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Full text of "Proceedings"

BOUND 8V CANADA LAW BOOK CO. TORONTO 



ROYAL CANADIAN JNST/TUT 






Somersetshire 

^Archaeological <^f Natural History 
Society. 



PROCEEDINGS 

DURING THE YEAR 1915. 



VOL. LXI. 



The Council of the Somersetshire Arclueological and Natural 
History Society desire that it should be distinctly understood that 
although the volume of PUOCEEDIXGS is published under tluir 
direction, they do not hold themselves in any way responsible for 
any statements or opinions expressed therein ; the authors of the 
several papers and communications being alone responsible. 







PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



J5>omemtslritt 
archaeological $ Natural History 



FOR THE YEAR 1915. 



(ANNUAL MEETING, TAUNTON). 



VOL. LXI. 







Caiinton: 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

BY 

BARNICOTT AND PEARCE, THE WESSEX PRESS 

MCMXVI. 



DA 
670 



56 



617281 




PREFACE. 



THE thanks of the Society are due to Dr. A. C. Fryer for 
providing photographs of the monumental effigies in Wells 
Cathedral forming Plates I and II of this volume, and for 
defraying the cost of their reproduction ; to the Rev. G. W. 
Saunders for some of the illustrations accompanying his paper ; 
to Prebendary Hamlet for the block of Canon Church ; to Mr. 
Bligh Bond for the drawings which illustrate the report on the 
Glastonbury Abbey Excavations ; to Mrs. F. A. Knight for 
the block of the photograph of her late husband ; to the pub- 
lishers of Miss Lees' " Alfred the Great " for the illustration 
of the Alfred Jewel ; and to Mr. H. St. George Gray and Mr. 
W. Watson for drawings illustrating their papers. 

During the last few years the volume of Proceedings has 
been published under the direction of an Editorial Committee 
(formed in the year 1911), consisting of the Rev. F. W. 
Weaver (Chairman), the Rev. Preb. E. H. Bates Harbin, the 
Rev. Preb. J. Hamlet, the Rev. Dr. S. J. M. Price, the Rev. 
G. W. Saunders, the Rev. E. S. Marshall, F.L.S., Mr. C. Tite, 
and Mr. H. St. George Gray (Assistant-Secretary) who has 
acted as sub-editor for a number of years. 

This volume of the Proceedings, No. LXI, inaugurates the 
beginning of the Fourth Series, and special meetings have 



VI 



been held to consider whether any improvements could be 
made in its format, style and printing. 

The first part of the volume, containing official reports and 
excursion notes, will now have a pagination in Roman type, 
and Part II (Papers) in Arabic numerals. 

The advertisements of the Society's publications are set out 
in greater detail, and cover four pages at the end of the 
volume. 

Owing to the kindness of Mr. E. A. Fry it has been found 
possible to begin the new series by providing an index to the 
volume ; and in this connection it should be mentioned that a 
separate committee has been formed to draw up rules, not 
only for indexing the present volume, but also for the much 
more arduous task of compiling a full Index of the Proceedings 
from 1851 to 1914, Vols. I to LX. 

The Council had fully intended to provide cloth covers for 
this volume, but owing to the extreme difficulty in obtaining 
the necessary materials at the present time, and the great 
advance in prices due to the War, the Editorial Committee 
regrets that it has been frustrated in carrying out this 
proposal. 

The Committee also regrets that this volume is so late in 
publication, but the printing has been retarded by calls for 
personal service in our country's need. 

F. W. W. 

TAUNTON CASTLE, 

May, 1916. 



CONTENTS. 



PART L PROCEEDINGS. 

PAGE 

SIXTY-SEVENTH Annual Meeting, Taunton, July 20th, 

1915 xiii 

Report of the Council ... ... ... ... ... xv 

Annual Accounts, 1914 ... ... ... ... xxiv 

Election of New Members and Officers ... ... xxvi 

Somerset Record Society .. ... ... ... xxvii 

Somerset Earthworks Committee ... ... ... xxviii 

Bath and District Branch ... ... ... ... xxix 

Glastonbury Abbey Excavations ... .. ... xxx 

The Entomological Section ... ... ... ... xxxiii 

The Ornithological Section ... ... ... ... xxxv 

The Botanical Section ... ... ... ... ... xxxvi 

Curator's Report, Taunton Castle Museum ... ... xl 

Additions to the Museum, 1915 ... ... ... xliv 

Additions to the Library, 1915 ... ... ... lix 

PART II. PAPERS, ETC. 

Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells by the Very Rev. 
.1. Armitage Robinson, D.D., F.S.A. .. ... ... 1 

Monumental Effigies in Somerset (Part I) by Alfred C. 
Fryer, PH.D., F.S.A. ... 11 



VIM 

P U. K 



The North Chapel of St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel 
by the Rev. G. W. Saunders ; with Notes on the 
Heraldry of the Chancel, and the Will of John de 
Urtiaco, by the Rev. Preb. E. H. Bates Harbin ... 31 

Wells Wills (Serel Collection) by the Rev. F. W. 

Weaver, F.H.A. ... ... ... ... ... 54 

Two Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory and the Family 

of Sanzaver-^by the Rev. Preb. E. H. Bates Harbin ... 105 
Somerset Trade Tokens, XVII Century : New Types and 

Varieties, and Corrections of Former Lists by H. St. 

George Gray and Henry Symonds, F.S.A. ... ... 115 

Glastonbury Abbey : Eighth Report on the Discoveries 

made during the Excavations by F. Bligh Bond, 

F.K.I.B.A 128 

Sir Ralph de Midelney by the Rev. D. Melville Ross ... 143 
Notes on the Heraldry in Chubb's Maps of Somerset by 

Francis Were ... ... ... ... ... ... 157 

Roman Remains found at West Coker by H. St. George 

Gray ... ... . ... ... ... ... 162 

The Bog-mosses of Somerset by Walter Watson, B.SC. ... 166 

Notes on the Diptera of Somerset (Part I) by H. J. 

Charbonnier ... ... ... ... ... ... 189 

Obituary Notices 

Charles Marcus Church ... ... ... ... ... 205 

Isaac Sadler Gale ... ... ... ... ... ... 210 

Thomas William Jex-Blake ... ... ... ... 211 

Francis Arnold Knight 213 

Joseph Houghton Spencer ... ... ... ... 215 

Notices of Books 

" Pulpits, Lecterns, and Organs in English Churches," 

by the Rev. Dr. J. C. Cox 216 

" Alfred the Great," by Miss Beatrice A. Lees ... 217 



IX 

PAGE 



Officers and Members of the Society ... ... ... 219 

Index 249 

Advertisements of Publications of the Society. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Effigies of Saxon Bishops in Wells Cathedral (Plate I) ... 12 
Effigies of Saxon Bishops in Wells Cathedral (Plate II) ... 16 
St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel 

Piscina and Credence in the N. Chapel; the N. Chapel 

taken from the N.E. (Plate III) 32 

Tomb Arcade in the N. Chapel, before Restoration 

(Plate IV) 34 

Detail of Window in N. Wall of St. Mary's Chapel, in 
"Proto-Perpendicular" style (Plate V) ... .'.. 36 

Coffin Cover of Ham Stone in the N. Chapel ... ... 42 

Somerset Trade Tokens, XVII Century 

Ambrose Bishop, Bath, 1669 (Fig. 1) ... ... 117 

Richard More, Mells, 1670; Richard Atwell, Wells, 
1669; Thomas Burridge, Taunton, 16(53; William 
Boyne, Beckington, 1657 (Fig. 2) ... 118 

Glastonbury Abbey Excavations 

Plan in Projection showing Elevation of Ruins and the 
Position of the Principal Features discovered by 
Excavation (Plate VI) 128 

Plan of the Site of the High Altar (Plate VII ) ... 132 

Map of the Borders of the Parishes of West Coker and 
East Coker, showing position of Roman Remains 
found 163 



X 

PAGE 

The Bog-mosses of Somerset 

Sphagnum subnitens, R. & W. (Fig. 1) 168 

Sphagnum subnitens, R. & VV. (Fig. 2) 170 

Sketch-map of Somerset to show the Distribution of 

Sphagna (Fig. 3) 174 

The Rev. Canon C. M. Church, F.S.A. (Plate VIII) ... 208 

Francis Arnold Knight (Plate IX) 213 

The Alfred Jewel (Plate X) 217 



CORRIGENDA. 

PROCEEDINGS, SOMKRSKTSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL & NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



VOL. LX. 

Pt. i, p. 78, line 8, for 20 5 read 20 5 8. 
Pfc. i, p. 93, line 12. for object read objects. 
Pt. i, p. 107, line 18, for John Burnett read Robert Burnell. 
Pt. ii, p. 69, line 15, add the following footnote from " Wolchurch," 
Church of our Lady of Wol-chyrchc- La-ice by the Stocks in London 
(Harl. MSS. 2252, fo. 163). 

VOL. LXI. 

p. 158, line 28, for supposition read suppositions. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

SOMERSETSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND 
NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY 

DURING THE YEAR 
1915. 



M THE Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Somersetshire 
J- Archaeological and Natural History Society was held 
at Taunton on Tuesday, July 20th. In consequence of the 
War, the Council decided not to have any excursions this year, 
but arranged for a single-day meeting to be held chiefly for 
business purposes. The proceedings being held at head- 
quarters afforded members of the Society an opportunity of 
inspecting the Museum and Buildings, and seeing the altera- 
tions and additions effected in the Castle since the Society's 
Diamond Jubilee Celebration at Taunton in 1908. 

Of these improvements it should be mentioned that the 
southern part of the Castle, which was formerly fitted up for 
the residence of the Curator, has been converted into two 
large rooms, the upper one for the main portion of the Library 
and Reading Room, the lower for the exhibition of Corns, 
Medals, Tokens, Pewter, Silver, Lighting Appliances and 
Early Writing. These rooms are now to a very large extent 
filled. There is also a smaller book room, and a strong-room 
underneath for manuscripts and valuables. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part I. B 



xiv Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

A meeting of the Council was held at Taunton Castle at 
10.45 a.m., and was followed by the Annual General Meeting, 
which took place in the Municipal Hall (through the kindness 
of the Mayor of Taunton, Councillor G. Hinton), at which 
there was a good attendance. 

The Rev. Preb. E. H. BATES HARBIN, one of the Vice- 
Presidents and Hon. Secretaries, occupied the chair at the 
beginning of the proceedings, and was supported by the Very 
Rev. Dr. J. Armitage Robinson, F.S.A., Dean of Wells. Mr. 
A. F. Somerville (a Vice-President), Mr. H. J. Badcock (Hon. 
Treasurer), the Rev. F. W. Weaver, F.S.A., and Mr. Charles 
Tite (Vice-Presidents and Hon. Secretaries), the Rev. H. H. 
Winwood, F.G.S. (a Vice-President), and Mr. H. St. George 
Gray (Assistant-Secretary and Curator). 

Prebendary BATES HARBIN proposed the re-election of the 
Rt. Hon. Earl Waldegrave as President of the Society for the 
ensuing year, and expressed regret that his lordship was unable 
to be present. 

Mr. W. S. CLARK seconded, and the motion was carried. 

Mr. BATES HARBIN then proposed that the senior Vice- 
President, Mr. A. F. Somerville, should occupy the chair at 
that meeting. 

Mr. C. TITE seconded, and the motion was unanimously 
adopted. 

Mr. A. F. SOMERVILLE then took the chair and said that no 
one regretted more than he did the absence of Lord Waldegrave, 
who, he was sure, would have been present had it been pos- 
sible. Their proceedings that day would be of a formal 
character, because the Society thought that this year it would 
not be fitting to have excursions, and that even had such been 
arranged few members would have felt inclined to join. At 
the same time it was considered unwise to break the continuity 
of the work of the Society by dropping the annual meeting. 
The volume of Proceedings would be published as usual ; and 
they would learn from the annual report that in spite of the 
war they had been continuing the very useful work which the 
Society had been doing for so many years. 



Report of the Council. xv 

Cbe annual Report. 

Mr. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, Assistant-Secretary and Curator, 
read the Annual Report, which was as follows : 

" In presenting the sixty-seventh annual report, your Council 
wishes to state that since its last report 25 new names have 
been added to the list of members. Losses caused by death 
have been heavier than usual, and there have been a few 
resignations as a result of the war, but some of these sub- 
scriptions have only been dropped temporarily by a small 
proportion of those on active service. The total membership 
at date is about 905, against 924 at the time of the Annual 
Meeting last year. This is the first set-back in membership 
since the new century began, and the small net loss is entirely 
due to the war. At the Diamond Jubilee Meeting at Taunton 
in 1908, the membership was 767. 

" Your Society records with much regret the following losses 
by death during the past year (in each case the date in brackets 
is the date of the member's election) : 

" The Rev. Dr. T. W. Jex-Blake, F.S.A., formerly Head- 
master of Rugby and Dean of Wells, who died on July 2nd, 
was elected a member of your Society in 1891, and in 1894 
wrote for the Proceedings a paper entitled " Historical Notices 
of Robert Stillington." In 1902 he became President of the 
Society at the large meeting held at Glastonbury, and at the 
termination of that office he became one of your Vice-Presi- 
dents. 

" The Rev. Canon Church, F.S.A., sub-dean of Wells, who 
died on February 9th at the ripe age of 92 years, was elected 
a member as early as 1863 ; in 1888 he became a Local Secre- 
tary for Wells, and a Vice-President on the occasion of the 
Wells Meeting in 1909. He had a great veneration for the 
Chapter Library and the fabric of Wells Cathedral. Of his 
books perhaps the best known is ' Chapters in the Early 
History of Wells.' Most of his papers were published by the 
Society of Antiquaries and by your own Society. 

"Mr. F. F. Fox, F.S.A., of Yate (1874), who died on May 
30th at the age of 82 years, frequently attended the Society's 
meetings. He possessed a fine library, including minute books 



xvi Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

of several of the old Bristol Guilds, on which subject he 
was an authority. 

"Major W. Barrett (1872), who died at Moredon, North 
Curry, on October 10th in his 92nd year, entertained members 
of your Society at his residence in 1872 and again in 1898. 

"Lieut.-Colonel J. F. Chisholm-Batten, of Thornfalcon (1892), 
who died on March 17th, was a Trustee of your Society from 
1897, and was at one time a member of the Finance Committee. 

"Mr. Ernest Swanwick, of Milverton (1904), during his 
short residence in Somerset, became considerably interested 
in the work of your Society. He was elected a local secretary 
in 1907 and a member of the Council and Finance Committee 
in 1913. 

" Mr. H. Franklin (1876), who died on April 5th, was keenly 
interested in the Museum and in making the work of the 
Society known. He became a member of the Council in 1903, 
and during a large number of years he added considerably to 
the Museum exhibits. 

" Mr. F. A. Knight (1890) died at Winscombe on February 
1 1th a few days after his book entitled ' The Heart of Mendip ' 
was published ; this is a companion volume to ' The Seaboard 
of Mendip ' which was issued in 1902. He was intensely in- 
terested in the history of the county and especially Mendip. 

" The Rev. Preb. H. G. Hellier (1897) will be missed at the 
annual meetings and excursions of the Society. 

" Mr. J. Houghton Spencer (1871) was for many years 
architect to your Society, and perhaps nobody knew the ancient 
architectural details of old Taunton and the Castle better than 
he did. He made excellent plans of the Castle, and wrote an 
illustrated paper for your Society entitled ' Structural Notes 
on Taunton Castle.' 

" Your Society has also sustained the losses of : Lady 
Smyth (1911), Miss K. Spiller (1881), Miss M. E. McGowan 
(1912), the Rev. Preb. W. Yorke Fausset (1911), the Rev. 
Canon Wadman (1908), the Rev. Preb. T. C. Dupuis (1877), 
Colonel J. Perry (1891), Mr. William Poole (1898), Mr. J. 
Merrick Head (1914), Mr. W. Gough (1889), Mr. Daniel Bad- 
cock (1879), and Mr. Josiah Lewis (1896). 

'' The deficit on your Society's General Account at the end 



Report of the Council. xvii 

of 1913 was 100 10s. 6d. At the close of 1914 the deficit had 
increased to 124 5s. Od. In neither case was the liability 
for the cost of the volume for the year then expired, or on the 
other hand any unpaid subscriptions, taken into account. 
Independently of the general account your Society has a Capital 
Account (life membership fees) amounting to 72 lls. Od., a 
Book Fund of 107 7s. Od. (the interest on which is spent on 
new books), and a balance in hand on the Woodward Fund 
of 186 3s. 3d. (which, in accordance with the bequest, is used 
as required for special Museum and Library improvements). 

" The total expenses attending the issue of Volume LX of 
the Proceedings (for 1914), including printing, illustrations and 
delivery, have been 117 3s. 2d. During the three previous 
years the volume had cost about 150 per annum, and the 
Editorial and Finance Committees have found it necessary, 
at any rate for the present, to recommend the reduction of 
that amount. Your stock of volumes of the -Proceedings has 
recently been looked over and sorted. Members can make 
their sets complete by communicating with the Curator. 

" A Committee has recently been formed to consider the 
preparation and publication of a General Index to the Society's 
Proceedings, Vols. I to LX, the third series of twenty volumes 
having now been published. The old Index, Vols. I to XX, is 
far from exhaustive, and the second Index, Vols. XXI to XL, 
is not uniform with the first. If a combination of voluntary 
workers can be obtained to index the sixty volumes under a 
system to be devised by the Committee, it is hoped that a 
first-rate Index may in due course be issued to those who will 
give the publication the necessary monetary support. 

" During last winter it was found necessary to renew two 
of the heating-furnaces at the Castle. This has involved an 
expenditure of 44 8s. Od. Your buildings generally are in 
a good state of repair, with the exception of the house on the 
west side of your property known as Castle Lodge, a part of 
the northern wall of which has had to be supported by heavy 
timbers. It is still tenanted, but may perhaps be pulled down 
at the expiry of the lease, as it is of no antiquarian value. It 
was found necessary last year to repair and re-decorate a room 
adjoining the Castle House, which will be used for the storage 



xviii Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

of Museum specimens. Another store-room in which the 
publications of your Society are kept has been cleared out 
and the contents sorted. A third and larger store-room is 
also being cleared ; hi this room it is proposed to keep the 
books belonging to the Library which are infrequently re- 
ferred to. 

" As for some years past, the contents of your Museum have 
received a good deal of attention. The collections of Ham 
Hill antiquities which were separated to a large extent in the 
Somerset Room have been brought together, re-arranged and 
re-labelled. The ticketing of the Haddon and Walter Col- 
lections of Birds has been completed, and the greater part of 
the Bidgood Collection of Birds has been re-labelled. A large 
number of new acquisitions have been dealt with and placed 
in the various series to which they belong. But most of the 
time devoted to Museum work this year has been bestowed on 
the cleaning, identification, and labelling of the exhibits in 
the Coin Room ; and the arrangement of the tokens, trade- 
checks, bank-notes and medals is approaching completion. 

" There has been no falling-off in the acquisition of Museum 
specimens. In the first place your Society owes a further 
debt of gratitude to one of its secretaries and vice-presidents, 
Mr. Charles Tite, who has presented his valuable collections 
of Somerset Trade Tokens, Trade-checks, and Medals, which 
he has spent many years in acquiring. In consequence of 
this your Society now possesses one of the finest series of Somer- 
set tokens of the XVII Century which has ever been brought 
together. The Coin Department has also been enriched by 
a number of English coins presented by the Rev. W. T. Reeder ; 
and one of the most interesting donations is that which comes 
from Mr. W. R. Phelips, consisting of one of the three earthen- 
ware pots found in 1882 at Bedmore Barn, Ham Hill ; they 
contained several hundreds of Roman ' first brass ' coins. 
Mr. Phelips' gift includes 435 of the corns forming a large part 
of the whole hoard. This acquisition is all the more important 
as your Museum already contained another of these pots, 
together with a good number of the coins from the hoard in 
the Walter and Norris Collections. Mr. A. V. Cornish has 
placed on deposit another series of antiquities from Ham Hill 



Report of the Council. xix 

found by him recently. By purchase the Museum has ac- 
quired some of the local objects which comprised part of the 
little museum brought together by Mr. G. James at the London 
Inn, Wellington. Among the donors to the Museum the 
following should also be mentioned : Mrs. F. A. Knight, 
Mrs. W. R. Phelips, Mr. C. Tite, Dr. C. B. Stewart, Miss Talbot, 
and Mr. W. J. Cullen. 

" The re-arrangement of the Library has been in progress 
during the year, but much yet remains to be done in the 
Reading Room provided for members in the Diamond Jubilee 
year (1908) before the Society's manuscript catalogue of books 
can be revised. The Serel manuscripts have been arranged 
in the strong-room and numbered. During the year a valuable 
donation of historical and other works, including the illustrated 
edition of Green's ' Short History of the English People,' has 
been made by Miss Charlotte Winch. Mr. C. Tite has added 
many more volumes to his collection of Somerset books. 
Through the kindness of Miss Fry of Curry Rivel and the Rev. 
G. W. Saunders your Society has acquired a large number of 
Court Rolls and Stewards' Accounts, from the XIV down to the 
XVII Century, belonging to the Manor of Curry Rivel. Other 
documents relating to the county have been presented to the 
Library by Mrs. G. W. Saunders, Mrs. T. Holt, and Major 
T. L. Walsh. Mr. E. A. Fry has compiled a general index to 
the six printed volumes of Brown's ' Somerset Wills.' The 
Exeter Diocesan Architectural and Archaeological Society has 
kindly presented its publications from the beginning, but 
there are a few missing parts. Printed books, etc., chiefly of 
local interest, have also been given by the Rev. Dr. S. J. M. 
Price, Mr. T. W. Cowan, Mr. F. H. Knight, the Rev. F. W. 
Weaver, Miss L. M. Badcock, the late Mr. C. W. Dymond, 
and others. Burke's ' Landed Gentry of Great Britain and 
Ireland,' 1912-1914, has been purchased. 

" The Royal Commission on Public Records is now investi- 
gating the condition of collections of records outside London, 
and the secretary, Mr. Hubert Hall, F.S.A., of the Public Record 
Office, has paid a visit to the Castle. He expressed himself 
highly satisfied with the strong-room recently provided, and 
with the arrangements generally for preserving the manuscript 



xx Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

collections of your Society. The Rev. Prebendary E. H. Bates 
Harbin gave evidence before the Commission recently regard- 
ing the collections of your Society, the records of the Manor of 
Taunton Deane (preserved in the Exchequer of the Castle 
under the charge of the steward, Mr. H. Byard Sheppard), and 
the County Records in the Shire Hall. 

" Dr. Alfred C. Fryer, F.S.A., has undertaken to draw up an 
inventory of the monumental effigies remaining in the county 
and he will kindly provide the illustrations. It is hoped to 
publish this inventory in parts hi the Society's Proceedings. 

" Since the last annual meeting your Society has published 
* A Descriptive List of the Printed Maps of Somersetshire, 
1572-1914,' illustrated by sixteen plates and bound in cloth. 
The Society takes the opportunity of expressing their cordial 
thanks to Mr. T. Chubb, of the Map Room, British Museum, 
the compiler of this work, for having placed his manuscript at 
the disposal of your Society. There are still a good number 
of copies of this work for sale, price 10s. net (to be obtained at 
Taunton Castle). 

" The work of the three Natural History Sections of your 
Society is still developing ; and it is difficult to say which has 
been the most active. All of them have held most satisfactory 
excursions during the past few months and their records are 
being kept by their own officers in a systematic manner. It 
will be proposed to-day that the President of each of these 
Sections should, as such, become members of the Council of 
your Society. 

" The Botanical Section has made some new records for the 
county and the President, the Rev. E. S. Marshall, F.L.S., has 
presented a number of rare Somerset plants to the Museum, 
Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S., has now completed the mounting and 
labelling of the Franklin Parsons Collection, and is still working 
at the general collection and bringing the specimens into a 
state of order and usefulness. 

" The Entomological Section at their annual meeting made 
a grant towards providing a cabinet for the British Insects 
(natural orders) specially collected and arranged for the 
Museum by Mr. F. Milton, of White Ball, near Wellington. The 
work has recently been completed ; and this cabinet and that 



Report of the Council. 



xxi 



containing the series of Somerset Lepidoptera may now be 
seen in the Great Hall of the Castle. 

" The Ornithological Section has recently made a grant for 
the purpose of having certain birds cleaned and set up afresh. 
They have also been active in forming the nucleus for a col- 
lection of Somerset Birds' Eggs, for which, in due course, it 
is hoped that a suitable cabinet will be provided. 

" Owing to the war the proposed work of the newly formed 
Somerset Earthworks Committee is in abeyance ; but it is 
hoped that some surveying will be done during this summer 
in preparation for excavations later. 

" Last September the excavation of the field belonging to 
Miss E. Counsell and forming part of the Meare Lake Village 
was completed, the work being carried out on behalf of your 
Society and the British Association under the direction of Dr. 
Bulleid and Mr. H. St. George Gray. A large number of Late- 
Celtic antiquities including a white-metal amulet and brooches 
of the earliest and latest types found in the lake- villages, were 
collected, and through the kindness of Miss Counsell are now 
exhibited in your Museum. Very little of the Meare pottery 
some elaborately ornamented has yet been repaired. A 
report upon the recent work will be presented at the Man- 
chester Meeting of the British Association this year. 

" The printing of Vol. II on ' The Glastonbury Lake-village ' 
has just been begun, and it is hoped that the work will be 
completed at the time of the next annual meeting of your 
Society. 

" The excavations at Glastonbury Abbey are still being 
continued in the area east of the Refectory and south of the 
Chapter House. Many interesting things have been found, 
but until further work has been done it is impossible to arrive 
at any definite conclusion with regard to the remains of walling, 
etc., already laid bare. As Mr. Bligh Bond is unable to give 
so much time as formerly to the work, Mr. G. Lawrence Bulleid 
has kindly undertaken the general supervision on the spot 
under Mr. Bond's direction. 

" The Bath Branch of your Societ} 7 has published its eleventh 
illustrated report, which contains several interesting notes 
on the archaeology of the Bath district. 



xxii Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

" Your Museum was visited by 5,458 persons last year, a 
decrease of 1,289 as compared with 1913, this being due to 
the war. 

" In accordance with Rule II, one-third of the elected 
members of the Council retire annually by rotation, but are 
eligible for re-election. Those retiring at this meeting are the 
Rev. Prebendary Hamlet, the Rev. C. H. Heale, Mr. H. J. 
Badcock, and Mr. A. E. Eastwood, all of whom offer them- 
selves for re-election. The vacancies on the Council caused 
by the death of Mr. E. Swan wick and Mr. H. Franklin have 
been filled, subject to the approval of this meeting, by Colonel 
E. St. C. Pemberton and Dr. W. B. Winckworth." 

The DEAN OF WELLS (Dr. J. Armitage Robinson, F.S.A,), 
said the Society was greatly to be congratulated upon the 
steady progress of the museum in such very competent hands. 
It naturally fell to him to make a few remarks of a commemo- 
rative kind on the sad list of those who were no longer members 
of the Society. There were three prebendaries in the list of 
those who had passed away during the year, and during the 
last few days it had been necessary to add the name of Dr. 
Jex-Blake, the former Dean of Wells. He would be greatly 
missed by those who had in the past enjoyed his hospitality, 
and by all who knew him. The name that stood out in the 
list beyond all others was that of their old friend, Canon Church. 
His old-world courtesy, his wide and careful learning, his power 
of descriptive writing, his activity up to the very last all 
these things they were happy to remember. He might be 
wrong as to the exact date, but it seemed to him within two 
years that a distinguished architect was lunching with him, 
and he (the Dean) proposed to take him up into the triforium 
before he left Wells. His reply was that Canon Church had 
taken him up that morning : that was at the age of ninety. 
Canon Church had left his mark on the archaeology and history 
of Somerset as few men had done. It should be remem- 
bered that to his historical researches, bringing in fresh light 
and carrying forward the great work done in the XVIII 
Century by Archdeacon Archer, was due the restitution of 
the architectural history of the cathedral of Wells. Before 
he set to work on it some very strange notions were cherished 



Report of the Council. xxiii 

as to what the testimony of Wells documents was in regard 
to the early history of the building of the church. Through 
him they had learnt to honour Bishop Reginald as the insti- 
gator of the building of the church they now had, although it 
still remained uncertain to what exact point in the building 
they could say the work proceeded during his lifetime. He 
(the Dean) remembered when he came there Canon Church, 
who knew that he had some experience in examining docu- 
ments, expressed with his usual modesty considerable anxiety 
as to what the result of his investigations would be. When 
he looked into the question, which had been a matter of delight 
to himself, it was his great satisfaction to be able to tell Canon 
Church that not only did he think his conclusions were correct, 
but that he believed it possible to add considerably to the 
strength of his arguments. One of the points to be noted 
about his work was that he had a kind of historical instinct, 
which enabled him to say " That is what must have been," 
stepping just one step beyond the actual evidence available 
at the time. Certain historians had the genius of seeing 
although they could not strictly prove it what practically 
must have been, and of making an hypothesis which future 
investigation turns into a certainty. He always felt that 
Canon Church had just that power the dangerous gift if they 
liked, because again and again it might lead even a great 
scholar and investigator wrong and he used it justly and 
rightly, and was able to promote the study of our history in 
a way it had not been done for a century past. In conclusion, 
the Dean moved the adoption of the report. 

The Rev. F. W. WEAVER, F.S.A., who seconded the adoption 
of the report, thanked the Dean for his interesting account of 
Canon Church's work. He thought the Society was to be 
congratulated upon its satisfactory position in these troublous 
days, and Mr. St. George Gray deserved their thanks for the 
able report he had presented. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 



XXIV 



Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 



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xxvi Sixty-seventh Annual Meeting. 

finances. 

Mr. H. J. BADCOCK, Hon. Treasurer, presented the State- 
ment of Receipts and Payments for the year 1914. He 
pointed out that for the year the administrative expenses had 
been 705 13s. 2d., and that the annual subscriptions amounted 
to 542 15s. Id. It was most important that the list of sub- 
scribers should be increased. Upon the increase of their 
income depended the progress of the Society and its capacity 
to keep pace with the needs of the institution. 

Mr. A. E. EASTWOOD seconded, and said the Finance Com- 
mittee had found that the only expenditure that could be 
reduced was that of special insurance which had been recently 
thought necessary. 

The adoption of the accounts was then carried. 

(Election of Jfteto ^embers ana f)flScecs. 

Mr. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, the Assistant-Secretary, read 
the names of 25 new members, who had been provisionally 
elected by the Council since the last annual meeting. 

The Rev. Preb. J. HAMLET proposed that the election of 
the new members be confirmed. He remarked that they had 
had the pleasure of electing as a member of their Society a 
most distinguished archaeologist, Lord Curzon, whose excellent 
work for the archaeology of India was well known to them all. 

The Rev. C. H. HEALE seconded, and the motion was carried. 

The Rev. D. J. PRING proposed the re-election of the officers 
of the Society, with the additions of Colonel Pemberton and 
Dr. W. B. Winckworth as members of the Council, the Presi- 
dents of the Natural History Sections as members of the 
Council, and Mr. G. Lawrence Bulleid as a local Secretary for 
Glastonbury ; also the re-election of the four outgoing 
members of the Council, namely the Rev. Prebendary Hamlet, 
the Rev. C. H. Heale, Mr. H. J. Badcock, and Mr. A. E. 
Eastwood. 

Mr. T. W. COWAN, F.L.S., seconded, and the resolution was 
adopted. 



Somerset Record Society. xxvii 

Somerset EecorD 



The Rev. Prebendary E. H. BATES HARBIN, reporting on 
the work of the Record Society, said that the fact that nothing 
had been issued during the past year was entirely due to the 
war. The Register of Bishop Bubwith (1407-1425) was being 
edited by Canon T. Scott Holmes, who unfortunately hap- 
pened to be in Germany when the war broke out. He was 
put in charge of a batch of non-combatants, and hi bringing 
them across the frontier, all his luggage, including the manu- 
script of the introduction, was lost. It was some time before 
this part could be rewritten, but the two volumes were now 
in the binders' hands, and would be shortly issued to the 
subscribers. 

As regards work for the coming years, the Society had 
joined forces with the Devon and Cornwall Record Society 
in order to print a very valuable manuscript " as big as a 
Church Bible," compiled by the great Devonshire antiquary 
Sir William Pole. The thanks of all historical students in 
the West of England were due to the owner Sir Reginald 
Pole-Carew in allowing this treasure to be removed to London 
for transcription. A full account of the work, for long sup- 
posed to be lost, by the discoverer, the late Mr. John Batten, 
F.S.A., would be found in Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, 
vol. iv, art. 141. The contents included much relating to 
Somersetshire and Dorsetshire ; and the whole work would 
run to two or perhaps even three volumes. 



The Rev. H. H. WINWOOD, F.G.S., proposed a vote of thanks 
to Mr. Somerville for presiding. This was seconded by Mr. 
C. TITE and cordially agreed to. 

Mr. A. F. SOMERVILLE, in acknowledgment, mentioned that 
the Somerset County Council had issued a circular to the 
chairmen of the Parish Councils and Meetings in the county 
asking them to give the County Council information as to 
what documents were in their possession and how they were 
being looked after. Many of the parish records were with 
the Church records. He felt that it was most important that 
this information should be given. 

The meeting then closed. 



xxviii Somerset Earthworks Committee. 

^omemt (ZEartbtoorks Committee. 

President: Prof. W. BOYD DAWKINS, D.SC., F.R.S. 
Secretary : Dr. A. BULLEID, F.S.A., Dymboro, Midsomer Norton, Bath. 

Treasurer : Dr. C. BALFOCR STEWART, Huntspill, Highbridge. 
Director of Excavations : Mr. H. ST. GEOKGE GRAY, Taunton Castle. 

OWING to the War the Somerset Earthworks Committee 
has been unable to make a proper start since its in- 
auguration on June 23rd, 1914. 

The Secretary and Director of Excavations have, however, 
paid some attention to the ancient remains at Murtry Hill, 
in the parish of Buckland Dinham, on the outskirts of 
Orchardleigh Park, near Frome. A survey of the earthwork 
and stones was carried out by Mr. Gray on August 31st, and 
and September 1st and 2nd. 1915. The contoured plan of 
the area has been plotted to a scale of 10 feet to an inch ; 
the contours are of Sins, vertical height. 

The Rev. W. A. Duckworth, the owner, is quite willing that 
excavations should be conducted here, and it is hoped that 
pick-and-shovel work will be carried out at no distant date. 

On September 23rd, 1915, Mr. Gray, in company with the 
Rev. C. H. Heale, inspected some earthworks in the neigh- 
bourhood of Williton, including a barrow on Rydon Farm, 
situated in a field known as " Bleary Pate," and the " Battle 
Gore," between Williton and St. Decuman's Church. In the 
latter field the greater part of a large mound remains, more 
or less surrounded by low earthworks. On the south side of 
the mound there are three large stones, which probably at 
one time formed a dolmen. Bronze implements have been 
found here from time to time. The site would be a most 
desirable one to examine closely. 



THE WITHYPOOL STONE CIRCLE. 

Until August 10th and llth, 1915, Mr. H. St. George Gray had 
not revisited this circle since he made a plan of it in 1906 and 
described the remains in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., vol. LIT, pt. ii, 
pp. 42-50. He found it in practically the same condition as it 
was nine years before, but the growth of ling and whortleberry- 



Bath and District Branch. xxix 

bushes on this part of Withypool Hill was rather more stunted than 
previously. 

The prostrate stone, No. 23, could not be found, and it appears 
to have been removed as there is a depression in the ground in the 
position indicated in the plan of 1906. 

Three additional stones were, however, revealed on the present 
visit, as follows : 

No. 20a, a small stump set upright in the ground between Nos. 
20 and 21, and 2-75ft. distant from the middle of No. 20. 

No. 21a, an oblong stump close to No. 21, the nearest part of 
No. 22 being at a distance of 2-5ft. from it. The length of No. 21a 
appeared to be 1-1 ft. 

No. 23a, a small stump between Nos. 22 and 24, at a distance 
of 18-75ft. from No. 22 and 18ft. from the middle of No. 24. 



ana District IBrancfK 

President The Right Hon. Lord HYLTON, F.S.A. 

Hon. Treasurer and Secretary Mr. THOS. S. BUSH, 20, Camden Crescent, Bath. 
Hon. Excursion Sec. Mr. GERALD J. GREY, Collina House, Bathwick Hill, Bath. 

T I THERE were five half-day excursions during the season, 1915. 
-*- On April 14th, visits were paid to Downside Abbey, 
and the Church of St. Vigor, Stratton-on-the-Fosse. On May 
26th, the churches of SS. Peter and Paul, Kilmersdon ; St. 
Mary the Virgin and the Manor House, Hardington ; and 
St. Mary the Virgin, Hemington. On June 15th, the mega- 
lithic remains and the Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Stanton 
Drew ; Church of St. Andrew and the Church House, Chew 
Magna. On July 16th, Hinton Priory ; and the churches of 
St. Mary the Virgin, Winkfield (or Wingfield) ; St. Lawrence, 
Road ; and St. Lawrence, Woolverton. On September 15th, 
the churches of St. Nicholas, Whitchurch ; St. Margaret and 
Manor House, Queen Charlton ; and St. John Baptist, 
Keynsham. 

The following lectures were given during the year : 
January 21st, " Some of the Holy Wells of Somerset," by 
the Rev. Ethelbert Home ; February llth, " The Turf Monu- 
ments of England," by Mr. M. H. Scott ; December 9th, 
" History of the Parish of Monkton Combe," by the Rev. 
D. Lee Pitcairn. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part I. c 



xxx Glastonbury Abbey Excavations. 

<$lastontwrp atobep OErcatmtions. 



REPORT or THE GLASTONBURY ABBEY EXCAVATION 
COMMITTEE, 1915. 



Chairman and Secretary The Rev. C. H. HEALE. 
Vice-Chairman The Rev. \V. T. REEDER. 

Treasurer Mr. H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

The Revs. Preb. J. HAMLET, F. W. WEAVER and A. J. HOOK, 
and Messrs. J. MORLAND, G. L. BuLLEinand ROGER CLARK. 

Tj^OR reasons well known to all it was found inadvisable to 
appeal for funds for carrying on the work during 1915. 
As the Committee had a balance in hand they decided early 
in the season to continue the excavations. The results are 
given below. 

The Committee hope that sufficient support will be forth- 
coming to enable them to carry on the work during the 1916 
season. 

Thanks are due to Mr. F. Bligh Bond, F.R.I. B.A., for acting 
as Director of the Excavations during 1915 ; and also to 
Mr. G. Lawrence Bulleid for his ready assistance and practical 
work in superintending the men, etc. 

Statement of accounts for \9\5. 

GLASTONBURY ABBEY EXCAVATION FUND. 

RECEIPTS. PAYMENTS. 

s. d. s. d. 

By Balance of Former Account 79 6 3 ' To Labour, April to Dec., 
(See Proceedings, LX, i, 78) 1915, including hire of 

Interest on Deposit Ac- appliances ... ... 44 

count 065 Mr. F. Bligh Bond's Ex- 

,, Box Collections, Glaston- penses . ... ... 110 

bury Abbey (Apr. to Oct.) 9 11 10 Book, "Lesnes Abbey" 080 

Cheque Books 020 

Postages (H. St. G. Gray) 050 
Miscellaneous Expenses 080 
Balance in hand (Dec. 31. 

1915) 43 6 



89 4 6 



89 4 6 



H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, Hon. Treasurer. 



Glastonbury Abbey Excavations. xxxi 

MEMORANDUM OF EXCAVATIONS DURING THE YEAR, 1915. 



Mr. F. Bligh Bond reports that the season's work has been 
confined to the area occupying the rectangular section of 
ground to the east of the Refectory and to the south of the 
Chapter-house site, and therefore lying off the south-east 
angle of the cloisters. 

A small section of this had been previously excavated. 
This lay immediately south of the Chapter-house and east of 
the cloister. What was there noted gave a general indication 
of a solid block of building running in a southward direction, 
but only the rough footings remained and there had been 
no architectural features noted. The massive back wall of 
this block was met with at a distance of (roughly) 41 feet 
eastwards of the face of the cloister wall, and as the latter 
was about 8 feet thick on the foundations, this would mean 
that, after making allowance for the set-off above ground- 
line, there would remain an interior width of some 34 or 35 
feet for the wing running south from the Chapter-house. 
Over this wing, it is believed, the Dorter lay, and traces of 
stone steps impinging on the angle of an opening two bays 
south of the Chapter-house doorway seem to determine the 
position of the staircase to the dormitories. 

It was again to the south of this that the 1915 excavations 
were taken in hand. During the season the whole rectangular 
block has been laid open. The results will be more fully 
dealt with in a later and fuller report, but it may now be said 
that they reveal the presence of a large chamber, doubtless 
connected with the cellars beneath the Refectory, and very 
probably adapted to similar uses. Readers may recall the 
fact that in the east wall of the cellar in question there was 
what appeared to be a rolling- way for casks. Immediately 
in line with this and at some distance east was found a very 
large and heavy rectangular block of freestone containing the 
remains of iron staples. This much strengthened the view 
just expressed, as it was precisely what would be supplied for 
the use of pulley-blocks in lowering or raising heavy casks. 

Now, too, a further light seems to be thrown upon the later 



xxxii Glastonbury Abbey Excavations. 

uses of the " egg-stone," which came out at a recent date 
from the subsoil near this angle of the cloister. The egg- 
stone had been dowelled as for the inclusion of an iron staple, 
and its weight would have rendered it most suitable for a 
foundation for a holdfast to be used in connection with the 
hauling of large objects to and from the lower level of the 
cellar. 

The space excavated this year shows an area divided by 
stone responds (like internal buttresses) into sections roughly 
15 feet wide, and it is believed that the ceiling or vault would 
have been supported by a central line of pillars as in the 
Refectory cellar leaving a double avenue, open during the 
earlier times, but at a later date filled up by partition walls 
of rough masonry cutting the space into a series of compart- 
ments. At one point the excavation has been carried south 
to the boundary fence, and shows a further compartment, 
but nothing can yet be said as to the actual extent of this 
building. 



Mr. G. L. Bulleid contributes the following description of 
the objects found in 1915 : 

1. Paving-tiles. A great number of fragments figured and 
plain have been found in all parts of the soil excavated. Only 
a few are at all complete and none in situ. With one or two 
exceptions the patterns are like those of previous years including 
many geometrical designs and also of heraldic character with 
the arms of England, France, Earl of Cornwall, Clare and 
Warrenne. Amongst the new tiles is one of Despenser. 

2. Window Glass. There are many fragments. Almost all 
the specimens are plain blue. Some pieces of other colours have 
been found, but these are so decomposed that they have lost 
all transparency and in most cases fall to pieces on being 
handled. Some pieces show fine border pattern, drapery, 
letters, and small circular-shaped patterns. Mr. Bond de- 
scribes this figured azure glass as XIII Century or possibly 
late XII Century. 

3. Architectural Fragments. There is little to note of these 



The Entomological Section. xxxiii 

except three small pieces of Romanesque pattern, in type 
similar to those previously discovered. 

4. Iron. Two parts of keys, much corroded, have been 
found, and some other fragments of iron too much decayed 
to be identified. 

5. Bronze. A quantity of fragments of molten bronze ; 
also a piece which appears to be a chip from a bell, about 
3 x 2 x lin. Nearly all this bronze was found on the floor 
level of the Dorter sub-vault in the compartment furthest 
south adjoining the east wall of the Refectory. Here was 
found also much of the lead and evidence of cavities for fires 
in the floor level, which may have been used for melting 
metals after the dissolution of the Abbey. 

6. Lead. A number of fragments of windows and molten 
lead ; also a finely worked piece of lattice about the size of 
a lozenge-shaped window quarry. (Specimens of similar work 
in windows at Warwick are figured in Lewis Day's " Windows," 
1909, p. 301). 

7. Coins. Four of bronze. 

8. Kitchen Remains. In the layer of dark clay imme- 
diately underlying the floor of the Dorter sub-vault and ex- 
tending beyond the excavations a great number of animal 
bones and other kitchen refuse were found. The bones have 
yet to be identified. Amongst the fish remains may be noted 
a vertebra of a porpoise, also mussel and periwinkle shells. 
The oyster-shells were very numerous ; these remains were 
without doubt deposited here before the present buildings were 
erected. 



(Entomological Section. 



President Mr. GERALD B. CONEY, The Hall, Batcombe. 

Recorder Mr. A. E. HUDD, F.E.S., 108, Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

Treasurer Mr. W. A. BOGUE, F.E.S., The Bank House, Watchet. 

Secretary Mr. H. H. SLATER, Brooke House, Cannington. 



is not much to report for the past year, the prin- 
cipal event being that four of our keenest workers are 
away in khaki our President (Mr. Coney), Col. Jermyn, and 
Messrs. Troup and Perrens. 



xxxiv The Entomological Section. 

Our winter meeting was held at Taimton Castle, as usual, 
on February llth, 1915. All the officers were re-elected, and 
our balance in hand was 3 9s. 3d., with a dozen subscriptions 
to come in (which have since been paid). Five pounds, after- 
wards increased to 6, was voted for a new insect cabinet, 
for which the Parent Society paid the balance. 

We had three field-days (the first and last, unfortunately, 
wet days) : 

June 3rd. King Alfred's Tower ; Bruton. 

July 1st. Otterhead and Culmhead (in conjunction with 
the Botanical Section). 

August 5th. Brockley Combe ; Yatton. 

We only averaged an attendance of eight ! Ten of our 
members have never attended a meeting of any sort, and their 
faces are unknown to most of us ! The experiment of a joint 
meeting on July 1st was most successful, and we hope to 
meet the Botanical Section in the field again. Why not 
yearly ? 

Considerable disappointment has been caused by the meagre 
assistance given by members to Mr. Charbonnier, our honorary 
member, who is writing the list of additions to the County 
list of Hymenoptera and Diptera and to whom our warmest 
thanks are certainly due. Only four members, as far as is 
known, sent any material in 1914 and 1915. Surely members 
might scrape up sufficient energy and public spirit to collect 
flies and bees in their own gardens ! There is no possibility 
of the distribution of species hi the County being worked out 
at the present rate. 

Two new members were elected at the Brockley meeting, 
who bring our membership up to thirty-three, with three 
honorary members. 

Three notable additions to the County list have been : 

Argynnis Paphia. Var., G. Valesina, Cogley Wood, Bruton, 
1915. 

Sesia andreniformis, Weston-super-Mare. 

Crambus uliginosellus, Culmhead, July 1st, 1915. 
And several new localities for scarce species already recorded. 






The Ornithological Section. xxxv 

Cfje HDrnit&ologtcal Section. 

President : The Right Hon. LORD ST. AUDRIES. 
Recorders : Miss AMV SMITH, The Mount, Halse, Taunton ; and Dr. J. 

WIOLESWORTH, Springfield House, Winscombe. 
Secretary and Treasurer: Mr. GEORGE HISCOCK, Cyprus Terrace, Taunton. 

ri TEE Annual Meeting of the Ornithological Section was 
J- held at Taunton Castle on February 18th, 1915, when 
Dr. J. Wigles worth was elected Joint Recorder (for the 
northern part of the county). The other officers were re- 
elected. It was decided to have four cases of birds belonging 
to the W. A. Sanford Collection set up afresh ; these included 
a specimen of the Rose-coloured Pastor (Pastor roseus), shot 
at Shapwick, Somerset, in 1850. It was also decided to repair 
a few of the exhibits in the John Marshall Collection of Albino 
Birds. It was reported at this meeting that a large part of 
the cases forming the Bidgood Collection of Birds would be 
ticketed during the year. 

During the spring and summer an excellent beginning was 
made to form a collection of Somerset Birds' Eggs, to which 
Mr. A. W. Turner, Miss Smith, Mr. W. H. Rendall and Mr. 
G. Hiscock have contributed. They include a clutch of un- 
common Blackbird's eggs, pale blue in colour and of a peculiar 
shape ; also a pale blue Peewit's egg. The Section has pur- 
chased four eggs of Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) 
taken on Exmoor, June 5th, 1890. 

On June 10th the Section had a successful field meeting, in 
conjunction with the Botanical Section. At Spring Grove, 
Milverton, Mr. C. R. Gawen showed the members of the 
Section his aquatic and other birds, including a pair of Crested 
African Cranes, two Barnacle Geese (sitting), and Egyptian 
Geese with their young. The two Sections were afterwards 
kindly entertained to tea at Bathealton Court by Major-General 
and Mrs. Moysey. 

Through the kindness of the Rev. J. A. Smart, of Porlock, 
we have acquired a specimen of the Ruddy Sheldrake (Casarca 
rutila), shot (with another) on November 13th, 1915, on the 
marshes, Porlock Manor Estate. These birds are so rare that 



xxxvi The Botanical Section. 

it leads us to fear they may have escaped from some pond in 
the locality, but we must hope they are bona fide visitors to 
the county. 

The Misses Smith when out for a walk with their dogs in 
a field near Halse flushed no less than eighteen Snipe, and it 
appears that Woodcock are plentiful in the neighbourhood of 
Fitzroy, Norton Fitz warren. 

A report has been received that a Buzzard has recently been 
shot near Cothelstone. It seems a pity that such rare birds 
should be shot directly they are seen. These birds should be 
encouraged to come here oftener, and when observed a note 
should be made and sent to the Recorders of the Section. 

The Brean Down bird sanctuary, under the protection of 
the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, continues to 
justify the aims of its founders. Last season four young 
Ravens were reared and two young Peregrines. It is very 
pleasing to find that these noble birds are being retained as 
members of the county fauna. 

A Little Owl, observed on Brean Down last May, marks an 
extension of the range of this introduced alien. 

It is gratifying to find that the Great Crested Grebe now 
breeds freely at Blagdon Reservoir. Mr. Donald Carr esti- 
mates that eighteen to twenty young were hatched there last 
season. A female Gadwall was shot on the Reservoir on 
December 22nd, 1915, and is now in Mr. Carr's possession. 

A Quail was seen by Mr. Carr at Ubley last May, and was 
heard calling on several occasions afterwards ; so that it is 
possible the bird may have bred in the district. 



TBotanical Section. 

President and Recorder The Rev. E. S. MARSHALL, F.L.S., 

West Monkton Rectory, Taunton. 
Secretary Mr. W. D. MILLER, Cheddon, Taunton. 

THE spring business meeting was held at Taunton Castle 
on Tuesday, February 9th, 1915, the Rev. E. S. 
Marshall, President, in the chair. There was a fair attendance 



The Botanical Section. xxxvii 

of members. The accounts for the preceding year were passed, 
showing a balance in hand of 3 19s. 6d. Mr. J. W. White, 
P.L.S., author of The Flora of the Bristol Coal-Fields, etc., was 
unanimously elected an honorary member. The following 
field-days were arranged : June 10th, Milverton District ; 
July 1st, Otterhead District ; July 29th, Blue Anchor to 
Minehead. Various other business was transacted at the 
meeting. 

During the summer the above programme of field-days was 
duly carried out, and interesting localities and fine weather 
promoted three pleasant days and some useful work. On 
June 10th members of the Ornithological and Botanical 
Sections had the pleasure of visiting, under the owner's 
guidance, the grounds of Spring Grove, Milverton, belonging 
to Mr. C. R. Gawen, where the extensive rockery and the 
collection of foreign water-fowl and other birds were objects 
of interest. Langford Common and surrounding lands were 
then examined. Unfortunately some weeks' drought had 
somewhat affected the flora, and only a few interesting plants 
were recorded, among them being Viola lactea, Spring Grove 
(E.S.M.). General and Mrs. Moysey provided a very welcome 
tea at Bathealton Court, and further field botany on the way 
home closed a pleasant day. 

The expedition to Churchstanton and Otterford on July 1st 
was a very successful one, and we were joined on this occasion 
by some active members of the Entomological Section. The 
Parish of Churchstanton has only belonged to Somerset for 
some twenty years, and was new botanically to most of the 
visitors. It is rich in subalpine and marsh species, and would 
repay closer working. The marsh and heath lands of Wid- 
combe Moor, Trickey Warren, and Ring Down, came under 
observation ; and the party were afterwards entertained at tea 
by Mr. and Mrs. Black at Otterhead House, returning to 
Taunton by motor. 

The most interesting plants observed included a considerable 
patch of cranberry (Oxycoccus quadripetala), thought by 
Murray, twenty years ago, to be possibly extinct in the county, 
and two new Somerset plants : Eriophorum gracile, a very 
rare cotton-grass, and a sundew, Drosera obovata (D. anglica 



xxxviii The Botanical Section. 

X D. rotundifolia). Other plants were Drosera anglica, and 
D. longifolia (the latter in profusion on the flank of Ring Down), 
Pinguicula lusitanica, Myrica Gale, Eriophorum latifolium, 
Orchis incarnata, and Scirpus caespitosus. 

The field-day to the coast beyond Blue Anchor was poorly 
attended, and the flora has been so well worked that little of 
importance could be expected. However some ten members 
spent a pleasant day, and took pleasure in the beautiful beach 
flora. Among other interesting plants Polygonum Raii was 
noticed. Earlier in the season the somewhat rare clovers 
Trifolium scabrum and T. striatum were noted in quantity 
beside the new road at Blue Anchor. It may be worthy of 
mention that the patch of Lepidium Draba near Minehead 
Station seems to be spreading. Silene conica was also noticed 
among the beach huts, some 300 yards from its main station 
on the golf-links. 

Much interesting work has been done by individual members, 
particularly by the President and Mr. Watson, and a host of 
new vice-county records are reported. It is probable that 
if botanists would report their finds more consistently, the 
season's results would have been even more remarkable. 

Particularly interesting additional notes have been as 
follows : 

Silene annulata (casual), and Crocus vernus. Milverton. 
Miss Falcon. 

Agrimonia odorata. Mendip and Farrington Gurney. H. S. 
Thompson. Also Court Hill, Clevedon. Miss Roper. 

Callitriche truncata, and Sparganium neglectum. Cannington 
brook. The Rev. E. S. Marshall. 

Epilobium Lamyi. Kingweston. The Rev. E. S. Marshall. 
New for that part of Somerset. 

Limnanthemum peltatum. Cannington brook. H. Slater. 
Probably an escape. 

Verbascum Blattaria. Milverton. The Rev. C. Q. Knowles. 

Rhinanthus major var. platypterus. Near Edington and 
Shapwick Stations. The Rev. E. Ellman, Mrs. Sand with and 
the Rev. E. S. Marshall. Not recorded since 1892. 

Wolffia arrhiza. Near Ashcott and various stations thence 
by Brent to Lympsham. Mrs. Sand with, Mr. C. Bucknall and 
Miss Roper. 



The Botanical Section. xxxix 

Car ex lasiocarpa x riparia. Ashcott and Walton. H. S. 
Thompson. This hybrid sedge is new to Britain, and must 
be looked upon as the most interesting Somerset discovery of 
the year. 

Lycopodium Selago. Above Blagdon. H. S. Thompson. 

It has also been established that crowberry (Empetrum 
nigrum) occurs on other hills near Porlock in addition to 
Dunkery. Under its local name of " heath- worts " it is well 
known to the residents, and children are warned against it 
as poisonous ! 

The thanks of the Section, for permission to visit their land, 
are due to various owners in addition to those whose kind 
entertainment has been mentioned above : to Colonel Sanford, 
Lady Mellor, and Messrs. A. F. Luttrell, W. J. Patterson, 
R. Brooks-King, and others. 

The President and a few friends have paid several visits to 
Braunton Burrows and Dawlish Warren, both of which 
localities at almost all seasons of the year are crowded with 
botanical treasures. In connection with the former, it may 
be of interest that the West of France plant Linaria arenaria, 
discovered on Northam flats some seven or eight years ago, 
was found recently at Saunton. Its appearance on our sand 
dunes, in the same situations as Viola Curtisii is possible. 

For complete Somerset notes for 1915, members are referred 
to the Journal of Botany, for which the President prepares 
annually a somewhat exhaustive list. 

Seven new members have joined, and in spite of a few 
withdrawals the numbers are now 44, and there would no 
doubt be a large increase under happier conditions. 

Mr. H. Stuart Thompson, F.L.S., has presented some dried 
specimens to the Castle Herbarium, which is beginning to 
assume very tangible proportions, and something like order, 
thanks to the work of Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S. 

Mr. W. Watson has done much work this year on the bog- 
mosses of Somerset, and a paper on this subject, with illus- 
trations, will appear in the present volume of the Proceedings. 

It is hoped next year that one or two papers may be forth- 
coming ; and, in addition to field work, systematic contri- 
butions in kind to the county Herbarium might well bo 
organized. 



IReport of tbe Curator of Catmton Castle 
for tfje gear enneD December sist, 1915. 

TWO acquisitions of outstanding importance have en- 
riched the Museum collections at Taunton Castle this 
year. Mr. Charles Tite, as already announced in the Annual 
Report of the Society, has presented his valuable collection 
of Somerset Trade Tokens of the XVII Century, which in- 
cludes more than three-quarters of the types and varieties 
listed by Boyne and Williamson. Mr. Tite's donation will 
interest collectors of Somerset tokens, from the fact that 
Mr. H. Symonds and myself have written a paper, based to 
a large extent on the Taunton collection, on types and 
varieties of Somerset Tokens of the XVII Century not pre- 
viously listed, and now published in the Society's Proceedings. 
The labelling, classification and arrangement of the Tite 
Collection of Tokens has occupied much time during the year. 

The other acquisition referred to above is the Arthur Hull 
Collection, chiefly of local archaeological and ethnographical 
specimens, which has been stored in a room adjoining the Town 
Hall at Chard since 1881. Mr. Hull bequeathed the collection 
to the Mayor and Corporation of Chard for the time being to 
form a nucleus for a museum in that town. The Society 
recently agreed to accept a large selection of the specimens 
as a deposit on loan for a minimum period of twenty-one 
years. At the time of writing the objects have arrived at 
Taunton and are being cleaned, repaired, catalogued and 
ticketed as opportunity occurs. Every specimen will be 
labelled as belonging to the Hull Collection, and will eventually 
be placed in the respective groups of objects in the Museum 
to which they belong. In due course an account of the col- 
lection will be published. 

The largest and perhaps most interesting object in the 
collection is a Virginal of fine workmanship, inscribed with 



Curator's Report. 



xli 



the name of the maker, Charles Rewallin, of Exeter, 1675. 
Mr. H. A. Jeboult has placed on loan in the Museum a well 
preserved Harpsichord, bearing the inscription " Abraham 
et Josephus Kirckman. Londini fecerunt. 1790." 

In addition, a considerable number of specimens have been 
obtained during the year. Both Dr. R. H. Walter and Mr. 
A. V. Cornish have deposited further collections of antiquities 
found on Ham Hill during the last two years ; and Mr. W. R. 
Phelips has presented a hoard of over 400 Roman coins found 
in a crock (also presented) on Ham Hill many years ago, as 
stated in the Society's Annual Report. These coins have not 
yet been catalogued. The Roman fibulae from Kilmersdon 
presented by Dr. A. Bulleid are of considerable interest. Many 
local ethnographical specimens and " bygones " have been 
acquired by presentation. The most interesting drawing 
received during the year is a plan of Taunton Castle and its 
precincts, showing the position of the inner and outer moats ; 
this was the work of the late Mr. J. Houghton Spencer and 
was given by Mr. C. Tite. 

The Coin Department, in addition to the series of XVII 
Century Trade Tokens above mentioned, has been enriched 
by a number of tokens from counties adjoining Somerset and 
several Somerset Medals presented by Mr. Tite. The Rev. 
W. T. Reeder has given several English silver coins and two 
of gold. From Mr. T. Beaven Clark about thirty Roman 
coins (in fine condition) have been received. 

Several cases in the Great Hall have been re-arranged during 
the year ; and the banner of the Barrington Club has been 
restored and hung (see Proceedings., LVIII, i, 110). The early 
printed books and illuminated manuscripts exhibited in the 
Coin Room have been re-arranged and re-labelled. 

Certain sections of the Library have undergone re-arrange- 
ment, and Prebendary E. H. Bates Harbin has sorted some of 
the manuscripts in the strong-room. All the manuscript volumes 
of the Serel series have been permanently numbered ; a 
separate calendar with index of these papers was prepared 
a few years ago, as previously reported. Mr. C. Tite has 
added some more volumes to his collection of Somerset books, 
and the cataloguing of them has been continued. Many 



xlii 



Curator's Report. 



valuable books have been presented to the Library by Miss 
Charlotte Winch, and several useful volumes have been given 
by Bishop Cornish, Mr. T. W. Cowan, Miss L. M. Badcock and 
Mr. F. Whittingham. Mr. F. H. Knight, late postmaster 
of Taunton, has compiled an abstract of the names, occupa- 
tions, etc., of 659 persons and of places named in seventy-six 
" discharges " relating to persons removed into the parish of 
Taunton St. James, 1652-1745. 

The Botanical Section held its annual meeting at the Castle 
on February 9th, the Entomological Section on February llth, 
and the Ornithological Section on February 18th. The 
Taunton Field Club held conversaziones for lectures on 
February 4th and March 18th, and an evening meeting on 
December 2nd, when Mr. H. A. Jeboult lectured on " Eliza- 
bethan Music," with vocal and instrumental illustrations. 

Owing to the War my assistant, W. H. D. Bence, left the 
employ of the Society on October 23rd. His place was taken 
temporarily by a boy. J. Bulley, from October 30th to December 
llth ; and he was succeeded on December 15th by Mdlle. 
L. Bastiaensen, of Antwerp. 

On account of these changes and consequent disorganization 
in routine work, Mrs. St. G. Gray has kindly rendered me 
considerable assistance during the year. 

It is difficult to give the exact number of members of the 
Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society on 
December 31st, as a few of those on active service have dis- 
continued their subscriptions temporarily, but the number is 
not far short of 900, including ten life members and two 
honorary members. 

The following is a list of the monthly attendances of visitors 
to the Museum and Library for the year just completed : 



No. of 


Total No. of Total 


Members. 


Visitors. Members. Visitors. 


Jan. 


63 


246 


July ... 


140 


566 


Feb. 


98 


263 


Aug. ... 


85 


862 


Mar. 


130 


380 


Sept. ... 


79 


626 


Apr. 


71 


491 


Oct. .. 


92 


404 


May 


100 


489 


Nov. ... 


91 


268 


June 


108 


437 


Dec. ... 


112 


464 



1169 



5496 



Curator's Report, 



xliii 



The number of visitors during 1914 was 5458, including 
1267 visits from members of the Society. It is satisfactory 
to note that the persons who paid for admission in 1915 ex- 
ceeded those in 1914 by 136. Military and naval men have 
been admitted to the Museum during the War on payment 
of a fee of 2d. on any day in the week. 

H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

Assist.-Secretary and Librarian, Som. Arch. & Nat. Hist. Society, 
Curator of Taunton Castle Museum. 



aumtioniB to t&e a^useum. 

From January 1st to December 31st, 1915. 



I. ARCHEOLOGY. 
(1). STONE IMPLEMENTS. 

TAVELIN-HEAD of chert, of Palaeolithic type, length 
3|ins. Found by the donor in the Yarty Stream, 
Otterford parish, Blackdown Hills, Somerset, 1915. Pre- 
sented by Mrs. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

Large ovoid implement of chert, of Palaeolithic type ; 
measuring 6|ins. by 5ins. Found by the donor in the Yarty 
Stream (as above). Presented by LIONEL ST. G. GRAY. 

Flint flake, length 29mm., collected by the donor in a grass 
field above high-water mark and opposite the submerged 
forest on the shore at Porlock. (Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., xvm, 
i, 26-31 ; LIV, ii, 9). Presented by the Rev. GEORGE HORNER. 

Part of a large whetstone, worked on four surfaces, length 
4|ins. Found by the donor at Old Burrow Camp, Exmoor, 
near one of the cuttings made in 1912 by Dr. Tapp and Mr. 
Gray. (Trans. Devon Assoc., XLIV, 703-717). Presented by 
Dr. ERIC GARDNER. 

Four Palaeolithic stone implements found in 1915 in a gravel 
quarry on the top of Pauncefoot Hill, about 1 mile from 
Romsey, Hants, along the road to Ringwood and about the 
level of the 100-ft. contour-line. Presented by Dr. C. BALFOUR 
STEWART. 

Net-sinker in the form of a stone ball, max. diam. 2ins. ; 
three chipped stone axes in an early stage of manufacture ; 
and a polished stone axe, length 3|ins. Found in ploughing 
on the donor's farm, Mahakipawa, north part of South Island, 
New Zealand. Presented by Mr. W. J. CULLEN. 



Additions to the Museum. xlv 



(2). OTHER ARCHAEOLOGICAL REMAINS. 

Three bronze fibulae, of the Roman period, found in Haydon 
Quarry, Kilmersdon, the largest and the smallest found in 
1913. The third was worn in the front of the cap of the 
quarryman who found it, for three years. 

The brooches are as follows : (a). Fibula, length 88mm., the pin broken (now 
repaired) ; covering the hinge and projecting beyond it is a flat semicircular plate 
with engraved ornament, attached to which is an eyelet for suspension ; the catch- 
plate is very large for the size of the brooch ; the bottom of the catch is orna- 
mented. (6). Brooch, length 71mm., which shows the blending of Late-Celtic 
with Roman art ; it has a hinged pin ; in the middle of the bow there is a flat ex- 
pansion ornamented with a punched design. (This brooch is similar in general 
outline to one found on Ham Hill, Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., LVI, ii, plate facing p. 
55 fig. 7). (). Small fibula, length 47mm., with moulded bow, the summit of 
which is ornamented with a depressed design, which may, at one time, have been 
filled with enamel ; at the head it has an eyelet for suspension. 

Presented by Dr. A. BULLEID, F.S.A. 

The following archaeological remains from the collection of 
the late Mr. Francis A. Knight : (a). Large rim piece of hand- 
made pottery found at Dolbury Camp, parish of Churchill, 
Mendip Hills, 1905. (6). Rim piece of hand-made pottery 
ornamented with incised triangles filled with crossed parallel 
lines ; found at Dolbury Camp, 1878. It is of Late-Celtic 
type, and is figured in Knight's " Heart of Mendip " (1915), 
p. 201. (c). Small earthenware crucible, of grey clay, height 
iHins., max. diam. Hins. ; of globular form, having a rounded 
base ; it is perforated a little below the lip ; Roman, found 
at Charterhouse-on-Mendip. Figured in " Heart of Mendip," 
p. 513, and mentioned in " The Glastonbury Lake- village," 
I, 303. 1 Presented by Mrs. F. A. KNIGHT. 

Leaden bulla of Calixtus III, A.D. 1455-1458 ; found in the 
excavations at Glastonbury Abbey, 1911. Figured and de- 
scribed in Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., LX, ii, 41-45. Deposited on 
loan by the Trustees of Glastonbury Abbey. 

1. A small earthenware crucible, of circular plan and having a spout, said to 
be Roman, found at a great depth in the soil under a chimney, Fore Street Hill, 
Exeter, 1873, is exhibited in Exeter Museum. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part I. D 



xlvi Additions to the Museum. 

The following Antiquities from Ham Hill, South Somerset, 
found by Mr. A. V. Cornish. (Most of the objects were found 
on the Northern Spur of the Hill ; a full record is kept in the 
MS. catalogue) : 

Amber. Globular bead, diam. 20mm. (in bad state of 
preservation). 

Bronze Objects. Six scales of a lorica, conjoined, alternately 
tinned ; they have double perforations at both sides and at 
top ; they are 24 -5mm. in length and 18mm. in max. width. 
Small key-ring. Part of the flat bow and catch-plate of a 
fibula. Needle, length 80mm. (3|ins.), with an enlargement 
for the large oval eye. (Similar Late-Celtic needles were found 
in Glastonbury Lake-village ; see Vol. I of the work on the 
subject, Plates xlii and xliv). Piece of wire of square section, 
with an enlargement at one end. 

Iron Objects. Large shouldered pin with ring-head ; part 
of shaft and point missing. Bent needle, broken through the 
eye. Round-headed rivet or bolt, with a diamond-shaped 
plate at the smaller end, which may perhaps have moved on 
a thread. Javelin-head, with socket and rivet, length Srains. 
Stylus with flattened end and of heavy make, length Sfins. 

Spindle-whorl.- -Whorl of baked clay, diam. 28mm. 

Antler, etc. Crown of two points and beam of roe-deer 
antler (bearing various knife-cuts at the burr). Worked 
piece of red-deer antler, length 5ins., knife-cut at the butt- 
end, and notched and bored longitudinally in the middle. 
Part of an immature antler of red-deer with knife-cuts. Part 
of a shed antler of roe-deer, burnished. Two tusks (one of 
boar) and a goat's horn with knife-cuts. 

Miscellaneous. Two fragments of black pottery, orna- 
mented ; pottery disc with large perforation ; large Ham 
Hill stone disc, perforated ; chert hammerstone, and parts 
of two whetstones. 

Butt-end of a large stone celt, length 3|ins. (1914). 

Large flint scraper, dug up in Odcombe Rectory Garden, 1915. 

Deposited on loan by Mr. A. V. CORNISH. 

Sling-bullet, or sling-pellet, of baked clay, pointed at both 
ends and having a triangular cross-section. It is slightly 



Additions to the Museum. xlvii 

chipped, but its weight was originally about 490 grains. Found 
with many others lying close together, 3 feet below the surface, 
at Derry's Wood. Wonersh, near Guildford. 1909. Their 
exact date is uncertain. Four of them are figured in Surrey 
Archceol. Collections, xxn, 199. Presented by Mr. J. M. 
COURAGE. 

A few shards of pottery (Bronze Age type down to mediaeval) 
picked up by the donor on the line of the Wansdyke all 
surface finds. Presented by Mr. A. E. HUDD, F.S.A. 

Globular vase of thin terra-cotta with a pair of small handles 
at the mouth. The upper part of the vessel and the rounded 
bottom are encircled by parallel ribbings in slight relief ; 
height Tins. ; max. diam. 8|ins. Found in a tomb, said to 
be Phrenician. at Sidon, Palestine, and dated by the late Rev. 
Greville Chester as about B.C. 700. Given to the donor by 
Dr. Selah Merrill, U.S.A. Consul in Jerusalem. Presented by 
the Rev. C. T. WILSON. 

II. ETHNOGRAPHY. 

Harpsichord bearing the inscription, " Abraham et Josephus 
Kirckman. Londoni fecerunt. 1790." 

The name Kirckman, Kirchmann, or Kirkman, was borne by a family of Harp- 
sichord, and subsequently Pianoforte makers, who came to England from Germany 
about 1740. The tirm continued their factory for the making of pianofortes until 
1896, when it dissolved. 

The Kirckman Harpsichords were made on the Flemish model, with a compass 
of five octaves, and were noted both in Kngland and on the Continent for their 
excellence. 

Deposited on loan by Mr. HAROLD A. JEBOULT. 

Seventeen buttons, Somerset, mostly military. Eleven 
military badges chiefly of the Somerset Light Infantry and 
the Somerset Yeomanry. Presented by Mr. C. TITE. 

Brass face of a grandfather's clock, inscribed " C. Musgrave, 
Taunton " ; late XVIII Century. Presented by the Rev. 
Dr. S. J. M. PRICE. 

Three "club-brasses," (1) Ornate javelin, height lljins., 
pierced with the letters T.C.F.s. (Templecombe Friendly 
Society) ; (2) Ornate javelin, height 12fins., engraved on a 



xlviii Additions to the Museum. 

collar WINCANTON FRIENDLY SOCIETY; (3) a ball sur- 
mounted by a solid crown, the encircling band inscribed 
STUR MINSTER FRIENDLY SOCIETY, height 6ins. Pre- 
sented by Mr. F. G. SAGE. 

Blue silk banner, with yellow tassels, of the West Monkton 
Club ; in one of the lower corners an embroidered monogram, 
W.M.c ; in the opposite corner 1880, the date when the 
banner was worked by Miss Meade-King. The club was 
established previously to 1855. Deposited on loan by Miss 
MEADE-KING, 3, Haines Hill Terrace, Taunton. 

Two mantraps which have never been used ; recently 
turned out of old stores at Messrs. Fisher and Sons, Taunton ; 
they were manufactured about 1840, and their price was 18s. 
each. Presented by Mr. W. H. FISHER. 

White watered silk sunshade, with collapsible handle of 
carved ivory ; early Victorian. This sunshade belonged to 
Mrs. Phelips, mother of Mr. W. R. Phelips, of Montacute. 
Presented by Mrs. W. R. PHELIPS. 

Bag purse of silk ; early XIX Century. Brown silk sunshade 
with collapsible handle ; early Victorian. Presented by Miss 
TALBOT, Stoke St. Gregory. 

Model of a coach, length 16|ins. without horses. The 
figures have china faces and are dressed in the costume of mid- 
Victorian times. Third quarter of the XIX Century ; formerly 
used by the donor as a toy. Presented by Miss M. MEADE- 
KING. 

Red cloak, with hood, one of those worn by women at 
Ilfracombe during the Napoleon Buonaparte scare at the 
beginning of the XIX Century. Under the pretence that they 
were red-coated soldiers the members of a society of women 
used to parade the Capstone Hill in these cloaks ; they also 
beat drums. Presented by Mrs. SOMERSET CLIVE. 

Old cider-barrel truck of painted wood, having a pair of 
solid wooden wheels. The truck is pulled by means of a 
handle-hole which penetrates the bed of the object at one 
end. Length 19ins. From Wiveliscombe. Presented by 
Messrs. RISDON AND LEVERSHA. 

Cider " shoe," or warmer, of tin, with handle and hinged 
cover ; circa 1875. Presented by Mr. L. J. POMEROY. 



Additions to the Museum. 



xlix 



Horse's head ornament, from Wiveliscombe ; green glass 
bottle of hexagonal cross-section, marked on both sides, " True 
Daffys Elixir," early XIX Century. Presented by the 
Rev. C. H. HEALE. 

Miner's lamp of the Davy type. Presented by Mr. J. B. 
PAYNTER. 

Geared - Ordinary bicycle with pneumatic tyres ; height 
4ft. ; diam. of wheels 31ins. and 21ins. respectively. Pre- 
sented by Mr. H. J. VAN TRUMP. 

Two flint-lock pistols, inscribed " H. Nock, London " ; 
pistol, nicely engraved and bearing name, " Watlas. Wigton " ; 
two shot flasks ; leather case containing six flints for flint-lock 
pistols. Presented by Mr. E. A. FOSTER. 

Two baby's caps, one of knitted lace worn by the donor's 
grandmother about 1780 ; the other cap worn by the donor's 
mother early in the XIX Century. Presented by Mr. S. 
LAWRENCE. 

Roller of light-coloured wood, length 20Jins., diam. 5ins. 
The carved ornament is depressed and the object was in- 
tended to be rolled upon a soft surface to give a pattern hi 
relief. Round the centre the Crucifixion, with a heart at the 
foot of the cross ; floral designs on either side. Presented by 
Miss A. E. MAUDE. 

Two grey banded agate beads, of ovoid form, the boring 
being done from each end and scarcely joining in the middle 
(primitive feature). They are very similar to old Arab beads. 

They were purchased with many others and were stated by the dealer to have 
been found on " Ham, or Hamdon Hill, Somerset." Similar beads were pre- 
sented to the Museum by Dr. R. H. Walter in 1910, and were said to have been 
found with others between Stoke-under-Ham and Montacute. Mr. H. Balfour, 
Pitt-Rivers Museum, Oxford, has apparently some of the same lot. 

Presented by Mr. EDWARD LOVETT. 

Ruby and white glass shade for electric lamp, circa 1875-80 ; 
the lamp was fixed by means of a thread. Presented. 

White silk rosette with " plume of feathers " in white metal, 
worn by the donor when a lad at Sherborne School, on March 
10th, 1863, the wedding-day of King Edward VII and Queen 
Alexandra. Presented by the Rev. G. S. HENNING. 



1 Additions to the Museum. 

Maori fish-hook, length 4|ins. Presented by Mr. W. J. 
CULLEN. 

Three Indian bird-arrows, found on the floor of a cave (under 
about 20 feet of bat guano) near the Blue River, about 40 
miles N. of Clifton, Arizona, U.S.A., 1901. Presented by Mr. 
A. C. MOLE. 

III. POTTERY AND GLASS. 

Rolling-pin of clear glass flecked with blue and red, length 
IS^ins. ; Nailsea, XIX Century. Presented by Miss ETHEL 
WARRE MALET. 

Cream jug and basin of black pottery, glazed ; early XIX 
Century. The basin was given to the donor on January 8, 
1901, by Jane Neville, to whose grandmother it had belonged 
at Martock. Presented by Mrs. W. R. PHELIPS. 

Red earthenware brewing pitcher, height 14|ins. On the 
side opposite to the handle the neck is perforated by a circular 
hole, and at the bottom there is a larger hole for the insertion 
of a tap. The pitcher is probably of local make ; XVIII or 
early XIX Century. Purchased. 

IV. NUMISMATICS. 
Thirty-two coins and tokens, as follows : 

Gold. Guinea of William III and Mary, 1694; seven shilling piece, George III, 
1810. 
Silver. Three crowns, (1) William III and Mary, 1692 ; (2) George II, 1741 ; 

(3) George III, 1819. Two half-crowns of William III and Mary, 1689 and 1691 (?). 
Three sixpences, (1) Elizabeth, 1574; (2) George II, 1757; (3) George III, 1787. 
Four groats, (1, 2) Charles II, 1670 and 1679; (3) William III and Mary, 1689 ; 

(4) Anne, 1717. Threepence, George III, 1763. Twopence, Commonwealth, and 
another Victoria, 1838. Half groat, Charles II, 1671. One Penny, George II, 
1699. Bank Token, Ten Pence, Irish, George III, 1805. Piece, size of One 
Shilling, "Pro Bono Publico, Public Happiness, 2dwt. 20gs. sterling, 1804." 
One Shilling of Kruger, 1897- Small piece of Pope Clement XIII. Large piece, 
Continental, diam. IS in. 

Qun Money. Crown of James II, 1690. 

Copper. Farthings of Charles II (1674), George I (1719), and William IV ( 1835). 
Two Roman "third brass "coins, Aurelianus and Constantino the Great. 

Copper Tokens. Bath Token, 1794, Botanic Gardens ; Bath Token, 1794. F 
Heath, ironmonger. 

Presented by the Rev. W. T. REEDER. 



Additions to the Museum. li 

Thirty-one Roman coins, mostly "third brass," and in an 
excellent state of preservation. Bristol Token, 1795 
Rev. " Niblock's. Bridge Street." \d. Presented by Mr. 
T. BEAVEN CLARK. 

A large and valuable series of Somerset Trade Tokens of 
the XVII Century. 

Forty-eight Trade Tokens of the XVII Century belonging 
to other counties. The following nos. refer to Dr. Williamson's 
list ; the nos. followed by (B) refer to Boyne's earlier list : 

Berks. No. 54. Cork. No. 166 (B). Devon. Nos. 10, 
15, 39, 54, 55, 67, 69 (two), 78, 139, 180, 188, 228, 237, 289, 
303, 307, 320 (two), 323, 329, 331, 338, and 367. Dorset. 
Nos. 53, 65, 82, 91 (two), 104, 125 (two), 187, and 192. Glos. 
Nos. 50, 54, and 116. Hants. No. 13, and another ? Hants. 
London. No. 2078. Oxford. No. 87 (B), two specimens. 
Sussex. No. 35 (B). Surrey. No. 319 (variety). Wilts. 
No. 47 (B). Worcestershire. No. 101 (B). 

Medals and Medalets, miscellaneous. 

(1) Rev. William Jay, pastor of Argyle Chapel, Bath, bronze medal, dated 1841, 
diam. Iffin. (2) George Brydges Rodney, first Baron Rodney, 1719-1792, admiral, 
medalet of bronze, diam. ^fin. (3) Henry Hunt (" Orator Hunt "), political re- 
former, 1773-1835, imprisoned at llchester Gaol, silver medalet, diam. l|in. (4) 
Bath Catholic Association, 1877, white metal medal, diam. Ifin. (5) Manchester 
Skip Canal, Opening by Queen Victoria, 1894, white metal medal, diam. l^in. 
(6) Five bronze Wellington medalets, varying in diam. from in. to l^in. 

Copper Coins of Queen Victoria, Two farthings, 1875 and 1885 ; two half- 
pennies, 1899 ; two pennies, 1900. 

Copper Coins of Edward VII, Two farthings, 1909 and 1910 ; two halfpennies, 
1902 and 1907. 

Copper Coins of George V, Two halfpennies, 1913 and 1914 ; two pennies, 
1912 and 1913. 

Silver Coins of Queen Victoria, Half-crown, 1901 ; florin, sixpence, and three- 
pence, 1900. 

Silver Coins of Edward VII, Half-crown, 1906 ; one shilling, 1910 ; sixpence, 
1910; threepence, 1902. 

Other Coins, (a) Threepence, Anne, 1706; (b) silver penny, George II, 1737 ; 
(c) silver penny, George III, 1800; (d) silver three-halfpenny piece of Victoria, 
1838 ; (e) silver twopenny piece, Victoria, 1867 ; (f) model of silver halfpenny, 
Victoria, surrounded by bronze (diam. fin.) ; <g) half farthing, Victoria, 1844 ; 
(h) quarter farthing, Victoria, 1839; (j) model quarter farthing, Victoria, 1848; 
(k) two tiny imitation coins of Victoria, diam. of each in. 

Miscellaneous, (a) Shaftesbury Bank token, silver, sixpence, 1811 ; (b) farth- 
ing token, Patent Sheathing Nail Manufactory, Bristol, 1811 ; (c) circular bronze 



lii Additions to the Museum. 

disc, commemorating the baptism of one Martha Palmer, at Chewton Mendip, 
1734; (d) "Love token," Elizabeth Gardner, 1793; (e) bronze calendar, 1796, 
diam. l^in. ; (f) two Turkish pieces of currency ; one a thin circular disc of brass 
stamped T.E.M. ; the other a pale blue piece of paper, l|in. square, printed with 
an oval device in claret colour. These specimens were given to Mr. Tite by Mr. 
J. Howard Fox, of Wellington, in 1901, who wrote, " I came across these Turkish 
tokens this spring at a small village on the shores of the Sea of Marmora. The 
money-lenders and others collect all the small change they can to make an arti- 
ficial scarcity, so that they may afterwards let it out again at a profit. To meet 
this scarcity the small monasteries (which are Greek) issue token money which 
circulates locally." 

The above were presented by Mr. CHARLES TITE. 

Silver shield-shaped badge of the " Taunton Harriers " ; 
two silver monogram badges of the " Taunton Bicycle Club," 
which was founded circa 1886. Presented by Mr. J. SCOTT. 

Silver shield-shaped badge of the " Taunton Harriers." 
Bronze medal of Frederick II (the Great), 1712-1786, King 
of Prussia, who rid himself of the French at the Battle of 
Rossbach, 1757. Obv. FREDERIC. D . G . BORVS . REX . ET. 

PROTESTANTIM . DEFENSOR - LISSA . DEC . 5 == Frederick 

on horseback to left. Rev. QVO . NIHIL. MAJVS . ROSBACH 
NOV . 5 . 1 757 = The Battle of Rossbach. (The Battle of Lissa 
is now generally known as the Battle of Leu then, Seven 
Years' War). 

Presented by Mr. H. J. VAN TRUMP. 

Irish farthing, George I, 1723 ; farthing token of William 
Hill, Barnstaple, 1656 (Williamson, no. 19). Both found in 
excavating for a stoke-hole at Dunster Church, October, 1915. 
Presented by Mr. W. HAWKER. 

Silver denarius of Marcus Junius Brutus (died B.C. 42). 
Obv. BRVTVS IMP.= Bare head to r. Rev. EID. MA. . .= 
A cap between two daggers. Presented by Mr. ALFRED Fox. 

Five trade checks of the values 3d., 6d., Is., 2s., and 5s. of 
" W. L. Copp & Co., Watchet." They became disused by 
this firm in 1915. Presented by Mr. A. G. COPP. 

Twenty-shillings weight of brass, diam. 19mm. ; Charles I. 
Presented by RICHARD PENNY. 

Blank cheque of " The West of England and South Wales 



Additions to the Museum. liii 

District Bank," Taunton, 18. ., with unused one penny Inland 
Revenue stamp attached. Presented by Mr. S. LAWRENCE. 

One shilling of Elizabeth, found in String Lane, East Reach, 
Taunton, June, 1915. Purchased. 

The following objects have been added to the Charbonnier 
Collection of Pewter (deposited on loan) : 

Clock face, 17ins. by 12Jins., iron (painted), with pewter 
applied to portions of the surface ; Adam style of decoration ; 
marked " Odway, Torrington " ; XVIII Century. (No. 404). 

Fragment of pewter relief ornament ; from a wooden mantel- 
piece, Adam style ; XVIII Century. (No. 405). 

Pewter spoon, length 7|ins. ; rat-tailed , mark, J.S. (twice), 
Bideford, temp. Queen Anne. (No. 406). 

Cook's spoon of latten, length 5|ins. ; XVII Century. 
(No. 407). 

Cup of pewter, embossed ; height 6|ins. ; ? French, School 
of Fransois Briot, circa 1550. (No. 408). 



V. MANUSCRIPTS, DRAWINGS, ENGRAVINGS, 
PHOTOGRAPHS, PRINTED MATTER, ETC. 

Plan of Taunton Castle, Castle Green and Corporation Street, 
with the Mill Stream and supposed site of the Inner and Outer 
Moats of the Castle coloured blue ; drawn by Mr. J. Houghton 
Spencer, January, 1911. 

Two photographs of " Meare Club Walk," Somerset, circa 
1912-13 ; photograph of " The Henstridge Club," 1910, taken 
by A. E. Goodfellow, Wincanton. 

Varnished print in frame measuring 32|ins. by 22|ins., 
entitled 

"To the Officers and Seamen of His Majesty's Frigate LA NYMPHE, this 
View of their Boarding and taking Possession of the French Frigate LA CLEO- 
PATRE in Fifty Minutes from the Commencement of the Action is with Admira- 
tion of their Gallant Conduct and due Respect inscribed by their obedient ser- 
vant Robt. Dodd." 

This refers to the capture of the Cleopdtre (French) by the 
Nymphe (British), in the English Channel, 19 June, 1793. 



liv Additions to the Museum. 

The Nymphe was commanded by Capt. Edward Pellew, after- 
wards Viscount Exmouth (1757-1833). 

Varnished print, in frame measuring 36|ins. by 27|ins., 
entitled 

"To the Right Honorable Earl Howe Commander in Chief, Admirals, Thos. 
Graves and Sir Alexr. Hood, Rear Admirals, Bowyer, Caldwell, Gardner and 
Paaley. The Captains, Officers, Seamen, Marines & Soldiers of the British Fleet. 
This Plate representing the evening of the Glorious First of June, 1794, is dedi- 
cated with the greatest respect." 

This refers to the sea battle off Brest. Sir Alexr. Hood 
(1727-1814) afterwards became Viscount Bridport of Cricket 
St. Thomas ; he was the younger brother of Samuel, Viscount 
Hood. 

Presented by Mr. CHARLES TITE. 

Framed lithograph of the Right Honble. and Right Rev. 
Lord Auckland, Bishop of Bath and Wells from 1854 to 1869. 

Robert John Eden was the third Baron Auckland, and was born in Kent on 10 
July, 1799 ; he died at the Palace, Wells, 25 April, 1870. 

Presented by Mr. J. C. BUCKLAND. 

Four photographs (lOins. by Sins.), of Newton Surmaville, 
Yeovil, the residence of the donor ; taken by Mr. J. Reginald 
H. Weaver, 1912. Presented by the Rev. Preb. E. H. BATES 
HARBIN. 

Photograph, by Mr. Weaver, of the Rev. Preb. E. H. Bates 
Harbin, of Newton Surmaville, 1912. Presented. 

Book-plate, " Herbert of Tetton " (Kingston, near Taunton) ; 
engraved copper plate, coat of arms encircled by scrolls in- 
scribed " Alexander Stewart . . . Whither will ye." Pre- 
sented by Mr. S. LAWRENCE. 

Two copies each of two plans of Stokeleigh Camp, Somerset, 
surveyed by S. J. Loxton, Bristol. Presented by the National 
Trust and Leigh Woods Committee of Management. 

Map of Yeovil showing buildings and streets, 1831 ; photo- 
graph of an old road map of England. Presented by Mr. J. B. 
PAYNTER. 



Additions to the Museum. Iv 

Lithograph of Culbone Church, Somerset, by Mrs. G. Howe. 
Presented by the Rev. C. V. GODDARD. 

Print of " Taunton Vale, Somersetshire," with large waggon 
and team of horses in the foreground ; published in 1809. 
Presented by Miss CRUMP. 



VI. NATURAL HISTORY. 
(1). ANIMALS, BIRDS, ETC. 

A number of British birds' eggs collected in West Somerset, 
and presented by Miss Amy Smith, and Messrs. Arthur W. 
Turner, G. E. Hiscock, and W. H. Kendall. 

Four eggs of Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus), from 
Exmoor, Somerset, 5 June, 1890 ; formerly in the collection 
of Mr. W. H. Smith. Purchased at Stevens' Auction Rooms, 
London. 

Pied specimen of a Blackbird (Turdus merula), taken in the 
garden at The Mount, Halse, 1914. Presented by Miss AMY 
SMITH. 

Nest of Nightingale, Norton Fitzwarren, 1915. Presented 
by Mr. A. W. TURNER. 

Nest of Willow Wren, or Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus 
trochilus), found on a piece of spruce fir, 3ft. from the ground, 
at Quantock Lodge. Presented by Mr. W. E. COPLESTON. 

Two fragments of the egg of the extinct JEpyornis of Mada- 
gascar, given to the donor by Professor Peringuey, Cape Town, 
circa 18823. These eggs have a long circumference of up- 
wards of 36ins. and a girth of 30ins. Presented by the Rev. 
W. H. P. GRESWELL. 

Common Mole (Talpa Europcea), albino ; killed at Nyland- 
cum-Batcombe. Presented by Mr. H. COMER TEEK. 

Specimen of Sir ex gigas (hymenoptera) taken at Bullen 
Court in August, 1915. Presented by Mr. W. A. CROSS. 

Large snail-shell of a pale mauve colour, max. diam. If ins. 
(These shells are said to be washed up on the shores of the 
Scilly Islands at certain times). Presented by Mrs. D. P. 
ALFORD. 



Ivi Additions to the Museum. 

(2). FOSSILS, BOTANICAL SPECIMENS, ETC. 

Forty-four specimens of Somerset plants collected and 
presented by the Rev. E. S. MARSHALL, F.L.S. (mounted by 
Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S.). 

Thirty-three specimens of Somerset plants collected and 
presented by Mr. H. STUART THOMPSON, F.L.S. (mounted by 
Mr. T. W. Cowan, F.L.S.). 

Fossil shells, Purbeck, Dorset ; small fossils, Whitstone 
Hill, Uffculme, Devon. Presented by Miss L. M. BADCOCK. 



VII. WALTER COLLECTION. 
(1). RELICS FROM HAM HILL, 1913-15. 

The following deposited on loan by Mr. R. HENSLEIGH 
WALTER, M.B. : 

(a) Found on Site D '10. (Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., LVI, i, 107). 

Bronze. Five penannular brooches having the following 
maximum diameters, 22, 25, 27, 30, and 38mm. respectively. 
Two of them have the common retroflected terminals ; the 
largest has knobbed and moulded terminals. In only two 
cases is the pin complete ; one of the fragmentary pins is of 
iron. With the latter specimen a wire spiral finger-ring and 
a piece of blue glass were found. 

Finely patinated pin, length 82mm., with ring-end and 
intentionally bent ; well formed needle, complete, length 
71mm. ; pair of tweezers, length 64mm. ; part of a semi- 
circular handle, probably of a bucket ; greater part of a stout 
awl, the pointed end of sexagonal section, length 66- 3mm. ; 
lozenge-shaped piece of thin bronze ; corroded boss, diam. 
20 -8mm. ; fragment of thin bronze, length 39mm. 

Iron. Broad-bladed single-edged knife, length with tang 
228mm. (9ins.) ; socketed spear-head, leaf-shaped blade, 
length 123mm. ; dart- or arrow-head (spiculum) used as a 
projectile from a Roman catapulta, length 81mm. ; head of 
a quarrel or cross-bow bolt, length 38mm, XIII XIV Century 



Additions to the Museum. 



Ivii 



(a similar one was found on the Hill in 1909, Proc., LV, i, 102) ; 
greater part of an awl hafted in an antler handle, length 95mm. 

Antler and Bone Objects. Two bone pins, length 89 and 
92mm. respectively, one of them of stout make and worked 
to a good point. 

Piece of worked roe-deer antler with three points remaining ; 
the beam has a wide, roughly cut, longitudinal slit which 
appears to be too large for the reception of the tang of a knife 
and there is no rivet-hole. 

Weaving-comb of antler having thirteen teeth, complete, 
length 141mm. (5|ins.) ; the squared handle-end has a hole 
for suspension ; ornamented with fine double incised lines, 
the interspaces forming diamonds. (This specimen is deposited 
by Eric H. Walter.) 

Spindle-whorls. Seven spindle-whorls, six of stone, one of 
baked clay ; the specimen of flint has a natural perforation, 
but an attempt may have been made to use it as a spindle- 
whorl ; one specimen of soft stone is ornamented on one 
surface by roughly inscribed concentric circles and four 
radiating lines. 

Pottery, etc. Six fragments of pottery, including a piece of 
" Lake Village " type ; part of a well polished whetstone. 

(b) Found near Site D '10. 

Celt of granite, length 4 fins., ground on all its surfaces ; 
and two spindle-whorls, each 38mm. in diam., one of soft 
stone, one of baked clay. 

(c) Found on Site E 11. (Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., LVII, i, 115). 

Bronze. Flat eyelet, diam. 13mm., the substance perforated 
with one small hole. 

The following found together : Seal-box, Roman, of tinned 
bronze, diam. 19-5mm. ; three scales of armour, part of a 
lorica ; pair of tweezers, length 64mm. 

(2). MISCELLANEOUS. 

Handle of a glazed earthenware pipkin, found in the garden 
of the Rev. Dr. S. J. M. Price at Tintinhull, 1915. Small 



Iviii Additions to the Museum. 

brown earthenware jar, perhaps for drugs ; height Ifins. ; 
dug up from the foundations of an old farmhouse at Long 
Load, near Martock, 1915. Deposited on loan by Mr. R. H. 
WALTER, M.B. 

Two German bayonets, length 19fins. and 25fins. re- 
spectively. Presented by STANLEY H. WALTER. 

Cartridge case, 75mm. calibre. French length ISfins. ; 
two German fuse-caps. Presented by ERIC H. WALTER. 



anoinons to tt)c Ufcrarp. 

From January 1st, 1915, to December 31st, 1915. 



DONATIONS. 

Several volumes by Somersetshire authors, added to the 
donor's collection of books in Taunton Castle. Presented by 
Mr. CHARLES TITE. 

The following books presented by Miss CHARLOTTE WINCH : 

A Short History of the English People, by J. R. Green (3 vols., 
1898, illustrated edition). 

Memoirs of the Martyr King, being a detailed record of the 
last two years of the Reign of Charles I, by Allan Fea (edition 
de luxe, 1905). 

Secret Chambers and Hiding-Places, by Allan Fea. 

Jeanne d'Arc, by Mgr. le Nordex, 1898. 

Peter the Great, by K. Waliszewski (translated by Lady M. 
Loyd), 2 vols. 

The History of the Worthies of England, by Thos. Fuller 
(3 vols.). 

Portraits of Illustrious Personages of Great Britain, by E. 
Lodge, 1835 (12 vols. bound up in six). 

The Governance of England, by Sidney Low, 1904. 

The Ascent of Man, by Henry Drummond, 1894. 

Gaspard de Coligny, by A. W. Whitehead, 1904. 

The Fates of Empires, by A. J. Hubbard, 1913. 

Histoire Ancienne des Peuples de UOrient Classique : Les 
Origines, Egypte and Chaldee, by G. Maspero, 1895. 

The Curves of Life, by Theodore A: Cook, 1914. 

Abbeys, Castles and Ancient Halls of England and Wales, 
by J. Timbs and Alex. Gunn (3 vols.). 

The Chippendale Period of English Furniture, by K. W. 
Clouston, 1897. 



be Additions to the Library. 

Lady Jean, the Romance of the Great Douglas Cause, by Percy 
Fitzgerald, 1904. 

The Varieties of English Experience, by Wm. James, 1903. 

The Psychology of Revolution, by Gustave le Bon, 1913. 

Micro-Organisms and Disease, by E. Klein, F.R.S., 1886. 

The Dreyfus Case, by F. C. Conybeare, 1898. 

New Conceptions in Science, by Carl Snyder, 1903. 

Chinese Porcelain, by W. G. Gulland, 1898. 

Leaves of a Life, being the Reminiscences of Montagu 
Williams, Q.C., 1898. 

Pharoah's Daughter, and other stories, by W. Waldorf Astor. 

The Chain of Life in Geological Time, by Sir J. W. Dawson. 

Know your Own Ship, by Thomas Walton, 1896. 

Japanese Physical Training, by H. Irving Hancock, 1904. 

Modern Weapons and Modern War, by I. S. Bloch, 1900. 

Schools and Masters of Fence, by Egerton Castle, 1893. 

The Times History of the South African War, 1899-1902, 
vol. n, 1902. 

The German Official Account of the South African War, by 
Col. W. H. H. Waters, 1904. 

The Honourable Artillery Company in South Africa, edited 
by Basil Williams and E. Childers, 1903. 

The Work of the Ninth Division, by Sir H. E. Colville, 1901. 

Egyptian Tales, IV XII Dynasty, by W. M. Flinders 
Petrie, 1895. 

First Steps in Egyptian, by E. A. Wallis Budge, 1895. 

Egyptian Magic, Budge, 1899. 

Easy Lessons in Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Budge, 1899. 

Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, Budge, 1900. 

Babylonian Religion and Mythology, by L. W. King, 1899. 

Timbuctoo the Mysterious, by Felix Dubois, 1897. 

The Ancient Ruins of Rhodesia, by R. N. Hall and W. G. 
Neal, 1902. 

The Tenth Island : an Account of Newfoundland, by Beckles 
Willson, 1897. 

Dar- Ul-Islam : a Record of a Journey through ten of the 
Asiatic Provinces of Turkey, by Mark Sykes, 1904. 

The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, 1900 
(2 vols.). 






Additions to the Library. Ixi 

The Mogul Emperors of Hindustan, 1398-1707, by E. S. 
Holden, 1895. 

The Web of Indian Life, by Margaret E. Noble, 1904. 

The New Siberia, by Harry de Windt, 1896. 

Gleanings in Buddha-Fields, by Lafcadio Hearn, 1896. 

Japan by the Japanese, by Alfred Stead, 1904. 

The Japs at Home, by Douglas Sladen, 1895. 

Dai Nippon : The Britain of the East, by Henry Dyer, 1904. 

A Diplomatist's Wife in Japan, by Mrs. Hugh Eraser, 1899 
(2 vols.). 

The China- Japan War, by " Vladimir," 1896. 

The Break-up of China, by Lord Charles Beresford, 1899. 

The Forester, by James Brown, 6th edit., 1894 (2 vols.). 

The Forest Trees of Britain, by Rev. C. A. Johns, 1894. 

Through the Sub-Arctic Forest, by Warburton Pike, 1896. 

British Fungi, by George Massee, 1891. 

The Smaller British Birds, by H. G. and H. B. Adams, 
1874. 

A History of British Butterflies, by Rev. F. 0. Morris, 5th 
edit., 1870. 

A Natural History of British Moths, by Rev. F. O. Morris, 
1872 (4 vols.). 

Who's Who, 1913 ; British Weights and Measures, by Col. 
Sir C. M. Watson ; Ten Years' Diggings, by Thomas Bateman, 
1861 ; Ferns, British and Exotic, by E. J. Lowe, 1864 (8 vols.) ; 
Etymological Dictionary of the Scottish Language, by John 
Jamieson, 1808-1825 (2 vols.). Presented by Mr. T. W. 
COWAN. 

A History of Gloucestershire, by Samuel Rudder, 1779 ; 
Description of Wilts (from the " Beauties of England and 
Wales "), by John Britton, 1813 ; Historical and Architectural 
Essay on Redcliffe, Church, Bristol, and plates separately, 1813 ; 
Map of Brightstowe (Bristol), 1575, by Hoefnagle (facsimile 
of 1868) ; Some Account of the Oldest Plans of Bristol, by W. 
George, 1881 ; coloured Map of Wilts, by C. Greenwood, 1820. 
Presented by the Rt. Rev. C. E. CORNISH, formerly Bishop 
of Grahamstown. 

Vol. LKf (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part I. K 



Ixii Additions to the Library, 

A Collection of Entries of Declarations (law proceedings), by 
Wm. Rastell, folio, 1670 ; Modern Reports . ... in Upper 
Bench Court, 21 Car. to 1655, by Wm. Style, 1658 ; Defence of 
Pluralities . ... as now practised in the Church of England, 
1692 ; Calvin and the Swiss Reformation, by John Scott, 1833 ; 
Liturgia, by Thos. Parsell, 1706 ; 53rd Report, Royal Humane 
Society, 1827 ; Letters of Lady Rachel Russell, by Thos. Sell wood, 
1774 ; Rules, etc., for Field-Exercise . ... of his Majesty's 
Forces, by Wm. Fawcett, 1798 ; Bath Penitentiary and Lock 
Hospital, Reports, 1816-21 ; The Idyls of Solomon, by J. 
Watts Lethbridge, 1878 ; Bath and Wells Diocesan Assoc. of 
the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 10th Report, 
1825-6. Presented by Mr. W. F. WHITTINGHAM (from Sir 
Wroth Lethbridge's sale, Sandhill Park). 

The Index Library (British Record Society), pts. 138, 139, 
including Chichester Wills and Lincoln Administrations. 
Presented by the Rev. F. W. WEAVER, F.S.A. 

An Abstract of the Names, Occupations, etc., of 659 Persons, 
and of Places named in 76 " Discharges " relating to persons 
removing into the parish of Taunton St. James, 1652-1745. 
Compiled from the original documents, with an Index, by Mr. 
FRANCIS H. KNIGHT, 1913, and presented by him. 

The Spectator, 1813 ; Memoirs of Horace Walpole, by Eliot 
Warburton, 1851 (2 vols.) ; Memoirs of Wm. Wordsworth, 
by Christopher Wordsworth, 1851 (2 vols.) ; Travels in Upper 
India, by C. J. C. Davidson, 1843 (2 vols.); Narrative of the 
War in Afghanistan, 1838-9, by Capt. H. Havelock, 1840 
(2 vols.). Presented by Miss L. M. BADCOCK. 

Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives, by W. J. 
Sollas, 2nd edit., 1915. Presented by the Publishers. 

The Story of Forde Abbey, by Sidney Heath ; Bristol Foot- 
path Preservation Society, Report for 1891, containing ''St. 
Anne's Well, Brislington " ; History of the Taxes on Know- 
ledge : their Origin and Repeal, by Collet D. Collet, 1899 
(2 vols.). Presented by the Rev. C. H. HEALE. 



Additions to the Library. Ixiii 

A Short History of Old Bristol Pottery and Porcelain, Marks, 
etc., by J. P. Way ; Bath Token Issues of the XVII Century, 
by S. Sydenham ; Guide to the Larmer Grounds, Farnham 
Museum, etc., by General Pitt-Rivers ; Short Guide, Torquay 
Museum, 1913 ; Wellington Weekly News, Sept. 23, 1914, to 
Oct. 27, 1915 ; Introduction to Entomology, by Kirby and 
Spence ; Ecclesiologists' Guide, Norfolk. Presented by Mr. 
C. TITE. 

The Old Country (Orchardleigh and Frome), by Henry 
Newbolt, 1907. Presented by the Rev. W. A. DUCKWORTH. 

British Violets, by Mrs. E. S. Gregory, 1912. Presented by 
the Rev. E. S. MARSHALL. 

Mediaeval and XVI Century Ships in English Churches ; 
Ships in the Cambridge " Life of the Confessor " ; A Ship of 
Hans Burgkmair ; Bronage and its " Graffiti." Reprints pre- 
sented by the author, Mr. H. H. BRINDLEY. 

The Cheddar Man : a Skeleton of late Palceolithic Date. 
Presented by the authors, Messrs. C. G. SELIGMAN and F. G. 
PARSONS. 

Pulpits. Lecterns, and Organs in English Churches, by the 
Rev. Dr. J. C. Cox. Presented by the Publishers. 

Report on the Excavations at Avebury, 1914 ; The Meare Lake 
Village Excavations, Sept., 1914. Presented by Mr. H. ST. 
GEORGE GRAY. 

Fourteen Odes of Horace, turned into English, by W. E. 
Surtees ; a bound volume containing five of Christopher 
Anstey's pamphlets, 4to. and 8vo., circa 1788-1800. Pre- 
sented by Mr. E. PEARCE. 

Effigies of Saxon Bishops at Wells. Presented by the author, 
the Very Rev. J. ARMITAGE ROBINSON, F.S.A., Dean of 
Wells. 

Romano-British Potters in Mid-Somerset. Presented by the 
Author, Dr. A. BULLEID, F.S.A. 

Ordnance Survey Map of England and Wales, 1 inch scale, 
Sheet 20 representing Bridgwater, Minehead, etc., dated 11 Oct., 
1809, by Mudge. Presented by Mr. J. E. PRITCHARD, F.S.A. 

Somerset and the War, Return of the Number of Men 
serving with the Colours, Dec., 1914. Presented by Capt. 
J. COOKE HURLE. 



Ixiv Additions to the Library. 

Census of England and Wales, 1911, Somerset. Presented 
by the Rev. Preb. E. H. BATES HARBIN. 

The Life and Character of the late Lord Chancellor Jefferys, 
1764. Presented by Mr. J. MARSHALL MILES. 

Alfred the Great, Maker of England, 848-899, by Miss Beatrice 
A. Lees. Presented by the Publishers. 

Lesnes Abbey Excavations, Kent, by A. W. Clapham, F.S.A. 
Presented by the Glastonbury Abbey Excavation Committee. 

Records of the Past. 12 vols. by Samuel Birch, 1873-1881, 
and 6 vols. by A. H. Sayce, 1888-1892. Presented by Mr. 
CECIL H. SPENCER PERCEVAL. 

Typewritten Copy of the Re-opening of Lufton Church, 17 
Oct., 1865. Presented by Mr. J. B. PAYNTER. 

Seventeenth Century Somersetshire Tokens, by H. S. Gill. 
Presented by Mr. J. C. BUCKLAND. 

Proceedings, Harrow Architectural Club, 1915 (contains 
illustrations of four Somerset Church Towers). Presented by 
Mr. SAMUEL GARDNER. 

Downside Review, no. 99. Presented by St. Gregory's 
Society. 

Bye-Laws of the Masonic Lodge, " Unanimity and Sincerity," 
Taunton, 3 July, 1801. Presented by Mr. H. J. VAN TRUMP. 

Report, Wells Nat. Hist, and Arch. Society, 1914. 

The Geological Age of the Carrara Marbles, by T. G. Bonney 
and H. H. Winwood. Presented by the Rev. H. H. WINWOOD. 

A Somerset Heath and its Bryophytic Zonation. Presented 
by the Author, Mr. W. WATSON, B.SC. 

Sale Catalogue, the Egremont Estate, Somerset, of Mr. 
Wm. Wyndham, 8 July, 1915. Presented by the Auctioneers. 

Report, National Trust, 1914-15. 

Journal, Torquay Nat. Hist. Society, 1914. 

1st Annual Report, Carnegie United Kingdom Trust. 

Report No. 7 on Flies as Carriers of Infection. 

The following Museum and Library Reports : 9th Report, 
Taunton Free Library, 1914 ; Bristol Museum and Art Gallery, 
1915 ; Colchester Museum, 1915 ; Horniman Museum, 1915 ; 
Guide to Gloucester Museum, 1914. 

The Times, 1915. Presented by the Somerset County Club. 

Somerset County Gazette, 1915. From the Proprietors. 



Additions, to the Library. Ixv 

Somerset County Herald and Taunton Courier, 1915. From 
the Proprietors. 

West Somerset Free Press, 1915. From the Proprietors. 

RECEIVED FROM SOCIETIES IN CORRESPONDENCE FOR 
THE EXCHANGE OP PUBLICATIONS. 

British Association Report, 1914 ; Report of Corresponding 

Societies' Committee, 1914. 
British Museum (Natural History) Guide to the Galleries of 

Mammals (9th edit.) ; Catalogue of the Ungulate Mammals 

in the Brit. Mus., vol. in, by R. Lydekker, F.R.S. 
Society of Antiquaries of London Proceedings, vol. xxvi. 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 

Journal, vol. LXXI, pts. 2-4 ; vol. LXXII, pt. 1. 
British Archaeological Association Journal, n.s., vol. xxi, 

pts. 1, 2, 3. 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (Part 

Exchange) Journal, vol. XLIV, pt. 2 ; vol. XLV, pt. 1 ; 

Man, 1915. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Proceedings, vol. XLVIH. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland Journal, vol. XLIV. 

pt. 4 ; vol. XLV, pts. 1-3. 
Royal Irish Academy Proceedings, Sect. B., vol. xxxn, 

pts. 5-8 ; Proceedings, Sect. C., vol. xxxii, pts. 14-20 ; 

Clare Island Survey, pts. 1, 39 (ii), 54, 67, 68. 
Royal Dublin Society Scientific Proceedings, vol. xiv, nos. 

24-41 ; Economic Proceedings, vol. II, pt. 10. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society Trans- 
actions, vol. XXXVH, pts. 1, 2. 
British School at Rome Papers, vol. vn, 1914. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society Proceedings, n.s., vols. xvni, 

xix ; Outside the Barnwell Gate, by Rev. Dr. H. P. 

Stokes. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society Transactions, vols. XLVI, XLVLT. 
Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological 

Society Transactions, vol. xv, n.s., 1915. 
Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society 

Journal, vol. xxxvn. 



Ixvi Additions to the Library. 

Devonshire Association Transactions, vol. XLVII. 

Devon and Cornwall Record Society (Part Exchange) 
Pts. xx, xxi (1915) ; Extra Series, no. 1, pts. 7, 8. 

Essex Archaeological Society Transactions, vol. xiv, n.s., 
pts. 1, 2. 

Essex Field Club Essex Naturalist, vol. xvni, pts. 1-6 ; 
Index, vol. xvn. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society Transactions, vol. xv, 
pt, 4. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society Transactions, vol. 
LXVI. 

Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society Reports 
and Papers, vol. xxxn, pt. 2. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Society of Antiquaries of, Archceologia 
Aeliana, vol. xn, 3rd ser. ; Proceedings, vol. vn, 3rd ser., 
pp. 1-128. 

Northamptonshire Natural History Society Journal, vol. 
xvn, nos. 137-140. 

Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall Natural His- 
tory Society (Part Exchange) Report, vol. xv, pt. 4. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Trans- 
actions, vol. iv, 4th ser., pt. 2 ; vol. v, pt. 1. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History Pro- 
ceedings, vol. xv. pt. 2. 

Surrey Archaeological Society Collections, vol. xxvn. 

Sussex Archaeological Society Collections, vol. LVII. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds vol. xx, pt. 2 ; vol. xxn, pt. 3. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society Maga- 
zine, vol. xxxviii, nos. 122, 123 ; Abstracts of Inquisitions 
P.M. relating to Wilts, pt. vi. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society Journal, pt. 91. 

Geologists' Association Proceedings, vol. xxvi, pts. 15. 

The Antiquary vol. xi, n.s., 1915. 

Scottish Historical Review vol. xn, pts. 2-4 ; vol. xm, pt. 1. 

New England Historical and Genealogical Register vol. 
LXIX, nos. 273-276 ; Supplement to April Number. 

Canadian Institute Transactions, vol. x, pt. 2, 1915. 

Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, and 
the United States Museum, Washington, U.S.A. Several 
publications listed in the MS. catalogue of new acquisitions. 






Additions to the Library. Ixvii 



PURCHASED. 

Early English Text Society no. 148, Courtesy Book ami Two 
Franciscan Rules ; no. 149, Lincoln Diocese Documents. 

Harleian Society vol. LXVI, Grantees of Arms, end of XVII 
Century. 

Palaeontographical Society vol. LXVIII, 1914. 

Ray Society The British Marine Annelids, vol. in, pt. 1 (text). 

Somerset Record Society vols. xxix, xxx, The Register of 
Nicholas Bubwith. 

New English Dictionary, SPRING to SQUOYLE ; ST to STANDARD ; 

STANDARD to STEAD ; SUBTERRANEAN to SULLEN ; TRINK 
to TURN-DOWN. 

Notes and Queries, llth ser., vols. xi, xn (1915). 
Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries, nos. 109-112. 
Somerset Parish Registers (Marriages), vol. xv (Taunton St. 

James). 

Pipe Roll Society vol. xxxiv, xxxvi (1913-14). 
Dwelly's Parish Records, vol. iv (Wells Transcripts, in). 
The Journal of Roman Studies, vol. iv, pt. 2, 1914 ; First 

Supp. Cat. of Lantern Slides. 

Landed Gentry of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 vols. (1912-14). 
Calendar of the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of Wells, vol. n. 
Register of Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter, 1420-1455, pt. 2. 
Lectures on Early English History, by W. Stubbs, D.D.. 
Almanacks for Students of English History, by E. A. Fry. 
The Heart of Mendip, by F. A. Knight. 
West Country Churches, vol. in, by W. J. Robinson. 
Report on the Excavations at Grime's Graves, Norfolk, 1914. 
Excavations at Hengistbury Head, Hampshire, in 1911-2, by 

J. P. Bushe-Fox. 

How to make an Index, by H. B. Wheatley. 
The Connoisseur, 1915. 
Country Life, June 12th, 1915, containing " Montacute 

House " ; and Nov. 20th,. 1915, containing " XVIII 

Century Bath " and " Bradford-on-Avon Tithe Barn." 
Index of Archaeological Papers, 1910. 
Hull Museum Publications, nos. 102, 103, 105. 



Ixviii Additions to the Library. 

Guide to the Fossil Remains of Man in the Department of Geology, 

Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.). 
Guide, to Manchester Museum, 1915. 
Bath and Wells Diocesan Directory, 1915. 
Bath and Wells Diocesan Gazette, 1915. 



PART IL PAPERS, ETC. 



Cijomas TBolepn, precentor of 



BY THE VERY REV. J. ARMITAGE ROBINSON, D.D., F.S.A., 

Dean of Wells. 



r I THE beautiful tomb on the south side of the chapel of 
-L St. Calixtus, adorned with exquisite alabaster panels 
representing the Annunciation and figures of canons vested 
in the choir habit, was for a long time assigned to Dean Husee 
(1302-1305), in spite of the fact that its workmanship was of 
a much later date. Sir William St. John Hope, who some 
years ago identified it as the tomb of Thomas Boleyn, pre- 
centor of Wells, 1451-1472, has been good enough to write 
me a note stating the grounds of this identification. He 
says : " Burke gives the arms of Bullen of Stickford, co. 
Lincoln, as Silver fretty and a chief sable with three silver roundels 
on the chief. These are the arms on your tomb ; and you 
will find at the foot of the effigy the broken remains of clerks 
singing at a desk. A date c. 1470 exactly agrees with that 
of the tomb." 

First, with regard to the arms on the tomb ; the colour is 
so nearly obliterated that it is difficult to say with certainty 
what it originally was. There is no trace of roundels on the 
chief, so far as I can discover ; the black colour of the fretty, 
is all that remains quite certain. The chief has a reddish hue, 
with a few specks of deep red paint here and there. In the 
absence of any rival claimant there is a presumption in favour 
of the view that the fretty sable and the chief point to Thomas 

Vol. LXI, (Fourth Series, Vol. I}, Part II. a 



2 Thomas Boleyn. Precentor of Wells. 

Boleyn. It is therefore worth while to collect such infor- 
mation about him as can be discovered. We shall find that 
he was a person of some importance in his day. 

Master Thomas Boleyn appears in Bp. Beckington's Register, 
f. 85b. on 4 March 1449, as " having a collation of a canonry 
in the church of Wells and of the prebend of Dultecote, alias 
Dultyngcote vacant by the death of Master William Byconel, 
dated in the manor of Dogmersfeld on the 5th of November 
last past." He takes the oath of obedience to the bishop at 
his hospice hi London, and receives letters of institution. 

On 5 June 1449 the abbot and convent of Glastonbury pre- 
sented him to the rectory of Wrington (Weaver, Somerset 
Incumbents, p. 304). 

Our next notice is the grant to Thomas Boleyn LL.B, on 
9 April 1450 of the canonical house vacated by the death of 
John Reynolds the subdean (Beck. f. 108b). Thus the bishop 
enabled his new canon to qualify for residence. Then, on 

20 April in the same year, the bishop appointed him to the 
subdeanery and the church of Woky thereto annexed (Beck, 
f. 110). 

The communar's account-roll for the year ending Mich. 
1450 gives us a glimpse of the new subdean at a period of 
political disturbance in the county which threatened the 
safety of the cathedral church. 1 Sir William Bonville, the 
lord of Chewton-on-Mendip, a few miles above Wells, had a 
quarrel with the earl of Devon, which amounted to civil war, 
and culminated in the siege of Taunton by the latter in 1451. 
The following items are entered by the communar : 

Expenses of William Bonvyle and Alexander Hody at Wells, 

21 July [1450]. because of insurgents against the peace of the church 
and the king. [This item is cancelled.] 

Expenses of 4 clerks, guarding the church for 4 davs and nights, 
Is. 4d. 

Mr. Lewis Rede [one of the canons], for men hired from Wales 
[de Wallia] to defend the church. 31. 6s. 8d. 

A mason hired at various times to hide the goods and jewels of 
the church by the advice of Thomas Boleyn, Thomas Chewe, and 
the communar. 16s. lOd. 

1. Cf. Cal. of Wells MSS. II, 77f. 



Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 3 

Expenses of the lord of Bonvyle etc. coming to Wells for the 
defence of the church and its ministers, 31. 16s. 



It may be that the local disturbance was part of the wide- 
spread discontent which broke out in various parts of England 
owing to the defeats in France and the sudden loss of Nor- 
mandy. The brief rebellion of Jack Cade in Kent (31 May 
12 July 1450), and the murder of Bp. Ayscough of Salisbury 
at Edington on 29 June, were contemporary manifestations 
of this discontent which formed the prelude to the Wars of 
the Roses. It is worth while therefore to call attention to 
two other items of the same account, as illustrating the history 
of the period : 

Expenses of William Orewell to Salisbury, to enquire about the 
arrival of a large number of French at Southampton, with horse 
hire for the journey, 2s. Od. 

Expenses of Thomas Cokyr at Salisbury, 16 Sept., to enquire 
about the insurgents there, 3s. 4d. 

As one of the canons residentiary, Thomas Boleyn attests 
a charter dated Wells, 7 May, 1451 (Charter 641). 

On 20 May, as subdean and president of the chapter, he 
takes part in the presentation of a perpetual chaplain to the 
chantry of Henry Husee, formerly dean, at the altar of St. 
Calixtus (Beck. f. 125). This is quite a curious coincidence. 
It was no doubt the foundation of this chantry that led to the 
ascription to Dean Husee of the tomb which we are seeking 
to identify. The only other persons whom we know to have 
been commemorated at the altar of St. Calixtus are Peter of 
Chichester, who was dean from 1219 to 1236, and Nicholas 
Calton, archdeacon of Taunton, whose will was dated 25 April 
1438 (Cal. of Wells MSS. II, 107, 671f.). Bishop Harewell 
was buried on the N. side of this chapel, where his monument 
has recently been replaced ; but there is no evidence that he 
was commemorated at this particular altar. 

On 27 September he was one of two trustees to whom Bp. 
Beckington made over the site of his intended " New Work." 
the remains of which still form the north side of the market- 
place (Cal. of Wells MSS. I, 435). The Patent Rolls of 



4 Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 

Henry VI show that on June 21, 1453, these trustees received 
license of mortmain to convey this property to the dean and 
chapter. 

Then, on 25 October 1451, the bishop appointed him to the 
precentorship of the cathedral, vacant by the resignation of 
John Bernard (Beck. f. 132b). The church of Pilton was 
attached to the precentorship, and we find Thomas Boleyn 
presenting a vicar to it on 23 August 1461 (Beck. f. 2656) ; and 
again on 28 September 1468 (Weaver, Som. Inc. 165). 

The date of Thomas Boleyn's death can be approximately 
fixed by the following facts. He was succeeded as precentor 
by Thomas Overay on 19 February 1472 (Stillington's Reg. 
f. 80b). His rectory of Wrington was filled on 25 February 
(Weaver, Som. Inc. p. 304) ; and his prebend of Dultingcote 
on 5 May of the same year (Still, f. 81). The Patent Rolls 
give us some further information about him and corroborate 
the fact that he died early in 1472. For on 16 May 1446 he 
had obtained a prebend in the king's free chapel of St. 
Stephen, at Westminster, exchanging for it the prebend of 
Morton Parva in the church of Hereford. And on 15 Feb- 
ruary 1472 this prebend of St. Stephen's, vacant by the 
death of Thomas Boleyn, was conferred on the king's clerk 
Master John Gunthorp, the king's almoner, who at the end 
of the same year became dean of Wells. 

Accordingly we find that the precentorship of Wells was 
held by Master Thomas Boleyn for more than twenty years, 
namely from 25 October 1451 to some day near the beginning 
of February 1472. His successor, Thomas Overay, held 
office more than twenty-one years, being succeeded in his 
turn by William Warham in November 1493. When nine 
years later Warham left his Wells preferment for the see of 
London on his way to Canterbury, Bishop Oliver King wrote 
to Sir Reginald Bray : 

I have loked uppon the qwere and uppon the dyvyne services 
cloon daily in this my Chirche of Wellys and finde therein many 
enormyties by the absence of the chanter, for it ys that 'lignite 
that al the good ordre of dyvyne service dependeth uppon. I have 
enquired also of the condition of that dignite. And finde that 
except Maister Warehara ther hath not been as eny man here can 



Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 5 

Bemembre eny chanter but that he hath kept personel Resi- 
dence. 1 

We must take this last statement as a tribute to the virtuous 
conduct of Precentor Overay. If the memory of man had 
extended over thirty years, there is reason to fear that it- 
would have recalled another non-resident chanter in the 
person of his immediate predecessor. 

For the activities of Master Thomas Boleyn were by no 
means confined within the limits hitherto described. He was 
running a career in the university of Cambridge which issued 
in his election in 1454 as the seventh master of Gonville Hall, 
now Gonville and Caius College. " He was ordained deacon," 
says Dr. Venn, the historian of that college (vol. in, p. 18), 
" by the bishop of Ely, Mar. 8, 1420-1 ; and priest by the 
bishop of Norwich in 1421, at which time he was a fellow of 
Trinity Hall." 

When a royal licence was granted, on 30 March 1448, for 
the foundation of a college in honour of St. Margaret and 
St. Bernard (now Queens' College, Cambridge), it was pre- 
scribed that statutes should be drawn for it by seven persons ; 
and of these Thomas Boleyn was one (Patent Rolls of 
Henry VI). 

The mastership of Gonville Hall was vacated by Thomas 
Atwoode in 1454, and Thomas Boleyn was elected as his 
successor. There seems to have been trouble about this 
election, as we may gather from the first pages of the earliest 
of the Cambridge Grace Books. The first page of all is torn 
away : the next contains the register for the year 1454-5 of 
the two proctors, Henry Boleyn and John Gunthorp. The 
latter name has already come before us as that of Thomas 
Boleyn's successor in his prebend at St. Stephen's, West- 
minster, in February 1472. Henry Boleyn became precentor 
of Lincoln (1473-1481), and was also archdeacon of Chichester. 
Since it was customary for proctors to be young men of from 
twenty-four to thirty years of age, it is possible that he may 
have been a nephew of Thomas Boleyn. In the next year 
(1455-6) Henry Boleyn was proctor again, with John Bolton 

1. Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., Vol. LX, pt. ii, p. 5. 



6 Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 

as his colleague. In their register we find the following some- 
what obscure entry : 

Item cle Magistro Gallon appellante pro eleccione custodis 

colligii annunciacionis beate marie .... xijrf 

Item de domino Thoma Boleyn pro appellacione iniurie 

sibi illate eodem tempore . . . xxd 

When we know that " the college of the Annunciation of 
the Blessed Mary " is the proper title of Gonville Hall, of 
which Master Thomas Boleyn had recently been elected 
master or keeper, we may interpret the entry with reasonable 
probability. Master Robert Calton, whose name occurs in 
the Grace Book in later years, was evidently a person of some 
importance-who felt aggrieved at the result of the election to 
the mastership. He made an appeal against it, which was 
dismissed as frivolous, and the customary fine of twelve pence 
was imposed on him. Thomas Boleyn, though he was the 
successful candidate, had also appealed on account of "a 
wrong done to him at the same time." What his grievance 
was we cannot tell : we only know that he paid a fine of 
twenty pence. If Henry Boleyn, the senior proctor, was his 
nephew, he must have felt a peculiar interest in collecting it. 
A charter preserved in the Bodleian Library shews us Thomas 
Boleyn engaged in an important transaction for the benefit 
of the college. For on 10 March 1467 Edward Story clerk, 
warden, and the scholars of the college of St. Michael, Cam- 
bridge, granted to Master Thomas Boleyn clerk, warden, and 
the scholars of Gunwilhalle, a certain messuage or inn called 
Seynt Margaretis hostle in Cambridge, in the parish of St. 
Michael. 

Thomas Boleyn's mastership came to an end with his death 
early in 1472. He was remembered as a benefactor to the 
college : " He was the donor," says Dr. Venn, " of one of the 
windows in the old dining-hall, viz. the first towards the east, 
facing the court." If this glass had survived, the problem 
of his coat of arms would no doubt have been solved. 

One or two further facts about him may be added here, 
before we proceed to ask to what family Thomas Boleyn 
belonged. In 1434 he was sent on the king's business to 



Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 1 

attend the Council of Basle. He travelled in the suite of 
Edmund Beaufort, count of Mortaigne and afterwards duke 
of Somerset, uncle of the Lady Margaret who was the mother 
of King Henry VII. He had letters of protection for six 
months, dated 7 May 1434. 

Dr. Venn tells us that he was rector of Hackford, co. Norfolk, 
14367. He rejects, however, the identification of him with 
the Thomas Boleyn who was rector of Chelsea and a canon 
of St. Paul's, on the ground that this person is said by 
Hennessy in his Novum Repertorium to have died in 1451. 
Now Hennessy tells us (p. 120), as from Bp. Gilbert's register, 
that on 15 July 1442 Thomas Boleyn was presented by the 
abbot and convent of Westminster to the rectory of Chelsea. 
How long he held this living does not appear ; but his successor 
is said to have resigned in 1450. We might fairly suppose 
therefore that our Thomas Boleyn had vacated it in 1449, 
when, as we have seen, he was presented to the rectory of 
Wrington by the abbot and convent of Glastonbury. 

Again, on p. 45, Hennessy tells us that on 15 July 1447 
Thomas Bolleyn LL.B. received the prebend of Portpool in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, exchanging for it the prebend of Aber- 
gelley. 1 His successor in the prebend of Portpool came in 
on 28 October 1451 ; and Hennessy states that Thomas Boleyn 
had died in that year. But a reference to Bishop Kempe's 
register, which the Archdeacon of London has kindly examined 
for me, shews that when Master Thomas Halle was granted 
the prebend of Portpool on 27 (?) October 1451, that prebend 
was vacant " by the death of the last incumbent." The rule 
of the register is to give the name of the last holder of a prebend ; 
but here no name is given. We have no right therefore to 
assume that " the last incumbent " was Thomas Boleyn LL.B., 
who had been given the prebend in 1447. It is quite likely 
that he had vacated it, as he seems to have vacated the living 
of Chelsea, in, 1449, when he received substantial preferment 
at Wrington and Wells. The degree of LL.B. was not very 
frequently taken at the period in question, and is highly im- 



1. See the notes d 182 and d 183 on p. xliii of Henuessy's Novum Repertorium 
Londinense. I have not been able to find what the prebend of Abergelley was. 



8 Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 

probable that it should be held at the same time by two 
clergymen of the name of Thomas Boleyn. 

We have not yet exhausted the activities of Master Thomas 
Boleyn LL.B. For in Browne Willis's notes to Tanner's 
Notitia Monastica we read in the list of Masters of Maidstone 
College in Kent : " Roger Heron occurs 1438, as does Thomas 
Boleyn 1459. Tho. Preston succeeded 1470." This very 
incomplete statement may be supplemented from the register 
of Archbishop Bourchier (f. 71b), where we find the collation 
by the archbishop to Master Thomas Boleyn, " in legibus 
bacallarius," of the office of master or warden of the college 
of All Saints of Maideston, void by the death of Robert Smyth 
last master or warden. The deed is dated at Lambeth the 
[blank] day of November 1458 : the entry occurs between 
one of 23 November and another of 27 November. I owe 
this information to the Reverend C. Jenkins, the Lambeth 
Librarian, who adds : "I cannot find the collation of Boleyn's 
successor at Maidstone in Bourchier's register, and there is 
great difficulty about it." 

Our final enquiry must be as to the family to which Thomas 
Boleyn belonged. We may conveniently begin with an 
extract from the Gentleman's Magazine (1849, ii, 155) r 1 

The family of Boleyn, or Bullen, was of Norman extraction, and 
was very early settled in Norfolk. They wrote their name Boulen, 
and were possessed of manors and lands at Salle and the adjacent 
villages in the twelfth century. John Boulen was witness to a 
deed for the sale of a messuage and lands at Woodrising, in a 
35 Hen. II, now lying before me : and the register of Walsingham, 
f. 182, makes mention of John Boleyne of Salle, a 1283. Among 
the Blickling evidences there is a deed executed, probably by this 
John, a 8 Edw. I, with his seal attached, somewhat decayed, but 
retaining enough of the arms to shew that he bore, at that time, 
the same arms as were afterwards used by his family. I presume 
that this will settle the question as to the " gentility " of Sir Geffrey. 

Blomfield's Norfolk (1807 edn.), vi, 386, gives us a genealogy 
and much information about this family. Geoffrey Boleyn 
of Salle had a son, Sir Geoffrey, who was Mayor of London in 

1. This reference, with some others, I owe to the kindness of the Rev. F. W. 
Weaver 



Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 9 

1457. He was a great favourite of Sir John Fastolf by whose 
interest he was promoted, and from whom he got the manor 
of Blickling. He died in 1463, and was buried at St. Law- 
rence Jewry. He made Master Thomas Boleyn, his brother, 
supervisor of his will. He had a son named Thomas, whose 
will is also extant ; and a daughter named Cecily, who died 
unmarried in 1458 and lies in the chancel of Blickling Church. 

The Patent Rolls shew that on 20 March 1455 Ralph Botiller, 
knight, and others conveyed to Cecily Boleyn, Thomas Boleyn 
clerk, and others the manor of Stiffkey, co. Norfolk, and the 
advowson of the church there. The Record Office Index to 
Feet of Fines, vol. 4, p. 200, has an entry : " Between Thomas 
Boleyn clerk, Jeffery Boleyn, citizen and mercer of London, 
(and others), debts of the manor of Staines in Cottenham." 

This last statement is taken from the Bullen Collections in 
the British Museum (Addit. MSS. 37,80937,814), made by 
the late Mark Whittingham Bullen (d. 1909) ; and to these 
Collections I owe most of the references which follow. 

Thomas Boleyn clerk was one of the plaintiffs in a plea of 
debt at Cambridge in 1439 (R. O. De Banco, Hilary, m. 58b). 

Master Thomas Boleyn was instituted to the rectory of 
Dodyngton, 26 May 1456 (Reg. of Bishop Grey of Ely). 

Among the seals in the British Museum is one of Thomas 
Bullyn, canon of Glasgow in 1460 : an angel supporting in 
front a shield of arms containing a bull's head cabossed (Cat. 
of Seals, iv, 120). 

A curious combination of names occurs twenty years after 
the death of our Thomas Boleyn in the will of Thomas Boleyn 
of Gunthorpe, 12 February 1492 (Norwich, Consistory Court, 
Norman 8). But this throws no light on our present enquiry. 

It is clear from the evidence given above that Master Thomas 
Boleyn LL.B., belonged to an old Norfolk family, being the 
brother of Sir Geoffrey Boleyn who became Mayor of London. 
Sir Geoffrey had a son Sir William, who married Margaret 
daughter of Thomas Butler, seventh earl of Ormond. Their 
son, Sir Thomas, was the father of Anne Boleyn. Thus Master 
Thomas Boleyn, precentor of Wells and master of Gonville Hall, 
had a nephew whose great-granddaughter was Queen Elizabeth. 

This is a result satisfactory enough in itself, but it raises a 



10 Thomas Boleyn, Precentor of Wells. 

serious difficulty in regard to the tomb in the chapel of St. 
Calixtus at Wells. For the arms of this distinguished family 
are well known to have been : Argent, a chevron gules, between 
three bulls' heads couped sable. How then could Thomas Boleyn 
bear the fretty and a chief which seemed at the outset of our 
enquiry to connect him with the Bullens of Stickford, co. 
Lincoln ? 

Blomfield tells us that Geoffrey Boleyn the elder had " a 
brother William, who settled in Lincolnshire, and died in 
1427 ; from whom the Lincolnshire Bullens are descended." 
He gives no authority for this statement, and it cannot be a 
true account of the origin of the Bullens of Stickford. For 
there were Bullens at Stickford as early as 1185, as is shewn 
by the Inquisition into the lands of the Knights Templars, 
printed in the Monasticon, vol. vi, pt. 2, p. 82 8b ; where lands 
in Stikeford are said to have been given by Robert de Bolonia 
and Gilbert his brother. The Bullen Collections (Addit. MS. 
37,811, ff. 113ff.) enable us to trace this family through several 
centuries : Hamo de Bolonia de Stikeford, 1290 and 1303 ; 
John and Margery de Boloyn, 1345 ; John Bolon de Stikford 
senior and John Bolon de Stikford junior, 1375 ; William 
Boloyn de Stikford, 1395 ; William Boleyne cousin and heir 
to William Boleyne of Stickford, temp. Hen. VI ; and so on. 

There seems to be no point of contact between the Boleyns 
of Stickford and the Norfolk family from which our Thomas 
Boleyn was descended. It may be that further investigation 
may afford a solution of the problem. In the meantime we 
cannot speak of the identification of the tomb as absolutely 
assured. 



Monumental (Effigies in Somerset. 

PART I. 

BY ALFRED C. FRYER, PH.D., F.S.A. 



INTRODUCTION. 

MEDIEVAL monumental effigies are probably the most 
valuable of all the remains of English Art that have 
survived the wholesale destruction of the treasures once 
filling our churches. Few of our County Archaeological 
Societies have, as yet, classified them, and even when this has 
been attempted they have been content with merely cata- 
loguing the effigies now existing in the various churches in 
each deanery. A correct list of the county monuments is of 
use, but its value is greatly enhanced when the effigies are 
arranged in chronological order in a scheme of classification, 
noting the workshops from which they have emanated, and 
giving some critical appreciation of their artistic value. 

These commemorative figures were originally sculptured to 
portray known personages, and they were, probably, to a 
certain extent representations of the deceased. It is unlikely, 
however, that facial expressions were always intended for 
portraits. Effigies of bishops and some members of the 
great county families were, probably, portraits as their 
features would be well known, and it is still more likely that 
those effigies made during the lifetime of distinguished eccles- 
iastics would be intended for likenesses, like that of Bishop 
de Marchia 1 in Wells Cathedral which is executed in an 
unusually free and splendid manner. Even in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries many effigies were carried out in a 

1. Bishop de Marchia died in 1302. 



12 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

purely conventional style. In short, portraiture was only 
attempted where circumstances were favourable for its pro- 
duction and the large proportion, even of our earlier effigies, 
were the stock in trade of imagers whose workshops were 
found in some of our larger and more important cities. 

At first sight it seems easy to assign a name to an effigy 
when it is known that such and such a family was interred 
in a certain church. Even then difficulties arise unless the 
indenture of the contract for making the effigy still exists. 
Such documents are rarely met with, but if the effigy has 
remained undisturbed in a chantry chapel we are in a more 
fortunate position and identification is possible. Inscriptions 
were rarely made on the earlier tomb-chests or on the slabs 
upon which the effigies rest until after the year 1400. 1 Occa- 
sionally coats of arms, badges, or initials are met with, and if 
these can be deciphered they form valuable guides. However, 
the armorial bearings were generally painted on the tomb, 
the shield, the surcoat, the jupon or the tabard, and now, in 
most cases, all vestiges of colour are destroyed and lost, so 
that the assistance of the genealogist is alas ! seldom required. 
There are some two thousand life-sized recumbent effigies 
existing in England and Wales, and Weaver, Gough, Stoddard, 
the brothers Hollis and the writers of our county histories have 
collected the vast body of tradition referring to our monu- 
mental effigies ; but unfortunately their work was not of a 
critical nature. 2 In later years a large number of effigies have 
been carefully examined and many of them identified by such 
painstaking archaeologists as Sir William Hope, Professor 
Edward S. Prior, Mr. Arthur Gardner, and the late Mr. M. H. 
Bloxam and Mr. Albert Hartshorne. 3 Still, the identification 

1. A few may be met with, but they are comparatively rare. A thirteenth 
century lady at Scarcliffe, Derbyshire, and a knight at Staunton, Nottingham- 
shire, also the effigy of Bishop Anselm (c. 1240) in the quire-aisle of St. David's 
Cathedral may be mentioned. 

2. One has only to turn over the pages of Gough's Monumental Pemainx to 
see how little care was bestowed on critical evidence as to the date of an effigy ; 
and fifteenth century work is occasionally assigned to the twelfth century. Even 
Stoddard and the Brothers Hollis make serious errors. 

3. Mr. Alfred Hartshorne prepared a valuable work on the Monumental Effigiex 
of Nortliants. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 13 

of the majority is rendered difficult not only through neglect 
and decay, but on account of the constant shifting of the 
monuments in our cathedrals and churches. 1 The reputed 
designation of a monumental effigy must always receive 
respectful consideration, but the sculptured representations 
of men and women still resting undisturbed in memorial 
chapels is of immense importance to any scheme of classifi- 
cation. Even, however, where documentary evidence exists 
for the death and burial of the person represented in sculpture, 
care must be taken in dating the effigy, for the figure may 
have been executed during the lifetime of the deceased or 
some years after his demise. 2 Occasionally the great man 
left directions in his will not only in regard to the place of 
interment, but instructing his executors to erect a monument 
and effigy to his memory. Such a monument was erected for 
Michael de la Pole, second Earl of Suffolk, in Wingfield Church, 
Suffolk. This earl accompanied King Henry V on his military 
expedition into France, and died of dysentery in 1415 while 
the English were besieging Harfleur. His body was brought 
to Wingfield for interment, and the Countess, who was one 
of his executors, erected the monument soon after his death. 
Two effigies lying side by side on the same table-tomb 
frequently represent costume and armour quite out of fashion 
for one of the effigies, if the date of death is taken into con- 
sideration. This is accounted for when the tomb is made for 
the first interment and both effigies are represented at that 
date, although a number of years may elapse before the second 
death takes place. In other cases effigies may be placed on 
a tomb with which they have no connection, nor with each 
other, as they have been brought from various parts of the 
church, while in some cases they are even constructed of 
different material, like the wooden effigy at Laxton, Notting- 
hamshire, to Margaret, second wife of Adam of Everingham, 
placed beside the stone effigies of her husband and his first 
wife on the founder's tomb with which they had no connection. 

1. At one time or another nearly every monument has been displaced from its 
original position in both Chichester and Salisbury Cathedrals. 

2. The effigy to Robert, Duke of Normandy, is dated c. 1280 ; but the Duke 
died in February, 1135. 



14 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

After the middle of the fourteenth century the costumes and 
varying fashions of the lady's coiffure and the changes in the 
armour of the knight assist in assigning dates with a con- 
siderable degree of exactitude. 1 

Having considered the date of the effigy it will be needful 
to note the material made use of by the scuptor, and in Somerset 
we possess three quarries which were used freely by the men 
employed in carving figures and effigies. These sources of 
supply of suitable stone are at (a) Doulting, a coarse oolite, 
(6) Ham Hill, a coarse yellow oolite, and (c) Dundry Hill, a 
fine oolite. Outside the county in the south is the Beer stone, 
a hard chalky limestone, and the quarries of Purbeck marble, 
in Dorset, of fresh- water shell stone, while in the east is 
Chilmark, a fine shell-limestone. 

It will be our duty in this series of papers to classify the 
effigies chronologically as far as may be possible in these three 
general periods : 

I. c. 1160 c. 1280 when effigies were of Purbeck marble 
or its imitation in freestone, or of independent motif hi free- 
stone. 

II. c. 1280 c. 1360 when freestone effigies supplanted 
those of Purbeck marble, and were imitated also in wood, in 
bronze, and in the first alabaster figures. 

III. c. 1360 1630 when the alabaster effigies set the 
model to bronze, stone and wooden figures. 

In considering the Somerset effigies we shall have to study 
certain points of local technique and we shall find, for example, 
that the mail on the body armour of a few of the knights in 
the thirteenth century have the bands of mail extending from 
shoulder to wrist. This arrangement is found on some French 
effigies of this period, but on few English effigies except some 
knights in the West of England. It is not improbable that 

1. Memorial brasses of military personages indicate the changes in armour 
with considerable certitude, and this greatly assists in the chronological study of 
stone effigies. 

2. The authors of Medieval Figure -Sculpture in England ( p. 550) give these 
general periods, and it will be useful to consider the Somerset effigies under 
this classification. It is probable, however, we may continue our study to the 
end of the seventeenth century instead of discontinuing it with effigies made in 
1630. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 15 

this is a peculiarity of work emanating from the Bristol ateliers. 
We shall also see that some early efforts in producing monu- 
mental effigies were the apparent results of mason-craft 
employed on the adornment of some of the great ecclesiastical 
buildings. We shall have to draw attention to the fact that 
the Purbeck marble effigies in the West of England followed 
the type which were probably the product of the London 
workshops until the middle of the thirteenth century, when 
West country effigies of Purbeck marble diverge from this 
shop pattern. 1 We shall find in the course of our investiga- 
tions that the fashion of using Purbeck marble for effigy work 
in the West of England gave place about 1250 to the use of 
freestone figures. This use of freestone in the West of 
England is probably the reason why wooden effigies are rare 
in the West. 2 These freestone effigies turned out of the 
ateliers of Bristol, Exeter and other south-west centres of art 
competed successfully against the importation of alabaster 
figures from the Midlands. 

We shall find that the drapery of the earliest figures portray 
the person who is represented as if he were in a standing 
position. The folds of the chasuble, mantle or surcoat fall 
towards the feet and it is probable that these early efforts were 
endeavours after a pictorial character and may have been 
suggested by designs for figures in painted glass windows. 
At first they were represented like an image in a canopied 
niche. The niche was soon abandoned, but the method of 
showing the drapery as falling from the shoulders to the feet 
remained for some time, and we even find it in a few of those 
stiff representations of Elizabethan bishops and ladies. 

The arts of the church reached their zenith in the first half 
of the fourteenth century and some of the monuments and 
effigies of this period exhibit beautiful and delicate detail, for 
sculpture had at that date become free from convention and 

1. The date assigned for this divergence is about the year 1260. 

2. In the West of England we have only two in Somerset (Chew Magna and 
Midsoiner Norton), two in Gloucestershire (Gloucester Cathedral and Old Sod- 
bury), two in Devon (Tawstock and West Down), and none in Cornwall, Dorset 
and Wiltshire. In the whole of South Wales there is only one, and that is an 
effigy of a lady once belonging to a series of six in the Priory Church at Brecon. 



16 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

had attained a wonderful mastery not only in technique but 
in natural form. The drapery is now depicted in bolder lines 
and the undercutting is well marked, while in local schools we 
shall have to notice certain conventions such as in the effigies 
of ladies fingering the robes and cords of their mantles, holding 
shields, and clasping books. 

As transport became easier to far away places there grew 
up gradually the temptation of commercialism, and the crafts- 
man began to lose the individuality of his art as stock articles 
were turned out of the workshops in large numbers to meet 
the demand of many clients. 

Towards the middle of the fourteenth century a new 
material made its appearance, and alabaster became the 
substance which was largely used for effigy-work during the 
next three centuries. It made an excellent surface, could 
easily be manipulated and all kinds of delicate detail could 
be carved in it. For the same reasons chinch, a close-grained 
chalk, was worked in the eastern counties and sent to many 
places. 

The activity of the fourteenth century suddenly came to 
an end, for that awful pestilence, afterwards known as the 
" Black Death," paralysed all the arts and crafts, and when 
work could again be resumed a different spirit in art had taken 
hold of the craftsman. The Perpendicular style was thoroughly 
English, and although it was somewhat stiff and formal, yet 
it possessed a peculiar charm which endeared it to our nation. 
The increasing wealth of the middle class allowed the merchants 
to patronize more freely the craft of effigy-makers. The 
increase of chantry-foundations necessitated the building of 
chantry-chapels where the effigies of their donors lay before 
the altars. This brought greater trade to the craftsman, but 
he kept pace with the constant change in costume and armour, 
although there was no real progress in freedom of sculpture, 
and stock patterns in stone, marble and wood were turned out 
in vast numbers from the various ateliers. Towards the close 
of the fifteenth century there arose a morbid custom of re- 
presenting the dead as a shrouded corpse. These figures are 
called cadavers and they find place in the work of the men of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Nicholas Stone 



Fig. 1. Bishop Burwold. 



Fig. 2. Unknown Bishop. 




Fig. 3. Bishop tilwin, 997-999. 




Fig. 4. Bishop Dudoc, 1033-1060. 




Fig. 5. Bishop Giso, 1061-1088. 

EFFIGIES OF SAXON BISHOPS IN WELLS CATHEDRAL 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 17 

even represented Dean Donne standing in a shroud and it was 
the only effigy saved from destruction in old St. Paul's. In 
the later Gothic period we shall find that priests were not 
always depicted in their Eucharistic vestments, but w r ere 
occasionally portrayed in their quire habits or their academic 
robes, while the merchants as they gained wealth and power 
were as proud of their merchants' marks as the nobles and 
knights were of their coats of arms. The older form of 
" weepers " carved in niches on the sides of the tomb-chest 
gave place to groups of boys and girls -the children of those 
represented on the tomb. 

We shall finally have to consider the post-Reformation 
monuments memorials to Elizabethan worthies. These were 
erected to men who were courageous and enterprising, and had 
been enriched with the property of the religious houses and 
the wars with Spain. Their memorials express their pride in 
their successful achievements, but are sadly lacking in the 
virtue of humility, and the laudatory inscriptions on their 
tombs contain no entreaty for the prayers of the living. In 
the later years of the reign of Queen Elizabeth we shall find 
many instances of the recumbent position being abandoned, 
and the effigies represent men and women leaning on their 
elbows complacently regarding the passers by. The detail of 
the Renaissance work on some of these tombs is of interest, 
but the effigies do not possess the wonderful repose and beauty 
of the earlier centuries. Some statuaries, however, executed 
fine work. Many were foreigners ; in Nicholas Stone, however, 
we find an Englishman whose best work was of high excellence, 
but with the passing of the master his school languished and 
died out. During the troublous years of the Civil War few 
effigies were made, but the Restoration brought a revival in 
the erection of monumental work. The taste in monumental 
and effigy-work was, however, not happy and although some 
craftsmen endeavoured to revive the art, yet, much of their 
work is pagan in conception. 



Vol. LX1 (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. 



18 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

EFFIGIES OF SEVEN SAXON BISHOPS AT 
WELLS. 

A series of recumbent effigies to Saxon bishops may be seen 
in the quire aisles of the Cathedral Church at Wells (Plates I 
and II). These figures are all well preserved with the ex- 
ception of some small accidental damages. They are sculp- 
tured boldly and portray the bishops in Eucharistic vestments. 
The effigies may be divided into two groups and an interval 
of probably some thirty years separates the earliest effigy 
from the two latest. 1 The first group consists of five broad 
and somewhat flat figures partially embedded in the stone, 
having large heads with crude treatment of the facial ex- 
pressions, beards, and hair of stiff locks, and all placed in 
canopied niches richly ornamented with foliage. This foliage 
is similar to that carved on the capitals in the quire of Bishop 
Reginald's church. The draperies of these five effigies have 
thick edges and blunt folds, while the chasubles may be 
described as exhibiting bag-like foldings. All these effigies 
were originally adorned with colour, and it is difficult to 
determine whether the remarkable band 2 in low relief around 
the neck-opening of the chasuble on the effigj r of Bishop 
Sigarus (Plate I. fig. 1) was intended for a piece of embroidery 
or constructed of metal-work. It is now quite plain, but the 
lower portion is symmetrically extended into three scallops 
the larger one (4Mns.) being in the centre. This form of band 
upon chasubles on English effigies of this date (c. 1200) is 
probably unique ; and with no colour or ornamentation to 
guide us it is now impossible to say whether it originally re- 
sembled the ornament worn by the Pope between the chasuble 
and the pall. 3 or that unexplained circlet which some bishops 
of the Rhineland wore on this ornament. Bishop Sigarus is 
probably adorned with the super huinerale episcoporum. In 

1 Plate I, figs. 1, 2 and Plate II, figs. 1, 2 and 3 belong to the earlier group, 
and Plate II, figs. 4 and 5 to the later group. 

2. Dr. J. Wickham-Legg has been consulted and considers that this band of 
ornament presents some special points of interest. The band may be seen in the 
illustration given in Arclueologia, LXV, Plate ix. 

3. See A. Rocca, Opera, I, p. 9. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 19 

the Metz Pontifical 1 (1302 1316) this ornament is placed on 
the bishop's shoulders and is well depicted in the picture where 
he is blessing an abbot or an abbess. In this case it consists 
of two circular discs of gold or gilt metal on each shoulder and 
connected across the breast with a richly decorated band. 
We are told by Mr. E. S. Dewick in his valuable preface to 
his edition of the Metz Pontifical that it was worn by the 
bishops of Regensburg and Liege, and it appears on the figures 
of St. Lambert on the coins of the latter. It is seen on the 
thalers of the bishops of Eichstadt on which the figure of 
St. Willebald is so adorned. Mr. Dewick is not aware that 
it occurs on the coins of any bishop of Metz ; it is sometimes 
seen, however, on the figures of St. Adelph and St. Arnulph, 
early bishops of the see. 2 An ornament is preserved in the 
treasury of Paderborn, in Westphalia, which is a shoulder 
adornment somewhat rectangular in shape. These early 
super humerale appear to have been made of silk and richly 
embroidered with gold. Their origin is somewhat obscure ; 
but it may be noted that statues at Chartres 3 and Rheims 4 
of about 1220 show an Ephod with twelve stones hung round 
the neck and placed over the chasuble. Franz Bock in his 
learned work on the Vestments of the Middle Ages reminds 
us that when the High Priest placed the Ephod as the last 
ornament over his shoulders so the Christian Ephod is the 
last ornament which is laid on the bishop's shoulders. It is 
probable that the super humerale episcoporum may be a de- 
velopment of the Ephod and it is interesting to note that in 
an illustrated plate (Plate XXVII, fig. 3) given by Franz 
Bock of the effigies of the Bishops of Eichstadt, 5 one is por- 
trayed with a super humerale which is not very dissimilar to 

1. " Metz Pontifical," Roxburgh Club, ed. E. S. Dewick. Plate 57 depicts the 
bishop in Encharistic vestments. 

2. Cahier " Characteristiques des Saintes," Paris, 1867, I, 375. 

3. St. Peter in the north porch. See illustration in " The Medici Portfolios, 
No. 1," pi. XII. 

4. St. Remi, sometimes called St. Sixtus, in the porch of the north transept. See 
illustration in Bock's ; 'Geschichte der liturgischen gewiinder der Mittelalters,"pl. 
V (vol. I, 373) ; " The Medici Portfolios, No. 1," pi. XII. 

5. See plates v and xxvii in Bock's " Geschichte tier liturgischen gewiinder 
der Mittelalters," Bonn, 1859. 



20 M&numental Effigies in Somerset. 

the ornament worn over the chasuble by Bishop Sigarus. The 
other four effigies belonging to this series have no such adorn- 
ment. Two of the effigies (Plate I, figs. 1 and 2) (Bishops 
Sigarus and Levericus) in this group may be a little earlier than 
the other three, and Messrs. Prior and Gardner in their work on 
Medieval Figure-Sculpture in England assign them to about the 
year 1200, 1 and they remark that in these early bishop-effigies 
we can trace a gradual advance towards the statue-technique. 
" For example," they add, " the folds which in the first effort 
are rendered in parallel rounded ribs very like those of the 
Romanesque reliefs, obtain in each succeeding effigy a more 
natural expression." 2 The effigies to Bishop Burwold, Eilwin 
and one other bishop to whom no name can be assigned (Plate 
II, figs. 1, 2 and 3), He in the south aisle of the quire, and some 
slight advance may be noted in their technique, but the heads 
are still large and placed in canopied niches of elaborate 
workmanship. If any one of these five effigies could be raised 
up and placed erect in an empty niche in the west front it would 
assume the appearance of a standing statue, and the plain 
bracket against which the feet rest would enhance the con- 
ception. In fact, the architectural masons who carved these 
early coffin-lids were training themselves to become statuaries, 
or, at any rate, they were instructing their sons in this new 
art of statue-work some six years before Niccola Pisano was 
born, and twelve years before the foundation stone of Rheims 
Cathedral was laid. 3 The advance made in these five effigies 
is not very marked and it seems evident that they must be 
all the work of the early years of the thirteenth century : the 
two earliest (Plate I, figs. 1 and 2) are dated at the very be- 
ginning of the century, and if the three (Plate II. figs. 1, 2 
and 3) later ones do not belong to the first decade they cannot 
be dated bevond the second. 



1 . See page 297. These authors remark that the oldest is the effigy to Bishop 
Sigarus and probably the one to Bishop Levericus was made about the same time. 
The account given on page 296 of the position of these effigies is somewhat confus- 
ing, as the effigies were re-arranged a year after this book was published. 

2. " Medieval Figure-Sculpture in England," p. 296.' 

3. Although Rheims Cathedral was begun in 1212 the west front dates from 
1241. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 21 

The second group consists of two effigies (Plate II, figs. 4 
and 5). One was to the memory of Bishop Dudoc and the 
other to Bishop Giso. They can be dated somewhere about 
the year 1230 and the leaf foliage 1 adorning the slab for Bishop 
Dudoc's effigy would indicate this period. These figures show 
a remarkable advance in art. They are not so deeply em- 
bedded in the slab as the five earlier Saxon bishops , the slabs 
are rectangular 2 instead of narrowing towards the feet, 3 the 
brackets for the feet to rest against are ornamented and are 
no longer plain, the heads and faces are not too large and out 
of proportion to the bodies as was the case in the earlier five 
effigies, the heads repose on pillows instead of being placed 
in elaborately canopied niches, while the stone staves in the 
right hands of the first group of bishops have given place to 
wooden ones like their contemporaries on the west front. 
These staves have perished, but marks of attachment showing 
they were held in the right hand may still be seen ; the left 
hand was placed higher on the breast. The folds of the 
drapery are no longer rendered in parallel curved ribs with 
thick edges, but have assumed those ripple folds which are a 
well-known characteristic of the figures of Bishop Jocelin's 
west front (1220-1242). There is one feature, however, which 
must not be overlooked. The two bishops are represented 
in low mitres with rounded points behind and before 4 while 
the other five bishops possess high triangular mitres 5 having 
broad plain bands round the lower parts and from the centre 
to the peaks. The streamers (infulce or vittce) to the mitres 
for Bishops Dudoc and Giso are quite plain while the other 

1. Somewhat similar leaf-foliage adorns the slab for the Doulting stone effigy 
in Salisbury Cathedral to " Longespee," the great Earl of Salisbury, which has 
been dated c. 1240. 

2. 6ft. by 1ft. 10|ins. 

3. They vary in length from 6ft. lin. to 6ft. 6ins. ; in breadth from 1ft. ll^ins. 
to 2ft. 3ins. ; and at the feet from 1ft. Sins, to 1ft. S^ins. 

4. At the present time these mitres measure in front 2|ins. at the lowest point, and 
2fins. at the highest. The top has probably suffered some slight damage and may 
originally have been half an inch or even one inch higher. 

5. These mitres vary from 6|ius. to Sins, in height, and it is probable that, at 
least, in one or two cases they may have been originally half an inch or one inch 
higher. 



22 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

five effigies are depicted with mitres having streamers with 
fringed ends or no streamers at all. So low are these mitres 
that it has been conjectured they were " priest's caps " and 
not mitres at all. 1 

A pertinent question may well be asked, why these two 
later effigies were represented with a form of mitre which had 
become no longer fashionable. The Dean of Wells suggests 
" it is just possible that Bishops Dudoc and Giso. whose tombs 
were on the south and north of the altar in the older church, 
were already commemorated by monuments^ which in the 
first instance were held to suffice ; but that after the new 
effigies had been made for their predecessors, these antique 
monuments no longer seemed worthy members of the series, 
especially as they occupied the places of highest honour next 
the altar. Then, we may suppose, new figures were carved 
for them, and the low Saxon mitres were copied from the 
figures on the original tombs." 2 

The eastern position of Bishop Reginald's church at Wells 
was completed before the end of the twelfth century. The 
graves of the Saxon bishops must have been disturbed and, 
consequently, new tombs were constructed. We conjecture 
that the monuments to Bishops Dudoc and Giso were for a 
time retained, new memorial effigies were made to the other 
five bishops and the seven were placed under the two eastern- 
most arches of the new presbytery. 3 Early in the fourteenth 

1. John Britton saw these effigies in 1824 when he wrote on the " Cathedral 
Church of Wells," and he thus speaks of these low mitres : " The fourth, on the 
same side is ' Bishop Giso,' who died in 1088, and Bishop Godwin inclines to that 
opinion ; yet there is reason to doubt its correctness, for the effigy has only a 
priest's cap, and no mitre, the right hand is upraised as in the act of giving the 
benediction. One of the other figures also wears a cap and is similarly repre- 
sented." 

2. Archceologia, LXV, 109. 

3. The names of some of the masons employed by Bishop Jocelin are still 
known, for among the manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter (Col. MSS., I, 35, 
1 [, 55), is a conveyance dated 1229 of houses in Wells formerly belonging to Adam 
Lock, mason, which is witnessed by Deodatus and Thomas Xorais, both masons. 
A writer in our Proceedings draws attention to the similarity of the names of this 
Thomas Norais and that of Godfrey (Gaufride de Noiers) the architect of St. Hugh 
of Lincoln, in 1200, as somewhat remarkable, especially, he says, as St. Hugh had 
gone to Lincoln from Witham Priory. Proc. Somerset Arch. Soc., XIX, ii, 27. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 23 

century the presbytery was extended by the addition of three 
bays. Again the effigies were re-arranged, being placed 
behind the new stalls. Here they remained until 1848 when 
the old stalls were destroyed and the present stone ones 
erected. These ancient memorials to the seven Saxon bishops 
were then moved to other positions. 1 In 1913 a new heating 
apparatus was installed and this gave the Dean and Chapter 
the opportunity of placing these effigies in the position they 
had formerly occupied in 1325, and thus the effigies of Bishops 
Dudoc and Giso again rest south and north of the high altar 
as they did in Bishop Reginald's Cathedral, and before that 
in the still more ancient Saxon Church. 2 

It was in no way unusual to commemorate the earlier 
bishops by a series of new tombs when a new church was built, 
and at Chichester (c. 1200) a parallel instance is met with 
when memorial slabs were placed to Bishop Seffrid and his 
six predecessors in the see in the new cathedral. At Wells 
there was a special reason for recording its past history for 
there had been controversy as to the right to elect the bishop 
between the canons of Wells and the monks of Bath. 3 So 
the canons of Wells rejoiced in possessing seven bishop-tombs 
in Bishop Reginald's new cathedral, while the monks of Bath 
could only show four. 

We are under a deep obligation to the Very Rev. J. Armitage 
Robinson, D.D., F.S.A., Dean of Wells, for his valuable paper 
on The Effigies of Saxon Bishops at Wells 4 in which he makes 
an exhaustive study of the successive changes of name and 

1. Four were placed in different parts of the north and south aisles of the 
quire. One with a high mitre was thought to be Bishop Giso and found a posi- 
tion on the north side of the high altar. Two were located in the undercroft of 
the chapter house, but were returned to the south aisle in 1872. 

2. When the effigies were re-arranged in 1913 the Dean of Wells took the 
opportunity of having them photographed in a standing position. These photo- 
graphs of the effigies and the leaden tablets found under them are beautifully 
reproduced in Archceologia, LXV, Plates viii, ix, x and xi. 

3. The canons of Wells took their share in electing Bishop Reginald, but his 
successor, Bishop Savaric, was elected by the monks of Bath without their con- 
currence. No final settlement was made until after Bishop Jocelin's death when 
his successor was forced by the Pope to assume the title of Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. 

4. Archceologia, LXV, 95 112. 



24 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

of position which they have undergone in the course of seven 
centuries. 1 The names moulded on leaden tablets found in 
the stone casings beneath the effigies have been copied for the 
letterings on the outside with the dates of their respective 
episcopates. 2 One effigy had no leaden tablet under it, and 

1. Leland's Itinerary, 111, p. 107 (ed. 1744), describes the Cathedral in 1540. 
He saw seven ancient effigies four in the north aisle and three in the south, and 
Burwold's name was inscribed on the westernmost in the south aisle. Francis 
Godwin published his Catalogue of Enyli*h Bishops in 1601 He mentions the 
effigies of Burwold, Dudoc and Giso, and states that Burwold's name was still to 
be seen on his tomb. John Britton wrote on the Cathedral Church at Wells in 
1824, and his list of names for these effigies was taken from Collinson's History oj 
Somerset, published in 1791. Britton says, however, that Brithwyn's effigy was 
made of Purbeck marble. Such an effigy in Purbeck marble no longer exists, or 
he may have been mistaken in the material, for all seven effigies are made of 
Doulting stone. There is no Purbeck marble effigy in the Cathedral excepting 
the incised slab to Bishop William Bitton II, the Saint. The Dean of Wells 
examines in his paper (Archceoloyia, LXV.) the position of these tombs on John 
Carter's plan made at the end of the eighteenth century, and on those given in 
Britton's Wells Cathedral (1824) and Winkle's Cathedrals of England and Wales 
(1835), and he comments on the important letters written by Mr. John Clayton 
to Canon Church in 1894. He has carefully sifted the local tradition of the 
succession to the see of Wells, comparing it with the tradition presented by the 
great chroniclers of the early part of the twelfth century. The earliest list is 
found in a brief history of the see written probably by a canon of Wells about 
1175. This history is preserved in the Bath Chartulary now in the Library of 
Lincoln's Inn, and is known as the Historiola. The Wells local tradition is inde- 
pendent of the generally accepted tradition of the Wells Episcopate found in the 
Historia Major, preserved in the Wells Liber A Ibus II. This document was com- 
posed by a canon of Wells about the year 1410, and the writer is influenced by 
the tradition as given by Florence of Worcester (1117) and William of Malmes- 
bury (1125;. 

2. The leaden tablets are illustrated in Archaologia, LXV, Plate x. + 
S1GARUS EPC WELLENSIS ; + DUD1CO EP~C WELLENSIS ; + GISO 
EPC WELLENSIS; + EILWINUS EPC VVELLENS1S ; + BVRH- 
WOLDUS EPC WELLENSIS ; LEVERICUS EPC WELLENS. The Dean 
of Wells informs us that " when the effigies were lifted, the leaden tablets spoken 
of by Mr. Clayton were found with the bones, which in most instances were in 
boxes of elm wood newly made in 1848, but in one or two instances in cavities 
left in the masonry : there were small fragments also of the original oaken boxes, 
very much decayed. In Giso's tomb there was a rudely shaped cross of lead, and 
fragments of a red stuff in which the bones had once been wrapped. When the 
effigy assigned to Dudoc was removed, a box was disclosed which contained what 
appeared to be a complete skeleton, but with it was a tablet bearing Sigar's name. 
In a recess in the masonry nearer the wall was a skull with a number of bones 
and the tablet of Dudoc. Each of these receptacles contained small portions of 
the same red stuff which had been used as a wrapping. This tomb had yet 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 25 

it is therefore unnamed. The tablet to Bishop Levericus is 
later than the other five, 1 and the Dean of Wells suggests that 
this tablet probably belongs to the period of re-arrangement 
of the tombs in 1325. The other five leaden tablets were 
made at the same time, and the Dean of Wells considers that 
the early form of N which has been made use of may also be 
seen on Bishop Reginald's seal, but not on those of his 
successors, while the use of E P C instead of E P S is found 
occasionally in Wells documents to the end of the twelfth and 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. These features 
harmonize with the conjecture that the series of leaden tablets 
were made at the beginning of the thirteenth century. This 
evidence points to the fact that the five effigies were made 
during the first or second decade of the thirteenth century, 
agreeing with the evidence adduced to the artistic treatment 
of the figures which assigns the earliest to about the year 1200 
and the two latest to some thirty years after that date. 

The Purbeck marble effigies formed the model in many cases 
for the freestone effigies ; but these early memorial effigies 
to the Saxon bishops at Wells are of Doulting stone, 2 and 
were in no way dependent on the efforts emanating from Corfe. 
It seems probable that the land-carriage from Dorset to Wells 
made Purbeck marble effigies so expensive that the masons 
employed on Bishop Reginald's new church were set the 
task of making them out of Doulting stone. These effigies, 

another surprise to offer ; for when the masonry constructed in 1848 was taken 
to pieces, a large stone was found embedded in it, which bore the letters OLD, 
with parts of a letter before and after. It was obvious that this was a portion of 
the name BVRWOLDUS, which Leland had seen inscribed on one of the tombs." 
Archaologia, LXV, 101. 

Stone with fragment of the name of Burwoldus measured about 7|ins. by 4ins. 

1. The leaden tablet for Levericus is lettered in a later and more artistic style 
and is made of a whiter lead or some alloy. Probably the original tablet was lost 
or injured and this was made as a substitute. It is possible that an error may 
have crept in and that Levericus does not accurately represent the original name. 
The sixth name in the list given in the Historiola is Liowyngus and possibly 
Levericus is intended for this bishop. 

2. Doulting stone comes from the St. Andrew's quarry at the little village of 
Doulting, situated some two and a half miles from Shepton Mallet. It is inferior 
oolite and very similar to Bath stone, which is the greater oolite. The Cathedral 
at Wells was built of this stone. 



26 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

therefore, mark a stage in an English experiment a quarter of 
a century before the foundations of the Cathedral at Amiens 
were laid ; and looking at these early efforts 1 and then turning 
to some of the more highly developed work on Bishop Jocelin's 
west front we see how the English masons produced a statue- 
technique exhibiting a wonderfully tender feeling, spiritual in 
expression, and so solemn and serene in conception that it 
stands forth as one of the great glories of English Art in the 
thirteenth century. So tender and true is the feeling in some 
of this work that we question if this particular motif is found 
to the same extent in the more learned works of the French 
schools of this particular age. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL INDEX. 



NORTH AISLE OF QUIRE. 

(a). PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Sigar, 975 997, pupil 
to St. Dunstan and Abbot of Glastoiibury, first name in the list 
of bishops of Wells in the Historiola and in the Hyde Liber Vitoe. 
William of Malmcsbury gives the name as seventh in his list. 
Leaden tablet (about Gins. by2ins.) found under the effigy in 1913, 
lettered + SIGARVS : EPC : WELLENSIS. 

EFFIGY (6ft. 4ins.) vested in alb, amice, stole with fringe, dal- 
matic, chasuble with ornamental band (2ins.) round neck having 
three scallops (4^ins.) in front, maniple with fringe (1ft. lOins.), 
mitre (Sins.) having band round bottom and from centre to peak 
and no streamers, staff (broken top and bottom), hands placed 
naturally on body right laid on maniple and left on staff, beard, 
moustaches and hair showing under mitre. Upper portion of 
body in trefoil-headed canopy resting on circular brackets with 
foliage filling corners. Back of canopy plain (9ins.) ; plain bracket 

1. We know that the ranges of figures on the west front were gorgeous in blue 
and scarlet and purple and gold, for traces still survive. In the tympanum of the 
central doorway there is ultramarine, gold and scarlet, where there are also the 
marks of metal fittings ; and Mr. Benjamin Ferrey found a deep maroon colour on 
the figures of the Apostles, and a dark colour painted with stars in the Resurrec- 
tion tier. As the figures on the west front were painted, it is, therefore, probable 
that these thirteen century effigies to Saxon bishops were decorated in a similar 
manner, and chasubles, dalmatics, stoles, maniples, mitres, gloves and shoes were 
all resplendent, being worked in various patterns and colours to represent the 
actual vestments. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 27 

for feet (1ft. 7$ins. by 9|ins.) ; slab (6ft. 6ins. by 2ft. Sins, at head, 
tapering to 1ft. 7iins. at feet by 2ins.). Effigy and slab date 
c. 1200, and made from Doulting stone. (See Plate I, fig. 1.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784) Brit. Mus. Addit. 
MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archceologia, LXV, plate ix ; Medieval 
Figure-Sculpture in England, p. 296 (illustrated). 

(6) PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Levericus. The leaden 
tablet (about 4|ins. by l|ins.) found in 1913 under the effigy, 
lettered + LEVERICUS : EPC : WELLENS, was probably made 
early in fourteenth century when these effigies were re-arranged 
behind new quire stalls. The tablet is of whiter metal and the 
lettering is later in date and more artistic in style than the other 
leaden tablets. (See illustration in Archceologia, LXV, Plate x.) 
It may be that Levericus does not accurately represent the original 
name. The Dean of Wells, in his paper in Archosologia, LXV, 
p. 103, says that " Levericus may be a latinization of Leofric, but 
not of Living. Moreover, Living was translated to Canterbtiry ; 
though Wells tradition says nothing of this, and possibly he may 
have been thought to have been buried at Wells." The Cornish 
succession has Lyfing, 10271038 ; Leofric, 10461072, while 
the name of Liowyngus is fifth in the list given in Hisioriola. 

EFFIGY (6ft. lin.) vested in alb, fringed stole, amice, dalmatic, 
chasuble, maniple (2ft. 5ins.), mitre (6|ms.) with bands round the 
edges and from centre to peak, and streamers with fringed ends 
(2ins. to 2ins. at top and 2|ins. to 3ins. at bottom), staff (damaged 
in two places) with foliated crook, face clean shaven and hair 
visible under mitre, hands crossed naturally on body right laid 
on top of maniple and left placed over staff. The upper part of 
body is placed in a cinquefoil-headed niche with foliage filling 
corners. Back of canopy plain (Sins.) and feet rest on plain bracket 
(1ft. 8|ins.). slab (6ft. 4ins. by 2ft. lin. at head, tapering to 1ft. S^ins. 
to feet). Effigy and slab date from c. 1200, and made of Doulting 
stone. (See Plate I, fig. 2.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archceologia, LXV, Plate ix. 

(c). PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Giso, 1061 1088, a native 
of Lorraine, chaplain or clerk of the chancery of Edward the Con- 
fessor, consecrated bishop by Pope Nicholas II ; found church at 
Wells mean and the revenues so small that he writes in his own 
account the canons were forced to beg their bread. Edward the 
Confessor, Queen Edith, Harold and William the Conqueror gave 
various estates for the support of these canons. Giso, however, 
considered he was badly used by Earl Harold who seized certain 
estates left by Bishop Dudoc to the church at Wells by charter. 
Giso built a cloister, dormitory and refectory, and forced the canons 



28 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

to lead a common life, causing them to choose one of themselves, 
n.uned Isaac, to be their provost and to manage their temporal 
affairs. Leaden tablet (about Sfins. by 2ins.) found in 1913 under 

the effigy is lettered h GISO : EPC : WELLENSIS. Giso's name 

is tenth in the list given in Historiola and fourteenth in that of 
William of Malmesbury. 

EFFIGY (5ft. Gins.), vested in alb. amice, dalmatic, chasuble, low 
mitre (2|ins.) with streamers (1ft. 2ins.) having rounded peaks ; 
attachments show that the left hand once held wooden staff ; right 
hand is placed high on breast ; beard short, but hair worn long 
below ears. Head rests on rectangular pillow, and ornamented 
bracket (mutilated) at feet. Hands, feet and face mutilated. 
Slab (6ft. by 1ft. lOiins. by 3|ins.) has plain bevelled edge. Effigy 
and slab date c. 1230, and made of Doulting stone. (See Plate II, 
fig. 5.) 

REFERENCES. Giso s own account of himself in Historiola de 
Primordiis. Eccl. Documents, ed. Hunter (Camden Soc.) ; Kemble's 
Codex Dipl., IV, 195--8 ; Florence of Worcester, I, 218 ; William 
of Malmesbury, Gesta Pontiff, pp. 194, 251 (Rolls ser.) ; Canon of 
Wells in Anglia Sacra, I, 559 ; Freeman's History of the Church of 
Welk, pp. 27-33 ; Freeman's Norman Conquest, II, 449^453 ; 
Eyton's Domesday Studies, '" Somerset," passim ; Green's " Earl 
Harold and Bishop Giso," Proc. Somerset Arch. Soc., XII, ii. 148 : 
Diet. Nat. Biog., XXI, 399 ; Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. 
Mus. Addit. MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archosologia, LXV, Plate 
xi ; Medieval Figure-Sculpture in England, p. 296. 

SOUTH AISLE OF QUIRE. 

(a). PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Burwold. The Historia 
Major inserts Burwold before Living and the Cornwall succession 
has Burwold (c. 1018). His name is the fourth in the list in the 
Historiola. Leaden tablet (about 6|ins. by 2ins.) found under 
effigy in 1913, lettered + BVRHWOLDVS : EPC : WELLENSIS. 
The leaden tablets for Bishops Sigar, Eilwin, Burwold, Dudoc, and 
Giso were all made at one time out of two strips of lead soldered 
together possibly to save labour. The Dean of Wells remarks in 
his paper in Archoeologia, LXV, p. 107, that '' the word Wellensis 
on each tablet was cast in the same mould, and occupied the lower 
strip. But some of the bishops had names which were incon- 
veniently long. A little patching got over the difficulty. Thus 
BVRWOLDVS filled about the same space as Wellensis, and left 
no room in the upper line for EPC. So these three letters were 
cast separately and added to the line, and a blank piece to go 
beneath them was somewhat clumsily contrived by obliterating 
the lettering of a similar cast of EPC : part of the P still remains. 



Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 29 

turned upside down " (see illustration in Archosologia, LXV, 
Plate x). The Dean of Wells also tells us that embedded in the 
masonry of the tomb made in 1848 was found a stone with the 
letters OLD and portions of a letter before and after, obviously a 
part of the name of Burwoldus which Leland saw on one of the 
tombs in 1540. 

EFFIGY (6ft. Sins.) vested in alb, stole with fringed ends, amice, 
dalmatic, chasuble, maniple (1ft. lOJins.) with fringed ends, mitre 
(6|ins.) with bands round edge and from centre to peak having 
streamers (1ft. Tins.) with fringed ends, beard, moustaches and 
curly hair showing under mitre, staff (damaged), hands placed 
naturally on body and ring (damaged) on second finger of right 
hand. Head and shoulders in semi-circular niche (6|ins. high) 
richly ornamented with foliage, while on south side a dove (head 
mutilated) rests one foot on canopy and one on slab. Plain bracket 
(1ft. 7|-ins. by 8|ins.) at feet. Slab (6ft. 6ins. by 2ft. Sins, at head, 
tapering to 1ft. T^ins. at feet by 2|ins.). 

Effigy and slab made probably in first decade of thirteenth 
century of Doulting stone. (See Plate II, fig. 1.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archceologia, LXV, Plate ix. 

(b). PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Eilwin, 997 999, second 
name in list of bishops of Wells in the Historiola given as 
"ALWYNUS," and eighth in William of Malmesbury's list. 
Leaden tablet (about 5fins. by 2ins.) found in 1913 under effigy, 
lettered + EILWIHVS : EPC : WELLENSIS. 

EFFIGY (oft. lOins.) vested in alb, stole with fringed ends, amice, 
dalmatic, chasuble, maniple (2ft.) with fringed ends, mitre (7ins.) 
having bands round edges and from centre to peak but without 
streamers, staff resting on right shoulder with foliated crook, hands 
in gloves placed naturally on body, beard, hair shown under mitre 
but clean shaven over lip. Upper part of body in square-headed 
niche (1ft. Hins.) richly foliated on the sides. Plain bracket 
(lOins. by 5ins. by 2Jins.) at feet, Slab (6ft. Hins. by 2ft. lin., 
tapering to 1ft. 5ins. at feet by 2iins.). 

Effigy and slab made probably in first decade of thirteenth 
century of Doulting stone. (See Plate II, fig. 3.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archceologia, LXV, Plate viii. 

(c). PERSON REPRESENTED. It is not known to whose memory 
this effigy was made, but it forms one of the series of the early 
Saxon bishops sculptured for Bishop Reginald's new church. The 
leaden tablet has been lost, and it is just possible the effigy was 
intended for Brithelm (956), the third name in the list given in the 
Historiola, and the fifth in William of Malmesbury's list, or it 



30 Monumental Effigies in Somerset. 

might be Brithwyn (1013), the twelfth in the latter list. Kineward 
(973) was Bishop Sigar's predecessor, as given by William of Mal- 
mesbury, and one may conjecture it was intended for this bishop. 

EFFIGY (6ft.) vested in alb, stole with fringed ends, amice, 
dalmatic, chasuble, maniple (2ft Sins ) with fringed ends, mitre 
(Tins.) having bands round edges and from centre to peak but 
without streamers, staff (upper portion damaged), right hand 
placed on breast as if raised in act of blessing, left hand laid over 
staff, ring on second finger, hair shown under mitre but face clean 
shaven, upper part of body in trefoil -headed niche springing from 
brackets and richly foliated on sides. Plain bracket (9ins. high) 
at feet. Slab (6ft. 2ins. by 1ft. ll|ins., tapering to 1ft. 6ins. at 
feet by 2Jins.). 

Effigy and slab made probably in first decade of thirteenth 
century of Doulting stone. (See Plate II, fig. 2.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS., 29926 ; illustrated in Archoeologia , LXV, Plate viii. 

(d). PERSON REPRESENTED. Bishop Dudoc, 1033 1060, a 
German Saxon ; Cnut gave him the estates of Congresbury and 
Ban well, which he left to the church of Wells ; but Earl Harold 
took possession of them. Leaden tablet (about 6ins. by 2ins.) 

found in 1913 under the effigy is lettered h DVDICO : EPC : 

WELLENSIS. Dudoc is tenth in list given in the Historiola and 
fourteenth in William of Malmesbury's list. In both lists he is 
the immediate predecessor of Giso. 

EFFIGY (5ft. 6ins.) vested in alb, amice, dalmatic, chasuble, low 
mitre (2|ins.) with streamers (1ft. 4ins.), attachments show that 
left hand once held a wooden staff, right hand placed high on breast, 
hair worn long below ears. Head rests on rectangular pillow 
(1ft. 4Jins. by lOiins. by 5ins.), feet (mutilated) once resting against 
an ornamented bracket. Slab (6ft. by 1ft. lO^ins. by 3|ins.) 
bevelled and adorned with foliage. Effigy and slab date c. 1230, 
and are made of Doulting stone. (See Plate II. fig. 4.) 

REFERENCES. Drawing by John Carter (1784), Brit. Mus. 
Addit. MS., 29926 ; Green's " Earl Harold and Bishop Giso," 
Proc. Somerset Arch. Soc.. XII, ii, 148 ; Medieval Figure-Sculpture 
in England, p. 296 ; illustrated in Archceologia, LXV, Plate xi. 



Cbe jftortf) Cfjapel of S>t. anuteto's 
Currp Ktoel. 



BY THE REV. G. W. SATJNDERS, M.A. 

With notes on the Heraldry of the Chancel, and the Will of John 

de Urtiaco, 1340. 

BY THE REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 



Parish Church of St. Andrew, Curry Rivel, is built 
on a hill, and the tower is a conspicuous object to any 
one approaching the village from the Langport side. It is 
situated at the north end of the village green close to the site 
of the old manor-house which was some yards to the north- 
west of it. Reference is made to the endowment of the Church 
in Domesday. " In the Church of Curi is half a hide. There 
a priest has one plough. It is worth 12 shillings." Of this 
early Church nothing remains except perhaps a few carved 
fragments recently dug up in the vicarage garden. 

The main part of the present Church belongs to the XV 
Century, and is a striking example of what has been called 
Somerset Perpendicular. It consists of a western tower, 
rebuilt in 1860-61, nave, north and south aisles, a fine south 
porch, and a chancel which has evidently at some time, 
probably in the XVIII Century, been considerably shortened. 
On either side of the chancel is a chapel. The south chapel 
is of the same date as the rest of the Church. The north 
chapel, which is the subject of this paper, is much earlier and 
of very great architectural interest. (The east end of the 
Church is seen in Plate III.) 

Until recently it was in a very neglected state. It was 



32 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

covered with a flat plaster ceiling which cut off the apex of 
the east window. The floor level had been raised by 10-12 
inches and hid entirely the bases of some beautiful monuments. 
A 1593 monument stood in front of the tomb-arcade, hiding 
from view what might be behind. The modern plaster was 
stripping from the walls, while the organ trespassed upon a 
large part of the floor-space. A careful restoration has recently 
been carried out by Mr. Bligh Bond, and this seems to be the 
proper time for a description of the chapel in the Proceedings 
of our Society. 

A. 

The Chapel measures internally 30ft. 9ins. by 18ft. Sins. 
It is built of the local blue lias stone with Ham stone facings. 
It is lighted on the north side by two windows of three lights 
each. These windows have Ham stone scoinson or rear 
arches consisting of five complete foliations. Each of the six 
cusps terminates in a well-shaped ball flower. These rear 
arches are supported by no shafts and the foliations are 
curiously irregular. On stripping the plaster from this wall 
the sill of a third and intermediate window was revealed. 
The actual lights are raised considerably above the internal 
sills. This was probably due to the apex of the larger tomb 
rising above the sill of the central window. 

The east window is also of three lights but these are larger 
than those on the north side. The interior angles of the jambs 
are furnished with shafts having octagonal bases, and the 
caps are ornamented with a small nail-head decoration. These 
support a rear arch which is not foliated, but decorated with 
a series of twenty-six ball flowers. These, with the rather 
heavy mouldings suggest a later date than the supporting 
shafts, which appear to belong to an original XIII Century 
window, though probably rebuilt in the XIV Century, as 
may be inferred from the fact that the southern jamb of the 
splay rests upon part of an incised slab of that period, which 
appears similar in character to those still in the chapel. 

All these windows are filled with a very early form of Per- 
pendicular tracery to which reference will be made later. 



PLATE III. 




Piscina and Credence in the North Chapel. 




The North Chapel taken from the N.E. 

ST. ANDREW'S CHURCH, CURRY RIVEL. 

From Photographs by the Rev. G. W. Sounders. 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 33 

There are a few remains of early stained glass in the form of 
quarries with small painted foliations, and a few fragments 
of border work of double fleurs-de-lys. The rest is a patch- 
work and well illustrates the repeated and partial glazings so 
often referred to in the churchwardens' accounts. 

The Chapel is divided from the chancel by an arcade of two 
arches of the same type of XV Century work as those of the 
nave. In one of these stands a handsome Jacobean tomb 
surrounded by iron railings, to which an antique iron bound 
casket is chained. The other is more than filled by the 
organ. 

The stripping of the plaster, which was modern and bad, 
has revealed in the west wall the jambs of a window and a 
small door below it. 

On each side of the altar was a bracket ; that on the north 
side is perfect, but the other has been torn away. In the 
south wall is a very fine piscina and credence (Plate III). 
The crocketed canopy of this terminates in a carved finial. 
The lead drain of the piscina pierces the east wall and issues 
close beside the southern buttress. 

The most remarkable feature of the Chapel is the tomb 
arcade which runs the whole length of the north side. The 
central tomb recess is much larger than the others, and is 
not only built into the wall but protrudes on the other side 
so as to form externally a kind of pent-house with a weathered 
stone roof (Plate IV). On each side of this tomb is a smaller 
one of similar design. Each of these recesses is surmounted by 
a well moulded trifoliated arch circular at head, supported by 
short shafts with deeply undercut caps, above which rises a 
crocketed canopy to form a gable. The face of this gable is 
decorated with a very beautiful floral design of the conven- 
tional XIII Century character in low relief. It still bears 
distinct traces of colour. These recesses are flanked by heavy 
square gabled pinnacles terminating in curious bud-shaped 
finials. These appear to be strangely out of keeping with the 
rest of the work, but doubtless belong to the original design, 
though inferior in style and finish. 

To the west of these three central recesses another and much 
smaller recess has been cut, but it possesses no architectural 
Vol. LXI (Fourth Serie*, Vol. I), Part II. c 



34 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

features and is much decayed. The remains of the circular- 
headed trefoil in the form of the arch proclaim it as co-eval, 
or nearly so, with the three principal recesses. 

The two extra recesses, which have been added to the east 
(making a total of six), are again of great interest. They are 
clearly of the XIV Century and may be contemporary with 
the alteration of the windows. They are contained beneath 
a moulded string-course which is returned vertically down- 
wards at the west and terminates in a well carved head. They 
rest upon a raised base which probably marks the original 
height of the step or steps which went across the east end of 
the Chapel. The larger of these two recesses is covered by 
a trifoliated pointed arch, each cusp of which terminates in a 
ball-flower. The arch of the smaller recess is also trifoliated, 
but the cusps have lost their terminations. It is difficult to 
say what these easternmost recesses were intended for, but 
they appear to be part of the altar furniture, and we might 
venture the suggestion that the larger one, which is the western 
was an Easter Sepulchre since it contains a plain slab ; and 
the smaller one an aumbry. These recesses have only re- 
cently been exposed to view by the removal of the Jennings 
tomb which stood against them. This tomb has now been 
placed against the east wall of the Chapel. 

Effigies, to be described later, rested in the other central 
recesses. When removed the large figure of a knight was 
found to have been resting upon an embossed cross which 
extended the whole length of the coffin-lid, and which had 
been much damaged in consequence. This coffin when ex- 
amined was found to contain the remains of a female skeleton 
wrapped around with lead. Evidently the figure of the 
knight had no business there ! 

Similarly the small effigies were also found to be resting 
upon incised crosses, and as neither of them fitted the recess 
in which it had been placed we may safely conclude that they 
also were in their wrong positions. A fourth effigy of a female 
had for years found a resting-place on the sill of the western- 
most window. The way in which one side of this figure has 
be'en cut straight seems to show that it was intended to rest 
upon the south side of the Chapel, and it seems possible that 




ft; % 



a, "5 
> -I 






St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rlvel. 35 

before the organ was placed where it is, and the large Jacobean 
tomb filled the other arch, there was on this south side of the 
Chapel another range of tombs corresponding with those on 
the north side. There still remains at the east end of this 
side a small length of moulded stone which has been cut off 
to make room for the large tomb, which seems to be the base 
of a bench-table on which these effigies may have rested. 

Before leaving the Chapel we should notice high up in the 
wall on the south side two plain Ham stone corbels, and a 
third which has been cut off flush with the wall. These corbels 
evidently supported the wall -shafts of the earlier roof. 

When the external masonry of the Chapel was examined 
it was found that the old rough-cast still adhered to the wall 
in many places, and that the upper courses of stone were in 
a much better state of preservation than the courses below 
the sills of the windows. This masonry was in such a bad 
state of decay that it was found necessary to rough-cast the 
whole of the north side again. But the difference in masonry 
seemed to show that the walls of the Chapel had been raised. 
This accounts for the raising of the buttresses and the addition 
of a third one on the north side intermediate between the two 
corner ones. 

The hood-moulds of the north windows terminate in ball- 
flowers, while that of the east window terminates in two small 
heads, one of which has been badly damaged. 

The external roof is of a high pitch and the eastern gable 
is surmounted by a much weathered cross of XIV Century 
design. 

The north wall is surmounted by a plain crenellated battle- 
ment enriched with gargoyles, which is returned westward and 
is continued round the walls of the rest of the Church. 



B. 

The history of the Chapel seems to start with the large 
recessed tomb on the north side. This, as we have seen, is 
not only built into the wall, but protrudes on the other side. 
The large Ham stone coffin contains the remains of a female 



36 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

skeleton. It is probable that these are the remains of Sabina 
Revel the last of the great family after whom the village is 
named. She married Henry de Urtiaco (del Ortiay, de 1'Orti, 
or Lorty) and died in 1254. She probably built the Chapel 
during her life-time and provided this handsome tomb-recess 
for herself on the north side of it. On each side of this tomb 
a smaller one was added of a very similar design, these perhaps 
formed part of the original design (Plate IV). 

The Chapel, as originally built, was lighted on the north 
side by three lancet windows. All that now remains of these 
in their original position are the outer jambs of the two ex- 
terior lights with their sills, and the sill of the central one. 
In the east wall there was probably a combination of two 
lancets contained beneath an arch which was supported by 
shafts ornamented with a small nail-head decoration. These 
shafts remain in their original position. 

In the west wall there was another lancet window. The 
Chapel was entered by a small door below the west window. 
The walls were lower than they are now and buttressed at 
each angle by two short massive buttresses of two stages each. 

At a later period the Chapel underwent some great modifi- 
cations of design. The two outer lancets were reconstructed 
as three-light windows and consequently much widened at 
the expense of the middle space which now presents a fair 
surface of plain walling in which no trace of the ancient masonry 
of the central lancet is visible above the sill, which however 
was left in the wall to tell its tale. The sills of the outer 
lancets were reused but lengthened. The inner jambs of the 
old windows were reused in their new positions and the new 
arches of Ham stone introduced above them. These make 
a very clumsy junction with the old work. Finally the walling 
between the reconstructed windows was rebuilt from the 
sill level upwards. 

The tracery of these windows is remarkable (Plate V). At 
first sight it has the appearance of XV Century work and has 
been generally so regarded, but on examination it is found 
to present great peculiarities of detail both in regard to the 
mouldings and the formation of the cusps which are distinctly 
of the early XIV Century character being square-ended. Mr. 



PLATE V. 



CH/-1PEL 

CVRRY-RIVFL CtiVRCH *=* SOMERSET 



DETAIL -OP -WINDOW in 
NORTH WALL IN ' 



FT t 



HALF 

IHTfENAL 

ELEVATIQTJ 




/SI Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 37 

Bligh Bond is of opinion that a good deal of the Perpendicular 
work in Somerset as well as in the neighbouring counties of 
Wilts and Dorset is of a much earlier date than is commonly 
supposed and perhaps we have here one of the early essays 
of the style. The best known instance of early XIV Century 
Perpendicular is that at Edington Priory Church, Wilts, 
c. 1355, which is not far from the Somerset border. There 
is similar work at Bridport which is of still earlier date. 1 If 
it could be proved that the Curry Rivel windows pre-date 
these by twenty years or so the fact would be of very great 
importance in ecclesiology. There is an undeveloped character 
in the tracery which suggests the possibility, and the occur- 
rence of the ball-flower must be taken into account. 

The east window was also reconstructed. The early shafts 
were retained but a rear-arch decorated with twenty-six ball- 
flowers was added, and gives the appearance of being too 
heavy for the shafts. The lancets gave place to a window 
of three lights filled with tracery, somewhat different to that 
in the north windows. The cusps are pointed and the 
mouldings more refined, but the general appearance is still 
that of the XIV Century. Greater prominence was given to 
the altar which was now raised by one or two steps ; brackets 
for images were built into the east wall, north and south of 
it ; a handsome piscina and credence was added on the south 
side (Plate III), and the two eastern recesses were built on 
the north side. These probably caused the destruction of one 
of the original tomb-recesses, and part of the incised cover- 
ing-stone has been built into the sill of the east window. 

In the latter half of the XV Century the Church was prac- 
tically rebuilt. A north aisle was added and the tall arch 
inserted between the Chapel and the new aisle. This arch 
contains a fan-vaulted oak screen described in " Roodscreens 
and Roodlofts " by F. Bligh Bond and Dom Bede Camm, but 
this belongs rather to the Church than the Chapel. 2 

The introduction of this arch and the addition of the aisle 
necessitated the destruction of the west window and door, 

1. The Church of St. John's, Yeovil, was rebuilt in the period 1362-1382 
(Proc. LVI, i, 28). 

2. Account with illustration in Proc. LIV, ii, 145. 



38 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Eivel. 

the northern jambs of which were left in the west wall. Close 
to these was built a staircase turret leading to the roodloft 
and the roofs. 

At the same time the walls were raised and an arcade of 
two arches built between the new chancel and the Chapel. 
To give the extra support to the raised external walls the 
massive Early English buttresses were used as foundations 
for more slender additions which were built upon them in a 
style uniform with those of the rest of the Church. These 
new additions were so cleverly let into the older stonework 
that they appear to be solid masonry. An extra buttress was 
added to strengthen the wall between the two windows, and 
a battlemented parapet was added to the top of the wall on 
the north side. 

The changes in the ownership of the manor in the XIV 
Century create great difficulties in coming to a clear decision 
on the date of these alterations. Baron Henry de Urtiaco 
died in 1321 ; his son and heir John in 1331 sold all his re- 
versionary rights in the property to Sir William de Montacute. 
In his will (see appendix to this article) made and proved in 
1340, John desired to be buried in the chapel, and left sixty 
pounds for his " sepultura." This date would be the very 
earliest at which Perpendicular tracery could be found ; and 
the executors may have expended the balance of the funeral 
expenses (he seems to have died in London) in restoring the 
chapel, which however the testator could no longer describe 
as " mea." A junior branch of the family lived in Swell, an 
adjoining parish, but it is hardly likely that they would have 
interested themselves to preserve something to which they 
had no chance of succeeding. Neither the great family of 
Montacute nor that of Beaufort who succeeded would trouble 
themselves in the matter. 

In 1593 Robert Jennings died and a tomb of classical design 
was raised to his memory. It is difficult to say where it 
originally stood. Since its removal from its original position 
it has had a roving but useful existence. For a time it stood 
in front of the piscina, and doubtless preserved it from damage, 
but at the same time the south bracket was removed from the 
wall to make room for it. Before the plaster was stripped 



St, Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 39 

there was a clear cut marking the exact position of the tomb. 
It was expelled from this position to make room for the large 
railed tomb, and was then placed against the eastern recesses 
on the north side. Here again it doubtless preserved these 
recesses from much damage. It has now been placed below 
the East window, where it exactly fits and where it may have 
originally stood. 

A larger and more elaborate tomb now stands in the eastern 
arch on the south side. This also does not stand in its original 
place. It may have stood in the centre of the Chapel. 

The invasion of these tombs probably drove out the earlier 
effigies, which, as we have seen, may have rested on the south 
side. These were placed in the recesses on the north side. 

Further interments resulted in the raising of the floor-level 
until it entirely hid the bases of the monuments on the north 
side. 

On the outside a base-mould was added to the east wall 
but was not continued on the north side. It does not belong 
here, and it seems that when the chancel was shortened the 
extra moulding was utilized in this way. 

In 1760 a plain king post roof and a flat plaster ceiling below 
was built by Mr. George Speke. There are no remains what- 
ever of any earlier roof, but the line of the old stone drip of 
the XIV Century was exposed during the work of restoration, 
and the new roof roughly follows the same slope. 

In 1915 a careful and conservative restoration was carried 
out. A cambered ceiling of oak ribs and panels has been 
substituted for the plaster ceiling and the floor lowered to its 
original level. Thus the Chapel is once more to be seen in its 
proper proportions. The slabs marking interments have been 
carefully replaced in the floor. The range of tombs on the 
north side has undergone slight necessary repairs and one or 
two missing stones have been inserted. The effigies have 
been placed again on the south side so that the embossed cross 
on the large tomb and the incised crosses on the smaller tombs 
are now visible. The organ has been pushed forward into 
the western arch so as to clear the floor space, and the small 
but interesting portion of the Ralph Trevillian tomb has 
been placed against it. 



40 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Eivel. 

C. 

It has been asked what was the original purpose of this 
Chapel ? Some have suggested that this was the chancel 
of an earlier Church. But the existing jambs of a west window 
and of a door below it prove conclusively that it must have 
been a separate chapel probably attached to the earlier Church. 
The presence of the early tombs and its close proximity to 
the site of the old manor-house which was situated some yards 
to the north-west of it, lead us to think that this must have 
been built as a Manorial Chapel, and perhaps dedicated to 
Our Lady. Margaret Clavelshaye, in her will dated June 10th, 
1545, desires to be buried " in the elde (or aisle) of our Ladie 
of Curry Rivell Church." 

Some time before the Reformation it seems to have lost 
its exclusive character of a Manorial Chapel, from the fact 
that it was thrown into the Church on the south and the west, 
and the private door of access obliterated. 

In later years it seems to have been appropriated by the 
Jennings family who exercised very strict control over the 
burial rights in it. 

In the Parish Church registers there are the following 
entries : 

" Elizabeth Pitt wife of Jonathan Pitt Esq was buried 
on the ninth day of May in the North He by the leave of 
Marmaduke Jennings Esq in the year 1656." 

"Thomas Trevillian, Gent, was buried the eighteenth 
day of August in the year 1657 hi the North He by the 
leave of Marmaduke Jennings Esq." 

In the will of John Isham, dated December 20th, 1675, it 
is actually called " Mr. Jennings' He." 

" My desire is to have my body buried in Mr. Jennings' 
He at Curry Rivel, if my master Thomas Jennings Esq 
and the rest of my friends there will give leave." 
In 1818 it was proposed to use the Chapel for the purpose 
of a sunday school and the following petition was sent to 
Mr. William Speke from the Committee : 

"We, the undersigned, the Minister and parishioners of 
Curry Rivell being met at a Vestry held for the purpose 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 41 

of giving greater effect to the Sunday School establish- 
ment of the Parish, being of opinion that a more commo- 
dious schoolroom is absolutely necessary and that such 
room may be easily provided by erecting a floor over the 
North Aisle of the Chancel without any injury to the 
monuments, to the building, or to the internal appearance 
of the Church, do hereby petition you, William Speke 
Esq, to give us permission to carry this same into effect. 
(Signed). James Sidgewick (minister), Samuel Alford, 
Henry Alford, Samuel Slatter, Wm. Fry, 
Thos. Fredk. Webb, John Fry, Wm. White. 
Thos. Dinham, G. Gristock and Wm. Sharrock." 
Fortunately the petition was not granted ; a room was 
found elsewhere. But at this date it is evident that the aisle 
was considered to be a part of the chancel, and Mr. William 
Speke was petitioned as the lay-rector. 

II. TOMBS IN THE NORTH CHAPEL. 

Along the north side of the Chapel is a tomb-arcade of, at 
present, four tomb-recesses ; originally there were probably 
five. The easternmost recess seems to have been removed 
to make room for the later additions of the XIV Century. A 
portion of a covering-stone, decorated with an incised cross 
similar to those on the other covering-stones, has been built 
into the sill of the east window, which seems to confirm the 
view that at least one of the recesses has been destroyed. The 
large central recess contains a finely shaped stone coffin. When 
examined recently the coffin still contained the remains of a 
female. The other receptacles were apparently empty except 
for dust which might possibly have been the dust of human 
remains ; but there were no signs of any lead or coffin. 

The westernmost recess measures 3ft. 4|ins. in length. It 
is in a very bad state of decay and has lost all architectural 
features except the bases of the two shafts. The receptacle 
is quite plain and made of inferior stone to the others. It 
appears to be an afterthought. 

The next recess measures 4ft. 4ins. in length. The covering- 
stone of the receptacle is 4ins. thick, and is decorated with an 



42 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 



incised foliated cross. The cross has been cut short at the 

foot to fit into the recess. 

The central recess is 7ft. in length and contains a Ham stone 

coffin. This has the edges and top corners chamfered off and 

tapers towards the foot. The length 
of the coffin is 6ft. Tins, and width 
at head 2ft. 2ins., at foot 1ft. 6|ins. 
A fine embossed cross runs the whole 
length of the lid. On each side was 
the matrix of a small shield. One 
of these has been destroyed. In the 
surviving matrix there is still to be 
seen a small hole indicating that a 
brass shield had been fastened to it. 
This coffin probably contains the re- 
mains of the founder of the Chapel, 
Sabina Revel, the wife of Henry de 
1'Orti. 

The recess eastward is 4ft. 3ms. in 
length and contains a receptacle ; on 
the covering-stone is an incised cross ; 
the ends of the arm and of the foot 
have been cut off to fit into the re- 
cess. The face of the receptacle is 
decorated with four foliated crosses, 
placed side by side. 

In the Chapel are also the large 
effigy of a knight and other smaller 
effigies, two males and one female. 
I am grateful to Dr. A. C. Fryer for 
the following description of them : 
The effigy of the knight is made of Ham Hill stone and may 

be dated 1270 to 1280. 1 It is a remarkably fine figure and 

1. The period 1270-80 assigned to the figure of the knight makes it very difficult 
to decide for whom it is intended. The first Henry de Urtiaco died in 1254, and 
his son and heir Richard before 1254. His son, Henry Baron de Urtiaco was born 
c. 1252, and died in 1321. It seems rather improbable that when quite a young 
man he would have laid down an effigy of himself, and at the same time have 
omitted his wife, living or dead. As he came of age in 1273, and would recover 
his lands from his guardian, I am inclined to suggest that he may then have com- 
memorated his father or grandfather, and some other deceased members of the 
family. E.H.B.H. 




Coffin Cover of Ham Stone, 

in the North Chapel, Curry 

Rivel Church (restored). 

From a Drawing by Mr. F. 
Bligh Bond. 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Eivel. 43 

may be compared with the knight at Brympton where indi- 
cations may be seen of the influence of the Bristol school of 
effigy-makers. 

The knight is represented in mail-coif, hauberk, surcoat 
reaching below knees, mail-hose and knee-caps, girdle, shield- 
strap over right shoulder, and shield [emblazoned azure cross 
or (De Urtiaco) present length 1ft. lOins.] on left arm, right 
leg crossed over left, broad sword-belt with long pendant, 
right hand placed on pommel and sheathing sword, while left 
holds scabbard ; two cushions under the head ; right arm 
and legs below knees destroyed. The mail is not carved and 
the stone has been surfaced with gesso, a gummy plaster on 
which the mail rings, armorial bearings on shield, diaper work 
on cushions, etc., were painted. Fragments of colouring are 
still visible. 

The three small effigies of Ham Hill stone have been con- 
sidered to represent children ; but it is not improbable that 
they are merely small effigies of two men and one lady. They 
represent civilians and are of special interest as the number 
now existing of this particular date is not numerous. They were 
made a little later than the middle of the XIII Century (c. 
12601270). The larger of the two male figures (3ft. Gins.) 
has two rectangular bolsters under the head, while the smaller 
effigy (3ft. 2ins.) has only one. They are both dressed in 
long gowns with sleeves, but the lower part of the gown of 
the larger figure is now destroyed ; the hair is worn in curly 
tufts on either side of the face and falls below the ears ; the 
hands are raised in prayer on the breast ; the faces are clean 
shaven ; while the animals or crockets at the feet are now 
too seriously mutilated to make out what they were originally 
intended for. The effigy of the lady (3ft. 4|ins.) does not 
show the kirtle at the wrists, but is clad in a sleeved cote- 
hardi falling to the feet. The hair is worn in large curls to 
the neck, which was a fashion for a short time among some 
of the ladies of the latter part of the XII Century. The bronze 
effigy of Queen Eleanor in Westminster Abbey (c. 1290) shows 
us this fashion. The usual covering for the head in this 
century was the kerchief, and the hair was usually in small 
tufts on either side of the forehead. The hands are raised in 



44 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

prayer on the breast, and the head rests on one rectangular 
bolster. 

These may represent the three children of Henry Baron de 
Urtiaco John, Richard, and Elizabeth. If this is so we 
must suppose that Sibilla who was the wife of Henry, and 
the mother of his three children, had all four effigies made 
during their lifetime. Probably on the death of her husband 
in 1321 she carried out the elaborate alterations in the Chapel 
already noticed and placed the figures upon the south side 
of it. She afterwards married John de Mohun, Lord of 
Dunster. 

At the East end of the Chapel is a large tomb of good 
classical design commemorating Robert Jennings, died Nov. 
10th. 1593. The inscription runs : 

Esto memor mortis, transcivit lubrica vita 
Vixit enim quondam quern tegit iste lapis. 
Here lyeth Robert Jennings, deceased, 
the tenth day of November, anno dom., 1593. 

Then follow three verses of rhyme, which may be read in 
Collinson, I, 28. 

This tomb has no back to it, which seems to show that it 
was intended to be placed against a wall. 

In the eastern arch on the south side of the Chapel is the 
large railed-in tomb of Marmaduke and Robert Jennings. 
The effigies lie side by side in full armour upon a marble slab, 
beneath a semicircular arch. The underside of the arch is 
divided into small squares each containing a rose ; in the 
centre at the top is a small angel bearing a scroll with the 
words " gloria deo " on it. Four recumbent cherubs support 
a coat of arms (argent, a chevron or, between three bezants, 
on a chief ermine, three cinquefoils gules. Crest a redbreast 
sitting on a moulded morion) which surmounts the tomb. 
Round the base of the tomb are kneeling weepers each with 
a name written above. The weepers on the south side are 
Anna Jennings, Mary Jennings, Eliza Jennings, Marmaduke 
Jennings, William Jennings and Robert Jennings. On the 
north side are Mary Powell, Marmaduke Jennings, Francis 
Bishop, Elizabeth Townsend, and five chrisom babies. Round 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 



45 



the tomb are massive railings of ironwork and attached to 
one of these on the south side by a chain and curious padlock 
is a small chest heavily bonded with iron. 

There are two good drawings of this tomb in the Braiken- 
ridge Collection, Vol. I, pt. 3, in the Library at Taunton Castle. 

At the heads of the effigies is the inscription : 

Here lyeth the body of Marmaduke Jennings Esq who 
was buried the 25th of April 1625 aetat. 58 also Robert 
Jennings Esq who was buried the 7th of May 1630 aetat. 
32. 1 

There are two portions of another tomb consisting of a base 
and a frieze. On the base are traces of a now illegible in- 
scription. Round the outside of the frieze are the words 
" Remember young man in thy youth that thou must die, 
believe the truth." On the other side of the frieze are the 
words : 

Here lyeth the body of Raphe the son of Raphe 
Trevilian who died the 15th day of April 1624 anno 
aetatis 27. 

Mother of the said Raphe who died the 1642. 

When thou kneelest down to pray to God 

Remember him in heart and word 

If at the Sacrament thou bee 

Believe in Christ that died for thee. 

Below these lines are the senseless words, " Trevillian's 
wife duringe her life 56 years and die her husband's mother." 

This tomb is apparently an older tomb reused to com- 
memorate Raphe Trevillian. It is illustrated in the Braiken- 
ridge Collection of Drawings, Vol. I, pt. 3. 

In the floor are the following sepulchral slabs : 

(1). Here lyeth the bodye of Marye | the wife of Samuel | 



Powell gent who 
ano domi 1628. 



departed this life | the 20th day of June i 



(2). Here | lyeth the | body of Fran | cis late wife | of John | 
Bishop who | died the 16 day | of March 1630 | she had issue 
2 | children | Carnis resurrect! | onem credo et per | mortem 
Christi | resurgam. 

1. The Latin and English inscriptions are given in Collinson, I, 27- 



46 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Bivel. 

(3). Here lyeth the | body of Marmaduke | Jennings esquire 
who | departed this life the 29th | day of January in the 
year | of our Lord God 1657 | Here lyeth Dame Jennings 
Lloyd | daughter of James Anderton | Esq & Elizabeth his wife 
& I grand-daughter of Thomas | Jennings Esq of Burton By 
her first husband Sir Charles | Cornwallis Lloyd Bart She had 
no issue | by her second husband George Speke Esq She had 
four children | three sons & a daughter | Of the sons two are 
likewise | here buried the one dead born | the other named 
William an infant | She died June 29th 1754 | aged 54. 

(4). Here lyeth the body of Thomas | Trevillian Gentle- 
man | who departed this life the 30th day of July | in 
the year of our Lord God 1657 j who was the Father of | 
Elizabeth Jennings the wife | of Marmaduke Jennings | Esquire 
& he also lyeth | hereby. | 

Here lyeth Mary Anderton daughter of Elizabeth daugh | ter 
of Thomas Jennings Esq | who died April 29, 1716. 

(5). Here lyeth the body of | Marmaduke Jennings Esquire | 
who departed this life the 7th day | of December in the yeare of 
Our Lord God 1660 Who was son | of Marmaduke Jennings 
Esquire | Who also lyeth hereby. | 

Rarely composed a body lyes enshrined 

Twas but the emblem of the rarest mind 

That part could but here we see 

The brightest sun will set & so is he 

Not lost but changed & in the change he's blessed 

For here on earth heir of eternall rest. 

(6). Here lyeth the body of Anne | Pitt wife of John Pitt 
of I Merriott Esquire who died | the 16th day of July 1678 | who 
was the daughter of Mar | maduke Jennings Esquire. 

Arms : Dexter side blank ; Femme ; Jennings. 

(7). Jacet hie sepultum cor | pus viri vere dilectissimi | 
patriseque amici | Thomoe Jennings armigeri | qui nuptias cum 
domina Maria | Speke Filia Georgii Speke | armigeri ex antiqua 
familia | de Whitlackington inivit die | 5 Septembris anno 1672 ( 
et relictis tribus libris | Thomoe, Maria, Elizabetha, | peractisque 
annis 30 et de | cem mensibus obiit Decemb | die 27 annoque 
dom 1679. 

Hie etiam | jacet corpus Ma | rise Jennings | viduae relictae | 
Thomae Jennings | armigeri quas | obiit ultimo die | Martis 
Anno Dorm | 1715 aetatis suae 66. 

Reader behold what works here Death hath done 
Removed a husband, father, friend, and son, 
But though his body underneath doth lye 
His inward rare endowments ne'er can dye. 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 



47 



He needs no statue every heart appeares 
A monument to him each eye with tears 
Becomes a marble whilst each tongue descrys 
His worth in these his funeral obsequies. 
Alas a friend is gone the loss not small 
He was lamented & beloved of all. 

(8). Here lyeth the Body of Thomas Jennings Esq (son 
of Thomas Jennings | late of Burton within the parish of | 
Curry Rivel in the County of Somerset Esq) | the last male issue 
of that fain | ily in the direct line who dyed | May 18th 1695 
setat. sure. 12. 

Arms : Jennings. 

(9). Here lyeth the body of Elizabeth | the wife of John 
Trevillian of Mid leney within the parish of Drayton | in 
the County of Somerset Esq sister to Thomas Jennings Esq the 
last male issue in the direct line of i Burton family who dyed 
August | 23rd, 1727. setat. suse. 48. 

Arms : Trevillian : Demi -horse issuing out of water in base ; 
imp. Jennings. 

(10). Here lyeth the Body of George Speke Esq | son of 
George Speke Esq | who died Nov. 18th 1758 aged 25 years. 

Arms : Barry of eight, over all an eagle displayed with two 
heads. Crest : Porcupine. 

There are also preserved in the Chapel two portions of a 
sepulchral slab on which is roughly incised the head of a ton- 
sured priest. This fragment was illustrated in Somerset and 
Dorset Notes and Queries, XIV (1915), 268. A similar slab 
is preserved in Ilton Church and is illustrated in the Braiken- 
ridge Collection of Drawings, Vol. I, pt. 3, in Taunton Castle. 



III. THE CHANCEL OF CURRY RIVEL CHURCH. 

The Chancel of Curry Rivel Church appears to have been 
considerably altered in the XVII or XVIII Century. A 
drawing of the Church made about 1698 shows the south 
transept and chancel as apparently roofless and the east wall 
of the nave built up. Probably it was in a very bad state of 
repair which necessitated an almost entire rebuilding of the 
east end. The wall of the chancel was lowered ; this is marked 
by the parapet of the chancel now being considerably lower 
than that of the south chapel and nave. The south wall 



48 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

was rebuilt, the old stone being re-used afhi the window reset 
in it. In places the base-mould was repaired with new stone. 

At the same time the Chancel was shortened by 9 or 12 feet, 
the east wall being set back to line with the east wall of the 
north chapel. This was built of entirely new stone and a 
new east window filled with very inferior tracery. The old 
buttresses were built up again, but the pinnacle-shafts above 
the gargoyles were renewed, as also were portions of the base- 
course. The moulded base-course which was not required 
was placed against the east wall of the north chapel. During 
these alterations the heraldic shields were probably badly 
damaged and carelessly re-inserted in the new window. 

The Chancel as it is now lacks a piscina, and is altogether 
unworthy of the rest of the Church. 



IV. NOTES ON HERALDRY IN THE CHANCEL OF 
CURRY RIVEL CHURCH. 



BY THE REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 



In the east window of the chancel are four shields with 
armorial bearings, one perfect, and three imperfect, while a 
fifth shield bears the figure of a flaming heart. The 
perfect shield contains the arms of Beauchamp of Warwick : 
Gules, a fesse between six cross-crosslets or. The next shield 
still preserves : In chief arg. three bucks heads cabossed 
or, and the dexter part of a fesse azure, the remainder being 
filled with coloured pieces of glass, including a fragment of 
a pavement checquy sa. and arg. This is the coat of Thomas 
Beckington, Bishop of Bath and Wells. 1443-1465 ; who 
bore : Argent, on a fesse azure a mitre with labels expanded 
or, betw. three bucks heads cabossed gu. in chief, and in base 
as many pheons sa. The complete coat may be seen in a 
window in the south choir aisle of Wells Cathedral (Proc. 
xxxrv, ii, 45, and illustration). The third shield is quarterly, 
of which the first and fourth quarters are now filled with 
quarrels, and the second and third bear the arms of Monta- 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Eivel. 49 

cute : Arg. three fusils in fesse gules. The fourth shield is 
also quarterly, but the only heraldic bearing now visible is 
a bend or. If this is anything more than a glazier's fancy the 
shield may have contained the arms of Le Despenser : Quarterly 
arg. and gules, in the second and third a fret or, over all a 
bend sa. The mother of Anne Beauchamp, wife of the king- 
maker, was Isabella daughter and heiress of Thomas le 
Despenser Earl of Gloucester. The difference in the colours 
both in this shield and in the arms of Beckington may be 
due to age. 

Before considering what the missing quarters of the third 
shield may have contained, it is necessary to recall the history 
of the manor and advowson after John de Urtiaco had parted 
with them in 1331 to Sir William de Montacute the founder 
of Bustlesham (now Bisham) Priory in 1338. His son and 
successor, William second Earl of Salisbury, in 1386 paid 100 
for licence to alienate the advowson of Curry Rivel to the 
Canons of Bisham, who were also enabled to appropriate the 
rectory to their own needs (Pat. Rolls, 9 Ric. II, p. 129). In 
1395 the Earl sold the manors of Curry Rivel, Langport, and 
Martock, and the Hundred of Abdick and Bulstone to John 
de Beaufort Earl of Somerset ; at his death in 1397 he left 
five hundred marks to complete the buildings of the Priory, 
the burial-place of his father and mother, his son and himself. 

Curry Rivel Church dates from the reign of Henry VII or 
his successor, whose badges of the portcullis and Prince of 
Wales' feathers are carved on the porch. In the older 
building the Canons of Bisham may have desired to com- 
memorate their founder and the fortunes of his family by 
placing armorial insignia in the chancel which was their pos- 
session. 

The appearance of the shields of Beauchamp of Warwick 
and perhaps of le Despenser is due to the marriage of Anne 
Beauchamp, the greatest heiress of her time, with Richard 
Neville the King-Maker, eldest son of Richard Neville Earl 
of Salisbury, in right of his wife Alice, daughter and heiress 
of Thomas Montacute Earl of Salisbury. Although Richard 
was married about 1440 it is probable that the shields were 
placed in the church after he had succeeded his father in 1460, 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. d 



60 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Eivel. 

and certainly before his own death at Barnet in 1471. The 
appearance of the Beckington coat would further limit the 
date before 1465. After regaining the upper hand the Earl 
of Warwick conveyed the bodies of his father and his brother 
Thomas, also slain at Wakefield, to Bisham early in 1463, and 
buried them with stately ceremony, in the presence of the 
Duke of Clarence and other great peers (D.N.B., XL, 282). It 
may be surmised that the appearance of these arms was some- 
thing in the nature at once of a funeral monument, and of a 
visible reminder of the all-powerful might of the head of the 
family, the " proud setter-up and puller-down " of kings. 

According to the later laws of heraldry, the vacant quarters 
in the third shield should hold the arms of Neville. But in 
earlier days the rule was rather to place the more important 
coat in the first quarter. And it is at least as likely that they 
held the arms of Monthermer (or an eagle vert), which were 
borne by the descendants of Sir John de Montacute, who 
married Margaret grand-daughter and heir of Sir Ralph 
Monthermer by his wife Joan of Acre, daughter of Edward I. 
That coat, as showing descent from the blood royal might well 
be considered as the more important ; but it implies a proud 
humility on the part of the king-maker, himself descended 
from John of Gaunt, to place his paternal arms after the 
quartered coat of Monthermer and Montacute. Yet such 
an arrangement appears in a shield in Ashton Church, Devon- 
shire, described by Mr. F. M. Drake in an article in the Trans- 
actions of the Exeter Dioc. Architectural Society ; he adds that 
the combined shield is common in the county, and appears 
in the chapter-house at Exeter. Richard Symonds 1 records 
that at Fladbury, near Worcester, he saw a shield of which 
the first quarter contained Beauchamp of Warwick, the second 
Montacute and Monthermer quarterly, the third Neville, and 
the fourth Le Despenser. In Salisbury Cathedral he records 
a shield bearing Montacute and Monthermer quarterly ; and 
in Martock 2 Church a shield of which the first quarter was 

1. "Diary of Marches of the Royal Army during the Great Civil War," 
Camden Society, 1859. 

2. In his notes on this church Symonds records twenty-two shields, besides 
one hundred and twenty more in the clerestory windows. Not one of these is now 
in existence. 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 51 

vacant, the second and third were Montacute, and the fourth 
Monthermer ; this is the blazon of the Curry Rivel shield. 1 

The portrait of the King-Maker in Rous's " Roll of the 
Earls of Warwick " (reproduced in the illustrated edition of 
Green's " Short History," II, 556) shows his shield bearing 
Montacute and Monthermer quarterly. 

The evidence is somewhat conflicting, but on the whole I 
am inclined to believe that the vacant quarters in the Curry 
Rivel shield bore Monthermer rather than Neville. But if 
this latter coat was borne in the first quarter of this and the 
Martock shield, their disappearance may have been due to 
the desire of a zealous Yorkist official to obliterate the re- 
membrance of the Proud Setter- up and Puller-down of kings. 
On his return from exile Henry of Bolingbroke executed Bushy 
and Green on the ground (amongst others) that they " from 
mine own windows tore my household coat, raz'd out my 
impress, leaving me no sign save men's opinions, and my 
living blood to show the world I am a gentleman " (Richard II, 
Act nr, scene i). 



V. WILL OF JOHN DE URTIACO, 1340. 



BY THE REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 



As my paper on the family of De Urtiaco (Proc. XLII, ii, 26) 
has been frequently referred to in these notes on Curry Rivel, 
it seemed a good opportunity to add to it by printing the will 
of John de Urtiaco. This was buried as effectually as the 
testator himself among the Harleian charters in the British 
Museum, but has been brought to light in the valuable Index 
recently printed in two volumes, a copy of which is in the 
Library at Taunton Castle. 

Since the date of the paper (1896) more references have 

1. The seal of the King-Maker engraved in Doyle's "Official Baronage" 
shows : Quarterly, first and fourth Montacute quartering Monthermer, second 
and third, Neville with a label compony arg. and az. 



52 St. Andrew's Church, Curry Rivel. 

turned up, but at present it is only necessary to add that many 
deeds relating to the sale of Cucklington and Stoke Trister to 
John de Moleyns (p. 51) will be found in the Moleyns cartulary 
presented by the Right Honourable H. Hobhouse to the 
Society. Also that Sibilla wife of Baron Henry (p. 41) was 
not born de Beaumont. The official transcriber of the Patent 
Rolls read Vrtiaco for Vesiaco (the name of her first husband), 
and anybody conversant with records will see that the names 
in court-hand are as like as two peas. 

The Will. Earl. Charters, 57, D, 4. 

In Dei nomine Amen. Ego Johannes de Vrtiaco con do 
testamentum meum in hoc modo die Martis proximo post 
festum Pentecoste anno regni Regis Edwardi tertii post 
conquestum quarto-decimo (6 June, 1340). Inprimis lego 
animam meam Deo et corpus meum ad sepeliendum in capella 

1 juxta ecclesiam de Cory Rivel. Item lego fratribus 

Ivelchester xx sol. Item lego fratribus Bruge water xx sol. 
Item lego fratribus de Oth 2 unam marcam. Item lego x li. 
ad celebranda in dicta capella. Item lego Ricardo fratri meo 
manerium meum de Knoll ad terminum vite sue pro suo bono 
servicii, et post decessum ipsius Ricardi mini et heredibus 
meis plenarie revertetur. Item lego dicte Ricardo ij meliores 
equos cum tota armura mea. Item lego Johanni de Mortim 
x li. Item lego Waltero de Thorhull unum equum qui vocatur 
Putteneye et xl sol. Item lego Stephano de Stapelton unum 
equum et xl sol. Item lego Johanni knapp unum pullum 
(foal) et xl sol. Item lego Waltero de Puttenye xl sol. Item 
lego Simoni de Putteneye xx sol. Item lego Waltero de 
Chaifecomb xx sol. Item lego quilibet de famulia mea secun- 
dum ordinationem executorum meorum. Item lego ad sepul- 
turam meam honeste factam Ix li. Item lego omnia bona 
mea non legata ad ordinationem executorum meorum ut 
viderent anime mee melior expedire. Item ordino, facio, 
et constituo executores meos viz. dominum Radulfum de 
Middelnye, Ricardum de Vrtiaco, Johannem de Middelnye 
et Nicholaum Laddrede ut ordinent et diffonent omnia predicta 
et residua ad proficuum anime mee ; in cujus rei testimonium 



St. Andrew's Church, Curry EiveL 53 

meum sigillum apposui. Datum Londinio die et anno 
supradicto. 

Mr. E. A. Fry, who has kindly checked my transcript with 
the original, has also read the probates, 57, D, 5. Another 
one indorsed on the will has been cancelled out. The first 
recites that probate was granted in our office in London on 
13 Kal. July (19th June) 134$, after a previous probate granted 
in the office of the Archdeacon of London had been cancelled 
because the deceased had goods in the ville of Braynstyd 
outside his jurisdiction. This place is not identified, so it 
throws no light on the superior authority. The second probate, 
indorsed on the first in respect of goods situated within the 
diocese of Salisbury is dated the Ides of July (15th July, 1340). 

The testator does not mention any relation besides his 
brother, although his wife and married daughter were both 
alive. He seems to have been an extravagant and lawless 
individual, who very soon came to grief among the greater 
wrong-doers of that period. 

NOTES ON WILL. 

1. A very short word has been absolutely erased. I venture to read "mea." 

2. Fratres de Oth. There is no record of a Friary at Oth, now Oathe, also 
Worthe, in the parish of Aller, but on the Curry Rivel side of the Parrett. It was 
formerly reckoned to belong to Swell, but has been transferred by order of the 
L.G.B. in 1886. There is no reference to it as forming part of the endowment of 
a chantry at Swell by Mabel de Rivel (S.R.S., ix, 383). There was a chapel at 
Oathe in 1373, see Papal Letters, iv, 189 ; and it may be that the testator really 
intended to remember the " capellanus." If it was connected with the chantry at 
Swell there would possibly be two " capellani " for legatees, and the plural would 
make an error easier." 



OHclls flams. 

[SEREL COLLECTION]. 



BY THE REV. F. W. WEAVER, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.HIST.S. 



INTRODUCTION. 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MANUSCRIPT. 

THE book, which is the property of the Somerset Archaeo- 
logical Society, contains thirty-three leaves of paper 
(folio size), written on both sides and numbered as follows : 

12 28, 3033, 7985, 8890, 9293. Folios 29 and 
86 are missing ; folio 87 is bound up in place of 81 which is 
missing ; folio 91 is missing. 

There is a memorandum in Mr. Serel's handwriting (signed 
T. S.) to this effect : 

" These fragments were rescued from a butcher's shop 
in Wells where the book of which they had formed a part 
was being broken up for wrapping ' steaks,' ' chops,' etc., 
for customers." 

The first thirty-three leaves are written in a small neat 
hand ; the rest of the MS. in a larger and more straggling 
script. 

On folio 19, at the top" is written, Jhus merce. 
On folio 20, Jhus mercy lady help at nead. 
On folio 21, Jhus mercy John. 
On folio 22, Johns mercy Lady 

help at nead have me comend. 

The name and parish of the testators are given hi the margin : 
when these differ from the text the difference is noted. An 
example occurs in No. 35. 



Wells Witts. 



55 



TESTATORS AND THEIR PARISHES. 

There are 150 Wills bearing date 1539-41. Three of the 
Wills are in Latin (Nos. 12, 26, 140). 

The following Parishes are represented, and the number of 
Wills relating to each parish is appended : 



Axbridge, 5. 
Badgworth, 4. 
Ban well, 1. 
Bar wick, 1. 
Batcombe, 1. 
Berrow, 2. 
Bleadon, 2. 
Brent, East, 8. 
Brent, South, 3. 
Brewham, 6. 
Bruton, 1. 
Burnham, 5. 
Cadbury, North, 3. 
Castle Gary, 1. 
Charlton Mackerell, 1. 
Chewton, 1. 
Christen, 3. 
Churchill, 1. 
Clapton, 1. 
Closworth, 1. 
Compton Pauncefoot, 1. 
Congresbury, 13. 
Cranmore, 1. 
Ditcheat, 1. 
Doulting, 2. 
Dunkerton, 1. 
Frome, 2. 
High Ham, 4. 
Huntspill, 6. 
Hutton, 2. 

Keinton Mandeville, 1. 
Kilmersdon, 2. 
Kingsdon, 3. 



Langport, 1. 
Leigh-on-Mendip, 1. 
Limington, 1. 
Locking, 2. 
Lympsham, 5. 
Maperton, 2. 
Marston Bigot, 2. 
Martock, 6. 
Milborne Port, 1. 
Montacute, 3. 
Pawlett, 2. 
Pennard. East, 2. 
Penselwood, 1 . 
Portbury, 1. 
Puriton, 3. 
Puxton, 1. 
Pylle, 1. 

Shepton Mallet, 4. 
Shepton Montague, 1. 
Somerton, 1. 
Stoke St. Michael, 1. 
Stowell, 1. 
Tintinhull, 1. 
Weare, 1 . 

Weston-in-Gordano, 1. 
Wincanton, 2. 
Winscombe, 1. 
Woolavington , 1 . 
Worle, 3. 
Wrington, 1. 
Wyke St. Lawrence, 5. 
No parish given, 1. 



66 Wells Witts. 

BROTHERHOODS AND GILDS. * 
The young men wardens of Puryton (3). 2 

There was a gild which took in all the young men of the 
place and they would meet in the Church House and yearly 
they all made their offerings to keep up the young men's light 
in the Church. At Stanford-in-the-Vale (Berks) hi 1583 the 
lads between ten and thirteen years made a collection and 
provided for the Church House, four new platters, and two 
new pottingers. 3 

The Brotherhood of the B. V.M. 

S. Brent (12). Ditcheat (26). N. Cadbury (80). 

Stoke St. Michael (84). 

St. Mary House at Congresbury (10). 

Our Lady service (14) and passim. 

Our Lady priest in E. Brent (136). 

Our Lady Light to be prayed for 3s. 4d., East Brent (123). 

Brotherhood of St. Michael's Chapel at Congresbury (10) 
and in most of the Congresbury Wills of which there are 13. 

Brotherhood of Martock (25), (63), (103). 

Brotherhood of Bruton (66), of Brewham (101), (125). At 
the latter reference " the brothred preist " is mentioned : 
of Batcombe (141). 

Brotherhood service hi Doulting (105). 
Brotherhood priest of High Ham (127), (135). 

The brothers and sisters of the " Sepulture light " at 
Charlton Mackerell (74). 

The Shoemakers' brotherhood at Axbridge indicated by a 
bequest to SS. Crispin and Crispinians Light. These martyrs 
are the patron Saints of that trade (142). 

St. Nicholas Service at Huntspill (113). 

1. The word " gylde " only occurs once (118) when it means " aisle." 

2. The figures in brackets refer to the number of the Will. 

3. See a Paper by T. S. H. in The Guardian, Aug. 21st. 1889, p. 1265. 



Wells Wills. 57 

St. Nicholas " auter or servyse " at Burnham (104). 
The Trinity Light at Axbridge (142). 

Do WELL LIGHT. 

I have found four references to this light : 

1516, will of Henry Style of Frome (S.R.S., xix, 187). 

1524, will of Wm. Jorden of Frome (S.R.S., xix, 228). 

1541, will of Robert Lewis of Frome (92). 
And in the Churchwardens' Accounts of Stanford in the Vale 
(Berks). These are printed in " The Antiquary " for March, 
1888, p. 118. 

1554 (Receipt). Item of Robert Pynell collector for the 
Rode lyght uppon ye tweluet 1 evyn most comonly cawlyd ye 
dawell vjs. ijd. 

This at first sight seems to settle this difficult question, but 
in the three Frome Wills, the high cross light is mentioned as 
well as the Do well light ; in the Will of Wm. Jorden it is called 
" le dole light." 

I am inclined to the explanation which I gave in S.R.S., 
xix, p. xxiii, that it is equivalent to the Almes light, i.e. 
Soul light or Dead light. 

THE BUILDING OF CHURCH TOWERS. 

1. Batcombe (51). 

1540. To the belding of the towre of Batcombe 40 lode of 
Rowe stones or 5s. for them at the choice of the parish. 

2. Chewton Mendip (95). 

1541. To the byldynge of the Towre of Chewton 16d. 

It may be said hi passing that the usual opinion hitherto 
has been that towers of this type are to be dated about 1470 : 
but this I must leave to the experts. 



To give one instance of the curiously varied orthography 
of the MS. : 

HEIFER is spelt in very many different ways, e.g. heffer, 



1. Twelfth. 



68 Wells Wills. 

heffar, heyfer, heyfar, heiffer, hyeffar, yeaffer, yeaflfar, yeffar, 
yeffer. 

The Rev. W. Denton in " England in the XVth Century," 
p. 174, speaks of the foul and dangerous highways to which 
a bequest was often made of money, cattle or other goods. 
Instances of such bequests will be found at (10), (56), (75). 

Perhaps it is worth noting that William Sowter of Badgworth 
had three sons all named John (62). 
John my eldest son. 
John my myddell son. 
John my yowngyst son. 

These five female names may be placed on record Berde 
<87), Bryne (98), Clase (127), Gelyan (20), Richard (14). 

Hort, Storre and Hawke are the names of three oxen (70). 

As the Reformation was approaching the Wills as concerns 
church services, etc., are not so interesting as those printed 
in S.R.S., xvi and xix. The following are however men- 
tioned : 

Bead-boke (64) ; trentals (65), (118). 

Placebo and dirige (74) ; mass of requiem (74). 

Holy Rood Lyght (passim) ; torches (48), (149) ; vest- 
ments (130) ; beam before the high altar (130) ; ringers (128) ; 
months mind (5), (81). 

Sir Roger, Chantry priest of Woolavington (51), tithes 
forgotten (7 and passim). 

WELLS WILLS. 

[SEREL COLLECTION.] 

1. Jone dome of Portbury. Dated 28 March, 1541. 

to be buried in churchyard of Portbury : Cath. of Wellys 
2d. : church of Portbury a bushel of wheat : Agnes Tucke 
a heffer, a pan and a forset 1 : my daughter 2 Agnes Stephyns 
a mantyll : Alys Lock and Alys Crome my best kyrtell 
and my best sloppe. 3 

1. Forcet, a little "forcer " or chest (N.E.D.) 

U. Spelt dowghter throughout the MS., and son is sonne. 

3. An outer garment, a mantle (N.E.D.) 



Wells Wills. 59 

Residue. John Tuckye, my son. 
Witnesses. Wm. Russell, John Howell. 
Summa Inventarii 13 16s. Od. 

2. Thomas Warnemon of East Brent. 8 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of Est Brynt : Cath. Ch. of Welly s 4d. : church 
of E. B. I2d. : every one of my chylderne 5 : Maud my 
servant 3 kye : John Clarke 12d. 

Residue. Edyth, my wyff. 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, John Lyon, Tho. Sturry 

Summa 55 Os. Sd. 

3. Humfray Myrth of Puriton. 26 Oct., 1539. 

in churchyard of Puryton : Ch. of Welly s 4d. : church of P. 
a sacke of malte : unto the yowng men wardens 1 a sacke 
of malte : ch. of P. a cow : my ghostly father I2d. : my 
son John Myrth 2 stears : John Sprytell my servant a 

. heffer : John Yryssh a valow 2 yearling : my godson John 
Lacy I2d. : to every godchild at ther maryge a bushell of 
wheat : John Hore a taylyd 3 heffer : yf my wyf wyll 
remove to Hunspyll or to any other place that then she 
shall have all sutch goods as I had with her and 20s. of 
my goods : the residue to remayn to John Myrth my 
sonne : if she do remayn and end her lyfe yn my howse 
at Peryton she shall be whole executrix. 

Witnesses. Master Vicar of Peryton, Humfray Wyke. 

Summa 17 4s. 4d. 

4. William Dene of East Brent. 28 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of Est Brynt : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : ch. of E. B. 

2d. : Exix. Crystyan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, John Long, John Dene. 
Summa 3 18s. 8d. 

5. Cornell Welshe of Axbridge. 4 Oct., 1540. 

hi churchyard of Axbryge : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye auter of 

1. i.e. The wardens of the Young Men's Gild, see ti.R.S,, iv, 1. 

2. Fallow, of a pale brownish or reddish yellow colour (cf. fallow deer, N.E.D.) 

3. Tailed (of cattle) = tagged, i.e. having the tail tipped with white or other 
distinctive colour (N.E.D.) 



60 Wells Witts. 

A. 4d. : our Lady auter 4d. : Jamys my servant my 
grene cote : Rychard Dycke my servant a jakete : John 
Welsshe my servant a jakete : Thomas Reve of Cheddar 
to be my overseer, at my beryng and at my monythys 
myne 1 to have for his labor 6s. 8d. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. John Wynter. curat, Wm. Coke, Tho. Reve, 
John Welssh. 

Summa 10 lls. 4d. 

6. Jone My Hard of Leigh on Mendip. 16 Feb. 1540. 

in churchyard of Lye : church of Lye 20d. : Maud Toogod 
my best pan : Isat Myllard a coverled : Alys Stanley my 
best kyrtell : Florens Stanley a kerchyff : Anstis Stanley 
a kerchyff : Ede Swete a kyrtell : Margery Swete a pan : 
Rychard Swete a platter : Alys Towcker of Downhed a 
petycote : Elyzabeth Wylsward a platter : Edoard Smyth 
my best gowne and a crocke with a howle 2 : Stephyn his 
son a cawdron : Stephen Mylward a hosecloth 3 : John 
Toker a cyffe 4 : Aslyng Cokeryll my best cappe. 

Residue. John Toker of Evercrych. 

Witnesses. Sir Richard Thomas, curate, John Swete, 
Edoard Smyth. 

Summa 47s. Id. 

7. William Goode of Puxton. 8 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of Puxton : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye auter of 
P. for thethis 5 forgotten 3d. : hye lyght 4d. : my son John 
2 kye : my daughter Jone 2 kye : my daughter Issabell 40s. 

Residue. Alys my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Hodges, curat, Edm. Kene. 

Summa 12 16s. Od. 



1. Month's mind (commemoration service) on 30th day after burial. See 
Rock's " Church of our Fathers " (1904), ii, 258, 417. 

2. i.e. with a hole in it. 

3. Hose, covering for the legs, frequently made of cloth of divers colours 
(Drapers' Diet.) 

4. Sieve. 

5. i.e. tithes. See " Wells Wills " 50 (note I). 



Wells Wills. 61 

8. John Tryppe of Christen. 10 Sept., 1540. 

in churchyard of Cryston afore the porch : Ch. of Welly s 
4d. : Ch. of C. a yeffar or a bullocke of the valew of 6s. 8d. : 
Ch. of Banwell a bushel of barley : Wm. Trypp my son 
a wayne, a sollow, 1 a dragg with all wother towlys by- 
longyn to husbandry : 4 chylder of my son Wylyam 2 
whethers and 2 yewys : Nycholas my son 2 wethers : 
Joan my dau. 3 shepe : 2 children of my dau. 2 lambis : 
John Markys my son in law a dowblet : John and Humfra 
my sons the halff parte of the barley mowe : Margery my 
dau. a cow : Thomas Bawlet 2 shepe : John my son the 
half part of the wheat mowe west from the barley mowe. 

Residue. Wm., John, Nycholas and Humfra Tryppe. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Wylyamsone, Omfra Egell, Omfra 
Kyst, Nich. Kyst, John Kyng. 

Summa 15 3s. 4<Z. 

9. Raff Mulgrey of Weston in Gordano. 8 Oct., 1539. 

in churchyard of Weston : Ch. of Welly s 2d. : ch. of Weston 
2 bushels of barley : my son Rychard my best hosys. 

Residue. Issabell, my wyff. 

Witnesses. Sir Wylyam Adams, parson. Master Edm. 
Percevall, John Bonowey, Richard Wylcocks. 

Summa 5 12s. Sd. 

10. Mathew Lone well of Congresbury. 4 Sept., 1540. 

in churchyard of Congarsbury : hye auter for thethys for- 
gotten 4d. : hye lyght I2d. : brotherred of St. Mychaells 
Chappell 2 3s. 4d. : my 2 sons Thomas and Edmund (be- 
tween them) 46s. 8d., and also that lyeth yn lynnyng cloth 
owte of my shope 40s. : unto the cawss way that goyth 
from my house and downe by Saynt Mary howse and so 
to the Church 20s. 

Residue. Jone, my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Danyell, my gostly father, John 
Tryvet, Wm. Yowng. 

Summa 20 17s. 8d. 

1. Sull, zull, a plough. 

2. S.R.S., ii, 75. 



62 Wells Wills 

11. John Hardyng of Clapton. 26 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Clapton : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of C. 2 
bushels of barley : Ch. of Portyshed 1 bushel of barley : 
Ch. of Weston 1 bushel of barley : my dau. Elizabeth 20s. : 
my dau. Elizabeth Kempe a cowe : and a twyllyng 1 shete : 
my dau. Jone a yeffar : my son Jamys my best cote : 
my son Thomas 3 yewys. 

Residue. Ededy, my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Rychard Carey, curat, John Horte, John 
Kyng, John Pryston. 

Summa 5 9s. 4d., ob. 

12. William Nichols of South Brent. 8 April, 1540. 
sepult. in simiterio ecclesie divi Michaelis de Sowth Brynt : 

ecclesie Wellen 4d. : 4 luminibus 2 ecclesie parochie mee 

4d. : fraternitati B.M. 3s. 4d. : campanis 4d. 
Residuum. Cristine ux. mee et John Chamberlayne pri- 

vigno 3 meo. 
Testibus. Ric. Peret, clerico ibidem curato, Tho. Borde, 

Ric. Holys. 
Summa 4 6s. 4d. 

13. Thomas Palmer of Puriton. 1540. 

in churchyard of Peryton : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter of 
my parish church I2d. : 3 auters more in the same ch. 
I2d. : my curat 4d. : Sir Robert Fyssher 4d. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Rob. Fyssher, 4 Robert Rew. 

Summa 13 11s. Orf. 

14. William Cobe of Huntspill. 10 -Nov., 1540. 

in churchyard of Hunspyll : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye cross at 
H. 1 bushel of beans : owre lady servys 1 bushel of beans : 
Crystian my dau. one welshe heffer : Margaret my dau. 

1. A table cloth of twill (Test. Ebor. iv, 17). " Unum pallium de le twylly.'* 
NVadley's " Bristol Wills," 143. 

2. S.R.S., xix, xxii. 

3. Stepson. 

4. Instituted to the Vicarage 24 July, 1554. " Somerset Incumbents," 171. 



Wells Wills. . 63 

the same : Richard Martyn a cowe and calff : Wm. Martyn, 

the same. 

Residue. Rychard my wyf. 
Overseers. Rychard Organ, John Martayne. 
Witnesses. Cristofer Webster, prist, Rich. Alyn, Nich. More. 
Summa 5 5s. Wd. 

15. Luce Boy of East Pennard. 28 Aug., 1539. 

in churchyard of Est Pennard : Ch. of E. P. I2d. : John 

Sterwod a bullocke : Elner Golledge a brass pann. 
Residue. my son Thomas. 

Witnesses. John Harrys, Rych. Bowcke, Wm. Golledge. 
Summa 4 Os. 4d. 

16. John Hacker of Limington. 6 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of Lymmyngton : Ch. of Wellys 4d. 

Residue. Issabell my wyf. 

Witnesses. John Lye the elder, John Master, John Lye the 

yownger. 
Summa 12 17s. 4d. 

17. Issabell Laver of Martocke. 1539. 

to be buried in the parish ch. of Martocke : Ch. of Wellys 
4d. : Ch. of M. 20s. : my dau. Jone Longe 6 silver sponys, 
2 of my plow oxen, 6 pewter vessell standyng alway upon 
my cowbarde : every one of my chylder chylderne 6s. 8d. 

Residue. John my son. 

Overseers. Wm. Hodgys of Lymmyngton, Thos. Cuff. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Heccch, curat, Wm. Lavor, Wm. 
Hodgys, Thos. Coff. 

Summa 38 16s. 4d. 

18. Issabell Creye of Locking. 12 Oct., 1540. 

in churchyard of Lockyng : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : John Clarke 
my son a cowe : Thomas Grey a cow : John Crey a cauff. 

Residue. John Crey my son. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Day, 1 vycar, John Banwyll, John 
Hurdwyck. 

Summa 3 17s. Od. 

1. Instituted 24 May, 1524. " Somerset Incumbents," 128. 



64 Wells Wills. 

19. Robert More of Lympsham. 1 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of L. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter of L. 2d. : 
hye crosse a bushel of wheat : owr lady servys 3s. 4d : 
Sir John Thomas, curat, 4d. 

Residue. Alyce my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Thomas, curat, Rych More, Rich. 
Gyllyng. 

Summa 13 9s. Qd. 

20. Thomas Mey of Worle. 

in churchyard of Worley : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter of 
Worley a bushel of barley : John May 2 bollockys : Alys 
Mey a yearlyng : Ch. of Worley a bushel of wheat and a 
bushel of barley : Agnes Mey a cow : Issabell Mey a cow : 
Gelyam Mey a yearlyng : Jone Mey, the same : Crystyan 
Mey, the same. 

Residue. John May. 

Witnesses. Sir John Shyppard, 1 vycar, Tho. Tayler, John 
Bustull. 

Summa 7 19s. Od. 

21. Agnes Geffrays of Congresbury. 10 Oct., 1540. 
church of Congersbury 25. : Ch. of Chedder a silver spone : 

Water Rogers a bolster : Issabell Rogers a kyrtell : 
Rychard and Roger Jeff ray (each) a spone : Alys Harvyll 
my best peticote : Wylyam Rogers of dett of 26s. 8d., the 
said Wm. to pay to myne Executor but 10s. : Richard 
Clarke a platter. 

Residue. My brother Wm. Geffayry. 

Witnesses. Raynall Sclatter. Rich. Clarke. 

Summa 38s. 

22. Thomas Came of South Brent. 6 Nov., 1540. 

in churchyard of Sowth Brynt : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye auter 
hi S. B. 4d. : the rowde ly}ght a bushel of benys : the 
bellys 4d. : my two daus. a cowe (each). 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

1. Instituted 4 Sept., 1516. " Somerset Incumbents, " 223. 



Wells Witts. 65 

Witnesses. Sir Richard Browne, curat, John Gyllyng, 

Rob. Adams, Nich. Wycks. 
Summa 5 4s. Id. 

23. Thomas More of Stapeltun in Martock. 23 Nov., 1540. 
to be buried in ch. of M. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : M. Ch. 2 

bushels of wheat : my gostly father 4d. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf and John my son. 
Witnesses. Sir Robert Lowgh, 1 Rob. Dyar, Wm. Gele. 
Summa 4 10s. Sd. 

24. Thomas Burgys of Shepton Mallet. 12 May, 1540. 

my sowle to allmyghty God, my body to be buryd yn the 
churchyard of S. M. : hie crosse Iy3ght 2d : Saynt An- 
drowys yn Wellys 2d. : the bellys in my parysh ch. 4d. : 
Agnes my dau. a cow, a heffer and a calff. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Robt. Corbet, curat, Edm. Harwycke, Edw. 
Medham. 

Summa 4 10s. Sd. 

25. John Pulman of Martock. 7 Mar., 1540. 

to be buryd in the ch. of M. : mother Ch. of Wellys 4d. : 
Ch. of M. 6s. 8d. : brotherred of the same ch. 1 bushel of 
wheat : hye auter for ungotten thethys 4d. 

Residue. Alys my wyf shall have the governans of all my 
goodis wyle that she ys wydow for to distribute among 
my chylder and my wyfe shall save to herself certayne 
[goods] acordyng to the custome 2 of Martocke. 

Overseers. Wm. Schereowd and John Palmer. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Hecche, curat, Wm. Schere[wod], 
John Palmer, Rychard Occaronn. 

Summa 20 5s. Od. 

26. Alice Orara of Alhampton in Ditcheat. 7 Mar., 1541. 
corpus meum sepeliendum in cimiterio Sancte Marie Mag- 

1. Instituted 19 June, 1554. "Somerset Incumbents," 140. Formerly 
"capellanus " of Stapleton Chapel, S.R.S., II, 111. 

2. The custom of Wincanton is mentioned (54), (73). 

Vol. LXI, (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. e 



66 Wells Wills. 

dalene de Dychat : Cath. Wellen 4d. : luminibus alte 
crucis de Dychat 6d. et unum annulum argenteum : 
fraternitati B. M. 5s. quod remanet in manibus Joh. 
Whyte de Dychat. 

Residue. Joh. Turner, filio meo. 

Testators. Dno. Joh. Batt suo confessore, Will. Austyng. 

Summa 40s. 

27. William Goldweg of East Pennard. 8 Sept., 1540. 

hi churchyard of Est Pennard : Jone my dau. a coffer, 4 

sylver sponys and a yowng calff. 
Residue. Em my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir Henry Kyng, vicar, Rich. Bocke, Thomas 

Boy, John Furber. 
Item to John Meddell my wyfs brother a gowne, a swerde, 

a buckler and a sheff of arrowys. Item to John Newbery 

a cote. Item Robert Furber a cote. To Thomas Boy a 

buckes skynne tawyd. 1 
Summa 4 6s. Sd. 

28. Crystyan Dene, widow, of East Brent. 4 April, 1541. 
in churchyard of Est Brynt : mother ch. of Wellys 2d. : 

Ch. of E. B. 4d. : Jone my dau. a coffer, and another 
coffer to Edyth Burnet. Exor. John Dene my son. 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, John Dene the elder, John 
Long. 

Summa 4 5s. Qd. 

29. Jone Tryvet of Congresbury. 1 May, 1541. 

in churchyard of Congersbury : hye auter 4d. : hye ly}ght 
a sylver ryng : St. Mychaellys Chappell a bushel of barley : 
Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Nycholas Wrytis chylder a cow : my 
dau. Agnes Hard wy 11 my best weryng clothys and my 
best mantell : my son John Tryvet the elder a pygg : 
my two godchylder 2 kerchyffs. 

Residue. My son John T. the yownger. 

1. Tawed : made as white leather by the process of tawing. 
Tavnng : the process of preparing white leather (N.E.D.) 



Wells Wills. 67 

Witnesses. Sir Rob. Roo my gostly father, John Tryvet. 
Summa 4 15s. Od. 



30. Richard More of Weare. 10 Dec., 1540. 
in parish ch. of Weer : Ch. of Wellys 2d. 
Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Peter Lane my curat, Rob. Bawnton, John 

More. 
Summa 5 11s. Wd. 

31. John Mayo of Bleadon. 23 - ,1541. 

in churchyard of Bledon : Ch. of Wellys 3d. : ch. of B. I2d. : 
to the hye auter and unto St. Peter there 4d. pro decimis 
oblitis : Sir John Webb my gostly father I2d. 

Residue. Jone my wyf and John my son. 

Witnesses. Sir John Webbe, curat, Tho. Clarke, John 
Buscell. 

Summa 9 8s. Od. 

32. William Kyng of East Brent. 13 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Est Brynt : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of E. B. 
4d. : owr lady in the same ch. 3s. 4d. : my dau. Jone 4 kye 
and a heffer and a calff and Phyllppe my son shall have 
the profyt of them the furst yere and I pute John Wytyng 
and John Bolgen in trust to see the foresayde kye to be 
vusyd to the profyt of my dau. and when that she is at 
lawful age then to delyver them unto the mayd unto her 
owne use and if she dye in the meantyme they to be 
bestowyd fur the welth of her sowle. 

Residue. Phyllype my son (he to pay my dettis). 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, John Whytyng, John 
Bolgen. 

Summa 14 14s. 3d. 

33. John Burton of Burnham. 20 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Burneham : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Ch. of B. 
half a bushel of benys : hye crosse a bushell of benys : 
owre lady servys 2s. 8d. : John Burton my son 9 of 



68 Wells Witts. 

money except my wyff by the bargayn 1 unto him then 
he shall have but 40s., if he dye before the age of 20 year 
or els be marryd then hys goodis shall remayn halff to 
hyar a prist and the other halff to my wyf : my wyf shall 
kepe Thomas Burton my yowngest son honestly untyl 
he come to lawfull age to 7 year of age and to ray him 
honestly and then to geve hym 5s. 

Residue. Isabell my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Humfray Dunn, John Hart, Wm. Somersed, 
Henry Wyttyn, Thos. Dune. 

Summa 14 10s. Od. 

34. John Clarke of North Cadbury. 4 Feb., 154. 

in churchyard of N. C. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Wylyam Bucke 
my wean, 2 yokes, 3 yeryng 2 ropes, a sullow : John Clarke 
the elder 1 cow, 1 yearlyng, 1 coatt : John Clarke the 
yownger 1 cow, 1 yearlyng : Henry Baker 2 oxys, 2 ropys, 
a sowle 3 : evry child of H. B. a chylver 4 shepe. 

Residue. Elyzabeth my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas, Hewlet, prist, John Blackom. Wm. 
Gayne. 

Summa 7 Os. 13d. 

35. Robert 5 Roo of Shepton Mallet. 6 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of S. M. : hye crosse lyght 2d. : Ch. of Wells 

2d. : the bellys 4d. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Rich. Stayner, John Mydwynter, Rob. Hannam. 
Summa 53s. 4d. 

36. Issabell Neades of Congresbury. 15 Mar., 1540. 

in crystyn buryell : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : St. Mychael Chappell 
at Congarsbury a nanfyll [an anvil] and a ryng : hye 

1 . A small farm-holding (N. E. D.) 

2. Iron ropes. Yeryn is an old form of iron. See Nos. 42, 137- 

3. i.e. Sullow (plough). 

4. A ewe sheep or lamb N.E.D.) 

5. Henry in margin. 



Wells Witts. 69 

auter 6d. : hye Iy3ght 8d. : my son Robert Nedys 4 sylver 
sponys and a pair of quelys [wheels] a yowke, a rope, a 
table bord and a table clothe : my dau. Jone Nedys my 
best bedde, a beryng shete, 1 2 pair of beedis, half! a 
garnysh 2 of pewter and 6 135. 4d. and my growne at 
Kyngton (if she die befor marriage, she shall give the 
said ground to one of her three brothers) : Kath Neads 
3 65. 8d. : John N. and Kath. N. all my weryng rayment. 

Residue. My 2 sons, Davyd N. and Wm. N. 

Overseers. John Hallyng and John Yeryssh. 

Witnesses. John Hallyng, John Yeryssh, Rob. Wyllet, 
Wm. Hunt, Raynold Slatter, curat. 

Summa 38 5s. Qd. 

37. Roger Dyar of Hutton. 19 May, 1541. 

in churchyard of Hutton : hye auter ther 4d. : John Dyar 
my son a calff : Jone my dau. a calff : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : 
Davy, Thomas, and Agnes my chylder a cowe. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Payne, parson, Thos. Hosyer, John 
Colyns the yownger. 

Summa 4 2s. Od. 

38. Raff Gollege of Pylle. 14 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Pull : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : the rode lyght in 
the ch. of P. 4d. : the bellys IQd. : Wm. Gollege my son 
20s. : John Gollege my son 20s. : Alyce Gollege my mother 
2 yewys with 2 lammys : Stephyn G. my brother, the 
same. 

Residue. Edyth [my wyf] whom I make myne executrix. 

Overseer. My father yn lawe, Wm. Sheppard. 

Witnesses. Sir Jamys Raynoll, 3 parson ther, John Bowshe, 
Rychard Golledge. 

Summa 11 8s. 4d. 



1. A christening robe. 

2. A garnish contains 12 platters, 12 dishes, and 12 saucers (N.E.D.) 

3. Instituted 12 June, 1528. "Somerset Incumbents," 173. 



70 Wells Wills. 

39. William Davys of Bleadon. 3 April, 1541. 

in churchyard of Bledon : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Ch. of B. 4d. : 

my dau. Isbell 2 yearlyng calffys. 
Residue. Jone my wyf and Thomas my son. 
Overseer. Wm. Rowswyll. 
Witnesses. Thos. Lest, Edm. Gosse. 
Summa 33s. 8d. 

40. John Gervys of Berrow. 9 May, 1541. 

hi the holy herth : Ch. of Wells 4d. : hye auter in my parish 
ch. a bushell of wheat : hye crosse a bushel of wheat, 
owr lady servys 3s. 4d. : Sir Davy my gostly father to 
pray for me a bushel of wheat : my dau. Alis to her maryage 
40s. and a cowe : to my dau. Jone's maryage 4 nobles 
and a cowe : bytwyxt John Borrow and Jone Borrow a 
heffer of 12 monyths of age. 

Residue. Margaret my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Davy Mylet, curat, Sir Marke Molard, 
Watkyn Banwell, John Come, Thos. Borrow. 

Summa 17 Os. I2d. 

41. John Parker of Button. 22 May, 1541. 

hi churchyard of H. : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Gelyan my dau. 

a cow : Ilsabeth my dau. a cow. 
Residue. Jone my wyf and Thomas my son. 
Witnesses. Thos. Hoseer, John Colyns, Edm. Yowng, 

Germon Saylor. 
Summa 4 Os. 12d. 

42. Robert Banwell of Locking. 11 Sept., 1540. 

in churchyard of Lockyng : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : John my 
eldest son a wayne, a sollow. a drag, a yowke, a rope of 
yron, a cow, a horse colte, my best jacket, a dowblet : 
Jelyan my dau. a cowe, 2 wenyd callvys, a mare colte, 
a pear of beddys [beads] : Thomas my son a cow : John 
my yowngyst son a yeffer. 

Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Day, vycar, John Banwyll. John 
Risun, Ric. Came. 

Summa 9 Os. 22d. 



Wells Witts. 71 

43. Edmund Maye of Worle. 20 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Worley : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter of 
Worell 4d. : Ch. of Worley 4d. : Win. May, Thos. Maye, 
Henry May, Nycholas May, Roger May, Martayne May, 
Rychard May, Alys May (each) a cowe. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Shepperd, vycar, John Pedder, Wm. 
Tokye, Tho. Goosse. 

Summa 18 11s. Qd. 

44. Rychard Hody of La wrens Wyke. 21 Mar., 1541. 

in churchyard of L. W. : all my goodis to Issabell my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir Tho. Smyth, curat, Wm. Tyrrell, Humfray 

Jefferey. 
Summa 3 15s. 4d. 

45. Helen Corwall of Worle. 21 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Worley : all my goodis to Rober Underwode. 
Witnesses. Sir John Shypperd, vycar, John Leversege, 

Robert Fesse. 
Summa [none given]. 

46. Rychard Clothyer of North Cadbury. 14 April, 1540. 
in churchyard of N. C. : parish ch. 4d. : Wyllyam my son a 

yotyng 1 stone, my weyne and all that pertaynyth to hyt : 

Jone my dau. a yearlyng bullocke. 
Residue. Jone my wyf. 
Witnesses. Thomas Hewlet, pryast, John Blackmore, Henry 

Clothiar, John Pytman. 
Summa 5 6s. 8d. 

47. John Marshall of Bruham. 14 Nov., 1540. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye crosse Iy3ghte 
and the torches I2d. : Rychard my son a bullocke of 2 
year age : Jayn a calff : Jone a bullocke of 2 year age : 
Agnes, the same : Henry, the same. 

Residue. Alys my wyf. 

Overseers. Wm. Copyn, Thomas Tabor. 

1. A stone cistern used in brewing (S.R.S., xix, 151). 



72 Wells Wills. 

48. Alice Marshall of Bruham. 20 Nov., 1540. 

(widow of the above) : in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wellys 
2d. : my gostly father 40d. : the rode lyght and the torchys 
12d. 

Overseers. Wm. Copyng, Hen. Marshal. 

Witnesses. Sir Robert Wellys, 1 Thomas Amys, John Baber- 
stoke. 

49. John Dune of Kilmersdon. 27 Jan., 1540. 

in churchyard of Kylmersdon : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Wylyam 
Bure 4d. : John my son a cowe, my grette panne : Elyn 
my dau. a heffar. 

Residue. My wyffe. 

Witnesses. Sir John Jenkynson, vycar ther, John Sheparde. 

Summa 4 Os. Od. 

50. Maude Stacy, widow, of Maperton. 1540. 

hi churchyard of M. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of M. one cow : 
Ch. of N. Cheryton a cowe : parson of M. I2d. : every 
chylde of Thomas Clothyar and Agnes his wyf one rother 
best. 2 

Residue. Thos. Clothyar and Agnes his wyf. 

Witnesses. Thomas heyse, clarke, John Androws, Ric. 
Harvy, John Hawey. 

Summa 15 5s. 8d. 

51. William Wyllyng of Wollavington. 5 June, 154 . 

hi churchyard of Wollavyngton : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : owre 
lady ch. of W. 6s. Sd. : vycar 3s. 4d. : Sir Roger, 3 Chantery 
pryast 12d. : parson of Barwyke 6d. : Katheryng my 
dau 6 13s. 4d. : every of my god chylder marryd 4d. : 
not marryd halff a bushel of wheat. 

Residue. Alys my wyf. 

Witnesses. Rob. Stone, vicar, Andrew Hore, John Olde- 
myxton, Wm. Palmer. 

Summa 23 13s. 4d. 

1. Formerly Canon of Bruton Abbey (S.R.S., viii, liv). 

2. An animal of the ox kind (N.E.D.) 

3. Roger Wynbery (S.R.S., ii, 62). 



Wells Wills. 73 

52. John Lane of South Brent. 8 Jan., 1540. 

in churchyard of Sowth Brynt : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye 
auter in S. B. 2d. : mayntaying of the be [ J 1 4d. : the 
bellys in Marke Ch. 4d. : Edward, a grey mare : Jone my 
dau. a cowe : Agnes my dau. a yearlyng. 

Residue. Margery my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Rychard Browne, curat, John Roge. 

Summa 5 3s. 



53. Humfray Typerton of Christon. 1 April, 1540. 

in churchyard of Cryston : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of C. 
6s. Sd. : hye ly}ght Sd. : my dau. Agnes a cowe : my son 
John a wayne, a dragg, a sollow with all other harnys 
belongyn therto : my dau. Issabell a harnys 2 gyrdell that 
was her mothers. 

Residue. John, Isabel and Elyn. 

Supervisors. Sir Thos. Williamson, Omfray Kyst, Nich. 
Kyst, Roger Ryche. 

54. Robert Hyne of Wincanton. 31 Dec., 1540. 

in churchyard of Wynecanton : Ch. of Wellys Qd. : Ch. of 
Wynecaluton 20s. : whereas Isabel my wyf has gevyn unto 
Richard Hine my son all such title as she in time coming 
might have sued for by custom at the lordis courte yn 
such holding and ground as I have bow3ght for the term of 
lyff unto Rychard Hyne my son and unto Edward his 
son. In consideration whereof I geve and bequeath to 
the said Isabel my wyf all such goods that she brought 
unto me at the day of maTyage and all such corne and 
malte as is in the barnehouse and barton to fynd her and 
her mayde (and when that is expended my sons Richard 
and Edward shall find her sufficient during her life) : 
and the house that she dwellyth yn rent free : Wm. Shote 
3 shepe : Elyn Shot a yew and a lamb : John Clarke als. 
Clement a cote : Edward Gorwan a cote. 

Residue. Richard my son. 

1. MS. torn. 

2. Mounted with silver or other metal (N.E.D.) 



74 Wells Wills. 

Overseer. John Dyar. 

Witnesses. Sir Rich. Smyth, curat, John Lane, John Chub. 

Summa 20 Ss. 9d. 

55. John Walle of Burnham. 26 March, 1541. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Welly s 3d. : St. Androw of B. 
4d. : hie crosse a bushel of benys : our lady servys 26'. 8d. : 
St. Nycholas half a bushel of benys : Sir Humfray Dune 
my gostly father to pray for me 3s. 4d. : John Clarke 12d. : 
Item that Kateryn Gyllyng my dau. in law be marryd 
of the holle [goods]. 

Residue. Issabel my wyf and Rich, my son. 

Witnesses. Sir Humfra Dune, curat, Rich. Genocke, Tho. 
Senclar, Simon More. 

Summa 16 8s. Sd. 

56. Wylyam Plucknett 1 of Mylbom Port. 12 March, 1540. 
to be buried in the church : Ch. of Wellys I2d. : Reparacyon 

of the Ch. of M. P. one akar of wheat : my son John my 
black gowne faced with black lame, a dowblet of black 
satyn, a jacket of say, 2 a rydyng cape of sattyng : Rychard 
my son a cow and a calf : William my son a yeffar of 3 year 
age : Jone my dau. the same : Alys Halet a yew and a 
lambe : William Exull my wyfs son a heffer : Jone Hyde 
my wyfs son (sic) 2 ewes : Richard Hyde a doublet of 
chamlet 3 : John Exull my wyfs son 2 yewys : Thomas 
my son a yeffar : Davy my son the same : Reparacyon of 
the cawseway from Chamberlaynys myll unto his house 
an acre of wottis [oats] :. John Clarke a lamme : every of 
my servants now beyng in servys a chylver hogge. Item 
the legacys made by me to John, Richard, Wm., Margaret 
and Jone my chylder above named be delyvered to 
Rychard Frye and John Clyd within one quarter of a 
year next ensuing after my decease unto whose governance 
I commit my said chyldren Katheryng my wife to have 

1. S.D.N.Q., ii, 186. 

2. A woollen stuff ; but sometimes it means silk (Drapers' Diet.) 

3. A fine stuff : the origin of the word is very obscure : according to Skeat it 
was a sort of cloth originally made of camel's hair. 



Wells Wills. 75 

and injoye my farme of Wyke 1 which I have purchased 
Ixxxv years from year to year during her natural lyff 
and afterward to John my son, Wm. my son, Richard 
my son, Thomas my son, Davy my son. my wyfs son 
Wm. Exull, the said Katheryn shall leve upon the said 
farme the table bord and the cowbord in the hawle. 

Residue. Katheryng my wyf. 

Overseers. Wm. Meer of Shurburne and John Plucknett 
of Horsynton. 

Witnesses. John Warman, Wm. Bysshope, Tho. Cammer- 
layne, John Glod, Jo. Clark. 

Summa 55 7s. Id. 

57. William Powre of Bruham. 1 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of Calsebroke 2 : Ch. of Welly s 4d. : my 
son Wm. 20s. : my kynsman Thos. Power a fleckat 3 
heffar of 2 year holde. Residue my wyf she to take of 
Wm. Hyll 46s. that was dew unto me at mydsumer last 
paste. Item lid. of the said Wm. for a cowe grasse. 
Item of ney3gbur Parsons 25s. Item of Rychar Colyns 
3s. Item of Wm. Horte 2s. Item of Jamys Pety 22d. 
for a cowe grasse. 

Overseers. Wm. Warbrunton, Robert Stacy. 

My wyf to pay unto John Ele 6s. Sd. wych I was swerty for 
John Frode. 

Witnesses. John Warbrunton, John Hyll, Howdwen Lee, 
Robert Bancrofte. 

Summa 8 8s. 8d. 

58. Omfray Foster of Badgworth. 12 Aug., 1541. 

in churchyard of Bagworth : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of B. 

I2d. : Robert Foster a yearlyng yeffar : Izabell Nycholas 

a calff. 

Residue. Edyth my wyf and my chylder. 
Overseers. Walter Yenow and John Goldy. 

1. Milborne-Wick. 

2. There is no parish of this name. 

3. Dappled, pied, spotted (N.E.D.) 



76 Wells Wills. 

Rychard my son shall pay to every one of his brothers and 
sisters 65. 8d. apeace at the day of ther marryge. 

Witnesses. Sir Rich. Rowlandson, John Lyvyng, John 
Bolgen. 

Summa 26 12s. Id. 

59. Jone Harrys of Badgworth. 10 May, 1541. 

in churchyard of Bagworth : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of B. 
I2d. : Izabell Stebbes a cow, my second kyrtell, my best 
neck kerchyff, a wovyng [woven] apron ; Thomas Stebbis 
her son a calff : Edyth my dau. my best kyrtell : Crystyan 
Paynys a payer of shetis : Jone Furbar a flannyng apron 
and a crescloth 1 kerchyff : Elyn Brese a russet kyrtell : 
Crystyan Taber a flaning petycote and a smocke : Richard 
Harrys my blacke mare and a wenlyng calff : Agnes 
Harrys a kerche. 

Residue. Walter Harrys my son. 

Witnesses. Sir Rich. Rowlandson, Rich. Harrys, Walter 
Harrys. 

Summa 4 11s. 6d. 

60. Thomas Gybbons of Axbridge. 1 Jan., 1540. 

in churchyard of Axbryge : Jone G. my wyf exor of all my 
goodes under this condicyon if she do not marry : and if 
she do marry then Margery G. her dau. to be halff exix. : 
my son John G. a platter of tynne. 

Witnesses. John Smyth, John Wylmut, John Bolgar, Sir 
John Whiter my curat. 

Summa 40s. 8d. 

61. Jamys Gummer of Martock. 1541. 

in churchyard of M. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of M. 4d. : 

hy3ghe auter 2d. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir Robert Low3ghe, John Stegge, John Illery 

the clerke. 

1. Crest, the middle line of fold in broad cloth (N.E.D.) 



Wells Wills. 77 

62. William Sowter of Badgworth. 3 July, 1541. 

in Churchyard of Bargworth : Ch. of Welly s 4d. : Ch. of B. 
2 bushels of wheat : Ch. of Byttysham 1 bushel of wheat : 
John my eldest son my donne mare and all my plough 
geer : John my myddell son 2 kye : John my yowngest 
son my blacke mare : Edyth my dau. 2 kye and a salte 
sellar : Jone my wyf 18 pece of pewter vessell and a aker 
of wheat in the sowth felde called hupper aker. 

Residue. John my eldest son. 

Overseers. Phyllype Say and John Lyvyng. 

Witnesses. Sir Rich. Rowlandson, Wm. Popull, Phyllyp 
Say, John Harrys. 
Summa 19 16s. lid. 



63. John Frye of Martock. 1541. 

in churchyard of M. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of M. a bushel 
of wheat and 4td. : hygh auter 4d. : the brothredyn ther 4d. : 
my son Hewghe a stere and a coffer : my dau. Jone a 
yeffar. 

Residue. Margaret my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Rob. Lowghe, Rog. Frye, John Simonds. 

Summa 11 05. Qd. 



64. Robert Vernam of Pawlet. 16 - , 1541. 

in churchyard of P. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : owre lady servys 
at P. I2d. : the bedde boke 1 at P. 3s. 4d. : Thomas my 
son a best dowblet : John my son a bullocke : Thomas 
and John 7 shepe that came from Whethys to be de- 
livered to them at shere tyme : Jone my dau. a cow and 
3. : John Verman 6 sylver sponys after the decesse of his 
mother : John Gatcomb a lamb : Robert Flemmyng 4d. 

Residue. Izabel my wyf. 

Overseers. Wm. Lantrow, Tho. Dey. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Sprynt, vycar, John Porkar. 

Summa 36 Os. I4d. 



1. i.e. Bead-roll. 



78 Wells Wills. 

65. Thomas Tache of Huntspill. 20 April, 1541. 

in churchyard of Hunspyll : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye crosse 
at H. 4d. : owr lady servys 4d. : St. Nycholas servys 
ther 4e. 

Residue. Wm. Gyllyng and to Jone and Agnes his daus., 
they to bestow 2 tryntallis 1 from my sowle : I wyll the 
longer liver afore maryage shall enjoy both partes of them. 

Witnesses. Christofer Webster, preast, Peter Rogers, John 
Clarke. 

66. George Wylton of Wyke in Bmton. 28 Jan., 1540. 

in churchyard of Bruton : my 4 chylderne 4 a pece : par. 

ch. of B. I2d. : the brotherede of B. I2d. 
Residue Jone my wyf . 
Witnesses. Sir Edmund Clarke, curat, John Walter the 

yownger, Tho. Amys. 
Summa 26 25. 8d. 

67. John Peers of Compton Pauncefoot. 1540. 

hi churchyard of Compton Pansfote : Ch. of Wellys 4rf. : 

Ch. of C. P. 4 bushels of barley. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 
Summa 4 8s. 8d. 

68. John Sayard of Lympsham. 21 June, 1541. 

in churchyard of L. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye aulter of L. 
for forgotten thethys 2s. : hye crosse 3s. 4d. : owr lady 
servys 3s. 4d. : my son Wm. 5 and one quarter of my 
leote, 2 the other 3 quarters I geve to my brother Rychard : 
my dau. Johne S. 5 : my dau. Agnes S. 5. 

Residue. Julyan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Thomas, curat, Rd. Lawrens, Wm. 
Ambler, Rob. Bybell, John Tayler. 

Summa 30 6s. Od. 



1. T rentals, a set of 30 requiem masses said on the same day or on different 
days (N.E.D.) 

2. Sic MS. ; it may be bote. 



Wells Witts. 79 

69. Richard Goffe of Closworth. 10 April, 154-. 

in churchyard of Clovysworthe : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of 
C. 6s. 8d. : Raynall my son a browne cow : Helys my son 
a heffar : Issabel my dau. a heffar : Peter Coke a pann. 

Residue. my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Marsshe, my gostly father, Elys Rocke, 
John Hull. 

70. John Flemman of Pawlet. 6 May, 1541. 

in churchyard of P. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of P. I2d. : 
Robert my son a yowke of oxen named Hort and Storre 
and a yearlyng : Agnes my dau. an oxe named Hawke : 
Robert my son ye hogg colte. 1 

Residue. John Flemyng my eldest son. 

Overseers. Wm. Launtrow and Thos Day. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Sprynt. clerke, John Porker, Tho. 
More. 

Summa 5 Os. Sd. 

71. John Day of Badgworth. 20 June, 1541. 

in churchyard of Barworth : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : Ch. of B. 

I2d. : Nycholas Smythe 4d. : my chylder the thyrd parte 

of my goods to be delivered to them when that my wyffe 

doth mary agayne. 
Residue. Alis my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir Rich. Rowlandson, Wm. Bleyke, Wm. 

Groff. 
Summa 12 Os. I6d. 

72. John Lawrens of Montacute. 16 Nov., 1540. 

in churchyard of Montagew : bellys of the same Ch. 2Qd. : 
Edyth L. my dau. 20s., and one chaffyngdyshe 2 : Gelys 
Menbrye son to my wyf 2 cotys and my satten cappe : 
Nycholas Cowlyng one cote : John L. my son the 4th 
part of all my goodis not bequethyd. 

1. A yearling colt. 

2. A vessel to hold burning charcoal and other fuel for heating anything placed 
upon it ; a portable grate (N.E.D.) 



80 Wells Wills. 

Residue. Isabel my wyf. 

Witnesses. Mr. Thos. Freke my gostly father, Wm. Rogers, 
Tho. Phyllyps (overseer of my will). 

73. Richard Bekyn of Wincanton. 16 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Wynecalton : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : and for 
asmowch I am in dett the sum of 26s. 8d. rehersyd byfore 
Sir Ric. Smyth curat, John Plymton, and Edm. Shete 
with other and not able upon my own goodes to pay hyt ne 
to provyde mete and dryncke with other necessarys 
duryng my sycknys with other chargis concernyng my 
funerall when God shall plese to visyt me. In consydera- 
tion whereof I gyve and bequeth to John Vynyng junior 
als Dyar of Wynecalton di quarter of burgage in Wyne- 
calton lyeng bytwyxte the half burgage of John Hody 
on the est parte and the ground in tymys past of John 
Chyke on the west part to have and to hold to the said 
John Dyer his heyrs and assynges for ever paying feod. 
and knolege to the lord after custom and maner. 

Residue. John Dyar. 

74. Master John Walgrow Clarke. 8 April, 1541. 

lately rector of West Charelton. 1 

to be buried in the church chancell of Charlton Mackerell : 
to the said Ch. 20s. for the intent to be prayed for among 
the brothers and the sisters of the sepulture lyght of that 
church : the Ch. of Charlton Adam 6s. 8d. to be prayed 
for among the brothers and sisters there : Ch. of Wells 
I2d. : ch. of Otcumbe 13s. 4d. : every howssholder of 
Otcumb rych and powre 12d., so that the man and the 
wyff be at my dyrege and masse excepte sycknys or other 
necessary thyng let hyt and the priast shall have 20d. 
for his labor : every howss in Charlton Macrell 12d. so 
that the man and the wyff be at my dyryge and beryng 
except sycknys, etc. John Knyllar my servant all such 
stuff as I have at Otcumb with 6 sylver sponys : every 

1. Also Rector of Odcombe. "Somerset Incumbents," 157. Instituted to 
Charlton Mackerell, 9 March, 1503. " Somerset Incumbents," 50. 



Wells Wills. 81 

godchild 4d. : my exor to provide some honest preast to 
pray for my sowle one year after my departyng in the 
ch. of Charlton Macrell the said preast shall every wyke 
ons by the year say placebo and dirige on the yevenyng 
and masse of requiem the next day followyng for my 
sowle specyally, and he shall have for his labor and for 
bread and wyn 6 13s. 4d. 

Residue. (except my bokys). Thos. Whytelstawle. 

Witnesses. Master John Ly3ght the elder, Sir John Style, 
my parish preast, John Powell the elder, John Drew, 
John Knyller. 

Summa 48 65. Qd. 

75. Edmund Kene of Congresbury. 7 Sept., 1540. 

in churchyard of Congarsburi : hye aulter I2d. : Chappell 
of St. Mychaell to be prayd for 20s. : hye ly}ght a bushel 
of wheat : Sir John Danyell to pray for me 3s. 4d. : the 
reparacyon of the hye way 20s. : my son John Kene 40s. : 
Robert Wylet 6s. Sd. (he to be overseer of my will). 

Residue. Jone my wyf and Thomas my son. 

Witnesses. Sir John Danyell, John Kyne, Rob. Wyllet. 

Summa 60 8s. Qd. 

76. John Wyllett of Wrington. 25 Nov., 1540. 

in churchyard of Wrynton : ch. of Wrynton a bushel of 
wheat : my eldest dau. Jone W. 3 6s. 8d. : my four sons 
William, Henry, John and John 5 marks apece : the chyld 
that my wyfe now goyth withall 3 6s. Sd. 

Residue. Alys my wyf. 

Overseers. John Alayn and my brother Thos. Wyllett. 

Witnesses. Sir Robert Roo, curat, Wm. Lawrens, Robert 
Harrys. 

Summa 77 Os. 20d. 

77. John Dunn of Colford in Kilmersdon. 27 Jan., 1540. 
in churchyard of Kylmersdon : Ch. of Wells 2d. : Wm. Bure 

4d. : John my son my best cow : Ellyn my dau. a cheyffar. 1 

1. A portable grate ; a chafing dish (N.E.D.) 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. f 



82 Wells 

Residue. Elizabeth my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Jenkynson, vicar, John Shyppard, 

Rob. Baker. 
Summa 4 Os. Od. 

78. Andrew Adam of Lympsham. ult. Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of L. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : hye alter of L. 20d. : 

hye crosse a bushel of wheat : owr lady servys 6s. Sd. : 

John A. my son 4. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir John Thomas, curat, Water Gyst, Rich. 

More, Roger Rich. 
Summa 26 8s. 2d. 



79. John Morse of Churchill. 8 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of Churchyll : Sir John Davy my gostly 
father Qd. : my son John Barton my best cote : Thomas 
my son a cowe : my wyf and my son William to succker 
my dau. Jone to the best they cann. 

Residue. My wyf Alys and my son William. 

Witnesses. Sir John Davy, John Mors, Thos. Morys, Wm. 
Merrid. 

80. Robert Petgrew of North Cadbury. 30 May, 1541. 

in churchyard of N. C. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : the brothered of 
owre lady I2d. : my son Richard a cow and a calff, two 
yearyd 1 dysshys of pewter and aker of dregge 2 and an 
akar of meadow : my dau. Alys dwellyng at Glastonbury 
a cowe : my son Thomas my olde oxe. 

Residue. Mawde my wyf. 

Overseer. John Hawy. 

Witnesses. Sir Water Veysy, curat, Job. Robyns, Rich. 
Brownyng. 

Summa 7 15s. 5d. 

1. Eared. 

2. A mixture of various kinds of corn, especially of oats and barley, sown 
together (N. E.D.) 






Wells Witts. 83 

81. Richard Yevans of Lympsham. 15 March, 1539. 

in churchyard of L. : ch. of Wells 4d. : hye crosse of L. a 
bushel of benys : owr lady servys 4d. : four chylder of my 
son John Yevans 4 kye : viz. Richard, John, John and 
John. Moover bycause my wyf Joan is content to yealde 
up her ry3ght and wydowhod of my bargayne and tene- 
ment after my decesse to my son John I gyve her 4, a 
maser of sylver and my chambyr with althyng belongyn 
unto hyt, 40s. and the masar to be payd at the makyn 
of this testament and 20s. to be payd at my monythys 
mynd. 

Residue. John my son. 

Witnesses. Sir John Thomas, curat, John Borman, John 
Balett, Wm. Cocke. 

Summa 8 7s. 2d. 

82. John Tryppe of Christon. 1 Jan., 1540. 

in churchyard of Cryston : Ch. of Wells 4d. : my brother Omfra 
Trippe all such detts as Omfra Edgell doth owe me and 
also the half part of a dowst bedde 1 with the appertynans 
to the same : the said Omfray five hogg 2 shepe, a peace 
of greene cloth : John T. my godson a yew : Agnes T. a 
calf : Robert T. a yew : John the son of Nicholas T. a 
yew : Yssbell T. a yew : Thomas Bawlet I2d. : Ch. of C. 
3s. 4d. : hye lyght 8d. : Ch. of Banwell 3s. 4d. : Wm. T. all 
such debts as my brother Nycholas doth owe me. 

Residue. Wm. Tryppe. 

Witnesses. Sir Christopher Helme, Rob. Nebb, Nich. Kyst, 
John Kyng. 

Registrum testamentorum a festo S. Michaelis, 1541, pro- 
batorum usque ad idem festum, 1542. 

83. Rie Sheryff als Osteler of Castle Gary. 22 Sept., 1541. 
in churchyard of Castelcary : Ch. of C. a bushel of wheat : 

1 A bed-tick mattress stuffed with chaff (Eng. Dialect Diet.) 
2. A sheep from six months old till being first shorn. 



84 Wells Wills. 

the brotherrede of C. a bushel of wheat : my gostly father 

20d. : my dau. Crystyan of Wells a bushel of wheat and 

a bushel of drege. 
Residue. My dau. Alls. 
Witnesses. John Hycks, Stephen Hellyar, Wm. Coke, Rob. 

Gypson. 
Prob. coram Mag. Joh. Dawis in eccl. Cath. Wellen. 4 Oct., 

1541. 

84. Raff Meed of Stokelane. 13 July, 1541. 

in church of St. Michaell at Stokelane : Ch. of Wells 4d. : 
St. Mychaell a shepe : the fraternyte of owr lady a yew : 
my son John Meed five wethers : my dau. Jone five shepe : 
John Rosetter a yew. 

Residue. Alys my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Gregory my gostly father, Wm. 
Norman, John Broke. 

Summa 14 95. 3d. 

Prob. in eccl. par. de Batcombe, 20 Sept., 1541. 

85. Richard Betley of Axbridge. 18 Aug., 1541. 

in par. ch. of A. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter of St. John 
the Baptist I2d. : hye crosse lyght 6d. : Sir John Wynter 
I2d. : Ryse Willy am a dosyng sponis of sylver : Margaret 
Walter a brasyng pott. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Wynter, Mr. John Payne, John Shep- 
pard. 

Prob. in eccl. de A., 27 Sept., 1541. 

86. Thomas Greneway of Shepton Montagew. 6 Mar., 1540. 
in churchyard of S. M. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : par. ch. 2 bushels 

of wheat : my son Wm. a stere bullocke and a yeaffar 

bullocke. 

Residue. My wyf. 
Overseer. John Bolsome. 
Witnesses. Sir Rich. Spenser my gostly father, John 

Bolsome. 
Prob. Batcombe, 20 Sept., 1541. 



Wells Witts. 85 

87. John Hawy of Maperton. 6 Sept., 1541. 

in churchyard of M. : Gh. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of M. a hyeffer : 
Margaret my wyf my best cow and calff, the croppe of 
my corne : my son Win. my wayne : Berde a shepe : the 
children of my son Richard a shepe. 

Residue. My son Richard. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Hayse, parson, Rob. Stevyns, Rob. 
Peerse. 

Prob. Batcomb. 20 Sept., 1541. 

88. John Andrew als Hyckman of Kyngsdon. 7 May, 1541. 
in churchyard of K. : Ch. of Wellys 12d. : Ch. of K. half an 

akar of wheat : parson of K. 4d. 
Residue. Issbell my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Wm. Abbot, Tho. Hilborne, Wm. Andrew. 
Proved at Martocke. 23 Sept., 1541. 

89. Agnes (margin Alice) Erie, widow, of Dunkerton. 

1 Aug., 1541. 

in churchyard of D. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of D. one of 
my best shetis : Richard Allyn a wayne, ropis and yokys 
a dosyn sylver sponys after his fathers and mothers lyffs : 
John Alyn a wayne : my godson Thomas Rowsewell a 
crocke : yowng Agnes Rowswell a pear of bedds [beads], 
a gyrdell, a pear of silver hoks : John Rowswell an angell 
nobell : Hurne 6s. Sd. 

Residue. My son in law Wm. Rowssell. 

Witnesses. Sir Edw. Alyn my curat, Wm. Rowsell, John 
Rose. 

Proved at Frome. 19 Sept., 1541. 

90. Harry Leyse of Marston [Bigot]. 15 Oct., 1541. 

in churchyard of M. : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hygh crosse lyght 
4d. : Thomas my son two kye : Richard my son one hyve 
of bees : Jone Umfray one bullocke. 

Residue. Ede my wfy. 

Witnesses. Sir John Ashe my gostly father, Andrew Butlar. 

Proved in Wells Cath. 5 Nov., 1541. 



86 Wells Wills. 

91. Thomas Cheke of Lawrenswyke. 1541. 

in churchyard of St. Lawrens of Wyke : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : 
lyght of St. Lawrens at Weke a bushel of barley : John 
my son a calffe : Jamys my son a calffe : Agnes my dau. 
a calffe. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Smyth, curat, Wm. Carter, John 
Ban well. 

Proved in Axbridge. 27 Sept., 1541. 

92. Robert Lewis of Frome Selwood. 12 June, 1541. 

in churchyard of F. : Ch. of Wellys 2d. : hye crosse lyght in 

F. 2d. : the Dowell 1 lyght in the same ch. 2d. 
Residue. My wyf Cesyly. 

Witnesses. Sir Tho. Phillips, curat, Wm. Frye. 
Proved in Frome. 19 Sept., 1541. 

93. Katheryng Locke, widow, of East Brent. 10 Nov., 1541. 
in churchyard of Est Brynt : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of E. B. 

I2d. 

Residue. My three sons and Agnes my dau. 
Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, Wm. Wawle, John Long. 
Proved in E. B. 5 Dec., 1541. 

94. John Tucker of Lawrens Wyke. 11 Sept., 1541. 

in churchyard of L. W. : Ch. of Wellis 4d. : Ch. of St. L. at 
Wyke 3s. 4d. : Jone my dau. 20s. and a cowe : Isbell my 
dau. the same : Thomas my son 20s. : Wm. my son 26s. 8d. : 
Henry my son 26s. Sd. : Margaret my dau. 20s. : Flore 
my dau. 20s. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf and John my son. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Smythe, curat, John Cocke, Tho. Toky. 

Proved in E. B. 5 Dec., 1541. 

95. Thomas Hals tone of Chewton. 14 March, 1541. 

in churchyard of C. : to the byldynge of the Towre of 
Chewton IQd. : Ch. of Wellys 6d. : Alis Beys my dau. one 

1. See. Introduction. 



Wells Wills. 87 

shepe : Jone and John her chyldren two shepe : Richard 

my son 20 shepe. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir John Gylis, 1 curat, Wm. Howse, Wm. Weste, 

John Beys. 
Proved in Frome. 19 Sept., 1541. 

[Fo. 29 missing 
Fo. 30 fragmentary.] 

96. Same parish [Shepton Mallet, see ante, No. 24]. 

Item. I will that mas and dyryge be kept every day duryng 

the monyth after my beryng. 
Residue. Robert Bithese my son in law. 
Overseer. Thomas Champion, to him my best salte. 
Witnesses. Sir Robert Corbet, curate, John Buckland of 

Harptre, Ric. Hodgis, Sir Robert Hyll. 

97. John Andrew of Kyngsdon. 6 July, 1541. 

at the bakehowse of the parish of Kyngsdowne : to be buried 
in churchyard of K. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Ch. of K. an 
akar of wheat : Thomas my son one bullocke : Helyn my 
dau. two shepe : Jone my dau. two shepe : John Andro 
my brother one cote withowte slevys : my syster Crystyn 
Far one cote with slevys : Robert Andro my brothers son 
one shepe : every godchild 2d. 

Residue. Alis my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Wm. Abbot, Tho. Browning, Wm. Olday. 

Proved in Martock. 28 Sept., 1541. 

98. Edith Yllarys de Stowell. 10 Jan., 1541. 

in churchyard of Stoyle : Ch. of Wellys Qd. : par. ch. 2s. : 
Milburne Ch. I2d. : my dau. Edyth Rayers 20d. : Bryne 
ys dau. a posnett 2 : every godchild 4d. : Thos. Kyng for 
his labor (as overseer) 3s. 4d. 

Residue. Alis Whyte my daughters daughter. 

1. Formerly canon of Bruton Abbey. (S.R.S., viii, Iv.) 

2. A small pot or skillet. 



88 Wells Wills. 

Witnesses. Sir Water Walssh, preast, Tho. Kyng, John 

Glede, Wm. Golbord. 
Proved in Wells Cath. 25 Jan., 1541. 

99. Sir Nicholas Bush, formerly Rector of Kyngton. 1 

29 May, 1541. 

to be buried in the chansell of Kyngton Manfyld in the north 
side : Ch. of Wellys 20d. : K. Ch. half an aker of barley : 
John Alam half an aker of wotts and half an aker of 
benys : Isbell Alam the bedd that I lye on : Peter Walter 
the testure of my bedd : Thomas Marche a sheet : Thomas 
Adams an old gowne. 

Overseers. John Walter and James Alam. 

Residue. To the churchwardens for the church behoof. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Nicholas, Water Walter, Wm. Chary. 

Proved in Batcombe. 20 Sept., 1541. 

100. John Daly of Burnham. 7 Sept., 1541. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wellis 4d. : St. Andro of B. half 
a bushel of wheat : hye crosse the same : owre lady 
servys 3s. 4d. : Agnes and Cristian my son William his 
chylder (each) a calffe. 

Residue. Cristyan my wyf and my son Thomas. 

Witnesses. Sir John Samford, John Harte, Tho. Donet, 
Wm. Mover. 

Proved in E. Brent, 5 Dec., 1541. 

101. John Hore of Brewham. 16 Feb., 1540. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wellys 4e. : my gostly father 
I2d. : the clerke 4d. : the brothered of Brewham a year- 
lyng : hye crosse lyght 4d. : Henry Hore my son a year- 
lyiig : Wm. Hore my son the same : John Hore my son 
a bolle : my dau. Jane Stoute Sd. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Rob. Wellys, 2 Stephing Cox, Peter Byrte, 
Phillip Ynge. 

Proved in Batcombe. 20 Sept., 1541. 

1. Inst. Mar. 20, 1500. "Somerset Incumbents," 113. 

2. Formerly Canon of Bruton Abbey. (S.R.S. viii, liv.) 



Wells Witts. 89 

102. Robert Gest of Berrow. 9 Oct., 1541. 

yn holye grave : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : hye auter a bushel of 
wheat : hye crosse the same : owre lady servys a yearlyng. 
Residue. Jone my wyf and Henry my son. 
Witnesses. Sir Davy Myllet, curat, Tho. Jonys, John Crese. 
Proved in E. Brent. 5 Dec., 1541. 

103. John Sibley of Cote in Martock. 1541. 

in church of M. : Ch. of M. 5s. : hye auter 4d. : the brother- 
reden ther 4d. : Wm. my son a cowe : Robert my son a 
cow and a pair of whelys yron bownd : Wm. my son 
junior a yeaffar : my dau. Jone, the same. 

Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Robt. Lowghe, John Pyttard. 

Proved hi Montacute. 12 Dec., 1541. 

104. Christian Whityng of Burnham. 1541. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wellis 2d. : St. Andrew of B. 
4d. : hye auter 4d. : hye crosse half a bushel of wheat : 
owre lady servys my best gowne : St. Nicholas auter or 
servyse a bushel of benys. 

Residue. My childer Richd. and Agnes. 

Witnesses. Sir John Flode, John Harte. 

Overseers. John Golld, Robt. Davy, Rich. More. 

Proved in E. Brent. 5 Dec., 1541. 

105. John Quarman of Doulting. 6 July, 1541. 

Ch. of Wellys 4d. : brothered servyse in Dowltynge to pray 
for me and all crystyn sowles a cowe : hye crosse a shepe : 
hye auter I2d. 

Residue. My wyf Cicile. 

Witnesses. Sir Robt. Cocke, curat, Sir Wm. Bisshopp, 
preast. 

Proved in Batcombe. 20 Sept., 1541. 

106. Elizabeth Payne, widow, of Doulting. 16 Feb., 1541. 
yn holye grave : Ch. of Wellys Sd. : hye auter of Dultyng a 

table cloth to make an auter cloth : hye crosse Id. : bellya 
20d. 



90 Wells Wills. 

Residue. Thomas Payne. 

Witnesses. Water Cocke, clerke, John Champyon, John 

Dorvall, Water Coocke. 
Proved in Batcombe. 20 Sept., 1541. 

107. Jone Marshe, widow, of Winscombe. 1541. 

in churchyard of Wynescumb : hye auter 4d. : hye lyght 
ther 2d. : Ch. of Wellis 2d. : Jone my dau. a crocke, a 
podynger, etc. : John Marryshe the elder al my bedclothis 
and a curtell : Eliz Hawkyns my best petycote and a 
flannyng : Jone H. a candelstycke, etc. : three childer of 
John H. three sawcers. 

Residue. John Hawkyns. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Nortun, Joh. Adamys, Rich. Kyng. 

Proved in Axbridge. 6 Feb., 1541. 

108. Richard Gyllyng of Lympsham. 28 Dec., 1541. 

in churchyard of L. : Ch. of Wellis 4d. : hye auter of L. 2d. : 
hye crosse a bushel of wheat : owre lady servyce 6d. : 
my two sons John G. and John 10. 

Residue. Cristyan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Thomas, curat, Win. Lock. Rich. 
Sparke. 

Overseers. John Gyllyng and Nich. Gyllyng of S. Brynt. 

Proved 6 Feb., 1541. 

109. John Knyght of Congresbury. 4 Jan., 1541. 

in cristyan buriall : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : Chappell of St. My- 
chaell in C. a bushel of wheat : John my eldest son a 
yeaffar : my dau. Jone 20s. : Alis a cowe and 20s. : Elyn 
the same : Thomas, the same : William the same and 3 
acres of new aster 1 and if the sd. Wm. departe before the 
21 years be ended, the sd. growne to remayne to Thomas 
then to John : my two yowng children John and Agnes 
two yearlyngs. 

Residue. My wyf Issabell. 

1. Astre, hearth. In Montgomeryshire Austerland is that which had a house 
upon it in ancient times. (N.E.D.) 



Wells Wills. 91 

Overseers. John Horte, Thomas Swayne. 
Witnesses. Wm. More, John Kyng, Tho. Swayn. 
Proved in Axbridge. 6 Feb., 1541. 

110. William Nedes of Congresbury. 12 Dec., 1541. 
hye Ii3ght of Congersbury 4d. : Ch. of Wellys 2d. 
Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Robert Neds, Robt. Batcocke, Raynell Slatter, 

curat. 
Proved 6 Feb., 1541. 

111. Thomas Hurrow of Marston Bigod. 20 Jan., 1541. 

in churchyard of M. : hy3ghe crosse Iy3ght 4d. : Thomas 
my sonne a brode lome and an osset 1 lome. 

Residue. Edith my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Ashe, parson of M., Wm. Danyell, 
Stevyn Spreyte. 

Prob. in Cath. Well. 22 Feb., 1541. 

112. Thomas Parfytte of Cranmore. 8 Dec., 1541. 
in churchyard of Cranmer : Ch. of Wells 2d. 
Residue. Jone my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Tho. Bowryng, John Cleve, Tho. Gyll. 
Proved in Cath. Well. 22 Feb., 1541. 

113. John Gyllyng of Huntspill. 2 July, 1541. 

my sowle to Allmyghty God meke desyryng the gloryus 
vergyn our ladi to pray for me with all the celestyall 
company and my body to be bured yn the cymytory at 
Hunspyll : Ch. of Wells 4d. : hye crosse at H. I2d. : our 
lady servyse I2d. : St. Nycholas servyse I2d. : Thomasyn 
and July an the chylder of Robt. G. (each) a yearlyng : 



1. Osset (this has been conjectured to be a dialect pronounciation of worsted, 
but investigation does not favour this), some kind of woven material, apparently 
of wool : also osset loom, a loom for weaving osset. 

1482 "6 yardes of blewosed " (English Gilds 321). 

1543. Will of R. Parsons of Chard (at Wells). 

"An oset lome, otherwyse called a narowe lome." (N.E.D.) 



92 Wells Wills. 

the longer lyver afore maryage to enjoy both : Wm. and 

Edith the childer of Robt. G. a cowe : Wm. Pepyng one 

colte. 

Residue. Thomasyn my wyf. 
Witnesses. Christofer Webster, preast, John Phelps, Ric. 

Allen. 
Proved in Graynton. 7 Mar., 1541. 

114. James Hayne of Huntspill. 18 Jan., 1541. 

Ch. of Wellis 2d. : hye crosse 4d. : St. Nicholas servyse 4d. : 

our lady servyse 4d. 
Residue. Cristian my wyf. 
Witnesses. Cristofer Webster, preast, Wm. Blower, John 

Clerke. 
Proved 7 Mar., 1541. 

115. Thomas Dun of Huntspill. 17 Feb., 1541. 

in the churchyard of Hunspyll : hye crosse Sd. : Sir Cristofer 
my gostly father 8d. : John Clerke 4d. : my son Luke Dun 
a maser : my yonger dau. Alis six sylver sponys : the 
childer of Jamis Hayne all the sum of money that their 
father owyth me. 

Residue. Luke and Alis my children. 

Witnesses. Christofer Webster, preast, John Clerke. 

Proved 7 Mar., 1541. 

116. John Horsey of Somerton. 21 Dec., 1539. 

in church of St. Michaell of S. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of S. 
10s. : Ch. of Northover Sd. : Ch. of Ilchester Sd. : Ch. of 
Lymyngton Sd. : Ch. of Yevylton Sd. : Ch. of Podymor 
Mylton Sd. : Ch. of Kyngesdon Sd. : Ch. of Charlton 
Makerell Sd. : Ch. of Compton Sd. : Richard and Robert 
my sons all the stuff withyn my shoppe, also 4 and two 
heyfers with the crese. 1 

Residue. Elizabeth my wyf. 

Witnesses. Umfrey Blowton, Thomas Cocks. 

Overseers. Mayster John Porter, Cuthbert Hillaker, clarke, 
Vicar there. 



Wells Wills. 93 

117. Harry Forde. 8 May, 1539. 

lately of Congersbury : in church of C. : Ch. of Wells 2d. : 
hie lyght a bushel of wheat : St. Michaellys chapell a 
bushel of barley. 

Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. John White, John Neads, John Horte. 

118. Agnes Cogan, widow, of Montacute. 6 Aug., 1539. 

to be buried yn the gylde 1 [aisle] of St. Kateryn at Mountagew 
nere unto the buriall of Thos. Cogan my husband : Ch. 
of Wells I2d. : Ch. of St. Kateryngs at M. 6s. 8d. : my 
gostly father Mr. Thomas Freke 6s. 8d. : Ch. of S. Pether- 
ton 3s. 4d. : Ch. of Stoke under Hampdon 20d. : Ch. of 
TyntenhuU 20d. : Ch. of Otcombe 20d. : Ch. of Chyltron 
20d. : Emlyn C. dau. of John Cogan 40s. : my salte of 
sylver, one harnes gyrdell, one payr of beads of corall 
gawded 2 with sylver stones gylte, one borde clothe of 
dyaper, a tester for a bedde, one latyn basynge, a yower 
to the same : Marget Cogan dau. of John C. my lasse [less] 
cuppe or pese of sylver, a gyrdell of blew color with 
sylver stodes, a payr of beads of amber gauded 2 with 
sylver stones gylte : Jone Cogan my sons wyf a gowne : 
John C. the son of the said Jone 5s. : Robert C. her son 
5s. : Robert C. son of Thomas C. 5s. : Margaret Syngulton 
a vyolett gyrtell : Margeth Symon a violet gowne : to the 
Frenche woman a gyrtell : Jone Salman a curtell : Jone 
Seton a mantell : Sir John Cogan 3s. 4d. : Emlyn C. dau. 
of J. C. a curtell and a bedde shete : Thos. C. my exor 
to dole halpenye breade to the pepull for the helth of 
my sowle both at the day of my burieng and also at the 
day of my trygyntall and that there be at the lest five 
prysts to pray for my sowle at both these days rehersyd 
and every to have for his labor at every of these days Wd. 

1. Yeld is the form it sometimes takes. See " Wells Wills," 31, 82, 110, 183, 
spelt ilde (No. 125). 

2. " Par precularum de amber cum gaudiis argentatis" (Wells Wills). A pair 
of beads of amber with silver gauds. 

Every tenth large bead in the Rosary represents a Paternoster, and is called a 
gaud, each smaller bead stands for an Ave Maria (Wells Wills, 201). 



94 Wells Wills. 

Residue. Thomas C. the son of John C. (my Exor). 
Witnesses. Mr. Thomas Freke, my gostly father, Wm. 
Browne, Tho. Norman. 

119. Thomas Bearde of Congresbury. 4 April, 1539. 

hi churchyard of C. : Agnes my dau. a cowe : Jone my dau. 

a cowe. 

Residue. John my son. 
Witnesses. John Atwyll, Wm. Froman. 

120. William Swane of Congersburie. 2 Feb., 1539. 

in churchyard of C. : Harry my son all my title in a certayn 
ground called Rydyngs in the par. of C. : Wm. my son 
a heyfar : highe lyght half a bushel of wheat : St. Michaells 
chapell a bushel of wheat : John Swayne my brother half 
a bushel of wheat : Jorie and Agnes my daus. two yearlings. 

Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Thomas Whiting, Nicholas Wryte. 

121. William Berde of Congersberie. 12 April, 1539. 

in churchyard of C. : hye lygbt half a bushel of wheat : 

St. Michaells chapell a pecke of wheat. 
Residue. Robert and Agnes my children. 
Overseers. John Cotton, John Knyght. 
Witnesses. John Atwyll, Will. Froman. 

[Folio 81 missing : folio 87 bound up in its place.] 

122. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf [Fo. 82], John my son. 

Overseers. Robt. Dowber. John Crosseman. 

Witnesses. Sir Marten Noble, John Longe, Joh. Crosseman. 

123. John Yowng of East Brent. 8 May, 1540. 
in churchyard of Est Brynt : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of E. B. 
a bushel of wheat : our lady light to be prayed for 3*. 4d. : 
I owe to Powell of Wells 3 6s. Sd. : to Cowlys 13s. 4d. : 
Mods Hunt of Wells 7s. : Kalewey of Bawlesborow owithe 
unto me 3s. 



Wells Wills. 95 

Residue. Sisly my wyf. 

Overseer. John Sheres. 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curat, John Bulgen, John Long. 

124. Robert Dabar of East Brent. 1540. 

in churchyard of E. B. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of E. B. 4d. 
Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Lyle, curate of E. B., John Long, Tho. 
Litheyate. 

125. James (margin John) Wicks of Brewham. 

2 Dec., 30 H. 8. 
to be buried in new ilde 1 of Brewham Ch. : Ch. of B. to helpe 

to maynteyn the brothred priest a kowe : John my son 

the yonger a cawldron : John my son the elder 4d, : Elinor 

my dau. 4d. 
Residue. My wyf Joan. 
Witnesses. Rich. Hart, 2 curat, Win. Rekhed., John Itery, 

John Baberstocke. 

126. John Glister of Langport. 25 Feb., 1539. 

in churchyard of Lamport : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of L. 
3s. 4d. : Thomas my son all my ground betwix the bothe 
brigges of Lamport in the North partye with my second 
best cuppe : my dau. Alice Rede my salte of sylver : my 
dau. Alice Gateryn my flatt peace of sylver the whiche, 
cuppe of silver, salte and flatt peace I will my wif to occupy 
as long as she is widow and my said ground during her 
lyfe. 

Residue. My wif Joan. 

Witnesses. Sir Thomas Rocetor, vicar, Tho. Wever, Androo 
Bennet, Waiter Rede. 

127. John Gowle, senior, husbondman, of High Ham. 

8 Feb., 1539. 
in churchyard of St. Androos of Hygham : Ch. of Wells 4d. : 

1. See No. 118. 

2. Formerly Canon of Bruton Abbey (S.R.S. viii, liv). 



96 Wells Wills. 

Ch. of H. 4d. : Ch. of Compton Dondun 4d. : Ch. of Streit 
4d. : my curat Sir John Jacson a bushel of wheat : Sir 
Laurence the brothernhed preist, the same. : Eliz. Tut ton 
my dau. a calve of 8 weeks old. 

Residue. My wif Clase and John my son. 

Witnesses. Sir John Jackson, curat, John Parson, Robt. 
Snowe, Wm. Amore. 

128. William Popull, husbondman, of High Ham. 

24 Feb., 1539. 

in church erthe of St. Androws of Hyham : Ch. of Wells 
I2d. : my gostly father Sir John Jackson, curett 12d. : 
my brother Bedyng of Heham a cow : Ch. of Murlynche 
a blacke cowe : Edyngton Chapell 12d. : Chelton is chapell 
12d. : Wm. Screvyn 2 oxen, 2 kye : my wyf Agnes 4 oxen, 
4 kye : my 2 sons all my shepe : to 5 Ryngers 20d. : my 
rayment to Wm. my yonger son, save my best cote and 
Wm. my elder son to have hym : Thomas, servant to Wm. 
Screvyn a sleveless coote. 

Residue. My two children Wm. and Wm. 

Witnesses. Sir John Jackson, curate, John Gowle, John 
Crosseman. 

129. Peter Edmonde, husbondman, of High Ham. 

17 Jan., 31 H. 8. 

in churchyard of St. Johns in the towne of Glastonbury : 
hie auter of the same ch. 4d. : same ch. of St. Johns 2d. : 
Sir Jas. Smythe my gostly father 4d. : Oistofer Newman, 
clarke, 2d. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of Hyham a sacke of 
wheat : hie auter of H. for forgotten tethes I2d. : my 
son John Emond my wayne, yowkes, roopes to be de- 
livered at his manage. 

Residue. Joan Edmond. 

Witnesses. John Hart, Baily of Glaston, John Raynsbury, 
John Thomas of the same town, Robt. Snowe and John 
Atwoll sen. of Higham. 

130/J Sir John Page of Axbridge. 13 April, 1540. 
to be buried in the church of A. by my mother : Ch. of 



Wells Witts. 97 

Wells 4d. : highe [aulter] in A. Qd. : the lighte 6d. : the 
churche for vestments 40d. : also ye shall receyve of 
Maister Kemys for his wiffs buriall in the church 6s. Sd., 
and this money I geve to the meanteaning of the beame 1 
before the highe aulter : every godson 4d. : my godson 
John Wise my chamlett girkyn : my godson John Hyet 
my wering coote of clothe : my brother John of Blakedon 
my mare : my brother Wm. Page a crock, etc. : Margaret 
Morow my 2 andyerns 2 : Rich. Hyet and Cristian his 
wif a broche, a frieng pan : Thos. Tanners wif a mantill : 
servyce of our lady in Wynscombe Ch. 40d. : my systers 
2 children of Bertun 8s., wh. I had of theirs to kepe and 
13s. 4d. beside : my brother Thos. Shalman of Nye to 
pay this 21s. 

Residue. Isabell Hodge and Christian Shalman my sisters. 

Overseers. Sir John Goldwege and Tho. King. 

Witnesses. Sir Richard Brown, curat (I2d.), Tho. King, 
Tho. Ball, Wm. Page. 

131. Thomas Wilkyns ais Heliar of Montacute. 6 May, 1540. 
in churchyard of St. Katerine in Montagew : Ch. of M. 10s. 

in the hands of Edithe sumtime wif to John Payys : Wm. 
Elvard als Baker my burgage lying in the northe streeit 
of the borowge of M. : John Morleye, mason, my warking 
howse standing in the quarrys at Hamdon. 

Residue. Joan my wif. 

Overseer. Wm. Elvard als. Baker. 

Witnesses. Mr. Tho. Freeke my gostly father, John Morley, 
Angell Symes, Wm. Godwyn. 

132. Walter Gilbert of Penselwood. 7 May, 1540. 
in churchyard of P. : highe aulter I2d. 
Residue. Alee my wyf. 

Overseers. John Illing and John Alvert. 
the said Alice willingly agreeth to kepe herself sole without 
marieng except it be with the counsell and alowing of 

1. "Wells Wills, "6 (note 1). 

2. " Fire-dogs " to support burning wood on the hearth. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. <j 



98 Wells Wills. 

J. I. and J. Alford, if she do not keep the sd. promise 
of widowhede then it shall be lawful to take all such 
goods from the sd. Alice and to dispose them for the 
helthe of my soul. 

Witnesses. Sir Wm. Grene my gostly father, Sir Richard 
Swayne, John Palmour, Walter Moppe. 

[Folio 86 missing : folio 87 in place of 81.] 

133. Bowge. 

in churchyard of Periton : Ch. of Wells 2d. : my curat 4r7. : 
St. Michaell Ch. of P. a bushel of wheat : my dau. Elinore 
a yerlyng heffer : John Wilway a calve. 

Residue. Elizabeth Bowge my wif. 

Witnesses. Wm. Weke, Robt. Wilway. 

134. Nicholas Hardwill of Lawrence Wike. 8 Jan., 1539. 
in church of L. W. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of Wike for my 

buriall 6s. Sd. : every godchild 4d. 

Residue. Joan my wif and my 3 sons, John, Tho. and Wm. 
Witnesses. Sir Tho. Smyth, curate, Tho. Toker, Wm. 

Terrell. 

135. John Colyns of High Ham. 2 May, 1540. 

church erthe of St. Andrew in Hyham : Ch. of -Wells 
4d. : Ch. of H. 2 bushels of wheat : the brothereden one 
bushel of wheat : Wm. my son a cowe : my son John a 
stere : my son Robert a stere : my dau. Jone a cowe. 

Residue. My wyf Elizabeth. 

Witnesses. Sir John Jackson, Phil. Sherwyn, John Gowoll. 

136. Sir William Donne of East Brent. 9 March, 1539. 
my body to be buried in the chancell of E. B. : Ch. of Wells 

8d. : Ch. of E. B. Sd. : mayntayning of our lady preist in 
E. B. 3s. 4d. : Sir Thomas Bovell Sd. : John Long the 
par. clerke 4d. 

Residue. My father John Gary. 

Witnesses. Sir Thos. Bovell, Rich. Mere, John Long. 



Wells Wills. 99 

137. John Androos, husbondman, of Kingsdon. 

29 April, 1540. 

in churchyard of Allhalow in Kingisdon : Ch. of Wells Ad. : 
Ch. of K. the shere of one acre of whete a long land : the 
3 children of John Walford a great pan and a broche 
[spit] : Joan Walford an yron rope. 

Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir Robt. Barbar, John Tompsy, Tho. Androos. 

138. Thomas Mors of Congresbury. 2 Nov., 1539. 

in churchyard of C. : Ch. of Wellys 4d. : St. Michaell chapell 
a bushel of wheat : Joan my dau. 3 oxen : Thomas Rust 
a chamlett dublat : Wm. Ruste a shirt : Sir Wm. parish 
priest a shirt. 

Residue. Joan my wyf. 

Witnesses. Edm. Neads, Wm. Rust, Sir Wm. 

139. John Towkey of Banwell. 11 March, 1540. 

in churchyard at B. : Annys my wif and John my son all 

my goods. 
Witnesses. Sir Hew Coper, curat, Tho. Cooke, Wm. Cooke, 

clerk. 

140. John Bremelcumbe of Tintinhull. 7 April, 1540. 
sacre sepulture dive virginis Margarete de Tyntenhull : 

Wellie 4d. : eccl. B.V. Margaret 2Qd. : filio meo meum 

plaustrum cum rotis ferro ligatis : Thome filio meo unam 

juvencam. 

Residium. Eliz. ux mee. 
Testibus. Will. Axe, meo confessore, Wm. Gill, Joh. Hop- 

kyns. 

141. Thomas Penny of Batcombe. 24 Aug., 1540. 

in churchyard of B. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : hye crosse lighte of 
B. 4d. : belding of the towre of B. 40 lode of Rowe stones 
or 5s. for theym at the choice of the parishe : the brother- 
heden of B. 5s. : 4 of my son Wm. Penys children Agnes 
Peny, Alice and Alice Peny and Katerine Peny each 
5 shepe. 



100 Wells Witts. 

Residue. Julian my wif and Wm. my son. 

Witnesses. John Kingman, Wm. Yerebury, Ric. Williams. 

142. John Blewett of Axbridge. 14 March, 1541. 

in churchyard of St. John in Axbruge : Ch. of Wells Id. : 
hie auter of A. Id. : the Trinytie lyght, the Roode lyght 
and St. Crispyn and Crispinyanes 1 light (each) Id. 

Residue. Alys my wyf and Maude my dau. 

Witnesses. Sir Rich. Browne, curatt, Ric. Blewett, Morrys 
Browne, Tho. Ball. 

143. Clare Sever of Huntspill. 10 Oct., 1540. 

in churchyard of Allhallon of Hunspyll : Ch. of Wells 2d. : 
hie crosse of H. 4td. : our lady servys a rynge : my dau. 
Agnes Good my best gowne, a gyrdell. 

Residue. Richard Tawzon my son in law. 

Witnesses. Sir John Hancockes, Thos. Tatche, Rich. 
Tauson. 

144. Thomas Gyste of Burnham. 12 Dec., 1539. 

hi churchyard of St. Andrew of B. : Ch. of Wells 2d. : St. 

A. of B. 2d. : hie crosse 2d. : my children Richard and 

Joan 2 yerelyng heyfers. 
Residue. Joan my wyf. 
Witnesses. Sir John Masse, John Harte, Rich. Jenett, John 

Blower. 

145. Richard Browne of Congresbury. 9 Feb., 1539. 

to be buried at Puckiston : hye light at C. 2 bushels of 
barley : St. Michall chapell the same : John my son the 
elder 2 oxen, 2 kyne and a mare that is in the kepyng of 
Thos. Williams : Wm. my son 2 oxen that are in the 
kepyng of Agnes Colman, and 2 kyne in the kepyng of 
John Bodie : John my son the yonger all my title in a 
certain lease 2 at Wotfords hill with 8 colts being in the 
same lease. 

1. They are the Patron Saints of Shoemakers (se.e Introduction). 

2. Leasow (meadow). 



Wells Witts. 101 

Residue. Maude my wyf, John the yonger, and Thomas 

my sons. 

Witnesses. John Knyght, Tho. Cooke, Joh. Hunte. 
Overseers. J. K., T. C. and Rich. Averye. 

146. Wm. Bayly of Lawrens Wyke. 26 Oct., 1539. 

[rest missing : folio 91 missing.] 

147. William Har vie of Stowford in Barwick. 16 March, 1540. 
in the par. church of Mary Mawdelyn yn Barwycke : Ch. 

of Wells I2d. : hie crosse light of B. 8d. : Sir John Gryme 
my curett for my forgotten tethes 3s. 4d. : Ch. of B. 10s. : 
my son Antonye Harvie a goblett of sylver with the cover 
also a bedde in the low chambre with the tester and 
curtens and the hangyngs of say that ys in the hawlle 
after my wyves decease : Richard Harvye my son my 
salte of sylver with the cover : Jone Harvye 6 13-s. 4d. : 
Anne Coles 4 : every of Richard Harves children a shepe : 
Phillipp Harvie one colte. 

Residue. Agnes my wyf. 

Witnesses. Sir John Gryme, parson of B., Rich. Harvie, 
Tho. Frye. 

148. Margaret Jorden of Frome. 8 March, 1539. 

in churchyard of St. Babtist in F. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Rich. 
Morgan one coppe of sylver gylte : wyfe of John Layn a 
kyrtell violet color : Gabege wyffe a gowne : Isbell Spender 
a kyrchew holand : Thos. Phillipps curat a pair of shetes : 
Sir Robert Grey the same and a towell of dyaper for his 
aulter : John Horner the yonger servant unto Mr. Thomas 
Horner 4 platters of pewter : Thos. Bullocke 3 platters : 
John Horseman 4 platters : John Basyng the same : John 
Trugwell the same : George Felon 2 platters : Anne Bur- 
no wgh the crowne of 5s. which she borrowed of Edw. 
Jorden my husband : Jone Selbye a kyrtell : John Water- 
man is wyf one pair of canvas shetes : Jone Adene a kyrtell : 
Isbell my elder dau. and her husband one kerchew of 
lockeram 1 : Maystress Cocke a smokke : Margaret Johns 

1. A linen, said to have been originally manufactured at Locronan in Brittany. 
(Drapers' Diet.) 



102 Wells Witts. 

a kyrche : Avas Edmunds my mantell : hie alter in F. a 

table cloth for an alter clothe : John Layn 9s. 6d. 
Residue. John Danyell my servant. 
Overseers. Mr. Tho. Homer (to whom one pece of sylver 

and a spruse horde). 
Witnesses. Sir Tho. Phillipps, curett, Sir Rob. Grey, prist, 

Mr. John Cooke, John Layn. 

149. Alice Maydman of Brewham. 4 June, 32 H. 8. 

in church of Brewham : Ch. of Wells 4d. : Ch. of B. 3s. 4d. : 
brothereden awter of B. 3s. 4d. : Mr. Wells my gostly 
father I2d. : John M. my son 4 steres, a payr of Ethes, 1 
2 sylver spones, a rownde borde, a wymshete 2 : to his 
wyff a curtell : John his son a wenlyng of this yeare : 
Margett his dau. the same : 2 other of his children 2s. : 
John Perry a cowe : a great whiche 3 : Richard Perry a 
bullocke : Alys Pyrry a heyfer : 5 other children 5s. : 
Agnes Yowng a sylver spone and 6s. 8d. : John Pyrry a 
yerlyng : Alls Dole a maser : John Burton a podynger. 4 

Residue. My son Wm. Dole and Syblie his wyfe : holy roode 
lyght 12d. : torches 4d. 

Witnesses. Sir Robt. Wells, prist, Stevyn Coxe, Phil. Da vie, 
John Togood, John Frowde. 

150. Edmund Watts of Shepton Malett. 25 Feb., 1540. 
church yerth of S. M. : Ch. of Wells 4d. : hye crosse lyghte 

4d. : bells Sd. : hye auter 2d. : John my son a brode lome 
and an osat lome 8 : Leonard my son a brode lome : John 
my foresaid son 10 shepe : Leonard 6 shepe : Jone my 
dau. 10 shepe : Margere my dau. 10 shepe : Alys my dau. 
the same : to every of my s rt- daus. 10s. and a heiffer apece. 
Residue. Ane my wyf. 

[The rest missing.] 

1. Eythe, a harrow (N.E.D.) SeeS.R.S. xxi, 111, 140, 229. 

2. A winnowing sheet. 

3. A hutch or chest. 

4. i.e. porringer. 

5. See No. 111. 



Wdls Wills, 



103 



INDEX TO INTRODUCTION AND NOTES. 



Aisle, 118. 
Altarcloth, 148. 
Andirons, 130. 
Angel noble, 89. 
Armour, 27. 
Aster, 109. 

Bargain, 33, 81. 

Beads, 36, 42, 89, 118. 

Bead book, 64. 

Beam, 130. 

Bells, 24, 38, 52, 72. 

Bering sheet, 36. 

Boat, 68. 

Bridges of Langport, 126. 

Broche (spit), 130, 137. 

Brotherhoods (Intro.). 

Camlet, 56, 130. 
Chaffing-dish, 72, 77. 
Chilver shepe, 34, 56. 
Cows, names of, 70. 
Crescloth, 59. 
Crese, 116. 

Crispin, St. (Intro.), 142. 
Customs*. 25, 54, 73. 

Dirige, 74, 96. 
Dowell light (Intro.). 
Drege, 80, 83. 
Dust bed, 82, 83. 

Ethes, 149. 

Female names (Intro.). 
Flecked, 57. 
Fosset, 1. 
Four lights, 12. 

Garnish, 36. 
Gauded, 118. 
Gylde, 118. 



Harnys girdle, 53, 118. 
Heifer (Intro.). 
High cross light (passim). 
Highway, 10, 56, 75. 
Hive of bees, 90. 
Hog colt, 70. 
Hog sheep, 82. 
Hosecloth, 6, 9. 

Ilde, 125. 

Jesu mercy (Intro.). 

John (three sons named) (Intro.). 

Lease, 145. 
Lights (Intro.). 
Lights, the four, 12. 
Lockeram, 148. 

Months mind, 5, 81. 
Mo we, 8. 

Osset loom, 111, 150. 

Pig, 29. 
Placebo, 74. 
Podynger, 107, 149. 
Posnett, 98. 
Privignus, 12. 

Quelys, 36. 

Ray (array), 33. 
Requiem, 74. 
Ringers., 128. 
Rood light (passim). 
Rother beast, 50. 
Rowe stones, 141. 

Say, 56, 147. 
Services (Intro.). 



104 



Wells Witts. 



Shoemakers brotherhood, 142 

(and Intro.). 
Sieve, 6. 
Sloppe, 1. 
Sowle, 34. 
Sullow, 10. 

Tawyd, 27. 
Taylyd, 3. 
Tithes forgotten, 7 
Torches, 48, 149. 
Towers, 95, 141. 
Treiitals, 65, 118. 
Trinity Light, 142. 
Twilling sheet, 12. 



Ungotten tithes. 25. 

Valow, 3. 
Vestments, 130. 

Welsh heifer, 14. 
Whiche, 149. 
Wimshete. 149. 
Working house, 131. 

Yeared dishes, 80. 
Yeryng rope, 34, 42, 137. 
Yotyng stone, 46. 
Young men wardens (Intro.). 



Ctoo Deens Eclating to ^tatoortmle priorp anU 
jfamilp of 



BY THE REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 



BY the kindness of Mrs. Heneage I am enabled to publish 
two deeds from the large collection in the muniment 
room at Coker Court. Its contents have recently been care- 
fully sorted and arranged in boxes, and provided with an 
excellent catalogue. While examining this I was interested 
to find that there were two documents relating to Stavordale 
older than any yet discovered, giving the name of a Prior 
hitherto unknown. The references to the Sanzaver family 
were equally curious ; and it seemed worth while to put to- 
gether a history of the family so far as it was connected with 
Somersetshire. A short account of Stavordale will be found 
hi the ^Proceedings, L, ii, 94, to which these notes may be con- 
sidered as an appendix. 

I. 

No. 993 in Coker Court muniments. Size, 9|ins. x Sins. ; 
good condition but seal missing. Indented at the top through 
cyrograph. 

Omnibus Christi fidelibus presentem cartam visuris vel 
audituris Willielmus divina permissione prior ecclesie sancti 
Jacobi de Stavordel et ejusdem loci canonici salutem in 
Domino. Noverit universitas vestra nos divine pietatis 
intuitu et specialiter ob favorem domini Hugonis sine averio 
et heredum suorum. et pro anima Eve quondam uxoris sue 
et antecessorum suorum et sucessorum, quo multa bona 



106 Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 

contulit ecclesie nostre, concessisse de consensu et voluntate 
venerabilis patris nostri Jocelini episcopi Bathoniensis quod 
unus canonicus ecclesie nostre imperpetuo pro animabus dicti 
Eve et dicti Hugonis et antecessorum suorum et successorum 
singulis diebus quibus licitum est celebrare pro defunct is 
divina celebret inperpetuum pro eisdem. Ita videlicet quod 
idem canonicus qui dicere officio preerit, in ullo sit dicto 
Hugoni vel heredibus suis subjectus ; sed, cum de ipso human- 
itus contigerit, ut gratiam dicti Hugoni et heredibus suis in 
hac facie videamus et de ipsa sint certi, obligamur nos eisdem 
Hugoni et heredibus suis quod infra quindecim dies post 
mensem ad tardius postquam ipso canonicus infata decesserit, 
aliquem solitarem virum ydoneum ad predictum officium 
supplendum eisdem presentabimus quum in ecclesia nostra 
canonizabitur, quern recusare non poterunt dictus Hugo vel 
heredes sui qui pro tempore fuerint si ydoneus fuerit. Si vero 
tune morati fuerimus presentandi, episcopus Bathoniensis qui 
pro tempore fuerit vel ejus officialis nos ad primam sum- 
monitionem dicti Hugonis vel heredum suorum per censuram 
ecclesiasticam et sequestrationem omnium bonorum nos- 
trorum mobilium et immobilium, omni appelatione, cavilla- 
tione, et regia prohibitione postpositis ad presentandum dicto 
viro si necesse fuerit compellet. Nichilominus per unum 
canonicum ecclesie nostre celebrabitur quolibet die pro 
animabus predictis quousque canonicus vero predicto servicio 
in ipsa ecclesia subrogatur. 

Et ut perpetue commendetur memorie volumus quod ipsa 
nostra permissio ponetur in martilogio nostro et quolibet 
menso (sic) semel ad minus in capitulo legatur et simili dona- 
tionis recitatione, et dicatur psalmus De profundis cum oratione 
dominicali, et oratione speciali pro animabus predictis. Dictus 
vero Hugo attendens quod sibi et heredibus suis gratiam 
fecimus in premissis specialem, nolens quod ecclesia nostra 
in premissis gravetur, sed indempnitatem ecclesie nostre 
prospicere cupiens, ad unius canonici in dicta ecclesia sus- 
tentationem dedit ecclesie nostre et canonicis Deo et beate 
Marie et sancto Jacobo ibidem servientibus pure libere in 
puram et perpetuam elemosinam pro animabus dicto Eve et 
antecessorum et successorum dicti Hugonis, triginta solidos 



Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 107 

annualis redditus in villa de Batecumbe cum homagio 
Willielmi le Esware et heredum suorum : salvo servicio Domini 
regis et forinseco, prout in carta domini Hugonis super hoc 
nobis perfect a plenius pertinetur. Omnem quod obliga- 
tionem et premissorum donationem ad petitionem nostram 
et dicti Hugonis et heredum suorum dominus nostri dictus 
Jocelinus Bathoniensis episcopus auctoritate pontificali sicut 
pie et proinde sanctum est confirmavit. In cujus rei testi- 
monium presens instrumentum in modo cyrographi confectum 
sigillo nostro et dicti domini Jocelini Bathoniensis episcopi 
fuit sigillatum. 

Prior William desiring to make a return for all the kindness 
received from the lord Hugh Sine averio, and to benefit the 
souls of his late wife Eva and their ancestors and successors 
has obtained permission from Jocelin Bishop of Bath that a 
daily mass for the deceased shall be celebrated by one of the 
canons, who shall be subject to Hugh and his heirs ; on the 
death of the canon another shall be chosen within fifteen days 
under penalty of ecclesiastical censure and sequestration. 
This permission is to be entered in the martilogy and recited 
once a month in chapter. In return for this special favour 
Hugh has granted to the said canon thirty shillings of annual 
rent out of the village of Batcombe together with the homage 
of William le Esware and his heirs. 

The document is not dated. Eva Sanzaver was alive in 
1233, and Bishop Jocelin died 19th November, 1242. 

II. 

No. 994 in Coker Court muniments. Size, 7|ins. x 3ins. ; 
good condition, but seal missing. 

Sciant presentes et futuri ego Willielmus prior ecclesie sancti 
Jacobi de Staffordel et fratres nostri ibidem Deo servientes 
tenemur acquietare imperpetuum dominum Radulfum sine 
averio et heredes suos de regali servicio et forinseco de terra 
quam habemus ex dono Amugerii sine averio fratris ejusdem 
Radulfi in villa de Rakincham, videlicet quantum pertinet 
ad tantam terrain de eodem feudo in eadem villa ; et ut hie 
nostra regalis servicii et forinseci recognitio prout accidit rata 



108 Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 

et stabilis imperpetuum permaneat hie carte nostre de com- 
muni assensu fratrum nostrorum sigillum nostrum duximus 
apponendum. Hiis testibus : domino Hugone sine averio, 
domino Willielmo de Hystenestham, domino Drugone de halt a 
ripa. domino Willielmo Godmanestham, magistro Williehno 
sine averio, Johanne de Hescite, Robert, Bosse, et multis aliis. 

Prior William acknowledges that the Convent is bound to 
acquit the lord Ralph Sine averio of the royal and foreign 
service due from their land at Rackincham which his brother 
Amuger had given to them. 

The charter is not dated. Ralph has succeeded his father 
who was alive in 1243 ; and Walter was prior in 1249. 
Rackincham was somewhere in the neighbourhood ; and in 
the next century had become Rackington, as Godmanestham 
had become Godmanston. In the Buckland chartulary 
(S.R.S., xxv) charter no. 230 mentions Brichm which the 
editor identifies with Bruton. So here are three cases in the 
same district where the ham termination has given to place 
to ton. Amuger is a very unusual personal name ; due one 
would imagine to a misspelling of Mauger. with one letter 
transposed. 

Spargrove the Somerset home of the Sanzaver family is 
now only a farm-house in the parish of Batcombe, to which 
the benefice was annexed in 1564. There was a church here 
in Norman times, as sundry architectural fragments, piously 
collected by Bishop Hobhouse and deposited in Batcombe 
Church testify. 

Spargrove is not mentioned hi Domesday and apparently 
was not yet separated from the parent manor of Batcombe, 
the property of Glastonbury Abbey. The only portion re- 
corded as taken from that manor was a holding of Roger 
Corcelle rated at two hides, which became the curiously named 
manor of Twohyde, and was held with Spargrove hi 1232. 
The Feodary of the Abbey, 1 drawn up in 1342, records that at 
some date previous to 1255 Robert de Bruwes (of Staple Fitz- 
paine) obtained the mesne lordship of Spargrove by concession 
from Thomas de Bruton. As the same authority states that 
before this transaction Saunzaver held Spargrove " imme- 

1. Som. Rec. Soc., XXVI, 111. 



Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 109 

diate " of the Abbot, it is not easy to understand why the 
Abbot should have allowed Bruton and Bruwes to step between 
him and his tenant. 

The earliest reference to Spargrove appears in an entry in 
the Liber Ruber, p. 222, under the date 1166. The Abbot of 
Glastonbury included in his list of tenants Sanson de Sperte- 
grave ; he had held the fee of one knight, which was then 
held by his son. This anonymous individual may have been 
the father of Richard son of John, who according to the Feo- 
dary, p. Ill, held Spertegrave "in antiquis " of the Abbot 
for one knight's fee. Of him it can only be said that he was 
dead by 1232, leaving a son Henry, and a widow Eva who 
became the wife of Hugh Sansaver (see post). 

The surname of Saunzaver (with many variations) represents 
the French St. Sauver, which is Latinized as Sine averio, the 
English equivalent of this being Lack-cattle. There has been 
considerable discussion on the origin of this peculiar surname. 1 
One theory is that it is due to the efforts of a scribe to give a 
Latin form to the place-name of St. Sauver or Sever, in the 
department of Calvados. If the memory of the Saint was 
still fresh in the land, this somewhat profane handling of his 
name might have placed the rash scribe under ecclesiastical 
censures. I am not aware that St. Sauver is found in English 
records, except in Charles' Roll : Hugh de St. Sauveur bears 
Azure three crescents or. 

Another view is that Sine averio is really a nick-name, of 
the same class as Lackland ; which the Normans w r ere no- 
toriously given to fastening on each other on very small 
provocation, in this case apparently some unfortunate farming 
operations. It appears from some references in the Lewes 
chartulary that Sanzaver was so to say appendant to certain 
members of the great Sussex family of Kahaignes, Keynes, 
Cheyney, etc. Kahaignes like St. Sauveur is also in the de- 
partment of Calvados, south-west of Caen. Ralph the third 
son of William de Kahaignes, ob. 1219, is styled Sanzaver 
" dictus sine averio," as is also his son Hugh, in a Lewes 
charter. 2 We shall meet these two again. 

1. Sussex Arch. Collections, XXIV, XXV. 

2. Sussex Arch. Collections, I, 128, article by Mr. W. S. Walford. 



110 Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 

In this case the alternative name must have become ap- 
pendant immediately after the Norman Conquest. Banks 
(Baronies in Fee, 11, 131) records a Walter Sensavior as one 
of the first crusaders in 1096 ; "he afterwards perished 
miserably in that expedition of holy infatuation." The name 
does not occur in the list of tenants of the Earl of Arundel in 
1166. but in 1186, when a scutage was levied for the expe- 
dition to Galwey, 1 Ralph Sanz Aver was pardoned thirty 
shillings among the tenants of the Honour of Arundel. 

He may have been the Ralph Sanz Aver who in 1166 held 
one knight's fee of the king in capite hi Devonshire. He 
paid one mark the following year, and twenty shillings in 1171, 
but after this date his name drops out of the Devon lists 
altogether. 

In Sussex Ralph had an uncle William son of Richard de 
Kahaygnes, whose possessions are found hi so many counties 
as to make it doubtful whether there were not several men 
bearing the same name. Uncle and nephew were both living 
in 1186-7 ; but at a later date Ralph Sanzaver and Matilda 
his mother confirmed the gifts made by his uncle William de 
Cheyney to Boxgrove Priory in Sussex. Ralph also made 
donations to Dureford Abbey, which was situated in his own 
parish of Biknor in Sussex, within the period 1180-1204 
(Sussex Arch. Collections, vm, 51, 53, 60). 

Within the same period Ralph Sansaver appears at least 
as a visitor in Somersetshire. His name occurs among the 
witnesses to. an Inspeximus and confirmation of a deed relating 
to land in Wells, to be dated 1184-88 ; and to another deed 
by which Henry Abbot of Glastonbury granted to Reginald 
Bishop of Bath the church of South Brent to form a prebend 
in Wells Cathedral. 2 

In the Montacute chartulary are two deeds relating to gifts 
of lands at Babcary to the Priory, to which Ralph Sanzaver 
is a witness. The deeds may be dated about 1195. 3 In the 

1. Liber Ruber, 58 ; Eyton's " Henry II," 269. 

2. Calendar of MSS. of Dean and Chapter of Wells, I, 48; II, 548. The 
thanks of all students are due to the Hist. MSS. Commission for this enlarged 
and revised edition in two volumes. 

3. S.R.S., VIII, 149, 150. 



Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. Ill 

Bruton chartulary is an Inspeximus and confirmation by 
Bishop Savaric (to be dated 1 192-6) of the grant by the younger 
William de Moyun to the Canons of Bruton of the churches of 
Cutcombe and Luxborough. Among the witnesses are R. 
Sine averio, H. his son. 

We cannot now tell what brought R. and H. into Somerset- 
shire, where they held no land, to witness ecclesiastical trans- 
actions ; but it may be noted that Bruton is only three miles 
from Spargrove ; and when after a considerable interval we 
again meet " H. his son," (of Ralph Sanzaver we hear nothing 
more), he is settled at Spargrove as the second husband of 
Eva widow of Richard son of John. 

A final concord for settling family affairs, dated Easter, 
1233, is unusually full of detail. 1 Henry son of Richard son 
of John transferred all his rights in the manors of Spargrove 
and Twohyde to his mother Eva and to her husband Hugh 
de Sanzaver. His stepfather gave him in exchange the manor 
of Newham in Oxfordshire and his tenement at Lokinton in 
Sussex. 

But it is quite possible that Henry son of Richard did not 
leave the neighbourhood after all. In 1238 the Prior of 
Bruton granted to the noble man Henry son of Richard per- 
mission to have a free chapel in his court of Charlton Adam 
To this deed as well as to another by the said Henry giving a 
very satisfactory quid pro quo, dominus Hugo sine averio 
stands first in the list of witnesses. 2 At this period there was 
another Henry son of Richard, the lord of Buckhorn Weston 
in Dorsetshire, who died about 1243. His predecessor at 
Weston, John Fitzhamon gave the church of Charlton to the 
Priory of Bruton, and sold the manor to William son of Adam, 
who called it after his own name. There is nothing on record 
to lead one to suppose that these two individuals are really 
the same person. 3 

The contents of charter no. 1 show that Eva Sanzaver had 
predeceased Bishop Jocelin, whose death occurred on 19th 

1. S.R.S., VI, 366 : 17 H. Ill, divers cos., 103. 

2. " Bruton Cartulary," nos. 205-7 ; S.R.S, VIII, 48. 

3. J. Batten, " Historical Notes ou South Somerset," 124. 



112 Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 

November, 1242. By 1243 Hugh de Sanzaver had remarried 
Emma grand-daughter and heiress of John de Suleni lord of 
Kilmersdon. 1 She had previously been the wife of Alexander 
de Arsyk' and of Walter de Tywe ; and in the Inq. p.m. of 
her cousin Ralph de Suleni taken in 1243 she is styled de 
Praus. 2 

Hugh was succeeded by Ralph Sanzaver some time before 
1249. Charter no. 2 shows that William is Prior of Stavordale, 
and Walter was Prior hi 1249 (Ped. Fin., 33 Hen. Ill, 142). 
In 1256 after the grand assize had been summoned, Ralph and 
Matthew de Stratton made an agreement about their re- 
spective rights of pasture in Spertegrave and Stratton. Some 
of the bounds ran by the foot of the hill called Smaldon and 
the water called Alum (Ped. Fin., 40 Hen. Ill, 146). In the 
same year Sir Ralph and Sir Hugh his son, being present in 
the Lady Chapel at Bruton, witnessed the agreement whereby 
William de Carevilla gave up certain rights of way over the 
Prior's fields (Brut. Cart., no. 35). 

According to Banks, in 1261 Sir Ralph was summoned to 
a Parliament to be held in the Tower of London, but it is hardly 
surprising that there was a general disinclination to attend 
except at Westminster (D.N.B., xxvi, 25). 

Shortly after this date the Priory of Bruton and the Abbey 
of Trouarn in Normandy made an exchange of their properties 
in Normandy and England " seeing that both houses could 
not have the issues of their possessions without very great 
difficulty and no small expence " (Brut. Cart., 313). 

One of the English manors was Runcton in the parish of 
North Mundham near Chichester. As his Sussex property was 
in this neighbourhood, it is quite likely that Sir Ralph was 
aware of the troubles of the French monks and may have 
suggested the exchange to the Prior of Bruton. 

In 1262 Sir Ralph obtained a charter of free warren for all 
his lands in Spargrove and Bicknor in Sussex. Before the 
end of the reign of Henry III he was succeeded by his son 
Sir Hugh. 

1. S.R.S., VI, 121 ; Ped. Fin. 27 Hen. IIT, 84. 
2. Lord Hylton, " History of Kilmersdon." p. 6. 



Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 113 

In 1272 he granted a holding in Spargrove to Ralph de 
Heselt for his life (Fed. Fin., 56 Hen. Ill, 153). An entry in 
the Hundred Rolls records that he was accused of having 
encroached on the King's highway at Croxton in Cambridge- 
shire by digging a ditch and thereby lessening the breadth of 
the road. Sir Hugh died on the Monday before the Festival 
of the Annunciation, 12 Ed. I (20th March, 1284). He owned 
lands and rents in Somerset, Southants, and Sussex. Ralph 
his son and heir was 22 between the Feasts of the Assumption 
(15th August) and the Nativity of the B..V.M. (8th Sept.), 
1283. 

In 1294 Sir Ralph was summoned to attend the King to 
advise on affairs of state apparently " a court or parliament 
held on 5th June " (Banks). 

In 1296 he granted lands in Batcombe to Adam de la Rokele 
for his life. 

Sir Ralph died in the autumn of 1314. The inquisitions are 
extant for his lands in Huntingdon, Sussex, and Cambridge- 
shire. In Hunts he held Great Grantisden of the Earl of 
Gloucester ; in Cambridgeshire Croxston jointly with Christina 
his wife as the gift and grant of John de Helpiston and Alice 
his wife and subject to their life interest. Ralph his son and 
heir was 22 at the last Ascension Day ; and was born in 1292. 
The rule that the head of the family should be Ralph and 
Hugh alternatively seems to have been dropped, but an elder 
son may have died young. 

In the taxation roll of 1327 Ralph and his mother Christina 
are set down for thirty shillings under Batcombe 1 ; among the 
many taxpayers here was John de Spertgrove payer of twelve 
pence, whose connection with Sansom de Spertegrove cannot 
even be surmised. In 1337 Ralph sued Henry de Gray for 
the next presentation to the church of Croxton, when the 
pleadings disclose his pedigree back to Ralph Sanzaver temp. 
Ric. I. 2 The information given in his father's inquisition 
would imply that Croxton had come to him from his mother. 
In the same year the manor and advowson of Spargrove and 

1. S.R.S., III, 228. 

2. Genealogist, n.s., IX, 79. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. h 



114 Deeds relating to Stavordale Priory. 

lands in Sussex and Hunts were settled on Ralph Sanzaver 
and Elizabeth his wife, remainder to his heirs for ever. 1 

Ralph was dead by 1344 as in that year Spargrove and 
lands in Huntingdon and Kent were settled on Thomas son 
of Ralph Sanzaver and Elizabeth his wife ; subject however 
as regards Spargrove to the life interest of Elizabeth who was 
the wife of Ralph Sanzaver. 2 Of Thomas we hear nothing 
further. The Black Death is about to pass through the land, 
and probably he and his wife and family perished in the 
visitation. His mother survived ; as Elizabeth who was 
the wife of Ralph Saunt Zavoir she presented William de 
Schurchulle to the benefice of Spargrove on 26th February. 
1349, when the mortality was at the highest ; and on the 
6th August in the same year she appointed his successor. 
From this time the family ceases to appear hi the records of 
the county ; and their property passed into the possession of 
Richard Earl of Arundel, who at his death in 1376 was reckoned 
to be the richest man in the realm. In 1382 the ancestral 
manor of Bignor in Sussex belonged to the Earl of Arundel. 5 
In 1412 the patron of Spargrove rectory was John Lord Mal- 
travers, grandson of John the Marshall of England younger 
son of Earl Richard, who eventually succeeded to the title 
and estates. In the Subsidy Roll 4 of 1428 the Earl of Arundel 
paid Qsh. 8d. for one knight's fee in Spertegrave which Eliza- 
beth late the wife of Ralph Sanzaver formerly held. 

1. Fed. Fin., divers cos., 10 Ed. Ill, 192 (S.R.S., XII, 243). 

2. Fed. Fin., divers cos. 19 Ed. Ill, 354 (S.R.S., XII, 252). 

3. Dallaway's " Sussex," II, i,215. 

4. Feudal Aids, IV, 385. 



Somerset CraDe Cokens, XVII Century : 

JI3eto Cppes anD Varieties, anD Corrections of 

jFormer Hists. 



BY H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, AND HENRY SYMONDS, P.S.A. 



r I THE Curator of the Taunton Castle Museum has recently 
-L been re-arranging the collection of XVII Century Trade 
Tokens belonging to the Somersetshire Archaeological and 
Natural History Society, with which has been incorporated 
the large series of Somerset specimens collected and presented 
this year (1915) to the Museum by Mr. Charles Tite, of 
Taunton. 1 All the types and varieties have been clearly 
labelled. 

The Society's collection of tokens has been further enlarged 
by the recent acquisition of the Arthur Hull collection, for- 
merly exhibited in a small room adjoining the Town Hall at 
Chard. The Taunton collection of Somerset tokens is now one 
of the finest in the country. 

In carrying out this interesting work in detail, the Curator 
has had the opportunity of observing a number of unrecorded 
varieties, and of making some corrections in lists already 
published. To these records have been added a large number 
of similar notes, the result of observations made by Mr. Henry 
Symonds from tokens in his own collection. 

A few new types have also become known since 1889-91, 
when Dr. G. C. Williamson published his revised edition of 

1. Subsequently Mr. Tite presented a large number of his XVII Century 
Somerset tokens (duplicates) to the British Museum and to the Museum at 
Weston-super-Mare. 



116 Somerset Trade Tokens. 

William Boyne's " Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Century " 
(1858). 1 

Dr. Williamson was assisted in his great work by several 
token collectors and students of the subject, and the Somerset 
portion of his work was practically a re-issue (omitting Bristol) 
of " Somerset Trade Tokens of the Seventeenth Century," by 
Mr. William Bidgood (the Curator of Taunton Museum at that 
time), published in the Proceedings, Som. Arch. & N.H. Soc., 
vol. xxxn (1886), pt. ii, pp. 115-145. This was followed in 
1911 by a paper in the Proceedings, vol. LVII, pt. ii, pp. 54-65, 
by Mr. Henry Symonds, entitled " Taunton Tokens of the 
Seventeenth Century," in which he re-arranged " the tokens, 
as far as possible, according to the streets in which the issuers 
lived, with additional biographical notes where such are 
available." This was rendered possible by an examination 
of the Hearth-tax return for 1664-5 preserved in the Public 
Record Office. 

Mention should also be made of Mr. S. Sydenham's paper 
on " Bath Token Issues of the 17th Century," reprinted from 
the Proceedings, Bath Nat. Hist, and Antiq. Field Club, vol. x 
(1905), pp. 423-525 ; and of Sotheby's Sale Catalogue of the 
Collection of Tokens formed by Lieut.-Colonel B. Lowsley, 
May 3rd and 4th, 1899. The Somerset specimens in this 
collection, Lots 60 to 63, were sold for 23 12s. Od., and con- 
sisted of 192 specimens. 

1. The work of 1858 was followed by a paper entitled " Seventeenth Century 
Somersetshire Tokens not described in Boyne's work," by Mr. H. S. Gill, pub- 
lished in 1879 in the Numismatic Chronicle, vol. XIX, n.s., pp. 99-107. 




Somerset Trade Tokens. 117 

I. NEW TYPES WHICH HAVE COME TO LIGHT SINCE WILLIAM- 
SON'S WORK WAS PUBLISHED IN 1889-91. 

(Those marked [*] are figured in the accompanying illustrations, 

full size). 

BATH. 

*0bv. AMBROSE . BISHOP = A cogged wheel. 
Rev. IN . BATH . 1669 = A . M . B . (Fig. 1). 

A specimen of this token was found in the City of Bristol in Sep- 
tember, 1904, and was figured and described by Mr. John E. Prit- 
chard, F.S.A., in Trans. Bris. <fc Glos. 
Arclwol. Soc., XXIX, 132. He pre- 
sented the token to Taunton Museum 
in 1905, and it was again recorded in 
the Somerset Society's Proceedings, 
LI, i. 80. It was exhibited at the 
meeting of the Royal Numismatic Fi S" L Ambr se Bishop, 
Society on October 20th, 1904. It Bath > 1669 - 

is fully recorded also in Mr. Sydenham's paper, where more than two 
pages are devoted to the Bishop family. 

BECKINGTON. 

*0bv. WILL . BOYNE . CHANDL = The Grocers' Arms. 
Rev. IN . BECKINGTON . 1657 = w . B . (Fig. 2, no. 4). 

This token was recently presented to Taunton Museum by Mr. C. 
Tite. 

MELLS. 

*0bv. RICHARD . MORE = 1670. 

Rev. MELLS . SOMMERSE T = R . i . M . (Fig. 2, no. 1). 

There is a specimen of this token in the cabinet of Mr. Symonds 
NORTON (Midsomer Norton). 

Obv. IOSEPH . HORLER = 1659. 

Rev. IN . NORTON = I . H . 

This was placed by Williamson among the " uncertain" tokens (p. 
1422), but we have no hesitation in assigning it to Somerset on 
account of the surname, which occurred frequently in Midsomer 
Norton and in the adjoining parish of Kilmersdon during the XVII 
Century. 



118 



Somerset Trade Tokens. 



STOGUMBER. 
06?;. IOHN . PHILLIPS . OF = A lion rampant. 

Rev. STOGOMBER . RED . LION = I . C . P . 

This name has been verified in the parish register of 7 Sept. 1663. 
An example of this token is in Mr. Symonds's cabinet. 

TAUNTON. 

*0bv. THOMAS . BVRRIDGE = A double rose. 
Rev. IN . TAVNTON . 1663 = T . E . B . (Fig. 2, no. 3). 

There is a specimen of this token in Mr. Symonds's cabinet. 

WELLS. 

*0bv. RICHARD . ATWELL . OF . Y E = A sugar cone. 
Rev. CITY . OF . WELLS . 1669 = R . A . (Fig. 2, no. 2). 

This trader was a " confecon* " in High Street, Wells, in 1661. 
The specimen figured is in the British Museum. 








Fig. 2. XV El Century Trade Tokens, Somerset. 

1. Richard More, Mells, 1670. 2. Richard Atwell, Wells, 1669. 

3. Thomas Burridge, Taunton, 1663. 4. William Boyne, Beckington, 1657. 

From Drawings by Mr. H. St. George Gray. 

We will now proceed to give a list of new varieties, another 
of corrections of former lists, and a few notes on doubtful 
points. Some of the so-called corrections may, however, 
prove to be merely varieties, and vice versa. The following 
abbreviations will be used, W. = G. C. Williamson ; Bd. = 
W. Bidgood. (Collectors often speak of Williamson's work 
as the " new Boyne "). 



Somerset Trade Tokens. 119 

II. NEW VARIETIES. 

ASHCOTT. 

1 la. Richard Milles. Variety, from another obverse die. 

BATH. 

6a. Bath Farthing, 1670. Variety, from another reverse die. 
10a. Richard Bigges. Variety, from another reverse die. 
12a. John Bush, 1656. A variety is dated, 1658, with same 

obverse die. 
18a. John Fisher. W. and Bd. give I.F.F. in the middle on the 

reverse ; Mr. Sydenham in " Bath Token Issues " gives 

I.I.F. (The writers have not seen a specimen of this 

token.) 

BISHOPS HULL. 

45a. William Barber. There is a variety with initials W.B.B., 
on both obv. and rev., instead of W.F.B. 

BRIDGWATER. 

49a. Bridgwater Farthing. Variety, from another obverse die. 
50a. Obverse reads BRIDGE WATER. A bridge of nine arches on 

the reverse. 
62a. John Linton. A variety reads 

Obv. IOH . LINTON The Salters' Arms. 

Rev. BRIDGWATER = I . E . L . 

626. As last, but IOHN . 

73a. William Sealy. Some of these tokens are over-struck on 
Blandford farthings (Mr. Symonds has one such). In 
the Lowsley collection there was a similar token with 
legend different and blundered. 

BRUTON. 

77a. Robert Ludwell. A variety reads 

Rev. IN . BRVETON = R . L . (not conjoined). 
The obverse is from another die. 

CREWKERNE. 

109a. John Grenway. A variety struck from different dies. 
1096. Ditto. Another variety struck from different dies. 

1. The numbers are those given in Williamson. "a" and "b" denote 
varieties. 



120 Somerset Trade Tokens. 

CROSCOMBE. 

113. George Blinman. Occurs in brass and in copper. 

115. James George. Occurs in brass and in copper. 

lloa. Ditto. There is also a thick variety of this token in brass 
in Taunton Museum, besides the thin pieces. Colonel 
Lowsley's collection also contained a thick token. 

116a. Onesiphorus Luffe. Variety, from another obverse die. 

FRESHFORD. 
125a. John Curie. Variety, from another reverse die. 

GLASTONBURY. 

150a and b. James Hopkins. Including No. 150 in W's list, there 
are three varieties of this token. Two varieties are 
from different reverse dies ; the other has a rose between 
the I. and H. 

153a. Henry Mabson. A variety reads 

Obv. HENRY . MABSON . HOSIER . OF = A stocking. 
Rev. GLASTON . HIS . HALF . PENY = H . M . M . 

The Lowsley collection contained an unpublished " half- 
penny " of H. Marson of Glastonbury. Probably the 
B. was blundered and may have looked like R. 
156a. Peter West. A variety reads 

Obv. PETER . WEST = P . W . 

Rev. IN . GLASTONBERY = 1652 and a rose. 

ILMINSTER. 

168a. Robert Horwood. A variety reads 

Obv. ROBERT . HORWOOD . IN = A pair of scales. 

Rev. ILMISTER . CHANDLER = R . M . H . 

169a. Robert Horwood. A variety reads CHANDLER (not CHANDLE R ). 
The writers have never seen a specimen of No. 169, 

With CHANDLE K . 

170a. Alice Row. A variety reads 

Obv. ALICE . RAW . OF = A . R . 

Rev. ILEMISTER . 1664 = St. George and the Dragon. 
The A in the surname is struck over 0. 

MINEHEAD. 
190a. Samuel Crockford. Variety, from another reverse die. 

NETHER STOWEY. 
198a. William Patey. Variety, from another obverse die. 



Somerset Trade Tokens. 121 

NORTH PETHERTON. 

201a. Thomas Loveder. Variety of both obverse and reverse ; 
the latter reads PETHERTO. 

SHEPTON MALLET, 

21 la. Thomas Parfit. Reads PAREIT, and the obverse die differs 
in other respects. (There is a specimen of this variety 
in the British Museum.) 

SOMERTON. 
213a. Jerom Churchey. Variety, from another 1 obverse die. 

SOUTH PETHERTON. 

217a. Edmond Anstie. The reverse reads PETHEBTO N . The writers 

have never seen W's No. 217, with PETHEBTON. 
218a. John Willy. Variety, from another reverse die. 

TAUNTON. 

240a. William Chace, 1662. The initials on reverse are inverted. 
267a. Mathew Munday. Variety, from another obverse die. 
281a. Richard Snow. Variety, from another reverse die. 
285a. Henry Tanner. A variety reads 

Obv. HENRY . TANNER . 1664 = The Haberdashers' Arms. 

Rev. IN . TANTON . DEANE H . A . T . 

WELLINGTON. 

296a. Thomas Marsh. A variety has OF., instead of IN., before 

" Wellington." 
297a. Christopher Samford. Both obverse and reverse are from 

other dies. 

WELLS. 

302a. William Andrews, 1651. Variety, from another reverse die. 
306a. James Midleham. There is a variety with IN. omitted. 
310a. Robert Warmall. Variety, from another obverse die. 

WINCANTON. 

320a. John Keves. A variety reads, KENES ; this is generally 
seen on well-struck specimens. In No. 320 it is ques- 
tionable whether the middle letter is intended for Y. 
or V. If a Y. the tail is extremely short. The full 
name was " Keynes." 



122 Somerset Trade Tokens. 

YEOVIL. 

329o. John Banckes. A variety reads BANCKS. 
335a. John Hayne. A variety reads 

Rev. OF . EYEAVELL . 1652 = I . D . H . 

338a. Richard Moore. Variety, from another reverse die. 
340a. Ambrose Seward. Variety, from another obverse die. 

III. CORRECTIONS. 

BATH. 

i 

20. John Foorde. W. and Bd. include the date, 1666, on the 
reverse (as on the specimens in Taunton Museum and 
elsewhere). The date is omitted by Mr. Sydenham. 

27. John Pearce. This variety reads MERGE R , and the obverse 
die otherwise differs from No. 26. The Taunton 
Museum specimens have only the lower part of the R 
remaining, due perhaps to the impression being badly 
centred. 

29. Richard Pitcher. "A feather" should be "feathers." 

32. George Reve. In Bd.'s list (Proc. Som. Arch. Soc,-> xxxn, 
ii, 124) the date should be 1658 (not 1668). 

BECKINGTON. 

43. Nicholas Thring. CLOTHIER reads CLOTHIE R on all the 
specimens examined. 

BRIDGWATER. 

51. Alexander Atkins. BRIDGWATER reads BRIDGWATTER. 

63 and 65. John Linton. The initials are misplaced, reading I . L . 

E . 

68. Edmond Pettitt. BRIDGEWATER reads BRIDGWATER, 
71. James Safforde. The date in Bd.'s list should be 1652 (not 
1658). 

CASTLE GARY. 

81. Edward Russe. The initials on the reverse are divided by 
a triple flowering knot. 

CHARD. 

86. William Buridg. In W. and Bd.'s lists, BVRIDG is spelt 
with two R's. The specimens in Taunton Museum and 
elsewhere have one R only. 



Somerset, Trade Tokens. 123 

87. John Chapman. In W. and Bd.'s list, JOHN should be IOHN. 1 
(No. 88 probably likewise, but the writers have not 
seen the latter item.) 

96. Henry Seldred. The device is a " card," not a woolcomb 

CREWKERNE. 

104. Anne Adkins. This token should, we think, be given to 
Chard where the name was common about 1660 ; on 
the other hand, it does not occur at all on Crewkerne 
subsidy rolls of that period. 

GLASTONBURY. 

142. William Cooper. The date in Bd.'s list should be 1666 (not 

1668). 

147 and 148. Henry Ckitch. The thorn bush is inverted. 
149. Sidricke Hancocke. W. and Bd.'s lists mention " Twenty 

dots for checkers." The specimens which the writers 

have seen have only twelve dots. 
152. Nicholas Hopkins. In W. and Bd.'s lists, " Draper " is 

rendered DBA". The Taunton Museum and other 

specimens read DRA PR 
154. Thomas Roode. The initials on the reverse read T . i . R . 

ILCHESTER. 

162. Samuell Scot. W. and Bd.'s lists give EVELL . CESTOR = 
s . D . s . The specimens in the British Museum, the 
Taunton Museum, and in Mr. Symonds's cabinet read 
EVELL . CESTAR = D . It is, however, impossible to 

s . s . 
say that CESTOR does not exist. 

MILVERTON. 

185. Giles King. In W. and B.'s lists MILVERTON is given. All 
the specimens at Taunton and elsewhere read MILBERTON. 

MINEHEAD. 

188. John Berry. MINEHEAD should be TINHEAD (Wilts). 
See Williamson, p. 1248. Both the tokens of John 
Berry in Taunton Museum and those examined else- 
where by Mr. Symonds are clearly TINHEAD. 

1. The same remark applies to No. 62 (John Linton, Bridgwater). 



124 Somerset Trade Tokens, 

192. Robert Ugden. The initials on the reverse are inverted, 
and read thus M . 
R . v . 

TAUNTON. 

227-230. Taunton Farthings. All these are dated 1667 (not 1677 

as given in W. and Bd.'s lists). 
245. John Cornish. The animal is not a unicorn, but a galloping 

horse. 

WELLS. 

266. Robert Midleton. The Taunton and other specimens have 
" in " rendered thus, IM. (not IN.). 

WELLINGTON. 

298. Nicholas Trocke. In W's list the date should be 1655 (not 

1665). 

299. Stephen Wright. This token should be transferred to 

. Wellington, Salop, where the name, Stephen Wright, 
occurs in the parish registers in 1660. 

WESTON. 

313. Thomas Hancocke. In W. and Bd.'s lists HANCOCK should 

be HANCOCKE. 

314. William Page. The reverse reads SVMERSETSHEARE. Both 

legends are confused by reason of over-striking on 
another token possibly on No. 66 which seems to have 
been issued by the same trader. 

WINCANTON. 
322. John Rogers. All the specimens we have seen read 

Obv. IOH N . ROGERS . MERCE n = I . R . 

Rev. IN . WINCVLTON = 1657. 

YEOVIL. 

326 and 327. The Borough of Yeovil. Judging from several 
specimens examined by the writers the OF. on the 
obverse of No. 326 is large, the small OF- (above the 
line) occurring in No. 327 only. 

333. John Cosbey. The Taunton and other specimens read 
COSBEY (not COSHEY), and the former rendering is 
probably correct (although there may be a variety 
with the H.). 



Somerset Trade Tokens. 125 



IV. NOTES ON OTHER TOKENS. 

89. P.I. of Chard. 

The issuer was probably Peter Johnson. No other 
name on the tax rolls of 1664 corresponds with the 
initials on the token. 

118. F.H. Crocomb. 

The issuer was no doubt Francis Hill of Crowcombe who 
was living there in 1661. The armorial shield of that 
family bore an eagle displa}^. 

126. Peeler Fisher, Freshford. 

The initials on the reverse are divided by a double 
flowering knot. 

This token has been claimed for Freshford, co. Kil- 
kenny, where one example is said to have been found. 
The Irish tokens, however, differ in size and- style from 
the English series, and there are the additional facts that 
the parish register transcripts of Freshford, Somerset, 
contain an entry of the names of Peter Fisher and 
Elizabeth his wife on 10 Sept. 1688, together with 
earlier entries relating to other persons of the same 
name. This evidence appears to settle the point in 
favour of our county. 

195. John Clother, Montacute. 

The animal is a unicorn. 

231. Taunton, octagonal token. 

The legends are blundered. 

253. Hugh Graye, Taunton. The last letter of the surname failed 
in the die and reads E., or F., or I. Both the specimens 
in Taunton Museum read GRAYF. 

341. John Pitman. This token was issued in Sherborne, pre- 
sumably by a gunsmith. As the town lay close to the 
boundary of Somerset, Pitman no doubt hoped that 
his farthing would circulate also in that county. 

LANGPOBT (Somerset) and LAMPORT (Northants). 

Somerset. 177. 

Obv. IOHN . WEECH = The Haberdashers' Arms. 

Rev. IN . LAMPORT = I . W . 

Northants. 56. 

Same inscriptions, but the Mercers' Arms on obverse. 

Mr. William C. Wells, in " Seventeenth Century Tokens 
of Northamptonshire " (Brit. Numis. Journ., vols. vu 
and x) gives the above mentioned types under " Lam- 
port," and numbers them in his list as Nos. 59, 59a, 



126 Somerset Trade Tokens. 

59b, and 58 respectively. It is a significant fact, how- 
ever, that Mr. Wells (p. 282, vol. vn) states that the 
names of Weech and of Browning (below mentioned) do 
not appear in the parish registers of Lamport, Northants. 
It is doubtful if any trader of Lamport in the XVII 
Century struck tokens. It was quite a small place. 
In 1801, Lamport, with the hamlet of Hanging Hough- 
ton, numbered only 265 inhabitants, and in 1851 the 
population had decreased to 228. Whereas Langport 
was always a much more considerable place and a 
corporate town. To this day the natives of Langport 
pronounce the name of the town, " Lamport." The 
family of Weech was well known in Langport, and there 
are numerous references to them in " Langport and its 
Church," by the Rev. D. M. Ross, 1911. Among its 
chief inhabitants given in two lay-subsidy rolls for 1662 
and 1664, the name of John Weech is mentioned (Ross, 
p. 321 ; and p. 319). See also Mr. H. Symonds's re- 
marks on this question in the Brit. Numis. Journ., 
vol. xi. 
Northants. 57. 

Obv. IOHN . BROWNING = St. George and the Dragon. 

Rev. IN . LAMPORT = I . M . B . 

This token is not attributed by Williamson to Somer- 
set ; a specimen has, however, been included among 
the Somerset tokens in Taunton Museum. The family 
of Browning was one well known in Langport (see Ross). 

There can be no doubt that the tokens of Browning 
and Weech belong to Langport, Somerset. 

WINSCOMBE (Somerset) and WINCHCOMBE (Glos.). 

Somerset. 323. 

Obv . WILLIAM . IONES = A roll of tobacco wound round 

a drum. 

Rev. AT . WINCOMBE . 1666 = w . i . 
Glos. 212. 

Obv . WILLIAM . IONES = The Armourers' Arms. 
Rev. AT . WINCOMBE . 1666 = w . i . 

There has been some discussion as to whether the 
token, Somerset, No. 323, belongs to Winscombe 
(Somerset) or Winchcombe (Glos.). It is, however, 
placed under Somerset in Williamson's list, and is 
figured in " The Heart of Mendip," by F. A. Knight, 
1915, p. 36. 

Winchcombe was always the larger parish. In 1801 
its population was 1888 ; in 1851 it had increased to 



Somerset Trade Tokens. 127 

2824. Whereas in 1801, Winscombe consisted of 922 
inhabitants, increasing to 1439 in 1851. 

On the whole, we believe that this token (Som. 323) 
should be restored to Winchcombe, Gloucestershire, 
where " Wm. Joanes " was taxed for four hearths in 
1662 (lay subsidy roll iif). On the other hand, Mr. 
Symonds has failed to identify anyone of that name in 
Winscombe, Somerset. An unusually full tax-roll for 
Winscombe, containing about seventy householders, 
in 1664-5, does not include the surname Jones (subsidy 

2 7J)\ 



EIGHTH REPORT ON THE DISCOVERIES MADE DURING 
THE EXCAVATIONS. 



BY F. BLIGH BOND, F.R.I.B.A. 



season's work though full of interest, and likely to 
J- prove very valuable in the future, has not reached a 
conclusive stage, and cannot therefore be the subject of a 
complete report this year. 

In the circumstances, the writer was glad to avail himself 
of a suggestion thrown out by the Excavation Committee, 
that the space usually allotted to the Report should this year 
be given to a discursive article in the course of which sundry 
matters of interest which have not yet been published, but 
which have accumulated from year to year, might be touched 
upon. The suggestion seems most opportune as the un- 
published residuum of notes has now attained large dimen- 
sions, and it is in fact a good deal more than can be disposed 
of in a single communication. 

There is also one other important section of the work which 
cannot be embarked upon until more facilities are offered for 
research. This is the western side of the cloister, partly 
exposed, but still a sealed book at its northern angle, on 
account of a tree which it has been thought undesirable to 
move. The disadvantage of delay in these matters is that, 
notwithstanding every care that may be taken in noting facts 
as they occur, the thread is more difficult to follow after the 
lapse of time, and inevitably some data tend to slip out of 



PLATE VI. 



FDVflMTlon 
OF ALTAR DAfS. 




flfl: Dotted Lines shew general euMne cf Trenches to 

>> 5hffC/ed fort ions she* cpproximafe /x&fan of cfd frtrt/s 
p/ers as Mferrvd fruw abore. 

CO Piers and J/ffhf 3a&?/7j r?<fon?d frv/n 
in r///5/7 Museum. 

D-D.- Black Porf/ws /nJicafe */stiry fta/te. 



Plan of the Site of the High Altar. 



GL^STONBURY ABBEY. 



Glastonbury Abbey. 129 

sight. Let us hope that in this case the opportunity will not 
be too long deferred of completing the story of the cloister. 
The notes offered this year cover a variety of subjects, 
among which are included memoranda on the North Transept 
Aisle, the Loretto Chapel, the High Altar and terminal wall 
of the Choir, Sacristy on South wall of Choir, some remarks 
on the Well in St. Mary's Chapel and the well-chamber, the 
Chapel in the Monks' Graveyard, and an account of the Sub- 
terranean Passages met with in the course of the writer's 
association with the Abbey. 

NORTH TRANSEPT WESTERN AISLE. 

Some years ago the writer made a pictorial reconstruction 
of the central part of the interior of the Abbey Church (pub- 
lished in " Roodscreens and Roodlofts," Vol. I, Plate v). 

This was as far as possible founded upon historical data 
notably in the case of the inverted arches the arches like 
St. Andrew's Cross, as they are called by Leland which 
Abbot Bere put in for the support of the central tower. But 
other features had to be supplied according to reasonable 
conjecture, and in particular, the view was shown from a 
supposed archway on the west side of the North Transept 
giving a glimpse of an aisle on this side. Now it is well known 
that western aisles are not a customary feature of the tran- 
septs of Benedictine churches, but the feature was introduced 
for reasons which seemed sufficient, and among these reasons 
the fact that Glastonbury builders imitated Wells in so many 
respects, coupled with the probability that in so large and 
important a house as Glastonbury, extra features of this kind 
might be expected, seemed to offer grounds for the inclusion 
of an aisle. Nevertheless the writer was attacked for his ven- 
turesome step. 

But some time later, the opportunity having arrived for an 
exploration of this part of the site, the foundation of the west 
wall was exposed, together with a section of the north wall 
of the nave, and it was found that a second line of foundations 
ran out northward from the nave footings, about as far west- 
ward of the transept wall as would be necessary to form the 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part If. i 



130 Glastonbury Abbey. 

width of an aisle, which in the case of Glastonbury would be 
13 feet or thereabouts. This foundation, broad and solid, 
ran parallel to the aisle wall and northward for the same 
distance, turning at length to form a perfect junction with the 
north end-wall of the transept. Thus the existence of some- 
thing in the nature of a western aisle was proved, the only 
difficulty being to decide at what level such an aisle could 
have been floored, for, be it remembered, there was a difference 
in level of Nave and Transept at Glastonbury of some 4 feet. 

The chance preservation of a small patch of floor-tiling in 
situ gives us the level of the transept floor at a point close 
against its west wall, and this is the higher level. If the 
western aisle communicated with the nave it seems stretching 
probabilities to assume a difference of level at their junction. 
But perhaps the difficulty may be met if we bear in mind the 
arrangement of the earlier plan. Before the time of Abbot 
Monington the choir was short of four bays only and 
although a few years previously Abbot Walter had completed 
his fine stone screen in the choir arch, and the stalls must 
from that time forward have occupied the structural choir 
and freed the transepts and crossing ; yet before his time we 
have no warrant for supposing that the arrangement of the 
stalls would have been other than we find them generally in 
the older monastic churches namely, within a screen placed 
at some little distance to the west of the crossing. We may 
thus suppose that in the church as originally planned, the 
transept level extended westward for a short distance into 
the nave, sufficiently to cover the point of junction with the 
transept aisle on the north and the door of access to the 
cloister on the south. Where a marked difference of level 
exists, as at Glastonbury, the whole width of the church, both 
nave and aisles may be supposed to have been solidly screened 
at the point of division. 

The comparative shallowness of the footings at the point 
investigated also suggests that they were carried higher before 
the floor-level was arrived at. Those who have seen St. 
David's Cathedral will be able to realise the sort of partition 
suggested. There would have been a central doorway leading 
to the choir below the crossing, and on each side, in the north 



Glastonbury Abbey. 131 

and south aisles of the nave, another door giving access to the 
space behind the stalls, hi which area would be included the 
transepts and the western aisle in question. At the later date 
indicated by the writer's sketch, all this space would be thrown 
into the crossing which would be cleared of obstructions. 

The south transept had no western aisle, nor could it have 
had, since the angle of the cloister walk occupies its place. 



LORETTO CHAPEL. 

Leland says with regard to this that it was the work of 
Abbot Bere (1493-1524). We quote from him as follows : 

" Bere, cumming from his Embassadrie out of Italic made 
a Chapelle of our Lady de Loretta, joining to the north side 
of the body of the Church." 

The Chapel had long since disappeared and had faded from 
memory, but the old gardener at the Abbey, recently deceased, 
was always positive in his assertion that a wall of fine free- 
stone used to lie hi the bank on the north side of the nave, 
and was there until taken out by the former proprietor. The 
bank was cut into hi one or two places but no positive nidi- 
cations were found. However the Cannon MS. seemed to 
offer additional evidence of a former building at this point, 
as the author gives a sketch of the general appearance of the 
ruins as he saw them, and he shows a rough pile of masonry 
here which he calls " chapter-house." There is also another 
reference extant but at this moment we cannot place it 
by some antiquary of the old school, who describes this 
" chapter-house " as a fine piece of work. 

But the walls, alas, are gone, and we doubt if even further 
research could give us the missing lines of the plan. All that 
now remains as evidence of Bere's fine work is confined to a 
few broken mouldings, the best being a section of a window- 
mullion, richly moulded, which was taken outward by the 
angle of the nave wall where it joins the western aisle of the 
transept. This section was of a character that accorded well 
with all that we know of Bere's work. 



132 Olastonbury Abbey. 

SITE OF THE HIGH ALTAR, AND EAST END OF THE CHOIR. 

After the discovery of the Edgar Chapel, and the completion 
of the work of marking out its walls, attention was turned to 
the eastern extremity of the Abbey Church, as to the internal 
plan of which no reliable data existed. Readers may be 
reminded that Abbot Monington in the middle of the XIV 
Century, caused the Choir to be lengthened from four bays to 
six, and thus threw the retro-choir and processional avenue 
further east. The plan of this part has already been dealt 
with so far as the five chapels are concerned. 

On opening the ground about the site of the east wall of 
Monington's choir, remains of stone footings were speedily 
found, and the two large masses marking the situation of the 
great angle-piers of the east wall were fairly well defined, in 
part by stonework, but more definitely by the clay matrix, 
which, here as everywhere, has proved the best of guides. 
Between these was a narrower line of masonry as for the 
support of a reredos wall, and at two intermediate points a 
greater width and convexity of outline bespoke the situation 
of two intermediate shafts, giving evidence of an original trio 
of arches behind the High Altar. 

This was rather what had been expected, as it accords with 
Wells, and Monington's work seems from other indications to 
have been influenced in design by Glastonbury's nearest 
neighbour, as well as by the work at Gloucester. We do not 
doubt therefore that the triple arcade at Glastonbury would 
have taken very much the form of the Wells design, although 
there is reason to think that Monington's east Avindow may 
have been more ambitious in scale than that of Wells, and 
from its magnitude, a source of weakness. 

Just west of these footings the rectangular dais of the High 
Altar could be traced. Its dimensions were 20 feet by 12 feet 
for the actual platform of clay, and around this were some 
slight remains of a footing wall for steps. 

There were signs that the last bay of the choir on the south 
had been occupied by a screen wall for the usual requirements 
of the sanctuary. Close to the south-west angle of the altar 
dais was a water-channel, of which the bed remained, and this 



GLASTONBURY ABBEY. 



PLAN IN PROJECTION SHOWING ELEVATION OF RUINS AND THE 
POSITION OF THE PRINCIPAL FEATURES DISCOVERED BY 

EXCAVATION. 



/'. Bligh Bond. P.R.I. B.A... 
Xmus, 1915. 




HE 



O O O O 




PLATE VII. 




Glastonbury Abbey. 133 

was found to lead diagonally across the choir from a point in 
the south aisle wall where an immense cavity has always 
existed and is seen in ancient drawings. Through this came 
the stream of " living " water, into which the rinsings of the 
altar- vessels would have been drained. The loss of the arched 
head to the orifice in the south wall and of all the ashlar-work 
of its sides, and the enlargement of the hole by stone-plunderers 
to a dangerous extent has led the restorers of the abbey to 
treat it merely as a hole, and to fill it up solidly with new 
masonry, so that the evidence is now gone, but possibly some 
remains may hereafter be found to exist of the stone conduit 
which brought the water to this point from the farther part 
of the site. 

An attempt was made to examine the footings of the piers 
on the south side of the choir, with a view to ascertaining 
their dimensions. In one case the clay matrix was found 
perfect and was of lozenge form, rather over 11 feet in length, 
and a little less in breadth. This would indicate a more sub- 
stantial type of pier than those at Wells, but the larger scale 
of the work at Glastonbury would demand this. 

SACRISTY ON SOUTH WALL OF CHOIR. 

An inspection of the South Wall of the Choir externally 
shows that at some date unknown but possibly -in Monington's 
time, or later the string and base-courses of one bay had 
their projections shorn off, and the wall was trimmed and 
otherwise prepared for the addition of a small chamber. The 
grooves for a lead roof can still be seen. The foundations 
were explored and the footings of a wall discovered, pro- 
jecting from the buttress to the east of this bay and returned 
at right angles at about 9 feet out from the main wall. The 
narrowness of the footing suggested a rather late date for 
this building, but it may have been added by Monington. 

Very few freestone details, and no large wrought stones, 
were recovered from the excavations in the choir. Round 
about the High Altar were many fragments of black marble- 
like stone bearing the marks of elaborate workmanship. These 
appeared as though from the reredos or altar-canopy. A 



134 Glastonbury Abbey. 

small fragment of similar stone, part of the arm of a figure 
in chain-mail, was found under the soil a little west of the 
altar platform. This may be who shall say the sole sur- 
viving relic of the once glorious tomb of Arthur. 

THE WELL BY ST. MARY'S CHAPEL. 

The main access to the chamber containing the Well is now 
from the crypt beneath St. Mary's Chapel. This access was 
formed by a cut through the footings of the older wall when 
the crypt was made in the XVI Century. The date of the 
well itself is entirely a matter of conjecture, but it was doubtless 
there in very early days. The arched recess in which it lies 
is formed of sections of late Norman work similar to, if not 
identical with, the arched heads of the triple lights in the 
west wall of the chapel. 

The only possible view as to the origin of these is, in the 
writer's opinion, that they came from the east wall of St. 
Mary's Chapel in which they occupied a similar position to 
those on the west until they were thrown out by the removal 
of the wall when the Galilee was merged in the chapel. 

The well is artificially fed. In the course of excavation 
there was found beneath the floor of the crypt, right at the 
south-east corner, a properly-formed stone conduit, for water 
carriage. 

This appears to have brought pure water from a source 
higher on the hill. Portions of a larger stone channel have 
from time to time been taken up by the local builders or 
roadmakers at points lying between the Abbey and Chalice 
Well. There is good reason to suppose that the water from 
this well was artificially led into the Abbey and thus diverted 
from its natural outlet to the meadows on the further side of 
the southern ridge which, on the south, separates the Vale 
of Avalon from the adjoining low lands. 

The architectural traces on the south side of St. Mary's 
Chapel indicate a former access to the Well-chamber above 
ground from the Galilee, through the arched opening in the 
westernmost bay (now concealed by a brand-new and un- 
historical ashlar wall), and this gave access to a small building 



Glastonbury Abbey. 135 

attached on the ground level to the south side of the Galilee, 
whence, by a stone stairway the well-house was reached. 
This stair, for the first part of its length, skirted the Chapel 
wall, running westward alongside it, past the base of the 
S.E. turret, turning south to join with the newel-stair of which 
the lower part only now remains. At the point where the 
stair turns, a junction was formed by the narrow entry of 
XV Century date leading through the south wall into the 
chapel itself, and thus the intercommunication would be made 
complete. 

Traces of the abutment of the flight where it ran along the 
wall from the Galilee are still discernible, but the architectural 
evidence is now rendered quite obscure as the whole of the 
last bay of the Galilee is covered by new work on quite original 
lines. 

THE CHAPEL IN THE MONKS' GRAVEYARD. 

Old records speak of a " Capella Sancti Michaelis" in the 
midst of the graveyard of the Vetusta Ecclesia, near which 
were buried Joseph of Arimathea and other saintly men. 

Reference to this chapel may be found in an extract 
from the MS. in the " Tabula " preserved at Na worth Castle, 
the Latin of which is given in Proceedings, XXXIV, ii, 120, and 
from which we gather that this chapel was originally dedi- 
cated to St. Michael and the Saints who reposed in this 
cemetery. In the year 1382, the fabric then being almost 
consumed by age, was rebuilt (de novo reparata) by Abbot 
Chinnock and dedicated in honour of the aforesaid Saints of 
whom the chief was Joseph of Arimathea. 

It may be quite reasonably assumed that this added dedi- 
cation was the origin of the name " St. Joseph's Chapel," 
popularly applied to the Chapel of St. Mary the Virgin. 

It was assumed by the writer and his friend, Captain J. A. 
Bartlett, that the best place to look for remains of the 
chapel of St. Michael would be south of the south-eastern 
angle of the Lady Chapel, and, as nearly as could be com- 
puted, midway between that point and the site of the build- 
ings of the Guest-House block, which could be fairly inferred 



136 Glastonbury Abbey. 

from other data in their possession. Here a sinking was 
made which turned out to be immediately over the south 
wall of a small and to judge by the quality of the footings 
encountered very ancient building. The remains were at 
a considerable depth, and consisted of the same ponderous 
yellow boulders " Tor Burrs " which had characterised 
some of the earliest footings encountered, and of which the 
" egg-stone " was a specimen. 

This foundation was cleared to the s.w. angle and the 
return of the west wall cleared for a short distance in a 
northerly direction, but owing to the great depth, and the 
difficulty of digging the whole ground being full of tree-roots 
no entire excavation was possible. 

But the work was carried eastward and showed the building 
to have had an extreme length, east and west, not much 
greater than 15 feet. At the S.E. corner a little of the super- 
incumbent masonry was revealed, but no architectural 
character established. 

Near this point, protected by a capping of rough slabs, 
appeared a lead pipe leading hi an almost easterly direction 
from the south side of the wall, and this it was thought might 
have had some connection with the piscina of the former 
chapel. But, again, the care with which it was protected, 
and the length of its apparent run, seemed to suggest that 
its use was for bringing spring- water to this point. 

Not far to the eastward and almost in line with this building 
appeared the foundation of another wall, terminating in a 
building of large dimensions, jutting out westward from the 
cloister. Here a considerable number of encaustic tiles were 
found, and the leaden Bulla already described hi the Pro- 
ceedings, LX, ii, 41-45, came to light. Among the small 
objects found close to the end of the chapel w r all at its S.E. 
angle were a number of oyster-shells, which had been used 
by the monks as palettes for their colour work. One or 
two of these still contained traces of vermilion, others of 
azure, and others again the remains of black or neutral 
colours. 

The colours were quite brilliant and a small portion of the 
azure was transferred to a support and used by the writer 



Glastcmbury Abbey. 137 

as a pattern for colour work in chancel ceiling decoration in 
one or two Somerset churches. 

This seems a fitting place for the acknowledgment of Captain 
J. A. Bartlett's services to the writer in the several years of 
his work at the Abbey. It was an old friendship and a com- 
munity of interest which led to this association, and the 
sympathy of ideas sometimes almost " telepathic " in its 
nature which existed between the writer and his friend, 
undoubtedly laid the foundation of much of the success which 
all along so fortunately attended the work. An association 
of this nature is apt to produce a sub-conscious activity which, 
in combination with purely intellectual work, may sometimes 
yield exceptional results. More might be said on this subject, 
and possibly may, in its due time and place. 

EVIDENCE OF SUBTERRANEAN PASSAGES. 

Probably no ancient site in Britain has been without its 
traditions of secret passages of communication from some 
central point to the outlying district. These traditions attach 
themselves specially to our mediaeval castles and abbeys, and 
it is noteworthy that in some instances their existence has 
been proved. Where a castle is in question their usefulness 
is sufficiently obvious, but the purpose of such subterranean 
channels in connection with a religious house would not be 
so easy to define. 

The stories concerning these are frequently of the most 
fanciful description, and if founded on fact, have certainly not 
lost by being repeated from father to son since the close of 
the mediseval era. 

Glastonbury was indeed no exception in this respect. The 
writer, during his six years' sojourn in the town, heard many 
of the tales current among the older folks, among which were 
two, possibly three, which appeared to have some probable 
foundation. 

These were 

(1). A communication from the Pilgrims' Inn to some 
point within the Abbey walls. This appeared 
well authenticated. 



138 Glastonbury Abbey. 

(2). A passage underground from some point in the crypt 
either of the Lady Chapel or the Galilee, to some 
more or less distant point. With this story the 
typical legend of buried treasure had been 
mixed up. 

(3). A large underground passage on the south side of 
the Abbey, running approximately east and 
west. 

Of the more fantastic stories it may be of interest to mention 
one which claimed the existence of a tunnelled way from the 
Abbey to the Tor Hill, or to the Chapel on the hill, and this 
was linked in the old peoples' imagination with No. 2. Another 
was to the effect that there existed a passage from Street to 
the Abbey, passing under the river Brue. This last being a 
little deficient in probability owing to the unfortunate nature 
of the subsoil in the marshes, there was grafted on it the 
legend of the dog. This accomplished animal it seems, having 
been put into the open end of the passage in Street, with great 
sagacity found its way out somewhere at the Glastonbury end. 
Now as to story No. 1. There seemed some evidence for 
this but the Pilgrims' Inn had lost the obvious traces of it. 
There is a fine stone-vaulted cellar in this building approached 
by a spiral stone newel-stair on the east side, and there are 
traces of a second stair of access on the west. In the floor 
is a channel for the drainage of water which enters the soil 
under the High Street at the south end. The writer after 
tapping the wall at this end, was rewarded by discovering the 
orifice of the passage, which had been built up with brick- 
work, and the whole surface disguised with an uniform coat 
of whitewash. It was a low tunnel formed in well-cut stone 
with a pointed segmental roof, and furnished on each side 
with a projecting stone ledge, for an elbow-rest. The passage 
was found clear for some 20 feet south or to about the centre 
of the road, where it was completely cut off by a brick sewer. 
What lies beyond is yet to be determined. The natural 
continuation would bring it to the near neighbourhood of the 
Abbot's Gateway where there was a porter's lodge. 

The Pilgrims' Inn, now the " George," was built temp. 
Edward IV by Abbot Selwood, for the accommodation of 



Olastonbury Abbey. 139 

guests. It may perhaps be reasonably inferred that the 
quarters it provided would occasionally shelter some who in 
the guise of travellers were charged with special business of 
a confidential nature. 1 

Such messengers would by means of the passage be able 
to enter the Abbey without publicity and transact their 
business unhindered by any curious persons. 

(2). The story of the secret passage associated with the 
Crypt of the Lady Chapel was widely believed. According 
to one old tradition, it led from somewhere near the eastern 
end which would be under the Galilee but the soil below 
the Galilee floor-level in the last bay to the east just outside 
the crypt was excavated by the writer some years ago, and 
the result disproved the possibility of the existence of such 
a passage as far as the east wall was concerned. Neither, it 
is clear, is there any evidence now of any opening underground 
in the north or south walls of the Galilee, though for a while 
a certain feature noted in the footings of the north wall gave 
rise to speculation. This is a massive relieving-arch in the 
wall under the north side of the stepped bench-table in the 
Galilee. It has been examined inside and out and its purpose 
is now clearly seen as a measure of prudence on the part of 
the builders who had at this point to carry their walls over 
a bad piece of ground. It seems that at this point- a small 
depression existed, and this was full of water and soft blue 
clay such as we meet with in the low lands. Just east of 
this comes the great church with its massive west front, 
formerly furnished with towers, and the greater weight of this 
would render the connection with the lighter Galilee wall 
rather unstable from the inequality of the strains. Hence the 
relieving-arch would serve a useful purpose in allowing the 
two parts of the foundations to take their bearings inde- 
pendently. 

But the story of the passage was repeated in a more definite 

1. " Y e George Inn (w ch they say was the Abbot's Inn) being built of fine 
carved freestone of great antiquity, very beautiful. w th y c arms of some of y e 
Abbots as also y e figures of Faith, Hope and Charity, with Charity's two daugh- 
ters, it being a free Inn for strangers and pilgrims who came on any business to y e 
monastery." Cannon MS., p. 208. 



140 Glastonbury Abbey. 

manner by an old inmate of the Women's Almshouse, who 
said that in her childhood she remembered the passage being 
still open at the end, and she had been down it for some 
distance and had seen iron hooks or brackets in the 
walls. 

This woman declared that it ran from the well-chamber on 
the south side of the chapel. 

But the hole in the ground where the passage abutted on 
the chapel was a source of danger to the sheep which grazed 
in the Abbey, and on one occasion a lamb fell in and was lost, 
so that the owner of the Abbey had it sealed up. 

This sealing of the head of the well-chamber did as a matter 
of fact take place at about the time this witness would have 
been speaking of. As we see it now, there is a freestone wall 
terminating the passage of access from the crypt to the well, 
and overhead is a modern brick vault. 

In view of this evidence, the writer cut a circuitous trench 
around the outside of the well-chamber, commencing close to 
the south wall of the chapel at some distance to the west of 
the chamber and taking a radius of between 20 and 30 feet 
from the same, curving round to the east as it went. This 
cutting was taken to a depth of from 8 to 10 feet. 

It passed through the soil of the monks' graveyard and 
this loose rubbly material was alone in view until a point was 
reached which was nearly due south of the well-chamber and 
therefore, roughly, opposite to the bit of freestone wall 
bounding the space by the well. 

At this point, however, the rubble suddenly gave place to 
a filling of clay, and it was noted that this filling appeared to 
occupy a trench with vertical sides. Nothing was seen of 
any walling, and nothing to suggest that a walled enclosure 
had formerly been there except the perpendicular line marking 
the boundary of the clay. Nevertheless it is quite possible 
to suppose that, if there had been such a passage here, the 
trace of the cavity left by the clearance of its masonry would 
be very much as this appearance suggested. 

Assuming such a passage, what, it may be asked, w r ould 
be the use of it ? It may be taken to have run south across 
the graveyard, towards the group of buildings containing the 



Glastonbury Abbey. 141 

guest-hall and almonry (if tradition may on this point be 
trusted). 

The use would be one connected with the service of the 
crypt and this would make it quite a late contrivance. The 
crypt was for the accommodation of shrines frequented by 
pilgrims and as it would, owing to the nature of the plan, be 
somewhat disconnected from the main avenues of thorough- 
fare, it would seem that a covered way from the monastic 
buildings direct to this point might be a desideratum. 

(3). There were many stories of a big underground passage 
in the field to the south of the Abbey. In one place there 
had been a subsidence and the stone head of some channel 
was said to have been noticed. An old workman (Thyer) 
gave a description of a deep walled passage covered with 
flagstones, which he said he remembered having seen when 
it was opened many years before by Mr. Austin, the then 
owner, who used some of the flags, and filled in the part un- 
roofed. But he could not exactly locate it and the search 
made in the direction he thought most probable revealed 
nothing at all. More recently however other evidence came 
to hand of the existence of a large stone-built channel tra- 
versing the orchard to a point in the western boundary some 
way south of the Abbot's Kitchen. 

Opportunity was afforded of running a trench in this 
direction at the time when the search was being made for the 
footings of the Abbot's House, to the south-east of the Re- 
fectory. 

The passage was found a little beyond the southernmost 
boundary of the Abbot's House and proved to be as had 
already been anticipated the main drain of the Abbey. It 
was of large size, large enough to admit of easy exploration 
and one of the writer's pupils ascended it for some 60 feet. 
The course of the drain was slightly to the south-west, the 
ancient exit being at the lowest point of Magdalen Street 
where once was a chain bridge, and probably a water-gate 
to the Abbey for the entrance of barges. 

It must be remembered that the mediaeval abbey was 
inevitably dependent upon a canal system for the maintenance 
of its chief communications with the outside world. A mari- 



142 Glastonbury Abbey. 

time link must be read into its jurisdiction on the Avon at 
Bristol. Control over its extensive territories in Somerset 
must have been effected in a great measure by water, and 
we do not doubt that in ancient days the Abbot's barges plied 
actively on the waterways which intersected the marshes. 

A few remarks may be permitted in conclusion on the 
subject of the secret-passage tradition connecting the village 
of Street with the Abbey. A passage exists, and is a well- 
formed one of ample size. It leads in some unknown direction 
from an outlying building in the grounds of the old Manor 
House of Street. 

But a complete exploration of this interesting passage 
cannot be made until the obstruction which now blocks it 
at some distance from its mouth has been removed. The 
present theory is that it commenced in the house and formed 
a secret exit to the stables. 

As far as can be seen at present it has several turnings which 
appear to head for the house. 



Ealpb tie 

OBIIT 1363. 



BY THE REV. D. MELVILLE ROSS, M.A. 



SIR RALPH DE MIDELNEY was one of the most noted 
of the Somerset Knights of his day, and had considerable 
possessions in Somerset and Dorset. He served under the 
famous leader, Sir Wm. de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, and 
under his son, the second Earl, both of whom were high in 
favour with Edward III. 

He was out in both the Scotch and French wars, and re- 
ceived honours and rewards for his services from the King. 
We know little of his family. His rise to prominence must 
have been materially assisted by his connexion with the de 
Montacutes, under whom he held a quarter part of the manor 
of Curry Rivel, and by his marriage into the baronial family 
of de Lorty. His brother John was rector of Curry Rivel, 
and may have been trained at Muchelney Abbey. 

Midelney, on the River He. was one of the manors of the 
Abbey. In 1328 1 Abbot John of Muchelney granted the rent 
of a tenement in Middelney and the tenement itself after the 
death of Matilda, widow of Robert Mathew, to Ralph de 
Midelney for life by fine of half a mark. In 1338 Sir Ralph 
alienated a rent of 6s. 8d. out of lands called Randolfscroft 
in Middelney to Muchelney Abbey to keep the obits of his 
father and mother in the Church of St. Peter of Muchelney. 
Probably both they and he were buried in that same Abbey 
Church, for he was commemorated in the Calendar 2 on 
June 15th. 

1. Patent Bolls. 

2. Ancient Service book of Muchelney Abbey, now in Taunton Castle. 



144 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

The Manor House at Midelney, which was probably Sir 
Ralph's home, is in Drayton Parish about a mile to the south 
of Drayton Village. 3 

By his marriage with Elizabeth, sister of Sir J. de Lorty, 
Sir R. de Midelney held the manors of Pitney of the King for 
20s. yearly, and with it Knowle in Long Sutton of the Abbot 
of Athelney by homage and fealty. 4 He held Earnshill under 
de Montacute ; 5 three mills hi Martock from John de Fiennes ; 6 



3. At the Dissolution, Midelney came to the Earl of Hertford. The copy (held 
by the Treviliaus) of the Surrender of the Rectories, Parsonages and Advowsons, 
by the Earl of Hertford, of Abbott's He, Ilmynster, Meryett, Ilcombe, Hortcn, 
Somton, Fyffehead, Myddelney, Moreton and Drayton, has : "they were granted 
unto me to hold of the King's Highness in the 29th year of His Highness reign." 
The third Earl sold Mildelney 1 James I to Ed. Danyall, who in the same year 
sold it, together with Westover and lands in Kingsbury, to Raffe Trevillian, of 
Drayton, under the great Seal, with all its rights and appurtenances, for 
558 5s. Sd. 

The Manor house, now standing, was originally in the form of the letter H, 
and appears to be of early Tudor date, containing Ham stone arches of that 
period. Possibly parts of it go back to Sir Ralph de Midelney's time. The first 
Trevilian, of the Drayton branch in this neighbourhood known to us, was a 
Richard Trevillian, 4th son of John, who died 1489, and whose son, Nicholas, was 
in Martock in the early years of 1500. The family occupied Midelney before 
552. John Trevillian, of Kingsburie, in his will, dated 28 Aug. 6, Ed. VI, 
speaks of hia 2nd son, Richard, as "of Myddelney." This Richard, in his own 
will (1567). calls himself " of Mydelney in Drayton," and leaves " my great chest 
in the Hawle with all the hangings of the house," amongst numerous other house- 
hold goods between his two sons, John and Raffe. Raffe married Mary Jennings, 
dau. of Robert Jennings, of Burton, and bought the manor in 1603. His son, 
Richard, rebuilt part of the north wing of the house. A beam in the Barn bears 
the date 1666. Richard's son, John, made alterations in the south wing, and he 
added the present charming " new " staircase. He laid out the garden, which 
still contains some of his tall gate pillars in line with the grand gate-way to the 
deer park on the Midelney side of the River He. John Trevillian's nephew, 
Maurice Ceeley, succeeding to the estate on the death of his elder brother, took 
the name and arms of Trevillian under the Royal Sign Manual in 1774. in addi- 
tion to his own. He had lived for the greater part of his life as a merchant in 
Bristol, and never removed to Midelney, where he laid waste the deer park. His 
son, John, resided there after 1784. After John's death, his brother, Captain \Vm. 
Trevillian, greatly altered the house, taking down parts which had fallen into 
disrepair. From 1800 it has always been let as a farm house. (For these details 
we are indebted to Mrs. E. B. Cely Trevilian). 

4. Patent Rolls, 1340. 

5. Som. A Dor. Notes and Qiieries ; S.R.S., Bp. Drokensford's Reg. 

6. Close Rolls, 1339. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 145 

land in East Lydford and the advowson of its Church ; 7 and 
land in Langport Westover leased from the Master of Buck- 
land Priory for 2s. and a pair of gloves. 8 In 1320 9 he received 
pardon for acquiring the bailiwick of West Peret for life without 
royal license, after being fined 20s., and he received another 
license to demise it to whom he would for his life, as he was so 
much occupied with the business of his lords. He also held 
under Athelney in West Lyng ; 10 and the Manor of Blakeford 
under Montaeute Priory. 1} 

An arrangement was made between him and the Dean and 
Chapter of Wells, 12 Edw. Ill, as to the bounds between his 
land and theirs. 12 In 1352 (Patent Rolls) he was pardoned 
for entering upon the Manor of Purstoke without license. 
Sir Ralph also obtained the manor of Ham from the widow 
Sybil le Venour and her son John, who received the royal 
pardon for selling it without license. 13 

It seems impossible to disentangle all the references to 
High Ham and Nether Ham (Low Ham) lands as to the suc- 
cession of the mesne tenants under the Abbey of Glastonbury. 
We know that the Norman, Serlo de Burci, held Nether Ham. 
The Rector Schael in Tudor days explodes the old wives' 
fables, which would have dared to make Nether Ham Church 
even older than High Ham. 14 He also mentions that the 
Manor House at Nether Ham (that is the present farm-house 
west of the Church) was then called Burcy's Court. We can 
trace a long succession of Burcys in the Parish, but it is not 
clear what was their connexion with the Manor House and 
Church. The Nether Ham Manor went with the important 
forest barony of Petherton and with Exton. 

After the tenancy of de Wrotham the lands in High and 
Nether Ham were divided amongst his married daughters as 

7. Patent Rolls, 1336. 

8. 8.R.S., XXV. 

9. Patent Rolls. 

10. S.R.S.. XIV. 

11. S.R.S., VIII. 

12. Wells MSS. 

13. Patent Rolls. 1315 and 1339. 

14. Som. Arch. Soc. Proc., XL. 

Vol. LXI, (Fourth Series, Vol. I), ParClI. Tt 



146 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

co-heiresses, one of whom married le Blund, 15 and an heiress 
of this -family married le Venour. 16 Some misunderstanding 
arose between the Venours and Burcys about Nether Ham 
Chapel, for we find Bp. Drokensford writing in 1315 : 17 

" In granting a Chantry to J. de Burcy in the Chapel of 
Nether Ham we were abominably deceived by him. Finding 
how hurtful it is to the Church of High Ham and to Win. le 
Venour [husband of the above Sybil], we now recall it, and 
enjoin the Chaplain not to celebrate in presence of J. de Burcy 
who is removed, but to say Mass for W. le Venour as in times 
past." 

It may be well here to point out some of the references to 
the Burcy family which cover some three centuries from Serlo. 
About 1190 Wm. de Burci joined with Raher, parson of Aller, 
as a witness to a Charter. 18 Robert le Burcy, 47 Henry III, 
gives land at Netherham with a messuage to Peter de Combe 
for a sore sparrow hawk, part of which land was formerly 
held by Geoffrey the Vicar. 19 In 1275 Robert Burcy witnesses 
a grant by Philip deErlegh. 20 In 132 1 21 the Inquisition P.M. 
of Sir Peter de Hamme, to whose family also by marriage had 
come part of the Wrotham estate, mentions that he held Exton 
of the King in chief, High Ham, and also a messuage with 
40 acres arable and a windmill [the still existing High Ham 
Mill ?], and land held in socage of John Burcy by service of 
12^., two pairs of gloves price 2d., and lib. cummin price 2d. 
His grandson Peter, being a ward of the King had his marriage 
granted hi 1335 22 to Sir R. de Midelney for a fine of 20 marks. 
Did Sir Ralph marry him to a daughter and so get Exton and 
its advowson (Patent Rolls, 1339) ? In 1322 the Sheriff of 
Gloucester is ordered to pursue and imprison John de Bursy 

15. I. P.M., 48 Henry III, Nether Ham and Exton, held by John le Blond, 19 
Edw. I, Cal. Inq. 

16. Fine Rolls, 1301. 

17. S.R.S. Reg., vol. I. 

18. Wells MSS. 

19. S.S.S., VI. 

20. S.H.S., XXV. 

21. Cal Inq., 15 Edw. II. 

22. Patent Kolls. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 147 

of the Marsh (? Morton Hampine) and John de Bursy of 
Hamme. 23 Land in " Over Ham," 18 Edw. II, is granted 
to John son of Wm. Burcy for life, Richard le Venour and 
Emma his wife being among the tenants. 24 In 1335 Wm. 
son of Wm. Burcy granted 2s. yearly from his land at Ham 
to Taunton Priory. 25 Richard Burcy, 20 Edw. Ill, grants 
one-third of the manor of Nether Ham to Geoffrey Gras for 
life to revert to his brother John Burcy or to Richard. 24 

We hear of Gras or Cras in the Feudal Aids, 1346, when Sir 
Ralph de Midelney with Galfrid Cras pay 20s. aid to the 
King at the knighting of the Black Prince for two fiefs in 
Netherham, formerly le Blund's. Finally in 1377-1378 after 
the Berkeleys had received Netherham from de Midelney, 
John Burcy and Agnes his wife sell land in Netherham and 
Ham-Burcy to Lady Berkeley, and thereupon buy lands in 
Curry Rivel, Draytoii, etc. 26 As early as 1347 we find Lord 
Thomas Berkeley stocking Netherham, Ham Burci, Bere and 
a fourth part of Exton after his marriage with the Aller lady, 
Katherine, widow' of Sir Peter de Veel. 27 Apparently Sir 
Ralph de Midelney had demised these manors to Maurice, 
younger son of Lord Thomas, who married his daughter 
Katherine. When Maurice died young, Lady Katherine de 
Berkeley obtained the manors for her son Sir John Berkeley. 
She also bought land in " Nether Hampine and Over Hampine " 
from Henry and Katherine Calfe. Sir John alone of her sons 
survived, and became the ancestor of the Berkeleys of 
Beverstone. He held Exton and Cheddar also. His son Sir 
Maurice was often styled " of Netherham," and was several 
times Sheriff of Somerset. His family held Netherham to 
the reign of Elizabeth when they sold it to George Hext. 

The Drokensford judgment referred to above will show 
that Sir Ralph de Midelnej^ and not de Burci held Nether 
Ham Chapel. In the Inquisition P.M. it is stated that Sir 
Ralph held Hampnie Bursy of Sir James de Audley by mili- 

23. Close Bolls. 

24. S.R.S., XII. 

25. Som. Arch. Soc. Proc., IX. 

26. S.R.S., XVII. 

27. MacLean, " Lives of Berkeleya" ; Patent Roily, 1355 ; " Feudal Aids," 1428. 



148 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

tary service. The two bells still in use at Nether Ham are 
pre-Reformation bells, one older than the other. The older bell 
has the inscription : " Sancta Maria hora (sic) pronobis " with 
an unusual cross character. This cross is not found elsewhere, 
except on a Pitney and a West Chinnock bell. These two 
last bells have the same dedication : " Sancta Katerina de 
Monte Acuto," and the lettering is of the same period as on 
the Nether Ham bell. Mr. Walters of the British Museum 
holds that the three bells are all about the same date and by 
the same maker, i.e. 1350 A.D. We pointed out to him that 
Sir Ralph was patron of two of the Churches, and that he 
also held under Montacute, if he wished to hear of a Monta- 
cute bell-founder. We should not be surprised if the Pitney 
and Nether Ham towers, and perhaps also the High Ham 
tower with its Virgin and Child are of that period and owed 
much to Sir Ralph de Midelney, and it may be also to the 
Berkeleys. 

If we would understand rightly the surroundings of Sir 
Ralph's life, we must remember that he belonged to a turbu- 
lent age when it often happened that might was right ; and 
that Sir Ralph was not better than his neighbours. There 
was a darker as well as a brighter side to that age. On the 
one hand we see England in the vigour of youth, engaging 
with zest in the Hundred Years' War, settling her political 
constitution, spreading her commerce, building noble churches, 
and laying the foundations of a national literature. On the 
other hand we have a century beginning with the ferocious 
murder of Edward II, and ending with the ferocious murder 
of Richard II by men of the upper class ; private wars waged 
with one another in the same class ; and superstition and 
ignorance going hand in hand with simplicity and devout 
faith. The century began with the utter breakdown of 
Government and social order, as all parts of the land and 
Somerset amongst the rest knew to their cost. The regicides, 
Maltravers and Gournay, were Somerset knights by whose 
connivance the murder of Edward II took place in the Castle 
of Lord Thomas de Berkeley. 28 It was to a son of this Lord 

28. See this established in MacLean's " Lives." Langland and Chaucer will 
give us the besetting sins of the age, the opposites of those virtues which poets 
and preachers mostly extol, and which Froissart teaches belong to true knights. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 149 

Thomas that Sir Ralph de Midelney married his daughter, 
whilst a daughter of Sir Ralph's neighbour, de Clyvedon of 
Aller, was taken by Lord Thomas as his second wife. The 
leader whom Sir Ralph followed to the wars was Sir Wm. 
de Montacute, confidant of Edward III when he attacked 
Mortimer, to whom being at the Queen's side Berkeley had 
sent the news of Edward II's murder the day after the event. 
Yet Berkeley became one of the most important leaders and 
statesmen under Edward III. 

The turbulence of the age is illustrated by events in which 
we meet Sir Ralph from time to time. We first hear of him 
in a charge brought against him (1322) that he and his brother 
John, Parson of Curry Rivel, with others broke into the 
manors of R. Tilly at Ashcot and Nether Ham, entering houses 
and fields and carrying away goods. 29 The Sheriff of Gloucester 
was ordered to pursue, arrest, and imprison them, together 
with John de Acton of Aller, and John de Bursy of Nether 
Ham. In 1336 the biter was bit, for Sir Ralph had to complain 
that John Reyney of East Lydford, Philip de Wellesley and 
others had broken into his close at East Lydford and taken 
away 100 oxen and 400 sheep. 30 Sir Ralph's brother-in-law, 
John de Lorty, on going to the Scots' War caused Sir Ralph 
to act as his attorney, but the brother John de Midelney, 
Parson of Curry Rivel, was accused of hunting and carrying 
away deer from de Lorty's park at Stoke Trister together 
with the Parson of Trent. 31 Already three years before, Sir 
Ralph had been put on a commission to judge concerning a 
complaint by de Lorty against certain persons breaking into 
Stoke Trister. 32 

In the same year he was ordered with Richard de Acton, 
to arrest and imprison in the Castle of Nottingham certain 
Wells and Kingsbury men, and to enforce the Statute of Not- 
tingham against suspected persons. Later 33 as Justice of the 
Peace he with others was ordered to examine a charge made 

29. Patent and Clone Soils. 

30. Patent Soils. 

31. Patent Soils, 1340. 

32. Patent Soils, 1337. 

33. Patent Soils, 1344. 



150 Sir Ralph de Middney. 

by Sir James de Audley, who owned land in Nether Ham. that 
certain men had carried away his goods, and assaulted his 
servant, John de Ashe, and kept him in prison till ten marks 
was paid for his deliverance ; and that Vautort, Parson of 
the Church of Merton, and others broke his park near Bovey 
Tracey, hunted his deer, and assaulted his servants, so that 
their lives were despaired of and their service lost for the 
time. This de Audley was the redoubtable warrior at Poitiers, 
whose exploits were so highly commended by the Black Prince, 
as Froissart relates at length. We should have thought it 
rather a dangerous matter to offend such an one. 

Sir Ralph sat on Commissions of a similar land between 
1350 and 1355 in conjunction with Hugh, Earl of Devon, 
Richard de Burton, 34 John de Clyvedon of Aller and others 
(1) concerning outrages committed against the widow of 
Lercedekne by Gyan of North Curry and others, who had 
driven away her sheep and oxen, eaten down her pastures, 
and assaulted her servants ; (2) about robberies and assaults 
made to the loss of John de Montacute at Dartmouth ; and 
(3) concerning a charge against John Horselegh that he had 
broken into the house of Christina de Offynton near Frome, 
and taken her goods, charters and writings. 35 

So much for the disorders of the day,* we pass to another 
office of Sir Ralph. In 1333 36 he was made Escheator to the 
King in the four counties of Somerset, Dorset, Devon, and 
Cornwall. As his office required, we hear of his doings con- 
stantly in all parts of the West. We may cite instances 
which will illustrate ecclesiastical or other customs of the day. 

In 1335 37 in consideration of his valuable services in the war 
against Scotland Edward had forced Balliol on Scotland, 
and when the Scots expelled the English nominee, Edward 
invaded the land to restore him it was ordered by the King 

34. This Richard was allowed to build a manorial chapel (Cantaria) by Papal 
Bull in Curry Rivel, and maintain a chaplain who s' 1 - swear allegiance to the 
Rector. His son was allowed a limited use of the chapel (at Burton Pynsent ? ) 
S.R.S., Reg. Drokensford. 

35. Patent Rolls, 135013541355. 

36. Patent Rolls ; Som. & Dor. N. d Q., passim. 

37. Patent Rolls. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 151 

that Sir Ralph's office as Escheator in the four counties should 
be made permanent during good behaviour, and only be 
taken from him by reasonable cause whereof the King was 
to be certified before his removal. 

In 1336 38 he was ordered to see that corn belonging to the 
Prebend of Combe St. Nicholas and Winsham should be kept 
for the King's use, " as much as may seem necessary for the 
safety of the soul of Robert de Tanton, Provost of Wells, the 
Keeper of the King's wardrobe who has not accounted for 
monies of the wardrobe to the King." In this unblushing 
subjection of Church revenue to royal advantage, at least that 
master passion of the day, religion, is kept in sight. It would 
be interesting to have a Dante's account of de Tanton's lot 
in the Inferno. 

In 1337 38 when the war with France was beginning, Sir 
Ralph was ordered to take into the King's hand 500 of the 
two yearly tenths granted by the Clergy of the Province of 
Canterbury, and deliver it to Anthony Bache, merchant. (A 
John Bache was Sheriff of Somerset 1392). The order was sent 
twice, and he was warned that if remiss in the execution, the 
King would punish him as disobedient. He was also ordered 39 
to hand over to the King 500 collected from the Clergy of 
Exeter, part of the sixth yearly tenth imposed on the Clergy 
by the Pope. The King was not going to allow so large a 
sum to go to the Pope at Avignon. In the same spirit Edward 
seized Montacute in 1338, being an alien priory attached to 
the house of Cluny in France, and on their complaint 39 that 
certain people had carried away their goods, so that they 
could not pay the royal demands, Ralph de Midelney was 
sent to enquire. In 1340 39 he had a mandate to deliver the 
Priory to Wm. Earl of Salisbury, whenever by reason of war 
with France, the priory should come into the King's hands. 

In 1338 39 Sir Ralph was under the Earl's banner in France, 
and received royal license to employ a deputy to execute his 
office of Escheator. He was back in 1339, being more fortu- 
nate than the Earl, about whom we read in the Chronicle of 

38. Close Rolls. 

39. Patent Rolls. 



152 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

London (1339-40) that he was taken prisoner with others in 
the neighbourhood of Lisle, and sent to the King of France 
who promised that the men of Lisle should be well rewarded 
for the good service they had done him. The King said to 
the prisoners : " Traitors you shall be hung, since you cannot 
mend the harm which you and your king have done to my 
land." " Certainly, sir (said Salisbury), you are wrong and 
our king is right. I will prove that against all who come like 
a loyal knight in a foreign land." Then the Queen swore she 
would never be happy again if they were not vilely done to 
death. The old blind King of Bohemia said that would be 
great sin and madness to slay such lords, for then if the King 
of England ever happened again to enter France, and took 
any peer of our realm, we could not give these in exchange. 
Salisbury was eventually exchanged, but not until with 
Edward's consent he had agreed never again to take arms 
against France. Salisbury was so trusted by the King that 
he had been retained in his service for life after the affair of 
Mortimer, and we can understand how a knight of his following, 
like Sir Ralph, would benefit by his lord's favour with the king. 
After his return from France the office of Escheator was 
conferred on Sir Ralph for life, in consideration of his services 
in the French war, notwithstanding any ordinance to the 
contrary. He was to receive the fees pertaining to the office 
for life and could discharge the office by deputy. 40 But in 
1340 41 a serious charge was made against him by Sir Thomas 
de Marlberge, an important person in the County, who often 
held the office of Sheriff and of Knight of the Shire. The 
charge was that he with his brother John, the Parson of Curry 
Rivel, Thomas de Midelney, Walter le Venour, Stephen le 
Taillour and other malefactors had attacked Marlberge who 
was appointed to keep the King's peace, and to sell sheaves, 
fleeces and lambs lately granted to the King, and to collect 
the King's wool, whilst he was executing his office near South 
Petherton. They wounded him so that his life was despaired 
of ; they carried away goods to the value of 40 ; and they 
assaulted and wounded his men and servants. 

40. Patent Rolls, Nov. 1339. 

41. Patent and Close Rolls. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 153 

It was further said that Sir Ralph de Midelney and Thomas 
de Midelney made assemblies of armed men for war, and caused 
commotions amongst the people of these parts, whilst the 
King was absent beyond sea in the French War. Apparently 
the action went against Sir Ralph, and he was deprived of his 
office in 1341. 42 Further, a royal writ was sent to Bishop 
Ralph of Bath and Wells to distrain John de Midelney and 
Ralph de Midelney touching goods and chattels to the value 
of 23, belonging to John de Lorty on the day he died at 
Stoke Trister. 43 

But in June, 1341, Sir Ralph, was restored again at the re- 
quest of the Earl of Salisbury, and was pardoned by the King 
concerning all his trespasses and excesses as well against the 
King as against the men of the four counties, whereof he had 
been indicted before the justices appointed to hear and de- 
termine oppressions inflicted by the King's ministers. He 
paid a fine of 200 to stay further process, which fine was 
given by the King to the Earl. 44 

In 1345 and in several subsequent years Sir Ralph was elected 
Knight of the Shire. In 1346 he was appointed steward of 
the young Earl of Salisbury's lands, 45 and in the next year 46 
was under his banner in the French War, and it was ordered 
that all assizes arraigned against him should be stayed. He 
was pardoned for exporting wool in the King's first passage 
to Brabant, to raise money for himself and his men then in 
the King's Service. 47 

In 1350 Sir Ralph went on pilgrimage to Santiago (St. James 
of Compostella) 47a one of the three great pilgrimages of the 
world with his friends John de Crukern and Nicholas de 
Somerton. This John de Crukern was apparently the same 
man who makes complaint that he, an attorney for many of 

42. Patent Rolls. 

43. Bp. Ralph's Register. 

44. Patent and Close Rolls, 1341. 

45. Patent Rolls. 

46. Close Rolls, 1347. 

47. Patent Rolls, 1341. 

47a. An excellent article in Blackwood's Magazine, Nov., 1914, describes these 
pilgrimages. 



154 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

the King's lieges, was besieged in his house a whole day at 
Crukern by Wm. Mareschall of W. Chinnock and others, and 
then chased out of his dwelling and his goods carried off. 48 

In 1356 Order was made to pay Sir Ralph 10 per annum 
for himself and his clerk, out of fines levied at Sessions of the 
Justices, for his work as Justice in keeping the Statute of 
Labourers. 49 

In 1357 Sir Ralph obtained exemption for life from all 
public appointments of Escheator, Sheriff, Coroner and the 
like, and from serving on juries and assizes. 50 

In 1358 the old suit of 1341 was revived against him, 50 and 
other misdemeanours were added to the charge that he 
had obtained 400 from the Provostship of Wells ; 51 that he 
had levied 1000 in five years ; and that he had entered upon 
property at Huish Champflower by reason of the nonage of 
the heir, and taken the issues. The King in consideration of 
his former pardon and a fresh fine of 200 granted him pardon 
in full. 

He died in 1363. The Inquisition P.M. taken for the County 
of Dorset, August 7th, 1363, states that he held in conjunction 
with his wife Elizabeth, who is still surviving, the Manor of 
Purstoke, held of the King in Chief by the service of rendering 
18 and a pair of gold spurs, and that the Manor is worth 100s. 
The heirs are said to be his four sisters, Alice atte Orchard, 
aged 50 years and more ; Alice atte Patte who has deceased, 
and her son is 23 years and more ; Matilda atte Welle, de- 
ceased, whose daughter Cecilia Corbyn is 22 years and more ; 
and Isabell ffrye, aged 23 years and more. Sir Ralph's son 
John had married Sibyl daughter of John de Lorty, his first 
cousin, and had a child John, but both son and grandson 
seem to have died. 

The Inquisition for Somerset was taken at Yeovil by John 
de Bekynton on August 4th, 1363, by oath of Wm. Welde, 
John Ledred, Roger Warmwelde, John Peytenyn, John 
Forster, John Clerk of Lotesham, Richard Large, John Botor, 

48. Patent Rolls, 1362. 

49. Close Rolls. 

50. Patent Rolls. 

51. Close Rolls, 1324. 



Sir Ralph de Midelney. 155 

Wm. Cloke, John of Thorn, Robert of Warton, and Walter 
Hillary, who found that Sir Ralph conjointly with his wife 
Elizabeth held by military service of the King in chief the 
Manor of Netherhampnie worth near 10 ; and of Simon de 
Wardeney by the service of xii pence yearly the Manor of 
Morton 52 worth nearly 100 shillings ; and of Sir James de 
Audley by military service the Manor of Hampnie Bursy worth 
nearly xl shillings. Sir Ralph also held of the Abbot of 
Athelney by military service two messuages, two carucates 
of arable and 40 acres of pasture in Lyng worth 100 shillings ; 
and of the Earl of Salisbury by military service one messuage, 
one carucate, 12 acres of pasture, and 12 of wood in Cory-ryvel 
worth 50 shillings. He held also conjointly with his wife in 
chief by military service the quarter of the manor of Exton 
with the advowson of the church worth 50 shillings, and the 
manor of Puteneye Lorty with the advowson of the church, 
with remainder to his son John and his wife Sibil, and to the 
heirs of Sibil, and then to the heirs of Elizabeth ; and he held 
the manor of Knolle by military service of the Abbot of 
Athelney worth 20 marks ; and it is further added that the 
manor of Pitney which was of the inheritance of his son John 
and Sibil was worth six pounds ; and that the reversion of 
the lands in Lyng, Chademede, and Curry Rivel belonged to 
Katherine, wife of Thomas de Berkeley, senior ; and that the 
four sisters of Sir Ralph are his heirs. 

Pitney Manor 53 and the advowson of its Church with Knolle 
were held by his widow Elizabeth, who married Sir Robert 
de Ashton. After her death Sir Robert married Philippa, 
who after Sir Robert's death carried these lands by marriage 
to Sir Matthew de Gourney of Stoke-under-Ham, son of the 
Sir Thomas de Gourney the regicide. 54 

The following extract gives the heraldic seal of Sir Ralph 
de Midelney, as well as a notice of land once held by him : 
" Sciant, etc. Radulphus de Middelnaie dedi, etc., Willelmo 



52. Another name of this was Morton Hampnie, probably for " Moor-town," 
tenements close to the moors in the parish of the island of Ham. 

53. Patent Rolls, 1363. 

54. Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., XLII, ii, 55. 



156 Sir Ralph de Midelney. 

de Spicer de Welles et Elisabeth uxori sue messuagium, terras, 
prata, etc., apud Hibroke (in Somerton) que ego tenui de 
perquisite Robert! patris mei. Testibus Johanne de Perham, 
Reginaldo Huseye, Johanne Bysshopp, Johanne le Knight, 
Johanne le Hare." (No date.) 

Heraldic seal : SIGILLUM . RADULFI . MIDELNIE 3 snayles 
(Ex. Pole. MS. at Anthony, Cornwall). 



on t&e g)etaltirp in Cfjubfe's 8aps of 
Somerset. 



BY FRANCIS WERE. 



"TDLATE II. Saxton's Map, 1575. Over the Bristol Channel 
(not named) but between the two Holmes and a large 
Whale is the remarkable Achievement of Queen Elizabeth : 
viz. MODERN FRANCE. Azure three fleur de lys, two and one or 
in first and fourth quarters ; quartering in second and third. 
ENGLAND. Gules three lions passant guardant in pale or ; 
surmounted by Royal Helmet, and cap of dignity thereon for 
crest, a Lion statant (scarcely) guardant or, royally crowned 
proper. The shield is encircled with the Garter and its Motto, 
Honi soit qui mal y pense ; and on scroll below the motto, 
Dieu et mon droit. But the remarkable thing is, that on the 
mantling are two shields both ensigned with a coronet, the 
first would be blazoned, Azure a harp or stringed argent. 
IRELAND ; this appears on the Great Seal ; the second would 
be blazoned Quarterly gules and or four lions passant (really) 
guardant counterchanged. WALES. This arrangement is prob- 
ably unique, but has been evidently added to this achievement 
to show the strong connection and trading between the County 
of Somerset and these two countries. Below is the title of 
the map. " Somersetensem. Comitat (Agri fertilitate 
Celebrem) hec ob oculos ponit Tabula " ; below this again is 
the date. Anno, 1575, et D. Elizabeth Regine A 17. 

[Therefore the Scotland in the text on p. I, has to be cor- 
rected to Wales.] 

The other Achievement is that of Thomas Seckford : 



158 Heraldry in the Maps of Somerset. 

Saxton's patron ; which is a very puzzling one, and gives one 
the idea that it has never been confirmed ; the only blazons 
and pedigrees I can find are in Metcalfe's Visitations of Suffolk, 
in 1561-1577-1612. In the Diet. Nat. Biog. he is given as 
living from ? 1515-1588, barrister of Gray's Inn, held several 
posts on Commissions, and was M.P. for Ipswich in 1572. In 
Essex Visitation, p. 368, is the interesting notice of the marriage 
of Mary, daughter and sole heire of Thomas Seckfford with 
Anthony Cage ; but unless this marriage blazon could be 
found it is no help to the achievement. 

The shield is quarterly of four. 1st quarter is SECKFORD, 
Ermine, on a fess gules three escallops or. 2nd quarter. Argent 
a fess gules between three bugle horns sable furnished or, 
(stringed . . . .). HUNTER, so given in the Suffolk Visita- 
tion ; but not in any of the Armories ; the horns certainly 
point to its belonging to a Hunter. There is no such marriage 
in the pedigree. 3rd quarter, Chequy or and Vert ; so given 
in the Visitation, but not named. In the copy of the map 
in the library at Taunton Castle, it seemed to me to be argent 
and gules. Pap worth assigns the coat Or and Vert to HAKE- 
FORD. Both argent and gules, and or and gules are legion ; 
there is nothing in the pedigrees to show the family. 4th 
quarter. Paly of six or and gules, a chief ermine. This I think 
is JENNY of Norfolk ; though the Jenneys in the Norfolk 
Visitation bore quite a different coat ; however there is nothing 
in the Seckford pedigree to prove it. It gives one the im- 
pression that these last two might have been brought in by 
the supposition Hunter alliance, which had never been con- 
firmed. On an Esquire's helmet a cap of dignity thereon on 
wreath a talbot statant. (? proper) for Crest ; which is quite 
different from the one given in the Suffolk Visitation and in 
the book of Crests, viz. Code's head per pale or and vert, combed 
and wattled gules. Below on a scroll a Motto, which is said 
to be Pestis Patrise Pigricies. " The scourge of a country is 
laziness " ; these mottoes must not be taken as Seckford's own, 
though possibly he chose them ; since the Gloucester map of 
Saxton's bears, Industria naturam ornat. 

Plate IV. Speed's Map, 1610. At the top the Bristol 
Channel, just leaving out the Holmes, is filled with plans of 



Heraldry in the Maps of Somerset. 159 

the City of Bath and the King's Bath : but in the corner are 
the Arms of the CITY OF BATH, viz. Per fess embattled azure 
and gules, the base masoned, and with three crosses botonny 
for loopholes 2 and 1 sable, in chief two bars wavy argent, over 
all a sword in pale of the last, hilt and pomel or, on the blade 
a key (? proper or sable). At the bottom are seven shields, 
one of them blank : 

1. MOHUN, Gules a hand proper issuing from a maunch 
ermine, holding a fleur-de-lys argent, it may be or. The hand 
" proper " outrages heraldry, but it is found on Mohun seals 
of the XIII Century, figured in Sir H. C. Maxwell Lyte's 
History of Dunster, n, 499. The style underneath is the 
shortened Reginald de Mohun, Lord of Dunster and Earl of 
Somerset ; there is nothing to prove for which of the two 
Reginalds it is intended. 

2. BEAUFORT, Quarterly modern France and England within 
bordure gobony argent and azure. The style below, says John 
Beaufort, Duke of Somerset ; this must be the third Earl, 
who was created Duke of Somerset in 1443, and died the year 
after. 

3. This is a curious piece of heraldry. The shield bears : 
Modern France and England quarterly debruised by a baton 
sinister arg. ; within a bordure quarterly 1 and 4 erm., 2 and 
3 compony or and az. Over all an inescutcheon of pretence : 
quarterly gu. and vairee, charged with a lion ramp., on a chief 
az. three castles. The style is : Henry Fitzroy, Duke of 
Somerset. A portrait of this young man is given in Doyle's 
Baronage, with an illustration of his arms taken from a seal. 
He was a natural son of Henry VIII and Elizabeth Blount, 
and was created Duke of Richmond and Somerset. He 
married in 1533 Mary Howard, daughter of the Duke of 
Norfolk, and died in 1536 at the early age of seventeen. The 
arms on the inescutcheon of pretence may be those of his 
mother, but are not assigned to any Blount in Burke's 
Armory. 

4. The augmentation coat as given to the family of 
Seymour. Or on a pile gules between six fleurs de lys 3 and 3 
azure, three lions of England. Styled Edward Semer, Duke 
of Somerset, created 1546-7, beheaded 1551-2. 



160 Heraldry in the Maps of Somerset. 

5. The blank shield ; the style looks like Philip Chandew, 
Erie of Bath. I imagine this is meant for Philibert De Chandee, 
given by G. E. C., I, 263, created Earl of Bath by Henry VII, 
who brought over troops to help the Earl of Richmond's 
army ; he was knighted at Milford Haven, August 7th, 1485, 
and created Earl, January, 1485-6. Reitstap gives Chandee 
Coat, as far as I can make out, as Azure a bend or six plates 
in orle. 

6. Argent a cross engrailed gules between four ivater bougets 
sable, BOURCHIER. Styled John Bourchier, Lord Fitzwarine ; 
there were several Johns, the first was created 1536. 

7. Gules five fusils in fess conjoined argent, DAUBENY. 
The style says Henri Daubney, and is ensigned with an Earl's 
coronet, so I suppose this represents Henry, Earl of Bridg- 
water, created 1538, though he generally bore only four 
fusils. 

At the top in the Severn Sea is the Royal Achievement of 
James I. Quarterly, 1 and 4 grand quarters, MODERN FRANCE 
and ENGLAND, quartered. 2, grand quarter, SCOTLAND. 
3, grand quarter, IRELAND. Surrounded by the Garter and 
its Motto, and ensigned with a Royal Crown ; supported by 
a dexter, a Lion rampant guardant, and on sinister, the 
Unicorn (argent) gorged with royal coronet and chained (or). 
Below on scroll, the Motto Dieu et mon droit. 

Plate VII. Bleau's Map, 1648. At the bottom there are 
eight shields, two of which are blank, the rest are evidently 
copied from Speed's Map, Plate IV. (1), is MOHUN, 'as 1 in 
Speed's map. (2), BEAUFORT, as 2 in Speed's map. (3), 
HENRY FITZROY, Duke of Somerset, as 3 in Speed's map. 
(4), as 4 in Speed's map. (5), blank, as 5 in Speed's map, but 
styled Phillip Chandew, really Philibert de CHANDEE, whose 
Arms are I think, as given in Rietstap, Azure a bend or six 
plates in orle. (6), as 6 in Speed's map. (7), as 7 in Speed's 
map. (8), blank, both in shield and style. In the top corner, 
the three lions of ENGLAND. 

Plate VIII. Blome's Map, 1673. Achievement of Maurice 
BERKELEY, third Viscount Fitz Hardinge of Berehaven ; 
Gules a chevron ermine between ten crosses pattee, 4, 2 and 1, 
2, 1 argent, ensigned with viscount's coronet and supported 



Heraldry in the Maps of Somerset. 161 

by two unicorns gorged with roses. The style below is, " To 
the Rt. Honble. Maurice Berkeley, Baron Berkeley of Rath- 
do wne in Ireland, Viscount Fitz Harding of Bearehaven in 
the said Kingdom, &c., this Mapp is humbly dedicated by 
Richard Blome." G. E. C. says he was the third Viscount, 
but elder brother of the first, and a Baronet of Bruton, 
Somerset. 



CORRECTIONS. 

Plate IV, 1. Although the hand is generally described as 
proper, the Newenham Abbey register says distinctly that it 
was argent. (See Lyte's History of Dunster, II, 499.) 

Plate IV, 3. The inescutcheon of pretence is quarterly 
gu. and vairee or and vert, charged with a lion ramp. arg.. 
on a chief azure three castles arg. 



Vol. LX I (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II 



Eoman Remains founu at finest Coker. 



BY H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 



IN August, 1915, Mr. L. J. Pomeroy, of " Inglemount," 
East Coker, reported to me that he had found on his 
property near his house what appeared to be fragments of 
Roman pottery and a fire-place, and asked me to go over to 
see the site and remains. This I had an opportunity of doing 
on October 5th, in company with Mr. J. B. Paynter (local 
secretary of the Somersetshire Archaeological and N.H. Society 
for Yeovil). 

It appears that the pottery, etc., were found in laying a 
water-supply pipe across two or three fields in 1914, the 
trenching for this purpose reaching to a depth of about two 
feet. 

The remains were found in almost flat grass fields to the 
s.w. of " Inglemount " which is situated in the extreme N.W. 
corner of East Coker parish about 300 feet above sea-level. 
The two fields in which the remains were discovered are, 
however, just over the N.W. boundary of East Coker parish, 
and in the parish of West Coker, the area being bounded by 
" Inglemount " on the N.E., Green Lane 1 on the s.w., Gulliver's 
Grave 2 and Brown Island 3 on the E. and S.E., and by the road 

1. Green Lane is the road on the s.w. boundary of Mr. Pomeroy's land. 

2. The spot called "Gulliver's Grave," at the intersection of the cross-roads 
near the x.w. boundary of East Coker parish, is probably the place of a suicide's 
burial ("Notes about East Coker," by the Rev. C. Powell. 1910, p. 4). The 
Roman remains found in the Cokers are barely mentioned in this pamphlet (p. 3). 

3. ' ' Brown Island " is bounded by three roads. The name was given me by the 
Rev. C. Powell. 



Roman Remains found at West Coker. 



163 



from Yeovil to West Coker on the N.W. The position is 
2 miles s.w. of Yeovil Parish Church, 2| miles S.E. of Monta- 
cute Church, and 1| miles west of the nearest part of the 
Roman road running from Ilchester to Vagg, Preston Pluck- 




H.ST.d.G 



500 



PARISH BOUNDARY. 



Map of the borders of the Parishes of West Coker and East Coker. 

The Hearth was found in Field No. 172 ; and the shards of 
Roman Pottery in Fields Nos. 169 and 172. 



nett, Key (near Barwick), and Batcombe (Dorset), and rather 
over the same distance s.w. of Larkhill Quarry, Preston, 
where a number of Roman remains were found in 1908-9 
which were presented to the Taunt on Museum. 4 

On enquiry Mr. Pomeroy told me that the field in which 



4. Somerset <k Dorset Notes & Queries, XI, 345-6 ; and Proc. Som. Arch. Soc., 
LV, i, 91. 



164 Roman Remains found at West Coker. 

he had found a hearth and some of the fragments of pottery 
in the southern half was called " Chessels " (No. 172 of the 
accompanying map), 5 and that the adjoining field (Nos. 169, 
170), in which pottery only was collected on the N.E. side, 
was named " Bread, Cheese and Chessels " on the Tithe Map. 6 
To this I added that about 1 820 a well known mosaic pavement 
(representing two men returning from the chase carrying a 
spear and a dead stag slung from a pole propped on their 
shoulders, with a small dog Tbarking below the stag) was dis- 
covered on the site of a Roman villa in a field called " Chesil," 
or " Chessells," 7 in the parish of East Coker. This mosaic 
is exhibited in Taunton Museum. A Roman villa and two 
mosaic pavements were also found at East Coker in 1753, and 
the mosaic, etc., found about 1820 were probably obtained 
from the same site, namely, that marked " Villa " in the 
6-inch ordnance sheet about 1| miles s.w. of Yeovil Parish 
Church, and 3| furlongs N.E. of North Coker House. 

On returning home I found, on reference to Professor 
Haverfield's article on Roman Somerset, 8 that Mr. John Moore 
discovered and partially examined a Roman villa in a field 
also called " Chessells," in the parish of West Coker, in 1861, 
and found a large number of Roman remains, including Samian 
and other -potsherds, iron nails, a small bronze statuette of 
Mars, a pair of tweezers, a penannular brooch, and an in- 
scribed bronze plaque. 9 On that occasion the digging was 
carried to a depth of about 2 feet. 

Mr. Moore does not describe the precise position of the area 
he examined in West Coker, but it is highly probable that his 



5. This field is also No. 172 in the Tithe Map of 1838 and the Tithe Apportion- 
ment (dated 1839). 

6. This field is also marked Nos. 169 and 170 in the Tithe Map. 

7. The Rev. C. Powell, Vicar of East Coker, informs me that farm-hands in 
his parish were in the habit of calling Roman tesserae found in the fields, thrssdls, 
but he had not heard the term very recently. It may be noted that Professor J. 
Wright in the "English Dialect Dictionary" gives chesle-moncy, Roman brass 
coins found in some places in Gloucestershire. 

8. Victoria County History, Somerset, I, 330-1. 

9. Journal, British Archaeological Association, XV11I, 392-5, and XIX, 321-2. 
Some of the objects are figured. 



Roman Remains found at West Coker. 165 

villa was situated in the fields now owned by Mr. Pomeroy ; 10 
and if this is the case the ground has no doubt already yielded 
its chief treasures. 

In digging the trench above mentioned last year, a circular 
hearth (about 2 feet in diameter) was uncovered, consisting 
of slabs of stone embedded in clay ; the middle piece was 
Ham Hill stone and was considerably reddened by the action 
of fire. Mr. Pomeroy had this taken up and laid out under 
a little shelter in the yard adjoining his house. 

No metals were discovered. Indeed there was little found 
beyond about two dozen fragments of pottery. These shards 
are typical of the Roman period and include a large pro- 
portion of the common black ware ; a well formed black 
handle has been preserved and a piece of pottery ornamented 
with the common lattice pattern. Specimens of both the 
cream-coloured and hard New Forest ware were found and 
two fragments of a flanged pot of imitation Samian pottery. 
A piece of a thick grey amphora was also noticed among the 
shards, and at least one fragment bearing traces of a thin 
coating of glaze. 

It might be recorded here that the old road marked on the 
north side of Field 173 in the accompanying map no longer 
exists. This route from West Coker to Yeovil was discon- 
tinued in the first half of the XIX Century, when the new 
and more direct road was made which passes the west side 
of " Inglemount." The track running N.W. from Gulliver's 
Grave is now a deep broad ditch, some 6 feet below the level 
of Fields 172 and 173. Carts, however, can still pass along it. 

10. Mr. Payiiter informs me that in 1838, Field No. 172, " Chessels," belonged 
to Mr. Thomas Warry, as also did No. 168, " Long Chessels," and No. 171, 
" Middle Chessels;" whilst the field numbered 169, 170, "Bread, Cheese and 
Chessels," belonged to Mr. John Moore. No. 173 was called " Docking Street ;" 
and Nos. 296A and 297 A then formed part of " Feebarrow " Farm. All these fields 
now belong to Mr. Pomeroy, and are marked on the accompanying map, which is 
based upon the ordnance survey (Somerset Sheet LXXXIX, N.E. 1904) and the 
Tithe Map of 1838. 



T5og^mosse0 of Somerset. 



BY WALTER WATSON, B.SC. 



BOG-MOSSES are familiar to all lovers of a moorland 
ramble especially if they are not too fastidious in 
choosing a dry and easy path, but prefer to overcome diffi- 
culties of passage if, by so doing, they obtain a peep at another 
leaf of Nature's infinite and wondrous book. Those who have 
an interest in wild flowers, or in some of the curiosities of 
organic life, are amply rewarded for their labours when they 
visit the homes of the Bog-mosses for here they may find the 
pretty pink flowers of the Bog-pimpernel, the delicate blooms 
of the Bog-bean, the acid fruits of the Cranberry, the insecti- 
vorous Sundews and Butterworts, or other interesting or rare 
flowering plants. The microscopist who examines some of 
the water in which the Bog-moss grows is often delighted by 
the wealth and beauty of life revealed to his aided eye, some 
of the most beautiful Desmids, Diatoms and other Algae 
being found in company with many interesting forms of low 
animal life, whilst the entomologist " takes " some of his most 
interesting captures in the Bog-moss area. 

Every moss which grows in a bog can be called a bog-moss, 
but many of these are not included in the plants called Bog- 
mosses in a more limited sense. These are also known as 
Turf -mosses or Peat -mosses but the best name is their botanical 
one of Sphagna, a name which is restricted to one definite 
group of plants usually growing in bogs, and cannot, like the 
other terms, be used in a general sense for any moss found in 
a bog, or on peat or turf. 

From botanical reasons it is necessary to separate Sphagna 
from other mosses, in fact some botanists doubt the propriety 
of including them amongst the true mosses at all. 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 167 

STRUCTURE OF PLANT. 1 

A Sphagnum plant has a stem bearing small leaves and is 
usually much branched, the branches often being so arranged 
that several arise from the stem at the same level (Fig. 1, 
A and B), some of these branches spreading out at right angles 
to the stem whilst others may hang down and almost hide 
the stem from view. The leaves of the divergent branches 
(Fig. 1, B) are larger and broader than those of the pendent 
ones and are more effective in obtaining the carbonaceous 
food from the surrounding air or water, the pendent branches 
being largely concerned in keeping the plant moist, the small 
chambers between them and the stem serving as capillary 
tubes along which the water passes. There are no roots 
whatever ; in fact the adult plants have no means whereby they 
are attached to the soil, being kept in position merely by the 
crowded condition of the plants. In other mosses " root- 
hairs " (rhizoids) are present on the stem, and these serve as 
means of attachment, and partially for the absorption of 
water, but such hairs are only present in Sphagnum when the 
plant is in a juvenile condition. 

The stem is almost thread-like and contains no true vascular 
tissue. A transverse section (Fig. 2, A) shows that it usually 
consists of a core of thin-walled and fairly large cells which 
gradually merge into smaller and thicker-walled ones so as 
to give a certain amount of strength and rigidity to the stem. 
Outside these the cells usually become much larger (Fig. 2, B) 
and in some cases have openings or pores in them, so that 
water is able to be absorbed quickly. In some cases the 
outermost layer of cells not only have pores but are also 
strengthened by fibres, e.g. 8. cymbifolium (Fig. 2, N). 

The leaves of a species of Sphagnum are variable in form 
and structure, the leaves of the branches being usually very 
distinct from those of the stem. The branch-leaf (Fig. 1, G) 
is oval or lance-shaped in form and is very thin, having only 
a single layer of cells (Fig. 1, J. Fig. 2, O and P). These 

1. As Sphagna vary somewhat according to the species, any definite measure- 
ments or statements made must be understood to apply to S. acutifolium var. 
subnttenn unless otherwise stated. 



168 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 




Fig. 1. Spliatjnum subnitenv, R. & W. ft. Diagrammatic sketch of the fertile 
plant, X J. B. Portion of the plant showing two fascicles or groups of branches 
x 3 ; the stem leaves are numbered to show the arrangement, leaves 2 and 5 
being on the other side of the stem. The leaves 3 and 4 are usually nearer to- 
gether than they are shown in the ligure. C. Stem-leaf, x 17 indicating the 
border of narrow cells becoming broader below. D. Stem-leaf x 17 showing un- 
dulations and the margin inrolled at apex. E . Cells from the middle of the stem- 
leaf, x 210. Chi. Chlorophyllous cell with chlorophyll-granules. Hy. Hyaline or 
empty cell which is usually divided by oblique septa. F. Cells from the margin 
of the stem-leaf, x 210. G. Branch-leaves, x 17. H. Outer surface of branch- 
leaf showing fibres and pores, x 210. I. Inner surface of branch leaf, x 210. Chi. 
Chloroplastids. J. Portion of section of branch-leaf showing 2 hyaline and 1 
chlorophyllous cell, x 210. 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 169 

cells (Fig. 1, H, I and E) are of two kinds (1) assimilating or 
chlorophyllous cells which contain the green colouring matter 
(chlorophyll) and are the agents by which the gaseous carbon 
dioxide of the air is changed into carbonaceous food for the 
plant ; (2) hyaline or empty cells which have no chlorophyll 
and appear empty. The latter are larger than the chloro- 
phyllous cells, are provided with holes or pores through which 
water can readily enter and to prevent collapse have spiral 
and ring-like thickenings on their walls. 

The stem-leaves (Fig. 1, C. D and E) are usually of a different 
shape, have a broader insertion, are often auricled at the base 
and chiefly consist of hyaline cells. 

The upper branches are usually more crowded than the 
lower ones and form a capitulum (see Fig. 1, A) where the 
reproductive organs are borne. These, however, are rare in 
some species which simply continue to grow and multiply by 
the decaying away of the lower portions of the plant so that 
the lateral branches become separated and form distinct 
plants. From the reproductive organs shown in Fig. 2. E, 
small capsules (Fig. 2, J and K) are eventually produced, and 
in these many minute spores, (Fig. 2, M), each of which is 
capable of forming a new Sphagnum, are formed. 

LIFE-CYCLE OF SPHAGNUM. 

In dealing with the life-history of an organism there is 
always the difficulty of selecting a starting-point. Should we 
begin with the fully-developed plant, or with the germ from 
which this comes ? From some points of view the best 
starting-post would be the former, but this course would 
involve too long a description owing to its complexity, and 
the spore is probably the most convenient stage from which 
to begin our survey .of the life-cycle. The spore is a small, 
more-or-less rounded body of a yellowish colour 1 studded 
with minute warts and about twenty-eight micromillimetres 2 

1. See footnote 1 on page 167. 

2. A micromillimetre is 10 1 UO of a millimetre, and as about 25 millimetres are 
contained in one inch, the spore is almost 5 ^ of an inch in diameter. 



170 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 



in diameter (Fig. 2, M). After it falls on the ground it 
germinates and divides into a number of cells so that finally 

Fig. 2. Sphagnum subnitens, R. & W. A. Portion of transverse section of 
stem, x 65. B. Longitudinal view of two cells from the outer layer of the stem, 

x 65. C-M. Reproductive or- 
gans. C. Perichaetial leaf x 10. 
D. Perichaetial leaf indicating 
the border of narrow cells, x 10. 
In the middle of the leaf the 
hyaline and chlorophyllous cells 
are distinct, in the lower part they 
are indistinctly differentiated, in 
the upper part they are smaller, 
relatively broader and not differen- 
tiated. The hyaline cells have no 
fibres or pores and are one- or 
more-septate. E. Archegonium, 
x 65, o, egg cell ; n, neck. F. 
Branch bearing antheridia in the 
portion Ap. x 17. 

G . Leaf and antheridium x 20. 
H. Two antheridia x 65, the 
larger one is older. The wall-cells 
only are shown ; the central cells 
are full of sperm-mother cells 
which give rise to the spermato- 
zoids. 

I. Spermatozoid, x over 500. 
J. Sporogonium, with 2 peri- 
chaetial leaves, x about 3. K. 
Older sporogonium, x about 
3 ; I, lid. 

L. Vertical section of sporo- 
gonium, x about 7 : N. Neck 
of old archegonium. C. Calyptra. S. Spore-bearing portion. Col. Columella. 
F. Foot. P. False seta. L. Base of perichaetial leaf. 

M. 3 spores, x 240. The upper one shows the papillose surface, the two lower 
show the triradiate marks indicating where 3 other spores have been 
attached. 

N. S. cymbifolium, Ehrh. Two of the outer cells from the stem showing 
fibres and pores, x 240. 0. S. subsecundum, Nees. Part of transverse sec- 
tion of branch-leaf, x 240, showing 2 hyaline and 3 chlorophyllous cells. 
P. S. papillosum, Lindb. Tranverse section of leaf, x 240. 

a flat greenish plate of cells is produced. This protonema, 
as it is called, is very similar in appearance to the prothallium 
of a fern, but differs from this, since it is never more than one 




Vw 

00 



00 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 171 

cell thick and is much smaller, usually less than 2 to 3 milli- 
metres broad. On this plate of cells, colourless root-hairs 
(rhizoids) are formed at the margin, and these fasten it to 
the earth, whilst on the upper surface a protuberance which 
eventually becomes a bud is formed. From this bud the 
stem and leaves of the moss-plant are developed by ordinary 
growth and a plant 10 or more centimetres (about 4 inches) 
in length and with many branches is formed. Some of the 
branches differ from the vegetative ones which have been 
previously described, in having sexual bodies present in the 
axils of the leaves (Fig. 2, F and G). In 8. acutifolium the 
leaves of these branches are usually red but in some of the 
Sphagna they remain green or only become yellowish or 
brownish. This sexual body is known as an antheridium 
(Fig. 2, H), is borne on a slender stalk, has a globular head, 
and, what is most important of all, within this head are pro- 
duced a large number of male cells or spermatozoids (Fig. 2,1), 
each of which is a spiral nucleated mass of protoplasm with 
two exceedingly fine threads or cilia, the lashings of which 
enable the spermatozoid to swim through the water and 
ultimately reach one of the female cells which are described 
below. 

The egg-bearing organs or archegonia are formed at the 
apex of a shoot, and each of them (Fig. 2, E) consists of a 
short stalk attaching it to the stem, a swollen-out portion 
(venter) and a narrower upper portion which is called the 
neck. In the bulging part a large cell which is known as the 
egg-cell, is formed. The inner cells of the neck form a kind 
of canal w r hich leads down to the egg-cell, and at maturity 
disorganise into a mucilage which exerts an attractive in- 
fluence on the male cells, so that these swim down to the 
egg-cell, and an egg is formed by the fusion of one of the 
male cells with the egg-cell. This egg begins to grow and 
soon gets too large for the case (venter) in which it is con- 
tained, so that a rupture necessarily takes place, the lower 
portion of the case remaining at the base of the embryo (de- 
veloping egg) whilst the shrivelled-up neck may be carried 
up on the top of the enlarged embryo as a small cap. The 
embryo eventually develops into a spore-case (sporogonium, 



172 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

Fig. 2, J and K), the middle portion of which produces some 
spore-forming tissue, each cell (spore-mother cell) forming 
four spores (Fig. 2, L and M). In order to provide for the 
nutrition of its tissues and developing spores, the spore-case 
swells out at its lower portion into a bulbous foot (F in Fig. 2, 
L) which acts as an absorbing organ whereby food is taken 
from the apex of the stem. The spores must also be dispersed 
and as this could scarcely be effected if the spore-case re- 
mained hidden amongst the perichaetial leaves (Fig. 2, C 
and D) at the top of the stem, the latter grows and carries 
the spore-case up with it so that when the spores are ripe, and 
the lid formed at the top of the case falls off, the spores can 
be carried some distance by the wind away from the parent 
plant. 

In this life-cycle of Sphagnum we may see that there are 
two reproductive cells, the spore and the egg, each of these 
producing its own kind of plant ; the egg never produces a 
moss directly but always a spore-bearing plant, whilst the 
spore always gives rise to a moss-plant. We may then con- 
sider that in the life-cycle of the moss two distinct generations 
alternate, one being the sexual plant bearing the sexual cells 
by the fusion of which the egg is produced, the other being 
the spore-producing plant which is somewhat parasitic on 
the sexual plant. The spores are so light that they are 
readily scattered by the wind, and so the moss becomes more 
widely distributed. 

The following shows this cycle in a diagrammatic manner. 

- > Antheridium > Spermatozoid -> 
Sphagnum plant _ 

(Sexual plant) ^ Archegonmm -* Egg-cell 

' t ' r . 

Protonema < Spore < Sporogonium 

(Spore-producing plant) 

HABITAT AND DISTRIBUTION. 

Sphagna grow in boggy or peaty places, some species being 
completely immersed in boggy pools, whilst other species are 
able to grow in the drier parts of moorlands. They nearly 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. . 173 

always grow in situations where the water has a very small 
percentage of mineral substances dissolved in it, and this is 
probably correlated with their remarkable powers of absorbing 
and retaining water. 

The wetness of the habitat is one factor in the distribution 
of the various species, and the following list gives a general 
idea as to the preferences of the species for water, those coming 
first on the list preferring the moister situations : 8. cuspi- 
datum, 8. subsecundum, vars. obesum and viride, 8. riparium, 
8. intermedium, 8. teres, 8. acutifolium, 8. squarrosum, 8. 
girgensohnii, 8. papillosum, 8. cymbifolium, 8. medium, 8. 
acutifolium, var. quinquefarium. It must be borne in mind 
that many departures from the order given in the above list 
may occur owing to the entrance of other influences, the 
amount of available water being only one of the factors affect- 
ing distribution. 

Some attempts have been made of recent years to show 
that the mineral food is obtained from the water through the 
agency of some colloidal substance present in the cell-walls, 
the colloid adsorbing the base and liberating the acid from the 
mineral salt dissolved in the water, so that all water con- 
taining Sphagnum is of an acid character, and this theory has 
had a good case made out for it by its exponents. Much less 
satisfactory have been the attempts to make out a list showing 
the relative powers possessed by the different species of 
liberating the acid and of living in acid waters, but from 
actual field observations Sphagnum acutifolium, 8. cuspidatum 
and 8. papillosum appear to be the most tolerant to acid 
water, 8. subsecundum and its varieties favour situations 
where the water is fresher, whilst 8. cymbifolium, 8. inter- 
medium and 8. squafrosum have an intermediate distribution 
in regard to the acidity factor. 

The accompanying sketch-map of Somerset (Fig. 3) clearly 
shows the preference of Sphagna for the non-calcareous, un- 
cultivated regions of the county, these being mainly on its 
western portion, where the bog-pools of the plateaus and 
the drainage areas of the flanks of Exmoor, Brendons, and 
Quantocks provide an abundance of Sphagna on the siliceous 
rocks of the Devonian system. 



174 



The, Bog -mosses of Somerset. 



The geological distribution of Sphagna in Somerset may be 
summarised as follows : 
Devonian : Exmoor, Brendons, Quantocks. 
Old Red Sandstone : North hill, Black Down, Beacon hill 

and Downhead Common, all on the Mendips. Failand. 
Lower and Mid-Lias : Blackdown hills, Chard Common. 




Fig. 3. Sketch-map of Somerset to show the distribution of Sphagna. 
The areas where Sphagna have been found are shaded, dotted lines represent 
the contour-line of 700 feet, the continuous lines indicate the contour-line of 1000 
feet. A few towns are indicated by crosses. 

Kimeridge and Oxford Clays of the Oolite : Kingsettle hill 

to Longleat. 
Greensand : Blackdown hill. 

The Mendip region is chiefly formed of Carboniferous lime- 
stone and Sphagna are only found in a few localities where 
inliers of Old Red Sandstone occur. On the Wiltshire border 
(Kingsettle hill, Gare hill, Longleat) patches of Sphagnum are 
present on the Oolitic formation but always on the non- 
calcareous clays. On the Blackdown hills the Sphagnum 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 175 

areas are on the Greensand or Lower Lias shales, whilst a 
small Sphagnum-moor still survives on the south side of 
Chard, this being on Mid-Lias siliceous or argillaceous beds. 

The map also shows that Sphagnum is chiefly present in 
areas higher than 700 feet but this must not be taken to mean 
that it is only an upland plant, it rather shows the activity 
of man in draining and cultivating the lowland moors. The 
middle portion of Somerset with the more or less uncultivated 
Sedgemoor is chiefly on a calcareous substratum and Sphag- 
num is almost absent. 

On the flanges of Exmoor Sphagna are sometimes present 
below an altitude of 400 feet, on the Brendons, Blackdowns 
and Quantocks they are rarely found below r 600 feet whilst 
the Sphagnum areas of the Mendip region are all over 700 feet 
high. The lowest elevations in which Sphagna have been 
recorded for the county are Shapwick 50ft.. Horner 300ft., 
Timberscombe 300ft., Chard Common 320ft., and Longleat 
300ft., but in some counties where low moorland is present on 
siliceous soil certain species of Sphagna are found almost at 
sea-level. We may then regard the present upland distri- 
bution of Sphagnum as due to human activity having elimin- 
ated it from its former lowland situations. 

ECONOMIC USES. 

Sphagnum is used by gardeners for potting and other 
purposes, it is very useful for germinating experiments, has 
often been employed for packing brittle articles and has lately 
been much used in hospitals both as an antiseptic and as a 
substitute for raw cotton. It is said to be used as a medium 
for giving molasses to poultry, and also is of interest in con- 
nection with peat and its many uses, since peat in many cases 
consists largely of the decayed remains of Sphagnum. 

CLASSIFICATION AND NOMENCLATURE. 

Sphagnum is usually placed with the mosses but it differs 
in so many respects from the ordinary mosses (Bryales) that it 
is better to create a distinct order (Sphagnales) for it, this 



176 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

order having a single family (Sphagnacese) consisting of only 
one genus (Sphagnum). The naming of the species is a com- 
plicated question as so many authors have adopted different 
methods. 

The nomenclature generally used in the British Isles has 
been that adopted by Braithwaite and Dixon but recently 
the Warnstorfian method has become much used by syste- 
matists. 

In his nomenclature Warnstorf attaches great importance 
to (1) the position and form of the chlorophyllous cells as 
seen in transverse sections of the branch-leaf, (2) the form and 
distribution of the pores in the walls of the hyaline cells of 
the branch-leaf, and to a less extent, of the stem-leaf. This 
system seems to be an artificial one, but it works out fairly 
naturally in practice, except perhaps in the case of the Sphagna 
subsecunda group, still it is not such a natural method as the 
earlier one and splits up the genus into a number of species 
of unequal value, therefore I have preferred, in the main, to 
follow the earlier system, though the characters which 
Warnstorf emphasises, especially such a constant structural 
character as the position of the chlorophyllous cells, have 
been carefully considered when naming the plants. For the 
convenience of those who have used the Warnstorfian sys- 
tem I have given an additional list showing the distribution 
of the Warnstorfian species in Somerset. 

LIST OP SPHAGNA. 

The numbers 5 and 6 refer to the two botanical vice-counties 
into which Somerset is divided, North Somerset (6) being 
the N. and E. portions of the county ; South Somerset (5) 
being the portion S. and W. of the river Parrett and of a line 
drawn from Ilchester to the northern extremity of Dorset. 

Frequency is indicated by "very common," "common," 
"frequent," "infrequent,' "rare" and "very rare"; these 
frequency notes do not refer to the vice-county as a whole 
but only to the Sphagnum areas. 

An asterisk denotes that the species is not given for the 
vice county in the Census Catalogue of British Mosses, 1907. 



The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 177 

The species for which no first vice-comital records are given 
are recorded for the first time. 

The heights given only refer to Somerset. 

The sign " ! " after the name of a collector indicates that the 
specimen has been examined by the author. 

In cases of critical species the kind assistance of other 
bryologists is often indicated in the text ; thus " tesle Wheldon" 
means that the specimen has been examined and the naming 
agreed to by Wheldon. In some cases the presence of sporo- 
gonia on a plant is indicated by c. fr. (= cumfructus). 



PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA. 

ORDER SPHAGNALES. FAMILY SPHAGNACE^, 



GENUS SPHAGNUM. 



SECTION I. CYMBIFOLIA. 

This group contains the most robust species of Sphagnum. 

The superficial cells of the stem are fibrose and porose (Fig. 2, 

N), the stem leaves are not bordered with narrow cells, the 

branch leaves are very broad and much incurved at the apex. 

S. CYMBIFOLIUM, Ehrh. Very common in wet boggy places, 

by the sides of streams and pools, but seldom completely 

submerged. 300 1700ft. Sporogonia common. 

First published records for V.C. 5 and 6. Census 
Catalogue, 1907, on the authorities of plants collected by 
Armitage on Exmoor (1891), and by Parsons on Gare 
hill (1868). 

var. squarrosulum, N. and H. Infrequent ; usually in 
shadier places, as by the sides of woodland streams, 
wet places shaded by hedges and other vegetation, 
and sides of ditches. 300 1000ft. 

First published record for V.C. 5. " A Somerset 
Heath and its Bryophytic Zonation," W. Watson ; 
New Phytologist, 1915 ; for V.C. 6, Census Catalogue, 
on the authority of Waterfall. 
Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. m 



178 The Bog -mosses of Somerset. 

5.* Chard Common. Blagdon hill. Winsford hill. 
6. Black Down and Burrington Combe, Mendip. King's 
Warren near Witham. 

var. congestum, Schp. Rare. On drier moors. 
5.* Winsford hill, 1000ft, 
6.* Kingsettle hill, 700ft. 

S. PAPILLOSUM, Lindb. Frequent in boggy places. 300 1200ft. 
Differs from 8. cymbifolium in the hyaline cells of the 
branch-leaves having small conical papillae on their 
walls (Fig. 2, P). 

First records for V.C. 5 and 6. Census Catalogue, on 
the authority of Waterfall. 

5. Exmoor (Waterfall). Winsford hill and other places 

on Exmoor. Tonehead, 1 Brendon hills. Chard 
Common. 

6. North hill, Mendip (Parsons. No specimen in her- 

barium), 
var. confertum, Lindb. In drier places. Rare. 

First record for V.C. 5. " A Somerset Heath and 
its Bryophytic Zonation," W. Watson, New Phyto- 
logist, 1915. 
5.* Chard Common (350ft,). 

var. sublaeve, Limpr. Infrequent in wet boggy or 

swampy places, 1000ft, 

5.* Winsford hill and other places on Exmoor. Tone- 
head, Brendon hills. 

SECTION II. SUBSECUNDA. 

Stem with one layer (two to three layers in 8. laricinum) 
of large superficial cells without fibres and pores. Branches 
often somewhat secund. Stem leaves bordered with narrow 
cells, the border of almost equal width to the base. Branch 
leaves more or less oval and usually narrow at apex, usually 
arranged in a somewhat secund manner, and with the chloro- 
phyllous cells median (Fig. 2, O). 
S. SUBSECUNDUM, Nees. Bogs, wet heaths, often by the sides 

1. Tonehead means the higher reaches of the river Tone. 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 179 

of streams and more or less immersed. Frequent. 300 
1000ft. or higher. Sporogonia occasionally found. 

First record for V.C. 5. " Distribution of Bryophytes 
in the Woodlands of Somersetshire," W. Watson, New 
Phytologist, 1909. For V.C. 6. Census Catalogue (col- 
lected by Parsons in 1881 at Gare hill). 
5.* Chard Common. Leigh hill and Castle Neroche. 
Blackdowns. Combes of Quantock hills. Tone- 
head, Brendon hills. Ley hill near Porlock. Near 
Tarr Steps, Exmoor. 
6. Gare hill (Parsons). North hill, Mendip (Roper !). 

Kingsettle hill. Near Cogley wood, Bruton. 
var. contortum, Schp. One of the commonest Sphagna 
of the county, it is found in similar situations as the 
type but is much commoner. 300 1200ft. or 
higher. Sporogonia occasionally found. 
5.* Very common on all the Sphagnum areas: 
6. Very common. First record, Census Catalogue (col- 
lected on Downhead Common by Parsons in 1881). 
var. turgidum, C.M. Frequent in wet places, peaty 
streams, bogs and boggy pools, but not usually wholly 
submerged. Sporogonia rare. 600 1200ft. or higher. 
Sporogonia rare. 

5.* Winsford hill (c. fr.) and Ley hill. Exmoor. Hodder's 
Combe, Seven Wells Combe and Thorncombe hill, 
Quantocks. Widcombe moor, Blackdowns. 
6.* Black Down, North hill (Roper !) and Beacon hill 

(Roper !), Mendip. 

var. obesum, Schp. V. rare, submerged in very wet 
places as boggy pools, 1 100ft. Sporogonia not seen. 
5.* Winsford hill and Exford, Exmoor (teste Wheldon). 
var. viride, Boul. Infrequent. In shady places, wet 
ditches, and ditch-holes ; usually submerged. 400 
1100ft. Sporogonia not seen. 

5.* Withypool and Exford, Exmoor. Tonehead, Brendon 
hills. Widcombe moor and Britty Common, 
Blackdowns. 

6.* Downhead Common and North hill, Mendip (Parsons !). 
Failand (Roper !). 



180 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

S. LARICINUM, Spruce. Very rare. Wet place, 1000ft. 
5.* Ley hill (teste Wheldon). 

SECTION III. TRUNCATA. 

Similar to Section Subsecunda except that the stem has 
two to three layers of large superficial cells, the branches are 
straight and closely set, the border of the stem leaf is more 
pronounced, the leaves are truncate and the chlorophyllous 
cells are nearer to the outer surface. 
S. RIGIDUM, Schp. Given in the Census Catalogue for V.C. 6, 

but the plant on which the record is based has been 

recently examined by the author, and also by Ingham, 

and it is S. subsecundum var. viride. 

5.* Pinkery pond, Exmoor (var. subsquarrosum, W. fide 
Larter) . 

SECTION IV. SQUARROSA. 

Stem with two to three layers of large superficial cells 
without fibres and pores. Stem-leaves large, broad at apex, 
without fibres and narrowly bordered. Branch-leaves usually 
more or less squarrose and with many large pores. Chloro- 
phyllous cells inserted between the hyaline cells on the outer 
surface of the leaf. 

S. SQUARROSUM, Pers. Infrequent in boggy places, sides of 
moorland streams, near boggy springs, and often in 
partially-shaded wet places in oak-woods. 500 1100ft. 
or higher. Sporogonia not seen. 

First record for V.C. 5. Census Catalogue (Armitage. 
Exmoor). 
5. Exmoor (Armitage). Cloutsham, 1100ft. Holford 

Combe. 

6.* King's Warren near Brewham. 
S. TERES, Angstr. Rare. Sporogonia not seen. 

5.* Swampy place, 1100ft. Tonehead, Brendon hills, 
var. squarrosulum, Warnst. Rare. Sporogonia not 

seen. 

5.* Boggy place, 1000ft. Pennycomb water near Exford 
(teste Ingham). 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 181 

SECTION V. ACUTIFOLIA. 

Plants usually slender. Stem with, two to three superficial 
layers of large cells which are without fibres but sometimes 
have a few pores. Stem leaves small, widened at base, and 
with a broad border of narrow cells below, obtuse at apices. 
Branch leaves ovate to lanceolate and narrow at apices, the 
chlorophyllous cells inserted between the hyaline cells on the 
inner surface, the pores usually numerous. S. molle, which 
perhaps is better placed in a section of its own, has a narrow 
border to the stem leaves which are larger and widened in 
their middle portions. 

S. ACUTIFOLIUM. Ehrh. The type is infrequent being much 
less common than some of its varieties. Boggy places 
and pools. 300 1500ft. Sporogonia frequent. 

First records. Census Catalogue, on the authority 
of Waterfall. 

5. Exmoor (Waterfall). Cutcombe, Badgworthy, Ex- 

moor. Treborough, Brendon hills. Blagdon hill 
and Widcombe moor, Blackdowns. 

6. Black Down (c. fr. Roper !). Burrington Combe 

(c. fr. Roper !). Berkley and Gare hill (Parsons). 
King's Warren near Brewham. 

var. subnitens, Dixon (Figs. 1 and 2). The commonest 
variety of S. acutifolium and one of the commonest 
Sphagna in Somerset. Sporogonia common. Bogs 
and wet peaty places on moors, occasionally in the 
wet open places of oak or oak-hazel woods. 

First records. Census Catalogue, 1907, on the 
authorities of plants collected by Armitage on Ex- 
moor (1894), and by Parsons on Downhead Common 
(1881). In the Leipner collection of mosses in the 
Bristol Museum there is a specimen of this plant. 
It is labelled S. cymbifolium, and was collected 
near Glastonbury about 1868. 
var. rubellum, Russ. On moors. Not uncommon, 350 

1000ft. or higher. 

5.* Chard Common (wet heath, teste Wheldon). Wins- 
ford hill (1000ft.). Quantocks, Widcombe moor. 



182 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

var. graeile, Russ. Recorded in the Census Catalogue 

for 5, but I cannot trace the specimen, 
var. quinquefarium, Lindb. This is another common 
member of the acutifolia group. It often forms large 
cushions by the sides of streams in oak-woods and 
is frequently found in much drier places than any 
of its allies. Sporogonia rare. 300 1600ft. 

First record for V.C. 5. Moss Exchange Club Report, 
1914 ; specimen collected by the author in Horner 
woods. 

5.* Dunkery, Horner woods, etc., Exmoor. Quantocks. 
Brendons. Haddeo valley. Blackdowns. Tre- 
borough (c. fr.). 
6.* King's Warren near Brewham. 

S. GIKfcENSOHNII, RuSS. 

5.* Boggy place in hollow of heath, 600 700ft., Blagdon 

hill, Blackdowns (teste Ingham). 
var. gracilescens, Grav. 
5.* Some of the plants from Blagdon hill are referable 

to this variety or form. 

S. FIMBRIATUM, Wils. The only claim to include this rests on 
a plant from a moist bank (700ft.) in Hodder's Combe 
V.C. 5. In my notes it is placed under form compactum, 
W., but the specimen has been lost. 

S. MOLLE, Sull. Rare. Near moorland streams. No sporo- 
gonia seen. 
5.* Cold Harbour, Treborough (1000ft.) 

var. tenerum, Braithw. Very rare. 
5.* Moist bank, Hodder's Combe, Quantocks (700ft.) 



SECTION VI. CUSPIDATA. 

Stem with superficial cells usually not well differentiated 
from the inner cells, without fibres or pores. Stem leaves 
obtuse, usually small and with broad border of narrow cells 
below. Branch leaves ovate to lanceolate, when dry usually 
undulate or crisped, narrowed above, with pores few or small ; 
chlorophyllous cells free on the outer surface. S. tenellum does 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 183 

not agree in all these characters with the other members of 
the group and perhaps is better placed in a group of its own. 
S. INTERMEDIUM, Hoffm. Common in boggy and wet places 

on the heaths. 300 1200ft. or higher. Sporogonia not 

seen. 

First record for V.C. 5. Census Catalogue, 1907, on the 

authority of a plant collected by Armitage on Exmoor. 

5. Common on all the Sphagnum areas. 

6.* Black Down, North hill (Roper !), Mendip. King's 

Warren, 
var. pulchrum, Lindb. Wet boggy places. Rare. 

First record for V.C. 5. Moss Exchange Report, 
1915, specimen collected by the author from Blagdon 
hill in 1913. 

5.* Blagdon hill and Widcombe moor, Blackdowns. 
S. CUSPIDATUM, Ehrh. Rare. 

5.* Sides of moorland pools, Dunkery, 1600ft. The Chains, 
Exmoor (fide Larter). 

6. Recorded in the Census Catalogue. I have recently 

had an opportunity to examine the plant on which 
the record probably rests and it is S. intermedium. 
var. falcatum, Russ. 
5.* Bog pools, Dunkery, 1600ft. 

var. plumosum, Nees and Hornsch. Completely im- 
mersed. 
5.* Near Porlock, on Exmoor, 1000ft., in pool. 

var. serratum, L. & J. Immersed. 
5.* Dunkery, 1600ft., in bog pool with Oymnocolea inflata 

f. natans. 

S. TENELLUM, Ehrh. This plant is recorded for V.C. 6 in the 
Census Catalogue but I have recently been able to ex- 
amine the specimen on which the record is based, and it 
is 8. auriculatum. This name has been confirmed by 
Wheldon. 



184 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

SPHAGNA ACCORDING TO THE WARNSTORFIAN 

SYSTEM. 

S. CYMBIFOLIUM, (Ehrh.) W. See S. cymbifolium, p. 177. 

The colour- varieties glaucescens, W.. andfusco-flavescens, 
(R.) W. are very common ; glauco-flavescens , (R.) W., 
glauco-pallens, W., fusco-pallens, W.,a,ndflavo-glaucescens, 
(R.) W., are frequent ; fusco-rubescens, W., and fusco- 
glaucescens, W-, and fuscescens, W.. are occasionally found. 
S. PAPILLOSUM, Lindb. 

var. normale, W. See S. papillosum, p. 178. 

forma conferta, (Lindb.) W. = S. papillosum var. 
confertum, p. 178. 
var. sublaeve, Limpr. = S. papillosum var. sublaeve, 

p. 178. 
S. COMPACTUM, D.C. = S. rigida, p. 180. 

S. SQUARROSUM, Pers. 

var. spectabile, Russ. See S. squarrosum, p. 180. 
S. TERES, (Schp.) Angstr. 

var. imbricatum, W. See S. teres, p. 180. 
var. squarrosulum, (Lesq.) W. =var. squarrosulum, p. 180. 
S. CUSPIDATUM, (Ehrh.) W. 

var. falcatum, Russ. var. falcatum, p. 183. 
var. submersum, Schp. See 8. cuspidatum, p. 183. 
var. plumosum, Bry. germ. = var. plumosum, p. 183. 
S. TRINITEXSE, C.M. See S. cuspidatum var. serratum, p. 183. 
S. PULCHRUM, (Lindb.) W. = S. intermedium var. pulchrum, 

p. 183. 
S. RECURVUM, (P.B.) W. See S. intermedium, p. 183. 

var. mucronatum, (Russ.) W. Common. 300 1000ft. 

or higher. 

5.* Chard Common. Ley hill, Exmoor, etc. 
6.* King's Warren. North hill (Roper !), etc. 

var. amblyphyllum, (Russ.) W. Common. 600 1200ft. 
or higher. 

5.* Leigh hill and Widcombe moor. Blackdowns. Tone- 
head and Treborough. Brendons. Winsford hill. 
6.* King's Warren. 
S. MOLLUSCUM, Bruch. = *S. tenellum, p. 183. 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 185 

S. FIMBRIATUM, Wils. 

var. tenue, Grav. See S. flmbriatum, p. 182. 
S. GIRGEXSOHNII, Russ. = S. girgensohnii, p. 182. 

var. gracilescens, Grav. See p. 182. 

S. WARNSTORFII, Russ. = S. acutifolium var. gracile, p. 182. 
S. RUBELLUM, Wils. S. acutifolium var. rubellum, p. 181. 

Colour- variety purpurascens, W., Chard Common (5). 
S. QUINQUEFARIUM, (Lindb.) W. = S. acutifolium var. quinque- 
farium, p. 181. 

Colour - varieties pallido-viride, W. very common ; 
virescens, W. common ; pallescens, W. and roseum, W. 
frequent. 

S. SUBXITENS, R. & W. = S. acutifolium var. subnitens, p. 181. 

Colour - varieties flavo-rubellum, W., versicolor, W., 

violascens, W. are common ; pallescens, W. is frequent ; 

flavescens, W., purpurascens, W., obscurum, W., and 

griseum, W. are infrequent. 

S. ACUTIFOLIUM, (Ehrh.) R. & W. See S. acutifolium type, 
p. 181. 

Colour-varieties pallescens, W., viride, W., roseum, W., 
rubrum, W., flavo-rubellum, W., obscurum, W., and versi- 
color, W., have been found in the county. 
S. MOLLE, Sull. 

var. pulchellum, W. See S. molle, p. 182. 
var. tenerum, Braithw. = var. tenerum, p. 182. 
S. CONTORTUM, Schultz. = S. laricinum, p. 180. 
S. SUBSECUNDUM, (Nees.) Limpr. The subsecunda group is 
a difficult one in which to correlate the two systems and 
it is impossible to place exactly the Warnstorfian species 
as varieties equivalent to them in the earlier system ; only 
general statements can be made. All the plants belonging 
to the Warnstorfian 8. subsecundum can be placed under 
S. subsecundum, Nees. Wet boggy places. Rare. 300 
1000ft. 

First record " A Somerset Heath and its Bryophytic 
Zonation," W. Watson, New Phytologist. 1915. 
5.* Chard Common. Leigh hill and Castle Neroche, 

Blackdowns. 
6.* Near Cogley wood. 



186 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

S. INUNDATUM, (Russ.) W. This species, like the last, has 
many pores on the outer surface of the branch-leaf and 
few on the inner, but has larger stem-leaves with the 
hyaline cells mostly divided and fibrose. Many plants 
belonging to it, would be placed with 8. subsecundum 
var. contortum, but others would have to be placed under 
var. viride or the type of the Neesian species, unless the 
Warnstorfian S. subsecundum is extended to embrace 
some plants with leaves longer than 1mm. Frequent by 
stream-sides and bogs, often more or less submerged. 
300 1000ft. or higher. 

5.* Quantock Combes. Blackdowns. Tonehead, Brendons. 
Chard Common. Selworthy. Ley hill and Wins- 
ford hill (c. fr.), Exmoor. 
6.* Black Down and Downhead Common, Mendip. 

Kingsettle hill. 

S. AURICULATUM, Schp. Many plants of this species are re- 
ferable to the var. viride, p. 179, but there is no exact 
correspondence in the two nomenclatures. The pores 
are similar to the two preceding species, but the stem- 
leaves are much larger and narrowed at the base. Rare. 
In very wet peaty places, often submerged. 300 1100ft. 
5.* Exford, Winsford hill, Britty Common, Castle 

Neroche (teste Sherrin). 
6.* Longleat. North hill, Mendip (teste'Wheldon). Black 

Down, Mendip. 

S. CEASSICLADUM, W. Usually belong to var. turgidum or 
var. viride of the other system. In ditches, streams, and 
moorland pools, usually completely submerged. 

Infrequent. 300 1200ft. Sporogonia rare. 
5.* Winsford hill. Withypool. Quantock Combes. Tone- 
head, Brendon hills. Castle Neroche. Ley hill, 
Porlock. 

6.* Beacon hill, Mendip. Failand. 

S. RUFESCENS, (Bry. germ.) Limpr. The most common 
member of the subsecunda group and mostly to be placed 
under var. contortum of the other system. It is also the 
most variable both in its characters and habitat, usually 
submerged or in wet places. Very common in all the 



The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 187 

Sphagnum areas. Sporogonia occasionally found. 300 

1500ft. 

5.* First record in " A Somerset Heath and its Bryophytic 
Zonation," W. Watson, New Phytologist, 1915. 

6. First record in the Census Catalogue, 1907, from a 
specimen collected by Parsons at Downhead 
Common and submitted to Ingham. 
var. aquatile, W. Submerged. Bare. 

5.* Winsford hill. Quantock Combe. 
S. OBESUM, (Wils.) W. See S. subsecundum var. obesum, 

p. 179, as all the plants recorded under that variety 

belong to this Warnstorfian species. 



In the preparation of the above lists hundreds of plants 
from different parts of Somerset have been examined micro- 
scopically, and in many critical cases have been passed on 
for other bryologists to examine. 

Very little work had been done on the Sphagna of Somerset 
till the author began his investigations ; there is not a single 
Sphagnum mentioned in the Victoria History of the county, 
only thirteen species and varieties (with one extra Warnstor- 
fian species) are given in the Census Catalogue of British Mosses, 
1907, and two of these were cases of mistaken identity, and 
the only other references to Sphagna species were found in 
the publications mentioned in the list, which now shows 
thirty- two (and eight additional Warnstorfian) species or 
varieties. 

For the adjoining counties of Devon, Gloucester, Dorset 
and Wiltshire eight (with four additional Warnstorfian), 
five (with one additional Warnstorfian), sixteen (with two 
additional Warnstorfian), nine species or varieties are re- 
spectively recorded in the Moss Census Catalogue, but the list 
in the case of Gloucestershire has been extended to eleven 
(with five additional Warnstorfian) species and varieties by 
H. H. Knight, in The Mosses of Gloucestershire. The rarer 
species or varieties recorded for Somerset are S. teres and its 
var. squarrosulum, S. molle and its var. tenerum, 8. acutifolium 
var. gracile (a doubtful record), S. girgensohnii, S. inter- 



188 The Bog-mosses of Somerset. 

medium var. pulchrum, S. cuspidatum var. serratum, S. 
subsecundum type and its vars. obesum and viride, whilst the 
common or widely distributed species S. medium, S. rigidum 
and S. tenellum have not as yet been seen by me from the 
county. 

S. girgensohnii var. gracilescens has, so far as I am aware, 
not been previously recorded for the British Isles. 

For help in various ways, such as testing plants, collecting 
specimens, sending lists of plants, etc., I am indebted to Miss 
Eleonora Armitage (Ross), Miss C. Larter (St. Mary Church), 
Miss Ida M. Roper (Bristol), H. N. Dixon (Northampton), W. 
Ingham (York), J. A. Wheldon (Liverpool), J. E. Saul 
(Radlett), W. R. Sherrin (Norwood), the late H. F. Parsons 
(Croydon), and the late W. B. Waterfall (Bristol). 

It is much to be regretted that the two latter bryologists 
did not live to see the publication of the list of Sphagna to 
which they had contributed. 



on tfje Diptera of Somerset. 

PART I. 



BY H. J. CHARBOXNIER. 



r 1 1HE following notes contain records of between 600 and 
-L 700 species of Diptera observed within the county of 
Somerset, this however must be an imperfect list, owing to 
the immense number of species of Diptera, and to the fact that 
very few localities have been at all worked by collectors. In 
a county offering such a rich diversity of conditions there are, 
no doubt, over 2000 species. 

Entomologists have much neglected this order of insects 
and though much attention has been given to the biting 
species, owing to their relation with the spread of disease, 
nothing is yet known of the life histories of most of them, and 
they offer a fruitful and almost unworked field for valuable 
original work. 

Diptera are easy to find anywhere, and I would strongly 
urge our local entomologists to take them up. I may add that 
I shall be very pleased to give any information or help to 
beginners. 

Short notes relating to life histories, or guides to identifi- 
cation are added in many cases. 

Approximate English meanings of the family or generic 
names are given, where possible, in brackets following the 
names. 

I thankfully acknowledge the kindly help and co-operation 
I have received particularly with the obscure species, from 
Mr. A. E. J. Carter of Monifieth, Dundee. I have also had 



190 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

help in identification from the late G. H. Verrall, Messrs. J. E. 
Collin, F.E.S., A. H. Hamm, F. W. Edwards, B.A., F.E.S., and 
the late Dr. Wood. 

For specimens kindly sent me from within the county, my 
best thanks are due to (P.) Miss B. Punfield; (I.M.R.) Miss 
I. M. Roper, F.L.S. ; (B.) Mr. Charles Bartlett ; (G.) Mr. G. C. 
Griffiths ; (H.) Mr. A. E. Hudd, F.S.A., F.E.S. ; (J.) Col. Jermyn ; 
(M.) Mr. H. W. Mapleton ; (R.) Rev. S. O. Ridley; (S.) Mr. 
Henry Slater; (W.) specimens in the Watkins collection in 
Bristol Museum ; (V.H.) the less common species recorded in 
the Victoria County History, Somerset, by Lt.-Col. Linley 
Blathwayt, F.L.S. , F.E.S. 

The arrangement is that adopted hi Verrall's List of British 
Diptera, 1901. 

(S.M.) means that the species occurs round Shepton Mallet. 

DIPTERA NEMATOCERA. 

(Antennae filiform, and of more than six joints.) 

PULICIDAE (Fleas )= SIPHON APTERA (i.e. wingless suckers). 
Pulex irritans, L. Too common. 
Ctenocephalus canis, Curt. Dog flea, very common. 

,, felis, Bouche. Quite distinct from the last, 

not so common. 

Spilopsylla cuniculi, Dale. Not uncommon on rabbits. 
Leptopsylla musculi, Duges. On house mice. 
Ceraptophyllus gallinae, Schr. Common in fowls' nests. 
Archaeopsylla erinacei, Bouche. On hedgehog. 

CECIDOMYIDAE. (Gnats whose larvae live in galls on plants). 

Minute and fragile looking gnats, whose hairy wings have 

very few veins. Some of their wings are beautifully 

iridescent. 

Cecidomyia brassicae, Winn. In galls on cabbage and turnip. 

S.M. 

crategi, Winn. Local; on shoots of hawthorn. 

galli, Lw. On yellow bedstraw (I.M.R. ). 

persicariae, L. On Polygonum amphibium. 

Winscombe (I.M.R.). 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 191 

Cecidomyia tiliae, Schr. Common on lime blossoms. 

ulmariae, Bremi. Under leaves of meadow 

sweet (I.M.R.). 

,, urticae, Ferris. Local ; galls on nettles. 

,, bursaria, Bremi. Not uncommon on leaves of 

ground ivy. 
Asphondylia genistae, Lw. Galls on broom. Pensford 

(I.M.R.). 

(Asphondylia refers to the hairs of antennae not being 

arranged in a circle as in the other Mycetophilidae.) 
Lasioptera rubi, Schr. Strumous galls on bramble ; the 

flies emerge in May and June, the pupa skin is left 

sticking partly out of the hole in the gall (Lasioptera 

= hairy wings). 
Diplosis pyrivora, Riley. In pears (S.) generally distributed 

and sometimes very destructive. 
Hormomym corni, Gir. On leaves of cornel. Leigh Woods. 

(Hormomyia refers to thorax bulging over head.) 

MYCETOPHILIDAE. (Gnats whose larvae feed on fungi). 

Graceful little gnats with more veins in the wings than 
the last family, and mostly having spines on the legs. 
The larvae of Rhymosia and Allodia bury an inch or two 
in the earth, and spin a light silken cocoon. The larvae 
of Sciara live in decaying animal and vegetable matter. 
Sciara thomae, L. Very common. 

,, morio, F. Sometimes common in March. 

pulicaria, Mg. As early as February. 

,, brunnipes, Mg. S.M. 

,, ruficauda, Mg. Leigh Woods, in October (H). 

(Sciara = loving the shade.) 
Ceroplates tipuloides, F. Rare. July. S.M. 

(Ceroplates = dilated antennae.) 

Sciophila fasciata, Zett. In May. Brockley (J). Leigh 
Woods (H). 

(Sciophila = shade loving.) 

Mycetophila punctata, Mg. S.M., in July. Leigh Woods, 
in October (H). 

lineola, Mg. S.M., in April. 

cingulum, Mg. Leigh Woods, in September (H). 



192 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

Rhymosia fenestralis, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 

Allodia crassicornis, Stan. S.M., in February, hibernating 

in caves. 
lugens = ornaticollis, Mg. Of Verrall's list. Leigh 

Woods (H). 

Macrocera centralis, Mg. S.M. Locally common. 
vittata, Mg. Leigh Woods, in August (H). 
lutea, Mg. Cranmore Woods. 
fasciata, Mg. Weston-super-Mare, in May (J). 
(Macrocera = very long antennae, by which they 
are easily known.) 

Exechia fungorum, Dg. S.M. February. 
lateralis, Mg. S.M. 

BIBIONIDAE. (Bibio. Lat. used of an insect supposed to be 

generated in wine). 

Medium sized, black, and very hairy flies, often seen in 
swarms in spring. 

Bibio marci, L. St. Mark's fly, very common. 
,, leucopterus, Mg. S.M. Axbridge (R). 
,, Johannis, L. St. John's fly, very common. 
,, clavipes, Mg. Freshford (V.H.). 
,, hortulanus, L. Apparently very local. Cannington (S). 

Leigh Woods (H). 

,, venosus, Mg. S.M., in May, uncommon. 
laniger, Mg. Common, with Johannis. 
pomonae, F. S.M., uncommon. 
reticularis, Lw. Leigh Woods (H), apparently rare. 
Dilophus febrilis, L. Fever fly. Common, larvae in cow 

dung. 

,, feinoratus, Mg. S.M., in June. 
,, nlbipennis, Mg. S.M. and Nailsea, in May. 

(Dilophus = two rows of spines on prothorax.) 
Scatopse notata, L. Small shining black flies occurring in 
swarms. Have bred them from decaying narcissus 
and shallot bulbs. 

flavicollis, Mg. Leigh Woods, in October (H). 
(Scatopse = living in dung.) 

SIMULIDAE. Sand flies, small dark flies that are terrible biters 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 193 

and sometimes quite a plague to men, horses, and goats ; 
some species are said not to bite. 

Mr. F. W. Edwards, B.A., F.E.S., has written a mono- 
graph of the group and has kindly given me the following 
Somerset localities. 

Simulium ornatum, Mg. Taunton and Wells. 
,, angustipes, Edw. Wells. 
equinum, L. Taunton. 

,, latipes, Mg. The commonest species all over 
England. 

I have taken ornatum and latipes in the county 
myself. 

CHIRONOMIDAE (= methodical waving of arms), so named 
from the habit these midges have, when at rest of elevating 
the front pair of legs and swaying them about. 

The males have beautiful plumose antennae. The 

larvae live in ponds and are called blood worms. None 

are biters except Ceratopogon, whose larvae live in manure. 

Chironomus plumosus, L. A large species, half an inch long. 

Common. 

pollens, Mg. Taunton, in May. 

virescens, Mg. Nempnett, in dense swarms. 

pedellus, Deg. Leigh Woods, in August (H). 

albimanus, Mg. S.M., in May. 

,, riparius, Mg. Cheddar, in September (H). 

,, dispar, Mg. Axbridge (R). 

,, annularis, Deg. Axbridge (R). 

Cricotopus. Delicate little midges with plumose antennae, 

whose legs are conspicuously barred with white. 
Cricotopus annulipes, Mg. S.M., in April. 

bicinctus, Mg. S.M., in September. 
tremulus, L. Axbridge (R), in April. 
Corynoneura minuta, Winn. The smallest of the midges. 
Camptocladius aterrimiis, Mg. Common in Winter and early 

Spring. 

Orthocladius variabilis, Staeg. S.M., in February. 
,, notatus, Mg. S.M., in April. 

irritus, Wlk. Axbridge (R). 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. n 



194 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

Orthocladius stercorarius, Deg. S.M. Leigh Woods (H). 

,, lucens, Zett. Leigh Woods (H). 

Diamesa obscurimana, Mg. S.M. 
T any pus varius, F. S.M., common in April. 
,, nebulosus, Mg. S.M., in August. 
choreus, Mg. S.M., common in May. 
ferruginecollis, Mg. S.M., in September. 

(Tanypus = feet spread out). Midges mostly with 
spotted wings. 

Ceratopogon pulicarius, L. Very common and a severe biter. 
,, femoratus, F. Nailsea. 

(Ceratopogon = bearded antennae). Very small 
midges 1 J to 2mm., the wings are often spotted and 
sometimes hairy ; occur in swarms and are a great 
plague. 

PSYCHODIDAE (from Psyche, a butterfly). Tiny flies like fairy 
moths, with broad hairy wings, and long beautifully 
whorled antennae. They are often seen on windows and 
occur in immense numbers. Our great authority for this 
family, the Rev. E. A. Eaton, M.A., F.E.S., has recorded 
the following species for Somerset. 
Pericoma cognata, Eat. Near Bruton. 

mutua, Eat. Near Bruton. 

,, revisenda, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

,, palustris, Mg. Stoney Stoke. 

,, gracilis, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

,, extricata, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

compta, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

,, pulchra, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

,, trifasciata, Mg. Stoney Stoke. 

,, trivialis, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

notabilis, Eat. Stoney Stoke. 

morulae, Eat. Near Wincanton. 

,, fusca, Meg. Near Wincanton and S.M. 

,, canescens, Mg. Near Wincanton. 

,, fratercula, Eat. Near Wincanton. 

,, soleata, Hal. Near Wincanton. 

,, ocellaris, Mg. Near Wincanton. 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 195 

Pericoma incerta, Eat. Near Wincanton. 

,, exquisita, Eat. Blackmore Vale. 

,, fallax, Eat. Blackmore Vale. 

,, blandula, Eat. Blackmore Vale. 

,, gracilis, Eat. Near Bruton. 

,, advena, Eat. Bratton Seymour. 

,, consors, Eat. Ashcot. 

,, ustulata, Hal. Ashcot. 

caliginosa, Eat. Minehead. 

,, nubila, Mg. Minehead and S.M. 

neglecta, Eat. Minehead. 
Psychoda erminea, Eat. Near Cutcombe. 

,, lucifuga, Hal. Bruton. 
Ulomyia fuliginosa, Mg. Stoney Stoke. 

CULIGIDAE (Lat. Culex, a gnat). The so-called musquitos ; the 

females of most are terrible biters. The larvae live in 

ponds and ditches. The females hibernate in caves and 

hollow trees. 

Theobaldia annulata, Schr. Very common, a large species 

with striped legs, sometimes quite a plague. 
Culex pipiens, L. = Ciliaris of V.H. The commonest species. 

nemorosus, Mg. Nailsea and Leigh Woods (H). 
Coretkra plumicornis, F. S.M., in May. The larvae are 
aquatic and are quite transparent, " phantom larvae," 
locally common. 

(Corethra = brush-like antennae.) 

Anopheles maculipennis, Mg. S.M., in December and Feb- 
ruary. 

,, bifurcatus, L. S.M. and Freshford, in May. 
(Anopheles = importunate.) 

DIXIDAE (refers to binary division of wing nervures). 
Dixa maculata, Mg. Cheddar. 

PTYCHOPTERIDAE (= folded wings). Rather small crane flies 
having spotted wings. Larvae with long respiratory tube, 
living in pools. 



196 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

Ptychoptera contaminate, L. S.M., in June. 
,, albimana, F. S.M., in June. 

paludosa, Mg. S.M. and Leigh Woods (H). 

lacustris, Mg. Crook's Peak (R). 

LJMNOBIDAE (loving marshes), long and thin legged gnats. 
Most of them when at rest elevate the hind pair of legs, 
like the chironomidae do the front pair ; and vibrate the 
body up and down. 

Limnobia stigma, Mg. Leigh Woods, in August (H). 
,, nubeculosa, Mg. S.M., in February. 
,, tripunctata, F. Pill (H). 

fiavipes, F. Cheddar, in August (G). Pill (H). 
Limnophila ochracea, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 
discicollis, Mg. Ham Lane (J). 
nemoralis, Mg. Portbury and Leigh Woods (H). 
Dicranomyia mitis, Mg. Flax Bourton, in September (H). 
aequosa, Verr. S.M., in April. 

,, didyma, Mg. Leigh Woods (G}. 

,, chorea, Mg. Common from March to October. 

sericata, Mg. Leigh Woods and Cheddar (H), 

in August. 

,, lutea, Mg. Leigh Woods (G). 

Rhipida maculata, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 

(Rhipida from beautiful fanlike arrangement of 
antennae of male.) 

Empeda flava, Scham. S.M., in September. 
Rhypholophus lineatus, Mg. S.M., in April. 

,, haemorrhoidalis, Zett. Leigh Woods (H). 

nodulosus, Mg. S.M. and Leigh Woods, in 

August (H). 
similis, Staeg. Cheddar, in July. 

(Rhypholophus from hairiness of head, the wings 
are also very hairy.) 

Eriopterafiiscipennis,Mg. Cheddar, in August (H). Brock- 
ley, in May (J). 

macropthalma, Lu. S.M., in May. 
trivialis, Mg. Common. 
taenionata, Mg. Leigh Woods, in August (G). 



Notes on the D.iptera of Somerset. 197 

Erioptera lutea, Mg. Leigh and Flax Bourton (H). 

(Erioptera = woolly wings, they have also spines 
along the nervures.) 
Trickocera annulata, Mg. S.M., in January. Leigh Woods, in 

October (H). 

,, hiemalis. Deg. Very common. 
,, regelationis, L. Very common. 
,, fuscata, Mg. S.M., in February. 

(Trichocera Capillary antennae). These are the 
Winter gnats seen dancing in the air in Winter.) 
Dicmnota bimaculata, Schmm. S.M., in May. 
Amalopis immaculata, Mg. Cannington (S). 
Ula pilosa, Schum. Leigh Woods (H). 
Pedicia rivosa, L. Wellington (V.H.)). 
Cylindrotoma distinctissima, Mg. S.M., in August. 

(Cylindrotoma = cylindrical joints of antennae.) 

TIPULIDAE. (Tipula, ancient name for insects that ran on 
water.) 

Daddy long -legs or crane flies. The larvae live in earth 
and are sometimes very destructive to the root of crops. 
Dolichopeza sylvicola, Curt. Weston-super-Mare (J). 

(Dolichopeza = long footed.) 
Pachyrrhina histrio, F. S.M., in July. 

,, quadrifaria, Mg. S.M., in July. 

,, maculosa, Mg. Batheaston (V.H.). Clevedon 

(W.). 

(Pachyrrhina = thick muzzle) medium sized crane 
flies, yellow with black markings ; found near 
water. The larvae live in decayed wood. 
Tipula gigantea, Schr. Batheaston (V.H.). Freshford. 
rufina, Mg. S.M., in May. 
nubeculosa, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 
,, marmorata, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 
scripta, Mg. Wellington (V.H.) and S.M., in Sep- 
tember. 

,, vernalis, Mg. Very common in Spring. 
,, oleracea, L. Too common. 
,, paludosa, Mg. Very common. 



198 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

Tipula ochracea, Mg. Batheaston (V.H.). Leigh Woods (H). 

Weston-super-Mare (J). 
lateralis, Mg. Cannington Brook (J). 
nigra, L. Shapwick (V.H.). 
lunata, L. Weston-super-Mare (J). 
lutescens, F. Wellington (V.H.). 

RYPHIDAE. Gnat -like flies with spotted wings, often seen on 

windows (Ryphus = rapid). 

Ehyphus fenestralis, Scop. Common, tip of wing spotted- 
punctatus, F. Common, tip of wing clear. 

DIPTERA BRACHYCERA. 

(Antennae short, not more than three joints.) 

STBATIOMYIDAE (armed flies, i.e. spines on scutellum). 
Stratiomys chamaeleon, L. Highbridge and S.M. 
potamida, Mg. Wellington (V.H.). 
furcata, F. Shapwick Moor (S). Burnham (V.H.). 
S. riparia in Victoria History is a synonym of 
furcata. Large and handsome black and yellow 
flies ; the larvae live in ditches. 
Pachygaster tarsalis, Zett. Portishead (H). 

atra, Pz. Langport (V.H.). Crook's Peak (R). 
Portishead (H). 
leachii, Curt. Wincanton, Verrall. 

(Pachygaster = wide abdomen.) 
Nemotelus uliginosus, L. Minehead (V.H.). 

(Nemotelus refers to thread-like end of antennae.) 
Oxycera formosa, Mg. Batheaston (V.H.). 
pulchella,M.g. Batheaston (V.H.). 
,, trilineata, F. Puddimore Milton (V.H.). Somerset 
(Verrall). 

(Oxycera = pointed horns.) 
Odontomyia viridula, F. Minehead (V.H.). 

(Odontomyia = spines near mouth.) 

Chrysonotus bipunctatus, Scop. Batheaston (V.H.). Shepton 
Montagu (Verrall), and Leigh Woods, in August (H). 
(Chrysonotus refers to golden yellow spots.) 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 199 

Sargus fiavipes, Mg. Batheaston (V.H.). 
cuprarius, L. Batheaston (V.H.). 
,, iridiatus, Scop. Common, described as S. infuscatus 
in V.H. 

(Sargus was Pliny's name for a fish.) 
Chloromyia formosa, Scop. Fairly common. 

(Chloromyia from its emerald green colour.) 
Microchrysa polita, L. Common. 

(Microchrysa = little golden green fly.) 
Beris clavipes, L. Leigh Woods (H). 

vallata, Forst. Freshford. S.M., and bred from nar- 
cissus bulbs. 

,, chalybeata, Forst. Freshford and S.M. May to July. 
,, morrisii, Dale. Porlock (Verrall). 

Chorisops tibialis, Mg. Batheaston (V.H.). Clevedon, in 
August (W). 

TABANIDAE. Gad flies, horse flies, or breeze flies ; the females 
are among the worst tormentors of men and cattle ; they 
are bulky bodied flies ranging from 6mm. to over an inch 
in length. There are over 1,500 species known. 
Tdbanus bovinus, L. Wellington (V.H.). 

,, autumnalis, L. Minehead (V.H.). Somerset 

(Verrall). 

,, bromius, L. Leigh Woods, in August and Somerset 
(Verrall). 

(Tabanus, ancient name for a gad fly.) 
Atylotus fulvus, Mg. Wellington (V.H.). 
Therioplectes tropicus, Mg. Freshford and Shapwick, in July. 
,, distinguendus, Verr. Cannington (S). 

,, micans, Mg. Wellington (V.H.). 

(Therioplectes is distinguished from Tabanus by its 
hairy eyes.) 
Haematopota pluvialis, L. Cleg or stout. Very common. 

(Haematopota = blood drinker.), 

Chrysops relicta, Mg. Crook's Peak (R). Shapwick Moor (S). 
,, caecutiens, L. Common round woods. 
,, quadrata, Mg. Rare. Ashcot Moor (R). 

(Chrysops refers to their beautiful golden eyes.) 



200 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

LEPTIDAE. Flies with long legs and wings ; the larvae are 
" glassy " looking and found in damp moss. Some of 
them are suspected of biting. 
Leptis scolopacea, L. Common. 
,, tringaria, L. Common. 
Var. nigriventris, Lw. S.M. and Cheddar. 
lineola,. F. S.M. Rare. In July. 
conspicua, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 

(Leptis = slender bodied.) 
Chrysopilus cristatus, Verr. Not scarce ; this is C. auratus 

of V.H. 
aureus, Mg. S.M. Cheddar (G). 

(Chrysopilus refers to the beautiful short golden 
hairs on the body of these flies ; these get worn 
off.) 

Atherix ibis, F. Freshford. Very rare. 
Xylophagus ater, F. Leigh Woods. Very rare. 

(Xylophagus = wood eater : in larval stage.) 

ASILLDAE. Hawk flies. Medium to large, powerful, very spiny 

flies, that live on other insects. 

Asilus crabroniformis, L. Batheaston (V.H.). Clevedon (W). 
(Asilus was a Roman name for a fly the Greeks 
called Ostreus.) 
Isopogon brevirostris, Mg. Withycombe (S). 

(Isopogon = equal bearded.) 
Philonicus albiceps, Mg. Leigh Woods and Burnham (S). 

(Philonicus = fond of fighting.) 

Machimus atricapillus, Fin. S.M., in August, and Clevedon 
(W). 

(Machimus warlike.) 
Dysmachus trigonus, Mg. Kewstoke (J). Axbridge (R). 

This is probably the fly described as D. forcipatus in 
V.H. ; forcipatus is not British. 

(Dysmachus = unconquerable.) 
Epitriptus cingulatus, F. Taunton. 
Dioctria atricapilla, Mg. Freshford. 

,, oelandica, L. Holford, in May (P). 
,, rufipes, Deg. Common. 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 201 

Dioctria flavipes, Mg. Taunton, in August. Weston-super- 

Mare (J). 
,, linearis, F. Somersetshire (Verrall), and Weston- 

super-Mare (J). 

Leplogaster cylindrica, Deg. Freshford. Clevedon (W). 
Sometimes common. 

(Leptogaster = slender abdomen.) 

BOMBYLLDAE. Beautiful bee-like hovering flies seen in early 
Spring. They are in the larval stage parasites of the 
humble bees. 

Bombylius discolor, Mik. Fairly common in Spring. 
,. major, L. Fairly common in Spring. 
,, canescens, Mik. Very rare. Brockley (B). 

The insect recorded in Victoria History as B. minor 
was probably this species. (Bombylius = loud hum- 
ming.) 

Anthrax paniscus, Rossi. Coast sandhills in Somerset 
(Verrall). Very rare. 

(Anthrax = black winged.) 

THEREVIDAE. Scarce flies, generally seen on a path in the hot 

sunshine. 

Thereva nobilitata, F. Freshford. 
,, plebia, L. Burnham (V.H.). 
,, marginata, Rossi. Freshford. 
(Thereva = a hunter.) 

SCENOPINIDAE. Sometimes called carpet flies : black and 

shining. 
Scenopinus fenestralis, L. Not uncommon on windows. 

CYRTIDAE. 

Oncodes pallipes, Latr. Very rare. Leigh Down. Wells 
(Verrall). 

(Oncodes = tumified) these flies have round swollen 
looking bodies.) 

Acrocera globulus, Pz. Very rare. Shepton Montagu (Verrall). 
(Acrocera = antennae on top of head.) 



202 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

EMPIDAE. Small to medium-sized flies that live by sucking 
other flies. 

(Empis, from Empino, I drink.) 
Empis tesselata, F. Very common. 
livida, L. Very common. 
chioptera, Fin. S.M. 
,, pennipes, L. Cheddar and Freshford. 
nigritarsis, Mg. Freshford. S.M. Clevedon (W). 

Pill (H). 

,, decora, Mg. Cheddar, in July. 
,, brunneipennis, Mg. Cheddar, in July. 
,, vernalis, Mg. Cheddar and Brockley (J). 
, punctata, Mg. Freshford, in May and June. 
stercorea, L. Pill (H). 
,, trigramma, Mg. S.M., in May. 

Hybos grossipes, L. S.M. Leigh Woods (H). Clevedon (W). 
,, femoratus, Mull. Leigh Woods (H). Clevedon (W). 

(Hybos refers to humped thorax.) 
Cyrtoma spuria, Fin. Freshford. 

melaena, Hal. S.M., in May. 

Rhamphomyia sulcata, Fin. Freshford. Caught one at 
Bleadon killing a Bibio clavipes. 
,, fuscipennis, Zett. Bleadon, in August. 

filata. Zett. S.M., in May. 

flava, Fin. Leigh Woods (H). 

,, cinerascens, Mg. Cleeve Coombe (J). 

(Rhamphomyia = beaked fly.) 

Pachymeria femorata, F. Ashton and Freshford, in April 
and May. 

(Pachymeria, thick femora.) 
Hilara niveipennis, Zett. S.M., in June. 

,, nigrina, Fin. Long Ashton, in August. 

,, maura, F. Common. 

,, pilosa, Zett. S.M., May to July. 

,, chorica, Fin. Leigh Woods (H), in August. 

clypeata, Mg. Leigh Woods (H), in August. 

thoracica, Mcq. Leigh Woods (H), in August. 

(Hilara refers to their gay aerial dances generally 
over water.) 



Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 203 

Trichina flavipes, Mg. Freshford and Leigh Woods (H). 

(Trichina = hair-like antennae.) 
Microphorus anomalus, Mg. Leigh Woods, in June. 

(Microphoms = little brigand.) 
Oedalea flavipes, Zett. Cheddar, in July. 

,, stigmatella, Zett. Holford (P). Stourton Wood (J). 
,, holmgreni, Zett. Leigh Woods and Portbury (H). 

(Oedalea = swollen.) 
Ocydromia glabricula, Mg. S.M. and Leigh Wood (H). 

(Ocydromia = quick runner.) 

Leptopeza sphenoptera, Lw. Rare. Leigh Woods and Portis- 
head (H). 

(Leptopeza = slender or delicate feet.) 
Tachypeza nubila, Mg. S.M., in June. 
(Tachypeza = quick footed.) 
Tachista arrogans, L. S.M., in June. 

(Tachista = very quick.) 
T achy dromia flavipes, F. S.M. 

,, maculipes, Mg. S.M. 

flavipennis, Wlk. Holford (P). 

,, pallidiventris, Mg. Leigh Woods (H). 

nigritarsis, Fin. Weston-super-Mare (J). 

,, longicornis, Mg. Flax Bourton (H). 

(Tachydromia = quick runner.) 

DOLICHOPODIDAE. Rather small, metallic green, and very 
spiny flies, often seen running swiftly near water ; they 
are all rapacious. 

Dolichopus atratus, Mg. Holford (P). 
campestris, Mg. Common. 

' plumipes, Scop. Batheaston (V.H.). 
confusus, Zett. S.M. Axbridge (R). 

j, discifer, Stan. S.M. One specimen being eaten 

by Scatophaga stercoraria ! 
,, griseipen/nis, Stan. Common. 

ungulams, L. Very common : described as 

oeneus in V.H. 

trivialis, Hal. S.M. Clevedon (W). 

,, arbuslorum, Stan. S.M. 



204 Notes on the Diptera of Somerset. 

Dolichopus festivus, Hal. Common. Axbridge (R). 

(Dolichopus = long footed.) 
Poecilobothrus nobilitatus, L. Locally common. 

Distinguished from Dolichopus by the dark wings of 
the male having a white spot at the tip, and by the 
hairy arista. 

Hercostomus nigripennis, Fin. Leigh Woods (H). 
Hypophyllus obscurellus, Fin. Leigh Woods (H). 

(Hypophyllus = under a leaf.) 

Chrysotus gramineus, Fin. S.M. Leigh Woods (H). 
,, laesus, W. S.M. and Freshford. 

(Chrysotus = gilded.) 
Psilopus platypterus, F. S.M. Portishead (H). 

,, wiedemanni, Fin. S.M. 
Neurigona pallida, Fin. Portbury, in June (H). 
Argyra diaphana, F. Freshford. Brockley (J). 
argyria, Mg. Portbury (H). 

(Argyra = silvery, and describes these beautiful 
insects.) 
Machaerium maritime, Hal. Burnham (R). 

(Machaerium = sword-shaped antennae.) 
Medeterus truncorum, Mg. Ashton Park (H). 
Campsicnemus curvipes, Fin. Portbury and Leigh Woods 
(H). 

(Campsicnemus bent shin.) 

Syntormon biseriatus, Lu. Rare. Leigh Woods (H). 
Micromorphus davipes. Clevedon (W), in August. 

LONCHOPTERYDAE (lance-shaped wings) small yellowish flies 

with straight wing veins ; common in early Spring. 
Lonchoptera lutea, Pauz. Common. 

trilineata, Lett. Leigh Woods (H). Axbridge 

(R). 

,, flavicauda, Mg. S.M. 
,, lacustris, Mg. S.M. 

tristis, Mg. Common. 



C&arles a^arcus Cfjurcft, M.A., F.S.A. 

SINCE we lost him various endeavours have been made 
to record something of Canon Church as a devout priest, 
the beloved Principal of the Theological College, a diligent 
dignitary, a competent historian. But what we all recog- 
nised was the charm of his modesty, his gracious courtesy, 
his unfailing kindness. Sir Charles Nicholson has happily 
expressed it, "I shall always remember him as one of the 
most charming and courteous and kindest men I have ever 
known, and I think I shall most of all remember how, in spite 
of his wealth of knowledge and his wide experience, he had 
the gift of putting a much younger and less experienced man 
entirely at his ease on all occasions." 

Charles Marcus Church was a son of John Dearman Church, 
High Sheriff of Cork in 1809, who afterward lived in Portugal 
and Italy, and Caroline Metzener a native of Hanover. His 
uncle General Sir Richard Church was one of the heroes of 
the Greek War of Independence. Charles Church was born 
on February 2nd, 1823, in Florence, but his father dying when 
he was about three years old, his mother soon afterwards 
returned to England, settled in Bath, and lived until Charles 
was old enough to go up to Oxford. So except for his infancy, 
a prolonged tour in the Near East and two years in London, 
his home was ever in Somerset. 

Whilst he was an undergraduate at Oriel, his brother 
Richard, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's, was a Fellow of the 
College and one of the two Proctors whose veto prevented the 
condemnation of Tract XC. In 1845 Charles took a second 
class in Lit. Hum. and after a short time at Eton as private 
tutor to the Marquis of Hastings, went in 1848 on a long tour 
to Italy, Malta, Greece (staying at Athens with his uncle 



206 Charles Marcus Church. 

Sir Richard), Constantinople, and as far as the Crimea. He 
had for a companion Edward Lear, a Dane, who painted many 
water-colour sketches of the places they visited and became 
famous for his " Book of Nonsense." 

On his return from the East Charles Church entered as a 
student at the new Theological College at Wells, and in 1850 
was ordained to the curacy of Shepton Beauchamp and 
Barrington. From there he went for two years to Curzon 
Chapel, Mayfair, but in 1854, on a thrice repeated request of 
the Principal, he returned to Wells as Vice-Principal and re- 
sumed a connection with the College which lasted until his 
death. In 1855 he was given a Prebendal stall in the Cathe- 
dral and in 1861 was appointed Sub-Dean. 

In the same year he married Elizabeth Mary, daughter of 
the Rev. Henry Bennett of Sparkford Hall, and lived to 
celebrate in 1911 his golden wedding. The picture is from 
the group photographed on that occasion. 

In 1862 he became a member of our Society. In 1870 the 
Historical MSS. Commission examined some of the documents 
of the Chapter and reported on them as dirty and unarranged. 
Some four or five years later he began those studies in the 
muniments of the Chapter and the See which continued to 
be the chief occupation of his leisure until the end. But it 
was not until he was made a Canon Residentiary in 1879 and 
had resigned his work as Principal of the College that he 
obtained the position and the leisure which enabled him to 
pursue these studies with full effect. In 1880 an expert from 
the British Museum was brought down to put the whole mass 
of original documents into good and accessible condition, and 
two years later his brother-in-law, the Rev. James A. Bennett, 
began his great work of calendaring which reached its final 
form and was shown to Canon Church not many days before 
his death. 

In 1887 he was elected a Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries. In the same year he became one of the original mem- 
bers of the Somerset Record Society and may have suggested 
to his brother-in-law, the first Secretary, its motto. The next 
year he, with others, founded the Wells Natural History and 
Archaeological Society ; in 1894 he rendered essential service 



Charles Marcus Church. 207 

in the provision of its museum ; and in 1908 secured the 
amalgamation with it of the Mendip Nature Research Club. 

He watched the growth of our Society from under four 
hundred to over nine hundred members, was appointed a 
Local Secretary for Wells in 1888 and was elected a Vice- 
President at the Wells meeting in 1909 ; at his death there 
were only three with a longer membership. He was 
fortunate both in the first meeting he attended and the last. 
At the Wells meeting in 1863 there was Freeman to expound 
the genius of the place, J. R. Green to tell of Giso and Savaric, 
and Stubbs knowing " every action of every bishop who had 
ever lived," Professor Willis whom Freeman called " my 
master," to tell the story of the growth of the Cathedral, and 
J. H. Parker to serve as cicerone in the Palace and other 
ecclesiastical houses. And when they went out to Wookey 
they had Boyd Dawkins to tell of his recent exploration of 
the Hole. 

The last meeting he attended was in 1913 when he came 
to Cadbury and climbed the steep ascent to the camp. 
Standing there, on ground enchanted by traditions of Arthur, 
told to his children by their mother and recorded for all time 
by her brother, and now tested by scientific excavation, with 
his back to the ancient earthworks he gazed across the country- 
side so full for him of memories. There, away to the right at 
Whatley was the grave of Richard his famous brother revered 
by the highest and best of men ; beyond the Tor of Glastonbury 
hi the hollow this side Mendip was the scene of his own 
long life's work ; at his very feet the village and Church, the 
trees and Hall of Sparkford where he had found the bride, 
with whom so lately he had kept his golden wedding sur- 
rounded by the throng of their children, save two, one of 
whom had died pro patria in far Hartebeestefontein. 

In the last year or so of his life there was some slight failure 
of hearing and in sureness of step, but his vitality was re- 
markable ; ever active in body, alert in mind. When he was 
88 years old he had himself lowered in a workman's cradle over 
the parapet of the central tower that he might examine a 
figure in a niche at the N.W. corner which he thought might 
be a 14th century statue of Elias de Dyrham, a Prebendary 



208 Charles Marcus Church. 

of the Cathedral, well known at Salisbury and Winchester, 
and in 1220 " one of the two incomparable artificers " of the 
shrine of St. Thomas at Canterbury. After he was 90 he 
took a visitor up to and all round the triforium and up the 
central tower. Only two days before his death he took part 
in a chapter meeting. His last visit to the Cathedral was on 
his ninety-second birthday, Candlemas, when he assisted at 
the altar and read the Gospel for the day which includes Lord 
now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in peace. 

A brass to his memory has been placed in the south transept 
of the Cathedral, and the epitaph by Dr. Field a son-in-law, 
sums up in felicitous words his life story. Within a border 
of branches of olive bearing their fruit, and having at the four 
corners the lily of Florence his birthplace, the arms of his 
family, his college, and the cathedral, beneath the words IN 
PACE and a floriated cross : 

CAROLVS MARCVS CHVRCH 

FLORENTIAE NATVS 

CVM REDINTEGRATAE FORTVNIS 

ITALIAE RENASCENTISQVE GRAECIAE 

PER NECESSITVDINES SOCIATVS 

CAELI ALIENI ITA DESIDERIO IMBVTVS 

VT PER ANNOS FERME LX CONTINVOS 

SCHOLAE SACRAE THEOLOGIAE VICE PRINCIPALIS 

PRINCIPALIS CVRATOR OPERAM IMPENDERET 

IN HAC ECCLESIA PRAEBENDARIVS 

SVBDECANVS CANON RESID: 

STVDIO INDEFESSO 

ANTIQVITATES EXPLORARET AEDIFICIVM CVR/RET 

SACRA OFFICIA DILIGENTlSSIME IMPLERET 

OB. VI. ID. FEB. A.S. MCMXV 

ANNOS NATVS XCII. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

REFERENCES. 

(1). Proceedings of the Somerset Arch. & Nat. Hist. Society. 
(2). Archaologia,' published by the Society of Antiquaries, London 
(3). Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries. 
(4). Reports of the Wells Nat. Hist, and Arch. Society. 

1879. The Greek Frontier, 1829-1879. (New Quarterly). 
1884. The Prebend of Dinder. (1). 



PLATE VIII. 




THE REV. CANON C. M. CHURCH, M.A., F S.A. 

Dawkes & Partridge, photographers, Wells. 



Charles Marcus Church. 209 

1887. Bishop Reginald. (2). 

1888. Bishop Savaric. (2). 
Bishop Jocelin. (2). 

Documentary evidence relating to the Early Architecture of Wells 
Cathedral. (1). 

1889. Bishop Roger of Salisbury. (2). 

1890. Early Church Builders : Winscombe. (3). 
Archbishop Laud's Visitation of Bath and Wells. (3). 

1891. Early Bishops of Bath and Wells. (3). 
Connection of the Bitton family with Wells. (4). 

1892. The Chapter House and its Builders. (4). 

Notes on Mendip Forest and East and West Harptree. (4). 

1893. The Prebendal Psalms in the Church of Wells. (1). 
Humphrey Willis. (3). 

1894. Chapters in the Early History of the Church of Wells, 1136-1333, 8vo, 

pp. i-xiv, 1-450. 

Rise and Growth of the Chapter of Wells. (2). 
Documents bearing upon the Excavations on the south side of the 

Cathedral. (1). 

1895. Notes on the Chartularies of Bath Priory. (1). 
The families of Bridport and Meysy at Wells. (3). 

Condition and arrangement of the Cathedral in the XIII Century. (4). 

1897. The Cathedral Church of Wells. 8vo. 82pp. 
Stalls and Misericords in the Church of Wells. (2). 
Oak Canopy in the Library. (3). 

Early Christian Memorials in Rome. (4). 
Wells Cathedral. (Good Words). 

1898. History of the Stained Glass in the Cathedral. (4). 

1899. Portus de Radeclive, Redcliffe. (3). Ancient form of election to the 

Deanery of Wells. (3). The Bekynton Chantry, Wells. (3). The 
Prebendaries of W r ells in 1551. (3). Comparative value of the 
Prebends of Wells in 1291 and 1536. (3). 

1901. Buildings, Books, and Benefactors of the Library of the Dean and 

Chapter. (2 and 4). 
Wells Prebends and Prebendaries in 1536 and 1551. (3). 

1902. Place of the Bishop of Bath and Wells at the Coronation. (4). 
The Chapter Library. 

1903. Will of Bishop Bubwith. (3). Battle of Shrewsbury. (3). 

1904. Visit of Henry VII to the Deanery of Wells. (4). 
Historical Traditions at Wells, 1464-1497. 

1905. Joint editor (with Mrs. Church), Sir Richard Church in Italy and 

Greece. 8vo. 356pp. 

1908. Some Reminiscences of Travel in Greece, 1848-1906. 

1909. Remarks on Mr. St. J. Hope's paper on the first Cathedral Church of 

Wells. (1). 

The Clock and Quarter-Jacks in the Cathedral. (1). 

Four Somerset Bishops, 1136-1242. 8vo. 98pp. 

Wells in the Old Time. 8vo. 122pp. 

1911. Wells and its Cathedral. (Church Family Newspaper), 
1913. The Wells Corporation Seals. (3). 

J. HAMLET. 

Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. o 



Jsaac 

fTlHERE passed away on October 1st, 1915, in his nine- 
-J- tieth year, the Rev. I. S. Gale, Prebendary of Wells 
Cathedral, and one of the oldest members of our Society, 
having joined in 1871. 

For forty-four years he took a very keen interest in Somerset 
archaeology. Appointed Vicar of Kingston St. Mary in 1870 
he restored the beautiful church, built a new vicarage and 
devoted fifteen of the best years of his life to diligent, pastoral 
work. A lecture delivered by him in 1884 on " Kingston 
Church : its History and Architecture " was afterwards 
published. During these years he was a member of the Com- 
mittee of this Society and frequently occupied the chair at 
the monthly meetings. 

Prebendary Gale removed to Cleeve in North Somerset in 
1885, and is best known as being in conjunction with five 
others the founder of the Northern Branch of this Society ; 
this was on February 12th, 1890. For eight years his chief 
work as secretary was that of organization, and many enjoyable 
visits to the local churches were arranged by him. 

The Northern Branch, after an existence of a quarter of a 
century is still flourishing under the Presidency of the Right 
Hon. Sir Edward Fry, G.C.B., with fifty members, and a credit 
balance of 69. It is responsible for the publication of in- 
teresting local pamphlets relating to the Parishes of Backwell, 
Barrow Gurney, Chew Magna, Flax Bourton, Tickenham and 
Wraxall ; and also of the Rev. C. S. Taylor's paper on the 
Long Ashton Rural District from the time of the Romans 
to the Reformation. 

The writer of this brief record would like to add that there 
was a graciousness and a beauty about the late Prebendary 
Gale's life that endeared him to all the members, and his 
retirement from the district to spend his closing years in 
Malvern was a cause of general regret. 

J. BYRCHMORE. 



Cfjomas! ftQiUiam 3|er=T5lakc, D.D. 

% 

DEAN OF WELLS, 1891-1910. 

PRESIDENT AT GLASTONBURY, 1902. 

OB. 2 JULY, 1915, AGED 83 YEARS. 

f I THE late Dean of Wells filled many parts in his long life. 
-L His rule as headmaster at Cheltenham and Rugby will 
be remembered by his pupils for years to come ; and it is 
also due to his memory to put on record his services to 
archaeology in Somersetshire. 

The appointment to the Deanery did not mean in this 
case a dignified and leisurely retirement ; and the great 
floods in the county shortly after his arrival gave Dr. Jex- 
Blake an opportunity of taking an active part in raising and 
distributing the funds provided for the unfortunate sufferers. 

The Cathedral was his constant care, and numerous works 
of repair and decoration were carried out under his super- 
vision, including the much needed restoration of the great 
central tower. One of the bells added to complete the peal 
of ten was his gift. 

The work of the County Archaeological Society was bound 
to appeal to a born educationalist. The volume for 1894 
contained an article from his pen on Robert Stillington, Bishop 
of Bath and Wells 1466-1491, whose memorial chapel had 
just been disinterred, though levelled down to the foundations, 
in the lawn on the south side of the Cathedral. This was 
followed by another article on the battle of Lansdown, 1643, 
based on a lecture delivered to the members on the actual 
site of the struggle. For a long period Dr. Jex-Blake was a 
regular attendant at the excursions of the annual meeting, 
when his remarks stimulated discussion, and his courteous 
expression of thanks to owners of invaded properties and 
houses was a real recognition that their kindness was appre- 
ciated. 



212 Thomas William J ex- Blake. 

In 1902 when the Society met at Glastonbury the Dean 
worthily filled the office of President for the year ; he gave 
an address which dwelt on the great acquisitions of knowledge 
produced by excavation, instanced by those in the "Forum 
Romanum " and, at the other end of the scale of civilisation, 
in the Lake Village near Glastonbury. 

For these and many 6ther efforts to increase the growth of 
sound knowledge, the memory of the late Dean of Wells 
deserves to be had in remembrance. 



212 Thomas William J ex- Blake. 

In 1902 when the Society met at Glastonbury the Dean 
worthily filled the office of President for the year ; he gave 
an address which dwelt on the great acquisitions of knowledge 
produced by excavation, instanced by those in the "Forum 
Romanum " and, at the other end of the scale of civilisation, 
in the Lake Village near Glastonbury. 

For these and many 6ther efforts to increase the growth of 
sound knowledge, the memory of the late Dean of Wells 
deserves to be had in remembrance. 



PLATE IX. 




FRANCIS ARNOLD KNIGHT. 



From a Painting by Mr. Percy Bigland. 



JF rancis arnolD Enigjjt 

MR. F. A. KNIGHT, of " Wintrath," Winscombe, who 
passed away on February llth, 1915, had been a 
member of our Society just a quarter of a century ; and, 
although he had not contributed to our Proceedings he had 
done much excellent literary work in which Somerset formed 
a prominent feature. For many years he was one of the 
masters at the great school connected with the Society of 
Friends at Sidcot, and subsequently had a school of his own 
at " Brynmelyn," Weston-super-Mare. Those who came 
under his influence at these places have borne loving and 
grateful testimony to his many and varied gifts and to the 
charm of his personal character. Moreover, their appreciation 
found expression in various ways. For instance, there was 
an annual serenade by former pupils after he had settled down 
in his delightful and picturesque home on the sunny slope of 
Mendip \ while pupils and friends also presented him with 
his portrait, painted by an old Sidcotian, Mr. Percy Bigland, 
a photographic reproduction of which accompanies this 
notice (Plate IX). After his death, the Sidcot Old Scholars' 
Association sent three ambulances and the Old Brynmelyn 
Boys a touring car for the use of the Friends' Ambulance Unit 
in France and Belgium, in memory of their old master. 

Mr. Knight was a zealous student of Nature, and a real 
lover of good literature. Moreover, he had the great gift of 
being able to make excellent use of the knowledge he thus 
gained. His walks near home and the trips he took during 
his holidays were often delightfully described in the leading 
columns of one of the great London dailies, in a well-known 
weekly, or in a popular magazine. Many of these articles 
subsequently took more permanent form in such volumes as 
" By Leafy Ways," " Idylls of the Field," " The Rambles of 
a Dominie," or " By Moorland and Sea." 



214 Francis Arnold Knight. 

When shattered health compelled him to retire from the 
profession of teaching, he wrote some of his most substantial 
books, such as " The Seaboard of Mendip " and its companion 
volume " The Heart of Mendip." The latter was published 
only a week or so before he passed away. In it, he tells us 
that he had " endeavoured to embody the personal recol- 
lections, experiences and researches of more than half a century 
spent in the Mendip Country, supplementing his own know- 
ledge by drawing largely on the works of previous writers, 
and availing himself in great measure of the help of many 
friends." But he pathetically reminds his readers that a large 
part of the work had been completed under circumstances of 
great physical disability. 

Mr. Knight also wrote " A History of Sidcot School : A 
Hundred Years of West Country Education 1808-1908," 
an intensely interesting volume, most sympathetically written. 
The volume on " Somerset," in the series of Cambridge County 
Geographies was another of his books. In this (with the 
assistance of his daughter, Mrs. Dutton) he gave an excellent 
summary of the history of the county and of its physiography. 

But the volumes named do not exhaust the list of his 
labours. There were others, such as "In the West Country," 
and the charming description of his own home and its sur- 
roundings, " A Corner of Arcady." Mr. Knight also edited, 
for a short period, " The Annual Monitor," the yearly record 
of departed Friends. 

C. T. 



3losept) lt>oug()ton Spencer. 

MR. J. H. SPENCER, of Corfe, who died on 30th Sep- 
tember, 1914, was a member of an old Norfolk family, 
but was born at Taunton, where his father, the Rev. John 
Ward Spencer, was vicar of Wilton for a long period. He 
served his articles with a firm of architects in London, but 
returned to his native town, and carried on his profession 
there about forty years. His quiet, genial, gentlemanly 
manner endeared him to many friends and neighbours, while 
his devotion to his profession caused him to be consulted about 
many works of considerable importance, especially as to the 
building, restoration and repair of churches, schools, manor- 
houses and almshouses in Somerset and elsewhere. 

Mr. Spencer made a careful study of Taunton Castle, some 
of the results of which were embodied in a paper he wrote for 
our Proceedings in 1910, entitled " Structural Notes on 
Taunton Castle." l This was admirably illustrated by an 
excellent series of plans and drawings. He also superintended 
certain alterations of the Castle buildings, and advised the 
Council of our Society on such matters during many years. 
When he retired from practice, he was appointed as their 
Hon. Consulting Architect. 

Mr. Spencer contributed two other papers to our annual 
volumes : one on " Castle Neroche : its Position with Relation 
to Neighbouring Earthworks " ; and another on the use of 
the place-names " Tangier and Gibraltar " at Taunton. Few 
names have been so long on our list of members as that of 
Mr. Spencer, for he joined the Society in 1871. 

C. T. 

1. This brochure is also sold separately at 4d. 



of 15ooks. 

PULPITS, LECTERNS, AND ORGANS IN ENGLISH CHURCHES, by the 
Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., F.S.A. (Oxford University Press, 1915 ; 
8vo., pp. xii, 228 ; with 155 illustrations ; price Is. 6d. net). 

There are abundant signs in the shape of books to show that at 
last the arts and crafts of old England are being studied to advan- 
tage. Architecture led the way, and we are now gradually dis- 
cerning that the building was not only a work of beauty in itself, 
but also held a store of marvels of workmanship in stone, wood, 
metal, glass, and parchment. The senseless destruction in the 
sixteenth century of all outward manifestation of the beauty of 
holiness, and the importation of pseudo-classical imitations in the 
seventeenth and following century ruined the artistic life of the 
countn r . What the palmer-worm and the locust had left the 
canker-worm of modern restoration has too often devoured. 

In the series of books dealing with church art in England, this 
volume, including also an account of hour-glasses and their stands, 
has been assigned to the veteran antiquary Dr. Cox. With the 
help of abundance of illustrations he has written a work which 
appeals very strongly to dwellers in the west country. Somerset- 
shire has been allotted twenty-three illustrations. There is a full 
catalogue of the stone medieval pulpits ; and the wooden one at 
Trull is described as " superior in design and interest to any other 
throughout the kingdom." It has an illustration ; and another 
may be found as a frontispiece to vol. LIV of our Proceedings. There 
is a goodly list of Jacobean and Caroline pulpits. That at Stoke 
St. Gregory is illustrated on p. 125 ; the figure group in a panel 
generally taken to be the Virgin and Child appears more probably 
to represent the vision in the Apocalypse, xn, 1-5, as the Woman 
is furnished with wings and has a crown y-starred on her head. 

The learned author takes a pleasure in demolishing the vulgar 
error that sermons were infrequent before the Reformation. We 
do not so easily follow him in his assertion as to a continual lack 
after that event. When affairs quieted down the innate love of 
all Englishmen for edification in their favourite beliefs elevated 
the sermon to a pitch which has only just been lowered. Sermons 
lead naturally to hour-glasses. The visitor to Pilton church in 
Devonshire may be startled by the weird sight of a bare arm issuant 
(to use an heraldic phrase) out of the pulpit, and supporting a frame 
for the hour-glass (p. 13). Taunton Museum preserves an hour- 
glass stand formerly in North Newton Church. Brancepeth is not 
in Devon but in Durham (p. 85) ; and Thurleston (p. 136) is a 
misprint for Thurloxton. This is an interesting and beautiful book. 



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Notices of Books. 217 

ALFRED THE GREAT : THE TRUTH TELLER, MAKER OF ENGLAND, 
848-899, by Beatrice Adelaide Lees, sometime Tutor of Somer- 
ville College, Oxford (G. P. Putnam's Sons, the Knickerbocker 
Press, 1915 ; 8vo., pp. xv, 493, illustrated ; price 10s. 6d. net). 

The inclusion of King Alfred the Great among the Heroes of the 
Nations needs no apology such as appears in the preface to this 
volume, and in view of the close connection of the great king with 
Somerset at a crisis of his fortunes any book dealing with his life 
must appeal to members of this Society. The authoress sets out 
to bring together the chief results of recent historical and literary 
research, but in so far as regards a point of main interest to Somerset 
readers, the site of the battle of Ethandun, the hopes she raises 
are doomed to disappointment. Miss Lees admits that the only 
tests by which the site of a battlefield can be fixed without direct 
historical evidence are philological and strategic. It is clear from 
her " Note on the Site of the Battle of Ethandun " that she is not 
unaware of the weighty strategical evidence in favour of Edington 
on Poldens which has been got together, mainly by members of 
this Society. 1 Yet not the slightest attempt is made to weigh the 
strategical evidence in favour of the Somerset site or the evidence 
which makes the accepted Wiltshire site, Edington near Westbury, 
almost impossible for strategical reasons. This may be a clue to 
feminine inability to deal adequately with this aspect of the ques- 
tion or to the difficulty of reconciling the strategical aspect with 
the views of the philological authorities followed by Miss Lees. 
At any rate she is content to decide the question on philological 
grounds alone, blindly following an authority whose argument may 
be summed up as follows : The evidence that the Wiltshire Eding- 
ton bore the name Ethandun is incontrovertible ; evidence as to 
any other site bearing that name is inconclusive ; therefore in 
King Alfred's time there can only have been one place so named ; 
therefore the Wiltshire Edington must be the site of the battle and 
the Ethandun of King Alfred's will. 

Relying on this evidence drawn from incomplete and doubtful 
documents, Miss Lees has, we infer, never examined the topo- 
graphy of the campaign on the spot or looked across to Borough- 
bridge from Edington Hill on the Poldens ; and though she appears 
to have visited Athelney and its immediate neighbourhood she 
falls into the common error of saying that it lies between Tone and 
Parret, though she correctly describes its position on the left bank 
of the former river. 

This is not the place to renew a discussion of this question but 

1. References are given to Dr. Clifford's paper in vol. XXII of the Proceedings, 
to the Rev. C. W. Whistler's papers in Memorials of Old Somerset and The Saga- 
Book of the Viking Club, vol. II, to the Rev. W. Greswell's Story of the Battle of 
Edington, and to Early Wars of Wessex, by A. F. Major, ed. by C. W. Whistler. 



218 Notices of Books. 

we cannot refrain from expressing surprise that Miss Lees makes 
not the slightest allusion to the very strong evidence in favour of 
the identification of Cynuit Castle with the ancient stronghold on 
Cannington Park, near Combwich, at the mouth of the Parret. 
She also states positively that King Alfred bequeathed to his wife 
Lambourn, Wantage " and Ethandun, the scene of his victory over 
Guthrum " (the italics are ours), whereas it is almost certain that 
this Edington of the Avill was the manor of Edington, near Hunger- 
ford, adjacent to the Lambourn and Wantage manors, despite the 
fact that this Edington masquerades in Domesday as Eddevetone. 
It is the fashion, we know, to treat Domesday Book as infallible. 
This doubtless simplifies the study of place-names, yet it hardly 
justifies a historian who professes to set out the results of previous 
controversies in setting down as a fact a point which is certainly 
open to dispute. 

As regards Athelney the strategical value of King Alfred's posi- 
tion there is not brought out. But the advantages it conferred by 
its situation among the vast royal domains in Somerset, where the 
King had the support not only of his personal following but also 
of the royal servants employed on the -Crown lands and of the 
tenants of the Crown, are not overlooked, though this point would 
probably have been brought out even more forcibly had local 
authorities on the subject been consulted, e.g. the various volumes 
for which Mr. Greswell is responsible. 

Besides these failures to deal fairly or fully with certain aspects 
of the subject, which would probably not bulk very largely in the 
eyes of anyone not specially interested in King Alfred's connection 
with Somerset, Miss Lees in our view hardly deals adequately with 
King Alfred as a warrior and a strategist, probably for the reasons 
that have led her to ignore the strategical side of the Ethandun 
controversy. Apart from this we have nothing but praise for her 
work. Chapters on " Europe " and " England before Alfred the 
Great " set the general European and the local situation in clear 
perspective and the relations between the two are brought out 
throughout the volume. The events of the king's life and reign 
are carefully and critically discussed, while chapters on the Alfredian 
State, Alfredian Society and Alfredian Literature do ample justice 
to the great king's devotion to letters and to the part he played 
in fostering a revival in Wessex of the arts and crafts of peace. A 
final chapter on " The Myth of King Alfred " traces the growth of 
the various legends which have clustered about the king and the 
varying ways in which his memory has been cherished by subse- 
quent generations. The illustrations, drawn from various sources 
and illustrating various aspects of the subject, are excellent and 
excellently chosen. 

ALBANY F. MAJOR. 



SOMERSETSHIRE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND NATURAL HISTORY 

SOCIETY. 



ana a^emfcet0, \9\5--\6. 



Patron : 
THE RIGHT HONOURABLE THE VISCOUNT PORTMAN. 

iiregttjent : 
THE RIGHT HON. EARL WALDEGRAVE, p.c. 



SIR C. T. DYKE ACLAND, BART. 

THE MOST HONOURABLE THE MARQUESS OF BATH. 

THE RIGHT REV. THE LORD BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS. 

HON. PROFESSOR W. BOYD DAWKINS, D.SC., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

SIR EDMUND H. ELTON, BART. 
THE RIGHT HON. SIR EDWARD FRY, G.C.B., p.c., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.S.A. 

FRANCIS J. FRY, ESQ. 

THE REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 
THE RIGHT HON. HENRY HOBHOUSE, p.c. 

THE LORD HYLTON, F.S.A. 
SIR HENRY C. MAXWELL LYTE, K.C.B., F.S.A. 
A. F. SOMERVILLE, ESQ. CHARLES TITE, ESQ. 

THE REV. F. W. WEAVER, F.S.A. THE REV. H. H. WINWOOD, F.G.S. 



^cn. ^Treasurers : 

HENRY JEFFRIES BADCOCK, ESQ. 
LIEUT. REGINALD C. BOYLE. 



l^on. eneral Secretaries : 

REV. F. W. WEAVER, M.A.. F.S.A. 

REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 

CHARLES TITE, ESQ. 



220 



Officers. 



^Trustees : 



H. J. BADCOCK, ESQ. 

THE MARQUESS OF BATH. 

H. H. P. BOUVERIE, P-SQ. 

W. B. BROAPMEAD, ESQ. 

A. E. EASTWOOD, ESQ. 

THE RKV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN. 



THK RT. HON. H. HOBHOUSK, p.c. 
THE LORD HYLTON, F.S.A. 
THE LORD ST. AUDRIES, P.C. 
A. F. SOMERVILLE, ESQ. 
THE EARL WALDEGRAVE, p.c. 



1915. H. J. Badcock. 

1915. Rev. J. Byrchmore. 

1915. Arthur E. Eastwood. 

1915. Rev. Preb. J. Hamlet. 

1915. Rev. C. H. Heale. 

1914. Rev. A. J. Hook. 



Council : 

1914. 
1914. 
1914. 
1914 
1913. 
1914. 



Col. E. St. C. Pemberton. 
Rev. S. J. M. Price, D.D. 
Rev. W. T. Reeder. 
H. Byard Sheppard. 
F. Were. 
W. B. Winckworth. 



The President, V ice-Presidents, Trustees, Treasurers, General and Local 
Secretaries, are ex-officio Members of the Council. 



&sststant=&ecretarp, Curator & 3Librarian: 
H. ST. GEORGE GRAY, Taunton Castle. 



trustees of tije Pigott Collection of Urafotngs, Somerset. 

The Lord Lieutenant of the The Members of Parliament for 

County. the County. 

The Lord Bishop of the Diocese. The Clerk of the Peace for the 
The Chairman of Quarter Ses- County 

sions. 



Local Secretaries, etc. 221 

St'gtrtct or ILocal Secretaries : 

F. J. Allen, M.D., Cambridge. Geo. B. Milne-Redhead, Frome. 

E.E. Baker, F.S.A., W eston-s.-Mare. George Norman, Bath. 

F. Beale, Clevedon. J. B. Paynter, Yeovil. 

F. Bligh Bond, F.R.I.B.A., Glaston- Rev. D. J. Pring, North Curry. 

bury. Rev. W. T. Reeder, Porlock. 

A. Bulleid,F.s.A.,Jlf idsomer Norton. Rev. D. M. Ross, Langport. 

G. L. Bulleid, Glastonbury. Rev. G. W. Saunders, Curry Eivel. 
C. E. Burnell, Shepton Mallet. Rev. J. A. Sorby, N. Quantocks. 
Rev. W. E. Callow. Bridgwater. C. B. Stewart, M.B., Burnham. 

W. S. Clark, Street. W. Stewart, M.D., Wiveliscombe. 

John Coles, Wellington. Rev. Preb. J. Street, Ilminster. 

Rev. J. A. Dodd, Axbridge. G. Sweetman, Wincanton. 

E. A. Fry, London. G. F. Sydenham, Dulverton. 

A. R. Graham, Somerton. Rev. C. S. Taylor, F.S.A., Banwell. 

Rev. W. Greswell, Minehead. Charles Tite, Taunton. 

Rev. Preb. Hancock,F.s.A.,Z)tmsfer. R. H. Walter, M.B., Stoke-under- 

Rev. Preb. E.H.BatesHar bin, Yeovil. Ham. 

Rev. D. LI. Hayward, Bruton. Rev. F. W. Weaver, F.S.A., Ever- 

Rev. C. H. Heale, Williton. creech. 

Chancellor Scott Holmes, Wells. J. R. H. Weaver, Oxford. 

H. W. P. Hoskyns, Crewkerne. The Dean of Wells, F.S.A., Wells. 

Rev. Dr. W. Hunt, London. F. Were, Bristol. 

Re v. E.S.Marshall, W est Monkton. W. B. Wildman, Sherborne. 



Natural f^istonj Sections of tfje Society 

Headquarters : Taunton Castle. 



Date of 
Formation. 

1909. ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. President : The Rev. Preb. A. P. 

WICKHAM. Recorder : A. E. HTJDD, F.E.S., F.S.A. Hon. 
Treasurer : W. A. BOGUS, F.E.S. Hon. Secretary : HENRY 
H. SLATER, Brooke House, Cannington. 

1910. ORNITHOLOGICAL SECTION. President : The Right Hon. Lord 

ST. AUDRIES. Recorders : Miss AMY SMITH and Dr. J. 
WIGLESWORTH. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : GEORGE 
E. HISCOCK, 6, Cyprus Terrace, Taunton. 
L910. BOTANICAL SECTION. President and Recorder : The Rev. 
E. S. MARSHALL, F.L.S. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : 
W. D. MILLER, Cheddon Fitzpaine, Taunton. 

Presidents of Sections on their election to office also become members of the Council, pro- 
vided they are subscribing members of the S. A. and N. H. Society. 



222 Affiliated Societies, etc. 

Brand) anti &fSltatrti Societies. 

Date of 
Affiliation. 

1890. NORTHERN BRANCH. President : SIR EDWARD FRY, P.O., 

D.C.L., &c. Hon. Treasurer : C. 0. MASTER. Hon. Secre- 
taries : FRANCIS WERE and G. H. WOLLASTON.* 

1891. WESTON-SUPER-MARE AND AXBRIDGE DISTRICT BRANCH. 

President : Colonel WM. LONG, C.M.G. Hon. Treasurer : 
Major G. DAVIES. Hon. Secretary : C. H. BOTHAMLEY.* 

1899. TAUNTON FIELD CLUB AND CONVERSAZIONE. President: 

T. W. COWAN, F.G.S., F.L.S.* Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : 
H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 

1902. GLASTONBURY ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. President : ARTHUR 

BULLEID, F.S.A. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : G. C. 
SWAYNE. Joint Hon. Secretary : G. LAWRENCE BULLEID. 

1903. BATH AND DISTRICT BRANCH. President : The Right Hon. 

LORD HYLTON, F.S.A. Hon. Treasurer and Secretary/ : 
THOMAS S. BUSH.* Hon. Excursion Secretary : GERALD 
J. GREY. 

1904 SHEPTON MALLET NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. President : 
JOHN HIGGINS. Hon. Secretary and Treasurer : G. H. 
MITCHELL. 

1905. WELLS NATURAL HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 
President : THE LORD BISHOP OF BATH AND WELLS. Hon. 
Secretary and Treasurer : E. E. BARNES. 

1910. BRIDGWATER FIELD CLUB. President : J. C. HUNT. Hon. 
Treasurer SIDNEY JONES. Hon. Secretary : HENRY CORDER. 

Those marked with an asterisk have been appointed by their Society as representatives 
on the Council of the Parent Society. 



Representative Trustee on the Axbridge Town Trust 
COL. WILLIAM LONG, C.M.G. 



Representative Trustee on the Ilchester Toivn Trust 
REV. PREB. E. H. BATES HARBIN, M.A. 



etc., in CorresponDcnce for tbc OErcftange 
of publications. 



British Association for the Advancement of Science. 

British Museum, Copyright Office. 

British Museum, Natural History, South Kensington. 

Public Record Office. 

Guildhall Library. City of London. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 

Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

British Archaeological Association. 
*Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Royal Society ot Antiquaries of Ireland. 

Royal Irish Academy. 

Royal Dublin Society. 

The British School at Rome. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 

Cardiff Naturalists' Society. 

Chester and North Wales Archaeological and Historic Society. 

Cornwall, Royal Institution of. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society. 

Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 

Devonshire Association. 
* Devon and Cornwall Record Society. 

Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. 

Essex Archaeological Society. 

Essex Field Club. 

Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society. 

Hertfordshire Natural History Society. 

Kent Archaeological Society. 

Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society. 

Lincolnshire Architectural and Archaeological Society. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Society of Antiquaries of. 

Northamptonshire Natural History Society. 
*Plymouth Institution and Devon and Cornwall N.H. Society 

Powys-Land Club, Montgomeryshire. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 

Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History. 

Surrey Archaeological Society. 

Sussex Archaeological Society. 

Thoresby Society, Leeds. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 

Yorkshire Archaeological Society. 

Geologists' Association. 

The Scottish Historical Review. 

Canadian Institute. 

Old Colony Historical Society, Taunton, Mass , U.S.A. 

New England Historic Genealogical Society. 

Smithsonian Institution. Washington, U.S.A. 

Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, U.S.A. 

United States National Museum, Washington, U.S.A. 
* Part Exchange. 



List of ^embers, 191546. 



Those marked * are Life Members. 

Those marked f are Members of the Council. 

Those marked J are Honorary and Corresponding Members. 

1900 ABBOT, H. NAPIER, 2, Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

1880 fAcLAND, Sir C. T. D., Bart., Killerton Park, Exeter, V.P. 

1905 ADAMS, E. CAY, Brentwood, Combe Down, Bath. 

1905 ALDRIDGE, Rev. G. DE Y., Kingweston Rectory, Somerton. 

1899 ALFORD, Rev. MARTIN, Wayside, The Avenue, Minehead. 

1903 ALFORD, Mrs. MARTIN, Wayside, The Avenue, Minehead. 

1907 ALFORD, ROBERT, Heale House, Curry Rivel. 

1913 ALLAN, Rev. G. A., The Vicarage, He Abbots, Taunton. 
1910 ALLEN, Mrs. ARTHUR, Stocklinch Manor, Ilminster. 

1914 ALLEN, Miss CHARLOTTE H., Dashwoods, Watchet. 
1914 ALLEN, Miss EILEEN M., Saxon Close, Watchet. 
1884 f ALLEN, F. J., M.D., 8, Halifax Road, Cambridge. 
1914 ALLEN, JOHN, Neston House, Newbridge Hill, Bath. 

1908 ALLEYNE, Miss H. M., The Lawn, Staplegrove, Taunton. 
1910 ALTHAM, Rev. A. S., The Rectory, Lapford, N. Devon. 

1900 ANDREW, T. H., Northwood, Minehead. 

1913 ANNESLEY, Rev. H. A., Shepton Montague Vic., Castle Gary. 

1901 ANSTICE, Rev. J. B., 3, Prews Terrace, Burnham (deceased). 

1902 APLIN, J. SHORLAND, Yeovil. 

1904 ARDEN-DAVIS, Rev. R., The Vicarage, Clevedon. 

1910 ARMSTRONG, Rev. W. D. H., The Vicarage, Berrow, Burnham. 
1907 ARNOLD, T. P., Marsh House, Kingston, Taunton. 

1903 ASHMAN, T. R., Devonshire Cottage, Wells Road, Bath. 
1876 ASHWORTH-HALLET, Mrs., Claverton Lo., Bathwick Hill, Bath. 
1899 ATCHLEY, Rev. H. G. S., Godney Vicarage, Wells. 

1911 ATHERTON, Rev. W. BERNARD, Coberley Rectory, Cheltenham. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 225 

1914 AUSTIN, Miss A. S., Hillside, Baltonsborough, Glastonbury. 

1909 AUSTIN, RUPERT C., A.R.I.B.A., 37, Old Queen St., Westminster. 

1910 AUSTIN, STANLEY, Brookfield, Blagdoii Hill, Taunton. 

1897 AVELINE, H. T. S., M.D., Cotford, Norton Fitzwarren, Taunton. 

1879 BADCOCK, DANIEL, Kilve Court, Bridgwater (deceased). 

1901 BADCOCK, Miss HENRIETTA, Euston Lodge, Wilton, Taunton. 

1872 | BADCOCK, H. J., Broadlands, Taunton, Trustee, Joint Treasurer. 

1891 BAGEHOT, Mrs. WALTER, Herds Hill, Laiigport. 

1912 BAILEY, Capt. WM. HENRY, Municipal Buildings, Taunton. 

1913 BAILEY, Mrs. W. H., St. George's, Wilton, Taunton. 

1909 BAILY, A. A., Wanganella, Rectory Road, Burnham. 

1910 BAKER, ARTHUR E., F.R.HIST.S., Public Library, Taunton. 
1883 fBAKER, E. E., F.S.A., The Glebe House, Weston-super-Mare. 

1892 BAKER, Rev. S. 0., 10, Caledonia Place, Clifton. 
1908 BALDOCK, Colonel W., Foxdown, Wellington. 

1906 BARNICOTT, PERCY J., Belvedere, South Road, Taunton. 

1911 BARRETT, A. G., Eastbrook, Trull, Taunton. 
1911 BARRETT, Mrs. A. G., Eastbrook, Trull, Taunton. 
1875 BARRETT, JONATHAN, Ashfield Lodge, Taunton. 
1908 BARRETT, Miss, Ashfield Lodge, Taunton. 

1896 BARSTOW, J. J. JACKSON, The Lodge, Weston-super-Mare. 
1891 BARTELOT, Rev. R. G., Fordington St. George, Dorchester. 

1914 BARTELT, F. L., Corston Lodge, near Bristol. 

1914 BASKETT, S. R., Evershot, Dorchester (deceased). 

1908 BASTARD, Rev. J. M., Mounts wood, Haines Hill, Taunton. 

1915 BATCHELOR, G. B., Combe Florey House, Taunton. 

1904 f*BATH, The Most Honourable the Marquess of, Longleat, War- 
minster, Trustee, V.P. 

1886 BATTEN, H. GARY G., Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Bristol. 

1899 BATTEN, Mrs. H. GARY G., Leigh Lodge, Abbot's Leigh, Bristol. 

1903 BATTEN, Major H. C. GARY, Ryme Intrinseca, Yetminster, Dorset. 

1886 BATTEN, H. PHELIPS, Lufton, Yeovil. 

1897 BATTEN, Capt. J. B., Lynn Lodge, Mullingar, co. Westmeath. 
1886 BATTEN, Col. J. MOUNT, C.B., Upcerne, Dorchester (deceased). 
1913 BAXTER, Lieut.-Col. W. H., The Wilderness, Sherborne. 

1913 BAXTER, Mrs. W. H., The Wilderness, Sherborne. 

1908 BAYNHAM, Rev. A. W., The Vicarage, Ash Priors, Taunton. 

1903 fBEALE, FRANK, Bank House, Weston-super-Mare. 

1914 BEARE, ALFRED JAMES, 7, The Avenue, Taunton. 

Vol. LXI, (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. p 



226 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1913 BEATTIE, I. HAMILTON, Artillery Mansions, Westminster. 
1909 BELCHER, WALTER, Fore Street, Bridgwater. 

1912 BELFIELD, Major S., Bagborough House, Taunton. 

1897 BELL, Rev. W. A., Charlynch Rectory, Bridgwater. 
1912 BELLOT, HUGH H. L., D.C.L., High Ham, Somerset. 

1906 BENNETT, Rev. F. S. M., Hawarden Rectory, Chester. 
1891 BENNETT, Mrs., 2, Bradmore Road, Oxford. 

1911 BENSON, Capt. P. G. R., Bishops Lydeard House, Taunton. 

1893 BENTLEY, F. J. R., Woodlands, Wellington. 

1895 BERE, CHARLES, Old Halls, Milverton. 

1909 BERESFORD, Rev. Preb. J., St. Cuthbert's Vicarage, Wells 

1907 BERRYMAN, F. H., Field House, Shepton Mallet. 

1898 BERTHON, Mrs., North Curry. 

1914 BIRD, CHARLES A., Alcombe House, Alcoinbe, Dunster. 

1914 BIRD, JOHN F., Alcombe Cote, Alcombe, Taunton. 

1907 BIRKBECK, L. H. C., M.B., The Old Vicarage, Taunton. 

1908 BIRKS, Rev. J., F.G.S. 

1910 BLACK, W. N., Otterhead, Taunton. 
1908 BLAKE, E. J., The Old House, Crewkerne. 

1902 BLAKE, Colonel M. LOCKE, Bridge House, South Petherton. 

1911 BLAKE, ROBERT, Yeabridge, South Petherton. 

1911 BLAKE, Mrs. R., Yeabridge, South Petherton. 

1908 BLAKE, W. FAREWELL, Bridge House, South Petherton. 

1908 BLATHWAYT, G. W. WYNTER, Melksham House, N. Wilts. 

1891 BLATHWAYT, Lt.-Col. LINLEY, F.L.S., Eagle House, Batheaston. 
1910 BLATHWAYT, R. W., Dyrham Park, Chippenham. 

1887 BLATHWAYT, Rev. WYNTER E., Dyrham Rectory, Chippenham. 

1909 BOGUE, W. A., F.E.S., Lloyds Bank, Watchet. 

1912 BOLES, Lt.-Col. D. F., M.P., Watts House, Bishops Lydeard. 

1903 fBoND, F. BLIGH, F.R.I.B.A., Market Place, Glastonbury. 

1909 BONUS, Maj.-Gen. J., R.E., Newlands, Stanstead Abbotts, Herts. 

1898 BOODLE, R. W., 7, Pershore Road, Birmingham. 

1905 BOORD, PERCY, Junior Carlton Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 

1915 BOORMAN, Rev. HAROLD, Tauntfield Cottage, Taunton. 

1892 fBoTHAMLEY, C. H., Weston-super-Mare. 

1896 BOTHAMLEY, Rev. H., Richmond Lodge, Bath. 

1878 fBouvERiE, H. H. PLEYDELL, Brymore, Bridgwater, Trustee. 

1912 BOWEN, Miss E., Went wood, Clevedon. 

1912 BOWEN, Miss M., Wentwood, Clevedon. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 227 

1908 BOWNES, Mrs., Creech St. Michael, Taunton. 

1914 BOYD, Rev. Preb. S. A., B.C.L., The Rectory, Bath. 

191 1 BOYLE, Miss MARION M., The Manor, Staple Fitzpaine,Taunton. 

1904 BOYLE, Capt. MONTGOMERIE, The Manor, Staple Fitzpaine. 
1906 f BOYLE, Lt. R. C., The Grove, Cheddon Fitzpaine, Joint Treasurer. 

1897 BOYS, Rev. H. A., North Cadbury Rectory, S.O., Somerset. 

1905 BRADFORD, Mrs. A. E., Hendford Cottage, Yeovil. 
1908 BRADFORD, Mrs. JOHN, Ashfield, Martock. 

1902 BRAITHWAITE, JOSEPH BEVAN, The Highlands, New Barnet. 
1899 BRAMBLE, Miss E. M., Caerleon, Weston-super-Mare. 

1910 BRAMWELL, Rev. ERNEST, The Vicarage, Axminster, Devon. 

BRANCH AND AFFILIATED SOCIETIES : 

1903 BATH AND DISTRICT BRANCH (T. S. Bush, Hon. Sec., Bath). 
1910 BRIDGWATER FIELD CLUB (H. Corder, Hon. Sec., Bridgwater). 
1902 GLASTONBTJRY ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY (G. C. Swayne, Hon. Sec., 

Glastonbury). 

1890 NORTHERN BRANCH (G. H.Wollaston, Hon. Sec., Flax Bourton). 

1904 SHEPTON MALLET NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY (G. H. Mitchell, 

Hon. Sec., Shepton Mallet). 

1899 TAUNTON FIELD CLUB (H. St. George Gray, Hon. Sec., Taunton 
Castle). 

1905 WELLS NATURAL HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY (E. 

E. Barnes, Hon. Sec., Wells). 

1891 WESTON-SUPER-MARE AND AXBRIDGE DISTRICT BRANCH (C. H. 

Bothamley, Hon. Sec., Weston-super-Mare). 

1908 BRANCKER, Rev. P. W., Brent Knoll Vicarage, Highbridge. 

1915 BRETON, Miss ADELA C., 15, Camden Crescent, Bath. 

1910 BRIGGS, CHARLES A., Rock House, Lynmouth, R.S.O. 
1914 BRISTOWE, H. C., M.D., Wrington, Bristol. 

1889 fBROADMEAD, W. B., Enmore Castle, Bridgwater, Trustee. 

1877 BRODERIP, EDMUND, Cossington Manor, Bridgwater. 

1911 BRODERIP, EDMUND F., Branksome Chine House, Bournemouth. 

1898 BROWN, DAVID, Estayne House, Wellington Road, Taunton. 
1882 BROWN, JOHN, Wadeford House, Chard. 

1906 BRUTON, F. A., 2, Clyde Road, West Didsbury, Manchester. 
1914 BRUTTON, Major R. HALL, 15, The Park, Yeovil (deceased). 

1909 BRYMER, Ven. Archdeacon F. A., Charlton Mackrell, Somerton. 
1914 BUCHANAN, NORMAN, Osborne House, Yeovil (deceased). 



228 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1906 BUCKLAND, J. C., Ashbury, South Road, Taunton. 

1881 BULL, Rev. T. WILLIAMSON, Charlecote, Lansdown, Bath. 

1893 fBuLLEiD, A., L.R.C.P., F.S.A., Dymboro, Midsomer Norton, Bath. 

1905 BULLEID, Mrs. ARTHUR, Dymboro, Midsomer Norton, Bath, 

1913 BULLEID, A. HILARY, Dymboro, Midsomer Norton, Bath. 

1914 fBuLLEio, G. LAWRENCE, Above Town, Glastonbury. 

1909 BURN, R. CHRISTIE, Sidcot School, Winscombe. 
1902 t B ^RNELL, C. E., Henley, Shepton Mallet. 

1910 BURT, SAMUEL, Woodstock, Hendford, Yeovil. 
1892 BUSH, R. C., 1, Winifred's Dale, Bath. 

1892 t B ^SH, THOS. S., 20, Camden Crescent, Bath. 

1898 BUTLER, W. B., Southgate, Wellington Road, Taunton. 

1910 BYNE, Major R. M., 10, Tregonwell Road, Minehead. 

1911 fBYRCHMORE, Rev. J., West Hatch Vicarage, Taunton. 

1911 CAIRNS, The Earl, Farleigh House, Bath. 

1914 CAMERON, Rev. A. T., The Rectory, Chipstable, Wiveliscombe. 

1914 CAMERON, Mrs. A. T., The Rectory, Chipstable, Wiveliscombe. 

1901 CAPEL, ARTHUR, Bulland Lodge, Wiveliscombe. 

1912 CAPRON, EDWARD, Waverly, Station Road, Wellington. 

1913 CARDEW, Major F. E., Bush, Spaxton, Bridgwater. 

1909 CAROE, W. D., F.S.A., 3, Great College St., Westminster, S.W. 

1906 CARR, JONATHAN, Wood House, Twerton, Bath. 
1887 CASH, J. 0., High Street, Wincanton. 

1912 -J-CATLOW, Rev. W. E., School House, Mount Street, Bridgwater. 

1899 CAYLEY, Rev. R. A., Stowell Rectory, Sherborne. 

1913 CECIL, Lady FRANCIS, Alford House, Alford, Somerset. 

1895 CHADWYCK-HEALEY, Chancellor Sir C. E. H., K.C.B., Wyphurst, 
Cranleigh ; and Harcourt House, Cavendish Square, London. 

1913 CHADWYCK-HEALEY, Miss, New Place, Porlock. 

1910 CHAFFEY, Capt. R. S. C., East Stoke House, Stoke-under-Ham. 

1905 CHAMBERLAIN, G. P., 12, Hovelands, Haines Hill, Taunton. 
1908 CHAMBERS, E. W., Woodlands House, Holford, Bridgwater. 
1913 CHANNELL, WILLOUGHBY T., Henlade House, Taunton. 

1902 CHANT, T. W., Clarendon Lodge, Clarendon R-JL, Watford, Herts. 

1906 CHANTER, Rev. J. F., F.S.A., The Rectory, Parracombe, S.O. 
1874 CHAPMAN, A. ALLAN, Conway, The Avenue, Taunton. 
1906 CHAPMAN, ERNEST M., 13, The Crescent, Taunton. 

1904 CHARBONNIER, T., Art Gallery, Lynmouth. 

1912 CHASTEL DE BOINVILLE, Rev. C. W., The Vicarage, Martock. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 229 

1908 CHATER, A. G., 41, Porchester Square. London, W. 

1875 CHEETHAM, F. H., Triscombe House, Taunton. 

1904 CHICHESTER, Mrs. C., Hazelcroft, Horsington, Templecombe. 

1892 CHISHOLM-BATTEN, Lieut. -Col. J. F., Thornfalcon (deceased). 
1863 CHURCH, Rev. Canon, F.S.A., Wells (deceased). 

1895 CLARK, F. J., F.L.S., Netherleigh, Street. 
1902 CLARK, JOHN B., Overleigh House, Street. 

1902 CLARK, ROGER, Street. 

1873 fCLARK, W. S., Mill Field, Street. 

1893 CLARKE, C. P., Lightclifife, Staplegrove, Taunton. 
1901 CLARKE, Major R. STUART, Bishops Hull, Taunton. 
1899 CLATWORTHY, ELAND, Cutsey, Taunton. 

1904 CLATWORTHY, Mrs. E., Cutsey, Taunton. 

1915 CLATWORTHY, Miss R., Hawthorne Cottage, Mount St., Taunton. 
1910 CLELAND, JOHN, M.D., LL.D., D.SC., F.R.S., Druraclog, Crewkerne. 
1910 CLELAND, Mrs. A. M. S., Drumclog, Crewkerne. 

1909 CLERK, Mrs. R. MILDMAY, Charlton House, Shepton Mallet. 

1903 CLOTHIER, Miss C. B., Wraxhill, Street. 
1884 CLOTHIER, S. T., Leigholt, Street. 

1882 COLEMAN, Rev. J. J., The Vicarage, Haselbury Plucknett. 

1901 fCoLES, JOHN, 18, Mitchell Street, Wellington. 

1891 COLES, Rev. Canon V. S. S., 19, Fore Street, Seaton. 

1912 COLLIER, CHARLES, Bridge House, Culmstock, Devon. 

1907 COLLINS, W. GROSETT, The Priory, Cannington, Bridgwater. 
1898 COLTHURST, G. E., Northfield, Taunton. 

1912 COLTHURST, W. B., A.R.I.B.A., 51, High Street, Bridgwater. 

1908 COMMANS, JOHN E., 11, Brock Street, Bath. 

1909 CONEY, Lieut. GERALD B., The Hall, Batcombe, Evercreech. 

1910 COOPER, H. MONTAGUE, 29, East Street, Taunton. 
1912 . COOTE, Rev. F. G., Staple Fitzpaine Rectory, Taunton. 

1904 COPLESTON, F. S., Claremont, Trull. 
1912 COPP, A. G., Watchet, Somerset. 

1912 CORFIELD, The Hon. Mrs. CLAUDE, St. Mary's Vicarage,Taunton. 

1876 CORNER, H., Holly Lodge, North Town, Taunton. 

1916 CORNER, H. R., Tregedna, The Avenue, Taunton. 

1876 CORNISH, TheRt. Rev. Bishop, Redclyffe, Walton Park, Clevedon. 

1896 CORNISH, R., Cedar House, Axminster, Devon. 

1911 CORNISH, A. VIVYAN, Odcombe Rectory, Montacute. 

1914 COSTOBADIE, HUGH, F.R.C.S. Edin., Midsomer Norton, Bath. 



230 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1891 COTCHING, W. G., Wild Oak, Taunton. 

1903 COTTER, Rev. L. RUTLEDGE, The Rectory, West Coker. 

1907 COURT, Rev. LEWIS H., 10, Chesham St., King's Cliff, Brighton. 

1906 fCowAN, T. W., F.L.S., F.G.S., Upcott House, Bishops Hull. 
1879 Cox, HERBERT, Williton. 

1907 CRAVEN, CAMPBELL J., 11, Lansdown PL, Victoria Sq., Clifton. 

1890 CRESPI, A. J. H., M.D., Cooraa, Poole Road, Wimborne. 
1911 CRUTTWELL, PERCY W., Northcote, Frome. 

1911 CUFFE, T. W., Keenthorne House, Fiddington, Bridgwater. 

1915 *CURZON OF KEDLESTON, The Rt. Hon. Earl, K.G., G.C.S.I., 

F.R s., etc., 1, Carlton House Terrace, London, S.W. ; and 
Montacute House, Somerset. 

1910 DAMON, EDMUND, Ellisfield, Summer-lands, Yeovil. 

1897 DAMPIER-BIDE, THOS. WM., Kingston Manor, Yeovil (deceased). 

1875 DANIEL, Rev. Preb. W. E., Horsington Rectory, Templecombe. 

1911 DAUBENEY, Colonel E. K., Eastington House, Cirencester. 

1907 DAUBENY, Major E. A., The Mount House, Milverton. 

1905 DA VIES, Maj . GRIFFITH, May Bank, Manor Rd.,Weston-s.-Mare. 

1904 DA VIES, H. N.,F.G.S., Ottery House, Bristol Rd., Weston-s.-Mare. 

1874 DAVIES, J. TREVOR, Yeovil. 

1912 DAVIES, Rev. W. POWELL, Babcary Rectory, Taunton. 
1893 DAVIS, Mrs., The Warren, North Curry. 

1909 DAVIS, Rev. Preb. T. H., Mus. Doc., The Liberty, Wells. 

1910 DAWE, W. J., Holmdene, The Park, Yeovil. 

1863 fJDAWEJNS, Hon. Prof. W. BOYD, D.SC., F.R.S., F.S.A., Fallowfield 

House, Fallowfield, Manchester, V.P. 

1903 DENING, S. H., Crimchard House, Chard. 

1897 DENMAN, T. ISAAC, 13, Princes Street, Yeovil. 
1887 DERHAM, HENRY, Sneyd Park House, Clifton. 

1891 DERHAM, WALTER, F.G.S., Junior Carlton Club, London, S.W. 

1908 DE SALIS, The Rt. Rev. C. F., Bishop of Taunton, Bishops 

Mead, Taunton. 

1898 DICKINSON, R. E., 65, South Audley St., Mayfair, London, W. 

1916 DILKS, T. BRUCE, East Gate, Bridgwater. 
1908 DINHAM, Mrs. H., 1, Park Terrace, Taunton. 

1911 DIXON, Rev. Preb. H. T., D.D., Christ Church Vicarage, Clifton. 

1875 DOBREE, S., The Priory, Wellington. 

1874 DOBSON, Mrs., Oakwood, Bathwick Hill, Bath. 

1900 fDoDD, Rev. J. A., Winscombe Vicarage, Weston-super-Mare. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 231 

1880 DOGGETT, H. G., Springhill, Leigh Woods, Clifton (deceased). 

1910 DOIDGE, HARRIS, The Bank, High Street, Taunton. 
1906 DONALDSON, J. T. G., Deefa, Prince's Road, Clevedon. 
1913 DONNE, THOS. SALISBURY, Millbrook, Castle Gary, Som. 
1896 DOWELL, Mrs. A. G., The Hermitage, Glastonbury. 

1911 DOWNES, HAROLD, M.B., Ditton Lea, Ilminster. 

1898 DRAYTON, W., 2, The Crescent, Taunton. 

1913 DREWETT, R. B., Park Mount, Castle Gary, Som. 

1906 DUCKET, Mrs. E. A., Radnor House, The Manor Way, Black- 
heath, London, S.E. 

1884 DUCKWORTH, Rev. W. A., Orchardleigh Park, Frome. 

1894 DUDMAN, Miss CATHERINE L., Pitney House, Langport. 

1905 DUNHAM, D., Hillcroft, St. Peter's Hill, Caversham, Oxon. 
1913 DUNN, Rev. JOHN, LL.D., Woodlands, near Frome. 

1913 DYKE, ERNEST H., New Barn, Wincanton. 

1896 DYSON, JOHN, Moorlands, Crewkerne. 

1910 EASTMENT, F. M., Drayton Court, Curry Rivel. 

1911 EASTON, PERCY P., County Club, Worthing. 
1901 fEASTwooD, A. E., Leigh Court, Taunton, Trustee. 

1880 EDEN, Mrs., The Grange, Kingston, Taunton. 

1912 ELLERY-ANDERSON, W. E., 76, Woodstock Road, Oxford. 

1899 ELTON, AMBROSE, 3, Woolley Street, Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. 

1881 fELTON, Sir EDMUND H., Bart., Clevedon Court, V.P. 

1908 EMERSON, Maj.-Gen. A. L., Elm Cottage, South Rd., Taunton. 

1897 ERNST, Mrs., Manor Cottage, Westcombe, Evercreech. 
1875 ESDAILE, C. E. J., Cothelestone House, Taunton. 

1906 ETHERINGTON, Rev. F. McD., Lenham Vicarage, Maidstone. 

1907 EVANS, CHAS. E., Nailsea Court, Somerset. 

1915 EVANS, Rev. G. M., Puckington Rectory, Ilminster. 

1914 EVANS, SEBASTIAN, Goosehill House, Bower Hinton, Martock. 
1899 EVENS, J. W., Gable End, Walton Park, Clevedon. 

1912 EVERY, RICHARD, Marlands, Heavitree, Exeter. 

1890 EWING, Mrs., The Lawn, Taunton. 

1904 FARRER, Rev. Preb. WALTER, The Vicarage, Chard. 

1911 FAUSSET, Rev. W. YORKE, The Vicarage, Cheddar (deceased). 

1916 FEAR. Rev. P. J. J., St. James's Vicarage, Taunton. 

1910 FEARNSIDES, J. W., Knapp House, Preston Plucknett, Yeovil. 

1914 FINCH, ALEX. H., M.R.C.S., Raddon House, Shepton Mallet. 

1898 FISHER, W. H., Elmhurst, North Town, Taunton. 



232 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1893 FLIGG, WM., M.B., 28, Montpelier, Weston -super-Mare. 

1908 FORBES, B. R. M., Moraston, Clevedon. 

1883 FOSTER, E. A., South Hill, Kingskerswell, Devon. 

1895 FOWLER, GERALD, Ermington, Haines Hill, Taunton. 

1909 Fox, Mrs. C. H., Shute Leigh, Wellington. 

1874 Fox, F. F., F.S.A., Yate House, Yate, R.S.O. (deceased). 

1896 Fox, Rev. J. C., The Rectory, Templecombe. 

1912 Fox, J. HOWARD, Robin's Close, Wellington. 

1907 FOXWELL, Professor H. S., 1, Harvey Road, Cambridge. 
1914 FRANCK, CHARLES E., Hill Court, Yatton, Som. 

1876 FRANKLIN, H., 3, Herbert Road, Burnham, Som. (deceased). 

1916 FRANKLIN, Miss, c/o Mrs. Colson, Briar Lea, Mount St., Taunton. 

1913 FREWEN, Lt. -Colonel S., Charlton Musgrove, Wincanton. 
1881 fFRY, The Rt. Hon. Sir EDW., G.C.B., P.C., D.C.L., F.R.S., elc., 

late Lord Justice of Appeal, Failand House, Bristol, V.P. 

1893 tFRY, E. A., Thornhill, Kenley, Surrey. 

1895 FRY, Mrs. E. A., Thornhill, Kenley, Surrey. 

1906 FRY, Miss RENEE, Thornhill, Kenley, Surrey. 

1898 t F RY, FRANCIS J., Cricket St. Thomas, Chard, V.P. 

1914 FRYER, ALFRED C., PH.D., F.S.A., 13, Eaton Crescent, Clifton. 
1913 FULFORD, Mrs. E. S., Abbotscourt, Ilminster. 

1871 GALE, Rev. Preb. I. S., St. Anne's Orchard, Malvern (deceased). 

1895 GALPIN, WM., Horwood, Wincanton. 

1913 GANE, CHAS. E., 3, Kensington Villas, Brislington. 

1909 GARDNER, E. C., Capital and Counties Bank, Aldershot. 
1911 GARNETT, WM., Backwell Hill House, Bristol. 

1913 GARSIA, Miss G. M., Woodlands ; Congresbury, Som. 
1904 GAWEN, C. R., Spring Grove, Milverton. 

1906 GEORGE, CHAS. W., 51, Hampton Road, Bristol. 

1914 GEORGE, Rev. F. H., King's College, Taunton. 

1915 GENT, Mrs. W. CONWAY, Trevarrick House, North Curry. 

1908 GERVIS, HENRY, M.D., F.S.A., 15, Royal Crescent, Bath. 
1908 GIBBON, Rev. HENRY, The Vicarage, Bathampton. 

1910 GIBBS, GEO., Staplegrove Road, Taunton. 

1887 *GIBBS, HENRY MARTIN, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton. 

1884 GIFFORD, Lt.-Colonel J. W., Oaklands, Chard. 

1887 GILES, A. H., Westwood, Grove Park Road, Weston-s.-Mare. 

1913 GILL, Miss J. T., North Street, Ilminster. 

1899 GODDARD, H. R., Apse, South Road, Taunton. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 233 

1906 GOLDNEY, Sir PRIOR, Bart., c.v.o., C.B., Derriads, Chippenham ; 

and Manor House, Halse, Taunton. 

1897 GOOD, THOS., Castle Bailey, Bridgwater (deceased). 

1910 GOODDEN, Lt.-Colonel J. B. H. 

1914 GOODDEN, WYNDHAM C., 23, Warrington Crescent, London, W. 
1902 GOODING, W. F., Durleigh Elm, Bridgwater. 

1899 GOODLAND, CHAS. J., Elm Bank, The Avenue, Taunton. 

1908 GOODLAND, Captain C. HAROLD, Comeytrowe, Taunton. 

1908 GOODLAND, Lieut. E. STANLEY, 1, Elm Grove, Taunton. 

1907 GOODLAND, ROGER, 10, Dartmouth Street, Boston, Mass. 
1899 GOODMAN, ALFRED E., Hovelands, Taunton. 

1896 GOODMAN, EDWIN, Yarde House, Taunton. 

1907 GOODMAN, SYDNEY C. N., 1, Brick Court, Middle Temple, 
London ; and 20, Granard Rd., Wandsworth Common, S.W. 

1889 GOUGH, W., Grove Park Road, Weston-super-Mare (deceased). 

1915 GOULD, Sir FRANCIS CARRTJTHERS, Kt., Upway, Porlock. 

1906 fGRAHAM, ARTHUR R., The Cottage, Kingsdon, Taunton. 

1912 GRAHAM, Miss, The Cottage, Kingsdon, Taunton. 

1888 GRANT, Lady LAURA, Huntly Lodge, Huntly, Aberdeenshire. 

1861 GREEN, E., F.S.A., Linleys, Audley Park Road, Bath. 

1905 GREENSLADE, W. R. J., Fairneld, Trull, Taunton. 

1902 GREGORY, GEO., 5, Argyle Street, Bath. 

1915 GRESWELL, Miss M. BLANCHE, 2, Haines Hill Terrace, Taunton. 
1892 tGRESWELL, Rev. W. H. P., F.R.G.S., Martlet House, Minehead. 

1903 GREY, GERALD J., Collina House, Bathwick Hill, Bath. 

1913 GRIFFITHS, Rev. TREVOR, Sparkford Rectory, Bath. 

1911 GRIMSDALE, GEO. E., Nunney Court, Frome. 
1902 GRUBB, JOHN, The Down, Winscombe, Som. 

1910 GUEST, The Lady THEODORA, Inwood, Templecombe. 

1898 GURNEY, Rev. H. F. S., The Vicarage, Stoke St. Gregory. 

1913 HAINES, Rev. F. C., The Rectory, Blackford, North Cadbury. 

1914 HALE, W. M., Claverton, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

1909 HALLETT, H. H., Bridge House, Taunton. 
1913 HALLIDAY, Miss C. C., Glenthorne, Lynton. 

1916 HALL-STEPHENSON, J. C. M., Somerton Court, Somerton. 

1907 HAMILTON, Mrs. E. C., Withypool, Exford, Taunton. 

1908 HAMILTON, Mrs. S. E., Fyne Court, Bridgwater (deceased). 
1896 f HAMLET, Rev. Preb.,SheptonBeauchampRect.,Seavington,S.(X 
1898 HAMMET, W. J., St. Bernard's, Upper High Street, Taunton. 



234 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1909 HAMMETT, Miss LYDIA, 8, The Crescent, Taunton. 
1887 -J-HANCOCK, Rev. Preb. F., F.S.A., The Priory, Dunster. 

1912 HANCOCK, Rev. P. W. P., The Rectory, Huish Champnower, 

Wiveliscombe. 

1886 fHARBiN, Rev. Preb. E. H. BATES, Newton Surmaville, Yeovil, 

V.P., Trustee, and General Secretary. 
1915 HARE, H. S., Somerville, Haines Hill, Taunton. 

1903 HARE, SHOLTO H., F.R.G.S., Montebello, Weston-super-Mare. 

1904 HARFORD, Rev. Canon E. J., Wells. 

1908 HARLAND, Rev. R., The Vicarage, Nether Stowey, Bridgwater. 

1914 HARRISON, FREDERIC, D.C.L., 10, Royal Crescent, Bath. 

1915 HARRISON, HAROLD B., Applehayes, Clayhidon, Wellington. 

1910 HARROLD, Miss ELISABETH SEARS, F.S.A. Scot., Westover, 

Virginia, U.S.A. 

1916 HAVERFIELD, Prof. F. J., LL.D., F.S.A. , Winshields, Headington 

Hill, Oxford. 

1909 HAWKEN, Rev. A., The Vicarage, Pitminster. 

1911 HAWKEN, Rev. C. S., The Rectory, Brympton, Yeovil. 

1905 HAWKINS, Mrs. C. F., North Petherton. 

1891 fHAYWARD, Rev. DOUGLAS L., The Vicarage, Bruton. 
1914 HEAD, J. M., F.R.G.S., 14, Royal Crescent, Bath (deceased). 

1894 fHEALE, Rev. C. H., The Vicarage, Williton. 
1897 HELLIER, Rev. Preb. H. G., Dinder Rectory (deceased). 
1897 HELLIER, Mrs. H. G. 

1912 HELYAR, KENNETH GARY, Poundisford Lodge, Taunton. 
1903 HEMBRY, F. W., The Uplands, Saltford, Bristol. 

1882 HENLEY, Colonel C. H., Leigh House, Chard. 

1907 HENNING, Rev. G. S., East Lydford, Somerton (deceased). 
1899 HENRY, Miss FRANCES, Brasted, Walton-by-Clevedon. 

1908 HERAPATH, Major E. L., Rozel, Berrow Road, Burnham. 
1912 HERBERT, The Hon. AUBREY, M.P., Pixton Park, Dulverton. 

1910 HICHENS, Mrs. THOS. S., Flamberts, Trent, Sherborne. 

1884 HIGGINS, JOHN, Stockwoods, Pylle, Shepton Mallet. 

1914 HIGGINS, L.R.C.,Wootton Ho.,ButleighWootton,Glastonbury. 

1911 HIGNETT, GEOFFREY, Hodshill Hall, South Stoke, Bath. 
1911 HIGNETT, Mrs. G., Hodshill Hall, South Stoke, Bath. 

1885 HILL, B. H., The Old Rectory, Uphill, Weston-super-Mare. 

1906 HILL, Mrs. E. S. CARNE, Ham Court, High Ham. 
1905 HILL, Mrs. M. B., Oakhurst, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 235 

1904 KINGSTON, E. ALISON, Flax Bourton, R.S.O. 
1913 HIPPISLEY, GERALD W., Northam House, Wells. 

1913 HIPPISLEY, HENRY E., South Lawn, Ston Easton, nr. Bath. 

1888 HIPPISLEY, W. J., 15, New Street, Wells. 

1912 HISCOCK, GEORGE E., 6, Cyprus Terrace, Taunton. 

1905 HOBHOUSE, Mrs. E., New Street, Wells. 

1878 fHoBHOusE, The Rt. Hon. HENRY, P.O., Hadspen House, Castle 
Cary, V.P., Trustee. 

HODGKINSON, W. S., Glencot, Wells. 

HODGKINSON, GUY A., Wells, Somerset. 

HODGSON, Rev. W. E., 28, Close Hall, Wells. 

HOLLIS, JAS., Waldegrave House, Chewton Mendip, Bath. 

HOLLOWAY, F. H., Townsend House, Curry Rivel. 

HOLLOWAY, Mrs. F. H., Townsend House, Curry Rivel. 
fHoLMES, Rev. Chancellor T. SCOTT, D.D., East Liberty, Wells. 

HOLT, Mrs. T., The Hall, Berrow Road, Burnham. 

HOLWORTHY, F. M. R., 6, Parkhill Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

HOMER, Rev. F. A., 81, Lansdown Road, Handsworth. 

HONNYWILL, Rev. J. E. W., Leigh-on-Mendip, Coleford, Bath. 
fHooK, Rev. ARTHUR J., The Vicarage, Hambridge, Taunton. 

1914 HORNE, Miss C. A., Belmont, St. Decuman's, Watchet. 
1886 HORNE, Rev. ETHELBERT, Downside Abbey, Bath. 

1875 HORNER, Sir JOHN F. FORTESCUE, K.C.V.O., Mells Park, Frome. 

1898 HOSKINS, ED. J., 76, Jermyn Street, London, W. 

1905 -J-HOSKYNS, H. W. PAGET, North Perrott Manor, Crewkerne. 

1905 HOSKYNS, R. DE HAVILLAND, King Ina's Palace, S. Petherton. 

1911 HOTCHKIS, JOHN, Leycroft, Taunton. 

1912 HOUGHTON, Rev. W., Rock House, Yatton, Bristol. 
1884 HUDD, A. E., F.S.A., 108, Pembroke Road, Clifton. 

1903 HUDSON, Rev. C. H. BICKERTON, Holy Rood, St. Giles, Oxford. 

1915 *HUGHES, ALLAN, Lynch, Allerford, Taunton. 

1892 HUGHES, Rev. F. L., The Rectory, Lydeard St. Lawrence. 
1901 HUGHES, Mrs. F. L., The Rectory, Lydeard St. Lawrence. 

1913 HUGHES, R. T. A., Daydon Lodge, Bruton, Som. 
1907 *HUGHES, T. CANN, F.S.A., 78, Church Street, Lancaster. 

1889 HUMPHREYS, A. L., 187, Piccadilly, London, W. 

1866 tHuNT, Rev. W., D.LITT., 24, Phillimore Gardens, Kensington,W 
1884 HUNT, WM. ALFRED, M.R.C.S., Tyndale, Yeovil. 
1910 HUNT, Mrs. W. A., Tyndale, Yeovil. 



236 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1908 HURLE, Capt. J. COOKE, Brislington Hill, Bristol. 

1909 HURLE, Mrs. J. COOKE, Brislington Hill, Bristol. 

1910 BUTTON, STANLEY, 54, Alfred Hill, Kingsdown, Bristol. 

1900 fHYLTON, The Rt, Hon. Lord, F.S.A., Ammerdown Park, Rad- 
stock, V.P., Trustee. 

1910 ILCHESTER, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, Melbury, Dorchester. 
1880 IMPEY, Miss E. C., Street. 

1908 INGHAM-BAKER, LAWRENCE, Wayford Manor, Crewkerne. 

1904 INGRAM, Mrs., The Lodge, Milverton. 

1900 JAMES, E. HAUGHTON, Forton, Chard. 

1901 JAMES, Rev. J. G., LITT.D., The Manse, Chase Side, Enfield. 
1908 JAMES, W. VICTOR, Leglands, Wellington. 

1908 JENNER, Lt.-Col. Sir WALTER K., Bart., Lytes Gary, Kingsdon. 

1893 JENNINGS, A. R., Tiverton. 

1914 JERMYN, Col. T., Highcliff, 5, Highbury Road, Weston-s.-Mare. 

1907 JEUDWINE, J. W., Riverside, Batheaston. 

1896 JEX-BLAKE, A. J., 13, Ennismore Gardens, London, S.W. 

1891 JEX-BLAKE, Rev. Dr. T. W., F.S.A. (deceased). 

1911 JOHNSON, Rev. J. BOVELL, M.D.. Bruton, Somerset. 

1905 JOHNSTON, J. NICHOLSON, A.R.I.B.A., Hesketh. The Park, Yeovil. 
1878 JONES, J. E., Eastcliffe, Exton, Topsham. 

1914 JONES, Miss PARNELL, Ar-y-Bryn, Llanddewi-Skirrid, Aber- 
gavenny. 

1907 JONES, Rev. R. L., The Rectory, Shepton Mallet. 

1880 JOSE, Rev. S. P., Churchill Vicarage, near Bristol (deceased). 

1894 JOSEPH, H. W. B., Binder, Wells. 

1909 JOYCE, Miss A. B., The Gables, Uphill, Weston-super-Mare. 

1904 KEILOR, Rev. J. D. D., The Vicarage, Buckland Dinham, Frome. 
1887 KELWAY, WM., Brooklands, Huish Episcopi, Langport. 

1877 KEMEYS-TYNTE, ST.D.M., The Beeches, Claverton Down, Bath. 

1895 fKENNiON, The Rt, Rev. G. W., D.D., Lord Bishop of Bath and 

Wells, The Palace, Wells, V.P. 

1905 KENT-BIDDLECOMBE, G. B., Belmont, Taunton. 
1911 KER, H. M. B., 3, Hamp Green Rise, Bridgwater. 

1881 KETTLEWELL, WM., Harptree Court, East Harptree. 

1908 KIDNER, Mrs. JOHN, Dodhill House, Taunton. 
1907 KILLICK, C. R., M.B., Tower Hill, Williton. 

1906 KINGSBURY, J. E., Leighton, The Avenue, Taunton. 

1902 KIRKWOOD, Colonel HENDLEY P., Newbridge House, Bath. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 237 

1908 KITCH, W. H., Blake House, Bridgwater. 

1887 KITE, G. H., Highfield, Mount Nebo, Taunton. 

1890 KNIGHT, F. A., Wintrath, Winscombe (deceased). 

1905 KNIGHT, F. H., 13, Crawford Street, Wolverhampton. 
1913 KNIGHT, W. H., Towns End, Limington, Ilchester. 

1915 KNOWLES, Rev. C. Q., Ye Retreate, Milverton. 

1910 KYRKE, Colonel A. VENABLES, Staplegrove Elm, Taunton. 

1908 LAMBRICK, Rev. G. MENZIES, Blagdon Rectory, Bristol. 
1913 LANCE, Rev. A. P., The Vicarage, Buckland St. Mary, Chard. 

1911 LANG, JOSEPH, The Limes, Curry Rivel. 

1893 LANGDON, Rev. F. E. W., Membury Vicarage, Axminster. 
1910 *LANGMAN, Maj. A. L., C.M.G., North Cadbury House, Somerset. 

1913 LANGMAN, Mrs. A. L., North Cadbury House, Somerset. 
1904 LAURENCE, Mrs. 

1909 LAWRENCE, Sir ALEX. W., Bart., Brockham End, near Bath. 

1906 LAWRENCE, F. W., F.R.G.S., Hillcote, Lansdown, Bath. 
1898 LAWRENCE, SAMUEL, 14, The Avenue, Taunton. 

1914 LAYCOCK, C. H., Cross Street, Moretonhampstead. 

1912 LEAKER, WM. CHAS., Parr's Bank, Glastonbury. 
1900 LEAN, J., Shepton Beauchamp, Ilminster. 
1900 LEAN, Mrs. J., Shepton Beauchamp, Ilminster. 

1914 LEE, C. J., " Somerset County Herald " Office, Taunton. 

1907 LE GROS, PHILIP E., North Hill House, Frome. 

1916 *LEIGH, Capt. J. HAMILTON, F.S.A. Scot., F.L.S., Bindon, 

Wellington. 

1913 LEIR-CARLTON, Maj. -General R., Ditcheat Priory, Evercreech. 
1897 LENG, W. LOWE, Andorra, Hill Road, Weston-super-Mare. 

1910 LETHBRIDGE, Rev. A., Shepton Beauchamp Rectory, Ilminster. 

1911 LEVERSEDGE, R. CORAM, Oxford House, Evercreech, Bath. 
1887 LEWIS, ARCHIBALD M., 3, Upper Byron Place, Clifton. 
1907 LEWIS, Rev. G. H., Allandale, Berrow Road, Burnham. 
1909 LEWIS, Rev. H. D., The Vicarage, Crewkerne. 

1896 LEWIS, JOSIAH, 1, The Crescent, Taunton (deceased). 

LIBRARIES AND SOCIETIES : 

1894 BARNSTAPLE, N. DEVON ATHENAEUM (T.Waimvright,.Z>i&ranan). 
1907 BATH, The Corporation of, Guildhall, Bath (Reference Library). 
1902 BRISTOL PUBLIC LIBRARY (E. R. N. Mathews, Librarian). 

1915 BRUTQN, The Ward Library (Rev. D. LI. Hayward, Chairman). 



238 List of Members, 1915-16. 

EXETER PUBLIC LIBRARY (H. Tapley-Soper, Librarian). 
FROME LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTION (G. W. Wilt- 
shire, Treasurer, Garden House, Frome). 

1913 HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. (per 
E. G. Allen & Son, 14, Grape St., Shaftesbury Av., London). 
1909 MANCHESTER, The John Rylands Library. 
1913 MANCHESTER PUBLIC LIBRARIES, Piccadilly, Manchester. 
1907 NEWBERRY LIBRARY, CHICAGO (per B. F. Stevens and Brown, 
4, Trafalgar Square, London, W.C.). 

1897 NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY (per B. F. Stevens and Brown). 
1885 PLYMOUTH FREE LIBRARY (R. E. Wellington, Librarian). 

1913 PLYMOUTH INSTITUTION, Athenaeum, Plymouth (pt. exchange). 
1887 QUARITCH, BERNARD, 11, Grafton Street, London, W. (for the 

Boston Public Library, U.S.A.). 
1909 SOMERSET MEN IN LONDON (Maurice G. Chant, Hon. Sec., 

Bassishaw House, 70A, Basinghall St., London, E.G.). 
1912 UPPSALA, KUNGL. UNIVERSITETETS BIBLIOTHEK. 
1896 WELLS, THE DEAN AND CHAPTER OF, (Chapter Library). 
1896 WELLS THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE. 

1885 LIDDON, EDWARD, M.D., Silver Street House, Taunton. 

1916 LIDDON, Rev. E. PARRY, The Vicarage, Minehead. 

1912 LiNDESAY,H.de la P.C.,TheManorHouse,Lydeard St.Lawrence. 

1915 LINDLEY, The Hon. Judge W 7 . B., Corfe House, Taunton. 
1909 LISSANT, G., 54, Roseneath Road, Clapham Common, London. 
1906 LLEWELLIN, W. M., C.E., 8, Gotham Lawn Road, Bristol. 
1901 LLOYD, WM. HENRY, Hatch Court, Taunton (deceased). 
1912 LLOYD, Lieut. J., Fairview, Galmington, Taunton. 

1869 LONG, Colonel WM., C.M.G., Newton House, Clevedon. 

1904 LOUCH, E. QUEKETT, North Street, Langport. 

1898 LOVEDAY, J. G., The Cottage, Staplegrove Road, Taunton. 
1898 LOVEDAY, Mrs. J. G., The Cottage, Staplegrove Road, Taunton. 

1916 LOVELACE, MARY, Countess of, Ashley Combe, Porlock ; and 

Ockham Park, Woking. 

1914 LUCAS, Miss F. G., Hillside, Yatton, Somerset. 
1914 LUCAS, Miss M. E., Hillside, Yatton, Somerset. 
1914 LUCAS, Rev. WM., Tolland Rectory, Wiveliscombe. 
1914 LUCAS, Mrs. WM., Tolland Rectory, Wiveliscombe. 
1906 LUTTRELL, A. F., Dunster Castle. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 239 

1915 LYONS, Rev. JOHN, The Presbytery, Minehead. 

1906 LYSAGHT, G. S., Chapel Cleeve, Washford, Taunton. 

1870 fLYTE, Sir HENRY C. MAXWELL, K.C.B., F.S.A., 61, Warwick 

Square, London, S.W., V.P. 

1910 McCALL, HAROLD W. L., Foys, Chetnole, Sherborne. 

1912 McCLEAN, Rev. M. Y., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Taunton. 

1913 MACCONNELL, ARCHIBALD, Compton Manor, South Petherton. 
1894 McCoNNELL, Rev. C. J., Pylle Rectory, Shepton Mallet. 

1909 McCoRMiCK, Rev. F., F.S.A. Scot., Wellington, Salop. 
1908 MACDERMOT, E. T., 8, The Circus, Bath. 

1892 MACDONALD, J. A., M.D., LL.D., 19, East Street, Taunton. 

1912 McGowAN, Miss M. E., Kingston, Taunton (deceased). 

1915 MACGREGOR, NORMAN, Hatch Beauchamp, Taunton. 

1915 MACGREGOR, Mrs. N., Hatch Beauchamp, Taunton. 

1897 MACMILLAN, A. S., The Avenue, Yeovil. 

1912 MACMILLAN, W. WALLACE, Woodville House, Castle Gary, Som. 

1916 MACNAMARA, Rev. J. R., The Rectory, Angersleigh, Taunton. 

1910 MCMILLAN, WM., Auldgirth, Grove Avenue, Yeovil. 
1903 MADGE, JOHN, Somerset House, Chard. 

1898 MAGGS, F. R., Barton-on-Sea, New Milton, Hants. 
1903 MAIDLOW, W. H., M.D., Ilminster. 

1907 MAJOR, ALBANY F., 30, The Waldrons, Croydon. 

1908 MALET, Rev. C. D. E., The Vicarage, Stogursey, Bridgwater. 

1897 MALET, T. H. W., 46, St. Petersburgh Place, London, W. 
1915 MANNING-KIDD, S. M., Oxenways, Membury, Axminster. 

1905 MARCHANT, ALFRED B., Hayes End, South Petherton. 

1914 MARDON, A. C., Ashwick, Dulverton. 

1906 MARDON, HEBER, Cliffden, Teignmouth. 

1913 MARSH, W. SUTCLIFFE, The Ferns, Mount Street, Taunton. 
1905 fMARSHALL, Rev. E. S., F.L.S., West Monkton Rectory, Taunton. 

1899 MARSHALL, JAMES C., Oak Hill, Stoke-on-Trent. 

1908 MARSHALL, Mrs. F., Old Manor House, Combe Florey, Taunton. 

1898 MARSON, Mrs., 86, Oakwood Rd., Golder's Green, London, N.W. 
1891 MARWOOD-ELTON, Lt.-Colonel W., Heathfield Hall, Taunton. 
1905 MASON, FREDERICK, School of Art, Taunton. 

1909 MATHISON, J., Wearne, Langport. 

1913 MATTERSON, W. A. KEY, Langford Manor, Fivehead, Taunton. 

1914 MATTHEWS, S., Sidbrook, West Monkton, Taunton. 

1905 MAUD, Mrs. W. HARTLEY, 57, Eaton Square, London, S.W. 



240 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1914 MAUDE, Miss A. E., 19, Upper High Street, Taunton. 

1885 MAY, Rev. W. D., Ampthill Rectory, Beds. 

1912 MAY, Mrs., Hillside, Batcombe ; and Broomhill, Burnaby Rd., 
Bournemouth. 

1911 MAY, Miss B. I., Hillside, Batcombe ; and Broomhill, Burnaby 

Road, Bournemouth. 

1885 MAYNARD, HOWARD, Westleigh, Wellington Road, Taunton. 

1907 MAYO, F. W., Swallowcliffe, Yeovil. 

1899 MEADE-KING, Miss MAY, 8, Mount Terrace, Taunton. 

1898 MEADE-KING, R. LIDDON, M.D., Powlett House, Taunton. 

1866 MEADE-KING, WALTER, 12, Baring Crescent, Heavitree, Exeter. 

1902 MERRICK, JOHN, 2, Woodland Villas, Glastonbury. 

1888 MICHELL, Rev. A. T., F.S.A., Sheriffhales Vic., Shifnal, Salop. 

1912 MICHELL, EDWIN LEE, Stamerham, Wellington. 

1904 MICHELL, THEO., Trewirgie, Christchurch Road, Bournemouth. 

1913 MILDMAY, GEORGE ST. JOHN, Queen Camel, Bath. 

1908 MILES, Capt. Sir C. W., Bart., Leigh Court, Abbot's Leigh, Bristol. 
1908 MILLER, T. HODGSON, 16, Royal Crescent, Bath. 

1910 MILLER, W. D., Cheddon, Taunton. 

1907 fM^NE-R-EDHEAD, GEO. B., Millard's Hill, Frome. 
1902 MITCHELL, FRANCIS H., Chard. 

1914 MITCHELL, G. H., Waterloo Road, Shepton Mallet. 

1908 MITCHELL, W. R., Seaborough Court, Crewkerne. 

1910 MITCHELMORE, W. R. E., Middle Street, Yeovil. 

1908 MOLE, ALBERT C., The Grove, Pyrland, Taunton. 

1909 MONCK, Rev. Preb. G. G., The Vicarage, Stoke-under-Ham. 
1913 MONCKTON, REGINALD, Sedgemoor, West Kirby, Cheshire. 
1882 MONDAY, A. J., 2, Fairwater Terrace, Taunton. 

1902 MONTGOMERY, Rev. F. J., Halse Rectory, Taunton. 

1911 MORGAN, Lt.-Col. W. LLEWELLYN, R.E., Brynbriallu, Swansea. 
1876 MORLAND, JOHN, Wyrral, Glastonbury. 

1909 MOYSEY, C. F., Bathealton Court, Wiveliscombe. 

1916 MOYSEY, Miss H. G., Bathealton Court, Wiveliscombe. 

1911 MURRAY, J. TUCKER, Banwell Abbey, Somerset. 

1905 NAPIER, Rev. H. F., Melbury Rectory, Dorchester. 

1912 NATHAN, Lt.-Col. Sir MATTHEW, G.C.M.G., Brandon House, 

Kensington Palace Gardens, London, W. 

1911 NEAL, Miss M. E.,. Wheatleigh, Taunton. 

1908 NELSON, E. MILLES, Beckington, Bath. 



List of Members, 19 J 5-16. 24 1 

NEVILLE-GRENVILLE, R., Butleigh Court, Glastonbury. 

NICHOLLS, Lt.-Col. F. P., Mountlands, South Road, Taunton. 

NIELD, WALTER, Twyford House, Wells Road, Knowle, Bristol. 

NORMAN, Colonel COMPTON, Staplegrove, Taunton. 
fNoRMAN, G., M.R.I.A., 12, Brock Street, Bath. 

NORRIS, F. E., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., Hill View, Ryde's Hill, Guildford. 

OATLEY, G. H., F.R.I.B.A., Church House, Clifton. 

ODGEHS, Rev. J. E., D.D., 9, Marston Ferry Road, Oxford. 
*OKE, ALFRED W., F.S.A., F.G.S., 32, Denmark Villas, Hove. 

OLIVEY, H. P., M.R.C.S., Albion House, Mylor, Penryn. 
*OXLEY, SELWYN, 75, Victoria Road, Kensington, London ; 

and Union Society, Oxford. 
1908 PAGET, Sir RICHARD, Bart., Old Fallings, Wolverhampton. 

1897 PALMER, H. P., 6, Wellington Terrace, Taunton. 
1908 PALMER, W. H., Bridgwater. 

1913 PARRIS, Miss A. E., Elmfield, Churchill, Bristol. 

1910 PARSONS, F., 28, Bridge Street, Taunton. 

1910 PARSONS, Miss K., Starhunger, Minehead. 

1908 PARSONS, R. M. P., The Manor House, Misterton, S.O. 

1906 PASS, Capt. A. D., Manor Ho., Wootton Fitzpaine, Charmouth. 
1904 PATTON, Mrs., Stoke Court, Taunton. 

1880 PAUL, R. W., F.S.A., 9, Princes Buildings, Clifton, Bristol. 

1907 PATTLL, Colonel J. R., Summer-lands, Ilminster. 
1886 fPAYNTER, J. B., Hendford Manor House, Yeovil. 

1898 PEARCE, EDWIN, Merrow, Taunton. 

1908 PEARCE, Mrs. E., Merrow, Taunton. 

1913 PEARS, Miss C. E., Wilmington, Dunster. 

1909 PEEL, The Viscount, 52, Grosvenor Street, London, W. 

1914 tP EM:BERTON > Colonel E. ST. C., Pyrland Hall, Taunton. 
1914 PEMBERTON, Mrs., Pyrland Hall, Taunton. 

1903 PENNY, T. S., Knowls, Taunton. 

1889 PERCEVAL, CECIL H. SPENCER, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth. 
1896 PERCIVAL, Rev. S. E., Merriott Vicarage, Crewkerne. 

1881 PERFECT, Rev. H. T., 8, Upper Church Street, Bath. 
1898 PERRY, Rev. C. R., D.D., Mickfield Rectory, Suffolk. 

1888 *PETHERICK, E. A., F.L.S., Commonwealth Library, Melbourne. 

1910 PETTER, JOHN, West Park, Yeovil. 

1890 PHELIPS, W. R., Montacute House, Montacute, S.O. 
1913 PHELPS, Miss A., Castle Gary, Somerset. 

Vol. LXI, (Fourth Series, Vol. I}, Part II. q 



242 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1916 PHILLIPS, Rev. C. W., 2, Fairwater Terrace, Taunton. 

1913 PHYTHI AN- ADAMS, W. J., Artillerj' Mansions, Westminster. 

1913 PICTOR, ARTHUR J., Pitcombe, Bruton, Somerset. 

1908 PIKE, Rev. C. E., F.R.HIST.S., 13, Taunton Road, Bridgwater. 

1904 PINCKNEY, A. B., F.R.I.B.A., The Orchard, Bathford, Bath. 

1915 PITTARD, Miss FLORENCE E., Torre Lea, The Avenue, Yeovil. 

1891 PTTTMAN, J. BANKS, Basing House, Basinghall St., London, E.G. 

1907 POLLOCK, Captain J. M., Ivy Lodge, Churchill, near Bristol. 

1906 POMEROY, The Hon. Miss, Carbery, Minehead. 

1908 PONSONBY-FANE, The Rt. Hon. Sir SPENCER, G.C.B. (deceased). 
1882 POOLE, HUGH R., The Old House, South Petherton. 

1907 POOLE, W. J. RUSCOMBE, 5, Edinburgh Place, Weston-s.-Mare. 
1885 POOLL, R. P. H. BATTEN, Road Manor, Bath. 

1908 POPE, ALFRED, F.S.A., South Court, Dorchester. 

1916 PORCHER, Rev. Preb. G. L., The Rectory, Dinder, Wells. 
1876 fPoRTMAN, The Right Hon. Viscount, Bryanston House, 

Blandford, Patron. 

1911 PORTMAN, The Hon. HENRY B., Buxted Park, Uckfield, Sussex. 

1909 POTT, Rev. A. G., Buckland St. Mary, Chard. 

1909 POULETT, The Right Hon. Earl, Hinton St. George, Crewkerne. 

1905 POWELL, Rev. C., East Coker Vicarage, Yeovil. 

1892 POWELL, SEPTIMUS, The Hermitage, Weston-super-Mare. 

1911 PRICE, FRANCIS H., L.R.I.B.A., 12, The Avenue, Taunton. 
1902 PRICE, J. GAY, 12, The Avenue, Taunton. 

1900 tPKic E > Rev. S. J. M., D.D., Tintinhull, Martock, S.O. 

1912 PRICE, W. SYDNEY, Fernleigh, Wellington. 
1896 PRIDEAUX, C. S., L.D.S., Ermington, Dorchester. 

1894 PRIDEAUX, W. DE C., F.S.A., 12, Frederick Place, Weymouth. 

1880 t!*R ING > R CV - DANIEL J., The Vicarage, North Curry. 

1905 PRING, Capt. FRANCIS J. H., The Vicarage, North Curry. 

1914 PRITCHARD, JOHN E., F.S.A., 22, St. John's Road, Clifton. 

1908 QUANTOCK-SHULDHAM, Lt.-Col. F., Norton Manor, Stoke-s.-Ham. 
1905 RADCLIFFE, HERBERT, 8, Jesmond Road, Clevedon. 

1915 RADFORD, A. LOCKE, F.S.A., Manor House, Bradninch, Devon. 

1910 RADFORD, Miss E. J., Sunny Hill, Bruton. 

1905 RADFORD, W. LOCKE, Bridge House, Bickenhall, Taunton. 

1911 RAWLENCE, E. A., Newlands, Salisbury. 

1913 RAWLINS, Major E. B., Ashley Grove, Box, Wilts. 

1909 RAYMOND, F. L. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 243 

RAYMOND, WALTER, Withypool, Exford, Taunton. 
fREEDER, Rev. W. T., The Rectory, Selworthy, Taunton. 

REEDER, Mrs. W. T., The Rectory, Selworthy, Taunton. 

RENDALL, ATHELSTAN, M.P., The Knoll, Yeovil. 

RICHARDSON, Rev. A., Bath and County Club, Bath. 

RICHARDSON, Mrs., Langford Court, near Bristol. 

RIDLEY, Rev. S. 0., Compton Bishop Vicarage, Axbridge. 

RIXON, W. A., Turkdean Manor, Gloucestershire. 

ROBERTS, P. W., F.R.I.B.A., Northbrook Lodge, Taunton. 

ROBERTS, KILHAM, M.R.C.S. Eng., Shillington, Bedfordshire. 

ROBERTS, Rev. ROBERT O., East Down Rectory, Barnstaple. 

ROBERTSON, Rev. J. HUNTER, 1, Queen's Terrace, Southsea. 
fRofiiNSON, The Very Rev. J. ARMITAGE, D.D., F.S.A., Dean of 

Wells, The Deanery, Wells. 
1913 ROBINSON, Mrs., Chamberlain Street, Wells. 

1915 ROBINSON, Miss C., 5, King's Terrace, Holway A venue, Taunton. 

1916 ROBINSON, Rev. Preb. R. HAYES, The Vicarage, Burnham. 
1880 ROCKE, Mrs., Chalice Hill, Glastonbury. 

1912 ROE, Rev. WILFRED T., Trent Rectory, Sherborne. 

1913 ROGERS, A. S., The Towans, Burnham, Somerset. 

1908 ROGERS, ARTHUR W., D.SC., F.G.S., 16, Park Street, Taunton. 

1904 ROGERS, F. EVELYN, Hamilton House, Lansdown, Bath. 

1914 ROGERS, Miss JESSIE, White House, Williton. 
1914 ROGERS, S. L., White House, Williton. 

1908 ROPER, FREEMAN, F.L.S., Forde Abbey, Chard. 
1912 ROSE, JOHN, Marlows, West Monkton, Taunton. 

1912 ROSE, Mrs. J., Marlows, West Monkton, Taunton. 

1877 ROSE, Rev. W. F., Hutton, Weston-super-Mare (deceased). 

1903 fR ss > R ev - D. MELVILLE, The Vicarage, Langport. 
1914 Ross, F. GORDON, Braeside, Crewkerne Road, Chard. 
1877 ROSSITER, G. F., M.B., Cairo Lodge, Weston-super-Mare. 
1907 ROWCLIFFE, W. C., Halsway Manor, Taunton. 

1913 ROWLEY, J. C., Burnham, Somerset. 

1909 RUCK, Captain G. A., The Copse, Shiplett, Weston-super-Mare. 
1909 RUSHTON, Miss, Highnam, Minehead. 

1891 RUTTER, Rev. J. H., Linton Vicarage, Cambs. 

1906 SADLER, O. T., Weacombe House, Bicknoller, Taunton. 

1904 SAGE, F. G., The Meadows, Claygate ; and Stavordale Priory. 
1895 fST. AUDRIES, Rt. Hon. Lord, P.C., St. Audries, Som., Trustee. 
1912 SALAMAN, CLEMENT, Treborough Lodge, Roadwater, Taunton. 



244 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1908 SANDERS, Colonel R. A., M.P., Barwick House, near Yeovil. 

1911 fSAUNDERS, Rev. G. W., The Vicarage, Curry Rivel. 

1914 SAUNDEKS, Mrs. G. W., The Vicarage, Curry Rivel. 

1912 SAVORY, J. HARRY, 4, Rodney Place, Clifton. 

1906 SCOTT, Miss M. E., Wey House, Norton Fit z warren. 

1896 SCOTT, M. H., 5, Lansdown Place West, Bath. 

1910 SCRATTON, ARTHUR, Old Rectory, West Coker, Yeovil. 

1915 SCRUTTON, The Hon . Sir T. E., Royal Courts of Justice, London. 
1863 SEYMOUR, ALFRED, Knoyle, Wilts (deceased). 

1908 SHARP, CECIL J., 27, Church Road, Hampstead, N.W. 

1916 SHAW, Lieut. PERCY, Steyning Manor, Stogursey. 

1909 SHELDON, FRANK, The Gatehouse, Reward, Wells. 
1903 SHEPHERD, HERBERT H., The Shrubbery, Ilminster. 
1903 -J-SHEPPARD, H. BYARD, 8, Hammet Street, Taunton. 
1914 SHICKLE, Rev. C. W., F.S.A., 9, Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 
1896 SHORE, Comdr. The Hon. H. N., R.N., Mount Elton, Clevedon. 

1903 SIBBALD, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 

1906 SIMEY, G. I., 9, Ellenborough Park North, Weston-super-Mare. 

1913 SIMMONDS, THOS. G., The Hill, Congresbury, Somerset. 

1910 SKINNER, A. J. P., Colyton, Devon. 

1908 SLATER, HENRY H., Brooke House, Cannington, Bridgwater. 

1907 SMITH, Miss AMY, The Mount, Halse, Taunton. 
1898 SMITH, A. J., 4, Wellington Terrace, Taunton. 

1893 SMITH, Sec. -Lieut. J. H. WOOLSTON, Town Hall, Minehead. 

1907 SMYTH, Rev. A. W., The Vicarage, Monks Kirby, Lutterworth. 

1911 SNELGROVE, A. G., 23, Sprowston Rd., Forest Gate, London, E. 

1914 SNELGROVE, L. E., 14, Albert Quadrant, Weston-super-Mare. 
1900 SNELL, F. J., North Devon Cottage, Tiverton. 

1914 SOAMES, Rev. F. W., The Vicarage, Drayton, Somerset. 

1914 SOAMES, Mrs. F. W., The Vicarage, Drayton, Somerset. 

1883 fSoMERVTLLE, A. FOWNES, Dinder House, Wells, V.P., Trustee. 
1886 SOMMERVILLE, R. G., Ruishton House, Taunton. 

1904 fSoRBY, Rev. J. A., The Vicarage, Over Stowey, Bridgwater. 

1884 SOUTHAM, Rev. J. H., 6, Henrietta Street, Bath. 

1908 SPARKS, Miss, Bincombe House, Crewkerne. 
1884 SPENCER, FREDK., Pondsmead, Oakhill, Bath. 

1881 SPELLER, Miss K., Sunny Bank, Bridgwater (deceased). 

1909 SPILLER, R. G., Stanford House, Chard. 

1915 SPELLER, WILFRED H., French Weir House, Taunton. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 245 

1901 SPRANKLING, E., L.R.I.B.A., Brookfield Cot., South Rd.,Taunton. 

1912 SPURWAY, Lieut. G. V. 

1914 STALEY, Miss D. C., Combe Hill, Barton St. David, Taunton. 

1906 STANSELL, C. W., Charlemont, Haines Hill, Taunton. 

1908 STAPLE, J. H., Doulting, Shepton Mallet. 

1901 STATHAM, Rev. S. P. H., Wandsworth Prison, London, S.W. 

1907 STAWELL, Colonel G. D., Hill End Grove, Henbury, Glos. 

1908 STENHOUSE, Major V. D., Netherleigh, Minehead. 

1915 STENNING, Mrs., Hill Cottage, North Curry, Taunton. 
1912 fSTEWART, C. BALFOUR, M.B., Huntspill, Highbridge. 
1912 STEWART, Miss ETHEL, Huntspill, Highbridge. 

1909 fSTEWART, WM., M.D., Whitefield, Wiveliscombe. 

1909 STEWART, Mrs. W., Whitefield, Wiveliscombe. 
1906 STIRLING, The Rt. Rev. Bishop, Wells. 

1915 STONE, Lt. H. S. WALCOTT, A.R.I.B.A., 64, East Reach, Taunton. 
1914 STRACHEY, THEODORE E., 5, Harley Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

1902 STRACHIE, The Rt. Hon. Lord, Sutton Court, Pensford. 

1906 STRANGWAYS, The Hon. H. B. T., Shapwick, Bridgwater. 
1914 STREATFEILD, Mrs., Dallington Vicarage, Northampton. 
1900 fSTREET, Rev. Preb. JAMES, The Vicarage, Ilminster. 

1903 STRONG, WM., Waterend House, Wheathampstead, Herts. 

1912 STTJCKEY-CLARK, Miss M., c/o Parr's Bank, Yeovil. 

1913 STURDEE, H. KING, Norton Manor, Taunton. 

1913 SULLY, Miss GWLADYS, Avalon, Weston-super-Mare. 

1908 SULLY, H. T., M.I.E.E., Eastwood, Durdham Park, Bristol. 

1893 SULLY, J. NORMAN, Bigstone, Chepstow. 

1908 SULLY, PERCY R., Poole Cottage, Wellington. 

1892 SULLY, T. N., Avalon, Queen's Road, Weston-super-Mare. 

1908 SULLY, Miss W. C., Avalon, Queen's Road, Weston-super-Mare. 

1898 SURRAGE, E. J. ROCKE, 2, Brick Court, Temple, London, E.C. 

1916 SWAINSON, Rev. S. J., Blackford Vicarage, Weston-super-Mare. 

1902 fSwEETMAN, GEORGE, Wincanton. 

1900 fSYDENHAM, G. F., Battleton House, Dulverton. 

1907 SYMONDS, HENRY, F.S.A., 30, Bolton Gardens, London, S.W. 
1907 TANNER, W. E., Fordlynch, Winscombe, Somerset. 

1910 TAPP, W. M., LL.D., F.S.A., 57, St. James' Street, London, S.W 
1897 fTAYLOR, Rev. C. S., F.S.A., Banwell Vicarage, R.S.O., Somerset 

1903 TAYLOR, THEO., Roslin Villa, Richmond Road, Taunton. 

1911 TERRY, C. W., 92, Harcourt Road, Sheffield. 



246 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1896 THATCHER, A. A., Silva House, Midsomer Norton, Bath. 
1892 THATCHER, EDW. J., The Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol. 
1890 THOMAS, C. E., Granville, Lansdown, Bath. 

1905 THOMPSON, Miss ARCHER, Montrose, Weston Park, Bath. 

1913 THRING, Sir ARTHUR T.,K.c.B.,Charlton Mackrell Ho.,Taunton. 
1904 THRING, Mrs. GODFREY, Fen Ditton Hall, Fen Ditton, Cambs. 
1908 TELLARD, Admiral P. F., Alford House, Alford, Somerset. 
1879 fTiTE, CHAS., Stoneleigh, Taunton, V.P., General Secretary. 
1892 TTTE, Mrs. C., Stoneleigh, Taunton. 

1914 TODD, ARTHUR, Fulwell House, Nunney, Frome. 

1897 TODD, D'ARCY, 36, Norfolk Square, Hyde Park, London, W. 
1896 TOFT, Rev. H., The Rectory, Axbridge. 

1910 TRASK, Miss H. E., Courtfield, Norton-sub-Hamdon, Somerset. 
1894 TRENCHARD, W. J., Shute House, Bishops Huh 1 . 

1900 TREPPLIN, E. C., F.S.A., 90, Piccadilly, London, W. 

1908 TRESTRAIL, Major A. B., F.R.G.S., Southdale, Clevedon. 

1908 TREVELYAN, EDWARD, Morda Lodge, Oswestry. 

1903 TREVELYAN, Sir WALTER, Bart., Nettlecombe Court, Taunton. 

1898 TREVILIAN, Mrs. E. B. C., Standchester, Curry Rivel. 

1915 TREVILIAN, Maj. MAURICE F. CELY, Midelney PL, Curry Rivel. 
1915 TREVILIAN, Mrs. MAURICE F. C., Midelney Place, Curry Rivel. 

1909 TREVOR, Colonel EDWARD, Halesleigh, Bridgwater. 
1914 TRIPP, C. L. H., M.R.C.S., The Chestnuts, Staplegrove. 

1908 TROLLOPE, The Hon. Mrs., Crowcombe Court, Taunton. 

1909 TROUP, Captain R. D. R., Elm Grove, Wembdon, Bridgwater. 

1900 TROYTE-BULLOCK, Lt.-Col. E. G., Silton Lodge, Zeals, Bath. 

1911 TURNER, ARTHUR W., Fitzroy, Norton Fitzwarren. 
1890 TURNER, H. G., Staplegrove Manor, Taunton. 
1908 TURNER, W. M., Billet Street, Taunton. 

1901 TYLOR, Sir EDW. B., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., Linden, Wellington. 
1913 JUssHER, W. A. E., Alexandra Road, Burgess Hill, Sussex. 
1890 VALENTINE, E. W., Old Hall, Somerton (deceased). 

1908 *VASSALL, H.,F.S.A., F.G.s.,The Priory, Repton, Burton-on-Trent. 

1906 VAUGHAN, Rev. Preb. H., The Rectory, Wraxall, Bristol. 
1900 VAWDREY, Mrs., Westfield, Uphill, Weston-super-Mare. 

1899 VICKERY, A. J., 16, Bridge Street, Taunton. 
1898 VILE, J. G., Wilton Lodge, Taunton. 

1904 VILE, Mrs. J. G., Wilton Lodge, Taunton. 

1902 VFLLAR, W. J., Tauntfield House, Taunton. 



List of Members, 1915-16. 247 

1898 VILLAR, Mrs. W. J., Tauntfield House, Taunton. 

1908 VISGER, CHAS., M.R.C.S., Beachcroft, Clevedon. . 
g 1909 VONBERG, M., Rozelle, Wells. 

1909 VONBERG, Mrs. M., Rozelle, Wells. 

1911 WADE, ARTHUR R., Southwell House, Highbridge. 

1914 W T ADE, Rev. J. H., The Vicarage, Kingsbury Episcopi, Martock. 

1909 WAINWRIGHT, C. DONALD, Summerleaze, Shepton Mallet. 

1898 WAINWRIGHT, CHARLES R., Summerleaze, Shepton Mallet. 
1913 WAKE, W. H., Elm Grove, Taunton. 

1916 WAKEFIELD, Mrs. J. E. W., Amberd, Taunton. 

1899 fWALDEGRAVE, The Rt. Hon. Earl, P.C., Chewton Priory, Bath, 

President, Trustee. 

1911 WALDEGRAVE, The Hon. and Rev.H.N.,The Rectory, Lullington. 

1905 WALSH, Major T. L., Lower Marsh, Kingston, Taunton. 

1902 fWALTER, R. HENSLEiGH,M.B.,Hawthornden, Stoke-under-Ham. 

1903 WALTER, R. TERTIUS, Wake Hill, Ilminster. 

1908 WARDLE, FREDK. D., Claremont Villa, Bathwick Hill, Bath. 

1909 WARREN, Rev. W. M. K., Meare Vicarage, Glastonbury. 
1908 WARRY, Captain B. A., Shapwick House, Bridgwater. 
1897 WARRY, H. COCKERAM, The Cedars, Preston Road, Yeovil. 

1910 WASON, Mrs. C. R., Cossington, Bridgwater. 

1907 WATERMAN, A. N., 10, Cambridge Pk.,Durdham Down, Bristol. 

1910 WATERMAN, WM. ROLAND, Stoke-under-Ham. 

1913 WATSON, THOMAS, The Grey House, Somerton, Somerset. 
1913 WATSON, Mrs. T., The Grey House, Somerton, Somerset. 

1912 WATSON, WALTER, B.SC., Taunton School, Taunton. 

1883 fWEAVER, Rev. F. W., F.S.A., F.R.HIST.S., Milton - Clevedon 
Vicarage, Evercreech, Bath, V.P., General Secretary. 

1903 fWEAVER, J. R. H., Trinity College, Oxford. 

1908 WEBBER, Miss E., Combe Lodge, Minehead. 

1904 WEDD, H. G., Eastdon, Langport. 

1906 WEIGALL, Rev. GILBERT, Old Cleeve Rectory, Washford. 
1857 WELCH, C., Ellerker Gardens, Richmond, Surrey (deceased). 
1896 fWERE, FRANCIS, Walnut Tree House, Druidstoke Avenue, 

Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
1876 WESTLAKE, W. H., 6, Mount Terrace, Taunton. 

1911 WESTON, FRED, 15, Crofton Park, Yeovil. 

1912 WETHERMAN, G. H., 33, Upper Belgrave Rd., Clifton, Bristol. 

1913 WHATELY, Rev. G. P., The Vicarage, Bishops Lydeard. 



248 List of Members, 1915-16. 

1912 WHITE, FRANK, Hareston, South Road, Taunton. 
1898 WHITE, SAMUEL, The Highlands, Taunton. 

1909 WHITTAKER, C. D., LL.D, Taunton School, Taunton. 

1885 WHITTING, Lt.-Col. C. E., Uphill Grange, Weston-super-Mare. 

1904 WHITTUCK, E. A., Claverton Manor, Bath. 

1906 WICKENDEN, F. B., Tone House, Taunton. 

1916 fWiCKHAM, Rev. Preb. A.P.,The Vicarage, E. Brent, Highbridge. 

1902 WICKHAM, Rev. J. D. C., The Manor, Holcombe, Bath. 

1913 WICKS, A. T., Durham School, Durham. 

1914 WIGLESWORTH, J., M.D., Springfield House, Winscombe, Som. 

1904 WIGRAM, Miss, King's Gatchell, Taunton. 

1913 fWiLDMAN, W. B., Sherborne School, Dorset. 

1897 WILLCOCKS, A. D., M.R.C.S., 2, Marlborough Terrace, Taunton. 

1914 WILLIAMS, Rev.W.H.W.,The Vicarage,Midsomer Norton,Bath. 

1908 WILLS, ERNEST S., Ramsbury Manor, Hungerford. 

1909 WILLS, GEO. A., Burwalls, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 

1912 WILLS, Major Sir GILBERT, Bart., M.P., Northmoor, Dulverton. 
1896 WILLS, H. H., Barley Wood, Wrington. 

1910 WILLS, Miss M., Bishop Fox's School, Taunton. 

1913 WILSON, ALEXANDER, Shovell, North Petherton. 

1912 WILSON, Rev. C. T., F.R.G.S., The Rectory, Hatch Beauchamp. 

1908 WILSON, H., 18, Kent Terrace, Hanover Gate, London, N.W. 
1912 WILTON, Rev. T. G., The Rectory, Luccombe, Taunton. 

1907 WINCH, Miss CHARLOTTE, Childown, near Chertsey. 

1903 fWiNCKWORTH, WADHAM B., Sussex Lodge, Taunton. 

1914 WINTER, E., 5, The Crescent, Taunton. 

1860 fWiNWOOD, Rev. H. H., F.G.S., 11, Cavendish Crescent, Bath,V.P. 

1881 WINWOOD, T. H. R., Rothesay House, Dorchester. 

1909 WITHERS, A. H., 10, Essex Villas, Kensington, London, W. 
1914 WOOD, W. E. RAMSDEN, M.D., Southernhaye, Lyme Regis. 
1914 WOOD, Mrs. RAMSDEN, Southernhaye, Lyme Regis. 

1912 WOODHOUSE, A. E. C., Kilve, Bridgwater. 

1905 WOODHOUSE, Lt.-Col. S. H., Heatherton Park, Taunton. 

1911 WOODWARD, EDWARD R., 61, Bartholomew Close, London, E.G. 

1911 WOODWARD, Miss M. C., Briarclyst, Beer, Devon. 

1885 WORTHINGTON, Rev. J., Chudleigh Cottage, Cullompton. 

1912 WRIGHT, H. E., 57, Cleveland Square, Hyde Park, London, W. 
1914 WYNTER, Miss M., Canons House, Taunton. 

1912 YOUNG, Rev. H. CHRISTIAN, The Rectory, Crowcombe. 



INDEX 



I 



GENERAL INDEX 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. LXI (4TH SERIES, VOL. I), 

COMPILED BY 

E. A. FRY AND H. ST. GEORGE GRAY. 



Agnes, 94. 

James, 59. 

John, 94. 

Laurence, priest, 96. 

Maud, 59. 

William, priest of Congresbury, 99. 
Abbot, William, priest, 85, 87. 
Abbots, He, 144. 

Accounts of the Society, xvii, xxiv-xxvi. 
Acre, Joan de, 50. 
de Acton, John, 149 ; Richard, 149. 
Adams (Adam), Agnes, 82 ; Andrew, 82; 

John, 82, 90 ; Robert, 65 ; Thomas, 88 ; 

William, 61. 
ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY, 1915, xix, xli, 

xlii, lix-lxviii. 
ADDITIONS TO MUSEDM, 1915, xviii, xl, 

xli, xliv-lviii. 
A dene, Joan, 101. 
Adkins, Anne, 123. 
Advertisements of Publications, 268. 
-Epyornis eggs, Madagascar, Iv. 
Agate beads of Arab type. (See Beads). 
A lam, Isabel, 88 ; James, 88 ; John, 88. 
Alayn, John, 81. 
Alford, Henry, 41 ; Samuel, 41. 
Alfred Jewel (illus.), 217. 
Alfred the Great, by Miss B. A. Lees 

(review illiis.), 217, 218. 
Alhampton (Ditcheat), 65. 
Allen, Richard, 92. 

Aller, parson of, 146. 
Allyn, Edward, 85 ; John, 85 ; Richard, 

63, 85. 

de Alta Ripa, Drugo, 108. 
Alvert, John, 97. 
Alwynus (Eilwinus), Bishop of Wells, 

effigy of, 29. 
Alum (stream), 112. 
Ambler, William, 78. 



Amore. William, 96. 

Amys, Thomas, 72, 78. 

Anderton, Elizabeth, 46 ; James, 46 ; 
Mary, 46. 

Andrews (Androw, Androos), Alice. 87 ; 
Helen, 87 ; Joan, 87, 99 ; John, 72, 
87 (2), 99 ; Robert, 87 ; Thomas, 87, 
99 ; William, 85, 121. 

Andrews (Androw) als Hyckman, Isabel, 
85 ; John, 85. 

Animals, stuffed, added to Museum, Iv. 

Annual Meeting, Taunton, 1915, xiii- 
xxvii. 

Annual Report of the Council, xv-xxiii. 

Anselm, Bishop, effigy of, in St. David's 
Cathedral, 12. 

Anstie, Edmond, 121. 

Arizona, bird-arrows, 1. 

Arms, Bath, city of, 159 ; Bath, Earl of, 
Chandee, 160; Beauchampof Warwick, 
48 ; Beaufort, 159, 160 ; Beckington, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells, 48; 
Berkeley, 160 ; Bourchier, 160 ; Bullen, 
1 ; Daubeny, 160 ; Hakeford, 158 ; 
Hunter, 158 ; James I, 160 ; Jennings, 
44 ; Jenny, 158 ; le Despenser (?), 49 ; 
Mohun, 159, 160 ; Montacute, 48, 49 ; 
Monthermer, 50 ; St. Sauveur, 109 ; 
Seckford, 158 ; Somerset, Duke of, 
Fitzroy, 159, 160; Somerset, Duke of, 
Seymour, 159 ; Speke, 47 ; Trevillian, 
47 ; de Urtiaco, 43. 

de Arsyk, Alexander, 112; Emma, 112. 

Arundel, John, Earl of, 114; Richard, 
Earl of, 114. 

Ashcot, 149. 

Ashcott, trade tokens, 119. 

Ashe, John, priest, 85, 91. 

de Ashe, John, 150. 

de Ashton, Elizabeth, 155 ; Robert, 155. 



General Indc.r. 



Athelney Abbey, 144, 145. 

Athelney, Abbot of, 155. 

Atkins, Alexander, 122. 

atte Orchard, Alice, 154. 

atte Patte (Putte), Alice, 154. 

atte Welle, Matilda, 154. 

Atwell, Richard, 118. 

Atwoll, John, 90. 

Atwood, Thomas, Master of Gonville 
Hall, Cambridge, 5. 

Atwyll, John, 94 (2). 

Auckland, Lord, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, portrait, liv. 

de Audley, James, 147, 150, 155. 

Austyng, William, 66. 

Averye, Richard, 101. 

Axbridge, 59, 76, 84, 86, 90, 91, 96, 
100. 

Axe, William, 99. 

Ayscough, William, Bishop of Salis- 
bury, 3. 

Babcary, 110. 

Baberstocke, 95. 

Baberstoke, John, 72. 

Bache, Anthony, 151 ; John, 151. 

Badges, military, Somei'set, xlvii ; of 

Taunton clubs, lii. 
Badgworth, 75, 76, 77, 79. 
Baker, Henry, 68 ; Robert, 82. 
Baker, Elvard als. (See Elvard). 
Balance Sheet and Accounts for 1914, 

xxiv-xxvi. 
Balett, John, 83. 
Ball, Thomas, 97, 100- 
Balliol, King of Scotland. 150. 
Banckes, John, 122. 
Bancrofte, Robert, 75. 
Banners, Barrington Club, xli ; West 

Monkton Club, xlviii. 
Banwell, 61, 83, 86, 99. 
Banwell, Jelyan, 70 ; Joan, 70 ; John (3), 

70 ; Robert, 70 ; Thomas, 70 ; Watkyn, 

70. 

Banwyll, John, 63. 
Barbar, Robert, priest, 99. 
Barber, William, 119. 
Barrel trucks (cider), Wiveliscombe, 

xlviii. 

Barrington, banner of club, xli. 
Barton, John, 82. 

Barwick, 72, 101 ; (Stowford), 101. 
Basle, Council of, 1434, 7. 
Basyng, John, 101. 
Batcocke, Robert, 91. 
Batcombe, 84 (2), 85, 88 (2), 89, 90, 99, 

107, 113 ; (Twohyde), 108. 
Bath Branch of the Society, xxi, xxix. 
Bath, City of, Arms, 159. 
Bath, Earl of, Philibert deChandee, 160. 



Bath and Wells, Bishops of, Lord Auck- 
land, liv ; Joceline, 106 ; Ralph, 153 ; 

Reginald, 110. 

Bath, trade tokens, 117, 119, 122. 
Batt, John, 66. 
Battle Gore, Williton, xxviii. 
Bawlesborow, 94. 
Bawlet, Thomas, 61, 83. 
Bawnton, Robert, 67. 
Bayly, William, 101. 
" Bead-boke," 58. 
Beads of agate of Arab type, from Ham 

Hill (?), xlix. 
Bearde, Agnes, 94 ; Joan, 94 ; John, 9t ; 

Thomas, 94. 
Beauchamp, Anne, 49. 
Beaufort, arms, 159, 160. 
Beaufort, Edmund, Count of Mortaigne 

and Duke of Somerset, 7 ; John, Duke 

of Somerset, 159 ; John de, Earl of 

Somerset, 49. 

Beckington. trade tokens, 117, 122. 
Bekyn, Richard. 80. 
de Bekynton, John, 154. 
Bennett, Andrew, 95 ; Elizabeth Mary, 

206; Henry, 206. 
Berde (? a Christian name), 85. 
Berde, Agnes, 94 ; Robert, 94 ; William, 

94. 

Bere, 147. 

Berkeley, arms, 160. 
Berkeley, John, 147 ; Katherine, 147, 

155 ; Thomas, 147, 148, 155 ; Maurice, 

161. 

Bernard, John, Precentor of Wells, 4. 
Berrow, 70, 89 
Berry, John, 123. 
Bertun (place), 97. 
Betley, Agnes, 84 ; Riohard, 84. 
Beverstone, 147. 

! Beys, Alice, 86 ; Joan, 87 ; John, 87. 
| Bicycle, geared-ordinary, xlix. 
! Biddisham (Byttysham), 77. 
Bigges, Richard, 119. 
Bignor (Bicknorj, (Sussex), 110, 112, 114. 
Bird-arrows, Arizona, 1. 
Birds' Eggs, Somerset, acquired, xxi, 

xxxv, Iv. 
Birds, Somerset, observations, xxxv- 

xxxvi. 

Bisham (Bustlesham) Priory (Berks.). 49. 
Bishop, Ambrose, 117; Francis, 44, 45; 

John, 45. 

Bisshopp, William, 75, 89. 
Bishops Hull, trade tokens, 119. 
Bithese, Robert, 87. 
Blackom, John, 68. 
Blackmore, John, 71. 
Blakedon, 97. 
Blakeford, 145. 



General Index. 



253 



Bleadon, 67, 70. 

Blewett, Alice, 100 ; John, 100 ; Maude, 

100; Richard, 100. 
Bleyke, William, 79. 
Blickliug, (manor, Norfolk), 9. 
Blinman, George, 120. 
Blount, Elizabeth, 159. 
Blower, John, 100; William, 92. 
Blowton, Humphrey, 92. 
Blue Anchor, botanical notes, xxxviii. 
le Blund (Custancia), 146 ; (John), 146. 
Bocke, Hi chard, 66. 
Bodie, John, 100. 
BOG-MOSSES OF SOMERSET, by W. Watson 

(illus.), 166-188. 
Boleyn (Boloyn, Bolon, Bolonia, Boulen, 

Bullen), Arms of, 1, 9, 10 ; Anne, 9 ; 

Cecily, 9; Geoffrey, 8; Hamo, 10; 

Henry, 5 ; John, 8, 10 ; Margaret, 9 ; 

Margery, 10; Thomas, 1-10; William, 

9, 10. 
BOLEYN, THOMAS, by the Very Rev. J. 

Armitage Robinson, D.D., 1-10. 
Bolgar, John, 76. 
Bolgen, John, 67, 76. 
Bolsome, John, 84. 
BOND, F. BLIGH, onGLASTONBURY ABBEY 

EXCAVATIONS, Eighth Report (illus. ), 

128-142 
Bond, F. Bligh, on excavations at Glas- 

tonbury Abbey, 1915, xxi, xxx-xxxii. 
Bonowey, John, 61. 
Bonville, Sir William, 2. 
Books, acquired by exchange, Ixv-lxvi ; 

donations, xix, xli, xlii, lix-lxv ; pur- 
chased, xix, Ixvii-lxviii. 
Borde, Thomas, 62. 
Borman, John, 83. 
Borrow, Thomas, 70. 
Bosse, Robert, 108. 
BOTANICAL SECTION, xx, xxxvi-xxxix, 

xlii. 

Botiller, Ralph, Knt., 9. 
Botor, John, 154. 
Bourchier, arms, 160. 
Bourchier, John, Lord Fitzwarine, 160. 
Bovell, Thomas, priest, 98. 
Bovey Tracey (Devon), 150. 
Bowcke, Richard, 63. 
Bowge, , 98 ; Elinor, 98 ; Elizabeth, 98. 
Bowryng, Thomas, priest, 91. 
Bowshe, John, 69. 
Boxgrove Priory (Sussex), 110. 
Boy, Lucy, 63 ; Thomas, 63, 66. 
Boyle, William, 117. 
Brabant, 153. 
Bray, Sir Reginald, 4. 
Braynstyd (? Braxted, Essex), 52. 
Bremelcumbe, Elizabeth, 99 ; John, 99 ; 

Thomas, 99. 



Brent, East, 59 (2), 62, 66, 67, 86, 88. 89, 
94, 95, 98. 

Brent, South, 64, 73, 90, 110. 

Brese, Elen, 76. 

Brewham (Bruham), 71, 72, 75, 88, 95, 
102. 

Brewing-pitcher, local make, 1. 

Bridgwater (Brugewater), 52. 

Bridgwater, trade tokens, 119, 122. 

Bridport, Viscount, liv. 

Broke, John, 84. 

Bronze objects, from Kilmersdon, xli, 
xlv ; Ham Hill, xlvi, Ivi. 

Brooches. (See Fibulae). 

Brooches, penannular, Ham Hill, Ivi. 

Brotherhoods in Somerset, 56. 

Browne, John, 100 (2) ; Maud, 101 ; 
Morris, 100 ; Richard, 65, 73, 97, 100 ; 
Thomas, 101 ; William, 94, 100. 

Browning, John, 126; Thomas, 87. 

Brownyug, Richard, 82. 
-de Bruton, Thomas, 108. 

Bruton, trade tokens, 119. 

Bruton, 78 ; (Wyke), 78. 

de Bruwes, Robert, 108. 

Bryne (?) , 87. 

Bucke, William, 68. 

Buckhorn Weston (Dorset), 111. 

Buckland Dinham, ancient remains at 
Murtry Hill surveyed, xxviii. 

Buckland, John, 87. 

Buckland Priory, 145. 

Bulgen, John, 95. 

Bulla, leaden, Calixtus III, Glastonbury 
Abbey, xlv. 

Bulleid, Dr. A., donation of fibulae, Kil- 
mersdon, xli, xlv. 

Bulleid, G. L., re excavations at Glaston- 
bury Abbey, 1915, xxi, xxx, xxxii- 
xxxiii. 

Bullocke, Thomas, 101. 

de Burcy (Bursy, Burci), Agnes, 147 ; 
John. 146, 147, 149 ; Peter, 144, 147 ; 
Richard, 147 ; Robert, 146, 147 ; Serlo, 
145, 146 ; William, 146, 147. 

Burcys Court (Nether Ham), 145. 

Bure, William, 72, 81. 

Burgys, Agnes, 65 ; Joan, 65 : Thomas, 
65. 

Burnet, Edith, 66. 

Burnham, 67, 74, 88, 89, 100. 

Burridge. Thomas, 118; William, 122. 

Burrowgh, Anne, 101. 

Burton, Isabel, 68 ; John, 67 (2), 102, 
150 ; Thomas, 68. 

Burwold, Bishop of Wells, effigy of, 2S. 

Buscell, John, 67. 

Bush, John, 119; Nicholas, 88. 

Bushy, , 51. 

Bustlesham. (See Bisham). 



254 



General Index. 



Bustull, John, 64. 

Butlar, Andrew, 85. 

Butler, Thomas, Earl of Ormond, 9. 

Buttons, Somerset (mostly military), 

xlvii. 

BybelL Robert, 78. 

Byconel, William, Prebendary of Wells, 2. 
" Bygones," xli. 
Byrte, Peter, 88. 
Bysshopp, John, 156. 

Cadbury, North, 68, 71, 82. 
Cade, Jack, rebellion of, 3. 
Cage, Anthony, 158 ; Mary, 158. 
Calt'e, Henry, 147 ; Katherine, 147. 
Calixtus III, bulla of. Glastonbury 

Abbey, xlv. 
Calixtus, St., Chapel, Wells Cathedral, 

1,3. 

Calsebroke (sic, place). 75. 
Calton, Nicholas, Archdeacon of Taun- 

ton, 3 ; Robert, 6. 

Cambridge, St. Margaret's hostel, 6. 
Came, Jone, 64 ; Richard, 70 ; Thomas, 

64. 

Cammerlayne, Thomas, 75. 
Caps, baby's, xlix. 
Carey, Richard, curate, 62. 
de Carevilla, William, 112. 
Carter, William, 86. 
Cary. John, 98. 
Castle Cary, 83. 
Castle Cary, trade tokens, 122. 
Ceeley, John, 144 ; Maurice, 144. 
Celts of stone, Ham Hill, xlvi, Ivii. 
Chace, William, 121. 
Chademede (Lyng?), 155. 
le Chaifecomb, Walter, 52. 
Chamberlayne, John, 62. 
Chamberlaynys Mill (Milborne Port) , 74. 
Champion, Thomas, 87. 
Champyon, John, 90. 
de Chande"e (Chandew), Philibert, Earl 

of Bath, 160. 
de Chandee, arms, 160. 
Chanter in Cathedral of Bath and Wells, 4. 
Chapman, John, 123. 
CHARBONNIER. H. J., on " Diptera of 

Somerset," 189-204. 

Charbonnier Collection of Pewter, addi- 
tions, liii. 
Chard, collection of trade tokens, 115, 

122. 
Chard Museum (Arthur Hull collection), 

xl. 

Charlton Adam, chapel, 111. 
Charlton Adam, 80. 
Charlton Mackerell, 80, 92. 
Charterhouse-on-Mendip, crucible, xlv. 
Chary, William, 88. 



Checks (trade), Somerset, lii. 

Cheddar, 60, 64, 147. 

Cheke, Agnes, 86 ; James, 86 : Joan, 86 ; 

John, 86 ; Thomas, 86. 
Chelsea (Middlesex), 7. 
Chelton chapel, 96. 
Chert implements, Somerset, xliv. 
Cheryton, North, 72. 
Ohewe, Thomas, 2. 
Chewton, 86. 
Chewton-on-Mendip, 2. 
Cheyney, William, 110. 
Chinnock, West, church bell, 148. 
Christon, 61, 73, 83. 
Chub, John, 74. 
CHCBB'S MAPS OF SOMERSET, HERALDRY 

IN, by F. Were, 157-161. 
CHURCH, REV. CANON C. M., F.S.A., 

Obituary notice (illvs. ), 205-208 ; bib- 
liography of, 208-209. 
Church, Caroline, 205 ; Charles M., xxii ; 

Elizabeth Mary, 206 ; John Dearman, 

205 ; Richard, Gen. Sir, 206. 
Church Bells, West Chinnock, 148; 

Pitney, 148. 
Churchill, 82. 
Churchill. (See Dolbury). 
Churchstanton, plants from, xxxvii. 
Chyke, John, 80. 
Chyltron (sic) 93. 

Cider-barrel truck, Wiveliscombe, xlviii. 
Cider-shoe or warmer, xlviii. 
Clapton, 62. 
Clarence, Duke of, 50. 
Clark, T. Beavau, donation of Roman 

coins, xli, li. 
Clarke, Edmund, curate, 78 ; Elizabeth, 

68; John, 59, 63, 68, 74, 75, 78; 

Richard, 64 ; Thomas. 67. 
Clarke ah Clement, John, 73. 
Clavelshaye, Margaret. 40. 
Clement. Clarke als, John, 73. 
Clerke, John, 92 (2), 154. 
Cleve, John, 91. 
Cloak used at Ilfracombe during 

Napoleonic scare, xlviii. 
Clock face. Taunton, XVIII Century, 

xlvii. 

Cloke. William, 155. 
Closwortb, 79. 
Clother, John, 125. 
Clothyer, Agnes, 72; Henry, 71; Joan 

(2), 71 ; Richard, 71 ; Thomas, 72 ; 

William, 71. 

Club-banners, Somerset, xli. xlviii. 
Club-brasses, Somerset, xlvii, xlviii. 
Clyd, John, 74. 

Clyvedon (John), 149 ; John, 150 ; (Kath- 
erine), 149. 
Coach, early Victorian, model, xlviii. 



General Index. 



255 



Cobe, Cristina, 62 ; Margaret, 62 ; 

Richarda, 63 ; William, 62. 
Cocke, John, 86 ; Mistress, 101 ; Robert, 

curate, 89 ; Walter, clerk (2), 90 ; 

William, 83. 
Cocks, Thomas, 92. 
Cogan, Agnes, 93 ; Emlyn, 93 ; Joan, 

93 ; John (2), 93 ; Margaret, 93 ; 

Robert (2), 93 ; Thomas (2), 93. 
Coin Department, xviii, xli. 
Coins, English, xviii, xli, 1, li ; Roman, 

xviii, xli, li-lii. 

Coke, Peter, 79 ; William, 60, 84. 
Coker Court muniments, 105. 
Coker, East, 162 ; Brown Island, 162 ; 

Culliver's Grave, 162 ; Inglemount in, 

162. 
COKER, WEST, ROMAN* REMAINS, by H. 

St. George Gray (illus.), 162-165. 
Coker, West, 162 ; Green Lane in, 162 ; 

Chessels (3) in, 164-165; Bread, Cheese 

and C'hessels in, 164 ; Docking Street 

in, 165 ; Feebarrow Farm in, 165. 
Cokeryll. Aslyng, 60. 
Cokyr, Thomas, 3. 
Colman, Agnes, 100. 
Coles, Ann, 101. 
Colford (Kilmersdon), 81. 
Colyns, Elizabeth, 98 ; Joan, 98 ; John, 

69, 70, 98 (2) ; Richard, 75 ; Robert, 98 ; 

William, 98. 

Comb, weaving, Ham Hill, Ivii. 
de Combe, Peter, 146. 
Combe St. Nicholas and Winsham, 

Prebend, 151. 
Come, John, 70. 

de Compostella, St. James, 153. 
Compton, 92. 
Comptou Dondun, 96. 
ComptoQ Pauncefoot, 78. 
Congresbury, 61, 64, 66, 68, 81, 90, 91, 

93, 94 (3), 99, 100 ; Kyngton (?) in, 69 ; 

Rydyngs in, 94 ; St. Michael's chapel 

in, 61 ; Wotford's hill in, 100. 
Cooke, John, 102 ; Thomas, 99, 100 ; 

William, 99. 
Cooper, William, 123. 
Coper, Hugh, curate, 99. 
Copyn, William, 71, 72. 
Corbet, Robert, curate, 65, 87. 
Corbyn, Cecilia, 154. 
Corcelle, Roger, 108. 
Cornish, A. V., his collection of Ham 

Hill relics, xli, xlvi. 

Cornish, Right Rev. Bishop, books pre- 
sented, Ixi. 
Cornish, John, 124. 
Corrigenda, xi. 
Corwall, Helen, 71. 
Cosbey, John, 124. 



Cote (Martock), 89. 

Cottenham (Cambs.), 9. 

Cotton, John, 94. 

Council, Report of the, xv-xxiii. 

Cowan, T. W., books presented, Ixi ; 
mounting of botanical specimens, xx, 
xxxix, Ivi. 

Cowlyng, Nicholas, 79. 

Cowlys. , 94. 

Cox, Rev. Dr. J. C., on "Pulpits, Lec- 
terns, and Organs " (review), 216. 

Cox, Stephen, 88, 102. 

Cranmore, 91. 

Cras (Gras), Galfrid, 147. 

Crese, John, 89. 

de Crewkerne (Crukern). John, 153. 

Crewkerne, trade tokens, 119, 123. 

Creye, Isabel, 63 ; John. 63 ; Thomas. 63. 

Crockford, Samuel, 120. 

Crome, Alice, 58 ; Jone, 58. 

Croscombe, trade tokens, 120, 

Crosseman, John, 94, 96. 

Crowcombe, trade token, 125. 

Croxton (Cambs.), 113. 

Crucibles, Charterhouse-on-Mendip and 
Exeter, xlv. 

Cucklington, 52. 

Cuff, Thomas, 63. 

Culbone Church, lithograph, Iv. 

Cullen, W. J. , donation of Maori imple- 
ments, xliv, 1. 

CURATOR'S REPORT, 1915, xl-xliii. 

Curie, John, 120. 

Currency, Turkish, lii. 

Curry Rivel, court rolls presented, xix. 

CIFRRY RIVEL, NORTH CHAPEL OF ST. 
ANDREW'S CHURCHAXDITS HERALDRY, 
by Rev. G. W. Saunders and Rev. Preb. 
E. H. Bates Harbin (tilus.), 31-53. 

Curry Rivel (Cory Rivel), 52, 147, 155 ; 
manor, 143. 

Catcoinbe, church of, 111. 

Dabar, Joan, 95 ; Robert, 95. 

Daly, Agnes, 88 ; Christian, 88 ; John, 

88 ; Thomas, 88 ; William, 88. 
Danyall, Edward, 144; John, 61, 81, 

102; William, 91. 
Daubeny, arms, 160. 
Davie, Philip, 102. 
Davy, John, priest, 82 ; Robert, 89. 
Davys, Isabel, 70 ; Joan, 70 ; Thomas, 

70 ; William, 70. 
Dawis, John, 84. 
Day, Alice, 79 ; John, 79 ; Thomas, 

vicar, 63, 70, 79. 
Dene, Christian, 59, 66 ; Joan, 66 ; John, 

59, 66 (2), William, 59. 
Deodatus (mason), 22. 
Devon, Earl of (1451), 2 ; Hugh, 150. 



256 



General Index. 



Dey, Thomas, 77. 

Diamond Jubilee Celebration, alterations 
and improvements, xiii. 

Dinham, Thomas, 41. 

DIPTERA OF SOMERSET, by H. J. Char- 
bonnier. 189-204. 

Ditcheat. 65 ; (Alhampton), 65. 

Dogmersfeld (manor), 2. 

Dolbury Camp, pottery, xlv. 

Dole, Alice, 102; Siblie, 102; William, 
102. 

Donations of Illustrations, v. 

Donations to Library and Museum, 1915, 
xviii, xix, xliv-lxv. 

Donet, Thomas, 88. 

Donne, (John), Dean of St. Paul's, 
London, 17 ; William, priest, 98. 

Dorvall, John, 90. 

Doulting, 89. 

Dowber, Robert, 94. 

Dowell light, 57. 

Downhead, 60. 

Drawing, Taunton Castle and moats 
(Spencer), xli. 

Drayton, 144, 147. 

Drew, John, 81. 

Drokensford (John), Bishop of Bath and 
Wells, 146. 

Dudoc, Bishop of Wells, effigy of, 30. 

Dultingcote (Dultecote), Prebend of, 
Wells, 2. 4. 

Dunkerton, 85. 

Dunn (Dun, Dune), Alice, 92 ; Eliza- 
beth, 82 ; Ellen, 72, 81 ; Humphrey, 
68, 74; John, 72 (2), 81 (2); Luke, 
92 ; Thomas, 68, 92. 

Dunster Church, coins from, Hi. 

Dureford Abbey (Sussex), 110. 

Dyar, Agnes. 69 ; Davy, 69 ; Joan, 69 ; 
John, 69, 74 ; Robert, 65 ; Roger, 69 ; 
Thomas, 69. 

Dyar, Vynying als, John, 80. 

Dycke, Richard, 59. 

de Dyrham, Elias, Preb. of Wells, 207. 

Earnshill, 144. 

Earthworks Committee, Somerset, xxi, 

xxviii-xxix. 
Earthworks, Somerset, Stokeleigh Camp, 

liv. 

Eden, R. J. , third Baron Auckland, liv. 
Edgell, Humphrey (Omfra), 83. 
Editorial Committee, v. 
Edmonde, Joan, 96 ; John, 96 ; Peter, 96. 
Edmunds, Avis, 102. 
Edyngton Chapel, 96. 
EFFIGIES (MONUMENTAL) IN SOMERSET, 

by Dr. A. C. Fryer (illus.), 11-30. 
Egell, (Humphrey) Omfra, 61. 
Egg, ^pyornis, fragments, Iv. 



Eggs of Birds, Somerset, acquired, Iv. 

Ele, John, 75. 

Eleanor, Queen (c. 1290), 43. 

Election of new members and officers, 

xxii, xxvi. 

Elvard als Baker, William, 97. 
English coins, xli, 1, li. 
ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION, xx, xxxiii- 

xxxiv, xlii. 

Erie, Agnes, 85 ; Alice, 85. 
de Erlegh, Philip, 146. 
le Esware, William, 107. 
Evercreech, 60. 

Everingham.Adamde, 13 ; Margaret, 13. 
EXCAVATIONS AT GLASTONBURY ABBKY, 

by F. Bligh Bond (illus.), 128-142. 
Excavations at Glastonbury Abbey, xxi, 

xxx-xxxiii, 128-142 ; accounts, xxx ; 

short reports by F. Bligh Bond and 

G. L. Bulleid, xxxi-xxxiii. 
Excavations at Meare Lake Village, xxi. 
Exchange of Publications, Ixv, Ixvi. 
Exeter, crucible found, xlv. 
Exmoor, Old Burrow Camp, whetstone, 

xliv. 

Exmouth, Viscount, liv. 
Exton, 145. 146, 147 ; manor, 155. 
Exull, William, 74. 

Falsolf (Fastolf), Sir John, 9. 

Far, Christine, 87. 

Felon, George, 101. 

Fesse, Robert, 71. 

Fibulae (Roman), Ham Hill, xlvi, Ivi ; 

Kilmersdon, xli, xlv. 
Fifehead, 144. 
Finances, xvii, xxiv-xxvi. 
Fisher (Fyssher), Elizabeth, 125 ; John. 

119 ; Peter, 125 ; Robert, 02. 
Fitzhamon, John, 111. 
Fitzroy, Henry, Duke of Somerset, 159. 
Fitzwarine, Lord, John Bourchier, 160. 
Flemman, Agnes, 79 ; John (2), 79 ; 

Robert, 79. 

Flemmyng, Robert. 77. 
Flint implements, Somerset, xliv, xlvi. 
Flode, John, priest, 89. 
Forde (Foorde), Harry, 93 ; Joan, 93 ; 

John, 122. 
Forster, John, 154. 
Foster, Edith, 75 ; Humphrey, 75 ; 

Richard, 75 ; Robert, 75. 
Frederick the Great, medal, Hi. 
Freke, Thomas, priest, 80, 93, 94, 97. 
Freshford, trade tokens, 120, 125. 
Frode, John, 75. 
Froman, William, 94 (2). 
Froine, 85, 86, 101. 
Frome Selwood, 86. 
Frowde, John, 102. 



General Index. 



257 



Fry, E. A., donation of index to Brown's 

Somerset Wills, xix. 
Frye, Hugh, 77; Isabel, 154; John, 41, 

77 ; Jone, 77 ; Margaret, 77 ; Richard, 

74 ; Roger, 77 ; Thomas, 101 ; William, 

41, 86. 
FRYER, DR. A. C., "Monumental Effigies 

in Somerset " (Ulu8.), 11-30. 
Fryer, Dr. A. C., 42. 
Furber (Furbar), Joan, 76 ; John, 66. 

Gabege, , 101. 

Gale, Kev. Preb. I. S., obituary notice, 

210. 

Gatcomb, John, 77. 
Gateryn, Alice, 95. 
Gayne, William, 68. 
Gele, William, 65. 
Genocke, Richard, 74. 
Geoffrey, vicar of (? Nether Ham), 146. 
George, James, 120. 
German weapons presented, Iviii. 
Gervys, Alice, 70 ; Joan, 70 ; John, 70 ; 

Margaret, 70. 

Gest, Henry, 89 ; Joan, 89 ; Robert, 89. 
Gilbert, Alice, 97 ; Walter, 97. 
Gill, William, 99. 

Giso, Bishop of Wells, effigy of, 27. 
Glasgow, Canon of, 9. 
Glass, Nailsea, 1. 
Glastonbury, 96. 
Glastonbury Abbey excavations, xxi, 

xxx-xxxiii, 128-142 ; accounts, xxx ; 

short reports by F. Bligh Bond and 

G. L. Bulleid, xxxi-xxxiii. 
GLASTONBURY ABBEY, EIGHTH REPORT 

ON EXCAVATIONS, by F. Bligh Bond 

(Him.}, 128-142. 
Glastonbury Abbey, bulla of Calixtus III, 

xlv. 

Glastonbury, Abbot of, Hugh, 1 10. 
Glastonbury, trade tokens, 120, 123. 
Glede, John, 88. 

Glister, Joan, 95 ; John, 95 ; Thomas 95. 
Glod, John, 75. 
Gloucester, Earl of, 113. 
Gloucester, Sheriff of, 146. 
Godmanestham, William, 108. 
Godwyn, William, 97. 
Goffe, Helys, 79 ; Isabel, 79 ; Raynall, 

79 ; Richard, 79. 
Golbord, William, 88. 
Goldweg, Em, 66 ; Joan, 66 ; John, priest, 

97; William, 66. 
Goldy, John, 75. 
Golld, John, 89. 
Gollege (Golledge), Alice, 69 ; Edith, 69 ; 

Elner, 63; John, 69; Ralph, 69: 

Richard, 69; Stephen, 69; William, 

63, 69. 



Goode, Agnes, 100 ; Alice, 60 ; Isabel, 
60 ; Joan, 60 ; John, 60 ; William, 60. 

Goosse, Thomas, 71. 

Gorwan, Edward, 73. 

Gosse, Edmund, 70. 

de Gournay, Matthew, 155 ; Philippa, 
155 ; (Thomas), 148, 155. 

Gowle, Clase (sic), 96 ; John (2), 95, 96. 

Gowoll, John, 98. 

Grantisden, Great (Hunts), 113. 

de Gray, Henry, 113. 

GRAY, H. ST. GEORGE, on "Roman Re- 
mains found at West Coker " (illus.), 
162-165. 

GRAY, H. ST. GEORGE, on "Somerset 
Trade Tokens, XVII Century " (illus.), 
115-127. 

GRAY, H. ST. GEORGE, his Report as 
Curator, xl-xliii ; notes on Withypool 
Stone Circle, xxviii ; ancient remains 
at Murtry Hill, Orchardleigh, sur- 
veyed, xxviii. 

Gray, Lionel St. G., palseolith, Yarty 
stream, xliv. 

Gray, Mrs. St. G., assistance given, xlii ; 
Yarty implement, xliv. 

Graye, Hugh, 125. 

Graynton, 92. 

Gregory, John, priest, 84. 

Green (Grene), , 51 ; William, priest, 98. 

Greneway, John, 119; Thomas, 84; 
William, 84. 

Grey, Robert, priest, 101, 102. 

Gristock, G., 41. 

Groff, William, 79. 

Gryme, John, parson, 101. 

Guilds in Somerset, 56. 

Gummer, Agnes, 76 ; James, 76. 

Gunthorp, John, Prebendary of St. 
Stephen's, Westminster, 4 ; Dean of 
Wells, 5. 

Gutch, Henry, 123. 

Gyan, , 150. 

Gybbons, Joan, 76 ; John, 76 ; Margery, 
76 ; Thomas, 76. 

Gylis, John, curate, 87. 

Gyll, Thomas, 91. 

Gylling, Christian, 90 ; Edith, 92 ; John, 
65, 90(2) 91 ; Julyan, 91 ; Katherine, 
74; Nicholas, 90; Richard, 64, 90; 
Robert, 91 ; William, 78, 92. 

Gypson, Robert, 84. 

Gyst (Gyste), Joan, 100 (2) ; Richard, 
100 ; Thomas, 100 ; Walter, 82. 

Hacker, Isabel, 63 ; John, 63. 
Hakeford, arms, 158. 
Halet, Alice, 74. 

Halle, Thomas, Prebend of Portpool, St. 
Paul's Cathedral, London, 7. 



Vol. LXI (Fourth Series, Vol. I), Part II. 



258 



General Index. 



Hailing, John, 69. 

Halstone, Agnes, 86 ; Richard, 86 ; 

Thomas, 86. 
Ham (manor), 145. 
Ham-Burcy, 147. 

Ham, High, 95, 96 (2), 98, 145, 146. 
Ham Hill, antiquities, xli, xlvi, Ivi, Ivii ; 

beads of Arab type, xlix ; hoard of 

Roman coins, xli. 
Ham, Low or Nether, 145, 146, 147, 148, 

149 ; Burcy's Court in, 145. 
Hamdon, 97. 
HAMLET, REV. PREB. J., Obituary notice 

of Canon Church (Ulus.), 205-209. 
de Hamme. Peter, 146. 
Hampnie Bursy, 155. 
Hancocke, Sidricke, 123 ; Thomas, 124. 
Hancockes, John, priest, 100. 
Hannatn, Robert, 68. 
HARBIX, REV. PREB. E. H. BATES, on 

"Heraldry, etc., in Curry Rivel 

Church," 31-53. 
HARBIN, REV. PREB. E. H. BATES, on 

"Two deeds relating to Stavordale 

Priory and the family of Sanzaver," 

105-114. 
Harbin, Rev. Preb. E. H. Bates, library 

work, xli ; portrait of, liv. 
Hardwill (Hardwyll), Agnes, 66; Joan, 

98 ; John, 98 ; Nicholas, 98 ; Thomas, 

98 : William, 98. 
Hardyng, Ededy, 62; Elizabeth, 62; 

James, 62 ; Joan, 62 ; John, 62 ; 

Thomas, 62. 
le Hare, John, 156. 
Harewell, John, Bishop of Wells, 3. 
Harpsichord by Kirckman, xli, xlvii. 
Harptree, 87, 
Harris (Harrys), Agnes, 76 ; Edith, 76 ; 

Joan, 76 ; John, 63, 77 ; Richard, 76; 

Robert, 81 ; Walter, 76. 
Hart, John, 68, 88, 89, 95, 96, 100. 
Harvy (Harvie), Agnes, 101 ; Anthony, 

101 ; Joan, 101 ; John, 72 ; Philip, 101 ; 

Richard, 72, 101 ; William, 101. 
Harwycke, Edmund, 65. 
Hawkyns, Elizabeth, 90 ; John, 90. 
Hawy, John, 82, 85 ; Margaret, 85 : 

Richard, 85 ; William, 85. 
Hayne, Christian, 92 : James, 92 ; John, 

122. 

Hayse, Thomas, parson, 85. 
Heale, Rev. C. H., books presented, Ixii. 
Hecche (Heccch, sic), Thomas, curate, 63, 

65. 

Heifer, different ways of spelling, 57. 
Heliar, Wilkins als. (See, Wilkins). 
Hellyer, Stephen, 84. 
Helme, Christopher, priest, 83. 
Heneage, Mrs., of Coker Court, 105. 



Henry V, monument at Wingtield 

(Suffolk), 13. 

Henry, son of Richard, 111. 
Henry, son of Richard son of John, 111. 
Henstridge Club, liii. 
HERALDRY IN CHTBB'S MAPS OF SOMKK- 

SET, by F. Were, 157-161. 
Heron, Roger, master of Maidstone Col- 
lege, 8. 

Hertford, Earl of (Edward), 144. 
de Hescite, John, 108. 
de Heselt, Ralph, 113. 
Hewlet, Thomas, priest, 68, 71. 
Hext, George, 147. 
Heyse, Thomas, clerk, 72. 
Hibroke (Somerton), 156. 
Hilborne, Thomas, 85. 
Hill (Hyll), Francis, 125; John, 75; 

Robert, priest, 87 ; William, 75. 
Hillaker, Cuthbert, vicar, 92. 
Hillary, Walter, 155. 
Hodge, Isabel, 97. 
Hodges, John, curate, 60. 
Hodgis, Richard, 87 ; William. 63. 
Hody, Alexander, 2 ; Isabel,. 71; John, 

80 ; Richard, 71. 
"Holy Rood liht," 58. 
Holys, Richard, 62. 
Hope, Sir W. H. St. John, identification 

of tomb of Thomas Boleyn, 1. 
Hopkins, James, 120 ; John, 99 ; 

Nicholas, 123. 
Hood, Sir Alexander (Viscount Bridport), 

liv. 
Hore, Andrew, 72 ; Henry, 88 ; Joan, 

88 ; John, 59, 88 (2) ; William, 88. 
Horler, Joseph, 117- 

Homer, John, 101, 102; Thomas, 101, 102. 
Horselegh, John, 150. 
Horseman, John, 101. 
Horse's head ornament, Wiveliscombe, 

xlix. 
Horsey, Elizabeth, 92 ; John, 92 ; 

Richard, 92 ; Robert, 92. 
Horte, John, 62, 91, 93; William, 75. 
Horton, 144. 
Horwood, Robert, 120. 
Hoseer, Thomas, 70. 
Hosyer, Thomas, 69. 
Howard, Mary, 159. 
Howell, John, 59. 
Howse, William, 87. 
Huish Champflower, 154. 
Hull, Arthur, Chard Museum, xl ; col- 
lection of trade tokens, 115 ; John, 79. 
Hunt, Henry, medalet of, li ; John, 101 ; 

Moris, 94 ; William, 69. 
Hunter, arms, 158. 
Huntspill, 62, 78, 91, 92, 100. 
Hurdwyck, John, 63. 



General Index. 



259 



Harrow, Edith, 91 ; Thomas, 91 (2). 

Husee, Henry, Dean, (1302-05), 1, 3. 

Huseye, Reginald, 156. 

Button, 69. 70. 

Hyckman, Andrew als. (See Andrews). 

Hycks, John, 84. 

Hyde, John, 74 ; Jone, 74 ; Richard, 74. 

Hyet, Christian, 97 ; John, 97 ; Richard, 

97- 
Hyne, Edward, 73 ; Isabel, 73 ; Richard, 

73 ; Robert, 73. 
de Hystenestham, William, 108. 

Ilchester, 92. 

Ilchester, trade tokens, 123. 

Ilcombe, 144. 

Ilfracombe, cloak used during Napoleonic 

scare, xlviii. 
Illery, John, clerk, 76. 
Tiling, John, 97- 
Illustrations, donations of, v. 
Ilminster, 144. 
II minster, trade tokens, 120. 
Implements of stone, Somerset, xliv, 

xlvi, Ivii. 

Index Committee, xvii. 
Inge. (See Ynge). 
Inglemount (East Coker), 162. 
Irish. (See Yryssh). 
Iron objects, Ham Hill, xlvi, Ivi. 
Isham, John, 40. 
Itery, John, 95. 
Ivelchester, 52. 

Jackson, John, curate, 96 (2), 98. 
James I, arms, 160. 
Jay, Rev. W. (Bath), medal of, li. 
Jeboult, H. A., harpsichord deposited, 

xli, xlvii ; lecture, xlii. 
Jefferey, Humphrey, 71. 
Jeffrays (Geffrays), Agnes, 64; Richard, 

64 ; Roger, 64 ; William, 64. 
Jeuett, Richard, 100. 
Jenkynson, John, vicar, 72, 82. 
Jennings, Anna, 44 ; Eliza, 44 ; Mar- 

maduke, 40, 44, 46 ; Mary, 44, 144 ; 

Robert. 38, 44, 144 ; Thomas, 40, 46, 

47 ; William, 44. 
Jenny, arms, 158. 
Jex-Blake, Rev. T. W., D.D., obituary 

notice, 211. 
Joceline, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 106, 

111. 

Johns, Margaret, 101. 
Johnson. Peter, 125. 
Jones, William, 126. 
Jonys, Thomas, 89. 
Jorden, Edward, 101 ; Isabel, 101 ; 

Margaret, 101. 



Kahaignes, Hugh, 109; Ralph. 109; 

Richard, 110; William, 109, 110. 
Kalewey, , 94. 
Kempe, Elizabeth, 62. 
Kemys, , 97. 
Kene, Edmund, 60, 81 ; Joan, 81 ; John, 

81 ; Thomas, 81. 
Kenes, John, 121. 
Keves, John, 121. 
Keynes, John, 121. 

Kilmersdon, 72, 81, 117 ; (Colford) 81. 
Kilmersdon, Roman fibulae, xli, xlv. 
King (Kyng), Giles, 123; Henry, 66; 

Joan, 67; John, 61, 62, 83, 91 ; Oliver, 

Bishop of Bath and Wells, 4 ; Philip, 

67 ; Richard, 90 ; Thomas, 87, 88, 97 ; 

William, 67- 
Kingman, John, 100. 
Kingsbury, 144. 
Kingsdon, 85, 87, 92, 99. 
Kington Manfield, 88. 
Kirckman, A. & J., harpsichord by, xli, 

xlvii. 

Knapp, John, 52. 
Knight, F. A., "Heart of Mendip," xlv ; 

obituary notice (Ulna.), 213-214. 
Knight, Mrs. F. A., donation of Mendip 

antiquities, xlv. 
Knight, F. H., " discharges," Taunton 

St. James, xlii, Ixii. 
Knight (Knyght), Agnes 90; Alice, 90; 

Elyn, 90 ; Isabel, 90 ; Joan, 90 ; John, 

90 (2), 94, 101, 156; Thomas, 90; 

William, 90. 
Knolle (manor), 52, 155. 
Knowle (Long Sutton), 144. 
Knyllar, John, 80, 81 . 
Kyne, John, 81. 
Kyngton (? Congresbury), 69. 
Kyst, Ornfra (Humphrey), 61, 73 ; 

Nicholas, 61, 73, 83. 

Labourers, Statute of, 154. 

Lacy, John, 59. 

Laddrede, Nicholas, 52. 

Lamp, shade for early electric, xlix. 

Lamport (Northants), trade tokens, 125. 

Lane, Agnes, 73 ; Edward, 73 ; John, 

73, 74 ; Jone, 73 ; Margery, 73 ; Peter, 

curate, 67. 
Langport, 95. 

Langport, trade token, 125. 
Langport Westover, 145. 
Lantrow, William, 77, 79. 
Large, Richard, 154. 
Lark Hill Quarry (Preston), 163. 
Late-Celtic pottery, Dolbury Camp, xlv ; 

Ham Hill, Ivii ; Meare Lake Village, xxi. 
Late-Celtic remains, Meare Lake Village, 



260 



General Index. 



Laver, Isabel, 63 ; John, 63 ; William, 03. 
Lawrence, Samuel, donations to Museum, 

xlix, liii, liv. 
Lawrence \Vike, 98. 
Lawrens, Edith, 79; Isabel, 80; John, 

79, 80 ; Richard, 78 ; William, 81. 
Layn, John. 101, 102. 
Lear, Edward, 206. 
Ledred, John, 154. 
Lee, Howdwen, 75. 
Lees, Miss Beatrice Adelaide, on " Alfred 

the Great " (revieivillus.), 217-218. 
Leigh on Mendip (Lye), 60. 
Leigh Woods, Stokeleigh Camp, plans, liv. 
Lercedekne, , 150. 
Lest, Thomas, 70. 

Levericus, Bishop of Wells, effigy of, 27. 
Leversege, John. 71. 
Lewis, Cecily, 86 ; Robert, 86. 
Leyse, Kde, 85 ; Harry, 85 ; Richard, 

85 ; Thomas. 85. 
LIBKAKY. ADDITIONS TO, xix, xli, xlii, 

lix-lxviii. 

Library, work in, xix, xli. 
Limington, 63, 92. 
Linton, John, 119, 122. 
List of Members of the Society, 224-248. 
Litheyate, Thomas, 95. 
Lloyd, Charles Cornwallis, 46 ; Jennings, 

46 ; William, 46. 
Lock, Adam, mason, 22 ; Agnes, 86 ; 

Alice, 58 ; Katherine, 86 ; William, 90. 
Locking, 63, 70. 
Lonewell, Edmund, 61 ; Joan, 61 ; 

Matthew, 61 ; Thomas, 61. 
Long (Longe), Joan, 63 ; John, 59, 66, 

86, 94, 95 (2), 98. 
Lorica scales, Ham Hill, Ivii. 
L'Orty family, 143. 
L'Orty, Elizabeth, 144 ; John, 144, 149, 

154; Sibyl, 154. 
Lorty. (See also de Urtiaco). 
Loveder, Thomas, 121. 
Lovett, E., donation of beads of Arab 

type, xlix. 

Lowghe, Robert, priest, 65, 89. 
Lowzghe, Robert," 76, 77. 
Ludwell, Robert, 119. 
Luffe, Onesiphorus, 120. 
Luxborough, church of, 111. 
Lydford, East, 145, 149. 
Lye, John, 63 (2). 
Lyle, John, curate, 59 (2), 66, 67, 86, 

95 (2). 

Lympsham, 64, 78, 82, 83, 90. 
Lyng, 155 ; (Chadmede ?), 155. 
Lyng, West, 145. 
Lyon, John, 59. 
Lyvyng, John, 76, 77. 
Lyzght, John, 81. 



Mabson, Henry, 120. 
Madagascar, eggs of ^pyornis, Iv. 
Maidstone, Kent, college of, 8. 
Major, Albany F., on" Alfred the Great," 

by Miss B. A. Lees, (review illus.), 

217-218. 

Maltravers, John, 114, 148. 
Man-traps, xlviii. 
Manuscripts presented, xix. 
Maori implements presented, xliv. 
Maperton, 72, 85. 
Map showing distribution of Bog-mosses 

in Somerset, 174. 
MAPS OF SOMERSET, HERALDRY IN, by 

F. Were, 157-161. 

Maps and plans, Somerset, liv, Ixiii. 
Marche, Thomas, 88. 
de Marchia, Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1 1. 
Mareschall, William, 154. 
Markys, John, 61. 
de Marlberge, Thomas, 152. 
Marsh (Marsshe, Marryshe). Joan, 90 ; 

John, 79, 90 ; Thomas, 121. 
Marsh (? Morton Hampine). 147. 
Marshall, Rev. E. S., Somerset plants 

presented, xx, Ivi. 
Marshall, Agnes, 71; Alice, 71, 72; 

Henry, 71, 72; Jane, 71; Joan, 71; 

John, 71 ; Richard, 71. 
Marstou Bigot (or Bigod), 85, 91. 
Martock, 63, 65 (2), 76. 77, 85, 87, 89, 

144; (Cote), 89; (Stapleton), 65. 
Martyn, John, 62 ; Richard, 62 ; William, 

62. 

Masse, John, priest, 100. 
Master, John, 63. 

Mathew, Matilda, 143 ; Robert, 143. 
May (Maye, Meyj, Agnes, 64, 71 ; Alice, 

64, 71 ; Christian, 64 ; Edmund. 71 ; 

Gelyam, 64; Henry, 71 ; Isabel, 64; 

Joan. 64 : John, 64 ; Martin, 71 ; 

Nicholas, 71 ; Richard, 71 ; Roger. 71 ; 

Thomas, 64, 71 ; William. 71. 
Maydman, Alice, 102; John (2), 102; 

Margaret, 102. 

Mayo, Joan, 67 ; John (2), 67. 
Meare club, liii. 

Meare Lake Village excavations, xxi. 
Medals and medalets, Somerset, etc., 

xviii, xli. li, Hi. 
Meddell, John, 66. 
Medham, Edward, 65. 
Meed, Alice, 84; Joan, 84; Jolm, 84; 

Ralph, 84. 
Meer, William, 75. 
Meeting, Annual.Taunton, 1915, xiii-xxvii. 
Mells, trade tokens, 117- 
Members of Society, attendance at 

Museum, xlii ; numbers, xv, xlii : list, 

224-248. 



General Index. 



261 



Menbrye, Gelys, 79. 

Mendip antiquities, xlv. 

Mere, Richard, 98. 

Merrid, William, 82. 

Merton (Devon), parson of, 150. 

Meryett, 144. 

Metzener, Caroline, 205. 

DE MIDELXEY, SIR RALPH, by Rev. D. M. 

Ross, 143-156. 
de Midelney, Elizabeth, 153, 155 ; John, 

52, 143, 149, 152, 153 (2), 155 ; (Kath- 

erine), 149 ; Ralph, 52, 143, 146, 147, 

149, 155; Robert, 156; Sibil, 155; 

Thomas, 152, 153. 
Midelney, arms, 156. 
Midelney (manor), 143, 144; (Randolfs- 

croft), 143. 

Midleham, James, 121. 
Midletou, Robert, 124. 
Midsomer Norton, trade tokens, 117. 
Midwynter, John, 68. 
Milborne Port, 74, 87 ; (Chamberlaynys 

mill), 74. 

Milborne-Wick, 75. 
Milles, Richard, 119. 
Milverton, trade token, 123. 
Minehead, trade tokens, 120, 123. 
Miner's lamp (Davy type), xlix. 
de Mohun, John, 44 ; Reginald, 159 ; 

William (Moyun), 111. 
Mohun, arms, 159, 160. 
Molard, Mark, 70. 
Moleyns, John, 52. 
Monkton, West, club banner, xlviii. 
de Montacute, Alice, 49 ; John, 50, 150 ; 

Thomas, Earl of Salisbury, 49 ; 

William, Earl of Salisbury, 143; 

William, 38, 49, 149. 
Montacute, 79, 89, 93, 97. 
Montacute Priory, 145, 151. 
Montacute, trade token, 125. 
Montagu's Harrier, eggs of, Exmoor, 

xxxv, Iv. 
Monthermer, Margaret, 50 ; Ralph, 

50. 

"Months mind," 58. 
MONUMENTAL EFFIGIES IN SOMERSET, by 

Dr. A. C. Fryer (ilhts.), 11-30. 
Moorlinch, 96. 
Moppe, Walter, 98 
More (Moore), Agnes, 65; Alice, 64; 

Joan, 67 ; John, 65, 67 ; Nicholas, 63 ; 

Richard, 64, 67, 82, 89, 117, 122; 

Robert, 64 ; Simon, 74 ; Thomas, 65, 

79; William, 91. 
Moreton, 144. 
Morgan, Richard, 101. 
Morleye, John, 97. 
Morow, Margaret, 97. 
Mors, Joan (2), 99 ; Thomas, 99. 



Morse, Alice, 82; Joan, 82; John (2), 
82 ; Thomas, 82 ; William, 82. 

Mortaigne, Count of, Edmund Beaufort, 7- 

de Mortim, John, 52. 

Mortimer (Roger), 149. 

Morton (manor), 155. 

Morton Hampine (? Marsh), 147. 

Morton Parva (Hereford), Prebend of, 4. 

Morys, Thomas, 82. 

Mover, William, 88. 

de Moyun, William, 111. 

Muchelney Abbey, Abbot John, 143. 

Mulgrey, Isabel, 61 ; Ralph, 61 ; Richard, 
61. 

Munday, Mathew, 121. 

Mundham, North (Sussex), 112; (Rune- 
ton), 112. 

Murtry Hill, near Orchardleigh, ancient 
remains surveyed, xxviii. 

MUSEUM, ADDITIONS TO, 1915, xviii, xl, 
xli, xliv-lviii ; rearrangement of, xviii. 

Museum at Chard, xl. 

Museum, Society's, attendance of visitors, 
xxii, xlii, xliii ; staff, xlii ; work in, 
xl, xlii. 

Musgrave, C., clock-maker, Taunton, 
xlvii. 

Myllard, Isat, 60 ; Joan, 60 ; Stephen, 60. 

Myllet, Davy, curate, 70, 89. 

Mylward, Stephen, 60. 

Myrth, Humphrey, 59 ; John, 59. 

Nailsea glass rolling-pin, 1. 

Natural History acquisitions, Iv, Ivi. 

NATURAL HISTORY SECTIONS, xx-xxi, 

xxxiii-xxxix, xlii, Iv, Ivi. 
Naval men, Somerset, liv. 
Neades (Neads, Nedes, Nedys), Agnes, 

91 ; Catherine, 69 ; David, 69 ; Ed- 

mund, 99 ; Isabel, 68 ; Joan, 69 ; John, 

93 ; Robert, 69, 83, 91 ; William, 69, 

91. 

Needle, bronze, Ham Hill, xlvi. 
Nether Hampnie (manor), 155. 
Neville, Richard, Earl of Salisbury, 49 ; 

Thomaa, 50. 
Newbery, John, 66. 
Newman, Christopher, 96. 
Newton Surmaville, photographs of, liv. 
New Zealand, implements presented, 

xliv. 
Nicholas (Nycholas), Isabel, 75 ; Thomas, 

priest, 88. 

Nichols, Cristine, 62 ; William, 62. 
Noble, Marten, priest, 94. 
Noiers, Godfrey de, mason, 22. 
Norais, Thomas, mason, 22. 
Norfolk, Duke of, 159. 
Norman, Thomas, 94 ; William, 84. 
Normandy, Duke of, Robert (1135), 13. 



262 



General Index. 



Northover, 92. 

Nortun, Thomas, priest, 90. 

NOTICES OF BOOKS : Pulpits, Lecterns 
and Organs in English Churches, by 
Rev. J. C. Cox, LL.D., 216 ; Alfred the 
Great, The Truth-Teller, Maker of 
England, by Beatrice Adelaide Lees, 
217. 

Numismatics, xviii, xl. xli, 1-liii. 

Nye (place), 97. 

Oathe (Oth), 52, 53. 

OBITUARY NOTICES: Church, Charles 

Marcus, tf.s.A., (illus.), 205-208 ; Gale, 

Isaac Sadler, 210 ; Jex-Blake, Thomas 

William, D.D., 211-212; Knight, 

Francis Arnold (illus.), 213-214 ; 

Spencer, Joseph Houghton, 215 ; short 

notices, xv-xvi. 
Occaronn, Richard, 65. 
Odcombe, flint scraper, xlvi. 
Odcombe (Otcumbe), 80, 93. 
Officers of the Society, xiv, xxii, xxvi, 

219-222. 

Offynton, Christina, 150. 
Olday, William, 87. 
Oldemyxton, John, 72. 
Oram, Alice, 65. 
Orchard. (See atte Orchard). 
Orchardleigh, ancient remains at Murtry 

Hill surveyed, xxviii. 
Orewell, William. 3. 
Organ, Richard, 63. 
Ormond, Earl of, Thomas Butler, 9. 
ORNITHOLOGICAL SECTION, xxi, xxxv- 

xxxvi, xlii. 
del Ortiay, de 1'Orti. (See L'Orty and 

de Urtiaco). 

Osteler, Sheryff als. (See Sheryff). 
Otterford, palseoliths from Yarty stream , 

xliv ; plants from neighbourhood, 

xxxvii. 
Overay, Thomas, Precentor of Wells, 4. 

Page, John (2), 96, 97 ; William, 96, 97, 

124. 
Palaeolithic implements, Somerset and 

Hants, xliv. 
Palmer, Joan, 62 ; John, 65 ; Thomas, 

62 ; William, 72. 
Palmour, John, 98. 
Parfit (Parfytte), Joan, 91 ; Thomas, 91, 

121. 
Parker, Gelyan, 70 ; Ilsabeth, 70 ; Joan, 

70 ; John, 70 ; Thomas, 70. 
Parson, John, 96. 
Parsons, , 75. 
Parys, Edith, 97 ; John, 97. 
Patey, William, 120. 
Patte. (See atte Patte). 



Pauncefoot Hill, Romsey, stone imple- 
ments, xliv. 
Pawlet, 77, 79. 
Payne, Elizabeth, 89; John, 69, 84; 

Thomas, 90. 

Paynter, J. B., xlix, 162, 165. 
Paynys, Christian, 76. 
Pearce, John, 122. 
Pedder, John, 71. 
Peers, Agnes, 78 ; John, 78. 
Peerse, Robert, 85. 
Pellew, Capt E , liv. 
Pennard, East, 63, 66. 
Penny, Agnes, 99 ; Alice (2), 99 ; Julian, 

100 ; Katherine, 99 ; Thomas, 99 ; 

William, 99. 
Penselwood, 97. 
Pepyng, William, 92. 
Percevall, Edmund, 61. 
Peret, Richard, curate. 62. 
Peret, West, 145. 
de Perham, John, 156. 
Perry, Alice, 102 ; John, 102 ; Richard, 

102. 

Peter of Chichester, Dean of Wells, 3. 
Petgrew, Alice, 82 ; Mawde, 82 ; Richard, 

82 ; Robert, 82 ; Thomas, 82. 
Petherton, 145. 
Petherton, South, 93. 
Petherton, South, trade token, 121. 
Pettitt. Edmond, 122. 
Pety, James, 75. 
Pewter, Charbounier collection, additions, 

liii. 

Peytenyn, John, 154. 
Phelips, W. R., donation of Roman coins, 

Ham Hill, xli. 

Phelips, Mrs. W. R., donations, xlviii, 1. 
Phelps, John, 92. 
Phillips, John, 86, 118 ; Thomas, curate, 

80, 101, 102. 

Photographs, Somerset, liii, liv. 
Piltoii church, 4. 
Pin (bronze), Ham Hill, Ivi. 
Pistols, flint-lock, and other, xlix. 
Pitcher for brewing, 1. 
Pitcher, Richard, 122. 
Pitman (Pytman), John, 71, 125 
Pitney, church bell, 148. 
Pitney (manor), 144. 
Pitney (Puteneye) Lorty (manor), 155. 
Pitt, Anne, 46; Elizabeth, 40; John, 

46 ; Jonathan, 40. 

Plans and maps, Somerset, liv, Ixiii. 
Plants, Somerset, xxxvi-xxxix. 
Plucknett, Davy, 74 ; Joan, 74 ; John (2), 

74 ; Katherine, 74 ; Margaret, 74 ; 

Richard, 74 ; Thomas, 74 ; William (2), 

74. 
Plymton, John, 80. 






General Index. 



263 



Podymor Mvlton, 92. 

de la Pole," Michael, Earl of Suffolk, 

monument, 13. 

Pole-heads of Somerset clubs, xlvii, xlviii. 
Pomeroy, L. J., 162. 
Poorstock (Purstoke), (Dorset manor), 

145, 154. 

Popull, Agnes, 96 ; William (3), 77, 96. 
Porker, John, 77, 79- 
Porlock, submerged forest xliv. 
Portbury, 58. 
Porter, John, clerk, 92. 
Portishead, 62. 
Portpool, Prebend of (St. Paul's, London), 

Thomas Halle, 7. 
Pottery, English and of local make, 1 ; 

fragments from the Wansdyke, xlvii ; 

Late-Celtic, Dolbury, xlv ; terra cotta 

vase from Sidon, xlvii. 
Powell, , 94 ; Rev. C., 162, 164 ; John, 

81 ; Mary, 44, 45 ; Samuel, 45. 
Power (Powre), Thomas, 75 ; William (2), 

75. 

de Praus, Emma, 112. 
Preston, Thomas, Master of Maidstone 

College, 8. 

Preston, 163 ; (Lark Hill Quarry), 163. 
Price, Rev. Dr. S. J. M., gift of clock- 
face, xlvii. 
Pryston, John, 62. 

Publications, Advertisements of, 268. 
Public Records, Royal Commission and 

Taunton Castle Library, xix. 
Pulman, Alice, 65 ; John, 65. 
Pulpits, Lecterns, and Organs, by Rev. 

Dr. J. C. Cox (review), 216. 
Purchase of Books, xix, Ixvii, Ixviii. 
Puriton (Peryton), 62, 98 ; vicar of, 59. 
de Puttenye, Simon, 52 ; Walter, 52. 
Puxtou (Puckiston), 60, 100. 
Pylle, 69. 
Pyttard, John, 89. 

Quarman, Cecily, 89 ; John, 89. 

Raher, parson of Aller, 146. 

Rakincham (place), 107. 

Randolscroft (Middelney), 143. 

Rayers, Bryne (?), 87 ; Edith, 87- 

Raynoll, James, parson, 69. 

Raynsbury, John, 96. 

Record Society, Somerset, xxvii. 

Rede, Alice, 95 ; Lewis, canon of Wells, 

2 ; Walter, 95. 
Redyng, , 96. 
Reeder, Rev. W. T., donation of English 

coins, xviii, xli, 1. 
Rekhed, William, 95. 
Repairs to the Castle, xvii. 



Reve, George, 122 ; Thomas, 60. 

Revel, Mabel, 53 ; Sabina, 36, 42, 44. 

Rew, Robert, 62. 

Rewallin, Charles, virginal maker, xli. 

Reyney, John, 149. 

Reynolds, John, subdean of Wells, 2. 

Rich (Kyche), Roger, 73, 82. 

Richard son of John, 111 ; Eva, wife of, 

111. 
Richmond and Somerset, Duke of, Henry 

Fitzroy, 159. 
Risun, John, 70. 
ROBINSON, VERY REV. J. A., D.D., on 

"Thomas Boleyn," 1-10. 
Robinson, Very Rev. J. A., D.D., re- 
marks on Canon Church, xxii. 
Robyns, Job. (?), 82. 
Rocetor, Thomas, vicar, 95. 
Rocke, Elys, 79. 

Rodney, first Baron, medalet of, li. 
Roge. John, 73. 
Rogers, Isabel, 64; John, 124; Peter, 

78 ; Walter, 64 ; William, 64, 80. 
de la Rokele, Adam, 113. 
Roller of wood with depressed ornament, 

xlix. 

Rolling-pin, glass, Nailsea, 1. 
Roman coins, Ham Hill, xli ; others, xli, 

1-lii. 
ROMAN REMAINS FOUND AT WEST COKER, 

by H. St. George Gray (illus.), 162- 

165. 

Romsey (Pauncefoot Hill), stone imple- 
ments, xliv. 
Roo, Agnes, 68; (Henry), 68; Robert, 67, 

68, 81. 

Roode, Thomas, 123. 
Rose, John, 85. 
Rosetter, John, 84. 
Ross, REV. D. M., on "Sir Ralph de 

Midelney," 143-156. 
Row (Raw), Alice, 120. 
Rowlandson, Richard, 76 (2), 77, 79. 
Rowsewell, Agnes, 85 ; John, 85 ; 

Thomas, 85 ; William, 85. 
Rowswyll, William, 70. 
Royal Commission on Public Records 

and the Society's Library, xix. 
Runcton (N. Mundham, Sussex), 112. 
Russe, Edward, 122. 
Russell. William, 59. 
Rust, Thomas, 99 ; William, 99. 
Rydyngs (Congresbury) , 94. 

Sage, F. G., gift of club-brasses, xlvii, 

xlviii. 

Safforde, James, 122. 
St. Sauver, 109. (See Sanzaver). 
St. Stephen's, Westminster, Prebend 

of, 4. 



264 



General Index. 



Salisbury, Earl of, 155 ; William de 

Montacute, 49, 143, 151, 153; Thomas 

de Montacute, 45 ; Richard Neville, 

49. 

Salle (Norfolk), 8. 
Salman, Joan, 93. 
Samford, Christopher, 121 ; John, priest, 

88. 

Santiago, 153. 
SANZAVER FAMILY, by Rev. Preb. E. H. 

Bates Harbin, 105-114. 
Sanzaver, Amugerus, 107 ; Christina, 

113; Elizabeth, 114; Eve, 105, 111; 

Hugh, 105, 107, 111, 112: Matilda, 

110; Ralph, 107, 110, 112, 113, 114; 

Thomas, 114; Walter, 110; William, 

108. 
SAUNDEKS, REV. G. W., on " The North 

Chapel of St. Andrew's Church, Curry 

Rivel" (illus.), 31-53. 
Savaric, Bishop, 111. 
SAXON BISHOPS OF WELLS, EFFIGIES OF 

(Burwold, Dudoc, Eilwin, Giso 

Levericus, Sigarus), 18-30. 
Say, Philip, 77. 
Sayard, Agnes, 78 ; Joan, 78 ; John, 78 ; 

Julyan, 78 ; Richard, 78 ; William, 78. 
Saylor, Germon, 70. 
de Schurchulle, William, 114. 
Scot, Samuel, 123. 
Screvyn, William, 96. 
Seal-box of bronze, Ham Hill, Ivii. 
Sealy, William, 119. 
Seckford, Mary, 158 ; Thomas, 157, 158 ; 

arms, 158. 
SECTIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, xx-xxi, 

xxxiii-xxxix, xlii. 
Selbye, Joan, 101. 
Seldred, Henry, 123. 
Senclar, Thomas, 74. 
Sensavoir. (See Sanzaver). 
SEREL COLLECTION OF WELLS WILLS, by 

Rev. F. W. Weaver, 54-104. 
Serel manuscripts, xix, xli, 54-104. 
Seton, Joan, 93. 
Sever, Clare, 100. 
Seward, Ambrose, 122. 
Seymour, Edward, Duke of Somerset, 

159; arms. 159. 

Shalman, Christian, 97 ; Thomas, 97. 
Sharrock, William, 41. 
Shell (Schael), (Adrian), 145. 
Sheppard (Shyppard, Shypperd), John, 

vicar, 64, 71 (2), 72, 82, 84; William, 69. 
Shepton Mallet, 65, 68, 102. 
Shepton Mallet, trade tokens, 121. 
Sherborne, trade token, 125. 
Sheres, John, 95. 

Sherewod (Scherewod), William, 65. 
Sherwyn, Philip, 98. 



! Sheryff alx Osteler, Alice, 84; Christian, 

84 ; Richard, 83. 
Shete, Edmund, 80. 
Shotc, Ellen, 73 ; William, 73. 
Sibley, Joan (2), 89 ; John, 89 ; Robert, 

89 ; William (2), 89. 
Sidgewick, James, 41. 
Sidon, terra-cotta vase, xlvii. 
Sigar, Bishop of Wells, Effigy of, 26. 
Simonds, John. 77- 
Sine Averio. (See Sanzaver). 
Slatter, Raynold, curate, 64, 69, 91 ; 

Samuel, 41. 
Sling-bullets, Wonersh, Guildford, xlvi, 

xlvii. 

Smaldon (hill), 112. 
Smyth (Smythe), Edward, 60 ; James, 

priest, 96 ; John, 76 ; Nicholas, 79 ; 

Richard, curate, 74, 80; Robert, 

master of Maidstone College (Kent), 8 ; 

Stephen, 60 ; Thomas, curate, 71, 86 (2). 

98. 

Snow, Richard, 121 ; Robert, 96 (2). 
I Society, number of members, xv, xlii ; 

list of members, 224-248 ; officers, xiv, 

219-222. 

Somersed, William, 68. 
Somerset, birds presented, xxxv, Iv ; 

books, xix, xlii, lix ; buttons, xlvii ; 

club-brasses, xlvii, xlviii ; earthworks, 

xxviii, liv ; medals, xli, li ; paleolithic 

implements, xliv ; plants, xxxvi-xxxix ; 

Ivi; trade tokens, X VIII Century, 1, li. 
Somerset, Duke of, Edmund Beaufort, 7 ; 

John Beaufort, 49, 159 ; Henry Fitzroy, 

159; Edward Seymour, 159. 
Somerset Record Society, xxvii. 
SOMERSET TRADE TOKENS (Gray and 

Syinonds, illus.), xviii, xl, li, 115-127. 
de Somerton, Nicholas, 153. 
Somerton, 92, 144, 156 ; (Hilbroke), 156. 
Sowter, Edith, 77 ; Joan, 77 ; John (3), 

77 ; William, 77. 
Spargrove (Spertegrove), 108, 109, 112, 

113, 114. (See de Spertegrave). 
Sparke, Richard, 90. 
Speke, Elizabetha, 46 ; George, 39, 46, 

47; Jennings, 46; Mary, 46 ; Thomas, 

46, 47 ; William, 40, 41. 
Spencer, J. Hough ton, obituary notice, 

215 ; his plan of Taunton Castle, xli, liii. 
Spender, Isabel, 101. 
Spenser, Richard, priest, 84. 
de Spertegrave (Spargrove), Eva, 109 ; 

Henry, 109 ; John, 109, 113 ; Richard, 

109 ; Sanson, 109. 

Spicer, Elizabeth, 156 ; William, 156. 
Spindle-whorls, Ham Hill, xlvi, Ivii. 
Spoons of pewter and latten, liii. 
Spreyte, Stephen, 91. 



General Index. 



265 



Sprynt, Thomas, vicar, 77, 79. 

Spry tell, John, 59. 

Stacy, Maude, 72 ; Robert, 75. 

Staff, Museum, xlii. 

Staines, manorof (Cottenham, Cambs.), 9. 

Stanley, Alice, 60 ; Anstis, 60 ; Florence, 

60. 

de Stapelton, Stephen, 52. 
Stapelton (Martock), 65. 
Stavordale, Priors of, Walter, 112; 

William, 105. 

STAVORDALE PRIORY, Two DEEDS RE- 
LATING TO, by Rev. Preb. E. H, Bates 

Harbin, 105-114. 
Stayner, Richard, 68. 
Stebbes, Isabel, 76 ; Thomas, 76. 
Stegge, John, 76. 
Stephyns, Agnes, 58. 
Stenvod, John, 63. 
Stevyns, Robert, 85. 
Stewart, Dr. C. B., stone implements 

from Romsey, xliv. 
Stickford (Line.), 1-10. 
Stiffkey (manor, Norfolk), 9. 
Stogumber, trade tokens, 118. 
Stoke under Hampdon, 93. 
Stokelane, 84. 

Stokeleigh camps, plans, liv. 
Stoke Trister, 52, 149. 
Stone Circle, Withypool, inspected, 

xxviii. 
Stone Implements, Somerset, etc., xliv, 

xlvi, Ivii. 
Stone, Nicholas, mason, 16 ; Robert, 

vicar, 72. 
Story, Edward, 6. 
Stoute, Jane, 88. 
Stowell, 87. 

Stowey, Nether, trade tokens, 120. 
Stowford (Barwick), 101. 
de Stratton, Matthew, 112; Ralph, 112. 
Stratton, 112. 
Street, 96. 
Sturry, Thomas, 59. 
Style, John, priest, 81. 
Submerged forest, Porlock, xliv. 
Suffolk, Earl of, Michael de la Pole, 

monument, 13. 
de Suleni, Emma, 112; John, 112; 

Ralph, 112. 

Sunshades, early Victorian, xlviii. 
Sutton, Long, 144 ; (Knowle), 144. 
Swane, Agnes, 94 ; Harry, 94 ; Joan (2), 

94 ; John, 94 ; William, 94. 
Swayne, Richard, priest, 98 ; Thomas, 

91. 
Swete, Ede, 60 ; John, 60 ; Margery, 60 ; 

Richard, 60. 
Symes, Angel, 97. 
Symon, Margaret, 93. 



SYMONDS, HENRY, on "Somerset Trade 
Tokens, XVII Century" (Him.}, 115- 
127. 

Syngulton, Margaret, 93. 

Taber, Christian, 76. 

Tabor, Thomas, 71. 

Tache, Agnes, 78 ; Joan, 78 ; Thomas, 78. 

le Taillour, Stephen, 152. 

Tanner, Henry, 121 ; Thomas, 97. 

de Tanton, Robert, 151. 

Tatche, Thomas, 100. 

Taunton, C. Musgrave, clock-maker, 

xlvii ; club badges, lii ; priory, 147 ; 

trade tokens, 118, 121, 124, 125. 
Taunton Castle, plan of (Spencer), xli, 

liii ; re-arrangement of collections, 

xviii ; repairs, xvii. 
Taunton Field Club, xlii. 
Taunton St. James, " discharges " (F. H. 

Knight), xlii, Ixii. 
Tayler, John, 78 ; Thomas, 64. 
Tawson (Tauson), Richard, 100. 
Terrell, William, 98. 
Thomas, John, curate, 64, 78, 82, 83, 90, 

96 ; Richard, curate, 60. 
Thompson, H. S., Somerset plants pre- 
sented, xxxix, Ivi. 
de Thorhull, Walter, 52. 
de Thorn, John, 155. 
Thring, Nicholas, 122. 
Tilly, R., 149. 
Tintinhull, 93, 99. 
Tite, Charles, gifts of books, xix, xli, lix, 

Ixiii ; gifts of Somerset and other trade 

tokens, XVII Century, xviii, xl, li ; 

other donations, xli, xlvii, li-liii. 
Togood, John, 102. 
Tokens, Somerset, XVII Century, xviii, 

xl, li, 115-127 ; XVIII Century, 1, li. 
Toker, John, 60 ; Thomas, 98. 
Toky, Thomas, 86 ; (Tokye) William, 71. 
Tompsy, John, 99. 
Towcker, Alice, 60. 
Towkey, Annys, 99 ; John (2), 99. 
Townsend, Elizabeth, 44. 
Trade checks, lii. 

TRADE TOKENS, SOMERSET, XVII CEN- 
TURY (illus.), by H. St. George Gray 

and H. Symonds, 115-127. 
Trade tokens, Somerset, etc. (Also see 

Tokens). 

Trade tokens, illustrations of, 118. 
Trent, parson of, 149. 
" Trentals," 58. 
Trevillian, Elizabeth, 46, 47 ; John, 47, 

144 ; Mary, 144 ; Nicholas, 144 ; 

Ralph, 39, 44, 144 ; Richard, 144 ; 

Thomas, 40, 46 ; William, 144. 
Trocke, Nicholas, 124. 



266 



General Index. 



Trouarn, Abbey of (Normandy), 1 12 

Trugwell, John, 101. 

Tryppe, Agnes, 83 ; Humphrey (Omfra), 
61, 83 ; Isabel, 83 ; Joan, 61 ; John ('2), 
61, 83 ; Margery, 61 ; iS'icholas, 61, 83 ; 
.Robert, 83 ; William, 61, 83. 

Tryvet, Joan, 66 ; John (2), 61, 66, 67- 

Tucke, Agnes, 58 

Tucker, Agnes, 86 ; Flore, 86 ; Henry, 
86; Isabel, 86; Joan, 86; John (2), 
86; Margaret, 86; Thomas. 86; 
William, 86. 

Tuckye, John, 59. 

Turkish currency, lii. 

Turner, John, 66. 

Tutton, Elizabeth, 96. 

Tweezers, bronze, Ham Hill, Ivi, Ivii 

Twohyde (Batcombe), 108. 

Typerton, Agnes, 73 ; Elyn, 73 ; Hum- 
phrey, 73 ; Isabel, 73 ; John, 73. 

Tyrrell, William, 71. 

<ie Tywe, Emma, 112; Walter, 112. 

Ugden, Robert, 124. 

Umfray, Joan, 85. 

Underwode, Robert, 71. 

-de Urtiaco. Elizabeth, 44 ; Henry, 36, 

42 ; John, 31, 38, 44, 49, 51 ; Richard, 

44, 52. 

de Urtiaco, John, will of, 51. 
<ie Urtiaco. (See also L'Orty). 

Vautort, , parson of Merton (Devon), 

150. 

-de Veel, Katherine, 147 ; Peter. 147. 
Vernam, Isabel, 77 ; Joan, 77 ; John, 

77 ; Robert, 77 ; Thomas, 77. 
le Vernour, Emma, 147 ; John, 145 ; 

Richard, 147 ; (Sibilla), 145, 146 (2) ; 

W'alter. 152; (William), 146. 147(2). 
Veysy, Walter, curate, 82. 
Virginal by Rewallin, xl, xli. 
Visitors to Museum, 1915, xxii, xlii, xliii. 
Vynyng als Dyar, John, 80. 

Wake, Humphrey, 59. 

Walford, Joan, 99 ; John, 99. 

Walgrow, John, clerk, 80. 

Walle, Isabel, 74 ; John, 74 ; Richard, 74. 

Walssh, Walter, priest, 88. 

Walter, John, 78, 88; Margaret, 84; 

Peter, 88 ; Walter, 88. 
Walter, E. H. and S. H., German 

weapons presented, Iviii. 
Walter, Dr. R. Hensleigh, his collection 

of Ham Hill relics, xli, Ivi, Ivii. 
Wansdyke, shards of pottery, xlvii. 
Warbrunton, John, 75 ; William, 75. 
de Wardeney, Simon, 155. 



Warham, William, Precentor of Wells 

and Bishop of London, 4. 
Warmall, Robert. 121. 
Warman, John, 75. 
Warmwelde, Roger, 154. 
Warnemon, Edith, 59 ; Thomas, 59. 
de Warton, Robert, 1">5. 
Warwick, Earl of, 50. 
Waterman, John, 101. 
WAT.SOX, WALTER, on "Bog-Mosses of 

Somerset" (illus.), 166-188. 
Watts, Alice, 102 ; Ann, 102 ; Edmund, 

102; Joan, 102; John, 102; Leonard, 

102 ; Margery, 102. 
Wawle, William, 86. 
Weare, 67. 
WEAVKR, REV. F. W., on " Wells Wills" 

(Serel Collection), 54-104. 
Weaving-comb, Ham Hill, Ivii. 
Webb, John, curate, 67 ; Thomas Fred- 
erick, 41. 
Webster, Christopher, priest, 63, 78, 

92 (2). 

Weech, John, 125. 
Weight of brass, lii. 
Weke, William, 98. - 
Welde, William. 154. 
Welle. (See atte Welle), 
de Wellesley, Philip. 149. 
Wellington, trade tokens, 121, 124. 
Wells, Hobert, priest, 102. 
Wells, 7 ; passim, 58-102. 
Wells, Canon of, Thomas Boleyn, 2 ; 

Dean of, John Gunthorpe, 4 ; Pre- 
centor of, Thomas Boleyn, 1-10. 
Wells, cathedral, xxii ; trade tokens. 

118, 121, 124. 
WKLLS WILLS (SEREL COLLECTION), by 

Rev. F. W. Weaver, 54-104. 
Wellys, Robert, priest, 88. 
Welshe, Cornell, 59 ; Joan. 60 ; John, 60. 
WERE, FRANCIS, on "Heraldry in 

Chubb's Maps of Somerset," 157-161. 
West, Peter, 120 ; William, 87. 
West Monkton, club banner, xlviii. 
Weston, 62. 

Weston, trade tokens, 124. 
Weston in Gordano, 61. 
Westover, 144. 
Wever, Thomas, 95. 
Whethys (place?). 77- 
Whetstone, Old Burrow Camp, Exmoor, 

xliv. 
White (Whyte), Alice, 87 : John, 66, 93 ; 

William, 41. 
Whiting(Whytyng), Agnes, 89 ; Christian, 

89 ; John, 67 ; Richard, 89 ; Thomas, 94. 
Whittingham, W. F., books presented, 

Ixii. 
Whytelstawle, Thomas, 81. 






Genc.ral Index. 



267 



Wick St. Lawrence, 71, 86 (2), 101. 
Wicks (Wycks), Elinor, 95; James, 9-5; 

Joan, 95 ; John (2), 95 ; Nicholas, 65. 
Wilkins als Heliar, Joan, 97 ; Thomas, 

97. 

William son of Adam, 111. 
William son of Richard, 110. 
Williams, Richard, 100; Ryse, 84; 

Thomas, 100. 

Williamson, Thomas, 61, 73. 
Williton, earthworks inspected near, 

xxviii. 

Willy, John, 121. 
Wilson, Rev. C. T., Sidon vase presented, 

xlvii. 

Wilway, William, 98. 
Wincanton, 73, 80. 
Wincanton, trade token, 121, 124. 
Winch, Miss C., donations of books, xix, 

xlii, lix-lxi. 
Winchcombe (Glouc.), trade token, 126, 

127. 

Wingfield (Suffolk), 13. 
Winscombe, 90, 97- 
Winscombe, trade token, 126. 
Winter (Wynter), John, curate, 60, 76, 

84. 

Wise, John, 97. 

Withypool stone circle inspected, xxviii. 
Wiveliscombe, cider-barrel truck, xlviii ; 

horse's head ornament, xlix. 
Wonersh, sling-bullets, xlvii. 
Woodrising (Norfolk), 8. 
Wookey, 2. 
Worle, 71 (2). 



Wotford's Hill (Congresbury) , 100. 

Wright, Stephen, 124. 

Wrington, 7, 81. 

Wrington rectory, 2, 4. 

de Wrotham (Richard), 145. 

Wryte, Nicholas, 94. 

Wrytis, Nicholas, 66. 

Wyke (Bruton), 78. 

Wylcocks, Richard, 61. 

Wyllett (Wyllet), Alice, 81 ; Henry, 81 ; 

Joan, 81; John (3), 81; Robert, 69, 81 ; 

Thomas, 81; William, 81. 
Wyllyng. Alice, 72 ; Katherine, 72 ; 

William, 72. 
Wylmut, John, 76. 
Wylsward, Elizabeth, 60. 
Wylton, George, 78; Joan, 78. 
! Wynberg, Roger, priest, 72. 
Wyttyn, Henry, 68. 

Yarty stream (Otterford), stone imple- 
ments, xliv. 
Yenow, Walter, 75. 
Yeovil, map of, 1831, liv ; trade tokens, 

122 124 

I Yerebury, William, 100. 
Yevans, Joan, 83 ; John (4), 83 ; Richard 

(2), 83. 

, Yevylton, 92. 
Yllarys, Edith, 87. 
Ynge, Philip, 88. 

Young (Yowng), Agnes, 102; Edmund, 
70; John, 94; Sisly, 95 ; William, 61. 
Yryssh (Yeryssh), John, 59, 69 / 



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