving 
search through periodical literature, is desired. 

It sometimes happens that references are found which are not 
readily accessible to the person for whom the search is made. In that 
case the material may be reproduced by photography, and this can 
be done for members at the cost of the work to the Society, which is 



August, 1!U7.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 419 

small. This method is particularly useful when there are drawings or 
figures in the text, which would be very expensive to reproduce by 
hand. 

A list of 989 bibliographies made in the Library, giving the cost 
of each, was published in Vol. LXXX of Transactions. 

Since October 1st, 191G, the Library of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers has ceased to exist, as such, having been merged with 
the Libraries of the Mining, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineers, 
and become a part of the Library of the United Engineering Society. 
There were 67 000 accessions, which were not duplicates, turned over 
to that Librarv. 

Hereafter, therefore, requests for searches should be addressed to 
the Librarian, United Engineering Society, 29 West 39th Street, 
New York City. 

PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Members and others who take part in the oral discussions of the 
papers presented are urged to revise their remarks promptly. Written 
communications from those who cannot attend the meetings should 
be sent in at the earliest possible date after the issue of a paper in 
Proceedings. 

All papers accepted by the Publication Committee are classified 
by the Committee with respect to their availability for discussion at 
meetings. 

Papers which, from their general nature, appear to be of a char- 
acter suitable for oral discussion, will be published as heretofore in 
Proceedings, and set down for presentation to a future meeting of the 
Society, and on these, oral discussions, as well as written communica- 
tions, will be solicited. 

All papers which do not come under this heading, that is to say, 
those which, from their mathematical or technical nature, in the 
opinion of the Committee, are not adapted to oral discussion, will not 
be scheduled for presentation to any meeting. Such papers will be 
published in Proceedings in the same manner as those which are to 
be presented at meetings, but written discussions only will be requested 
for subsequent publication in Proceedings and with the paper in the 
volumes of Transactions. 

The Board of Direction has adopted rules for the preparation and 
presentation of papers, which will be found on page 429 of the August, 
1913, Proceedings. 

LOCAL ASSOCIATIONS OF MEMBERS 
OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

San Francisco Association, Organized 1905. 

J. D. Galloway, President; E. T. Thurston, Secretary-Treasurer, 
57 Post Street, San Francisco, Cal. 



420 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

The San Francisco Association of Members of the American Society 
of Civil Engineers holds regular bi-monthly meetings, with banquet, 
and weekly informal luncheons. The former are held at 6 p. M., at the 
Palace Hotel, on the third Tuesday of February, April, June, August, 
October, and December, the last being the Annual Meeting of the 
Association. 

Informal luncheons are held at 12.30 p. M., every Wednesday, and 
the place of meeting may be ascertained by communicating with the 
Secretary. 

The by-laws of the Association provide for the extension of hospi- 
tality to any member of the Society who may be temporarily in San 
Francisco, and any such member will be gladly welcomed as a guest. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meetings) 

April 17th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the Palace 
Hotel; President Galloway in the chair; E. T. Thurston, Secretary; 
and present, also, 87 members and guests. 

President Galloway, for the Committee on Military Affairs, reported 
the successful progress of lecture courses by Army officers, and also in 
regard to enlistments in the Officers' Reserve Corps. 

The Committee on Past-President Haehl's Recommendations for 
the good of the Association, through Mr. W. L. Huber, and the Com- 
mittee on the Frickstad case, through Mr. W. J. Allan, reported 
matters at a standstill. 

The Committee on Civil Service, through Mr. J. Newman, reported 
that the Committee was unable at this time to make a complete report, 
but Mr. Newman read a letter addressed to the Mayor and the Board 
of Supervisors of San Francisco, indicating the official attitude of the 
Association relative to the salaries of civil service employes of that city. 

The Committee on Discussion of Society Proceedings, H. D. Dewell, 
Chairman, reported that the suggestion that special meetings in alter- 
nate months be held for that purpose, had been considered, and asked 
for an expression of opinion on the subject on the part of the meeting. 
The Committee was continued, and ordered to present a definite report 
at the next meeting. 

The Committee appointed to oppose and prevent the passage of the 
proposed Architects' License Law before the State Legislature, through 
Mr. C. H. Snyder, presented a brief report of the Committee's trip to' 
Sacramento and its temporary success in having the measure tabled 
in the Assembly Committee. Relative to this matter, the Secretary 
reported that the bill had been again taken up by the Assembly Com- 
mittee and, after amendment, had been passed out of Committee with 
favorable recommendations. The Committee of the Association was 
continued and instructed to continue its efforts against the bill until 
the adjournment of the Legislature. 

The Committee on Revision of Building Laws of San Francisco 
reported progress, through Mr. H. J. Brunnier. 

The Secretary announced that a communication from the St. Louis 
Association proposing certain amendments to the Constitution of the 
Society had been discussed by the Board of Directors, which decided 
that action on this matter be delayed pending information as to the 



August, 1917.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 421 

report of the Committee of the Society on Amendments to the Con- 
stitution. He also announced the endorsement by the St. l^ouis Asso- 
ciation of the suggestions that amendments to the Constitution be 
submitted separately for informal discussion and expression of opinion 
by the various Associations before the complete document is submitted 
for vote to the membership of the Society. 

President Galloway reported that he had received a communication 
from the Professional Classes War Relief Council, Inc., requesting 
contributions for the fund for the relief of distressed families of engi- 
neers in Great Britain who had been forced out of employment by the 
war. He stated that the Board of Directors had suggested a donation 
of $100, but after discussion, on motion, duly seconded, the contribu- 
tion of the Association was raised to $500. 

Communications from the Navy Yard, Mare Island, relative to 
applications for examinations for commissions in the Civil Engineers 
Corps of the N'avy, and from T. C. Desmond and Company, New York 
City, relative to enlistment of engineers in the proposed volunteer regi- 
ment to be organized under the command of Colonel Roosevelt for 
immediate service in France, were referred to the Committee on Mili- 
tary Affairs. 

Mr. W. A. Cattail, Secretary of the International Engineering Con- 
gress, read an interesting statement relative to the origin, development, 
and finances of that Congress. 

An interesting paper, consisting of personal reminiscences of work 
on the early railroads in the West, entitled "Fifty Years of Railroad 
Development in the Western United States", by Mr. William Hood, 
was presented by the author. 

Adjourned. 

June ipth, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the Palace 
Hotel; President Galloway in the chair; E. T. Thurston, Secretary; 
and present, also, 48 members and guests. 

Messrs. Beebee, Holly, and McWethy were appointed as the Enter- 
tainment Committee for the August meeting. 

President Galloway, of the Military Affairs Committee, reported 
that the military lectures had been concluded because the Army officers 
were otherwise occupied. Reports in behalf of the Committees on 
the Frickstad matter, the Civil Service Laws, the discussion of Society 
Proceedings, and the Revision of Building Laws indicated little ac- 
tivity. The President reported the death of the Architects' License 
Bill. The organization of the Engineering Council of the National 
Engineering Societies was announced, and also the appointment of 
Mr. Galloway as one of the five members from the American Society 
of Civil Engineers. 

The Secretary read a communication from Mr. L. B. Stilhvoll in 
appreciation of the contribution of the Association to the Professional 
Classes War Relief Council of Great Britain; reported having made 
the final payment on the new Western Pacific Railroad Corporation 
bond subscription, amounting to $580.25, finally establishing the 
ownership by the Association of one $800 bond, preferred stock to 
the value of $1000, and common stock to the value of $1900; and 



422 ANNOUNCEMENTS L Society Affairs. 

announced the investment, on the authority of the Board of Directors, 
in $200 worth of Liberty Loan bonds. 

As there remained on hand a surplus of $100 more than the 
anticipated expenditures for the year, this sum, on motion, duly 
seconded, was donated to the American Red Cross War Fund. 

George W. Howson, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., delivered an address 
on "The Development of the Stanislaus River, with Special Reference 
to Strawberry Dam." 

The subject of the address was discussed by Messrs. Galloway, 
Grunsky, O'Shaughnessy, and Vensano. 

The report of the Committee on the Relations of Local Associations 
of the American Society of Civil Engineers to that Society, to other 
Engineering Organizations, and Engineers, and to the Public, as 
published in the Proceedings for May, 1917, was discussed, and dis- 
closed a general approval of the report. On motion, duly seconded, 
it was unanimously resolved to endorse particularly the suggestion 
that local organizations be known as "Sections of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers" instead of "Associations of Members of 
the American Society of Civil Engineers." 

Adjourned. 

Colorado Association, Organized 1908. 

Thomas W. Jaycox, President; L. R. Hinman, Secretary-Treasurer, 
1400 West Colfax Avenue, Denver, Colo. 

The meetings of the Colorado Association of Members of the 
American Society of Civil Engineers (Denver, Colo.) are held on the 
second Saturday of each month, except July and August. The hour 
and place of meeting are not fixed, but this information will be fur- 
nished on application to the Secretary. The meetings are usually pre- 
ceded by an informal dinner. Members of the American Society of 
Civil Engineers will be welcomed at these meetings. 

Weekly luncheons are held on Wednesdays at 12.30 p. M., at Daniel's 
and Fisher's. 

Visiting members are urged to attend the meetings and luncheons. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meeting) 

April Mill, 19 '7. — The meeting was called to order at the Denver 
Athletic Club; Vice-President Follansbee in the chair; L. R. Hinman, 
Secretary; and present, also, 14 members. 

The minutes of the meeting of March 10th, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

The Secretary read a letter from Thomas C. Desmond, Assoc. M. 
Am. Soc. C. E., requesting distribution of information relative to the 
Engineer Regiment in the proposed Roosevelt Division. 

For the Committee on Co-operation, the Secretary outlined the 
work done thus far in the attempt of the various engineering societies 
of Colorado to effect a satisfactory joint organization, the efforts to 
date having been instigated by the Colorado Scientific Society. 

For the Committee on Roads and Highways, Mr. A. E. Palen 
presented an abstract of the "Progress Report of the Special Com- 



August, 1917.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 423 

niittee on Materials for Koad Construction and on Standards for 
Their Test and Use." In the discussion that followed, Messrs. Phelps 
and Comstock took part. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was decided to hold a special meeting 
for the purpose of discussing the Standley Lake Dam, and also for 
the presentation of an abstract of the paper entitled "Multiple- Arch 
Dams on Rush Creek, California," by L. R. Jorgensen, M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., by the Committee on Dams. 

Adjourned. 

Atlanta Association, Organized 19 12. 

Paul H. Norcross, President; Thomas P. Branch, Secretary-Treas- 
urer, Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. 

The Association holds its meetings at the University Club, Atlanta, 
Ga. Regular monthly luncheon meetings are held to which visiting 
members of the Society are always welcome. 

Baltimore Association, Organized 1914. 

Mason D. Pratt, President; Charles J. Tilden, Secretary-Treasurer, 
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Cleveland Association, Organized 1914. 

W. J. Watson, President; George H. Tinker, Secretary-Treasurer, 
516 Columbia Building, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Detroit Association, Organized 1916. 

T. A. Leisen, President; Clarence W. Hubbell, Secretary; 2334 
Dime Bank Building, Detroit, Mich. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held on the second 
Friday of December, April, and October, the last being the Annual 
Meeting. 

District of Columbia Association, Organized 1916. 

A. P. Davis, President; John C. Hoyt, Secretary-Treasurer, U. S. 
Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Duluth Association, Organized 1917. 

F. E. House, President; Walter G. Zimmermann, Secretary, Wolvin 
Building, Duluth, Minn. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held monthly. The 
time and place of meetiilg are not fixed, but this information will be 
furnished on application to the Secretary. The Annual Meeting is 
held on the third Monday of May. 

Illinois Association, Organized 1916. 

C. F. Loweth, President, Chicago, 111. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held on the second 
Monday of March, June, September, and December, the last being the 
Annual Meeting. The hour and place of meeting are not fixed, but 
this information will be furnished on application to the President. 



42-1 ANN-OUISrCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

Louisiana Association, Organized 1914. 

W. B. Gregory, President; Charles W. Okey, Secretary, Tulane 
University, New Orleans, La. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held at "The Cabildo, 
New Orleans, La., on the first Monday of January, April, July, and 
October. 

Nebraska Association, Organized 1917. 

Frank T. Darrow, President; Homer V. Knouse, Secretary-Treas- 
urer, 115 City Hall, Omaha, Nebr. 

Regular meetings of the Association are held on the first Saturday 
of each month, except July and August, and at such places as may 
be appointed from time to time by the Executive Committee. The 
Annual Meeting is held in Lincoln, Nebr., on the second Friday in 
January. 

It is probable that frequent luncheons will be held in Omaha, in 
addition to the monthly meetings, at which visiting members will be 
welcomed. The place of meeting may be ascertained by communicating 
with the Secretary. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meeting) 

June 2d, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at 8.00 p. M., 
at the Paxton Hotel, Omaha, Nebr. ; Vice-President Dobson in the 
chair; Homer V. Knouse, Secretary; and present, also, 7 members 
and 3 guests.- 

The minutes of the two preceding meetings were read and approved, 
as corrected. 

A communication from E. T. Thurston, Secretary of the San I'ran- 
cisco Association, pertaining to the equitable apportionment of Vice- 
Presidents of the Society among the various Districts, was read by 
the Secretary. 

The Secretary presented a letter from Mr. E. G. Haines relative 
to the work of the Society's Special Committee on the Bearing Value 
of Soils. 

A communication from Chas. Warren Hunt, Secretary of the 
Society, requesting action by the Association on the relations of Local 
Associations with the Society and with other Local Associations 
and clubs, was read by the Secretary, and the Chairman called the 
attention of the Association to the advisability of immediate action. 

As a basis for discussion of the subject, the Secretary read the 
Report of the Committee of the Board of Direction on the Relation 
of Local Associations of the American Society of Civil Engineers 
to that Society, to other Engineering Organizations and Engineers, 
and to the Public, as published in the Proceedings for May, 1917.* 

After discussion by paragraphs, on motion, duly seconded, the 
report was endorsed, with the following changes: Under the sub- 
heading, "Local Societies", it was recommended that this paragraph, 
read as follows: "Local Sections should affiliate with existing Engi- 
neering Societies", and that the remainder of the paragraph be omitted. 

* Pages 327-330. 



August, 1017.] ANNOUNCEMENTS 425 

On motion, duly seconded, it was decided as desirable that District 
No. 10, should have representation in the office of Vice-President of 
the Society, and that it be suggested to the Nominating Coimnittee 
to nominate Mr. II. S. Crocker as a candidate for that office. 

On motion, duly seconded, the Chairman was authorized to appoint 
a Connnittee of the Association to co-operate with the Society's 
Special Connnittee on the Bearing Value of Soils, and collect data 
on this subject. Messrs. McClintock, Mickey, and Arend were sub- 
sequently appointed as such a Committee. 

The following resolution, to be presented to the Hon. Keith 
Neville, Governor of Nebraska, was adopted: 

^']Yhereas, the five American Engineering Societies proffered the 
United States Government during 191G their services in making an 
inventory of the industrial plants and resources of the country, which 
has been accomplished in a creditable manner, and 

"WhereaSj the country is now in a state of war and the need of 
further industrial inventory or of other assistance is probable; there- 
fore be it 

"Resolved, that the Nebraska Association of Members of the Amer- 
ican Society of Civil Engineers at the regular meeting at Omaha, 
Nebraska, on June the second, nineteen hundred and seventeen, tender 
their services, collectively or individually, to the State for such duties 
as your Excellency may see fit." 

Adjourned. 

Northwestern Association, Organized I9i4' 

George L. Wilson, President; Ralph D. Thomas, Secretary, 508 
South First Street, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Philadelphia Association, Organized 1913" 

Sanmel T. Wagner, President; C. W. Thorn, Secretary, 1313 South 
Broad Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held at the Engineers' 
Club of Philadelphia, 1317 Spruce Street, on the first Monday in 
January, April, and October, the last being the Annual Meeting. 

Portland, Ore., Association, Organized 1913. 

J. P. Newell, President; J. A. Currey, Secretary, 194 North 13th 
Street, Portland, Ore. 

St. Louis Association, Organized 19x4. 

J. A. Ockerson, President; Gurdon G. Black, Secretary-Treasurer, 
34 East Grand Avenue, St. Louis, Mo. 

The meetings of the Association are held at the Engineers' Club 
Auditorium, the Annual Meeting is held on the fourth Monday in 
November. The time of other meetings is not fixed, but this informa- 
tion will be furnished on application to the Secretary. 

San Diego Association, Organized i9<5' 

W. J. Gough, President; J. P. Comly, Secretary-Treasurer, 4105 

Falcon Street, San Diego, Cal. 



426 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

Seattle Association, Organized 1913. 

Joseph Jacobs, President; Carl H. Reeves, Secretary-Treasurer, 444 
Henry Building, Seattle, "Wash. 

The reg-ular meetings of the Association are held at 12.15 p. m., on 
the last Monday of each month, at The Frye Hotel. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meetings) 

April 30th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at 12.15 
p. M., at The Frye Hotel; President Jacobs in the chair; Carl H. 
Peeves, Secretary; and present, also, 18 members and guests. 

The minutes of the meeting of March 29th, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

The resignation of Mr. L. R. Hjorth as a member of the Associa- 
tion was presented and accepted. 

A communication from the Secretary of the National Conference 
on City Planning, in re the Annual Conference to be held in Kansas 
City, Mo., on May Yth-8th, 1917, was read, and the President stated 
that he would be glad to give proper credentials as Delegate to any 
member of the Association who could attend the Conference. 

Mr. John L. Hall, President of The Associated Engineering 
Societies of Seattle and a member of the Executive Committee of the 
Central Council for Patriotic Service, presented an outline of the 
proposed work of the Council. 

Mr. C. N. Kast, Field Engineer with the Interstate Commerce Com- 
mission, on railroad valuation, addressed the meeting briefly relative 
to the methods and objects of that work. 

A letter from Mr. Thomas C. Desmond, of New York City, relative 
to the Roosevelt Division for service in France, was read, and the 
application blanks furnished by Mr. Desmond were distributed to 
those present. No action was taken by the Association on the subject- 
matter of the letter. 

Adjourned. 

May 28th, 1 917. — The meeting was called to order at The Frye 
Hotel; President Jacobs in the chair; Carl H. Reeves, Secretary; and 
present, also, 23 members and guests. 

The minutes of the meeting of April 30th, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

The resignation of Mr. Roy E. Smith was accepted. 

A letter from Chas. Warren Hunt, Secretary of the Society, 
relating to the report of a committee, appointed by the Board of 
Direction, on the Relations of Local Associations of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers to that Society, to other Engineering Organi- 
zations, and Engineers, and to the Public, was read and referred to 
the Committee on Relations with the Parent Society. 

Mr. A. H. Fuller presented a brief outline of the work and objects 
of the National Research Council, and stated that this work was to 
be done in connection with the Council for the National Defense. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was ordered that all members of 
the Association who have become affiliated with any of the arms of 
the service of the Government in connection with the prosecution 



August, 11)17. J ANNOUNCEMENTS 427 

of the war, and while in actual service, be excused from the pay- 
ment of dues. 

Maj. E. J. Dent, IT. S. A., spoke on matters in relation to the 
work of the Engineer Corps of the Army. 

W. C. Weeks, M. Am. Soc. C. E., of Union Bay, B. C, Canada, 
spoke on labor and other conditions in British Columbia. 

Adjourned. 

June 35th, 1017. — The meeting was called to order at The Frye 
Hotel; President Jacobs in the chair; Carl H. Reeves, Secretary; and 
present, also, 24 members and guests. 

The minutes of the meeting of May 28th, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

The resignation of Mr. W. D. Shannon was accepted. 

The Committee on Relations with the Parent Society presented 
an oral report on the matter affecting Local Associations, as presented 
in the Proceedings for May, 1917. The final report of this Committee 
was called for the July meeting, prior to which time the Secretary- 
Treasurer was instructed to have a copy of the report, as well as 
the Committee's previous report on similar matters, in the hands of 
each member. 

The President called attention to the proposed revised Constitution 
of the Society, as printed in the Proceedings for May, 1917, and 
appointed Mr. A. H. Dimock to review the matter at the July meeting, 
if time should permit, or at a future meeting. 

Adjourned. 

July 30th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at The Frye 
Hotel; President Jacobs in the chair; O. P. M. Goss, acting as Sec- 
retary; and present, also, 15 members and guests. 

The minutes of the meeting of June 25th, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

Mr. A. H. Fuller discussed the report of the Committee on Rela- 
tions with the Parent Society. After varioiis phases of the report had 
been discussed by Messrs. Dimock, Jacobs, Rathbun, Hall, and Howes, 
it was decided, on motion, duly seconded, that the Committee should 
modify the report by giving reasons for the adoption of various para- 
graphs. On motion, duly seconded, it was decided to amend the first 
paragraph to express the idea that the business of the Annual Meeting 
should be placed in the hands of a duly elected delegate only. 

Mr. A. H. Dimock reviewed the proposed new Constitution of the 
Society. 

Adjourned. 

Southern California Association, Organized I9i4- 

H. Hawgood, President; Wilkie Woodard, Secretary, 435 Consoli- 
dated Realty Building, Los Angeles, Cal. 

The Southern California Association of Members of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers (Los Angeles, Cal.) holds regular bi-monthly 
meetings, with banquet, at Hotel Clark, on the second Wednesday of 



428 ANKOUNCEMEN-TS [Society Affairs. 

February, April, June, August, October, and December, the last being 
the Annual Meeting of the Association. 

Informal luncheons are held at 12.15 p. m. every Wednesday, and 
the place of meeting may be ascertained from the Secretary. 

The by-laws of the Association provide for the extension of hos- 
pitality to any member of the Society who may be temporarily in 
Los Angeles, and any such member will be gladly welcomed as a guest 
at any of the meetings or luncheons. 

Spokane Association, Organized 1914. 

J. C. Ealston, President; B. J. Garnett, Secretary, City Hall, 
Spokane, Wash. 

The regular meetings of the Association are held on the second 
Friday of each month, except July and August. The hour and \)\ace 
of meeting are not fixed, but this information will be furnished on 
application to the Secretary. 

Visiting members are invited to attend the meetings and luncheons. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meeting) 

June 8th, 191 7. — The meeting was called to order at the University 
Club; President Ralston in the chair; B. J. Garnett, Secretary. 

The report of the Committee on the Post Street Bridge Failure 
was presented and adopted. 

The question of the relations between Local Associations and the 
American Society of Civil Engineers was discussed. 

Adjourned. 

Texas Association, Organized 1913. 

John B. Hawley, President; J. F. Witt, Secretary, Dallas, Tex. 

Utah Association, Organized 1916. 

George L. Swendsen, President; H. S. Kleinschmidt, Secretary- 
Treasurer, 306 Dooly Building, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The Annual Meeting of the Association is held on the first Wednes- 
day in April. The time of other meetings is not fixed, but this informa- 
tion will be furnished on application to the Secretary. 

(Abstract of Minutes of Meeting) 

April 4th, 1917- — The Annual Meeting was called to order at the 
Newhouse Hotel, Salt Lake City, Utah; Vice-President A. F. Doremus 
in the chair; H. S. Kleinschmidt, Secretary; and present, also, 75 mem- 
bers and guests. 

Ballots for officers for 1917 were canvassed, and resulted in the elec- 
tion of George L. Swendson, President, and R. C. Gemmell, Second 
Vice-President. A complete list of the officers of the Association for 
1917 is as follows: George L. Swendsen, President; A. F. Doremus, 
First Vice-President; R. C. Gemmell, Second Vice-President; H. S. 
Kleinschmidt, Secretary-Treasurer. 

Various matters of interest were discussed, and in the evening a 
joint meeting was held with the Utah Society of Engineers. After an 



August, 1 ill 7. 1 ANNOUNCEMENTS 429 

informal dinner, a stereopticon lecture was jjivcn by J. B. Lippineott, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., on the ''Los Angeles Aqueduct", and C. F. Browai, 
Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., addressed the meeting on ''Some Unusual 
Problems in Drainage." 

Adjourned. 

MINUTES OF MEETINGS OF 

SPECIAL COMMITTEES 

TO REPORT UPON ENGINEERING SUBJECTS 

Special Committee to Codify Present Practice on the Bearing 
Value of Soils for Foundations, etc. 

January 21st, 1917. — Tke meeting was called to order at the 
office of Allen Hazen, ]\[. Am. Soc. C. E., New York City. Present 
Robert G. Cummings (Chairman), Edwin Duryea, E. G. Haines, 
Allen Hazen, and Walter J. Douglas (Secretary). 

The past work of the Committee was discussed, and general plans 
for the future were made. 

Mr. Hazen suggested that, after the Classification of Soils had 
been determined, and during the completion of such Classification, the 
Committee consider its work on the basis of character of soil troubles. 
After discussing the subject it was agreed that failures would be 
considered along the following lines, which would be used as a general 
guide : 

(1). — Compression of the soils, divided generally as follows: 

(a) Breaking edges of the grain, 

(6) Squeezing out of water, 

(c) Result of organic inclusions. 
(2). — Second general classification of failure: 

Slipping. Quicksand, lubricants, etc. 
(3). — Third general classification of failure: 

Chemical changes. 

It was also agreed that Mr. Hazen submit a proposed classification 
along these lines at an early date. 

The work of the Committee for the coming year is to include a 
development of the subject along the lines of failure, as indicated 
in the foregoing classification, as well as definitions of soils, methods 
of analyses, and reports from the Sub-Committee on Earth Pressures, 
including apparatus for testing the bearing capacity of soils, a report 
of the Sub-Committee on Piles, and a report on existing data on 
the bearing capacity of earths. 

The Committee also considered whether the word "earth" should 
be substituted for the word "soils", that is, "the bearing capacity of 
earth" instead of "the bearing capacity of soils." 

April 19th, 1917. — The meeting was c;illed to order at the House 
of the Society at 10.45 a. m. Present, Robert G. Cummings (Chair- 
man), Edwin Duryea, and E. G. Haines (Secretary pro tern.). 

The minutes of the meeting of January 21st, 1917, were read, 
and after some discussion of the last paragraph, were approved as 



430 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

amended. It was agreed to retain the word '"soils" as defined in the 
Committee's Report presented to the Annual Meeting of January 
19th, 1916. 

Mr. Haines reported that since November, 1916, Sub-Committee 
"E" had sent out 1 200 letters to engineers, requesting records of tests 
for lateral pressures, with the following results: 

Letters sent out 1 200 

No replies 1 004 

Replies with no records 131 

Replies suggesting possible sources of 

information 52 

Replies with information furnished.... 13 

Totals 1200 1200 

After discussion, it was decided not to continue the investigation 
any further, at least at present, except to follow up the replies sug- 
gesting possible sources of information. 

The Committee, it was reported, had on hand considerable infor- 
mation received at various times from various sources, much of which 
is of great value. It was decided that abstracts of such information 
should be prepared by the Secretary to be printed as an Appendix 
to the Progress Report of 1917. 

Mr. Haines presented the results of some experiments with the 
soil testing apparatus furnished by Mr. Cummings, and stated that, 
judging from the results of these tests, and after certain changes 
had been made which would permit of a greater range of pressures 
and bearing areas, and also provide for applying pressures over a 
longer interval of time, the instrument was capable of being developed 
into a practical form which could be used to advantage. 

Mr. Cummings presented a letter dated April 6th, 1917, from 
John H. Griffith, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Chairman of the Sub-Committee 
on Soils of the Bureau of Standards. This letter contained much that 
was of intei'est relative to the work of the Committee, and the Chair- 
man was instructed to send copies of it to each member of the Board 
of Direction of the Society. 

Mr. Cummings reported that Professor J. Hammond Smith, of 
the University of Pittsburgh, would design, at no cost to the Society, 
a full-sized testing apparatus, similar in principle to his smaller 
apparatus, for determining pressures on granular materials. 

The matter of practical field tests for determining the bearing 
value of soils was discussed, and it was decided that such tests should 
be made on the basis of 1 sq. ft. of area, the testing area to be in 
the form of a circle, and that the tested areas should be below the 
surrounding surface, or otherwise restrained. Mr. Haines agreed to 
prepare a tentative sketch of a practical field testing apparatus to 
comply with the requirements. 

Mr. Hazen's paper on the reasons for soil failures was discussed 
in detail and certain changes were suggested. It was then agreed 
that copies of all written discussions by members of the Committee 



August, litlT.l ANNOUNCEMENTS 431 

sliould he sent direct to each member of the Committee, inchulinjj: 
the President of the Society. 

The meeting was adjourned at 6 p. m. subject to the call of the 
Chair. 

Special Committee on iVlaterials for Road Construction 

May 5th, 1917.— 1'he meeting was called to order at 9.15 a. m.; 
at the House of the Society. Present, W. W. Crosby (Chairman), 
A. W. Dean, Charles J. Tilden, George W. Tillson, and A. H. Blan- 
chard (Secretary). 

The minutes of the meeting of February 22d, 1917, were read and 
approved. 

Plans for the drafting of a Final Report to be presented at the 
Annual Meeting of the Society in January, 1918, were adopted, and 
fourteen sub-committees were appointed to prepare preliminary drafts 
of the several sub-divisions of the report. 

On motion, the Committee adjourned to meet at 9 a. m., on Satur- 
day, May 19th, 1917, at the House of the Society. 

May 19th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the Society 
House at 9.30 a. m. Present, W. W. Crosby (Chairman), H. K. Bishop, 
A. W. Dean, Xelson P. Lewis, and A. H. Blanchard (Secretary). 

The minutes of the meeting of May 5th, 1917, were approved. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was decided that the Reports of Sub- 
Committees on Introduction, General Principles Concerning Materials 
and Their Use to be Observed in Framing Specifications for Pave- 
ments and Road Crusts, Asphalt Block Pavements, Bituminous Con- 
crete Pavements, and Bituminous Macadam Pavements, be accepted 
tentatively, be referred back to the several sub-committees, be revised, 
including the addition of amendments adopted, and that copies of the 
revised reports be forwarded by each Sub-Committee to each member 
of the Committee not later than one week prior to the date to be 
hereafter set for the consideration of the final draft of the 1918 Report. 

On motion, duly seconded, the Committee adjourned to meet at 
9 a. m., on Monday, June 18th, 1917, at the House of the Society. 

June i8th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the House 
of the Society at 9.45 a. m. Present, W. W. Crosby (Chairman), A. W, 
Dean, Nelson P. Lewis, and A. H. Blanchard (Secretary). 

The minutes of the meeting of May 19th, 1917, were approved. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was ordered that the following 
reports of Sub-Committees be tentatively accepted, be referred back 
to the several sub-committees, be revised, including the addition of 
amendments adoi^ted, and that copies of the revised reports be for- 
warded by each Sub-Committee to each member of the Committee not 
later than one week prior to the date to be hereafter set for the con- 
sideration of the final draft of the 1918 Rep<irt: 

Report on "Brick Pavements"; report on section of ''General Con- 
clusions" covering "Bituminous and Non-Bituminous Materials"; re- 
port on "Broken Stone Roads"; report on "Earth and Sand-Clay 
Roads"; and report on "'Sheet-Asphalt Pavements". 



432 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Affairs. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was ordered that each report on a 
specific type of road or pavement begin with an introductory paragraph 
containing references to those sections under "General Conclusions" 
which pertain to details of construction of the given type of road or 
pavement to which the report refers. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was ordered that the Sub-Committee 
on Broken Stone Roads with Bituminous Surfaces be discontinued, 
and that Mr. A. W. Dean be appointed a sub-committee on Bitumi- 
nous Surface Treatments, and be requested to submit the report at 
the next meeting of the Committee. 

On motion, the Committee adjourned to meet at 9 a. m. on Monday, 
July 9th, 1917, at the House of the Society. 

July pth, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the House of 
the Society, at 9.45 a. m. Present, Nelson P. Lewis (Chairman pro 
tern.), Charles J. Tilden, George W. Tillson, and Arthur H. Blanehard 
(Secretary). 

The minutes of the meeting of June 18th, 1917, were approved. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was decided that the Reports of 
the Sub-Committees on Cement-Concrete Pavements, Gravel Roads, 
Stone Block Pavements, Wood Block Pavements, Analyses and Tests 
of Bituminous Materials, and Analyses and Tests of Non-Bituminous 
Materials, be tentatively accepted, referred back to the several sub- 
committees, be revised, including the addition of amendments adopted, 
and that copies of the revised reports be forwarded by each Sub- 
Committee to each member of the Committee not later than one week 
prior to the date to be hereafter set for the consideration of the final 
draft of each Sub-Committee report. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was agreed that the Sub-Committee 
on Forms be requested to present, in its Final Report, one form, to 
be an historical record of construction applicable to all types of roads 
and pavements and similar in character to that included as Appendix A 
in the Progress Report of the Committee for 1916. 

On motion, duly seconded, it was decided that the order of business 
for the next meeting of the Committee be as follows: Preliminary 
report of the Sub-Committee on Bituminous Surface Treatments; 
Preliminary reports of the Sub-Committees on Definitions; Final 
report of the Sub-Committee on Forms; Final report of the Sub- 
Committee on Introduction, General Conclusions and General Prin- 
ciples. 

On motion, duly seconded, the Committee adjourned to meet at 
9.30 A. M., on Monday, August 27th, 1917, at the House of the Society. 

Special Committee on Steel Columns and Struts 

June 1 8th, 1917. — The meeting was called to order at the House 
of the Society at 10.15 A. m. Present, Lewis D. Rights (Chairman), 
Joseph R. Worcester, George F. Swain, and Clarence W. Hudson 
(Secretary). Professor Nelson, of the Bureau of Standards, was also 
present. 

Professor Nelson reported that 28 specimen tests of the material 
of the tested columns had been made since the meeting of January 



Aujjust, 1!)17.1 ANNOUNCEMEXTS 433 

ITtli. This luiinber, with those made previous to that meeting, gives 
a total of 130 tests of such column material. 

Professor Nelson also stated that the Bureau was very busy with 
Government work, and that little, if any, work could be expected 
on the Committee's sujiplementary tests. 

The Committee recj nested Professor Nelson to look up the reports, 
of the Bureau of Standards in Pittsburgh, on the material used in 
colunms. Type's 1, la, 4, 4o, 5, 5a, and 5?)^ and see if it met the 
specifications. 

On motion, duly seconded, the work of the Sub-Committee, con- 
sisting of the Chairman and Secretary, in preparing the drawing of 
the stress-strain curves, showing the determination of the useful limit 
point of the colunms tested, was approved. 

On motion, duly seconded, the Chairman and Secretary were in- 
structed to draw up a final report and submit it to the members of 
the Committee for discussion and approval. 



PRIVILEGES OF ENGINEERING SOCIETIES 

EXTENDED TO MEMBERS OF THE 
AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

Members of the American Society of Civil Engineers will be wel- 
comed by the following Engineering Societies, both to the use of their 
Reading Rooms, and at all meetings: 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers, 25 West Thirty- 
ninth Street, Ncav York City. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, 25 West Thirty-ninth 
Street, New York City. 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 25 West Thirty-ninth 
Street, New York City. 

Assogiacao dos Engenheiros Civis Portuguezes, Lisbon, Portugal. 

Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers, Melbourne, Victoria, 
Australia. 

Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 715 Tremont Temple, Boston, 
Mass. 

Brooklyn Engineers' Club, 117 Remsen Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, 176 Mansfield Street, Mon- 
treal, Que., Canada. 

Civil Engineers' Society of St. Paul, St. Paul, Minn. 

Cleveland Engineering Society, Chamber of Commerce Building, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Cleveland Institute of Engineers, Middlesbrough, England. 

Dansk Ingeniorforening, Amaliegade 38, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Detroit Engineering Society, 46 Grand River Avenue, West, 
Detroit, Mich. 

Engineering Association of Nashville. Commercial Club Building, 
Nashville, Tenn. 



434 ANNOUNCEMENTS [Society Aflfairs. 

Engineers and Architects Club of Louisville, 1412 Starks Build- 
ing, Louisville, Ky. 

Engineers' Club of Baltimore, 6 West Eager Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Engineers' Club of Kansas City, E. B. Murray, Secretary, 920 Wal- 
nut Street, Kansas City, Mo. 

Engineers' Club of Minneapolis, 17 South Sixth Street, Minne- 
apolis, Minn. 

Engineers' Club of Philadelphia, 1317 Spruce Street, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Engineers' Club of St. Louis, 3S17 Olive Street, St. Louis, Mo. 

Engineers' Club of Toronto, 96 King Street, West, Toronto, Ont., 
Canada. 

Engineers' Club of Trenton, Trent Theatre Building, 12 North 
Warren Street, Trenton, N. J. 

Engineers' Society of Northeastern Pennsylvania, 415 Washing- 
ton Avenue, Scranton, Pa. 

Engineers' Society of Pennsylvania, 31 South Front Street, 
Harrisburg, Pa. 

Engineers' Society of Western Pennsylvania, 568 Union Arcade 
Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Florida Engineering Society, J. R. Benton, Secretary, Gainesville, 
Fla. 

Institute of Marine Engineers, The Minories, Tower Hill, Lon- 
don, E., England. 

Institution of Civil Engineers, Great George Street, Westminster, 
S. W., London, England. 

Institution of Engineers of the River Plate, Calle 25 de Mayo 195, 
Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic. 

Institution of Naval Architects, 5 Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C, 
England. 

Junior Institution of Engineers, 39 Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S. W., London, England. 

Koninklijk Instituut van Ingenieurs, The Hague, The Netherlands. 

Louisiana Engineering Society, State Museum Building, Chartres 
and St. Ann Streets, New Orleans, La. 

Memphis Engineers' Club, Memphis, Tenn. 

Midland Institute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers, 
Slieffield, England. 

Montana Society of Engineers, Butte, Mont. 

North of England Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. 

Oregon Society of Civil Engineers, Portland, Ore. 

Pacific Northwest Society of Engineers, 803 Central Building, 
Seattle, Wash. 

Rochester Engineering Society, Rochester, N. Y. 

Sociedad Colombiana de Ingenieros, Bogota, Colombia. 



August, 1917. J ANNOUNCEMENTS 435 

Sociedad de Ingenieros del Peru, Lima, Peru. 

Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France, 19 rue Blanche, Paris, 
Franco. 

Society of Engineers, IT Victoria Street, Westminster, S. W., 
London, England. 

Svenska Teknologforeningen, Brunkebergstorg 18, Stockholm, 
Sweden. 

Tekniske Forening, Vestre Boulevard 18-1, Copenhagen, Denmark. 

Vermont Society of Engineers, George A. Reed, Secretary. 
^lontpelier, Vt. 

Western Society of Engineers, 1737 Monadnock Block, Chi- 
cago, IlL 



436 ACCP:SSI0XS to the library [Society Aflfairs. 

ACCESSIONS TO THE 
UNITED ENGINEERING SOCIETY LIBRARY 

(From April 3d to July 10th, 1917) 

DONATIONS* 

The statements made in these notices are taken directly from the book 

itself, and this Society is not responsible for them. 

DOCUMENTS GOVERNING THE CONSTRUCTION OF A BRIDGE: 

Including a Reprint of the Specifications, Proposal, Contract and 
Bond of the Colunihia River Interstate Bridge, a Description of the 
Structure, and a Discussion of the Function of Specifications. By 
E. E. Howard. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons; Loud., Chapman & Hall, 
Ltd., 1916. 113 pp., 8 X 11 in., 1 pi., paper. $1.00. 

These specifications have been printed in booli form with the thought that they 
may be of value in suggesting satisfactory substance and arrangement for lilce docu- 
ments, being the product, the author states, of a variety of experiences, of technical 
opinions and engineering judgments reached only after years of practice. 

SPONS' ELECTRICAL POCKET=BOOK: 

A Reference Book of General Electrical Information, Formulae 

and Tables for Practical Engineers. By Walter H. Molesworth. N. Y., 

Spon & Chamberlain; Lond., E. & F. N. Spon, Ltd., 1916. 488 pp., 
4x7 in.. 325 illus.. cloth. $2.00. 

This book has been written for practical engineers, and it has been the aim to 
treat all subjects concisely and to avoid intricate mathematics. Full metric con- 
version tables have been inserted. 

ELECTRICAL MEASURSEMENTS IN PRACTICE. 

By Malcolm Farmer. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; Lond., 
Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 12 + 359 pp., 230 illus., 6 x 9 in. 
$4.00. 

Intended to present the subject in a simple practical manner, from the point of 
view of engineers actively engaged in making measurements, tests and investigations 
in the electrical industry. All classes of measurements ordinarily made in the 
laboratory or by the testing engineer are included. 

CENTRAL-STATION ELECTRIC SERVICE: 

Its Commercial Development and Economic Significance as Set 
Forth in the Public Addresses (1897-1914) of Samuel Insull. Edited, 
with an Introduction, by William Eugene Kelly. Chic, privately 
printed, 1915. 39 + 495 pp., 9x6 in., 105 illus., 36 pi., cloth. (Gift 
of the author.) 

A collection of forty speeches bearing on central station electric service, delivered 
by the author between 1897 and 1914. The editor states that these addresses are the 
work of one who has led the way to new conceptions of the economic functions of 
central station electric service, and that much information of historical value, some of 
it never before pulilished, is scattered through the book. 

THE POWER KINK BOOK: 

Novel Ideas and Simple Devices for Meeting Emergencies in the 
Power Plant, Compiled from the Regular Issues of Power. N. Y., 
Power, 1917. 146 pp., 147 illus., 6x9 in., boards. $1.75. 

A collection of methods devised by power plant engine runners and machinists for 
making repairs, overcoming difficulties, and preventing accidents. The methods are 
classified into appropriate groups and clearly illustrated by numerous drawings and 
sketches. 

* Unless otherwise specified, books in this list have been donated by the publishers. 



August, 1111 7. J ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 437 

ARTIFICIAL ELECTRIC LINES: 

Tlu'ir Theory, !^[()de of Construction and Uses. By A. E. Kcnnclly. 
N. Y., .McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; Lond., Hill Publishing Co., Ltd.. 
1917. ;54>s i)p., 117 illus., 0x9 in., cloth. $4.00. (Gift of the author.) 

Intended as a text-book for engineering-laboratory students and as a reference 
book for students of eleetric transmission in general. Based on the author's "The 
Application of Hyperbolic Functions to Electrical Engineering Problems." Restricted 
almost entirely to the phenomena of the steady state. 

STORAGE BATTERIES SIMPLIFIED: 

Operating Principles — Care and Industrial Applications; a Com- 
plete, Non-technical but Authoritative Treatise Discussing the Devel- 
opment of the Modern Storage Battery, Outlining the Basic Operation 
of the Leading Types, also the Methods of Construction, Charging, 
Maintenance and Kepair. All Practical Applications of Commercial 
Batteries are Shown and Described. By Victor W. Page. 208 pp., 89 
illus., 5x8 in., cloth. $1.50. 

Special instructions for care and repair of automobile batteries and a glossary of 
terms are included. 

TELEGRAPHY: 

A Detailed Exposition of the Telegraph System of the BritisLi Post 
Office. 3d ed. rev. and enl. N. Y., The Macmillan Co. ; Lond., Whit- 
taker & Co., 1916. 20 4- 985 pp., 630 illus., 7^ x 5 in., cloth. $3.50. 

Intended as a detailed exposition of the telegraph practice of the British Post 
OflBce and for students. Mathematics Is avoided. This edition has been revised to 
include the latest practice and to correct errors. 

A WONDERFUL FIFTY YEARS. 

By Edwin T. Holmes. Privately published (copyright 1917). 133 
pp., 55 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. (Gift of the author.) 

Personal reminiscences of the development of electrical communication from 
1866 to 1916. during which time the author has been connected with the telegraph, 
telephone and electrical protective signaling industries of the country. Contains 
many interesting illustrations, reproductions of documents, and letters of historic 
interest. 

THE NAVAL ARCHITECTS' AND SHIPBUILDERS' POCKET-BOOK 

Of Formulae, Rules, and Tables: And Marine Engineers' and 
Surveyors' Handy Book of Reference. By Clement Mackrow and Lloyd 
Woodland. 11th ed. thoroughly rev., with a Section on Aeronautics. 
N. Y., The Norman W. Henly Publishing Co., 1916. 12 + 742 pp., 
6x4 in., 150 illus., flexible leather. $5.00. 

The continual development of the science of naval architecture and the tendency 
towards standardization and regulation of parts of the structure and equipment of 
ships have created a need, the authors state, for a new edition of this work. Then- 
object has been, as in former editions, to condense into a compact form all the data 
and formulas ordinarily required by the shipbuilder or naval architect. A new section 
on Speed and Horse-Power has been inserted, together with a brief description of 
modern methods of powering and determining forms suitable from a propulsive stand- 
point ; the sections on Strength of Materials, Riveted Joints and Stn sses in Ships have 
been considerably extended : information on British standard sections, screws, keys, 
etc., has been added as well as two new sections on aeronautical matters. The remain- 
ing subjects treated, which were also in previous editions, have been brought com- 
pletely up to date. 

PRACTICAL MARINE ENGINEERING; 

For ^farine Engineers and Students, with Aids for Applicants for 
^larine Engineers' Licenses. By Capt. C. W. Dy.son. 4th ed. rev. 



438 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBEARY [Society Affairs. 

and enl. N". Y., Marine Engineering, 1917. 16 + 982 pp., 500 illus., 

6x9 in., cloth. $6.00. 

A simple and fairly complete treatise, intended for operative engineers, and hence 
paying especial attention to the construction, operation, management, and care of 
marine machinery. The use of higher mathematics is avoided. 

MOTOR BOATS, HYDROPLANES, HYDROAEROPLANES; 

Construction and Operation, with Practical Notes on Propeller 
Calculation and Design; An Illustrated Manual of Self Instruction 
for O'vvners and Operators of Marine Gasoline Engines and Amateur 
Boat-Builders. By Thomas H. Russell, with Revisions and Extensions 
by John B. Rathbun. Chic, Charles C. Thompson Co., 1917. 251 pp., 
106 illus., 5x8 in., cloth. $1.00. 

Practical, non-mathematical handbook. Directions for building motor-boats are 
given, together with information concerning the various available types of motors and 
detailed instruction for their installation and operation. 

MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS, AND DEVICES; 

A Treatise Describing Mechanical Movements and Devices Used 
in Constructive and Operative Machinery and the Mechanical Arts, 
Being Practically a Mechanical Dictionary, Commencing with a Rudi- 
mentary Description of the Early Knowii Mechanical Powers and 
Detailing the Various Motions, Appliances and Inventions Used in 
the Mechanical Arts to the Present Time. Including a Chapter on 
Straight Line Movements. Bv Gardner D. Hiscox. N. Y., The 
Norman W. Henley Publishing Co., 1917. 409 pp., 1 800 illus., 6x9 
in., cloth. $3.00. 

This edition is enlarged by the addition of over one hundred and sixty new 
mechanical movements and devices, and contains a total of sixteen hundred and slxty- 
flve examples. 

MECHANICAL APPLIANCES, MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS AND NOVELTIES OF 
CONSTRUCTION. 

By Gardner D. Hiscox. 4th ed. enl. N. Y., The Norman W. 
Henley Publishing Co., 1917. 396 pp., 1000 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. 
$3.00. 

A companion volume to the author's "Mechanical Movements, Powers and 
Devices," in which the special requirements of various arts and manufactures are 
considered, and more detailed explanations of the devices are given. Includes a 
chapter on perpetual motion, illustrating many types of perpetual motion machines. 

STEAM POWER. 

By C. E. Hirshfeld and T. C. Ulbricht. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc. ; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 8 + 420 pp., 8x5 in., 91 
illus., cloth. $2.00. 

An attempt to collect in a comparatively small book such parts of the field of 
steam power as should be familiar to engineers whose work does not require that they 
be conversant' with the more complicated thermodynamic principles considered in 
advanced treatments. Mathematical treatment of the subject has been eliminated to 
the greatest possible extent. Intended for use as a text-book by students of civil engi- 
neering and in teaching power plant operators. 

STEAM PIPING: 

Its Economical Design and Correct Layout. By A. Langstaff 
Johnston, Jr. N. Y., The Engineering Magazine Co., 1916. 6 + 62 
pp., 5x8 in., 3 illus., 4 diagrams, cloth. $2.00. 

Consolidated and revised from a series of articles published in the Engineering 
Magazine in 193 5. Analyzes the factors governing the flow of steam in pipes, and 
presents a group of curves for use in solving the problems of practical installation 



August, 1917.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 439 

and determining the most eronomical size of pipe to select for any given conditions 
Contents : How to Find the Right Pipe Sizes ; Special Conditions Affecting Low-Pres- 
sure Systems ; and Savings Obtainable from Exhaust Steam. 

STEAM TURBINES: 

A Practical Work on the Development, Advantages and Disadvan- 
tages of the Steam Turbine; The Design, Selection, Operation, and 
Maintenance of Steam Turbine and Turbo-Generator Plants. By 
Walter S. Leland. Chic, American Technical Society, 1917. 137 pp., 
110 illus., 0x8 in., cloth. $1.00. 

Intende.d for those less interested in the finer points of steam turbine theory than 
in the results accomplished and the way in which they have been secured by the suc- 
cessful builders. Over one-half of the book Is devoted to descriptions of various com- 
mercial turbines. 

STEAM TURBINES: 

A Treatise Covering TJ. S. Naval Practice. By G. J. Myers. 
xVnnapolis, The U. S. Naval Institute, 1917. 7 + 240 pp., 12 x 8 in., 
179 illus., 23 diagrams, 9 pi., cloth. $4.50. 

This book has been prepared to meet the needs of an elementary treatise on steam 
turbines for the use of midshipmen at the U. S. Naval Academy, and deals mainly with 
types found in the U. S. Naval Service. 

HIGH SPEED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES. 

By Arthur W. Judge. N. Y., The Macmillan Co. ; Lond., Whittaker 
& Co., 1910. 9 + 350 pp., 217 illus., 0x9 in., cloth. $5.50. 

The author has collected and classified the available information, and presents it 
as briefly as possible. The work discusses the theory of high speed internal combus- 
tion engines, and the experimental results which have been obtained. Contents : 
The Thermodynamics of the Internal Combustion Engine ; The Conditions Occurring in 
Actual Engines ; Pres.«;ures and Temperatures in Internal Combustion Engines ; Indi- 
cators and Indicator Diagrams ; The Mechanics of the High-Speed Internal Com- 
bustion Engine ; Engine Balance. 

GAS CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK. 

Compiled by Technical Committee, Sub-Committee on Chemical 
Tests, 1910, of the American Gas Institute. C. C. Tutweiler, Chair- 
man; A. F. Kunberger, Editor. N. Y., American Gas Institute. 354 
pp., 9x0 in., 70 illus., cloth. $3.50. 

The present handbook, a revision of the one compiled in 1914, presents methods 
for sampling and testing the materials used in gas manufacture. Contents : Raw 
Materials ; Products of Gas Manufacture ; Impurities in Gas ; Tar Products ; Miscel- 
laneous and Tables. 

HANDBOOK OF CASINGHEAD GAS. 

By Henry P. Westcott. Erie, Metric Metal Works, 1910. 9 + 274 
pp., 5x8 in., illus., cloth. $2.50. 

Methods, statistics, etc., Intended to supply information on the processes used for 
extracting gasoline from natural gas. Based on visits to many existing plants and a 
study of their reports. Contents : General Physical Properties of Casinghead Gas 
Wells ; Construction of Pipe Lines ; Measuring Casinghead Gas ; Gasoline Plant, Com- 
pression Method ; Gasoline Plant, Absorption Method ; Transportation of Gasoline ; 
Miscellaneous. 

GASOLINE AND HOW TO USE IT. 

By G. A. Burrell. Bost., Oil Statistical Society, Inc., 1910. 281 
pp., 6 X 4i in., 1 illus., cloth. $1.50. 

The preface states that the aim of this book is to provide an intelligent under- 
standing of the use of gasoline, to assist the motorist and the farmer, and to give the 
history of gasoline and petroleum. 



440 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRAEY [Society Affairs. 

MODERN MILLING: 

A Practical Manual on Milling Machines, Milling Accessories and 
Milling Operations. By Ernest Pull. IST. Y., The Macmillan Co.; 
Lond.r Whittaker & Co., 1917. 8 + 207 pp., 188 illus., 6x9 in., 
cloth. $3.00. 

Universal and plain milling machines are described, as well as several special 
types, and their use for indexing, gear cutting and other operations is explained. 
Includes a chapter on speeds and feeds. 

PLAIN AND ORNAMENTAL FORGING. 

By Ernst Schwarzkopf. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., 
Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 10 + 267 pp., 228 illus., 5x8 in. $1.50. 

Written to provide a really practical treatise on the theory and practice of art 
metal and blacksmith work, suitable for use as a text-book for beginners. Simple 
and detailed drawings illustrating each important operation are provided, together 
with full explanations. Intended especially for self-instruction. The author has had 
many years experience as a blacksmith and an instructor in forge work. 

QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS RELATING TO MODERN AUTOMOBILE DESIGN, 
CONSTRUCTION, DRIVING AND REPAIR: 

A Practical Treatise Consisting of Thirty-nine Lessons in the 
Form of Questions and Answers Written with Special Reference 
to the Requirements of the Non-Technical Reader Desiring Easily 
Understood Explanatory Matter Relating to All Branches of Auto- 
mobiling. By Victor W. Page. Rev. and enl. ed. N. Y., The ISTorman 
W. Henley Publishing Co., 1917. 15 + 701 pp., 5x8 in., 397 illus., 
3 pi., cloth. $1.50. 

FARM MOTORS: 

Steam and Gas Engines, Hydraulic and Electric Motors, Traction 
Engines, Automobiles, Animal Motors, Windmills. By Audrey 
Potter. 2d ed. rev. and enl. (Agricultural Engineering Series). 
N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. ; Lond., Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 
1917. 11 + 299 pp., 296 illus., 6x8 in., cloth. $1.50. 

Includes the fundamental principles governing their construction, management 
and working. Intended for students of agricultural engineering and farmers. In the 
present edition the chapters on gas and oil engines and on traction engines have been 
enlarged, those on the steam engine rewritten, and chapters added on automobiles and 
animal motors. 

THE MECHANISM OF THE LINOTYPE: 

A Complete and Practical Treatise on the Installation, Operation 
and Care of the Linotype, for the Novice as well as the Experienced 
Operator. By John S. Thompson. 6th ed. rev. Chic. The Inland 
Printer Co., 1916. 10 + 280 pp., 7x5 in., 77 illus., 1 por., leather. 
$2.00. 

The present edition of this text-book embodies all the Improvements made in the 
linotype to the present time. A brief sketch is given of Ottmar Mergenthaler, the 
inventor of the linotype. 

A HANDBOOK OF BRIQUETTING. 

By G. Franke. Translated by Fred C. A. H. Lantsberry. Vol. 1, 
The Briquetting of Coals, Brown Coals, and Other Fuel. Phila., J. B. 
Lippincott Co.; Lond., Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd., 1917. 19 + 631 
pp., 9x6 in., 225 illus., 9 pi., cloth. $9.00. 

This book is not only intended as a handbook for those engaged in the industry, 
but can be used as a text-book in schools of mining and metallurgy and technical 



August, I'.U 7.1 ACCESSIONS TO TllH LIliUAUY 441 

high schools. The translator adds that the object of the tran.slation is to put In the 
possession of English Industrial leaders, knowledge which other countries have been 
compelled to acquire. 

COMPRESSED AIR FOR THE METAL \NORKER. 

By Charles A. Ilirschberg. 2^\ Y., The Ckirk Book Co., 1917 321 
pp., 294 illus., 5 X 8 in., cloth. $3.00. 

Describes the various purposes for which compressed air is used in power plants 
foundries, machine shops, forge shops, etc. The various types of tools and machines 



luuiiui ifj-, aiacoiue -siiops, lurge snops, eic. i ne various lypes or tools and mach 
are illustrated, as well as the commercial forms of air compressors. A compend 
of present-day methods of utilizing compressed air, confined entirely to practice 
omitting theory. 



lum 
and 



THE WORLD'S MINERALS. 

By Leonard J. Spencer, with an Appendix by W. D. H. Hamman. 
N. Y., Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1916. 11 + 327 pp., 8x6 in., 40 pi., 
21 diagrams, cloth. $2.75. 

An attempt to present a popular and readable account, in the main confined to the 
116 species of the more common simple minerals, which will help the student collector 
to identify his own specimens. Forty color-plates are included. 

CHEMICAL TESTS FOR MINERALS. 

By Arthur J. Burdick. Beaumont, Cal., The Gateway Publishing 
Co., 1917. 93 pp., 5x8 in., cloth. $1.25. 

Handbook of simple qualitative tests, intended to enable prospectors without 
chemical training to identify the various rocks and ores met with in the field. 

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF STEEL. 

By Henry Fay. (Wiley Engineering Series No. 3.) X. Y., John 
Wiley & Sons; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 18 pp., 9x6 in., 
32 pi., cloth. $1.25. 

The material contained in this volume was originally issued by the Ordnance 
Department, U. S. A., and was intended for the exclusi\e use of inspectors of 
ordnance material, but is now published for the use of others interested in the inspec- 
tion of steel. It is meant only to present a mere outline of metallographic methods 
illustrating typical examples, ijut is not for use as a text-book. It is intended par- 
ticularly for those who are in need of help in the interpretation of results. Over 
two-thirds of the volume consists of full-page plates. 

THE STORY OF BETHLEHEM STEEL. 

By Arundel Cotter. jST. Y., The Moody Magazine and Book Co., 
1916. 65 pp., 7i x 5 in., 8 pi., cloth. 75 cents. 

Contents : Town Founded by Moravian Colonists ; When Schwab Went Down to 
Bethlehem ; Bethlehem and the War Stock Boom ; Schwab's Theories. 

TUBE MILLING: 

A Treatise on the Practical Application of the Tube Mill to Metal- 
lurgical Problems. Bv Algernon Del Mar. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book 
Co., Inc.; Lond., Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 10 + 159 pp., 6x9 
in., 70 illus., 1 pi., cloth. $2.00. 

Covers the use of the conical and cylindrical tube mills for grinding ores, indi- 
cating in detail the best means of obtaining capacity at the least cost, and describing 
recent installations. It is, the author states, the only book entirely devoted to the 
subject. Contents : General Description : Amalgamating with the Tube ; Grinding 
Ores with the Tube Mill for Flotation ; Crushing Efficiencies ; The Use of Wrought 
Iron and Alloy Steel ; Appendix. 



442 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBKARY [Society Affairs. 

FRYE'S TABLES FOR ASCERTAINING THE VALUE OF GOLD-QUARTZ SPECIMENS. 

By Jason S. Frye. Downieville, Cal., Jason S. Frye (privately 
printed), 1916. 56 pp., 4x3 in., leather. $1. (Gift of the author.) 

Vest-pocket book of tables for finding the percentage of gold and the value per 
ounce from the specific gravity of gold-quartz specimens containing different amounts 
of gold. 

STRESSES IN WIRE=WRAPPED GUNS AND IN GUN CARRIAGES. 

By Lieut. Col. Golden L'H. Ruggles. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc. ; Lond., Ghapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 11 + 259 pp., 9x6 in., cloth. 
$3.00. 

Explains a number of the important engineering principles underlying the design 
of wire-wrapped guna and of gun carriages. Originally prepared for the use of the 
cadets of the U. S. Military Academy. Contents : Elastic Strength of Wire-Wrapped 
Guns ; Determination of the Forces Brought upon the Principal Parts of the S-Inch 
Field Carriage and a Disappearing Gun Carriage by the Discharge of the Gun ; 
Stresses in Parts of Gun Carriages ; Toothed Gearing ; Counter Recoil Springs. 

BATTLE FIRE TRAINING. 

By Gapt. G. S. Turner and Capt. J. J. Fulnier. Menasha, Wis., 
George Banta Publishing Go. 294 pp., 47 illus., 4x7 in., cloth. $1.00. 

Calls attention to the existing necessity for the adoption in our army of a 
uniform system of collective training in battle fire, and offers a system based upon the 
principles laid down in the manuals upon fire and fire tactics published by the War 
Department. 

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS OF A MINING SHARE. 

By J. G. Pickering. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Go., Inc.; Lond., 
Hill Publishing Go., Ltd., 1917. 8 + 95 pp., 9x6 in., cloth. $1.50. 
(Gift of the author.) 

An endeavor to set forth the considerations which enter logically into the 
analysis of a mining venture, approached from an engineering viewpoint. Contents : 
Classification of Mining Properties ; Development Companies ; Elements to be Con- 
sidered in the Analysis of a Mining Report ; Operating Profits vs. Dividends ; Deter- 
mination of the Value of a Mine or Mining Share ; Valuing Mine Products ; World's 
Gold Production with a Review of the World's Greatest Gold-field ; Mining vs. Indus- 
trial and other Types of Investments with an Analysis of the Affairs of Typical 
Mining Companies. 

COMPRESSED AIR PRACTICE IN MINING. 

By David Penman. Phila., J. B. Lippincott Go.; Lond., Gharles 
Griffin & Go., Ltd., 1917. 221 pp., 113 illus., 5 x 8 in., cloth. 

Text-book for use in mining schools, but also useful, it is hoped, to those In 
practice. Discusses air-compressors, methods of transmitting power and the use for 
compressed air for coal cutting, conveyors, drills, etc. A comparison of the advan- 
tages of compressed air and other means of transmitting power in mines is given. 

MINE GASES AND VENTILATION: 

A Eeference Handbook Gombining Theory and Practice of Goal 
Mining: Designed to Meet the Needs of all Students of Goal Mining, 
Including Mining Engineers, Mine Superintendents, Foremen, Fire- 
bosses, Shotfirers, and Miners Preparing for Examination for Certifi- 
cates of Competency. By J. T. Beard. IST. Y., Hill Publishing Co., 
1916. 206 pp., 7x5 in., flexible cloth. $2.00. (Gift of the author.) 

Composed of material on the atmosphere, gases and ventilation of mines, which 
has appeared in pocket-book form, in the "Study Course in Coal Mining" Department 
of Coal Age since March, 1913, and which was prepared in response to requests from 
coal miners who wished to know the development of formulas, the explanation of prin- 
ciples and the most approved and generally adopted methods. Contents : Air ; Heat ; 
Mine Gases ; Theory of Ventilation ; Practical Ventilation ; Addenda. 



Aiijrust, 1!)17.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 443 

PRINTING TRADES BLUE BOOK 1917. 

N. Y. and Chic. A. F. Lewis & Co., 1917. 543 pp., 6 x 8 in., cloth 
$3.00. 

Directory of printers, dealers in paper machinery, metals, type, etc. in New York 
and surrounding towns. Arranged alphabetically, by telephone numbers and by 
classes. Includes directories of paper brands and of printing associations, unions and 
clubs. 

HENDRICKS' COMMERCIAL REGISTER OF THE UNITED STATES: 

For Buyers and Sellers. Twenty-fifth Annual Edition. N". Y., 
S. E. Hendricks Co., Inc., 1916. 1738 pp., 8 x 10 in., illus., cloth. 
$10.00. 

A directory of producers, manufacturers, dealers and consumers connected with 
the architectural, contracting, electrical, engineering, hardware, iron, mechanical, 
mill, mining, quarrying, railroad, steel and kindred industries. 

HEATON'S ANNUAL; 

The Commercial Handbook of (Canada and Boards of Trade Reg- 
ister, 13th Year, 1917. Toronto, Heaton's Agency, 1917. 518 JJP-. 
5x7 in., cloth. $1.25. 

Collects in one volume the information of value to merchants and manufacturers. 
Includes lists of government ofllcials, customs brokers, banking towui, registration 
olfices, shipping directions, etc. The customs tariff and a digest of customs law and 
regulation are given. The work also contains much general information on the 
resources of the country, a gazetteer of commercial towns and an economic bibliog- 
raphy of govex'nmental reports, together with the usual tables. 

THE WOOL INDUSTRY; 

Commercial Problems of the American Woolen and Worsted Manu- 
facture. By Paul T. Cherington. N. Y., Chic, Lond., A. W. Shaw Co. 
(copyright 1916). 16 + 261 pp., 5 x 8 in., cloth. $2.50. 

The author's purpose has been to present the results of an examination of the 
industries producing woolen and worsted fabrics, approached from the side of their 
buying and selling problems. Omits other features of the industry, such as wool- 
growing, tariff relations, manufacturing technique, etc. 

A DISCUSSION OF THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE UNDERLYING CHARGES 
FOR WATER, GAS, ELECTRICITY, COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION 
SERVICES. 

By Harry Barker. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. ; Lond., Hill 
Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 14 + 387 pp., 9x6 in., cloth. $4.00. 

The author's aim has been to present, concisely and impartially, and as far as 
possible, in non-technical language, the diverse phases of rate-making for public 
utilities, including a comprehensive discussion of (1) such corporation and municipal 
activitit's as affect service and rates; (2) the trend of public opinion and Court and 
commission decisions; and (3) the most important engineering and economic prob- 
lems involved, with the hope that it will prove of service to lawyeis and legislators, 
to editorial writers of the daily press, to students of municipal affairs, and fo the 
general public. Contents: Development of Utility Regulation, Utility Privileges and 
Obligations, Rights of the Public ; Product and Service Companies, Some Definitions 
of Rates and Services ; Various Bases for Rates ; Details of the Cost-of-Service Study 
of Rates, Test for Fixed and Operating Charges ; Fair Value of a Utility Property ; 
Valuation as an Engineering Task, Appraisal of Land and Water Rights ; Reasonable 
Return, Interest, Compensation for Risk and Attention, Extra Profits ; Depreciation 
a" it Affects Utility Rates ; Miscellaneous Problems Indirectly Related to Rate- 
Making ; Problems of Railway Rates ; Problems of Express Transportation Rates ; Rate 
Problems of Street and Interurban Railway Transportation ; Problems of Water 
Rates ; Rate Problems of Gas Utilities ; Rate Problems of Electricity Supply Works ; 
Problems of Telephone Rate-Making ; Appendix A. B. C. D. 



44-1: ACCESSIO>fS TO THE LIBRARY [Society Affairs. 

VALUATION, DEPRECIATION AND THE RATE=BASE. 

By Carl Ewald Grunsky and Carl Ewald Grunsky, Jr. N". Y., 
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 8 + 
387 pp., 9x6 in., cloth. $4.00. (Gift of the author and publisher.) 

The author states that this book is the result of personal contact with the valua- 
tion problem. Special consideratiou has been given to a discussion of the non- 
agreement of the actual life of articles which have a limited period of usefulness with 
their probable or normal life. The tables included are not only intended for valua- 
tion engineers but for any one having problems of finance and bonding to solve. 
Contents : Introduction and General Notes ; Definitions ; Fundamental Principles ; 
Essentials of Value; Elements Which Reduce Value: The Effect of the Non-Agree- 
ment Between Actual and Probable Life Upon the Determination of Depreciation ; 
The Purpose of the Appraisal : The Fixing of Rates ; Possible Procedures when the 
Rates for a Public Service are to be Fixed : Notes on the Determination of the Value 
of Real Estate in Eminent Domain Proceedings and for Rate Fixing Purposes; The 
Value of a Water-Right and of Reservoir and Watershed Lands ; The Accounting 
System ; The Valuation of Mines and Oil Properties by C. E. Grunsky, Jr ; Tables. 

THE TAYLOR SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. 

By C. Bertrand Thompson. N. Y., Chic, Lond., A. W. Shaw Co. 
(copyright 1917). 175 pp., 22 illus., 5 diagrams, 9 x 11 in., flexible 
cloth. $10.00. 

Intended to give, in addition to the history and theory of the system, enough 
development and operation to enable the factory manager to visualize the system in 
some detail, to distinguish clearly between it and other systems, and to understand 
its principles and mechanisms as found in actual practice. Based on personal investi- 
gations of all the installations of the system between Maine, Maryland and Chicago. 
Contains a bibliography of the important publications on the system. 

INDUSTRIAL PREPAREDNESS. 

By C. E. Knoeppel. N. Y., The Engineering Magazine Co., 1916. 
6 + 145 pp., 8x5 in., cloth. $1.00. 

A study of Germany's military and industrial preparedness intended to point the 
way to national greatness through the right kind of social, industrial and military 
preparedness. 

HOW TO FIND FACTORY COSTS: 

By C. Bertrand Thompson. Chic, N. Y., Lond., A. W. Shaw Co. 
191 pp., 10 X 7 in., 51 charts, 1 diagram, 1 tab., cloth. $3.00. 

It is stated that this book is broad enough to apply to all kinds of industries, and 
is intended to be useful to the accountant as well as the factory head. 

WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION LAW: 

Personal Injury by Accident Arising Out of and in the Course 
of the Employment. By P. Tecumseh Sherman. N. Y., Workmen's 
Compensation Publicity Bureau (copyright 1916). 67 pp., 6x9 in., 
paper. $2.00. 

A compilation of the decisions construing the British law on the subject, with 
abbreviated summaries of the relevant portions of the French and German laws. These 
precedents will be useful, the author believes, in defining the meaning of "accidents 
due to risk of work" as used in the American statutes. 

THE ESSENTIALS OF AMERICAN TIMBER LAW. 

Bv J. P. Kinney. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., Chap- 
man & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 19 + 279 + 10 pp. 6x9 in., cloth. $3.00. 

A presentation of the existing law regarding trees and their products as property, 
with such observations and references to historical development as are considered 
necessary to an understanding of the reasons for the law. Citations to the sections 
of the compiled or session laws of the different States enables the reader to find the 
various statutes in full. Especial prominence is given to interpretations of the law 
by the Courts. 



August, I!) 17. 1 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 445 

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE OF WORKING PLANS. 

(Forest Ovfranization)- By A. B. Kccknasel. 2d ed., rev. N. Y., 
John Wiley & Sons; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 14 + 2G5 pp.', 
14 illus., G pi., 1 tab., 6x9 in., cloth. $2.00. 

An adaptation of the best European efforts in forest organization to the present 
needs of American forestry, intended for the practising forester as well as the student. 
The nomt iiciature of this edition has been revistd in accordance with the suggestions 
of the Committee on Terminology of the Society of American Foresters, and the text 
as a whole has been revised and extended. 

ANNUAL CHEMICAL DIRECTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

B. F. Lovelace, Editor. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. (copy- 
right 1917). 305 pp., 6x9 in., cloth. $5.00. 

First issue. Includes American manufacturers of and dealers in chemical 
apparatus and equipment : and professional chemical firms and laboratories. Lists of 
colleges offering instruction in chemistry, experiment stations, technical and scientific 
societies are given, also of Federal and State officials of dairying, foods, drugs, etc. 
Bibliographies of American and foreign journals and important books of the year, 
with a concise review of new happenings, devices, methods and appliances conclude 
the book. 

HANDBOOK OF CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS: 

A Ready-Reference Pocket Book of Chemical and Physical Data. 
5th ed. Cleveland, The Chemical Rubber Co., 1917. 414 pp., 4x7 in., 
cloth. $2.00. 

The present edition of this convenient reference book has been carefully revised, 
many new tables have been added, and the Index has been enlarged. 

A TEXT=BOOK OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY. 

Edited by J. Newton Friend. Vol. VIII : The Halogens and Their 
Allies. By Geoffrey Martin and E. A. Dancaster. Lond., Charles 
Griffin & Co., Ltd., 1915. 18 + 337 pp., 30 illus., 1 tab., 6x9 in., cloth. 
$3.00. (Gift of J. B. Lippincott.) 

A concise general account of the chief chemical and physical properties of 
fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and manganese, and their compounds. Describes 
the most important manufacturing operations briefly. The work does not attempt to 
be exhaustive, but is provided with very numerous references to original publications 
on the various phases of the subjects dealt with. 

ELEMENTARY CHEMICAL MICROSCOPY. 

By Emile Monnin Chamot. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., 
Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 13 + 410 pp., 147 illus., 6x9 in., 
cloth. $3.00. 

The author believes that the American chemist has failed to appreciate the bene- 
fits to be obtained by the application of chemical microscopic methods in the industries 
and in research. This book is written to instruct him in the manipulation of the 
microscope and in the great variety of problems which may be solved by its use, and 
to call attention to the fields in which it is especially useful. 

OUTLINES OF INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY: 

A Text-Book for Students. By Frank Hall Thorp, with Assistance 
in Revision from Warren Iv. Lewis. 3d ed. rev. and enl. N. Y., The 
Macmillan Co., 1916. 25 -f 665 pp., 137 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. $3.75. 

The present edition of this well-known treatise has been thoroughly revised, 
many sections having been rewritten and much obsolete matter replaced by new 
material. The modern concepts and theories of chemistry have been introduced 
whenever these promised to make clearer the phenomena involved. 



446 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY [Society Affairs. 

GENERAL INSTRUCXrONS AND METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND CHEMICAL CONTROL 
FOR USE IN THE FACTORIES OF THE CUBAN-AMERICAN SUGAR COMPANY. 

By Guilford L. Spencer. N. Y., The Cuban American Sugar Com- 
pany, 1916. 39 pp., 8^ X 6 in., paper. $1.00. 

The purpose of this book is to supply methods that are applicable in all the 
company's factories, in obtaining the data required for report sheets and permanent 
records. Definitions of terms used by the company are included. 

A HANDBOOK FOR CANE-SUGAR MANUFACTURERS AND THEIR CHEMISTS. 

By Guilford L. Spencer. 5th ed. enl. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc.; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 15 + 529 pp., 7x4 in., 
83 illus., 1 pL, leather. $3.50. 

The book is divided into two parts ; Manufacture of Cane-Sugar, and Sugar 
Analysis ; a chapter is also included on sugar refining as practised in the United 
States. The chemical section of the book has been revised to meet the conditions of 
the very large factories now in operation. 

THE LIFE OF ROBERT HARE: 

An American Chemist (1781-1858). By Eobert Fahs Smith, Pro- 
vost of the University of Pennsjdvania. Phila. and Lond., J. B. Lip- 
pincott Co., 1917. 508 pp., 1 por., 4 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. $5.00. 

Assembles the labors of Robert Hare in such a form as to acquaint students of 
chemistry with him, and to show his title to an exalted place in the history of 
chemistry in this country. Told largely by hitherto unpublished letters and docu- 
ments collected from forgotten journals and pamphlets. 

HOW TO STUDY. 

By George Fillmore Swain. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. ; 
Lond., Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 10 + 65 pp., 5x7 in., paper. 
25 cents. 

Dr. Swain's little monograph is intended to formulate, briefly and simply, certain 
fundamental principles of study and to point the way to proper habits and methods. 
Intended for students in and graduates of technical schools. Contents : Introduction ; 
The Proper Mental Attitude ; Studying Understandingly ; System ; Mental Initiative ; 
Habits of Work ; Suggestions to Teachers. 

ARITHMETIC FOR ENGINEERS; 

Including Simple Algebra, Mensuration, Logarithms, Graphs, and 
the Slide Eule. By Charles B. Clapham. (The D. U. Technical 
Series.) N. Y., E. P. Dutton & Co. (preface 1916). 436 pp., 149 illus., 
6x9 in., cloth. $3.00. 

The author's object is to treat the subject with sufficient detail and enough engi- 
neering application to provide a truly practical treatise, omitting all subjects which 
have only academic interest. 

APPLIED MECHANICS. 

By Alfred Poorman. K Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co.. Inc.; Lond., 
Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 11 + 244 pp., 321 illus., 6x9 in., 
cloth. $2.00. 

A text-book for undergraduate courses in engineering schools, in which the basic 
principles have been developed in a way which the average student can follow easily 
and illustrations showing clearly the application of such principles to the solution of 
engineering problems have been provided. Extended use has been made of the graphic 
method of solution. 



August, 1917.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 447 

LAWS OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

A Reference Book. By Edwin F. N"orthrup. Phila. and Lond., J. B. 
Lippincott Co., 1917. 7 + 210 pp., 5 x 8 in., leather. $2.00. 

A summary of the general propositions underlying physical science and engineer- 
ing, classified for convenience in consultation. Each law is accompanied by one or 
more references to more extended information. A bibliography is included. 

FRENCH MEASURE AND ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

By John Brook. N. Y., Spon & Chamberlain; Lond., E. & F. :N'. 
Spon, 1917. 7 + 80 pp., 4x3 in. 40 cents. 

Vest-pocket size. Gives the English equivalents of the metric measures of length 
and weight and of the old French, Prussian, Austrian, and Russian measures of 
length. A table for reducing the usual vulgar fractions of the inch to decimals is also 
given. The English equivalents are given in decimal fractions, correct to six places, 
and approximately in vulgar fractions as well. Intended tor engineers, manu- 
facturers, and workmen. 

MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING PRACTICE. 

By A. Prescott Folwell. K Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., 
Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 11 + 422 pp., 9x6 in., 112 illus., 1 pi., 
cloth. $3.50. 

This book has been written to treat at greater length practical information con- 
cerning street cleaning, public comfort stations and other subjects not treated in most 
of the text-books on municipal engineering. Contents : Fundamental Data ; The City 
Plan ; Street Surface Details ; Bridges and Waterways ; City Surveying ; Street Lights, 
Signs and Numbers ; Street Cleaning and Sprinkling ; Disposing of City Wastes ; 
Markets, Comfort Stations and Baths ; Parks, Cemeteries and Shade Trees. 

MUNICIPAL ACCOUNTING. 

By DeWitt Carl Eggleston. N. Y., The Ronald Press Co., 1914. 
22 + 456 pp., 9x6 in., 113 diagrams, i leather. $4.00. 

Intended to furnish practising accountants, municipal accountants and students 
with a complete method of municipal accounting, representing the best modern prac- 
tice. The methods described are intended for the larger cities, but a special chapter on 
accounting for smaller cities is included. Many of the methods used in New York 
are presented. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO LOCATING ENGINEERS AND FIELD PARTIES. 

By F. Lavis. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc. (copyright 1916). 
44 pp., 9x6 in., 9 diagrams, cloth. $1.00. (Gift of the author.) 

Reproduced in abridged form from "Railroad Location Surveys and Estimates." 
Originally prepared for the use of field parties working under his direction in the 
United States, afterwards modified for use in South America, and finally prepared in 
the present form for use in China. They are intended to secure uniform practice in 
making surveys and in the compilation of the results in the form of maps, estimates, 
etc. 

WINTER TRACK WORK. 

By E. R. Lewis. Chic, Railway Educational Press, Inc. (copyright 
1917). 166 pp., 21 illus., 5x8 in., cloth. $1.60. 

Explains practical methods for maintaining railway track. Intended for use of 
trackmen. Contents : Climate and Track ; Frost ; Snow ; Shims and Shimming ; 
Winter Track Force, Tools and Supplies ; Snow Fences and Snow Sheds ; Snow 
Handling Equipment; Spring Floods; Storing Ice; Organization. 

RAILWAY TRACK ECONOMICS: 

A Tabloid Treatise Upon Railroad Problems. By August E. Licb- 
mann. rev. ed. Chic, (privately printed), 1916. 66 pp., 6A x 5 in., 
leather. $3.00. (Gift of the author.) 

The author states that he presents in tabloid form some critici.^m and recom- 
mendations for solving the problems of maintenance costs. 



44S ACCESSIONS TO 111 11 I.IHUAKV 1 Soi'ioty AtVairs. 

ELECTRIC TRACTION: 

A Treatise on the Application of Electric Power to Tramways 
and Ivailways. By A. T. Dover. N. Y., and Lend.. Wliittaker ct Co., 
1917. IS + GG7 pp.. 9 X (') in., 518 illus., 5 pi., cloth. 

Intended for engineers find advanced students. Representative examples of 
modern tramway and railway practice are included, but detailed accounts of electritlca- 
tion have been omitted and Kcncrating stations and transmission lines have not been 
considered. Contains a bibliography on electrification, and a number of worked 
examples have been included in the text. Contents: Mechanics of Train Movements; 
Motors; Control; Auxiliary Apparatus; Rolling Stock; Detailed Study of Train 
Movement ; Track and Overhead Construction ; Distributing Systems and Sub-stations. 

ELECTRIC RAILWAY TRANSPORTATION. 

By Henry W. Blake and Walter Jackson. N. Y., Thi> Mc'vl raw- 
Hill Book Co., Inc. ; Lond., Hill Pnblis1iiii!>- Co.. Ltd., 1917. 7 + 487 pp., 
IlH) illus., (i X 9 in., cloth. $5.00. 

The first hook, the authors state, devoted to transportation methods and practice. 
Largely compiled to put in convenient form matter which has appeared in the Traiis- 
actio)i,f of the American Electric Railway Transportation and Traffic Association and 
in the electric railway periodicals. Contents: Organization and Definitions; Adjust- 
ment of Service to Trafflc ; Accelerating Traffic Movement Along the Line; Accel- 
erating Traffic Movement on the Car; Car Types in Relation to Trafflc; City Time- 
tables-Preliminaries ; Intorurban Schedules and Dispatching ; Fares ; Fare Collection 
Practices and Devices ; Public Relations ; Promotion of Passenger Traffic ; Trafflc 
Signs for Cars, Station and Road-Information for the Public; Competition; Freight 
and ICxpress Business ; Selection and Training of Men ; Wages and Wage Agreements ; 
Welfare Work ; Discipline of Trainmen ; Forms of Extra Pay. 

INTERBOROUGH FINANCE: 

Present and Future with Especial Reference to Conditions When 
the New Lines shall have been Completed, lnchulin.tr Synoiisis of 
the Financial Structure of Interboroug'h Consolidated Corporation. 
N. Y., Van Eniburg-h & Atterbury, 1917. 09 pp., '2 maps, 2 diagrams, 
6x9 in., leather. 

Contents : Interborough Consolidated Corporation ; Interborough Rapid Transit 
Company ; New York Railways Company ; Partnership Between Interborough and 
City of New York ; WMll the Interborough Earn its Preferentials. 

LABORATORY MANUAL OF BITUMINOUS MATERIALS: 

For the Use of Students in Highway Engineering. Bv Prevost 
Hubbard. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons; Lond., Chainnan & Hall, Ltd., 
1916. 11 + 153 pp., 9x6 in., 38 illus., cloth. $1.50. 

Certain fundamentals not strictly a part of laboratory work have been included as 
a guide to students not well versed in the nomenclature, classification, and uses of 
bituminous materials. 

A TEXT-BOOK ON BRICK PAVEMENTS: 

By Clark Iv. ]\[andigo. Kansas City, Western Paving Brick Manu- 
facturers Association, 1917. 126 pp., 42 illus., 5x8 in., cloth. $1.50. 

Intended for municipal officers, commissioners and citizens as well as for city and 
county engineers and contractors. Descriptive rather than technical, but intended 
to give accurate information of interest to all concerned in road improvement. 
Contents: Brick Pavements; Highway Economics; The Sub-Grade and the Founda- 
tion ; Manufacture of Brick ; Paving Problems ; Appendix : Standard Speciflcatious. 

THE VENTILATION HANDBOOK: 

Tlie Principles and Practice of Ventilation as Applied to Furnace 
Heating; Ducts. Flues and Dampers for Gravity Heating; Fans and 



August, 1U17.I ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 449 

Fan Work for Ventilation and Hot Blast Heating. By Charles L. 
Huhhard. N. Y., Sheet Metal Puhlishing Co., 1910. 218 pp., 8 x G in., 
137 illus., cloth. $2.00. 

A series of questions, answers and descriptions, witli illustrations, arranged from 
a series of articles prepared for Sheet Metal. Care has been taken to keep all descrip- 
tions and mathematical work well within the understanding of the student and 
beginner. 

PRACTICAL SHEET METAL DUCT CONSTRUCTION: 

A Treatise in the Construction and Erection of Heating and 
Ventilating Ducts. By William Neubecker. N. Y., The Sheet Metal 
Publishing Co., 1916. 194 pp., 8x6 in., 217 illus., cloth. $2.00. 

The plan of the present work is to take up each operation, and by means of 
descriptions (usually illustrated) to show all operations incident to the construction 
and erection of heating and ventilating ducts. 

GRAY'S PLUMBING DESIGN AND INSTALLATION. 

By William Beall Gray. N. Y., David Williams Co., 1916. 559 
pp., 500 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. $4.00. (Gift of U. P. C. Book Co.) 

A reference work for plumbers, intended to illustrate fully standard American 
practice in all branches of the plumbing and allied trades. 

STATE SANITATION: 

A Review of the Work of the Massachusetts State Board of Health. 
By George Chandler Whijiple. Cambridge, Harvard University Press; 
Lond., Oxford University Press, 1917. 11 + 377 pp., 12 pi., 8 diagrams, 
6x9 in., cloth. $2.50. 

The first of a three-volume history ; intended to set forth the past work of the 
Board, to reprint selected articles of importance from the older reports and abstracts 
of the others, and to serve as an index and guide to the annual reports. Biographical 
sketches of the engineers, chemists, and* biologists of the Board will be included. 
Volume one contains the history of the Board since its establishment in 18G9, together 
with an abridged version of the "Report of the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission of 
1850." 

A MANUAL OF FIRE PREVENTION AND FIRE PROTECTION FOR HOSPITALS. 

Bv Otto R. Eichel. K Y., John Wiley & Sons; Lond., Chapman 
& Hall, Ltd., 1916. 5 + 69 pp., 7i x 5 in., cloth. $1.00. 

An outline of the principles of fire prevention and protection, with indications for 
their application in institutions housing the sick, based on the personal observation 
and study of the author, who is Director of the Division of Sanitary Supervisors, New 
York State Department of Health. 

FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION; 

A Compilation of Insurance Regulations Covering Modern Restric- 
tions on Hazards and Suggested Improvements in Building Construc- 
tion and Fire Prevention and Extinguishment. By A. C. Hutson, 
Fire Protection Engineer. 3d ed. completely rev. N. Y. and Chic, 
The Spectator Co., 1916. 7 + 777 pp., 126 iUus., 3 pi., 5 x 7 in., 
leather. $4.25. 

Written especially for merchants, manufacturers and underwriters, as a succinct 
presentation of the knowledge necessary to attain as complete protection as possible 
from fire. Covers all the suggested regulations of the National Board of Fire Under- 
writers and allied organizations. 



450 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRAEY [Society Affairs. 

ELLIOTT'S WEIGHTS OF STEEL; 

For Engineers, Architects, Contractors, Builders, Steel Manufac- 
turers, and all Users of Rolled Steel. Computed by Thomas J. Elliott. 
Cleveland, The Penton Publishing Co., 1916. 662 pp., 6x9 in., 
leather. $20.00. 

Given the weight of a linear foot of any section of rolled steel, this book of tables 
enables one to find the weight of a single piece of any length without performing the 
operation of multiplication. 

BUILDING SUPERINTENDENCE FOR STEEL STRUCTURES; 

A Practical Work on the Duties of a Building Superintendent 
for Steel-Frame Buildings and the Proper Methods of Handling the 
Materials and Construction. By Edgar S. Belden. Chic, American 
Technical Society, 1917. 95 pp., 25 illus., 2 pL, 5x8 in., cloth. $1.00. 

Concise practical discussion of the problems which confront the superintendent 
of structural steel construction, and of the proper methods of meeting them. 

STRESSES IN STRUCTURES. 

By A. H. Heller. Rev. by Clyde T. Morris. 3d ed. N. Y., John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 13 + 374 
pp., 230 illus., 6x9 in., cloth. $2.75. 

Author has attempted to provide a book which, without being an exhaustive 
scientific treatise on stresses, would be a suitable text-book for students and also a 
concise reference book for engineers. In the present edition various explanations 
have been expanded, numerical illustrative examples have been added and new material 
introduced where the reviser has found it necessary. 

MODERN UNDERPINNING: 

Development, Methods and Typical Examples. By Lazarus White 
and Edmund Astley Prentis, Jr. (Wiley Engineering Series No. 2.) 
N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 
12 -f- 94 pp., 9x6 in., 48 illus., 1 pl.,^ cloth. $1.50. 

Intended to exhibit, by means of photographs and drawings, the essential steps in 
underpinning as illustrated by the methods used in subway construction in New York 
City. Only enough text to supplement the illustrations included. Contents : General 
Aspects ; Development of Underpinning and Methods ; Shores, Needles, and Foundation 
Reinforcements ; Specific Examples of Underpinning ; Appendix. 

THE INDUSTRIAL AND ARTISTIC TECHNOLOGY OF PAINT AND VARNISH. 

By Alvah Horton Sabin. 2d ed. rev. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc.; Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 10 + 473 pp., 9x6 in., 
10 pi., 10 illus., cloth. $3.50. 

Written to give a correct general outline of the subject, with a brief account of 
the modern use of paints and varnishes, and of the principles involved in their fabrica- 
tion and application. This edition is nearly one-third larger than the first one and 
takes cognizance of the changes in the character of the cheaper varnishes due to the 
use of tung oil. 

ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING AND LETTERING; 

A Manual of Practical Instruction in the Art of Drafting and 
Lettering for Architectural Purposes, Including the Principles of 
Shading and Rendering and Practical Exercises in Design. Part 1, 
Architectural Drawing. By Frank A. Bourne and H. V. Von Hoist. 
Part 2, Architectural Lettering. By Frank Choteau BroAvn. Chic, 
American Technical Society, 1917. 102 + 48 pp., 94 illus., 6x8 in., 
cloth. $1.50. 

This is an elementary work presenting the art in logical manner. 



August, 1!) 1 7.] ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBRARY 451 

MILITARY SKETCHING AND MAP READING. 

By Capt. Loroii C. Grieves. Wash., U. S. Infantry Assoc, 1917. 
95 pp., 32 illus., C X 9 in., cloth. $1.00. 

A text-book Intended for officers of the National Guard, candidates for commis- 
sions in the Army and the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and for educational insti- 
tutions. Meets the provisions prescribed by the War Department. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL DRAWING. 

By Edwin R. Stuart. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; Lond., 
Hill Publishing? Co., Ltd., 1917. 126 pp., 54 illus., 1 map, 6x9 in., 
cloth. $2.00. 

Intended to furnish a satisfactory standard of practice in topographical drawing 
which will combine good execution with economy of time. Contents : Introductory ; 
Map Projection ; Instruments and Drawing Materials : Plotting ; Special Methods in 
Frec-Hand Drawing ; Practice in Topographical Drawing ; Lettering ; Conventional 
Signs ; Map Drawing. 

THE BAROMETRICAL DETERMINATION OF HEIGHTS: 

A Practical Method of Barometrical Levelling and Hypsometry 
for Surveyors and ]\rountain Climbers. By F. J. B. Cordeiro. 2d 
ed. rev. and enl. ]Sr. Y., Spon & Chamberlain; Lond., E. & F. ]^. Spon, 
Ltd., 1917. 26 pp., 7x4 in., cloth. 50 cents. 

This little volume was an essay originally entered in the Hodgkins Prize Com- 
petition held under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution, and was awarded 
honorable mention. 

AZIMUTH. 

By George L. Hosmer. 2d ed. rev. IST. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ; 
Lond., Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1916. 5-4-73 pp., 5x7 in., 6 illus., 
leather. $1.00. 

This handbook is intended to present in compact form certain approximate 
methods of determining the true bearing of a line, together with the necessary rules 
and tables arranged in a simple manner so that they will be useful to the practical 
surveyor. This edition contains a new method for finding the azimuth by an observa- 
tion on the pole star at any hour angle when the local time is known. The tables of 
the sun's declination have been extended to 1919, and new star maps are given. 

STANDARD METHODS FOR THE EXAMINATION OF WATER AND SEWAGE. 

By the American Public Health Association. 3d ed. Bost., Amer- 
ican Public Health Association, 1917. 115 pp., 10 x 7 in., 1 illus., 
cloth. $1.25. 

This volume is the result of the combined labors of three committees, namely : the 
Committees of the American Public Health Association ; American Chemical Society ; 
and the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. The 1912 edition has been 
modified by the addition of methods for the examination of sewage sludge and muds, 
the analysis of chemicals used in the treatment of water, and the determination of 
chlorine. Changes also have been made in the technique of existing methods. 
Bacteriological, chemical and microscopical bibliographies are included. 

WATER PURIFICATION. 

By Joseph W. Ellms. X. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; Lond., 
Hill Publishing Co., Ltd., 1917. 10 + 485 pp., 149 illus., 6x9 in., 
cloth. $5.00. 

Intended as a fairly complete account of the development of the art. Includes 
a consideration of the properties of various classes of waters and gives especial atten- 
tion to the relation of polluted public water supplies to water-borne diseases. 
Describes in considerable detail the various steps in purification processes, such as 



452 ACCESSIONS TO THE LIBKARY [Society Affairs. 

sedimentation, coagulation, filtration and disenfection. Contains chapters on water 
softening and on the removal of iron and manganese from ground-water supplies. 
Bibliographical references accompany each chapter. 

USE OF WATER IN IRRIGATION. 

Bv Samuel Fortier. 2d ed. N. Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.; 
Lond., Hill Publishiiiff Co., Ltd., 1916. 16 + 325 pp., 8x6 in., 75 
illus., 8 pi., cloth. $2.00. 

The first edition, which appeared in 1914, dealt with the agricultural side of 
irrigation. In the present edition the article on the measurement of water has been 
revised and enlarged, and a new one added on sewage irrigation. A new chapter on 
the "Use of Water in Ftoreign Countries" is a most important addition to the book. 
Contents : Introduction ; The Irrigated Farm ; The Necessary Equipment and Struc- 
tures : Methods of Preparing Land and Applying Water ; Waste Measurement ; Delivery 
and Duty of Water; Irrigation of Staple Crops; Use of Water in Foreign Countries. 

IRRIGATION WORKS CONSTRUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT. 

By Arthur Powell Davis. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; Lond., 
Chapman & Hall, Ltd., 1917. 16 + 413 pp., 128 illus., 6x9 in., 
cloth. $4.50. 

Contains engineering descriptions, with the necessary illustrations, of the various 
projects undertaken by the Reclamation Service. The projects described are the Salt 
River, the Yuma, the Orland, the Grand Valley, the Uucompahgre, the Boise, the 
Minidoka, the Huntley, the Lower Yellowstone, the North Platte, the Truckee-Carson, 
the Carlsbad, the Hondo, the Rio Grande, the Umatilla, the Klamath, the Belle 
Fourehe, the Strawberry Valley, the Okanogan, the Yakima and the Shoshone. 
Intended for engineers and those interested in the development of arid lands. 

RIVER DISCHARGE. 

By John Clayton Hoyt and Nathan Clifford Grover. 4th ed. rev. 
and enl. N. Y., John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ; Lond., Chapman & Hall, 
Ltd., 1916. 12 -f 210 pp., 16 x 9 in., 23 illus., 7 pi., 2 maps, 1 diagram, 
tab., cloth. $2.00. 

This edition has been revised and brought up to date. Chapter V, "Discussion 
and Use of Data" has been largely rewritten, and Chapter VI has been expanded to 
cover the field of liydrology. Contents : Introduction ; Instruments and Equipment ; 
Structures from Which Measurements are Made ; Velocity-Area-Stations ; Weir Sta- 
tions ; Discussion and Use of Data ; Hydrology as Related to Stream Flow. 

THE PANAMA CANAL AND COMMERCE. 

By Emory E. Johnson. N". Y. and Lond., D. Appleton & Co., 
1916. 295 pp., 8 illus., 7 maps, 5 x 7 in., cloth. $2.00. 

Explains the reasons for the building of the canal and discusses the use of the 
waterway by the commerce and shipping of the United States and other countries. 
Intended for those engaged in shipping and other students of the canal in relation to 
commerce. A companion volume to Gorgas' "Sanitation in Panama" and Sibert and 
Stevens' "The Construction of the Canal." 



August, 191 7. J 



jii:.Miii:i;siii i- 



AUDIl'IONS 



453 



MEMBERSHIP 

(From May 4th to August 2d, 1917) 

ADDITIONS 

MKMIJKHS Date of 

Membership. 

Allison, Joseph Chester. Cons. Engr., 209 ) Assoc. M. Sept. 3, 1912 
Anderson Bldg., Calexico. Cal CM. June 12 

Ayres, Ltonel. Engr., City of Duluth. City Hall, Duluth, 

Minn June 1 1 

Bakhmeteff, Boris Alexandrowitch. 1014 Flatiron 

Bldg., New York City Mar. 13 

Bartlett, Chari.es Terrell. Cons. Engr. \ 

(Bartlett & Ranney, Inc.), 108 East f ^^^^^^ '^I- J^n. 2 
Crockett St., San Antonio, Tex ) ' ^ 

Begien, Ralph Norman. Gen. Mgr^ B. & 0. ) . 

R. R., Room 507, B. & 0. Bldg.. Balti- ^r"' .T" ' 

,,, "^ I M. Mar. 13 

more, ^ftld ) 

Benedict, Farkaxd Northrop. Vice-Pres. ^ 

and Engr., Thomas Crimmins Contr. Co.; I . 

■r. oo o XI Tf 1 * T. X > Assoc. M. May 2 

Res., 33 South Maple Ave.. East i ,^ ,r ,- 

Orange, N. J J "^ 

Black, Ernest Bateman. Cons. Engr. (Black ) . , \t m 

& Veatch), 507 Inter-State Bldg.. Kansas (■ ^^^^^' ' ,\, ,„ 
^.^ ,r ( M. April 18 

City, Mo ) ^ 

Blair, Clarence ]Moore. 785 Edgewood Ave., ) Assoc. M. Dec. 5 

New Haven, Conn ) M. May 15 

Bowie. Alfred William. Engr. in Chg., Westinghouse. 

Church, Kerr & Co., 37 Wall St., New York City June 11 

Bbaune, Gust AVE Maurice. Associate Prof., ^ Jun. June 2 

Civ. Eng., Univ. of Cincinnati, 248 l Assoc. M. Sept. 4 

Loraine Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio ) M. May 15 

Bbaunworth, Percy Lewis. Borough Engr. \ , ,, -^ 

. -^ \ ■. ^ . T. „<-../ Assoc. M. Jan. 3 

of Roseland; Contr. Ji,ngr., 36 Spring v 

St., Montclair, N. J ) 

„ , ^ „ ,. , r^ , ) Jun. April 30 

Cahiix, John Richard. Gen. Contr., 110 Sut- / , ,^ ^ 

. n ^ r -'^ssoc. M. June 4 

ter St., San Francisco, Cal I,, ^ 

) M. June 12 

Cabstarphen, Frederick Charles. Tramwav ) . ,, a -i ^ 

• / Assoc. M. April 6 

Engr., Am. Steel & ^^ ire Co., Trenton. )■ ^. ,, ,_ 

" ' ' ( M. May lo 

N. J ) •' 

Cobtright, Edwin Keen. Res. Engr., Law- J Jun. Feb. 4 

rence Central Bridge, 40 Lawrence St., V Assoc. M. April 30 

Lawrence, Mass ) M. June 12 

Cromwell, George. City Engr., 4318 Sierra i Assoc. M. Oct. ."i 

Vista St., San Diego, Cal ( M. June 12 

Cudebec, Albert Bennett. Special Eng. Investigator, 

Elec. Bond &. Share Co., 71 Broadway, New York City. May 15, 191 



1917 
1917 

1917 

1912 
1917 

1905 
1917 

1907 
1911 
1917 

1910 
1917 

1911 
1917 

1917 
1896 
1901 
1917 

1911 
1917 

1907 
1913 
1917 

1909 
1917 

1908 
1912 
1917 
1911 
1917 



454 



MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS 



[Society Affairs. 



M. 

Jun. 

Assoc. 
M. 
Jun. 
Assoc. 



r AS 
) M. 



Assoc. 
M. 



M. 



M. 



M. 



MEMBERS (Continued) 
CUBD, William Cantrill. Contr. Engr., R. R. Dept., 

Layne & Bowler Co., Randolph Bldg., Memphis, Tenn. 
Davies, John Percival. Office Engr., Hono- \ ^^^^^ ^ 

lulu Iron Works Co., Woolworth Bldg., V ^ 

New York City ) 

Dewell, Henry Dievendorf. 58 Sutter St., | Assoc. M. 

San Francisco, Cal f M. 

Dickinson, William Dewoody. Cons. Engr. ) 

f Assoc jVI 
(Dickinson & Watkins), 610 State Bank v 

Bldg., Little Rock, Ark 

Elam, William Earle. Asst. Engr., Missis- 
sippi Levee Board, Greenville, Miss 

Gardner, Harry Carter. Chf. Engr., John H. 
Wickersham, 72-4 North Lime St., Lan- 
caster, Pa 

Gaumer, Albert Wesley. Supt., Juragua 
Iron Co., Box 383, Santiago de Cuba, 
Cuba 

Gendell, David Smith, Jr. Mgr. of Erection, McClintic 

Marshall Co., Pottstown, Pa 

■ Gentneb, Otto Henry, Jr. Cons. Engr., 
Northwest Cor., 16th and Sansom Sts., 
Philadelphia, Pa 

George, Howard Howell. Asst. Engr., M. of^ 

W., Public Service Ry., Room 646, Pub- i Assoc. M 
lie Service Terminal Bldg., Newark, ( M. 
N. J J 

Ginsburg, Samuel Rowland. Gen. Supt., Cen- 
tral Romana, La Romana, Dominican 
Republic 

Green, Charles Newton. Engr., Subsurface 
Structures, Public Service Comm., First 
Dist., 120 Broadway, New York City. . . 

Geoneb, Trygve Daniel Bodtker. Chf. Engr., } Assoc. M. 
D. T. & I. R. R., Springfield, Ohio f M. 

Guttin, Henry. Mech. Engr., Am. Cotton Oil Co., 27 
Beaver St., New York City 

Henderson, Samuel Whilden. Gen. Mgr., "^ 
Marysville Light, Power & Water Co.; 
Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., The Excelsior 
Springs Water, Gas & Elec. Co., Excel- 
sior Springs, Mo 

HiGGiNS, Herman Keene. 209 McBride St., ) Assoc. M. 
Jackson, Mich f M. 



Assoc. M. 
M. 



Assoc. M. 
M. 

Assoc. M. 
M. 



Assoc. M. 
M. 



Date of 
Membership. 

June 11, 1917 

May 2, 1911 

May 15, 1917 

May 2, 1911 

June 12, 1917 

May 3, 1910 

June 12, 1917 

Feb. 6, 1906 

Oct. 31. 1911 

June 12, 1917 

July 1, 1909 

Nov. 12, 1913 

June 12, 1917 

May 31, 1910 

June 12, 1917 



June 11, 1917 

Nov. 4, 1908 
May 15, 1917 



April 1, 1914 

June 12, 1917 

May 28, 1912 

May 15, 1917 

June 3, 1903 

June 12, 1917 

Mar. 4, 1914 

June 12, 1917 

May 15, 1917 

Sept. 6, 1905 

June 12, 1917 

Nov. 7, 1906 

Jan. 16, 1917 



August, 1 ill 7.1 MEMBEESHIP — ADDITIONS 455 

MEMBERS ( Con I ill ucd ) Date of 

Meinbprship. 

Howard, Oliver Zctx. Care, The Dianidiid | Assoc. M. Feb. 28,. 1911 

Match Co., Lawrence, Mass ^ M. May 15, 1917 

Howe, Clarexce Decatur. Cons. Engr., 2il ^ Jun. Oct. 5, 1909 

Fhior, Whalen Bldg., Port Arthur. Ont., C Assoc. M. May 7, 1913 

Canada ) M. June 12, 1917 

HUBER, Walter Leroy. Cons. Engr., 1304 \ Jun. April 3, 190(i 

First National Bank Bldg., San Fran- I Assoc. M. Mar. 1, 1910 

Cisco, Cal ) M. June 12, 1917 

HuRLBUT, HiNMAN Barrett. Cons. Engr., 3318 | Assoc. M. July 1, 1909 

Nineteenth St., N. W., Washington, D. C. ^ M. June 12,1917 

Ludlow, Justin Wyman. Asst. Engr., Los \ Jun. April 5, 1904 

Angeles Harbor Dept., City Hall, San (. Assoc. M. Mar. 1. 1910 

Pedro, Cal \ M. Jan. Iti, 1917 

Lund, Aij-red Majendie. 2618 Gaines St., ) Assoc. M. April 30, 1912 

Little Rock, Ark [ M. April 18, 1917 

Lyndon, Lamar. Cons. Engr. (Lyndon & Taylor), 21 Park 

Row, New York City May 15, 1917 

T X- r^^ T^ ) JuQ- -A.ug. 31, 1909 

Mackall, John Nathaniel. Office Engr., / . ,, ^ „ 

„',„., T^ . TT • K T> > ^^^<^'^- ^- June 30, 1911 

State Highway Dept., Harnsburg, Pa. . . ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

iJun. Nov. 1, 1904 

Assoc. M. May 4, 1909 

M. May 15, 1917 
Popebt, William Hope. Contr. Engr., Am. "^ 

Bridge Co. and U. S. Steel Products Co., ' Assoc. M. Nov. 4. 1908 

Room 609, Rialto Bldg., San Francisco, f M. April 18, 1917 

Cal J 

Ranney, Willis. Cons. Engr. (Bartlett & ) . ^^ ti »ir>ir, 

*= / Assoc. M. July 9, 1912 

Ranney), Chandler Bldg., San Antonio, y ^.^ ^ ,-. ,r,n^ 

^ '' "^ 'CM. June 12, 1917 

Tex ) 

Shaw, Percy Augustus. 297 Grove St., Fall / Assoc. M. May 7, 1913 

River, Mass [ M. June 12, 1917 

Shepperd, Thomas Shackelford. Mgr., Ulen | Assoc. M. June 30, 1911 

Contr. Co., Montevideo, Uruguay f M. June 12, 1917 

Spalding, Walter James. Supt., Municipal ) Jun. Nov. 1, 1904 

Eng., Southern Dist. of Panama Canal, V Assoc. M. Feb. 6, 1912 

Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama ) M. June 12, 1917 

Stabr, Rex Cameron. Hvdr. Engr., Pacific ) . ^r t .-. imo 

' *= f Assoc. M. Jan. 2, 1912 

Light & Power Corporation, 603 Pacific V ,, ,, l<i 101" 

Elec. Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal ) 

Tbost, Adolpiius Gustavus. Structural Engr. i Assoc. M. Sept. 3. 1913 

(Trost & Trost), El Paso, Tex f M. June 12. 1917 

Tbueiiart, Edwarl Garland. Chf. Engr., Ulen Contr. Co., 

Montevideo, Uruguay Mar 13, 1017 



45G 



MEMBEESHIP — ADDITIOXS 



[Societv Affairs. 



ilEilBEBS {Continued) Date of 

Membership. 

TnxocK. HcBBrBT Solthwick. Mgr.. High- J ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^3 

way Bridge Dept., Mo. ^ al. Bridge & ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^., ^^^^ 

Iron Co., Leavenworth, Kans ) 

Wabxeb, Jacob Latch. Eng. Dept., E. I. du Pont de Ne- 
mours & Co., 1017 Shallcross Ave.. Wilmington. Del. :May 15. 1017 

Watkixs. Guy Axdeksox. Cons. Engr. (Dick- '\ Jim. Jan. 3. 1907 

inson & Watkins), 610 State Bank Bldg., I Assoc. M. Nov. S. 1909 

Little Eock, Ark | M. June 12, 1917 

Whitcomb, Ralph Nims. Asst. to Vice-Pres., The J. G. 
White Eng. Corporation, 43 Exchange PI., Xew York 

City May 1.5. 1017 

White, Fka:s^k Geobge. Chf. Engr., Board of ^ Jun. Dec. 3, 1901 

State Harbor Commrs., Room 18, Ferry (. Assoc. M. Dec. 7, 1904 

Bldg., San Francisco, Cal ) M. Mar. 13.1917 

WnxiAMS, JMaubice William. Senior Asst. ^^^^ ^^ j^^ 3^ ^^^^ 

Engr., State Engr.'s Office, 158 State St., L ^ j^^^ ^., ^g^. 

Albany, X. Y ) ." 

Williams, William Hobace. Civ. Engr. and -j ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^_^ 

G«n. Contr. (Doullut & Williams), 1016 I ^^^ ' ' ' j^^^'^ j.-," ^g^I 
Hibernia Bank Bldg., Xew Orleans. La . . \ 



ASSOCIATE ilEMBEKS 

Andebsox. Johx Edwaed. Lieut, and Adju- ^ ^ . oi im- 

^ ^ „ , / Jun. Aug. 31. lOlo 

tant, Roval Engrs.. Headquarters, Koval y , ,, . .,,_,„!- 

' • „ ■ r Assoc. M. April 1/, 191/ 

Engrs., 33d Div., B. E. F., France ) ^ 

Atwood, Chester Ely. Res. Engr.. The Valier \ ^ „ , , imn 

■r 1 „ TT- ^ TT ,• / Jun. Feb. 1. 1910 

Montana Land & Water Co., Vaher, I ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^. ^^^^ 

Mont 1 

Ayers, IMl-bray Chase. 1623 West 24th St., Los Angeles, 

Cal May 15, 1917 

Bakeb, Fbedebick Ajndbew. Chf. Engr., Bogalusa Paper 

Co., Inc., 308 Xorth Border Drive, Bogalusa, La June 11, 1917 

Baxisteb, Wilbub Tick. Care, Stone & Webster, Whitins- 

ville, Mass June 11, 1917 

Babbeb, Justix Fbedebic. 1515 Mozart St., Alameda, Cal. April 17, 1917 
Beck. Ralph Ebxest. Junior Engr.. Grade 8, "^ 

Public Service Comm.. First Dist. (Res., ! Jun. Dec. 3. 1913 

14 Prospect Park, S. W.), Brooklyn, f Assoc. M. April 17. 1917 

X. Y . J 

Bexxison, Ebxest WrLLiAii. County Highway and Bridge 

Engr., Adams County. Corning. Iowa Mar. 13, 1917 

Berents, Hans. Cons. Engr., 13 Xanking Rd., Shanghai, 

China Mar. 13. 1917 



August, 1917.] MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIOXS 457 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Conliiiited) Date of 

T^ ,,- -r^ ^ . , ^ . Membership. 

BiCKERTOX, \\ ILBUB Earl. Designer and Esti- ^ 

mator, Baltimore Office, Trussed Con- : Jun. Jan. 6, 1915 

Crete Steel Co., 1123 Munsey Bldg., Balti- [Assoc. M. May 15, 1917 

more, Md J 

Bishop, Guy IIersey. City Engr., Oehvein, | Jun. Dec. 2, 1914 

Iowa [ Assoc. M. May 15, 1917 

Bogert, Jonx Ralph. 207 Colonial Bldg., Wilkinsburg. Pa. ;May 15, 1917 

BoLTOX, Fraxk Leoxabd. Res. Engr., Mill ■^ 

Creek Flood Control Project, 508 Palace I , ,, ^"^ ^^' ^^^^ 

XT A TJi 1 -c- • r. C Assoc. M. Mav 15, 1917 

Hardware Bldg., Erie, Pa ) ' ' 

Bowex, Robert Lawtox. Asst. Engr., State Harbor Inipvt. 

Comm., 26 Sycamore St., Providence, R. I June 11, 1917 

Bowers. Albert George. Gwynear, Chefoo, China Nov. 28, 1916 

Boyd, Robert Platt. Res. Engr., Parish of Ouachita. Box 

375, Monroe, La June 11, 1917 

Bbiggs, Robebt \\esley. Asst. Engr., X. Y. C. R. R., 20 

Rollins St., Yonkers, X. Y June 11, 1917 

Browx, Johx Henry, Jb. Secy., Manwaring & Cummins, 

Int., 24 East Church Lane, Philadelphia, Pa June 11, 1917 

Bltord, Charles Homer. 1306 Jackson St., Sioux City, 

Iowa Tune 11, 1917 

Campbbill, Pall Caldwell. Casilla de Correo / Jun. 3tlay 6, 1914 

Xo. 403, Montevideo. Uruguay i Assoc. M. April 17, 1917 

Caxfield, George Hathaway. Civ. Engr., Pacific Gas & 

Elec. Co., 1519 Alice St., Oakland, Cal May 15, 1917 

Carter, Hugh Rubex. State Highway Engr. of Arkansas, 

1869 Gaines St., Little Rock, Ark Mar. 13, 1917 

Catox, John Hirst. 3d. 70 Arnold Ave., Providence, R. I. . June 11, 1917 

Chamberlin, Eabl William. Engr., Fireproofing Dept., 

U. S. Gypsum Co., 5865 Glenwood Ave., Chicago, 111. . May 15, 1917 

Ch^vpix, Charles Walter. Constr. Engr., California High- 
way Comm., 320 Higuera St., San Luis Obispo, Cal. . June 11, 1917 

Chbisthilf, Francis Doesey. Gen. Contr. (Carozza & 

Christhilf), 18 York Court, Guilford, Baltimore, Md. June 11, 1917 

Claysox, Geobge Phelps. Mgr., Steel Dept., Chicago Office, 
Trussed Concrete Steel Co., 7455 Greenview Ave., 
Chicago, 111 June 11, 1917 

Clixtox, Dexmar Smith. Army and Xavy Club, ^Manila, 

Philippine Islands Jan. 15, 1917 

Converse, Joseph Braxdly, Asst. State Highway Engr., 

State Highway Dept., Montgomery, Ala May 15. 1917 

CotiBTEXAY, William Hexry. Engr., Estimator, and De- 
signer for C. P. Bower, 1324 X^orth 58th St., Phila- 
delphia, Pa June 11, 1917 



458 MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 
Cressox, James. County Engr., Montgomery County, Airy 

and Church Sts., Norristown, Pa June 11, 1917 

DE Mey, Edouaru Jean Bernard. Constr. ^ j^^^ j^^ ^ 19^2 

Engr., Toupet, Beil & Conley, Inc., 730 C ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^' ^^^^ 

H. W. Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa ) 

Dodge, Waldo Edgar. 36 Eucalyptus Rd., Berkeley, Cal.. Mar. 13, 1917 
Draper, Lott Davis. Structural Engr., Am. Bridge Co., 

28 East Tulpehocken St., Germantown, Philadelphia, 

Pa May 15,1917 

DUNLAP, Arthur Hoyt. Chf. Engr., Ward County Irrig. 

Dist. No. 1, Barstow, Tex May 15, 1917 

DuNLAP, John Hoffman. Asst. Prof, of Hydraulics and 

San. Eng., The State Univ. of Iowa, 104-N, Hall of 

Eng., Iowa City, Iowa April 17, 1917 

DupuY, Victor Newton. Asst. Engr., Alaska Juneau Gold 

Min. Co., Box 186, Juneau, Alaska Jan. 15, 1917 

Easton, Russell Burns. Cons. Engr. (East- | Jun. Mar. 3, 1908 

on & Wells), Aberdeen, S. Dak (" Assoc. M. Nov. 28, 1916 

Edgren, Arthur H. County Engr., Lancaster County, 2045 

Pepper Ave., Lincoln, Nebr Jan. 15, 1917 

Edwards, Ramon Salas. Prof., Civ. Eng., Universidad 

Catolica de Santiago, Compania 1618, Santiago, Chile. April 17, 1917 

Ellis, Lester Fisher. 52 Waltham St.. Lexington, Mass. May 15, 1917 

English, Harold Lewis. Junior Structural ) ^ ,, e imo 

/ Jun. Mar. 5, 1912 

Engr., Div. of Valuation, Interstate Com- ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

merce Comm., Washington, D. C ) 

EiRicsoN, Lambert Theodore. Contr. Engr., The Jennison- 

Wright Co., 2463 Broadway, Toledo, Ohio May 15, 1917 

Eurich, Richard Henderson. 144 Union St., | Jun. Mar. 4, 1913 

Montclair, N. J [ Assoc. M. June 11, 1917 

Everett. Chester McKenzie. (Hazen, Whipple & Fuller), 

30 East 42d St., New York City May 15, 1917 

EvERS, Rudolph. 1138 Hancock St., Brooklyn, N. Y May 15, 1917 

Faison, Haywood Renick. Box 651, Wilmington, N. C. . . . Jan. 15, 1917 
Fellows, Perry Augustus. Instr. in Civ. Eng., Univ. of 

Michigan, 636 South 12th St., Ann Arbor, Mich June 11, 1917 

Fox, Alvin Bartholdi. (Larson & Fox), 137 Smith St., 

Perth Amboy, N. J May 15, 1917 

Gale, Clarence Stephens. Res. Engr., Maryland State 

Roads Comm., Easton, Md June 11, 1917 

Gabnett, Benjamin Jay. Office Engr., City 1 Jun. Nov. 1, 1910 

Engr.'s Office, Spokane, Wash [ Assoc. M. Jan. 15, 1917 

GiBBS, William Wctmore. Asst. Gen. Mgr., | Jun. Oct. 7, 1914 

The Phosphate Min. Co., Nichols, Fla. . j" Assoc. M. May 15, 1917 

Gibson, Otis. 2407 Lincoln Way, San Francisco, Cal. . April 17, 1917 



Au<,'ust, 11)17.] MEMBERSIITP — ADDITIONS 459 

ASSOCIATE MFMBEK-s (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 
GiESE.N", Walter Edward. Estimator, Fred A. Jones Constr. 

Co., 420 Intfiurbau Bldg., Dallas, Tex Nov. 28, 1916 

GoEDER, Frank Peat. Asst. Prof, of Physics and Electrical 
Eng., State Agricultural Coll., 708 South College Ave., 
Fort Collins, Colo April 17. 1917 

GooDwix, William Robert. Asst. Engr,, Citj^ Engr.'s 

Dopt.. 2710 Pleasant Ave., Minneapolis, Minn May 15, 1917 

CiKAY, Howard Aloson. Squad Chf., Stone & Webster Eng. 

Corporation, 71 Wallace St., West Sonierville, Mass. . May 15, 1917 

Gruetzmaciier. Clarence Saylor. 767 Marshall St., Mil- 
waukee, Wis May 15, 1917 

Grunaukr, Mortimer. Field Supt., Bing &^ 

Bing Constr. Co., 119 West 40th St. ' Jun. Feb. 6, 1912 

(Res., 216 West 141st St.), New York f Assoc. M. Mar. 13, 1917 
•City J 

Hall, Benjamin Mortimer, Jr. Civ. and Min. Engr. (B. 

M. Hall & Son), 501 Peters Bldg., Atlanta, Ga May 15, 1917 

Hanson, Neal. Associate and Superv. Engr., Bartlett & 

Ranney, Inc., Eagle's Nest Dam, Ute Park, N. Mex. . . June 11, 1917 

Harter, Aloysius Frank. Asst. City Engr., 726 East 

Culver St., Phoenix, Ariz May 15, 1917 

Hartford, Fred Dailey. Chf. Draftsman 



Western Chemical Mfg. Co., 608 Pearl I *{""■ ,, fP'"*^ ,, 
_^ ^ ^ , * ( Assoc. M. June 11 

St., Denver Colo 



Herkness, Lindsay Coates. Capt., Corps, of Engrs., U. S. 

A., Room 707, Army Bldg., New York City Mar. 13, 1917 

Hews, Wellington Prescott. Asst. Field Engr., Interstate 
Commerce Comm., 731 Wells Fargo Bldg., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal June 11, 1917 

Hoffman, Eugene Robert. Chf. Draftsman, Washington 

State Highway Dept., Box 535, Olympia, Wash May 15, 1917 

Huber, Joseph Earl. Div. Engr., State Highway Dept., 

Wise Bldg., Mt. Vernon, 111 May 15, 1917 

Hulsizer, William Hill. Asst. Engr., Valuation Dept., 
U. P. R. R., Room 207, Union Pacific Headquarters, 
Omaha, Nebr May 15, 1917 

Humphreys, Ewing Sloan. Engr., John T. | Jun. Jan. 17, 1916 

Wilson Co., Mutual Bldg., Richmond, Va. f Assoc. M. May 17,1917 

Johnson, Halbert Theodore. 407 Federal Bldg., Salt Lake 

City, Utah April 17. 1917 

Johnson, Hollistkr. Junior Engr., New York State Con- 
servation Comm., Albany, N. Y May 15. 1917 

Jones, Percival Charles. Res. Engr., Westinghouse, 

Church, Kerr & Co., 1309 Cedar Ave., Scranton, Pa. ^Lay 15. 1917 



1915 
1917 



460 MEMBERSHIP— ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Continued) Date of 

Membership. 
JoNKS. Robert Leroy. 304 California Fruit Bldg., Sacra- 
mento, Cal May 15, 1917 

Kahi.er, Charles Porteriteld. 606 Deseret Ne^A's Bldg., 

Salt Lake City, Utah Mar. 13. 1917 

Kauemann, Ernst Gustav. Engr., Eastern ) j^^^_ q^^_ ^^^^ 



Concrete Steel Co.. 402 D. S. Morgan ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ 

Bldg., Buffalo. X. Y ) 

KiRSTEix. Paul Robert. Asst. Engr.. City Engr.'s Office 

2546 Auburn Ave., Cincinnati, Ohio May 15, 1917 

Knight, Arthur Julius. Asst. Prof., Civ. Eng., and Supt., 

Bldg. and Grounds. Worcester Polytechnic Inst., 

Worcester, Mass June 11. 1917 

KxoLLMAN, Enko Paul. (Brauu, Fleming & Knollman). 

30 East Lane Ave.. Columbus, Ohio ]\Iay 15. 1917 

Kbeamer, Adonis William. U. S. Junior Engr., P. 0. Box 

75, Wheeling, W. Va May 15, 1917 

Lamb, Lyman Calvin. 54 Quinn Ave., Youngstown, Ohio. . June 11, 1917 
Lambert, Edward Allyn. Chf. Engr., New England 

Branch, The Austin Co., Newfield Bldg., Bridgeport, 

Conn May 15, 1917 

La Roche, Arthur I^ewis. Deputy City Engr., City Engr.'s 

Office, Binghamton, N. Y May 15. 1917 

Larson, Morgan Foster. (Larson & Fox), 137 Smith 

St., Perth Amboy, N. J May 15, 1917 

MacNaughton, Percival John. Res. Engr., Fred T. Ley 

& Co., Inc., 19 Warner St., Springfield, Mass May 15, 1917 

McCluskey, William Oliver, Jr. County Engr., Ohio 

County, County Bldg., Wheeling. W. Va May 15, 1917 

Mailey, John Bruce. 20 Howard St., East | Jun. April 30, 1912 

Lynn, Mass f Assoc. M. May 15, 1917 

Mandelzweig, Hyman Harry. Asst. Engr., Cuyahoga 

County, 1480 East 115th St.. Cleveland, Ohio May 15, 1917 

Manzanilla y Carbonell. .Jose .Justo. Asst. i , t on imn 

/ Jun. June 30, 1910 

Engr., Smith, Ames & Chisholm, Lonia y . ,^ _ n iniT 

"^ ' " ( Assoc. M. June 11, 1917 

510, Havana, Cuba 1 

MeI'TZER, Joseph. 316 Dickinson St.. Springfield, Mass.... April 17, 1917 
Merriam, Charies Allen. Structural Engr. and Supt. 
of Constr.. A. E. Doyle, 401 Worcester Bldg., Port- 
land, Ore June 11, 1917 

Mills, Guy G. Acting Dist. Mgr.. Portland ) j^^^^ j^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

Cement A.ssoc.. 1123 Hurt Bldg., At- - '. ' ,^ . ., T-' ,^1-7 

•^ { Assoc. M. April 1/, 1917 

lanta, Ga ) ^ 

MioLLER, Irving Clark. Care, The Barrett Co., 17 Battery 

PI.. New York City Mar 13, 1917 



Au-^Mist, 1!)17.| MHMBERSHir — ADDniONS 4G1 

AS.SOCIATK Mi:.\lI5KI!S (< '(•!! I i Illlcd ) Date Of 

Merabcrsliip. 
Murray, ('i.nroRn Eaton. Anlit. and Knjir., j .fun. ;May 6, 1!)14 

26 Clinton St., Newark, N. J f Assoc. :M. ^lay 15, 1917 

Nelson, Ernest Benjamin. Asst. Enjiv.. i -^ . „ ,„,, 

Andes Cooper Mm. Co., CasiUa 230, I ,^,r.,, 

^ , . / „, ., ( Assoc. M. May 15, 1917 

Antofogasta, Chile ) 

Nicholson, George Frances. Acting Chf. Engr., Port 

of Seattle, 603 Thirty-third, Nortli, Seattle, Wash... May 15, 1917 

Olds, Alrert Roy. Engr., M. of W., Havana Elec. Ry., 

Light & Power Co., P. O. Box 570, Havana, Cuba May 15, 1917 

O'RouRKE, Frank Hugh. Asst. Gen. Mgr., McNerney 

Constr. Co.; Engr. and Contr. (McNerney & 

O'Rourke), Sellersville, Pa May 15,1917 

Parker, Kingsbury Eastman. Treas. and ^ ^ 

Tvr ni- + n 4- f- ^Af^ rr / J""- May 5, 1908 

Mgr., Canton Constr. Co., 140 Town- L . -.r ,r ,_ 

, ox o -n ■ oi ( Assoc. M. May 15,1917 

send St., San Francisco, Cal j '' 

Paxtox, Thomas Preston. Conimr. of Pul)lic Works, Box 

937, Okmulgee, OkUi Tune 11, 1917 

Penn, W ii.LiAM Clay. Supt., Knoxville Power Co., Alcoa, 

Tenn June 11, 1917 

Persons, Victor Smith. Sales Engr., L. A. Norris Co., 140 

Townsend St., San Francisco, Cal June 11, 1917 

Peters, William Frederick. (The Peters Carpenter 

Handy Co.), 206 Second National Bldg., Akron, Ohio. April 17, 1917 
Phalan, John Joseph Francis. Engr. in ) ^ 

Chg. of Constr. of Road 5585. State I 'i""" ^^P"^ ^^' ^^^^ 

Comm. of Highways, Utica, N. Y \ ^^^^«.^- ^^- ^^^^ ^^' 1^17 

Pyle, Clyde Beeihoven. Asst. to Mgr., McClintic-Mar- 

shall Co., Pittsburgh, Pa April 17, 1917 

QuiNN, Maurice James. 205 Lincoln Bldg.. Detroit, Mich. May 15,1917 

Rakestr.\w, Charles Lysander. Junior \ j t , ,,Mr. 

T. --, ^ ^^ / J""- J"n6 4, 1913 

Engr., U. S. Engr. Office. 405 Custom L . ,r ^r -,- ^f^^- 

° ' 6 r Assoc. M. Mav lo, 1917 

House, San Francisco, Cal ) 

Ramser, Charles Ernest. P. 0. Box 294. ) Jun. :Nrar. 1. 1910 

Jackson, Tenn f Assoc. ^1. June 11, 1917 

Ray, Robert Bright. 3017 Brighton Ave.. Los Angeles. Cal. April 17. 1917 

Reaxey, Charles Franklin. Asst. Engr., ) ^ . .,i iriiK 

^^ I Jun. Aug. 31, 1915 

Waterloo, Cedar Falls & No. Rv.. 322 I . ,, ^ ^ 1-1017 

' r As.soc. M. Jan. lo, 1917 

Denver St., Waterloo, Iowa ) 

Reed, Percy Lawrence. Senior Instr., Civ. Eng., Drexel 

Inst., 268 South 38th St., West Philadelphia, Pa June 11. 1917 

Riddlp:. William Cathcart. Asst. Engr., Pennsylvania 

State Dept. of Health. Harrisburg, Pa June 11. 1917 

RiNEHART, Charles Ramsay. 50 Church St., Room 2079, 

New York City ^lay 15, 1917 



462 



MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS 



[Society Affairs. 



ASSOCIATE MEMBEBS (Cotltt7lued) Date of 

Membership. 
ROSCHE. WiUBERT RoBix. OflBce Engr., H. Koppers Co., 

1109 College Ave., Pueblo, Colo May 15. 1917 

Ross, AxDBEW Fbancis. 4167 Julian St., Denver, Colo. . . . June 11. 1917 

Saxe, Vax Rensselaeb Po^vELI,. Pres., Stand- i -^ , . ,„„„ 

„ , ^ T^ . , , , / Jun. Feb. 4. 1908 

ard Concrete Steel Co., Knickerbocker I ^o ,«,^ 

_ , . ,,, ( Assoc. M. ^ov. 28, 1916 

Bldg., Baltimore, Md ) 

ScHABPEXBERG, Chables CHRISTIAN. Efficiency Engr., Pro- 
ducing Dept., Standard Oil Co., 2110 Nineteenth St., 

Bakersfield, Cal May 15, 1917 

Scott, Lewis Pelot. Asst. Engr., Illinois Highway Dept., 

138 Fox St., Aurora. Ill June 11, 1917 

Secbest, Thomas William. Locating Engr., Alaskan Eng. 

Comm., Anchorage, Alaska April 17, 1917 

Shebmax, James Hilton. Vice-Pres. and Chf. Engr.. 

Reyburn-Sherman Eng. & Constr. Co., 3600 Paseo, 

Kansas City, Mo May 15, 1917 

SiGLEB, Elmeb. Vice-Pres. and Engr., J. P. Sprague Co., 

1308 Rialto Bldg., Kansas City, Mo May 15, 1917 

SiLAGi, Eugexe Adalbert. Mgr., Columbus Branch, Trussed 

Concrete Steel Co., 1000 Columbus Savings & Trust 

Bldg., Columbus, Ohio June 11,1917 

Smith, Elroy George. 400 Harrison Bldg., ) Jun. Sept. 1, 1908 

Augusta, Ga \ Assoc. M. April 17, 1917 

Smith, Roy Elmeb. Draftsman, Copper River | Jun. June 30, 1911 

& Northwestern Ry., Cordova, Alaska.. ) Assoc. M. April 17, 1917 
Speab, Roy Elbert. Engr., Sewer Design, Engr. Dept., 1316 

Beach St., Flint, Mich Mar. 13, 1917 

Steele, Isaac Cleveland. Civ. Engr., Pacific Gas & Elec. 

Co., 445 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal May 15, 1917 

Tabeb, Rock Granite. Supt. of Constr., Stone & Webster. 

3005 Holmes St., Dallas, Tex June 11, 1917 

Thobnton, Louis Eable. Care, 1st Company, E. 0. R. 

T. C, American Univ. Grounds, Washington. D. C. . . June 11, 1917 
Tbetten, Otto Christian. Care, California Highway 

Comm., Gaviota, Cal May 15, 1917 

Tyson, William Clalde. Junior Engr., U. S. Engr. Office, 

Kansas City, Mo May 15. 1917 

Van Auken, Claude Linn. Asst. Engr., N. Y. C. R. R., 

5256 Fulton St., Chicago, 111 May 15, 1917 

Van Vliet, George Pabkeb. Chf. Engr., The Robinson Clay 

Product Co., 1010 East Market St., Akron, Ohio May 15, 1917 

Walkeb, Lesteb Carl. Asst. Chf. Engr., Idaho Irrig. Co., 

Ltd., Richfield, Idaho Mav 15, 1917 



August, ini7.] MEMBERSHIP — ADDITIONS 463 

ASSOCIATE itEMBERS (Continued) Date of 

Membership. 
Waller, John ^[ai.colm. Junior Structural "\ 

Engr.. Interstate Commerce Comm., i Jun. Dec. 2, 1914 

Western Dist., Div. of Valuation, Inter- f Assoc. M. June 11, 1917 

stat« Bldp., Kansas City, Mo J 

^\ ARn. George Sp.\rkman'. Bowman, S. C. . . r . ,, ^ ,_ 

\ Assoc. M. Jan. 15, 1917 

Ward, Herbert Kirkmax. Care, S. L. WarJ, 2931 Dale St., 

San Diego, Cal May 15. 1917 

Ward, Jasper Dudley. Co. C, 55th Infantry, Military 

Branch, Chattanooga, Tenn Mar. 13, 1917 

Warren, Minton Machado. Secv., Hvdr. Div.. ■) _ 

Stone & U ebster Eng. Corporation. 147 V. ,, ,, ,..,„,- 

Milk St., Boston, mLs. . . ..\ ^^^^''^ ^'- ^'^^ ''' '''' 

Webster, Maurice Anderson. With William ^ 

Steele & Sons Co., 238 Winona Ave., Ger- t .• _ ^^P*" 2,1914 
4. t.u-1 J 1 1 • r> \ Assoc. M. Mav 15, 1917 

mantovvn, Fhiladelphia, Pa l 

Wells, Frank Harris. Structural Designer of Bldgs., 
Larrowe Constr. Co., 1199 Woodward Ave.. Detroit, 
:Mich April 17. 1917 

Wells, H.vrry Artemas. Supt., Bldgs. and Grounds, Dart- 
mouth Coll.; Cons. Engr. and Archt., Parkhurst Ad- 
ministration Bldg., Hanover, X. H May 15, 1917 

Wright, Claude Richard. Engr. Insp., U. S. Engr. Office, 

802 Couch Bldg., Portland. Ore April 17. 1917 

YoLTON, Robert Elgene. Chf. Engr., Kilby Frog & Switch 

Co., 2906 Xorth 13th Ave., Birmingham, Ala April 17, 1917 

YouMANS, George Leland. Supt., Puyallup | Jun. Jan. 7, 1913 



^uyallup J 
, Wash. \ 



Dredging Co., Box 1610, Tacoma, Wash, f Assoc. M. June 11, 191 



juniors 

Anderson, Roy Leonard. Engr. and Salesman, California 

Corrugated Culvert Co., West Berkeley, Cal Jan. 11, 1917 

Arnold, Leon John. 1018 East 163d St., New York City. . Jan. 15. 1917 

Austin, Herbert Ashford Robertson. Junior Engr., 
U. S. Geological Survey. Water Resources Branch, 
20 Kapiolani Bldg.. Honolulu, Hawaii April 17, 1917 

BiNGEB, Walter David. Hotel Essex, Madison Ave. and 

56th St., New York City May 15, 1917 

Bragonier, Arthur Taylor. 420 Campbell Ave., S. W., 

Roanoke, Va May 15. 1917 

Bricklin, Simon. Draft.sman, Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
Navy Dept,, Navy Yard (Res., 62 Coming St.), 
Charleston, S. C May 15. 1917 

Bubger, Alfred Andrew. Dovlestown. Ohio June 11, 1917 



464 MEMBEESHIP — ADDITIONS [Society Affairs. 

JUNIORS ( Continued ) Date of 

Membership. 
Carnelli, Charles Michael. Meter Tester, Westinghouse 

Elec. & Mfg. Co. of Newark, N. J., 160 East 115th 

St., New York City June 11, 1917 

Genung, James Holcombe, Jr. 3d Co., Engrs., 0. T. S., 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans Jan. 15, 1917 

Graff, George Washington. Res. Chemist and Bac- 
teriologist, Kingston Municipal Water Supply, Box 
91, R. R. 2, Kingston, N. Y Jan. 15, 1917 

Grehan, Bernard Henry. 3431 Prytania St., New 

Orleans, La May 15, 1917 

HiCKOK, Charlie William. Rodman, Interstate Commerce 
Comm., Div. of Valuation, Interstate Bldg., Kansas 
City, Mo Mar. 13, 1917 

HussoN, William Moragne. 2d Lieut., 17th Cavalry, 

Douglas, Ariz June 23, 1916 

Knost, William Arnold. Care, United Fruit Co., Bocas 

del Toro, Panama April 17, 1917 

Landreth, James Taylor. Asst. Engr., Bronx Parkway 

Comm., Scarsdale, N. Y Nov. 28, 1916 

Merckel, Frederick George. Engr., Trustees, Estate of 

William Beard, 502 West 139th St., New York City. . April 17, 1917 

Morgan, Thomas Charles. 1173 Bushwick Ave., Brooklyn, 

N. Y May 15, 1917 

Nabow, David. Care, Southern Power Co., Charlotte, 

N. C May 15, 1917 

Nichols, Arthur Clough. Junior Engr., Southern Ry. 
System, Lines East, 701 West Church St., Knoxville, 
Tenn June 11, 1917 

Pereira, Armando de Arruda. Engr., Companhia Con- 
structora de Santos, Avenida Cons. Nebias 559, 
Santos, Brazil Jan. 15, 1917 

Pierce, Charles William. 1122 West 8th St., Los 

Angeles, Cal April 17, 1917 

PocKELs, William Henri Francais August. Asst. Engr., 
Buenos Aires New Port Works, Care, C. H. Walker y 
Cia., Retiro, Obras de la Puerta Nueva de la Capitol, 
Buenos Aires, Argentine Republic May 15, 1917 

Peichett, Frederic Borradaile. 4909 Monument Rd., 

North Wynnefield, Philadelphia, Pa May 15, 1917 

Reynolds, Leo Francis. Care, G. I. Bridge, St. Joseph, 

Mo June 11,1917 

Sei.l, William Osborne. Box 819, Birmingham. Ala Jan. 15, 1917 

Seward, Harold Clinton. Supt. of Constr., Baillie & John- 
son, Inc., 623 Ave. L, Brooklyn, N. Y Jan. 15, 1917 



August, 1 ill 7. I MKMIiKHSlIIP — ADDITIONS — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 4G5 

JUNIORS {Continued) Date of 

Membership. 
Shea, William Edward. Independeucia 20, Caibarien. 

Cuba May ].5, 1017 

Stanton, William Lewi.s. Draftsman, Baker Iron Works, 

126C West Third St., Los Angeles, Cal June 11. 1917 

Stem, Clifford Hoey. Asst. to City Engr., 7933 Poplar St., 

New Orleans, I.a April 17, 1917 

SwANSON, William Robert. Engr., Flat Slab Eng. Co.. 

1049 Otis Bldg., Chicago, 111 June II, 1917 

Walker, Watson Frank. San. Engr., Detroit Board of 

Health, Detroit, Mich Jan. 15, 1917 

Weber, Walter Raymond. 52 South Lincoln, Denver, Colo. May 15, 1917 



CHANGES OF ADDRESS 

MEMBERS 

Abbott, Hunley. With The Bartlett Hayward Co., Baltimore, Md. 

Adams, Edwin Griggs. Care, Frederic de P. Hone & Co., 13 Park Row 
Bldg., New York City. 

Allan, Percy. Chf. Engr. for National and Local Government Works, 
Public Works Dept., Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. 

Allen, Charles Kyes. With Waddell & Son (Res., 3823 Wabash Ave.), 
Kansas City, Mo. 

Allen, Waxter Henry. Cons. Engr., 122 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 
HI. 

Ammann, Othmar Hermann. South Amboy. N. J. 

Andresen. Herman Peter. (H. P. Andresen & Co.), 105 West Monroe St., 
Room 1503, Chicago, 111. 

Andrews, James Henry ^Iillar. Care, The Engineers Club of Phil- 
adelphia, 1317 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Atwood, William Greene. Maj., I7th Engrs. (Ry.), American Expedi- 
tionary Force in France, Care, Adjutant General, Washington, D. C. 

Bakenhus, Reuben Edwin. Civ. Engr., U. S. N., Bureau of Yards and 
Docks, Navy Dept., Washington, D. C. 

Baxter, Frank Edwin. Railroad Contr., 2743 Fulton St., Berkeley, Cal. 

Beatty, Philip Asfordby. Div. Engr., B. & O. R. R.. Wheeling, W. Va. 

Benfield, Abel Morris. Cons. Engr., 525 Rialto Bldg.. San Francisco, Cal. 

Betts, Fred Keeleb. Marlboro, N. Y. 

Billings, Asa White Kenney. Hotel Margaret, 97 Columbia Heights, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Bissell, Clinton Spencer. Prin. Asst. Engr., P. R. R., Ocean Gate, N. J. 

Bixby, William Herbert. Brig.-Gen., U. S. A. {Retired) ; Pres., Missis- 
sippi River Comm., 428 Custom House, St. Louis. Mo. 

Black, Gurdon Gilmore. 5th Company, Engr.'s Training School, Fort 
Leavenworth, Kans. 



466 MEMBEESHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERS (Continued) 
BoGGs, Frank Granstoun. Lt.-Col., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Care, Dept. 

Engr., Fort Sam Houston, Tex. 
BoNSTOW, Thomas Lacey. Care, W. A. Body, Ave. ]Morelos No. 17, Vera 

Cruz, Ver., Mexico. 
BoYDEX, Harry Chester. Capt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. R. ; Asst. to Dept. 

Engr., Western Dept., San Francisco (Res., 29 Linda Ave., Oakland), 

Cal. 
Brewster, Henry Baum. 134 Holland St., Syracuse, N. Y. 
Bright, Joseph Shirley. Care, County Surveyor's Office, Visalia, Cal. 
Brown, Charles Carroll. Cons. Engr., 2535 North Pennsylvania St., 

Indianapolis, Ind. 
Bryant, Byron Harkness. 39 East 35th St., New York City. 
Buck, Fred. With State Highway Comm., Albany, N. Y. 
Bull, George Mairs. Cons. Engr., Foster Bldg., Denver, Colo. 
Burgess, Alfred Samuel. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Water Supply, Gas, and 

Electricity, 13 Park Row, New York City (Res., 128 McLean Ave., 

Yonkers, N. Y.). 
Burke, Milo Darwin. Cons. Engr., R. F. D. No. 8, Ashland, Ohio. 
Butleb, John Soule. Maj., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, Engr. Depot 

and Purchasing Office, 1419 F St., Washington, D. C. 
Cameron, Harry Frank. Capt., Officers' Reserve Corps, Co. 3, American 

Univ., Washington, D. C. 
Clark, Ernest Alden. 401G Clarendon Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Clarke, Thomas Curtis. Capt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. R., American 

Univ., Massachusetts and Nebraska Aves., Washington, D. C. 
Cline, McGarvey. Vice-Pres., Florida Pine Co. ; Engr., Commodores 

Point Terminal Co., 1936 East Duval St., Jacksonville, Fla. 
Corning, Dudley Tibbits. First Highway Dist., Room 336, City Hall, 

Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cbownover, Charles Elmer. Project Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, 

Rimrock, via Naches, Wash. 
Darling, William Lafayette. (Director.) 2100 Inglehart Ave., St. Paul, 

Minn. 
Darrow, Wilton Joseph. 261 West 72d St., New York City. 
Darwin, Walton Pruett. St. Inigoes, Md. 
Dent, Elliott Johnstone. Maj., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Burke Bldg., 

Seattle, Wash. 
Dieck, Robert George. Commr. of Public Works, 606 Oregonian Bldg., 

Portland, Ore. 
Drew, Charles Davis. Res. Engr., East River Tunnels. Public Service 

Comm., 159 Remsen St., Brooklyn (Res., 18 Ash St., Flushing), N. Y. 
Dunham, Herbert Franklin. 149 Broadw.ay, New York City. 
Durham, Edward Miall, Jr. Asst. Chf. Engr. of Constr., So. Ry. System, 

1300 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D. C. 
Elliott, James William. Box 269, Roanoke, Va. 



August, 1917.] MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 467 

MEMBERS (Continued) 
Feller, Frank Henry. Cons. Engr.. 2208 ]\IiIford PI., Spokane, Wash. 
FicKES. Clark Robinson. Clarendon Hills, II!. 
Filley, Oliver Dwigiit. Army Headquarters, San Francisco, Cal. 
Flad. Edward. Pres., Flad-Humplirey Eng. Co.; Member, Public Service 

Comm., State of Missouri, JefTerson City, ]\Io. 
Fox, Henry. U. S. Asst. Engr., Survey, Arkansas River, Care, U. S. 

Engr. Office, Little Rock, Ark. 
Francis, Harry Vivian. Seaview Ave., Brighton Beach, Victoria, Australia. 
Fries, Amos Alfred. Lt.-Col., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., American Expedi- 
tionary Forces, France. 
Fritch, Louis Charlton. Gen. Mgr., Seaboard A. L. Ry., Royster Bldg., 

Norfolk. Va. 
Gamble, Francis Clarke. Union Club. Victoria, B. C, Canada. 
Garrett, James Edwin. Care, Cia. Minera Paloraa y Cabrillas, Higueras, 

Coah., Mexico. 
Gerig, William. Cons. Engr., Alaskan Eng. Comm., Anchorage, Alaska. 
GiBAND, James Bell. City Engr., City Hall, Phoenix, Ariz. 
Gk)ETHALS, George Washington. Maj.-Gen., U. S. A. (Retired) ; Cons. 

Engr.. 40 Wall St., New York City. 
Goodale, Loomis Farrington. 5188 A, Page Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 
Goodrich, Ralph Dickinson. City Engr., Lansing, Mich. 
Gould, William Tillotson. Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, Madison Bar- 
racks, N. Y. 
Green, Bernard Lincoln. Vice-Pres., The Osborn Eng. Co., 2848 Prospect 

Ave., S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Haines, Henry Stevens. Lenox, Mass. 
Hains, Peter Conover. Maj.-Gen., U. S. A. (Retired), The Argyle, 16th 

and Webster Sts., Washington, D. C. 
Hale, Herbert Miller. Care, Holbrook, Cabot & Rollins Corporation, 52 

Vanderbilt Ave., New York City. 
Hall, Julius Reed. Vice-Pres. and Mech. Engr., Booth-Hall Co., 565 West 

Washington Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 
Harvey, Herbband. Res. Engr. of Conptr., Chile Exploration Co., Chuqui- 

camata (via Antofogasta), Chile. 
Hayden, William Wallace. Valuation Engr., Ala. & Vicksburg Ry., 

Vicksburg, S. & Pac. Ry., Queen & Crescent Bldg., New Orleans, La. 
Hazlehurst, James Nisbet. Maj., Engr. Section, O. R. C, P. 0. Box 1273, 

Atlanta, Ga. 
Hedke, Charles Richard. Agricultural Dept., The Great Western Sugar 

Co., Lovell, Wyo. 
Heuer, William Henry. Col., U. S. A. (Retired), Room 401, Custom 

House, San Francisco, Cal. 
Hewins, George Sanford. Newcastle, N. H. 
Hewitt, Charles Edward. 413 Bollevue Ave., Trenton, N. J. 
Hill, William Ryan. (Director.) Cons. Engr., 562 Broadway, Albany, 

N. Y. 



-468 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDEESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERS (Continued) 

Hobby, Arthur Stanley. Central F§, Salamanca, Santa Clara, Cuba. 

HocKE, Julius George. ( Barney-Hocke-Ahlers Constr. Corporation), 110 
West 40th St., New York City (Ees., 69 West 30th St., Bayonne, 
N. J.). 

Hodge, Henry \\ ilson. Maj., Engr. O. R. C, Headquarters, France. 

HoGAN, John Philip. Capt., 1st Reserve Engr. Regiment, 32 West 40th 
St., New York City. 

Holmes, Lemuel. 255 Hamilton St., Albany, N. Y. 

HONNESS, George Gill. Dept. Engr., Board of Water Supply, City of 
New York, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

Howe, George Edward. 633 Cedar St., Elkhart, Ind. 

Howe, Wilson Tvler. Constr. Dept., Consumers Power Co., Grand Rapids, 
Mich. 

Hudson, Harold Walton. 2 South Morris Ave., Atlantic City, N. J. 

Huff, Clyde Leslie. Orange City, Iowa. 

Hughes, Francis Dey. Chf. Engr., Contr. Dept., Illinois Steel Bridge Co., 
412 Title Guaranty Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

Joachimson, Makton. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Plant and Structures, Munici- 
pal Bldg. ( Res., 1 Convent Ave. ) , New York City. 

Johannesson, Sigvald. Asst. Engr., I. R. T. Co., 50 Park PL, New York 
City. 

Johnston, Albert William. Asst. to Pres., N. Y. C. & St. L. R. R., 624 
Columbia Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Kastl, Alexander Edward. Cons. Engr., Chillicothe, 111. 

King, Winfield Scott. Capt., U. S. A., Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Kinsley, Thomas Pearson. 1612 East 75th St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Lacy, Robert. Engr. and Contr., 403 Finance Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lea, Richard Smith. Cons. Engr., 809 New Birks Bldg., Montreal, Que., 
Canada. 

Leffler, Burton Rutherford. Engr. of Bridges, N. Y. C. R. R., Lines 
West of Buffalo, 8515 Linwood Ave., Suite 4, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Lepper, Fued William. Care, Bankers Realty Co., Omaha, Nebr. 

McCormick, Herbert Granville. 1104 Realty Bldg., Charlotte, N. C. 

McGiNNis, Frank Thomas. P. 0. Box 364, Rome, Ga. 

Mathewson, Thomas Knight. 1919 Mulberry Ave., Muscatine, Iowa. 

Mead, John. Cons. Engr., Box 263, Fort Worth, Tex. 

Moore, William Smelsor. State Highway Engr., Room 111, State House, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

Mordecai, Augustus. Cons, and Const. Engr., 2516 Kenilworth Rd., Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Moulton, Seth Augustine. Cons. Engr. (The Moulton Eng. Corpora- 
tion), 534 Congress St., Portland, Me. 

Neeld, Almos Davidson. 323 Fourth Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Nichols, Walter Swain. 1627 Sansom St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



A u<>ust, 1017.1 MKMBRKSiriP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS KiO 

MEMBERS (Continued) 
Palmku, Charles Walter. Cons. Engr., 620 Perry Bldg., Philadelphia. Pa. 
Palmer, George Frederick. Elmcroft, Lyndhurst Rd., Benton, Newcastle- 

ou-Tyne, England. 
Paret, Milnor Pi:ck. Lake Charles, La. 

Pearl, James Warren. 6328 South Peoria Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Perri.xe, Ren Brown (Prack & Perrine), 808 Lumsden Bldg., Toronto, Ont., 

Canada. 
Pitman, Frederick Longfellow. Cons. Engr., Grandview, Wash. 
PoHL, Charles Andrew. Cons. Engr. (Bogart & Pohl), 29 Broadway, 

New York City. 
Polk, Armour Cantrell. P. 0. Box 523, Fairmont, W. Va. 
Pratt, Arthur Henry. Reserve Officers' Training Camp, American Univ., 

Massachusetts and Nebraska Aves., Washington, D. C. 
Raymond. Alfred. Gen. Mgr., Drainage Dept., Sewerage and Water Board 

of NeAV Orleans, 503 City Hall Annex (Res., L324 Nashville Ave.), 

New Orleans, La. 
Reedy, Oliver Thomas. Constr. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Torring- 

ton, Wyo. 
Reppert, Charles Miller. Div. Engr., Bureau of Eng., Room 422, City- 
County Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Richmond, Waldmar Spaulding. Cons. Engr., 868 Trumbull Ave., Detroit, 

Mich. 
RiTTENHOUSE, WALTER Britton. 354 Park Ave., River Forest, 111. 
RoBBiNs, Samuel Bostwick. Cons. Irrig. Engr., P. 0. Box 37, Fort Shaw. 

Mont. 
RoTHROCK, William Powell. Constr. Engr., 612 East Beaver Ave., State 

College, Pa. 
Rousseau, Harry Harwood. Rear-Admiral, V. S. N. ; Member, Conim. on 

Navy Yards and Naval Stations. Navy Dept., Army and Navy Club, 

Washington, D. C. 
Saunders, Walter Bowen. Chf. Engr., Miracle Eng. Co., Great Falls, 

Mont. 
Schmidt, ^Iax Eberhardt. Pres. and Chf. Engr., Continuous Transit 

Securities Co., 1834 Broadway, New York City. 
Schneeweiss, Adolph Eugene. 258 Third St., Clifton, N. J. 
Schreiber, John Martin. Chf. Engr.. Public Service Ry., 759 Broad St., 

Newark, N. J. 
Sewell, John Stephen. Maj., 7th Regiment, U. S. Reserve Engrs., 414 

Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 
Seyfert, Edgar Ernest. Dist. Mgr. of Sales, Corrugated Bar Co., 51 

Transportation Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Shaw, Frank Harold. Cons. Engr., Box 504, Lancaster. Pa. 
Sheldon, Charles Smith. Engr., Bridges and Structures, P. ]\1. R. R., 

231 Hamilton Ave., Detroit, Mich. 



470 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

MEMBERS (Continued) 
Sheneiion, Francis Clinton. Cons. Engr., G28 New Metropolitan Bank 

Bldg., Minneapolis, Minn. 
Shepherd, Frank Cummings. Prin. Asst. Engr.. B. & M. R. R., North 

Station, Boston, Mass. 
Sherman, LeRoy Kempton. Pres., L. K. Sherman Co., 137 La Salle St., 

Room 321, Chicago, 111. 
Sims, Clifford Stanley. Vice-Pres., The Delaware & Hudson Co.. 286 

St. James St., Montreal, Que.. Canada. 
Smith, Oilman Walter. 301 North Menard Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Smith, Layton Fontaine. Lieut., U. S. N. R. F., Navy Yard, Charleston, 

S. C. 
Sprague, Ernest Marshall. Contr. Mgr., Am. Bridge Co., Guardian Bldg., 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Sprague, Norman Salisbury. Chf. Engr., Bureau of Eng., Dept. of Public 

Works, 421 City-County Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Stern, Eugene Washington. Camp at Belvoir, Va., Care, Washington 

Barracks, Washington, D. C. 
Stickle, Horton Whitefield. Lt.-Col., U. S. A. {Retired), U. S. Engr. 

Office, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Storer, Stacy Steward. With La Salle Eng. Co., Chicago, 111. 
Struckmann, Holger. Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Cuban Portland Cement Co. ; 

Vice-Pres. and Gen. Mgr., Knickerbocker Portland Cement Co., 30 East 

42d St., New York City. 
Sturtevant, Carleton William. Maj., Commanding First Battalion, 5th 

Regiment, LT. S. Reserve Engrs., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Sullivan, Murray. Senior Engr., Chinese Govt. Rys., Chuchow-Chinchow 

Line, Peking, China. 
Swift, William Everett. Engr. and Contr. (J. E. Bunting Co.), New 

Canaan, Conn. 
Thorley, Ira Otis. Dept. of Public Works, Belle Isle Bridge Div., 5th 

Floor, New Municipal Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 
ToMLiNSON, Alfred Thomas. Maj., Canadian Engrs.; Insp. of Small Arms 

Ammunition, Lindsay Arsenal, Lindsay, Ont., Canada. 
TONNESEN, Tobias. Skippergaden 19, Christiania, Norway. 
TUTHILL, Job. Chf. Engr., P. M. Ry., Detroit, Mich. 
Vensano, Harry Chittenden. Contr. Engr. (Cahill-Vensano Co.), 110 

Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 
von Piontkowski, Edgar Stanislaus. Chf. Engr., Manila R. R., Manila, 

Philippine Islands. 
von Sciion, Hans August Evald Conrad. Cons. Engr., Montrose, Arlington 

P. 0., Va. 
Ware, John. 1st Lieut., 1st Mass. Engrs., I. C. C. Armory, Boston (Res., 

East Milton), Mass. 
Waugh, William Hammond. U. S. Senior Highway Engr., Office of Public 

Roads and Rural Eng., Juneau, Alaska. 



Aun:ust, 1!)17.] MK.ArnERSiirr — changes of address 471 

MKMUEUS {Continued) 

\\ Ki.L.s, CiiAKLES KuwiN. Div. Engr., Board of Water Supi)ly, City of New 
York, 32 Prospect St., White Plains, N. Y. 

Wells, George ]\1iller. Cons. Engr., 40 Wall St., New York City. 

Whistler, John T. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Fallon, Nev. 

WiiiT.MAX, Ralph. Civ. Engr., U. S. N., Care, U S. Military Govt., Santo 
Domingo. Dominican Republic (via Postmaster, New York City). 

Whitney, Alfred Rutgers, Jr. Pres. and Treas., The Whitney Co., 101 Park 
Ave. (Res., 44 West 44th St.), New York City. 

Wild, Herbert Joseph. Horseneck Beach, South Westport, Mass. 

Wilkersox. Thomas Jefferson. Chf. Engr., Penn Bridge Co., Beaver Falls, 
Pa. 

Williams. Samuel Daugherty, Jr. Div. Engr., M. C. R. R., 50.3 M. C. R. R. 
Terminal, Detroit, Mich. 

Woermann, Frederick Christian. Pres., Woermann Constr. Co., 543 Cen- 
tury Bldg. (Res., 5893 Nina PI.), St. Louis, Mo. 

Worthington, Chakles. Designing Engr., Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
Navy Dept., Washington, D. C. 

Wynne- Roberts, Robert Owen. (Frank Barber & R. 0. Wynne-Roberts.), 
40 Jarvis St., Toronto, Ont., Canada. 

Young, Alexander Ririe. Engr., Service Dept., John Baker, .Jr., 3G36 Vir- 
ginia Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 

Yuille, Nathaniel Alston. U. S. Engr. Office, Stockton, Cal. 

ZiNN, George Arthur. Col., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., 321 Custom House, 
Portland, Ore. 

ZooK, Morris Alexander. Cons. Engr. ; Res. Engr., Div. of Valuation, Inter- 
state Commerce Comm., Room 1006, Interstate Commerce Comm., 
ISth St. and Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D. C. 

associate members 

AcKERMAN, Alexander Seymour. 11 Francis St., Newport, R. I. 

Adey, John Seager. Care, Stone & Webster, P. 0. Box 297, Youngstown, 
Ohio. 

Anderberg, Edward. Senior Asst. Engr., Barge Canal Terminal Office, Hall 
of Records, New York City. 

Armstrong. Harry Arthur. Hydrographer, Idaho Irrig. Co., Ltd., Richfield, 
Idaho. 

Armstrong, Merwin. Capt., Officers' Reserve Corps. Engrs., Madison Bar- 
racks Training Camp (Res., Fayetteville) , N. Y. 

Arxott. Robert Fleming. Cons. Engr., 165 Broadway, Room 3001, New 
York City. 

Ashley, Carl. 149 Manhattan Ave., New York City. 

Ayres, Tx)uis Evans. Prin. Asst. Engr., Gardner S. Williams, Cornwell 
Bldg., Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Baker, George Livingston. 154 Bishop St., Watertown, N. Y. 

Banks, Charles Wilbur. 160 Winsor Ave., Watertown, Mass. 



472 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDKESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 
Barber, Norman Nathaniel. 1st Lieut., Co. E, 16tli Engrs. (Ry.), U. S. A., 

American Expeditionary Force in France, Care, The Adjutant General, 

Washington, D. C. 
Barkmann, Ernst Henry. Engr. and Contr., P. 0. Box 571, Sacramento, 

Cal. 
Barlow, John Sadler. Div. Engr., State of Arizona, Box 247, Clifton, Ariz. 
Barnes, Frank William. 10 Maiden Lane, Kingston, N. Y. 
Barney, William Joshua. Pres., Barney-Hocke-Ahlers Constr. Corporation, 

110 West 40th St., New York City. 
Barrett, Robert Edward. Constr. Engr., Turners Falls Power & Elec. Co., 

3d National Bank Bldg. (Res., 18 Kenwood Park), Springfield, Mass. 
Barter, Harold Hendryx. Engr., Universal Film Mfg. Co., 6830 Sunset 

Boulevard, Hollywood, Los Angeles, Cal. 
Bartholomew, Bradley White. Co. 3, Officers' Training Camp, American 

Univ., Washington, D. C. 
Bassel, Guy Mannering. Care, Aluminum Co. of America, Maryville, 

Tenn. 
Beall, Pendleton. Co. K, 7th Regiment, Care, F. M. M. Beall, Brookville 

Rd., Chevy Chase, Md. 
Bean, Ernest Daniel. Supt., Austin Co., 1794 North Ave., Bridgeport, 

Conn. 
Becker, William Hatrick. Care, Ed. G. Dentzer, P. 0. Box 36, Superior, 

Ariz. 
Bee, Charles Everett. Office Engr., S. A. L. Co., Medicine Hat, Alberta, 

Canada. 
Beebe, James Wilbur. Engr., San Joaquin Light & Power Co., 2051 Bel- 
mont Ave., Fresno, Cal. 
Beemer, John Arthur. Howe, Idaho. 
Bellows, Sidney Raymond. Asst. Engr., Barge Canals Terminals, Dept. 

of State Engr. and Surv., State Engr.'s Office, Foot of Dupont St., 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Benedict, Nathan. Civ. Engr. and Contr., La Vega, Dominican Republic. 
Bennett, Harry. 2 Bemis PL, Glens Falls, N. Y. 
Bennett, Manche Owen. Asst. Engr., Oregon State Highway Comm., 

Pendleton, Ore. 
Bond, Judson Baker. Care, U. S. Reclamation Service, Klamath Falls, Ore. 
BoRTiN, Harry. Cons. Valuation Engr., 408 Olive St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Bowlus, Fred Drexel. Requa, Cal. 
Bowman, Ralph McLane. Highway Bridge Engr., Office of Public Roads, 

Dept. of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 
Boya,john, Haig Milton. Gen. Contr., 1723 Ford Bldg., Detroit, Mich. 
Boyd, Butler Bennett. 2310 F St., San Diego, Cal. 
Bradshaw, Charles. 228 Poppy St., Monrovia, Cal. 
Bright, Charles Edwin. Field Engr., Interstate Commerce Comm., Div. 

of Valuation, 1817 Beech Ave., Nashville, Tenn. 



Aiiiriist. 101,.| MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 473 

AS.SOCIATK MKMItKKS { ( '(ill I i illKfl ) 

Bright, Graham Bkrxard. 613 Campbell Ave., West. Roanoke. Va. 

Bronson, Howard Franklin. Asst. Engr., Pennsylvania State Dept. of 
Health, 726 South 28th St.. Harrisburg, Pa. 

Brown. Claide Osgood. Asst. Engr., U. S. Geological Survey, 1010 Schwind 
Bldg., Dayton, Ohio. 

Brown, Harry ^^■^.MA^I. Asst. Div. Engr., C. & T. Div., Penn. Lines, Room 
13, Union Station, Chicago, 111. 

Brown, Skymoik Dewey. Am. International Corporation, 2 rue des 
Italiens, Paris (9^), France. 

Bbua, Elmer George. Drawer F, Bartlesville, Okla. 

Buck, Walter Van. 14th Provisional Engrs., Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 

BuDD, Percy Hiram. Asst. Engr., New York State Barge Canal Terminals, 
Hall of Records, New York City. 

Burgoyne, John Henry. Club de la Union, Lima, Peru. 

BuRKHOLDER, JOSEPH L. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, El Paso, 
Tex. . 

Burns, Howard Edward. Southern Mgr., C. F. Massey Co., Sumpter Bldg., 
Dallas, Tex, 

BuRROWES, Paul de Nyse. Care, The Foundation Co., Wheeling Corrugat- 
ing Job, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Burton, William. 1st Lieut., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps. Washington 
Barracks, Belvoir Camp, Washington, D. C. 

BussE, Franz August. Bridge Engr., L. & N. R. R., 935 South 4th St., 
Louisville, Ky. 

Buxton, Edwin Walker. 563 East Park St., Olathe, Kans. 

Byrd. John Henry. Secy, and Treas., Collapsible Joist Form Co., 503 
Finance Bldg., Kansas City, Mo. 

Cantwell, Herbert Herluin. Cornell, Wis. 

Carpenter, J. C. Drainage Engr., Office of Public Roads and Rural Eng., 
Washington, D. C. 

Cate, Daniel Rogers. 2202 Portola Way, Sacramento, Cal. 

Chamblin, Elga Ross. Archt. and Cons. Structural Engr., 909 South- 
western Life Bldg., Dallas, Tex. 

Chesley, Frank Ephraim. Care, Bldg. and [Maintenance Dept., Gen. Elec. 
Co., Erie, Pa. 

Christensen, George Andrew. Capt., Q. M. U. S. R., Camp Kearny, San 
Diego, Cal. 

Collins, Richard Vincent. Care, State Highway Office, 1 Daniel St., 
Albany, N. Y. 

Coltman, Rohkrt, Jr. Constr. Supt., Lewis A. Riley, 2d, Short St., Irwin, 
Pa. 

Cornell, Charles Brown. 4106 Perkins Ave., Suite 11, Cleveland, Ohio. 

Corp, Henry William. Prin. Asst. Engr., Manila R. R., Manila, Philip- 
pine Islands. 



474 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 
CoRTEi,YOU, Frank Morgan. Designing Dept., Harrington, Howard & Ash, 

1012 Baltimore Ave., Kansas City, Mo. 
Crane, Albert Em. Supt. of Constr., The Whitney Co., 31 Rockview Ave., 

Plainfield, X. J. 
Crites, George Solomon. Asst. Engr., B. & 0. R. R., 1205 B. & O. Bldg., 

Baltimore, Md. 
Cummin, Gaylord Church. City Mgr., City Hall, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Cutting, George Warken, Jr. Cons. Engr., 50 Newton St., Aiiburndale 

(Res., Weston), Mass. 
Davison, Allen Stbtwart. Engr., Allen S. Davison Co., Inc., The Basic 

Products Co., The Sharpsville Furnace Co., and The Bessie Furnace 

Co., 2119 Oliver Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Dawson, William Edward. 450 Sixty-first St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Devlin, Henry Stratford. Care, Central Constr. Corporation, Common- 
wealth Trust Bldg., Harrisburg, Pa. 
Dixon, De Forest Halsted. Second Vice-Pres., Turner Constr, Co., 244 

Madison Ave., New York City (Res., Plandome, N. Y.). 
DoBSON, Gilbert Colfax. Capt., C. E. U. S. R., 14th Provisional Engrs., 

Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 
Driscoll, William. 224 East 34th St., Savannah, Ga. 
Eabl, Austin Willmott. 724 Santa Clara St., Vallejo, Cal. 
Eberly, Clarence Frederick. Perrysburg, Ohio. 
Edgerton, Glen Edgar. Maj., 5th Engrs., Brownsville, Tex. 
Ekman, Claes Theodore. Care, Union Carbide Co., Niagara Falls, N. Y. 
Ellstrom, Victor Edwin. Vice-Pres., Am. Steel Window Co., 10th and 

McKinley Sts., Chicago Heights, 111. 
Eltinge, Orville Lamont. Care, The San. Dist. of Chicago, 700 Karpen 

Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Entenmann, Paul Max. Blythe, Cal. 
Evans, Peter Platter. Secy., The Osborn Eng. Co., 2848 Prospect Ave., 

S. E., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Ewald, Robert Franklin. Hydr. Engr., The Aluminum Co. of America, 

199 Meade St., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Fabnsworth, Howard Richards. U. S. Surv., Div. E, Gen. Land Office, 

Washington, D. C. 
Felgenhauer, Frank John. Pres. and Treas., Frank J. Felgenhauer Co., 

Inc., 101 Park Ave., New York City. 
Fineren, William Warrick. U. S. Junior Engr., U. S. Engr. Office, Fort 

Hancock, N. J. 
Fogg, Percivax Morris. Apartment M, 1469 Williams St., Denver, Colo. 
Foss, James Calvin, Jr. Civ. and Hydr. Engr., Room 5, Bank Bldg., Hilo, 

Hawaii. 
Frank, George Stedmax. Warsaw, N. Y. 



Au-;ust. 11)17.1 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 4?5 

ASSOCIATK .MK.MI'.KHS i Coll t i li llcd) 

Fhk.ncii. Rogkr Deland. Lecturer, Municipal Eng., McGill L'niv.; Prin- 

Asst. Engr., R. S. & W. S. Lea, 809 New Birks Bldg., MontreaL Que., 

Canada. 
Frickstad, Walter Nettletox. 5548 Carlton St.. Oakland, Cal. 
Friend, Fred Foraker. With E. W. Clark & Co. Management Corporation 

(Res., 1236 East IVLiin St.), Columbus. Ohio. 
Fysiie, Thomas Maxwell. Royal .Trust Bldg., Montreal, Que., Canada. 
Gaxdolfo, Joseph Harrixgton. Civ. Engr., Moody Eng. Co., Inc., 115 

Broadway, New York City. 
Gardner, Warren. 256 West 57th St., New York City. 
Gellatly, Johx Thompson Bisset. Cons. Engr., P. 0. Box 1, Queenstown, 

South Africa. 
George. Sidney Howard. Asst. Engr., C, M. & St. P. Ry., 22 Milwaukee 

Station, Minneapolis, Alinn. 
Goodman, Harry Minott. Care, Honolulu Iron Works, Honolulu, Hawaii. 
Graham, Guy Alexander. 434 Allen St., Hudson, N. Y. 
Green, Arthur Brooks. Industrial Engr., 264 Centre St., Newton, Mass. 
Griffin, James Birney. 1244 West 54th St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
GuERDRUM, George Hagbart. Capt., Engrs. U. S. R., Geological Survey, 

Washington, D. C. 
Haggard, Homer Hcstox. Care, Cuban Eng. & Contr. Co., 17 West 42d St., 

New York City. 
Halcombe. Norman Marshall. Civ. and Min. Engr. (Halcombe, Flanders & 

Read), 2490 Filbert St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Haldeman, Walter Stanley. Sales Engr., 8 South Dearborn St.. Chicago, 

111. 
Hale, Philip Jewett. 7316 Coles Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Hall, Charles Lacey. Maj., Corps of Engrs.. 12th Engrs. (Ry. ), American 

Expeditionary Force in France. 
Halsema, EusEHirs Julius. Constr. Engr., Bureau of Public Works, Manila, 

Philippine Islands. 
Hamilton, William Edward. Fairmont Trust Co. Bldg., Fairmont. W. Va. 
Hanique, Jules Edmond. 1822 Francisco St., Berkeley, Cal. 
Harding. Ralph Lyman. 1207 Mulberry Ave., Muscatine, Iowa. 
Hakley, George Foster. Siipt. of Constr., Stone & Webster Eng. Corporation, 

P. 0. Box 968, Columbus, Ga. 
Harrington, Harry Garfield. 271 Meeker Ave., Newark. N. J. 
Harris, Archie Lee. Cons. Engr.. Manhattan, Cal. 
Harris, Arthur Lines. La Vega, Dominican Republic. 
Hatch, Everett Hamilton. 2124 J St., Sacramento. Cal. 
Hauser, Kenneth Douglass. Capt., Co. F, 8th Reserve Engrs., 860 ^far- 
shall St., Portland, Ore. 
Hawes, George Raymond. Civ. and Structural Engr., 609 Savage Scofield 

Bldg., Tacoma, Wash. 
Heilbronner, Leon Cohen. 238 Union St., Schenectady, N. Y. 



476 MEMBEESHIP — CHANGES OF ADDEESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 
HiCKOK, Clifton Ewing. City Engr., Alameda, Cal. 
HiESiGER, Charles Miltox. Examining Insp. in Office, Commr. of Accounts; 

Consultant with Phoenix Eng. Co., 299 Broadway, New York City. 
Hirai, Kikumatsu. Care, Yamanaka & Co., 254 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
HiTT, Henry Collins. Care, Electrification Dept., C, M. & St. P. Ry., Room 

306, 0. W. Station, Seattle, Wash. 
HoGAN, Joseph Vincent. Engr., Lathrop, Shea & Henwood, 29 Catherine 

St., Lyons, N. Y. 
HoGE, Edward Augustus Clyde. 141 Broadway, Room 716, New York City. 
Hood, Joseph Nelson. Care, The Foundation Co., 1201 Third St., S. E., 

Washington, D. C. 
Hopper, Jean Georges Lefebvre. 42 Avenue de I'Opera, Paris, France. 
Howard, Lewis Thomas. Asst. Engr., Dept. of State Engr. and Surv., Hall 

of Records, New York City. 
Howell, Cleves Harrison. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, King 

Hill, Idaho. 
Howes, Cyrus Pierce. Senior Structural Engr., Div. of Valuation, Inter- 
state Commerce Comm., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
HoYNCK, Leo Adolph. Room 301, City Hall, St. Louis, Mo. 
Hunt, Horace Sinclair. Civ. and Hydr. Engr., 201 McBride St., Jackson, 

Mich. 
Hurley, John Patrick. 69th Regiment Armory, New York City. 
Immich, Hollis Douglass. Purchasing Engr., Sperry Eng. Co., 87 West 

Elm St., New Haven, Conn. 
Jackson, John Franklin. Vice-Pres., Wisconsin Bridge & Iron Co., 1536 

Humboldt Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Jamison, Richard Harvey. 309 Grant Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 
Jewett, Thomas Edward. Care, Frank Hill Smith, Inc., 120 Broadway, 

New York City. 
Johnson, Edwin Samuel. With Robert W. Hunt & Co., R. F. D. No. 1, 

Rogers, Ark. 
Jouine, Georges Pierre Ferdinand. Sous Lieut, au 81<^m« d'Artillerie, 16 

rue Pistouley, Libourne, Gironde, France. 
Kallasch, Winfred Miller. Care, Leonard Constr. Co., 860 McCormick 

Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Kanary, Mark Henry. Gen. Mgr., Samson Trailer Corporation, 501 Cres- 
cent St., Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Kassebaum, Frederick William, Jr. Care, Baltimore Dry Dock & Ship 

Building Co., East Fort Ave., Baltimore, Md. 
Kelley, George Norbert. Asst. Engr., St. L. & S. F. Ry., 542 Frisco Bldg., 

St. Louis, Mo. 
Kelly, Warren Winfield. Div. Engr., A., T. & S. F. Ry., Winslow, Ariz. 
Kempkey, Augustus. Cons. Engr., 1609 Hobart Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 
Kercher, Henry. Chf. Draftsman, King Bridge Co. (Res., 10319 Empire 

Ave.), Cleveland, Ohio. 



Augu>l. I'tlT.I MK.MHKItSIlIl' — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 477 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 
Kerr, Stanley Albert. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Poplar, 

Mont. 
Keys, Edward Allen. Vice-Pres., Hutchison Vapor Heating Corporation, 

15 East Fayette St., Baltimore, 'Md. 
KiLBV, Charles Christopher. 148 Madison St., Hartford, Conn. 
Kimmel, Edgar Augusti's. Chcfe do Trafego, Companhia Armour do Brazil, 

S. A., Sant' Anna do Livramento, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 
Kixne, Charles Comeort. Care, G. W. Feaga Co., Mezzanine Floor, Citi- 
zens Bldg., Cleveland, Ohio. 
Kitchex, Ernest. Box 193, Anderson, S. C. 
KiTTS, Joseph Arthur. Supt. of Constr., Great Western Power Co., 1250 

Euclid Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 
Knoettge, Carl Harman. 7600 Stewart Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Knowles, Charles H. Junior Engr., U. S. Engr. Dept., U. S. Engr. Office, 

Rockaway Point, N. Y. 
Kbause, Louis Gustav. Asst. Engr., Bureau of Eng., Public Service Comm. 

of Pennsylvania, Franklin Bldg., Harrisburg, Pa. 
Kuelling, Herbert John. Care, State Highway Comm., State Capitol, 

Madison, Wis. 
Lambe, Claude Milton. Civ. Engr., Carolina Power & Liglit Co., 511 First 

National Bank Bldg., Durham, N. C. 
Lamson, William Mather. Capt., Engr. U. S. R., Reserve Officers' Training 

Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. 
Lauer, ]Martin Philippe. Archt. and Engr. (Lauer & Young), 707 Peoples 

Savings & Trust Bldg., Akron, Ohio. 
LeBaron, Rudolph Wendell Phillips. 2d Lieut., 3d Reserve Engrs., 

U. S. A., Chicago, 111. 
Lee, Arthur Carl. R. F. D. No. 1, Longtown, S. C. 

Lee, John Louis. Supcrv. Engr., Q. M. C, U. S. A., Battle Creek, Mich. 
Lehfelt, Walt Ferd. Interstate Commerce Comm., Party No. 6, Pier 1, 

Room 2, Seattle, Wash. 
Letton, Harry Pike. Care, State Board of Health, Lincoln, Nebr. 
Lieb, Victor. Care, U. S. Geological Survey, P. O. Box 1097, Austin, Tex. 
Lightner, George W. Cass. Hotel Marlton, 3 West 8th St., New York City. 
LiNEBERGER, WALTER Franklin. Capt., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, 

U. S. A., Room 20, Lineberger Bldg., Long Beach, Cal. 
Little, Walter Colton, Jr. Civ. Engr., Roxana Petroleum Corporation, 

Wood River. 111. 
Lyo.nk. Harold Ciiandos. Co. 15. N. Y., Belvoir Camp, Accotink. Va. 
Macy. Elbert Clyde. Supt. of Constr., Stone & Webster Eng. Corporation, 

G05 Elec. Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 
McCann, \\illiam Ray. Care, Emergency Fleet Corporation, U. S. Ship- 
ping Board, Washington. D. C. 
McCi.AiN. Carl Arthur. 1209G Cliesterfield Ave.. Cleveland, Ohio. 



478 MEMBEESHTP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE JIEMBERS (Continued) 

McClain, James Brownson. Asst. Bridge Engr., Seaboard A. L. Ry., 1607 
Pickens St., Columbia, S. C. 

McCoMB, Dana Quick. Acacia Fraternity, 357 West 119th St., New York 
City. 

McCuRDY, George Earle. (Stewart & McCurdy), 508 Peoples Savings & 
Trust Co. Bldg., Akron, Ohio. 

McFarland, Harry Fontaine, Jr. 1st Lieut., 2d Engrs., N. A., 4918 Forest 
Park Boulevard, St. Louis, Mo. 

McGbath, John Kilby. Road Engr., Fayetteville Dist.,' Fayetteville, W. Va. 

McNary, JosEn'H Vance. Care, Office of Public Roads and Rural Eng., 
Washington, D. C. 

Maddox, Luther Robinson. Capt., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, 414 
Chamber of Commerce Bldg., Atlanta, Ga. 

Martin, Bertrand Clifford. Dist. Engr., N. Y. C. R. R.; Res., 1 Rossman 
Ave., Hudson, N. Y. 

Matson, Thomas Hatcher. 321 San Antonio St., El Paso, Tex. 

Maul, Theodore Russell. Capt. and Quartermaster, Reserve Corps, U. S. 
A., Schuylkill Arsenal, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Merriman, Fred Knights. Room 1306, Mahoning Bank Bldg., Youngs- 
town, Ohio. 

Metcalf, Bradley Revere. With Los Angeles County Board of Flood Con- 
trol, Sherman, Cal. 

Metcalfe, Alfred Harold. Chf. Engr., A. Friederich & Sons Co., 710 Lake 
Ave., Rochester, N. Y. 

Metcalfe, Joseph Davis. Highway Engr., Navarro County, Kerens, Tex. 

Miner, James Henry. Project Mgr., U. S. Reclamation Service, King 
Hill, Idaho. 

MiRiCK, Alfred Stowe. 420 Bee Bldg., Omaha, Nebr. 

Mitchell, Arthur Knox. Cons. Engr., 1078 Worthington St., Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Moody, Joseph Elbert. Chf. Engr., C. F. Massey Co., 521 Peoples Gas 
Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

MuBPHY, Fred Ei.mer. 46 Egbert Ave., West New Brighton, N. Y. 

Nelson, Jabez Curry. Gen. Mgr., Empire United Rys., Inc., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Nelson, William. 4 Dwight Apartments, Binghamton, N. Y. 

NoLAND, Clarence. J. Asst. Engr., Chicago Union Station Co., 600 West 
Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

NoRSwouTHY, Leonard Drake. 3213 Nineteentli St., N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

NOYES, Stephen Henley. 1st Lieut., Aviation Section, Signal Corps, Care 
Mrs. B. Nojes, 15 Francis St., Newport, R. I. 

Ogden, Harold Coe. Pres. and Mgr., Seattle Baking Co., Seattle, Wash. 

Obrell, James Athersmith. 42 Spring Gardens, Manchester, England. 

Ortiz, Eduakdo. P. 0. Box 861 (Res., 2a Panuca, 41), City of Mexico, 
Mexico. 



August, I'.li:. I MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 479 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Continued) 

Palen, Archibald E. nighway Engr., U. S. Office of Public Roads, 301 
Tramway Bklg., Denver, Colo. 

Palmer, George Bruce. Real Estate Agt., Chicago Union Station Co., 600 
West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 

Pai.mkr, Wallace Cromwell Allen. Superv. Engr., Western Visayas, 
Iloilo, Phili])pine Islands. 

Parker, James Lafayette. 38 West 75th St., New York City. 

Parsons, Harold Frank. 1321 Tatnall St.. Wilmington, Del. 

Parsons, Wallace Emery. Treas., Moulton Eng. Corporation, 534 Con- 
gress St., Portland. Me. 

Perry, Lyxn Elwood. Salisbury, Md. 

PiiiLBRiCK, Benjamin Simpson. Res. Engr., Tallassee Power Co., Cheoah 
Camp, Alcoa, Tenn. 

Pierce, Paul Leon. Maj., Ordnance Dept., U. S. R., Portland Apartments, 
14th and Thomas Circle, N. W., Washington, D. C. 

Plump, Erich Moore. 414 East Water St., Jefferson City, Mo. 

Poole, Charles Arthur. Deputy Acting City Engr., 52 City Hall, Roch- 
ester, N. Y. 

Po.SKE, IUrry Christian. Structural Engr., Am. Smelting & Refining Co., 
Mex. Dept., 1108 Mills Bldg., El Paso, Tex. 

Post, Royal Elmer. Supt. of Constr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Rim- 
rock, Wash. 

Powell, Thomas Jett. 6th Co., American Univ. (Res., 212 Thirteenth 
St., N. E.), Washington, D. C. 

PR.A.TT, Carey Simon. 251 Cuyler Ave., Trenton, N. J. 

Purcell, Charles Henry. Bridge Engr., State Highway Dept., Salem, Ore. 

QuiNN, John Ignatius. 1921 South 5th St., Minneapolis, Minn. 

Quinn, Matthew Francis. Asst. Engr., Dept. of Water Supply, Gas and 
Electricity, Municipal Bldg. (Res., 271 Fort Washington Ave.), New 
York City. 

Randolph, John Hampden, Jr. 583 Peachtree St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Rapalje, deWitt. 12 Whittlesey Ave., East Orange, N. J. 

Rathjens. George William. Capt., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, Fort 
Snelling, Minn. 

Reeve, Leroy Norman. Office Engr., Chile Exploration Co., 120 Broadway, 
Room 3623, New York City. 

Reid, Cecil Latta. Box 117, Rock Hill, S. C. 

Rich, Melvin S. Structural Engr., 1448 Harvard St.. N. W., Washington, 
D. C. 

Rohn, Ralph Earle. With Canton Bridge Co., 1117 Seventeenth St., N. W., 
Canton, Ohio. 

Rollins, Andrew Peach. Asst. Engr., Cimairon Val. Land Co., China. Tex. 

Rose, William Henry. Maj., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Care. Clif. of 
Engrs., U. S. A., Washington. D. C. 



480 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Aflfairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 

RowE, Wii^FRED Lincoln. Asst. Engr., U. S. Reclamation Service, Rim- 
rock, Wash. 

RuGGLES, AuTHUR VALENTINE. Asst. Engr., Div. of Water, City Hall, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. 

Sargent, Joseph Andrews. Aux soins dvi Credit Lyonnais, Boulevard des 
Italiens, Paris, France. 

Sawyer, Ernest Walker. Constr. Engr., 3 Gerard Rd., Harrow, London, 
England. 

ScHOCK, Daniel Rolland. Care, National Carbon Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Searle, Lewen Firth. Asst. Engr., Board of Water Supply, City of New 
York, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

Sexton, John Roderick. Div. Engr., Erie R. R., Huntington, Ind. 

Sexton, Ralph Ernest. Engr. and Contr. (Pearce & Sexton), Box 283, 
Ancon, Canal Zone, Panama. 

Shannon, William Day. Supt. of Constr., Stone & Webster, P. 0. Box 297, 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Shapleigh, Charles Henry. Charlottesville, Va. 

Shaw, Arthur Lassell. Engr. Training Co., Plattsburg Barracks, N. Y. 

Sheibley, Edward Gwyn. 444 West 10th St., Riverside, Cal. 

Shertzer, Tyrrell Bradbury. 500 West 143d St., New York City. 

Skinner, Frederick Gardiner. Myton, Utah. 

Sloane, Fred Mathews. Room 22, C, M. & St. P. Depot, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Smith, Chester Kitch. Lieut., 8th Regiment Reserve Engrs., American 
Falls, Wash. 

Smith, Edgar Maverick. Asst. to Pies., The Q. & C. Co., 90 West St., New 
York City. 

Smith, Plumer Henry. Care, Am. Constr. Co., Houston, Tex. 

Snell, Edward Beniah. Asst. Engr., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., Third New 
York Dist., 24 High St., New Haven, Conn. 

Soest, Hugo Conrad. 1st Lieut., Engr. O. R. C, Co. 1, Military Branch, 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Sola, Francisco Jose de. Upland Terrace, Bethlehem, N. H. 

SoRENSON, Julius Jennis. Res. Engr., Cuyamel Fruit Co., 1410 Whitney 
Bank Bldg., New Orleans, La. 

Spengler, John Henry. 322 West Cortland St., Jackson, Mich. 

Stafford, Frederick Dial. Care, Reserve Officers' Training Camp, Chat- 
tanooga, Tenn. 

Stanley, Harvey. Box 36, Sparrows Point, Md. 

Stabk, Charles Wolcott. Associate Editor, Engineering News-Record, 10th 
Ave. at 36th St., New York City. 

Stearns, John. Care, Arizona Bingham Copper Co., Stoddard, Ariz. 

Stevens, Roe Loomis, OlTice Engr., C, M. & St. P. Ry., Ry. Exchange (Res., 
444 East 42d PL), Chicago, 111. 

Stewart, Spencer James. Silver Creek, N. Y. 

Stiles, Albert Irvine. Care. Lindeteves-Stokvis, 11 Broadway, New York 
Citv. 



Autrust, 11)17.1 MEMBERSHIP — CIIAXGES OF ADDRESS 481 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS {Continued) 
Stiles, Otho William. Cons. Engr. (Stevens & Stiles), 708 Ridge Arcade, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Stimson, BiRT. P. 0. Box 175, Missoula, Mont. 
Sti-XE, Walti;k I'earce. Care, Mexican Gulf Oil Co., Apartado 106, Tampico, 

Mexico. 
Stobo, Joh\ Bruce. 507 West 18th St., Wilminffton. Del. 
Stocker, Leslie Wrightson. Asst. City Engr., 3450 deary St., San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 
Sto.ne, George Burrii.l. Supt. of Constr., Cannon-Swanson Co., Hamilton, 

Mont. 
Sux, Taoyuh Clakance. ^Managing Director, Cluicliow-Cliinchow Ry., Tur- 

farr Hutung, Peking, China. 
SwENSSOiV, Otto Jordan. With Aluminum Co. of America, Oliver Bldg. 

(Res., 5511 Hays St.), Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Takahashi, Seisuke. Care, American Trading Co., Tokyo, Japan. 
Tate, Robert L'Hommedieu. 134 Herkimer St.. Buffalo, N. Y. 
Tatum, Robert Lee. 1033 Ry. Exchange, Chicago, 111. 
Taylor, Alexander Jenifer. Civ. Engr., E. 1. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 

60 Aberdeen PI., Woodbury, N. J. 
Taylor, Henry. 1st Lieut., Officers' Reserve Corps, Officers' Training Camp, 

Fort Niagara, Youngstown, N. Y. 
Taylor, Nelson. Care, Postmaster, L^. S. S. St. Louis, New York City. 
Tenney, William Field. With Stone & Webster, 147 Milk St., Boston, 

Mass. 
Thackwell, Henry Lawrence. 1345 Franklin St., Denver, Colo. 
Thomas, Charles Dura. Capt., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, U. S. A., 220 

Lincoln St., Marlborough, Mass. 
Thompson, Laurence Kimbai^l. Gen. Contr., Box 182, Owensmouth, Cal. 
Thomson, Fred :Morton. Div. Engr., M., K. & T. Ry., Sedalia, Mo. 
TiNSLEY, Robert Bruce. Big Stone Gap, Va. 

Tippet, Henry Jackson. Eng. Dept., The Connecticut Co., New Haven, Conn. 
Travers-Ewell, Andrew. Care, American Consul, Para, Brazil. 
True, Aibert Otis. Care, Henry W. Taylor, 100 State St., Albany, N. Y. 
Trueblood, Paul McGeorge. Hydrographic and Geodetic Engr., U. S. Coast 

and Geodetic Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Truell, Karl Otto. La Salle, N. Y. 
Tucker, Herman Franklin. Ensign, U. S. N. R. F.. Seattle Constr. & Dry 

Dock Co., Seattle, Wash. 
Turner, Nathaniel Parker. 103 East Border St.. Marshall, Tex. 
Vail. John Jervis. Constr. Dept., P. R. R. (Res.. 156 Bryant St.). Rahway. 

N. J. 
Valle Zeno, Carlos del. Cons, and Contr. Engr., San Juan, Porto Rico. 
Vance, Alexander Milton. 4616 Columbia Ave., Dallas, Tex. 
Vandemoer, John Jay. With U. S. Reclamation Service, Loma, Colo. 
Van Ness, Howard Edward. 1110 South Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 



482 MEMBERSHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS (Continued) 
VOGEL, Andrew. Engr., Dept. of Grounds and Bldgs., Gen. Elec. Co., 1022 

Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Walker, Edward George. Lieut., R. N. V. R., 78 Cheyne Court, Chelsea, 

London, S. W., 3, England. 
Walker, Lee Hamill. Sub-Director, Dept. of Public Works, Santo Domingo, 

Dominican Republic. 
Wallace, David Alexander. Mitchell, S. Dak. 
Waller, John Malcom. Junior Structural Engr., Interstate Commerce 

Comm., Western Dist., Div. of Valuation, Interstate Bldg., Kansas 

City, Mo. 
Wardwell, Ralph Watts. Care, Western Water Co., Taft, Cal. 
Waring, Charles Thomas. Capt., Aviation Section, Signal Officers' Reserve 

Corps, 1015 North Main St., Dayton, Ohio. 
Washburn, Charles Emmett. 738 Wilson Bldg., Dallas, Tex. 
Watson, George Linton. 53 Walnut St., Rutherford, N. J. 
Weaver, Earll Chase. Asst. Civ. Engr., U. S. N. R. F., Navy Yard, Puget 

Sound, Wash. 
Weber, Daniel Rishel. Box 174, Weston, Ore. 
Wheaton, Walter Robert. Mgr., Pulp Wood Co., Appleton, Wis. 
White, Byron Ellsworth. Res. Engr., Utica Gas & Elec. Co., Trenton 

Falls, N. Y. 
Whitham, Paul Page. Cons. Engr., 445 Henry Bldg., Seattle, Wash. 
WiLLARD, William Clyde. Plant Engr., Kilbourne & Jacobs Mfg. Co. (Res., 

408 Chittenden Ave.), Columbus, Ohio. 
WiLMOT, James. Care, Public Service Comm., 142 East 59th St., New 

York City. 
Wilson, Everitt Wyche. 252 South French Broad Ave., Asheville, N. C. 
Winchester, Thomas Harrison. Care, Stone & Webster, Columbus, Ga. 
WoEHRLiN, George John. Civ. Engr. and Archt., Box 350, Sea Cliff, N. Y. 
Wondries, Charles Henry. Gen. Mgr., Standard Rock Products Co., 1007 

Wright & Callender Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Woodhouse, Sidney James. Ingenio Jatibonico, Jatibonico, Cuba. 
WooDY', Norman Cooper. Winnfield, La. 
Zachry, John Low. 922 Court House, Atlanta, Ga. 

associates 

Belzner, Theodore. 1st Lieut., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, U. S. A., 
Military Branch, Officers' Training Camp, Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. 

Byers, .Benjamin Butler Franklin. Gen. Supt., The Dravo Contr. Co., 
Sparrows Point, Md. 

Jacoby, Henry Sylvester. Prof, of Bridge Eng., Cornell Univ., 105 Har- 
vard PL, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Jennings, Charles Augustus. Cons. Engr.; Chicago Representative, Wal- 
lace & Tiernan Co., 122 South Michigan Ave., Room 550, Chicago, 111. 



.Aujiust, lillT.l MiCMIiHRSIIIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS 483 

ASSOCIATES {Co)lti)IUC(l) 

MKiuwirriiKR, Coleman. Care, Portland Cement Assoc. Ill Wt-st Wasli- 

ington St., Chicago, 111. 
Moots, Elmek Earl. P. 0. Box 3, Continental, Ariz. 
MoKAN, RoitERT Bkeck. 623 Title Insurance Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Ritchie, Johx ]^Iii.tox. Mgr., I'liiladelphia Office, Pennsylvania Cement 

Co., 3335 North 20th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Van Name, Joseph Mason. 68 William St., Room 707, New York City. 
Whitney, Parker Richards. Care, Standard Eng. Co., Elhvood City, Pa. 
Wilson, Hugh Monroe. Peckett's-on-Sugar-Hill, Franconia, N. H. 
Wrenn, James Francis. Pres. and Gen. Mgr., McGiiire Constr. Co., Inc., 

Box 247, Norfolk, Va. 



AsHKiNS, Nathan Thomas. Gen. Mgr., Jefferson Cement Tile Co., Wey- 
mouth, N. S., Canada. 

Atkinson, Guy. Care, The Am. Rolling Mill Co., Middletown, Ohio. 

Banhrook. Herrmann. Structural Engr., Ford Motor Co., 226 ^farston 
Ave., Detroit, Mich. 

Betts, Clifford Aull. 4 W^est 43d St., St. Elmo, Tenn. 

Bley, Charles Nicholas. Raymond, Wash. 

BoLiN, Harry William. Structural Draftsman, Roberts & Schaefer, Mc- 
Cormick Bldg. (Res., 3905 Sheridan Rd.), Chicago, 111. 

Brown, Horatio Whittemore. Elm St., Concord, Mass. 

Carpenter, Sinci^air Ernest. 515 Forest St., Oakland, Cal. 

Clausen, Stanley James. Wit;h Cameron, Joyce & Co., 17 South 7th St., 
Keokuk, Iowa. 

Cobb, William Richard. 2973 Folsom St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Connolly, Donald Hilary. Capt., Corps of Engrs., U. S. A., 1st Battalion, 
Mounted Engrs., El Paso, Tex. 

Cook, Holton. 304 Commonwealth Bldg., Jackson, Mich. 

Coombs, Donald Gladstone. Asst. to Supt. of Constr., U. S. Reclama- 
tion Service, Rimrock, Wash. 

DaLee, William Amon. Care, Canadian Des Moines Steel Co., Ltd., Chat- 
ham, Ont., Canada. 

DE Charms, Richard, Jr. 3d Co., Engr. Officers' Training Camp, American 
Univ., W^ashington, D. C. 

Deiser, Norman Arthur. Supt., John B. Roberts, 86th St. and Lexington 
Ave., New York City (Res., 382 New York Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y.). 

Denham, Don.^ld Power. 397 Reid St., Peterboro, Ont., Canada. 

Dougherty, Edward James. Supt., Empire Eng. Co., Inc., Fallsington, Pa. 

Dow, Hezekiah Shaileb. Asst. Engr., Rap. Trans. Subway Constr. Co., 
190 Archer Ave., Mount Vernon, N. Y. 

Dreyfus, Samxtel Cellneb. Highway Engr., 1208 Empire Bldg., Atlanta, 
Ga. 

Drury, Walter Rhodes. 426 Maynard St., Ann Arbor, Mich. 



484 MEMBEESHIP — CHANGES OF ADDRESS [Society Affairs. 

J UNIORS ( Con tinned ) 
EsTES, Lewis Aldex, Dist. Representative, Trussed Concrete St«el Co., 146 

Summer St., Boston, Mass. 
FiNDLAY, Elwin Harold. 175 West 73d St., New York City. 
Fischer, Charles, Jr. 7th Co., 2d N. Y. Regiment, Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Gay, George Inness. Care, The Comm. for Relief in Belgium, 3 London 

Wall Bldgs., London, E. C, 2, England. 
GuNTHER, Herman Dietrich. Care, J. F. Shanley Co., P. 0. Box 21, 

Horseheads, N. Y. 
Haberle, Edward Louis. 1310 Emerson Ave., North, Minneapolis, Minn. 
Harrington, Wellesley Carl. Weedsport, N. Y. 
Hays, James Buchanan. Designing Draftsman with F. C. Horn, Meridian, 

Idaho. 
Heslop, Paul Loveridge. Fargo Eng. Co., Jackson, Mich. 
Hewett, Maurice William. First Engr. Company, 13th Provisional Regi- 
ment, Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 
Howard, Cecil Ward. 210 Allendale Ave., Detroit, Mich. 
Kinnear, Lawrence Wilson. 137 Riverside Drive, New York City. 
Koch, Otto Herman Siegfried. Draftsman, Niagara Bridge Dept., M. C. 

R. R., Michigan Central Terminal, Detroit, Mich. 
Lane, Emory Wilson. 1038 Heath St., Lafayette, Ind. 
Larimer, Robert Sherman. 1214 Maple A\e., Evanston, 111. 
Lehrbach, Henry Gardner. 363 Dearborn St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
Leonard, Edward Philip. 401 Macon St., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
LiBBEY, Valentine Brousseau. 162 Crescent Rd., Longmeadow, Springfield, 

Mass. 
Lichtenstein, Harry. 1102 Washington Ave., New York City. 
McGee, Harold Gilbert. Care, Lucas County San. Eng. Dept., Toledo, Ohio. 
Marrian, Ralph Richardson. Draftsman, N. Y. C. R. R., Grade Crossing 

Dept. (Res., 159 West 92d St.), New York City. 
Matthew, Raymond. Asst. Engr., Idaho Irrig. Co., Richfield, Idaho. 
Milhan, David Nelson. Div. Engr., Portland Cement Assoc, Sodus, N. Y. 
MiLKOWSKi, Victor John. 2d Lieut., Engr. Officers' Reserve Corps, Engr. 

Co. No. 1, Madison Barracks, N. Y. 
MuNSON, Charles Harold. Care, W. H. Munson, 317 Franklin St., Wi- 
nona, Minn. 
Nagleb, Floyd August. 387 Hamilton St., Albany, N. Y. 
Newkirk, Samuel Frank. Lamartine Ave., Bayside, N. Y. 
Ostrom, Charles Douglas Yelverton. 2d Lieut., Coast Artillery Corps, 

U. S. A., Fort Barrancas, Fla. 
Parsons, Maurice Giesy. Purchasing Agt., Peninsula Sliipbuilding Co., 

Portland, Ore. 
Peabce, Rufus Burleson. Richland, Tex. 
Rice, Roger Cushing. Care, U. S. Geolof^ical Survey, 25 Federal Bldg., 

Topeka, Kans. 
Richards, George William. 531 Pcnnsvlvania Ave.. Oakniont. Pa. 



August, If) 17.] MEMUKKSIIIP — REINSTATEMENTS 485 

J uxiORS ( Coni inued) 
SciiROKDER, Seaton, Jr. Licut., U. S. N. R. F., Public Works Dept., Navy 

Yard, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Searigiit, George Peter. With The Foundation Co., Ltd., 127 Drunimond 

St., Montreal, Que., Canada (Res., Carlisle, Pa.). 
Smith, Richard Bennett. 1451 Stout St., Denver, Colo. 
Stanlet, William Edward. Care, J. W. Stanley, Burrton, Kans. 
Steinbruch. Walter. Care, Snare & Triest Co., Chattanooga, Tenn. 
Stephens, Uel. Box 133, Lonicta, Tex. 
Summers, Richard Elvin Jewell. Civ., Bydr. and San. Engr., 508 McNair 

Ave., Wilkinsburg, Pa. 
Swartz, Leon. Master Engr., Engr. Reserve, Broad Ford, Pa. 
Taylor, Seneca "\^ern. Dist. Sales Mgr., The General Fireproofing Co., 73 

State St., Room 205, Detroit, Mich. 
TiLTON, George Albert, Jr. Care, P. L. & P. Co., Big Creek, Fresno, Cal. 
Toms, Jay William. State Sanatorium, Md. 
Van Ness, Russell Alger. ]\IcLean. 111. 
Veltfort, Theodore Ernst. Care, H. E. Allen, 131 King St., Dorchester, 

Mass. 
Way, William Floyd. Sergeant-Draftsman, Co. D, 8th Regiment, Reserve 

Engrs., 4730 Eleventh Ave., N. E., Seattle, Wash. 
White, David Ewing. 4846 INLignolia Ave., Apartment No. 2, Chicago, 111. 
Whitney, Ralph Edward. 154 Washington St., Keene, N. H. 
Wong, Jick Gam. Hankow-Ichang Ry., Res. Engr.'s Office, Section 10, Yang- 

Kia-Hung, Hupeh Province, China. 
Woolworth, Wendell Howard. 2d Lieut., U. S. A., Commanding Co. K, 

28th Infantry, Mission, Tex. 
Yeo, W^illia.m Albert. Civ. Engr., Nicaragua Development Corporation, 

Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua. 
Yereance, Alexander Woodward. 418 Centre St., South Orange, N. J. 



REINSTATEMENTS 



^^E^f'^ERS Rein^fafement. 

Ross, Alexander Bell June 11, 1917 

associate members 

GooDSELL, Daniel Bertholf June 11, 1017 

TiRLEY, Omner Jay June 11, 1017 

juniors 

HORRIGAN, Wn.LiA\t James June 11. 1917 



486 MEMBKRSHIP — RESIGNATIONS — DEATHS [Society Affairs. 

RESIQNATIONS 



Date of 
esiguatio 

MooKEFiELD, Chakles Henry Juiie 11, 1917 



ASSOCIATE MEMBERS Resignation. 



JUNIORS 

Souther, Morton Edwin June 11, 1917 

DEATHS 

Everest, Charles Marvin. Elected Fellow, November 1st, 1892; died July 

22d, 1917. 
FiRMSTONE, Frank. Elected Member, August 7th. 1878; died June 27th, 

1917. 
Frazee, John Hatfield. Elected Associate Member, December 6th, 1899; 

died May 4th, 1917. 
Grimshaw, James Walter. Elected Member, November 7th, 1888; died 

February 15th, 1917. 
Howard, Joel Manning. Elected Associate Member, June 4th, 191.3; died 

May 22d, 1917. 
Jenkins, James Edgar. Elected Associate Member, December 5th, 1906; 

Member, March 14th, 1916; died July 5th, 1917. 
Locke, Franklin Buchanan. Elected Member, March 1st, 1893; died May 

11th, 1917. 
Miller, Stanley Alfred. Elected Junior, February 4th, 1902; Associate 

Member, April 6th, 1909; Member, .June 24th, 1916; died May 13th, 

1917. 
PoMEROY, Lewis Roberts. Elected Associate, April 2d, 1890; died May 

7th, 1917. 
SiMSON, David. Elected Member, January 8th, 1902; died December 16th, 

1916. 
Spence, David Wendel. Elected Member, October 1st, 1913; died June 

29th, 1917. 

Total Membership of the Society, August ad, 191 7, 
8 401. 



August, 1017.1 CFRERNT ENGINEERING LITET^ATURE 



487 



MONTHLY LIST OF RECENT ENQINEERINQ ARTICLES OF 

INTEREST 

(May 1st to June ;30tli, 1917) 

Note. — This list is puhlisJied for the purpose of placing he fore the 
tnemhers of this Society, the titles of current engineering articles, 
which can be referred to in any available engineering library, or can he 
procured by addressing the publication directly, the address and price 
being given wherever possible. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

In the subjoined list of articles, references are given by the number 
prefixed to each journal in this list : 



(2 
(3 
(4 
(5 
(7 
(8 
(9 
(11 

(12 

(13 

(15 

(16 

(17 

(18 
(19 

(20 

(21 

(22 
(23 
(24 
(25 
(26 
(27 
(28 
(29 
(30 
(31 



Proceedings, Engrs. Club of Phila., (32) 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Journal, Franklin Inst., Philadel- 
phia, Pa., 50c. (33 

Journal, Western Soc. ot Engrs., (34 
Chicago, 111., 50c. 

T>-ansactions, Can. Soc. C. E., (35 
Montreal, Que., Canada. 

Gcsundheits Ingenieur, Miinchen, (36 
Germany. (37 

Stevens Indicator, Hoboken, N. J., (38 
50c. 

Industrial Management, New York (39 
City, 25e. 

Engineering (London), W. H. Wiley, (40 
432 Fourth Ave., New York City, 
25c. (41 

The Engineer (London), Interna- 
tional News Co., New York City, (42 
35c. 

Enaineering News-Record, New York (43 
City, 15c. 

Railway Age Gazette, New York (44 
City, 15c. 

Engineering atid Mining Journal, 

New York City, 15c. (45 

Electric Railway Journal, New (46 
York City, 10c. 

Railivay Revieio, Chicago, 111., 15c. (47 

Scientific American Supplement, 

New York City, 10c. (48 

Iron Age, New York City, 20c. 

Railway Enqineer, London, Eng- 
land. Ip. 2d. (49 

Ircm and Coal Trades Review, Lon- 
don, England, 6d. (50 

Raihvay Gazette, London, England, 

6d. " (51 

Aincrican Gas Engineering Journal, 

N°w York City," 10c. (52 

Railuay Mechanical Engineer, New 
York City. 20c. ' (53 

Electrical Review, London, Eng- 
land, 4d. 

Electrical World, New York City, (54 
inc. 

Journal, New England Water- (55 
Works Aspoc, Boston, Mass., $1. 

Journal, Royal Society of Arts, (56 
London, England, fid. 

Annates des Travnux Publics de (57 
Bclgiquc, Hrussels, Belgium, 4 fr. 

Annales de I'Assoc. des Ing. Sortis (58 
des Efolfs Sp^ciales de Gand, 
Brussels, Belgium, 4 fr. 



Memoires et Compte Rendu des 
1'ruvaux, Soc. Ing. Civ. de France, 
Paris, France. 

Le Genie Civil, Paris, France, 1 fr. 

Portefeuille Econo7niqucs des Ma- 
chines, Paris, France. 

Nouvelles Annales de la Construc- 
tion, Paris, France. 

Cornell Civil Engineer, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Revue de Mecaniquc, Paris, France. 

Revue Generate des Chemins dc Fer 
et des Tramicays, Paris, France. 

Technisches Gemeindeblatt, Berlin, 
Germany, 0, 70m. 

Zentralblatt dei- Bauverwaltung, Ber- 
lin, Germany, 60 pfg. 

Electrotechnische Zcitschrift, Ber- 
lin, Germany. 

Proceedings, Am. Inst. Elec. Engrs., 
New York City, $1. 

Annales des Ponls et Chaussees, 
Paris, France. 

Journal, Military Service Institu- 
tion, Governors Island, New York 
Harbor, 50c. 

Coal Age, New York City, 10c. 

Scientific American, New York City, 
1 .'.c. 

Engineer, Manchester, 
3d. ■ 

Verein Deutscher In- 
Berlin, Germany, 1, 



fUr Bauwesen, Berlin, 



Mechanical 
England, 

Zcitschrift, 
genieure, 
60m. 

Zcitschrift 
Germany. 

Stahl und Eisen, DUsseldorf, Ger- 
many. 

Deutsche Bauzeitung, Berlin, Ger- 
many. 

Rigasche Industrie -Zeitung, Riga, 
Russia. 25 kop. 

Zcitschrift, Ocsterreichischer In- 
genieur und Architekten Vereines, 
Vienna, Austria, 70h. 

Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., New 
York City, $12. 

Transactin7ts, Am. Soc. M. E., New 
York City, $10. 

Transactions, Am. Inst. Min 



Engrs., 
London, Eng- 



New York City, $ 

Colliery Guardian, 
land. 5d. 

Proceedings, Engrs.' Soc. W. Pa., 
568 Union Arcade Bldg., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., 50c. 



488 



CUKRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE [Society Aflfairs. 



(59) Proceedings, American Water- 

Works Assoc, Troy, N. Y. 

(60) Municipal Engineering, Indianapolis, 

Ind., 25c. 

(61) Proceedings, Western Railway Club, 

225 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111., 
25c. 

(62) American Drop Forger, Thaw Bldg., 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 10c. 

(63) Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., 

London, England. 

(64) Power, New York City, 5c. 

(65) Official Proceedings, New York Rail- 

road Club, Brooklyn, N. Y., 15c. 

(66) Gas Journal, London, England, 6d. 

(67) Cement and Engineering News, 

Chicago, 111., 25c. 
(69) Der Eiscnbau, Leipzig, Germany. 

(71) Journal, Iron and Steel Inst., Lon- 

don, England. 
(71o) Carnegie Scholarship Memoirs, Iron 
and Steel Inst., London, England. 

(72) Amei'ican Machinist, New York City, 

15c. 

(73) Electrician, London, England, 18c. 

(74) Transactions, Inst, of Min. and 

Metal., London, England. 

(75) Proceedings, Inst, of Mech. Eugrs., 

London, England. 

(76) Brick, Chicago, 111., 20c. 

(77) Journal, Inst. Elec. Engrs., London, 

England, 5s. 

(78) Beton iind Eisen, Vienna, Austria, 

1, 50m. 

(79) Forscherarheiten, Vienna, Austria. 

(80) Tonindnstrie Zeitung, Berlin, Ger- 

many. 

(81) Zeitschrift fiir Architektur und In- 

genieurioesen, Wiesbaden, Ger- 
many. 

(83) Gas Age, New York City, 15c. 

(84) he Ciment, Paris, France. 

(85) Proceedings, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, 

Chicago, 111. 

(86) Enqineering-Contracting, Chicago, 

111.. 10c. 

(87) Railway Engineering and Mainte- 

nance of Way, Chicago, 111., 10c. 

(88) Bulletin of the International Ry. 

Congress Assoc, Brussels, Bel- 
gium. 

(89) Proceedings, Am. Soc for Testing 

Materials, Philadelphia, Pa., $5. 

(90) Transactions, Inst. of Naval 

Archts., Ix>ndon, England. 



(91 

(92 

(93 
(95 
(96 
(98 
(99 
(100 



101 
102 



103 
104 

105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 

115 
116 



Transactions, Soc. Naval Archts. 
and Marine Engrs., New York 
City. 

Bulletin, Soc. d'Encouragemeut 
pour rindustrie Nationale, Paris, 
France. 

Revue de Metallurgie, Paris, 
France, 4 fr. 50. 

International Marine Engineering; 
New York City, 20c. 

Canadian Engineer, Toronto, Ont., 
Canada, 10c. 

Journal, Engrs. Soc. Pa., Harris- 
burg, Pa., 30c. 

Proceedings, Am. Soc of Municipal 
Improvements, New York City, $2. 

Professional Memoirs, Corps of 
Engrs., U. S. A., Washington, 
D. C, 50c. 

Metal Worker, New York City, 10c. 

Organ fiir die Fortschritte des 
E Isenhahnwesens, Wiesbaden, Ger- 
many. 

Mining and Scientific Press, San 
Francisco, Cal., 10c. 

The Surveyor and Municipal and 
County Engineer, London, Eng- 
land, 6d. 

Metallurgical and Chemical En- 
gineering, New York City, 25c. 

Transactions, Inst, of Min. Engrs., 
London, England, 6s. 

Sclnocizerische Bauzeitung, Ziirich, 
Switzerland. 

Southern Machinery, Atlanta, Ga. 
10c. 

Journal, Boston Soc. C. E., Boston, 
Mass., 50c. 

Journal, Am. Concrete Inst., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., 50c. 

Journal of Electricity , Power and 
Gas, San Francisco, Cal., 25c. 

Internationale Zeitschrift fiir Was- 
ser-V ersorgung , Leipzig, Germany. 

Proceedings, Am. Wood Preservers' 
Assoc, Baltimore, Md. 

Journal. Institution of Municipal 
and County Engineers, London, 
England. Is. 6d. 

Journal, Engrs.' Club of St. Louis, 
St. Louis, Mo., 35c 

Blast Furnace and Steel Plant, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., 15c. 



LIST OF ARTICLES 
Bridges. 

The Reconstruction of Koari Bridge. Great Indian Peninsula Railway. Thomas 

Christie Hood. (63) 1915-16, Pt. 11. 
Pier-Foundations of the Wanganui Bridge, New Zealand.* Robert West Holmes. 

(63) 1915-16, Pt. II. 
Design of Flat Arches with Fixed Ends. G. R. Maguel. (11) Apr. 27. 
Graphics in Bridge Design.* H. S. Jacoby. (36) May. 
Salvaging Second-IIand Girder Spans.* S. J. Corey. (87) May. 
Modern Heavy Traffli! Destroys East River Bridge Paving.* (13) May 10. 
Will Soon Complete Sciotoville Continuous Truss Bridge.* (13) May 17. 
Concrete Arch Bridge for Railway Crosses River on Reverse Curve.* (13) 

May 24. 
Suspension Bridge Solves Problem of Crossing Rio Chiriqui in Panama.* A. S. 

Zinn. (13) May 31. 



Illustrated. 



Aiiyust, 1!)17.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 489 

Bridges — (Contlnaed). 

The Xew Burlington Bridge at Kansas City.* (15) June 8. 

Tendencies In Bridge Construction: An Interview.* (13) June 14. 

Bridge Renewals Under Abnormal Conditions.* (15) June 22. 

Restauration de Fonts et Beton Arnie Fissurfi sur les Cheniins de Fer prusslens * 

{33^ June 2. 
Wettbewerb fiir eine Briicke uber die Blrs an der Redingstrasse in Basel.* (107) 

May 5. 

Electrical. 

The Mechanical Working of Lead-Covered Underground Telephone-Cables. Charles 

Frederick Street. (63) 1915-16, Pt. IL 
Electrical Precipitation of Solids from Gases. Linn Bradley. (5) Jan. -June, 

1916. 
Star-Delta Method of Starting Three-Phase Motors.* (Ill) Serial beginning Feb. 1. 
The Determination of the Sequence of Phases from Wattmeter Readings.* Gis- 

bert Kapp. (77) Apr. 
Machine-Switching Telephone Gear.* F. R. McBerty. (77) Apr. 
New Apparatus and Appliances.* (27) Apr. 5. 
Impedance of Steel Rails.* (27) Apr. 5. 
Conductivity of Earth Conductors and Metallic Sheathing. S. Simon. (Paper 

read before Assoc, of Min. Elec. Engrs.) (22) Apr. 13. 
Wheatstone Bridges and Some Accessory Apparatus for Resistance Thermometry.* 

E. F. Mueller. (Abstract of paper in Bulletin of Bureau of Standards.) (73) 

Apr. 13. 
The Lumen as a Measure of Illuminating Power.* (26) Apr. 13. 
Large Generator and Transformer Failures on the Rand Power Companies Sys- 
tems.* A. E. Val Davies. (73) Apr. 13. 
The Greaves-Etchells Electric Furnace.* (26) Apr. 13. 
Tramways with Rectified Current.* (Abstract of article in the Brown-Boveri Mit- 

teihingcn.) (73) Apr. 13. 
A Linking-up Scheme: Accrington, Haslingden and Rawtenstall.* (26) Apr. 20. 
New Electrical Devices, Fittings and Plant.* (26) Apr. 20. 
The Electrical Equipment of Motor Garages. (26) Apr. 20. 

Range of Wireless Stations. R. Chenevix Trench. (73) Serial beginning Apr. 20. 
An Electric Resistance Furnace for Melting in Crucibles.* H. C. Greenwood and 

R. S. Hutton. (Paper presented before the Inst, of Metals.) (47) Apr. 20. 
Electric Vehicles.* C. G. Conradi. (Abstract of paper read before Derby Soc. 

of Engrs.) (73) Apr. 27. 
High-Tension Overhead Transmission Lines. G. V. Twiss. (Abstract of paper 

read before Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (73) Apr. 27; (26) Serial beginning 

May 11; (77) June. 
Voltage Regulation of Rotary Converters.* G. A. Juhlin. (Paper read before 

the Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (26) Apr. 27; (77) Apr. 
Wiring with Tough Rubber Compound Cables.* W. Ellerd-Styles. (26) Apr. 27. 
Electric Equipment of a 35-In. Reversing Mill. (22) Apr. 27. 
Novel Features in D. C. Watt-Hour-Meter Construction. (26) Apr. 27. 
Wayleaves. C. Vernier. (Paper and discussion read before Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) 

(77) Serial beginning May; (104) Serial beginning Apr. 20; (26) Serial begin- 
ning Apr. 27; (73) Serial beginning Apr. 27. 
A New Concentric Standard Dynamometer Wattmeter for Heavy Currents : and 

Concentric Non-inductive Standards of Low Resistance.* A. E. Moore. (77) 

May. 
Some Points in Connection with Engineering Specifications. J. Shepherd. (77) 

May. 
The Insulator Situation.* W. D. Peaslee. (42) May. 
Multiplexing in Cable Telegraphy.* George O. Squier. (3) May. 
Electric Furnace in Making Special Steel.* Charles C. Lynde. (116) May. 
Expansion Effects as a Cause of Deterioration in Suspension Type Insulators.* 

J. A. Brundige. (42) May. 
Unusual Details in Power House Installation.* J P. Jollyman. (Ill) May 1. 
Mechanically Operated Electric Elevator Controller.* J. Gintz, Jr. (64) May 1. 
Equipment Necessary for the Cottrell Process.* (HI) May 1. 
Promotion in Electricity Supply Undertakings. (26) May 4. 
Note on the Rating of Intermittent Motors of Large Output.* H. H.. Broughton. 

(73) May 4. 
February Central Station Statistics. (27) May 5. 

Practical Talks on Controllers-Series-Type Contactors.* (64) May 8. 
The Wiring Rules of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. W. R. Rawlings. 

(Abstract of paper read before Assoc, of Supervising Electricians.) (47) May 

The Determination of the Torque of a Direct-Current Meter.* E. Alberti. (Ab- 
stract from Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift.) (73) May 11. 
Electro-Culture and Crop Production : Results During 1916.* (26) May 11. 



• Illustrated. 



Au<,nist, 1!»17.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 491 

Electrical— (Continued). 

Electric Converting Machinery.* C. S. Buyers. (22) May 11. 

Overhead Lines and Inductive Interference. (Abstract of report submitted to 
Nat. Elec. Light Assoc.) (27) May 12. 

Connecticut Company's Power Plant.* (17) May 12. 

FioodliglitinK Outdoor Substations.* M. M. Samuels. (27) May 12. 

The Equilibrium of the Hasic Bismuth Salts. A. Mutscheller. (105) May 15. 

The Production of Magnetite Electrodes. M. De Kay Thompson and T. C. Atchi- 
son. (105) May 15. 

Demand Meters of Time Lag Type.* W. A. Hillebrand. (Ill) May 15. 

Hyperbolic Solution for Engineering Problems.* W. D. Peaslee. C'll) Serial 
beginning May 15. 

Steam vs. Oil Engines for Small Light Plant.* L. H. Morrison. (64) May 15. 

The Ossman Phenomenon. William C. Moore. (Paper read before the Am. Electro- 
chemical Soc.) (105) May 15. 

Emergency Transformer Connections.* G. P. Roux. (64) May 15. 

Principles of Power-Plant Management.* Walter N. Polakov. (Abstract of paper 
read before joint meeting of Boston Sections of Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs. and 
Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (64) May 15. 

Practical Talks on Controllers — Lockout-Type Contactors.* (64) Serial beginning 
May 15. 

15 000-K. W. Three-Phase Turbo-Alternator For Lots-Road Power Station.* (11) 
Serial beginning May 18. 

Experiments on Construction of Electric Bells. L. H. Howlett and W. E. King. 
(22) May IS. 

Speed Control of Induction Motors for Steel Mill Drive. J. D. Wright. (Abstract 
from General Electric Review.) (73) May 18. 

The Theory of Armature Windings.* S. P. Smith. (Abstract from Proceedings, 
Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (73) Serial beginning May 18. 

X-Rays. William J. Hancock. (Paper read before Royal Soc. of Western Aus- 
tralia.) (19) May 19. 

Three-Phase Connections.* R. E. Uptegraff. (27) May 19. 

Some Causes of Underground Cable Failure.* Henry A. Cozzens, Jr. (27) 
May 19. 

Reconnecting Induction Motors— Diagrams of Uncommon Open-Slot Windings.* 
A. M. Dudley. (64) May 22. 

The Electrical Study Course — Series- and Parallel-Circuit Calculations.* (64) 
Serial beginning May 22. 

Providing for Telephone Service Requirements in Design of Large Buildings. 
(86) May 23. 

Electric Japanning. C. D. Carlson. (Abstract of paper presented before Cleveland 
Eng. Soc.) (20) May 24. 

Furnace Charging Machine.* (20) May 24. 

Surge Breakdowns in Networks. M. J. Sarolea. (Abstract from Revue Qenerale de 
I'Electricite.) (26) May 25: (27) June 30. 

Characteristics of Maximum-Demand Meters. W. F. Kimball. (27) May 26. 

How to Detect and to Deal with Electricity Thieves.* (27) May 26. 

Costliness of Light Absorption.* Roy Kegerreis. (27) May 26. 

Tentative Draft of a Code of Safety Standards for Power-Transmission Machin- 
ery.* (55) June. 

Electric Wave Phenomena in the Dynamo-Electric Machine.* F. Greedy. (77) 
June. 

Electric Motor Control Gear. John T. Mould. (Abstract of paper read before Assoc. 
of Supervising Electricians.) (47) June 1. 

The Protection of Telephone Circuits Used in Electric Power Distribution.* E. K. 
Shelton. (Abstract from General Electric Rcviev).) (73) June 1. 

A Noteworthy Symposium on Rates. (Discussion held at Pacific Coast Section 
of N. E. L. A.) (Ill) June 1. 

A Self-Rpcording Electrometer For Atmospheric Electricity.* W. A. Douglas 
Rudge. (Abstract of paper in Proceedings, Cambridge Philosophical Soc.) 
(73) June 1. 

Definite Time Interval Demand Meters.* W. A. Hillebrand. (Ill) June 1. 

The Standardisation of Resistors.* (73) June 1. 

Static Sub-Stations. (26) June 1. 

Electric Cooking and Water Heating. (Discussion held at Pacific Coast Section 
of N. E. L. A.) (Ill) June 1. 

The Manufacture of Controller Drums.* R. K. Shield. (26) June 1. 

The Resistance of Earth Connections.* L. Birks and B. Webb. (Abstract of 
paper read before Philosophical Inst, of Canterbury, New Zealand.) (73) 
June 1. 

Some Theoretical Aspects of Electrical Fume Precipitation.* W. W. Strong. (Paper 
presented at joint meeting of Am. Inst, of Min. Engrs. and Am. Electro- 
Chemical Soc.) (105) June 1. 

What Adequate Lighting Means to Industries.* C. E, Clewell. (27) June 2. 

* Illustrated. 



Atifrust, 1!)17.1 CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 493 

Electrical— (Continued). 

Chart for Determining Power Costs.* H. Bailey. (64) June 5. 

Control of Direct-Current Shunt Motors.* H. D. James. (Abstract of paper read 

before Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (47) June 8. 
Some Xotes on the Measurement of the Insulation Resistance of a Live Three- 
wire Network. G. W. Stubbings. (26) June 8. 
Reinforced Concrete Transmi-'-sion Poles.* (26) June 8. 
A Concentric Standard Dynamometer Wattmeter and Non-inductive Standards of 

Low Resistance.* A. E. Moore. (Abstract from Journal of the Inst, of Elec. 

Engrs.) (26) June 8. 
A Resistance Bridge For Workshop Use.* Oscar De Wette. (73) June 8. 
The Present Position of Electric Cooking Apparatus. (Abstract of a Report on 

Heating and Cooking Apparatus.) (73) June 8. 
The Electric Arc in Wireless Telegraphy.* Eugene Murphy. (46) June 9. 
Testing Insulation of Generators in Motion.* E. O. Schweitzer. (27) Juue 9. 
Taking Care of Corner Stresses From Large D. C. Feeders.* S. L. Foster. (17) 

June 9. 
New Source of Power for Public Service Railway (Essex Power Plant).* (17) 

June 9. 
Electrolysis — Troubles Caused Thereby and Remedies Which May be Applied. 

Albert F. Ganz. (24) June 9. 
Modern Lamps and Industrial Applications.* C. E. Clewell. (27) June 9. 
Reversal of Exciter Polarity.* M. A. Walker. (64) June 12. 
Transmission-Line Formula. E. M. Richards. (64) June 12. 
Cooperation Between Central Stations and Private Power Plants.* Percival R. 

Moses and W. F. Schaller. (Abstract of paper read before Boston Section 

of Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs. and Am. Inst, of Elec. Engrs.) (64) June 12. 
Standardization of Transformers. S. J. Lisberger. (Ill) June 15. 
Use of Power and Rates For Irrigation Pumping.* G. R. Kenny. (Ill) June 15. 
Recent Developments in Electricity Supply at Keighley.* Harry Webber. (26) 

June 15. 
Notes on the Installation of Starting Compensators.* (HI) June 15. 
Merchandising Electrical Energy in the West. (Discussion held at Pacific Coast 

Section of N. E. L. A.) (Ill) June 15. 
Leads For Electric Furnaces.* Arvid Lindstrom. (Translated from Teknisk 

Tidskrift.) (105) June 15. 
Utilization Factors For Street-Lighting Units.* Eugene Peterson. (27) June 16. 
Repulsion and Mutual Inductance of Reactors.* H. B. Dwight. (27) June 16. 
Relation of Industrial Lighting to Safety.* C. E. Clewell. (27) June 16. 
Economical Spacing of Transformers. P. O. Reyneau. (27) June 16. 
Turbine Oiling System in Essex Power Station.* A. T. Brown. (64) June 19. 
Auxiliary Motors and Control Gear For Steel Works.* (26) June 22; (22) 

June 22. 
Individual Interest in Municipal Enterprise. J. Horace Bowden. (Abstract of 

paper presented at the Incorporated Municipal Elec. Assoc.) (104) June 22. 
Heating of Dynamo Electric Machines With Various Loads and at Different Speeds.* 

Magnus Maclean and D. J. Mackellar. (73) Serial beginning June 22. 
Timely Economy of Industrial Electric Trucks.* (27) June 23. 
Legal Requirements of Factory Lighting.* C. E. Clewell. (27) June 23. 
Equipment for Testing Motors.* H. L. Hearvey. (64) June 26. 
Power Requirements of Grain Elevators.* F. F. Espenschied. (27) June 30. 
Lighting in Automobile Factories.* C. E. Clewell. (27) June 30. 
Labor Economy of Industrial Trucks and Tractors.* (27) June 30. 
La Fixation de I'Azote Atmospherique. Daniel Florentin. (33) Serial beginning 

May 19. 
L'Eclairage des Ateliers Industriels. (33) June 23. 
La R§.-;istance Interne et la Resistance Superficielle des Isolateurs.* (33) 

June 30. 
Das Neue Elektrizitatswerk der Stadt Chur an der Plessur bei Liien.* (107) 

June 30. 

Marine. 

Electric Pumping EJquipment and Notes of Interest on Union Oil Company of Cali- 
fornia's Tank Steamer La Brea.* Hugo P. Frear. (91) Vol. 24, 1916. 

Refrigeration and Refrigerator Insulation on Board Ship.* Robert F. Massa. 
(91) Vol. 24, 1916. 

Military and Technical Considerations of Battleship Design. R. D. Gatewood. (91) 
Vol. 24. 1916. 

On the Suitability of Current Design of Submarines to the Needs of the United 
States Navy.* N. L. Rogers. (91) Vol. 24, 1916. 

Salvage Equipment Used in Raising Submarine F-Jf.* 3. A. Furer. (91) Vol. 24, 
1916. 

The Rolling and Floating Steel Cassions of the Levis Dry Dock, Lauzon, County of 
Levis, P. Q.* Lesslie R. Thomson. (5) Jan. -June, 1916. 

* Illustrated. 



Aviyust, 11I17.] CUKUENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 495 

Marine— (Continued). 

Standardisation of Marine Engines for Cargo Steamers. W. V. Lang. (Abstract 
of paper read before Inst, of Marine Engrs.) (47) Serial beginning April 20. 

The San Marcos Experiments.* (12) April 27. 

On tho Differences in Effect of Twin Screws WTien Turning "Inward" or "Out- 
ward."* C. H. Hoist. (11) May 4. 

The Submarine Swatter.* Wm. Washburn Nutting. (46) May 5. 

American Wooden Sailing Ships With Auxiliary Motors.* (11) May 11. 

Cavitation: A Study of the Screw Propeller.* C. H. Hoist. (19) May 12. 

On Wake-Stream and Suction.* C. H. Hoist. (11) May 18. 

Engineering Contractors Recover Stranded Submarine H-3.* (13) May 24. 

The Inception and Development of the Submarine Boat.* John P. Holland, Jr. 
(Presented at Meeting of Engineers' Club.) (2) June. 

Three-Inch United States Navy Projectiles.* (72) June 7. 

How to Make Ships Torpedo-Proof.* Hudson Maxim. (46) June 9. 

Shipyard Cranes. M. G. De Gelder. (Paper read before Institution of Naval 
Architects.) (19) June 9. 

The Revival of Wooden Shipbuilding.* (19) June 16. 

Wooden Ships and Ship Worms.* Howard F. Weiss. (46) June 16. 

Le Renflouement su Sous-Marins Allemand U-C-12 et son Utilisation par la Marine 
italienne.* (33) May 26. 

Lc Milaiso, Navire Charbonnier et Petrolier muni d'Appareils Speciaux de Decharge- 
ment.* (.33) June 2.'5. 

Les Nouveaux Navires Mixtes en Bois Construits aux Etats-Unis.* (33) June 6. 

Mechanical. 

Repairs to Factory Chimneys.* Thomas Henry Ward. (63) 1915-1916, Pt. II. 

The Development of Appliances for Handling Raw Materials and Merchandise at 
Ports and Other Large Centres of TrafiBc. Sir John Purser Griffith. (63) 
1915-1916, Pt. II. 

The Design of an Oil Engine.* John F. Wentworth. (91) Vol. 24, 1916. 

The Power-Forging of Chain Cables.* Frederic G. Coburn. (91) Vol. 24, 1916. 

The Rectification of Benzol.* W. Newton Drew. (106) Mar. 

Coefficient Curves for Stack and Oven Gas.* Thos. J. Estep, Jr. (116) April. 

Formula For Calculating the Heat Carried to Waste by the Flue Gases. E. A. 
Uehling. (8) April. 

Uniflow Steam Engine for Rod Mill Drive.* Charles C. Lynde. (116) April. 

Pulverised Coal as Fuel for Open-Hearth Furnace.* (22) Apr. 13 

The I'tilisation of Low-Grade Fuels. John W. Cobb. (Lecture delivered before 
Midland Section of Coke Oven Managers' Assoc.) (22) Apr. 13. 

The Theory of Air-Screws.* (11) Apr. 13. 

The Standardisation of Screw Threads.* (11) Apr. 13. 

Steels Suited to Aeronautical Purposes. G. A. Richardson. (47) Apr. 20. 

Five-Ton Petrol Motor Lorry.* (12) Apr. 20. 

The Application of Coal Gas to Industry in War Time : Its National Importance.* 
Horace M. Thornton. (29) Apr.; (47) Apr. 27. 

Davidson's Two-Cycle Internal-Combustion Engine.* (47) Apr. 20. 

Aero-Hydro Fan Separator.* (47) Apr. 20. 

Some Details of Westinghouse Steam Turbines.* (73) Apr. 20. 

Production of Aluminum Castings. J. Gaunt. (Paper read before British Foun- 
drymen's Assoc.) (47) April 27. 

Early History of the Steam Engine. V. A. Wilkes. (Paper read before Nat. Assoc, 
of Colliery Managers.) (22) April 27. 

Coal-handling Plant at Rand Power Stations.* T. G. Otley and Verney Pickles. 
(Abstract from Journal of South African Inst, of Engrs.) (57) April 27. 

Bearing Lubrication.* Boyton M. Green. (47) April 27 ; (20) May 17. 

Refrigeration. (57) April 27. 

The Problem of Aeroplane Engine Design. Charles E. Lucke. (55) May. 

The Design of Motor-Truck Engines for Long Life. John Younger. (55) May. 

Relation of Efficiency to Capacity in the Boiler Room.* Victor B. Phillips. (55) 
May. 

Coal and Ash Transportation at Producers.* H. V. Schiefer. (116) May. 

Test of a Motor Fire Engine.* Horace Judd. (55) May. 

Boosting Drop Hammer Shop Production.* Charles C. Lynde. (62) May. 

Gauging the Capacities of Blooming Mills. W. Trinks. (116) May. 

Compressed Air.* Charles L. Hubbard. (9) May. 

Graphite: Its Origin, Formation, and Action.* James Scott. (21) May. 

The Relation of Port Area to the Power of Gas Engines and its Influence on Regu- 
lation.* J. R. Du Priest. (55) May. 

Metal Planers and Methods of Production. Charles Muir. (55) May. 

A Foundation for Machine-Tool Design and Construction.* A. L. De Leeuw. (55) 
May. 

Development of Scientific Methods of Management in a Manufacturing Plant. San- 
ford E. Thompson, William O. Lichtner, and Henry J. Guild. (55) May. 



• Illustrated. 



Aiij,riist, ]!)17.] CURRENT ENGINEEKING LITERATURE 497 

Mechanical (Continued). 

Machine-Shop Organization. Fred G. Kent. (55) May. 

Cleaning Forgings by Power Sand Blast. (62) May. 

Radiation Error in Measuring Temperature of Gases.* Henry Kreisinger and J. F. 

Harliley. (55) May. 
Tests of I'nitlow Steam Traction Engines.* F. W. Marquis. (55) May. 
Gas-Washing, Analysis of Products, Application to the Control of Stills. A. Edwards. 

(Paper read before Yorkshire Junior Gas Assoc.) (66) May 1. 
Distillation of Coal Under Reduced Pressure. (66) May 1. 

Control of Absorption Gasoline Plants.* P. McDonald Blddison. (83) May 1. 
Triple-Purpose Radial Drilling Machine.* (20) May 3. 
Using Wood to Replace Metal in Die Construction.* William C. Babbitt. (72) 

May 3. 
Toolroom Grinding.* J. B. Murphy. (72) May 3. 

Operations in the Manufacture of a Water Motor.* Robert Mawson. (72) May 3. 
Shop-Dighting Legislation in 1916.* C. E. Clewell. (72) May 3. 
Cementation by Gas Under Pressure.* F. C. Langenberg. (Abstract of Paper read 

before Iron and Steel Inst.) (22) May 4. 
On a Precision Method of Uniting Optical Glass — The Union of Glass in Optical 

Contact by Heat Treatment. R. G. Parker and A. J. Dalladay. (Abstract of 

paper read before Faraday Soc.) (73) May 4. 
Properties of the Refractory Materials used in the Iron and Steel Industry. Cosmo 

Johns. (22) May 4. 
Screw Thread Measurement.* Arthur Brooker. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Liverpool Eng. Soc.) (47) Serial beginning May 4. 
The Standardisation of Benzol Works Tests. Thomas B. Smith. (Abstract of 

paper read before Coke Oven Managers' Assoc.) (57) May 4. 
Recent Developments in Air-Pump Design.* E. Jones. (Abstract of paper read 

before Inst, of Engrs. and Shipbuilders in Scotland.) (47) May 4. 
The Deterioration of Turbine Blading.* A. Fenwick. (Abstract of paper read before 

South African Inst, of Engrs.) (11) Serial beginning May 4. 
The Deterioration of Curtis Rateau Turbine Blading.* A. Fenwick. (Abstract of 

paper read before South African Inst, of Engrs.) (26) Serial beginning 

May 4. 
Coke Braize and Its Utilization.* W. A. Hamor. (45) May 5. 
Installation and Care of Leather, Rubber and Canvas Belting.* (76) May 8. 
Foundations and Foundation Plans.* D. O. Barrett. (64) May 8. 
Fuel Oil for Stationary Power Plants. Frederick Ewing. (Abstract of paper read 

before joint meeting of Boston Sections, A. S. M. B. and A. I. E. E.) (64) 

May 8. 
Telephone and Telegraph Building Steam-Power Plant.* Warren O. Rogers. (64) 

May 8. 
Relative Efficiency of Up-Draft and Down-Draft Kilns. J. D. Pratt. (Paper read 

before Annual Meeting of the Wisconsin Clay Manufacturers' Assoc.) (76) 

May 8. 
Building Airplane Motors.* Fred H. Colvin. (72) May 10. 
Design of Square Broaches.* Walter G. Groocock. (72) May 10. 
Coke-Making Problems and Their Solution. H. E. Bloor. (Abstract of address 

before North of England Gas Managers' Assoc.) (57) May 11. 
Notes on Some Quenching Experiments.* Lawford H. Fry. (Abstract of paper 

read before Iron and Steel Inst.) (47) May 11. 
Gas Engines v. Steam Turbines For Iron and Steel Works. Douglas L. Cooper. 

(Paper read before Cleveland Inst, of Engrs.) (47) May 11; (22) May 4; 

(66) May 15. 
Meeting the High Price of Coal.* L. D. Shank. (27) May 12. 
Britain's Bid for the Control of the Air: How British Aircraft Production Has 

Kept Pace with the Demands of the War.* G. L. Faulkner. (46) Serial 

beginning May 12. 
Drill Bits and Drill Steel For Metal Mining. George H. Gilman. (16) May 12. 
Byproduct Ovens at the Mines. J. W. Knowlton. (45) May 12. 
Scrubbing of Carburetted Water Gas Would Recover Great Quantities of Benzene, 

Toluene, Xylene. Gustav Egloff. (24) May 12. 
Gives Cost of Heating by Gas in Offices, Homes and Stores. H. D. O'Brien. (24) 

May 12. 
Some Wartime Alterations of Works.* H. E. Bloor. (Paper and discussion read 

before North of England Gas Managers' Assoc.) (66) May 15. 
Porcelain.* A. V. Bleininger. (105) May 15. 
Effect of War on the Present Price of Gas. Charles W. Hoy. (Paper read before 

New Jersey State Gas Assoc.) (83) May 15. 
Bleeding Turbines To Heat Feed Water.* H. F. Gauss. (64) May 15. 
Operating Mechanical Stokers.* Warren O. Rogers. (64) Serial beginning May 

15. 
The Grinding Wheel — A Link Between Electric Furnace and Automobile. Richard 

J. Williams. (Paper read before the Am. Electro-chemical Soc.) (105) 

May 15. 

• Illustrated. 



Aufrust, r.MTI CURREXT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 499 

Mechanical — (Continued) . 

Equivalent Evaporation and Factor of Evaporation in Fuel Oil Practice.* Robert 

Sibley. (Ill) May 15. 
Benzol llecovery at Gorleston by a Modified Dehydrating Plant.* E. F. Keable. 

(Abstract and Discussion of Paper before Eastern Counties Gas Managers' 

Assoc.) (66) May 15. 
Recent Developments in Higli Pressure Distribution.* Charles Wilde. (Paper 

read before Penn. Gas Assoc.) (83) May 15. 
Lignite For Production of Gas. (83) May 15. 
Gas Examinations Questions. (66) May 15. 
Industrial Uses For Natural Gas.* R. A. Ziegeler. (Paper read before the Indiana 

Gas Assoc.) (83) May 15. 
Punch and Die Standards.* M. S. Wright. (72) May 17. 
Some Unusual Results of Cast-iron Tests. Paul R. Ramp. (20) May 17. 
Plant of Van Dorn & Dulton Company.* (20) May 17. 

Manufacturing a Sheet-Metal Radiator.* Robert Mawson. (72) May 17. 
Furnace Demonstration Shops.* (22) May 18. 
Micro-Petrology of Coal. G. Hickling. (Abstract of paper read before Manchester 

Geology and Min. Soc.) (57) May 18. 
Wet V. Dry Coal Storage. A. Bement. (57) May 18. 

Patterns for Four-piece Tapering Elbows.* (101) Serial beginning May 18. 
Inspection of Bronze and Brass Castings. Ernst Jonson. (Abstract of Paper read 

before Cleveland Meeting of Am. Inst, of Metals.) (47) .May 18. 
The Problem of Cross-Atlantic Flying. L. Blin Desbleds. (Abstract of Paper read 

before Inst, of Engrs. and Shipbuilders in Scotland.) (47) May IS. 
An Apparatus For Indicating the Depth of Liquids in Tanks.* (22) May IS; 

(66) May 29. 
Describes Experiences in Distributing Mixed, Manufactured and Natural Gas. Alex- 
ander B. Macbeth. (24) May 19. 
Denver Experience Proves That Cold Weather is No Serious Handicap to Successful 

Welding of Mains. George Wehrle. (24) May 19. 
Glass Grinding and Polishing.* James Weir French. (19) May 19. 
Calico Printing. Robert Reoch. (19) May 19. 

Pyrometers — Past, Present and Future. Richard P. Brown. (24) May 19. 
Mechanical Aids in Loading and Unloading Trucks.* John S. Harwhite. (46) 

May 19. 
Motor Tractors and Trailers.* Joseph Brinker. (46) May 19. 
Sulphate of Ammonia For Allotments. J. Mogford. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Wales and Monmouthshire District Inst, of Gas Engrs. and Mgrs.) (66) 

May 22. 
The Absorption Test — Its Value and How To Conduct it.* (76) May 22. 
Notes on Waste Heat Tunnel Dryer Operation.* Otis L. Helfrich. (76) May 22. 
The Exeter Gas- Works.* (66) May 22. 
Liquid Purification of Coal Gas. E. V. Espenhahn. (Abstract from Journal of 

Soc. of Chemical Industry.) (66) May 22. 
Toluene Extraction. H. C. Applebee. (Paper read before M-anchester and District 

Junior Gas Assoc.) (66) May 22. 
Forging versus Heat Treatment of Steel.* D. K. Bullens. (20) May 24. 
Aircraft Engine Design. Louis Coatalen. (Abstract of Paper read before Aero- 
nautical Soc. of Great Britain.) (47) May 25. 
The Commercial Possibilities of Coke Dust.* (22) May 25. 
Burning Coke Oven Breeze.* (57) May 25. 

Federal Trade Commission Report on Coal. (15) May 25; (64) June 19. 
Differential Drum Hoists.* (73) May 25. 
Waste in Coal Production. Henry Louis. (19) May 26. 
Lack of Knowledge of Risks of Business the Basis of Unreasonable Rate Demands. 

John W. Lansley. (24) May 26. 
Gas Plavs Important Part in Manufacture of Shoes.* Samuel S. Amdursky. (24) 

May 26. 
The Relation of Port Area to the Power of Gas Engines.* J. R. Du Priest. (Ab- 
stract of paper read before Am. Soc. of Mech. Engrs.) (64) May 29. 
Development of Gas-Furnaces For Industrial Work. Thomas W. Fletcher. (66) 

May 29. 
Coal Gas a Substitute For Petrol on Commercial Motors.* W. Clark Jackson. 

(Paper read before Wales and Monmouthshire District Inst, of Gas Engrs.) 

(66) May 29. 
Entropy and Some of Its Uses. F. R. Low. (64) Serial beginning May 29. 
Making Curtiss Camshafts and Connecting Rods.* Fred. H. Colvin. (72) May 

31. 
Calculating the Approach of Milling Cutters.* Francis J. G. Reuter. (72) May 

V- 
Hardness Tests of Brass.* William Kent Shepard. (72) May 31. 
The Manufacture of Steel Castings.* Robert P. Lament. (20) May 31. 
Panama Canal Machine and Erecting Shops.* Frank A. Stanley. (72) May 31 . 

* Illustrated. 



August, UU7. J CURREXT ENGINEERIXG LITERATURE 501 

Mechanical -( Continued ). 

lievision of Roller Code. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (55) June; 

(64) June 20. 
By-Product Coke and Coking Operations.* C. J. Ramsburg and F. W. Sperr, Jr. 

(55) June. 
Oil Burning.* B. S. Nelson. (55) June. 
Grinding and Milling Work.* (25) June. 
Leather — Treatment and Manufacture. Lloyd Balderston. (Lecture delivered before 

Phil. Section of Am. Chemical Soc.) (2) June. 
Selection of Machine Tools. Willard Doud. (25) June. 
Power Tests of Machine Tools.* C. H. Crawford. (25) June. 
From Ore to Finished "National" Pipe.* N. C. Nicol. (65) June. 
Electric Welding on the Rock Island.* E. Wanamaker. (25) June. 
Distillation of Coal in a Vacuum. Ame Pictet. (Abstract from Revue Generate 

dcs Sciences.) (83) June 1. 
Effusion Method of Determining Gas Density.* Junius David Edwards. (83) 

June 1. 
The (^racking of Petroleum in the Liquid Phase.* Roy Cross. (Paper presented 

at meeting of Am. Chemical Society.) (105) June 1. 
Mixing Manufactured and Natural Gas for City Use.* Alexander B. Macbeth. 

(Paper read before Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) June 1. 
How To Determine Quality of Steam in Fuel Oil Practice.* Robert Sibley and 

Chas. H. Delany. (Ill) June 1. 
Potash from Cement at the Riverside Portland Cement Company.* (105) Serial 

beginning June 1. 
Aeroplane Engine Design. Charles E. Lucke. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Amer. Soc. of Mech. Engrs.) (47) June 1 ; (64) June 26. 
Desirability of Higher Price for Natural Gas. Leslie B. Denning. (Paper read 

before Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) June 1. 
Features and Purposes of Steam Traps.* (101) Serial beginning May 11. 
Explosion of a Welded Air Receiver.* (47) June 1. 
Numerous Industrial Uses of Gas-Fired Steam Generator Entitle It to Companies' 

Serious Consideration.* Gilbert C. Shadwell. (24) June 2. 
Aviation and Aerography.* Alexander McAdie. (19) June 2. 
Indicating Gear for Internal Combustion Engines.* (19) June 2. 
Corrosion About the Power Plant.* H. J. Macintire. (64) June 5. 
Turbine Rope Drive with Reduction Gear.* (64) June 5. 
Results with Superheated Steam.* B, N. Broido. (64) June 5. 
Making Vehicle-Wheel Boxes Without the Use of Molding Machines.* Ethan Viall. 

(72) June 7 
A Notable Small-Tonnage Foundry.* (20) June 7. 

Arrangements of Geared-Head Lathes.* Reginald Trautschold. (72) June 7. 
The Sine Bar in Machine Work.* Hugo Pusep. (72) June 7. 
The Electric Furnace in the Foundry. Eugene B. Clark. (Abstract of paper read 

before Am. Foundrymen's Assoc.) (22) .Tune 8. 
Ball Bearings. A. Marshall Arter. (Paper read before Soc. of Engrs.) C47) 

Serial beginning June 8. 
Patterns for Oval to Round Offset Elbow.* (101) June 8. 
Combustion in the Fuel Bed of Hand-Fired Furnaces.* (47) June 8. 
Notes on Compression and Transmission of Air.* Robert S. Lewis. (103) June 9. 
Oil Engines as a Relief Against Coal Prices.* A. A. Potter. (27) June 9. 
Utilizing Coal-Mine Waste.* Henry Hull. (27) June 9. 
Country Drawing Upon Stored Petroleum Reserve. V. H. Manning. (From Address 

before Editorial Conference of the Business Publishers' Assoc.) (24) June 9. 
Extraction of Light Oils on a Small Scale.* Norton H. Humphrys. (24) June 9. 
Tests of Atmospheric Ammonia Condenser.* G. H. Crawford. (64) June 12. 
Review of Condenser-Tube Corrosion. Charles H. Bromley. (64) June 12. 
Economizer Explosion Explained.* (64) June 12. 
Report of the Joint Committee on the Life of Gas-Meters of the Institution of Gas 

Engineers. (66) June 12. 
Hot and Cold Sizes of Firebricks. J. W. Mellor. (Paper read before Inst, of Gas 

Engrs.) (66) June 12. 
New Requirements in Motor Workmanship.* Fred. H. Colvin. (72) June 14. 
Hammering, Pressing or Rolling Steel.* John L. Cox. (Abstract of Paper read 

before Am. Iron and Steel Inst.) (20) June 14. 
Proposed Safety Code For Ohio Industries. (20) June 3 4. 
A System for Rejuvenating Machine Tools.* (20) June 14. 
Electric Spot- Welding Operations on Automobile Lamps.* (72) June 14. 
Some Tests on Coke Firing.* (73) June 15. 
Recovery of Benzol and Its Homologues From Coal Gas.* J. E. Christopher. (57) 

Serial beginning June 15. 
Wrought Iron Pipe in the Natural Gas Fields.* James Aston. (Paper read be- 
fore Natural Gas Assoc.) (83) June 15. 
The Steam Calorimeter and Its Use in Fuel Oil Practice.* Robert Sibley and Chas. 

H. Delany. (Ill) June 15. 

* Illustrated. 



Aiipiist. I'.llT.I ruUREXT EXGINEERIXG LITERATURE 503 

Mechanical— (Continued). 

Coal Concreted From Ashes or Dusts. R. Goulburn Lovell. (Abstract of Paper 

read before Soc. of Architects.) (73) June 15. 
The Testing of Lubricating Oils.* Hugh K. Moore and G. A. Richter. (105) 

June 15. 
Producer Gas and Its Industrial Uses. F. W. Steere. (Paper read before Soc. of 

Detroit Chemists, Am. Chem. Soc.) (105) June 15; (20) June 7. 
The .A.fter-War Development of the Gas Industry.* Alph. Mailhe. (Translated by 

Frederick W. Scholz from Revue Gencrale des Sciences.) (83) Serial begin- 
ning June 15. 
Gas-Fired Boilers. William B. Woodhouse. (,73) June 15. 
Anthracite Coal. W. H. Booth. (26) Serial beginning June 15. 
Production and Consumption of Gasoline in the United States. Van. H. Manning. 

(Address before Editorial Conference of the Business Publishers Assoc.) (83) 

.June 15. 
Refractory Materials. (Report of Committee before Inst, of Gas Engrs.) (22) 

June 15 : (57) June 22 ; (66) June 12. 
Gas Burners For The Firing of Boilers.* (73) June 15. 
Grates For Coke Firing.* (73) June 15. 
Baltimore Company's Appliance Testing Laboratory Protects Interests of Consumer 

and, at the Same Time, is of Benefit to the Manufacturer.* H. M. Riley. (24) 

June 16. 
The Foundry Today. Benj. D. Fuller. (Paper presented before Cleveland Eng. 

Soc.) (19) June 16. 
New Woods for Paper Pulp.* Otto Kress. (46) June 16. 
Benzol Recovery and Refining Plant for Small Gas-Works.* D. Bagley. (66) 

June 19. 
Prolonging Belt Life.* Otis L. Helfrich. (76) June 19. 
The Law of Partial Pressures. H. J. Macintire. (64) June 19. 
Future Lines of Advance in Coking Practice. George E. Foxwell. (Abstract of 

Paper read before Yorkshire Section of Soc. of Chemical Industry.) (66) 

June 19. 
Peat, Wood and Lignite in Gas Making. (Abstracts of Papers read before Congress 

of the Societe Technique du Gas.) (66) June 19. 
Treatment of Hydrocarbon Fuels. H. G. Chatain. (Abstract of Paper presented at 

Soc. of Automotive Engrs.) (64) June 19. 
New Gas-Works For Barrow-in-Furness.* (66) June 19. 
Elland and Its Gas-Works.* (66) June 19. 

Endurance-EfHciency Pump Tests.* L. A. Quayle. (64) June 19. 
Combination Absorption and Compression Refrigeration Systems.* B. Thoens. 

(64) June 19. 
Determining Pipe-Main Sizes.* Alfred Iddles. (64) June 19. 
How Automobile Starters are Made.* (72) June 21. 
The Spontaneous Firing of Coal. J. S. Haldane. (Abstract of paper read before 

Inst, of Min. Engrs.) (22) June 22 ; (57) June 22. 
Fuel Economy. J. A. Robertson. (Abstract of Paper read before Convention of 

Incorporated Municipal Elec. Assoc.) (73) June 22; (57) June 29. 
Precautions in Fuel-Oil Storage. P. A. Colwell. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Providence Eng. Soc.) (64) June 26. 
Experiences in the Distribution of Mixed Gases at Los Angeles, Cal. Norton H. 

Humphrys. (66) June 26. 
A Discussion on Fuel Economy. (Discussion of J. A. Robertson's Paper read before 

Incorporated Municipal Elec. Assoc.) (66) June 26. 
Continuous Removal of Soot.* f64) June 26. 
Dexter Gate Valve Reseating Machine.* (64) June 26. 
The Selection of a Lubricating Oil.* H. J. Macintire. (64) June 26. 
Welds — The Weakness and Merits of Their Structure.* P. A. E. Armstrong. (64) 

June 26. 
Defects in Finished Rolled Steel.* George W. Dress. (20) June 28. 
Equivalent Cost of Coal and Oil as Fuel.* R. L. Wales. (16)' June 30. 
An Analysis of the Tidewater Pooling Plan. (45) June 30. 
Instructions Pratique pour la Determination du Pouvoir Calorifique du Gaz.* Ville 

de Paris. Services Generaux d'Eclairage. (43) Mar. 
La Culture Mecanique en France.* Ch. Dantin. (33) April 14. 
Les Electro-Aimants de Levage.* .1. Vichniak. (33) April 21. 
Les Installations pour le Transbordement et I'Emmagasinage du Charbon aux Ex- 

tremites du Canal de Panama. A, Dumas. (33) June 9. 
Nouvelles Fonderies Americaines, Fonderies de Kenosha (Wisconsin) et de Cranston 

(New England).* (33) June 30. 
Dampferzeugung durch Elektrizitat mit Warme-Aufspeicherung.* E. Hohn. (107) 

Apr. 28. 
Bericht iiber neue Geschwindigkeits-Regulatoren, Modell 1916, von Escher Wyss 

& Cie., Zurich.* Franz Pr^sil. (107) Serial beginning June 9. 

* Illustrated. 



August, 1917.] CUKEENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 505 

Metallurgical. 

Potash as One Blast Furnace By-Product. R. J. Wysor. (116) April. 
Silica as a Component of Furnace Slags.* Wallace G. Imhoff. (116) April. 
Roll Scale as a Factor In Bessemerizing. A. Patton and F. N. Speller. (116) 

April. 
Refractory Linings and Materials. J. W. Haulman. (116) Serial beginning 

April. 
Coal-Gas as a Fuel for Melting Non-Ferrous Alloys.* George Bernard Brook. 

(Abstract of paper read before the Inst, of Metals.) (47) Apr. 20. 
An Electric Resistance Furnace for Melting in Crucibles.* H. C. Greenwood and 

R. S. Hutton. (Paper presented before the Inst, of Metals.) (47) Apr. 20. 
The Use and Abuse of Steel.* R. K. Bagnall-Wild and E. W. Birch. (12) 

Serial beginning April 27; (47) Serial beginning May 25. 
The German Steel Syndicate and the British Steel Industry. W. J. Ashley. (Ab- 
stract of Paper read before Staffordshire Iron and Steel Inst.) (22) April 27. 
Ferromanganese in the Iron and Steel Industry.* Robert J. Anderson. (3) May. 
Requirements in the Treating of Materials. F. F. Beall. (62) May. 
Characteristics of Electric Furnace Slags. Wallace G. Imhoff. (116) May. 
The Penetration of the Hardening Effect in Chromium and Copper Steels. L. 

Grenet. (Abstract of Paper read before Iron and Steel Inst.) (22) May 4. 
The Influence of Surface Tension Upon the Properties of Metals, Especially of 

Iron and Steel. F. C. Thompson. (Abstract of Paper read before Iron and 

Steel Inst.) (22) May 4. 
Percentage of Oil in Flotation. Herbert A. Megraw. (16) May 5. 
Counter-Current Decantation System.* Algernon Del Mar. (16) May 5. 
Machinery and Steel Plant Labor. Charles Reitell. (20) May 10. 
Modern Concentration of Colorado Tungsten Ores.* S. Fischer, Jr. (105) Serial 

beginning May 15. 
The Electrolytic Pickling of Steel. M. De Kay Thompson and O. L. Mahlman. 

(20) May 17. 
History and Legal Phases of the Smeltlng-Smoke Problem. Ligon Johnson. (Paper 

presented before Am. Inst, of Min. Engrs.) (16) .Serial beginning May 19. 
The Cascade Flotation Machine.* Clifford R. Wilfley. (16) May 19. 
Alloys of the Non-Ferrous Metals. W. M. Corse and G. F. Comstock. (Abstract 

of Paper read before Steel Treating Research Club of Detroit.) (47) May 25. 
Electric Iron Smelting. J. O. Boving. (22) May 25. 

Petrography as an Aid to Flotation.* Donald G. Campbell. (16) May 26. 
Leaching of Low-Grade Copper Ores.* Joseph Irving. (16) May 26. 
Steel and Steel Alloys. G. N. Pingrift. (19) May 26. 
The Media Mill, Webb City, Mo.* H. B. Pulsifer. (Abstract from Bulletin. Am. 

Inst, of Min. Engrs.) (16) May 26. 
Sintering Flue Dust at Mingo Junction.* H. V. Schiefer. (20) May 31. 
Notes Upon the Hydrometallurgical and Electrolytic Treatment of Zinc Ore. E. E. 

Watts. (Paper read before Am. Chemical Soc.) (105) June 1. 
Chemical Reactions of Iron Smelting. Walter Mathesius. (Paper read before 

Am. Iron and Steel Institute.) (105) June 1; (20) June 21. 
Alloys of Chromium, Copper, and Nickel. (47) June 1. 
Cyaniding at Comacaran Mines, Central America.* William M. D'Arcy. (16) 

June 2. 
New Tramway at the Tacoma Smeltery.* W. C. Kuhn. (16) June 2. 
Metallurgy of Ferromanganese. Robert J. Anderson. (Abstract from Iron Trade 

Review.) (16) June 2. 
Non-Reversing Regenerative Furnace For Copper Smelting.* Walter G. Perkins. 

(103) June 2. 
Mayari and Nickel Steels Compared. S. W. Parker. (20) June 7. 
Electric Resistance Furnace.* (Abstract of Paper read before Inst, of Metals.) 

(20) June 7. 
Electric Process For Small Steel Castings. R. F. Flintermann. (Abstract of 

Paper read before Am. Electrochemical Soc.) (47) June 8 ; (22) June 

8; (20) May 10. 
Ferro-Manganese in the Iron and Steel Industry. Robert J. Anderson. (Abstract of 

Communication to the Journal of the Franklin Inst.) (47) June 8. 
Progress of the Electric Steel Industry. John A. Mathews. (Abstract of Paper 

read before the Am. Electro-Chemical Society.) (47) June 8 ; (20) May 

10: (22) June 8; (26) June 22. 
Pneumatic Concentrator and Amalgamator.* Frank A. Stanley. (16) June 9. 
Theory of Ore Flotation.* H. P. Corliss and C. L. Perkins. (103) June 9. 
Impurities in Electrolytic Copper Refining.* Lawrence Addicks. (105) June 15. 
Notes on Electric Steel Melting. J. L. Dixon. (Abstract of paper read before 

Am. Electrochemical Soc.) (22) June 15, 
The Bethlehem 10-Ton Girod Steel Furnace. C. A. Buck. (Abstract of Paper 

read before Am. Electrochemical Soc.) (22) June 15. 

♦ Illustrated. 



August, 1!)17.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 507 

Metallurgical— ( Continued ). 

The Uonnerfolt Klcctric Furnace. C. H. Vom Baur. (Abstract of Paper read 

before Am. Electrochemical See.) (22) June 15; (20) May 17; (26) 

June 29. 
Laws of Distribution of Lead in Southeast Missouri Ores. Sergio Bagnara. (16) 

June It). 
Volumetric Chromate Determination of Lead. John Waddell. (103) June 16. 
American Smelting and Reflning Company's Tests With Sulphur and Sulphuric 

Acid on Soils.* P. J. O'Gara. (103) June 16. 
Carbon Monoxide Dan'gers at Iron Works. (20) June 21. 
Crude-Oil Melting Furnace.* (Abstract of Paper read before Inst, of Metals.) 

(20) June 21. 
Open-Hearth Furnace of Large Capacity.* (20) June 21. 
The Metallurgy of Ferrosilicon.* Robert J. Anderson. (Abstract from Iron Trade 

Hcvicw.) (16) June 23. 
The Heat Treatment of Large Forgings.* William Beardmore. (Abstract of 

Paper read before Inst, of Mech. Engrs.) (20) June 28. 
The Empirical Formula in Milling Control. A. J. Sale. (103) June 30. 
An Ore-Testing Laboratory. Carl J. Trauerman. (16) June 30. 

Military. 

Papers on Munitions, with Bibliography, read before the Spring Meeting of the 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (55) May; (20) Serial begin- 
ning May 10. 
Road Work in Mexico With the Punitive Expedition.* James A. O'Connor. (1(X)) 

May- June. 
Triton Electroplating Plant at Washington Barracks, D. C. R. W. Crawford. (100) 

May -June. 
Relation of the Gas Industry to Military Needs. J. H. Burns. (Pajier read at 

Annual Convention of the Pennsylvania Gas Assoc.) (83) May 1. 
Silent Warfare.* Nicholas Flamel. (19) May 12. 
A Mining Engineer's Experience in the Artillery.* T. A. Rickard. (103) 

May 12. 
The Gage Problem in Rifle Manufacture. John Q. Tilson. (20) May 17. 
The Blind Sufferers From the War, and Their Future Employment. C. Arthur 

Pearson. (29) May 18. 
Motor Traction in Modern War.* Victor W. Page. (46) May 19. 
United States Munitions: 3 to 6-in. Cartridge Cases.* (72) May 24. 
Military Engineering.* Albert K. Dawson. (46) May 26. 
The Equipment of an Army. (19) May 26. 
United States Munitions: The Springfield Model 1903 Service Rifle.* (72) Serial 

beginning May 31. 
Preparedness. A. M. Lockett. (55) June. 
Electrical Communication in the Field.* (26) June 1. 
The Mathematics of Warfare.* J. Malcolm Bird. (19) June 2. 
The Modern Automobile Torpedo.* Edward F. Chandler. (46) June 2. 
The More Recent Applications of Electricity in the Present War, Especially in 

the Treatment of Diseases and Wounds Arising Therefrom.* W. Leeming. 

(26) June 15. 
Naval and Military Searchlights.* Charles Osmond Knowlton. (72) June 21. 
Transportation of Military Traflic* (15) June 22. 
Sixteen Cities For the New National Army. (20) June 28. 
La Fabrication des Principales Maticres Explosives et I'Utilisation des Produits 

Residuaires. J. Meunier. (33) Serial beginning Apr. 28. 
Nouvelles Usine Vickers pour la Fabrication des Mitrailleuses.* (33) June 16. 
Batteries Americaines de Gros Calibre Mobile sur Voies Ferres.* (33) June 16. 
Ein artilleristiches Problem. F. Butzberger. (107) May 5. 

Mining. 

Further Notes on Safety-Lamps.* Simon Tate. (106) Mar. 

The "Chalmers-Black" Non-Accumulative Visual Indiicator for Shaft-Signalling.* 
John B. Thomson. (106) Mar. 

The Cementation Process as Applied to Mining (Frangois System). Thomas Bland- 
ford. (106) Mar. 

Principles of Coal Washing. Henry Louis. (Paper read before Northern Section 
of the Coke Oven Managers' Assoc.) (57) Apr. 5. 

Surface Subsidence Due to Mining Operations.* (11) Apr. 13. 

Installation and Maintenance of Underground Plant.* W. Matthew Baird, Jr. 
(Paper read before Assoc, of Mining Engrs.) (22) Apr. 13. 

Some Practical Notes on the Economical Use of Timber in Coal Mines.* F. C. 
Lee. (From paper read before the North of England Inst, of Minmg and 
Mech. Engrs.) (57) Apr. 20. 

Sources of Oil Supply. John Thompson. (Read before National Assoc, of Col- 
liery Managers.) (22) Apr. 27. 

• Illustrated. 



Auofust. 1017.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 509 

Mining— (Continued). 

Philippine Coals and Their Use. F. R. Ycasiano. (57) April 27. 

Mine Gas. W. W. Chernitzyn. (Abstract.) (57) Serial beginning April 27. 

Some Practical Notes on the Economical Use of Timber in Coal Mines • F C 

Lee. (106) May. 
Electric Supply to Collieries.* G. S. Corlett. (Paper read before the Manchester 

Geological and Min. See.) (106) May; (47) April 27. 
Observations on the Order of Working the Coal Seams in the North of England. 

Wm. D. Harbit. (22) Serial beginning May 4. 
Pumping Potash from Nebraska Lakes.* R. P. Crawford. (16) May 5. 
Concentrating Canadian Molybdenite. H. H. Claudet. (Paper read before Cana- 
dian Mining Inst.) (16) May 5. 
Operation of the Yukon Placer Act.* C. A. Thomas. (16) May 5. 
Recent Developments of the Whiting Hoist in Deep Winding.* B. Gray and J. 

Whitehouse. (Abstract from Journal of South African Inst, of Engrs.) (57) 

May 11. 
Mine Water as Boiler Feed. Edwin M. Chance. (Abstract from Coal Age.) (57) 

May 11. 
Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (16) May 12. 
Mining Methods in Great Britain.* (Abstract from Mine and Quarry.) (45) 

-May 12. 
Coal Mining in the Transvaal. C. C. Smith. (45) May 12. 
Righting a Wrecked Gold Dredge.* Lewis H. Eddy. (16) May 12. 
The Kirkland Lake Gold District.* J. C. Bateman. (103) May 15. 
Accident Prevention in Quarrying. (86) May 16. 
Electric Winding at Victoria Colliery, Ebbw Vale.* (26) May 18. 
The Future of the Iron and Coal Industries in Normandy.* (22) May 18. 
Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.* (16) May 19. 
Picturesque Side of Jerome.* A. J. Hoskin. (16) May 19. 
Working Dirty Beds of Coal.* Rowland Gascoyne. (45) May 19. 
The Anthracite Situation. William Griffith. (45) May 19. 

Amortization and Depreciation: A Discussion. W. P. Sleeman. (103) May 19. 
Henry C. Perkins, and the Cost of Mining: An Interview.* T. A. Richard. (103) 

May 19. 
Molybdenum in the Hualpai Mountains.* L. Webster Wickes. (103) May 19. 
Use of Explosives in Quarrying Shale. C. B. Willis. (Paper read before Inst. 

of Paving.) (76) May 22. 
New Method for Mining Bituminous Coal in Connellsvllle, U. S. A.* Patrick 

Mullen. (22) May 25. 
Deep Creek, Clifton Mining District, Utah.* A. E. Custer. (16) May 26. 
Drill-Sharpening.* (103) May 26. 

Spontaneous Combustion in Coal Mines. Rowland Gascoyne. (45) May 26. 
The Romance of Refrigeration and Its Application to Mining.* Andrew D. Brydon. 

(Abstract of Paper read before Nat. Assoc, of Colliery Mgrs.) (45) May 26. 
Tipple at Powhatan in Pocahontas Field.* Henry J. Edeall. (45) May 26. 
Rotary Dump Installed Underground.* E. L. Berger. (45) May 26. 
Magnetic Segregation and Ore Genesis. Joseph T. Singewald, Jr. (103) May 26. 
Sampling an Erratic Orebody. L. A. Parsons. (103) May 26. 
Nickel in Ontario. (29) Serial beginning June 1. 
Colliery Managers' Examination Papers.* (22) June 1. 

Quarrying Limestone Underground.* Raymond B. Ladoo. (16) June 2. 
Concreting a Creek Channel.* C. W. Wardle. (16) June 2. 
Anthracite Coal Strippings Near Scranton and Wilkes-Barre. Penn.* Thomas F. 

Kennedy. (45) June 2. 
Some Theories on .Mine Subsidence. J. F. Kellock Brown. (45) June 2. 
The Extralateral Right: Shall It Be Abolished? William E. Colby. (103) 

June 2. 
The Pazna Tin-Mining District, Bolivia.* Francis Church Lincoln. (103) 

June 2. 
Mining Problems on the Rand.* H. Foster Bain. (103) Serial beginning May 26. 
Grade Revision For Underground Haulage. R. D. Brown. (57) June 8. 
The Belmont Camp, Nevada.* Wilson W. Hughes. (16) June 9. 
The Mining Industry of Peru. F. C. Fuchs. (16) June 9. 
Occurrence and Utilization of Antimony Ores. (Abstract from Bulletiyi of the 

Imperial Inst.) (16) June 9. 
Siberian Mine-Timbering Methods.* Henry M. Payne. (16) June 9. 
Double-Range System of Speed Control For Adjustable-Speed Induction Motors.* 

F. B. Crosby. (45) June 9. 
Drilling and Shooting Coal. F. C. Pick. (45) June 9. 

Revival of Mining at Marysville, Montana.* L. S. Ropes. (103) June 9. 
Perseverance Mine Powder-Thawer.* D. J. Argall. (103) June 9. 
Ihe Higher Training of Managers. G. L. Kerr. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Mining Inst, of Scotland). (22) June 15; (57) June 15. 

• Illustrated. 



August, 1917.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 511 

Mining:- (Continued). 

Methods of Mining in the Pennsylvania Anthracite Field. Hugh M. Crankshaw. 

(Abstract of Paper presented to Manchester Geological and Mining Soc.) 

(22) .June 15 ; (57) June 15. 
Cannop Colliery and Its Water Difficulties. Jno. J. Joynes. (Paper read before 

the Forest of Dean Branch of the Nat. Assoc, of Colliery Managers.) (22) 

June 15. 
Acetylene Mine Lamps.* William Maurice. (Abstract of paper read before Inst. 

of Min. Engrs.) (22) June 22; (57) Serial beginning June 15. 
The Clarification of Mill Water. G. Nicolai. (Abstract from Metal und Erz.) 

(16) June 16. 
Disregard of Danger the Cause of Mountain King Fatalities. Lewis H. Eddy. 

(16) June 16. 
'■Caliche" Deposits of Atacama Desert, Chile.* Fred MacCoy. (16) June 16. 
How Best to Eliminate the Bigger Mine Accidents.* Frank Haas, (Abstract 

of Paper read before West Virginia Coal Mining Inst.) (45) June 16. 
Anaconda's Finances.* W. R. Ingalls. (16) June 16. 

Mining: The Great Adventure. T. A. Richard. (Address delivered before Col- 
orado School of Mines.) (103) June 16. 
The Miami Appeal : Majority Opinion of the U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals. Phila- 
delphia. (103) Serial beginning June 16; (16l Serial beginning June 23. 
Lump-Coal Storage and Reclaiming Plant* H. M. McFarland. (45) June 2?,. 
California Dredge With Four Tailings Conveyors.* Lewis H. Eddy. (16) June 23. 
Manitoba as a Mining Province.* J. A. Campbell. (16) June 23. 
The Black Oak Mine.* W. H. Storms. (103) June 23. 
Automatic Skips in Shaft With Rope-Guides.* H. Vincent Wallace. (103) 

June 23. 
Utilizing Coal Mine Waste in the Pacific North, West. Henry Hull. (57) 

June 27. 
Dangers Accompanying Use of Carbide.* J. R. Allardyce. (45) June 30. 
Saline Vallev Tramway.* F. C. Carstarphen. (Abstract from Proceedings, Am. 

Soc. C. E.) (103) June 30. 
Underground Churn Drilling.* Guy W. Bjorge. (45) June 30. 
Mining in Southern Peru.* Francis Church Lincoln. (16) June 30. 
Antimony Deposits of Arkansas.* Ellsworth H. Shriver. (103) June 30. 
The Amorphous Silica of Southern Illinois.* E. A. Holbrook. (16) June 30. 

Miscellaneous. 

The Law and The Engineer. George H. Montgomery. (5) Jan. -June, 1916. 
How Can the Engineer Improve His Public Standing? F. W. Hanna. (96) 

Mar. 22. 
Graphical Calculus. Charles A. Ellis. (4) April. 
Education in Engineering. D. S. Jacobus. (Paper read before Am. Soc. of Mech. 

Engrs.) (8) April. 
The Decimal System of Coinage, Weights and Measures. Harry Allcock. (Abstract 

of a lecture before Inst, of Civ. Engrs.) (104) Serial beginning April 20. 
The Organisation of Engineering. Michael Longridge. (Abstract of paper read 

before Inst, of Mech. Engrs.) (22) April 27; (26) May 4; (73) May 

11. 
How to Determine Efficiency. George H. Shepard. (9) May. 

Cause and Prevention of Industrial Casuality.* H. Weaver Mowery. (9) May. 
Constructive Public Policy for Utility Growth. John A. Britton. (Ill) May 1. 
Assistance in Developing Foreign Fields.* E. E. Pratt. (Ill) May 1. 
Education and Training of Engineering Apprentices. H. A. Bennie Gray. (Abstract 

of paper read before Soc. of British Gas Industries.) (66) May 1. 
Sand Devastation.* Percy Collins. ( 19) May 5. 
Initiation of Explosions. Walter Arthur. (Paper delivered before Am. Chemical 

Soc.) (19) May 5. 
Works Organization and Efficiency: Discussion. W. Ripper. (29) May 11; (47) 

May 18. 
The Physiological Role of Calcium in Plants. Theresa Robert. (Abstract). (19) 

May 12. 
Chemical Control in the Leather Industry. David Quick Hammond. (19) 

May 12. 
Precision in Chemical Weighing. William Norman Rae and Joseph Reilly. (19) 

Serial beginning May 5. 
Gravel Deposits: Their Origin and Ekionomic Development.* Wm. Artingstall. 

(86) May 16. 
The Human Factor in Industry.* Luther D. Burlingame. (72) Serial begmning 

May 17. 
Measurement of Reflection Factor.* M. Luckiesh. (27) May 19. 
The Complexity of the Chemical Elements. (11) May 25. 
The Recent Industrial and Economic Development of Indian Forest Products. R. S. 

Pearson. (29) Serial beginning May 25. 
System in a City Engineer's Office. Manley Osgood. (60) June. 

• Illustrated. 



Aujviist. 1017.1 CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 513 

Miscellaneous — * Continued j. 

Tlif lirowiiiaii Movement of Electrified Particles in Gases. A. Schldlof. (19) 
Serial beginning May 26. 

The Application of the Modern Theory of Wages. Felix Bayle. (22) June 1. 

The Fundamental Principles of Good Lighting. P. G. Nutting. (Abstract from 
Journal of the Franklin Inst.) (66) June 5. 

Engineers Must Cooperate for Recognition and Service. (Address at Annual Con- 
vention of Am. Assoc, of Engrs.) Gardner S. Williams. (13) June 7. 

Shall Great Britain and America Adopt the Metric System? W. R. Ingalls. (Ab- 
stract of paper read before Inst, of Min. and Metallurgy.) (73) June 8. 

Chemicals for Laboratory Use. William Riutoul. (Paper read before Glasgow 
Section of Society of Chemical Industry.) (19) June 16. 

Detecting the Pretense of Deafness.* Robert Foy. (Abstract of paper in La Nature.) 
(19) June 16. 

The Engineer In Politics. Robert G. Dieck. (Abstract of Paper in Journal of 
Oregon Soc. of Engrs.) (86) June 20. 

Time Studies for Delay Allowances in Rate Setting.* Dwight V. Merrick. (72) 
June 21. 

Wages for Ability, Output and Service.* W. E. Freeland. (20) June 28. 

The Human Potential in Industry. Otto P. Geier. (55) July; (20) Serial be- 
ginning May 31. 

Organisation Scientiflque de I'Usinage.* P. Denis. (33) Serial beginning 
April 14. 

La Reeducation des Avengles.* Lucien Fournier. (33) May 5. 

Municipal. 

Municipal Work in Rangoon From 1907 to 1916.* Launcelot Paul Marshall. (114) 

May. 
Small-Town Electric Service Problems.* (27) May 5. 
Municipal Engineering in America. A. F. Macallum. (Abstract of paper read 

before Ottawa Branch of Canadian Soc. of C. E.) (104) June 15. 
Presidential Address before Inst, of Municipal and County Engrs. Philip H. Palmer. 
(104) June 29. 

Railroads. 

Notes on the Working of a Rack Railway. William Theodore Lucy. (63) 1915- 

1916, Pt. II. 
Design of Passenger Terminals.* J. L. Busfleld. (5) Jan. -June, 1916. 
Grade Separation — Two Distinct Methods.* Samuel T. Wagner. (Delivered before 

Engineers' Soc. of Penn.) (98) Nov.-Dec, 1916. 
The Federal Valuation of Railways. Towson Price. (8) April. 
Doctors of Transportation. Geo. A. Post. (36) April. 
American Coaling Stations for Locomotives.* George Frederick Zimmer. (11) 

April 13. 
The Watford New Electric Train Service.* (12) April 13. 
Railway Water Supply.* C. R. Knowles. (65) May. 
The Locomotive Firebox and Combustion Chamber. J. T. Anthony. (Abstract of 

paper read before the Southern and South-western Railway Club.) (47) 

Apr. 20. 
Tunnels.* (21) Serial beginning May. 
The Chambers Regulator.* (21) May. 
Enlarging a Busy Tunnel under TrafHc* (87) May. 
Reclaiming Battered and Worn Rails.* John Reinehr. (87) May. 
Special Track Work in Paved Streets.* H. F. Heyl. (87) May. 
Boiler Patches for Locomotives.* M. J. Cairns. (25) May. 
McClellon Water-Tube Firebox.* (25) May. 
Straightening Surface Bent Rails.* J. Rodman. (87) May. 
New Power for the Lehigh Valley.* (25) May. 
Air Brake Lever Computations.* Lewis K. Sillcox. (25) May. 
Steel as a Material for Locomotive Fireboxes. R. P. C. Sanderson. (Abstract 

of paper read before Inst, of Locomotive Engrs.) (21) Serial beginning May. 
Box Car Side Door.* (25) May. 

Turbine for Locomotive Drive.* Victor W. Zilen. (64) May 1. 
Pennsylvania Changes at Baltimore under Discussion Again.* (13) May 3. 
Construction of a Comprehensive Low-Grade Line.* (IS) May 4. 
The Resawing of Lumber.* D. C. Curtis. (15) May 4. 
Rules for the Mobilization of Freight Cars. (IS) May 4. 

Canadian Commission Against Public Ownership. J. L. Payne. (15) May 4. 
Canadian Commission Minority Report. (15) May 4. 
Origin and Development of the Railway Rail in England and America.* G. P. 

Raidabaugh. (Abstract of paper presented to Iron and Steel lust.) (22) 

May 4. 
Pennsylvania Locomotive Brick Arch Tests.* (15) May 4. 

• Illustrated. 



AujTUst, 1017.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 515 

Railroads — ( Continued) . 

Sliu'k Aiiion in Ixiiig Passenger Trains; Its Relation to Triple Valves of Different 

Types ami Consequent Results in the Handling of Trains. J. A. Burke and 

William Hotzfield. (Abstract of paper read before Air Brake Assoc.) (18) 

Serial beginning May 5. 
Handling Heavy Passenger Trains on Grades with Air Brakes Exclusively. J. E. 

Fitzgerald. (Abstract of paper read before Air Brake Assoc.) (18) May 5. 
Safe Life of Air Brake Hose. M. E. Hamilton. (Paper read before Air Brake 

Assoc.) (18) May 5. 
Determination of Actual Sectional Errors in Railroad Track Scales.* (18) 

May 5. 
A 120-Tons Capacity Gondola Car for the Virginian Railway.* (18) May 5. 
Railway Enquiry Commission's Report (Canada). Sir Henry L. Drayton, W. M. 

Aiworth and Alfred Smith. (96) Serial beginning May 10; (18) Serial 

beginning May 5. 
The Government White Elephant at Quebec* C. V. Johnson. (96) May 10. 
When to Ship Freight by Motor Truck and When by Rail? C. C. Williams. (13) 

May 10. 
Canadian Northern Electrification at Montreal.* W. C. Lancaster. (15) May 11. 
Functional Interrelation between the Component Parts of the Air Brake System.* 

W. E. Dean. (Paper read before Air Brake Assoc. Convention.) (15) 

May 11 ; (18) June 2. 
Pennsylvania Track Elevation at Johnstown.* (15) May 11. 
High-Pressure Electric Railway Systems. (26) May 11. 
The Choice of Voltage for Railway Electrification on the Direct-Current System.* 

F. Lydall. (73) Serial beginning May 11. 
The Rate Advance Case. (Abstract of Hearings before the Interstate Commerce 

Commission.) (18) Serial beginning May 12; (15) Serial beginning May 

18. 
Methods and Cost of Changing 17 Miles of Railroad Track From Narrow Gage to 

Standard Gage.* Henry R. Somes. (86) May 16. 
The Highest Railroad Shop in the United States.* Frank A. Stanley. (72) 

May 17. 
Offer Divers Solutions of Canada's Railway Problem. (13) May 17. 
Theory, Practice and Results of Fuel Economy. W. P. Hawkins. (15) May 18; 

(25) June; (18) May 19. 
New Union Station-Plants Completed for St. Paul.* (IS) May IS; (13) June 7. 
Government Ownership in Foreign Countries. W. M. Acworth. (15) May 18; 

(18) May 12. 
New Automatic Block Signals on the Southern Railway.* (18) May 19. 
Would Depress New York Central and Elevate Lackawanna Through Syracuse.* 

(13) May 24. 
Locomotive Feed Water Heating.* C. M. Moderwell. (Report at Railway Fuel 

Assoc. Convention.) (15) May 25; (25) June; (18) May 19. 
Pattern for Locomotive Cab Window Shield.* (101) May 25. 
The Julian-Deggs Automatic Stop and Train Control System.* (18) May 26. 
Mountain and Santa Fe Type Locomotives for the Southern Railway.* (18) 

May 26. 
Refrigerator Cars for the Pacific Fruit Express Co.* (18) May 26. 
Progress in the Rail Problem Marked by Sharp Differences in View.* (13) 

May 31. 
D. C. Track-Circuits. (21) June. 
Flexible Firebox Stays.* (21) June. 
Developments in Railway Shop Tools. (25) June. 

Organization and Methods for Handling Rods.* Ernest A. Miller. (25) June. 
Centralized Production of Locomotive Repair Parts.* George Armstrong. (25) 

June. 
Electrical Equipment at a Great Western Goods Station.* (26) June 1. 
Suggestions for the Conservation of Fuel. ( 15) June 1. 
Double Deck Stock Cars for the Santa Fe.* (15) June 1; (25) June;' (18) 

June 9. 
To Increase Transportation Efficiency. Howard Elliott. (15) June 1. 
The German Railway Record in China. (11) June 1. 
New Kansas Interurban Line Serves Central Cities.* (17) June 2. 
Mechanics of the Chilled Iron Wheel. George W. Lyndon and F. K. Vial. 

(Abstract of joint address before Railway Club of Pittsburgh.) (18) June 2; 

(51) July 27 ; (25) May. 
Rail Failure Attributed to Track Service.* (20) June 7. 
"HoId-.\Iain" Signals on the L. & N.* (15) June 8. 

The Pennsylvania's New Electric Locomotive.* (15) June 8; (17) June 9. 
Modern Train Despatching — Some Needed Forms. Harry W. Forman. (15) 

June 8. 
Mikado and Consolidation Types Compared.* (Discussion based on Testing Plant 

Bulletin No. 28 of Penn. R. R. Co.) (15) June 8; (25) June^ 

• Illustrated. 



August, 1M17. 1 CURRENT ENGINEEKIxVG LITERATURE 517 

Railroads (Continued). 

The New High-Speed Three-Phase Locomotives of the Italian State Railways.* 

P. Verole and B. Mar.sill. (Abstract from Rivista Tecnica delle Ferrovie 

Italianr.) (73) June 8. 
Up-State New Yorli Lines Need Relief. Thomas Conway, Jr. (17) Serial begin- 
ning June 0. 
Successful Use of Steel Trolley Wire By Pacific Railway.* S. H. Anderson. (17) 

June 9. 
Economics of the Supply Train. D. D. Cain. (18) June 9. 
A Seventy-Ton Capacity Well Car for the Pennsylvania R. R.* (18) June 9. 
Train Handling. G. H. Wood. (Paper read before Car Foremen's Assoc of 

Chicago. 1 (18) June 9. 
Making Locomotive Driving Boxes.* Frank A. Stanley. (72) June 14. 
Pennsylvania Locomotive of the Decapod Type.* (15) June 15. 
Powdered Coal. (Abstract of Committee Report at Conventien of International 

Railway Fuel Assoc.) (15) June 15; (18) May 19. 
Wheel Shop Practices, Minneapolis, St. Paul & Sault Ste. Marie Ry., Minneapolis, 

Minn.* (18) June 16. 
Shop Fire Protection. Paul Hevener. (Paper read before Car Foremen's Assoc. 

of Chicago.) (18) June 16. 
Steel Car Shop. I>ouisviIle & Nashville R. R., South Louisville. Ky.* Millard F. 

Cox. (18) June 16. 
The Fuel Situation as Affected by the War. (15) June 22. 
The Railroads of Canada and the War.* (15) June 22. 
The Maintenance of Way Labor Problem.* (15) June 22. 
Methods of Increasing the Train Load. (15) June 22. 
Increasing Track Capacity by Signaling. (15) June 22. 
Heavier Car Loading Would Eliminate Car Shortage.* (15) June 22. 
Electricity as an Aid to Railroad Operation. (15) June 22. 
Small Locomotives Used at the Front. (15) June 22. 
Railways and Food Problem in the War.* (15) June 22. 
The Use of Light Railways in the War.* (15) June 22.. 
Construction of Wooden Freight Equipment.* (15) June 22. 
A Review of the Material Situation. (15) June 22. 
Improved Locomotive Ser\'ice.* (15) June 22. 
How Railways Have Revolutionized Warfare. (15) June 22. 
Ambulance "Trains from Civil War to Present.* (15) June 22. 
Europe's Railroads Meeting Second Great Trial. (15) June 22. 
Main Line Steel Passenger Cars for the Erie.* (15) June 29. 
Clearing House For Inter-Railway Accounts. T. H. B. McKnight. (Abstract of 

paper read before Assoc, of Am. Railway Accounting Officers.) (15) June 29. 
Centralizing the Handling of Timber on the B. & O. F. J. Angler. (15) June 29. 
The Control of Alternating-Current Locomotives. (26) June 29. 
Boulons, Goujons et Vis d'Assemblage, Ragles pour la Construction des Boulons 

d'Assemblage.* (92) March. 
Installations Americaines pour le Chargement du Charbon sur les Locomotives.* 

(33) May 19. 
Betrachtungen ilber die storenden Nebenbewegungen der Eisenbahn-Fahrzeuge mit 

besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Einflusses der Radreifen-Konizitat.* U. R. 

Ruegger. (107) Serial beginning June 16. 

Railroads, Street. 

Rapid Transit Railways— Some Features of Construction and Cost.* Ernest V. 

Pennell. (Paper read before Toronto Section of Am. Inst, of Elec, Engrs.) 

(96) May 3. 
Rail-Bonding Precautions.* H. H. Tebrey. (45) May 5. 

Build Subway Station Beneath Philadelphia's Massive City Hall.* (13) May 10. 
E.xtension of London Underground System.* (17) May 12. 
Methods Employed in Construction of Fort Point Channel Rapid Transit Tunnel, 

Boston, Mass.* (86) May 16. 
Elevated Railway Rebuilt Without Stopping Traffic* (13) May 17. 
Interurban Cars with Off-Set Central Vestibules.* (17) May 19. 
An Inexpensive Way of Cutting Construction Costs. Frank B. Walker. (17) 

May 26. 
Double Guards Reduce Cost.* William H. Stevenson. (17) May 26. 
Putting Across the Skip Stop in Baltimore.* Dwight Burroughs. (17) June 2. 
Track Construction in Des Moines.* W. L. Wilson. (17) June 2. 
Typical Car-Yard Improvements at Rochester, N. Y.* D. J. Graham. (17) 

June 16. 
Determining the "Slack" in a Schedule.* C. H. Koehler. (17) June 16. 
What Shall We Do With the Paving Burden? R. C. Cram. (17) June 2?,. 
Track and Paving Construction in Seattle, Wash.* S. E. Goodwin. (17) 

June 23. 
A Modem Type of Track Construction.* R. G. Taber. (17) June 23. 

• Illustrated. 



August, lit 17.] CURRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 519 

Roads and Pavements. 

Highway Traffic Analysis and Traffic Census Procedure. William H. Connell. 

(Abstract of paper read before Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of" Science i 

(96) Mar. 22. 
Road Construction and Improvement by Means of Town Planning Schemes. W. 

Rees Jeffreys. (Paper read at Town Planning Inst.) (104) Serial beginning 

April 27. 
Machine Finishing of Concrete Roads.* (60) May. 
Important Features Relating to the Design and Improvements of City Streets 

N. S. Sprague. (58) May. 
The Construction of Bituminous Pavements.* (60) May. 
Methods of Handling Earth in Road Construction. Chas. R. Thomas (86) 

May 2. 
Estimating the Cost of Paved Surfaces for Highway Improvement. Robert E 

Thomas. (86) May 2. 
Methods of Determining the Roadmaking Qualities of Deposits of Stone and 

Gravel.* L. Reinecke. (96) May 3. 
New Pavement Ordinance Helps San Francisco's Development. James M. Owens. 

(13) May 3. 
To Pave over New York Subway with Asphalt. (13) May 10. 
Road Laws of Ontario. W. A. McLean. (Abstract of paper read before Canadian and 

International Road Congress, Ottawa.) (96) May 17. 
Intelligent Use of Road Oil Reduces Maintenance.* T. R. Agg. (13) May 24. 
National Parks Road Construction.* J. M. Wardle. (96) May 24. 
Staffordshire Main Roads. James Moncur. (Extract from Report for 1916-1917.) 

(104) May 25. 
Cost Keeping Forms of Oregon State Highway Commission.* John H. Lewis. 

(Abstract from Bulletiyi.) (86) May 30. 
Street and Road Pavements, Their Design, Construction and Maintenance : The 

Maintenance of Bituminous Pavements.* The Editor. (60) June. 
Road Work in the Mexican Desert.* James A. O'Connor. (104) June 1. 
Practice of New York State Highway Commission in Construction of Concrete 

Pavement. H. Eltinge Breed. (86) June 6; (67) May. 
Japanese Roads and Highway Bridges.* J. L. Harrison. (86) June 6. 
Method of Resurfacing Old Macadam Road. Chas. R. Thomas. (86) June 6. 
Granite Block Pavements. William H. Connell. (Abstract of Paper read before 

Fourth Canadian and International Good Roads Congress.) (96) June 7. 
Extraordinary Traffic and Excessive Weights on Highways. H. T. Wakelam. 

(Paper presented at meeting of Inst, of Municipal and County Engrs.) (104) 

June 29. 
Modern Road-Making Machinery — Its Selection, Use and Care. W. Huber. (Ab- 
stract of Paper read before Canadian and International Good Roads Congress.) 

(104) June 8. 
Sanitation. 

The Capacity of Outfall Sewers.* William Fairley. (63) 1915-1916, Pt. 11. 
The Present Conditions of Arterial Drainage in Some English Rivers. Richard 

Fuge Grantham. (63) 1915-1916. Pt. II. 
The Main Drainage of Cairo. Charles Carkeet James. (63) 1915-1916, Pt. II. 
A Photographic Study of Sewage Distribution on a Sprinkling Filter.* C. L. 

Walker. (36) April. 
Street Cleaning — A Problem in Sanitary Engineering. James W. Routh. (36) 

April. 
The Dust-Bins of Greater London. Reginald Brown. (Paper read at Meeting of 

Inst, of Mun. and County Engrs.) (114) April; (104) May 4. 
Sewage Disposal: Activated Sludge f. Tankers and Filters. (104) April 13. 
Durability of Cement Drain Tile and Concrete in Alkali Soils.* (Abstract from 

Techiwlogic Paper No. 95.) (3) May. 
Air Diffusion in Activated Sludge.* Waldo S. Coulter. (13) May 3. 
Some Costs of Sewer Work.* W. G. Cameron. (96) May 3. 

Advantages of Clay Over Cement Tile. E. H. Haeger. (Paper read before Wis- 
consin State Drainage Assoc.) (76) May 8. 
Special Features of Sewerage Development at Wellsboro, Pa.* Henry W. Taylor. 

(86) May 9. 
Heating Two Apartments with Furnaces.* (101) May 11. 
Collection and Disposal of House Refuse : Discussion. C. H. Cooper. (Abstract of 

Paper read at Royal Sanitary Inst.) (104) May 11. 
Progress in the Use of Gas For House Heating. George S. Barrows. (Abstract 

of Discussion before Southwestern Gas and Elec. Assoc.) (83) May 15. 
French Hygienic Tests of Gas-Fires.* (66) May 15. 

Drainage Problems in Saskatchewan.* Charles S. Cameron. (96) May 17. 
Hot Blast Heating for Industrial Buildings.* (101) May 18. 
The Treatment of Sewage. Bertram Blount. (Abstract from Journal of the Inst. 

of Sanitary Engrs.) (104) May 18. ^__ 

* Illustrated. 



AufTust, 1917.1 CrRRENT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 521 

Sanitation— ( Contin ued ) . 

Combining Power, Heating and Ventilation.* Ira N. Evans. ( 64 » Serial begin- 
ning May 22. 

Western Citle.s Employ Vacuum Machine.'^ for Cleaning- Streets.* (13) May 24. 

Effect of Ruthless Competition on Heating Work.* (101) May 25. 

Sewage Disposal in the Wan.stead (Essex) Urban nistrict. Edward Lindon. (Ab- 
stract of Paper read before Assoc, of Managers of Sewage Disposal.) (104) 
May 25. 

Methods and Costs of Supervising Drainage Construction In the Little River Drain- 
age District.* B. F. Burns. (86) May 30. 

Septic Tanks Reconstructed as Imhoff Tanks at Columbus: Part I — Governing Con- 
ditions and Main Results.* O. P. Hoover. (13) May 31. 

Marked Advance in Treating Sewage from Packing Houses. G. B. Zlmmele. 
(13) May 31. 

Saving Expense In Garbage Collection — A Study of Actual Conditions In Billings, 
Montana.* John N. Edy. (60) June. 

Rochester's Sewage Disposal Plant in Operation. (60) June. 

Modern Methods of Refuse and Garbage Disposal. (60) June. 

Swimming Pool Heating and Filtering Plant.* (101) June 1. 

Proper Method of Laying Out Trunk Mains.* J. G. Sorgen. (101) June 1. 

How to Keep a Construction Camp Clean and Sanitary. (13) June 7. 

Motor Vehicles the Key to New York Street-Cleaning Problem.* J. T. Fetherston. 
(13) June 7. 

Heating Combined Bank and Oftice Building.* (101) June 8. 

Hospital for the Care of Wild Animals.* A. Mann. (101) June 8. 

Plumbing System on a "Land" Battleship.* (101) June 8. 

Operating Results of Imhoff Tank Sewage Disposal Works of Fitchburg, Mass. 
F. W. Jones. (Abstract of Report.) (86) June 13. 

Activated Sludge Experimental Work at Milwaukee.* (Abstract of Report of 
Milwaukee Sewage Commission.) (96) June 14. 

Extracting Alcohol from Garbage Would Conserve Vast Quantities of Grain and 
Potatoes.* (13) June 14. 

Warm-Air System for Illinois Church.* (101) June 15. 

House Refuse: Its Calorific Value and Its Possibilities. Reginald Brown. (Paper 
read before Inst, of Municipal Engrs.) (104) Serial beginning June 15. 

The Activated Sludge Process at Worcester.* (104) June 15. 

Specifications for Domestic Garbage Incinerators.* Curtis C. Myers. (83) 
June 15. 

Operation and Use of Damper Regulators.* (101) Serial beginning June 22. 

Direct Steam Radiation Heats Machine Shop.* (101) June 22. 

New Plumbing System Tried in Chicago.* (101) June 22. 

Radiators Supplied from Warm Air Furnace.* (101) June 29. 

Modern Sewage Purification Works — Design, Construction and Management. 
Charles Terry. (Paper read before Assoc, of Managers of Sewage Disposal 
Works.) (104) June 29. 

L'Epuration des Eaux d'Egout ; la Decantatlon. H. VerrlSre. (43) Jan. 

Structural. 

Novel System of Foundations Used in Connection With the Federal Legislative 

Palace, Mexico City.* S. Fortin. (5) Jan. -June. 1916. 
Reinforced Concrete Beams Reinforced For Compression.* Leonard C. Urquhart. 

(36) April. 
Dundee Housing Schemes.* .las. Thomson. (Abstract of a Report.) (104) 

April 13. 
A National Housing Policy. (104) April 20. 

Standard Unit Construction for Steel Frame Structures.* (12) Apr. 20. 
Steel Sheet Piling: American Practice.* (11) Apr. 20. 
A New Vickers Machine Gun Shop.* (11) April 27. 
Making and Buying Sheet and Strip Stock.* F. Walter Guibert. (Paper read 

before Steel Treating Research Club, Detroit, Mich.) (62) May; (116) 

May. 
Impact Tests and Their Relation to Others.* Howard J. Stagg, Jr. (116) May. 
Some Slow Volume Changes in Portland Cement. Edward D. Campbell. (67) 

May. 
Artistic Stucco. John B. Orr. (Paper read before the Amer. Concrete Inst.) 

(67) May. 
Concrete Swimming and Wading Pools.* (67) May. 
Construction of Vitrified Pipe Lines.* J. F. Springer. (60) May. 
Impact Tests.* Sir Robert Hadfleld. (Discussion of address by Howard J. Stagg, 

Jr.. before Steel Treating Research Club, Detroit.) (62) May. 
Report on Heat-Insulating Materials.* (From tests by Messrs. Sargent and Lundy. 

Consulting Engineers.) (64) May 1. 
Effect of Water on Concrete.* Duff A. Abrams. (From Concrete Highway Maga- 
zine.) (86) May 2: (67) May; (104) May 25. 
Construction Features of the Canal Shops at Balboa.* (72) May 3. 

• Illustrated. 



Au-Tust, l!ii7.| ciivMv'KNT i:\(ii\i;i;i;i\(; i.rrKit.VTURK 523 

structural— (Continued). 

New England Steel Bar and Wire Plant.* (20) May 3. 

Alloy or Carbon Steels versus Carbonized. E. F. Lalte. (Paper read before the 

Steel Treating Keseareh Club, Detroit, Mich.) (20) May 3. 
Concrete Consistency Measured by Simple Field Test.* Harold A. Thomas (13) 

May 3. 
The Standardisation of Engineering Materials and Its Influence on the Prosperity 

of the Country. Sir .John Wolfe Barry. (.James Forrest Lecture delivered 

at Inst, of Civ. Engrs.) (11) May 4; (Abstract) (12) May 4; (Abstract) 

(47) .May 11. 
Piling For Excavating Purposes at the Dalmarnock Electrical Power Station.* 

C. B. Sneddon. (Abstract of Paper read at Nat. Assoc, of Colliery .Mana- 
gers.) (22) May 4. 
Three-Section Shield a Feature of Fifth Ave. Tunnel Project (for Street Traffic)* 

(13) May 10. 
Explanation of the Failures of Materials.* W. Knight. (72) May 10. 
Twin .Mixer Plant Places Five Thousand Yards of Winter Concrete Each Month ♦ 

(13) May 10. 
A Method of Proportioning Materials for Concrete. H. C. Johnson. (Abstract of 

Paper read before Concrete lust.) (104) May 11. 
Researches Made Possible by the Autographic Load- Extension Indicator.* W. E. 

Dalby. (Lecture before the Inst, of Metals.) (12) Serial beginning May 

18; (11) May 18. 
Timber Decay. C. J. Humphry. (19) May 19; (104) .June 22. 
Distribution of Pressure in Earth Due to Concentrated External Load.* R B 

Fehr. (86) May 23. 
Graphical Analysis of Stresses in Complex Column Sections.* W. S. Wolfe. (86) 

.May 23. 
Five Organizations Build Vast Steel-Plant Extension, Sparrow's Point, Md.* (13) 

May 24. 
Winnipeg Sub-Surface Formation and Suitable Heavy Foundation Types. J. Q. 

Rankin. (96) May 24. 
Weak Flat-Slab Concrete Building Strengthened by Adding New Steel and Wood 

Frame.* Maurice C. Couchot. (13) May 31. 
Can the Farm Barn Be Made Absolutely Fireproof? W. G. Kaiser. (Paper pre- 
sented before Am. Soc. of Agricultural Engrs.) (76) June 5. 
Accidents on Construction — What They Cost and How to Prevent Them.* J. J. 

Rosenthal. (13) June 7. 
Seven-Day Sand Tests No Criterion for Six-Month Tests. L. R. Brown (13) 

June 7. 
Making Sheet Metal Trim for Buildings.* (101) June 8. 
Girderless Reinforced-Concrete Floor System Has Straight-Bar Reinforcement.* 

(13) June 14. 
Designing Methods for Straight-Bar System of Flat Slabs.* .John Nydegger. 

(13) June 14. 
Steel Plant Enlarged Under Difficulties.* (13) June 14. 
Proposes New Specification for Deducting Rivet Holes.* D. B. Steinman. (13) 

June 14. 
Design of Buildings in Mining Towns.* R. H. Haniill. (Paper read before West 

Virginia Coal Mining Inst.) (.45) June 16. 
Utilizing "Oversize" to Increase Output of Small Gravel Plants.* (86) June 20. 
Invar et Aciers au Nickel Similaire.* F. Schwers. (93) Jan. 
PiSces a. Flexion Simple en Beton Arme ; Determination de la Fibre Neutre par 

la Balance et du Travail par le Pendule.* M. Butavand. (43) March. 
La Reconstruction dans les Regions Envahies.* G. Espitallier. (33) Serial be- 
ginning May 12. 
Methode Rapide de Calcul des Lignes d'Influence d'Arcs Prismatiques Surbaisses k 

Deux Encastrements.* G. Magnel. (33) May 26. 
La Fixation des Chaises et des Consoles dans les Constructions en Beton Arm§.* 

C. Lemaire. (33) June 30. 
Wilhelm Ritters Bedeutung fiir die Neuere Baustatik.* Arnold Mauser. (107) 

April 14. 
Stiitzmauer aus Eisenbeton fiir eine fahrbare Kohlenverladebrticke.* (107) 

June 9. 
Die Blektrolyse als Schutz gegen die Corrosion von Metallen. (107) June 30. 

Water Supply. 

The Rules and Regulations of the Province of British Columbia Relating to the 
Annual Rental Fees of Water Powers. E. Davis. (S) Jan. -June. 1910. 

Principles of Conservation as Applied to Water Power. Gifford Pinchot. (Ad- 
dress delivered before Engrs. Soc. of Penn.) (98) Nov. -Dec, 1916. 

Some Problems of the Waterworks Executive. Garrett O. House. (.Abstract of 
paper read before Minnesota Section of .\m. Water Works Assoc.) (96) 
Mar. 22. ^___^ 

* Illustrated. 



August, 1017.1 CURRENTT ENGINEERING LITERATURE 625 

Water Supply— (Continued). 

Planning the Distribution of the Water Supply of a Small Town. M'Kean Maf- 

litt. (96) Mar. 22. 
Pitting of Water Turbines and Their Design.* S. J. Zowski. (4) April. 
Coolgardlo Water Supply, Western Australia. P. V. O'Brien and J. Parr. (Ab- 
stract of paper read before Inst, of C. E.) (104) April 13. 
Cement Joints For Cast-iron Water Mains.* Clark H. Shaw. (Abstract of paper 

read before Am. Soi'. Civ. Engrs.) (104) April 20. 
The Horsley and Nicholson Automatic Compound Syphon.* George R. Nicholson. 

(Paper read before North of England Inst, of Mining and Mech. Engrs.) 

(57) Apr. 20 ; (106) May. 
Flow Through Sharp Edged V-Notches or Weirs.* E. W. Doebler and F. H. Ray- 
field. (36) May. 
China Mills Dam and Sluiceway of Suncook Mills.* Arthur T. Safford. (109) 

May. 
Weir Meters for the Power Plant.* (64) May 1. 

Salt Test for Flow Works Well in Infiltration Gallery. (13) May 3. 
New Water- Works at Providence, R. I., to Cost $12 000 000.* Frank E. Winsor. 

(13) May 3. 
Multiple Inspirators Aerate Algae-Laden Lake Supply.* (13) May 3. 
New Reservoir and Water Mains Improve Service at 'Covington, Va * Harry 

Stevens. (13) May 3. 
Night-Rate Consumption Barometer in 100% Metered City.* (13) May 3. 
Growth of Filter Sand at Three Water-Softening Plants. (13) Serial beginning 

May 3. 
Marine Type of Diesel Engine Adapted to Water- Works.* Thomas Orchard Lisle. 

(13) May 3. 
How to Lay Out Field Work and Keep Office Records on Earth-Dam Construction.* 

Seldeu P. Sears. (13) May 3. 
Water Supply in the Killarney Rural District. (104) June 8. 
Carbon Dioxide and Iron in Water Supplies.* C. G. Wigley and P. N. Daniels. 

(86) May 9. 
Construction Features of Concrete Dam For Ottumwa, la., Water Works.* (86) 

May 9. 
The Work of the Service Force of the Water Works Department of Minneapolis. 

J. A. Jensen. (86) May 9. 
Method of Subirrigation in the Sanford District, Florida.* F. W. Stanley. (Ab- 
stract of Bulletin of U. S. Department of Agriculture.) (86) May 9. 
Power Carried 548 Miles From Hydro-Electric Station Working on Both 1 247- and 

1777-Foot Heads.* (13) May 10. 
Value of Racine Water- Works Fixed at $1015 000. W. E. Miller. (13) May 10. 
Silt Settled from Power Stream to Prevent Turbine Erosion. J. W. Swaren. (13) 

May 10. 
Figuring Sizes of Hot Water Storage Tanks. C. F. Herington. (101) May 11. 
Ground Ice and Water Supplies.* James MacAlister. (11) May 11. 
Unlined Earth Reservoirs For Pumping Plants.* (Ill) May 15. 
Economic Devices in a Small Hydraulic System.* J. W. Swaren. (Ill) May 15. 
Wrestling with Filter Bottom Troubles at Minneapolis Plant. Lewis I. Birdsall. 

(13) May 17. 
New Design of Screen Chamber.* John H. Lance. (13) May 17. 
The Bombay Hydro-Electric Power Scheme.* (12) Serial beginning May 18. 
Water Supply Standards. William J. Orchard. (Paper read before Chemical and 

Bacteriological Section of the Am. Water Works Assoc.) (96) May 24. 
South American Rainfall Reverse of Northern Pacific. C. G. Newton. (13) 

May 24. 
Making the B. Coli Test Tell More. Milton F. Stein. (13) May 24. 
Water-Filtration Plants in the United States and Canada in 1917. (13) May 24. 
Notes on the Construction of Turbine Pumps.* Alan E. L. Chorlton. (12) Serial 

beginning May 25; (11) Serial beginning May 25. 
Report on Enlargement of Montreal Aqueduct.* H. C. Vantelet, Arthur St. Lau- 
rent and ,J. B. McRae. (96) Serial beginning May 31. 
Montreal Water and Power Company's Chlorine Cell Installation. Frank Henry 

Pitcher and James O. Meadows. (96) May 31; (13) May 24. 
One Engineer's Opinion as to Why the Standley Lake Dam Sloughed.* A. Lincoln 

Fellows. (13) May 31. 
How Standley Lake Dam Was Built and the Story of the Slips.* John E. Hayes. 

(13) May 31. 
Deadlock on Cast-iron Pipe Specifications. (13) May 31. 
The Weather Business.* George S. Bliss. (2) June. 
Los Angeles Power Development.* (60) June. 
Elimination of Corrosion in Hot-Water Supply Lines.* F. N. Speller. (Abstract 

of paper read before Am. Soc. of Heating and Ventilating Engrs.) (47) June 

1 ; (64) June 19. 
Rock Creek Multiple Arch Dam.* R. A. Monroe. (Ill) June 1. 
Failure of Hydraulic Projects From Lack of Water Prevented by Better Hydrology. 

Robert E. Horton. (13) June 7. 

• Illustrated. 



AiiK" 



.t.,Ul7.1 crUUKNT ENG.NEEKING LTTEK.TUT.K 



527 



The Design of a Tower lo Water-Filter Operation. Lewis I. 

Birdsall. (Ab^traci ^i .- , -nr ■Hpimlck (86) June 20. 

,13) June 14. rnn^t ruction. Charles W. HeimicK. y > 

MaJre^e, D.-«,. .e JauKur Ventun. L , ^„^„,„ 

Carolina. E.-L.) , i"' Tnrtion Light & Power 

(33) June 16. ■, a ^os der Barcelona Traction, i^ib" 

W.t=r«.ys. . . . s„ George C.nnlngbam Buebana.. (63) 

-"' r/rSo,'''pr.r';™ ,, „, -^„,„,e.„nt .. WeU.n. C.... »„. OJ^C.™.™- 
--rr ^"-Oe^SS B^S -a,.,^K.^W,^S"^. oS. Ke„.e.. C. C™». 

■'""r;8.""N"-Ve',%l'^:; ^^^^^„^„, ,^,,„e. .. ..rer read .*re A^. See. 

„„„,p,e^rch^ Da».^ s.rW be.>n„in. Ap^rU 2T._^^^ .»''^:"rTbomp.on 

Nvhohn System ot Lock Operat on^ ^^^^^ Winona to La Crosse. 

'^""'ZTTm' A»H <'wi., S'VrtoeU.. .o„„ .^ Mcca.e. ,.00, Ma,- 
Construction Of North Cume > May-June 

,„,p/o;EifS''%j>rsr%S?jev'a?.V;ci.|1'aS S.. Ma«e, M.c..- 
-H^:-|'a"a.r|.OoXs-»rrB„\Sa.:"M^^^^^^ "*"- '»" ■"°°- 

•^ June 7. „ . , „„„. p,r,i 1„ Rapid Construct.on ot OUio M-K 
-°"o1Srrw.'^>Sfp,S (U. J^"- ,;*■ ,„„. o, Conc„t... M. D. B,.«««. 
Lake Shore Protection at Chicag presented before 

'- K^'ASSSe'kw.-S^ 'S»ejn'.fa,„t Ma.o.- A..».. Pa«.o-«. 
Les Ports Franqais et la t^uerr . 



(33) June 2. 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

AUGUST, 1917 



Vol. XLIII. AUGUST, 1917. No. 6. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society Is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
In Its publications. 



CONTENTS 

Papers : page 

The Three 15-Ciiblc Yard Dipper-Dredjres Gamboa, Paraitso, and Cascadas, as 
Supplied and Used on the Panama Canal. 

By Kay W. Berdeau, Jun. am. Soc. C. E 963 

The Distribution of Stresses in Miteriug Lock-Gates, with Special Reference to 
the dates on the Panama Caual. 

By Henry Goldmark, M. Am. Soc. C. E 977 

Air Tanks on Pipe Lines. 

By MiNTON M. Warren, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. K 1018 

The Cape Cod Canal. 

By William IUrclay Parsoks, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1027 

Reports of Special Committees : 

Progress Report of the Special Committee to Codify Present Practice on the Bear- 
ing Value of Soils for Foundatious, etc 1171 

Discussions : 

A Method of Determining a Reasonable Service Rate for Mimicipallv Owned 
Pubhc Utilities. 

By J.B. LippiNCOTT, M. AM. Soc. C. E 1249 

The Valuation of Land. 

By Messrs. Franklin F. Mato and L. P. .Ierrard 1253 

Construction Methods' for Rogers Pass Tunnel. 

By Messrs. J. G. Sullivan and A. C. Dennis 1261 

Unusual CoEfer-Dam for 1 000-Foot Pier, New York City. 

By F. E. CrowoRTH, Esq 1 2T1 

Tests of Concrete Specimens in Sea Water, at Boston Nayy Yard. 

By Messrs R.J. Wia and Lewis R. Ferguson, and R. E. Bakenhus 128.5 

The Water Supply of Parkersburg, W. Va. 

By Edw*rd Mato Tolman, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E 1291 

The Reconstruction of the Stony River Dam. 

By Messrs. Joel D. Justin and Ross M. Rikgel 1297 

Cement Joints for Oast-Iron Water Mains. 

By Messrs. H. B. Lynch, Edward R. Bowkn, and George W. Pracy 1303 

Multiple-Arch Damson Rush Creek, California. 

By Messrs. F. W. Scheidenhelm, Edward Wegmann, Walter J. Douglas, 
Edwin Duryea. L. H. Nishkian, Gardner S. Williams, and George W. 

HowsoN 1309 

An Aerial Tramway for the Saline Valley Salt Company, Inyo County, California. 

By Messrs Richard Lamb and H. F. Scholtz 1327 

Modern Practice in Wood Stare Pipe Design and Suggestions for Standard Speci- 
flcafions 
By Messrs. Hermans von Schkenk. Frank F Bell, D. C. Henny, Henry P. 

Rust, F. M. Robbins, William J. Boucher, and J. C. Ralston 1331 

On Final Report of the Special Committee on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete. 

By Messrs. C. A. P. Turner, F. E. Turneaure. and A. N Taluot 1361 

On Final Report of the Special Committee to Formulate Princi(iles and Methods 
for the Valuation of Railroad Property and Other Public Utilities. 
' By Messrs. W. R. McCa.vn and C. E. Grunsky • 1^75 



CONTENTS (Continued) 

Memoirs : page 

Mendes Cohen, Past- President, Am. Soc. C. E 1389 

Augustus Jay DuBois, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1391 

Theodore Newel Ely, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1393 

Frank Firmstone, M. Am Soc. C. E 1397 

James Walter Grimshaw, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1398 

WiLLtAM Henry Hunter. M. Am. Soc. O. E 1399 

Walter Katt*, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1401 

Stanley Alfred Miller, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1-107 

David Simson, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1410 

Edward Clinton Terr y. M. Am. Soc. C. E 1412 

Edward Thomas Wright, M. Am. Soc. C. E 1415 

William Herbert Hyde, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E 1416 

Samuel Forsythe Thomson, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E 1417 

Lewis Roberts Pomeroy, Assoc. Am. Soc. C. E 1420 



PLATES 

Plates VIl-VlII. Illustrations of "The Three 15-Cubic Yard Dipper- 
Dredges. Gamboa, Paraiso and Casca(lax,as Sup- 
plied and Used on the Panama Canal"' Pages 967-9G9 

Plates IX-X. IlliistratioDS of ''The Di>tribution of Stresses in 
Miterint; Lock Gates, with Special Reference to 
the Gates on the Panama Canal." Pages 99."i-997 



For Index to all Papers, the discussion of which is current in 
Proceedings, see the end of this nuniher. 



Vol. XLIII. AUGUST, 1917. No 6. 



AMEEICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



THE THREE 15-CUBIC YARD DIPPER-DREDGES, 

GAMBOA, PARAISO, AND CASCADAS, 

AS SUPPLIED AND USED ON THE PANAMA CANAL 



By Ray "W. Berdeau, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Presented September 19th, 1917. 



Synopsis. 
The object of this paper is to place before the Society the result 
of the writer's study of the design, operation, and efficiency of the 
three large 15-cu. yd. dipper-dredges supplied by the Bucyrus Company 
for use on the Panama Canal. 



The 15-cu. yd. dipper-dredges, Gamhoa and Paraiso, were requisi- 
tioned by the Isthmian Canal Commission as part of the permanent 
equipment of the Panama Canal and for immediate use in completing 
the channel through Gaillard Cut (formerly Culebra Cut). A 
contract was made with the Bucyrus Company, which stipulated that 
the dredges were to be ready for towing to the Isthmus on December 
1st, 1913, and January 1st, 1914. The Gamhoa was accepted at Port 
Richmond, N. Y., on February 16th, and the Paraiso, on April 
13th, 1914. The Gamhoa reached the Isthmus on March IGth, 



Note. — These papers are issued before tlie date set for presentation and discus- 
sion. Correspondence is invited from those who cannot be present at the meeting, 
and may be sent by mail to the Secretary. Discussion, either oral or written will 
be published in a subsequent number of Proceedings, and, when finally closed, the 
papers, with discussion in full, will be published in Transaitions. 



964 



DIPPER-DEEDGES ON THE PANAMA CANAL 



[Papers. 



and was" placed in operation on April 4th, 1914, being- followed by 
the Paraiso, which arrived on May 22d, and started work on 
June 7th, 1914. The total cost of the two dredges, and the towing, 
etc., was $573 287.40, to which initial cost should be added $3 092.50 
for the Gamboa, and $1 786.21 for the Paraiso, the respective amounts 
necessary to place them in commission after their arrival. 

These dredges operated so eflSciently that the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission placed another contract with the Bucynls Company for a 
third dredge, of improved design, called the Cascadas, which was 
accepted at Port Richmond, N. Y., and successfully towed to the 
Isthmus, where it arrived on October 21st, 1915, practically 2 months 
ahead of the promised delivery, and was placed at work in Gaillard 
Cut on October 31st, 1915, at a total cost of $376 180. 



GAMBOA AND PARAISO 




■ Fig. 1. 

The following are the principal dimensions, etc., of the Oamhoa 
and Paraiso : 

Length of hull 1^4 ft. in.* 

Beam, moulded 44 " " 

Depth, moulded 13 " 6 " 

Draft 8 " " 

Digging depth, below water line 50 " " 

Displacement .1 730 tons. 

One main engine, two cylinders, compound, 16 by 28 by 24 in. 
One swinging engine, two cylinders, compound, 12 by 16 in. 



Papers.] DIPPER-DREDGES OX THE PANAMA CAXAL 965 

One backing engine, two cylinders, compound, 12 by 16 in. 

Two forward spud engines, two cylinders, compound, 12 by 16 in. 

One stern spud engine, two cylinders, 9 by 9 in. 

Two dock winches, two cylinders, 6 by 6 in. 

Two boilers, Scotch marine type, 126 in. diameter, 138 in. long, 

water pressure 150 lb. 
Two forward spuds, 48 by 48 in., and 82 ft. long. 
One stern spud, 30 by 30 in., and 83 ft. 6 in. long. 
Swing circle, 24 ft. in diameter. 
Bail pull, 235 000 lb. 

Hoisting pull on spud rope due to engine, 88 000 lb. 
"Pin up" pull on single cable, with brake on engine, 160 000 lb. 
Capacity of rock dipper, 10 cu. yd. 
Capacity ot mud dijjper, 15 cu. yd. 
Capacity of fuel oil tanks, 14 200 gal. 

The displacement of the Cascadas is 2 095 tons, and the hull is 
144 ft. long, 55 ft. beam, and 15^ ft. deep. Thus, it is 11 ft. wider 
than the others, making less reactions on the spuds, less metacentric 
variation when digging over the sides, and it allows the spuds to be 
inset. The spud- well construction differs from that of the Gamhoa 
and Paraiso, as their forward spuds are placed outside of the hull, 
with tapering sponsons fore and aft to transmit the reactions to the 
sides of the hull. 

Buckets. — The dredges were supplied with interchangeable buckets 
of two sizes, one with a capacity of 15 cu. yd. and another of 10 cu. 
yd., for use in rock excavation. Having been placed in Gaillard Cut 
in rock digging exclusively, the larger dippers have been seldom used; 
the smaller ones, as supplied by the contractors, were of extra massive 
construction, but were of insufficient strength to withstand the severe 
use and the impact from a dipper stick load of 131 000 lb., and were 
replaced later by the Missabe type of cast manganese-steel dippers. 
The over-all dimensions of the new dipper are 10^ by 9 by 9 ft.; the 
lips are Z\ in. thick at the bottom bands, and the body consists of a 
front and hack casting with lap-riveted joints at the sides; and, in 
addition, the lip is a separate casting riveted to the front piece and 
joined thereto by the rivets of the tooth ribs. Recently, the back 
and bottom of this dipper has been further reinforced, and the dipper 



9G6' DIPPER-DREDGES OX THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

is expected to give greater service and satisfaction than the preceding 
models. 

Cables. — The dippers are hung on a 275-ft., S^-in., extra pliable, 
improved, plow-steel wire, center cable consisting of six strands of 
37 wires each, intended to withstand a bail pull of 235 000 lb., the 
minimum cable life being 3 days and the maximum 35 days. The 
rapid deterioration of the cables is due to the severe abrasion they 
receive while at their deeper digging depths (from 35 to 50 ft.), coupled 
with the deteriorating effects of their constant travel over an under- 
sized point of boom sheave, which is grooved for a wire rope 3^ in. in 
diameter and is about 8 ft. in diameter at the bottom of the groove. 
The sheaves are of cast steel, with long, heavy cast-steel hubs, bronze- 
bushed, to distribute the pressure over the 11-in. sheave pins, pressed 
into place; the cables, which are the largest in use on dipper-dredges, 
are hardly satisfactory for the service required, for which the supplying 
manufacturers refuse to guarantee them. 

Dipper Handles. — The dipper handles on all the dredges are 72 ft. 
long, over all, and are reinforced top and bottom with 2 by 12-in. 
bars and by 1 by 22-in. plates on both sides of each dipper stick. Long- 
leaf yellow pine is used in the construction of the sticks, and white 
oak for dead wood. The racks are manganese-steel castings, with a 
pitch of 3 in., and are about 12 in. wide. They are shrouded to the 
pitch line, the top of the shrouded portion being ground to form a 
rolling surface for similar shrouding on the rack pinions. Heavy steel 
castings are used to connect the dipper hinge frame, and similar 
castings are used to connect the dipper back braces, which are securely 
bolted to the end of the handle by a large number of 2i-in., horizontal 
and vertical through bolts. The weight of the dipper handle is 81 000 
lb., its life averaging about 6 months, that of the rebuilt handles 
being 3 months. 

Saddle-Block. — The innovation in the design of the saddle-block has 
proved as useful as it is interesting. The slide plate is separated into 
two parts for assembling on the flanged shipper-shaft, leaving a passage 
in the middle, which permits the main hoist cable to run in a straight 
line, from the foot to the point of the boom sheave. This eliminates 
the usual hump sheave, which is generally placed near the upper end 
of the boom and is necessary on other dredges to lift the single-hoist 
cable clear of the saddle-block. 



PLATE VII, 

PAPERS. AM. SOC. C. E- 

AUGU2T. 1917. 

BERDEAU ON 

DIPPER-0REDQE8 

ON THE PANAMA CANAL. 




Papers.] DIPPKR-DREDGES OX THE PANAMA CAXAL 9G7 

The heavy unit construction facilitates the guiding and holding 
of the dipper handle in a much more secure manner, and improves 
the meshing of the racks on the dipper handles with the pinions of 
the 9J-in. hollow, nickel-chrome-steel, shipper-shaft, at times to such 
fln extent that the teeth are stripped from thorn both. By building a 
heavier bucket, the dipper handle, saddle-block, shipper-shaft, and 
hoisting arrangement offer opportunity for improvement in design, in 
that the dipper stick would be stronger if it was made of one piece, 
two main hoisting cables being used, running on each side of the 
dipper handle, thereby increasing the life of the hoisting cable and also 
the dipper stick. This dipper stick at times becomes bowed, and, due 
to the sliding fit with the saddle-block, necessitates immediate re-align- 
ment; this could be obviated if a rolling fit was presented, the rollers 
being supplied with bearings under compression. The sliipper-shaft 
bearings, which are bolted to the top chord of the boom, project so 
that the flanges of the brake wheels, which are built of steel castings 
75 in. in diameter with a 12-in. face and bolted to the flanges on 
each end of the shipper-shaft, engage the bearing boxes when lifted 
for removal, making an extended operation of changing the shipper- 
shaft. The brakes are of the double-acting type, and are actuated by 
a steam thrust-cylinder, the steam valve of which is controlled by a 
floating lever and operated by a hand-lever on the craneman's platform. 
Booms. — The booms on these dredges are 62 ft. long, of the plate- 
girder type, with curved top and bottom chords. All parts of these 
booms are supposed to be of ample section to withstand developed 
stresses, which, due to the heavy type of work, have been such as to 
necessitate reinforcement of the different booms that, with complete 
machinery, weigh 113 000 lb. They are equipped with a steam-operated 
l)Oom brake, steam shipper-shaft brakes, and a steam dipper-trip, the 
cylinder of which is mounted above the foot of the boom, and is 
connected with the latch bar on the dipper by an endless wire rope, 
the circuit beginning at the upper end of the dipper handle, leading 
around the sheave on the stand just below the shipper-shaft, and 
thence around the sheave attached to the cross-head of the steam 
dumping cylinder, which permits dumping in any position. The boom 
feet are of heavy steel castings, with webs and flanges of such length 
as to permit adequate riveting. The boom is stepped into a steel 
casting pivot, formed with sockets to receive the boom feet; the pivot 



908 DIPPER-DREDGES ON THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

rotates on a heavy cast-steel base plate, securely bolted to the hull, 
with its flanges extending over the front of the hull. The pintle is 
bronze-bushed, and has a bronze wearing plate or washer between the 
boom step collar and t!ie base plate, and another bronze bushing and 
wearing plate is used between the base plate and the center casting 
of the swing circle. 

Main Engines. — The main engines are specified to work at a steam 
pressure of 135 lb. while condensing. They are of the horizontal, twin- 
tandem, compound type, with 16 and 28-in. cylinders and 24-in. 
stroke, mounted on heavy self-contained cast-iron bed-plates of the 
Tangye pattern. The crank shaft is of forged steel, 12 in. in diameter, 
with journals 91 in. in diameter and 14 in. long, and with screw- 
adjusting bearings. The connecting rods, valve stems, and the adjust- 
able bronze-shoed cross-heads are of steel, finished and arranged for 
taking up wear. The link motion and reverse gears are omitted on 
the Cascadas, and are replaced by a steam turning gear, comprising 
a steam reversing engine geared to the crank shaft with a releasing 
jaw clutch operated from the engine-room. The low-pressure cylinders 
have piston valves working in renewable cast-iron valve cages, a 
stuffing-box being incorporated between the high and low-pressure 
cylinders. The eccentric bearings of the Cascadas are larger than those 
of the Gamboa and Paraiso, and the Cascadas is equipped with an 
overhead 15-ton traveling crane. 

Hoisting Drum and Gears. — The hoisting drum is of the differential 
type of cast steel, and is bushed with bronze. The small diameter is 
69 in. and the large diameter is 84 in. at the bottom of the grooves, 
which are for 31-in. wire cable. The drum is mounted loose on the 
16-in., forged-steel, main hoisting shaft, having journals llf in. in 
diameter and 18 in. long. Power is applied to the drum by two 
outside, wood-lined, band frictions, one on each side of the drum, 
both operated by a single steam cylinder 14 in. in diameter, placed 
at one end of the drum shaft and attached to a thrust spindle passing 
through the center of the shaft. The drum is of the usual type 
supplied by the Bucyrus Company on its dredges, and has a barrel- 
like shape, which permits the maximimi digging force and the slowest 
speed when the dipper is excavating and the angle between the hoisting 
rope and the dipper handle is sharpest; as the rope is wound on the 
larger diameter, the dipper is hoisted, allowing any desired increase 



Papers.] DIPPEB-DREDGES OX THE PAXAitA CAXAL 969 

of hoisting speed when the maximum bail pull is not required- The 
diameter of the drum could be increased, which would reflect in 
length of cable life. The drum is driven by two heavy spur-gears, 
12 ft. in diameter, one on each side, meshing with the corresponding 
pinion of the intermediate shaft. The gear hubs next to the bearings 
are lined with bronze. The intermediate shaft is driven from the 
crank shaft through a single gear, which has steel castings rim-bolted 
to a heavy cast-steel spider arranged for rim replacements without 
stripping the shaft. The intermediate gear rim is split for easy removal 
and replacements, and, like the pinion on the crank shaft, has cut 
teeth. The intermediate shaft is bolted directly on the engine bed- 
plates; the bed-plate also contains the drum-shaft bearings, and is 
of cast steel, forming an extension of the engine bed-plate, and is 
securely bolted to it and the structural base built into the hulL 

Stringing Circle Machine and Guid^-She<ires. — The swinging circle 
is of structural steel, 24 ft. in diameter, and mounted on top of the 
hull truss: connection is made to the boom with two heavy built-up 
girders, extending out from the circle, one on each side of the boom. 
The center is a heavy steel casting, securely bolted to the circle, and 
has an I-beam rim reinforced with 5-in. plates, the jaws being fastened 
to the boom at the forward ends. Changes have been effected in the 
rope anchorage of the dredges by maViTig the swing rope arotmd the 
circle in four separate pieces with open socket connections, which 
renders complete stripping unnecessary when the rope is changed. 
Two 42-in. cast-st-eel sheave*, on top of the hull truss, grooved for 
a 2-in. rope, and complete with shaft bearings and -i|-in. sheave pins, 
are supplied for guiding the swing rop)e from the circle to the swinging 
drum. The swinging machinery is operated by an independent double 
engine, with 12-in. cylinders and 16-in. stroke, and reversing link 
gear. The engine and drum are motmted on heavy structural steel 
bases built into the hulL and the linVg are reversed by the steam thrust- 
cylinder controlled by the lever which operates the throttle. 

Baclring Engine. — The backing aigine and drum are mounted on 
a structural steel base built into the hull, and the drum is operated 
by a separate 12 by 16-in., double, non-reversing engine. The cast-steel 
drum (26 in. pitch diameter) is driven by an outside-band friction 
clutch, actuated by a steam thrust-cylinder, 5 in. in diameter, and 
carries a 2-in. steel rope. The diameter of this drum is too small. 



970 DIPPER-DKEDGES ON" THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

as it breaks the strands of the cable, prevents proper reeling, and causes 
slack on the drum, which prohibits uniform backing of the bucket. 
The gear reduction between the crank and the 7-in. drum shaft is 
single, and a band brake prevents the running out of the rope. 

Forward Spud Machinery. — Each forward spud is operated by an 
independent, double, 12 by 16-in. engine, with link motion reverse, 
which is operated by a steam thrust-cylinder controlled by the lever 
which operates the throttle valve. The spud drums are 42 in. in diam- 
eter and are grooved for 2i-in. wire rope. The Cascadas is "pinned up" 
and the spuds are lifted by a 2i-in. wire rope passing around the four 
sheaves at the top of each spud; the pinning-up ropes are similar to 
those on the Gamhoa and Paraiso, but the spud hoist ropes run over 
sheaves which are on a gantry mounted near the spud casings and 
extending above the highest position of the spuds. 

' The Bucyrus Company has developed a big improvement in this 
design, as it dispenses with the sheaves at the lower end of the spuds, 
where the wire ropes are quickly cut by the sharp stones found in 
the rock excavation in "the Cut." Wood-lined band-brakes, operated 
by a steam cylinder, are supplied to hold the dredge when "pinned-up", 
and the spud tackle rope is taken up by four parts of rope. Each 
spud engine is connected to its drum by double reduction gearing 
of cast steel; and a suitable friction clutch, operated by a steam 
thrust-cylinder, is provided to disconnect the drum from the engine, 
allowing the dredge to rise and fall with the tide when not in use. 
The spud drum machinery and engines are supported by a heavy 
structural steel frame built into, and set far enough from the side 
of, the hull to permit ready access to the spud machinery on the 
outboard side of the foundation. The sheaves guiding the spud 
ropes to the drum have a pitch diameter of 45 in., are cast steel, 
bushed with bronze, and have annealed, forged-steel, sheave pins. The 
stern spud machinery is arranged for a trailing spud that is hoisted 
by rack and pinion, through two gear reductions, by a 9 by 9-in., 
double engine, placed on and operated from the deck, at the stern of 
the dredge. The intermediate shaft is fitted with a band-brake, to 
hold the spud in its proper position, and carries a jaw clutch for 
disconnecting the drum from the shaft and the engine. The stern 
spud is of structural steel, 30 by 30 in. and 83 ft. 5 in. long, and 
is held in place by a slidi'ng-fit arrangement somewhat similar to that 



Piipers.] Diri'KK-DHHlKiKS OX THE PANAMA CANAL 971 

of the saddle-block. This creates the necessity of immediate re-align- 
ment when the spud becomes slightly bowed. The forward spuds are 
of structural steel, 48 by 48 in. and 72 ft. long, with 8 by 8 by .?-in. 
corner angles, 2-in. side plates, and suitable diaphragms, those of the 
CascadaSj as mentioned, having all sheaves at the top of the spud. As 
heavy as they are, these spuds have to be removed every 90 days, three 
being broken in as many days, in one case. 

Deck Fittings. — On the main deck, outside of the house, there are 
two three-drum winches, which are used for moving scows, and are 
equipped with internal driving engines. Each engine is of the 
horizontal type, and has two 6-in. cylinders with G-in. stroke ; the throttle- 
valve is in the main steam chest, and also acts as a reversing valve. 
The drums are steel castings, bushed with bronze, with 24-in. barrels 
12 in. long, and equipped with friction clutches of the outside-band 
type, as well as band-brakes. There are ten double mooring bits, 
ten single deck spools, and sixteen deck chocks. 

Boilers and Fittings. — Steam is provided in the Cascadas by a 
battery of three boilers of the Scotch marine type, arranged so 
that any two boilers can be used at one time, the third one being 
a spare, permitting of blowing down without tying up the dredge, 
this being an additional boiler to the two supplied, respectively, to 
the Gamhoa and Paraiso. The boilers are constructed for a working 
pressure of 150 lb. per sq. in.; each is supplied with two Morrison 
suspension furnaces, and is equipped with marine pop safety-valves, 
stop valves, pressure gauges, blow-off cocks, etc. The stack is double, 
and about 50 ft. high above the tops of the boilers. One surface 
condenser is supplied, having approximately 1 500 sq. ft. of cooling 
surface, together with an independent air pump and a 10-in. brass- 
runner, centrifugal, circulating pump, driven by a separate engine. 
One 300-h.p., feed-water heater of the closed type and two 7 by 4^ 
by 8-in. brass-fitted, horizontal, duplex, boiler feed-pumps are 
provided, also a similar pair for general service, one fresh-water, 
4 A by 2i-in., horizontal pump, one 12 by 6 by 12-in., horizontal, 
duplex, brass-fitted pump, and a bilge pump for each compart- 
ment. The piping system is very complete, each line having 
a stop-valve to cut it off from the boiler or main, so that repairs 
can be made at any time without shutting do\^'n the system. 



973 DIPPER-DREDGES ON THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

All the large pipes are flanged, and the steam fittings for 200 lb. 
pressure and exhaust fittings for 125 lb. are extra heavy. 

Tanks. — There are four steel fresh-water tanks in the stern of the 
hull ; two of 30 000 gal. capacity are supplied for boiler-feed purposes, 
on the port and starboard sides, respectively. There is an 8 000-gal. 
tank on the port side for galley use and a duplicate tank on the star- 
board side for ballast and trimming. There are two 18 000-gal. oil 
tanks in the hull forward of the boiler, one on each side of the dredge, 
and two oil-feed pumps are used to supply oil to the boilers. 

Electric Light Plant. — Two 10-k.w., 110-volt, direct-current gener- 
ators, each connected directly to a vertical, automatic engine, are 
provided for lighting the dredge, operating the house lights, the search- 
light, and the lights used in night dredging. 

House and Cabin Construction. — The main deck house is 108 ft. 
long and 41 it. wide from the front end to Frame 48 (about 95 ft.), 
and 30.4 ft. from Frame 48 to the after end. The height is about 17 ft. 
for a distance of 18 ft. from the bow end, and 15 ft. throughout the 
remaining length. The upper deck over the house is 112 ft. long and 
44 ft. wide throughout, projecting 6 ft. 9 in. over the lower deck 
house on all sides. Quarters are supplied for 11 "gold" (white) Amer- 
ican employees and 57 "silver" (colored) employees. Three officers' 
staterooms have hot and cold-water service, one berth and single wall 
lockers. All other staterooms are fitted with double, wooden, built-in 
berths, with two drawers and lockers under each lower berth, double, 
wooden wall lockers, and wash-basins with hot and cold water. The 
galley and dining-room are amidships, between the "gold" and 
"silver" quarters; in the latter, thirty-eight standee bunks with canvas 
bottoms, and thirty-eight sanitary steel lockers are supplied. There 
is also separate modern bath and toilet service on the main deck for 
both "gold" and "silver" men. 

The Hull. — The hull of each dredge is of steel. The Cascadas is 
144 ft. long over all, 55 ft. wide, and has a mean depth of 14 ft. 6 in. 
(15 ft. 6 in. at bow at center, and 13 ft. 6 in. at stern at center), with 
a straight taper fore and aft. The deck has a 6-in. camber made 
by straight lines from the center to each side. 

Operation. — All three dredges are 15-cu. yd. machines, built by 
the Bucyrus Company, in the United States, and have been working 
until recently in Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. The material 



Papers.] DirPKU-DRKDGES OX THE PANAMA CANAL 973 

TABLE 1. — Monthly Performance op Dredge Gamhoa. 



Date. 



1914 

Apr 

May 

June*... 

July 

Auk 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 

1915 

Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June* . . . 

July 

Aug 

Sept 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 

1916 

Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June* . . . 

July 

AuK 

Sept 



Cubic yards. 



32 805 
108 185 
123 199 
108 896 
121 850 
in .S55 
187 060 
140 905 
166 092 



178 370 
149 554 
207 870 
168 725 
165 720 
1(18 725 
171 370 
199 425 
280 550 
249 515 
260 845 
266 470 



2.32 85.=i 
293 230 
804 006 
263 275 
271 235 
304 450 
320 190 
129 210 
150 175 



Cost of 
operation. 



84 446.82 
7 365.53 

6 764.6S 

7 441.27 
7 002.. 58 

6 561.27 

7 377.96 

7 612.19 

8 147.08 



7 823.27 

6 308.69 

7 425.82 
7 003.25 
7 599.88 
7 075.09 

7 376.09 

8 102.46 
8 263.33 

7 610.10 

8 280.17 
8 877.27 



7 515.06 
9 1C8.0() 
9.241.50 

8 896.18 

8 638. 5*3 

9 127.41 
9 448.95 

6 221.29 

7 748.87 



Cost of 
maintenance. 



810 798.18 
16 165.11 
24 279.25 
21 148.06 
14 772.77 
12 238.25 
9 015.69 
8 902.44 
12 997.82 



14 351.67 

8 939.04 

9 618.36 

10 593.31 

11 839.11 

11 3;i2.41 
9 421.10 

12 111.33 

8 455.81 
14 612.47 
10 431.38 

9 6^4.75 



8 590.89 
10 056.95 
10 790.25 
10 460.12 

8 996.67 
12 003.65 

9 055.02 
8 046.99 
8 288.84 



Total cost. 



815 '245.00 
23 5.30.64 
31 043.93 
28 .589.33 
21 775.35 
18 799.52 
16 393.65 
16 553.81 
21 144.85 



22 147.94 

15 247.73 
17 068.68 

17 596.. 56 

19 438.49 

18 407.50 

16 797.19 

20 213.79 
16 719.14 
22 222.. 57 
18 711.55 
18 502.03 



16 105.45 

19 159.95 

20 031.75 
19 356.30 

17 635.23 

21 131.06 

18 .503.97 

14 267.78 

15 987.71 



July 1st, 1915, to July 1st, 1916. 



3 097 226 



226 586.01 



Cost 
per yard. 



80.4647 
0.2175 
0.2.519 
0.2625 
0.1787 
0.1688 
0.1205 
0.1174 
0.1274 



0.1244 
0.1(120 
0.0821 
0.1043 
0.1173 
0.1091 
0.0980 
0.1014 
0.0596 
0.0891 
0.0717 
0.0694 



0.0692 
0.0653 
0.0695 
0.0735 
0.0650 
O.C«94 
0.0578 
0.1108 
0.1068 





Yardage Excavated by Fiscal Years. 










July 1st, 1913, to July 1st, 1914. 




264 189 






$69 819.57 


80.3021 


July 1st, 1914, to July 1st, 1915. 




1 825 122 




233 190.41 


0.1278 



0.0731 



July 1st, 1916, to October 1st, 1916. 



599 575 



48 759.46 



0J)713 



♦ End of fiscal year. 



974 DIPPER-DREDGES ON THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

TABLE 2. — Monthly Performance of Dredge Paraiso. 



Date. 


Cubic yards. 


Cost of 
operation. 


Cost of 
maintenance. 


Total cost. 


Cost 
per yard. 


1914. 

June* 

July 


69 812 
82 208 
95 475 
105 470 
125 605 
139 916 
144 165 

176 862 
172 057 
184 030 
204 250 
184 510 
174 685 
170 060 
203 815 
220 940 
291 675 
262 925 
312 920 

195 515 
236 235 
299 155 
232 865 
806 435 
272 064 
283 930 
315 915 
268 250 


$9 002.69 

5 717.11 

6 728.67 

7 236.62 
7 380.00 
7 938.98 

7 824.00 

8 111.45 

5 617.64 

6 395.02 

7 410.48 
7 239.92 

7 880.58 

8 003.89 
8 064.34 

7 280.87 

8 859.52 

5 740.54 

9 716.54 

7 295.94 

8 710.18 

9 099.70 
8 887.67 

8 649.36 

9 115.15 

6 418.34 
9 823.62 
8 921.49 


$11 458.21 

10 221.48 
20 155.38 
17 889.63 

9 644.65 
15 110.26 
12 871.43 

11 880.86 
9 310.49 

8 740.37 

9 274.15 
10 889.73 

8 855.95 

9 970.81 
10 748.12 
10 986.89 
15 502.24 

9 198.33 

10 153.78 

8 587.49 

11 975.35 
11 323.76 
10 152.90 

10 871.43 

11 275.58 
7 192.01 

12 505.83 

9 029.42 


$20 460.90 
15 938.59 
26 884.05 
25 126.25 

17 024.65 
23 091.19 
20 195.43 

19 492.81 
13 928.13 

15 135.89 

16 694.63 

18 129.65 

16 766.53 

17 974.70 

18 812.46 

18 267.76 
22 361.76 
17 933.87 

19 870.32 

15 883.43 

20 685.53 
20 423.46 
19 040.57 

19 520.79 

20 390.73 
13 610.85 
22 829.45 
17 950.91 


$0.2931 
0.19.39 




0.2816 


Sept 


0.2382 


Oct 


0.1355 


Nov 


0.1650 


Dec 


0.1401 


1915. 


0.1102 


Feb 


0.0868 


Mar 


0.1129 




0.0817 




0.0983 


June* 

July 


0.0960 
0.1057 


Aug 


0.0923 


Sept 


0.0827 


Oct 


0.0767 


Nov 


0.0682 


Dec 


0.0685 


1916. 
Jan 


0.0812 


Feb 


0.0876 


Mar 


0.0683 




0.0819 




0.0687 


June* 


0.0749 


July 


0.0581 




0.0714 


Sept 


0.0689 







Yardage Excavated by Fiscal Years. 



July 1st, 1913, to July 1st, 1914 : 




69 812 






$20 460.90 


$0.2931 










July 1st, 1914, to July 1st, 1915 : 




1 739 228 






228 396.80 


0.1313 










July 1st, 1915, to July 1st, 1916 : ; ,; 




3 004 104 






231 165.38 


0.0769 










July 1st, 1916, to October 1st, 1916 : 




818 095 






53 890.71 


0.0658 











* End of fiscal year. 



Papers.] 



i)ii'pi:k-i)uel)Ges on the PAXAMA CAXAL 



970 



TABLE :L — Monthly Pkrformanck of Dredge Cascadas. 



Date. 



1915. 

Oct 

Nov 

Dec 

1916. 

Jan 

Feb 

Mar 

Apr 

May 

June*. . . 

July 

Aug 

Sept.,... 



Cubic yards. 



695 
296 280 
821 065 

292 675 
33(1 6a5 
309125 
246 786 
316 7711 
286 491 
;M0 185 
208 967 
122 504 



Cost of 
operation. 



$127.10 
9 371.94 
9 961.47 

9 054.96 
8 982.54 
8 796.89 
8 649.02 

8 848.07 

9 171. .57 
9 383.79 
8 135.09 
6 864.80 



Cost of 
maintenance. 



810 056.25 
10 221.35 

10 769.15 
9 939.51 
10 723.06 
10 775.53 
10 818.53 
9 995.13 
10 244.25 
9 481.83 
5 367.74 



Total cost. 



$427.10 

19 428.19 

20 182.82 

19 824.11 

18 922 05 

19 519.45 
19 424.55 
19 666 60 
19 166.70 
19 628.04 
17 616 92 
12 232.54 



Cost per yard. 



$0.6145 
0.0656 
0.0628 

0.0677 
9.0573 
0.0632 
0.0787 
0.0621 
0.0669 
0.0577 
0.0862 
0.0987 



Yardage Excavated by Fiscal Years. 


July Ist, 1915, to July 1st, 1916. 




2 400 492 






$156 561.57 


$0.0651 


July Ist, 1916, to October 1st, 1916. 




666 656 






49 477 50 


0.0742 



* End of fiscal year. 



excavated consisted of hard and soft rock, to a depth of from 35 to 47 
ft. When the scows are moored on the port side of the dredge, their 
loading is sometimes handicapped by the inadequate view obtained by 
the operator while he works, as direct vision of the mid-scow pockets is 
obstructed by the structural frame supporting the boom and the port 
forward spud; these pockets, when empty, necessitate the lowering of 
the bucket into the pocket, so that the spoil when dumped, will not 
damage the bottom doors. An arrangement of an ordinary mirror, 
about 24 by 14 in., on the operator's right helps to a certain extent, 
but, as the scow in the view does not appear quite natural, the scow 
strong backs suffer. Reflecting mirrors could be arranged to give a 
direct full view of the loading section, thereby enabling quicker 
operation. The Gamhoa and Paraiso assisted in raising the drill barge. 
Teredo — which was blown up and sunk in the channel at the foot of 
Cucaracha Slide on July 20th, 1914 — by attaching the main hoist 
cables to slings and raising the wreck. Tables 1, 2, and 3 give the 



976 DIPPER-DKEDGES ON THE PANAMA CANAL [Papers. 

yardage of the respective dredges, Gamboa, Paraiso, and Cascadas, 
and the material placed in scows alongside the dredges. The accom- 
panying costs include operation, that is, wages of crew, subsistence 
of crew, fuel, and lubricants, maintenance, that is, the cost of keeping 
the equipment in first-class physical condition, and depreciation only. 
Extra heavy 10-yd. manganese-steel dippers were used on this work, 
the dredges working continuously in three 8-hour shifts, under the 
charge of the Resident Engineer, W. G. Comber, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
and the Superintendent of Dredging, Mr. James Macfarlane. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

' This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 

in its publications. 



THE DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES 

IN MITERING LOCK-GATES, 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

THE GATES ON THE PANAMA CANAL 



By Henry Goldmark, M. Am. Soc. C. E.* 



Synopsis. 

This paper is based on an extended study of the laws which govern 
the distribution of stresses in diilerent parts of a mitering lock-gate 
under service conditions. For reasons mentioned in the paper, the 
problem is indeterminate, so that the solution was based on the theory 
of elastic work. 

A general method of computation is first outlined, which is simple 
in principle, though the computations are somewhat laborious. It is 
believed to be more complete and accurate than any previously 
developed. 

An application to several of the lock-gates on the Panama Canal 
follows. The resultant loads which are sustained by the different hori- 
zontal girders and by the vertical bracing, are computed in detail, as 
well as the pressures exerted by the gates against the bottom sills. 



* This paper vrill not be prfesented for discussion at any meeting, but written 
communications on the subject are invited for subsequent publication in Proceedings 
and with the paper in Transactions. 



978 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

Some practical conclusions, drawn from the results obtained, are 
also given, as a guide for future designs. 



General. 



Mitering gates have been used in canal locks for several centuries, 
and are still the preferred form, to the virtual exclusion of other types. 
In large modern locks, they are generally built of steel, and are among 
the most expensive structures used in hydraulic works. In the interest 
of economy as well as safety, therefore, careful designing, based on a 
correct determination of the stresses, is a matter of importance. 

The problem of finding the stresses in such gates is intricate, and 
has been the subject of much investigation in the past. In connection 
with the design of the gates for the Panama Canal, the largest yet 
built, the writer had occasion to make a rather detailed study of the 
subject. It seems proper to put on record some of the results obtained, 
especially as American literature on lock-gates is very scanty. It is 
believed that the method of calculation used is novel, and is an advance 
on previous practice. 

The stresses are of two kinds, those due to the weight of the gate 
leaf, and those due to water pressure. The former do not affect the 
design of the gate seriously, except in the parts which serve to support 
it on the foundation, and to connect it to the anchorage in the walls. 
They are greatest when the lock chambers are emptied to permit of 
inspection and repairs. Their computation is quite simple when the 
weight of the metal work is known. 

The stresses due to hydrostatic pressure, on the other hand, govern 
the dimensions of the principal members, as well as most of the sec- 
ondary parts. The external loads in this case, too, are entirely definite, 
as well as their points of application, but the stresses they produce are 
somewhat indeterminate. This is due, in large part, to the complex 
structure of the leaf, which has numerous horizontal and vertical mem- 
bers riveted together at their intersections and covered by a continuous 
slieathing. The primary fun6tion of the different members, in trans- 
ferring the hydrostatic load to the masonry, is well defined, but the 
rigid connections cause the deflection and, hence, the stress in any 



Papers.] DISTIUIUTIOX OF STRESSES I.\ LOCK-(iATES 979 

one member to depend, not only on its direct load, but also on other 
parts of the gate. 

The distribution of the stress, therefore, is complicated, even in 
single-leaf gates which span the lock at right angles and support the 
water pressure by beam action. 

In miter-gates, which act as arches, there are further difficulties. 
The first arises from variations in the surface of contact on the miter 
and quoin-posts, where the gates bear against each other and against 
the hollow quoin. Especially if timber bearing pieces are used, the 
exact point at which the reaction acts, is uncertain, so that it is neces- 
sary, in the computations, to assume it to have a considerable deviation 
from the center of the bearing, in order to obtain the maximum 
stresses. 

A further difficulty arises from uncertainty as to the pressure 
exerted by the gate against its sill. In single-leaf gates this will not 
change appreciably after the first adjustment is made. In miter-gates, 
however, there are wide variations in the sill reaction at different times, 
with corresponding changes in the stresses. This is due to changes in 
the length of the leaves arising from variations in temperature, wear 
in the contact pieces on the gate posts and sills, and from various 
minor causes. Even with careful workmanship and fitting, it is 
hardly possible to ascertain the sill pressure exactly, although, as will 
l>e shown later, it is feasible to arrive at limiting values, not likely to 
be exceeded in practice. 

In this paper, a method of calculation is developed, by which the 
sill reaction and the loads on the different horizontal and vertical 
girders may be found in a given gate for an assumed hydrostatic load- 
ing and various conditions of sill contact. After these loads have been 
fixed, the stresses in the different members can be computed without 
special trouble. The gates are assumed to be of steel and "horizontally 
framed" with numerous horizontal girders. In the gate with "vertical 
framing", which has only two main horizontals, the stresses are more 
determinate, and the theory is much simpler. 

The problem, is first stated in general terms, and a solution is found 
applicable to gates of varying dimensions, girder spacing, and cross- 
sections. It is then applied to the largest and the smallest of the 



980 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

Panama gates. Finally, some practical conclusions derived from the 
computations are given, as a guide in future designs. 

Statement of Prohlem. — A mitering lock-gate consists of two leaves, 
which together support the water pressure due to the difference of head 
on the opposite sides of the gate. 

If there is no contact at the bottom sill when the gate is closed and 
mider pressure, the entire hydrostatic load is transferred by arch action 
to the side-walls. On the other hand, if the leaves bear against the sill, 
the latter will carry a part of the load, the remainder being, as before, 
supported by the lock walls. 

The proportion of the total load which will go to the sill, in any 
given case, depends on the structural arrangement of the gate frame 
and the relative adjustment of the gate and sill. 

The object of the investigation given herewith was to determine, 
for the Panama lock-gates, the pressure of the gates against the sills 
for different adjustments, the distribution of the loading between the 
several horizontal girders, and the stresses in the vertical framing. 

Previous Investigations. — The determination of the laws which 
govern the distribution of loading in the horizontal and vertical mem- 
bers of mitering- gates has been made the subject of extended studies 
by several distinguished engineers in the past. 

M. Chevallier* made what was perhaps the first study of this sub- 
ject. It included a series of tests with wooden models. The conclu- 
sions he drew from his experiments, as to the interaction of horizontal 
and vertical members in gate leaves, are in entire accordance with sub- 
sequent investigations, and of much interest even now. He gave no 
general formulas or rules applicable to the large gates of modern times. 

In 1867, M. Lavoinnef published a mathematical investigation 
covering the same subject. Hi^ method is very complicated, although 
applicable only to gates having equal horizontals spaced at equal ver- 
tical distances. Owing to these assumptions, and for other reasons, 
Lavoinne's formulas are not applicable to large modern gates, in which 
the cross-section and spacing vary from the top to the bottom of 
the leaf. 

* Annales des Fonts et Chaussees for 1850. 
t Annales des Fonts et Chaussees. 



Papers.] DISTRIHUTION OV STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES 981 

In 18.S7. M. Galliot* preseuted a now niathematical study, making 
practically the t^anic assumptions as Lavoinue, but attaining somewhat 
simpler results. 

In his' treatise on "Mitering Lock Gates", published in 1892, First 
Lieut, (now Brig. -Gen.) II. F. Hodges, U. S. A., gave a discussion on 
vertical I'raming on a somewhat dilferent basis, and deduced valuable 
rules for its practical dimensioning. 

Method of Calculation Used in the Present Investigation. — The 
method herewith presented was developed by the writer. in a less perfect 
form, in 1899, in a study on lock-gates made for the Board of Engineers 
on Deep Waterways. 

The solution is based on the well-known ''method of least work." 
It takes account of irregular spacing in the horizontal girders, as well 
as of variations in their cross-sections, and considers the cross-bending 
as well 4is the direct compression in the girders. In case timber is used 
for cushions at the miter and quoin posts, or at the sill, the formulas 
obtained can easily be modified, so as to allow for the difference of 
material. 

Although the method is correct in theory, the unavoidable lack of 
homogeneity in the steel, the difficulty of determining the vertical and 
horizontal rigidity of the leaf exactly, still more the uncertainty as to 
the relative adjustment of the gate leaves and the sill, prevent a very 
close determination of the actual stresses. 

It is believed, however, that the results obtained are reliable within 
reasonable limits, and will prove of much use in analyzing the strength 
and stiffness of existing gates or proposed designs. It should be added 
that the formulas when applied to the gates of the Poe Lock, at Sault 
Ste. Marie, gave results agreeing quite closely with deflection measure- 
ments made by the writer. 

Like most applications of the elastic theory to complex structures, 
the method of least work cannot precede, but must follow the complete 
design. In other words, it is necessary to adopt a detailed arrangement 
of all parts and afterward determine the distribution of the stresses in 
the different members. 

Ejfect of Vertical Stiffness. — A gate leaf consisting only of a cer- 
tain number of horizontal girders and an absolutely flexible sheathing 
would have no vertical stiffness. Such a gate would transfer no load 

• Annales dea Fonts et Chaussees. 



982 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

to the sill, except the water pressure which acts on the lower half of the 
bottom panel and is carried directly to the sill by the sheathing. Each 
horizontal girder would support simply the load which corresponds to 
the hydrostatic head due to its position. 

In practice it is impossible and undesirable to build a gate without 
vertical rigidity. The sheathing, combined with the quoin and miter 
posts and the intermediate vertical brace frames and intercostals, forms 
a vertical girder of considerable strength. By its resistance to bend- 
ing, this girder modifies the loads on the different horizontals, making 
them greater or less than those corresponding to the hydrostatic pres- 
sure. As a rule, the vertical girder transfers a part of the total water 
pressure to the sill. 

For purposes of calculation, the leaf is taken as consisting of a 
horizontal and a vertical system of girders crossing each other at right 
angles. The horizontal system consists of the several main girders or 
arches, spaced as they are in actual construction. The vertical system 
is assumed to be equivalent to a single girder extending continuously 
over the whole length of the leaf from the quoin to the miter post. Its 
flanges are formed by the gate sheathing, and its web is equivalent in 
total cross-section to the web plates in the several vertical frames and 
end posts. This simplification is justified by the close spacing of the 
vertical frames and intercostals, which prevents the skin plates from 
buckling. 

Sill Contact. — In case there is no contact at the sill, even when full 
water pressure acts, the entire load, of course, will be carried by the 
horizontal arches to the side-walls. 

If, in such a gate, all the horizontals are proportioned to support 
the hydrostatic head with exactly the same unit stresses in the steel, 
they will all have exactly the same deformations under load. There 
will be no bending stress in the vertical girder, so that it will remain 
straight, even after the gate is supporting the water pressure. The 
loads on the several horizontals will be those corresponding to their 
hydrostatic head. 

In practice, the horizontals near the top are always stronger than 
theory requires, in- order to ensure increased safety against accidental 
blows and to avoid the use of unduly small rolled shapes. It is also 
hardly possible to design all the other horizontals so that they shall 
sustain exactly the same unit stresses. There will always be some 



Papers.] DISTRIBUTION' OF STKKSSKS IX LOCK-GATES 983 

variation, therefore, in the deflections of the different horizontal girders. 
This will produce a tendency to hend the vertical girder which is 
rigidly connected to the horizontals, and its resistance to hending, in 
turn, will affect the deflections and modify the loads of the horizontal 
frames. 

However, the effect of vertical rigidity, when there is no sill contact, 
will be very small, except at the extreme top of the leaf. 

The case of "no contact" should always be provided for in the 
design, for, from various causes, it is likely to occur in all mitering 
lock-gates as either a temporary or permanent condition. 

In ordinary cases there will always be a greater or less reaction at 
the sill. If the water on the up-stream side extends to the top of the 
gate, and there is no lower pool, the greatest sill pressure theoretically 
possible would be equal to two-thirds of the total load supported by the 
gate. This maximum can only occur when the adjustment is so inac- 
curate that, even with continuous contact along the sill, the two leaves 
will touch only at the very top of the miter posts, even when the gate 
is subjected to the full head of water. This is an extreme case which 
would seriously overstrain the gate, and can be avoided by ordinary care 
in adjusting the leaves and sill. 

A much smaller reaction may be counted on as a practical maximum. 
It seems quite lafe to assume what is sometimes called ''perfect con- 
tact", that is, continuous contact along the quoin and miter posts and 
also along the sill when the gate is closed, but before it is subjected to 
water pressure. 

With both timber and metallic bearings, the actual conditions will 
probably correspond to lower sill pressures, as there will rarely be 
absolute sill contact in the dry. 

Therefore, two conditions of adjustment at the sill were considered 
in the computations: 

(1) Xo contact at the sill, even with full head; 

(2) Simultaneous contact at the sill, miter, and quoin posts, before 
the water pressure is applied. 

Let Fig. 1 represent the vertical section and Fig. 2 the plan of a 
gate leaf, of length, L, consisting of (n + 1) horizontal arches and 
a continuous vertical girder, the stiffness of which is assumed to be 
uniformly distributed over the length of the leaf. The sheathing is 



984 



DISTEIBUTIOX OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES 



[Papers. 



supposed to carry the water pressure directly to the horizontals, and 
the connections to be such as to permit the transference of horizontal 
reactions between the arches and the vertical girder at their inter-- 
sections. Let the magnitude of these reactions be denoted by 
X^, X^, . . . . X,i per linear horizontal unit of leaf. They will be 
both positive and negative in direction, and will act normally against 
the arches exactly as water pressure does. 

If, further, P^, P^, . . . . P„, are the direct water loads on the 
several arches i)er linear unit, their resultant total loads will be: 

{P, + Z,) L (P, + X,) L . . . . (P„ + ZJ L. 

With no contact at the sill, all these loads are carried by arch action 
to the hollow quoins ; but, ff the lowest arch bears against an absolutely 
fixed sill, that arch will carry no load to the side-wall, and (P„ + Z„) L 
will become the sill reaction. 



Punel 
m +1 



■-t 
4 

e 



..••••^ 



\3*^ 



,V^«' 



..^^^" 






.&^^'^ 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

In any case the only forces acting on the vertical girder will be the 
transverse loads, v t 

Zq L/, Aj^ 1j, . . . Z,( Li. 

The static conditions of equilibrium as applied to this girder give 
only two equations: 

^X = X,+X, + . . . . X^_, + X,= (1) 

2 Jf = X, \ + X, (h^ -h,) + ... X„_i (h^ - h„_,) = 0... .(2) 

for determining the values of Z^ . . . Z„, although there are always 
at least three such unknown quantities. 



Papers.] nisTKi niriON' of strkssks ix lock-gates 985 

Similarly, if the gate as a whole is considered, the reactions of the 
horizontals against the side-walls are indeterminate, as their number 
is in excess of the number of equations which can be obtained from 
static conditions. 

The stresses in indeterminate structures of this kind, however, can 
be found by an application of the method of least work. The principle 
on which this depends may be briefly explained as follows : 

If a perfectly elastic structure is subjected to external forces, the 
fibers in its i)arts will be deformed until a new condition of equilibrium 
is reached. The work done in this deformation (the internal work or 
elastic potential) will always be equal in amount to the external work, 
that is, the work done by the external forces. 

By the principle of least work, the reactions and internal stresses 
corresponding to the new condition of equilibrium, in addition to being 
consistent with the statical equations, must be such as will make the 
total internal work done by the structure, in passing from its original 
to its new condition, a minimum. 

This principle is sometimes derived from the theory of virtual dis- 
placements, but may almost be considered axiomatic, representing the 
theory of equilibrium in its most general form as applied to elastic 
solids. 

The application of the method of least work to this problem consists 
in stating the work of internal deformation in terms of the known 
external loads and the indeterminate quantities X^, X^ . . . X,„ and 
finding those values of. the latter, which, besides satisfying the static 
Equations (1) and (2), will give a minimum value for the total internal 
work done, while the gate passes f/om a condition of no stress to that 
in which the full water pressure is supix)rted. 

The internal work in the whole leaf will consist of the following 
parts : 

(1) That due to arch action in the horizontal girders, involving 
generally both direct compression and cross-bending; and 

(2) The work of bending the vertical girder. 

The work done as the result of the shearing stresses in the arches 
and the stresses in the web members of the vertical girder, being rela- 
tively quite small, may be neglected. 



986 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

The bending in the horizontal girders is due to the eccentricity 
of the line of pressures or resultants with reference to the center of 
gravity at the different cross-sections. For arches with continuous 
curvature this eccentricity is quite small, but occurs to some extent 
in all gates. 

If U}i = the internal work in the horizontal, and Z7„ that in the 
vertical girders, then, 

TJ = Ui, -f- U^ is the total internal work. 

For any elastic solid under purely axial stress (that is, direct com- 
pression or tension), the work of deformation will be: 

''■-Iybf'" (^> 

and, for one subject to cross-bending only (beam action), 

/»L J^2 

''^ = IteT" <^> 

in which equations: 

L = the total length of the member ; 
F and I = the cross-sections and moments of inertia at any point ; 

E = the modulus of elasticity ; and, 
T and M = the total axial force and bending moment at any cross- 
section. 

From Equations (3) and (4) a general expression for the work 
equation for all parts of a mitering lock-gate (such as is shown in Fig. 
1) may be written : 

In this equation, m corresponds to any horizontal arch and also to 
the panel of the vertical girder just above the arch so denoted. The 
axial thrust and bending moment at any point in a horizontal are 
represented by T^ and Mj^^, respectively; and ilfi„„ is the bending 
moment at any point in the vertical girder. The first two terms 
give Ufi (work in all horizontal arches), the integration being for the 
length of each individual arch and the summation to include the 



Papers.] 



DISTKIBUTIO.N OF S'I'HF.SSKS IX LOCK-GATES 



987 



(n -f- 1) diiforont arches. The last term f?ivos U^ (work in vortical 
jiirder), the iiitegratiou being for each separate panel, while the sum- 
mation includes all of th^ni. 

The cross-sections, F,n, and the moments of inertia, 7;,^ are the 
average values for any given arch, and I^-m is taken as uniform for any 
given panel of the vertical girder. 

As will be shown later, T^, J^hm, and il/,.„„ and, hence, U (Equation 
5) may be readily expressed in terms of the indeterminates, X^ . ,. . X,„ 
and the known quantities. If, in the resulting equation, the condition 
of statical equilibrium is introduced by putting, for X„ and A'„_,, their 
values in terms of the other (n — 1) variables (using Equations 1 and 
2), C will be expressed as a function of A",, . . . Xj^_.,. 

Differentiating under the integral sign, we readily obtain the 
(n — 1) partial derivatives required for finding those values of X 
which, consistent with statical equilibrium, will make the elastic poten- 
tial a minimum. Using the same notation as before, they will be: 



S U 
6~X 



m= n 



+ 



/ 



^ T d T 

E F^8Xq 



--rftf^:"'] 



m — \ 






L_ 
w = Jl 



--rtt^"'"] 






3/..... 5 31,. 



ni — I 



sx, 



'^dy = 



8 U 
SX„ . 



;fT'oUo^^'nSX^_, ^J, EI,,JX,_, J 



+ 



m = n ^ , 



m = 1 



E 7„„, S X^ _ 2 



dy = 



.(6) 



In Equations (G) the first two terms correspond to the work done in 
the horizontal arches, and the last term to that in the vertical girder, 
so that these equations arc of the form: 



su_su du„^^ 

d X SX 6X 



(') 



988 DISTEIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

The direct thrust, T, in a lock-gate is nearly constant throughout 
the length of the leaf for any given horizontal girder, and may be 
expressed very simply. 

If r = the radius of a circle vuhich passes through the centers of 
bearings at the quoin and miter posts when the gate is 
closed; (Fig. 2) and 
P = the load per linear unit on the horizontal girder ; then 
T = P r. 

For any horizontal frame, m, in a gate, therefore, we can write, 

Tn,= {P,n + XJr (8) 

Also, if e„, is the mean eccentricity of the resultant in the horizontal 
girder, m, that is, the average distance between the line of pressures 
and the center of gravity of the cross-section, we can also write, 

Mn,n = emT„, = (P^ -^ X^) e,^ r (9) 

The first two terms in Equations (6), which correspond to the work 
in the horizontal arches, therefore, may be written in the form: 



sx ^^E Lf,„7 i^„\J„ ax '• ' 

Similarly, the last term of Equations ((3) and (7), corresponding to 
work in the vertical girder, may be easily expressed as follows : 

Let M^^ be the bending moment in any point at any panel, m, and 
let the distance of this point below the panel point next above =: y. We 
can then write, 

Kn = L[(K - 1 + .V) A^o + (K-i-h,A- y) X, + 
. . . + {h,„ _ , — h,„ _ 2 + ?/) A'„, _ 2 + 2/ A„, _ ,] (11) 

The partial derivatives will be, 

V^= ^ (^u -1 + y)^ ^yy;=^ C'.-i - h + y) 

^ Km T 

S A' _ , 



(12) 



Papers.] DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES 989 

That portion of the last term in Equations (6) which corresponds 
to the work in Panels (1) to (n — 1) will then be given by the follow- 
ing expression : 

m = n — 1 

^ HI = 1 

»i = n — 1 

m — 1 

+ {K~r (K„-i- K) <>„, + (2 /i„,_i - h,yf + ^' [x, 

and there will be similar forms corresponding to the other variables, 
X, . . . A'„_,. 

The part of the last term of Equations (6) corresponding to the 
work in the bottom jianel must be obtained in a somewhat different 
way, as it is necessary to express Xn and X„_^ in terms of X^ . . . Xn_n- 

Let z =^ the distance of any point in the panel from the bottom 
of the gate; then we can w^rite: 

M^,n = L Z Xn 

From Equations (1) and (2), if we take moments about the girder, 
(n - 1), 

n ^ 
+ *. . . (/l„_,— \_2) A'„_2|. 

hence, 









+ • • . (hn-,-K-.^X^_,[ (13) 



for which Ave readily derive, 



£ 






EI,„SX, 3EI^_^ 

+ . . . /'„_,(/^„_^-^_,)A'„_,] (14) 

which represents the term corresponding to work m the bottom panel of 
tlie vertical girder. AVe can readily obtain similar forms when A" 



A"^ - 2 ^^^ t^*^ variables. 



990 



DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 



E 



General Equations of Condition. — Combining Equations (10), (12), 

and (13), and omitting the common factor, — , we have the following 

general equations. 

With Xq as the independent variable : 

wi — n 






»i = 
m = n — 1 2 3 

ni = \ 

2 3 

+ ^ iK-x -\ + K-1 (K - 1 - h) ^Y, 

'^ vn 

and with Xj as the independent variable: 
s U r<^ r 1 . ej -^ r"- (Pm + ^J s (Pr. + -^J 



X, ^ Vf,J h,JJo 



K..(lo) 



8X, 



d I 



m = n ^ I 



+ L' ^^ r ] K,_, (/^„-i - fh) a,„ 

m = 1 

2 3 

(/i„_i-/i,_2)A'„_2] = 
and equations of similar form for A'j . . . X„_2 as independent variables. 
By making the proper substitutions and summations in Equations 
(15), the (n — 2) simultaneous equations may be written, and from 
these, the values, X^ to X^^i, are readily found. 



rupors.J DLSTIUIUTIOX OF iSTKKSSES IX LOCK-tiATES 991 

Application of Formulas to Gates of the Panama Canal. 

77^-Foot Gate. — The general arrangement of the gate leaf is shown 
on Plate IX and the photograph. Fig. 3, which represents a somewhat 
lower gate before the sheathing is attached. 
The principal dimensions are as follows: 
Clear width of lock = 110 ft. ; 
Height of gate = 77 ft. 6 in. from top of coping to center of bottom 

girder; 
Central thickness = 7 ft. in.; 
Shape of gate: straight-backed. 
There are sixteen horizontals, the spacing of which is shown on 
Plate IX and Fig. 1 of Plate X, and is tabulated subsequently. 

The cross-sections, moments of inertia, and eccentricities of lines 
of pressures, which are shown on Fig. 1, Plate X, and are also given 
later, are mean values for each of the horizontal arches. The moments 
of inertia for the vertical girder are calculated from the skin thickness 
of each panel and the average depth of the girder. If ^^ and t^ are the 
thicknesses of the up-stream and down-stream sheathing, and (i, and do 
their distances from the center of gravity of the cross-sections of the 
girder, the moment of inertia is given by the expression : 

/, = L(t^ d,^- + t, d,^). 
Summarized, the data are as follows: 
Length of leaf, L = 787 in., 
Radius of line -of pressures, r = 880 in. (See Plate X, Fig. 5.) 

Horizontal Arches. — Mean cross-sections: 

Fq =F^ = F, = Fg = 100 sq. in. 

F^ =F =120 " " 

4 o 

F. =F. =F, '.....= 140 " " 

o i Id 

Fg = Fg =164 " " 

F =F =F =F =F =200 " " 

Mean moments of inertia : 

I^ =1, =Io =/3 =120 000 in.* 

It =1^ = 140 000 '' 

7g =7, = 7j, = 15G 000 " 

7s =7g =167 000 " 

L^=T,=L^ = L^ = I =100000 " 



992 



DISTRIBUTION" OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES 



[ Papers. 



Mean eccentricity of line of pressure : 




^0 ^ ^1 ^= ^2 ^ ^3 


. . = 26 in. 


e. = e 


.. =21 " 


4 "^5 


. . = 16 " 


6 7 ^15 




e„ =e„ 


. . = 13 " 


S 9 
^10 ^ ^11 ^^ ^12 ^^ ^13 ^= ^14 


..=11 '' 


Vertical Girder. — Moments of inertia: 




7, =7, =7, 


. . = 1 100 000 in." 


12 3 

7 =7 


. . = 1 180 000 " 


4 -^5 

7, =L 


. . = 1 240 000 " 


6 7 


. . = 1 400 000 " 


8 9 10 11 

7„=7 


. . = 1 580 000 " 


12 ^13 

7,, = r- 


. . = 1 720 000 " 


14 15 

Vertical Panels. — 




a, = a„ = a^ = a. 


. . = 66 in. 


12 3 4 
«5 = «6 = «7 = «8 = S = «10 = « 


11 =60 " 


(Z „ = a. „ ^= ffi. . = ft, _ 


. . = 54 " 


12 13 14 "^15 




Heights. — 




h^== 66 in. /(g =384 in. 


h^^ = 684: in. 


/^ = 132 " h, =444 " 


h,, = n8 " 


/(.^ = 198 " /is =504 " 


/i,3 = 792 - 


/i^ = 264 " /ig =564 " 


/;,^^ = 846 " 


/i, = 324 " /),n = 624 " 


/(_ = 900 " 



Water Pressure. — The water is assumed to extend to the top of 
the coping on the up-stream side of the gate, with a pool 9 ft. 6 in. deep 
below. Fig. 1, Plate X, shows the total water pressure and Fig. 2, 
Column C, of that plate, the load per linear foot on each horizontal 
arch. 

Reduced to the linear inch of girder, these values are: 

Po = 73.34 lb. p^ = 768.25 lb. p^^ = 1 419.35 lb. 

p, = 229.15 " P6= 898.45 " p^, = 1 467.9 " 

P2 = 386.67 " p^ = 1028.65 " p^^ =^ l 500 

^3 = 544.13 " Ps = 1158.9 " p,3 = 1580.7 " 

p^= 665.38 " P9 = 1289. " p,^ = 1593.75 " 

p,= 796.87 " 



rapeis.l DISTHIHL riON OF S'lKKSSKS I\ I.OCK-O ATliS 



DUo 




PLATE IX. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

AUGUST, 1917. 

GOLDMARK ON 

PANAMA LOCK GATES- 




Papers.] DISTRIBUTION" OF STRESSES IX LOCK-GATES 095 

The conditions of static equilibrium, as applied to the vertical 
girder, become: '' ^ " ' 

x,, = ~(x, + x\ + X, + A'3 + X, + X, 4- X, + z, + X, 

+ Z, + A\, + X„ + A\3 + A\, + A\J (10) 

and, 

Z,, = — 47 (900 Zo + 834 X, + TCS Z, + 702 X^ + G36 Z, + 

576 Zj + 51G A', + 456 Z, + 396 Z, + 336 Z^ + 276 X,^ 
+ 216 Z„ + 162 A\, + 108 X^^) 
whence, 

Zi^ = — (16.66 A'o + 15.44 A\ + 14.22 Z, + 13 Z^ + 11.78 Z, + 
10.67 Z', 4- 9.56 A'e + 8.44 Z^ + T.33 Zg + 6.22 X^ + 

5.11 Zjo + 4 A\, + 3 A\, + 2 Z,,) (17) 

and, 

X^. = + 15.66 X^ + 14.44 A\ + 13.22 Z'^ + 12 X^ + 10.78 Z^ + 
9.67 A^. + 8.56 Z^ + 7.44 Z, + 6.33 Z^ + 5.22 Z^ + 4.11 Z.^ 

4-3Z,, + 2Z,, + Z,3..' (18) 

In order to introduce the static conditions of equilibrium, the values 
of X^^ and Z^g in terms of Zq . . . Z^g, as given in Equations (17) and 
(18), will be used as shown below. 

The resulting simultaneous equations of condition, corresponding to 

= 0; = 0, etc., will then be reduced to fourteen, with 

5 X, S X, 

X^ . . . A'j3 as variables. 

Work of Horizontal Arches. 
The first terms of Equations (15) correspond to the total work of 
the horizontals. 

Each arch must be taken up separately, and the values of the 

expression, r' (^ + ^) ^ (P„, + Z,„) '^ ^^"t/^"'^ cl I obtained, 

taking X . . . Zj^, successively as variables. It may be convenient to 
represent this expression generally by the symbol II. Its values for 
tlie separate arches and variables will be the following : 
Arch 0: 



Xq as variable 



If = 12 106 f\F, + A,) ^(f^'+^y^i ^ 10 10,; (P^ + X,) L 
Jo ^ -\ 

= 12 106 (78.34 + A',) L = (12 106 A'^ + 948 3s4) L 



996 DISTKIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

X, as variable : 

and, similarly, we should find that if = when X.^ . . . X^^ are the 

variables. 

Arch 1: 

A'., as variable : 

/-i S (P. + X,) cl I ^ 

H = 12 106 / (Pi + X,) \ '' = 

Jo ° "^0 

A'l as variable : 

H=12 106 r (Pj + Xi) ^ ^^^ '^^^'^ "^ ^ = 12 106 (229.15 + X,) L 
Jo ^ -^1 

= (12 106 Xi + 2 774 090) L. 

For A^2 • • • -^"^135 H =0. 

In like manner, for the arches, 3, 4 . . . 1.3, H will = for every 

variable but one in the case of each arch. There will be a significant 

value, however, in the case of each arch for the one variable which has 

the same number as the arch in question. 

/I e"^ \ f^ (P + X) 

These values of Jf = rM - + - ) / (P + X) ^ — - — - d I 
^^ h ^ Jo X 

will be the following : 

Arcli O.—X^ as independent variable; TL = 12 106 X^ + 948 384 

" if = 12 106 Z, + 2 774 090 

" " ^ = 12 106 Z^ + 4 681 027 

" " 5 = 12 106 Z3 + 6 587 238 

" « ^ = 8 892 X^ + 5 916 559 

" " if = 8 892 X^ + 6 831 279 

" iJ = 6 802 Zg + 6 111 257 

" "5=6 802 Z, + 6 996 877 

" il = 5 477 Zg -f 6 347 295 

" if = 5 477 Zg + 7 059 853 

'' " H = 4: 365 Z\o + 6 195 463 

" " H = 4: 365 Z^^ -f 6 407 383 

" if = 4 365 Z,2 + 6 547 500 
" " H = 4: 365 Z,3 + 6 899 755 
ylrc/i i^. — For this arch, the general form of H will be 

H = 4 3«r, £ (P„ + ,Y„) '^'^» + -^""> ill 



.4rc/i 


1.- 


-^. 


Arch 


2- 


-^. 


Arch 


S.- 


-^Y, 


Arch 


h.- 


-X. 


Arch. 


5.- 


-X. 


Arch 


6.- 


-X. 


Arch 


7 .- 


-X, 


Arch 


8.- 


-z. 


Arch 


9.' 


-X, 


Arch. 


10.- 


-X. 


Arch 


11.- 


-x\ 


Arch 


12.- 


-X. 


Arch 


13.- 


-z, 



dl 



PLATE X. 

PAPERS, AM. SOC. C. E. 

AUGUST, 1917. 

GOLDMARK ON 

PANAMA LOCK GATES. 



77'6"GATE FOR 110-FOOT LOCK 



'/y///yy///'yy/y/y/y//y'/'/y/M. 



Horizontal Girders 
of Area of Ecwntricitr 

)4 Bqo&re inches. iacheG. 



Vertical Girder 



Loads on Horizontal Girders 
A Sill immovable, Vortical girder acting. Plotted 
>. •> removed. •< 



Beactdons of Vertical Girder od Horizontal Girders 



100 



26 



!» 000 
120 000 
120 000 
IIOOOO 

IJO ooo 

130 000 
136 000 
16? 000 
167 000 
100 000 
190 000 
100 000 
100 000 
100 000 
136 000 




49'6"GATE FOR 110-FOOT LOCK 
Horizontal Girders 



Loads on Horizontal Girders 



Reactions of Vertical Girder on Horizontal Girders 



Deflection of Miter Post nnder Water Pressure 



Uoneat of 


Area of 


Eccentricity 


inertia, ia 


eros&-GectioD, 


n of load, in 


(inchee)* 


square iache 


inohea. 


120 OOO 


100 


26 


120 000 


100 


26 


120 000 


100 


26 


120 000 


100 


26 


110 000 


120 


21 


HO OOO 


120 


21 


136 000 


liO 


16 


156 000 


110 


16 


167 000 


101 


13 


no 000 


120 


21 



Vertical Girder 

Effective 
Moment of Water Pressure 




Papers.] DISTRIBUTIOX OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES 997 

Substituting for A\^ its value from Equation (17), we have 

H = 4 ;305 f (1 r)!»;3.75 — 1().GG A'^ . . . _ 2 A',.,) 

-— <S (1 5!K5.7o — in.r.G X^ . . . —2 A^.,) d I. 

For the different indepeiulent variables, we have then total values 
for //: 
X^ as variable: 

H = iZ65 (— 16.GG) (1 593.75 — 16.66 Z^ ... — 2 Z.g) L = 
(— 115 898 930 + 1 211 500 X^ + 1 122 800 Z, + 1 034 000 A'^ 
+ 945 370 Z3 + 856 650 Z^ + 775 900 Z. + 694 920 A'^ 
+ 614 100 Z, + 533 330 Z^ + 452 500 Z^ + 371 700 Z.^ 
+ 290 883 A\, + 218 163 Z,, + 145 400 X^^) L 

A'j as variable: 

// = 4 365 (— 15.44) (1593.75 — 16.66 Z^ ... — 2 Z.g) L = 
(— 107 411 700 + 1 122 800 Z^ + 1 040 590 X^ + 958 400 Z^ 
+ 876 140 Z3 + 793 920 Z^ + 719 110 Zg + 644 030 Zg 
+ 569 090 Z- -f 494 280 Zg + 419 330 Zg + 344 460 Z.^, 
+ 269 580 Zj, -f 202 190 Z,, + 134 790 X^^) L 

and similar expressions when the differentiation is made with reference 
to the other independent variables, X^ • . • A'jg. 

These values are not copied out in full, as the work is very 
voluminous. Similarly, the method is only indicated in the case of 
Arch 15. 

Arch 15. — For this the general expression for H is: 

H = 6 S02y^' (P, + Z„) ' ^'^''.^''''^ '^ I 

r^ 5 (796.87 + A",) , , 
= 6 S02 / (79G.87 + A„) -^ ^ J ''' d I. 

If we substitute for Z^^ the value from Equation (18), we have 

H = (!S02 /* (79G.87 + 15. GG A'^ + 14.44 A', + 13.22 A^., 
»^ 
+ 12 Z3 + 10.78 X^ + 9.G7 A"^ + S..-)G A'g + 7.44 A''^ 

+ G.33 Zg + 5.22 Xg + 4.11 A,„ + 3 X,^ + 2 X,„ + A',3) 

r^ (71)6.87 + ir,.GG X, . . . X,,) ^^^ 

6 X 



1)98 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

which, for the different independent variables, becomes: 

A'q as variable : 

ir=6 802 (15.G6) (796.87 + 15.66 Xq • • • -^'13) ^ = (84 918 190 
+ 1 669 518 Xq + 1 539 272 X, + 1 409 026 X'._, + 1 278 780 X3 
4- 1 148 534 X^ + 1 030 128 X^ + 911 723 X,, + 793 317 X, 
+ 674 912 Xg + 556 506 2', + 438 101 X.^ + 319 695 X,, 
4- 213 130 X,2 + 106 565 X\^) L 

and similar expressions when the differentiation is made with reference 

to the other independent variables, X"^ . . . X'^g. 

Vertical Girder. 

The second term of Equations (15) gives that part of the final equa- 
tions due to the work in the vertical girder. If this term, for con- 
venience, is called V, its value for the several panels and variables will 
be the following: 

Panel 1. — Xq as variable: 

7 = 0.0871 L2 Xq 
and the values for the other variables vanish. 
Panel 2. — X'^ as variable: 

V = + 0.6097 L"- X, + 0.2175 L- X, 
X^ as variable: 

T^ = 0.2175 L2 x^ + 0.0871 L^ X\ 
the values for the other variables being equal to 0. 

Pansls 3-15. — The corresiDonding expressions for the remaining 
panels of the vertical girder will be of the same general form as those 
deduced for the first two panels. 

In obtaining the value of V for the bottom panel (15) the variable, 
X, was, of course, expressed in terms of X'q . . . X^^ 

Method of Obtaining Final Equations. 

The final equations are obtained from the values for H and for V 
above by adding all the terms which correspond to the same independent 
variable, X^, X^ . . . X'^3, and equating them to zero. 

In the case of no contact at the sill, the values of H for the bottom 
girder (15) must be included, as this girder then carries the full load 
which comes on it. 

For perfect contact, the bottom girder does no work as an arch, and 
hence the IPs, for this girder must be omitted. 



Papers.] DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IX LOCK-GATES 999 

If the contact is such that the bottom girder does some work in arch 
action, a portion of its H's may be counted. In other respects, tlie 
method of calculation is independent of the degree of sill contact. 

It should be noted that L (the length of the leaf, 787 in.) enters 
all values of H in the first power and those of V in the second. By 
dividing the final equations by L, it will be eliminated from the // 
terms, but will remain in the first power in those corresponding to V. 

From their method of derivation, the resulting final equations 
should be symmetrical as to coefiicients, and, in the equations for 
the solution of the problem, an average has been used whore two 
coefficients which should be identical have differed by a slight amount. 
There have been no large discrepancies, proving to a considerable extent 
the accuracy of the work. 

Only five significant figures were retained. 

Final Equations of Conditions. — The final equations, as thus ob- 
tained, are the following: 

(Case A). — No Contact at Sill. 
Xq as variable: 

3 007 500 Zq + 2 762 700 X^ + 2 530 200 Z„ + 2 298 200 2% 
+ 2 066 800 Z^ + 1 856 900 Zg + 1 647 600 Z^ + 1 439 300 1% 
+ 1 232 100 Zg + 1 025 700 Z^ -f 820 580 X,^ + 616 660 .Y,, 
+ 434 260 Zi2 + 252 900 X\.^ — 30 032 300 = 0. 
Z^ as variable: 

2 762 700 Zo + 2 561000 Z, + 2 335 100 Z. + 2 121400 Z, 
+ 1 908 200 Z^ + 1 714 800 Z^ + 1 521 700 Zg + 1 329 500 Z, 
+ 1 138 200 Z's + 947 700 Z^ + 758 250 Z,^ + 569 920 Z^, 
+ 401420 .Y,2 + 233 890 X^^ — 26 344 200 = 0. 
Zj as variable: 

2 530 200 Zq + 2 335 100 Z, + 2 151900 Z. + 1944 600 X^ 
+ 1 749 600 Z^ + 1 572 600 Z, + 1 395 800 Z, + 1 219 700 X. 
+ 1 044 400 Z„ + 869 700 Z^ + 695 950 Z.^ + 523 170 Z„ 
+ 368 580 Zj, + 214 860 X^„ — 22 574 900 = 0. 
Z3 as variable: 

2 298 200 Zo + 2 121400 Z, + 1944 600 Z^ + 1780 000 X^ 
+ 1 591 000 Z^ + 1 430 400 Z, + 1 269 900 Z„ + 1 109 900 X. 
+ 950 550 Zg + 791700 Z, + 633 630 Zj^ + 476 420 X., 
+ 335 730 Z,2 + 195 S20 Z^, — 18 806 300 = 0. 



1000 DISTEIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

X^ as variable : 

2 066 800 Zq + 1908 200 X^ + 1749 000 Z„ + 1591000 X^ 
+ 1 441 400 X^ + 1 288 300 A'^ + 1 144 000 X^ + 1 000 100 Z, 
+ 856 700 Z, + 'J'13 680 Z„ + 571 330 Z^^ + 429 690 Z^, 
4- 302 890 Z^, + 176 790 X^^ — 17 614 700 = 0. 

Z. as variable: 

1856 900 Zq + 1714 800 Z\ + 1572 600 Z, + 1430 400 X^ 
+ 1 288 300 Z^ + 1 167 800 Z, + 1 029 500 Z,, + 900 250 Z. 
-f 771 370 Zg + 642 750 Z^ + 514 660 .Y^^ -f 387 180 Z,, 
+ 273 010 Z,2 + 159 470 Z^g — 15 000 500 = 0. 

Z„ as variable: 

6 

1647 600 X^ + 1521700 Z^ + 1395 800 Z, + 1269 900 X^ 
+ 1 144 000 Z^ -f 1 029 500 Z, -f 921 620 Z,, + 800 250 X^ 
+ 685 900 Zg + 571700 Z^ + 457 910 Z,^ + 344 600 .Y^, 
+ 243 110 Zj, + 142 120 Zj„ — 13 993 300 = 0. 

Z^ as variable : 

1 439 300 Zq + 1 329 500 A\ + 1 219 700 Z, + 1 109 900 Zg 
+ 1 000 100 Z^ + 900 250 Z^ + 800 250 X^ + 707 130 Z^ 
+ 600 490 Zg + 500 700 Zg -j- 401200 Z^^ + 302 050 A'.^ 
+ 213 200 Zj3 + 124 790 Z,, — 11394 500 = 0. 

Zg as variable: 

1232 100 Zq + 1138 200 A\ + 1044 400 Z, + 950 550 A'^ 
+ 856 700 Z^ -f 771370 Z^ + 685 900 Z^ + 600 490 Z, 
+ 520 620 Zg + 429 760 Zg + 344 530 Z.^ + 259 540 A^^ 
+ 183 340 Zj2 + 107 470 X^^ — 10 344 600 = 0. 

A'g as variable: 

1 025 700 Zq -f 947 700 A\ + 869 700 Z, + 791 700 A', + 713 680 A\ 
+ 642 750 Z, + 571700 Z^ + 500 700 Z, + 429 760 Zg 
+ 364 240 Zg + 287 820 Z.^ + 217 000 A\, + 153 440 A'^, 
-f 90 138 Z,3 — 7 918 740 = 0. 

A'jQ as variable: 

820 580 Zq + 758 250 A\ -f 095 950 A^^ + 633 630 A', -f 571 330 Z, 
4- 514 660 Zg + 457 910 Z^ + 401200 Z, -f 344 530 A'g 
+ 287 820 Zg + 235 500 A'^^ + 174 470 A\, + 123 560 Z^, 
-|- 72 819 A'j3 — 7 076 810 = 0. 



Papers.] DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IX LOCK-GATES 1001 

A'jj as variable: 

616 660 Xq + 5G9 920 X\ -\- 523 170 X, + 476 420 X^ + 429 690 X^ 
+ 387180 A', + 344 000 A'„ + 302 050 Z, + 259 540 Zg 
+ 217 000 A'g + 174 470 X^^ + 136 310 A'„ + 93 679 Z,^ 
+ 55 495 A\3 — 5 158 560 = 0. 

A'j„ as variable: 

434 260 A'o + 401 420 A\ + 368 580 Z, + 335 730 Zg + 302 890 Z^ 
+ 273 010 Zj + 243 110 Z^ + 213 200 Z, + 183 340 Zg 
+ 153 440 A'g + 123 560 X,, -f 93 679 A'„ + 71149 X,^ 
+ 39 902 A\3 — 3 482 040 = 0. 

Zj3 as variable: 

252 900 Zo + 233 890 A\ + 214 860 X^ + 195 820 Z3 + 176 790 Z^ 
+ 159 470 X. + 142 120 Zg + 124 790 Z, + 107 470 Zg 
+ 90138 Zg + 72 819 X,^ + 55 495 Z,, + 39 902 Z^, 
-f 28 675 A'j3 — 1 593 370 = 0. 

The nietliod used for solving these equations is given in the Appen- 
dix. The values obtained were the following: 

A'o = 4- 154.60 Z.= — 94.82 Z,o = 4- 90.18 

Zj = + 69.59 Z6 = -|- 21.62 Z,, = + 33.31 

X„ = — 26.30 Z,= — 82.31 Zi2 = — 11.51 

Z3=— 127.50 Z3 = + 37.81 Z,3 = +T0.62 

A'^ = — 36.99 A", = — 84.21 

and, from Equations (21) and (22), 

Z,, = — 135.1 

14 

X,. = + 121.0 

These values are in pounds per linear inch of horizontal arch. In 
Fig. 3 (B), of Plate X, they are given per linear foot. Here, as in all 
other cases when X is positive, the vertical girder presses against the 
horizontals in a down-stream direction. 

(Case B).— Perfect Contact at Sill 
A'q as variable : 

1 338 000 Zo + 1 223 000 Z^ + 1 121 000 Z, + 1 019 000 Z3 
+ 918 300 Z, + 826 800 Z^ + 735 900 "z, + 646 000 X, 
+ 557 200 Z, + 469 200 Zg + 382 500 X,^ + 297 000 X,, 
-f 221 100 A',„ + 146 300 Z^ — 115 000 000 = 0. 



1002 DISTEIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

X^ as variable : 

1223 000 Zo + 1142 000 Z, + 1036 000 Z^ + 942 400 X^ 
+ 849 300 Z, + 765 000 Z^ + 681100 Z^ + 598100 Z, 
+ 516 000 Zg + 434 600 Z, + 354 300 X^^ + 275 200 Z,, 
+ 204 900 Zj, + 135 600 Z^g — 104 600 000 = 0. 

Zg as variable: 

1 121 000 Z^+ 1 036 000 Z,+ 962 800 X^+ 865 400 Z3+ 780 300 Z^ 
+ 703 200 Z5 + 626 300 Zg + 550 200 Z, -f- 474 800 Zg 
+ 400 000 Zg + 326 200 Z.^ + 253 400 Z,^ + 188 700 Z,, 
4- 124 900 Z,3 — 94 240 000, = 0. 

Zg as variable: 

1 019 000 Zq + 942 400 Z^ + 865 400 Z^ + 800 500 Z3 + 711 300 Z, 
+ 641400 Z. + 571600 Zg + 502 300 Z, + 433 600 Zg 
+ 365 400 Zg + 298 100 X^^ + 231 500 Z^, -f 172 500 Z,, 
+ 114 200 Z^3 — 83 850 000 = 0. 

Z^ as variable: 

918 300 Zq + 849 300 Z, + 780 300 X^ + 711 300 Z3 + 651 200 Z, 
+ 579 600 Z5 + 516 800 Zg + 454 300 X^ + 392 400 Zg 
+ 330 800 Zg + 269 900 Z.^ + 209 800 Z^, + 156 300 Z^, 
+ 103 500 Z,3 — 76 030 000 = 0. 

Zg as variable : * 

826 800 Zq + 765 000 Z^ + 703 700 Z„ + 641 400 Z3 + 579 600 Z^ 

+ 532 200 Z5 + 466 900 Z^ + 410 800 Z^ + 354 900 Zg 

+ 299 400 Zg + 244 300 Z.^ + 189 900 Z,^ + 141500 Z^, 

+ 93 720 Zj3 — 67 400 000 ^ 0. 

Zg as variable : 

735 900 Zg + 681 100 Z^ + 626 300 Z, + 571 600 Z3 + 516 800 Z, 
+ 466 900 Zg + 423 700 Z^ + 367 000 .Y_ + 317 300 X^ 
+ 267 800 Zg + 218 700 Z,g + 170 000 A\, + 120 700 Z^^ 
+ 83 930 Z^3 — .60 370 000 = 0. 

Z^ as variable : ■> 

646 000 Zg + 598 100 Z, + 550 200 Z^ + 502 300 Z3 + 454 300 Z^ 
+ 410 800 Zg + 367 000 Zg + 330 200 Z, + 279 800 Zg 
+ 236 300 Zg + 193 000 Z,g + 150 100 Z„ + 111 900 X^^ 
+ 74 150 Z^3 — 51 750 000 = 0. 



Pnpeis.] DISTRirU TIOX OF STRESSES IX LOCK-GATES 1(.)03 

A'g as variable : 

557 200 X\ + 510 000 A\ + 474 800 A'„ + 433 GOO A', + 392 400 A'^ 
+ 354 900 a;, + 317 300 A',, + 279 800 X. + 247 800 X^ 
-f 204 800 1\ + 1G7 400 A',^, + 130 300 X^^ + 97 ISO X^„ 
4- C.4 400 A'j3 — 44 670 000 = 0. 

A'g as variable : 

469 200 A'„ + 434 GOO X, + 400 000 X^ + 365 400 Z, + 330 800 X^ 
+ 299 400 a;, + 2G7 800 A',, + 236 300 A% + 204 800 Zg 
+ 178 700 Zg + 141800 Z,„ + 110 400 Z,^ + 82 400 Z^, 
+ 54 620 Z,3 — 36 220 000 = 0. 

A'^Q as variable: 

382 500 Zp + 354 300 Z, + 326 200 A', + 298 100 X^ + 269 900 Z^ 
+ 244 300 Zg + 218 700 Z^ + 193 000 Z, + 167 400 Zg 
+ 141800 Zg + 120 500 X,^ + 90 580 X,, + 67 630 Z,^ 
+ 44 850 Zi3 — 29 360 000 = 0. 

X^^ as variable: 

297 000 Zo -f 275 200 Z, + 253 400 Z^ + 231 500 X^ + 209 800 Z^ 
+ 189 900 Z. + 170 000 A^, + 150100 Z, + 130 300 Zg 
+ 110 400 Zg + 90 580 Z^^ + 75 090 Z,, + 52 870 Z^, 
+ 35 090 Z,3 — 21 420 000 = 0. 

A'^2 as variable : 

221 100 Zq + 204 900 A\ -f 188 700 Z^ + 172 500 X^ + 156 300 Z^ 
-f 141500 Z. + 126 700 Z^ + 111900 Z_ + 97180 Zg 
-f 82 400 Zg + 67 630 X^^ + 52 870 A",, + 43 940 Z^, 
+ 26 300 Zi3 — 14 320 000 = 0. 

A'^3 as variable : 

146 300 Z„ + 135 600 Z^ + 124 900 Z^ + 114 200 Z3 + 103 500 Z^ 
+ 93 720 X. + 83 930 Zg + 74150 X. -f 64 400 Zg 
+ 54 620 Zg + 44 850 A^^ + 35 090 A\, + 26 300 Z^^ 
+ 21 870 Z,3 — 7 014 000 = 0. 

The values of the variables in these equations are : 



A'o = + 156.10 


Z.=— 22.82 


Z,o = + 37.12 


Z, = + 81.23 


Zg = + 124.1 


Z,,= — 198.5 


Z^ = -f- 0.2828 


Z, = + 14.93 


A'i3 = — 4G0.7 


Z3=— 87.82 


Zg = + 135.9 


Z,3 = - 837.5 


A' =-f 27.67 


A' =— 38.78 





1004 DISTRIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

and, substituting in Equations (21) and (22), 

Z,^ = — 1208.0 
X,5 = + 2 276.0 
all these values being pounds per linear inch. In Fig. 3 (A), oi Plate 
X, these values are given in pounds per linear foot. 

JfO^-Foot Gate. — This gate consists of the nine panels of the 77i-ft. 
gate which are nearest the top, but the bottom girder, (9), is somewhat 
modified, so that F^ = 120 sq. in.; 7g = 140 000 in.*; e^ = 21 in.; and 
Pg = 622.8 lb. per lin. in. 
The static equations for equilibrium give: 

X\ = - (9.4 X, + 8.3 X, + 7.2 Z, + 6.1 X^ + 5 X, + 4 X, 

+ 3 Z, + 2 A\) 
Zg = + (5.4 X, + 7.3 Z\ + 6.2 Z, + 5.1 X^ + 4 Z, + 3 X, 
+ 2 Z, + Z\) 
The equations of conditions become: 

{Case A).— No Contact at Sill. 

1 152 900 Zq + 996 270 Z\ + 851 980 Z^^ + 'J'OS 100 -^3 + 564 850 Z, 

+ 435 260 Z5 + 306 440 X^ + 178 480 Z^ — 12 197 513 = 0. 
996 270 Zq + 882 620 Z^ + 744 830 X^ + 619 360 X^ + 494 280 Z^ 

+ 381 050 Zg + 268 440 Z^ + 156 550 Z\ — 9 481 511 = 0. 
851 980 Zq + 744 830 A\ + 649 790 Z, + 530 590 Z3 + 423 710 Z, 

+ 326 850 Z. + 230 440 X^ + 134 610 Z, — 6 684 281 = 0. 
708 100 Z,^ + 619 360 Z, + 530 590 Z, + 453 960 X^ -f 353 120 Z^ 

+ 272 640 Z'g + 192 440 Zg + 112 660 Z, — 3 887 777 = 0. 
564 850 X^ + 494 280 Z\ + 423 710 X^ + 353 120 Z3 + 291 460 Z^ 

+ 218 430 Z5 + 154 440 Z^ + 90 720 Z, — 3 668 164 = 0. 
435 260 Z„ + 381 050 Z, + 326 850 Z, + 272 640 Z3 + 218 430 Z^ 

+ 178 040 X. + 119 890 Z^ + 70 775 Z^ — 1 944 087 = 0. 
306 440 Zq + 268 440 Z^ + 230 440 Z, + 192 440 Z3 -f- 154 440 Z, 

+ 119 890 Zg + 92 153 .Y^ + 50 828 Z, — 1 854 752 = 0. 
178 480 Zo + 156 550 Z\ + 134 610 Z^ -f 112 660 Z3 + 90 720 X^ 

+ 70 750 X. + 50 828 Z^ + 37 683 Z, — 159 775 = 0. 

The values of the variables become: 
Zo = + 148.71 Z3 = — 139.92 Zg = + 9.32 Zg = + 147.72 
Z^ = -f 61.24 X^ = — 53.57 Z,=— 82.38 
X^ = — 36.48 Zg^^ — 110.26 Zg = + 55.72 



Papers.] DISTIUBUTIOX OF STRESSES IX LOCK-GATES 1005 

(Case B).— Perfect Contact at Sill. 

525 440 A'„ + 451 010 A\ + 388 880 Z,, + 327 170 Z., -f 266 080 Z, 

+ 211 180 Z5 + 157 050 Z', + 103 790 Z, — 58 716 000 = 0. 
451 010 X^ + 408 770 Z, + 342 380 Z, + 288 310 Z^ + 234 630 Z, 

+ 186 320 Z, + 138 620 Z, + 91 640 X, — 49 938 000 = 0. 
388 880 Z'o + 342 380 Z, + 307 990 Z^ + 249 430 Z, + 203 190 Z, 

+ 161 460 Z, + 120 180 Z^ + 79 476 Z, — 41 019 000 = 0. 
327 170 X^ + 288 310 .Y^ + 249 430 Z^ + 222 680 X^ + 171 730 Z, 

+ 136 590 Z, + 101 740 X^ -f 67 314 Z, — 32 131 000 = . 
266 080 X^ + 234 630 Z^ + 203 190 Z, + 171 730 Z, + 149 180 Z, 

+ 111 720 Z, + 83 305 Z", + 55 154 Z, — 25 820 000 = 0. 
211 180 X^ + 186 320 Z^ + 161 460 Z, + 136 590 Z, + 111 720 Z^ 

+ 98 020 Z. + 66 544 Zg + 44 099 Z, — 18 558 000 = 0. 
157 050 Zq + 138 620 Z^ + 120 180 Z, + 101 740 X^ + 83 305 Z, 

+ 66 544 X. + 56 585 Zg + 33 044 Z, — 12 931 000 = 0. 
103 790 A', + 91640 Z^ + 79 476 Z^ + 67 314 Z3 + 55 154 Z, 

+ 44 099 Z, + 33 044 Z^ + 28 791 Z, — 5 697 700 = 0. 



The values of the variables become : 



Z, = + 310.1 


Z3=— 96.30 


Z,, = — 301.4 


A\ = + 184.4 


Z^ = — 74.07 


Z,=— 593.4 


.1', = + 52.4 


X. = — 225.5 


Z, = — 871.9 



Z' = + 1 615.6 



Discussion of Results. 

The values of the variables, X^, X^, etc., previously obtained, give 
the reactions between the horizontal and vertical girders for the two 
gates and different conditions of sill contact, and (Pq -|- Zq), (P^ -}- Z^), 
etc., are the resultant girder loads per linear unit of leaf. Plate X 
gives these results in grai)hic form for the 77 ft. 6-in. and 49 ft. 6-in. 
gates, respectively. 

On this plate. Figs. 1 and 6 show cross-sections of the leaf with its 
dimensions, moments of inertia, etc., also the total water pressure acting 
against the gate, and Figs. 3 and 8 give the reactions between the hori- 
zontals and the vertical girder, in pounds per linear foot of gate leaf, B 
being for no contact and A for perfect contact at sill. 

Figs. 2 and 7 of Plate X give the resultant loads per linear foot on 
the different horizontals for the three different cases: A, vertical 



lOOG DISTKIBUTIOX OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [Papers. 

stilfness and perfect sill contact; B, vertical stiilness but no sill con- 
tact; and C, no vertical stiffness at all. 

Figs. 4 and 9 of Plate X show tlie deflections of the miter posts, that 
is, the distance they move dowia stream parallel with the axis of the lock 
for the. three cases just mentioned. These last curves are in general 
agreement with those showing the resultant girder loads. 

Loads on Horizontals. — The curves show that, with no contact at the 
sill, the values of X (reactions of vertical against horizontal girders) 
are quite small, so that, except at the very top, the deviations from a 
purely hydrostatic loading are inconsiderable and due to accidental 
causes. With "perfect" contact, the girders in the lower portion of the 
leaf (from one-third to one-half the height) were relieved of a large part 
of their hydrostatic load, the horizontals higher up receiving a propor- 
tionately greater loading. The girders closest to the top showed, in 
all cases, the largest proportional increase. In the 77 ft. 6-in. gate, 
there was also an increase for the horizontals in the middle third of the 
height. As a whole, however, the effect of the vertical stiffness was 
decidedly greater for the 49 ft. 6-in. gate. 

• In proportioning the Panama gates, it was decided to use a load 
corresponding to a head of 20 ft. for all girders Avithin 20 ft. of the top. 
For those lower, down, the hydrostatic head was taken, but, in gates* 
more than 75 ft. high, the girders in the middle third of the height had 
tliis load increased by from 5 to 10 per cent. 

For smaller gates, the effect of vertical stiffness would probably be 
greater than for the very high and rather thin Panama gates. 

There is no reason, however, to doubt that the common assumption 
of hydrostatic loading, except for a few girders near the top, will give 
safe results. In the lower part of the leaf, the stresses in actual service 
will generally be quite small in a gate designed for the hydrostatic 
head, as it is very probable that there will be some contact at the sill. 
However, the increase in cost involved, is not great, and in any event 
the miter gate will weigh much less than any form of caisson or 
single-leaf gate. 

Reaction of Gate Against Sill. — For the case of no contact, the 
reaction, of course, is equal to zero. For "perfect contact", the sill 
pressure is equal to the end reaction, X,, at the bottom of the vertical 
girder plus the direct water load, P, on the lowest arch. 



Papers.] DlSTKllSUTIOX OF STKESSns I\ LOCK-GATES lU(K 

These values for the two yates arc as follows: (See Figs. 2 and 7 

of Plate X). 

For the 77 ft. 0-in. gate, 

1-2 (Z',5 + A',.) = ll.-)(;0 + 27 322 = 3(1 8«2 lb. per lin. ft. 

30 8."^2 

or, :; = IS). 4% of the total load of the crate. 

1S4 S7o 

For the 49 ft. G-in. gate, 

12 (Pg + X,.,) r= 7 474 + 10 :!S7 = 20 8.-.7 lb. per lin. ft. 

20 857 

or, = 35.1% of the total load. 

76 505 

It will be noted that the total sill reaction is proportionately 
greater for the lower gate. 

In case there is some elastic movement of the sill under pressure, 
the sill reaction and also the loads on horizontals and the deflections 
will be values intermediate between Cases A and B. 

As stated previously, it is believed that Case J. is a sufficient 
maximum. 

For small locks it is not unusual to make the masonry sill strong- 
enough to withstand the theoretical maximum of GOg^ of the total 
water pressure acting against the gate. For the large proportions at 
Panama, it would have been difficult to make the sill walls strong 
enough to carry this maximum, and it seemed entirely unnecessary. 
It was deemed quite safe to assume a pressure of 50 000 lb. per lin. ft. 
of sill or about one-quarter of the whole load on the gate. 

Stresses in the Vertical Bracing. — This bracing corresponds to the 
vertical girder in the computations, the loads acting on it being the 
forces, Xq, X^, etc., applied transversely at distances corresponding to 
the spacing of the horizontal girders. 

The chord stresses are readily obtained from the values shown on 
Plate X. The unit stresses were found to be not more than 4 500 lb. 
per sq. in. in any part of the bracing. 

The shears for proportioning the web thickness and the rivet 
comiections were obtained in a similar manner from the transverse 
forces, Xq, Z,, eto. 



1008 DISTKIBUTION OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES [.Papers. 

APPENDIX 



Method for the SoLUxioisf of Simultaneous Equations. 

For the solution of simultaneous equations of the first degree, the 
method originated by the celebrated astronomer, Gauss, is probably 
the best for practical use in the engineer's office. The solution by 
determinants is theoretically attractive, but its application is not 
satisfactory. Graphical methods are the best in some cases, but can 
hanhy be used where the coefficients of the different variables diifer 
widely in magnitude, and where a high degree of accuracy is required. 
Gauss' method in a simple form may be stated as follows: 
Given, say, three simultaneous equations of the form: 

ax-\-'by-\-cz-\-m = vl) 

h X -i- d 1/ -^ e z-\- n = (2) 

cx^ey + fz + p = (3) 

to find the values of x, y, and z. 
From Equation (1), we obtain: 

h y -\- c z -\- m 



X = 

a 



and substituting in Equations (2) and (3), we have: 

(„_±6), + (e_ Ic ).+ („- I ») =0....(2.) 

0-vO* + (-'"7,-O^+("-T"') =»••■•(••'') 

which may be written, 

d, y + e,z + n, = (2^) 

e, y + /i z+2h=0 (3^) 

In these two equations the coefficients are the same as in Equations 
(2) and (3), with a subscript added. 

From Equations (2^) and (3^, we have, in the same way, 

(■'■■-t'.)-'+0''-i-)='' <•''' 

which may be written, 

/o z + p. = (32) 

7) 

From Equation (3^), we obtain tlie value of z = r, and the 

value of X and y by substituting in the first and second sets of 
equations. 

By writing the equation in tabular form, the relation of the suc- 
cessive coefficients is made clearer, and a valuable check on the arith- 
metical work is obtained at each step. 



Papers. I DISTIMIUIIOX OF STRESSES IN LOCK-OATES 

TABLE 1. 



10U9 



Kqiiation (1). 
Einiatiou {2). 
Equiition (3). 



y 



a 4- b -\- c -{- m 

b + d -j- e 4- n 



TABLE 2. 



Equation (2i). 
Equation (3i). 



Pi 



TABLE 3. 



Equation (32). 



/2 



On examining Equations (20 and (30, it will be seen that the 
coefficients. c?i, e^, etc., are always of the form, 

in which, 

T^the corresponding coefficient in Equations (2) and (3). that 

is, the coefficient of the same variable, omitting the 

subscript ; 
U^the coefficient in the top horizontal line, that is. in Equation 

(1) vertically above T; 
T = the last coefficient to the left in the same horizontal line with 

T; and 
II = the coefficient of x in the top row. 

The values of q, r, and s, in the last column of Table 1 are written 
down by simply adding the preceding coefficients in each horizontal 
row. 

In Tables 2 and 3, r,, s,, .9, like the coefficients, d^, e^, n^, etc., are 

obtained by the fornuila, T -— , previously given. 

The check consists in adding up each horizontal line; the last term 
should be equal to the sum of the preceding ones, that is, for instance, 
s should equal e^ -\- f^ -\- Py 



1010 



DISTKIBUTION OF STKESSES IX LOCK-GATES 



[Papers. 



Numerical Example. 

482.5 X 4- 348.4 y + 238.G z + 140.7 u — 48 915 = 
348.4 X + 280.5 y + 186.0 z + 111.4 u — 37 167 = 

238.6 X + 186.0 y + 146.9 z -^ 82.0 m — 24 484 = 

140.7 X + 111.4 y + S2.0 z + 66.0 u — 11 760 = 

TABLE 4. 



x 


!/ 


s 


u 







482.5 
348.4 
238.6 
140.7 


348.4 
280.5 
186.0 
111.4 


238.6 
186.0 
146.9 

82.0 


140.7 
111.4 
82.0 
66.0 


— 48 915 

— 37 167 

— 24 484 

— 11 760 


— 47 704.8 

— 36 240.1 

— 23 380.5 

— 11 359.9 



TABLE 5. 



y 


z 


u 










28.92 

13.70 

9.80 


13.70 
28.90 
12.42 


9.80 
12.42 
24.97 


- 1 847 

— 296 
+ 2 503 


— 1 794.5 

— 2 410.0 
+ 2 550.1 



TABLE 6. 



22.41 

7.78 



7.78 
21.65 



+ 579 
+ 3 128. 



4- 609.2 
-j- 3 158.3 



TABLE 7. 



18.95 



+ 2 927.9 



-(- 2 946.84 



The coefficients for the first equation in Table 5, will be, 

280.6 -?iM^M:i = 28.92 

48-2.5 

238 . 6 X 348 . 4 

180.0 — • = 13.70 

4S2.0 

m.4 _llHili!Li = 9.80 

482.5 

482.5 



Paiicrs.] DISTKIBUTIOX OF STRESSES IN LOCK-GATES Kill 

and. as a check, the last term 

47 704.8 X .'US. 4 \ 

<-*'""•' 452:5 — ) = -i-'-'^-5 

which slioiild and does equal the sum of the preceding terms. 

The roots are a; = -f- 58, .2/ = + 103, z ^ -\- 27, and m = — 154. 

The computations were carried out mainly with the use of the 
•well-known cylindrical slide-rule of Edwin Thacher, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
and the "Millionaire" multiplying machine. 

Althougli such operations are necessarily somewhat tedious, the 
set of equations containing fovu'teen variables was solved by two 
computers in less than 15 hours of actual work. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

Thi?: Society is not responsible for auy statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



AIR TANKS ON PIPE LINES* 



By Mintox "I\r. Waui^ex, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E. 



Synopsis. 
The object of this paper is to call attention to the utility of air 
tanks on long pipe lines and to some of their practical disadvantages, 
to formulate the theoretical principles involved, and to derive simple 
formulas which may be used as a guide to determine their safe 
dimensions. 

The contents of this paper may be briefly classified as follows: 
Formulas for air tank design ; 
Derivation of formulas ; 

Practical questions of design and operation; and 
Numerical examples. 

Conclusions. — Although there is a general idea that air tanks are 
not successful for regulating purposes on pipe lines, and that their 
design is a matter of great uncertainty, it can be shown that, if 
properly built, they are of great practical value in improving regula- 
tion and preventing water-hammer, and their design is simple and 
based on fundamental laws. 



The literature on the design of air tanks on pipe lines for water- 
wheel regulation is very limited. This is, perhaps, due to two causes: 
first, because of a general belief that the problem is so complex as 
to need a difficult mathematical solution by calculus; second, because 

• This paper will not be presented for discussion at any meeting of the Society, 
but written communications on the subject are invited for subsequent publication in 
Proceedings, and with the paper in Transactions. 



1014 



AIK TANKS ON PIPE LINES 



[Papers. 



of a popular idea that, in order to be effective, the air tank must be 
so hirge as to be prohibitive in cost. Neither of these, however, is true. 
The design of such a tank is simple, and comparatively small tanks 
are in commercial operation on pipe lines, and have greatly improved 
the regulation and reduced the trouble from water-hammer. 

For the sake of convenience the formulas are given first, the 
assumptions used in their derivation are then listed, and finally they 
are derived from Newton's second law of motion and the physical 
laws governing the expansion and compression of air. 




Fj = Velocity in pipe before load change. 
T'..= Velocity in pipe after load change. 



Fig. 1. 

^lore complicated formulas are appended which are derived by 
calculus with fewer assumptions. 

Nomenclature. — The following gives the meaning of every term 
used in deriving the formulas. All units are in feet, pounds, or seconds. 

A = cross-sectional area of air tank, in square feet ; 
g = acceleration of gravity = 32.2 ft. per sec. per sec. ; 
L a 



K = 



(^"1-^)^ 



9 --i Ih 

K^ ;^= Head lost between air tank and pipe line, in feet, when 
a (V^ — y„) cu. ft. per sec. are flowing into tank; 
L = length of pipe, in feet, between open reservoir or fore-bay 

and air tank; 
I = length of air column in tank before load change, in feet ; 
a = cross-sectional area of pipe, in square feet; 
Pj = air pressure in air tank before load change, including 
atmospheric pressure, measured in feet of water; 



J-'='P«^'''^-J AIK TANKS OX PIPE LINES 1015 

p^ =^ maxinuun or minimum ail* pressure in air tank due to load 

cluuiux'. including atmosplierie pressure, measured in 

feet of water; 

/ = time for pressure in air tank to change from i)^ to p.., in 

seconds; 

Fj =■■ velocity of water in pipe before load change, in feet per 

second ; 
T'^ = velocity of water in pipe after load change, in feet per 
second ; 
v = velocity of water in pipe at any time, in feet per second: 
IT' = weight of 1 cu. ft. of water = 62.4 lb. ; 
Y = maximum rise or fall of water in air tank, in feet, measured 

from water level before load was changed; 
y = rise or fall of water in air tank at any time. 

Formulas. — The following formulas are sufficiently accurate for 
most practical cases. The true values of Y and p, will lie between 
the values obtained for isothermal* and for adiabatic* compression 
or expansion, but will be nearer the latter values. 

Assuming isothermal compression or expansion: 

r = J77^%f (..) 

where K = -^^ ( F, — T:,)^ 

--,t'-f <«> 

Assuming adiabatic compression or expansion: 

-J^ 71.41 



f<;)r loads thrown off, and 



71.41 



(I + Y)'-'' = - ^^. (C) 



for loads thrown on. 

»'="'{,^ry" '°> 

* Isothermal compression or expansion assumes that the temperature ot the air 
in the tank remains constant. All the heat generated in compressing the air, there- 
fore, must escape instantly through the walls of the tanlc and into the water. 

Adiabatic compression or expansion assumes that no heat passes through the 
tank walls or between the air and water. 



1016 AIR TANKS ON PIPE LINES [Papers. 

Where plus and minus signs appear, the minus sign applies to loads 
thrown off, the plus sign to loads thrown on. 

Assumptions. — Those formulas are derived by using the following 
assumptions, and, before using them on any specific case, these assump- 
tions should be examined in order to make sure that they apply to the 
case in question. 

1.— Pressure in tank rises or falls at a constant rate;* 

2. — Water level in tank rises or falls at a constant rate;* 

3.— Water pressure due to change of water level in tank is 

neglected.* 
4. — 'No loss of head between tank and pipe line; 
5. — Time necessary to open or close wheel gates is neglected; 
6. — Friction in pipe line is neglected. 
7. — Time necessary for a pressure wave to travel the length of 

the pipe is neglected. 
8. — Governor action is neglected. 

The errors introduced by the use of these assumptions oifset each 
other to a large extent, as some of them will lead to values of p^ 
which are too large, and others to values which are too small. It 
should be noted, however, that if the loss of head between the tank 
and pipe line is comparatively large, the pressure may rise higher 
in the pipe line and wheel than in the tank. 

In general, the error caused by Assumption 6 is negligible, as the 
rise in air pressure is large in comparison with the difference in 
friction head at any two loads. In order to be absolutely safe, this 
friction head may be added to the value of p^ obtained from the 
formulas for loads thrown off, but this will give results which are 
too large. The reverse is true for loads thrown on. 

Assumption 7 is reasonable, as the time for a rise of pressure to 
be transmitted along the pipe line is usually small in comparison 
with the time of oscillation in the air tank. 

The effect of governor action (Assumption 8) is discussed later. 

From numerical computations it appears that Assumptions 1, 2, 
and 3, taken together, lead to values of p, which are too small. 

• Formulas (P) and (Q), derived by calculus, are appended; they are deduced 
without the use of Assumptions 1, 2, and 3. These may be used for the final design 
of a tank. 



Papers.] ' All; tanks on PIPE LIXES 1017 

Derivation of Formulas. — To avoid confusion, the formulas for 
load thrown off (air compressed) are first derived. 
Using the t\iiul;iinental law, 

Mass X Acceleration = Force, 

and multiplying: through by time, we get 

Mass X Change in Velocity = Force X Time (E) 

WaL 

The mass of the water in the pipe is . When a load is 

9 
thrown off, the velocity is cut down from Fj to V.,, and the change 

of velocity, therefore, is (V^ — F,)- 

The force tending to slow down the water in the pipe is due to 
the difference in head at the two ends, or rise of pressure at the lower 
end. Assuming no head lost between the air tank and pipe line (Assump- 
tion 4), and neglecting the pressure due to the rise of water in the 
tank (Assumption 3), this difference in head is equal to the rise of 
ail^ pressure in the tank, which varies from zero at the beginning to 
(^2 — Pi) ^^ *^® ^^^- Assuming the rise to be at a constant rate 
(Assumption 1), the average force tending (during the time, to 

slow down the water will be W a —^— — -, in pounds. 

As a matter of fact, the average force is less than this, as it rises 
faster at the end than at the beginning. 

Using Formula (E), and inserting the foregoing values, we get 

^^XO\-V.^=Wa^^Xt (G) 

The time, t, is unknown. Neglecting the short time necessary for 
the governor to move the gates and decrease the quantity of water 
supplied to the wheel (Assumption 5), the net quantity of water 
coming into the tank when the load is first thrown off will be the 
volume flowing in from the pipe line (a U, ) less the volume flowing 
out to the wheel (a V.,). Therefore the water will start to rise in 

tlie tank at a velocity of -r- (V^ — V.,), in feet per second, and this 

will decrease to zero in the time, t. Assuming this decrease to be at 
a constant rate (Assumption 2), the average velocity will be half of 

this, or — — (Fi — F.,). As a matter of fact, the average veloritv is 
2 A. 



1018 AIE TANKS ON PIPE LINES [Papers.. 

greater than this, for the velocity decreases at a slower rate at the 
end of the time than at the beginning. 

If the water rises in the tank at an average velocity of 

a 2 A Y ^ 

—— (Fj — T".,), in feet per second, it will take — = r^r— seconds to 

rise a distance, 1". Therefore, 

t = (H*) 

Inserting this value of t in Formula (G), we get 



g ' ' -' 2 o (F, - Fj)- 

Simplifying, 

(p,-pO y = ^(V,-v,)K....:. (/) 

From this, Formulas (A) or (0) can be deduced by using the laws 
of thermodynamics which apply to the compression or expansion of 
gases. In order to get the relation between the two unknown quantities, 
p, and F, it is necessary to know the variation in temperature in the 
air tank. 

If the compression took place very slowly, and all the heat gener- 
ated had time to escape into the water and through the walls of the 
tank, the isothermal relation would hold, and 

p., original volume of air in tank A I 

Pj volume of air in tank after compression (I— Y) A 
or 

"■'-T^- <-) 

If the compression took place very quickly, and all the heat of 
compression were retained, the adiabatic relation would hold, and 

^-(^'" ^-> 

As a matter of fact, the true condition will be somewhere between 
the two. With full load thrown off, the isothermal assumption will 
give results which are much too small, and in general the adiabatic 
assumption is much nearer the truth. 

* This formula, by Itself, will give a value of t which is too large. See Formula 



Papers.] AIR TANKS ON PIPE LINES lOlt) 

For instance, in one actual case, for full load thrown off, the com- 
pression would take less than 5 sec, and, assuming adiabatic com- 
pression, the temperature would rise more than 100° Fahr. It is 
apparent that in this short time not much of the heat would escape, 
and the isothonnnl assumption, therefore, gives results about 14% 
too small. 

Although formulas for isothermal compression give values of p, 
(maximum pressure) which are too small, they give larger values of 
Y (rise of water in the tank) than formulas for adiabatic compression. 

Isothermal Compression. — Assuming, first, isothermal compression: 
Combining Formulas (7) and (5), 



~'(n-T^.)'=..(r:h^-i)r = ,^ <,;, 



let 



and insert in Formula (J). 

Kl — KY= Y' 

solving 



(A) 



Adiabatic Compression. — Assuming, second, adiabatic compression: 
Combining Formulas (7) and (7)), 



Inserting K, as before, 
K 






a-iO^-" = ^-:pj. ^^^ 

This must be solved by trial and error. As a first trial, a value 
of Y slightly smaller than that obtained from Formula {A) may 
be used. 



1020 AIE TANKS ON" PIPE LINES [Papers. 

Load Thrown On. — In the case of a load thrown on, exactly the 
same reasoning applies, and Y, being measured down instead of up, 
will be a negative quantity. When the numerical value is inserted, 
the signs, therefore, must be changed as indicated. 

Full Load Changes. — When full load is thrown off, the same for- 
mulas apply, and, as V ^ equals zero. Formula (7) becomes 

This can be checked easily by applying the theorem of work and 
energy, using the assumptions previously listed. All the water is 
stopped, and all the energy of the moving water is expended in com- 
pressing the air in the air tank. 

Work of compressing air in tank =^ Energy of water in pipe line. 

2 2g 



Simplifying, 



(P,-P,)Y= ' 



Similarly, for full load thrown on, V^ becomes zero. 

Practical Questions of Design, Surges, Etc. — In actual practice 
it has sometimes happened that an air tank made the regulation and 
surges in the pipe line worse instead of better. This has been due 
to surges which were set up and either aggravated by governor action 
or continued naturally for a considerable time before being damped 
out by friction. 

These surges can be broken up by using some sort of a differential 
device which restricts the entrance to the tank, or a valve which 
causes the water to flow into the tank at a different rate from that 
at which it flows out. 

Mr. B. D. Johnson has invented and patented a device which not 
only eliminates surges, but cuts down the size of the tank required. 

In one hydro-electric development where trouble was caused by 
surges, a flap-valve surrounded by orifices was placed in the entrance 
to the air tank. When load was thrown on, the flap opened and 
allowed the water to flow out freely. When the water started to flow 
back into the tank, the flap closed and the water was forced through 
the orifices, with a consequent loss of head. This broke up the 
surges, and there was no more trouble. 



Papers.] AIR TANKS ON PIPE LINES 1021 

In one case, under normal operating^ conditions, an air tank of 
moderate dimensions placed near the power-house decreased the sud- 
den variations of pressure due to changing load by about two-thirds. 

In order to keep the tank full of air, it is necessary to replenish 
the supply from time to time from a compressor or other source, as 
a certain quantity is apt to be absorbed by the water or leak through 
the tank. If the air should entirely leak out, the tank would not 
only become useless for regulating purposes, but might fail on account 
of dangerous pressures due to water-hammer. 

The larger the volume of air in the tank, the more efficient will 
it be for regulating purposes. Care must be taken, however, not to 
fill the tank so full of air that when a sudden load is thrown on, all 
tha water in the tank will be exhausted and the wheel will suck air. 
Automatic safety devices may be put on to prevent this, and gauges 
on the side of the tank will indicate the water level. It is conceivable 
that in some cases air might be given out by the water and fill the 
tank too full. The writer knows of no such case, however, although 
the reverse is common. 

In most air tanks the compression due to load changes will take 
])lace in so short a time that little of the heat will have time to flow 
through the walls of the tank or into the water, and for this reason 
the formulas for adiabatic compression will give results nearer the 
truth. In any case, they are more conservative to use. 

Other Formulas. — In order to get formulas without the use of 
Assumptions 1, 2, and 3, it is necessary to use the calculus. The other 
assumptions (4, 5, 6, 7, and 8) are used. 

The net quantity of water flowing into the tank is equal to that 
fl'nving in minus that flowing out; therefore, 

d V 

Mass X Acceleration = Force 

therefore (for load thro\Mi off), 
W a L d V 

Using these two formulas in conjunction with Formulas {B) and {D) 
(the isothermal and adiabatic relation), we can get a dilferential 

d y 
equation for - in terms of >/ and d v wliich can be integrated by using 



1023 AIE TANKS ON PIPE LINES [Papers. 

the fact that when y = 0,——= ^(^i — ^"2)1 ^'^^^ when y =^ Y, 

d t 

By this integration we get the following: 

Isothe7'mal. 
For load off : 

Y 



For load on 



Y'-2p,(l\og.^(l-j^ + Y)=p,K... 
1: 
r- -2p,il log., (|l + -^) _ Y) = p, K 



(P) 



(-Pi) 



Adiahatic. 
For load off: 



Y^- 

For load on : 



■^^'■[Oi-, 7777737^ + ^']=^''^^' <«> 



OAl(l—Y) 



A formula for t, derived by calculus, using all the assumptions 
except 2, is: 






LAY 

(^) 



*a g (P2 — PO 

This t is the time required for Y to reach a maximum. It is the 
time for a quarter of the cycle, and, after the water has risen in 
the tank (with load thrown oif), it will, like a pendulum, fall to the 
starting point again, and on below it to almost the same extent; 
then rise again, and so on until damped out by friction. It is to 
prevent this surge that valves or differential devices must be used. 
Formula (B) will give a value of t which is too small. The true 
value will be between this and the value obtained from Formula (H). 

Where it is desired to compute the heat generated or lost by 
adiabatic compression or expansion, the following formula may be 
used. 



l'"l'C''*l AIR TAXKS OX IMl'E LIXES 1023 

Tlic minus sig'u is for load otf, tlie plus sign for load on. 
T^ is the absolute temperature before start of rise or fall; 
T, is the absolute temperature at maximum point of rise or fall. 

If tlie Fahrenheit scale is used, the absolute temperature may be 
"btained by adding 459° to the temperature registered on the ordinary 
thermometer. 

Head Lost in Entering Air Tajik. — If the pipe line runs into the 
air tank on one side and out on the other, the pressure in. the pipe 
line will at all times be equal to the pressure in the air tank (Assump- 
tion 4). 

When a load is suddenly thrown off, the quantity of water flowing 
out of the tank will be suddenly decreased, but the quantity flowing 
in will not be changed until the water has risen and the air pressure 
consequently increased. This increase of pressure causes a difference 
of head, between the two ends of the pipe line, which slows down the 
water. It increases from to {p^ — ^i) and is greatest at the time 
when the water has been slowed down to its new velocity. 

It is obvious that the air tank would be more efficient if the 
pressure could be made to rise instantly and act on the water at the 
time when it is most needed, or before the velocity has been checked. 

By causing a loss of head betw'een the air tank and the pipe line, 
this condition can be approached. If the loss of head is made too 
cri'eat, however, the pressure may rise instantly to a greater value 
than it would have reached with the simple tank, and this is all the 
more undesirable as the sudden rise causes water-hammer and is 
more difficult for the governors to handle than the gradual rise. 

A well-designed orifice, therefore, would cause about the same loss 
of head at the beginning as the compressed air would cause at 
the end. 

An approximate formula can be worked out by computing the 
maximum loss of head between the pipe line and the air tank at 
the start of the rise. This will be 

2 g ' 
where C is a constant depending on the shape and size of the entrance 
to the tank. 



1034 AIR TANKS ON PIPE LINES [Papers. 

Calling this loss of head K^, and assuming that the difference in 
head varies at a constant rate from this value at the beginning to 

(_P2 — Pi) at the end, we get an average force of — ^ ^ -^ , in 

pounds, tending to slow down the water. 

Inserting this value in Formula {G) and proceeding as before, we 
get for isothermal compression : 

{K^-P,) Y^-- (Kp^ + K^ I) Y = — Kp^ I (S) 

For load thrown on, this becomes 

(K, + p,) r^ + (K, I - Kp,) Y =JCp^ I (S,) 

Where K^^ = 0, these become Formula (A). 

A similar formula can be worked out for adiabatic compression. 
When the calculus is used and Assumptions 1, 2 and 3 are omitted, a 
differential equation is derived which cannot be integrated. 

Considering the many uncertainties of the problem, the foregoing 
formula is probably sufficiently accurate, but it should be used with 
the full realization of the assumptions made in its derivation. 

Numerical Example. — In order to show the comparative variation 
of the different formulas, the following numerical case has been 
worked out for full load thrown off and on. The dimensions are taken 
from an actual plant, and an extreme velocity of 12.5 ft. per sec. is 
taken to illustrate more clearly the differences in the various formulas. 

I = 52 ft. ; 
L = 2 100 ft. ; 

a = 44.2 sq. ft. (pipe 7.5 ft. in diameter) ; 
A = 77 sq. ft. (two tanks 7 ft. in diameter) ; 
p^ = 470 ft. 
V^ = 12.5 ft. per sec. ; 
7. = 0. 

Table 1 shows the values obtained from the various formulas. In 
studying these results, it should be noted that the difference in the 
results of the formulas for adiabatic and isothermal compression is 
14 per cent. The difference betw^een the results obtained by the more 
approximate Formulas (A) and (C) and the results obtained from 
Formulas (P) and (Q) is from 3 to G% for this case. 



Papors.! 



AIR TANKS OX PH'E LINES 

TABLE 1. 



1025 





Formula. 


Y. 
in teet. 


P2, 

in fcft. 


Percentage of normal 
pressure (pi). 


Full load off : 
l!*(>thernial 


(.■1) and (/?) 

(P) 
(C) and (Z>) 


20.0 
20.8 
16.9 

ir.7 


764 
783 

818 
845 


163 
166 
174 




180 


Full load on : 


(A) and (B) 

(Pi) 
(Ci) and (D) 

(Qi) 


32.5 
27.5 
27.6 
23.8 


290 
307 
258 
276 


63 




65 
55 




59 



For lo.ad thrown on. Formulas (P^) and (Q^) give results 6% apart 
for the two relations; and the more approximate Formulas (A) and 
(Cj) give results differing from Formulas (P^) and (Q^) by from 
3 to 4 per cent. 

The error caused by assuming either the adiabatic or isothermal 
relation, therefore, may be greater than the error caused by using the 
.simpler Formulas (A) and (C) and so, taking into account the other 
assumptions, it would seem that Formulas (A) and (C) are sufficiently 
accurate for most practical cases, although a final check may be made 
by Formulas (P) and (Q). 

If a restricted orifice were inserted between the pipe line and air 
tank which caused a loss of head of 190 ft. with the full load ilow 
(a Tj) entering the tank the results would be as follows: 

Formula 

Full load off: (Z, = 190) (S) 

Full load on : (K^ = 190) (S^) 

A comparison of these figures with those given for the simple 
tank shows that the use of an orifice makes the air chamber a great 
deal more effective. It also reduces the possibility of trouble from 
surges. 

The foregoing formulas have not been published before, as far as 
the writer knows, with the exception of Formula (P) which was 
deduced by Mr. Johnson in the article mentioned below. 



Y 


P-2 


Percentage 
of pi 


15.3 


667 


142 


18.7 


346 


74 



103 G AIE TAXKS OX PIPE LINES [Papers. 

in' studying the eifect of differential devices and friction in air 
tanks and surge tanks, the following references will be found useful: 

"The Surge Tank in Power Plants." By R. D. Johnson. Trans- 
actions, Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., Vol. 30 (1908), page 833. 

"The Differential Surge Tank." By E. D. Johnson. Transactions, 
Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXVIII (1915), page 760. 

"Penstock and Surge Tank Problems." By Minton M. Warren. 
Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXIX (1915), page 238. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publication?. 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



By William Barclay Paksons, M. Am. Soc. C. E. 
To BE Presented October 3d, 1917. 



Synopsis. 



The Cape Cod Canal joins Cape Cod Bay with the waters adjacent 
to Long Ishiiid Sound, traversing the narrow isthmus of Cape Cod. 
It has a length of 8 miles, with dredged approach channels 5 miles 
long. The minimum width of the canal is 100 ft., the maximum, 
300 ft., and the depth at low water, 25 ft. 

This canal was suggested for commercial and naval use 300 years 
ago. The project, originally a colonial one, subsequently became a 
national one, and finally was carried out by private capital. It has 
been in successful operation since the summer of 1914, and is now 
used by commercial and naval vessels. 

Part I of this paper is devoted to history and location, and contains 
considerable data on construction. Part II is devoted entirely to 
hydraulics. The canal is the largest open artificial waterway connect- 
ing two seas having non-synchronous tides. 

Note. — These papers are issued before the date set for presentation and discus- 
sion. Correspondence is invited from those who cannot be present at the meetinji, 
and may be sent by mail to the Secretary. Discussion, either oral or written, will 
be published in a subsequent number of Prorcedlniis, and. when finally closed, the 
papers, with discussion in full, will be published in Transactions. 



1028 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

PAKT I. 

The southeast portion of the State of Massachusetts is a curiously 
shaped, narrow, hooked point enclosing nearly three-quarters 
of a circle having a radius of about 12 miles. The south side of 
the enclosing land is extended southwestward to another point at 
Woods Hole, which, with a succession of islands, makes the barrier 
separating Buzzards Bay from Vineyard Sound. To this whole area 
of land the name of Cape Cod is applied, with Provincetown at the 
north, where the Pilgrims in the Mayflower made their first landing 
in 1621. The material composing the peninsula is sand, gravel, and 
granite boulders — an old glacial terminal moraine. The sand has 
been acted on by the currents of the Gulf Stream flowing east and 
the eddy of the Arctic Current sweeping down the New England 
coast, and this accounts for the peculiar contour of the shore. To 
the south and southeast of Cape Cod are various irregular shoals, 
known as Nantucket Shoals, the outer limit of which, in 30 fathoms 
of water, is marked by the Nantucket Light Vessel, distant from 
Monomoy Point, the extreme southernmost part of Cape Cod, 59 geo- 
graphical or 68 statute miles in an almost due south direction. 

These shoals of shifting sand, over which the depth varies from 
less than 1 fathom to 25 fathoms, discovered first by Verrazzano in 
1524, and named by De Mont in 1605 "Mallebarre", have always 
been a terror to navigators. The extent, depth of water, and char- 
acter of the Nantucket Shoals have been described in a report by 
Lt.-Col. (now Col.) J. C. Sanford, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., to 
the Chief of Engineers, under date of November 16th, 1909, from 
which the following extracts have been taken : 

"The numerous and extensive shoals lying eastward and southeast- 
ward of the eastern entrance to Nantucket Sound and southward and 
eastward of the southeasterly elbow of Cape Cod, constitute probably 
the greatest danger to navigation to be found on any of the coast- 
wise routes of the Atlantic coast of the United States north of 
Hatteras. In view of the numerous vessels passing around these 
shoals they are probably a greater menace to navigation than Hatteras. 
Their dangerous character is shown both by the large number of 
wrecks annually occurring there and by the large number of light 
vessels and other aids to navigators traversing the shoals. 

''From Nantucket Sound to the ocean two channels lead through' 
the shoals. The north or Pollock Rip Channel is the most used, 
as it is shorter, is somewhat protected from easterly storms by the 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 1029 

shoals outside it, and is closer to the shore; but it is quite circuitous 
and narrow in jilaces and the tidal currents are strong and varying 
in direction. The second or south channel leads through the shoals 
in a nearly due east direction from Nantucket (Great Point) Lig:ht- 
house. It is somewhat deeper than the Pollock Rip Channel and much 
wider, but it is not so direct for coastwise vessels and carries a 
vessel much farther from the shore. This channel is considered in 
the United States Coast Pilot for the Atlantic coast as the dividing 
line between Nantucket and Monomoy Shoals, the shoals lying to the 
northward of the channel being called the Monomoy Shoals, while 
those to the southward are called the Nantucket Shoals. The following 
description of the Monomoy Shoals in general and of the shoals 
particularly named in the river and harbor act, with others lying 
along the course of the proposed improvement, is taken from the 
above publication : 

" *^ronomoy Shoals consist of numerous detached shoals of a 
shifting character with 3 to 18 feet over them, extending about 5^ 
miles in an easterly and 9^ miles in a southerly and south-southeasterly 
direction from Monomoy Point. Many parts of these shoals separated 
from others by narrow slues have special names and are briefly described 
l)clow: 

'' 'Bearse Shoal is the western and Pollock Rip the eastern part of 
the shoal extending from f mile to 3f miles eastward of Monomoy 
Lighthouse. These shoals consist of a series of sand shoals and sand 
ridges, with 4 to 18 feet over them and deep water between them. 

" 'Broken Part of Pollock Rip, with depths of 15 to 18 feet over it, 
\\o^ eastward of Pollock Rip, and is separated from it by Pollock Rip 
Slue, which has a width of about h mile and depth of 3i to fathoms. 

" "Twelve Foot Shoal, southward of the broken part of Pollock Rip, 
lias 14 to 18 feet over it and lies 5^ miles SE * E from Monomoy 
Lighthouse. 

" 'Stone Horse Shoal, Little Round Shoal, and Great Round Shoal 
are portions of a continuous series of sand shoals and sand ridges 
with depths of 5 to 18 feet over them, lying directly eastward of the 
entrance of Nantucket Sound and between the two main channels. 
Stone Horse Shoal and Little Round Shoal lie on the south side of 
the deepwater channel between them and Pollock Rip. Great Round 
Shoal lies from to 9^ miles in SSE direction from Monomoy Point 
Lighthouse; southward and eastward of this shoal for a distance of 
about 2A miles there are numerous shoal spots with depths varying 
from IT to 18, feet over them. 

" 'Shovelful Shoal, extending f mile southward from Monomoy 
Point, is bare in places and rises abruptly from the deep waters of 
Butlers Hole. 

" 'Handkerchief Shoal is the extensive shoal, with from 3 to 18 feet 
over it, lying southwestward of Monomoy Point. It is about 4i 



1030 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

miles long north and south, and its greatest width is about 2 miles. 
Its southern end, which rises abruptly from a depth of 8 fathoms 
to 10 feet, is about i mile northward of Handkerchief Shoal Light 
vessel and 5^^ miles SW | W from Monomoy Point Lighthouse. Its 
northern end rising gradually from 3^ fathoms to 15 feet, lies about 
3 miles WNW i W from Monomoy Point Lighthouse.' 

"The shoals are undoubtedly of a shifting character. A comparison 
of Coast Sur\^ey charts issued from 1860 to the present time shows 
enormous changes in the channels and in the shape and position 
of the various shoals. 

"On the chart of 1860 the principal passage from Butlers Hole 
(deep water southwest of Shovelful Shoal Light Vessel) to the ocean 
was due east from Pollock Rip Light Vessel through a 5-fathom 
passage south of the broken part of Pollock Rip. The chart of 1874 
shows this passage closed by the 5-fathom contour, which is continu- 
ous from oil Chatham around the entire group of the Monomoy Shoals, 
the distance between the outside and inside 5-fathom curves ■ being 
but 600 yards, with a depth of 4| fathoms between. The 1885 chart 
shows this distance to be about 800 yards, with 3^ fathoms between 
and with several small shoals carrying less than 3 fathoms in the 
immediate vicinity. The 1888 chart shows this distance to be about 
2 500 yards, with a minimum depth of Si fathoms. The 1894 and 1900 
charts give the distance as about 900 yards, with a minimum depth 
of SI fathoms. The 1908 chart gives the extreme distance between 
the inside and outside 5-fathom contours as about 3 600 yards, with 
a minimum depth of 3^ fathoms, but with an intervening hole of 
5 fathoms. The position of this easterly passage moved south from 
its 1860 position, the course from the Pollock Rip Light Vessel 
changing from due east to about southeast. 

"The Broken Part of Pollock Rip has recently made out about 1 200 
feet to the westward, considerably narrowing the northern entrance. 

"In 1860 the Shovelful Shoal and Bearse Shoal, as defined by the 
18-foot contour, were continuous and separated from Pollock Rip 
Shoal. In 1874 the first two of these were separated and the last two 
were joined together, with the southern part of Pollock Rii? Shoal 
broken into a number of smaller shoals, which condition has continued 
up to the latest chart, out with varying outlines on the successive 
charts. The Handkerchief Shoal, which is rather more protected 
from the heaviest waves than the outlying shoals and therefore more 
nearly continuous in form, had approximately the following areas 
inclosed with the 18-foot curve (the dates refer to the dates of issue 
of charts) : 

"1860 1 900 acres. 

1888 2 660 " 

1894 2 980 " 

1908 3 230 " 



Par«"i"^I THE CATE COD CAN'AL 1031 

"Tlie above sliows a continuous inereaso amounting to 70% in 48 
years. 

'"The area of water exceeding 5 fathoms in depth in the eastern 
extension of Butlers Hole, within which area are stationed the Shovel- 
ful Shoal and Pollock Rip Light Vessels, and limited on the west 
by a line drawn from the northern limit of Stone Horse Shoal to 
Monomoy Point, is as follows: 

"1860 3 200 acres. 

1888 3 000 " 

1894 3 600 " 

1900 3 700 " 

1908 2 670 " " 

The foregoing quotations show clearly the character of the shoals, 
how they change in position from time to time, and how, in certain 
areas, there is a steady accretion. The difficulties of navigating the 
tortuous channels, even well-ligJited and marked as they are by fre- 
quent buoys and light vessels, are greatly increased by the frequently 
occurring dense fogs. These fogs are caused by the condensation 
following the contact of the warm easterly current with the colder 
current setting down from the coast of Maine. The Pollock Rip 
Light Vessel reports an average of 1 100 hours of fog occurring on 
130 days per annum. So persistent and so thick are these fogs that 
vessels are held for daj's at a time at Provincetown or Vineyard Haven, 
unwilling to venture the passage across the shoals. The dangers are 
still further increased by the low-lying coast of the Cape, which be- 
comes an exposed lee shore during east and northeast gales. 

It is estimated that 22 000 000 tons of freight are carried annually 
around the Cape, a volume of coastwise traffic that greatly exceeds 
any other section of the American seaboard. It is not surprising, 
therefore, that the waters between Martha's Vineyard and Cape Cod 
Light claim the greatest toll in men, vessels, and cargo. 

Fig. 1, taken from the most recent United States Coast Sui'vey 
charts, shows the contour of Cape Cod, the adjacent islands, and 
Nantucket Shoals. 

Water-borne traffic going around the Cape has the choice of two 
routes, either completely avoiding the shoals by passing outside of 
Nantucket Light Vessel, or by passing through Vineyard Sound and 
crossing the shoals, either through Pollock Rip. the usual course, or 



1033 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

south of the Great Round Shoah Between New York and Boston the 
distances by these routes are: 

Nantucket Light Vessel 408 miles. 

Great Round Shoal 350 " 

Pollock Rip 342 " 

By going through Hell Gate and Long Island Sound, the first 
distance can be reduced by 6 miles and the last two by 16 miles. 
The courses are shown on Fig. 1. The distance between New York 
and Boston via Hell Gate, Long Island Sound, and the Cape Cod 
Canal, is 264 miles. 

To avoid the shoals and fogs, with their dangers and delays, ])ro- 
jects for a trade route via Buzzards Bay and a canal connecting it 
with Cape Cod Bay have been proposed for nearly 300 years; in fact, 
a canal across the neck of Cape Cod has been longer under considera- 
tion than any other public work in fhe United States. 

The first use of this route for commercial purposes was made by 
Miles Standish in September, 1623, when he ascended the Scusset 
River, a small stream that flowed into Cape Cod Bay about 20 miles 
south of the Pilgrim settlement at Plymouth, and, after crossing the 
narrow intervening low ridge of land, met the vessels of the Dutch 
traders from New Amsterdam, under the command of Isaac de Resieres, 
who had ascended the Manomet (since corrupted, into Monument) 
River from Buzzards Bay, laden chiefly with provisions to relieve the 
pressing needs of the Plymouth settlers. Prom this beginning there 
was immediately established a regular traffic between the Dutch and 
English colonists. 

As the land separating the rivers, which could be easily ascended 
by the small boats then in use, was only 3 miles wide, and as its 
elevation was less than 30 ft. above high water, it was but natural 
that it was soon suggested to make a through route and eliminate the 
portage by digging a canal. 

There is a record in the quaint diary of one Samuel Sewall, under 
date of October 26th, 1676, that "Mr. Smith of Sandwich rode with 
me and showed me the place which some had thovight to cut for 
to make a passage from the south sea to the north." In 1697 the 
project received ofiicial recognition, as the General Court adopted 
this resolve: 



l*apeis.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



1033 




Fig. 1. 



1034 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

Whereas, It is thought by many to be very necessary for the preser- 
vation of man and estates, and very profitable and useful to the 
public, if a passage be cut through the land at Sandwich from Barn- 
stable Bay, so called, into Monament Bay, for vessels to pass to and 
from the western part of this country. 

Ordered, That Mr. John Otis, of Barnstable, Captain William 
Bassett, and Mr. Thomas Smith, of Sandwich, be and are hereby 
appointed to view the place, and make report to this Court, at their 
next sessions, what they judge will be the General Conveniences and 
inconveniences that may accrue thereby, and what the charge of 
the same may be, and probability of effecting thereof. 

It is probable that the "Mr. Thomas Smith" of the Committee 
was the same person who acted as guide to Mr. Sewall. Unfortu- 
nately, there is no record of the report made by Messrs. Otis, Bassett, 
and Smith. 

The next official action by the Colony of Massachusetts did not 
take place until May, 1776, when the General Court, as the Colonial 
Legislature was and the State Legislature is still described, resolved: 

In Council, ^Yhereas, It is represented to this Court that a navi- 
gable canal may without much difficulty be cut through the isthmus 
which separates Buzzards Bay and Barnstable Bay, whereby the 
Hazardous Navigation round Cape Cod, both on account of the shoals 
and enemy, may be prevented, and a safe communication between 
this colony and the southern colonies be so far secured, 

Resolved, That James Bowdoin and William Sever, Esqrs., with 
such as the Hon. House shall join, or the major part of them, be a 
committee to repair to the town of Sandwich, and view the premises, 
and report whether the cutting of a canal as aforesaid be practicable 
or not. And they are hereby authorized to employ any necessary 
surveyors and assistants for that purpose. 

This Committee appointed Mr. Thomas Machin as Engineer, and 
undertook to prepare, probably for the first time, a survey and definite 
plans. Mr. Machin had scarcely entered upon his labors when he 
was called to other duty by George Washington, who wrote to the 
Chairman of the Committee: 

''The great demand we have for engineers in this department has 
obliged me to order Mr. Machin hither to assist in that branch of 
the business." 

After the Eevolution, in 1791, the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts appointed another committee to examine and report. This Com- 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1035 

mittee employed James Winthrop and John Hills to make surveys and 
plans, and tliese engineers laid out a canal, practically on the route of 
the present one, using the Monument River, 4 rods wide, with three 
sets of douhle locks, 30 ft. wide and 120 ft. long, and at an estimated 
cost of £70 707/10/00, including protecting piers in Cape Cod Bay. 
From this date until 1S18 the Legislature had the project under con- 
tinuous consideration. 

In ISIS Col. Loammi Baldwin, the Engineer of the Union Canal 
Company of Pennsylvania, was retained by some capitalists of Boston, 
including Israel Thonidike and Thomas H. Perkins, to study the 
question. Baldwin's plan, which was the most complete that had 
been produced, avoided the Monument River, and used the Back 
River as the outlet to Buzzards Bay. 

In 1808, Albert Gallatin, Secretary of the Treasury, directed atten- 
tion to the canal as of strategic use in time of war, a necessity that 
was appreciated shortly afterward in the war of 1812, as British 
cruisers maintained a trying blockade along the coast between Sandy 
Hook and Boston Harbor. In 1818 the Senate requested the President 
to order a survey. Nothing, however, was done until 1824, when 
Congress passed an act directing that full surveys be made. These 
surveys were in the charge of Maj. P. H. Perault, U. S. Topographical 
Engineer, who reported in 1825 — a report which was further examined 
and approved by the Board of Internal Improvements for the State of 
Massachusetts. This report was ordered printed by Congress in 1830. 

Of course, all previous plans described a canal of very small 
dimensions, and the canal projected by the United States was un- 
doubtedly considerably larger than any that had been contemplated 
before. Even this canal, however, according to modern standards, 
was quite a small affair. It was to have a bottom width of 3G ft., a 
water surface of 60 ft., and a depth of 8 ft. Locks were planned. 

Four different arrangements of locks and levels were considered, 
but the one finally recommended for adoption was a single level, 8 
miles 524 yd. long, with the bottom on the plane of low tide in Barn- 
stable (Cape Cod) Bay, with a tidal lock at each end. These locks 
were to have a length of 107 ft. and a width of 26 ft. The cost was 
estimated at $069 522, in which bridges were put down at $2 000. The 
route selected was the same as that proposed by Col. Baldwin, using 
Back River. Water to supply the summit level was to be furnished by 



1036 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

tlie rise in tide at the Cape Cod Bay end, admitted through regulating 
sluices. The Board felt that Herring Pond and its tributaries would 
not supply sufficient water to permit thirty-six passages per day, the 
estimated possible number. 

With locks, the variant in the 'route from the Monument to Back 
River, as proposed by Col. Baldwin, and the Board of Internal Improve- 
ment, is feasible, but the resulting advantage and economy are not 
apparent. 

At the time it was confidently expected that the work would be 
undertaken at once. When Maj. Guillaume Tell, Poussin, the eminent 
French engineer, at one time an officer in the American Army, wrote 
his celebrated report on "Travaux d' Ameliorations Interieures Projetes 
ou Executes par le Gouvernement General des Etats Unis", published 
in 1834 after his visit to this country in 1831, he described the canal 
as one of the great pieces of public work about to be undertaken. 

The project then lay dormant for 30 years, until 1860, when it 
was revived by the Governor of Massachusetts calling attention to 
it in his annual message. The Legislature appointed a committee 
which reported in favor of employing engineers to restudy the matter 
thoroughly, as a canal seemed both feasible and desirable. The Legis- 
lature adopted the suggestion, and appointed such a committee with 
powers, and again another committee in 1861, which committees 
united in a report in November, 1862, printed as Public Document 
No. 41, in 1864. This report is of great value, as it reviews the 
wliole history of the enterprise and gives many statistics of traffic and 
other matters having a bearing. 

As to surveys and plans, the Committee availed itself first of a 
suggestion of Professor A. D. Bache, Superintendent of the United 
States Coast Survey, to make use of officers of that service. The 
Cornmissioners for Boston Harbor, the late Joseph G. Totten, Hon. 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., Brigadier-General, U. S. Topographical Engineers, 
the late A. D. Bache, Hon. M. Am. Soc. C. E., U. S. Coast Survey, 
and Commander C. H. Davis, U. S. Navy, Superintendent of the 
Naval Academy, made a report to the Committee, giving recommenda- 
tions as to locks and breakwaters in Cape Cod Bay and a most 
important analysis of the tidal conditions, based on observations made 
by the late Henry Mitchell, M. Am. Soc. C. E., then an assistant in 
the Coast Survey. 



Papers.! THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1037 

On receiiit of tliis preliininary report the Committee engaged Mr. 
George R. Jjaldwin to complete the surveys and make plans. Mr. 
Baldwin accepted as his location the Back Ixiver route, following 
Col. Loammi Baldwin and the Board of Internal Improvement, but 
the cross-section was much greater than anything hitherto proposed, 
having a bottom width of no less than 120 ft. and a depth of 18 ft. 
Two locks w'ere contemplated, one at each end, with two chambers in 
tandem, 200 and 132 ft. long, or with a combined usable length of 
350 ft., 96 ft. wide. The estimated cost varied from $9 558 000 to 
$9 915 000, according to variations in details, but including the locks, 
changing the railway, and three large breakwaters. 

The Coixunittee found that about 10 000 vessels passed around the 
Cape each year, carrying miscellaneous cargo, of which coal con- 
tributed 370 827 tons in 1859. Between 183-4 and 1859, both years 
inclusive, there had been 827 marine disasters on the Cape, involving 
4 steamers, 40 ships, 71 barks, 191 brigs, 492 schooners, and 29 
sloops, the average annual value of the loss being nearly $600 000.. 
The Committee estimated that the annual saving to navigation result- 
ing from the construction of the canal was $1 543 375, on the basis 
of 45% of the traffic using it. 

The interesting feature of the report, however, was the first re- 
corded appreciation of a canal without locks, and apparently this 
suggestion came from the Committee and not from any of its pro- 
fessional advisers, all of whom in their reports discussed locks only. 
The Committee stated: 

"The peculiarities attending the operation of the two tide waves 
upon the coast has in every instance suggested to the engineers the 
necessity of using locks for this canal. * * * 

"If some plan could be devised to overcome the force of the cur- 
rents, and thereby form a free channel for the transit of vessels 
through from bay to bay, there could hardly be a difference of opinion 
upon the propriety of constructing the proposed passage, and the 
question whether the currents can be controlled in any way than by 
locks, deserves some consideration. This question was not particu- 
larly examined while the U. S. Commissioners were connected with 
the surveys and soundings, and their public engagements since that 
time have deprived the Committee of their judgment and advice 
upon this branch of the subject. 

••* * * It may not be unr(;asonable to suppose that some method 
of avoiding the force of the currents might be discovered without the 
cost and delay of using locks and gates." 



1038 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

This vague suggestion of the Legislative Committee was crystallized 
into form in 1870 by Brevet Maj.-Gen. J. G. Foster, Lt.-Col. of 
Engineers, U. S. A., who pointed out, in a report to the Chief of 
Engineers, that although there was a considerable and varying dif- 
ference in head at the ends of the canal, nevertheless the resulting 
current would not be sufficient to require locks. This contribution 
of General Foster's changed completely the whole character of the 
enterprise, because, after the publication of his report, a canal with 
locks was not again considered. He recommended a canal with 
dimensions much greater than had been previously contemplated, with 
a bottom width of 198 ft. and a depth of 23 ft. at mean low water. 

Gen. Foster's report performed another service. It showed the 
great volume of traffic passing around the Cape, which could be accom- 
modated and accommodated only by a waterway free from artificial 
obstructions, and, appearing as it did at the period following the war 
between the States, when all projects for increased transportation 
facilities were being eagerly taken up, it directed the attention of 
capitalists and promoters to the possibilities of the canal. Although no 
further efforts were made by either the Federal or State Govern- 
ments to construct the canal, efforts by groups of financiers under 
private charters were continuous from 1870, the date of Gen. Foster's 
report, to the actual construction of the canal as described in this 
paper. 

In 1870 a charter was given by the State to the Cape Cod Ship 
Canal Company, among whose incorporators were Alpheus Hardy, 
Thomas Eussell, Charles H. Allen, Rufus Ingalls, and Charles A. 
Seeor. This charter was regarded with favor by committees of 
Congress and the Legislature of the State, but nothing was accom- 
plished, and at length it was allowed to lapse, after it had been extended 
by the Legislature several times. The company referred the tidal 
questions to Clemens Herschel, Past-President, Am. Soc. C. E., who 
confirmed the previously expressed opinion of Gen. Foster that the 
resulting current in a sea-level canal would not be sufficiently swift 
to prevent passage, and that a lock was not only unnecessary, but 
detrimenttil. 

Although Massachusetts at an early date provided for the con- 
struction of railroads by general legislation, thus doing away with 
special legislative charters, no such provision was made in the general 



'':'l"''-l THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1039 

laws concerning the construction of canals, so that recourse to the 
Legislature for powers has always been necessary. 

When the charter to the Cape Cod Ship Canal Company lapsed 
in 1880, a new one was granted to Henry M. Whitney, William C. 
Whitney, Henry F. Dimock, Charles T. Barney, Holcomb Hosford, 
and associates, for the Cape Cod Canal Company. These gentlemen 
investigated the subject, retaining George S. Greene, Jr., M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., as Consulting Engineer, but tliey, too, permitted their charter 
to lapse. 

In 1883 another act was passed by the Legislature, incorporating 
the Cape Cod Ship Canal Company, with a capital stock of 
$5 000 000, the persons named being William Seward, Jr., George S. 
Hall, Samuel Fessenden, Edwin Reed, William A. Clark, Jr., Joseph 
T. Iloile, Walter Lawton, William F. Drake, and William Parker. 
This company made a contract with Frederic A. Lockwood to con- 
struct the canal. Mr. Lockwood was a singular genius. At one time 
he was a Baptist minister, but, being of a mechanical turn, he estab- 
lished a machine shop in East Boston, and there designed a curious 
tyiie of suction dredge, under the patents of one John A. Ball of 
California. Being a man of much force and power of persuasion, he 
organized and procured the charter for the company just mentioned, 
primarily in order to give work to his machine shop and create an 
opportunity to use his dredge, he having acquired from Mr. Whitney 
and his associates their plans and surveys and whatever rights they 
possessed. He appointed Mr. George H. Titcomb Chief Engineer 
and ^Ir. Charles M. Thompson Assistant Engineer. The latter gen- 
tleman remained at Sandwicli even after the Lockwood efforts came 
to an end, assisting the subsequent companies, and became Real Estate 
Agent of the present con)])any, which position he held until his death 
in :March, 1914. 

Now, for the first time since Miles Standish began the trading route 
in 1623, and after all the fruitless surveys and plans by the Laiited 
States, by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and various private 
}»arties, actual work was begun. Lockwood built his dredge, and 
with it cut through the open beach just north of Sandwich and near 
the mouth of the Scusset River. In order to obtain the necessary 
funds to carry on the work, Lockwood succeeded in persuading ]\Ir. 
Quincy A. Shaw, of Boston, to advance them. With this aid. Lock- 



1040 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

wood and his singular excavating machine made a channel nearly a 
mile long, about 15 ft. deep and perhaps 100 ft. wide through the 
&andy marshes of the Scusset. . While thus at work, Lockwood suf- 
fered a stroke of apoplexy, completely disabling him. He then con- 
veyed to Col. Thomas L. Livermore, of Boston, as Trustee, all title 
in the chartered company, canal, land, and dredge, as security for Mr. 
Shaw's advances and some minor obligations. With further capital 
advanced by Mr. Shaw, the Trustee continued dredging for several 
months, carrying the excavation of the canal to a total of about 
700 000 cu. yd., and acquiring title in fee to land which, with that 
purchased by Mr. Lockwood, amounted to about 1 000 acres. Then, 
probably realizing the hopelessness of completing the work with a 
single dredge, and especially with such a dredge as the one in hand, 
the Trustee stopped work, and the dredge was subsequently and mis- 
chievously set on fire and completely destroyed. The action of tlie 
waves and littoral drift closed the entrance through the beach and 
filled perhaps one-half of the excavation with sand. 

If little physical result was accomplished, the Lockwood attempt 
is entitled to the honor of the first actual construction and a demon- 
stration that some people were at length willing to do more than 
make surveys, and great credit must be given to Mr. Shaw aiid his 
Trustee, Col. Livermore, for having perfected the titles to so many 
parcels of land, and especially for keeping them intact and free from 
physical encumbrances that would have prevented the construction of 
the canal. Other routes, and variations of the route adopted by 
Lockwood's company, have been considered, but the one he selected 
—that since adopted — is the only one that is feasible. Had the land 
passed back into the hands of its many original holders, its re-acquisi- 
tion would have been difiicult and perhaps so expensive that the cost 
would have been prohil)itory ; or had it been "improved", canal con- 
struction would have been impossible. When the present company 
took up the work, the fact that more than 80% of the right of way 
could be acquired in fee simple at a single purchase, and at an ascer- 
tained reasonable cost, contributed in no small degree to the favorable 
consideration of the project. Other men less far-sighted than Col. 
Livermore would not have had the courage to keep the holdings 
together, and the failure to do so certainly would have jeopardized 
the realization of the canal, if not actually preventing it. 



^'*^!'ti-*] THE CAPE COD CAXAL 10-il 

Following the cessation of work viiider the Lockwood charter, peace 
ri'igned for a few years, broken by the passage in 1891 of a charter 
to the Boston, Cape Cod and New York Canal Company, inider 
which, however, nothing w'as done. 

In IS'Jo the Legislature acted again, this time in granting a 
ciiarter to the "Old Colony and Interior Canal Company", among 
whose incorporators were two prominent contractors, James D. Leary 
and Warren Kooscvelt. and an energetic attorney of 'New York, 
William G. Bussey, of whom more later. This charter, which for the 
sake .of safety repealed in terms all prior charters, provided for a 
choice of routes via the Monmnent or Bass Rivers, the latter flowing 
into Vineyard Sound. The Bass Eiver route would have given a 
shorter canal, but with a less saving in distance, and with a failure 
to avoid fogs and very bad tidal currents. 

These gentlemen did nothing with their grant, as likewise Oliver 
Ames, of Boston, and associates with a charter to the Massachusetts 
Ship Canal Company passed in 1895. 

The ^lassachusetts Maritime Canal Company was the next step, 
chartered in June, 1896, the projector being Mr. William G. Bussey, 
and one of the incorporators being the late Elmer L. Corthell, Past- 
President, Am. Soc. C. E. The charter called for a canal of increased 
dimensions, viz., a depth of 25 ft. at mean low water and a bottom 
width of 100 ft. Full and complete engineering and commercial 
investigations were made by Mr. (later Dr.) Corthell and the late 
Alfred P. Boiler, M. Am. Soc. C. E. Mr. Bussey, ably assisted by 
Mr. Corthell, made every effort to secure the necessary capital, inter- 
esting in the project men like Myron T. Herrick of Cleveland and 
Lewis Nixon of New York, but finally they were obliged to Jet the 
charter lapse. 

The next, and as it proved the last, step, was an application by 
]\[r. DeWitt C. Flanagan, in 1899, for a charter, which was passed 
on June 1st of that year, incorporating the Boston. Cape Cod and 
New York Canal Company. The incorporators named in the act are 
Alexander Dow, David W. Belding, Charles E. Hoge, Richard G. 
Peters, Thomas F. McGarry, Walter Clifford, Charles H. Phelps, 
DeWitt C. Flanagan, and William O. Brown. Mr. C. C. Dodge was 
elected President of the company, holding the office until his death 
in 1910. 



1042 THE CAPE COD CA^tal [Papers. 

The company appointed Dr. Cortliell its Engineer with Mr. Charles 
M. Thompson in charge on the ground. Arrangements were made with 
the Maryland Trust Company of Baltimore to assist in the financing 
and that company appointed the late Alfred L. Rives, M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., Colonel, U. S. Engrs., as engineer in its behalf. Col. Rives, 
a member of the Virginia family of that name, and formerly an officer 
in the Confederate Army, had been for some years Superintendent of 
the Panama Railroad for the French company that owned the railroad 
and was building the Panama Canal. Dr. Corthell and Col. Rives 
acted as joint engineering advisers, rendering valuable assistance in 
the preparation of plans and in various hearings before the State 
authorities. Then Mr. Bussey re-appeared oh the scene and, as counsel, 
prepared an operating plan for carrying out the work. Unfortunately, 
however, unfavorable financial conditions arose, the Maryland Trust 
Company became involved, Mr. Bussey and Col. Rives died, and 
Mr. Elanagan, in order to prevent the charter from lapsing, was com- 
pelled to use his own private means to make the deposit of $200 000 
with the State Treasurer and $25 000 with the County Treasurer, as 
required by the charter, to insure payment for land expropriated and 
claims for damages. 

Finally, in 1904, Mr. Flanagan laid the project before Messrs. 
August Belmont and Company of New York, who promised to take 
it up when the general financial outlook should brighten. 

Before considering the charter and describing the canal, it should 
be remarked that though there is only one feasible route for a canal 
across Cape Cod, as stated before, other routes for a canal westward 
from Massachusetts Bay, of quite different character and location, 
have been proposed. Of these, the one most persistently advocated 
was a canal from Fore River, near Boston, via Brockton, Bridgewater, 
and Taunton to ISTarragansett Bay. Such a canal and the others on 
similar inland routes were barge and not ship canals. They necessarily 
called for large investment and required many locks, and as the 
water in the central portion would have been fresh, such canals would 
have been inoperative — like the Erie Canal — during the winter. Full 
plans and estimates of these canals have never been prepared. 

The act incorporating the Boston, New York and Cape Cod Canal 
Company is known as Chapter 448, Acts of 1899, and has been amended 
by Chapter 476 of the Acts of 1900 and Chapter 519 of the Laws 



P«pci'^l THE CAPE COD CANAL 1043 

of 1910. These three acts constitute the cliarter of the Canal Com- 
pany, from which it derives all its powers and rights. This charter 
provides : 

1. — That the company may issue its capital stock to the extent 
of not exceeding $6 000 000 and bonds to the extent of $6 000 000 ; 

2. — Eight to construct and operate a canal from Cape Cod Bay to 
Buzzards Bay, with all structures, wharves, docks, breakwaters, etc., 
convenient for the canal, and operate steam and other vessels; 

3. — That the canal, including its approaches in the open waters 
of Cape Cod and Buzzards Bays, shall have a minimum doi)th at mean 
low water of 25 ft., a minimum width on the bottom of 100 ft. at that 
depth, side slopes of not steeper than 2 horizontal to 1 vertical, and 
consequently a minimum water surface of 200 ft. ; 

4. — Powers for taking land and liability for damages similar to 
those of railroads; 

5. — Obligation to reconstruct the portion of the Old Colony Eail- 
road (leased to the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad) 
where affected by the construction of the canal, including a bridge 
or tunnel across the canal; 

6. — Obligation to provide and maintain, without charge, ferries, 
bridges, or tunnels for highways; 

7. — Obligation to construct highways to connect with the cross- 
ings and to replace those destroyed by the canal; 

8. — Obligation to deposit with the Treasurer of the Commonwealth 
$200 000 and with the Treasurer of Barnstable County the sum of 
$25 000 as guaranties, that land damage claims will be paid; 

9. — Power to charge tolls for the use of the canal and for towing 
at such rates as the directors may determine ; 

10. — Punishment for wilful damage of the canal by payment to 
the company of treble the amount of damage sustained and by a fine 
not exceeding $1 000 or imprisonment for not exceeding one year ; 

11. — Official control by the: 

Harbor and Land Commission as to approval of general plans; 
Railroad Commission (now the Public Service Commission) as to: 
Relocation of Old Colony Railroad; 
Acceptance of bridge or tunnel for crossing of the railroad over 

or under the canal; 
Fixing of rules for operating said bridge; 



1044 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

Joint Board, composed of the above two boards sitting as a single 
board, as to : 
Issue of capital; 

Point of crossing the canal by the Old Colony Railroad; 
Method of crossing the canal by highways, whether bridge, 

tunnel, or ferry; 
General supervision of the work; 
County Commissioners of Barnstable County and Selectmen of 
the towns passed through, as to : 
Relocation of highways ; 
Points of highway crossing of the canal; 
Condemnation of property. 

The charter also provided that the Harbor and Land Commissioners, 
the Railroad Commissioners, or the Joint Board may employ an 
engineer or engineers whose compensation shall be paid by the Canal 
Company. 

In 1909 Mr. Belmont decided to begin construction, and, in order 
to provide the necessary legal machinery through which financial 
arrangements could be made, he organized the Cape Cod Construction 
Company, which, with the consent of the Railroad Commission of 
Massachusetts, took the contract to construct the canal for the amount 
of the bonds and stock authorized by the charter, namely, bonds bear- 
ing interest at 5% to the par value of $6 000 000 and 59 900 shares of 
stock with a par value of $100 each, 100 shares of stock having been 
previously authorized and issued to the incorporators. 

The directors and officers of the Cape Cod Construction Company, 
since tlie work began, have been August Belmont, Charles H. Allen, 
P. R. Appleton, E. Mora Davison, A. L. Devens, DeWitt C. Flanagan, 
W. A. Harriman, E. W. Lancaster, L. P. Loree, Jacob W. Miller, 
William Barclay Parsons, P. DeC. Sullivan, Prederick D. Underwood, 
and H. P. Wilson. The executive officers have been Mr. Belmont, 
President; Messrs. Miller and Devens, Vice-Presidents; Mr. John J. 
Coakley, Treasurer, and Mr. U. A. Murdock, Secretary. 

On the completion of the canal (when the contract between the 
Canal Company and the Construction Company was declared com- 
pleted), the above gentlemen, except Mr. Devens, who died while 
the work was in progress, and Mr. -Davison, became directors of 
the Boston, Cape Cod and New York Canal Company in charge of 



'*=M'>-'''^-J TiiK cAi'i: con r.vxAi. 1045 

operation, with Mr. Bclinoiit ns President, and i\Ir. ]\Iillcr as Vice- 
President and General Maiui^t^r. 

Prior to action by Mr. Eehriont, Mr. Flanagan and his associates 
had had surveys made and plans prepared nnder the direction of 
Dr. Cortlu'U niui Cdl. Kives. When the Cape Cod Construction 
Company was formed, the writer was appointed Chief Enccineer 
of that company and of the Canal Company as well, and made 
a new survey of the route. The location finally adopted was sub- 
stantially that made by Messrs. Corthell and Rives, except that, 
in actual construction, the center line of the canal was placed gen- 
erally 50 ft. north of and parallel to the center line of the right of 
way, so that a canal with a bottom width of 200 ft. could be con- 
structed by widening on one side only for the most part. This addi- 
tional construction would place the axis of the canal coincident with 
that of tlie right of way. Certain modifications in the location of 
the approach channel in Buzzards Bay from the original Corthell- 
Rives plans were also made as the result of further study subsequent 
to their surveys. 

The location as thus determined commenced in the open waters 
of Cape Cod or Barnstable Bay, off the unbroken sand beach, about 
3 miles north of the Village of Sandwich and 20 miles south of the 
City of Plymouth. It then traversed the low-lying marshes of the 
Scusset River and crossed the land forming the divide between Cape 
Cod and Buzzards Bays, passing through a depression at the Village 
of Bournedale, where the surface of the ground on the location 
had an elevation of only 30 ft. above mean sea level, although it rose, 
after a level width of about 1 000 ft., occupied by the location, 
to an elevation of about 125 ft. on both sides. Then the location 
followed the general line of the jMonument River, the depth of which 
varied from 1 to 4 ft., to Buzzards Bay. In Buzzards Bay the exist- 
ence of shallow shoals wnth many boulders prevented (except at 
prohibitive cost) the construction of a straight channel from the 
mouth of the Monument River to deep water in Buzzard's Bay off 
Wings Neck Light, so the location as adopted followed the general 
line of the existing natural channel, which required two turns. 

The details of this location, with a ]irofile of the surface along 
the center line of the canal, are showni by Fig. 2. A line drawn 
from the center of the canal at the mouth of the Monument River 



104G 



THE GATE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 







m 






I'lip^''"'^-! I'lIH C'Al'H fUI) CAXAL 1047 

to the center of the canal at the Cape Cod Bay end lies almost exactly 
due east and west (magnetic). The canal, therefore, was considered 
as running east and west, and for convenience this was considered 
diagrannnatically true of the Buzzards Bay approach, although the 
actual variations are considerable. 

The ])ortion of the canal under the jurisdiction of, and control 
by, the State, and covered by the charter, extends from the beach 
line of Cape Cod Bay, known as Station 11 + 70, to the mouth of the 
Monument River, known as Station 417 -\- 18.4, both being stations of 
the canal survey. For such distance, 40 548.40 ft. the company owns 
a right of way 1 000 ft. wide for 9 230 ft., at the east end, and 
600 ft. wide from Station 104 + 00 to Station 417 + 18.4. This 
length is referred to as the "canal proper", being the limits of the 
portion belonging to the company and over which tolls can be col- 
lected. The approaches in Cape Cod Bay and in Buzzards Bay beyond 
these limits are in open w^aters, over which, the United States main- 
tains jurisdiction and for which there is no right of way or charter, 
excavation having been done under a permit from the War Depart- 
ment. 

The original plans of Messrs. Corthell and Rives contemplated three 
passing places, with an extra bottom width of 100 ft., which, after 
discussion with the engineer of the Joint Board, were concentrated 
at the ends, so that the canal as built, out of a total length of 68 600 
ft. has only 30 800 ft., or less than 6 miles out of 13 miles, with the 
minimum width of 100 ft. on the bottom. In the canal proper, changes 
in direction are effected by curves with radii varying from 7 589.49 ft. 
(1.5 miles nearly) to 15 113.04 ft. (2.86 miles), the longest curve 
being 9 522 ft.; and in Buzzards Bay by the tangents meeting with 
deliection angles without curves, a straight-line widening being 
niade on the inside of the angles to give vessels swinging room in 
turning. 

The chief features of the location are as follows : 

Length: 
In feet. In miles. 

Canal proper (Stations 11 + 70 to 417 + 18.4) . 40 548.40 = 7.68 
Dredged approach, Cape Cod Bay (Stations 

— 14 to 11 + 70) 2 570.00 = 0.49 

Dredged approach. Buzzards Bay (Stations 

417 + 18.4 to 672) 25 481.60 = 4.83 



1048 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



Length, in feet. 

5 7 589.49 to 7 639.49 
i 11 509.19 
7 639.49 
( 11 409.19 
i 15 113.04 
11 459.19 



Lkngth: 
In feet. In miles. 

Total dredged waterway (Stations — 14 to 

672) 68 600.00 = 13.00 

Tangents in canal proper 12 342.66 = 2.34 

Tangents in Cape Cod Bay 2 570.00 = 0.49 

Tangents in Buzzards Bay 25 493.29 = 4.83 

Number of curves in canal proper 4 

Length of curves in canal proper: 

Radius, in feet. 
( 3 536.25 
i 1 429.81 

9 009.33 
( 6 999.92 
I 2 522.28 
5 773.33 
Total length of curves in canal proper : 29 270.92 ft. = 5.54 miles. 

Number of angular turns in Buzzards Bay 2 

Deflection angles of turns: Station 430 43° 14' 

" 540 50° 29' 41" 

Length with bottom width of 300 ft 4 400 ft. 

" " " " " 250 " 27 200 " 

" '' 200 " 3 000 " 

" " 150 " 1 500 " 

" " " " ''100" 30 800 " 

" " " " 250 to 450 ft. (turns) 4 000 " 

" " " " " 200 to 300 " transition.. 1000 " 

" '' 150 to 250 " " . . 300 " 

" " " " " 100 to 200 " " . . 400 " 

Slight apparent discrepancies will be noted in some of the fore- 
going figures. The explanation is that the total lengths of the canal 
are given as measured on the center line of the location, but the 
detailed lengths of the curves and tangents are those of the present 
canal, as actually constructed, offset from the center line of the right 
of way. When the canal is widened and the two center lines become 
coincident, the summation of the lengths of curves and tangents will 
agree with the total lengths as given, and the varying lengths of the 
radii of the compound curves will disappear. 

The adopted cross-sections of the canal are shown on Fig. 3, in 
which the steepest slope in the canal proper is put at 1 on 2 to 
a point 6 ft. above high- water level; in the approaches, however, where 
wave action is more pronounced, and no opporttmity is afforded to 
protect the slopes against wave action, the minimum slopes were made 



I'aiii'1-..l 



THE CAIM'; COD (AyVL 



104!) 



1 on 3. As there is considerable difference in tidal elevation at the 
two ends, the mean amplitude of the tide at the eastern end beins 
nearly 10 ft., the bottom grade of the canal is on a slope in order 
to give a depth of 25 ft. at mean low water. Thus the elevation of 
the bottom of the canal at the east end is 30 ft. below mean sea 
level, and at the west end it is 27.5 ft. The slope of the bottom, 
however, is on a curved, and not a straight, line, as the heights of 
mean high and mean low water in the canal proper make concave and 
convex curves, respectively, all of which details will be referred to 

later. 

CROSS-SECTIQNS 
BOSTON, CAPE COD, AND NEW YORK CANAL 




CANAL 



^Mean Low Wate 



APPROACH CHANN.EL 
Fig. 3. 

At the west end the approach and canal entrance are land locked 
and required no special consideration, but at the east end the canal 
debouches on an open sandy shore, with full exposure to winds coming 
from any part of the quadrant north to east. Winds west of north 
(magnetic) are broken by the high ground south of Plymouth, and 
winds east of northeast (magnetic) are partly broken by the low- 
lying cape 25 miles distant and by the land constantly getting nearer 
as the bearing approaches south, when the land makes a complete lee. 
Between north and northeast the winds have a clean sweep from the 
Maine coast, a fetch of 180 miles. 

To protect the easterly entrance to the canal, and permit vessels 
to enter at times of storm, there were designed and constructed two 
parallel breakwaters, 800 ft. apart. The larger one, on the north side, 
has a length of 3 000 ft. from the contour of mean high water, and 



lOdO THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

pi'ovides protection against north and northeast winds. The smaller, 
1 000 ft. long, on the south side, is intended to stop the littoral sand 
movement from the south. 

Other works required were: the protection of the slopes with rip- 
rap from 6 ft. below mean low, to 6 ft. above mean high, water, the 
relocation of the railway, the construction of certain bridges and 
ferries, highways, lighting system, and other aids to navigation, all 
of which will be described in order. 

The surveys and plans being complete, a contract was made on 
May 15th, 1909, after competitive bidding, with the Degnon Cape Cod 
Canal Construction Company, a contracting organization incorpo- 
rated specially to excavate the canal and its approaches, build the 
breakwater and protect the banks with rip-rap. All other required 
works were specifically exempted and reserved for other contracts with 
this or other contractors. 

This company was owned jointly by the Degnon Contracting Com- 
pany of New York and the Furst-Clark Contracting Company of 
Baltimore, and it sub-contracted to the Degnon Company the break- 
water and bank rip-rap, and to the Furst-Clark Company all the 
excavation. 

Having thus given a condensed sketch of the history of the enter- 
prise and of the facts leading to the execution of the main contract, 
the principal details of actual construction will be considered separately. 

Excavation. — The work was formally begun by Mr. Belmont "turn- 
ing the first sod" on June 22d, 1909, though actual construction was 
started on June 19th by the Degnon Contracting Company depositing 
the first stone in the breakwater. The contractors recognized that 
the breakwater must be advanced so as to afford some lee for a dredge 
to cut through the beach of Cape Cod Bay. 

The Furst-Clark Company, dredging , contractors of long and 
varied experience, considered that the excavation, certainly of the 
canal proper, could be done almost wholly by hydraulic dredges, and 
arranged for such plant, except in the approach channel in Buzzards 
Bay, where, spoil area for pumping not being available, the material 
had to be dug and removed in scows. They acted promptly, placing 
the dredge Kennedy at work in Buzzards Bay on August 2d. This 
dredge was of the "ladder" type with f-cu. yd, buckets; it was followed 
on October 25th by Coastwise Dredge No. 1, a small "clam-shell" 



Pftpei'-^l THE CAPE COD CANAL lOol 

machine. Tlio ])lan was that tlicsc dredges, to be assisted hy others 
later, were to cut a deep channel through to the Monument River to 
permit hydraulic dredges to enter and excavate the canal proper while 
excavators of other types were completing the approach channel. 

On October 16th the first attempt to cut through at the east end 
was begun by the Mackenzie, a 22-in. hydraulic dredge, starting as 
close to the beach as it could work. The attempt was not successful. 
As the breakwater, in its early stage, provided but little protection, 
and as the waters were exposed, the dredge had to be withdrawn either 
to Provincetown or Plymouth every time a storm, or even high wind, 
was threatened. Finally, in December, the plan was abandoned, and 
the Xahanf, a small clam-shell dredge with a long boom, was floated 
in through the Scusset Kiver and sliallow channels crossing the 
marshes into what remained of the old Lockwood excavation. On 
January 24th, 1910, this dredge began to work seaward, opening the 
old canal which had become closed at the beach, and placing the exca- 
vated material on shore. On April 7th, it had cut a way through to 
open water, and on the following day the Mackenzie entered the canal 
and the Nahant was withdrawn. 

With the idea of removing some of the over -burden in the dry, the 
contractors erected in December, 1909, and January, 1910, two "drag 
line" excavators. The former continued in operation until November, 
1910, and the latter until February, 1911. The results were very unsat- 
isfactory, as these machines were not adapted to the soil to be ex- 
cavated, and were too heavy to move over rough and swampy ground. 
They involved the contractors in a heavy loss. 

In the spring of 1910 the Furst-Clark Company placed at work 
another 22-in. hydraulic dredge (known as Numher 9) at the east 
end to work in tandem with the Mackenzie, and at the west end the 
4-cu. yd. dipper-dredge, Bothfeld, followed in August by the Onondaga, 
a 9-cu. yd. dipper-dredge, and in September by a smaller machine, the 
Neponset. In July, the Bothfeld having deepened the channel suffi- 
ciently, the Warren, a 12-in. hydraulic dredge, entered the Monument 
River and began spoiling on shore. 

By this time the contractors realized that they faced a much more 
serious task than they had anticipated. The material contained so 
many boulders and such a high proportion of cobbles, cemented gravel, 
and stiff clay that it could not be excavated completely by hydraulic 



1052 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

dredges except in places, and recourse must be had to "dipper" ma- 
chines. The contractors thereupon purchased the plant of another 
company, consisting of three dipper-dredges : the National, Capitol, 
and International, with buckets of from 5 to 6 cu. yd. and the Federal, 
a small hydraulic dredge. The first three arrived in Buzzards Bay in 
I^ovember and December, 1910, but the Capitol and National were at 
once towed around the Cape to the east end to assist the Mackenzie, 
which was having difficulty with the hard material, the Number 9 
having been already withdrawn. 

At this time there were at work one first-class hydraulic dredge, 
one old ladder-dredge, in good condition but not adapted to this 
work, one small hydraulic dredge, and five dipper-dredges, all old and 
of designs fitted for digging only soft material, and it was evident 
that the plant, even as reinforced by the purchase of the hydraulic 
and the three dipper-dredges, would not suffice. Arrangements were 
then made to remove some top material by steam shovels, work which 
the excavators had failed to do. Two shovels, with 2 and 2J-cu. yd. 
buckets, were set to work during the summer of 1911, when the 
Federal started at the west end of the canal, and the Suffolk, another 
12-in. hydraulic, took the place of the Warren. 

The contractors were soon compelled, however, to realize that their 
dipper-dredges, or in fact any other dipper-dredges then in existence, 
vrere wholly unsuited to the allotted tasks, and that, if they were to 
complete the work, powerful modern equipment must be obtained. 
Then, at the end of 2 years, instead of at the outset, orders were given 
foi: the construction of two powerful dipper-dredges, the Governor 
Warfield and the Governor Herrick. 

These dredges were designed and built by The American Locomo- 
tive Works, of Paterson, IST. J., being advised by A. W. Robinson, 
M. Am. Soc. C. E., and Mr. A. D. Morris, Mechanical Engineer of the 
Furst-Clark Company. The hulls are of steel, 135 ft. long, 42 ft. 
wide (though 50 ft. wide over the forward spud sponsons), 7 ft. draft 
when resting on the spuds, and 10 ft. maximum draft when floating. 
The forward spuds are 70 ft. long and 42 in. square in cross-section, 
with ''pin-up" and "pick-up" operation by cable. The stern spuds 
are 70 ft. long and 30 in. square, with rack and pinion pick-up. All 
spuds are made of braced steel plates. The forward spuds are placed 
so that the boom can swing through an arc of 180°, a necessary feature 



l'ii|HTs. I THE CAPE con CAXAL « 1053 

wlieu a dredge is to work iu a heading and load scows alongside. 
The boom, 57 ft. long, is of the rigid Robinson model. The dipper- 
handle, of eomposite steel and wood constriu'tion, is 2 ft. G in. by 2 
ft. 8 in. in cross-section, and G2 ft. 10 in. long, capable of digging in 
40 ft. of water. On the boom, controlling the dipper-handle, is a 
"crowding" engine, which is controlled by the dipper tender. 

For each operating part of the dredge there is a separate engine, 
as follows : 

1 Main hoisting engine; two 18 by 24-in. cylinders; single 

condensing. 
1 Backing driun, operated by inain engine. 

1 Swinging engine; two 10 by 14-in. cylinders; single condensing. 

2 Forward spud engines; two 12 by 15-in. cylinders; single 

condensing. 
2 Aft spud engines; two 8 by 8-in. cylinders; single condensing. 
1 Crowding engine; two 12 by 15-in. cylinders; non-condensing. 

1 Dipper latch engine; 7 by 24-in. cylinder; non-condensing. 

2 Deck engines; two 9^ by 12-in. cylinders; single condensing. 
2 Capstan engines; two 6 by 8-in. cylinders; single condensing. 

1 Rock hoist engine; two 8 by 12-in. cylinders; single condens- 
ing; capable of lifting 60 tons. 
1 Surface condenser ; 1 500 sq. ft. cooling surface. 
1 Refrigerating plant. 
1 Electric light engine; 10 kw. 

1 Air compressor. * i 
5 Pumps. 

2 Scotch marine boilers, IIG in. in diameter, 7 ft. long; 1350 

sq. ft. of heating surface, capable of generating steam at 135 
lb. pressure. 
1 Auxiliary vertical boiler; 48 in. in diameter, 9 ft. high. 

The dippers are of two sizes, 10 cu. yd. for sand, gravel, etc., and 
8 cu. yd. for rock. The main hoisting cable is a single line, 2J in. in 
diameter. The backing spud and swinging cables are If in. and 2^ 
in. in diameter, respectively. By avoiding sharp turns in the cables 
and using large sheaves where turns were necessary, a very high 
average life of cable is secured. The main and backing cables will 
dig about 300 000 cu. yd., scow measure, of hard material. The spud 
cables will last for about 1 year of continuous work for the "'pin-up" 
and nearly 2 years for the "pick-up" cables; the swinging cables will 
last from 5 to 7 months. 



1054 THE CAPE COD CAN"AL [Papers. 

The vessels are equipiDed with quarters for double crews, including 
an inspector's room, and a large galley with separate messroorns for 
officers and crew. 

These dredges were built on the canal. The plates for the hull 
were sent to the site punched, and, after the hulls had been constructed 
and launched, the several engines, built at Paterson, were shipped 
in pieces and erected on board. 

After tuning up and some reconstruction, these two machines have 
made an extraordinary record. The best single day's record was more 
than 8 000 cu. yd., and the best month 131000 cu. yd., in both cases 
"place" measurement, although dredges are usually rated by scow 
measurement, which includes a swell of from 15 to 20 per cent. 
These records were accomplished, not in an open seaway with plenty 
of room, but in a narrow channel, and in a closed heading involving 
the turning of nearly every scow so as to load both ends. The scows 
were also necessarily small, usually having a capacity of from 600 to 
700 cu. yd., and the material dug was very hard sand when at best, 
and contained boulders running up to 30 and 40 tons. The average 
record, as shown by 9 consecutive months when engaged in straight 
work, was more than 95 000 cu. yd. per month. 

The operating crew for double shift — so as to give continuous 
service — consists of from 25 to 28 men for two shifts as follows: 

1 Captain, 

1 Chief Engineer, ^ 

1 Second Engineer, 

2 Operators, 

2 Dipper tenders, 

1 Handy man, with rank of dipper tender, 

2 Oilers, 

6 Firemen (3 shifts), 

2 Mates, 

6 Deckliands, 

1 Cook, 

1 or 2 Messboys. 

When in continuous operation, 11 tons of soft coal are burned 
daily. The Herrich began work in July, and the Warfield in 
August, 1912. 



''"Pi^'-'*] THE CAPE COD CANAL 105") 

While these (hvdyes were bein^ built, tlie Cliief Eu^iiueer urged 
the eontraetors to get nioi'e plant at work in the central jjortiou. One 
plan that was considered to increase the plant was to place the large 
hydraulic dredge Mackenzie on railway trucks and on a special ship 
railway transport it over the right of way from about Station 140 to 
about Station 220, where a pool in tlie Monument River could be 
formed to permit it to begin work. This plan was abandoned in 
favor of building u new liull for the Federal, and erecting in it new 
boilers but retaining tlie old pumj) and maeliinery, and converting 
the dredge at the same time into a 15-in. machine. This was done, 
and the reconstructed Federal was set to work inland in August, 1912. 
By thus starting an operating unit between the headings, the same 
advantage was obtained as sinking a shaft in tunnel work. 

As excellent and economical as were the dredges War field and 
Ilei'rick, they were built too late to permit the work to be completed 
witiiin the limits of the contract. In August, 1912, the Construction 
Company made a separate contract with the E. W. Foley Construction 
Company for a steam shovel to assist in the removal of the over- 
burden, and in the autumn of that year took up with the Degnon 
Cape Cod Canal Construction Company the whole question of carry- 
ing on the work. The outcome of this was the dissolution of that 
company, and the making, as of November 1st, 1912, of two contracts 
directly with the component partners in that company who had here- 
tofore been acting as sub-contractors. The Degnon Contracting 
Company undertook to complete all the stone work, under the terms 
and conditions of the original contract, which they carried out. The 
Furst-Clark Construction Company took over, under a direct contract, 
but under different terms from the original contract, all the excava- 
tion except such as the Construction Company might do itself or 
under other contracts with other parties, including the single Foley 
contract already in force. 

When it was first fully realized that the excavation was more dif- 
ficult, not only than originally, but even after considerable experi- 
ence, expected, the writer urged on the general contractor the advisa- 
bility of extending the operations of the steam shovels, and even to 
take 2 or 3 miles in the central portion of the canal proper, and 
not only remove the part above ground-water level, which was about 
Elevation 108, by shovels, as they were doing in a small way, but to 



1056 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

erect pumps, carry the Monument River in a flume around the work 
and then complete the excavation of the canal to grade and rip-rap 
the banks in the dry, breaking up the boulders encountered for this 
purpose. The contractors, however, were afraid that an excavation 
to a depth of 36 ft. below the level of ground-water and having a 
width at the bottom of 100 ft. for a distance of from 10 000 to 15 000 
ft. in a soil composed chiefly of sand and gravel, would be one that 
could not be kept siifficiently dry, and they declined to undertake it. 

When the excavation contract was remade, in December, 1912, but 
efi^ective as of November 1st, the Construction Company, realizing 
that the Furst-Clark plant could not probably complete the work as 
quickly as desired, decided to undertake itself the working of steam 
shovels below water level, and made a new contract with the Foley 
Company, with profits dependent on success. In addition to its 2-cu. 
yd. shovel already at work, the Foley Company purchased a 2J-cu. 
yd. shovel, which had been working in the dry under a sub-contract 
with the Furst-Clark Company, which work was substantially com- 
pleted. 

At first a stretch of work between about Stations 235 and 255 was 
taken, and a steam shovel put in. This section was selected because the 
Monument River between these points lay in its old bed, outside of the 
canal excavation. It was soon found that the difiiculty of maintaining 
a sufficiently dry excavation to a depth of at least 10 ft. below ground- 
water was negligible, and it was decided to extend the. operations. The 
Foley Company arranged for a third shovel. 

The Monument River flows into the canal at Station 195, coming 
from the north and almost at right angles to it. To the eastward of 
this station the ground above Elevation 108 had been removed, and as 
this was but little higher than the elevation of the bed of the river, a 
small dam was sufficient to divert its flow to the eastward, so that the 
only water to be encountered was ground seepage. Four natural dams 
were left, at Stations 208, 216, 234, and 276. It was first expected to 
confine operations between the dams at Stations 216 and 276, but 
afterward, when it was seen that the advance progress of the dredge at 
the east end was slower than scheduled, excavation by steam shovel was 
extended to the section lying between Stations 216 and 208. 

The pumping plant consisted of four centrifugal pumps, with 11-in. 
suction and 12-in. discharge, driven by General Electric induction 



Pfipeis.l THE CAPE COD CAN^AL 1057 

motors developing 50 h. p. at 550 volts; two 5-iu. centrii"up:al pumps, 
direct-connected to 550-volt induction motors; one 10-in. and one 
S-in. steam pump. 

At one time the whole excavation from Stations 208 to 276 (6 800 
I't.) was open, and a large part with an average depth of at least 20 
ft. below the level of ground-water, and the foregoing plant, which had 
one-half in reserve, was amply sufficient to keep the trench free of 
water. In fact, one of the large pumps running steadily would have 
sufficed. 

The maxinuini depth made by the Foley Company was a cut at 
Elevation 85 (mean sea level being 100), or 23 ft. below the elevation 
of ground-water. Between Stations 208 and 216 the bottom of the pit 
was at about Elevation 95; between Stations 21G and 234 at 90; and 
between Stations 234 and 276 from 85 to 90. Some of the boulders 
encountered were broken by blasting, and the pieces were used to rip- 
rap the north bank of the excavation between Stations 220 and 265. 

The Foley shovels were served by narrow-gauge locomotives and 
4-cu. yd. cars. 

The first of the dams to be removed by a dredge was that at Station 
276, then followed the dams at Stations 208 and 216, in order, leaving 
tliat at Station 234 for the last. 

The Furst-Clark Company continued using its dredging equip- 
ment, but with the addition of another old dipper-dredge, the 
Weymouth, with a 5-cu. yd. dipper, while the Foley Company operated 
three steam shovels by the aid of pumps under a separate contract. 
Thus the work continued during 1913, and by June, 1914, the only 
remaining excavation in sight was the Foley dam at Station 234. This 
was removed in July, andlhe formal opening, but of a canal not to full 
depth at all points, was on July 29th, 1914. On the following day the 
canal was thrown open to commercial traffic by vessels drawing not 
more than 15 ft. 

Immediately after the opening, the Furst-Clark Company objected 
to continuing the work of completion with traffic having the right of 
way, and stopped work in September. An arrangement was then 
effected whereby the Construction Company undertook the work of 
completion, the Furst-Clark Company turning over the dredge War- 
field and some other iilant for use by the Construction Company. 



1058 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

In the completion of the work the Construction Company used 
three dredges and two corps of divers and lighters. As it was decided 
to maintain traffic, it was desirable that the plant used in the portion 
of the canal where the bottom width was 100 ft. should occupy the 
minimum of space. An investigation showed that much of the material 
in this portion could be handled by a powerful suction-dredge, and 
such a machine was found in Dredge No. S, belonging to the Metro- 
politan Dredging Company, Mr. R, P. Marshall, President. This 
dredge had a 20-in. suction, and an engine capable of developing 1 000 
h. p. It was chartered, set to work in December, 1914, and dismissed 
from charter on October 2d, 1915, during which time it rendered most 
efficient service. Dredge A, of the Standard Engineering Company, 
also a 20-in. machine, was taken under charter and used to complete 
the excavation at the east end. The Warfield worked generally in the 
wider portions of the canal and the approaches, although it was iised 
in the 100-ft. section, as it was found that, with a little practice, scows 
could be shifted from alongside to ahead and back to permit vessels 
to pass. 

When the Warfield was first used in the 100-ft. section, the dredge 
worked only on a fair tide, as it could not move itself and the scow 
against the current. As soon as the spuds were lifted, the -weight of 
the dipper on the bottom was not sufficient to hold the dredge, and it 
would slip back. The suggestion was made by W. J. Douglas, M. Am. 
Soc. C. E., Deputy Chief Engineer of the Canal Company, to turn 
the dredge at slack water, taking up a new position, so that it would 
always be working in the direction of the current. This movement was 
easily performed, the crew soon becoming so expert that substantially 
continuous service was secured. 

The great obstacle to be overcome in th@' completion of the excava- 
tion was the removal of the boulders, which were found in surprisingly 
large numbers, even when the canal was considered finished. The 
small lumps which were expected to flatten out by wave action were 
found in nearly every case to be the ends of boulders, and to remove 
them meant the digging up of boulders that were embedded many 
feet. Similar experience was had on both banks, where the existence 
of boulders could be detected only by divers. Other boulders were 
found lying along the toes of the side slopes, whither they had been 
apparently rolled by the dipper-dredges. 



'''M'i''"^l THE CAPE COD CANAL I0o9 

These bouklers were located by sweeping and by divers, and were 
removed either by hoisting in slings, attached by the divers, by large 
steam lighters, or were broken by blasting and the pieces disposed of. 
Tlic blasting was done usually by placing charges of dynamite on top 
of the boulder, depending on the overlying water to act as tamping. 
The explosive used was du Pont 75% gelatine dynamite, the charge 
varying from '25 to 200 lb. The best results seemed to be produced by 
charges of about 50 lb., even if they had to be repeated, the second and 
subsequent charges being inserted in the fissures made by the first. 

Boulders as large as 80 tons have been thus disposed of; the total 
number handled by divers, either by blasting or slings, was about 700, 
weighing in the aggregate perhaps 3 500 tons. 

A large piece of work teaches lessons of two classes: successes and 
mistakes. The second class is quite as important as the first, if not 
more so. The lessons of the first class usually need no historian, for 
they always speak for themselves, whereas those of the second class 
are too frequently buried and lost sight of. The work of excavation 
of this canal, the largest single item in its construction, is not without 
lessons of the second class. 

The first of these was the failure to see that in work of this char- 
acter the steam shovel is superior to the dredge. The excavation con^ 
tract being taken by a company whose great experience was in dredging 
naturally led them to use that method of attack, overlooking the wonder- 
fully elastic capabilities of the American steam shovel. 

In open water, dredging is the only method of excavating. As 
many units as desired can be used, and progress is not absolutely 
dependent on any particular one. In the case of a canal excavated 
through land, unless some means are devised for attack at intermediate 
points, advance depends entirely on the ability of the dredges at the 
two headings to maintain continuous performance. In practice this 
is very far from realization. Any accident, any stoppage for repairs, 
and the whole advance at that end ceases. By the very nature of the 
machine, there can be no reser\'e. Interest, hire of plant, overhead 
expenses, and much labor cost continue, regardless of whether progress 
is or is not made. Economy, therefore, demands that progress should 
be as nearly continuous as possible, in order to carry this heavy over- 
burden. In the case of the Cape Cod Canal, the irregularity in the 
character and composition of the soil greatly hampered successful 



lOGO THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

dredging operations. A single boulder would frequently delay a whole 
unit — dredge, tugs, and scows — for many hours. Even when not de- 
layed, progress was measured by the capacity of only two machines. 

By the use of steam shovels, the reverse takes place. Each unit is 
comparatively inexpensive, and is independent of any other. There- 
fore, many can be used economically, and shovels can be held in reserve 
to take the place of any temporarily disabled, reducing loss through 
idle plant to the minimum. Thus a long stretch of work can be covered 
with plant, instead of having it concentrated at two points. With soil 
so variable in character as that at Cape Cod, it is of the greatest benefit 
to have it exposed to sight. Boulders which turned beneath water were 
annoying and, through delay to plant, expensive, bothered steam shovels 
scarcely at all. If too large to lift, they were rolled to one side, and 
after the shovel had passed, were broken by blasting and the parts 
picked up on the next cut. 

Every one admitted the feasibility of removing by shovels the 
material lying above ground-water level, and the general contractors 
began such work as soon as it was seen that rapid progress by hydraulic 
dredges was not to be expected. The fear was of the difficulty of suc- 
cessfully and permanently lowering the water level. Experience showed 
that there was no serious difficulty in keeping the trench unwatered. 
The economical programme would have been to have constructed dams 
at about Station 112, where there was a highway, and at Station 317, 
where there was a railway embanl^ment, and to have put in a battery 
of larger steam shovels, with dippers of 5 cu. yd. capacity, served by 
standard gauge equipment. These shovels would have handled with- 
out trouble all the small boulders and fragments of the blasted ones, 
and the large cars would have received them without damage. Between 
these limits there were about 6 500 000 cu. yd., of which about 4 500 000 
cu. yd. were below the level of ground-water. One-half of the canal 
proper (20 500 ft.) could have been thus unwatered and fully completed 
in the dry, with all boulders removed, slopes trimmed to even planes, 
floor leveled, and banks carefully protected by hand-placed rip-rap. 

While this work was progressing the part east of Station 112 could 
have been excavated by a hydraulic dredge, the Scusset marshes afford- 
ing convenient spoiling area, a few hard lumps being removed at the 
end by a dipper-dredge. West of Station 317 two dredges of the War- 
field type should have been built, and should have worked in tandem. 



Papers. I 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



lOGl 



eoiiipleting the eliiuuiel 1'ih)ui Wings Neck Light. In the approach 
chnnnel in Buzzards Bay there were about 3 250 000 cu. yd., and between 
the west end of the ennal iu'iiikt and Station olT about 1 750 000 cu. yd. 
Of the hitter perhaps one-half could have been put ashore by a light- 
draft hydraulic dredge, as was done in part, making a good channel 
for one of the larger dipper-dredges to work in to complete to Station 
317. In this way there would have been used two large dipper-dredges, 
one large hydraulic dredge, one small hydraulic dredge, one clam-shell 
to cut through the east beach, as was done by the Nahant, and fovir or 
five large steam shovels. Such a plant, by putting practically the whole 
length under construction simultaneously, could have completed the 
canal in 3 years. Instead of ten units there were actually used no less 
than twenty-six. 

The second lesson was the use of antiquated instead of modern plant. 
In Table 1 the work of fifteen dredges is showoi comparatively by giving 
the total output of each dredge while it was on the work, the equivalent 
number of months worked, and the average per month. This table 
includes all vicissitudes of the work — time lost through stress of 
weather, repairs, delay in the scow service, and other causes. The 
average, therefore, is one of good and bad, and the time each dredge 
worked was sufficiently long to give a fair average of all conditions. 
The number of months worked is a fair reduction of the time given by 
months when the dredge was actually in service, including the time 
laid up for small repairs. Where the dredge was absent from the work 
for one whole month that time has not been included. The names are 
not given, except in the cases of the Warfield and the Herrick, as it is 
unnecessary to make special and invidious comparisons. 

TABLE 1. — CoMPAUisox of ttie Work of Dredges. 



Dredge. 


Total output, 
in cubic yards. 


Months. 


Average per 

month. In 
cubic yards. 


Warfield 


1265 800 

1 294 800 
bKi 500 

1 064 400 
C03 8C0 

1 197 600 
822 200 
779 800 
732 800 


14 

15.5 

14 

26 

17 

39.5 

33 

85 

48.5 


90 000 


Herrick 


83 600 


Dipper-dredge, No. 1 

Ladder-dredge, No. 1 


41700 
40 900 


Dipper-dredge, No 2 


37 000 


Dipper-drfdge, No. 3 

Dipper-dredge, No. 4 

Dippfr-dredge, No 5 


30 300 
24 900 
22 300 


Seven other small dredges 


15 000 



1062 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

From Table 1 it will be seen that the Warfield did nearly two and one- 
quarter times as much work as the nearest dipper-dredge, and four times 
as much as the poorest dipper-dredge, exclusive of the small dredges the 
output of which has been appended with an average of 15 000 cu. yd. 
per month. The Warfield was no more expensive to operate than 
Dipper-dredge iSTo. 1, as the latter machine was very costly on account 
of repairs. The other machines were at least two-thirds as expensive 
to operate as the Warfield, although their output was very much less. 
In one month the thirteen other dredges would excavate, on the aver- 
age, 302 000 cu. yd., or a trifle more than three times the average out- 
put of the Warfield. In this respect it must be kept in mind that the 
hard work was saved entirely for the Warfield and Herrich, as the 
other dredges were incapable of handling it. 

It will be seen, therefore, that had specially designed dredges been 
set to work at the outset, they would have more than paid for them- 
selves during the construction of the canal. 

As an interesting comparison, the two 20-in. hydraulic dredges 
rempved 2 558 300 cu. yd. in 26 months, or an average of 100 000 cu. 
yd. per month, and the small hydraulic dredge Federal removed 613 800 
in 32 months, or an average of 19 200 cu. yd. per month. The 
excavators removed 316 200 cu. yd. in 22J months, an average of 
14 000 cu. yd. per machine per month ; and the steam shovels removed 
2 077 600 cu. yd. in 89J months, an average of 23 200 cu. yd. per shovel 
per month, and these were small shovels served by narrow-gauge equip- 
ment, put in as an experiment. The excavators and the shovels worked 
on a single shift, but all the dredges worked continuously on double 
shift. 

Including excavation made by the Metropolitan and Standard 
dredges and by other dredges used directly by the Canal Company, the 
total excavations amounted to about 15 000 000 cu. yd. 

Breakwater. — The breakwater at the east end was necessary to pro- 
tect the mouth of the canal from littoral drift and to afford protection 
to vessels entering and leaving in time of heavy weather. 

The principal clauses in the specifications describing it are as fol- 
lows: 

The shore end shall extend from the mean high water mark at a 
uniform height of 10 ft, above the beach until it intersects the bluff 
or dune. The beach and the sides of the dune forming the surface of 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 1063 

tliis intersection shall be rii)-rixpped for the distance and to the extent 
as directed to form a secure revetment, with stones weighing at least 
100 lb. 

The stone will be deposited in the structure so as to construct 
a breakwater of a uniform width of 25 ft. at a point 18 ft. above mean 
low water. 

From the top to a point 12 ft. below mean low water the seaward 
or northeasterly slope shall be 1 on 2, and thence to the base the slope 
on the seaward side shall be 1 on 1. 

The harbor or southeasterly side, shall be constructed throughout 
with a slope of 1 on 1. 

The mean rise and fall of the tide is about 10 ft. 
The stone must weigh at least 160 lb. per cu. ft., must be strong 
and durable, and not subject to disintegration by being wholly or 
partly submerged in sea water. 

Below the level of 12 ft. below mean low water, and in the core, that 
is to say, not nearer than 10 ft. from the outside line of the breakwater, 
the stone may be of any size convenient, provided that no stone shall 
be of less weight than 100 lb., and that, at least 50% of the stones shall 
weigh not less than 1 ton each. 

Within the space above defined, i. e., the core below 12 ft. below 
mean low water, coarse gravel and sand shall be dumped into and among 
the stones as directed, and to the quantity ordered by the Engineer. 

Below 12 ft. below mean low water and on the faces of the break- 
water, i. p., the outward 10 ft. of each slope, no stone shall be less than 
500 lb. in weight and at least 50% shall be 2 tons or more each in 
weight. 

Above the level of 12 ft. below low water no stones shall be used 
that weigh less than 3 tons each, except that where directed smaller 
stones may be used to fill in openings and to provide firm bearings for 
the larger stones, and at least 25% must weigh 6 tons each. Nor shall 
any stone be used in this position of which the least dimension is less 
than one-fourth of its greatest. 

In the absence of scales or other convenient method of weighing 
separate stones, the judgment and decision of the Engineer as to the 
weight of various stones and as to the proportions of stones of various 
weights as specified in the above paragraphs shall be final and binding 
upon the Contractor. 

The weight of stone deposited will be determined by water displace- 
ment, and in order to determine the correct displacements, the 
Contractor may be required to have the vessels accurately "weighed 
in'' and distinctly marked, at his own expense; the "weighing 
in" and marking to be done under supervision of the Engineer. In 
"weighing in" the vessel must be kept in the same fore and aft trim 



lOGi THE CATE COD CANAL [Papers. 

that is to \>e used when freighting stone. When fore and aft readings 
of a loaded vessel diifer by more than 10% of their mean, the Con- 
tractor will be required to move enough stones to make the difference 
between the fore and aft readings less than 10% before the stone will 
be received. 

As the work progressed it was decided by the Engineer to depart 
from the usually accepted standard of breakwater construction, as illus- 
trated in the foregoing extracts from the specifications, and omit any 
attempt at compact hearting by using only such small stones as came 
normally mixed with the large ones, and omitting all gravel and sand. 
The result is a breakwater with large voids, such as naturally form 
between large irregular blocks. The resulting effect seems to be that 
any vacuum following a receding wave is impossible, the large voids 
giving free movement to the air. Waves on striking the breakwater are 
liroken partly by direct shock and partly by dissipation in these large 
voids. No stones have been displaced on the seaward side since the 
final setting, except at the extreme outer end, as will be referred to 
presently; and, in spite of the large voids, sand does not apparently 
travel through the breakwater. On the shore end the beach has built 
itself out so as to make a curve between the face of the breakwater and 
the shore line, which are at right angles to each other. "Wliere the sand 
is thus built up it is 10 ft. higher on the outside than on the inside of 
the breakwater, which at that point has a thickness of 62 ft. The sand, 
therefore, seems to assmne a slope through the breakwater of about 1 
on G. 

Fig. 4 shows a cross-section of the breakwater as originally planned. 
In addition to the change in specifications describing composition, one 
change was made in the profile during construction. Although the 
stones were stable at a slope of 1 on 1 on the inside face, the contractors 
found diificulty in placing them at that slope, so that they were per- 
mitted to flatten it from low-water level up by narrowing the top from 
.25 ft., as shown, to about 22 ft. 

The total length of the l)reakwater is 3 000 ft., carrying the outer 
end to where the water is 35 ft. deep at mean low water, the total height 
of the breakwater at the end being, therefore, 53 ft. In its construction, 
326 456 tons of stone were used. 

Parallel v/ith the breakwater and 800 ft. from it, a smaller jjreak- 
water has been built on the south side of the cliannel. This smaller 



I'aiicTs.l 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



10G5 





!ai 



18 0— *i 





^^ 



1066 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

structure, 1 000 ft. long, and extending to a depth of 8 ft., is intended 
to check any littoral drift of sand from south to north being deposited 
in the channel. It is carried up so as to be exposed at high water, and 
contains 9 192 tons of stone. 

The stone in the main breakwater and in the "sand catcher" was 
exclusively granite brought across Massachusetts Bay, first from quar- 
ries in Maine and afterward from near Cape Ann. It was shipped in 
schooners, and on arrival at the canal was transferred to lighters and 
thence placed by floating derricks. Weight was computed by vessel 
displacement, as provided in the specifications, payment being made 
per ton of 2 000 lb. in place in the breakwater. 

The only damage that the breakwater has sustained was during the 
high gale on January 13th, 1915, when stones above mean sea level at 
the outer end, for a distance of about 200 ft., were removed by the 
waves. The damage began at the end and then continued by succes- 
sive cutting back, stones being knocked off separately as each in turn 
found no support on one side. The damage was repaired by using larger 
boulders and by building on somewhat flatter slopes at the end, the 
previously displaced boulders lying on the flanks giving a broad base on 
which to build. 

Rip-rap. — The banks of the canal, consisting of sand and gravel, 
required protection against wave action, which protection it was de- 
cided should be provided by loosely deposited material rather than any 
form of paving. Accordingly, the specifications were drawn to read : 

After any section of the canal has been constructed to its finished 
prism long enough for all slips, slides, and settlements to have taken 
place, and as soon as the banks have assumed a permanent and stable 
position the Engineer may order the construction of the wash walls 
or revetment. This wall will be constructed within the limits shown in 
Drawing No. 6 and will consist of a rough pavement, dumped into place 
and 18 in. thick, of one-man stone. 

Small inequalities in the alignment or slope of the bank shall be 
leveled up and made smooth before the placing of the wash walls. 

In actual practice the stones varied in weight from 5 to 150 lb. each. 

Fig. 3 shows how the rip-rap was placed with respect to the water 
surface as shown on Contract Drawing No. 6, referred to in the speci- 
fications. In general, it extended from a point about 6 ft. above mean 
high water to 6 ft. below mean low water, which gave a protected sur- 



J 'iipi' '•■';.] THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1UG7 

face 42 ft. wide, measured on the slope at the east end of the canal, 
where the tidal ranp:e is greatest. 

At tlie western end of tlie eaiial, from Station 360 to the north of 
the Monument River, rip-rap has been omitted, as not being deemed 
necessary because the estuary of the river, here canalized, gives a 
wider water surface, and the banks are protected naturally by tough 
marsh grass. Experience has confirmed this assumption. 

The rip-rap is of granite. That used in the easterly half came from 
the quarries that furnished the large stones for the breakwater; some 
of the stone at the westerly end came from the quarries on Long 
Island Sound, but, after the last dam was cut and traffic was opened 
through the canal, the remainder of the stone came from Cape Ann. 

About one-half of the cut made by the Foley Company was rip- 
rapped in the dry by that company with broken boulders from the 
excavation, the remainder being done by the general rip-rap contractor 
after water was admitted. 

The stone which was brought to the work came in schooners and 
was transferred to lighters. It was dumped on the banks from scale 
boxes holding about 2 tons each, and was spread by hand at low water, 
though the derrick men soon became sufficiently expert to do consider- 
able of the spreading by sweeping the scale boxes up the back. 

The quantity of rip-rap placed was 144 397 tons. 

It was expected that, when the operation of the canal began, the 
effect of waves from passing vessels might scour the banks below the 
rip-rap so as to cause the latter to slide down, and require additional 
material to be added to the top. This possibility of easy repair is one 
of the great merits of loosely placed rip-rap, which quality also tends 
to localize damage if it settles at any point, the loose stones quickly 
finding a new bed. Rigid pavement, on the other hand, may resist 
falling until much sand has been displaced behind it, and the;i collapse 
over a large area. Other advantages are low first cost, rapidity of execu- 
tion, and rough surface to check wave action and tidal current. 

After 30 months of operation only very trifling repairs have been 
made. This permanent condition of the rip-rap is due partly to the 
naturally hard condition of the material composing the banks and 
partly to the depth to which the rip-rap has been carried, apparently 
below serious wave action. 



10G8 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

Work on the breakwater was begun in June, 1909, and was finished 
in December, 1913, in 35 months of actual working time. It could have 
been completed earlier had there been necessity. Progress in placing 
rip-rap was naturally governed by canal excavation, but was at the 
maximum in 1914, when 8 400 tons were placed in 1 month. 

Railway Reconstruction. — The Old Colony Railroad Company, now 
leased to the JSTew York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad Com- 
pany, owned the line from Boston to the Cape. It was a double-track 
line from Boston to the station known as Buzzards Bay, where it 
forked into two single-track lines, one crossing the Monument River 
at Buzzards Bay and running to Woods Hole, the other turning east 
and running up the valley of the river and thence along the hook of 
the Cape to Provincetown. The latter line not only occupied a por- 
tion of the lands required, for the canal location, but actually crossed 
the canal line three times. 

The Canal Company's charter contemplated the taking of the Rail- 
road Company's right of way, under projDer safeguards to the latter's 
operation. Conferences with the engineers of the New Haven and the 
Old Colony Railroad Companies — for the latter still maintains its full 
corporate existence — resulted in an agreement : 

To relocate both branches from Buzzards Bay station, and, though 

leaving the actual physical junction at the station, to make a 

single crossing of the canal for both lines, with the point of 

divergence on the south bank; 

To relocate a short piece of the Woods Hole line from the point of 

divergence to connect with the existing line; 
To relocate the Provincetown line along and near the south side 
of the canal right of way until it intersected the old line east 
of Bourne, and again to relocate a piece at Bournedale, where 
the railroad, in order to avoid heavy cutting, crossed and re- 
crossed the canal location. 

Previous to these changes, the junction of the lines was at the 
north end of the Buzzards Bay station, but after the relocation was 
completed the junction point was at the south end of the station, and 
this change required a complete reconstruction of the Buzzards Bay 
yard. The old junction and yard switches, with their signals, were con- 
trolled by lever operation, a system tliat could not be altered to in- 



r'iM't'1-^1 TIIK CAPK COD CAXAL 10(iU 

elude a draw-bridfyc with its home and distant signals on the fur side 
of a waterway all interlocked and controlled from a central tower. 
'1 lu' niecluuiical system, therefore, was abandoned and a new electro- 
pneumatic plant put in. All told, there were 6.3 miles of, single main 
track and 1.2 miles of side track newly constructed. The quantity of 
track work was not large, but the expense was proportionately high, as 
the yard, signals, water supply, and bridges brought the total cost to 
$370 274.05, in addition to which the Railroad Company bore the ex- 
pense of a new station building and certain extensions of the signal 
system that were not thought to be called for by the presence of 
the canal. The only items in the railroad construction that are 
of interest are the main drawbridge and other bridges, and these are 
described in detail. The contract for railroad work was taken by 
the Dcgnon Contracting Company and sublet to the Wilson and 
English Construction Company. 

Highways. — The highways proved, an annoying detail to adjust. 
Those existing before the canal construction began were wholly in- 
compatible with the operation of a ship waterway, there being no less 
than seven crossings of the location, and. if any of these crossings were 
abandoned, certain pieces of i^roperty would be left without access. 
After many local public hearings, and discussions with the County 
Commissioners and Selectmen of the towns, it was finally decided 
to construct highways on both sides of the canal, so as to provide 
continuous east and west facilities, and to restrict the actual crossings 
to three, at the Villages of Bourne, Bournedale, and Sagamore. The 
decision as to whether these crossings were to be by bridge, ferry, 
or tunnel was by the charter left to the Joint Board, who ordered 
bridges at Bourne and Sagamore, and a ferry for passengers only at 
Bournedale. These bridges will be considered in connection with the 
railroad bridge. 

New highways, 4.4 miles in length, including the portions occupied 
l\v bridges, were constructed, and 0.(5 mile was resurfaced, all of whicli 
the local authorities insisted shovild be built to a standard never 
before observed in that part of Massachusetts, involving heavj' earth 
cuttings and embankjnents. 

Fig. 5 shows the railroad and highways as they existed before and 
after relocation, with the points of crossing. 



loro 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



Bridges. — There are three bridges across the canal. The charter 
requirements required the canal to have a prism with a bottom width 
of 100 ft., but the directors realized that it would be only a question 
of a short time when a wider canal would be required — one sufficiently 
broad to permit tows to pass in opposite directions, and a deeper 
canal to accommodate battleships or vessels drawing niore than 25 ft. 
Although the canal can be deepened or widened at any time, bridges 
are rigid obstructions that can be altered only by complete recon- 
struction. The directors, therefore, decided to build in the first 
instance bridges larger than were demanded to meet the require- 
ments of the charter, and large enough to fit a canal of such increased 
dimensions as could be reasonably foreseen as probably necessary. 
After considering various designs and estimates, channel draw-spans 
of 160 ft. in length, from center to center of piers, were adopted, with 
foundations to a depth permitting the canal to be made more than 
30 ft. deep. 




I 1000 1000 600<J 8000 10 000 12 000 

RAILROAD AND HIGHWAY RELOCATION 
Fig. 5. 



Swing bridges were out of the question, as central piers would 
completely block a straight channel. For the railroad bridge, after 
conferences with the engineers of the New Haven Railroad Com- 
pany, the Strauss type of trunnion bascule bridge was selected, to be 
built to meet the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad 
bridge specifications of 1908, which contemplatfe two engines of con- 
solidation type with 60 000 lb. per driving axle, 30 000 lb. leading axle, 
and 39 000 lb. per tender axle, or 65 000 lb. per axle on two axles 7 
ft. apart for details. The general elevations and cross-section are 
shown on Fig. 6. 



Papers.] 



TIIH CAPE COD CAXAL 



1071 




1072 THE CAPE COD CAXAL ITapers. 

kSpecial specifications to cover the design of a bascule bridge of 
til is type, and not contemplated by the railroad specifications, were 
added, of the important clauses of which the following is a summary: 

Impact of motion: 333% of dead-load stress in structural steel 
members during the motion of bridge to be added. 

Operating machinery : This designed to withstand a wind pres- 
sure of 20 lb. per sq. ft. of the moving leaf, and the motors 
strong enough to open or close the bridge through the full 
angle of the opening in 1^ min. against a wind pressure of 
5 lb. per sq. ft., or in 2 min. against a wind pressure of 15 
lb. per sq. ft. 

Machinery unit stresses : 

Trunnions and pins 15 000 lb. per sq. in. 

Slow-speed shafting 16 000 " " " 

High-speed shafting 12 500 " " " 

Slow-speed gears 17 500 " " 

Medium-speed gears 9 000 " " " 

High-speed gears 9 000 " " " 

Bearing in journals during motion : 

Trunnions 1 700 " " 

Slow-speed shafting 500 " " 

High-speed shafting 500 "' " 

Motors : The main operating motors are two 65-h.p. direct-current 
motors, capable of carrying an overload of 50% for 10 min. 
and 100% for 5 min. 

For the substructure of the Buzzards Bay Bridge the Chief Engi- 
neer of the New Haven Railroad Company requested that concrete 
should not be exposed to the action of salt water, especially between 
high and low water, on account of the generally unsatisfactory 
experience with this material in Boston Harbor and vicinity, and 
that the piers should be lined on the outside with durable stone. 

Fig. 7 shows the main details of the three piers. There were no 
masonry abutments, as the connection from the draw-span to the 
shore Avas made by wooden pile trestles of the New Haven Railroad 
standard. The piers were numbered in order from the north end: 
1, 2, and 3, the canal flowing between Piers 2 and 3. The maximum 
load falls on Pier 1, due to the counterweight. Piers 2 and 3 divide 
the liA'e load, but the former supports a greater portion of the weight 
of the truss. The weights carried by the three piers, therefore, vary 
greatly. 



i'apL-rs.] 



TlIK CAl'H COD CANAL 



1073 



<jjij 



-XI 



o 

K CD 
P 3=- 



::??♦ 




o 


2 


>■ 


m 


o 


:o 


ca 


2 


3J 


o 


a 




o 


»o 



•T^-Q— o- o (» o ; ^ m| 
_ o-o— © 
o— o-o-o— o- 

l i 1 i i 





1074 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

Oil account oi the large area needed for the bases of the piers, 
especially of Pier 1, it was decided to excavate by dredges to the 
necessary depth and place an open caisson on piles. 

The specifications required, in general : 

That the facing should be of granite in 18 to 20-in. courses, to 
the under side of the coping, which was to be of concrete. 

The piles were to carry not exceeding 24 tons each, with a niini- 
ruuni diameter of 8 in. at the tip and 12 in. at one-third the 
distance from the butt. 

The concrete in the foundations or hearting was to be mixed in 
the proportion of 1 part cement, 2 J parts sand, and 5 parts 
broken stone or gravel, in which boulders might be embedded. 
In the concrete in the coping course the proportions were 
1: 2: 4. 

The cement was to be of an accepted brand, and to give the fol- 
lowing tensile strengths: 

Tensile Strength, in Pounds per Square Inch. 
Mixture, 24 hoursT 7 days. 28 days. 

1:0 175 500 575 

1:2 — 225 300 

1:3 — 175 225 

-A minimum increase of 12% from 7 to 28 days was required for 
neat briquettes, and 20% for sand briquettes mixed 1 : 2. 

The maximum content of anhydrous sulphuric acid (SO.,) was 
1.75%, and of magnesia (MgO) 3%, and no addition greater 
than 3% to the ingredients making up the cement subse- 
quent to calcination was permitted. 

The contract was taken by the ITolbrook, Cabot and Rollins Cor- 
poration, of Boston, and work was begun on November 9th, 1909. 

A clam-shell dredge was brought through the old railroad trestle, 
snd dug the three pits, so that the piles could be driven. Although a 
jet and hammer were used in combination, no greater penetration 
than an average of 19 ft. could be made with the piles for Pier 1, and 
15 ft. for Piers 2 and 3, on account of the very dense sand and gravel. 
The specifications called for 20 ft., and, to make up for the deficiency, 
twenty-two extra piles were driven under Pier 2. The details are 
clearly shown on Fig. 7. 

The elementary features of the superstructure, which is a Strauss 
bascule, are fixed trunnions and parallel link motion of the counter- 



I'apcrs.] 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1075 



weig-ht. Equilibrium is maintained by four pins forming the corners 
of a painlk'lofiram arranged so as to make the angular movement of 
the counterweight frame eqiial to the angular movement of the mov- 
able span. The reactions of the main trunnion pier and the counter- 
v/eight trunnion pier are both always vertical, as the horizontal com- 
ponents neutralize each other in any position of the bridge. 

The structural parts of the bridge consist of : The movable 
single-arm channel span, A (Fig. 8), the counterweight frame, B, 
ligidly connected to the concrete counterweight, C, the connecting 
link, D, the operating strut, E, and the tower, F, supporting the 
counterweight. 

The mechanical parts consist of the operating machinery, the main 
trunnions, tlie counterweight trunnions, the link pins, and the aux- 
iliary apparatus. 




Fig. 8. 

The movable channel span consists of two Warren trusses rigidly 
framed together by the floor system carrying a double-track railroad. 
The length of span is 160 ft. from center to center of piers, the 
trusses being 29.6 ft. from center to center. The elevation of the 
base of rail is 12 ft. above mean sea level, and the clearance line for 
the trains is 22 ft. above the base of rail. 

The counterweight frame is proportioned so as to keep the movable 
span and the counterweight in equilibrium in any position of the 
bridge. The frame consists of two trusses, between which the con- 
crete counterweight is placed. The resultant load of the counter- 
weight and the link stress is taken by two trunnions, each supported 
by two bearings at the apex of the tower. Special collars riveted 
to the frame are bored with a driving fit, and the trusses are fastened 
to the trunnion with tapered keys. The counterweight is attached 
t(^ the rear arm of the truss, and rigidity is attained by extending 
the structural framing into the concrete. Besides the weight of 



10T6 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

the concrete, pockets are provided for shaped iron castings, which 
allow for close adjustment in balancing the bridge. The link strut 
consists of two posts, pin-connected at the top to the front arm of 
the counterweight frame, and at the bottom to the hip of the movable 
span. Lateral stiffness is secured by diagonal and horizontal bracing. 
The link, at any angle of the movable leaf, is always parallel to a 
line which travels through the center of the main and counter- 
weight trunnion. 

The operating struts to which the main rack is attached are 
pin-connected at one end to the tower, and at the other are engaged 
to the main operating pinion. A special yoke, mounted on each side 
of the main pinion, serves as a guide for the strut during operation. 

The tower supporting the counterweight consists of two main 
columns, a diagonal strut between the two trunnions and a hori- 
zontal strut at the base. Inclined posts are supported at the base 
on a transverse steel truss embedded in the masonry, giving, in addi- 
tion to portal bracing at the top, great lateral stiffness. 

The wind pressure against the floor system of the raised bridge is 
carried to the main trunnions. By the horizontal strut at the base 
of the tower, together with the floor system, the reaction is divided 
between the two piers. The safety against overturning is thus in- 
creased, and the corresi^onding eccentric loading on the foundations 
is materially reduced. All trunnions and link pins are of forged 
steel. The bearings and caps are of cast steel and lined with phosphor- 
bronze bushings. Helical oil grooves are cut in the caps and bearings 
for the proper distribution of the lubricants. 

The motive power for operating the bridge is electricity. Two 65- 
h.p. electric motors operate under a 550-volt direct current. The 
power is transmitted to the main operating pinion by a train of gears. 
In addition to the electric brake on the motor, there is also a motor- 
driven emergency brake. Special equalizing gears regulate the uni- 
formity of speed between the duplicate system of operating machinery. 
The motors and gearing are on the movable span, and are protected 
by special housing. A separate motor with the necessary mechanical 
connections operates the locking device. 

All machinery and auxiliary apparatus are operated by controllers, 
switches, switchboards, indicators, and instruments conveniently 
placed in the operator's house. From this point the operator has per- 



'':'I"^'>1 THE CAPE COD CAKAL 107 < 

iVc't control of all traffic jiassinp: Through the canal and over the 
l>ridye. Tlie control of the bridue is interlocked with tlie main tower 
controlling- all signals and switches in the Buzzards Bay yard, al- 
though arranged so that the tower operator can free the bridge for 
independent operation. 

The highway bridges at Bourne and Sagamore are of the double 
bascule type, of the same dimensions and almost identical design. It 
will be convenient, therefore, to treat the substructures and superstruc- 
tures of these bridges together. 

The substructure for the highway bridge at Bourne was designed 
on quite different lines from that of the railroad bridge at Buzzards 
Bay, a design that was folloAved with few changes in details for the 
highway bridge at Sagamore. On account of the great lightness of 
the highway bridge, there was no need for such a massive substructure 
as was built at Buzzards Bay, and any attempt to give an exterior pro- 
tective surface of cut stone would have been very expensive. The 
writer is one of those who believe that damage to concrete by the action 
of salt water is both chemical and mechanical, and that the destruction 
can be greatly retarded, if not actually prevented, if the concrete is 
allowed not only to set, but to become quiescent chemically, before 
exposure to the rise and fall of the tides. 

The most economical type of substructure was an isolated support 
beneath each point of load, varying in diameter according to the load 
intensity. Such a type was selected, and in order to keep the surface 
of the exposed piers from tidal exposure until internal changes had 
ceased, the specifications required that the forms for the concrete should 
be of surface lumber and left in place. As the teredo is very active, 
creosoted lumber was called for. The intention was to let the pro- 
tective wood remain \mtil it was destroyed by natural agencies, or for 
at least a year, and then to take it down. As a matter of fact, it is still 
in place and in good condition, both at Bourne and Sagamore. The 
lumber being matched and not unsightly, it has been allowed to remain. 
The concrete is now more than 5 years old, and, as shown by recent 
borings through the lumber, is in perfect condition. The writer believes 
that, if the lumber should be removed, no injurious effect would now 
result from the action of salt water during either the summer or 
winter. 



1078 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 




P To 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



1079 



The specifications were similar to those for the foundations of the 
Buzzards Bay Bridge, except that no piles were contemplated, and pres- 
sure on tlie sand was limited to 3 tons per sq. ft. The requirements for 
cement and concrete were the same, a mixture of the latter in the pro- 
portion of 1:2:4 being used in the upper 2 ft. of the main and sec- 
ondary piers. 

Fig. 9 shows the general elevation of the Bourne highway bridge 
and details of the substructure. The main piers, Nos. 4 and 5, and the 



^Finish'ed Top E l.117.73 



secondary piers at the ends of tlie 
approach girders, are square in sec- 
tion, 15 ft. 1 in. and 8 ft. 10^ in. 
on bases, respectively, and 10 ft. 
7 in. and 5 ft. 4 in. on the shafts 
to Elevation 96, and above that 
elevation, circular. In order to : 
stiffen these piers laterally, rein- 
forced concrete girders were de- 
signed for all piers, these girders 
being 12 ft. deep and 2 ft. 6 in. 
wide in the case of tlie main piers, 
and 8 ft. deep and -2 ft. wide for 
the secondary piers. 

All the caissons for these eight 
piers were sunk by compressed air 
and then filled with concrete, the 
material through which they passed 
being for the most part fine sand. 
Pier 4 (the westerly one), just 
before reaching grade, was badly 
deflected by striking a boulder. 
One of the cutting sides of the ^^^- ^°- 

caisson was cut away, and, under cover of poling boards, the 
sand was excavated unsymmetrically, as shown in Fig. 10, so 
as to bring the axis of pressure well within the middle third of the 
base, the increased area of base reducing the pressure at the outer 
edge to proper limits. Above Elevation 96 the pier was carried straight 
up. The heavy reinforced girder connecting the tops of the two main 




^^; El. 60\ 



1080 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

piers affords sufficient rigidity to overcome the objection to the 
inclination. 

The work was executed by the Holbrook, Cabot and Rollins Cor- 
poration, the layout of the erecting plant being shown by Fig. 11. 
Access to both sides of the river, the canal not being dredged at the 
time, was had by a temporary trestle, carrying a traveler and also a 
concrete car. A second traveler on the ground covered the piers at the 
north end. 

For the Sagamore Bridge the contract for the substructure was 
taken by the Degnon Cape Cod Canal Construction Company and 
sublet to the Dravo Contracting Company of Pittsburgh, under date 
of April 1st, 1912. 

The general plan called for 2 abutments and 26 piers: 

Two pairs of main piers. 

Two pairs of piers supporting approach girders. 

Nine pairs of small piers on land. 

Two abutments. 

The specifications were substantially the same as those for the 
Bourne Bridge, except that piles beneath some of the piers were 
contemplated. 

The foundations, where on sand or gravel, w^ere to carry a load 

of not more than 3 tons per sq. ft., and, where on piles, a load not 

exceeding 20 tons per mile, as determined by the Engineering News 

, 2 Wh 
lormula, . 

s + 1 

The forms on the main piers were to be left in place, as with the 
Bourne^ Bridge, but the creosoting of the lumber was omitted, long- 
leaf pine, dressed to 21 in., being called for. At the end of 3 years 
the forms are still in place, and the concrete, as at Bourne, is in 
perfect condition. 

For the caissons for the pair of main piers, No. 10, the contractor 
designed a steel shell of i-in. plates, with the lower part IG ft. 6 in. 
in diameter for a height of 10 ft., then reducing through a height 
of 4 ft. to a diameter of 12 ft. 5i in. for a height of 36 ft., and there 
tiie w^ooden form began with an internal diameter of 10 ft. The 
shell weighed about 16 tons, and was sunk by removing the material 
from the inside with an orange-peel bucket. At Elevation 56.5 the 



I'apcrs.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



lOSl 








1082 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



bottom was sealed by divers with concrete in bags to a height of 5 ft. 
Then 12 ft. of concrete were deposited under water in buckets, and 
after this had set the water in the shell was pumped out and the 
remaining concrete was placed in the dry. 

Main piers Iso. 9 were sunk by the pneumatic process. The steel 
shell at the bottom was splayed at the foot to a diameter of 12 ft. 6 in., 
and lined with concrete, as shown in Fig. 12. The cutting edge was 
carried dowii to a gravel bed at Elevation 55, but concrete was 
carried down 0.4 ft. lower. ^Finished Top Ei.n8.73' 

For Piers Nos. 8 and 11. supporting 1 1 

the ends of the 90-ft. approach girders, 
steel shells, 6 ft. 6 in. in diameter, were 
sunk by removing the material within 
the shells with an orange-peel bucket. 
In Piers ]^o. 8 six 25-ft. piles were 
driven, reaching below Elevation 72, with ^ 
concrete beginning at Elevation 92. 
The similar piers on the other side of the 
canal were put down in the same man- 
ner, except that concreting began at Ele- 
vation 91. 

The abutments were founded directly 
on hard sand, but the concrete in the 
small pedestals, 1, 2, 3, and 4, rested on 
piles cut off below ground-water level, as 
requested by the owners of the car man- 
ufacturing plant on whose property they 
were placed, as they were fearful of 
damage arising from the known pres- 
ence of quicksand. 

The main piers, Nos. 9 and 10, and ? 
secondary piers, Nos. 8 and 11, are con- ^^<^- 12. 

nected by reinforced concrete girders, as at Bourne. 

The Sagamore Highway Bridge crosses the waterway about 2 miles 
west of the easterly entrance to the canal, and, as a structure, is di- 
vided into three sections: the main channel span, the north, and the 
south approach. 




I?!.!. 5i.6 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 1083 

The elevation of the roadway above mean sea level is 41 ft., so as 
to give clearance for medium-sized vessels without opening the bridge, 
while also providing cIcnraiR'o for the New York, New Haven and 
Hartford Kailroad passing under it at the south end of the steel struc- 
ture approach. Part of the south approach on earth fill and of the 
north approach in steel has a 5% gradient. 

The main-channel span is divided into three parts : the movable 
section, and the two stationary approach trusses. The width of the 
bridge between railings is 30 ft., divided into a 25-ft. roadway and a 
5-ft. sidewalk. A single-track electric railway is also carried across, 
with the necessary overhead construction. 

The movable section consists of a Scherzer, double-leaf, rolling- 
lift bridge, of 160 ft. span. The characteristic features of this bridge 
are two 80-ft. cantilever spans, the rear end of each truss being ex- 
tended into a segmental girder which rolls on a track girder of special 
heavy construction. 

To keep the movable part in balance, a concrete counterweight is 
rigidly attached to and framed in between the two lines of trusses, 
forming the main supporting members of the rolling-lift span. The 
track girders are incorporated in the framework of the approacli 
trusses, one end resting directly on the main pier, the other being 
framed into a carrying girder placed at the near end panel point of 
the approach trusses. The entire dead load of the movable span is 
transferred to the contact surface between the curved s^mental 
girder and the cast-steel plate of the track girder. Special lugs on 
the track girders, which fit into corresponding recesses in the curved 
section, insure perfect travel of the bridge in the vertical plane. As 
the bridge opens it rolls backward on the track girder, leaving a clear 
channel for passing vessels. 

The trusses of the movable leaf are designed with a straight top 
chord; the bottom chord is slightly curved from the point of support 
toward the end of the cantilever. The three end panels are built up 
with a solid web; the three panels next to the support are of open- 
w'eb construction with vertical and diagonal built-up sections. The 
floor system and the top laterals, together with horizontal struts 
placed between the trusses, provide against lateral distortion of the 
bridge in any position. 



10S4 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

The approach trusses, eacli of 90-ft. span, are of the Warren type 
with stiif riveted web members. The trusses are spaced so as to pro- 
ride proper clearance for the receding counterweight as the bridge 
opens. Any danger of damage resulting from the upward reacting 
force at the rear end of the lift span, due to unbalanced live load or 
impact in closing, is guarded against by a bumping girder placed on 
the top chord of the approach span. The ends of each movable leaf 
are provided with a sheer lock designed with male and female parts, 
which in a closed position are interlocked, so as to insure proper align- 
ment and additional lateral stiffness. 

The north and south approach spans are in lengths of 38, 50, and 
75 ft. The approach spans are of conventional design, with the two 
main girders seated on top of the columns, laterally connected by 
horizontal struts and diagonal bracing. The floor-beams throughout 
the entire length of the bridge are about 13 ft. apart, and are framed 
into the web of the main trusses or girders. On the channel approach 
trusses, they rest on the top chord. The rof.dway stringers consist of 
9-in. I-beams about 2 ft. 6 in. from center to center, except for the 
support of the railway track, where 10-in. I-beams are placed in 
pairs under each rail. Bolted to the top flange of each stringer are 
nailing strips, to which is fastened the 4-in. oak plank decking, being 
laid with J-in. joints and sufficiently crowned to provide for quick 
run-off of rain water. The sidewalk brackets are in line with the 
floor-beams, and carry wooden stringers to which the 2-in. plank floor- 
ing is fastened. On the lift span there are special fastenings to 
guard against possible movement of the floor system when the bridge 
is being raised. The hand-railing is of 2-in. gas pipe posts, from 6 to 
7 ft. apart, and joined by two lines of li-in. pipes at the top and 
near the base of the posts, the panel between the two lines of pipe 
consisting of a grillwork of light angles and bars. 

The motive power for operating the bridge is electricity, fur- 
nished at 550 volts, each movable leaf being operated by a 25-h.p. 
direct-current motor. The power transmission from the motor to 
the main operating pinion is arranged by gear trains and counter- 
shafts mounted on the movable span. The horizontal rack which 
engages the main pinion is attached to the approach trusses with the 
pitch line parallel to the horizontal top flange of the track girder. 



l''ipt''s] THE CAPE COD C.VN'AL lOS") 

There are safety p:ates on the approach trusses directly in front of 
the break in the floor system; they are opened and closed from the 
operator's house. From this point the bridge tender has under his 
control all the electrical apparatus for the operation of the machinery, 
signals, lights, and auxiliary mechanical devices for the protection 
of the structure itself, as well as the regulation of traflBc. over the 
bridge and through the canal. 

The Bourne Highway Bridge, which crosses the canal about 
lA miles east of the westerly entrance, is designed along the same 
lines as the Sagamore Bridge, the only difference between the two 
structures being the length of the approaches and the width of the 
roadway, the latter, for the Bourne Bridge, being 30 ft. The pre- 
ceding description of the Sngamore Bridge covers in a general way 
the structural features of both bridges. 

Fenders. — All the bridges are protected with fender work. At the 
easterly end of the canal there are no destructive marine borers, and 
the fender for the Sagamore Bridge at this end of the canal was built 
of untreated wood. In the warm water of Buzzards Bay the marine 
borers are very destructive, and the fenders for the two bridges at 
this end of the canal are of creosoted pine. The approach portion of 
the fenders was designed and built in the ordinary manner with 
clusters of piles at the extreme ends and three rows of staggered piles 
in the approach proper. In the narrow throat immediately adjacent 
to the i)iers the common design was abandoned in order to obtain 
the maximum width between the fenders. This portion of the fender 
was built with 50-ft. span vertical trusses, in the case of both highway 
bridges, and with GO-ft. trusses for the railway bridge. These trusses 
were designed of sufficient strength to carry their own vertical load 
and with sufficient lateral stiffness to stand the rubbing impact of 
vessels. This lateral stiffness is provided by four courses of 6 by 12-in. 
timber wales, blocked, braced, and spliced, as shown by Fig. 13. The 
first and third courses from the channel side are extended and fastened 
to three of the dolphin piles to which collision impact is ultimately 
transmitted. 

Fig. 13 shows the general design of the Buzzards Bay railway 
bridge fender, the design for the other bridges being similar. 



108G 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



Lighting. — The canal proper is lighted by 7-volt, 6.6-ainpere, or 
32-c-p., incandescent lights. These are carried by iron brackets on 
wooden poles, the poles being set at about the level of mean tide, 
with the plane of the lights 25 ft. above mean low water. The poles 
on the south side of the canal are painted red; those on the north side 
are painted black, thus following the rule for the colors of buoys 
entering a harbor, the canal being considered as an entrance to Boston 
Harbor. These lights are operated on an alternating current of about 
500 volts, and are connected in series. 

-81-'55t-^^ J 




TIMBER FENDER WORK 
BUZZARDS BAY RAILROAD BRIDGE., 



FiCx. 13. 

In the Buzzards Bay approach channel there are seventeen lights, 
maintained by the Lighthouse Department of the United States Govern- 
ment, the approach being in the open navigable waters of the United 
States. Four of these are on buoys at the western end of the channel 
and thirteen are on pile dolphins marking the channel from Wings 
Neck to Agawam Point. Coming from the west the lights on the 
port hand are white and on the starboard hand red. All these lights 
burn acetylene gas, flashing about 3 sec. duration and 2 sec. eclipse. 
On one of the two buoys at the western entrance there is a bell which 



I'api'is.l TIIK CAPE COD C'AXAL 1087 

rings by wave action. In time of fog there are also three bells operated 
by storage batteries, the bells being maintained by the Canal Company. 

On the south breakwater there is a 250-watt Ill-volt incandescent 
light with a stereopticon globe, giving about 16 000 c-p. The plane 
of this light is 40 ft. above the water surface. At the eastern entrance 
there are two lights on buoys outside the breakwater, or about 400 ft. 
from its end, with a red flash, being luminous for 5 sec. and a gas and 
bell buoy 2A miles northeast of the breakwater, showing a white flash 
every G sec, with duration of 2 sec, the light being 390 c-p. 

Electrical Power. — The electrical power for the lighting of the 
canal and for the operation of the three bridges crossing it is purchased 
from the Southeastern Massachusetts Power and Electric Company, 
and is transmitted from steam plants at New Bedford or Plymouth. 
The power is transmitted at 22 000 volts, and can be supplied from 
the two sources by either of four routes to a step-down transformer 
sub-station near the west approach of the Bourne Highway Bridge. 
In the sub-station there are two 20-kw. alternating-current, gasoline- 
engine driven generating sets, which can be started on short notice 
for emergency conditions. From the sub-station 2 300- volt lines 
connect the three bridges, and, in addition, standard street lighting 
equipment is provided for the lights on each side of the canal. 

At the western end of the Buzzards Bay Bridge there is a storage 
battery of 280 cells, of the chloride accumulator type, which is capable, 
at full charge, of supplying sufficient power to open and close the 
Buzzards Bay Bridge twenty-five or thirty times without replenish- 
ment. 

In the operators' cages on each of the bridges there is a motor 
generator set for generating 550-volt direct current for operating the 
moving parts of the bridges and for charging the battery. In case 
of failure of the alternating current supplied over any one of the 
four transmission routes, power is available from the two gasoline- 
engine generating sets, or from the storage battery. 

In addition to the foregoing sources of power, the street railway 
feeders of the New Bedford and Onset Street Railway Company 
can supply power at the Bourne and Buzzards Bay Bridges. Also, a 
special connection has been made to the Keith Car Company's plant 
at Sagamore, for the operation of this bridge in an emergency. 



1088 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

The present policy of operation in an emergency is to rely on the 
storage battery. There are separate connections from the battery house 
to the operator's cage on the Buzzards Bay Bridge, and, through special 
switching arrangements, the alternating-current lines connecting the 
three bridges are used in parallel for the positive side of the battery 
for the operation of the bridge motors, and the canal channel is used for 
the negative return. The capacity of the battery is ample to operate 
all three bridges many times without replenishment. 

The power for operating the bridges and lighting the canal runs 
from C 000 to 8 000 kw-lir. per month at a maximum peak load of 
about 140 kw. 

The Buzzards Bay Bridge requires about 100 h.p. of maxinmm 
demand and about 1 min. to open or close. The power required for one 
operation is about 2 ampere-hours. The Bourne and Sagamore Bridges 
each require about 20 h.p. for the maximum demand and about the 
same time to open or close as the Buzzards Bay Bridge. 

Engineering Personnel. — The responsible engineers of the company 
who have liad charge of the work have been, of the Canal Company, 
W. J. Douglas, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Deputy Chief Engineer since 
August, 1915, and of the Construction Company, Eugene Klapp, M. 
Am. Soc. C. E., from the commencement of operations. The engineers 
in charge on the ground have been Henry W. Durham, M. Am. Soc. 
C. E., Resident Engineer from the commencement of operations to 
April 1st, 1912. Charles T. Waring, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., Resi- 
dent Engineer from April 1st, 1912, to August 1st, 1914, when the 
canal was declared officially opened, although construction was not 
quite complete, and when Mr. Waring became Superintendent. From 
August 1st, 1914, to January 31st, 1915, the completion of construction 
was in charge of A. S. Ackerman, Assoc. M. Am. Soc. C. E., previously 
Assistant Engineer, when the duties were re-assumed by Mr. Waring in 
connection with his other duties as Superintendent, and which he 
retained until January 30th, 1916. Mr. W. S. Crocker, who was 
Assistant Engineer during construction, has become Resident Engineer 
under the operating management. 

To these gentlemen and to their assistants the Chief Engineer 
expresses his obligations, and, in the preparation of this paper, par- 
ticularly to Mr. Eugene E. Halmos, member of the staif, for his co- 



i'a[)frs.J 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1081) 



T.A. SCOTT CO., INC. 

MARCH 4, 1915 
MARCH 15, 1915 



E.J. ROUHKE 



W. H. JONES 



LANE QUARRY CO. 
E.W. FOLEY CONST. CO. | — 



J. A. MALONEV i CO. 
SEPT. 10, 1913 



WILSON i. ENGLISH CONST. 
CO. 



NORFOLK CREOSOTINQ CO. 

SEPT. 8, 1913 
APRIL 16, 1914 



FENDER WORK 



I NEWARK-MEADOWS CO. ] — 
|C.W. REY10L0S tSTEtW SHOVeTJI 

|WILE0"n 4 ENGLISH CONStTI 

I CO. ■ STEAM SHOVELl I 

|j. S. PACKARD DREDGING CO.] — 

I EASTERN DREDGING CO. | — 

I MARYLAND DREDGING CO. | — 

I COASTWISE DREDGING CO. | — 



OEQNON CAPE COO CANAL 
CONST. CO. 

DEC. 29, 1910 



HIGHWAY 
RELOCATION 



E.W. FOLEY CONST. CO. 
STEAM SHOVEL 



RAILROAD 
RELOCATION 



STANDARD ENGINEERING CO. 
H.K. STOKES, PRES. 

OCT. 24, 1914 



FURST-CLARK CONST. CO. 
C.L. CRANOALL) 
A.D. MORRIS r ENGINEERS 
M.S. ANDREW ) 

EXCAVATION 



DEGNON CONTRACTING CO. 
JAMES WILSON, ENGINEER 

BREAKWATER, RIP-RAP 



METROPOLITAN DREDGING 

CO. 

R. P. MARSHALL, PRES. 



EXCAVATION 



NO AFTER NOV. 



DEGNON CAPE COD CANAL 

CONST. CO. 

F. D. FISHER, ENG. 

BREAKWATER. RIP-RAP, 

EXCAVATION 

MAY 15, 1909 



L D!5ECJ_ONJVN0_AFTE_R NOV^ _L-_L^1.^_ 



PENNSYLVANIA STEEL CO. 
FEB. 1£. 1910 




STRAUSS BASCULE i 

CONCRETE BRIDGE CO. 

DESIGNERS & PATENTEES 

SUPERSTRUCTURE 

JULY 15, 1909 





L BREAKWATER 



HOLBROOK CABOT 4 

ROLLINS CORP. 

SUBSTRUCTURE 

FEE. 15, 1910 



BUZZARDS BAY 

RAILROAD 

BRIDGE 



PENNSYLVANIA STEEL CO. 




SCHERZER ROLLING LIFT 

BRIDGE CO. 

DESIGNERS i PATENTEES 

SUPERSTRUCTURE 

JULY 21, 191J 


NOV. 30, 1910 





PENNSYLVANIA STEEL CO. 

SUPERSTRUCTURE 

APRIL 1, 1912 



DRAVO CONTRACTING CO. 
APRIL I, 1912 



HOLBROOK CABOT i 

ROLLINS CORP. 

SUBSTRUCTURE 

AUG. 1, 1910 



SCHERZER ROLLING LIFT 

BRIDGE CO. 

DESIGNERS 4 PATENTEES 

SUPERSTRUCTURE 

JULY 21, 1911 



SUBSTRUCTURE 
APRIL 1. 1912 



bourn; 

HIGHWAY 
BRIDGE 



SAGAMORE 
HIGHWAY 
BRIDGE 



o 




o 








H 








> 






i 






< 




>T 


m 


o? 


> 







too 


> 
< 






S2 


> 


S? 


00 






tS 


"^ 


T n 


mx 


mO 


f'^ 


"U 


1 ? 




Cz 


oO 


00 


^3] 






>f 




if 


7O 


mz 


iro 


^n 


"• 


'>C 








y -0 






mm 


m7 


1- 


•a< 


On 


















-n 


Om 


m 










a> 


z 


> 











" 


H 









J 



















s 



























CD 












</) 






-{ 








7 














> 






m 






r. 




Tl 





> 


m 









i^ 


s 


Z 


z 


u 


'tJ 


? 










* 


-< 


z 





" 


c_ 


3) 


- 




^ 













> 




CI 






> 


> 

r 





m 







y 


-n 






> 




I 


r 




m 


■< 




" 






z 






z 






X 





Fig. 14. 



1090 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

operation in the development of tlie matliematical portion. He also 
acknowledges the constructive criticism of the tidal theory which he 
received from Mr. Rollin A. Harris, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey Bureau. 

The details for the operation of the canal were worked out by Mr. 
J. W. Miller, Vice-President of the Canal Company. 

Fig. 14 gives a list of the contractors and sub-contractors, with 
the names of the principal engineers of each and their relations to 
each other and to the Construction Company and the Canal Company. 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CAXAL lOUl 

PART II. 

IIydkaulics of tiik Cape Cod Canal. 

The actual physical construction of the canal presents but few 
items of scientific interest, other than those usually attending new 
problems in excavating and removing a large quantity of material, 
or in building breakwaters and bridges. The peculiar value of expe- 
rience and knowledge gained througli the construction of this water- 
way is in the establishing of new hydraulic data. 

Motion of water in open channels due to gravity takes place under 
three conditions differing in characteristics involving flow: first, when 
the slope is always in the same direction, as in rivers and canals 
not subjected to tidal influences; second, when the slope is constantly 
varying in inclination and direction, the condition developed in the 
estuaries of rivers, the rise and fall of the tide at one end being 
the actuating cause; third, when a channel connects two bodies of 
tidal waters the immediate areas of which are so large, as compared 
with that of the connecting channel, as to be unaffected by water 
discharged through it, and having tidal features which differ con- 
siderably in range and establishment. 

Of the first class, all investigations in the characteristics of flow 
in rivers are limited by the great irregularity of cross-section, and, 
therefore, they present but few scientific data as determining the laws 
of the flow of liquids. It is only in an artificial waterway that 
sufficient regularity obtains. 

The investigations of the flow of water in artificial channels have 
of necessity been confined almost wholly to channels of comparatively 
small cross-section, as that in large canals has been reduced to incon- 
siderable velocity by locks. 

An excellent illustration of the second class is the southern end 
of the Suez Canal between the Little Bitter Lakes and the Red Sea. 
In the Red Sea the rise and fall of the spring tide is 1.75 m., but 
the lakes are substantially tideless, the maximum variation from high 
to low being 0.17 m. The tides are not symmetrical about mean sea 
level, for the same reason possibly that they are not symmetrical 
in Buzzards Bay, as will be described later, so that the average maxi- 



1092 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

mum slopes are 0.032 and 0.027 m. per km., northerly and southerly, 
respectively, the length of uniform canal section being 37.05 km.* 

Another illustration is the Pamlico Sound-Beaufort Canal, in North 
Carolina, where Earl I. Brown, M. Am. Soc. C. E., Major, Corps of 
Engineers, IT. S. A., made some interesting current observations. f 
This canal has a comparatively small cross-section (90 by 10 ft.), 
with an average tidal oscillation of 3.8 ft. at Beaufort Harbor. The 
non-tidal end, however, is greatly affected by the action of the wind 
in Pamlico Sound. 

Of the third class, the Cape Cod Canal is the only large instance 
of such a channel where all the conditions are conducive to scientific 
study. 

Of the natural waterways of this class, the East River, connecting 
Long Island Sound and New York Bay, is perhaps the best example. 
Extensive and careful observationst in 1912 by W. M. Black, M. 
Am. Soc. C. E., Colonel, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. (now Brig-Gen. 
and Chief of Engineers), show similar characteristics between the 
motion of water in that stream and in the Cape Cod Canal, but the 
irregularity of cross-section of the river renders the making of 
analytical study of observed results impossible. The Kaiser Wilhelm 
Canal, popularly known as the Kiel Canal, also connects large bodies 
of tidal waters, but it is equipped with locks, so that flow through 
the canal, other than local drainage, is prevented. 

Cape Cod Bay and Buzzards Bay, which the canal connects, are 
large sheets of open water. Cape Cod Bay is really a directly con- 
necting part of the Atlantic Ocean, the opening being about 20 miles 
across. The bay is circular, with a uniformly curved and substan- 
tially unbroken shore line, and with considerable depth of water, 
ranging from 12 to 25 fathoms, over a flat floor with no abrupt hollows 
or ridges. Buzzards Bay, on the other hand, is much longer than it 
is Avide, being 50 miles long and having an average width of about 
7 miles, with an average depth of about 10 fathoms at its opening, 
shoaling to about 2 fathoms at the upper end, except in the original 
narrow channels to Monument Beach and Wareham, or in local shoals, 
where the depth is still less. 

* The facts regarding the tides and currents are contained in the reports of the 
"Commission Consultative Internationale des Travaux" for 1906 and 1907. 

t The results are published in the March-April, 1912, number of Professional 
Memoirs. 

X Professional Memoirs, June, 1913. 



Papers.] jni-: CAPE COD CAK.VL 1093 

These bays are afFectcd by two different tidal waves, wliicli are 
quite dissimilar in their establishments, ranges, and other cliaracter- 
istics. The wave that passes up Buzzards Bay is a branch of the 
great Atlantic wave which runs northward along the coast, its velocity 
of travel being somewhat retarded in its passage over the compara- 
tively shoal water along the coast. The wave in Cape Cod Bay is 
another branch of the same great wave, which, traveling faster in 
tlie deeper water off shore, strikes the Nova Scotia coast and thence 
is deflected in part westward and then southward. These two waves 
meet and interfere in Vineyard Sound, and, in the irregularity pro- 
duced by such interference, add to the difficulties of navigation and 
cause fogs owing to their difference in temperature. The mean range 
of the tide in Cape Cod Bay is 9.0 ft. at Boston, 9.6 ft. at Plymouth, 
8.9 ft. at the entrance of the canal,* and 9.2 ft. at Provincetown, 
whereas the mean range in Buzzards Bay is 4.0 ft. at New Bedford 
and 3.6* ft. at the entrance to the canal. 

Briefly, then, the problem developed by the construction of the Cape 
Cod Canal is an extremely complex one in hydrodynamics, being the 
analysis of the motion of water in a canal of considerable magnitude 
connecting two seas, the tides in which differ to a great extent, both 
as to phase and amplitudes. 

Before entering on the analysis of the problem, the basal facts, 
as determined by the records, should be set forth. 

In the early days, when a canal was under consideration, the known 
variation in tidal head at the two ends of the canal precluded any 
consideration of a sea-level canal through an unanalyzed fear of dis- 
astrous results, and it was not until 18G1 that any study was made 
of the tidal phenomena and conditions, when a legislative committee 
undertook the investigation. As explained previously, the committee 
called to its aid Gen. Totten, Professor Bache, and Commander 
Davis, and these gentlemen in turn i)laced Mr. Henry Mitchell in 
charge of the tidal observations. Mr. Mitchell's reports are set forth 
in detail in the general report of the committee, published as a State 
document in 1S()4. He carried these observations over one month, 
therefore covering a lunar cycle, and found that the mean rise and 
fall was 9.17 and 4.11 ft. at the east and west ends, respectively, 
results that agree closely with those determined by observations 
• From records obtained subsequent to the opening of the canal. 



109^ THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

extending over some years, namely, 9.02* and 3.91* ft. ; but liis 
accuracy ended there, because, knowing that the two tidal waves 
oscillated uniformly above and below mean sea level at points along 
the coast, according to his own and other determinations for the 
coast survey, he assumed that the same conditions obtained in the 
locality under investigation. Apparently, he set up two tide record- 
ing stations, where he ascertained the heights of low and high waters 
and computed mean sea level in each case as half way between mean 
high and mean low. He omitted to run a line of check levels across 
the isthmus to determine whether his computed mean sea levels were 
actually, as he assumed them to be, the same datum i)lane— -another 
illustration of the danger of making assumptions in engineering work 
without actual knowledge. Therefore, he determined that though 
the durations of the flood and ebb tides in Cape Cod Bay were the 
same, in Buzzards Bay the flood endured for 7 hours 01 min. and 
the ebb for 5 hours 23 min., and, as a corollary, that the maximum 
differences in simultaneous tidal heights between the two ends on 
the flood and on the ebb were not nearly equal. As indicative of the 
lack of knowledge then existing regarding the flow of water in large 
open channels, the tidal report contained a conclusion, which the 
Board thought of sufficient importance to put in Italics, reading : "The 
greater the transverse section of the free canal, the more rapid will 
be the flow through it." It seems extraordinary that as recently as 
1860 that statement was sufficiently novel to be deemed, by men like 
Professor Bache and Mr. Henry Mitchell, as "interesting" and worthy 
of being put in Italics in a Government report. 

Tidal observations were begun by the writer in October, 1907, 
when automatic recording mareograph instruments, of the TJ. S. 
Coast Survey type, were set up at Monument Beach in Buzzards 
Bay and at Barnstable in Cape Cod Bay. ^Vllen the canal excavation 
began, these instruments were transferred to the points just within 
the canal at each end (Canal Stations 35 and 380), where they have 
been maintained continuously under observation. The differences in 
tidal heights and times between the first selected points and those 
within the canal were found to be so small as to be negligible. 
Accurate levels were run between the two instrumenttS, so that their 

* From records obtained previous to the opening of tlie canal. 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CAVAL 1095 

readings are based on a connnon datum, which, in ordei' to avoid 
"minus" elevations, was taken as 100 ft. below mean sea level. 

The simultaneous elevations of the two tides for a lunar cyi'le are 
shown superimposed in Fig. 15. From this diagram it will be seen 
that the tides in Cape Cod Bay are quite symmetrical above and 
below mean sea level and the path of the curve is regular, and closely 
approximates a sine curve. This is to be expected, because the smooth 
contours and depth of water permit the tidal vv-ave to pass without 
sensible retardation or uneven interruption. In Buzzards Bay the 
case is quite different, for the depth of water, especially at the upper 
end, is so slight that the difference in depth between high and low 
water is considerable, being nearly 4 ft. on an average depth of about 
10 ft., a variation of nearly 40 per cent.- The consequence is that 
tliough the tide flows in freely, in ebbing it soon reaches a point 
\\here bottom friction accentuated by great bottom unevenness, pro- 
duces a serious effect and retards the outward flow. This is shown 
distinctly in Fig. 15 where the loop of the tide curve above mean sea 
level is regular and the trough or lower loop of the tide curve is dis- 
tinctly irregular. It will be noted, however, that the periods of flood 
and ebb are equal in duration, and not unequal, as Mr. Mitchell sup- 
posed. In Buzzards Bay mean high tide is 2.14 ft. above mean sea 
level and mean low tide 1.45 ft. below it, but if the lower branch of 
the Buzzards Bay curve is projected, as shown by the dotted line in 
Fig. 16 — a tji'ical maceograph record — the curve becomes regular, 
and the heights of high and low water are equal above and below 
mean sea level. 

It was found that the difference in tiirie between high water at 
the two ends is 3 hours 15 min., or substantially the same as deter- 
mined by Mr. Mitchell, so that, for all practical purposes, the tides 
are just half tide apart. 

In Cape Cod Bay the elevation of mean high w'ater is 104.42 ft., 
datum plane being taken at 100 ft. below mean sea level, and the ele- 
vation of mean low water is 95.50 ft. In Buzzards Bay the elevations 
are 102.14 and 98.55 ft., respectively. Fig. 16 shows the curves of 
two mean tides, and from this diagram it will be seen that the maxi- 
mum instantaneous differences in elevation of the water surfaces 
occur 30 min. after high water and 30 min. after low water in Cape 



1096 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



Papers. 



Elevation 



Flevatlon 

OI o w 



Elevation 

'-r: c o 







^ 




... „ 


> 


J 


' 


" 




>i 




- 




1- 










/ 


> 




LJ 


< 


-^ 


I 




(<• 




^ 


) 


3- 




Q 


^ 


t 








4 


^ 






- 


c 


^ 


^ 








^ 


^ 






^ 








<v 






/ 


^ 






\ 


N 






i 


Aj 




•^ 














-^ 














A 








^ 


s 




> 

m 
o 


~ 


/ 




— 




<v 




\> 




W 




<: 








( 




) 


> 


< 




^ 






- 


Cd 
£ 




> 




,, 


( 




^ 


1 


o 




<; 


b 




< 


H 


JJ" 












03 


c 






> 

X 


-ca- 


ii 


s 






r 






s 






\ 




o' 


H 

£ 


^ 


^ 




a 

r- 
m 

r- 


^ 


k 




w 


^ 


b 






<^ 


X 


1 


< 


^ 


^ 

s 


) 


> 


A 




■a 
a. 

■5 


P 


C3 


^ 


y 




3 






^ 


O 

p 

o 

a. 

M 
_P_ 


p' 

f 




^ 


>k 


O 

-P— 

•a 

f 


o 

-< 
o 

r- 


h 


^ 




A 


s 


^ 


t: 


X 

^ 


-n 
m 
m 




c 








f^ 


I 


£ 






>^ 






k 


*< 

H 


c 
> 




/ 


$!, 












( 




^ 






k 


:) 


-< 




V 


■^ 








k, 
















/ ^ 


^ 


00 

—1 




' \ 






1 




A 


^ 




p 






). 




1 

p 


( 


\ 






H 
O 


< 


\ 


\ 








b 






r 


c 




■> 




^ 


^ 




^•^ 

i 


i> 




> 

o 




j< 




1 




- 






^ 






^ 

■^ 

-^ 


> 

X 


P 




( 


k 

^ 




X 

CO 

o 

-i 


^ 




^ 


>i 


g 
g 




k 


^ 




3* 


p 






\ 








k 








c 








1 


^ 




iD 




X 


>< 


\ 


Y 








'' 




r 






, 


' 




^ 


^ 




>-' 


















A 










/ • 


•> 


















/ 








^^ 


$^ 










A 


\ 
























1 






§- 






\ 




















) 




OS 


( 


-^i 


J1 




5 




i 


^ 




























L 








S 




" 




Q 


s 





T 



Elevation 



Elevation 



r;i|HMS.l 



THE CAPi: colt CAXAL 



3 09' 



Cod Bay, and tliat for 1 hour oO min. in each case the difference in 
elevation is practically unchanged, the paths of the two curves beinj; 
nearly iiarnllrl. It is fortunate, from the scientific standpoint, that 
the in<'onipletcncss or irregularity of the trough of the Buzzards Bay 
tide curve does not affect the ninxinium differences, as the irregularity 
does not begin initil after the instantaneous difference has begun to 
diminish sensibly. The irregularity, therefore, affects only hydro- 
dvnamics and flow conditions that are less than the maximum. 



•J4 



^•' 



r?\ 



g2 



-^3 



o4 

































/ 


^"^ 


V 








TYP 


ICAL 


MEA 


N Tl[ 


)ES 








/ 


/ 




^ 


u\0 




' 
















^ 


/ 










>, 












ve?> 


-^ 


/ 




V 










^ 








^^ 


s5l 

1^ 


^ 


/ 


K 






\ 


Mean 


3eaL 


;veKB 


;i.ioo 




<0 


f 






/ 




N 


.M. 


■i 


y \ 


1 


1 No 


onl \ 


^M. 


2 


Y 




5 


'' / 


f 




) 10\ 








\ > 


,/^ — 














/ 


















Febr 


nary : 


6)^91 


. 




/ 
























\ 


s^ 




/ 









































3o 



2 a 



3 = 



Fig. 16. 

As the slope remains practically constant for a time long enough 
to eliminate variations produced by w^ave propagation, the canal 
becomes an example of motion of water affected by variations in ele- 
vations at both ends, and also of a large channel in which the ''head" 
is constant. 

In actuality, the tidal elevations vary considerably from the mean 
figures, according to the moon phases producing '^spring" and ''neap" 
tides and also to irregularities following wind action. Tables 2 to 9, 
inclusive, give the numbers of tides in each year grouped in variations 
of foot differences, from 1908 to 1915, inclusive. The average maxi- 
mima differences, as determined from the data contained in these 
tables, are 5 ft. producing easterly and 5.3 ft. producing westerly cur- 
rents, including the effects of storms. The maximum difference 
occurred on January 13th, 1915, when it was 9.5 ft. westerly, being 



1098 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 







10 


03 


lb. 


en 


OS 


<I 


00 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


o 


to 


o 


-5 


to 

CO 


- 


to 


o 


to 


§ 


o 


o 


09 


ti. 


to 


en 


CO 


- 


OS 


o 


o 


>t^ 


03 


§ 


OS 


CO 


iC 


05 


o 


o 


o 


en 


g 


o 


4i. 


o 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


to 


to 


CO 


-J 


00 


to 


s 


o 


^ 


Its. 


OS 


OS 


CO 


cc 


CJS 


00 


o 


M 


t; 


«o 


to 


>(^ 


" 


o 


or 

00 


o 


o 


OI 


o 


CO 


OS 


OS 


to 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


OS 


5 


^ 


CO 


- 


o 


g 


o 


o 


OS 


CO 


•^ 


to 

o 


CO 


o 


g 


o 


o 


OS 


OD 


li 


- 


- 


o 


en 


o 


o 


-I 


CO 


g 


i^ 


en 


o 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


03 


to 


to 

OS 


■^ 


en 


o 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


to 

to 


CO 


><s. 


to 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


OS 


CO 


o 


OS 


to 


o 


§ 


o 


o 


80 


5 


g 


OD 


<I 


^ 


s 


o 


10 


- 


OS 


to 


" 


o 


o 


00 


o 


o 


1^ 


-I 


CO 


5 


^ 


to 


8 


o 


10 


en 


00 


-} 


oo 


OS 


lb. 


o 


o 


o 


K- 


0^ 


to 

CO 


o 


s 


_ 


s 


o 


CO 


OS 


o 


OD 


o 


- 


o 


00 


o 


w 


to 


s 


^ 


s 


GO 


o 


CO 


o 


o 


- 


Ui 


OS 


o 


- 


o 


g 


o 


o 


CO 


to 


to 


-3 


a:^ 


o 


1 


iO 


!D 


i 


to 


to 

o 


o 


g 


to 


1 


o 


>l^ 


CO 


on 

o 


to 


s 


s 


a*' 






+ 





5* 

5 
2 


3 






03 
CO 

cn 


00 
OS 

OD 

bi 


1 


e-i 
> 


03 
CO 


CO 

to 
-J 

OS 


+ 

1 


CD 


CO 

jo 
to 

00 


00 

b 

oo 
bo 


+ 
1 




to 

CD 

CO 
CO 


b 

CD 

cn 


+ 

1 


> 


to 

CO 


-J 

-3 

to 


+ 

1 




CO 
CO 


-3 

b 


+ 

1 




CO 

bo 
b 


-3 

en 

00 


+ 
1 


Ch 

a 


CO 
OS 

CO 
OS 


-3 

b 

00 

b 


+ 

1 


p 


to 

bi 

CO 
CO 


OS 

bo 

00 

b 


+ 
I 


m 
? 

H 


to 

CO 

bo 


00 

'*. 

00 

to 


+ 
1 


o 

o 


to 
OS 

to 

CD 


CO 


+ 
1 


2! 

o 


CO 

to 

CO 

en 


»3 

CO 

-3 


+ 

1 






CO 

to 

bo 


CD 

io 

00 

oo 


+ 
1 


CO 

o 






H 
O 
O 

d 



Hi: '^ 






> 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1099 







ts 


CO 


lu 


UT 


o 


~) 


00 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


§ 


o 


M 


oc 


g 


to 


- 


o 


o 


s 


o 


o 


OS 


o» 


S3 


to 


(O 


^ 


2 


= 


lu. 


o 


o 


>l^ 


- 


o 


o 


2 


o 


- 


to 


to 


s 


- 


en 


o 


§ 


- 


to 


8 


5 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


-I 


§ 


lO 

to 


il 


05 


o 


s 


o 


« 


•30 


to 


li 


" 


o 


o 


as 


o 


CO 


«>. 


fO 


4. 


CO 


o 


o 


g 


o 


- 


to 

CO 


cc 


Ul 


o 


o 


o 


§ 


o 


CO 


3c 


iS 


to 


CO 


o 


o 


§s 


o 


o 


to 


8 


-J 


o 


o 


o 


s 


o 


^ 


»1 


g 


A. 


o 


o 


o 


§ 


o 


o 


oS 


sg 


It^ 


o 


o 


o 


§ 


o 


^ 


s 


g 


en 


o 


o 


o 


§ 


o 


- 


ȣ^ 


g 


rf- 


•(>. 


to 


o 


§ 


o 


o 


to 


?o 


oc 


if^ 


- 


o 


00 


o 


o 


- 


»1 


g 


~ 


C3 


CO 


5 


o 


o 


CO 


<u. 


E 


-1 


■X 


^ 


§ 


o 


- 


CI 


s 


to 


o 


C5 


- 


OS 

o 


o 


o 


CO 


01 


g 


00 


to 


to 


s 


o 


- 


oc 


^ 


oc 


to 


al 


o 


ss 


o 


o 


lO 


»0 


^ 


^ 


C/T 


o 


8 


o 


o 


CO 


to 


g 


to 


o 


o 


g 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


5 


to 


00 


to 




- 


8 


i 


i 


§ 


fe 


s 


l;^ 




o 


s 


^ 


to 


to 


2 


E 


to 



M 


3 


s 






115 


s 








o 

c 
1 


B 

c 
B 
















(B 










13 










+ 




















to 


aa 


+ 






19 


00 




>■ 




CO 


00 




3! 




CO 


o 


1 






ts 


OS 


+ 






en 


00 








to 


-J 




CO 




CI 


00 


1 






►- 


Ol 


+ 


5, 




-J 


bo 






.CO 


-I 




5 




CO 


~J 


1 






to 


OS 


+ 


> 




o 


o 












*d 




to 


OS 




» 




00 


CO 


1 






to 


en 


+ 






to 


OS 








to 


OS 




Kl 




CO 


-I 


1 






CO 


en 


+ 


<L^ 














to 


en 




H 




o 


1^ 


1 






CO 


en 


+ 


en 




to 














r 










"4 




CO 


*- 


1 






to 


■^ 


+ 






OJ 


QO 








cc 


-1 




o 




>(>■ 


4^ 


1 






CO 


OC 


+ 


w 




oc 


to 












►d 




CO 


00 




H 




b 


to 


1 






to 


oo 


+ 






-J 


'"' 




O 

o 




CO 


00 




H 




CO 


CO 


1 






to 


-J 


+ 






to 


X 




Z 

o 




CO 


to 




< 




00 


to 


1 






CO 


OS 


+ 






to 


cc 




O 
PI 




>»■ 


(X 




o 




to 


05 


1 






^ 


00 


+ 






~i 


to 




g 




to 


to 




■ I 




CO 


to 


1 





CO 





o 


^ 


o 
n 






y. 


o 


3 


iq 


c 


H 


B 


o 






H 


f 






p 


b 


^ 


-11 


b 


•^ 

H 


I— • 


?) 


C* 


M 


o 


>; 




o 

03 






o 




t/J 


o 




> 


p 




^^ 


o 




o 



> 



1100 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 







JO 


CC 


»c>. 


OI 




-I 


X 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


§ 


- 


lO 


CD 


to 


-3 


-5 


- 


o 


o 


c 


o 


o 


o 


11 


o 


05 


=■ 


2 


o 


iO 


VI 


o 


05 


to 


05 


o 


en 


►- 


bS 


f. 


05 


OI 


4^ 


>c> 


c 


§ 


c 


c 


00 


to 


to 


GC 


to 


o 


o 


o 


M 


Oi 


00 


*^ 


00 


.& 


^ 


s 


o 


o 


o 


^ 


OI 


to 


«i- 


- 


g 


o 


to 




05 


OI 


C3 


00 


o 


■ s 


o 


o 


10 


o 


to 


a 


oc 


4^ 


o 
o 


o 


o 


>t>. 


g 


to 


•-3 


00' 


o 


s 


o 


o 


o 


or 


to 

to 


g; 


- 


- 


CI 


o 


o 


o 


OD 


>u 


05 


05 


cr 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


OI 


rs 


o 


o i 
1 


t7= 

c 


o 


o 


05 


s 


^ 


01 


^ 


■= 


O 


o 


o 


- 


^ 


:C 


3 


o 


o 


o 
o 


o 


o 


1*^ 


;:: 


to 

or 


00 


to 


o 


g 


o 


o 


w 


CC 


- 


to 


to 


05 [ 


g 


o 


M 


in 


- 


00 


05 


-3 


o 


05 

o 


o 


- 


-5 


-I 


oc 


OI 


05 


o 


g 


o 


o 


Oi 


o; 


00 


w 


to 


►- 




o 


o 


iO 


o; 


to 


- 


-3 


« 




o 


<o 


C-l 


tl 


*i 


>l^ 


00 


OS 


s 


o 


o 


lO 


to 


g 


to 


OI 


05 


§ 


o 


•o 


<J 


00 


to 


s 


4~ 


- 


OS 


- 


Ot 


o 


o 


to 
to 


1 




to 




^^ 


X 


o-. 


00 


to 

CO 


OI 


03 


01 



M 


g 


c^ 






!» 




» 






m 


5 

5 


X 






o 


3 

c 
g 






n> 










s 










+ 




















I-* 


■<3 


+ 






OS 


to 








o: 


-3 




S! 




^ 


- 


1 






to 


-Q 


+ 






ts 


X 




•=1 




l-l 


-^ 




a 




-3 


to 


1 






CO 


^ 


+ 






OS 


OI 








to 


-3 




» 




OS 


"■ 


1 






05 


CC 


+ 






>c>. 


o 








to 


-3 




» 




.«. 


05 


1 






." 


X 


+ 






-3 


v 




> 




OS 


-3 




.< 




CC 


o 


1 






•b- 


X 


+ 


Ch 




ti 


to 








f^ 


-I 




K 




o 


OS 


1 






>(>■ 


-3 


+ 


Ch 




^ 






a 
r 




05 


-3 




>< 




C5 


o 


1 






OS 


-3 


+ 






CC 


CC 




> 




03 


-3 




c 




to 


o 


1 






05 


X 


+ 


13 




to 


<I 




h3 




to 


-" 


1 






to 


X 


+ 






CC 


X 




o 

o 




OS 


X 








^ 


to 


1 






05 


X 


+ 






I-" 


-3 




5i 
o 




OS 


Ct' 




<! 




*. 


OI 


1 






05 


■X) 


+ 






ov 


to 








j OS 


CC 




a 




1 b 


OI 


1 






' - 


oo 


+ 


^ i 




CO 


X 




tc 




I-' 


X 




o 




'' 


OI 


1 





CO ir 



Til per;;. I 



THE CATE COD CANAL 



1101 







to 


CO 




tn 


© 


-J 


00 




+ 


4- 


+ 


+ 


4- 


+ 


f 


+ 


§ 


o 


© 


© 


Oi 


to 


CO 


cn 


© 


§ 


o 


- 


It^ 


© 


to 

CO 


^ 


w 


o 


s 


o 


- 


OI 


o 


-1 


QO 


00 


© 


E 


o 


09 


c: 


to 

© 


So 


© 


- 


o 


8 


o 


l(^ 


© 


to 


to 


CO 


o 


o 


g 


o 


o 


*» 


s 


CT 


to 


CO 


© 


S 


o 


CO 


■-= 


oc 


5 


© 


- 


© 




o 


o 


M 


M 


§ 


i- 


tC£ 


c 


s 


o 


o 


- 


to 


- 


2 


ts 


o 


g 


o 


© 


CO 


to 


5 


to 


o> 


© 


s 


c 


© 


= 


to 

o 


© 


en 


© 


o 


s 


o 


© 


© 


o; 


g 


to 


•Ci- 


o 


o 
o 


o 


© 


to 


CO 


CT 


© 


to 


= 


g 


o 


o 


o 


CT 


g 


- 


to 


© 


«? 


o 


© 


© 


(X 


to 


= 


© 


© 


03 

o 


© 


c 


>». 


cn 


i3 


- 


CO 


© 


g 


- 


o 


to 


^ 


^ 


to 


© 


© 


s 


© 


c 


to 


- 


^ 


s 


to 


o 


sa 
u 


- 


■b. 


cc 


-I 


- 


© 


to 


© 


§ 


o 


to 


!X 


- 


X 


00 


CO 


© 


at 

■X. 


c 


to 


;:: 


© 


© 


-! 


to 


© 


s 


© 


c 


en 


© 


00 


4^ 


to 


c 


8 


o 


- 


•^ 


to 


So 


X. 


i- 


o 


8 


o 


© 


© 


ex. 


o 


CC 


co 


© 


i 


to 


«■ 


a 


to 
to 

c; 


i 


1 


§ 


© 


3 


© 


© 


o 


o 


8 

to 


S 




© 



o 



g 


g 






a 


p 














c 
3 


B 
c 
3 




1 


CO 


^ 


+ 




Ct 


-J 






to 


^ 




y. 


00 


-3 


1 




to 


00 


+ 




'"^ 


© 






to 


-I 




O 


CO 


en 


1 




to 


© 


+ 


g ' 


CO 


© 










(► 


CO 


«1 




» 


to 


to 


1 




to 


-* 


+ 




to 


'-' 




■0 


CO 
CO 


-J 


1 


? 


CO 


-J 


+ 


g 


to 


to 










>■ 


cc 


o 




< 


© 


>«>■ 


1 




cc 


© 


-J- 


Ch 


cc 






a 


»p>. 


-3 




ei 


cc 


*. 


1 




CO 


<! 


+ 




-I 


DC 




G 


^ 


-3 




^ 


to 


CO 


1 




CO 


© 


+ 




«>■ 


^ 




a 


CO 


-J 




p 


en 


en 


1 


I 


H- 


© 


+ 


P3 


© 


00 










•« 


cc 


-1 




*i 


^ 


" 


1 




" 


-J 


+ 




00 


© 




o 

o 


to 


-» 




1-3 


00 


to 


1 




to 


-J 


+ 




•t- 


00 




2! 

o 


Oi 


-J 




< 


*. 


to 


1 




to 


-» 


+ 




~J 


00 






i^ 


-3 




o 


o 


© 


1 




^ 


00 


+ 




© 


50 




o 


to 


-^ 




" 


cc 


© 


1 





> 

w 

K 
O 

o 
w 
o 

o 
*1 



G. 


H 


P 


>71 


b 






73 


»i 


w 


(U 


>; 


ct> 


o 

ts 



Q 



Q 



1102 



THE CAPE COD CA^STAL 



[Papers. 







IS 


cc 


>(^ 


or 


a. 


-J 


00 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


H- 


+ 


+ 


+ 


C5 

o 


- 


>». 


to 


1*^ 


co 


-J 


>(>■ 


o 


o 


o 


o 


►- 


CO 


§ 


- 


to 


CO 


g 


o 


h-k 


to 


oc 


s 


oo 


to 


o 


g 


o 


o 


CO 


Ol 


to 


It^ 


to 


to 


8 


o 


M 


00 


>;x 


«o 


00 


-J 


- 


C5 

o 


o 


o 


05 


;=: 


to 


to 

en 


>(^ 


to 


§ 


o 


(M 


o 


§ 


to 
to 


CO 


o 


o 


or 
00 


o 


o 


l(^ 


ot 


to 

to 


><^ 


CO 


o 


05 

o 


o 


CO 


K! 


o> 


to 

Ol 


o 


o 


o 


g 


o 


o 


en 


CO 


fO 


4^ 


- 


^ 


CO 


o 


- 


CO 


g 


to 


o 


to 


o 




o 


o 


>-. 


-J 


«D 


OS 


>e- 


o 


o 


o 


o 


>f^ 


§ 


05 


rC 


to 


- 


G3 
O 


o 


^ 


to 


to 


to 


- 


l4i 


o 


g 


o 


o 


CO 


a> 


-I 


•-} 


-3 


o 


§ 


o 


o 


CO 


to 


to 

oo 


to 


00 


o 


g 


o 


OS 


>«^ 


-J 


00 


o 


en 


to 


oo 


o 


►- 


OI 


■^ 


§ 


t^ 


-C! 


to 


o 


o 


- 


<i 


to 
to 


^ 


to 


to 


to 


o 


o 


o 


o 


>c>. 


-} 


5 


>c>. 


o 


g 


o 


- 


m 


o: 


CO 


- 


0^ 


o 


o> 


o 


►- 


05 


to 

o 


^ 


:^ 


CO 


o 


o 


o 


" 


Oi 


Ol 


to 


00 


CO 


o 


C6 

o 


o 


^ 


to 


00 


g 


-J 


to 


o 


1 


^ 


» 


o 
o 


to 

'3C 


to 


to 

Ol 


c 


cs 


i 


o 


l(^ 


Ol 
05 


s 


to 


05 


£ 


o 



> m " 
X ^'^ 

a 

• 1 + 



td 



5' 
3 
B 


p 

B 
d 

B 






to 

CO 




+ 
1 


5! 


to 

CO 
CO 

ax 


to 

oo 
o 


1 




to 

Ol 

CO 
CO 


00 

o 

00 

to 


1 




to 

05 

CO 


05 

»^ 

en 


+ 


> 


to 

CO 


to 

00 


+ 
1 




to 

to 

CO 

to 


-1 

CO 


1 


a 
•y. 


CO 
05 

to 


00 


+ 
1 


a 
f 
►4 


CO 

<I 

CO 
CD 


;-1 

to 

-J 

to 


+ 
1 


> 
9 


to 
to 

to 

to 


00 

to 

CO 

en 


+ 
1 


ft 


to 

to 


00 

en 

-I 

en 


1 


o 

o 


to 

to 

to 

05 


-3 

bo 

OS 


+ 
1 


o 
< 


to 

to 

to 

en 


OS 

-> 


+ 
1 


M 

p 


to 
to 


oo 
to 

00 


1 


to 

JO 



td 



Q 

O 
W 

o 

o 
1^ 



ai u 



h— • 


*A 




^ 


b 




t* 


t?d 


ro 


X 


►-i 


o 


fn 


M 


d 


M 


o 


** 




n 


^ 


> 


hJ* 


■tS 


1=1 


H 


^^ 


O 


(D 


O 



o 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1103 









to 


cc 


>». 


en 


C5 


-1 


00 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


4- 


+ 


+ 




g 


o 


o 


rf:>. 


05 


00 


00 


05 


- 




§ 


o 


»0 


-I 


00 


^ 


o 


05 


o 




2 


o 


= 


CO 


= 


lb. 


00 


to 


- 




2 


o 


o 


OT 


g 


o 


-3 


CO 


- 




05 

O 


o 


N) 


M 


to 


to 


o: 


-J 


o 




s 


o 


to 


:t 


cc 


to 

o 


o 


CO 


t-A 




00 


o 


to 


*. 


s 


CT 


cc 


o 


o 




00 


c 


o 


C5 


-1 


CD 


JS 


Ol 


o 




8 


- 


lO 


M 


to 

00 


s 


lb. 


o 


° 




§ 


o 


o 


CO 


So 


g 


to 


CO 


o 




S 


o 


o 


Oi 


to 


JO 


*- 


o 


o 




§ 


o 


o 


05 


c: 


to 


o 


to 


o 




S 


c 


o 


vt 


to 


to 

Ol 


00 


- 


o 




s 


o 


o 


to 


to 
to 


8 


CO 


o 


o 




s 


o 


o 


to 


to 

cc 


g 


to 


- 


o 




i 
8 


o 


o 


t& 


§ 


to 


o 


Ot 


o 




' s 


o 


o 


X 


30 


00 


-! 


-J 


o 




g 


o 


o 


-J 


Ot 


s 


- 


«I 


o 




o 

o 


o 


- 


::: 


o 


^ 


o 


CO 


o 




s 


o 


o 


m 


- 


s 


:s 


CO 


- 




i 


o 


cc 


2 


to 
to 


-J 


o: 


o 


o 




1 

3C 


o 


o 


*^ 


^ 


Jl 


to 


to 


o 




8 


o 


ts 


-J 


JO 


to 

Ol 


CO 


- 


= 




s 


o 


c 


«.. 


s 


g 


^ 


« 


o 




i 


- 


to 


8 


i 


to 


00 
CO 


to 

00 


to 




1 - 


o 


«k 


=? 


to 

p 


to 


s 


g 


CO 



^ fel 



(t> ^ 


g 


s 








B 


p 
« 








rt- *"*" 


3 


3 

c 
3 








o 

c 


C 

3 




















<t> 












D 












1 ; 
























CO 




+ 








'"' 


to 










to 


-J 




a 






05 


oo 


1 








CO 


00 

to 


+ 


>^ 






CO 


OB 
CO 


1 


m 
a 


td 




to 


-J 


+ 




-5 




o 


CO 




> 


1 




to 


00 




w 






or 


o 


1 


• 






to 


00 


+ 


> 


te^ i 




CO 


-J 






a. o 




>u 




1 














s "^ 












ti 




^ 




+ 




^ 5 




CO 


ca 




>- 




CO 


-J 




Kj 


, >- 




05 


- 


1 




H c- 




CO 


OS 

io 


+ 


C-( 


P o 
' — ' '^ 




CO 


^I 






U ^ 




05 


io 


1 




- PR H 












(t> !2! 




bo 

CO 




+ 


r 






o 


oo 


1 




i« _:_Q 












. > 




cc 

en 


c 


+ 


> 


B- S 




CO 


-J 




d 


^ o 




Ol 


en 


1 




2 o 














CO 

to 




+ 




>■ 




CO 


-5 




:^ 


!2J 




en 


CD 


t 




> 




to 


-J 


_1_ 




^ 




o 


to 




o 


O 




CO 


CO 










«. 


o 


1 




1— ^ 

CD 












1— ' 




to 




+ 




05 




-1 


CO 




o 






CO 


-J 




<! 






C5 


Oi 


1 








to 


-J 


+ 








o 


*^ 










CO 


~J 










05 


cc 


1 








►- 


00 


+ 








CO 






CO 






to 


00 




CO 






Ot 


ce 


1- 







1104 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



L Papers. 



►- M to .t. til 0-. 

H- + + + + -r 



^ to 10 c: 



O hF^ >^ CO kU c: £-0 



O ►-' a: CO o w 



or CD h^ 



CO en o 



t~i. ^ ^^ ZD CXi iO 



h-^ K. I-* 



rfi. QO t-^ CD CS K) 



w K) H— 



CO 05 iO 



t© CO H- CO 



j<. ^ O H- O 



I-* CX w GO 






O GC CO to 



CD tC -5 



to Of CO CO I i- CC 



I— ■ *:i 14 



1-^ to *o , ^, 

10 hh- CO o -Q to 

Of CO -^ CO Ot — 



h-t to to "-^ 



o 



!2j 
d 

w 
ft 
w 

o 
'^ 

H 

3 



3' 

3 


p 

3 






03 
05 

in 


b 


+ 

1 


in 

IB- 




at 

OS 


+ 


a 


OS 
C5 


-> 

ex: 


1 




io 

bo 


-J 

05 


+ 

1 


> 


OS 


-J 

OS 


+ 
1 


2 


OS 

be 

OS 

bo 


tn 


+ 

1 


C-l 

G 


OS 


OS 
"or 

b 


+ 
1 


CI 


o 

IS 

CO 


o 

OS 
OS 


+ 
1 


> 

p 


to 


bo 


+ 

1 


02 


OS 

o 


b 


to 
in 


b 

-J 

b 


+ 
1 


o 

o 

H 


(0 

bo 

to 

bo 


-J 


+ 
1 


o 


to 

on 

to 


b 
b 


+ 
1 


c 


ts 
ts 


00 

00 


+ 
I 


to 



I'apors. I 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



110') 





■ 




ts 


CO 




CT 


OS 


-J 


» 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


-f 


+ 


+ 


+ 


' 


s 


o 


- 


-J 


ts 


00 


-^ 


Cn 


- 




ss 


o 


ts 


00 


CO 


ai 


to 


c 


« 




2 


o 


4^ 


>(^ 


- 


S 


M 


o 


o 




en 


o 


«. 


tl 


10 


to 


CO 


- 


c; 




s 


o 


-1 


CO 


^ 


^' 


C! 


o 


O 




s 


o 


CO 


to 


^ 


X 


-Q 


to 


O 






o 


- 


ts 


tS 


to 


■«>■ 


ai 


= 




s 


o 


05 


a 


^ 


to 


a 


to 


= 




s 


o 


o 


h^ 


Oi 


to 


:^ 


to 


o 


• 




















03 


g 


o 


N) 


o 


g 


CO 


c;i 


o 


o 


s 


o 


o 


- 


00 


JO 

o 


C5 


to 


- 


IS 
B 


s 


c 


o 


-} 


g 


o 


to 


o 


o 


CO 

3" 


g 


o 


o 


en 


is 


to 


OT 


- 


o 




03 

o 


o 


^ 


-J 


to 


a 


=) 


o 


o 




g 


o 


to 


-J 


§ 


to 

CI 


C5 


o 


c 




g 


o 


to 


- 


to 


§ 


- 


o 


o 




§s 


o 


- 


M 


« 


3 


-J 


en 


= 




§s 


o 


CO 


CO 


s 


§ 


Oi- 


o 


o 




g 


o 


iT 


CO 


g 


3= 


- 


^ 


= 




g 


o 


OS 


00 


^ 


C.T 


to 


o 


o 




s 


o 


- 


10 


to 


to 


OI 


=■- 


to 




s 


►- 


o 


C5 


10 


CO 


-x> 


= 


~ 1 




CD 


o 


o 


CO 


to 

1^ 


I-* 


en 


OS 


o 




g 


o 


o 


ai 


g 


o 


la 


^ 


o 




-1 


o 


JO 


g 


1 


to 


§ 


g 


«• 




a 


i ^ 


»J 


t 


to 

11 


to 


i£ 


c; 


- 



^ ^ s? ff 



o 



1 + 



i' 

c 
S 


to 

B 
B 






to 
to 


00 

b 


+ 
1 


Ch 

>■ 


to 

en 

to 


en 


+ 
1 




to 

hi 

to 

to 


en 


+ 
1 




Jso 

b 

to 

b 


-J 

b . 


1 




CO 

to 

ts 

b 


00 

b 


, + 


g 
> 
M 


CO 
b 

CO 


oo 
b 

o 

CO 


+ 
1 




CO 
IS 

b 


b 

05 
It 


. 1 


e-1 
a 
f ■ 


to 

b 

to 


OS 

oa 
b 


+ 
1 


G 
O 


-J 

to 

b 


b 

05 

ts 


+ 
1 


•13 


ts 
to 


03 

O 

OS 

is 


+ 
1 


O 
O 


to 

be 


00 

CO 

b 


-r 
1 


Z 

o 
< 


CO 

b 

OS 

b 


en 

-qt 

•to 


+ 
1 




to 

b 

-J 


00 

CO 

o 

en 
• 


+ 

1 


o 



^ 5 



5? 



o 



^^ 


C 




"i 


<?*• 


t3 




n 




^ 




2 



1106 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



produced by a great tide on the Massachusetts coast, the result of a 
violent storm. The minimum difference was 1 ft. 3 in. easterly. It 
will be seen, on study of these tables, that the excessive tides are 
comparatively few, the greater majority, about 83.5% in fact, giving 
heads that vary from 3 to 6 ft., and only about 2% giving differences 





OCTOBER. 1912. 

TRUE AVERAGE HOUfiLY VELOCITY, 13.1 MILES TRUE AVERAGE HOURLY VELOCITY, 1 1.2 MILES 
N. 



WIND ROSES 
SANDWICH, MASS. 



Explanation of diagrams J 
Radial lengths from focus in 
shaded area represent percentage o£ 
observations of prevailing direction, 
Eadial lengths from focus in blank, 
area represent true average hourly 
velocity in each direction. 




S. 

YEAR, 1913. 
TRUE AVERAGE HOURLY VELOCITY, 1 1 6 MILES . 

FIG. 1'; 



exceeding 1 ft. In these extreme cases the maximum difference lasts 
for a few minutes only, as the tidal curves no longer maintain their 
parallelism. 

The difference in elevation at any instant is the hydraulic head 
that produces the velocity of the current, and as it occurs in a length 
of canal of 34 500 ft. (the distance apart of the automatic tide gauges), 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1107 



the resulting mean maxinmni slope is 0.000154. It is interesting to 
point out that this slope is nearly four times as steep as the maximunx 
slope that would have obtained at the Panama Canal had it been built 
at sea level, taking the maximum tidal oscillation at Panama at 22 
ft., only one-half of w^hich would have been above or below mean 
sea level, and neglecting the negligibly small tidal difference at Colon. 
In order to ascertain the action of the wind, a recording anemometer 
was established at the same time as the tide gauges. Monthly wind 
roses for selected typical years are shown in Fig. 17, which are self- 
explanatory. Table 10 gives a record of winds having a velocity which 
exceeded 40 miles i)er hour between 1908 and 1915, inclusive. The 
prevailing winds are northeast and southwest; they blow across the 
canal, and produce no direct effect. 

TABLE 10. — True Wind Velocities of More than 40 Miles per Hour, 
FROM 1908 TO December, 1915. 



Date. 



Jan. 24, 190S. 
Dec. 26, 1909. 
Jan. 14, 1910. 

Jan. 15. 1910. 
Feb. 1,19)0. 
Feb. 4, 1910. 

Feb. 18, 1910. 
Nov. 27, 1910. 
Mar. 16, 1911. 

July 29, 1911. 
Dec. 28. 1911. 
Feb. 22, 19i2. 
Mar. 15, 1912. 

Jan. 3, 1913. 
Jan. 4, 1913. 
Mar. 24, 1913. 

Mar. 27, 1913. 
Jan. 12, 1914. 
Jan. 13, 1914. 

Mar. 1. 1914. 
Dec. 13, 1914. 
Dec. 14, 1914. 

Nov. 5, 1915. 
Dec. 13, 1915. 



Time. 



11.00 A. M.- 
3.30 a. m.- 
6.15 p. M.- 

6.00 A. M.- 
8.45 A. M.- 
10.00 A. M.- 

1.30 a. m.- 
7.15 A. M.- 
7.00 a. M.- 

3.30 p. M.- 
1.15 p. M.- 
9.00 A. .M.- 
8.30 p. M.- 

10.30 P. M.- 

10.45 P. M.- 

1.10 P. M.- 

7.45 a. M.- 
4.15 P. M.- 

1.00 A. M.- 

3.45 P. M.- 
11.35 p. M.- 
12.00 M. - 

8.05 P. M.- 
5.00 P. M.- 



-12.00 M. 

- 9.30 p. M. 
-10.15 p. M. 

- 4.30 p. M. 

- 1.00 p. M. 

- 3.00 P. M. 

- 2.45 p. M. 
-10.15 A. M. 

- 9.30 a. m. 

- 5.30 p. M. 

- 2.15 P. M. 

- 1.30 p. M. 

- 9.30 P. M. 

-10.45 P. M. 

- 3.00 a. m. 

- 3.00 p. M. 

- 4.40 P. M. 

- 5.25 p. M. 

- 1.15 A. M 

- 4.30 p. M. 
-12.00 M. 

- 2.05 A. M. 

- 8.80 p. M. 

- 7.30 p. M. 







u 


C 


_ a w 


C to 

^ 2 


S-2 


tit 


o a 


£j3 

5-2 










S 


s 


40 


1 


40.8 


40.0 


799 


18 


55.2 


UA 


1(J0 


4 


43.2 


40.0 


436 


10.5 


45.1 


41.5 


193 


4.25 


41.5 


40.8 


215 


5 


45.1 


43.0 


52 


1.25 


43.7 


41.5 


122 


3 


40.8 


40.8 


100 


2.5 


43.0 


40.0 


84 


2 


45.1 


42.2 


40 


1 


45.1 


40.0 


190 


4.5 


48.0 


43.2 


40 


1 


45.1 


40.0 


13 


0.25 


42.2 


42.2 


222 


4.25 


45.1 


40.0 


93 


1.83 


42.3 


41.3 


448 


8.9 


46.6 


40.5 


59 


1.16 


45.1 


41.5 


13 


0.25 


41.5 


41.5 


36 


0.75 


48.0 


47.3 


23 


0.5S 


40.8 


40.0 


85 


2.08 


42.2 


40.8 


17 


0.41 


40.8 


40.8 


113 


2.50 


50.0 


45.0 



N. E. 
N. W. 

N. E. 

N. 
N. W. 

N. 

N. W. 
N. W. 
W 

S. W. 
W. 

s. w. 
\v. 

S. E. 
S. W. 

s. w, 

s. 
s. w. 

N. W. 

S. E. 
S. E. 
N.E. 

N. W. 
N. E. 



1108 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



In order to determine whether any appreciable difference in tidal 
conditions was produced by the flow of water through the canal, the 
tidal records were taken for four calendar months prior to the opening 
of the canal and during the same months after the opening. An 
average of all the tides in this period is given in Table 11. 

TABLE 11. — Elevations op Mean High and Mean Low Water at 
Both Ends of the Canal Before and After Opening to Flow. 





Buzzards Bay. 


Cape Cod Bay. 




High water. 


Low water. 


High water. 


Low water. 




103.17 
102.14 


98.36 
98.55 


104.56 

104.42 


95.54 




95.50 







It will be seen that no appreciable influence was produced on the 
tidal elevations in Cape Cod Bay, nor on high-water elevation in 
Buzzards Bay, but that the elevation of low water in Buzzards Bay 
was raised 0.29 ft., or about 3^ in., due undoubtedly to the inability 
of the water to discharge itself freely in the shallow depth existing 
at low tide. 

In order to ascertain all the conditions affecting, or produced by, 
the motion of water in the canal, an elaborate system of taking 
measurements was organized after the excavation had been completed 
so as to give free flow. 

Observation posts were established at Stations 45, 80, 125, 172, 225, 
275, 325, 375, 399+50, and 410. Station 45 is where the canal has a 
bottom width of 200 ft. At Station 80 the bottom width had been 
reduced to the normal 100 ft., the narrowing commencing at Station 
70, Station 80 being selected for observation as being about the first 
or last place, according to direction of current, where the flow was 
believed to be normal for a narrow section. Through the 100-ft. 
section the observing stations were at about 5 000-ft. intervals to 
Station 399+50, where the cross-section is increased to 250 ft. bottom 
width. Station 410 is the end of the canal. At all these stations, tide 
boards were set up, and their elevations were carefully checlied. 

At each post there was an experienced observer with two assistants, 
and the observations were made simultaneously and continuously for 
nearly 15 hours, so as to cover fully a complete tidal cycle. 



Papers.] Tllli: CAPE COU CAKAL llO!) 

Olio ot' tlie assistants was in a hoat supplied with floats, of which 
lie phicfd (iiic ill tlio center of the eanal every 15 miii. about 600 ft. 
above (according- to current) the observer. The second assistant was 
stationed 500 ft. above the observer sighting across the canal over 
marks set at right angles to the line of the canal. The accurately placed 
canal lights served well for such i)urpose. When the float passed the 
assistant ho signaled to the observer who recorded the time of passage, 
and again the time when the float passed similar marks at the observ- 
ing station. These times by reduction gave the center surface velocities. 
At 15-min. intervals the observer also recorded the elevation of the 
water, as shown by the tide boards, and noted the direction, time of 
stopping, and reversing of the current, action of the wind, passing 
of boats, and other circumstances affecting the flow. The observers' 
watches were synchronized by the engineer in charge. To eliminate 
errors these observations were repeated on July 26th and August 
26th, 1914, being selected as days when a head differential greater 
than the mean was to be expected. All reductions and computations 
were made in the Chief Engineer's ofiice from original notebooks, the 
observers being given no opportunity to check their recorded observa- 
tions with their own figures or those of adjacent observers. 

To permit these records to be visualized, they have been plotted 
in a series of diagrams. 

The first of the series. Fig. 18, shows the simultaneous elevations 
of the water surface as taken at several observation stations. By con- 
necting the elevations at the same time points by straight lines be- 
tween observation stations, instantaneous profiles of water surface are 
obtained. These lines are not straight from one end of the canal 
to the other, but are substantially straight only for those portions of 
the canal where the cross-section is uniform, that is, between Stations 
80 and 375, where the canal has a bottom width of 100 ft. The lines 
between Stations 45 and 80 are flatter on account of the greatly in- 
creased cross-section of the canal. The slight irregularities occurring 
between Stations 375 and 380 are due to the contraction of the 
Buzzards Bay Bridge. 

If curves are drawn osculatory to these lines, they will give the 
elevations of high water and low water at all points through the canal. 
The greater the number of simultaneous water profiles, the greater 



1110 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



will be the number of points given on the curves, but the more 
accurately determined loci of the curves will not vary appreciably 
from the curves as drawn on Figs. 18 and 19. These curves show that 
the elevations of high and low water are not on straight lines between 
the two ends of the canal, as the surface slopes are, but lie on pro- 
nounced curves; and that, for substantial portions of the length of 
the canal, tides rise neither as high nor fall as low even as the high 
and low minimimi of Buzzards Bay. This result was not anticipated, 
nor was it suggested by any writer on the expected tidal results. The 
differences are quite material, as shown by Table 12, which gives the 
actual elevations at points in the canal and computed elevations if 
the high and low water were on straight lines, connecting the high 
and low points at Buzzards Bay and Cape Cod Bay. 

TABLE 12. — Deviation of Actual High-Water and Low- Water Lines 
PROM Straight Lines Connecting the Extreme Elevations at 
THE Two Ends of the Canal. 



Observations of Juli 


' 26th, 1916. 










High Water. 


Low Water. 


stations. 
















Actual 


Elevation of 


Difference, 


Actual 


Elevation 

of straight 

line. 


Difference 




elevation. 


straight line. 


in feet. 


elevation. 


in feet. 


35 + 00 


104.80 


104.8 




93.87 


93.87 




45 + 00 


104.96 


104.77 


+ 0.19 


93.87 


93.98 


+ 0.11 


80 + 00 


101.60 


104.66 


— 0.06 


94.23 


94.40 


+ 0.17 


125 + 00 


104.16 


104.52 


— 0.36 


94.70 


94.98 


+ 0.23 


172 + 00 


103.50 


104.37 


— 0.87 


95.70 


95.48 


— 0.22 


225 + 00 


102.80 


104.20 


— 1.40 


96.90 


96.09 


— 0.81 


275 + 00 


102.33 


104.04 


— 1.71 


97.60 


96.67 


— 0.93 


325 + 00 


102.75 


108.88 


— 1.13 


98.16 


97.25 


— 0.91 


374 + 20 


103.25 


103.70 


-0.45 


98.21 


97.80 


— 0.59 


380 + 00 


103.83 


103.67 


— 0.34 


98.16 


97.87 


— 0.29 


399 + 50 


103.66 


103.66 




98.00 


98.00 





Observations of August 26th, 


1916. 








35 + 00 


105.58 


105.58 




94.75 


94.75 




45 + 00 


105.62 


105.53 


+ 0.09 


94.72 


94.84 


+ 0.12 


80 + 00 


105.50 


105.80 


+ 0.20 


94.50 


95.16 


+ 0.66 


125 + 00 


104.80 


105.02 


-0.22 


95.70 


95.59 


— 0.11 


172 + 00 


104.13 


104.73 


— 0.60 


96.20 


96.05 


— 0.15 


225 + 00 


103.30 


104.46 


— 1.16 


96.90 


96.45 


— 0.45 


275 + 00 


102.50 


104.15 


— 1.65 


97.55 


96.94 


— 0.61 


325 + 00 


102.50 


108.85 


— 1.35 


98.30 


97.42 


-0.88 


375 + 00 


103.04 


103.53 


— 0.49 


98.65 


97.90 


— 0.75 


880 + 00 


103.10 


103.50 


-0.40 


98.60 


97.95. 


— 0.65 


410 + 00 


108.30 


103.30 




98.21 


98.21 


... 



Differences are marl^ed with the minus sign for actual elevations falling below 
the straight line for high water, and for elevations falling above the straight line 
for low water. 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



1111 



Elevation above Datum. 




Elevation above Datum. 



1112 



THE CAPE COD CAN4L 



[Papers. 



Elevation above Datum. 



O CD ^ O 




Sta. 37S 
Sta. 380 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1113 

A moment's consideration will cxjjlain this curious phenomenon: 
It', in an open cliannt'l, tliere is tidal action at one end only, that is, 
if the tidal range at the other end is zero, then elevations of high 
and low water at intermediate points will be on straight lines running 
from mean sea level at one end to high or low level at the other, the 
elevations being proportional to the distance. If, in the ease of a 
comparatively short canal, where the instantaneous surface curves can 
be considered as substantially straight lines, there is tidal action at 
both ends, amplitude and phase being the same, then high, low, and 
intermediate elevations through the canal will be on horizontal 
straight lines; but, if the amplitude is the same and the phase is 
opposite, that is, if the tides are a full tide apart, then the elevations 
of high and low water through the canal would still be on straight 
lines, but broken at the midway point, the instantaneous profiles 
oscillating through this same point. In this case, no matter how great 
the rise and fall at the ends, there would be no tidal rise or fall at 
the center. When the amplitude and phase of the tides differ, the 
connecting lines become curved, as in the present case. This question 
of tidal elevations in the canal must not be confused with either 
the velocity or the instantaneous slope of the water. 

In Fig. IS the curves of high and low water are not symmetrical, 
\\-hich at first thought appears should be the case. The lack of syiumetry 
is due to the incompleteness of the lower branch of the Buzzards 
Bay tide curve. If the tide fell below mean sea level as much as it 
rises above, the apex of the low- water curve would be advanced so as 
to lie beneath the apex of the high-water curve. 

The elevation and location of the apices of the high- and low-water 
curves are functions of the phase difference and relative magnitudes 
of the terminal tides. 

The line of elevations of low water is of great practical importance 
in construction. In order to give a uniform depth of water at low 
tide, it is not necessary to give a miiform slope to the bottom. The 
line of low-water elevations should be determined, which can easily 
be predicated from tidal records at the ends, and the excavation be 
made parallel thereto. An inspection of the figures in Table 12 
indicates the variation from computed straight-line or uniform-slope 
elevations, and the corresponding saving in unnecessary excavation can 
be estimated. 



1114 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

The current velocities ascertained by the observations were the 
velocities on the surface at the center of the canal, and no other 
method of measuring velocities was practicable, in view of the required 
great frequency of the observations at so many stations, subject as 
they were to interruption by passing vessels. In order to harmonize 
the observations with flow formulas which depend on and give mean 
velocity, it was necessary to ascertain the relation existing between 
the center surface velocity and the mean velocity of the whole cross- 
section, as it actually existed in a channel of these dimensions and 
with frictional resistance produced by the material forming the sides 
and bottom. 

The method adopted to determine the mean velocity and its ratio 
to the center surface velocity was that recommended by the U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey Bureau. A point in the canal. Station 225, 
was selected where, for a considerable distance in both directions, the 
alignment was a tangent and the cross-sections of the canal were sub- 
stantially uniform. The various threads of flow, therefore, were 
straight, parallel, and practically undisturbed by local eddies. 

A wire was stretched across the canal, clear of the water, and on 
it were fastened tags at intervals of 10 ft. A boat, with the measuring 
crew, was held at each tag by an anchor while velocity readings were 
made, beginning at the surface and then downward at intervals of 2 ft. 
Measurements were thus made on a spacing of 10 ft. horizontally 
and 2 ft. vertically from shore to shore and from surface to bottom. 

The gauging was done with a Gurley-Price current meter, which 
had been accurately rated by the manufacturers immediately prior 
to use. The revolutions of the meter were counted for 30 sec, and 
the recording of the velocities in each full vertical took from 10 to 
20 min. each. In addition to recordmg the readings of the meter, 
all attending circumstances were noted, such as the elevation of 
the water, direction and strength of the wind, passing of vessels, etc., 
and float velocity determinations were made as a check on the meter 
and the work, and especially to record the variations in the surface 
velocity during the measurements. 

The gauging was begun on the center line on July 10th, 1915, 
at 9.35 A. M. and proceeded toward the north bank, the vertical, 90 
north, being measured at 11.51 a. m., when the elevation of the water 
surface had fallen from 101.7 to 100.5. Beginning again at vertical. 



Papers.] THr: CAPE COD CANAL 1115 

10 south, at 11. 5G A. M., vertical 90 south was finished at 1.43 P. M., 
when the water surface stood at Elevation 99.6. During the latter 
half of the work the current had slackened considerably, so that the 
readings in the south half of the canal section were much lower than 
at corresponding points in the north half. In order to correct this 
discrepancy, readings in the south half were repeated 4 days later 
when local conditions of tide, current, and wind were comparably 
similar to those prevailing on the first occasion. 

In spite of this repetition, which eliminated excessive variation 
in current condition, there naturally were minor variations, as devel- 
oped over a period of more than 2 hours. These were compensated 
by reducing all observations to maximum center velocity by mul- 
tiplying current-meter readings in each vertical by the ratio of maxi- 
mum float velocity to the float velocity obser^-ed during the reading 
at such vertical, the float observations being repeated when the meter 
readings on each vertical were made. 

For example, the maximum center velocity occurred when the 
current-meter readings were taken on the vertical, 30 north, and 
amounted to 2.9G knots. When the readings were made on the ver- 
tical, 60 north, the center surface velocity was 2.55 knots, and there- 

2.96 
fore all readin2;s in this vertical were multiplied by the ratio,-— ^^ = 1.16 

2.00 

in order to bring them to a parity with those in the vertical, 20, which 

were the maximum and standard. 

The velocities, in knots, at points in the cross-section at horizontal 
intervals of 10 ft. and vertical intervals of 2 ft. and reduced to a 
common basis, are platted in Fig. 20. An average of these figures gives 
the mean velocity of the whole cross-section as 78% of the maximmn 
surface velocity.* 

In order that these observations should have all personal bias 
eliminated, and, so far as possible, receive ofiicial recognition, sug- 
gestions as to the method of obtaining the data accurately were invited 
from the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Bureau, and that Bureau 
kindly delegated a representative. Homer P. Ritter, M. Am. Soc. C. E., 
to supervise the taking of some of the measurements, to see that they 
were properly made, and some measurements were repeated in order 

* H. de B. Parsons, M. Am. Soc. C. E., in "Tidal Phenomena in New York Harbor," 
Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXVI, p. 2032, says : "The mean sectional velocity 
is about 0.75 times the velocity at the surface." 



1116 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



Depth, in Feet. Below Water' Surface 




V 






I" 



g S [5 s jr = -> 



I o o S^g,' 






3 2. oi-°-iSBg>q rx^ 







Sta. 90 Soutli 
Sta. 80 South 
Sta. TO South 



Sta. 60 South 



Sta. 40 South o 

C 
73 

Sta. 30 South pi 
—I 

Sta. 20 South ° 
CO 

m 

Sta. 10 South ^ 
> 

C.L. Sta. 225 O 

-z. 

CO 

sta. 10 Nortli ^ 

r- 
-< 

sta. 20 North [^ 

— I 

Sta. 30 North "^ 

cn 
Sta. 10 North ' 

Sta. 50 North 

Sta. CO North 

Sta. 70 North 

Sta. 80 North 
Sta. 00 North 



I'.IIWTS.I 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1 1 1: 



to chock the aeciinicy of those i)rcviously recorded. The Engineer of 
the ll;irl»>r mid l-;uid Commission of Massachusetts did likewise. 

An inspection of Fig. 20 shows that the maximum velocity, as in 
other streams, is not at the surface, but at a considerable distance 
helow it, and that the velocity increases from that at the surface 
ti» tlie mnxiiniun mid lh(Mi decreases with further increase in depth. 



The measured velocities in the 
seven central verticals. 30 south 
to 80 north, both inclusive, in 
which the velocities are the 
maximum, and which are the 
least affected by side resistance 
and eddies, have been averaged "^ 

= 12 

and platted in the solid line in -" 
Fig. 21. I 

. , . ^ . ^ >16 

An analytical expression oi s 
the change in vertical velocity in | 
a stream is given by the para- ^ 
bolio formula proposed by Capt. 5 
Humphreys and Lieut. Abbot, q''^ 
Topographical Engineers, U. S. 
A., in their memorable classic 
"The Hydraulics of the Missis- 
sippi River" in 18G1 : 

d — il 



/'Water bnrtuce 



where V 




1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 

Velocities, ia Knots. 



Fig. 21. 
velocity at a point in the vertical the depth of which 
below the surface is denoted by d; 
V^^ = maximum velocity in the vertical ; 
V = mean velocity of the whole cross-section ; 
D = depth of vertical ; 
d^ = depth of the point of maximum velocity in the vertical 

below the surface ; 
d = depth of any point in the vertical below the surface; 
constant 



b = 



the value of which for the section of the 



\/ D + 1.5 
canal under consideration was found to be 2.93. 



1118 



THE CAPE COD CxiNAL 



[Papers. 



The curve given by this formula is shown by the dotted line in 
Fig. 22, its point of origin at the surface being taken coincident with 
the measured surface velocity. The measured vertical velocity line 
is, as was to be expected, a broken and not a regular curve, but it 
corresponds with astonishing closeness with the theoretical parabola, 
so closely that the latter is a fair average of the former, as it should 
be. The depth of maximum velocity is 0.313 D. The depth to the 
point on the parabola where the velocity is the same as the mean 
velocity is 0.675 D. In round numbers, the maximum velocity occurs 
at one-third, and the mean velocity at two-thirds, of the depth. The 
average maximum velocity is 1.066 times the maximuna surface 
velocity, and therefore the mean velocity, being 0.78 of the maximimi 
surface velocity, is 0.73 of the maximum velocity. 




11 Noon 1 P.M. 2 
Time 
Fig. 22. 

The plotting of the velocity observations gave curves which were 
not smooth but broken. These breaks in alignment were due to the 
inevitable variations in contiguous observations and to the fact that 
water in a large channel does not flow with absolute uniformity but 
in pulsations developed from any causes, such as the roughness of 
the bottom and sides, producing eddies; the local action of wind, 
and the passing of boats setting up waves that are felt at considerable 
distances. These irregularities were disregarded, and a smooth curve 
in each case was plotted, which was the average of the observations. 
As a matter of interest, Fig. 22 shows the actual observations as made 
at Section 172 (a fair example) and the smooth curve which was 
taken as the basis for computation. 



Tapers.] 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



1119 



Figs. 23 to 27 show the smooth curves at each of the observation 
stations, the ritiht-haiid scale rei'erring to center surface velocities, 
the left-hand scale to the velocities reduced to naean velocity for the 
whole section by multiplying the observed surface velocities by 0.78, 
the ascertained coefficient. The abscissas of these curves represent 




Noon 1 P.M. 
Time 



FIG. 23. 

the time, and the velocities, in knots* per hour, are plotted as ordinates, 
above the axis for easterly and below for westerly current. Where 
the direction of the current is referred to as easterly or westerly, it is 
to be understood as being toward the east or west; that is, from 
Buzzards Bay to Cape Cod Bay or the reverse, respectively. The 

• 1 knot = 1 nautical mile = 6 080 ft., 1 knot per hour = 1.69 ft. per sec. 



1130 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



observations on both occasions (July 26th and August 2Gth) are shown 
with evident closeness in results. 

To show the relation existing between velocity and "head", curves 
are plotted at the bottom of each figure showing the measured dif- 
ferences in water elevations at the two ends of the canal, also plotted 
as ordinates to the time abscissas. 




The striking and important characteristic features of these curves 



1. — They closely resemble each other as to maxima and shape, 
thus providing a check on the accuracy of the observers. The varia- 
tion in maximum readings, except for Stations 45, 375, 399+50, and 



I'api'i 



Tllli CAPK COD CANAL 



1121 



410, where the canal cross-section is fircatly increased, and at ^Station 
80 on the easterly and Station 375 on the westerly current, to be 
referred to hitcr, are readily accounted for by slight variations in local 
conditions. 




11 Noon 1P.M. 2 
Time 



7 8 P.M. 



F;g. 25. 

2. — The form of the curve approximates that of a sine curve, that 
is, the rate of change of the absolute value of the velocities is zero 
at the maximum in both directions of flow, and increases gradually 
toward zero velocities. The change of sign takes place very rapidly 
at the reversal of the current. At maxima velocities the character of 
flow approximates that of uniform motion. 



1122 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



3. — Maximum and zero velocities occur at very nearly the same 
instants throughout the whole length of the canal. These last two 
features indicate that, for the special case of the Cape Cod Canal, 
good approximate values for maxima velocities can be derived by apply- 
ing formulas pertaining to uniform — or at least permanent — flow in 
channels. 




11 Nooa IP.M. 2 
Time 

Pig. 26. 

4. — The descending branches of the velocity curves have a somewhat 
greater inclination than that of the ascending branches. 

5. — The duration of the easterly current is sensibly longer than 
that of the westerly current. 



P;i])cr>. 



TIIK CAPE COD CAXAL 



1123 



'J'lie dia^^Tum of elovation dilfereuces shows that though, for some 
local cause, the maximum head was considerably lower for westerly 
than for easterly currents during: the observations on July SOth, on 
August '2i>th the maxima heads in opposite directions were almost 
equal. I'herefore, for the theoretical analysis of the problem, the 
data furnished hy the observations on the latter date have been selected. 



































3 


g 1 
































_ 


■--- 


---, 


.Velc 


city C 
2f.th 


urve 
1015 










/ 


^"^ 




*"**•*■ 


-^ 




m 

a .5 


- 


Slack 


Wate 




Eas 


;erly 


Currt 


;nt 




/ 
/ 
1 












.M. t 


5 




■t < 


fV 


11 Noon IP.M. 

|Timej 


/ 
/ 


i \ 


■ 


( 




8 P. 


\l 


^1 


- 








\ 
\ 


Westerly 


Curr 


mt / 
















s - 


- 










\. . 


^^ 


^<' 














3 


2.5 












St! 


.399 


+50 
















































3 

2 

1 



.2 
|l.5 

^1 


- 






























^ 






Voloc 


ity Ca 
r.26tli, 


rve 
1915 












/> 


^ 




~ .5 

T 

'-- 


f 


SlacH Wat« 


r 




^ 1 Kasti 


Tly C 


urre; 


It 




/ 








? oA, 
g .5 


M. t 

r 




f 


j 


) 1 


J \ 1 


1 Noon IP.M. ■ 
Time} 


) 


■y 


^ t 


( 




8 P. 


1 
2 
3 


> 1 
il.5 












^ 


y We 


sterl: 


Gur 


•ent 


/ 










S2 
2.5 


~ 












\ 




^ 


/ 


























Sta. 


HO 














it 
































--J> 




























6 


/^ 


^^N 


^\ 


.Iiilv 2 


6th, 1 


llSv. J 


'~7 


/^ 


^J 


'Aug. 


26th, 


1915 , 


' 


-,^._ 


-^^ 




/ 




\ 


\, 


/^ 


/ 


^\ 




s 




/ 


,/^ 




\ 








\ 


\ 


i 




/ 




\ 


\, 






/ 




\ 


3 


Head a 


t ■> 




V 


/ 


Head at 


s 


s 


V / 


A H 


ead a 


\ 


|3^ 

« 


Westerly End 


\ 


\ 


/ 


EaEterly End 


^ X 


/ 


We. 


terly End 




1 1 


\/ 


\/ 




\/, \. 




1 1 


n 



c 5 A.M. 6 



11 Noon IP.M, 2 
Time 

Fig. 27. 



7 8P.M.ia 



The average velocities in the canal are closely related to each 
other as the square roots of the actuating heads, and, therefore, follow 
tlie law of falling bodies, according to the basic formula, F = V 2 y /i, 
which is the foundation of all liydraulic formulas. That the increase 
in velocity will be only as the square root of the actuating head, and 



112 i THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

not as the full head, was a fact overlooked by many in considering 
the possibility of opening a canal at sea level without locks. Although 
admitting the possibility of success for the Cape Cod Canal at heads 
of 5 ft., some people had serious doubts as to what would happen at 
times of great storms piling up the water at one end and depressing it 
at the other, their fears extending even to the complete destruction of 
the canal by excessive erosion of the banks. Experience has shown 
that, even on extraordinary tides, when the head has reached a maxi- 
mum of 9 ft., the current, though swift, is neither destructive nor pro- 
hibitory to navigation. At the time of the occurrence of the observed 
maximum head during the great storm of January, 1915, when the 
water surface at the east end was 9.5 ft. higher than that at the west 
end, the central surface velocity was measured as 4 knots, cor- 
responding to a mean velocity of 3.12 knots, which is in line with 
the increase as the square root of the head. Therefore, to determine 
the mean velocity in the Cape Cod Canal at any head, it is only neces- 
sary to know the velocity at a given head and to multiply that by the 
ratio of the square roots of the head at which the velocity is sought 
and that which is given. Thus, the mean velocity at 5 ft. of head is 
2.36 knots. The mean velocity at any other head is 

_ 2.36 VTt 
V 5 

It has been pointed out, as will be seen from an inspection of the 
diagrams, that the head remains nearly constant for considerable 
lengths of time, the actual head on a typical mean tide during a tidal 
cycle being as given in Table 13. 

The mean velocities corresponding to the heads given in Table 13, 
taking the average of the observations on both days, are given in 
Table 14. 

Another feature of interest is the following: Although the velocity 
diagrams for Stations 172, 225, 275, and 325 show practically equal 
maxima in both directions, as is to be expected from equal tidal differ- 
ences, the readings at the terminal stations (80 and 399 -f- 50) on July 
26th or at Station 410 on August 26th, show considerable discrepancy 
between maxima. Station 80 is at the east end of the canal proper, 
close to the point where it is doubled in bottom width; Stations 399 -f- 50 
and 410, although possessing a greater area of cross-section than the 



I'aia'is.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



1125 



Tx\J3LE 13. — TiuAL DllTEUE^•CES ox August 2Gtii, lt)lG. 



Time, in hours 
anU minutes. 


Head, in feet. 


Mean velocity In canal, 
in knots. 


5. no A. M. 




3.75 




f 2.08 


5.15 




4..S5 




2.21 


S.-SO 




4.75 




2.35 


5. 45 




5.17 




2.48 


0.(K) 


"d 


5.50 




2.57 


ti.l5 


§ 


5.83 




2.64 


ti.30 




5.87 


■ *j 


2.70 


t).-15 


5.S9 


a 


2.72 


7.110 


B 


5.72 


t 


2.72 


7.15 


4) ■ 


5.58 


3 


2.71 


7.30 


5.42 




2.68 


7.45 


5.10 


2.08 


8.00 


« 


4.70 




2.55 


8.15 


-a 


4.42 


w 


2.45 


8.30 


s 


4.08 


as 


2.83 


8.45 


X 


3.46 


f^ 


2.19 


9.0O 




2.88 




2.02 


9.15 




2.15 




1.83 


9.30 




1.42 

I 0.56 




1.58 


9.45 






1.27 


10.00 




r 0.12 
0.92 




0.89 


10.15 






.0.41 


10.80 




1.67 




ro.24 

0.87 


10.45 




2.42 




11.00 




3.12 




1.89 


11.15 




8.96 




1.76 


11.30 


•V 


4.58 




2.02 


11.45 


a 


5.17 




2.21 


Noon 


® 


5.58 




2.34 


12.15 p. H 


^ 


5.83 


a 


2.43 


12.30 


s 


5.96 


£ 


2.49 


12.45 


2 . 


5.92 


t 


2.51 


1.00 


* "S 


5.83 


3 


2.51 


1.15 




5.66 


>> - 


2.47 


1.30 


c6 


5.42 


Li 


2.42 


1.45 


1 

a 


5.08 


<0 


2..S4 


2.00 


4.58 


to 


.2.23 


2.15 


4.12 


^ 


2.11 


2.30 




3.50 


1.95 


2.15 




2.83 




1.76 


3.00 




2.21 




1.56 


3.15 




1.66 




1.32 


8.30 




1.00 




1.05 


3.45 




. 0.^ 




0.76 • 


4.00 




' 0.42 




, 0.41 


4.15 




l.uO 


^ 


^0.02 


4.30 




1.62 


c 


0.55 


4.45 


n 


2.33 


I 


1.08 


5.00 


a 


2.92 


3 


1.47 


5.15 


>> 


3.42 


u 


1.74 


5.30 


4J 


3.92 


►." 


1.97 


5.45 




4.30 


1 


2.14 


6.00 


2 < 


4.58 


2.27 


6.15 


BE 


4.95 


« 


2.36 


6.80 


4J 


5.25 


Cc) 


2.43 


6.45 


•a 


5.42 




7.0<3 




5.42 




7.15 


5.42 




7.30 




5.30 




7.45 




5.00 




8.00 




4.75 





normal canal section, are at the point where the canal debouches into 
Buzznr<ls B;iy. When the current was iiowing east, the maximum 
center surface velocity on Au{?ust 2()th at Station 80 was 3.8 knots, 
as compared with 2.8 knots when the current was flowing west; wherea.s, 



112() 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



TABLE 14. 



Head, in feet. 


Observed mean velocity 
in canal, iu knots 


Mean velocity by formula, 

2.36 X — knots. 

J 5 


3 

3V8 


1.C9 
1 93 


1.83 
I.9S 


4 

4V2 


2 03 
S.20 


2.12 
2.24 


5 
51,4 


2.36 

2.50 


2.3fi 

2.48 


6 


2.82 


2.60 



at Station 225, on the same date, the maximum center surface velocity 
was 3.7 knots in each direction. At the west end of the canal at Station 
410 the maximum center velocity on the east-bound current was less 
than* 2 knots and slightly more than 3 knots on the west-bound current. 
That is to say, in both cases when the current was flowing from 
a narrow to a broader cross- leo 
section, the center surface si4o 
velocity was increased; and it oiio 
was decreased when the flov; piuo 
was in the opposite direction, £ »" 

o 

or from broad to narrower. ^^ t^o 

« 
As the volume of water pass- | ^"^ 

o 

ing Station 80 is the same P_ 
as in any other normal canal 
(•ross-section, though the cen- g^^ 

1 . . . T „. » 100 

ter velocity is quite dmerent, ^ 

a 80 

it must be that the same rela- ^ 
tion between center surface o 

40 
20 




'T, 20 














Sta. 


SO 1 _1^__ 































\ 








/ 


/ 


X 


Sta. 


226 




1^ 






\ 




/ 


u- 


/ 
















\ 


\ 


























\. 








SURFACE VELOCITIES 

EXPRESSED IN PERCENTAGES OF 
llEAN VELOCITY OF THE CR0SS-SECT10^ 






















1 


















75 S. 


50 


s. 


25 


S. 


C 


L. 


25 


N. 


50 


N. 


75 > 


r. 















/ 


Sta. 


225 














X 










\ 










/ 




. 80 




'^ 


^'^ 




-^ 


\"^ 




A 
















"' \ 


N 






MEAN BOTTOM VELOCITIES 










MEAN 


VEL 


OCIT^ 


< OF" 


rHEC 


ROSS 


-SEC 


TlOh 







25 S. C.L. 
Fig. 28. 



25 N. 50 N. 75 N. 



velocity and mean velocity s 
does not exist. 

To prove this assumption, ^ 
current-meter measurements 
were made at Stations 75 and 85, and the average of these showed that 
the mean velocity of the cross-section at Station 80 is only about 68%, 
instead of 78%, of the center surface velocity when the current is flow- 
ing in an easterly direction. In Fig. 28 the velocities on the surface and 
near the bottom of the canal are plotted, expressed in percentages of the 
mean velocity for the whole cross-section for Stations 80 and 225, for 



I''M"'^I THE CAPE COD CANAL 1127 

comparison. Tliis diajirani shows tliat though the surface velocities 
at Station 80 are measurably greater than those at Station 225, the 
velocities near the bottom are in the inverse ratio. No measurements 

were made on tlie westerly flow, but undoubtedly the opposite condi- 

* 

tions exist; that is, there is a higher proportionate bottom and side 
velocity to balance the known lower surface velocity, so that the mean 
cross-sectional velocity would have a higher ratio to the center sur- 
face velocity than the normal figure of 0..78, as that on the easterly flow 
is lower, the ratio being about 0.85 to 0.88. As this phenomenon is 
repeated at both ends of the canal, it is evidently not a matter of 
chance, and an explanation is offered that, when the current is from 
a narrow to a broad section, there is a contraction similar in character 
to that which oceiirs when a jet issues from an orifice; but when the 
current is from broad to narrow the diverted threads of flow at the 
sides, which find no place in the narrow section, if continued in 
straight lines, are pushed toward the center, and increase the velocity 
of flow at the sides, thus automatically reducing the velocity of the 
surface center flow, as the volume of water passing the section in a 
given interval of time is the same; and if the velocity at any part 
of the cross-section is increased, a compensative reduction must take 
place at some other point. 

In a Canal, therefore, the transition to increased cross-section 
should be made very gradually. In the canal in question a length of 
500 ft. was given to a gradual widening, but this is seen to be insuffi- 
cient to eliminate all variations in flow. 

A phenomenon of much interest, as shown by these diagrams, is 
that the time of neither maximum current nor zero current coincides 
with the time of maximum tidal difference or of simultaneous equal 
end elevation. 

Averaging the times of maximum and zero currents at Stations 
80 to 375, both inclusive, so as to eliminate local variations in observa- 
tions, the lag in time for the foregoing current conditions is: 

Maximum easterly current behind Buzzards Bay high. .0.31 hour. 
!Ma.\imum vresterly current behind Cape Cod Bay high. .0.21 '' 
Zero velocity current behind equal elevation, Buzzards 

Bay tide falling 0.51 "' 

Zero velocity current behind eciual elevation. Cape Cod 

Bay tide falling 0.44 '' 



11-28 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Tapers. 

By "Buzzards Bay tide falling" or "Cape Cod Bay tide falling" is 
meant that the tide at the end named is ebbing, and what had been 
superelevation at that end immediately prior to the moment of equal 
end elevation is about to be reversed. 

It will be noted that the lag of zero velocity in both cases is greater 
than the lag of maximum velocity, and that the lag of the maximum 
or minimum (= 0) state of the current when governed by Cape Cod 
tidal influence is greater than when governed by Buzzards Bay tidal 
influence. An examination of the current diagrams shows in all cases 
a steeper inclination to the descending than to the ascending part 
of the curve, which accounts for the difference in lag. 

A singular outcome of this phenomenon is that, with equal end 
elevations following Buzzards Bay falling tide, there is a current with 
an average mean velocity of more than 1 knot per hour, although at 
that instant there is no head to produce it. When the current velocity 
is zero (or slack water), there is a difference in head in Cape Cod Bay 
over Buzzards Bay of 1.5 ft. Between those limits of time (30 min.) 
the water in the canal is actually running up hill, from a maximum 
current of 1.1 knots when the slope is level to a current of zero velocity 
when the adverse head is 1.5 ft. On the other tide, when the end eleva- 
tions are equal, the mean current velocity is 0.74 knot, and when the 
velocity is zero the adverse head, opposite to what has been producing 
flow immediately previovis, is 1.0 ft. 

The explanation of these phenomena of lag lies in the dynamic 
properties of moving liquids. A time interval is required to develop 
full momentum imparted by an extraneous force, in this case the full 
momentum not being reached mitil after its creating force has passed 
the apex of its energy. In like manner, momentum when once set up 
continues unaided until absorbed by friction or checked by a new and 
opposing force. The case of an inflowing tide in a narrow estuary 
being stopped by a diim or lock and producing at that point a higher 
elevation to high tide and a lower one to low tide than the normal is 
well known. In the Cape Cod Canal there is no such abrupt stop, but 
there is seen a very beautiful illustration of the balancing and oscil- 
lating action of two waves in their alternate development and arresV 
ing of motion. The rising tide at one end, when its elevation exceeds 
the tide at the other, produces a force in opposed head to overcome 
the momentum imparted by the previous "head" at the other end, and 



''•'I"''-'-! TllK CM'K COD CAXAL 1129 

then it in turn establishes a return ilow. It will he noted that, \vh(Mi 
tlio veh)eit.v at ft. ditt'erential of elevation is 1.1 knots, an increasing 
head to a nia.xinunn of 1.5 ft. is necessary to check it, and, when it has 
the opposite direction of velocity of 0.74 knot, a head of 1.0 ft. suffices. 
On account of this lat*', tlu> diaurams must be read with care to deter- 
mine the velocity corresponding to any given head. A direct projec- 
tion from the ''head" to the "velocity" curve will not give the accurate 
rate; allowance must be made for lag. The harmonic analysis of this 
and other features of the in-obh^ni is i)resented in the mathematical 
consideration. 

A further peculiarity of the motion of the water in the Cape Cod 
Canal is revealed by inspecting Fig. 19, which represents the instan- 
taneous surface curves of the canal for August 2Gth, 1915. It will be 
noted that at Station 172 the inclination of the surface had exactly 
the same value at noon (westerly current) as at 0.00 P. M. (easterly 
current), but the elevations of the water were 104.13 and 96.30, 
respectively, the hydraulic radius being 22.25 ft. at noon and 17.95 
ft. at 6.00 P. M. From the principles of hydraulics, therefore, the 
velocity of the flow at noon should have been about 16% greater than 

/r, G, V i?, S \ 

at O.OO P. M, ( — = — :=== — 1-10 ) • However, referring to the 

corresponding velocity diagram, it will be found that the velocities were 
almost exactly the same at these two time points. A similar result is 
obtained for Station 225, comparing observations at 7.00 a. u. and 
1.00 P. M. This fact indicates that a change of the hydraulic radius, 
resulting solely from the tidal variations of the depth, has only a slight 
intluence on the velocities, and that the flow in tidal streams similar to 
the Cape Cod Canal obeys different laws than those governing the uni- 
form motion of water in canals. 

Another unique feature, the discussion of which is made possible by 
the measurements of water elevations at the Cape Cod Canal, is the very 
complicated nietliod of the wave ])ropagation therein. In a canal sub- 
jected to tidal influences at one end only, the propagation of the wave 
is at a nearly constant rate, and its velocity can be expressed approxi- 
mately by to = s/ ff H. (This formula will be discussed later in the 
niatliematical part of the paper.) ]\reasurements in the Suez Canal 



1130 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



showed a very close agreement between the computed and observed 
values of the velocity of wave propagation. 

At the Cape Cod Canal the conditions are entirely different, the 
value of the velocity of wave propagation being a function of the time 
interval between the high-water points of the two ends and also of the 
relative magnitude of the amplitudes of the two tides. It is evident 
that high water along the canal at the consecutive stations will be 
reached in the time interval between the high waters at Buzzards Bay 
and Cape Cod Bay. On August 26th this time interv^al was about 3 
hours 20 min., high water at Station 410 occurring at 8.45 A. M. and 
at Station 35 at 12.05 P. M. The corresponding average velocity is 
3.12 ft. per sec, or only about one-tenth of that furnished by the 
formula. 

WAVE PROPAGATION 
Observations of Aufrust '^etli, 1915. 




Fig. 29. 
An inspection of Figs. 29 and 30, which show the time occurrence 
of high and low water and also of slack water along the canal, plotted 
as ordinates to the station abscissas, reveals the fact that the true 
propagation of the compound wave which results from the combination 
of the two tidal motions is very different from this average value. The 
propagation is very swift and sometimes almost instantaneous for the 
reaches near the ends of the canal, and it becomes very slow for about 
two-fifths of the length at high water and for about one-sixth at low 



J'ai.crs.l 



THE CAPE COD CAN'AL 



1131 



wator. Figs. 2D and 30 show the overwhelming- influence of the Cape 

Cod wave over the Buzzards Bay wave, the length of the corresponding 

nearly horizontal lines indicating time of high and low water along 

the canal being nearly proportional to the difference in amplitudes at 

these points. An interesting contrast to the propagation curve of high 

and low waters is the almost exactly simultaneous occurrence of slack 

water on the entire length of the canal, which is also shown on the 

diagrams. 

WAVE PROPAGATION 
Observations of July iSth, lOn. 




Although it does not seem jjossible to find an analytical expression 
for the velocity of the wave propagation in the Cape Cod Canal, the 
problem can be solved with the aid of the harmonic analysis of the 
motion, by calculating the water elevation curve for every station (as 
will be shown later) and picking out the high, low, and slack-water 
times of the same and plotting these times as ordinates to the station 
abscissas. 

The Solution of the Problem by Harmonic Analysis. 

It is a somewhat curious fact that textbooks on hydraulics in use 
in engineering practice do not give any information whatsoever on 
the analytical side of tidal phenomena, and that even standard books 
on hydrodynamics deal with the practical problem of tidal currents 
in a very incomplete way. For the study of tidal motion in canals, 
one must search the libraries for very rare scientific publications, 



1132 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

and, therefore, it is hoped that a complete discussion of the question 
will be welcomed by the members of the Society and the readers of 
the Transactions in general. 

The classical solution of the problem of tidal currents in canals 
was derived by Sir George Biddell Airy, of Cambridge, later Astron- 
omer Royal, Greenwich Observatory, in his dissertation on "Tides 
and Waves."* All subsequent treatment of the subject has been 
based on Airy's work, and in the following pages the theory of tides 
in canals, as derived by him and interpreted by Professor Maurice 
Levy of the College de France in Paris, will be given with such modi- 
fications and additions as are deemed justified, with reference to the 
data obtained by careful measurements at the Cape Cod Canal. 

i. — General Assumptions. — Assume that the canal is narrow enough 

to permit all movements to be regarded as parallel to the longitudinal 

axis of the canal, so that it is sufiicient to study the conditions along 

a vertical plane through this axis. 

P' /S 
In Fig. 31 let F be the intersection ^___B_ r-^ 

of this plane with the bottom of ^^^^^^rt:^^^ 1 \j^^ 

the canal, which is supposed to be ^^^-"'''^ 1 

horizontal or very slightly in- \ 

clined. Let S^ be the intersection 0^^^^,,^^^,;^^^^^,^^^^^^^ 

of the plane with the surface of the ■'w^^^^ ^ >\^dx'>^^ 

canal, when the water is in equilib- fig. 31. 

rium or in a state of permanent motion, due to gravity and friction 

only, and let S be the intersection of the plane with the mobile surface, 

in case the motion of the water is not permanent, due to the action of 

the stars or any other cause. 

Also assume that, at the same line, A-B, normal to the bottom, 

the longitudinal displacements will be practically the same for every 

particle. This has been proved by Airy, who in Section 180 says: 

"When the length of the wave is great in comparison with the 
depth of the water (as in the case of tide waves), the horizontal 
motion is sensibly the same from the surface to the bottom * * *." 

It is sufficient, therefore, to study the motion of the point, B, at 
the surface. 

Assume that the tide generated within the canal is so small as to 
be negligible, and therefore the non-permanent motion, which it is 
proposed to investigate, is due to other direct causes. 

* "EncyclopEedia Metropolitana," Vol. V, 1845. 



•'"I'^'is-l Tin: CAPE COD CAXAL 1133 

Filially, assume that the iiidvciiK'nts of the line, S, are small in 
relation to the depth of the canal. 

:2. — Differential Equations of the Vari/infi Motion of the Water in 
Canals. — Hydrostatics teaches that lor a tluid at rest the free surface 
is a surface normal to the resultant of the forces at each point of 
aiiplication, B. According to d'Alembert's theorem, the same holds 
fTood for the case of motion, but the force of inertia of the point con- 
sidered should be added to the attacking forces. The algebraic sum 
of the projections of these forces on the tangent to the surface is 
consequently zero. 

Let jt be the projection of the acceleration of the point, B, and m 
its mass; then — m jf is the projection of its force of inertia. The 
i-iuiiiKiueiit of the gravity is — m g sin. /,., /.,., denoting the inclination 
of the tangent. BB' of the free surface, directed in the sense of increas- 
ing x' and being taken positive above the horizon, x' representing 
the distance of the section, AB, from a fixed point, 0. 

Then, disregarding friction, the equation sought will read 

— mjt — m g sin. Ig = 0, 
or ;^ = — g sin. Ig (a) 

being an expression of the mean acceleration along the section, AB. 

Taking friction into consideration, the mean acceleration in the 
section determined by the friction must be added to the right-hand 
side of Equation (a). Now, the sum of the friction between the 
filaments of water is zero, by virtue of the principle of action and 
reaction, and therefore only the friction of the water at the wetted 
perimeter should be considered. Let F be the friction per unit of 
wetted surface and X the wetted perimeter of the section, AB, and let 
the section, A'B', be infinitely near to AB, at a distance, x' + d x', 
from 0. The wetted surface of the canal between the two sections 
equals .Y d x', and the corresponding friction, F X d x'. The mass of 

liquid, AB-A'B' is - £1 d x' , denoting the area of the section, A B, by 

D.. and the weight of the liquid per unit volume by ?^. 

The mean acceleration due to the force, F X dx', therefore, reads 

F X a x' _(i F X 

-'■ ndx' ' 



1134 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

and, being directed opposite to the motion. Equation (a) becomes 

(/ F X 
.;; = — r/ sin. i, — —^ (h) 

Let i/f be the ordinate of the point, A, of the bottom of the canal, 
measured from an arbitrary datum line; this ordinate is a function 
of the one variable, x' ; and let z be the depth of the canal at A 
at the instant, t, that is, z is a function of the two independent 
variables, x' and t. Then 

sm. J. = — -^ = f H 7 = sni. J H ■ = / + — — 

d x' 6 x' 8x' d x' S x' 

denoting the slope of the bottom by I, figured positive above the 
horizon, so that I is positive or negative according to whether, by 
ascending the bottom slope, we go in the direction or against the 
positive, x'. 

Assuming that the friction, F, per unit surface is proportional to 
the nth power of the velocity, v, so that 

F = f,v- (c) 

/q being a coefficient varying with the consistency of the wetted peri- 
meter and being equal to F for miit velocity, Equation (b) becomes 

Jt^-ill-ilj^-f^'' {d) 

if, for the sake of simplicity, we put 

f = ^^ w 

In Equation (a), / is positive always, if n is an odd figure, also, if n 
is even and v > 0; in other words, if the motion is in the direction 
of positive x'. If v < and n is even, the lower sign should be taken. 
In order to transform Equation {d) into an equation of partial 
derivatives, let us characterize a section by the abscissa, x, and the 
depth of the water at that section by y at a particular instant, which 
is taken as the origin of time; the abscissa, x', and the depth, z, of 
the section at the instant, t, will then be functions of the two inde- 
pendent variables, t and x. To follow the motion of the particles of 
a section designated by its initial abscissa, x, it is sufficient to let the 



l':i|"''^-] TIIH CAl'l': COD CAXAL 1135 

time vary only. Tlio expression for velocity and acceleration will 
consequently be 

V = , and 

d t 

d V _ 6- x' 

•'' ^ Vf,^T7 ^-^^ 

Substitutinu- in E(|Uation (d) 

S^ X' . /d x'\ " . 5 z 



m 



+ ^ hrr -f y ^ = — 9 



Sf\f>tJ d x' 

8 x' 
and, multiplvmg by -^ — , we get 
6 X 

V8'^x' . /d x'x'* .1 S X' S z 

■ [T7+-'{Ti) +'-"\ii.--'-'r. <•'' 

which is one of the differential equations between the unknowns, x' 
and z. 

The practical incompressibility of the water furnishes the other 
equation. 

n being the area of the wetted cross-section at AB, let /ig be the 
area of this same section at the initial instant. The volume of water 
included between this and an infinitely near section, having an 
abscissa, x 4- d x, is .^o ^^^- ^"^^ ^^^^ instant, t, the abscissas of the two 

5 x' 

sections are x' and x' -\ d x, respectively. The volume included 

S X 

S x' 

between them equals £1 d z. which must be equal to fL^ d x, or 

8 X 

8 x' 

•fi-T., = A, (.11) 

O X 

which is termed the equation of continuity. 

3. — Application of the General Differential Equations to a Canal 
of Uniform Rectangular Cross-Section. — Let v^, be the absolute value 
of the velocity in the canal for uniform motion, determined by the 
bottom slope and friction only. Then, for this condition, 

x' = X — v^t, and z = y (fa)* 

For the non-permanent oscillating motion, 

x' = X — v^t -[- $, and z := y -{- h (o) 

where ^ and h represent the deviations of x' and z from the conditions 
of uniform motion, and therefore are assumed to be comparatively 
small. 

• The origin of the abscissas can always be selected in such a way, that I'o shall 
be negative. 



1136 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

Assume, further, that for the raug-e of velocities here considered 
the power of the velocity, to which the friction is proportiohal, is equal 
to unity; then Equation (/) can be written 

/d'^ x' . 8 x' ^ \ S x' 8 z 

{t¥ + -'TT + "')j^--'J-. (''> 

which, for permanent uniform flow, reduces to 

— fi'o + 9T=0 (0 

and substituting the value of g I from Equation (?) in Equation 
(h), we get 

rS^ x' . / 8 x'\ -I 8 x' 8 z 

LT7^ + -^ ("« + yT)J 7^ = -^^ ^^^ 

Now, considering ^ and /( as variables, as defined by Equation (g)- 

8 h 

6' a . 5 i 8~x 

— :, -T f -^ = — a (k) 

8 t^ •' 8 t 8 ^ ^ ^ 

1 H 

8 X 

The cross-section being rectangular and uniform, O,, = &o y, and 
ii = 6q z, &P, the width, being constant. 
Therefore, from Equation (//), 

_z_ 1_ ^ 

8x 
and again taking ^ and /; as the variables, as defined by Equation 
(gr), we get ^ 

z ^ r + h = — -^ {m) 

5 x' 
Now Equation {h), with resi^ect to this last equation, can be written 

8-' c 
5' S 8 g 8 x^ 

+ Vx) 

St ^ 

and, neglecting the powers of — , as a first approximation, we finallv 

8 X 

have 

j«T'+V-'"'J^'=° <'")• 

[ " = -''11 ^"'^' 

* See also Harris, "Manual of Tides," Part V, pp. 294 and 295. 



^'iM'^'i'^l THE CAPE COD CAXAl. HaT 

It sliduld l)o noted tliat thrsi' ('(luations, althuu^li derived for a 
canal of rectangular cross-section, can l)e used, with the same degree 
of approximation, for uniform canals of any cross-section, supposing 
that by y the "reduced depth" of the canal is understood, that is, the 
depth of a rectaniiular section having- the same area and top width 
as the actual section. Substituting the value, H ^ Xl^ -}- b^ h, and the 
value of x' from Equation (g) in Equation (//), we get 

Let Hq — b y, y being the reduced depth, as explained, then y \- h 

d X 

-^ 0, whicli is identical with Equation (IV). 

It can also be seen that the displacement caused by the uniform 
flow does not enter into the equation; such flow, therefore, if it 
exists, can be treated separately from the oscillating motion. 

4. — General Integral of Equations (III) and (IV). — As the 
motion for which an expression is desired is only that which is period- 
ical, there must be taken the most general expression, depending on 
the time, which will satisfy the Diiferential Equation (III). Assume 

then 

q = P cos. 6 t + Q sin. o' t (1) 

6 being an arbitrary constant, and P and Q functions of x to be 

discovered. Then 

— = — dP sin. 6 t + 6 Q cos. 6 t 
St 

dl 

S^ ^ cV P (P Q . 

8 x^ dx^ d x^ 

Substituting in Equation (HI), we find 

— (J^ P cos. 6 t — 6'^ Q sin. 6 t — f 6 P sin. d t -{- f 6 Q cos. 6 t 

d^ P d^ Q 

— q y -— ^ cos. 6 t — q y --— s- sm. d t — 0. 
d or ' d x^ 

This equation must ])e satisfied for all values of t. Therefore, for t ■■ 
and d t ^^ —. the following equations must hold, respectively 



2 = — d^ P cos. d t — d^ Q sin. d t 



-d'P + fdQ- 


d^ P -) 


— d^Q—f d P- 


d- Q 



(io) 



1138 
Now let 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



[Papers. 



P = .4 e" •■ and Q = B e'' "^ (3) 

then, substituting in Equation (ig) and putting a; = 0, the constants, 
A, B, a, will satisfy the equations 

{(^'^ + <j r "^) ^1 — f 6B =^ / 

f 6 A + (6- + g r ^^-) B = 0) 

Eliminating the ratio, y^, between Equations (3), we get 



(6- + fJ y a'f + f- 6"" = 0. 
which furnishes the characteristic equation 

— d"^ ± f 6 v' — 1 



ii y 



from which 



a = 2> + g V — 1 . 
and J) and q are defined by 



2 %> q =:^ 



9 y t 



y ,^ 



which give 



^+S] 



■2 (/ ;»/ L N 



we also can write 



V 2grr \| 



— 1 + 



1 + 



1 + 



1 + 



/' 



(5) 



(4) 
.(5) 

.(6) 



(7) 



('?) 



AVe get two solutions 

a=p + 7 V — 1 and a = — p-t-g V' — 1 (9) 

and two others by changing q to — q. The first value of a in Equation 



fi' r 



and, with respect to Equation (5), 
vlue of a in Equation (.9) gi 

, and, consequently, iJ = — AsJ — 1. There- 



(,9) gives a'' = 

i? = ^1 V — 1. The second value of a in Equation (.9) gives 

_ (j2 _ y (J V^^ 
a" = — 

<iy 



l':iI'«T3.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 1139 

foil', witlittiit ii'i,^ird to till' coiLstant, .1, the lirst value of a in E(|ualion 
{!)) <rives 

P ^ e ^^' ^« ^'~^^-' and Q = sf^^l e (p + 'i^' -U-o 
wliioh c:iii also be written 



P =^ e''-^' (cos. q X -\- \/ — 1 sin. q x) 
Q ^ eP'^ ( — sin. q x -^ \^ — 1 cos. q x) 
and from these the two solutions will be 

P = c^-^ cos. qx Q =^ — ^""^ sin. q x 

P = gP-f sin. qx Q = e"'^' cos. q x 

The second value of a in Equation (9) gives 



P = e -P^ (cos. qx -\- V — 1 sin. q x) 
Q —.p-px (gjjj^ ^^ — -y/ — 1 cos. qx) 

and the two solutions 

P ^^ e~P^ COS. q X Q = e-P-" sin. q x 

P = e-P^ sm. qx (/ = — e-^-^cos. gx 

Adding these four solutions, multiplied by constants, the general solu 
tion of the factors, P and Q, of Equation (i) is obtained. 

P = e'"'(Ccoi<. qx-\- D ^iu. qx) + e'^' (C" cos. qx-\-D' sin. qx) 



..{10) 
(^ = e^'( — Csin. qx-\-lJ cos. qx) -\- e~^* (C sin.gcc — i*' cos.</a;) 

The value of a, obtained by changing g to — q, would give the same 
result. 

Substituting these values of P and Q in Equation (1), the expres- 
sion for the horizontal displacement will read 

I = e^^ [C cos. (6 t -{- q x) -f I) sin. (a t -\- q x)] 

_l_ g -px ^(j, (,Qg_ (6 t — q X) — U' sin. {d t — qx)].. (11) 

To every expression found for ^ another corresponds for the height, 
/(, and, by Equation (IV), 

h :^ — y e"'' 1{C iJ + 1) q) COS. (d t + q X) + (JJ2) — Cq)sm. (at+qx)] 
+ re-'"'l(C'p — iyq)cos.(dt — qx)-i'{lJ'p + C'q)sm.{at—qx)]..(12) 

The numerical values of the constants depend on the particular con- 
ditions of the problem. 

0. — Determination of the Constants in a Canal Without Proper 
Tide, Communicatinr; at One End with a Tideless Lake and at the 



1140 



THE CAl'E COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



Other End witli a Tidal /S'f'a.— Instead of the constants, C, D, C, D' , 
of Equations {11) and {12), let there be introduced four new con- 
stants, A, B, A', B' , being related to the former as follows: 



C p + D q = 



A 



B 



Cq + D2) = 

r 



C'v 
C'q 



D' q =^ 

r 

D' 2) = — 

r 



and, therefore, 
C 



C = 



p A — q B 

TW+¥) 

p A' + q B' 



D' 



^ ^ qA^-pB■^^ 
— qA' +p B' < 



r if + q') 



y.-m) 



Consequently, Equations {11) and {12) will become 

-e^-^ [(p A — qB) cos. {6 t ^ q x) -[- {q A + p By 
sin. {6 t + q 0.-)]+ e-^" [{p A' + qB') 
rO>''^ + f/)1 COS. {d t — q X) + {q A' — p B') 

sin. {6 t — q a;)] 
]i = e^^ [— A COS. {6 1 + q X) — B sin. {d t + q a-)] 

+ 6-^'' [A' COS. (d t —q X) — B' sin. (d t — q x)] {15) 

Let the origin of the abscissas, x, be at the lake end of the canal. 
Then we must have 

Fora;= 0, h = 0. ; (o) 

For x = L, h = /;,, sin. d t (r) 

where L = the length of the canal, /(^ the given half amplitude of 

the sinoidal tide, and d = ——, if T is the interval between consecutive 

T ' 

T 

high tides. The origin of times is taken at — preceding high water 

at the sea end. 

To determine the constants, it is known from the condition in 
Equation (o) that 

A' — A = and B' -^ B = 0, 
and from the condition in Equation (?■) that 

e^^ {—A COS. q L —■ B sin. q L) + e ~^'^ {A' cos. q L 

+ B' sin. q L) = 0. 

eV^ {A sin. q L — B cos. q L) + e ~ ^' ^ {A' sin. q L 

— B' COS. q L) = /ly. 



l'a|iiTs.l 



•rill': <.\i'i'; con caxai. 



11 II 



t tlii'iv be put, for ccnivenience, 



J = 2 



,2pL 



+ e- 



2p L 



COS. 2 q L\ (lU) 



tlu'U 



.1 = ^1' = -^ (e" '^ + e-P ^) sin. v L 



B = — B' 



ii (eP^_e-P^) COS. q L 



(17) 



and. substitiitiiifr tlicse values in Equations (l.'i) and (15), 



,« (L + x) 



P 



+ e 



p (i — .r) 



r ^ (i^' + 5') 



/i 



/i„ 



sin. [(J i — 7 (L — x)] 
sin. [(J ; + f/ ( Z/ -I- cc)] 
_gP(/. + x) sin. [(J < — 7 (L + X)] j 
^ _l_ e~P^^-^^ Hin. [6 t + q (L — x)] J 

,e;M/, + .r) pyg_ ^(i t — q (L — X)] 
I _g-p (L-a:) ^.Qg_ [(J < + r; (/. + .r)] 
+ q I + e^ (i + -r) COS. [(; « — 7 (L + X)-] j 

eP'-^+^) sin. [d ( — f/ (Z — a-)]l 



r (^-^) 



_ g -i; (L - :r» j^jjj_ [(J ( 4- ,y (^L + X)] 

_ gP ( L - J-) ^j,j_ ^(^ t — q (L + a:)] 
+ e-''(^- + -^^ sin. [(J t + 7(L— x)] 
The current will have the expression 
f 



{19) 



6( ;K^(i>''-t-7') 



i> 



+ 7^ 



.(SO) 



f _ eP(-C' + ^) COS. [6 t — q (L — 3-)] 1 

I + e~P'^~^^cos. [o';+ q (L -{-:.■)] 

_gP (L + x, pQg_ [-(J ^ _ ,^ (/^ _^ _j.)-j I 
[ _^ g-p (L - a:. ^^,^_ [(; « + ry (L — x)} \ 

r _ e?> (^ + ^) sin. [cj « — 7 (L - .r)] ] 
+ e"^' (-C'-.r) sin. [6t + q (L + .r)] 
— e''<^ + -'^ sin. [d < — 7 (7. -f a:)] 

l^ + e-P'i'-^)sin.[d /4-7(L_x)] J j 

These equations show that the motion in the canal consists of the 
superposition of four waves, two of which are propagated from the 



sea toward tlie lake, liavinir a s])eed of — , and two in the opi)osite 



1142 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



direction, with a speed of -| . The absolute value of these speeds, 

'1 
according to Equation (5) is 



- .'/ r 



= V i + 



sj 



1 + 



P 



(21) 



'I >/ • \ 6" 

which, if friction is not considered, reduces to the well-known value 

of — = \/ y y. 
'I 

'lit 
The four waves, which all have the same period, — = T. as the 

tidal sea, can be united into one, the height of which, ]i, is given by 

the equation: 

h = P cos. 6t-\- Q sin. 6t {22) 

P 
or, putting — = tan. Z, there can also be written 



In this equation 



h = \^ F^ + Q- sin. {6t + Z) {23) 



P = 



Ji 



e sin. q {L — x) 

e ^ sin. q (L + X) 



+ e' ' sin. q (L 



X) 



+ e ' "■ ^ sin. q {L — x) J 

r P [L -\- X) , T 

e COS. q {L — X) 



Q=h<~'' 



■P (L-x) 



COS. q (i + cc) 



{U) 



e^ COS. q (L + x) 

, —P {L + X) . y . 

V -)- e COS. q (L — x) 

If we substitute the hyperbolic functions, 

X -— X X , — X 

e — e e + e , sm.,, x , 

sm.^ x = , COS., X = , tan.,, x — — , then 

^ 2 ' " cos.,^ X 

P^lJ^ \ ^•'*"^-" ^^ ^-^ ~ ^) ®"^- 1 (L + ^') 
^ \ — sin./, p (i + x) sin. ry (X— X)] 



n ^ zAm t~ cos.,^ |j (L — X) COS. q (L + x) 
■ ^ ( + COS., 2^ (L + X) COS. q{L — X)] \ J 



(25) 



The condition for the occurrence of maximum elevation at the 
section, x, is evidently that sin. (a t -{- Z) ^ 1; ior this case 



. COS., J 2 p X — COS. 2 q X 

'max. = 'o Vcos.,, 2 p L — COS. 2 qL 



{26) 



Pjipcrs.l XHE CAPE COD CAXAL 

Tlif tiiiu' of this iiiaxiinuin will ln' liiiiiiil iVoiu tlif (•<iii(lition (J < -(- Z = 



I = 



2 6 



A _ Z _ A r 

6 4 -In ' 



1143 

n 
2 

{27) 



or. ill otlier W(inli<, lii^li water at the section, x. will occur — 
than at the sea. 



T later 



The value of Z = --— ,with respect to Equations {JO), (2.^). and (25), 
Q 
wliieh also furnished Equation (S6), will be found from 

— tan. n L tan... p x + tan.,, p L tan. n x 

tan. Z = "-^ ^^^^ "^ ^- (28) 

tan., I p L tan., J 2^ ^ + ta'i. 7 L tan. q x 

The expression of the current velocit}' also can be written in the form 

= 31 COS. d t ^X sin. d t = \^ 3P + N'^ sin. (d t + F). . . (29) 

3f 



S I 



8t 

where tan. 1 



.\ 



■. and M and N are jiiven as follow^s : 



M = 



■2 h. 6 



j + sin.,^ j;^ (i — a;) cos. q (L + x)] ! 

r J (i/-+ ry-) 1 + r^ [ _ COS.,^ }> (L + -f) sin. q (L — X) ( 

L— <'OS-;, P (-^ — ^0 si»- 'I (L + a-)] J 



fp [fos.,^ i) (L + a;) sin. q (L — x)^ 

^^ _ 2h^ d J + cos.,^ J) (i — X) sin. 7 (L + a;)] [ 

~;k J(jy'4-7'') I + 7 [sin.,, 2^ (L + x) cos. 7 (L — x) [ 

|^+sin.„ p (L — a;) cos. 7 (i + a;)] j 



^ 



.(30) 



The value of the maximum current will be = V J/- + X\ and will 
occur when sin. (cJ < -I- 1') = 1 . or (J t + I = "^r' 

(5i) 



and 



4 27r 



6. — General Remarls. — The theory evolved in the preceding para- 
graphs and the equations presented give a comparatively easy and, 
for all practical purposes, correct solution of the problem of tidal 
phenomena in canals, if the basic assumptions are approximated in 
practice. 

The tidal variations at the end of the canal can generally be repre- 
sented very closely by an equation having the following form : 

h = /i„ sin. d t + h^ sin. d' V + (S2) 



1144 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

The equations in this paper furnish the solution for each memher 
of the right-hand side of Equation (S2), and these results, added 
together by the principle of superposition of waves, will solve the 
problem. If both ends of the canal are subjected to tidal influences, 
they should be treated separately and the results added. 

If there is a difference between the mean elevations of the two 
seas, the influence of a imiform motion resulting from this cir- 
cumstance should be added to the results obtained for the oscillating 
motion. If a„ = the elevation of mean sea level at one end of the 
canal, and &,, = that at the other end, then at any point of the 
canal, characterized by the abscissa, x, the elevation of the water, 

o = Oq — '^ ^ — - X, and the value of the uni'orm velocity can be expressed 



L 



g I ^ 7- «o — ^>^ 



approximately by the equation, v = "—7-, where I = . or by any 

./ -^ 

equation derived for uniform flow in canals. If the canal is not very 
long, and the difference in mean sea levels is considerable, the equations 
for non-uniform but permanent flow should be applied. Later, in 
this paper, these equations will be dealt with in some detail. 

In deriving the equations the assumption was made that the 
friction, F, is proportional to the first power of the velocity of the 
flow. Strictly speaking, therefore, they can be applied with precision 
only on canals of great length subjected to small differences in head, 
that is, in which the velocities are small enough to make the condition 
prevail. The integration of the Differential Equation (/) in cases 
where the power, n, of the velocity to which the frictional resistance 
is proportional differs from unity still awaits analytical solution. 

To the writer's knowledge, no attempt has been made as yet to 
compensate for this deficiency and to amend the equations in such 
a way that they could be used for canals of the class of the Cape 
Cod Canal, in which the velocity is such that F is proportional to 
about the square of the velocity. This is probably due to the fact 
that no actual case has arisen, up to the present time, where any 
proposed theory could be substantiated by the results of careful meas- 
urements, and that for all tidal canals in existence, approximate 
calculations by equations based on Bernoulli's theorem give velocities 
sufficiently close for ])ractical purposes. 

In an entirely different field of hydrodynamics, however, it was 
imperative to evaluate the influence of the frictional resistances, when 



I':il"'''"^l THK r.VVH COD (ANAL 11-15 

in-oiicrtional to tlio s(|u;nv of tlu" velocity, on the oscilliitiuf:: motion 
of tlnids. With tlu> advent of loni;- pijic lines supplying- hydraulic 
l)ou('r jilants. means had to he found for the proper regulation of 
rhe wlu'els and for the protection of the conduits. The surge-tank 
regulator was devised for this purpose, and its correct design neces- 
sitated the jiredietion of the magnitude of the rise and fall of the 
water in it for the assumed operating conditions. 

Within the last 8 or 10 years a number of books and ])apers have 
been published on this subject, mostly from the pens of American and 
Swiss engineers and scientists.* It can he stated that the problem 
of the surge tank is, to an extent, the inverse of the problem of the 
current in a tidal canal. In the former, from known ultimate velocity 
flianges in tlu> conduit, the oscillating motion induced within the 
reservoir at the end of the pipe is sought; and in the latter, the 
velocity changes in the canal due to the known harmonic changes of 
the head at the end are investigated. 

The differential equation characterizing the motions of the 
water in the surge tank is, as could be inferred from the foregoing 
considerations, similar to Equation (/) in this paper, and the 
investigators of the surges were confronted by the same difficulty, 
namely, the impossibility of the analytical integration of the term, 
/ V- ds. The evaluation of this integral, however, was absolutely 
necessary, in view of the more and more frequent application of the 
surge-tank regulator, and the question was attacked in both a theo- 
retical and practical way. I. P. Church, Assoc. Am. Soc. C. -E., in 
discussing Mr. Johnson'sf and ]\Ir. Warren's:}: papers, has shown 
that this expression can be integrated graphically and results derived 
with a great degree of accuracy. Other writers, as Dr. Prasil and 
Robert Dubs,§ have shown that the tedious graphical method can be 
avoided and excellent results obtained by using an average value of 

* "Wasserschloss Probleme," by Professor F. Prasil, Schweizerische Bauzeitung, 
Vol. LII. Xo. 21 and following. 

"Allgemcine Theorie iiber die veranderliche Bewegung des Wassers in Leitungen." 
by Kobert Dubs and V. Bataillard, Berlin, 1909. 

"The Surge Tank in Water Power Planib," by R. D. Johnson, Transactions, Am. 
Soc. Mech. Engrs.. Vol. 30, 1908. 

"The Differential Surge Tank," by R. D. Johnson, Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., 
Vol. LXXVIII. 1915. 

"Penstock and Surge-Tank Problems," by Minton M. "Warren, Transactions, 
Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXIX. 1915. 

t Transactions, Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs.. Vol. 30, p. 488 and following. 

t Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXIX, p. 273 and following. 

§ "Allgemeine Theorie," etc., II Tell : Stollen und Wasser.schlos.s, pp. 219-221. 



1146 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

the velocity, sucli that the frictioiial force, as a linear function of the 
same, will absorb the same total energy in the interval during which 
the velocity of the conduit changes from zero to maximum, as the 
total energy absorbed by the frictional force in the same interval, 
regarding F as proportional to the square of the velocity at any instant. 
This simplified method is endorsed by Mr. Johnson,* and a great 
number of experiments have proved the reliability of its use. 

On the strength of the foregoing argument, the writer proposes 
the following modification of Equations (c) and (///) and those 
deduced therefrom. 

In the case of variable motion, Avhere the velocity ranges from zero 
to a considerable value, as in the Cape Cod Canal, for the value of 
/q, as given in textbooks on hydraulics for different consistency of 
the wetted perimeter, a different value, f^', should be substituted, so 
that the equation 

F = /■ ' r (c ^ 

average •' mean v-i/ 

will be satisfied. 

For streams of the description of the Cape Cod Canal, n = 2 in 

the equation, F = f^ -y". Now, F = f^v^ can be represented by the 

ordinates of a parabola, the average ordinate of which is 75% of the 

maximum. Due to the fact disclosed by more recent investigations 

that /q itself is not a constant quantity but varies slightly inversely 

with the velocity, it is proposed to use the value, F^^^^.^^^^, = 0.7 F^^^^^_, 

0.7 F 

and therefore f.! = ''^^^^, 0.5 r,„„^ being the mean velocity. The 

0.5 r 

'-'•'-' "^ max ■ 

value of '',„„3.., to be used in such cases, can be established by any of the 
approximate methods to be described later. For maximum velocities 
less than 1.5 ft., the original assumption can be considered as correct, 
and the use of /f, as given for 1 ft. velocity is recommended, it being 
a well-known fact that at such low velocities the friction is actually 
proportional to the velocity. 

If the maximum velocity computed by the submitted equations 
would considerably differ from the velocity given by the approximate 
methods, the value of f^' should be corrected for the former, and the 
whole calculation refigured with this new value of f^'. This process 
may be repeated until a satisfactory agreement between the figured 
^. and that of /q' is reached. 

• Transactions, Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., Vol. 30, p. 455. 



/o' = • = 0.014, and _" = 0.00022, 



Pnpprs.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 114T 

.Mr. Levy, in applying: tlie oquatidns to the Suez Canal, used a 
coefficient, ^ = 0.0005, and found that the computed are far below 

tlie actual velocities, and therefore suggested the use of equations 
based on the extension of Equation (///) to a second approxiination. 
Judging from the close check of the computed and observed velocities 
of the Cape Cod Canal, the equations herein presented give reliable 
results for all practical purposes, if the value of /,/ is taken in accord- 
ance with the ijrevious reasoning. In the case of the Suez Canal, for 
the conditions considered by Mr. L4vy, the approximate methods fur- 
nish a f'„,„j,. of about 2.5 ft. For the consistency of the Suez Canal bed, 
/^, can be taken as 0.004. Then 

»-'X""°^X-^-°'=0.014.aodA' 
1 . 25 ?/ 

which value gives velocities very close to the observed results in the 

Suez Canal. 

Dr. Eollin A. Harris* gives the following values of /,j for different 

consistencies of the wetted perimeter: 

Fine sand 0.00405 ■) ^, . ,, i , 

( ihese values are called the 

Coarse sand 0.00488 V^ ^ . ,. . , , 

_ ( Ji,ytelwein irictional values. 
Beds of streams 0.0075G j 

7. — Application of the Theory to the Cape Cod Canal. — In order 
to test the validity of the equations supposed to furnish the values 
for the elevation of the water and velocity at any section and time, 
the equations must be applied to a stretch of uniform or nearly uniform 
cross-section. Such a stretch, according to the general plan. Fig. 2, 
extends from about Station 74 to Station 382. The nearest points, 
where observations were taken on August 26th, 1915, are Station 80 
and Station 375, which wo will consider as the ends of the canal 
having a uniform bottom width of 100 ft., so that we will make the 
length of the canal L = 29 500 ft. 

The mareographs of these stations, taken from the observations, 
are shown on Fig. 32, together with the sine curves having the same 
periods and amplitudes, and which are considered in the computations 
as being the tidal variations affecting the canal. It will be noted 
that the sine curve for Station 80, drawn with mean sea level at 
Elevation 100, is very close to the actual curve for the whole range 

* "Manual of Tide.s," Part V., p. 249. 



11^8 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



of the observation; but, at Station 375, though Elevation 100 divides 
the period into two almost equal portions, the second part of the 
cycle has a very much smaller ami)litude than the first. This is typical 
for the westerly end, for reasons previously explained. 




Fig. 32. 

The bottom of the canal is at Elevation 70.35 at Station 80 and 
at Elevation 72.35 at Station 375, having a practically uniform slope. 
The reduced depths of the two end sections differ only by about 3% 
from the reduced depth based on a mean section having the bottom 
at Elevation 71.35, and therefore it may be considered justifiable to 
use this mean section (see Fig. 33*) as applying to the whole canal, 
instead of going into the exceedingly more complicated question of 
* Fig. 33 is not drawn to scale. 



Papers.] 



TUE CAPE COD CANAL 



1 1 l!» 



^;()lviii.u- tilt' lidiil tiiotiiiiis ill ;i cniial of varinhlc (lc])tli. It is evident 
tlmt, with the degree of iipprnxiiiiatidn iicrinittcHl throughout in the 
derivation of the equations, tliis substitution is permissible. 

It is also assumed that the direct effect of the moon and sun on 
the water in the eanal is iK'i;lij:'ible. 

The bed of the canal consists of coarse gravel and boulders, and 
the broken-stone slope protection tends to make the wetted perimeter 
still rouj-her. Considerable energy 
is expended by the water in scour- 
ing the bottom and transporting 
the material. In other words, the 
canal comes under the same j;roup 
as ordinary streams, and the selec- 
tion of the corresponding coeffi- ^^°' ^^' 
cient /o = 0.00756, seems to be justified. The same coefficient was 
adopted by the officers of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey 
when asked to predetermine the velocities in the Cape Cod Canal. In 
approximate calculations, referred to later, it has been found that, for 
conditions prevailing at the time of the observations on August 20th, 
1915, the maximum velocity in the canal is not expected to exceed 
5 ft. per sec. Therefore, 

^max- = /o ^"'' = 0.00750 X 52 = 0.1s;) lb. per s(j. ft. 




/o' 



0.7 i^„ 



0.5 I- , 



0.7 X O.lSi) 

, = 0.528 lb. per cu. ft. 



In the following will be presented the numerical calculations for 
establishing the velocities at Stations 80, 227 -f- 50, and 375, and the 
water elevations at Station 227 -j- 50, on the basis of the tidal obser- 
vations of August 26th, 1915. These calculations are divided into 
four parts. Under (.4) the determinations of the constant quantities 
entering into the computations are given; under (B) and (C) the 
influences of the tides at the two ends are treated separately; under 
{D) the superposition of the water elevations and current velocities, as 
found under (B) and (C), is showua graphically. 
{A). — Determination of Constant Qvantities.^ 

g = acceleration of gravity 32.2 ft. 

7r = weight of 1 cu. ft. of sea water 64.0 lb. 



2' = wetted perimeter of undisturbed 



ft. 



Q = area of undisturbed cros^-section 4 510.0 sq. ft. 



1150 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Pa,pers. 



R = hydraulic radius 19.8 ft. 

y = reduced depth 21.0 ft. 

L = length of canal 29 500.0 ft. 

T = interval between consecutive high tides : 

Station 80 12 hr. 54 min. 

Station 375 12 hr. 24 min. 

2 7t 

6 — -— = 0.00014 radian per second; 

/ = 0.00756, /; = 0.0528,'-^ = 0.000825; 

f = r/ X^ X -^ = 0.00134; 
?/ Jti 

^= 9.57, H = 91. P); 
6 (J- 

p = — |— 1 + V 1 + 91 . 6 = 0.0000111; 

q = —^=_ ll + V 1 + 91.6 = 0.0000124; • 

V2;/r \| 

V/J^ + q^ = 0.0000167, J = 2 (cos.^, 2 p i — cos. 2 q L) 
= . 96, sj 1(j Y = 30 . 75 

TABLE 15. 



P 

fc II 




arc. 


sin. 


COS. 


tan. 


SiD./i 


cos A 


tan./, 


pL = 0.338 

g L = 0.366 

2p L = 0.656 

2q L ^ 0.733 


18° 50' 
21° 00' 
37= 40' 
42° 00' 


0.323 
0.358 
0.611 
0.669 


0.916 

0.934 
0.793 
0.743 


0.341 
0.3S4 

0.772 
0.900 


0.334 

o.-srs 

0.704 
0.800 


1.054 
1.098 
1.223 
l.-,'80 


0.317 
0..S51 
0.576 
0.634 


fa- II 


p .r = 0.164 

q X = 0.183 

2p X = 0.338 

35 X = 0.366 


9° 25' 
10" 30' 

18° 50' 
21° 00' 


0.164 
0.183 
323 
0.3.58 


0.986 
0.9S3 
0.946 
0.934 


0.166 
0.185 
0,341 

0.384 


0.165 
0.184 

0.:-'3t 

0.375 


1.013 
1.017 
1.0.^4 

1.0G8 


0.163 
0.181 
0.317 

0.351 


Ho 

" II 


p (L + X) = 0.4ft2 

q ^L + X) = 0.5-i9 

2p (L + :ri = 0.984 

2q iL+ X) - 1.098 


3R° 15' 
31° 30' 
56° 30' 
63° 00' 


0.473 
0.523 
0.834 
0.891 


0.881 
0.853 
0.552 
0.454 


0.537 
0.613 
1.511 
1.963 


0.512 
0.577 
1.151 
1.332 


1.124 
1.1.55 
1.524 
1.667 


0.456 
0,500 
0.755 
0.800 



(B). — Height of Tide, Current Velocities, and Retardations in the 
Canal, Due to Tidal Variations at Station SO. — 

/'q = half amplitude = 5.4 ft. 

(a) At Station 80 .' .r = L = 29 500 ft. 



I'aix'is.] THE CAPE COD CANAL 1151 

The clovatioii of the \v;iter at miy time must be the same as the 
mareograph at Station SO, and is given by /( = /«„ sin. <j t, where the 

7AM-0 time is - l)el'ore liiujh water. 
4 

The current velocity: 



(• = V M'- + -.Y- sin. (d t + Y) aeeonling to E(|uation (20). wliere 
from Equation (;J0), 

M= "^ ;- (— q sin. 2 7 L + ]> sin.^, 2 p L), 

N = ^ ^'" ^ , (?) sin. 2 q L + q mu.,, 2 p L) 



2 /«o 6 \ 

v,na.r, = \^ M ' -{- N ' = ^/-^^-^-zj **•"•' ^ 5 X+ sin./ 2p L 

y A V V + 7 \ , 



2 X 5.4 X 0.00014 

0;.669^+ 0.704- 



21 X 0.96 X 0.0000167 
= 4.. 35 ft. per sec. 



M — q sin. 2 q L -\- p sin.,^ 2p L t 
~~ N p sin. 2 q L -\- q sin.,^ 2 2> i 

— 0.0000124 X O.eOO + 0.0000111 X 0.704 



= _ 0.0.303 



0.0000111 X O.OGO + 0.0000124 X 0.704 

or r = — 1° 45' 

T 1' 
v„iax. '\vill occur, when t = — — , and the retardation equals 

4 6 

1°45' 

X 46 440 = 226 sec, or about 4 min. 

360° 

The maximum velocity, therefore, is retarded by 4 min. after high 

water. 

(h) At Station 227+50 .t = 14 750 ft. 

The maxinmm elevation of the water is given by Equation (26) 



,_ ^ ,^ lco..,2px-co..2qx ^ ._^ ^ ^ . ^ 2 ..^ ^^ 
Njcos.,^ 2 p L — cos. 2 q L 
Tlie time of this maximum will be found by Equation (28), 
— tan. qL tan.,, p x + tan.,, p L tan. 7 ,c 
tan., J p L tan.,, p) x + tan. q L tan. q x 
— 0..384 X 0.163 + 0.317 X 0.185 



0.317 X 0.1<;3 + 0..384 X 0.1S5 



= _ 0.0322, and Z = — 1°50'. 



1° 50' 

The retardation, therefore, = X 46 440. or about 4 min. 

360° 



1152 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

The current velocity: 



Again, v ^ -^ M'^ + iY"-^ sin. (6 t + F), where, from Equation (30), 
denoting 

sin.,, p (L + .t) cos. q (L — x) by a = 0.512 X 0.983 = 0.503 
sin.,, p (L — x) cos. q (L -\- x) by h = 0.165 X 0-853 = 0.141 
COS.,, p (L + x) sin. q (L — x) hj c = 1.124 X 0.182 = 0.205 
cos.,, p (L — x) sin. q (L + x) hy d = 1.013 X 0.523 = 0.530 

we can write 

2 \ 6 . 

2 X 5.4 X 0.00014 



,^ \/0.644''' + 0.735' = 4.4 ft. per sec. 



21 X 0.90 X 0.0000167 

M p (a + h) — q (c -\- d) 



N p (c + d) + q {a -t b) 
0.0000111 X 0.644 — 0.0000124 X 0.735 



O.OOOOiil X 0.735 + 0.U000124 X 0.644 
and Y ^ — 7°. 

7° 

The retardation equals X 46 440 == 910 sec, or about 15 min. 

^ 300° 

(c) At Station 375 a; = 0. 

The elevation of the water is given by /t = 0. 
The current velocity : 

4 h^ 6 

''"'"*■ = TTTT^^'xTi -^^^os.^ q L sin.^-jj L + sin.-^ q L cos.,/p L 

^ 4 X 6.4 X 00014 ^ 
21 X 0.96 X 0.0000167 

= 4.31 ft. per sec. 

p cos, g L sin.^p L — q sin, q L cos.^p L 

p sin. qL cos.^ j) L + g cos. q L sin.^^ J9 L 

_ l.OOOOlll X 0.934 X 0.334 — 0.0000124 X 0.358 X 1.054 

"" 0.0000111 X 0.358 X 1.054 + 0.0000124 X 0.934 X 0.334 

r= — 0.15, and Y = 8° 30'. 

8° 30' 

The retardation, therefore, will be X 46 440 = 1 100 sec, or about 

' ' 360° 

18 min. 



J'iM"''"'^] THE CAPE COD CA.VAL 1153 

(C). — Influence of the Tide at Station Slo. — 
/iy=half iunplitiuU' for first jtart of cyflo =3.05 ft. 
/('„= " " '' second " " " =1.525 ft. 

Tt is eviflent, by inspection of flio equations, that the results found 
uiuicr (/>') for ri'tardations will lie the same. For the height of water 
and the velocities, the corresponding figures should be multiplied by the 

:?.0.T 1.52.') 

ratio. .tor the lirst half, and l)y fortliesecoud lialf.ol the cycle. 

5.4 ■'5.4 

(a) At Station 80 a; = 0. 

The elevation of the water is given by li = 0. 

The maxinuun velocity will be 

.••,.05 

4.:U X = 2.43 ft. per sec. for the first half 

5. 4 

1.525 

and 4.31 X — = 1.22 ft. per sec. for the second half of the cycle. 

5.4 

The retardation of the maximum velocity will be 18 min. 

(6) At Station 227 + 50 a: = 14 750 ft. 

The maximum water elevation equals 2.7 ) X = 1.53 ft. and 

5.4 

1 . 525 

2.((» X = 0.77 ft., respec.tivelv. 

5.4 

The retardation is 4 min. 

3 . 05 

The maxinuun velocity equals 4.4 X = 2.49 ft. per sec. and 

5.4 

1 . 525 

4.4 X — = 1.25 ft. per sec, respectivelv. 

5.4 

The retardation is 15 min. 

(c) At Station 375 a; = i = 29 500 ft. 

The elevation of the water is given by h = \ sin. 6 t. 

3 . 05 
The maximum velocitv will be 4.35 X — — = 2.40 ft. per sec. and 

5.4 

1 . 525 

4.."',.) X — = 1 2.3 ft. per sec, respectivelv. 

5.4 

The retardation is 4 min. 

(D).—Comhination of (B) and (C).— Figs. 34, 35, and 36 show the 
velocities at Stations 80, 227 + 50, and 375, and Fig. 37 shows the 
water elevation at Station 227 + 50, all platted as ordinates to the 



1154 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



[Papers. 



times, which are considered as the abscissas of the curves. The curves 
in full lines show the observed velocities reduced to mean velocities ; 
the curves in dotted lines show the component velocities plotted as sine 
curves to the computed maximum values, which have been located 
according to the figured retardations; and the curves in lines of dashes 
and dots the resulting velocities, the components having been added 
graphically. The same method has been followed in preparing Fig. 37. 




Fig. 35. 

It should be noted that no observations were taken at Station 
227 + 50, but they were made at Station 225, only 250 ft. distant. The 
latter have been taken for the sake of comparison. 

The cross-section of the canal at Station 375 is actually very much 
larger than designed, the area below mean sea level being 5 900 sq. ft. 



J'apers.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



1155 



In platting the results for this station, therefore, the computed veloci- 

0.705. 



ties liave boon nuiltinliod bv the ratio, 

• ' o 900 



S. — /i?esr/i/.9.— Inspection of Figs. 34, 35, 3G, and 37 shows a re- 
markably close check between computed and observed conditions, in so 
far as the water elevations, maxinmm velocity of the current, and the 
time of maximum current and slack water are concerned. The greatest 
deviations for maximum velocities occur at Station 80, where they 
amount to more than 10 per cent. They are somewhat smaller at Sta- 
tion 375, and the results check almost exactly at Station 227 + 50. 



VELOCITIES AT STA. 375 + 00 




Fig. 37. 

The discrepancy at the ends can be explained by the fact, as dealt with 
in detail in another part of this paper, that, at these stations, for out- 
flow a smaller and for inflow a greater percentage of reduction should 
be applied to the float observations, in order to arrive at the true mean 
velocity of the cross-section. If the reduction factors of 68 and 85%, 
respectively, which are believed to be the true values for reducing the 
center float velocities for the terminus sections, had been applied to 
the observed velocities at Stations SO and 375, the differences of the 
computed and the reduced velocities would be negligible at these sta- 



1156 THE CAPE COD CAXAL [Papers. 

tions also. If, furthermore, it is considered that the curves of observed 
velocities have been derived from float observations, which evidently 
are affected by accidental disturbances, such as the wind, the passing 
of larger boats, and local changes in the cross-section, it may be con- 
cluded that the computed results are well within 10% of the actual 
conditions. 

It cannot be denied that the uncertainty attached to the selection 
of the friction coefficient cannot be entirely eliminated, and therefore 
one should not expect as close results as hydraulic engineers are accus- 
tomed to; for instance, in the case of masonry conduits or pipes in 
which the motion of the water is uniform. It would fairly seem, how- 
ever, that a theory which for this exceedingly complex problem fur- 
nished results within 10%' of actual observations, should be regarded as 
satisfactory and reliable. 

By a further inspection of the velocity diagrams, it will also be 
noted that there is a marked difference in the character of the com- 
puted and observed curves, the latter being much steeper near slack 
water than the former. The observed curve has been reduced from the 
float observations to mean velocities by applying the factor, 0.78, to all 
observed center float velocities. The difference in the two curves would 
tend to show that this factor varies considerably with the velocity, and 
should be taken very much smaller at low velocities. 

This proposition, which, so far as the writer knows, lacks authority, 
might be worthy of independent investigation and experimentation. 

Finally, it will be seen that the duration of the westerly current is 
appreciably shorter than that of the easterly current, which fact is due 
directly to the low velocities generated by the Buzzards Bay tide during 
the second half of the cycle. It will also be noted that the computed 
time of maximum velocities and the computed time of slack water 
check within a few minutes with the actual occurrence of these extremes. 

The equations submitted herewith are general, and their use is not 
restricted by any other consideration than a canal of reasonably uni- 
form cross-section. They can also be used for predicting conditions in 
canals of varying cross-section, by dividing them into reaches, where 
the cross-sections can be considered as sensibly uniform, and by deter- 
mining the constants, C, D, C, and D' in the General Equations {11) 
and {12) from the conditions that both ^ and h must be equal at the 



J'''l'"''''l THE CAVE COD CAXAL 1157 

limits of two consecutive reaches. This calculation, of course, will be 
viTv much more complicated than that shown in this paper, but it is 
the only way of getting reliable results in the case where the canal is 
lung and the cross-section varies considerably. 

Approximate Methods. 

For a uniform canal connecting tidal bodies of water, approximate 
formulas to predict velocities may be used, with certain restrictions, 
giving results which for maximum conditions will not be very far from 
the actual velocities, aijd, at any rate, can be used for the evaluation 
of the friction coefficient to be used in the exact formulas. 

9. — Uniform Flow Formulas. — The formulas used to determine the 
velocity of uniform flow in canals (with the exception of the exponential 
formulas, which have been disregarded in this discussion) all have the 
form of the well-knowTi Chezy formula 

v= C ^ R S 

where 

V denotes the uniform velocity of the flow; 

„ ,,,.,. ^ , . wetted area 

11 " " hvdraulic radius oi the section = : 

wetted perimeter 

S " " slope of the water surface or canal bed, supposed 
to be parallel to each other 

difference in elevation at the ends 
length of canal ' 

C is a coefficient, dependent chiefly on the roughness of the peri- 
meter, also on the slope and the h;^draulic radius of the cross- 
section. 

The several formulas in use differ only in the different methods 
"f establishing this coefficient. 

In order to be able to apply these formulas to a canal in which tidal 
motion takes place, the fact must be disregarded that the bottom for 
most of the time has a slope different from that of the surface, and 
one must consider the surface slope, assumed to be a straight line, as 
being = S. An. average value of R must be introduced into the 
formulas. These assumptions made, it is evident that the velocity 
becomes proportional to the square root of the difference in elevations 



1158 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



at the ends of the canal. In Fig. 38, therefore, , are platted the mareo- 
g'raphs at Stations 80 and 375 in such a way that the difference in 
levels can be read off for every time point. Being interested in the 
maximum value of the velocity, let the following formulas be applied 
to the maximum difference in levels, which occurred at 6.45 a. m., 
and amounted to 5.85 ft. The hydraulic radius of the canal at this 
time averages 18.6 ft., the stage of the water being very low. 



106 



105 



104 



103 



S102 



PlOl 



>100 

5A 



a 99 



96 



95 



94 















/ 


\^ 


























/ 


/ 




\ 
























/ 






N 


^Eleyatiou 


of water surface 
at Stii.SO 








r 


y 




/ 
\ 








\ 














/ 


/ 






\ 


y'Ele^ 


atioD 
a 


of w; 

; Sta.3 


tersurface 
75 \ 












/ 










\ 


^ 












/ 




My/ 


3 




^ j 


1 


J 1 


1 No 
Tl 


ohsi^ 
ne ^ 


.M. 


2 


\ 


' 


) 

\r 


Y 


8P 


1 
















•^ 














y 






-i 


—Ma; 


;inim 


idifEc 


renc( 


inle 


?els5. 


S5it. 




\ 






/ 






/ 


















\ 






/ 


>>. 


) 




ARE( 


)GRA 


PHS 


OF S 


TATK 


)NS 


30 Ar 


ID 3/ 


5 


\ 


/ 


/ 


^ 


y 






















\ 


/ 





106 
105 
104 
103 

102 S 

101 o 
o 
> 

100 S 
M. --i 

CO 

99| 

97 
96 
95 
94 



Fig. 3S. 



(a). — Bazin's Formula. — The great pioneer of hydraulic researchers, 
Bazin, has derived a formula, intended for the calculation of flow in 
open channels, in which it is assumed that the coefficient, C, does not 
vary sensibly with the slope. The formula (in foot units) reads 

87 



\/es= c \/ n s 



0.552 + 



\f B 



where the values of m, corresponding to the frictional constants given 
on page 1147, are 0.85, 1.30, and 1.75, respectively. 

With this last value of m, C becomes equal to 90.6, and 



V = 90.6 J 18. 



^.6 X 



5.85 
•29 500 



5.5 ft. per sec. 



1 '.1 pt'i"^- 1 THE GATE COD CANAL 1159 

(fe). — Eytelu'i'in's Formula* — This is written in a different form 
from the Chezy formuUi, expressing the velocity as a function of the 
head, that is, the difference in elevations at the ends of the canal. 



2r/ 



-^^ 



V/ij — h^ 



\ 

Of course, there is no difficulty in bringing this formula back to the 
form of the Chezy formula, in which case it would read 



V = ^^^.^ ^iTs = C \/R s 

where K is the frictional constant and g is the acceleration of gravity. 
With the value, A' = 0.00756, and the other quantities substituted, 



^ 



2 X 32.2 / 

V 5.s,5 = 5.38 ft. per sec. 



0.00750X29 500 



18.0 

(c). — Kutter-Ganguillet Formula. — This formula assumes the 
coefficient, C, to vary with the slope as well as with the roughness 
of the bed and the hydraulic radius. The e:xpression for the velocity 
in this formula (in foot units) reads, 
1.811 . 0.00281 



41.6 + 



/ 0.00281 

1+(41.0 + 



S 

— \/ R S = C \^RS. 



V"" ■ S ) VIT 
The values of n, corresponding to the frictional constants, are 0.02, 
I). 025, and 0.03, respectively. 

With this last value of n, C becomes equal to 83, and 



V = 83 X V 18.6 X J" ^^ = 5.04 ft. per sec. 
>/ 29 500 

This result was used for evaluating the coefficient, f^', in the harmonic 
-olution of the problem. 

{d). — Bemarl'S. — The application of the foregoing formulas to the 
Cape Cod Canal and the comparison of the results with the observa- 
tions, show a reasonable chock, in so far as maximum velocities are 
concerned. This was to be expected in the case of a comparatively 

• This formula was used by the officers of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
when asked by the writer to predetermine the velocities In the Cape Cod Canal. 



11 GO 



THE CAPE COD CANAL 



[Papers. 



short canal, where the retardation of the wave due to friction amomits 
only to a few minutes, and therefore the maximum slope of the stream 
is sensibly equal to the maximum difference in water levels at the 
ends divided by the length of the canal. In the case of long canals, 
the formulas for uniform flow become unreliable, giving much lower 
results than the actual. In the case of short canals, and considerable 
differences in head, on the other hand, the formulas will become inac- 
curate because the basic assumptions that the slope of the water and 
that of the canal bed are nearly parallel will not be true. It can be 
stated, on the basis of trial calculations not reproduced here, that, 
for a canal similar to the Cape Cod Canal in cross-section and rough- 
ness of bed, the uniform-flow formulas will furnish too high or too 
low velocities, according as the length is such as to make q L smaller 
or greater than 0.45. 









VELOCITIES CUMPUTED BY DIFFERENT FORMULAS 
COMPARED WITH OBSERVED VELOCITIES. 






S 5 
w 
5« i 

iil 

•g_o a 
= Sla> 




^i^ 


^N 


^•v> ^^ 


Veloci 


ty cur 


^e by 


larmo 


nic th 


sory 






^'^ 










\ 


k 














,\ 


^ 












\ 


\\ 








Obsei 


ved v« 


locity 




// 


























1 1/ 








k Wa 


ter^^ 






\\ 










;/ 




^-Sla 


■I; Wa 


o § a 


.M. 


1 


8 9 10\ >\ i 


1 Nc 


on 1 If,M. 
Time 


I 


I 


1 


) 


7 1 


>.M. 




1 


''elocity curvje by 
Kutter Formula — 


U 






























\\ 


,\ 




























\ w 






''4' 


\ 










£ 5 














-J^.- 


-^ 

-- 















2 o %i 



Fig. 39. 
It can also be seen that this method can only be applied in cases 
where there is considerable difl^erence in the amplitude of the tides at 
the two ends of the canal, or where there is a considerable difference 
in the phases of the tides. With equal tides and coincident phases, these 
formulas would furnish zero velocities for all sections, whereas, actually, 
there will be considerable motion at the ends of a canal several miles 
long, the velocities diminishing toward the middle of the canal. JB'ig. 39 
shows the velocity in the Cape Cod Canal as computed by Kutter's 
formula for the whole range of observations on August 26th, 1915, 
as compared with the results by the modied Airy-Levy formulas and 
the actual measurements. 



rapers.] 



THE CAPE COD CAKAL 



IKil 



(10). — Formula for Permanent Non-Uniform Flow. — Due to the 
fact that maximum velocity in the canal occurs near the time when 
the difference in elevations at the ends of the canal is a maximum, 
and due also to the fact that a change from this condition is at a 
comparatively slow rate, the canal for maximum velocity can be 
considered as one with very nearly horizontal bottom, connecting two 
seas of different elevations, discharging water from the higher to the 
lower. 

The method of computation liereafter shown is given in ''Ilandbuch 
der Ingenieurwissenschaften" by Professor Bubendey of Hamburg, but, 
to the writer's knowledge has never been published in English. 




Fig. 40. 
The differential equation of non-uniform flow in channels reads 
d z 



a Q^ dF Q' X 



g F'-^ dx ' F^C' 

where Q = constant discharge of canal ; 
i^ = area of cross-section; 
X = wetted perimeter of cross-section; 
f/ ^ acceleration of gravity; 

C = the constant in Chezy's formula, u = C sf li IS. 
a ^ a constant, the value of which is 1.11 according to 
St. Venant. 

The meaning of the other symbols is shown in Fig. 40. 

There will first be derived the working formula for a parabolic cross- 
section and then be shown how a trapezoidal section can be transformed 
into an equivalent parabolic section. As an allowed approximation, 
assume that the width of the water surface, & = X, the wetted peri- 
meter. Tlu'u 

A' = b = 2 VpI 
v.'here F = the parameter of the parabola and t = the maximum 



1163 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

depth of the cross-section. From the "well-known properties of the 
parabola, 

3 9 

F= J sf Pt t, and F^ = \^_ 

dF X X d t 1 d F 21 dt X 27 

2P- f 



a X d X F^ dx 32 Pf^ dx' F^ 32 P i* 

As dz = — dt, according to the figure, substituting the other values in 
the differential equation, we get 

dt _ 2 7 a (^ d t 27 Q^ 

Yx ~ 32 g Pt* ~dx ~ 32C2p7 

and from this, separating the variables, 

aC\ 32 C^P , ^ 

d x = d t ^„ ^„ «* d t 

g 27 Q^ 

Integrating between the limits, x^, t^, and o;^, i^, we get 

_aC'' 32 C^P 5 5 

which equation is a complete solution of the problem. With given 
water elevations at the ends of the canal, and given dimensions of 
the cross-section, the discharge, Q, can be found. After Q is computed, 
the values of x corresponding to different values of t (between t^ and 
ti,) can be found and the surface curve platted. With the help of 
the surface curve, the areas of the wetted cross-sections at any point 
can be measured, and consequently the velocities can be determined 
by dividing Q by the corresponding areas. 

Let F^, Jij, and F^, &„, be the area and surface width of the trape- 
zoidal cross-sections at the outlet and inlet ends of the canal, respec- 
tively, then the parameter of the equivalent parabola is 

7^^ 



2 \6F, 



^ 6P, 



Let a^' and a^" represent the distance of the vertex of the parabola 
from the lower sea level, at the outlet and inlet ends, respectively, and 
let h = the difference in levels, then 

J o/ b, = F, and ~ (a," -i- h) h, = F, 

and the average 

«/ + a/' 

a, = ~ — - — —. 



Papers.] 



THE CAPE COD CAXAL 



11G3 



If ([/ and /„' are the actual depthn of the trai)ezoidal cross-sections at 
the outlet and inlet, then 

tL = t'L + («i — t'L) = «i 
and ■ «y = ?„' + («i— II') 

f„ and tL beinc: the maximum depths of the substituted parabolic sec- 
tions at the inlet and outlet, respectively. 

Applying the formula for the conditions prevailing at the time of 
the maximum difference in levels on August 26th, 1915, the water ele- 
vations at Stations 80 and 375 are found to be 95.25 and 101.1, respec- 
tively, the current being easterly. These elevations being platted in 
Fig. -41,* the following data are obtained: 



x, = 



«o' = 29.75 ft. 



XL = 29 500 II' = 23.90 ft. h = 5.85 ft. 
F^= S 532.4 sq. ft. b, = 195. (i ft. 
^2 = 4 745.1 sq. ft. h, = 219.0 ft. 
C = 83 (by Kutter). 

195.6^ . 219.0'^ 




•4( 



6X3532,4 6X4 



745.1/ 



361. 



Fig. 41. 



3X3 532.4 
2 X 195.0 



27.1 



4 745.1 — Y X 5.85 X 



219) 



2 X 219 
27.1 + 26.7 



26.7 



= 26.9 



tL = 26.9 ft. <o = 29.75 + (20.9 — 23.9) = 32.75 ft. 
Substituting these values in the equation, we have 

29 500 = ^il^ (26.0 - 32.75) - '' ><,?' ^ ''' (26.D'-32.7o') 



32.2 

= — 1 390 



588 000 



135 Q' 
(32.75^ — 26.9*) 



Q' 



588 000(32,75*— 26.9'^) 



30 890 
Q ^ 18 700 cu. ft. per sec. 



= 349 000 000 



• Fig. 41 is not drawn to scale. 



1164 THE. CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

The maximum velocity will be at the outlet, or at Station 80, and is 

given by 

18 700 

= 5.28 tt. per sec. 



.3 532.4 

Tills result shows that the method here presented gives maximum 
velocities, the magnitudes of which differ only slightly from those 
derived by the use of the uniform flow formulas. The remarks appended 
to the latter apply to this method without exception; in approximate 
calculations it should be used for short canals, to which the uniform 
flow formulas do not apply on account of the appreciable difference 
between the slope of the water and the slope of the canal bed. 

11. — French Academy of Sciences' Formula. — In 1886, Count Ferdi- 
nand de Lesseps, Chief Engineer of the French Isthmian Canal Com- 
pany, asked the Academy of Sciences to institute an investigation about 
the influence of tidal motion of the Pacific and Atlantic on the motion 
of the water in an open Panama canal. A committee, consisting of 
]\Iessrs. Daubree, Fave-Lalanne, de Jonquieres, Boussinesq, and Bou- 
quet de la Grye, was appointed by the Academy to answer the request 
of Count de Lesseps, and reported on the subject on May 31st, 1887. 
The report in its essence says : 

1. — That the tidal variations at the Atlantic end of the proposed 
canal are so small as to be neglected. 

2. — That experience shows that in a canal communicating on the 
one end with a sea of variable level, on the other end with a lake of 
constant level, the amplitude of the tidal curve diminishes uniformly 
from the sea to the lake, and further that the retardation of the tide is 
proportional to the distance, that, therefore : 
If Y =^ half amplitude of the tide, 
I = length of the canal, 

IV = velocity of propagation of the tides, and 
t = time, in seconds, measured from the instant of low water 
at the sea, and 24 lunar hours being equal to 2 rj, then the 
level, y, with respect to the mean canal or sea level, at a dis- 
tance, X, from the sea, will be 

, = _r(i-^)c„.. (2,-^). 

3. — That, in accordance with what has been observed on similar 
canals, particularly on the Suez Canal between Suez and the Bitter 



l*:'Pf»'^] THE CAPE COD CANAL 11G5 

Liikrs. tlie velocity of propagation of the tide can be represented by 
the formula : 



^' = J^ («+!.'/)- A' f, 



where // ^ depth of canal below mean sea level, 

V = velocity of current, 
A' = constant (0.4 at flood tide, 1.2 at ebb tide). 

4. — That, from the levels which have been derived by the foregoing 
equations for any moment and for two mutually not too distant places, 
the velocity of the current for any moment may be computed by apply- 
ing the formula 

V = c s/Ws* 

The velocities should be computed for, say, every half hour of the 
cycle, and the results tabulated; from this table the maximum velocity 
can easily be pointed out. 

In applying this method of computation to a canal connected to 
tidal seas at both ends, the influences of the individual tides on the 
water elevations should be treated separately and the results added, 
with due regard to the sign of the slopes. The velocities should be 
calculated on the basis of the resulting slopes. 

In order to check this formula against the Cape Cod observations, 
let it be applied to Station 227+50, admitting for the velocity of wave 
propagation the approximative value of 

to = \fg~H = V32.2 X 28.65 = 30.7 ft. per sec. 

The maximum velocity at Station 227+50 occurred at 7.00 A. M., 
and low water at Station 80 was at 5.35 a. m., and at Station 375 at 
2.50 A. M. ' . 

Taking first the influence of the tide at Station 80, and considering 
that the lunar time is 0.97 X solar time (nearly) : 

For X = 14 750 ft. 

/ 14 750\ 

cos. 



/ 14 /0U\ 

V = — 0.4 (1 — ) 

^ V 29 500/ 



86 400 
= — 5.4 X 0.5 X COS. 39° 20' = — 2.09 ft 



* As a matter of fact, the Committee, having in mind the special problem of the 
Panama Canal, suggested the formula, v = 56.86 -J K &' — 0.07 (metric). 



1166 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

At a distance 1 000 ft. from this station, or for a; = 15 750 ft., 

, , ^- 0. 97 ( 2 X 85 X GO ^7-7^ ) 360*^ 

^ ^ / 15 750\ \ 30.7 / 

V =: 5.4 ( 1 — ) COS. 

^ \ 29 500/ 86 400 

= — 5.4 X 0.466 X COS. 39° 10' = — 1.95 ft. 

The slope, S, == "^^ ^ — = 0.00014. 

^ ' ' 1 000 

The influence of the tide at Station 375 will, by inspection of Figs. 
29 and 30, increase this slope, the half amplitude being 3.05 ft. 
For a; = 13 750 ft. 

-, o ^.n 0-'J7 ("- X 250 X 60 — ^\^\ 360° 

^ . /_, 13 750\ V 30.7 / 

V = — 3.05 (1 ) cos. 

^ V 29 500/ 86 400 * 

= — 3.05 X 0.534 X cos. 119° 30' = 0.802 ft. 

For X = 14 750 ft. 

. . ^-. 0.97 (^2 X 250 X 60 — ^^ '^^^^ 360° 

„ ^^ /-, 14 750\ V . 30.7 / 

V = — 3.05 ( 1 — ) cos. — 

^ V 29 500/ 86 400 

= — 3.05 X 0.5 X cos. 119° 20' = 0.749 ft. 

0.802 — 0.749 

The slope, 8, = — — = 0.000053. 

1 000 

The resultant slope = 0.00014 + 0.000053 = 0.000193. 
Substituting this in the Chezy formula, and applying Kutter's co- 
efficient for G, we get 



V = 83 V 18.6 X 0.000193 = 4.97 ft. per sec, 

a result which checks the obsen^ed velocities very closely. 

The method here described has been thoroughly discussed and criti- 
cized in a paper by Dr. C. Lely,* who finds, in connection with studies 
relating to the Panama Canal, that the formula can be considered 
only as fairly approximate, but by no means accurate, because it 
does not comply with the law of continuity. 

Judging from the remarkably close result furnished by the formula 
of the French Academy of Sciences when applied to the Cape Cod 
Canal, one must conclude that this formula gives the best approximate 
method for predicting the numerical value of tidal currents in canals 

* Proceedings, Amsterdam Academy of Sciences, April 26th, 1907. 



i'api'is-] THE CAPE COD CAXAL 1167 

coiuH'ctiiifr two tidal seas. The objections to it which can be raised, 
namely, that the assumption given under Paragraph 2 is not exact, 
l)ecause the amplitude of the tidal curve cannot be a linear function 
of the distance, and the method of computing the velocities by the 
application of a uniform flo-w formula, not being accurate, are not 
serious for maximum values. The inaccuracy of the formula is much 
more evident at low velocities. In other words, near the time of the 
reversal of the current, the velocities deduced by its use change direc- 
tion with the reversal of the slope, though it is a fact that, for a con- 
siderable time after the slope inclination has changed, the current 
still flows in the original direction. For canals as long as to make 
q L equal 0.55 or more, this formula should be used to evaluate the 
friction coefficient, f^', to be used in the formulas derived by harmonic 

analysis. 

Conclusions. 

The writer has endeavored to give a complete treatise on the 
(luestion of tidal currents in canals, so as to enable the reader to gain 
a clear idea of this complex phenomenon, and has indicated the methods 
which can be used in predicting the magnitudes of such currents for 
given conditions. 

There is no doubt in the writer's mind that the Airy-Levy formulas, 
derived by harmonic analysis, with the modification propcteed by the 
writer, represent the only rational method for solving the hydro- 
dynamic problems arising within a tidal canal. This method is fully 
treated under the heading "The Solution of the Problem by Harmonic 
Analysis." The formulas for the evaluation of the elevation of the 
water and the velocity of the current at any instant are given in 
Section 5, page 1141, the proposed modification of the same to meet 
actual conditions is discussed in Section 6, page 1146, and the numerical 
apjilication of the method is shown in Section 7, page 1147. 

It is questionable, however, whether or not, in practice, the re- 
finements and complicated numerical work connected with the harmonic 
analysis are justifiable. The principal assumptions on which all the 
formulas are necessarily based, namely, the prevalence of a uniform 
cross-section and a uniform friction coefficient, arc never quite true 
in the practical case of a canal dug in earth; and both cross-section 
and friction coefficient are apt to change materially with tin*e. A 
num1ior of other factors influencing the motion of the water, such 



1168 THE CAPE COD CANAL [Papers. 

as wind, drainage of the water-shed tributary to the canal, etc., 
cannot be taken into consideration at all, and, a priori, reduce all 
analytical results to the grade of a more or less fair approximation. 
In addition, it should be noted that the designer of a canal is 
interested chiefly in the maximum velocity which may occur under 
given tidal conditions, and tlie behavior of the current for other 
values has little interest for him. 

It would appear, therefore, that the approximate methods of cal- 
culation shown in this paper should be used for the practical evalua- 
tion of the velocities in canals subjected to tidal influences. 

Three such methods have been suggested herein: In Section 9, 
pages 1158-59, Bazin's, Eytelwein's, and Kutter's formulas relating to 
uniform flow are given. The formulas based on permanent but non- 
uniform flow are treated in Section 10, page 1161, and those recom- 
mended by the French Academy of Sciences, i. e., taking the velocity of 
propagation of the tidal wave into consideration, are shown in Section 
11, page 1164. 

In the detailed discussion of these different formulas, the writer 
has shown that none of them can be adopted for general application, 
but that each of these approximate methods is best suited for certain 
distinct classes of canals, and, therefore, they should be used with 
caution. 

The numerical results obtained by applying the approximate 
methods to the Cape Cod Canal would indicate that the formulas 
for uniform flow will give good results for a canal having the same 
characteristic features, both as to design and physical composition 
of channel bed. The approximate frictional factor to be used for a 
canal of this type is 0.03 in Kutter's formula. For other types of 
canals no such comparative statement can be made, because of the 
small number of existing tidal canals aiid the lack of accurate infor- 
mation in regard to the velocities. 

The writer believes, however, that the results obtained by the 
application of the rational method (which are as accurate as can be 
at the present status of the science) furnish excellent means to deter- 
mine the limitation of the use of the three practical methods presented. 
Therefore, taking these results as a measure of accuracy, the writer 
makes the following recommendations: 



Papers.] THE CAPE COD CANAL lUiit 

(a). — For tidal canals, the length, cross-sectional dimensions, and 
frictional characteristics of which are such as to make q L 
less than 0.35, use the formulas for permanent non-uniform 
flow. 

(6). — For canals where q L lies between 0.35 and 0.55, use the 
formulas for uniform flow. 

(c). — For canals where g L is greater than 0.55, use the formulas 
of the French Academy of Sciences. 

In q L, L is tlie length of the canal, in feet, and q has the value 
given in Equation (S), representing the influences of the form and 
area of the cross-section and the frictional properties of the channel 
bed. This value, q, being dependent on a great number of variable 
factors, cannot be represented by a diagram of general applicability, 
and should be evaluated in each individual case. To overcome the 
ambiguity caused by the fact that q is also dependent on the velocity 
to a certain extent, as a rule, a few trial calculations, as explained 
on page 1146, will be necessary to arrive at the correct governing 
value of the product, q L. 

Applying the proposed criteria to canals of the type of the Cape 
Cod Canal, i. e., having nearly the same cross-section and the same 
consistency of channel bed, and being subjected to tidal differences 
of about the same magnitude, it can be stated that, for predicting the 
maximum velocities in such uniform canals : 

If they are not longer than about 5 miles, use tlie formula for 

permanent non-uniform flow; 
If their length is between 5 and 8J miles, use the formulas for 

uniform flow (Bazin, Kutter, etc.) ; 
If they are longer than 8^ miles, use the formulas of the French 

Academy of Sciences. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



progress report 

of the special committee 

to codify present practice on the 

ju::aring value of soils for foundations* 



To THE American Society of Civil Engineers : 
The Special Committee appointed 

(1) To codify present practice on the bearing value of soils for 
foundations, and 

(2) To report on the physics of soils in relation to engineering 
structures, 

respectfully submits this report of progress. 

During the past year your Committee held three meetings; but its 
work was suspended during the greater part of the year, because of 
lack of necessary funds, and an investigation into the work of the 
Committee by the Board of Direction. Quite recently, the Board of 
Direction approved the continuation of the work of the Committee, 
and appropriated funds (believed to be sufficient) to complete the 
report on the Classification of Soils, and to standardize apparatus and 
procedure for defining soils. 

Your Committee has noted the discussion on its last report in rela- 
tion to the classification of soils; but the practical experience of the 
Committee during the past year indicates that the classification may 
be further simplified. Modifications have been proposed by the United 
States Bureau of Mines, and the United States Geological Survey, 
which will have the earnest consideration and study of your Committee. 

Your Committee reiterates that it has been found impractical to 

codify the data collected on classes of soils, because of the impossibility 

of identifying the soils and interpreting values for bearing capacity. 

Your Committee, however, in resuming its acti vities, will endeavor to 

• Presented to the Annual Meeting, January 17th, 1917. 



11T2 BKARIXG VALUE OF SOILS [I'apors. 

prosont the data colloctod in useful form ; and. also, will consider 
methods of making practical tests and necessary ohsorvations for col- 
lecting future data. 

Your Committee finds that it is vitally im^wrtant to obtain as .1 
basis of its work as much scientific information as possible on the 
physical ]iroperties of soils; and that, in so far as it is practical, the 
study of the physics of soils should be conducted along the general linea 
in vogue in the study of materials of construction. With this in view 
your Committee has been co-operating with the Bureau of Standards. 
Dr. S. W. Stratton. Director. The cordial appreciation of the work 
of that Bureau is here acknowledged, and the scientific report of the 
Sub-Committee is submitted as Appendix A. All this experimental 
work is being carried on by the U. S. Bureau of Standards at no 
expense to the American Society of Civil Engineers, because the sub- 
ject is recognized as being of National importance. During the year 
the attention of other scientific and technical institutions will be 
directed to the unusual opportunity xiresented for co-operation in 
this work. 

On the request of your Connnittee. the Carnegie Library, of Pitts- 
burgh, through its Technology Department, Mr. Harrison W. Craver. 
Librarian, and Mr. Ellwood H. McClelland, Technology Librarian, 
has compiled a "Bibliography on the Physical Properties and Bearing 
Capacity of Soils", at no expense to the American Society of Civil 
Engineers. This is presented as Appendix B. The cordial apprecia- 
tion of your Committee is extended to the Carnegie Library, of Pitts- 
burgh, for this comprehensive collection of references. 

The references are classified as follows: 

1. Natural Phenomena. 

Erosion. 

Sedimentation and Silting. 

Slides. Slips, and Subsidences. 

2. Chemical and Physical Properties of Soils. 

Theory. 
Testing. 

Methods and Results. 

Instruments. 
Bearing Value. 
General and ^Miscellaneous Properties. 

3. Granular Materials. 

Sand and Gravel. 
Quicksand. 
Grain. 
Miscellaneous. 

4. Foundations. 



''"F'^'-l BEARING VALUE OF SOrr.S 1173 

5. llctaining Walls, Including Lateral Earth Prossnrf. 
G. Piles. 

Gonoral. 

Theory and Formulas. 

Tests. 

Pile-driving. 

There are 859 references, each one of which has been actually exam- 
ined, and all may be found in the Carnegie Library, of Pittsburgh. 
Titles of articles and names of journals are given in full. Dates, volume 
numbers, and inclusive paging are given. In most cases the nature 
of the article is indicated by a brief explanatory note, and all bibliog- 
raphies accompanying books or magazine articles are mentioned. 

During the past year your Committee has taken part in a conference 
with representatives of various scientific societies and Government 
Bureaus at the Bureau of Standards, Washington, D. C, which resulted 
in the adoption of a Standard Screen Scale for wire sieves, as detailed 
in the report of the Bureau of Standards, presented as Appendix C. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Committee. 

Robert A. Cummings, 
Jan. KjTII, 1917. Chairman. 

Committee: 
W\\LTER J. Douglas, Secretary, 
Edwin Duryea, 
E. G. Haines, 

Allen LIazen, « 

.]. C. Mkem, 
Robert A. Cummings^ Chairman. 



1174 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



APPENDIX A 



PROGEESS REPORT OF SUB-COMMITTEE ON 
RESISTANCE OF SOILS. 

Your Sub-Committee has been engaged on the second division of 
the investigational work outlined by your Committee in the previous 
report, viz., the determination of the physical characteristics of soils 
by laboratory methods. The results of experimentation submitted at 
this time are to be considered tentative. Only typical data, for the 
purpose of illustration, will be presented, as much of the experimental 
work is incomplete, and the data are not fully organized at the present 
writing. 




(a) 



Fig. 1 




Position of actuating 
piston operating disk 



Standard Methods of Grading and Separation.— Your Sub-Commit- 
tee has held frequent discussions with your Chairman relative to 
standard methods of grading and separation, but no recommendations 
can be made at this time. It is felt that an efficient method of grading 
and separation of granular materials is imperative, if an earth is 
tested under standard conditions.* 

Standard for Laying of Earth.— 'Numerous tests have been made 

with the nested cylinder device described in a previous report.f (Fig. 

1.) A material reduction in the r ange of variation of the data has 

* The report of the conference on a standard screen scale for testing sieves has 

since been issued. i, iqir t, q^q 

f Proceedings, Am. See. C. E., Papers and Discussions, March, 191b, p. 6i6. 



rap''-^ 1 BEAKING VALUE OF SOILS 1175 

been etfoctotl with cylinders of this type. The earth is deposited under 
approximately identical conditions in different tests, with uniform 
l)ressurc of the piston, and without eccentricity from the axis. The 
Mppnratus is found to be convenient .in determining densities of soil 
ajijrregates. A granular soil is "'stroked off" at the desired height with 
a screed. A fine wire is used for clays. 

General Plan of Tests. — Your Sub-Committee has stated that the 
resistance and other properties of earths are functions of a number 
of variables. The structural variables are defined by your classification. 
The property variables are defined by the mechanics of materials. A 
number of the variables are functionally related, e. g., cohesion-water 
content, strain-density, friction-plasticity, etc. Your Sub-Committee 
has sought to determine the law of variation of particular functions 
in terms of the more important variables, when the others are held 
constant or may be practically ignored. 

The general soil which is hypothecated in the planning of tests, 
in conformity with your classification, is as follows : Grains or particles, 
of different material, shape, and mean diameter, are conceived as 
surrounded by a matrix, wholly or partly filling the voids. Plasticity 
is the essential variable of this matrix, with water content a particular 
case. The particles are considered as incompressible under moderate 
pressures. They are slightly compressible and more or less disintegrable 
under hea^'y pressures. The matrix is subject to more or less compac- 
tion in the voids. A particular earth may be fairly approximated 
for laboratory study by a proper selection of the two components. A 
clay, for example, may be considered to be wholly matrix without 
grains, or finely comminuted grains without matrix; a sand may be 
considered as wholly grains without matrix, etc. The surfaces of grains 
are surfaces of limited stability, i. e., slipping and readjustments occur 
at certain stages, and stress and strain functions and their derivatives 
are subject to finite discontinuities. The "film" or matrix surrounding 
particles is considered by soil analysts to be an essential factor in 
studying the stabilities and equilibriums which exist or are possible in 
different earths. 

It has been found necessary, in investigational work of this nature, 
to duplicate experimental conditions almost identically in repeating 
tests. Otherwise, variations of several hundred per cent, between 
results will often occur, and it is difficult to draw conclusions from the 
tests in such cases. If uncertainties exist in the case of experiments 
conducted on a small scale under conditions of some refinement, they 
may be expected to exist a fortiori in the case of experiments on a 
larger scale under conditions approximating those of practice. 

The granular earths are studied under a definite range of variables. 
The clays and mixed soils are treated indei>endently, the plasticity 
of the latter being considered. Since the last report, experiments 



11T6 



BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



have been confined to standard 20-30 Ottawa sand, the matrix consid- 
ered being water, the quantities varying in 5% increments from zero 
moisture to saturated. Clays are being considered at the present 
time and out of the regular order, for the purpose of studying .the 
workings of apparatus under extreme conditions. 







e 


De 


isities, 

s. . 


in Gra 


mmes 

s 

e 
p 




S 
S 


100 
90 

80 
70 

60 

u 

50 
40 
30 
20 
10 









1 


s 


k 
fe 




^ 




1 






/ 


/ 


/ 


/ 




-1 


______ 






/ 


/ 






/ 






^ 


A, 


/, 






/ 


i 




/ 




1 ^ 






-f- 


4 




/ 










/ 


/// 




> 


C 








L#/l 




/ 












/> 


V 


/ 










S^ 


''z 


/^ 




STRESS-STRAIN 
DENSITY CURVES 

FOR 
STANDARD SAND 


m 


>< 


y 








i 


I 
i 


c 


> 
i 


c 
c 


5 
> 


o 
o 



Strains. 
Fig. 2. 

Remarks on Stress-Strain Relations. — Dry Sand. — Oven-dried sands 
have been tested in the cylinder, Fig. 1 (a). Loads were measured on 
the beam of a 200 000-lb. testing machine. Strains were measured by 
Ames' dials placed at opposite points on the piston. Curves of the 
type of Figs. 2 and 3 were found. For loads, < p < 50, stress is 
an increasing function of strain, showing that energy is mainly 
consumed in compacting voids. Stress is practically proportional to 
strain for p > 50, indicating partial equilibrium under internal fric- 
tions. Stress is a decreasing function of strain for most materials, 



Papc 



UKAUIXO VALUE OF SOILS 



11 



wlnTcin ilcw and disintegration of particles as well as reduction of 
voids occurs, the eifect of reducing voids apparently being to impose 
positive curvature and flow or breaking down of particles of negative 
curvature on the slope of curves, but this is not yet determined con- 
clusively. The effect of repetitions of loads shows pronounced reduction 
in strain with mainly inelastic set, there being little resiliency in sand. 
In some cases twenty cj'cles were taken, the curves in Figs. 2 and 3 
being reduced to the origin. There is a region of condensation at 
the 5th-20th interval, the curves approaching a limit or "frontier" 
without further appreciable set. The p axis (Fig. 4) is the stress-strain 
curve for the ideal case of incompressible particles with minimum voids. 




STANDARD OTTAWA SAND 

STRESS-STRAIN CURVES 

FOR 1ST, 2D, 5TH AND 

10TH RUNS 



Strains 
Fig. 3. 

The s axis, on the other hand, is the curve for loosely laid earths.* 
The wide variations in strains during earlier runs indicate the need 
of a close determination of the density of earth, in the opinion of 
your Sub-Committee, if the results of different investigators are to be 
•placed on an experimental parity. 

Pressure, Strain, and Density Curves. — In practical experiments 
by engineers, the only reference to density, as a rule, is an approxi- 
mate statement of the specific weight of the earth. Your Sub-Committee 
did not attach sufficient weight to this variable during former tests. 



• When dry sand is dropped from a height into a box and "stroked off," a single 
tap will lower the surface as much as 14 in. 



1178 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

Large variations in the physical properties accompany slight changes 
in density of the mass. The practical feasibility of determining the 
density in "prospecting" a soil will depend, evidently, to a large extent 
on the practical etHciency of the apparatus already devised by your 
Committee. 

An attempt has been made to show, in the typical tests to be given, 
that for constant pressure the strain varies inversely with the density. 
The volume can be determined closely, as the nested cylinder is accu- 
rately machined. The exact weight of the earth is determined after 
each test. With a height of 5 in. under the piston, and weights 
measured to 1 gramme, the density is determined to within about 
0.01 per cent. In the curves of Figs. 2 and 3 a height of sand in the 
cylinder of 1 in. was used, and equi-initial density curves are drawn 
for the first, fifth, and tenth rmis, the load being removed in each 
individual case at 100 lb. per sq. in. and applied again at zero. The 
actual densities vary slightly with the pressure and strain, but this 

/ ^D. 

was ignored in drawing the present curves. The gradient ( limit — — \ , 

or slope of steepest ascent, is meas- " ^- — 

11 T J 1 i Reg-ion of Change in Density - 

ured along lines drawn normal to /\--[ 

the contours, usually called "lines 
of flow." It is seen that a change 

j;--,-ij ., J. ^ „^ Region of Elastic Action 

01 initial density ot only 6% causes 
approximately a difi^erence of from ^^ 

300 to 400% in the strain on the * 

• ... 1 /, ,, ,1 Region of Change 

initial run up , the curves con- jn Density 

verging on the fifth and tenth runs, 

and the relative positions of the 

curves changing in some cases. On ^^' ' 

the first "run up" two curves are out of the natural order, which may 

denote an error in the measurements. 

In the case of solids and fluids, the pressures, in general are pro- 
portional to the densities, as in the case of Boyle's law for gases. 
Granular and pulverulent media are stated by Boussinesq to possess 
properties intermediate to the former extremes. If this is the case, 
it should indicate that the density will play an important part in the 
standardization of tests for earths. A large number of tests will be 
needed to demonstrate the relative influence. 

Gauges. — Your Sub-Committee has continued its experimental 
studies of the gauges described in the last report. The newer gauges 
are turned from solid pieces of tool steel, and are set flush with the 
walls of the containers, without reveals. Diaphragm portions are 2.526 
in. in diameter to give 5 sq. in. area. The thicknesses of the diaphragm 
portions are 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 in., or 1, 2, and 3 mm., respectively. 




i'i>|'i>>l BEARING VALUE OF .SOILS IITU 

The gauges are screwed tight to the walls, without possihility of rela- 
tive motion. The calibrations with mercury tubes and Ashcroft gauges 
show that the gauges are very dependable under hydrostatic pressures. 

The hydrodvnainic analogue of earth under pressure in a cylinder 
is the whirling lluid under action of gravity and centrifugal force. 
(Fig. 5). Tiic lines of stress are theoretically nearly normal to the 
piston, and diverge to the walls and the base of the cylinder. Accord- 
ingly, there is theoretically less pressure on the diaphragm at the 
base of the cylinder than the mean applied stress on the piston. The 
tests with the 1-mm. gauge, on the contrary, have showm excess 
pressures on the diaphragm amoiuiting to as much as 25% of the corre- 
sponding hydrostatic pressure, when the piston is within 1 in. of the 
diaphragm. The excess is reduced as this distance is increased. 

Tests with the 3-mm. diaphragm on 1 and 5 in. of sand, show 
pressures greater than hydrostatic for 1 in. and less than hydrostatic 
for 5 in. of sand, respectively, (Fig. 6), the diiference in ordinates, 
in the latter case, apparently representing the loss due to friction on 
the walls, which increases with the pressure and depth of the material. 
A study of a larger number of tests not here recorded indicates that 
the pressure depends not only on the thickness of the 
diaphragms, but also, to some extent, on whether the 
load is applied at the center or circumference of the t 
rim of the piston, which is quite rigid. T 

William Cain, M. Am. Soc. C. E., has pointed out '^ 

to the Committee that the phenomenon of excess pres- ' 

sures occurred in the Illinois Experiment Station and _ 

, , . Fig. o. 

State College tests, and to a greater degree than is 

here shown. This was attributed to lack of uniformity in the pressure. 

The matter will require futher investigation before definite knowledge, 

in this respect, can be obtained. 

Conjugate Pressures. — Standard Sand. — Dry. — Conjugate pressures 
in a medium are pressures so related that either acts on a plane parallel 
to the direction of the other. (Fig. 7.) Principal stresses are special 
cases when the conjugate planes are perpendicular. The apparatus 
used by your Sub-Committee for determining the ratio of the conjugate 
pressures is shown in Fig. 1. The nested cylinder was used as the 
container. The density was measured as previously described. An 
accurately machined cap is placed on top of the cylinder. The piston, 
a, and the gauge, h, each of 5 sq. in. cross-section, are placed eccentric- 
ally 2 in. from the axis of the cylinder. The pressure is applied at a, 
and the uplift is measured at h. 

According to Eankine's theory, the relation between the "active 
pressure" or effort at a and the induced pressure at h is Ph = Pa 

( '—\ , where p is the pressure on the piston, j). is the pressure 

Vl + sin. (pj ' -'" '■ 




1180 



BEAKING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



on the gauge, and <^ is the angle of internal friction for the soil. 
In an exact sense, the equation defines the mode of equilibrium at 
a definite point in a cohesionless material when the particles exert their 
maximum frictional resistances. Since it is impossible to devise me- 
chanical means for determining the exact pressures and their laws of 
variation, p,,, pjj, and <jf>, as determined by the tests, are considered 
to represent mean values for the region affected. The angle, <^, is 
taken as a convenient parameter in making a comparative study of 
experimental results for different earths. 



0.00275 



0.00250 



0.00225 



g 0.00175 



.3 0.00150 
Q 



0.00125 



0.00075 



0.00050 



0.00025 

























X 
























/ 




TYPICAL CURVES FOR EARTH GAUGE 
(0.12 in. = 3 mm.) 








/ 


/ 




















/ 


/ 




















/ 


/ 


y 


y 
















A 


/ 


y 


y 














/ 




/ 


y 
















fi 


.>7 


■ 


V 
















s 


:,^^ 


•^ 




















'' 
















/ 




'f^' 


















/ 


f 


/ 




















/ 

























Pressure on Piston, in Pounds per Square Inch. 
Fig. 6. 

Piston pressures are applied and readings are taken on the beam 
of the 200 000-lb. testing machine. Gauge pressures in the case of the 
thin diaphragms are measured with an accurately calibrated Ames' 
dial, reading direct to 0.0001 and by estimation to 0.00001 in., and for 
thick gauges and greater refinement by the Bauschinger type of appa- 
ratus reading deflections to 0.000001 in. when the cathetometer is 
placed at 100 in. (Fig. 7). 



I'iipPJS.l BKARIXG VALUE OF SOILS 1181 

There are shown in Fig. 8 a typical set of nine tests on standard, 

oven-dried sand. The gauge pressures, pj, are platted as ordinates, the 

V 
jiiston pressures, p^,, as abscissas. The ratio, — , from a particular 

'a 

A — sin. cp\'^ 

curve, represents the value, ( : — — , correspondniii; to the par- 

V^ + sui. </V ' i ■ 

ticular pressure, p^^. Tlie square root of this value gives the ratio of 
the applied vertical pressure to the induced lateral pressure. Theo- 
retically, the curves should pass through the origin. Actually, there 
is a slight readjustment of grains with an increase in density under 
initial loads for values near the origin. The cohesion factor, Ic, in 
the equation, q = p^ tan. <^ + 7.-, has not been considered, but is dis- 
cussed later. 

From these curves there are deduced the mean values of the co- 
efficient and angle of friction, as follows: 

0, = 39° 20' : tan. 0, = f, = 0.82 L^ < Pi < 100 ^^- P^r sq. in. 

S = 49° 20' : tan. =. V = 1.15 ) ^^^ < |l^ <, ^^^ 1 >• P^"- ^^- '^- 
- ■^. .' 2 ^ Density nearly constant. 

These results are somewhat higher than the values recorded in 
engineering pocketbooks, (^ ^ 20 to 35°. The percentage of varia- 
tion from the mean is pronounced at the origin and beyond ■ \ 
120 lb. per sq. in.; the mean variation beyond 100 lb. per 
sq. in. varies approximately from zt 5 to =t: 15 per cent. 



ti 



This variation can doubtless be reduced as additional ^ 
study is given to the data, and the methods of tests are 
perfected. 

The induced pressure on the gauge increases quite uniformly with 
the applied pressure in the interval, < p^ < 100. In the interval, 
100 < Pj < 200, there appears to be equilibrium of the particles against 
motion on account of the internal friction. The gauge stood nearly 
stationary at times in this interval. In the interval, 200 < Pg < 300, 
the frictions appear to have been partly overcome with re-gearings of 
the grains taking place, probably on account of slight breaking down 
and slips at the peripherics of the grains. The tests submitted confirm 
to some extent the statement of G. H. Darwin, that internal friction is 
a function of the pressure and density.* 

Coefficient of Friction Determined with Cup Disks. — Cohesion 
Factor, k. Neglected. — A number of tests have been made with the 
rotary cup-shaped disks (Fig. 1 (&)), and also with smooth steel disks. 
In the typical results to be quoted, cohesion has been ignored as quite 
negligible for dry sand. It will be considered with different percentages 
of moisture, and as methods become perfected. 

* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., Vol. LXXI (1883), pp. 374 ct seq. 



1182 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



Upward Pressure on Gauge"6','in Pounds per Square Inch. 




I'apers.l 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



1183 



In the working of this friction apparatus, it is found that two 
classes of coefficients can be determined, one for friction at impending 
motion, and another for friction of actual finite rotary displacements. 
In the case ol" incipient motion, the observations and pressures are 
recorded for actual motions of from 0.0001 to 0.0002 in. at the rack, 
and the data are calculated (Fig. 9). In the second case, finite 
motions of increments from 0.01 to 0.10 in. were taken at the maximum 
pressures recorded with the gauges. These limiting cases give frictions 
at impending motion and for small actual motions. Almost any pres- 
sure and coefficient of friction can be found between these limits, de- 
pending on the conditions of equilibrium for intermediate values. 



TYPICAL FRICTION — PRESSURE CURVES 

STANDARD SAND 

(20-30 Dry Ottawa Sand) 

With Apparatus of Fig. 1 (6) 

Incipient motion= Observed minimum. 

Actual motion = Observed maximum at 

small rotary displacement of disk. 




Pressure on Sand, in Pounds per Square Inch, by Testing Machine 
Fig. 9. 

It is shown by the curves of Fig. 9 that sand in the cup-shaped 
disk does not exert the maximum friction. G. H. Darwin claimed* 
that the friction is a function of the pressure and the density of the 
mass, not only at any instant, but as well of that at some previous con- 
figuration or state. There is every indication that this will be so when 
the disks (or the double box arrangement) are used with granular 
materials. There is a partial confirmation of the theory of Boussinesqf 
that when the sand is held fixed at the boundary, slipping occurs on a 
near film of material, this friction at the film of slip representing the 

* Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., Vol. LXXI, (1883), pp. 374 et scq. 
t "History of the Elasticity and Strength of Materials," Vol. II, Part II, Article 
on Boussinesq by Karl Pearson. 



llS-i BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

maximum friction of sand on sand. To show this the sand was "re- 
strained" in the cup disk, by mixing one part of sand with six parts of 
plaster of Paris, the mixture being richer on the surface. It is assumed 
that the grains at the surface of the disk are fixed, and that sliding 
occurs on the film just outside this surface. The coefficient of friction 
is about twice that for "free" sand in the cups. 

A few preliminary trials with a knurled steel disk, the knurls being 
slightly larger than the grains, lead the experimenters to believe that 
this will be a more satisfactory form of disk for developing the maxi- 
mum coefficient of a dry sand than the cup disks for comparative pur- 
poses in. standard tests. In a material such as clay, however, which is 
not subject to much change in density after initial impaction, it is 
probable that the cup disks will be preferable. The cup disks will be 
more satisfactory in getting the cohesion factor, h, according to 
Cain's method,* since, with the knurled head, it will be quite impossible 
to compute the depressed areas or "pits" very closely. 

Experiments with the Steel Disk. 

Standard Sand. — Different Percentages of Moisture — Cohesion 
Factor, h, Neglected. — The law of variation of the coefficient of fric- 
tion was studied for standard sand with different percentages by weight 
of water matrix added. The quantities of water varied from zero for 
dry sand to about 20% of the weight of the sand. The pressures are 
given in 50-lb. increments from zero to 300 lb. per sq. in. A smooth 
steel disk having the surface flush with the base of the cylinder was used 
in the tests. The coefficient of friction was determined under the condi- 
tions of a definite rotational displacement of the disk at the maximum 
pressures on the actuating piston of the lateral pressure cylinder, Fig. 
1, as recorded by a mercury tube and pressure gauge. The pressure 
gauge was calibrated with the Emery tester. The frictional factor of 
the apparatus was determined by measuring the force necessary to turn 
the disk in oil, subject to pressure in the earth cylinder, and found to 
be small, varying from zero to 0.4 lb. per sq. in., when the oil pressure 
varied from no load to 200 lb. i>er sq. in. The earth was placed at a 
height of 5 in. in the cylinder, the different percentages of water being 
added by weight, and intimately mixed in the sand by rotating the mass. 

In Figs. 10, 11, and 12, the calculated coefficients of friction are 
given as the ordinates, the percentages of water are given as the ab- 
scissas of the curves at 50 lb. sq. in. increments of load on the piston of 
the containing cylinder. The upper curve in all cases is the friction, 
calculated on the basis of average pressure recorded on the beam of the 
testing machine. The lower curve represents the corrected curve for 
the coefficient, f, on the basis of the pressure at the surface of the disk. 

* "Cohesion in Earth : The Need for Comprehensive Experimentation to Deter- 
mine the Coefficients of Cohesion." Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXX (1916), 
p. 1315. 



PapiMs. 



BEARING VALUE OV SOILS 



11S5 



FRICTION-PRESSURE-WATER CONTENT CURVES 

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF SAND ON SMOOTH STEEL. 

FIRST "RUN UP"- STANDARD 20-30 OTTAWA SAND. 



0.60 




10 15 

Percentage of Water. 
Fig. 10. 



1186 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



FRICTION-PRESSURE-WATER CONTENT CURVES 

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF SAND ON POLISHED STEEL. 

FIFTH "RUN UP" -STANDARD 20-30 OTTAWA SAND. 



0.60 



0.20 



0.40 




10 15 20 

Percentage of Water. 
Fig. 11. 



Papers.] 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



1187 



This was doterinined by independent tests with the ;3-inni. gauge, when 
it was placed at the bottom of the cylinder in the same position as the 
disk. The curves in each case are the means of five sets of tests. 

It is seen that, for the first run, the coefficient of friction for steel 
on sand is a minimum for dry sand and a maximum for sand with 
10% moisture, the slopes of the curves being quite iiniform after 5% 
moisture is reached. The lower curves are closely parallel to the 
upper ones throughout. There is a "cusp" or re-entrant break in the 
curves for the fifth run in all cases, which cannot be explained, but is 
probably dependent on instrumental conditions. The sand at the fifth 

FRICTION-PRESSURE-WATER CONTENT CURVES 

COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION OF SAND ON POLISHED STEEL 

Standard 20-30 Ottawa Sand 



O.CO 




5 10 15 20 

Percentage of Water. 
Fig. 12. 

''run up" is believed to be in the more stable position corresponding 
to natural earths in situ than it is at the first ''run up." The density 
was not determined in these tests, as its importance was not realized 
at the time. The results of tests for the first, second, and fifth runs 
indicate that the density affects the coefficient, but not to any such 
extent as it does the strain. 

Tests with Smooth Disks. 

Delerminations of the Angle of Friction, (f), the Coefficient of 

Friction, f, and the Cohesion Factor, h, for Standard Sands Having 

Different Quantities of Moisture. — Cain has modified the Rankine 

equations, according to the method of Coulomb, to include the effect 



1188 



BEAEIXG VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



of cohesion in a rational manner.* Determinations of the angle of 
friction, (/>, the coefficient of friction, f, and the cohesion factor, k, 
have been obtained from the data in accordance with the method 
proposed by him. 




40 60 aO 100 120 140 160 180 

Normal Pressure, in Pounds per Square Inch= f,j 

Fig. 13. 

Standard sands having different percentages of moisture, as pre- 
viously described, were placed in the cylinder, Fig. 1 (&), to a depth 
of 5 in. and subjected to a pressure, p,^, from the testing machine. 

* "Cohesion in Earth, etc.", Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., Vol. LXXX (1916), 
p. 1315. 



Paper: 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



1189 



Tlie pressure required to move the disk against tlie pressure, p„, on 
the piston ■vras measured on the gauges attached to the 6-in. cylinder 
placed on the side of the main cylinder, as shown diagrammatically in 
Fig. 1 (h). The shear, q, on the face of the disk was calculated. The 




60 80 100 120 140 160 ISO 

Normal Pressure, in Pounds per Square Inch = P., 



relation between q, p„, 4>, and Ic, according to Cain, is g ^ p„ tan. 
+ A-. Graphical representations of this equation for standard sands 
with different percentages of moisture are shown in Figs. 13, 14, and 
15. The observed data, p„ and q, from which the plats were made. 



1190 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



are given for the different percentages of moisture, each value recorded 
being the mean of five tests. The shears, q, are platted as ordinates, 
the normal pressures as abscissas. The slopes of the straight lines 
passing through the platted observations represent the coefficient of 
friction, / = tan. <f). The angles between the different lines and the 
Pn axis represent the different values of the angle of friction, cf). The 
intercept on the q axis is the cohesion factor, k. 

In the list of observed values of q and Pn given with the curves, 
the shear, q, has been corrected for the initial friction of the instru- 
ment from hydrostatic pressure alone. The normal pressure, p„, 
represents the mean pressure on the large piston, as determined by 
the beam of the testing machine. The values, p„, are doubtless influ- 
enced to some extent by the friction on the walls of the earth cylinder. 




21.59^^ 



21.59^ o 



40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 

Normal Pressure, in Pounds per Square Inch= Pjj 

Fig. 15. 



and cannot be considered absolute values of the normal pressures 
on the disk. In certain tests marked A the normal pressure recorded 
is that at the surface of the disk, as near as this can be predicted 
from independent tests. This pressure was determined on the assump- 
tion that the normal pressure recorded by the gauge in the case of 
sand is identical in amount with a hydrostatic pressure producing 
the same deflection of the diaphragm. 

General Remarks. — Your Sub-Committee, in conclusion, again 
wishes to call attention to the provisional character of all the experi- 
mental data which have thus far been determined. The experimenters, 
up to the present time, have not been able to determine definitely 
the law of variation of the wall friction, nor to obtain an adequate 
control of this friction, although the problem is being carefully 
studied experimentally. The coefficients of a particular sand have 



Papers.] 



BEABING VALUE OF SOILS 



1191 



been shown to depend on the density. The few experiments which 
have been made on clay show that the viscosity is an important factor. 
The foregoing variables are believed to be among the important ones 
to be considered in standard tests of earths. 



Pressure Applied 
Gauge 




APPARATUS FOR MEASUREMENT 
OF CONJUGATE PRESSURES 



Lines of stress „ - „ 

(Conceptual) 

Acknowledgments. — Your Sub-Committee acknowledges the con- 
scientious work of Messrs. E. Skillman and B. Hathcock in making 
the tests and calculations. 

Committee of Bureau of Standards, 

A. V. Bleinniger, 
G. R. Olshausen, 
J. H. Griffith (Chairman). 



1192 BEARING VALUE OE SOILS [Papers. 



APPENDIX B 



BIBLIOGEAPHY OF PHYSICAL PROPEKTIES AND 
BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS. 

(Compiled by the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgli) 



CONTENTS 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

NATURAL PHENOMENA. 
Erosion. 

Sedimentation and Silting. 
Slides, Slips, and Subsidences. 

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS. 
Theory. 
Testing. 

Methods and Results. 

Instruments. 
Bearing Value. 
General and Miscellaneous Properties. 

GRANULAR MATERIALS. 
Sand and Gravel. 
Quicksand. 
Grain. 
Miscellaneous. 

FOUNDATIONS. 

RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE. 

PILES. 

General. 

Theory and Formulas. 

Testing. 

Pile=driving. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 

comp compiler n. s new series 

diag diagrams p page or pages 

dr drawings pi plates 

ed edition pt part 

ed editor ser series 

ill illustrations v volume 



I'apors.] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1193 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

No oxliau^tive bibliography of this subject has ever been published. 
The following lists of references on special topics or on allied subjects, 
however, are of considerable value. All briefer lists of references have 
been mentioned in connection with the books or magazine articles which 
they accompany. 

BALLEN, DOROTHY, comp. Bihliopraphy of Road-Making and Roads in the United 
KinKdom. 2S1 p. 1914. P. S. King and Son, London. Extensive bibliography. 
Classified, and has author and subject indexes. Some of the material classed 
under road consti-uction and maintenance is of interest in connection with the 
study of soils. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND BEARING VALUE OF SOILS. 

1915. (Proceedings. Am. Soe. C. E., February, 1915, Papers and Discussions, 
p. 497-51."?.) Compiled by Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh for Special Com- 
mittee of American Society of Civil Engineers. Preliminary printing of part 
of the material in the present list but without classification. Arranged alpha- 
betically by authors. 

CARNEGIE LIBRARY OF PITTSBURGH. Floods and Flood Protection. 44 p. 
1908. Supplement, 19 p. 1911. Classified bibliography. Has a section on 
"Levees," including considerable material on silting, bank erosion, and protection. 

[1912] (Report of the Flood Commission of Pittsburgh, v. 1, p. 397-432.) 

HASELER, E., and others. Literature. 1905. (Handbuch der Ingenieurwissen- 
schaften pt. 1. v. 2, ed. 4, rev., p. 40.'',-407.) Lengthy bibliography, including 
earth pressure, slips, foundations, and retaining walls. 

JACOBY, HENRY S., and DAVIS, ROLAND P. Foundations of Bridges and Build- 

ings. 603 p. 1914. McGraw-TIill Book Company. Chapter 19, p. 562-597, 
is a classified bibliography entitled "References to Engineering Literature," 
covering all branches of pile and foundation work. 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. Catalogue of Scientific Papers, 1800-1900 ; Sub- 
ject-index. V. 2, Mechanics, 355 p. 1909. "Motion of Solid Bodies in 
Viscous Fluids." p. 193. "Pressure of Earth and Sand. Embankments. 
Pressure in Mines. Retaining Walls. Sand. Stability," p. 351-354. 

YOUNG, L. E., and STOEK, H. H. Subsidence Resulting from Mining. 205 p. 

1916. (University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin 91.) 
Contains (p. 180-205) a classified bibliography covering the subject 
thoroughly. 

NATURAL PHENOMENA. 

EROSION. 
See also Sedimentation and Silting. 

BARRELL, JOSEPH. Relations Between Climate and Terrestrial Deposits. 1908. 
(Journal of Geology, v. 16, p. 159-190, 255-295, 363-384.) Studies for stu- 
dents. The terra "terrestrial deposits" has reference here to fluvial and pluvial 
deposits. Discusses the character of rocks supplying sediment, relations of 
rainfall, temperature, and topography to erosion, relation of sediments to 
regions of deposition, and relations of climate to stream transportation. 

BURR, WILLIAM A. Resistance of Soils to Erosion by Water. 1894. (Engi- 
neering News, v. 31, p. 124.) Shows that value of soils for hydraulic pur- 
poses depends on proportions of sand and clay. 

CAMPBELL, MARIUS R. Erosion at Base-Level. 1897. (Bulletin, Geological 
Society of America, v. 8, p. 221-226.) Gives present conception of the ulti- 
mate result of undisturbed erosion, discusses peculiar characters not explained 
by present theories, and advances conclusions respecting the extent and char- 
acter of erosion at base-level. 

CASE, GERALD O. Coast Erosion and Protection on Long Island and Xew 
Jerscv. 11 diag., 4 HI. 1915. (Enaineering News, v. 74, p. 348-351, 388- 
391, 438-442.) Analysis of the causes of the littoral drift of sand along the 
coast, and of formation of sand spits and islands. Takes up in detail the 
causes of coast erosion and gives theory and behavior of sand dunes. Dis- 
cusses coast protection work. 

CHURCH, IRVING P. Mechanics of Engineering, rev. ed. 854 p. 1908. Includes 
a section on " "Transporting Power', or Scouring Action of a Current," p. 
830-832, in which formulas are discussed. 



1194 BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

C0NCRETE=P1LE DIKE FOR RIVER BANK REVETMENT. 1909. (Engineering 
Record, v. 59, p. 104-105.) Gives method of construction and costs for build- 
ing concrete-pile dikes along the Missouri Rver. These dikes, in connection 
with brush mattresses and stone ballast, are used as revetment to protect the 
banks from scour. The timber-pile dikes previously used had too high a 
maintenance cost. 

DAVIS, R. O. E. Economic Waste from Soil Erosion. 1913. (Yearbook, United 
States Department of Agriculture, 1913, p. 207-220.) Outline of the processes 
and causes of, and remedies for, soil erosion. 

DOLE, R. B., and STABLER, H. Denudation. 1909. (United States Geological 
Survey. Water Supply Paper No. 234. P- 78-83.) Presents estimates as to 
the rate of denudation in the United States. 

Abstract. 1909. (Science, n. s., v. 29, p. 313.) 

DUNN, E. J. Pebbles. 122 p., 76 pi. 1911. Robertson. Chapter 6, "Transport of 
Pebbles," p. 56-67, discusses action of gravitation, ice, flowing water, wind, and 
other agencies. 

DUPARC, L., and BAEFF, B. Sur rBrosion et le Transport dans les Rivieres 
Torrentielles Ayant des Affluents Glaciaires. 1891. (Comptes Rendus Heb- 
domadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 113, p. 235-237.) Results 
of extensive observations. 

DUROCHER, J. Observations sur les Phenomenes d'Erosions et les Depots de 
Transport de la Scandinavie. 1846. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des 
Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 23, p. 206-210.) 

ELLIS, DON CARLOS. Working Erosion Model for Schools. 6 p. 1912. (United 
States Department of Agriculture. Experiment Stations, Circular 117.) De- 
scribes a working erosion model designed to illustrate graphically the relative 
action of rainfall on bare and on wooded hills. Adapted for use in schools, 
for study in agriculture, physical geography, etc. Gives bill of material for 
construction of the model. 

ENGELS, H. Das Flussbau-laboratorium der Konigl. technischen Hochschule in 
Dresden. 3 pi. 1900. (Zcitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 50, p. 343-360.) For 
the studies of formation of natural courses and movements of solids. De- 
scribes the laboratory, the measuring devices, and gives results thus far 
accomplished. 

ENGELS, H. Untersuchungen iiber die Bettausbildung gerader oder Schwach 
gekriimmter Flussstrecken mit beweglicher Sohle. 2 diag., 5 pi. 1905. (Zeit- 
schri-ft fiir Bauioesen, v. 55, p. 663-680.) 

ENGELS, H. Untersuchungen iiber die Wirkung der Stromung auf sandigen Boden 
unter dem Einflusse von Querbauten. 2 diag., 2 pi. 1904. (Zcitschrift fiir 
Bauioesen, v. 54, p. 449-468.) 

FREE, E. E., and WESTGATE, J. M. Control of Blowing Soils. 20 p. 1910. 
(United States Department of Agriculture, Farmers' Bulletin Jt21.) Discusses 
causes of excessive blowing of soil, and offers remedies. Includes both tilled 
and unfilled soils. 

FREE, E. E. Movement of Soil Material by the Wind. 272 p. 1911. (United 
States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 68.) "Bibliography of Eolian Geology", by S. C. 
Stuntz and E. E. Free, p. 172-272. A very thorough manuscript on the sub- 
ject, giving many references to original sources. Treats on translocating agents 
in general, on mechanics of wind translocation, drifting sand and sand dunes, 
dust' storms, dust falls, etc. 

GILBERT, G. K. Colorado Plateau Province as a Field for Geological Study. 3 ill. 
1876. (American Journal of Science and Arts. v. 112, p. 16-24, 85-103.) 
Erosion of the Colorado canons, p. 89-103. Valuable contribution on the 
subject. Calls attention to the fact that the same expenditure of energy 
will transport a greater weight of fine particles than of coarse ones of the 
same density. 

Abstract. 1876. (Engineering News, v. 3, p. 266-268.) 

HAVES, C. WILLARD. Overthrust Faults of the Southern Appalachians. 1891. 
(Bulletin, Geological Society of America, v. 2, p. 141-154.) "Hypothesis of 
Erosion Prior to Thrust," p. 149. 

KIRSCH, B. Ueber den Flussigkeitsgrad fester Korper. 2 diag. 1896. (Zeit- 
schrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 48, p. 156- 
159.) Theoretical discussion of erosive processes in solids. 

KREUTER, F. Untersuchung iiber die natiirliche Gleichgewichtform beweglicher 
Flussbeten und die naturgemasse herstellung kiinstlicher Uferboschungen. 
5 diag., 2 ill. 1904. (Zcitschrift. Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Archi- 
tekten-Vereines, V. 56. pt. 2, p. 670-672.) 



Papt^rs.] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1195 

LEVERETT, FRANK. Weathering and Erosion as Time Measures. 7 diag. 1909. 

(.l/(!().(<!)i Journal of Science, v. 177, ser. 4, v. 27, p. 349-368.) Discusses 
the erosion and weathering to which the drift sheets have been subjected as 
criteria for distinguisiiins them and determininK their chronology and the 
correlation between tlie drift sheets of Europe and America. 
LOGIN, T. Abrading and Transporting Power of Water. 2 diag. 1870. (Nature, 
V. 1. p. 629-G30, 6.54-655 ; v. 2, p. 72-73.) Discusses mechanical properties 
and friction of water, and draws conclusions. 

McOEE, W. J. Outlines of Hydrology. 1908. (Bulletin, Geological Society of 
America, v. 19, p. 193-220.) Soil erosion, p. 199. 

McGEE, W. J. Sheetflood Erosion. 1897. (Bulletin, Geological Society of America, 
V. 8, p. 87-112.) 

McGEE, W. J. Soil Erosion. 60 p., 33 pi. 1911. (United States Soils Bureau, 
Bulletin 71.) Written primarily from the agriculturist's standpoint. Discusses 
the agencies producing soil erosion. 

McKINLAY, WILLIAM B. Palls of Rock from Mountains. 1903. (Engineering 
and Mining Journal, v. 75, p. 890.) Letter referring to note (p. 811) which 
attributes the frequency of rock falls at night, to freezing of water. Writer 
thinks that the chief cause in the tropics is the heavy night rains. 

MATTHEWS, ERNEST R. Coast Erosion and Protection. 147 p., ill. 1913. 
Griffin. Mainly descriptive of work in foreign countries where the problem 
has received more attention than in the United States. Has chapters on wave- 
action and on erosion and accretion, but deals chiefly with sea-walls. 

MISSISSIPPI — GEOLOGICAL SURVEY, Our Waste Lands: a Preliminary Study 
of Erosion in Mississippi ; by E. N. Lowe, with an appended Address on Mis- 
sissippi's Agricultural Potentialities, by Dr. W. J. McGee. 23 p. 1910. Popular 
discussion of the evils of surface erosion. 

OCKERSON, J. A. Erosion of River Banks on the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. 
8 pL. 2 tables. 1893. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. B., v. 28, p. 396-424.) 

Discussion. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 31, p. 1-2S.) 

POWELL, MAJOR. On the Erosive Power of Rivers. 1888. (Railroad Gazette, 
V. 20, p. 605.) 

REHBOCK, THEODOR. Das Flussbau-laboratorium der Grossherzoglichen technischen 
Hochschule "Fridericiana" in Karlsruhe. 6 dr., 5 ill., 5 pi. 1903. (Zeit- 
schrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 53, p. 103-106.) Describes a well-equipped labora- 
tory for studies of the flow of water in channels, and of formation of natural 
watercourses. 

SHELFORD, WILLIAM. On Rivers Flowing into Tideless Seas, Illustrated by the 
River Tiber. 1885. (Mi7Mites of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 82, p. 2-68.) Dis- 
cussion presents valuable data on erosion and transportation of solids in many 
rivers. Mr. Airy develops a formula for transportation of solids under various 
conditions. Results of Blackwell's experiments performed in 1857 are also 
given, p. 48. 

SMITH, J. RUSSELL. Soil Erosion and Its Remedy by Terracing and Tree Planting. 
1914. (Science, v. 62, n. s., v. 39, p. 858-862.) Discusses factors tending to 
increase soil erosion in American agriculture, and factors in erosion control! 
Shows that tillage of field crops, particularly corn, cotton, and tobacco, prepares 
land for erosion. Favors giving more attention to tree crops for food. 

STERNBERG, H. Untersuchungen iiber Langen-und Querprofll geschiebefiirender 
Fliisse. 6 diag., 2 pi. 1875. (Zeitschrift fiir Ba.uwesen, v. 25, p. 483-506.) 

STEVENSON, DAVID. Principles and Practice of Canal and River Engineering, 
ed. 3., 406 p. 1886. Includes chapter on "Reclamation and Protection of 
Land." Discusses erosion, quantity of sediment, and size of particles carried by 
streams, etc. 

THOULET, J. Sur un Mode d'Erosion des Roches, par I'Action Comblnge de la 
Mer et de la Gelee. 1886. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaircs des Seances de 
I'Academie des Sciences, v. 103, p. 1193-1194.) 

WHEELER, WILLIAM HENRY. Sea-coast ; Destruction, Littoral Drift, Protection. 
361 p. 1902. Longmans, London. 

SEDIMENTATION AND SILTING. 

See also Erosion. 

ABBOT, HENRY L. Physics of the Mississippi River ; a Letter ... in Reply to the 
Article of .lames B. Eads. 1879. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 
20, p. 1-6.) Defends facts and conclusions recorded in Humphreys and 
Abbot's report, and considers criticism by Eads unwarranted and inaccurate. 
See also Eads, v. 19. p. 211-229 ; v. 21, p. 154-158. 



1196 BEAEIXG VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

BABB, CYRUS C. Sediment of the Potomac River. 1893. (Science, v. 21, p. 
342-343.) Gives results of measurements at gauging station of the United 
States Geological Survey. 

Condensed. 1893. {Engineo-ing News, v. 30, p. 342-343.) 

BADOUREAU, A. Theorie de la Sedimentation. 1890. (ComjUcs Rendns Heb- 
ctomadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. Ill, p. 621-622.) 
Mathematical theory based on the experimental work of Thoulet. 

BARUS, CARL. Subsidence of Pine Solid Particles in Liquids. 51. p. 1886. 
(United States Geological Survey, Bulletin 36.) Discusses effect of temperature 
and precipitants on subsidence and dependence of rate of subsidence on order of 
surface, concentration and turbidity. 

BARUS, CARL. Subsidence of Fine Solid Particles in Liquids. 1889. (American 
Journal of Science, v. 137, p 122-129.) Theoretical and experimental study, 
continuing work described in preceding reference. 

BAUMGARTEN. Notice sur la Portion de la Garonne qui s'Etend en Aval de 
rEmbouehure du Lot dans le Departement de Lot-et-Garonne, et sur les Travaux 
qui y ont ete Executes de 1836 & 1847. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 2, 
V. 16, p. 1-157.) Contains extensive tests and numerous data on transporta- 
tion of solids by Garonne River. Discusses various methods of movement com- 
mon to these solids. 

BELLASIS, E. E. Hydraulics, with Working Tables. 303 p. 1903. Rivington, 
London. "Movement of Solids by a Stream," p. 36-39, 177-180. 

BELLASIS, E. S. River and Canal Engineering. 215 p. 1913. Spon, London.' 
"Silting and Scouring Action of Streams," p. 27-47. "Methods of Increasing 
or Reducing Silting or Scour," p. 48-59. 

BERARD. Note sur la Marche des Plotteurs dans les Courants. 1 diag. 1886. 
(Annales des Fonts et Chauss4es, ser. 6, v. 12, p. 830-835.) Results of 
experiments. 

BLERZY, H. Le Bassin du Mississippi. 1879. (La Nature, v. 13, p. 182-186.) 
Presents data as to transportation of silt in Mississippi River. 

BRANNER, JOHN C. Observations upon the Erosion in the Hydrographic Basin of 

the Arkansas River above Little Rock. (Annual Report, Geological Survey of 

Arkansas, 1891, v. 2, p. 158-166.) Discusses transportation of sediment in 
streams. 

BREWER, WILLIAM H. On the Subsidence of Particles in Liquids. 1883. 
(Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, v. 2, p. 163-175.) Discusses sus- 
pension of sediment in liquids at rest. Considers possible formation of colloidal 
compounds with the suspended clay. 

BREWER, WILLIAM H. On the Suspension and Sedimentation of Clays. 1885. 
(American Journal of Science, v. 129, p 1-5.) 

BROWN, ANDREW, and DICKESON, M. W. Sediment of the Mississippi River. 

1848. (Proceedings, Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, v. 1, p. 

42-54.) Report to the Association. Discusses quantity of water discharged by 

the Mississippi River and the proportional quantity of sediment contained in it. 
'CHARLON, EM. Note sur une Formule Permettant de Calculer la Vitesse d'un 

Torrent d'apres la Grosseur des Materiaux Transportes. 1890. (Le Genie 

Civil, V. 17, p. 170-171.) 

Ab.stract. 1890. (Minutes of Froceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 102, p. 350.) 

CORNISH, VAUGHAN. Waves of the Sea and Other Water Waves. 374 p. ill. 
1910. Unwin. Deals with size and speed of deep-sea waves ; action of sea 
waves In transporting shingle, sand, and mud ; stationary and progressive waves 
in rivers. 

CUNNINGHAM, ALLAN. Recent Hydraulic Experiments. 12 diag. 1882. (Minutes 
of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 71, p. 1-94.) Describes the Roorkee hydraulic 
experiments. A series of observations on the Ganges Canal were made to 
determine the quantity of sediment carried and its distribution in the cross- 
section. 

Condensed slightly. 1883. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, p. 320-339, 

353-370.) 

CUNNINGHAM, E. On the Velocity of Steady Fall of Spherical Particles through 
Fluid Medium. 1 diag. 1910. (Proceedings, Royal Society of London, ser. A, 
V. 83, p. 357-365.) 

DEACON, G. F. [Observations on the Transport of Sand by Running Water.] 
2 diag. 1894. (Minutes of Froceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 118, p. 93-95.) In 
discussion of Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt's paper : "The Training of 
Rivers, Illustrated by the Results of Various Training-works." Experiments 
on the action of flowing water on a bed of sand. 



^''^r^^''^! BEAKIXO VALFE OF SOILS 1197 

DU BOYS, P. Le RhOiio et les Rivit^res a Lit Affouillable. Etude du R6glme du 
Rh6ne et (le I'Action Exeri-eo par les Eaux sur im Lit a Fond do Graviers 
Indenninieiit Affouillable. 1 pi. 1879. {Annales des Fonts et Chauss^es 
ser. 5, V. 18, p. l-U-195.) ' 

DURAND-CLAYE, ALFRED. De rKntrainement et de Transport par les Eaux 
Couraiites des Vases, Sables, et Graviers. 6 diag. 1885. (Annalca (Us Potils et 
Chuiisscea, ser. 6, v. 10, p. 1165-1178.) Analysis of L. L. Vauthier's work 
on the subject. 

DURHAM, WILLIAM. Suspension of Clay In Water. 1874. (Chemical Ncivs, 
V. ;:o, p. 57.) Abstract of a paper read before the Royal Physical Society of 
Edinburgh. 

EADS, JAMES B. Hydrology of the Mississippi ; a Reply to Gen. Abbot. 1879. 
(Van Xoslrand's Enqineerinq Maqazine, v. 21, p. 154-158.) See also Abbot 
V. 20, p. 1-6; Eads, v. 20, p. 211-229. 

EADS, JAMES B. Hydrology of the Mississippi River ; Review of Report by 
Humphreys and Abbot. 1878. (Vnn Nostrand's Enyinccring Magazine, v. 19, 
p. 211-229.) Severely criticizes report of Humphreys and Abbot, particularly 
the claim that the quantity of earthy matter held in suspension was not 
dependent in any way on the velocity of the current. See reply by Abbot (v. 
20, p. 1-6) ; also K&As (v. 21, p. 154-158). 

FARGUE. Etude sur la Largeur du Lit Moyen de la Garonne. 1882. (Annales 
des Fonts et Chaussecs, ser, 6, v. 4, p. 301-328.) 

F.ARQUE. Experiences Relatives a I'Action de I'Eau Courante sur un Fond de 
Sable. 1894. (Annales des Fonts et Cliaussees,, ser. 7, v. 7, p. 426-466.) 

FLAMANT. Compte Rendu des Experiences Hydrauliques Faites II Roorkee. 

1882. (Annates des Fonts et Chau^sees, ser. 6, v. 4, p. 43-96.) "Sediment," 

p. 82-83. Critical review of Major Cunningham's experiments on the Ganges 
Canal, India. 

FORSHEY, C. G. Physics of the Lower Mississippi River. 1877. (Froceedings, 

-Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, v. 26, p. 148-173.) Discusses 

quantity and quality of sedimentary matter carried by stream, formation of 
bars, erosion of river banks, etc. 

FRANCIS, JAMES B. On the Cause of the Maximum Velocity of Water Flowing 
in Open Channels being Below the Surface. 1878. (Transactions, Am. Soc. 
C. E., v. 7, p. 109-113, 168.) Seeks to explain the suspension of sediment in 
streams by the presence of a continuous upward flow of the water at the bed. 

FREE, E. E. Phenomena of Flocculation and Deflocculation. 3 diag., 4 ill. 1910. 
(Journal, Franklin Inst., v. 169, p. 421-438; v. 170, p. 46-57.) "Bibliog- 
raphy," p. 54-57. Outlines the present knowledge of the phenomena of 
flocculation of particles suspended in water into aggregates. Discusses effect 
of various external conditions, mainly the presence or absence of soluble salts, 
acids, alkalies, and organic colloids. An appendix discusses the phenomena of 
flocculation in soils. 

GILBERT, G. K. Transportation of Debris by Running Water. 263 p. ill. 1914. 
(United States Geological Survey, Frofessional Paper 86.) Based on experi- 
ments at Berkeley, Cal., with the assistance of Edward Charles Murphy. Finer 
debris is borne in suspension and quantitative measurement is not difficult. 
Primary purpose of this investigation was to determine the laws controlling the 
movement of coarser material swept along the channel bed, especially the 
relation of the load to the stream's slope and discharge, and to the degree of 
comminution of the debris. Velocities at stream bed were not satisfactorily 
measured. Experiments were made with both straight and crooked channels, 
and with both natural beds and flumes. 

GILBERT, G. K. Transportation of Detritus by Yuba River. 1908. (Bulletin, 
Geological Society of America, v. 18, p. 657-659.) 

GILBERT, G. K. United States Geological Survey's Hydraulic Laboratory at 
Berkeley, Cal. 1908. (Science, v. 50, n. s., v. 27, p. 469.) Outlines briefly 
experimentation to determine quantitatively the laws controlling the transporta- 
tion of detritus by running water. 

GRAHAM, JAMES C. On a Peculiar Method of Sand-Transportation by Rivers. 
1890. (American Journal of Science, v. 140, p. 476.) Discusses an instance 
of the "transportation of siliceous sand upon the surface of the water, due to 
capillary floating." "Coarse sand can be floated away by a current of far 
less velocity than 0.45 miles per hour. . . . Indicates a possible explanation of 
the coarser particles of sand occasionally found in otherwise very fine deposits." 

GRAS, SCIPION. Etudes sur les Torrents des Alpes. 1857. (An7iales des Fonts 
et Chaussces, ser. 3, v. 14, p. 1-96.) Brings out the idea of saturation with 
solid material. Defines saturation in a stream as that state at which the least 
addition to the solid material already carried will cause a deposit ; and carry- 



1198 BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

ing power ("entrainement") as the total weight of material which a given 
stream in a state of saturation can carry. He assumes this power to vary 
directly with the velocity, density, and depth of the water, and, these quantities 
remaining constant, to vary with the volume, density, and form of solids. On 
these principles he explains erosion as a necessary consequence, when the 
saturation corresponding to the actual velocity is incomplete. 

GUERARD, ADOLPHE. Mouth of the River Rhone. 3 diag., 1 pi. 1885. (Min- 
utes of Proceedintis, Inst. C. E., v. 82, p. 305-336.) Presents data on silt 
transportation. Believes that most of the solid matter discharged by the Rh6ne 
is pushed along its bed. 

HAZEN, ALLEN. On Sedimentation. 2 diag. 1904. (Transactions, Am. See. 
C. E., V. 53, p. 45-88.) With discussion. Reviews Seddon's work on the 
subject, and discusses a number of assumptions for a theory of the process of 
sedimentation. 

HILL, LOUIS C. Solving the Silt Problem. 1914. (Engineering Record, v. 70, 
p. 609-610.) Reservoirs suggested as a remedy for muddy streams used for 
irrigation purposes, where the silt would otherwise tend to clog the irrigation 
canals. 

HOOKER, ELON HUNTINGTON. Suspension of Solids in Flowing Water. 1896. 
(Transactiuns, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 36, p. 239-324.) Discussion and cor- 
respondence, p. 325-339. Attributes suspension of sediment in flowing water 
to three causes: (1) resultant upward thrust due to eddies, caused by the 
irregular profile of the earth beneath, (2) resultant upward motion of solids 
due to fact that an immersed body tends to move faster than the mean velocity 
of the displaced water and in such motion tends to follow the line of least 
resistance, (3) viscosity of the water. Theories and process of suspension of 
solids are studied. Gives considerable attention to historical side of subject. 

HUMPHREYS, A. A. Improvement of the Entrance to the Mississippi River by 
Jetties. (Annual Report [U.S.], Chief of Engineers, 1875, pt. 1, p. 959-964.) 
Discusses formation of bars by deposition of sediment where water from river 
meets salt water. 

HUMPHREYS, A. A. Report of the Chief of Engineers [on the Ship Canal from 
the Mississippi River, near Fort St. Philip, to Isle au Breton Pass]. (Annual 
Report [U.S.], Chief of Engineers, 1874, pt. 1, p. 854-867.) Discusses sedi- 
ment in rivers, and its transportation and deposition. 

HUNT, T. STERRY. Deposition of Clays. 1874. (Proceedings, Boston Society of 
Natural History, v. 16, p. 302-304.) Discusses the conditions under which 
clay in suspension will settle. 

JASMUND, R. Die Regulirung der Rhone. 5 diag., 3 pi. 1900. (ZeitscKriift 
fiir Bamvesen, v. 50, p. 249-290.) Gives the quantities of silt and debris 
carried by the river. 

JOHNSON, J. B. Results of Sand Wave and Sediment Observations. (Annual 
Report [U. S.], Chief of Engineers, 1879, pt. 3, p. 1963-1970.) Daily sedi- 
ment observations were taken, and calculations made therefrom. 

JOHNSON, J. B. Three Problems in River Physics. 1884. (Proceedings, Am. 
Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, v. 33, p. 276-288.) First of three 
problems discussed is "The Transportation of Sediment and the Formation and 
Removal of Sand-bars." Considers means of transportation of sediment, (1) by 
continuous suspension, (2) by discontinuous suspension, (3) by rolling along 
the bottom. 

JOLLOIS. Demonstration Experimentale de la Puissance de Suspension de I'Eau 
en Mouvement. 1893. (Le Genie Civil, v. 22, p. 278-279.) 

Condensed translation, 1893. (Engineering News, v. 29, p. 283.) 

LEACH, SMITH S. Report ... on Observations at Carrollton, La., December, 1879, 
to October, 1880. (Annual Report [U.S.], Chief of Engineers, 1883, pt. 3, 
p. 2209-2225.) Includes velocity measurements, and sediment observations. 

LECHALAS. Note sur les Rivieres a Fond du Sable. 1871. (Annales des Pants 
et Chaussees, ser. 5, v. 1, p. 381-431.) Valuable paper, abstracted by 
"Gilbert" and by "Hooker". Takes exception to the theory attributing sus- 
pension to the phenomenon of relative velocities. He urges that this assumes 
flow in parallel filaments which corresponds in no wise to movements under 
great velocities. His explanation attributes suspension to repeated shocks from 
the molecules of water moving more rapidly than the suspended body, and to 
the action of eddies caused by the banks and bottom. Attempts to derive 
numerical results for the values of the mean depth, mean velocity, and fall, in 
alluvial rivers, which will follow the contraction in width throughout a given 
length by training walls. 

LEINER. Zur Erforschung der Geschiebe- und Sinkstoffbewegungen. 9 diag., 4 
dr. 1912. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauiveseri, v. 62, p. 489-516.) Describes apparatus 
and methods of measuring silt movements. 



Papers.] BEAIUXG VALUE OF SOILS 1199 

McMATH, ROBERT E. Mississippi as a Silt Bearer. 1879. (Van Nostrand'8 
Kniiiiicct iti(j Maiimine, v. 20, p. 218-234.) Detailed discussion of observed 
facts ami measurements. 

McMATH. ROBERT E. Silt Movement by the Mississippi; Its Volume, Cause, and 
Conditions. 1882. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 1, p. 26G-275.) Considers 
volume of solid matter borne by river, mode of its conveyance, and conditions 
of deposit and removal. 

188.'?. (V(tn Nostrand's Engineering Mafja^ine, v. 28, p. 32-39.) 

McMATH, ROBERT E. Theory and Application of the Permeable System of 
Works for the Improvement of Silt-bearing Rivers. 1879. (Engineering Neivs, 
V. C, p. 353-35.^.) Gives views of writer, in form of skeleton argument, to 
show that in silt-bearing streams "moving material may be arrested and con- 
trolled as to location and forms of deposit by artificial means, and rendered 
permanent in such location and form." 

MOLLER, M. Wasserkliiruug durch Absetzen. 5 diag., 4 dr. 1890. (Schil- 
Hnn's Journal fur Gasbclcuchtung und Verivniidte Belcuchtungsarten sowie fiir 
^\'asservcrsorgung, v. 33, p. 8-13, 30-33.) Seddon's theory of sedimentation. 

MOLLER, M. Zum Studium des Flussbaues. Die Stosscraft des Wassers, die 
Festigkeit der Sohle, das Gelfiille, das Geschiebe und die Bewegung feinerer 
Sinkstoffe. 2 diag. 1890. (Zcitschrift fiir Bauwescn, v. 40, p. 481-504.) 

NAGLE, J. C. Progress Report on Silt Measuremeats. 1902. (United States 
Department of .Agriculture. Experiment Stations, Bulletin lOJ/, p. 293-324.) 
Irrigation investigations for 1000. Reports results of observations on silt con- 
ditions, principally on the Brazos and Wichita Rivers, Texas. Includes test 
methods and test data, and suggests remedies for silt problem. 

NAOLE, J. C. Second Progress Report on Silt Measurements. 1902. (United 
States Department of Agriculture. Experiment Stations, Bulletin 119, p. 365- 
392.) Irrigation investigations for 1901. Reports results of ob«;ervations on 
silt conditions, principally on the Brazos and Wichita Rivers, Texas. Includes 
test methods and test data, and suggests remedies for silt problem. 

NAQLE, J. C. Third Progrc'^s Report on Discharge and Silt Measurements on 
Texas Streams. 1903. (United States Department of Agriculture. Experiment 
Stations, Bulletin 133, p. 196-217.) Irrigation investigations for 1902. 
Reports results of observations on silt conditions in several Texas streams. 
Includes test methods and test data, and suggests remedies for silt problem. 

PARTIOT, HENRI LEON. Estuaries. 1 pi. 1894. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. 
C. E., V. 118, p. 47-77.) Abridged translation from the French. 

PIERCE, RAYMOND C. Measurement of Silt-laden Streams. 1916. (United 
State Geological Survey. Water Siippli/ Paper J/OO-C, p. 39-51.) Briefly 
describes the San Juan River and the gauging station established by the United 
States Geological Survey about 100 miles above the mouth of the river. 
Describes the methods used in overcoming the difficulties encountered in making 
discharge measurements of a stream having high velocities, large quantities of 
drift, shifting channel, and rapid fluctuations in its stage. Gives results in 
form of tables and curves. 

[REPORT OF] MISSISSIPPI RIVER COMMISSION. 1883. (Annual Report, 
[U. S.] Chief of Engineers, pt. y,, p. 2111-2375.) Extended observations on 
sediment movement and sand wavts. 

REPORT OF THE MISSOURI RIVER COMMISSION. 1887. (Annual Report, 
[U.S.] Chief of Engineers, 1887, pt. 4, p. 2913-3132.) Numerous illustra- 
tions. Extensive observations on sediment movement and sand waves. 

RICHARDS, ROBERT H., and WOODWARD, A. E. Velocities of Bodies of Different 
Specific Gravity Falling in Water. 1890. (Transactions, Am. Inst. Min. 
Engrs., v. 18, p. 644-648.) Tabulates different substances with regard to 
specific gravity and to fall per second in water. 

RIEDEL, JOSEF. Ueber Geschiebfiihrung und Murgange der Wildbache nebst ihrer 
Bedeutung fiir die Arlbahn. 9 diag. 1871. (Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen 
Ingenieur-und Architekten-Vereines, v. 23, p. 113-117, 151-154.) Examples 
of dangerous "murgange", canals through which semi-fluid mass passes at 
considerable velocity, but with little deposit. 

SCMEERER, THEODOR. Einige Beobachtungen iiber das Absetzen aufgeschlemmter 
pulverfbrmiger Korper in Fliissigkeiten. 1851. (Annalen der Physik und 
Chcniie. v. 170, p. 419-429.) 

SCHLEPPKRAFTGESETZ. 1905. (Zeitschrift, Osterreiehischen Ingenieur-und 
Architekten-Vereines, v. 57, pt. 1, p. 46, 169-170.) For water, with regard 
to transportation of silt and debris. Letters to editor by F. Kreuter and 
H. Engels. 

SCHULZE, FRANZ. Die Sedimentar-erscheinungen und ihr Zusammenhang mit 
verwandten physikalischen Verhaltnissen. 1866. (Annalen der Physik und 
Chemie, v. 217. p. 366-383.) 



1200 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

SEDDON, JAMES A. Clearing Water bv Settlement; Observations and Theory. 
3 diag., 1 dr., 7 pi. 1889. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 8, p. 477-492.) 

SEDDON, JAMES A. Notes on Sediment Observations of 1879 at Saint Charles, 
Missouri. (Annual Report, [U. S.] Chief of Engineers, 1887, pt. 4, p. 3090- 
3096.) 

SIEDEK, RICHARD. Studie iiber die Bestimmung der Normalproflle geschiebe- 
fiihrender Gewasser. 9 diag., 4 pi. 1905. (Zeitftchrift, Oesterreichischen 
Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 57, pt. 1, p. 61-73, 77-84.) Data for 
many rivers. 

SILT AND SCOUR. 1 diag. 1906. (The Engineer, London, v. 102, p. 391-392.) 
Review of Bellasis's theory of erosion and silt formation advanced in his book 
"Hydraulics with. .. Tables". 

■ Abstract. 1907. (Le Genie Civil, v. 50, p. 275.) 

SUTER, CHARLES R. Report on Portion of the Third Subdivision of the Missis- 
sippi Route. (Annual Report, [U. S.] Chief of Engineers, 1875, pt. 2, p. 496- 
521.) Discusses (p. 502-504) movement of sand suspended in stream. 

THOMAS, B. F., and WATT, D. A. Improvement of Rivers, ed. 2. 2 v. 1913. 
Wiley. Includes considerable material on transportation of sediment, erosion 
and protection of banks, etc. 

THOULET, J. Dosage des Sediments Fins en Suspension dans les Eaux Naturelles. 
1889. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, 
v. 109, p. 831-832.) 

THOULET, J. Experiences Relatives k la Vitesse des Courants d'Eau ou d'Air, 
Susceptibles de Maintenir en Suspension des Grains Mineraux. 1884. (Annales 
des Mines, Memoires, v. 164, p. 507-530.) 

THOULET, J. Experiences Relatives ^ la Vitesse des Courants d'Eau ou d'Air, 
Susceptibles de Maintenir en Suspension des Grains Mineraux. 1885. (Annales 
des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 9, p. 492-500.) Abstract of a paper in 
Bulletin de la Societe Mineralogique de France. Experiments to determine the 
force required to keep particles of different sizes and densities suspended in 
water. 

THOULET, J. Experiences sur la Sedimentation. 1890. (Comptes Rendus Heb- 
domadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. Ill, p. 619-620.) 

THOULET, J. Recherches Experimentales sur la Vitesse des Courants d'Eau ou 
d'Air Susceptibles de Maintenir en Suspension des Grains Mineraux. 1883. 
(Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de TAcademie des Sciences, v. 97, 
p. 1513-1514.) 

ULLER, K. Ueber den Verdrangungswiderstand fester Korper in Gasen und 
Flussigkeiten. 1907. (Annalen der Physik, v. 340, p. 179-196.) Mathe- 
matical paper devoted to mechanics of suspension. 

VAUTHIER, L. L. L'Entrainement et le Transport par les Eaux Courantes des 
Vases, Sables et Graviers. (Memoires et Compte Rendu des Travaux de la 
Societe des Ingenieurs Civils, 1885, pt. 2, p. 29-36.) Discusses action of 
flowing water, by which materials heavier than water are transported or held 
in suspension. 

• Condensed translation. 1884. (Engineering News, v. 12, p. 211.) 

WELCH, ASHBEL. [Presidential] Address. 1882. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., 
v. 11, p. 153-180.) Discusses (p. 160-165) transportation of silt by Mississippi 
River and erosion of river banks. 

WHEELER, WILLIAM HENRY. Application of the Transporting Power of Water 
to the Deepening and Improvement of Rivers. 2 diag. 1889-1890. (The 
Engineer, London, v. 68, p. 343-344, 383; v. 70, p. 42-43.) Attempts 
to show that the transporting power of water may be economically applied to 
the improvement of rivers by breaking up shoals, or the natural bed of rivers, 
by mechanical means and by mixing the material with the water and allowing 
it to be carried away to the sea or estuary in suspension. 

WHEELER, WILLIAM HENRY. Tidal Rivers; Their Hydraulics, Improvement, 
Navigation. 467 p. 1893. Longmans, London. "Transporting Power of 
Water," p. 59-69. 

WILLIS, BAILEY. Conditions of Sedimentary Deposition. 1893. (Journal of 
Geohxjii, V. 1, p. 476-520.) Studies for students. Discusses erosion, trans- 
portation, distribution, chemical deposition, etc. 

SLIDES, SLIPS AND SUBSIDENCES. 

ANDREWS, HORACE. Earth Settlement in City Streets. 1906, (Municipal Engi- 
neering, V. 31, p. 361-366.) Paper before American Society of Municipal 
Improvements. Largely a compilation of material previously published on the 
properties and behavior of clayey soils. 



Papers.] HKAUIXO VALUE OF SOILS 1201 

BARROUA1AN, JAMES. Slips in a Saiidbanl<. 1 ill. ]902. {rransactio7is, Inst. 
Min. ICngr.s,, v. 23, p. 154.) Notes on photograph o£ section in a British 
sandbank, clearly showing lines of slip. 

BAUMQARTEN, KARL. Thunder Mountain Landslide. 1910. (Mining and 
Scientific Ficss. v. 101, p. C98-699.) Describes progress of landslide or mud 
flow. 

BLACK, R. P. Remedies for Landslides and Slips on the Kanawha and Michigan 
Railway. 3 dr., 1 pi. 1911. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 71, p. 1-10.) 
With discussion. 

BOLTE. Die Rutschungen an der Bcbra-IIauauer Eisenbahn. 7 pi. 1871. 
(Zeitschrift fur Bauwescn, v. 21, p. G9-82, 251-2G7, 379-390.) 

BORRIES, von. Erhohung des Bahndammes zwischen Hamburg und Bergedorf, 
unter besonderer Beriicksichtiguug der aufgetreteuen Rutschungen. 1 dr., 1 pi. 
1S91. (Zcitschrift fiir Bauwcsen, v. 41, p. 525-532.) 

CAMBIE, H. J. Unrecorded Property of Clay. 1902. (Transactions, Can. Soc. 
C. E., V. 16, p. 197-199.) Discussion, p. 200-215. On landslides and 
their prevention. 

1907. (Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, Bulletin No. 88, p. 22- 

34.) 

Abstract. 1903. (Engincerinq News, v. 49, p. 38.) See also letter to editor, 

p. 104. 

CANADA — GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Report on the Great Landslide at Frank 
[Alberta]. 17 p.. 14 ill., 2 charts, 2 maps. 1903. (Extracts from pt. 8 
of the Annual Report of the Department of the Interior of Canada, 1903.) 

CARPENTER, FRANK G. Creep in the Panama Canal ; Conditions Caused by, and 
the .Method of Dealing with, the Large Masses of Moving Earth and Rock. 
1912. (Mines and Minerals, v. 33, p. 39-41.) 

CARTAULT, Note sur les Glissements de Terrains dans les Tranchees Argileuses 
de la Ligne de Paris a Lyon entre Brunoy et Bois-le-Rois. 1894. (Annates 
dcs Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 7, v. 8, p. 377-392.) Discusses treatment of land 
slides in clayey trenches. 

CARTER, HENRY H. Settlement of the Embankment between Squantum and 
Moon Island, Boston Main Drainage Works. 1892. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, 
V. 11, p. 355-362.) Gives results of observations on settlement of mud 
embankment, overlaid by gravel and filling material. 

CHARIE-MARSAIENES. Memoire sur les Travaux du Bief de Partage du Canal 
du Xiveruais. 8 pi. 1848. (Annates dcs Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 2, v. 15, 
p. 1-112.) Presents data on earth pressures in connection with the building 
of the canal, describes slides and methods of their prevention, p. 21, 23, 31, 
35, 69, 103, 105. 

CLARKE, D. D. A Phenomenal Land Slide. 1904. (Transactions, Am. Soc, 
C. E., v. 53, p. 322-397.) Discussion, p. 398-412. Describes surveys and 
explorations, made over a long period, on slopes of two reservoirs of the city 
of Portland, Ore., to determine dimensions of landslide, its cause and means for 
prevention. 

COMBER, W. G. Dredging Work on the Panama Canal Slides. 1915. (Engineer- 
ing News, v. 73, p. 753-757.) 

COMOY. Notice sur Divers Travaux de Consolidation de Terrains Eboules. 3 pi. 
1875. (Annales des Pont et Chaussees, ser. 5, v. 10, p. 8-51.) An account 
of various works undertaken for repairing landslides. 

Abstract. 1875. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 42, pp. 268-271.) 

COOPER, ROBERT ELLIOTT. Causes of Earth Slips in the Slopes of Cuttings 
and Embankments of Railways, and How to Prevent or Remedy Them. 1899. 
(Minutes of Proceedings. Inst. C. E., v. 138, p. 383-385.) States that "slips 
in embankments are chiefly of two descriptions. First, where the material 
composing the embankment slips ; secondly, where the surface of the ground 
upon which the embankment rests slips away on the underlying strata. Gives 
means of remedying." 

1899. (The Engineer, London, v. 87, p. 612.) 

1899. (Engineering, v. 67, p. 826.) 

CORNISH, VAUGHAN. On Landslides Accompanied by Upheaval in the Culebra 
Cut of the Panama Canal. 1913. (Engineering, v. 96, p. 443-444.) Author's 
view is that the mistake in not foreseeing the slides was due to disregard of 
chemical considerations, of the chemical action of rain water on the previously 
protected fragments ejected from volcanoes. The frequent occurrence of large 
upheavals was due to stratification. 

Abstract. 1913. (Report of the Eighty-third Meeting, British Assoc, for the 

Advancement of Science, p. 609.) 



1202 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

CORNrSH, VAUGHAN. Panama Canal and the Philosophy of Landslides. 1913. 
(Edinburgh Review, v. 217, p. 21-42.) Deals mainly with description and 
occurrence of landslides along the Panama Canal. 

COST OF SLIDES AND BREAKS IN CULEBRA CUT, PANAMA CANAL, IN CUBIC 

Yards of Excavation. 1912. (EngincerUig News, v. 68, p. 607.) 

CURTIS, W. G. Notes on a Mountain Slide. 1 diag., 1 dr., 3 ill. 1891. (Trans- 
actions, Am. Soc. C. E., V. 24, p. 556-563.) With discussion. In Northern 
California. 

DARTON, N. H. Novel Plan for Stopping a Landslide at Mount Vernon. 1915. 
(Engineering News, v. 73, p. 369-370.) The danger was averted by draining 
the water from, a sandstone substratum. A masonry wall was built along the 
river's edge to prevent further undercutting by the waves. 

DAWLEY, W. M. Drainage of Soft Spots in Old Roadbed. 1907. (Proceedings, 
Eighth Annual Convention, Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, 
V. 8, p. 541-554.) Drainage to prevent settlement of track at soft spots. 
Discusses classification of soft spots and slips. 

1907. (Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, Bulletin No. 87, 

p. 4-17.) 

DAWSON, GEORGE M. Remarkable Landslip in Portneuf County, Quebec. 1 
diag., 4 ill. 1899. (Bulletin, Am. Geol. Soc, v. 10, p. 484-490.) 

DISASTER AT FRANK, N. W. T. An Account of the Slide on Turtle Mountain 
which Destroyed the Town of Frank and a Section of the Canadian Pacific 
R. R. 1903. (Mines and Minerals, v. 23, p. 559-560.) 

DRAINING AND STEADYING SLIPS. 1904. (Railroad Gazette, v. 37, p. 317- 
318.) 

DUMAS, A. Les Eboulements de la Tranchee Centrale du Canal de Panama ; Etat 
General d'Avancement des Travaux du Canal. 1913. (Le Genie Civil, v. 62, 
p. 401-407.) Reviews conditions in the Culebra Cut, and the vast quantity 
of work caused by the earth slides there. 

EARTH SLIDE AT THE NORTH DIKE OF THE WACHUSETT RESERVOIR. 1907. 
(Engineei'ing Record, v. 55, p. 515-516.) Soil of embankment was a very 
fine, impermeable sand. 

EXTENSIVE EARTH SLIPPAGE SHUTS DOWN CEMENT PLANT. 1915. (Engi- 
neering News, v. 74, p. 330-332.) Account of the successive slipping of 
large slices of clay soil at Greenport plant of Knickerbocker Portland Cement 
Company, near Hudson, N. Y. Illustrations of damaged property ; diagram 
of area affected ; description of slides ; topography of the land, and nature of 
soil. 

EXTENT AND VOLUME OF EARTH SLIDES AT CULEBRA CUT, PANAMA CANAL, 

and the Remedy Being Employed. 1912. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 38, 
p. 374-375.) Assigns two reasons: the sliding of one stratum on another, 
and the squeezing out of the softer underlying material, owing to the heavy 
weight above. 

FERNOW, B. E. Avalanches. 1890. (Transactions, Am. Inst. Min. Engrs., v. 18, 
p. 583-597.) Considers extent, nature, and causes, protective measures, and 
rescue work. Chief attention to snow, comparing its action to that of sand. 
Advocates reforestation or construction of artificial retaining works. 

FORD, FREDERICK L. Settlement of Lorraine Street, Hartford, Conn. 1902. 
(Engineering Record, v. 45, p. 172-173.) Describes progress of slow land 
slide and drainage method used in preventing further damage. 

FORSBERG, R. P. Earth Slide at Bellevue, Penn., and Suggestions for Arresting 
its Further Progress. 1914. (Engineering Neivs, v. 71, p. 15-18.) Cause 
of slide is believed to be the fact that a vein of fire-clay, thoroughly satu- 
rated with water, underlies the slide zone. The most effective solution 
would be to drain the clay thoroughly. 

GAILLARD, D. D. Culebra Cut and the Problem of the Slides. 1912. (Scientific 
A7nerican, v. 121, p. 388-390.) 

GENERAL GOETHALS ON THE PANAMA CANAL SLIDE CRITICS. 1916. (Engi- 
neering News, V. 76, p. 986-989.) Gives essential features of General 
Goethals' final statement on the slides in Gaillard Cut. Is a portion of his 
Annual Report to the Secretary of War. 

GOETHALS, GEORGE W. Slides at Panama. 1916. (Canal Record, v. 9, Sup- 
plement to January 5, 1916. 17 p.) Illustrated paper describing the slides 
and the methods adopted for dealing with them. Contains review of experi- 
ments made in attempting to check progress of slides. 

Condensed. 1916. (Engineering News, v. 75, p. 417.) 



Tapers. 1 BEAETNG VALUE OF SOILS 1203 

GREGORY, CHARLES MUTTON. On Ftailway Cuttings and Embankments, with an 
Account of Some Slips in the London Clay, on the Line of the London and 
Croydon Railway. 1844. {Minutes of Procecdinijs, Inst. C. E., v. 3. p. 
135-145.) Discussion, p. 145-173. Describes slips in railway cuttings 
caused by increased lateral pressure due to vibrations. 

HAYES, C. W. Slides In Culebra Cut. 1910. (Canal Record, v. 4, p. 115.) 
Report to the President by the Chief Geologist of the United States Geologi- 
cal Survey. Recommends the employment of a competent geologist regularly 
until completion of the canal. Record of geological facts, as revealed by exca- 
vation, should be studied, and additional core drill records should be obtained. 
Geologist should co-operate with engineers in determining economical slopes. 

HARTE, CHARLES RUFUS. Stop Slides by Releasing Accumulated Water at Bulls 
Ridge Hydro-electric Plant. 191G. (Entjinecring Record, v. 73, p. 696-698.) 
Illustrated article describing causes of and remedies for land slides that 
threatened the operation of a hydro-electric plant in Connecticut. 

HOWARD, E. E. Making Earthwork Approach to Columbia River Bridge. 1916. 
[Eniiincerino Neics, v. 75, pt. 1, p. 145-149.) Treats, in part, of a special case 
of earth settlement, and of the overthrow of a masonry pier by an earth slip. 

HOWE, ERNEST. Landslides in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, Including a 
Consideration of Their Causes and Their Classification. 55 p. 1909. (United 
States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 67.) 

HUNT, E. B. On the Use of Salt-marsh Sods for Facing the Steep Slopes of Para- 
pets, Terraces, etc. 1855. (Proceedings, Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of 
Science, v. 9, p. 272-275.) Were used successfully for parapet work of a fort 
at Gloucester, Mass., and at Fort Adams. 

IMPROVEMENT OF A SLIDING CUT ON THE CLEVELAND, CINCINNATI, CHICAGO 
and St. Louis Ry. 1908. (Engineering News, v. 59, p. 478-479.) Improve- 
ment by better drainage. 

ISAACS, JOHN D. Stopping a Troublesome Slide at a Summit Tunnel. 1895. 
i Journal. Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 15, p. 113-123.) Concrete retaining wall, 
pierced by a tunnel. 

LAMOTHE. Note sur les Travaux de Consolidation de la Tranches de I'Estoura 
sur le Chemin de Fer de Marvejols a, Neussargues. 1 pi. 1890. (Annates des 
Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 20, p. 231-238.) Describes railway slides and 
methods of repair. 

LANDSLIDE AT CROW'S NEST PASS. 1907. (Engineering and Mining Journal, 
v. 84, p. 1110.) Note on inspection of mountain to determine probability of 
land slide. Officials of the mining company report that camp is in no danger. 
The fissure which caused alarm is merely a widening of the natural jointage 
planes. The rock strata are nearly horizontal, and the slope of the mountain 
is less than the angle of rest. 

LANDSLIDES. 1903. (Engineering Record, v. 48, p. 581-582.) Editorial dep- 
recating the lack of literature on this subject in English, and suggesting a 
thorough acquantance with the foreign literature on slides. 
LANDSLIDES ON THE BOLAN RAILWAY, INDIA. 1893. (Engineering News, 
V. 29. p. 268.) Discusses movement where a whole mountain seems to slide. 

LAURENCE, W. K. Saltford Slip. 1900. (Transactions, Inst. Min. Engrs., v. 20, 
p. 476.) Landslide in side of railway cut made sixty years before. Due 
probably to percolation of water down to an inclined bed of limestone, perhaps 
furthered by vibration of passing trains. 

LEFEBVRE, RENE. Memoire sur la Constitution des Terres et sur les Accidents 
dans les Terrains Argileux. 6 dr. 1878. (Annates des Ponts et Chaussees, 
ser. 5, v. 16, p. 390-445.) Paper was translated by Lieut. F. A. Mahan. Con- 
siders slips in cuts and fills as due to pressure of contained water and dependent 
on the permeability and penetrability of the earths present. Studies the con- 
struction of various earths in this respect. Develops a theory of slips and dis- 
cusses practical methods of prevention, giving examples of their application. 

Translation. 6 dr. 1882. (Transactions, Engineers' Society of Western Penn- 
sylvania, v. 1, p. 70-105.) 

LEHWALD. Die Rutschungen auf der Theilstrecke Treysa-Malsfeld (Nordhausen- 
Wetzlar) im Zuge der Berlin-Coblenzer Eisenbahn. 11 dr., 5 pi. 1885. 
(Zcitschrift fiir Bautcesen, v. 35, p. 209-231.) 

LOW, EMILE. A Large Land-slide. 2 diag. 1892. (Proceedings, Engrs. Club 
of Philadelphia, v. 9, p. 245-247.) Slide in cut on Clinch Valley Division of 
Norfolk and Western Railroad. 

.\bstract. 1892. (Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 53, p. 134.) Dis- 
cussion by E. V. d'Invilliers. 



1201 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

MacDONALD, DONALD F. Landslides of Culebra Cut. 1912. (Annual Report, 
Isthmian Canal Commission, 1912, p. 205-214.) Names four types of slides, 
(1) those resulting from structural breaks and deformations, (2) normal or 
gravity slides, (3) fault-zone slides, (4) those resulting from weathering and 
surface erosion. Causes and remedies for each are discussed. 

MacDONALD, DONALD F. Slides in the Culebra Cut at Panama; a Review of 
Geological Conditions in the Canal Site, Together with a Description of the 
Types of Slides and Their Causes. 1912. {Engineering Record, v. 66, p. 228- 
233.) See also Editorial, p. 225. Concludes that "when the slopes shall have 
been reduced to the proper angle . . . , the slide problem will be practically 
solved." 

MacDONALD, DONALD F. Sliding Ground in Culebra Cut. 1913. (Engineering 
Neivs, V. 70, p. 408.) Gives reasons why methods of preventing earth and rock 
slides proposed by Rice would not be applicable to Culebra Cut slides, along 
the Panama Canal. 

MERRICK, A. W. Clay Slide at the Boone Viaduct, Boone, Iowa. 1906. (Jour- 

nal, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 11, p. 332-334.) Discussion, p. 335-339. 

Successful draining stopped the slide. 
1907. (Proceedings, Eighth Annual Convention, Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance 

of Way Assoc, p. 555-582.) 

• 1907. (Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, Bulletin 88, p. 4-11.) 

METHODS AND COST OF ELECTRIC SHOVEL WORK REMOVING SLIDES AND 

Slide Cutting for Electric Railways. 1915. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 43, 

p. 154-155.) Includes tables of cost data. 
MOLITOR, DAVID, Landslides. 1894. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 13, p. 

12-32.) Discusses and classifies slides, and works out formula for earth 

pressure on walls. 
MORRIS, GEORGE A. Earth Slips on the Jordan Level Marl Beds of the Erie 

Canal. 1898. (Engineering News, v. 40, p. 338-339.) Describes remedy 

adopted. 
NEWLAND, D. H. Water-Soaked Bed of Blue Clay Caused Land-Slip at Cement 

Plant near Hudson. 1915. (Engineering Record, v. 72, p. 253-254.) Gives 

reasons for the land-slip which caused the wreck of the power-house of the 

Knickerbocker Portland Cement Company's plant at Greenport, N. Y. 
NEWMAN, JOHN. Earthwork Slips and Subsidences upon Public Works ; Their 

Causes, Prevention and Reparation. 234 p. 1890. 
NOVEL METHOD OF STOPPING A LANDSLIDE AT SEATTLE, WASH. 1894. 

(Engineering Nexcs, v. 31, p 387.) Method was to divert water from bed of 

hard, smooth clay, reducing the tendency of clay above to slide. 
OFFICIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FRANK DISASTER BY THE GEOLOGICAL 

Survey of Canada. 1903. (Engineering News, v. 49, p. 492.) 
PEARCE, WILLIAM. Great Rockslide at Frank, Alberta. 1903. (Engineering 

News, V. 49, p. 490-492.) 
POLLACK, VINCENZ. Ueber Seeufer-senkungen und Rutschungen. 4 pi. 1889. 

(Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 41, 

p. 5-21.) Extensive review of the literature on the subject. 
PORTIER, ARSENE. Glissement de Terrain au Viaduc du Gor (Bspagne). 1907. 

(Memoires et Compte Rendu dcs Travaux de la Societe des Ingenieurs Civils 

de France, 1907, pt. 1, p. 437-450.) 
RAILWAY LANDSLIDE AT CLEVELAND. 1903. (Engineering Record, v. 48, p. 

584.) 
REPORT BY A GEOLOGIST ON SLIDES IN CULEBRA CUT AND BY A BOARD 

of Engineers on the Revetment of the Sides of the Cut. 1911. (Engineerina 

News, V. 65, p. 21-22.) 
REPORT OF THE PANAMA CANAL SLIDE COMMISSION. 1916. (Engineering 

News, V. 75, p. 599.) Abstract of the preliminary report of the Commission 

nominated by the National Academy of Sciences, and appointed by President 

Wilson, to study the Panama Canal slides. 
RICE, GEORGE S. Suggested Method of Preventing Rock Slides. 1913. (Journal, 

Western Soc. of Engrs., v. IS, p. 585-602.) Discussion, p. 602-627. 

"Bibliography," p. 601 (24 references). Discusses and classifies types of 

slides as (1) those resulting from structural breaks and deformations, (2) 

normal or gravity slides, (3) fault-zone slides, (4) weather and surface erosion. 

Proposed plan for prevention provides for construction of underground retain- 
ing walls. 
Condensed. (Engineering News, v. 69, p. 1181.) 

ROCK SLIDE AT FRANK (ALBERTA). 1903. The Canadian Engineer, v. 10 

p. 164-166, 154.) 



i'ai'Cis-] BEARIXCf VALUE OF SOILS 1205 

ROHWER, H. Discussion on Earth Slides. 1907. (Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance 
of Way Assoc, Bulletin 90. p. 4-10.) Emphasizes importance of selection of 
material to be used In making fills. 

Condensed. 1907. (Engineering Record, v. 56, p. 374-375.) 

Condensed. 1907. (Engineering Neivs, v. 58, p. 563-564.) 

Condensed. 1907. (Railroad Gazette, v. 43, p. 724-726.) 

RUSSELL, ISRAEL C. Landslides. 1899. (Twentieth Annual Report, U. S. Geol. 
Survey, pt. 2, p. 193-204.) Explains conditions of soil occurrence under 
which landslides are likely to take place. Refers particularly to conditions in 
Northern "Washington. 

ST. ALBAN LANDSLIDE, NEAR QUEBEC. 1894. (Railroad Gazette, v. 26, p. 
458-459.) Description of remarkable landslide, and probable cause. 

1894. (Scientific A7ncrican Supplement, v. 38, p. 15477-15478.) 

SAVILLE, C.\LEB MILLS. Earth Slip in the Face of the Embankment of the 
North Dike of the Wachusett Reservoir. 1907. (Engineering News, v. 57, 
p. 464-405.) 

SHOVVALTER, WILLIAM JOSEPH. Battling with the Panama Slides. 1914. 
(Xational Geographic Magazine, v. 25, p. 133-153.) A descriptive rather 
than technical account of the difficulties encountered. 

SINKING LAND WRECKS CEMENT COMPANY'S POWER PLANT. 1915. (Engi- 
)u'cying RcconI, v. 72, p. 179-180.) Short illustrated article, with comment 
by D. W. Newland, Assistant New York State Geologist, on the sudden drop of 
supporting soil which caused the collapse of steel-frame building and 170-ft. 
chimney. 

SLIDES ON THE PANAMA CANAL. 1911. (Engineering News, v. 65, pp. 570- 
573.) Discusses underlying causes of slides in the Culebra Cut and best 
means of prevention. 

SMITH, FRANK B. Frank Disaster. 1903. (Canadian Mining Revieio, v. 22, p. 
102-103.) Details of rock slide. Turtle Mountain, Frank, Alberta. 

SMITH, R. W., and ZULCH, W. G. Solution of a Landslide Fault. 1914. (Engi- 
neering and Mining Journal, v. 97, p. 1090-1091.) Considers a Colorado gold 
district, in which an earth movement displaced the veins so that the outcrop 
portions were discontinuous. The sliding movement was studied by means of 
a topographic survey. 

SOULAVY, OTTOKAR, and SCHMIDT, CARL. Ueber Eisenbahnbau-und Recon- 
structions-Arbeiten im Rutschterrain. 1898. (Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen 
Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 50, p. 4-10, 18-22, 35-40.) Discusses 
nature of landslides as influenced by geological formation, and gives examples of 
construction work in different places. 

SPENCER, J. W. Landslide at Brantford, Ontario, Illustrating the Effects of 
Thrusts upon Yielding Strata. 1887. (American Naturalist, v. 21, p. 267- 
269.) 

SPRAGUE, N. S. Improvement of Chislett Street, Pittsburgh : Method of Sup- 
porting a Street over an Earth Slide by Using a Special Reinforced-Concrete 
Retaining Wall and Platform. 1914. (Engineering Record, v. 69, p. 389.) 
A construction was adopted which would be independent of ground movements. 
Two rows of concrete piles, 12 ft. apart, were driven into firm ground. 

STANTON, ROBERT BREWSTER. Great Land-slides on the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
way in British Columbia. 1897. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 132, 
p. 1-20.) Discussion, p. 21-46. Describes slides. Considers cause to be the 
irrigation water soaking downward into the silt. 

Condensed. 1898. (Engincei-ing, v. 65, p. 29.) 

TRATMAN, E. E. R. Foreign Railway Construction in Sliding Ground. 1906. 
(Journal, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 11, p. 339-350.) Gives instances of earth 
slides along various European railways, with methods of remedying, mainly by 
improved drainage. 

1907. (Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, Bulletin 88, p. 12-21.) 

TURTLE MOUNTAIN ROCK SLIDE. 1903. (Engineering and Mining Journal, v. 
70, p. 10-12.) Discusses slide and structure of mountain at Frank, Alberta. 

VAN HORN, FRANK R. Landslide Accompanied by Buckling, and Its Relation to 
Local Anticlinal Folds. 1908. (Bulletin, Geol. Soc. of Am., v. 20, p. 625- 
632.) Describes slide at Cleveland and discusses causes. 

WHITLEY, HENRY MICHELL. Earthwork Slips on the Castle Eden and Stockton 
Railway. 2 diag. ISSO. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 62, p. 
28U-284.) 

YOUNG, L. E.. and STOEK, H. H. Subsidence Resulting from Mining. 205 p. 
1916. (University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin 91.) 
"Bibliography", p. 180-205. Exhaustive report prepared under co-operative 



1206 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

agreement between the University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, 
the Illinois Geological Survey, and the U. S. Bureau of Mines. Considers 
nature and theory of subsidence, resultant damage, protective measures, and 
legal considerations. Includes results of laboratory experiments. A valuable 
feature is the extensive classified bibliography. 

ZINN, A. S. Truth about the Culebra Cut Slides, Panama Canal. 1913. (Engi- 
neering News, v. 70, p. 406-408.) Discusses movement of earth and means of 
overcoming the difficulties. 

CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS. 

THEORY. 
See also Granular Materials. 

ADAMS, FRANK D., and COKER, ERNEST G. Investigation into the Elastic Con- 
stants of Rocks, more Especially with Reference to Cubic Compressibility. 
69 p. 1906. (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication No. Jf6.) 
Previously printed in part in American Journal of Scieiicc, v. 172, p. 95-123. 
Measurements were taken of the longitudinal contraction and lateral expan- 
sion under a longitudinal stress from which data all the elastic properties were 
estimated. 

ADAMS, FRANK D., and COKER, ERNEST G. Investigation into the Elastic Con- 
stants of Rocks, more Especially with Reference to Cubic Compressibility. 
6 diag., 6 dr. 1906. {American Journal of Science, v. 172, p. 95-123.) 

Abstract. 1907. (Beibldtter zu den Annalen der Physik, v. 31, pt. 1, p. 

186-187.) 

Abstract. 1907. {Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. B., v. 169, p. 476-477.) 

AIRY, WILFRID. On the Slopes of Cuttings. 1879. {Minutes of Proceedings. 
Inst. C. E., v. 55, p. 241-251.) Mathematical discussion on friction ef soils. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. Progress Report of the Special Com- 
mittee to Codify Present Practice on the Bearing Value of Sojls for Founda- 
tions. 1915. {Proceedings, Am. Soc. C. B., February, 1915. Papers and Dis- 
cussions, p. 491-513.) "Bibliography of physical properties and bearing value 
of soils," p. 497-513. Prepared by Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS. Progress Report of the Special Com- 
mittee to Codify Present Practice on the Bearing Value of Soils for Founda- 
tions. 1916. {Proceedings, Am. Soc. C. E., March, 1916. Papers and Dis- 
cussions, p. 343-367.) Discussion, May, 1916, p. 821-822. Second report, 
directing attention to two fundamental phases of the problem: (1) Present 
practice on the bearing value of soils. (2) Physical characteristics of soils 
in relation to engineering structures. 

BASQUIN, O. H. Circular Diagram of Stress and Its Application to the Theory of 
Internal Friction. 1912. {Journal, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 17, p. 815-847.) 
Discussion, p. 847-849. Gives a mathematical discussion of the internal fric- 
tion of substances, using a method known as the circular diagram of stress. 
Also gives practical examples of the application of the theory. Pages 837-847 
devoted to earth stresses and piles. 

BELL, ARTHUR LANGTRY. Lateral Pressure and Resistance of Clay, and the 
Supporting Power of Clay Foundations. 1915. {Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. 
C. E., V. 199, p. 233-272.) Discussion, p. 272-336. Extensive, technical 
treatment of this one type of soil. Offers a modification of Rankine's theory, 
which, when applied to clay, yields results more in accordance with observed 
facts. Gives methods of testing used in determining properties of clay, and 
gives tables and diagrams listing the results obtained from tests. Gives con- 
siderable mathematical theory of the properties of clays. 

Condensed. {Architect and Contract Reporter, v. 93, p. 263-265.) 

BRANNER, JOHN C. Structural Engineering and Earthquakes. 1915. {Engi- 
neering Record, v. 72, p. 780-781.) Points out that earthquakes generally are 
not dangerous, and shows that the danger may be further mitigated by deter- 
mining the exact location of active "faults". Urges the co-operation of engi- 
neers, corporations, etc., in gathering data as to the locations of faults. 
CAIN, WILLIAM. Cohesion in Earth: the Need for Comprehensive Experimenta- 
tion to Determine the Coefficients of Cohesion. 1915. {Transactions, Am. 
Soc. C. E., V. 81. p. 1315-1325.) Discussion, p. 1326-1341. Shows that the- 
ories of earth pressures should consider cohesion as well as friction of the 
particles. Describes experiments performed to determine the coefl"ieient of 
cohesion. Gives short tables in which are shown figures for coefficients of 
friction and of cohesion of various kinds of soil. 



i':>P^'i-'^J IJEAUIXG VALUE OF SOILS 1207 

CAMERON. FRANK K. Dynamic Viewpoint of Soils. 1909. (Journal of InO.us- 
trinl and Kiipinccrintj Chemistry, v. 1, p. 80G-810.) A criticism of tlie .static 
thoory of soil.';. 

CHAPERON. Observations sur le M^moire de M. de Sazilly, Stability et Con- 
solidation des Talus. 1853. (Annalcs dcs Fonts et Chavssees, ser. 3, v 5, p. 
22.'5-230.) 

CHEN'OT. Nouvelle Th^orie de la Ponssee des Torres. 1861. (Comptes Rcndua 
Ilfbdomadaires des Stances de I'Acadgmie des Sciences, v. 53, p. 718.) Short 
abstract. Bases his theory on principles of Coulomb. 

CHENOT. Sur une Nouvelle Thfiorie de la Stability des Vofltes. 1861. (Comptes 
Rrndus Ilcbdomadaires des Stances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 53, p. 716- 
71S.) Based on work of Coulomb and Poncelet. 

COLIN. Recfierches sur les Glissenionts Spontnnes. Contenant I'Expose de quelques 
Nouvaaux Principes de Mecanique Terrestre. 1840. (Comptes Rendus 
Hchdomadaires des Stances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 10, p. 284.) Short 
abstract. Endeavors to prove that an earth prism of greatest power must 
ttTiiiinafe in a cycloid. 

COVVLES, WALTER L. Lateral Pressure in Clay from Superimposed Loads. 
1912. (Journal, "Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 17, p. 746-750.) Deduces formula 
to serve as basis for determining horizontal pressure from a vertical, super- 
imposed load. 

DAVVKINS, BOYD. On the Relation of Geology to Engineering. 2 diag., 2 111. 
1898. (Miiuites of Proceedincis, Inst. C. E., v. 134, p. 254-277.) "Relation of 
superficial accumulation to solid rocks", p. 209-272. 

EARTHWORKS. 1909. (The Engineer, London, v. 107, p. 265.) Consider espe- 
cially angle of slope desirable, and drainage. 

ECK.ARDT, A. Die mechanischen Einwirkungen des Abbaues auf das Verhalten 
des Gebirges. 1913. (Glilckanf, v. 49, pt. 1, p. 352-361, 397-403.) Studies 
reaction between mine workings and earth pressure, mine roofs being held up 
by arch action in the overlying masses. 

FRANCKE, ADOLF. Erddruck. 6 diag. 1901. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 51, 
p. 639-648.) Theory. 

GOL'PIL, A. Note sur la Determination Graphique de la Poussee des Terres. 4 
diag. 1888. (Le Genie Civil, v. 12, p. 404-405.) 

HETIER. Note sur le Calcul du Profll des Murs-Barrages. 8 diag., 1 pi. 1886. 
(Annalcs dcs Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 11, p. 615-636.) Mathematical 
paper. 

HOUSDEN, C. E. Rapid Earthwork Calculation. 31 p. 1914. Longman.s. Em- 
bodies improvements in earthwork calculation suggested by a careful recon- 
sideration of author's "Practical Earthwork Tables". Offers new tables 
intended to be simpler than former ones, and yet quite as useful and correct 
for all usual purposes. 

HUBBE. Ueber die Eigenschaften und das Verhalten des Schlicks. 1 pi. 1860. 
(Zeitschrift fur Bauwesen, v. 10, p. 491-520.) Results of extended experi- 
ments are given. 

KREV, H. Praktische Beispiele zur Bewertung von Erddruck, Erdwiderstand und 
Tragfahigkeit des Baugrundes in grosserer Tiefe. 12 diag. 1912. (Zeit- 
schrift fur Bamocsen, v. 62, p. 95-126.) 

LAUCHLI, EUGENE. Lining Long Tunnels and Tunnels Subjected to Heavy or Eccentric 
Ground Pressure. 1915. (Canadian Engineer, v. 28, p. 111-118.) Deals pri- 
marily with tunnel design and construction, but includes a section on earth 
pressure as a part of such design and construction, together with formulas and 
tables of data on earth pressure. 

LAUCHLI, EUGENE. Tunneling. 238 p. 1915. McGraw, N. Y. "Importance 
of Geological Surveys in Connection with Tunnel Driving", p. 1-8. "Deter- 
mination of the Rock Temperature in Deeply Overlaid Tunnels", p. 120-144. 
"Tunnels Driven through Soft Materials — Pressure Acting on Tunnels Driven 
Through Soft and Cohesionless Materials", p. 163-184. 

LeBLANC, CH. Examen Sommaire du Traite de la Stabilit6 des Constructions 
d'^^'' partie) du Docteur Scheffler. 1867. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, 
ser. 4, V. 13, p. 139-147.) 

MACEY, FRANK W. Specifications in Detail, ed. 2. 620 p. 1904. Crosby. 

General work on the writing of specifications. Contains information on soil 

characteristics, foundations, retaining walls, piles. Extensive index. 
MACNEILL, JOHN. Tables for Facilitating the Calculation of Earthwork in the 

Cuttings and Embankments of Railways, Canals, and Other Public Works, ed. 2. 

368 p. 1846. 



1308 BEARTXG VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

MERRILL, GEORGE P. Treatise on Rocks, Rock-Weathering and Soils. 411 p. 
1897. Macmillan. Part III, p. 173-284, covers weathering of rocks; Part IV, 
p. 286-292, covers transportation and redeposition of rock debris ; Part V, p. 
299-390, treats of the regolith, or the superficial, unconsolidated portion of 
the earth's crust. 

MERRIMAN, MANSFIELD. Theory and Calculation of Earthwork Slopes. 10 diag. 
1SS5. (Enqincerina Ncwa, v. 13, p. 174, 183, 199, 220-221, 237, 247, 263, 
278, 295, 311.) "Literature on the subject", p. 311. 

MOHLER, CHARLES K. Earth Pressures. 10 diag., 1 ill. 1910. (Joiirval. West- 
ern Soc. of Eogrs., V. 15, p. 765-791.) Discussion, 13 diag., 5 ill., p. 791- 
827. A study of the sliding prism theory of Vauban after the graphics 
of Rebhann and of the analytical theory of Rankine, attempting to show lack 
of agreement and fallacies in the theories ; also formulas and results from a 
new method. 

Condensed. 1911. (Railivay and Engineering Review, v. 51, p. 441, 458-460, 

1012-1014.) 

Editorial. 1910. (.Engineering Record, v. 61, p. 744.) 

MOSELEV, HENRY. On a New Principle in Statics, Called the Principle of Least 
Pressure. 1837. {London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal 
of Science, ser. 3, v. 3, p. 285-288.) Moseley's theorem served as a founda- 
tion for Rankine's theory of earth pressure. 

MOSELEV, HENRY. On the Theory of Resistances in Statics. 1837. (London 
and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, .ser. 3, v. 3, 
p. 431-436.) 

MOSELEV, HENRV. Mechanical Principles of Engineering and Architecture. 699 
p. 1860. Wiley, New York. "Natural Slope of Earth", p. 412-413. "Pres- 
sure of Earth", p. 413-416. 

NAQAOKA, H. Elastic Constants of Rocks and the Velocity of Seismic Waves. 
1 dr. 1900. (Philosoi^hical Magazine, v. 216, p. 53-68.) Reprint from Pub- 
lications of the Earthquake Investigation Committee in Foreign Languages, No. 
4. Tables of constants. 

Abstract. 1900. (Beiblattcr zu den Annalen dcr Physik, v. 24, p. 1246.) 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN .MACQUORN. Manual of Applied Mechanics, ed. 14. 
671 p. 1895. Griffin. Includes data on earth friction, earth foundations, 
pressure of earth, stability of earth, retaining walls, pile-driving. 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. Manual of Civil Engineering, ed. 24. 
822 p. 1911. Griffin. Includes data on properties and theories of earth, 
earthworks, foundations, piles and pile-driving, caissons, coffer-dams, and 
retaining walls. 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. On the Mathematical Theory of the 
Stability of Earthwork and Masonry. 1857. (Proceedings, Royal Soc. of 
London, v. 8, p. 60-61.) States and briefly explains the two fundamental prin- 
ciples on which his researches on earthwork are based. 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. On the Stability of Loose Earth. 1857. 
(Philosophical Transactions, Royal Soc. of London, v. 147, p. 9-27.) De- 
duces from known laws of friction, the mathematical theory of that kind of 
stability which depends on the mutual friction of the parts of a granular mass 
devoid of tenacity. 

Abstract. 1857. (Proceedings, Royal Soc. of London, v. 8, p. 1S5-187.) 

SAINT=QUILHEM. Memoire sur la Poussee des Terres avec ou sans Surcharge. 
1858. (Annalcs des Fonts et Chaussecs, ser. 3, v. 15, p. 319-350.) Mathe- 
matically finds the surface of rupture and pressure of earth against walls of 
various forms. Extends work done by Poncelet in this field. Gives angle 
of repose for various substances. 

SAINT-=VENANT, de. Resistance des Fluides. Considerations Historiques, Physiques 
et Pratiques Relatives au Probleme de I'Action Dynamique Mutuelle d'un 
Fluide et d'un Solide, Specialement dans I'Etat de Permanence SupposS 
Acquis par leurs Mouvements. 1886. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des 
Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 103, p. 179-184.) 

SAZILLY, de. Notice sur les Conditions d'Equilibre des Massifs de Terres, et 
sur les Revetements des Talus. 4 pi. 1851. (Annales des Pants et Chaussees, 
ser. 3, V. 1, p. 1-157.) 

TRESCA, H. Mfimoire sur I'Ecoulement des Corps Solides Soumis a de Fortes 
Pressions. 1864. (Comptes Rcjidus llcbdomndaires des Seances de I'Academie 
des Sciences, v. 59, p. 754-758.) Theory of the flow of solids under pressure. 

UNITED STATES — SOILS BUREAU. Soil Survey Field Book, Field Season, 1906. 
319 p. 1906. Includes data on classification of soils, analysis of soils, and an 
extensive description of established soil types. 



Papers.] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1209 

TESTING. 

Methods and Results. 
Sic also Piles, Testing. 

ARRANGEMENTS FOR SOIL-LOADING TESTS. 1 dr. 1914. (Engineering Ncios, 
V. 72. p. 647-64S.) Describes emcieut methods introduced by Wm. P. Snow, 
Lewiston, Me., and by E. MiCullougli. of Chicago. 

AL'CHINLECK, GILBERT. Measurement of Shrinkage in Soils and Its Application 
in .\griiulture. 1912. (^Vcst Indian DiiUclin, v. 12, p. 50-68.) States that 
".-hriiilvaKC determinations may be regarded as a measurement in the laboratory 
of the trouble that colloidal clay causes the planter in the fields." 

BAINBRIDGE, F. H. Methods and Costs of Testing for Bridge Foundations. 1908. 
(Engineering-Contracting, v. 30, p. 352-.354.) Describes making of borings, 
to determine character of foundation. Refers particularly to work on Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Railway bridge. 

BARBOUR. FRANK A. Strength of Sewer Pipe and the Actual Earth Pressure 
in Trenches. 2 diag., 3 dr. 1897. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 19, p. 193- 
241.) Gives results of experiments. 

.■\bstract. 1898. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 132, p. 409.) 

BOERNER, FR.\NZ. Kunstliche Fundierung des Geschiiftsgebaudes fur das Ober- 
landesgericht zu Diisseldorf. 1908. (Beton unci Eiscn, v. 7, p. 340-343, 
3()0-3i;4.) First part considers underlying soil strata, which were made up at 
successive depths of (1) filling, (2) layer of alluvial earth consisting of loose 
sand and fine blue sand mixed with a blue clayey material, and (3) a layer 
of coarse-grained gravel. Loading tests are given for the different soils. 

BRIGGS, LYMAN J., and others. Centrifugal Method of Mechanical Soil Analysis. 
38 p. 1904. (United States Soils Bureau, bulletin 2Ji.) Also discusses briefly 
other methods of mechanical soil analysis. 

BRIGGS, LYMAN J. Objects and Methods of Investigating Certain Physical Prop- 
erties of Soils. 1901. (Yearbook, United States Department of Agriculture, 
1900, p. 397-410.) Intended primarily for the agriculturalist, but contains 
much useful information for the engineer, such as mechanical analysis, tests 
for moisture content, and other physical properties. 

BRIGGS, LYMAN J. Some Necessary Modifications in Methods of Mechanical 
Analysis as Applied to Alkali Soils. 1899. (United States Department of 
Agriculture, Report No. 6Jf, p. 173-183.) Considers disintegration of soil dur- 
ing analysis, apparatus and method for examining soils subject to excessive 
disintegration, and advantages of centrifugal method for all soils, treatment 
of mechanical separations after ignition, and determination of water-soluble con- 
tent of soils. 

CAIN, WILLIAM. Earth Pressure. 1882. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Maga- 
zine, V. 26, p. 89-104.) Tests formula to find how closely practice confirms 
theory. 

CAIN, VVILLIA.M. Experiments on Retaining Walls and Pressures on Tunnels. 
21 diag. 1911. (Trayisactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 72, p. 403-448.) Discus- 
sion, 6 diag.. p. 449-474. Discusses a large number of experiments and gives 
conclusions therefrom. 

Abstract. 1911. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 185, p. 398.) 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE BUILDINGS, BRIDGES, PIERS, AND DOCKS AT JACKSON 
Park [Chicago]. 1893. (Engineering Record, v. 28, p. 199-201.) Gives 
results of numerous loading tests on Chicago soil, and values of its bearing 
capacity. 

CROIZETTE-DESNOYERS. Memoire sur rEtablissement des Travaux dans les 
Terrains Vaseaux de Bretagne. 8 pi. 1864. (Annales des Ponts et Chaus- 
srcs, ser. 4, v. 7, p. 273-396.) Gives experiments on the resistance of soil, 
p. 279-281. 

CROOK, T. Method for the Mechanical Analysis of Soils. 1905. (United States 
Department of Agriculture, Experiment Station Record, v. 17, p. 340.) Modi- 
fication of Schone apparatus is used, having as its essential features (1) a 
constant-level water reservoir that can be adjusted to any desired height, and 
(2) an elutriator which is conical both above and below the cylindrical portion. 

Ab.stract. (Econ. Proc, Royal Dublin Soc, v. 13, p. 267-280.) 

DUMONT, J. Sur une Nouvelle Methode d'Analyse Physique du Sol. 1911. 
(Comptcs Rendus Hchdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 
153, p. 889-891.) Sand particles obtained by ordinary methods of elutriation 
were covered with a humus clay coating of complex composition. It is pro- 
posed to remove this before mechanical analysis by treatment with oxalic acid. 

EMPERGER, FRITZ von. Probebelastung einer "Compressor' -pylone. 1908. (Beton 
und Eisen, v. 7, p. 49-55.) Gives tabulated results of tests. 



1210 BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

ENGELS, H. Untersuchungen iiber den Seitendruck der Erde auf Fundament- 
korper. 10 diag., 2 pi. 1896. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 46, p. 409-432.) 
Methods and results of extensive experiments. 

ENGELS, H. Versuche iiber den Reibungswiderstand zwischen stromendem Wasser 
und Bettsohle. 4 diag., 1 dr., 2 ill., 1 pi. 1912. (Zeitschrift fur Bauwesen, 
V. 62, p. 473-488.) Describes apparatus used, discusses the experiments per- 
formed and deduces mathematical relations. 

FEHR, R. B., and THOMAS, C. R. Experiments on the Distribution of Vertical 
Pressure in Earth. 1913. (Annual Report, Pennsylvania State College, 1912- 
1913. p. 81-155.) Pennsylvania State College. Engineering Experiment 
Station, Bulletin No. S. "Bibliography of Experimental Work," p. 154-155. 
Tests were carried out with clear, dry river sand. Conclusions were that, at 
depths of 12 in. for smaller loads and 23 in. for larger loads, the percentage 
of transmission appeared to have a maximum value of 20. At the point 
where a marked change occurred in the percentage of transmission, the max- 
imum transmission was 16 per cent. 

FLETCHER, C. C. Counting Method for the Mechanical Analysis of Soils. 1911. 
(Science, v. 57, p. 495-496.) Sand is obtained by subsidence, as in regular 
method. Total weight of silt and clay is determined by difference. Relative 
quantities are then found by counting the number of silt and clay particles on a 
counting plate. From the relation thus established, quantities of clay and silt 
are determined. 

FLETCHER, C. C, and BRYAN, H. Modification of the Method of Mechanical Soil 
Analysis. 16 p. 1912. (United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 8Jf.) Most 
important modification was in the method for determining quantity of clay. 
Clay was evaporated in enameled-ware pans and weighed without transfer to 
platinum dishes. A further shortening of the method was obtained by aban- 
doning altogether direct determination of clay and obtaining Its percentage by 
difference. 

FORD, R. H. Soil-Bearing Tests Determined Loading on Chicago Track Elevation 
Work. 1916. {Enfjineering Record, v. 74, p. 652-653.) Describes tests to 
determine the bearing power of soil on which an especially heavy retaining wall 
was to be built. Gives results of tests. 

GARDNER, FRANK D. Electrical Method of Moisture Determination in Soils. 24 p. 
1898. (United States Soils Division, Bulletin 12.) 

GREATHEAD, JOHN F. Tests of Soils and Methods of Underpinning Buildings 
Adjoining Subway Construction on William Street, New York. 1915. (Engi- 
neering-Contracting, V. 44, p. 477-481.) A rather full abstract, with illustra- 
tions, of a paper appearing in September, 1915, issue of Public Service Record, 
the official publication of the New York Public Service Commission [First 
District?]. Gives detailed information on methods and results of soil testing 
in connection with the underpinning of buildings near subway construction. 

HALL, ALFRED DANIEL. Mechanical Analysis of Soils and the Composition of 
the Fractions Resulting Therefrom. 1904. (Journal, Chemical Society, v. 85, 
p. 950-963.) Investigates methods of mechanical soil analysis. Concludes 
that the preliminary treatment with acid gives a better idea of the ultimate 
physical constitution of the soil than that obtained by working on the raw 
soil. 

HAYS, JAMES B. Designing an Earth Dam Having a Gravel Foundation, with 
the Results Obtained in Tests on a Model. 1917. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. 
E., V. 81, p. 1-24.) Discussion, p. 25-73. Intended mainly to present the 
results of tests on a model constructed to scale. The model was constructed, 
however, to help solve a specific problem in dam construction, and consid- 
erable attention is given to the quality of the soil encountered, and to the 
action of this soil in the model. 

HILGARD, EUGENE W. Methods of Mechanical Soil Analysis. 1887. (Proceed- 
ings, Eighth Annual Meeting, Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 
p. 48-50.) Explains author's reasons for rejecting the subsidence method 
or "beaker elutriation", and adopting the method using his "churn elutriator." 

HILGARD, EUGENE W. On Soil Analyses and Their Utility. 1872. (American 
JouDial of Science, v. 104, p. 434-445.) Defends soil analysis as being of 
great practical value. Shows advantages that should result. 

HILGARD, EUGENE W. On the Flocculation of Particles, and Its Physical and 
Technical Bearings. 1879. (American Journal of Science, v. 117, p. 205- 
214.) Considers question in its bearing on the mechanical analysis of soils. 

HILGARD, EUGENE W. On the Silt Analysis of Soils and Clays. 2 ill. 1873. 
(Proceedings. Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, v. 22, p. 54-70.) 
Describes his method of mechanical analysis of soils, and gives results of 
extensive experiments, mostly on soils of Mississippi. 

1873. (American Journal of Science and Arts, v. 106, p. 288-296, 333-339.) 



I^npt'i-'l BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1211 

HILGARD, EUGENE W. Report on the Methods of Physical and Chemical Soil 
Analysis. 1893. (United States Chemistry Division, Bulletin S8, p. 60-82.) 
Gives directions for sampling soils. Describes procedure for physical exam- 
ination of soil. 

HOPKINS, C. G. Rapid Method of Mechanical Soil Analysis, Including the U.se 
of Centrifugal Force. 1899. (United States Chemistry Division, Bulletin 56, 
p. G7-G8.) 

JENSEN, J. NORMAN. Hardpan and Other Soil Tests. 1913. (Enginecri}}(j 
Siirs, V. 69, p. 460-463.) Tests of various Chicago soils. 

KILROE, J. R. Mechanical Analyses of Soils and Subsoils by Centrifugal Action ; 
with Notes on Treatment of Samples. 1905. (United States Department of 
Agriculture, Experiment Station Record, v. 17, p. 341.) Abstract from Econ. 
Proc.. Roy. Dublin Soc, v. 10, p. 223-230. Method is combination of those 
of Whitney and Bennigsen. 

KINO, F. H. New Method for the Mechanical Analysis of Soils. 1898. (Thir- 
teenth Annual Report, Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 123-133.) 
A method for studying the pore space in soils, based on the laws of the flow 
of air through capillary tubes. 

KINNISON, CHARLES S. Study of the Atterberg Plasticity Method. 1915. 
(United States Bureau of Standards, Teehnoloi/ic Paper Jf6, p. 3-18.) Deals 
with the Atterberg method of testing clays and classifying them according to 
their plasticity. This method (essentially a German one) is compared, by 
actual tests, with two other methods that are in more common use in the 
United States. 

LEYQL'E, L. Nouvelle Recherche sur la Poussee des Terres et le Profil de 
Revetement le Plus Ecouomique. 1885. (Annales dcs Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 
6. V. 10, p. 788-1003.) Contains results of extended experiments on cohesion 
of earth, direction, point of application, and amount of earth pressure, and 
calculations and formulas for retaining walls, etc. 

LOUGHRIDGE, R. H. Physical Tests of Soils. 1892. (United States Department 
of Agriculture, Experiment Station, Bulletin 16, p. 156-162.) Intended pri- 
marily for tlie agriculturist, but contains information of value to the engineer, 
regarding methods of mechanical analysis of soils. 

McDANIEL, A. B., and GARVER, N. B. Pressure of Wet Concrete on the Sides of 
Column Forms. 1916. (Engineering Neivs, v. 75, pt. 2, p. 933-936.) Tests 
made on columns built up in laboratory and on -posts of a bridge under con- 
struction to show pressure of wet concrete on sides of forms. Describes instru- 
ments and methods for measuring pressure. 

McLEAN, DOUGLAS L. Wash-Boring for the Winnipeg-Shoal Lake Aqueduct. 
1914. (Canadian Engineer, v. 26, p. 830-832.) Presents data concerning 
■ costs of equipment and operation, and methods of sinking test holes, during 
severe winter weather. 

MAIN, CHARLES T. Foundations. 1915. (Transactions, Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs., 
V. 37, p. 821-837.) Discussion, p. 837-843. Covers briefly the general subject 
of foundations. Touches on kinds of soil and methods of testing soils, with 
special reference to foundation work. 

MAIN, CHARLES T., and SAWTELL, H. E. Pile Tests Indicate Type of Sub- 
structure for Technology Buildings. 1915. (Engineering Record, v. 72, p. 
235-238.) Presents data on the determination of the character of soil by the 
use of piles of different types. Also gives tables and diagrams illustrating the 
test results obtained by this method in making tests for the substructure of 
buildings at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 

MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SOILS. 1906. (United States Department of Agri- 
culture, Experiment Station Record, v. 18, p. 114-115.) Abstract from Juur. 
Agr. Set., v. 1, p. 470-474. Outlines method adopted by committee of the 
Agricultural Education Association. 

MEEM, JAMES C. Notes and Experiments on Earth Pressures. 1912. (Pro- 
eerdi)tgs, Engrs.' Club, Philadelphia, v. 29, p. 114-130.) Includes calcula- 
tions, based mainly on experiments carried out on laboratory scale. 

MEEM, JAMES C. Pressure, Resistance, and Stability of Earth. 2 diag., 12 ill., 
11 dr. 1910. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 70, p. 352-388.) Discussion, 
p. 389-411. Gives results of practical experiments, makes deductions, and 
gives applications of the deductions to works carried out. 

Abstract. 1910. (Minutes of Proceedings. Inst. C. E., v. 182, p. 355.) 

Editorial. (Engineering Record, v. 61, p. 744.) 

METHODS AND COSTS OF MAKING A TEST OF THE BEARING POWER OF SOIL 

for a Building. 1 diag.. 1 dr. 1910. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 34, p. 31.) 
Test conducted by the Noel Construction Co., Chicago. 



lJil"<i BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

MILLER, RUDOLPH P. Standard Tests of SoiL 1912. (Engineering Record, v. 
66, p. 112.) Letter to editor giving the test regulations of the New York 
Building Code for determining the sustaining power of soils. 
MOVER, J. A. Distribution of Vertical Soil Pressures. 1915. (Engineering 
Record, v. 71, p. 330-332.) Tests were carried out on sand, a clay mixture, 
and loam. 
MURRAY, J. ALAN. Mechanical Analysis of Soils ; a Suggestion for a Long Tube 
Sedimentation Process. 1906. (Chemical News, v. 93, p. 40-42.) Method 
consisted of washing and decanting. A fairly long column of water was taken. 
The particles all started from the top at the same time. The separation was 
made according to the time at which the particles reached the bottom. 

Abstract. 1906. (Analyst, v. 31, p. 129.) 

NEATE, CHARLES. Description of the Coffer-dam at Great Grimsby. 1850. 
(Minutes of Proceedings. Inst. C. E., v. 9, p. 1-23.) With discussion. Gives 
tests on bearing value of soils, based on proportion of water contained, p. 17. 

NEW HENRY R. WORTHINGTON HYDRAULIC WORKS AT HARRISON, N. J. 
1904. (Engineering Record, v. 49, p. 148-152.) See also letter to editor 
"Testing Foundations for Buildings". (Engineering Record, v. 49, p. 436.) 
Gives method of testing the bearing power of soil. 

ORTH, ALBERT. Ueber mechanische und chemische Bodenanalyse. 1882. 
(Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, v. 15, p. 3025-3034.) Soil 
is first sifted with sieves into particles of 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.2 mm. diameter. 
A further division is made according to the time required by different-sized 
particles to be deposited from a stream of running water. 

OSBORNE, THOMAS B. Methods of Mechanical Soil-Analysis. 1887. (Annual Report, 
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1887, p. 144-162.) Discusses 
and compares different methods, including those of Schone, the Berlln-Schone, 
and Schloesing and Hilgard. "Beaker" method is preferred. 

PFEIFFER, K. Contributions to the Study of the Mechanical Analysis of Soils 
and of the Determination of Outer Soil Surface by Heat of Wetting and Hygro- 
scopicity. 1912. (United States Department of Agriculture. Exjierimcnt Sta- 
tion Record, v. 26, p. 219-220.) Abstract from Landw. Jahrb., v. 41, p. 1-55. 
Author believes that study of mechanical analysis of soils by sieve and 
sedimentation should be vigorously pursued, and that it is entirely possible 
to classify mineral soils on the basis of their content of finer particles. An 
adequate classification of fine soils would be one of two groups on the basis of 
current velocities of 0.02 -and 7 mm., respectively. 

PRECAUTIONS IN INTERPRETING RECORDS OF TEST BORINGS. 1910. (Engi- 
ncering-Contracting, v. 33, p. 585.) Editorial. 

RANDALL, FRANK A. Hardpan Test at the New Cook County Hospital. 1912. 
(Jouriial, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 17, p. 725-744.) Satisfactory tests of 
Chicago soil. 

Condensed. 1913. (Engineering Nexos, v. 69, p. 463-464.) 

Abstract. 1 dr., 1 ill. 1912. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 37, p. 436-437.) 

SABANIN, A. Different Methods of Mechanical Analysis of Soils and the Method 
of Double Sedimentation with a Small Sample. 1904. (United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, Experiment Station Record, v. 16. p. 331.) Abstract 
from Joiir. Expt. Landw., v. 5, p. 121-123. Describes modiflcation of Fadyeyev- 
Williams method. Separation of particles of soil in beakers, by double sedi- 
mentation method. 

SABANIN, A. Ueber eine neue Methode der Schlammanalyse. 1903. (V-Inter- 
nationaler Kongress fiir Angewandte Chemie, v. 3, p. 896-898.) Briefly de- 
scribes method using only small quantity of soil (3.75 to 4 grammes). Con- 
sists of boiling in small Erlenmeyer flask, passing through sieves and allowing 
to settle in cylinders. 

ST. PAUL BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 1896. (Engineering News, v. 35, p. 
310-312.) Includes outline of methods used and results obtained in tests to 
determine the character of the soil on which it was proposed to set the foun- 
dations of the building. 

SCHLOESING. TH. Determination de I'Argile dans la Terre Arable. 1874. 
(Comptes Rendris TIebdomadaircs des Seances de 1' Academic des Sciences, v. 
78, p. 1276-1279.) Preliminary treatment is given, in which soil is treated 
with dilute acid, and salts and acid removed by washing. Simple sedimen- 
tation process is then used. 

SCHLOESING, TH. Sur I'Analyse Mccanique des Sols. 1903. (Comptes Rendus 
Hcbd07nadaircs des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 136, p. 1608-1613 ; v. 
137, p. 369-374, 398-402.) Describes method for separating soil into a num- 
ber of grades of fineness by observing the time required for deposition from 
water of a given depth, and the weight of deposits formed during successive 
intervals of time. 



rajjcrs.j HKAHlN'd VALUE OF SOILS 1213 

SCHMOLL V. EISENWERTH, ADOLPH. Mitthoilungcn iiber pneumatisohe Pun- 
(liruiiBeii. unil Erfalirungsresullate iiber die (label vorkoimnLiiden Reibungs- 
widerstiinde. 2 pi. 1S77. {Zcitsrhrift, Verein deutscher Ingenieure, v. 21, 
p. 433-456.) Results of extensive experiments to determine the load necessary to 
overcome the frictional resistance encountered by caissons in various strata, or, 
In case of light soil, to determine the depth to which a pier must be sunk to 
carry the load. 

Ab.stract. (Translation.) 1878. {Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E.. v. 52, 

p. 298-302.) 

Abstract. (Translation.) 1879. (.Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 20, 

p. 119-122.) 

SHANKLAND, E. C. Chicago Foundations. 1905. (Techno graph, v. 19, p. 
5-12.) Discusses kinds of soils, with brief mention of load tests. 

1905. (Engineering Record, v. 52, p. 131-132.) 

SMITH, J. H.AMMOND. Laboratory Method of Determining Pressures on Walls 
and Bins. 1915. (Proceedinas, Am. Soc. for Testing Materials, v. 15, p. 382- 
394.) Discussion, p. 395-398. Describes apparatus for determining the point 
of application, line of action, and intensity of resultant pressures, on walls 
and bins. Also contains results of tests. 

SOIL BEARING TESTS. 1912. (Engineering Record, v. 66, p. 304.) Describes 
tests performed during the construction of the Dallas-Oak Cliff Viaduct, Dallas, 
Texas. 

SOIL TESTS REPORTED, AND SAFE UNDERPINNING METHODS IN SAND 

Described. 1915. (Engineering Record, v. 72, p. 631-633.) Gives methods 
and results of soil te.sts, and describes underpinning used, in the construc- 
tion of William Street subway excavation, New York City. 
STEEL, A. A. Experiments on Earth Pressure Against Retaining Walls. 1899. 
(Engineering News, v. 42, p. 261-263.) Abstract of graduating thesis. Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. Experiments indicate need of further investigation. 

STONE, 0. E., and CHAPMAN, G. H. New Method for the Approximate Mechani- 
cal Analysis of Soils. 1911. (Twenty-fourth Annual Report of Massachu- 
setts Agricultural Experiment Station, p. 115-120.) Describes short method 
that gives approximately accurate results. 

SUDLER, EMORY. Tests of Soil for Use in Constructing an Earth Dam for a 
Water-works Reservoir, Baltimore, Md. 1909. (Engineering Neics, v. 61, p. 
312.) Soils tested were soft rotten rock and yellow clay. Pressure and im- 
permeability tests were made. 

TEST BORING DATA, SHOAL LAKE AQUEDUCT. 1915. (Canadian Engineer, 
V. 29. p. 321-322.) Tables of cost data of hand auger test boring for inves- 
tigations of soils. 

TEST-BORINGS FOR FOUNDATIONS. 1889. (Engineering Neivs, v. 21, p. 324.) 
Describes tools and methods for making test-borings. 

TESTING SOIL BELOW THE SURFACE FOR FOUNDATION LOADS. 1910. 
(Engineerinq Record, v. 62, p. 71.) Tests were made during construction of 
warehouse building in New York City by various loads on pipe resting on sand 
at considerable depth. 

TESTING THE BEARING CAPACITY OF EARTH IN EXCAVATIONS. 1 dr. 1912. 
(Engineering Record, v. 65, p. 584.) Gives methods and results of tests of 
hardpan. 

THOULET, J. Etude Experimentale et Considerations G6nerales sur I'lnclinaison 
des Talus de Mati&res Meubles. 1887. (Antiales de Chiinie et de Physique, 
ser. 6, v. 12, p. 33-64.) 

UNITED STATES — SOILS DIVISION. Methods of the Mechanical Analysis of Soils, 
and of the Determination of the Amount of Moisture in Soils in the Field. 
24 p. 1896. (United States Soils Division, Bulletin J,.) Describes methods 
used by Division. Method of sampling is described. Osborne's method for 
mechanical analysis is used. 

VAN de GREYN, E. B. Sand Testing at Denver. 1915. (Engineering Record, 
V. 71, p. 551.) Describes the inexpensive apparatus used, and the details of 
methods of testing sand, as devised for the Engineering Department of the City 
of Denver, about 1913. 

WETTICH, HANS. Die Bewegung des Fordergutes im Fiilbrumpf. 1915. (Stahl 
und Eisen, v. 35, p. 521-527.) Flow of vertical and horizontal layers of ma- 
terial was studied in models. 

WHITNEY, MILTON, and BRIGQS. LYMAN J. Electrical Method of Determining 
the Temperature of Soils. 30 p. 1897. (United States Soils Division, Bul- 
letin 7.) Wheatstone bridge method. 



1214 BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

WHITNEY, MILTON. Some Physical Properties of Soils in Their Relation to 
Moisture and Crop Distribution. 1892. (United States Weather Bureau, 
Bulletin 4.) Johnson and Osborn's "beaker method" of mechanical analysis 
of soils, p. 31. 

WINKLER, E. Versuche iiber den Erddruck. 2 diag., 5 dr. 1871. (ZeitscJirift, 
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 23, p. 255-262.) 
Reviews the experimental work of Gadroy (1746), Gauthey (1785), Rondelet, 
"Woltmann, Mayniel and others, and gives results of author's own experiments. 

WOOLSON, IRA H. Some Remarkable Tests Indicating "Flow" of Concrete under 
Pressure. 1 ill. 1905. (Engineering News, v. 54, p. 459.) E. P. Goodrich 
and others believe that almost every variety of soil discloses similar phe- 
nomena which can be explained by existence of a sort of viscosity. 

Instruments. 

BRIGQS, LYMAN J. Electrical Instruments for Determining the Moisture, Tem- 
perature and Soluble Salt Content of Soils. 35 p. 1899. (United States 
Soils Division, Bulletin 15.) Describes in detail the electrical soil hygrometer, 
thermometer, and electrolytic bridge. Gives methods of standardization and 
practical operation. 

DEVICE FOR MAKING SUBSURFACE TESTS OF THE BEARING POWER OF SOILS, 
with Some Examples of Operation. 3 diag. 1910. (Engineering-Contract- 
ing, V. 34, p. 94.) Briefly describes the apparatus invented by John F. 
O'Rourke, of the O'Rourke Engineering Construction Co. of New York, and gives 
the tests performed by means of this apparatus on the site of the Municipal 
Building and a warehouse in New York. 

DYNAMOMETRE POUR L'ESSAI DES TERRAIN. 6 dr. 1900. (Le Ginie Civil, 
V. 36, p. 394.) Describes Rudolf Mayer's apparatus. 

GOLDBECK, A. T., and SMITH, E. B. Apparatus for Determining Soil Pressures. 
1916. (Proceedings, Am. Soc. for Testing Materials, v. 16, p. 309-319.) 
Describes and illustrates an apparatus for measuring pressure under earth 
fills or against walls. 

Condensed. 1916. (Engineering News, v. 76, p. 339.) 

MAYER, RUDOLF. Apparatus for Determining the Safe Load upon Foundations. 1900. 
(Minutes of Proceedings. Inst. C. E., v. 142, p. 408-409.) Abstract of paper 
in Schweizerische Bauzeitung, v. 28, No. 22. 

MAYER, RUDOLF. Ueber den "Fundamentpriifer." 6 ill. 1900.^ (Zeitschrift, 
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur-und Architekten-Vereines, v. 52, p. 673-674.) De- 
scribes the hand-operated apparatus designed by the author. 

MAYER, RUDOLF. Ueber einen Apparat und ein Verfahren zur Ermittlung der 
Tragfahigkeit des Baugrundes. 1 diag., 1 dr. 1896. (Zeitschrift des Oester- 
reichischen Ingenieur-und Architekten-Vereines, v. 48, p. 588-589.) Appar- 
atus designed by the author. 

MOVER, J. A. Distribution of Vertical Soil Pressures ; Dry-Sand Tests Recently 
Completed at the Engineering Experiment Station of the Pennsylvania State 
College. 1914. (Engineering Record, v. 69, p. 608-609.) A platform-scale 
apparatus was used for determining the downward-pressure. 

NEW INSTRUMENT TESTS SANDS QUICKLY IN THE FIELD. 1915. (Engineer- 
ing Record, v. 71, p. 821-822.) Describes construction and operation of a new 
sand-testing device for use in the field. 

SCHONE, EM. Ueber einen neuen Apparat fiir die Schlammanalyse. 1868. (Zeit- 
schrift fur Analytische Chemie, v. 7, p. 29-47.) Describes apparatus and 
method for the mechanical analysis of soils. 

TESTS OF SETTLEMENTS OF HEAVY LOADS ON SOIL. 1897. (Engineering 
Record, v. 35, p. 332.) Briefly describes Meyer's apparatus for measuring 
settlement produced by test loads on small areas of soil. 

VODER, P. A. New Centrifugal Soil Elutriator. 1905. (United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Experiment Station Record, v. 16, p. 448-450.) Abstract 
from Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 89. Describes apparatus 
combining principles of centrifugal and elutriator methods. 

BEARING VALUE. 

Sec also Piles. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION. Report [of Committee] on 
Unit Pressures Allowable on Road-beds of Different Materials. 1912. (Pro- 
ceedings, Thirteenth Annual Convention, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, p. 388-396.) 
Discusses bearing value of soils of different kinds, as found by previous 
investigators. 



I'i'I'ers.l BKAUrXG VALUE OF SOILS 1215 

ANGIJN, S. Foundations of Riiildinss. 1S99. {Journnl. Royal Inst, of Drltlsh 
Archltpcts, V. 49, p. 14-18.) Paper before Manchester Society of Architects. 
Considers what foundation soils may be looked on as reliable substrata. Dis- 
cusses bearing values of different clays, gravels, and .«ands. 

1900. {Stone, V. 21. p. 243-2.50.) 

Abstract. 1S99. (Enciinccring Record, v. 40, p. 679-680.) 

APJOHN. JAMES HENRY. Note on the Movement of the Walls of the Kldderpur 
Docks. 4 dr. 189.5. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 121, p. 104- 
151.) With discussion. The precarious nature of clay soil is brought out in 
discussion by W. R. Galbraith, Sir Douglas Fox, and F. E. Robertson, p. 114 
125, 149. 

BAKER, IRA O. Treatise on Masonry Construction, ed. 8. 556 p. 1898. (Sec- 
tion on "Bearing Power of Soils", p. 188-199. Considers different kinds of 
soils, and gives figures and calculations, and means for improving the bearing 
value. "Bearing Power of Piles", p. 233-250. "Retaining Walls", p. 338-352. 

BARTLETT, JAMES. Foundations. 1910. (Encycloptedia Britannica, ed. 11, v. 
10. p. 738-743.) Discusses safe loads for soils of different characters, and 
making of trial borings. 

BAl'MANN, FREDERICK. Foundations. 1898. (Inland Architect, v. 32, p. 42-45.) 
Gives figures and estimates for safe loads for rock, gravel, gravel and clay, 
snnd, and clay. Considers nature of Chiragn soil and adequate loads. 

BEARING CAPACITY OF EARTH FOUNDATION BEDS. 1906. (Engineering Rec- 
ord, v. 54, p. 647-648.) Editorial comment on work done by Corthell on 
pressures on foundation beds of certain structures. See also Corthell, Elmer 
Uawrence. 

BEARING TESTS FOR HEAVY FOUNDATION LOADS. 1 dr. 1909. (Engineering 
Record, v. 60, p. 55.) Describes method and gives results of test of the sup- 
porting power of soil composed of fine, compact sand, together with small 
pebbles and gravel. 

BOULNOIS, W. A. On the Foundations of Some of the Metropolitan Bridges in 
the River Thames. 1857. (Papers, Royal Inst, of British Architects, v. 8, p. 
31-44.) Bearing power of London clay, p. 33, 39, 42. 

CAMBRIA STEEL COMPANY. Safe Bearing Capacity of Soils, etc.. Tons per 
Square Foot. 1914. (Cambria Steel Company's "Handbook of Information 
Relating to Structural Steel", ed. 11, p. 310.) Table giving bearing values 
of different soils for twenty-nine different cities in the United States. 

CLEGQ, SAMUEL. On Foundations, Natural and Artificial. 1851. (Minutes of 
Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 10, p. 317-320.) Touches on bearing value of 
various soils. 

CORTHELL, ELMER LAWRENCE. Allowable Pressures on Deep Foundations. 
98 p. 1907. Wiley. Bibliography, p. 37-40. Contains great quantity of infor- 
mation and tabulated data showing allowable ranges of pressure of struc- 
tures on fine sand, coarse sand and gravel, sand and clay, alluvium and silt, 
hard clay, and hardpan. Contains, also, letters from various engineers giving 
Information from projects under personal observation of writers, and abstracts 
of many technical papers on foundations. 

Abstract. 1906. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 165, p. 249-251.) 

Abstract. 1906. (Engineering News, v. 56, p. 657-658.) 

Abstract. 1906. (EngineeiHng Record, v. 54, p. 629.) See also editorial 

"Bearing Capacity of Earth Foundation Beds." (Engineering Record, v. 54, p. 
647-648.) 

CRANDALL, CHARLES LEE, and BARNES, FRED ASA. Railroad Construction. 
321 p. 1913. Contains brief treatment of bearing values of different soils 
(p. 156), retaining wall design (p. 201), etc. 

CRUTTWELL, GEORGE EDWARD WILSON. Foundations of the River-Piers of 
the Tower Bridge. 1S93. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 113, p. 
117-150.) \S'ith discussion. Gives reasons for limiting pressure on the London 
clay to 4 tons per sq. in., p. 148-149. 

CUNNINGHAM, BRYSSON. Dock and Harbour Engineers' Reference Book. 319 
p. 1914. Griffln. Data on foundations for quay and dock walls, earth pressure, 
angles of repose, and bearing values of different soil materials, p. 145-152. 

DON SECTION, BLOOR STREET VIADUCT, TORONTO. 1914. (Canadian Engi- 
neer, V. 27, p. 581-584.) Notes on the preliminary work attending the whole 
project, foundation tests, features of design. Is principally concerned with the 
design of the bridge proper, but includes data on tests of bearing power of the 
soil involved. 



1216 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [I'apers. 

FOUNDATION LOADS. 1911. {The Builder, London, v. 101, p. 332-333, 453- 
454, 780-781.) Gives figures to show pressures of structures on different 
earth soils at which no settlement was observed. Includes also compressive 
resistance of different stones, and discusses foundations under differing soil 
conditions. 

FOUNDATIONS OF MUD FLOTATION. 1905. (Engineering Record, v. 52, p. 251.) 
Editorial, indicating methods of increasing the bearing value of mud. 

FRANCIS, GEORGE B. Foundations. 1 dr. 1903. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, 
V. 30, p. 336-342.) Gives author's figures for safe supporting loads for ledge 
rock, hardpan, gravel, clean sand, dry clay, wet clay, and loam. 

FRANCKE, ADOLF. La Pression des Socles de Colonnes sur le Terrain. 1907. 
(Le Genie Civil, v. 51, p. 222.) Abstract of a paper in Oesterreicliische 
Wochcnschrift developing an analytical theory. 

GIBSON, THOMAS. Huelva Pier of the Rio Tinto Railway. 2 dr. 1878. (Min- 
utes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 53, p. 130-163.) With discussion. Gives 
supporting power of mud, p. 135-137, tables, 144-158. 

HANCOCK, EDWIN. Bearing Power of Moist Blue Clay ; Result of Tests in the 
Loop District, Chicago, 111. 1912. (Journal, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 17, p. 
745.) 

1913. (Engineering News, v. 69, p. 464.) 

HARRISON, THOMAS ELLIOT. On the Tyne Docks at South Shields ; and the 
Mode Adopted for Shipping Coals. 1859. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. 
E., v. 18, p. 490-503.) Tells of experiments on bearing value of mud or slake, 
p. 493. 

HERMANY, CHARLES. Foundations of the New Capitol at Albany, N. Y. 1873. 
(Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 2, p. 287-289.) Gives maximum pressure 
per square foot. 

HUNT, RANDELL. Supporting Power of Soils. 1888. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, 
V. 7, p. 189-196.) 

Abstract. 1888. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 94, p. 327-328.) 

Abstract. 1888. (Engineering Neivs, v. 19, p. 484-486.) 

Abstract. 1888. (Scientific American Supplement, v. 25, p. 10412.) 

Abstract. 1888. (Engineering Record, v. 18, p. 39-40.) 

LEONARD, HUGH. Supporting Power of Rocks and Soils ; Experiments at Cal- 
cutta. 1900. (Journal, Royal Inst, of British Architects, v. 49, p. 390-393.) 
Tabulated data from results of experiments, showing supporting power of 
ordinary undisturbed alluvial soil of Calcutta. The successive formations of 
earth in and about Calcutta, where tests were carried out are, rich soil, dry 
bluish clay, dry brownish clay, brownish clay mixed with sand and not so 
dry, impure peat, wet sand, and clay. Blocks of masonry were laid on foun- 
dations of various depths up to 77 ft., and were loaded and the settlement 
observed. 

MAGINNIS, OWEN B. Consideration of the Earth's Surface in Its Relation to 
Building Construction. 1907. (Architects' and Builders' Magazine, v. 9, p. 
82-84.) General discussion of value of different soil materials in foundation 
work and their bearing values. Very little quantitative information gi.ven. 

MILLER, RUDOLPH P. Allowable Pressure on Hardpan. 1910. (Engineering 
Record, v. 62, p. 783.) Letter to editor proposing a rule for allowable pressure 
on hardpan. 

1910. (Engineering News, v. 64, p. 727.) 

PNEUMATIC CAISSON FOUNDATIONS, WHITEHALL BUILDING, NEW YORK. 1 dr. 
1910. (Engijieering Record, v. 61, p. 792-794.) Gives tests of bearing power 
of hardpan, p. 792-793. 

PURDY, CORYDON TYLER. New York Times Building. 1909. (Minutes of Pro- 
ceedings, Inst. C. E., V. 178, p. 185-205.) Gives pressure allowed per unit 
area, p. 188. 

SAFE LOAD ON SOIL AT NEW ORLEANS, LA. 1899. (Engineering News, v. 41, 
p. 303.) See also letter to editor, p. 333. Loading tests on blue clay. 

SCHNEIDER, C. C. Structural Design of Buildings. 1905. (Transactions, Am. 
Soc. C. E., V. 54, p. 371-489.) With discussion. Gives specification for per- 
missible pressures on various soils and for bearing power of piles, p. 383-384 ; 
also a table of bearing value of different kinds of soils as specified in various 
communities, p. 405. In discussion, W. B. W. Howe gives results of pile tests 
in alluvial soil, p. 413. 

SEAMAN, HENRY B. Specifications for the Design of Bridges and Subways. 1912. 
(Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 75, p. 311-392.) With discussion. Gives 
allowable static pressures on soils, and a formula for bearing power of piles, 
p. 330. 



T^iipf^rs.] BEARTXG VALUE OF SOILS 1217 

SHANKLAND, EDWARD CLAPP. Stool Skeleton Construction in Chicago. 1896. 
{Minutes of l'n>cc(din;is. Inst. C. K., v. 128, p. 1-43.) Some data on bearing 
value of soft ground, p. 1-2, 15-16, 28. 

SMITH, EUGENE R. Compressibility of Salt Marsli Under the Weight of Earth 
Fill. 1897. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 37, p. 213-219.) 

S.MITH, J. A. Some Foundations for Buildings in Cleveland. 1906. (Journal 
.\ss(io. Eng. Soc, V. 3(!, p. 155-184.) Presents data on the sustaining power 
of soil in Cleveland district. 

SOOYSMITH, CHARLES. Concerning Foundations for Heavy Buildings in New 
York City. 1896. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 35, p. 459-469.) Dis- 
cussion, p. 469-476. Correspondence, p. 477-483. Briefly describes nature of 
soil in Manhattan. Gives safe loads per unit area. 

STRUCTURAL REGULATIONS OF THE NEW YORK BUILDING LAW. 1899. 
(En<jincerin(; Record, v. 40, p. 367-369.) Gives allowable safe load for vari- 
ous soils. 

TAYLOR, FREDERICK W., and THOMPSON, SANFORD E. Treatise on Concrete 
Plain and Reinforced, ed. 2. 807 p. 1909. Wiley. Contains a section on 
"Bearing Power of Soils and Rock," p. 639-641. 

THOMSON, T. KENNARD. Supporting Capacity of Hardpan. 1911. (Engineering 
Record, V. 63, p. 59.) Letter to editor. 

TUSKA, GUSTAVE R. Construction of Substructure for Lonesome Valley Viaduct, 
Knoxville, Cumberland Gap and Louisville Railroad. 1895. (Transactions, 
Am. Soc. C. E., V. 34, p. 247-252.) Gives maximum pressure per unit area, 
p. 249. 

W.ADDELL, J. A. L. A Study in the Designing and Construction of Elevated Rail- 
roads, with Special Reference to the Northwestern Elevated Railroad and the 
Union Loop Elevated Railroad of Chicago, 111. 1897. (Transactions, Am. 
Soc. C. E., V. 37, p. 308-360.) Gives bearing value of Chicago soil, p. 321. 

WALMISLEY, A. T, Foundations as Applied to London Buildings and Riverside 
Foundations. 17 dr. 1898. (The Builder, London, v. 74, p. 514-521.) 
Shows soil strata underlying London by examination of borings from vari- 
ous localities. Gives much information on safe bearing power of various 
kinds of ground. Includes also table showing angle of repose for different 
materials. 

WILLM.ANN, L. von. Tragfahigkeit des Baugrundes. 1 diag., 4 dr. 1906. (Hand- 
bu( h der Ingenieurwissenschaften, 4 Aufg., 1 Teil, 3. Band, p. 12-20.) 

WORCESTER, JOSEPH R. Boston Foundations. 6 folding diag., 2 folding dr., 
1 folding map. 1903. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 30, p. 285-302.) Dis- 
cussion, p. 302-335. Information is given both in paper and in discussion 
concerning allowable pressure on soils. Tabulated data are included on kinds 
of soils and soil combinations to be found in different parts of Boston. 

Condensed. 1903. (Engineering Neics, v. 49, p. 136.) 

WYATT, MATTHEW DIGBY. On the Construction of the Building for the Exhi- 
bition of the Works of Industry of All Nations. 1851. (Minutes of Pro- 
ceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 10, p. 127-191.) Gives pressures allowed, p. 173. 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS PROPERTIES. 

BAILLY, THOMAS C. J. Determination of Actual Earth Pressure from a Coffei;- 
dam Failure. 1906. (Engineering News, v. 56, p. 170.) 

BECQUEREL, EDM., and BECQUEREL, HENRI. Mcmoire sur la Temperature de 
r.\ir a la Surface du Sol et de la Terre jusriu'a 36m. de Profondeur, Ainsi que 
sur la Temperature de Deux Sols. I'un Denude, I'autre Convert de Gazon, 
Pendant I'Annee 1881. 1882. (Coniptes Rendus Hchdoniadaircs des Seances de 
I'Academie des Sciences, v. 94, p. 1147-1151.) Similar reports for other years 
are to be found in v. 82, p. 587, 700 ; v. 86, p. 122 ; v. 89, p. 207 ; v. 90, p. 578 ; 
v. 92, p. 1253 ; v. 94, p. 1147 ; v. 96, p. 1107 : v. 93, p. 483. 

BRIQOS, LYMAN J. Mechanics of Soil Moisture. 24 p. 1897. (United States 
Soils Division, Bulletin JO.) Among other topics, discusses the capacity of soil 
for water, adjustment of water between a dry and a wet soil, and the relation 
of texture, structure, and temperature to water capacity. 

BRIGGS, LYMAN J., and McLANE, JOHN W. Moisture Equivalents of Soils. 23 p. 
1907. (United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin JfS.) Deals with method of 
determining the quantity of water which different soils are capable of retaining 
when the soil moisture is subjected to a constant measured force sufficient in 
magnitude to remove the moisture from the larger capillary spaces. 

BRIGGS, LYMAN J. Movement and Retention of Water in Soils. (Yearbook, 
United States Department of Agriculture. 1898, p. .'',99-404.) Discusses surface 
tension and capillary movement of water, and infiuence of texture of soils oa 
movement of water. 



1318 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

BUCKINGHAM, EDQAR. Studies on the Movement of Soil Moisture. 61 p. 1907 
(United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 38.) Devoted mainly to capillary action 
in soils. 

CAMERON. FRANK K., and BELL, JAMES M. Mineral Constituents of the Soil 
Solution, 70 p. 1905. (United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 30.) Treats of 
soil in general, minerals in the soil and their solubility, giving the effects of 
various agencies on solubility. 
CAMERON, FRANK K., and GALLAGHER, FRANCIS E. Moisture Content and 
Physical Condition of Soils. 70 p. 1908. (United States Soils Bureau, 
Bulletin 50.) Discusses penetration and cohesion of soils, apparent specifle 
gravity, moisture distribution and its various effects. Gives methods and results 
of experimental work. 
CAUSE OF CAVE-IN OF RANDOLPH STREET, CHICAGO. 1913. {Engineering 
Record, v. 68, p. 715-716.) Abstract of report by a commission of municipal 
engineers. Inadequate provision for earth pressure. 
COFFEY, GEORGE NELSON. Study of the Soils of the United States. 114 p. 
1912. (United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 85.) "Bibliography", p. 100-114. 
Discusses nature and origin of soils, soil-forming agencies, classification of soils. 
Takes up the most important soils in detail and gives their mineralogical com- 
position. 
0AUD.4RD, JULES. Notes on the Consolidation of Earthworks. 44 dr. 1875. 
(Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 39, p. 218-247.) Translated from the 
French by James Dredge. 
HANCOCK, WALTER C. Physical Properties of Clays. 1913. (Journal, Royal 
Society of Arts, v. 61, p. 560-567.) Careful study and clear exposition of clays, 
without special reference to their value for foundations. 
HAYTER, HARRISON. Charing Cross Bridge. 1863. {Minutes of Proceedings, 
Inst. C. E., v. 22, p. 512-539.) Gives some information on frictional resistance 
of bed to descent of cylindrical piers, p. 514-515. 
HAZARD, J. Judging the More Important Physical Properties of Soils on the 
Basis of Mechanical Analysis. 1905. (United States Department of Agriculture, 
Experiment Station Record, v. 16, p. 857.) Abstract from Landw. Vers. Stat., 
V. 60, p. 449-474. Author attempts to trace relation between size and physical 
character of particles and the fertility of soil. 
HILGARD, EUGENE W. Soils, Their Formation, Properties, Composition, and 
Relations to Climate and Plant Growth in the Humid and Arid Regions. 593 p. 
1906. Macmillan Company, New York. Contents : Origin and Formation of 
Soils ; Physics of Soils ; Soils and Native Vegetation. 
KARPIZOV, K. S. On the Absorptive Capacity of Different Layers of Soils. 1905. 
(United States Department of Agriculture, Experiment Station Record, v. 16, 
p. 652-653.) Ab.stract from Pochvovyedenie, v. 6, p. 137-151. Studies 
four soils, chernozem, clay, podzol clay and sandy soil, for their capacity to 
absorb ammonia, phosphoric acid, and lime. 
MARBUT, CURTIS F., and others. Soils of the United States. 791 p. 1913. 
(United States Soils Bureau, Bulletin 96.) Complete handbook on the subject. 
MOLESWORTH, GUILFORD. [Physical Properties of Black Cotton Soil.] 5 diag. 
1898. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 132, p. 209-213.) In discus- 
sion on W. L. Strange's paper: "Reservoirs with High Earthen Dams in Western 
^ India." 
MORRIS, ELLWOOD. On the Compression of Earth, and the Increase of Rock 
in Embankment, Compared with the Volume in Excavation. 1841. {Journal, 
Franklin Inst., v. 32, p. 236-240.) 
POURIAU, A. Comparison de la Marche de la Temperature dans I'Air et dans le 
Sol a 2 Metres de Profondeur. 1861. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des 
Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 53, p. 647-649.) Results of many obser- 
vations are given. 
TOPOGRAPHY OF THE BED ROCK UNDERLYING CHICAGO. 1914. (Engineer- 
ing-Contracting, V. 42, p. 601-607.) Gives information about a contour map of 
Chicago with a contour interval of 10 ft., based on all records that could be 
obtained. 
UNITED STATES— SOILS BUREAU. Bulletin 1-96, 1895-1913. No more pub- 
lished. Bulletins 55 and 76 contain general information on the soils of the 
United States. Bulletin 96 is virtually a complete handbook on the subject. 
UNITED STATES— SOILS BUREAU. Field Operations of the Division of Soils, 
Reports [1st] — date, 1899 — date. 1900 — date. First report is Report 61, of 
the Department of Agriculture. Although primarily undertaken to provide the 
agriculturist with accurate knowledge of the soils, it contains much informa- 
tion of value to engineers and builders. 
WARINQTON, ROBERT. Lectures on Some of the Physical Properties of Soil. 
231 p. 1900. Clarendon Press. Oxford, England. 



'^•■'P^^rs.] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1219 

WIECHERT. E. Distribution of Mass in the Earth. 1898. (Minutes of Proceed- 
inris. Inst. C. E., v. 133, p. 463.) Abstract from a paper In Gottinpen 
Nachrichten, 1897, v. 3, p. 221-243. Deals with earth-density at various 
depths. 

GRANULAR MATERIALS. 

SAND AND GRAVEL. 

Sec also Retaining Walls. 

BORHEK, R. J. Cost of Hydraulic Sand and Gravel Mining. 1915. (Engineering- 
Contracting, V. 43, p. 573-574.) Gives cost figures, which are influenced con- 
siderably by the character of the deposit. 

BOL'SSINESQ, J. Note on G. H. Darwin's Paper "On the Horizontal Thrust of a 
.Mass of Sand." 1882. (Minutes of Proceedings, In.st. C. E., v. 12, p. 262-271.) 
Attempts to show that Darwin's conclusions are very similar to his own as ex- 
pounded in his "Essai Theorique sur I'Equilibre des Massifs Pulverulcnts" 
(Paris, Gauthier-Villars. 1876). Refers to Darwin's paper in Minutes of Pro- 
ceedings, Inst. C. E., V. 71, p. 350. 

BR.\UNING, C. Gravel as Ballast. 1912. (Proceedings, Thirteenth Annual Con- 
vention, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, v. 13, p. 267-289.) Translated from Zeitschrift 
fur liauwcsen, 1904. Considers bearing value of gravel particles. 

Bl'RGESS, PHILIP. Mechanical Analysis of Sands. 1915. (Journal. Am. Water 
Works Assoc, v. 2. p. 493-500.) Discussion, p. 500-514. Advocates the adop- 
tion, by the Engineering Profession, of a standard method and standard ap- 
paratus for making mechanical analyses of sands and gravels. Pertains almost 
exclusively to the analysis of filter-bed materials, but some of the subject-matter 
is adaptable to the analysis of concrete mixtures, paving mixtures, etc. 

CARTWRIGHT, H. H. Tests of Grouting Gravel in River Beds. 1913. (Engi- 
neering Neivs, V. 69, p. 979-984.) E:xperiments indicated formation of hard 
foundation strata to be feasible, by forcing cement grout into soft foundation 
gravel. 

CHAPMAN. CLOYD M., and JOHNSON, NATHAN C. Economic Side of Sand Test- 
ing. 1915. (Engineering Record, v. 71, p. 734-737.) Letter containing cor- 
rection to above, p. 813. Emphasizes the importance and the practical value of 
the testing of sand that is to be used in concrete. Outlines methods and cites 
examples showing saving effected. 

CURTIS, W. W, Sand as a Foundation. 1886. (Engineering News, v. 15, p. 
314-316, 340-342.) Presents data obtained by several French investigators on 
the physical and mechanical properties of sand. 

DARWIN, GEORGE HOWARD. On the Horizontal Thrust of a Mass of Sand. 10 
diag., 2 dr. 1882. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 71, p. 350-378.) 
Attempts to verify the theoretical investigations of Coulomb, Rankine, and others, 
by a series of experiments. See also note by Gaudard. 

FORCHHEIMER, PH. Ueber Sanddruck und Bewegungserscheinungen im innern 
Trockenen Sandes. 7 diag., 2 dr., 1 pi. 1882-83. (Zeitschrift, Oester- 
reichischen Ingenieur— und Architekten-Vereines, v. 34, p. 111-126 ; v. 35, p. 
103-108.) Gives a brief historical review of the work done on sand pressure, 
lateral movement of sand, and angle of repose of sand masses. Describes author's 
own experiments, giving the kinds of sand used, apparatus, methods of meas- 
urement and results obtained. 

GAL'DARD, JULES. Note on Mr. G. H. Darwin's Paper "On the Horizontal Thrust 
of a Mass of Sand." 1882. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v 72. p. 
272-274.) 

HERSHAM, ERNEST A. Flow of Sands Through Orifices. 1914. (Journal, 
Franklin Inst., v. 177, p. 419-444.) Experiments to determine fiow of dry sands 
and similar substances through orifices, under varied conditions and different 
sand-heads. Results shown with charts and tables. 

HUBBE. Von der Deschaffenheit und dem verhalten des Sandes. 2 pi 1861 
(Zeitschrift filr Bauwesen, v. 11, p. 19-42, 183-226.) 

KICK, FR. Das Gesetz der proportionalen Widerstande und seine Anwendung auf 
Sanddruck und Sprengen. 2 diag. 1883. (Dinglcr's Polytechnisches Journal, 
V. 250, p. 141-145.) 

McCULLOUGH, F. M. Local Sands and Gravels as Aggregates in Concrete. 1915. 
(Proceedings, Engrs.' Soc. of Western Pennsylvania, v. 30, p. 334-367.) Discus- 
sion, p. 368-379. Concerned mainly with behavior of sand and gravel in con- 
crete, but discusses briefly the mechanical and physical properties of sands and 
gravels of the Pittsburgh region. 

MARSH, GEORGE P. The Earth as Modified by Human Action ; a Last Revision 
of "Man and Nature." 629 p. 1885. Scribner. Chapter 5 ("The Sands", p. 
525-583) deals with nature and distribution of sand and sand dunes. 



1220 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

MERRIMAN, MANSFIELD. On the Theories of the Lateral Pressure of Sand 
Against Retaining Walls. 1887. (School of Mi7ies Quarterly, v. 9, p. 109-112.) 
Paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Re- 
views accepted formulas and claims that they are not sufficiently based on 
experiment. 

• Abstract. 1888. (Eniiineering Newti, v. 19, p. 152.) 

Abstract. 1887. {Proceedings, Am. Assoc, for the Advancement of Science, v. 

36, p. 166.) 

MONTGOMERY, CHARLES M. Sand Testing at New York. 1915. (Engineering 
Record, v. 71, p. 551-552.) Discusses test requirements for acceptance of sand 
used by Board of Water Supply of New York. 

MURPHY, E. C. Density and Draining Capacity of Artificial and Natural Mix- 
tures of Sand and Gravel. 1909. (Engineering Neios, v. 62, p. 335.) 

PARTIOT. Memoire sur les Sables de la Loire. 1871. (Annalcs des Fonts et 
Cliaussees, ser. 5, v. 1, p. 233-292.) 

ROLLAND, G. Sur les Grandes Dunes de Sable de Sahara. 1881. (Comptes 
Rendus Hehdonvidaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 92, p. 
968-971.) 

SAND FOUNDATIONS FOR HIGH BUILDINGS. 1912. (Engineering Record, v. 
66, p. 310.) Gives various loads on sand. 

SINGULAR PHENOMENON IN SAND. 1884. (Engineering News, v. 11, p. 65.) 
Short note. Pile embedded upright in sand has been seen to move bodily down 
stream. 

STANDARD APPARATUS AND PROCEDURE RECOMMENDED FOR SAND ANALY- 
sis. 1915. (Engineering Record, v. 71, p. 644.) Discussiov. by Allen Hazen, 
p. 644-646. Abstract of paper by Philip Burgess before American Water Works 
Association, May, 1915. Outlines difficulties encountered in making tests of 
sand for filters, for concrete, and for asphalt mixtures. Suggests remedies. 

SUBSTRUCTURE OP THE NEW YORK MUNICIPAL BUILDING. 1910. (Engineer- 
ing Record, V. 62, p. 57-58.) Editorial, chiefly discussing the tests on the 
bearing value of sand. 

WILMS, W. H. Stripping of Gravel Pits by Hydraulic Methods. 1915. (Rail- 
way Age Gazette, v. 58, p. 1430-1433.) Outline of conditions under which this 
practice is economical, and description of the manner of handling the work. 

WILSON, GEORGE. Some Experiments on Conjugate Pressures in Fine Sand, and 
Their Variation with the Presence of Water. 4 diag., 2 dr. 1902. (Minutes 
of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 149, p. 208-222.) Experiments on lateral pressure 
of earth work. 

QUICKSAND. 

BRIGDEN, W. W. Quicksand Excavation at Battle Creek [Mich.]. 1914. (Engi- 
neering Record, v. 69, p. 163-164.) Paper before Michigan Engineering Society. 
Describes difficult piece of excavation in quicksand, in constructing a pumping 
station for an Artesian-well water-supply. 

BRUNLEES, JAMES. Description of the Iron Viaducts Erected Across the Tidal 
Estuaries of the Rivers Leven and Kent, in Morecambe Bay, for the Ulverstone 
and Lancaster Railway. 1 pi. 1858. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 
17, p. 442-447.) Treats of bearing value of quicksands. 

BUILDING AND MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS IN QUICKSAND. 2 dr. 1906. (En- 
gineering Record, v. 53, p. 247-248.) Fourteen-story office building, with pile 
foundation. 

LANDRETH, WILLIAM B. Improvement of a Portion of the Jordan Level of the 
Erie Canal. 1900. (Transactions, Am. Soc. G. E., v. 43, p. 566-602.) Paper 
and discussion giving valuable information on quick^=and and its bearing value. 

Abstract. 1900. (Engineering Record, v. 41, p. 137.) 

SINKING MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS IN QUICKSAND WITHOUT EXCAVATION. 
1905. (Engineering Record, v. 52, p. 526.) Describes erection of boring mill 
in General Electric Company's plant at Schenectady. 

STEEL PILE FOUNDATION IN A QUICKSAND POCKET. 1908. (Engineering 
Record, v. 57, p. 203.) Details of work on foundation of 16-story building in 
New York City. 

GRAIN. 
See also Retaining Walls. 

AIRY, WILFRID. Pressure of Grain. 1897. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., 
V. 131, p. 347-358.) Considers grain as semi-fluid. Confirms formulas of 
Roberts. 

ORANDVOINNET, J. A., and RICHOU, G. De la Pression des Grains en Magasin. 
1883. (Le Genie Civil, v. 3, p. 109-111.) Reviews the experimental work on 
this subject, especially that of Isaac Roberts. 



l''M''"'"'l BEARING VALUK OF SOILS 1221 

JAMIl:SON, J. A. Grain Pressures in Deep Bins. 1903. (Transactions, Can. 
Soc. C. IC. V. 17. p. 554-654.) Reviews previous work and describes experiments 
witli grain in the bins of tlie Canadian Pacific Railway elevator at West St 
John, N. B. 

1904. (Engineering News, v. 51, p. 236-243.) 

JANSSEN, H. A. Versuche iiber Oetreidedruck in Silozellen. 1895. (Zeitschrift, 
Verein deutscher Ingenieure. v. 39, p. 1045-1049.) Tests to obtain vertical 
pressure of grain. After obtaining the coefflc-icnt of friction between grain 
and the bin wall materials, author derived a formula for calculating pressures in 
bins of different sizes. 

Condensed. 1896. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 124, p. 553-555.) 

LL'FFT. ECKHARDT. Tests of Grain Pressure in Deep Bins at Buenos Aires, 
.•\rgi iitina. 1904. (Engineering Neivs, v. 52, p. 531-532.) Tests were made 
on a bin of 19 000 bushels capacity. Satisfactory agreement was obtained be- 
tween the calculated and observed pressures. 

Abstract. 1905. (Le Genie Civilj v. 46, p. 214-215.) 

Pl.EISSNER, J. Versuche zur Ermittlung der Boden- und Leitenwanddriicke in 
Getreidesilos. 1906. (Zeitschrift, Verein deutscher Ingenieure, v. 50, p. 976- 
986. 1017-1022.) Experimental determination of the actual vertical and lateral 
pressures of grain in wooden and reinforced concrete bins. 

Abstract. 1906. (Le Genie Civil, v. 49, p. 271-272.) 

PRANTE. Messungen des Getreidedruckes gegen Silowandungen. 1896. (Zcit- 
schift, Verein deutscher Ingenieure, v. 40, p. 1122-1125.) Tests were made 
with a view to obtaining the lateral pressure of grain in a cylindrical bin. 
Greatly increased pressure obtained with grain in motion, when being drawn 
out of the bin. 

ROBERTS, ISAAC. Pressure of Stored Grain ; on the Pressure of Wheat Stored in 
Elongated Cells or Bins. 1882. (Engineering, v. 34, p. 399.) Paper before 
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

SEE, ALEXANDRE. Calcul des Parois des Silos a Grains. 8 diag. 1905. 
(Le Genie Civil, v. 46, p. 377-379.) Develops a mathematical theory of grain 
pressure on container walls. 

WHITED, WILLIS. Plow of Semi-fluids Through Orifices. 1901. (Proceedings, 
Engrs." Soc. of Western Pennsylvania, v. 17, p. 113-129.) Investigates flow of 
solid particle.-;, somewhat spherical in form, and without adhesion. Advances no 
theory to explain results obtained. WTieat was used in carrying out experiments. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

COMPUTATION OF STRAINS IN COAL AND GRAIN BINS. 1897. (Engineering 
Sews, v. 38, p. 200-201.) Discusses pressure of solids upon sides of bins. See 
also Letters, p. 293-296, 426-428. 

COYKENDALL. T. C. Theory of Stress in a Granular Mass. 6 diag. 1890. 
(School of Mines Quarterly, v. 12, p. 1-13.) Mathematical paper. 

DESIGN OF THE COAL BIN AT THE PATERSON ELECTRIC LIGHT STATION. 
1897. (Engineerino Neics, v. 38. p. 196-198.) Discusses lateral pressure of 
coal against sides of bin, that had failed. Includes letter from the designers on 
the principles of design followed. 

DULL, R. W. Some Formulas and Tables for Bin Designing. 1904. (Engineer- 
ing Neu-s, V. 52, p. 62-66.) Considers pressures on bin walls, with particular 
reference to pressure of bituminous coal. 

FAILURE OF A LARGE COAL BIN AT PATERSON, N. J. 1897. (Engineering 
-Veirs, v. 38, p. 142-144.) Does not go into details of design. 

KETCHUM, MILO S. Desipn of Walls. Bins and Grain Elevators, ed. 2. 556 p. 
1911. Pt. 1. p. 3-163, is on "The Design of Retaining Walls." Di.scusses work 
of previous investigators, and draws conclusions from it. Exhaustive review of 
experiments on pressures of grain and other materials in bins. 

LATERAL PRESSURE OF GRANULAR MATERIALS. 1904. (Engineering Rec- 
irrd, v. 49. p. 502.) Editorial discussion of experimental work by Jamieson with 
grain, and by Goodrich with earth. 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. On the Stability of Loose Earth. 4 
diag. 1857. (Philosophical Transactions, Royal Soc. of London, v. 147, pt. 1, 
p. 9-27.) "Mathematical theory of that kind of stability, which, in a mass 
composed of separate grains, arises wholly from the mutual friction of those 
grains, and not from any adhesion amongst them." 

Translated. 1874. (Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 5, v. 8, p. 131-168.) 



1322 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

ROBERTS, ISAAC. Determination of the Vertical and Lateral Pressures of Gran- 
iilar Substances. 1884. (Proceedinps, Royal Soc. of London, v. 36, p. 225-240.) 
B.xperiments were carried out with wheat and peas, with the object of deter- 
mining pressures, to be used in calculations for the design of bins. 

SMITH, J. HAMMOND. Laboratory Method of Determining Pressure on Walls and 
Bins. 1915. (Proceedings, Am. Soc. for Testing Materials, v. 15, pt. 2, p. 382- 
394.) Discussion, p. 395-398. Describes apparatus for testing pressure on 
walls and bins, explains theory of apparatus, and presents test results in tab- 
ulated form. 

FOUNDATIONS 

See also Chemical and Physical Properties of Soils. Bearing Value. Piles. 

ABBOTT, HUNLEV. Method of Constructing Gas Holder Foundations in Soft Soils, 

with Some Costs. 1912. (Engineei'ing-Contracting, v. 37, p. 199-200.) 
AKADEMISCHER VEREIN HUTTE. Hiitte, des Ingenieurs Taschenbuch. ed. 21. 

3 V. 1911. "Statik der Baukonstruktionen", v. 3, p. 56-225 ; "Grundbau", v. 

3, p. 226-264. Includes consideration of earth pressure and retaining wall 

design. 

ALLAIRE, ALEXANDER. Foundation Work in Montreal. 1 dr., 4 ill. 1912. 
[Canadian Engineer, v. 22, p. 188-190.) Considers, in general, quality of soils 
underlying Montreal and types of foundations constructed for different 
structures. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION. Design of Foundations for 
Piers, Abutments, Retaining Walls and Arches in Various Soils and Depths of 
Water (not Including Pneumatic Foundations). 1916. (Proceedings, Seven- 
teenth Annual Convention, Am. Ry. Eng. Assoc, v. 17, p. 225-231.) Report of 
Committee VII, Sub-Committee "D". Considers bearing value of soils for foun- 
dations ; allowable pressure on foundation soils and on piles ; uplift or buoy- 
ancy effect on submerged foundations ; formulas for determining pressures on 
foundations ; pile cut-off and proper depth of foundation to avoid frost action. 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM. Antwerp Water Works. 1883. (Minutes of Proceedings, 
Inst. C. E., V. 72, p. 24-44.) Discussion, p. 44-78. Foundations, p. 37-38, 
53-55. Different ways of building foundations are discussed, also supporting 
power of piles as calculated by Sanders' formula. 

AUS, GUNVALD. Reinforced Wall Foundations on Yielding Subsoil. 800 w. 
3 dr. 1908. (EngineoHng News, v. 60, p. 5.) Briefly touches on yielding prop- 
erties of light soils, and favors use of continuous foundation under walls, heavily 
reinforced with longitudinal and transverse steel or reinforced concrete beams. 

BASSELL, BURR. Earth Dams : A Study. 66 p. 1904. Careful study of prin- 
ciples involved in building dams, with descriptions of important dams. Contains 
chapter, "Outline Study of Soils." 

BLIGH, W. G. Dams and Weirs. 206 p. 1915. American Technical Society. 
Contains considerable data on the influence of the character of foundation soils, 
with special reference to dams and weirs. 

BLIGH, W. Q. Practical Design of Irrigation Works, ed. 2, rev. and enl. 443 p. 
1910. Van Nostrand. Chapter 6, p. 162-205, treats of "Diversion Weirs on 
Sand Foundations." Devoted to the construction and performance of weirs hav- 
ing no foundation other than sand. 

BLYTH, EDWARD LAWRENCE IRELAND. Description of the Loch Ken Viaduct, 
Portpatrick Railway. 1862. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 21, p. 
258-264.) Presents data on load supported on piers, p. 260. 

BOWEN, CHARLES F. Difficult Foundation Work on the Amoskeag Savings Bank 
Building, Manchester, N. H. 1914. (Engineering News, v. 71, p. 1126-1129.) 
Difficulty caused by water-bearing strata below basement level, and by pres- 
ence of adjacent party wall. 

BRICK AND IRON FOUNDATION FOR A GERMAN BUILDING. 800 w. 1898. 
(Engineering Record, v. 38, p. 9.) Alluvial clay stratum with supporting power 
of about 3 200 lb. per sq. ft. makes up foundation soil. 

BUETTELL, R. B. Foundations of the Union National Bank Building Cleveland 
Ohio. 1916, (Wisconsin Engineer, v. 20, p. 268-273.) Gives details of diffi- 
culties encountered in designing foundations for this building, and, in some detail, 
treats of the influence of the character of the soil on such design. 

BUILDING POWER HOUSE AND DAM ON SAND FOUNDATION. 1916 (Enai- 
neering News, v. 75, p. 1113-1116.) Power-house and 1 000-ft. concrete dam 
built on deep sand bed of Wisconsin River. Sand confined between lines of steel 
sheeting and covered with loose rock. Wood piles driven within the inclosure. 
Special protection against wash at down-stream side of dam. 



l'"!'*'"' I BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1223 

CHRISTENSEN, C. L. Design of Pole Foundations: Derivation of Formula Based 
on the Compressive and Frictional Resistance to Overturning Offered by Ordinary 
Soil. 1914. {Eitfjinccrinci Record, v. 70, p. 243-244.) Deals with design of 
foundations for transmission line poles. Considers resisting moment from pas- 
sive earth pressure. 

COMPOSITE SAND AND ROCK FOUNDATION FOR A TALL BUILDING. 2 dr. 
1910. {Euijinrcriixj Xcics, v. G3, p. 24-26.) Describes foundation base of 
Municipal Building, New York City, 25-story office building with a tower rising 
560 ft. above street level. Decision is for two-thirds of building to be founded 
on rock, the remainder on sand. 

CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS IN SHIFTING GROUND. 1908. {Engineering Neivs, 
V. 59, p. 57,3.) Stable foundations were obtained by founding chain-conveyor 
footings on rock below earth which had been gradually creeping or sliding. 

CONSTRUCTING THE FOUNDATIONS OF THE SEAMEN'S CHURCH INSTITUTE. 
New York. 1912. (Enginca-ing Record, v. 65, p. 105-107.) Pneumatic wall 
caissons were sunk through mud, clay, sand, and hardpan, to about 40 ft. below 
street. 

CONSTRUCTION D'UN GRAND BATIMENT INDUSTRIEL EN BETON ARME SUR UN 
Terrain sans Resistance. 1910. (Le Genie Civil, v. 56, p. 454.) Short note 
giving Italian practice. 

CORRIVEAU, R. de B. Settlement of a Foundation on Silt and Alluvium. 1907. 
[Engincerijig News. v. 57, p. 71.) Letter to editor. Gives case of settlement 
of a shallow foundation in silt and alluvium. 

CREMERS, J. J. CANTER. Determination des Elements Necessaires au Calcul de 
la Pouss6e des Terres. 1916. (Le Genie Civil, v. 69, p. 75-77.) Calculation of 
earth pressures with reference to the use of concrete in foundations. 

DANTIN, CH. Calcul des Dimensions et du Pouvoir Porteur des Pieux de Fonda- 
tion. G diag. 1912. (Le Genie Civil, v. 60, p. 246-250.) Mostly a review 
of the work by Benabeng and Resal on the subject. 

DESNOVER, CROIZETTE. Memoire sur I'Etablissement des Travaux dans les 
Terrains Vaseaux de Bretagne. 8 pi. 1864. (Annalcs des Fonts ' et 
Chaitssees, ser. 4, v. 7, p. 275-396.) French foundation practice on alluvial 
soils. 

DETERMINATION EXPERIMENTALE DE LA RESISTANCE DES TERRAINS DE 

Fondation. 1908. (Le Genie Civil, v. 53, p. 293-294.) 
DEVELOPMENT OF SHALLOW AND DEEP FOUNDATIONS FOR CHICAGO BUILD- 

ings. 1904. (Engineering Ncivs, v. 52, p. 560-563.) Gives brief informa- 
tion as to nature of Chicago soils at different depths. 

DILLEY, WILFRID JOSEPH. Footings in Foundations. 6 diag. 1905. (Minutes 
of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 163, p. 309-318.) Discusses tangential stress 
on the soil, and stresses and reactions when center of pressure coincides with 
geometrical center of area of foundation. 

DOBSON, E. Foundations and Concrete Works, ed. 3, enl. 120 p. 1872. Lock- 
wood. Contains synopsis of principal kinds of foundation works, with the usual 
modes of treatment. Includes remarks on footings, planking, sand, concrete, pile- 
driving, caissons, and coffer-dams. 

DRAKE, FRANCIS E. Concrete-Pile Holder Foundation. 1915. (Gas Age, v. 35, 
p. 221-224.) Paper before New England Association of Gas Engineers. Gas 
holder constructed on filled ground. Hardpan was reached by the piles at an 
average depth of 13 ft. 9 in. The "pedestal pile" was used. 

DYE, IRA W. Tower Foundations for the Cristobal-Balboa Transmission Line. 
1915. (Proceedings, Engrs.' Soc. of Western Pennsylvania, v. 30, p. 973- 
990.) Describes work under difficult conditions. Some of the foundations 
were on steep fills, in swamps, and in other unusual locations. 

ESPITALLIER, G. La Fondation des Ouvrages en Terrains Vaseux. 1905. (Le 
Genie Civil, v. 47, p. 329-331.) Considers diEacult foundation work at Saigon, 
Indo-China, on muddy ground. 

.\b.^tract. 1906. (Mimites of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 164, p. 451-452.) 

EWEN, JOHN M. Foundations for Chicago Buildings. 1905. (Journal, Western 
Soc. of Engrs., v. 10, p. 687-704.) Gives information regarding nature of 
Chicago soils at different depths and discusses foundation practice. 

FOUNDATION FOR THE CANAL AND CLAIBORNE ELECTRIC RAILWAY POWER 
House, New Orleans, La. 1 dr. 1897. ( Engitn-ering yews, v. 38, p. 124- 
125.) Foundation soil is new material to depth of about 35 ft. underlaid 
with natural stratum of gravel and shells, from 3 to 7 ft. thick. Building 
walls were carried on piles. 

FOUNDATION WORK ON THE MUNICIPAL BUILDING, NEW YORK. 3 diag. 1910. 
(Engineering Record, v. 62, p. 46-48.) Gives tests of bearing value of sand, 
p. 46-47. 



133-i BEARI^TG VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

FOUNDATIONS AND UNDERPINNING IN MUD AND SAND. 1906. (Engineering 
Record, v. 53, p. 167.) Describes fouudations of eight-story building in New 
York City. 

FOUNDATIONS FOR HEAVY BUILDINGS. 1891. (Engineering Record, v. 23, p. 
140-142.) Mostly a discussion of the ever-increasing foundation ICads per unit 
area and of the proper means of securing safety. 

FOUNDATIONS FOR THE NEW CITY HALL IN CHICAGO. 2 ill. 1909. (Engi- 
neering Record, v. 59, p. 745-747.) Bed-rock at site of building is overlaid by 
successive layers of water-bearing strata, hardpan, blue clay, yellow clay, muck, 
and refuse filling material. 

FOUNDATIONS OF THE FIREMEN'S INSURANCE BUILDING IN NEWARK. 1911. 

(Engineering Record, v. 64, p. 636-637.) Excavations were through quaking 

sand and a subterranean stream. Steel sheet-piling was used. 
FOUNDATIONS OF THE MUNICIPAL BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 2 diag., 3 dr.. 

6 ill. 1910. (Engineering Nev)s, v. 64, p. 523-529.) Partly on rock and partly 

on sand. Results of tests are given. 

FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW POST OFFICE AND GOVERNMENT BUILDING AT 

Chicago. 5 diag., 1 dr. 1898. (Engineering Neivs, v. 39, p. 66-68.) Indi- 
cates successive soil strata for four borings, showing, in general, blue clay of 
varying consistency between layer of filling and the hardpan. 
FOUNDATIONS OF THE NORTHWESTERN RAILWAY TERMINAL, CHICAGO. 
1909. (Engineering Record, v. 59, p. 595-597.) Details of unusual foundation 
work through soft soil, blue clay, and hardpan to rock. 

FOWLER, CHARLES EVAN. Practical Treatise on Subaqueous Foundations, In- 
cluding the Coffer-dam Process for Piers and Dredges and Dredging, with 
Numerous Practical Examples from Actual Work. ed. 3, rev. and enl. 814 p. 

1914. John Wiley & Sons, New York. [Bearing value of soils], p. 409-423, 491. 

FRYE, ALBERT 1. Civil Engineers' Pocket-book. 1611 p. 1913. Van Nostrand. 
Includes data on theory and properties of earth, earthworks, foundations, retain- 
ing walls, piles and pile driving, earth dams. Bibliographical notes at end of 
each main division. 

OAUDARD, JULES. On Foundations. 1877. (Minvtes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 
50, p. 112-147.) Gives various methods of foundation construction, safe loads 
for various soils, and information on friction of cylinders in soils. 

GOTTLIEB, A. Foundations and Floors for the World's Fair Buildings. 1891. 
(Engineering Record, v. 25, p. 15-16.) After tests with loaded platforms, spread 
foundations were adopted on a sandy bottom with clay substrata. 

GREAT BRITAIN — PATENT OFFICE. Abridgment of Specifications: Class 68, 
Hydraulic Engineering. 1855-1908. Classified abstracts of British patents. 
Includes subaqueous structures, caissons, coffer-dams, piles and pile-driving, sea 
walls, and retaining walls. 

GRUEBER, PAUL. Wetzmann Retaining Dam. 7 diag. 1886. (Engineering 
Nexvs, V. 15, p. 353-354.) Translated from Central-Blatt der Bauverwaltung, 
June, 1885. The principles of the erosive action of torrential streams, as 
developed by Alexander Surrell, were successfully applied to protective works in 
the Alps. 

GUARINI, EMILE. Mechanical Compression of the Ground in the Construction of 
Ftoundations. 1906. (Scientific Amei-ican, v. 108. n. s., v. 94, p. 476-477.) 
Method "consists in compressing the ground by treating it with concrete in such 
a way as to compress it laterally and depthwise." 

HASELER, E., and others. Erd- und Felsarbeiten. Erdrutschungen. Stiitz- 
und Futtermauern. 414 p. 12 folding pi. 1905. (Handbuch der Ingenieur- 
wlsseuschaften, pt. 1, v. 2, ed. 4, rev.) Literatur, p. 403-407. 

HATCH, JAMES N. Chicago Foundations. 1 diag., 3 dr. 1904. (Architects' 
and Builders' Magazine, v. 5, p. 555-561 ; v. 6, p. 18-24.) Depth and nature 
of strata determined from borings at time of construction of Post Office Build- 
ing. Discusses generally soils underlying business district of Chicago. 

HICKS, LEWIS A. Standardized Square Footings of Reinforced Concrete. 62 p. 

1915. Accompanied by a working chart, 15% by 17% in. Presentation of 
methods for practical utilization of the data given in Bulletin 67 of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. 

HILL, GEORGE. Foundations. 1893. (American Architect, v. 41, p. 179-182.) 

Discusses testing of soils, bearing value of various soils, bearing value of piles, 

and treatment of soils. 
HOWE, MALVERD A. Foundations : a Short Text-book on Ordinary Foundations, 

Including a Brief Description of the Methods Used for Difficult Foundations. 

110 p. 1914. John Wiley and Sons, New York. "References" at the end of 

each chapter. "Supporting Capacity of Soils," p. 1-12. 



r.-vpcrs.l BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1225 

HlfNT, RANDELL. Priiiriijlcs Goveininp the Design of Foundations for Tall 
ItuildinKs. JSOO. {Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc-., v. 17. p. 1-26.) Gives brief 
inforinntion ami suggestions regarding soil foiindations and the desirable factor 
of safety in loading soils. 

HUTTON, VV. R. Foundations of High Buildings. 1893. (Engineering Record, 
V. 2S. p. 2C8-270.) Paper before Congress of Architects, Chicago. Discusses 
N'ew York and Chicago foundation practice, and the nature of the underlying 
soils. Considers extent of lateral displacement of soil due to vertical load. 

JACOBY, HENRY S., and DAVIS, ROLAND P. Foundations of Bridges and Build- 
ings. 603 p. 1014. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. Excellent book, 
covering subject thoroughly. "Bearing Power of Piles," p. 75-115. Formulas 
for bearing power of concrete piles, p. 161-162. "Tests f6r Bearing Capacity," 
p. 531-534. "Values of Bearing Capacity," p. 534-537. "References to Engi- 
neering Literature," p. 562-597. 

KENT, WILLIAM. Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-book. ed. 9. 1526 p. 1916. 
Wiley. Brief treatment of properties of soils, foundations, piles, etc. 

KIDDER, FRANK EUGENE. Architects' and Builders' Pocket-book. ed. 16. Thomas 
Xolait. Editor-in-Chief. 1S16 p. 1916. Wiley. Inchulos considerable data on 
soil cliaracteristics as relating to bearing power, foundations, piles, retaining 
walls, etc. 

KOENICi, ARNOLD C. Dams on Sand Foundations ; Some Principles Involved in 
Their Design, and the Law Governing the Depth of Penetration Required for 
Sheet-piling. 4 dr. 1911. {Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 73, p. 175-189.) 
Disrupsion, 2 diag., 6 dr.. p. 190-224. 

KL'RDJUMOFF, V, J. Foundations on Natural Ground. 1893. {Minutes of Pro- 
ceedings, Inst. C. E., V. Ill, p. 414-415.) Abstract from Der Civilingenieur, 
1S02, p. 293. Deals with foundations in loose or sandy soils. Uses photo- 
graphic methods. Finds that Rankine's formula, based on the theory of 
granular masses, does not give accurate results. 

LEA, SAMUEL H. Foundation Construction for the New State Capitol of South 
Dakota. 2 dr., 1 ill. 1908. (Engineering Record, v. 57, p. 437-438.) Tests 
of bearing capacity of hard, firm soil a few feet below surface. 

LEONARD, HUGH. Foundations for Buildings in Calcutta. 4 dr. 1895. 
(Journal, Royal Inst, of British Architects, v. 44, p. 593-595.) Results of tests 
of sandy clay. 

1875. (Engineering, v. 20, p. 103.) 

Abstract. 4 dr. 1895. (Engineering Record, v. 32, p. 317.) 

LESLIE, BRADFORD. Account of the Bridge Over the Gorai River on the Goalundo 
Extension of the Eastern Bengal Railway. 1872. (Minutes of Proceedings, 
Inst. C. E., V. ."^4, p. 1-42.) Considers foundations. 

LEUREY, L. F. Soft-ground Foundations. Panama-Pacific International Exposi- 
tion : Penetration and I»ad Tests of Piles. 1914. (Engineering News, v. 72, 
p. 250-254.) Soil consisted of soft sand and mud (hydraulic-dredge fill). 
Pile foundations were adopted for a large part of the building area. Test 
borings were made. 

McALPINE, WILLIAM JARVIS. Foundations of the New Capitol at Albany, N. Y. 
1874. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 2, p. 287-288.) Briefly discusses 
bearing value of soils, and gives results of tests. 

McALPINE, WILLIAM JARVIS. Foundations' of the New Capitol at Albany, New 
York. 1879. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 57, p. 198-207.) 
Describes experiments, and also various considerations taken into account for 
determining the bearing value of soil. 

MAHAN, D. H. Treatise on Civil Engineering; Revised and Edited by De Volson 
Wood. 637 p. 1893. Includes treatment of "Foundations of Structures on 
Land," and of retaining walls. 

MARKS, LIONEL SIMEON, and others, ed. Mechanical Engineers' Handbook. 
1836 p. 1916. McGraw. Data on bearing value of soils, pile foundations, 
safe loads for piles, and retaining walls, p. 1264-1268. 

MANER, RL'DOLF. Ueber die Bedingiingen einer Gleichformigen Druckverthellung 
in den Fundamenten. 3 diag. 1897. (Zcitschrift, Oesterreichischen-Ingenieur- 
und Architekten-Vereines, v. 49, p. 34-36.) 

MERRIMAN, MANSFIELD. American Civil Engineers' Pocket Book. 1380 p. 
1911. Wiley. Data on foundations, bearing capacities of soils, retaining walls, 
earth pressure, etc. 



1236 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

METHODS USED TO PROTECT THE FOUNDATION OF A HEAVY TOWER DURING 

Adjacent Subway Construction in Boston, Mass. 1914. (Enginecrin(j-Contract- 
ing, V. 42, p. 604-605.) Means for protecting foundation of Old South Church 
during subway construction. Steel sheet-piling driven on both sides of the sub- 
way, and the soil inside the coffer-dam thus formed grouted. The subway was 
then constructed in short sections, each section being completed before excava- 
tion for the next section had reached a depth of more than 10 ft. 

MOLESWORTH, GUILFORD L., and MOLESWORTH, HENRY B. Pocket-book of 
Useful Formula and Memoranda for Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers, 
ed. 27. 936 p. 1913. Includes data on retaining walls, foundations, etc. 

O'ROURKE, JOHN F. Foundations for Heavy Structures in Deep Alluvial Soil. 
1907. (Enf/ineering News, v. 58, p. 87-88.) Much information on bearing 
value of such soils. 

PATTON, WILLIAM MACFARLAND. Practical Treatise on Foundations, Explain- 
ing Fully the Principles Involved, Supplemented by Articles on the Use of Con- 
crete in Foundations, ed. 2, enl. 549 p. 1906. John Wiley and Sons, New 
York. [Bearing resistances of materials] p. 3-8, 146, 149, 213-216, 291-294, 
308, 343-352, 358, 532. [Bearing power of piles and formulas], p. 376-378, 
395, 472. 

PATTON, WILLIAM MACFARLAND. Treatise on Civil Engineering, ed. 2. 1654 p. 
1907. Includes articles on foundations and foundation-beds, ordinary earthwork, 
retaining walls, reservoir walls, dams and weirs, etc. 

POWELL, GEORGE T. Foundations and Foundation Walls for All Classes of 
Buildings. Pile Driving, Building Stones and Bricks, Pier and Wall Construc- 
tion, Mortars, Limes, Cements, Concretes, Stuccos, etc., to Which is Added a 
Treatise on Foundations, with Practical Illustrations of the Method of Isolated 
Piers, as Followed in Chicago, by Frederick Bauman. ed. 4. 166 p. 1889. 
W. T. Comstock. 

PRELIMINARY FOUNDATION TESTS FOR THE ST. PAUL BUILDING. 1896. 
(Engineering Record, v. 33, p. 388.) Loading tests on sand soil with solid rock 
about 86 ft. below the curb. 

RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. Manual of Civil Engineering, ed. 24. 
822 p. 1911. Includes considerable information on soils for foundation work. 
, "Strength and Stability of Earthwork in General," p. 315 ; "Ordinary Founda- 
tions," p. 377 ; "Timber, Iron and Submerged Foundations," p. 601. 

REINFORCED CONCRETE FOOTINGS OF SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION. 1 dr. 1915. 
(Engineering Record, v. 72, p. 355-356.) Outside corner columns for the ten- 
story storehouse of the Appleton Company at Lowell, Mass., supported on low- 
bearing soil, without extending beyond the lot line. 

REINFORCEMENT OF ENGINE FOUNDATIONS ON SOFT SOIL. 1907 (Engineer- 
ing Record, v. 55, p. 254.) Soil consisted of sand and silt. Foundations of 
plant were carried down to clean building sand, on which footings were spread. 
Foundations of engines were extended down to lower stratum. 

REITER, J. Pneumatic Caisson Foundations of the Prague-Smichow Bridge. 
1878. (Minutes of Proceedings,. Inst. C. E., v. 51, p. 288-290.) Abstract 
from Mittheilungcn des Architekten- und Ingenieur-Vereines im Konigreiche 
Bohmen, v. 11, p. 7-9, 13-16 ; v. 12, p. 20-24. Treats of frictional resistance 
of a caisson in san'd or gravel, p. 290. 

RIPLEY, CHARLES M. Concrete Fo'undations of the Tallest Sky-scraper. 4 dr., 

1 ill. 1907. (Ceinent, v. 8, p. 52-59.) Consider.s soils underlying Singer 

Building, New York City, and information gained by borings to level of solid 
rock. 

RIPLEY, CHARLES M. Foundation Problems in New York City ; How the Collapse of 
Neighboring Buildings is Prevented and Caissons are Sunk to Bedrock, Using 
the Moran Air Lock. 1907. (Iron Age, v. 79, p. 480-484.) 

1907. (Compressed Air, v. 12, p. 4381-4388.) 

ROHAN, W. D. Grouting Natural Soils for Bridge and Building Foundations. 
1910. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 34, p. 545.) Favors use of grout in 
foundation work. 

ROYAL BANK BUILDING FOUNDATION WORK. 1914. (Canadian Engineer, v. 
26, p. 525-529.) Describes foundations of twenty-story building. Soil is com- 
posed of an upper layer of clay extending to a depth of about 30 ft., with a 
deposit of moderately hard and shaly clay beneath for a depth of from 2 to 3 ft. 
Below is a very hard, dense shale, with little variation in a depth of 600 ft. 



l''M'«^is-] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1327 

SCHAEFER, R. Unterdruck bel Staumauern. 10 diag., 1 ill., 2 pi. 1913. {Zcit- 
schrift filr Bauwcsen, v. 63, p. 101-118.) 

SCHILL, A. K. J. Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Foundation Slabs. 1911. 
(Minutes of Proceedings, Inst, C. E., v. 186, p. 479.) Abstract from De 
Imicnicur. 1911, v. 20, p. 329-330. 

SCHMITT, EDUARD. Fundamente. 1901. (Handbuch der Archltektur, v. 3, pt. 
1, p. 281-40G.) Contains many bibliographies. Includes section on character 
and investigation of the soil on the sites of structures, and precautious against 
sinking and sliding. Also includes a section on the construction of masonry, 
concrete, concrete and sand, and grillage foundations. A third section takes up 
deep and submerged foundations. 

SCHUYLER, JAMES DIX. Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-Power and Domestic 
Water-Supply, with an Account of Various Types of Dams and the Methods, 
Plans and Cost of Their Construction, ed. 2. 556 p. 1908. Contains chapter 
on "Earthen Dams," p. 41G-451. 

SICCAMA. H. T. H. Foundations. 1903. (Bulletin News, v. 85, p. 646-647.) 
Paper before Civil and Mechanical Engineers' Society. Shows effect of nature 
of soil on depth and construction of foundations. 

1903. (A7nei-iehn Architect, v. 82, p. 92-93.) 

SKINNER, FRANK W. Development of Building Foundations. 7 ill., 12 dr. 
190S. (Engineering Record, v. 57, p. 412-422.) Gives tests of bearing value 
of soil and piles, p. 413. 

SPREAD FOUNDATIONS IN HAMBURG. 1911. (Engineering Record, v. 63, p. 
659.) Editorial, describing foundations of very large bearing surface. 

STREET, WILLIAM C. Foundations. 1882. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Maga- 
zine, V. 26. p. 337-342.) Paper read before the Civil and Mechanical Engineers' 
Society. Gives experience with foundations on sand and clay. 

STRESS, WILLIAM H. Method for Figuring Foundation Pressures Under U-A-but- 
ments. 3 dr. 1910. (Engineering Record, v. 62, p. 560.) 

TALBOT, ARTHUR N. Reinforced Concrete Wall Footings and Column Footings. 
114 p. 1913. (University of Illinois Engineering Experiment Station, Bulletin 
67.) Extensive tests. Bearing value of soils is discussed briefly on p. 7. 
See also Hicks, Lewis A. 

TALL BUILDING FOUNDATIONS ON SOFT CLAY. 1907. (Engineering Record, 
V. 55, p. 731-732.) Tests of bearing capacity of clay in connection with con- 
struction of 15-story building in Toronto. 

TESTING FOUNDATIONS AT THE MUNICIPAL BUILDING, NEW YORK. 3 dr., 
1 ill. 1911. (Engineering Record, v. 63, p. 196-197.) Gives results of load- 
ing tests, with pier resting on sand, about 35 ft. below the surface and 80 ft. 
above rock level. ^ 

TRAUTWINE, JOHN C. Civil Engineer's Pocket-book. ed. 18. 1079 p. 1907. 
Includes sections on Foundations (p. 582-600), and Retaining Walls (p. 603- 
613). 

USINA, D. A. Recent Developments in Pneumatic Foundations for Buildings. 17 
dr. 1908. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 61, p. 211-221.) Discussion, 
3 ill., 4 dr., p. 222-237. Reviews development of foundations in New York and 
refers to pneumatic foundations as most economical type for maximum bearing 
pressure. 

Abstract. 1908. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 173, p. 357.) 

VERNON-HARCOURT, LEVESON FRANCIS. Civil Engineering as Applied in Con- 
struction. 624 p. 1902. Includes brief treatment of foundations, and of earth- 
work in cuttings and embankments. 

WADDELL, J. A. L. Bridge Engineering. 2 v. 2177 p. 1916. Wiley. An 
important work. Contains chapter on "Foundations in General," v. 1, p. 946- 
972, giving considerable data on permissible pressures. Also contains a chapter 
on "Piles and Pile Driving," v. 1, p. 1008-1019, in which is included material 
on characteristics, compacting, and equilibrium of soils. 

UEGMANN, EDWARD. Design and Construction of Dams, Including Masonry, 

Earth, Rock-fill, Timber, and Steel Structures ; also Principal Types of Movable 

Dams. ed. 6. 529 p. 1911. "Bibliography," p. 507-519. Includes chapter 
on "Earthen Dams," p. 221-247. 

YOUNG, EVELYN HENRY. Foundations in "Black Cotton Soil" in India. 1893. 
(Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 113, p. 323-326.) Soil is rich, black 
earth composed of disintegrated trap, which swells and exerts an enormous 
pressure, when filled with water. 



1228 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

RETAINING WALLS, INCLUDING LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE. 

See also Granular Materials. 

ALEXANDER, T., and THOMSON, A. W. Elementary Applied Mechanics. 575 p. 
1902. Contains chapters, "Application of the Ellipse of Stress to the Stability 
of Earthwork," p. 70-86, and "The Scientific Design of Masonry Retaining 
Walls." 

ALLEN, J. ROMILLY. Investigation of the Question of the Thrust of Earth Be- 
hind a Retaining Wall. 3 diag. 1877. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Maga- 
zine, V. 17, p. 155-158.) Mathematical solution. 

ALLEN, KENNETH. Design of Retaining Walls. 1892. {Engineering Record, 
V. 26, p. 341-342, 356-357, 374, 393.) On practical design of retaining walls, 
sea wails, and dock walls. Illustrated with actual designs. 

AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE OF WAY ASSOCIA- 

tion. [Report of Committee on] Retaining Walls and Abutments. 1909. {Pro- 
ceedings, Tenth Annual Convention, Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, 
p. 1317-1337.) Gives information showing practice of various railroads in the 
designing of retaining walls. Committee submits method of determining earth 
pressures based on Rankine's formula. 

Condensed. 1909. {Engineering Record, v. 60, p. 288-290.) 

AUDE. Nouvelles Experiences sur la Poussee des Terres. 1849. {Comptes 
Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 28, p. 565- 
566.) Short review of Aude's work presented by Poncelet. 

BAKER, BENJAMIN. Actual Lateral Pressure of Earthwork. 1881. {Minutes 
of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 65, p. 140-186.) Discussion, p. 187-241. Aims 
to present data on actual lateral pressure of earthwork, as distinguished from 
"text-book" pressures, which latter the author holds to be generally incorrect. 

1881. {Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 25, p. 333-342, 353-371, 492- 

505.) 

BARDWELL, F. W. Note on the "Horizontal Thrust of Embankments." 1861. 
{Mathematical Monthly, v. 3, p. 6-7.) Finds the formula derived by D. P. 
Woodbury to be correct. 

BOARDMAN, H. P. Concerning Retaining Walls and Earth Pressures. 1905. 
(Engineering News, v. 54, p. 166-169.) Concludes that information regarding 
earth pressures is quite inexact. Suggests conducting series of tests on large 
scale. 

BONE, EVAN P. Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Design. 1907. (Engineer- 
ing News, V. 57, p. 448-452.) Calculations of earth pressures, and diagrams. 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Calcul Approche de la Poussee et de la Surface de Rupture, 
dans un Terre-plein Horizontal Homogene, Contenu par un Mur Vertical. 1884. 
(Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de TAcademie des Sciences, v. 
98, p. 790-793.) 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Complement a de Precedentes Notes sur la Poussee des Terres. 
1884. (Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 7, p. 443-481.) 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Equilibrium of Pulverulent Bodies. 1 diag. 1877. (Minutes 
of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 51, p. 277-283.) Abstract translation of "Essai 
Theorique sur TEquilibre des Massifs Pulverulents, Compare a celui de Massifs 
Solides et sur la Poussee des Terres sans Cohesion." Brussels. 1876. 

1881. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 25, p. 107-110.) 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Integration de I'Equation Differentielle qui pent Donner une 
Deuxidme Approximation, dans le Calcul Rationnel de la Poussee Exercee centre 
un Mur par des Terres Depourvues de Cohesion. 1 diag. 1870. (Comptes 
Rendus Hebdom,adaires des Seances de I'AcadSmie des Sciences, v. 70, p. 751- 
754.) 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Note sur la Determination de I'Epaisseur Minimum que doit 
avoir un Mur Vertical, d'une Hauteur et d'une Densite Donnees, pour Contenir 
un Massif Terreux, sans Cohesion, dont la Surface Superieure est Horizontale. 
1 diag. 1882. (Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 3, p. 625-643.) 
Application of the theory of earth-pressure, as developed by Rankine and 
Darwin, to design of vertical walls. 

BOUSSINESQ, J. Note sur la Methode de M. Macquorn-Rankine pour le Calcul 
des Presslons Exercees aux Divers Points d'un Massif Pesant que Limite, du 
Cote Superieur, une Surface Cylindrique d. Generatrices Horizontales, et qui est 
Indeflni de Tous les Autres Cotes. 1874. (Annales des Ponts et Chaussees, ser. 
5, V. 8, p. 169-187.) Criticism of Rankine's theory of earth pressure. 



''i'l'L'1-1 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1-^29 

HOUSSINESQ, J. Sur la Pouss^e d'une Masse de Sable, a Surface Sup6rleure 
Horlzontale, Centre une Parol Verticale dans le Volslnage de Laquelle son Angle 
dp Frottenient Int^rleur est Suppose Croltre L;>g6rement d'apriis une Certalne 
Lol. 1884. (Coniplcs JRcndus Ilchdomadaires des Stances de TAcadfimle des 
Sciences, v. 98, p. 720-723.) 

IIOL'SSINESQ, J. Sur la Poussfie d'une Masse de Sable, a Surface Superl6ure 
ITorUontale, Contre une Parol Verticale ou Inclin^e. 1884. (Com-ptea Rendua 
llebdomadaires des Seances de I'Acadgmle des Sciences, v. 98, p. 667-670.) 

HOUSSINESQ, J. Sur le Principe du Prisme de plus grande Pouss^e, Pos6 par 
Coulomb dans la Theorie de I'Equilibre Llmite des Terres. 1884. {Comptes 
Rrndii.i flrhdnitiathiirrn des Stances de TAcadomie des Sciences, v. 98, p. 901- 
904. 975-978.) Critical review. 

HOUSSINESQ, J. Sur les Lois de la Distribution Plane des Pressions a 
I'lnterieur des Corps Isotropes dans I'Etat d'Eiiuilibre Limite. 1874. (Comptes 
Rctuhts Hebdomadaires des Sfiances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 78, p. 757- 
759.) 

HOVEV, HENRY T. Theory of Structures and Strength of Materials, ed. 3. 835 p. 
1000. Includes section on earthwork and retaining walls. 

BURSTING PRESSURE OF AN EARTH FILL. 1912. (Engineering Neios, v. 68, 
p. 593-594.) Editorial discussing the causes of failure of a retaining wall in 
St. Louis. 

CAIN, WILLIAM. Cohesion and the Plane of Rupture in Retaining Wall Theory. 
1 diag. 1912. {Engineering News. v. 67, p. 992.) I.«tter to editor discussing 
Hirschthal's article "Some Contradictory Retaining Wall Results," Engineering 
News, V. 67, p. 799. 

CAIN, WILLIAM. Earth Pressure, Retaining Walls and Bins. 287 p. 1916. 
Wiley. Contains chapters on the theory of earth friction and cohesion, of earth 
thrust, and of bins. Gives special attention to coherent and non-coherent 
earths. Emphasizes throughout the pre.sence in earth of cohesion as well as of 
friction. 

CAIN, WILLIAM. Retaining Walls. 1880. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Maga- 
zine, V. 22, p. 265-277.) Considers "the earth as a homogeneous and incom- 
pressible mass, made up of little grains, possessing the resistance to sliding over 
each other called friction, but without cohesion." 

CALCULATIONS FOR RETAINING WALLS. 1911. (Architect and Contract Re- 
porter, V. 86, p. 43-44, 59-61, 75-76, 85-87, 96-97, 109-110.) Takes all 
factors into consideration, wind pressure, slides, earth pressure, etc. "Angles 
of repose of various earths," p. 109. 

CARTER, FRANK H. Bracing and Sheeting Trenches. 1910. (Engineering- 
Contracting, V. 34, p. 76-78.) Computes pressures on bracing and shoring for 
well under-drained excavations in virgin soil. 

CARTER, FRANK H. Comparative Sections of Thirty Retaining Walls, and Some 
Notes on Retaining Wall Design. 1910. (Engineering Netos, v. 64, p. 106- 
108.) Discusses theoretical earth pressures, giving formulas. 

CLAVENAD. Memoire sur la Stabilite, les Mouvements, la Rupture des Massifs 
en G6n4ral, Coherents ou sans Cohesion. Quelques Considerations sur la Pouss^e 
des Terres, Etude Speciale des Murs de SoutSnement et de Barrages. 64 diag. 
1887. (Aymales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 13, p. 593-683.) 

COLEMAN, T. E. Retaining Walls in Theory and Practice ; A Text-book for 
Students. 160 p. 1909. Design and construction. Avoids advanced mathe- 
matics where possible. 

CONSIDERE. Note sur la Poussee des Terres. 1870. (Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussees, ser. 4, v. 19, p. 547-594.) Extension of Levy's theory of earth- 
pressure. See Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Academie des 
Sciences, v. 68, p. 1456. 

CONSTABLE, CASIMIR. Retaining Walls: An Attempt to Reconcile Theory with 
Practice. 3 diag. 1874. (Transactions. Am. Soc. C. B., v. 3, p. 67-75.) 
Gives results of a number of experiments with models, using walls made of 
wood blocks and filling composed of oats and peas. 

Abstract. 1873. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 8, p. 375-377.) 

Condensed. 1873. (Journal, Franklin Inst., v. 95, p. 317-322.) 

CORNISH, L. D. Earth Pressures : A Practical Comparison of Theories and Ex- 
periments. 1916. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 81, p. 191-201.) Dis- 
cussion, p. 202-221. Endeavors to show graphically the results obtained in 
actual wall design by the use of the different formulas (principally those of 
Rankine and Cain) and by values obtained in certain experiments, so that 
the points of interest may be discussed without resorting to mathematics. 



1230 BEAEING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

CORNISH, L. D. Fallacies in Retaining Wall Design and the Lateral Pressure of 
Saturated Earth. 1916. (United States Corps of Engineers, Professio7uil 
Memoirs, v. 8, p. 161-172.) Discussion, p. 173-195. Treats of lateral pressure 
of saturated soils in connection with the design of retaining walls. Presents 
considerable mathematical data on the treatment of saturated soil in such 
design work. 

COUPLET. De la Poussee des Terres Contre leurs Revestemens et la Force des 

Revestemens qu'on Leur Doit Opposer. 8 pi. 1726-1728. (Histoire de 

I'Academie Royale des Sciences, v. 28, p. 106-164 ; v. 29, p. 132-141 ; v. 30, 
p. 113-138.) 

COUSINERY. Determination Graphique de I'Epaisseur des Murs de Soutenement. 
1 pi. 1841. (Annales des Fonts ct Chaussces, ser. 2, v. 2, p. 167-184.) 
Develops a method of graphical determination of thickness of retaining walls. 
Shows how to apply the theory of earth pressure in connection with this 
graphical construction. 

CRAMER, E. Die Gleitflache des Erddruck-prismas und der Erddruck gegen 
geneigte Stiitzwande. 4 diag. 1879. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 29, p. 
521-526.) 

CRELLE. Zur Statik unfester Korper. An dem Beisplele des Drucks der Erde 
auf Futtermauern. 1 pi. 1850. (Abhandlunpen der Koniglichen Akademie der 
Wissenschaften zu Berlin, v. 34, p. 61-97.) To be found in section "Mathe- 
matische Abhandlungen." 

CUNO. Die Steinpackungen und Futtermauern der Rhein-Nahe-Eisenbahn. 1861. 
(Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 11, p. 613-626.) 

CURIE, J. Note sur la Brochure de M. Benjamin Baker Intitulee : "The Actual 
Lateral Pressure of Earthwork." 9 diag. 1882. (Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 3, p. 558-592.) Criticism of Baker's paper in Minutes of 
Proceedings. Inst. C. E., v. 65, p. 140. 

CURIE, J. Nouvelles Experiences Relatives a la Theorie de la Poussge des Terres. 
4 diag. 1873. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie 
des Sciences, v. 77, p. 142-146.) 

CURIE, J. Sur la Poussee des Terres et la Stabilite des Murs de Revetments. 
1868. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomndaires des Seances de I'Academie des 
Sciences, v. 67, p. 1216-1218.) Theoretical paper. 

CURIE, J. Sur la Theorie de la Poussee des Terres. 1871. (Comptes Rendus 
Hebdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 72, p. 366-369.) 
Critical review of the theories advanced by Maurice Levy. 

CURIE, J. Sur la Theorie de la Poussee des Terres. 1 diag. 1873. (Comptes 
Rendus Hebdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 77, p. 778- 
781.) Reply to Saint-Venant's criticism in same volume. 

CURIE, J. Sur le Disaccord qui Existe entre I'Ancienne Theorie de la Poussee des 
Terres et I'Experience. 1 diag. 1873. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaircs des 
Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 76, p. 1579-1582.) 

CURIE, J. Trois Notes sur la Theorie de la Poussee des Terres. Disaccord entre 
I'Ancienne Theorie et I'Experience; Nouvelles Experiences; Reponse aux 
Objections. 1873. Gauthier-Villars. Paris. 1875. (Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussees, ser. 5, v. 9, p. 490.) Short review of Curie's pamphlet. 

DALY, CESAR. Mur de Soutenement de la Terrasse du Chateau de Meudon, 

I pi. 1859. (Revue Generale de V Architecture et des Travaux Publics, v. 17, 
p. 243.) 

DIAGRAM FOR OVERTURNING MOMENTS ON RETAINING WALLS FOR EARTH 
or "Water. 1907. (Enpineering Netvs, v. 57, p. 460.) Diagram was con- 
structed by Charles H. Hoyt. 

DONATH, AD. Untersuchungen iiber den Erddruck auf Stiitzwande angestellt mit 
der fiir die Technische Hochschule in Berlin erbauten Versuchsvorrichtung. 1 pi. 
1891. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauioesen, v. 41, p. 491-518.) 

DU BOIS, A. J. Upon a New Theory of the Retaining Wall. 14 diag. 1879. 
(Journal, Franklin Inst,, v. 108, p. 361-387.) Gives a concise history of the 
subject, and develops in detail Weyrauch's theory. 

DUNCAN, LINDSAY. Plumbing a Leaning Retaining Wall and Bridge Abutment. 
1906. (Engineering News, v. 55, p. 386.) 

DYRSSEN, L. Analytische Bestimmung der Lage der Stiitzlinie in Futtermauern. 

II diag. 1885. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 35, p. 101-106.) 

DYRSSEN, L. Ermittlung von Futtermauerquerschnitten. 1 diag. 1886. (Zeit- 
schrift fiir Bauwesen, v. 36, p. 389-392.) 

DYRSSEN, L. Ermittlung von Futtermauerquerschnitten miit gebogener oder 
gebrochener vorderer Begrenzungslinie. 3 diag. 1886. (Zeitschrift fiir Bau- 
wesen, V. 36, p. 127-130.) 



•'iiI't''sJ Bi;AI{iy(i VALUE OF SOILS 1231 

EDDY. HENRY T. New Constructions In Graphical Statics. 1877. (Van Noa- 
tr-and's Kiuiinccrinci Magazine, v. 17, p. 1-10.) Contains section on "Retaining 
Wall.'! and Abutments", p. 5-10. 

ENGESSER, FR. Geometrische Erddruck-Theorie. 1880. (Zeitschrift fiir Bau- 
wcseii, V. 30, p. 189-210.) 

EVEREST, J. H. Treatise on Retaining Wall Design. 1911 (Canadian Engineer, 
V. 21. p. 192-193, 237, 264-265.) Considers earth pressure, slope, weights of 
materials, etc. 

FLAMANT, A. Formules Simples et trds Approchges de la Pouss^e des Terres, pour 
les Besains de la Pratique. 1884. (Comptes Rendvs Hebdomadaires des Stances 
de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 99, p. 1151-1153.) 

FLAMANT, A. Note sur la Pouss^e des Terres. 1 pi. 1872. (Annates des Fonts 
rt Chaussces, ser. 5, v. 4, p. 242-275.) EJxpounds Rankine's theory. 

FLAMANT, A. Note sur la Poussee des Terres. 1882. (Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussces, ser. 6, v. 3, p. 616-624.) Mostly a review of Baker's paper in Min- 
utes of Froceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 65, p. 140. 

FLAMANT, A. R^sumS d'Articles Publies par la Society des Ingenieurs Civils de 
Londres sur la Poust;ee des Terres. 1883. (Annales des Fonts et Chniisses, 
ser. 6, V. 6, p. 477-532.) Review of Darwin's, Gaudard's and Boussinesq's 
papers in Minutes of Froceedinris, Inst. C. E., v. 71 and 72. 

FLAMANT, A. Tables Numeriques pour le Calcul de la Poussee des Terres. 2 diag. 

1885. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussecs. ser. 6, v. 9, p. 515-540.) Gives many 

tables of constants for the relations derived by Boussinesq and based on the 

experiments of Darwin in England and Gobin in France. 
GLAUSER, J. Bestimmung der Starke genelgter Stiitz — und Puttermauern mit 

Rucksicht auf die Incoharenz ihrer Masse. 1880. (Zeitschrift fiir Bauwesen, 

V. 30, p. 63-72.) 

GOBIN, A. Determination Precise de la Stabilite des Murs de Soutenement et de 
la Poussee des Terres. 71 diag. 1883. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 
6, V. 6, p. 98-231.) Points out some faults in Rankine's theory, develops his 
own theorj', and gives various applications and results of experiments. 

GODFREY, EDWARD. Design of Reinforced Concrete Retaining Walls. 1906. 
(Engineering News. v. 56, p. 402-403.) Considers lateral pressure of different 
materials, angles of repose, and necessary calculations. 

GOODRICH, ERNEST P. Lateral Earth Pressures and Related Phenomena. 44 
diag.. 3 dr., 1 ill. 1904. (Tra7isactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 53, p. 272-304.) 
Di.scussion, p. 305-321. Experimentally determines ratio of lateral to vertical 
pressure. Gives series of conclusions. See also editorial, "Lateral Earth Pres- 
sure," Engineering Record, v. 49, p. 633-634. 

Abstract. 1904. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 158, p. 450-451.) 

GOULD, E. SHERMAN. Retaining Walls. 13 diag. 1877. (Van Nostrand's Engi- 
neering Magazine, v. 16, p. 11-17.) Methods of design. 

GOULD, E. SHERMAN. Retaining Walls. 2 diag. 1883. (Van Nostrand's En- 
gineering Magazine, v. 28, p. 204-207.) Gives the theory of J. Dubosque. 

GRAFF, C. F. High Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Construction at Seattle, 
Wash. 1905. (Engineering Netcs, v. 53, p. 262-264.) 

HIRSCHTHAL, M. Some Contradictory Retaining Wall Results. 1 diag. 1912. 
(Engineering News, v. 67, p. 799-800.) Letter to editor reviewing some accepted 
formulas of earth pressure on retaining walls. See also Cain, Engineering News, 
V. 67, p. 992. 

HISELY. Constructions Diverges pour Determiner la Poussee des Terres sur un 
Mur de Soutenement. 1899. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 7, v. 17, 
p. 99-120.) Develops a general graphical solution applicable to a load of any 
character. 

HOSKINO. On the Introduction of Constructions to Retain the Sides of Deep 
Cuttings in Clays, or Other Uncertain Soils. 14 dr. 1844. (Minutes of Fro- 
eeedings, Inst. C. E., v. 3, p. 355-372.) 

Condensed. 1846. (Journal, Franklin Inst., v. 41, p. 73-79.) 

HOWE, MALVERD A. Retaining- Walls for Earth, Including the Theory of Earth- 
Pressure as Developed from the Ellipse of Stress, with a Short Treatise on Foun- 
dations, Illustrated with Examples from Practice, ed. 4. 167 p. 1907. 

HUGHES, THOMAS. Description of the Method Employed for Draining some 
Banks of Cuttings on the London and Croydon, and London and Birmingham 
Railways; and a Part of the Retaining Wall of the Euston Incline, London and 
Birmingham Railway. 4 ill. 1845. (Minutes of Froceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 
4. p. 78-86.) 



1333 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. Railroad Location, Railroad 
Construction, Track Work, Railroad Structures. [473 p.] (International 
Library of Technology, v. 34B.) Includes section on theory and design of re- 
taining walls, p. 899-912. 

JACOB, ARTHUR. On Retaining Walls. 27 diag. 1873. (Van Nostrand's En- 
gineering Magazine, v. 9, p. 194-204.) Reprint, with a few emendations, of 
author's original essay on "Practical Designing of Retaining Walls". Takes up 
design. Considerable attention to earth pressure. 

• 1873. (Building News, v. 25, p. 421-422, 465-466, 478-479.) 

JACQUIER. Note sur la Determination Graphique de la Pousses des Terres. 5 diag. 
1882. (Annates dcs Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 3, p. 463-472.) Bases his 
graphical construction on Ranklne's theory, as developed by Levy, Considere, and 
others. 

KIRK, P. R. Graphic Methods of Determiining the Pressure of Earth on Retaining 

Walls. 1899. (Builder, London, v. 77, p, 233-235.) 
KLEIN, ALBERT. Die Form der Winkelstiitzmauern aus Eisenbeton mit Rucksicht 

auf Bodendruck und Relbung in der Fundamentfuge. 1909. (Beton und Eisen, 

V. 8, p. 384-387.) 

KLEITZ. Determination de la Poussee des Terres et Btablissement des Murs de 
Soutenement. 1884. (Anna.les des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 2, v. 7, p. 233- 
256.) Theoretical discussion. 

KLEMPERER, F. Graphische Bestimmung des Erddruckes an eine ebene Wand 
mit Rucksicht auf die Cohasion des Brdreiches. 1 pi. 1870. (Zeitschrift, 
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur-und Architekten-Vereines, v. 31, p. 116-120.) 

KRANTZ, J. B. Study on Reservoir Walls ; Translated from the French by F. A. 
Mahan. 54 p. 1883. 

LACHER, WALTER S. Retaining Walls on Soft Foundations. 1915. (Journal, 
Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 20, p. 232-265.) Experiments gave the following 
conclusions as to types of walls and their advantages: (1) The block wall is 
economical, and may be constructed in several stages, but It does not possess as 
great a potential factor of safety as a monolithic wall ; (2) the heavy batter mass 
wall is economical, but is open to the same objections as the block wall ; (3) 
the cellular wall offers great resistance to overturning or sliding, but occupies 
considerable space before filling and may thus interfere with use of tracks; (4) 
the mass wall on piles gives maximum security, but is expensive and may give 
trouble because of damage to adjacent buildings on insecure foundations. 

LAFONT, de. Memoire sur la Poussee des Terres et sur les Dimensions a Donner, 
Suivant leurs Proflls, aux Murs de Soutenement et de Reservoirs d'Eau. 1 pi. 
1866. (Annales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 4, v. 12, p. 380-462.) Gives in 
tabulated form experiments performed and constants arrived at by Aude, 
Domergue, and Saint-Guilhem, p. 397-400. 

LAFONT, de. Note sur la Repartition des Pressions dans les Murs de Soutenement 
et de Reservoirs, Nouvelles Formules pour le Calcul de ces Murs. 1868. 
(Ayinales des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 4, v. 15, p. 199-203.) 

LAQRENE, H. de. Note sur la Poussee des Terres Avec ou Sans Surcharges. 8 
diag., 2 dr. 1881. (Annales des Fonts ct Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 2, p. 441-471.) 
Gives calculations for earth pressure of level surfaces on vertical retaining 
walls. 

Abstract. 1882. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 68, p. 336-337.) 

LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE. 1904. (Enainrering Record, v. 49, p. 633-634.) 
Editorial comment on "Lateral Earth Pressure and Related Phenomena", by 
Ernest P. Goodrich. 

LETHIER and JOZAN. Note sur la Consolidation des Terrassements du Chemin 
de Fer de Gien a Auxerre. 2 pi. 1888. (Annates des Fonts et Chaussees, 
ser. 6, V. 16, p. 5-18.) Consolidation of treacherous slopes in heavy cuts by 
means of rubble spurs perpendicular to face of slopes. 

Abstract translation. 1889. (Minutes of Froceedinqs, Inst. C. E., v. 95, p. 

466-468.) 

L'EVEILLE. De I'EmpIoi des Contre-forts. 1844. (Annales des Fonts et Chaus- 
sees, ser. 2, v. 7, p. 208-232.) Derives formulas for proper design. 

LEVY, MAURICE. Essai sur une Theorie Rationnelle de I'Equilibre des Terres 
Fraichement Remuees et ses Applications au Calcul de la Stabilite des Murs de 
Soutenement. 1869. (Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de I'Aca- 
demie des Sciences, v. 68, p. 1456-1458.) Develops a theory of earth pressure, 
and shows its application in design of retaining walls. 

LEVGUE. Notice sur les grands Murs de Soutenement de la Ligne de Mazamet a 
Bedarieux. 2 pi. 1887. (An7iales des Fonts ct Chaussees, ser. 6, v. 13 p. 
98-114.) Considerable attention is given to design. 



I'iil""-'! BEARIXG VALUE OF SOILS 1233 

MACONCHY, G. C. Earth-pressures on Retaining; Walls. 189S. (Engineering, 
V. (u;. p. 25(i-257, 484-485, 641-G43.) Gives simple method for calculating 
overturning moments. 

^V\IN, J. A. Graphic Detormination of Pressures on Retaining Walls. 1912. 
(T/if Engineer, London, v. 113, p. 220.) 

MEEIVI, J. C. Bracing of Trenches and Tunnels, with Practical Formulas for 
Barth Pressures. 2 diag., 5 ill., 13 dr. 1908. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., 
V. 00. p. 1-23.) Discussion, 10 diag., 5 ill. 54 dr., p. 24-100. Develops a 
theory of earth pressure, and basis of this theory deduces analytical relations. 

Abstract. 1908. (Mi7i%ites of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 171, p. 435-436.) 

Abstract. 1 ill.. 3 dr. 1907. (Engineering Record, v. 56, p. 494-496.) See 

also editorial "Sheet Piling and Earth Pressure", p. 528, and letter to editor, 
p. 60S. 

MERRIMAN, MANSFIELD. Te.\t-book on Retaining Walls and Masonry Dams. 
122 p. 1893. 

MOFFET, J. S. D. Mistaken Ideas with Reference to the Resultant Force and 
the Maximum Pressure in Retaining Wall Calculations. 1903. (Feilden's 
Mifiazine, v. 9, p. 197-199.) 

MOHLER, C. K. Tables for the Determination of Earth Pressures on Retaining 
Walls. 1909. (Engineering News, v. 62, p. 588-589.) 

MULLER-BRESLAU, HEINRICH. Erddruck auf Stiitzmauern. 159 p. 1906. "Lit- 
eratur". p. 158-159. Contains a thorough discussion of the theory of the 
lateral pressure of sand and loose earth, and a full description of the author's 
extensive experiments. 

PEARL, JAMES WARREN. Retaining Walls ; Failures, Theories, and Safety 
Factors. 1914. {Join~iuil, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 19, p. 113-172.) Dis- 
cusses foundation soil of retaining walls, and calculates design mathematically. 

PETTERSON, HAROLD A. Design of Retaining Walls. 1908. (Engineering 
Record. V. 57, p. 757-759, 777-778.) Diagrams are given. See also letter 
by C. E. Day, Engineei'ing Record, v. 58, p. 56. 

PICHAULT, S. Calcul des Murs de SoutSnement des Terres en Cas de Surcharges 
Quelcpnques. 1899. (Memoires ct Compte Rcndxi, des Travaux de la Soci6t6 
des Ing^nieurs Civlls de France, 1899, pt. 2, p. 210-266, 844-846.) Bibliog- 
raphy, p. 264-266. Mathematical treatment of earth pressures on retaining 
walls. 

PONCELET. Memoire sur la Stabilit6 des Revetements et de leurs Fondations. 
1840. (Comptes Rendus Hehdomadaires des Seances de I'Academle des Sciences, 
v. 11, p. 134-140.) Review of the author's 270-page essay published in 
Memorial de I'Offlcier du Ginie, No. IS. Author is an able supporter of 
Coulomb's theory. 

Abstract. 1840. (Revue Generale de V Architecture et des Travaux Publics, 

V. 1, p. 482-483.) 

PRELINI, CHARLES. Graphical Determination of Earth Slopes, Retaining Walls 
and Dams. 129 p. 1908. Elementary treatment, for students rather than 
professional engineers. Graphical methods are given for solving problems con- 
cerning the slopes of earth embankments, the lateral pressure of earth, and 
the thickness of retaining walls and dams. 

PURVER, GEORGE M. Design of Retaining Walls, Adapted from Georg Christoph 
Mfhrtens, "Vorlesungen uber Static der Baukonstructionen und Festigkeits- 
lehre." 1910. (Engincerinq-Contractinq, v. 34, p. 388-395.) Includes "Tables 
for Allowable Pressure. Adopted by the Public Service Convention [Commis- 
sion?], First District, State of New York." 

RAMISCH. .Neue Versuche zur Bestimmung des Erddrucks. 1910. (Zeitschrift, 
Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 62, p. 233-240 ; v. 63, 
p. 423-425.) Mathematical calculations. 

REBHANN, GEORG. Theorie des Erddruckes und der Futtermauern mit besonderer 
Rilcksicht auf das Bauwesen. 1871. (Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- 
und Architekten-Vereines, v. 23, p. 211.) Review, by O. Baldermann, of Reb- 
bann's book, published in 1870 in Vienna by Carl Gerold's Son. 

REISSNER, H. Theorie des Erddrucks. 1910. (Enzyklopadie der Mathematischen 
Wissenschaften, v. 4, pt. 4, p. 386-417.) "Literatur", p. 387. 

REPPERT, CHARLES M. Recent Retaining Wall Practice, City of Pittsburgh. 
1910. {Proceedings, Engrs. Soc. of Western Pennsylvania, v. 26, p. 316-354.) 
Discussion, p. .T55-367. Gives attention to calculation of earth pressures as 
affecting design. 



1234 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

RESAL, JEAN. Poussee des Terres. 2 v. 1903-1910. (Enzyklopadie des 
Travaux Publics.) v. 1. Stabilite des Murs de Soutenement. v. 2. Theorie 
des Terres Coherentes. — Applications. — Tables Numeriques. Purely theoretical 
work on earth pressures as affecting the design of structures, v. 1 deals 
entirely with soils lacking cohesion. 

REUTERDAHL, ARVID. From the Soil Up : A New Method of Designing. 1914. 
(Engineering-Contracting, v. 42, p. 581-585.) Considers especially retaining 
wall design. Advocates starting with the bearing capacity of the soil, and 
working from that basis. 

ROSE, W. H. Formulas for the Design of Gravity Retaining Walls. 1910. {En- 
gineering-Contracting, V. 34, p. 115-117.) From Professional Memoirs, Corps 
of Engineers, U. S. Army. 

SAINT=VENANT, de. Examen d'un Essai de Theorie de la Poussee des Terres 
Contre les Murs Destines k les Soutenir. 1873. {Comptes Bendus Hebdoma- 
daires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 73, p. 234-241.) Criticizes 
Curie's theory, and defends the so-called rational theory developed by Levy. 

SAINT=VENANT, de. Poussee des Terres. Comparaison de ses Evaluations au 
Moyen de la Consideration Rationnelle de I'Equilibre-limite, et au Moyen de 
I'EmpIoi du Principe dit de Moindre Resistance, de Moseley. 1870. (Comptes 
Bendus Hebdoniadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 70, p. 
894-897.) 

SAINT=VENANT, de. Rapport sur un Memoire de M. Maurice Levy, Presente le 
3 Juin, 1867, Reproduit le 21 Juin, 1869, et Intitule : Essai sur une Theorie 
Rationnelle d'Equilibre des Terres Fraicliements Remuees, et ses Applications 
au Calcul de la Stabilite des Murs de Soutenement. 1870. (Comptes Bendus 
Hebdoniadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 70, p. 217-235.) 
Report of a committee, giving a historical review of the works on earth pres- 
sure, and discussing in detail Maurice Levy's theory. 

SAINT=VENANT, de. Recherche d'une Deuxieme Approximation dans le Calcul 
Rationnel de la Poussee Exercee, Contre un Mur dont la Face Posterieure a une 
Inclinaison quelconque, par des Terres non Coherentes dont la Surface Supe- 
rieure s'Eleve en un Talus Plan quelconque a Partir du Haut de Cette Face du 
Mur. 1 diag. 1870. (Comptes Bendus Hebdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie 
des Sciences, v. 70, p. 717-724.) Based on Levy's theory. 

SAINT=VENANT, de. Sur une Determination Rationnelle, par Approximation, de 
la Poussee qu' Exercent des Terres Depourvues de Cohesion, Contre un Mur 
ayant une Inclinaison quelconque. 3 diag. 1870. (Comptes Bendus Heb- 
doniadaires des Seances de I'Academie des Sciences, v. 70, p. 229-235, 281-286.) 
Development of Levy's theory. 

SAINT='VENANT, de. Sur une Evaluation, ou Exacte ou d'une Tres Grande Ap- 
proximation, de la Poussee des Terres Sablonneuses Contre un Mur Destin6 a les 
Soutenir. 1884. (Comptes Bendus Hebdomadaircs des Seances de I'Academie 
des Sciences, v. 98, p. 850-852.) Based on Boussinesq's works. 

SCHAFFER. Erddruck und Stiitzwande. 1 diag., 1 pi. 1878. (Zeitschrift fur 
Bauivesen, v. 28, p. 527-548.) 

SCHMITT, EDUARD. Empirische Formeln zur Bestimmung der Starke der Fut- 
termauern. 1871. (Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur-und Architekten- 
Vereines, v. 23, p. 336-338.) Mathematical calculations on the basis of Reb- 
hann's tables. 

SCMWEDLER, J. W. [Unterschnittene Futtermauern.] 1871. (Zeitschrift fill 
Bauwesen, v. 21, p. 280-282.) Discussion of the formula derived by Schwedler 
at a meeting of the Architekten-Verein zu Berlin. 

SERBER, D. C. Stability of Sea Walls. 15 diag. 1906. (Engineering News, 
V. 56, p. 198-200.) Gives method of design. 

Brief abstract. 1906. (Le Genie Civil, v. 50, p. 32.) 

SHEET^PILING AND EARTH PRESSURE. 1907. (Engineering Becord, v. 56, p. 
528.) Refers particularly to paper on "The Bracing of Trenches and Tunnels," 
by J. C. Meem. 

SIEQLER. Experiences Nouvelles sur la Poussee du Sable. 1887. (Annates des 
Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 6, 13, p. 488-505.) Experimental method for studying 
reactions between masses of earth and their supporting walls. Friction dyna- 
mometer was used to determine intensity of pressure. 

Condensed translation. "New Experiments on the Thrust of Sand." 1887. 

(Scientific American Supplement, v. 24, p. 9724-9725.) 

SINGER, MAX. Fliessende Range. 1902. (Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Inge- 
nieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 54, pt. 1, p. 190-196.) Describes yielding 
of sides of railway cutting in valley of the Eger, Austria, with methods used 
for retaining embankment. 



I'apLMs.] Hi: A KING VALUE OF SOILS 1235 

SINK'S, F. F. Analysis and Design of a Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall. 

1905. (Engineering News, v. 53, p. 8-9.) 
SINKS, F. F. Design for Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall. 1904. (Railroad 

Gazette, V. 37. p. 676-677.) Letter. 
SKIBINSKI, CARL. Ueber StiltzmauerquerKchnitte. 1898. (Zeitschrift, Oester- 

ri'i.liisihen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Verelnes, v. 45, p. 666-670.) 
SKIBINSKI, KARL. Theorie de.-^ Erddrucks auf Grund der neueren Versuchen. 

1 diag., 1 pi. 1885. (Zeitschrift, Oe.sterreichischen Ingenieur- und Archi- 

tekten-'Vereines, v. 37, p. 65-77.) Develops his own theory of earth pressure 

based on the experimental work of Forchheiraer, Gobin, and Darwin. Gives a 

graphical construction of his theory, and methods of practical application. 
SPILLNER, E. Stiitzmauern. 1S»01. (Handbuch der Architektur, ed. 3. v. 3, 

pt. G. p. 182-197.) "Literatur," p. 196. 
STRUKEL, M. Beitrag zur Kenntniss des Erddruckes. 2 diag., 4 dr. 1888. 

(Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 40, 

p. 119-125.) Critical review of the salient points of the earth pressure theory 

as developed by Coulomb, Rebhauu, and others. In support of his own views, 

gives results of some e.xperiments. 
SYLVESTER. J. J. On the Pressure of Earth on Revetment Walls. 1 diag. 

1860. (London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of 

Seicnce, ser. 4, v. 20, p. 489-499.) Criticism of theories of Coulomb and 

Rankine. 
TATE, JAMES S. Surcharged and Different Forms of Retaining Walls. 59 p. 

1873. Van Nostrand. Theoretical calculations for retaining walls. 

1873. (Van Nostrand's Eng-incering Magazine, v. 9, p. 481-494.) 

THORNTON, WILLIAM M. Retaining Walls. 7 diag. 1879. (Van Nostratid's Engi- 
neering Magazine, v. 20, p. 313-318.) Concise and simplified account of the 

theory of earth pressure and its application to the design of retaining walls. 
VAN BUREN, JOHN D., JR. Quay and Other Retaining Walls. 6 diag. 1872. 

(Transactions. Am. Soc. C. E., v. 2, p. 193-221.) Establishes practical formulas 

for the dimensions of walls of various shapes and under various conditions. 

Follows Coulomb's theory. An appendix gives a number of mathematical 

relations. 
VEDEL, P. Theorv of the Actual Earth Pressure and Its Application to Four 

Particular Cases. 1894. (JoimioZ, Franklin Inst., v. 138, p. 139-148, 189- 

198.) Mathematical calculation. 
WALMISLEY, A. T. Retaining Walls. 1907. (The Builder, London, v. 93, p. 

647-G48.) Discusses calculations of earth pressure, foundations, etc. 
WEINOARTEN. [Die Theorie des Erddrucks.] 1 diag. 1870. (Zeitschrift fiir 

Bautcesen, v. 20, p. 122-124.) Abstract of a paper read before the Architekten- 

Vereln zu Berlin. 
WESTON, W. E. Tables for Use in Determining Earth Pressure on Retaining 

Walls. 1911. (Engineei-ing News, v. 65, p. 756-757.) 
WINKLER, E. Neue Theorie de.^ Erddruckes. 19 diag. 1871. (Zeitschrift, 

Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten-Vereines, v. 23, p. 79-89, 117- 

122.) 
WOODBURY, D. P. On the Horizontal Thrust of Embankments. 1 diag. 1859. 

(Mathe)natieal Monthly, v. 1, p. 175-177.) Mathematical paper. 
WOODBURY, D. P. Remarks on Barlow's Investigation of "the Pressure of Banks, 

and Dimensions of Revetments." 2 diag. 1845. (Journal, Franklin Inst., 

V. 40, p. 1-7.) 

PILES. 

GENERAL. 
See also Foundations. 

ABBOTT, HUNLEY. Discussion of the Carrying Capacity of Bulb-pointed Con- 
crete Piles. 1911. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 35, p. 41-43.) Takes into 
consideration different kinds of soils and "safe bearing power of soils." 

BENABENQ, J. Resistance des Pieux : Th6orie et Applications. 16 diag., 29 dr. 
1911. (Annates des Fonts et Chaussees, ser. 9, v. 5, p. 263-355 ; ser. 9, v. 6, 
p. 475-543.) Deals with the bearing value of piles from a mathematical stand- 
point. The first part treats the subject from a new standpoint, viz., that of 
static equilibrium. The second part follows more or less normal lines. 
Numerous formulas are deduced. Gives many tables of constants. 

Abstract. 1912. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 158, p. 475-476.) 

Abstract. 1912. (Engineering Record, v. 65, p. 248.) 

Condensed. 1912. (Le Genie Civil, v. 60, p. 246-250.) 



1236 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

CEZANNE. Notice sur le Pont de la Theiss et sur les Pondations Tubulaires. 
1859. (Annalcs des Fonts et Chanssees, ser. 3, v. 17, p. 334-382.) Loading of 
piles at Szegedin, p. 340-341. 

COLUMN ACTION IN PILES. 1908. {Engineering News, v. 60, p. 18-19.) 
Under the conditions of river pier construction, also in other cases, the free 
length of pile is great. The vertical strength of such columns is very much 
below the bearing value that could be developed in a firm gravel stratum. To 
design long soft-ground marine piling for pure bearing value incurs the risk 
of overloading the piles as columns. 

CONCRETE PILE WALL FOUNDATIONS. 1 dr., 1 ill. 1904. {Engineering Record, 
v. 50, p. 431-432.) Describes foundation work for the United States Express 
Company's building. New York. Gives results of pile tests. 

COTHRAN, THOMAS W. Form for Pile-driving Records Used on the Norfolk and 
Southern Railway. 1 chart, 1 dr. 1907. {Engineering News, v. 57, p. 596.) 
Letter to editor. 

ECCENTRIC LOAD ON PILES OR RIVETS. 1912. {Engineering News, v. 67, p. 
1190.) Note giving simple formula for section modulus of eccentrically loaded 
piles or rivets. 

FARGO, WILLIAM G. Experience with Steel Sheet-piling in Hard Soils. 1907. 
{Engineering News, v. 57, p. 374-375.) Paper before Michigan Engineering 
Society. Methods and costs. Clay hardpan was encountered. 

1907. {Engineering-Contracting, v. 27, p. 193-195.) 

Condensed. 1907. {Engineering Record, v. 55, p. 175-176.) 

GOODRICH, E. P. Column Action In Piles; Stiffening Piles by Rip-rap. 1908. 
{Engineering News, v. 60, p. 41.) Letter to editor. 

GOODRICH, E. P. Why Not a Rational Specification for a Wooden Pile? 1915. 
{Engineering Record, v. 71, p. 627-628.) Letter to editor. 

HOOPER, HENRY. Description of the Pier at Southport, Lancashire. 1861. 
{Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 20, p. 292-299.) Gives load used on 
cast-iron piles, p. 295. 

HOWE, W. B. W. Some Facts of Experience in Pile Driving. 1892. {Engineer- 
ing Neivs, V. 28, p. 543-545.) Letter to editor and reply by editor, A. M. 
Wellington. 

HURTZIG, ARTHUR CAMERON. Note on the Friction of Timber Piles in Clay. 
1 dr., 1 pi. 1881. {Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C, E., v. 64, p. 311-315.) 
Gives results of observations on frictional resistance to motion of piles and 
deduces a formula for maximum load. 

Condensed. 1 diag. 1881. {Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 25, 

p. 273-276.) 

KNIGHT, G. L. Underpinning with Hollow Piles Driven with Point. 1916. {En- 
gineering News, v. 76, p. 982-985.) Two-story building underpinned for unit 
load of 600 lb. p6r sq. ft., and increased to four stories. Special pile-driver 
drove hollow steel piles 25 ft. with lower ends closed by a special projectile- 
shaped point. 

LENTZ, H. Drawing Piles in Cuxhaven Harbor. 1880. {Minutes of Proceed- 
ings, Inst. C. E., V. 59, p. 396-397.) Abstract from Deutsche Bauzeit\ing, 
1879, p. 340. Discusses difficult operation of drawing piles and gives the pull 
required in certain special cases. 

LESSON IN PILE-DRIVING. 1 dr. 1889. {Engineering News, v. 22, p. 368.) 
Editorial, pointing out the faulty pile work of the South Street Bridge, 
Philadelphia. 

MARQUARDSEN, R. P. V. Pressures on Piles Supporting Masonry. 1915. {Jour- 
nal, Western Soc. of Engrs., v. 20, p. 541-547.) 

MAYER, RUDOLF. Ueber die Vertheilung des Pfeilerdruckes in den Fundamenten. 
4 diag. 1896. {Zeitschrift, Oesterreichischen Ingenieur- und Architekten- 
Vereines, v. 48, p. 654-656.) Discusses the conditions favorable to a uniformly 
distributed loading on soil. 

METHODS OF CONSTRUCTING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILE BENTS FOR THE 

Atlantic City Boardwalk. 1909. {Engineering-Contracting, v. 31, p. 126-128.) 
Gives method used in constructing a concrete pile foundation in sea sand. 

PILE DRIVING; PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICE. 1911. {Proceedings, Am. Ry. Eng. 
and Maintenance of Way Assoc, v. 12, p. 278-302.) Also gives pile record 
forms. See aluo. Amendments, p. 306. 

PILE DRIVING DESTROYS A TUNNEL BY CLAY PRESSURE. 1 diag., 1 ill. 1915. 
{Engineering News, v. 74, p. 404-405.) An 8-ft. brick tunnel under the 
Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Ohio, was completely crushed by lateral pressure 
and flow of the clay subsoil. 



''"I""''^] BEARIXG VALUE OF SOILS 1237 

PILES AND PILE DRIV'INO. 1910. (Procccdinfjs, Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance 

of Way Assoc, v. 11. pt. 1. p. 185-216.) Gives pile record forms. 
PLACING PILE FOUNDATION PIERS FOR NEW BUILDING BEFORE DEMOLITION 

of Old. 1914. (KtKjinccriiuj Xvivs, v. 71, p. 910-912.) New York building. 
RENO. J. W. File Foundations for Tunnels in Soft Ground. 2 dr. 1907. (En- 

(jiiircrinD Ncus, v. ."SS. p. 4:5.) Describes Reno pile-driver; gives pressure piles 

will sustain in soft ground after standing a few days. 
SCHURCH, H. Eine eigenartige Eisenbetonpfablgriindung. 1914. (Beton und 

Kuscn. V. 13. p. 373-375: v. 14, p. 11-16.) Describes foundations of a hotel in 

Triost on floating piles, which have no solid bearing. 

SHERTZER, TYRRELL B. Another Form for Pile-driving Records. 1 chart. 1907. 

(Entnnecrituj iVeics, v. 58, p. 66.) Letter to editor. 
STEEL SHEET-PILING FOR RETAINING EARTH UNDER SPREAD FOOTINGS. 

1908. (Engineering Record, v. 58, p. 15-16.) Describes methods used under 
old Custom House, New York City. Soil consisted of mixture of clay and 
brownish sand containing many small stones and a great quantity of water. 

STEEL PILING FOUNDATIONS. 1906. (Engineering Record, v. 53, p. 246). 
Considers soil and load on concrete filling of caissons. 

USE OF TIMBER IN ENGINEERING STRUCTURES. 1892. (Engineering, London, 
V. 53, p. 412-413.) Editorial indicating the extensive use of wood piling in 
I'nited States and discussing some formulas for supporting power of piles used 
by American engineers. 

WEIHE, H., ed. Rammen und zugehorige Hulfsmaschinen. 1910. (Handbuch 

der Ingenieurwissenschaften, v. 4, pt. 1, p. 211-312.) "Literatur," p. 309-312. 

Good review of the use of piles in foundation work. 
WELLINGTON, A. M., ed. Piles and Pile Driving. 145 p. 1893. Engineering 

News Pub. Co. Reprint of articles that appeared previously in Engineering 

yews, particularly on the safe loading of piles. 
WILLMANN, L. von. Tragfahigkeit eingerammter Pfahle. 1906. (Handbuch der 

Ingenieurwissenschaften, ed. 4, pt. 1, v. 3, p. 88-93.) 

THEORY AND FORMULAS. 

BAILLAIRGE, C. Supporting Power of Piles. 1902. (Engineering Record, v. 45, 
p. 183-184.) Letter to editor discussing defects of existing formulas and sug- 
gesting a board of inquiry into the subject of pile foundations by American and 
Canadian Governments. 

COLE, HOWARD J. Concrete Piles. 12 ill., 1 dr. 1909. (Transactions. Am. 
Soc. C. E., V. 65, p. 467-487.) Discussion, 3 diag., 4 ill., 5 dr., p. 488-513. 
Important discussion on concrete piles. Formulas for their bearing value are 
derived. 

.\bstract. 4 diag. 1909. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 32, p. 308-310.) 

DIAGRAMS FOR SAFE LOADS ON PILES. 1 diag. 1912. (Engineering-Con- 
tracting, V. 37, p. 94.) Constructed with the use of Engineering News formula. 

ELLIS, G. W. New Pile Formula Desired. 1905. (Engineering Record, v. 52, p. 
390.) Letter to editor criticizing accepted formulas for bearing value of piles 
and urging the Engineering Profession to evolve a new one. 

[ENQINEERINO NEWS FORMULA.] 1906. (Engineering News, v. 55, p. 499.) 
Editorial. 

FORMULAE FOR SAFE BEARING LOAD OF PILES. 1889. (Engineering News, 
v. 22, p. 368-369.) Editorial digest. 

FORMULAE FOR SAFE LOADS OF BEARING PILES. 1888. (Engineering News, 
v. 20, p. 509-512.) A. M. Wellington, editor, derives a formula which later 
became known as the "Engineering News formula." Compares this formula 
with others. 

GOODRICH, ERNEST P. The Supporting Power of Piles. 18 diag., 3 dr. 1902. 
(Transactiotis, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 48. p. 180-212.) Discussion, p. 213-219. 
.Author develops a general formula for the bearing value of piles, and compares 
it with numerous existing formulas. 

Abstract. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 149, p. 383-384.) See also 

editorial "Supporting Power of Piles," Engineering Record, v. 45, p. 97. See 
also letters to editor. 1 diag. 1902. (Engineering Record, v. 45, p. 183- 
184.) 

GOODRICH, ERNEST P. The Supporting Power of Piles. 1910. (Proceedings, 
Am. Ry. Eng. and Maintenance of Way Assoc, v. 11, pt. 1. p. 217-236.) Suggests 
further experimental work for developing a dependable formula. 

Condensed. 1910. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 33, p. 371-373.) See also 

editorial. Engineering Record, v. 61, p. 744. 



123S BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

GRIFFITH, JOHN H. Ultimate Load on Pile Foundations, Static Theory. 6 diag. 
1910. (Transactions. Am. Soc. C. E., v. 70, p. 412-441.) Discussion, p. 442- 
447. See also editorial, Engineering Record, v. 61, p. 744. Attempts to con- 
struct a formula by statical methods. 

HAAQSMA, R. Allowable Load on Piles. 1892. (Engineering, London, v. 53, 
p. 553-554.) Discusses his formula which was originally published in 
Tijdskrift van het Koninklyk Instituut van Ingenieurs, 1886-1887, and which 
is much used in Holland. 

HASWELL, CHARLES H. On Formulas for Pile-Driving. 1893. (Minutes of 
Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 115, p. 315-320.) Discusses formulas of Rankine, 
Sanders, Molesworth, and others, and derives his own formula. 

HASWELL, CHARLES H. Pile-Driving Formulas: Their Construction and Factors 
of Safety. 1899. (Transactions, Am. Soc. C. E., v. 42, p. 267-276.) Discus- 
sion, 1 diag., p. 277-287. See also Railroad Gazette, v. 31, p. 608. Reviews 
and criticizes the pile formulas most in use, and presents for consideration a new 
one devised by himself. 

HENDRY, M. C. Bearing Power of Piles. 1909. (Canadian Engineer, v. 16, 
p. 485-490.) Discusses formulas and their basis, action of soil, etc. 

HERING, RUDOLPH, comp. Bearing Piles. (Engineering News, v. 5, p. 56, 88, 
103-104, 116, 124.) Gives formulas for bearing value, size, and location in any 
foundation. 

K., F. P. Short Formula for Bearing Piles. 1888. (Engineering News, v. 20, 
p. 326.) Letter to editor. 

KAFKA, RICHARD. Praktische Anwendungen der Methoden zur Bestimmung der 
zulassigen Pfahlbelastung. 1909. (Beton und Eisen, v. 8, p. 161-164, 196-198, 
212-216.) Static, geometrical method is used in calculating. 

KNOWLES, A. M. Steam-Hammer Pile Formulas ; Suggestions and Queries. 
1916. (Engineering News, v. 75, pt. 1, p. 372-373.) See also Rohde, 
Charles F. 

KREUTER, FRANZ. New Method for Determining the Supporting Power of Piles. 
1896. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 124, p. 373-377.) Analytical 
method verified experimentally. See also editorial "A New Formula for the 
Supporting Power of Piles." 1896. (Engineering Record, v. 33, p. 343.) 

Abstract. 1896. (Engineering Record, v. 33, p. 330.) 

Condensed. 1896. (Railway Review, v. 36, p. 262.) 

KRIEQSMAN, EUGEN F. Pile-Driver Diagram. 1 diag. 1912. (Engineering 
Record, v. 65, p. 417.) Gives logarithmic diagram for ascertaining bearing 
value of piles by measuring penetration under drop-hammer. 

McALPINE, WILLIAM JARVIS. Supporting Power of Piles ; and on the Pneu- 
matic Process for Sinking Iron Columns, as Practised in America. With Dis- 
cussion. 1 pi., 2 dr. 1868. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 27, p. 
275-319.) Discusses formulas of Sanders, Molesworth, and Weisbach, and 
deduces his own theory, based on extensive experiments. 

McALPINE, WILLIAM JARVIS. Supporting Power of Piles, Both of Wood and 
Iron, and the Use of the Latter, Either as Piles or Columns of Support for 
Foundations. 1 ill. 1868. (Journal, Franklin Inst., v. 85, p. 98-110, 170- 
182.) Gives results of tests with various piles. Discusses several pile formulas, 
and suggests his own for consideration. 

MAVNARD, HENRY NATHAN. New Ross Bridge. 1871. (Minutes of Proceed- 
ings, Inst. C. E., V. 32, p. 146-191.) Discussion refers to Sander's formula for 
bearing value of piles, p. 165-167. 

MILINOWSKI, ARTHUR S. Diagram for Determining the Safe Load on Piles. 1 
diag. 1911. (Engineering News, v. 65, p. 139.) 

PILE DRIVING FACTORS OF SAFETY. 1889. (Engineering Netvs, v. 21, pp. 313- 
314.) Editorial by A. M. Wellington. 

PILE DRIVING FORMULAS. 1899. (Railroad Gazette, v. 31, p. 608-609.) 
Reviews Charles H. Haswell's paper, which appeared in v. 27 of Transactions, 
Am. Soc. C. E. 

PILE FOUNDATIONS AND PILE DRIVING FORMULAE. 3 diag. 1882. (Van 
Nofiirand's Engineering Ma(ia::ine, v. 27, p. 22-31.) From a circular of the 
office of Chief of Engineers. Compares experimental results with twenty-one 
formulas. 

RANDOLPH, RD. Pile-Driving Formulas and Practice. 1882. (Van Nostrand's 
Engineering Magazine, v. 27, p. 298-302.) 

ROHDE,^ CHARLES F. Proposes a New Pile Formula. 1916. (Engineering News, 
V. 75, pt. 1, p. 476.) Letter discussing an article on steam-hammer pile for- 
mulas : suggestions and queries. See also Knowles, A. M. 

SAFE LOAD FOR BEARING PILES. 1892. (Engineering Neivs, v. 28 p 469- 
470.) Editorial by A. M. Wellington. 



Papers.] BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 1239 

SANDERS, JOHN. Rule for CalcuIatiiiK the Weight That can be Safely Trusted 
upon a Flic Which Is Driven for the Foundation of a Heavy Structure. 1851. 
(.loiiriKil. Franklin Inst., v. 52, p. 304-305.) 

STERN, OTTOKAR. Kilnstliche Befestigung des Baubodensmittels "schwebender" 
rilotage. 1007. {lieton und Eiscn, v. 6, p. 1-4, 56-57.) Calculates bearing 
value of concrete piles. 

STICKNEY, G. F. Diagrams to Determine the Bearing Power of Piles. 2 diag., 
1 dr. 1907. (Engineering Record, v. 56, p. 720-721.) Gives also the con- 
struction of a pile-driver for testing purposes. 

STRENGTH OF SHEET-PILING. 1911. (Proceedings, Am. Ry. Eng. and Main- 
tiMiance of Way Assoc, v. 12, pt. 1, p. 303-304.) Derives formulas for pressure 
due to water, due to dry sand and due to wet slipping material. 

SUPPORTING POWER OF PILES. 1902. (Engineering Record, v. 45, p. 97. 
Editorial, pointing out uncertainty of knowledge on the subject. See also letter 
by C. Baillairge, p. 183. 

TESTING. 
See also Chemical and Physical Properties of Soils, Testing. 
ACTUAL RESISTANCE OF BEARING PILES. 1893. (Engineering News, v. 29, 
p. 171-173.) Records, with notes, seventeen different examples of actual 
weight supported by piles at different places. 
ADHESION OF TIMBER PILES TO CONCRETE. 6 dr. 1904. (The Engineer, 
London, v. 98, p. 167-168.) Abstract of paper published in "Travaux Publics 
de Belgique," Gives results of experiments with piles sliding in a mass of con- 
crete and on resistance developed by piles when passing through a concrete 
platform. 

Condensed. 1904. (Engineering Record, v. 50, p. 358-359.) 

ALLEYNE, JOHN GAY NEWTON. Dordrecht Railway Bridge, and the Founda- 
tions of the Railwav Bridge at Rotterdam. 1875. (Minutes of Proceedings, 
Inst. C. E., v. 42, p. 213-227.) Gives tests of piles and formulas used by Dutch 
engineers for bearing value, p. 216. 
BEARING POWER OF PILES. 1894. (Engineering News, v. 31, p. 283-284.) 
Tests made while driving piles for foundations of Chicago Public Library. Bear- 
ing value of soils is considered, and formulas tested for bearing power of piles. 
BIHLER, C. S. Strength of Piles. 1 diag. 1904. (Railway and Engineering 
Review, v. 44, p. 206-209.) Gives results of test of long timber piles. 

.Abstract. 1904. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 158, p. 475-476.) - 

CARLIN, J. P. Progress of Work at the United States Naval Academy. 3 ill. 
1901. (Engineering Record, v. 43, p. 449-452.) Gives results of tests on 
bearing value of piles made at Annapolis, Md. 
COLBERG, OTTO. Eine Probelastung mit dem Betonpfahlgriindungssystem 
"Strauss". 1909. (Beton und Eisen, v. 8, p. 54-58.) Describes "Strauss" 
system and tests in very soft, yielding soils. 
CONCRETE PILE FOUNDATION OF THE U. S. EXPRESS CO. BUILDING, NEW YORK 
City. 1904. (Engineering News, v. 52, p. 348-349.) Gives tests for bear- 
ing value of Raymond system concrete piles. 
COTTERILL, GEORGE F. Supporting Power of Piles. 1902. (Engineering Record, 

V. 45, p. 231-232.) Letter to editor giving results of tests on piles in Seattle. 
FOLLANSBEE, ROBERT. Supporting Power of Piles Driven by a Steam Hammer 
After Standing. 1904. (Engineering News, v. 51, p. 542.) Short letter to 
editor giving test data. 
GOW, CHARLES R. Concrete Piles. 1 dr., 3 ill. 1907. (Journal, Assoc. Eng. 
Soc, V. 39, p. 255-265.) Gives tests on bearing value of concrete piles. 

.Abstract. 1907. (Engineering News, v. 59, p. 305-307.) 

HOWE, HORACE J. Piles and Pile-Driving, New and Old. 1898. (Journal, 
Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 20, p. 257-294.) Discussion, 1 ill., p. 294-312. Reviews 
a number of important papers on piles and pile driving. Gives results of 
many tests performed bv various experimenters. 
LOAD-TESTS ON CONCRETE PILES, NORTH SIDE POINT BRIDGE APPROACH, 
Pittsburgh. 1 diag., 1 ill. 1914. (Enqineering News, v. 72, p. 310-311, 
507, 510.) 
PILE-DRIVING TEST. 1 ill. 1899. (Engineering, London, v. 68, p. 824, 826.) 

Loading tests at New Quay, Royal Victoria Dock, London. 
RESULTS OF A 60-TON, TWO MONTHS LOAD TEST ON A CONCRETE PILE. 

1911. (Engineering-Contracting, v. 36, p. 224.) 
SANDEMAN, JOHN WATT. Experiments on the Resistance to Horizontal Stress 
of Timber Piling. 1 pi. 1879. (Minutes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 59, 
p. 282-285.) 
1880. (Van Nostrand's Engineering Magazine, v. 23, p. 493-497.) 



124:0 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

SCHUYLER, MONT. Kingshighway Viaduct. St. Louis, Mo. 1912. (Engineering 
News,^ V. 67, p. 1226-1233.) Importance of test loading for concrete piles, 

TEST COMPARING STEAM AND DROP=HAMMER PILE FORMULAS. 1916. 

(Engineering Ncivs, v. 75, p. 33-34.) Nine pile.s were driven with drop ham- 
mer and eleven with steam hammer, in an area having soil of uniform con- 
sistency and therefore presumably of uniform bearing value. From data so 
obtained, comparisons were made of accepted bearing value formulas. 

TEST OF BEARING POWER OF PILES. 1893. (Engineering News, v. 30, p. 3.) 
Tests were made before construction of Chicago Public Library Building'. Con- 
siders nature and bearing value of soil. See also editorial, v. 31, p. 283. 

TEST OF CONCRETE PILES. 1910. (Engineering Record, v. 62, p. 715.) Gives 
methods and results of tests. 

TEST OF THE SAFE LOADS FOR PILES. 1902. (Engineering Record, v. 46, 
p. 8-t.) Note giving results of tests at New Quay, Royal Victoria Dock, London. 

TESTS OF THE BEARING POWER OF PILES. 1894. (Engineering Neios, v. 31, 
p. 348.) Gives abstract of thesis of R. F. Gadd. 

WELSH, J. J. Observations on Driving Piles with a Steam Hammer. 1904. 
(Journal, Assoc. Eng. Soc, v. 33, p. 193-197.) Compares results of test load- 
ings of piles with formulas for bearing value. 

Condensed. 1904. (Engineering News, v. 52, p. 497.) 

WELSH, J. J. Test Loads of Piles Driven with a Steam Hammer. 1904. (Engi- 
neering News, V. 52, p. 497.) Tests were made at a San Francisco site, in 
soft soil. 

ZIMMERMANN, KARL. Rammwirkung im Erdreich, versuche auf neuer Grundlage. 
1915. (Bcton uiid Eisen, v. 14, p. 188-190, p. 205-209.) Interesting lab- 
oratory tests of the effect of piles on the surrounding earth. Small model piles, 
both blunt and pointed, were driven through strata separated by thin layers 
with distinctive coloring. After driving, the effect on displacement and com- 
pression of the adjacent earth was determined by a study of the vertical cross- 
section. 

PILE-DRIVING. 

BURNELL, Q. R. Practical Observations on Pile Driving. 1855. (Papers Read 
at the Royal Inst, of British Architects, v. 5, p. 115-122.) Supporting powe-r 
of wooden piles, p. 117. 

CROWELL, J. FOSTER. Uniform Practice in Pile-Driving. 7 diag. 1892. 
{Transactions, Am. Soc. C. B., v. 27, p. 99-114, 129-172, 589-602.) Trautwine, 
Wellington, and others took part in the discussion. Gives a comprehensive 
review of the subject of bearing value of piles. 

Condensed. 1892. (Engineering News, v. 28, p. 398-400, 412-413, 438-440, 

460-461.) 

DE BURGH, ERNEST MACARTNEY. Pile-Sinking by Means of a Hydraulic Jet 
at Moruya and Carrington Bridges, New South Wales. 1 pi. 1902. (Min- 
utes of Proceedings, Inst. C. E., v. 150, p. 340-351.) Tests of bearing power 
of piles, p. 348. 

HAMMATT, W. C. Anomalous Resistance in Soft Mud ; Effect of Hammer Shock. 
1907. (Engineering News, v. 58, p. 173-174.) Letter to editor. Gives 
experience with pile-driving while building a wharf in San Francisco Bay. 

HOWELL, C. S. Bottom Driven Concrete Piles on Government Job. 1916. 
(Engineering News, v. 76, p. 1207.) Piles driven by temporary follower against 
projections on pile point. Author also advocates designing concrete piles 
according to the load they will have to carry, rather than according to the 
usual haphazard methods. 

JAMES, JOHN WILLIAM. On the Driving of Piles to Resist the Force of Ice 
Tending to Draw Them from the Ground. 1875. (Minutes of Proceedings, 
Inst. C. E., V. 41, p. 191-202.) Results of series of experiments. 

LARGE CONCRETE PILE INSTALLATION; DATA ON PRELIMINARY BEARING 
Tests and Details of Driving more than 11 000 Cast-in-place Piles for Steel 
Plant Foundations. 1913. (Engineering Record, v. 67, p. 36-37.) Piles were 
driven through layers of granulated slag, loam, yellow clay, sand, sand and clay, 
and running sand, to rock. 

RICHARDSON, P. A. Chief Features in Building a Long Concrete Viaduct in St. 
Louis. 1914. (Engineering Record, v. 70, p. 692-693.) Experiences in driving 
concrete piles with two types of hammers. 

VAN AUKEN, A. M. Driving Piles. 1887. (Railroad Gazette, v. 19, p. 507.) 
Results of experiments in alluvial soil. 

WHITTEMORE, D. J. On the Nasmyth Pile Driver. 1883. (Transactions, Am. 
Soc. C. E., V. 12, p. 441-443.) Shows that whenever the head of the pile 
becomes broomed, the effectiveness of any hammer is greatly lessened, due to 
elasticity of the pile head. 



I'iiptTs.l HKAKINCi VALUE OF SOILS 1 'M 1 

APPF.N 1 ) I X C 



A STANDAKD SCEEEN SCALE FOR TESTING SIEVES. 

Adopted by a Conference of Representatives of Various Scientific 
and Technical Societies, Government Bureaus, and Private Firms, 
held at the Bureau of Standards, and Recommended for General 
Adoption in the Interests of Securing Uniformity of Usage. 

Since the adoption by the Bureau of Standards, several years ago, 
of specifications for standard 100- and 200-mesh sieves, frequent 
requests have been received that this Bureau test and certify sieves 
of other sizes. "With a view to the adoption of a series of standard 
testing sieves which might be of use to all industries making fineness 
tests, this Bureau for two years has been studying the question of 
such a standard screen scale. Various scales that have been proposed 
were considered, and information was sought from representative 
firms, in the various industries interested, as to their requirements. 
Manufacturers of sieves have also been consulted as to the desirability 
of different screen scales and the practicability of their manufacture. 
As a result of this study of the question, a conference was called at 
the Bureau of Standards, on April 20th, 1916, of representatives of 
various committees of the American Society for Testing Materials, 
American Society of Civil Engineers, American Institute of Mining 
Engineers, American Foundrymen's Association, Mining and Metal- 
lurgical Society of America, American Water Works Association, 
American Institute of Metals, and the American Spice Trade Asso- 
ciation; also representatives of the Committee of Revision of the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia, the U. S. Geological Survey, the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines, the U. S. Office of Public Roads and Rural Engineering, 
the U. S. Office of Grain Standardization, and the U. S. Bureau of 
Standards; also representatives of a number of private firms engaged 
in industries in which sieves are used, such as the glass, the drug 
milling, the abrasive, the asphalt, the mining, the spice, the chemical, 
and the graphite industries; also representatives of the firms in this 
country manufacturing wire cloth and sieves. 

This Conference, after considering the various screen scales either 
proposed or now in use, adopted as a Standard Screen Scale that 
given in Table 1, and recommended that it be adopted generally by 
scientific, technical, and engineering societies and committees, and by 
branohes of National, State, and Municipal Governments as a part of 
their specifications for materials and methods of test; also that it 
be used by private firms who have need of standard sieves. 

This screen scale is essentially metric. The sieve having an opening 
of 1 mm. is the basic one, and the sieves above and below this in 
the series are related to it by using in general the square root of 
•2. or 1.4142, or the fourth root of 2, or 1.1892, as the ratio of the 
width of one opening to the next smaller opening. The first ratio 
is used for openings between 1 mm. and 8 mm., the fourth root of 
2 is used as the ratio for openings below 1 mm. to give more sieves 
in that part of the scale. The series has been made large enough, 
it is hoped, to meet the needs of all industries. Some industries may 



1242 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



TABLE 1. — SxAND.vRD Screen Scale. 

Based on a 1-mm. opening sieve with the square root of 2, or 1.4142, 
as the ratio of the openings of successive sieves coarser than 1 mm., 
and the fourth root of 2, or 1.1892, as the ratio of the openings 
of successive sieves finer than 1 mm. 





Opening . 


Mesh. 


Wire 

diameter. 


Ratio of 

wire diameter 

to opening. 


Tolerances. 


Size of sieve. 


Mesh. 


Diameter. 


8- mm. . 


8.00 
0.315 

5.66 
0.223 

4.00 
0.157 

2.83 
0.111 

2.00 
0.079 

1.41 
0.0555 

1.00 
0.0394 

0,85 
0.0335 

0.71 
0.0280 

0.59 
0.0232 

0.50 
0.0197 

0.42 
0.0165 

0.36 
0.0142 

0.29 
0.0114 

0.25 
0.0098 

0.21 
0.0083 

0.17 
0.0067 

0.14 
0.0055 

0.125 
0.0049 


1 
2.54 

1.4 
3.56 

2 
5.1 

7.0 

3.9 
9.9 

5 

12.7 

7 
17.8 

8 
20.3 

9 

22.9 

10 
25.4 

12 
80.5 

14 
35.6 

16 
40.6 

211 
50.8 

2S 

58.4 

27 
68.6 

31 

78.7 

39 
99.1 

47 
119.4 


2.00 
0.079 

1.48 
0.058 

1.00 
0.039 

0.81 
0.032 

0.56 
0.0;J2 

0.59 
0.0232 

0.43 
0.0169 

0.40 
0.0157 

0.40 
0.0157 

0.41 
0.0161 

0.33 
0.0130 

0.29 
0.0114 

0.26 
0.0102 

0.21 
0.0083 

0.185 
0.0U73 

0.16 
0.0063 

0.15 
0.0059 

0.116 
0.0046 

0.089 
0.0035 


0.25 
0.26 
0.25 
0.29 
0.28 
0.42 
0.43 
0.47 
0.56 
0.69 
0.66 
0.69 
0.72 
0.72 
0.74 
0.76 
0.88 
0.83 
0.71 


±0.01 
±0.03 

±0.01 
±0.03 

±0.02 
±0.05 

±0.02 
±0.05 

±0.04 
±0.1 

±0.08 
±0.2 

±0.15 
±0.4 

±0.2 
±0.5 

±0.3 
±0.75 

±0.4 
±1.0 

±0.4 
±1.0 

±0.6 
±1.5 

±0.6 
±1.5 

±0,8 

±2 

±1 
±3 

±1 

±3 

±1 
±3 

±1.5 
±4 


±0.08 




±0.003 


5.66 mm. 

Metric 


±0.08 




±0.003 


4mm. 

Metric 


±0.05 
±0.002 


2.88-mm. 

Metric 


±0.05 


Customary 


±0.002 


2-mm. 

Metric 


±0.05 


Customary 


±0.002 


1.41-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 


±0.025 
±0.0010 


1-mm. 

Metric 


±0.020 


Customary 

0.85-mm. 

Metric 


±0.0008 
±0.015 


Customary 

0.71-mm. 


±0.0006 
±0.012 


Customary 


±0.0005 


0.59-mm. 

Metric 


±0.012 


Customary 


±0.0005 


0.5-mm. 

Metric 


±0.012 


Customary 


±0.0005 


0.42-mm. 

Metric 


±0.010 


Customary 


±0.0004 


0.36-mm. 

Metric 


±0.010 


Customary 


±0.0004 


0.29-mm. 

Metric 


±0.010 


Customary 


±0.0004 


0.25-mm. 

Metric 


±0.008 


Customary 

0.21-mm. 

Metric 


±0.0003 
±0.008 


Customary 


±0.0003 


0.17-mni. 


±0.008 


Customary 


±0.0003 


0.14-mm. 

Metric 


±0.008 . 


Customary 


±0.0003 


0.125-mm. 

Metric 


±0.008 


Customary 


±0.0003 







Papers.] 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 

TABLP: l.—(Contimied.) 



1243 



Size of sieve. 



; OpoDiiiff. 


Mesh. 


0.105 
0.0041 


59 
149.9 


0.088 
0.0035 


67 
170.2 


0.074 
0.0029 


79 

200.7 


0.062 
0.0024 


98 
348.9 


0.0:)2 
0.0021 


110 
279.4 


0.044 
0.0017 


127 
323 



Wire 
diameter. 



Ratio of 

wire diameter 

to opening. 



TOIiEEANCES. 



Mesh. Diameter. 



0.105-mm. 

Met ric 

Customary. 
0.0S8-mm. 

Metric 

Customary. 
0.074-nim. 

Metric 

Customary. 
0.062-mm. 

Metric 

Customary. 
0.052-mm. 

Metric 

Customary. 
0.044-mm. 

Metric 

Customary.. 



0.064 
0.0025 



0.061 
0.0024 



0.053 
0.0021 



0.040 
0.0016 



0.039 
0.0015 



0.035 
0.0014 



0.61 
0.69 
0.72 
0.65 
0.72 
0.80 



±2 
±5 

±2.5 
±6 

±3 

±8 

±3.5 
±9 

±4 
±10 

±5 
±12 



3:^.008 
±0.0003 

±0.005 
±0.0002 

±0.005 
±a.0()02 

±0.005 
±0.0002 

±0.004 
±0.00015 

±0.004 
±0.00015 



have occasion to use all the sieves in a certain section of the series 
and none of the others; in other industries it may be. desirable to use 
only certain sieves selected from the whole ranpre of the series. In 
making such selections, it is recommended that this be done on some 
systematic plan as, for example, the selection of every other sieve 
or of every fourth one in the series below 1 mm. opening, and every 
other sieve above 2 mm., in which case the ratio of each opening to 
the next smaller one would be as 2 to 1. 

Because of the wide range of openings in sieves now manufactured 
which are possible with a given number of meshes of wire per unit 
of length by the use of wires of different diameters, and the con- 
sequent confusion and uncertainty which arises in designating sieves 
by the number of meshes per unit of length, the sieves of this series 
have been designated by the width of the opening, in millimeters, as, 
for example, a 1.41-mm. sieve, or a 0.3G-mm. sieve. It is urgently 
recommended that all users of sieves in the future designate these 
standard sieves in this way, and that the manufacturers mark and 
li.st the sieves in this manner rather than by the meshes per inch. 

In the designation and certification of the sieves, the metric units 
will be used by the Bureau of Standards. In Table 1, however, are 
al.>o given the equivalents of the.se metric quantities, in inches, in 
order that the series may be more readily related to work previously 
done. It is immaterial, of course, whether units of the metric system, 
or of the customary system, or of any other system, are used in the 
manufacture of the sieves, provided they are within the tolerances. 

To meet the need for sieves of the series at the present time, a 
temporary provision has been made in the specifications for the accept- 
ance of sieves of slightly different mesh and wire diameter than that 
called for in the screen scale, provided the resultant opening is the 
same as the nominal opening, within a small range. This will make 



12-ii BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

possible the use of a number of sieves now on the market in which 
the ratio of wire diameter to opening is only slightly different from 
that of the screen scale. This provision will be withdrawn when 
conditions are such that manufacturers can furnish sieves made more 
exactly in accordance with the specifications. 

The Bureau of Standards hereby announces that it will test sieves 
of this series to determine whether they conform to the specifications. 
This test will consist of the examination of the mesh, of both the 
warp and shoot wires of the cloth, to ascertain whether it comes within 
the tolerances allowed; also measurements of the diameter of wires 
in each direction, to determine the average diameter, and a measure- 
ment of any large openings to ascertain whether they exceed the limits 
given in these specifications; also an examination of the sieve to 
discover any imperfections which may affect seriously its sieving value. 
Sieves which pass the specifications will be stamped with the seal of 
this Bureau, and will be given an identification number, and a 
certificate will be furnished for each sieve that passes the requirements. 

For sieves which fail to meet the specifications, reports will be 
rendered sliowing wherein the sieve was not up to the standard. 

A fee of $2.00 per sieve will be charged for the test of the sieves 
when submitted singly. For from 2 to 9 sieves submitted at one 
time the fee will be $1.50 per sieve. For lots of 10 or more the fee 
will be $1.00 per sieve. Only half of the above fees will be charged 
for such sieves as may be rejected for exceeding the tolerances of 
mesh, in which case the wire diameter will not be measured. 

In Table 1 there is given in the first column, headed "Openings", 
the width of the opening (on the first line in millimeters, on the 
second line in inches), for each sieve. In the second column, headed 
"Mesh", on the first line is given the number of meshes per linear 
centimeter, and on the second line the equivalent number of meshes 
per linear inch. In the third column, headed "Wire diameter", is 
given on the first line the diameter of the wire in millimeters, and 
on the second line its equivalent in inches. In the fourth column, 
headed "Ratio of wire diameter to opening", is given the ratio of the 
wire diameter to the width of the opening between the wires. In 
the fifth and sixth columns, headed "Tolerances", are given the toler- 
ances for these sieves mentioned in the specifications. These toler- 
ances — for testing purposes — will be used essentially in the metric 
dimension, but on the second line in each case is given their equivalent 
in inches, in order that they may be compared readily with tolerances 
in previous use. The tolerance in the fifth column is that for the 
meshes per centimeter and per inch, respectively, and in the sixth 
column the tolerances for wire diameter, in millimeters and inches, on 
the first and second lines, respectively. 

In Table 2 is given a list showing the dimensions of sieves now 
on the market which would most nearly meet the specifications and 
tolerances of the Standard Screen Scale. The headings of the colimms 
of this table are self-explanatory. Where the dimensions of more than 
one sieve are shown for a given sieve of the screen scale, one set 
of dimensions are those of one manufacturer, and the other those 
of another. In some cases the third set, if one is given, are made 
by two or more manufacturers. 



Papers.] 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



U~\0 



TABLE 2. — Sieves Now on the Market Wiiicti Would Most Nearly 
Meet the Tolerances of the Standard Screen Scale. 



Size of sieve. 



Opening, 
in 

millimeters. 



8-mn;.... 
5.06-111111., 

4-iiiin 

•2..S.3 mm. 
2-nim . . . . 

1.41 -mm. 
1-mm . . . . 
0.85-mm. 
0.71-inm. 

0.59-mra. 
0.5-mm.. 
0.42-rani. 
O.S6-mm. 

0.29-mm. 
0.2.5-mni . 

0.21-mm . 

0.17-mm . 
0.14mm . 
0.125-mm 

0.105-mm 

0.088- mm 

0.0r4-mm 
O.Oti,'-mm 

0.052-mm 
O.C44-mm 



8.13 
8.05 

5.66 
5.61 

4.04 
4.06 

2.82 
2.82 

1.96 
2.0.3 
2.03 

1.40 
1.42 

1.01 
0.99 

0.85 
0.86 

0.73 
0.70 
0.74 

0.58 
0.60 

0.50 
0..50 

0.42 
0.42 

0.36 
0..35 
0.37 

0.28 

0.25 
0.26 
0.23 

0.19 
0.20 

0.17 

0.14 

0.117 
0.119 

0.104 
0.094 

0.089 
0.084 

0.074 

0.061 
0.058 

0.051 

0.041 
0.041 



Opening, 
in 

inches. 



0.S20 
0.817 

0.223 
0.221 

0.159 

0.160 

0.111 
0.111 

0.077 
0.080 
0.080 

0.055 
0.056 

0.0396 
0.0391 

0.0335 
0.0340 

0.0285 
0.0-275 
0.0290 

0.0230 
0.0235 

0.0198 
0.0196 

0.0166 
0.0164 

0.0140 

0.01.375 

0.01475 

0.0110 

0.0097 
0.0102 
0.0092 

0.0073 
0.0078 

O.OOt58 

0.0055 

0.0046 
0.0047 

0.0041 
0.0037 

0.00.35 
O.0033 

0.0029 

0.0024 
0.0023 

0.0020 

0.0016 
0.0016 



Meshes 
per 
ioch. 



2.5 
2.5 

3.5 
3.5 

5 

5 

7 
7 

10 
10 
10 

12 
12 

18 
18 

20 

30 

23 
22 
22 



30 

30 

35 
35 

40 
40 
40 

50 

60 
60 
60 

70 

70 

80 

100 

120 
120 

150 
150 

170 
170 

200 

250 
250 

280 

32.-) 
330 



Wire 

diameter, in 

inches. 



0.080 
0.083 

0.063 
0.065 

0.041 
0.040 

0.0-32 
0.0315 

0.023 
0.020 
0.0305 

0.028 
0.027 

0.016 
0.0165 

0.0165 
0.016 

0.017 
0.018 
0.0165 

0.01.55 
0.015 

0.0135 
0.01375 

0.013 
0.01325 

0.011 

0.01125 

0.01025 



0.007 

0.0005 

0.0075 

0.007 
0.0065 

0.00575 

0.0045 

0.0037 
0.0036 

0.0036 
0.0030 

0.0034 
0.0026 

0.0021 

0.0016 
0.0017 



0.0015 
0.0014 



Wire 
diameter, in 
millimeters. 



2.03 
2.11 

1.60 
1.65 

1.04 

1.02 

0.81 
0.80 

0.58 
0.51 
0.52 

0.71 
0.69 

0.41 
0.42 

0.42 
0.41 

0.43 
0.46 
0.42 

0.39 
0.38 

0.34 
0.35 

0.30 
0.31 

0.28 
0.29 
0.26 

0.23 

0.18 
0.17 
0.19 

0.18 
0.17 

0.15 

0.114 

0.094 
0.091 

0.066 
0.0(6 

0.061 
O.OCG 

0.053 

0.041 
0.043 

0.041 

0.03S 
0.036 



1246 



BEARING VALUE OF SOILS 



[Papers. 



In Table 3 is given a list of sieves between 1 and 8-mm. openings, 
which would be interpolated in the series of the Standard Screen 
Scale if the fourth root of 2, or 1.1892, were used as the ratio of 
successive sieves throughout the series. Suitable meshes and wire 
diameters to give these openings are also given, together with the 
tolerances tinder which such sieves would be tested if iised. These 
sieves have not been included in the Standard Screen Scale, as it is 
believed to be unnecessary to have so many sieves in this part of the 
scale. This list is given separately, however, in case any organization, 
in selecting sieves systematically from the Standard Screen Scale, 
in the series of openings less than 1 mm., finds it desirable to use 
any of these interpolated sieves about 1 mm. in carrying out their 
systematic plan of selection of sieves. In case any organization or 
firm should adopt any of these six sieves, under such circumstances, 
the Bureau of Standards will test and certify them in accordance 
with the dimensions given herewith. 

TABLE 3. — Additional Sieves Which Would be Interpolated 
Between the 8-mm. Opening and the 1-mm. Opening of the 
Standard Screen Scale by the Use op the Fourth Root of 2, 
OR 1.1892, as the Ratio of the Successive Sieve Openings. 



Size of sieve. 



6.72-mm. 

Metric 

Customary, 
4.76-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 
3.36-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 
2.38-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 
1.68-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 
1.19-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 



Opening. 


Mesh. 


6.72 
0.265 


1.2 
3.05 


4.76 

0.1^7 


1.6 
4.1 


3.36 
0.132 


2.4 
6.1 


2.38 
0.094 


3.15 

8.0 


1.68 
0.067 


4 

10.2 


1.19 

0.0468 


6 
15.2 



Wire 
diameter. 



1.61 
0.063 



1.49 
0.059 



0.81 
0.032 



0.79 
0.031 



0.83 
0.032 



0.48 
0.0189 



Ratio of wire 


. TOLK 


diameter to 




openmg. 


Mesh. 


0.24 


±0.01 
±0.03 


0.81 


±0.02 
±0.05 


0.24 


±0.02 
±•0.05 


0.33 


±0.04 
±0.1 


0.49 


±0.04 
±0.1 


0.40 


±0.1 
±0.2.T 



±0.08 
±0.003 



±0.05 
± 0.002 



±0.05 
± 0.002 



±0.05 
±0.002 



± 0.025 
± 0.0010 



±0.020 
±0.0008 



In Table 4 is given an extension of the metric series beyond the 
3-mm. opening, using the square root of 2, or 1.4142, as the ratio 
of successive openings. A suggested diameter of wire for use in 
making such sieves is also given. No tolerances for these sieves are 
given, however, as it is not proposed to test such sieves at the Bureau 
of Standards, since the user of the sieves could ordinarily make such 
tests as are necessary with sufficient accuracy with such means as 
he may have at hand. Such sieves would generally be made up into 
sieves of larger diameter than those of the Standard Screen Scale, 
and would usually be made of iron or steel wire. 



riipfrs.! 



]m:.vhixg value of soils 



1247 



TABLE 4. — Showino the Sieves which an Extension of the Standard 
Screen Scale from an 8-mm. Opening to a 12S-mm. Opening 
WOULD Comprise, Using the Square Root of 2, or 1.4142, as the 
Ratio of Successive Openings. 



Size of sieve. 


Opening. 


Wire 
diameter. 


Size of sieve. 


Opening. 


Wire 
diameter. 


12K-mm. 


128 
5.04 

90.5 
3.56 

64.0 
2.52 

45.3 
1.78 


9.5 
0.375 

9.5 
0.375 

6.4 
0.25 

5.26 
0.207 


32-mm. 

Metric 


32.0 
1.2C 

23.6 
0.891 

16.0 
0.6.30 

11.3 
0.445 


4.85 


Customary 

90.5-mm. 
Metric 


Custoinarv 

22.0-mm. 

Metric 


0.192 
4.11 


Customary 

64 mm. 

Metric 


Customary 

16-mm. 

Metric 

Customary 

11.3-mm. 

Metric 


0.162 
3.05 


Customary 

45 3-mm. 


0.130 
2.67 


Customary 


Customary 


0.105 



In the specifications the diameter or other dimensions of the 
sieve frames are not given, with the idea that any organization or firm, 
in adopting these specifications, will decide the size of sieve frame 
that best meets its needs. For purposes of uniformity and interchange- 
ability of sieves, pans, and covers, it is recommended that sieves be 
purchased in diameters of either 20 cm., 15 cm., or 10 cm., (7.87 
in., 5.91 in., or 3.94 in.). These are the outside diameters of the 
bottom of the sieve or the inside diameter of the top of the sieve. 

Specifications for Sieves of the Standard Screen Scale. 

Wire cloth for standard sieves shall be woven (not twilled, except 
that the cloth of 0.062-mm., the 0.052-mm., and the 0.044-mm. sieve, 
may be twilled until further notice) from brass, bronze, or other 
suitable wire, and mounted on the frames without distortion. To 
prevent the material being sieved from catching in the joint between 
the cloth and the frame, the joint shall be smoothly filled with solder, 
or made so that the material will not catch. 

The number of wires per centimeter of the cloth of any given 
sieve of the Standard Screen Scale shall be that shown in Table 1, 
in the second column, headed "Mesh", and the number of wires in 
any whole centimeter shall not differ from this amount by more than 
the tolerance given in the fifth column, that headed "Mesh" under 
the heading ''Tolerances." No opening between adjacent parallel 
wires shall be greater than the nominal width of opening for that 
sieve by more than the following amounts: 

10% of the nominal width of opening for the 8-mm. to 1-nira. 
sieves, inclusive. 

25% of the nominal width of opening for the 0.85-mm. to the 
0.29-mm. sieves, inclusive. 

40% of the nominal width of opening for the 0.25-mm. to the 
0.125-mm. sieves, inclusive. 



1248 BEARING VALUE OF SOILS [Papers. 

60% of the nominal width of opening for the 0.105-nim. to the 
0.044-inm. sieves, inclusive. 

The diameters of the wires of the cloth of any given sieve shall 
be that shown in the third column of Table 1, headed "Wire diameter" ; 
and the average diameter of the wires in either direction shall not 
differ from the specified diameter by more than the tolerance given 
in the last column of Table 1, that under "Tolerances" headed 
"Diameter." 

The Bureau of Standards also reserves the right to reject sieves 
for obvious imperfections in the sieve cloth or its mounting, as, for 
example, punctured, loose, or w^avy cloth, imperfections in soldering, 
etc. 

Until further notice, to permit the use of sieves now on the market 
which have slightly different mesh and wire diameters from those 
specified herein, sieves will be certified as satisfactory if the measure- 
ments of mesh and wire diameters show the resulting average width 
of opening to be within 4% of the nominal opening of a given sieve, 
and the ratio of wire diameter to opening of the sieve in question is 
within 0.03 of that given in Table 1 in the column headed "Ratio of 
Wire Diameter to Opening" for the 8-mm. to the 2-mm. sieves, in- 
clusive, and within 0.06 of the ratio given for sieves of smaller openings 
than 2 mm. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

INSTITUTED 1852 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



A METHOD OF DETERMINING 

A REASONABLE SERVICE RATE 

FOK MUNICIPALLY OW^NED PUBLIC UTILITIES 

Discussion.* 



By J. B. LippiNCOTT, M. Am. Soc. C. E.f 



J. B. L1PPINCOTT4 M. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter ).§— Almost with- Mr. 
out exception, the di-scussioii brought forth by this paper agrees with Lippincott. 
the writer in that the service charges for a publicly owned public 
utility should be fixed on the same basis as those of a privately owned 
utility which is subject to rate regulation. 

Air. Harris has indicated the basic element when he says: 

"It is only as a result of such an equitable attitude that private 
capital may be expected to 'pioneer' in those fields into which the 
public is not for the time desirous of entering." 

It is not only that the present investment of private capital in 
public utilities should be protected, but that the policies adopted be 
such that the further investment in utility enterprises in undeveloped 
communities be fostered and encouraged by the assurance that these 
investments have the sanction and protection of legislative bodies. 
Mr. Yereance has also called attention to this point. Mr. Yereance and 
Mr. Thomson have discussed to some extent the relative merits and 
efficiencies of municipally operated utilities as against those privately 
operated, from which conclusions are drawn that it is difficult to obtain 
in municipally operated plants competent executives. It is generally 
not possible to pay salaries adequate to obtain the services of such men, 
and the executives are so hampered and tied with the red tape of 

• Discussion of the paper by J. B. Lippincott, M. Am. Soc. C. E., continued 
from January, 1917, Proceedhifis. 
t Author's closure. 
t Los Angeles, Cal. 
§ Received by the Secretary, June 4th, 1917. 



1250 discussion: municipally OAVNED public utilities [Papers. 

iiaunicipal and political organizations that effective results are not 
generally obtained. Because of unreasonable abuse it is not a suffi- 
cient honor to hold a municipal office. Although this may be the gen- 
eral rule, yet some notable exceptions have come under the writer's 
observation. The Water Department of Los Angeles is most efficiently 
organized and operated. Santa Barbara and Long Beach, Cal., both 
own and operate their water-works. The management is efficient, and 
the earnings of the departments show a substantial profit. 

Mr. Jordan's discussion is more fanciful than consistent. The 
relative merits of private or municipal ownership of public utilities is 
not at issue. The effort has been made in the paper to apportion the 
expense of a publicly owned utility so that each member of the com- 
munity will carry his proportion and that private enterprise may not 
be discouraged. The segregation of the expenses is largely a matter 
of judgment. 

Mr. Clark suggests that the consumers should pay through their 
rates only for the maintenance and operation of the system and the 
interest on the bonds, the depreciation being derived from the general 
tax levy. Relative to the redemption of bonds, Mr. Clark also states: 

"If the city makes a 7% interest charge, as would be granted to a 
privately owned utility, any profit resulting under the bond rate of 
interest could be laid aside to redeem the bonds. If the bond rate of 
interest is 5%, the differential of 2% compounded annually at 4% 
will approximately retire the bonds in 30 years." 

In the writer's classification of expense accoimts, the effort has been 
made to create a service rate which would be in harmony with that for 
a privately owned utility. Under Mr. Clark's segregation of expenses, 
the service rates would be below those which could be profitably charged 
by a private corporation. Rates for privately owned utilities are fixed 
with a view of yielding the owner a fair profit on his investment. If 
this is done with a municipally owned plant the "fair profit" could 
be turned over to the general tax fund of the city. If the bond redemp- 
tion fund is paid from the general tax levy and the profits accruing 
from the operation of the system are paid into the general treasury 
of the city, it appears to the writer that the same end is achieved 
whether the bond redemption fund is carried by the utility department 
itself or by the city at large. 

There is a surprising tendency constantly to put more burden on 
the property owner and less on the thriftless individual, whether that 
ownership be of realty or of a utility. The result tends to discourage 
investment in enterprise and to encourage indolence. Mr. Irving and 
Mr. Clark both consider that the owner of vacant property should be 
exempt from any special tax due to the utility other than that imposed 
on the city at large. It is the writer's contention that the benefits 



Papers.] ])ISCUSS10N: MUNICIPALLY OWNED PUBLIC UTILITIES 1351 

derived by the owner of vacant lots, because of the fact that the Mr. 
service of the utility is immediately available, is out of proportion to ^'PP'^cott. 
the charges on the property through taxes, and that, in addition to 
these charges, the owner should pay a special tax, probably on a front- 
foot basis. These fees should be considered as an addition to surplus, 
and could be turned into the general fund of the city. They have no 
counterpart in a privately owned utility, and would operate to the 
benefit of the community at large. Mr. Clark states: "It should not 
be the aim of a city to make its water consumers pay more than the 
cost of the service," It appears to the writer that a municipally owned 
utility should be viewed as a community investment and should be 
operated at a profit in the same way as a corporation is operated for 
the profit of its stockholders. The property owners are in effect stock- 
holders in the municipal plant. Mr. Clark's contention concerning the 
depreciation of pipe lines in front of vacant property is true. Rate 
regulating bodies in California have adopted a practice of reducing 
the capital and depreciation accounts of private utilities where they 
appear to be overbuilt. Some such system might be adopted here to 
relieve the consumers from the depreciation charges for mains paral- 
leling vacant property, and these charges might be made up from the 
proposed special tax on vacant lots. 

Mr. Whitney's segregation of expenses is extremely interesting, and 
appears to the writer to be entirely logical! However, in the case of 
the competing private enterprise, it is doubtful if municipal legislative 
authorities would consent, possibly for political reasons, to the inclusion 
in the annual tax budget of an assessment to cover interest on the 
value of a privately owned plant. 

Although it is not proposed to review the procedure of rate reg- 
ulating commissions for private utilities, the writer might add, to what 
Mr. Hazen has said, that these commissions would increase their eco- 
nomic value to the community if they evolved a plan under which a 
premium was placed on efficient management of the utilities coming 
under their jurisdiction. 

In closing, the writer wishes to express his appreciation of the dis- 
cussion called out by the paper. He feels that the public welfare would 
be better served if policies were adopted by those in authority in legis- 
lative positions which would encourage and foster the further invest- 
ment of private capital, particularly in those States which are in a 
formative or developing process. It should be kept well in mind that 
legislation or Court decree cannot compel the independent investor 
who is seeking new enterprises to enter fields where others already 
operating on such lines are losing money due to unfair competition. 



AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CIVIL ENGINEERS 

I X S T I T I' T E n 1 S 5 2 



PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS 

This Society is not responsible for any statement made or opinion expressed 
in its publications. 



THE VALUATION OF J.AND 

Discussion.* 



By Messrs. Fraxklix F. Mayo and L. P. Jerrard.I 



Fraxklix F. 1[ayo4 Fsq. — The value of land is not constant, but Mr. 
is always moving up or down in the scale, with a period of stationary ^*^'"- 
value, the time element of these three phases being uncertain, owing 
to changes in the factors producing the value. Also, certain locations 
and districts possess a premium value over the income value, at 
certain periods. The speaker contends that this premium value is 
uncertain, and should be considered in all taxing valuations, as a 
property in a district where values are declining should be taxed 
(that is, valued) at a price based on the income obtainable on a lease 
made at that time, and not on a basis of sale during the premium 
period. 

To do this would require a keen sense of the human element factor, 
and no method of valuation w'ould be satisfactory unless made by 
men especially qualified in placing values. 

L. P. .Tf.i:kard,§ Jux. Am. Soc. C. E. (by letter). || — The discussion Mr. 
of this paper has brought out several points which may be cleared 
up by fui'ther explanation. The writer's loose application of economic 
terms has evidently obscured his argument in several instances. 'Mr. 
King and Mr. Kelly both take exception to the statement: "The true 
value of land is the ground rent capitalized." Inasmuch as land has 

• Discussion of the paper by L. P. .Jerrard, Jun. Am. Soc. C. E., continued 
from March, 1917, Proceedings. 
t Author's closure. 
t Newark, N. J. 
§ Chicago, 111. 
II Received by the Secretary, May 4tli. 1917. 



1254 DISCUSSION ON VALUATION OF LAND [Papers. 

Mr. value because it is a source of ground rent, it would seem that the 
market value should bear some definite relation to the amount of ground 
rent. Such is not the case, in view of the fact that the groimd rent 
is subject to fluctuation, and market values discount the prospective 
changes in the amount of ground rent. The intention was to bring 
out the distinction between market value and a value based entirely 
on ground rent capitalized, which was inaccurately designated by 
the term "true value". The statement, "The basis of business values 
is strictly economic, * * * but the basis of residence values has 
a social element," is also challenged by Mr. King, who states that 
the demand of wealthy people for pleasant residence sites is as strictly 
economic as the demands of any business utility for land. The social 
element referred to by the writer manifests itself in the demand of 
people of lesser wealth to live as near as possible to the wealthiest class. 
Of two residence sites, all other factors (such as schools and trans- 
portation facilities) being equal, the one nearest the best residence 
section of the community is ordinarily preferred. It would seem as 
though this tendency is more sentimental than economic, but, in 
either case, it was the distinction between business and residence 
values which was intended to be made. 

Mr. Kelly has brought up several points to which the writer must 
take exception. To the deductions to be made from gross rentals in 
computing groimd rent Mr. Kelly would add, "A sinking fund charge 
sufficient, when put out at interest, to cover the cost of the building 
in a given number of years." This charge is covered by the item 
"annual depreciation" which was included in the list of deductions. 
'^Advantages of location govern the values entirely." By "values", as 
used in this statement, is meant values in general, or unit values, 
which would eliminate the factors of shape and size suggested by 
Mr. Kelly. He also suggests as a factor governing values, "utility", 
but does not utility depend entirely on location? Land has greater 
value when utilized for business purposes than for residence property; 
but it cannot be used for business purposes imless it is in the business 
section of a community, and even then its value depends on its par- 
ticular location within the business section. 

Mr. Kelly understands the writer to say that the greatest number 
of people pass through the heart of the city. Possibly he has in mind 
the statement, "retail stores gather at the heart of the city" where 
the largest number of prospective customers will pass. It is frequently 
true, as Mr. Kelly states, that the greatest number of people pass some 
railroad terminal or ferry landing, but they are hurrying to and from 
their work and are not "prospective customers." It may be interesting 
to note that such corporations as the United Cigar Stores Company, 
and F. W. Woolworth Company, before locating one of their stores, 



Pnpcr^.l 



DiscrssToy ox valuation' of laxd 



1255 



make a careful investigation, not only of the number of people passing Mr. 
a prospective location, but of their wants, buying power, and inclination ''^"^^'^■ 
to buy at that point. It is possible that a cigar store would flourish 
at a terminal ^\here no one would find time to patronize a five and 
ten-cent store. A traffic count might show a great number of people 
passing a certain corner, but, if they were mostly factory girls and 
women, it would not augur well for a cigar business. 

"The retail section moves in the direction of the best residence 
section." It is true, as Mr. Kelly suggests, that local conditions some- 
times alter or retard this tendency, but the tendency persists never- 
theless. The writer noted an interesting situation recently in Water- 
town, S. Dak. The sketch. Fig. 8, is from memory only and not accu- 
rate, but illustrates the situation approximately. The business section is 



Kailro;nl Yards 



R.ailioaii Yards 




KaiU'oad Stations 
Hotels 
Post Office 
Department Store 
I'ublic Library 
Churclies 
Catholic School 
Hospital 



BEST RESIDENCE 
SECTION 



Shaded Area Tiepresents 
The Business Section 



Fig. 8. 



separated from the best residence section by a zone of public buildings, 
churches, and other permanent institutions, which must form a sub- 
stantial barrier to the extension of the business section in that direc- 
tion. To the west and north, where there is room for the expansion 
of the business section, there is nothing more attractive to business 
than railroad yards and river bottoms. The tendency of retail business 
to reach out toward the best residence section seems to be illustrated 
by the location of a large department store, the best in the city, on 
tlie edge of the business section, but on this side most convenient to 
the best residence district. 



1256 DISCUSSION ox valuation of land [Papers. 

Mr. Mr. Walker speaks of the Somers system of assessing cities, with 



Jerrard. 



the aid of community opinion. In fixing the point of greatest vakie 
at 100%, and determining the value of all surrounding frontage 
in percentages thereof, as explained by him, it would seem that all 
errors which may be introduced are cumulative. If an incorrect 
relative value is established for any block, the error is reflected in 
a series of blocks the values of which are relative to the one in error. 
The writer has seen evidence of the partial failure of the Somers 
system in this respect, and has also noted that, in the public meetings 
and discussions, the principal efforts are made by those land owners 
wlio are most directly interested, and that the conclusions are likely 
to be biased in their favor. 

Mr. Rankin has introduced some interesting and pertinent data 
with regard to the value of the best business land in cities. With 
respect to the discrepancy between the points plotted by Mr. Rankin 
and the curves advanced by the writer (Fig. 2), the following influences 
are suggested as regards Mr. Rankin's data : 

1. — Population of cities does not include tributary suburbs (men- 
tioned by Mr. Rankin) ; 

2. — Undue optimism which frequently prevails among real estate 
dealers regarding land values ; 

3. — Difficulty of determining, in the business districts of a city, 
values which are free from corner influences. 

All these factors would tend to throw the points plotted by Mr. 
Rankin away from the curves. Part of the data on which these curves 
were based, are here submitted, and also shown in Fig. 9. Mr. Alfred 
D. Bernard, in "Some Principles and Problems of Real Estate Valua- 
tion", states as follows : 

"In a normal city for populations above 50 000 the value of the best 
retail business property is one cent per front foot per person. 

Best Land 
"City. Population. per Front Foot. 

Boston 1 500 000 $15 000.00 

Philadelphia 1 500 000 15 000.00 

Baltimore 650 000 6 000.00 

"Baltimore has a large negro and low wage earning population and 
values are below normal. Cleveland, Louisville and Minneapolis will 
prove the rule." 

Mr. Richard M. Hurd* has given the figures reproduced in Table 9. 

From miscellaneous sources, including some of the writer's own 
determinations, city assessments by the Somers method, and opinions 
of real est