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Arch&ological & Natural History 




The Council of the Somersetshire Arch&ological and Natural 
History Society desire that it should be distinctly understood that 
although tjie volume of PROCEEDINGS is published under their 
direction, they do not hold themselves in any way responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed therein ; the authors of the 
several papers and communications being alone responsible. 

W R I N G T O N 



&rcf)aeologual $ Natural History 









THE thanks of the Society are due to Mr. W. H. Hamilton 
Rogers, F.S.A., for supplying the illustrations to his paper; to 
Professor Allen, for his excellent photographs ; to the Rev. E. 
H. Bates, for his map and drawings of Church Plate; to the 
Rev. F. Hancock, F.S.A., for his contribution towards the ex- 
pense of the Church Plate illustrations, and to Mr. McMurtrie, 
tor the drawings of the prehistoric remains found at Radstock. 

F. W. W. 

Jfinimry, 1900. 




FIFTY FIRST Annual Meeting (Clevedon) 1 

Report of the Council 2 

Treasurer's Account ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Somerset Record Society 7 

President's Address ... ... ... ... ... 8 

Clevedon Court... ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Description of Clevedon Court ... ... ... 14 

Clevedon Parish Church ... ... ... ... 20 

Clevedon Hall 23 

Evening Meeting Papers and Discussions ... ... 23 



Yatton Church 24 

Congresbury Church 28 

Wrington Church 30 

Brockley Church ... ... ... ... ... 31 

Chelvey Church ... ... ... ... ... 32 

Nailsea Court ... ... ... ... ... ... 34 

Tickenham Church ... ... ... 34 


Excursion PAGE 

Clapton-in-Grordano Church and Court ... ... 35 

Weston-in-Grordano Church ... ... ... ... 36 

Portishead Church ... ... ... ... ... 42 

Portbury Church 43 

Visit to Failand House ... ... ... ... 44 

Wraxall Church ... 46 

Treasure Closet, Deanery, Wells 48 

On the Coleridge Cottage, Clevedon ... ... ... 49 

Additions to the Society's Museum and. Library ... 51 


Brook, of Somerset and Devon ; Barons of Cobham, in 

Kent by W. H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A ... 1 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton by Prebendary 

Coleman ... ... ... ... ... ... 25 

The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday by 

the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A 51 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains 

discovered in the Tyning and Kilmersdon Road 

Quarries, at Radstock by J. McMurtrie, F.Gr.S.... 108 
An Inventory of Church Plate in Somerset (part iii) 

by the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A., and the Rev. F. 

Hancock, M.A., F.S.A., Prebendary of Wells ... 125 
Mudford and its Church by John Batten ... ... 179 

Officers, Members, and Rules ... ... ... ... 193 


Wring ton Frontispiece 

Yatton Parti 24 

Congresbury ... ... ... ... ... 30 

VI 11 



George Brook, Lord Cobham, Ob : 1558 ... Part ii 1 
John Brook, Lord Cobham, and Margaret 

Nevill his wife ... ... ... ... 2 

Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, and Dorothy 

Haydon his wife ... 3 

Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, and Dorothy 

Haydon his wife ... ... ... ... 9 

Faith Brook, Cowling Church ... ... 

Johanna Weld, first wife of Sir Robert Brook 9 
George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

his wife ... ... ... ... ... 10 

George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

his wife ... ... ... ... ... 10 

George Brook, Lord Cobham, and Anne Bray 

his wife ... ... ... ... ... 11 

John Brook, JNewington Church, Kent ... 12 
Sir Robert Brook and Elizabeth Culpeper, his 

second wife ... ... ... ... ... 13 

Alice Cobbe, Lady Norton, wife of John 

Brook ... 14 

Mary, wife of Edward Brook 15 

Brook Family Armorial Bearings ... ... 24 

Somerset Map Five-Hide-Unit ... ... 51 

Remains from Tyning Quarry, Radstock ... 111 

Remains from Kilmersdon Road, Radstock ... 120 

Remains from Kilmersdon Road, Radstock . 122 
Church Plate South Pethertou Chalice and 

Paten 146 

St. Decuman's Chalice ... 146 

Carhampton Chalice ... 164 

Treborough Chalice ... 164 
Nettlecombe Chalice and 

Paten, 1479 ... 168 






r I ^HE fifty-first annual meeting of the Somerset Archaeo- 
-J- logical and Natural History Society was held at 
Clevedon on Tuesday, July 25th, and the proceedings in their 
entirety lasted for three days, excursions being made to neigh- 
bouring churches, and many historic places of interest were 
visited amid the charming scenery with which the district 

The proceedings at Clevedon commenced with the annual 
meeting, held on Tuesday at noon, in the Public Hall. In the 
absence of the President, Mr. E. J. STANLEY, M.P., Mr. E. 
B. CELY TREVILIAN, one of the Vice-Presidents, took the 
chair, and having read a letter from Mr. Stanley, regretting 
his inability to be present, he introduced the President for the 
year, the Right Hon. Sir EDWARD FRY, P.O., of Failand 
House, North Somerset, late Lord Justice of Appeal. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part I. A 

2 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 


Lieut.-Col. J. E. BHAMBLE submitted the annual report as 
follows : 

"Your Committee beg to present their fifty-first annual 

" In the first place they have the satisfaction of announcing 
that the Earl of Cork and Orrery, K.P., Lord Lieutenant of 
Somerset, has cordially accepted the invitation of your Society 
to become its Patron. 

" Since our last report twenty-three new names have been 
added to your list of members. On the other hand the loss by 
deaths and resignations has been nine, leaving a net gain of 
fourteen members. The total number is 651, as against 637 
at the date of our last report. 

" The balance of your Society's General Account at the end 
of 1897 (your accounts being made up to the end of the year) 
was 76 16s. lOd. in favor of the Society, the liability for the 
cost of the volume for the year then expired not having been 
taken into account. The balance at the close of the present 
account was 118 lls. lOd. in favor of the Society. 

"The total cost of Volume XLIV (for 1898), including 
printing, illustrations and delivery, has been 1 04 los. 7d. The 
cost to the Society was greatly reduced by the liberal gift of 
Mr. W. H. Hamilton Rogers of the whole of the illustrations to 
his paper, by the President of the two pictures of the ' Old 
Doors,' and by the Eev. Preb. Buller of two views of North 
Curry church. Professor Allen was also good enough to 
supply the excellent photographs from which most of the illus- 
trations were taken. The thanks of the Society are due to 
each and every of these gentlemen. 

" The total amount of the subscriptions to the Castle Fund, 
up to date, is 714 6s. 6d., including Colonel Pinney's legacy of 
300. Your Committee have entered into a contract with Mr. 
Fox for substantial repairs to the Castle Hall, including the 

Report of the Council. 3 

opening out and complete repair of the roof. This roof is 
modern, but of good construction, and the timbers throughout 
sound. The ceiling, however, was in a bad condition, and por- 
tions were liable to fall at any time. The work has also included 
reinstating the windows, the repair of floors, and the supply of 
new guttering and down pipes. The fine portico or two-storied 
porch is being improved by the removal of modern brickwork, 
and a high-pressure heating apparatus is being supplied, this 
being necessary to protect your valuable collection from damp. 

" The roof over a portion of the Library and Museum, ad- 
joining the Curator's house, which was in a very bad state, is 
to be thoroughly reinstated, including new lead gutters. 

" As usual, during the carrying out of the work, the absolute 
necessity of replacing unsound timbers and other additional 
work has been apparent, and further aid towards the cost will 
be welcome. 

" It is proposed that immediately on the completion of the 
repairs to the Great Hall, the Geological and some other por- 
tions of the Museum shall be added to the part of the Natural 
History collection, which has been hitherto all that was ex- 
hibited there. Want of space, has, until now, prevented the 
proper exhibition of much which was valuable and highly in- 

" The Mayor and Corporation of T aim ton have presented to 
the Society the oak framework of two of the almshouses, for- 
merly standing in St. James' Street, called St. James' Alms- 
houses, which were taken down about two years since. They 
have been re-erected on the portion of the Castle Lawn, nearly 
opposite the Library, and form a very interesting example of 
the ' half-timbered ' houses of the sixteenth century. 

" The Castle House, unfortunately, still remains void. 

" The Council have to report the gift by Mr. Harvey 
Pridham, of the Vicarage, West Harptree, of a large volume, 
containing a type-written copy (one of three) of his ' Notes on 
Somersetshire Fonts,' the result of several years work. He 

4 Fifty -first Annual Meeting. 

proposes, at some future time, to deposit with us the measured 
drawings, to an uniform scale, of all such fonts. The cordial 
thanks of the Society are due to Mr. Pridham. 

" Several interesting additions have been made to the 

" Two volumes of the Somerset Bibliography, containing the 
county books, Bath excepted, are already printed, and the 
Bath volume is being actively proceeded with. 

" The Photographic Record Committee report that their 
work continues to make progress, although not so rapidly as 
might have been expected, and they invite the co-operation of 
additional workers. 

" The number of visitors to the Museum in 1898 was 5082, 
a decrease of 154 as against 1897. 

" The Library is gradually increasing by purchase, gift, 
and exchange, but the funds available after payment of neces- 
sary annual outgoings do not admit of large expenditure in 
this direction, and it is on gifts from members and others that 
we must to a great extent rely. 

" Your Committee have lately received a letter from the 
Town Clerk of Taunton enquiring whether they ' would be 
prepared to treat with the Taunton Town Council for the lay- 
ing out and throwing open of the grounds of the Castle and 
Museum to the public under terms and restrictions to be agreed 

" Your Committee desire to have the views of the General 
Meeting of Subscribers upon the suggestion, and recommend 
that they be authorised to entertain the application, so far as 
the Castle grounds are concerned, subject to a satisfactory 
arrangement of terms and other details, and that your Com- 
mittee be empowered to negotiate and to carry into effect any 
terms which may be mutually agreed upon. 

" A third branch has, since your last meeting, been added 
to your Society, having its head-quarters at Taunton. It is 
called the ' Taunton Conversazione and Field Club,' and is 

Report of the Council. 5 

under the Presidency of jour Treasurer, Mr. H. J. Badeock. 
The first meeting was held at the Castle Hall on April 6th, 
and already they number more than fifty members. 

" Your Committee greatly regret to report the severe illness 
of your Assistant Secretary and Curator, Mr. William Bidgood, 
who has filled with credit the position of Curator since he was 
appointed in 1862 thirty-seven years and to this the position 
of Assistant Secretary was added ten years later. His illness 
attacked him with great suddenness so lately as Wednesday, 
12th inst., while engaged in preparation for this Meeting, where 
his absence will be greatly felt by those who have had experi- 
ence of his readiness and courtesy on former occasions. Your 
Committee have made temporary arrangements for the per- 
formance of his duties. 

" Since your last meeting your Committee are happy to report 
that you have suffered comparatively few losses by death, but the 
genial presence of the Rev. E. L. Penny, D.D., R.N., of Ply- 
mouth, will no longer add to the pleasure of our annual meetings, 
at which he was for a long series of years a regular attendant. 
Dr. Penny was one of the sons of a well-known former Head 
Master of Crewkerne School, and he took a great interest in all 
that appertained to our Society and the county generally. 

" The Rev. Prebendary Hook, Rector and Rural Dean of 
Porlock, has also died since our last meeting. He was a member 
of some ten years' standing, and as a Local Secretary, was an 
ex-oflficio Member of Council. Although he seldom attended 
our armual meetings, he gave us every assistance in his power, 
especially when we visited his parish in 1889. Prebendary 
Hook wrote, and recently published, a ' History of Porlock,' 
which must have been the result of a great deal of investigation 
and research." 

Mr. TREVILIAN, in proposing the adoption of the report, 
expressed regret at the illness of Mr. Bidgood. He referred 
to the proposal to utilise the Taunton Castle grounds, and 
said that the idea of a conference between the Committee of 


Fifty -first Annual Meeting. 

the Society and the Town Council of Taunton, in order to lay 
out this ground, was a good one. 

Canon CHUIJCH seconded the resolution, which was adopted. 

Colonel BRAMBLE presented the financial statement, in the 
absence of the Treasurer, Mr. H. J. Badcock. 

<3Trea0urer'iEf ftccotmt. 

The Treasurer in Account with the Somersetshire Archceoloyical and Natural 
History Society, from January l*t to December 31st, 1898. 


1898. 8. (1. 

By Balance of former Account ... 7G 1C 10 

,, Members' Entrance Fees (58) ... 30 9 
,, Members' Subscriptions for 1898 

(560) 293 18 6 

Members' Subscriptions in arrear 

(19) 9 19 C 

,, Members' Subscriptions in ad- 
vance (22) 11 11 

Members' Subscriptions (Life) ... 10 10 

Non-Members' Excursion Tickets 12 2 6 

,, Museum Fees 26 8 

Sale of Publications 15 1 3 

., Sale of Index Volume 19 6 

Balance of Conversazione ... 294 

Balance of Exhibition Oil 3 

Donation, G. II. Rogers, Esq. ... 500 

,, H. II. P. Bouverie, Esq. 296 

516 5 4 


1897, Dec. 31st. f. d. 

To Expenses of Annual Meeting ... 1316 1 

Reporters' Notes of Meetings ... 3 10 

Stationery and Printing ... 23 7 7 

Cases, Repairs, &e. 27 16 6 

, Coal and Gas 19 13 5 

, Purchase of Books, &c 21 18 

, Printing Vol. 43, &c 81 5 

, Cost of Illustrations 14 5 3 

, Postage of Volume 954 

,, Printing and Binding Index .. 28 11 

Curator's Salary 105 

,, Errand Boy 11 6 

,, Insurance ... 439 

Rates and Taxes 1319 

,, Subscriptions to Societies .. 8 13 

,, Carriage and Postage 812 7 

Sundries ... 1 15 C 

Subscription returned (paid in 

error) 1 1 

Balance 118 11 10 

516 5 4 



Sept. 29th, 1899. Examined and compared with the vouchers I HOWARD MAYNARD, 
and Bank Book, and found correct, > ALEX. HAMMETT. 

Caunton Cagftle Restoration 

Treasurer's Account from 1st January to 31st December, 1808. 


By Rents of Premises 

Rents of Castle Hall 

Messrs. Hancock, Rent of 3 lights 
Telephone Company Wayleave 
for Wires 

s. d. 

8 16 10 

40 16 

1 6 


Sundry Subscriptions 371 18 6 

Legacy from the late Col. Pmney 300 

741 13 10 


1898, Dec. 31st. H. .1. 

To Balance of former Account ... 39 7 8 

Repairs to Property 35 15 11 

Rates and Taxes 9 4 11 

Gas 402 

Sundry Expenses, Cattle Hall, &c. 708 

tire Insurance 3 16 6 

Interest 18 10 

Placed on Deposit Account at 

Interest 500 

, Balance carried forward ... 141 9 2 

741 13 10 



Sept. 29th, 1899. Examined and compared with the vouchers ) HOWARD MAYNARD, 
and Bank Book, and found correct. f ALEX. HAMMETT. 

Somerset Record Society. 7 

Col. LONG, the High Sheriff, proposed the adoption of the 
account, which he remarked was most satisfactory. To hear 
that there was a credit balance on the Castle account was al- 
most unique. 

Mr. W. J. BRAIKENRIDGE seconded the motion, which 
was carried. 

Dr. NORRIS proposed the re-election of the officers of the 
Society, with the addition of Mr. H. C. A. Day, as a District 
or Local Secretary. He regretted very much the illness of 
Mr. Bidgood, their esteemed Curator, and spoke of the success- 
ful and useful work he had done for the Society by his quiet 

The motion was seconded by the Eev. D. L. HAYWARD, 
and agreed to. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER proposed the election of twenty- 
three new members of the Society. 

Preb. HERUINGIIAM seconded, and the resolution was 

Somerset Kecotn Society 

The Rev. E. H. BATES, Hon. Sec. of the Somerset Record 
Society, made a statement respecting the work of the Society 
during the past year, and what was proposed to do. He w r as 
happy to say that they had not only wiped out the debt of the 
Society, but they had a balance of about 35 or 40 with 
which to begin the year. This year they were anxious to con- 
tinue the series of the " Monastic Cartularies of the County," 
and they proposed to publish the lately recovered one of 
Muchelney, whose first charter was dated 695, which shewed 
that the monastery was one of the oldest in England. They 
were also anxious to get hold of the " Cartularies of Athelney 
and Cleeve." In the series of Bishops' Registers they had 
taken Bishop Bowett, 1401-1408, and the register of Bishop 
Giffard, who was Bishop of Bath and Wells, 12641267, and 
afterwards Archbishop of York, and the document has recently 

8 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

been found bound up with the York registers. So far as it 
goes, however, it would be a very valuable addition to their 
scattered records of the 13th century. They also had permis- 
sion to print the Survey of Somerset, made in the reign of 
Charles I, and which had only been discovered about two 
years. Mr. Batten has found that the writer was Thos. Gerard, 
of Trent, and the date 1632. The volume was now being 
transcribed for the purpose of being issued next year, and he 
had no hesitation in saying that it would be exceedingly inter- 
esting. It was a sort of combination of Collinson's History 
and Murray's Handbook, but more accurate than either. Un- 
fortunately the survey dealt only with the South and West of 
Somerset. The survey made by Mr. Strachey 1736 1 still 
remains in manuscript, and if the owner's consent could be 
obtained, it would be well to print, for a commencement, that 
part which dealt with the other portions of the county. Three 
documents, hitherto quite unknown, was not a bad record, and 
on that ground he asked for additional support for the Society. 
The Very Rev. the DEAN OF WELLS spoke in support of 
the work done by the Record Society, and among the volumes 
published by them, he said that Bishop Hobhouse's book of 
Churchwardens' A ccounts of five centuries ago, was an exceed- 
ingly interesting publication. 

Cfte President's a&Dress* 

Sir EDWARD FRY, who was cordially received, then de- 
livered his Presidential Address. He said, " You are all familiar 
with the fact that the objects of this Society are twofold ; it 
embraces Archeology and Natural History. I am rather in- 
clined to think that the latter department has been less favoured 
in our researches. The Society has not done so much for 
Natural History as for Archaeology. If we look back to the 
volumes of the last few years, we see, as the chief contribu- 

1. Proc. xiv., ii. 94. 

The President's Address. 9 

tion in Natural History, Mr. Murray's Flora of the county, 
which ^ives the localities of the flowering plants of the dis- 
tricts and divides Somerset into ten districts, separated more 
or less by natural conditions. But the work is confined almost 
to the flowering plants. It is much to be desired that work of 
a similar kind should be undertaken in reference to the crypto- 
gamic flora of the county. I may mention in this connection 
that Mr. E. C. Horrell, of Copleston Road, Denmark Hill, is 
at work on the subject of the Geographical Distribution of 
the Mosses in Great Britain, and that if any students of that 
branch of botany would communicate to him the results of 
their labours in this county, they would be helping forward a 
good work. 

" Turning from Natural History to the other branch of the 
Society's work, Archeology, I think that the most interesting 
discovery in our own county of late years has been that made 
in the very remarkable British village in the immediate 
vicinity of Glastonbury, where for years past interesting in- 
vestigations have been carried on, Avhich have brought to 
light a kind of settlement, I believe unique in the country, and 
also some of the most beautiful work of Celtic art found in 
England. I have this morning received a letter from Mr. 
Bulleid, who directed the labours which have been carried on 
in the village, and he said it had occurred to him that during 
the meeting of the Society the question might be asked with 
respect to the lake village, and if the excavations were to be 
opened this year. Owing to professional work, he would not 
be able to attend to the excavations now, but he hopes at some 
future time to continue the explorations. We regret that he 
could not carry on the investigations this year, but we shall 
look forward to the completion of the investigations in future 

There is a subject which attracted the attention of the 
Society some years ago, upon which I should like to say a few 
words, I mean the project of completing and publishing a 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Parti. B 

10 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

thorough and exhaustive history of the county of Somerset. 
Forms were sent round to many members of the Society, 
suggesting that they should undertake particular districts or 
parishes, so that they should make a more complete work than 
that of Collinson. Collinson's work was that of a compara- 
tively young man, and is, notwithstanding all its inaccuracies 
and deficiencies, of great merit. We have the advantage of 
an Index to the work, for which we are indebted to our 
Honorary Secretary (the Rev. F. W. Weaver), and the Rev. 
E. H. Bates. In considering whether it were possible to under- 
take a work of this sort, I. consulted some friends in North- 
umberland, who are engaged in the great history of that 
county at the present time. That work will, it is com- 
puted, occupy twelve large quarto volumes, four of which have 
already been issued. Those four volumes have cost 4,725, so 
that the figure for the completion will be a large one. A 
guarantee fund was formed in the county, and they had to 
meet a deficiency of 1,500 in respect to the first four volumes. 
In Somersetshire, with rents as they are, and land depreciated, 
we should hardly be able to undertake such a work. I think, 
on the whole, that it had better not be attempted at present. 
We shall do better to encourage local enterprise before we 
attempt a great county history. It is a pleasure to know that 
there are agencies going forward which, if they continue, will 
furnish materials when our successors shall undertake the great 
work. We must be content to play the part of David, and 
leave Solomon to put together the materials we may have col- 
lected in order to build the structure. First we have the 
Somersetshire Record Society. We have heard that some 
people are dissatisfied with what was published by that Society. 
I think that there is no cause for such a feeling. We must 
not expect that the publications will all be like the Waverley 
Novels, and I hope there will be a large subscription for what 
is issued. Then we have the " Somerset and Dorset Notes 
and Queries," which contain much useful information : and 

The President's Address. 11 

lastly, we have individual labourers in particular districts. 
Our friend, Mr. Master, has published interesting monographs 
on Backwell and Flax Bourton ; Mr. Wadmore has done the 
same for Barrow Gurney, and Mr. Byrchmore for Tickenham. 
It is understood that Prebendary Hancock is at work on 
Minehead, Prebendary Coleman on Cheddar, and Mr. 
Chadwyck-Healey on Porlock and four or five adjoining 
parishes. These labours are worthy of imitation, and if this 
kind of work be spread over the country, we shall in time have 
the materials for a thorough county history. 

" It is worthy of consideration whether a county history of 
quite a different kind to that to which I have referred might 
not even now be undertaken with success. I mean one which 
should not merely consist of the sum of a number of parochial 
histories, but should deal with the county as a unit. If w r e 
look back to the history of this county, it furnishes many 
points of interest : we might begin with considering the traces 
of Christianity during the Roman period, then how Christianity 
came at a later date to the West Saxons, not through Canter- 
bury and Augustine, but through Burgundy and Birinus. 
Then we look at the period of King Alfred, for we know that 
Somersetshire had its distinct part in the great wars of Alfred, 
in the times which followed his flight to Athelney. Then, 
coming down to a much later period, we arrive at Monmouth's 
rebellion. We need not necessarily have a work of great mag- 
nitude or research, but one which would bring together points 
of interest in the county as a county, and not deal with 
parochial matters. I commend that work to anyone who has 
leisure and the necessary qualification. 

" I have referred to the connection of King Alfred with our 
county. I am desirous that we should be on the alert, and 
that Somersetshire should take its due part in the forthcom- 
ing celebration of the one thousandth year of his death. It 
was in Somerset that Alfred, in the period of his extreme need, 
took refuge and found support. The flight to Athelney and 

12 Fifty -first Annual Meeting. 

his hiding there was a very interesting epoch in King Alfred's 
life, certainly it was a crisis in his military life. Was it a 
crisis in his moral life as well ? By some authentics Alfred's 
flight to Athelney has been regarded as a mere strategic move- 
ment. But there is a tradition, which finds support in Asser, 
as his work has come down to us, that Alfred fled because he 
was deserted by his friends and his Court and that there was 
something like a revolt of his people, due to his neglect of his 
royal duties soon after his accession to the throne. Possibly 
the vast reputation which Alfred's later career produced may 
have led some historians to slur over an event which was ex- 
tremely probable in a young man called to the throne, and 
which scarcely reflects any dishonour on his character, whilst 
his recovery showed of what mettle he was. Alfred's depart- 
ure from Athelney was due very largely to the action of 
Somerset men who joined him in his march against the Danes. 
We are told that all the men of Somerset, the men of Dorset, 
and part of the men of Hampshire met together at Egbert's 
stone, and marched from Athelney across the country, spend- 
ing a night at Iglea, probably Clay Hill, and then they at- 
tacked the Danes on the encampment of the chalk hills near 
Westbury. Somerset also had its full share in another great 
event of Alfred's life, for the peace with the Danes was made 
at Wedmore. Then again, the monasteries of Ban well and 
Congresbury were given by Alfred to his friend and literary 
associate, the Welsh monk, Asser. Thus we have in the 
county of Somerset most interesting points of contact with the 
life of our great king. Such local associations we are, in my 
opinion, bound to cherish. Let me remind you of the 
characteristic and, as I think, the noble words of Dr. Johnson in 
his account of his visit to lona : ' To abstract,' he said, 4 the 
mind from all local emotion would be impossible, if it were en- 
deavoured, and would be foolish, if it were possible. What- 
ever draws us from the power of our senses ; whatever makes 
the past, the distant, or the future predominate over the 

Clcvcdon Court. 13 

present, advances us in the dignity of thinking beings. Far 
from me and from my friends be such frigid philosophy, as 
may conduct us indifferent and unmoved over any ground 
which has been dignified by wisdom, bravery, or virtue. That 
man is little to be envied, whose patriotism would not gain 
force upon the plain of Marathon, or whose piety would not 
grow warmer among the ruins of lona.' 

" Antiquarian pursuits then, if rightly followed, are not mere 
idle amusements of an idle hour : on the contrary they tend to 
remind us that we are citizens of no mean country : they help 
us to estimate rightly the grandeur of that inheritance which 
is ours as the heirs of all the ages : they not only adorn, but 
they strengthen and elevate our lives. ' Abcutit Studio, in 
MorcsJ " 

Mr. DUXCAN SKKINE proposed a vote of thanks to Sir 
Edward Fry for his admirable and interesting address. He 
was glad that the address had been of so practical a character, 
for he thought that they sometimes attempted too much and 
attained no result. 

The Rev. A. R. CART WHIG HT seconded the resolution, 
which was carried with acclamation. 

The meeting then terminated. 

Cle&eUon Court. 

The company afterwards proceeded in brakes to Clevedon 
Court, where they were kindly invited to luncheon by Sir 
Edmund and Lady Elton, in whose absence Mr. Elton pre- 

Sir EDWARD FRY proposed the health of " The Host." 
Mr. ELTON, in returning thanks, said he had just received 
the news that he had been elected a member of the Society, 
and he begged to thank them for having elected him. On 
behalf of Sir Edmund and Lady Elton, he wished to say that 
it afforded them the greatest pleasure to invite the members of 
the Society to their house on that occasion. 

14 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER, on behalf of the Society, re- 
turned thanks to Mr. Elton for the cordial welcome he had 
given them. 

Description of deletion Court* 

Mr. ELTON then proceeded to give a remarkably interesting 
address descriptive of the Court. He said : It is with con- 
siderable diffidence that I rise to address you on this ancient 
and historic mansion ; selected as it has been by Thackeray as 
the foundation of his " Castlewood," and described as it has 
been by Rutter, in his " Delineations of North- West Somer- 
set," as one of the most perfect examples of mediaeval domestic 
architecture in England. So many abler heads than mine have 
dealt with it. I feel, therefore, I am quite unable to throw 
any fresh light on the matter. However, as archaeologists, I 
feel that you will be the last people to expect to hear any new 
thing. I therefore crave your indulgence if I but repeat what 
may be stale new r s to many of you. I shall not attempt in the 
presence of experts to give you in any way a technical or 
learned address, but, like Truthful James in the poem, " I will 
tell in simple language all I know," and I hope the result will 
not end in the building of " churches of old red sandstone " or 
anything else. First of all, then, there is little doubt that 
there was originally a house here as far back as the time of the 
Norman Conquest. None of that now remains, but it is prob- 
able that from its foundations the most ancient parts of the 
present building arose. I direct your attention particularly to 
the room in which we are now seated. It forms the central 
part of the earliest structure. The original date would be 
early fourteenth century or about the time of Edward II. It 
has, of course, been largely altered and added to in the Jaco- 
bean period, and, later still, in the Georgian, when the present 
ceiling and the debased top to the fine Elizabethan window 
were added. If we divest the hall of all later additions, we 
shall find that it consists of a large and very high chamber, at 

Description of Clcvcdon Court. 15 

the four corners of which were turrets or newel staircases, 
three of which are still extant. The floor would have been of 
stone. The chamber would be lighted as far up as the present 
ceiling by mere slits in the walls, through which arrows, stones, 
or possibly boiling lead might be discharged on the heads of 
over-curious and suspicious-looking strangers. In cold weather 
a fire would be lighted in the middle of the room, and the 
smoke would find its way out by two apertures in the roof at 
either end. The two entrances to north and south, through 
Gothic archways of noble proportions, were each guarded by 
a portcullis let down from the rooms at each end of the min- 
strels' gallery. The grooves by which these descended may 
be examined at leisure. In fact, besides being the living 
room, it was a strong place whither the lord of the manor and 
all depending on him might resort in times of stress for tem- 
porary safety. A da'is would extend across the end of the 
room, and all would dine here in common, the servants sitting 
below the salt. We will now remove with a wave of the hand 
the white ceiling which obscures our view. Above it we see 
a high-pitched roof, and at either end two very beautiful 
windows belonging to the Early Decorated period, and above 
them the flues for the escape of the superfluous smoke that I 
have already alluded to. The blackening remains of soot are 
still clearly discernible about the tracery of the windows, and 
at either side are the unmistakable signs of the old hammer- 
beam roof, which has long years back ceased to exist, having 
either fallen into such decay as to compel its removal, or 
dreadful thought having been ruthlessly destroyed when the 
mischievous tide of architectural degradation reached its height 
under the House of Hanover. Out of the hall, on the eastern 
side, by a series of fourteenth-century doorways, which you 
may have noticed on your right hand on entering, the kitchen 
and other offices were reached. Behind me, on my left, you 
will observe a fine Jacobean doorway of stone, placed there by 
the Wake family, descendants of Kingsley's hero, " Hereward 

16 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

the Wake," who for many generations occupied the property. 
It has, I regret to say, in degenerate days been painted and 
grained to imitate oak. It seems to appeal mutely for scrap- 
ing, but it would be a hazardous task, and it would require 
ages of wear and tear, dust and dirt, to retrieve the sombre 
dignity of its ancient origin were this done, and after all it is 
not snobbishly assuming a higher position than it is entitled 
to, but rather a lower, for being stone it is content to 
take precedence as oak. So we will leave it. On my 
right you will see a fourteenth-century doorway restored 
after the disastrous fire which nearly destroyed all the west 
wing of the house in 1882. Opposite you see a debased door- 
way, once its match, leading on to the Queen Anne staircase. 
Above the old doorway I would direct your attention to the 
two-light window of the Early Decorated period. On the 
other side of that window is by far the most interesting char- 
acteristic of the house. I remember my grandfather (Sir 
Arthur Elton), himself an ardent archaeologist, describing the 
" lady's bower," which proves that even archaeologists may be 
mistaken, for he lived to see the truth laid bare, though, alas, 
a terrible fire, which occasioned the discovery, led up to his un- 
timely death from sorrow and shock. The little room was no 
lady's bower, but neither more nor less than a tiny chapel, 
described by some authorities as a hanging chapel, from its 
position on the first storey. No tradition, no word, no sign, had 
escaped its sealed lips for centuries. Here was a room ancient 
and oak-panelled, certainly used for generations as the boudoir 
of the lady of the manor this was all we knew. After the 
fire the panelling was being removed and some slight repairs 
executed (mercifully the fiames had hardly reached the 
chamber), when in the eastern wall a fine square window, with 
reticulated tracery of the Early Decorated period was brought 
to light, carefully concealed within and without by masonry. 
Beneath this the altar slab, smashed off level with the wall, 
and on the right hand side of the piscina, with a canopy of 

Description of Clcvedon Court. 17 

the same period, and the bowl broken off, had been covered in 
with the same diligent care. The whole has been restored to 
the likeness of its former beauty under the able hands of Mr. 
Davis, city architect of Bath, whose name will ever be associ- 
ated to his honour with the restoration of the western wing of 
the house. The south window of the chapel, which has always 
been in situ, has been considered to be the finest example of 
square-headed window of the Early Decorated period in exis- 
tence. Out of the chapel winds precipitously a newel staircase 
on to the roof, from whence the curious may obtain a view of 
the windows above this hall to which I have referred. I must 
not omit to mention the solar, or lord's chamber, which is the 
room above the library, connected with the chapel by a small 
doorway cut through the thickness of the wall. The western 
wing of the house was largely built by the Wakes in the 
Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, but the presence of a 14th 
century doorway at the top of the Queen Anne staircase, and 
a decorated buttress of the same period between the drawing- 
room and library, points to the former existence of buildings 
coeval with the hall. The whole of the interior of this part of 
the house was practically destroyed by fire, including a beauti- 
ful example of Jacobean mantelpiece Avith the Wake arms in 
the library, and one of the date of William and Mary in the 
drawing-room ; also some ancient stained glass bearing the 
Wake knot and the family motto, " Wake and Pray," with the 
date 1570. Luckily the outside shell was robust enough to 
withstand the flames, and it still stands with the self-same ivy 
and creepers affectionately clinging to its dear old walls. The 
west front was restored by Sir Arthur some thirty years ago, 
as a former baronet, unfortunately possessed with the taste of 
the period, had pulled down the old west front and had put up 
what he conceived to be an improvement. I need not pain you 
by dwelling on the fact that the improvement Avas in the style 
commonly execrated as StraAvberry Hill Gothic. It is now 
with slight exceptions practically the same as it was just 

Vol. XL }' (Third, Sei-i, Vol. V ), Parti. c 

18 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

before the fire. In passing into the Elizabethan wing just 
touched upon you will notice the enormous thickness of the 
wall. When that part was being restored, Mr. Davis found 
that it was really a double wall, that is to say, when the builder 
of the time added to the house on that side he had not bored 
into the old wall to seek the support for his rafters and roofing, 
but had built up an entirely new wall alongside the old one, 
an example of labour and energy which the modern jerry 
builder might well take note of, though I could not recommend 
him to carry it out in detail. It was probably this extraordi- 
nary wall as much as anything else which saved the whole 
house from being destroyed by the flames. I must now draw 
your attention to the eastern wing of the house, especially to 
the kitchen. This room has been a good deal pulled about and 
altered at different times, but mainly it belongs to the same 
date as the hall. It originally reached from the ground to the 
roof, and extended to twice its present breadth, but other 
rooms have since encroached on its space in both directions. 
The walls are of great thickness. On either side of the 
southern gable of the kitchen are two beautiful little pinnacles 
of curious design, one of which is still in fair preservation. The 
kitchen communicated through an open court yard, and thence 
by the 14th century arches, with the hall. The buildings 
between the kitchen and the hall were originally much lower 
than those we now see, the upper storeys having probably been 
added by the Wakes. At the summit of the little gable, be- 
tween the porch-room over the front entrance and the kitchen, 
you will notice a stone figure, supposed to be the bear and 
ragged staff of the King Maker. One has to be told this to 
believe it, as it might as well be an old lady with an umbrella 
from what we can see of it. However, there is method in our 
madness, for in the reigri of Henry VI Thomas Wake held the 
manor of Clevedon of Richard, Earl of Warwick. Behind the 
kitchen, at the extreme north-east corner of the house, are 
the remains of a square tower which seems to belong to the 

Description of Clevcdoti Court. 19 

14th century period ; it has been much altered, cut down, and 
filled in with rooms. However, in an interesting picture, dating 
from Queen Anne, which hangs in the passage upstairs, the 
house and grounds are shewn surrounded by high walls, em- 
battled here and there. A part of them, with an ivy-clad 
embrasure, still remain on the east side of the flower garden. 
The walls do not, I think, date back before the Jacobean 
period, for though cast in a somewhat earlier mould they alto- 
gether lack the strength and boldness of mediaeval work. The 
front view of the house is generally recognised to be the finest, 
but to those who prefer to dwell on the rambling incongruities 
of an ancient pile I would recommend the view obtained from 
the " Esmond Terrace," which embanks itself picturesquely 
against the steep sides of the hill. From thence also one can 
plainly make out the original conformation of the more ancient 
parts of the building, somewhat in the shape of a capital H, 
the hall forming the cross stroke. And as you continue to 
ga/e may you hear the echoes of that long forgotten day : 

" When men were less inclined to say, 
That time is gold, and overlay 
With toil their pleasure." 

Before closing I would wish, as briefly as possible, to 
enumerate the different families who have held the court and 
manor of Clevedon, from the time of the De Clyvedons, who 
raised this hall, to the present day. From the De Clvvedons it 
passed by marriage to Thomas Hogshaw, thence in the same 
way to the Lovells, whom we find in possession in the first 
year of Henry IV, and again through their heiress, Agnes, to 
the Wakes. Roger Wake was attainted of treason in the first 
year of Henry VII, and forfeited all his rights ; he was, how- 
ever, pardoned, and received restitution. Here we have the 
original counterpart of a deed of recovery against Roger 
Wake in 17 Henry VII, by which a large portion of the pro- 
perty was disentailed : the seal is that of the Court of 

20 Fifty-first Annual Mcetiny. 

Common Pleas: also several files of accounts of about 1630, 
and a survey of the manor in 1629, .which I discovered some 
time back in a cellar. They were in an old oak chest and 
wringing wet, yet the paper is as good, and the writing as 
clear as if it had been written yesterday ; they are in beautiful 
preservation. The Wakes sold the property to their kinsman, 
Digby, Earl of Bristol, and from the executors of the third earl 
of that name, in accordance with the directions in his will, it 
passed by sale in the seventh year of good Queen Anne, to the 
then head of the Elton family. I have now come to an end 
of my remarks. Before bidding adieu to the old place, how- 
ever, I may perhaps remind you, though possibly not yet 
exactly of archaeological interest, that hither have come in the 
less remote past Hallam the historian, Arthur Hallam, the 
hero of a pathetic and undying friendship ; Tennyson, who im- 
mortalized that friendship in " In Memoriam " ; Coleridge, 
Thackeray, and many another literary giant of a bygone age. 
At the conclusion of the address Sir EDWARD FRY thanked 
Mr. Elton for the interesting description he had given them of 
the Court. The visitors then proceeded through the different 
rooms of the mansion, which are marked throughout by the 
beauty of antiquity. In answer to a lady, who asked which 
was the bedroom in which Thackeray was accustomed to sleep, 
Mr. Elton informed her that the great novelist visited Clevedon 
Court so often that he probably slept in every room in the 
house, at one time and another. Before leaving, the party 
ascended the turrets to the roof, where a delightful view of the 
picturesque grounds of the Court was obtained. 

ClefceDon iparisft Cfwrcf). 

The party next drove to the parish church of St. Andrew, 
where Mr. EDMUND BUCKLE, hon. Diocesan Architect, com- 
menced the first of his descriptions of the churches. He first 
of all remarked upon the distance it was from the Clevedon 

Clevcdon Parish Church. 21 

Court House. In most parishes they found that the church was 
near the Court House, but here the Court House was right at 
the other end of the parish. It was a very interesting point, 
and one which he thought might well be worked out by local 
archaeologists. The church was one which had its history 
plainly written upon it. There was certainly there in Norman 
times a small church of cruciform shape, with a central tower, 
but without aisles ; and the nave was very much smaller than 
the present one. The two Norman arches remaining under the 
tower were remarkable for their oval shape, which gave them 
somewhat the effect of pointed arches. It was quite obvious 
that the original church had no aisles, by the buttresses which 
remained in the nave, and from the position of the buttresses 
it could be seen how much narrower the nave of the Norman 
church was than the present. The north transept still retained 
the Norman walls, but the chancel seemed to have been entirely 
rebuilt, though a large number of the Norman corbels have been 
preserved. The first great change in the plan of the church 
was the pulling down of the Norman nave in order to erect a 
larger nave, which took place probably in the 13th century. 
The new nave had no aisle any more than the Norman nave 
had. It was quite clear that the object of the re-building was 
to obtain a larger space, for the north-west corner of the nave 
was carried to the extreme limit available, and a wide splay cut 
off this angle externally to avoid interference with some object 
beyond or with the boundary of the churchyard, and the addi- 
tional width of the new nave was obtained mainly on the south 
side, and so the nave w r as thrown much out of the centre of the 
chancel. There was no clerestory, and although the width of 
the Early English nave was the same as now, the height was 
very much less. The north transept was added at the same 
time as the nave. That, like the nave, Avas placed quite out of 
the centre of the arch leading to the tower, and for a similar 
reason the desire for space and width. The eccentric position 
of the nave prevented the transept from being widened to- 

22 Fifty -first Annual Mcctiny. 

wards the west, so all the additional width had here to be 
obtained on the east side, and the centre line was thrown a 
great deal to the east of the centre line of the tower. In spite 
of the great length of this transept there was only one small 
window in the east wall. After the completion of the nave 
and transept, the two tall arches looking towards this nave and 
transept were inserted in the tower, giving it a very lop-sided 
appearance. The next step in the growth of the church was 
the addition of the south aisle, which was of the Decorated 
period. The arcade should be specially noticed on account of 
the peculiar way in which the arches spring from corbels 
instead of capitals. The rood has been in two different places. 
Just over the Norman chancel arch, on the north side, could 
be seen an opening, which must have led into the rood loft at 
one time ; but later on the rood loft was moved to a position 
west of the nave arch. With regard to the furniture of the 
church, the bench ends were noticeable from their having 
poppy heads some were old and some new. Mr. Buckle re- 
ferred to the reading-desk, which contained four panels of 
Dutch carving, each with an inscription in the Dutch language. 
Attention was called to the indications of a gallery in the porch, 
across the top of the south doorway, the purposes of which 
were not known. It, however, seemed clear that it must have 
been put there for some ritual purpose. They knew that in 
the middle ages the first part of the wedding service took 
place at the porch, and this gallery may have been for the 
musicians. At the conclusion of Mr. Buckle's description of 
the church, several of the party inspected the tomb of Arthur 
Hallam, who lies buried there. He was only in his twenty- 
third year when he died at Vienna, and his remains were 
brought to Glevedon for interment. His father, as is well 
known, was the celebrated historian of the Middle Ages, while 
his mother was Julia Maria, daughter of Sir A. Elton, Bart., 
of Clevedon Court. Tennyson's reference to his friend's last 
resting-place in his " In Memoriam," is well known. 

The Evening Meet me/. 23 

Cea at Cletoe&on l&ali. 

After leaving the church, the party proceeded to Clevedon 
Hall, the residence of Mr. and Mrs. Charles Hill, who had in- 
vited the archaeologists to tea. Mrs. Hill graciously received 
the guests, and she and Mr. Hill and their sons and daughters 
were assiduous in their attentions to the wants of the party, 
who afterwards inspected the beautiful conservatories and 
grounds of the mansion, spending a most enjoyable time there. 


In the evening a meeting was held in the Public Hall, 
Clevedon, for the reading of papers and discussion thereon. 
Sir EDWAUD FRY presided. 

A paper had been prepared by Mr. McMurtrie on "Ancient 
British or Roman Discoveries in the Quarries of Radstock," 
(see Part II), but Mr. McMurtrie was unable to attend through 
illness, and the paper was read by the Rev. H. H. WIXWOOD. 
At the hall were exhibited a number of specimens to show the 
nature of the deposits. 

At the conclusion of the paper, the CHAIRMAN said it was 
interesting to observe the remains of the pre-historic iron age, 
and that the second remains, supposed to be later, contained 
bronze. He thanked Mr. Winwood for reading the paper. 

The Rev. E. H. BATES next read a learned paper on 
"The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday," his re- 
marks being illustrated by a printed chart (sec Part II). 

The CHAIRMAN said they all knew that the investigation 
of hidage was one on which a great deal had been written, and 
on which a great deal of light was still required, and the paper 
just read was a very interesting contribution to it. It con- 
vinced them of one thing at least, that the difficulty of equal 
taxation was not a modern one. Their thanks were due to 
Mr. Bates for his interesting paper. 

24 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVEH proposed a vote of thanks to the 
Chairman, which was heartily accorded. Mr. Weaver also 
mentioned how deeply grateful they were to Mr. C. Tite, who 
had kindly undertaken the duties of Mr. Bidgood in his 
absence. Had not Mr. Tite so willingly given his services, 
the meeting could not have taken place. They were much 
indebted to him for the assistance he was rendering. 

This concluded the first day's proceedings. 

@econ& Dap'0 proceeDtngs. 

Favoured with a continuance of fine weather, the members 
of the Society commenced their excursions on Wednesday 
morning to the various churches and places of interest in the 
neighbourhood. The party, numbering over eighty, set out in 
brakes from Walton Park Hotel, the first stopping-place being 

gatton Cfwrcb. 

Mr. EDMUND BUCKLE said this church, like the one they saw 
at Clevedon the previous day, was cruciform in plan, with the 
tower right in the centre, and with the tower piers very massive, 
so that the chancel was, to a large extent, blocked out from the 
nave, very much as was the case at Clevedon. It seemed almost 
certain that there must have been a Norman church there, 
comparatively a small one, with a central tower, and as the 
church became changed and enlarged, from time to time, the 
original Norman building left its influence on all the succes- 
sive stages. There was nothing left in Yatton church which 
they could actually trace back further than to the Decorated 
period -the first half of the 14th century but the plan, the 
massive pillars under the tower, and the low arches rising from 
these pillars, pointed pretty distinctly to a Norman church of 
the same form. The lower part of the tower was actually of 
the Decorated period, and that was the oldest part of this 
interesting church, though the two transepts were nearly of 

Y A T T O N . 

Yatton Church. 25 

the same date. Originally there was certainly no north aisle, 
for the tower had a buttress at the north-west corner, but 
during the Decorated period this aisle was added, a fragment 
of which still clings to the base of the tower pier. The nave 
at this time must have been small and low. The chancel was 
a pretty example of Early Perpendicular, which it was in- 
teresting to compare with the later Perpendicular so common 
in Somerset. The whole of the nave, clerestory, and aisles 
had been rebuilt in the richest manner of this latter style. He 
directed attention to a curious fact in connection with the 
windows in the aisle, that there was hardly an example of a 
window being in the middle between two vaulting shafts. 
That was characteristic of how these old churches were set 
out, as they rarely found windows exactly opposite one another. 
In a new church the windows were generally arranged 
symmetrically. The north chapel was an addition considerably 
later than the rest of the building, and was probably about the 
middle of the fifteenth century. He called attention to the 
beautiful features in the mortuary chapel of Sir John Newton 
and his wife, Isabel de Cheddre. There was a magnificent mon- 
ument against the north wall, Avhich was the important feature 
of the chapel. Among the peculiar features of the monument 
was a representation of the Annunciation. The date of Sir 
.John Newton's death was 1487, and it was almost certain that 
the chapel was built by him in his lifetime. The tracery of 
the windows bore a striking resemblance to that in the Chain 
Gate at Wells, which was erected shortly after 1465. There 
was also, in the north transept, a figure in alabaster of the 
father of Sir John, Sir Richard Newton, serjeant and judge, 
represented in his red gown with the Serjeant's coif on his 
head, and a wallet by his side to contain the seal. The figure 
of his wife, elaborately dressed in mitre headdress and 
flaunches, appeared on the same tomb. In recesses, in this 
transept, were also figures of a man and woman of the latter 
part of the thirteenth century. The rood loft seemed to have 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Parti. D 

26 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

been curiously arranged, since the entrance to it was in the 
north-west corner of the north transept, One of the most in- 
teresting volumes of the Record Society contained a number 
of churchwardens' accounts, and among them were those of 
Yatton, in which was a mass of information about the building 
and repairing of the church. In 1445 the accounts com- 
menced, and at the time they were building a church-house 
and doing work in the belfry. Directly after that, in 1447, 
occurred the first entry concerning the rood-screen. The 
churchwardens went to Easton-in-Gordano to look at the rood- 
screen there, and in the same year there was the mason's bill 
for erecting a pulpit and two altars. He (Mr. Buckle) did 
not think it was a pulpit as they understood the word 
now, but the lower part of the rood-screen. That would 
account for the two altars, as there were usually two altars, 
against the rood-screen. In the same year they found a 
carpenter engaged upon the rood-loft, which was variously 
described as Allc, Aler, and solarium. The work was given 
to John Cross, the village carpenter, who had a shop at 
Claverham, about a mile away, and this was an example of 
how capable the artisans of the country were in the old times 
that the lower part of an elaborate screen should have been 
entrusted to the village mason, and the upper part to the 
village carpenter. They had not a carver in the village, how- 
ever, so that the order for 69 images went to a foreigner. 
The cost of the figures was 3 10s. 4d., just over Is. Id. each. 
In 1457 there was an entry of 31 2s. 1 Id., as being the total 
amount of Cross, the carpenter's bill. The next item of 
interest was for white-washing the church, a frequent proceed- 
ing in mediaeval times. The entry ran pro dcalbationc ccclcsice. 
It was a common opinion that whitewashing was inartistic and 
modern. It might be inartistic but certainly was not modern. 
In 1482 there was a charge for the "closing between the 
church and the chancel," and he thought what was referred to 
might be the temporary screens put into the arches in order to 

Yatton Church. 27 

build the Newton chapel. In 1531 there was mention of an 
iron beam before the high altar, which was the work of a local 
smith, with apparently a great deal of decorative work about 
it. They might glean that the altars were the high altar of 
St. Mary, and those of St. James, St. Nicholas, and St. 
Catherine. There were also images of St. Sunday, St. Thomas, 
St. John, St. George, and a gigantic figure of St. Christopher 
painted on the wall. There was in the churchyard an entirely 
separate chapel, respecting which, at the abolition of the 
chantries, the inhabitants made humble suit that it might be 
taken down and the stones used as " a sluice against the rage 
of the sea for the safeguard of the country." Outside the 
church Mr. Buckle drew attention to the delicate carving on 
the front of the south porch, with a coat-of-arms apparently 
for Montacute or Sherborne. The Avindow at the end of the 
south transept was plainly seen to be entirely different in 
character to those in the nave. Mr. Buckle next spoke of the 
tower with its broken spire. The turret was in a rather pecu- 
liar position, Moreover, it was not octagonal but hexagonal ; 
a form used very much in the southern part of the county, at 
Crewkerne and neighbourhood. It was a question whether the 
spire of this church was ever completed. It might have been 
left unfinished, or perhaps it had to be taken down on account 
of some accident such as having been struck by lightning. 
He should think, judging by the churchwardens' accounts, 
that there could have been no possible question about want of 
funds for completing it, and he felt sure that at the end of the 
mediaeval period there must have been a perfect spire. The 
accident which reduced it to its present form probably oc- 
curred at a later period, when there was no longer money 
easily obtainable for restoring it. The west front of the 
church was probably, with the exception of Crewkerne, the 
finest in the county. That at Crewkerne was very similar, but 
much more elaborate, and the hexagonal turrets Avere repeated 
here, so that it seemed probable that the architect came from the 

28 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Crewkerne district. Mr. Buckle then accompanied the party 
round to the north side of the church and pointed out that, 
unlike many churches where the north side was meanly treated, 
this north side at Yatton was as well finished as any other 
part of the church, and that from the north-west part of the 
churchyard one could obtain a very good view of the entire 

Congrestwrp Cfturcf) 

was next visited. Mr. BUCKLE said that this church presented 
the greatest contrast to Yatton church as regarded the general 
effect, yet there were several features in w r hich it bore a con- 
siderable resemblance to it. Here they found an Early English 
nave and aisles, and the first thing which must strike one in 
coming into the church was the remarkable difference between 
the two arcades. The one on the south side had four black 
shafts around it Avith nothing to support, while the other one 
was a simple natural arcade. The arrangement now existing on 
the south side, of a round central pier carrying the arches flanked 
by black shafts which carried nothing, was excessively ugly, 
and in its present state quite modern. Certainly when the 
arcade was first built the shape of the pillar was as at present, for 
the bases were genuine Early English, and provided for all five 
shafts. But that pillar was intended to carry perfectly plain, 
heavy, square arches, resting on all the five shafts, instead of 
the present light molded arches. When (probably in the 14th 
century) it was desired to lighten the appearance of the 
church, they took down the heavy square arch, but, like 
sensible people, they also took down the four shafts at the 
corners of each pier, and thus lightened the whole effect of the 
arcade. But when the time came for restoring the church, the 
ingenious restorer found from the bases of the pillars that four 
shafts had been there primarily, so he put up those four black 
shafts which presented such an extraordinarily foolish appear- 
ance. The north arcade was very different, probably a little 

Congresbury Church. 29 

later in date, and was interesting as being as early an example 
as they could find of the pier which became practically universal 
in Somerset in the Perpendicular period a pier with four 
little attached shafts, one on each face. The tower arch, like 
those of the south arcade, w r as presumably Decorated, and he 
thought the bases of the chancel arch were of the same period. 
Then came the usual Perpendicular enlargement, and in that 
case it consisted of the raising of all the aisle walls and the in- 
sertion in them of large windows ; the raising of the nave 
walls and the addition of a clerestory of rather an unusual char- 
acter, consisting of a large number of small windows all close 
together two windows in every bay. Some of the arrange- 
ments of the church were exceedingly interesting. The step 
on which he was standing at the entrance to the chancel, 
seemed to have been intended as a seat. The base of the rood 
screen Avas a stone wall, which had been richly ornamented, 
but was now much damaged. The side screen, however, which 
was of similar design, was beautifully frescoed ; the whole of 
the stone tracery remained with stone buttresses at intervals. 
That low stone wall was intended to carry the ordinary oak 
screen over, but that upper part had been very much pulled 
about, and had clearly been made up again at some subsequent 
period. How exactly that screen, the base of which stood 
there, was brought forward to meet the stone corbels left stand- 
ing it was difficult to say. It looked as though there had been 
an elaborate piece of vaulting under the gallery, as at Dunster. 
The screen leading from the aisle into the chapel was again in 
two parts. The lower part of it was most interesting, for 
there was a seat attached to it, facing the altar that was in the 
chapel. Attention was called to the two corbels which carried 
the ends of the loft, on which were inscriptions not very easy 
to read. The most interesting Decorated work in the church 
consisted of the two square windows in the chancel and chapel, 
though, perhaps, their beauty was questionable, as they were 
rather bald-looking. Their date was of the 14th century. On 

30 Fifty-first Annual Mcctiny. 

the outside they would observe that it was another church with 
a spire. Spires were distinctly uncommon in that county, but 
there was a band of them which ran across the county, from 
Kewstoke to Frome, and one of them, Croscombe spire, was 
almost identical with this one. Here, as at Yatton, there was a 
chapel in the churchyard, and in this case it was dedicated to 
St. Michael. There were remains of two crosses, one in the 
churchyard, and another just outside in the roadway. 

The vicar of the parish, the Rev. II. H. MAUXSELL-EYRE, 
being away, the curate, the Rev. J. H. CRAVEN, read a few 
notes which had been prepared by the vicar. He called atten- 
tion to the registers, which were in a chest in the vestry, 
which dated from the year 1543. Parts of the vicarage, 
dated from 1446, and the arms carved on the porch were those 
of the bishopric, Bishop Beckington's, and those of the 
Poultney family. What connection they had with it he could 
not tell. The font was the oldest part being early Norman. 
The stump of the yew tree in the churchyard was said to be 
St. Congar's walking stick. The cross in the churchyard was 
erected as a memorial to Mr. Hardwick, who was attacked by 
highwaymen and shot in several places, but delivered his 
assailants to justice. 

The next stopping-place was 

Here Mr. BUCKLE first of all alluded to the tower. He 
said that it had attained great distinction as being that which 
Professor Freeman had described as the finest square western 
tower of any parish church in this country (and therefore 
probably in the world), not intended for a spire or lantern. 
But Mr. Buckle did not share Freeman's views, he thought 
the tower had been over-rated, but he agreed that it was a 
remarkably fine one. In order to do the tower justice, it must 
be looked upon as intended for a much smaller church. The 

Brocklcy Church. 31 

church for which that tower was designed was a church not 
much higher and not much wider than the chancel, and with 
such a building as that there was no doubt that the tower 
would have looked much better than at present. The nave 
was exceedingly short and dumpy, and it was cramped in 
between the chancel at one end, and the tower at the other. 
Proceeding inside the church, Mr. Buckle said that over the 
tower arch could be seen the work of the old nave roof which 
the tower was designed to suit. The chancel was of the Early 
English period, but with Perpendicular additions. When the 
nave was rebuilt it was widened as well as heightened, and the 
western bay of the chancel had been corbelled out to allow of 
this. He drew attention to the trefoil arch in the clerestory, 
the width of the clerestory windows which were of three 
lights instead of the usual two. The whole of the nave was a 
very pretty piece of work, but it certainly wanted, for propor- 
tion, greater length. The screen there seemed to have been a 
good deal pulled about, and much of it removed. There were 
also remains of the Perpendicular reredos which was now re- 
stored, and it was not easy to say how much of it was old and 
how much was new. 

Some of the old registers were shown and the communion 

Wrington is famous as having been the birthplace of Locke, 
the philosopher. In the church is a tablet to Hannah More, 
who with her sisters lies buried in the churchyard. An entry 
in the parish registers mentions the payment of " one shilling 
for killing an author." " Otter " is the word which was 
evidently meant. 

TBtocklep Cfwrcj), 

After luncheon at the " Golden Lion " Hotel, the party 
proceeded to visit Brockley Church and Court. Mr. BUCKLE 
said this was a totally different kind of: church to those they 
had already seen. They had seen grand works of architecture 

32 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

before, but here they had a small, (juiet, country church. 
There was here no division between the nave and the chancel, 
except that the chancel roof was about a foot lower than the 
nave roof, so that a sort of chancel arch "was formed in the 
woodwork of the roof. That was a rather curious feature in 
that part of the county, because it belonged emphatically to 
the western corner of England. It was very common through- 
out Cornwall and Devonshire, and there were several instances 
of it west of Taunton. The body of the church there was 
Early English, but there was one fragment of the Norman 
period in the very beautiful font, which was circular right from 
the bottom to the top. The arch leading into the chapel was 
also a portion of the Early English work. When the Perpen- 
dicular change came it made very little difference here, though 
the roof belonged to that period. He called attention to the 
altar cloth, the centre part of which was modern. It had ex- 
ceedingly beautiful lace fringed with filagree work. What its 
date was or where it came from he was entirely unable to say. 
There was a monument in the chantry to the Rev. Wadham 

The Court House was afterwards visited, and much interest 
was displayed in the inspection of some of the rooms. The 
party then drove to 

Cfjeltoep Cburcf)* 

This church, said Mr. BUCKLE, was almost identical with 
the church they had just left, as regarded its plan and general 
arrangement. It had been restored in a very charming way. 
The entrance was through a Norman doorway. This church, 
like the other, was in the main Early English. The arcade 
was Early Perpendicular. The heads of the sepulchral arches 
in the south chapel wall had lost their finials, and the monu- 
ments were entirely lost. The whole of the church was very 
rough and irregular in the setting out, the floors were uneven, 
and the chapel had the further irregularity of being wider at 

Chehcy Church. 33 

the east end than at the west end. Here, as at Yatton and 
Cdngresburjj the lower part of the rood screen was of stone. 
The position of the rood loft was indicated on the arch imme- 
diately above. There was one stone missing. That stone stood 
out, no doubt, as a corbel, and it was on the top of that stone 
that the gallery rested. He drew attention to the arrangement 
of the two altar reredoses. The central part of the principal 
reredos was entirely modern, but was set in the frame of stone 
work which was all old. On the top was a pretty cornice, the 
greater part of which was also old. On both sides of the reredos 
were niches for figures, but there was nothing now left of the 
ornamental work. Precisely the same arrangement was re- 
peated at the end of the chapel. There was the same square 
recess over the altar for the reredos. He also called attention 
to the corbels on each side of the chancel. These corbels sup- 
ported the ends of the Lenten veil, which completely shut out 
the east end of the church from view. At the west end of the 
aisle was a most magnificent Court pew of the Jacobean period. 
The oak had never been oiled, and so had turned to a soft 
white, as old oak did when left to itself. The roof was of the 
Perpendicular period, and part of it was new. The old rafters 
were nearly white. Here, again, the font was a Norman one. 
There was a little stained glass in the windows, including some 
coats of arms. The tower of the church was also like that at 
Brockley a small west tower with no pretensions, and with 
just a diagonal buttress. There was a frame for an hour-glass 
by the pulpit, with the glass missing. The old seats were in- 
teresting, but they were a rough lot. 

Chelvey Court was next visited, and what remains of the 
fine old mansion, once the residence of the Tynte family, was 
inspected with considerable curiosity. The house was well 
worth seeing, especially the staircase, though care had to be 
exercised in A'isiting some of the spacious rooms, on account of 
the decaying condition of the flooring. Enquiries were made 
for the secret chamber, but this was believed to have been de- 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part I. E 

34 Fifty-fir si Annual Meeting. 

molished when the upper part of the structure was taken down 
some years ago. 

Nailsea Court, another old mansion in the neighbourhood, 
was also visited, and this fine old building was in a much better 
state of preservation, and is now partly used as a farmhouse. 

Cicfeenfjam Cfwrcf). 

The day's programme concluded with a visit to Tickenham 
Church. Mr. BUCKLE, in describing it, said the church formed 
a great contrast to some of the others visited. The chancel 
arch was exceedingly small, and was very early work, and had 
something of the appearance of a Saxon arch, but he was dis- 
posed to consider it as an early Norman arch. The two 
arcades were not very much later than the Norman period 
probably twelfth century. The simplicity of the work it 
would be impossible to beat. There were no pillars or capitals, 
but square piers supporting plain square arches. The early 
church there appeared to have had its aisle on the north side 
of the nave as at present, but on the south side there appeared 
to have been only two bays in the original aisle. The tall arch 
at the east end of the arcade appeared to have been a later in- 
sertion. It was curious that on the next pillar was the only 
attempt at decoration, which had delicate shafts with fine 
twelfth century foliage. It looked as though the transept had 
been added on to the south side. There were three thirteenth 
century figures in the north aisle two men in armour and one 
a lady. A good deal of old glass was scattered about here and 
there in the different windows. In the old chapel was a figure 
of the Crucifixion in the side window. In the aisle a good 
deal of heraldic glass was left in the tracery. Among them 
were one or two examples of the Berkeley arms, the family 
having once resided at the Court House. The arrangement of 
the rood-loft was peculiar ; there was a squint window in the 
loft to enable the person standing there to see the high altar. 

Clctpton-in-Gordano Church and Court. 35 

He had very little doubt that the person whose duty it was to 
ring the sanctus bell stood on the rood-loft. 

The oldest entry in the parish register was 1538. The 
new altar was put in in 1812. 

The party were afterwards driven into Clevedon, and this 
concluded the second day's proceedings. 

Cftitn Dag's ptoceetunp. 

The number of excursionists was not quite so large on 
Thursday, the third day, about seventy leaving Clevedon at 
9.30 a.m. in the brakes to complete the last day of the pro- 
gramme. The weather was again delightfully fine. The first 
stopping place was 

Claptotvitvotliano Cfwrcl) ana Court. 

The Court House was first viewed from the exterior. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER explained that the house was 
originally the seat of the Arthur family, and on the front door 
was a coat-of-arms of the Arthurs. In response to a request 
to give the derivation of the nave " In Gordano," Mr. Weaver 
replied that Bishop Hobhouse considered it was a regional 
name, indicating a particular region in that district. 

Mr. BUCKLE, in describing the church, said that for the 
most part it was Early English. The north side was the most 
interesting position from which to see the church. The tower 
was very early, it had got almost a Norman appearance on the 
outside. The screen leading into it was a fine massive piece 
of oak work, and had been recently brought there from 
Clapton Court. It was exceedingly rough though handsome, 
and in the middle was a coat-of-arms representing agricultural 
products. The spandrils of the screen above the arch were 

A gentleman explained that this screen stood originally 
in the manor house, and it was thought to be the latest 

36 Fifty -first Annual Meeting. 

example in England of domestic woodwork. It remained in 
the gardens for some years, exposed to the ravages of the 
weather, and at last it found a refuge in God's house, where 
he hoped it would remain. He was sorry that modern addi- 
tions were now put in it. 

Resuming, Mr. BUCKLE said that the piers supporting the 
chancel arch were of a very rich character, with a number of 
good mouldings, and the capitals were treated in an extra- 
ordinary fashion, the purpose of which was to connect jambs 
and arch of different dates and forms unsuited to meet each 
other. On each side of the reredos were two pillars. Over 
them the moulding was corbelled out to form two stands no 
doubt intended for images. And the bases of the shafts were 
Early English capitals turned upside down. The porch there 
appeared to be another of those porches which had a gallery 
across it. 

The Rev. G. MASTER, of Flax Bourton, gave a short 
description of the Arthur family, and said that the estate, 
after it had been in the family for a number of centuries, on 
their becoming extinct Avas invested in the Winter family. 
The chapel contained a monument and a number of tablets to 
the Winter family. 

The next place visited was Westori-in-Gordano Church, and 
Mr. BUCKLE explained its most salient features. He said 
that the most remarkable feature about the church was the 
gallery in the porch, and so far as he knew it was the only 
church in England which possessed the gallery in .situ. The 
gallery went right across the door leading into the church, 
showing that it was quite an addition to the building. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER remarked that Col. Bramble, 
who had made a study of these galleries, was of opinion that it 
was used for service on Palm Sunday. 

Weston-in-Gordano Church. 37 

Proceeding inside, Mr. BUCKLE said it was an exceedingly 
charming little church, and besides the gallery already men- 
tioned, the whole building was one of the most attractive, to 
his mind, of those they had on their round that day. There 
was only one feature about the structure which was not of any 
particular beauty, and that was the chapel which had been 
added to it on the east side of the tower, and which spoiled, to 
a large extent, the general view of the church as seen from the 
main entrance gate. Passing round the north side, it gave one 
the impression of being a Norman church, but he had hunted 
all round the walls with the greatest care, and he had been able 
to find no Norman masonry. But it must be a conservative 
re-building of a Norman church, although all the walls were of 
the Perpendicular period. The nave of the church was very 
highly finished throughout. The tower was Early English, 
13th century work, which was the only remains of the older 
building. The nave was not parallel with the tower. The 
very curious little stone pulpit was partially of the same date. 
The chancel was a good deal later than the nave, but it was 
added on in an admirable manner, so as to give the idea that it 
was part of the same design. The windows were very elabo- 
rate, but they harmonised with those in the nave. There was in 
the outline of the roof the same trefoil which they had seen at 
Wrington and Yatton, which shewed that in this district there 
was a decided revival towards the end of the loth century of 
the old 13th century trefoil. The tower of the 13th century 
had got an arch on its eastern face, which shewed that there 
must have been a chapel or apse on that side. When the 
chancel was built, however, there was no chapel there, and 
some time, probably in the 16th century, the chapel was added 
in what might be called the mean modern manner. The screen 
was a bit of patch work, and seemed to have been put together 
anyhow. The stalls in the chancel were of very great interest, 
but most of the carving was of a rough character. Many of 
the seats in the nave were old, and there was seen again the 

38 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

unusual feature in the poppy heads. As a general rule the 
Somerset seats had square tops, not poppy heads. On the 
right-hand side of the church, facing the west, was a monu- 
ment to Sir Richard Percival, which was elaborately painted. 
He died in 1483. The monument was remarkable for having 
an inscription in French, at such a late date. There was a 
monument in this churchyard with the modern inscription 
"R.P. 1190," but Mr. Buckle thought that was a misleading 
date, because the cross on the top of the tomb was of consider- 
ably later date than that. Besides the narrow pulpit in the 
wall, there was also a Jacobean pulpit. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER remarked that the manor house 
here used to be the principal seat of the Percival family. 

The Rev. T. G. BIRD, the Rector, afterwards read an inter- 
esting paper on the church, as follows : 

" This church, although it has not much to boast of as re- 
gards its size, may justly claim a place among the most inter- 
esting of the churches of this diocese. For there are few 
churches to be found at the present day retaining so much of 
their ancient fittings as may be found here, where the church 
presents almost the same appearance as it must have done in 
the middle ages. 

Whether there was a church here previous to the Norman 
Conquest is uncertain, but if not, one was built at that period, 
most probably by Ascelin, son of Robert Percy vale, Lord of 
Ivery, who accompanied the Conqueror in his expedition, and 
was rewarded with a grant of land at Quantock and East 
Harptree. Ascelin is mentioned in Domesday book as posses- 
sor of the Manor of Weston. 

The church was either rebuilt or restored in the fifteenth 
century by Sir Richard Percy vale, who died 1483, and whose 
tomb remains on the north side of the nave. It has been 
thought from the appearance of the north wall, that the work 
then carried out consisted principally of altering the windows 
to the present Perpendicular style, and raising the walls two or 

Wcston-in-Gordano Church* 39 

three feet to admit of the addition of the tracery. If this be 
so, the church is practically the original building. 

The Norman font remains in situ, together with the high 
altar, the pillars in front of which are, however, modern. In 
the porch should be noticed the choir gallery, immediately over 
the south entrance to the church, and approached by a flight 
of stone stairs in the wall. Some nine or ten other churches 
in this neighbourhood formerly possessed similar ones, but all, 
with the exception of this, have now disappeared. Its use was, 
doubtless, to accommodate the choir at certain functions. In 
the Sarum missal, which was the one in use in most of the 
province of Canterbury, it is ordered that during the procession 
on Palm Sunday, seven boys should sing, on the south side of 
the church, eminente loco, the verses of the hymn, " All glory, 
laud and honour." This " high place " seems to have been 
generally erected for the occasion, but in this church, and some 
others, assumed a more permanent form. It may also have 
been used at the benediction of the fields at Rogation-tide, and 
perhaps for the first part of the marriage service, which then 
began at the church door, not, as now, at the choir gates. 

Returning to the nave, the bench ends, with one or two ex- 
ceptions, are the original work those at the west end being 
the oldest. In the south wall, adjoining the arch opening into 
the tower, is a curious thirteenth-century stone pulpit. It is of 
simple construction, but interesting as an early specimen of a 
fixed pulpit. Opposite to it is another pulpit of oak, of the 
time of James II. 

Originally the church contained four altars. In addition to 
the two still remaining, there was one on either side of the 
rood-screen, at the east end of the nave. A bracket on the 
north side is all that remains of the altar which stood there, 
but the one on the south side was in situ at the time Rutter 
wrote his history (1829), and is thus described by him "At 
the east end of the nave is a stone oratory with a consecrated 
water-drain adjoining, westward of which is a curious reading- 

40 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

loft of stone, approached by two steps." This, of course, re- 
fers to the pulpit already mentioned. The aumbry and piscina 
belonging to this altar are still perfect, and the return screen 
separating the chapel from the nave was in existence some 
forty years ago. These return screens, on either side, explain 
the absence of doors to the rood-screen. This latter is of 
fifteenth-century work, and was, of course, surmounted by the 
rood loft, of which there are now no remains, except one of the 
corbels which supported it, and the stone stairs, cut in the 
tower wall, by which it was approached. 

In the choir, the ancient oak stalls with misereres (an un- 
usual feature in a village church) remain in good condition. 
They are of fourteenth-century design, and there were origi- 
nally four return stalls on either side the screen, but these 
have, with mistaken zeal, been removed to make room for a 
couple of modern prayer desks. 

The chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, on the south side of the 
choir, is the most modern part of the church. There appears 
to be no record of its erection, but it is mentioned in the will 
of Sir James Perceval in 1536, wherein he directs that "his 
body be buried in the chapel of Mary Maudlyn in the church 
of Weston-in-Gordano." Its south window, and the wall be- 
low it, were removed from the chancel to make the arch open- 
ing into it, the eastern wall being built of rubble, with a 
window above the altar, much inferior in design. At the west 
end of the chapel another arch opens into the tower. Some 
years since, in rebuilding the organ, the ancient slab of the 
altar of St. Mary Magdalen was found beneath the organ plat- 
form, and it was restored to its original position. 

Although the Percyvale family resided here for upwards of 
six centuries, their monuments are singularly few. It is possi- 
ble that the havoc wrought by the Puritans during the Rebel- 
lion may account for the destruction of some. The family 
were staunch Royalists, and their property suffered much dur- 
ing those troublous times. The manor house and church were 

Wcston-in-Gordano Church. 41 

ransacked, and records, registers, painted glass and other orna- 
ments ruthlessly destroyed. The earliest remaining monument 
is the altar tomb in the churchyard near the porch. It is to 
the memory of Richard Percyvale, a crusader, who, as re- 
corded by Lodge, died in the second year of king John, and 
was buried " in the church of Weston Gordeyn, under a mag- 
nificent monument of brass, gilt." There are two full-length 
crosses upon it, and sockets for six pillars, formerly supporting 
a canopy. Round the margin was the inscription, " Orate pro 
anima Ricardi Percyvale qui militavit in Terra Santa cum 
Rege Rycardo A.D. MCXC." 

It would seem that after being mutilated by the Puritans, 
the stonework, no longer any ornament to the church, was re- 
moved to its present position. A copy of the original inscrip- 
tion has recently been inserted on a metal plate, below the 

Another monument, fortunately in good preservation, is that 
on the north side of the nave, to the memory of Sir Richard 
Percyvale, the restorer of the church in fifteenth century. It is 
elaborately decorated in gold and colours, and has upon its 
canopy three shields, one bearing the arms of Percyvale, im- 
paled with those of Hampton, this Sir Richard having married 
Catherine, co-heiress of Richard Hampton, a gentleman of 
this county. The left-hand shield contains the arms of Ball- 
owe and Cheddar, and the third has the Percyvale arms, to- 
gether with another, unknown. Three angels below the 
canopy bear a scroll with this inscription : " Richard Percy- 
vale, y e Lord have mercy," and on another scroll below, " For 
Thy byttyr Passion bring hys soule to Thy salvacion." On 
the slab of the tomb, in Norman French, remarkable at so late 
a date, " Cy gyste le corps de Rycharde Percyval le quel 
mourut 1'an de boinet Jesus M.CCCC.LXXXIII. Dieu ay 
pitie de son ame." 

Of Sir James, before mentioned, who was buried in the 
chapel of St. Mary Magdalen, no monument remains. Whether 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Parti. F 

42 .Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

it was destroyed by the Puritans, or whether he thought the 
chapel, of which he was probably the founder, sufficient 
memorial, we can only conjecture. 

A few small headstones in the churchyard are the only other 
memorials of the family. The manor house, a stately build- 
ing of fourteenth century, was still standing, in a dilapidated 
condition, within living memory, but has now entirely disap- 
peared. The farm buildings, below the church, mark its site, 
and are probably largely constructed from its remains. 

The registers date only from 1684, the earlier ones, as I be- 
fore remarked, having been destroyed by the fanatical Puri- 
tans. The entries up to the beginning of the present century 
are very carelessly made, in many cases by an illiterate clerk, 
and many years have no entry at all. 

The list of the rectors dates back to 1314, and for the 
greater part of the last two centuries they seem to have been 
non-resident, the parish during that period having apparently 
always been held in plurality, and with praiseworthy imparti- 
ality it has been tacked on to every one of the adjoining 
parishes in turn, though they are all in different patronage. 

I omitted to say that the ancient sanctus bell remains in its 
turret above the chancel arch, and in the tower is a fine peal 
of bells, four of which are dated 1645. 

In the absence of the President, the Rev. F. W. WEAVER 
thanked Mr. Bird for his paper. 

Porttefreai) Cfjurcf) 

was the next place en route, but as time was short the party 
did not stay long here. Mr. BUCKLE pointed out the modern 
gallery in the porch which appeared to be only an alteration of 
the ancient gallery. The wall between the gallery and the 
church had been taken out and a pew made looking into the 
church. Attention was also directed to the staircase leading 
to the gallery. Mr. Buckle also alluded to the pinnacles on 

Portbury Church. 43 

tlie tower, which he said were fine and distinctive, and like 
those to be seen at Evercreech. There was little to be said 
about the inside of the church, though the columns were of 
rather a curious shape, and appeared to be an experiment. A 
curious feature of the church was the position of the pulpit, as 
it was approached by a staircase in the wall in a manner which 
looked as if originally it had led to the rood-loft. The pulpit 
stood out from the wall, and was reached by a wooden bridge. 
After luncheon at the Portishead Hotel, the drive was re- 
sumed to 


where Mr. BUCKLE again took up the part of guide. He 
drew the attention of the visitors to the fact that the church 
was entered by a Norman door. Outside the building were 
also to be seen indications of Norman pilasters on several 
corners, notably at the two corners at the east end of the chan- 
cel and both the corners of the aisle. All those corners were, 
if not Norman, very old. Everything pointed to the church 
having been a distinctly important one from an early date. 
One of the first things which struck one in entering the church 
was its great size, and the magnificent gangways helped to 
give dignity to the appearance of the church. There was 
Norman work in the arch of the chancel, though the arch had 
been very much altered since it was first built, for the original 
Norman arch was very much smaller. It had been taken dow r n 
and rebuilt probably some time in the thirteenth century. The 
arches and the nave were rather characteristic from the fact 
that they had no capitals. The two windows at the east end 
of the aisles were noteworthy, each containing five lancets 
united under one arch. On the north side of the chancel there 
was an enormous squint which reached the dimensions of a 
small chapel. Just beyond there was another chapel with a 
stone barrel vault. The sedilia in the chancel and in the south 
aisle were of Early English date. Before closing he must 

44 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

draw their attention to the magnificent yew trees in the church- 
yard. He had been told that the tradition in the place was 
that the trees were the same age as the tower. 

i0it to jFailanD I>ou0e. 

A pleasant drive was then made to Failand House, where 
the members of the Society were kindly entertained to tea by 
the President (Sir Edward Fry) and Lady Fry. After tea 
there was a pleasant surprise in store, for the Misses Fry had 
trained some of the local school children to give an exhibition 
of old English pastimes. It was an excellent idea, and one 
well in keeping with the gathering, and it was much enjoyed by 
those present. The games were played on the tennis lawn, and 
the children were in costume; decked with garlands of flowers 
they looked pretty, and went through their sports with evident 
enjoyment. There were other old-fashioned dances and a 
modern one with ribbons, and the whole concluded with a 
pageant march. The pleasure of the scene was enhanced by a 
programme of music, in which old-world tunes were introduced. 
One of the Misses Fry and a cousin interpreted the vocal 
parts admirably, and Miss Bulton, of Clevedon, accompanied 
with a yiolin. 

The sports represented by the Failand children were 
taken principally from the Rev. W. F. Galpin's " Ye olde 
Englishe Pastimes" (Novello and Co.). They were, as far 
as possible, reproductions of what used to take place, though, 
from all accounts, a good deal has always been left to the 
taste of the performers. Additional information was found 
in Chambers's " Book of Days " and Strutt's " Sports and Pas- 
times of the English People," and for the dresses the Ency- 
clopedia of Costume was found useful, though in this respect 
it would have required too much elaboration to be strictly 
accurate. The music ranged in date from the thirteenth cen- 
tury when the famous " Sumer is i cumen in " is supposed to 

Visit to Failand House. 45 

have been written to the seventeenth. The songs were 
arranged for the occasion for two voices and a violin. The 
programme of music was as follows : 


Enter Milkmaids and dance the Hey ! Enter Foresters ! 
Enter Queen of the Revels, carried by Shepherdesses, and attended by 

Shepherds representing the Seasons. 

Maypole Dance, interrupted by Morris Dancers representing Friar Tuck, 
the Hobby Horse, the Jester, and the Dragon. 

Foresters shoot at Popinjay. 

The Victor is crowned by the Queen. 

Shepherdesses and Milkmaids dance. 

Sellinger's Round, or the end of the world. 

Ribbon Dance (modern). 

Maypole Dance. 

Pageant March. 

Exeunt Omnes. 

" Dargason " (temp. Henry VIII). 
"Tucket for the Horns" (17th century). 
" The Hunt is up " (temp. Henry VIII). 

" Summer is a-coming in " (cir. 1225). 

" Under the Greenwood Tree " (temp. Charles I). 

" Come, Lasses and Lads " (temp. Charles II). 

''Trip and go," Morris dance (temp. Elizabeth). 

"Now, Robin, lend to me thy bow " (before 1568). 

"Sellinger's Round " (temp. Edward III). 

" Joan to the Maypole " (temp. Charles II). 

" Hobby Horse Dance'' (temp. Charles II). 

"Pageant March" (17th century). 
" Golden Slumbers " (17th century). 

At the conclusion, Mr. E. B. CELY-TREVILIAN, on behalf 
of the society, thanked Sir Edward Fry for his hospitality. 
In the domain of archaeology, or in any other domain, between 
things which were purely ephemeral and things which were 
of a purely permanent character, they knew that they could 
not do better than place themselves under the guidance of a 
great judge. 

Sir EDWARD FRY briefly returned thanks, and said it had 
been a great pleasure to him to take part in the proceedings 
of the Society's gathering. 

46 Fifty-first Annual Meeting* 

The Kev. F. W. WEAVER, on behalf of the society, also 
thanked Sir Edmund and Lady Elton for their hospitality, 
and Mr. Elton for his interesting paper on the history of 
Clevedon Court. He also thanked Mr. and Mrs. Charles 
Hill for entertaining them to tea at Clevedon Hall, also Mr. 
Edmund Buckle for so kindly giving his time in describing 
the churches. The society were also indebted to the help 
rendered by the local committee, not forgetting the Hon. Sec., 
Mr. Day ; also thanks were due to the clergy for opening 
their churches, and to the owners and tenants of the houses 
they had visited. Last, though not least, their sincere 
thanks were due to Mr. Charles Tite, who very kindly came 
from Wales and undertook, at a moment's notice, to supply the 
place of Mr. Bidgood, in his unavoidable absence. 

One of the party also added Mr. Weaver's name to the list 
of those to be thanked for their services, and the resolution 
was carried unanimously. 

Mr. WEAVER, in returning thanks, humorously remarked 
that he hoped it would be his last appearance on the scene as 
"excursion secretary." He, however, had undertaken the 
office because Col. Bramble was not well. He should go back 
to Taunton and tell the committee that they ought to under- 
take this duty in succession. 

(KBtarall Cjwrcf). 

A short visit was next made to Wraxall Church, which was 
described by the Rev. G. S. MASTER, in the absence of Mr. 
Buckle. He said that he always looked upon the church and 
the one adjoining as being the most beautiful instance that he 
knew of a restored church in this century. The church had 
been restored by the munificence of the Gibbs family, Mr. 
Antony Gibbs having restored Wraxall Church, and Mr. 
Martin Gibbs the church of Barrow Gurney. The work of 
restoration at Wraxall had been carried out under the direction 
of Sir Arthur Blomfield. The chancel had been entirely re- 

Wraxall Church. 47 

built, and the beautiful roof bad been introduced, also the 
screen, of which he (Mr. Master) knew no finer example of 
modern work in wood carving. The screen had been extended 
to the organ and the organ-gallery, and, in doing that, part of 
the old rood screen had been utilised together with the staircase. 
The church was originally built about the middle of the fifteenth 
century, probably 1450, and it was a grand instance of a 
church of that date. The only portion of it now visible was 
the chancel arch. The porch was Early English, and the 
inner doorway was Norman in character. Beautiful stained 
glass had been introduced into the church by Mr. Kemp. The 
interior of the church was rather dark even on a very fine day, 
but this had been somewhat remedied by putting in some 
white glass in the east window, and other of the windows had 
had a large proportion of white glass placed in them with the 
same object. The restoration had only just been completed. 
There was a very fine tomb there of the Gordon family. 

The Rev. G. S. Master having been thanked for his 
description of the building, this completed the three days' pro- 
gramme. The return journey was then made, Clevedon being 
reached at about 8 o'clock, and thus the proceedings were 
brought to a close. 

48 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Creasure Closet, Deanetp, 

DUHIXG the repairs of external stone-work, June, 1899, at the 
Deanery, a horizontal hiding-place was discovered. On the 
north-, or garden front of the deanery, is the new building of 
Dean Gunthorpe (1472-98), with its fortified tower. The 
banqueting hall, with its flat ceiling, had a grand guest- 
chamber over it, now sub-divided into two spacious bedrooms ; 
and the embattled heads of two fine bay-windows carrying 
Gunthorpe's guns, and Edward IV's Rose en Soleil rise six 
feet above the ceiling of the banqueting hall. 

In removing the decayed stone-work that roofed in the fan 
vault of the southern bay window, richly carved with Gun- 
thorpe's badges (gun and hand grenade) an unsuspected hiding- 
place was laid bare. The original entrance was twenty-one 
inches square, opening from the floor of the eastern half of the 
great guest-chamber. This entrance had been closed, with lath 
and plaster, at a comparatively recent date, perhaps early last 
century. The floor line of the recess is one foot below the 
floor line of the bedroom, and the top of the aperture is eleven 
inches below the curve of the arch (8ft. Tin. span) that supports 
the external roof. The floor of the recess is 4ft. lin. in width, 
large enough to have hidden, for a short time, a fugitive, even 
while Henry VII, on his march into the West against Perkin 
Warbeck, was entertained in the Banqueting Hall below, Sept. 
30, 1497. Probably the recess was usually a receptacle for 
plate, tapestry, and other valuables ; and, perhaps, no house of 
any importance, built before the end of the fifteenth century, 
was without some well-devised hiding-place. Dean Gunthorpe, 
as is well known, was not only a great scholar, who had studied 
Greek in Italy, but chaplain to Edward IV, Lord Keeper of 
the Privy Seal to Richard III, and in possession of other 
w r ell-endowed Court appointments. He was an ardent Yorkist, 
like the Bishop, his co-temporary, Richard Stillington, of 
Bath and Wells; and his estate had to pay to Henry VII a 

Oil the Coleridge Cottage^ Clevedon. 49 

ransom, or benevolence, of 200, equivalent, perhaps, to 
3,000 of to-day. He was more fortunate than Bishop 
Stillington, who spent the last years of his life a State prisoner 
in Windsor Castle. (See Somerset Archceoloyical Society's 
Proceeding s (xl, ii. 5). 


The Rev. C. L. MAHSOX has kindly contributed the follow- 
ing note 

2Dn tfce ColeriDge Cottage, defection, 

As one who has lived many years at Clevedon, I wish to 
draw the attention of your society to the fact that the so-called 
" Coleridge Cottage " is quite a fraud. 

The old people of 1871 used to tell us that the poet lived 
first in a little potting-shed in a garden just below the old 
church (on the left as you go up from the road), and secondly, 
" in East Clevedon." 

I think there can be no doubt as to the latter, and by a 
chain of evidence difficult to traverse I feel convinced that the 
poet really lived in a cottage on the Walton Road, due east of 
All Saints Church, and next door to the north of the black- 
smith's shop. There arc two cottages in this enclosure, and 
the poet's was the one next to the road. 

(1). The Rev. E. C. Greville was vicar of Clevedon when 
the poet was resident and used to visit him. 

(2). He used constantly to talk of this to his daughter, 
Miss Francis Greville, who lived to an advanced age and was 
well-known to me as a very shrewd and clever woman. 

(3). Miss Frances Greville lived with her grand-niece, 
Miss F. Ruddock, now of Elm Dale, Clevedon, and frequently 
noticed the fact to her that a wrong house has the credit of 
Coleridge's residence. Miss Greville often pointed out the 
east Clevedon house as the real one. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part 1. G 

50 Fifty-first Annual Meet UK/. 

(4). This is confirmed by Miss F. Grreville, niece of the 
Miss Frances Greville mentioned above. 

(5). But there is no porch to this house of "The Glen." 
Not now ; but Mrs. Squires, an old lady who lived there for 
over thirty years, assures me that it had a stone-and-stick porch, 
which was taken away in her day, and which was covered with 
honeysuckle and roses. 

If you would but take note of this just now it would help to 
stop the falsification of history on this small point. 


Son of the late Vicar of Clcvedon. 

to tf)e Society's! 89u.seum anD Lifcrarp 

Ditrmy the Year 1899. 


Two Ten-pound Notes, Bridgwater and Somerset Bank. 

Copy of Certificate of Burial of Humphrey Blake, 1679 ; 
extracts from Close Rolls, &c. From Mr. JOHN KENT. 

Painted beam from Naish Priory ; Casts of three Corbel 
Heads from Naish Priory. From Mr. G. T. CHAFYN-GROVE. 

Constable's Staff, Tithing of East Street, 1619. (Pur- 

Engravings of the Interior of Westminster Hall, showing 
the Dinner and Manner of Challenge ; Interior of Westminster 
Abbey at the Coronation ; Inside of St. Peter's, Westminster, 
before the Coronation. From the Rev. D. J. PRING. 

Protest against Church Rates, Taunton, 3rd month, 1842. 

Chard Borough Extension Medal, 1892. Public House and 
Trade Checks : Taunton Coffee Tavern, Co-operative Society, 
Saracen's Head, Cridland's Fleur-de-Lis Inn, Old Angel, 
Harris's Corn Cure. Bridgwater -Pitman's Three Crowns, 
E. Wippell's Bowling Room. Keynsham White Hart. 
Bath Fox and Hounds, Walcot Street. Watchet Balmer's 
Bell Inn (2). Dunster Luttrell Arms. Frome King's Head, 
G. Hillier. Wincanton J. A. Bailey's Greyhound, 1857 ; .7. 
Stay, Trooper Inn, 1846. Wells and Wookey Co-operative. 
Nine Portraits of Somerset Worthies. From Mr. C. TITE. 

A large Oil Painting of the Last Supper, which had been 
hanging in the Castle Hall for some years. From Mr. F. C. 

Memoranda of the First Somerset Militia, 1763 1815 
1828, made by Lieut. W. H. Chorley. From Mr. W. JEWELL. 

52 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Photographs of the Cromlechs at L'Ancresse and De Hus., 
Guernsey. From Mons. GIFFARD LE MESUKIER. 

Two old Glass Bottles, I. M. Nicholson, 1717. From Mr. 

Chuckram Travancore ; Somerset County Gazette, No. 1, 
Dec. 31st, 1836, April 1, 8, July 1, 1843; Somerset County 
Herald, Oct. 28, Dec. 2, 9, 1843; Jan. 20, 27, Feb. 17, March 
2, 9, 30, April 13, 27, 1844 ; Spirit of the Times, or the Social 
Reformer, March 27, 1847. From Mr. H. READ. 

Model of a Formosan Boat. From Master FELIX BRICE. 

Calendar of Bristol Deeds. From Mr. J. W. BRAIKEN- 


Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, vol. xi. 
From the Academy. 

Collections for a Parochial History of Backwetl. From the 
Northern Branch. 

Slang and its Analogues, 4 vols. From Dr. ROGERS. 

Specimens of Ancient Sculpture and Painting now remaining 
in England, by Carter, 1887. From Mr. C. H. SAMSON. 

Northamptonshire Naturalists' Journal, Nos. 73 76. 

Calendar of Inquisitions Post Mortem, Henry VII, pt. 1. 
Somerset Carthusians, by Miss Thompson. From Rev. F. 

Bowcns Maps of All the Counties of England. From Mr. 

Notes and Queries, vols i to xi (several missing). From Mr. 

The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia; Folio Bible, 1770. 
From Mrs. QUANTOCK. 

Plymouth Institution, Reports and Transactions, 1830, vol. i, 
1861-2, 1862-3, 1863-4, 1864-5, vol. if, pt, 1, 2; 1865-7, vol. iii, 
pts. 1, 2, 3; 1867-9, vol. iv, pts. 1, 2, 3; 1869-71, vol. v, pts. 
1, 2, 1873-5. From Mr. P. D. PRANKERD. 

Additions to the Library. 53 

Hull Scientific and Field Naturalists' Club, vol. i, no. 1, 1898. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences. Fortieth Annual Report., 1897. 

The Pleistocene Features and Deposits of the Chicago Area. 

Memoir oj Robert Hibbert, by Murch. 

Essex Feet of Fines. 

The Ancient Church Fonts of Somerset, shown by description 
and draft. From Mr. HARVEY PRIDHAM. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society Transactions., 
vol. v, pt. 6. 

The Bishoprics and Lands of the Five Western Dioceses. 
From the Rev. J. E. RISK. 

Choice English Lyrics set to Music ; Dainty Ditties, or Old 
Nursery Rhymes, set to Music. From Professor ALLEN. 

Sixtieth Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. 

Guide to Queensland. 

Side Light upon Coal Formation. From Mr. W. S. GRESLEY. 

The Bristol Royal Mail, by R, C. Tombs. From Mr. E. J. 

Castle Gary Visitor, Jan. to Dec., 1899. From Mr. 

Received from Societies in Correspondence for the Exchange oj 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 
Journal, nos. 220, 221, 222, 223. 

British Museum (Natural History) List of Fossil Cephalo- 
poda ; the Genera and Species of Blastoidia. 

British Archaeological Association Journal, vol. iv, pt. 4 ; vol. 
v, pts. 1, 2, 3. 

Society of Antiquaries of London Proceedings, vol. xvii, no. 1. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Proceedings, vol. xxxii, 

Royal Irish Academy Transactions, vol. xxxi, pt. 7 ; Proceed- 
ings, vol. v, nos. 2, 3. 

Sussex Archaeological Society Collections, vol. xlii. 

54 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Journal, vol. ix, pts. 
1, 2, 3. 

Surrey Archaeological Society Collections^ vol. xiv, pt. 2. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society vol. xiii. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Maga- 
zine, no. 91, vol. xxx, no. 92 ; Itiquisitiones Post Mortem, pt. 
7 ; Additions to the Library, appendix 3. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural His- 
tory Society Report, vol. xiii, pt. 1. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Transac- 
tions, vol. xxi, pt. 2. 

Powys Land Club Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxx, pt. 
3 ; vol. xxxi, pt. 1. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Tran- 
sactions, vol. xi, pts. 1, 2, 3 ; Calendar of the Muniments 
and Records of the Borouyh of Shrewsbury. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society Transactions, vol. x, 
nos. 2, 3, 4. 

Essex Archaeological Society Transactions, vol. vii, pt. 3. 

Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society 
Transactions, vol. viii, pt. 6. 

Royal Institution of Cornwall Journal, vol. xiii. 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club vol. ix, no. 2. 

Geologists' Association Proceedings, vol. xvi, pts. 2, 3, 4, 5. 

Royal Dublin Society Proceedings, vol. viii, pt. ; Transac- 
tions, vol. vi, pts. 14, 15, 16 ; vol. vii, pt. 1. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society Proceedings, vol. viii, pt. 3. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society Proceedings, 
vol. xliii, pts. 1, 2. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club vols. x, xii. 

Essex Field Club Essex Naturalist, nos. 19 24 ; vol. x, 
nos. 1, 3. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne Archaologia 
j?Elian<i, pt. 53 ; Warkworth Parish Registers, pt. 3. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club Proceedings, vol. iv, pt. 2. 

Adt/ition.* to tltc Library, ,")o 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society Proceedings, 1897, 1898 ; 

Archbishop Parkers MSS.; List of Members. 
Chester Archaeological and Historical Society Journal^ vol. 

vi, pts. 1, 2. 3. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds vol. ix, pt. 2 ; vol. x, pt. 1. 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist vol. v, nos. 3, 4. 

Geological Institution of the University of Upsala, Sweden 
Carl von Linne, pt. 7 ; Bulletin of the Geological Institution, 
vol. iv, pt. 1. 

Canadian Institute -Proceedings, no. 7, vol. ii, pt. 2. 

Nova Scotian Institute vol. ix. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. Report of the 
U.S. National Museum, 1896 ; Some questions of Nomen- 
clature ; Preliminary Account of an Expedition to the 
Pueblo Ruins, 1896 ; Was Primitive Man a Modern 
Savage ; Bows and Arrows in Central Brazil ; Account of 
the work of the Service of Antiquities of Egypt. Bulletin, 
no. 47, pts. 2, 3 ; Proceedings, vol. xx ; Proceedings of the 
U.S. National Museum, vol. xxi. Stone Implements from 
Lake Michigan ; The Omaha Tribe ; The Unity of the 
Human Species; Archaiological Field Work in Arizona; 
Recent Research in Egypt ; Manageries of France ; the 
Law under which lies Productive Colouration ; Life History 
Studies of Animals ; On Soaring in Flight. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Massachiisetts,U.S. Z??///<tfm, 1896-7-8. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. 
Register, no. 209, 210, 211, 212; Proceedings Annual 
Meeting, Jan., 1899. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S. Proceed- 
ings, 1898. pt. 3 ; 1899, pt. 1. 

University of California, U.S. Report of Agricultural Experi- 
ment Stations, 1895-97 ; Conservation of Soil Moisture ; and 
several pamphlets on the University. 

Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. Bulletin, 
no. 130, 131. 

56 Fifty-first Annual Meeting. 


Harleian Society Registers of St. Martin-in-thc- Fields ; Regis- 
ters of St. PauTs Cathedral. 
Early English Text Society Queen Elizabeth's Englishing & 

Merlin, pt. 4. 

Somerset Record Society Feet of Fines, Edw. II to Edw. III. 
Ray Society Larvce, vol viii. 

Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, nos. 45, 46, 47. 
Diocesan Histories Bath and Wells. 
Life of John Locke, by Lord King, 2 vols. 
Life of Judge Jeffreys, by Irving. 
English Dialect Dictionary, pts. 7, 8. 
Barker's Sermons, 2 vols. ; Twelve Sermons ; Catechism of the 

Kingdom of God, by Greuber ; Mr. Grueber's reply on 

Schism; Saul and the Witch of Endor. 
Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 1895. 
Kelly's Devonshire Directory, 1893. 
History of Taunton, Mass., 1893. 
ArchcBologia, vol. xvi, pt. 1 ; vol. xxiii; vol. xxxv,pt. 2 ; vol. 49, 

pt. 2 ; vol. 50, pts. 1, 2 ; vol. 51, pts. 1, 2 ; vol. 52, pt. 1. 

Index, vols. 1 50. 

Red Letter Days of My Life, by Mrs. Andrew Crosse. 
British Mosses, by Sir Edward Fry. 
Supplement to Notes of My Life. 
Dr. Southwood Smith. 
Life of Rosina, Lady Lytton. 
Somersetshire Towers, 14 parts. 
Life and Letters of Edward A. Freeman. 
Oxford Historical Society Wood's City of Oxford, vol. iii ; 

Old Plans of Oxford. 
History of Northumberland, vol. v. 
Index Saxonicum. 
Palasontographical Society, vol. liii, 1899. 


From tlie Drawing by Holbein. 





, ETC. 




Part II. 

THE additional notes comprised in this Paper, allusive to 
the Brook family, are offered as supplementary to the 
account found in the preceding volume of Som. Arc. and Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Proceedings, and are designed to render the notice 
of their history to some extent more complete. 


THE following interesting confirmatory particulars relating to 
Brook, Cobharn, Beauchamp, &c., are extracted from Coll. 
Topoy. ct Geneal, vol. vii, pp. 320-354, therein stated to be 
taken from " Charters, fyc., in the hand-writing of Robert Glover, 
Somerset Herald, in a volume of the library of the College of 

Vol. XL V( Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. a 

Papers, $<?. 

^ marked Philipot, E. /., and were derived from the muni- 
ment room at Cobham Hall" about 1574. These refer to the 
early possession of Olditch : 

"Brianusde Gomz (Goritz) D'n's de Kingesdon, dedit, &c., Henrico de la 
Broke et Nicholea uxor suss, &c., s. d. (Seal) 'S. BRIANI DE GOMZ.' (Arms) 
vaire, a bend lozengy. 

Henricus de Brok, de Holdyche, 3 Regis Edw. 

Elizabeth quse fuit uxor Henrici de Broke, 7 Edw'd. Ill 1334. 

Henricus Broke, relaxavit Thomse Broke nepoti suo et Constantia uxoris 
ejus, &c. Dat. ap. Holdyche, 8 Edw. 1111335. 

Thomas Broke, et Constantia uxor eius, 9 Edw. 1111336. 

Thomas de Broke, tenuit maner, de Broke juxta Yilchester in Com. Som'st. 
14 Edw. 1111341." 

The following to Henry de Cobham, the marriage of his son 
to Joan Beauchamp, his burial at Stoke-sub-Hamdon, and 
inventory of his goods. It will be observed the date of his 
son's attendance at the funeral is of a vague nature, stated as 
" anno 9 Edw. rcgis " ; if of Edwd. II, 1316 ; if of Edwd. Ill, 
1336 ; and this would be nearer the correct date, for he died 
in 1339, which agrees with the year the inventory was taken 
and exhibited. 

"Johannes de Cobham miles quaeritur versus Dn'mThomam fratrem suum, in 
qua querela dicit quod cum Joh'es de Cobham leur sage auncestor, le quel Dieu 
assoile, perquisivit manerium de Chessebury, quod descendit D'no Henrico 
patri eorum utpote heeridi per successionem : Et postea idem H. accepit D'no 
Joh'e de Beauchamp pro nuptiis dicti D'ne Johannis filii sui 400 lib. sub eo 
conditione quod nunquam dishereditaret d'cm J. filium suum. Id non obstante 
diet. D'ns Thomas ita rem tractavit cum eorum patre anted'co q'd ille feoffavit 
d'cm Thorn, de advocatione eccl'sie pred'ce, &c. Tandem convenit inter eos in 
praesentia Reginaldi de Cobham, Prioris Roffens', et aliis. 

Henricus de Cobham, miles, d'n's de Chissebury, 6 Edward II 1313. 

Joh'es de Cobham dedit D'ne Matilde de Columbariis et Henrico de Cobham 
filio suo maneria de Chissebyri, &c., s. d. (seal) arms of Cobham, dimidiated, 
impaling a bend (Columbers). 

Henricus de Cobham, miles, D'ns de Cobham, dedit Joh'i de C. filio suo et 
Johanne uxori ejus, pro sexcentis marcis argenti ille prse manibus solutis, 
manerium suum de Henton in Com. Wiltes, cum onm' pertin', &c. Dat. 
Londini die Lunae in f. b. Marise Mag. 8 Edward II 1315. 

Joh'es de Cobham, miles, filius D'ni H. de Cobham, salut in D'no. nov't 
univ. vestra me attornasse, &c., Will'm de Blanford ad capiend. (preceding 
grant). Dat. ap. Stoke-subtus-Hamedon die Martis p'x. p. f. b. Marg. 
8 Edward 111315. 

D'ns Johe's de Cobham celebravit funus D'ni Henrici de Cobham apud Stoke 
in Com. (Somerset) anno 9 Edw. regis. 

Henricus de Cobham sepelitur apud Merston Stoke in Com. Somerset, et 
Joh'es de Cobham filius ejus aderat apud funus suum, cujus quidam Joh'is 
expensa itinerando et redundo ad'co funere adhuc extant. 

Inventiarum omniu' bonor' D'ni Henrici de Cobham, mil. defuncti die 
Assumpc'onis beatse Marias virginis anno D'ni mill ccc n > xxxixo. Henricus 
iste habuit duos filios Joh'em et Thomam, milites, qui contraversar'rit pro tes- 
tamento patris sui. (1339). 





The Brook Family. 3 

Inventiarum omnium bouorum D'ni Hen. de C. mil. defuncti die Assumpt. 
b. Mar-ire virg. 1339, exhibit Ep'o Roffensi per Thomam C. mil." 

These relate to John de Cobham, his marriage contract 
with Margaret Courtenay, and receipt for the payment, "pro le 
sojourn " with her father subsequently. 

" Joh'es Cobham dat terras Johi filio suo et Margaretse filise Hugonis Comitis 
Devon, 5 Edward III 1332. (Seal) on a, -spread eagle two shields, 1 vaire (for 
Joan Beauchamp), 2 Cobham, with label. 

Indentura facta 6 Edward III 1333, inter D'm'n Hugonem de Courtenay, 
Comitem Devon et Joh'em de Cobham testatur quod Joh'es filius D'ni Joh'is 
accipiet in uxorem Margaret filiam dicti Comites, &c. 

Hugo de Courtenay Comes Devonise fatetur se recipisse de Johanne de 
Cobeham mil. filio D'ni Johis de C. de Kent, militis, o libras sex solidos pro le 
sojourn de Margarete de Courtenay n'lia sua, 29 Edward III 1356. 

Joh'es, D'nus de Cobham, habuit licent. fundare Collegium de Cobham 

These exhibit the marriage contract of Thomas Brook, and 
Johanna Braybroke, Lady of Cobham, with the seals of 
Cobham and Brook ; and a deed relating to the widowed 
Lady Johanna Brook, with her four sons (including Michael 
Brook), concerning Kingeston, one of the oldest of their 
possessions, and dated at Olditch. The seal to this document 
is specially interesting as displaying Lady Johanna's arms, 
Ermine, on a chief yules, three bucks head's qffronte or, impaled 
with Brook, her second husband. 

These arms are now assigned to Hanning; and their appear- 
ance here makes it questionable if she did not belong to a 
family so named, and not Ha.nnap, or Hanham, unless all three 
are variants of the same name. The arms at present assigned 
to Hanham are altogether different. 

"Indentura facta inter Sir John Oldcastell mil. D'n'm de Cobham et 
Johannem uxoris ejus ex una parte, et Thomam Broke, militem ex altera. 
Testatur quod Thomas filius et heres d'ci Thome Brooke accipet in uxorem 
Johannam filiutn d'ce Johannse uxoris d'ci Joh'is 0. D'ni de C. infra datum 
prsesentium ad festum Pentecostes proxime venturum si Deus illis vitam 
concedit, c. Dat. 20 Feb. 11 Henry IV 1410. (Seal) "SiGiLLUM JOHANNIS 
OLDCASTELL D'NI DE COBHAM." (Arms) quarterly, one and four, a castle, two 
and three Cobham, (supporters) two lions sejant a/rontee, (crest) on a helmet and 
wreath, a Saraceris head weariny a cap. 

Joanna Brooke relicta Thome Brooke mil. defuncti fecit attornatus ad 
deliberandum Kic'o Chedder, Thome Brooke, Thome Chedder et Michaeli 
Brooke filiis meis seisinam in maner' de Kingeston. Dat. apud Holdyche 
5 Henry V, 1418. (Seal) Brook, impaling, Ermine, on a chief, three bucks' 
heads caboshed. 

Michael Brooke, fil. Thomse et Johannae B., 11 Henry V, 1424. 

4 Papers, &fc. 

Deed dated 12 Henry VI, 1434. (Seal 1) ' SIGILLUM THOM.E BROOKE 
MILITIS,' (arms) on a chevron a lion rampant (Brook), (supporters) two lions, 
(crest) on a helmet and wreath a xpread winy. (Seal 2) ' SIGILLUM JOHANNK 
BROKE,' (arms) Brook, impaling, Ermine, on a chief, three stay*' heads cabo/t< j d." 

These notes to Johanna, Lady of Cobham, and Hemenliale 
and Hawberk, two of her husbands, and Hawberk's first wife. 

" Rob'ts Asheley et alii demiserunt maner. de Creshale in Com. Essex. Joh'e 
quondam uxori Rob'ti Hemenhale mil. filise Joh'is de la Poole, militis, 19 Ric. 
II, 1396. (Seal) 'SIGILLUM D'NE JOHANNE HEMENHALE.' (Arms) on a fess 
between two chevronels, three escallop* (Hemenhale) impaling, two bars wavy (De 
la Pole). 

Nicholaus Hawberk, miles, et Domina Matilda uxor ejus, 1 Henry IV, 1399. 

Nich. Hauberk, miles, dedit Hugoni Lutterell, &c., omnia bona et catella 
sua ubicumque fuerint inventa exceptus centum sol. argenti quod sibi reseravit. 
Dat. apud Couling, 6 Oct., 9 Henry IV, 1407. 

Hugo Lutterell, miles, &c., contirmaveruut D'n'je Johannae, D'nae de Cobham, 
omnia bona et catella quse habaerunt ex dono Nicholai Hauberk, militis, 
9 Henry IV, 1407. (Seal) ' SIGILLUM NICHOLAUS HAUBEKK, MILITIS.' (Arms) 
cheeky, a chief per Jess nebuiee." 

And these refer to John de Cobham, of Blackborough, 

" Joh'es Cobham de Blakeburgh, et Katerina uxor ejus 51 Edward III, 1378. 

20 Richard II, 1396. Cornub. Johannes Cobham de Blakeburgh, miles, obiit 
seisitus de reversioue manerii de Hilton cum pertin. et de redditu. 10 solid, 
annuatim Castro de Launceston solvendo. Quod quidem manerium tenetur de 
Rege in cap. ut de Castro suo praedicto et de Ducato Cornubiae per serv. 
militare et per redd. 10 solid, per annum. Quodque Elizabetha soror dicti 
Johannis est haeres. (Seal) ' SIGILLUM JOHANNIS DE COBEHAM.' (Arms) on a 
chevron, three spread eagles, in dexter chief point an estoile." 

These arms of Cobham of Blackborough were quartered by 
Hungerford, as descending from Elizabeth, daughter of the 
first John Cobham of that place, who married Sir Hugh 
Peverell. They are found on the large escutcheon of the 
splendid monument with their effigies, in the Chapel at 
Farleigh Castle, of Sir Edward Hungerford, ob. 1648, and his 
wife Margaret Halliday, ob. 1672; and are, apparently, the 
only trace of remembrance of the Cobhams of Blackborough 


IN Canon Jackson's Guide to Farleigh Hunaerford 1879, the 
following " courteous and gentle epistle, &c.," appears, quoted 

The Brook Family. 5 

from the fine Cartulary of the Hunycrford Family, in the 
possession of the Rt. Hon. Henry Hobhouse, of Hadspen, 
near Bruton. An indenture by which Thomas Chedder does 
homage to Walter, Lord Hungerford (ob. 1449) for his land 
at Litleton near Wellow ; 21 Henry VI, 1441. 

"This Indenture made the Fest of Seinte Cutberd the Bisshoppe, the yeare 
of the .Reigning of King Harry the Sext after the Conqueste the 19th, 
Witnesseth that Thomas Chedder, Scirer (Es(/uire) hath done Homage to 
Walter Lord Hungerforde for the Londes and Tenements which the saide 
Thomas holdeth of the saide Lord in Litleton. In witness whereof to the 
parties of this Indenture as well the saide Lorde as the forsaide Thomas enter- 
changeably have set their seales the day and the yere above writen." 

"To the worshipfull noble and my ryght gode and gracious Lord the Lorde 

Worshipful Noble and my right gode Lord. I recomaunde me unto your 
ryght gode Lordeshippe, besechyng the same to have me excused of that I com 
not to your Presence atte this Tyme for the Doying of myne Homage : for 
trule, my Lord, God hath visited me with such Intirmite that I may not ryde 
without right grete Ferell of mine Hele (health) as I hope my Brother Fortescu 
which hath sene myne Intirmite will pleynle enforme your gode Lordeshippe : 
Wherfore I sende uuto you by the Berer hereof an Endenture ensealed with 
the Seale of myne Armys by which i have done unto you Homage. 

Worshipfull noble and my ryght gode Lord, I beseech Almighti God alwey 
your gode and gracious spede.' 

Write on the Fest of Seinte Cutberde the Bisshoppe ; 


Thomas Chedder had no brother named Fortescue, and the 
Canon surmises it may have been the L.C.J. of the King's 
Bench, Sir John Fortescue, "who was connected with the 
neighbourhood of Wellow and Farley, by marriage (according 
to Lord Clermont) with the heiress of John James, of Norton 
St. Philip's." Thomas Chedder, then in ill health, appears to 
have died the following year, 1442-3. 

Sir Edward Grey Viscount Vlslc. He carried the Rod 
with the Dove at the coronation of Richard III 7th July, 
1483. His first wife, Elizabeth Talbot, granddaughter of 
Thomas Chedder, died 8th September, 1487, and was buried 
at Astley, Warwickshire; he died 17th July, 1492, and be- 
queathed his body to be buried in the new chapel of Our 
Lady, begun by himself to be built in the College of Astley, 
where the body of his late wife lay interred. The interesting 
pair of effigies in Astley Church may represent them ; the 
knight, in full armour, with collar of S.S. ; the lady, with long 

6 Papers, *c. 

flowing hair, coronet, and wearing the rare Yorkist collar of 
Suns and Roses. Another effigy of a lady, with pedimental 
head-dress, in the same church, is presumed to represent her 
niece, Cicely Bonville, of Shute. 

The Viscount married secondly, Jane, widow of Sir Robert 
Drope, citizen and draper, Lord Mayor of London, 1474-5, 
knighted the same year, and who died about 1485. She 
survived her second husband and died 1499-1500. Sir Robert 
Drope and his widow, the Viscountess, were munificently in- 
clined in founding some substantial charities, and both were 
buried in the church of St. Michael, Cornhill, " on the north 
side of the choir under a fair tomb of grey marble," but, 
continues Stow, "notwithstanding their liberality to that 
church and parish, their tomb is pulled down, and no monu- 
ment remaineth of them." 

Sir John Grey Viscount JSIsle, son of the preceding, was 
created Knight of the Bath, 18th February, 1503, " being one 
of the Knightes of the Sword dubbed at the creation of 
Prince Henry." He died 9th February, 1504 ; his widow, 
Muriel Howard, remarried Sir Thomas Knyvett, K.B., of 
Buckenham, Norfolk, ob. 1512 ; she died about the same date, 
and was buried in the Friars' Church, Greenwich. 

Arthur Plantacjenet Viscount ISIsle. He married Elizabeth 
Grey-Dudley, 12th November, 1511 ; knighted 14th October, 
1513; Sheriff of Hants, 1513-14; Knight of the Garter, 
23rd April, 1524 ; Vice-Admiral of England, 1525 ; First 
Commissioner to Francis I, King of France with the Garter, 
invested at Paris, 10th November, 1527 ; Governor of Calais, 
1533-40; Pantler at the coronation of Anne Boleyn, 1st June, 
1533; Privy Councillor, 1540. His committal to the Tower, 
in April 1540, was owing to a suspicion that he had a design 
of betraying Calais to the French, and when Henry VIII, 
being convinced of his innocence, ordered his release, he is said 
to "have died of joy" thereat, on 3rd March, 1541-2, and was 
buried there. His wife appears to have died the preceding year. 

The Brook Family. 7 

John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland. He was the eldest 
son of Elizabeth Grey-Dudley, by her first husband, and heir 
to the possessorship of Kingston L'Isle, and the title, as 
specified on the patent, dependant thereon. But before his 
mother's death, which occurred about 1540, during her life- 
time, on the 27th March, 1538, he disposed of the reversion of 
the manor and estate of Kingston L'Isle, to William Hyde, 
whereby on her death, when he became heir to the grantees of 
the Barony of L'Isle, he failed to comply with, the conditions 
of the grant, and the title so created became extinct. He was 
executed on Tower Hill, 22nd August, 1553. 

Ct)e "Brook armorials 


ALTHOUGH there were seven descents of Brook after their 
migration to Cobham, of whom six were summoned as Barons, 
only three memorials exist to them in the church there, 
wherein all, except the last Henry Brook were interred. 

The oldest of these is the brass to Sir J ohn Brook, fifth 
Baron of Cobham (grandson of Sir Thomas Brook, of Olditch, 
who married Joan de la Pole, Lady of Cobham), and his wife, 
Margaret Nevill, which lies in the pavement of the chancel. 
He married first Eleanor, daughter of - Anstcll or Anstie, 
of Suffolk, who left no issue, and secondly Margaret, daughter 
of Edward Nevill, Lord Abergavenny, youngest son of Ralph, 
first Earl of Westmoreland, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter 
and sole heir of Richard Beauchamp, Lord Bergavenny, 
created Earl of Worcester in 1420, who married Isabel 
Despencer, sister and sole heir of Richard, eighth Baron 
Despencer and Baron Burghersh. This descent explains the 
impalement of the shields on the brass, namely Cobham, 
impaling Nevill, Warren, Clare, Despencer, and Beauchamp, 
tuitk a crescent for difference. It is curious to note that the 

8 Papers, frc. 

arms of Brook, proper, are not included. By her he appears 
to have had eighteen children, as depicted at the foot of the 
brass, eight sons, and ten daughters. The inscription as it is 
now found reads thus : 

Hie Jacent Johanes Broke Miles Ac Baro Baronic de Cobh'm 
et Domina Marqareta vxor sua quondam film nobilis viri 
Edwardi Nevill nuper D'ni de Burg'eny qui quidem Joties obijt 
.... die mens .... Ao D'ni M v c . . . . ip'a vero 
Domina Margarcta obijt vltirno die me til Scptcmbris Ao d'ni 
M v c vj qnorn animabus propicietur Dens : amen. 

Only the figure of the lady now remains, but that of Sir 
John was in existence in 15U7. The costume of Lady 
Margaret is very simple, gown with full sleeves guarded with 
fur, mantle with cordon, and pedimental head-dress. John 
Brook, Lord Cobham, died 9th March, 1511-12, but the date 
was never filled in upon the brass. Affixed to the central 
pinnacle is a square panel, whereon is a representation of the 
Trinity, the Father seated, with triple crown, and right hand 
raised in benediction, supports the Saviour on the Cross, 
which rests upon the orb of the Earth, and on the left arm of 
the cross is the Holy Spirit, sitting as a Dove, with partially 
extended wings ; in the central compartments of the canopies 
are shields, on one the instruments of the Passion, and on the 
other the Five Wounds. 

In Couling (hodie Cooling) Church, Kent, the parish in 
which Couling Castle, the original seat of the Cobhams, is 
situate, is the brass of Faith Brook, one of the ten daughters 
of the aforesaid John Brook, Lord Cobham (ob. 1512) which 
lies in the floor of the nave. The figure is of small size, and 
clad in pedimental head-dress, gown with fur cuffs, and orna- 
mental girdle. Below is the inscription : 

Pray for ye soule of Feytli Brooke late ye dowgfr of Syr 
'* John Brook lord of Coblim whichc Feyth decessed the xxj day of 
Scptdtfr ye ycr of o'r lord m.vcviij o' whose soule J^liu have 








The Brook Family. 9 

The second memorial in Cobham Church is also a brass (the 
last of the series), in the pavement of the chancel, and com- 
memorates Sir Thomas Brook (eldest son of Sir John), sixth 
Baron of Cobham, his first wife, Dorothy Haydon, and their 
thirteen children. He died 19th July, 1529. 

The inscription is : 

Orate pro anima Thome Brooke militis d ni dc Cobham ac 
Consangnini ct hcrcdis Richardi Beanchampe militis nui quidem 
Thomas cepit in-vxorcm Dorothea filia.m Hcnrici Haydon militis 
ct habuernnt cxitu inter cos scptc Jilios et sex filias ct ptfca 
Dorothea obijt ct p'cTctis Thomas Cepit in vxorem Dorothea 
Sowthwell vidua que obijt sine cxitu et postca Cepit in vxorc 
Elizabethc? Hart et liabiicrunt nulhi exitu inter eos qui quidc* 
Thomas obijt xix die Jnlij A\> d'ni MCCCCCxxixti. 

He is in the elaborate armour of the period, with skirt of 
mail, and broad-toed sabbatons, a chain with dependant cross 
suspended from the neck, an ornament found on many effigies 
about this date. The lady wears the pedimental head-dress of 
that era. The children are in two groups below. Arms, four 
shields at the corners, each charged alike with Brook, Cobham, 
Braybroke, and De la Pole Azure, afess between three leopards 
heads or, an annulet for difference, being the bearings assigned 
to the younger branch of De la Pole ; those on the brass of 
Lady Johanna Braybroke, as also on her mother's at Chrishall, 
being the older blazon of the main stem, azure, tivo bars 
nebulee or; in the porch at Chrishall both shields occur 
separately, dexter being the fess and leopards heads, sinister 
the bars nebulee. A Sir Henry Heydon, was made K.B. at 
the coronation of Henry VII, 30th October, 1485, his arms, 
Quarterly, argent and c/ules, a cross engrailed countcrchangcd. 
Lysons (Environs of London} in describing West-Wickham, 
Kent, says : 

"The manor house, which stands near the church, was built by Sir Henry 
Heydon, temp : Henry VII. In a window of the hall are the arms of Heydon 
and his wife, Anne, daughter of Sir Godfrey Bulleyne. The parish church, 
dedicated to St. John the Baptist, was re-built by Sir Henry Heydon temp : 
Henry VII, In the east window is the representation of a skeleton in kneeling 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. b 

10 Papers, Sfc. 

posture, with label issuing from its mouth inscribed, ' Ne reminitcaris Domine 
delicta mea ant par ,' intended for that of Sir Henry Heydon, 

Founder of the church, as appears by the helmet and his shield of arms lying 
at its feet." 

Of his thirteen children, John,, the eldest son, died in his 
father's lifetime ; George, who became his heir, Thomas, 
William, and Edward. Of his daughters, Margaret was 
married to Sir John Fogge, of Repton ; Faith, to William 
Ockenden, Gentleman Porter of Calais ; and Elizabeth, to Sir 
Thomas Wyatt, of Allington, and afterward to Sir Edward 

The third and last memorial to the Brooks, in Cobham 
Church, is the splendid tomb and recumbent effigies of George 
Brook, seventh Baron Cobham, and his wife Anne, daughter 
of Edmond Lord Bray, with their fourteen children kneeling 
below. From Mr. Waller's excellent description we extract 
the following : 

" It stands in the midst of the chancel, and before its restoration exhibited 
terrible signs of past neglect and dilapidation. It is of rare beauty, both of 
design and execution, and consists of a large altar tomb constructed of 
alabaster, with the exception of the table, which is of black marble. Upon 
this rests the effigies of the deceased, arid it is partly sustained by sixteen 
fluted columns of the Ionic order. Kneeling figures of the fourteen children 
are ranged round the sides on a supplemental table below. The four daughters 
are at each end, the sous on each side, placed according to their priority of 
birth alternately, first on the right or south side, then on the left or north side 
of the tomb. The effigies are finely executed, and are most likely of Flemish 
workmanship, being in character very similar to that of Count Lalaing, at 
Hogstraaten, in Belgium. This nobleman, who also figured in the political 
arena of his time, died in 1558, and it cannot be doubted but that the same 
sculptor executed the monuments of both. 

Lord Cobham is represented in armour surmounted by a tabard, emblazoned 
with his arms, through a slit of which, on the right side, appears the lance 
rest. Over this he wears the mantle with cordon, collar, and hood of the 
Order of the Garter, and the garter with the motto is on his right knee. His 
hands are clasped in prayer, and his head rests on an embroidered cushion. 
At his feet is the heraldic antelope, or 'gazelle,' resembling, however, a youn<j 
ram couchant. The figure of Lady Anne wears over the gown a tabard of her 
arms, Bray and quarterings, and over this a mantle of estate with the arms 
and quarterings of Brook, her head rests on an embroidered cushion, and she 
wears the French hood. Her hands are joined in prayer, and at her feet is the 
' yatyyer,' as a lion couchant winged, the wings heraldically emblazoned 
1 vaire. ' It is a cognizance of the house of Bray. On a semi-circular projec- 
tion of the west end of the table lies a helmet, surmounted by the antient crest 
of the Cobham family, the Moor, or Saracen's head, and the same is seen upon 
a helmet on the north wall, possibly that of Lord George. 

At the east end of the tomb are two escutcheons. The upper one is Brook- 
quartering Cobham, De la Pole, Peverill, Braybroke, and St. Amand quartering 
Bray, thus Troughton, Bray, Hallighwell, Norbury, Boteler, Sudeley. 

3 ^ 

The Brook Family. 11 

Montfort, Croyser, and Dabernon. Beneath this is a large escutcheon, having 
as supporters, dexter, an antelope, sinister a griffin ; with helmet and crest of 
a lion passant crowned, a cognizance of Brook; below, the motto, ""Je me fie 
en Dieu.' In this escutcheon, the quarterings of Brook impale those of Bray, 
as above. 

At the west end there are also two escutcheons, the upper Brook as before, 
with the quarterings of Bray on an escutcheon of pretence. It is surrounded 
by the Garter. Beneath is a large escutcheon of twenty-seven coats of arms, 
consisting of the quarterings of Brook and Bray, impaling the arms and 
quarterings of Newton, the latter representing the second wife of Sir William 
Brook, son and heir of Lord Cobham, by whom this monument was erected. 
It has supporters, and the motto as before, the crest being that of the Moor's 
head." (These bearings of Newton have been before described). 

The children, in varied costumes, with tabards emblazoned 
with their parents' arms, impaling their OAvn alliances, kneel 
around, and have their names superscribed above them. They 
are carefully described by Mr. Waller, who continues : 

"The inscription, in Latin, very long, and expressed in capital letters, is 
well carried on tbe bevelled edge of the marble table on which the effigies lie, 
and is as follows : 

Honoratissimvs et clarissimvs vir Georgivs Brokva fvit dominvs Cobhamvs 
ex oppidi Cobami posse-isione cocjnominatvs et idem Icutdatwtimv* aliqvot annis 
Calexi prcefuctvs in illustrissimv'' Collegivm cooptatvs eqoitvm Divi Georgii nee 
solvm hanc prestantixsimam habvit honorvm tt familce comendatiopem -icd etiam 
natora fvit optima et animo omni genere lavdis ornatissimo dvx fvit in belio 
prestantisaimvs et sapientisnimvs in pace consiliarivs principibvs in qvorvm 
temporibvn vixit eg regie probatva Ca.ntianitt svis inter qvos habitavit eximie charvn 
deniqz toil reipvblicce propter honorv' splendorem et virtutv' notinsimvs et 
dilectisKimvis et JUKC o'ia foervnt in illo Uluntriora quoniam et profexsionem 
evan<jelii msceperat et defensionem ac eandem ad extremv' vsqz (tpiritvm conser- 
vavit. lute nobilissimvs vir constantissimvx Dei tservvs et ornatissimv patriot 
vnembrv' can ad matvrarn fsenectvtem pcrveni&iet annv* ag<-n* xexagesimv' secundv' 
et fcebris ardoribvs conflayrans tertio calendas octobriv eat mortvvs anno 1558 
cvivs dixcewv liberi qvos poxt se mvltoa et imprimis lavdatos reliqvit et amid ac. 
necexsarii tota deniqz rtspvblica magnv' et ivstv' dolorem accepervnt Gvlihdmm 
autcm Brokv* eqve* appelatvs ex antiques cognominac'oe d'ns Cobhamvs 
fdios Gvorgii patri-t et hosres benevolenti^iimva hoc monvmentv 1 memoriae Georgii 
patris svi charissimi dcdicavit anno 1561, et Elizabeths Regince terlio. 

Patrefvit domino foelix dominoqz marito alter erat Braivs Cobham vs alter erat 
Anna foil frvgi fvit et prosperima mater pauperibvs largo, prcebvit anna manv. 
Nil erat hac melivs nil fortunativs vna. Donee erat charo charior ilia viro 
Vltimv* hvnc annvts Mar'ue cv funere merxit ilia pari fato mense novembre rvit 
Sic qvos vita dvos Concordes semper habebat extinctos eadem nv'c qvoqz busta 

As mentioned in the inscription, the tomb was erected by 
his son and heir, William Brook, eighth Lord Cobham, to the 
memory of his parents, 3 Elizabeth, 1561. Lord Cobham 
made his will 31st March, 1552, and died 29th September, 
1558, aged sixty-one. 

12 Papers, -e. 

Cfje sons of eorge IBtoofe. 


George Brook, his fifth son (previously noticed), married 
Christiana Duke, of Otterton, Devon, and, apparently, three 
of their sons, Peter, Duke, and Charles, were of Templecombe, 
Somerset, where they held influential positions as Lords of 
the Manor. Peter, his administration was granted to his 
brother Charles, 1 2th July, 1 606. Duke, his nuncupative will, 
27th May, 1606, also to his brother Charles, 12th July, 1606, 
Margaret, his widow and executrix, renouncing. These 
brothers appear to have died in date very near each other, and, 
in a worldly sense, unprepared. Charles, the survivor, will 
dated 4th April, proved 7th May, 1610, mentions his "kins- 
man," Richard Duke, of Otterton, Esq. (his cousin's son, who 
married Margaret, daughter of Sir Arthur Bassett, of Umber- 
leigh, ob. 1641), with his sister, Elizabeth (wife of Humphrey 
Walrond, of Ottery St. Mary), and four hundred pounds for 
his funeral. There are no memorials to them in the church, 
but interesting evidence of these descendants of Brook is found 
in the Register at Templecombe : 

"1587. Duke Brooke, the sonne and heir of Duke Brooke, Esqr., was 
buryed xiij October. 

1606. Duke Brooke, Esquire, Lord of this Manor, departed this life at 
London, the 27th day of Maye, and was buryed at Cobham, in Kent, on x lh 

1610. Charle* Brooke, Esquire, Lord of this Manor, dyed and was buryed 
5* April). 

These three brothers were cousins to the unfortunate Henry 
Brook, last Lord Cobham, and it appears that after his 
attainder, Duke Brook, who died in 1606, must have purchased 
in May, 1605, from King .lames, for 10,669, a considerable 
interest in the confiscated estate, and this accounts for his 
burial at Cobham. He left the residue of his property to his 
wife Margaret. From the large sum then paid, they appear 
to have possessed considerable wealth, as evidenced also by 
the amount ordered to be set aside by Charles, the surviving 
brother, for his funeral. 




The Brook Family. 13 

Thomas Brook, fourth son, his tabard on his father's tomb 
displays Brook, with a fleur-dc-lys argent for difference, im- 
paling, quart erty) 1 and 4, sable, three stags' heads caboshcd 
argent ; 2 and 3, a chevron gules between three cross-crosslcts, 
sable, a crescent or, for difference (CAVENDISH). (Waller). 
Is this the Thomas Brook mentioned by Collins (as being the 
fourth son of Thomas, Lord Cobham) as " of Wiltshire," who 
married Katherine, daughter of Sir William Cavendish, ob. 
1562 (the ancestor of the Dukes of Devonshire) by his first wife 
Anne, daughter of Edmund Bostock, of Wallcroft, Cheshire ? 

He appears to have been a man of infamous character, the 
" scapegrace of the family," and became a buccaneer of the 
worst class, with revolting cruelty, an instance of which, 
almost unparalleled in atrocity, is graphically described by 

John Brook was his third son. born 22nd April, 1534, died 
25th September, 1594, and was buried in Newington Church, 
Kent. He served with distinction as a soldier in the Low 
Countries. His monument is on the south wall of the chancel, 
and a very fine one. Of alabaster, Ionic columns, handsome 
design, and richly ornamented. He is represented kneeling 
before a prayer-desk with book on it, habited in armour, with 
great character in the features, all being of excellent work- 
manship. The inscription records : 

"Hie xitvs est Johannes Brook, armiger, illnstrissimi herois Domini Georgii 
Brook, Domini de Cobham, filivs tertivs : qvi in pace apvd ftvos optima fama 
vixit, in praelio Be/gicofactvs peditv' eqvitvmq' Anglicorvm archistrategvs contra 
Jiixpanofs fortiter jaelicitvrqve pvgnavit: tandem in patria vita pie dffvnctvs 
placide in D'no obdormivit vicesxirno qvinto die mentis Septembris A'no D'ni 

Gvilielmvs et Georgivs Brook fratres, patrvo svo charissimo monvmentvm 

Which may be read : 

" Here is interred John Brook, Enquire, third xon of the most illustrious and 
distinguished Lord George Brook, Lord of Cobham, who in peace lived among 
his people with the highest reputation ; and in the war in the Netherlands, was 
made leader both of the English in fantry and cavalry against the Spaniards, he 
fought bravely and successfully^ : at length in his native land he ended his pious 
HJe, and peacefully fell asleep in the Lord, 25th September, 1594. 

The brothers, William and George Brook, have set up this monument to their 
dearest uncle." 

14 Papers, fyc. 

Arms Brook, with annulet, and eleven other quarterings, 
Cobham, Bray broke, De la Pole, Peverel, Braye, Troughton, 
Norbury, Boteler, &c. Helmet with crest, on a cap of main- 
tenance a spread wing. 

He married Alice, daughter of Edward Coble, Esq., and 
widow of Sir John Norton, of Northwood, Kent. She is also 
buried in the chancel, and on the floor is her brass memorial. 
She is represented in embroidered petticoat, gown with 
dependant sleeves, ruff, and close cap, and has her hand on the 
head of the eldest of her two sons, who are standing by her 
side. Below is the inscription : 

"The Lady Norton once she was, whose corpes is couched here, 
John Cobham 's late and loving wyfe, of the Country of Kent, Esqr., 

Who in her lyfe did well deserve, to have a future fame, 
for that she was vnto the poore, a good and gratius dame, 

With charitie and modesty, and all the gyfte of grace, 
Actquanted so she was to good to tarry in thys place. 

She died ye 9 daye of September, 1580." 

John Brook appears on his father's tomb, his tabard em- 
blazoned with Brook, impaling, Argent, a chevron between three 
cocks yulex. (CoBBE). 

Henri/ Brook, seventh son, was, says Mr. Waller : 

"perhaps the most distinguished of them all, born 5th February, 1537, a good 
part of his life was employed in diplomacy at various Courts as Ambassador, 
but specially at those of France and Spain, where he proved himself an able 

public servant. He was knighted by the Queen at the festivities of Kenil- 
worth in July, 1575, was Knight of the Shire for Kent 1586 9, married Anne, 
daughter of Sir Henry Sutton, Knt., and widow of Sir Walter H addon, 
principal Master of the Court of Requests, ob. 1571-2." 

He died in 1591, was described of Sutton-at-Hone, near 
Dartford, Kent, but no memorial or reference to him is found 
in the church there. His son was the Sir John Brook, to 
whom the peerage was restored in 1645. In the Register, of 
East Barnet (Lysons) is this entry : 

"George Brookes alias Cobham, the son of Sir John Brookes alias Cobham, 
Knt., and Frances, his wife, born October llth, and baptized 15th same 
month, 1636." 

This was Sir John's only son by his second wife ; he pre- 
deceased his father, at whose death the revived title became 

%l)p kf>n jiortw murfhrl&as tiifcolf ccpcs is courtied Ijm 

riJia.s'ia goo^to tarrs tti^ftgf j 
Of DifD i 9 topr of (rpffttibrr us o 





LIFE THE xxnn^E OF Iviy Ais? DNI. i 600^ 



The Brook Family. 15 

Edward Brook was, apparently, the tenth and youngest of 
his sons. His widow, Mary Brook, is also buried in Newing- 
ton Church. Who she was does not appear; no impalement 
appears on his tabard on his father's tomb, and he was probably 
unmarried at the time of its erection. The brass to her 
memory represents her in plain costume, with ruff and close 
cap. The inscription records : 

' ' H ere lyetli bvried the body of Mary Brooke alias Cobbvm, widdo vnto 
Edward Brooke alia* Cobbvm, K*qvier t whoe departed this life the xxijth daye of 
Jvly, An'o D'ni, 1600." 



Sir Robert Brook., of Cockfield Hall, Yoxford, was, according 
to Cotman (Suffolk Brasses}., 

"the son of Robert Brooke, Citizen and Alderman of London, descending from 
a younger branch of the noble family of Cobham. He purchased the estate of 
the Hoptons at Yoxford and Blytheburgh, about 44 Elizabeth, 1602, built the 
present Cockfield Hall, 1613; Sheriff of Suffolk, 1614; M.P. for Dunwich, 

He married first, Johanna, daughter of Sir Humphrey Weld, 
knighted 26th July, 1603, Lord Mayor of London, 1608, died 
29th November, 1610, by his wife Frances, daughter and heir 
of Nicholas Wheler, of Hollwell, in Hatfield, Co. Hertford. 
His grandson Humphrey, purchased of James, Lord Howard 
de Walden, and Earl of Suffolk, the Lullworth and other 
estates in Dorset, 20th January, 1641. He married Clara, 
daughter of Thomas, Lord Arundell of Wardour, died about 
1685, and was buried in Henry VII Chapel, in Westminster 
Abbey. (Hutchins). 

She is buried in Yoxford Church, where there is her brass ; 
she is portrayed in Elizabethan costume, with large and 
elaborately embroidered farthingale. The inscription records : 

" Hie jacet sepvlta Domina Johanna Brooke, vxor Roberti Brooke, Militis, 
quce fvit primogenita filiarvm Hvmfridi Weld. Militis, vixit annos triginta 
octo, et obiit xxij die Maij, A'no D'ni, 1618." 

Arms destroyed, but were those of Brook of Cobham, impaling Azure, a 
fcss nebulee, between three crescents, ermine. (WELD). 

16 Papers, fyc. 

Secondly, he married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas 
Culpeper, of Wigsale, Sussex. By her he had three sons, 
James, John, and Robert, and four daughters, Mary, Elizabeth, 
Anne, and Martha. Their monument is in Yoxford Church, 
thus inscribed : 

" Robertus Brooke Miles Fortunis ceque ac moribus Par Honori Hie conditus 
jacet. Cuiproxime accubat sua Lectissima et Dilcctissima Conjux Elizabetha 
Rari Exempla Femina : Omnibus et Natures et Gratice dotibus Ornatissima : 
Ingenio, et Judicio, supra Sexum, Prudentia Singulari, Pietate admirabili : 
Cognominis Zacharica Conjugis Effigies Expressima : Thomce Culpeper de 
Wigsale, In agro Sussexienci Armigeri, Filia : Jacobi, Joannis, et Roberti 
fltidem ut Pater Militis) Marice, Elizabeths, Anna, Marthce 5' mater, E 
Quibus Maria sola Superstes Lugens curavit Hwc Apponenda Marmori. Illc, 
Jul : 10 An' Chr\ 1646JEtat 74Hcec, Jul : 22 An' Chr\ 1683 JEtat 82. 

Memoria Justi Benedicta. 

Arms 1, Brook of Cobham, impaling, Argent, a bend engrailed sable 
(CULPEPER). Crest, on a helmet a cap of maintenance, thereon a spread wing 
erect, charged with the arms of Brook being an antient cognizance of Brook ; 
2, Brook, impaling, A fess dancette between three roses or roundels ; 3, In a 
chief two mullets (Si. JOHN) impaling Brook ; 4, Brook impaling, Three lions 
rampant ; 5, Gules, a bend vaire argent and azure, between two fleurs de Us 
argent (BLOIS) impaling Brook." 

Sir Robert Brook, his son and heir, M.P. for Aldeburgh, 
1660-1, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Mildmay, 
of Wanstead, Essex (ob. 1666), and was drowned in the 
Rhone in 1669, aged 33, s.p. Martha, his sister and ultimate 
heiress, married Sir William Blois, Knt., of Grundisburgh 
Hall, Suffolk, to whom she brought Cockfield Hall. Her son, 
Sir Charles, was created a baronet 15th April, 1686. She is 
buried at Grundisburgh, and on the north wall of the chancel 
is her monument thus described : 

"Mural of marble, and inscribed : 

'Martha natu minima Roberti Brook, Eq., A.ur. filia V: A: 28 Obijt 18 
Sep. 1658.' 

Arms Blois impaling Brook. Beneath are the figures of a man and woman 
kneeling at a faldstool facing each other, behind him four sons, behind her 
three daughters, all kneeling. Below is 
' ' Gul. Blois : jun : arm : conjtigi dulcissimce ac p'petuum desiderand : 


(Topographer and Gencal., vol. i, p. 552)." 

Sir Robert Brook probably descended from one of the ten 
sons of Sir Thomas Brook, and his wife, Joan de la Pole 

In Athelington churchyard, Suffolk, is the genealogic 

The Brook Family. 17 

memorial of John Brook, a descendant of Reginald Brook, of 
Aspall, in that county, second son of Thomas Brook, and Joan 
de la Pole Braybroke, Lady of Cobham : 

"H.S.E. (Hie situs est) Johannes filius Edwardi, filii Edwardi, Georgii, 
Georgii, Georgii, Edwardi, Reginaldi Brooke Arm : de Asphall in hoc 
Comitatu Filii natu secundi D'ni Thomce Brooke, Mihtis, Baronis Cobham 
de Cobham, in agros Cantiano Filii Thomce, Thomce, Johannis Brooke, 
Mil : (filii) Henrici, Henrici, Willelmi de la Brooke arm : de la Brooke Comit: 
Somerset : Obeuntis anno xv Henrici III, Domini Manerii de la Brooke juxta 

Supra memoratus Johannes Brooke uxorem duxit Mariam filiam Georgii 
Green de Brundish in hac vicinid ex qua Georgium et Penelopen liberos 
superstates reliquit. Obiit, Ille, xx Novembris, A.D. M.D.ccxxxiij ; Ilia, 
xxi Januarii- -A.D. M.D.ccxxxij. In memoriam inclytum majorum, et 
pietatem erga charissimos parentes Georgius filius unicus et hceres posuit." 

Other memorials record the deaths of 

George Brooke, 8th Dec. 1732: Mary, his ivife, 13th March, 1733; George 
Green Brooke, their son, 3rd March, 1764: Rebecca Brooke, 28th October, 
1732; Penelope Brooke, wife of Rev. Nath. Rye, of Hepworth, Suffolk, 15th 
April, 1741. 

[The brasses in this Paper, as in the former one, have been engraved from 
rubbings specially taken and completed.] 

ffimll, of tfte TBroobs, 

A REFERENCE to the portions of the structure of Cobham 
Hall, existing as completed, or in process of erection at the 
date of the attainder of Henry Brook, and especially of the 
ornamental details, at present remaining, may be interesting. 
Of the main edifice, the north and south wings appear to have 
been the principal portions then existing. The large expansion 
and completion of this fine edifice as it now appears is due 
to its subsequent possessors the Dukes of Lenox, and their 
descendants and present owners the Earls of Darnley. 

An excellent detailed history and description of it is given 
by Canon Scott-Robertson in vol. xi Archceologia Cantiana, 
pp. Ixv-xc and from it we extract the following account of 
the ornamental portions that had their origin with the Brooks 
now found therein. Of these 

"The southern door of the south wing, dated 1584, which suggests that 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. VJ, Part II. c 

18 Papers, *. 

Lord Cobham commenced the work in that year, and another date 1587, and 
the initials VV.C. and F.C. (Frances JNewton) upon the heads of the leaden 
shooting, points to the completion of the roof of the south wing." 

But the most conspicuous remnant of the exterior of the 
Brook mansion as then existing appears to be the handsome 
doorway in the south face of the north wing. 

"In 1591, Lord Cobham obtained permission, under the sign-manual of King 
Henry IV of France, to transport, from the city of Caen, 200 tons of stone for 
building. Much of this stone was devoted to the construction of this doorway, 
which, being designed to lead directly towards the chapel is inscribed : 'DEO. 
OPT. MAX.' And in addition to the date 1594, bears the text, ' CUSTODI 
PEDEM TUUM INGREDIENS ' (Eccles., chap. v). In the spandrels of the arch 
appear on one side the twelve-quartered coat of William Brooke ( Lord Cobham), 
and on the other side, within a lozenge-shaped shield, the coat of twelve 
quarterings, borne by his second wife, Frances Newton (of Harptree). In the 
second stage, we see the same shield of Lord Cobham sculptured on a large 
scale, with lion supporters, and the Cobham crest. The whole flanked by 
huge vases of flowers sculptured in stone." 

The principal reminiscences of Cobham within the mansion 
are three fine mantelpieces, one of these is in the entrance 
hall, brought hither from the south wing. 

"It is of coloured marble and reaches to the ceiling, dated 1587. The em- 
blazoned heraldic coat of William Brooke (Lord Cobham), with its twelve 
quarterings, its huge lion supporters, and its crest (a Saracen's head), are fine 
examples of Elizabethan work." 

The other two are in the picture gallery. 

"The first (or easternmost) of these is the more handsome of the two. Its 
lower stage, containing the fireplace, is flanked on each side by two coloured 
marble columns with Corinthian caps. The two inner columns project con- 
siderably in front of the others, their shafts formed of black marble, banded 
with others of light colours. The cornice above them supports the second 
stage, which is boldly carved. The arms of Henry (Lord Uobham), encircled 
by the Garter, occupy its central space, which is flanked oa each side by two 
demi-figures, issuing from small altars, ornamented with flowers, carved in bold 
relief. Between each pair of altars and figures the space is carved with shields 
and weapons. The demi-figures support a large projecting, quarter-round 
cornice of marble. The date upon this mantelpiece is 1599, which shows it 
was erected by Henry Brook, the last and hapless Lord Cobham. Remember- 
ing this fact, it is very remarkable to read the motto inscribed upon the marble, 
'Sibi quisque naufragiumfacit.' 

The second mantelpiece, also of marble, reaches to the ceiling, but looks 
poor and tame in comparison with the bold and massive character of its fellow. 
Both the upper and under stages are flanked by pairs of Corinthian columns, 
sculptured in delicate coloured marbles, but the columns are thin, and are all 
upon the same level, neither do the cornices above them project as in the 
other mantelpiece. In the upper stage appears a sculptured representation of 
the Fates with their human victim, who sits in the middle of the design. A 
nearly vertical scroll of marble on his right hand probably once bore a 
bronze inscription, descriptive of him and his fate. One of the Fates is seated 
above, another with the distaff is on his right hand, while the third appears on 
his left." 

The Brook Family. 19 

This curious allegory, coupled with the significant inscription 
on the other mantelpiece, seems to imply a presentiment of 
the dark fate that subsequently overwhelmed their erector ; 
at any rate the coincidence is very striking. 

The sculpture on these chimney-pieces and on the fine porch 
appears to have been the work of a carver named Jellis (or 
Giles) de Whitt, but the work proceeded very irregularly, and 
his steward, in 1601, thus writes to Lord Cobham 

" That he ' must resolve what and how muche you are pleased to have doen 
by Giles de Whitt, either upon some newe chymney piece, or upon my Lo : 
yo'r father's tomb, that the poore man, have some worcke, to get wherewithall 
to maintains and susteyne himself.' It seems pretty clear that, at least, the 
chimney-piece, dated 1599, must have been the work of Giles de Whitt, and 
that he was afterwards engaged to make two others. It also seems probable 
that he had been brought over from the Low Countries expressly for the 
Cobham work, and if so all the sculpture about the house was done by him. 
It is interesting to identify the sculptor to whose skill we owe the work that 
adorns this stately mansion." 

The "yo'r father's tomb" was probably one designed by 
Henry, Lord Cobham, to be erected to William, Lord Cobham, 
his father, but never carried out. 

J?rance0 !)otoarn, totfe of I>enrp, Lota Cofifmm. 


HER first husband, Henry Fitzgerald, twelfth Earl of Kildare, 
died 31st July, 1597, aged 37, and by him she had two 
daughters, Bridget, wife of Nicholas, Viscount Barnewall, of 
Kingsland, and Elizabeth, wife of Lord Killeen, first Earl of 

"Lady Kildare seems to have been extremely unfortunate in her husbands. 
She appears to have suffered so much illtreatment from the Earl of Kildare, 
that Queen Elizabeth caused the Lord Deputy in Ireland to interfere with 
remonstrances, and to order him to send the lady to England. She did not 
fare better when, as her second husband, she married Henry Brooke, Lord 
Cobham, who, at the age of thirty-three, had succeeded to his father's title 
and estates, in March, 1597, a few months before Lord Kildare's death. Soon 
after their marriage, Lord Cobham was arrested on a charge of high treason. 

Whatever may have been the treatment received by Lady Kildare from her 
husbands, all testimony seems to agree in charging her with cruel neglect of 
Lord Cobham in his misfortunes. Yet she obtained for herself the enjoyment 
of (nearly) all his vast possessions during her life. Immediately after Lord 

20 Papers, fyc. 

Cobham's arrest, the King seized the whole of his estates. In October, 160.3. 
he granted to one of the Grooms of his Privy Chamber, Miles Ransford, the 
custody of Cobham Hall, its deer-park, gardens, orchards, &c., and in the May 
following, the King granted a lease of the whole of the forfeited estates in 
Kent, Middlesex, and Leicestershire, in trust for Lady Kildare for a hundred 
years, if she should live so long, dated 13th May, 1604, including Lord 
Cobham's house in Black-friars, London. The King reserved no rent for him- 
self, and she had simply to pay those reserved rents, upon certain lands, 
which her husband had been accustomed to pay before his attainder. Yet it 
would seem she left him utterly unassisted during his imprisonment, which 
extended over more than fifteen years, and to subsist upon the royal bounty, 
while she enjoyed his estates."* 

But some twenty years afterward, and when Henry Brook 
had for three years been laid in his unknown grave, and his 
wife was still occupying Cobham Hall, King James 

" desired her to sell her life interest in Cobham, to his cousin, the Duke of 
Lenox, and her own cousin, the Duchess of Lenox, in older that they may 
obtain immediate possession, but she was not easily persuaded to do so. In 
June, 1622, when the King was going to Rochester to inspect his navy, he 
said he would call at Cobham Hall and dine with Lady Kildare, hoping that 
he might then be able to persuade her to sell the (reversion) of the place on 
reasonable terms to the Duke and Duchess. Probably the King succeeded, 
although not at once. Within a year or two, however, it is evident she made 
some bargain with the Duke, and retired to a house she had purchased at 
Deptford." (Ibid.) 

Here, she made her will, dated 20th June, 1628, and in it 
this hard-hearted woman, who styles herself the " right honor- 
able Dame ff ranees Connies Dowager of Kildare" begins with 
this religious exordium 

" I give and commende my soule into the hands of Allmightie god my 
maker and Creator, and to his deere sonne Jesus Christ my onelie Saviour and 
Redeemer, by the merritts of whose most bitter death and painefull passion I 
faithfullie trust and stedfastlie believe to be saved and to be partaker of his 
most blessed and glorious resurreccion and with him for ever to live in the 
Kingdom e of Heaven. And 1 will that my bodie shal be decentlie buried in 
the Chappell of the Cathedrall Church at Westminster in the night season, 
as neigh the place whereas the bodies of Ffrances late Countesse of Hartford 
my late Aunt (her father's sister) lyeth buried as convenientlie may be." 

From the Register of Burials of the Abbey, we learn 

"1628. The Lady Frances, Countess of Kildare, was buried in St. Bene- 
dict's Chapel, July 11." 

Fitting and consistent sequel ; the noble outcast in his 
obscure and unidentified grave : his wife if she may be so 
called sepulchred with the kings of the land. Ignored in 
death as well as life, the last indignity had now been offered 
to his memory. 

*Archceolcxjia Cantiana, vol. xi, pp. 218-19, by Canon W. A. Scott-Robertson. 

The Brook Family. 21 

IBroofe, HaDp Cecil 

SHE was the eldest daughter of William Brook, Lord 
Cobham, ob. 1596-97, by his second wife, Frances Newton, 
of Harptree, ob. 1592 ; and married Sir Robert Cecil, Knt., 
Principal Secretary to Queen Elizabeth, afterward first Earl 
of Salisbury ; was Lady of the Privy Chamber and of the 
Bed-Chamber to the Queen. She was sister to Henry Brook, 
the last Lord Cobham, and 

" on his re-committal to the Tower in 1603, he amused himself with classical 
study making translations from Seneca, and dedicating them to Cecil, his 
brother-in-law, with feeble hopes of release. But Cecil hated him, and was 
not above bargaining for shares in the estates. So hope died within him, and 
he became as lost to the outer world." ( Waller.) 

After his death, which took place in 1619, and incredible as 
it may appear 

"The King, too, enters his prison-house and seizes ' 1000 volumes of good 
books of all learning and languages,' which had been the solace of his im- 

By which it seems that not even death could appease the 
implacable revengeful meanness of this King toward his 

Lady Cecil left two children, William and Frances, and 
died after the birth of a third, " at her house in the Strand" 
on 24th January, 1596, to the great grief of her father, 
" which event seems to have hastened his own end, as he died 
the 6th March following, aged seventy-one." 

She was buried by the Queen's order in Westminster Abbey, 
in the Chapel of St. Nicholas, with great state ; her pall- 
bearers were interesting from their local derivation, being Sir 
Walter Raleigh, Sir Thomas Gorge, Sir George Carew, and 
Sir Edward Dyer. There is a marble monument to her 
memory, with a long inscription in Latin and English. 

22 Papers, -c. 

Sir aBilliam IBrook, Knight 

HE was the eldest of the three children of George Brook 
(brother of Henry Brook, the last Lord Cobham), who was 
beheaded at Winchester, 5th December, 1603, and, according 
to the will of his great grandfather George, Lord Cobham, at 
the death of his attainted uncle Henry, was heir both to the 
title and estates, but under the cruel rule of James it will be 
seen what happened ; and, narrates Mr. Waller 

"By the will of George, Lord Cobham, 1552, the estates were so elaborately 
entailed that the Crown could only be entitled to a life interest after the 
attainder. This the King immediately sold to Duke Brooke for 10,669, 4th 
May, 1605. To understand this transaction, we must recall that the im- 
mediate heirs were the three young and friendless children of George Brooke, 
executed at Winchester. Now the Crown had usually waived the absolute 
claim by which the innocent were attaint in blood, and restored the heir, 
possibly through the jealousy of Parliament. 

But King James knew nothing of the prerogative of mercy, so nobly taught 
by the great and then living poet, the mercy which 'is twice blessed, which 
blesseth him that gives and him that takes.' He went in for his bond, his 
pound of flesh. The infants, whose innocence might have pleaded for them, 
were not thought of. It was some years later, in 1610, after he had done his 
best to beggar them, that he restored them in blood. But it was bitter irony 
that in this Act a strict clause was inserted, that William Brooke, the heir, 
was not to claim any of the property of his father, nor of that of Henry, Lord 
Cobham, nor was he ever to assume the title of Lord of Cobham without the 
King's especial grace, which was never accorded. 

Thus, the great feudal barony passes away like an insubstantial dream. 
William Brooke seems almost like a phantom on the scene, or as an ignis 
fatuus. now visible, now eluding the mental vision. A peer by the law of the 
land, but with no title, by law entitled to large estates, yet not allowed to 
claim them. Scarcely one of his ancestors but had not played a part in his 
country's history. But shall we not record an act of his in accordance with 
these traditions of his family ? 

William Brooke was knighted, and a small pittance was granted to him out 
of the large estates to which he was the heir. He was married twice, first 
to Pembroke, daughter of Henry Lennard, first Lord Dacre ; secondly, to 
Penelope, daughter of Sir Moyses Hill, Bart. , and by her had three daughters, 
Hill, Margaret, and Frances. He represented Rochester in 1628. And now, 
year-by-year, was the long accumulating cloud growing blacker and blacker, 
and more ready to burst. Great issues were at stake, which were to define 
our future history. King .fames taught kingcraft, and his son followed in his 
steps but to be the victim. 

Sir William chose his side, in a spirit similar to his ancestors with De 
Montfort and in the repression of Richard II, and he died a soldier's death at 
Newbury, in 1643, or from wounds received in that battle, fighting on the side 
of the Parliament. 

Thus, then, with the rightful heir of Cobham lying dead upon the field of 
Newbury, the curtain appropriately falls as upon the last scene of a great 
tragedy. In him the barony by writ became extinct, and no more 'than a 
tale that is told.'" 

Here we take final leave of the three last direct representa- 

The Brook Family. 23 

tives of Brook, and their disappearance from this rightly- 
named " great tragedy," which overwhelmed them with its 
avalanche of misfortune. Of Henry Brook, weak and unfor- 
tunate, led with all its terrors up to the very jaws of death, 
there to experience a cat-like reprieve, but subsequently con- 
demned to be socially dead, stripped of all his honours and 
possessions, dependant on his jailer for means of subsistence to 
eke out the remaining fifteen years of his life of hopeless 
captivity, disowned by his wife, and comparatively all others, 
until death entered the obscurity of his prison-house, and 
released him from his misery. Of his brother, George 
Brook, with existence summarily extinguished in the prime of 
life, carried in a blood-stained shroud from the scaifold at 
Winchester, 5th December, 1603. Of his, George's son, 
William Brook afforded the wretched mockery of being 
" restored " literally " in blood," and a small sustenance doled 
out to him from the wreck of the family estates, but absolutely 
prohibited otherwise to assume the honours, or make any 
claim to the extensive possessions of his ancestors, to whom he 
was the legal heir, except "by the king's especial grace," 
which was never accorded him ; and his life was ended, 
stretched in death upon the battlefield at Newbury, 20th 
September, 1643, fighting for the return of that mercy and 
justice, which in life had been so rigorously denied him. 

It is interesting to enquire what befel the descendants of 
the royal oppressor of their race, and despoiler of their home. 
Retribution sometimes appears to follow with halting step, 
but it rarely stops, and its ultimate approach is generally sure. 
It is written " the iniquities of the father will be visited on the 
children unto the third and fourth generation," and it is in- 
structive although a matter of common knowledge to 
observe how completely this declaration became fulfilled in 

King James himself, after narrowly escaping a violent death, 
passed unscathed to his great account. Not so his unfortunate 


Papers, Sfc. 

son, who, nurtured in the hazardous pretensions of irresponsible 
king-craft, perished on the scaffold so often set up for others. 
His elder grandson, generously recalled to the nation's rule, 
meanly revengeful, licentious, and passively cruel, left one of 
the least honoured names on the roll of its kings ; while the 
younger, forgetful of his father's fate, unscrupulous and 
merciless (Avhose memory linked with his blood-thirsty minion 
Jefferys, lives with undying horror in these w r estern parts) 
hated and deserted by his subjects, forsaken at last by his own 
kindred and deprived of his crown, fled for refuge to a foreign 
land ; and when at Rochester, on Sunday, 23rd December, 
1688, he "privately withdrew himself," and stepped on board 
" a small frigot " that immediately set sail for Ambleteuse, in 
France, the foot of the last Stuart king had trod the English 
shore. And the same adverse fate followed him and his 
descendants ; who, after futile attempts to recover their lost 
position, lapsed into the comparative indigence and obscurity 
of exile, and at their deaths, this royal dynasty, of which they 
were the last direct male representatives, became as completely 
extinguished as that of their victims, the knightly Brooks. 


Cfje Descent of t&e sganor of ailertom 


I PROPOSE to set down in order the notes that I have 
collected on the manor and the " Libera Capella " 
of Alwarditone, more familiarly known as Allerton. Dis- 
tinguished from Stone Allerton, it has been designated in 
recent times Chapel Allerton, as possessing the " Capella " 
erected in the thirteenth century. In Domesday book it is 
written Alwarditone or Aluuarditona, and this form undergoes 
many changes between the eleventh century and the present 
day. In the twelfth century it is found as Alwareton? in the 
thirteenth, as Alewortun? Alvrinton and Alverinton? and Alvar- 
ton* ; in the fourteenth, Alwerton? Alwardtone* ; a favourite 
form in later years was Alwerington, and sometimes Almngton^ 
a multiplicity of modes of spelling which is not a little con- 
fusing. But the prefix " Chapel " is not found on any map of 
Somerset until the year 1792, 7 nor is it used in the leases of 
the manor granted by the Dean and Chapter of Wells until the 
year 1708. The origin of the place-name is perhaps to be found 
in the "ton" or parcel of ground belonging to " Alward." Who 

1. Pipe Rolls, 16 Henry II. 

2. Kirby's Quest, Fo. 313, dors. 

3. Somerset Pleas Memb. 12 and 19, 22. 

4. A.D. 1246. 

5. A.D. 1302. 

6. A.D. 1327. 

7. In a map printed for C. Dilly. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part 1 1. d 

26 Papers, fyc. 

this Alward was we have no means of knowing, but the name 
survived in the neighbourhood at the time of the Norman 
Conquest. "Alward and his brother held Stocke. 1 Their 
father held it in the time of King Edward." 2 There was also 
an Alward who was the Saxon owner of Ternoc, now Tar- 
nock, 3 some two miles distant from Alwarditone. The name 
was sometimes spelt "Alvert," and hence "Alverton" and 
Alwerton as forms of the place-name. 

Both the Exchequer Domesday and the Exon. Domesday 
give the survey of Allerton : the latter is of importance in 
that it leaves no doubt as to who was the first Norman tenant 
of the manor, and it enumerates the cattle belonging to the 
lord, no less than the serfs and villeins and cottagers. 

The Exchequer Domesday is as follows : " Ralph holds of 
Walter 4 Alwarditone. Ulnod held it in the time of King 
Edward and gelded for five hides. There are added six 
hides which two thanes held in the time of King Edward for 
two manors. The arable in all is eight carucates. In demesne 
are nine hides wanting one yard land, and there are three 
ploughs and four servants and nine villeins and nine cottagers 
with four ploughs. There are forty acres of meadow, and 
three hundred acres of pasture. When he received it, it was 
worth eight pounds, now one hundred shillings." 

The Exon. Domesday has some variations : " Walter has 
one manor which is called ' Aluuarditona,' which Ulnod held 
in the day when King Edward lived and died, and gelded for 
five hides. To this are added two manors which two thanes 
held in the time of King Edward equally (pariter), one of 
whom held one manor of five hides ; the other another manor of 
one hide. The eleven hides have eight carucates of arable. 
Radulfus de Contiuilla holds these now of Walter for one 

1. Now Rodney Stoke. 

2. Domesday Survey. 

3. Eyton's Domesday Studies, ii, 13. 

4. Walter de Douai. 

The Descent of the Manor of AUcrton. 27 

manor. Of these [eleven hides] R. [Ralph] has nine hides 
in demesne wanting half a virgate. There are three ploughs. 
The villeins hold two hides and half a virgate. Here R. 
[Ralph] has nine villeins, nine cottagers, four serfs, four 
animals, thirteen hogs, forty acres of meadow, three hundred 
acres of pasture, and is Avorth one hundred shillings a year. 
When Walter received it, it was worth eight pounds." 

The important point brought out by the Exon. Domesday is 
that the Ralph mentioned in the Exchequer survey as the 
Norman sub-tenant under Walter de Douai, was Ralph de 
Contivilla, the foster-brother of the king himself. 

Mr. Eyton's observation 1 on this survey must be added to 
the above. He says : " This was a case of excessive hidation. 
The measured contents of the three manors here combined 
were only 1,300 acres 960 + 40 + 300. This leaves only 
118 acres of profitable land to the gheld hide. What extent 
of moor and waste may have attached to the three manors 
does not appear ; nor does the present extent of the parish 
(1,169 acres) say much more than that the ancient manor land 
was considerably and perhaps indefinitely greater." 

Ulnod, the owner of the manor before the Conquest, is a 
name met with also as owner T.R.E. of He Brewers. He 
gelded for no more than five hides. Ralph de Conteville, by 
two other manors being added, gelded for eleven hides, an 
estate of greater extent than any other in the hundred of 
Bimastane, as far as hidage went, greater even than the 
episcopal manor of Wedmor, by one hide. Walter de Douai 
alias Walscinus de Duaco, was the tenant in capite, of by far 
the larger part of the hundred : so that Mr. Eyton does not 
hesitate to say that " it would seem that the old hundred of 
Bimastane was formed chiefly with the object of concentrating 
the tenures of Walter, both those which he held in capite of the 
crown, and those which he held contiguously under Glaston- 

1. Somerset Domesday, i, 109. 

28 Papers, r. 

bury Abbey." 1 Bempstone hundred has still a portion of its 
hundred-stone, but it has long since been removed from its 
original site, a commanding position on the high ground of 
Allerton, which retains the name of Hundredstonefield, and 
had been appropriated by some former tenant of the farm, for 
use as an "uppin-stock." It was not a monolith, as was that 
of the hundred of Stone, but consisted apparently of three or 
more blocks of stone, placed one upon the other, the largest of 
which survives. Forty years ago the "old inhabitant" pointed 
out two other stones as parts of the structure, but it would 
probably be difficult now to recover them. It is matter of 
regret that so venerable a monument of antiquity, reaching 
back perhaps to the time of Alfred, or to a still earlier period, 
" the old and long continued trysting place of the hundred," 
should have been treated as of no account. 

Radulfus de Conti villa then was the first sub-tenant of the 
manor, after the Conquest. In him we have the ancestor of 
a long line of de Contevilles, who were lords of Allerton for a 
period of nearly three hundred years. In Richard de Conte- 
ville (1348), whose issue was an only daughter, the name died, 
so far as Allerton Manor was concerned. 

Conteville Comitis villa is a village situated in the de- 
partment of Eure, and distant three-quarters of a mile from 
the rapidly flowing river Risle, before it empties its waters 
into the wide expanse of the mouth of the Seine. It may be 
approached from Pont Audemer, the nearest town, or from 
Honfleur. The inhabitants are for the most part occupied in 
agricultural pursuits, especially in the cultivation of fruit trees. 
The village lies on ground which slopes to the Seine, but a 
part of it is situated on the top of a hill which rises out of a 
flat plain. 2 

Conteville has its church dedicated to St. Maclou, parts of 

1. Domesday Studies, Somerset, Vol. i, 109. 

2. For this information I am indebted to M. Jules Charlesson, the British 
Vice Consul at Honfleur. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 29 

which belong to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
it possesses a font of earlier date. 

From this brief description of the place which gave its name 
to the lords of Allerton, it is time to pass on to some account 
of Ralph, and his connection with the Conqueror. 

For more than a hundred years before the Conquest there 
had been an alliance between the family of de Conteville and 
the dukes of Normandy. 1 But Ralph could claim the relation- 
ship of foster-brother to William, by the marriage of his father 
Herluin, to Herleva, or Marietta, the tanner's daughter of 
Falaise, the mother of William. Ralph was the son of Her- 
luin by his first marriage, and William now loaded not only 
his step-father with great honours, but also enriched with large 
possessions, in Normandy and in England, his step-father's 
sons, Ralph, born to him before his widowhood, and his half- 
brother Robert, Earl of Mortain, and Odo, the famous bishop 
of Bayeux. Although little is known of Ralph, 2 beyond the 
fact of his being the eldest son of Herluin de Conteville, and 
that he accompanied William in the invasion of England ; it 
is stated that it was he who built the tower of the Basilica of 
the Priory of St. Vigor, in Normandy, which was overthrown 
in the year 1579. 3 Herluin, his father, occupies a more con- 
spicuous place in history. William of Jumieges speaks of 
him as " Herluinus quidam probus miles." 4 William of Mai- 
mesbury describes him as " vir mediocrium opum." 5 But for 
us the interest in this " petit chevalier " is that he was the 
founder, in the year 1040, of the abbey of Grestain, within 
some two or three miles of Conteville, an abbey which became 
the patron of the church of Norton-juxta-Hamedon, in this 

1. Anderson's History of House of Yvery ii, 88. 

2. Orderic iii, 246, ' ' C'est la seule mention de ce fils aine d'Herluin de 
Conteville que nous rencontrions dans 1'histoire." Footnote in loco. 

3. Nobiliaire de Normandie, par. E. de Magny. 

4. Will. Gem., vii, 3. 

5. Gesta reg. AngL, ed. Hardy, vol. ii ; iii, 277. 

30 Papers, fyc. 

county, and to which, just two hundred years afterwards, in 
the year before Bishop Jocelin's death, it was appropriated. 1 

From Ralph's close connection with William it might fairly 
be supposed that he held other estates in Somerset besides 
Alwarditone. And such was the case. In the Hundred of 
Bempstone he held two virgates, in Hecui-wicca, alias Ece- 
wicke, a manor said to be obsolete, 2 and one virgate in Hiwis 
(Hewish-juxta-Highbridge), both under Walter. In the ancient 
Hundred of Meleborne (now Horethorne), he held one hide 
one virgate in Adber, in Trent, also under Walter. Besides 
which he held two estates, the modern names and situation 
of which have not been identified. They were in " Comtuna 
al Con tune," and contained together five hides (4x1) 
still under Walter. Here in this double manor Ralph 
possessed (inter alia) one hundred and twenty sheep and 
seventy goats, a circumstance which certainly suggests that 
the situation was on the Mendip Hills. Collinson 3 identifies 
it with Compton Bishop, but after a thorough investigation 
into the probabilities Mr. Eyton feels it impossible to say where 
it was. 4 

But we must return to Ralph and his nine hides in demesne 
at Alwarditone. The physical features of the landscape in 
broad outline cannot have been very different then from what 
they are now. The Mendip Hills were seen on the one side, 
and the Polden Hills and the Quantocks on the other. The 
Bristol Channel came into the view in clear weather then as 
now. Brent Knoll rose out of the level in the near distance. 
The manorial lands, as we have seen, were then as now partly 
arable, partly meadow and pasture. But the proportions of the 
one to the other have been entirely altered. In 1086, the 
plough land was more than twice as much as the grass land, 

1. Lib. Alb. iii, fo. 185, in dors. 

2. May it not be identified with North Wick or South Wick in Mark ? 

3. iii, 582. 

4. Domesday Studies, i, 215, 216. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allcrton. 31 

whilst now there is comparatively little of the former remain- 
ing. Allerton moor was at that date a waste swamp, unenclosed, 
unmeasured in the Survey, and of no value. There were no 
roads through it, no rhines to carry off the water, no drainage. 
The main watercourse from the higher grounds was Rawlins' 
lane and the village street, on the one side, and Stone Allerton 
street on the other. Of the ancient cultivation there remain 
the traces, in the acre and half-acre strips of land in North- 
field. A manor house existed, not improbably on the same 
site as the present one. Ralph's dependants were only twenty- 
two adults, the majority of whom would naturally dwell around 
the manor house. " Poolhayes," the park and the pond in 
close proximity to the house, is another landmark of the 
earliest times. 

We have no record of the year in which Ralph died. 
Assuming that he was about the age of 35, at the battle of Sen- 
lac, he may have lived through the reign of William Rufus, 
and during the earlier years of Henry I, until 1108 or 1109. 
Nor is it known who was his immediate successor in the manor, 
but towards the end of the twelfth century we meet with Adam 
de Conteville, as lord of Alwarton. From A.D. 1169-70 
(16 Henry II), his name occurs in the Pipe Rolls until 1175, 
as debtor to the crown of five marks for one knight's fee in 

"Ada de Contevill deb v m p recto feodo 1 mil in Alware- 
ton." In 1170-71 the entry is headed 1 " De plac Alan de 
Nevill Junioris," and so also in the two following years. 2 In 
1174-75, "De Aux ad Mar fil R ; " that is to say, "concern- 
ing the aid for the marriage of the king's son." 3 

A memorandum is added to the entry in 1172-3, and follow- 
ing years " sz n pot inveri," " cannot be found." Adam had 
disappeared, and had not yet reappeared in 1175. 

1. Pipe Roll Soc., xv, 116. 

2. Id. xvi, 15. 

3. Id. xxii, 23. 

32 Papers, J-c. 

In 8 Henry II Adam de Cunteville gave a fine to the king 
to have a writ of right to a knight's fee in Alvoceston, that is 
Alfoxton. 1 

The manor of Stringston came into the possession of Adam 
de Cunteville (temp. Henry II), by his marriage with Amelia 
de Stringston, daughter and heiress of Ranulph de Stringston, 
the owner and inhabitant of that township. Adam and Amelia 
had two sons, William and Hugh de Cunteville. William 
settled at Dodington, and took the name of Dodington, which 
continued in his descendants ever after : Hugh inherited 
Stringston. 2 

In the time of King John (1199-1216), William granted all 
his lands in Dyche and Lymbury to John de Alfakeston. 3 

A few years later, in the seventh year of Richard J, the 
" Feet of Fines " of that year has preserved the name of 
" Richard, the son of Robert, of Aluerton." It occurs in an 
agreement made between Ralph de St. Barbe and Richard, as 
to three virgates of land, with their appurtenances, in Aluer- 
ton. This document has not been printed in the Somerset 
Record Society's volume, but it is to be found in the Pipe 
Roll Society's publication, and 4 certainly deserves a place in our 
county history. It is particularly interesting for the purpose 
of this paper, because it shows us how soon the sub-division of 
landed estates began, and it supplies us with the name of 
Robert as lord of the manor, as the successor, most probably, 
of Adam. 

7 RICHARD 1, 1196. 30 JAN. 

" This is the final concord made in the court of the lord the 
king, at Westminster, on Tuesday next after the conver- 
sion of St. Paul, in the 7th year of king Richard, before 
Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert, Bishop of 

1. Collinwn i, 264. Rot. pip., 8 Henry II. 

2. Collinson iii, 518. 

3. Idem, i, 266. 

4. P. R. S., vol. xvii, p. 91-92. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allcrton. 33 

Rochester, Ralph of Hereford, Richard, Archdeacon of 
Ely, Osbert Fitz Hervej, Richard de Hiet, Sjmonde 
Patishull, and others, the faithful of the lord the king, 
then there present, between Ralph de St. Barbe, claimant, 
and Richard de Cuinteuill, tenant, as to three virgates of 
land, with their appurtenances, in Aluerton, by a fine of 
a duel in arms, waged between them, that is to say, that 
the aforesaid Ralph acknowledged the whole of the 
aforesaid land to be the right, by inheritance, of the afore- 
said Richard, and quit-claimed it from himself and his 
heirs, to him and his heirs for ever, and for this acknow- 
ledgment and quit-claim the aforesaid Richard granted to 
the same Ralph, for his homage and service in Aluerton, 
one virgate of land, with its appurtenances, out of the 
aforesaid three virgates of land in Aluerton, that is to say, 
that one which Richard, the son of Robert, of Aluerton, 
held of him and his heirs, to be held by him and his heirs 
for the service of the twenty-fourth part of one knight's 
fee, for all the service which belongs to Richard himself. 
And besides the same Richard gave to the same Ralph 
two marks in money." 

Three months after this, on May llth, we have the first 
mention of Robert Tortesmains and his wife, in connection 
with Allerton, in a plea taken at Westminster. It appears in 
the original in P. R. S., vol. 17, p. 127, and in English, in 
"Somerset Feet of Fines," No. 1. 

7 RICHARD I (A.D. 1196). 

" This is the final concord, made in the court of the lord the 
king, at Westminster, Saturday next after the feast of S. 
John Evangelist ante portam Latinam, in the seventh 
year of King Richard, before Hubert, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Richard, Bishop of London, and Gilbert, 
Bishop of Rochester, and Richard Barr, Archdeacon of 
Ely, and Ralph, Archdeacon of Hereford, and Thomas de 
Husseburn, and Simon de Pateshull, and Osbert Fitz 

Vol. XL V (Third Seriet, Vol. V), Part IL e 

34 Papers, fyc. 

Hervey, and Richard de Hiet, justices of the lord the king, 
and others, the faithful, and barons of the lord the king, 
then there present. Between Richard Parfet, claimant, 
and Rob'ert Tortesmains and Matilda, his wife, tenents 
by the same Robert, her husband, put in the place of the 
aforesaid Matilda, to gain or to lose in the aforesaid 
court, for half a virgate of land, with its appurtenances, 
in Alurinton, when plea was brought between them in the 
aforesaid court ; that is to say, that the aforesaid Robert 
and Matilda acknowledged the said half virgate of land, 
with the appurtenances, to be the right and inheritance of 
the said Richard, and they quit-claimed the same for 
themselves and their heirs, to him and his heirs in perpet- 
uity, as his right and inheritance, and for this acknow- 
ledgment, and quit-claim, and concord, the aforesaid 
Richard gave to the aforesaid Robert and Matilda twenty 
shillings sterling." 

There are two documents of the third year of King John, 
relating to Allertoh which follow : The one belongs to the 
month of June, the other to October, 1201-2. The former is 
No. 49 of " Somerset Fines," and is an agreement between 
Richard de Cunteville and Robert and Matilda Tortemains. 
These names we have had already ; but two other names mixed 
up with the estate now come before us, viz. : those of 
"William Turkil" 1 and of "Richard Bulgun." This instru- 
ment reads as follows : 

"At Ivelcestre, Wednesday next after St. Barnabas, between 
Richard de Cuntevile, claimant, and Robert Tortemains 
and Matilda his wife, tenents ; for three virgates of land 
in Aluerinton ; recognizance of mort ancestor was sum- 
moned : Robert and Matilda acknowledged the land to be 
the right and inheritance of Richard ; and for this con- 
cord Richard conceded all the said land to Robert and 
Matilda, to be held of him and his heirs for the life of 
1. Turkil held Clewer, and Backwell, T.R.E. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allcrton. 35 

Matilda by the service due to the king. And after the 

decease of Matilda one virgate of the aforesaid land which 

William Turkil held and one ferlingate which Richard 

Bulgun held shall remain to the said Robert Tortemains 

and his heirs, to be held of Richard and his heirs, doing 

therefor such service as belongs to five ferlingates : for 

this Robert and Matilda gave Richard three marcs in 

money. And be it known that the residue of the three 

virgates other than the five ferlingates ought to come 

back again. And Richard de Cuntevile and his heirs 

freed Robert and his heirs after the decease of Matilda." 

The latter is from Somersetshire Pleas (S.R.S.), Roll 

No. 1171, Memb. 12d., in the Assize taken at Taunton. In 

this matter Hugh de Grenton and his wife Sabina, with others 

" seek against Robert Tortemains one virgate of land with the 

appurtenances, in Alverinton, as the right and inheritance of 

Robert, 1 father of Sabina, Rohesia and Amabel, the first being 

the wife of Hugh, the second, Rohesia, of Thomas le Border, 

and the third, Amabel, of William de Vauton or Walton." 

" Robert came and demanded a view. So let him have a 
view. A day is given him in the month after Michaelmas, at 
Westminster. In the meantime let the view be had. And be 
it known that the writ speaks of the same Robert, and of 
Henry de Cunteville who essoined himself de malo veniendi 
and that Robert answered of his own free will without any 

In this third year of King John, Ralph Lovell of the 
Barony of Kary, representing Walter de Douai, was the over- 
lord of Richard de Conteville, and was succeeded by Henry 
Lovell in 1207. He died in 1218, leaving a widow Christiana 
and a son and heir, Richard. Henry had settled on her in lieu 
of her dower (inter alia), the services, reliefs, marriage, and 
wardship due of the manor of Alwarton, held of him 
as of his honor of Kary by Richard de Counteville. In 

1. This Robert is shewn to be one Robert Pakerel. 

36 Papers, $c. 


J18-19 3 Henry III (1218-19), Christiana became the wife of Richard 
Cotel. 1 Accordingly, Richard and Christiana put in their 
claim at llchester in the same year for " the services, escheats, 
wards, reliefs, marriages and fees " of Richard de Counteville, 
in respect of " one knight's fee and two hides, and one virgate 
of land in Alwarton." 2 Richard was a witness to the trans- 

1242 There is a writ of the grand assize for 26 Henry III, 3 in 
which Andrew, son of William le Fraunceys, tenant, appears 
against Robert de Cuntevill concerning half a ferling of land 
with the appurtenances in Alleuuarton, and prays a recognition 
to be made which have the greater right in that land." 

Pleas of the crown at Yhevelcest'r on the quindene of 
S. Hilary before Roger de Thurkileby and his companions in 
the 27th year of the reign of King Henry, son of King John. 

1243 At this date one mode of bringing an offender to justice was 
" the appeal " or private suit of the injured person. 4 And we 
have now a case to record of Richard de Cuntevill appealing 
Nicholas Eylward and Matilda his wife, of breach of the peace 
and robbery. Richard comes and sues against them. 5 Nicholas 
and Matilda do not come. They were attacked by Walter 
Emeri, Walter Tortemayns, and Richard de Alverington. 
Therefore, all are in mercy ; that is to say, they are at the 
arbitrament or discretion of the court for punishment. 

What would be termed to-day a cross summons follows : 
" The same Nicholas Aylward appealed Richard de Cuntevill, 
David Costentin, Peter de Cuntevill, and many others of 
breach of the peace of our lord the king. He does not 
come, and he had no pledges beyond the aforenamed. 
All the appealed come, and have not compromised, and are 

1. Anderson's History of House of Yvery I, 230. 

2. Somerset Feet of Fines, p. 33, 

3. Somersetshire Pleas, p. 122, memb. 13. 

4. Introd. to Somerset Pleas, xlviii. 

5. Pleas, p. 249, 250. 

The Descent oj the Manor of Allerton. 37 

not guilty. Therefore all are quit, and Nicholas and his 
pledges are in mercy." 

It appears, as will be seen later on, that ill feeling existed 
between the Eylward or Ay 1 ward family and the de Conteville 
family : and this little quarrel may have been the beginning of 
differences in time to come ; but we must not anticipate an 
event of the 14th century when we have not yet reached the 
middle of the 13th. 

In this year we have a notice of Robert, and of Nicholas de 
Cuntevill. It occurs on the roll of the Eyre, of 31 and 32 of 
Henry III. They are summoned after non-appearance at 
Newport Pagnel, where the assize was held, in the matter of 
restoring to Muriel, formerly wife of Robert de Sancta Barba, 
chattels of hers to the value of 10, which they owe her. 1 

Richard de Cunteville, one of the jurors is fined half a mark 
for default at assizes, at Lambeth, before Henry de Bracton, 
38 Henry III. 

Item. Ricardus de Cunteville tenet Alewortun de Hugone 
Lovell, per servicium feodi unius militis, et idem Hugo de 
Rege in capite. 2 14 Edward I. 

Richard de Conteville held a knight's fee in the village of 
Bagdripe, of Hugh, Lord Lovel, of Castle Gary (Lib. feod, 
19 Ed. I). 3 

He also held two knights' fees and a half in Cricket S. 
Thomas, of Sir Hugh Lovel, Knt. 4 

Both Hugh and Richard de Conteville are named as among 
the possessors of land of most note in the time of Edward I. 5 

Sixteen years later the manor was still held by Richard, for 
in that year a cause was tried at York between Richard de 
Cuntevill, of Alwerton, and John, son of Isabella de Wyk, 

1. Somersetshire Pleas, p. 351, inemb. 32d 

2. Kirbtfs Quest., S. R. S., vol 3, p. 8. 

3. Collinsoniii, 91. 

4. Id. iii, 116. 

5. Id. Introd. xxvii. 

38 Papers, *c. 

querents, and William de Burne, deforciant, for a messuage 
and a ferling and forty acres of land in Alwerton and Over- 
were. The fine proceeds : " Plea of covenant was summoned. 
Richard acknowledged the right of William ; for this William, 
at the request of Richard, granted the same to John to hold, 
to John and the heirs of his body, of the chief-lords of that 
fee. If it happen that J ohn shall die without heirs of his body, 
then the said tenement shall wholly remain to Agnes, daughter 
of Richard de Cuntevill and the heirs of her body, to hold of 
the chief-lords of that fee. If it happen that Agnes die with- 
out heirs of her body, then the said tenement shall wholly 
remain to Egelina, daughter of Richard, and her heirs, quit of 
the other heirs of John arid Richard, to hold of the chief -lords 
of the fee by the services belonging." 1 

It so happened that both John de Wyk and Agnes de 
Cunteville died without issue, and so the lands came into the 
hands of Egelina, who married one John Bole, of whom we 
shall hear again in the year 1345 (19 Edward III). The above 
Richard, who appears to have died in 1303, was the father of 
six children, two sons and four daughters. His heir was 
Baldwin. The four daughters were Isabella, Agnes, Margaretta 
and Egelina. Isabella had become the wife of de Wyke, 
and was the mother of a John de Wyke. Egelina, as already 
stated, was the wife of .John le Bole. Margaretta married 
Nathaniel Pecche. Agnes appears to have died unmarried. 
Besides Baldwin there was a son, whose name was John. 

[The signature of Baldwin is found on a Wells charter, 
A.D. 1307, 2 and among witnesses, in A.D. 1339, to documents, 
is Sir John de Wyke, knight. 3 ] 

Hitherto no mention has been made either of that part of 
the parish which is known as Ashton, or of the existence of the 
mill, or of the church. But in the early years of the four- 

1 Feet of Fines, S.R.S., vol. 6, p. 320. 

2. Lib. Alb. i., Fo. 123. 

3. Wells Oath. MSS., No. 261. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 39 

teenth century, in the Feet of Fines of 3rd and llth Edward 
II, we have reference made to them. A family of considerable 
importance in the county was that of the Langelondes, and a 
name which occurs in the after history of Allerton was Welsh. 
Ashton and Allerton are mentioned together in the year 1308, 
in connection with these names. 

" At Westminster, in three weeks of Easter, between Nicholas 
de Langelonde, querent, and Robert le Walys, of Wol- 
lavygnton, and Isabelle, his wife, deforciants, for a 
messuage, forty acres of land, twelve acres of meadow 
and nine shillings rent, in Asshton and Alurinton. Robert 
and Isabelle acknowledged the right of Nicholas to hold 
of the chief lord by the services due ; and they warranted. 
For this Nicholas gave Robert and Isabelle forty marcs 
of silver." 1 

Baldwin de Counteville, son of Richard who died circ. 1303, 
was lord of the manor of Allerton, in succession to his father. 
And in the Fine subjoined, of the llth year of Edward II, is 
the first recorded notice of " a mill " and " the advowson of 
the church." A mill was one of the most necessary adjuncts 
to a manor house, and probably a mill has stood on the site 
where the Allerton mill stands to-day for more than 800 years. 
In the reign of Edward VI the old mill was in ruins, and was 
rebuilt, as will be shewn under the year 1549. From the 
manor house to the mill, and from the mill to the hundred 
stone must in old times have been a frequent walk. 

There is reason to believe that the church, the advowson of 
which is referred to in this Fine was built in the early part of 
the thirteenth century. It has been said that the old font is 
Norman, but that is doubtful. There is no trace of Norman 
work in the fabric of the church, but there is an early thir- 
teenth century window in the south wall of the nave, to the 
west of the porch. And that a church existed in the year 

1. Som. Fines, S.R.S., vol. xii, p. 16 

40 Papers, *c. 

1247. as a " capella,'' appertinent to the church at Wedmore, 
can be shewn by documentary evidence. 

"At Westminster, in the octave of S. Michael, between 
Baldewin de Countevill, and Richard his son, querents by 
John Manship in their place; and John le Riche of Wed- 
mor, deforciant; for a messuage, a mill, a carucate of land, 
and twenty-four shillings rent in Alewarton and the 
advowson of the church. John granted the tenement and 
advowson to Baldewin and Richard to hold to them and 
the heirs of the body of Richard begotten ; and if 
Richard die without such heirs, then after the decease of 
Baldewin the same to remain to John, the brother of 
Richard and the heirs of his body ; and if John die with- 
out such heirs then to Constantia the sister of John, the 
brother of Richard ; and if Constantia die without such 
heirs, then the whole shall remain to the right heirs of 
Baldewin. For this concord Baldewin and Richard gave 
John one hundred marcs of silver." 

The Exchequer Lay Subsidies, as they are termed, were a 
tax of ^V n granted by Parliament to Edward III in the first 
year of his reign, of all movables which were in each man's 
possession on the preceding Feast of S. Michael and All 
Angels. The Rolls of Parliament give us the lists of those 
taxed in each hundred. The special object of the tax was to 
provide the king with money to defend the kingdom against 
invasion by the Scots. 1 The sum total of the assessment in 
the hundred of Bempstone was 17 I Os., whilst that of 
Alwardtone was three shillings. The highest sum received 
from Alwardtone was xii d - paid by Nicholas Kyle; four others 
paid vi d each, viz. : Peter Bygoyn, Elias Talpayn, Henry 
Wyne, and Henry Wylles. This is by far the smallest amount 
paid by any place in the hundred, and this fact leaves the im- 
pression on our minds that the Contevilles were certainly not 
resident at this time. It must, however, be remembered that 

1. cf. Preface to Vol. iii, S.R.S., p. xxvii, note. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 41 

the names under Alwardtone refer to the Tything, and not to 
the parish. In the list of those paying in Boydesham and 
Tornock (Biddisham and Tarnock), John Contyvylle's name 
appears as one of the larger payers. 

With the name of John de Conteville, two incidents con- 
nected with Alwarton come before us. The first is a petition 
of John, as " rector of the free chapel of Alwarton," to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury to restrain Bishop Ralph de Salopia, 
bishop of the diocese, from interference with him, on the 
ground that the Dean of Wells was his " ordinary," and not 
the bishop. The free chapel of Alwarton had now been stand- 
ing on its present site for more than a hundred years. Chap- 
lains or rectors had been presented to it by the lords of the 
manor. It was among the " pertinencia? " of the Church of 
Wedmore, and the Dean of Wells, as rector of Wedmore, 
exercised jurisdiction over it. 

In Bishop Ralph's register is the inhibition of the bishop 
from disturbing John in peaceable possession of his benefice. 
It explains how matters stood. 
" The Official of the Court of Canterbury to Bishop Ralph. 

" The petition of John de Conteville, rector of the free 
chapel of Alwarton, exhibited to us contained that, 
although the same John had possessed the said chapel, 
being notoriously exempt from your immediate juris- 
diction, and subject to the jurisdiction of the Dean of 
Wells, and on the part of the said John, fearing prejudice, 
it was appealed to the apostolic see. You, nevertheless, 
at the instance of John Alward, priest, ordered the said 
John to show his title to the said chapel, and as well by 
yourself as by John de Middelton, rector of Bledon, and 
Stephen Tripp, rector of West Cammel, your commissaries 
disturbed the said John de Counteville. Wherefore we 
inhibit you and your commissaries pending the matter of 

appeal in the Court of Canterbury, xviii Kal., May, 

A.D. 1338. 1 
1. Fo. 174. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. f 

42 Papers, fyc. 

Who this John Alward, priest, the instigator of the bishop 
was, we cannot say there was one of this name who was Vicar 
of Timberscombe in 1336 1 but, if he was a descendant of 
Nicholas Aylward, A.D. 1243, this looks like a continuance of 
the animosity of the previous century. 

The second incident is a dismal one. It is recorded in the 
Liber Ruber, 2 that in the month of September, 1338, Cristine 
Cokes de Cokelake was charged with the crime of fornication 
with John de Countevyle the younger of Albartone ; and that 
she was sentenced to walk twice barefooted round the church 
of Banwell, a penance which may possibly have been performed 
in the presence of Bishop Ralph. 

In Somerset Fines, p. 229, vol. xii, there is reference to a 
messuage, and a ferling and forty acres of land in Alwerton 
and Overwere when John Bole and Egelina are deforciants, 
and Nicholas Fraunceys and John Queynt, querents. 

Richard de Conteville, the son and heir of Baldewin and 
Margerie, was lord of Allerton in 20 Edward III, and with 
him the direct male line of the de Contevilles came to an end. 
This Richard had an only daughter, Elizabeth, who became 
the wife of Thomas de Gournay, son of Anselm de Gournay, 
Lord of Overwere, and by this marriage the two manors of 
Allerton and Overwere became united for a time in the one 
family of de Gournay. 

To Thomas and Elizabeth de Gournay was born an only 
daughter, Joan or Joanna. She married George de la More, 
or Bythemore, lord of Nailsay, with whose descendants the 
manor of Allerton remained for one hundred years. The 
family of Bythemore, alias de la More, alias Attemore, alias 
More of Nailsea, was an ancient and honourable one. It 
traced its descent from Ralph de Mora, who lived in the reign 
of Henry I. The name of Richard de Mora occurs in con- 
nection with Somerset in A.D. 1205. The immediate ances- 

1. Somerset Incumbents, p. 457. 

2. Fo. 67. 

Tlie Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 43 

tors of George were Stephen, his father, and Bartholomew, 
his grandfather. 

Tn the 14th year of Richard II, George and Joan Bythe- 
more were party to a Fine in which the reversion of the manor 
of Overwere was limited to George, and to the heirs of him- 
self and Joan after the death of Aleanor, then wife of Richard 
Power, and widow of Thomas de Gournay, who held the same 
in jointure. 

Another deed of the 7th Henry IV is a suit in which 
William Howys and Philip Cliffield were plaintiffs, and George 
and Joan Bythemore were defendants. The estate is de- 
scribed as containing at this time 11 J hides of land together 
with the advowson of the church of Alwarton, and was 
limited to George and Joan for the term of their lives. 
Remainder to William, son of George, and Isabel, his wife, 
and the heirs of their bodies. 

William succeeded his father before the 7th year of Henry 
VI. Among the Wells Cathedral MSS. is a charter (No. 
630), in which William More, of Naylsey, esqre., grants his 
manor of "Alverton" to Thomas Brown, Baldwin Brown, 
John Torell, John Whytynge, and John More, of Brydcombe, 1 
and the heirs of Baldwin. It was signed and sealed at 
" Alverton," on the Saturday after the Feast of S. Bartholo- 
mew the Apostle, in the 25th year of Henry VI, and the 
witnesses to the deed were Sir Walter Rodney, Knt., Thomas 
Wake and Richard Arthur, esqres., William Gascoigne, mayor 
of Wells in that year, and M.P. for the city of Wells, Thomas 
Whytton, and many others. 

William Bythemore was a man of high standing in Somer- 
set, for when in the 7th year of Henry VI an order was issued 
from the crown to the sheriffs and justices of the different 
counties to select a certain number of men-at-arms from among 
the most ancient knights and gentlemen, of the respective 

1. For an interesting account of Brydcombe see S.A. and N.H. Soc. Pro- 
ceedings, xxvii. pt. 1, 37, 38. 

44 Papers, fyc. 

counties, whose ancestors had borne coats of arms from times 
of antiquity, to serve the king in their own persons, for the 
defence of the realm, this William Bythemore was among the 
twenty men of Somerset who were chosen. 

William's first wife was Isabel .... who appears to have 
died without issue. His second wife was Joan Warre, by 
whom he had a son and heir, John Bythemore, lord of Nailsey, 
Overwere and Alwarton. 

The notices of John extend over the years 1462-1481, a 
period almost corresponding with the reign of Edward IV. 
His wife was Alice Toky, alias Pedyll, of Bridgwater, and 
by her he had a son, William. 

Among the Wells Cathedral MSS. there is a charter, No. 
668, an abstract of which is given in the report of the Historical 
MSS. Commission, p. 309. It does not bear immediately on 
the history of the manor of Allerton, but it does so indirectly, 
and may therefore find some notice here. Besides which it is 
a document of some interest in itself. It is an arbitration 
betw r een John More, and a man of Mark, named Robert Deye, 
alias Robert Kykke, about lands in Wurcheston, Wynnesmere 
and Burnham. The three arbitrators were men of great emi- 
nence. They were first, Humphrey, Lord Stafford of South- 
wyke, who had fought on the Yorkist side at the battle of 
Towton, the year before, and was knighted by Edward IV on 
the field, and whose execution, at Bridgwater, by order of the 
same king, only seven 1 years afterwards, is matter of history ; 
second, Nicholas Carent, Dean of Wells, the " nobilis ac facetus 
decanus," of Ferrandus, a distinguished visitor to Wells ; 2 third, 
Sir Richard Chok, then Justice of the Common Pleas, and 
four years after this Lord Chief Justice of England. 

The award was given in favour of John More, "as kinsman 
and right heir of Baldewyne Countevyle, late lord of Alwarton, 
viz. : son of William, son of Johanna, daughter of Elizabeth, 

1. Diet, of Nat. Biog., vol. liii, p. 454. 

2. Correspondence of Bishop Bekyngton, ii, 321. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 45 

daughter of Richard, son and heir of the said Baldewyne," In 
two minor points the document is also of interest. The names 
of the sons of the soil in 1462 are the names of the inhabitants 
of the district to-day, after more than four hundred years. 
They are Hykkes, Gyllinge, Day, Roper, Adams, Chappell. 
Even the unusual name of Kykke survives in the parish of 
Mark. Looking back, too, over the preceding century, and 
the struggle for independence of the lord, on the part of the 
labourers, it is, perhaps, worthy of note that a release is given 
to these men as " labourers" and to one of them as a " wcncrj' 
i.e., wagoner. 

From this, and from the documents that follow, it is evident 
that the ancient lords were relaxing their hold on the land, and 
that a new system of farming was beginning to find place. 
The growth in the fifteenth century of a farming class, and 
the increase of leases, were facts that the landlords had to face. 
Loans of money to the landlords appear among the documents : 
for instance, John and William Bythemore, father and son, 
" of Alwarton," bind themselves for the sums of two hundred, 
and one hundred pounds, to four men, three of whom were 
clergymen. 1 

Through his marriage with Alice Toky, John Bythemore 
appears to have become associated in the business of his estate 
with men of standing in the neighbourhood of Bridgwater, like 
William Dodesham 2 and Thomas Tremayle. 3 In 1475 we find 
that he had made over to these the rents and services due to 
him from lands and tenements "in Alwerton and Overwere." 
Walter and Johanna Sparke, and Thomas their son, the 
tenants of John, accordingly engage to render the same to 
Dodesham and Tremayle. 

John died in 1480, leaving his son William, then of the age 
of thirty-eight years, as his successor. He is the last of the 

1. Wells MSS., 668, 669. 

2. Of Cannington. 

3. Wells MSS., No. 696. 

46 Papers, fyc. 

Bythemores connected with the manor. He held it for eight 
years, but in the, third year of Henry VII he obtained a 
license from the Court of Common Pleas, to defeat the settle- 
ment, and effect a sale, thus conveying it away from himself 
and his heirs. He claimed " the manor of Alwarton and the 
advowson of the church, also twenty messuages, six tofts, a 
dovecot and a mill, six hundred acres of arable land, two hundred 
acres of meadow, two hundred of pasture, and a rent of twenty- 
four shillings in the manor." 1 

The Inquisitio post mortem of 20 Edward IV, makes John 
Bythemore to be possessed at his death of the following 
estates : 2 

u Johe's More Armiger 

Alwarton maner 9 et advoc Capell. 

(Castelcary maner 9 membr 9 ) 

Overwere maner 9 

Batelbourgh maner 9 

Naylesey maner 9 


Burnham j Septem messs 

Hurtcote et > cum divers 

Lytelton ) terr 9 ." 

One Thomas Ustewayte, and a Richard Isham, the former 
connected with Wells, and the latter with Isle Brewers, were 
the purchasers ; but four years after, they too obtained a 
license for the sale, and the estate was conveyed to John 
Gunthorpe, Dean of Wells, and the aforesaid Thomas Uste- 
wayte. There is in the possession of the dean and chapter the 
deed of renunciation of the manor, by Thomasine the widow of 
William Bythemore. 3 Thus, after the lengthened ownership 
through more than 400 years by the Contevilles, Gournays, 
and Bythemores, an uninterrupted lineal descent, Allerton, with 

1. Anderson's House of Yvery, ii, 36. 

2. I.p.m. 20, Edw. IV., No. 69, Vol. iv, 401. 

3. Wells Cathedral MSS. , 727. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 47 


its manor, its windmill, and the advowson of the church passed 3 H. VI 
into the hands of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, through the 
gift of John Gunthorpe. If the Dean and Chapter had not 
commuted their estates with the Ecclesiastical Commissioners 
for a fixed income in 1866, they too would have held the estate 
for another 400 years. As it is, they were the owners for about 
370 years, and still retain the patronage of the rectory in their 
hands. It is not a little remarkable that for the long period 
of more than 800 years there should have been virtually one 
family, and one ecclesiastical body, lords of the manor. 

Dean Gunthorpe died in 1498, having appointed John 1498 
Ustewayte, and Richard Hatton, a canon of Wells, and 
chaplain to Henry VII, his executors. His death occurred in 
the spring, for, on the 9th of June, the sub-dean and chapter 
appoint Thomas Cornish and Thomas Gilbert, as seneschals 
and guardians of the deanery, vacant by the death of John 
Gunthorpe. The manor of Allerton, their new possession, 
comes at once to the front. Being now patrons of the benefice, 
they appoint Thomas Gilbert, "to the Free Chapel of Alberton, 
vacant by the death of William Stevens." Six months after 
this, " in mutual convocation assembled," they " transacted the 
business connected with the manor of Alberton." 1 It now 
appeared that the purpose for which Dean Gunthorpe had 
granted the manor to the Chapter, was to support and find 
a mass to be celebrated daily at certain altars, in the Cathedral 
church, for the repose of his soul. It was resolved " to begin 
it, and to continue it daily and for ever." It will be seen 
presently that the resolution was more easily made than carried 

But to keep to the documents in order of time, notice must 1501 
be taken in passing of a deed relating to an annual rent charge 
of six-shillings and eightpence on a property described as 
"Benam's Place within the Manor of Alwerton," and so desig- 
nated as the deed asserts " ab antique." It is a release of this 

1. Wells Cathedral, Reynolds, p. 197. 

48 Papers, *c. 

rent charge from Thomas and Juliana Squery, William Trew- 
body, junior, and Alice, his wife, and John and Johanna 
Spereman. It had come to them from one William Boteler of 
Westbury, and to him from four men who were feoffees of the 
late William Bythemore, viz. : Thomas Overay, John Chok, 
Walter Pairs, and John Bowie. And now it is conceded to 
Thomas Cornysh, " Episcopus Tinensis," and his assigns for 
the remainder of a term of eighty years. The witnesses to the 
deed were men of repute in Wells and the neighbourhood, viz. : 
Sir John Rodney, John Poulet, William Vowell, Richard 
Parker, and John Ustewayte. It is dated on the feast of 
S. Thomas the Apostle, in the 17th year of Henry VII. 

To return to the resolution of the Wells Chapter to carry 
out the conditions of the late Dean's w r ill. For some five years 
this was done. But they were now involved in two difficulties. 
First, the estate had found its way into the Court of Chancery. 
Second, Henry VII w r as pressing Gunthorpe's executors for 
the repayment of the remainder of a " benevolence " of two 
hundred marks, forty only of which had been paid in the 
Dean's lifetime. They had to deal with both these matters. 
There is a letter extant, from the Archdeacon of Wells (Beau- 
mont) to the Chapter, of April 3rd, 1506, from London, in 
which he says : ] " We have made serche in the Chancery for 
the ammortysment of Alverton, arid as yet we cannot find it. 
The vi clerks of the said Chauncerye be so besyed in the King's 
causes that they can attend no pore men yet. I assure you by 
ther license Humfrey, my servant, hadd a sight of oon boke, 
ab anno VI Henrici sexti, usque annum xviii ejusdem. Ye 
must pardon us thoughe we can make no perfite answere to you 
at this tyme." 

On May 13th Philip Usthwaite was deputed to ride to 
London to see the executors of the late Dean about Alberton, 
and on May 25th the newly-elected Dean (Cousyn) the Pre- 
centor, and John Edmunds were appointed to go to London 
.... to see about the late Dean's gift of Alberton. What 

1. Lib. Rub., Fo. 126. 

The Descent of the Manor of Allerton. 49 

the result of these journeys to London was does not appear. 
But the second difficulty was more troublesome than the 

first. And it can be understood by the following letter from 

the Chapter to Richard Hatton : 

" After due recommendation so it is that John Ustwayte, co- 
exor. with you unto the right honourable Maister John 
Gunthorpe, whose sowle God pardon, sheweth unto us 
howe that the king's grace demandeth of you and hym cc 
marks for the benyvolence accordyng as ye have written 
unto us afor tyme. And that neyther ye nor he can fynd 
remedy or discharge for the same. Wheruppon he thynk- 
eth that the king's grace will have this money contented 
unto him, or ells that by your meanes ye may fall to some 
compromyse with the commissioners for the same. And 
by cause, as ye bothe affirme, that ye have disposed the 
goods of the same Mr. Gunthorp, and have not to content 
or to paye any suche somes of money of his goods left or 
remaynyng in your hands, the said John Ustwayte with 
good mynde hath instantly moved us that we wold be 
contributorie unto the payment of the same by parte of 
suche lyvelode as the said Mr. Gunthrop gave and amor- 
tysed unto our churche. Maister doctor this it is. We 
knowe well and considre the good and faithfull mynde of 
this honorable man departed, howe he purchased this lyve- 
lode, and theruppon for the helthe of his soule at his grete 
labour and cost, and by reason of a certeyn graunte made 
unto us by the king's grace, sufficiently amorte?sied the 
same as we have to shewe by our writyings. Neverthe- 
lesse as the said John Ustwayte hath amoved us, seyng 
that ye have not of his goods to content the king's grace, 
but that ye must levy hit of suche lands as he left to his 
kynfolke and gave unto us, we must for a season surcesse 
of such suffrage as we dayly doo for hym. And so to take 
a portion yerly of his said lyvelode towards the payment 
of the same some. And the remanent to remayne for his 
masse and obite. Sir, we trust, consideryng the grete 

Vol. XLV (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. g 

50 Papers, fyc. 

mynde and favour he hadde unto you, remembryng also 
ye be oon of the brethren of our churche, that ye will 
take of the same lyvelode, for the tyme, as little as ye 
may. And thus orderyng yourself we shalbe as gladde 
to folowe your mynde as ye shal desire us. Praying you 
that ye Avill give credence to our brethren, berers herof , in 
that they shall move unto you in our behalf to whom we 
geve full auctorite to conclude with you for this matter and 
other we have to do. And thus Jhesu have you in his 
blessed kepyng. At Wells, the xxxth day of May. By 
your lovying brethren, .Deane and Chapitre of Wells. 
" To our wel-beloved brother Mr. Richard Hatton, Chapelayn 

to our sovereigne lord the king." 

Notwithstanding the difficulties with which the Dean and 
Chapter had to contend in securing the possession of their 
manor, the early part of the sixteenth century saw the system 
of leases and fines in operation, and tenants of " the farm," 
paying an annual rent. 

In the 20th year of Henry VIII the farm was leased to 
Thomas Bowyer, of Tornock, and Mary, his wife, and Luce, 
their daughter, at a rental of 18. At the death of Thomas, 
Mary and Lucy continued as tenants, certainly down to the 
second year of Edward VI, for at that date an indenture was 
made with John Mawdley, of Wells, a celebrated " clothier," 1 
for the rebuilding of the windmill, conditions in! favour of 
" Marye Hill and Luce, her daughtr, now farmers of the 
manor of Allerton," being inserted. "Marye " had apparently 
" changed her name " from Bower to Hill. The windmill has 
been mentioned in 1317-18 as part of the manorial possessions, 
and had been included in the holding of the farm. But being 
now in a ruinous condition, it is leased as a separate property 
to a man who had capital at his command wherewith to re- 
build it. 

1. Leland in his Itinerary, ii, 69, 1540-42, says " Mawdelyne was a late a 
great clothiar, in Wellys, and so is now his sunne. " 

( , \ ' 


_ ;> 

Boundaries of Districts 

Ditfo cj County when 

nonce incident with District 

Ditto of Blocks ; oj Cwii TarUfiH gf 

Cfje jFtoe4>iUe'<Bmt in tfte Somerset DomesDap. 


AT the outset an explanation of the agglutinated expression, 
"Five-hide-unit," is necessary. Every reader of Domes- 
day knows that in that mighty record four statements in par- 
ticular are set down for each vill or holding, the new owner 
and the value of the vill when he received it, and the late 
owner and the number of hides for which the vill paid Dane- 
geld in the reign of King Edward the Confessor. 

It is with the last fact of the four that this essay is con- 
cerned. The statement about the geld is simple enough in 
itself. It was a species of land-tax instituted, likely enough, 
by Ethelred the Unready, to obtain money to buy off the 
Danes. Or, if this is assuming too much, then an older pay- 
ment, so intimately connected by the English with the incur- 
sions of their enemies, as to retain their memory in its name 
as late as the days of Henry II, when the Danes were as 
much to be feared as the legions of Home. 

But what was the Hide, the unit of assessment on which the 
tax was levied ? As the hide was undoubtedly an areal meas- 
ure for some purposes, it was only natural to answer the question 
thus : Divide the acreage of the vill by the number of hides at 
which it was assessed, and the result will be the size of the 
hide. But as early as the days of Sir Edward Coke this 
formula was found unsatisfactory, because no six results 
were ever the same ; and doAvn to the time of Kemble, anti- 

52 Papers, &fc. 

quaries wearied themselves in trying to solve the puzzle as to 
the number of acres in a hide. 

At length Eyton in his preface to the Key to the Domesday 
of Dorset, 1878, referred to the hide as " a measure of qualities, 
conditions, and values," rather than a fixed area ; and con- 
sidered the hide, with its sub-divisions, the virgate and the 
ferndel, to be " names merely borrowed from the vocabulary of 
other systems of areal mensuration, or if from any single 
system involving these proportions, then from a system which 
was antiquated long before the Conquest." And he refers 
elsewhere to the " fallacy of the Domesday hide being an areal 
measure at all." Having cleared his mind of this fallacy, he 
unfortunately picked up another one that the land for one 
plough, "terra ad unam carucam," was always 120 acres. So 
Eyton must be set down as one who believed in an exact and 
universal area in the Domesday measures, merely substituting 
the " carucate " for the hide. 

Another view has now been set forth by Mr. J. H. Round, 
of which I endeavour to give a precis from the essay in Feudal 
England, 1895. In examining the Inquisitio Cwnitatus Canta- 
briyiensis, which he calls the true key to the Domesday system, 
Mr. Round was struck by the number of vills which were 
assessed at five hides apiece. This fact is more or less obscured 
in Domesday, because the vills are arranged not locally but 
personally, that is, in each county the vills are surveyed under 
the owner's name, so that vills held by two or more owners are 
widely separated. In the Inquisitio the total number of hides 
in each vill is given before the survey of the aliquot parts ; 
and the hundreds of the county arranged in tabular form 
showed that, in Cambridgeshire at least, neighbouring manors 
possessed of diverse acreage and an ever varying number of 
plough lands, might be all rated at the same number of hides, 
which are nearly always five or a multiple. The Domesday of 
other counties having been worked over with the same results, 
Mr. Round deduced the following statement : that the assess- 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 53 

ment in hides bore no ratio to area or to value in a vill ; that 
the assessment was not objective but subjective, that is, not 
fixed relatively to area or to value, but so far as possible ar- 
ranged that each vill or part should have an assessment of five 
hides, a multiple, or a fraction of this figure. 

So the theory of the principle on which the hidage was 
arranged must be reversed. Instead of starting from a vill 
carefully assessed in hides according to the actual size or value, 
and so increasing through the hundreds up to a grand total for 
the county, the exact opposite took place. So many hides 
being supposed by the Witenagemot to be in the county (the 
total being based on traditionary estimates), the county court 
divided the sum among the hundreds, these having already lost 
any connection with arithmetical ideas ; then the hundred 
court settled the assessment on each vill or part, again relying 
on traditionary figures. 

At this point Mr. Round calls a halt, until " there can be for 
the whole hidated region of England a complete and trust- 
worthy analysis of assessment." 

Now Mr. Ey ton's analysis of the Somerset Domesday 1 can 
be brought into action. By making use of the Exeter Domes- 
day and the Geld Inquests bound up therein, he endeavoured 
to arrange the vills, whole and fragmentary, hitherto scattered 
under the owners' names, in the hundreds to which they be- 
longed, and to identify them with modern places. Somehow 
or other he overlooked the coincidence of the hidage of so 
many vills being assessed in five-hide-units, although in more 
than one instance he was evidently struck by it. 

Perhaps, after all, it has been for the best that Eyton con- 
fined his labours to identifications. Without his work much 
time must necessarily have been taken up in correcting the 
identifications of Collinson ; 2 and even that accomplished, the 
results would always have lain open to the suspicion of having 

1. Rev. R. W. Eyton, "Domesday Studies in Somerset," 2 vols, 1880. 

2. Rev. J. Collinson, " History of Somerset," 3 vols., 1791. 

54 Papers, *c. 

been subordinated to the needs of the theory. As it is, I have 
applied a theory adopted from independent study, to an analysis 
made without any reference to it ; for to use the catch-word 
of another controversy, Eyton "knew nothing" of the five- 
hide-unit theory, and the result is, I venture to think, a con- 
firmation alike of theory and analysis. 

In the following tables Eyton's analysis has been arranged 
according to Mr. Round's theory. For this purpose the 
county has been arranged in twelve districts, containing one or 
more hundreds apiece ; and each district has been sub-divided 
into blocks containing assessments of twenty hides, with a few 
double and triple instances. The reasons for producing two 
new sets of areas are these. 

I very soon found that though a large number of vills either 
severally or re-unitedly contained five hides or a multiple, yet 
many did not fall under this rule. Then it gradually became 
clear that adjacent vills were combined to form units or 
multiples ; and after a good deal of calculating, it seemed that 
an aggregation of twenty hides, that is a quaternion of five- 
hide-units, practically brought all the vills under the law of 
five hides or a multiple. 

The two rules I laid down for my guidance in the matter 
were : (1) that the several vills making up the block must 
be adjacent ; (2) that all the portions of a divided vill must 
be in the same block. To this second rule there is only one 
exception, Merriott in District X. The exceptions to the 
first rule, though more numerous, are nearly all due to the 
presence in the district of some one very large vill, whereby 
the smaller vills were cut off from the blocks to which they by 
arithmetic belonged. These exceptions will be discussed in 
the notes on each district. 

The effort to arrange the whole county on the Procrustean 
rule of twenty-hide blocks, also led incidentally to the discovery 
of certain errors, either clerical or topographical, in Eyton, 
and of certain omissions in Domesday, in addition to the one 

The Five- Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 55 

already pointed out. In every instance I have been able to 
produce, either from Domesday itself or from other good 
authority, evidence for each case, without which my claim 
would be rightly put out of court at once. 

I do not at present feel able to decide whether there is 
sufficient evidence to show that those blocks were in reality a 
portion of the scheme of assessment ; or, to use an architectural 
similitude, if they are to be regarded as the framing in a half- 
timbered house, an integral part of the building ; or simply as 
a builder's scaffolding, to be removed as soon as the work is 
completed. In the latter case the vills will still remain in 
units and multiples. 

With regard to the other new area, the district, the case is 
very different. In the process of building up the twenty-hide 
blocks, it was evident that to complete them it would be neces- 
sary to overleap the limits of single hundreds ; and again a 
survey of the whole county showed that the hundreds and free 
manors could be aggregated into districts containing 300 or 
200 hides apiece. The rule employed was that the district 
should contain every vill locally situate within it, thus ex- 
cluding vills detached from the main bulk of the hundred 
within the district, but including the vills belonging to other 
hundreds. To this rule there is only one real exception, 
Whitox-Meade, which locality, situate in District III is 
reckoned under District IV. In, I think, two instances, vills 
on the borders of their hundred and district have been trans- 
ferred to the adjoining district. 

Although Group would be perhaps a more natural term for 
these aggregations of hundreds, I have chosen the term 
District to emphasize my belief that the present hundreds are 
divisions of the larger area, and not that the larger area was 
formed by grouping the hundreds together. But the real im- 
portance of the districts will be discussed after they have been 
passed under review. 

The map is based on the index map of the Ordnance Survey, 


Papers^ fyc. 

which gives the boundaries of the civil parishes after the 
changes of 1884. It is hardly necessary to remind readers 
that the modern civil or ecclesiastical parish may be composed 
of vills which temp. Domesday were absolutely distinct. But 
while I have often separated vills now grouped together, it has 
not always been possible to alter the boundaries of the parish 
(indicated by dotted lines) ; and so these must be looked on 
as only approximately correct. 

In the Tables, the first column contains the Domesday vills 
under the modern names as identified by Eyton ; the second 
column the different parts of divided vills ; the third column 
the hidage of each vill. The hide was divided into four vir- 
gates, each virgate into four fertines or ferndels, and each fer- 
tine contained seven-and-half acres, of which 120 made up one 



N. Perrott 



Stoke ... 

Chinnock ... 
Odcombe ... 
Luf ton 

H. V. F. 

5 3 . 
2 1 2 
1 3 2 

7 + 4 + 3 

H. V. F. 

10 . . 
1Q . . 


Sock Dennis 



H. V. F. 

2 . . 

1 1 . 

H. V. F. 

7 1 . 

9 . . 
3 1 . 

20 . . 

5 . . 

5 . . 

10 . . 

3 2 , 
1 2 . 

19 2 . 

5 . . 
2 . . 
6 . . 

20 . . 

14 . . 
5 . . 
1 . . 

3 + 2+1 

20 . . 

20 . . 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 57 

DISTRICT I continued. 

Draicote . . . 
Mudford . . . 

H. V. F 

5 . . 

H. V. F 

2 . . 
3 . . 




H. V. F 
1 1 . 
. 3 . 
1 . . 

H. V. F. 

,, ... 


3 . . 

12 2 . 
2 . . 

Marston .. 
Rimpton . . 

5 + 2 

7 . . 
5 . . 
5 . . 

19 2 . 

20 . . 

Hounds tone 

I^vpcfnri PI 

3 . . 
1 . . 


Char It on H. 

10 + 5 

2 2 . 
15 . . 


15 . . 

17 2 . 


6 + 2 

21 . . 

8 . . 
2 . . 
9 3 

Ooathffl ... 
Milborne P. 
Ilchester . . . 

10 + 4 

1 . . 
1 . . 
3 . . 
14 . . 

Clos worth 

7 . . 

19 . . 

19 3 . 



10 . . 
5 . . 


8 + 5 

13 . . 
. 3 . 
3 . . 

Sutton Ring. 

5 . . 

16 3 . 

20 . . 

1 ^ 

Corton Den 

7 . . 
6 . . 


Cheriton S. 
Dheriton N. 

11 . . 
6 . . 
5 . . 



TVvr AT 


Vol. XL V (Third Serifs, Vol. V), Part II. 

58 Paper S) fyc. 

District I is made up of the Domesday Hundreds of Mil- 
borne, Givelea, and Liet, now Horethorne, Stone and Yeovil, 
Houndsborough Barwick and Coker, and Tintinhull hundreds. 

In Milborne hundred, Eyton's identifications are taken as 
they stand, for reasons will be given in the notes on District II 
for believing that the duplicated entry of Charlton here and 
there is an error in Somerton hundred. 

In the other part of the group several changes will be neces- 
sary. The first alteration is in the items making up the ten- 
hide vill of Stoke-under-Ham. Eyton has two parts, but a 
third Stoke he identified with Birchenstoke i.e. Bichenstoke in 
Chew hundred. As the three fragments together made exactly 
ten hides, I became suspicious of Eyton's view, and made a 
search for the evidence which should connect Bichenstoke with 
the family of Beauchamp, after whom it is supposed to have 
received part of its name ; but answer came there none. In 
fact this is one of the cases where Eyton allowed himself to 
follow Collinson's lead, without the independent enquiry which 
would have shown his error. In the exhaustive article on the 
family of de Beauchamp, by Mr. J. Batten, 1 Bichenstoke is 
never alluded to as in their possession, except in this Domes- 
day connexion, their holdings in the northern part of the 
county coming in with the marriage of John de Beauchamp 
with Cecilia de Vivonia, c. 1270. Bichen is not an uncommon 
prefix : Bichen-stock in Wilts, identified by Canon W. H. 
Jones with Beechingstoke ; Bykennalre now Bicknoller in 
West Somerset ; and divers places in the Devonshire Domes- 
day. Bichenstoke belonged to the Barry family in the reign 
of Edward I. 

"Achileia" is said to be Hurst in Martock, apparently 
because Domesday reckons it as part of that manor. But as 
it is well understood that a place might be said to be in such 
and such a manor, when, as a matter of geography, it was 

1. Proceeding*, Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 36, 
ii, 20. 

The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 59 

several miles away ; instead of supposing a change of name, 
some existing place, manor, tithing, farm, or even less should 
be searched for to represent the Domesday vill. This seems 
to be Oakley in Chilthorne Domer, which is mentioned as a 
separate holding in a fine of 3 John ; three hides in Akeler 
and Ciltone, see also Kirby's Quest. I have also brought into 
this hundred one of the few places which Eyton left undeter- 
minate, Eslide, a manor of Roger Arundel. It seems to be 
the same place as Lyde, a tithing in Yeovil parish. In 
Kirby's Quest, Robert fil. Pagani holds Lude in Stone hun- 
dred of the king, and it is on record that he succeeded to many 
of Arundel's manors. 

One other identification must be touched upon. In the 
Gheld-Inquest there is a reference to an unnamed manor of 
two-and-threequarter hides held of the bishop of Sco. Laudo 
by Osbern, which is in Yeovil hundred, but pays its Gild in 
Liet hundred (now Coker). There is no entry in Domesday 
which can be identified with this manor. There are two 
parishes in this neighbourhood which are not given in Domes- 
day, though in existence by 1200, Barwick and Chilton Cantelo. 
Barwick was part of Stone hundred in the reign of Henry III ; 
though soon after its owner was enabled to hold them as a 
separate hundred. 1 Barwick being on the frontier of Stone and 
Coker hundreds, seems to answer very well to the status of the 
Gheld Inquest Manor which was connected with both these 
hundreds ; and the silence of Domesday, though a very great, 
is not an insuperable bar, as at least one Somerset manor was 
omitted (see after Group IV) in the Survey. I have therefore 
resuscitated the anonymous manor as Barwick. 

In Block 13, Ilchester seems an exception to the rule that 
the component vills should be adjacent. The regal possessions 
in Ilchester were reckoned as a member of Milborne ; and this 
attachment was probably the reason why the hidage of the two 
boroughs should be united. 

1. J. Batten, Historical Notes 011 South Somerset, pp. 3, 29. 


Papers, fyc. 

By means of these alterations, for all of which I have been 
able to bring forward some evidence, the greater part of the 
manors may be arranged according to the theory five hides, 
multiples, or fractions. An occasional overplus in one block, 
e.g., 7 is counterbalanced by deficiencies in adjacent ones 4 and 6. 
No. 8 is one virgate short. In blocks 12, 13, 14 there is a more 
serious deficiency, amounting to two-and-half hides in No. 12, 
one hide in No. 13, and one-and-quarter hides in No. 14, for 
I think that this block was only intended to be eighteen hides, 
to counterbalance the twenty-two hides in the adjacent block, 
No. 15. An explanation will be attempted afterwards, but at 
present it can only be noted that four hides and three quarters 
are wanted to make these three blocks conformable. 




Brewham ... 
Stony- Stoke 
Redlynch ... 

Yarnfield ... 
Kilmington . 
Penselwood . 
Stoke Trist'r 


Charlton M. 
Wincanton . 
Bratton S. M 

H. V. F. 

3 + 2 

H. V. F. 

12 . . 
3 . . 
4 . . 
1 . . 

Upton Noble 

Bruton ... \ 
Ansf ord 

Pitcombe ... 
Shept. Mont. 
Yarlingtori . 

Maperton ... 
Compton P. 

Woolston j 

H. A . F. 

4 + 1 

3 1 2 
1 . . 

H. V. F. 

10 . . 
3 . . 

2 3 li 

20 . . 

20 3 H 

3 . . 

3 . . 

5 . . 
5 . . 
2 2 

7 . . 

20 . . 

19 2 . 

5 . . 
4 . . 
4 . . 
2 . . 
5 . 


6 . . 

4 1 2 

20 . . 

20 1 2 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 61 

DISTRICT II continued. 

Cadbury N. 
Cadbury S. 
Sutt. Montis 

West. Bam. -j 

Sparkf ord . . . 
BaiTow N. . 
Barrow S. . 

Castle Cary . 
Alford ... 

Lydford W. 
Barton pt. . . . 
Ivein. in Bar. 

Bart. S. Dav. 
Kingweston . 
Babcary ... 

II. V. F. 


1 2 2 

3J + H 

II. V. F. 

12 . . 
3 . . 
5 . 

20 . . 

Foddington j 
Queen Cam el 

Cary Fitzpn. 
Lytes Cary . 
Milton Pod. 
Lydford E. . 

Camel W . 
Yeovilton ... 

Long Button 
Sornerton . . . 
Worth V ... 



H. V. F. 
1 1 2 

2 1 . 
1 1 2 

8 + 2 

i + i 

II. A'. F. 

5 . . 
15 . . 

20 . . 

4 3 . 

,1 1 . 
5 . 

20 . . 

. 3 3 
1 . 1 
6 . . 
2 . . 
3 . . 

. 2 . 

4 . . 

15 . . 

20 . . 

10 . . 
10 . . 

20 . . 

6 . . 
3 . . 
9 . . 
1 . . 
1 . . 

20 . . 

10 . . 
5 2 . 
1 . . 
1 2 . 

20 . . 

5 . . 
5 . 
5 . 
5 . 

20 . . 

2| + 2i 

300 2 3i 

20 . . 

62 Papers, fyc. 

District II is made up of the hundreds of Bruton (now 
Bruton, Catash, and Norton Ferrers), Somerton, and that part 
of Pitney which was liable to the Gheld. It contains three 
hundred hides and a fraction more. It also includes Milton 
Podymore, which temp. Domesday was in Frome hundred. 

In Bruton hundred Eyton's identifications stand, with the 
exception of Milton Clevedon. I have already given reasons 
in the Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, v, p. 346, for 
removing the vill of Milton assigned by him here, to Milton in 
Winterstoke, and for placing here the Milton of Matthew de 
Moritania, rated at ten hides, which Eyton had omitted alto- 
gether. This alteration restores harmony in the blocks, and 
is based on historical evidence. In Somerton hundred Eyton 
introduced a vill of Charlton, identified as Charlton Adam, 
which he had duplicated in Milborne hundred as part of 
Charlton Horethorne. This item of five hides was wanted in 
the latter hundred to make the figures of Domesday agree 
with those of the Geld Inquest. For the instances where 
the Domesday total is less than the Geld Inquest figures are 
fewer and the difference trifling, compared with the instances 
in the other direction. As the Geld Inquest for Somerton 
hundred is missing, no assistance can be^ derived thence. The 
historical evidence is fairly decisive. The Charlton in dispute 
was held by Reginald de Valle-Torta under the Court of 
Moretaine, and was rated at five hides. The undisputed manor 
of Charlton (Horethorne) held by Robert Fitzgerald was rated 
at ten hides, so that the two parts of Charlton were one-third 
and two-thirds. Now it is confirmatory of this division that 
in 5 Stephen, 1139-40, Gerard de Campville gave two parts of 
the tithes of Charlton to Berdmonsey Abbey, and that his son 
Richard gave to Ken il worth Abbey the remaining third with 
the church, perhaps after the divided parts of the manor had 
been reunited under the same owner. 

As it will be necessary to point out at intervals, the fact 
that by far the greatest part of the vills in Somerset fit into 

The Five- Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday, 63 

twenty-hide blocks, tends to make it probable that in the very 
few instances to the contrary, the difficulty is rather due to 
the lapse of time and loss of evidence than to an actual dis- 
agreement. An examination ot block 13 will show how per- 
fectly the small vills and fragments combine together if this 
identification be allowed. An additional five hides here would 
upset the system, just as much as their absence would Dis- 
trict I. 

Then what is the Domesday prototype of Charlton Adam ? 
The Charlton now left in the hundred, divided into two parts 
rated at three hides and- a half, is identified by Eyton with 
West Charlton or Charlton Mackrell. Then there are three 
vills called Cari. One held by Roger Arundel, rated at three 
virgates three fert., 1 is no doubt Cary Fitzpaine. Another 
Cari held by Humphrey the Chamberlain was rated at one- 
and-quarter hides, that is one quarter of five hides. As five 
hides composed one knight's fee, vide Pedes Finium, 3 John, 
No. 41, 5 John, No. 26, in Somerset Records, vol. vi, pp. 17, 21 ; 
this Cari may be assigned to Lytes Cary, set down in Kirby's 
Quest as held by William de Lit for the fourth part of one 
knight's fee. Then there is the third Cari, rated at two hides, 
also held by Humphrey the Chamberlain. This was identified 
by Eyton, but as we have seen superfluously, with a part of 
Lytes Cary. At the same time, Charlton Adam is apparently 
omitted in Domesday, unless it can be identified with this 
third Cari. 

Mr. Batten, in Historical Notes on South Somerset, p. 125, 
discusses the title of de Mandeville to Charlton Adam, but as 
this was only acquired in the reign of Henry III, its earlier 
history was not necessary. In the Cartulary of Bruton Abbey 
(S. R. $., viii,) are some early charters relating to Charlton 
Adam, which seem to supply the missing link between Cari 
and Charlton. During the episcopate of bishop Robert, 1142- 
1166, John Fitzhamon presented the church of Charlton Adam 

1. Eyton, by a slip, enters it as three hides three virgates. 

64 Papers, 8?c. 

to the abbey, and the charter of confirmation by the bishop 
contains a clause that Roger, son of Odo, quitclaimed his right 
to the advowson, concerning which he had begun a suit. 
Well, in the Pipe Roll for 14 Hen. II, 1167-8, i.e. just after 
the latest possible date of the confirmation charter, Roger de 
Viliers paid a fine of forty shillings, " pro defectu," that is for 
not putting in an appearance or abandoning some suit already 
begun. 1 This is a coincidence of some value. But Roger de 
Viliers was the son-in-law and (in the person of his son) co- 
heir of Helias de Orescuil, whom Eyton considered to be the 
representative of the Chamberlain (*SV>m. Domesday, i, 66, 67). 
The weakest point in this chain of evidence is the presence of 
Roger claiming in his own right as early as 1167. In the first 
place the Orescuil property was not divided between the repre- 
sentatives of the female coheirs until 1210 (Rot. Pip. 12 John) ; 
and even supposing that Charlton Adam with apparently only a 
weak title had been the dot of Roger's wife, Alice de Orescuil, 
then her name would have been mentioned with his in the quit- 
claim clause. This last difficulty makes it probable that Roger 
was fighting for his own hand. His claim may have been 
based upon nothing better than an exercise of the good old 
rule and simple plan, which in the troubled reign of Stephen 
was a favourite means of conveyance, or he and Fitzhamon 
may have had a royal grant and fallen out in the division of 
the spoils. A seizure of the father's lands may seem a curious 
prelude to wooing the daughter, but such an introduction is not 
altogether unknown in modern times. 

In block 1, Brewham will be found by itself. Eyton placed 
with it a certain " addita " of three virgates, and a portion of 
Witeham " abbata de Brewham." As these two portions make 
an integral part of block 1 in District III, wherein Witham is 
situated, I have transferred them thither, without prejudice as 
to their rightful hundred temp. Domesday. 

In block 2, Yarnfield and Kilmington are separated from 

1. Reeve*, " History of the English Law," edit. Finlason, i, 411. 

The Five- Hide- Unit m the Somerset Domesday. 65 

the other manors by an intervening piece of Wiltshire 
Stourton ; and a smaller portion, Gasper, which used to belong 
sometimes to one county and sometimes to the other, until a 
Local Government Order put a stop to such vagaries. 

In block 4, Upton Noble is separated from Bruton by a part 
of Brewharn. It will be found generally that these divided 
blocks occur on the borders either of other districts or of the 
county itself. The one-and-one-fifth fertine was an " ablata 
de " Bruton in Redlynch, and the half hide lay in Kilmington, 
though a part of the royal manor of Bruton. One must notice 
that these two pieces, with the two fertines in Woolston, make 
up the superplus over three hundred hides, and that if they are 
omitted, the contiguous blocks, 4, 5, 6, are twenty-and-quarter, 
nineteen-and-half, and twenty-and-quarter hides respectively, 
or an average of twenty hides. With this result should be 
compared, in District I, the three adjacent blocks, 4, 6, 7, con- 
taining nineteen-and-half, nineteen-and-half, twenty-one hides. 
The two items in Bruton may be accounted for as becoming 
liable to hidation at a later period, but the two fertines in 
Woolston are not so easily disposed of. 

In block 10 I have included two pieces of Barton St. David, 
which are certainly not wanted with their namesake in block 11, 
and do just as certainly fit in where I have placed them. 
There is a geographical point where West Lydford meets a 
piece of Keinton, pushed up between itself and Barton St. 
David, and this may mark the position of the two hides. 

In block 13, East Lydford is included, although it is separ- 
ated from the block by Kenton Mandeville and Babcary. 
This seems to be its proper home, and it is curious that it still 
belongs to the hundred of Somerton, to which all the other 
constituent members of the block (with the exception of 
Milton Podymore) belong. Also it would be possible to pass 
from Lydford East to block 13, without trespassing into the 
parishes aforenamed, by keeping along the great Fosse road, 
which may have been looked upon as a bridge. The excess of 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. i 


Papers, &fc. 

the total number of hides in this district is quite minute, and 
as I said above, may be partly accounted for by portions of 
exempt royal domains becoming the property of a subject and 
then hidated. 



H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

Witham ... 


3 . . 


9 + 1 

10 . . 

Brewham, in 

. 3 . 

Laverton ... 

10 . . 

w TT-P 4- " 






1 1 . 

20 . . 


5 + 4 

9 . . 

Marston Big. 

3 2 . 

Keyf ord . . . 

. 2 . 
1 . . 

Norton S.Ph 

10 . . 

H TniTiTi I /niiv 


20 . . 

i i 1 1 1 lAJll \_y 1 1 *L i 





' ' 

Cranmore ... 

12 . . 


Downhead . 

3 . . 


10 . . 

Whatley ... 

5 . 

Twerton ... 

7J + 2J 

10 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 


Cloford ... 

5 + 5 

10 . . 
10 . . 

Newt. S. Loe 

7 + 3 

10 . . 
10 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 




2 . . 


1 . . 


3 + i 

3 1 . 

Berkeley ... 

2 2 . 
1 2 . 

Eachwick ... 

3 2 . 
. 1 . 


10 . . 

" Evestia " 

1 . . 


5 . . 

Camerton ... 

10 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 
DISTRICT III continued. 



Ston. Lit'ton 

Forscote ... 





Buekld. Din 



H ardington 
Wyder grave 

H. v. F. 

H. V. F 

5 . 

5 . 

6 . . 






Ashwick . . 
Stratton . . 
Radstock .. 


H. V. F 

H. V. F 

14 2 . 
5 2 


. 2 

3 . 

5 . 

. 2 

7 3 


17 3 

297 3 

District III, though as large as Nos. I and II, is peculiar 
in that it consists of only one Domesday hundred, that of 
Frome. This is now divided into the hundreds of Frome, 
Wellow, and Kilmersdon, besides certain liberties. Ey ton's 
tables require but the smallest of corrections. Keyford 
(Kaivert) is not two hides, but two virgates. " Caivel " is 
identified by him with another part of Keyford, but this would 
not fit in with the theory of the five-hide-unit, and was in 
another way objectionable. I have identified it with Cholwell 
in Cameley (see District V, 6), which is more likely from the 
phonetics, and the vill fits in perfectly in its new home. 

The second manor in Nunney is without a name in Domes- 
day (Exeter and Exchequer). Eyton, by an examination of 

68 Papers, fyc. 

internal evidence (i, 158, scq.\ placed a manor of the abbey of 
Montebourg here. It contained five hides, and its presence 
brings block 3 up to the required total. 

Two manors, Tellisford five hides, and Farleigh Hungerford 
half hide, are omitted in the table, as they would not combine with 
any of the neighbouring blocks. Now the Geld Inquest for 1 084 
gives 298 hides for the figures of Frome hundred ; Eyton gives 
306J hides, but when the entry relating to Kaivert has been 
corrected, and Caivel removed altogether, the amount is reduced 
to 303 \ hides, which differs from the Geld Inquest by five-and- 
half hides, the exact amount of the two manors mentioned 
above. A theory concerning this fact will be stated later on. 

In block 1 are placed an " addita " to Brewham, three vir- 
gates, and one hide, then in Witham, but which is noted as 
having been an " ablata " from Brewham. Eastrip, which is 
now in Brewham, and therefore in Bruton hundred, was at this 
period in Frome hundred. I cannot pretend to account for 
this addition and subtraction, but when the items are added to- 
gether here they make a very neat result. The Exchequer 
Domesday gives the larger estate in Witham as three hides, 
instead of two, the figure of the Exeter Codex. Here the 
theory supports the latter authority. 

Block 2. Downhead was certainly not in the hundred temp. 
Domesday. See some notes in District VI. 

Block 9. The site or modern equivalent of " Evestia " is 
unknown. Eyton notes that the Domesday list places it be- 
tween Corston and Ashwick. A charter in the Bath Chartu- 
lary (S. R. S. 9 vii, 25) mentions that " Geofanstiga," i.e. 
" Evestia," is on the rivulet Camelar. 

In block 10, the three first vills are situate on the right bank 
of the river Somer ; Walton is in Kilmersdon parish, now re- 
duced to a farm house, but apparently with Luckington (in 
block 13) making up the modern parish of Kilmersdon, un- 
mentioned in Domesday, except as regards its church, which 
was endowed with one half hide. This block falling 1 short of 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 69 

the ideal number by one hide, is exactly balanced by the 
twenty-one hides of the huge vill of Remington, which touches 
all the four vills. 

Blocks 12 and 13 also balance each other, but in the case of 
131 must confess the rule of contiguity breaks down. This is 
is partly caused by the proximity of the two large vills of 
Hemington and Mells. Elm is separated from Hardington by 
Buckland Dinham, while Mells intervenes between the latter 
and Babingtori with Luckington. The two blocks could be 
re-arranged into two contiguous combinations of thirty and 
ten hides apiece. 

In block 15, Radstock seems to want two hides and a quarter 
to make it a vill of ten hides, to make block 15 up to twenty 
hides, and to round District III into 300 hides. Of this again. 



Freshford . 
Wood wick . 
Firf ord 
Monk. Com. 


Claverton . 
Bathford ... 

Batheaston . 
Bathwick ... 
Tatwick ... 
Woolley ... 

H. V. F. 

i + i 

3, 2, 11 

H + i 
1 + 1 

II. V. F. 
1 . . 

2 2 . 
2 2 . 
9 . . 




H. V. F. 

15 + 5 

H. V. F. 

20 . . 

5 . . 
4 . . 
10 . . 
1 . . 

15 . . 

Charlcombe . 
Widcombe . 


TOTAL ... 

5 . . 
5 . 
10 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 

6 2 . 
7 . . 
2 . . 
2 2 

115 . . 

20 . . 

70 Papers, *c. 

District IV contains only 115 hides, being the patrimony of 
the religious establishment at Bath. An unusual wealth of 
charters enables the historian to trace their history back to the 
reign of Osric, king of the Hwicii, c. 676. He gave one 
hundred "manentes," which are adjacent to the city which is 
called " Hat Bathu," to the abbess Bertana and the nunnery 
(Bath Cartulary, S. K. S., vii, 7). By Domesday twenty 
hides had been added, being the assessment on Bath itself, but 
on the other hand five hides had disappeared from the district. 
By a process of exhaustion, these hides can be localised at 
either North Stoke or South Stoke. Either vill has an Anglo- 
Saxon charter of dotation, mentioning the number of hides as 
five. Kemble marks both these charters as spurious, still, one 
of them must represent a genuine gift. As the position of 
South Stoke fits in the best with the twenty-hide block theory, 
the blocks are arranged accordingly, to the exclusion of North 
Stoke, which under the circumstances may originally have 
been the smaller (five hide) portion of Weston. This curtail- 
ment of the assessment by five hides, with the similar diminu- 
tions in Districts I and III, will be noticed later on. 

As regards Freshford, the Rev. T. W. Whale 1 would identify 
it with Vexford, in Stogumber, a situation more in accord with 
its position in Domesday. But this test cannot be insisted on, 
and all other evidence, both that collected by Eyton and the 
new test of the five-hide-unit, retain it here. 

Block 1 is accordingly five hides short. Block 5 now pre- 
sents a somewhat disintegrated appearance, which is yet not 
incompatible with original symmetry. Kelston is cut off from 
the district by Weston, a complete block in itself. This 
manor is omitted in Domesday, though clearly referred to in 
the Geld Inquest. As Eyton says "it is an omission of the 
Great Record, a thing not lightly to be suspected, but never- 
theless a fact." But for this manifest default it would have 
been impossible to postulate the omission of Barwick (Dis- 

1. Proceedings Bath Field Club, ix, no. 2, p. 136. 

The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 71 

trict I). Then Kelston is joined in the same block with 
Charlcombe, Lyncombe, and Wittoxmead. The first two are 
now divided by Bath itself, and the last-mentioned vill is 
locally situate in Wellow parish in District III. The first 
difficulty may be got over by remembering that Bath was a 
royal possession, and therefore not included in the hidation 
scheme, until the time of Edith, wife of Edward the Confessor. 
There are no charters to explain when Wittoxmead was added 
to the original donation of king Osric. It is hardly likely to 
have formed part of his gift, as it lay in territory beyond his 
sway, and one can only suggest that when some later royal 
benefactor (for Wellow was regal property) gave the vill, the 
assessment of one hide placed on it was compensated by a 
corresponding relief on the Charlcombe assessment. 



H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F 

H. V. F. 

Saltford ... 
Keynsham . 

4 . . 
50 . . 

Chew Magna 

30 . . 
10 . . 

Norton Malr, 

5 . 

59 . . 

40 . . 



Farmboro' . 
Timsbury ... 

5 + 5 
5, 3, 2 

10 . . 
10 . . 

6 . . 
3 . . 

Stant. Prior 

3 . . 

Marksbury . 

10 . . 

20 . . 

22 . . 


High Littlet. 

5 . . 


Hallatrow . . . 


Comp. Dund. 
Chelwood ... 

5 + 3 

10 . . 

8 . . 

Cameley ... 
Cholwell ... 

9 . 2 
1 1 . 

18 . . 

20 1 


Papers, Sfc. 
DISTRICT V con tin ued. 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 


II. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

Farringd. Gr. 

5 . 

Harptree E. 

5 + 5 

10 . . 

Stone Easton 

4i, H, 1J 

7 1 . 

Harptree W. 

5 + 5 

10 . . 



5 . . 

20 . . 

19 1 . 



Emborough . 
Chewton ... 

29 + i 

3 . . 
29 2 . 

Comp. Mart. 

5 . . 
5 . . 


8 2 . 

Blagdon . . . 

10 . . 

41 . . 

20 . . 


Hin. Blewett 

7 . . 

Moreton . . . 

5 . 


300 . . 

Chew stoke . 

3, 2, Ij 


8 2 . 

20 2 . 

District V contains the Hundreds of Keynsham, Chew, and 
the greater part of Chewton, omitting the isolated vills of 
Yatton and Kingston Seymour. In the notes on Districts I 
and III will be found my reasons for removing Birchenstoke 
from this hundred, and adding to it Cholwell. There is a dis- 
crepancy in the Domesday entry relating to Hinton Blewett. 
It is said to geld for eight hides, but the different items of 
holdings only amount to seven hides, which Eyton considers 
to be the correct amount. I have therefore entered it as a 
seven-hide vill, and this correction makes the total of the Dis- 
trict exactly 300 hides. In the hundred of Chew, Eyton 
enters Hawkewella Iv. IJf., and identifies it with Norton 
Hawkfield. This is an extraordinary blunder, caused by 
following Collinson. Hawkfield is simply a corruption of 
Hautville, Latin, de Alta Villa, the family name of the holders 

The Five-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday . 73 

in the thirteenth century, just in the same way as the Malre- 
wards gave their cognomen to the other portion of Norton ; the 
vill having been divided at some date subsequent to 1066. 
Hawkewella will be found in Hawk -well ; there are two places 
of this name in West Somerset, one in Dulverton, the other in 
Cutcombe (see notes on District XII). Eyton did not pro- 
ceed further in the identification of Haia beyond the certainty 
that it was in Chew ton hundred. I identify it with Hay 
Street in Stone Easton. The totals of the blocks look rather 
ragged at first sight, compared with the results in the earlier 
districts, as out of eleven, only four contain twenty hides 
exactly. But on the other hand it is very noticeable that the 
gaps balance ; the deficit in block 1 corresponding to the over- 
plus in block 8, while blocks 6, 7, 9, with a total of sixty hides, 
meet on the confines of Hinton Gamely and Farringdon. In 
block 7 Chilcompton is isolated from the other vills by 
Binegar, reckoned to be in Wells, and Midsomer Norton with 
its detached member of Downside. These places, as well as 
Paulton, are not mentioned in Domesday, and were included in 
other manors, apparently Wells and Chewton. 



Batcombe . 
A ' member ' 


Doulting . . . 
A ' member ' 
Charlton ... 

IT. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

E. Pennard 

Ditcheat ... 
A 'member' 



II. V. F. 

19 + 1 

H. V. F. 

20 . . 

10 1 . 
2 . . 

7 3 . 

5 . . 

7 . . 
1 . . 
5 2 . 
6 2 . 
5 2 . 
5 . . 
5 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 

14 . . 
2 3 . 
3 1 . 

20 . 

40 2 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part II. 


Papers, fyc. 
DISTRICT VI continued. 

Wootton ... 
S. Mallet ... 

H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

2 . . 

3 . . 
5 . . 
5 . . 
6 2 . 

Westbury ... 


II. V. F. 

50 + 2 

H. V. F. 

52 . . 

6 . . 

58 . . 

200 . . 

91 9 

District VI contains the hundreds of Wells Forum and 
Whitstone, with the vill of Baltonsborough, now in Glaston 
Twelve Hides. It does not include Downhead, an isolated 
manor of Whitstone. At the date of the Survey, Wells 
Forum was included under the spacious heading, " Terra 
Episcopi Gisonis." Whitstone hundred was, in Eyton's words, 
k ' in a somewhat indefinite status." Domesday makes it to 
contain 120 hides with Downhead and Baltonsborough, whereas 
the Geld Inquest is only levied on 115 hides. As Downhead 
had in all probability a distinct inquest (now lost), there is 
only a difference of two hides between the two sets of figures, 
which is not so large a discrepancy as in many other hundreds. 
What is of more importance at present is that the total of 1 17 
hides added to the seventy-eight of Wells Forum is only 195, 
five hides short of a symmetrical result. 

An entry in Domesday will I think account for this short- 
coming. At the end of the list of the Glastonbury estates are 
a series of entries relating to lands which at this time had 
passed into the hands of others. Among the land-grabbers 
was the earl of Moretain, who held Stane, valued at 9, Stoca 
and Stoca, worth forty shillings, and Dregcota, also worth 
forty shillings. Eyton identifies Stone with Stone in East 
Pennard ; Stoca and Stoca with Stoke Lane ; and Dregcota 
with Draycott in Shepton Mallett. In no case is the hidage 
of the vills given ; the only means of identification, other than 
the owners' names, being their value. 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 75 

Now an examination of the table will show that no increase 
of hidage is required in the case of Doulting and Shepton 
Mallett. At the same time it appears that Draycote in Lim- 
ington Moretain's property was valued at forty shillings ; also 
that an Estochet al. Stochet (late Beechenstoke) and Estochet 
(Stoke-under-Ham) are each worth forty shillings apiece. It 
does not seem too much to conclude that these statements are 
simply duplicate references to the same vills. With regard to 
Stone the conditions are reversed. The only other Stone in 
Domesday is the one in Stone Hundred, owned by Serlo de 
Burcy, and worth ten shillings. Other men and other value. 
The high value of the Stone of the Count of Moretain pre- 
supposes a fair hidage, and curiously enough, five hides in the 
adjacent vill of Ditcheat are rated as high as 12. So, all 
things considered, it does not seem too great a demand on the 
liability to err of Domesday, to suppose that here again is a 
case of omission. It is the third and last time that Domesday 
will be required to confess to a slip. The first, that of Kelston, 
was established by Mr. Eyton ; the second, that of Barwick, 
seems borne out by the testimony of his witness, the Geld In- 
quest ; and for the third there is the indirect evidence of 
Domesday itself. The risk involved in entering the ownership 
of a vill, disputed by the highest secular and spiritual persons 
in the county, with king William as the final court of appeal 
in the background, may have caused such perturbation in the 
minds of the jurors, as to result in a temporary loss of memory 
in the case of Stone. The difficulty that then arises from the 
excess of the hidage in the Domesday entries over the figures 
of the Geld Inquest, will be met by removing Baltonsborough 
back into Glaston Twelve Hides. Eyton remarks that the 
" dominicum " of the abbot in Baltousborough is necessary to 
complete the figures in the Geld Inquest ; but if Stone had 
passed from the abbot to Moretain between 1084 and 1086, this 
objection would not apply, and the recent date of the transfer 
would account for the confused nature of the entries in 1086. 


Papers., fyc. 

Another very interesting point occurs here. " The Domes- 
day details of hidage amount to 120 hides for twenty-one 
items of estate (including Downhead), but when Domesday 
masses these items into groups, it supplies a total of only 118 
hides." 1 Now reverse this true statement, and it means that 
when the large vills in Whitstone were broken up by subin- 
feudation, two hides were added to the original assessment ; in 
Ditcheat half a hide, in Pilton one hide and a half. The table 
shows that these additions destroy the symmetry of the block- 
system, but that at the same time they balanced a deficit in 
Wells. It seems very plain that the bishop had contrived to 
shuffle the liabilities attaching to two hides on to his neighbour 
and rival, the abbot of Glastonbury and his tenants. 



Portbury . . . 




Clevedon .., 
Kingst. Sey. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F 


10 1 

18 1 

5 2 
3 2 

5 2 



" addita " 


Tickenham . 
Midgehill ... 
Brockley . . . 
Claverham . 


H. v. F. 



H. V. F 

20 . . 

10 1 

1 1 

1 . 

4 . 




1. Eyton, i, 195. 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 77 

DISTRICT VII continued. 



Back well ... 

Barrow Grur. 

Wrington ... 

II. \. F 

H. v. F, 



Winford ... 
Regilbury . . . 
Butcombe ... 
Aid wick . . . 


II. V. F.l 

10 + 1 
2, 1J, 

II. V. F. 

11 . . 

3 3 . 

3 . . 

2 . . 

1 2 

21 3 

200 2 

District VII contains the hundreds of Hareclive (but not 
Bedminster), Portbury, the isolated portion of Chewton, 
Kerm, now in Winterstoke hundred, and Havyat Green, now 
in Wrington, but placed by Eyton after Collinson in Burring- 
ton. These vills are all to the north of the river Yeo, which 
I have taken as the southern boundary of the district. I have 
also brought into block 10 " Shepbwurda al. Scepeworde," for 
which Eyton could find no modern equivalent. No more can 
I at present, but its presence here is desiderated for several 
reasons. With its figure, half hide, block 10 exactly balances 
block 2 ; and the district is brought up to a round figure, as 
the two fertines in Clevedon are a negligeable quantity. Then 
there are a number of small holdings in this block, one of 
which, in Ridgehill, was already held by an Englishman. 
Finally Shepbwurda must be somewhere in the county. 

Block 5 is broken up by the intervening mass of Wraxall, 
which apparently then included Nailsea, and forms block 4. 
These two blocks, however, mutually correct one another. 


Papers, 8fc. 


Kewstoke ... 
Pantesheda . 

II. V. F. 


H. V. F. 
9-1 . 

1 2 . 
6 2 . 
. 2 . 
2 2 . 

Shipham . . . 
Cheddar ... 
Stoke Rod . 

H. V. F. 


II. V. F. 

4 . . 
2 1 2 
. 1 . 
5 1 . 
6 . . 

9O 1 

1 Q *\ 9 

Ashcombe . 
Elborough . 

2f + 3i 

6 1 . 
6 2 . 
5 . 
3 . . 

Alston Sutt. 
Chap. Aller. 

1 4- 1 

. 2 3 
4 2 . 
11 . . 

20 3 . 


2 . . 


1 ^ 

20 . 3 


5 . . 







20 . . 

Wedmore ... 
Bodeslega ... 

10 . . 
1 . . 
1 S l 

Ban well 
Compt. Bish. 

5 + 4+1 

30 . . 
10 . . 

Burnham . . . 
Huntspil . . . 


1 15 

4 . . 
1 3 . 

40 . . 


2 . . 


i ^ 

20 2 3 T V 

Langford ... 

5 . . 

TOT A i 

921 3 l 


District VIII contains the hundreds of Winterstoke, Con- 
gresbury, and Cheddar (uow all united under the first-named), 
Bempstone (less Cossington), and parts of Brent with Wring- 
ton, and Huntspill with Puriton. The total hidage amounts 

The Fivc-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 79 

to 221 1 hides, plus a fraction of a fertine, that is nearly two 
hides more than a round number. As this is the only district 
where the actual figures differ from the ideal by anything over 
a mere fraction, it is worth while to try and see if it can be 
explained. In the adjoining District IX, the total, if Ey ton's 
figures be followed, comes to 200^ hides. But Eyton (i, 175) 
points out in his notes on Locheslei hundred that probably the 
separate entry relating to Stawell two-and-half hides is redun- 
dant ; and that the hidage of this vill, as of several others, had 
been already included in the thirty hides of Shapwick. If this 
be followed, then District IX will contain only 197 hides, 
2 vir., 2 fer., the deficiency almost exactly balancing the over- 
plus in District VIII, now under review. 

The system of equalizing blocks, which has been noted 
several times already, appears to have been also applied to the 
districts on occasion. 

From this surplusage it follows that the figures of the 
blocks will present a ragged appearance. Block 1 contains 
Milton, one-and-half hides, which Eyton considered to be 
Milton Clevedon (see note on District II); also " Pantesheda." 
The situation of this small vill had been left indeterminate by 
Eyton, with the remark that it would probably be found near 
Banwell. His extraordinary acumen in this department is 
amply confirmed by an entry in the twelfth volume of the 
Somerset Record Society, p. 67, Pedes Finium, 11 Ed. II, 
No. 28, " Ponteside juxta Bannewelle." I cannot, however, 
find any modern representative, unless it may be Puttingworth 
Farm, which is in an angle of the parish adjoining the other 
members of the block. Block 5 is made up of Banwell thirty 
hides ; and separated from it by the curiously shaped parish of 
Winscombe, Compton Bishop, ten hides. Eyton put down 
three vills of Compton as indeterminate in regard to their 
identification, as they were all in the hands of lay owners 
temp. Domesday ; and concluded that the present parish of 
Compton Bishop was then part of Banwell, as Churchill and 


Papers, 8{c. 

Puxton certainly were. But by this time one expects to find 
twenty-hide blocks ; and as there are ten hides wanting to 
complete this block, and a parish of Compton handy, the three 
vills of Compton aggregating ten hides can be accommodated 
at once. Block 6 : Langford is now r superseded as a parish- 
name by Burrington. Block 10 appears to cover an enormous 
area, but at this time it was easily navigated ; Brean is isolated 
by the intervening mass of Brent, block 9. 


1. |ll. V. F 

Butleigh ...|7J, 8, 2, 
Lodreforda .i 





Ashcott ... 3 + 2 





H. v. F 

18 . . 



14 2 
3 . 
2 2 










Crandon . 



Bawdrip , 


Bradney , 


Doneham . 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

It . 


1 . . 


. 1 . 


Huntworth . 
P ether, chur. 
Durst on 



1111.3 11 
L 4 A 4 4 -2 4 

1 . 

2 3 
10 2 


The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 81 

DlST IIICT I X continued. 


H V. F. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

Edgeboro. . 
Monkton ... 
Broom field . 

15 . . 
3 . . 

Lexworthy . 
Qoathurst . . . 
Rexworthy . 

. 3 . 

1 3 . 

. 1 . 


Shurston . . . 
Melcombe ... 
Had worthy . 
Hun stile . . . 


i + * 

20 . . 

. 2 . 
. 3 . 
. 1 2 
. 3 2 
1 . . 

. 1 . 


Durleigh . . . 
Wembdon . 
Chilton Trin. 
Bridge water 


i, i, i 

. 2 3 
2 . . 
1 1 . 
5 . . 
1 . 1 
. 1 . 
. . 2 

19 2 2 

Blaxhold ... 

. I . 


197 2 2 

District IX contains the hundreds of Ringoltdeswea and 
Locheslei (now united as Whitley), North Petherton, and 
Andersfield, together with the independent manors of Monk- 
ton, Creech St. Michael, and Ham. It also includes Cossing- 
ton, which Eyton considered to be in Bempstone at this date. 
It was in Whitley 1242 A.D. (S. R. S., xi, p. 256). I have 
omitted Pury Furneaux, containing four hides or thereabouts, 
and placed it for the nonce in District XII, block 1 (see notes 
on that block). The total in this District is 197h., 2v., 2f. ; 
but the deficiency in the four blocks on the western side 
adjoining District XII is only 1 virg. 2 fert., which is almost 
exactly balanced by the overplus of 1 virg. H fert. in that 

The deficit is therefore on the eastern side of the district. 
Now Ringoltdeswea hundred contains fifty-nine hides, one 
hide short ; and curiously enough block 4, containing Ham 
seventeen, Sowi twelve, and Shapwick thirty, works out at 
fifty-nine hides, also one hide short ; and this deficiency of 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. 

82 Papers, Sfc. 

two hides practically balances the overplus of one-and-three- 
quarter hides in District VIII. This equation, however, de- 
pends on the omission of Stawell two-and-half hides. As I 
have already stated in the notes on District VIII, this entry 
is probably subsidiary to, and redundant of, the entry relating 
to the thirty hides of Shapwick. Its omission would reduce 
the total of Locheslei hundred from fifty hides and a half to 
forty-eight hides, as compared with forty-seven hides given in 
the Geld Inquest ; but too much stress must not be laid on 
this apparently satisfactory result. 

Blocks 2 and 3 are somewhat intermixed. It may be that 
Sedgmoor being a watery no-man's land at this time, the 
block containing Compton Dundon and Street could contain 
also Pedwell and Greinton, without encroaching on Walton. 
Block 4 simply contains the manors which it seems impossible 
otherwise to combine. The only point to be brought forward 
in its favour, perhaps, is that it exactly balances blocks 1-3. 
Block 5 contains a group of vills all situate, with the excep- 
tion of Ham, on the right bank of the Parret, below Bridg- 

As many of the vills are in the modern parish of Bridg- 
water, the map shows it as being in this block, although part 
with Chedzoy may have been reckoned in the five hides of 
Bridgwater. Eyton would identify Doneham with Dunball, 
but I think that Don were is more probable, but in either case 
it is in this block. In block 8, Hattewara may be identified 
with Hadworthy in North Petherton ; Hunstile is now a part 
of Goathurst. Idstock, another detached part of Chilton 
Trinity, will be found in District XII, under Cannington. 
Blaxhold, in Enmore, represents the Blachesalla of Domesday ; 
and Rexworthy, in Durleigh, is Rachedeworde, identified by 
Kyton with Radway Fitzpayn, in Cannington. For these two 
identifications the reader is indebted to a note in Somerset and 
Dorset Notes and Queries, ii, 134. Cruce, Rima, and Ulver- 
onetona are still to seek ; the last is probably in Wembdon. 

The Fivc-Hidc-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 83 



II. V. F. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F. 

II. V. F. 

Martock ... 

38 . . 

Chaffcombe . 

5 1 . 

in Martock . 

2 . . 

Cudworth ... 

3 2 . 

('let IVTilprVip 


40 . . 


4, 3, 2J 

9 1 . 

21 . . 

Comp. Durv. 
ablata de Barr. 
Stratton . . . 
sacerdos in 
Shept. Beau. 

2, 1, 1 

3 . . 
1 1 . 
. 2 . 
2 . . 

1 . . 
2 . . 
6 . . 
4 . . 

Whatley ... 
Litelande ... 
Knw. S. Gil. 

1 2 . 
1 . . 
3 . . 
8 . . 
2 . . 
3 . . 
2 . . 

20 2 . 


19 3 . 


20 . . 



Hint. S. Geo. 

13 . . 

Seavington . 


12 . . 

Merriott, pi. 

7 . 

Kingstone . . . 

8 . . 

20 . 

20 . . 


Merriott, pt. 

5 . . 

Crewkerne c. 

10 . . 


Eastham ... 


Dinnington . 

3 . . 

6 . . 

Seaborough . 

1J + 1J 

3 . . 

Winsham ... 

10 . . 

20 . . 

19 . . 

TOTAL ... 

200 1 . 

84 Papers, 8fc. 

District X contains the hundreds of Martock, South Pether- 
ton, Crewkerrie, and Kingsbury East, excepting, however, 
Kingsbury itself. It also includes Kingstone, politically in 
Tintinhull hundred, but locally here ; two hides in Martock, 
placed by Eyton in Yeovil hundred, and Cricket Malerbe 
temp. Domesday and since in Abdick and Bulstone. One of 
the manors called Dowlish is no doubt the prototype of West 
Dowlish adjoining Cricket, and like it now in Abdick and 
Bulstone, but Eyton ranges them all in South Petherton. 
Still these two manors may have formed a small cantle trans- 
ferred from District X to XI. The total number of hides is 
200 plus one virgate, which counterbalances a deficiency of the 
same amount in the adjoining District I. Further, there are 
two small vills placed by Eyton in this district : " altera terra 
ablata de Martock," one hide arid a half ; and " ablata de South 
Petherton," half hide. At first sight, these portions evidently 
belong somewhere here, arid they certainly counterbalance a 
deficiency of two hides in District XI, block 4. But this 
block contains the parish of Buckland St. Mary ; and down 
to this century, Dommett tithing in this parish was reckoned 
part of South Petherton ; and another tithing called West- 
combland was supposed to be in Martock ! This double 
coincidence may well be allowed to correct the silence of 
Domesday, and to replace the " ablata " in their original 

There is not much to add to this explanatory note. Notice 
how the adjoining blocks 4 and 5 correct each other's totals. 
In block 6 is included Whitestanton, which is isolated by the 
large manor of Combe St. Nicholas. Litelande is part of 
Chard. Blocks 8 and 9 make up the hundred of Crewkerne, 
and here occurs, so far as 1 can see, the only case of placing 
parts of the same vill in different blocks to make up twenty 
hides apiece. One part of Marriott combines with Hinton St. 
George, and the other part with the rest of the hundred. 

1. Collinvon, i, 20; iii, 2. 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 85 



Kingsbury . 

Dray ton ... 
in Drayton . 
La More ... 


Cur. Rivel c. 
ablata de C. 
Earnshill ... 
Fivehead ... 
Curry Mallet 
Hatch Beau. 

Staple Fitzp. 
Bickenhall . 
Buckl. S. M. 
V Dommett . 

Broadway ... 


M. V. F. 

1 + i 
3i + 3J 

1J + 1 

l + i 

5 + 2 

H. V. F. 

20 . . 

Isle Abbots . 
Isle Brewers 

Puckington . 

11 minster ... 

North Curry 

T aim ton . . . 
Sarnpford ... 

Thorne Falc. 
Chedd. Fitz. 
Norton Fitz. 
Allerford ... 

H. V. F. 

H. V. F 

5 -Hi 
6 + 2 
2, 1, 1, 1 

6 + 2 
3J + 24 

6 2 . 

8 . . 
5 . . 

15 2 2 
3 1 . 
1 . 2 

19 2 . 

8 . . 
3 . . 
10 . . 

20 . . 

. 1 . 
1 2 . 
3 . . 
1 2 . 
1 2 . 
5 . 

21 . . 

20 . . 

20 . . 

20 1 . 

58 3 . 
. 2 . 
2 . . 

10 . . 
5 . . 
2 2 . 
1 2 . 

61 1 . 

19 2 . 

6 . . 
6 . . 
1 . . 
5 . . 
. 2 . 
. 2 . 

1 . . 
1 2 . 
7 . 
5 . . 

19 2 



Papers, fyc. 
DISTRICT XI continued. 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 


H. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

Stoke S. My. 

2 . . 


3 . . 

Thurlbeer ... 

3 . . 


3 2 . 


15 . . 


3 2 . 




1 1 ( I 1 ^-' , 



. * ' . 

20 . . 


1 . . 


300 . . 

Bradford ... 

5 . . 

District XI contains the hundreds of Abdick and Bulestone, 
North Curry, and Taunton Dean, with the manors of Thurl- 
beer and Thorne Falcon, now part of North Curry. An 
isolated part of Taunton Dean is, however, included in Dis- 
trict XII. Eyton also includes in Taunton Dean a part of 
Sampford Arundel in Milverton hundred, being led thereto by 
the fact that part of Sampford is locally situate in Pitminster 
(Coll., iii, 25). But it is rather doubtful if in such a case the 
part would be called Sampford also, as it is in Domesday. 
Three of the vills belonging to the earl of Chester in the 
county, are placed with a query by Eyton in Taunton Dean, 
and their hidage fits in so well as to confirm his suggestion. 
But in only one other instance is even a single hide belonging 
to one district found in another ; and in this case, Whittox 
Meade, the circumstances are unusual (see notes on District IV). 
There is, however, no trace of a Sampford in the hundred ; so 
one is thrown back on the idea that the name of the place has 
been changed. The name of the earl of Chester's tenant, 
Maubank, is often found in the early records of the county, 
but seems to be connected rather with Williton Freemaiiors. 
The case will be noticed again. Blocks 1-9 present no un- 
usual features, as the two distinct vills in Buckland St. Mary 
have been treated of in the last District X. With regard to 
blocks 10-13, containing 120^ hides, the presence of the huge 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 87 

vill of Taunton, 58|- hides, causes a number of smaller vills to 
be isolated, and to form a fringe round it. Thus block 11 is 
really a fringe on the eastern and northern sides of Taunton. 
With this vill I have placed the detached vills of Angersleigh 
and Sampford. The latter because I am not quite certain as 
to its real locality, and the former as it may originally have 
been a member of Taunton. The two blocks, 10 and 11, make 
up a total of 80 hides, the quarter combining with another 
virgate in block 3 to counterbalance a deficiency in block 4, 
and as has been pointed out before in similar cases, these 
blocks adjoin one another. This is also the case with blocks 
5, 6, and 7. 




55 55 

"addita" to 
ClaytoU ... 
Chilt. Trepit 
Gothelney . 

Charlinch . . . 
Spaxton ... 
Pightley ... 

Suinduua ... 
Blackmore . 

terra Eddida 
terra Alwim 
terra Tedrici 

H. V. F. 

1 . 1 
. 2 2J 
. 2 . 

1 . . 

. . 4 
i . . 
. i . 


H. V. F. 

5 . . 
5 . 

1 contd. 
Petherham . 





55 55 
55 55 
55 55 

Stogursey . . . 


Honibere . . . 

H. V. F. 

. 1 . 

. . 2 

H. V. F. 

4 3 3f 
5 1 2 

1 2 . 
1 2 . 
1 2 2 
. 2 . 
. 1 . 

4 1 . 
. 3 . 
3 , . 
1 2 . 

1 2 . 
2 2 . 
1 . . 

20 1 If 

9 2 . 

iO 2 . 

1 . . 
. 1 . 
. 1 . 

' 'TTf 

. 2 2 


. i i 
. i . 

. 3 2| 
. 1 . 

2 2 . 
4 2 . 
. 2 . 
1 . . 



Papers, fyc. 
DISTRICT XII continued. 


II . V. F. 

II. V. F. 


II. V. F. 

H. V. F. 

Terra Olta . 
Wdieta ... 

. 1 . 

. 3 . 


Quantock E. 


7 . . 
3 2 . 

1 9 

Merridge .. 
Tux well . . . 


Marsh Mill . 

. 2 . 

. 1 . 

'i ! . 
i . . 

. 3 3 

n 1 

Perlestone . 
Weacombe . 
Torweston . 

Bicknoller . 

. 2 . 

1 . . 
1 2 . 
. 2 . 

. 2 . 

4. 9 

3 2 . 


3 . . 




. 3 . 

TWnl rvF 

19 . . 


Fiddington . 

4 . . 

1 A 

blocks 1 


99 3 Of 

Newhall ... 
Holford ... 


Stringston . 



. 1 . 
1 . . 
. 2 . 

. . 2 
1 . . 
. 1 2 
. . 2 
2 . . 


Bps. Lydiard 
Ash Priors . 
Lyd. S. Laur. 

3 + 1 

2 + 2 

9 3 . 
4 . . 
3 1 . 
4 . . 


9H 1 '^ 


\J 1 O 

Crowcombe . 

4 . . 
. 1 . 
. 3 . 


Lilstock ... 

5 . . 


T^ 1 wnvf li T" 

. 2 . 


10 2 . 


in 9 

Coleford ... 

. 1 3 




2 2 . 
2 . 

A 9 


Hartrow . . . 
Stogumber . 

1 . . 

2 . . 

5 9 

9 9 

20 . . 



The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 
DISTRICT XII continued. 


7 contd. 
Ulvertona . . . 

Sampf. Brett 
Watchet ... 


Imela & Oda 

Bromp. Ral. 
Clatworthy . 

Ludhuish ... 

Old Cleeve . 
G oldsoncott . 

Rodhuish ... 
Treborough . 


Alcombe ... 
Stanton, f , J 
Bradeuda ... 

Minehead ... 

H. V. F. 

. 2 . 

1 . . 

H. .V. F. 

5 1 . 

9 contd. 
Woot. Court. 

Allarcott . . . 
Langham ... 
Bickham ... 

Selworthy . 
Holnicote ... 


Luccombe . . . 

C ulbone . . . 

Allerford ... 
Bossington . 
Stoke Pero . 

Cutcombe ... 
Oaktrow ... 
Estaweit ... 

TOTAL 6-10 

H. V. F. 

. 3 . 
3 . . 
. 2 . 

. 1 . 

H. V. F. 

5 . . 

5 . . 
20 . . 

2 . . 

1 3 . 
. 2 . 
. 2 . 
. 2 . 

1 2 1 
. . 2 
. . 1 
2 . . 
1 . . 
. 1 . 

3 2 . 

1 2 . 

19 3 2 

5 . . 
5 . . 
5 1 . 

4 3 . 
20 . . 


. 2 2 
. 2 2 
3 . . 

5 1 
5 1 


19 3 . 
100 2 2 

2 3 . 
. 3 . 

1 2 . 

4 1 . 
. 2 . 

3 . . 
1 1 . 
1 . . 

3 . . 
. 1 . 
. 2 . 
1 . . 

1 . . 
1 . . 
1 . . 
. 1 . 
1 1 . 
. . 2 

1 2 . 


1 . '. 
1 . . 
. 2 . 
. 2 . 

: 5 . . 

5 . . 

3 . . 
. . 2 
. 1 . 
1 . . 
. 1 . 


Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. 


Papers, $c. 
DISTRICT XII continued. 


II. V. F. 

II. V. F. 


II. V. F. H. V. F. 

Exford ... 

. . 1 

Tolland ... 

2 . . 



Wiveli scorn. 

15 . . 


.' ! 2 

Manworthy . 

1 . . 


. . 1 

Bathealton . 

'2 . . 

55 ** 

. . 1 


. . 2 

20 . . 

Alms worthy 

. 1 . 


. . 2 

Cibearda ... 

1 . . 


Withypoole . 

. 2 . 


2 3 . 

Ash way 

. 2 1 

Torel's Pres. 

1 . . 

Hawkridge . 

. 1 . 

Milverton ... 

. 1 1 


2 . . 


. . 2 

5 3i 

4 3 

Winsford ... 

3 2 . 

Poleshill ... 

1 . . 


. 2 . 


1 . . 


1 . . 


1 . . 


r\" li" 'f i ^"f r^vrl 


3 . 1 

IJ \J \J 

. . . 

5 . . 

Quarme f + J 

1 1 . 


1 . . 


. 1 . 


. 3 . 


. . 1 


3 . . 


4 3 . 


1 3 3J 

Ashbrittle . 

5 2 . 


2 2 . 

Holland ... 

. 1 . 

19 1 3 


. 1 . 

Hawk well ... 

i H 

5 1 0| 



Runnington . 

2 . . 

20 2J 

Tho. 8. Marg 

I 3 . 

Samp. Arun. 

1 . 3 



Brom. Regis 
Middleton ... 

. 3 3 

10 . . 

Wellington . 

15 . . 


1 . . 

19 3 3 

Huish Cham. 

2 3 

Chipstable . 

2 2 . 

Raddington . 



99 3 3J 

Skilgate ... 

1 1 . 


10 1 3 


20 1 3 


300 1 H 

The Five- Hide -Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 91 

District XII, containing 300 hides, takes in an enormous 
area, stretching from the mouth of the Parret to Exmoor 
Forest. Within these bounds are the hundreds of Cannington, 
with one vill of North Petherton ; Milverton, Williton Free- 
manors, and Carhampton. Sheriffs Brompton, Cutcombe and 
Minehead, Brompton Regis, and Cleeve were separate hundreds 
at this period, now absorbed in the two last-named. There are 
also parts of Kingsbury West and Taunton Dean. The hold- 
ings are very small, this being the only district in which the 
subdivision of the fertine is used to any extent. In addition 
to this element of uncertainty in arranging the blocks, there is 
the further difficulty that a considerable number of small vills 
are unidentified by Eyton, beyond being assigned to a par- 
ticular hundred. 

From these two causes some of the results must be looked 
upon as tentative and perhaps provisional. Without unduly 
pressing details, the blocks do appear to have certain geo- 
graphical limits which help towards their delimitations. Of 
the first five blocks, containing 99h. 3v. Off., four of them 
are situate between the Parret and the summit of the Quan- 
tocks, the fifth covering the north-west shoulder of that range. 
The next five blocks, lOOh. 2v. 2f., occupy the northern 
section of the district from Quantock to Devon ; and the last 
five, 99h. 3v. 3^f., the southern section, the boundary line 
running for part of the way along the ridge of the Brendon 

In the table 1 have arranged the small holdings in groups 
of five hides each, within the blocks, to bring out as far as 
possible the features of the five-hide-unit arrangement. 

Block 1. Pury Furneaux temp. Domesday was in Wemb- 
don, and therefore in North Petherton hundred. Pilloc, this 
is one of a group of six vills belonging to Roger de Corcelle, 
placed by Eyton (ii, 19) in Carhampton hundred, but with a 
suggestion that they might be in Cannington or North Pether- 
toii. He could not identify them then, but the proof positive 

92 Papers, Sfc. 

that one of them (Dodisham) is in Cannington, and that there 
is a Blackmore (Blackamora) in Cannington, enables me to 
transfer the other four to the same parts, and to point out that 
this fresh evidence is really a witness to Eyton's extraordinary 
skill in identification of Domesday manors. Dodisharn in 
Cannington is mentioned in the Inq. P.M. of Walter Michel 
of Gournay Street, who died 20 Oct., 1487, seised of tene- 
ments in Dodisham, Pegenesse, and Petherham ; and also in 
the will of Richard Michel!, proved 1563-4, " Dudisham in 
Cannington." 1 Blackmore is an old farmhouse in the same 
parish ( Proc., xliii, i, 38, and illustration). " Suinduna " may 
be Swang Farm. Idstock (Ichetocha), though described by 
Collinson as a part of Chilton Trinity in North Petherton 
hundred, is set down in the Proportion Roll, 1742, as forming 
with Beere in Cannington a separate tithing in Cannington 

Block 2. Honibere is in Domesday " Hederneberia," left 
unidentified by Eyton ; see account by Rev. W. H. P. Greswell, 
" Alien Priory of Stoke Courcy," Proc. xliii, ii, 66. 

Block 3. " Wdieta " is one of the six returned vills of 
Roger de Corcelle : both terra Olta and Holcome belonged to 
him. The four sections of Stowey are reckoned by Eyton 
to belong exclusively to Nether Stowey. He thought that 
Over Stowey was then a part of Stockland Bristol. But this 
I venture to think was only the result of trying to make every 
hide contain so many acres of land, a belief from which Eyton 
could never shake himself free. Now it is very true that the 
hides of Stockland Bristol contained very few acres (eighty- 
seven), but they were not the smallest in Somerset ; Weston- 
in-Gordano having only seventy-two acres to every hide, and 
four other vills in the county have less than 100 acres to each 

The Rev. W. H. P. Greswell makes the very probable 
suggestion that the portion of Stowey containing three vir- 

1. Brown, F., "Somerset Wills," vi, 3. 

Tlie Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 93 

gates, which Dodo, an English Thane, held temp. Domesday, 
is really Dodington. The place does not appear in any of the 
early lists of vills, e.y., Kirby, Nomina Villarum, Lay Subsidy, 
etc. ; it is mentioned in an Assize Roll of Henry III ; in 1335 
the chapel of Dodington is described as being in the parish of 
Nether Stowey; 1 the list of rectors and patrons in Weaver 
begins only in 1473 ; so Dodington certainly appears as a 
rather late creation of a separate parish. 

In block 5, I have entered Bicknoller as the modern equiva- 
lent of " Alra," left indeterminate by Eyton. Collinson de- 
rives the name from two British words signifying a " little 
treasury." This is indeed a little treasure of pre-scientific 
etymology, but not to be taken seriously at the present time. 
I cannot pretend to improve on it, but can only suggest that 
as there is ground for supposing that the first part of Bicken- 
stoke in Chew hundred is a post-Domesday addition to the 
original name Stoke (see note on that place), that such may 
also have happened here to distinguish Alra from other vills 
of the same name. Bicknoller is Bykenalre, 1327, Bykennalre, 
1284, Kirby's Quest. There are several places with this prte- 
nomen in the Devonshire Domesday. Newton, not identified 
by Eyton, is in the modern parish of Bicknoller, together with 
Woolston. Torweston, though in Sampford Brett, is on the 
same side of the stream as the other places in this block. 
Perlestona is Pardlestone farm in Kilve. 

Block 7. Aili or Ailgi is placed by Eyton in Carhampton 
Hundred. He does not notice Collinson's statement that it is 
the modern Vellow (iii, 546). " Cotford land in Aylly," does 
seem a link with Catford in Stogumber. On the other hand, 
that this manor and land of Aylley were held of Elizabeth 
Lady Audley, points to Aley in Over Stowey as the locality, 
for this was the territory of that family (Collinson, iii, 552). 
Ulvertona has not yet been identified, but is placed by Eyton 
in Williton hundred. 

1. Reg. Radulphi de Salopia, p. 239. 

94 Papers, Sfc. 

Block 9. Bradeuda may be Broadwood in Carhampton, 
behind Dunster park; and Mena may be East and West Myne 
near Bratton, in Minehead. Eppsa, Donescombe, and Sord- 
maniford are still unidentified. The last-named was given by 
William de Mohun and Reginald his son, i.e. before 1213, to 
Cleeve abbey. Shortmanisford is mentioned with Durborough 
(block 2) in a fine of 40 Hen. Ill, no. 168. 

Block 10. Estaweit and the two Combes are not identified, 
the last necessarily so in a land which is all Combes : but Esta- 
weit may be Stowey in Cutcombe (old Stowey and Stowey 
farm). If these identifications be admitted, the symmetry 
of the four parts of this block is peculiar, the two parts nearest 
the sea being equal, and the two upland parts also being alike 
in a curious fraction. 

Block 11. Estana and Cibeurda, not hitherto identified, 
may be Stone and Chibbet in Exford. Eyton suggested this 
locality for Estana (ii, 20). Lega he placed in Carhampton 
hundred, but Leigh in Winsford would be adjacent to other 
holdings of de Moione. In the parish of Dulverton, on the 
borders of Devonshire, is Hawkwell, which I think is the 
Hawkwella of Domesday, placed by Eyton in Norton Hawk- 
field in District V. There is also a Hawkwell in Cutcombe, 
but the one in Dulverton seems to have been the more im- 
portant. In Domesday it belonged to two English thanes, so 
we get no help from that. Taunton Priory presented to the 
rectory of Havekewell in 1324 and 1327, 1 but not later; and 
as Dulverton rectory also belonged to them, the two rectories 
may have been amalgamated. Among the taxpayers in Dul- 
verton manor, 1 Edw. Ill, is Richard de Hanckwelle, viiid. 

Block 13. " Maneurda," not identified by Eyton further 
than being placed in this neighbourhood, is clearly Manworthy, 
as Maneworth is a separate vill in Kirby's Quest. 

In these twelve Districts will be found the whole of Somerset 
1. Reg. Bishop Drokensford, S. R. S., i, 229, 267. 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 95 

liable to the geld, Avith certain exceptions. The non-geldable 
portions are ex necessitate excluded. They may be divided 
into two classes, (1) the domains royal or ecclesiastical which 
have never been assessed in hides ; (2) a very few places of 
which it is recorded that though the hidage is known yet the 
geld was never levied. The second class are a small vill in 
Milborne Port, and another in Wearne near Langport. 

The hidated portions which do not appear in the Districts are 
Bedminster hundred, six-and-half hides ; and in Frome 
hundred, Tellisford, five hides, and Farleigh (Hungerford), 
half hide ; total, twelve hides. These places cannot be fitted 
into any block of the Districts where they are situated, and 
their addition upsets the round figures to which the totals of 
the districts closely approximate. Now, after bringing into 
play every scrap of evidence available, in three Districts there 
were gaps, of which at the time nothing could be made. In 
District I, four-and-threequarter hides in blocks 12 and 
14; in District III, two-and-quarter hides in block 15; in 
District IV, five hides in block 1 ; total twelve hides. I 
believe myself that this coincidence represents an effort to keep 
the sum total of the hidage in the county at the same figure, in 
spite of the appearance of fresh areas liable to the geld. Bed- 
minster hundred may originally have been an exempt royal 
domain, of which certain portions having been granted out to 
subjects, forthwith became liable to geld. It is not so easy to 
account for the appearance of Tellisford and Farleigh. The 
Geld-Inquest for the hundred of Frome gives 298 hides, and 
Eyton's table of the hundred recovered from Domesday con- 
tains 303^ hides, that is an increase of five-and-half hides. So 
it really looks as if in the interval between 1084 and 1086 
these two vills had been added to the hundred, perhaps even 
to the county, and if anybody asks where from, one can only 
suggest Wiltshire. This must remain unsettled until the Wilts 
Domesday has been re-arranged in tables. Replacing the 
missing hides in the three Districts, the analysis presents these 
remarkable figures : 

96 Papers, fyc. 

If. V. F. H. V. F. 

District I . 299 3 District VII . 200 2 

II . 300 2 3i VIII . 221 3 T ] 

III . 300 00 IX . 197 2 2 

IV . 120 X . 200 1 

V . 300 XI . 300 

VI 200 XII 300 1 U 

2940 2 OiJ 

It is impossible to look at the total of each District, and 
avoid the conclusion, that whoever was responsible for fixing 
the figures, desired to have in Somerset a number of areas 
containing even hundreds, with, in two instances, an extra 
twenty hide block thrown in. 

Perhaps at this point one ought to stop, having before one's 
mind Professor Maitland's warning, 1 that "microscopic labour 
is apt to engender theories which break down the moment they 
are carried outside the district in which they had their origin ; " 
but as only a calculating machine could have gone through 
the work without producing something in the shape of a theory, 
I now proceed to offer some suggestions concerning these 
results, and further to try to hitch them on to any pegs in 
Anglo-Saxon history which seem able to give them a hold. 

First of all it must be settled when the figures were last 
arranged. For the benefit of those who have not Eyton's 
analysis at hand, I must state that the totals of the hidage in 
each hundred in the Geld Inquests of 1084, and the totals of 
the hundreds as arranged by Eyton from Domesday, seldom 
agree exactly. Of the 2940 hides, 208 hides are in hundreds 
whose Inquests have been lost, 434 hides are in hundreds where 
the figures of either return agree, and the remaining 2298 hides 
are in hundreds where the figures vary. As a rule the Domes- 
day figures are the higher, and the excess greater, than in the 
instances where the contrary results are found. 

1. "Domesday and Beyond, ' p. 407. Cambridge, 1897. 

The Five- Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 97 

The difference in some of the hundreds is quite a negligeable 
quantity. In other cases the differences in adjoining hundreds 
counterbalance each other. The Domesday figures of Hare- 
clive show an excess of two-and-quarter hides, the Domesday 
figures of Portbury show a decrease of two-and-quarter hides 
and two fertines. Bulestone has an excess of one virgate, 
Abdick a decrease of the same amount. Williton Freemanors 
has an excess of 3h. Ov. 3Jf., Carhampton has a deficiency of 
2h. 2v. If. The increase in the Domesday figures of Frome 
of five-and-half hides I have above considered to be due to an 
importation into the hundred. The large increase in Bruton 
hundred I have elsewhere 1 attributed to the inclusion of 
Queens Camel, which was in the Geld Inquest of 1084 treated 
for the nonce as "terra Regis," and so placed under a separate 
heading not now to be found. The excess of six-and-quarter 
hides in Givelea (Yeovil) hundred, is perhaps due to some en- 
tanglement with Coker hundred, of which the Geld has been 
lost (see notes on District I). There is only one case which 
seems for the present to be beyond explanation. Chewton has 
an excess of eight hides, Winterstoke llh. Iv. 2f., Congres- 
buiy one hide, and Cheddar two fertines : a total of twenty- 
and-half hides ; while Chew has a deficiency of one-and-half 
hides. These hundreds are very much intermixed, and the 
net result is an excess of nineteen hides. Ten hides of this 
total has been caused by the introduction of Compton (ten 
hides), which, though Eyton left unidentified, I consider to be 
Compton Bishop (see notes on District VIII). Eyton was 
puzzled by the great difference in the figures of Chewton 
hundred, and attributed the rise to an excess of zeal on the 
part of the Domesday Commissioners. I venture to offer a 
different explanation. Yatton (twenty hides), placed by Eyton 
in Chewton hundred, was undoubtedly at a period antecedent 
to Domesday, and also afterwards as late as the reign of 
Henry III, a separate hundred. May it not be that it was 

1. " Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries," v, 346. 
Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol.- V), Port II. n 

98 Papers, $c. 

also at this date, 1084-6, separate ; though, its Inquest having 
been lost, as was often the case with the smaller areas, it 
has been included in one of the hundreds among which it was 
situate. If this could be supposed probable, the totals of the 
Domesday figures and those of the Geld I nquests, plus one for 
Yatton, would balance. If it was rated on nineteen hides in- 
stead of twenty, its full hidage, its case would be exactly 
similar to Congresbury, an adjacent manor rated at twenty 
hides, but paying geld on nineteen hides. The removal of 
Yatton from Chew hundred would result in a deficiency of 
twelve hides, as against an excess of eleven hides in Winter- 
stoke. This could easily be got over if we can accept 
Eyton's suggestion that at this period, as he indeed shows over 
and over again, several manors were not in the hundreds 
where we afterwards find them. But which manor of Winter- 
stoke hundred was at this period in Chewton I cannot settle. 

This confession of ignorance does not affect the result 
that the Domesday figures differ from the Geld Inquest returns. 
Now as it is from the Domesday figures that the tables 
have been constructed, and the symmetrical results arrived at, 
which would have been impossible with the earlier figures of 
the Geld Inquest of 1084, it would seem to follow that this 
elaborate system was introduced in 1086, and not till then. 

Eyton certainly believed that the Domesday figures were 
more modern than the Geld Inquest figures, but here I must 
differ from him. The very wording of the mighty return 
shows that the Domesday Commissioners were conducting an 
enquiry after an older state of things and hidage than that 
which was prevailing in their day. The assessment is always 
set down as that prevailing in the time of king Edward, that 
is before the Geld Inquests of 1084 ; and so I think that 
where there is a return made of a vill that T.R.E. it paid on a 
certain number of hides, but that there are really a larger 
number of hides there, the returns refer, not to a re-valuation 
made then and there, but to the older assessment which had 

The Fivc-Hidc-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 99 

been alleviated T.R.E. This conclusion of course makes a 
decrease of hidage from king Edward's days to 1084, and such 
a shrinkage is taught by the history of the times. From the 
first reference to the number of hides in the Tribal List of 
700, down to the latest collection of Danegeld, temp. Henry II, 
there is apparent a continuous decline in the number of hides 
liable to the levy. The disappearance of hides, a marked 
feature of Edward's reign, was evidently checked under 
William's rule, for not the lighter rate of the last of the 
Saxons, but the earlier figures, are required to make the Inquest 
totals, yet a certain leakage there was. The rate of decline 
varies in different counties ; in Somerset it is very small, in 
Wilts very large. 

And may it not have been one of the objects of the Domes- 
day Survey to stop this leakage ? The royal commissioners, 
with the " stark " Conqueror in the background as the final 
court of appeal, might well compel the jurors to return the 
very uttermost fertine in their district, which custom may have 
allowed the native hundredors to pass over. The very small- 
ness of the difference, fifteen hundreds showing an increase of 
twenty-eight hides in Domesday over Geld Inquest totals ; and 
six showing a decrease of eight hides, or a net difference of 
twenty hides in a total of 2298 hides (the figures of Grivelea and 
Yatton, Bruton, and Frome are not included) shows how care- 
fully the tax was collected, and perhaps the jealousy of the 
Conqueror, lest aught should escape the treasury : and we 
know in the words of the chronicler, that he was given to 
avarice and greedily loved gain. 

So taking the evidence of Domesday itself, it seems probable 
that the figures of the hidage are older than the Conquest. 

Eyton held in his Introductory Essay on the Dorset Domes- 
day, that the assessment was made in the reign of Ethelred the 
Unready, of evil memory : being led thereto by the historical 
fact that the Danegeld was first paid in his reign. 1 In his own 

1. "Chronicle," A.I). 991. 

100 Papers, $c. 

words, "When, in the days of king Ethelred (979-1016) the 
country was surveyed and subdivided for the purposes of equal 
taxation, the hide was accepted as the basis of assessment. 
Then, too, we may be sure, the hidage of most counties, and of 
Dorset among the rest, was scrutinized and readjusted ; then 
the lands were not measured indeed, still less re-measured, but 
were so divided and parcelled as to bring one hide into fair 
comparison with .another. And here again the hide virtually, 
though not designedly, assumed still more the seeming of an 
areal measure." 

That statement seems to be self -contradictory. There is no 
equal size in the hide after his reign, nor equal value either. 1 
There is no historical evidence that Ethelred, or his wise men 
either, did or could have made a re-survey of the country. 
That the number of hides in any vill was not necessarily altered 
at this date, has been well brought out by the Rev. C. S. 
Taylor, vicar of Ban well, 2 who has utilized the evidence of 
Anglo-Saxon charters to show that when the subject of a 
charter can be identified with a Domesday vill, the chances 
are that though the charter may be hundreds of years older 
than Ethelred, the vill will have the same number of hides. 

Now there are still in existence three ancient lists of hides in 
England, which are known as the County Hidage, c. 1000 ; 
the Burghal Hidage temp. Edward the Elder, c. 920 ; and the 
Tribal Hidage, c. 700, according to the different headings 
under which the hides are given. The first one, unfortunately, 
does not include Somerset. But the Chronicle gives, among 
the many futile plans of Ethelred the Unready's wise men, a 
fiscal device, which seems to bear out my arrangement of the 
hundreds in great districts containing 200 to 300 hides apiece. 
The entry is under the year 1008 A.D. "As the text of the 
majority of our authorities stands, every 300 and ten hides were 

1. See " Appendix." 

2. Pre-Dumesday Hide of Gloucestershire ; Transactions of Bristol and 
Glouc. Arch. Soc., vol. xvii. 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 101 

required to build and equip a ship of war. One text reads, 
from three hundred a ship and from ten a skiff," i.e. a smaller 
vessel. There is an absence of subject to the figures, but if 
we might read in " hides," as in most texts, the first part of 
this primeval levy of ship money fits in with the figures of the 
larger districts. 1 

As to the districts containing 200, and in one case 220 hides, 
it is noticeable that they are, with one exception, grouped to- 
gether in the middle of the county. If it be allowed that Bath 
Forum, District IV, was at this period in the county, then IV, 
V, VI would make a total of 620 hides, an assessment of two 
big ships and two little ones; and Districts VII, VIII, IX 
would yield an equally symmetrical result. District X is, 
however, unconformable, unless it may have been combined 
with other districts in the neighbouring county of Dorset. As 
far as a small effort to group the hundreds in the western part 
of Dorset went, it produced two districts of 200 hides apiece. 

It is of course quite likely that in a time of such universal 
distress and danger, provincial boundaries may have been dis- 
regarded in favour of the efforts aforesaid, efforts which seemed 
as hopeless as those of a " hag-rod " dreamer to get rid of 
his nightmare. But this suggestion must await a fresh 
analysis of the Dorset Domesday. The city of Bath we know 
had no assessment of hidage in the gift of king Osric. 

As regards the extra twenty hides in District VIII, they 
may also emphasize the fact that at the date of the original 
assessment either Yatton (twenty hides), or Congresbury 
(twenty hides), had, like Bath, an immunity. But the figures 
of the second authority to be quoted make this twenty hides of 
longer standing in the Greld-rate of Somerset. The document 
called the Burghal Hidage gives a list of Burghs in southern 

1. Ramsay, " Foundations of England," i, 360, and n. " For the assess- 
ment of one ship on three hundreds, Mr. C. Plummer has called my attention 
to the disputed charter of Eadgar, Cod. Dip. , vi, p. 240, where three hundreds 
appear to be given as a normal ' scyp-fylled," or " scyp-socne. ' " And Free- 
man, "Norm. Conq.,"i, 647, n. 11. 

102 Papers, 8fc. 

and south-western England, and after each name the number 
of hides which were supposed to belong to it. Professor 
Maitland (p. 502) considers that its age, at the latest, is that 
of Edward the Elder, 901-925, one hundred years earlier than 
our last halting place ; and that it is a system of military de- 
fence ; fortified strongholds (no need to say against what 
enemy) to be supported by the surrounding country. Of 
Burghs in Somerset we have : To Watchet (Weced), 513 ; to 
Axbridge (Axanbrige), 400; to Lyng (Lenge), 100; to 
Langport, 600 ; to Bath, 3200 ; total, 4813 hides. Now as in 
Domesday Somerset only contained 2940 hides, and Bath 120 
hides was part of Mercia at this date, 2820 hides must either 
denote a marvellous shrinkage, or the presence of a disturbing 
element in the earlier total. This element is, I think, to be 
found in the figures relating to Bath. Professor Maitland 
(p. 456) thinks that these figures included the hidage of 
Gloucestershire. The totals of the hidage of that county vary 
in the old lists ; if one may take the total of 2000, as given in 
one list, there are left 1200 hides supporting Bath, which are to 
be looked for in Somerset, and the total for the county burghs 
is 2813 hides, marvellously near the 2820 hides of Domesday. 

Districts VII and VIII, with 420 hides, may have been 
allotted to the support of Axbridge 400 hides. Districts I, II, 
III, V, containing 1200, stretch upwards to Bath, requiring 
that number. Langport 600 may have been supported by 
Districts VI, IX, X, 600 hides, though it actually is situated 
in District II ; and District IX contains Lenge. Districts 
XI and XII, 600 hides, may fairly well support Watchet 513 
and Leng 100 = 613 hides. 

But the districts and the burghs do not sort well together, 
though the totals agree ; and I think that we must appeal to 
the still earlier document for the conditions under which the 
districts were formed and in actual service. 

This document is called the Tribal hidage list, because the 
hides are arranged, not under counties as in the latest list, nor 

The Fivc-Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 103 

under the fortified burghs, but under the names of Anglo- 
Saxon kingdoms and tribes. It is generally considered by 
authorities to have been drawn up about 700 A.D. 

Now the totals of the hides of each tribe are given in round 
numbers, of which the lowest unit is 300 hides, rising by 
multiples to 600, 900, and 1200, after which number the 
figures rise by thousands to an incredible point. One of the 
smallest units of 300 hides is allotted to a place called Gifla, 
which is the same as Gifle, the Anglo-Saxon form of Yeovil. 
The late Mr. Kerslake had already spotted this identification 
of Gyfla, and made use of his discovery to argue that this 
district of Gifle, with its 300 hides, was a primitive " scir " or 
shire, a portion cut off from the British territory by the 
English victory at Pen, in" 658, when Kenwalk drove the 
Britons to the Parret. But I have already been able to re- 
unite the hundreds of Givela (Yeovil), Coker, and Milborne 
into one district (No. I) containing 300 hides, extending from 
Pen to the Parret, of which district Yeovil is the centre. If 
it be conceded that the scene of the battle was not Penselwood, 
in Norton Ferris hundred, but Poyntington, in Milborne 
hundred, then we should have in one well-defined district the 
site of the battle, the whole of the area won by the conquerors, 
the chief town or burgh of the district ; and last, and perhaps 
for our present purposes most important of all, the number of 
hides at which the new community was assessed in the fiscal 
arrangements of the West Saxons' kingdom. 

Further than this point the figures and theories cannot be 
carried. As they stand I submit them to the criticism of all 
who are interested in the history of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

It may seem incredible that an assessment made c. 700 A.D., 
should last down to 1066. But the writer of this paper is in 
this year of grace paying firstfruits on an assessment made in 

1. Wessex is entered in this list, so Gitie, as Professor Maitland has pointed 
out to me, must be a reiteration ; but the totals of the larger areas are so 
outrageous, that the two sets of figures caunot be treated on the same basis. 

104 Papers, *c. 

1538, and land tax according to figures settled in the reign of 
William III. So the English may well have continued to pay 
taxes on the old figures, until the arrival of the feudal system 
with William I. It does seem that the double entries of values 
in Domesday point to some indication on the Conqueror's part 
to introduce a new assessment. His troubles and death within 
two years would throw back the whole scheme of reform, for 
tho Conqueror's bow was not the only part af his equipment 
which no other man possessed, so the reform was deferred until 
the reign of Henry II, when the Danegeld finally gave place 
to other systems of taxation. 

It may be objected that having brought out the five-hide- 
unit I have made nothing of it. But the unit is so connected 
with questions relating to tenure of land and military service, 
not only in England, but also on the Continent, that a discus- 
sion in a local survey would be out of place. 


To make it still clearer that neither the hide nor the team- 
land, " terra ad carucam," was a fixed area, I have arranged 
District I in tabular form, showing for each civil parish the 
number of hides (and carucates) of team lands, the value 
when each holder received his share of the spoil, and the 
modern acreage. Also in two other columns the number of 
acres in each hide and its value. 

Mr. Round's researches have definitely decided in the nega- 
tive the ancient problem as to whether the hide was ever in- 
tended to have a fixed area. Mr. Eyton's view that the team- 
land was precisely 120 acres must needs be answered in the 
same way. In Professor Maitland's own words (Domesday 
and Beyond, p. 431), "For Mr. Eyton the team-land was pre- 

The Five-Hide- Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 105 

cisely 120 of our statute acres. The proof offered of this lies 
in a comparison of the figures given by Domesday, with the 
superficial contents of modern parishes. What seems to us to 
have been proved is that, if we start with the proposed equa- 
tion, we shall rarely be brought into violent collision with 
ascertained facts, and that, when such a collision seems immi- 
nent, it can almost always be prevented by the intervention of 
some plausible hypothesis about shifted boundaries or neglected 
wastes. More than this has not been done. Always at the 
end of his toil the candid investigator admits that when he has 
added up all the figures that Domesday gives for arable, 
meadow, wood, and pasture, the land of the county is by no 
means exhausted. Then the residue must be set down as " un- 
surveyed" or "unregistered," and guesses made as to its 
whereabouts. Then, further, this method involves theories 
about lineal and superficial measurements which are, in our 
eyes, precarious." 



Tea in- 



Acres to 
one bide. 

Value of one 

s. d. 



s. d. 

Sutton Bingham . 



5 . . 



1 . . 

Gorton Denham . 



7 . 
4 . . 



. 18 4 




5 . . 



1 . . 

Thome Coffin ... 



2 10 . 



. 15 4 

Perrott, North . 



7 . . 



. 14 . 

Sock Dennis 



4 . . 



. 16 . 




12 . . 



1 4 . 

Templecombe ... 




16 . . 
. 14 . 



1 4 3 




2 . . 

. 10 . 

I 576 


. 12 6 

Clos worth 



7 . . 



1 . . 

Charl. Horethorn. 



24 . . 



1 12 . 

Chisselbo rough . 



3 . . 



. 12 . 

Vol. XLV (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. 


Papers, fyc. 
DISTRICT I continued. 





Acres to 
one hide. 

Value of one 

s. d. 



s. d. 




8 . . 
2 5 . 



1 . 6 

Chinnock, West . 
Mid . 



3 . . 

4 . . 



1 . . 




9 3 . 



1 . 4 

Cheriton, North . 



4 . . 



. 16 . 

Chilthorn. Domer 



5 . 
2 10 . 



. 18 9 




2 . . 



. 13 4 

S. Cheriton 




8 15 . 



. 16 2 

Sandford Orcas . 



8 . '. 



1 3 4 




1 . . 



. 17 9 





28 . . 



1 5 5 

Chinnock, E. ... 



12 . . 



1 14 3 

Marston Magna . 



12 . . 



1 14 3 

Mudf ord 



10 . . 
. 10 . 



. 13 5 




6 . . 



1 4 . 

Hasel. Plucknett 



8 . . 



. 16 . 




5 . . 



1 . . 




2 . . 



. 8 . 




19 1 . 



1 5 4 




12 14 . 



1 5 4 




10 . . 



1 7 7 

Luf ton 


. 12 . 



. 12 . 




1 . . 



1 . . 




2 . . 



. 13 4 




. 15 . 



. 7 6 




1 10 . 



1 . . 




9 10 . 
2 . . 



1 3 . 

TOTAL ... 



311 19 



1 1 

The Five- Hide-Unit in the Somerset Domesday. 107 

Yeovil had a little " imperium in imperio " in its midst, 
"twenty-two tenants holding in paragio," but it is not likely 
that their united territory was so large as to require a great 
deduction of acres, and a consequent diminution in the size of 
the hide. Henstridge had, in addition to its hides, eight caru- 
cates, which Mr. Eyton considered to be the expression for 
hides no longer liable to the geld. On the other side, I have 
not included Barwick, of which nothing more is known than 
its hidage ; nor the figures relating to Ilchester and Milborne 
Port, as they can only refer to small portions of the royal 
domains. The team lands for Oakley are wanting. If its 
hidage be subtracted, the number of hides and team lands in 
the district will be the same to a fraction. 

I also give the averages contained in the last two columns 
of the table for all the districts, with the warning that the 
figures are to be taken " subject to a final audit." 

Acres in Value of Acres in Value of 

oae hide, one hide. one hide, one hide. 

District I 193 110 District VII 282 18 1 

II 253 105 VIII 418 1 3 9 

III 233 16 4 IX 250 18 8 

IV 164 1 6 10 X 202 1 5 

V 248 10 10 XI 272 163 

VI 294 16 5 XII 762 1 11 8 

For the County 310 1 1 4 

on ancient TSrttisf) ant) Romano 



DURING the Autumn and Winter of 1897-8, the writer's 
attention was called to a remarkable series of remains 
which had been found by the workmen at the Tyning quarry, 
near the South-Eastern boundary of the parish of Radstock, 
and early in the present year it was his good fortune to make 
a farther discovery in a new quarry then being opened out in 
the Kilmersdon road, about a mile to the South-West of 
Tyning, the remains being of a still more varied and interest- 
ing character. 

Without making any pretension to special knowledge on 
the subject with which the paper deals, he would desire to 
bring under the notice of the members of this society, and 
to place on record in its proceedings, the facts connected with 
a discovery which may throw some light on the early history 
of the races which formerly inhabited the country around 


The scene of the first discovery was about half-a-mile to 
the East of Radstock Station, and in order to explain its 
geological position, the attention of the members is directed 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains. 109 

to a section of strata running North and South through 
Tyning Pit, which may be considered a typical section of 
the strata met with on the surface in this central area of the 
Somersetshire coal basin. 1 It shews in the upper part of the 
section the Inferior Oolite which occupies all the higher 
ground to the East of Radstock. 

Below this formation lies a series of Lias shales of consider- 
able thickness, with occasional layers of coarse stone, the 
shales having been used extensively here and elsewhere in 
brick making, and next in descending order comes the Lias 
quarry, from which stone has been quarried for many years 
for local purposes. It may be briefly said that below the 
superficial covering, which will presently be referred to in 
detail, lies about 6 feet in thickness of the Lower Lias, fol- 
lowed by the Rhretic White Lias and Black Marl which form 
the basement beds in the Tyning quarry. Then follow, in the 
usual order, the Keuper Marls or New Red Sandstone, and 
the Coal Measures, but neither of these formations have any 
bearing on the subject of the present paper. 

It was in the ordinary course of quarrying operations in the 
Tyning quarry during the Autumn of 1897, that the workmen 
met with the first series of remains to which the attention of 
the Members will now be invited. It has already been pointed 
out that immediately above the regular beds of the Lias, there 
occurs here, as elsewhere in the Radstock district, a superficial 
deposit of varying thickness, known locally by the workmen as 
the " ruckle of the Lias," consisting of loose debris, evidently 
derived from the Lias rocks in the immediate locality, which 
has been deposited in a brown clayey earth, probably when 
the land about here was last submerged. It contains irregular 
fragments of Lias, mostly thin arid water worn, which have 
been deposited in a semi-stratified order, and in which frag- 
ments of Belemnites and other Liassic fossils are frequently 

1. This section is not given. 

110 Papers, fyc. 

In this particular quarry the thickness of the deposit is 
about 4 feet, and, according to their usual practice, the quarry- 
men were engaged in removing it in order to uncover the solid 
beds of rock which lay beneath, when they suddenly came 
upon a total change in the deposit which attracted their atten- 
tion. Instead of the ordinary Lias debris intermixed with 
brown clay or earth, they discovered what had evidently been 
an ancient excavation of a very unusual character, the infilling 
consisting of ordinary dark surface soil, intermixed with a 
variety of ancient remains which form the subject of the 
present paper. 

The enlarged section of this part of the quarry will ex- 
plain the position of this excavation, which was rudely circular 
in form, its dimensions being about 4 feet in depth by 4 
feet in diameter. Its sides were not walled round in any 
way, but there was no difficulty in distinguishing it from 
the adjoining strata in which it had been excavated. It 
will be observed that it had only been carried down to the 
bottom of the Liassic debris, the bottom of the hole resting on 
the solid beds of the Lias. It is greatly to be regretted that 
the quarrymen did not cease operations as soon as they met 
with these remains, and that the writer's attention was not 
called to them at once, but they probably did not recognise the 
importance of their discovery until some of the more striking 
objects were met with, so that some of the contents were seri- 
ously damaged and others probably lost. Sufficient, however, 
was preserved to show that the excavation and subsequent in- 
filling were of a very ancient character, the contents of which 
the writer will now endeavour to describe. 

Ancient Quern. Prominent amongst the contents of the pit 
which has been described is the Quern now exhibited, which 
was found associated with the principal finds within a few 
inches of the bottom of the pit. (See Plate A, Figs. 1 and 
2.) It will be seen that only the upper half of the Quern 
has been found, diligent search having failed to discover the 






Up per side. 





Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains. Ill 

other half ; but its place has been supplied by an approxi- 
mate model in wood, based on examples which are to be seen 
in the museum at Grlastonbury, where nearly twenty Querns, 
or parts of Querns, were found in the ancient British village 
discovered by Mr. Arthur Bulleid, to whom, and to his 
father, the writer is indebted for much useful information on 
the subject. In the present instance the portion of the Quern 
found is a good example of its kind, comparing favourably 
with the specimens in Bath and Grlastonbury, from which it 
differs in several respects to which attention will now be 

One of these distinctions is in the mode by which the handle 
was attached to the stone, which in most of the Querns the 
writer has seen was by means of a hole bored in an oblique di- 
rection in the upper half of the stone ; but it will be observed 
that in the example now submitted, the mode of attachment 
has been by means of a dove-tailed groove, extending from the 
rim of the stone to what I will venture to call the grain hopper 
in the centre, the handle fitting in, as shewn in the example 
which I have had made, which will, at all events, serve to ex- 
plain the principle. It will be observed that the stone stands 
higher on the side containing the groove, no doubt to give the 
handle a better hold. One of the Glastonbury specimens is of 
this construction, but in that case the dove-tail does not extend 
through to the grain hopper, stopping short by an inch. 

It may here be remarked that this Quern appears to be al- 
most an exact counterpart in all respects of one found during 
the recent excavations at Silchester, a drawing and description 
of which appeared in the Illustrated London News of 17th 
June, the only difference being that the Silchester specimen 
still retained its original wooden handle, notwithstanding the 
lapse of 2,000 years. 

These Querns are supposed to have been fixed in shallow 
wooden boxes, into which the meal or Hour produced dropped 
on leaving the stones, but what kind of article was thus pro- 

112 Papers, fyc. 

duced, or what kind of grain was chiefly treated by such mills, 
we can only conjecture. 

In this, as in the Glastonbury examples, it is difficult to 
identify the geological formation from which the stone has 
been obtained, which could only be solved by breaking up the 

In comparing the Quern with a modern Indian example 
in the Bath museum, the writer could not fail to be impressed 
with the fact that the human intellect is much the same in all 
generations, and that the same primitive conditions beget 
primitive contrivances in half civilized nations now, as in the 
ages long since passed away. 

The Spindle Whorl. The specimen found in the Tyning 
quarry, and now exhibited, is a good example of another early 
contrivance which was in common use amongst our ancestors 
in the ancient British and Romano-British age. (Sec Plate A, 
Fig. 3.) It was used in spinning yarn, a short rod being 
fixed in the hole in the centre and held in one hand, while 
with the other the early craftsman or craftswoman made the 
whorl spin round, giving the requisite twist to the yarn. The 
same remark which I have already made about the hand mills, 
ancient and modern, would appear to be equally applicable 
here, for the natives of Zanzibar are said to use a very 
similar contrivance to this day, the native women, with their 
younger children strapped on their backs, deftly spinning their 
yarn from materials which are contained in a pouch on the 

These spindle whorls seem to have been made from what- 
ever came to hand, and are of all kinds of materials, some being 
made from the stones of the locality, some from pottery, and 
others, according to Professor Boyd Dawkins, being of lead, 
while in one example at Glastonbury the primeval spinner has 
made use of a small ammonite, thus constituting himself or 
herself one of the earliest collectors in that department of 
geology with which we are so familiar in this district. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains. 113 

In the specimen now exhibited the material is White Lias, 
which outcrops on the slopes of the adjoining ground. 

Black Pottery. It is greatly to be regretted that this part 
of the find came into the writer's hands in a fragmentary con- 
dition. From the statements of the quarrymen the pottery 
was broken when discovered, and it probably received further 
damage during its removal from the pit, so that only three of 
the pieces found will join together ; but the specimens now 
submitted are sufficient to show the nature of the pottery, 
which is of a coarse description, indicating a very early date. 
It was probably hand made, and the clay from which it was 
formed has evidently been mixed with shells which Professor 
Boyd Dawkins pronounces to be recent, and amongst which he 
recognises the cockle. 

What the shape or use of this particular article of pottery 
may have been there is not sufficient to show, but it is possible 
that if it had been examined before it was disturbed, it might 
have been found to contain some evidence of burial by crema- 
tion. Those who have had the advantage of comparing them 
will doubtless observe that these fragments are very similar in 
their character to much that has been found in the ancient 
British village near Glastonbury. 

Flint. No weapon of flint or other material was discovered 
in the course of the excavation, but one small fragment of flint 
was found, which looks like a splinter which might have been 
knocked off in making ,in implement. 

Burnt Pottery JEarth, Sto7ies and Charcoal. All through 
the infilling there occurred fragments of pottery earth or clay 
burnt red, rocks of various kinds bearing marks of fire, some 
of which do not belong to the locality in which they are found, 
and interspersed throughout the mass were fragments of char- 
coal, specimens of all these being submitted for examination. 

Iron Nail. The only metal found in the pit was a fragment 
of iron, thickly coated with rust, which may have been a nail ; 
but it is just possible it may have occurred near the surface, 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part 11. /> 

114 Papers, fyc. 

and that it may not be of the same antiquity as the rest, al- 
though there would be nothing inconsistent in its being found 
amongst such surroundings. 

Bones and Teeth. The bones, which are not very numerous 
altogether, were found in a more or less fragmentary state, 
aiid were still further damaged by the finders, but in the 
opinion of Professor Boyd Dawkins, who has kindly examined 
them, some of them at least are the bones of Red Deer, and 
the teeth he has pronounced to be those of the Sheep or the 
Goat. Mr. Arthur Bulleid has also detected on some of them 
marks of having been gnawed by other animals. 

Snail Shells. Interspersed throughout the infilling were in- 
numerable snail shells, mostly of one species, of which a few 
specimens are now submitted in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, considering how fragile they are, their pure white colour 
shewing no marks of fire. Their presence throughout the in- 
filling is all the more striking by contrast with their total ab- 
sence from the adjoining strata, and their good preservation and 
white colour would go to prove, either that the burnt earth and 
rocks must have been exposed to fire before they were thrown 
into the pit, or that the snails must afterwards have found 
their way down amongst the loose materials forming the deposit. 

It at first occurred to the writer whether they might have 
been the shells of snails which had been eaten by the early in- 
habitants who formed the pit, just as they are occasionally 
found within the precincts of ancient encampments, but he has 
since been informed that they are not edible snails, so that this 
idea must be put aside. It may be mentioned, on the authority 
of Mr. Llewellyn Jewitt, that similar shells have been found 
amongst the interments in the grave mounds of Derbyshire. 

Nos. 2 and 3 Pits. Shortly after the discovery of the first 
refuse pit, the contents of which have just been described, the 
writer was much gratified to learn that the quarrymen had 
met with two other refuse pits of a similar character and in 
the same quarry. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano- British Remains. 115 

One of these (called No. 2) was met with about 20 feet to 
the North of the one referred to in the Paper, and was in the 
form of an elbow, the total length excavated being 12 feet, by 
4 feet in width and 4 feet in depth. The other, which occurred 
about 13 feet to the North-East of the No. 2 pit, was more 
like the one first discovered, being rudely circular in form, 
and its dimensions being 4 feet in diameter, by 3 feet 6 inches 
in depth. The infilling of .both consisted of much the same 
material as has already been described, being surface mould 
mixed with fragments of charcoal and burnt earth and stones, 
together with various articles of ancient British age. 

These additional finds included, amongst other things, three 
jaws of animals with the teeth attached, five loose teeth, one 
boar's incisor, and a large number of bones more or less frag- 
mentary, some of them being of larger size than those first 
met with, and many of them having been rudely split longitu- 
dinally probably to obtain the marrow, but they have not been 
examined by an expert and it cannot yet be stated to what 
animals they belonged. 

The following specimens were of such special interest as to 
call for individual notice. 

Pottery. About forty additional fragments of Pottery were 
found, embracing three different varieties of a coarse descrip- 
tion, some being black and others red, and some of the speci- 
mens having a projecting moulding, which may have been the 
upper edge or rim of an ancient British vessel. 

Triturating, or Rulbiny Stone. This very interesting speci- 
men found in the No. 2 pit, measures 9 inches by 8 inches by 
6 inches in thickness, the material being millstone grit, which 
must have been obtained from the flank of the Mendips, near 
Vobster, as that is the nearest point where it is found in situ. 
(See Plate A, Fig. 4.) In a different part of the same pit 
the rubber belonging to this stone was also found, being an 
oval pebble resembling those found in the Chesil Beach, about 
three inches in length, and worn perfectly smooth, as it would 

1 1 6 Papers, fyc. 

naturally be, considering the purpose for which it was used. 
A slab of Lias was also found bearing marks of rubbing, but 
not fashioned after the manner of the triturating stone, and 
one or two smaller pebbles which may have been used either as 
rubbers or sling stones. 

Tooth. One of the teeth, which has been pronounced to be 
a dog's canine tooth, measures 1J inches in length, and the 
fang end presents an appearance of having been polished, but 
whether used as an ornament or an implement can only be sur- 

These interesting discoveries have not yet been fully ex- 
plored, but they go to confirm the view expressed by Mr. 
Bulleid, of Glastonbury, that the pit first met with formed 
part of an ancient British village or settlement, and that 
more extended excavations would doubtless lead to fresh 

Such being a summary of the principal contents of these pits, 
it may now be considered by whom and in what age they were 
probably formed, and what purpose they were intended to 

In considering these questions the writer would offer no 
opinion of his own, but would rather express the views of 
Professor Boyd Dawkins and Mr. Arthur Bulleid whose 
opinions he has already quoted, and to whom he would take 
this opportunity of expressing his great obligation for much 
useful help in connection with the present paper. 

In the opinion of the former the whole group belongs to the 
Prehistoric Iron age, and may probably have belonged to a 
mining (or other) camp in connection with the Glastonbury 
lake village. He remarks that coarse pottery of the descrip- 
tion here met with occurs in Neolithic and Prehistoric Iron 
finds, and not in Roman accumulations, and that the Quern 
is in his opinion also of Prehistoric Iron age. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano- British Remains. 117 

Mr. Arthur Bulleid agrees with Professor Boyd Dawkins 
that the bones and teeth were those of sheep and deer. He 
says he has little doubt that the pit discovered is one of the 
refuse holes so frequently found in or about Romano-British 
settlements, that these pits range from four to ten feet deep, 
and when filled up were often made second use of for graves. 
He believes there must have been a habitation or a village not 
far distant, and that this interesting find may be only the 
beginning of more important discoveries. 

The adjoining land having formerly been under cultivation, 
there was nothing on the surface to indicate the presence of 
these pits, and there are no surface indications to aid in the 
search for others if such exist ; but, it may be mentioned, that 
a large number of similar pits were found by General Pitt 
Rivers in his extensive excavations in Rushmore Park, as set 
forth in his valuable books on excavations in Cranborne Chase, 
for a perusal of which the writer is indebted to the Rev. H. 
H. Winw r ood. 

In considering the probable age and history of these ancient 
remains from Tyning quarry, it may be useful to refer to other 
antiquities which exist in the surrounding district, in order to 
see whether they may possibly throw light upon each other. 

For the benefit of those who may not be acquainted with the 
locality, it may be explained that the parish of Radstock is 
bounded on the North-West for nearly two miles of its length 
by the great Roman Road leading from Cirencester through 
Bath to llchester. Near the North-Eastern end of the parish, 
and adjoining the Fosse Road, is a Barrow of large dimensions, 
believed to be of Roman age, and said to have been opened by 
Skinner, of Camerton, who found in the adjoining field traces 
of a Roman town, shewn on the earlier ordnance maps, which 
he sought to identify with Camulodunum or Colchester. The 
refuse pits which have now been described are situated at a 
distance of 1,200 yards as the crow flies, from this Roman road 
and Barrow, but as nothing of Roman age has been found at 

118 Papers, fyc. 

Tyning there appears to be nothing to connect it with these 
relics of antiquity. 

In Wellow Parish, however, 3^ miles distant, there exists a 
large cellular grave mound of Celtic age, and it will be remem- 
bered that not far distant are the remains of the ancient 
Wansdyke. The relics found at Tyning, therefore, meagre 
as they are, may have been contemporary with these ancient 
remains as well as with the Grlastonbury lake village, and they 
may form a link in the early history of this part of Somerset- 


It having become necessary to open a new quarry on the 
Radstock Estate, an excavation was commenced during the 
Autumn of last year in the upper corner of what is now known 
as the Jubilee field, near the southern boundary of the parish, 
and adjoining the road leading to Kilmersdon. The parish of 
Radstock is intersected by six valleys which radiate from the 
centre of the town, and the field in question, which seems at 
one time to have been part of the Huish Common, forms a 
promontory at the junction of the Charlton and Haydon 
valleys, the new quarry being 1,320 yards to the South- West 
of the Tyning quarry already described. 

On the summit of this promontory, overlooking the two val- 
leys and the adjoining country, stands a tumulus of no great 
size, but unmistakable in its character, affording evidence of an 
ancient British or Roman settlement in the immediate locality. 

It has the appearance of having been opened, possibly by 
Skinner of Camerton, whom I have already alluded to, who 
devoted much time and research to the investigation of Roman 
antiquities in this locality ; but, if opened, no record of its con- 
tents appears to have been kept. 

Skirting the lower side of this field, there are appearances 
of earthworks, which are deserving of attention. So far 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Bemains. 119 

as the writer is aware, they have never been recognised as 
such, but they have every appearance of having formed part 
of some ancient fortification. There would seem to have been 
two lines of earthwork in the lower or North-East corner of 
the field, diminishing to one bank higher up, and although 
these earthworks correspond with the line of a cart track, 
which formerly crossed the Common towards Kilmersdon, be- 
fore the present road was made, they are evidently not mere 
road banks, but something of more ancient date. 

Another well defined line of earthwork, forming nearly a 
right angle with the first, lies on the North side of the Jubilee 
field, and just over the hedge which separates it from the ad- 
joining field. 

The accompanying large scale diagram will explain the 
locality in question, on which the quarry is marked A, the 
tumulus B, and the supposed fortification C and D respectively, 
while another diagram, on a smaller scale, shows their relative 
position to the other objects of antiquity already mentioned. 1 
The distance, as the crow flies, from this tumulus to the much 
larger one at Woodborough being 1,936 yards, and from the 
Roman Road, forming the Northern boundary of Radstock, 
1,166 yards. 

The geological structure of this new quarry is exactly simi- 
lar to that of Tyning, the solid beds of Lias being overlaid by 
a corresponding deposit of surface soil and Liassic debris, 
which are here about 6 feet in thickness. The earliest finds 
in this second discovery consisted chiefly of pottery and bones, 
which were met with in the surface soil which is here of un- 
usual thickness ; but in proceeding with the excavation, the 
quarrymen came upon a large refuse pit, rudely circular in 
form, measuring 6 feet in diameter at the top and 5 feet at the 
bottom by 6 feet in depth, being thus considerably larger than 
those previously met with in the Tyning quarry. 

1 . The diagrams were exhibited at the meeting when this paper was read, 
but are not reproduced here. 

120 Papers, frc. 

The infilling, in this instance, was much the same, consisting 
of black earth or mould, mixed with charcoal, burnt earth, and 
stones foreign to the locality, or altered by fire, the deposit 
being easily distinguished from the surrounding Liassic debris, 
and containing a great abundance of ancient remains. These 
included numerous bones of mammals, birds and fishes, a few 
fragments of what were probably flint implements, various iron 
and bronze articles, few in number, but the latter very perfect 
of their kind, and a great quantity of pottery of different pat- 
terns and descriptions. Time will not suffice to describe these 
at any length, but the writer would now direct attention to a 
few of those most worthy of notice. 

Flints. -There has been a notable absence of flint imple- 
ments, both here and in the Tyning quarry, but the presence 
of flint at all at a point so far distant from the chalk for- 
mation is worthy of note, and some, if not all, of the frag- 
ments met with will probably be recognised as of human 

Bronze Implements. Only three implements have yet been 
met with, and of these the most interesting is a pair of 
tweezers, which is quite perfect, showing little or no corrosion, 
after being buried, presumably, for upwards of 2,000 years. 
(See Plate B, Fig. 1.) It measures 2| inches in length, by 
nearly | inches in breadth at the broadest end, and shows a 
distinct attempt at ornamentation, having a grooved line along 
each margin, with two groups of small circular dots on each 

Next in importance is the half of a fibula, about 2 inches in 
length, which is almost a duplicate of one recently found at 
Silchester, a drawing of which appeared in the Illustrated 
London News of 17th June last, to which I have already called 
attention. (See Plate B, Fig. 4). 

The other articles are supposed to have been a pin and 
an ear-pick, but this is rather a matter of conjecture. (Sec 
Plate B, Figs. 2 and 3.) 





Ear -pick. 



Fragment of Samian, 
figure of a dog. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains. 121 

Iron Implements. About nine specimens 1 of iron have been 
met with, most of them having the appearance of nails or parts 
of nails, but the purposes for which some of the smaller articles 
may have been used, it is really impossible to say. 

Iron Ore.- In connection with these iron implements, it may 
be mentioned that here as at the Tyning quarry, nodules of 
iron ore have been found, which present a meteoric appear- 
ance, but may be only ordinary hematite, and what purpose 
they served in the present instance, whether for the manufac- 
ture of iron, or in coloring some of the pottery, it is impossible 
to say. 

Glass. Two small pieces of glass 2 have been met with, one 
of which presents an appearance of antiquity, but even the 
clear specimen was found at a depth of four or five feet below 
the surface. 

Pottery. This has been found in great abundance, partly in 
the surface soil, and especially in the refuse pit, but unfortu- 
nately most of it is in a very fragmentary condition, the 
Romano-British domestics, like their modern representatives, 
having apparently been much addicted to smashing such neces- 
sary articles of domestic use. A general examination of these 
fragments will show that they contain examples of a great 
many distinct varieties of pottery, as well as a large number of 
vessels of every size and form. 

Samian Ware. Conspicuous amongst them is the Samian 
Ware, with its glossy deep red coloring, resembling red sealing 
wax, which stands out from all the rest, and the writer is in- 
debted to Mrs. McMurtrie, for having joined together with in- 
finite patience, several complete, or almost complete vessels, the 
component parts of which were distributed in a heterogeneous 
manner throughout the covering of soil and in the refuse pit. 
Owing to an incrustation adhering to the edges of the 
broken parts, they have not gone very well together, but they 

1 and 2. Many more iron implements and pieces of glass were subsequently 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. Vj, Part 11. q 

122 Papers, Sfc. 

show very clearly the shape and dimensions of these vessels, 
which were evidently for domestic use. ( See Plate C, Figs. 1 
and 2). Although graceful in shape, they show no attempt at 
ornamentation ; but it will be observed that the maker has 
rudely scratched his initials on the bottom of one of them, the 
letters being V I R I L. 

Amongst the fragments of other Samian vessels, which have 
not yet been pieced together, there are three examples of artis- 
tic ornamentation : one showing the figure of a hound, prob- 
ably part of a hunting scene ; but the quarry men have dis- 
figured it by scratching figures upon it, which is to be regretted. 
(See Plate B, Fig. 5). 

Romano-British Pottery. In addition to the Samian Ware, 
of which 60 fragments have been found, the writer has obtained 
from the Kilmersdon Road quarry about 650 fragments of 
Romano- British Pottery of various kinds, but no complete 
vessel of any description has yet been found or reconstructed. 
It has been possible, however, in some cases, to join together 
a sufficient number of fragments to give an idea of what the 
vessels were, and a few examples of these and of single pieces 
of different descriptions are now submitted for the inspection 
of members. ( See Plate C, Figs. 3 to 10). 

They include the following, amongst others, viz. : 

Coarse Black Pottery, with small pebbles and broken shells 
embedded, which probably belonged to a cinerary urn of very 
large dimensions. 

Smooth Black Pottery, of finer and thinner manufacture, of 
a glazed black color, with slight zig-zag markings outside, and 
brown unglazed finish inside. 

Black Pottery, unglazed, and of a bluish black, both outside 
and inside ; some examples show an incrustation of what is 
probably burned food. 

Grey Pottery, of fine manufacture, slightly glazed outside, 
and unglazed inside. 

Dark Grey Pottery, of coarse texture, and unglazed both 
outside and in. 

Notes on Ancient British and Romano-British Remains. 123 

Bluish Grey Pottery, thick, and of coarse manufacture. 

Ligkt Buff-colored Pottery, of very coarse texture and un- 

Pale Red Pottery, an example of the rim of a large vase of 
good outline. 

Darker Red Pottery : examples of the rim and bottom of a 

British Samian Pottery, a deep red-coloured fragment of a 
vessel resembling Samian, and agreeing with General Pitt 
Rivers's description of an imitation of Samian made in 

Sundry examples of Rims and Handles of vessels of various 
shapes, and different kinds of pottery. 

Sundry examples of Ornamented Pottery, which in all cases 
are of a very simple character. 

Pellets. A few baked pellets, of which a few were met with 
during the excavation. 

Not being an expert, the writer has made no attempt to iden- 
tify these examples with the pottery of any particular locality, 
but it may be observed that they agree very closely with many 
of those described in General Pitt Rivers' books on the 
Romano-British pottery found in the Cranbourne Chase, and 
that they are very similar to many of those found by Mr. 
Arthur Bulleid in the Lake Village at Glastonbury, except as 
regards the latter, it may be remarked that down to the time 
when he read his paper before this Society in 1894, no single 
fragment of Samian ware had been discovered there, while in 
the Kilmersdon lane quarry it has been fairly abundant. 

Bones and Teeth. Intermixed with the other remains al- 
ready described, there have been found nearly 400 bones and 
teeth of various kinds, many being rather fragmentary, but all 
of them in a good state of preservation. Amongst them the 
remains of the following animals have been identified, viz. : 
the Horse, Cow, Sheep, Pig, Dog, Cat and Hedgehog, as 
well as a number of bones belonging to birds and fishes. 

124 Papers, 8fc. 

So far as the examination has gone no trace of human re- 
mains has been met with, nor any evidence of animals which 
are now extinct. There are a few partly burned bones, but 
they appear to be those of domestic animals, and to afford no 
evidence of cremation. Some of the bones bear marks of 
gnawing, possibly by the dogs, whose teeth have been found 
in the same deposit, and a large number seem to have been 
split open longitudinally to get out the marrow. 

Concluding remarks. In considering the probable age of the 
remains discovered in the Kilmersdon Road quarry, it would 
appear to the writer that they may possibly belong to a some- 
what later date than those previously discovered at Tyning 
quarry, which, as already pointed out, have been considered by 
Professor Boyd Dawkins to belong to the pre-historic Iron 
age, and by Mr. Arthur Bulleid to have been contemporary 
with the remains in the Grlastonbury Lake Village. 

The total absence of Samian, and the very primitive charac- 
ter of the other pottery found at Tyning, would appear to give 
those remains an earlier date than the Kilmersdon Road deposit, 
where Samian and the finer kinds of pottery are plentiful, 
while the contents generally bear evidence of a more advanced 
civilisation. It is probable, therefore, that the Kilmersdon re- 
mains may have been contemporary with the Romano- British 
remains found by General Pitt Rivers on Cranbourne Chase, 
with which they appear to agree very closely, but it is to be 
remarked, that down to the present time, no coin of any kind 
has been met with to aid in determining the age of these inter- 
esting relics of the past. 

3n 3|nt)entorp of Cfjutcb Plate in Somerset. 

Part III* 



Prebendary of Wells. 

IN compiling another portion of the Inventory, I have had 
the valuable assistance of Prebendary Hancock for the 
Wiveliscombe District of Dunster Deanery. The descriptions 
of the plate were handed over to me to be reduced to ' common 
form,' while the Introductory notice and the notes on each parish, 
with certain exceptions in square brackets, are by him alone. 

A change of residence has compelled me to vary the original 
plan of taking each Archdeaconry in turn. The Midsomer 
Norton district of the Frome Deanery must be left over for 
the present. It was possible, however, to take the llchester 
district, thus completing that deanery. In the Archdeaconry 
of Taunton the whole of the Crewkerne Deanery has been 
worked over, and one district of the Dunster Deanery. These 
four districts contain ninety ancient parishes, and nine modern 
parishes and chapelries, total ninety-nine. 

The most interesting and valuable item is the Nettlecombe 
chalice with its paten, the oldest plate in England bearing a 
date-letter, whereby its age is exactly known. A full account 

* Part I, containing the complete Deaneries of Gary and Merston appeared 
in vol. xlii ; part II containing districts of Frome and Martock in vol. xliii. 

12fi Papers, Sfc. 

will be found in the Introduction to the District and in the notes 
on the parish. 

There is a large quantity of Elizabethan plate, exclusively 
cups arid covers, it being found in fifty-five parishes. How 
valuable such plate is in every sense will be seen by this extract 
from a daily paper relating to a recent sale of silver plate. 
Among the lots sold were : " An Elizabethan cup engraved 
with scroll ornament, 1570, at 1365. per oz. 9 42 Is. 6d. ; an 
Early English chalice, engraved with crucifix, and a plain 
paten, 1638, 22 Is. ; a Commonwealth chalice, on plain balu- 
ster stem and round foot, 1656, at 96s. per oz., 43 5s. 
With these figures in evidence, I hope that it will not be 
thought presumptuous on my part to urge all custodians of such 
valuables to provide a safe resting place for them. A wooden 
cupboard even in a locked church is not a sufficient guard 
either from thieves or fire. 

Twenty-five parishes were provided with plate by the ubiqui- 
tous I. P., whose handiwork exhibits as much uniformity as if 
it had been turned out at a modern ate/ier. One cup comes 
from Dorchester and another from Sherborne, while four were 
supplied by I. Ions, the well-known silver-smith of Exeter. 
The influence of the Exeter craft is also apparent in the design 
of several cups which have no regular marks. These peculiari- 
ties are to be found in the lip and knop. The lip instead of 
following the outward curve of the bowl, is straightened up- 
wards for about half an inch, and this ring is sometimes 
concave in the middle. The knop is much thinner than in the 
London examples. 

Five cups of this pattern have the same marks ; the first is a 
circle containing the letters M.H. in a monogram ; the second, 
also a circle, contains a St. Andrew's cross with a pellet in each 
spandrel. The two marks were cut on one punch, as in the 
only instance when the second mark comes first, the mono- 
gram is upside down. Speculation as to its place of origin had 
better be postponed until the whole of the Archdeaconry has 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 127 

been examined. Other cups of the Exeter type will be found 
at Crewkerne, Curry Mallett, Ilton and Stocklinch Ottersay. 

After 1600 interest with rare exceptions attaches rather to 
the different pieces of domestic plate now dedicated to religious 
purposes. There is a fine example of the Edmonds cup at 
Ilminster, unfortunately without its cover. At Treborough 
and Carhampton are two very handsome cups (see illustration). 
The marks on the latter cup are not known, and in the absence 
of any distinctive English mark, its place of origin must be 
open to conjecture, vide a note under Carhampton. There is 
also a beautiful little saucer, temp. Charles I, at Curry Rivel ; 
another having been already noted in this county at Charlton 
Musgrove. There are no chalice-shaped vessels in the area 
under review. The other pieces of this and the next century 
are not of any particular interest except to their owners. 

With this third instalment of the Inventory, nearly half the 
plate in the Diocese has been examined ; and with a continu- 
ance of the help and kindness hitherto shown to the workers, 
the end does not seem so very far off. I should be very glad 
to hear from anyone willing to undertake a deanery or district 
in the northern part of the county. 


1479. Nettlecombe, chalice and paten. 

1570 Charlton Mackrell, cup and 


Compton Dundon, cup and 


lie Brewers, cup. 
Wayford, cup and cover. 
Winsham, cover ; cup, 1573. 

1571 High Ham, cup and cover. 
Huish Episcopi, cup and cover. 

1572 Beercrocombe, cup and cover. 
Broadway, cup. 

East Lambrooke, cup and cover. 
Fivehead, cup and cover 
Pitney, cup. 
Swell, cup and cover. 

1573 Brompton Ralph, cup and cover. 
Chillington, cup and cover. 

Elworthy, cup. 
Fitzhead, cup and cover. 
Huish Champflower, cup and 


llchester, cup and cover. 
Kingsbury Epi. , cup and cover. 
Kingstone, cup and cover. 
Limington, cup and cover. 
Old Cleeve, cup and cover. 
Sampford Brett, cup and cover. 
Shepton Beauchamp, cup and 


Skilgate, cup and cover. 
Somerton, cup and cover. 
South Petherton, cup and cover 
Stocklinch Magdalen, cup 

and cover. 


Papers^ fyc. 


Tolland, cup and cover. 
Upton, cup. 
Wii ' 

'iveliscombe, cup and cover. 
1574 Ashill, cup and cover. 

Barrington, cup and cover. 
Chaffcombe, cup and cover. 
Curland. cup and cover. 
Curry Mallet, cup and cover. 
Dinnington, cup and cover. 
Donyatt, cover. 
Langport, cup and cover. 
Raddington, cup and cover. 
Williton, cup and cover. 
Yeovilton, cup and cover. 


1592 llminster, cup and cover. 
Undated, but of this period. 
Bicknoller, cup, 
Charlton Adam, cup. 
Drayton, cup and cover. 
Podymore Milton, cup. 
St. Decuman's, cup. 
Seaborough, cup. 
Stocklinch Ottersay, cup and 

Withiel Florey, cup and 

Withycombe, cup and cover. 

1607 Crewkerne, cup and cover. 

1609 Crewkerne, cup and cover. 

1610 Ilton, cup and cover. 

1611 llminster, cup. 

1614 Treborough, cup. 

1615 Stogumber, cup. 

1616 Whitelackington, cup and 


1620 Curry Mallet, flagon. 
1624 East Lambrooke, paten. 
1628 Ilchester, paten. 
1630 Aller, cup and cover. 

1633 Muchelney, cup and cover. 
St. Decuman's, paten. 

1634 Carhampton, cup. 
Curry Rivel, saucer. 

St. Decuman's, cup and paten. 

1635 Misterton, cup and cover. 
Tolland, paten. 

1636 Tolland, paten. 


1637 Curry Rivel, cup and cover. 

Puckington, cup. 
1839 Donyatt, cup. 
1640 Old Cleeve, paten. 
1654 Winsham, cup. 
1656 Cudworth, cup. 
1659 Whitestanton, cup. 
1664 Low Ham, service. 
1669 Low Ham, plate. 
1671 Leighland, cup 
1674 Cricket St. Thomas, plate. 
1679 Williton, plate. 
1683 Crewkerne, plate. 
1692 Curry Rivel, cup and cover. 

Somerton, service. 
1696 Fitzhead, paten. 
1698 Monksilver, paten. 
1700 Huish Epi, paten. 

Yeovilton, plate. 

1705 Broadway, salver. 

Stocklinch Ottersay, paten. 
1708 Winsham, paten. 
1710 Aller, paten. 

1712 White Lackington, paten. 

1713 Hatch Beauchamp, paten. 
Wiveliscombe, paten. 

1715 Seavington S. Mary, cup. 

1716 Monksilver, cup. 

South Petherton, paten and 


1718 Charlton Adam, paten. 
1720 Sampford Brett, paten. 

1722 Northover, salver. 

1723 Barrington, paten. 

1724 Barrington, flagon. 
Puckington, paten. 
South Petherton, dish. 

1726 Staple Fitzpaine, paten. 

1729 Podymore Milton, paten 

1730 Kingsbury Epi., dish. 

1733 Stogumber, paten and flagon. 

1736 Pitney, paten. 

1739 Lopen, cup and cover. 

1749 Kingsbury Epi , flagon. 

1752 Hatch Beauchamp, cup. 

1757 Clatworthy, cup 

1760 He Brewers, cover. 

1767 Withycombe, flagon. 

1769 Ashill, salver. 

1774 South Petherton, paten. 

1776 Sampford Brett, flagon. 

1779 Rodhuish, cup and paten. 

1781 Long Sutton. cup and cover. 

1782 VViveliscombe, flagon. 
1787 Limington, paten. 

1790 Brompton Ralph, salver. 

1792 Chipstable, cup. 

1793 Hatch Beauchamp, cup and 

1795 Huish Champflower, oval 

1797 Clatworthy, alms dish. 

All Inventory of Church Plate. 129 


Aysh, South Petherton. 


Chichester (crest), Northover. 

Courtenay, Sampford Brett. 

Fownes, Buckland S. Mary. 

Gifford, Sampford Brett. 

Hay, Stogumber. 

Jeffries, Stocklinch Ottersay. 

Keymer, Buckland S. Mary. 

Rosso, Somerton. 
Sherman, Aller. 
Stawel, Low Ham. 
Strode, Harrington. 
VValshe, Curry Mallet. 

Aller, coat of arms. 
Barrington, crest. 


This district contains seventeen ancient parishes and one 
private chapel, founded 1622. The district is rich in Eliza- 
bethan plate, there being twelve cups, four of which were 
made before 1572. Eight different makers are represented, 
including Orange of Sherborne and Stratford of Dorchester. 
With the sub-division of the Martock district, the deanery 
possesses, in thirty-six parishes, twenty-two Elizabethan cups, 
an average which I fear will not be beaten. 

ALLER. The cup with cover is of the best pattern of the 
early seventeenth century. Devoid of ornament, its beauty 
depends entirely on the proportion and workmanship. The 
cup stands 6|in. high. The cover is without the flange usually 
found in the preceding century ; on the button is the date 
1630. Marks (the same on both pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1630; maker's mark, in a plain shield, the initials R. S., 
with a pellet below. These initials, with the pellet enlarged 
into a heart, are often found on plate of this period. 

A plain paten on foot, diam. 6f in. Marks : 2 Brit sterling ; 
date-letter for 1710; maker's mark, B A. in shaped punch, i.e. 
Richard Bayley, ent. 1708. In the middle of the paten within 
mantling is a shield bearing : A lion ramp. betw. 3 oak leaves, 
imp., a cross moline, a crescent in dexter chief. Crest, a sea- 
lion crowned. The underside is inscribed : ' The gift of Tho : 
Sherman of London to the Parish Church of Aller in Sum- 
mersett Shire 1710.' This gentleman's interest in Aller is not 
known (note by Prebendary Nicholson, rector of Aller). 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part If. r 

130 Papers, fyc. 

A large plated flagon, ' The gift of J. Gumming, Esq., 
Tonbridge Wells, Easter 1895.' Another ancient flagon of 

CHARLTON ADAM. The Elizabethan cup has only one 
mark, a small star with five points, found on several other cups 
in this neighbourhood (see introduction). It is parcel gilt, the 
parts so treated being the bands of ornament ; and stands 7|in. 
high. The bowl is almost V shaped, with one band of orna- 
ment ; there are bands of upright strokes above and below 
the stem which seems to have been broken and roughly 
mended. On the foot is a belt of egg-and-dart ornament. 

There is only one mark ; the date is probably about 1573. 
The cover is missing. 

A small paten on foot, diam. 5|in. Marks : 2 Brit, ster- 
ling ; date-letter for 1718; maker's mark, B A. in shaped 
punch, i.e. Richard Bayley. 

Pew r ter, a large flagon, and a bason, on the underside of 
which are the initials J. K. and E. C. 

CHARLTON MACKRELL. All the plate here has been 
given in recent times, but a part is of the Elizabethan era and 
of very unusual design. This cup, silver gilt, stands 5fin. 
high, diameter of bowl at lip 2f in., and depth 3|in. The bowl 
is much deeper in proportion to its diameter than is usual. A 
series of projecting ribs, starting from the top of the stem, 
enclose the lower part of the bowl ; they stop halfway up, and 
are finished off with a small ornamental flourish engraved on 
the bowl itself. Above this is a broad band of hyphen 
strokes ; the lip has also some slight engraving. The stem is 
unusually short, as the slope of the foot is carried up further 
than usual and terminates in a flange. On the spread of the 
foot is a belt of egg-and-dart ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1570; maker's mark unfortunately almost gone, 
perhaps the bunch of grapes given by Cripps under 1568. 
The cover gives no assistance, as it has no marks at all ; it is 
of the usual design and ornamentation. The cup is inscribed : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 131 

< The gift of the Revd. Wm. Thos. Parr Brymer, M.A. and 
F.A.S., Rector of this Parish 1822.' It was the year of his 
appointment, and he held the rectory for thirty years. The 
same donor also presented a duplicate of the cup and cover, 
with two patens and a flagon of the same design. These pieces 
bear the date-letter for 1855. There is also a large almsdish 
with the date-letter for 1846. 

The set of pewter includes a cup (a ghastly object) of early 
eighteenth century design and a flagon. 

Co.vrpTON DTNDOX. An Elizabethan cup and cover by 
the same maker as the cups at Pilton and Batcombe, and, like 
them, of an earlier date than usual. The cup stands 7in. 
high. There is one band of ornament round the bowl ; this, 
as well as the other engraved ornament of the cup and bowl, is 
gilt ; the knop has the hyphen strokes ; egg-and-dart will be 
found on the spread of the feet and on the cover. On the 
broad button of the latter gilt is ' C. D., 1570.' Marks (same 
on both pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; maker's mark, 
H. W. in monogram. 

HIGH HAM. A handsome Elizabethan cup and cover of 
early date. The cup stands 6fin. high ; it has one band of 
running ornament gilt round the bowl ; the stem and foot are 
plain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; maker's mark 
apparently the head of an animal. The cover is quite plain 
and devoid of ornament ; the button is gilt and bears the date 
1571. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1571 ; maker's mark, 
a mullet with fiery points, found elsewhere in the diocese. 

A modern paten with engraved brim ; inscribed on under 
side : ' The gift of Rachel, John, and Joseph Travis, Easter 
1871. Another paten, smaller and plainer, with the initials of 
the aforesaid donors, who were of Muchelney. 

Pewter, 2 flagons of different sizes, 2 plates, and a ' decent ' 
bason, in fact almost a complete set. 

HUISH EPISCOPI. A large cup and cover of two different 
periods. The cup is 8^in. high ; the V shaped bowl is en- 

132 Papers, $r. 

circled with two bands of the conventional Elizabethan orna- 
ment, but very coarsely done ; the stem and foot, on the con- 
trary, are well designed and worked with the egg-and-dart 
ornament. The bowl is inscribed : John Collier ; John Baker 
of Hewish near Langport ; Churchwardens 1689. There are 
no marks visible. The cover is of the usual pattern ; on the 
button is the date 1571. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1571 ; maker's mark illegible. The best way of accounting 
for the different styles is to suppose that at the latter date the 
Elizabethan bowl had been so damaged as to require renova- 
tion, which was carried out so conscientiously as to reproduce 
the older ornamentation, though to be betrayed by the infe- 
riority of execution. (For another case of reproduction of 
older work see under S. Cuthbert's, Wells, Proc. xliii, ii, 213.) 
There is a clumsy cup at Curry Kivel, a neighbouring village, 
bearing the date 1692 and having only one mark, the maker's, 
which might have come from the same atelier. 

A paten on foot with goiffered edges, diameter 9in. Marks: 
2 offic. Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1700; maker's mark 
worn away. It is inscribed : Mr. John Mitchell, Vicar ; John 
Witch, George Collier, Churchwardens. As John Mitchell, 
of Wadham Coll., Oxford, was not appointed until 1722, and 
the two parishioners were churchwardens 1726-7-8, 1 this in- 
scription must have been added later. 

A modern chalice, paten, flagon and cruet with silver 
mountings, each piece bearing the dedicatory inscription : To 
the glory of God : in memory of Major Generall J. E. 
Michell, C.B., of Huish, 16 Sept., 1883. 

A pewter flagon. 

ILC HESTER. A fine specimen of I. P.'s work. The cup is 
7in. high ; there are two bands of running ornament round 
bowl, and hyphen-bands on knop and foot. These bands are 
gilt. The cover is parcel gilt ; on the button 1574 and the 

1. Proc. xl, ii, 89. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 133 

initials E. G. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's 
mark, I. P. 

A plain paten on foot, no marks visible. Inscribed : ' The 
guifte of Anne Summers 1628.' 

A modern chalice and paten wholly gilt ; inscribed : ' This 
chalice and paten are an offering to the Church of S. Mary 
Major Tlchester in loving memory of William Buckler Priest, 
for nearly 40 years Rector of this parish ; Jesu Mercy. Easter 
Day A.D. 1898. 

Two cruets with silver mountings' Presented to the church 
of St. Mary, Ilchester, by Arthur George Wichelo, Whitsun- 
day A.D. 1896.' 

KINGSDON. The plate here is all modern. It consists of 
two cups parcel gilt and a broad paten on foot. Each piece 
is inscribed: 'Kingsdon 1831.' A silver flagon, inscribed; 
' Presented to Kingsdon Church by Mrs. Neal, Jan. 1869.' 

LAXGPOKT. -A large cup and cover by R. Orange of 
Sherborne (see introduction to pt. I). It is like the cup at 
Henstridge, but the ornamentation at the intersections of the 
fillets is merely a repetition of the patterns found between 
them ; it is 8^in. high. The button of the cover bears the 
date 1574. The only mark is that of the maker, a circle filled 
with dots. This is a rebus on his name, the marks represent- 
ing a sieve, which in Dorset is called a range, the circle stand- 
ing for the initial letter. 

There is also a modern service consisting of a cup (Victorian 
pattern), paten, dish and flagon ; on this last piece is a dedica- 
tory inscription : ' This Sacramental Service was presented by 
Vincent Stuckey, Esq., to the Parish of Langport 1839.' 
Pewter : a large flagon 13in. high. 

LIMIXGTOX. A handsome cup and cover by I. P. The 
cup stands 7in. high. There are two bands of interlaced orna- 
ment round the bowl, and bands of hyphen strokes on knop 
and foot. It is inscribed : Limington. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. The cover has been 

134 Papers, -c. 

hardly used; on the button is the date 1573 and the Hebrew 


There is also a plain paten on foot, 6in. in diameter. 
Marks: 3 offic. ; and date-letter for 1787. A modern flagon 
made in 1861. 

LONG SUTTON. A large cup and cover of the uninterest- 
ing period of George III. The cup is quite plain, of the egg- 
cup type ; the paten is after an earlier pattern, and bears on 
the button, I. H., 1782. These initials have not yet been 
identified. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1781; maker's 
mark worn away. A modern flagon made in 1887. 

Low HAM. The ecclesiastical status of the church at Low 
Ham seems to be simply that of a private chapel to a vanished 
mansion house. It was endowed by Sir Edward Hext, of 
Netherham, by a deed, dated 10th June, 1622 (Proc. xl. i. 33). 
In his will, dated 10th November, 1623, and proved llth May, 
1624, he " is to be buried in the North Isle of the Chappie of 
Netherham, under a tomb which I have caused to be made 
there" (Brown, Wills II. 57). The tomb is to be seen in its 
right place (mirabile dictu) at this day, with the figures of Sir 
Edward and Dionis Hext laid thereon. CoUinson says 
(iii. 445) "an inscription in the east window of the present 
chapel records that it was founded at the sole expence of 
George Stawel, Esq., 20th May, anno 20 Car. II., and conse- 
crated A.D. 1669." The inscription is now fragmentary, and 
it is not possible to tell how far the copy is an accurate one. 
The first part of the inscription must certainly be wrong by 
the evidence given above, and I very much doubt if George 
Stawel did more than restore a building, which from its near- 
ness to Langport, doubtless suffered much during the civil 
war. The architecture, debased Gothic, is far more likely to 
belong to the period of Charles 1 than of his successor. 

The plate consists of a large and plain cup 8in. high. 
Marks: 2 offic.; date letter for 1664; maker's mark, T.R., 
under a crescent in a shield. The cup bears an inscription : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 135 

" Sacelli Low Ham in Comitatu Somerset ex dono Radolphi 
Stawel Armigeri 1665." Arms : A cross lozengy, on a canton 
a mullett, for the cadency mark of the third son. A paten 
on foot 6fin. wide, with same marks and inscription. A 
large flat-topped flagon with same marks and inscription, 
except that the donor's name is George, and the mullett is 

Sir John Stawel, of Cothelstone, married Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter and heir of Sir Edward Hext, and in his will, proved 29th 
March. 1661-2, made his son, George, executor and heir to all 
his estate. On the monument in Cothelstone Church it is re- 
corded that he left three sons to survive, John, George, and 
Ralph, and here again it is the second son who raises the 
monument ' patri carissimo.' The cadency mark on the cup 
and paten is a proof that Ralph had two elder brothers as late 
as 1664, or otherwise one would suppose that in spite of the 
inscription John had predeceased his father. It looks rather 
as if the eldest son had become deranged. The second son, 
George, died childless in 1670, and was succeeded by Ralph, 
who was created 15th January, 1682-3, Lord Stawel, of 

A plain flat dish with an engraved date 1669. The only 
mark is that of the maker, as on the other pieces. All the 
plate has been gilt by Sir Charles Wathen, late lord of the 

MUCHELNEY. A very handsome cup, with cover of the 
early part of the seventeenth century, but having the bowl 
encircled with a band of the distinctive Elizabethan ornament. 
The cup is 7 fin. high. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1633 ; 
maker's mark R.S., with star and two pellets above, and one 
below in shield. The cover is shallow with raised brim, and 
has the same marks. Underneath the cup : ' I.B., R.B., 1633, 
17oz. lldwt.' 

A new chalice, paten, and flagon ; each piece is inscribed : 
' In honorem D.O.M. et in usum Ecclesire S.S. Petri et Pauli 

136 Papers, $c. 

de Muchelnaye d.d. Gulielmus Long et Elizabetha uxor ejus 
A.I). MDCCCLXXII1.' The Long family have been owners 
of the abbey for many years. 

NORTHOVER. The cup and salver are of plated metal, in- 
scribed : ' Presented to Ilchester Church by Mrs. Shorland, of 
Northover, January, 1849.' This contradictory statement is 
due to the fact that the donor intended these articles for Il- 
chester, but as they were firmly (though we trust politely) 
declined, passed them on to Northover. 

Of silver, the parish possesses a salver with fluted edge, 
6f in. across. It is inscribed : ' The gift of John Hody, Esq., 
to his grandson, John Hody Chichester.' Crest, a stork with 
an eel in its mouth (Chichester). Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter 
for 1722 ; maker's mark, a dog statant above the initials T.M. 
Thomas Morse. 

In the church are several monuments to the families of 
Hody and Chichester. John Hody presented Edward 
Chichester to the rectory in 1713 ; the donee was the latter's 
son-in-law, and eventually succeeded to the property. 

PITNEY LORTY. A small Elizabethan cup by I. P., minus 
its cover. It is of his usual design, with two belts of orna- 
ment round the bowl. Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter for 1572 ; 
maker's mark, l.P. A small paten on feet, diam. 5^in. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter for 1736 ; maker's mark B.C., in 
shaped punch. It is inscribed : ' The gift of Mrs. Lovell to 
the Church of Pitney 1738.' No doubt some relation of the 
Rev. Edmund Lovell, appointed to the rectory 1724. A 
modern flagon inscribed : ' Pitney Church restored and re- 
opened July 21st, 1875. Hebr. xiii. 20.' 

PODYMORE MILTOX. An Elizabethan cup, with the single 
mark of a five-pointed star ; also found at Keinton Mandeville 
(1575), South Barrow (1576), Charlton Adam (no date), 
Stowell (1574), and Chaffcombe, the cover (1574). The cup 
here is also not dated. The first four villages are all close to- 
gether, and Stowell is not distant ; and the maker may have 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 137 

lived at either Somerton or Castle Gary. He must have been 
a person of some ingenuity, as the mark occurs on three 
different types of bowl. This at Podymore has a V-shaped 
bowl with one band of ornament ; there are belts of up- 
right strokes above and below the stem ; and egg-and-dart 
on the foot. The cover is missing. The only mark is the 

A small paten on foot, diam. 5f in. Inscribed on underside : 
' This paten Avas presented to the church of Puddimore by the 
Venerable Archdeacon Law, in the month of July, 1828.' 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1729 ; maker's mark, R.B. in 
oblong punch Richard Hayley. 

A glass cruet, with plated mountings, inscribed : 'Podymore, 
1863. A thankoffering for mercies received.' 

SOMEKTON. A considerable amount of plate, principally 
from additions in the seventeenth century. 

An Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P. The cup is 7fin. 
high ; there are two bands of ornament round bowl ; the egg- 
and-dart design is found on the spread of the foot, and on the 
cover. On the bottom is the date 1573. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. 

At the close of the next century was added a set of extraor- 
dinary size and weight. The cup is lOin. high, and 5fin. 
across at the lip ; the stem is composed of annular mouldings ; 
at the foot of the stem is a flange covered with gadrooned 
ornament. The paten is 7f in. in diameter ; the flagon is ll^in. 
high, of tankard pattern ; and last, but certainly not least, 
there is the alms dish which is 1 9in. from side to side. All 
these pieces have the sacred monogram within a rayed circle, 
and bear the same marks : 2 ofKc. ; date-letter for 1692 ; 
maker's mark, R.L., above a fleur-de-lys, in a shield, probably 
Ralph Leeke. 

There is also a primitive paten formed out of a circular 
silver plate, turned up at the rim. Instead of the ordinary 
cylindrical foot, the paten i supported upon the representation 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. s 

138 Papers, $c. 

of a bird's claw in silver. There are no marks or date. On 
the pateri is the couplet : " With pvrged sovles like fined silver 
pvre receve that bread which shall for aye endvre." This 
distich is also found at White Lackington, see post. Within 
the inscription, which is engraved round the rim, are the 
initials R.M., and a shield bearing : Per fesse arg. and sa., a 
pale counterchanged, 3 herons' heads of the second. These 
are the arms of Rosse of Shepton Beauchamp ; a member of 
that family having married a daughter and co-heire of John 
Heyron, of Langport, and taken his wife's arms. The bird's 
claw is, of course, that of a heron, which was the badge or crest 
of the Heyrons (vide Som. and Dors. N. and Q., vi, pt. 47, no. 
169). .Fames Rosse, the head of the family in the Visitation 
of 1623, describes himself as of Sheptori and Somerton. He 
had a daughter, Mary, who may have been the donor, as these 
patens are generally of the latter part of the seventeenth cen- 

YEOVII.TON. A beautiful cup and cover by Lawrence 
Stratford, of Dorchester, whose handy work has hitherto been 
represented in this diocese only by the cup at Weston Bamp- 
field. The cup is 6|in. high ; and has a band of running 
ornament of graceful design round the bowl with elaborate 
ornamentations at the intersections of the fillets. On the 
spread of the foot is a band of egg-and-dart ornament. The 
cover is quite plain ; on the button is the date 1574. The only 
mark is the triple one of the maker, a small cross, L. S. in 
monogram within circle, and a star of six points. 

A flat shallow dish, 8f in. across ; in the centre is the sacred 
monogram within a rayed circle ; on the underside, ' Yeovilton, 
An : Dom : 1700.' The only mark is an oblong punch con- 
taining two initials, the first G, the second rather doubtful, 
but if F, then it is the mark found at Bruton (1706) and 

A large pewter flagon, ' Yeovilton,' arid another of plated 
metal, 'Yeovilton, 1872.' 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 139 




This District contains 25 ancient parishes and chapelries, 
and four modern churches and mission chapels. . Elizabethan 
plate occurs in ten parishes, while five possess nothing earlier 
than this century. In one parish, however, the absence of 
anything old is due to a burglary. 

CHAFFCOMBE. Here there is an elegant cup by a provin- 
cial maker whose initials were M. H. (see introduction). It 
stands 6Jin. high ; the bowl is V shaped with the upright lip, 
which is a peculiarity of the Exeter pattern ; this is encircled 
with the twisted cable ornament. In addition to this there is 
another band of ornament round the bowl. The knop is 
slender ; the cable pattern is repeated on the foot. Marks : 
M. H. combined in a monogram within a circle, and a cross 
with pellets between the arms also in a circle. There are no 
hall-marks or date-letter. The cover is quite plain ; on the 
button is the date 1574 ; the only mark is a mullet with five 
points (v. notes on llchester District). 

CHARD. Two cups, paten, salver, and flagon all of modern 
date, the unavoidable necessity of this being explained by the 
inscription on the flagon : ' The ancient Sacramental Vessels 
of the Church of Chard sacrilegiously stolen January, 1842, 
and Providentially recovered in a mutilated state were recast 
into the present Holy Utensils in May, 1842. W. B. White- 
head, M.A., vicar, John Welch and Robert Silvester, church- 

CHAUD, FURNHAM. A modern parish formed in 1897. 
The plate consists of a chalice and paten silver gilt. (Note 
by Rev. C. R. Elrington, vicar.) 

140 Papers, fyc. 

CHILLINGTON. There is here a good example of I. P.'s 
work. The cup is parcel gilt, 7in. high. There are two 
bands of ornament round the bowl, the knop has hyphen 
strokes on it, and there is another band on the foot. Marks : 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. The cup 
is inscribed in modern lettering : ' Parish of Chillington, 
Somerset, 1573.' The cover is of the usual pattern ; on the 
button is the date 1573 ; the date-letter is, however, for the 
previous year. 

Another cup with lower part of the bowl fluted ; the date- 
letter is for the year 1800. It is inscribed: 'Presented by 
the family of Cricket St. Thomas to the Parish of Chillington.' 
This inscription is also found on the paten and flagon which 
have the date-letter for 1841. 

A salver on three feet with the date-letter for 1837. It is 
inscribed : ' Presented to the Parish of Chillington by the 
Lord of the Manor, J. T. B. Notley, Esq., of Combe Syden- 
ham, July, 1842.' A monument in the church records the 
descent of this family for many generations. 

There is also a pewter bowl at present in the font. 

COMBE S. NICHOLAS. The vessels here are of some plated 
metal ; they are two cups, paten and flagon. 

CREWKERNE. The oldest cup and cover bear the Exeter 
hall-mark. The cup stands 9in. high ; the bowl is trumpet- 
shaped with two bands of ornament, the upper one running 
round the lip. The ornamentation consists merely of a series 
of short curved lines ; this and the other engraved portions 
are gilt. On the foot is a band of egg and dart ornament. 
Marks : Exeter ancient, an X with a crown above in a circle ; 
maker's mark, B.W. in shield, the firt initial above the 
second, struck twice. The cover is quite plain except for a 
band of hyphens on the outer edge gilt, and a gilt band round 
button. On this is dotted in : " This cupp was new made by 
Mr. John Freke, of Croochorne, the 4th of M^che, 1607." 
Same marks as on cup. Under the entry of the plate at 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 141 

Pendomer, in the Martock Deanery, there will be found some 
notice of another Crewkerne goldsmith family named Sweet. 
But I have not been able to identify any provincial marks in 
this locality as belonging to either family. 

Another cup and cover also parcel-gilt. The cup is Sin. 
high, straight-sided, with the side, just at the brim, turning 
straight up so as to form a ring round the bowl ; on this ring 
is engraved a band of the usual Elizabethan ornament coarsely 
done. The belt round the middle of the bowl encloses instead 
of ornament the lettering : R.W.C. WARDENS. The knop 
has the hyphen ornament, and the foot a modification of the 
egg-and-dart. The cover is quite plain, the edge hatched and 
gilt ; the button is gilt inscribed : ' Crukern 1609.' There are 
no marks of any description. 

A large flat dish, diam. lOfin. On it are dotted in the 
initials R.F. Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter for 1683 ; maker's 
mark F.S. in oblong punch. A tall silver flagon with an in- 
scription on the foot : " Presented to the Parish Church of 
Crewkerne, by William Sparkes, Esqre., Feby., 1847." 

CREWKERNE, CHRISTCHURCH. A chapel of ease erected 
in 1854; it possesses a chalice, paten, and flagon, of modern 
medieval design with the date letter for 1854. 

CREWKERNE, HE WISH. This mission chapel possesses an 
electro-plate chalice and paten. (Note by Rev. R. Y. Bonsey). 

CRICKET MALERBIE. A chalice, paten, and flagon of 
modern mediaeval design, silver-gilt, with the date letter for 

CRICKET S. THOMAS. Most of the plate here is modern. 
It consists of a silver-gilt cup, with the date letter for 1808, 
inscribed : " Presented by Viscount Bridport to the Church of 
Cricket S. Thomas, Somerset." The flagon, with the date letter 
for 1809, bears the same inscription. Alexander Hood, Viscount 
Bridport, Senior Admiral of England, lies in the little church. 
His name and services would be far better known to his 
countrymen, but that he had the fortune to be contemporary 

142 Papers, c. 

with Nelson. A small paten, with the date-letter for 1825, 
inscribed : "Church, Cricket S. Thomas, 1825." 

Of the ancient plate there only remains a broad salver, llin. 
across ; it is principally brim with a shallow depression in the 
centre. Marks : 2 offic. ; date letter for 1674 ; maker's mark, 
W.Gr. with small object below in heart-shaped punch. On the 
brim are the initials K.H., dotted in with nourishes. Margaret, 
daughter and heir of John Preston, of Cricket S. Thomas, 
had married, before 1648, John Hippisley of Stoneaston, and 
in the will of Catherine Preston, proved in that year, her 
' grandchild, Margaret Hippisley and her daughter Catherine ' 
are mentioned (Brown, Somerset Wills III, 92). In 1683, 
Elizabeth Buckland in her will mentions Mrs. Catherine 
Hippisley (Brown v. 73); so it may well be that this lady 
spelt with a K was the donor. 

CUDWORTH. The only piece of silver plate here is a small 
cup of the baluster stem pattern. It stands 6in. high, and, as 
is usual with this type in this period, has no ornament. Marks : 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1656 ; maker's mark C.P. above a star 
in shield. 

A flat dish of plated metal and a glass cruet. 

DINNIXGTON. A handsome cup and cover, parcel-gilt, by 
the provincial maker, whose initials were M.H. (see introduc- 
tion). The cup is 7^in. high ; the lip of the bowl is turned up 
straight and decorated with interlaced cable ornament, which 
is also found on the foot and on the cover. Round the bowl is 
a band of conventional ornamentation. Marks : the only ones 
are the maker's, the initials M.H. combined in monogram, and 
a cross with pellets between the arms. On the button of the 
cover, which has the same marks, is the date 1574. A paten 
and dish of plated metal. 

DOWLISH WAKE. The parish possesses only modern plate. 
A plain cup, parcel gilt, with the date-letter for 1806. Another 
cup of similar design, and a salver supported on three feet. 
Each piece has the date-letter for 1807, and a dedicatory in- 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 143 

scription : "Septimus Collinson, D.D. 1809." The donor was 
the rector of the parish. 

EAST LAM BROOK. A handsome cup and cover by I. P. 
The cup is 6f in. high ; the bowl is straight-sided with two 
bands of ornament, which is also found on the foot ; on the 
knop the hyphen ornament, and at either end of the stem bands 
of small designs. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1572; 
maker's mark T.P. The cover is of the usual pattern with a 
band of ornament ; on the button is the date 1.573. 

There is also a paten of later date and unusual design. It 
is 5fin. across, and has a shallow depression within a wide 
brim. The outer edge of the brim is alternately scalloped 
with projecting angles between. The brim itself is pierced 
with oblong openings radiating from the centre. On the under- 
side are dotted in ' I.H. 1637.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1624 ; maker's mark nearly worn away. 

HIXTON ST. GEORGE. Whatever plate of either public or 
private donation the parish possessed was got rid of in the 
early part of this century, and replaced by some typical speci- 
mens. These comprise a large cup inscribed ' 1815 ; ' a paten 
inscribed ' Hinton St. George,' with date-letter for 1813, and 
a plate of the same date inscribed, ' The gift of Thomas 
Beagley 1813, Hinton S. George.' The donor was steward to 
Lord Poulett. 

KIXGSBURY EPISCOPI. The parish has a good cup and 
cover by I. P. The cup is 7f in. high ; the bowl has two 
bands of the usual ornament, hyphen marks on knop and upper 
part of foot ; egg-and-dart on the lower part. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. The cover 
is of the usual shape with a band of ornament ; on the button 
is the date 1573. The marks are the same as on the cup. 

A plain dish, diam. 9in. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1730; maker's mark partly obliterated; the initials, T. T. 
below a rose and crown = Thos. Tearle. 

A flagon of moderate size with round-topped lid. Marks : 

144 Papers, Sfc. 

2 offic. ; date-letter for 1749 ; maker's mark, R. G. and T. C. 
in quadrate punch, being the trade mark of Gurney and Co., 
entered 1739. On the flagon is this inscription : " The gift of 
James Gould Gent, to the Parish Church of Kingsbury in the 
County of Somersett Whose Family lyes Enter'd in a Vault 
the South side of the Churchyard neare the Church 1749. v 
Following these directions it was not difficult to discover the 
family vault and the high altar-tomb erected upon it. At one 
end is a shield bearing a lion rampant, the blazon being accord- 
ing to a monument in the church : per saltire or and azure, a 
lion rampant counterchanged. Crest, a demi-lion ramp. or. 
Two other sides of the tomb are covered over with pernicious 
ivy. On the south face : Here lyeth ye Body of James Gould 
late of London Gent, who acquired a handsome fortune with 
a Good Character. He gave fifty pounds to five poor widows 
of this parish, and y e like sume to five poor widdowes of 
Ilminster. A worthy example. He dy'd Feb. 25, 1750, aged 
51. Here also are mterr'd I s & M r y two more of his children; 
Exeunt omnes. (This last paragraph has been added later.) 
Here lyeth inter'd the Body of Mrs. Mary Gould Wife of 
James Gould citizen and Goldsmith of London, and daughter 

of Dampier of Blackford Gent. Who departed this 

Life y e 10 day of Feb. 17 . . in y e 54 year of her age. With 
her lieth five of her children William John Henry Mary and 
Mary Gould each under Two years of age." James Gould 
must have been a member of his Company by 1722 as he then 
entered his mark, his initials combined in a monogram. Cripps 

KIXGSTONE. This parish possesses a handsome cup and 
cover by the same maker as of that at Compton Dundon (see 
above). The cup stands 7Jin. high. The bowl is straight- 
sided with two bands of running ornament much resembling 
the handiwork of I. P. ; there is another band of ornament on 
the foot, and on the flat a band of egg-and-dart ornament. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, the 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 145 

initials H.W. in shaped punch. The cover is a good match 
with the domed part encircled with a band of ornament ; on 
the button, 1573 ; marks, same as on cup. 

Pewter : a dish ; a bowl marked K S. 1772 ; and a large 
flagon inscribed ' Kingstone 1633.' 

KXOWLE S. GILES. The plate is all modern. It consists 
of a cup silver gilt, paten on foot, and salver, with the date- 
letter for 1840 ; also a flagon of the date 1848. The earlier 
date is that of the rebuilding of the church. 

LOPEX. The parish possesses a cup and cover of the 
Georgian period. The cup stands 7in. high ; the bowl is 
({uite plain, and merges gradually into the stem, which is en- 
circled with a rudimentary knop ; the foot is moulded. The 
cover fits loosely on the cup ; the button is inscribed : " W. 
Adams, churchwarden of Lopen, 1739." Marks on cup : 2 
oflic. ; date-letter for 1738 ; maker's mark in oblong punch, the 
initials R.B. Robert Brown. The cover has only the last 
mark struck four times. 

MERRIOTT. The communion plate is all modern of mediaeval 
design. Chalice silver-gilt (date-letter for 1883) is inscribed : 
"The Holy Vessels restored Xmas., 1883, Donald Claxton, 
vicar, B. B. Norton, H. G. Whitley, churchwardens. Two 
patens, one inscribed : " D. D., Joseph Cross, M.A., vicar 
of Merriott, 1836, Jan. 14." This has probably been trans- 
ferred from an earlier gift. Two glass cruets with silver 

A large pewter flagon, tankard pattern, inscribed : " 168"0, 
William Mills, Josias French, churchwardens." 

MISTERTOX. A cup and cover with the Exeter hall-mark, 
silver-gilt. The cup stands 7^in. high, and greatly resembles 
the patterns of the eighteenth century. The bowl is trumpet- 
shaped and rounded at the base ; it has one band of a parody 
of ornament round the bowl ; the stem is long with a knop ; on 
the spread of the foot is a modification of the egg-and-dart 
ornament. The only mark is that of the Exeter mint, an X 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part 11. t 

146 Paper -s, *c. 

with a crown above in a circle. On the button of the plain 
cover are some ornamental flourishes dotted in with the date 

There are also a paten on a foot, dish, and large flagon of 
plated metal. 

SEABOROUGH. The cup here is a good example of Exeter 
workmanship, though, unfortunately, it has lost its cover. 
The cup stands 7in. high ; the bowl is conical with distinctive 
upright moulding of the lip ; there is one band of peculiar 
ornamentation inclosed within patched fillets, which interlace 
through open lozenges. Bands of egg-and-dart ornament will 
be found above and below stem, and on the foot. The only 
marks are the Exeter hall-mark (see under Misterton), and 
that of the maker IONS within oblong punch. John Ions, of 
Exeter, flourished in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth. 
Underneath is scratched : Jn. T. Stevens, 1828. 

There are also a small paten, dish, and flagon of some 
modern substitute for silver, which is to be hoped do not repre- 
sent the vanished cover. 

SEAVINGTON S. MARY. The cup is of a nondescript 
design. It stands 5f in. high. The lower part of the bowl is 
repousee, with fluted patterns terminating in a belt of crescents 
with small engraved ornaments above. The upper part is en- 
circled with a projecting rib roughly designed with the cable 
pattern. Between this rib and the belt of crescents is an in- 
scription : " loseph and Giles Hutchens, church wardens of 
Seuington Mary, Anno Domini 1715." There are no regular 
marks, but two pairs of marks neither very distinct ; the first 
is, perhaps, a full blown rose ; the second defies even a guess. 
The flutings, found also on the foot of the cup, are a very dis- 
tinctive feature in the cup at Evercreech, probable date about 
1700. The stem is plain with an annular knop. The paten of 
the usual design on foot has the date-letter for 1851 ; this date 
is also engraved on the under side. 

SEAVIXGTOX S. MICHAEL. The silver plate is all modern. 




An Inventory of Church Plate. 147 

It consists of a cup and paten, with the date-letter for 1840, 
and a salver dated 1861. 

SOUTH PETHERTOX. This ancient town has a good deal 
of interesting plate. First of all there is a fine silver-gilt cup 
with cover by I. P. (see illustration from a photograph kindly 
taken by Gr. S. Poole, Esq.) The cup stands 9fin. high ; the 
bowl is slightly trumpet-shaped ; there is one large and 
elaborate band of ornament, the inclosing bands interlacing 
through a transverse figure of eight. There is a good deal of 
engraved ornament on the other parts of the cup, and on the 
cover, which has the date 1573 on the button. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date letter for 1573 ; maker's mark I. P. 

A large flat-topped flagon, tankard-pattern, silver-gilt, 9Jin. 
in height, with large foot and handle. On the front of the 
drum : no-n/piou AyaTr???. Marks : 2 oflfic. of Brit, sterling ; 
the modern Exeter hall-mark, 3 castles in a shield ; date- 
letter for 1716 ; maker's mark, El in old English letters, under 
a crown in a circle, probably Elston of Exeter. On the flagon 
is this inscription : " Ex dono Arturi Bury, A.M., Anno Dom. 
1716." Under the foot < South Petherton.' 

A paten on foot, silver-gilt, Gfin. across, with the same 
marks and inscription as on the flagon. On the paten : Apros 
Ovpavov. Another paten of the same shape and size, in- 
scribed : 'South Petherton 1774.' Marks: 2 oflfic. ; date- 
letter for 1774 ; maker's mark W.C. in oblong punch. 

A very heavy dish, 8|in. across, inscribed : ' The greatest 
of these is charity.' Marks: 2 ofnc. ; date-letter for 1724; 
maker's mark R.B. in oblong punch Richard Bayley. There 
is also a dedicatory inscription : "The gift of Mrs, Elizabeth 
Fownes to the Church of South Petherton 1724." In the dish 
is a shield surrounded by mantling bearing : A horse bridled 
(Cabell), imp. 2 chevrons (Aysh). Crest, a horse bridled. 

The following details concerning the donors are taken from 
' South Petherton in the Olden Time ' by Dr. Norris, revised 
edit., 1882. 

148 Paper -s 9 8fc. 

" In the chancel of our church is a stone slab to the memory 
of Arthur Bury, S.T.P., who died May 3rd, 1713, at the age 
of 91. The donor of the plate above mentioned was probably 
a son of the Dr. Bury, and we may presume it to have been 
presented as a loving filial memento of a loving parent ? This 
Mrs. Fownes was a daughter of William Aysh, the Royalist 
[of Hele in South Petherton]. She was twice married. Her 
first husband was Samuell Cabell, a Devonshire gentleman 
who died in 1699. Her second husband was Richard Fownes, 
of Stapleton, in Dorsetshire, who left her a widow in 1714. 
She herself died in 1724, the date on the almsdish, so that it 
was in all probability a legacy. The arms are those of Cabell 
impaling Aysh, and were doubtless copied in error from the 
shield on her first husband's monument in the north transept 
of our church." 

TATWORTH. This is a new parish, and includes the 
southern portion of Chard parish. The church was opened in 
1851. The plate consists of a chalice with date-letter for 
1856, a paten of the year following, both these pieces of silver, 
and a plated flagon. [Communicated by the Rev. H. S. King, 

WAYFORD. Here is a diminutive yet beautiful Elizabethan 
cup and cover. The cup is 5 T \in. high ; the bowl is trumpet- 
shaped with one band of well designed ornament with upright 
sprays at the intersections. The stem is short with a plain 
knop ; on the foot is the egg and dart ornament. Marks : 
2 otfic. ; date-letter for 1570; maker's mark, the letters T.E. 
combined in a monogram ; this mark is found on plate in two 
Dorset parishes in this very year. The cover is quite plain, 
with the same marks. 

Two dishes of white metal, inscribed : Presented to Way- 
ford Church by Anne, Eliza, and Maria, daughters of its late 
rector, Richard Symes Cox. June, 1858. 

A pewter flagon, inscribed : Gul. Joh. Comper, D.D., 
Wayfordiensi, 1871. 

An Inventory of Clmrch Plate. 149 

WHITE STANTON. The only piece of silver here is a small 
cup of the baluster stem pattern. It stands 6f in. high, and is 
perfectly devoid of ornamentation. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1658 ; maker's mark, the initials R.N. with a mullet 
above and beneath in a shield. On the bowl are the initials 
W.L., T.D., 1659, dotted in. 

A glass cruet with silver mountings. Pewter, a flagon dish 
and small bowl. Of modern plated metal, a flagon, paten, and 

WINSHAM. An Elizabethan cup and cover, though not of 
the same date, or by the same maker. The cup is a handsome 
specimen of I.P.'s work. It is 6|in. high, with a deep bowl 
encircled with two bands of ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. The cover is of the 
usual pattern, with one band of ornament ; on the button the 
date 1573 is engraved. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570 ; 
maker's mark, the initials H.S. combined in a monogram with- 
in shield, probably Henry Button. 

Another cup is of the baluster stem pattern with a broad 
and shallow bowl. As usual there is no ornament, for which 
there would have been plenty of room, for it stands 7in. high, 
and the bowl is 4^in. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1654 ; maker's mark nearly worn away. It is inscribed : " A 
guift to the Church of Winsham." A plain paten on foot 6in. 
across, with the same inscription as on the cup. Marks : 2 
offic. of Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 1708 ; maker's mark, the 
letters B O. with a small ornament beneath in plain shield, 
perhaps a variation of John Boddington's mark, which gener- 
ally has a mitre above the letters. 

A small flagon, tankard pattern, with the Sacred Monogram 
on drum. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1759 ; maker's 
mark almost obliterated. There is an inscription underneath : 
*' To the Revd. Geo. Ware, M.A., as presented to him for the 
use of St. Stephen's Church, Winsham, by W. $ A. Taylor, 
September, 1859." 

150 Papers, 8fc. 


This portion of the Crewkerne Deanery contains twenty- 
four ancient parishes and one modern district. Elizabethan 
plate will be found in fifteen parishes. 

ASH ILL. This parish has a handsome Elizabethan cup and 
cover, by the provincial maker, whose initials were M.H. (see 
introduction). The cup stands 7f in. high ; the engraved bands 
are gilt. Round the lip, which follows the Exeter pattern, is a 
belt of the twisted cable pattern ; round the middle of the 
bowl is a band of the conventional ornament ; the knop is very 
thin. The cover has a band of the same ornament as on the 
bowl ; on the button is an elaborate Tudor rose enclosing the 
date 1574. Marks (found on both pieces) : (1) the initials 
M.H. combined in a monogram within a circle, (2) a cross 
with a pellet between the arms of the cross, also in a circle ; 
no hall-marks or date-letter. 

A salver on three feet, diam. 8|in. Marks : 2 offic. ; date 
letter for 1769 ; maker's mark I.K. in oblong punch, perhaps 
Jeremiah King. In the centre is this inscription : " Ashill. 
Ex dono ThomaB Alford A.M. & P.W. qui hanc Patinam in 
usum hujusce Exclisiae pro animi ardore dedicavit Decembris 
25, 1769." In the church there is a monument to the memory 
of the donor, from which we learn that P.W. means prebend- 
ary of Wells. 

BARRINGTON. An Elizabethan cup and cover by I.P.,and 
so exactly resembling his other pieces as not to require a de- 
tailed description. On the button of the cover is the date 
1573. Marks (same on both pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1573 ; maker's mark I. P. 

A plain paten on foot, diam. 7in., with moulded edge. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1723 ; maker's mark, the 
initials T.T., the rest of the mark is obliterated, but probably 
that of Thomas Tearle. The paten is inscribed : " Haec patella 
data fuit in usum sacra? ecclesiae per Anna. Strode 1723." In 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 151 

the centre of the paten is a crest on a wreath a wyvern or 
dragon ramp. A small flagon on a wide-spreading foot. The 
marks are the same as on the paten, with the exception of the 
date-letter, which is for the year 1724. On the drum of the 
flagon, surrounded by mantling, is a shield bearing : Ermine, 
on a canton sa. a crescent arg. Crest, a demi-lion ramp. 
(Strode). Inscription : " Ex dono Gulielmi Strode Armigeri 
in usum ecclesia3 de Barrington 1724." William Strode was 
the fourth of that name in succession, and the third who lived 
at Barrington Court, His first wife, Anna, was the donor of 
the paten ; unfortunately her maiden name is not known, and 
the crest is borne by too many families to supply a clue. He 
married, secondly, Jane Langhorne, and ob. s.p. 1745, his will 
being proved 25 Feb., 1746. See the pedigree of the Strode 
family in the Proc. xxx, ii 68, 69. 

BEEKCROCOMBE. A small cup and cover by I.P. The 
cup is 6^in. high ; the bowl has two belts of the usual conven- 
tional ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1572 ; 
maker's mark I.P. The cover is of the ordinary pattern, 
with a belt of ornament. On the button is the date 1573. 
Same marks as on cup. 

An electro-plated flagon and a brass dish used as a paten. 

BICKENHALL. The vessels here are all electro - plate. 
They include a cup and paten, another paten on foot, a plate, 
and a flagon. Each piece is inscribed : " Bickenhall, 1841." 
They are very good of their kind. 

BROADWAY. Another cup, minus the cover, by I. P., and 
almost a fac simile of the one last described. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1572 ; maker's mark I.P. 

A small salver with elegantly worked edge, on three feet. 
Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 1 705 ; maker's 
mark P Y., below a rose and crown, ?'.*., Benjamin Pyne. 

An electro-plated flagon. 

BUCK LAND S. MARY. A handsome modern mediaeval 
chalice and paten, silver-gilt and jewelled with appropriate 

152 Papers, fyc. 

ornamentation and inscriptions. The date-letter is for 1873. 
Of the ancient plate there survives a flagon of the tankard 
pattern, lO^in. high, silver-gilt. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, ster- 
ling ; date -letter for 1721 ; maker's mark, S L. ? with a 
pellet below in shaped punch, i.e., Gabriel Sleath. It is 
inscribed : " De et Ecclesiae de Buckland St ffi Marias D.D. 
D na Rosa Kymer, 1721." On the drum within mantling is a 
lozenge bearing : Three wolves courant in pale within a bordure 
bezantee [Kymer] ; Imp., In chief two eaglets displayed, in 
base a mullet [Fownes]. Thomas Fownes, of Stepleton, 
Dorset, in his will proved 28 Nov., 1670, mentions his daughter 
Rose, the last but one of a long family all under age. This 
will is printed in Brown's Somerset Wills, series iv, 98, and 
the editors have added the information that Rose Fownes 
married at South Petherton, 10 Sept., 1701, Gilbert Keymer. 
The match was, no doubt, made while Rose was staying with 
her eldest brother, Richard, who had married Elizabeth, 
widow of Samuell Cabell, and daughter of William Aysh, of 
South Petherton (see notes on that place above). Gilbert 
Keymer inherited his property at Buckland from his remote 
ancestor, Ellis Keymer, of Pendomer, who married Mary, 
daughter and co-heiress of John Bevyn, of Lufton, ob., 1554. 
Gilbert died 21 Dec., 1711, aged 69, so recorded by Collinson 
(i, 21), who also sets down that Rose Kymer, his widow (the 
donor of the flagon), died on the 16th March, 1739-40, aged 
39, which is, of course, a palpable error. The entries in the 
register, furnished by the Rev. W. H. Lance, rector of Buck- 
land, show that the rest of the information may be relied on. 

CURL AND. The cup and cover are by the unknown pro- 
vincial silversmith whose initials were M.H. (see introduction). 
The cup is 6 Jin. high ; round the lip of the bowl straightened 
up in the Exeter style is a band of interlaced fillets, the space 
between being left plain ; there is another band of conventional 
ornament round the bowl, on the foot is a band of interlaced 
cable pattern. Marks : 1, M.H., combined in monogram with- 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 153 

in circle ; 2, a cross with pellets in the angles, also within 
circle. The same marks are found on the cover ; this has a 
band of interlaced cable pattern ; on the button is engraved an 
elaborate Tudor rose inclosing the date 1574. 

CURRY MALLETT. The Elizabethan plate here, though 
not by the same maker, greatly resembles that at Curland. 
Like that, it no doubt comes from Exeter, as the maker's 
name, hitherto unknow r n, is given at full length, but the dis- 
tinctive mark of the Exeter mint is wanting. The cup is 6f in. 
high ; the ornamentation and engraving are almost exactly 
that on the cup at Curland. The only mark is the maker's 
name enclosed in two punches I. NORTH. The cover has 
the same mark ; on the button encircling a rose is a fillet en- 
closing the date 1574. 

There is also a flagon, tankard pattern, with Hat top, lOin. 
high. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1620; maker's mark, 
I.H., with rose beneath, in shaped punch. On the drum there 
is dotted in a lozenge, bearing 6 mullets, 3, 2, 1 (Walsh). 
This single coat in a lozenge, azure and or, is to be seen on a 
monument in Curry Mallett church. On the monument is a 
figure of a kneeling woman with two smaller figures below. 
The inscription has vanished, and the registers not being in 
existence before 1653, the only clue to the age of the monu- 
ment is the costume, which is that of the early seventeenth 
century. The head of the Walsh family lived at Cathanger, 
in the adjoining parish of Fivehead. John Walshe, justice of 
the Common Pleas, by his will proved 5 June, 1572, left to his 
half-brother, Thomas Walshe, of Stowey (a manor in Five- 
head), certain lands in ' Stowey, Fyfet, Cory Mallet and 
Wrantage.' In Brown's Somerset Wills, ser. iv, pp. 8, 9, 
will be found wills of members of the \Valshe family, resident 
at Fivehead, though of a rather later date than the flagon. 

CIRRY RIVEL. There is rather more variety in the plate 
chest of this parish than is usual. The oldest pieces of the 
Communion vessels are a cup and cover of the early part of 

Kol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. u 

154 Papers, fyc. 

the seventeenth century. The cup is 7in. high with a deep 
bowl unadorned by any engraving, and a moulded foot. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1637 ; maker's mark, an 
anchor between the initials D.G. in shield. The cover is of 
the usual pattern without the useful flange found on the earlier 
pieces ; it has the same marks as the cup, but the date-letter is 
two years earlier. Then there is another cup and cover of 
enormous proportions. The cup is 9f in. high ; the bowl is 5in. 
across at lip, 5in. in depth, and 4in. in diameter at the base. 
Round this capacious vessel are two bands of interlacing fillets 
which enclose wavy lines, evidently a reminiscence of the 
Elizabethan ornamentation. There are some more patternings 
in the middle space, which are also repeated on the stem and 
foot. This part of the cup is also decorated with flat leaves 
applique round the bottom of the bowl and the stem. On the 
bowl is an inscription : " This was given By John Coate for 
the use of the Parish of Curry Rivell Anno Dni. 1692." The 
only mark is a punch with scalloped edge containing the 
initials I. A., struck thrice. These initials in a punch of nearly 
the same shape are found on the paten-cover at Goathill, near 
Milborne Port, probably made in 1711, but without any other 
marks. The cover of the cup is of corresponding dimensions 
and ornamentation without any marks at all. 

There is also here a beautiful little saucer or shallow tray. 
It is 5in. in diameter ; the interior is divided by raised lines 
into compartments with punched patterns. The two handles 
are shaped like escallop shells > On the shield in the central 
boss is the dedicatory inscription : " The guift of Alex. Jownes 
1640." Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1634 ; maker's mark 
illegible. Another of these beautiful and valuable examples 
of domestic plate of the pre-rebellion era is at Charlton Mus- 
grove in Bruton Deanery. 

DOXY ATT. The oldest piece of plate here is the cover of a 
vanished Elizabethan cup. It is of the usual pattern, with a 
band of running ornament round brim; on the button, 1574. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 155 

Marks : '2 offic. ; date-letter for 1574 ; maker's mark, I. P. A 
tall and plain cup of the ordinary early seventeenth century 
pattern, but the foot has no mouldings or flange, and approxi- 
mates to the later flat-foot designs. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1639 ; maker's mark, I.S. with pellet below in shaped 

A silver-gilt paten of mediteval design with the dedicatory 
inscription : " Presented to Donyatt Church in memory of 
E.T.W. 1871." They are the initials of Edward Tristram, 
infant son of R. F. Woodward, Rector of Donyatt for about a 
year and a quarter previous to his death on loth Oct., 1872. 
[Communicated by the Rev. A. B. C. Beechey, rector.] 

DKAYTON. This parish possesses a very fine example of 
the work of I. IONS, of Exeter, also found at Seaborough 
(see above). The cup stands 6|in. high ; the bowl has the 
rim or lip straightened upright in the distinctive Exeter 
pattern ; on the bowl is a band of ornament, with the inter- 
lacing fillets hatched ; there are bands of upright lines above 
and below the stem, and on the foot. The egg-and-dart orna- 
ment is also engraved on the foot. The knop, as usual, is 
very thin. Marks (struck twice) : Exeter ancient, i.e., within 
a circle a X crowned between two pellets ; maker's mark, 
within oblong punch, IONS on bowl; on foot, IONNS ; in 
either case without the initial I usually found before the sur- 
name. The cover is of the ordinary pattern with a Tudor 
rose on the button. Only marks, Exeter hall-mark and IONS. 
This maker's mark is found on plate within the period 1571-79. 

A modern paten of mediaeval design, inscribed: "Deo 
Gratias. Dedicated to the service of God in the Church of 
S. Catherine Draytori, September 6th, 1891." The donor was 
Mrs. Matterson, formerly resident. 

FIVEHEAD. An Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P. Both 
pieces exactly resemble the rest of his work. The cup is 6in. 
high. Marks : 2 offic.; date-letter for 1572 : maker's mark, 
I. P. On the button of the cover is the date 1573. 

156 Papers, fyc. 

Of pewter there are two dishes and one bason, besides a 
flagon of some plated metal. 

HAM BRIDGE. A modern parish formed out of Curry Kivel 
in 1844, with the ancient sinecure parish of Earnshill and 
detached portions of other places thrown in. The original set 
of vessels are electro-plate, comprising a cup, two patens, and 
a flagon. There are also a chalice and paten of white metal 
gilt, inscribed : " In memory of Charles Stephen Grueber, 
fifty-one years Vicar of St. James', Hambridge, 1843-1894." 
[Notes supplied by the Rev. C. L. Marson, Vicar.] 

HATCH BEAUCHAMP. A cup of the Georgian period, 7|in. 
high, with an encircling rib round the bowl, on which is the 
Sacred Monogram. Marks nearly obliterated ; the date- 
letter is for 1752. A large and plain paten on foot, Sin. across. 
In the centre is the Sacred Monogram. Marks : 2 offic. of 
Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1713; maker's mark, an anchor 
between the letters P O Thomas Port. Another cup with a 
cover, on the button of which is the date 1794. The cup is 
5|in. high, with a trumpet-shaped bowl. On the foot is 
engraved 'Hatch.' Marks: 3 offic.; date-letter for 1793; 
maker's mark G.B. in oblong punch. A silver dish, 9in. 
across, with the date-letter for 1839. 

ILE ABBOTTS. The vessels are of plated metal; they 
comprise a cup, paten, salver, and flagon. There are also two 
pewter flagons of different measures, each initialled I. A. 

ILE BREWERS. Here there is an interesting Elizabethan 
cup by the same maker as of the cup at North Perrott. It 
stands 7in. high, with a deep bowl. This has one band of 
ornamentation (gilt) with elaborate sprays below the inter- 
sections of the fillets. Under the bowl and on the spread of 
the foot is a peculiar design of link or chain ornament like 
that on the cup at West Chinnock (Proc. xliv. ii. 187). The 
knop is plain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1570; maker's 
mark, in a shaped shield a stag's head caboshed. The cover 
is much later ; it is quite plain without any flange. Marks : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 157 

2 otfic. ; date-letter for 1760; maker's mark almost effaced. 
Pewter, two plates. 

ILMINSTER. The Elizabethan plate here is of an unusual 
design and date. The bowl of the cup (gilt within) is V 
shaped, and devoid of ornament, the stem and foot are of the 
baluster stem pattern, with the sloping foot without any 
mouldings to break the outline. The cup is 7|in. high. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1592 ; maker's mark almost 
effaced, but perhaps a double-headed eagle, a mark given in 
O.E.P. under 1597. The cover is domical in outline, with an 
elaborate spirelet on the apex, instead of the usual flat button. 
It has the same marks as the cup. 

A broad paten on foot, 8in. across, with plain rim. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1633 ; maker's mark rather 
effaced, but probably the initials I.M. and a pig passant below. 

Another paten and flagon of modern design, given by a for- 
mer Vicar. The first piece is inscribed : Presented by J. H. 
Mules Clerk A.M. Vicar of Ilminster Easter 1848 : S. John 
vi 35. On the flagon : " Presented by J. H. Mules Clerk 
A.M. Vicar of Ilminster Easter 1848 in memory of J. H. 
Mules Clerk A.M. late Vicar of Ilminster and 40 years 
Master of the Endowed Grammar School died July 4 1822 
aged 67. Sarah his wife died March 12 1842 aged 82. Sarah 
Anne their daughter wife of Robert Young died July 31 
1825 aged 41. Mary Anne wife of J. H. Mules Clerk A.M. 
died Oct. 23 1826 aged 36. Mary Anne Howard their daugh- 
ter died May 5 1833 aged 16. John William their son died 
July 18<b 1847 aged 22." 

There is also a fine example of the Edmond's cup pattern, 
unfortunately deprived of its steeple. These handsome cups, 
of which examples have already been noted at Yarlington, 
Horsington and Odcombe, were in vogue during the reign of 
James I. Though, of course, originally intended for domestic 
use, in the course of time a considerable number have been 
dedicated to the service of the Sanctuary. The general 

158 Papers, $*c. 

appearance of such a cup will be best understood by examin- 
ing the illustration of the Yarlington cup in Proc. xliii, ii 187. 
The Ilminster cup is silver gilt, and 11 Jin. high ; the general 
style of ornamentation closely resembles the illustration in 
O.E.P., 5th edit., p. 303. On the shield, which forms part of 
the ornamentation of the bowl, are some very tantalizing 
flourishes in dotted work, which seem to include a monogram, 
but only one letter R at the beginning can be distinguished. 
The cover has lost its beautiful crowning steeple. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1611 ; maker's mark probably T above 
W in shield given in O.E.P. under 1607. 

ILTON. Here is an interesting cup of provincial manufac- 
ture combining Jacobean and Elizabethan details. The cup is 
designed after the Exeter pattern with the peculiar lip and 
small knop. It stands 8jin. high, fully gilt. The ornamenta- 
tion includes a belt of engraving work on the lip, and another 
round the centre of the bowl without the usual interlacing of 
the enclosing fillets or the flourishes appendant thereto. The 
running design includes representations of flowers and fruit. 
At the bottom and top of stem are bands of rude quatrefoils. 
Hyphens are found on the knop, running ornament and the 
egg-and-dart on the foot. The cover has a band of the same 
style. There are no marks of any kind, and the ornamentation 
though elaborate is rude in execution. On the button of the 
cover is the date '1610 + HVGE BRUM + THOMAS 
HICHENS + . [Compare the cup at Withycombe.] 

There are also a cup and salver of plated metal and a pewter 

PUCKINGTON. A handsome cup of the Caroline period. 
It is 7f in. high, has a large bowl, stem with plain knop, and 
moulded foot. No ornamentation of any kind. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1637 ; maker's mark, an anchor between 
the initials D.G. The bowl is inscribed : Humfrey Sydenham, 
Rector Ambrose Hutching, John Hawkins, Wardens. The 
rector was the fifth son of Humphrey Sydenham of Combe 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 159 

Sjdenham in Stogumber by Margaret, sister of John Lord 
Poulet. He was appointed rector in 1629, and was also rector 
of Odcombe. His eloquence procured him the title of Silver- 
tongued Sydenham, but his use of it in defence of Church and 
State caused him to be deprived of all his preferments, and 
'multis incommodis circumventus ' he died in or about 1650. 
A plain paten on foot, diam. 6f in. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1724 ; maker's mark nearly worn away. 

Two pewter plates, an electro-plated flagon, and two glass 

SHEPTON BEAUCHAMP. A good Elizabethan cup and 
cover by I. P. The cup is Tin. high ; it has two bands of con- 
ventional ornament round the bowl, hyphens on knop, and 
bands of the first-named ornament on foot and cover. Marks : 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I.P. On the 
button of the cover is the date 1573. 

There are also two modern chalices with patens silver-gilt. 
The larger chalice with the Birmingham date-letter for 1874 
was designed by G. E. Street. The smaller chalice is in- 
scribed: "Inmemoriam. C. L." Caroline Lethbridge, mother 
of the Rev. A. Lethbridge, rector of the parish. A small 
silver spoon with the date-letter for 1869. Electro, a salver. 

STAPLE FITZPAIXE. The only piece of silver here is a 
small paten on foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1726 ; 
maker's mark, two initials in shaped punch, but so worn away 
as not to be identified. The paten is inscribed : " The Grift of 
W. Hare, Gr. Potts to ye Parish Church of Staple Fitz Pain 

The other vessels are electro-plate ; two cups and a flagon. 

STOCKLIXCH MAGDALEN. An Elizabethan cup and cover 
by I. P., of his usual pattern. The cup stands 6|in. high ; 
there are two belts of ornament round the bowl, and hyphen 
belts on knop and foot. The cover has a belt of ornament ; 
on the button ' 1573.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; 
maker's mark, I.P. 

160 Papers, -c. 

STOCKLINCH OTTERS AY. An interesting Elizabethan cup 
of the Exeter pattern, with a poor cover. The cup is GJin. 
high ; the bowl is V-shaped, with the lip turned straight up. 
There is one band of well designed ornament, inclosed between 
intersecting hatched fillets. Above and below the stem are 
bands of upright strokes ; on the foot two bands of egg-arid- 
dart ornament. . The knop is plain. The only mark is a hex- 
agonal punch, inclosing an illegible design, which might be a 
headless cross. 

The cover is quite plain, with a broad flat button. The 
only mark is a small oblong punch containing a indecipherable 
monogram struck thrice. 

A handsome paten on foot, with engraved rim, 8^in. in 
diameter. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 
1705; maker's mark, in shaped punch, W I = John Wisdom. 
On the paten a demi-lion holding a harp, the crest of the 
family of Jeffreys now merged in that of Allen of Stocklinch 

A flagon and a dish of plated metal. 

SWELL. A very small parish with a very small cup and 
cover by I. P. The cup is 5fin. high, with the usual bands of 
ornament on bowl and foot ; hyphens on knop. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1572 ; maker's mark, I. P. On the but- 
ton of the cover, which has the same marks, is the date 

WHITE LACKINGTON. A tall cup, with cover of the 
Jacobean period. The cup is 9|in. high ; the bowl is quite 
plain, V shaped, with slight lip. On the stem is a rudimen- 
tary knop ; the foot is worked with many mouldings. The 
bowl is inscribed : Greorge Poole, John Manynge Church- 
wardens, Whitlackington 1616. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter 
for 1616 ; maker's mark a full-blown rose on a stem between 
two initials, the first an R, the second worn away, perhaps S. 
This mark is not known. The cover is quite plain : the 
marks are nearly worn away. On the button is engraved : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 161 

" W th purged soule like fined siluer pure Receyne the bread, 
wch doth for aye endure." 

A plain paten on foot, 7^in. across. Marks : 2 offic. of 
Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 1712 ; maker's mark worn away. 




Ix this district there are 24 ancient parishes and 2 chapelries ; 
Elizabethan plate will be found in no less than sixteen. 

The retired nature of portions of the Wiveliscombe District 
would lead us to expect that in its sequestered nooks we should 
find interesting examples of Church plate. Nor would such 
an expectation be disappointed. Out of the twenty-six 
ancient churches and chapels, sixteen possess pieces of Eliza- 
bethan plate ; and at Nettlecombe are to be found the two 
earliest pieces of dated English goldsmith's work known to 
exist. These pieces, a chalice and paten, with the date-letter 
for 1479, were, it is recorded, confided to the care of 4 Master 
John Trevelyan,' in 1549, and in the care of Master John 
Trevelyan and his descendants, the plate has always remained. 
This John Trevelyan's great-grandmother had brought to her 
husband the large estates of the Raleigh family in the West of 
England and Wales ; and it is possible that this wealthy lady 
may have given the plate to the church which lay literally at 
her door. Notwithstanding the protection afforded to the plate 
by the accident of the place in which it has been kept, it must 
have been often in danger. Probably the influence of a man, 
whose relations were known to be powerful at Court, may have 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part //. x 

162 Papers, -c. 

saved it from the Puritanism of the Elizabethan period, but 
there was a time when it must have been very near to destruc- 
tion. For we read that at the commencement of the Civil 
War, the Eoundhead rector of Nettlecombe, Mr. Gay, led a 
" band of rapscallions " against the Court for the purpose of 
burning it to the ground, and that he and his evil-minded crew 
were not driven off till the out-buildings up to the very door, 
were destroyed. 

Though so heavily fined for his loyalty to Charles I, that he 
had to sell nearly everything he had, and his devoted wife had 
to travel to London to sue for her husband's pardon in a car- 
riage drawn by oxen in the absence of horses, yet still, and the 
fact is to his credit, the 'squire of Nettlecombe of the day 
respected the costly plate within his charge. (See also under 

Next, perhaps, to the Nettlecombe church plate, the two 
most interesting, although not the oldest pieces, are the cups at 
Carhampton and Treborough described below, one of which is 
of English, the other of foreign manufacture. 

For a possible hypothesis of the existence of these cups in 
the parishes where they are found, we must again turn to 
Nettlecombe, premising that the cups may have been, to judge 
from their appearance, originally intended for domestic use. 

Some 140 years ago, a maid sewing in a room in the older 
part of Nettlecombe Court, dropped her thimble from her 
finger. The thimble rolled away and fell through a crack in 
the oak floor. But the thimble was a precious one, and a 
board was taken up to seek for it. When lo ! to the astonish- 
ment of the seekers, a quantity of Elizabethan and Jacobean 
plate was revealed to view, hidden beneath the floor. But the 
owner of Nettlecombe at the time did not care to retain the 
treasure so strangely discovered, and caused it to be sold. 
" Philistine, Philistine, Philistine," writes that ripe antiquarian 
and scholar, the late Sir Walter Trevelyan, in his diary, as he 
notes this unfortunate occurrence ! 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 163 

It appears unlikely that plate of the character of these two 
cups would have got into the hands of the clergy and their 
wardens, except through some similar channel to this. It seems, 
therefore, possible to the writer that these cups may have 
been purchased at this sale, and have been given to the 
respective churches by the purchasers or their representatives. 
The writer would put in a plea for the preservation of the 
old pewter vessels, still to be found occasionally, belonging to 
our country churches. Some of the clergy and churchwardens 
who would cherish their silver plate most jealously, pay little 
heed to their pewter vessels. And yet these vessels, ugly and 
clumsy as they may appear to be, are full of interest and 
history. Notices of the pewter vessels, so far as they are 
known to exist, will be found under the different parishes. 
The Museum at Taunton Castle would provide a safe resting- 
place for those pewter pieces which are otherwise in danger of 
perishing from neglect. 

BICKNOLLER. The Elizabethan cup, unfortunately with- 
out its cover, is by the well-known Exeter goldsmith I. IONS, 
who also supplied the cups at Drayton and Seaborough. It 
stands 7^in. high, and weighs lloz. av. A band of foliage, 
conventionally treated, runs round the bowl, and is intersected 
by upright sprays of foliage in four places. On the stem is a 
knop ; round the foot a band of the egg-and-dart ornament. 
Marks : (1) Exeter ancient ; (2) I. IONS, in plain punches. 

There is a plain paten on foot with a filleted edge ; diam., 

7^in. ; weight, lloz. av. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 

1751 ; maker's mark, the initials I.M. above a tortoise. On 

the back of the paten is an inscription : " Farmer John Sweet- 

yng and Henry Dobell Churchwardens." The Sweetyng 

family of Thorncombe were for a long period Lords of the 

Manor of Bicknoller. The name Dobell, under the form of 

Dibble, is still a familiar West Somerset one. 

There is a modern electro-plate alms dish. 

BROMPTON RALPH. The parish possesses an Elizabethan 

1 64 Papers, fyc. 

cup and cover by I. P., which do not differ from the rest of his 
work. The cup is 7Jtn. high, weight lOoz. av. The bowl is 
bell-shaped ; it has two bands of conventional foliage, also 
found on the foot and the cover. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. On the button of the cover is 
the date ' 1573.' 

There is also another paten or salver on three feet. It is 
7 in. in diameter and weighs 9oz. av. Round the rim is a de- 
sign of acanthus leaves. Marks : 3 offic. ; date-letter for 
1790; maker's mark, H.C. = Henry Chawner. On the re- 
verse is an inscription : ' S.H., J.B., ChurchAvardens.' 

There is also a pitcher-shaped flagon with splayed foot of 
Sheffield plate. 

CARHAMPTON. Here is a cup, once gilt, of singular beauty. 
It is 8in. high, and the bowl is 3in. across at the lip. The 
bowl is exquisitely decorated with cherubs' heads, flowers and 
fruit, surrounded by arabesques. The lip is quite plain, and 
bears the date 1634. The bowl is connected with the knop by 
a slender stem strengthened with three brackets. The knop 
is pear-shaped ; below, the stem swells out into a round decor- 
ated with more arabesques, and the splayed base below is orna- 
mented with the egg-and-dart moulding. The cup weighs 
lOoz. av. Marks : no official nor date-letter ; (1) berries in a 
shaped shield ; (2) interlaced lines in ditto. [The absence of 
the Hall-marks, however, is no proof of foreign origin ; and, 
while the foot and stem are very similar to other specimens of 
undoubted English work, the ornamentation of cherubs' heads 
seems to point to an ecclesiastical rather than a domestic use, 
and only in countries which, like England, had discarded the 
chalice-form for the cup would such a vessel be required. The 
date on the cup is that of the earlier part of the reign of 
Charles I, and so this cup, like the plate at Marston Bigot 
(Proc. xliv, ii, 168), may be due to that monarch's desire to 
raise the artistic taste of the nation : E. H. B.] 

The paten is Sin. in diam., and weighs 13oz. av. It has a 

Ail Inventory of Church Plate. 165 

moulded edge with shells at intervals. The date-letter is for 

The flagon is 10|in. high, weight 35 oz. av. It has a flat 
cover, a boldly bowed handle, and a splayed foot. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1746 ; maker's mark, W.W., S.R. with- 
in a cross-shaped shield. On the body of the flagon is a dedi- 
catory inscription : ' The gift of the Reverend Mr. Wm. 
Lovelace. He was appointed to Carhampton in 1716, and 
died 29 Dec. 1754 in the 64 tb year of his age.' M.I. given in 
Savage's History of Carhampton^ 1830, p. 293. 

CHIPSTABLE. The cup is of the late Georgian period, 
quite plain, except for the Sacred Monogram engraved within 
a medallion. The cup is 6^in. high ; its weight is marked as 
lloz. Marks : 3 offic. ; date-letter for 1792 ; maker's mark, 
P.B., in square shield. A paten and flagon of modern design, 
given by the late Mr. Capel of Bulland Lodge. 

CL AT WORTHY. The cup is 8fin. high. The bowl is 
slightly bell-shaped, and rests on a long stem of the baluster 
pattern. There is no ornamentation of any kind. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter doubtful ; maker's mark, L.T., above a star. 
The cup is inscribed: " Dedicavit Henr. Lockett A.M. 
ecclesia3 sua? Glat worthy 1757." There is also a modern paten 
with the inscription : " D. D. John Warington Carew 1895." 
A silver almsdish ; marks: 3 offic.; date-letter for 1797; 
maker's mark, R.S., in oblong punch = Robert Sharp, ent. 
1789. It is inscribed : D. D. Jac. Camplin A.M. hujus 
ecclesire Rector Anno Dom : Jes : Christi 1797. The donor 
was a landowner and magistrate and a man of considerable 
importance generally in this district at the end of the last 

There are a paten and flagon of Sheffield plate with appro- 
priate ornamentation and inscriptions. 

ELWORTHY. An Elizabethan cup, 6in. high, and weighing 
8oz. av. Round the bowl are two bands of the customary 
foliage, divided by three upright sprays. The knop and the 

166 Papers, fyc. 

foot have the hyphen decoration. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, only an I visible, but from the 
style, ornamentation, and the presence of two bands on the 
bowl, there is no doubt that it is I. P. The modern paten has 
the date-letter for 1863. There is also an electro-plated flagon 
of Gothic design. 

FITZHEAD. Here there is a beautiful Elizabethan cup and 
cover in good condition, by a hitherto unknown maker. The 
cup stands 6|in. high. The bowl is bell-shaped ; it has one 
band of foliage divided by four upright sprays ; and at the 
base of the bowl is a band of vertical hatching. The stem has 
a moulded knop. The foot has bands of hyphens and vertical 
hatchings ; this has been repaired. The cover has a band of 
conventional foliage ; on the button is the date ' 1574.' 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, a man's 
head within an oblong shield. Another paten on foot, with 
gadrooned edges, 8Jin. in diam. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1696 ; maker's mark, R.T., over a cross between two 
dots, within a shaped shield. In the centre of the paten is an 
inscription : " The gift of Mrs. Jane Cannon to the parish of 
Fitzhead 1710." The family of Cannon held Fitzhead Court 
for a considerable time, and their arms are depicted on the 
ceiling of the dining room there. Collinson (ii, 492) records 
several monuments in the church to their memory. 

An electro-plated almsdish and flagon. 

HUISH CHAMPFLOWER. This parish possesses a tiny 
Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P. The cup is 5in. high, 
and weighs 7oz. 4dwt. troy. There are two bands of orna- 
ment round the bowl ; the hyphen belt is found on the knop ; 
and the foot has the egg-and-dart moulding round the edge. 
The cover weighs 1 Joz. troy. It has a band of ornament, and 
the date 1573 on the button. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. 

There is also a piece of plate which from the shape and 
appearance was probably a stand for a tea or coffee pot. It 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 167 

is oval, Tin. by o^in., Aveight 5oz. 9dwt., with a reeded rim, 
and stands on four reeded feet turned up at their ends. It is 
inscribed : "Huish Champflower, 1796." Marks : 3 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1795 ; maker's mark, P.B., A.B., in a shield Peter 
and Anne Bateman, ent. 1791. A plated flagon, 10|in. high. 

LEIGHLAND. The cup here is of provincial make. It is 
6Jin. high ; the bowl is bell-shaped and 3Jin. in diameter at 
lip ; the stem is of the baluster pattern ; there is no ornamen- 
tation. The only mark is that of the maker's initials, R.F., 
the first letter reversed struck four times. On the lip, " T.P., 
T.B., 1671." This is the probable date of the cup. Other 
vessels ; a small plated paten and flagon ; and a paten on a 
foot and a flagon, leather-bottle pattern, of pewter. 

MOXKSILVEK. A tall cup 8in. high; the weight, 17oz. 
3dwt. 2gr. is marked on it. The bowl is bell-shaped, 4in. in 
diam. at lip ; the stem has a moulded knop. There is no 
decoration of any kind. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; 
date-letter for 1716 ; maker's mark, the letters Gr.L., with a 
rose spray. The cup is inscribed ; " Ecclesiae parochialis de 
Monksilver, 1717." The paten with a moulded edge, weight 
lOoz. 14dwt., is on a foot ; it is Sin. in diam. Marks : 2 offic. 
of Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1716; maker's mark, the 
letters L O. beneath a key within a shield Nathaniel Lock, 
goldsmith, of London, ent. 1698. 

There is a modern salver and glass flagon ; also an antique 
pewter platter, 7in. in diam., with the initials R.W. stamped 
in the centre. 

NETTLECOMBE. The real medieval chalice and paten be- 
longing to this church are of the greatest interest. They are 
not only very beautiful and in perfect condition, although 
they have been in regular use, as far as is known, since they 
were provided for the use of the parish, but they are also the 
oldest pieces of English goldsmith's work bearing a date-letter 
known to exist. The late Mr. O. Morgan first attracted 
notice to the plate by an elaborate article in the Archaeologia 

168 Pnpcr*, $r. 

xliii. 405, accompanied by coloured lithographs of the chalice 
and paten of the actual size of the originals. From these the 
outline drawings were prepared for Mr. Oripps' book on "Old 
English Plate," 6th edit., 1899, 1 who has allowed tliern to be 
reproduced. Mr. Morgan describes the chalice and paten : 
" The chalice stands 5iiin. high. The bowl is in form be- 
tween a cone and a hemisphere, that is, the bottom is bro.acl 
and round, whilst the sides continue straight and conical, a 
form which is rather indicative of its date. This bowl is sup- 
ported on a hexagonal stem divided into two portions by the 
knop, which is a beautiful piece of goldsmith's work, formed 
by the projection from the angles of the stem of six short 
square arms, each terminating in a lion's mask, or in proper 
heraldic language a ' leopard's head,' and having the inter- 
mediate spaces filled up with elegant flowing Gothic tracery 
of pierced open work. The lower part of the stem rests on a 
curved hexagonal foot, being united to it by Gothic mouldings, 
and the foot terminates in an upright basement moulding, 
which is enriched with a small vertically reeded band. One 
of the six compartments of the foot was ornamented, as is 
usual in ancient chalices, by a representation of the crucifixion. 
The metal of this compartment has been cut out, and a silver 
plate, engraved with the crucifixion, has been rudely riveted 
in. This silver plate is, I think, the original work, and it was 
formerly enamelled for it would probably have been found 
easier and more convenient to prepare the enamel on a small 
separate plate and then fix it in its place, than to have sub- 
mitted the whole chalice to the heat of the enameller's furnace, 
which must have been the case had the enamel been done on 
the foot itself. The silver plate is deeply engraved, or rather 
the metal is tooled out to receive transparent enamel in the 
style of the work of the fourteenth or the beginning of the 
fifteenth century, and small traces of the enamel with which 

1. The illustrations are taken by permission of Mr. Cripps from his ' ' Old 
English Plate," the sixth edition of which has just appeared. 



Chalice and Paten, 1479. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 169 

it has been filled may still be discovered. It will be seen at 
once that the design was made for the place from the peculiar 
attitude of the figure, the arms being drawn up over the head 
to adapt it to the form of the compartment. 

The paten is 4|in. in diameter, with a narrow moulded edge 
and a brim like an ordinary plate, within which is sunk a six- 
lobed depression. The centre points from which the workman 
formed the lobes aie still visible, and the spandrels between 
the lobes are filled with a small radiating ornament as is usual 
in similar patens, which are not unfrequently met with. In 
the centre is a still further depression, in which has been in- 
serted from the back a small silver plate, having in transparent 
enamel sunk in the metal, a representation of the vernicle, or 
face of our Saviour, surrounded by a cruciform nimbus. It, 
fortunately, remains perfect. This central depression, with an 
inserted plate of enamel is very unusual, the surface of patens 
being usually made as smooth as possible. The back of this 
small plate is gilt and engraved with the sacred monogram in 
black letter of the fifteenth century" 

The hall-marks on each piece are quite distinct. They are : 
(1). the leopard's head ; (2), the date-letter for 1479, a capital 
Lombard ic B with double cusps ; the maker's mark, a dimi- 
diated fieur-de-lys. The other official mark, the lion passant, 
is not found before 1545. 

Mr. Morgan then goes on to give this very interesting ex- 
tract from the churchwardens' accounts, or rather from a loose 
sheet of paper therein : " Be yt knowyng unto all men that we 
parysners of Nyttylcombe have delivered unto Mester John 
Trevylyan Esquyer, on the xxvij th day of Januerye yn the 
yere of the Ra} ne of Kynge Edwarde the Syxte, the secunde 
yere of hys Rayne (1548-9), one challes w f a paxe of sylver 
and a Pyxe of sylver gyltyde, and a Calopynne, w l iij bells 
of sylver gyltyde w r yn the same pyxe, at all tymes at the nede 
to be had of the aforesaid Mast r John Trevylyan Esquyre. 

By me, John Trevelyan." 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part II. y 

170 Paper s 9 $v?. 

The bells, the pyxe, and the calopjnne (a hand-warmer) have 
disappeared. The chalice 5s the one still in use ; and Mr. 
Morgan makes it clear that the pax is really the paten, and 
that there is either a simple error in description ; or that the 
paten having the vernicle represented on it, may have been 
used as a pax. 

The date makes the transfer very significant. The Parlia- 
ment which met in the autumn of 1547, 4th Nov., decreed that 
all chantries, etc., with their belongings, should be at once 
suppressed, and their goods taken for his Majesty's use. A 
royal Commission issued on 13th Feb., 1547-8, appointed Com- 
missioners to do the work, and before the year had expired it 
had been done in Somerset. Nettlecombe lost the chantry of 
S. John Baptist, founded in the parish church by Sir Simon de 
Raleigh, 18 Hen. VI, 1440, together with the plate thereunto 
belonging. The parishioners being very doubtful what further 
acts of sacrilege might be intended, ingeniously contrived to be 
able to return ' No goods,' with a clear conscience, to any fur- 
ther Commissioners. Happily their scheme proved successful, 
all credit be to them for it. [For the information concerning 
the Chantries the writer is indebted to Mr. E. Green's 
" Somerset Chantries," Somerset Record Society Publications, 
vol. II. E. H. B.] 

OLD CLEEVE. There is here an Elizabethan cup and 
cover by I.P. of his usual style. The cup is Sin. high ; the 
usual two bands of ornament run round the bowl ; the knop 
has the hyphen band, and the foot has a reeded edge. The 
cup weighs 8oz. av. The cover weighs 2oz. av. ; it has a band 
of ornament, and on the button, ' 1573.' Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I.P. 

There is another paten, platter-shaped, 7 Jin. in diam., weight 
12oz. av. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1639; maker's 
mark, initials O.E. The paten is inscribed : " Deo Opt : et 
Max : et Eccliac veteris Cleeve obtulit Helena Bickham vidua 
in die feste Paschalis A- Dm. 1640." The Bickhams were a 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 171 

very ancient West-Somerset family. Aldred Byccombe of 
Old Cleeve, clothier, in his will made 1610, proved 1611, made 
his wife Helen his executrix. Her will was proved in 1646 
(Brown, Somerset Wills, ii, 67, 68). 

There are a plated paten and flagon, and a large pewter, 
tankard pattern, loin, high, and 7in. across the foot. 

RADDINGTON. There is here an Elizabethan cup and 
cover. The cup is 6^in. high ; the bowl is bell-shaped, and 
has a band of foliage round the bowl. The knop and foot have 
hyphen ornament. There are no marks visible. The lip has 
been roughly repaired in two places, and as the marks are to 
be found there during this period, they may have been obliter- 
ated in the process. The cover has one band of ornament ; on 
the button the date ' 1574.' The marks are undecipherable. 

There are a modern paten and flagon, each bearing the in- 
scription : " Presented to the Parish of Raddington by the 
Rev d - John Hayne 32 years Rector. James Willis Church- 
warden 1877." 

Of pewter there are two plates \ on their brims are the 
initials I.Y. C.W. 1799 = John Yandle churchwarden. The 
Yandles or Yeandles are an old yeoman family of that dis- 
trict. Also a pewter bason and a flagon, the latter in- 
scribed : " Thomas Skinner Church Worden in the yeare 
of 1719." 

RODHUISH. This is an ancient chapelry attached to Car- 
hampton. It possesses a silver cup and paten. The cup is 
7 fin. high, and weighs lOoz. av. The bowl is of a deep cup 
shape, without decoration ; the stem has a knop with filleted 
ornament ; the foot has a reeded edge. The paten is 6in. in 
diameter ; it is platter shaped, with a reeded edge. Marks 
(same on both pieces) : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1779 ; maker's 
mark, W.C. Each piece is inscribed : " The gift of Richard 
Escott to Rodhuish Chappie 1780." The Escotts of Escott 
were a family of considerable position in Carhampton parish 
for many generations. For an account of this and other bene- 

172 Papers, fyc. 

factions by Richard Escott to Rodhuish, see Savage's His- 
tory of Carliampton, p. 323 scq. 

There is also an electro-plated flagon. 

ST. DECUMAN. The oldest cup is of a very unusual shape, 
and as there are no marks or engraved date, one is thrown 
back on the general style of decoration to determine its age. 
The cup is 6jin. high, the diameter of lip is 4Jin., and the 
weight 12oz. av. The bowl is bell-shaped, with a spreading 
lip. This has a single hatched fillet. Just below the junction 
of lip and bowl are two hatched fillets inclosing a belt of the 
usual Elizabethan leaf-ornament, but without any upright 
sprays at the intersections. The stem is cone-shaped, with the 
point removed; there are two annular bands just below the 
bowl. The circular foot is almost flat ; this rests on a pedestal 
half-an-inch high, the upper part of which forms a rim round 
the foot. The pedestal has a reeded band round the outside. 
This is probably an Elizabethan cup with a later stem and foot. 

The second cup is of an extraordinary size, being 12in. 
high, o^in. across the lip, and weighing 29oz. av. The bowl 
is of a deep bell-shaped design. The foot is moulded ; it is 
oin. in diameter. The cup is inscribed : " Saynt Decuman's 
1634." Marks : 2 oific. ; date-letter for 1634 ; maker's mark, 
R.C. over a broad-arrow in heart-shaped punch. This must 
have been a well-known maker, as the mark is found on plate 
at Exeter Cathedral and St. Margaret's, Westminster. There 
are two patens of the same date as the cup, but the one with 
the same marks as the cup does not appear to be nearly so 
good a match. It is only 5|in. across, and weighs 8oz. Tt 
was for a long time used without the cup, which was only re- 
covered within recent years. The other paten is H^in. in 
diameter, and weighs 12oz. av. It has a raised rim, but is 
otherwise quite plain. On the reverse of the paten is dotted 
in : " Saynt Decuman's 1634." Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1634; maker's mark, I.M. above a pig passant in shield, 
found on other plate in this diocese. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 173 

There is a modern flagon, handsomely engraved, and in- 
scribed : " To the glory of God and in memory of William, 
Mary Anne, and William Gimblett, Easter 1896. C. H. 
Heale, Vicar." The flagon has a stand inscribed : S. Decu- 
man's Somerset, C. H. Heale, Vicar." There is also a stand 
for the cruets, weighing 6oz., with the same inscription. A 
curious plated bowl, with a plain, apparently silver, edge. 

SAMPFORD BRETT. The cup with its cover are by the 
Elizabethan goldsmith, I. P. The cup is 6fin. high and weighs 
7oz. av. The bowl is bell-shaped and has the usual two bands 
of running ornament. The knop and the foot have the hyphen 
ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's 
mark, I. P. The cover has the same marks ; it weighs 2Joz. 
av. There is a band of conventional foliage ; on the button, 

A paten on foot, diam. 7|in., weight 12oz. av. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1720 ; maker's mark, I.C. within a heart- 
shaped shield = Joseph Clare. In the centre of the paten is a 
shield bearing : Three torteaux, a label (Courtenay) ; imp., 
Three lozenges erm. (Gifford of Brightley) ; and this inscrip- 
tion : " The gift of Elizabeth Courtenay." The manor of 
Sampford Brett belonged for many generations to the house 
of Courtenay. It eventually descended to the junior branch 
at Molland Botreaux. John Courtenay, the last of the family, 
married Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Gifford of Bright- 
ley. On his death in 1732, Sarnpford was divided between his 

A large flagon, tankard pattern, lOfin. high, weight 40oz. 
av. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1776; maker's mark, 
W.C., also found at Rodhuish. It bears a dedicatory inscrip- 
tion : " The gift of Anne Tanner to the Church of Sampford." 

SKILGATE. This parish, like the last, has an Elizabethan 
cup and cover by I. P. The cup is 6^in. high, and weighs 8oz. 
av. The ornamentation on either piece does not differ from 
the usual pattern. On the button of the cover is the date 

174 Papers, fyc. 

1 1573.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, 

There are a, paten and flagon of electro-plate, another flagon 
of pewter, and two blocktin plates with the initials H.H., W.L. 

STOGUMBER. The cup is silver-gilt, 9in. high, weight 
15|oz. av. The bowl is 4in. in diam., bell-shaped, without 
decoration. The stem has a moulded knob. Round the under- 
side of the foot is an inscription : " Dedicated unto God for 
his only holy servys in the Church of Stogomer An. Do. 
1615." Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1615 ; maker's mark, 
a fleur-de-lys or rose spray within an indented shield. 

The paten is of the usual design on a foot 7f in. in diam., 
weight 9Joz. av. It has a moulded edge and foot. Marks : 

2 offic.; date-letter for 1733; maker's mark, R.B. in plain 
oblong = Richard Bayley. On the paten is a lozenge, bearing: 
Three inescutcheons and two mullets (Hay). A pretty story 
attaches to the appearance of the arms of the Scotch family 
of Hay at Stogumber. One hundred and sixty years ago or 
so the Squire of Stogumber parish and owner of Hartrow 
manor there situate was a very young man bearing the ancient 
West Somerset name of Rich, and of great estate. He 
plighted his troth to Miss Hay, the fair daughter of Preben- 
dary Hay, rector of Clatworthy ; 1 but, alas, died before the 
day fixed for the wedding. By his will he left all he had to 
Miss Hay as an inscription on his monument in Stogumber 
church touchingly records. [Thomas Rich of Hartrow, Esq., 
died 30 April, 1727, aged 24 ; Coll., iii, 549.] She lived single 
in the home which she had hoped to have shared with him, 
spending her years in works of charity. And one of her good 
deeds was the gift of this paten to the parish church. She 
also gave the flagon, a huge vessel a foot high and weighing 
50oz. av. It is of the tankard pattern, and has the same coat 
of arms and marks as the paten. 

1. James Hay, M.A., appointed 1707, died 1718; Weaver, " Incumbents," 
p. 335. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 175 

TOLLAND. An Elizabethan cup and cover by a maker 
whose mark has not hitherto been noted in the county. The 
cup is 6|in. high ; weight, 8oz. av. ; the bowl is 3-Jin. in 
diameter, of the usual shape, and decorated with one band of 
foliage divided by three upright sprays. The knop on the 
stem is plain. Round the foot is a decorative band of medal- 
lions joined by broad hyphens. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1573 ; maker's mark, A., first found in 1567. The cover 
weighs 3oz. ; it has the hyphen decoration ; on the button is 
the date '1574.' 

Another paten on a foot is 5^in. diam., and weighs 4oz. It 
is quite plain with a deep rim. Marks. : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1635 ; maker's mark, the initials D.G. within an anchor. 

Another paten, 5^in. in diameter, and weighing 4oz. av. It 
is a platter shape and quite plain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1636 ; maker's mark P.B., between two crescents. The 
paten is inscribed : " From Edward Crosse, Rector to the 
Church of Tolland, 1833." 

The above is a singularly fine collection of plate for such a 
tiny church. 

TREBOROUGH. The handsome cup in use in this parish 
appears to have been originally intended for domestic purposes. 
It is Sy^in. high, and weighs lOJoz. av. The general design 
is that of the Edmonds cup, but on a smaller scale, and without 
the elaborate cover. The bowl is 3 Jin. in diameter, and re- 
sembles a wine-glass in shape ; the lower part is decorated 
with flowers and fruit in repousee work. Three ornamental 
brackets strengthen the attachment of the stem and bowl. 
About halfway down the stem is a broad flange, below which 
the stem gradually spreads out to form the foot, which is 
decorated with the egg-and-dart moulding. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1614 ; maker's mark, undecipherable. The cup 
is inscribed : " The gift of Hugh Bennett, Rector of Tre- 
borough, 1790." 

There are two patens and a flagon of Sheffield plate. 

176 Papers, #c. 

UPTON. There is a small Elizabethan cup here, unfortun- 
ately minus its cover. The cup is 6in. high ; the bowl is 
slightly bell-shaped, and has two bands of the customary 
decoration. The knop and the foot have belts of hyphens. 
Marks : 2 otfic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, l.P. 

The paten and flagon are electro-plate ; of pewter, there are 
a pewter paten, with moulded edge, inscribed: "1720, T.G., 
R.M.," a large flagon and an alms dish. 

WEST QUANTOXHEAD (St. Audries). The plate is 
modern. It consists of a chalice and paten, parcel-gilt, and a 
Hagon of mediaeval design. 

WILLITOX. -The Elizabethan cup and cover are from the 
Exeter maker, I. IONS. The cup is 6 Jin. high ; the bowl is 
bell-shaped with the distinctive lip ; there is one band of orna- 
ment divided by four upright sprays. The stem has a moulded 
knop ; the foot has a belt of pellets, and another of the egg- 
and-dart ornament. Marks: (1) Exeter ancient; (2) I. 
IONS. The paten has been broken; on the button is the 
date 1574, between some rough leaf pattern ornament. A 
plate 8jin. in diam., with a reeded edge. Marks : 2 oftic. ; 
date-letter for 1679; maker's mark, L, with a serpent twined 
round it. The plate is inscribed : " The gift of Philippa 
Harle to the Chappie of Williton, 1694." It has the appear- 
ance of being a piece of domestic plate, presented by the above 
pious lady to the Chapel. The name Harley still lingers 
about Williton. There is a complete set of electro-plate 
vessels, which was presented by the Rev. J. Heathcote, of 
Shore Hill, Wilts, in 1854. There are some pewter vessels 
belonging to the Chapel, but they are in the hands of a 

WITHIEL FLOREY. The oldest cup and cover are of the 
Elizabethan era. The cup is 6f in. high ; the bowl is 3 Jin. in 
diam. at lip ; it is of the inverted truncated cone shape, and 
has a lip of the distinctive Exeter pattern. Below the lip is a 
band of hyphen decoration inclosed between fillets. Bands of 

Ait Inventory of Church Plate. 177 

vertical hatching are placed at the top and bottom of the stem, 
and on either side of the knop. On the foot is a band of 
hyphen decoration, and below this a band of hollow lozenges 
enclosing pellets. Under the foot : " S. Mary Magdalen, 
Withiel Flory, renovated June, 1867. W. Martin Honnybun, 
Incumbent." The two marks are almost obliterated, but they 
appear to those of the maker hitherto unknown, who made 
plate for several parishes round Ilminster (see general intro- 
duction). The cover has a band of hyphens, and another band 
of vertical hatching on the flange. On the button is a band 
of hatching within arabesques. The two marks are almost 
obliterated, but they are most probably the same as on the 

Of electro-plate there are a cup, two patens, and a flagon. 
Of pewter, two dishes, one inscribed : ' John Hancocke 
Churchwarden 1738 '; the other, ' Withiel Church.' Also an 
interesting old pewter flagon, lO^in. high, of tankard pattern. 
It is inscribed : ' Mr. John Wood of Wythell Church Warden 
1723.' The Woods were a family of some importance in this 
parish at the end of the 17th arid beginning of the 18th cen- 
tury, and a curious monument exists in the churchyard to a 
Mr. John Wood, perhaps the father of the churchwarden, who 
died in 1691 (?) 

WITHYCOJVIBE. The cup and cover, though without marks 
or date, are probably late Elizabethan or Jacobean. The cup 
is 7in. high, and weighs 9oz. The bowl is straight-sided, 
wider at the top than the bottom ; round it is a band of foliage 
with birds and flowers enclosed within fillets. This style of 
decoration points to a late date. The knop is plain, with a 
cable pattern on either side. On the foot is another wide band 
of foliage. [Compare the cup at Ilton]. The cover weighs 
2Joz. av., a-nd is 4in. in width. It has a deep band of con- 
ventional foliage. The trumpet-shaped stem of the button is 
decorated with punched work. 

The flagon is of the round-jug pattern, with a boldly-bowed 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V), Part I L z 

1 78 Papers, Sfc. 

handle. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1767 ; maker's 
mark, W.W. The flagon is inscribed : " The gift of the late 
Rector the Reverend Mr. Samuel Rogers to the Church of 
Withycombe 1767." His monument is in the church; he 
died 26 Jan. 1767 aged 79. (Collinson, ii 48). A plated 

WIVELISCOMBE. The Elizabethan cup and cover are by 
I. P., and resemble his other work. The cup is 7iin. high, and 
weighs lloz. troy. There are the two usual bands of orna- 
ment round the bowl, and other conventional patterns round 
the knop and foot. The cover weighs 3oz. troy ; on the but- 
ton ' 1573.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's 
mark, T.P. 

An exact replica of this cup and cover was made and pre- 
sented in 1876. They are inscribed : " Presented to S. 
Andrew's Church Wiveliscombe by Lavinia Sully 1876." 
The donor was the daughter of Doctor Sully of this place, a 
physician of some eminence. 

Another paten on foot with gadrooned borders, 7 fin. in 
width. Marks : 2 Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 1713 ; maker's 
mark not very clear, perhaps V I. with a star between in plain 
punch = Edward Vincent, and entered in O.E.P. under this 
very year. The paten is inscribed : " The gift of Elizabeth 
Michell to the Communion Table of Wiveliscombe 1713." 
This family were of ancient standing in West Somerset, and 
the lady's sister perhaps or aunt married Philip Hancock of 
Lydeard S. Laurence in 1708. 

There is yet another paten, Sin. across. It bears the Exeter 
Hall-mark and date-letter for 1759, but no maker's mark. 

The flagon is 13in. high, and weighs 34oz. troy. It is a 
very elegant piece of plate of the Flaxman style of design, 
ewer-shaped with gadroon ornament. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1782 ; maker's mark, A. in square punch. 

ana its Cfcurcfr 


IT is now generally admitted that the Southern Counties, if 
not the more remote parts of England, were studded with 
parish churches long before the Norman Conquest, and that 
their omission from the Domesday survey is quite compatible 
with their existence, as they were not liable to the taxation, 
which it was the object of the survey to record. The com- 
panions of the Conqueror, however, who shared in the fruits of 
his victory, and their successors, must have been sadly at a loss 
how to dispose satisfactorily of the Church patronage which 
fell to their lot, and were, no doubt, besieged by hungry appli- 
cants for a slice of it. It is by no means clear what were 
the exact rights of ownership over an " ecclesia," conferred 
on the grantee of the manor to which it was appendant. 
From one point of view it may be supposed to extend only to 
the advowson or right of presentation ; but that implies some 
episcopal control, whereas there is no trace of any confirmation 
by the bishop in foundation charters of that early period, and 
tithes and portions of tithes were alienated in favour of religious 
houses at the sole will of the owner, without control either 
episcopal or otherwise. 

From another point of view, it may be asked, was the right 
personal to the lord as a manorial right, or did it pass to the 
tenant who held under him ; in the prior case (taking the 
Montacute foundation charter as an example) the grant by the 

180 Papers, $v-. 

lord (the Earl of Moretain) alone was sufficient to give it 
validity, but in the latter, the concurrence of both lord and 
tenant was necessary, the one as over-lord and the other as 
terre-tenant. On the whole it may be surmised whether it 
was not from motives of prudence as well as piety, which in- 
duced the Norman lords, under the advice, probably, of their 
bishops, to relieve themselves of the responsibilities entailed on 
them by their spiritual possessions, and to transfer them to 
religious establishments of their own foundation, by whom they 
would, in their judgment, be perpetually and more wisely ad- 

If there be any ground for such a theory, it may have 
influenced William, Earl of Moretain, in his foundation of the 
Priory of Montacute. His original endowment of it included 
no less than fourteen churches in Somersetshire and the adjoin- 
ing counties, that of Mudford being included as " the manor, 
church, hundred and mill of Modiforde." 

Beyond this foundation charter and the Royal charters con- 
firming it, there is no mention of the church of Mudford in the 
Montacute Cartulary, lately printed by the Somerset Record 
Society, until the episcopate of Roger, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells (1244 to 1247), who confirmed, by Inspeximus, a charter 
of " Theodoric, son of William,'' whereby with the consent of 
Beatrix his wife, and Henry and William his sons, he con- 
ferred, as lord of the soil, the church of Modiford on Joceline, 
the Prior and the Monks of Montacute " in pure and perpetual 
alms." The charter (No. 48 of the Wells Cathedral Charters, 
Hist. Cornm. Report, see appendix to this paper) is undated, 
but from other deeds in the Cartulary it appears that Joceline 
was Prior in 1187, and that Durand, his successor, was in 
office in 1192. 

As the Priory had held the church more than 100 years 
under the Earl of Moretain's grant, this charter must have 
been only a confirmation by Theodoric, the then lord of the 
fee, and is an example of the caution of monasteries in fencing 

Mudford and its Church. 181 

the title to their estates by procuring confirmatory grants from 
the actual and expectant heirs of the original donor. 

But in this instance, it may be that the Priory was influenced 
by the fact that they were about to dispose of their right to this 
church, for by a co-temporary charter (No. 25 in the same col- 
lection), but scarcely legible from mutilation, it appears that 
Mark the Prior and the convent, in gratitude to Jocelin, 
Bishop of Bath, for appropriating to them the churches of 
Montacute and East Chinnock, granted the church of Modi- 
ford to that Bishop and his successors in perpetuity, saving 
always the tithes of their demesne comprising, amongst other 
lands, Bernarde'scrofte, Bimphegh, Bimpehort, Estinlond, 
Blakepol, Middlefurlong, La Sulue, Tonfurlong, Ferncroft, 
Eldelond, Westinlond, La Breche, Two Meadows, Estmede 
and Northrnede, and the mill held by the miller in villenage. 
The witnesses to this charter were Master William, Arch- 
deacon of Wells, Master Walter de St. Quintin, Lord 
(Dominus) Henry, parson of Tintenhull, Robert, Clerk of 
Cynnock, Robert de Aula and others. Given in the Chapter 
at Montacute on the feast of the Blessed M anno nono 
]. Notwithstanding that, upon the face of it this grant 
was a pure piece of gratitude to the Bishop for his kindness to 
the convent, it may be questionable whether the whole affair 
was not a commercial transaction for exchanging the church 
of Mudford for the appropriation of the churches of Montacute 
and East Chinnock, for although such " chopping of churches " 
would savour in modern times of simony, such an offence 
would be overlooked if it had episcopal sanction. Religious 
houses were not very scrupulous in dealing with spiritualities. 
Many instances can be found in which they trafficked in churches 
and in the foundation of chantries, oratories, and such like ; 
and investigation would reveal the fact that their prayers were 
generally purchased by those who sought to secure a perpetual 
sanctuary for their souls. 

The cautious monks did not rely for their title to their 

182 Papers, fyc. 

demesne at Mudford upon the saving clause in the grant 
as that document would be in the hands of the Bishop, and 
they therefore took a new grant from the Bishop, dated on 
the feast of St. Michael A.D. 1239. It is No. 182 in the 
Montacute Cartulary, and enables us to supply accurately the 
names of the demesne lands contained in the above mentioned 
mutilated charter. 

As already remarked the ostensible motive for the grant of 
the Church of Mudford, was, no doubt, the appropriation to the 
Convent of the Churches of Montacute and East Chinnock, 
the advowsons of which they already possessed by the founda- 
tion Charter of the Earl of Moretain. There is fortunately 
amongst the Charters in the Bodleian Library (No. 46), the 
original instrument of appropriation by Bishop Jocelin, and 
as the transaction is so closely connected with the transfer of 
the Church of Mudford to the Bishop, a summary of its con- 
tents will not be out of place here. 

The Bishop who styles himself, or is described by the writer 
as " Salisburiensis Episcopus," tells us (in a charter dated in 
the month of March, in the thirty-second year of his episcopate 
which term is unusually varied in this instance to pontificate), 
that out of consideration for the poverty of the Cluniac house 
of Montacute, and the necessity for better provision for their 
exercising the duty of hospitality, and after taking counsel of 
practical men and those learned in the law, he had ordained that 
at the next vacancies the prior and convent might convert to 
their own uses the churches of Montacute and Chinnock, of 
which they had the patronage, subject to a proper endowment 
for a vicarage in each church, this being the only point on which 
he and his successors had a right to require. Accordingly the 
vicarage of Montacute was to consist of all the small tithes 
(except those from the demesne lands of the prior and convent) ; 
also of all oblations and altar-offerings except those at the 
chapel of Hamedone and the castle chapel. A corrody of one 
monk was to be appropriated to it, and the monks were to give 

Mudford and its Church. 183 

up to it the candles and wax offered at Candlemas, and the 
offerings at the two first masses on Christmas Day and those 
on Good Friday, which they had been accustomed to receive. 
Indeed, the vicar was to have all the offerings of the entire 
parish, with the single exception of the corn tithes. The 
grange that belonged to the parsonage, together with one half 
of the yard between the wall of the old grange and the 
outer wall of a certain house, next to the gate, by which 
the parson's court was wont to be entered, were to become the 
property of the monks, but they were to make a sufficient fence 
between the grange and their yard and the court, which was to 
become the property of the vicar, nor was there to be any 
opening in this fence in the direction of the vicar's house, 
which used to belong to the parsonage, but was now to be his. 
As a final condition, the monks were to assign to whomsoever 
should be vicar, all and every tithe from the whole of the land 
in the parish of Montacute, known by the name of ' la hyda.' 

As to the vicarage of the church of Chinnock, it was to con- 
sist. of all the small tithes of the parish, except those from the 
demesne of the prior, of all the altar-offerings, of the hay 
tithes, of the whole demesne of the church there, and of all 
other offerings of the entire parish ; the monks, for their part, 
were to have nothing but the corn tithes, the granges which 
belonged to the parsonage, and the " churechsectum ; " they 
were to put up a sufficient fence to separate these granges 
from the vicar's manse, which had belonged to the parsonage, 
but was then to be the vicar's own. 

The vicars were thenceforward to serve the churches in 
person honestly and properly. They were to answer to the 
archdeacon and his successors for the " sinodals " and " cathe- 
draticum " (which the bishop now doubled in compensation for 
the archdeacon's rights), and for the archdeacon's procuration ; 
they were also to bear all charges on their churches, including 
all those due by custom to the bishop and archdeacon, except 
those relating to the repair and restoration of the chancels, 

184 Papers, $c. 

books, vestments, and ornaments, or even the construction 
or provision of new ones. These charges, with any that might 
be made of an extraordinary kind, were to be apportioned be- 
tween them (the vicars and the monks) pro rata. 

On the occurrence of a vacancy the monks of Montacute 
were to present fit persons to the bishop or his successors 
to fill the vicarages. It was especially forbidden that the 
vicars should bind themselves to pay any annual pension or 
any other rent to the prior and convent in connection with 
their churches. Further provisions followed for the purpose 
of securing the carrying out of this ordination of the vicarages 
of Montacute and Chinnock without giving rise to litigious 
questions respecting the episcopal jurisdiction, but this portion 
of the instrument has become almost illegible. 

Nothing further is recorded of the church of Mud- 
ford until the year 1340 (13 Edw. Ill) when it had been 
appropriated "by the Canon" to the Dean and Chapter of 
Wells. John de Tavistock, the Vicar, then complained that 
the income of the vicarage was insufficient to support the 
charges on it ; for although he had certain houses and gardens 
adjoining the churchyard, and the small tithes with oblations 
and mortuaries, he was obliged to provide a priest to assist 
him. The Dean and Chapter therefore agreed to increase the 
vicarage by an annuity of forty shillings to be paid " out of 
our Infirmary ; " but the Vicar and his successors were to find 
the assistant priest, to bear all archdeaconal burdens, to find 
bread, wine, and lights for the celebration of divine offices, 
and to repair and rebuild the vicarage house when requisite. 

Coming down to modern times, we have a Terrier of the 
Parsonage and Vicarage of Mudford, made in the year 1634, 
during the incumbency of .John Bois, the Vicar. It states that 
there belong to the Parsonage, one dwelling-house and garden, 
a barn, dove-house, and outbuildings adjoining, containing 
four acres, Item the home closes of arable, sixteen acres, 
Item two closes of arable lying at Waymhill, within thir- 

Mudford and its Church. 185 

teen acres, Item one close of arable called Short-lands, four 
acres, and one close of pasture called Milbreet, four acres 
and one close of pasture called Little Adber, two acres, and 
one other close of arable called Littlefield, two acres, and one 
little close of meadow or pasture called Pound's Close, con- 
taining, by estimation, one acre Item the first share of one 
acre of meadow lying in Tenenton meadow, within the manor 
of Nether Adber Item two acres of meadow lying in Muddy- 
hame Item the parsons to have the tenth cheese or tenth cock 
of all manner of corn grown and cut within the parish of Mud- 
ford yearly, and also the tenth cock of all grass there mown and 
made yearly. That there belong unto the Vicarage one dwel- 
ling-house and other outhouses adjoining, with an orchard and 
two gardens, and one little close of arable, one acre and half, 
Item for Tithes due in the Manor of Nether Adber, the tenth 
penny of the old ancient rent, and likewise for two grist mills, 
Item in the Manor of Old Sock in certain grounds there called 
Hitchings. The Tithes due to the Vicar is four-pence for 
every Beast Leaze which doth amount unto two-pence an 
acre or thereabouts. Item for every communicant at Easter, 
two pence for his offerings. Item the vicar is to have yearly 
of every of the inhabitants the tenth calf, the tenth lamb, and 
the tenth pig, and if any of the inhabitants hath but seven 
calves, lambs, or pigs, yet, nevertheless, the vicar is to have 
one of them, paying to the inhabitant one penny and half 
penny (the said manor of Nether Adber, the grist mills and 
grounds called Hitchings only excepted). Item, if anyone of 
the inhabitants hath but one or two or more calves, lambs, or 
pigs under seven, there is due to the vicar yearly an half penny 
apiece for every seven of them if he do wean them. Item for 
calves sold if under seven, the tenth penny for every calf. 
Item, if any inhabitant shall kill any of the calves in his house 
under the number of seven the vicar is to have the best shoulder. 
Item, for every cow milked threepence, and for every heifer, 
two pence halfpenny. For every colt fallen there one penny, 

Vol. XL V (Third tierie*, Vol. V), Part 11. aa 

186 Papers, v. 

and if sold when he is weanable, the tenth penny. For any 
hemp or flax grown, the tenth sheaf or bundle, and likewise the 
tenth of the hemp and flax seed, when it is taken and made. 
Item, there is due to the vicar the tenth of any hops. Item, 
the tenth of apples or pears, or any other such like fruits grown 
and gathered. Item, for sheep kept in the parish one whole 
year and shorn, the tenth of the fleece wool, and for every 
month's depasturing in the parish and not shorn, for every 
twenty sheep threepence, or for more or less after that rate. 
Item, if any of the inhabitants do buy or breed yearly any 
ewes out of the parish, and after Michaelmas shall bring them 
unto the parish, and the same ewes there lamb, there is due to 
the vicar for the tenth of the same lambs but two parts, and 
the third part to be allowed to the inhabitant for the straying 
and feeding of the said ewes out of the parish. Item, for every 
garden, one penny. Item, for the depasturing of all manner 
of cattle by such as dwell out of the parish such persons so 
depasturing are to agree with the vicar for the tenth part. 
And lastly, for a mortuary due to the vicar, according to the 
statute. Item, if any of the inhabitants do breed any young 
cattle in the parish, and shall sell them before they come to 
the pail or plough, there is due to the vicar for the depasturing 
of such cattle for so long time as they have been depastured in 
the parish. 

The Dean and Chapter granted out the Parsonage and the 
Demesne lands belonging to it, from time to time, on lease for 
lives until the year 1811, when, for the purpose of redeeming 
the Land Tax on their estates, they sold the reversion in fee 
to their Lessee, Mr. Oliver Hayward, reserving the Vicarage 
which they still retain. 

This paper would be incomplete without some account of 
Theodoric the Donor and the other owners of Mudford. 

By the Domesday survey, Mudford was divided into three 
manors or lordships : 

(1). The first, containing five hides, was held by Warmund 

Mudford and its Church. 187 

as mortgagee of Elward, and came afterwards into the pos- 
session of the Priory of Montacute, but it is not recorded how 
they acquired it. In Kirbys Quest (12 Edw. I), it is men- 
tioned as Mudford Monachorum, and in the description of it 
in the Inq. p.m. of Robert Cryche, one of the Priors (7 Edw. 
IV), of the land held by him in right of his church, it is said 
to comprise " The manor of Mudford, in which there are 200 
acres of arable, value per acre Id. ; 20 acres of meadow, value 
12d. per acre ; 100 acres of hill land Id. ; one water mill 
13s. 5d. ; Rents of assize 12s." 

The estate continued in the possession of the Priory down to 
the dissolution of monasteries, and was granted by Hen. VIII 
to Richard Fermour, ancestor of the Earl of Pomf ret. ( Collins' 
Peerage, by Bridges, iv, 199. Pat. Roll, 36 Hen. VIII, pt. 6). 
Under the name of Up-Mudford, which it still retains, it was 
sold to Matthew Ewens, one of the Barons of the Court of 
Exchequer, and passed by his will in 1598 to his nephew, John 
Ewens. He sold it 44 Eliz. to Robert Harbyn, Esq., the 
direct ancestor of Col. Henry Harbin, of Newton Surmaville, 
the present owner. 

(2). The second manor (sometimes called Mundiford), con- 
sisting of four hides and half and a mill, was held by Dode- 
man of the Earl of Moretain. 

( 3). The third manor three hides with Stane, two hides held 
by Rainald under Serlo de Burci is probably included in 
what is now the hamlet of Old Sock, which lies on the south- 
west side of the parish. 1 

Collinson, in his History of Somerset (III., p. 221) says 
that the Domesday tenant of the second manor was Baldwin 
de Excestre, but this is an error, arising from the fact that in 
the Exchequer Domesday (as can be seen by the fac-simile 
published by the Ordnance Survey) the scribe, for want of 
space to enter it in the column enumerating the Earl's lands, 

1. As to Stane, nee "Historic Notes of South Somerset," p. 90, but I 
have not been able to trace the early descent of Old Sock. 

188 Papers, Sec. 

inserted it in a smaller hand in a vacancy under the list of 
Baldwin's lands. Collinson seeing this and knowing that 
Baldwin was the ancestor of the Coiirtenays (and without 
referring to the Exon Domesday- where the error does not 
occur) concluded that the manor descended from him to that 
family, whereas it came, at a much later period, from a different 
source, as we shall see. 

It was the Moretain Manor (No. 2) which was held by the 
family of Theodoric or Terricus, from which circumstance it 
was called Mudford Terry a word distorted by Collinson (or 
rather his local correspondent) into Mudford Street. 

There are no means, however, of tracing the descent of the 
manor from Dodeman, the Domesday under-tenant to Theo- 
doric, and it is very difficult to identify the different members 
of that family owing to the frequent recurrence of the same 
family name. We know, indeed, from the donor himself 
(Theodoric fitz William) that he had a wife (Beatrix), and two 
sons (Henry and William), and there is some mention of the 
family in the life of Wulfric, the hermit of Haselbury, by 
John of Ford, extracts from which are to be found in Leland's 
Collectanea (II. 447), viz. : " William films Theodorici," 
lord of the Ville called Mudiford ; " Beatrix," his wife, and 
" William, son of William, son of William, son of Theodoric." 
In the Cottonian MS. (Faustina B iv.) there is another ex- 
tract from this life, which, in proof of Wulfric's supernatural 
powers, relates a story, how that his friend, William fitz 
Theodoric, a knight of the ville called Mudiford, catching in 
his river there four large pike, sent three of them as a present 
to Wulfric, keeping one only for himself, and that on the 
messenger's arrival Wulfric said to him, " Your master has not 
divided correctly, take one back to him and then there will be 
equal portions," thus shewing that he knew the knight had 
caught four fish. The author goes on to say that William, 
son of this William, and Beatrix, his wife, testify (testifican- 
tur) their belief in the story. 

Mud ford and its Church. 189 

Wulfric died in 1154 (1 Hen. II), and we may presume that 
his friend William fitz Theodoric was the person who in 1166 
held of William fitz William of Haselbuiy two knights' fees in 
Somerset and by the description of " William fil Terrici de 
Otrehamton," another in the same county of Philip de 
Columbers (Lib. Nig., i, 94-97). 

It will be noticed that Wulfric's life speaks of Beatrix the 
wife of William fitz Theodor-ic ; according to the Mudford 
charter the wife of Theodoric fitz William the Donor was also 
called Beatrix. The coincidence is curious, but there is nothing 
impossible in a man's wife and his mother having the same 

In 1176 Terricus de Mudford was fined for an offence 
against the Forest Laws (Pipe Roll Somt. and Dor., 22-23 
Hen. II), and in 1201 he was party to a fine for exchanging 
lands in Maxehill for part of the Marsh of Pedreham (Somt. 
Fines, 3 John, No. 70). This place was near the mouth of 
the River Parret in or near Otrehamton or Otterhampton, 
which afterwards belonged to the Romsey family, descendants 
of Theodoric. 

Of the two sons of the Donor, Henry appears to have been 
the eldest and to have succeeded his father as lord of Mud- 
ford. In Harl MS., No. 4120, there is an extract from a deed 
(sans date) whereby Henry de Mudford granted to Wm. 
Malet, lord of Enmore, two fardells of land in the ville of 
Mudford in free-marriage with Sarah, daughter of Raymond 
de Sully. This, I take it, was only his confirmation of the 
transaction as the superior lord of land in Mudford, held 
of him by Malet, and did not imply any further connection 
with either Malet or Sully. Accompanying it is a drawing of 
a seal charged with a rose and a fragment of the legend round 

it "Modiford," and in Coll. Top. and Gen., v, 125, the 

arms of de Mudford are said to be arg. a chevron wavy between 
five roses, and to be quartered by the Stukeley family of 

190 Papers, 8fc. 

Henry must have died without issue, and his brother 
William also, for in 1263 there was litigation respecting lands 
in Mudford, which Dyonisia de Otterhampton held in dower 
under Scolastica, sister and heir of Henry de Modeford, 
husband of Dyonisia (Somerset Pleas. 27 Hen. Ill, No. 288), 
Henry held at his death lands in Otterhampton as well as 
Mudford, and William de Eston had a grant of them from the 
Crown during the king's pleasure (Charter Rolls, 18 John m 6). 
The manor of Mudford Terry may have passed by the mar- 
riage of this Scolastica with a Romesy, but at any rate, it passed 
into the hands of that family as in Kirby's Quest (12 Edw. I), 
it was held by Walter de Romesy and Geoffrey de Romesy of 
Alan de Plugenet, the superior lord in right of his barony of 
Haselbury. The Romesys were the owners of the adjoining 
manors of Okeley and Chilthorne, which they had purchased of 
Richard Fitz- William (Somt. Fines, 7 John, No. 18). 1 

The hamlet of Hinton, which lies north of the river Yeo, 
seems at one time to have been treated a separate manor from 
Mudford Terry, but afterwards the whole was known as " the 
manors of Mudford and Hinton," and was in or before the reign 
of Edw. I held by the Norman family of Daunay or DeAlneto, 
an ancestor of whom " Sire De Aulnou " was a leader in the 
Conqueror's army at the battle of Hastings (Wace, p. 213). 
and William de Alneto held two knights fees in Devon 12 
Hen II (Lib. Nig. II, 122). 31 Edw. I. Nicholas Dawnay 
had inherited from William, his grandfather, the manor of 
Hyntonjuxta Modiford (Assize Rolls, 31 Edw. I, x T \), and 
from him descended another Nicholas, who was summoned to 
Parliament as a Baron 1 Edw. Ill, and died 7 Edw. Ill, 
leaving Sir .John Dawnay his only son and heir. He was a 
renowned warrior, and having signalized himself at the battle 
of Crecy, was made by his sovereign Knight Banneret on the 
battlefield. He died 20 Edw. Ill, leaving issue, one daughter, 

1. Some additional particulars of the Romesey family will be found in ' His- 
torical Notices of South Somerset." pp. 43, 44. 

Mudford and its Church. 191 

aged 16, who became the wife of Sir Edward Courtenay, Kt., 
son of Hugh 2nd Earl of Devon, and father of Edward the 
3rd Earl, commonly called the blind Earl, and by that means 
the Courtneys inherited the manor of Mudford and Hinton. 
This manor was one of those forfeited to the Crown on the 
attainder of Henry Earl of Devon in 1539, and was never 
restored to the Courtenay family. There is a survey of the 
manor temp. Phi), and Mary in the British Museum (Harl 
MS. 71), which is printed in Top. and Gen. I, 158. It was 
then still in the hands of the Crown, but before 30 Ely. it 
belonged to Sir Hugh Cholmley, Kt., and in the early part of 
the last century it was sold to Mr. John Old, of Yeovil, from 
whom it descended to the present owner, Mr. Goodford, of 
Chilton Cantelo. 


k ' Carta Roger! Episcopi confirmationis [obliteration] super 
ecclesiam de Mudiford. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus Roger Episcopus salutem. Novt 
universitas vestra nos inspex [ ] Curtam Theodorici filii 
Willelmi de Mudiford super donatione Ecclesie de Mudiford 
quam dilectis filiis nostris Josceline Priori et conventui Mon- 
tacuti pre contulisse dinoscitur cujus forma luec est Sciant 
universi fideles Quod ego Theodoric filius Willielmi concedente 
Beatrice uxore mea et Henrico atque Willielmo filiis meis et 
heredibus concedentibus et similiter mecum donantibus dono 
et quantum ad dominium fundi pertinet concedo ecclesiam de 
Mudiford Deo et Sanctis Apostolis ejus Petro et Paulo et 
monachis de Montacuto in pura et perpetua elemosina et ab 
omne consuetudine laicali liberam cum omnibus pertinentiis suis 

1. Wells Cathedral Charter, No. 48. I am indebted to Canon Church for 
kindly collating this transcript and No. 25 with the originals. 

192 Papers, -c. 

habendam et in perpetuarn possidendam. Et quia volo hanc 
meam puram et perpetuam elimosinam ratain fieri et firmam 
presentem cartam sigillo meo confirmavi. (Seal.) Test. 
Helias Capellan de Cinnock Robert presbiter de Stokes 
Willielm Capellan de Montacute Willielm Capellan de Ode- 
cumbe David Cler de Montacute Hugh fil Theodoric Alexan- 
der fil Viel Simon de Odecumbe Gralfrid de Cinnock Hanw 
fil Willielmi Bernard de Montacute Robert de Tintehelle 
Richard de Hokalsham et u mltis aliis Nos autem devotionem 
memorati Theodorici grato favore et assensu in Domino prose- 
quente ad instantiam et petitionem ejusdem T. [heodorici] 
hanc sue donationis et concessionis cartam supradictis filiis 
nostris Joscelino priori et conventui Montacuti corroboramui 
et quicquid hujusdem Theodorici eis in ea contulit aut con- 
ferre potuit presentis script! testimonio. Hujus testes Radulf. 
Archdiac de Bathon Joscelyn Capellan John de St Luca 
Willielm Capellan Robert Capellan de Mertock Baldwin Cler 
de Stoke Homa de Dinan Radulf Chusuz (?) Henry Kari 
Cler. Richard Camerar. 



SDfficers, Members anti Eule0, 1899. 

Patron : 

President : 











Cruatees : 








treasurer : 

ffieneral Secretaries: 


Vol. XL V (Third Series,, Vol. V), Part II. II 



district or 3Local Secretaries : 

Rev. Preb. Bailer, North Curry 
E. E. Baker, P.S.A., Weston-super- 


Rev. E. H. Bates, Ilminster 
John Batten, F.S.A., Yeovil 
J. G. L. Bulleid, Glastonbury 
J. O. Cash, Wincanton 
Rev. Canon Church, F.S.A., Wells 
Rev. Preb. Coleman, Cheddar 
Rev. J. J. Coleman, Holcombe 
G. A. Daniel, Frome 
Wm. Daubeny, J?a^A 
H. C. A. Day, Clevedon 
Sir E. H. Elton, Bart., Clevedon 
C. H. Fox, Wellington 
Rev. Preb. Gale, Yatton 
Rev. Preb. Grafton, Castle Cary 
Rev. Preb. Hancock, Dunster 

Rev. D. LI. Hay ward, Bruton 

Rev. Preb. Herringham, Williton 
and Old Cleeve 

Rev. Canon Holmes, Wookey 

Rev. W. Hunt 

W. M. Kelly, M.D. 

Hugh Norris, South Petherton 

Rev. E. Peacock, Nunney 

Edwin Sloper, London 

Rev. Gilbert E. Smith, Somerton 

Geo. Sweetman, Wincanton 

Charles Tite. 

Rev.H. G. Tomkins, Weston-s.-Mare 

Rev. F. W. Weaver, Milton Cleve- 
don, Evercreech 

Rev. W.P.Williams, Weston-super- 

W. L. Winterbotham, Bridgwater 

Committee : 

Rev. D. P. Alford 
Rev. Preb. Buller 
C. H. Samson 
Rev. A. H. A. Smith 
J. E. W. Wakefield 
Rev. J. Worthington 

The President, Vice- Presidents, Trustees, Treasurer, General and Local 
Secretaries, are ex-offtcio Members of the Committee. 

Rev. Preb. Ask with 
Major Chisholm-Batten 
F. T. Elworthy 
A. Maynard 
Rev. D. J. Pring 
Rev. F. S. P. Scale 

Assist. See. & Curator : 
William Bidgood, Taunton Castle. 

Honorary and Corresponding Members. 195 

of tlje pigott Collection of 2Dratoing#, 

The Lord Lieutenant of the County. 

The Lord Bishop of the Diocese. 

The Members of Parliament for the County. 

The Chairman of Quarter Sessions. 

The Clerk of the Peace for the County. 

on tlje ^britjge tloton 


on tlje 3|lclje0ter 'Zloton 


anti Corregrpontiing: 

Acland, Sir H. W., M.D., Regius Professor of Medicine, Oxford. 

Burrows, Montague, Esq., M.A., Chichele Professor of Modern His- 
tory in the University of Oxford, and Captain, R.N. 

Dawkins, W. Boyd, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.GS., etc., Professor of 
Geology, Owens College, Manchester, Woodhurst, Fallowfield, 

Earle, Rev. Preb. J., M.A. Oriel, Professor of Anglo-Saxon, Oxford, 
Swainswick Rectory, Bath. 

Lloyd, Dr., Sec. Archaeological and Natural History Society, 

Stubbs, Right Rev. Dr., Bishop of Oxford. 

Wilson, Daniel, Esq., LL.D., Professor of English Language, 
Toronto, Canada. 

Societies in ComsponDence, for tbe OErcbange 
of Publications. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
British Association. 
British Museum. 

British Museum (Natural History). 
British Archaeological Association. 
Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Royal Irish Academy. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Guildhall Library, London. 

Associated Architectural Societies of Northampton, etc. 
Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. 
Surrey Archaeological Society. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society. 
Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 
London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 
Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural His- 
tory Society. 

Kent Archaeological Societj'. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 
Powys Land Club, Montgomeryshire. 
Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 
Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 
Berkshire Archaeological and Architectural Society. 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society. 
Essex Archaeological Society. 
Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society. 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society. 
Royal Institution of Cornwall. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 

Corresponding Societies. 197 

Buckingham Architectural and Archaeological Society. 

Northamptonshire Naturalists' Society. 

Bath Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. 

Geologists' Association. 

Royal Dublin Society. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society, 

Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 

Barrow Naturalists' Field Club. 

Essex Field Club. 

Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Chester Archaeological and Historical Society. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club. 

Hampshire Field Club. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds. 

Folk-Lore Society. 

Postal Microscopic Society. 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. 

Royal Norwegian University, Christiana. 

Geological Institution of the University of Upsala, Sweden. 

Canadian Institute. 

Nova Scotian Institute. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, U.S. 

United States Geological Survey, Washington, U.S. 

Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, U.S. 

Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass., U.S. 

Geological Department of the University of California, U.S. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S. 

University of California, U.S. 

Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles, Lausanne. 

Societe Archeologique de Bordeaux. 

List of members fot 1899. 

Those marked * are Life Members. 
Those marked f are Members of the General Committee. 

Acland, Sir C. T. D. Bart., Holnicotc, Tannton. 
Adams, W. Taunton. 

Adlam, William, F.S.A., Manor House, Chcir Muyna, 
Aldridge, Rev. Preb. W. W. Weston-supcr-Man 
5 Aid worth, Major Robert, West Coker 
fAlford, Rev. D. P., 9, Hovelands, Taunton 
Alford, H. J., M.D., Taunton 
Alford, Rev. Martin, Clcvcdon 
Allen, F. J., M.D. 

10 Allen, Miss, The Avenue, Taunton 
Allhusen, Wilton, Pinhay* Lyme Reyit 
Alt-ham, Mrs. Tiinbercomln\ Ain/tolt, Bridy water 
Arnold, Rev. W. Burrowbridge, Biidgwatcr 
Ashworth-Hallet, Mrs. L. S. Claverton J*odye, Butlurn-k 

Hill, Hath 

15f Ask with, Rev. Pirb. Tnuntvn 
Atrhlrv, Rev. II. (J. S. l/iin'iintt-r 
Atkins', .]. M. //>//,- 
Austen, Rev. E. G. Berrow Vicarage^ Burnham, />//>///- 


Avfline, H. T. S. ('.-//;/./, Norton Fits warren^ Tnnnton 
jo A \clinc, Win. T11>M, 1 ">, /\<nningttM ' 

Park* Linnlon. >'.//., Danii'l, Kilrr (\tu 
tUndiMu-k, II. .1. ritinin*t<-i\ T.iuntfi. Tru.-tvr, Tiva>mvr 
Btffehot Mi-. \\';ilu-!-, //,-//'* ////, 

Bailey, Rev, J, P. /. ; .v;-.-/;i/r 

" I'.Miluar.l, T. II. M. i' '/, , . 

tHik.-i .1 1 i \. //' -stun-sHi'f }! 

Baker, \\ Proctor, tondkillPtrk, 
Baker, Rei s Q Cvmptxll Hou**, Cl 
Baker, W.T, Bridttwtttr 
30 Baldwin, Kev, \ S, Wddk Ckmvek Reetory, Ilmwtter 
Barnard, M- --,,, r Tie Zforty, Wtlh 

l'..ii in. .-(I,>l,I. t\tnnt<> 

' \<l" ".run,, \ ' 

List of ^f,' l >l/>,^ |f| 

Barrett, Jonathan, Tannton 
:]') Barrett. Major. Mon-don House, North Cum/ 

Barstow. .!. Jackson. '/'//< /./////, ///-.,/, l////v? 

Bartelot, Rev. R. ( iro-vt-nor. r< . //'///-/////. 

Bartrum, .1. S. U. (V^// &r*ef, 
t Hates. Rev. K. II . I'uchinyton Rrrtory. Uminrter 
40 Bathurst. A. 2. A*r/r s'y/////v. //>/'. 

l>atten. Henry I>. Aldon. }Vr/7 

Batten, II. C'ary (i. /./vV/// Lod<t>. AMwt* I.righ, Bristol 

Batten. Mr-. IL ( ai-y (i. n 

Batten. John Beardinore ., n 

45 Batten. II. Phelips. Hollands, Ynn-il 

tBatten. John. K.>. \... Ahlon. Yrin-il. Trustee, V.P. 

Batten, Lieut.-CoL I. Mount, Morninytun Lodge, LI 
Ken. tint/ton* W. 

Bavnes, Rev. R. K.. \'ic<ir<i</< . C/'-rci/un 

lieaines. ,1. 
>0 Beavan, Miss, Taunton 

Beek, Rev. \V. .1. Sntton Montis. Sparkford 
*Bed(l<n\ J.. M.I>.. F.K.S.. The Chantry, 'Bradfvrd-em-Anm 

Bell, I. IL UK), La/land Road. Sonthport 

Bell, Rev. \V. A. Charlynch, Bridgwater 
.").") Bennett. I^iljyar. I lend ford, }'roril 

Bennett. Mrs. 2, Brctdmore ftoad, Oxford 

Bennett. T. O. Bruton 

lientley, F. J. R., iroodhtnda, ll'ellinyton 

Bere. Charles, Mi/rrrton 
() Berkeley, Rev. (T. \V.. Butlciyh 

Bernard, Rev. ('anon. //>//,> 

Bieknell, A. S. Han'ombc lloiixc, Barcombe, 

Birkbeck, Rev. \V. J. ll'<.<t(i-suj>cr-Mare 

Bisdee, Alfred. 11 niton Court, 
o"> Blake. \V. Bridy<\ South Pctlicrton 

Blakiston. A. A. Glastonbun/ 

Blatlnvayt, Lieut. -Col. Liidey, Kuylc Jlvusi\ 

Blatlnvavt. Rev. \Vvntrr \\ Dyrhant, 

Bkthwayt, Krv. \V'. T. 

70 Bond, Rev. K. S. Thorny Ycovil 

P>oodle, R. \V. 20, Bt'lyntrt- Itoad, Kdybuston, 
Booker. \Vni. Thomas, Wellington 

Boston Pulilir Lihrary, Boston, I'.S. America 
Bothaniley. \'cn. Archdeacon, Richmond I 
7-") Bothamlev, ('. II. Ottcnrood, Bfiicons/ictd /' 

200 List of Members for 1899. 

Bourdillon, E. D. Dinder House, Wells 
Bonverie, H. H. P. Bryrnore House, Bridywater 
Bownes, Rev. James, Crcecli St. Michael 
Boys, Rev. H. A. North Cadbury Rectory, Bath 
80 Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, Cleredon, and 16, Royal Crescent, 

fBramble, Lieut.-Col., F.S.A. Seafield, Weston-super-Mare, 

Trustee, General Secretary 

Bramble, Miss Edith Mary, Seafield, Weston-super-Mare 
Broadmead, W. B., Enmore Castle 
Broderip, Edmund, Cossinrjton Manor, Bridgwaier 
85 Brown, David, 7, Wellington Terrace, Taunton 
Brown, F. VV., Chardkiah Green, Chard 
Brown, G. Gordon, 5, Greenhay Road, Liverpool 
Brown, John, Wadeford, Chard 
Brown, T. Loader, Chardleigh Green, Chard 
90 Brown, W. H. M. Shcrborne 

Brownlow, Rt. Rev. Bishop, Bishop's House, Park Place, 

Clifton, Bristol 

Brutton, J. 7, Princes Street, Yeovil 
Bryan, H. D. Grove Park Road, Weston-super-Mare 
Buckle, Edmund, 23, Bedford Row, London, W.C. 
95 Buckle, Rev. Canon, Wells (deceased) 
Bull, Rev. Thos. Williamson, Paulton 
Bulleid, Arthur, F.S.A., Glastonbury 
fBulleid, J. G. L. Glastonbury 
Bulleid, G. Laurence, A.R.W.S., 57, Combe Park, Weston, 


lOOfBuller, Rev. Preb. W. E. North Curry 
Bunny, J. Brice, Bishop's Lydeard 
Burridge, W. The Willows, Wellington 
Bush, John, 9, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol 
Bush, R. C., 1, Winifred's Dale, Bath 

105 Bush, Rev. T. C., Hornblotton Rectory, Castle Gary, Bath 
Bush, Thos. S. 20, Camden Crescent, Bath 
Butler, W. B. Taunton 

Buttanshaw, Rev. Preb. J. 22, St. James' Square, Bath 
Caillard, His Honour Judge, Wing/field House, Troic- 


110 Capel, J. P. Weston-super-Mare 
Cartwright, Rev. A. R. Cleiiedon 
Cartwright, Rev. H. A. Whitestaunton 
fCash, J. O. Wincanton 

Cayley, Rev. R. A. Stowcll Rectory, Shcrborne 
115 Chaffey-Chaffey, Robert, East Stoke 

List of Members for 1899. 201 

Chaffey, Richard, Chard 

Chafyn-Grove, G. Troyte, North Cokcr House, Ycovil 

Chapman, Arthur Allan, Taunton 

Chard, T. T. The Hawthorns, Clevedon 
120 Cheetham, F. H. Tetton, Kingston, Taunton 

jChisholm-Batten, Major .). F. Tkornfalcon, Taunton, 

t Church, Rev. Canon, F.S.A., Sub-Dean, Wells 

Clark, Frank J. Street 

Clark, W. S. Street 
125 Clarke, A. A. Wells 

Clarke, C. P. Taunton 

Clatworthy, Eland, Highland Villa, Taunton 

Clemow, C. E. Canon House, Taunton 

Clerk, E. H. Burford, Shepton Mallet 
130 Clive, J. Ronald, Combe Florey 

Clothier. S. T. Street 

Coates, Capt. Herbert, Clevedon 
fColeman, Rev. Preb. James, 2, Vicar s Close, Wells 
fColeman, Rev. J. J. Holcombe Rectory, Bath 
135 Coles, Rev. V. S. S. Shepton Bcauchamp 

Coif ox, Wm. Wcstmead, near Bridport 

Collins, Rev. J. A. W. Newton St. Cyrcs, Exeter 

Colthurst, G. E. Northfield, Taunton 

Cooper, Rev. Sydney, Christ Church, Fromc 
140fCork and Orrery, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, K.P., 
Marston, Frame, Patron 

Corner, H. Taunton 

Corner, Samuel, 95, Forest Road West, Nottingham 

Corner, Edward, Hillside, Wellington 

Cornish, C. E., D.P. The Rt. Rev. Bishop of Grahamstown 
145 Cornish, R. Cedar House, Axminster, Devon 

Cotehing, W. G. Taunton 

Cottam, A. Basil, Bridgwatcr 

Cox, H. Williton 

Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R. L. Doynton Rectory, Bristol 
150 Crespi, A. J. H., M.D., Cooma, Poole Road, Wimlorne 

Cutler, Jonathan, Richmond House, Wellington 

Dampier-Bide, Thos. Wm. Kingston Manor, Yeoril 

Daniel, Rev. H. A. Manor House, Stochland Bristol, 
Bridg water 

Daniel, Rev. Prebendary W. E. Horsington Rectory, 

1 55 f Daniel, G. A. Nunney Court, Frome 

Daubeny, W. A. Cleveland*, near Daivlish 

Col. XLV (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part II. cc 

202 List of Members for 1899. 

tDaubeny, W. 11, St. James 1 S<jn,arc, Bath 
Da vies, Hi tellings, Sumcrton 
Davies, J. Trevor, Newlctnd House, Sherborne 
160 Davis, Major C. E. 55, Pultcney Street, Bath 

Davis, Mrs. The Warren, North Curry 
fDay, H. C. A. Oriel Lodge, Walton, Clcvedon 
Denham, George, Tannton 
Denman, Thos. Isaac, Yeovil 
165 Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Clifton, Bristol 

Derham, Walter, 76, Lancaster Gate, London, JT. 
Dickinson, R. E., M.P. Bath 
Dobree, S. The Briars, Ea.liny, W. 
Dobson, Mrs. Oakwood, Bathwich Hill, Bath 
170 Doggett, H. Greenfield, Sprinyhill, Leiyhwood, Clifton 
Do well, Rev. A. G. Heiistridyc Vicar, Blandford 
Drayson, C. D., Court lands, Tannton 
Dravton, W. Mountlands, Tannton 
Duckworth, Rev. W. A. Orchardle'ujh Park, Frome 
175 Duder, John, Trcyedna, The Avenue, Taunt on 

Dudman, Miss Catherine L. Pitney House, Lang port 
Dunn, William, Frome 
Dupuis, Rev. Preb. T. C. Burn/tarn 
Dyke, C. P. Totteridge, Herts 
180 Dymond, Rev. H. N. Chaffcombe, Chard 
Dyson, Jno. Moorlands, Crcivhernc 
Easton, Richard, Taunton 

Eberle, J. F. Ebor Villa, 96, Pembroke Road, Clifton 
Eden, Mrs. The Grange, Kingston, Taunton 
185 Edwards, Rev. A. G. Norton-sub- Harndon, Uminster 
fEdwards, Sir Geo. Wni. Sea Walls, Sneyd Park, Stoke 

Bishop, Bristol, \.i>. 
fElton, C. I., Q.C., F.S.A., Manor House, Whitestnunton, 

Trustee, v.p. 

Elton, Rev. George G. Wellow Vicarage, Rnmsey, Hants 
t Elton, Sir E. H.. Bart., Clevedon Court, Y.P. 
190 Elton, W. Heuthfield Hall, Taunton 

Elton, Ambrose, Clevedon Court, and 17, llalsey Street, 

Cadoyan Square, S.W. 
fElworthy, F. T. Foxdown, Wellington 
Ernst, Mrs. Westcombe House, Evercreeeli, Bath 
Esdaile, C. E. J. Cotlielstone 
195 Esdaile, Geo. The Old Rectory, Platt-in-Rnsholme, 


Esdaile, Rev. W. Sandford Orcaa, Sherborne 
Evans, Sir J., K.C.B., F.U.S., Naxh J7///x, Hemel Hempstead 

List of Members for 1899. 203 

Evans, W. H. Ford Abbey, Chard 
Evens, J. W. The Gables, Walton Park, Clcvedon 
200 Ewing, Mrs. Taunton 

Fisher, Samuel, Hovclands, Taunton 
Fisher, W. H. Elmhurst, North-town, Taunton 
FitZrCrerald, Major, J.P. Walton, Clcvedon 
Fligg, Wm. M.I',. Weston-super-Mare 
205 Foley, R. Y. Elmwood, Bridgivatcr 

Foster, E. A. South Hill, King sker swell) Devon 
Foster, F. C. Bridywatcr 
Fowler, Rev. C. A. 
Fowler, Wm. H. The Bank, Taunton 
210 Fowler, Gerald, 5, Haincs Hill Terrace, Taunton 
fFox, C. H. Wellington 
Fox, F. F. Yate House, Chipping Sodbnry 
Fox, Rev. J. C. Tcmplccombc 
Fox, Sylvanus, Linden, Wellington 
215 Foxcroft, E. T. D. Hinton Charterhouse, Bath 
Franklin, H. Taunton 
Frome Literary Institute 

tFry, The Rt. Hon. Sir Edwd., r.c., D.C.L., F.S.A., F.K.S., 
&c., late Lord Justice of Appeal, Failand House, Fa.iland, 
Bristol, President 

Fry, E. A. 172, Edmund Street, Birmingham 
220 Fry, Mrs. 

Fry, Francis J. Cricket St. Thomas, Chard 
tGale, Rev. Preb. I. S. Clccvc, Yatton 
Galpin, Wm. Horwood, Wincanton 
George, Frank, Top Corner, Park Street, Bristol 
225 George, Rev. Philip Edward, Winifred House, Bath 

t George, W. St. Wulf stands, Durdham Ph., Bristol ( deceased) 
*Gibbs, Antony, Tyntcsfield, Wraxall, Nailsea, R.S.O. 
*Gibbs, Henry Martin, Barrow Court, Barroic Gurncy, 


Gibson, Rev. Prebendary, The Vicarage, Leeds 
230 Gifford, J. Wm. Oahlands, Chard 

Giles, A. H. Churchill Court, Churchill, R.S.O., Somerset 
Giles, W. J'. 10, Sydney Terrace, Taunton 
Gillett, A. Street 

Goddard, H. R. Villa Ventura, Taunton 
235 Good, Thos., Bride/water 

tGoodford, A. J'. Chilton Cantclo, lie/tester, Trustee 
Goodland, C'harles, Taunton 
Goodland, Thos., Taunton 
Goodman, Albert, The Avenue, Taunton 

204 List of Member* for 1899. 

240 Goodman, Kdwin, Yarde House, Taunton 
Goodman, Alfred, Elm Grove, Taunton 
Gough, Wm. Langport 
t Graf ton, Rev. Prebendary A. W. Castle Cart/ 

Grant, Lady, Loyic Elphinstonc, Pitcaplc, Abcrdcenshire 
245 Grant, Rev. C. Glastonbury 

Grant, Capt. The Chantry, Frame 

Green, E., F.S.A., Devonshire Club, St. James Street, 

London, S. W. 

Greswell, Rev. W. H. P. Dodinyton 
Grey, Geo. Duncan, LL.D. Bella Vista, Weston-siiper- 


250 Gurney, Rev. H. F. S. Stoke St. Gregory 
Haddon, Chas. Taunton 
Hadwen, Walter R., M.D. Gloucester 
Hall, Henry, 19, Doughty Street, Mecklenburyh Square, 


Hall, Rev. H. F. Lcasbrook, Dixton, Monmoutli 
255 Hall, J. F. Sharcombe, Binder, Wells 

Hamlet, Rev. J. Slicpton Bcaiichamp, II minster 
Harnmet, W. J. St. Bernard's, Taunton 
Hammett, A. Taunton 

t Hancock, Rev. Preb. F., F.S.A. The Priory, Dunstcr 
260 Harford, Wm. H. Old Bank, Bristol 

Harford, Rev. Prebendary, Marston Biyot, Frame 
Harrod, H. H. Manor House, Morebath, Tivcrton 
Harrod, C. D. 

Harvey, John, Junr. Denmark Street, Clifton 
265 Hatcher, Robert, Melville House, Middle Street, Taunton 
*Hawkesbury, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 2, Carlton House Ter- 
race, Pall Mall, London, S. W. 
fHayward, Rev. Douglas LI. Bruton 
Heale, Rev. C. H. St. Decuman s, Watchct, Bridy water 
Healey, C. E. H. Chadvvyck, Q.C. 119, Harley Street, IV. 

and New Place, Porlock 
270 Heathcote, Rev. S. J. Williton 

Heathcote, C. D. Bridge House, Porlock 
Hellier, Rev. H. G. Nemptiett Rectory, Chew Stoke, Bristol 
Hellier, Mrs. 

Helyar, Colonel, Poundisford Lodyc, Taunton 
275 Henley, Colonel C. H. Lciyh House, Chard 

Henry, Miss Frances, Brasted, Walton-btj-Clcvcdon 
tHerringham, Rev. Preb. W. W. Old Ctccvc 
Hewlett, Mrs. Preuns Green, Worlc, IVcston-supcr-Marc 
Hickes, Rev. T. H. F. Bray cot 

List of Member* fur 1899. 205 

280 Hiffffins, John, Pylle, Shepton Mallet 
Hill, B. H. 

Hill, Clias., Clevedon Hall, Clevedon (deceased) 
Hill, Sir Edward, K.C.B., M.P., Rookivood, Llundajf\ and 

Hazel Manor, Campion Martin* Bristol 
Hill, W. J. C. Lam/port 
285 Hippisley, W. J. 15, New Street, Wells 
tHobhouse, The Rt. Rev. Bishop, Welh 
jHobhouse, H., M.P. Hadspcn House, Castle Cary, Trustee, 

Hobhouse, Rt. Hon. Lord, K.C.S.I. 15, Bruton Street, 

London, W. 

Hodgkinson, W. S. Glcncot, Wells 
290 Holland, W. T. The Lions, Bride/loiter 
fHolmes, Rev. Canon, Woohey, Wells 
Honnywill, Rev. J. E. W. LeujJi-on-Mcndip, Coleford, 

fHood, Sir Alexander Acland, Bart., M.P. St. Audries, 

Bridywatcr, Trustee 

fHook, Rev. Preb. W. Porlock (deceased). 
295 Home, Rev. Ethelbert, Downside Monastery, Bath 
Horner, J. F. Fortescue, Mells 
Hoskins, Ed. J. 76, Jermyn Street, London, W. 
Hoskyns, H. W. North Pcrrot Manor, Crcwkcrnc 
fHoskyns, Col. South Petherton, V.P. 
300 Houston, H. S. Lindcnfeh, frame 

Hudd, A. E., F.S.A. 94, Pembroke Road, Clifton 
Hughes, Rev. F. L. Lydcard St. Lawrence 
Humphreys, A. L. 187, Piccadilly, London, W. 
fHunt, Rev. W. 24, Phillimore 'Gardens, Campden Hill, 

KcnsiiK/ton, W. 
305 Hunt, W'm. Alfred, Pen, Ycovil 

Husbands, H. Wessen, North Town House, Taimton 
tHylton, The Rt. Hon. the Lord, Ammcrdown Park, Rad- 

stock, Bath, V.P. (deceased) 
Hyson, Rev. J. B. Ycovilton, Ilchester 
lies, A. R. Shutterne, Taunton 
310 Impey, Miss E. C. Street 

Inman, H. B. Pine House, Batheaston, Bath 
Inman, T. F. Kilkenny House, Bath 
Isgar, R. Wells 
Jacobs, M. Taunton 
315 James, W. H. Weston-super-Marc 
.Jane, Wm. Concfrcsbury 
Jefferies, C. S. Sanfortit, Hic/hdalc Road, Clevedon 

206 List of Members for 1899. 

Jennings, A. R. Taunton 
tJex-Blake, The Very Rev. T. W M Dean of Wells, F.S.A. 

The Deanery, Wells, v.r. 
320 J ex-Blake, Arthur John, Magdalen Col/cyc, Oxford 

Johnson, Admiral, Haincs Hill, Taunton 

Johnston, Joseph Nicholson, Hcskcth House, Ycovil 

Jones, J. E. North-wood^ Rickmansworth 

Jose, Rev. S. P. Churchill 
325 Jose, Mrs. 

Joseph, H. W. B. Woodlands House, Holford, Bridy water 
tKelly, W. M.j M.l>. Fcrriny, Worthing, Sussex 

Kelway, Wm. Langport 
fKennion, Rt. Rev. G. W., Lord Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, The Palace, Wells, v.r. 
330 Kettlewell, Wm. Harptrce Court, East Harptrcc 

King, Austin Joseph, 13, Queen Square, Bath 

King, R. Moss, Ashcott Hill, Bridywatcr 

Kinglake, Rev. F. C. West Monkton 

Kite, G. H. Taunton 
335 Knight, F. A. Wintrath, Winscombe, Weston-supcr-Marc 

Knight, R. Wellington 

Lance, Chas. E. Priory House, Taunton 

Lance, Rev. W. H. Buck/and St. Mary, Chard 

Langdon, Rev. F. E. W. Parrocks Lodge, Chard 
340 Langdon, Mrs. 

Lawrence, Samuel, Forde House, Taunton 

Lawson, Geo. 36, Craven Hill Gardens, London 

Leir, Rev. L. Randolph M. Charlton Must/rove, Wincanton 

Leng, W. L. 14, Church Street, Bridgu-atcr 
345 Lethbridge, Sir Wroth A., Bart. Sandhill Park, Bishops 

Lewis, Archibald M. 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton 

Lewis, Josiah, Taunton 

Lewis, Murray, Taunton 

Lewis, William, 12, North Gate Street, Bath 
350 Liddon, Edward, M.D. Tuunton 

Liddon, Rev. Henry John, Taunton 

Livett, H. W., M.D. Wells 

Lock, John, Taunton 

Lock, William, Lewis House, Staplcyrove, Taunton 
355 Long, Col. Conc/rcsbury, Bristol 

Louch, J. Langport 

Loveday, J. G. Weirjicld, Taunton 

Loveday, Mrs. 

Lovibond, G. The Friars, Bridywater 

List of Members for 1899. 207 

360 Lovibond, Mrs. The Grange, Lanyport 

Ludlow, Walter, 01, Clarendon Street, Lea mint/ton Spa 
fLuttrell, G. F. Dunster Castle, v.p. 

Lyte, Sir Henry Maxwell, K.C.B., F.S.A. 3, Purtman 
Square, London^ W. 

Macdermott, Miss, 20, The Crescent, Taunton 
365 Macdonald, J. A., M.D., Taunton 

Macmillan, W. Castle Cary 

Macraillan, A. S. The Avenue, Yeovil 

Maggs, F. R. Princes Street, Yeovil 

Major, Charles, Wembdon, Bridgwatcr 
370 Malet, T. H. W. 23, Trafalgar Square, Chelsea, S.W. 

Mapleton, Rev. H. M. Badgworth, H r eston-super-Mare 

Marshall, Wilfred George, Norton Manor, Taunton 

Marshall, James C. Stohe-on-Trcnt 

M arson, Mrs. Hambridgc Vicarage, Curry Rwcl 
375 Mar wood, J. B. Eastcott, 86, Boston Road, Hanwell, 

Marriott, H. M. Heale House, Curry Rivel 

Master, Rev. G. S. Bourton Grantje, F lax- B our ton, Bristol 

Mawer, A. Iefferay, Kelston, Weston-super-Mare 

May, Rev. W. D. 
380fMaynard, Alfred, Henley I^odf/e, Taunton 

Maynard, Howard 

^IcAuliffe, W. J. Taunton 

McConnell, Rev. C. J. Pylle Rectory, Shepton Mallet 

Mead, Francis H., M.D. 1855, Fourth Street, San Diego, 

California, U.S.A. 
385 Meade, Francis, The Hill, Langport 

Meade-King, R. Liddon, M.D. Taunton 

Meade-King, Walter, 1 1 , Baring Crescent, Heavitree, 

Meade-King, Miss May, Watford, Taunton 

Medler, Rev. J. B. Tyntesfield, Bristol 
390 Medlycott, Sir. K. B., Bart. Yen, Milborne Port 

Mellor, Right Hon. J. W., M.P., Q.c. Culmhead, Taunton 

Meredith, J., M.D. Wellington 

Micliell, Rev. A. T. Sheriff iiales Vicarage, Newport, Salop 

Mildmay, Rev. A. St. John, Hazelgrovc Park, Queen 

Camel, Bath 
395 f Mitchell, F. Chard (deceased) 

Mitchell, G. W. 76, Beulah Hill, Upper Norwood, London 

Monday, A. J. Taunton 

Moore, F. S. Castle Cary 

Morland, John, Glastonbnnj 

208 List of Member* for 1899. 

400 Mullins, Mrs. The Glebe., Weston-Miper-Mare 
Mullins, Miss 

Murray-Anderdon, H. E. Henlade, Taunton, and 27, 

Shane Garden*, Condon 

Nay lor, J. R., C.S.I. Cadbury House, Yatton 
Newell, Rev. Preb. C. F. Chiselborougk Rectory, Stoke- 


405 Newell, Major H. L. 

Newnham, Capt. N. J. Blagdon Court, Bristol 
New York Public Library, Astor library Buildings, N.Y. 
Newton, F. M. Barton Grange, Taunton 
Nicol, W. Herbert, Poundisford Park, Taunton 
410 Nichols, James 

Nicholson, Rev. Preb. J. Y. AUer Rectory, Lanyport 
Norman, Col. Compton, Taunton 
Norman, G. 12, Brock Street, Bath 
fNorris, Hugh, South Petherton 

415 Odgers, Rev. J. E. 145, Woodstock Road, Oxjord 
O'Donoghue, Henry O'Brien, Lony Ashton 
Olivey, H. P. Albion House, My lor, Penryn 
Ommanney, Rev. Preb. G. D. W. 29, Beaumont Street, 

Oxford * 

O'Neill, Rev. J. M. Wembdon, Bridgwater 
420tPaget, The Rt. Hon. Sir Richard H., Bart., P.O. Cran- 

more Hall, Shepton Mallet, \. P. 
Palmer, H. P. Wellington Terrace, Taunton 
Parsons, H. F., M.D. 4, Park Hill Rise, Croydon, Surrey 
Pass, A. C. Hawthornden, Clifton Down, Bristol 
Paul, A. D. Chard 
425 Paul, R. W. 3, Arundel Street, Strand, London, W.C. 

Paynter, J. B. Hendford Manor House, Yeoril 
f Peacock, Rev. E. Rockfield Nu.nney, Frame 
Peace, A. Silver Craig, H eston-super-Mare 
Peake, Rev. Preb. Geo. Eden, Vicarage, Brent Knoll 
430 Pearce, Edwin, Taunton 

Pearse, Rev. Beauchamp K. W. The Old Rectory, Ascot, 

Stain es 
Penny, Rev. E. L., D.D., R.X. Coryton, Pentillie Road, 

Plymouth (deceased) 

Penny, Rev. James Alpass, Wispington Vicarage, Horn- 
castle, Lincolnshire 
Penny, T. Taunton 

435 Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Severn House, Henbury, Bristol 
Percival, Rev. S. E. Merriott Vicarat/e, Crewkerne 
Perfect, Rev. H. T. Stanton Drew 

List of Members for 1899. 209 

Perkins, A. E. Taunton 
Perry, Lieut.-Col. J. Creirkerne 

440 Perry, Rev. C. R., B.D. Mickfield Rectory, Stowmarkct 
*Petherick, E. A., F.R.G.S. 85, Hopton Road, Streatham, 

London, S.fV. 

Phelips, W. R. Montacute House, Montacute, S.O., Sow. 
Phillips, Rev. Theodore E. R. Hendford, Yeovil 
Phillis, John, 31, High Street, Shepton Mallet 
445 Philp, Capt. Pendogget, Timsbury, Bath 

Pittman, J. Banks, Basing House, Basinghall Street, 

London, E.C. 

Pitt-Rivers, Lt.-Gen., F.R.S., F.S.A. Rushmore, Salisbury 
Plowman, Miss, Greenway, North Curry 
Poole, H. R. South Petherton 

450 Poole, Rev. Robert Blake, Ilton Vicarage, Ilminstcr 
Poole, Wm. Park Street, Taunton 
Pooll, R. P. H. Batten, Road Manor, Bath 
Pope, John, Nowers, Wellington 
Porch, J. A. Edgarley House, Glastonbury 
455 Portman, Hon. E. W. B. Hestercombe, Taunton 

t Portman, The Rt. Hon. The Viscount, Brya.nstone House, 

Dorset, \.\>. 

Potter, Wm. 12, The Crescent, Taunton 
Powell, Septimus, The Hermitage, Weston-super-Mare 
Prankerd, P. D. The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol 
460 Price, R. E. Broomfield Hall, Bridg water 

Prideaux, C. S., L.D.S., R.C.s. Eng. 51, High West Street, 


Prideaux, W. de C., L.D.S., R.C.S. Eng. Ermington, Dorchester 
fPring, Rev. Daniel J. Ehnfield, Taunton 

Prior, R. C. A. M.D. Halse 
465 Quicke, Rev. C. P. Ashbrittle 

Raban, Rev. R. C. W. Bishops Hull 

*Ramsden, Sir John Wm., Bart., Bulstrode, Gerrard's 
Cross, Bucks, 6, Upper Brook Street, London, and 
By ram, Yorksh ire 

Rawle, E. J. Camdcn Villa, Chislehurst, Kent 
Raymond, Walter, Yeovil 
470 Reeves, A. Taunton 

Risk, Rev. J. E. Stockleigh English, Crediton, Devon 
Richardson, Rev. A. Brislington 
Rigden, (T. W. Cyprus Terrace, Taunton 
Risley, S. Norris 

475 Rixon, W. A. Alfoxton Park, Holford, Bridgwater 
Roberts, F. W. Northbrook Lodge, Taunton 

Vol. XLV (Third Serie*, Vol. V), Part II. dd 

210 List of Member* for 1899. 

Roberts, Killam, M.R.C.S. Eng. Shillington, Bedfordshire 
Rocke, Mrs. Chalice Hill, Glastonbury 
Rogers, G. H. 16, Park Street, Taunton (deceased) 
480 Rogers, The Worshipful Chancellor T. E. Yarlinytoii 

House, Winca,nton 

Rogers, W. H. H. F.S.A. Bellevuc, Pohloe Road, Exeter 
Roope, Gerald, Bramdean, Bishop 1 * Hull 
Rose, Rev. W. F. Hutton, Weston-super-Mare 
Rossiter, G. F., M.B. Weston-super-Mare 
485 Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A. Castle Barbican, Plympton, 

Rowley, W. L. P. Brazenosc College, Oxford, and Wool- 


Ruddock, Miss Fanny M. Ehnfiehl, Clcvedon 
Ruegg, Lewis H. Wcstbury, Slierborne, Dorset 
Rutter, Rev. J. H. Ilminster 
490 Salmon, Ven. Archdeacon E. A. Brent Knoll, Highbridge 


t Samson, C. H. Taunton 

tSanford, W. A. Nynehcad Court, Wellington, V.P. Trustee 
Sanford, E. C. A. 

Saunders, G. Jun. Lydeard House, Taunton 
495 Sawyer, Col. E. Hint on St. George 

Scott, Rev. J. P. Wcy House, Taunton 
Scott, M. H. 5, Lansdown Place West, Bath 
fSeale, Rev. F. S. P. Pitminstcr 
Sealy, W. H. Heatlifield House, Norton Fitzwarrcn, 


500 Semple, W. Rae Mac-Phun, M.B. Ch.M. Ycovil 
Sheldon, Thomas, Clcvedon 

Shore, Capt. The Hon. Henry N. Mount Elton, Clcvedon 
Short, John, Provis, Batcoinbc, Bath 
Shum, F. 17, Norfolk Crescent, Bath 
505 Sibley, J. P. Highclerc House, Taunton 

Skinner, Stephen, M.B. Tranent Lawn, Clevedon 
fSkrine, H. D. Claverton Manor, Bath, v.r. 
Skrine, H. M. Warleigh Manor, Bath 
Slade, Wyndham, Montys Court, Taunton 
510fSloper, E. Dashwood House, Broad Street, London 
Sly, E. B., Glastonbury 
Smith, A. J. North Street, Taunton 
Smith, F. Buchanan, Haines Hill, Taunton 
fSmith, Rev. Gilbert E. Barton St. David 
515 Smith, Wm., M.D. Weyhitt, Andover 
Smith, J. H. W. Ros'eneath, Taunton 

List of Member* for 1899. 211 

Smith, W. Carleton 
t Smith, Rev. A. H. A. The Vicarage, Lyng 

Smith, Major, Lyng 
520 Somers, B. E. Mendip Lodge, Lam/ford, Bristol 

Somerville, A. F. Dinder, Well* 

Sommerville, 11. G. Ruishton House, Taunton 

Southall, H. The Craig, Ross 

Southam, Rev. J. H. Trull 
525 Sparks, William, Crewherne 

Speke, W. Jordans, Ilmitister 

Spencer, Frederick, Pondsmead, Oakhill, Bath 

Spencer, J. H. Corfe, Taunton 

Spicer, Northcote W. Chard 
530 Spiller, H. J. Taunton 

Spiller, Miss, Sunny Bank, Bridgwater 

Standley, A. P. Rossall School, Flcetwood 
t Stanley, E. J., M.P. Quantock Lodge, Bridgwater, Trustee, 


* Stanley, H. T. Quantock Lodge, Bridywatcr 
535 Stanway, Moses, Park Street, Taunton 

Steevens, A. Taunton 

Stephenson, Rev. Preb. J. H. Lympsham 

Sterry, Rev. F., Chapel Cleeve 

Stevens, E. W. 4, Birch Grove, Taunton 
540 Stoate, Wm. Aslilcigh, Burnham 

fStrachey, Sir E., Bart. Sutton Court, Pensford, Bristol, v.p. 

Stradling, Rev. W,. J. L. Cliilton-supcr-Poldcn 

Stringfellow, A. H. The Chestnuts, Taunton 

Stuckey, Vincent, Hill House, Langport 
545 Sully, Christopher W. Wenibdon Road, Bridgwater 

Sully, T. N. Avalon House, Priori/ Road, Tyndalc s Park, 
Clifton, Bristol 

Sully, J. Norman, Hooker Hill House, Chepstoiv 

Sully, G. B. Belnwnt, Burnham 

Summerfield, William, St. Georges Villa, Taunton 
550 Surrage, E. J. Rocke, 1, Garden Court, Teinpic, London 
fSweetman, Geo. Wincanton 

Tanner, Rev. T. C. Burlcscombe Vicarage, Wellington 

Tarr, Francis John, Rosencalh, Willsbridgc, near Bristol 

Taylor, Thomas, Taunton 
555 Taylor, Rev. A. D. Churchstanton 

Taylor, Rev. C. S. Banwell, R.S.O., Somerset 

Taylor, Rev. J. H. He Abbots 
tTemple, Rt. Hon. Earl, Newton House, Bristol, Trustee 

Thatcher, A. A. Midsomer Norton, Bath 

212 List of Members for 1899. 

560 Thatcher, Edward J. Firfield House, Knowlc, Bristol 

Thomas, C. E. Grfanville, Lansdown, Bath 

Thompson, A. G. 10, Grccnway Avenue, Taunton 

Thompson, Rev. Archer, Montrose, Wcston Park, Bath 

Thompson, H. Stuart, 30, Waterloo Street, Birmingham 
565 Thring, Rev. Preb. Godfrey, Plonk's Hi/I, SJtamley Green, 

Tilley, J. A. C. 63, Cheyne Court, Chelsea 
fTite, C, 

Tite, Mrs. 

Todd, D'Arcy, 36, Norfolk Square, Hyde Park, London, W. 
570 Toft, Rev. H. Axbridge 

fTomkins, Rev. H. G. Wcston-super-Marc 

Tomkins, Rev. W. S. 33, Canyngc Square, Clifton, Bristol 

Tordiffe, Rev. Stafford, Staplegrovc 

Trask, Charles, Norton, Ilminster 

575 Trenchard, W. J. Heidelberg House, Mary Street, Tannton 
fTrevilian, E. B. Cely, Midelney Place, Curry Rirel, v.p. 

Trevilian. Mrs. ,, 

Tucker, W. J. Chard 

Tuckett, F. F. Frcnchay, Bristol 

580 Turner, H. G. Staplcgrove, and 19, Sloane Gardens, 
London, S.W. 

Tynte, Hals well M. Kemeys, Halswcll, Bridgwatcr (deceased) 

Tynte, St. David Kemeys, Sherwood, Goathnrst 

Ussher, W. A. E., H.M. Geological Survey 

Utterson, Major-General, Sidbroolt, Tannton 
585 Valentine, E. W. Sojnerton 

Vickery, A. J., 16, Bridge Street, Taiuiton 

Vile, J. G. Wilton Lodge, Taunton 

Villar, Mrs. W. J. Tauntfield, Taunton 

Wadmore, Rev. J. A. W. Barrow Gurney, Bristol 
590 Wainwright, Chas. Summcrleaze, Shepton Mallet 

Wait, H. W. K. Woodborough House, Stoke Bishop, Bristol 
fWakefield, J. E. W. Taunton 

Waldegrave, Rt. Hon. Earl, Chcwton Priory, Bath 

Waldron, Clement, Llandaff, S. Wales 
595 Walter, W. W. Stoke-sub-Hambdon 

Warry, G. D., Q.C. Shapivick 

Warry, Henry Cockeram, The Cedars, Preston Road, 

Watts, B. H. 13, Queen Square, Bath 

Weaver, Chas. Uplands, St. John's Road, Clifton 
60()f Weaver, Rev. F. W. Milton Clcvcdon, Evercreech. General 

List of Members for 1899. 213 

Webber, George, Taunton 

Welch, C. 21, Ellcsker Gardens, Richmond, Surrey 

Wells, The Dean and Chapter 

Wells Theological College 
605 Were, F. Gratwicke Hall., Barrow Gurney, Bristol 

West, Rev. W. H. 25, Pultency Street, Bath 

Westlake, W. H. Taunton 

Whale, Rev. T. W. Weston, Bath 

Whistler, Rev. C. W., M.R.C.S. Stockland, Bridy water 
610 White, Saml. The Holt, Mount lands, Taunton 

Whitting, C. G. Glandorc, Weston-super-Mare 

Wickenden, F. B. Tone House, Taunton 

Wickham, Rev. A. P. Martock 

f Williams, Rev. Wadham Pigott, Weston-super-Mare 
615 Williams, Thos. Webb, Flax-Bourton 

Wilkinson, Rev. Thos. Wellington Road, Taunton 

Wills, H. H. W. Barley Wood, Wrincjton 

Wills, Sir W. H., Bart., M.P. Coombc Lodge, Blagdon, 
R.S.O., Somerset 

Wilson, Rev. W. C. Hunt spill 
620 Willcocks, A. D. Taunton 

Winter, Major, 35, Silccrdale Road, Sydcnham 
fWinterbotham, W. L., M.B. Bridgwater 

Winwood, Rev. H. H. 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath 

Winwood, T. H. R. Wellisford Manor, Wellington 
625 Wood, F. A. Highficld, Chew Magna 

Wood, Rev. W. Berdmore, Bicknoller Vicarage 

Woodforde, Rev. A. J. Locking, Weston-super-Mare 

Woodward, Miss J. L. The Knoll, Clcvedon 

Wooler, W. H. Weston-super-Mare 
630tWorthington, Rev. J. Taunton 

Wright, W. H. K. Free Library, Plymouth 

Wyatt, J. W. Eastcourt, Wells, Somerset 

Members are requested to inform " The Secretaries, Taunton Castle," of any 
errors or omissions in the above list ; they are also requested to authorise 
their Bankers to pay their subscriptions annually to Stuckey's Banking 
Company, Taunton ; or to either of their branches ; or their respective 
London Agents, on account of the Treasurer. 

f]PHIS Society shall be denominated "THE SOMERSETSHIRE 
object shall be the cultivation of, and collecting information on, 
Archeology and Natural History in their various branches, but more 
particularly in connection with the County of Somerset, and the 
establishment of a Museum and Library. 

II. The Officers of the Society shall consist of a Patron and 
Trustees, elected for life ; a President ; Vice-Presidents ; General and 
District or Local Secretaries ; and a Treasurer, elected at each 
Anniversary Meeting ; with a Committee of twelve, six of whom 
shall go out annually by rotation, but may be re-elected. No person 
shall be elected on the Committee until he shall have been six months 
a Member of the Society. 

III. Anniversary General Meetings shall be held for the purpose 
of electing the Officers, of receiving the Report of the Committee 
for the past year, and of transacting all other necessary business, at 
such time and place as the Committee shall appoint, of which 
Meetings three weeks' notice shall be given to the Members. 

IV. There shall also be a General Meeting, fixed by the Com- 
mittee, for the purpose of receiving reports, reading Papers, and 
transacting business. All Members shall have the privilege of 
introducing one friend to the Anniversary and General Meetings. 

V. The Committee is empowered to call Special Meetings of the 
Society upon receiving a requisition signed by ten Members. Three 
weeks' notice of such Special Meeting and its objects, shall be given 
to each Member. 

VI. The affairs of the Society shall be directed by the Committee 
(of which the Officers of the Society will be ex-officio Members) 
which shall hold monthly Meetings for receiving Reports from the 
Secretaries and sub-Committees, and for transacting other necessary 
business ; three of the Committee shall be a quorum. Members may 
attend the Monthly Committee Meetings after the official business 
has been transacted. 

VII. The Chairman at Meetings of the Society shall have a 
casting vote, in addition to his vote as a Member. 

Rules. 215 

VIII. One (at least) of the Secretaries shall attend each Meeting, 
and shall keep a record of its proceedings. The property of the 
Society shall be held in Trust for the Members by twelve Trustees, 
who shall be chosen from the Members at any General Meeting. 
All Manuscripts and Communications and other property of the 
Society shall be under the charge of the Secretaries. 

IX. Candidates for admission as Members shall be proposed by 
two Members at any of the General or Committee Meetings, and 
the election shall be determined by ballot at the next Committee or 
General Meeting; three-fourths of the Members present balloting 
shall elect. The Rules of the Society shall be subscribed by every 
person becoming a Member. 

X. Ladies shall be eligible as Members of the Society without 
ballot, being proposed by two Members and approved by the majority 
of the Meeting. 

XT. Each Member shall pay Ten Shillings and Sixpence on 
admission to the Society, and Ten Shillings and Sixpence as an 
annual subscription, which shall become due on the first of January 
in each year, and shall be paid in advance. 

XII. Donors of Ten Guineas or upwards shall be Members for 

XIII. At General Meetings of the Society the Committee may 
recommend persons to be balloted for as Honorary and Corresponding 

XIV. When an office shall become vacant, or any new appoint- 
ment shall be requisite, the Committee shall have power to till up 
the same : such appointments shall remain in force only till the next 
General Meeting, when they shall be either confirmed or annulled. 

XV. The Treasurer shall receive all Subscriptions and Donations 
made to the Society, and shall pay all accounts passed by the Com- 
mittee ; he shall keep a book of receipts and payments, which he 
shall produce whenever the Committee shall require it ; the accounts 
shall be audited previously to the Anniversary Meeting by two 
Members of the Committee chosen for that purpose ) and an abstract 
of them shall be read at the Meeting. 

XVI. No change shall be made in the laws of the Society except 
at a General or Special Meeting, at which twelve Members at least 
shall be present. Of the proposed change a month's notice shall 
be given to the Secretaries, who shall communicate the same to each 
Member three weeks before the Meeting. 

XVII. Papers read at Meetings of the Society, may (with the 
Author's consent and subject to the discretion of the Committee) be 
published in the Proceedings of the Society. 

XVIII. No religious or political discussions shall be permitted at 
Meetings of the Society. 

216 Ruks. 

XIX. Any person contributing books or specimens to the Museum 
shall be at liberty to resume possession of them in the event of a 
dissolution of the Society. Persons shall also have liberty to deposit 
books or specimens for a specific time only. 

XX. In case of dissolution, the real property of the Society in 
Taunton shall be held by the Trustees, for the advancement of 
Literature, Science and Art, in the town of Taunton and the county 
of Somerset. 

for \\t (gfltornment 0f \\t f ifrrarg. 

1. The Library shall be open for the use of the Members of the 
Society daily (with the exception of Sundays, Good Friday and 
Christmas Day), from Ten in the Morning till Five in the Afternoon, 
from April to August inclusive, and during the remaining months 
of the year until Four o'clock. 

2. Every Member of the Society whose annual Subscription 
shall not be more than three months in arrear may borrow out of 
the Library not more than two volumes at a time, and may exchange 
any of the borrowed volumes for others as often as he may please, but 
so that he shall not have more than two in his possession at any 
one time. 

3 Every application by any Member who shall not attend in 
person for the loan of any book or books shall be in writing. 

4. So much of the title of every book borrowed as will suffice to 
distinguish it, the name of the borrower, and the time of borrowing 
it, shall be entered in a book to be called the " Library Delivery 
Book ; " and such entry, except the application be by letter, shall be 
signed by the borrower ; and the return of books borrowed shall be 
duly entered in the same book. 

5. The book or books borrowed may either be taken away by the 
borrower, or sent to him in any reasonable and recognised mode 
which he may request ; and should no request be made, then the 
Curator shall send the same to the borrower by such mode as the 
Curator shall think fit. 

6. All cost of the packing, and of the transmission and return of 
the book or books borrowed, shall in every case be defrayed by the 
Member who shall have borrowed the same. 

7. No book borrowed out of the Library shall be retained for a 
longer period than one month, if the same be applied for in the mean- 
time by any other Member ; nor in any case shall any book be 
retained for a longer period than three months. 

Rules. 217 

8. Every Member who shall borrow any book out of the Library 
shall be responsible to the Society for its safety and good condition 
from the time of its leaving the Library ; also if he borrow any book 
or manuscript within the Library, till it shall be returned by him. 
And in case of loss or damage, he shall replace the same or make it- 
good ; or, if required by the Committee, shall furnish another copy of 
the entire work of which it may be part. 

9. No manuscript, nor any drawing, nor any part of the Society's 
collection of prints or rubbings shall be lent out of the Library 
without a special order of the Committee, and a bond given for its 
safe return at such time as the Committee shall appoint. 

10. The Committee shall prepare, and may from time to time add 
to or alter, a list of such works as shall not be lent out of the Library, 
on account of their rarity, value, or peculiar liability to damage ; or 
on account of their being works of reference often needed by 
Members personally using the Library, and a copy of such list for the 
time being shall be kept in the Library. 

1 1. No book shall be lent out until one month after the acquisition 
of it for the Library. 

12. Extracts from the manuscripts or printed books are allowed 
to be made freely, but in case of a transcript being desired of a whole 
manuscript or printed book, the consent of the Committee must be 
previously obtained. 

13. Persons not being Members of the Society may be admitted 
for a period not exceeding one week, to consult printed books and 
manuscripts not of a private nature in the Society's Library, for any 
special purpose, on being introduced by a Member, either personally 
or by letter. 

14. No book shall be lent to any person not being a Member of 
the Society without a special order of the Committee. 

15. Before any Member can borrow a book from the Library, he 
must acknowledge that he consents to the printed Rules of the 
Society for the Government of the Library. 

*,* it is requested tJmt contributions to the Museum or Library be 
sent to the Curator, at the Taunton Castle. 

lulcs for % jformato of focal rantj Societies. 

1. On the application of not less than Five Members of the 
Society the Council may authorise the formation of a Local Branch 
in any District, and may, if considered advisable, define a specific 
portion of the County as the District to such Branch. 

Vol. XL V (Third Series, Vol. V ), Part II. ee 

218 Rules. 

2. Societies already in existence, may, on application from the 
governing bodies, be affiliated as Branches. 

3. All Members of the Parent Society shall be entitled to becorne 
Members of any Branch. 

4. A Branch Society may elect Local Associates not necessarily 
Members of the Parent Society. 

5. Members of the Council of the Parent Society, being Members 
of, and residing within the District assigned to any Branch, shall be 
ex-officio Members of the Council of such Branch. 

6. A Branch Society may fix the rates of Subscription for Mem- 
bers and Associates, and make Rules and Bye-Laws for the government 
of such Branch, subject in all cases to the approval of the Council of 
the Parent Society. 

7. A Branch Society shall not be entitled to pledge the credit of 
the Parent Society in any manner whatsoever. 

8. The authority given by the Council may at any time be with- 
drawn by them, subject always to an appeal to a General Meeting. 

9. Every Branch Society shall send its Publications and the Pro- 
grammes of its Meetings to the Parent Society, and in return shall 
receive a free copy of the Parent Society's Proceedings. 

10. If on any discovery being made of exceptional interest a 
Branch Society shall elect to communicate it to the Parent Society 
before themselves making it a matter of discussion, the Parent Society, 
if it adopts it as the subject of a paper at one of its ordinar}' Meetings, 
shall allow the Branch Society to make use of any Illustrations that 
the Parent Society may prepare. 

11. Any Officer of a Branch Society, or any person recommended 
by the President, Yice-President, Chairman or Secretary, or by any 
Two of the Members of the Council of a Branch Society, shall on the 
production of proper Vouchers be allowed to use the Library of the 
Society, but without the power of removing books except by the 
express permission of the Council. 

12. Branch Societies shall be invited to furnish Reports from 
time to time to the Parent Society with regard to any subject or 
discovery which may be of interest. 

December, 1899. 

Archaeological $2? Natural History 






The Council of the Somersetshire Archceological and Natural 
History Society desire that it should be distinctly understood that 
although the volume of PROCEEDINGS is published under their 
direction, they do not hold themselves in any way responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed therein ; the authors of the 
several papers and communications being alone responsible. 



archaeological $ Jtatural 

fi octet^ 







THE thanks of the Society are due to the Rev. Prebendary 
Coleman and Mr. W. H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A., for their 
kind gifts of illustrations. There are not many illustrations 
in this Volume, as owing to the repair and furnishing of the 
Great Hall, the expenses of the Society have to be kept 
within limits. 

F. W. W. 

December, 1900. 




FIFTY-SECOND Annual Meeting (Dulverton) ... 1 

Report of the Council ... 2 

Treasurer's Account ... ... ... ... ... 6 

Election of Officers ... 7 

Photographic Record of the County ... ... 7 

Somerset Record Society . . , ... ... ... 8 

The Statue to Blake at Bridgwater ' ... 10 

The Presidential Address 11 

Brushford Church 19 

Combe Manor ... ... ... ... ... ... 23 

Evening Meeting Papers and Discussions ... ... 25 



Torr Steps 25 

Exford Church 27 

Winsford Church 31 

Barlynch Priory ... ... ... ... ... 34 


Excursion PAGE 

Bampton Quarries ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Bampton Church ... ... ... ... ... 35 

Bampton Mote ... ... ... ... ... ... 37 

Luncheon ... ... ... ... ... ... 38 

Blundell's School, Tiverton 41 

Tiverton Alrashouses ... ... ... ... ... 44 

St. Peter's Church 44 

Tiverton Castle ... ... ... ... ... 47 

Additions to the Society's Museum and Library ... 48 


The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks of 
West Somerset, Devon, and Cornwall by W. A. E. 
Ussher. With two maps ... ... ... ... 1 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants, 1530-1866 by 

Prebendary Coleman, M.A. ... ... ... ... 65 

Pedigree of Adrian Bower 70 

Brook, of Somerset and Devon ; Barons of Cobham, in 

Kent by W. H. Hamilton Rogers, F.S.A. ... 109 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names by Rev. W. 

H. P. Greswell 125 

An Inventory of Church Plate in Somerset (part iv) 
by the Rev. E. H. Bates, M.A., and the Rev. F. 
Hancock, M.A., F.S.A., Prebendary of Wells ... 149 

Notes on the History of Winsford by W. Dicker ... 188 

The Church of St. Mary, Marston Magna, Somerset 

by C. E. Ponting, F.S.A. 196 

Obituary ... 202 

Officers, Members, and Rules ... ... ... ... 204 




Geological Map of the Dulverton District by 

W. A. E. Ussher Parti 25 

Geological Map of West Somerset, Devon, and 

East Cornwall by W. A. E. Ussher ... Part ii 1 

Allerton Chapel, 1859 99 

John Brook, and Johanna Amerike, his wife. 

Redcliffe Church, Bristol 111 

Ashton-Philips, or Lower Court, Long- Ash ton, 

Somerset 115 

Sir Thomas Wyatt Ob : 1542 119 

Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham Ob: 1749 121 





THE fifty-second annual meeting of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical and Natural History Society was held at 
Dulverton on Tuesday, July 24th. 

The proceedings commenced with the annual meeting, held 
at 12 o'clock, in the Town Hall. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER, F.S.A., Hon. Gen. Sec., read a 
letter, dated 6th July, from the Right Hon. Sir EDWARD FRY, 
the retiring President, stating that he was leaving for the 
North, and was afraid he would not be able to be present at 
the meeting. He, therefore, asked that his apologies might be 
presented to the members, and particularly to Sir C. T. D. 
ACLAND, whom he was sorry not to be able to induct into the 
Presidential chair. In conclusion, he wished the Society a 
very pleasant meeting. Mr. WEAVER then asked Sir THOMAS 
ACLAND to take the chair. 

Vol. XLV I (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part I. A 

2 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

annual Keport. 

Colonel BRAMBLE, F.S. A., Hon. Gen. Sec., read the annual 
report of the Council. 

" Your Committee beg to present their fifty-second annual 

" Since their last report nineteen new names have been 
added to your list of members. The loss by deaths and resig- 
nations, up to date, has been twenty-four, thus leaving a net 
loss of five. The total number is now 622. 

" The balance of your Society's General Account at the end 
of 1898 (your accounts being made up to the end of the year) 
was 118 11s. lOd. in favor of the Society. The balance at 
the close of the present account (31st December, 1899) was 
144 8s. lid. in favor of the Society. In neither case was 
the liability for the cost of the volume for the year then ex- 
pired, or on the other hand, any unpaid subscriptions, taken 
into account. 

"The total cost of Volume XLV (for 1899), including 
printing illustrations and delivery, has been 120 10s. 4d. 
The thanks of the Society are due to Mr. W. H. Hamilton 
Rogers, F.S.A., for supplying the illustrations to his paper; to 
Professor Allen for his excellent photographs ; to the Rev. E. 
H. Bates for his map and drawings of Church Plate ; to the 
Rev. Prebendary Hancock, F.S. A., for his contribution to- 
wards the expense of the Church Plate illustrations ; and to 
Mr. McMurtrie for the drawings of the Pre-Historic Remains 
found at Rad stock. 

" The work of repair to the Great Hall has been now com- 
pleted, and the Geological and some other portions of the 
Museum are now in progress of arrangement therein. This is 
necessarily, however, a work of labour, and will occupy some 
little time. The improvement in your property is very appar- 
ent, and the value of your collection for the purpose of study 
and reference greatly enhanced. 

Report of the Council. 3 

" The cost of the work has necessarily been large ; the hall 
measures 120 feet by 31, and this is a considerable area with 
which to deal. The beams supporting the front of the rooms 
over the portico, which has now been restored to its original 
state as an open one, proved to be badly " sprung," and in some 
cases rotten. They had to be entirely replaced, the building 
being shored up for the purpose. 

" The subscriptions to the Restoration Fund from various 
sources, including Col. Pinney's legacy of 300, amount alto- 
gether to 714 6s. 6d. Expenditure and liabilities aggre- 
gating to 850, have, however, been incurred, leaving a sum of 
140, or thereabouts, to be provided. Your Committee appeal 
to their members and others interested in the county for fur- 
ther contributions. 

" The Castle House has been let on satisfactory terms, but 
the necessary cost of repairs to such extensive and old premises 
will prevent any clear additional income being derived during 
the current year. 

" The Council have to report the gift from the Rev. W. 
H. Lance of seventeen quarto volumes of " Reports of the 
Egypt Exploration Fund," and of seventy-three quarterly 
parts of the " Report of the Palestine Exploration Fund " ; 
from the Representatives of the late Canon Buckle of a large 
view of Weston-super-Mare about 1831, and of two smaller 
ones ; also from Mr. F. S. Wood of MS. excerpts from Chew 
Magna Wills with Index. An arrangement has been entered 
into with the Dorset Field Club for an exchange of Proceedings. 

" The Photographic Record Committee have presented their 
report, which is annexed hereto. 

" It has been determined to subscribe for three years to the 
Geological Photographs Committee, who are issuing a series 
of photographs of Geological sections. 

" Frequent applications, which could not in many cases be 
conveniently granted, having been received by your Committee 
for leave to photograph various objects of interest in your col- 

4 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

lections, it has been considered advisable to have such work 
done officially on behalf of the Society, and to supply copies 
to members at a reasonable cost. 

"The price list of the various volumes of the Proceedings in 
stock has been revised by a Sub-Committee appointed for the 
purpose, and members have now a favorable opportunity of 
completing sets. The revised list was issued with the last 
volume. The sales since that time (thirteen months) have 
amounted to 21 2s. 8d., some three times the average. 
Arrangements are also being made for the supply of copies of 
many of the illustrations apart from the volumes in which they 
were originally issued. 

" The text of the third volume of Mr. Green's " Somerset 
Bibliography " is now in type, and directly the Introduction, 
which the compiler is now preparing, is ready, the work can 
be issued to the subscribers. 

"The number of visitors to your Museum during 1899 was 
4978, a decrease of 104 as against 1898, but on the other hand, 
the receipts from this source (Members being admitted free), 
was l 2s. 2d. in excess of those in 1898. 

" Since our meeting in July of last year, your Society has 
sustained several losses by death. 

" Two of your Vice-Presidents have died. Lord Hylton was 
President at your Frome Meeting in 1893. He was one of the 
now fast diminishing roll of Crimean Heroes, and as Mr. 
Jolliffe, took his part in the famous Charge of the Light 
Brigade at Balaclava. 

"Mr. C. I. Elton, Q.C., F.S.A., was President at your 
Chard Meeting in 1882. He was distinguished for his know- 
ledge of the law of Real Propertyj and his general culture. 

" General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S., F.S.A., Inspector of Ancient 
Monuments. His knowledge of prehistoric Archaeology and 
his unsparing use of his great wealth, enabled him, in the posi- 
tion he held, to do an amount of service to the cause of archie- 
ology which can fall to the lot of very few. 

Finances. 5 

" Canon Buckle was long connected with the county and dio- 
cese, as well as with your Society, and his genial presence at 
your meetings will be missed by your members generally. His 
work was of a character not bringing him prominently before 
the public, but none the less was of a very valuable character. 

"Mr. E. H. Clerk was one of the Original Members of 
your Society, and continued a member until his death a 
period of half-a-century. Only nine of the original founders 
of your Society now, it is believed, survive. Mr. Charles Hill 
was a member of some twenty years' standing, and only last 
year hospitably entertained the Society at his residence, 
Clevedon Hall. 

" Mr. E. D. Bourdillon, for many years an elected Member 
of your Committee, and Mr. F. Mitchell, until his death Local 
Secretary for Chard, had each of them done good service to 
your Society. Mr. Wm. George was well known for his ac- 
quaintance with the local history of many parts of the county, 
particularly of the Dunster District, with which he was con- 
nected in his youth. He was a frequent attendant at our 
meetings, and contributed several articles to our magazine." 

Mr. F. T. ELWORTHY, F.S.A., moved the adoption of the 

The Rev. E. H. BATES seconded. He said the great point 
about the report was the practical completion of the Castle 
Hall as a Museum. This was a point which was set before the 
Society from the beginning, twenty-five years ago, when they 
raised a sum of money to purchase the Castle. The opening 
up of the roof, and the arrangement of the specimen cases, 
made it a room as good for the purpose as any in the forty 
counties of England. 

The report was adopted. 


The Rev. F. W. WEAVER, in the absence of Mr. H. J. 
Badcock, the Treasurer, presented the financial statement as 
follows : 

6 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

^Treasurer's account. 

The Treasurer in Account with the Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural 
History Society, from January 1st to December 31st, 1899. 


1898, Dec. 31st. 
By Balance of former Account 

Members' Subscriptions for 1899 

,, Members' Entrance Fees (32) 

Members' Subscriptions in arrear 

Members' Subscriptions in ad- 
vance (27) 

Non-Members' Excursion Tickets 

Donation from Mr. Stanley for 

,, Donation from Rev. Preb. Buller 
for Illustrations 

,, Museum Admission Fees 

Sale of Publications 

Sale of Index Volume 

By Balance brought down ... 

July 20th, 1900. Examined and compared with the vouchers | HOWARD MAYNARD, 
and Bank Book, and found correct. } ALEX. HAMMK1T. 

8. (J. 

.. 118 11 10 
.. 290 16 6 
.. 16 16 
.. 14 3 
ts 6 5 


To Expenses of Annual Meeting 
Travelling, etc. 
Reporters' Notes of Meetings ... 
,, Repairs, Cases, etc. 
Stationery, Printing, etc. 
Coal and Gas 
,, Purchase of Books, Specimens, etc 
Printing and Binding Vol. 44 ... 
Illustrations, Vol. 44 
Postagp, Vol. 44 

s. d. 

9 17 6 
19 9 
11 5 8 
21 12 1 
24 12 5 
84 3 3 
27 6 9 

.. 1 16 6 
.. 27 2 2 
.. 12 16 9 

Photographic Survey 
Curator's Salary (1 year to Xmas 
Insurance ... 
Rates and Taxes 
,, Subscriptions to Societies 
Postage, Carringe, etc 

5 13 

'105 o o 

12 17 6 
5 18 
16 14 3 
8 13 
3 16 4 
144 8 11 

503 5 9 


E503 5 9 

144 8 11 



Haunton Ca0tlc Restoration JFunti. 

Balance Sheet of Income and Expenditure for the year 1899. 

1898, Dec. 31st. 
By Balance of former Account 
Rents of Premises 
Messrs. Hancock, Rent of 3 lights 
Telephone Company Wayleave . 
, , Su ndry Subscriptions towards th e 
Repairs Fund ... 

On deposit at Stuckey's Bank 

H. J. BADCOCK, Treasurer. 

July 20th, 1900. Examined and compared with the vouchers) HOWARD MAYNARD, 
and Bank Book, and found correct. J ALEX. HAMM ETT. 

Mr. F. A. WOOD proposed the adoption of the financial re- 
port, and said that the favourable balance in hand was very 

The Rev. S. J. M. RRICE seconded, and it was adopted. 

s. d. 
... 141 9 2 
... 49 8 2 
hts 016 
e . 010 


To Re-erecting two old Almshouses 
,, Repairs to the Castle 
Sundry Repairs to Property 
Rates and Taxes 

8. d. 

. 51 5 8 
. 360 
11 9 9 
. 962 
. 8 11 

... 33 8 
... 213 15 11 

Sundry Expenses 

3 10 
. 233 

438 3 9 

438 3 9 

'... 500 

Balance as above 

. 213 15 IT 
. 286 4 1 


Election of Officers. 7 

flection of 2Dffi(cer& 

The Rev. J. E. ODGERS proposed the re-election of the 
officers, with the addition of Sir Edward Fry to the list of 
Vice-Presidents, and of the Rev. H. A. Cartwright and Mr. 
Gr. F. Sydenham to that of the Hon. Local Secretaries. He 
remarked that he did not know of any Society of the sort that 
had ever been more happy than their own in the diligence and 
efficiency of its officers. 

Mr. F. WERE seconded the resolution, which was carried. 

It was stated that Mr. Periam, of Bampton, had presented 
one hundred-and-twenty copies of a pamphlet on the history of 
that town for the use of the members, and he was thanked for 
the same. 

pfcotograpJnc tRecorn of tfce Count?* 

Colonel BRAMBLE read the report of the Photographic 
Record of the County, which was signed by Mr. C. H. 

" Some progress has been made in the collection of photo- 
graphs of places of interest in the county, though it is still to 
be regretted that the work does not proceed more rapidly. 
The chief difficulty is still the fact that comparatively few of 
those interested in archaeology are also photographers, whilst 
very few of the more numerous body of photographers take 
any interest in archaeology or even in history. Recently, how- 
ever, some promises of valuable help have been obtained, and 
it is hoped that prints will come in more rapidly. It ought, 
perhaps, to be stated that in all counties where photographic 
surveys have been organized the same difficulties seem to be 
met with. 

" A list of the thirty-two prints already received is given 
below. The mounting and cataloguing of them will be com- 
pleted as soon as possible, and they will be placed in the 
Society's Museum in due course. 

July 21st, 1900. Hon. Sec. to the Committee. 

8 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 


From Dr. F. J. Allen. 

Burrington Coombe ; Bishop's Lydeard Church Tower ; 
Congresbury Vicarage Door ; Langford, Porch of an Old 
House ; Lydeard St. Lawrence Church Tower ; Ruishton 
Church Tower (2) ; Shepton Mallet Market Cross ; Staple 
Fitzpaine Church Tower ; Taunton St. Mary Church Tower ; 
Rock Shelter, Sharcombe. 
From Mr. C. H. Bothamley. 

Cleeve Abbey, the Church ; East side of Cloister ; South 
side of Cloister ; West side of Cloister ; North side of Cloister; 
Chapter House entrance ; Chapter House ; Dormitory ; Monk's 
Day Room; Refectory from South; Refectory interior (2); 
East Room under Refectory ; General View from East. 
Combe Florey Church ; Combe Florey Gatehouse, South 
front ; Combe Florey Gatehouse, North front. 
From Mr. C. D'Aeth. 

Cucklington Church Font ; Priestleigh, Old House ; Spar- 
grove House, Batcombe ; Spargrove Barn ; Stoke Trister 
Manor House. 

Somerset EecorD 

The Rev. E. H. BATES, Secretary of the Somerset Record 
Society, made a report on the work of the Society. Referring 
to the non-appearance of the two volumes promised the previ- 
ous year, he said that Prebendary Holmes was now nearly 
ready with his volume, " The Registers of Bishop Gifford and 
Bishop Bowett," and the second volume was to be a " Cartu- 
lary of Muchelney Abbey/' As there were Anglo-Saxon 
charters in it, it was thought advisable to have the services of 
an Anglo-Saxon expert. Owing to his having been busy, it 
had been delayed. In consequence of the second volume 
having been thus delayed, the " Cartulary of Athelney 
Abbey" would be produced in "The Millenary of King 
Alfred." Winchester wanted to get up some kind of monu- 

Somerset Record Society. 9 

mcnt to King Alfred, but if a tangible monument were re- 
quired, Somerset had as much right to one as Winchester, for 
the few relics which could honestly be said to have belonged to 
the King were found in Somerset, or were connected with it. 
For instance, King Alfred's jewel was found at North Newton, 
and it was now in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, although 
had their Society been in existence at the date of its discovery, 
it would no doubt have secured it. He thought the publica- 
tion of the " Athelney Cartulary " would form a good mem- 
orial of Alfred, as that great monarch was much more associ- 
ated with that abbey in his life than was Winchester in his 
death. The volume for 1900 will be the newly discovered 
" Survey of Somerset," by Thos. Gerard, written in the reign 
of Charles I. Next year the Record Society were going to 
bring out a volume of early wills. The Society was going to 
see how many of them they could get printed in order to make 
a volume. When he added that the Rev. F. W. Weaver was 
going to edit the volume, he thought he might say that it 
would be well worthy of the Society. 

Mr. F. T. ELWORTHY asked who was the Anglo-Saxon ex- 
pert mentioned, and Mr. BATES replied that it was Mr. 
Stevenson, of Exeter College, Oxford. 

Canon CHURCH in moving the adoption of the report, said 
that he had been desired by Bishop Hobhouse to bring before 
the Society the fact of the insecurity of parish books, and the 
Bishop suggested that by some resolution they might do some- 
thing towards providing a little more security. " The Church- 
wardens' Accounts of Banwell," dating from 1516 to the end 
of Elizabeth's reign, which were seen by Bishop Hobhouse in 
1890, had disappeared when the fresh incumbent was inducted 
in 1896, and many similar losses had happened, and might 
easily recur. The Bishop suggested the passing of the follow- 
ing resolution: "This Society hearing of the loss of the 
" Churchwardens' Accounts of Banwell," is anxious to impress 
on the minds of all incumbents and churchwardens in the dio- 

10 Fifty -Second Annual Meeting. 

cese the expediency of placing on the inventory of church 
goods a list of all books and documentary matter belonging to 
the church, and that all such property should be produced at 
the Easter vestry, and passed according to the 89th Canon of 
1603, from the outgoing to the incoming churchwardens, in the 
presence of the vestry or the delegates thereof." Canon 
Church proposed this as a resolution. 

The Rev. Prebendary GOLEM AN seconded. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER said directly he heard of this loss 
he did his best to secure the recovery of the books. He wrote 
to the late Archdeacon Salmon, who held an inquiry at Ban- 
well, but without successful results. Some of the accounts 
were printed in Rutter's " Somerset." He believed an entire 
copy of the documents was made thirty or forty years ago. 
He could not help hoping that the original documents would 
yet turn up. 

The Rev. C. H. HEALE suggested that the Rural Deans 
should make an inspection of church documents at their visita- 
tions, and the Rev. S. M. J. PRICE thought the Archdeacons 
should be asked to do the same. 

The PRESIDENT agreed that there was much need of 
greater care in the preservation of such documents. 

Mr. ELWORTHY feared that the mischief had already been 
done, and that all they could do was to take care of the future. 

The resolution was carried, and the suggestions mentioned 
were added as riders. 

Cbe Statue to IBlafee at iBriDgtoater. 

Dr. WINTERBOTHAM made a statement with regard to the 
Blake statue. At the Bridgwater Meeting, a paper was read 
by Professor Montagu Burrows, who drew attention to the 
fact that Blake had never been commemorated. The result 
of the paper was that a certain amount of enthusiasm was 
stirred up, which cooled down for some time. In the following 
spring, a small but energetic band met together, and resolved 

The Presidential Address. 1 1 

to make an attempt to raise a statue. They entrusted the 
commission to Mr. Frederick Pomeroy, and the statue was 
now in the Royal Academy. It was worthy of his hand, 
worthy of their acceptance, and worthy to commemorate the 
great man whose memory they wished to honour. The adorn- 
ment of the pedestal was nearly completed, with two bas-re- 
liefs giving scenes in his life, and these were really beautiful 
work. They had not sufficient money to finish the pedestal, 
and as secretary of the memorial fund, he would be glad to re- 
ceive contributions. Dr. Winterbotham referred to the com- 
mon error of assigning Blake's birth to 1599 instead of 1598, 
which was the correct date. He also described the search 
made for a correct portrait of the great Admiral, and pre- 
sented to the Society a large framed photograph taken from a 
painting in the possession of the Rev. Raymond Pelly, of 
Great Malvern, who was a direct descendant of Sally Blake, 
one of the two daughters of Blake. 

The PRESIDENT thanked Dr. Winterbotham for his state- 
ment, and for the vigour which he had imported to the pro- 
ceedings of those working with him, also for his gift of the 
portrait for the Museum at Taunton. 

Cfte presidential 3DDre0s, 

Sir THOMAS ACLAND then gave his Presidential address. 
He said : 

It is impossible for any one so completely ignorant as I am 
both of archaeology and of natural history, standing as I do 
before an audience whose very presence in this room is an evi- 
dence of a keen interest and, at least, of some knowledge of 
one or the other of these subjects, not to feel how much he 
owes to the kind feeling of those who have conferred upon him 
the honour which you have on this occasion conferred upon 
me in asking me to become President of your Society for the 
ensuing year. 

12 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

I believe the best return that I can attempt to make for 
your kindness is that I should endeavour briefly to indicate 
some of the interesting associations which cluster round the 
beautiful district in which we are met, and to suggest some 
considerations and ideas in connexion with the places which 
you propose to visit. 

But before beginning to do this, I should like to say one 
word of testimony to the value of societies such as this, and 
to your wisdom in combining within your ken two subjects 
which might seem to some persons so widely dissociated as 
Archaeology and Natural History. 

I am convinced that as the spread of education goes on, and 
we are increasingly able to foster and develop the powers of 
observation of the young people in our rural schools, the most 
successful way in which we can achieve the result, so beneficial 
to themselves as well as so desirable from other points of view, 
of attaching them to their rural homes and enabling them to 
lead lives there full of interest and stimulus, is that we should 
cultivate to the utmost in them, and, therefore, in order to be 
able to do so, first in our own selves, the power and the habit 
of taking an intelligent interest in the beauties and the won- 
ders of the world around us and close to us. You, the mem- 
bers of this Society, have for your object the study of facts 
and the recording of them concerning in archeology, some of 
the most permanent and interesting of the works of man, and 
concerning in natural history, what since the days of the 
Psalmist have been commonly called the Works of God, which 
are all alike, wonderful, and all alike, good. 

And I think the spirit of gratitude and respect to our fore- 
fathers, inculcated by the one study, and the spirit of reverence, 
wonder, and love -of truth inculcated by the other, are each of 
them well worth cultivating, both for ourselves, and in the in- 
terest of those among whom we have to live. 

To return to the object with which I set out, I wonder 
whether it has ever struck you that the two great moorland 

The Presidential Address. 13 

districts of the West, are to some extent in shape, the converse 
of each other. Dartmoor may be compared to your hand, 
palm downwards, the valleys and ridges diverging from the 
centre, and Exmoor to your hand palm upwards, all the water 
collected by Exe and Barle, and issuing where those two rivers 
join, two miles below us. 

People tell us, and no doubt truly, that the old name of Exe 
was Isca and far be it from me to dispute it. But that does 
not forbid my seeing some connection between the first syllable 
of Exton, Exford, Exebridge and Exwick, and the first part 
of the names Aix la Chapelle and Aix les Bains. But I am 
not a philologist, and the only thing I know to be a maxim 
among etymologists is that " vowels matter nothing and conso- 
nants very little " when you are considering the derivation and 
meaning of words. 

I can give you from my own experience a somewhat curious 
illustration of the well-known coldness of the valley of the 
Exe, which may be, I imagine, partly a consequence of the 
coldness of its winter. Some years ago, two of my cousins, 
Col. Troyte, whom many of you may remember, of Huntsham, 
and his brother, who served in the ranks, and became in about 
two years an officer of his regiment, who were both expert 
signallers, arranged to heliograph from the top of Dunkerry to 
Bampton Down, and though the day was bright and cloudless 
and the air still, we found it absolutely impossible, though each 
saw the flash of the other, to signal at that height across the 
cold current of air going down the valley of the Exe, so great 
was the vibration caused by refraction due to the difference of 
temperature. I think these valleys must have been in old 
days exceedingly damp, if we consider the position of all the 
churches along the valleys, perched either, as at Winsford on 
the top of a knoll, or as at Exford and Exton, Dulverton, a 
long way up the hill. The canons at Barlynch, of course, 
kept close to the water for the sake of the trout and the eels 
to supply them with food on fast days. Besides, the bottom 

14 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

must have been very soft, or the great road from Tiverton 
northwards would have gone along the straight valley instead 
of up and down over all those hills between Baronsdown and 
Minehead, going, as it does, east of Exton and Cutcombe. 

I mentioned just now Barlynch Priory. It may interest you 
to hear what Collinson says about it : 


" In the time of Henry II this manor became the possession 
of William de Say, a descendant of Picot de Say, living in 
the time of William the Conqueror, who upon the little river 
Barle, on a spot called from it Barlinch, two miles southward 
from the church, founded a small priory of Black Canons to 
the honour of St. Nicholas, which Maud de Say, his daughter, 
endowed with the rectory of Brompton Regis. This donation, 
with various others by different benefactors, was ratified and 
confirmed by Henry III in the fourth year of his reign, and 
Edward III in the thirteenth year of his reign : and the pos- 
sessions of the prior and convent in 1444 were valued at 
31 6s. 8d., and in 1534 at 98 14s. 9Jd. per annum. 

" John Norman, canon of this house, was elected Dec. 7th, 
1524, by Dr. Thomas Benet, commissary to Cardinal Wolsey, 
nine canons in the convent having by compromise devolved the 
election of a prior to him. In 1553 there remained in charge 
to pensioners of this monastery 3 in annuities. 

" 30 Hen. VIII, the site of this priory, with the manors of 
Brompton-Bury and Warley, was granted to Sir John Wallop, 
ancestor of the present Earl of Portsmouth, whose descendant 
sold it to the family of Ball, of Devonshire, of whom it was 
purchased by Mr. Lucas, of Taunton. And now the manors 
of Brompton -Regis and Brompton-Bury belong to Lady 

" On a brass plate in the wall of the chancel of Kingsbromp- 
ton church, among other memorials to several of the family of 
Dyke, is one of Joan Dyke, who died of the dropsy at the 
age of nineteen years, which you may find worth reading." 

The Presidential Address. 15 

I am told that the name means " enclosure " on the Barle, 
but it is on the banks of Exe (not of Barle). Of course we 
recognise the word Lynch as common enough in this part of 
England. But, indeed, the names of places, and their con- 
notation, afford one of the widest fields for guess work which 
is open to human ingenuity. For instance, Winsford. In 
imagination it is delightful to picture to oneself Burrough 
Wood, replaced by vineyards, and the feet of the Winsford 
peasants as red with the juice of the grape as the chins of 
the children are now with the whortleberry juice. But he 
would be a sanguine man, who knowing the climate of Wins- 
ford, started a wine business of any description in that neigh- 
bourhood. I believe that on the south coast of Wales grapes 
will ripen, but the climate of the higher valleys of the Exe is 
not that of South Wales. 

More reasonable, I think, by way of derivation, is it to be- 
lieve that Brushford means Bridgeford and that Room Hill, 
in Exford parish, may be some trace of Roman invasion as 
was Stratford in my home parish of Selworthy. 

If I may venture to offer a word of advice to any who may 
not know the district, it would be to urge them not to miss the 
splendid drive over Winsford Hill and down to Tarr Steps, 
and if it should be a clear day they will not think they have 
wasted time or strength if they take Wambarrows, the highest 
point of Winsford Hill, on their return. The view from it is 
hardly to be surpassed in the West of England. Probably on 
the way you may catch glimpses of some of the herd of Exmoor 
ponies. Mr. Hancock, in his book on " Selworthy," tells some 
stories about that herd, for the correctness of which I can 
vouch, as having heard them first hand. But there is one 
rather interesting bit of experience about them which you may 
like to hear. For the last thirty years we have been in the 
habit of taking about twenty of the best mares, with their 
foals, down to the better climate and grass at Killerton, where 
the young ones spend a year or so. And the result has been 

16 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

two-fold. First of all " emollit mores nee sinit esse feros," 
and secondly the chests are widened, and as a direct result 
the shoulder rendered more sloping and the humerus more up- 
right, and the action improved. But the quarters are entirely 
another matter, and I am afraid many of the tails come out as 
low down in 1900 as they did in 1870. Experience has taught 
us that the original strain of blood is as good as any cross we 
can devise, and that no cross will combine good qualities 
through two generations with any certainty. 

It is to be hoped, though hardly to be expected, that you 
may, also on your way, catch some glimpses of the most char- 
acteristic of our West Somerset institutions, the wild red deer. 
Professor Rolleston, of Oxford, assured me that the normal 
condition of the Exmoor deer, as indicated by bone and fibre, 
is far superior to that of the finest Scotch stags or hinds. It 
may interest you to hear that that grand old man, Mr. Bisset, 
to whom this district owes more, I believe, than it is the least 
aware of, told me that when he first took up the hounds he 
killed eight stags and twenty hinds, and, in his last year I 
think it was, nearer twenty stags and eighty hinds. But 
probably the master or secretary of the hunt has accurate 
statistics and may be able to correct what is only my recollec- 
tion of what Mr. Bisset told me. 

But speaking in this place, I cannot sit down without 
specially drawing your attention to the family of Sydenham, 
whose interesting seat, Combe, you are to visit this afternoon. 
According to Collinson, they spring from the lord of the 
manor of that name, originally called Sid eh am, from its posi- 
tion on the side of the river Parret, near Bridgwater, held by 
Robert de Sydenham, in the time of King John. Collinson 
traces their connexion with various well-known families, such 
as Hillary of Bathealton, John de Peekstone of Pixton, John 
Carru, Thomas Perceval, Sir Amias Paulet ; and places such 
as Combe Sydenham near Stogumber, Orchard Wyndham, 
Merton Collumpton. The Sanfords of Mynehead, the Wai- 

The Presidential Address. 17 

ronds of Bradfield, the Williams's of Herringston in Dorset, 
Floyers of Dorset, and many others can claim connexion with 

I have been asked by Mr. Chadwyck-Healey to bring before 
you the following suggestion in connexion with the identifica- 
tion of Place-names, viz. : " That whenever anyone comes 
across an obsolete form of place-name in a charter or plea roll, 
or other ancient document, and the context supplies a clue to 
the locality, the name should be noted, with the reference to 
the document, and a concise statement of the contents, and 
that the whole should be sent to the Secretary of the Society 
at Taunton, with a view to publication in the journal. Mr. 
Chadwyck-Healey remarks that we shall never succeed in 
mastering the full meaning of Domesday until we can identify 
the places, and that generally our study of Early English his- 
tory would be much facilitated if we knew more than we do of 

I think you will agree with me that this is a valuable sug- 
gestion, and I hope that some measure may be adopted that 
may bring it about. 

I will now conclude by asking you to excuse the desultori- 
ness and incompleteness of these few remarks. I believe you 
will have very interesting excursions, and I am sure you will 
have the chance of acquiring from those who will in the differ- 
ent places address you, on their own special topics, such accu- 
rate and interesting information as will make you feel that 
your time has been well spent, and give them the satisfaction 
of knowing that their time and trouble has not been thrown 

The beauty and variety of the woods, and the interlacing of 
the hills as you lose the valleys among them, the luxuriance of 
the foliage, and the refreshing murmur of the streams, the 
sparkling stickles, and the deep reflections in the pools, and 
above all the glorious combination of heather and gorse, the 
plentiful variety of wild flowers and birds and animals which 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part I. B 

18 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

will attract your attention, will, I am sure, combine to give 
you full compensation for perhaps a slight dearth of objects of 
antiquarian interest. 

And I hope that when you leave this district the older mem- 
bers will look back upon their visit here with delight, and the 
younger ones will look forward to the next. 

Prebendary BULLER proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Sir 
Thomas Acland for his acceptance of the office of President, 
and the interesting address he had given. 

Mr. Cr. F. S YD EN HAM, Local Secretary, seconded the 
proposition, which was heartily carried. 

The PRESIDENT, in returning thanks, said he very much 
regretted that owing to arrangements which he could not alter, 
he would not be able to stay to the evening meeting, but he 
trusted their gathering would be a very pleasant one. 

The President subsequently entertained the members to lun- 
cheon at the " Red Lion Hotel." 

At the conclusion of the repast, the PRESIDENT gave the 
loyal toasts, and expressed the hope that the end of her 
Majesty's reign might not come until the conclusion of the 
South African War. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER said it had been the custom to 
thank the President at the end of the meetings. But through 
an unforeseen circumstance, over which Sir Thomas had no 
control, he would be obliged to leave them that afternoon. It 
was very good of him to have driven twenty miles that morn- 
ing to give them that interesting address ; he then proposed 
the health of the President. 

The toast was heartily received, and the PRESIDENT briefly 
responded, and said he was very glad to have had the oppor- 
tunity of entertaining them, which he should like to have done 
in his own house had not distance prevented. 

Brushford Church. 19 

TBrusfjfotD Cbuicf). 

After luncheon the party drove to Brushford for the pur- 
pose of visiting the church, and a halt was made en route to 
inspect a quarry. Mr. W. A. E. USSHER, F.G-.S., described 
the structure of the quarry, and informed his hearers that the 
rock was Upper Devonian, called the Pilton beds. The party 
then proceeded to Brushford Church, where they were re- 
ceived by the Rector, the Rev. CHARLES ST. BARBE 
SYDENHAM, who read the following Paper : 

" When I last had the pleasure of welcoming your Society 
to Brushford Church, some seventeen years since, your Archi- 
tect, Mr. Ferry, gave the date of the church as Early Perpen- 
dicular, I see no reason to dissent from that opinion, unless, 
indeed, the Tower Arch, which has been opened since that 
visit, points to an earlier date. 

Be that as it may, it is more than probable, I think, that 
there was a 13th century church on the site of the present 
building. The font is clearly of that date, as also the parish 
chest ; and the oak tree in the churchyard cannot be less than 
600 years old. 

The Font. Of Purbeck marble, square, roughly pannelled. 
The bowl and base are of the original stone, the central stem 
and shafts are new. The original supports had been missing, 
perhaps for centuries, and their place supplied with rough 
masonry. The font was restored about eight years since, and 
it is believed correctly, for we had the depression under the 
bowl, in which the old supports were fixed, to guide us. 

Parish Chest. Of oak formed out of the trunk of a single 
tree, quite devoid of ornament, banded with iron straps, lid 
slightly rounded. It has three keys, one for the Rector, and 
one for each Churchwarden. 

N.B. I may remark here in passing, that the Synod of 
Exeter, 1287, required every parish to provide ' Cista ad 
libros et vestimenta.' 

20 Fifty -Second Annual Meeting. 

Oak Tree in Churchyard. Probably quite 600 years old. 
From facts which have come to the writer's knowledge, the 
tree has been in a decaying state for the last 100 years, and it 
is an accepted theory that an oak takes quite 300 years to 
reach its full growth. The tree in question measures sixteen 
feet in circumference at three feet from the ground. 

The present Church. The screen, as you will see, is the 
chief object of interest, and, subject to correction, 1 will assign 
it to the earlier half of the loth century. It has been much 
mutilated and defaced, but enough remains to show what a 
splendid work of art it must have once been. A portion of it 
appears to have been once used to ornament the pulpit. When 
and by what hands it was placed here I am unable to say, 
the Churchwardens' accounts not going back beyond the year 
1728 ; but my own impression is that it was an afterthought, 
and that it belonged originally to the neighbouring Priory of 
Barlynch, and was brought here when the Priory was dis- 
solved and its property sold. At any rate it is a matter of 
history that one of its bells is now in the tower of Dulverton 
church, and a window in the church of Withiel Florey. 

The ascent to the rood-loft was by a staircase in the north 
wall of the nave, the original archway being still in existence. 
Some of the steps remain embedded in the wall, but the stair- 
case itself has been destroyed, probably when the north wall 
was taken down and rebuilt in 1733. This archway was 
brought to light a few years since when two new windows were 
placed in the north wall, in lieu of a single square-headed 
window which existed previously. 

The walls of the chancel were taken down and rebuilt in 
1872, but the roof and windows were allowed to remain. It is 
thought that the oak roof under the present ceiling is in a 
fairly good state, in which case steps will be taken to restore 
it at no distant date. 

The Nave. The only part of the old roof surviving is the 
moulded beam extending from the chancel to the tower arch. 

Brushford Church. 21 

All the rest of the roof, under the plaster, is of modern date, 
and of very rough workmanship. 

Windows. Of the four windows in the nave, three are new ; 
all four are of Early Perpendicular pattern. 

The Seats. Between ten and eleven years ago it was found 
necessary to re-seat the entire nave. The carved pannelling 
of the bench ends was brought from Highclere, the gift of the 
late Earl of Carnarvon. As many of the old benches as it 
was possible to retain in use were placed in the ground floor of 
the tower. 

The Tower. The stone work of the west window, like that 
of the east, has not been interfered with. Both are of Early 
Perpendicular design. The tower was rebuilt, and the tower 
arch re-opened between ten and eleven years since. Up to 
that date the arch was filled in with lath and plaster, and an 
unsightly gallery projected into the nave, almost blocking up 
the south window. It appears from the Churchwardens' 
accounts that in 1742 the tower was raised several feet, the 
bells re-cast and re-hung, and raised with the tower, a fifth 
bell being added. In course of time the frame-work became 
loose, and local talent tried to remedy the evil by driving in 
wedges between the wood-work and the walls, the result being 
that wide cracks began to shew themselves in the fabric, and 
the whole structure was in danger of falling, so that it became 
necessary to take down and re-build a large portion of the 
west and south walls. This was effected as I said just now, 
between ten and eleven years since, under the supervision of 
Mr. Samson, Diocesan Architect, and the tower restored on 
the old lines, before the so-called improvements of 1742. 
There are some very quaint lines, copied from a tablet in the 
old tower, now inscribed on a brass plate inside the tower arch, 
entitled, " Rules, Orders and Regulations as established at the 
Belfry of Brushford, the 7th day of June, 1803, by the joint 
consent of the Ringers and Robert Gooding, Churchwarden." 

22 Fifty -Second Annual Meeting. 


" Let awful silence first proclaimed be, 

" Next, let us praise the Holy Trinity, 

"Then homage pay unto our valiant King, 

" And with a Blessing raise this pleasant ring. 

' ' Hark ! how the chirping Treble sings it clear 

" And covering Tom comes rolling in the rear ; 

" Now up and set ; let us consult and see 

" What Laws are best to keep sobriety. 

" Then all consent to make this joint decree, 

" Let him who swears or in an angry mood 

" Quarrels, or strikes, altho' he draws no blood, 

" Or wears his hat, or spurs, or turns a Bell, 

" Or by unskilful handling mars a peal, 

" Pay down his sixpence for each separate crime, 

" This caution shall not be effaced by time - 

" But if the Sexton these defaults shall be, 

" From him demand a double penalty. 

" Whoever does our Pastor disrespect 

" Or Warden's order wilfully neglect 

" By one and all be held in foul disgrace, 

" And ever banish' d this harmonious place. 

" Now round let's go with pleasure to the ear 

" And pierce with pleasing sounds the yielding air, 

" And when the Bells are up, then let us sing 

" God save the Church, and bless great George our King." 

Dedication. This church, according to Collinson, is dedi- 
cated to St. Nicholas, a statement which is borne out by docu- 
ments in the Registry at Wells. According to Barr, St. 
Nicholas was the Patron Saint of Scholars as well as of 
Sailors, and is represented, as in the east window of this 
church, with children at his feet. 

I will only add further that I have a list of Rectors of this 
Parish, extracted from the Wells Registry, commencing from 
the year 1320, together with the names of the Patrons of the 

But I am afraid I have detained you longer than I should 
have done, and I will now ask Mr. Buckle to correct me where 
he thinks I am wrong." 

Mr. EDMUND BUCKLE also said a few words. He ad- 

Combe Manor. 23 

mitted that it was a nice little country church, but putting 
aside the screen and font, there was nothing of a special char- 
acter about it. The part of the county that the Society was 
visiting this year was about the poorest, with in winter a 
bitterly cold climate. In such a country it was not reasonable 
to expect that there should have been any great wealth or 
capacity to spend largely on church decoration. But it should 
be remembered that they were also a Natural History Society, 
and they were going through most gorgeous scenery, swarming 
with birds and animals not common in other parts of the 

The nave (like that at Hawkridge) was apparently built 
without any north window, as a protection from the cold ; and 
the oak doorways to the rood loft were noticeable as charac- 
teristic of a country where timber was more plentiful than 
stone. The Purbeck marble font was Early English, and the 
oak pulpit Perpendicular. 


After leaving Brushford Church, the party next visited 
Combe House, on which we are glad to be able to give some 
notes by Rev. C. ST. BARBE SYDENHAM : 

" This interesting example of a 16th century Manor House, 
the seat of a branch of the old Somersetshire family of Syden- 
ham, is situated at the head of a picturesque * combe ' or 
valley, a mile south of the little market town of Dulverton. 

The house and estate of Combe first came into possession of 
the Sydenhams, by the marriage, in 1482, of Edward, son of 
John Sydenham, of Badialton, with Joan, daughter and heiress 
of Walter Combe, of Combe. His grandson, John Sydenham, 
of Combe (9th of Elizabeth), purchased of William Babington, 
Esq., the Manor of Dulverton, with divers lands, hereditaments, 
etc., in Dulverton and other places. 

The present house was probably built towards the close of 

24 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

Elizabeth's reign. My reason for assigning this date is, that 
in taking up the floor of the entrance porch some few years 
since, two medals, struck to commemorate the defeat of the 
Armada, were found underneath, together with other coins of 
Elizabeth's reign. That there was an older house standing 
nearly on the same site, there can be no doubt. A part of it 
is still in existence, and is used as servants' apartments. 

The more recent erection consists of a central building with 
wings, forming three sides of a square. The main entrance 
appears to have been through a passage in the east wing, 
where the cross beams, over what were once two very wide 
doorways, are still to be seen. 

The second doorway opened into the inner court or quad- 

In the construction of the house, oak timber, as may be sup- 
posed, has been largely used. The stonework in the older 
buildings is a species of shillett rock, quarried near the house, 
clay being largely used instead of mortar. 

In the later building a better sort of stone was used from a 
quarry, a little to the north of Dulverton, with plenty of lime 
and sand. The stone for quoins and dressings appears to have 
been brought from a quarry near Hawkridge. 

It seems worth while to make some mention of the old lead 
and silver workings which existed here in the early part of the 
last century, and which were carried on, with more or less suc- 
cess, down to the year 1757, when they ceased. 

Specimens of the ore were tested a few years ago at the 
laboratory in Jermyn Street, and were found to contain 65 % of 
lead with 4 % of silver. 

The writer has, in his possession, a massive silver candle- 
stick made from this ore." 

After viewing the house and grounds, the party subsequently 
returned to Dulverton. 

Scale /Ipproximatefy ibinch * I mife 

Morte Slates 


Culm Shales & Grjfts 




Torr Steps. 25 

Opening Meeting. 

The evening meeting was held in the Town Hall, and was 
presided over by the Rev. Preb. BULLER, in the unavoidable 
absence of the President. 

Mr. USSHER delivered an interesting lecture on the "General 
Geological Structure of the District" (see Part II). 

econn Dap's proceeUings. 

On Wednesday the excursions were continued, a large party 
of members and visitors, numbering nearly one hundred alto- 
gether, leaving the " Red Lion Hotel " at 9.30 a.m., in car- 
riages and brakes. 


After a delightful drive of six miles, through most pictur- 
esque scenery, the first stop was made at the famous Torr 
Steps. This remarkable bridge is over the river Barle, which 
here separates the parishes of Dulverton and Hawkridge. 
According to Mr. J. LI. W. Page's interesting book on 
" Exmoor," the measurements of the stones are as follows : 
The average length of slab is, perhaps, about seven feet ; the 
width, three feet six inches ; the longest being eight feet 
six inches by five feet wide. In the centre they are laid 
singly ; towards the end the stones being narrower are placed 
side by side. The piers facing the current are protected by 
sloping stones about four feet in length. There is not an atom 
of cement in the structure. The name Torr, sometimes spelt 
Tarr, according to the suggestion of Mr. Langrishe, is derived 
from the Celtic tochar, a '" causeway," modified first to toher 
and then to Torr. 

When the members were assembled at the steps, Mr. W. A. 
E. USSHER delivered a short address, in the course of which 
he said that after an examination of the rocks, he had not the 

26 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

slightest hesitation in saying that they did not come from a 
distance, as near there they had the same kind of rock. That 
rock quarried easily, and there they had the natural rock with- 
out dressings. It was not possible to give the date of the 
stones. Of course there was the curious legend which had 
given it the name of the Devil's Bridge. He should like some 
archaeologist to give an opinion as to whether it was a British 
or Roman work. 

Mr. WEAVER said that authorities seemed to agree that it 
was pre-Ronian. 

Mr. USSHER : Then we will call it Druidic. 

The heat was great, and the way steep, so the members 
much appreciated the kindness of Mrs. Darby, of Liscombe 
Farm, who took many of them in and gave them refreshment ; 
from thence they proceeded to Winsford Hill, where the in- 
scribed stone was inspected. 

The Rev. D. P. ALFORD, late Vicar of Tavistock, said 
there were three similar stones in the vicarage garden there, 
one of which was found in Tavistock, and the other two were 
brought from the neighbouring village of Buckland Mona- 

Mr. WEAVER said that the inscription on the stone at 
Winsford Hill bore in Roman characters the letters CARA- 
TACI [N]EPU8 "the nephew of Caratacus." The in- 
scription was reproduced in Vol. XXIX of the Society's 

For the following quotation we are indebted to Mr. Dicker, 
of Winsford, showing that the stone was a landmark in 1279. 

"Annals of Exmoor Forest," by E. J. Rawle, p. 39. 
"Perambulation" [1279]. " De Hernesbureghe per magnam 
viam usque Wamburegh usque Langestone." 

" From Hernes Barrow [an ancient mark probably on Room 
Hill] by the great way, as far as Wambarrow [a well-known 
mark on the highest point of Winsford Hill], as far as Long- 
stone [an inscribed Roman stone standing beside the old high- 

Exford Church. 27 

way, about 120 yards from the guide post, where the road 
from Tarr to Winsford intersects the high road on Winsford 
Hill at Spire Cross.]" 

A visit was afterwards paid to the Devil's Punch Bowl, a 
short distance away, and while looking at this vast depression, 
the visitors had a good view of a fine specimen of the red deer, 
which was distinctly seen at the bottom of the " Bowl." 

OErforn Cfwrcft. 

After luncheon at the " White Horse Inn," the members 
walked to Exford Church, where the Rector, the Rev. E. G. 
PEIRSON, read the following paper : 

" It is difficult for one who has hardly a smattering of arch- 
aeological knowledge to add anything of interest about this 
parish to the interesting notes contributed by my predecessor 
on the occasion of the last visit of the Archaeological Society. 
But, at all events, the Society has paid its visit to this church 
in the best of all weeks in the year, for this week is the octave 
of its Dedication Festival the church being dedicated in the 
name of St. Mary Magdalene. Here at once is a somewhat 
curious fact. The church has not always been dedicated in 
her name. Its original dedication was ' St. Peter.' The 
change in the dedication took place at the time of the Refor- 
mation. One may well ask why St. Mary Magdalene was 
allowed to oust St. Peter. My belief is that the close connec- 
tion between the name of St. Peter and the See of Rome 
rendered his name in the sixteenth century somewhat unpopu- 
lar; while on the other hand the story of St. Mary Magdalene 
(who by-the-by was erroneously confused with the " woman 
in the city who was a sinner,") was thought to be a prominent 
illustration of the doctrine of free forgiveness, which then had 
special prominence. Hence, I fancy, the change in the dedi- 
cation. At all events, at the time of the Reformation, a 
special collect, epistle, and gospel were added to our Prayer 

28 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

Book for St. Mary Magdalene's Day, though for some reason, 
at which I can only guess, it has since been removed. I want 
you to look at the capital of the most westerly pillar, and to 
tell me whether, as I sometimes fancy, it contains a record of 
this double dedication. I seem to see a P and two M's, which 
might possibly be due to a desire to permanently record this 
change. But I confess that what I read as these letters may 
also be nothing but stalks of the conventional foliage to be 
seen on all the capitals. 

The addition of the south aisle to the church was made, as 
you will have seen, at the same time as the change in the dedi- 
cation took place ; and the circumstances which made the 
addition necessary, the means by which the funds were raised, 
and the name of the Priest, George Ellysworthy, who was in- 
strumental in securing this addition, may all be gathered from 
those Somersetshire Wills which have given all of us so much 
pleasure and instruction. 1 Nine years ago, when pulling down, 
by the order of that terrible official, the Diocesan Surveyor, 
the old cottage that then stood at the church-gate, and which 
used to serve as the Parish Poor-house, I came upon many 
traces of this addition to the church. When the old south 
wall was taken down, the waste material was apparently used 
to build this cottage. The walls were of immense thickness, 
and buried in them were, what I believe to have been a piscina, 
and the top stone of a priest's doorway, as well as several other 
wrought stones, and some blocks of huge size. These stones 
are now in a rockery in my garden. 

Now I want to ask of you, as experts, several questions for 
my own information. (1). Do you think that the upping- 
stock at the church-gate, or at least one stone of it ever formed 
part of a stone altar ? Or am I drawing too largely on my 
imagination ? (2). Can any one tell me authoritatively what 
the lost head of the preaching cross, by the south porch, origi- 
nally was ? I mean was it a plain or floriated cross ? Or was 

1. Wtlls Wills, p. 84. 

Exford Church. 29 

it a rood ? I have long wished to be able to replace the head, 
but want to do it in a way that will not excite the ire of the 
Archaeological Society. I wonder if you think it would be 
possible to reproduce the original with sufficient exactness, and 
also if you think it will be possible (and not altogether barbar- 
ous) to get the head cut from the old upping-stock ? 

(3). Another question on which I should like to elicit 
opinion is this. There is about half-a-mile from the church a 
cottage (once a small farmhouse) which bears the name of 
Prescott. From this cottage, a lane which is probably as 
ancient as any lane in the parish and we have lanes which 
were demonstrably in use 800 years ago, and one of which, at 
least, bears a name that puts its date back indefinitely further 
well, this particular lane from Prescott used to lead straight 
to the church. Though modern changes have partly diverted 
this track, yet its old course can easily be traced ; and curi- 
ously enough, just where it used to strike the churchyard, a 
few projecting stones still form a rough stile over the wall. 
Now, what I want to know is, if you think that the name of 
this cottage (which still contains a round-headed stone door- 
way, and a little square window let into the side of the big 
fire-place), shows that it was the original priest's cot or parson- 
age house of this parish. I like to think that my predecessors, 
before they came into permanent residence here, used to stop 
at that house when they had come over the moor, and " clean 
themselves " before going into church. In that case the cot- 
tage, or at least its name, must date a long way back, for there 
seem to have been clergy resident here from early in the 
twelfth century. 

Certainly these old lanes are of wonderful interest in this 
neighbourhood. They were used as convenient boundaries in 
the various perambulations of the forest of Exmoor, and the 
marks, mentioned in the course of these perambulations, which 
can almost all be identified to-day, all stand along the line of 
some still traceable and generally passable road or track. In 

30 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

one case, however, a lane, used as a boundary of the forest at 
the time of the second perambulation in the twelfth century, 
which was led by the Dean of Salisbury, must have been in a 
very different condition to what it is in now, unless the Dean 
was a better horseman than the present Rector of Exford. 

You will, of course, all remember how very eager the people 
and parsons of byegone days were to have their houses excluded 
from the forest. My house seems to have been lucky enough 
to stand just outside the boundaries, except during the unlucky 
reign of King John. He swept into the forest all houses 
lying west of a line from Dulverton to Minehead. But except 
during those few years my house stood either a couple of hun- 
dred yards, or, later on, one and-a-half miles outside the 
forest boundaries. 

There is, I expect, a mass of interest for archaeologists in a 
neighbourhood like this, where changes take place so slowly. 
Even my untrained eyes find plenty to interest them, and the 
spinning wheel and the pack saddle always demand a second 
glance. But if I am not mistaken, there is still more interest 
for the ear in the old stories that are told and the dialect that 
is still in use amongst us here." 

Mr. BUCKLE expressed the opinion that the top of the 
churchyard cross was of tabernacle work, and it probably repre- 
sented Christ on the Cross, with St. Mary and St. John stand- 
ing on either side. 

The RECTOR remarked that if, in the course of another 
thirty years, the Society visited Exford, the members must not 
be shocked if they found the cross restored to the form sug- 
gested by Mr. Buckle. 

Colonel BRAMBLE expressed the opinion that the cross be- 
longed to the 15th century period. It was the successor of the 
original cross, which was the meeting place for the people of 
the parish, and was there before the church was built. 

A curious old stone, known as an " Upping Stone," placed 
at the entrance to the churchyard, was afterwards inspected. 

Winsford Church. 31 

The RECTOR explained that it was placed there for the con- 
venience of women who attended the church, and enabled them 
to get on horseback after the service was over. 

3j(HinsforD Cfturcft. 

The next halt was made at Winsford, one of the most pic- 
turesque of Somersetshire villages, situated on the Exe, amidst 
woodland scenery of the most charming description. 

The Vicar, the Rev. Prebendary W. PALEY ANDERSON, 
received the Society, and gave a description of the church. 
In welcoming them he said he feared there were not many an- 
tiquities of great interest to show them, except the beauties of 
the everlasting hills around them, and the valleys of the ever- 
flowing rivers. With regard to the church itself, he could not 
help contrasting its present state with that of forty-three years 
ago, when he first came to the parish. Then the west end was 
blocked up with a gallery, in which all kinds of music were 
discoursed without much harmony. The chancel screen was 
made up chiefly of the Royal Arms and the Ten Command- 
ments good things in their places, and the Royal Arms were 
interesting, being Jacobean, but not suitable for a chancel 
screen. The church was fitted with square and high pews, in 
which the farmers used to sleep comfortably. The church, as 
they saw it now, had a peculiar interest, because its restoration 
was carried out by the late lamented architect, Mr. Sedding, or, 
he should say, according to his plans. That was his last work, 
and Mr. Sedding died in his house before the work was 
finished, in the spring of 1891. The whole of the roofs of the 
nave and the side aisle were renewed after the original design. 
Some of the principals were retained in the new roof. The 
church was re-seated with oak seats, and a new floor laid. He 
thought that the restoration would not come under the condem- 
nation which he lately saw quoted in The Spectator -j of a 
" Neo-Gothic forgery, the tinsel of nineteenth century ecclesi- 

32 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

ology." He particularly drew attention to the tracery of the 
glazing in the windows, all from the designs of Mr. Sedding, 
and of exceptional beauty. It was not for him to point out to 
more experienced archaeologists traces which were to be found 
of Norman, Early English, possibly even Decorated, or Perpen- 
dicular styles in this church. The hinges of the south door 
were noticeable as not belonging originally to the door, being 
too large. Indeed the door was not hung on them. Probably 
they were brought there from some larger door at Barlynch 
Priory. The niche in the porch seemed to show the wheel of 
St. Katharine, to whom a side altar was dedicated in the 
church. The porch was restored some years ago by Mr. Griles, 
and the font re-set by Mr. E. G. Paley. The chancel was 
done by the Rector, Sir Thomas Acland, at the same time as 
the church, the architect being Mr. Ashworth, of Exeter. In 
conclusion, the Rector said he could show them at the Vicarage 
a silver tankard of 1697, and some old books, very early 
editions of classical and other works. 

Mr. BUCKLE supplemented these remarks with some inter- 
esting particulars in regard to the architectural features of the 
church. He said it was of the Perpendicular period, with the 
remarkable feature that nave and aisles were covered by a 
single roof ; so far as he knew, there were only two other 
churches in the county designed on the same lines ; they were 
at Norton-sub-Hambdon and Cannington. This church in all 
its characteristics was emphatically a moorland church. There 
was a good deal of roughness about the whole of the work of 
the arcade, but it had been restored in a very pleasant way in 
keeping with the characteristics of the church. He called 
special attention to the windows, which it appeared had been 
introduced at different periods ; the earlier two-light windows 
were very much like those at Porlock Church. In fact the 
whole church reminded one very much of Porlock, although the 
latter had not got the same sort of roof. There were also two 
square-headed windows over the chancel arch, put there, he be- 

Winsford Church. 33 

lieved, to light the roof, on account of there being no clerestory. 
The position of the rood-loft was plainly marked. The west 
tower was a fine example of the style of the western district of 
the county. It was very similar to the towers of Minehead 
and St. Decuman's. It stood out with a grand massiveness. 
Its buttresses were perfectly plain and square, set a little way 
from the angles of the tower, a plan largely adopted in that 
district and in Devonshire. Another feature of great interest 
was the font, a circular Norman one, very roughly carved into 
a series of arches. Somewhat similar fonts were to be found 
at Hawkridge and at Withypool. There was a little mediaeval 
glass in the church. In the chancel was to be seen the begin- 
ning of a beam which might have formed the support of the 
Lenten Veil. 

Mr. WILLIAM DICKER also read an interesting paper, 
which will be found in Part II. 

Many of the visitors paid a visit to the Vicarage, where 
Mr. Anderson showed them some rare and valuable books, of 

which the following is a list : 


1. A Latin Translation of Xenophon ... ... 1467 

2. Aristophanes, Aldus, folio ... .. . 1498 

3. Plautus, folio ... ... ... ... 1500 

4. Sophocles, Aldus, Editio Princeps ... ... 1502 

5. " Institutio Christianas Religionis." Auctore Alcuino 

(Joba Calvino) ... ... ... ... 1539 

6. Aschylus, Victorii ... 1557 

7. Lucian . ... .. 1555 

8. Euripides, Stephanus ... . 1602 

9. ''Vox Piscis" (mentioned in Walton's "Angler," in 

connection with the "Salmon Ring," of which 

Mr. Anderson is the possessor) ... .. 1626 

10. Quarles' Emblems. Illustrated ... ... 1634 

11. Pliny's Letters. Elsevier ... ... 1653 

12. Terence, Minellii ... ... 1680 

13. Lucian ... ... 1687 

14. Newton's Principia. First Edition. (Rare and valuable) 1687 

15. Milton's "Paradise Lost," with "Sculptures" 1707 

16. Belisaire ... 1767 

17. Scott's " Lay of the Last Minstrel." A fine Quarto 

Edition 1805 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part /. c 

34 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

The visitors afterwards had tea in the Schoolroom, supplied 
by Mr. and Mrs. Dicker, at a moderate charge. 

The two last places included in the day's programme were 
Weir Rock and Barlynch Priory. 

TBarlpncl) ipriorp. 

Colonel BRAMBLE gave a brief description of what now re- 
mains of the building. He said the lofty wall running back in 
the rear of the cottage towards the river appeared to be the 
south wall of the church, and the thick fence-wall north of it, 
occupied probably the position of the original north wall of the 
church. Several of the apertures of windows of the south 
wall remained ; at a considerable height, so as not to interfere 
with the pent-house alley of the Cloister, the remains of 
which could be distinctly traced in the lower part of the wall, 
one of the corbels supporting the roof timbers being still in 
situ. Two large blocks of masonry, running from north to 
south, parallel with the roof and in line with the cottage, prob- 
ably represented the east side of the cloister, in which would 
have been situated the Chapter House and Day-room, with the 
dormitory over. The other two sides of the main cloister had 
disappeared. That on the south side would have contained the 
refectory, and the one on the west the workshops and lay- 
brothers' quarters. If that reading was correct, the extensive 
block of buildings between the farm house and river could not 
have formed any part of the main cloistral buildings, but they 
must have been part of the lesser or inferior cloister, or 
other adjuncts of the main building. In the gable of the 
building attached to the farm house there w r as about the only 
architectural feature remaining ; a small piece of the tracery 
from one of the windows inserted in the modern wall. It is 
pierced with two small quatrefoils. 

The party then made an inspection of what now remains of 
the old Priory. 

Dulverton was afterwards reached about seven o'clock. 

Bampton Church. 35 

On Thursday another large party left the " Red Lion Hotel," 
in brakes, at 9.30 a.m., for Bampton and Tivertori. 

iBampton dimmer 

After a delightful drive along the river Exe, the first 
halt was made at Bampton Quarries, now owned by Mr. 
Dunning, J.P., C.C., and worked by a company. The party 
were met by Mr. J. Yates, the manager, who kindly showed 
the visitors over the quarries, which cover an extensive area. 

Mr. USSHER again acted as guide, and described the geo- 
logical formation of the stone. He pointed out that a distinc- 
tive feature of the Bampton stone was the large amount of 
" chert " or flint it contained. This made it a superior road 
stone. He also mentioned that St. Peter's Church at Tiverton 
was built from the stones of a worked-out quarry at Bampton. 
These black limestone beds of the Culm Measures in the car- 
boniferous formation, judging from the age of Bampton 
Church Tower, had been worked for at least 600 years. The 
principal structures in the district are built from it, including 
the county and other bridges. 

TBampton Cftutcft. 

The party next proceeded to the Parish Church, which is 
dedicated to St. Michael. 

Mr. J. T. PERIAM gave some very interesting details with 
regard to the edifice, which he said had been recently restored 
under the direction of Mr. C. H. Samson. In his opinion the 
church originally consisted of chancel and nave. He was 
under the impression that the tower was added at a later 
period, owing to the class of stone used in it. The walls came 
from the ordinary rock of the country, but the tower was built 
from the limestone of the neighbourhood. Probably in the 

36 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting* 

loth century, when the Bourchiers were Lords of Bampton, the 
north wall was added, but whether there were chapels at the 
eastern and northern ends he could not say. A blocked win- 
dow in the north aisle seemed to indicate that some building 
existed there. The screen was now in its original position, but 
it was unfortunately mutilated at the end of the loth century. 
Bampton Church was restored a year or two ago. The roof 
was dilapidated, and the job looked almost hopeless, but most 
of the old timber had been put back. The quaint stained 
window was probably inserted by John Bourchier, second Earl 
of Bath, 1540. In a vault where the organ now stood, was found 
a tomb containing several ridged coffins, but the workmen, un- 
fortunately, did not take the dates. The tomb was understood 
to be that of the first Earl of Bampton. There was also a 
monument to the Tristram family, who used to live at Duvale. 
There were also tombs of the Lucases, who formerly lived at 
the Castle, and owned much property in the neighbourhood. 
The Bourchier knot could be seen on the screen, and also on 
the roof bosses. 

Mr. C. H. SAMSON, of Taunton, gave some interesting in- 
formation as to the state of the church before the restoration 
took place. He said the south wall leaned two feet in one 
place, and eleven inches in an opposite direction in another. 
By means of oak corbels, however, the wall, which was solid, 
was still allowed to lean, whilst the roof was kept straight. 
The roof was in a very bad state, propped up in all directions, 
but much of the old oak was used again. It had many excel- 
lent bosses also of oak. He did not know what they meant, 
but most of them were of foliage. The arcade fell over quite 
two feet, and crushed the timbers in the aisle. They man- 
aged, however, to lever it up straight when the roof was on. 
The well carved screen was found under the chancel arch, and 
was brought out exactly as found. Very little was done to the 

The visitors found plenty to admire in the church, and they 

Bampton Mote. 37 

were especially struck with a fine altar piece, the work and gift 
of Mr. Cos way, the well-known miniature painter, who was 
resident at, and said to be, a native of Oakford, just on the 
other side of the river. On arriving outside the church, Mr. 
BUCKLE pointed to a piece of stone over one of the south 
windows, on which he said was a trade mark. There were num- 
bers of them at Tiverton Church, which, he said, was built by 
woollen merchants. 

TBampton sote. 

A climb up rather a steep hill brought the party to the 
Mote, the main characteristics of which were described by 
Mr. J. T. PERI AM, who said that having from a remote period 
been the seat of the governing authority, it would be conveni- 
ent to mention various matters relating to the past history of 
Bampton. A description of the origin of the place would, it 
could not be doubted, take them very far back in the times of 
Dammonii. It was from the Saxon word mot, or gemot, a 
meeting, that this mound, which was an artificial one, got its 
name of " the Mote," as the seat of the Hundred Mote or Court 
of Judicature. By the laws of King Edgar, the Burghmote 
or Court of the Borough was held thrice a year. Bampton 
was the burg or fortified place, and head mano'r of the hun- 
dred the parish was still divided into Borough., East, West, 
and Petton quarters, and the ancient office of portreeve was 
still in existence there. Risdon says : " This place was never 
gelded, for it was the King's demesne," meaning that there was 
no overlord to intervene between the burgesses and the sover- 
eign. According to another writer, Bampton had originally 
been an ancient crown lordship, one of the four unhid ated 
royal lordships in Devon ; Depeford was then held by two 
thanes, but the Conqueror had granted it to the Queen as part 
of her dower. Then some time before Domesday and the 
Geldroll, the King gave Bampton to Walter de Douay. From 
Walter's son, Robert de Baunton, the lordship passed through 

38 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

the Paynells to the Cogans. Thence it passed to the Bour- 
chiers, Earls of Bath, who, as far as was known, were the last 
owners of the barony who resided at the Castle. In 1336 
Richard Cogan had a license from the Crown to castellate his 
mansion house at Bampton, and to enclose his wood at 
Uffculme, and three hundred acres of land for a park. Mr. 
Periam thought the site of the Castle was on a lower level 
than the Mote, and pointed out the earth fortifications in what 
is now an orchard. 

Mr. Periam was heartily thanked for his remarks. 


After the inspection of the " Mote," the members were 
entertained at luncheon, by invitation of Mr. J. R. Holland 
and Mr. C. D. Harrod. The repast was served in the National 
Schoolroom. Mr. Holland presided, supported by Mr. Harrod 
and other gentlemen. The CHAIRMAN gave the toast of 
" The Queen," and afterwards read letters of apology for ina- 
bility to be present from Mr. Dunning, Mr. Troyte, Mr. 
Daniel, and the Rev. Preb. Scott, also the Vicar of the parish, 
Mr. Holmes, who had taken a great interest in the restoration 
of the church. Speaking on behalf of Mr. Harrod, as well as 
himself, the Chairman gave the visitors a hearty welcome, and 
trusted that their visit would be a satisfactory one. He ex- 
pressed the pleasure it had given him and Mr. Harrod to enter- 
tain the members that day. 

The Rev. Donald Owen, was asked to say a few words, and 
he also welcomed the Society to the neighbourhood. 

Mr. OWEN said : " In rising to obey the somewhat un- 
expected summons of my hosts, Mr. Holland and Mr. 
Harrod, I avail myself of the opportunity to thank them, 
not only for their hospitality in the form of an excellent lun- 
cheon, doing credit alike to their cuisine and their service, but 
even more for the pleasure and the privilege of finding myself 

Luncheon. 39 

numbered among their guests, whose varied learning, so 
modestly indicated by their speakers, is fairly challenged by 
the easy courtesy and social bonhomie of my kindly neighbours 
at this table, reminding me of days long gone by, and parts of 
England far remote from my native Devon, when I shared 
similar enjoyments with my fellow members of the Royal 
Archaeological Institute. 

" In placing my services as a guide to Tiverton most freely 
at your command, for the remainder of the afternoon, I desire 
to point out to you the great opening thus afforded for testing 
and developing the powers and the talents which have made 
your Somerset Society so justly famous. 

" You, if any, 1 had almost said alone, may succeed in dis- 
covering precious objects of interest natural, artistic, historic, 
archaic the existence of which is hitherto utterly unknown 
to the dwellers in our town. 

" And is certainly not even suspected by your amateur guide. 
Should you find them, the credit will be all your own. Should 
they escape your search, lay all the blame upon your ignorant 
and incompetent guide. 

" And in your search for souvenirs, in the form of unearthed 
treasures of Tiverton, may you be happier than I was on my 
return from Upper Egypt, when I was assured that my small 
but precious collection of Catacomb relics had all preceded me 
by the last outward bound steamer. 

"In the presence of such a learned assemblage, I am painfully 
aware of the risk I run by quoting from an ancient historical 
record, and pointing its self-repetition in the annals of this our 
pleasant modern pilgrimage. 

" Am I geographically correct, or is my orientation faulty, in 
placing your county of Somerset on the sun-rising side of my 
own county of Devon. 

" Then, may the tale come true yet once again, you wise men 
of the East, and yet more wise ladies, may re-cross the border 
to your homes to-night enriched with additions to your store of 

40 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

wisdom, gained under my guidance, in the course of your trip 
to Tiverton." 

The Rev. Preb. BULLER proposed a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Holland and Mr. Harrod for the generous way in which 
they had entertained those present that day. This was heartily 
accorded, and the gentlemen named responded. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER moved a combined vote of thanks 
to all those who had helped to make that meeting such a 
successful one. He first of all mentioned their President, Sir 
Thomas Acland, who gave them a very excellent address on 
the first day. Their thanks were also due to Mrs. Chapman 
for permission to visit Combe House, the Rev. C. St. Barbe 
Sydenham, Rector of Brushford, Rev. E. G. Peirson, Rector 
of Exford, and Rev. Preb. Anderson, Vicar of Winsford, for 
the hearty welcome given them. He considered that the drive 
they took to Exford and Winsford on the Wednesday would 
rank with any that the Society had ever had. Mr. Anderson 
very kindly received them, in spite of the fact that he was only 
recovering from a long illness. Mr. Dicker, the schoolmaster 
at Winsford, about six months ago discovered some Church- 
wardens' accounts belonging to the parish, and from those dry 
bones he had extracted a very interesting paper. Their 
thanks were also due to Mr. Periam, of Bampton, for the 
assistance he had rendered, and for the copies of his interest- 
ing pamphlet. Then they came to their hosts of that day, 
who had already been thanked, but he (Mr. Weaver) would 
like to have the privilege of thanking them again for their 
kind hospitality. The meeting could not have been so success- 
ful as it had proved to be without the kind help of their old 
friend, Mr. Buckle, and also their old friend, Mr. Ussher, who 
had rejoined them. They also wished to thank their Local 
Secretary, Mr. G. F. Sydenham, of Dulverton, for the kind 
services he had given, and who, although a busy man, had 
rendered them a good deal of help. Last, but not least, they 

BlundelTs School, Tivcrton. 41 

must not forget their old friend, Colonel Bramble, who had 
very kindly given them the benefit of his presence. 

The vote was heartily accorded. 

Mr. BUCKLE said there was one person who had not been 
mentioned in the vote of thanks, and that was Mr. Weaver 
himself, to whom their best thanks were due for arranging the 
details of that meeting. They were also indebted to Mr. 
Weaver for a very beneficial change in that year's programme, 
whereby they had varied the objects of interest visited, and 
had not, as in previous years, included so many churches in the 
day's excursions. He knew that Colonel Bramble, who had 
been of the greatest assistance to Mr. Weaver in arranging 
that meeting, agreed with the change he had mentioned. 

The motion was cordially agreed to, and Mr. WEAVER, in 
responding, said he would not deny that it was a difficult task 
to arrange an annual meeting of that character, but it was a 
matter for gratification that his efforts had been appreciated. 

TBlunnell's @ct)ool, Citoertom 

After luncheon the members drove to Tiverton, where a 
visit was paid to Blundell's School. While assembled on the 
lawn in front of the School, the Rev. DONALD M. OWEN 
gave an address. He said that he was at school there at the 
age of ten, and stayed there till 1840. He distinctly recol- 
lected Frederick Temple, the present Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, who was both a boarder and a day boy, and whose family 
lived at that time at Uffculme. He remembered Temple win- 
ning the Blundell Scholarship, and which sent him to Balliol 
College, Oxford. Perhaps the most famous schoolboy, con- 
temporary with him (Mr. Owen) was Blackmore, the author of 
" Lorna Doone," and with whom he corresponded to the end 
of the famous novelist's life. Great changes had taken place 
t in Blundell's School. It was founded, as they knew, by Peter 
Blundell, a clothier of Tiverton, who began as a boy in a small 

42 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

way, being the owner of one horse, with which he carried some 
serges to London. Wishing to bestow some of his wealth on 
his native town, Bhmdell founded this school, at the sugges- 
tion of Chief Justice Popham, his adviser, the school dating 
from 1601, although Peter Blundell's will was of a somewhat 
earlier date. Not content with building the noble Grammar 
School, as it was then and is now, Blundell's nephew and clerk 
Chillcott founded a second school, which still nourished at 
Tiverton. Blundell's School had varied fortunes, its ups and 
downs like other schools, up to the time when the boarders be- 
came the main body of the school. Originally meant for all, 
the school-green gradually became absorbed by the boarders, 
and was closed to day boys, which led to angry feeling in 
the town, ending in a law-suit, by which the boarders were de- 
clared to be no part of the original foundation, and the school 
was restored to what Peter Bhmdell founded it for, namely, a 
school for Tiverton and neighbourhood. But the result of 
that law-suit was a dead loss to the funds of the school of 
7,000. There was also a heavy fall in numbers until a fresh 
application to the court was made, and the boarders were 
brought back again. It was then, however, a very reduced 
school, and in latter years the playground was found to be too 
small for modern games. Consequently the governing body of 
the day, mainly assisted by Archbishop Temple's wise counsel, 
determined to sell the ground on which they were standing, 
and bought about fifteen acres of ground about a mile out of 
the town, and built a new school there. They transferred to 
it, they hoped, all the old traditions, and at present the school 
was flourishing, gaining some of the greatest honours of the 
present day, and contributing to all the branches of the learned 
and other professions boys who were doing honour to the name 
of the school. Their numbers had been as high as two hun- 
dred-and-eighty, but fluctuating like all schools, were now two 
hundred-and-twenty. They kept up the old custom of speech 
day. The members of the Association would probably like to 

BlnndelTs School, Tivcrton. 43 

know what changes had taken place inside Old Blundell's. 
The whole property had been bought by a wealthy brewer 
(Mr. Ford), who was also a philanthropic man, for he had 
erected, close to the old school, almshouses for his aged work- 
men. He had transformed the old school into five private 
dwelling-houses, without changing very much the exterior 
architecture of the building. The upper and lower school had 
a roof of timber brought, as tradition asserts, from the wreck 
of the Spanish Armada. Those curious about such matters 
would see how the dates coincided. At all events, when the 
roof was re-modelled, one of the workmen showed him some 
of the timber through which the holes had been bored, appar- 
ently for bolts used in ship building. Referring to famous 
headmasters, Mr. Owen named the Rev. Henry Saunders, 
tutor of Dr. Temple ; Dr. Bolton ; and the Rev. Thomas 
Wood, his (Mr. Owen's) grandfather, to whose father mem- 
bers doubtless noticed a memorial in Bampton Church. Mr. 
Wood, famed in his day alike as a polished scholar, a profound 
theologian, and a mighty hunter, was also a personal friend of 
his Bishop, and was once riding in his Lordship's coach (then 
accounted a great honour), on a visit to Old Blundell's, when 
the Bishop noticing a Latin inscription over the doorway, 
asked Mr. Wood to translate it for him, as his eyesight was 
not good. The old Vicar of Bampton promptly did so, as 
follows : 

" Within these walls two mighty monarchs rule, 
One in the house the other in the school ; 

But see, my lord, a sad disaster 

He rules the boys but she the master." 

His married friends would, he hoped, all agree with him that 
that was a piece of ancient history never to be reproduced. 

In the entrance porch to the school was noticed the name of 
R. D. Blackmore, carved on a bench. 

Mr. Owen was heartily thanked for his address. 

44 Fifty-Second Annual Meetiny. 


A visit was next paid to Greenway's Almshouses. Mr. 
BUCKLE briefly commented on the almshouses in Gold Street, 
which were comparatively modern, except part of the chapel. 
A curious feature was that one entrance, by stairs, served for 
all the houses. 

t. ipeter's Cfwrcb. 

St. Peter's Church at Tiverton was the next object of inter- 
est inspected, the Rev. E. S. Chalk, Curate, welcoming the visi- 
tors in the absence of the Rector, the Rev. Preb. Scott. 

Mr. BUCKLE gave a detailed description of the architectural 
features of the building, beginning with the south side of the 
exterior and the south porch. He said that the church was of 
a totally different character to anything the Society had seen 
before during that meeting. He had already mentioned the 
poverty of most of the churches they had visited during the 
previous two days, and had pointed out that it was hardly 
reasonable to expect that they would have elaborately carved 
work in the churches about Exmoor. But although Exmoor 
was in itself a poor district, he took it that all the hills around 
must have been covered with sheep ; and Tiverton was the 
great market for the sale of the wool. They knew all through 
Somerset that wherever they found much of the woollen trade, 
they invariably found an exceedingly rich church a notable 
tower, or screen, or something or other which denoted the 
wealth of the town, or it might be only a village, where the 
merchants made their money. Here in Devon they found the 
same thing. Tiverton appeared to have been an exceedingly 
thriving town, dependent mainly upon the woollen trade ; and 
the merchants of Tiverton spent their money very freely for 
public objects. The school they had just been to was an ex- 
ample of that, founded by a merchant who started from 

St. Peters Church. 45 

Tiverton ; the almshouses (Greenway's) were another; and 
there were at least two other almshouses and one other school 
founded by Tiverton merchants. The Greenway's Aims- 
houses they had passed were founded by the same man who 
built the whole of that magnificent south side of St. Peter's 
Church, on which they were now looking with admiration. 
The chapel, which stood out from the nave, and towered over 
the porch, was also due to that same John Greenway, who 
made his money at Tiverton about the year 1500. Mr. Buckle 
proceeded to say that he had not been able to find out anything 
concerning the life of Greenway, and he believed that next to 
nothing was known about him. Mr. Buckle then described 
the beautiful work he had caused to be erected between the 
years 1515 and 1518, especially pointing out the magnificent 
carving over the south porch and round the entire parapet, for 
the most part emblems of Greenway's mercantile career. 
They would find that every buttress was decorated with a 
charmingly sculptured ship in full sail. The church was also 
remarkable for the number of trade marks carved about it, and 
there was such a similarity about these marks that the mer- 
chants of the day must have had difficulty sometimes in 
identifying their own. The carving on Greenway's chapel 
also included a row of ships, represented as sailing on a sea of 
waves ; and under the cornice was a remarkable series of 
small figures, representing the leading incidents in the life of 
Christ. There were numerous coats of arms and monograms, 
among them A chevron between 3 covered cups, on a chief 
3 sheep's heads erased for GREENWAY. Barry nebulee ; a chief 
quarterly ', on the 1st and 4th a lion passant guardant, on the 2nd 
and 3rd two roses for the MERCHANT VENTURERS of London. 
Three clouds radiated in base, each surmounted with a triple 
crown for the DRAPERS' COMPANY. 

In the centre of the porch was a large achievement in honour 
of Katherine of York, Countess of Devon, the great lady of 
the place, who at the time resided in Tiverton Castle. The 

46 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

coat consisted of COURTENAY and RIVERS quarterly, impaling 
quarterly, 1st FRANCE and ENGLAND quarterly, 2nd and 3rd 
BURGH, 4th MORTIMER. It was surmounted by the Court- 
enay badge, and supported by St. George and a Woman. 

On the upper part of the porch was some elaborate sculp- 
ture, now almost perished. 

Proceeding inside the church, Mr. BUCKLE said there was 
no hint of Green way on the north side. The work on that 
side was done by a merchant whose name began with an S, and 
that was all that was known about him. His trade mark 
initial appeared on some of the capitals. Like Greenway, this 
merchant thought it wise to introduce the Courtenay emblems 
into his work, and there again was the eagle with a bundle of 
sticks. The north aisle, from end to end, was practically 
modern work. It was much narrower within the last fifty 
years, when the outside wall, with its Norman doorway, was 
taken down and re-built. 

On the north side of the chancel stood the Courtenay 
chapel, containing probably many magnificent monuments, but 
chapel and monuments were alike destroyed during the Civil 
War. The chancel arch retained however on its capitals the 
Courtenay arms, surrounded by the garter and the Courtenay 
badges of eagle and pig. 

In the Greenway chapel, the wagon roof in stone-work, 
covered with fan tracery, was to be noted together with the 
brass on the floor and the Renaissance door. The porch roof 
was also covered with Greenway badges, and the wall over the 
church door with richer sculpture of Greenway's providing. 

Mr. BUCKLE concluded by drawing attention to two valu- 
able paintings in the church, one of St. Peter in prison, by 
Cos way, the celebrated miniature painter of the last century, 
and a native of Oakford, who, it was believed, presented the 
painting to the church ; and the other, representing the Visit 
of the Magi, by Gaspard de Grayer, a contemporary of Reu- 

Tiverton Castle. 47 

bens, whose style he imitated. The modern vestry contained a 

large library of old books and documents. 

[At Somerset House are preserved the Wills of John Grene- 
way of Tiverton, "died at London," proved in 1530 ; and 
of Joane Greneway of Tiverton, proved in 1539. ED.] 

Ctoerton Castle. 

The last place for inspection was Tiverton Castle, which the 
members next visited. The Rev. DONALD OWEN explained 
that the building dated from the year 1107. It came early 
into the possession of the Courtenay family. Afterwards the 
family broke up into different sections, and the property ulti- 
mately got into other hands, until it came into the possession 
of the ancestors of the present Lord Chancellor. They 
built what was now called Giffard's Court. The property next 
passed into the hands of a Mr. West, who intermarried with 
the Carews, the Castle ultimately coming into their possession, 
and the late Baronet lived there. It now belonged to the 
Misses Carew, of Haccombe, who held it in entail for the 
present Baronet. At present the building was occupied by the 
great Irish family of Moore, two members of whom were at 
the front in South Africa. The family wished that every 
facility should be given the Society for viewing the grounds, 
and Mr. Owen was asked to thank Miss Moore for her kind- 

This brought the excursions to a close, and the members 
afterwards had tea at the " Angel Hotel," and subsequently 
journeyed homewards. The general opinion was that this 
annual meeting was one of the most enjoyable that the Society 
has ever had. 

3Dt!itions to tfje ^octetp's eguseum ant) liftratp 

Duriiuj the Year 1900. 


Large India-ink Drawing of Weston-super-Mare, 1831 ; 
Knightstone, Weston-super-Mare, in 1820 ; Drawing of 
Weston Old Church, 1825. From the late Rev. Canon 

Stone carving of the Virgin and Child from a farmhouse 
near Wellington. From Mr. W. de C. PRIDEAUX. 

Four Old Bottles. From Mr. LAWRENCE. 

Tokens :" Crocomb in Somerset. F.H." A Spread 
Eagle. " Robert How, of Taunton, 165-." From Mr. C. G. 

Correspondence between Mr. Cobbet and Mr. D. Badcock. 
From Mr. H. J. BADCOCK. 

Some Burmese Idols. From Mr. FRANKLIN. 

Badger Tongs ; and two animal's hearts stuck with thorns. 
From Mr. JOHNS. 

Book of the Churchwarden's Accounts of the Parish of 
Yatton, 1685 ; and some Deeds relating to property at Kings- 
wood, Wilts. From Mrs. SEYMOUR. 

Photograph from the Pelley portrait of Blake. From Dr. 


Six specimen of Colias edusa caught this year about Curry 
Rivel. From Mr. H. STONE. 

Old Glass Bottle, " J. Collings, Dec., 1794." From Mr. 

Small Collection of Minerals. From Mr. R. M. BARRETT. 

Stuffed specimen of the Musk Deer from Sumatra ; head 
of Roebuck ; print of Tessellated Pavement at Leicester. 
From Miss TUCKER. 

Additions to the Library. 49 


Excerpts from Wills Chew Magna, Chew Stoke, Bishop's 
S'ltton, Norton Hautville, and Dundry ; 5 vols., manuscript, 
in 1 Index. From Mr. F. A. WOOD. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. v, pt. 6. 
The First Bishop of Bath and H ells. From the author, 
Mr. J. A. C. VINCENT. 

Egypt Exploration Fund. The Temple of Deir el Bahiri, 
parts 1, 2, 3, 4. Mound of the Jew, and the City of Onias ; 
Antiquities of Tel el Yahudujeh. Bubastis. The Festival 
Hall of Osorken II in the Great Temple of Bubastis. Ahnas 
el Medineh : The Tomb of Paheri. Deshaskch. Two Hiero- 
glyphic Papiri from Tanis. Dendereh. The Royal Tombs of 
the First Dynasty. From Rev. W. H. LANCE. 

ArchcBological Survey of Egypt. Beni Hassan, parts 1, 2, 
3, 4. El Bersheh, parts 1, 2. The Mastaba of Ptahhetep 
and Akhethetep at Saqqareh. From Rev. W. H. LANCE. 

Palestine Exploration Fund. Quarterly Statement, January 
1880 to October 1899 (January 1881, January 1884, October 
1890, January and April 1893, October 1897, January 1898, 
missing). From Rev. W. H. LANCE. 

Report of the British Association, 1895-99. From Dr. 

Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward I, 13011307. Calendar 
of Documents preserved in France, vol. i, A.D. 918 1206. 
From the Public Record Office. 

Our South African Empire, 2 vols., 1885 ; England and her 
Colonies, Imperial Federation, 1887 ; History of the Dominion 
of Canada, 1890; Geography of the Dominion of Canada and 
Newfoundland, 1891 ; Geography of Africa South of the 
Zambesi, 1892 ; Outlines of British Colonization, 1893 ; The 
British Colonies and their Industries, 1896 ; The Growth and 
Administration of the British Colonies, 1837 1897 ; The 
United States and their Industries* 1899 ; Tennison and Our 
Imperial Heritage ; Appendices to Greswelfs British Coloniza- 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Parti. D 

50 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

tion, 1893 ; A Ley end of the Zitzikama, 1881 ; MS. book con- 
taining list of Original Articles, Magazines, and contributions 
to the Press, Advertisements, Press Notices, &c. From the 
author, Rev. W. H. P. GRESWELL. 

Bristol Tokens of the, Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. 
From the author, Mr. .1. E. PRITCHARD. 

Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. v, parts 5, 
7, and 8. 

Northamptonshire Natural History Society, Nos. 97, 98, 99. 

Museum Notes. From the author, Mr. E. W. SWANTON. 

Goodman s Taunton Directory, 1900. 

The Pleaders Guide, by J. Anstey, 1810. 

The Obelisk and Cenotaph on Clifton Down. From the 
author, Dr. BEDDOE. 

The Treat Family in England and America. From the 
author, Mr. J. H. TREAT. 

Stavordale Priory, Wincanton. Tenth Report of the Win- 
canton Field Club.- From the author, Mr. Geo. SWEETMAN. 

History of Crewkerne School. From the author, Rev. R. 

On the Pelley Portrait of Blake. From the author, Rev. J. 

Athelncy and other Poems, by Eliza Down ; Pleasant Trips 
out of Bristol. From Mr. SLOPER. 

The " Old North-west " Genealogical Quarterly, vol. iii, No. 3. 

Excursion to Neivton Abbot, Chudleiyh, Dartmoor, and Tor- 
quay (Geologist's Association). From Mr. USSHER. 

An Old Indian Village. From the author, JOH AN AUGUST 

A Calendar of a Few Uncommon Volumes Relating to the 
County of Somerset in the Library of the collector, Ernest E. 
Baker. From Mr. E. E. BAKER. 

Sixty-first Annual Report of the Deputy Keeper of the 
Public Records. 

Additions to the Library. 51 

Index of Charters and Rolls in t/ie British Museum. From 
the Trustees. 

Repertorium Botanices Systematic CB, 11 vols. From Miss 

The Bradford Antiquary, parts i to x. 

Received from Societies in Correspondence for the Exchange of 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 
Journal, nos. 224, 225, 226. 

British Museum (Natural History) Catalogue of Fossil 

British Archrcological Association Journal, vol. v, pt. 4 ; 
vol. vi, pts. 1, 2, 3. 

British Association Report, 1899. 

Society of Antiquaries of London Proceedings, vol. xvii, no. 2. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Proceeding s, vol. xxxiii. 

Royal Irish Academy Proceedings, vol. v, nos. 4, 5. 

Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Journal, vol. ix, 
pt. 4; vol. x, pts. 1, 2, 3. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History Pro- 
ceedings, vol. x, pt. 2. 

Associated Societies- Reports and Papers, vol. xiv, pt. 2. 

Surrey Archaeological Society Collections, vol. xv. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society vol. 50. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Maga- 
zine, vol. xxxi, no. 93. 

London and Middlesex Archreological Society Fac-similcs of 
three old prints Transactions, vol. i, pt. 3. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural His- 
tory Society; Report, vol. xiii, pt. 2. 

Powys Land Club Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxxi, 
pt. 2. 

52 Fifty-Second Annual Meeting. 

Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 

Journal, vols. xxi, xxii. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Tran- 
sactions, vol. xii, pts. 1, 2. 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society Transactions, vol. x, 

no. 5. 
Essex Archaeological Society Transactions, vol. vii, pt. 4 ; 

vol. viii, pt. 1. Feet of Fines for Essex. 
Yorkshire Archaeological Society Journal, pts. 59, 60, 61. 
Geologists' Association Proceedings, vol. xvi, pts. 6, 7, 8, 9. 

List of Members. 

Royal Dublin Society Proceedings, vol. ix, pts. 1, 2; Tran- 
sactions, vol. vii, pts. 2 7 ; Economic Proceedings, vol. i, 

pts. 1,2; Index. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society Proceedings, vol. ix, pt. 1. 
Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society Proceedings, 

vol. liii. 
Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society Proceedings, 

vol. xliii, pts. 3, 4, 5 ; vol. xliv, pts. 1 5. 
Essex Field Club Essex Naturalist, vol. x, nos. 4 12. 
Hampshire Field Club, vol. iv, pt. 2. 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne Arch&ologia 

^Eliana, pt. 54. 

Clifton Antiquarian Club Proceedings, vol. iv, pt. 3. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society The Manuscripts in the 

Library at Lambeth Palace. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. xx. 
Chester Archaeological and Historical Society Catalogue of 

Roman Inscribed and Sculptured Stones in the Grosvenor 


Thoresby Society, Leeds vol. x, pt. 2. 
The Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist vol. vi, nos. 1, 

2, 3, 4. 
Canadian Institute Proceedings, no. 7, vol. ii, pt. 1 ; vol. vi, 

pts. 1, 2. 

Addition* to the Library. 53 

Nova Scotian Institute vol. x, pt. 1. 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S. Report, 1897 ; 

Year Book of the Department of Agriculture. 
Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts, U.S. Bulletin, vols. 

33, 34, 35, 36. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society, Boston, U.S. 

Register, nos. 213, 214, 215, 216. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, U.S. Proceed- 
ings, 1899, pts. 2, 3; 1900, pt. 1, Forty-Eighth Animal 

Report of the Institute. 
University of California, U.S. Register, 1898-99; and 

several pamphlets on Agriculture and Geology. 
Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Nattirelles, Lausanne. Bulletin, 

nos. 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137. 
Societe Archeologique de Bordeaux, tome xii, fas. 1, 2. 


Harleian Society Visitation of Surrey, Musgrave's Obituary, 

vols. i, ii, iii ; Visitation of Kent. 
Early English Text Society Nos. 22, 24 reprinted; nos. 

114, 115, 116. 

Ray Society British Annelids, pt. 2. 

Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, nos. 48, 49, 50, 51. 
English Dialect Dictionary, pts. 9, 10. 
Somersetshire Towers, 6 parts. 
Oxford Historical Society Oxford Topography ; Wood's Life 

and Times. 

Exeter Episcopal Registers Grandison, vol. iii. 
British Land and Freshwater Shells. 

Annals of Bristol in the 17th, 18th, and 19th Centuries, 3 vols. 
A collection of Several Pieces of Mr. John Locke. 
Memoir of Robert Hibbert, Esq. 
The Royal Natural History, 6 vols. 
The Pipe Roll Society, vol. xxiv. 

54 Fifty- Second Annual Meeting. 

Horns of Honour. 

Rutley's Elements of Miner aloyy. 

Quekett's Lectures on Histology. 


The Strife of the Roses, and Days of the Tudor s in the West. 

Catalogue of Cambrian and Silurian Fossils in the Museum of 

Practical Geology. 
Catalogue of Cretaceous Fossils in the Museum of Practical 

Catalogue of Tertiary and Post- Tertiary Fossils in the Museum 

of Practical Geology. 






Cfte Devonian, Carboniferous, anD jQeto EeD IRocfes 
of SxHest Somerset, Detion, anD Corntoall 


(By permission of the Director-General of H.M. Geological Survey). 

THE map accompanying this Paper is on too small a scale to indicate the 
positions of the smaller New Red pebble bed patches precisely, and to differ- 
entiate between Middle and Lower Culm in the St. Mellion outlier. Volcanic 
rocks have been also omitted for the same reason. 


THERE are two different methods which may be applied 
in the endeavour to unravel the geological structure of 
complicated areas. 

The first, by a series of observations made during traverses 
across a district, furnishes the observer with a more or less 
numerous collection of facts, or apparent facts, which impress 
on his mind certain conclusions leading on reflection to more 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series,. Vol. VI), Part II. a 

2 Papers, frc. 

or less rapid and brilliant generalization. This is pioneering 
work in stratigraphy, the personal coefficient counts in it of 
course, but the nature of the district counts still more. 

Stratigraphical geology was built up in this way by William 
Smith, and the larger formations were established and sketched 
out by the great men who succeeded him. 

The second method is a far slower process, involving great 
labour : the storing away of multitudes of facts, seeing every- 
thing, and following the evidence as it accumulates, weaving 
it into as many different hypotheses as it seems susceptible of, 
and allowing the progress of the work itself to point to the 
most reliable conclusion. 

Stratigraphy, like every other branch of geology, has ex- 
panded enormously. The subdivision of formations, the 
discovery of structures undeciphered by the earlier workers, 
and the great advancement in palaeontological research, whilst 
it gives less scope for investigation in the first manner, 
demands more and more of the exhaustive labour that 
characterizes the second. The geologist who traverses now 
over ground pioneered before is a free lance provided he does 
not hand down his ideas on a sketch map. The construction 
of a geological map, and more especially a government map, is 
a somewhat fearsome undertaking now-a-days, when there are 
so many eager amateurs on the look-out for sections which, if 
opened since the map was made may falsify it in places, or 
able to select the best time of year to visit districts which 
were mapped when crops and hedge-growths concealed the 
surface evidence. 

Geological literature has accumulated so enormously that 
the results of special Stratigraphical researches to attract the 
reader ought to be stated in the clearest possible manner, and 
summed up so that the maximum amount of information may 
be gleaned in the smallest possible compass. De la Beche's 
classic report on the geology of these counties is the exact 
opposite to this style of writing, and therefore perhaps seldom 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 3 

read thoroughly or consulted as a work of reference, for which 
it is in many respects ill-adapted. Yet I make bold to say, 
that the great value of this report is in the absence of con- 
ciseness, precision, and clear statement of opinion from its 
pages. From beginning to end it is a reflection of the 
evidence presented to the author during the investigations 
made by himself and co-workers in the geology of the south- 
western counties. His report contains much more detail than 
his maps, because the evidence at his disposal was too meagre 
and too conflicting to lend itself to precise statement, and to 
be focussed in geological boundary lines, and the time taken 
was too short to produce more than a sketch map of the 
geology of these counties, which, considering the extreme 
difficulty of the area and the fact that the lines were often 
inferred from isolated observations, is a masterly production. 
Now that the detailed geological maps are being brought out, 
embracing my work in the New Red rocks, begun in 1871 
and completed in 1880, and part of the Culm area, and the 
South Devon Devonian mapped since the year 1887, I think 
it may be useful to clear the existing literature on these three 
formations, for which I am personally responsible, of errors 
which the progress of the work has demonstrated, and to point 
out the principal papers, so saving the reader the trouble of 
referring to pamphlets in which the same subjects are treated 
in a more crude or less detailed manner. 

The perversity of human nature often induces the chance 
reader to fix on some minor and local figure of description 
which were better suppressed than accentuated, and to ignore 
the many qualifications by which statements made from time 
to time are safeguarded. 

The late Corney Grain, describing the recitation craze at 
" At Homes," pictured the dismay of the hostess when the 
reciter pointed unwittingly at the one grease spot or oil stain 
in her otherwise immaculate carpet, which she had hoped 
would escape detection ; and so it may be that the one record 

4 Papers, fyc. 

of early misconceptions which ought, like others of a like 
nature, to have been consigned as fragmentary MSS. to the 
oblivion of the dust heap, is selected for perusal. 

As bearing on the allusion to the different methods of 
stratigraphical investigation, I may point out the skeleton in 
my cupboard as a warning. It is entitled, "The Devonian 
rocks between Plymouth and Looe," and appeared in Trans. 
Roy. Geol. Soc., Corn. This paper is the result of the study 
of the coast section, between the places mentioned, at a time 
when the resurvey of the Devonian rocks of South Devon 
was not contemplated, and when my knowledge of the 
Devonian was confined to North Devon and West Somerset. 
The deductions based on the observations are hopelessly 
wrong. I have spent ten years in mapping the Devonian 
rocks, and it has taken me this length of time to approximate 
to understanding the reading of this coast section : why this is 
so would take far too much space and time to relate, but on 
this section more than any other the reading of the stratigraphy 
of the Lower Devonian rocks of South Devon depends. 

A summary of geological results was first incorporated by 
the Director- General of the Geological Survey, in his annual 
report for the year ending December 31st, 1892. This was 
continued down to the year ending December 31st, 1898, 
when it was superseded by a less condensed Summary of 
Progress, in which the results furnished by the respective 
officers were more nearly given in their own words. Taken 
in conjunction with the papers referred to, reference will be 
made to these reports, of which a list, together with the most 
important papers, will be given under the heading of the 
several formations to which they refer (the text of the reports 
in part at least being printed in the paper), together with the 
titles of minor papers partly redundant because embodied in 
those specially selected as works of reference, partly of local 
interest. I will conclude this preface by a quotation from the 
introduction to the Summary of Progress for the year 1897, 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 5 

in which the Director-General thus refers to De la Beche's 
maps (on p. 5). 

" The mapping which De la Beche began in the south- 
west of England was so rapidly executed by him, and the 
few assistants associated with him, that in a few years he had 
completed the geological investigation of the whole of Devon, 
Cornwall, and West Somerset. By the year 1839 the maps 
of this region, embracing no fewer than fourteen of the 
Ordnance Sheets, on the scale of one inch to a mile, were 
published, geologically coloured. These maps were not executed 
with the detail and precision now attainable on the larger 
scale employed by the Survey. They were, however, much 
more minute than anything that had preceded them." 



A LINE drawn from Minehead southward to Paignton, roughly 
speaking, separates the Palaeozoic rocks on the west from the 
Secondary rocks on the east. The Palaeozoic rocks run ir- 
regularly, encroaching eastward of this line between Williton 
and the Tiverton Valley, and forming masses or inliers sur- 
rounded by the Secondary rocks, the largest of which consti- 
tutes the Quantocks. Smaller inliers occur to the east of the 
Quantocks ; at and near Westleigh ; south of Collumpton, 
notably in Spraydown, and the Torquay promontory. 

To the west of this line the Secondary rocks extend in the 
Tiverton Valley, and to a very much greater extent in the 
Crediton Valley ; besides these encroaching tongues there are 
outliers, or isolated masses on the Palaeozoic rocks, near Stood- 
leigh and Hatherleigh. 

The Palaeozoic rocks consist of the Devonian strata of the 
North Devon and West Somerset type, and of the South 

6 Papers, fyc. 

Devon and East Cornwall type, and the great central area of 
carboniferous rocks of Culm Measure type which rest on 
them. The Culm and Devonian boundary runs along a line 
from Barnstaple by Brushford to Kittisford on the north, and 
in the south it forms an exceedingly sinuous and irregular 
line from near Boscastle to Tavistock and Cox Tor on the 
west of Dartmoor, and from Chudleigh to Ashburton and 
Holne on the east of Dartmoor. 

Great masses of grit or sandstone rocks occur at intervals 
throughout the Northern Devonian area, marking conditions 
indicative of shallow water deposition. There are no volcanic 
rocks, and except at Holwell and Asholt limestones are scarce 
and impersistent. 

The Southern Devonian area, on the contrary, contains very 
much less arenaceous materials, and these are confined to the 
lower beds, whilst at certain horizons volcanic rocks abound, 
and there are great local masses of limestone to the east of 
the Tamar. 

Outliers of Culm Measures are, as far as I know, absent 
from the Northern Devonian area, and inliers of Devonian do 
not occur in the Culm. In the Southern area the case is 
quite the reverse. A considerable tract of Culm Measures 
forms an outlier with lesser detached fragments between Beer 
Alston and Quethiock, there are also small outliers near 
Tamerton Folliott, Saltash (Wearde Quay), and Efford (near 
Plymouth). There are inliers or detached exposures of 
Devonian in the Culm area at Chudleigh, Ugbrooke Park and 
Oldchard Well, and between Ilsington and Bickington on the 
west of the Bovey Valley probably also near Lidford. 

The Culm and Devonian rocks were subjected to great 
terrestrial movements, causing a contraction from south to 
north ; in yielding to these their bedding planes were crumpled 
into an innumerable series of small curves or contortions with 
axes of plication running from east to west ; the contorted 
strata were further bent into a series of undulations or broad 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 7 

shallow basins and mounds or depressed ridges. The Culm 
Measures owe their central position to a broad shallow basin 
or synclinal curve from beneath which the comparatively 
shallow water Devonian rocks emerge on the north, and their 
deeper water representatives crop out on the south. 

The stresses to which they were subjected affected the rocks 
very differently, according to their composition, mode of associa- 
tion, and general homogeniety. The thicker bedded grits were 
thrown into undulations and beautiful normal and inverted 
anticlines and synclines, such as may be seen in the Upper 
Culm Measures by the Torridge, near Torrington, and in the 
Clovelly and Hartland coast, and in the Lower Devonian 
grits in the North Devon and West Somerset area, and at 
Staddon and Mount Edgecumbe in the southern area. Inter- 
bedded shales and thin grits were often so broken and dis- 
placed by small slides along the axes of overfolds as to present 
no clearly plicated appearance, of this there are many ex- 
amples in the Lower Devonian rocks of the southern area, and 
in places in the Culm rocks of the Exeter type. Hard thin 
bedded rocks, such as the chert beds of the Coddon Hill series 
in the Lower Culm are often broken and overthrust as in the 
case on Ramshorn Down, 1 where the appearances resemble 
false bedding, to which they were erroneously ascribed. Simi- 
lar structures are frequent in thin bedded limestones or grits. 
In the argillaceous rocks of the Culm a tendency to cleavage 
is not uncommon, although pronounced slaty structure is rare ; 
but in the Devonian it is very prevalent, as also fine secondary 
cleavage, and in places strain slip cleavage (Auswaschungs 
Klivage). In interlaminated shale and grit and interfilmed 
rocks, and in thinly laminated grits, which at certain horizons 
are locally frequent in the Lower Devonian of the southern 
area, cleavage has very rarely taken place, but the tendency 
to it is shown in the -puckering of the planes into a series of 
minute contortions described as gnarling. In the most 

1. The British Culm Measures, p. 134. 

8 Papers, fyc. 

southerly district of Devonshire, between the Start Point and 
Bolt Tail, the rocks correspond in types to those in the Lower 
Devonian area on the north of them, but they have been con- 
verted into mica and quartz schists, and the gnarling contor- 
tion and strain slips are much more frequent and intense. 

In the Torquay promontory the rocks are shown to be 
excessively contorted, vertical junctions with zig-zag folding 
being frequent. On the whole the Devonian rocks of North 
Devon and West Somerset are not nearly so thrust, contorted 
and broken, and are much more regular in their distribution 
than those in the southern area. 

The irregularity in the boundary and distribution of the 
Culm and Devonian in the southern area has been already 
alluded to. This irregularity and the differentiation in the 
effects of the terrestrial movements seems to have been very 
largely, if not entirely, due to the obstructive presence of the 
granite masses among them during the movements. The 
apparent effects of these masses on the strikes of the Palaeozoic 
rocks has been already discussed in another place, 1 and the 
illustrative maps then published bring out many of the points 
in the above description. The movements affecting the 
Palaeozoic rocks took place during the long interval which 
elapsed between the final deposition of the carboniferous rocks 
and the formation of the earliest Secondary rocks, viz., the 
New Red sandstone series. 

Not only were the Palaeozoic rocks folded and contorted, 
but during that lapse of time they were so extensively denuded 
that the whole series of the Culm Measures were removed from 
the anticlinals as well as in places, the Upper, Middle, and 
part of the Lower Devonian, to permit of the deposition of the 
New Red rocks on the upturned edges of the Foreland grits 
at Porlock and Minehead, and of the Lower Devonian rocks 
at Paignton, Slapton, Thurlestone and Cawsand. 

Taking the extreme discordance between the Palaeozoic 

1. The British Culm Measures. Part II. 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 9 

rocks and the earliest deposits of the New Red sandstone 
series into account, and the unbroken sequence which that 
series presents from base to summit, although it is highly 
probable that the lower beds correspond to continental Upper 
Permian horizons, it seems to me, even if the base of the 
Bunter could be clearly proved, far better to group the rocks 
together, as De la Beche has done, under the old term, New 
Red sandstone formation or series, than to use a term for the 
lower beds, which, in a general sense, would seem to group 
them with the Palaeozoic rocks from which they are as sharply 
marked off as possible, and to separate them from strata with 
which they are most intimately connected. 

The northerly attenuation of the New Red sandstone series 
and the successive conformable overlap of its lower members, 
and their disappearance on the margin of the Lower Devonian 
rocks near Williton, seems unquestionably to point to a 
greater development in the English Channel valley. Whether 
as I believe the New Red of the South Western counties was 
in pre-Keuper times an isolated basin, at least as far as the 
other English New Red areas are concerned or not, is a specu- 
lative question, as also the manner of its deposition, and into 
the consideration of these I do not propose to enter. 

In the lower beds of the New Red series basalts, andesites, 
etc., occur seemingly at different horizons. They form local 
clusters, each cluster representing fragments of a once con- 
tinuous sheet of lava emanating from a local source, but 
there is nothing whatever to warrant the supposition that 
the clusters are relics of a continuous volcanic horizon, al- 
though proximous clusters may have been in some cases once 
connected. These patches of lava contributed materials to 
the breccias which were subsequently accumulated, so that it 
is difficult to gauge their former extension from the fragments 
spared by denudation. 

The Olivine basalts of Dunchideock form the most southerly 
group, and lie almost directly on the Culm Measures. The 

10 Papers, fyc. 

horizon at which they would occur, had the series been pro- 
longed southward to the coast, is above the limestone boulder 
breccio-conglomerates of Watcombe and Petitor crags, which 
crop out from under the rubbly breccias with quartz porphyry 
boulders at the base of the cliff at Shaldon ; so that, either 
through concealment by conformable overlap, or through 
attenuation northward, about 500 feet of strata have dis- 
appeared between Watcombe and Dunchideock. 

The extreme irregularity of the boundary of the New Red 
at its junction with the Culm Measures north of Exeter, and 
the presence of the Culm Inlier of Spraydown, indicate deposi- 
tion on a very uneven floor, whether fluviatile, fluvio lacustrine, 
or marine in its nature, it is probable that the scour of narrow 
channels would give rise to a slower rate of accumulation in 
them than in the broader areas of deposit, so that it is 
extremely difficult to ascertain any definite sequence in the 
rocks in which the traps of the Killerton, Silverton, Crediton, 
and Tiverton districts occur. 

The most northerly patch of trap is met with at Coleford 
Lodge, in association with an outlier of Lower New Red 
which occurs on the high ground round Stoodley Beacon. 

On the north side of the Creditor! valley and from thence 
along the Culm to the Tiverton valley the marginal deposits 
of the New Red are of a more or less earthy and gravelly 
nature and of local derivation, they mantle irregularly upward 
encroaching on the Culm summits, and on the north of the 
Crediton valley form a chain of outliers from Stoodley 
Beacon eastward to the vicinity of Westleigh. How far these 
gravels may have extended over the Paleozoic area it is 
impossible to say, but it is legitimate to suggest that as 
torrential or fluviatile materials partly mixed with screes or 
weathered rubble they may have carried the drainage of the 
higher lands into the deeper areas of deposit ; thereby ac- 
counting for the occasional presence of fossiliferous Devonian 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 1 1 

ragments in the breccias. 1 From Westleigh northward the 
Lower New Red rocks exhibit as definite a sequence as the 
overlying members of the series, their boundary with the 
Devonian rocks up to their final disappearance through con- 
formable overlap being comparatively regular. 

By terrestrial movements in pre-cretaceous times the second- 
ary rocks were tilted eastward, with local differentiation in the 
direction of the uplift, according to the obstruction afforded by 
the trend of the Palaeozoic masses. Thus the general dip is 
eastward, but off the area between Stogumber and Porlock it 
is northerly. These movements, acting from east to west, 
broke the New Red rocks into a series of faults, trending 
generally north and south, but with local differentiation and 
cross faulting. Examples of this are well shown in the geo- 
logical map and sections accompanying my paper published in 
1889. 2 Very excellent examples of faults, chiefly on the 
strike, are to be found affecting the junction of the Keuper 
sandstones and Budleigh pebble beds, and frequently cutting 
out the latter altogether between Uffculme and Ottery St. 

Between Wiveliscombe and Thorn St. Margarets, where my 
survey of the New Red sub-divisions began in 1871, faults 
prevented the recognition of the Lower Marl group as a defi- 
nite sub-division, until a visit to the south coast section, a year 
or so later, had shown me their true position, and entailed the 
re-survey of about 80 square miles. The New Red district 
of West Somerset was re-investigated three times before the 
very satisfactory rendering shown in the map above referred 
to was arrived at. 

In the Bridgewater area the faults affecting the New Red 
which are in this district of Keuper age, run chiefly from east 
to west, a differentiation due no doubt to the obstructive trend 

1. Vide. Paper by Rev. W. Downes, Trans. Devon Assoc. for 1881, 
pp. 293-297. 

2. Proc. Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. New Ser. Vol. 15. 1889. 

12 Papers, $c. 

of the Mendips and Quantocks, which also accounts for the 
easterly and westerly strikes in the Bridgewater area and 
Polden Hills, etc. 1 



THE actual re-survey of the Paleozoic rocks was not planned 
before the year 1888. Prior to that date, in mapping out the 
lower sub-divisions of the New Red, advantage was taken of 
the necessity of investigating tracts of Culm rocks in the 
search for New Red outliers to study their character atten- 
tively. In following the alluvia of the streams, and more 
especially of the Taw and Torridge valleys northward from 
Okehampton to Barnstaple, chains of connected observations 
furnished me with ample opportunities for studying the Culm 
rocks during the years 1877 and 1878. 

The mapping of such superficial deposits as were met with 
in the North Devon area afforded opportunities for the study 
of the coast section and traverses across the strike of the 
rocks up stream valleys a mile or two apart : I found the 
junctions thus obtained were sufficient to map out, by con- 
necting them inferentially, all the main sub-divisions. I had 
never felt satisfied with my previous attempts at solving the 
structure of the New Red rocks between Porlock and Cothel- 
stone, as the Devonian rocks on their borders being unexplored 
it was impossible to say how far the faults affecting them 
influenced the New Red rocks. 

This problem I was permitted to attack from Minehead in 
1879, and in a year's time had mapped the Quantocks and a 
considerable part of the area between the Stogumber valley, 
Dulverton, and Minehead. This work was done on the old 
1-inch map, and although very much more detailed than any 

1. See Map II in Proc. Som. Arch, for 1891. Vol. 36. 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 13 

previous or subsequent stratigraphical work in the area, falls 
very far short of an exhaustive survey. 

The late A. Champernowne, who at that time had mapped 
a part of the Devonian rocks of South Devon in the Totnes 
and Torquay area, having in a previous visit to North Devon 
warmly adopted the views put forward by the late Prof. Jukes 
in 1866, accompanied me on a series of traverses in West 
Somerset. These resulted in a complete reversal of his views, 
and, with that openmindedness which characterized him, he 
joined me in writing a paper descriptive of our expedition. 
This paper " On the structure of the Palaeozoic districts of 
West Somerset " appeared in the Quarterly Journal Geological 
Society for August, 1879. Subsequent detailed examination of 
the ground having substantiated its general correctness, this 
paper, taken in connection with the following, which give the 
more detailed observations of the area described with the 
actual mapping, must be regarded as integral portions of the 
literature of the stratigraphy of the North Devon and West 
Somerset Devonian area. The papers referred to are, " On 
the geology of parts of Devon and West Somerset, north of 
South Molton and Dulverton," Proc. Som. Arch, for 1879; 
part ii of " The Triassic rocks of West Somerset and the 
Devonian rocks on their borders," Proc. Som. Arch, for 1889. 
A short general paper, " On the Palaeozoic rocks of North 
Devon and West Somerset," which appeared in the Geological 
Magazine for October, 1881 (p. 441), may be taken as intro- 
ductory to the three mentioned above. 

After the Cardiff meeting of the British Association I went 
to Ilfracombe in order to visit the quarries in the Morte slates, 
in which the late Dr. Hicks had found fossils, and to see under 
his guidance the stratigraphical evidence on which his views 
were based, but in that respect I was disappointed, being 
shown nothing that I had not seen already. 

When the Barnstaple and Lynton railway was sufficiently 
advanced for inspection, in company with Mr. J. G. Hamling, 

14 Papers^ &fc. 

of Barnstaple, I examined the cuttings. The results embodied 
in the "Summary of Progress" for that year (1897) are as 
follows : 

" The rocks appear to follow each other in ascending suc- 
cession from north to south. The ' Lynton Beds,' as exposed 
in the railway-cuttings, consist of bluish-grey irregular slates, 
slaty limestone and even grits, with patches of decomposed 
brown material full of fossil casts. The embankment at Dean 
separates a cutting in Lynton beds from the Hangman series, 
well exposed in adjacent cuttings on the south, both series 
giving the same dip near their junction. The ' Hangman 
Series ' is exposed in cuttings at frequent intervals from the 
embankment at Dean to St. Helen's Church cutting, Parra- 
combe. It consists of buff-brown, green, yellow, and occasion- 
ally red and purplish mudstones, sandstones, and grits. The 
mudstones contain in places fragments of shale, probably 
indicative of contemporaneous erosion, or of the deposit of 
mud in surface irregularities of the sediments underneath. At 
half-a-mile north of Parracombe red grits occur in this series, 
which strongly resemble the Cockington and other grits in the 
Lower Devonian series of south Devon, whilst in the green 
mudstones a great similarity can be traced to rocks on the 
Wembury coast south of Plymouth, and on the south Cornish 
coast east of Downderry. 

The junction between the Hangman and Ilf racombe series is 
not exposed in section. It seems to cross the line at about a 
quarter-of-a-mile south of St. Helen's Church, Parracombe. 

The Ilfracombe series consists of bluish and silvery slates, 
occasionally calcareous and with limestone beds (as in cutting 
south-east of Parracombe and in Lower Rowley cutting), and 
hard brownish grits which seem by their decomposition to have 
been in part slightly calcareous, as in the Rowley Cross cut- 
ting, in which also quartz veins occur along the divisional 
planes. At Comer's Ground Quarry, near Westland Pound, 
calcareous shales or slates, mostly decomposed, rest on some 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 15 

limestone beds. In the Westland Pound cutting, where there 
is an appearance of faulting, indications are to be seen of the 
former presence of calcareous lenticles or films, in which 
organic structure may occasionally be detected ; in one spot 
the rock is very similar to varieties in the South Hams dis- 
trict. From the Westland Pound cutting, southward, it is not 
easy to say where a line could be drawn between the Ilfra- 
combe and Morte slates, or whether such a line could be 
proved in the Westland Pound cutting. At half-a-mile south 
of Westland Pound, the slates include hard siliceous brown 
bands, the gritty material in one place showing crushed plica- 
tion on a small scale. Crinoid structure was recognised at one 
spot. From this part southward to Sprecott, the slates are 
greenish, hard, and more or less siliceous. In the Sprecott 
cuttings very hard, greenish, slaty mudstones are exposed, and 
both here and near South Thorne there are signs of small 

From the Sprecott cuttings to Button Wood pale greenish 
slates of the Morte type prevail. Although often showing 
markings suggestive of small fossils, these strata only yielded 
recognisable traces of crinoids in two or three places. In 
general characters they resemble most closely the pale greenish 
Upper Devonian slates in some districts of South Devon. 

Unfortunately, the Button Wood Junction cutting leaves 
much to be desired. Rubbly igneous rock of the Bittadon 
f el site type is exposed, the lower part of the section being con- 
cealed by talus. North of the felsite the cleavage of the 
shivered Morte slate seems to dip south at 70, whilst on the 
south side dark purple slates, with occasional beds of grit, dip 
apparently north at 50, so that unless these appearances can 
be accounted for by surface disturbances, such as root-intru- 
sion and the like, the felsite may mark a line of fault, sepa- 
rating the Morte and Pickwell series. The felsite is also 
exposed in a quarry in Sloley's Wood, north of Smitha Park, 
the surface-evidence to south of it indicating Pickwell beds 

16 Papers, 8fc. 

similar to those exposed in the cuttings. The cuttings in the 
Pickwell series show dull purple, red, greenish, and brownish 
slates, slaty grits, grits, and arenaceous mudstones. Near 
Chumhill, shaly beds, with intercalated brown decomposed, 
and friable bands, suggest decomposition of calcareous matter ; 
they may either belong to the Pickwell or Baggy series. 

Green slates, or slaty mudstones (Baggy series), with aren- 
aceous bands (resembling parts of the Hangman series) in the 
upper portion, pass under the brown micaceous grits of the 
Cucullaa zone. The green slaty mudstones recall Upper 
Devonian slate types in South Devon. 

The succeeding cuttings from Cunnilear Wood, southward, 
expose the bluish-grey argillaceous slates of the Pilton series, 
with brown decomposed patches of organic remains, and occa- 
sional beds of hard fine grit and limestone, showing contortion 
in several places, as north of Cheffham Mill Viaduct, North- 
leigh Plantation, near Collard Bridge, and Snapper. 

For the last mile the railway runs along the Alluvium." 

The re-survey of the Devonian rocks was begun in the 
Chudleigh and Torquay districts in the year 1887, and carried 
westward into Cornwall as far as Polperro. 

Traverse or hasty work was found to be quite useless, and 
even detailed mapping in many places gave unsatisfactory 

Beyond the Looe and Liskeard area the Devonian work has 
been recently entrusted to the able hands of my colleague, 
Mr. J. B. Hill, who is engaged on the Falrnouth area. 

So variable are the rocks of the South Devon area, that it 
has been found necessary to pay the closest attention to all 
local types, and to check the work as it advanced by compari- 
son with districts mapped before, searching for fossils no 
matter how decomposed, and collecting specimens showing the 
lithological variations. 

The work of primary scientific importance was the general 
delineation of the three main divisions, viz., the Upper, 

The Devonian, Carboniferous^ and New Red Rocks. 17 

Middle and Lower Devonian. In the Torquay, Totnes and 
Newton A bbot area, in spite of the numerous faults which cut 
up the highly contorted strata, it was possible to do this owing 
to the discovery of fossils by Mr. Lee and Mr. Champernowne, 
and the extension of these discoveries to new localities ; more- 
over, the development of the limestones greatly facilitated the 
work, which was confirmed by a visit in 1888 from Messrs. 
Gosselet, Kayser, Holet, Freeh and Tschernyschew. Subse- 
quently Prof. Gosselet, Dr. Kayser, M. Freeh, Prof. R. Jones, 
Dr. H. Woodward, and the late Prof. A. H. Nicholson kindly 
assisted me by bringing their expert knowledge to bear on the 
fossils collected. 

A paper was communicated to the Geological Society, 
entitled, " The Devonian Kocks of South Devon." Quarterly 
Journal Geological Society, August, 1890, p. 487. As stated on 
p. 490 : " The area to which this paper more particularly refers 
lies north of the river Dart and east of Dartmoor." As will be 
seen (on p. 499) : This paper was not intended to be a final 
communication as regards the relations of the components of 
the Lower Devonian, even in respect to the Torquay and 
Paignton area. There is no mention in it of the Dartmouth 
slate series, which forms the southern part of the Kingswear 
promontory. The relations of the Dartmouth slates had not 
then been worked out, and it was found impossible to dogma- 
tize as to the sequence of the faulted Lower Devonian rocks 
of the Torquay and Paignton area, until in the further pro- 
gress of the work sufficient evidence had been obtained. In 
the above paper (p. 490), and in the Report of the Director 
General for the year 1892 (p. 254), the Middle Devonian 
slates are said to pass downward into the Lower Devonian by 
intercalation of shales or slates and grits. This may locally 
be the case, but later researches have shown that appearances 
of intercalation may be produced by the repetition of sharp 
plications of grits at their junction with the slates, and, al- 
though it is quite possible that the uppermost Lower Devonian 

Vol. XL VI (Third Serit*, Vol. VI), Part If, b 

18 Papers, fyc. 

strata may be slates or shales with beds of grit or sandstone in 
places, all statements which appear to give prominence to such 
a view were better suppressed than accentuated. The pro- 
gress of the survey to the west of the Torquay and Paignton 
area permitted me to follow the Lower Devonian rocks up till 
the end of 1894, without, however, obtaining anything suf- 
ficiently conclusive to reconcile the numberless seeming con- 
tradictions that the local evidences of their sequence presented. 
The survey of the Lower Devonian, at that time carried on as 
far as Polbathick and Downderry, was then temporarily aban- 
doned, with the numerous problems successively presented 
during the survey, unsolved. 

In the Report for the year 1894, based on notes contributed 
by me to the Director General ; there is some confusion in the 
statement of results, as will be seen in the following quotation : 
" Pushing the survey of the three great sub-divisions of the 
Devonian system across the south-west of Devonshire into 
Cornwall, he (Mr. Ussher) has been able to recognize and 
trace the continuation of the Lower Devonian, Lincombe and 
Warberry grits and slates. These strata extend through the 
southern part of the Devonian area, and are exposed along the 
coast line, as at Revelstoke, where they are traversed by in- 
trusive felsitic rocks, while they also include Diabase sills and 
bosses. The general lithological characters of this sub-division 
are marked by the want of persistence of its different mem- 
bers, and the variations in the intercalation of the slates and 
grits. The slates and hard grit beds of the Kingswear prom- 
ontory and Revelstoke are extensively developed, besides the 
grits and sandstones of the Lincombe and Warberry series." 

In this paragraph the Lincombe and Warberry grits are 
confounded with the Dartmouth slates and grits, and said to 
occur on the Revelstoke coast in one place, whilst in the con- 
cluding sentence they are spoken of as two different groups. 
The concluding sentence is right. The Revelstoke grits and 
slates are the grits and slates of the Dartmouth and Kingswear 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and Neiv Red Rucks. 19 

promontory series ; but owing to faults of which I had then no 
clue, both in the Revelstoke area and between Plymouth 
Sound and Downderry, there was not sufficient evidence to 
enable me to separate them from the higher horizons, to which 
I had given local names. At the end of 1894, the Lower De- 
vonian succession was as indefinite as it was left in the paper 
communicated to the Geological Society in 1890. I had been 
unable to piece together a Lower Devonian succession which 
would apply throughout the districts between Torquay and 
Downderry. During the years from 1895 to 1898 inclusive, 
my attention was devoted exclusively to Middle and Upper 
Devonian rocks and Culm Measures, the area surveyed taking 
in the south part of Dartmoor. This district produced a new 
crop of problems ; so that when I was free to devote a part of 
the year 1899 exclusively to the continuation of the Lower 
Devonian rocks, by the survey of the Looe district between 
Downderry and Polperro, I had sowed, like Cadmus, an over- 
whelming array of conflicting materials to be subdued. But 
for the specimens collected as types during the progress of the 
work, it would have been impossible to remember the Lower 
Devonian types over so large an area with sufficient distinct- 
ness for comparison with those of the Looe area. Amongst 
these, whilst turning them over in connection with the prepara- 
tion of Geological Survey memoirs, I had, by the aid of a 
paper of the late J. E. Lee, identified organisms found at 
Piskey's Cove in the Revelstoke coast, and at Portwrinkle on 
the Downderry coast, as the honeycombe layers of Pteraspis 
scales an identification kindly confirmed by Mr. Smith 
Woodward ; so that, prior to the survey of the Looe area, I 
was prepared to recognize the Dartmouth slates as an 
important subdivision and not surprized to find that the varie- 
gated purple, green, and buff slates of Polperro and Talland, 
with horizons of Pteraspidian remains, and hard beds of grit 
or quartzite were identical in character with the Dartmouth 
slates of the coast from Scabbicombe sands to Slapton sands, 

20 Papers, fyc. 

with those of the Erme mouth, Revelstoke, and Wembury 
coast, and of the Portwrinkle and Downderry coast. How- 
ever, with consistent perversity the Looe area gave conflicting 
evidence as regards the position of the fossiliferous Looe beds, 
which were said to be Gredinriien (that is, to belong to a lower 
series than had been recognized in the Lower Devonian of 
South Devon), and that of the Dartmouth slate group. The 
fossiliferous slates and grits of Looe recalled to my mind 
rocks in the Plymouth coast section, and rocks in the exceed- 
ingly difficult area around Kingsbridge, Slapton, and Torcross, 
and even displayed certain affinities to rocks in the Torquay 
promontory. In the Torquay promontory the Dartmouth 
slates are not represented, consequently the identification of 
the fossiliferous Looe beds there would prove them to be 
above the Dartmouth slates. 

As far as the Looe District is concerned, the coast evidence, 
rendered unsatisfactory by fault boundaries, favours the idea 
that the Dartmouth slates or Polperro beds are the lowest 
member of the Lower Devonian in the area east of Polperro. 

The inland evidence presents us with a mass of hard grits 
with Pteraspis remains, associated with the characteristic red 
and green Dartmouth slates on Bindown, dying out westward 
and with no apparent representation of the fossiliferous Looe 
beds on the north of it, such as one might expect to find were 
it an ordinary anticline. This counter evidence might be due 
to fault; but as it is, taken in connection with the age 
ascribed to the fauna, the sequence given further on must not 
be regarded as an absolute opinion, but simply as the best 
explanation to accord with all the stratigraphical facts at my 
disposal, and that entirely without prejudice to an entirely 
different complexion being imparted to the question by expert 
palseontological researches in the area, which are sadly needed. 

The mapping of the Looe district necessitated the revision 
of a considerable part of the Lower Devonian area, as it 
enabled me to trace faulted boundaries and so to limit as far 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 21 

as possible the horizon of the Dartmouth slates. In the 
course of this work the Torquay area was studied again with 
rather better results. 

The more detailed account of the survey of the Looe area 
appears in the Summary of Progress for the year 1899. 

During the progress of the Survey of the Middle and Upper 
Devonian rocks many a paper might have been written on the 
results obtained from time to time by tracing volcanic horizons 
and the discovery of badly preserved fossils, which taken in 
connection with stratigraphical facts and lithological charac- 
ters, were enough to establish the existence of definite hori- 
zons. But the statements which appeared in the Official 
Reports and Summaries of progress were deemed sufficient. 

They are as follows : Report of Director General of Geo- 
loaical Survey for the year ending December 31st, 1893, 
pp. 256-257 : "In the progress of the survey of the Devo- 
nian rocks of South Devon, the Plymouth area has been 
brought into connexion with those of Newton Abbot and 
Torquay, and the same sub - divisions have been found to 
hold good in it as have been established further to the east. 
Thus the presence of Upper Devonian rocks has been proved 
by the discovery of the characteristic Entomidcs near Tor 
Point, on the west or Cornish side of Plymouth Sound, in a 
series of slates which, developed on the north of the Plymouth 
Limestone, correspond in lithological character to the Entomis- 
slates of Torquay and Newton Abbot. The igneous rocks, 
so abundant in the eastern part of the Devonian area, have 
been traced westwards to Plymouth Sound. Those in the 
Upper Devonian series seem to be, as at Newton Abbot, for 
the most part intrusive. The Ashprington volcanic series has 
been traced continuously from the Totnes district, but in 
irregular and greatly diminished thickness." 

Report of Director General of Geological Survey for year end- 
ing Dec. 31st, 1894, pp. 270-271 : " The Middle Devonian group, 
as it is followed westwards, is found still to consist of slates 

22 Papers, 8fc. 

with occasional traces of volcanic material and local bands of 
limestone. Rocks probably representing in part the Ash- 
prington volcanic series have been followed into Cornwall, 
where they are seen at St. Germans. 

Upper Devonian strata have been found by Mr. Ussher to 
be largely developed in the southern parts of the counties of 
Devon and Cornwall. Thus they are found skirting the 
Dartmoor Granite, from Kingsbridge Road to Shaugh Prior, 
not far from Plymouth. In the Plymouth District, they con- 
sist of slates with local volcanic materials and a mass of por- 
phyritic diabase at Ford, near Devonport. As they range 
into Cornwall, they present some specially interesting features. 
Besides retaining their evidence of contemporaneous volcanic 
action, they have yielded fossils which prove their stratigraph- 
ical position and allow of their being correlated with the 
Upper Devonian group of other regions. Thus the character- 
istic Entomostraca have been found by Mr. Ussher north-west 
and east from St. Germans, as well as abundantly at Carkeel, 
to the north-west of Saltash. The small Goniatites and Bac- 
trites of Saltern Cove (marking the Biidesheim fauna, that is 
the Frasnian or lower part of the Upper Devonian group) 
have been detected by the same observer two miles E.S.E. 
from St. Germans. These discoveries, coupled with that of 
Entomostraca near Tor Point, in 1893, are of essential service 
in tracing the sub-divisions of the Devonian system across the 
ground. Taken in conjunction with the lithological evidence, 
they show that Upper Devonian rocks are continuous through- 
out Southern Devonshire and extend into Southern Cornwall." 

Report of Director General of Geological Survey for year end- 
ing Dec. 31st, 1895, p. 7 : " The area in South Devon, surveyed 
by Mr. Ussher, stretches across the southern part of Dartmoor 
and includes a large tract of granite, together with the sur- 
rounding Devonian and Carboniferous strata, and the eruptive 
masses associated with them. The Devonian rocks appear to 
belong chiefly to the upper division of the system, but though 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 23 

they occupy a large part of the area, they have proved to be 
singularly unfossiliferous. Certain contemporaneous volcanic 
rocks are probably to be referred to the Ashprington series. 
Limestones and slates in the area surveyed represent the 
Middle Devonian division, and have yielded Pleurodictyum at 
Staverton. No Lower Devonian rocks appear to occur within 
the area recently mapped." 

From Report of Director General of Geological Survey for 
year ending Dec. 31st, 1896, p. 51 : " The only member of the 
staff engaged in mapping Devonian rocks is Mr. W. A. E. 
Ussher, who during the past year has been stationed in the 
extreme west of Devonshire and the borders of Cornwall. The 
oldest strata mapped by him are the Middle Devonian lime- 
stones of the Ashburton district. Certain schalsteins border- 
ing the Ashburton limestone may belong to the same sub- 
division, and perhaps also a plicated band of calcareous slates 
at Landulph on the Cornish side of the River Tamar. 

The Upper Devonian rocks surveyed last year are on the 
whole unfossiliferous, and as the grey, greenish, and red slates 
composing them are devoid of lithological landmarks, such 
fossils as have been found in them become of importance. 
Near Warren Point on the banks of the River Tamar north 
of St. Budeaux, the discovery of a few small Goniatitcs of the 
Biidesheim type points to the occurrence there of the lower 
horizons of the Upper Devonian groups, whilst higher strata 
are indicated by the presence of Styliola and of the 
characteristic Entomides on the shores of the River Tamar 
south of Warren Point, and on the Cornish bank near Weir 
Point. Entomides have also been found midway between St. 
Budeaux and Tamerton Foliot. 

Bands containing Spirifer disjunctus occur, on the shores of 
the Rivers Tamar and Tavy just north of the latitude of Beer 
Ferris, in slates precisely similar to those containing the same 
fossil at Druid and Holne Bridge in the Ashburton district. 
This sph-ifcr-horizon seems to represent the ' Petherwin Beds,' 

24 Papers, Sfc. 

From Meavy northward to Whitclmrch Down no fossils 
except traces of crinoids, and Aulopora (?) in one spot, have 
been found in the slates. In the neighbourhood of St. Budeaux 
masses of bedded tuff and vesicular rock denote local volcanism 
in the Upper Devonian period. 

Near Dousland and Walkhampton hard dark-grey or green 
rocks occur, which may be partly of igneous origin and belong 
either to the Culm Measures or Devonian system. They are 
possibly an altered representative of the volcanic products 
which appear to form an intermediate group in the neighbour- 
hood of Tavistock." 

In the Summaries of Progress for the years 1897 and 1898 
the Devonian strata call for no further mention than is given 
in the quotations in the next chapter. 

The Liskeard area is referred to in the Summary for the 
year 1899: The strata which immediately succeed the Lower 
Devonian grits of St. Keyne consist of " slaty mudstones, 
often splitting prismatically and with cleavage planes that dip 
generally at low angles, the bedding being frequently shown 
by vertically undulating suture-like lines." Calcareous slates, 
with slaty limestone, are exposed in the cutting of the new 
line, south of Liskeard station, but no persistent calcareous 
horizon can be traced. 

Purple and green Upper Devonian slates occur round 
Menheniot, and have yielded the characteristic Entomostraca 
near Doddycross and Padderbury. 

No boundary between Upper and Middle Devonian can be 
drawn, and it is probable that these strata are displaced in the 
Liskeard district by the prolongation of the fault which cuts 
them off on the west against Lower Devonian rocks, south- 
east of Menheniot station. Shalsteins and vesicular igneous 
rocks occur on the east of Liskeard. The Clicker Tor 
Serpentine is an Ophitic dolerite apparently intrusive. 

So far the strati graphical literature of the Northern and 
Southern Devonian areas has been treated separately. I have 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 25 

now to consider those papers which deal with the Devonian 
areas generally ; of these only two claim attention, viz. : " The 
Devonian Rocks of Great Britain," Brit. Assoc. Trail, of Sec- 
tions for year 1889, and " The Devonian Rocks as described by 
De la Beche, interpreted in accordance with recent researches,'' 
Proc. Roy. Geol. Soc., Corn., Nov., 1890. It must be remem- 
bered that the actual materials at my disposal, when these 
papers were written, were, as far as the Southern Devonian 
area is concerned, derived from the actual survey of the Tor- 
quay, Newton Abbot and Totnes districts, and from observa- 
tions of the cuttings of the S.W.R. between Plymouth and 

The British Association paper gives a classification in which 
the country to the west of the Torquay and Totnes area, is 
treated separately under the heading of the Western area. 
As far as my actual survey enabled me to classify the rocks, 
the table is right, but beyond this, that is as regards the so- 
called Western area, it forms a good example of the hopeless 
confusion that is likely to result from basing any ideas as to 
structure and succession on traverses and disconnected obser- 
vations, even with an intimate knowledge of the representa- 
tives of the same strata in a contiguous area. In this classifi- 
cation the Dartmouth slates are put at the top of the Lower 
Devonian " (probably.)" Their true position has since been 
proved to be below the Meadfoot Beds. By a printer's error, 
or rather through the exigencies of space, the Meadfoot Beds 
are paralleled with the Gedinnien, instead of with the Coblen- 
zien (Untere Coblenz Stufe) as was intended. With these 
two corrections and the elimination of the Western area alto- 
gether, this classification may be taken in connection with the 
Geological Society paper on " The Devonian Rocks of South 
Devon," in which no general table of classification is given. 

In the second part of the paper on West Somerset, Proc. 
Som. Arch, for 1889, a general classification of the rocks of 
N. and S. Devon will be found. In this table by reason of 

26 Papers, -c. 

space, probably, the term " Gredinnien " has been put a line 
above its proper position, and the query to the position of the 
Dartmouth slates may be done away with. 

To follow De la Beche's descriptions on the old one inch 
geological map is no light task : following his correlations 
scattered through the chapter brings to light contradictions 
which are the inevitable outcome of an attempt to correlate 
faulted and contorted rocks from insufficient evidence over so 
wide an area. The paper based on his descriptions of the 
Devonian rocks brings out, I think, his tremendous powers of 
observation, far better than either the casual reading of his 
report or the study of his maps can do. That an individual, 
whose ignorance of the succession of the rocks of the area 
west of Totnes has been shown to be profound, should by the 
careful perusal of chapter iii of De la Beche's report, be 
enabled to construct a geological map of Cornwall, giving the 
sub-divisions, which could in any way advance our knowledge 
of the Devonian and form a basis for future work, is a re- 
markable tribute to the skill and acumen of De la Beche's 
powers of observation. 

The fault shifting the Lower Devonian subdivisions from 
the latitude of Plymouth to that of Liskeard has since been 
proved on the ground by actual mapping, and that alone is 
sufficient to entitle the paper to a foremost place in the 
stratigraphical literature of the Devonian. The run of the 
subdivisions from the absence of sufficient observations is in 
many cases entirely wrong in the area to which I can speak 
from personal knowledge, but the correlations of the beds 
from the Dartmouth slates, z>., Talland beds, upwards is in 
the main correct. The classifications given in part ii of the 
paper are a distinct advance on that previously published 
(1889), and in the correlation of the slates of Talland and those 
of Watergate Bay with the Dartmouth slates one of the actual 
results of my survey of the Looe district is foreshadowed, 
and further confirmed by Mr. Fox's discovery of Pteraspis at 

The Devonian, Carboniferous., and Neiv Red Rocks. 27 

Watergate Bay. 1 The contrast between the difficulties pre- 
sented by the North Devon Devonian area and that of South 
Devon and Cornwall is also clearly brought out. 

The problems left unsolved in Devonian stratigraphy may 
be summed up in the expression of the need I have always felt 
for definite palseontological evidence. Fossils are plentiful on 
certain horizons, but their distorted, fractured, and decomposed 
condition does not tempt the paleontologist to desert the well- 
worn paths to quarries in rocks, whose position in the Devonian 
series is comparatively defined for areas where stratigraphy 
affords two or more equally plausible interpretations, a balance 
of evidence which the discovery of a recognizable fauna would 
overturn. A careful study of the Looe fauna, taken in con- 
nection with the red fossiliferous beds in the Plymouth coast 
section between Boveysand Bay and Audurn Point, with the 
fossiliferous shales and grits of the Kingsbridge area at Ring- 
more Churchstow, Slapton, Beeson, Ford, and Tinsey Head, 
and of the Lincombe Hill, New Cut, and Smuggler's Cove 
beds of the Torquay promontory, is urgently needed. I select 
these localities from a host of others in which fossils occur, as 
but for the older date ascribed to the Looe fauna, I should be 
inclined to consider that the Looe beds were represented in 
them, and prove to be in the Coblenzien, either above or in the 
Meadfoot beds as a horizon locally distinguishable, in which 
case the Lower Devonian rocks represented in the districts 
east of Looe would consist of Upper and Lower Coblenzien 
and the Dartmouth slate series, the latter being the oldest sub- 

As far as the Start and Bolt rocks are concerned, they have 
been shown by the survey of the area to have originally con- 
sisted of sediments similar to those in the Devonian area, and 
of igneous rocks which were originally of basic origin. They 
do not appear to have undergone the stress of any terrestrial 
movements anterior to those experienced by the Devonian 

1. Trans. Hoy. Geol. Soc., Corn. Vol. 12, part 5. 1900. 

28 Papers, Sfc. 

rocks, although much more intensely distorted and folded. 
As far as a minute survey enabled me to judge, the boundary 
between the altered and unaltered rocks was not a persistent 
stratigraphical line and betrayed no evidence of being due to 
faults or unconformability. In inclining to regard these rocks 
as metamorphosed Devonian sediments and diabases, I would 
rather accentuate than suppress the fact that the line of 
metamorphism which suggests the contrary view is very 
clearly marked. 

In the Report of the Director General for 1892, pp. 254-255, 
this area is referred to. I give the Report in extcnsu here, as 
it contains opinions which were modified by the subsequent 
progress of the work : " The Maps of Devon and Cornwall 
were the first on which the Geological Survey began its oper- 
ations. The region which they represent, besides the import- 
ance of its mineral industries, is one of great geological com- 
plication, which could not be properly worked out on maps of 
so small a scale as one inch to a mile, and so inaccurate in 
their topography. Moreover, at the time when these maps 
were made, geological science was far from being so well 
equipped as it now is for attacking such problems as are pre- 
sented by the rocks of the south-west of England. It has 
long been recognised, therefore, that a total re-survey of that 
region was needed ; but the state of progress of the survey of 
other parts of the country has hitherto prevented this work 
from being undertaken on an adequate scale. But as the 
eventual re-survey, which must sooner or later be carried out, 
will be greatly facilitated by an accurate determination of the 
stratigraphical horizons of the Devonian rocks, and a detailed 
mapping of these in some one district, Mr. Ussher has been 
employed in conducting these operations in the South of 
Devonshire. By a sedulous scrutiny of the ground he has 
been enabled to detect the presence of organic remains previ- 
ously unnoticed, and by their aid to distinguish and trace the 
three great divisions of the Devonian system over the district 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 29 

between Newton Abbot and Plymouth. According to his 
observations, the following grouping may now be considered 
as established both by palasontological and stratigraphical evi- 
dence : 

1. Upper Devonian. Slates, lying on Goniatite lime- 
stone in the limestone areas, and with local volcanic 

2. Middle Devonian. Slates, limestones, and volcanic 
rocks. The Limestones are developed in a local or 
sporadic manner, and in the intermediate districts 
they are replaced by volcanic rocks (the Ashprington 
Series), while their basement beds are represented by 
occasional calcareous bands and lenticles in the slate 
bounding the volcanic series. 

3. Lower Devonian. Red and grey grits, sandstones, 
and shales, apparently passing upward into the 
Middle Devonian slates by the irregular intercalation 
of grits with slates. 

The strata have been so excessively folded, fractured, and 
cleaved that their true order of sequence is difficult to trace 
upon the ground. But the existence of certain well-marked 
groups of rock, characterised by special fossils, has enabled 
Mr. Ussher to trace a zone of Lower Devonian grit, extend- 
ing from Staddon Point, near Plymouth, to Sharkham Point, 
near Brixham, and to recognise certain belts of rock in the 
Middle Devonian group, closely resembling each other, to the 
north and south of that zone. One of the most interesting 
portions of this region includes its most southerly promontories 
from the Bolt Tail to the Start Point, where a series of mica- 
schists, quartz-schists, and other crystalline metamorphic rocks 
has long offered some difficult problems to geologists. Mr. 
Ussher has observed that among these rocks some green 
schists, probably altered diabases, present much resemblance 
to certain decomposed calcareous and volcanic materials, 
locally forming the base of the 'Ashprington Series.' He 

30 Papers, fyc. 

finds no signs of discordance or dislocation at the junction of 
the schists with the comparatively unaltered slates. He thinks 
the varieties of mica-schist, to be comparable to the Devonian 
Slates arid interlaminated grits and shales on the north, though 
greatly more gnarled and plicated. He believes that the 
Lower Devonian grits form an anticlinal range, re-appearing 
between Beeson and the Thurlestone coast amongst a series of 
Middle Devonian slates, volcanic rocks, and passage-beds be- 
tween the Middle and Lower Devonian ; and he concludes 
that in all probability the green rocks, mica-schists and quartz- 
schists are really metamorphosed Devonian sedimentary and 
igneous rocks. 

During the progress of the field-work in South Devonshire, 
a large series of specimens, sent up by Mr. Ussher, has been 
sliced and subjected to microscopic investigation, by the petro- 
grapher to the Survey, Mr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., who 
reports that the detailed examination of the rocks from the 
metamorphic area of South Devon has brought to light the 
fact that the previously published descriptions of the green 
varieties of rock were very imperfect. The specimens which 
have been least altered by surface-agencies consist essentially 
of hornblende, albite and epidote. In altered specimens horn- 
blende is more or less replaced by chlorite ; and when this is 
the case calcite is usually present. The hornblende is either 
uralitic or actinolitic in character, never compact. The felspar 
is water-clear, and usually without any trace of cleavage or 
twinning. It has been definitely determined to be albite in 
one case, and from its uniform character in all the slides ex- 
amined there can be no doubt that this is the dominant if not 
the only species present. The association of albite with horn- 
blende, epidote, chlorite and calcite has been described by 
Lossen in his various papers relating to the modification of the 
diabases associated with Devonian rocks in the Hartz. 
Quartz, which had previously been supposed to form an im- 
portant constituent of these rocks, appears to be comparatively 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks, 31 

Besides studying the rocks of the metamorphic area, Mr. 
Teall has examined many others both of sedimentary and 
igneous origin, from the Devonian a.nd Culm areas; but the 
only points which in his opinion appear to be of sufficient im- 
portance to deserve mention in the present Report are (1) the 
recognition of quartz-albite veins and (2) the proof that cer- 
tain dolerites have been rendered schistose by dynamic action 
without the conversion of the augite into hornblende." 

In the above grouping, as I have already mentioned, the 
existence of a passage series of slates and grits between 
Middle and Lower Devonian has not been proved. The 
Low r er Devonian consist of sandstones and hard grits (the 
Staddon series), with shales and slates, dark slates with hard 
grits and calcareous bands locally stained red (the Meadfoot 
series), and of variegated slates with hard grits (the Dart- 
mouth series). The Beeson grits may be synclinals, and in 
any case the opinion above given must have been qualified by 
such phrases as u may or might possibly." I cannot without 
palaeontological evidence prove that Middle Devonian rocks 
occur in the Kingsbridge and Torcross district, so the correla- 
tion of the Ashprington series with the Hornblende epidote 
schists is not justified. 



BETWEEN the years 1869 and 1871 I made my first acquaint- 
ance with carboniferous rocks in the field, and from Yatton, 
Midsummer Norton, Frome, Cheddar, and Axbridge, mapped 
most of the area covered by that formation from the Lower 
limestone shales upward to the Coal Measures as far as in- 
cluded in sheet 19 of the old series Geological Survey Map. 
In after years in carrying on my work in the New Red sub- 

32 Papers, -c. 

divisions I mapped the Cannington limestone, the Westleigh 
and Spraydown inliers, and in 1877 and 1878 carefully studied 
the Culm Measures along the river valleys from Okehampton 
to Barnstaple. No attempt was made to map out any sub- 
divisions in the Culm Measures, or to follow the Lower Culm 
rocks along their margin, the Culm area being investigated 
officially solely for the purpose of ascertaining the presence or 
absence of New Red outliers, and of mapping the alluvia and 
old gravels, etc., of the principal rivers and their tributaries. 
Between the years 1880 and 1887 I was engaged on Jurassic 
rocks, Lias, Rhoetic, and Keuper, in Lincolnshire, Worcester- 
shire, and Warwickshire, and on drifts in Sussex. 

Fearing lest the results of my study of the Culm rocks 
might altogether be lost, I obtained leave to bring them 
forward at the meeting of the British Association in 1886, 
and an abstract of the paper appeared in the Transactions for 
that year. The paper was subsequently published in the 
Geological Magazine in January, 1887. In the summer of 
1887 I had an unexpected opportunity of renewing my ac- 
quaintance with the Culm rocks, in completing the parts of 
the old one-inch Geological Survey Map which had not been 
investigated since De la Beche's Survey ; Lower Culm rocks 
were then noted, but no attempt was made to draw a boundary 
for them. However, by the year 1892 I thought it advisable 
to bring together the results I had obtained from actual 
survey, and so to amplify and extend the previous communica- 
tions as to supersede them. This paper, entitled " The British 
Culm Measures," appeared in the Proceedings of the Somerset 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1892. It was divided into two 
parts : the first, dealing with the literature stratigraphy and 
extension of the Culm Measures in England and on the 
Continent ; the second, discussing the probable causes of the 
abnormal distribution of the Culm and older rocks of the 
south-western counties in the areas surrounding the granite 
masses of Devon and Cornwall. 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 33 

The use of one or two unhappy phrases 1 in the latter part 
of the paper led to an entire misconception of its scope and 
meaning, and to a display of hostility, for which I was for a 
long time unable to account. 

Since the British Culm Measures was written, I have had 
ample opportunities of tracing the rocks in the field in districts 

1. The phrases to which I allude will be found on pp. 206 and 207 of the 
Somerset Arch. Proceedings for 1892, and are italicized in the following quota- 
tions : " Whatever may be the derivation of the Palaeozoic rocks of Devon and 
Cornwall, their extent and development points to the removal and redistribu- 
tion of very great masses of pre-existing rocks, and as no rocks other than the 
granites seem to exhibit an unconformably inlying position amongst them, 
from Bristol to the Land's End, it is difficult to resist the suggestion that 
granites, or rocks capable of conversion to granite by in situ metamorphism, 
were actually levied under contribution to supply part at least of the 

The second passage referring to the age of the granite, taken in respect of 
the probable subterranean connection of the various masses, is as follows: 
"The second restriction, for reasons before stated, renders the post- 
carboniferous upheaval or eruption almost unthinkable, and would almost 
necessitate the genesis of granite (in its present form) in situ by the remelting of 
a pre-existent rock." 

A paper was written by General MacMahon to combat what were supposed 
to be my views on the genesis of granite. 

The then President opened the discussion by crediting me with a knowledge 
of petrology, which I regret to say I do not possess. Passing over divers hard 
things said, I take this opportunity of thanking my friends, Messrs. Teall and 
Watts, for standing up and trying to point out that the drift of my observa- 
tions was quite misunderstood. 

I could not defend myself for the simple reason that I was ignorant of the 
casus belli. To me the General was simply tilting at a windmill, and trying 
to be facetious over the north and south movements. The sense of injustice is 
apt to rankle, so at last I wrote to Mr. Hudleston, and enquired what it was 
all about. To my horror he told me that I was credited with the belief that 
the Devon and Cornish granites might have resulted from the in situ meta- 
morphism of ancient rocks that were not granitoid, and might even have been 
stratified rocks. 

Going through the Paper I saw that the phrases italicized would bear that 
interpretation, from which, as it appears, the quotation from the late J. A. 
Phillips, on p. 206 (viz., the statement " that neither granites nor el vans could 
result from the rearrangement, by heat or otherwise, of the constituents either 
of one or of any number of such slates " as are given in his table of analyses), 
had not sufficiently safeguarded me. 

I do not believe, or ever did believe, that the theoretical pre-existent masses 
were other than granite "of sorts." But in regrettable ignorance of the 
vagaries of the petrological mind, I put in the objectionable alternatives for 
possible disciples of metasomatosis, that I might " by all means gain some." 

My friend, Mr. A. R. Hunt, with characteristic chivalry, came forward in 
defence of the oppressed, thereby demonstrating the absurdity of crediting a 
man with ideas as to genesis of granite who confounds melting and fusion. He 
is right. Messrs. Teall and Watts were right. The General's paper was not 
written as a contribution toward the solution of this simply stratigraphical 
and mechanical problem, it was not meant to throw any light on it, and it 
didn't. The admirable paper " On Rocks of igneous origin on Dartmoor," by 
the same author, Q.J.G.S. for Aug., 1894, renders this the less regrettable. 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. c 

34 Papers, fyc. 

before unknown to me. To Mr. Fox I am indebted for most 
of these. The announcement of his discovery of Radiolaria 
in the Chert beds of the Coddon Hill series, attracted atten- 
tion to the Lower Culm Measures specially, although that 
discovery does not facilitate the actual mapping of the sub- 
divisions of the Culm rocks. In 1897, for the first time, the 
sub-division of the Culm was attempted on 6-inch maps in the 
area north of Tiverton. 

In this area and in the Culm districts of Ash ton and Trus- 
ham, I found that a line between the Lower Culm Measures, 
which do not contain grits, and the shales and grits above them 
is comparatively easy to trace, whilst no absolute line of de- 
marcation can be drawn between the different types in the 
areas composed of shales and grits. 

Hence, although there are some reasons for including shales 
and grits, locally, in the upper part of the Lower Culm 
\_Goniatites, in Mr. Vicary's collection, having been obtained 
in the Bonhay Road section, between St. David's and St. 
Thomas' Stations, Exeter, and in grits and shales near Pinhoe 
Church], the inclusion of the Exeter type in the Middle Culm 
Measures is more desirable than in the Lower, in which it is 
bracketed in the classification in the British Culm Measures, 
p. 115. 

Mr. Fox 1 has shown that the term grit is inapplicable to 
any of the beds of the Coddon Hill series. He has also 
pointed out that my ascription of plication fractures to false 
bedding in the illustration of the Ramshorn Down section is 
quite wrong. For both corrections I am his debtor. 

As regards Herr Dalmer's views as to the relative age of 
the Wildenfels and Chemnitz Hainischen Culm (in p. 177 
British Culm Measures) there is a serious error of transcrip- 

1. Messrs. Fox and Hinde. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for Nov., 1895. 
Vol. 51, p. 615 and p. 625. The Lower Culm were not sub-divided prior to 
1897. The Ramshorn Down district was mapped on the old 1-inch in 1887. 
I have had no opportunity of revising it in detail as has been done at Ashton, 
&c., this year, on 6-inch maps. 

The. Devonian, Carboniferous, mid New Red Rochs. 35 

tion, the part of the sentence referred to should be "Herr 
Dalmer considers the Wildenfels Culm older than the 
Chemnitz Hainischen." 

In the above respects "The British Culm Measures" needs 
emendation, otherwise it merely needs amplification as far as 
the results of subsequent work given in official reports tend 
to the solution of problems left unsolved in 1892. So that the 
following notes may be regarded as a sequel to it. 


1. Extension of the Culm Measures. 2. Sub-divisions of 
the Lower Culm. 3. Altered Lower Culm Measures. 4. Vol- 
canic rocks associated with Lower Culm Measures. <5. Relations 
of the Middle and Lower Culm Measures. 


Beer Alston It was not until the year 1897 that the progress of 
st. Meiiion. the. work allowed of the tracing out of the Culm 
rocks discovered in 1888 in the S.W.R. cutting near Beer 
Alston. On the Devon side of the Tamar south of Calstock, 
and on the Cornish side north of Calstock, and at Pentillie, they 
form outlying masses of shales and sandstones on the Upper 
Devonian slates, but in the district surrounding St. Mellion 
they cover an area of from 8 to 9 square miles, extending from 
the Tamar at Cothele and Halton Quay on the east, to 
Crendle Down and Hammett Down on the west. One of the 
most marked features in this tract is the conical flat-topped 
hill of Lower Culm rocks called Cadson Bury. The boun- 
daries of the Culm with the Devonian are frequently faulted, 
and in many cases where the sinuous trend of the boundaries 
seems to denote natural junctions, the direct superposition, or 
apparent superposition, of the sandstones and shales (locally 

36 Papers, J-c. 

containing plant traces) on the Devonian, seems to suggest 
irregular fault boundaries or thrusts cutting out the Lower 
Culm rocks, which are in places tolerably well developed in 
their natural position. In parts of this complex tract, the 
Culm boundaries, with an apparently natural trend along the 
contours separate sandstones and shales from the Devonian in 
places, and chert beds or other hard members of the Lower 
Culm in places. I suggested an unconformable junction to 
account for these anomalies in the Summary of Progress for 
1897, but the further extension of the work does not quite 
bear out this explanation. The occurrence of Culm rocks in 
the vicinity of St. Cleer is possible, but it involves evidence 
which has not yet yielded satisfactory results. 
Tamerton ^ sraa ll patch of black cherty Coddon Hill beds, 
lott ' penetrated by filaments of quartz, and greatly dis- 
turbed, is exposed in a quarry on the summit of the hill im- 
mediately south of Tamerton Foliott. This little outlier is 
probably based by a thrust fault, it hardly extends beyond the 
exposure, the surrounding slates are Upper Devonian, and have 
yielded in one spot characteristic JEntoms. South of Warleigh 
Barton and west of Tamerton Foliott, hard dark Lower Culm 
shales form a narrow outlier, resting on the Upper Devonian 
slates on the summit, and descending the wooded slope toward 
the creek in a south-easterly direction. In Tor Wood they 
appear to be bounded in part by decomposed volcanic rock, and 
may also be faulted. These outliers are about two miles south 
of the latitude of the southernmost extension of the St. Mellion 
Culm Measures, and were mapped in 1896. 
wearde South of Saltash, and opposite Bull Point, where 

Quay and St. -. 

Emey. the Lynher joins the Tamar, there is a most in- 
teresting coast section of Devonian slates and volcanic rocks. 
Interbedded with the latter, but only visible in one place, 
five chains N. of Henn Point, are several hard dark cherty 
beds, with irregular corrugated surfaces. The little patch 
of rock in which this interesting phenomenon is displayed, 

The Devonian, Carboniferous,, and New Red Rocks. 37 

is bounded by V-shaped coalescent faults, hence its preser- 
vation is most probably due to the fracture and lowering of 
a mass of higher beds subsequently removed by denudation. 
The presence of volcanic bombs or cinders and coarse tuffs in 
the volcanic rocks, in which the vesicles show fluxion lines, 
justifies the belief that the centre of eruption was not far off. 
On nearing Wearde Quay we encounter hard, even bedded, 
grey brownish weathered grits or sandstones, with shaly part- 
ings, evidently an overlying series, a little further west these 
beds are found to rest on a hard igneous rock, exposed in a 
quarry by the coast. In the adjacent Railway Cutting they 
are also exposed, and in one place may possibly overlie con- 
formably the uppermost beds of the Lower Culm ; this, how- 
ever, is not reliable, as the beds I took for Lower Culm were 
iiot well exposed. The hard sandstones, to a depth of over 
twenty feet, are very well shown in a quarry on the north side 
of the railway, by the lane, on the map. In one part of it the 
upper beds are rather coarse in grain and seem to contain 
occasional cherty fragments. They can be traced westward to 
Forder Lake, where they may be detected in one spot in the 
vicinity of the greenstone quarry. I call these beds the 
Wearde sandstones. They occur on the north of St. Erney, 
from thence to the banks of the Lynher, near Poldrissick, and 
south of Bagmill. But from Bagmill to Forder Lake, al- 
though visible at Trehane, their continuity cannot be proved, 
and from the character of the surface evidence, it is impossible 
to draw accurate boundaries, as they make no distinctive fea- 
ture, and occur in a tract in which Devonian slates and vol- 
canic rocks are inextricably blended. For a long time I hesi- 
tated to regard the Wearde sandstones as Culm Measures, but 
thought they might possibly be indurated siliceous tuffs. The 
subsequent mapping of part of the Tavistock volcanic 
Devono-carboniferous rocks, and the assurance of Professor 
Watts that they may be regarded as true grits caused me to 
include them in the Middle Culm, and the occurrence of simi- 

38 Papers, c. 

lar sandstones in the St. Mellion and other Culm tracts has 
confirmed this view. 

Prior to the discovery of the Wearde rocks in 

Efford and 

Cr near ee 1894, in mapping Plymouth and its environs in 
Plymouth. 1893 ^ j encountered even bedded felspathic grits or 
sandstones with shale partings, which were in part beautifully 
interlaminated with sandy materials, these rocks occur on the 
south of Efford and east of Lower Compton. At Efford they 
are exposed in a quarry showing several folds, and appear to 
rest on dark shales or slates, which may be Culm or Devonian, 
there being no characters sufficiently definite to discriminate 
by. On the south the sandstones are bounded by volcanic 
rock and Upper Devonian slates. Traced east and west their 
termination is as indefinite and unsatisfactory as that of the 
Wearde sandstones of St. Erney. These rocks must be classed 
with those of Wearde, and like them, are exactly comparable 
with grits and shales in the Beer Alston and St. Mellion 
Middle Culm Measures. They extend from the valley just 
south of Compton to the Plym estuary south of Crabtree, a 
distance of about a mile-and-a-half. The question of the 
southerly extension of the Culm within or on the margin of 
the aureole of metamorphism round the granites is so bound 
up with the constitution of the Lower Culm that it must be 
treated under that head. 


Northern ^ n tne area between Tiverton, Burlescombe and 
outcrop. D u iv er ton, there is no evidence of any unconforma- 
bility between the hard grits and shales of the Middle Culm 
Measures and the Lower Culm. The highest beds of the 
latter group are exposed in Duvale Quarry, south of Bampton 
Station, and consist of blackish shales containing plant traces 
weathered white, and small Posidonomya. There is no means 
of proving the persistence of this type at the top of the series, 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 39 

so I do not mention it specially in the following succession 
which appeared in the Summary of Progress for 1897. 

Middle Culm. Sandstones and shales lying on grits and 

Lower Culm. Limestones with mudstones and bands and 

lenticles of Chert, either replaced by or resting on 

hard shales with Chert (Coddon Hill series). Dark 

slates or shales. 

The limestones are often so siliceous that they enclose chert 
segregations, they are often quite decomposed to a tough 
brown or orange brown friable residue. In the upper beds, 
traced from east to west, their occurrence is variable, but 
detailed mapping has not been carried far enough to demon- 
strate their persistence. 

In the Coddon Hill series the chert beds may occur in a 
group, or so irregularly that their presence or absence can 
only be proved by the knife test. As it is impossible to apply 
this test to all the beds in all the sections in which they occur, 
their inclusion under Phillips' term, "the Coddon Hill Beds," 
seems to me to be advisable. As the area around Coddon 
Hill has not been mapped in detail, I do not profess to define 
the upper limit of the Coddon Hill beds. The dark slates or 
shales at the base of the group constitute the greatest difficulty 
in mapping it, as it is extremely difficult to obtain a defined 
boundary between them and the slates of the Upper Devonian 
(Pilton Beds). 

southern ^ ^ urn now * South Devon and Cornwall, 
outcrop. \y nere the series is complete the sequence appears 
to be very much the same as that given above, but the lime- 
stones are apparently local and impersistent. 

In the tunnel at Pen-idge, on the Teign Valley Railway, 
now in course of construction, the top beds of the Lower 
Culm form an anticlinal ridge under the over-arching inter- 
calations of thin grit beds and broken shales of the Exeter 
type of the Middle Culm. They consist of dark mudstones, 
containing Goniatites occasionally, and in character resembling 

40 Papers, fyc. 

" the clift " of the Somerset Coalfield. In places they appear 
to be banded faintly by fine arenaceous material. This occur- 
rence, coupled with that at Baldoak, about two miles to the 
northward, and the Goniatites from Cocktree Moor, near 
North Tawton, (see The British Culm Measures, p. 137) 
proves the superficial extension of the Culm Measures to be 
rather due to constant repetition by plication than to any 
great thickness. 

As in North Devon, there is no means of testing the per- 
sistence of an argillaceous topmost zone in the Lower Culm of 
South Devon, and, moreover, the Goniatites in Mr. Vicary's 
collection, obtained many years ago from the shales and grits 
of Bonhay Road, Exeter, and near Pinhoe Church, constitute 
a considerable difficulty, as I failed to find any traces of 
Lower Culm in either place, and the Pinhoe Goniatitc speci- 
mens were embedded in grit in several cases. In the Ashton 
and Trusham district, where I have mapped out their 
boundary, the sequence is as follows : 

Middle Culm. Shales and grits of the Exeter type. 
Lower Culm. (1) Hard and soft shales, occasional cherty 
bands, and hard dense mudstones, with occasional local 
bands of pale grey siliceous limestone. Posidonomya 
found. The Waddon Barton beds and the Goniatites 
spiralis beds, generally, belong to this group. 

(2) More or less cherty siliceous rocks, locally fairly 
thick bedded, dark cherts, intercalated in or represent- 
ing the whole series. Local evidences of vulcanicity 
at about this horizon, such as bands of tuff, etc. 

(2a) Very hard dark blue-grey bedded mudstone, 
with thread-like whitish banding at intervals. 

(3) Dark shales or slates. 

I cannot be certain whether Upper Devonian does or does 
not occur between Ashton and Dartmoor, owing to the diffi- 
culty in distinguishing between Culm -shales, which may be 
slaty in places, and Devonian slates, which may locally be 
dark coloured. In the western parts of the St. Mellion area, 

The Devonian, Carboniferous., and New Red Rocks. 41 

where the Lower Culm beds are in unfaulted relation to the 
Middle Culm sandstones and shales, they exhibit characters 
sufficiently marked to distinguish them, but not to make out a 
definite sequence. In the upper beds, near Newton Ferrers 
House and elsewhere, dark blue-grey white-banded mudstones, 
with a tendency to cleavage occur in them. Also claystones, 
weathering to a pale-green tint, resembling Upper Devonian 
beds. No limestones or fossils have been found, although there 
are hard rather siliceous even-bedded mudstones which suggest 
the presence of the Posidonomya Bccheri and Goniatites 
spiralis horizons. The more siliceous rocks with cherts seem 
to underlie these materials. 

Near Painter's Cross, Pillaton, etc., the Lower Culm, in 
spite of very imperfect representation, present distinctive 
characters, such as hard dark shales and chert beds. 

On the north side of Halton Quay, in the small space of 
two hundred yards, Middle Culm sandstones and shales, hard 
siliceous Coddon beds and slaty brownish mudstones, with 
numerous examples of Posidonomya Becheri are represented. 

For the occurrence of Radiolaria the reader is referred to 
the papers of Messrs. Fox and Hinde, 1 in which numerous 
localities throughout the Culm areas are given. 

In spite of the variety in their types, it is well to remember 
that the Lower Culm rocks are throughout a dark colored, 
finely levigated argillaceous series, in which, through the 
occurrence of calcareous and siliceous organisms, or through 
some other differentiations in the character of the mud, hard 
bedded rocks of different types have resulted, hence in view of 
the extremely difficult character of the evidence, it is unsafe 
to infer from the absence of the calcareous fauna, or of devel- 
opments of Radiolarian Cherts, or of beds of marked litho- 
logical character, that such absences are indications of breaks 
in the series. Messrs. Fox and Hinde have proved that Radi- 
olaria are not confined to the actual cherts. 

1. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Nov., 1895. Trans. R.G.S. Corn., 1896. 
Trans. Devon Assoc., 1896 and 1897. 

42 Papers, 8fc. 

Coddon Hill beds occur at Holne, on Ashburton Down, 
where they contain pale coloured cherts, and in other places in 
that district. Banded cherts and cherty rocks were also 
noted at Ilsington in 1896. Masses of banded chert occur in 
places in the Ashton and Trusham Lower Culm area, and 
elsewhere. They form a natural introduction to the consider- 
ation of the banded and porcellanized rocks of the Peak Hill 
type. In fact, Mr. J. G. Hamling has shown me dark and 
pale banded flinty rocks in the Coddon Hill beds, on the N. 
side of Coddon Hill, which are identical with types of these 
hard rocks. 


Mr. Champernowne showed on his MS. maps a band of 
" porcellanized rocks '' not far from the granite boundary near 
Brent. In the official report for the year 1895, these rocks 
are referred to in the following quotations : " The banded 
siliceous rocks of Kingsbridge Road (Wrangaton) and Brent 
have their exact counterparts in varieties of the Lower Culm 
Cherts north of Ashburton. Again the dark altered rocks, 
containing chiastolite, on the borders of the granite near 
Brent and Ivybridge, closely resemble the dark shaly Lower 
Culm strata which cover an extensive area north of Ashbur- 
ton Down. It is worthy of note that the type of metamor- 
phism exhibited by these carboniferous rocks has not been ob- 
served among Devonian strata where they come in contact 
with the granite. . . . Intruded igneous rocks pierce the 
Culm Measures north of Brent." 

In the official report for 1894, the "hard porcellanized 
grits" on the south of Dartmoor are referred to. The term 
grit was then erroneously applied to them. In the vicinity of 
Brent these rocks contain scapolite. While engaged on the 
survey of the borders of Dartmoor in 1896, I found these 
hard banded rocks on the summit of Peak Hill, east of Dous- 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 43 

laud, and traced them on the borders of the granite, both 
there and at Walkhampton. In 1887, as stated in the Sum- 
mary of Progress for that year, p. 106, I obtained evidence of 
the occurrence of similar hard banded rock, near the granite 
of Bodmin Moors, south of Alternun, and at Camelford, 
where it is broken up for road metal. It is quarried for a 
similar purpose on the slope of Peak Hill and near Wranga- 
ton. " The flinty shales " described by De la Beche, as occur- 
ring " at Helstone, near Camelford," are probably altered 
Lower Culm shales. 

On the borders of Dartmoor, near Dunsford, masses of hard- 
banded rock occur on the margin of the granite, and at Water- 
fall, near Canonteign, Christow, and other places, varieties of 
the Lower Culm beds may be recognized in the vicinity of 
the granite. The hard-banded rocks, although easily recog- 
nizable, differ in colour and arrangement of banding and in 
the texture of the bands, and that this should be the case, 
where the variously indurated mud stones and cherty rocks of 
the Lower Culm, in certain localities associated with igneous 
rocks, came within the periphery of the granite zone of meta- 
morphism, is only natural. Four types of these rocks, from 
the vicinity of Walkhampton and Dousland, were submitted to 
Mr. Teall for examination. I quote the results from the 
official report for 1896, p. 52 : 

"One of these specimens (2762) (1) consists of two parts. 
One is evidently a sedimentary rock which has been cleaved 
and subsequently indurated. It is compact and of a dull 
purplish colour. The other portion is a dark green, fine- 
grained crystalline rock. Under the microscope the altered 
sediment shows micro-flaser structure. Numerous lines of 
opaque granules wind round elongated lenticles, which are 
comparatively free from these granules. Minute scales of 
sericitic mica and aggregates of typical contact-biotite form a 
large part of the rock. Brown, green, and blue tourmaline 
occurs. There is also a sub-stratum of crypto-crystalline 

44 Papers, fyc. 

material, probably quartz. Mr. Teall is not able to determine 
the nature of the original rock. It was certainly a very fine- 
grained sediment, possibly a cherty shale or very impure chert. 
The dark green fine-grained rock is an aggregate of green 
hornblende. It shows a parallel structure of the same kind as 
that seen in the sediment, and the lines pass through the horn- 
blende individuals without interruption, thus proving that the 
growth of the hornblende was subsequent to the cleavage. 
The rock, which is now an amphibolite, was probably in the 
first instance a greenstone. The specimen proves that the 
sediment and the igneous rock have been subjected in the first 
place to dynamic action which developed cleavage, and subse- 
quently to metamorphlc action which produced hornblende in 
the latter and biotite and tourmaline in the former. Hence 
the rocks may be designated as a tourmaline-biotite-hornfels 
and amphibolite. 

Another specimen (2763) (2) is a schistose rock, mainly 
composed of bands and streaks of a compact greenish yellow 
substance. A patch of light brown massive axinite is seen on 
one surface. Under the microscope the yellowish green sub- 
stance proves to be an aggregate of epidote. The impersistent 
dark streaks and lenticles are formed of green hornblende. 
The axinite, a boro-silicate of aluminium and calcium, forms a 
coarsely crystalline aggregate, the individuals of which often 
measure one millemeter across. It is crowded with inclusions, 
small indeterminable flecks, grains of epidote, and patches of 
green hornblende, which are arranged parallel to the cleavage 
of the rock and traverse the large individuals of axinite with- 
out any reference to their crystallographic orientation. There 
is no doubt that the axinite has been formed out of the 
materials of the rock, with the addition of boracic acid derived 
from the granitic magma or exhaled after the main intrusions 
of granite had taken place. The rock may be termed a schis- 
tose epidiorite with axinite. 

A third specimen (2764) (3) appears to the eye as a green- 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 45 

ish gneissose rock with patches and lenticles of brown garnet. 
When examined with the microscope the greenish portion of 
the rock is seen to be a foliated aggregate of scapolite and 
pale-green augite, with sphene as an important accessory con- 
stituent. The foliation is defined not only by the arrangement 
of the main constituents, but also by thin streaks of sphene- 
granules which traverse the large crystalline plates of scapolite 
without interruption. The brown patches are aggregates of 
grossularia-garnet with which some of the pale-green pyroxene 
is associated. This is a remarkable rock, which so far as Mr. 
Teall is aware, has not been recognised amongst contact-pro- 
ducts of Palaeozoic or later date. It occurs amongst the crys- 
talline schists of Scotland in Forfarshire, Perthshire and 
Caithness, interbanded with crystalline limestones. 

It is very important that the original rock, of which this is 
the metamorphic product should, if possible, be discovered. 
If a sediment it must have been calcareous. It may possibly 
have been igneous, but judging from what he knows of the 
other occurrences, Mr. Teall thinks this improbable. He de- 
fines the rock as a foliated scapolite-pyroxene rock. 

A fourth specimen (2765) (4) appears to the naked eye as a 
dark foliated rock with irregular patches, lenticles and streaks 
of brown garnet. When examined, microscopically, it is found 
to be an aggregate of garnet and hornblende with some car- 
bonate, epidote, and green pyroxene. 

The hornblende shows a tendency to aggregate itself in 
tufts as in many greenstones which occur in the contact zone. 
Mr. Teall is inclined to regard this rock as an altered green- 
stone, and he classes it as a foliated garnet hornblende rock." 

It must be borne in mind that the rocks above described 1 

1. Mr. Teall has recently furnished me with the following brief description 
of the Wai khainpton rocks : "At Walkhampton the Lower Culm Measures 
have been much altered, and include biotite-hornfels with tourmaline, schistose 
epidosite containing axinite, garnet-hornfels and a peculiar rock essentially 
composed of pyroxene and scapolite, allied to the ' gneiss a wernerite ' of French 
authors. The minerals characteristic of contact action are tourmaline, axinite, 
garnet and biotite. to which in all probability scapolite pyroxene and horn- 
blende must be added." 

46 Papers, *c. 

were taken from a district not far removed from the Tavistock 
volcanic series, and near Brent there are both intrusive and 
volcanic rocks and the most ordinary type does not appear to 
have been included in the specimens sliced and examined. 

In the official report (op. cit. p. 51) I described the hard 
dark-grey or green rocks near Dousland and Walkhampton, as 
probably partly of igneous origin and belonging either to the 
Culm or Devonian. " They are possibly an altered representa- 
tive of the volcanic products which appear to form an inter- 
mediate group in the neighbourhood of Tavistock." 

The Summary of Progress for 1898 contains the following 
passage, p. 96 : " Since 1893 the occurrence of rocks of this 
nature near Brent, Wrangaton, Ivybridge, and Cornwood, has 
been a source of perplexity owing to the apparent intercala- 
tion of inconstant bands among Upper Devonian slates in a 
railway-cutting south of Brent, and to the occurrence of a 
similar collocation in the upper part of a slate-quarry 2 miles 
east of Tavistock. These appearances might be explained by 
contortion, but if, as there seems now to be little reason to 
doubt, the Peak Hill rocks are altered representatives of the 
volcanic series and basement Culm-Measures of Tavistock, the 
local association of bands of volcanic rock with fine calcareous 
matter in the uppermost part of the Upper Devonian slates 
need cause no surprize." 


On this subject the Brentor Memoir and Geol. Soc. paper 
by my friend, Mr. F. Rutley, occupy a position of the first 
importance. The volcanic rocks of the Tavistock area may, 
roughly speaking, be taken as contemporaneous with those of 
Wearde Quay near Saltash, as suggested by Mr. Rutley in 
1880 1 , and with the evidences of contemporaneous vulcanicity 
in the Lower Culm districts of Ashton and Trusham. The 

1. Quart. Jouru. Geol. Soc., May, 1880, pp. 286 and 288. 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 47 

following is adapted from the Summary of Progress for 1898 : 
In the Tavistock area the Upper Devonian strata consist of 
very unfossiliferous fine-grained, pale, greenish slates, with 
planes of schistosity often nearly horizontal, and very seldom 
highly inclined, This tendency to horizontally in the 
schistosity is the rule in the area west of Dartmoor. It is also 
apparent in the volcanic rocks and Culm-Measures, in which it 
is due to the sharp irregularly zigzagged structure of the 
smaller folds. The bedding may, therefore, be in reality fre- 
quently vertical in the limbs of the larger repeating folds. 
The relations of the Devonian slates to the volcanic rocks and 
Culm Measures are so disturbed by faults that no actual suc- 
cession could be obtained in the area surveyed, and within the 
altered zone near the granite it is seldom possible to draw 
precise boundaries. The volcanic rocks consist of more or less 
vesicular shalsteins, the vesicles being often filled with calcite. 
Bands of compact greenish limestone are locally associated in 
the volcanic materials, and may be impersistent calcareous 
deposits of Upper Devonian age formed during the lower and 
earlier emissions. Good examples of .this association are 
visible by the River Tavy, on the south side of Abbey Bridge, 
Tavistock, and by the high road W.N.W. of Tavistock, at the 
turning to Langford. 

Such an association suggests an alteration product compar- 
able with No. 2764 in Mr. Teall's description. 

At and near Tavistock, for instance, in the road cuttings 
near the S.W.R. station, the blending of hard, dark, some- 
times cherty Lower Culm with the volcanic rocks is so 
intimate as to suggest lenticular intercalation, but the effect 
may be due to the intersection of zigzag plications. 

Cox Tor Moor exhibits masses of altered greenstone 
(epidiorite) and hard banded rocks of the Peak Hill types, 
and hard dark shaly beds. These rocks have been admirably 
described by General MacMahon (Quart. Jo urn. GcoL Sac. 
Vol. 50. August, 1894. pp. 351-360), as also those of Sourton 

48 Papers, fyc. 

Down and Brentor. This paper forms an indispensable part 
of the literature of the Culm. 

Through the presence of volcanic rocks it is impossible to 
obtain any sequence of the Lower Culm and their emission 
probably continued at more or less frequent intervals during 
their deposition, but had ceased before the formation of the 
shales and sandstones of the Middle Culm. There are evi- 
dences of the alteration of the latter near the granite on Cox 
Tor Moor. 

In the Ashton and Trusham Lower Culm districts there are 
occasional evidences of fine volcanic interbanding, the igneous 
rocks seem to be tuffs coming in generally at the horizon 
specified in a previous section, and dolerites which may be in 
part interbedded. In view of the publication of the geological 
maps with the most recent investigations in the Ashton and 
Trusham Culm districts it is unnecessary to enter into details. 
It may, however, be pointed out that the evidences of contem- 
poraneous vulcanicity in the Lower Culm are feeble when 
compared with those of the Tavistock area, and they do not 
represent, as far as has been ascertained, the lower parts or 
Upper Devonian emissions of the Tavistock area. As regards 
the Culm rocks of Wearde Quay, with the exception of the 
indurated mudstones or cherts locally preserved in interbedded 
relations with the volcanic series, and irregular appearances 
suggesting the association of rocks which may belong to the 
Lower Culm in the igneous rocks of the adjacent Railway 
Cutting, and at Forder Lake, and further west, there is no 
evidence to prove that vulcanicity took place during the 
Lower Culm, beyond the negative evidence furnished by the 
Wearde sandstones and those of Efford being present where 
the Lower Culm rocks are practically almost absent. As this 
relates to the last section of the chapter it will be referred to 
later on. 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 49 

The relations of the Exeter type of Culm Measures to the 
sandstones and shales and conglomeratic sandstones of Ug- 
brooke Park being unknown when " The British Culm Mea- 
sures," vide p. 117, was written, constituted an obstacle to 
classification, which has been since partially removed. The 
thin hard brown weathered grits, intercalated with broken and 
often splintery shales which characterize the Exeter Culm 
type, are very well shown in the cuttings of the Teign Valley 
Extension Railway, from Leigh Cross northward. In oue 
spot, near Leigh Cross, there are two small intrusions of de- 
composed igneous rock, probably dolerite, in them. At Per- 
ridge Tunnel, as before stated, they form an anticline over the 
uppermost horizon of the Lower Culm. As to their perfect 
conformability to the uppermost horizons of the Lower Culm 
I entertain no doubt. This type changes imperceptibly at 
first as we proceed southward from Leigh Cross and Ashton, 
in places the lower beds are found to consist of shales, with 
very occasional beds of sandstone of a more irregular charac- 
ter than is normal to the type ; near Huxbeare Barton the 
grits are coarser and more thick-bedded, and by degrees we 
find the type presented by the road section on the south side 
of Bellamarsh Wood, not far from Chudleigh Station, where 
irregular masses of sandstone are associated with dark shales, 
or rather slaty mudstones, in a manner more consistent with 
the irregular beds of the Morchard type. These sandstones 
occur in mass with shaly partings, or sparsely in dark shales 
or irregular shaly or slaty mudstone. They are occasionally 
conglomeratic. In "The British Culm Measures," pp. 140- 
141, some of the localities where the coarser materials are 
found are specified : "In the conglomerates of Ugbrooke 
Park and Rydon Ball small pebbles and subangular fragments 
of quartz are most abundant, but they also contain decomposed 
felspar (?) and dark cherty rock, suggesting the denudation of 
Vol. XLVI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. d 

50 Papers, fyc. 

the cherty beds of the basement Culm Measures." Mr. 
Somervail's discovery of granite in these conglomeratic beds 
confirms the occurrence of felspar doubtfully mentioned in 
the above passage. 

From Chudleigh southward the Exeter type has more or 
less completely disappeared, and has been either conformably 
overlapped or replaced by these dark shales and sandstones. 
The shales are often banded with sandstones and the banded 
associations as well as banding in the sandstones themselves 
often show false bedding. The sandstones are generally mic- 
aceous, and so frequently mixed with felspathic materials that 
I have been tempted to describe them as approaching to ark- 

Here and there throughout their extension all the above 
characters are observable. At Efford, near Plymouth, the in- 
terbanding of sandstone and shale is well shown, and also at 
Wearde, where the occurrence of fragments of chert or hard 
mudstone in the coarser beds is worthy of note. 

The sandstones of Calstock, Beer Alston, and St. Mellion 
display the same characteristics, and although the conglomer- 
atic sandstone is rather local, the beds vary from a compara- 
tively fine to a coarse grained rock, and I have occasionally 
found fragments of shale, or rather hard dark rock, which 
might denote contemporaneous erosion or derivation from sub- 
jacent upper horizons of the Lower Culm. As the fossil- 
iferous upper horizons of the Lower Culm are developed in 
the vicinity of the Ugbrooke Park beds, the denudation of 
the chert beds could only refer to cherty bands in the upper 
beds of the Lower Culm and not to chert beds below them. 
The most extreme case is perhaps that of Efford, near 
Plymouth, where the sandstones and shales seem actually to 
rest on Upper Devonian, and at and near Wearde and St. 
Erney where they seem to occur amongst slates and volcanic 
rocks of presumably Upper Devonian age. That there was 
an irregular shoaling after or even in some places during the 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 51 

formation of the upper beds of the Lower Culm is hardly 
questionable, but whether such movements were sufficiently 
irregular to allow of the local overlap of the Middle Culm 
sandstones upon Upper Devonian slates and volcanic rocks 
without any intervening representation of the deeper water 
Lower Culm beds, either through original impersistence or 
subsequent denudation, is merely a suggestion, though perhaps 
more or less in accordance with the fact that in parts of the 
area the deposition of the Lower Culm beds was preceded and 
subsequently partially interrupted by volcanic outbursts, whilst 
in contiguous areas no such interruptions took place. As it is 
generally the Lower Culm rocks that occur in contiguity to 
the granite, the opportunities for studying the effects of 
contact alteration on the sandstones and shales of the Middle 
Culm are rather local, but in the vicinity of Fox worthy and 
near Cox Tor Moor they are presented. As I do not believe 
in the post-carboniferous Upheaval of the Granite, I must 
plead guilty to seeing no great difficulty in the suggestion of 
the source from which the felspathic sandstones of the Middle 
Culm might have been derived. 

That there must have been a general elevation of the sea 
bed either after or during the deposition of the Lower Culm 
rocks is certain ; that this elevation, through the local preva- 
lence of volcanic action preceding and during the deposition 
of the Lower Culm, should be very irregular and unequal is 
probable. That the Middle Culm sandstones were deposited 
in shallow water is certain. For these reasons I think it is a 
difficult matter to generalize on the relations of the Lower and 
Middle Culm, as I believe over a large part of the area they 
are perfectly conformable, namely, in the northern districts 
and where the Exeter type prevails in the southern. 

The presence of fragments in the Middle Culm rocks of 
the St. Mellion districts, Ugbrooke Park, and elsewhere, 
distinctly referable to the dark shaly and cherty beds of the 
Lower Culm, justifies the belief that even where the members 

52 Papers, -c. 

of the Lower Culm are fairly represented a certain amount of 
denudation had taken place. 

In regard to the Middle Culm rocks of Wearde and Efford, 
either the Lower Culm were only very partially deposited 
through the elevation of the sea bed accompanied by vulcan- 
icity, or the Middle Culm are largely made up of the triturated 
materials of the Lower Culm volcanic rocks, with such sedi- 
ments as might have been associated with them, their position 
on Upper Devonian slates and volcanic rocks represents a 
considerable unconformability, in either case. 

The question naturally arises, is the Exeter type a lower 
part of the Middle Culm than the Ugbrooke, Wearde and St. 
Mellion sandstones. On this subject see " British Culm Mea- 
sures," pp. 140-145. 

In the Bonhay Road section referred to, with illustration for 
"The British Culm Measures," (p. 138), the association of 
shales and grits is not nearly so distinctive as in the Teign 
Valley Extension Railway Cuttings, and is in part undisting- 
uishable from other Middle Culm types ; in North Devon the 
distinctive thin-bedded alternations are not sufficiently pro- 
nounced to be referred to as the Exeter type, so it would 
appear that the prevalence of that type is local. 

The discovery of Goniatites in the Bonhay Road section, 
between St. David's and St. Thomas' Station, and near Pin- 
hoe Church, has been already referred to. These discoveries 
were made many years ago, but from an examination of the 
specimens in Mr. Vicary's collection, there seems every reason 
to conclude that the Goniatites were obtained in grits as well 
as shales. On recently revisiting both localities I failed to 
find proofs of the presence of Lower Culm rocks, or of any 
traces of Goniatites. Still their discovery must be taken as a 
sign of the local passage of the Middle Culm shales and grits 
into the Lower Culm, and as a distinct qualification to the 
statements that grits do not occur in the Lower Culm Mea- 
sures. The Goniatites, obtained by Mr. Vicary on Cocktree 

The Devonian., Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 53 

Moor, near North Tawton, are of similar type to those ob- 
tained in Bonhay Road, and probably to the small spherical 
specimens from Baldoak, near St. Mary Tedborn. 



IN 1869, Mr. Whitaker, omitting details, gave the first correct 
section of the New Red rocks as exposed in the south coast, 
where they attain their maximum development ( Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. Vol. 25, p. 152). In this paper he rightly uses 
the term " New Red," instead of Triassic rocks. I have al- 
ready given reasons for the advisability of using this term for 
all the Secondary rocks below the Rhretic beds in the south- 
western counties. In my papers, on the contrary, they are 
termed Triassic rocks. This I freely admit is unjustifiable in 
view of the great probability that the lowest sub-divisions in 
which the trap rocks occur are contemporaneous with Upper 
Permian rocks in Germany. 

My first Paper on the New Red Sub-divisions appeared in 
the Geological Magazine, Dec. II, Vol. ii, No. 4, April, 1875. 
It is a mere summary of results obtained in the prosecution of 
the Survey up to that time. There are, as far as I can see, 
three errors in it. The first is contained in this sentence in 
the section dealing with : " 5. The Lower Sandstones and 
Breccias. Some varieties of the Breccia series so much 
resemble the gravels resting on the older rocks and frequently 
obscuring their junction with the Breccia, that, in the absence 
of good sections they are hardly distinguishable from them." 

During the survey of these gravel districts a line was actually 
drawn to separate them from New Red, and it took a long 
time to convince me by the progress of the work that these 
gravels were not drifts, but actually the marginal deposits of 

54 Papers, *c. 

the Breccia, and that they dovetail or pass horizontally and 
very irregularly into it. 

This error was again perpetrated in the Paper in Quart. 
Journ. Geol. Soc. for Nov., 1876, p. 392, in the passage begin- 
ning " To what extent the Triassic beds," etc. 

The next error is as regards the thicknesses of the sub- 
divisions, as applied to the south coast section, the thickness of 
the Lower sandstone is too little, the same estimate is repeated 
in the 1876 Paper, p. 392. Outside this particular, the thick- 
nesses given in the Geol. Mag. Paper may be taken as a mini- 
mum and those in the GeoL Soc. Paper as a maximum esti- 
mate, and considering the uncertainty occasioned by faults an 
even greater margin is quite permissible. 

The third error in the Geol. Mag. Paper is the misprint of 
Langsant for Langstone in the footnote on last page. 

The paper of Nov., 1876, above referred to, includes every- 
thing in the Geol. Mag. Paper, and gives sections across the 
strike of the rocks in four places, thus affording a good 
general idea of their structure and lithological variation. 
This paper may be regarded as Part I of the stratigraphical 
literature of the New Red Rocks. 

The subsequent discovery of the true position of the Wat- 
combe Clays was announced in the Trans. Devon. Assoc. for 
1877, in a Paper " On the Age and Origin of the Watcombe 
Clay." This little Paper is an indispensable addition to the 
1876 Paper. 

For many reasons the Paper " On the Triassic Rocks of 
West Somerset," etc., in Proc. Som. Arch. etc. for 1889, 
should be regarded as the sequel to the 1876 Paper or Part II. 
In the first place it deals with the most difficult tract in the 
New Red area, which formed the greatest obstacle to the com- 
pletion of the work, and in the second it gives a detailed map 
beside illustrative sections. The difference between this and 
the 1876 Paper is the result of work completed, compared 
with the results of work in, progress. 


The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Hocks. 55 

The Paper which I regard as next in order, and entitled to 
be considered as Part III of the 1876 Paper, appeared in the 
Quart. Journ. GeoL Soc. for August, 1878, under the title 
"On the Chronological Value of the Triassic Strata of the 
South Western Counties," pp. 459 470. This amplifies some 
general deductions given at the close of the 1876 Paper, and 
is in some respects an advance of it, for instance, on p. 468, 
the gravels which had previously been regarded as drift are 
placed in their true position in the Lower New Red. The 
full sequence of the Lower sub-divisions, with estimates of 
their respective thicknesses, is given on p. 467. Perhaps the 
best point in this Paper is the treatment of the Fifth Proposi- 
tion, pp. 461, 462 : "That from the presence of numerous 
fragments of igneous rocks (Quartz porphyries) in the base- 
ment beds of the South Devon Trias [New Red], and from 
the absence of any known rocks in the county to which they 
could be readily referred it appears probable that the cliffs 
and bed of the early Triassic sea [areas of deposition], were 
partly composed of igneous rocks of similar character to the 
foreign fragments. That any portions of such rocks left un- 
destroyed would be likely to occur (1) under the Triassic 
[New Red] beds in the vicinity of Dartmoor, (2) concealed 
by the Trias [New Red] between Newton Abbot and Seaton, 
(3) in the area now occupied by the English Channel." 

In this passage I have italicized certain expressions, adding 
the words in brackets which should be substituted for them. 
Nine years after this paper was written, in mapping the Chud- 
leigh area (1887), I discovered a small patch of quartz 
porphyry identical in character with the boulders in the 
Teignmouth, etc. Breccias. This little patch was observed in 
a field south of the village of Christow, at the bottom of the 
letter P in the words Christow Pound on the old 1-inch map. 
In the lapse of subsequent years, though always bearing it in 
mind, I was too much occupied to attach much significance to 
it. This year, however, revision of Culm work for the inser- 

56 Paper S) fyc. 

t*on of boundaries gave me the opportunity of revisiting the 
spot and verifying the discovery as an in situ rock. My 
colleague, Mr. Jukes Browne, with whom I was staying at the 
time, on seeing the specimens immediately commented on the 
identity of the rock with the quartz porphyry boulders in the 
New Red of Teignmouth, and advised me to record it 
specially. As bearing on the above-quoted proposition I now 
do so. For here we have a rock in the neighbourhood of 
Dartmoor which strongly confirms the notion that the large 
blocks of quartz porphyry in the New Red of Ide, and near 
Dunchideock, and at or near Ringmore, and in many other 
places, which are too large for transport except by gravitation 
or ice notation, were in all probability fragments disintegrated 
from their parent intrusive bosses almost in situ, and to quote 
De la Beche 1 , " may readily have formed portions of igneous 
masses covered up by the red sandstone series." In referring, 
under the same heading, to the destruction of parts of the traps 
and their incorporation in the overlying Breccias, I go on to 
say " nor does it appear impossible that the eruption of quartz 
porphyries may have been in some way connected with their 
appearances." On this point also fresh evidence has been 
brought to light. 

During the Survey of the Kingsbridge area in 1891, in 
mapping the small outliers of Lower New Red rocks at and 
near Thurlestone Sands, I found that the larger one, near 
Horswell House, was flanked at its termination by a patch of 
igneous rock intrusive in altered Devonian rocks and exposed 
in a quarry. In the centre and more deep-seated part of the 
quarry the rock presented the appearance of a quartz porphyry, 
whilst in the upper part it was found to be a mica Andesite. 
Occurring at such a distance from known granite, and in the 
immediate vicinity of New Red rock, this phenomenon 2 is of 
special interest. But it does not stand altogether alone. 

1. Report on the Geology of Corn., etc., p. 217. 

2. The Director- General called attention to it in 1891, after visiting the 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 57 

In the Lower Culm area, south of Ashbrittle, there are two 
or three rather small patches of igneous rock, evidently intru- 
sive. Mr. Teall considers them to be undoubtedly allied to 
the Exeter traps. Many miles south of this I lately discovered 
a similar rock in the Lower Culm, near Doddiscombsleigh. 
At Hannaborough, if my memory serves, a somewhat similar 
rock is intrusive in the Culm, between Hatherleigh and Oke- 
hampton. In all these cases the intrusive rocks occur not far 
from the New Red rocks, and they were doubtless once 
covered and concealed by them. I think, therefore, that it is 
extremely probable, almost certain, that the igneous fragments 
in the Lower New Red, which cannot be explained by the des- 
truction of the former extension of the existing traps, may 
reasonably be referred to intrusive dykes, pipes, or necks, 
which were connected with this Permian epoch of vulcanicity. 
All references to the New Red of the Midland Counties in 
this Paper are taken from the Geological Survey Memoir of 
that district, not being based on personal knowledge, but the 
contention that below the Uppermost beds there is no basis 
for correlation I still maintain. 

Mr. Vicary obtained good-sized weathered pebbles and sub- 
angular fragments of Devonian limestone, resembling the 
coralline limestone of Lummaton in the Breccias of the Credi- 
ton valley at Sollon, near Exbourne, and at Westacot, near 
North Tawton. 1 

As to the grouping of the New Red rocks, a short note en- 
titled, " Permian in Devonshire," appeared in the Geol. Mag., 
Dec. Ill, vol. ix, no. 336 p. 247, in June, 1892, and may be 
regarded as a supplement to the Paper last under consider- 

This note is, of course, as regards correlations tentative and 
provisional. In the maps now being published, which show 
my work in the New Red sub-divisions, the Index rightly 

1. One of these containing Stromatopora is about Gin. by 5in. by 3in. in 

58 Papers, fyc. 

brackets the sub-divisions as Trias and Permian, without indi- 
cating a division between them, for unquestionably such 
a separation must be regarded as very unsatisfactory at 

In a Paper " On the Triassic Rocks of Normandy," the re- 
sult of a careful perusal of a memoir on the Geology of La 
Manche and Calvados, by the late M. Bonissent, I discussed 
the relations of the New Red of those Provinces, as far as I 
was able to investigate the few and partial exposures on the 
ground, and what I conceived to be their relations to the 
Devon and Somerset rocks during that period. 

The Paper appeared in the Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. for 
May, 1879, pp. 245 267. It was accompanied by a map con- 
structed from M. Bonissent's descriptions, which, however, was 
not published. The Paper was subsequently translated into 
French by M. G. Lionnet, and appeared in the Memoirs of the 
Geological Society of Normandy, but the map was again 
omitted. As this map, tested by the French map of the 
region subsequently published, bears out in a remarkable 
degree the general accuracy of M. Bonissent's observations, 
its non-appearance has always been a source of regret to me. 
The views as to the age of the Normandy New Red Rocks, 
which I expressed, have not been endorsed by the French 
geologists, who are best qualified to form an opinion, still the 
Paper may be taken as a contribution toward the Stratigraphy 
of the New Red of the South Western Counties ; and a 
short Paper entitled, " A Chapter on the Budleigh Pebbles," 
which appeared in Trans. Dev. Assoc. for 1877, may be in- 
cluded with it. 

In all the Papers (except in the Note on Permian), above 
cited, a great want will be found, namely, the absence of any 
connected or detailed description of the Trap rocks. I have, 
therefore, specially alluded to them in the general notes after 
the Preface to this Paper. As regards description, however, 
from Polwhele's time (1797) down to the present, they have 

The Devonian.! Carboniferous, and New Red Rocks. 59 

been so often referred to that this want may not be felt. It is 
only natural to single out the Paper by Mr. Vicary, 1 and the 
more recent elaborate petrological researches of Mr. Bernard 
Hobson in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Vol. xlviii (1892), pp. 

It is unnecessary to allude here to the stratigraphy of the 
Traps rocks, as this will be found treated more or less 
minutely in the memoirs accompanying the New 1-iuch 
Geological Maps. The Memoir on the Exeter sheet, 325, 
having gone to press, descriptions of the major part of these 
clusters of Trap patches will appear shortly, together with 
petrological notes. 

As regards the New Red rocks, with the exception of the 
small parts of their area to be found south of Chudleigh, which 
have been re-mapped in part on the 6-inch scale, in carrying 
on the Survey of the Devonian the work was done on the old 
1-inch ordnance maps, and completed in 1880. 

In conclusion, I would point out some lines of research 
which might lead to good results in amplifying the work of the 
Geological Survey, and clearing up those stratigraphical 
problems which yet remain to be solved. 

The area occupied by the Lower Marl series, extending 
northward from the coast between Exmouth and Straight 
Point to Whimple, cannot be too carefully investigated for 
the occurrence of sandstones in or under the Marls ; these are 
shown on the map wherever evidence of their occurrence was 
obtained, and their anomalous appearance may be due to 
faults which are very numerous on the coast, but cannot be 
traced far in this series inland. The coast evidence would 
lead one to infer that the sandstones of Straight Point [which 
are partly brecciated and contain calcareous (probably 
dolomitic) concretionary matter in one part] are above the 
Marls, with occasional intercalations of thick even-bedded 

1. "On the Peldspathic Traps of Devonshire." Trans. Dev. Assoc. 
Part iv, p. 43. 1865. 

60 Papers, 8fc. 

sandstone which form the coast between Straight Point and 
Exmouth. The natural inference that the Marls are based by 
a passage series of Marls and sandstones is discounted by the 
nature of the evidence as we endeavour to trace them north- 
ward ; for beyond Whimple no proofs of such an intercalated 
series is presented until we approach the Milverton district 
where sections of an intercalated series of Marls and sand- 
stones have been noticed near Polehill. 

These appearances are explainable on the assumption of the 
impersistence of the sandstones in the Marls, coupled with 
eliminating faults, which in a homogeneous series cannot be 
detected on the ground. On the south coast these sandstones 
are worthy of a special study, and careful search for traces of 
organisms is desirable. I believe them to be an important 
factor in the classification of the rocks. 

The Pebble beds of Budleigh Salterton will also repay a 
minute study, which by revealing the gradually diminishing 
percentage of foreign pebbles and their composition in different 
parts of their northerly extension, and the character of the 
sand matrix as contrasted with the grain of the overlying 
sandstones may bring new facts to light. About Blue Anchor, 
north of Talaton, the evidence was not satisfactory. 

In Mr. Vicary's collection are several decomposed pebbles 
of Devonian origin crowded with Brachiopods, such as 
Streptorhynchus crenistria, Athyris, etc., and crinoids which 
were obtained in the Pebble beds at Uifculm. 

The opening of any new exposures in the Lower Marl area 
flanking Spraydowns, north of Broadclyst and Whimple, 
might throw considerable light on the relations of the Marls 
to the Lower series (Sandstone), which in that district were 
exceedingly obscure. 

An extended comparison of the grain of the Upper and 
Lower Sandstones as to angularity or roundness would be of 

As regards the three formations dealt with in this paper, 

The Devonian^ Carboniferous , and New Red Rocks. 61 

the three main outstanding questions requiring positive settle- 
ment may be summed up thus : 

Devonian. Position of fossiliferous Looe beds with 

reference to Dartmouth slate series. 
Carboniferous. The exact relations of the Middle and 

Lower Culm in Volcanic areas. 

New Red. The relations of the Lower Marls and inter- 
calated Marls and Sandstones to the underlying 
Breccias and Sandstones. 



* " On the Structure of the Paleozoic Districts of West 

Somerset," by A. Champernowne and W. A. E. Ussher. 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for Aug., 1879, pp. 532 548. 

* " On the Geology of Parts of Devon and West Somerset, 

North of South Molton and Dulverton." Proc. Som. 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1879. 

* " The Triassic Eocks of West Somerset and the Devonian 

Rocks on their borders." Part II. Proc. Som. Arch, 
and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 1889. 

f " On the Palaeozoic Rocks of North Devon and W. Som- 
erset." Geol. Mag. for October, 1881, p. 441, etc. 

* Summary of Progress of the Geological Survey of the 

United Kingdom for 1897. Pp. 7678. 

* " The Devonian Rocks of South Devon." Quart. Journ. 

Geol. Soc. for Aug., 1890, p. 487. 

'J Report of the Director-General of the Geol. Sur. for 1892. 
Pp. 254, 255. 

Important.* Unimportant.! Partly erroneous. { Condemned. || 

62 Papers^ $c. 


* Report of the Director-Gen. Geol. Sur. for 1893. Pp. 

256, 257. 

t* Report of D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1894. Pp. 270, 271. 

t Report of D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1895. P. 7. 

* Report of D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1896. P. 51. 

* Summary of Progress of the Geol. Sur. of the United 

Kingdom for 1898. Pp. 95, 96. 

* Summary of Progress of the Geol. Sur., etc., for 1899. 

J "The Devonian Rocks of Great Britain." Rep. Brit. 
Assoc. Trans, of Sections for 1889. 

* " The Devonian Rocks as described by De la Beche, inter- 

preted in accordance with recent researches." Trans. 
Roy. Geol. Soc., Corn., 1890. 

t' "The Devonian of the Western Region and Geology of 
Tavistock." Trans. Dev. Assoc. for 1889, pp. 437 

|| " The Devonian Rocks between Plymouth and Looe." 
Trans. Roy. Geol. Soc., Corn. 

|| " On the Geology of S. Devon." Proc. Geologists' Assoc. 

Vol. 8, no. 8. 
Important.* Unimportant. t Partly erroneous. t Condemned. || 


f " The Culm Measures of Devonshire." British Assoc. Rep. 
Trans, of Sections, 1886. Published Geol. Mag. De- 
cade III. Vol. 4. No. 1, p. 10. Jan., 1887. 

* " The British Culm Measures." Proc. Somerset Arch, and 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 38. 1892. 

Most Important.* Redundant. t Faulty .J 

The Devonian, Carboniferous, and New Red Hocks. 63 

* " On the probable nature and distribution of the Palaeozoic 

Strata beneath the Secondary Rocks, etc." Proc. Som. 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. Vol. 36. 1891. Refers to 
Culm, pp. 1218. 

t " The Devonian of the Western Region and Geology of 
Tavi stock.'' Partly wrong. Trans. Dev. Assoc. for 

Rep. of Director-Gen. Geol. Sur. for 1894. 

Extract: "The limits of alteration usually extend to about half-a-mile 
from the visible edge of the South margin of the Dartmoor granite. 
Though no apophyses from that rock have been met with in ground 
recently surveyed, there is distinct evidence that the general body of the 
granite does not plunge vertically downward from its exposed margin, 
but stretches outward for some way, under a variable thickness of Culm 
Measures and Upper Devonian strata. Two inliers of it 'are to be seen 
at Hemerdon Ball. The aureole of metamorphism varies in breadth in 
such a way as to indicate that the granite probably approaches nearer the 
surface in some parts of the altered belt than in others." 

Rep. D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1895. P. 7. 

" In the prosecution of the revision of Devon and Cornwall, Mr. Ussher 
has been able to extend the area of Culm Measures much further south 
than they have hitherto been supposed to reach. He now believes that 
Culm rocks rise along the margin of the granite, or occur in faulted or 
folded contact with Upper Devonian slates near the eruptive mass as far 
south as Ivybridge, and he thinks that they may even run on round the 
granite to near Bickley. The banded siliceous rocks of Kingsbridge Road 
(Wrangaton) and Brent have their exact counterparts in varieties of the 
Lower Culm cherts north of Ashburton. Again the dark altered rocks 
containing chiastolite on the borders of the granite near Brent and Ivy- 
bridge, closely resemble the dark shaly Lower Culm strata which cover 
an extensive area north of Ashburton Down. It is worthy of note that 
the type of metamorphism exhibited by these Carboniferous rocks has 
not been observed among Devonian strata where they come in contact 
with the granite. With the exception of a few small Goniatites, similar 
to those of Veu, near Barnstaple, which have been found at one spot near 
Ashburton Down, no fossils have been detected in the Culm Measures of 
the area now reported on. Intruded igneous rocks pierce the Culm Mea- 
sures north of Brent, and likewise the Upper Devonian strata of the 
Buckfastleigh and Ashburton area. The aureole of metamorphism 
around the southern end of the Dartmoor granite rarely exceeds a mile in 
width, while in some places it is hardly more than haif-a-mile. " 

* Rep. D.-G. Geol. Sur. for 1896. Quoted in Chapter III. 

* Summary of Progress for 1897. Results given in Chapter 


* Summary of Progress for 1898. Results given in Chapter 


Most Important. * Redundant, f Faulty. J 

64 ^ Papers, -c. 


t " On the Sub-divisions of the Triassic rocks between the 
coast of West Somerset and the south coast of Devon." 
Geol. Mat/., Dec. II, Vol. II, No. 4, April, 1875. 

* " On the Triassic rocks of Somerset and Devon." Quart. 

Journ. Geol. Soc. for Nov., 1876, pp. 367394. 

* " On the age and origin of the Watcombe Clay." Trans. 

Devon Assoc. for 1877. 

* " On the Triassic rocks of West Somerset," etc. Proc. 

Som. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. for 18S9. Part 1 of the 

* " On the Chronological Value of the Triassic strata in the 

South- Western Counties." Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. for 
Aug., 1878, pp. 454470. 

* " Permian in Devonshire." Geol. Mag., Dec. Ill, Vol. IX, 

No. 336, p. 247, June, 1892. 

" On the Triassic rocks of Normandy," etc. Quart. Journ. 
Geol. Soc. for May, 1879, p. 245, etc., and Mem. Soc. 
Geol. de Normandie. 

" A chapter on the Budleigh Pebbles." Trans. Dev. Assoc. 
for 1877. 

| "A Classification of the Triassic rocks of Devon," etc. 
Trans. Devon Assoc. for 1877. 

|| " On the Geology of Paigriton." Trans. Dev. Assoc. for 

|| " The Geology of Da wlish." Trans. Dev. Assoc. for 1881. 

|| " On the Mouth of the River Exe." Trans. Devon Assoc. 
for 1878. 

Most Important.* Redundant. t Redundant and Faulty. J Local. |j 

l)e Sganot of ailerton ant) its Cenants, 



AN outline of " The Descent of the Manor of Ailerton " 
was attempted in the volume of the Proceedings of the 
Society for 1899. 

It was then shewn that the families of De Conteville, Gour- 
nay, and Bythemore held the Lordship of it, from the Conquest 
until it passed into the hands of John Gunthorpe, Dean of 
Wells (1472 1498). By him it was given to the Dean and 
Chapter, 1 who retained it in their possession until the year 
1866. On the Commutation of their estates for a fixed annual 
payment, it was handed over to the Ecclesiastical Commission- 
ers, together with their other manors, and remains to this day 
with that body. In the present Paper it is proposed to shew 
who have been the Leaseholders for lives and who have been 
the Copyholders for lives, under the Dean and Chapter. And 
it will be seen that there was for many years a close connection 
with the Cathedral Church and the City of Wells through the 
Lessees. The same was the case through the rectors or chap- 
lains of the "libera capella," who, in the greater number of 
instances, were canons residentiary, or priest vicars, whose 
duties at Wells came first, and at Ailerton second. A list of 
these, with the dates of their Institution will be given, with a 

1. 27th January, 1498. 
Vol. XLV I (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. e 

66 Papers, *c. 

brief notice of each, together with a short account of the 
Chapel, to which they were appointed by the lords of the 

Although Dean Gunthorpe died in 1498, some years elapsed 
before possession of the manor was secured to its new owners. 
At least, the earliest notice found in the records of the Dean 
and Chapter of its having been let to a tenant, is in the 20th 
year of King Henry VIII. On the 6th of March in that 
year, it was let to Thomas Bowyer, Mary his wife, and Luce 
their daughter, of Tornock in the parish of Badgworth, " and 
any of them longest living" for the yearly rent of 18 "of 
good and lawfull money of England." 

Edward the 6th succeeded his father in 1547, and in the 
second year of his reign, the manor windmill being then in a 
ruinous condition, a wealthy clothier, named John Mawdeley, 
of Wells, rented it for a term of fifty years, apart from the 
manor house and lands, with the object of rebuilding it. 1 

In the fourth year of Edward VI, a separate holding of 
thirty-two acres, more fully described as twenty-four acres of 
" new aster land lying in two closes inclosed in Aluton late in 
the tenure of John Hodges of Blackforde, husbandman, and 
after that in the tenure of Annes his wyfe ; " and also "eight 
acres of land, medoe, and pasture in Aluton," was rented by 
one John Schepherde of Worspryng, grazier ; the rent was 
33 6s. 8d., to be paid in three instalments: 20 Os. Od. at 
the audytt in the year 1550, 10 Os. Od. at that of the year 
1551, and 3 6s. 8d. "in name of a fyne or yncome " in full 
payment and " contentacion " of the said 33 6s. 8d. The 
term for which it was taken was fifty years ; and the yearly 
payment was nine shillings for the eight acres, and twenty- 
four shillings for the twenty -four acres, " to be paide at the 
feastes of the byrthe of our Lord God, th annuncyacon of our 
blyssid Lady the Virgin, the Natyvyte of Seinte John Bap- 
tyst, and Seinte Mighell th archaugell, by evyne porcons." 

1. Chapter Acts. E. Fo. 19. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 67 

The tenant was to do suit to the Court of the Dean and Chap- 
ter holden at Allerton at all times upon a reasonable summons, 
as other tenants. He was to repair and maintain the hedges 
and cleanse and scour the ditches. If the rent were in arrear 
a month, the lords reserved to themselves the power of dis- 
traint ; if a whole year, provided it had been lawfully de- 
manded, and no sufficient distress could be found, then of re- 
entering into the premises, and proceeding "the said John 
Schepherde to expell, amove, and putt oute." 1 

On the 14th day of July 2 in the second and fourth years of 
the reigns of Philip and Mary, an indenture was sealed be- 
tween the D. and C. and " William Hill th elder sone unto 
Roger Hill of Allerton, gent.," leasing " all that there said capi- 
tall messuage of their man of Allerton in Allerton, for a term 
of sixty years." The fine paid was 20, viz., 10 at the 
Feast of All Saints 1556, and the other 10 on All Saints' 
Day 1557. And the annual rent was, as it had been, with 
Thomas Bowyer, viz., 18, to be paid half-yearly at Lady-day 
and Michaelmas ; also one "harryet " (heriot) ymediately after 
the death of forfeiture or surrender of William Hill, or twenty 
shillings in money, also one harryet at every Incombe of any 
assigne that should enjoy this grant, or twenty shillings in money. 

The lords reserved to themselves and their successors 
" rome and easement in the said capitall messuage," for, the 
Steward of their Courts, and suit at their Court there twice 
in every year, " with free ingresse and egresse for the said 
Steward and others that shall for the tyme attend upon him 
there." They also reserved "perquisites of Courts, fynes of 
lands, heriots, wardes, manages, estates, releases, estrayes, and 
the advowson, patronage, and disposition of the Church or 
Chapell to the said Man r appendant, or in anywise belonging, 
when and as often as it shall happen to be voide during the 
said term." A condition in favour of the tenant was that he 

1. C. A. E. Fo. 42. 

2. C. A. E. Fo. 97. 

68 Papers, fyc. 

was to have half of all the estrayes within the manor for his 
own profit, and as much timber growing on the Manor as 
should be needed for necessary " reparacons " to the Manor 
house, and as the Steward should assign. On his part, he en- 
gaged " to collect and gather yearly twelve shillings of rente 
for one close of pasture, late in the tenure of John Gyllyng, 
and perquisites of Courts, fynes, heriots, when they shall fall, 
wardes, marriages, and a moiete of estrayes within the Manor, 
and do everything appertaining to the office of a Baylyffe of 
the said Manor, and do suit twice a year." 

This tenant, William Hill the elder, 1 appears to have died 
between 1558 and 1565, for on January 28 of the former year 
(I Elizabeth) the holding known as Bradehurst, or Braden- 
hurst, thirty acres in extent, was leased to William Welsh, of 
Loxton, Elizabeth his wife, and William Hill senr, son of 
Roger Hill, but on April 2nd of the latter year, a new grant 
was made of the same to William Welsh of Alvington, hus- 
bandman, Elizabeth his wife, and their son William 2 , for the 
term of their lives, and it is stated that these thirty acres had 
been in the tenure and occupation of Roger Hill, gent., 
deceased. The practice of appointing attornies living in the 
neighbourhood to give peaceable possession of the lands rented 
to the tenant now seems to begin ; in this instance the men 
chosen were " our trustie and well-beloved John Swaine of 
Streme in the pish of Overwere, and William Evans of 
Netherwere," and they are described as " our true and lawful 
attornies to enter in and uppon the said thirty acres pasture, 
and in our name to take possession and seasin, and in our name 
to deliver seasin and possession unto the said William Welsh." 

NOTE. There was a close connection between the families of Welch of 
Allerton, and the Schepherdes of Wick S. Lawrence, which accounts for the 
latter family becoming tenants in Allerton under the D. and C. Christian, 
daughter of William Welch, of Allerton, became the second wife of John 

Irish, who by his first marriage had two daughters, Alice and Mary. The 

~~ ippard, the latter John Shippard, of We 

Lawrence. This is shewn in the Heralds Visitation of Somerset, 1623. 

former married Edmund Shippard, the latter John Shippard, of Weeke S. 

1. C. A. B. Fo. 109. 

2. C. A. E. Fo. 148. 

The Manor of Allc.rton and its Tenants. 69 

J Two documents, both dated July 1st, 1601, in the 43rd year 
of Elizabeth, continue the history of the tenants of the Manor 
farm : one is the surrender of Edmund Bower, of Wells, who 
had purchased the remainder of the term granted to William 
Hill ; the other is a lease granted to one Robert Sherwell, for 
the lives of Edmund Bower, Adrian Bower, gent., brother of 
the said Edmund, and Alice Bower, daughter of the said 
Adrian. The conditions of the tenancy and the amount of 
rent remained the same as before. The fine paid is only stated 
generally as " a competent sum of money." It was probably 
less than William Hill paid in 1556, as 15 years of his lease 
were still unexpired. Robert Sherwell was no doubt intro- 
duced, owing to his wife being a daughter of John Borde, 2 
who paid rent for the manor in 1563, after William Hill's 
death, and who was still living in 1591. Eobert Sherwell 3 
held the farm for sixteen years, until his death in 1617. His 
widow, Mary, survived him ten years. John Borde was a 
Blackford man ; his daughter's burial at Wedmore, September 
15th, 1627, is entered thus : " Maria Sherwell, generosa, vidua 
et senex," though, if baptized in infancy, she fell short of 
three score years and ten by four years. The attornies for 
the D. and C. in this case were Richard Ivye, of Blackford, 
and Richard Counsell, of Mudsley, yeomen. 

The family of Bower of Wells was interested in the manor 
of Allerton for some one hundred and fifty years, 1530-1686. 
Walter Bower, a residentiary Canon, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Adrian Hawthorne, Chancellor of Wells, the 
issue of which marriage was two sons, viz. : Edmund, and 
Adrian. At the end of the 16th century, Edmund (see above) 
was the lessee of the farm in succession to William Hill. 
Adrian is known as "of Alverton," and succeeded to his 

1. C. A. E. Fo. 171. 

2. See C. A. D. Fo. 107, for a notice of the manumission of Thos. Borde, 
sr., of Blackford, and his sons, Thomas and Richard, on February 10th, 1545, 
being "native." And, cf. S. R. S. Vol. iv, p. 252. 

3. Wedmore Chronicle. Vol. 2, No. 6, p. 313. 

70 Papers, -c. 

brother's estates. He married Ann Dorrington, of Colling- 
borne, Wilts, and by her had a family of four sons and four 
daughters, viz. : Edmund, Walter, Adrian and John, Alice 
(one of the three lives inserted in the lease of 1601), Mary, 
Sarah, and Eleanor. Ann Bower, the mother of this family, 
had an only sister, 1 Cisely, who became the wife of William 
Bower, of Wells, a cousin of Adrian's. The bodies of the 
two sisters were buried in S. Cuthbert's Church, and on a 
small monument in the south aisle there was formerly this 
interesting inscription : " Neere unto ye piller lyeth y e boddy 
of Cisely Bower, dau. and co-heire of John Dorrington, of 
Collingbourne in Wiltshire, gentlem'n ; a loving wife years 
toe William Bower of y s citty, gent., by whom shee had many 
children which shee trayned upp in y e feare of God. Shee 
was devoted to prayer and exprest good use therof. Shee 
was many times dead in the sight of the people, but y e Lord 
had mercy on her that shee lived many yeares after, and did 
many good workes in helping y e poore, sick, and lame, 
wherein y e Lord blessed her hand. Shee remembered y e poore 
aged women at her death. She dyed on Whitsonday, 1639, 
and was buried in the grave of her sister, Anne, y e wife of 
Adrian Bower, gent., who dyed the first of January, 1624." 2 
It would appear that Adrian Bower and his wife resided 
in Allerton, for nearly a quarter of a century, for the Wed- 
more Registers bear witness to the fact. In 1601, their ser- 
vant, Mary Kenny, died. In 1609, on Christmas Eve, they 
buried a daughter, Elizabeth. In 1616, in the early Spring, 
another daughter, Joanna. And in 1617, death laid its hand 
on another servant, Isabella Hodges. And now in 1624, 
Adrian took his wife to be buried at Wells. Edmund, his 
eldest son, was of age at the Visitation of Somerset, in 1623. 
He had a son, Adrian, born in 1630, who occupied the farm 

1. She is styled Mrs. Christian Bower in S. Cuthbert's Register of 

2. Historical Notes of the Church of S. Cuthbert, byjT. Serel, 1875, p. 142. 


1. Johi 





6 and 7. 

8. Edinuin 


9 and 10. Adrian = A 


3. He held lands in 
witness to a Bristol dee 

4. Of Donhead, Wii 

5. Rector of Farrab 

6 and 7. William B 
Thomas, brother of Wi 

8. John (b. 1613) ; 

9 and 10. Adrian (1 
1669-70; Vicar of Bun 

11. John (1674) ma 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 71 

> wards the close of the 17th century, but who died at 
Wraxall, in 1 686, at the age of 56. There was formerly a grave- 
stone to his memory in Wraxall Church with this inscription : 
"Here Lyeth the Body of Adryan Bower, Esq r e., Late of 
Alverton, in the County of Somerset, Who Departed This 
Life ye 3<1 day of July, 1686 : Aged 56 years.' 1 This stone 
was not to be found on a recent visit to the church, and the 
inscription may therefore the more fitly find a place in these 
" records." 

Edmund Bower of Wells was living in 1611 (9th James I), 
for in that year he made a surrender of the farm, and windmill, 
and a new agreement was entered into. 1 

In the 2nd Charles 1. his brother Adrian surrendered 2 
" what he now holdeth and enjoyeth by virtue of a grant made 
to Edmund Bower late of Wells, gent., deceased," and had a 
new lease granted to him for the lives of his three sons, 
Edmund, Adrian, and John, then aged 25, 18, and 14 years, 
" and the life of the longest liver of them." A fine of 30 
was paid, and the rent remained as in past years. The attor- 
nies were William Bower of Wells, gent., and Tristram 
Towse, of the same, notary public. Adrian, the father, was 
appointed manor bailiff. On his death in 1637, his son 
Edmund succeeded him, as appears by the following entry in 
a D. and C. account book. "July 19, 1637. Alverton Man- 
nor. Rec d . of Edm. Bower, gent., p. man Tristram Towse 
for o r lady day rent nine pounds ; " Dec. 7, 1637, more p r man 
Tristram Towse twenty fower pounds fifteen shillings and six- 
pence. Suma 33. 15. 6. Item. Wm. Welsh perobligacon 
fifty shillings 2 10 0. Sic onus 36 5 6." 

In 1642 the Civil War began, and every thing in Church 
and State was thrown into confusion. The last entry in the 
Chapter Acts is on January 28, 1644, and for the next twenty 
years no entries were made. 

1. C. A. K. Fo. 38. 

2. C. A. G. Fo. 48. 

72 Papers, fyc. 

On April 20, 1649, an Act of Parliament was passed "to 
abolish and take away the name and office of Dean, Subdean, 
Dean and Chapter, Archdeacon, Chancellor, Chantor, Trea- 
surer, Canon, Prebend, Choirister, and all other titles and 
offices belonging to any Cathedral or Collegiate Church or 
Chapel excepting the Universities, the Deanery of Christ 
Church in Oxford, and the Foundations of Westminster, Win- 
chester and Eton, and to settle the Lands and Hereditaments 
of them in the hands of Trustees called Contractors, to sell 
and dispose of them for the benefit of the public." 

In order to carry out this provision, Commissioners were 
appointed to make a survey of the property of the Dean and 
Chapter of Wells. The survey of the Manor of Allerton was 
made in the month of June 1650; and, as this is an official 
document of no little value, it is here given in full. I am in- 
debted to the Secretary of the Ecclesiastical Commission for 
granting me the loan of it for this purpose. 


of the Manner of Allverton with the rights, membes and 
appurtences thereof lying and being in the County of Somer- 
set, late parcell of the possessions or late belonging to the late 
Dean and Chapter of the Cathedrall Church of S. Andrew's 
in Wells in the county aforesd, made and taken by us whose 
names are hereunto subscribed in the month of June 1650, by 
virtue of a Commission to us granted grounded upon 1 an Act 
of the Cofnons of England assembled in Parliam* for the 
abollishing of Deanes, Deanes and Chapters, Canons, Preb- 
ends and other offices and titles of and belonging to any 
Cathedrall or Collegiate Church or Chappell within England 
and Wales, under the hands and scales of ffive or more of the 
Trustees in the s<* Act named and appointed. 

1. Passed April 20, 1649. 

The Manor of Allcrton and its Tenants. 73 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved . per annu m . 

s. d. 

The Courts Baron ffines and amercia- 
ments of Courts, herrs of the copyhold 
tenants for lives, wayfes, estrays and all 
other profits and perquisites within the s d 
manner to the Royalty thereof appertain- 
ing We estimate coibus annis at, i.e. "com- 
munibus " ordinary years ... ..150 


Edw. Bower. All that capital mes- 
suage or mancon house lying and being 
in Allverton in the county of Somerset, 
consisting of a hall, a parlour, a kitchen, 
a larder, a buttery, a brewhouse with 
severall lodging roomes over them, all 
built w*k stone and covered w*h slate, a 
large barne, a court, and two fold yards, 
two stalls, a hayhouse, a stable, a granary, 
a cowhouse, a garden, and four orchards, 
with their appurtences, containing by esti- 
macon ffour acres. And all that close of 
pasture, with the appurts, called Upper 
Elme Hay, containing by estimacon three 
roods, abutting upon the s d house on the 
east part. All that close of meadow and 
pasture, with the appurt 8 , called Pull- 
hays, containing by estimacon ten acres, 
abutting upon a close of the same lands, 
called Eighteen e acres on the south part. 
All that close of arable called Eighteen 
acres, with the appurtences, containing by 

74 Papers, v. 

Annual Clear values and 

Kents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

estimacon 12 acres, abutting upon the s<* 
ground called Pullhays, on the north part. 
All that close of arable and pasture, with 
the appurtences, called Lower Elme Hay, 
containing by estimacon three acres, abut- 
ting upon a ground called Six acres on 
the north part. All that close of arable 
called Six acres, w th the appurtences 5 con- 
taining by estimacon ffour acres, abutting 
upon the said Lower Elme Hay, on the 
south part. All that close of arable, with 
y e appurteS, called ffour acres, contain- 
ing by estimacon three acres, abutting 
upon the ground called Six acres afores d , 
on the south-west part. All that parcell 
of arable, w^ 1 the appurts, called Two 
acres, containing by estimacon two acres, 
lying in the Northfeild, abutting upon 
Mr. Taverner's land on the west. All 
that parcell of arrable w tn the appurtences 
lying in the lower feild upon Bynham's 
Hill, containing by estimacon one acre. 
All that close of arable with the appur- 
tences called Twelve acres, containing by 
estimacon eight acres, abutting upon 
another ground called Twelve acres on 
the east part. All that close of arable 
with the appurts called Twelve acres, con- 
taining by estimacon eight acres abutting 
upon the aforesd Twelve acres on the west 
part. All that close of arable with the 
appurtences called Bempston, containing 

The Manor of AHerton and its Tenants. 75 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

by estimacon ten acres abutting upon 
Mr. Taverner's ten acres lying in All- 
verton East feild on the west part. All 
that par cell of arable land with the 
appurten ces lying in the East feild, con- 
taining by estimacon three acres abutting 
upon a meadow called Sweeting's close 
(in the tenure Edm d Bower) on the east 
part. All that close of meadow with the 
appurts called Scotten's close, containing 
by estimacon two acres abutting upon the 
sd three acres on the west part. All that 
parcell of arable with the appurtences 
lying in the East feild, containing by esti- 
macon nine acres abutting upon the Parish 
of W eare on the north and an acre of land 
of Lancaster Esq re . on the south part. 
All that parcel of arrable with the appur- 
tences lying in the same feilde, containing 
by estimacon an acre and half abutting 
upon William Hatche's land on the north 
part. All that parcell of arable with the 
appurtences lying in the same feild, con- 
taining by estimacon three acres abutting 
upon the highway leading unto Wedmore 
from Axbridge on the east part, and all 
that close of arable w th the appurten ces 
lying in the East feild, containing by esti- 
macon ffour acres abutting upon Esq. 
Huxley's ground on the east part ; and 
all that close of meadow with the appur- 
tences called Crickmead, containing by 

76 Papers, Sfc. 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

estimacon 16 acres abutting upon an 
orchard and backside of Mr. Taverner's 
(in the tenure of John Bower) on the 
east part ; and all that meadow with the 
appurten ces called Great Coombs, con- 
taining by estimacon 16 acres abutting 
upon the highway in the north ; and a 
comon meadow called Shalldrom on the 
south part ; and all that meadow with 
the appurts called Little Coombs, con- 
taining by estimacon three acres abutting 
upon the highway on the east, and a close 
of the s d Mr. Bower's called Pill on the 
west part ; and all that meadow with the 
appurtences called Parke Mead, containing 
by estimacon eight acres abutting upon 
the widow Wall's ground called Pill on 
the south part ; and all that the Depas- 
turing or Common of Pasture with the 
appurtan ces for 12 head of cattle yearly 
in a Common meadow called Cully Mead ; 
and all that close of willowes with the 
appurten ces commonly called Withy Bed, 
containing by estimacon one acre abutting 
upon the house and backside of the s<* 
Mr. Bower on the north part ; and all 
that Windmill w tn the appurts commonly 
called by the name of Allverton Wind- 
mill, set and being near Alverton afores d , 
with all ways, passages, easements, profits, 
and coinodities whatsoever to the s d capi- 
tall messuage ffarm and windmill of right 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 77 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

belonging or in any wise appertaining or 
at anytime heretofore taken, reputed or 
knowne as part, parcel!, or member there- 
Redd. 18. of. 

Wm. Welsh. All those three closes of 
meadow and pasture, comonly called 
Brodenhurst, situate, lying and being in 
Allverton in the county of Somerset, con- 
taining by estimacon thirty acres, abut- 
ting upon Baynham Moore on the south 
and the ground of Edmund Sheppard on 
the north part, w* n all and singular the 
Redd. 30s. appurts thereunto belonging ... 33 10 

Edmund Sheppard. All that one close 
of meadow and pasture, commonly called 
or known by the name of Broadness, 
situate, lying and being in the parish of 
Allverton in the county of Somerset, con- 
taining by estimacon 18 acres, abutting 
upon Baynham Moore on the south part. 
All that other close of meadow and pas- 
ture comonly called Broadness, contain- 
ing by estimacon twelve acres, abutting 
upon a drove leading to Lower Leaze on 
the south and Cook's Leaze on the north 
part, and all that close of meadow and 
pasture called North Mead, containing 
by estimacon two acres, abutting upon a 
meadow called North Mead in the north 
part, with their and every of their appur- 
Redd. 33s. teneuces ... ... ... 33 7 


Papers, fyc. 




Clear values and 


per annum. 

s. d. 


Herr. 1. Eliz. Bower. One tenement, contain- 
ing 15 acres of land and one rodd of land 
and three roods of meadow of old Auster ; 
as also one tenement, containing six acres 
of land and three acres of meadow and 
Redd. 20s. pasture of the same old A uster. 1 

Herr. 1. 


Humphrey Marsh. Twelve acres of 
land, meadow, and pasture of old Auster, 
with the appurtences i n the Parish of 
Redd. 12s. Allverton ... ... ... 13 13 6 

Herr. 1. Wm. Hatch. One tenement, containing 

by estimacon sixteen acres and half of 
land, meadow, and pasture of old Auster, 
Redd. JOs. with the appurtenences ... ... 6 3 4 

Eliz. Swayne. One tenement, contain- 
ing thirteen acres of land, and seven 
acres of meadow of old Auster with the 
appurtenc^ and also six acres of meadow 
Herr. 1. and pasture in Broadness, and ffi ve acres 
of land in Bremble Croft, with the 
Redd. 20s. appurtences. 1200 

Eliz. Swayne. One tenement, contain- 

Herr. 1. ing ffourteeri acres and-a-half of land and 

six acres and half of meadow and pasture 

of old Auster wth the appurtences 5 an d 

Redd. 16s. 4d. one acre of land in Park land of Overland. 1038 
John Deane. One tenement, contain- 

1. "In some manors 'antiquum astrum ' or austrum (from O.F. astre, a 
hearth) is where a fixed chimney or tire anciently hath been. A uster tene- 
ments are lands to which in virtue of their having been the original home- 
steads rights of common were attached, and on which certain duties 
devolved." IS. and Q, 5th series, xi, 216. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 79 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

Herr. ing thirteen acres and three yards of land, 
Best Goods, and three acres and one yard of meadow 
Redd. 8s. and pasture, with the appurten ce ... 6 5 4 

Priscilla Wall. Two tenements, con- 

Herr. taining 15 acres and 3 yards of arable 

Best Goods, land of old Auster, and ffour acres and 

three yards of meadow of the same old 

Redd. 10s. Auster, with the appurts ... ... 6 10 

Herr. Adrian Bower. One tenement, contain- 

Best Goods, ing eight acres of arable land and two 
acres of meadow of old Auster, with the 
appurtences, and ffour acres of pasture in 
Broadness, of Overlands, with the ap- 
Redd. 10s. purtences ... ... ...1034 

Marian Andrews. Seven acres of pas- 
Redd. 7s. ture of Overlands ... ... 4 13 

Wm. Welsh. One tenement, contain- 

Herriott 40s. ing eight acres of land and meadow and 

two acres of meadow and pasture of old 

Auster, with the appurts, which two 

acres lye in a certain meadow called 

Redd. 4s. Blackheale ... ... ... 4160 

Herr. 1. Jeremiah Duvcy als Ballon. One tene- 
ment, containing ten acres of land, 
meadow, and pasture of old Auster, with 
Redd. 6s. 8d. the appurts ... ... ...426 

JEdmd. Bow fir. Nine acres of pasture 
of Overlands lying in Broadness, and ffive 
acres of pasture of Overlands lying in 
Redd. 14s. Broadness, with the appurtences ... 13 6 

Edm<l. Bower. One tenement, contain- 
Herr. ing by estimacon 33 acres and two roods 

80 Papers, fyc. 

Annual Clear values and 

Rents improvements 

Reserved. per annum. 

s. d. 

Best Goods, of land, meadow, and pasture of old 

Auster. Seven acies of pasture in Guire 

of Overlands, and two acres of meadow 

in Paddmead of Overlands, with their 

Redd. 29s. appurtences ... ... ... 24 14 4 

Edmd. Bower. One tenement, contain- 
Herr. ing sixteen acres of land and ffour acres 
Best Goods, of meadow of old Auster, with the 
Redd. 10s. appurts ... ... ... 9 7 8 

John Bower. Twelve acres of meadow 
and pasture, with the appurts of Over- 
Redd. 12s. lands ... ... ...980 

Edmd. Boivcr. Seven acres of meadow 
of Overland, whereof ffour acres lye in 
Shalldom and three acres in Parkmead, 
Redd. 7s. with the appurtences ... ... 6 13 

Gab. Ivy leaf e. ffour acres of meadow 
with the appurtences 5 called Stinteham 
Redd. 7s. mead. ... ... ... 2 13 

John Taylor. One close of pasture of 
Overlands in Broadness, containing by 
Redd. 6s. estimacon six acres, with the appurtences 474 


The lords of the s d manner are to be at the charge of river 
work f viz., for cleansing, scouring, and ditching of 100 perches 
in length in several rivers and rines at 15 ffoot to the perch, 
and repairing one sluice at ffawman Bridge, and likewise at 
the charge of repairing two bridges, the one called Cullymead 

1. "Allowance and duties paid annually out of a manor and lands as 
rent charges, annuities, " &c. Bailey's Dictionary. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 81 

Bridge and the other ffawman Bridge, all which charge we 
reckon may am* coibus annis to 3. 

There is to be paid out of the rents and profits of the s d 
Mannor of Allverton to the poor of the city of Wells, the 
sume of 8 13s. 4d. 


That there is a Court Baron 2 held at y e ffarme house in 
Allverton, at y e will and pleasure of the lords. 

The tenants of the sd mannor are to performe their suit and 
service to the lords of the courts aforesd. 

The frreeholders which hold of the sd mannor do usually do 
suit of court and pay to the lords every Midsumer Day a red 

That there are two Comons belonging to the sd mannor, the 
one called Bynham Moore, the other Allverton Moore, and 
two Droves thereunto belonging, wherein the several customary 
tenants within the sd mannor have comon of pasture without 
stint, and that the lords of the sd mannor have the benefit of 
driveing the sd comons. 

The benefit of comons and comon of pasture to their s d 
tenemts belonging are comprehended within the values of their 
respective holds. 

That there have been usually granted three copys upon 
every copyhold or old Auster tenement, and every copy for 
three lives apeice, and that the lords shall have and take the 
best goods of every tenemt of old Auster that the tenant dyed 
seized of for and in the name of a Herrt unless they did other- 
wise compound wth the s d lords for the same, and that the 
widow of every ten* dying seized should enjoy the s d tenem* 
by custom during her widowhood. 

The s d mannor is bounded with Mark on the south, Wed- 

2. "A. court which every lord of a manor (who antiently were called 
barons) hath within his own precincts, in which admittances, grants of lands, 
&c., are made to the copyholders ; surrenders are accepted, &c." Bailey. 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. f 

82 Papers, -c. 

A.D. moore on the south-east, Weare on the north, and Badgeworth 
on the north-west. 

The advowson right of patronage noiacon or presentation to 
the parish church of Allerton did belong to the lords of the s d 

The parsonage there is worth per ann. 40. 

The present incumbent there is Mr. Mathewe Lawe. 

An abstract of the present rents, future improvements, and 
all other profits of the sd manner of Allverton. 
The Courts Baron, Herr*, and Royalties are per 

ann. ... ... ... ... 150 

The rent reserved by lease w th in the s d mannor 

is per annum ... ... ... 18 

19 5 

The improvemt of the several leaseholds within 

the sd mannor is per annum ... ... 112 9 

The improvement of the copyholds for lives per 

ann. . 158 

Sume total of future improvements p r ann. 270 9 

From this Survey it appears that Edmund Bower was now 
the tenant of the farm and was occupying 130 acres of land, 
more or less, belonging to it, besides 80 acres which he held 
as a Copyholder. This tenancy was in virtue of a lease 
granted to him in 1641 for the lives of his two sons, Adrian 
and Edmund, and of Edmund Towse. He does not seem to 
have been disturbed, by the agents of the Parliament, in his 
occupation, for there is proof that he was living at the farm 
in 1652, and his son Adrian in 1660. But we have no Chapter 
records to throw light on the period which intervened between 
1649, when Charles I was executed, and England was declared 
a Commonwealth, and 1661, the year after the Restoration of 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 83 

Charles II. But, if the West Country ditty were known in 
these parts, the Allerton men would doubtless have joined con 
amore in its jingle : 1 

" We'll bore a hole thro' Crum well's nose, 

And there we'll put a string ; 
We'll hang 'un up in middle of th' house, 
For killing of Charles our King." 

In other respects the Survey must speak for itself : but it is 
a matter of interest to observe that the sum of 8 13s. 4d. 2 
charged on the profits of the manor for the poor of Wells, is 
still paid yearly, and a portion of it helps to provide attend- 
ance and medicines for the sick, gratis. 

At the Restoration of Charles II, on May 29th, 1660, Dr. 
Creyghton, a Canon of Wells, who had been with the King in 
exile for the last fifteen years, was appointed to the Deanery. 
There are many visible memorials of him in the Cathedral 
Church, of which the most conspicuous is the brass lectern in 
the nave, presented by him as a thank offering. No sooner 
was he in office than the business of the Chapter manors en- 
gaged his attention. Among them, that of the manor of 
Allerton, of which Adrian Bower, born in 1630, was at that 
time, the tenant. At the close of the year 1661, three matters 
of business connected with Allerton, came before the Dean 
and Chapter. In two instances ' copies ' of their tenancy had 
been lost " in the troublesome tymes," by the tenants, and they 
now came to desire ' a new copy,' which was not obtained 
without enquiry into the merits of the case. Adrian Bower 
had lost his copy of twelve acres, for which a fine had been 
paid in 1640, as he affirmed, but he had to bring a witness, 
one William Hatch of Allerton (who) "affirmeth confidently 
and is readie to take his oath that he saw the copy which is 
lost." He also desired a new copy of the four acres in Shal- 

1. Notes and Queries. 6th s. xi, 129. 

2. See Serels' St. Cuthbert's Church, p. 107, for an incident connected 
with payment of this sum. 

84 Papers, $c. 

dom, and the three acres in Parkmeade, the original of 1641 
having been lost " in the late rebellious tymes." Search had 
to be made in " the booke of suits,"' and it was found that in 
15 Charles I, Edmond Bower, his father, had contracted with 
the Dean and Chapter for some land or tenement in Allerton, 
and had paid his fine, but for what land or tenement, " non 
constat." However, the new copy was granted. Xor are 
these the only instances of Deeds being lost, or of complica- 
tions in the tenures, arising out of the Rebellion. In 1663, a 
man and his wife named Kent, the tenants in possession of two 
tenements, enter a caveat against the surrender by certain 
other persons of those premises, and against any grant that 
may be made of them. Since the Parliament had abolished 
Deans and Chapters, full ten years had elapsed, and in the in- 
terval many changes among the tenants had taken place ; 
lives had dropped ; and probably little was known by the 
officials of the Church, of the business that had been tran- 
sacted in the interval. Among other results of the Restora- 
tion was a diminished rent roll from the manorial estates. In 
addition to the usual deductions ' pro aquaticis operibus,' i.e., 
cleansing the rhines, and * pro reparationibus pinf oldi," i.e., re- 
pairs to the manor Pound, an item now appears, entitled, " in 
subsidium regale," of no small amount. In 13 Charles II an 
Act was passed ' for a free and voluntary present to his 
Majesty,' with a proviso that " this Act and the Supply here 
granted shall not be drawn into example for the time to come." 
It was called a free and voluntary present, but it was nothing 
more or less than a tax levied on the nation for the payment 
of the King's debts. In one account in 1669, no less a sum 
than 192 4s. 4d. is entered as paid by the Chapter for 
" soluciones D n <>- Regi." 

The "Acts" of the Chapter were brought to a close in 
1644 by the Civil War, but they commence again in 1664. 
One of the first entries is concerning land at Allerton called 
"Powells." In 1650 it was held by Edmond Bower ; he was 

The Manor of All er ton and its Tenants. 85 

now dead, and in the ordinary course of things, his son 
Adrian would have succeeded to it. But it would seem that 
he objected to the amount of the fine demanded. A lease of 
it was granted to John Selleck, one of the Canons, who 
appears to have passed it on to his sister. The fine was 80 : 
the Chapter Clerk adding this note " This was designed for 
Mr. Adrian Bower for threescore and ten pounds if he had 
accepted of it." It was not long in the hands of Joanna 
Selleck, for in the following year Adrian Bower bought her 
out at 80 and five shillings ! 

To the Bowers succeeded as tenants of the farm the 
Canningtons, for a period of some twenty years. The first 
man of the name was John Canington, of North Petherton ; 
but the family was represented also at Wells, with which city 
it had been connected for between two and three hundred 
years. In the years 1444 and 1471 a Cannington had been 
one of the churchwardens of St. Cuthbert's. And now, on 
April 13th, 1683 (35 Charles II) John surrendered the 
Allerton manor farm, of which he was legally seized by mean 
assignment, to the Dean and Chapter. A new lease was 
granted to him and his heirs for the lives of Anne Cannington, 
his daughter, and of Thomas and John, sons of Robert 
Cannington, of Wells. The same rent as before, and the usual 
conditions were inserted. The attornies were Robert and 
John Pope, of Blackford. 

On the 2nd of October, 1690 (2 William and Mary) another 
lease was granted to John Cannington, for the lives of 
Thomas and John, sons of Robert, late of Wells, and of Avis 
Holt, daughter of Francis Holt, gent., deceased, on same 
terms. In the margin of the indenture there is this memoran- 
dum : " Mr. Cannington promised the Chapter to be kind to 
Avis Holt." Within five years, there was a great change in 
the family. Mr. and Mrs. Cannington had died, as a 
memorial to the latter in the south transept of Wedmore 

C. A. P. 6. Manor Rolls, p. 380, cf. 1690. 

86 Papers, fyc. 

Church testifies, 1 Thomas had succeeded his uncle, and had 
made Avis Holt his wife. It would appear also, that Anne 
and John were no longer living, for on January 13th, 1695, 
(7 William III) Thomas adds besides his own life and that of 
"Avis, his now wife," the life of Robert Thorn, instead of 
his brother John, in renewing his lease. This man was the 
son of a Thomas Thorn of the city of London. The attorneys 
were George Counsell, gent., and George White, yeoman. 
The rent remained the same, viz., 18. A series of Manor 
Court Rolls, extending from 1690 until 1708, is in existence, 
and they are interesting as specifying the names of the tenants 
who did suit to the lords at the fourteen Courts held during 
that time at Allerton. 

There is little more to be said of the Caningtons. In 1703 
(October 2nd) the Dean and Chapter confirmed letters patent 
to their tenant, Thomas, appointing him their bailiff for the 
life of himself and, strangely enough, for the life of Avis his 
wife, and Jane their daughter. In 1705, Avis is a widow 
residing in the Liberty at Wells, and twenty years later, Holt 
Canington (presumably her son) is elected a vicar choral on 
probation. The reason for the Chapter memorandum, that 
John Canington had promised to be kind to Avis, then father- 
less, was owing to a close connection with Chancellor Holt, 
who played a conspicuous part in the Chapter proceedings in 
July 1685, at the time of the Monmouth Rebellion, when, 
deploring the damage done by the rebels to the Cathedral, and 
rejoicing in their defeat, he wrote, " Deus, deus nobis hoec otia 

From the year 1705 until 1866, that is for the last one hun- 
dred and sixty years of the manor remaining in the possession 
of the Dean and Chapter, the two families of Paine and 

1. cf. Wedmore Chronicle II, 6, 318. 
C. A. P. 1683-1704. Id. 1703. 

Thomas Holt was among the suffering clergy in 1642. See Walker, pt. ii, 
74. Fo. edit., 1714. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 87 

Tudway, both of Wells, were the lessees of the farm. An 
alliance between the two families was contracted in the year 
1766, by the marriage of Robert Tudway with Mary, eldest 
daughter of Rev. John Paine, the then lessee, afterwards 
Canon and Sub-Dean of Wells. And with this alliance the 
connection of the Tudway family with Allerton began. 

On January 12th, 1705, John Paine, jr., of the city of 
Wells, notary public, took the farm and windmill on a lease 
for the lives of himself, Avis Cannington of the Liberty of 
S. Andrew, widow, and Robert Thorn. 1 Two deeds follow, 
one in 1707, and another in 1708. The former constitutes 
John Paine the younger, together with his tenant for the time 
being, game keepers to the Dean and Chapter, who give him 
full power and authority to appoint one or more persons for 
the better preserving the game, and for seizing "any guns, 
netts or other engines for destroying the said game." He 
and his tenant may also take or kill by all lawful means wild 
duck and mallard, wigeon, teale, pheasant, partridge, hares, 
and all other game that shall be found within the manor. 

The latter comes upon us as a surprise ; for it is a docu- 
ment authorizing two men of Burrington to dig or mine within 
the manor for lead ore, satisfying the tenants on whose ground 
they shall dig or mine, and paying to the Dean and Chapter 
a tenth part of all the ore they might raise. The probabili- 
ties of any success in such an enterprise must have been very 
remote. Professor Boyd Dawkins kindly confirms this con- 
clusion, and adds a note on the geology of the parish. He 
writes : " The grant to the men of Burrington was of no use 
to them because there is no lead ore in those rocks. The 
rocks forming the surface in the parish occur in the following 
order (descending) 6. Alluvium of marsh lands. 5. The 
lower triassic shales, clays, and limestones. 4. The white lias. 
3. The black clays and thin limestones with bone beds. 
2. The grey marls (all rhoetic). 1. The triassic red marls. 

1. Acts 1704, 1725. Id. Nov. 13. Id. April 6. 

88 Papers, 8fc. 

The geology of Allerton is merely a repetition of that of 
Wedmore and the line of hills sweeping past Theale and Pen 
Kuowle Hill to the east." 

In the following year two new lives were put in, instead of 
Avis Cannington and Rob*- Thorne, 1 viz. : Frances Paine the 
wife, and Frances Paine the sister of John. The wife was a 
daughter of Dr. Richard Healy, who gave 5 to the poor of 
Allerton, and who is commemorated on a mural tablet in the 
east cloister of the Cathedral. All that is known of her is 
recorded on a floor slab in the north transept. 

On her death in 1 729, he inserts the life of his son Richard, 
aged 19, and in the following year his son John. His father 
died in 1732, and he then became 'John Paine the elder of 
Wells,' surviving his father only nine years, and departing this 
life in 1741. 

His son John succeeded him, and renewed the lease for the 
lives of himself, Francis his brother, and Frances Paine his 
wife. He was in Holy Orders in 1743, and became in 1773 
Canon and Sub-Dean of Wells. He continued to be the 
lessee until his death in 1774. He married in 1741, Frances, 
daughter of William Goldfinch of Wells, and after her death 
in 1763, Hester - - ? At this time his daughter Mary 
became engaged to Robert Tudway of Wells, and when he 
renewed his lease for the last time in 1765, it was on the lives 
of himself, his daughter Mary, and Robert Tudway, esq re - 
In 1768, a parish rate is levied on Mr. " Studway " for the farm. 

The manor house, as it stands to-day, is a substantial dwell- 
ing, abutting on the churchyard, with surroundings not very 
different from those described in 1650. It dates from 1772, in 
which year, on January 1st, "the Dean and Canons did then 
order that Robert Tudway, Esq., might cut down as much 
timber on his estate at Allerton, held under the Dean and 
Chapter, as he hath had, or might have occasion for, on ac- 
count of building his house at Allerton." 

1. Id. Nov. 18. Acts 17251743. Id. Dec. 2. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 89 

On the death of Canon Paine, in 1774, Robert Tudway 
renewed the lease of the farm, after which no change 
occurred until the year 1796, when the life of John Paine 
Tudway was accepted by the Dean and Chapter in lieu of 
that of Robert Tudway, son to the lessee. In the first year 
of the 19th century, Robert being now dead, the farm passed 
to Clement and Charles Tudway of Wells, esquires, for the 
lives of Mary, widow of Robert, John Paine Tudway her son, 
and Edward Wright Band, Esq re - The last named resided at 
Wookey Hole. 

Clement Tudway died (surviving Charles) in 1815, at the 
advanced age of 80, having been M.P. for Wells for 55 
years, 1 and having served the office of Mayor of Wells ten 

The next notice to be recorded of any change is in 1824, 
when John Paine Tudway, M.P., 1815 1830, the son of 
Robert, and father of the last member of the family who held 
the estate, succeeded. The lives on which he held it were 
those of himself, Edwd- W. Band, and Edmund Lovell, son of 
Joseph Lovell Lovell. He died in July, 1835, aged 60, and 
was succeeded by his son, Robert Charles Tudway, Esq re -, 
who held it for the lives of E. Band of Wookey, himself, and 
his brother Henry Tudway. 

[At this time, July 1st, 1824, Allerton windmill, with its 
dwelling house and premises, was again let to a separate 
tenant, viz., Thomas Wilkins of Chapel Allerton, for lives of 
John Paine Tudway, E. W. Band, and John Wilkins, aged 
four years, son of Samuel Wilkins of Chapel Allerton, miller. 
Paul Wilkins succeeded his father in 1836, and Edwin 
Wilkins at his father's death in 1867, continued the tenancy 
until his death in 1883.] 

The Rev. Henry G. Tudway, the last surviving " life," died 
in February, 1866 (aet. 39), and by his death the Manor of 
Allerton ' fell into hand,' and passed away from the family, 

1. He was the Father of the House of Commons. 


Papers, frc. 

A.D. and was merged in the Wells Chapter estates just made over 
to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

The under-tenant in 1836 was George Mapstone, who was 
succeeded in 1843 by Matthew Teek, at whose death in 1866, 
his son, John Tabor Teek, became the occupier, until his retire- 
ment in 1897, when his son Arthur Teek took his place, and 
is now (A.D. 1900) the tenant. 



No. on Map. 

115 & 154. 






Part 144. 
Other part 
144 & 158. 












Description of Premises. 
Farm House, Garden, 1 

Barton, and Orchard . J 
Park Mead 
Binham Moor. No. 36 on ( 

Award . . . j 

Little Combe . 
Great Combe . 
Cully Mead 
Crick Mead 
Crick Orchard 
Pull Hayes . 

| Pull Hayes and 18 Hayes 

Six Acres 
Four Acres 
North Field , 
Allerton Hill . 
South Twelve Acres 
North Twelve Acres 
Hundred Stone 
Scotten's Close 
New Tyning . 
Quabb . . -. 
Quabb, or Popham's Grove 





3 9 



2 3 






2 13 








2 37 


3 29 






2 13 



3 6 











2 6 



1 12 



1 19 



3 35 






2 13 



1 2 


1 16 

In 1869, when a survey was made for the Commissioners, 
the farm was the same acreage as above (viz., 125 acres), and 
the entire manor comprised 515 acres. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 91 


John Paine, of Wells, notary public, 
n.p. John Paine, jr. = Frances Healy (1705), 

obt. 1741 set 60. 

obt. 1729 set 47. 

Richard. John = (1) Frances Goldfinch, (2) Hester ? 

obt. 1708. born 1717, obt. 1774. obt. 1763. obt. 1806 (87). 

Canon and Sub-Dean 1773. 

Frances. Mary. Frances. Elizabeth. John, 

b. and obt. 1743. b. 1745. b. 1749. b. 1751. b. 1753. 

Robert Tudway. 

John Paine Tudway, M.P. = Frances G. Pulsford. 
b. 1775, obt. 1835. 

Maria C. Miles = Robert Charles Tudway, M.P. Henry Gou d Tudway. 

Having now traced the line of the Leaseholders of the 
Manor Farm from 1530 to 1866, we will follow the fortunes of 
some of the separate holdings within the manor. Two stand 
out to view above the others, each a holding of some thirty 
acres, and as such they may have come down from early times, 
as the half virgates of feudal tenure. The one is the thirty- 
two acres in Broadness, the other the thirty acres in Braden- 
hurst. The former was in the tenancy of John Hodges of 
Blackford until 1550. In that year, John Schepherde of 
Worspring, grazier, took it for fifty years ; and the family of 
Shepherd continued to hold it until the beginning of the 18th 
century. Edmund was the tenant in 1650, having taken it on 
lease in 1639 for the lives of his three sons, Edmund, 

92 Papers, frc. 

William, and Richard. In 1652, Edmund, sen*-., granted it 
for the use of Richard during his life, and after his death, of 
his heirs for the residue of the unexpired term. In 1664, 
Richard desired to exchange his own and his brother Edmund's 
lives, William being dead, and to put in a new life. In 1688, 
Richard, of Worle, took it for three lives, and in 1695 his son 
Dennis did the same. 

In 1741 the estate passed to Mr. Paine, together with the 
farm, the lease being renewed in 1763 and in 1766. In 1774 
the tenant was Elizabeth Frances Paine of Wells, spinster. 

In 1795 it passed from her to the Rev. Richard Chaple 
Whalley, to whom she had been married, and who was now 
left a widower by her death. He was the fourth son of the 
Rev. John Whalley, D.D., by Mary, daughter of Rev. 
Francis Squire, Chancellor of Wells, so that he was closely 
connected, both by parentage and marriage, with the Wells 
Chapter. There is a memorial, much obliterated, to Mrs. 
Whalley in the east cloister of the Cathedral. 

In 1825, a lease of the thirty-two acres was granted to 
William Lewis of Axbridge, fellmonger, and Rebecca Arnold, 
widow of John Arnold, late of Port Isaac in the county of 
Cornwall, officer of excise, formerly Rebecca Maggs, spinster, 
for the lives of Thomas Wickham of Horsington, clerk, aged 
about 50, Richard Thomas Whalley of Yeovilton, clerk, aged 
about 40, and Clement Lewis, son of William Lewis, aged five. 
The families of Whalley and Wickham were closely connected 
by marriage. James Wickham of Frome, sol r > married Mary, 
daughter of Dr. John Whalley. 

The other holding was known as " Bradenhurst," and was 
thirty acres in extent. In the earlier part of this paper it has 
been shewn that the first lessee on record was Roger Hill, 
who was succeeded in 1558 by William Welsh of Loxton, 
Elizabeth his wife, and William Hill, s r -> son of Roger Hill. 
In 1565 William Welsh of Alvington renewed the lease for 
himself, his wife Elizabeth, and their son William. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 93 


On October 3rd (28 Elizabeth) a lease of the 30 acres was 1586 
granted to William Welsh, husbandman, and Elizabeth and 
Christian Welsh, the daughters, for the term of their natural 
lives at the former rent, with a proviso that if William Welsh 
should have a son, then on payment by him of ten shillings, a 
new lease should be granted, and the name of the son inserted 
in the lease with one of the daughters. 1 

On Jan. 3rd, 6 Charles I, an Indenture was made between 1631 
the Dean and Chapter and William Welsh of Axbridge, yeo- 
man. In consideration of the surrender by W. W. of the 30 
acres, which April 3rd (14 James I) 1617 had been granted 
by the Dean and Chapter to Edward Smith of Wells, grocer, 
for the lives of W. W., Martha his then wife, and Dennice 
his daughter, and which on the following 5th of October had 
been granted by Edward Smith to William Welsh, the latter, 
on payment of a fine of 20, has a new lease granted to him. 
The attornies were John Wrentmore of Axbridge, and 
Thomas Corp of Allerton. 2 

The Welsh family continued to hold it until after the Par- 
liamentary Survey, for at that time, 1650, a William Welsh, 1650 
probably the grandson of the first man, was the lessee. After 
this Robert Pope of Blackford held it, until 1691, when he sur- 1691 
rendered it, and Robert Yeascombe of Blackford, yeoman, 
leased it for the lives of himself, his son Robert, and Richard 
Radford of Langford, son of R. R., late of Mark, deceased. 
He died in 1695, and in 1696, his son Robert renewed for the 
lives of himself and his daughters, Joan and Mary, both under 
four years of age. In 1728, it would appear they had both 1728 
married, and their brother had become the tenant, for a new 
lease is granted to Robert Yeascombe of Bristol, for the lives 
of himself, Joane Smith, John Smith cleric, and Mary 
Phippen, sister to Robert Yeascombe. In 1759, the lease is 
renewed by him, and again in 1773. In 1786 Thomas Clark 

1. C. A. F. Fo. 89. 

2. C. A. G. 83. 

94 Papers, #c. 

A.D. of Ingsbatch, in the parish of I nglishcombe, gentleman, was 
the tenant for the lives of Robert Yescombe, now or late of 
the city of Bristol, gentleman, Edwd. B. Yescombe, nephew, 
and John Hanbury Williams of Colebrook, in the county of 

1807 Monmouth, aged about 34. In 1807 he put in a new life, and 

1827 appears to have held it until 1827, when it passed to Edward 
Reeve for the lives of Thomas Day, aged 41, Elizabeth, wife 
of Edward Reeve, aged 34, and Joseph Edward Reeve his 
nephew. Although the holding was 30 acres by estimation, it 
was now shewn to be only 22a. 3r. 34p. by admeasurement. 

1833 On 1 1th of May, William Tiley, of Cross, leased the property 

under the modern description of Nos. 177, 178, 179, 180, 
Broadenhurst, 9a. Ir. 7p. Broadenhurst, 5a. Ir. 30p. Broad- 
enhurst, 9a. Or. 39p., and Hoar Field, la. Ir. 19p., for lives of 
Maria Tiley, his daughter, aged about 10 years, Clement 
Lewis, aged about 18 years, and James Inman Allford, aged 
about 17 years. 

It would occupy far too much space to give the renewals of 
leases of the many separate holdings that now existed, during 
the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th centuries; but 
some entries during this period are of particular interest. In 
1687, the Dean and Chapter passed a decree that "in considera- 
tion of the perversenesse and unkindnesse of severall of the 
tenants of the Church they shall be and are at liberty to grant 
reversions and estates by copy for more than six lives, and 
without the consent of the tenant in possession, as the Chapter 
have heretofore done according to their discretion." There 
soon followed numerous applications for reversions. And now, 
when a lease was surrendered, and new lives put in, an additional 
covenant was inserted, that "the rent shall be paid clear without 
any deduction for taxes." Demands by the tenants for a 
reduction in their rents do not appear to have been favourably 
received by the lords. In a document of 1712, three virgates 
of land are described as "lying in le upper field prope le 
windmill ubi domus molendinarii nunc cedificatur," a queer 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 95 

mixture of English and Latin, but interesting as fixing the A.D. 
date of the erection of the mill-house. 

At this time among the families which were tenants of the 
Dean and Chapter were those of Gane, Counsell, Blessley, 
Chappell, Jennett, John Bishop (who, in 1717, gave 2 to the 
poor of the parish), Deane, and Wrentmore, names more or 
less surviving in the memories of the older inhabitants, besides 
George Warman, of Ashton. But we cannot trace the story 
of their holdings. It must be enough to give in detail the 
more recent tenancies. 

"Seven acres of meadow in Allerton to Richard Cook, of 1731 
Allerton, yeoman, for lives of self, Thomas, and Anna 

"Tenement and lands in Allerton to William Goold for 1734 
lives of self, son William, and Charles Hurdacre." 

" Seven acres of pasture in Guyer of Overland, and two 1743 
acres of meadow in Paddmeade of Overland, lately enclosed, 
to Robert Browning for lives of self, Ann his wife, and Jane 
Miller, wife of William Miller, of Minster, Dorset." 

"Four acres arable to William Hatch for lives of self, 
William his son, and Mary his daughter." 

" Lands called s Powells ' to William Goold for lives of self, 1745 
Joan his wife, and Charles Hurdacre." 

"Lands in A to Thomas Millard, of Vole, for lives offelf, 1753 
Anne his wife, and Samuel Blesley, her natural son." 

"Three acres called ' Pill ' to John Brown, of A., yeoman." 1762 

" Six acres to James Durston, of Mark, for lives of self, 
wife, and son." 

" The same to same for lives of self and two sons." 

" The same to same for lives of self, son George, and 
daughter Joanna." 

" Six acres called ' Powell's' to William Harden, of Mark, 
for lives of Charles Hurdacre, of Blackford, labourer; Jane 
Gilling, wife of John Gilling, of Mark, yeoman ; and John, 
his son.' 

96 Papers, j-c. 

1772 "Seven acres of pasture in Guyer, of Overland, and two 

acres of meadow in Paddimeade, of Overland, to John 

Browning, of Wedmore, for lives of Ann Browning (widow), 

John, and Nicholas his brother." 
1774 "Thirteen acres and seven acres old Auster to William 

Watts, of C. Allerton, yeoman, for lives of self, brother James, 

and son Joseph." 
1776 "Four acres of arable, lying in Langland's Hill, in A., to 

Thomas Hatch, for lives of William, self, and son James." 
" Seven acres to Richard Fear, s. of John Fear, of A., 

1793 "' Powells' to John Gilling, of Mark, yeoman, for lives of 

Charles Hurdacre, of Blackford, labourer ; Thomas Gilling, 

aged about 18 ; and Mary Gil ling, aged about 20, nephew and 


1795 "Six acres late James Durston's to George Durston, of 
South Brent, gentleman, for lives of Geo. Durston, Joanna 
Hawkins, of East Brent, and Edward Smithfield Hawkins." 

1796 "All that plot or parcel of land, part of Binham Moor, con- 
taining by admeasurement two acres three roods and twenty 
perches, numbered 44 on a plan of the said moor, and bounded 
as therein particularly mentioned, which, the Commissioners 
named and appointed in and by a certain Act of Parliament, 
for dividing and allotting, and enclosing certain moors, com- 
mons, and waste lands, lying and being in the parish of C. 
Allerton, Biddisham, and Wear, in the county of Somerset, 
lately set out and allotted to the Dean and Chapter, lords of 
the said manor, and owners of the soil of Binham Moor Drove- 
way, Toot, and Prowse's Lane, is granted to John Pullen for a 
term of twenty-one years." 

1797 "Three acres called 'Pitt,' and two acres in ' Wigmead,' 
heretofore in the tenure of Richard Millard, and since of John 
Brown, to William Brown, of Bristol, currier, for lives of self, 
wife, and Richard, son of W. Brown, of Mudgley." 

1805 " Seven acres to Richard Fear." 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 97 


" < Powell's ' to John Gilling." 1805 

"The six acres on which a messuage has been erected to 1812 
George Durston, of South Brent, aged 47." 

" Twelve acres in Guyer of Overland, and two acres of 1819 
meadow in Park mead of Overland, sometime since enclosed, 
late Robert Browning, deceased, to John Green, of Easton, in 
the out psh of S. Cuthbert, yeoman." 

"Joseph Watts appointed gamekeeper of Allerton and Bid- 1820 

"Various lands in Allerton to William Edwards, of Sand, 1826, 
for lives of Ann Cox, nee Ann Watts, Joseph Watts, aged 11, 
and John Hembry, aged 11. One tenement, containing thirteen 
acres, and seven acres of meadow, old Anster, six acres of 
pasture in Brodenhurst, five acres in Brimble Croft, four 
acres sixteen perches in Binham Moor." 

" ' Powell's ' sixteen acres altered by enclosure." 1827 

i. House and garden, No. 132 on the lord's map. 
ii. One close of meadow called Black Heal, four acres 

thirty-six perches, No. 133 ditto, 
iii. One close called "Pophams Grave," one acre eight 

perches, No. 135 ditto, 
iv. One close called " Gould's Tyning," one rood 

thirty-two perches, No. 137. 
v. One piece of meadow in Binham's Moor, all to 

Thomas Gilling of Mark. 

" ' Pitt ' three acres, more or less, to Joseph Coombs of 
Stoton Cross, yeoman, for lives of George, Hannah, and Luke 
Coombs. Rent of 5/- and heriot of 6/8 on death of George, 
Hannah, or Luke." 

" ' Late Fear's,' one acre two roods and twenty perches, to 1828 
William Parfitt, for lives of nephews and niece." 

" That piece of pasture land, commonly known as Town- 
leaze or Broadenhurst, containing by measure four acres, more 
or less (No. 139), to Edward Reeve, for lives of James Hatch 
(53), James Escott, and Ellen Escott." 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. g 

98 Papers, Sfc. 


1828 " ' Hatch's Folly,' three acres two roods twenty-one perches 

(No. 124), formerly Thomas Hatch's, afterward Richard 
Clapp's, now Geo. Clapp's, yeoman, to the said George Clapp, 
for lives of James Hatch of Huntspill, cordwainer (59), Jane 
Clapp (5), and George Clapp (3)." 


A " Capella " attached to the manor, of which the advowson 
belonged to the lord, has already been shewn to have been in 
existence in 131.7, but one window, with a narrow light, and 
deep splay, west of the porch, points to a date earlier than 
this for the first building of the edifice. This agrees with an 
entry in the " Liber Ruber,'in A.D. 1247, referring to a chapel 
then standing. All that remains of this is the above-named 
window, and perhaps the old font. It was a small structure, 
consisting of a nave lighted with narrow lancet windows. 
The head of the original doorway was utilized by the men of 
the fifteenth century for the head of the east window, when 
the chancel appears to have been built, probably in the time of 
William By themore. To this date belongs the cope, preserved 
in the County Museum at Taunton, and fully described by 
Mr. J. C. Buckley, of Bruges, in the Proceedings of S. A. 
and N. H. Society, xvii, page 51. It was found by the present 
writer in 1858 at the bottom of an old chest. It may possibly 
have been the gift of Dean Gunthorp to the church, and to 
him may be owing the building of the chancel. The figures 
1638 are carved on the large south window of the nave, and 
fix the date of a considerable remodelling of the " Capella." 
Edmund Bower, the son of Adrian, was at the farm, and his 
brother John had recently taken his degree at Oxford. There 
were, therefore, men on the spot, capable of carrying out the 
work, besides the rector, Matthew Law. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 99 

The illustration conveys the character of the chapel after 
these alterations had been completed, a window of similar 
dimensions to those of that on the south side having been 
inserted on the north side, westward. On the north, was a 
window corresponding to the early one on the south, and also 
a narrow doorway, neither the one nor the other existing to- 
day. Internally, much decoration in the way of wall-texts 
was effected, Matthew Law was the rector, John Curtis and 
Andrew Pople were churchwardens, and the congregation was 
edified by these passages of holy writ : Over the south door- 
way, " Keep thy foote when thou goest to the House of God," 
etc., Ecclesiastes v, 1 ; over the font at the entrance, " Jesus 
said, Suffer little children," etc., S. Matt, xix, 14 ; to the right 
of the doorway, *' I believe in God the Father," etc. ; occupy- 
ing a large space on the north wall of the nave, " A man that 
useth much swearing," etc., Ecclesiasticus xi, 23 ; and nearer 
to the pulpit, with evident reference to King Charles I, 
" Curse not the King, no not in thy thought," etc., Eccles. x, 20. 
The pulpit stood on the north side, by the staircase to the 
rood-loft. Adjoining it was an hour-glass. It was made of 
oak, and in shape was octagonal. It was panelled and highly 
coloured, with full-length figures of five of the apostles. The 
chalice belonging to the church is dated 1573. No structural 
alterations in the building were made after 1638, until 1858, 
when the chancel was rebuilt, and a north aisle was added to 
the nave. 

Of objects of interest in the churchyard or of memorials of 
the departed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there 
are but few. 

The cross, an ancient one, repaired in 1859-60, has a taper- 
ing octagonal shaft of six feet ten inches high, surmounted by 
a modern finial cross, resting on two steps. The old yew tree, 
west of the south porch, is of great age, and tells its own story, 
by the iron bars and masonry, which have been used to keep it 

100 Papers, -c. 

Forty years ago a stone sacred to the memory of Priscilla 
Wall (see Survey 1650), was standing with this inscription : 

" Heere Lyeth the Body of Priscilla Wall, widow. 
Was Heere Buried the 27 of Jenuary Afio 1668. 
Why standst ye Heere and Gaze on me, as 1 am now so 
shalt ye be. 

So also this : 

" Heare Lyeth the body of John Hart of this Parish. 
Who departed November the 21, Anno Dom. 1677." 
" Why standst Thou gazing thus on me, Even as I am Soe 
shalt Thou be." 

Another memorial to the W all family was this : 

" 1680. Heere Lieth the Body of John Wall, the Sonn of 
Edward Wall, who was Buried the 17 of October. 

And Ann Wall, the daughter of Edward Wall, was Buried 
the 2 of November." 

There was also a stone, but then crumbling, to the memory 
of a daughter of William Hatch, jr. (see Survey 1650), who 
was buried April 10th, 1666, and of Edmund Hatch, the sonn 
of William. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 



[INTRODUCTORY NOTE. A comparison of the accompanying list with that 
in " Somerset Incumbents" will shew that seven of the rectors between 1414 
and 1482, as there given, are here omitted. These seven were not rectors of 
Allerton, but of the Free Chapel of Alston Sutton, in Weare. Of the rectors 
of Allerton before the end of century xv (1498) little or nothing is known.] 

Date of Ap- 

Name of Rector. 

How Vacated. 

Patron . 


June 29 

Thomas Gilbert, D.D. 

By death 
of W. Stevens 

Sub- Dean 
and Chapter 

Lib. ruber 69 

No entry 

Roger Churche 


Jan. 22 

John Edmunds, Canon 

By resignation 
of R. C. 

Dean and 

156 dors 


James Gylbert 


Dec. 22 

Robert Ffanner 

death of J. G. 

Acts E, fo. 99 

Mar. 23 

John Evered 

death of R. F. 


F, fo. 7 


No entry 

William Farnham 

F, fo. 31 

Dec. 16 

Richard Boy field 

By resigna- 
tion of W. F. 


F, fo. 31 

July 2 

John Farrant 

death of R. B. 


F, fo. 147 

Oct. 26 

Thomas Steevens 

By resigna- 
tion of J. F. 


F, fo. 210 

July 5 

Hugh Philipps 

By resigna- 
tion of T. S. 


,, F, fo. 216 


July 1 

Matthew Law 

death o?H. P. 


fo. 10 

July 1 

Ralph Bathurst 

death of M. L. 



July 30 

Thomas Davies 

By resigna- 
tion of R. B. 


on fly-leaf 

1. For further information as to these entries see Somerset and Dorset 
Notes and Queries, vi, 73. 


Papers, fyc. 

Date of Ap- 

Njme of Rector. 

How Vacated. 


Dean and 


Jan. 10 

Francis Craddock 


death of T. D. 

on fly-leaf 

Dec. 2 

Thomas Brick enden ... 

death of F. C. 


May 30 

Eldridge Aris 


death of T. B. 



Jan. 2 

John Tottenham 

death of E. A. 

1 1 


July 1 

George Card 


death of J. T. 

, , 


Feb. 23 

William Hudlestone ... 

By resigna- 
tion of Cr. C. 



Edmund Lovell 

death of W. H. 

} } 


Aug. 15 

William Hunt 


death of E. L. 



Dec. 7 

Samuel James 

By resigna- 
tion of W. H. 



Jan 25 

Peter Lewis Parfitt ... 


death of S. J. 



Mar. 6 

James Col eman, M.A. ... 

death of P. L. P. 



Sept. 3 

Joseph Gilbert, B. A. ... 

By resigna- 
tion of J. C. 



Feb. 22 

Richard Fraser Fraser 

By resigna- 
tion of J. G. 




1498 Thomas Gilbert, canon residentiary of Wells, a seneschal 

and guardian of the Deanery after the death of Gunthorpe, 
Proctor in Convocation for the Chapter ; represented Bishop 
Oliver King at his enthronement in the Cathedral ; " sworn 
and admitted to the Free Chapelry of Alberton, June 29th, 
1498," and inducted by the Dean's official ; said to have been 
" universis infirmitatibus vexatus " in 1501. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 103 

Roger Churche, canon residentiary of Wells, said by Antony A.I). 
A. Wood to have been " a great pluralist in the diocese of 
Wells and elsewhere." 1 In 1504 Vicar of N. Curry. He 
resigned Allerton, before 1508. Rector of Batcombe and 
Upton, 15151524. A friend of William Warham, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, who was Precentor of Wells from 1493 
to 1502. 2 Two letters are extant as to the next nomination to 
Allerton, one from the Archbishop to the Dean and Chapter, 
the other, the reply. Warham desired to have the appoint- 
ment : his letter runs " I promyse you I shall name to you a 
broder of y r aune vertuouse, well learned, and a good prechour, 
which 1 doubte not shall please God and content you right 
well." The Chapter courteously declined to accede to the re- 
quest in these terms " pleasethe yo r said grace to knowe that 
of long tyme used and so yet contynued any benefice beying 
of the grefte of the said Chapitre be geven when hit voided 
to oon of the actuel Residenciaries of this Churche if any will 
accepte hit. Wherfore we humbly desir yor good grace we 
may observe and kepe this olde usage." 3 

John Edmunds, canon residentiary and seneschal. 4 In 1507 150 
rector of Mells. On March 26th, 1510, he delivered to the 

Chapter one pair of vestments of white damask with angels 
for the altar of Mr. John Gunthorpe, late Dean, according to 

his injunction. 5 

James Gylbert, M.A., Prebendary of Cud worth and Canon 1536 

Residentiary of Wells, the last of the pre-Ref ormation rectors. 

Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, 1507. M.A., 1511. Vicar 

of East Ham, Essex, 1511. Rector of Kingsdon, Som*-, 

1521. Rector of Christopher-le-Stocks, London, 1536. Rector 

of Allerton, 1536. 6 

1. [. 655. 

2. Le Neve's Fasti. 1.171. 

3. Liber Ruber. Fo. 155. 

4. Id. Fo. 156 in dors. 

5. Reynolds, p. 232. 

6. Alumni Oxon. 

104 Papers, fyc. 


1556 Robert F fawner not Flaner as in " Somerset Incumbents," 

the first of the post-Reformation rectors. 1 In 1561 he leased 
the rectory (the Chapter consenting) to Richard Godwyne, of 
Wells, for a term of 60 years ! The lessee agreed to pay 
Ffanner and his successors 6 13s. 4d. yearly, in two parts, to 
cause the cure of the benefice to be well and sufficiently served 
by one able priest or minister from tyme to tyme, to be allowed 
by the Ordinary of the Diocese ; and to sufficiently repair the 
chancel, mansion house, dove house and barn, and all other 
buildings belonging to the benefice, " and them sufficiently 
repayred in the end of their sayd terme to leve and yelde 
upp." 2 The Chapter ratified this agreement " quantum in 
nobis est." 

1572 John Evered, B.A. Was vicar of Weare for three months 

in 157677, and died before Jan. 25th, 1577. 3 

1578 Richard Boyfeild. Allerton was held by William Farnham 

for a short time, after J. Evered, but nothing is known of him. 
Boyfeild was the " curatus " de Allerton for sixteen years ; he 
was buried at Wedmore on June 27th, 1594 ; 4 his name sur- 
vived for nearly one hundred years, for in 1659 a Richard 
Boyfeild was married in Wedmore church to Joane Reeve. 

1594 John Farrant, a Vicar Choral of Wells. 

1607 Thomas Steevens. " Clericus." 

1611 Hugh Philipps. " Rector sive capellanus rectorue sive 

capellae." There is sufficient proof of his being resident. He 
buried a son, Thomas, at Wedmore, on October 18th, 1615 
(the entry running " Thomas filius Hugonis Philipps de Aller- 
ton,") and Dorothy, his wife, on March 5th, 1617, and on 
February 14th, 1621, he himself was laid to rest there. 

1622 Matthew Law, M.A. The Chapter Acts of this year record 

his appointment to Allerton, but it is given in " Somerset In- 

1. Chapter Acts. E , fo. 99. 

2. Chapter Acts. E., fo. 137- 

3. "Somerset Incumbents," p. 205. 

4. " Wedmore Register of Burials." 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 105 

cumbents " as 1636, and a reference to Rymer's " Feed era," 1 A.D. 
shews that on May 28th, 1636, the Crown claimed the right of 
presentation, " adnostram presentationem " " per lapsum tem- 
poris sive per pravitatem Simoniie hac vice spectantem." He 
was vicar of Wedmore 1627 1647, and was resident. The 
sad story of his domestic troubles in 1645 no less than five 
deaths occurring at the Vicarage within three months is 
given in the Wedmore Chronicle? and need not be repeated 
here. What happened to him, on his leaving Wedmore, we 
know not, but he was still rector of Allerton in 1 650. 

Ralph Bathurst* Dean of Wells 1670. President of 1672 
Trinity College, Oxford, who rebuilt the College Chapel, etc. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War he studied medicine, took 
the degree of M.D., and practised as a physician at Oxford. 
He was a strong Royalist ; of his thirteen brothers, six lost 
their lives in the service of Charles I. In 1663 he be.came 
Chaplain to Charles II. In his will he says : " I have not 
made it the labour of my life to live great or dye wealthy, but 
have studiously avoided that vanity, and sore travel, to bereave 
my soul of good by heaping up riches, not knowing who shall 
gather them." 

Thomas Davies. A Welshman, matriculated at S. Edmund 1 679 
Hall, Oxford, July 1661, aged 17, B.A. 1665, M.A. 1670, is 
probably to be identified with this rector. Ordained priest by 
Bishop Piers 1666, he was appointed Vicar of Wedmore by 
Dean Bathurst in 1672, and appears to have served Allerton 
for the Dean, until 1679, when he became rector, on the 
Dean's resignation of the benefice. There is no Chapter Act 
recording his presentation, but on the fly-leaf of the Acts of 
1666 1682, is a memo., signed " Tho. Davies," to the follow- 
ing effect : 

" I Thomas Davis now to be collated to y e Rectory or pish 

1. XX. 134. 

2. I. 245-6. 

3. Diet. Nat. Biog. III. 409,411. 

106 Papers, Sfc. 

A.I). church of Allerton als Alverton in the Diocess of Bathe and 
Wells doe voluntarily, and ex animo subscribe to y e 3 articles 
menconed and contained in the 36th Canon of ye Canons and 
Constitutions Ecclesiale of this Realme and to all things there- 
in contained." 

He held the Prebendal Stall of Wedmore the 2nd. He 
died at the comparatively early age of 43 on December 12th, 
1687, at Wedmore, and was buried within the church on the 
15th. A memorial slab in the Chancel has this inscription : 

" H. S. I. Thomas Davies, A.M., Vicarias Wedmoren. iion 
minus quam Ecclesise Anglicans juriurn assertor Strenuus 
hujus turn etiam istius Allertonensis Perannos xvii. Pastor 
Fidelis, Obstinate Integritatis ille Vir et Priscae Fidei Cultor. 
Obijt pridie Id Decemb. MDCLXXXvn." 1 

1687 Francis Cradock, of Hemington, Somerset, and Lincoln 

College, Oxford, B.A. 1678. On his appointment to Allerton 
he subscribed to the 39 Articles before Bishop Ken. Rector 
of Axbridge 1682-89. Died at the age of 33 years, and was 
buried at S. Cuthbert's, Wells, November 27th, 1689. 2 Preb- 
endary of Combe the 8th. 

1689 Thomas Brickenden, son of Thomas Brickenden, rector of 

Corton Dinham, and Canon of Wells, who presented him to 
Allerton. He was also rector of Rimpton 1690 1719, where 
he lived and died. A stone in the centre of the floor of the 
chancel of Rimpton Church commemorates him, and his wife 
Dorothy. She died at the early age of 21 in 1697 ; he, at the 
age of 59 in 1719. 3 

1719 Eldridgc Arts, son of William Aris, of the city of Oxford ; 

matriculated at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1677, Clerk of 
Magdalen College 16801686. B.A. 1681, M.A. 1684. Rec- 
tor of Rodney Stoke, 1688-89. Vicar Choral of Wells, 1689 ; 
succeeded Cradock as Prebendary of Combe the 8th ; Vicar 

1. See also " Wedmore Chronicle," I. 253. 

2. Axbridge Register, but not found at S. Cuthbert's. 

3. Teste, the late Rev. M. Hawtrey, rector. 

The Manor of Allerton and its Tenants. 107 

of Cheddar, 16891729; Rector of Allerton, 17191729. A.D. 
Four of his children were baptized in Wells Cathedral Church, 
the eldest of whom became a Solicitor at Axbridge. He 
resided for the most part at Cheddar, where he died on Decem- 
ber 31st, 1729, aged 70 years. 1 

John Tottenham, M.A., son of Edward Tottenham, of Bat- 1729 
combe, near Nyland. Born in 1696, and baptized in Cheddar 
Church ; when six years old, he lost his father. Matriculated 
at Balliol College, Oxford (ajt 14), 1711. B.A. 1714. M.A. 
from Lincoln College, 1717. Prebendary of Holcombe, 1725. 
Rector of Allerton, and Vicar of Cheddar, 1729. Died, 
aged 44 years, in May 1740, and was buried at Cheddar. 2 

George Carde, son of George Carde, of Burnham, gent. 1740 
Matriculated at Hart Hall, Oxford, 1734, ast 20. Rector of 
Allerton for seven months, and then became Vicar of Cheddar, 
where he lived, and died, and was buried in 1747. 

William Hudleston, M.A., of the ancient family of this name 1740 
in Cumberland, son of Lawson Hudleston, and born in 1716. 
His mother was Helena Harington, of Kel-ston, of which 
parish his father was rector 1710, and afterwards Canon of 
Wells, Archdeacon of Bath, and Vicar of S. Cuthbert's, 
Wells. Our rector was also Vicar of S. Cuthbert's, Vicar of 
S. Brent, and Prebendary, first of Easton, and then of Combe 
the 14th. His wife was Mary, eldest daughter of John Bur- 
land, of Wells. He was great grandson of Andrew Hudle- 
ston, of Hutton John, the elder brother of Father Hudleston, 
who received the confession of Charles II, and gave him the 
last rites of the Roman Communion on his death bed. He 
died March 1st, 1766, aged 49, and was buried at Kelston. 

Edmund Lovell, D.C.L., son of Edmund Lovell, clericus, of 1767 
Shepton Malet. Matric. at Merton College, Oxford, 1757. 
B.A. 1^60. M.A. 1763. D.C.L. 1768. Rector of Allerton 
and Prebendary of Taunton, 1767. Vicar of S. Cuthbert's, 

1. Cheddar Burial Register. 

2. Cheddar Burial Register. 

108 Papers, fyc. 

and Archdeacon of Bath, 1786. Died July 18th, 1798, aged 
58. Burial in Cathedral Register. 

1798 William Hunt. Resident at Bath in 1800, from which city 

he wrote and invited a parishioner at Allerton to call on him, 
and take what a bachelor's house could afford. He employed 
Rev. John Boak, a well-known clergyman in the neighbour- 
hood, to serve Allerton for him at 25 a year. 

1801 Samuel James. Resided at Radstock, and engaged Rev. 

W. Phelps at 30 a year to do his duty. Mr. Phelps lived at 
Wells, and wrote a " History of Somerset." 

1814 Peter Lewis Parfitt, M.A., son of Edward and Ann Parfitt, 

of Wells. Born in 1778. Matriculated at Balliol College, 
Oxford, 1795. B.A. 1799. M.A. 1802. Priest Vicar of 
Wells Cathedral, 1801. Rector of Allerton, 1814, until his 
death in December, 1857. Resided in Wells, and had the fol- 
lowing curates C. J. Cobley, 18161828. W. G. Heath- 
man, 1829-30. O. S. Harrison, 1830. W. Irving, 1831. A. 
N. Buckeridge, 1835-37. H. Carrow, 1837-8. Geo. Talbot, 
1839-40. W. Richards, 1843. C. Cox, 1845. N. Spicer, 
1847-48. E. P. Green, 1849-51. H. H. Olver, 1852-58. A 
memorial stone to him is in the south cloister of the Cathedral 
Church. Succeeded in 1858 by the writer of this Paper. 




Part III. 

\ DESCENT of Brook proceeding from a younger son 
~ of the main stem of this family, appears to have been 
first located at Bristol, and subsequently at Long-Ashton, 
Barrow-Gurney, and Glastonbury, in Somerset. The follow- 
ing account of them is not offered as complete, but it is believed 
the principal particulars are included. 

Its founder was Hugh Brook, third son of Sir Thomas 
Brook, Junr., of Olditch and Weycroft in Devon, by his wife 
Joan de la Pole-Braybroke, Lady of Cobham, where he had 
settled on his marriage with the heiress of that name and place, 
and where he died in 1429. 

IBroofe, of IBristoi. 

HUGH BROOK, who according to the Visitation, Somerset, 
1623, married PETRONEL - , of whom no further par- 
ticulars are recorded. He appears to have left a son Thomas. 

THOMAS BROOK, not named in the Somerset Visitation, 
but according to Dr. N orris, the late Vicar of Redcliffe, in his 
account of that church (1882). 

" Thomas Canynges, the last surviving grandson of the wealthy and munifi- 
cent William Canynges, inherited an estate at Wells from his mother, and sold 
his grandfather's house in Redcliffe Street. In 1500 it seems to have become 
the residence of Thomas Brook, the father of John Brook, whose gravestone, 
inlaid with brass, is in Redcliffe church." 

110 Papers, fyc. 

Who he married is not recorded, but in the Gloucestershire 
Visitation, a Thomas Brooke is mentioned as having married 
Anne, daughter of Sir Thomas Spert, of Stjbonheath, Middle- 
sex, Comptroller of the Ships to Henry VIII. Lysons in 
the Environs of London, Part II, thus refers to him : 

" On the south wall of Stepney church is the monument of Sir Thomas 
Spert, Comptroller of the Navy in the reign of Henry VIII, the Founder and 
first Master of the Corporation of the Trinity House, 1541 ; and that it was 
erected by them in 1622." 

He appears to have left two sons, William, apparently the 
eldest, died s.p. A William Brooke married Agnes, daughter 
of John Wynter and Alicia his wife, daughter and heir of 
William Tirrey, and she married secondly Dr. Thomas Wilson, 
Secretary to Queen Elizabeth. The younger was John. 

JOHN BROOK, second son, was a person of considerable 
position, Serjeant-at-Law to Henry VIII, and Justice of 
Assize to that King for the western parts of England. He 
also held the office of Chief Steward to the Monastery of 
Grlastonbury, which must have occurred during the rule of 
Abbot Richard Beere, who presided there from Jan. 1492-3, 
to his death 20th Jan., 1524. 

He married JOHANNA, only daughter and heiress of 
RICHARD AMEKIKE, of Ashton-Phillips (or Lower Court), in 
Long-Ashton, a manor of which he purchased " one moiety in 
1491 from Thomas Withyford, and the other half from Hum- 
phrey Seymour in 1503, thus being proprietor of the whole." 
This property John Brook probably possessed jure uxoris, and 
resided on it ; he was married in 1494. They left three sons, 
Thomas, eldest and heir, Arthur, and David, and one daugh- 
ter Lucia, who married Nicholas Tooze, son and heir of John 
Tooze of Taunton, and his wife Johanna, daughter of John 
Combes. Arms of Tooze, Sable, two swords in saltire argent, 
hilts or, points downwards, within a bordure of the second. 

He was interested in the management of Redcliffe Church, 
and, continues Dr. Norris : 



The Brook Family. 1 1 1 

"An autient document in the vestry of Redcliffe Church is, 1 A book of 
accompte of John Brooke and others, procurators of the church,' containing 
charges for obits said in Canynges Chantries. This book is much scribbled 
over by Chatterton, teaching himself to counterfeit the fifteenth century 
writing. " 

He died 25th Dec., 1522, and was interred together with his 
wife, on the north side of the chancel of Redcliffe Church, 
beneath a flat stone whereon is inlet their effigies in brass, with 
inscription ; and originally also four shields, one of which only 

He is in forensic costume, with coif, tippet and hood, and 
long gown with full sleeves. His wife wears a pedimental 
head-dress with flowing lappets, close-fitting gown with fur 
cufl's, an embroidered girdle with enriched fastening, from 
which depends by a chain an ornamented pomander. Both 
have their hands raised in prayer. 

Beneath them is this inscription : 

Hie iacet Corpus vcnerabilis viri Jotiis Brook quondam semen? 
ad leg em Illnstrissimi principis fclicis memorie Reyis Hcnrici 
octaui et Justiciam einsdem Regis ad assisas in p tib's occidcnt- 
alitfs Anglic ac Capitalis Senescalli illius honorabilis Domus et 
Monastarii Beate Marie de Glasconia in Com Somcett qui 
quidem Jolies obiit xxv die Mensis Decembris anno (Fni Mille- 
simo quingentesimo xxijo et iuxta etfm Requiescit Johanna 
vxor eius vna filiam et licreda Richardi Amerike quor aiatis 
ppicietur deus Amen. 

Which may be read : 

Here lies the body of the venerable man John Brook, formerly a Serjeant at 
Law of the most illustrious prince of happy memory King Henry the eighth, 
and a Justice of Assize of the same King in the western parts of England, and 
Chief Steward of that honourable House and Monastery of the Blessed Mary 
at Glastonbury in the County of Somerset ; which said John died the 25th day 
of the month of December, 1522, and next to him rests Johanna his wife, 
only daughter and heiress of Richard Amerike, on whose souls may God have 
mercy, Amen. 

The arms on the remaining shield are greatly denuded, and 
two of the quarters, those assigned to Braybroke, unfinished, 
simply marked out, as if the engraver was uncertain of his 
work, and subsequently hatched over one of them ; the bear- 

112 Paper 's 9 $r. 

ings of Brook also are nearly obliterated. But sufficient re- 
mains to identify them with careful scrutiny, and may be thus 

Per pale, dexter paly of two, 1. On a chevron, three lions 
rampant, in the dexter chief, a crescent for difference, (CoBHAM 
of Kent). 2. On a chevron, a lion rampant crowned, (BROOK, 
the crown an augmentation after their migration to Cobham) 
impaling sinister, quarterly of four, 1. Cobham with crescent, 
2 and 3, seven mascles, 3. 3 and 1. (BRAYBROKE). 4. 

Of Thomas and Arthur, the eldest and second sons, presently. 

SIR DAVID OR DAVY BROOK, third son of John Brook, 
Serjeant-at-Law. He appears to have followed his father's 
profession of the law, and to have risen to considerable emi- 
nence herein, being described as Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer, was knighted at, or immediately after the Corona- 
tion of Queen Mary in 1553, and bore for his arms, Gules, 
on a chevron argent, a lion rampant sable, ducally crowned or, a 
crescent azure, on another of the third, for difference. Crest, 
A Blackamoor s head proper, wreathed argent and sable. 

In the Visitation, Somerset 1623, he is stated to have mar- 
ried KATHERINE, "sister" of John Bridges, Lord Chandois, 
and that he died s.p. In the Visitation, Gloucestershire, this 
lady is recorded to have married Leonard Poole of that county, 
who died 30th Sep. 30 Henry VIII, 1539, (by Collins called 
Richard), and if so Sir David must have been her second hus- 

She was the third daughter of Sir Giles Bruges or Bridges, 
of Coberly, co. Gloucester, knighted by Henry VII, being 
"dubbed at Blackheath feild on St. Botolph's day,'' 17th 
June, 1497, Sheriff of Gloucestershire 1500, and died 1511. 

This brother, Sir John Bridges, appears to have been a busy 
soldier and flexible courtier, in the reigns of Henry VII I, 
Edward VI, and Queen Mary, and his career gives an inter- 

The Brook Family. 113 

esting glimpse of the shifting adaptations in vogue at that 

As narrated by Burke and Collins : 

"He was in the retinue of Henry VIII during his French wars, and subse- 
quently constituted Deputy- Governor of Bulloign, was "in nomination" for 
one of the Knights of the Garter, 1 Edward VI, and on her accession " waited 
on Queen Mary, assisted her against those who had usurped the government, 
and on her entrance into London, to the Tower, was one of the principal per- 
sons in her train, for which services she then committed to him the charge of 
the Tower," and on Sunday, 8th April, 1554, created him at St. James's, 
Baron Chandos of Sudely, and gave him also a grant of the Manor and Castle 
of Sudeley, of which he had previously been constituted Constable. " Four 
days afterward," continues Burke, "he attended Lady Jane Grey to the 
scaffold, and that unhappy lady presented him (as related by some), in testi- 
mony of his civilities to her with her prayer book, but according to others, it 
was a table book, with some Greek and Latin verses which she wrote in it, 
upon his begging her to write something that he might retain as a memorial of 
her." But Mr. Doyne Bell in his " Chapel in the Tower," gives a circumstan- 
tial account of this pathetic incident occurring in the last moments of this 
good and brave-hearted young creature. " The book she gave to Thomas 
Brydges, for his brother Sir John Brydges, Lieutenant of the Tower, is now in 
the British Museum. It is a manual of prayers, a small square vellum book, 
bound in modern times, and is No. 2342 in the Harleian MSS. : it is believed 
that Lady Jane Grey had borrowed it of Sir John Brydges, carried it with her 
to the scaffold, and then returned it through the hands of his brother, with the 
following written in it : 

"For as mutche as you have desyred so simple a woman to wrighte in so 
worthye a booke, good mayster Lieuftenante, therefore I shall as a frende 
desyre you, and as a Christian require you, to call uppon God to encline your 
harte to his lawes, to quicken you in his wayes, and not to take the worde of 
trewethe utterly e oute of youre mouthe. Lyve styll to dye, that by deathe 
you may purchas eternall life, and remember howe the ende of Mathusael, 
whoe as we reade the scriptures was the longest liver that was of a manne, 
died at the laste ; for as the precher sayethe, there is a tyme to be borne, and 
a tyme to dye : and the daye of deathe is better than the daye of oure birthe. 
Youres, as the Lord knowethe, as a frende. 


It would be difficult to find from so young a mind, over which the shadow 
of death was hanging, a parallel remembrance at once so beautiful and appro- 
priate, and it perhaps was intended to convey a special meaning to its recipi- 
ent ; as the sequel apparently shews, for the " Lieuftenante," who only lived 
about three years afterward, died "an adherent to the old religion," 4th 
March, 1557-8, and although in his will he ordered his body to be buried in the 
chancel of Sudeley, "according to his degree, but without worldly pomp or 
vain glory," yet, " his funeral solemnities were performed with great pomp, 
being carried in a hearse of war, with four banners of images, and all append- 
ages of honour." 

The arms of Bridges are, Argent, on a cross sable, a 
leopard's head cabossed or. The date of Sir David's death 
does not appear. 

of long^aefcton. 

THOMAS BROOK, eldest son of John Brook, Serjeant-at- 
Law, he succeeded to Ashton-Phillips, in Long-Ashton, and 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part II. h 

114 Papers, fyc. 

was living in 1524. He married JOAN, daughter and co-heir 
of John Speke, " of Somerset," and left a son, Hugh. 

HUGH BROOK, son and heir of Thomas. He succeeded to 
the manor of Ashton-Phillips and was resident there. He 
married a daughter and heir of .... Morice, by whom he 
had four daughters 1, Elizabeth; 2, Frances ; 3, Susan ; and 
4, Alice. He died in 1586, and was buried at Long Ashton; 
and Collinson notes : 

" In a chapel in Long Ashton Church, against the south wall is a large stone 
monument erected to the memory of Hugh Brook, of Lower Court, Esq , who 
died 30 Elizabeth (?), and was buried 23 February, 1586. There is no inscrip- 
tion on this tomb, it having been left unfinished." 

This is a low altar tomb of plain character, in an arched 
recess, in the south wall at the west end of the south aisle. 
There is no date, arms, or inscription. 

ELIZABETH BROOK, eldest daughter and co-heir ; she 
married Giles Walwyn, Esq., of Herefordshire. He sold that 
part of the manor he held in right of his wife to Mrs. Jane 
Smith, widow of Matthew Smith, of Long Ashton, Esq., in 

FRANCES BROOK, second daughter and co-heir ; she mar- 
ried William Clarke, of Minchin Barrow, by whom she had a 
son and heir, Christopher, who sold their portion to Sir Hugh 
Smith in 1603. 

SUSAN BROOK, third daughter and co-heir ; she married 
Hugh Halswell, Esq. (probably of Goathurst, Bridg water) ; 
they had a son and heir, Thomas, who disposed of this share 
of the manor to Sir Hugh Smith in 1600. 

ALICE BROOK, fourth daughter and co-heir; she married 
Thomas Vatchell, of Cannington, Esq., who sold their moiety 
of the manor to Mrs. Jane Smith, in the same year as did her 
sister Elizabeth, 1593. The Somerset Visitation mentions 
Margaret, as being the name of one of the daughters. These 
four co-heiresses appear to have ended this descent. 

In describing the manor house of Ashton-Phillips, called 



I 1 








The Brook Family. 115 

Lower Court, which was probably built by Richard Amerike, 
Collinson observes : 

' ' It was formerly a very large and grand structure, but little now remains 
except an east wing for the dwelling apartments, in which is a large room 
wainscotted and the edges of the panels gilt. At the south end stands the 
chapel, twenty-two feet by ten in breadth. The altar is of stone, and still 
remains in its pristine state. The pulpit stood on the left side, and in the 
south wall is a niche for holy water. A small bell till of late years hung in an 
arcade over the entrance. " 

The house or mansion of Ashton-Phillips, or Lower Court, 
built as presumed by Richard Ameryke although no arms or 
date remain to attest it and which subsequently became the 
residence of his daughter and heiress Johanna, with her 
husband John Brook, and their descendants, has, except the 
detached Chapel, been almost entirely rebuilt and modernised. 
By the aid of a recent careful inspection, with accompanying 
photograph, we are enabled to give a detailed account and 
view of the building as it now appears, and the antient portions 
that at present remain. 

" On the right of the dwelling house is a low pointed doorway, covered with 
ivy, which runs up the gable, and clothes a separate detached Chapel, having 
a walled-up two-light window on the north side, facing the end of the house, 
the label and heads being still in the wall. The east window is filled up out- 
side, but inside are the remains of a nice perpendicular window. On the south 
is a two-light window, matching the north, and both about where the altar- 
rails would be, this has been turned into a doorway leading into a farm shed. 
The niche, which is apparently a true piscina, is just east of this. The altar 
as described by Collinson has vanished. The roof is in capital condition, every 
rafter being continued as a tie-beam across, moulded and slightly curved. 
The interior is now used as a lumber room. Outside the ivy going up to the 
top covers the bell-cot, and is too dense to make out any cross on the east 
ridge. Apparently what looks like an ivy-covered buttress, but level with the 
top of the Chapel door, is the springing of an arch, so that the building must 
have stretched away to the west, and then probably turned again to the south. 
On the east, or other side of the house, is a good doorway, and the remains of 
some later square-headed and labelled windows, but the rest of this side has 
been generally rebuilt. Apparently the house was moated, and there are con- 
siderable remains of fish-ponds, &c." l 

of TBarroto^urnep. 

ARTHUR BROOK, second son of John Brook, Sergeant-at- 
Law. In him the male succession of the family was con- 
tinued ; but who he married, or any further particulars 

1. By the kindness of F. Were, Esq., and the photograph by Mr. C. F. 

116 Papers, <?. 

respecting him, are riot available. He appears, however, to 
have left a son, Edward. 

EDWARD BROOK, his son, is described as being "of 
Barrow-Grurney," and to have married Florence, the daughter 
of .... Brandbridgc. They left four sons, Arthur, Thomas, 
Edward, and Hugh : as stated in the Visitation, confirmed in 
the will of their nephew Edward, proved 2nd February, 
1636-7. There are several entries in the Barrow-Gurney 
Register, between 1607-1663, to families named Thomas alias 
Brooke, and Brocke, but they do not appear to be connected 
with this descent of Brook. 

ARTHUR BROOK, eldest son of Edward, aforesaid. He is 
described as having died s.p. 

of (Slastonfwrp. 

THOMAS BROOK, second son. He is mentioned as " of 
Glastonbury Abbey, 1 623," to have married Rebecca, daughter 
and co-heir of John Wike, of Ninehead ; and to have left a son 
and two daughters, who, at that date 1623, were respectively 
Arthur, aged six ; Elizabeth, five ; and Mary, three years. 
The three are also mentioned in their cousin Edward's will in 

EDWARD BROOK, third son. He is also mentioned by his 
nephew Edward, in his will, and is recorded to have died s.p. 

HUGH BROOK, fourth son, also of Grlastonbury ; he married 
Dorothy, daughter of Edward Preston of that place, was dead 
before 1636, and his wife married secondly Mr. John Strode. 
In the Visitation he is described as then having three children : 
Edward, aged ten, Joan, aged twelve, and Jane, aged thirteen ; 
but in Edward's will two other sons, Silvanus and Thomas, are 
mentioned, and two further daughters, one Dorothy, who ap- 
parently married Edward Davis, and another unnamed to 
William Court alias Paris. Jane, the eldest daughter, married 
John Gaylard, of Lovington, Somerset. Joan was wife of 
Matthew Slieppard, of Calne, vintner. 

The Brook Family. 117 

EDWARD BROOK, eldest son, appears to have succeeded his 
father, and to. have died young, aged about twenty-three, and 
unmarried in 1636-7. The following particulars of his will 
are taken from the Rev. F. Brown's Extracts : 

"Edward Brooke, of Glaston, Somerset, gent., will dated 5th July, 1636, 
proved 2nd February, 1636-7. My mother, Dorothy Stroade (daughter of 
Edward Preston, of Glastonbury) ; my uncle, Thomas Brqpke, gent. ; my 
father, Hugh Brooke, of Glaston, gent., deceased; my sister, Jane, wife of 
John Gaylard, of Lovington, Somerset, yeoman ; my sister, Joan, wife of 
Matthew Sheppard, of Calne, Wilts, vintner (who proved the will) ; my 
brothers, Silvanus, Thomas, and Edward Davies ; my brother, Will. Court 
alias Paris ; my sister, Dorothy Davies ; my father-in-law (step-father), Mr. 
John Strode, twenty shillings for a ring ; my uncles, Edward and Thomas 
Brooke, of Glaston ; my cousins, Elizabeth and Mary Brooke, and Arthur 

The arms of this descent of Brook, as given in the 
Visitation of Somerset for 1 623, consist of nine quarterings : 
1, Gules , on a chevron argent, a lion rampant sable, crowned or 
on a crescent, a mullet for difference (BROOK), of Olditch and 
Weycroft, the crown being an augmentation, added apparently 
after they had migrated to Cobham ; 2, Gules, on a chevron or, 
three lions rampant sable (CoBHAM, Barons of Cobham) ; 3, 
Ermine, on a chevron gules, three buck's heads cabossed or 
(HANNING), this evidently represents the alliance of the first 
Sir Thomas Brook, and Johanna Manning, widow of Thomas 
Chedder, on her seal the bucKs heads are in a chief} 4, 
Ermine, seven mascles conjoined, 3. 2. 1. (sic) (BRAYBROKE) 
should be 3. 3. 1., the second Sir Thomas Brook married 
Johanna Braybroke-Cobham, Lady of Cobham ; 5, Gules, a 
chevron dancettee, between twelve cross-crosslets or; 6, Barry 
nebulee of six argent and gules (B ASSET T) ; 7, Azure, a fess 
dancettee between three garbs or ; 8, Azure, two bars nebulee or 
(DE LA POLE) ; 9, Gules, a fess argent between six cross- 
crosslets or (PEVERELL). 

J13otes as to otfjer Descendants of IBrook. 

MARGARET BROOK, the widow of Duke Brook, of Temple- 
combe, ob. 1606, and buried at Cobham ; she appears to have 
been a Berkley, and deceased 1641-2. Her will is dated 30th 

118 Papers, $c. 

Jan., 1641, and proved 7th Feb., 1641-2. In it she mentions 
" my nephew, Michael Berkley ; Maurice, youngest son of my 
brother, Robert Berkley ; my niece, Penelope Warnford, 
eldest daughter of Sir William Brook." 

These further particulars relating to them are extracted 
from " The fate of Henry Brooke, tenth Lord Cobham" by I. 
G. Waller, Esq., in the Arch&ologia of the Society of Anti- 
quaries^ Vol. xlvi, 1881, relative to their acquisition of some 
of the forfeited estates of their cousin, the hapless Henry 

"The will of George, Lord Cobham, dated 31st March, 1552, made an 
elaborate settlement of the estates, entailing them on the next heir, with 
remainder in the usual manner. The king James I therefore by the law of 
the land, could only be entitled to a life interest on the Cobham domains. 
Possibly this consideration may have had much to do with the royal mercy (?). 

No sooner, therefore, did he become possessed than he began to realize. 
And, for this purpose, he entered into a bargain of a cruel, if even of a legal 
character. Unfortunately, the next heir was (William), the son of George 
Brooke, who was executed at Winchester a poor friendless child of tender 
age, unable to assert his own rights before the law, and deserted by those near 
to him in blood, whose duty it was to aid him. 

This transaction was entered into with Duke Brooke, the son of an uncle of 
Lord (Henry) Cobham, and next in succession, if George Brooke's children 
were debarred by attaint of blood. This appears from the answer by the king 
to " The Humble Petition of Duke Brooke, of Temple Combe, Esq., and in con- 
sideration of 4,269 on 4th May, 1605, and 3,250 on 8th November, 1605, and 
3,250 on the 4th May, 1606, by the said Duke Brooke paid, we grant, <L-c." 
Then follows a recital of the manors, &c. , making in all ninety-one items. So 
here we find the king, in two years after the attainder, is proceeding to realize 
on the estates seized. 

The recipient did not live long in possession of the property thus acquired, 
but died without issue 27th May, 1606 (buried at Cobham, 10th June follow- 
ing) only twenty-three days after the time fixed for his last payment. On 
25th October, 1607, Charles Brook, his brother, had a renewal of this grant 
from the king, but on what terms does not appear. Whilst the property was 
in his hands, he parted with several manors to Cecil, then Earl of Salisbury, 
for 5,000, as well as to others. He died 5th April, 1610 (and was buried at 
Temple Combe)." 

In the meantime " the unfortunate prisoner, Henry Brook, 
was living out those who were enjoying and scattering his 
estates." And it was in this year of 1610, that "the restora- 
tion of blood" took place, of the still young children of 
George Brook, his brother, was accorded, but shorn of all 
claim to the estates or title. "But," continues Mr. Waller 

" It must surely be questionable if the king had a right to set aside the will of 
George, Lord Cobham, for it is clearly shewn by the instruments drawn up by 
the lawyers respecting the sale of property by John Brooke (afterward) created 


The Brook Family. 119 

Lord Cobham by patent, to the Duke of Lenox and Richmond, that they con- 
sidered the will and entail in force, notwithstanding the attainder, as it is 
constantly recited, and the death of all who could claim duly proved. 

It seems probable that James, with the connivance of Cecil, who bought 
some of the estates of Charles Brooke, used or abused the law, and threw such 
obstacles in the way of the rightful heir, as rendered any process against the 
Crown hopeless." 

MARGARET BROOK, the youngest daughter of William 
Brook, Lord Cobham, K.G., ob. 1596, was, according to 
Lysons, (Environs, Stepney} baptized there, and gives this 
entry from the Register : 

"Margaret Brooke, the daughter of Sir William Brooke, Lord Cobham, bap- 
tized 8th June, 1564." 

She was sister to the ill-fated Henry Brook ; and ancestress 
of Sir Richard Temple, created Viscount Cobham. 

ELIZABETH BROOK, LADY WYATT, one of the daughters 
of Thomas Brook, Lord Cobham, ob. 1529, married Sir 
Thomas Wyatt, the elder, the well-known poet, who died near 
Sherborne. Hutchins says : 

" Being sent by the King (Henry VIII) to Falmouth to conduct Montmor- 
enc} r , the imperial embassador, to London, from an excess of zeal to please the 
King, he made more expedition than was necessary, riding hard in a very hot 
season, and died of a violent fever here, and was buried in the great church, 
1541, aged 38." 

He was conveyed to his friend, Sir John Horsey's house, at 
Clifton-Maubank, close by, where he died, and who after- 
wards laid him in the vault prepared for himself in the Abbey 
Church, where he subsequently found a resting place beside 
him. The Register records : 

" 11 Mensis Octobrisl542,34 Re: Hen. 8,Sepultus est D'ns Thomas Wyet 
miles D'ni Regis Consiliarius vir Venerabilis." 

But no memorial or inscription exists to record his burial 
there, a strange reproach to the history of English literature. 

BROOK STOURTON. John, eighth Baron Stonrton, mar- 
ried in 1580 Elizabeth, daughter of William Brook, Lord 
Cobham, K.G., ob. 1596-7, by his second wife, Frances 
Newton, of East Harptree, and sister of Henry Brook, the last 
unfortunate Baron Cobham. 

120 Papers, Sfc. 

He was the son of Charles, seventh Baron Stourton, by his 
wife Anne, daughter of Edward Stanley, Earl of Derby, who 

"with the help of four of his own servants committed a foul murder on a 
person named Hartgill and his son, burying their bodies fifty feet deep in the 
earth, thinking thereby to prevent the discovery ; but afterwards it coming to 
light, he had sentence of death passed on him, which he suffered at Salisbury, 
16th March, 1557, by (as it is said) an halter of silk, in respect of his quality. 
His tomb is in the nave of Salisbury Cathedral.'' 

He Lord John was restored in blood by Act of Parlia- 
ment, 18 Elizabeth, 1575, and acted as one of the peers on 
the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. He died 13th October, 
1588, without issue, appointed bis body to be buried in the 
chapel of the church at Stourton ; and was succeeded by his 
brother and heir, Edward. The date of Lady Stourton's death 
does not appear. 

THOMAS BROOK, the fourth son of George Brook, Lord 
Cobham, K.Gr., ob. 1558, whose lawless career has been previ- 
ously alluded to, the cruel incident recorded of him in his con- 
duct as a buccaneer is thus described by Froude, in his History 
of England: 

" The sons of Lord Cobham of Cowling Castle, who had first distinguished 
themselves in Wyatt's rebellion, had grown up after the type of their boyhood, 
irregular lawless Protestants ; and one of them, Thomas (Brook) Cobham, was 
at this time (1563) roving the seas, half-pirate, half knight-errant of the Refor- 
mation, doing battle on his own account with the enemies of the truth, where- 
ever the service of God, was likely to be repaid with plunder. He was one of 
a thousand whom Elizabeth was forced for decency's sake to disclaim and con- 
demn in proclamations, and whom she was as powerless, as she was probably 
unwilling to interfere with in practice. What Cobham was, and what his kind 
were, may be seen in the story about to be told. 

A Spanish ship was freighted in Flanders for Bilbao ; the cargo was valued at 
80,000 ducats, and there were on board also forty prisoners condemned, as the 
Spanish accounts say ' for heavy offences worthy of chastisement,' who were 
going to Spain to serve in the galleys. Young Cobham, cruising in the Channel, 
caught sight of the vessel, chased her down into the Bay of Biscay, fired into 
her, killed her captain's brother and a number of men, and then boarding when 
all resistance had ceased, sewed up the captain himself, and the survivors of the 
crew in their own sails, and flung them overboard. The fate of the prisoners 
is not related ; it seems they perished with the rest. The ship was scuttled ; 
and Cobham made off with booty, which the English themselves admitted to 
be worth 50,000 ducats, to his pirate's nest in the south of Ireland. Eighteen 
drowned bodies, with the mainsail for their winding sheet, were washed up on 
the Spanish shores, ' cruelty without example, of which but to hear was 
enough to break the heart.' 

Cobham was tried for piracy the next year at the indignant requisition of 
Spain. He refused to plead to his indictment, and the dreadful sentence was 


OB : 1749. 

The Brook Family. 121 

passed upon him of the peine forte et dure.l His relations, de Silva said, 
strained their influence to prevent it from being carried into effect ; and it 
seems that either they succeeded or that Cobham himself yielded to the terror, 
and consented to answer. At all events he escaped the death which he 
deserved, and was soon again abroad on the high seas." 

It would be difficult to find a match to the inhumanity of 
this occurrence, an unparalleled example it is to be hoped, of 
the barbarous spirit accompanying the depredations of these 
sea-roving freebooters. 

COBHAM. It has been mentioned these titles were revived in 
this gentleman, as a descendant of Maryaret Brook, daughter 
of William Brook, Lord Cobham, ob. 1597. 

He acquired considerable renown as a military commander under the Duke 
of Marlborough in Flanders, and having risen to the rank of Lieutenant- 
General, was elevated to the peerage as Baron Cobham, of Cobham, co. Kent, 
19th October, 1714, and further created Viscount and Baron Cobham, 23rd May, 
1718, to him and his heirs male, and in default thereof, by special remainder, 
to his sisters, Hester Grenville, and her heirs male, and in default, to Dame 
Christian Lyttelton, third sister of the said Viscount, and her heirs male. He 
died at Stow, 13th September, 1749, and these dignities then devolved on his 
elder sister Hester, widow, and relict of Richard Grenville, of Wotton, co. 
Buckingham, Esq., ob. 17th February, 1726-7. 

Hester Grenville, Viscountess Cobham, was 18th October, 1749, created 
Countess Temple, with succession to her heirs male, and both titles continued 
with her descendants to the Dukes of Buckingham, the last of whom deceased 
in 1889, without male issue, when the Viscounty of Cobham reverted to the 
male descendant of Christian Lyttelton, the second sister in remainder. The 
Temple earldom, which had been recreated 14th February, 1822, with 
remainder to a female heir, then passed to the present Earl Temple, of 
Newton House, Bristol. 

The family of Lyttelton is of antient descent in the county 
of Worcester, with considerable possessions. Thomas de 
Luttelton, of Frankley, " esquire of the body to three succes- 
sive kings," died 1 Henry VI, 1422, leaving an only daughter 
and heiress, Elizabeth. 

1. " The English judgment of penance for standing mute was as follows, 
that the prisoner be remanded to the prison from whence he came, and put 
into a low dark chamber, and there be laid on his back, on the bare floor 
naked; that there be placed upon his body as great a weight of iron as he 
could bear, and more ; that he have no sustenance save only on the first day 
three morsels of the worst bread, and on the second day three draughts of 
standing water that should be nearest to the prison door ; and in this situation 
this should be alternately his daily diet, or, as anciently the judgment ran, till 
he answered." BLACKSTONE'S Commentaries, book iv, chap. 25. 

122 Papers, fyc. 

Thomas Westcote, of an antient family in Devon, presumed 
to have derived their name from the manor of Westcote, in 
the parish of Marwood, near Barnstaple, married this heiress. 
He is described 

"as being a gentleman of Devon, anciently descended, the king's servant in 
Court, and celebrated for his military prowess, which brought him to the 
notice of Kings Henry IV and V ; but the lady being fair and of noble spirit 
(to use the phraseology of Lord Coke), and having large possessions from her 
ancestors De Luttleton, and from her mother, daughter and heir of Quarter- 
main, and other ancestors, resolved to continue the honour of her name, and 
therefore provided by Westcote's assent, before marriage, that her issue in- 
heritable should be called by the name of Luttelton. Upon this marriage Mr. 
Westcote settled at Frankley, and served the office of Escheator to Henry VI, 
1450, soon after which he died leaving four sons and as many daughters." He 
was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Thomas Lyttelton, K.B., the celebrated 
lawyer and Chief Justice of the King's Bench, who died 23rd August, 1481. 
But according to Westcote, the Devonshire historian, this change of name 
applied only to the eldest son as heir of Lyttelton, the three other younger 
sons were to retain their father s patronymic, Guido, Edmund, and Nicholas, 
and from the elder of these he describes himself to descend. 

Their descendant, Sir Thomas Lyttelton, Bart., M.P. for co Worcester, etc., 
married 8th May, 1708, Christian, sister of Sir Richard Temple, Bart., of Stow, 
created Viscount and Baron Cobham, and she and her heirs male, were consti- 
tuted second in remainder to those titles. They had eight children : of the 
sons, George the eldest and heir, held several important ministerial offices, he 
represented Oakhampton in Devon, in Parliament, and married, first, Lucy 
daughter of Hugh Fortescue, Esq., of Filleigh, in that county. He was 
created Baron Lyttelton, of Frankley, co. Worcester, 19th Nov., 1757, died 
22nd Aug , 1773. He was succeeded by his son Thomas, who dying without 
issue, 27th Nov., 1779, the peerage expired. William Henry Lyttelton, their 
fifth son, held a distinguished position in the diplomatic service ; he was ele- 
vated to the peerage of Ireland 31st July, 1776, by the title of Baron Westcote, 
of Baltymore, co. Longford, being the surname of Thomas Westcote, who mar- 
ried the heiress of Lyttelton. On 13th Aug., 1794, he was created a peer of 
Great Britain by the same title (Baron Lyttelton, of Frankley), which had ex- 
pired with his nephew Thomas He died 14th Sep., 1808. At the death of 
the Duke of Buckingham in 1889, without heirs male, the title of Viscount 
Cobham reverted to George William, fourth Baron Lyttelton and Westcote, as 
the existing heir male of Christian Temple- Lyttelton, the second sister in re- 
mainder of Sir Richard Temple, the original grantee in 1718. 

Arms of Westcote, Argent, a bend cotised sable, within a 
bordure engrailed gules bczantee. Of Lyttelton, Argent, a 
chevron between three escallops sable. 

Few titles appear to have been subject to greater fluctuation 
and re-creation than that of the Barony of Cobham. From 
the family of Brook of Ilchester and Olditch, descending from 
the reigns of the earlier Plantagenet Kings, the knightly heir 

The Brook Family. 123 

of the house in the days of their Lancastrian successor, 
"Kynge Harry the VI," wedded the Lady of Cobham in 
Kent, sole heiress to the title and possessions of the Barony of 
that name, which had descended to her through many genera- 
tions, and was one of the most antient and important in East 
Anglia. Their descendants, the Cobham-Brooks, through 
successive summonses to Parliament by the York and Tudor 
sovereigns, as peers of the realm, occupied from their official 
functions and honours, a position in the first rank of social 
influence among the hereditary nobility, which continued com- 
paratively unaffected by the varying phases of national affairs, 
until the first Stuart king remorselessly extinguished them, 
title and possessions. Revived by the second Stuart king in 
the person of a descendant of a younger son of the fourth 
Baron, an empty title shorn of all that gave it dignity and 
influence, it flickered a few years, and at the death of its first, 
unfortunate, and only possessor, again expired ; and at his de- 
cease, the name of Brook in connection with the Barony, as 
its original inheritor, completely disappeared. Seventy years 
afterward, by the first Georgian king, the abeyant title was 
once more revived, to be again re-conferred and enhanced 
in the person of a remote descendant bearing another name, 
deriving from a distaff of the main house, sister to the last un- 
fortunate Baron, and this re-creation, only by its liberal re- 
mainders to female heirs, survives to the present. 

It is a singular coincidence that after so much vicissitude, 
the title should have returned to the descendant of a gentle- 
man, who, although his family patronymic was supplanted on 
their union by that of his heiress wife, came from Devon, the 
county from which the Brooks also migrated on marriage with 
the heiress of Cobham, but not in their case, with the extinc- 
tion of their name. 

The Westcotes continued to descend from Guido, the second 
son of Thomas Westcote and Elizabeth Lyttelton, and of 
them was Thomas Westcote, who, "following the Court in the 



time of King Henry VIII, came into Devon with Sir Thomas 
Dennis, Knt., of Holcombe-Burnel, Devon, Chancellor to 
Queen Anne of Cleves, and was much desired in marriage by 
Anne, daughter of Wilson, relict of John Raddon (of West- 
Raddon, in Shobrooke, near Crediton, Devon), whom he mar- 
ried," where the Westcotes afterwards resided in honourable 
estate, and it was here there was baptised on 17th June, 1567, 
his grandson, the historian, genealogist and heraldist, so well 
known to the archaeologists of his native county by his work, 
"A View of Devonshire in MDCXXX, with a Pedigree of most 
of its Gentry, by Thomas Westcote, Gent." and it is pleasant 
to observe the name is honourably preserved in one of the 
titles of the ennobled descendants of the preceding Thomas 
Westcote, who flourished two centuries antecedent. 


De duantocks ana tfjeir 


THE etymology of the Place-name, Quantock, anciently 
written Cantok, is an interesting but rather elusive 
study. Some have derived it from " Gwantog," i.e., full of 
openings or combes. Some have regarded " Cant-ioc " as a 
diminutive, meaning " little headlands ; " Dr. Pring in his 
" Briton and Roman on the site of Taunton," has suggested 
" Cuan," Gaelic for hill, and " Toich," country, i.e., the hill 
country : some have playfully mentioned the old " Quantum 
ab hoc," but no one, as far as I know, seems to have thought 
that Cantok, like Caer Caradoc, may have been named from a 
person. Crantock in Cornwall, and also in Cardigan is named 
from Carantacus, and this Saint, a contemporary of King 
Arthur, is connected with Carhampton according to Leland. 
At any rate, Carantacus was known under the Quantocks, 
and, if we desire to speculate, there is no reason why that 
well-known stone on Winsford Hill should not commemorate 

To come to more solid facts and documents, perhaps the ear- 
liest mention of Cantok is in the composite word Cantucudu, i.e., 
Cantok Wood, in Centwine's famous West Monkton Charter, 
when he gave twenty-three mansiones to Glastonbury " in loco 
juxta silvam famosam quae dicitur Cantucudu." This is dated 
A.D. 682, and the light it gives us is interesting. The fame of 

126 Papers^ -c. 

this Cantok Wood, and of its goodly trees, was already known. 
The Charter of C entwine was subsequently confirmed by King 
Ina, the Saxon prince, who figures so largely in our local annals. 
The late Professor Freeman has a note about Cent wine's Con- 
quest. 1 " In 682, Centwine, fighting against the British, gained 
for the West Saxons the sea coast west of the mouth of the 
Parret ... in short Centwine's victory made the English mas- 
ters of Quantock . . . How far west towards Dunster, Porlock, 
I do not profess to say ... in this campaign I conceive that 
the West Saxons won the sites of Bridgwater and Watchet ; 
and we may, I think, venture to picture Centwine as forcing the 
gate, the Lydiard, and driving the Welsh up the valley where, 
in after days, Crowcombe was given (by Gytha) for the repose 
of the soul of Godwin."' This conflict may have given rise to 
the name Willsneck or " Waelas Nek," the pass of the waclas, 
as the British were called by the Saxons, running just under 
Bagborough Hill, the latter being the old name for the highest 
point of the Quantocks. We all know of Conquest Farm in 
Lydeard Episcopi parish, but there is a field still known as the 
" Great Field of Battle," in Crowcombe parish, where the con- 
tending forces of Saxons and British might have fought, as the 
former pushed down between Willet (Waelas?) Hill and 
Willsneck in the direction of Williton (Waelas-Ton ?) and 
Wacet or Watchet, so well known as a Saxon port in after 
years. Place-names point to the fact that towards Brendon 
and Exmoor the Waelas stood their ground longer than around 
the flat country to the east and south of the Quantocks. It 
was on the Taunton side that the Saxons, therefore, first 
touched the Quantocks, in all probability, and the famosa silva 
was that adjoining Monkton, and stretching north over 
Broomfield and along the deep combes of Aisholt and Over 
Stowey. The road their conquering soldiers took was probably 
along Quantock ridges, from King's Cliff, by Lydeard Farm in 
Broomfield parish, up Buncombe Hill to Cothelston, Bag- 
1. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xviii, p. 43. 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 127 

borough, Triscombe Stone, Crowcombe Combe Gate, and so 
on down to Stapol Plain, West Quantockshead to Doniford 
and Watchet. This is a very old route, said to be partly indi- 
cated on old Crowcombe Estate maps, and is exactly what we 
should expect to find. From Wecet and Porlock the Waelas 
would be driven across the Severn Sea to South Wales, or, 
further down, towards Exmoor, North Devon, and the Cornish 

It is worth while to note the course of two invasions upon 
the Quantock country and West Somerset, the one spiritual 
and the other military. Keltic Christianity, coming from South 
Wales, as we gather from S. Dubritius of Porlock, S. Colum- 
ban (mentioned by Leland, at the extreme west of Somerset, 
and also figuring at Cheddar), 2 S. Carantacus at Carhampton, 
(Carntoun being shortly written for Carantokes Towne, accord- 
ing to Leland), 3 S. Decumanus, and many others, made itself 
felt first along the coast of the Severn sea. The church dedi- 
cations of North Somerset point to a Keltic fringe. The 
Severn sea was a natural highway for the Sailor Saints, and 
Grildas, himself a sailor on the Severn sea, has said in his 
Hist. Brit., 31 : " Transmigrare maria terrasque spatiosas 
transmeare non tarn piget Britannos sacerdotes quam delectat." 
(c. A.D. 560). 

But the Saxons would seem to have approached West 
Somerset from exactly the opposite direction, and j;o have fol- 
lowed the Roman lines of communication from the south, and 
along the Mendips, until the Uxellae aestuarium was reached. 
Nor was the Mendip height the sole highway at the disposal 
of the Saxon foe, for indeed the ridges of the Poldens and 
of the Quantocks, no less than the Mendips, furnished a simi- 
lar natural line of communication or " dorsum " to the Severn 
waters as the conquerors pushed their way down further west. 
The unalterable features of the land themselves suggest this 

2. Somerset Record Society. Vol. i, pp. 22, 194. 

3. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xxxiii, pt. ii, p. 97. 

128 Papers, fyc. 

kind of progress, in Roman, as well as in Saxon times, the 
valleys themselves being of little use, from a strategic point of 
view, unless held in connection with the ridges above them. 
History and the researches of archaeology confirm this primd 
facie supposition, gathered from geography. The Severn ter- 
minus of ancient Mendip lies at Brean-down and the fortress 
of Worlebury Camp. Roman remains have been found at 
Portus de Radeclive, Redcliff or Reckly, about two-and-a-half 
miles from j^ xebridge, a Portus in the ancient " Hundred of 
Banwell." 4 The terminus of the Poldens was the old " Burgh 
de Capite Montis," z>., the Doneham of Domesday, also 
called Cheldelmunt, 5 the Downend near Dunball Station. A 
primitive Castrum would appear to have existed here, and the 
Portus might have been Bridgwater itself. There are signs, 
however, of a road to Stretcholt in Paulet to Black Rock on 
the Parret. The terminus of the Quantock ridges would have 
been Doniford and Wecet. 

But we seem to know Wecet, and further west, Porlock, in 
history more as Saxon than as Roman ports. In tracing the 
dim outlines of the Saxon Conquest from the south, the Quan- 
tocks are certainly no less interesting than the Mendips or 
Poldens. In the Danish campaigns of King Alfred, these 
hills, as furnishing a base to Athelney Island, have an interest 
second to none. They provided by far the quickest and 
safest retreat to the Sabrina amnis from Petherton Park, one 
of the old Royal Forests, and along their whole length their 
combes furnished admirable refuges for the " men of Somer- 
set," who, as Ethelwerd, the chronicler, tells us, alone assisted 
him, together with " the servants who made use of the King's 
pastures." 6 

In the Charter of Aethelwulf, A.D. 854, giving the boun- 
daries of the Manor of Taunton Dean, a large southern por- 

4. Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, Dec., 1898. 

5. Somerset Record Society. The Placita. 

6. Jubilee Edition of King Alfred's Works. Vol. 1, p. 70. 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 129 

tion of the Quantocks is included. 7 Some of the Quaritock 
place-names are interesting. From Lydeard S. Lawrence the 
boundary runs " ad occidentalem partem vallis qua? Truscombe 
nominatur," then eastwards to Rugan or Bugan Beorh, i.e., 
Bagborough. Thence along a horse-path over the hills to 
Aescholtes (Aisholt) thence past plscis fontem (Vish-pool) or 
Bish-pool, and " sic ad Elwylle," Thence across Quantock 
ridge again, somewhere near or along Buncombe to Kingston, 
Hestercombe, Sidbrook and Bathpool. By this boundary 
some important Quantock parishes, from Triscombe, south- 
wards, fall under the famous Manor of Taunton Dean, with all 
its old world customs and privileges. The manor became the 
property of the Bishops of Winchester. 

The mention of Cantuctune, or the ton of Cantok in King 
Alfred's will (871885) is very interesting. "The Land at 
Cantuctune " is mentioned together with Carumtune (Car- 
hampton), Burnhamme, Wedmor and Cheddar, and, together 
with other estates, is left in the most formal way, as private 
property, to the eldest son, Eadweard, who succeeded King 
Alfred. It is also inherited property, which adds a little to its 
interest, and throws the title further back. Williton, Car- 
hampton, Cannington, Andredesfeld, are all Royal Hundreds, 
and represent a goodly block of land in which Cantok or 
Quantock is a main geographical feature. The Saxonisation 
of this part of West Somerset had been going on gradually 
not quickly since Centwine and Ina's days. Taunton, or 
the Ton on the Tan (the coloured river) in allusion to its 
tawny waters in flood had sprung up, and many another 
Saxon Ton, but where was Cantucton ? Had it arisen in some 
portion of that famosa silva of Cantucudu ? Was it on the 
west or on the east side of the long ridge of Cantok ? Was 
it the same as Cannington ? The West Saxon kingdom was 
developing itself in many ways along the Severn sea. Wecet 
or Watchet was of growing importance, and was actually the 

7. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xviii, p. 79. 
Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part 1 1. i 

130 Papers, -c. 

place of a Royal mint, the Saxon kings holding in their own 
hands and as their Dominicum, much of the surrounding land. 
From the top of Quantock the five Royal Forests of Somerset 
were within view, also " sacred Pedridan," and the precincts of 
immortal Grlastonbury, whose round tor so visible from sea 
and land, exercised a wonderful centripetal power. It was 
not, perhaps, without a purpose that the Saxon kings held 
Burnham on one side of the Parret and Cannington on the 
other in their own hands, guarding the entrance to this holy 
land already of ancient renown. The private possessions of 
the West Saxon kings were known to all, and at the setting 
forth of King Alfred's will, there are present the Archbishop 
and " all the West-Saxon witan's witness." 8 

To turn to Domesday, the only Cantoche there given is a 
vill in or near Crowcombe parish, adjoining Lydeard S. Law- 
rence. Collinson 9 says that this was the vill which took its 
name from the Quantock Hills. But there is Little Quantock 
Farm in Crowcombe parish, on the west side of the ridge of 
Quantock, and Quantock Farm in Over Stowey parish, on the 
east side of the ridge, about half-a-mile from one another. 
The one place might have been confused with the other. The 
Domesday Cantoche is the property of Alured de Hispania, 
who has so many Quantock places, e.g., Spaxton, Nether- 
Stowey, Planesfield, Radlet, Merridge, Stringston, Alfoxton, 
Dytch, and others. But there is a Little Quantock also in 
Enmore. In the Inquis. p.m. 13 Ric. II (No. 103), William 
Taillour has " Lytel Cantok in paroch. de Enmore." This 
" little Quantock " would be a long distance from the Crow- 
combe " little Quantock." There is also a Quantock Farm 
about one mile from Monkton, and in the Exchequer Lay Sub- 
sidies under " Monketon et Hamme," occurs the name Jurdana 
de Cantok. 

In Enmore there is still a place called Quantock Barn, on 

8. Jubilee Edition of King Alfred's Works. Vol. 1, p. 399. 

9. Vol. iii, p. 513. 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 131 

the west side of Enmore Park, there is also a Quantock Wood 
close by, also a Quantock Mead, and a Higher and Lower 
Quantock Close adjoining Blakesole or Blackesala. In 
Brown's Somerset Wills, Thomas Mallet of Enmore, Oct. 15th, 
1580, gives to his son, John Mallet, amongst other bequests, 
" Quantock in Spaxton." In a MS. book, amongst the Spax- 
ton documents, there is an arrangement for church seats, in 
which a place is reserved for " Quantock Farm, part of the do- 
main of Enmore." In the Chartulary of deeds of the Hylle 
family (temp. Hen. IV), Thomas Fitchet grants to Master 
Robert Cros or Crosse, Rector of Spaxton, all his lands in 
Spaxton, Lillington, Morel and . . . together with certain ser- 
vices in Cantok and Durburgh." 

It is hard, indeed, to localise Cantok or Cantoche as a defi- 
nite place. It may be at West Monkton, or Spaxton, or 
Crowcombe, and is singularly elusive. Mr. Eyton would put 
it in the Williton Hundred at or near Crowcombe, i.e., at 
Little Quantock Farm, the west side of the Quantocks, the 
place above alluded to. 

In the Exon. Domesday we have mentioned as separate 
places ( I ) Cantoca, belonging to Alured de Hispania, and evi- 
dently the same as the Cantoche already mentioned, (2) Can- 
toctona, a mansio regis. Here, apparently, is the Cantuctune 
of King Alfred's Will, appearing in the Exon. Domesday. It 
looks as if exact identification should follow now. But Can- 
toctona is almost as elusive as Cantok or Cantoche. It seems 
to be convertible with Candeton or Cannington, although it is 
difficult to understand how the " oc " or ock, so essentially a 
part of Quantock can drop from it. 

In a Charter dated 17th July, 1204, King John gave to the 
Canons of Taunton the pasture of Kingeshull from Wulfeld- 
sont to Hunteneswell in free, pure and perpetual alms. 10 In 
the Rotuli Chartarum of King John, it is worded, " Pasturam 
et galnetum de Kingeshill a Wffoldessate usque Hunteneswell 

10. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. ix, pt. ii, p. 9. 

132 Papers, fyc. 

. . . ecclesiae apostolorum Petri et Pauli de Tanton . . . quse 
solebat reddere ad firmam meam de Somertun sedecim denarios." 
In the Testa de Neville (Henry III), it is thus described 
under Hundred de Andreaffeld, " Canonia de Tanton tenet 
unam pasturam super Cantok de dono J. Regis in puram 
eleem : quae vocatur Kingeshill et solebat reddere per annum 
ad scaccarium apud London xvi denarios." 

Kingshill and Priors Down are still Place-names on the 
Quantocks, and lie in the parish of Broomfield, to the east of 
Buncombe Hill. In an Inquis. p.m., 2 Henry V, Elizabeth 
uxor W. de Monte Acuto has amongst other properties Brom- 
field juxta Cantok. 

It seems as if there was a good deal of Royal property on 
the Quantocks, judging from this gift of King John, and that 
it was connected with the Royal firma of Somerton, a town so 
full of ancient Saxon associations. Indeed, we are justified in 
supposing that before Norman times, and before the Petherton 
Forest perambulation, Cantok was part of a Royal Forest. 
The fact is noted in the Rotuli Hundredorum (temp. Edw. I), 
in the following passage. " Item dicunt quod quatuor villani 
ad Castellum in hund. de Andredsfeld fuerunt de dominico 
dom. Regis pertinenti ad Summon q u i singulis annis solebant 
reddere apud Sum ton xj s et vicecomites ilium redditum sibi 
appropriaverunt jam xxx annis elapsis ad firmam illam sine war- 
rento et solebat ille locus esse Porcheria d'ni R. antiquitus dum 
Canntok fuit foresta." The Castellum is Roborough Castle 
in Broomfield parish, close to Enmore. 11 

The antiquity of Roborough Castle stands revealed, and 
apparently it must be distinguished from the Rowboroughs, 
localised by the Rev. F. Warre on Bagborough hill, popularly 
called Willsneck, and not far off from Broomfield. " On the 
top of Bagborough hill are several cairns," writes Mr. Warre, 
" commonly called Rowboroughs, which most likely mark the 
place where the slain were buried. A few years ago a Roman 

11. Somerset Record Society. Vol. 3, p. 162. 

The Quantocks <md their Placc-Namcs. 133 

coin was found near these cairns." Allusion to this find is 
made by Prebendary Scarth in a paper on "Roman Somer- 
set." 12 As far as I can discover this Quantock Place-name 
has dropped out of use, but it seems to be extremely ancient. 
It is possible to trace it in the gift of Edward the Elder, King 
Alfred's son, of Lydeard (Bishop's Lydeard) to Asser, Bishop 
of Sherborne, in 904. Lydeard is given, together with Buck- 
land and Wellington. 

"Dis synt da land gemaero lo Lidgerd (Lydiard). Aerest 
on linlegh of linlegge upp on strem to Tostanford of Cottan- 
forda (Cotford) uppon strem to gosford of gosford uppon strem 
to Stanforda of stanforda on fasingafeld of fasingafeld on 
pyttapuldre, of pyttapuldre onaest of aeste adimeonfled to re- 
adanclife of readanclife to rupanbeorge (Rowbergh) of rugan- 
beorge to ludanpylle of ludanpylle to fricanfenne of frican- 
fenne uppon to gattibricge of gattibricge to uppon an slaed 
(Slades) to holanpege of holanpege uppon slaed to bacgan- 
beorge (Bagborough) of bacganbeorge to pynestane of dam 
stane to rupanbeorge (Rowbergh) of dam beorge to cpichem- 
hamme, of dam hamme to collslade of colislade (Coleslade) 
adune on strem to horspadesf orde of dam f orda uppon strem to 
oxenagete, of dam gete to motlege of motlege on siderocestorre 
(Sidroc's Tor or hill?) of siderocestorre to frecandorne (a 
thorn bush) of frecandorne on suoccanmere of suoccanmere on 
stangedelfe (stone quarry) on hreod alras (reed alders) of hreod 
alron on tideford of dam forda adune on strem to cuhecanford 
(King's ford) of cunecanford on cincgesgete (Kings gate) of 
cincgesget on suran apuldran (sour apple trees) of suran apul- 
dran od hit cymp est on linlege. 

Roughly speaking this boundary would appear to begin near 
Cotford, at the western extremity of Bishop's Lydeard, and 
work round the Quantocks. The present parish includes 
Lydeard Hill, just abutting on the Bagborough hill and com- 
mon above Aisholt. Lydeard is a very curiously shaped 

12. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xxiv, pt. ii, p. 18. 

134 Papers, c. 

parish, and stretches right over the Quantock ridges till it 
meets Spaxton and Merridge. It is certainly one of the most 
interesting of all the Quantock parishes, if only on account of 
its connection with the Saxon Kings, and Asser, the biogra- 
pher of King Alfred. It is a little curious that a Sidroc's 
Tor should be mentioned in this Quantock document, and the 
very name, which seems now to have been lost, tantalise the 
imagination if we may connect this Sidroc with the Sidroc of 
the Saxon chroniclers. King's ford and King's gate denote 
the regal association of Lydiard, and this gift of Edward the 
Elder is, from a Quantock point of view, second only in inter- 
est to the Charter of Aethelwulf (854), King Alfred's father, 
which enlarged the boundaries of the Manor of Taunton Dean. 
Later on in Saxon history, after 1053, Gytha, the mother of 
Harold, and wife of Godwin, gave Crowcombe, in which lies 
Cantok (Little Quantock) to the Church of S. Swithin at 
Winchester, in expiation of the crimes of Earl Godwin. This 
would be presumably Royal property, part of the Saxon Dom- 
inicum in the Cantok country, inherited from King Alfred, 
and, further back, from his predecessors. Gytha's endowment 
was nullified at the Conquest, and Crowcombe was given to 
Earl of Morton. 

We must also remember that in a Charter of privileges 
granted by King Edward Alfred's son to the Monastery at 
Taunton in 904, there are x Manentes at Crauuancumbe. 
Further, there is a confirmation by King Edgar to Winchester 
of land at Crowcombe, Banwell and Sherborne (Schealdebur- 
nam), and in 978 there was a confirmation of King Edward's 
Charter at a Witenagemot at Cheddar of x Manentes at 
Crowcombe, xx at Cumbtun, xx at Shirborne, and xx at Ban- 
well. (Birch's Cartularium Saxonicum). It may be noted 
that Bishop Asser, the Bishop of Sherborne, was closely con- 
nected with Banwell and Congresbury, King Alfred having 
given him two monasteries there. But all these Quantock 
gifts and charters, whether to the Taunton Priory, to the 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 135 

Church of S. Swithin, to Asser, point to the reality of Cantok, 
or Cantoctona, as a Royal property in Saxon times. 

The Place-names, Bagborough and Rowebergh, turn up 
again in a Wells Concord between Bishop John and John de 
Membury, of West baggebergh, about a waste piece of land 
on Cantok, claimed by the former as belonging to Bishop's 
Lydiard, by the other as belonging to Bagborough. The date 
is 1314, and an extract from it is interesting, as giving certain 
historic place-names. 

" The boundaries are from the east corner of Robert de 
Calewe's croft under Cantok ; eastward along the fossatum 
called Boledich ; eastward to the secunda bunda called la 
Fennslo : thence north (a little west of) to the third bunda 
called Alferode (Alfreds Road ?) ; eastward to the fourth 
bunda called la Redewell ; eastward to the fifth bunda called 
Coleslade, which is the outside (forinseca) bound between 
West-baggebergh and Assheholte manors. The men of Bag- 
borough may not exercise common rights eastward of Coles- 
lade. The bounds across the mountain to Est-baggebergh, 
within which they have rights, are from Coleslade south to the 
second bunda called Oxenham : direct south to the third called 
la Rowebergh ; through the middle of the bunda : thence 
direct south to the fourth called Bulgonescros, and so to Est 
baggebergh to Robert de Calewe's croft." 13 Mr. Hugo in his 
paper on " Hestercombe," in the Som. Arch. Proceedings^ vol. 
xviii, p. 148, observes : " I have a fine contemporary copy of 
this Concord, which I purchased at the sale of the celebrated 
Surrenden collection." The Quantock Place-names are inter- 
esting, especially if we compare them with those of the 
Lydeard document of 904 four hundred years previously. 
The Bacganbeorge of King Edward's gift is the Baggebergh 
of the Concord of 1314, only there is the further definition of 
Est and West Baggebergh. Coleslade appears to be the same, 
and to this day there is a bit of the Quantocks called The 

13. Report of MSS. Wells Cathedral, pp. 84-5. 

136 Papers, -c. 

Slades, lying on the boundary of Bagborough and Aisholt 
parishes, and in the Week Tything of Stoke Courcy parish, 
i.e., in Over Stowey parish. Rupanbeorge, of King Edward's 
gift to Asser, is surely the Rowebergh of the 1314 Concord, 
and the Rowboroughs of the Rev. F. Warre, and it is a pity 
that this name should ever be allowed to die out on the Quan- 
tocks. The Oxenagete of King Edward's gift may be near 
the Oxenham of the 1314 Concord. About Alferode (Alfred's 
Road ?), we may surely conjecture that it was named after 
King Alfred. At least it is a conjecture that has a degree of 
plausibility about it, for, judging from the wording of the Con- 
cord, it would be somewhere along Cantok ridge near Bag- 
borough. This road led, according to old maps, from Bun- 
combe and Bagborough, as already noticed, right down to the 
ancient port of Wecet or Watchet, where there was a Saxon 
mint in old days, as a coin of Edward the Elder, to be seen in 
Taunton Museum, proves. Moreover, here was a strategic 
road along Cantok that connected Petherton and Athelney on 
the south, with the Severn sea on the north, that sea that be- 
came a refuge to the Saxons, who, when the Danes harried 
the land, were driven from their Somersetshire homes, in that 
fateful year 878. As Huntingdon, the chronicler, has ex- 
pressed it, " Part, therefore, of the people fled beyond the sea, 
part followed King Alfred, who hid himself, with a few men, 
in the marshes, and part submitted to the enemy." Is it too 
much to believe that King Alfred, brought to bay in West 
Somerset, resolved to defend these Royal Hundreds of Anders- 
feild, Cannington (or Cantuctune ?) Carhampton and Williton, 
by the side of the Severn sea, to the last, using Athelney as 
his fort ? Here was part of the old Saxon dominicum, and it 
was worth fighting for. The land itself, and that " sorrowful 
wilderness of waters," helped his Fabian tactics, and patient 
courage won the day. 

That there was a Herepat or War path we gather from a 
12th century Charter, quoted in the documents belonging to 

The Qnantocks and their Place-Names. 137 

the alien Priory of Stoke Courcy at Eton College. 14 It runs 
as follows : " Grant by Hugh de Bonville to the Church of S. 
Andrew of Stoke Courcy for the sustentation of the monks, 
and in augmentation of former gifts, of part of his wood and 
pasture in Cantok, on the west side of the wood which he had 
given to the Church of S. Peter of Over Stowey (de Superiori 
Staw), extending from the bounds which John Channel had 
placed in the said wood, between the great road of Sol mere on 
the lower part, and the great road called Staw Herepat on the 
upper part, to the head of Ramescuba (Ramscombe)." This 
Herepat can be easily identified on the Quantocks, and is what 
is known generally as the Stowey Road, running from Crow- 
combe Combe Gate to Over Stowey, striking across the old 
road to Doniford, outside Crowcombe Park, at right angles. 
This wood on Cantok was part of the property belonging to 
W. de Falaise and the de Courcy family at Stoke Courcy, and 
was a Domesday addit amentum. Collinson says that these 
Over Stowey woods were " a chace of the de Courcy family," 
a statement he may have gathered from the learned antiquary, 
Mr. Palmer, of F airfield. 

There are many other Place-names on the Quantock Hills, 
which, if not of so great an historical interest as those already 
given, are, nevertheless, worth mentioning. There is S. 
David's Well, near Quantock Farm in Over Stowey parish, a 
Keltic dedication, also S. Peter's Well, close to Over Stowey 
Church, which gives us a clue to the dedication of the Church. 15 
There is Seven Wells Combe, with some magic in the number 
seven, reminding us of the Seven Sisters of the Yeo (Collin- 
son, iii, 203), and of Barnwell in Northamptonshire, where 
there were seven wells in which weakly children were dipped. 16 
There is S. Agnes' Well at Cothelston, S. John's Well at Hoi- 
ford. There was the famous Hunteneswell of King John's 

14. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xliii. 

15. See also Weaver's Wells Wills, p. 116. 

16. Hope's Holy Wells, p. 99. 

138 Papers, Sfc. 

1204 Charter, which may possibly be Holwell, celebrated for 
the experiments of Philosopher Crosse ; there is Jeffrey's 
Well, a boundary in Ramscombe, at the top of Dyer's Mead ; 
there is Lady's Fountain in Kilve Common, called surely after 
the Virgin Mary, itself a boundary now, and giving a 
name to Ladies Combe. There is a Witches Well in Paries- 
ton lane in Kilve parish, just below Parleston Common. It 
might be possible to localise the ealuuylle or Aldwell and the 
acuuylle or Oakwell of the West Monkton Charter, also the 
Piscis f on tern ( Vishpool or Bishpool ?) of the Aethelwulf 
document, the latter being close to Aisholt. There is a Blind- 
well in Stowey, and a well famous for its healing influences on 
the eyes near Quantock Barn in Enmore Park. 

The word Castle is kept in connection with Douseborough 
or Danesborough Castle, under which old folk say that the be- 
lieving ear can hear sounds of music as of a full band of music ; 
also in Stowey Castle, under which giants and ogres live (so 
the old gossips say), putting out their hands to frighten chil- 
dren ; also in Ruborough Castle in Broomfield, which has tales 
of its own. I cannot find that the Danes or Denes, as the old 
men call them, have left many Place-names behind them. 
They might have left their name to Danesborough, but there 
are so many possible derivations for this word, e.g., Dinas, 
Dane, or Dawns, i.e., beacon borough. Perhaps the Quantocks 
or Cantuctune, as King Alfred's domain, was not hospitable 
enough to them to allow of their staying long. 

The word " Ball," meaning, I suppose, a rounded hill or emi- 
nence between the combes, turns up in Lord's Ball, the south 
side of Ramscombe, and Friarn Ball at the entrance to Seven 
Wells Combe, and Broomball or Brimball in East Quantox- 
head. On Exmoor there are many " balls," such as Cloutsham 
Ball. The word " Down " appears in Fleury or Flory Down, 
and Priors Down, in Over Stowey and Broomfield respectively. 
Bugan Beorh, which seems to be the old way of spelling Bag- 
borough, may be the " Beacon Burgh." What is known as 

The , Quantocks and their Place-Names. 139 

Fire-beacon hill now, is the hill above Crovvcombe Park, above 
Little Quantock, and not Hurley Beacon as the map states. 
Tor is used in connection with Cothelston hill, I believe, but 
Cothelston itself would seem to mean the ton of Cotele, a 
family known formerly in West Somerset. The word ridge or 
edge is found in Herridge combe, East Quantoxhead ; in Hoi- 
ford edge, in Ladies edge, in Shervidge Wood, adjoining Kil- 
ton Common ; Hawkridge, at the bottom of Aisholt ; Mer- 
ridge, in Spaxton parish, below Buncombe ; Swinage (Swine 
Edge) in Kilve. 

The word Cleeve or Clift, for a hanging side, is found in 
Wilvey Cleeve in Stringston parish, near Alfoxton ; also in the 
Clift near Quantock Farm, Over Stowey. There is a redupli- 
cation of Quantock Place-names on the Brendon and Exmoor 
hills, e.g., Stowey Water in Cutcombe, and Stowey on the Quan- 
tocks, Ramscombe on the Quantooks, and Ranscombe in Woot- 
ton Courtney, Luxboro Farm in the Aisholt Valley, Luxbor- 
ough Parish on the Brendons, and so on. This class of Place- 
name seems to be Keltic rather than Saxon. The word 
"Drift," meaning "a flock or herd of animals,'' survives on 
the Quantocks, so does the old Forest word, Meare, meaning 
boundary. The old " Bunda," or dry-wall banks, are quite a 
feature on the Quantocks, and from the very look of them it 
is possible to distinguish them from modern inferior efforts. 
The object of planting beeches on the boundary fences seems 
to be to get the python-like roots of the beech to bind it all in 
one mass, as with knotted ropes, which it effectually does. On 
the open ridges and slades of the Quantocks, signs of cultiva- 
tion and of ridge and furrow ploughing can often be seen. 
The banks dividing these cultivated patches were of a slight 
character, not like the parish boundary banks, as they were 
not required for long. After cultivation the Quantock arable 
went back to heather. Here and there charcoal pits meet the 
eye in secluded parts, signs of an industry no longer carried on. 

There is also a Bincombe as well as Buncombe, the former 

140 Papers, fyc. 

in Holford, meaning the head of a combe, and evidently a 
Keltic word. Five Lords Bench or tump is a round mound 
above Five Lords Wood, and Bincombe, where five lords of 
the manor are supposed to have met. Just about here the 
boundaries of Dodington, Holford, Durborough (the hamlet 
above mentioned, partly in Holford and partly in Stoke 
Courcy), Over Stowey, and Stringston Hill commons meet. 
It is just below Little Douseborough. The slopes of Dous- 
borough are partitioned in a curious way. The top or Douse- 
borough Ring is in Stringston parish; below, on the North 
Holford, lies a strip called Curril Common, and then comes 
Woodlands Hill or Kilton Common, and further to the east 
Dodington and Buckingham Plantation. On the south side of 
Douseborough, come the boundaries of the Stowey Customs, 
a large tract of heathy hill, 488a. 3r. 22p., which has never 
been rated, and from which the Stowey parishioners have 
gathered wood from time immemorial. On the Tithe map 
these Customs appear as Nos. 551, 555, 556, 561. Part of the 
Customs is called locally Longsides Customs. At the higher 
end, and towards the head of Ramscombe, is an old name, 
Horthorne, i.e., a boundary thorn. At the upper end of Rams- 
combe is Ramscombe Customs, a portion which the Stowey 
people say should never have been inclosed. Opposite to 
Ramscombe Customs, and parted by the stream along which 
an old boundary wall is distinctly to be seen for a long dis- 
tance, is Lords Customs. Kilve parish has more " open Com- 
mons," which have never been rated, than any other Quantock 
parish, the total area being 73 la. 2r. 2p. The Kilve Hill 
Woods, which are rated, are 164a. Or. Op. In Kilve parish 
lies Longstone, a well-known boundary between East Quan- 
toxhead and Kilve: Great Hill and Hareknaps (370 acres); 
Somerton Hill and Somerton Wood. If we can connect 
Somerton with the Royal Saxon " Firma " at Somerton, in the 
same way that we can certainly connect Roborough Castle, 
Kingshill and Priors Down in the Broomfield part of Quan- 

The Quantocks and their Place-Names. 141 

tock, then we have a Quantock Place-name of the greatest 
interest in Kilve parish, especially if we connect it with Swin- 
age or Swine ridge, linking it with a Royal Porcheria. 

It may be noticed that in addition to the Stowey Customs, 
there is a piece of land called Custom or Newspring, of 
29a. Or. Op. (No. 157 in the Holford Tithe Map). But when- 
ever and wherever it occurs, the word is worth noticing. 
There are some more gruesome names on the Quantocks which 
may carry a story of their own. There is "Dead Woman's 
Ditch," a bank that runs across the Over Stowey Customs 
and in the direction of Jeffrey's Well ; in the Combe below 
there is " Dead Boy," a small hollow running up to the green 
path that leads to Halsway, lying in Kilve Common. Perhaps 
one of these names suggested to William Wordsworth, when 
he lived at Alfoxton, the Ballad of " The Thorn " or " Ruth," 
who is certainly a Quantock character. In Durborough Com- 
mon, lying above Dodington, and in Holford parish, was Wai- 
ford's Gibbet, the subject of an unpublished poem of W. 
Wordsworth. Not long ago the wooden posts of the grim relic 
where the murderer, Walford, hung for a year and a day, was 
ploughed up, and the exact site of the gibbet and cage re- 

There does not seem to be much indication of Quantock min- 
ing at any rate in ancient times. The copper mines at Doding- 
ton and at Stowey are well known, but they are of comparative 
recent date. There are no local phrases or Place-names indi- 
cating mines on the Quantocks. The old people would speak 
of " Moynes," which is, we believe, an old way. Frobisher, 
the great Elizabethan navigator, writes about "momes." {See 
Hakluyt's Frobisher). The wealth of the Cantok land lay in 
its acorns, mace for swine, and pasture for sheep, and its tim- 
ber, both small and great. The " worts," too, have been con- 
sidered a harvest for the poor man, to be celebrated by the 
Quantock Revels, from time immemorial up to living memory. 
The villagers say, " Are you going to ' Wort-hill?' " meaning 
up on the Quantocks. 

142 Papers, fyc. 

From the above notices, and from the evidence of Place- 
names, we may reconstruct, in some measure, the history of 
this regional tract of country known as Cantok or the Quan- 
tocks. If we take the valley of the Parret as a boundary of 
Dumnonia, the Quantocks would have lain within this ancient 
kingdom. Here and there were earth-works and primitive 
Belgic fortresses, such as we may still trace at such places as 
Roborough Castle or Stowey Castle, probably utilised by the 
Saxon conqueror. Far back in the ages it was a deeply- 
wooded tract, as we infer from the expression, " famosa silva," 
in Centwine's West Monkton Charter. Tn the days of the 
Saxon Kings it would appear to have been a Royal Forest. 
" Dum Canntok foresta fuit," is the explanatory note of that 
compiler of the Rotuli Hundredorum already quoted. The 
hunting of the forest was probably done from Taunton, King 
Ina's town. In that Charter of privileges granted by King 
Edward to the Monastery at Taunton, A.D. 904, there was an 
obligation to provide the King with pastus unius noctis, also to 
entertain the hunting retinue, and to feed the dogs, and to 
take them on to " Curig vel Willettun." This arrangement was 
an old-standing one with the Monastery, and existed before 
A.D. 904. To quote the exact words: " Erat namque antea 
in illo supra dicto monasterio pastus unius noctis regi et viii 
canum et unius Canicularis pastus, et pastus novem noctium 
accipitrariis regis et quicquid rex vellet inde ducere usque ad 
Curig vel Willettun cum plaustris et equis et si advenae de 
aliis regionibus advenirent debebant ducatum habere ad aliam 
regalem villam quae proxima fuisset in illorum via," etc., etc. 
This pastus was in force, therefore, in King Alfred's day, and 
we may picture this Quantock hunting and hawking procession 
setting out from Taunton, sweeping the ridges of the Quan- 
tocks, and putting up at Williton, on their way, doubtless, to 
the next reyalis villa of the sporting Saxon Kings on Exmoor 
or at Porlock. The old monks of Taunton, who had to speed 
the party on their way, no doubt entered into all the minutiae 

The Qnantocks and their Place-Names. 1 43 

of the proceedings with the utmost zeal and alacrity, and 
helped to find good sport. The Place-name " Hart hill," in 
the Over Stowey Woods on Quantock, also " Yellow Stags," 
near Hals way, may be far-away reminders of these days. The 
traditions of hunting were kept up on the Quantocks by Cardi- 
nal Beaufort in Henry VI th reign, when he came to Halsway, 
in Stogumber parish, as we are reminded by the late Rev. F. 
Warre, who, as the Rector of Bishop's Lydeard, and a mem- 
ber of an ancient Quantock family, which, together with the 
Pophams, owned to a collateral descent from the Stradlings of 
Halsway (Sir Edward Stradling married Joan, the daughter 
of the Cardinal), might be expected to know. 17 

Of twenty Quantock parishes, more or less lying upon the 
Quantock hills or close under them, nine lay in the Royal 
Hundred of Williton, viz., Nether Stowey, Dodingtou, Kilton, 
Kilve, East Quantoxhead, West Quantoxhead, Bicknoller, 
Stogumber, Crowcombe; four in the Royal Hundred of Can- 
nington, viz., Aisholt, Spaxton, Over Stowey and Stringston ; 
three in the Royal Hundred of Andersfield, viz., Broomfield, 
Enmore, Goathurst ; two in Taunton Dean Hundred, viz., 
Bagborough and Cothelston. Of the remaining two, Bishop's 
Lydeard lay in Kingsbury West Hundred, and Holford in 
Whitley Hundred. It is not, therefore, unreasonable to con- 
clude that a large portion of the Vetus Dominicum of the 
West Saxon Kings and Princes lay within the area of these 
parishes. The payment of acknowledgments from such places 
as Roborough, Prior's Down, Kingshill in Broomfield, to the 
Royal Firma of Somerton, points, surely, to the ancestry of 
the properties. In the Andersfield Hundred, West Bower, the 
reputed birth-place of Lady Jane Seymour, was Royal prop- 
erty. Durleigh, close by, was Parcel of the Duchy of Lancas- 
ter. 18 Amongst lands and tenements held in Durleigh by 
John, son of Walter Mychell, 8 Henry VII, is "North 

17. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. v, p. 12. 

18. Somerset Record Society. Somerset Chantries. Vol. 2, p. 242. 

144 Paper s, fyc. 

Bowre, worth 10, held of the King, as of the Honor of Trow- 
brugge, parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, by Knight Ser- 
vice, and suit of the Court of the said Duchy held at Durley." 
Does not the same fact of the Vetus Dominicum appear in the 
statement of Humphrey Blake, who in Charles I's reign, held 
Plainsfield or Planesfield " as of the manor of Hampton Court 
by Knight's Service?" 19 Or does it not appear even more con- 
spicuously in the descent of the Tything of Week or Wick, 
partly in Over Stowey and partly in Stoke Courcy, held by 
the Queen as we learn from Kirby's Quest, together with the 
Hundred of Cannington, "de dono regis ? " Do not we trace 
here membra of that lordly Dominicum shadowed in King 
Alfred's Will ? From Domesday we know that Harold held 
Stowey on the east side of the Quantocks, and Capton in 
Stogumber on the west side. If we look to the West of Eng- 
lond rather than to the parts around Winchester and Salisbury 
for the nidus of West Saxon power, there is reason for it, and 
we may be allowed to give credit to Asser's statement, " Occi- 
dentalis pars Saxonise semper Orientali principalior est." 

We get more light still from the history of the early Saxon 
Church in West Somerset and in the neighbourhood of the 
Quantocks. By the endowments of the pious Saxon kings 
and princes, beginning with Cent wine, the Quantock country 
came under ecclesiastical influences. In the West Monkton 
Charter, as we have seen, Glastonbury was favoured, and by 
virtue of the Charter of Aethelwulf in 854, the boundaries of 
the Manor of Taunton, the possession of the ancient See of 
Winchester, and one of the greatest sources of its wealth, were 
greatly enlarged. Gytha, wife of Godwin, gave Crowcombe 
to the Church of S. Swithin, taken away at the Conquest from 
the Church and given to Robert, Earl of Morton, half- 
brother of William the Conqueror, but part of it returning 
again, later on, it may be noticed, by the gift of Godfrey de 
Craucumbe to the nuns at Studley in Oxfordshire. 

19. Exchequer Bill and Answer, Chas. I, Somerset. No. 169. 

The Qiiantocks and their Place-Names. 145 

There was also the well-known gift of Lydeard to Asser, 
Bishop of Sherborne, and Bishop's Lydeard has remained with 
the Church ever since. Athelney was represented on the 
Quantocks by the little chapel of Adscombe in Over Stowey 
parish, if we so conclude from the entry in Kirby's Quest. 20 
Perhaps Durborough, where there used to be a chapel and a 
sprig of the Holy thorn, the latter within living memory, 
must be regarded as a Quantock possession of Glastonbury, 
the gift of Elflem (Collinson ii, p. 243), both Durborough and 
Durborough Common lying within the parish of Holford, and 
adjoining Dodington on the north-east slopes of these hills. 

The Norman kings and nobles added to these Saxon gifts. 
King John in 1204 endowed the Taunton Priory with part of 
his Cantok dominicum ; the lords of Stoke Courcy Castle 
and the successors of the Falaise family give pasture, woods 
and privileges to the Church of S. Peter at Over Stowey, and 
to the monks of the alien Priory of Stoke Courcy. 21 In 1219 
the master and brothers of the Hospital of St. John hold one 
third of a virgate of land and 300 acres of wood in Over 
Stowey on the Quantocks. 22 Holford Church and Rectory, by 
the gift of the Norman lords of Stoke (Courcy), the Falaise 
family, were attached to the alien Priory of Stoke (Courcy), 
being subsequently devoted to the purposes of Eton College, 
in whose possession they still remain. Kilton Church and 
Vicarage formed part of the many " advocationes " of the 
Bath Priory, with its cell at Dunster. Bicknoller fell largely 
under the influence of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, the 
patronage of the Church still lying with them, as a Capella 
dependens upon Stogumber. 

It is the Severn sea which after all enhances the charms of 
the Quantock country, and gives it its deep historical interest. 
Yonder tawny flood that rushes twice a day up the Parret 

20. Somerset Record Society. Vol. 3, p. 17. 

21. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xliii, p. 81. 

22. Feet of Fines. Hen. III. A.D. 1219. 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI ), Part II. k 

146 Papers, Sfc. 

mouth, and looks in the distance almost like a lake bounded by 
Brean Down, has carried on its breast the exploring merchant, 
the adventurous privateer, and the evangelising sailor saint. 
The aestuarium Uxellae was known to Phoenician, Roman, 
Briton, Saxon, Dane and Norman. The Mor Esyllog or Mor 
Havren is the ancient British name for the Severn sea, Mor 
Havren, " a nomine puellae," as Giraldus Cambrensis tells us. 
When in a boat in Bridgwater Bay how conspicuous is the 
geographical landmark of Ynys Witrin or Grlaston's Isle ! that 
smooth and green mound which lies under heaven with so 
many holy and hallowing memories. What a central spot it 
makes in the classic land of Somerset ! and indeed in the 
whole kingdom of ancient Wessex ! Yonder in the midst of 
the hurrying flood of Sabrina amnis lies Echin, " adjacens 
Anglise," the Steep Holm, upon which Gildas sojourned. 
Close by is Ronnett or Ronech, the Saxon Bradanreolic, 23 and 
the Danish Flat Holms, " proximior Walliae," whither S. 
Cadoc went. The very wealth of synonyms tell the story of 
the flow of nations backwards and forwards, and recal the 
associations of this ancient region where " Seaward Quantock 
stands as Neptune he controlled," to use Michael Drayton's 

One of the handmaids of Archaeology is Geography. The 
broad features of sea, river and moor lying below the Quan- 
tocks suggest the course of History. Yonder, along the tidal 
Pedridan, the flat-bottomed ships could rest safely and easily 
on the soft beds of ooze and slime and be careened at low 
water : yonder at Cannington there rises a round hill which 
could serve as a fortress, probably the Cynwit of the Saxon 
Chroniclers ; further up the waste of waters (to carry our 
imagination back), there were refuges, " eyots," islands, 
covered with alder wood, and guarded by quaking morass. 
The key to the land was at the Parrett mouth, and through 
this shifting refluent portal the way to South Wales, the 

23. Bosworth Smith's A.S. Dictionary. 

The Qttantocks and their Place-Names. 147 

country of the Silures, the Usk (Isca) and Caer-leon, to Mon- 
mouth, and the " nobilem Danubia3 syivam "' or the Danicam 
sylvam of old Giraldus Cambrensis (Itin. Camb. Ch. V), where 
the Danes hid in Alfred's time. Between the two shores was 
constant and busy intercourse. It is certainly curious that 
Hugo de Neville of Stoke Courcy Castle should have asked 
the King 24 in 1225 for six oaks from the Forest of Dene (the 
Danes wood of Giraldus Cambrensis) for repairing his houses 
at Stoke Courcy. It shows a port, possibly at Stoverd or 
Stolford, and quick sea communication between Wales and the 
Parrett mouth. This port the Danes themselves might have 
used before the battle of Cynwit. 

What more grateful flood than that of Sabrina amnis, open 
to the pulse of the Atlantic, and still throbbing with busy 
life ! Old Gildas, the lonely anchorite, so the story goes, of 
the Steep Holms wrote thus, " Britain is enriched by the 
mouths of two noble rivers, the Thames and the Severn, as it 
were two arms, by which foreign luxuries were of old im- 
ported." With show of reason we might place the Severn 
sea, the waterway to Ireland and to Armorica, above the river 
Thames, in the romantic shaping of our annals. Even the 
realm of Rex Arturus, shadowy elsewhere, seems to have a 
local habitation and a name along the shores of the Severn 
sea, whether at Caer-Leon or at Grlastonbury. Inland, is there 
any part of Britain more replete with Saxon life or with a 
better title to be the real " Vetus Dominicum " of Saxonia 
than Somerton the erstwhile capital of Somerset, of which the 
ancient Burgh of Ilchester was a membrum, 25 with its Royal 
appanages stretching out on this side and on that ? 

The poet Wordsworth has celebrated in his " Ecclesiastical 
Sonnets," the hill of the proto-martyr, S. Alban. 

" Whose flowery platform seems to rise 
" By nature decked for holiest sacrifice." 

24. Rotuli Cl. Litt. Vol. ii, p. 62. 

25. Rotuli Hundred. Vol. ii, p. 128. 

148 Papers, Sfc. 

But the green mound of Glaston's Isle is full of greater 
memories than S. Alban's Mount. Should any Cathedral or 
Abbey Church in our land boast of its ancestry, a Church of 
Glastonbury can reply with truth, Vetustior ! Around this 
ancient island, British, Saxon and Norman Christianity throve 
with one continuous growth, and Glastonbury, for all time, 
must be the sacred " Delos " of our land and the Mecca of our 
factions. To use the late Professor Freeman's words, who, 
more than anyone else, struck the leading notes of our local 
history, " Here at Glastonbury we can muse, and muse with- 
out let or hindrance on the greatest memorials of the great age 
which made the English kingdom." 26 

26. Som. Arch. Proceedings, vol. xxvi, p. 39. 

an 3(nt)entorp of Cfturcft plate in Somerset* 

Part IV. 



Prebendary of Wells. 

WITH the continued assistance of Prebendary Hancock 
(would that I could write continuous), three more 
Deaneries have been added to the Inventory. They comprise 
the District of Dunster, thus completing that Deanery, and 
the complete Deanery of Taunton, which has the sub-division 
of Wellington. There are sixty-five ancient parishes, and 
seven modern (including one church in Wellington with no 
district assigned to it) ; total, seventy-two. 

Out of sixty-four ancient parishes (I have not been able to 
examine the plate at Stawley), thirty-one retain Elizabethan 
cups. This high average is only reached by the inclusion of 
the Dunster district which possesses fourteen of these early 
cups. In the Taunton Deanery there are far too many 
parishes which possess nothing earlier than the nineteenth 
century. It would appear that as in the case of the Frome 
Deanery, mentioned in part ii, the vicinity of a large town has 
led to the exchange of old things for new, with the usual dis- 
astrous results. 

Eighteen of these cups were made by I. P. Six were sup- 

150 Papers, fyc. 

plied by Ions of Exeter. The local or provincial mark referred 
to in the Introduction to part m, M.H. in monogram and a 
S. Andrew's cross, is found on cups at Brompton Ralph and 
Ruishton. There were four examples in the Crewkerne 
Deanery (I, II) ; so that if this mark should not be found in 
Devonshire, or only in the north-east part of the county, it 
may fairly be surmised that it is the mark of a silversmith 
resident at Taunton. 

The Inventory for this year has not added a single example 
of the Taunton mark proper, a tun lying across a T, which is 
found on a paten at Wootton Courtney, dated 1676, and a few 
spoons, one of which is in the Taunton Castle Museum. The 
maker's initials were I.D., and he seems to have been at work 
from 1673 to 1691, but examples of the mark are few and far 
between. The Elizabethan cup at Otterford, of the very late 
date 1599, is by Eston, of Exeter. At Exton and Winsford 
are cups of the Exeter pattern, with marks not hitherto noted. 

There are two seventeenth-century chalices of foreign 
design and manufacture presented to the churches of St. 
Andrew and St. James, Taunton. The Diocesan Kalendar 
for 1899 had for frontispiece a beautiful illustration of the 
Spanish chalice of the same period, belonging to the 
Cathedral. In part i of the Inventory (vol. xliii, ii, 212), I 
mistakenly entered both chalice and paten as modern. This 
description only applies to the paten, and should be cor- 

At Selworthy there is a paten of the same period and of 
foreign origin. At Orchard Portman will be found one of the 
pieces which follow no regular pattern, and seem peculiar to 
the Restoration period. 

Lastly, I desire to thank all clergy and laymen who have 
answered my letters of enquiry, or in other and manifold ways 
helped my work. Why three individuals should have refused 
to do either one or the other is a problem which, as Lord 
Dundreary said, " No fellah can understand." 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 



1571 Timberscombe, cup and cover. 

1572 Cutcombe^cup and cover. 
Withy poole, cup. 

1573 Combe Florey, cup and cover. 
Corfe, cup and cover. 
Creech, cup. 

Culbone, cup and cover. 
Dulverton, cup and cover. 
Dunster, cup and cover. 
Hawkridge, cup. 
Kittisford, cup and cover. 
Langford B., cup and cover. 
Oare, cup and cover. 
Runnington, cup and cover. 
Staplegrove, cup and cover. 
Stoke St. Gregory, cup. 
Stoke Pero, cup and cover. 
Thorn Faulcon, cup and cover. 

Wootton Courtney, cup and 

1574 Angersleigh, cup and cover. 

Exton, cup and cover. 

Nyuehead, cup and cover. 

Ruishton, cup and cover. 

Thorne St. Margaret, cup and 

Winsford, cup and cover. 
1599 Otterford, cup and cover. 
Undated but of this period. 

Ashbrittle, cup and cover. 

Brompton Regis, cup and 

Lydeard St. Lawrence, cup. 

Porlock, cup and cover. 

Taunton St. James, cup and 


1617 Bishop's Lydeard, cup with 

1624 Minehead, cup. 

Wootton Courtney, flagon. 
1630 Taunton St. Mary M., cups 

with covers. 

1633 Lydeard St. Lawrence, paten. 
Winsford, paten. 

1635 Brompton Regis, paten. 
Exton, paten. 

1636 Wilton, cup. 

1639 Taunton St. Mary M., flagons. 
Taunton St. Jas., cup with 


1640 Pitminster, cup. 

1641 Bagborough, set of vessels. 
1646 Orchard Portman, set of 

1653 Brushford, cup. 
1662 Bradford, cup and cover. 
1674 Minehead, paten. 
1676 Angersleigh, plate. 

Thorn St. Margaret, cup. 
1676 Wootton Courtney, paten. 
1681 Nynehead, flagon. 

Orchard Portman, saucer. 
1683 Ashbrittle, flagon. 
1686 Bishop's Hull, spoon. 

Kingston, cup. 

1690 Wellington H. Trinity, plate. 
1695 Exford, paten. 
1699 Bishop's Hull, paten and flagon. 

Taunton St. Mary M., alms 

? Selworthy, cup (c. 1610). 


1704 Minehead, flagon. 

1705 Kittisford, flagon. 

1 706 Sampford A run. , cup and cover. 

1711 Dunster, paten. 

1712 Cheddon Fitzpaine, cup and 


Norton Fitzwarren, paten and 

1716 Kingston, flagon. 
West Monkton, service. 

1717 Ashbrittle, saucer. 
1721 Kingston, paten. 

1721 Minehead, cup and paten. 
Taunton St. James, plate. 
1723 Halse, service. 

Sampford Arund., paten. 
Staplegrove, paten. 

1725 Hawkridge, paten. 
Pitminster, paten. 
Withypoole, paten. 

1726 Ashbrittle, paten. 
Combe Florey, service. 

1727 Brushford, flagon. 
Combe Florey, paten. 
Porlock, dish. 

1728 Pitminster, flagon. 

1729 Staplegrove, paten and flagon. 
1731 Nynehead, salver. 

Trull, flagon. 
1734 Nynehead, paten. 


Papers, fyc. 


Stoke St. Gregory, salver. 
1737 Ash Prior's, cup. 

Taunton St. Jas., plate. 

1739 Kingston, plate 

1740 Norton Fitzw., cup and cover. 
1753 Bishop's Lydiard, cup and 

1760 Selworthy, flagon. 

1762 Creech St. Mich., salver. 

1763 Wellington St. John's, service. 
1767 Brompton Regis, alms dish. 

Lydeard St. Lawrence, flagon. 

Pitminster, plate. 
1768 Corfe, plate. 
1771 Exton, flagon. 
1773 Taunton St. Mary M. , 2 salvers. 
1775 Cutcombe, flagon. 
1778 West Bagborough, dish. 
1780 West Bagborough, dish. 
1782 Oake, cup. 
1785 Milverton. 2 cups. 
1791 Creech St. Mich., salver. 
1795 Ruishton, salver. 

Selworthy, paten. 
Taunton St. Andr., chalice. 

Anderton, Stoke St. Gregory. 

Arundel, Selworthy. 

Brune, Bishop's Hull. 

Cheeke, Ashbrittle. 

Clarke, Langford B., Nynehead. 

Cridland, Staplegrove. 

Farewell, Bishop's Hull. 

Fowel, Bishop's Hull. 

Francis, Combe Florey. 

Gatty, Trull. 

Hussey, Exton. 

Jepp, Langford Budville. 

Kellet, West Bagborough. 

Knightly, Nynehead. 

Moore, Ashbrittle. 

Musgrave, Halse, W. Monkton. 

Norris, Brushford, Exton. 


Taunton St. Jas., chalice. 


Portman, Orchard P., Taunton St. 

Mary M. 

Proctor, Wellington, H. Trin. Ch. 
Prowse, Combe Florey, Norton Fitz- 


Sanford, Nynehead. 
Scott, Trull. 
Smith, Trull. 
Speke, Stoke St. Gregory. 
Taunton Town, St. Mary M. 
Trerice, Selworthy. 
Vanzandt, Bishop"'s Hull. 
Watts, Langford Budville. 

Bishop's Hull, shield. 
Brompton Regis, crest. 
Orchard Portman, crest. 
Wellington H. Trinity, shield. 



BROMPTON REGIS. Though not dated the cup and cover 
are of the Elizabethan period, and are kept in a curious old 
coffer covered with stamped leather. The cup is 6Jin. high, 
and weighs lO^oz. av. The bowl is bell-shaped ; it has a 
narrow band of cross hatching below the lip, and lower down 
a band of the customary ornamentation. On the foot is 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 153 

another band, and another of lozenges enclosing dots. Marks: 
(1), a circle enclosing a St. Andrew's cross, with a pellet in 
each spandrel; (2), a circle containing the letters M H in a 
monogram. (For this mark see introduction). It is found on 
cups dated 1574, and is no doubt of that period. The cover 
is of the usual pattern, 4in. in diam., weight 2|oz. av. 
Round the brim is a band of ornament, and on the button a 
Tudor rose. 

There is also a paten on a foot of in. across. There are no 
marks visible. On the brim : ' For the parish of Kings- 
brimpton in Devon. Wardens : Antony Webber and John 
Greenslade, Anno 1635.' The geographical mistake in the 
above inscription is curious. An alms dish 6^in. across on 
three feet. It has a shell-decorated border, and a deep band 
of foliage round the plate. In the centre is a crest : A 
peacock in its pride. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1767; 
the initials E.G. in plain punch Ebenezer Coker. 

A modern plated flagon, inscribed : * Kings Brompton 
Church, 1877.' A fine pewter flagon loin, high, with double 
bowed handle. It is inscribed : ' Jno. Joyce and Edwd. 
Wilson, Churchwardens of Kings Brumpton, 1730.' 

BRUSHFORD. A plain cup of the Commonwealth period. 
It is 5|in. high, quite plain ; the bowl is of a goblet shape ; 
the stem is long and moulded ; the foot has a moulded edge. 
Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1653; the maker's mark is 
partly obliterated ; it is probably R.N., a mark found at 
Plymouth in 1660. 

The paten is 5 Jin. in diam., of the ordinary pattern on a 
foot. The only mark is a square punch enclosing a small 
object resembling a staple with pellets on the points ; this is 
struck three times. Patens with these irregular marks are 
not uncommon in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

There is a handsome flagon, tankard pattern, 12 inches 
high. It has a bowed handle with elaborate thumbpiece. 
Marks: 2 offic.; Exeter modern; date-letter for 1727; 

154 Papers, fyc. 

maker's mark, the initials .I.E. beneath an heraldic label 
John Elston, jun. On the flagon is a shield bearing : Arg. a 
cross flory sa. within 12 billets gu. Crest: a demi-stag arg. 
attired sa. pierced through the body by an arrow of the last 
headed and feathered of the first. Inscription : ' Ex dono 
Johannis N orris, Rectr. in usiim ecclesiae de.' The donor 
succeeded his father in 1708. and was buried 14th July, 1746 
(note by C. St. B. Sydenham, rector). 

A small dish of plated metal. 

CULBONE. A.nother cup and cover by I. P., and exactly 
the same as his ordinary pattern 2 bands of foli'age, and 
hyphen decoration on knop and foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; I.P. The cover has a band of foliage orna- 
ment round the brim, and on the button * 1573.' A plain 
pewter dish. 

CUTCOMBE. A cup and cover by I.P. The cup is 6fin. 
high. The shape of the bowl is that of an inverted truncated 
cone, encircled with two bands of foliage, another band being 
engraved on the foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1572 ; 
maker's mark, I.P. The cover is of the usual pattern with 
the same marks. 

The silver flagon is a very massive piece of plate, 13in. 
high ; and the foot is 7f in. in diameter. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1775 ; maker's mark, I.M., in shaped shield. 
The flagon is inscribed : J.A.E., in floriated capitals. 

There is also an imitation of the cup described above in 
electro-plate ; and a plated paten, inscribed : ' Cutcombe 
Church, given by the Vicar 1833.' 

DULVERTOX. There is here another cup and cover by 
I.P. The cup is 6|in. high, and is of the same shape and 
ornamentation as the one at Cutcombe. The knop has a band 
of hyphens. Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573; I.P. On 
the button of the cover is the date ' 1573.' 

The second cup is inscribed : 'Parish of Dulverton 1833.' 
The date-letter is for 1831. The paten was purchased at the 
same time and bears the same inscription. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 155 

The Dutverton Church plate was stolen at this date, and 
the cup and paten were bought to replace them. Sometime 
afterwards, by a lucky accident, the old cup and cover were 
recovered at Exeter. The modern flagon was also purchased 
at the same time as the cup and paten. 

DUNSTER. The parish still preserves its Elizabethan cup 
and cover, though now relegated to the Mission Chapel at 
Alcombe. It is 7f in. high ; and possesses all the character- 
istics of the work of I. P. : the bands of foliage divided at 
four points round the bowl ; hyphen belt on knop and foot, 
and egg and dart moulding on foot. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; I. P. The cover is of the usual pattern ; and 
has 1573 on the button. 

A large paten on foot, lO^in. across; rim being boldly 
splayed and moulded. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterl. ; date- 
letter for 1711; maker's mark, G.A., with three pellets and 
crown above ; within circle William Gamble. The paten is 
inscribed : ' James Wilkins, sen., Henry Slocombe, church- 
wardens 1714.' 

There is also a handsome modern set, consisting of a chalice, 
paten, and flagon, silver-gilt, of the present reign. 

A pewter plate, inscribed : ' F. Bradley, T. Staddon, church- 
wardens 1713.' 

Though not exactly coming under the head of church plate, 
one may be allowed to note a brass chandelier of fifteen lights 
hanging in the church inscribed : ' Gauen by the late Jone 
Brewer ten pounds twowards this Branch. John Hossom, 
Benj. Escott, Churchwardens, 1740.' 

EXFORD. The cup and cover are of the plain type which 
came in after the Restoration. The cup is 7in. high, with 
bell-shaped bowl devoid of decoration. The stem has a rudi- 
mentary annulated knop ; the foot is plainly moulded. Marks: 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1695 ; maker's mark, H. S., in mono- 
gram. The cover matches the cup, and has the same marks. 

There are also some electro-plated vessels. 

156 Paper s^c. 

EXMOOK. This Parish was formed in 1854, and the patens 
and flagon are of that date. The cup is rather older, and 
bears the Irish Hall marks, the date-letter for 1814, and the 
mark of John le Bas, a Dublin goldsmith of that period. The 
whole service was presented by Sir F. Knight. 

EXTON. The Elizabethan cup and cover are by an un- 
known maker, who followed the Exeter pattern. The cup is 
7 Jin. high, and weighs llfoz. av. It has a concave lip, round 
which runs a double-hatched band, divided in four places. 
The bowl is of the truncated cone shape, with a single band 
of conventional foliage. The foot has two bands of the egg- 
and-dart design. The only mark is that of the maker's, R.I., 
within dotted circle. The cover is of the usual pattern. On 
the button ' Exton 1574,' surrounding a Tudor rose. The 
single mark is the same as that on the cup. 

There is also a plain paten, platter shape, 5in. in diameter. 
Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1635; maker's mark, I.M. 
A large flagon, 13|in. high; marked weight, 47oz. Marks: 
2 offic. ; maker's mark, A.F. within shaped shield ; date- 
letter, 1771. Inscribed : 'The gift of Ann Norris, daughter 
of the late Mr. William Norris and Ann his wife to the 
Church of Exton.' Within mantling a shield bearing : Sa, a 
cross flory arg. betw. 12 billets gu, imp., ermine 3 bars gu. 
Crest : A demi-stag pierced with an arrow. William Norris, 
apparently a relation of John Norris, the donor of the flagon 
at Brushford, was rector of Exton 1713 26 d Apr. 1764, when 
he died aged 89 years. Anne his wife died 5 d Aug. 1717 
aged 27. (M.I. given in Collinson III, 527). Her arms are 
those of the family of Hussey. 

HAWKRIDGE. An Elizabeth cup is preserved here, unfor- 
tunately without its cover. It is 6in. high, and is of the usual 
shape and design of I.P.'s work. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1573 ; I.P. 

The paten is 5Jin. in diam., of a plain platter design, with a 
moulded rim. In centre is an inscription : ' Eccles. de Hawk- 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 157 

ridge 1726.' Marks : 2 offic. ; Exeter modern ; date-letter for 
1725 ; maker's mark, P.E. in oval Philip Elston. 

LUCCOMBE. The plate here is all modern. It consists of 
a cup and two patens of the year 1843 ; and two silver-gilt 
and glass cruets with the date-letters for 1816 and 1885 

MlNEHEAD. The older of the two cups is 9in. high and 
silver-gilt. The bowl is very deep in proportion to its diameter ; 
but otherwise it resembles the plain Jacobean cups, being 
devoid of any ornamentation. It is inscribed : ' James Downe 
and John Bond, Churchwardens, Parish of Mynehead 1624.' 
Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1624; maker's mark, an F. 
or S. within a wreath. The second cup is llin. high, and 
weighs 30oz. This length is principally stem, which is decor- 
ated with divers mouldings and knops ; the bowl is bell-shaped 
4 Jin. in diameter ; the foot is broad and flat. It is inscribed : 
'F. Whitworth Esq. 1731.' The donor also gave the second 
paten ; it is platter-shaped with a wide brim ornamented with 
a band of foliage. Both cup and paten are of foreign origin 
and silver-gilt. 

The older paten is 7in. in diameter, and weighs 8oz. av. A 
reeded band runs round the edge. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1674; maker's mark, the initials R.D. It is in- 
scribed : ' This was given for the use of the Church of Myne- 
head by Thomas Hensley Gent : Anno : Dom : 1674.' 

The flagon is of the tankard pattern; llin. high; weight, 
39oz. av. ; with bowed handle and moulded base. Inscribed : 
'Peter Godwin and James Savounit Churchwardens 1705.' 
Marks : 2 offic., Brit, sterl. ; date-letter for 1705 ; maker's 
mark, L.O. in shield, with a key above. The mark of Nath. 
Lock entr. 1698. 

OARE. A small Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P. The 
cup is 5f in. high ; the bowl has the usual two bands of orna- 
mentation ; the knop and the foot have bands of hyphens. 
The cover has a band of foliage round the button enclosing 

158 Papers, $c. 

the date ' 1573.' Marks (obliterated on cover) : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I. P. 

A modern paten is 4^in. across, platter-shaped with reeded 
brim, on foot. In the centre is the Sacred Monogram within 
a Glory. Marks: 3 offic.; date-letter for 1802; maker's 
mark, A.F. It is inscribed : ' The gift of John Oliver M.A. 
Rector and Patron of the Church of Ore/ The donor pur- 
chased the advowson of Nicholas Snow about 1789, the year 
after he became rector. He was succeeded by John Black- 
more, grandfather of the late novelist. The almsdish, 6in. in 
diam., with reeded edge, is inscribed : ' The joint gift of John 
Oliver Rector and Patron and W. Snow and J. Snow Gents : 
of the Parish of Ore 1814.' Marks : 3 offic. ; date-letter for 

The flagon is 7in. high, of a plain upright pattern narrowing 
towards the top. It has a pierced thumbpiece and bowed 
handle. Marks : 3 offic. ; date-letter for 1802 ; maker's 
mark, A. P. 

PORLOCK.- -In the absence of any marks it is not easy to 
decide upon the exact age of the cup. It is 8Jin. high, and 
weighs 14oz. av. The bowl is 4in. across, bell-shaped, with- 
out decoration or inscription. The knop on the stem is decor- 
ated with a band of cable pattern, while the foot has the egg- 
and-dart ornament. The cover is also devoid of marks. On 
the button is the Sacred Monogram. It is probable that the 
stem and foot belong to the original Elizabethan cup, while 
the bowl having been damaged has been replaced. 

A plain dish, 6Jin. across ; weight, 8^oz. av. On the under- 
side : ' Porlock 1730.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1727 ; 
maker's mark partly worn away : a set of four initials, only 
R.T. visible, in four-lobed punch. 

A paten and two silver-mounted cruets of modern make. 

SELWORTHY. The cup is unfortunately without its cover. 
It is 8in. high, and weighs 13|oz. av. The bowl is decorated 
with a band of flowers and fruit within a double fillet ; the 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 159 

knop has a band of cable ornament, and the foot is encircled 
with the egg-and-dart moulding round edge. Marks : old 
Exeter mark ; 'II' within three pellets. These two marks 
are struck twice. There are cups with similar variations on 
the orthodox pattern at Norton-s.-Hamdon 1601, Ilton 1610, 
Rimpton 1637 ; and the Selworthy cup is probably of the 
same period. 

The paten is 9^in. across, and weighs lO^oz. av. There is a 
band of arabesques in the centre of the platter, and outside 
this a band of conventional foliage in four panels ; round the 
edge there is a fillet moulding. There are three marks : (1) 
lion ramp, crowned; (2), A crowned; (3), bunch of grapes. 
The late Sir W. Franks considered the paten to be a piece of 
Dutch domestic plate of the early part of the seventeenth 

The flagon is 12in. high, of the jug pattern with cover and 
lip ; the bowed handle has the leaf ornamentation. Marks : 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1760; maker's mark, W.C. Inscrip- 
tion on under side of flagon: s Ex dono Johann : Dom : 
Arundell Anno Domini 1761. In Usu Ecclesia? Selworthy- 
ensis.' On the bowl is a shield bearing quarterly ; 1 and 4, 
Sa, 6 martlets close 3, 2, 1 arg. (Arundell) ; 2 and 3, Sa. 3 
chevronels arg. (Trerice). Supporters : 2 panthers or spotted 
ramp, regardant incensed. Above the shield is a baron's 
coronet. The third and last Lord Arundel died childless in 
1768, when the great estate of Trerice, which included the 
manors of Luccombe and Selworthy, passed to the grandfather 
of the present Sir C. T. D. Acland, Bart. ; vide "History of 
Selworthy," by the present writer, p. 204 seq. 

STOKE PEUO. The plate, as everything else in Stoke 
Pero, is on a diminutive scale. The cup is only 4|in. high, 
and weighs 6oz. av. Like all I.P.'s work, it has two bands 
of conventional ornament rouud bowl ; the stem however has 
no knop ; the foot is decorated with the hyphen design. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, T.P. 

160 Papers, $c. 

This cup is of much beauty and in very good condition. The 
cover weighs foz. av., and is 2|in. in diameter. It has a band 
of hyphen decoration, and on the button ' 1574.' 

TIMBERSCOMBE. The cup is 6f in. high ; the bowl is of 
the inverted truncated cone shape, decorated with one band of 
the customary Elizabethan ornament. The knop and stem are 
without ornamentation of any kind. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1571 ; maker's mark almost obliterated. This is un- 
fortunate, as the date is rather earlier than the period when 
the marks most generally known in the county appear. The 
cover has a band of two fillets round the rim ; on the button is 
the date 1571. Marks same as on cup, and the maker's mark 
is also worn down. 

There is also a plated paten, inscribed : ' D. D., I. H. Croft, 
Vicar 1875 ' ; a modern glass-and-silver-mounted cruet. 

Of pewter : an old almsdish, inscribed : ' I. W. + I. S. + 
C.,' perhaps the initials of John Webb and John Spurrier or 
John Siderfin, who were ratepayers and churchwardens at the 
end of the seventeenth century ; also a flagon 9 inches high, 
with the same initials as the almsdish. 

WINSFORD. The cup with cover appears to be one of a 
class of which several have been noted in other parts of the 
Archdeaconry. They are evidently designed after the Exeter 
pattern, the two most noticeable features being the concave 
lip and the thin knop ; at the same time they do not bear the 
Exeter Hall mark, nor, it is to be noticed, the mark supposed 
to indicate a Taunton mint or guild. The cup is 7 T 7 ?r in. high ; 
and has the weight 14oz. lOdwt. marked under the foot. 
This weight includes the cover. The bowl has one band of 
foliage enclosed between cross-hatched fillets, interlaced at 
three points, further ornamented by upright sprays of engraved 
design. The bowl has a very concave lip. 1 

1. After personal examination, I think the lip is a renovation ; this would 
account for the absence of any marks, as the lip is the usual place for them. 
E. H. B. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 161 

The foot has the egg-and-dart ornament. The cover is of 
the usual shape. On the button is a Tudor rose, surrounded 
by Wynsford 1574.' The only mark on the cover is very 
small and obscure, but it seems to be the letter H within a 
double circle, the inner one being either pellets or cable 

The second paten is lO^in. across, weight 19oz. It has a 
deep rim ; and in the centre of the dish is a circle with 
floriated border. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1633 ; 
maker's mark, I.M. above a pig passant, found on other plate 
in the diocese. On the under side in dotted letters, 'The 
guifte of Thomsine Widlake bought by Roger Widlake 1633.' 

WITHYPOOLE. A little cup by I. P. It is 5fin. high; the 
bowl is bell-shaped and decorated with the two customary 
bands. The knop is simply moulded ; the foot has a band of 
hyphens within fillets. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1572 ; 

The paten is 5 Jin. across, on a foot with moulded rim. In 
the centre : 'Eccles. de Withypoole, 1726.' Marks : 2 offic.; 
Exeter modern ; date-letter for 1725 ; the mark of Philip 

A flagon of Sheffield plate. 

WOOTTON COURTNEY. The cup and cover are by I.P., 
and so like his other work as not to require any detailed 
account. The cup is 6Jin. high, and weighs 8Joz. av. On 
the button of the cover is the date 1573. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
date-letter for 1573 ; maker's mark, I.P. 

A paten 6in. across, weight 6Joz. It is of the usual 
pattern, on a foot ; the only ornamentation consists of three 
incised lines on the brim. It bears the inscription : ' Ex dono 
Christianas Batt de Wotton Courteney 1676.' There are two 
marks : the maker's initials, T.D. above a fleur-de-lys in 
shaped punch ; the second, within a circle a barrel or tun 
lying across a T. This second mark is generally taken as a 
rebus on the name of Taunton, which may very probably have 

Vol. XL VI (Third Series, Vol. VI), Part IL I 

162 Papers, -c. 

been the maker's town. At present this is the only instance 
of the mark being found within the county of Somerset. ( See 

The flagon is 12in. high, and weighs 104oz. av. It is of the 
upright tankard pattern with broad foot, and boldly bowed 
handle. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1624 ; maker's mark. 
A.K. It is inscribed : ' Wotton Courtenay donum Georgii 
Churchey.' This is a particularly fine piece of early Jacobean 
plate, and the whole collection is in splendid condition. 



ANGERSLEIGH. Here is a good cup with cover, silver-gilt, 
by Ions of Exeter. The cup stands 6 fin. high ; it has the 
distinctive Exeter lip ; a band of ornamentation round bowl ; 
belts of egg-and-dart design on stem and foot. The cover is 
of the usual pattern with a band of ornament round the brim ; 
on the button ' 1574,' enclosed within sprigs of foliage sur- 
rounded by a belt of hatched lines. 

A large plate 9Jin. across, with Sacred Monogram in centre, 
engraved in eighteenth century style. Marks : 2 offic. ; 
maker's mark, I.S. combined in a monogram in oval punch, 
found in 1675 ; date-letter much worn, probably that for 1676. 
A smaller plate, Victorian era. Inscribed : ' The gift of Mary 
Napier Stuart, widow, Christmas 1862.' 

BISHOP'S HULL. The cups, two in number, parcel-gilt, are 
of the early Victorian pattern, with the date-letter for 1844. 

The flagon is of the plain tankard pattern with flat-topped 
lid, 9f in. high. Marks : 2 offic., Brit, sterling ; date-letter 
for 1699 ; maker's mark, Ti Robert Timbrell. On the drum 
of the flagon is a lozenge bearing : A cross rnoline (Brune) : 
imp., a chevron betw. three escallops (Farewell). Inscription : 

An Inventory of Church Plate.. 163 


' Ex dono M arise Brune viduae/ A paten, on foot, 8f in. across, 
with the same marks as the flagon. In the centre is a lozenge 
bearing: a chevron and in chief 3 mullets (Fowel); imp., a 
cross moline (Brune). Inscription: 'Ex dono Bridgettae 
Fowell viduae.' A deep plate, 8|in. in diameter, with the 
same arms and inscription as on the paten, but with the date- 
letter for 1844. This is probably an exchange for some older 
piece. On a tablet in the church is this inscription : ' To the 
pious memory of Mrs. Mary Brune, daughter of Sir George 
Farewel, of Bishop's Hull in the county of Somerset knt., 
relict of Charles Brune, of Athelhampstone in the county of 
Dorset, esq. ; mother of Mrs. Bridget Fowel her daughter 
and only child, who in testimony of her inviolable duty, and 
affection to her most tender and indulgent parent, hath erected 
and dedicated this marble. She was a person of excellent 
endowments both of body and mind ; but those could not 
exempt her from the common fate ; for she departed this life 
the first of April, anno aetatis suae 80, et Domini 1697.' 

There is another plate of the same design and age as that 
last described, inscribed : ' Ex dono Hannae Vanzandt viduae.' 
On a lozenge : A tau between, a roundle in chief and base, on 
the dexter a mullet, on the sinister a lion ramp, supporting the 
tau ; imp., a chevron between three roses. 

A spoon 7f in. long with circular bowl and flat handle, which 
at the end is divided by two clefts into three points, the 
middle one being slightly turned up. The only mark is a 
fleur-de-lys surmounted by a cross within an oval punch, struck 
thrice. This is a well-known mark in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, though its place of origin has not yet 
been found. The particular pattern was in fashion from the 
Restoration to the end of Queen Anne's reign. On the back 
of the bowl are dotted in the initials A P. 1686. S S. ; the 

second S partially obliterating an I. Over the doorway of an 


old house in the village is a stone bearing the initials A.I. ; 


164 Papers, -c. 

but the Rev. R. C. W. Raban vicar of the parish, who has 
kindly searched the registers, has not been able to find any 
satisfactory concatenation of names agreeing with the set of 
initials. They are probably some members of the family of 
Perrin of Thorn Falcon, resident here during the period 
covered by the dates. S.S. is a puzzler, as it can hardly mean 
silver spoon ! 

CHEDDON FITZPAINE. Although the marks on the cup 
have been obliterated, the pattern indicates the early part of 
the eighteenth century, so it is probably coeval with the paten, 
1712. The cup is 9in. high; plain bowl with Sacred Mono- 
gram within rayed circle, rudimentary knop, and moulded foot. 
The paten on foot is 6Jin. across, quite plain. Marks : 2 offic. 
of Brit, sterling; date-letter for 1712; maker's mark partly 
worn away. It is inscribed : ' Ex dono Fra : Warre Hujus 
Ecclesiaa Rectoris Anno 1712.' He was presented to the living 
in 1706. A plate with the date-letter for 1843; inscribed: 
'Ex dono Fra. Warre Hujus Ecclesia3 Rectoris Anno 1843.' 
This second F.W. was appointed in 1800 and was succeeded 
in 1854 by the Rev. S. H. Unwin, who survived until 1898 ; 
the two incumbencies nearly covering the century. A silver 
flagon with the date-letter for 1853. 

CORFE. An Elizabethan cup and cover by I. P., of his 
usual design. The cup is 6|-in. high ; on the button of the 
cover ' 1574.' Marks, same on both pieces : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1573 ; I. P. A plain plate 7f in. across ; weight, 
8oz. 17dwt. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1768; maker's 
mark, W.I. in oblong punch. A silver flagon of modern 
ecclesiastical pattern. 

CREECH ST. MICHAEL. Another Elizabethan cup by I. P. 
without its cover. It is 7f in. high. Round the bowl are two 
bands of running ornament ; and bands of lozenges alternating 
with dots, hyphens, and egg-and-dart design are worked on 
the other portions. Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter for 1573; 
I. P. 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 165 

A plain salver or dish 7in. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1762; maker's mark partly worn away, 2 initials R 
and another in plain oblong. Another smaller salver 5fin. 
across, with band of ornamentation round the brim. Marks : 
3 offic. ; and date-letter for 1791. 

KINGSTON. A large and clumsy cup, with the date-letter 
obliterated, but most probably of the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century. It stands 7Jin. high ; and is quite plain. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; maker's mark, T.T. under a crescent in plain 
shield ; this is rather worn and is perhaps really the same as 
the mark on the cup at Low Ham, dated 1664, which has the 
initials T.R. under a crescent in a plain shield. The two cups 
are identical in pattern. The paten is 7in. across, on foot. 
Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1721 ; maker's mark, I.C. in 
heart-shaped shield Joseph Clare. It is inscribed : ' Ex 
dono Margaret Bampfylde. The donor was the daughter and 
eventually sole heiress of Sir Francis Warre of Hestercombe 
Bart., and husband of John Bampfylde M.P., ob. 1750. A 
plate with boss in centre engraved with the Sacred Monogram. 
Inscribed: 'Kingston 1738.' Marks: 2 offic.; date-letter 
for 1739; maker's mark worn away. A large flagon, llfin. 
to top of domed lid, tankard pattern with widely bowed handle 
and spreading foot. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; date- 
letter for 1716 ; maker's mark L O with key above Nathaniel 
Lock, but instead of a fleur-de-lys below the letters, in this 
mark there is only a small pellet or dot. A large pewter 

NORTH CURRY. The plate here is all modern. It consists 
of two cups, two plates, and a flagon of an ordinary pattern. 
Inscribed : 4 Presented by Mrs. Mary Scott of Morden to the 
parish of North Curry 1831.' They bear the Sheffield date- 
letter for 1830. There are also two pewter flagons. 

NORTON FITZWARKEN. The cup and cover, silver-gilt, 
are of the early Georgian period. The cup is 8Jin. high, with 
a deep bowl, tall slender stem encircled by annular knop, and 

166 Papers, Sec. 

moulded foot. The small cover has a button with a very 
short stem. Marks (same on both) : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1740 ; maker's mark, R.P. in script letters within shaped 
punch. Rather older is a paten also silver-gilt, 7in. across, 
quite plain. Marks : 2 offic. of Brit, sterling ; date-letter for 
1712; maker's mark, C O in shield with pellets above and 
below Robert Cooper ent. 1697. In the centre of the paten 
within mantling is a shield bearing : Three lions ramp, two 
and one. Underneath : ' James Prowse Esq r . Anno Dom. 
1712.' A large flagon, tankard pattern, silver-gilt, 9jin. high 
to lip ; diam. of foot 7|in. Same marks and inscription as on 
the paten. 

A silver salver on three feet with ornamented edge, bearing 
the date-letter for 1810. There is also a cup apparently 
intended originally for domestic use with the date-letter for 
1827, bearing the inscription: 'The humble but cordial gift 
of C. Corfield to the Church of Norton Fitzwarren April 

ORCHARD PORTMAN. There is here a large cup with 
trumpet-shaped stem, of the pattern usually found at the 
latter part of the seventeenth century. It is perfectly plain, 
7in. high. Marks : 2 offic. : date-letter for 1646 ; maker's 
mark, the initials W.T. below two pellets in plain punch. On 
the bowl within a wreath are the Portman arms, a fleur-de- 
lys. The cover is quite plain without flange ; it has the same 
marks as the cup, and on the broad button the arms of 
Portman. A large flagon of the tankard pattern, with the 
same marks, except the maker's, which is not easy to make 
out ; it resembles a six-pointed star with pellets on the three 
lower rays. There is also a curious little shallow saucer 4Jin. 
across, set on a stem formed of three silver wires twisted to 
form stem and foot. The only mark is I C above a pellet in 
shaped shield. There is no mark exactly like this in Cripps, 
the nearest approach being a shaped shield bearing the same 
initials above a mullet noted in 1681, which is a very likely 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 167 

period for such a piece. Dotted in on the saucer is a crest, 
On a wreath a hand holding a bunch of flowers. 

OTTERFORD. The Elizabethan cup with cover preserved 
here is of later date than is usual in this diocese. The cup is 
ofin. high ; the bowl is of the ordinary London shape, with a 
single band of continuous foliage within enclosing fillets 
engraved with a wavy line ; there is no break in the enclosing 
lines. The rest of the cup is very plain, a small band of 
hatching round foot excepted. Marks : Exeter ancient ; 
maker's marks, two punches : the first enclosing a C ; the 
second ETOON, this is badly struck and is probably ESTON, 
a mark found in 1581. The shape of the cover is peculiar, 
and approximates to the shallow covers of the next century. 
The central portion is almost flat with a band of hyphens ; it 
is enclosed by a plain brim, and underneath is a small flange. 
On the button is the date 1599 surrounded by foliage. The 
mark is apparently the same as on the cup. 

There is a small flagon of mediaeval Victorian design ; and 
a pewter bowl in the font. 

PITMINSTER. The cup is a very handsome specimen of 
the Caroline period with Elizabethan ornamentation. It is 
7 Jin. high, with ornamentation round bowl and foot. Marks : 
2 offic. ; date-letter for 1640 ; maker's mark, in plain punch, 
I G and H N. The bowl is inscribed : E.E., C.S., wardens 

A large paten on foot, Sin. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date- 
letter for 1725 ; maker's mark, I C over pellet in heart-shaped 
punch Joseph Clare. Inscribed : ' Win. Buncombe, R. 
Macke, 1725.' A flagon, tankard pattern, with domed lid 
8|in. high to lip. Marks; 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1728; 
maker's mark, R.B. Richard Bayley. Inscribed : ' James 
Scadding, William Webber, Churchwardens 1728.' A small 
dish quite plain 4f in. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 
1767 ; maker's mark, I M separated by a mullet Jacob Marsh. 
This is a typical collection of the plate of the last century. 

168 Papers, -e. 

RUISHTON. This parish possesses an Elizabethan cup and 
cover by the hitherto unknown maker, whose mark was 
noticed in the introduction to part in (Proc. 45, iij. The cup 
is 7in. high ; the bowl is V shaped ; under the lip are two 
fillets enclosing a convex-shaped band of hyphen ornament ; 
below this in the usual place is another band of continuous 
foliage within hatched fillets. Above and below stem are 
bands of upright strokes ; the knop is plain with projecting 
rib ; round the foot are bands of foliage and egg-and-dart 
ornament. Marks : (1), M H combined in a monogram ; (2), 
within a circle a St. Andrew's cross, with a pellet in each 
spandrel. This pair of marks is struck twice, first on the 
lip, and secondly under the foot. 

The cover is of the usual shape with one band of leaf orna- 
ment ; on the button is the date 1574. The marks, though no 
doubt the same as on the cup, are almost worn away. 

A salver on three feet, 7in. in diameter, bearing on the 
upper side the initials S.B., I.K., and on the underside R.P. 
1802. Marks : 3 offic. ; and date-letter for 1795. A flagon 
and salver of plated metal. 

STAPLEGROVE. The Elizabethan cup with cover is by I. P. 
and resembles his other work. The cup is 7in. high. The 
bowl is deep in proportion to its diameter ; it is ornamented 
with two bands of engraved design, also found on the foot and 
cover ; on the knop is the hyphen ornament. Marks (same 
on both pieces) : Two offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; I.P. The 
cover is of the ordinary pattern ; on the button ' 1574.' 

A plain paten, on foot, 5Jin. diameter ; engraved ' Staple- 
grove 1723.' Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1723 ; maker's 
mark, l.C. in heart-shaped punch Joseph Clare. 

A larger paten, diam. 7Jin. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter 
for 1729; maker's mark, R.B. in plain oblong punch. Dedi- 
catory inscription : ' Ex dono Sarae Grid land vid. in perpetuum 
Usum Mensas Sacrae de Staplegrove Anno Dom. 1728.' 
Within this surrounded by flourishes is a shield bearing : 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 169 

erm., on a chief 3 cinquefoils. Crest : dragon's head issuant 
out of a tower. The same donor presented a tall flagon of 
the tankard pattern, 9f in. to lip ; domed lid and bowed handle. 
Same marks, dedicatory inscription, and heraldry as on paten. 

STOKE ST. GREGORY. The Elizabethan cup is a good 
specimen of I.P.'s handiwork. It is parcel-gilt, and 8in. high; 
the bowl is deep with two bands of ornament ; the knop has 
hyphens, and the foot the egg-and-dart decoration ; these 
portions and the extremities of the stem, are gilt. Marks : 2 
offic. ; date-letter for 1573 ; I. P. The cover has disappeared. 

There is also a nice little salver with gadrooned rim, on 
three feet, 6in. across. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1 734 ; 
maker's mark, I.C. in plain oblong punch. Its weight is 6oz. 
19dwt. The salver is inscribed: Stoke Saint Gregory 1804. 
W. B., W. S., churchwardens (William Brewer, William 
Sawtell). In the centre of the salver is a shield bearing : A 
two-headed eagle, a mullet in chief for difference (Speke); 
imp., two single fetter-locks in chief, and a double one in base 

George Speke, of Whitelackington, married Mary, daughter 
of Sir Robert Pye, and had a numerous family. The sixth 
son, William, was of Shepton Beauchamp, and by Margaret. 
Bond had issue George, of Curry Rivel. He married 
Jennings, daughter of James Anderton, and died c. 1774. 
The lines denoting the " barry " of the Speke arms seem to 
have been worn down. The mullet, the difference for a third 
son, may have been borne by William after the untimely death 
of three elder brothers. [For this identification I am indebted 
to F. Were, Esq., of Gratwicke Hall, Barrow Gurney]. 

A- cup, paten, salver, and flagon, of plated metal ; ' presented 
by Mrs. Sarah Gould of Moredori House North Curry 1844.' 

A large pewter tankard, somewhat the worse for wear. 

STOKE ST. MARY. The plate here is all modern. It con- 
sists of a chalice and paten of mediaeval design, supplied in 

170 Papers, fyc. 

A few years ago the writer was shown a paten of the usual 
design with the date-letter for 1726, bearing the inscription : 
'This belongs to the Parish Church of Stoke St. Mary, 1737. 
Wm. Burridge, Robert Phil pott, churchwardens.' As there 
is no other Stoke St. Mary recorded in England in Crockford, 
and in 1791 Stoke House belonged to William Doble Bur- 
ridge, this piece is no doubt part of the old plate, not valued 
so much by its late as by its new owner, at present 7 10s. 

plate of this parish is, it must be confessed, more remarkable 
for quantity than beauty. 

A large silver-gilt cup with cover. The cup is 8f in. high, 
and weighs 20oz. 15dwt. The bowl is quite plain, straight- 
sided ; the stem trumpet-shaped with a hollow collar or flange 
close up under the bowl ; the foot is slightly moulded. 
Marks: 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1639; maker's mark, I.V. 
with pellet below in shaped shield. It is inscribed : ' Deo et 
ecclesise sacrum. Robertas Hill Londinensis olim hujus 
parochise alumnus, dedit hanc calicem, piae memoriaB ergo. 
October 4o 1630. Burgus et villa de Taunton.' Also the 
arms of the town, a castle on a shield. 

The cover is of the ordinary pattern ; on the button within 
a rayed circle is the Sacred Monogram. Weight, 8oz. lOdwt. 
Same marks as on cup. 

There is a fellow cup with cover ; the weight of the cup 
being 20oz. lOdwt. ; and of the cover 9oz. The inscription, 
etc., are repeated, but the date is given as 25d Oct. 1639. 
The donor, Robert Hill, of Hollyland, Taunton, with his 
cousin, William Hill of Poundisford, signed the family 
pedigree in the Heralds' Visitation of 1623. The reason for 
two different dates is not very apparent. 

A large flat-topped flagon, 13in. high ; diameter of foot, 7|in. ; 
weight, 77oz. Idwt. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1639 ; 
maker's mark, D.W. with star below in heart-shaped shield. 
Under the foot is a fleur-de-lys between the initials G.P., and 

An Inventory of Church Plate. 171 

an inscription : ' November the 20th 1639. The guifte of 
Mris Grace Portman to the parrish of Taunton Magdalen, to 
be used at the Communion for ever.' The donor was the 
daughter of Sir John Portman of Orchard Portman. 

Two silver-gilt flagons of the jug-pattern ; weight, 43oz. 
5dwt., and 44oz. lOdwt., otherwise exactly alike, and very 
plain. Marks : 2 offic. ; date-letter for 1639 ; maker's mark, 
T F, combined in a monogram ; this is found continuously 
from 1609. Each flagon is inscribed : ' Ecclias parochiali Stae