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;,;; i^i/^7 






18 8 (>. 


Joseph Leidy, M. D., Geo. H. Hobn, M. D., 

Edw. J. Nolan, M. D., Thokas Meehan, 

John H. Redfield. 

Editok : EDWARD J. NOLAN, M. D. 




AcADiMv or Nattbal St'iBsrm or pHiLADBtrHiA. 

Febraary *A 1M7. 

I hereby certify that copies of the Proceeding! for 18H6 have been pre* 
seated at the Meetings of tlie Academy as follows : — 

Pages Oto 24 
2.5 to 56 
57 to 104 
105 to 120 
191 to 180 
137 to 159 
153 to 168 
160 to 200 
801 to 248 
249 to 264 
281 to 296 
297 to 312 
313 to 328 
829 to 336 
337 to 352 
353 to 368 
369 to 384 


23, 18H6. 


6, 1KK6. 


18, 1H86. 


H, 1K86. 


1, 1886. 


H, 1S86. 


15, 1S86. 


22, 1W6. 


13, 1SH6. 


24, 1S86. 


21. IM^. 


5, lH8tJ. 


12, \m\. 


26, 1H«6. 


2, 1886. 


4, 1887. 


25. 1SH7. 


1, 1887. 


. XOLA^, 

Rteordinff Sterftarif 

run \uv.\ rill % : 

W. r. KII.|i%llK. fRIKTKI*. 


With reference to the seteral articles contributed by each. 

For Verbal Communications see General Index. 


Aaron, S. Frank. On some new Psocidsd IS 

Arthur, J. C. History and Biology of Pear Blight 332 

Eigenmann, Carl H. A review of the American Gasterosteidae 283 

Everman, Barton W. and Seth E. Meek. A revision of the American 

Species of the Qenus Genes 256 

<}entli, F. A.y Ph. D. On an undescribed Meteoric Iron from East 

Tennessee 866 

Hartman, W. D., M. D. New Species of Partula from the New 

Hebrides and Solomon Islands 30 

Ileilprin, Angelo. Notes on the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology 

of the Southern United States 57 

Holman, Lillie E. Observations on Multiplication in AmosbsQ 346 

Koenig, Gko. A., Ph. D. On Schorloroite as a Variety of Melanite. .. 355 

Leidy, Joseph , M. D. Notices of Neroatoid Worms 308 

McCormick, Calvin. The Inclusions in the Granite of Craftsbury, Vt. 19 

Meehan, Thomas. On the Fertilization of Cassia Marilandica 314 

Morris, Charles. Methods of Defense in Organisms 25 

Reverse Vision 802 

Osbom, Henry F., Sc. D. Observations upon the Upper Triassic 

Mammals, Dromotherium and Microconodon 359 

Rominger, C. On the Minute Structure of Stromatopora and its Allies, 39 

Vasey, George. Notes on the Paspali of Leconte's Monograph 284 

Wachsmuth, Charles, and Frank Springer. Revision of the Palffiocri 

noidea. Part III, Section II 64: 







January 5, 1886. 

The President, Dr. Leedy, in the chair. 

Twenty-six persons present. 

The death of J. B. Lippincott, a member, was announced. 

January 12. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Fifteen persons present. 

A paper, entitled " New Species of Partula from the New 
Hebrides and Solomon Islands,'* by Wm. D. Hartman, M. D., waa 
presented for publication. 

On the Morphology of superimposed Stamens, — At the meeting 
of the Botanical Section on January 11, Mr. Thomas Meehan 
remarked that Sachs teaches that stamens " must be considered 
morphologically as foliar structures, and make it convenient to 
term them Staminal Leaves,'* ^ and Dr. Asa Gray defines a stamen 
to be " one of the elements or phylla of the androecium,"'' So far 

^ Text Book, English ed., p. 473. » Structural Botany, p. 435. 


10 ntoosKDnfOB or thb aoadimt or [1886. 

a« the speaker knew, no botanist regards the stamen as an axial 
development, yet there are occasional phenomena that seem to be 
inexplicable on any other hypothesis. We have to admit that a 
flower is not merely composed of modified leaves, bat is a modified 
branch ; — the branch, arrested in its development, produces sepals 
and petals in the order and in the place where leaves might have 
been. Occasionally, however, the usual order of phyllotaxis seems 
broken. Stamens will spring from the base of petals, and oppo- 
site, where we looked for them to alternate ; and then for the 
sake of consistency with the phyllal hypothesis, we have to 
assume that one theoretic whorl has proved abortive, or that there 
has been a multiplication of whorls, the superimposed one being 
the extra. This introduction of an extra series, immediately over 
the lower, not provided for in the original phyllotaxy, has, 1 
think, never been seen in the normal condition of the branch, 
and it is difficult to conceive how this could occur under the 
arrestation of axial growth that transforms the branch into a 
flower. On the other hand, if we take the petal to be the analogue 
of the leaf on the elongated branch, there seems no n^ason why 
there should not be, theoretically, an axial bud to the petal ; and, 
should this bud develop, it would be the 8uperim|K)9ed stamen. 
Branching and articulated stamens are frequent in those families 
that have these organs spring, as it were, from an axial bud at 
the base of the petal, as in a diminutive or suppressed secon<iary 
branch we might expect them to do. 

The flowers of Mahernia verticillata Cav., a well-known Byttneri- 
aceous plant from the Cape of Good Hope, common in cultivation, 
which he exhibited this evening, seem to indicate that its super- 
imposed stamens are really arrested branches. The genus is 
separated from Hermannia chiefly by a cup-shaped gland at the 
middle of the stamen (see Fig. 2). A comparison with the 

axial development of the inflores- 
cence shows the stamen to l)e formed 
on precisely the same plan as the bi- 
flowered peduncle (Fig. 1). Really 
the flowers are axillary — a single 
flower being produced from the axil 
of each leaf. What appears to l>e 
the ** two-flowered peduncle*' of 
authors is simply a diminutive 
branchlet. After forming one node 
the longitudinal development Ih?- 
comes nearly arrest<'d, and we have 
^ ^ only a shortly-pedicillate and slowly 

Mmkfmu 9€rtieuiaf Cmr^wiw. developing ttower, representing the 

^'^tl'mr^'T^^h^^'''' shorter of the two in the cut. The 

**° bud in the axil of the bracteolate 

leaflet, however, makes another and stronger attempt at growth, 

and pushes up and over the one which terminates the first growth. 

IMC] HATt-mAL Hnsstita or ruiLADtLraiA. 11 

lo tfi«* 'Irte!"! mtf.t **f Ihi •tftftirri Wr rr%'\ in tl.r •fttnr IftO* 

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a half dozen distinct species have been characterized as pertaining 
to North America. An unworn crown of a last inferior molar 
tooth resembles most nearly that of the Mastodon anguatidens of 
Europe, but is much larger. It has the same number of crests, 
but the fifth is proportionately much more developed, being 
divided into two lobes, about two-thirds the size of those of the 
fourth crest. It is also much larger than in M. andium^ and has 
its lobes proportionately more robust, and is provided with a 
well-produced external basal ridge. 

The following are comparative measurements of what appear 
the most closely allied forms :— 

Fore and aft. 

Florida mastodon, . 9 inches. 

M. angusliderui, 7^ inches. 

M. andium^ ... 8 inches. 

Small fhigments of tusks indicate the possession of a band of 
enamel, as in the M. angustidena. For the s|)ecics, the name of 
Mastodon (Triix)piiodon) flobidanus was proposed. 

Among the fossils are several isolated teeth, and l)one8 appar- 
ently indicating three 8|>ecies of Llama. Judging from the 
astragali, one was about the size of the existing South American 
species ; another, of which there are five astragali, as large or 
larger than the camel, and a third of intermediate size. The 
measurements of the astragali are as follows : — 

Large species, Length, 100 mm. Breadth, 70 mm. 
Medium do. ** 65 " *» 42 " 

Small do. " 50 " ** 35 ** 

The three species may be distinguished by the names of 


Among the fossils is an astragalus of Megatherium. 

January 26. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-four persons present. 

The following were f resented for publication : — 

'' On a Giant Conorbis from the Oligocene I)e|K)8its of Florida," 
by Angelo Heilprin. 

** Notes on tlie Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of the 
Southern United Stat«*H," by Angelo Heilprin. 

Roland I>. JoneH, M.I>., was elected a meinlK»r. 

Charles WachHiiiuth,of Burlington, Iowa, and Alfred M. Mayer, 
of Uv)boken, N. J., were elected correspondents. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 




The several new species described here are in the collections of 
the American Entomological Society. 

CeciliuB subflavus. 

Almost entirely pale yellowish, or bright luteous, very sparsely 
pilose. Antennae and palpi very pale, the former slightly fuscous 
on the basal joints. E3^es black and yellow. Ocelli rufous brown, 
small. On each side of the occiput, from and behind the eye, a 
fuscous cloud or band, not joining in the middle. Thorax and 
abdomen yellowish, the anterior lobe of the former with a faint 
darker spot, and the latter with some fuscous markings ; appendages 
brighter yellow. Feet pale, semitransparent. Wings hyaline, 
very slightly clouded in the cells with pale luteous, and with a 
nucleated darker spot directly below the posterior angle of the 
pterostigma. Veins luteous, and with the pterostigma, having a 
few fuscous hairs, each springing from a black point. Length to 
end of wings about 2-2*5 miilim. 

Southern Texas. I collected this species from live oak trees 
along the river bottoms ; found only two specimens, male and 
female. The male is smaller, eyes black and large, the thorax 
fuscous (probably discolored by drying), and the clouds in the 
wings pale brown. 

Caeoilius nubilis. Plate I, fig. 3. 

Pale luteous. Antennae and palpi entirely pale. Nasus some- 
what indistinctly clouded. Ocelli dark brown. An irregular 
maculate pale brown line on each side of the head, extending 
from within the margin of the ey^es to the posterior central 
portion of the occiput, and a double maculate paler brown line 
dividing the occiput and almost reaching the ocelli. Eyes pale, 
with a yellowish green reflection. Thorax pale, the lobes clouded 
with pale brown. Abdomen paler, the sutures, in part, brown. 
Legs very pale, the last tarsal joint fuscous. Wings hyaline, 
pterostigma the same, not more opaque ; veins brown, the larger 
ones, on the l)asal half of the wing, paler, and on the apical half, 
wherever they join the margin of the wing, the}' are, together 
with the marginal vein at that point, black, or deep fuscous, 


Burroanded b}'' a small pale brown clouded spot. Each cell in 
{he apical half of the wing has, midway between the veins, a pale 
brown cloud, approximately taking the shape of its cell. At the 
base of the pterostigma a small black spot, and another at the 
junction of the cubitus and posterior margin. Length to end of 
wings about 2 millim. 

Southern Texas. One specimen discovered while beating a 
live oak thicket on the prairies. 

Csoilim impaoatai. 

Pale yellow and brown. Antennae much shorter than wings, 
fuscous, the basal joints and the first long joint in part, pale ; 
palpi fuscous. Nasus pale, somewhat clouded with brown ; rest 
of head yellow with brown markings, the space before and 
directly around the separated golden colored ocelli, l)rown ; a 
brown band on each side bordering the inside margin of the eyes, 
and another on each side of the dividing occipiUiI suture, reach- 
ing each posterior ocellus. Eyes brown and pale, about con- 
colorouswith the other parts. Mesothoracic IoIhjs brown, deeper 
colored anteriorly, the sutures pale yellowish ; rest of thorax pale 
yellow and brown. Abdomen [)ule, the sutures brown, and brown 
markings at the apex. Legs pale, the apical tarsal joint darker. 
Wings elear hyaline, the seemingly delicate veins pale brown. A 
small blaek spot at the base of the pterostigma, and another at 
the junction of the cubitus and posterior margin. Otherwise the 
wings are entirely unmarked. AlK>ut 3*5 millim. long to end of 

Penn. (near Philadelphia). — I beat one specimen from the 
branches of a lK*ech, and on account of its constant activity found 
it very ditRcult to capture, almost hopelessly mashing it in doing 


Piocm eamptitrii. 

Luteous and pale brown. Antennic about as long as the 
wings, fuscous, the basal joints luteous; palpi pale, fuscous on 
the extreme apex. Nasus short, lineated with brown, and 
sparsely pilose ; rest of head luteous, a brown irregular pateh on 
the margin of nasus l)efore the ocelli; a narrow Mack line 
dividing the occiput; faint fuscous maeulose uiarkiiigs on each 
side, within the margin of the eyes. Ocelli blaek; eyes brown, 
with paler reflections. Lol)e8 of the thorax brown, the sutures 

liM.] HATtmAL mnwmam ot mnLAumumtA. II 

t«w<cMt«. A(«)<»mcii |mi«» bmwti. th^ •t}|urr« aii<1 un«lrrtir«tli in 
fmrt |4iir. I>r^ piilr. frmom »4>tii«'«!»at \rl!i>«i«h Wm^* |irr- 
f*<"ll» bvahnr, ibr %rin« |*lr hr»»wti. «»rmitr«ri«|«irrnt IuUh»u« tn 
|i*ru |>l4rr«*«ti|rma. a narrow tt^aarr 'lirrt'tl^ U tira*h it. ati<l tli# 
;«wl.oati«»o of a •mail ftiM't a*, thr ]tinrtH»n of thr ru^itu* an<l \to% 
IrTM^^f mar^rti. jiair bro«n I^rn^'tb l»» f'tt'I ««f win;; a^-»ul i 5 milL 
**^"Mlhcrii Tela* l*nr «|»r<^ittirfi tAkrti fr«»m the \i\r tmk tr^»« 
t^t r*>aip>M«- tbr •mall gr«»«r« imotta) ttn Ibr {trainr*. It ta 
ai- r«l t«i /*• yiii#fu«. of llai^i n (man) •[>mmrn« «>f wbirb I alao 
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ar«U . ai^l \»% baviQi; frwrr markinga on tbr brA<!. 

lM4f% r • « I i( : 

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9ipg%, atittfuftc^tu*, tbr lm»al joitit* (<alr . )«1|>4 {^Ir, tbr a|'ical 
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^^' w \h a smallrr lua^ k •|m>'. on ra4*b «ij* t^'low ;t A'*tt> 
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inner margin. Hiud wing immaculate. Length to end of wings 
about 5-5-6 mill. 

Rhode Island and Pennsylvania. From two specimens col- 
lected many years ago by Dr. Joseph Leidy in Rhode Island, 
and two specimens taken by myself near Philadelphia, on the 
trunks of chestnut trees, where they appeared to be solitary. 
For sometime I had, somewhat doubtfully, supposed this Hpecies 
to be Pit, canadensiSy of Prov., until I received a letter from Dr. 
Hagen, referring canadensis to the genus Elipsocus. 

Ptooai texanni. 

Pale yellow, with brown markings. Antennce longer than the 
wings, fuscous, pale at the base. Nasus lincated with brown ; rest 
of head above with irregular markings, viz. : a horseshoe spot 
before the ocelli, an irregular line on each side from near the 
base of the antennic to the ocelli ; a line of spots within the 
margin of the eye, occiput with a line of spots on each side of the 
dividing suture that come together just Iwhind the ocelli. Eyes 
brown, with a slight golden tini^e ; ocelli black. Lol>es of the 
mesothorax clouded with fuscous, the sutures pale yellow. AIkIo- 
men marked with fuscous, and the anal appendages yellow. 
Legs iuteous, the apical tarsal joints fuscous. Wings hyaline, 
the veins brown ; pterostigma less clear, a fuscous spot within 
its apical half, and another just below it; a fuscous band crosses 
the entire wing in the middle, its outer margin reaching from the 
base of the pterostigma to the junction of the cubital and post- 
coscai veins and the |)Osterior margin, passing through the basal 
angle of the discoidal cell. Hind wings hyaline, no markings. 
Length to end of wings about 4 mill. 

Var. iabmargiiiatii«. IMate I, fi|c. 1. 

Characterized by having the fore wings with additional mark- 
ings in the form of a submarginal fuscous band or cloud, 
reaching from the second apical nervule to the posterior apical 
extremity of the discoidal cell, and with a few somewhat 
rounded spots between the nervures bonlering upon and beyond 
the discoidal cell. Length about 3 mill. Otherwise like texanus. 

Southern Texas. I toi>k fifteen spvcimens a^ texanuK and four 
of var. Hubmartjinatus entirely by iM'atiug from yellow l»erry 
bushes, bl.ick chaparral and live oak, ovor the prairies. It is 
probably the commonest si)ecies in its locality. 


ECHMEPTERTX no v. gen. 

Head much as in Psocus, etc., the ocelli more widely separated. 
Antennae with the two basal joints short and stont^the others rather 
slender, each joint attenuated in its middle, swollen somewhat at 
its apex. Dorsum of mesothorax entire, not divided into lobes, 
extended into a projection posteriorly. Tarsi three-jointed. 
Wings covered with scales of various forms. Apex of wings 
pointed, and furnished somewhat densely with long hair. Neura- 
tion peculiar, as shown in Plate 1, figs. 5-6. 

Belongs to a group with Amphientomum and Perientomum^ 
probably most closely allied to Dr. Hagen's Amph. (Syllysis) can- 
datum ; differs in the neuration. 

Eohmepteryx agilii . Plate I, figs. 4-9. 

Antennae much shorter than the wings, pale fuscous ; palpi 
fuscous. Nasus fuscous, pilose ; rest of head somewhat pilose, 
pale, with dark brown markings, a bent brown line across the 
head, transversely, separating the anterior from the posterior 
ocelli; before the ocelli, in the middle, some irregular brown 
markings and bands (varying in different specimens), and between 
the ocelli, connecting with the transverse line, two convergent 
brown lines, extending to a brown patch on each side upon the 
occiput; on each side, within the margin of the eyes, another 
brown spot, becoming a line, and also joining the occipital patches. 
Ocelli black, each one within a small brown 5»pot ; eyes brown and 
golden yellow. Thorax brown, portions pale luteous, dorsum of 
mesothorax dark brown, somewhat scaled, and very pilose. 
Abdomen pale yellowish or luteous (in some specimens fuscous, 
probably discolored by drying), with some brown markings. 
Legs fuscous, somewhat paler or luteous ; tarsi luteous, fuscous 
towards base. Wings fuscescent or smoky when denuded, becom- 
ing hyaline towards the apex ; veins darker, semitransparent. 
Scales mostly fuscescent, paler towards the base; when upon the 
wing seemingly fuscous, and when thickly placed appearing almost 
black ; other scales luteous upon the wing. These scales cause 
the wing to be covered with black, fuscous and luteous patches. 
The long apical hair mostly fuscous, Ijateous in patches. Hind 
wings hyaline, slightly infuscated, no scales, the long apical hair 
fuscous. Length to end of wing about 3 millim. 

Pennsylvania. I found this species on the trunks of beech 


trees in a woods near Philadelphia. It is very active, quick and 
difficult to secure. I believe it represents a group entirely new 
to our fauna. 


Fio. 1. Pioeus tsxantu var. aubmarginattu. 

" 2. " Leid^ 

** 8. CadUus nubau$, 

*« 4. Head. 

** 5. Denuded fore wing and thorax. 

** 6. ** hind wing. 

" 7. Fore wing corerc'd normally with scales. 

** 8. Tarsus. 

*' 9. Forms of wing scales greatly magnified. 

of EchmepUrym agOU. 

lt*€ ] VATtaAL ii*iis<-» of rtiitJipcLratA. If 

rmi ivctcitovs iv tvi otAiirt or ctAmittT rr 

• • .%f ' T »i!^'.;*f \\ i,« !. r« t <!« ! th« \ r« •• lut «• an « i»« 1 »(M*<i 
1*^ r • ft* »f^ ^ '^r^^'ii.i I.! * • »•• • r tii « % •« li •? Thry 

sa r *. • . ■'.'.»»*. t « 

%t I • r !«••*%• \ «|t < ifr.fM *««t *\ ft!Rf«| h« r.r A^rrn h • thtti 

A f' '• f» f « *• **.• ft • • f I« ' ..^•♦* f \ .%t •'!.• <.fi i^r-* it;* i«t'!'i«i«'n« 

• ; t .' tl« ••»•••• fi/!%!« f •» I \ :. t '.• •! . ! \ 'f li,« •!;! •» . • In 

. •i I 1»' J * Ti M %» « * ••* • ft t. * <M I«^- • »'. r.A*%.f.> »*.on of 
K - 4^* J .* ". r« ft r* !•• n. . .• i»» a* r r* ^^'^Ii^r |* nt* !«« • ^r %riti« 
^ * f • * !•%•»•« •j.*it r«.; ! »I !ii *r r %i.^'. Mm I.! . Hi !* •! If I in t*t\r%e 
g f^f •• It. J • '.* Pr < 1 1 J N % .fi \nn r« ?« r« (*» ** j'*cvi I *> frmi^- 

it * - • » • \ f*. 'f t t.» r» •* ri. ' ! f .' • ' *! ■ j %r.^*lr'l fr*;:!!**'.!* « <iuaiuO 
* 1 ♦*.*- r.« • . « . • r - K • L« '.f *• ''*•!« r (»• «»p:i»"*i«-. i Auf., 

\\%' ! I > 4.i • ' H II > •• ; 

1*4 I'. ♦ •%*z.» \ * %t l»r \ [\ -'.•••tt«r •tA!» • that • thr jjr^tiJtr* 
' K •• t. I •!!%».'«• 'A r, ti %i < . .• Mt« ^ra? • t , tar k. ijl'i ulAf 

I >^ ; I»f \ \ At 1 ^' . rt '. f ,; ! tSt 1* ft.* It r.<1. ,:rar. ?«-• 

i,f*^ •'*';:* »• ^ f« ^*a!«- ! 'r u. !i.« ••-•:.• l'.^ r ^ k , ^ ar\ .:^ lO 

• I* f» St ^ J t- 4 J . f r« .'. i %*.. . !« r 1 l.t mw . n« . •".f^-a « ■ f.'Aill 

• B.« , a'.tt'^ ' f r ' i« t. S. '•.•!**.• Kr Ui**.t r a!i;-l*r*r» 
at * 1 ' • t . t i f ••!!.. r !• t • \ •.'. : - 1 . * 1 1 * r r.^* ! N ♦- ! Ik 
If at «. f t.'.- f • a !:.*•• * a J r - . •• * •* ^r* jjat-.r. , •!.« fiA<ri 

It a*, ar*. .* ' ♦. '.r \1 •.»?:= 'i '■ • * *? • f. f < *• r*a r. <ifar. •.. A 
I* -4t a!^ ! <f fm.' !* • • ' ** .'Lt f I ; .\- I* f *• * » 1 Tr f 
i an «°t <#♦ 4 ♦ 1« • . *• % ' *• • ' 1 *' r i r ■ a * ^'•\^ ^ •*?. !r 

7 t«« •• fc f * \ •*. t. *.\\ . a 't. • I . i . * • * ^' f % • t :. i • . • a:* 1 
uftfAfVikf a lAf^ ai^alc UiiLc fvick. 1X4*} ax« irrvguUf la ftkft|i^. 


and scattered indiscriminately throaghout the mass." ((Ho- 
logical Magazine, 1861, vol. 3, p. 533.) 

All of these observations relate to the external appearance of 
these inclusions. No one of these writers has given us an intima- 
tion of the microscopic or chemical nature of their internal 
structure. In this respect Prof. J. A. Phillips has greatly sur- 
passed his predecessors. 

In the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, voL 36, p. 
1, this author describes granites and their inclusions from numer- 
ous British localities. The Cornwall granites at Lamorna, Zennor, 
and Luxulyan contain numerous black patches, angular, fine- 
grained and composed of quartz and mica. The granite of Shap 
in Westmoreland encloses numerous well-define<l, dark, round 
patches, fine-grained and varying in size from | to 15 inches in 

In Scotland, the Aberdeen granites (metamorphic, Uaughton) 
contain foliated, suban^ular inclusions of black mica. 

In Ireland, the granite of Newry (metaraorphie, EIiill; igneous, 
Kinaban) atfords inclusions which arc apparently concretions. 
The Mourne granite (eruptive contains ovoid and angular, fine- 
grained dark masses of mica ami quartz. 

This author derives the following conclusions from these 

These granitic inclusions are of two distinct kinds. The first 
isthiTcsultof an abnormal arrangement of the constituent minerals. 
The second represents the enclosed fragments of other rocks. Of 
the first, the outline is more or h-ss ovoid, and they are essentially 
a part of the including granite. The dark color is due to the 
quantity of mica antl hornblende. A second nodule ct»ntained in 
the first, is indicative of concretionary origin. 

The formation of lounded inclusions in granites is l»elieved to 
be contemporaneous with the solidification of the mass, and 
similar to that of the well known Napoleonite or orbicular 
dioritc of Corsica. 

Of the second class, the inclusions are irregular in outline, 
schistose in structure, traverse<l by quartz veins or divi<led by 
strings of granite. They are frequently unaltered, antl are easily 
recognized as fragments of gneiss, hornblendic and niieaceous 


In our own country, Professor Irving, in his report *' On the 


Copper-Bearing Rocks of Lake Superior " (U. S. Geol. Survey, 
vol. V, p. 125), refers to a homblendic granite containing an 
augitic core, and the entire mass showing minute flakes of 
biotite. Mr. Clarence King, in his ** Systematic Geology " (U. 
S- Survey, p. 120), graphically describes the remarkable granitic 
wall of El Capitan, in the Yosemite Valley. This presents a 
vertical face 3200 feet high, dotted with irregular cloud-like 
masses and lenticular bodies, apparently segregations of the 
component minerals (brilliant black hornblende, quartz, biotite 
and orthoclase). This segregation he considers to be the result 
of mechanical accidents. 

Having thus hastily glanced at observations relating to granitic 
inclusions in other localities, we are better prepared to under- 
stand those of the Craftsbury region. In the following consid- 
erations we will observe, first, the including granite itself; 
second, the included nodules, their external appearance and 
internal structure, and the relation of the rock-mass to its 

This nodular granite consists of the usual ingredients of a 
true granite — quartz, feldspar and mica. The quartz is the most 
abundant constituent. It possesses the properties of ordinary 
quartz as to color, lustre and hardness. The feldspar is the 
common orthoclase, every light in color — even resembling the 
quartz in this respect. The mica is the black variety (biotite), 
and is sparingly scattered through the mass. It is in striking 
contrast with the white components, and gives the rock the 
appearance of syenite. But no hornblende is present, nor have 
accessory minerals been observed. These constituents are dis- 
seminated irregularly throughout the rock-mass, and since they 
occur in small dimensions, this mass is fine-grained in texture. 
According to Prof. H. A. Cutting, State Geologist of Vermont, 
this granite occurs in place like other granites, but south of the 
beds it consists of numerous large bowlders. 

Professor C. H. Hitchcock refers this granite to the Coos 
group, which he places directly below the Lower Helderberg 
division of the Upper Silurian. 

The Incluhions. — These are spheroidal or elongated nodules of 
biotite, from one-half to two inches in diameter, with the long 
axis sometimes four inches. They are more or less fiattened, and 
frequently consist of only a few plates. Their surface is smooth 


or sometimes plicated, the folds corresponding to the long axis. 
Then they resemble a dried butternut, stripped of its epicarp. 
Several convex scales may be detached from a flat specimen, 
placed on edge, with a sharp blow of the hammer. 

They are distributed irregularly through the rock-mass. In 
some portions they are more abundant than in others. Some 
parts of the Craftsbury beds are composed entirely of nodules, 
slightly cemented by grains of quartz and mica. It appears 
that there is no law as to their distribution. From this locality 
to the Canadian line it is stated that these inclusions are very 
rare, in the beds extending over this area of about forty miles. 
(C. H. Hitchcock, Geology of Vermont, vol. 2, pp. 564, 721). 

The Internal Structure. — But few microscopic sections of these 
nodules have been prepared. In studying the lithology of New 
Hampshire, Mr. G. W. Hawes, formerly of the SheflSeld Scientific 
School, made a section of the centre of a nodule, and observed 
that the biotite is dichroic, that a small portion of muscovite and 
some quartz are present. No nucleus was apparent, but a con- 
centric arrangement of the mica scales, which he considered to 
be the basis of the formation of the inclusion. (Geology of New 
Hamp., vol. 3, pt 4, p. 203.) On account of the limited observa- 
tions of this peculiar formation, I attempted to prepare some 
sections of the internal structure. Of these, two were through 
the centre, and parallel to the longitudinal axis. These show 
that the biotite is in concentric layers, with grains of quartz scat- 
tered irregularly through it. No feldspar is present. These 
layers of biotite are made up of flakes or long bands. Along the 
thin edges they are of a light brown color, while the thicker 
masses are dark. The flakes are of diff^erent sizes respecting 
length and width. They are arranged very much like the scales 
on a fish. The biotite constitutes the greater part of the surface. 
It forms fully four-fifths, and doubtless even more in some cases. 
The quartz is remarkably translucent and ver}' distinctl}^ vitre- 
ous. During the grinding process, frequent observations with a 
lens indicated that the quartz increases in abundance towards 
the centre. 

Several transverse sections parallel to the lateral axis were 
attempted, but the brittle nature of the biotite prevented success. 
This, it is thought, may be accomplished by hardening a specimen 
in shellac dissolved in alcohol. Sections through other portions 
of the nodule denote the laminated structure of the biotite. 

liM j iiArvmikL •ctiiK!M or rstuiDiLrviA. tS 

rU KeUium of the SuduU to fA^ /?'«< 1 Jla«« ^Tbe hnr <*f 
e«i4iUirt brivren Uir lnclu«if»ti %n*\ tbr inr!ii<liti^ r«K*k t« ii«»t al«ay« 
^ost^tict. But }| i« |i«»«»iltlr t<* ritrart th«* formrr with o>m|4irm~ 
t«t« rm^e. Thr mnaitiitiit ca\ilv. tio«r%rf. i* u«itikl!\ Imr^! •ilh 
l*«jCit«. vhit b, ••Ihrtitlj: t«» il mlbrr tbftn l<» thr n^-lulr. tlHlu*A(r« 
ik»t \h^ it»rhifti«irt •»• t»ri|;injill\ fMnnr*! from thr t%K\ maA«, 
?Wrtu>t»« ftrr<»«* tht« Itnr i>f rtmtari, tthov < ortftt<lrrmHr <|UArtJ ahU 
% •i^JkW %\%Mm,t%U\\ of hi4»iitr TtH'«r tiiifirr«U %tr m\i\mt%'t\\\\ inter* 
k«^4r<!. tuf\h9f «lrn<»tin|[ that tikc Kiotitx ma** l<rlotk|pi to thr 

ti^m^rr^l f %Mi« /i(tff<>fi« .»Ftr«t . cuicrrTufij; the n«*'l»ilr« ; Thr««» 
•r» »«4 micMCir4*n% rolU, for ihnr •trutturr ttit«rtiaIU ikhow* i|i». 
t.tiiri ^«imI« Nor *rv ther coorrrtion*, for no hih lrii« !• ot«4Mrr^r<i| 
B'*t tWy Are m»**r« of f!ak«-« of Moti!r «« mrntr^l with quArtJ. 
A'«r«)f«Mlh •ejfrejfmt*^! from the on|*mAl irmrnlir m%»«. Thet* 
ftA4r« Al'b«»<i|:b ori^MiiAll) r«»nrrntr.« . wrrr aftrr«ar«U arran^r«l 
raMl^^Ilt . bf'firr prTniurtniS ttir rM»i|iiUr form. < I»r. Z<-|har»'«n h. 
If fc#rmi'-f' rai l^tto>n. Au^tna. |» '»9 ) 

H«*--itjHl rotwrnufii: thr granite Ti.r prr«« !k^ «tf thr %r ||4»dtllea 
itt>lr«tr« the t||»n««»u« ongtn «if thr |*raf)!tr. U • rt thr ori|«tnal 
•*»• m ft«iur«iu« •<»lMt;«»n. the •mu1.| l.a^r ^^-rn r^rnlt 
4^«tr ^utr>t. rniip*! the D«x)ulr« rouM not h»«r .^i^ufrr^l Wrre it 
"oC MNrlafliM»r)<hi» ori^tQ ti^>e n«<»luir« «oul<l *iarr^^l\ l«r ««• uti f'»rm 
.a '."Stlifte ar^l m»rft»*ot|Mr a(»|irarar»<>e. I^it w«»iil<l Iw m»»fr or ir** 
<»«#t«r'r»t Thr*e n«»ltilr« «irn.»te a •tatr of f!ui l»t\ ..f Vit- rtiftre 
«aac«a »hirti rr«u!tr»l from :)«firot<« a«.*rfM ir% Wfuir if» thi« <!tt'«i 
ei-^^i.l**'© . tin «i'«lw#«« fir^t formr»J. an4 wrfr rnc!.*««^l hi it.c 
•«rr» v»i t.^ »a%« Thi» • • j«ta;n*^l \% thr «? nk!*'! an I ft/ lr*l 
fNtf^w «*f t.*.# &«•!':, 1#«. »h.h *l«.iiMIr*<i «at .«cra«.<»nr«l !i t **« 
•» «.trart.-«fe f !h« • .rr 'un«!;n^ »*•* »• • < **\*'\ 

T ij» fart that t'<* tjtr •• a ffr-^sirfi! • t •• • . r.» • f fc^-* • j* r— k«. 
t%a *• .t,f ^f.- *■ .n • .•ta.J. ^ ^* thr ;^'»»t • • f «• • -f * V • ^"ar .!• . 
T 1 • • al«». •..•t* !*♦«!* • '.he f, % e •l^'*! f*» <'f !— a. I h« T ♦ • tiA 

V%m ;fcir;;;i».i fit at t'f »ft»? «.r% arr uii |t,« .t* t \ jw . if r rr.^; fr»*asi 

XXi(>mm f a.. <j4brr ■ - al.t «• 


tion was directed to inclusions in certain flaggings In Philadel- 
phia, on Chestnut Street above Third Street, and on Filbert Street 
above Thirteenth Street. It was desirable to trace the localities 
of tliese rocks. 

By the assistance of the City Commissioner of Highways, and 
the dealer who furnished the stone for the Chestnut Street pave- 
ment, the locality was ascertained to be Connecticut or Maine. 

The doubt in the case arises from the fact that the stone was 
furnished about twenty-five years ago, no record of its locality 
was kept, and the dealer is unable to recall with any degree 
of certainty the exact location. The granite in external charac- 
ters closely resembles that of New London, Conn., as well as that 
of Sullivan, Maine. Hence this feature is comparatively valueless 
in the determination. But the resemblance of the inclusions to 
those in the Sullivan granite, favors the view that this location is 
the home of the Chestnut Street flags. 

These inclusions are not numerous, nor regular in size and 
outline. They are made up of biotite, are elongated elliptically, 
frequently terminating in acute points. The length is eight or 
ten inches, and the width two or three inches. These masses 
blend into the surrounding rock, without aflTording any distinct 
line of separation, hence suggesting that their extraction would 
involve considerable difllculty. That these were produced in a 
way similar to those of Craflsbury, is apparent from external 
observations, and doubtless sections of the internal structure 
will sustain this supposition. 

No evidence was obtained concerning the locality of the Filbert 
Street rock. Its worn condition denotes a long period of service. 
These inclusions ten<l to detract from the value of granites, as 
they afford an easy access for clestructive agents (moisture, frost, 
heat), and hence such granites having a limited use, are not apt 
to be seen along public thoroughfares. 



Some weeks ago I presented a paper on this subject to the 
Academy. I wish to add a few suggestions to the considerations 
there taken, and particularly to speak of the evolution of the 
sponge, considered from the point of view of defense. As is 
well known, the sponge type of organism is one that it has 
proved difficult to classify, since it only partly conforms to the 
type of the Coelenterates, while it is widely divergent from any 
other animal type. I may briefly point out these divergent 

In all other animals above the Protozoans, except those para- 
sitic forms which are destitute of an intestine, the mouth is a 
single aperture, which constitutes the main opening into the 
bof^y. In the sponge type this single aperture is replaced by a 
multitude of minute openings, in connection with a single large 
anal opening. In one other respect the sponge is different from and 
more simplified than other animal types. Its digestion is 
entirely cellular. It has developed no organ answering to the 
stomach of other types. 

The sponge is, moreover, destitute of any organs of offense or 
defense. Its nearest relatives, the polyps, have their tentacles 
and thread-cells, in connection with a single aperture, which is 
both oral and anal in function, and with a digestion which is 
intermediate between the cellular and the stomachal methods, 
and can be properly classed with neither. 

The 'method of obtaining food, by the aid of water currents, is 
not peculiar to the sponge. It may be found in other animal 
types, such as the bivalve mollusks, the Tunicata, AmphioxuSj 
etc. But in the sponge it is far more simplified than in these 
higher forms. In the case of the mollusks, the water current is 
confined to the branchise, and only its food particles are taken 
into the intestine. In the Tunicates and in Amphioxus respira- 
tion is intestinal, but the water current is confined to the 
branchial half of the intestine, while its food particles enter the 
stomachal half, where they undergo digestion. In the sponge 
the water currents permeate every portion of the body, and 
respiration, as well ^s digestion, is a function of the separate 

26 FR00EIDIN08 Of TEE AOADKMT Of [1886. 

cells. Thus the most interior regions of the organism are 
visited by this water current and its contents. 

Of all animal types, therefore, that of the sponge is least pro- 
tected by defensive appliances. There is nothing in the make-up 
of the organism to prevent enemies from entering and penetrat- 
ing to every portion of the body. They cannot be confined to 
an intestinal tube, and exposed to the action of its digestive 
juices, as in most organisms, but the whole interior of the body 
is open to assault. 

Tet the evolution and long-continued existence of the sponge 
type is evidence that it has possessed some defensive adaptation. 
This adaptation, in its original phase at least, I take to be the 
peculiar system of inhalent and exhalent apertures. It is evident 
that the entrance of the water currents at the large aperture 
would greatly facilitate the entrance of the foes of the sponge, 
since they would be drawn from a distance and carried into the 
body on these currents. As it is, the currents enter at minute 
apertures, only adapted to the passage of microscopic food par- 
ticles, and closing completely when not in use. The spicules 
may also act defensively^, to prevent any larger creature from 
forcing an entrance at these oral apertures. 

On the other hand, there is a strong current of outflow from 
the large aperture, well adapted to drive away the foes of the 
sponge, unless possessed of considerable swimming power. In 
this fact we seem to have an explanation of the peculiar organi- 
zation of the sponge. The primeval ancestors of the Ca»len- 
terates probably developed in two directions. In one ty|)e tenta- 
cles and thread-cells appeared, the oral opening was defendetl, 
and the internal cavity took on the function of an incipient 
stomach. In the other type the simple gastrula form was 
retained, and water was drawn in by ciliary action tlirough pores 
in its cellular wall, and discharged at the mouth opening, after 
yielding its food particles to the individual cells. Thus a multi- 
tude of minute currents were combined into a single protective 
outflowing current of considcrnble strength. 

This formation seems iK'neficial to the sponjre from an a^pres- 
sive as wfll as from a defensive point of view. The extension of 
the or.d apertuns over the whole surface of the body very con- 
siderably increases the water space from which food particles are 
drawn in, and thus may add materially to the f^od supply. As 


the microscopic creatures which serve the sponge for food are 
somewhat thinly disseminated, this extension of the space swept 
by the inflowing currents is certainly an advantage. 

These remarks, however, are intended to apply principally to 
the primitive sponge. In the earliest stage of this type of 
organism it probably lacked the spicular and fibrous defenses 
now possessed, and was but a step above the simple gastrula. At 
this remote era, however, it is probable that muscular action had 
not yet been evolved, and that cilia formed the only agents of 
animal motion. Against creatures swimming by aid of cilia the 
water current of the sponge must have been fully eflScacious as a 
defense. The development of the fibrous framework, and of 
the pointed spicules, was probably a subsequent adaptation to 
meet new dangers, after muscular organs of motion had been 
evolved. At present prowling animals have no diflSculty in 
making their way to the interior of the sponge. The spicule is 
now probably its most eflScient defense, and the continued exist- 
ence of the sponge type shows that it is sufficiently defended 
against such animals as might seek to prey upon its protoplasmic 

I may offer, in conclusion, a further application of the hypoth- 
esis presented in my former paper. The interaction of attack 
and defense presents a feature of distinction between animals and 
plants, in addition to those usually recognized. This distinction 
I may briefly indicate. 

If we consider the defensive appliances of animals from a 
general point of view, they may be reduced to two categories. 
They are either mechanical or motor. These exist together, but 
to the extent that the one method is developed, the other remains 
undeveloped. If we take such an animal as the oyster, for 
instance, we flnd that its defense is almost wholly mechanical. 
Its only defensive motion is one of withdrawal within the shell. 
If we take man, the defence is almost wholly motor. Scarcely a 
trace of mechanical defense exists. In my former paper I spoke 
also of mentality as a defensive attribute. But the defensive 
action of tfie mind yields really a motor effect. It simply pro- 
duces more intricate and diversified motions, both in attack and 
defense, than those displayed by unintelligent animals. 

If we examine the whole range of the animal kingdom, we find 
every phase of combination of mechanical and motor defense, the 


motion growing more sluggish as the defensive armor grows 
more efficient. But in the whole kingdom, motion persists as one 
of the defensive agencies. No animal exists without some power 
of motion, by whose aid it withdraws or otherwise escapes from 

In the plant kingdom, on the contrary, no defensive motion 
exists. Mechanical defense exists alone. This does not apply to 
those minute swimming organisms which lie near the root of the 
plant and animal kingdoms.* But in all the higher plants no 
motion exists, so far as I am aware, that is useful as a protection. 
Thus the possession of protective motions by all animals, and 
the lack of them by all plants, serve as a point of distinction 
between the two kingdoms. 

In regard to aggressive motions, this rule does not so fully 
hold good. All animals have aggressive motions. Nearly all 
plants are destitute of them. Yet a few plants possess them. We 
have instances of aggressive motions in the case of the creeping 
Fungi, and of the Insectivorous plants. Yet apart from these 
cases, the plant kingdom seems devoid of motions useful either 
for attack or defense, and trusts wholly to mechanical appliances. 
With the mechanical, however, must be included chemical appli- 
ances, as in the case of poisonous or disagreeable juices. 

One more query remains. Why, in the early days of the animal 
kingdom, as known to us, was there such a marked tendency to 
trust to mechanical defense, while in the later era the tendency 
has been towards motion as the main protective agent? If we 
consider the early conditions of animal life, this is not difficult 
to comprehend. There is every reason to believe that the various 
organs of animals were very slowly evolved. In a former com- 
munication I have advanced the hyitothesis that the early animals 
were for a long time naked forms, partly, at least, through luck 
of the evolution of glands necessary to produce hani coverings. 
These earl}* animals also moved by means of cilia only, if we can 
trust the evidences from embryology, and from the lower existing 
forms. The development of nerves and muscles was a ver}' slow 
process. The evolution of a form and of swimming organs giving 
high efficiency to muscular action, was probably much slower. 
The early animals possessed of muscles had prol)al)ly a very 
inefficient motor apparatus, and were very sluggish in their 
movements. With the development of armor-producing power, 


therefore, this seems to have been very generally employed as a 
defense of the sluggish against such swifter moving carnivorous 
animals as may have arisen. One great superiority of the verte- 
brate type has always been the superior suitability of its form 
and motor organs to swift movement, and it seems quite likely 
that the great variety of mechanically defended lower forms in 
the early fossiliferous beds, is due to the existence of swifb- 
moving antique vertebrates, which "were themselves nearly or 
quite destitute of hard parts, capable of preservation. Though 
a later ^' struggle for existence,*' between vertebrates themselves, 
caused the weakest and least active of these to develop armor, 
yet it was succeeded by a general tendency in this type of life to 
discard mechanical defenses, and trust to motion for protection. 
The same has been the case with the actively aggressive members 
of some of the lower types, such as the higher mollusks, which 
have thrown off their armor, and developed other defensive appli- 

Throughout the whole history of the organic realm one prin- 
ciple holds good. There has been a continued evolution of more 
rapid and varied powers of motion. To this, every advance in 
organization has tended, while the hindrances to speed and flexi- 
bility have been successively discarded by the higher forms of 
life. In correspondence with this has been the development of 
mentality, since mentality, as outwardly displayed by the animals 
below man, is indicated by a greater intricacy of motions, in 
combination with ambush and concealment. For the attainment 
of the highest possible speed and strength, little mentality was 
requisite, and brain development is manifested rather by intricacy 
than by speed of motion — or rather by that well-ordered correla- 
tion of rest and diversified motion suited to the best good of 
the organism. Yet we must regard mentality as rather the effect 
than the cause of motor evolution. Probably the power of diver- 
sified motion appeared first, while the exercise of any new power 
of this kind acted as an agent in the development of the brain. 
In other words, the evolution of the brain is a consequence of 
that of the body — not the reverse. 





The new species of Partula herein described, are almost all of 
one type. The shells of most species from the Solomon Islands 
are thin, and more or less translucent, with numerous waved spiral 
striffi, a compressed umbilicus, a moderately reflected and concave 
lip, and (when viewed through a glass) the embryonic whorls of 
the apex are rounded or dome-shaped. Like other Partulae, indi- 
viduals of the different species are often variable, especially in 
the greater or less obliquity of the aperture. These thin shells 
possess so many features in common, that it is often difllcult, in 
the absence of illustrations, to frame a diagnosis sufficiently dis- 
tinctive to enable the reader to recognize a species from the de- 
scription alone. I have embraced the present opportunity to 
figure a few species not heretofore delineated, amongst which is 
the lost species, P. rufa, Lesson. 

This shell has been found on the banks of the Leila River, 
Chabroul Hurbor, Uhalan or Strong's Island, by Capt. Brazier, C. 
M. Z. S. I have seen three examples. It is very distinct from P, 
Guamensis, Pfr., with which it has been confounde<i ; the latter is 
an arboreal sjKJcies from Ponape, one of the Caroline group. 
P. rit/a, Less,, is a much smaller species than P, Ouamensiny Pfr., 
which it resembles in color, contour and texture. Farther explo- 
rations in the New Hebrides and Solomon Islands will doubtless 
reveal many new s|>ecies of Partula, 

P. limiUrii, oobiy. Plate II, fig. 1. 

Shell dextral, oblong ovate, thin and translucent; whorls 5, 
convex, spire half the length, oblique lines fine and decussated 
by coarse spiral stria?, umbilicus compressed ; aperture rounded 
ovate ; lip white, color yellowish white, with the apex very pale 
rose. Length 17 mill., diameter 9 mill. ; length of ajwrture 6 mill., 
diameter 4 mill. 

JIah. — Wtfodlark Island, near Xeio Guinea (Capt. Hrazier). 

OOtt, — For size and contour this shell is near P. Carteriemtin^ 
Pfr. ; it is thinner and less solid, with a more rounded a{)erture, 
and concavp lip. 


P. perluoens, nobis. Plate II, fig. 2. 

Shell dextral, oblong, ovate, very thin and pellucid ; whorls 5, 
well rounded , body-whorl somewhat inflated, spire more than half 
the length. Suture well impressed, spiral striae numerous and 
fine, umbilicus compressed, aperture oblique, round oval, lip 
white, concave and moderately reflected. Color a very pale 
green. Length 18 mill., dianiLter 9 mill.; length of aperture 
9 mill., diami ter 4 mill. 

Hab. — Uji or Qolfe Island^ Solomon Islands (Arboreal). 

Obs, — Compared with P. similaris^ herein described, it is a 
larger, thinner and more inflated shell. Capt. Brazier sent me 
two examples, the smaller measured : length 14 mill., diameter 8 

P. ineiirvam, nobis. Plate II, fig. 3. 

Shell dextral, ovate, elongate, thin and translucent, spire 
slender, elongate, more than half the length ; whorls 5, rounded, 
suture impressed, spiral strise numerous, subperforate, with the 
umbilicus slightly compressed, columella slightly nodose. Aper- 
ture ovate, very oblique, lip white, moderately reflected and 
concave. Color yellowish white. Length 18 mill., diameter, 
8 mill. ; length of aperture T mill., diameter 4 mill. Arboreal. 

Hab. — Rubiana Island^ Solomon Islands (Capt. Brazier). 

Obs. — This is a distinct species, with a very oblique aperture, 
giving the shell a bent appearance at the middle. 

P. regularis, nobis. Plate 11, fig. 4. 

Shell dextral, ovate elongate, thin and translucent; spire half 
the length; whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, spiral strisB 
numerous, waved and very fine, umbilicus compressed, aperture 
direct, lip white, concave and slightly expanded, margins of the 
peritreme connected by a very thin callus. Color yellowish 
white. Length IT mill., diameter 8 mill. ; length of aperture 
8*5 mill., diameter 5 mill. Arboreal. 

Hab. — SavUj Oaleria Island^ Solomon Islands (Capt. Brazier). 

P. minor, nobis. Plate II, fig. 5. 

Shell ovate, somewhat oblong, thin and feebly translucent, 
spire as long as the aperture ; whorls 5, slightly rounded, suture 
impressed, oblique striae coarse, spiral striae obsolete, umbilicus 
compressed, lip white, flat and moderately reflected, aperture 
direct, margins of the peritreme connected by a stout callus* 


Color a soiled white, apex rufous. Length 16 milL, diameter 
8 mill. ; length of aperture 6 mill., diameter 3^ mill. 

Hob. — Erromango Island, Solomon Islands. 

Obs. — I possess two examples of this species from Dr. Cox, of 
Sydney, Australia. They were collected by Dr. Turner at the 
above island ; it differs from Carteriensis especially in the 
margins of the peritreme approximating more closely than in 
that species. 

P. oorneola, nobis. Plate II, fig. 0. 

Shell dextral, ovate conic, smooth and polished, corneous, 
translucent ; whorls 5, slightly rounded, spire half the length, 
spiral striae numerous, waved and very fine, umbilicus compressed, 
aperture ovate, with a rounded pillar tooth, and a small tubercle 
on the columella, lip thick, white, and almost flat, with the 
margins connected by a callus. Color pale horn, with the apex 
pale rufous. Length 17^ mill., diameter 9 mill.; length of 
aperture 7 mill., diameter 4 mill. Smaller example: Length, 
16 mill.; diameter, 8 mill. 

Hab. — Eimeo^ Moreal (Mr. Oeale). 

Obs, — Several years ago I obtained two examples from Mr. 
Geale, who accompanied Hugh Cuming. This shell is not found 
in the British Museum, or the Jardin des Plantes, and I have 
only met with it twice in private collections. It differs from all 
the Marquesas species with which I am ac()uainted, and it pos- 
sesses the dome-like apex of the Solomon Island group. 

P. Coxi, Angiig MS. PUtc II, fig. 7. 

Shell dextral ovate, slightly elongate, thin and translucent ; 
whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, oblique lines of growth line, 
and sparsely decussated by waved spiral striae ; aperture ovate, 
direct, umbilicus compressed, lip reflected, white and concave, 
color yellowish white; apex slightly rufous. Length 15 mill., 
diameter 7 mill.; length of aperture 5 mill., diameter 3 mill. 

liah, — Yttabel hland^ Solomon Islands (Capt. Brazier). 

(ths. — This shell was collected at the above locality by Captain 
Brazier, and he has kindly given me a numl)er of examples. In 
1807, Dr. Cox sent me examples of P, jyellucida^ Pse., for Coxi, 
These were pronounced vncans^ Pfr., at the British Museum, 
causing the error in my Bibliographical Catalogue. P. micans 
is a much larger shell. 


According to the obsen^ations of Capt. Brazier, P. pellucida 
and P. Coxi are arboreal species. My examples were pronounced 
Coxi by Mr. Angas ; it is a larger shell than P. pellucida, 

P. Woodlarkiana, nobis. Plate 11, fig. 8. 

Shell dextral, ovate, thin and translucent ; body-whorl inflated ; 
whorls 5, rounded, suture impressed, lines of growth decussated 
by numerous waved spiral strisB, spire short, columella slightly 
arcuate, wide and smooth, compressly umbilicate, aperture round 
ovate, lip concave, white and moderately reflected ; color yel- 
lowish, apex very pale rose. Length 19 mill., diameter 11 mill.; 
length of aperture 9 mill., diameter 6 mill. 

ffab. — Woodlark Island near New Ouinea (Capt. Brazier). 

P. hmstula, nobis. Plate II, fig. 9. 

Shell dextral, elongate, oval, hastulate, thin and pellucid; 
spire acute, half the length ; whorls 6, slightly rounded, suture 
moderately impressed. Oblique striae prominent, and crossed 
by numerous minute spiral lines. Umbilicus compressed, aper- 
ture oval, more or less oblique, margins of the peritreme con- 
nected by a very thin deposit, lip white, reflected and concave. 
Color yellowish. Length 19 mill., diameter 9 mill.; length of 
aperture 8 mill., diameter 4 mill. 

Hob, — Erromango Islandj Solomon Islands, 

Obs, — I am indebted to Captain Brazier for several examples. 
He informs me that Mr. Pease considered it identical with P. 
spadicea, Rve., from which it is certainly distinct ; it is more 
elongate and thinner than any known species from this island. 

P. ebarnea, nobis. Plate II, fig. 10. 

Shell dextral, ovate, very elongate, solid. Spire half the 
length ; whorls 5^, oblique striae coarse, spiral striae obsolete, 
aperture a wide oval, more or less oblique ; umbilicus compressed. 
Columella wide 'above, lip reflected, white and flat, margins of 
the peritreme connected by callus. Color ivory-white. In fresh 
examples sometimes the whole shell is tinged with pale rose. 
Length 26 mill., diameter 13 mill.; length of aperture 11 mill., 
diameter 6 mill. Hab. unknown, 

Obs. — Captain Brazier sent me two examples of this shell, 
given him by a friend ; it is larger and more solid than F/eifferi^ 

34 fR0C£EDIN08 OF THS ACADtSft Of [1886. 

P. prozima, nobis. Plate IT, fig. 11. 

Shell dextral, thin, ovate, very elongate, spire half the length ; 
whorls 5^, surface smooth, oblique lines of growth fine; spiral 
strifle obsolete, aperture ovate, oblique, umbilicus compressed ; 
columella wide above, and slightl}' nodose, lip white and slightly 
concave, margins of the peritreme connected by a thin callus; 
color white. Length 23, width 10 ; length of a|)crture 12, width 
6 mill. 

Hab. — Vanna Leva Island^ Banks Islands^ near the New 

Obs. — Ci\\)t. Brazier sent me two examples (weatherbeaten) col- 
lected at the above island by himself in 18G5; it has the outline 
of eburnea, nobis, but is a smaller, thinner and more slender shell. 

t P. pyramii nobis. Plate II, fig. 12. 

Shell doxtral, solid, perforate, spire elongnte, acute, longer than 
the aperture; whorls 5V, rounded, suture well impressed, surface 
smooth, obliquely striate, fine spiral strise almost obsolete, aper- 
ture a wide oval, slightly oblique, lip white, moderately redected 
and flat, margins of the peritreme connected by a thin de])08it ; 
color pale yellow. Length 25, width 13; length of aperture 10, 
width 5^ mill. 

J Jab. — Vate^ Efate^ or Sandwich Island , New Hebrides. 

Obii. — I have three examples from Mr. Layard and Captain 
Brazier. They are the size of 3fac(jiUirraj/i, from Tanna, but 
the spire is more elongate and acute, the whorls more rounded, 
the sutures are deeper, and they want the dark band at the peri- 
phery of that species. 

p. Newcombianam, iu>h\if. Plato II, fi;;. i:;. 

Shell <lextral, ovate, rather thin; spire acute, half the length; 
whorls 5, rounded ; suture deeply impressed ; body-whorl some- 
what inflated ; obli(iue lines of growth fine and crossed by 
numerous waved spiral stria*, compressly umbilicate; aperture 
very oblicpie, rounded, ovati* ; lip white, moderati*ly reflected 
an<l concave; the outer margin partaking of the color of the 
epidermis; columella wide above; margins of tlie |H'ritreme 
connected by a thin vitreou> deposit; a broad, flat, pillar tooth 
far within the ap«'rture. Color light fawn, with dark brown 
oblique stria', apex dark l»rown. Length 17 mill., diameter 
11*5 mill.; a|>crture, length 7 mill., width 4 mill. 

1886.] NAlrUltAti SOi^NGBS OF pmLADELP^dULi 35 

ffab. — Island of Salisbahoe^ one of the Falow Islandsy between 
Gilolo and Mindanao, ^ 

Obs. — I received this shell from Mr. Layard, through Mr. A. 
Garrett ; in outline and general appearance it resembles some 
varieties of P. varia. I have named it in honor of Dr. Wesley 
Newcomb, one of our oldest American conchologists, well known 
for his writings on the allied genus Achatinella of the Sandwich 

P. eximift, nobis. Plate II, fig. 14. 

Shell dextral, ovate, elongate, solid; spire elongate, half the 
length ; body - whorl large, sutures well impressed ; whorls 
rounded, oblique lines fine, and decussated by almost obsolete 
spiral striae ; umbilicus slightly compressed ; aperture direct, 
oval; lip white, moderately reflected and flat; columella wide 
above ; margins of the peritreme connected by a thin deposit. 
Color of the epidermis a soiled pale green, when separated 
leaving the shell white. Length 23 mill., width 11 mill.; length 
of aperture 11 mill., width 5 mill. 

Hab. — Aneiteum Island^ New Hebrides. 

Obs. — I received one example of this fine species from Mr. 
Layard, through Mr. Jno. H. Thomson. 

Partula mfa, Less. Plate II, fig. 15. 

Ptrtula oonoinna, Pease. Plate II, fig. 16. 

Partala pelluoida, Pse. Plate II, fig. 17. 

Ptrtula Layardii, Braz. Plate II, fig. 18. 

Ptrtula (Diplomorpha) De la Touri, nobis, Plate II, fig. 19. 

Shell dextral, solid, short conic ; whorls 4^, rounded, suture 
deep, body-whorl inflated, almost two-thirds the length, surface 
with coarse oblique strise, umbilicus wide, aperture perpendicular, 
lip white, moderately reflected and revolute, the external margin 
slightly indented, encroaching on the aperture; color of the 
epidermis light brown, color of the aperture dark orange. Length 
20, diameter 14; length of aperture 12, diameter 8 mill. 
Hab. — Aura Island^ in the Malo Pass, Santo Espirito Group, 

Obs This shell has recently been discovered by Mons. De la 

Tour, an enthusiastic young naturalist, who writes that this little 
island teems with moUuscan life. But one other species is known ; 
P, {Diplomorpha) Layardii^ Brazier, herein figured. It is found 
at Yate or Sandwich Island, New Hebrides. The habits of the 
animals are terrestrial. 

36 PRocEEDmOB Of tet acadkmt Of [1886. 

February 2. 
Mr. John H. Redfield in the chair. 

Twenty-six persons present. 

On a Post-tympanic Ossicle in Ursus. — Dr. Harrison Allen 
called attention to an ossicle in the skull of the bear. It is 
situated over the point of junction of the squama and the opis- 
thotic elements as these bones enter into the formation of the 
mastoid. The bone was seen in the skull of young individuals 
only. The species examined were Ursus Americanus^ Ursus 
horribiliSy and Ursus maritimus. 

The posterior prolongation of the tympanic elements which 
are so conspicuously developed in Mephitis and Taridea are 
al»8ent in Ursus. It is every way probable that the new element 
descril>ed is a member of the tympanic series, but instead of 
being found in the space between the mastoid and the paramastoid 
it is placed at tlie tip of the bones which enter into the composi- 
tion of the mastoid. The name pod-tympanic is accordingly 
proposed for this bone. 

February 9. 
Mr. Edw. Potts in the chair. 
Seventeen persons present. 

February 16. 

Mr. Tugs. Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Nint'tiM'n p^Tsons present. 

TIh' folio winj^ papers were proscnte<l for publication : — 
" On tlie Minute Structure of Stromatopora and its allies/' by 
Dr. C. Konun;rt'r. 

** On the Problem of Keverse<l Vision/* by Charles Morris. 

February 23. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-four persons present. 




An Extinct Boar from Florida, — Prof. Leidy exhibited a spe- 
cimen consisting of two fragments of a tooth, which together are 
over three inches long, and form the greater portion of the worn 

extremity of a 
lower tusk, with 
the point bro- 
ken off, appar- 
ently of a huge 
suilline animal. 
The fragments 
were mingled 
with other small 
ones of tusks of 
Mastodon flori- 
danus, recently 
collected in Flo- 
rida. The spe- 
cimen nearly ac- 
cords in shape 
with the corres- 
ponding part of 
the tusk of the 
hog,but approx- 
imates in pro- 
portionate size 
that of the hip- 
popotamus. The 
worn surface in 
the entire tooth 
has been about 
three inches 
long, and is an 
inch wide. Thin 
enamel invests 
the tooth, ex- 

Fio. 1 —Posterior view of the right lower oanlne tooth ; a, worn cepting on the 

sarface; b, broken surface; c, enamel. posterior SUr- 

Fio. 2.— Transverse section of the same. face as in the 

hog. Near the broken base of the specimen in one position , extend- 
ing a short distance from the post-external border, the enamel is 
defined by a sinuous edge, and appears to show that it ceased 
about four inches from the point of the tooth, instead of extend- 
ing the whole length of the tusk as in the hog. The anterior or 
internal, and the posterior surfaces of the tooth are transversely 
convex, and the external surface is convex and slightly flattened. 
In transverse section the tooth is ovate, instead of triangular as 
in the hog, the inner pole forming the sharp edge of the worn 
surface. The surfaces of the tooth are smoother even than in 
the hog, being less marked by longitudinal strise and transverse 

38 psocnDncos ov thx acadimt of [18S€. 

lines of growth. They show no trace of the flating in the task 
of the hippopotaiDos, nor of the strong external ridge of the 
peccary. The specimen is nearer in character to the tusk of the 
hog than that of any other related animal, bat is safficiently dif- 
ferent to render it probable that it may pertain to another genas. 
No undoubted remains of the genus Sus have yet been discovered 
in America, and the same is the case with the genus Hippopol' 
umus. The peccary appears to be the American representative 
of the ho^. The fossil may provisionally be referred to a new 
genus, related with the latter, with the name of Eutyodon^ dis- 
tintruishing the species as Eustodos maximcs. 

The transverse diameter of the section of the tusk, about three 
inches from the point, is an inch and two-thirds ; and the fore and 
aft diameter an inch and a quarter. 

Caries in the Mastodon, — Prof. Leidt directed attention to a 
specimen consisting of the posterior jiortion of a last upper 
molar tooth of the Mastodon, which he had attributed to a spe^ 
cies under the name of M. floridanun. It is remarkable from 
the circumstance that it apparently exhibits the result of caries, 
a condition of which he had never previously observed an instance 
in extinct animals. The supposed caries ap|)ears as an irregular 
excavation irarae<liately above the crown of the tooth, about four 
lines in depth. The mouth of the cavity is elliptical, extending 
one and one-fourth inches transversclv, and one-fourth of an inch 
vertically. The surface of the cavity appears irregularly eroded. 

F. L. Harvey and Miss Mary A. Campbell were elected 

The following; were ordered to be printed : — 


OH THE MiinrrE stkuctuke of strohatopoba and its allies. 


I bad only recently the opportunity of reading the joint essay 
by Prof. Alleyne Nicholson and Dr. F. Murie on the structure 
of Stromatopora, published in 1879, in the Journal of the Linnsean 
Society of London. The communication treats for the most part 
to the structure of the Stromatoporas found on the American 

As I had paid attention for a number of years to the study of 
Stromatopora and had gathered extensive collections' of them in 
most of the localities from which the type specimens described 
by these authors came, I had no difficulty in identifying the forms 
they had under consideration. While I was enabled in this way 
to confirm the correctness of some of their observations, I found 
that in other instances they labored under erroneous conceptions, 
partly because their material was insufficient, partly because they 
did not recognize the things as they actually were. 

Of most of the forms described by them and of a number of 
others I had over fifteen years ago worked out descriptions, 
accompanied by sixteen plates of magnified photographic figures, 
intending to have them published under the auspices of the 
Smithsonian Institution. Those to whom the paper was referred 
for examination, however, reported adversely, in view of the recent 
publication of Baron v. Rosen's monograph on Stromatopora and 
the undesirability, as they believed, of issuing so many plates 
with such a comparatively small amount of text. 

Messrs. Nicholson and Murie commence with an historical expo- 
sition of the different opinions held by writers on the nature and 
affinities of Stromatopora, and after discussion of the arguments 
for and against such opinions, they declare themselves with some 
resen'C in favor of the most popular of them, which was also held 
by Qoldfuss, the founder of the genus, that is to say, they think 
the nearest relationship of Stromatopora is with the sponges having 
A calcareous skeleton. The authors think they have recognized 
in Stromatopora systems of channels destined for the circulation 
of water to and from the organism, analogous to those permeating 
the mass of sponges ; but we shall see hereafter that these supposed 


water-channels are not a part of the organism, and prove on 
accurate examination to be either accidental perforations of the 
skeleton by boring animals, or else, are the stems of certain corals, 
particularly of Syringopora^ which have grown up simultaneously 
with the Slromatoporay parasitically enveloping them. 

At the time I wrote the before-mentioned manuscript I also 
believed a close affinity existed between the sponges and Stro- 
matopora^ but since Carter and others have pointed out the simi- 
larity existing between the calcareous skeleton of Hydractinia 
and Siromatopora I am convinced that the similarity between the 
calcispongiie and Siromatopora is merely an external one. The 
mode of growth and organization of the sponges essentially differs 
from that of Siromatopora. The sponges are through their entire 
mass permeated by a system of channels systematically arranged 
so as to make it evident that all parts of the sponge are destined 
to perform simultaneously a vital function in the compound organ- 
ism. There is nothing in their structure which could with pro- 
priety be compared with the uniform periodicity in the growth of 
a Siromatopora^ which forms layer after layer in endless succes- 
sion, one being the exact analoijue of the other. The layers in 
manv instances arc almost entirely shut off from communication 
witli the subjacent portion of the laminated skeleton. We have 
to infer, therefore, that the live portion of a Stromaio}H>ra was 
confined to the uppermost superficial strata, while the interlaminar 
cell-spaces towards the interior gradually were abandoned and 
became dead portit)ns of the skeleton, as is the case with the skel- 
etons of Hydractinia^ and generally with all true corals produc- 
inir a calcareous stonv skeleton. 

In a second chapter the authors give the characteristics of 
Strumalojtora^ considering as type of the genus the GoMfussian 
species Str. concentrica and j/olymorpha^ both found in the Eifel, 


Their description reads : ** Stromatopora is composed of a suc- 
cessicm of thin, close-set lamina*, arranged concentrically round 
one or more imaginary centres. These concentric fundamentally 
horizontal laniinjc are separated by interspaces, \\hieh are crossei! 
by more or less inimerous vertical pillars ; hence the vertical sec- 
tion »)f a Stromatopora exhibits a number of approximately hori- 
zontal layers and intervening spaces, the latter divided by upright 
pillars into a number of vesicular compartments. The entire lami- 


nated mass lias sometimes grown as an incrustation of a central 
nucleus,^ shell or coral ; other times it forms a more or less thick 
expansion with a small point of attachment, and otherwise a free 
underface covered b}*^ a wrinkled dense epithelial crust." 

After this, in a general way correct description, they discuss 
the original nature of the hard structures of Stromatoporoids, 
which in fossilized condition are found calcareous, other times 
siliceous, or partially calcareous and partially siliceous ; and demon- 
strate the originally calcareous nature of the ske.eton of Stroma- 
tapora particularly by the circumstance that the specimens ol 
Stromaiopora are always found in a calcareous condition, when 
the associated fossils are likewise calcareous ; but if the associated 
primitively calcareous fossils are to any large proportion silicified, 
then also the skeletons of Stromaiopora are found more or less 
completely silicified. The various modes of preservation are 
then enumerated : a, skeleton wholly calcareous ; 6, skeleton 
calcareous, interlaminar spaces infiltrated with silica ; c, skeleton 
silicified but the interlaminar spaces infiltrated with calcite ; <i, 
both former conditions of preservation represented in one and the 
same specimen ; 6, both skeleton and interlaminar spaces trans- 
formed and filled with silica. 

Entering into description of the more minute particulars of the 
structure of Stromaiopora the writers state that of the before- 
mentioned pillars not all reach from lamina to lamina, but that 
rudimentary shorter ones occur between. The pillars and laminsB 
are represented as composed of granular carbonate of lime, which 
shows no structure, except occasionally an indistinct indication 
of reticulation. According to my own observation, in all well- 
preserved calcareous specimens of Stromaiopora, the substance 
of the laminse and of the pillars, being composed of a network of 
interwoven delicate fibres, can be recognized with the greatest 
distinctness, with a good simple lens, although not so distinctly 
with the higher powers of a microscope, both the organic structure 
and the crystalline mineral structure then becoming visible, thus 
causing a blurred image. 

The pillars are described as either simple rounded prominences 
or else as vermicular and anastomosing crests which are imperfor- 
ate, solid, not tubular. The writers, however, observed on the 
8ui:face of weathered silicified specimens sometimes a part of the 
exposed pillars perforated by a central opening, which they try 

42 ruxTKEDnsss <» the iripgwr or [188^ 

to explain bj an incomplete silicitkmtion of tlie eentnl portion 
of these pillan and bj snboeqaent lixiriation of the ODchanged 
calcareooj centre on exposure to atmospberic infliMDcesw 

I have, likewise, frequently obaenred a central perforation of 
cro9»-frau'tare<i pillars in caicareoos. as well at in silicified speci- 
mens, bat while I perfectly agree with their representation of the 
pillars as generally being solid, not tnbalar, I do not think that 
the Central perforation of the pillars in the mentioned cases is 
the result of weathering of the imperfectly silicified skeleton 
substance. I believe it is caused by funnel-shaped inflexions of 
the laroins at the base of these pillars, which excaration shows 
itself as a central opening, if the apical part of the pillars which 
i.H solid is broken off. 

The laminse of some forms of StrowuUcpora^ such as tuberculaia^ 
and granulata of Nicholson, are described as continuous leaves, 
without any visible perforations placing the superimposed inter- 
laminar spaces in communication. It may be suggested that such 
openings of communication may exist. I had frequently occasion 
to o)>serve tliis to l)e the case, although, in many instances, the 
laminffi of these species of Stromatopora appeared perfectly free 
of larger perforations than the minute pores of the tissue itself. 
In other forms, such as Strom, nodulaia^ and densa^ the exist- 
ence of such larger openings for communication l«tween the 
Hii|MTiinpoH<*(l interlaminar spaces has been i*ecognized by the 

According to my own observations, a part of these pores of 
communication, and at the same time the largest ones, can be deter- 
mined to \}c portions of the ramified horizontal channel expansions 
nuiially converging towards certain centres, and uniting there in 
one larger central canal, ascending vertically. These horizontal 
caiiaN in their ext^'union slowly ascend from one interlaminar 
space into another. They have, as Messrs. Nicholson and Murie 
correctly observed, no proper walls, and cannot be considered as 
canals horizontally intersecting the substance of the laminie, but 
with more propriety are de8cril»ed as furrows on the surface of 
tin- lamina*, which, finally, by the formation of a new lamina aliove 
tlh' oMer one, Ix^come roofe<l over and are transformed into closed 
tulMilar spa(M's. This opinion I fully indorse. 

All Siroinatoporas do not exhibit such radical channel expan- 
sions well developed, but faint indications of radially arranged 


furrows converging to certain centres can be discovered in almost 
every form of Stromatopora if we examine a sufficient number of 
well-preserved specimens. Certain forms show them always most 
beautifully, particularly those in which the tissue of the lamellae 
and the pillars has an open porous texture, which increases their 
bulk, and diminishes the size of the interstitial spaces propor- 
tionately. These forms have been pointed out by Winchell under 
the generic name of Coenostroma^ which distinction is not accepted 
by Messrs. Nicholson and Murie, as the principal generic charac- 
ter of Ccenostroma is said to be the occurrence of the radial 
channel expansions which, being present in forms of ver^^ different 
affinitives, cannot, in their opinion, be used as a generic mark. 
This is, in one way, true ; but if we consider that the forms com- 
prehended under Coenostroma are distinguished not only by their 
radiated surface, but by the before-mentioned bulkiness of their 
laminae and pillars, and the minuteness of the interlaminar cavi- 
ties, from the ordinary typical forms of Stromatopora^ which have 
compact, well-defined laminae and pillars, I think these two 
characters combined allow a subdivision of Stromatopora into 
two groups, which at the first glance are distinguishable by even 
an inexperienced observer, although, as I admit, numerous tran- 
sitory grades from one group to the other exist, which make it 
difficult to draw a line of demarkation between them. 

The characters by which Prof. Nicholson distinguishes Stylo- 
diclyon from Stromatopora most assuredly' stand on a weaker basis 
than those of Winchell's Coenostromxi, as I will demonstrate here- 
after when Messrs. Nicholson and Murie 's newly created genera 
are reviewed. 

After having described these radiating horizontally expanded 
channels, the authors give a description of certain so-called 
vertical water canals^ observed in many different forms of Stro- 

There are two essentially different kinds of such canals verti- 
cally traversing the laminated masses, and considered by the 
authors as parts of the organism. In one of the cases we find 
the mass of the Stromatopora perforated by comparatively large, 
generally round, but sometimes elliptical canals, which have no 
walls for themselves, and are evidently perforations by boring 
animals. The nature of the channels and their totally irregular 
distribution in the masses, proves this in a large number of spe- 
oimens examined by me. 

:uri -L .^ 

44 t^ROCSSDlNQS or THk AGADKMT Of [1886. 

As representing this kind of channels, or oscula, as they term 
them, the authors mention the following forms : StromcUopara 
BtHatella^ Hindei, tuberculata, ponderosa, and ostiolata. In the 
first four mentioned forms, the true nature of these perfora- 
tions is without difficulty demonstrable. In St. ostiolata, of which 
specimens from Guelph, Canada, are transformed into a coarsely 
crystalline dolomite, the organic structure of these masses can 
scarcely be ascertained, and it is impossible to decide definitely 
on the nature of the tubular casts traversing them. One of the 
other examples mentioned, the so-called Stromatopora Hiiidei^ is 
unfortunately selected, as it is ia reality an Alveolites, perforated 
by some boring animal. The figures and description given leave 
no doubt as to this point. Similar silicificd specimens are, more- 
over, not rarely met with in the Niagara group of Michigan. 

The second kind of vertical tubular channels supposed to have 
the function of conducting water through the organism of Stro- 
matopora has distinct walls with imbricating wrinkles of growth 
on the outside, and frequently from their interior a circle of 
longitudinal rows of spinules projects ; more rarely invaginated 
funnel-shaped diaphragms interrupting the tube-channels can be 
observed, all of which proves that we have before us inclosed 
stems of a Syringopora and not canals making part of the skele- 
ton of the associated Stromatopora. Specimens of each are (juite 
abundant in the Devonian strata of Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, 
and Canada. Some pebbles found on the shore of Lake Superior 
represent the same parasitical investment of clusters of Syringo- 
jKtra stems on Stromatopora. 

In the Niagara group we also find various kinds of Stromato- 
])ora similarly inter^rown with stems of a delicate Syringopora^ 
whicli 1 liJive described in the Michij^an Geological reports under 
the mime Syringopora filiformxH. In other cases we find colonies 
of I)iphy})hyUum multicaule invested in the same way by Stroma- 

In til is connection also Stromatorerium of Hall is cited by the 
autliors as an example of the first class of vertical water canals, 
without any proper walls. In a chapter headed ^'Drparttiren from 
the Ordinary Tyj>f of Stroniatoj)ora,'^ as the first of these, Stroma- 
((K-erium is enumerated, and tlie following description given : **It 
ha** the general aspect of Strovuifopora, and possesses crowded con- 
centric iaminiu characteristic forStromatoporoids. Thelaminseare 


of considerable thickness, and are separated as usual by well- 
marked interlaminar spaces, but the latter are quite open, and 
there is a total absence of the vertical calcareous pillars which 
occur in the normal Stromatoporoids ; but the whole mass is per- 
forated by innumerable vertical canals, whicl^ are destitute of 
walls, and open directly into the successive interlaminar spaces 
which they penetrate, as well as into open irregular laminae in 
the general laminated skeleton." 

This is an erroneous conception of the structure of that family, 
as these supposed tubules are in reality casts of actual solid 
tissue pillars which vertically intersect the laminated mass, some- 
times without interruption in the diflferent intersected layers, 
sometimes in each band (consisting of a group of subordinate 
delicate layers), these pillars start anew from a fresh basis. 

The ordinary mode of preservation of the fossil has generally 
impaired the original organic texture of the skeleton, which 
became almost totally destroyed, and the space occupied by tissue 
mass filled with transparent crystalline carbonate of lime, while 
the former vesicular interlaminar interstices were replenished 
with turbid, milky dolomite. Sections through such specimens 
in vertical direction, show the transparent casts of the tissue 
pillars as tubular channels, and in horizontal sections the same 
appear to be circular orifices surrounded by a massive interstitial 
wall substance, 

Silicified specimens occasionally occur in which the interlaminar 
spaces filled with silica are the only part preserved, while the 
actual skeleton has been removed by solvents, and the space once 
occupied by it remaining hollow, we then see the mass intersected 
by innumerable small circular channels. 

I had the good fortune to find in the drift of Ann Arbor some 
calcareous specimens in which the original tissue mass is pre- 
served, represented by a non-transparent, dull, calcareous matter, 
while the cellulose interlaminar interstices are replenished with 
clear, transparent carbonate of lime. 

They consist of a succession of thick, concentrically superim- 
posed, undulating and monticulose layers from two to six milli- 
meters in thickness, which are generally demi :ated from 
one another by darker colored division lines of gi er density 
than the remainder of the lamina. ch such lar^ lamina 

represents a certaia uninterrupted 1 ow during 


which, beginning from a solid basal leaf, densely crowded with 
papillose prominences, delicate versiculous plates are formed at 
short intervals, connecting into a floor which bridges over 
the tops of these papilli, which are prolonged until another 
floor spreads over their apices, and until from six to twelve of 
these subordinate lamina; had formed, inclosing between them 
versicular cell-spaces. Then after an evident interruption in the 
uniform progress of growth, a new one of the larger layers com- 
posed of subordinate lamina;, commenced to form on top of the 
other. The pillars intersecting the laminae subordinate to a larger 
bandiike layer form uninterrupted columelles which usually 
correspond with those of the next succeeding layers or bands. 
In other cases, however, the columellse or pillars of each one of 
the thicker compound laminse are independent in their position, 
and do not correspond. Some of these pillars are often much 
stouter than the others, and divide into several mammiform side 
bninches. The majority of them are simple, rounded, or later- 
ally compressed into vermicular crests, particularly so in the 
circumference of the monticulose prominences of the surface, 
where these crests radially converge towards the centre, resem- 
bling the horizontal radially converging channel eximnsionsof an 
ordinary Stromatopora^ but in this case it is the tissue-mass, and 
not the intervening furrows, which produces the vermicular 
radiating converging lines. The interstitial cell-spaces inclose<l 
between the convex transverse Icatlets bridging over the simce 
from pillar to pillar, are very similar to the convex vesicules in 
a vertical section of a Cystijihyllum. As al>ove stated in the 
majority of specimens occurring abundantly ii» the Trenton 
group of Kscanaba River, and at Nashville, Tennessee, and 
also in the drift of Ann Arbor and in the upper part of the 
Cincinnati group at Madison, Indiana, the actual skeleton sul>- 
stance is almost completely destroyed, and its place filled with 
crystalline carl>onate of lime. It often occui"s that several of the 
thick bandlike layers are composed of a succession of vesiculosc 
layers twice or three times the size of tlie vesicules com|M>siiig 
other layers of the same specimens. In tliis case the vertical 
pillars l>ecome very obscure, so tliat tlie whole appears as an 
indiscriminate accumulation of yesiculcs as large as those of an 
onlinary Cystijthyllum. 

The surface of Slromatocerium was not known to Messrs. 


Nicholson and Murie. I have seen many specimens with a sur- 
face covered by rounded monticules similar to those of Stromato- 
pora monticulifera^ Winchell, and the tops of these monticules 
radiated by the convergence of the before-mentioned compressed 
vermiform crests representing the pillars of an ordinary Stro- 
matopora. I had photographic representations of such natural 
surfaces on the plates pertaining to my old manuscript essay on 
Stromatoporaj besides figures of vertical sections which exhibit - 
the structure better than any description can do it. 

As a second aberrant form of Stromatoporoids the authors 
pointed out a form to which they gave the name Pachyntroma. 

The type form occurs in the Niagara group and is described as 
consisting of subhemispherical masses formed of a concentric 
succession of very thick laminae from one to two lines in diameter, 
which are in direct contrast, not separated by inter-laminar 
spaces except occasionally by narrow irregular intervals, conse- 
quently there are also no radial pillars. Under the microscope 
the great laminae are formed of an indistinct porous calcareous 
tissue principally composed of irregular vertical fibres placed at 
some distance from one another, and only clearly brought to view 
by the use of polarized light. Numerous delicate but irregular, 
generally remote vertical vermicular tubules without distinct 
walls are said to perforate the mass, but such pores could not be 
discovered on fractured surfaces by the use of a simple lens. 
The surface of weathered specimens also shows radiating branched 
subdermal canals placed round numerous Independent centres, 
precisely as in the so-called Coenostroma. 

Several figures of sections through Fachystroma are given, 
which, together with the above description, convince me that the 
authors had under observation imperfectly preserved specimens 
of Stromatopora, which occur abundantly in the Niagara group ; 
those found in the vicinity of Lockport in calcified condition, 
particularly correspond with the given descriptions. They have 
generally lost the finer structure, but exhibit distinctly a compo- 
sition of concentrically superimposed bands consisting of an 
almost structureless, compact, calcareous mass, cut into thin 
slices, showing under the microscope the above described fibrous 

On examination of a good many specimens exceptionally a spot 
may be found in which the structure is better preserved, and in 


those I can see that each one of the described large, thick laminae 
consists of a number of delicate subordinate laminae, separated as 
usual by minute interlaminar spaces, intersected with pillars. 
In my opinion, therefore, the so-called Pachystroma merely repre- 
sents a certain imperfect state of preservation of several of the 
ordinary species of Stromatopora found in the Niagara group. 
The grouping of the smaller structural elements into broader 
, bands is almost universally the rule in Stromatopora. Any ver- 
tical section almost, in which the delicate lamina3 and interstitial 
spaces alternate through the whole thickness of the mass with 
great uniformity, will, if we direct our attention to it, show a 
grouping of a number of such laminae into one broader, occa- 
sionally narrower bands, discernible by a darker shade of color 
on the junction line of two of such bands. It indicates tempo- 
rary short interruptions in the regularity of the progressing 
growth, as I have intimated previously, while giving a description 
of the structure of Stromatocerium. 

Prof. Nicholson considers also Slroniato})ora densa of the Hel- 
derberg group as a representative of his Pachy»troma^ hut of this 
form I can most positively assert that its structure does not ditfer 
in any respect from the typical forms of Stromaiojyora. 

The specimens before me allow the recognition of the regular 
superposition of laminrc, supported b}' galleries of short, stout 
pillars with greatest distinctness ; the orifices of the horizontal 
channel expansions are in vertical sections, rather large, and the 
ordinary interlaminar cell-spaces unusually small, which causes 
the compactness and apparent density of the mass, as compared 
with the open porous appearance of sections of other associated 
forms of Stromatopora^ the commonest of which is Stromato- 
pora ponderosa^ Nicholson. This latter form I had years ago <lis- 
tributed among m}' scientific friends under the name of Stroma- 
topora tentiliSy on account of its most elegant reticulated 
appearance in vertical sections. In this respect it exceeds in 
distinctness any other form of Stromatopora known to me. 

A third group of Stromatoporoids, aln-rrant from the ordinary 
type, Mr. Nicholson named Clathrodirtyon. It is distinguished 
from the tyi>e form by tlie Hex nose course of the lanielhe com- 
posing the laminated section. They are continually turned up 
and downward, the upturned portions representing the vertical 
pillars of ordinary forms of Stromatujxjra, The interlaminar 


spaces, therefore, appear as layers of rounded or elongated vesic- 
ules somewhat resembling the tissue of Cysiiphyllum on a minute 
scale. Forms of this structure occur abundantly in the Niagara 
group and some in the Devonian strata. 

A generic distinction of these forms, represented in many dif- 
ferent modifications, can, in my opinion, be made with propriety, 
but as intermediate forms occur, in which the lamellae are only 
little disturbed in their straight course by the inflexions repre- 
senting the interstitial pillars, it is difficult to draw a line separ- 
ating Clathrodictyon from Stromatopora. 

Prof. Nicholson's type form of Clathrodictyon, occurring in 
the Niagara group, is described as forming large cake-like expan- 
sions from one to two inches in thickness centrally, but thinning 
out near the margins. Upper face irregularly undulating and 
exfoliating concentrically round elevated points. Surface smooth. 
Internal structure exceedingly delicate, formed of fine close-set, 
horizontal or slightly undulating laminae, of which about twenty 
to twenty-five occupy the space of one line. Interlaminar spaces 
divided into minute lenticular cells formed by curved infiexions 
of the horizontal laminae. 

Specimens to which, in a general way, this description is ap- 
plicable, are common in the Niagara group of Michigan, Kentucky 
and Iowa, but although a good many hundreds came under my 
observation I could never find one whose structure was so minute 
as to exhibit from twenty to twenty-five laminae on the space of 
one line. The most delicately built among my specimens had not 
over sixteen within the space of a line. 

The form having this delicate structure I had, in my above- 
mentioned essa}' on Stromatopora^ described and figured under 
the name Stromatopora minuta. Its structure does not repre- 
sent the character of Clathrodictyon in its most perfect develop- 
ment, as the lamellae, which by their inflexion form the pillars, 
are not much twisted out of their rectilinear general direction, and 
as a number of pillars are observable in such sections which are 
papillose prominences of the surface of the lamellae, not showing 
any inflexion of the latter at their base. 

Associated with this form are several other forms of much 
coarser structure with from six to eight lamellae within the space 
of one line, which exhibit the clathrodictyon character in much 
more ideal perfection than the type form does. These had been 


described in my before-mentioned essay under the name of Siro- 
matopora vesiculosa^ as their vertical sections appear as an acco* 
mulation of layers of cystose cells, rather than as a succession of 
continuous lamina', separated by interstitial spaces. The demar* 
kating walls of the cells appear in vertical sections as the meshes 
of a net-work bounded by lines diagonally intersecting the direc- 
tion which the larainoe should have if they formed continnous 
leaves. In some of these specimens a banded structure is obeerv* 
able, whereby from five to eight layers of vesicules are grouped 
together to form a broader band, which then is sharply defined by 
a straight continuous division line from the adjoining similar 
bands above and below it. 

Other specimens of this vesiculose species of Stromatopara 
are found intergrown with stems of Syringopora filiformis^ 
sometimes also with stems of Diphyphyllum multicaule^ exactly 
in the same manner as in the previously mentioned Devonian 
forms, which have been subordinated by the authors to CaunO' 
pora, supposing the enveloped stems lo be part of the skeleton 
of Stromal opor a. 

Among the Devonian representatives of his genus Clathro- 
diciyon, Mr. Nicholson describes, under the name C. rellulosum, 
a form whi<'h I had in my paper named Stroinat. cellulifera. It 
occurs in the coriiiforous limestone of Port Colborne and else- 
where, in association with another form which I calle<l Sir, 
inv a (J i n at a ^hwi which, it scfuis, did not come under his olmerva- 
tion. C celluloHum is described as growing in irregular expan- 
sions of considtTabk' size, formed of a succession of horizontal 
lamella*, about four occupying the space of one line, and so 
inflected as to form complete or incomplete partitions, which 
divide tlie int<rlanunar Bjmot's into a number of irregularly oval 
vesicules, al>out thn-e occupying one line. Surface tulK^rculated 
or granulate<l ; the tubercules occasionally lH*rforated. In the 
specimens found in the same loeality the surface, instead of 
iK'ing tuberculated or granulated, as alH)ve ilesciilK»d, is covered 
with roof like, elonjiated, later.iUv uniting crests, forming in this 
way a network, enclosing shallow subpolygonal cell-pits, some- 
what similar to the shallow pits of a minute coniiM>unil 8tar-<*onil, 
as the margins of these crest** i>n weatheied silicitied sjH»cinien«, 
l>eing of porous texture, apj>ear sometimes crenulated, which 
crenulation increases the resemblance. The other form allied to 


Clathrodtctyon which is not described by Prof. Nicholson, pre- 
sents the weathered surfaces of the silicified specimens, covered 
with very stout rounded conical papilli of almost uniform size, 
about half a millimetre in diameter and twice that distance apart. 
Apices of the not cross-fractured papilli imperforate. In a 
vertical section four or five well-demarkated stout lamellae occupy 
the space of two millimetres, which is approximately the same 
as one line. The interlamellar pillars are formed by upward 
flexions of the lamellae, and therefore we see the base of each 
one excavated by an inverted funnel-shaped sinuosity ; and as 
the pillars of the successive laminae correspond, the apices of the 
pillars of the inferior laminae become invaginated into the basal 
funnel-shaped excavation of the next ones above, which being 
the case through the whole thickness of the laminated mass, 
makes it appear as if so many vertical columns intersected it 
transversely. This structure was observed by Mr. Nicholson in 
another species of Stromatopora, and induced him to propose for 
it the generic name Stylodictyon. 

The space between these pseudo-columns is bridged over by a 
gentl}' downward curved portion of the lamellae, leaving corres- 
pondingly large elongated interlaminar spaces between them, which 
often are subdivided by arched vesicular plates obliquely and 
irregularly traversing them. The mode of growth of this form 
is the same as that of the former species ; it occurs in thick undula- 
ting expansions, covered by an epithecal crust on the under side. 
An associate of these two forms, which I had named Stroma- 
topora explanata, has been described by Prof. Nicholson under 
the name of Stromatopora iuherculata. Its surface is crowded 
with rather close-set, rounded papilli, somewhat differing in size. 
Occasionally an arrangement of somewhat compressed, elongated 
papilli, in radial order towards certain centres, is faintly indi- 
cated, but rarely becomes obviously developed. The lamellae are 
stout, formed of a compact tissue-mass, in which distant perfora- 
tions are observable, maintaining communication between the 
superimposed interlaminar spaces. Five or six lamellae occupy 
the space of one line, interstitial cell-spaces comparatively large, 
oval or elongated to twice the amount of their height. The 
course of the laminae is generally in straight parallel lines, but 
we can often observe their upward inflection at the base of some 
of the pillars. This produces in vertical sections of this form a 


considerable resemblance to sections of Claihrodictyon cellulasum^ 
whose structure is somewhat coarser, having only four or five 
lamellse within the space of a line, and more conspicuously 
inflected in order to form pillars. 

As a fourth aberrant form of Stromatoporoids, a single speci- 
men found in the upper Cincinnati group of Ohio is described 
by the authors, about which I am unable to give an opinion of 
my own, as from the rather vague description I cannot say that 
anything similar ever was under my observation. 

After these expositions, a classification of the diflTerent ty|)e« 
of Stromatoporoids is attempted, and seven generic cadres are 
proposed, most of which had been sketched already in the 
previous chapters. 

These proposed genera are: (1) Stromatopora Goldfuss, com- 
prising all those forms consisting of concentricall}' superim- 
posed lamina', each lamina separated from the other by a 
distinct interlaininar space, which is crossed by numerous ver- 
tical pillars. In some of these forms are radial, subhorizontal 
canals or surface grooves placed round minor centres, which, 
according to my own experience, are present in almost every 
form of Stromaloipora — at least, in rudimentary development. 
In addition to these characters, large vertical canals intersecting 
the laminated masses are described by the authors, which they 
believe to be analo<zous to the oscula of sj)onges. I have to 
reject this opinion as erroneous. 

(2^ (^aunojKirn Phillips. Type, Cauryopora placenta. Uepre- 
sentative form of the authors' Stromntophorn perforata. I nee<l 
not enter airain into a discussion of the value of this generic 
distinction, as 1 have previously prove<l that these forms do not 
represent one organism, but are coral stems, parasitically invested 
with vari()us kinds of StronintojHyra, which in the same localities 
•xrew perfect Iv free of such enclosed stems, erroufouslv believed 
to b4' parts of the organism. 

(3). Clathrini\rtiii,n Nicholson, likewise, has been surtlefently 
taki'U into cou»*ideratiou. 

(4). S('/lo'Iirff/on Nicholson, i«> n'preseiited by two species, 5/. 
colutiinnrf aud St. r'tifnrnit'. nesi«h«s the general structure of 
Str>nn(itnjH,rii, as ^|MMMal character of thi-^ m'nus, it is as^erlt'd 
that a svHic'in <»f vertical c()luiniis of densi* calcareous tissue |>er- 
vades the laminated ski-leton. The concentric arr.ingement 


of the successive laminae and their interstices round these 
vertical columns, is also brought forward as a noteworthy 
circumstance. It is likewise stated that radiating channel 
expansions may be present or not. I had described and figured 
these two forms in my paper, under the name Stromatopora 
Worthenij thinking a division into two species superfluous, as 
insensible gradations from one form into the other exist. 

The columellar streaks, seen to intersect the mass of this other- 
wise typical form of Stromatopora in vertical sections, are pro- 
duced by the repeated abrupt flexions of the lamellae in:o 
papillose prominences which cover the surface, similar to those 
we observe in many other forms of Stromatopora^ as for instance, 
in Str. puatulifera Winchell. 

As in this latter form, the prominences are somewhat larger 
and consequently the flexions arc not so abrupt, and as the tissue 
of this form is throughout more compact, we do not observe an 
obvious contrast between the density of the parts corresponding 
with the papillose prominences and the broader downward-curved 
intermediate portions of the skeleton, while in the so-called 
StylodictyoTij the abrupt flexions of the lamellae in the papilli 
into an almost vertical direction, cause the closer approxima- 
tion, and consequently greater density, of these parts than of 
the intermediate gently downward -curved portions of the 
laminated skeleton which have comparatively open, well-defined 
interlaminar cell-spaces contrasting with the denser portions, so 
as to let them appear under the form of vertical columns. 
Examining transparent vertical sections of such specimens, we 
see that the lamellae are not interrupted in their continuity while 
passing across these columellar streaks, and that no additional 
tissue element comes into play, which could be claimed as con- 
stituting the substance of the columelles. On the contrary, 
every portion of these columellar streaks is identifiable either 
as a normal part of the lamellae or of the intermediate system 
of pillars. To mention among the generic characters the 
concentric arrangement of the lamellae and their interstices 
round these columellar centres, appears to me rather superfluous, 
as it is a necessary consequence of the monticulose prominences 
into which the surface is raised. I could invariably observe in 
all specimens of this tribe which came under my observation, 
radial horizontal ducts, which, by the authors, are said to be 
sometimes developed and sometimes not. 

54 Proceedings of the academy of [1886. 

The structure of the form called Stylodictyon columnare^ found 
in the Helderberg limestones of Kelley's Island, etc., is somewhat 
more compact than we find it in the specimens of the Hamilton 
group named retiforme^ but there occur numerous transition 
forms from the compact to a more open, porous structure. In 
the size of the papillose prominences, also, a great variation of 
forms exists. I think, therefore, we could well spare one specific 
name and retain the one I hiid selected for both varieties jointly, 
Stromatopora Wortheni. 

In the Helderberg limestones of Vernon, Indiana, and at the 
Falls of Ohio, occurs a form of Stromatopora very similar in 
structure with the former, but with columellar streaks much 
smaller than in these, measuring only half a millimetre in 
diameter, or little over. Its tissue mass is also more bulky, of 
open reticulated spongious texture plainl}^ recognizable with a 
common hand magnifier. I had given in my manuscript descrip- 
tion and figures of it, under the name Stromatopora granuli/era^ 
as the papilli on its surface give it rather a granulated than 
papillose aspect, on account of their smallness. Horizontal 
radial ducts are well developed in this form. In it and in the 
former species these ducts unite in more or less distant centres, 
which are totally independent of the papillose prominences of 
the surface, while in many other forms of Stromatopora, as for 
instance, in monticulifera and pustulifera Winchell, the apex of 
each of these monticulose elevations is also the centre of conver- 
gence for such channels. 

Under Nos. 5 and 6, generic descriptions of Stromatocerium 
and of Pachy stroma are given, which require no further critical 
comment, as I have on a previous page suflBciently expressed my 
views on the correctness of the emended characteristic of Stro- 
matocerium and of the merits of the distinction of Pachystroma, 

As a seventh generic form of Stromatoporoids a certain con- 
centrically laminated fossil found in the Niagara limestone of 
Louisville, Ky., has been described by Mr. Nicholson under the 
name Dictyostroma, which has nothing in common with the 
Stromatoporoid tribe, excepting an external resemblance, being 
composed of a succession of lamina? separated by large inter- 
stices. The upper surface of these laminae is covered with 
spiniform prominences, part of which are long enough to reach 
the bottom of the superincumbent lamella ; others are shorter. 

1886.J NATtJRAt SCIENCES OF l>HtLAl)EL!>HlA« 55 

These numerous processes vertically intersecting the inter- 
lamellar spaces increase the resemblance of these fossils to 
Stromatopora. Each of the undulating superimposed laminse, 
of not quite one millimetre in thickness, and about from one to 
three millimetres distant from one another, is composed of a 
layer of horizontally prostrate tubules with solid intimately 
united walls, which after some extent in the horizontal position, 
abruptly bend upward and open on the surface of the laminae 
with oblique compressed orifices bordered on the outside either 
by a sharp lip, or by a vertically rising strong proboscidal pro- 
longation, similar to the pillars on the surface of the lamellae of 
a Stromatopora. The underside of each one of these lamellae in 
the concentric succession, is covered by a wrinkled epithecal 
crust, through which the outlines of the single tubules compos- 
ing the lamella are plainly visible, just as we see it on the under- 
side of foliaceous expansions of Alveolites, and indeed, the 
structure of this fossil in every respect corresponds with the 
structure of Alveolites or Limaria, and has no analogy whatever 
with Stromatopora. 

As the numerous specimens I possess of this fossil were not 
only found in the same locality from which Prof. Nicholson's 
type specimen comes, but were collected at the same time when 
Rev. Mr. Herzer picked up the specimen now in possession of 
Prof. Orton, of Ohio, I am positive that the objects I have under 
consideration are identical with Prof. Nicholson's type specimen. 

A very similar concentrically laminated fossil, but on the 
whole of coarser structure, with interlaminar spaces from three 
to five millimetres in width and with very stout intervening 
pillars is not rare in the drift deposits of Ann Arbor. The 
specimens are silicified and the structure of the laminse, as 
being composed of a layer of prostrate tubules, is no longer 
recognizable. The wrinkled epithecal crust on the underside of 
each lamina is, however, still well preserved. The pillars, if 
broken through, exhibit sometimes a central channel ; the shorter 
ones, not injured, are imperforate at the apex ; some of the larger 
pillars divide into mammiform side branches. There remains 
no doubt in my mind that this and the former Dictyostroma of 
Nicholson belong to the tribe of Alveolites, Limaria, etc. I pro- 
pose, therefore, for them the name of Alveolites stromatoporoides. 

A genuine Stromatoporoid which in its external aspect has 

56 I>ROC£CDlNaB OF TfiS ACADEMY Off [1886. 

some resemblance to Mr. Nicholson's Dictyosiramay is found at 
the same locality at Louisville, but the descriptions given by 
Nicholson, and his figures, suflicientlj prove that it was not this 
form which served him as a t^'pe for DictyoHtroma. The ratlier 
closely approximated lamina; are inflected upwards to form stout 
conical pillars with a Amncl-shaped excavation at their base, 
as in Clathrodictyon and in Stylodictyon of Nicholson. The 
pillars of the 8ui)crim|)08ed laminae correspond, and the 
apices of the lower pillars become invaginated into the basal 
cavities of those alx>ve, whereby a sort of pseudo^olumns are 
formed which vertically intersect the entire thickness of the 
masses, growing in flat expansions and covered with an epithecal 
crust on the underside. A nuniber of other interesting forms of 
Stromaiopora occur in the Niagara group, but as my present 
intention is only a review of Messrs. Nicholson and Murie*s 
work, I abstain from their description on this occasion. 





Eocene of Texas, — In a limited collection of fossils from near 
the northern border of San Augustine Co., Texas, transmitted to 
me for examination by the Texas State Geological and Scientific 
Association, I have been able to determine the following species : — 

Ostrea AlalamiensU, Cardita Blandingi (alticosta), 

Ostrea aelUjBformis. Crdssatella anteitriata, 

Ostrea dinarieaia, Corbula Texana. 

Pecten Deshaymi. Buccitriton altUef (Texana), 

Anomiaf Scalcma sp. indet. 

The horizon represented is evidently the " Claibomian," the 
deposits probably occupying a position in the " Jacksonian " 

The Nummulitic of Florida, — Prof. G. A. Wetherby, of Cin- 
cinnati, has furnished me with a number of rock fragments ob- 
tained at a locality some six miles southwest of Gainesville, Fla. 
They are interesting as containing, in addition to one or more 
species of Orbitoides^ several nearly perfect individuals of Num- 
mulites Floridanus Heilprin, which, therefore, represent the most 
northern locality in the State where the members of this group 
of Foraminifera have thus far been found. They lend further 
confirmation to the views already advanced by the writer as to 
the broad extent of the southern Nummulitic formation, and to 
the relative antiquity of the Floridan peninsula. One consider- 
able fragment of a Heterostegina is also represented in the rock. 

Since the receipt of Prof. Wetherby 's specimens I have been 
favored, through Mr. Joseph Willcox, of this city, with other 
fragments from approximately the same locality, Arredonda, 
Alachua Co., which also contain Nummulites Floridanus^ Orbi- 
toides, and Operculina rotella ( 0. complanata ?). 

Eocene of Kentucky. — Mr. R. H. Loughridge has kindly for- 
warded to me for determination a number of fossils collected by 
the Geological Survey of Kentucky, from the immediate neigh- 
borhood of Paducah. They are mainly in the form of casts in a 
highly ferruginous and fairly micaceous yellow-white sandstone, 



58 nocaDDm ot the acadkht or [188S. 

and in the mofrt part recognizable onlv in so far as the determina- 
tion of genera is concerned. 

The species are referable to the following genera : — 

Mgsia — spe^-ies probaUj Jf. ^mguiiHA. 
Leda — species probablj L, yrotexta. 
Lida — species indet. 
Xweula — species probably JT. ocwia. 
TurriUU'i — species TurrittUa Mort'^ni, 

This is, as far as I am aware, the first notification of the dis- 
covery of marine fossils in the Tertiary deposits of the State. 
The prenence of the strongly carinate form of TurriieUa Mortani 
fixes pretty definitely the horizon, the Lower Eocene, or that of 
the older Tertiaries of Maryland and Virginia. This is what we 
shoald have expected to find from the position of the strata. 


» ,13.. » ..r niiuvruJ-'"*- 

^, 111 It f M»»'«^'* ^ ^^^ ' ' 

... IV... «.'^ >• >• ' ■ ••" '' 

«*M\*r f» 

^-, t ■ v.. -W • • , . .. . . V'. • •. • * 


• ••!»-•.'♦•' 

' ■ • •• ;i 

T • ■" • " . ■ I 

I •• • 

-. .-. ' V . ■ 



. • . r 

'I - ' • . . • 


• * 

* ' . -r*- <"•••' • 

. , ''f / • ' • 

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. %J 

,^^.r *i. f /' '' ' ' 



probability arises that they will be left high and dry on the shore, 
they can appreciate the fact by the growing intensity of the light, 
and by that peculiar flapping motion of the valves the Pectens 
are so remarkable for, move away into deeper water.' This 
theory may at once be set aside when we consider that the Pec- 
tens of the Mediterranean, where we have practically no tide at 
all, a state of affairs that has existed for an exceedingly long 
period of time, have as well developed eyes as those found on 
shores where tides do exist ; and further, it seems hardly probable 
that such a complicated organ would have developed to deter- 
mine for the animal whether it be out of water or not, ... As 
regards the complicated organ known as the eye, I might suggest 
that, if this be an eye, it is one where we have no true pigmented 
layer in any direct relation to either the nerve or the retina. The 
mass of red pigment and the metallic-like tapetum would hardly 
answer the place of the black choroid coat so essential to the 

Dr. Sharp stated that at the time the above was written, he 
was under the impression that the organ was probably a phos- 
phorescent organ, but he had no proof of it. At Nantucket he 
obtained many specimens of the animal and found that the edge 
of the mantle was phosphoront, and on questioning Dr. Kite, 
formerly of the *^ Fish-Hawk," who had often seen Perten dre<lged 
at night, he was informed that the phosphorent condition of Pec- 
tens had often been observed. He thought it was not unreasona- 
ble to suppose that organs for the emission of light should be 
formed upon the same general principles as organs for the admis- 
sion of light, hence the similarity of these organs to eyes. He 
further stated that this function (phosphorescence) would be of 
great use to the animal in obtaining its food. 

On Amia and ifs probable 2'nnia. — Prof. Leidy stated that in 
our market on Saturday last, three Miul-fishcs, Aviia calva, liad 
been given to him. They came in a barnl of shad from North 
Carolina. One was a female about two feet long, the others male, 
of which tlu' smallest was eight inches. Protruding from the 
vent of the latter was a little tape-worm, which, on <listurliance, 
retreateil luia the rectum. Three other worms of the same kind 
were found in the nioiitli,but none were in the intestine of this or 
the other lishes. The worms accord with the description of the 
Tnnia fiUntlis, infesting Sticklebacks, GnAterostetiA, and is prolv 
ably the same species. Thev range from 1^ to 3 inches long, 
gradually wiiiening from the delicate thread-like neck to the pos- 
tiTior ronncled ext remit v where thev measure from 1- to 1*5 mm. 
with*. The hrad is sphen»i«lal, variably broader or longer, and 
about or»25 mm.; with the summit sliglitly prominent and 
unarmed, and with f«»ur heniisjiherical, latiTal bothria 0'25 mm. 
in diameter. Neck variable ; whtn extended, long and narrow and 
UMially al>out half the width of the head. Anterior segments, 


pointed out the correspondence in outline of each division with 
the form of the two-celled anther. The inner line of stamens 
were alternate with these divisions, and the whole study led to 
the conclusion that this little crown was composed of the imma- 
ture anthers of abortive stamens. He referred to Acer rubrum^ 
and other plants, where, in the abortion of stamens the anthers 
were generally almost fully formed before the development of the 
filament, and remarked that in truly female flowers of this maple 
there was a course of sterile anthers as in this Spiraea. 

March 16. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Sixteen persons present. 

March 23. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-eight persons present. 

Fermentation in PerenjVs Fluid. — Dr. Benjamin Sharp re- 
marked that in a bottle of Perenji's fluid (nitric acid 10 per cent. 
8oL 4 pts., Chromic acid \ per cent. sol. 3 pts., 95 per cent. 
Alcohol 3 pts.) eflervescence was noticed. On shaking the bottle 
and removing the cork the fluid frothed violently, resembling 
very active beer ; when the frothing had to a certain extent sub- 
sided, another shaking produced another violent frothing. The 
fluid had been used for hardening chick embryoes, and the portion 
used had been turned back so that a slight sediment was in the 
bottom of the bottle, and from this sediment the frothing seemed 
to originate. The sediment was examined with a high power 
lens, and Bacteria were found in great numbers. They were 
probably introduced with the sediment caused by the hardening 
of the organic tissues upon which they lived. 

On the Eye of Pecten, — Prof. Sharp further called the atten- 
tion of the members to the eye of Pecten. In one of his articles 
(On the Visual Organs of the Lamellebranchiata, Mitth. 
Zool. Stat. Neapel, 1884, p. 457), he makes the following asser- 
tion : " The question as to the function of this organ (the so- 
called eye of Pecten) is one of considerable interest. Hickson 
states that a few experiments have been made on this subject, 
concerning the visual power of this animal ; he says ' It is very 
doubtful whether they (the so-called eyes) are of much value to 
the animal in avoiding its enemies. The most reasonable theory 
of their ftmction seems to be that when in the ebbing tide, a 

64 PBociKDiNas or thi aoabkmt or [1886. 


Part III — Skction II. 


The Articulata include the group formerly defined by us under 
the family name Ichthyoerinidte, with the addition of Crotalo- 
crinus and Enallocrinus^ which possess in a remarkable degree 
some of the most characteristic features of the group. We have 
elsewhere shown that our former definition of the structure of 
the ventral surface in the Ichthyocrinidac was faulty in the use of 
the word ** soft," in which we did not have in mind the idea of 
membranous as opposed to calcareous, or of disk as opposed to 
vault, but simply employed the word to express more strongly the 
notion that the vault was not ri^ifl. We maintain, however, that 
the outer test of the ventral side in this group was a continuous 
integument, composed of calcareous plates, united by ligament 
and not by a close suture, and that by reason of this structure and 
the articulation among the plates of the dorsal side it must have 
been pliant or flexible. The exact nature of this integument we 
do not know. The plates may have been arranged in various 
ways; they may even have been iinbricati'd in some tyj)es— like 
the interanibulacral plates in some IVriechocrinida*, and even in 
some of the true Echini — these are points we may |)erhap8 never 
l)e able to settle. Tliat there was an inntT inte;;umeut roofed in 
and covered by the flexible vault we have mentioned, and that it 
contained the summit plates and " covering pieces '' we know to 
Ik' true in the Crotalo(Tini<lje,and we think it altogether prolmble 
that the general plan of the ventral structure for the Articulata 
generally is expressed in that of C rotalocrinuA, 

The etfeet of the patelloid plates, observe<l in Forbesiocrinun, 
in pi'rniitting nio!)ility in the whole skeleton, has Iwen heretofore 
mentioned. The sujxgestions we then niude are conflrnied by the 
discovery of the remarkable articulation not only among the 
radials themselves, but also between the radials and interradials 
(ri. G, figs, 'd-i)). This articulate structure, and the consequent 
mobility in the test, and flexibility of the vault, we consider 


transversely linear, about an eighth the length of the breadth ; 
gradually becoming inverted saucer-shaped or scutellate, and 
about one-fourth the length of the breadth. Posterior segments 
more quadrate, slightly widening behind, about 0*75 mm. long and 
from 1* to 1*5 mm. broad. Last segment longest and rounded. 
Genital apertures marginal. 

March 30. 

Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Twelve persons present. 

Prof. J. C. Arthur was elected a correspondent. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 


other Articulata in the position of the interradials and may prove 
to be the type of a distinct family. 

F. Roeraer established the family Anthocrinidoe to receive 
AnthocrinuB and Crotalocrinus, and Pictet, as Dujardin and 
Hup<^, recognized the family Anthocrinidae, but referred to it only 
Anthocrinus. As Anthocrinus proves to be a synonym, the 
family name will fall with it, and we shall distinguish the family 
as Crotalocrinidae, and follow Zittel in referring to it Crotalo- 
crinus^ EnallocrinuSy but not Cleiocrinus, 

The Crotalocrinidse are distinguished by the possession of a 
ventral tube or anal appendage, located vent rally near the per- 
iphery. In Crotalocrinu8 it consists of a tube composed of eight 
vertical rows of heavy quadrangular pieces. In Enallocrinus its 
form is unknown. The family differs from the Ichthyocrinids 
in a similar way as Platycrinidae from Actiuocrinida* in that the 
higher radials are imperfectly developed. 

The Articulata, therefore, fall into two families, which are 
defined as follows : 

A. IcHTHYucRiNiDiK. Base dicyclic. Underbasals unequal, 
proportionally very small, rarely visible externally. Basals gene- 
rally small. Dorsal cup chiefly built up of radial plates of ditfer- 
ent orders, abutting laterally against each other or separate<l by 
interradials. Number of radials variable in genera, species and 
individuals. Kadial and arm plates deereasin»x in size in the suc- 
cessive orders, each division being about half as wide as the 
preceding one, and of unilbrin size in corresponding divisions of 
the ray, but the plates of adjacent rays generally alternate with 
each other. Tlic line of articulation between radials and arm 
plates is frcipuntly undiilatinix.and there are sometimes additional 
patelloid pieces. Arms iniiserial, bifurcating, generally touching 
laterallv so as to form a wall continuous with the calvx. Arm 
plates with straii^ht sides and very deep ainbulacral grooves. 
Pinnules apparently wanting. 

Interradial system chiefly develo|HMl on the ventral side. 8|)e- 
cial anal plate sometimes restin;; on the basals, sometimes upon 
the radials. and sometimes wantiiiji dors.illv. Anus unknown in 
most of the genera. The radials are uniti'il loniritudinallv by 
articulation, laterally hv liuauunt, tlie interradials amonuj each 
other and with the radials by a loose suture, admitting of motion 
and producting flexibility in the calyx ami vault. 


characteristic of the whole group, though it may vary in degree, 
and is probably far less perfect in some genera than in Forbesio- 
crinu8 and Onychocrinus. 

Zittel (Handb. d. Palseont., i, p. 353-5-6), has separated the 
genera which belong to this suborder into three families, viz.: = 
Taxocrinidse, including: (A), Taxocrinua, Forbesiocrinus, Ony- 
cJiocrinus, Oissocrinus, Myelodactylus ; (B), Lecythocrinus (?), 
Dactylocrinus (Dimerocrinus Pictet); Ichthyocrinidse, includ- 
ing : ffomalocrinus, LecanocrinuSj Clidochirus, MespilocrinuSy 
Ichthyocrinus^ Anisocrinus and Pycnoaaccus; Crotalocrinidae, 
including Crotalocrinus^ Enallocrinus, Cleiocrinus, Angelin 
refers Taxocrinus, Forbesiocrinus, Gissocrinus and Myelodactylus 
to the Taxocrinidse ; Ichthyocrinus and Fycnosaccus to the Ich- 
thyocrinidffi ; Crotalocrinus to the Crotalocrinidae and Enallo- 
crinus to the Enallocrinidaj. 

The so-called genus Myelodactylus may be left out of consider- 
ation. It was founded upon columns only, and, if correctly 
identified by Angelin, which is improbable, it would not belong 
to the Articulata at all. A separation of the genera included by 
us in the IchthyocrinidtE into two families is desirable, but all 
attempts to define satisfactory characters for such families have 
so far failed. We have tried to arrange them according to ZittePs 
definition as well as various plans of our own, but without success, 
and we have come to the conclusion that the separation must be 
based upon characters as yet undetected. It is a remarkable and 
perplexing fact that in this whole group such characters as the 
presence or absence of interradials dorsally, the number of pri- 
mary radials, or the position of the anal or azygous plate, whether 
resting on the basals or not, seem to be of little value. 

Until some new light shall be obtained we see no other course 
than to leave the family Ichthyocrinidae as we have already 
defined it. 

OissocriniLSy which is placed by Angelin and Zittel among the 
Taxocrinidae on account of having three underbasals, belongs to 
the Fistulata, and has been referred by us to the Cyathocrinidae, 
as have also Lecythocrinus and Dactylocrinus. In addition to 
the genera formerly included by us, we refer Cyrtidocrinus to 
the Ichthyocrinidae. 

Cleiocrinus was independently referred by Zittel to the Crota- 
locrinidae, and by us to the Ichthyocrinidae. It difiTers from all 


other Articulata in the position of the interradials and may prove 
to be the type of a distinct family. 

F. Roemer established the family Anthocrinidae to receive 
Anthocrinus and Crotalocrinua, and Pictet, as Dujardin and 
Hup^, recognized the family Anthocrinidse, but referred to it only 
Anthocrinus. As Anthocrinus proves to be a synonym, the 
family name will fall with it, and we shall distinguish the family 
as Crotalocrinidse, and follow Zittel in referring to it Crotalo- 
crinuSj UnallocrinuSj but not Cleiocrinus. 

The CrotalocrinidflB are distinguished by the possession of a 
ventral tube or anal appendage, located ventrally near the per- 
iphery. In Crotalocrinus it consists of a tube composed of eight 
vertical rows of heavy quadrangular pieces. In Enallocrinus its 
form is unknown. The family differs from the Ichthyocrinidse 
in a similar way as Platycrinidae from Actinocrinidae in that the 
higher radials are imperfectly developed. 

The Articulata, therefore, fall into two families, which are 
defined as follows : 

A, loHTHYOCRiNiD^. Basc dicycUc. Underbasals unequal, 


proportionally very small, rarely visible externally. Basals gene- 
rally small. Dorsal cup chiefly built up of radial plates of differ- 
ent orders, abutting laterally against each other or separated by 
interradials. Number of radials variable in genera, species and 
individuals. Radial and arm plates decreasing in size in the suc- 
cessive orders, each division being about half as wide as the 
preceding one, and of uniform size in corresponding divisions of 
the ray, but the plates of adjacent rays generally alternate with 
each other. The line of articulation between radials and arm 
plates is frequently undulating, and there are sometimes additional 
patelloid pieces. Arms uniserial, bifurcating, generally touching 
laterally so as to form a wall continuous with the calyx. Arm 
plates with straight sides and very deep ambulacral grooves. 
Pinnules apparently wanting. 

Interradial system chiefly developed on the ventral side. Spe- 
cial anal plate sometimes resting on the basals, sometimes upon 
the radials, and sometimes wanting dorsally. Anus unknown in 
most of the genera. The radials are united longitudinally by 
articulation, laterally by ligament, the interradials among each 
other and with the radials by a loose suture, admitting of motion 
and producting flexibility in the calyx and vault. 


B. CROTALOCRiNiD-ffl. Base dicyclic. Underbasals unequal, 

small. Basals generally large. Radials so far as known, 2X5. 

Arms uniserial, with numerous branches, spreading broadly. The 

branches of each ray partly or completely connected by lateral 

projections or direct union. When completely connected, they 

form reticulated leaves overlapping when folded. Pinnules 

wanting. Ambulacral furrow deep, ramifying with the arm 

branches, covered by alternating plates and bordered by side 

pieces. The first anal plate rests on the basals ; it is followed by 

others which form the base of a ventral tube. Interradials 

numerous, covering the entire ventral surface, but not more than 

one or two — sometimes none — are exposed dorsally. Calyx roofed 

over by a pliant integument of irregular plates, extending over 

the arm bases, and enclosing the summit plates and covering 

pieces of the disk. Yentral tube lateral. 

Family XI.-ICHTHYOCRINID.E W. and Spr. 

We are of the opinion that some of the genera described by 
Angelin are founded upon characters of specific value only, but 
as the original specimens are unique and inaccessible to us, we 
cannot, at present, undertake to review them. 

ICHTHTOCSINTTS Conrad, Rev. i, p. 33. 

No new species of Ichthyocrinus have been described since our 
first list, in which, however, we omitted to notice Ichthyocrinus 
arthriticus (d'Orbigny), mentioned in Prodr. i, p. 46, which is a 
GissocrinuSj and also Ichthyocrinus capillaris and /. goniodac- 
tylus (d'Orbigny), which Phillips had correctly referred to 

HOMALOCRINUS Angl., Rev. i, p. 35. 

ANI80CRINTTS Angl., Rev. i, p. 37. 

CAIPIOCSINTJS Angl., Rev. i, p. 38. 

LECANOCSINUS Hall, Rev. i, p. 39. 

1882. L. Soyei Oehlert. Bull. Soc. G6ol. tie France (ser. 3), vol. x, p. 354, PI. 8, fig. 2. 
— Lower Devonian. Near Sabr^, France, 
Leoanoorinm elegant Billings, see Tazoorinns elegans Billings; Leoano- 
eriniif leeyii, Taxoorinus laevis. 


Crotalocrinus was established by Austin in 1843 (Ann. and 
Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 198), for the reception of a single species, 
which was described by J. S. Miller, in 1821, as CycUhocrinus 
rugosus^ from a calyx without the arms. He had previously 
used the name Grotalocrinites rugosus (1842, Ann. and Mag., 
vol. X, p. 109), in his list of the class Pinnas/e/Za, and he referred 
it to the Marsupiocrinoidea. His original definition of the genus 
is as follows : 

" Dorsocentral plates, 5 ; first series of perisomic plates, 5 ; 
second series, 5. On the latter are a series of wedge-shaped 
plates, which bear the rays ; the exact number of these plates is 
unascertained. Column with a |)entapetalous perforation." 

** C. rugosus. The plates surrounding the body agree with the 
generic characters. Kays numerous, probably amounting to one 
hundred. Column composed of thin joints, articulating into 
each other by radiating stria*. The columnar canal is |)enta- 
petalous. The rays are remarkably small in proj)ortion to the 
size of the animal.'* 

McCoy, in 1854 (Hrit. Pal. FoHS..p. r» 4), red escribed the genus, 
but gave little additional information regarding it. He men- 
tions the presence of an interradial plate in the ** second peri- 
somic row/' and says that al)Ove, and alternating with the 
primary radials, are five large pentagonal si'condary radials 
(scapuhe), completing the cup, on each of which rests a series of 
small peiitafronal plates, supporting for the width of each plate 
a larize number C 15 or !(>) of vcrv slender lonir ravs. Accord- 
inn to McCov, the irinus ''dilfcrs from Cf/othomnuH in the vast 
nuinU'r of its ravs." 

llisinjx^r ( Lcth. Suc<'. Supp., 11, p. ♦*>) described un<lcr the name 
Cynthoiriiiua pnlcher a specimen without arms which afterwards 
proved to b«' (d* this genus. 

Johannes Mniler was the tirst to call attention to the remark- 
able characters of this type exhibited in the brachial parts. In 
1853 ' Ai»h. Ak. W'iss. Herlin. p. 1^7, vt fe^/.), he described^ under 
thi' hea<l of " Crinoidi-n init netztorinigen Hiinden/' some 8|n»ci- 
inens from (lothhiud in NNhieh the arm structure was well shown. 
He savs he could n<»t idcntifv Hi^in-jcr's species because his 
li;^nire was too inip«'i ft-ct, altlnMiLih he thinks it may have lH.donged 
to the same «jnnip. Hi* also says thai a specimen with arms and 
branches somewhat resemhlini; the net-form had Inen obt:\ined 


6N0SIM0CBINUS W. and Sp., Rev. i, p. 50. 
F0BBESI0CSINU8 De Koninck, Rev. i, p. 51. 

Additional species : — 

1859. Forbesioorinas Saffordi Hall, Suppl. Geol. Rep. Iowa, p. 87. — Keokuk lime- 
stone. White's Creek, Tenn. 

1879. F. parvus Wethcrby, Jour. Cincin. Soe. Nat. Hist. (October number), p. 5, PI. 
11, figs. 4 a 6. — Kaskaskia gr. Pulaski county, Ky. 

N. B. — Forbesiocrinus Whitfieldi Hall, which has been referred 
to the genus Taxocrinus, according to Meek and Worthen (Geol. 
Rep. Illinois, vol. v, p. 553), came from the Kaskaskia group, of 
Randolph Co., 111., and not from the Keokuk limestone, as 
stated by Hall. It also occurs at that horizon in Pulaski 
Co., Ky. 

LITHOCRIinrS W. and Sp., Rev. i, p. 52. 

OKTCHOCSINUS W. and Sp., Rev. i, p. 53. 

1S82. Onyehoerinuf distensui Worthen, Bull. III. St. Mus. Nat. Hist, p. 31, also 
Geol. Rep. III., vii, p. 307, PI. 29, fig. 5. — Kaskaski gr. Monroe Co., 111. 
(We are unable to distinguish this specimen from 0. exsculptuH Lyon and 

KIPTEBOCSINUS Wachsm., Rev. i, p. 55. 

Zittel (Handb. der Pal., p. 352) refers this genus to the Cyatho- 
crinidae, probably on account of its three small underbasals. 
The presence of interradials clearly removes it from that family, 
and its waving sutures leave no doubt that it was properly 
placed by us among the Ichthyocrinidae. 



1843. Austin, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. I, vol. xi, p. 198. 
1848. Morris, Cat. Brit. Foss,, Ed. 1, p. 50. 

1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Siluria, £d. 2, p. 219. 

1855. McCoy, Brit. Pal. Foss., p. 55. 
1873. Salter, Cat Mus. Cambr., p. 123. 

1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. PaL, i, p. 356. 

1882. De Loriol, PaL d. France, tome 11, Crin., p. 51. 

Syn. ArUho&rinus, 1853, Miiller, Abhandl. Aka. Berlin, p. 192 ; 
1867. PictetTraite de Pal., iv, p. 812 ; 1862. Dujardin and Hup^, 
Hist. Nat. Zooph. Echin., p. 117 ; 1855. Quenstedt, Handb. d. 
Petref., iv, p. 943. 

•*j_- ^ . 

72 PROGXEDiNas or thb aoadkmt or [1886. 

bases until they meet the tegminal plates on the ventral side. 
The arms divide into numerous branches, which are connected 
throughout their entire length, in such a way that the brachial 
apparatus of the whole animal is included in five broad, net-like 
leaves with inrolleil edges, which when closed overlap each other. 
These leaf-like arms are separated by ver}' prominent, deep peta- 
loid areas, whose margins are formed by the deeply incurved 
lateral faces of the peripheral arm joints, and the radials which 
are enormously thickened. When spread out, these connected 
rays would be free from contact with one another, and would 
resemble the outstretched leaves of a pentupetaloid flower, but 
folded together they overlap just as the closed leaves of a bud or 
flower. The arm joints are disposed in regular dichotomizing 
longitudinal rows, and also in regularly concentric transverse 
rows, the alternate arrangement of joints of adjacent branches 
being absent here. The arm branches are transversely com- 
pressed and flattened, viry deep in proportion to their width, 
meeting throughout their entire length by their lateral surfaces. 
U|>on the doreal side, the branches are laterally connected by 
points of attachment projecting from the middle of each point, or 
by direct contact of the sides of the joint, in such a way as to 
produce a rotieulated structure composed of numerous small 
meshes. The projection of the points of attachment from the 
middle of the joints j^ives them the appearance, when seen from 
the dorsal side, of a cross with short arms, and tlie network ap- 
pears to have rej^ular cross- shaped meshes. At the lower part of 
the arms tlie joints are not cross-shaped, but meet directly by 
their sides, and the reticnhite appearance is not so marked as 
higher up. The whole structure of these leaf-like rays is ailapteti 
to the greatest flexibility in all tlirections, and we think it prob- 
able that the meshes of thi' network were occupietl by elastic 
eonnective substance of some kind. The joints are flat on the 
dorsal side*, near the calyx they an* extremely thick from the 
dorsal to the ycntral s'\tU\ the thickest Ikmui; those which rest 
upon the radials, and tluy tlecrease rapidly toward the extremities 
of the rays. The articular faces at the ends of the joints are 
provide<l \s'\{h an axial c:in:il. Alon»jr ihr ventral side the joints 
are deeply excavated lor the ambulacral furrow, whi<-h ramit'ies 
with the arm luanches thiouirhout their lenj^th. The furrow is 
lined at each side by a row of small side pieces, three to four to 


from Dudley, which he acknowledges to be Gyathocrinus rugosus 
Miller, but he expresses the opinion that the arms in the English 
form are not laterally connected and that it must have had more 
than five arms. Regarding, therefore, the English form as de- 
scribed by Miller, Austin and McCoy as distinct from the Goth- 
land form with reticulated arms, Miiller proposed for the latter 
the genus Anthocrinua, of which there was but a single species, 
A. L^rveni, 

Angelin (Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26), with the whole of the excel- 
lent material from Gothland before him, finds that Anthocrinus 
Loveni is a synonym of Hisinger's Gyathocrinus pulcher^ and 
that it belongs, along with G. rugosuSy to Austin's genus Grotalo- 
crinus, of which he also describes and figures a third species, G. 
superbus. According to his definition of the genus, there are 
five arms, connected at their bases by branches and pinnules, and 
the pinnules, reticulately connected by narrow transverse joints, 
form a broad plicated net. This reticulate structure, by which 
all the ramifications of each ray throughout their entire length 
are united into a net-work, seems to be the principal distinction 
between this genus and the closely allied Enallocrinus, in which 
the arir branches are transversely connected for a short distance 
near the base, but are free for the greater part of their length. 
Angelin uses the word " pinnules " carelessly, and it is evident 
that in this case it means simply the ultimate divisions of the 
arms. The character intended to be described by Angelin is 
much better stated by Zittel (Handb. d. Pal., i, p. 356), and Jo- 
hannes Miiller (1863, Berl. Akad., pp. 187-192). 

Generic Diagnosis, — The calyx is constructed very similar to 
that of the Cyathocrinidae. Its form is subglobose ; its sym- 
metry bilateral. With arms closed, the Crinoid resembles an 
elongated bud with folded leaves. With outspread arms its 
figure is that of a fiattened disk with five deep, narrow, lanceolate 
areas, which separate the rays. 

Base dicyclic. TJnderbasals 6, small, pentangular. Basals 5 
large, hexagonal and octagonal. Primary radials 2X5 ; the first 
wider than high, excavated in the middle of the distal face for 
the reception of a very small trigonal, bifurcating second radial 
upon which the arms originate and bifurcate in much the same 
manner as in Marsupiocrinus. The lateral margins of the first 
radials are very deeply incurved, extending between the arm 

72 paoGXEDiNas or thb aoadeict or [1886. 

bases until they meet the tegminal plates on the ventral side. 
The arms divide into numerous branches, which are connected 
throughout their entire lengtli, in such a way that the brachial 
apparatus of the whole animal is included in five broad, net-like 
leaves with inrolled edges, which when closed overlap each other. 
These leaf-like arms are separated by very prominent, deep peta- 
loid areas, whose margins are formed by the deeply incurved 
lateral faces of the peripheral arm joints, and the radials which 
are enormously thickened. When spread out, these connected 
rays would be free from contact with one another, and would 
resemble the outstretched leaves of a pentapetaloid flower, but 
folded together they overlap just as the closed leaves of a bud or 
flower. The arm joints are disposed in regular dichotomizing 
longitudinal rows, and also in regularly concentric transverse 
rows, the alternate arrangement of joints of adjacent branches 
being absent here. The arm branches are transversely com- 
pressed and flattened, very deep in proportion to their width, 
meeting throughout their entire length by their lateral surfaces. 
Upon the doraal side, the branches are laterally connected by 
points of attachment projecting from the middle of each point, or 
by direct contact of the sides of the joint, in such a way as to 
produce a reticulated structure composed of numerous small 
meshes. The projection of the points of attachment from the 
middle of the joints i^ives them the appearance, when seen from 
the dorsal side, of a cross with short arms, and the network ap- 
pears to have refrular cross-shaped meshes. At the lower part of 
the arms the joints are not cross-shaped, but meet directly by 
their sides, and the reticulate appearance is not so marked as 
higher up. The whole structure of these leaf-like rays is a^iapted 
to the greatest flexibility in all directions, and we think it prob- 
able that the meshes of the network were occupied by elastic 
eonnective substance of some kind. The joints are flat on the 
dorsal side; near the cal3\ they are extremely thick from the 
dorsal to the ventral side, the thickest l)eing those which rest 
upon the radials, and they decrease rapidly toward the extremitii»8 
of the rays. The articular faces at the ends <jf the joints are 
jMOvided with an axial canal. Alon«^ the ventral side the joint-* 
are <leeply excavated lor the anibulacral furrow, which nimifies 
with the arm luanclies tlnouj^hout their len«^th. The furrow is 
lined at each side by a row of small side pieces, three to four to 


each arm joint, which inclose in the middle two rows of covering 
plates, alternately arranged, of equal number with the side pieces. 

The dorsal cup is roofed over and covered by an integument of 
comparatively heavy interradial plates of irregular arrangement, 
which extend out some distance over the rays and enclose the 
bases of the arms, but in no sense constitute or include covering 
plates of the arms, as Angelin's figure (PL xxv, fig. 15) clearly 
shows. The plates at the margin of this integument meet and 
connect with the incurved edges of the radials and peripheral 
row of arm joints, which are proportionally much thicker than 
those of other parts of the ray. The arms, with their covering 
plates, which are laterally connected without the interposition of 
interradials or interg,xillaries, emerge from underneath this 
integument, which must have been pliant to admit of the varieties 
of positions assumed. Also the summit plates— oral and proxi- 
mals — must have been located beneath this integument, or we 
could not understand their position and relation to the covering 
pieces which are represented by Angelin's figure on PL xvii, fig. 
3 a. Only occasionally the first interradial is visible dorsally ; 
the dorsal cup, however, includes always a comparatively large 
subquadrangular anal plate, which rests between the radials and 
upon a hexagonal basal. This supports a very long, tapering, 
lateral ventral tube, which rises between the arms. It is com- 
posed of vertical rows of short, transverse pieces, and its walls 
are pierced by numerous pores. 

The calyx plates appear to be united by syzygy, in part at 
least, and the lines of junction are marked by pits and clefts 
which penetrate deeply into the walls, as shown in fig. 4, PL viii, 
of Angelin. 

Column heavy, round, composed of thin joints, whose articular 
faces are traversed by small radiating canals, which form pores 
on the external surface. Axial canal large, pentangular. 

Geological Position^ etc. — Upper Silurian of Gothland and 

These species have been described : 

1821. Crotaloorinus rugosus Miller, Cyathoorinns rngosus Nat Hist. Grin., p. 
89, pts. 1 A — i B.— 1808. Parkinson, Turban or Shropsliire Enorinite, 
Org. Rem., Vol. ii, p. 19:$, PI. 15, figs. 4, 5. — 1837. Hisinger, Cyathoorinns 
mgOSUl, Leth. Suec, p. 89, Tab. xxv, fig. 3 a; also Antekni, Heft iv, p. 217, 
Tab. Yii, fig. 3.— 1839. Phillips, Cyathoorinns rugosus Phillips, apud 
Morchison's Sil. Syst., p. 672, Tab. 18, fig. 1. — 1843. Austin, Ann. and Mag. 


Nat. Hist, 8er. 1, Vol. zi, p. 108.— 1843. Morris, Cat. Brit. Pom., Ed. 1, p. 

60.— 1850. D'Orbigny, Cyathoorinoi rngosoi, Prodr. d. Pal., Vol. i, p. 46. 

—1864. Salter, apud Murohison, Silaria, Ed. 2, p. 210, figs. 4-7, Tab. 13, 

fig. 3.-1866. McCoy, Br. Pal. Foss.,p. 66.-1873. Salter, Cat. Mat. Cambr., 

p. 123. — 1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Saeo., p. 2fi, Tab. rii, fig. 4; Tab. xrii, 

figs. 3, 3a-6, S, 8 a.— 1879. Zittcl, Handb. d. Pal., i, p. 367, fig. S44.— lJ<86. 

Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petref., iv, 942, Tab. 76, figs. 2, 3.— Upper Silariaa. 

Gothland, Sweden, and Dudley, England. 
1840. C. puloher Uisinger, Cyathooiinus poloher, Leth. Saoc. Sapp. ii, p. 6, Tab. 

xxziz, figs. 6 a, 6. — 1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suee., p. 26, Tab. rii, figs. 

6-7, 7a-/>; Tab. viii, figs. 1-9 a; Tab. zvii, figs. 1, la-<i; Tab. zxt, figs. 

8-20.-1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Pal., i, p. 367, figs. 2, 4. 4 a-W. Syn., 

Anthocrinoi Loyeni Job. Mliller, 1863, Abb. d. Berl. Akad., p. 192, Tab. 

vlii, figs. 1-U.— Pictet, 1867, Tr. d. Pal., iv, p. 312, PI. e, fig. 8.— Dujardia 

A Hup6, Hist. Nat. Zooph. Echin., p. 117.— Quenstedt, 1886, Handb. d. 

Petref., iv, p. 943, Tab. 76, figs. 4, 6; Petref. DeuUcbl., ir, p. 608, Tab. 108, 

fig. 13. — Upper Silurian. Gothland, Sweden. 
1878. C. snporbas Angelin, Icon. Crin. Sueo., p. 26, Tab. xrii, figs. 3, 2 a-b. — Upper 

Silurian. Gothland, Sweden. 

EHALL0CBIKU8 d'Orbigny. 

1850. D'Orbigny, Prodr. de Pal., Vol. i, p. 46 ; Cours Elem., 11, p. 142. 

1854. Salter, apud Murchison, Slluria. Ed. 2, p. 218. 

1857. Pictet, Traite de Pal., iv, p. 3«0. 

1862. Dujardin and Hup^, Hist. Nat Zooph. Echin., p. 134. 

1878. Angelin, Icon. Crin. Sueo., p. 25. 

1879. Zittel, Uandb. d. Pal., i, p. 356. 

Syu., ApiocriniUs (Ilisinger) in part ; MxlkrierinuM (d'Orbigny) In part 

In 1850 d'Orbigny established this genus to receive two 
species, which had been noticed and figured by Hisinger as 
Apiocrinua mcriptus and A, punctatus. Only the calyx was then 
known, and the generic definition simply stated that this was 
composed of five depressed basals, live large ** subradials '' and 
five ** brachials." He placed the genus in the family Melocrinida*, 
while Pictet, and also Dujardin and IIup(^, referrcil it to the 
Cyathocrinidte. Angelin makes it a distinct family, and Zittel 
considers it as belonging to the Crotalocrinida*. It is clearly 
separated from the Inadunata by the fact that its radial divisions 
are connected either by direct union or by interradial plates 
between the secondary radials. Although Angelin, in his defini- 
tion of the genus (Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 2;')), states '* interradialia 
nulla/' his figures demonstrate their undoubted presence l)oth on 
the dorsal and venlrul side (PI. x\ , figs, la, 3a; PI. xxv, figs. 4, 4a). 
It api>ears from these illustrations that in some cases the corres- 


ponding radials of adjaoent rays meet again above the inter- 
radials, just as in some species of Ichthyocrinus and Batocrinus. 

The genus differs from Crotalocrinus, its nearest ally, in the 
absence of the reticulate arm structure, although there is a 
lateral connection between the arm branches for some distance 
above their bases ; also in the alternate arrangement of adjacent 
rows of arm joints. The construction of the ventral covering is 
apparently the same in both forms. There is, however, a differ- 
ence in the mode of union of the calyx plates, the lines of 
junction in Enallocrinus, showing strong indications of an artic- 
ulation, as we judge from Angelin's figs. 1,4, and 4 a, of PI. xxv. 
Angelin united the two types of Hisinger under his first species 
£, scriptus^ and described one new species. 

Oeneric Diagnosis, — The calyx differs but little from that of 
Crotalocrinus, and when the arms are spread this produces a 
similar discoid figure, and lanceolate areas similar to those of 
that genus. The calyx is depressed, broadly expanding, com- 
posed of thick plates with deeply beveled sutures, indicating a 
union by articulation. Base dicyclic ; symmetry bilateral ; under- 
basals 5, depressed, linear ; basals 5, large, hexagonal, angular 
above, except on the anal side ; radials 2X5, the first one wide, 
with its distal face occupied by a deep lunate excavation, which 
is filled by the second radial and the two first arm joints. Lateral 
faces of first radials deeply incurved between the arm bases, and 
meeting tegminal plates on the ventral side. Second radial 
trigonal or pentagonal, and ofl its superior sloping margins the 
arms bifurcate as in Marsupiocrinus. The first arm-joint small, 
linear, sometimes coalesced with the second ; the second small, 
axillary ; arms broad, thick, composed of short uniserial joints, 
dichotomizing frequently. The branches are laterally connected 
near their bases, but throughout the greater portion of their 
length kre free. Arm joints alternating with those of adjacent 
rows. As in Crotalocrinus, the outer sides of the peripheral rows 
of the rays are the thickest, and the deep inward curvature of 
their exterior lateral faces leaves similar large petaloid or lanceo- 
late areas. The exterior ventral margins of the incurved radials 
of the first and higher orders, and some of the lower arm joints, 
connect with the plates of the ventral covering, which is of a 
similar nature as that of Grotalocrinus, Ambulacral furrow deep, 
dichotomizing with the arm branches, bordered by two rows of 

76 paociXDiKos or thz acadxjct ov [18S€. 

Amall alternating side pieces, and coTered along the median line 
by two rows of saomplattchen. 

Anal plate one, in line with first radials. Of the nomeroos 
interradialfl only one or two are exposed dorsally, and these are 
socceeded ventrally by an indefinite n amber of other Taalt plates. 
Ventral tube lateral, its construction unknown. Column strong, 
round, with short joints; axial canal large, round or obtusely 

Geological Position ^ etc. — Upper Silurian ; known only from 
Oothland, Sweden. 

Two species have been recognized : 

1828. EnaUoeriniis leriptiif Iltsinger i'CyatlioeriiLitetl), Anteckn it, p. 217: Tab. 
r, fig. 9; Tftb. irii, tig. 1.— 1831. (Apioeriaitet (V leriptiisu Anteekn t, p. 
123, Eiiqoi«ie d. Ub. petrif. d. Swede, p. 23,-1837. Leth. Saec., p. 89, Tab. 
xxT. figs. 1 »nd 2.— D'Orbignj, 1h40 ( KillerierUns ■eriptai). Htit. Nst. 
Grin., p. 94, PI. XTi, fig. 29.— iMjO. Prodr. d. Pal. i, p. 4«.— Angelin, 1878. leon. 
Trin. J^uec,, p. 26, Tab. vii, fig?. 1-3 a; Tab. \x, fig#. 18 and 19: Tab. xxt, 
figj«. 1-7; Tab. xxvii, figs. 17-20 a. — rp|>«r Silurian. Gothland. Sweden. 
^S'^fi.— Enalloerinai pnncUtiii llisinger, Leth. Suec., p. 89.— Killcrieriaai 
pnneUtof d'Orbigny, Hist. Nat. Crin., p. 91. PI. xvi.fig. :;o. — Enalloeriaai 

pnneUltai Salter, apad Murchiiion, Silaria, Ed. 2, p. 218. — AathoeriBttl 
•eriptOf and A. pnnetatUf, Qacnttedl, Ilandb. d. Petref. iw, p. 944. Tab. 
75, figs, fi, 7. 
1878. E. asialoini Angelin, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 26, Tab. xv, figs. 1-4. — Vpper 

Silurian. <iothlttiJ«l, Sweden. 

CLEI0CRINU8 Billings. 

ia'»6. Geul. Siirv. Canada, p. 270. 

1859. Ibid, Deratle IV, p. 52. 

1H79. WachAin. and Spr., Kcv. i, p. 85. 

IMTO. ZitU'l, Handb. d. Pal., i. 357. 

CleiocrinnH in its poneral liahitus Ims close afllniticR with the 
Ichthyovrinidit and Crotalocrinidse^ and this has indiu-od us to 
place it provisionally with the Articulata, without assigning it to 
any 8|K'cial family, although it dilfors in two important points. 
Clevx:rinuHy couirnry to all other Articidata, has an internidiAl 
in lateral contact with the first railials, forming a ring with them, 
and the plates of the calyx apparently were not articulateil in a 
strict si'use. Zittel has referred the genus to the Crutaloerinidv^ 
while we placid it in Part I with the LhfhyncrinnlH . If Ci-rLain 
parts wrre luttiT known, we should make it the type of a new 
family, hut at present, having no positive knowledge of the 


basal regions, nor even of the arms, we are not in a position to 
give a satisfactory definition of the group. 

In order to obtain some additional information, we applied to 
our friend, Walter R. Billings, who, with his usual kindness, has 
furnished us the diagrammatic sketch of the type-specimen, 
which is reproduced on Plate 9, fig. 5. The suture lines of all 
plates above the primary radials, vertically and horizontally, are 
provided with a kind of minute pores ; which, it seems to us, 
indicates a union by syz3^gy, and not by articulation, and that 
the arm structure was altogether different from that of the other 
Articulata. Mr. Billings informs us that ^^ the plates are all 
joined together, but where the strain in crushing has acted upon 
the specimen, the cracks or gaping sutures are preferably on the 
lines of the grand divisions, i. e., the lines dividing the arms 
from one another and from the anal series." This parting of the 
plates, however, does not indicate necessarily a leaf-like struc- 
ture of the rays, as in the case of Grotalocrinus^ for all plates 
united by syzygy, as a rule, come easily apart. 

Mr. Billings informs ud that the ridges of the column are inter- 
radial in position, which confirms the supposition made by us 
(Part I, p. 36), that Cleiocrinus possesses underbasals, and that 
the so-called basals of E. Billings are intcrradials. He also states 
that the lowest visible circlet of plates " apparently overlaps the 
column, instead of passing under it," which shows that the base 
must have been concave, with ample space for the basals and 
underbasals to lie concealed from view. We have indicated the 
basals and underbasals in the diagram by dotted lines. 

It will be useful to give an amended — 

General Diagnosis. — General form obconical ; with bilateral 
symmetry. Base dicyclic. Underbasals probably 3, minute or 
rudimentary. Basals probably 5, small and hidden by the 
column. Primary radials 3X5, increasing in width upwards, 
supporting several superior orders of radials, dichotomizing 
frequently and uniformly, and interlocking with those of 
adjoining rows. 

The rays and their divisions are laterally connected, without 
the intervention of interradial plates, except at the anal side 
and along the first primary radials. The first radials are much 
smaller than the succeeding ones, and separated from one another 
by a comparatively large pentangular interradial. The inter- 


radud of the posterior side is quadrangular, and supports a longi- 
tudinal row of anal plates, which extend to the full length of the 
calyx, and in their form closely resemble the radials. Arms 
apparently recumbent. Column more or less obtusely pen- 
tagonal ; axial canal large. 

Geological Position, etc. — Lower Silurian, Canada. No addi- 
tional species have been described. 

a. Branch, Larvi/ormia. 

The Larviformia comprise the families : Haplocrinidm, St/m- 
bathocrinidee, Gupressocrinides and Qafterocomidm, 

The Haplocrinidse are the simplest brachiate Crinoids.and 
may be regarded as representing the larva, not only of the 
Inadunata but of the Palseocrinoidea generally. Even the most 
complicated Platycrinoid or Actinocrinoid must have passed in 
its early life a stage in which radials and interradials consisted of 
but a single ring of plates when we think the interradials covered 
the entire ventral surface. This stage is probably represented by 
the young Allayecrinus, In Haplocrinus the conditions are essen* 
tially the same, but here the interradials already began partly to 
open out, and the oral plate made its appearance upon the surface. 
It is very possible that also the growing AllagecrinuH before 
reuching muturity attained this condition, or perhaps even the 
condition of Symbathocrinus, hut in default of any such evidence, 
we refer the genus for the present to the Haplocrinidiv. 

The HaplocrinidH; are very closely allied to the Symbatho- 
crinidiu, and it is a question with us, whether it would not bo 
better to unite them under one family. Both are built essentially 
on the same plan, but the Symbathocrinida* — at least their 
typical genus — had proximals, and, as a rule, a somewhat higher 
developed mode of articulation. The articular facet in the 
Synibathocrinidie forms a straight horizontal line, it is extended 
into a large muscle-plate, and this rovers the greater part of the 
ventral cavity, leaving only a small median space, which is covered 
either l»y the iiiterra«lials and an oral plate as probably in /*i>o 
crinuH, or by internidials and a full set of summit plates as in 
the case of Syrnhathitcrirnts, In the llaplocrinidte the inter- 


radials ^ are comparatively large, and rest upon the upper face of 
the main part of the radials ; in Symhathocrinus small, placed 
against the distal ends of their limbs, and separated by radial 
dome plates. In the Haplocrinidse the anal opening penetrates 
one of the interradials, and also probably in Pisocrinus^ Stor- 
ihingocrinuB and Stylocrinus; in SymbatiwcrinuB and Phimo- 
crinus it is placed along the suture of two adjacent muscle-plates. 
This position of the anal opening between the muscle-plates is a 
peculiarity found exclusively among the Larviformia ; we meet 
with it again in Cupressocrinidse, and in a somewhat different 
form among Oasterocomidse. 

The Cupressocrinidse and Oasterocomidse are dicyclic Crinoids, 
containing within their basal ring an undivided plate in form of 
a disk. The disk is pierced by several large openings, a central 
one which represents the axial canal, and by four (exceptionally 
three or five) peripheral ones, which are continued to the whole 
length of the column. The other two families have only a central 
opening, which is small. Dr. P. H. Carpenter, whom we consulted 
as to the functions of these openings, thinks it " very probable 
that the peripheral ones represent downward extensions of the 
body cavity in which water circulated ; while there was an exha- 
lant or outgoing current through the interradial (so-called anal) 
opening with which the intestine was related, so that faecal matter 
could be carried away from the creature, very much as it is by the 
circulation through the dorsal and ventral siphons of a Solen or 

The specimens for which Hall (1862, 15th Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. 
Nat. Hist.) proposed the name Ancyrocrinus are evidently 
crinoidal stems with four peripheral canals, and as such may 
belong to Myrthillocrinus or some other genus of this family. 
There are at the lower end four lateral appendages, which in our 

* If the five ventral plates in Haplocrimu and the allied Allageerinu% 
were orals, as Dr. *P. H. Carpenter suggests, it would follow that these 
two genera exceptionally had no interradials, and vary on this point from 
all other Palsocrinoidea. To this we had reference on p. 72, but in place 
of stating, as we intended, ''Carpenter denies the interradials to be present 
altea^i in Pal»ocrinoids," we made the erroneous statement: ''C. denies 
that interradials are present a» a rule in PalsBOzoic Crinoids.'* The correo- 
tion was made throughout our own edition, but we discovered the error 
too late to rectify it in the Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy. 

80 PROCKKDiNas or thx aoadkmt or [1886. 

opinion arc a kind of radicular cirrhi. In a specimen from the 
Canada Survey Museum of Ottawa we found the lower face of 
the stem covered by a calcareous deposit closing the canmls. 
This deposit appears to have been of a similar nature to that 
which closes the centro-dorsal of Coniatula and the nodal stem 
joints of the Pentacrini, which, according to Wyville Thomson 
and Carpenter (Chall. Rep., pp. 18, 19), occasionally break their 
stems at a syzygy so as to become free. In the case of Ancyro* 
ert7?tt8, however, the stem may have become detached and the 
free state been the rule in the adult, as those stems with their 
anchor attached are found in great abundance. 

The bottom plate in the calyx of the Cupreasocrinidae and Ofu- 
terocomidw, which we take to be a coalesced underbasal disk, has 
been described heretofore as representing the upper joint of the 
column, because the plate, at least in the adult, is undivided. 
It is, however, well known that a fusion of one or more plates 
takes place not only among basals, but al»o among undorbaaals ; 
while, on the other hand, the columnar joints, which in most of 
the Crinoidea are undivided, sometimes are tri- and quinque- 
partite. The plate of Cupresaocrinus unquestionably has the 
position of the united undcrbasals ; it forms, like them, a part of 
the calyx, as much so as the basals of Dolalocrinus and Stereo- 
crinuSy in which, as a general rule, the sutures are totally 
obliterated, and in which the basal disk resembles most remark- 
ably the underbasal disk in this family. It is to be regrettetl 
that neither the central canal nor the anj^les of the column in 
Cupres»(tcrinu8 give any light on this question, the former iKjing 
circular, the column quadrangular; but it seems to us that the 
plate, if really representing a stcmjoiut, should be <iuadran«:ulAr, 
in accordance with the other stem-joints in tliis genus, and not 
pentiingular, as we always find it. 

The musele-phites of the Ciipressoi^rinidii have a more h«>ri- 
zontal posit it)n than in the Si/tnhathocrinnlir^ and those of 
ditferent rays are laterally anchylosed, so as to form an annular 
plate with a central o|>ening. There is, besides, an interradial 
lateral opening, and five pairs of radial ones. The central space 
was probably covered by interradial an<l summit plates, but these 
occupied a cotnparatively small space of the ventral surface, the 
lartrer portion U-ing covered by the muscle-plate**. The intor- 
nulial oiK'uing represents the anus, the outer radial ones the 


axial canals, the inner and larger ones are probably ambulacral 

The arms of the Gasterocomidae have similar axial canals as 
those of the Gupressocrinidae^ but these face outward, while the 
others are directed upward. This is readily explained by the 
condition of their articular facets, which are lateral, horseshoe- 
shaped, and do not extend over the whole width of the plates. 
The articular facets of the radials throughout this family, 
instead of bending over to the ventral side, stand erect as in 
PlatycHntis, and their outer ends support the interradials in a 
similar manner as in that genus. In accordance with this struc- 
ture, it is evident that, if the anal opening was to occupy a posi- 
tion corresponding to that of Symbaihocrinus and Gupreasocrinua, 
it had to be located, as it is throughout this group, dorsally 
between the upper portions of the radials, which resemble struc- 
turally, if not quite functionally, the extensions of the muscle- 
plates in the other groups. The radials of the Gasterocomidae 
have limb-like extensions, they are simply notched for the ambu- 
lacral canal, and their axial opening penetrates the median por- 
tions of the plates. 

The Larviformia agree with the Blastoids as to certain condi- 
tions of their arm structure (see our notes on Gupressocrinus), 
and probably possessed hydrospires and hydros pire pores to 
connect with the ambulacra ; Cupressocrinus even had similar 
pinnules. The arms are simple throughout, but some of the 
radials, exceptionally, support two arms. The arms were united 
with the radials by strong muscles; but the arm-plates among 
each other, so far as known, were sutu rally connected and moved 
in a body. 
We give the following definitions of the four families : — 

A. HAPLOCRiNiDiG. Dorsal cup small, composed of basals and 
radials ; covered ventrally by five large single interradial plates, 
which form a pyramid. These plates are supported upon the 
outer ends of two adjoining radials, and are united with one 
another, leaving only a small ambulacral opening. There is no 
anal plate; the anal aperture, so far as known, penetrates the 
upper part of one of the interradials. Column with small 
central canal. 

B. SYMBATHOCRiNiDiG. Dorsal cup Small ; composed of basals 
and radials only. The latter are provided with large muscle- 


them was rather peculiar. According to his diagnosis, the caljrx 
of Haplocrinus is composed of five basals. These, as he states, 
alternate with five *^ para-basals," of which three are separated 
from the basals by intervening plates (Costalglieder). He 
states further that, placed upon the sutures of two adjoining 
^^ para-basals," there are five simple arms, which in their closed 
condition form a pentamerous ^' Scheitelpjramide." If it were 
true that the latter plates, which at their lateral union form con- 
spicuous grooves, were arms, this Crinoid would have no radiaU, 
and the basals would be radially disposed, contrary to the funda- 
mental rules of the class. The ventral pyramid had been errone- 
ously described by Goldfuss as composed of five series of eight 
to ten pieces longitudinally arranged, and it was this, likely, 
which misled Roemer. The fact, however, is that the ventral 
surface is covered by five single trigonal pieces, arranged alter- 
nately with the upper ring of plates in the dorsal cup, and that 
the latter plates, as Qoldfuss correctly stated, are provided with 
an articular facet upon which the arms moved. This was con- 
firmed by Miiller's observation, who, in 1855, discovered in one of 
his specimens, resting upon the facet, a small brachial. 

Allman was the first writer who undertook to homolog^ze the 
five ventral plates of Haplocrinus, Coccocrinus and Stephantycri- 
nuA with the orals of recent Crinoids. It seems, however, that he 
was not aware of Miiller's discovery of arm joints, for he supposed 
that all those genera possessed recumbent ainbularra. A similar 
view was held by d'Orbij^ny. Schnltze calls the ventral plates 
** interradiale Pvrainidenstiu'ke.'^ Zittel describes the *•* Kelch- 
decke '* to be composed of*' fiinf grossen, im Centrum zusammen- 
stossendon,(lreiecki^en Oral-platten, welche eine Pyraniitle biidt^n, 
und zwischen sicli fiinf breite, jrerade, durch die alt^eschnij^ten 
SeitentUiclien iH'grenzte, nacli unten ^eschlossene, naeh ol>en otfene 
Ambulacralfurchen bilden." There is nothing to confirm this 
view, and, in fact, we <lo not know how this could have been 
possible. It is dilllcult to see what olllce tlie so-<*alh'd '* open 
umbuhural groove '' couM have had, especially if llaplocrinuB 
possessed arms, as Trof. Zittel admits. The LTrooves, evidently, 
are nuTc compartments for the reception of the arms, and served 
for their protection. Carpenter aiirees with Zittel that the ven- 
tral plates are orals, but op[>oses liis o[jen ambulacra. He re«ranls 
the irenus to )>e " iHTmam-ntlv in the condition of a Pentacrinoid 
larva with a closed tentacular vestibule." We fully agree with 


added Triacrinus, which Zittel, Angelin and Miller made the type 
of a distinct fdmily. We admit there are close affinities between 
HaplocrinuSj Triacrinus and Pisocrinus, but we believe the last 
two are closer allied to Symbathocrinus (see our notes on the 
Symbathocrinidae). Pictet refers to the Haplocrinidse : Haplo- 
crinua, Coccocrihus, Myrtillocrinus, Ceramocrinus^ Epactocrinus 
and Gasterocoma; Dujardin and Hup^: Haplocrinus^ Cocco- 
crintis^ Myrtillocrinus and Stephanocrinus. D'Orbigny arranged 
his " Aplocrinidse " between the Pentremitidse and Cupresso- 

In Troost's catalogue of 1850 we find the following names: 
Haplocrinus granulatus, H. hemisphericus, H, maximus and H, 
avaZiSy which have not been defined, and are species of Fisocrinus 
and Triacrinus. Haplocrinus annularis and H. monile were 
defined by Eichwald from pieces of the column. 


(PI. 5, figs. 1, 2.) 

1834. Steininger, Bull. Soc. g^l. de France (Ser. i), vol. viii, p. 231. 

1844. F. Roemer, Rhein. Uebergangsgebirge, p. 63. 

1849. Steininger, Yersteinerungen der Eifel, p. 20. 

1853. Steininger, G^ognostische Beschr. d. Eifel, p. 36. 

1852. Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petrefactenkunde, p. 624. 

1855. J. Miiller, Verh. naturh« Verein, Jahrg. xii, p. 21. 

1855. F. Roemer, Lethaea Geogn. 1855 (Ausg. 8), p. 260. 

1857. Pictet, Traits de Paleont., iv, p. 308. 

1862. Digardin & Hup^, Hist, natur. des Zoophytes Echin., p. 105. 

1862. HaU, 15th Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 143. 

1866. Schultze, Echin. Eifel Kalk., p. 103. 

1868. De Koninck, Bull. d. r Acad. Roy. d. Belg. (Ser. 2), Tome ill (Extr. 

p. 63). 
1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palaeont., i, p. 347. 
1882. Quenstedt, Handb. d. Petrefactenkunde (Ausg. 3), p. 964. 
1885. P. H. Carpenter, Chall. Rep. Crinoidea, p. 158, etc. 

Syn. Eugeniacr%n%U% Goldfuss (in part), 1826, Petref. Germ, i, 
p. 213. 

Syn. AplocrinuB d'Orbigny, Prodr. i, p. 102. 

Syn. (?) Dimorphocrinus d'Orbigny (Zittel). 

The first species of this genus was described by Goldfuss under 
Eugeniacrinites mespiliformis. Goldfuss did not know the con- 
struction of the plates, nor did Steininger who described the 
same species under Haplocrinus spaeroideu^, F. Roemer, in 1 844, 
gave a good description of the plates, but his way of interpreting 


each aide of them a rather conspicuous upright projection, which 
is truncated at the upper face. These projections are laterally 
connected in pairs, and each pair supports a large interradial 
plate, which almost covers the whole ventral surface. The five 
interradials Join with one another; they are subtrigonal, their 
angles truncated ; the upper angle so as to admit a small oral 
plate, the other two to make space for the articular facet. The 
sides of the plates along their suture line are beveled, thereby 
producing along the suture line, in a radial direction, a deep 
groove, which, evidently, was occupied by the arms in their 
closed condition. Beneath these grooves there is an opening in 
the test, at which the ambulacra enter the calyx. The o|)ening8 
contain along their median line the ambulacral passage, which is 
oval in form. At each side of it there is apparently another 
opening, which Schultze described as ^^ kleine grubenartige Yer- 
tiefiingcn," whose functions we cannot understand unless they 
are in connection with the respiratory apparatus. There is no 
anal plate; the anal opening is small, and penetrates the upper 
part of the interradials close to the oral plate. 

The arms are imj>erfectly known, but they probably were long, 
simple, and composed of long joints, like those of the Larvi- 
formia generally. The articulation u|K)n the radials was by 
muscles, the axial canals \yeing plainly visible. Column cylin- 

Geological Position^ etc, — JJaplocrinua seems to have ha<l a 
wide vertical ranjx^, three species being from the Devonian, the 
fourth one,accordin<^ to De Koninek, from the Carboniferous (?). 

The following species have beeu described : — 

I'^f.i. Haplocrinuf cllo IIhII. I6th Kop. N. V..rk State Ctih. Nat. Iliin., p. U.i. PI, 1, 

tijrx. 6 '.'.- MrtnTlluit Sh.'ilo. OniiinUj^o Co., N. V. 
IsriS. H. f^anatum I>«* Konin.-k. Hull. «l. rAciKl. H<»y. tie \Mg. i Srr. 2), Tome iii. 

No. 4. 1*1. 6. lij^x. ft 10. — (?) Mountain liinei't. Holland, Yorksh., Kngland. 
l>2rt. H. metpiliformii • (toMfuuM). EugeniaeriniUi meipiliformU, IVtref. Urrin., 

i. p. 21'., I>|. f*i, tis;. (^.— Haplocrinai ipsroideai, 1*^ >4. Strininjcrr. Bull. 

So.'. <M'oi. .it' Kranrc. Toino viii. p. 2:'>2.— Haploerinai meipiliformif F. 

K'»rin»'r, I "I I. Hhfin. ri'Kfr>tiingi«gcli., p. Irt: aN<» Leth. (feojfn., 1>»54 
Au«^. .;>. p. 2«'.I. ruMit. I>5:. Traiti' .!«• Pal^ont., iv. IM. i-. fin. 2. Hronn, 

I "•»■.•», Klii-iit-n <l. Thorrt'irh* i At*t ino/on i, PI. 2"^, fi>{. 4 A C. - l>ujardin and 

Iliipr. 1^»'.2, Mi-t. .1.-- Zoophu.- Kfhino.l.. p. |n5, p|. 5. fiu. y. _ 

S.'hult/r. ]^t'>*'>, Kiti. Kalk. p. H'4, Tl. 12, fi>:.v |o, II.- I»e\oDiaa. 

KitVI, (i«rii)an\ . 
1*^11. H. ItelLaril Ko.tnrr, Hli«in. ril'cr;:ar»i;'«j;rl.., p. f>.;, \*\. .;, fi^. 6; aliio Sand 

Wert^vr, Jabri»uch, l'^46, p. 777. UofiutTi l>Jb, Lvtba^a (ieogn. (Aufg. J), 

p. 261. — DcruDiaa. Nassau, Ocrmanj. 


him that Haplocrinus is a persistent larval form, but do not 
understand how the five large plates, which occupy almost the 
entire ventral surface, and as much as one-half of the whole test, 
possibly can represent the orals in a Palaeocrinoid, as all other 
genera of this group in which the ventral covering has been 
observed, have largely developed interradials, and these, whether 
composed of one or a series of plates, extend up invariably to a 
comparatively small area surrounding the peristome. We, there- 
fore, regard the small central piece as the homologue of the orals, 
and not the five large plates which we take to be interradials. 

The basals of Haplocrinus were described by Dujardin and 
Hup^ to be composed of three pieces in place of five. The three 
small plates alternating with the basals, the " Costalglieder " of 
Roemer, which are radial in position and support three of the 
arm-bearing plates, were called bj^ Schultze " parabasalia," by De 
Koninck " subradials," while Miiller, Pictet and Zittel called them 
"first radial plates.'' The term parabasals was used by Schultze 
for basals in dicyglic Crinoids, and, therefore, cannot be applied 
to radial plates, neither can the name " subradials," as also this 
term has been used in the same sense. We regard the three plates 
as representing mere sections of_the radials, which, jointly with 
the arm-bearing part above, are equivalent to one of the undi- 
vided radials of the other two rays. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Of very small size. Form of calyx sub- 
globose, sometimes biturbinate, extending almost over the whole 
ventral surface. The summit pieces are represented only by a 
small oral plate. 

Basals five, small, pentagonal, forming a shallow cup with 
slightly acute angles. Radials very irregular, two of them 
consisting of single pieces, the other three of two plates each, 
connected by suture. The two single plates, which agree in 
size — but not in form — with the compound ones, belong to the 
anterior ray and left postero-lateral one ; they are heptagonal 
and almost ef the same form and size. The three compound 
ones differ from one another ; two of the lower segments are pen- 
tagonal, that of the right anterior ray hexagonal, its left lateral 
face being angular. The upper segments are quadrangular, 
except the one of the right postero-lateral ray, of which the 
lower comer is slightly truncated. The articular faces form a 
straight line, and occupy about one-third the width of the radials. 
They enter deeply the upper surface of the plates, and form at 

86 PBO0EEDINQ8 Of tHX AOADIBfT Of [1886. 

each side of them a rather conspicnous upright projection, which 
is truncated at the upper face. These projections are laterally 
connected in pairs, and each pair supports a large interradial 
plate, which almost covers the whole ventral surface. The five 
interradials join with one another; they are subtrigonal, their 
angles truncated ; the upper angle so as to admit a small oral 
plate, the other two to make space for the articular facet. The 
sides of the plates along their suture line are beveled, thereby 
producing along the suture line, in a radial direction, a deep 
groove, which, evidently, was occupied by the arms in their 
closed condition. Beneath these grooves there is an opening in 
the test, at which the ambulacra enter the calyx. The 0|>ening8 
contain along their median line the ambulacral passage, which is 
oval in form. At each side of it there is apparently another 
opening, which Schultze described as ^^ kleine grubenartige Yer- 
tiefungen," whose functions we cannot understand unless they 
are in connection with the respiratory apparatus. There is no 
anal plate; the anal opening is small, and penetrates the upper 
part of the interradials close to the oral plate. 

The arms are imperfectly known, but they probably were long, 
simple, and composed of long Joints, like those of the Larvi- 
formia generally. The articulation ui>on the radials was by 
muscles, the axial canals being plainly* visible. Column cylin- 

Oeological Position, etc. — JIaplocrinus seems to have had a 
wide vertical ran^c, three species being from the Devonian, the 
fourth one, according to De Koninck, from the Carboniferous (f). 

The following species have been descril)ed : — 

I**r.j. Haplocrinui olio lUlI. 1 6th Kop. N. York Stato Vnh. Nut., p. ur.. PI. 1, 

fijfH. 6 '.'.- -Mari'clluii Shjilo. Onouila^o Co., N. Y. 
I-ir.S. H. ^anatum I»e Konimk. Hull. «l. r.Aca«l. K«»y. do \U'\g. i Ser. 2), Tome iii. 

N<». 4. ri. .'), fi){!'. ^> I«». — i'f ) M«>unl«in lirnoHt. Itolland. Y«>rksh., Kn)(land. 
Is26. H. meipiliformii Hioiiitu^;)). Eageniaorinit«i meipiliformii, IVtref. (term., 

i. p. 'Jl'. PI. r.(, fi};. A.— Haploorinui tperoident, I*" '>4. ^StriDirifctr. Ball. 

S.»t'. (mm.i. lit' Franof, Tomo viii, p. LM'i.— Haploorinui metpilifon&li F. 

K"<«m«T, I'^U. Khrin. rrlMTj:HUjci«(5eh., p. Irt; aho Loth. lt«*o|fn.. \>bi 
Au-jj. '.'. p. 2»'.I.— I'lotrt. 1*^67, Traiti- *iv PaK^out.. iv. PI. r. fijf. 2.- Hronn, 
l-'i.o, Khi-i«ftj «l. Thitrrruh* ( Aotiuo/i.a i, PI. '2'<, fj>;. 4 .\ C— I>ujardin and 
Hup.'-. I'-'*.:', Ili-f. .U- Z(>tr5 Kohinod., p. 106, p|. 6. fig. 9. _ 
S.hult/t'. I^f>*., IMnij. Kifl. Kalk.. p. 104, PI. \'2, fij;.. M, 1 1. — Devonian. 
I!i!»*l, «MTiiuiiiy. 
ISJi. H. lUUaril K'«inrr, Khrin. rrhcr;:nrji;»gch., p. fi:., PI. ;;, fifj. 6; also Sand 
hrr>:fr, Jahrhuch, l>4o, p. 777.- K"«'tucr, l!»J6, Lvtba*a iieugD. (Aufg. J), 
p. 261. — DcTuniao. Nassau, Gcrmanj. 


ALLAOEGBIinJS Ether, k Carp. 

1881. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (April), pp. 281-298. 

1884. De Loriol, Pal^ont. Franoaise (Serie i), Tome xi, p. 46. 

AUagecrinua was made by Etheridge and Carpenter the type 
of a distinct family, and this was accepted by De Loriol. In 
our opinion it is either a Ilaplocrinoid or no Palaeocrinoid at alL 
If the five ventral plates, as E. and C. assert, are orals, which in 
the younger speciifiens extended to the radials, closing in the 
tentacular vestibule, but in their subsequent stages were "rela- 
tively carried inwards, away from the radials, and separated 
from them by perisome," we should regard Allagecrinus a 
Neocrinoid. If, however, it is a Palaeocrinoid, we think the five 
ventral plates are interradials, which in the young Crinoid were 
closed, and gradually opened out so as to expose the summit 
plates. In this case, Allagecrinus was in its earlier life morpho- 
logically in a similar condition as Haplocrinua, but may have 
attained in the adult a somewhat higher degree of development. 

Messrs. Etheridge and Carpenter state on p. 284 of their paper 
on Allagecrinus J that the mouth in the larger specimens could 
not have been " roofed over or closed by a dome or vault of any 
kind," for " if such a structure had existed within the circle of 
radial plates, it would assuredly have been preserved.'^ To this 
we reply, that the summit structure of Symbathocrinus which is 
comparatively solid was discovered after hundreds of the most 
perfect specimens had been examined, and until then it was 
regarded as membranous ; the same was the case in Cyathocrinus. 
Allagecrinus in its more advanced stages, may have attained the 
conditions of Haplocrinus or Symbathocrinus^ or even of Cyatho- 
crtnu8, and passed perhaps through all those phases successively; 
but there is not the least evidence that the Scheitelplatten in any 
Palaeocrinoid were carried inward by perisome as in the Neo- 

The same writers remark on p. 286, that " in none of the 
Bmaller specimens is there an}'^ trace of an anal opening, either 
directly piercing an oral plate, or at the margin of the dome 
between the orals and radials." And they state further, that 
" the central end of one or more of the former may be marked 
by tubercles, but we cannot suggest any explanation of these.'' 
If E. and C. had regarded these tubercles as mere ornamentations, 
they certainly would have stated so. We judge from their figs. 


5 and 7 b, on PI. xvi, that one of the tubercles was larger than 
the others. The larger one may have been pierced by the anal 
opening, for it occupies relatively the same position as the anal 
opening in Haplocrinus, 

We cannot agree with Etheridgc and Carpenter that Poterio- 
crinuB isacobus Austin, which we referred (Rev. I, p. 113) to 
Scaphioerinus, is an Allagecrinus. The little cup, which Austin 
figured on Pi. 8, fig. 4, of his Monograph, is evidently a ring of 
underbasals, with a few stem-joints attached to it, and not basals. 
To Judge from the figures, there is in our mind scarcely a doubt 
that, in some way or another, the cal^'x in the t^'pe-specimen 
became detached, that the basals and radials were lost, and the 
underbasals temporarily fastened to the arms for safe-keeping. 
Similar detached cups are frequently found in the Burlington 
limestone, and we doubt if there will ever be found a 8|>ecie8 of 
Allagecrinus with branching arms. 

Generic Diagnosis, — Crinoid minute. Calyx p^-riforra or 
cylindro-conical. The dorsal cup composed of two rings of five 
plates each ; the ventral surface, so far as known, of five single 
pieces. There are no anal plates, neither dorsally nor ventrally. 

Basals five ; suture-lines rarely visible. Radials five, elongate, 
variable in form and size ; they are cither axillaries and support two 
simple arms, or truncate above and bear a single arm, but neither 
one of them is branching;; when axillaries, they are con-nidenibly 
wider. The articuliir facets for the attaclinient of the arms are 
large and distinct, and nearly horizontal in position, so as to 
give a projecting lip-like app<'arance to the upj>er and outer 
edges of the ratlials. There is a transverse articular ri*lije 
around the opening of the central canal, wliich is large. The 
arms are strong, cylindrical, and probably without pinnules. 
The first arm-joint is much shorter than the others, cuboidal, 
with a nearly circular distal fare, the succeeding ones elongate, 
three and four times as wide as lii^h. 

The c<»nstruction of the ventral surface is onlv known in the 
younger specinima, in which it consists of five int<'rra<iial plates, 
which form a closed pyramid, tin* relative si/e of which in 
greater tlie smaller tin* specimen. Tin* platvs are trigonal, but 
the lower angh's slightly truncate to form the arm-opening. In 
the smaller specimens, the plates are so closely uiiit<M|,that there 


is no trace of sutures between them ; but the sutures gradually 
become more marked, and turn in the larger ones into rather 
distinct grooves. No central plate has been observed as in 
EaplocrinuSy and nothing is known of the ventral surface in any 
of the larger specimens. Column short, of vermiform appear- 
ance ; composed of small, low, rounded joints, with a circular 
central canal. 

Geological Position, etc, — Restricted, so far as known, to the 
top of the Carboniferous limestone of Scotland and America. 

1881. Allageorinns Anstini Ether, and Carp. Type of the genus. Ann. and Mag., 

vol. vii, p. 289, Pts. 15 and 16. — Upper Carboniferous limestone of Scotland. 

1882. A. Carpenteri Wachsm., Bull. I, State Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 40; also Geol. Rep. 

Illinois, vol. vii, p. 341, PI. 29, fig. 14. — Kaskaskia group. Monroe Co., III. 


We refer to this family the genera : SymbathocrinuSy Phimo- 
crinuSy StylocrinuSy StortingocrinuBy PisocrinuSj Triacrinus and 
Lageniocrinus. Zittel made of these genera two families; he 
placed SymbathocrinuSy Phimocrinua and Lageniocrinus y to which 
he added CupressocrinuSy under the *•*' CupressocrinidsRy^'* and 
PisocrinuSy TriacrinuSy with CatillocrinuSy under the ^^Piso- 
crinidas,^^ These groups were adopted by De Loriol and S. A. 
Miller. We willingly admit that Cupressocrinus agrees with 
Symbathocrinus and Phimocrinus very closely in the mode of 
articulation and in the arm structure ; but they differ essentially 
in other points. Cupressocrinus has a large dorsal cup, basals and 
nnderbasals, and three or four large peripheral canals, which fol- 
low the column. Nothing of this has been found either in Sym- 
bathocrinus or PhimocrinuSy which both have a very small dorsal 
cup, and a small central opening along the column. After sepa- 
rating Cupressocrinus, and making Symbathocrinus the type of 
the group, it is extremely difficult to establish family distinctions 
between Symbathocrinus and Zittel's Pisocrinidae, Not even the 
irregularity in the construction of the calyx will hold good, as 
also in Symbathocrinus the symmetry is disturbed by the 
presence of an anal plate. CatillocrinuSy which also had been 
identified with these groups, has a ventral sac, and has beeu 
referred by us to the Fistulata. 



(PI. 4, figs. 8 to 11, and PI. 5, figs. 12 to 14«) 

1836. Phillips, Geol. Yorksh., Pt. if, p. 206. 

1848. Austin (in i>art), Monogr. Rec. and Foss. Crin., p. 93. 

1850. D'Orbigny, Prodrome de Pal6ont., i, p. 156. 

1852. Owen and Shumard, Oeol. Suit. la., Wise, and Minna., p. 597. 

ia54. McCoy, Syn. Brit. Palaeoz. Foss. 

1858. Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, Vol. i, Pt. ii, p. 559. 

1868. Meek and Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 824. 

1878. Meek and Worthen, Qeol. Rep. 111., Vol. v, pp. 824 and 437. 
1875. Meek and Worthen, Geol. Rep. III., Vol. vi, p. 514. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. PalsDontologie, i, p. 349. 

1880. Wetherby, Joum. Cincin. Soc. Nat Hist. (Extr., p. 7). 

Not Symbathocrinui Roemer 1855, Miiller 1855, Schultze 1866 - 
Styloerinut Sandberger. 

The gcnas SymbathocrinuHy as it is now recognized, contains 
two distinct generic types. The one which occurs in the Car- 
boniferous and upper Devonian has a large anal plate, and this 
8upi)orts a long tube which extends to nearly the whole length 
of the anus. The other form, which is restricted to the lower 
Devonian, has no anal plate, nor does it show an anal opening. 
The Carboniferous form will be recognized by us as Symbaiho- 
crinus, the other as Stylocrinus. 

When Phillips proposed the name Sijmhathocrinus lie gave no 
description, ho only state<l that the ** pelvis " was " anchylosed." 
The two Austins doscrilK'd Phillips' species, but they also took 
the base to be undivided, and nothing was said by them al>out an 
anal plate, although they indicated it in one of their figures 
(Monograph, PI. 12, fig. 4 b). Their fig. 4 a is a tt)tally ditferent 
thing, and represents either a (rraphincritius or SrytalocrinuA, 
Owen and Shumard discovere<l the base of SymlHithocrinu^t to be 
tripartite, and Prof. Hall wa^ the first to descril>e the anal plate. 
The muscle-plate was taken by Zittel, an<l formerly by us, for a 
so-called consolidating apparatus, like the similar structure in 
Cfiprensorrinuit, and homologous with the oral [)lates. It was 
also the general beru'f that th«* central space was not closed, and 
represented the mouth. 

Si/mfffithorrinu.^ (jnniuldius ami S. Tt'nnrsse<r Troost are cata- 
logue names, »S. tdhnlatus ((loMfiiHs) a S'l/ttilm^rinus^ and S. 
tt'nnt',<tttt*ii)iiA UcM'iner a J^iaocrinus. 

Ocneric J)i(i'jrwsi.'i, — Cii\yx small. Dorsal cuj) ol>conical or 


basin-shaped. Basals three, forming a shallow cup, which is 
slightly excavated for the reception of the column. They are 
composed of two larger equal pieces which are pentangular, and 
a smaller quadrangular one ; the latter placed to the left of the 
anterior interradius as in Platycrinus, 

Radials nearly equal, subquadrangular ; the basi-radial suture 
slightly angular ; width much wider above than below. Their 
upper side forms a straight, horizontal line, except at the right 
postero-lateral radial, of which the left upper end is sloped off 
for the reception of an anal piece. The anal plate rests com- 
pletely upon this one radial, occupying about one-fourth of its 
upper width. The radials are provided with large articular facets, 
which, extending inwards and upwards, form jointly at the ventral 
side of the calyx a sharply angular pyramid with re-entering 
angles. The upper end of this pyramid is truncated, and con- 
tains a good-sized opening in the centre, which in perfect speci- 
mens is completely covered by the interradial and summit plates. 
The lateral margins of the facets meet at their lower ends, except 
at the azygous side, where they are separated by the anal plate ; 
along their upper ends, however, they stand apart, and form 
rather conspicuous clefts. Each facet is divided vertically by a 
narrow sinus,* and the two halves of the plates or the limbs, as 
they might be called, at their upper end form an ambulacral 

The interradials are unusually small, wider than high ; those 
at the four regular sides resting against the upper face of two 
limbs of adjoining radials. The number of interradials at the 
azygous side cannot be ascertained in our specimens, as the parts 
connecting the anal plate with the ventral surface of the calyx 
were not preserved. The anal plate stands in line with the first 
brachial, it has the same height but not its width, and is suc- 
ceeded by a slender tube which follows the whole length of the 
arms. Hall has figured a second anal plate, triangular in form ; 
this, however, constitutes the lower portion of the first plate of 
the tube, which always takes a sharp inward turn, leaving only a 
small triangular space exposed externally between the arms. 
The tube is composed of five rows of quadrangular, rather 

1 These sinuses, which look somewhat like suture lines, g^ve to the 
muscle plates the appearance of representv separate pieoe8» i dmdiallj 
disposed, and this led us at first to regard 

9S noGmnuM of tee AOADmr or [18M. 

delicate plaieB| which are bent longitudinally so as to fonn an 
angle, and each plate extends to, and forms a part of, two of its 
sides. The interradials alternate with radial dome plates, which 
are even smaller, angnlar above. 

The summit is closed by the proximals and oral plate, all of 
which are much larger than the interradials. The proximals con* 
sist of four comparatively large, nodose plates, which enclose 
toward the azygous side three scarcely convex, smaller ones. 
The oral plate is the largest piece of the ventral side, it forms 
an inverted cup, containing radiating grooves along the inner 
floor, which lodged the ambulacra. 

Arms five, long, simple; closely folded together and forming a 
narrow, cylindried body. They are composed of a large number 
of quadrangular Joints, with parallel sutures, and are provided 
with a deep ventral ftirrow, but apparently have no pinnules. 
The first brachial differs somewhat in form from the others ; it Is 
always higher, extending to the level of the oral plate ; also wider, 
but not quite as deep. Its proximal face is provided with a 
muscular appendage, which corresponds with that of the radials; 
its distal end, however, shows neither ridge nor foss«. The 
higher brachials in all probability were united by suture, and the 
arms moved as a body upon the radials. The articular (aces of 
the latter are provided near their outer margin with a transverse 
rid^e (PL 5, figs. 12, 13), extending to the whole width of the 
plate, with a transverse axial canal. The ventral furrow is deep, 
has a longitudinal groove along the inner floor, and riMike pro- 
jections alternating with grooves along the inner walls. The 
sides of tlie furrow are lined by two rows of short transverse 
side-pieces — about eight to each side of the arm joint — aitematei}* 
arranged, which leave a zigzag median opening along the whole 
length of the arms. There are also lateral pores, one to every 
side-piece, and these connect with, and form the up|)er end of, 
the lateral furrows at the inner walls of the arm grooves to which 
we alluded. The lateral faces of the arm joints are providetl 
along their outer side with Rhallow slanting grooves (PI. 5, flgs. 
12, 13), and these n^rec in number with the pores. It seems to 
us very probable that, by means of these grooves, the %*entral 
furrow was brought in contact with tlie surrounding element, as 
the arms in this genus are so closely folded together, that with- 
out them no communication was |>ossible. 


Colamn long, cylindrical ; with small central canal. 

Geological Position, etc. — Symbathocrinua, commenced in the 
Hamilton group, attained its greatest abundance in the two Bur- 
lington formations, and disappeared at the termination of the 
Keokuk period. 

1869. Symbathoorinns brevii Meek A, WortheD, Proceed. Aoad. Nat. Soi. Phila., p. 

68 ; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, yol. y, p. 439, PI. ii, fig. 6.— Lower Burlington 

limestone, Burlington, Iowa. 
1836. S. eonious Phillips, Geol. Yorkshire, p. 206, PI. 4, figs. 12, 13; Austin, Ann. and 

Mag. Nat. Hist., z, p. 108; also Monog. Rec. and Foss. Grin., p. 93, PI. 11, 

figs. 5 6, c (not 5 a, which is a Poteriocrinoid); d'Orbigny, 1850, Prodr. i, p. 

156; McCoy, 1854, Syn. Brit. Palseoz. Foss., p. 118.— Mountain limest., 

Ireland and England. 
1852. S. dentatns Owen A Shum., Jour. Acad. Nat Sci. Phila. (new ser.), toI. ii, p. 

93, PI. 11, fig. 7; also 1852, Geol. Rep. Iowa, Wise, and Minnesota, p. 597, 

PI. 5 B, figs. 7 a h. — Upper Burlington limest., Burlington, Iowa. 
1880. B. granoliferns Wetherby, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist., PI. 16, figs. 3, 3 a. 

— Einderhook gr., Kentucky. 
1858. S. matntinTls Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, p. 483, PI. i, fig. 2. — Hamilton gr., 

New Buffalo, Iowa. 

1860. S. Oweni Hall, 13th Rep. N. York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 111.— Kinderhook 

gr., Rockford, Indiana . 

1861. S. papillatns Hall, Descr. New Crin. (Prelim. Notice), p. 18. — Upper Burling- 

ton limestone^ Burlington (a mere variety of 8. dentatas). 

1865. 8. robustus Shumard, Trans. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. ii (Palaeozoic Foss. 

America), p. 397. — Meek and Worthcn, 1885, Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 514, 
PI. 29, fig. 4.^^Eeokuk limestone. Button-Mould Knob, Ky., and Sulphur 
Springs, near Nashville, Tenn. 

1858. 8. 8waUovi Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, Pt. II, p. 672, PI. 17, figs. 8 and 9.— 

(?) St. Louis limestone. Missouri. 
1869. 8. Waehimnthi Meek and Worthen (not 1866= CatiUoorinus Waohsmnthi), 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 67 ; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, v, p. 437, PI. 2, 
fig. 5. — Lower Burlington limestone. Burlington, Iowa. 

1859. 8. Wortheni Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, Pt. ii, p. 560, PI. 9, fig. 9.— Upper 

Burlington limestone. Burlington, Iowa. 

FHIM0CBIKU8 Schultze. . 

1866. Schultze, Monogr. Echin. Eifl. Ealk., p. 29. 
1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palaeontologie, i, p. 350. 

1882. Oehlert, Bull. Soc. G^ol. de France, Ser. 3, x, p. 353. 

Phimocrinus agrees almost completely with Symhathocrinus, 
bat it has five basals in place of three. It also has similar arti- 
cular facets, which, in a like manner, form a stelliform pyramid, 
of which, however, the summit plates have not been observed. 
The anal opening is situated between two muscle-plates, and 

94 paoGEiDiNas of ths aoademt of [1886. 


evidently was extended into a tube, as in Symbaihocrinua. The 
form of the arms is not known. Column pentagonal, with a 
small pentalobate central canal. 

Oeological PonHarij etc. — Phimocrinus is restricted to the 
lower part of the Devonian. 

1882. Pkimocrinoi Joaberti Oehlert, Bull. d« la Soe. O60I. d« Fraaee, Scr. 3, Com* 

z, p. 362, PI. 8, fig. I.— DeToniftD. Sabr6» Fraoee. 
1866. Ph. lavit, SchultM (Tjp« of the g«oui), Monogr. Behin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 29, 

PI. 3, fig. 6. — DeTonian. Eifel, (Jcrmaoy. 
1866. Ph. quinqnaiigiLlarii Schaltu, Monogr. Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 30, PI. 3, flg. 7. 

— Devonian. Eifel, Oennany. 

BTTLOCBnnJS Sandberger. 

(Re-defined by W. and 8p.) 

1850. Venteinerungen Nassau's, p. 400. , 

Syn. Platyerinui (partim) Ooldfu8^ 1888. Nova Acta Leop. XIX, 
i, p. 345 ; also Quenstedt, 1852, Ilandb. d. PetreflMstenk., Ed. 1, 
p. 618. 
Syn. Si^athoerinui (partim) MiiUcr, 1855, Yerfa. natarh. Verein 
fur Rheinlande, xii, p. 19 ; also Neue Echin. Eifi. Kalk., p. 257 ; 
Schultze, 1866, Monogr. Eifl. Kalk., p. 26; Zittol, 1879, Handb. 
d. PaUeont., i, p. 840. 

Stylocrinus has been generally regarded as identical with 
SymbathocrinuSj and Sandberger, when he proposed the name, 
failed to point out the generic differences. Ht* applied the name 
to a species from Vilmar, which aflerwards was found to be 
specificftUy identical with " Symbathocrinus ^^ tabulatus, from the 
Eifel. The absence of an anal plate, an<l even of an anal op)ening in 
the Eifel species, was overlooked or disrej^anled by all European 
writers. Zittel de8cril)ed the ventral side of Symbathocrinus as 
plated, and containing an anal tube reaching to the tips of the 
arms ; be also spoke of oral plates, which were said to form 
beneath the vault a concealed consolidating appanitus. This 
description, incorrect as it is, was evidently made from the 
Carl>oniferou8 form, as in the Eifel species nothing is known of 
the calyx In^yond the nidials. In Symbathfpcrinus the anal 
opening is located between two of the nuiscle-plates ; but in the 
Eifel sjH'cies, which we make the ty|>e of Styltprrinus^ the mus- 
cular api)endages of all the ra<lials are suturally unitwl. This 
suggests that the oju'iiing probably penetrated the interradials,a!} 
in JIaj)l()crinui<, and it may have ha<l, like that genus, only an 
oral plate and no proximals. 

I«M j HATV&AL anssiru or raiLAi>BLriiiA 95 

In tht r«tft«trnrtH'ti «if ihr «i«»r»al cup. St'^*'" *^t%u» »^rr«-« «ilh 
>^'m^«;i MrriHMt Tbr two jji hrf». l»««wr%«r . il.ffrr »n t*;r mrtaMiUr 
#%Wft«.t ti« t»f thi if r»<hAU, wtrrli f \*.«-n<t **t.\\ !t.«rAr>l. ti>»t 
%yw%rl aft'l r>rtn * l« «< I «i*.b !hr •>(!!• r r*l^*< • <>f tttr r»'tt»U. 

r fTw-»f fcf. 1 ri.t*«.«l« of 11. i k i«'.i»t», th.'«« at tl,« i-ij !•• f rti<l 
«»•«• tLar. • rt# half ff thr:r |*rr«t« ^t w.lth 

• •:• ttf i^rrtaat uWUtvf • fUtytnaat ta¥«Utmt n •» « • I' i t 

ii • ifmlMttlkMnaat U¥«Utm« ^ ^•" •-•*,*. \.-« • ♦ 

r * I ' • ' '■ ■• •' ' » ■ ' 

fa* %mf*—^ H " ' . k • i X '- •« 

't* fVatff naat *«Ytf at%» •• f a;«ta«««t f Mrtlu%Uta» f a*4« 

f % ' : ' \ ■* 

•». ity«a«nam« MaWr •* . ;■- > r ^ ..ti . j i. * » • 


« • < 

#l«:><m* '.#. •." •b • *; •. • *• :•••::•! * \ « . '!'.•• * \ M . !• f 
TVat \ i--^ r. t *-c! • ^' t !■. i fcri \ %•:»*:.: !.. . • • I* »! , 

ynftrw -'f *« i^ tr- •. • « ♦ »•• . \r • . 1 . ■ ^ * »: I * . ;. :'. ; • r. 

* » #Tii# •'*'/»%i/-ri# lift**. .•* :•• •*,.., •• .f*. -tt** • 
Yte • i# -. f lt# ?* ri • r * « ' s • • • K fc . • *r.» . 

•^ ^.tt a •- .. * !.\ • \» ' - ' . • I • ,;■ •!. 

♦ . • 


upwards and inwards, forming partitions between the arm bases, 
leaving but a small space for the reception of the arms. 

Column round, with a stellate central canal, its angles directed 

Geological PoMion^ etc, Stortingocrinus is restricted, so far 
as known, to the lower beds of the Devonian of Europe. 

*I8.38. Stortingoerinai deeagonas (Ooldfuif) PUtyerinoi dMagonnt. Not^ Acta 
Ac. Leupuld. xix. i, p. 345.— Scbultir. PUtycrinai (Stortiagoeriaai) daoa- 
gonus; Muoogr. Kchin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 70. PI. lo. — DeTuoUo. Eifel, 

•IS6:>. St. ftritillai, (Wirthgen antl Zeil«r), Tvpeof the genui. PUtyeiinui fritillmt. 
Verb. Daturh. Verein f. Kheinl., Jabrg. xii (n. aer. ». p. Ml, IM. 10, fig*. 4 An4 
6.— Sobuhse, Platyorinai (Stortingociinas) fritUluB, Muo. Kchin. Eifl. 
Kalk., p. 69, V\. 10, figc. H-8 f.— Devonian. Kifel. GermMi.?. 
Syn. Platyerinai aiper, P. pusillai, P. mgoini, P. soobionlataa and P. 
seaber GuMfuM, and P. minatai Schurr. 

•1860. St. trifldai (SchultBe),Plat7or. (Stortingoor.) trifldui, .Monogr. Echin. Eti. 
Kalk.. p. 70, PI. 10, fig!<. Ma-g.— Devonian. Kifel, (fermanj. 

PISOCBIinJS De Kuninck. 

ia58. De Koiiiiick. Bull, de T Acad. Roy. de Belglque (Ser. 2), It, p. 104. 
1873. Salter, Cat Cambr. MuBeum, p. 138. 
1879. Handb. d. PalsDOiitologie i, p. 348. 

1878. Angelin, Iconogr. Crin. Suec., p. 20. 

1879. 8. A. Miller, Joum. Cincin. Soc. Nat. ITlHt. (July). 

Syn. Symbathocrinu9 (in part), F. Hot-mer, Silur. Fauna, Went 

Tenn., p. 65. 
Syn. (?) Triacrifiutf Miinster, 1839 (In part-, Beitni«je zur Petnv 

factcnkundi', p. 4. 
Syn. Symbathocrinus (in part), Rm'niiT, 186<\ Silur.. Fauna Weat. 

TfuneHset', p. 55. 

Pi»ocrinu8 is closely allied to Triarrinus, but tbe latter is said 
to have threi* basals; Pisocrinuit has five. The arrangement of 
the other calyx plates is identical, and also the arm structure. 
Schultze, who observed in the Eifel species only three basals, 
postuhited from this tliat the Silurian species from Sweden, for 
which De Koninck had establislu'd the genus PiAorrinus^ also 
consistfil of but three plates. Angelin, who succeeded Schultze, 
and who had at his command the extensive collections of the 
Stockholm Museum, (b'scribes the genus with five basals, and all 
his figures show tive phiU'S. \\v also examined from the same 
horizon in America several hundre<l specimens of at least three 
spi'cies from Western Tennessee, all of which have five basals and 


not three ; but in one of those species the basals are so small that 
they were almost completely covered by the column, and it appears 
as if the sutures between the plates of the second ring, of which 
only three touch the basals, were the sutures between the plates 
of the first ring. A similar structure is found in Pisocrinus 
pUula (Iconogr., PI. 4, fig. 4 6), a species which in its general 
aspect is closely allied to Triacrinus depressus Miiller, We do 
not pretend to say, however, that this species had five basals ; it 
is very possible that two of these plates became anchylosed, and 
that the genus made its reappearance in the Devonian with only 
three basals. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Calyx in its general aspect clove-shaped, 
its form subconical, sometimes pyriform. 

Basals five, unequal ; three of them larger and trapezoidal, the 
two smaller ones trigonal, which combined form an irregularly 
triangular cup. 

The radials are extremely irregular, only the two antero-latefal 
ones touching the basals. These two are more than twice as 
large as the other three plates ; they are hexagonal, and have the 
same form and size. The anterior radial is triangular, with con- 
vex sides, and rests with its lower angle half way between the 
two larger ones. At the posterior side, the basals do not support 
a radial, but are succeeded by a pentangular azygous plate, which 
shares with the two large radials an equal part. The plate has 
the form of an axillary, is broadly truncate below, with short 
lateral faces, and is sharply angular above. The two postero- 
lateral radials meet above the azygous plate, resting upon its 
sloping upper sides, and against the upper half of the two larger 
radials. Their width is identical with that of the larger ones, 
and in a ventral aspect the radials appear to be perfectly 

Pisocrinus has similar articular appendages as Symbathocrinus, 
which cover a good part of the ventral surface. The articula- 
tion, however, does not occupy the whole width of the radials ; 
there is at each side of the plates an upright extension, which 
together with that of adjoining radials produces interradially, 
between the arms, a conspicuous projection, similar to that of 
Haplocrinus, but more prominent. The construction of the ven- 
tral side is not known, the space beyond the articular faces is 



jK «I1 oar specimeDs, but probably was covered in a BimiUr 

as in Symhaihocrinus, 

TW arms are long, simple, rounded along the outer face, and 

li^ej^ oK>wlj folded than in Symbathocrinus, They are composed 

^^ <\tn^niely long, single joints with parallel upper and lower 

^v^ The column is circular and has a stellate central canal. 

iftoio^ical Position, etc, — Pisocrintis is restricted to the Upper 
^\urian, and occurs in Europe and America. 
ISsocrinus Dixoni Troost is a catalogue name. 

I^rs. FitOCrinas flagtlUfer Angelin, Iconogr. Crin. .^uec., p. 21, PI. 4, fifs. I a-«. 

— rpper Silur., (Gothland, i>wcden. 
IS7tf. P. gemmiformis S. A. Miller, Journ. Oincin. Soe. Nat. Hift. (Julj), PI. 9, 

flgii. ta-r. — Niagara gr., Riply Co., iDdiana. 
IH78. P. ollala .\ngclin, Iconogr. Crin. Succ, p. 21, PI. 4, figi. 4 a-d. — Tpper Silo- 

rian, (Juthlaml, Sweiivn. 
1H.>M. P. omatni I>e Koninck. Hull, dc I'Acad. Rot. de Belg. (Ser. 2). Tome 4 i Extr. 

p. 27'. PI. 2. fig«». 12. 1.1.— Ippor Silurian, Dudlrr, England. 
!«*:•«. P. pilaU I>o Koninok (T>|.e of the genuK), Bull, de I'Acad. Roy. de Belg. 

(Ser. 2^ Tomo 4 iKxtr. p. 2r.), p. lo6. figji. s-11 : Angelin, ISTH, Iconogr. 

Crin. Sui-r.. p. 21, PI. 4, fig!«. 4 «. h. — I'ppcr Silurian, Dudley, England, 

and l}othlaud, Swcdt-n. 
IM7H. P. pocillum Angelin, Ict.nugr. Crin. Sure, p, 21, PI. 4, figii. .1, .^ a. — I'pP**' 

Silurian, iiuthlanti, SwimIou. 
•inno. p. tonneiieeniii (K«Kmer^ Symbathocrinui tonaeitM&tU, Silur. Fauna, 

Wot. T»'uii..|>. .».». IM. I. fi^>. r. .1. '.. — Nia^jaragr. iM^catur Ct».. Tenn. 


\KM\. Mtin^tor, lUitnij;i» /. I\ trtfartoiik., p. 3. 
IHTjO. D'Orbipiy. Punir .U- rAltHmt.. i, p. KU. 
lKr>6. Si'hultzf, Monojjr. Kohin. KitVl Kalk., p. 106. 
1HT9. Zitttl, n.iii»ll». k\, P.tla-ont., i, p. lU*^. 

Syn. 7W\t»-n'iWj >lr.r.,r. Mt»iuitsN r. 1s"k». p. VA., and Nt-ui- Krhin. 
a. Kill. K.ilk.. p. Jl^. 

Tri'i' r\n'..< ditliTN ftom rt.<*»''riu*is in hrivini; three Imsals in 
place of the. ill all otiier ehani* t«'nj the two fi)rnis are identical. 
We h:i\ i- ^<»iiit' <louht ^^lutlur tht- iVw sjH*cies whieh have IxHrn 
referri'l to 1 rifirri^ius havt not really fixe l«asal> instead of 
thrif. Ill :!.> *. :i>f x\\v LI* i!U^ w.-iiM take the nauii- /*i>-tp.?..< 
an«i not i'-i i- r»' >, a:il». 'ijli tin !at!»r ha^i priority. Munst«-r 
iii^enUd \'. K- I'.i^t a'i tripartita, inak'.nj this the nanu*-^ivini: 
cl.aravti-r. ai. i 1»« K- v::.ok. ^!:o I'^ ii.-l tht '■a'^a!^ in hi-^ sin-cie^i. 


was in our opinion perfectly justified in establishing for it a new 

1857. Triaorinas altns (MUlIer), Triohoorinui altuB, Neue Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 249, 

PI. 2, figs. 8-11.— Sohultze, 1866, Triacrinns altus, Eohinod. Eifl. Kalk., p. 

10», PI. 12, fig. 9.— Devonian. Eifel, Germany. 
1867. T. depreiaus (MUller), Triohoorinui depressns, Neue Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 249, 

PI. 2, figs. 12-17.— Sobultze, 1866, Triaoriniu depresini, Eohin. Eifl. Ealk., 

p. 108, PI. 12, fig. 8.— Devonian. Eifel. 
1839. T. grannlatua Mlinster, Beitr. z. Petrefactenk., p. 4, — Upper Silur. (?). 

Schiibekammer, Germany. 
1839. T. graniilatiiB Mlinster, type of the genus, Beitr. z. Petref., p. 3, PI. 1, figs. 

4 a, 6, c. — Devonian. Benitzlosau, near Hof, Germany. 

LAOENIOGBIinJS De Kon. A Lehon. 

1858. De Eon. and Lehon., Kecherch. sur les Crin. Carbon, de la Belg., 

p. 187. 
1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Fal»ontologie, i, p. 350. 

Zittel has placed Lageniocrinus along with Symbathocrinus and 
PhimocriniLSj and we think for good reasons. We also agree 
with him that the five plates, which in the specimens cover the 
ventral surface, represent the arms and not radials as was sup- 
posed by De Koninck. These plates evidently could be opened, 
and there were plates underneath covering the calyx. Lagenio- 
crinus represents in our opinion an embryonic form, and may 
possibly be the young stage of Symbathocrinus, Of this genus 
we found a very minute specimen, in which the arms consisted of 
but three successive joints, forming jointly a pyramid ; while 
adult specimens sometimes have as many as a hundred. 

Generic Diagnosis. — General form flagon-shaped ; that of the 
dorsal cup funnel-shaped. Basals three, elongate, two of them 
larger and pentangular, the smaller one rhomboidal, which 
together form a tubular body which is slightly wider above. The 
radials are quadrangular, wider above than below. Two of them 
rest upon the truncate upper faces of the two larger basals, the 
three others against their sloping sides and against the upper 
sides of the smaller basal. There is no anal plate. The arms 
consist of single joints, which, folded together, form a pyramid. 
The ventral surface of the calyx is not known. 

1853. Lagenioerinos leminiiliilii De Kon. and Lehon, Recherch. sur les Crin. Carhon. 
de la Belg., p. 189, PI. i, fig. 1 a~c.— Moustain limest. Yis^, Belgiiyn. ^ 

- • • « !• : - ' 

100 PEOO BMP U W M or TBI ▲OAMHT Of [1886. 

(1) BKOVALOOmmS W. A Sp., R«?. i, p. 57. 

This genus was referred by os provisionally to the lehthyp- 
erinidfle, where it cannot remain, as it has not the articnkte 
structure so characteristic of that group. We now place it with 
the Inadunata, as the arms were evidently free from the first 
radials ; but we are yet in doubt if it should go with the Syn- 
bathoorinid«, Cupressocrinid«, (}asteroconiid», or be made a 
distinct group. 

Family XV.— CnrBSSBOOBIHIDil Boeaier. 

The Cupressocrinidfle in our classification consist only of the 
genus Cupre990crinu$, Schultse, Zittel and De Loriol, however, 
added SyndkUhocrinuB and Fhimocrinus^ which unquestionably 
diflbr from Cupre8$ocrinu$ more than PUocrinug and IWocrtiiiis, 
for which they proposed a separate group. 

CVPBISSOCBnniS Ooldrmi. 


18SS. GoldfuM, Petref. Germania, I, p. 880. 

1885. Agaulx, Mteoir Boa des ScL natur. d. Keaohatel, i, p. IM. 

1888. Ooldftits, Nova Acta. Ao. Leopold. XIX, I, p. 880. 

1889. Monster, Beltimge i. Petief., p. 8. 

1845. F. Roemer, Leonh. and Broim*8 Jahrbuob, p. 201. 

1850. D*Orbigny, Proarome de Paleont, i, p. 102. 

1852. QucDMtedt, Handb. d. Petref. (Ed. 1), p. 62:). 

1855. Sandberger, Vemteineningen Nassau* a, p. 401. 

1855. F. Roemcr, Lcthiea Geognostica (Ausg. 8,i, p. 290. 

1857. Pictet, TraiU' de PaK-ont, vol. iv, p. 306. 

1862. Divjardin and Huih', Hist natur. des Zooph. Eohin., p. 110. 

18G6. Bchultz^s Momigr. Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 14. 

1879. Zittel, Ilandh. d. Pal»ont<>logie, i. p. 348. 

1880. Qtieuhtedt^ Handb. d. Petref.. Ed. 3, p. 962. 

ISH'i. Pe I^)ri(»l, Paleontolof^io Franc, tome xi, p. 47, not Ad. Roemer, 
Harzegebir^S p. 8 ; nor McCoy, Syn. Brit. PalflM>x. Foss., p. 117. 
8yn. Ilalocrinitn Stviiiinj^er, 1831, Mem. 8oc. G^*oL de France, I, 

p. :M9. 
Syn. Cffprtno<rinUf$ St«'iningor, 1H40, Vcrstein. Uebergangsgeh. 

d. Kifel, p. 20. 
Syn. CV/xl/om/iiVfifStviniiijji'r, 1853, G«»gn. Beschr. d. Eifvl, p. 86. 

(toblfuHH, in 1820 (Pi*tn'faota Geruiania), gave a f2;ood descrip> 
tion of this ^eniis, to which ho made additionn in 1838 (Beitrage 
zur l^etrefactenkunde, p. 334). At both times he expressed the 
coQ^ictiun tha* tlie ventral covering was probably membranous. 


The arms he described as bearing " sabelformige Tentakeln " 
(pinnules), and in the description of Cupressocrinus gracilis he 
gave a graphic account of the articular facets of the radials. 
These, according to his statement, extend deeply inward, so as 
to diminish largely the width of the visceral cavity, which at the 
upper end is reduced to one half the depth of the facet. Behind 
the " Nahrungscanal " (axial canal), he says, there extend out 
two diverging muscular extensions, which connect by a cross- 
piece, abut against their fellows of adjacent radials, and form 
together a star-shaped figure, composed of five pairs of leaves. 
The ventral surface, therefore, according to Goldfuss, consists of 
five coalesced muscle-plates, and not, as was supposed by 
Roemer, Schultze and Zittel, and heretofore by ourselves, of an 
independent plate or apparatus, peculiar to this genus. F. 
Roemer described it as a cribriform calcareous plate, in form of a 
five-leaved flower. Schultze speaks of it as five delicate plates, 
which join radially, four of them equal, the fifth one different 
and containing the anal opening. He calls it a consolidating 
apparatus, constituting a part of the inner body, and not portions 
of the outer test; pierced by various openings, through which 
the blood-vessels, axial canals and genital organs passed into the 
arms. A similar view was held by Zittel, who stated : " There is 
in the interior of the calyx, at the base of the arms, a peculiar 
annular, so-called consolidating apparatus, composed of five 
large interradial (oral) plates, with a round (mouth) opening at 
the centre." Also, De Loriol mentions a peculiar " Consolida- 
tions-apparat, qui a ^t^ rapproeh^ des hydrospires." 

The views expressed by us. Rev. I, p. 12, to which De Loriol 
alludes, differ from those of our co-laborers. We held that the 
so-called '* consolidating apparatus " was composed of five oral 
plates, which we thought stood in connection with five pairs of 
hydrospires. To this interpretation we were partly led by a cer- 
tain superficial resemblance, but principally by the fact that 
Roemer, Schultze and Zittel, who had access to the splendid col- 
lections from the Eifel, all agreed that the plates in question were 
interradial in position. If this had been true, nothing could 
have been more natural but that these plates should be struc- 
turally identical with the deltoids of the BU idea^ i the 
interradials of the Cyathocrinidae^ which 
be oral plates. 

-.^^-jjaft ■ 


A very different interpretation of the so-called consolidatiog 
apparatus has been given to us by Dr. P. H. Carpenter, who 
regards it as representing the united muscle-plates of the radiala. 
He wrote to us as follows : *^ I look upon the consolidating 
apparatus as offering a surface for the attachment of muscles by 
which the arms were moved on the calyx. The successive arm- 
pieces — I will not call them * joints ' — were suturally united and not 
movable upon one another, so that the arms were moved en nuuMe 
upon the calyx, and this must have required very strong muscles 
between the calyx and first brachials. All that is ordinarily 
supposed to represent the articular face of the radials is shown 
in Schnitzels Taf. 11, fig. 5 a, while that of the arm-base appears 
on fig. 7 6. Now, it appears to me improbable that the heavy, 
massive arms of Cupressocrinus were moved by muscles which 
had no further surface of attachment — at their proximal end, at 
any rate — than is shown in Fig. 5 a. Symbalhocrinus has large 
muscle-plates, but there is nothing of this kind in Cupre^socrinut^ 
without the consolidating plates. The calyx of Phimocrinus IsruiM 
(Schultze, Taf. Ill, fig. 6 a), corresponds to that of CupreMBO- 
crinus, with the consolidating plates in situ. There is the same 
arrangement round the anal o])ening, of which there is absolutely 
no trace in Cupre.^socrinus, icithout the consolidating plates, and 
yet it is clear from Schultze's description that he regards (rightly 
as 1 believe) the top of the calyx to l)e formed of the * (ielenk- 
fliichen der Radialia,' with the anus l>etween two of them. 1 
cannot, therefore, help rciranlinj: the consoli<lating apparatus of 
Cuftrvsnocrinus as consisting of the united muscles-plates of the 
radials, from the lower portions of which they are apt to 
separate." This seems to us a very reasonable solution of the 
(juestion, and we fully agree with Carpenter. We have since 
found that the plates are not internidiallv disjK>se<l, nor do they 
form separate pieces; the sutures which we thought we observed 
are evidently ratlial sinuses, similar tt) those which we described 
in Symb(ithocrimi.<. 

The arm structure of f^uprtsititcrinug was also |>ointed out 
more accurately l>v (loldfuss than bv most of the succeeiling 
writers. The outer and inner '* C^uerl»alken " of Schultze Mon., 
ri. l,fii:s. 1 /*, a. i), are ohvit)Usly tlie l»:i**al portions of incurveil 
pinnule*^, and :»> suth they wi-re descrilK^d and figured by Zittel. 
These pinnule*^. hoNMNcr. in the opinion of Car|)enter, are not 


^kTRii MiiN I* r I ![ii \: ri I'll' « 


• . • 

•« • 


\ ' 

I I 

I* « 

. • 



104 nooBiMvas ot tarn icuunanr ot [1886. 

of a tingle row of firom 8 to SO haftTj, truwrerw piooes, of whidi 
the upper and lower eidet are parallel* The arm platea grow 
narrower and shorter at their upper ends, they are aataralljr oob> 
neoted, and sometimes so closely anohylosed that no sntore lines 
oan be distinguished along the lateral margins of the arms. 

The radials are connected with large muscle-plates (PL 4, flg. 
1), which are laterally anchylosed, and together form one oob> 
tinuous plate. This covers the greater part of the Tentral 
surface, leaving in the centre but a comparatively small, irr^v- 
larly pentagonal open space, which, as we suppose from analogy 
with allied forms, was covered in the animal by interradial and 
summit plates. The median portions of each radial is pierced by 
two successive, rather large openings, of which the outer ones 
penetrate the upper margin of the plate, and serve as passages 
for the axial cords; the inner ones, which pass through the 
muscle-plate, prolmbly are ambulacral openings. The muscle 
plate in its outer form is stellate, having five pairs of leafJike 
extensions, two to each radial. They contain upon their outer 
faces indistinct strice, which from both sides concentrate toward 
the axial opening. The leaves become more delicate toward 
the periphery, especially interradially, where they are f^uendy 
broken, and the spaces, thus formed, appear in the specimens as 
if constituting natural openings. 

The articulation of the arms with the calyx was facilitate<l 
by tlie axillaria, which, like the radials, have an axial canal, 
and, according to Sehultze, similar mnscular processes. The 
articular face of the arms is truncate, sloping toward the inner 
side, and corrugated for the reception of ligament The arm 
furrow is deep and wide, and contains along the inner floor an 
unusually large axial canal, which, to the extent of the proximal 
arm piece, is partitioned off from the ambulacral groove. The 
exact construction of the ambulacra is not known, but we Judge 
they were plate<1 in a nimilar manner as those of SymbaihocrinuM^ 
an<l not membranous as descrilied by Sehultze. Thej' probably 
also were provide<l with lateral pores, and these were alternately 
arranged with incurved, articulated pinnules, resembling in form 
those of the recent jxcnus I/olopuH, but arranged like those of the 
Hlastoids, there l)eitig four or more to each arm Joint. 

Cupreiwcrinus has l>een described to {)08»ess no anal plate, 
only an anal op^ming, located l>etween two of the muscle plates. 


It has been overlooked, however, that in the two radials adjoining 
the anal opening the passages of the axial cords are placed con- 
siderably to one side, leaving sufficient space for an anal plate 
such as we find in SymbaihocrinuSj and whose presence we postu- 
lated in Fhimocrinus. That such a plate really existed, is more 
probable since we find in C. gracilis the margin which forms the 
anal opening at one side considerably raised, and there are 
irregular upper edges as if these had formed the base of an anal tube. 

The column is circular, triangular or quadrangular, composed 
of short joints. It contains four large peripheral canals, rarely 
three or five, and a central one, which is either confluent with the 
others or isolated. It is frequently provided with cirrhi, which 
have two canals, vertically arranged, and these also are frequently 

Geological Position^ etc. — Gupressocrinus is only known from 
the lower portions of the Devonian of Europe. 

N. B. — Gupressocrinus dubius and (7. teres A. Roemer, and C 
pentaporus Eichwald, were described from pieces of column ; C7. 
calyx McCoy = Hydreionocrinus calyx (Rev. ii, p. 131); C. im- 
pressus McCoy probably is Eupachycrinus. 

18:i8. CnpresBOorinns abbreyiatus Goldf., Nova Acta Ac. Leopold, xix, Ft. i, p. '.v.V.\, 
PI. :iO, tig. 4.— D'Orbigny, Prodr. i,p. 102.— Roemer, 1865, Leth. Geogn. (Ed. 
;;), i. p. 2:J2.— Schultze, 1866, Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 19, PI. ii, fig. 1, and PI. 
iii, fig. :{. — Dujardin and II up^, 1862, Hist. nat. Zooph. Eohin., p. 112.^- 
Devonian. Eifcl, Germany. 

Schahze recognized the following varieties: C. altE) C. granulosa, C. hybida 
and C. minor. 

Syw, Haloorinites Schlotheimii Steininger, Mem. Soc. gC'ol. de France i, p. .>49, 
PI. 21, fig. 1. 

Syu. CnpreiBOorinus Schlotheimii Steininger, Geogn. Rcschreib. d. Eifol, p. 
:J6, and Vorstein. der Kifel. 1849, p. 21. 

Syn, C. pyrimidalis Stein., Bull. Soc. g6ol de France (Ser. i), ix, p. 295, PI. 4. 

Syn. C. nodOBUB Sandbergcr, Versteiner. Nassau's, p. 401, PI. 35, fig. 5. 

Syn. C. UrogalU Roemer, Pala'ontgr. iii, p. 9, PI. 2, fig. 7. 
1826. C. oraBSns Goldfus8 (Type of the genus), Petrof. GermanisD i, p. 212, PI. 64, fig. 
4 ; also 1838, Nova Acta .\c. Leopold, xix, Pt. i, p. 3.31, PI. 30, fig. 1. — Agassis, 
1835, Soc. de Ncuchat. i, p. 198.— D'Orbigny, 1850, Prodr. i, p. 102.— Bronn., 
liethsea Geogn. 1 and 2. — F. Roemer, Leth. (ieogn. i, 1855 (Ausg. 3), p. 232, PI. 
4, figs 9 a, b. c— Bronn, 1 860,Claf«8en des Thierrcichs ii,Pl. 28, fig. 1 .—Dujardin 
and Hup^, 1862, Hist. nat. Zooph. Echin., p. 112, PI. 5, fig. 12.— Schultze 
1866, Mon. Echin. Eifl. Kalk , p. 23, PI. .3, fig. 1.— Devonian. Eifel, Germany. 

.Vyii. CypressoorinuB oraBSUS Steininger, Geogn. Beschrcib. d. Eifel, p. 36 and 
Versteiner. d. Eifel, p. 20. 

Sj/H. CnproBBOorinuB .tetragonuB Goldfuss, Nova Acta Ac. Leopold, xix, Pt. i, 
p. 832, PI. 30, fig. 3. 

lOf) PB0CEEPIK08 or THE ACADEXT OP [1886. 

IftSA. C. •longmtnt GoMfaM, Nora AcU Ac. Leopold. zii« Pt. 1, p. .'131. PI. .10. tg 3. 
— MUnster, 18.19, Beitr. d. Petrefacteok., p. .1, PI. i, ftgt, 1 a, h.— D'Orhiicnj. 
1860, Prodr. i, p. 102.— Scbultze, lH«ft, Mon. Echio. Eifl. K»Ik.. p. 2.*^ PI. \ 
tig. 1. — Dujardin and llupi, Iliit. natur. Zouph. Echin., p. 112. — I»rironiaa. 
Eifel, Gvrmanj. 
•^yi. C. geroUteiiMiuii Stein. 1.S49. \ctM. d. Eifrl, l^itu. p. 20. 
.N'yn. C. priimaticilB Stein, 1849. ihid., p. IM). 
Syn. C. elongmtUf Stein, {le*>gn. Be«ohreib. d. Kifrl. p. ::^. 
lP2fi. C. gracilil Ooldfui«§, Petrc-f. Germani», i, p. 2l:t. PI. ftl, fi». ;» : »!••» N'^ra 
Acta Ac. L<wpold, x\x. Pt. I, p. ^M, PI. .10. fijf*. S »». /.. r i not j <i/ . — Steminf^r, 
1849, VeMteiner. d. Eifel,p. 20.— D'Orbigny, 1?«6«. Pn»dr. i. p. 102.— I»ujanliii. 
and ilap^, 1862, ili«t. oat. Zooph. Echin.. p. 1 1.;.— Schultse, 1*»A6. M'»d. 
Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 2.1, PI. .1, fig. 2.— Deronian. Kifel. Germanj. 
]^M. C. hieroglyphicut Schultse, Mon. Echin. Eifl. Kalk.. p. 2.'>. PI. 1. Rj^. ••.— 

Devonian. Eifel, Germanj. 
18Afl. C. iniUtas Schultse, Mun. Echin. Eifl. Kalk.. p. 24. PI. I. fig. 2. --l>r%<>nt«n. 

Eifel, German J. 
I860. C. toaber Schultse, Mon. Echin. Kifl. Katk.. p. 2 i, PI. I, fijc- (. — D^-V'^nian. 
Eifel, Germanj. 


Tlie Oasterocomidfle embrace the followinjr genera : GaMern- 
coma, Nanocrinun and Myrtillocrinus. They were tinittfl by 
Pictet and by Dujardin and Ilupd, with the Ha|)l(>erinidie ; Hoeiner, 
Schultze, Zittel and De Loriol, however, treated tliem as a sepa- 
rate family. 

GASTEROCOMA (i.l i:u>-. 

lft:W. GoUlf\is8, Nova A<ta \v. LtMipoM. xix, i. |». •*-*><>. 

\H^^'^. ?t*'iniii;^«*r, Cu'ogii. IUmIui'IIi. d. Eifel. p. \i><. 

IKTiT. MuUiT, Nrue E«'hin. Kill. Kalk., i». '2'n. 

lK-)7. Pictvt, Trait^' dc Pah'ont., iv, p. 'M \. 

1H»>2. Dujaniiii ami Hu|<', Hist, iiatur. des Z<H»|»h. K« Inn., p. 1(»0. 

\Hm, Schultz*', M«)ii. Kihiii. Kill. Kalk . p. irV 

1S71». Zittvl, IlaiidK. d. Pala-ont., i, p. :W:i. 

Syii. Ceriirnorrinus MuIUt, 1s'>."), VitIi. iiatiirh. V» niii f. Hln iiiUu«if, 
xii (ii. MT. ), p. K\. 

Syn. Kjmtocrinus MulKr, IS.*).'*. i7/iJ., p. Ml. 

(i(iMt'i'(M'tnna was descrihi'd by (i<ddfus'H to !»«• c«im|M»>rd nl' fi\t* 
basals and live r.idials, thf latter a«< tMiclosintr lat^nillv an anal 
|datr,an<l tlir anal opcniiiij as bfiii^j !«)cati*d n«*\t t<» \\\v |M^^t^•r^t•r 
l»a>al. Tins (Irfiiiitum, alt li(>UL:li "^iilKstMnt ially e(»rn*ct. wa-* nitrr- 
wards iiMMlitii''! liy Sclnilt/.i'. llr loimd ainonn •»pt'rii's, and 
♦•von anioiiLT individuals oj" ihr -^ainr -^prcii's, tlif (•(»n>t rurtion «•!* 
the a/.y)Z(>us sidi* uiidt'r;^<M> nu>»-l n-inarkable \ai iatit*!!*^ : siudi a'* 
in otluT i:ruiips would Ik- ^ullHient tur ^fin*rif >ep.Hration. Tht* 


anal opening in this genus, as a rule, is located between the 
radials. It either lies directly above the posterior basal, and is 
followed by a quadrangular or triangular anal plate, or the open- 
ing is situated above the anal plate. In the former case the two 
posterior radials may close above the opening, or be separated 
from one another by additional plates ; the opening ma}'- even 
l>enetrate exceptionally the posterior basal. MUller's genus 
CeramocriniLS, according to Schultze, was founded upon a speci- 
men in which the anal plate was placed above the opening, con- 
trary to the typical form of Goldfuss, in which it was below. The 
name Epactocrinus was proposed for a specimen with very irreg- 
ular basals, portions of which evidently had been destroj^ed or 
fractured, and were restored by the animal, and this may have 
produced the irregular fonn. The construction of the ventral 
side cannot be satisfactorily ascertained from Schultze's figures. 
His figs. 1/, and 1 1, on PI. xii, which are said to represent the 
ventral surface of Gasterocoma antiqua, are so diflferent from one 
another, that we believe there is a mistake in the figures. These 
figures differ again essentially from fig. 5 6, which is said to 
represent the same parts in Gasterocoma gibbosa. 

Generic Diagnosis. — The lower disk has the form of a 
pentagon, and extends somewhat beyond the column. It is 
surrounded by five basals, four of them equal, pentagonal ; the 
fifth larger, hexagonal, truncate above. 

Radials five, pentangular ; three of them are equal, the two 
next to the az3'gous side irregular. The two latter enclose later- 
ally not only the anal plate, but also the anal opening, which is 
surrounded by a single ring of small plates, and either rests upon 
the truncated upper face of the larger basal, or is separated from 
the latter by an anal plate. In either case the anus, as a general 
rule, is succeeded by one or more anal pieces, which, however, in 
some specimens do not extend to the upper end of the radials, 
and in this case the radials meet above the anal plates. The 
radials have a lateral articular facet of the horseshoe form, which 
extends deeply into the plate. It is notched above for the arm 
furrow, and pierced by a large axial canal, which is removed far 
off from the outer edge of the plate. The arms evidently were 
heavy, and, to judge from the facets, were probably pendent. 

The mouth of Gasterocoma, according to the position of the 
central piece, was excentric. This central — or, as we call it, oral — 

108 nooBDiHQs or TBI AOAraMT or [188^ 

plate abuts against the two posterior radials; It Is large, 
heavy, somewhat elongate, and surrounded anteriorly and later- 
ally by what may prove to be four proximals (?). The inter* 
radial plates appear to be small, but may be partly hidden from 
view by the large oorering plates. 

The form of the column is not known, but it was, like in 
Cupressocrinus^ perforated with a central canal and four per- 
ipheral ones, which were confluent at the centre. 

Oeolagical PowUicn^ etc. — Confined to the Devonian of the 

The following species have been described : — 

1S:W. OMttrooSMS aatiqia Ooldf. (Type of tb« genvf), Nova A«U Ae. Leopaia. XIX. 

i, p. 9e.— Pietot, 1857, TrtiU d« Pal«ODt.» iv, PI. C, fg. 7.— 8eli«liir» ISiS» 

EehiD. Eifl. Kftlk.» p. 96, PI. IS. flg. I.^DcroDiaa. Eifel, OcraiMiy. 

S^n. EpMloeriamt Irrtffslarlt MttlUr (Wirtgva aad Mlw), 1653, Vtrk. 
Dftturb. V«reiD. f. Rbeinl., zH, p. 85, PI. 12, flfi. 5>8. 
1866. 6. fibbOM Sebultse, EobiD. Eifl. Kalk., p. 98, PI. IS, flg. 5.~I»evi«iM. 

Elfel, GermaDj. 
1866. 6. MfllUri SobulUe, Ecbin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 99, m. IS, flg. 2.— IievoniM. 

Eifel, Oermto J. 

8$m, OfimmoeriBmt •iflitaiit MUUer (WirtgeD and Seller), Verb. iwUrb. 
VeraiD r. RbeinUnde, xii, p. 8.1, PI. 12, flg. 2. 
1866. Q. rttioaUrU Sobultie, Ecbiaod. Eifl. Kalk., p. 99, PI. 12, flg. 3.~UeTo«i«a. 

Eifel, <}crm»njr. 
1S(16. O.stellaris Sohultxe, Kchin. Eifl. Kiilk., |i. l»o. PI. 12, fig. 4.— l>r%»uiaB. 

Kif«^l, (tcriuany. 


1H50. Miiller, MoiiaUbvr. d. Berl. AcjmI., p. 3.V>. 

18.')7. Miillor, Nouo Ecliinod. Eifl. Kalk., y. 24». 

1806. 8<huUzo, Monog. Kchin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 103. 

1879. Zitt4*1, llandb. d. Falieontolo^He, i, 304. 

NanocrinuH in wry closel3* Allied to (iantenH^}ma^ aiul had not 
Schultze fotiiKl rtix HpocimonH which all have the »aine irregular 
structure, we should feel incliniKl to regard it au ahnormal fonn 
of that genus. According to Schultze, the genus ha8 Ave liaHals* 
but only four radials; the place of the fUth one is said to lie 
(KTCUpied by an interradial. TIh* I:itt4*r is strictly radial in |»oiii. 
tion, and as sui-h shouhl be designated as a non-artn-lieariDg 

Generic />iVii//»o>M.— liasal cup n.s in (laaterttvomn^ but the 
plates K'ss regular; four of them pentagonal, the |K>sterior one 
considerably higher, hexagonal, truncate above. 


Radials five, large, irregular in size, four of them arm-bearing, 
the fifth one not. The articular facet is lateral, horseshoe-shaped, 
and occupies almost the whole outer face of the radials. Three 
of the plates have a single facet, but the fourth, which is an 
axillary, has two, somewhat smaller than those of the others. 
The non-arm-bearing radial is smaller by more than one-half than 
any of the rest ; it is hexagonal or trapezoidal, and sometimes 
altogether absent. The anal plate is placed between the lateral 
faces of two radials, and rests upon the truncate upper face 
of the larger basal. It is subquadrangular, somewhat excavated 
for the anal opening, which generally occupies the upper portion 
of the anal plate, occasionall}^ however, as in Gasterocoma, the 
lower side of it. The form of the arms is unknown. 

The inter radials appear to be small, but probably are partly 
hidden from view by the unusually large covering pieces, which 
occupy the greater part of the ventral surface, and rest against 
the oral plate, which is extremely large, there being no proximals. 
The column, like that of Oasterocoma, is provided with a central 
canal and four peripheral ones. 

The only known species is : — 

18j6. Kanoorinus paradoxus Miiller, Monatsber. d. Berl. Acad., p. 355; also Neue 
Echin. d. Eia. Kalk.. 1857, p. 249, PI. 2, figs. 18-21.— Schultze, 1866, Echin. 
Eifl. Kalk., p. 102, PI. 12, fig. 7.— Devonian. Eifel, Germany. 


185.5. Sandberger, Versteiner. Nassau's, p. 388. 

1857. Pictet, Traits de Pal^ont, iv, p. 311. 

1862. Dujardin and Hup^, Hist, natur. des Zooph. Echinod., p. 108. 

1862. Hall, 15th Rep. N. York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 142. 

1866. Schultze, Mon. Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 96. 

We have not seen the original description of this genus, but 
we infer from the notes of Pict^t, Schultze and Hall, that Sand- 
berger described it to possess a quinque-partite, quadri-canalicu- 
late base. In his figure it seems the central part was represented 
as undivided, and, curiously enough, the same is the case witli 
HalFs figure of the American species, although he mentions in 
the description " five basals and five subradials." We cannot 
understand how a base like this could have been divided into five 
parts — not four — aud, therefore, prefer, in default of further evi- 
dence, to regard it as undivided, although we are well aware that, 
if any such division did exist, it would prove most satisfac- 


torily that also the lower plate in the allied genera is nnder- 
baaaL Myriillocrinus, in our opinion, is closely allied to Oos- 
terocama^ if not identical with it, but it is possible that the anal 
opening which has not been observed was sobcentral, in place of 
lateraL It also appears from Hall*s figure, as if it had two arms 
firom each ray , although there is but one axial canal, which oocnpies 
the central space of the facet The facet in Hallos species is oral 
and strictly lateral, thus indicating that the arms were pendent. 

Geological PosUion^ etc. — Only two species are known, the 
one from Europe, the other from America, both coming from 
lower Devonian beds. 

1802. Mjrtilloeriamt smtriMani H*IU 15tb Rqi. N. York St. Cab. N»t. Hift.. p. 
142, PI. 1, flgf. 2-4. — Upper Helderberg group. LivlagitoD Co., N. Y. 

18(6. M. tloafmtu Sandborgor (type of tbe gvauji), VeniteiD. NaMMiV. p. 3M» PI. 
36, flg. e.— Pietet, Tr»it4 do Pal^nt., iv, p. ZU, PI. e, flg. 4.— Dt^ardia aad 
Hap^f 1862, Hitt aatur. d. Zoopb. Kcbinod., p. IQH.— Mailer, litJT, Xeae 
Ecbin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 257. — I>ev4»niiui. NMi*au, Ucrmanv. 

b. Branchy PISTULATA, W. and Sp. 

The Fistulata embrace the Cyatbocrinidse as they were defined 
by us heretofore, but which we now subdivide into Hybocrinidc, 
Ueterocrinidtc, Anomalocrinidae, Cyathocrinidie and Poterio- 
criuidiu. To these we a<id the Belemnocrinidus AHtvl<K*rinUliir 
and Kncrinidie. 

Zittel defined his H^'bocrinidffi uh follows: Calyx irregular; 
iMUiiis monocyclic ; basals 5 ; radials 5 ; arms nlender, 8in{|:l«s 
jointed ; pinnules wanting ; and be placed in the family : JJtjbo- 
crinun and Anomalocrinus, His detinition ifl deficient and not 
«|uite correct. It would admit Pimcrinus and Bhoiml*fcrin*m, 
which we recoj^nize as members of very diffen^ut groups ; and it 
actuiilly excludes AnomnlorrhiuH^ which has seven plates in the 
radial series and not five, and strong pinntilet^, which are wanting; 
in Hi/ftocrinus, 

J/t/btjrrinus represents a very |M'cnliar form. No other paliro- 
zoic <'riii<»id <U"«iervrs in so hit^h a dejjree the desijjnation emhry* 
unic tyjtf' as this jrmus, lltjlHu'itntitt's antl the allit»<i i^eneni 
HoplwrinnH iiwl liifrnrrinim, which Zitt«»l took to lie synonym*»us 
with Hyftf^i'rinus, Tluwr four p-nera, which an' easily rcctjjr- 
nizeil by their monocyclic Imsc, hirjje body, imperfectly develo|>eii 
radial phit«'Sjmi)all ventral sac, the embryonic state of their arm^. 


and the absence of pinnules, will be recognized by us as Hybo- 

Amon^ the Heterocrinidae Zittel placed Heterocrinus^Oraphio- 
crinuSj Erisocrinus, Philocrinus and Stemmatocrinus. 

The family was defined as follows : Calyx regular ; base mono- 
cyclic or dicyclic (five underbasals and five basals, or the latter 
only); five radials ; arms long, simple, rarely bifurcating. The 
qualification " calyx regular " cannot be applied to Heterocrinus, 
which is one of the most asymmetrical forms of the Palseo- 
crinoidea, and this want of symmetry extends not only to the 
interradial series but also to the radial plates, and forms its best 
generic distinction. 

Neither does that term apply to Oraphiocrinus, which is 
bilateral, nor Philocrinus, which we think is decidedly irregular. 
Only Stemmatocrinus and Erisocrinus have a pentamerous calyx, 
but these agree in other respects with the Poteriocrinidae. 
Heterocrinus, in its general asymmetry, in arms and pinnules, 
and in its azygous side, closely resembles Anomalocrinus^ which 
for other reasons we refer to a distinct family. We add to the 
Heterocrinidse the two genera Stenocrinus and Ohiocrinus, which 
are founded upon species heretofore ranged under Heterocrinus, 
and unlike Zittel, place Oraphiocrinus, Philocrinus, Stemmato- 
crinus and Erisocrinus under the Poteriocrinidae. 

Anomalocrinus, which we make the type of a distinct family, 
stands closer to the Heterocrinidae than to the Hybocrinidae, but 
differs from either of them very essentially in the relative size of 
the calyx, which is comparatively large, and low-cup or saucer- 
shaped in place of subcylindrical or narrowly turbinate. It 
further differs from all known Crinoids, recent or fossil, in the 
arrangement of its pinnules, which are not given off* alternately 
from opposite sides, but from every successive joint on one side 
at a time from one bifurcation to the next, where they change on 
both rami to the opposite side. In the arrangement of the anal 
plates, and in having no underbasals, the Anomalocrinidap agree 
with the Heterocrinidae. 

The Belemnoerinidae, which only contain Belemnocrinus and 
the imperfectly known genus Holocrinus, differ from the preced- 
ing families in having no underbasals ; they have, however, large 
basals, cylindrically arranged, but even these take little or no 
part in forming the visceral cavity. In this regard Belevino- 


trimua itMcmbles lAitocrinitf bat it diffcra rrom tbat in bAving 
a strong porous rentral mc. 

Zlttel's CyvUiocrinUUe Inolude Cyathocrinut, NijileriKriHHa, 
Baiycrinua, Sv»pirocrinu», O/Aiverinua, Bittri/ocrintu, PaI»»- 
erimux, Oantbocrintu, Bplutrocrinus and I'acht/ocrinoM (I]iUlii)p, 
not Eiofawald), with the foltowiog family diui^osi* : C*ljx 
gbiboM; baai* dicyolic, i:ompoa(>d of Ore iiDdcrbasnU nnd lire 
hMnIa; uial« 1-8; anas stronftly devi'loped, single-Join led, long, 
branching, wlthont pinunlefl ; viintml siile covered by " oral 
|tlates." From hi* list muHt \k cxoIikK'nI Uifleru^rinu; which 
has intvmulialM and onlj tliree iindcrliiMaU, and Pach^ocr\nu», 
which it too imperfectly knoirn to dct«rniine its powition. Tb«n 
an bealden Sici/ocrinut, OpKiocrinua, Botryocrimu and Aory- 
crintta, In which the arms, tbroughout their whole iMgth, gtvn 
off armletH at Intervals, wbleh evidently take the plaon of pifr 
Qoloe If Uicy arc not trae plnniiles thcmMilvcA. We direot attHk 
Uon to this point, as tioth /itU:l nnd De Loriol make the abNMt 
of pinnnlcs in the Cyatbocrinids> the sole distinclion bvtWMB 
this hmily and the I'oteriocrinlda), 

The presencn or absence of pinnules has bt-cn oonidderad by 
ns heretofore as a doubtful cfaaracter for distingalshlag fluB(U«k 
The pinnules sre extenaionit of the nrms, and In their organizi^ 
tiuu, hotb inorphiilogicnlly arx) phytioiiiglaMy, almoHt idrnlii'al 
with the arms. They are short brancblets given off along the 
sides of the arms, but ordinarily not extending to their tips. 
The pinnules differ f^om arms only by their containing the fertile 
portions of the genitsl glands, white the arms lodge the genital 
cord. The branches of the arms may be said to be modifled 
pinnules, which differ from true pinnules in their greater length 
and thickness. They arc usually called arms when attaining the 
form and length of the primary arms, but armlets when shorter, 
less robuHl, and given off at regular intervals. Frequently the 
branches are pinnule-bearing again, and this is the case in the 
Poteriocrinidfc, in which all arms, whether branching or simple, 
main arms or side arms, are fringed with true pinnules. The 
presence or absence of pinnules would prove to l>e s much better 
character for distinffuishing the two groups, were it not tltat 
Harycrinae and allied genera represent a most perph'xing transi- 
tion fomi in having nhurl side branchlets, given off at regular 
iulf rvalH, ami these liranrhing off once or twice sgnin in a similar 


manner. In these genera it is exceedingly difficult to determine 
whether the branches are armlets or pinnules, a question which 
cannot be decided definitely until we know where the genital 
glands are located. It is probable that in the genus CyathocrinuH, 
at least in its Carboniferous form, all branches were arms. Wc 
found in C. muHihrachiatus^ along the three or four proximal 
arm joints, outside the adarabulacral or side-pieces, small plates 
in rows of from four to six pieces (PI. 4, fig. T a, 6), succeeding 
each other longitudinally, which perhaps took the place of the 
genital pinnules. No such plates, however, were represented in 
BarycrinuSy in which the ventral grooves are comparatively 
narrow. Cyathocrinus longimanus has no regular pinnules, but 
certain sabre-shaped appendages, composed of five segments, 
which from each side infold over the ventral furrow, covering it 
completely. These appendages which we (Rev., i, p. 25) erro- 
neously took to be rudimentary pinnules,^ perhaps correspond 
with the so-called "pinnules" of the Cupressocrinidte and Blas- 

Another good distinction between the Cyathocrinidic and 
Poteriocrinidae is offered by their mode of articulation. The 
radials of the former have horseshoe-like facets for the brachials ; 
in the Poteriocrinidae they are more or less truncate along tlie 
upper margin, and united with the brachials by a transverse ridge, 
occupying a median line and frequently their entire width. The 
middle part of this ridge is pierced by an axial canal, and there 
is a kind of muscle plate with more or less conspicuous fossae. 
The outer ed^jre of the plate is dentated and evidently was occu- 
pied by ligamentous bundles. In the Cyathocrinidae the arms 
are always bifurcating, and their branches are given off at close 
intervals; those of the Poteriocrinida* are frequently simple from 
the brachial bifurcation upwards, but when bifurcating, the 
divisions are given off irregularly, and branches and main arms 
bear pinnules alternately from every joint ; there being no syzy- 
gies. The arm joints of the former, with the exception of Banj- 
criniLS, are composed of long, slender joints with almost parallel 
sutures ; those of the latter are shorter, heavier and strongly 
wedge-shaped, even interlocking. Tlie same mode of articulation 

* A similar interpretation at that time was given by us of the ambulacral 
plates covering the ami furrows of Cyathocrinus iotoensis, a mistake which 
was rectified by CariKjnter (Chall. Rep., pp. 63-G6). 

Il4 l»R00UDIIfQ8 Of TflK ArADIMT Of [1888. 

that unites radials and brachials, extends to all 
plates of the Poteriocrinids. In ErtMcrinuSy EupachycrinuM 
and OraphiocrinuM^ species with ten arms, it is found also among 
the proximal arm plates, not, however, in the allied ScytalocrinuM 
and DecadocrinuBy in which all arm plates above the braehials 
are united by suture or elastic ligament The same was prob- 
ably the case in species with branching arms, in which all inter- 
mediate joints between the axillaries are without either ridges or 
fossaB. A sutural union also connects the brachials in cases 
where they consist of more than one plate, the apposed Ikces 
showing no traces of a sysygy or fossie. In the arms of the 
Cyathocrinidffi there are, so far as observed, no articular ridges 
nor axial canals, and no ligamentous fossae, not even between 
radials and brachials, nor upon the axillaries. The apposed 
faces of all their Joints fit closely together, the distal end being 
slightly concave, the proximal to the same degree convex, so 
that we may assert that their mode of union has been either by 
suture or of a somewhat similar nature, and that the arms were 
either immovable or their motions limited, and probably of a 
mere passive character. This difference in the articulation of the 
two types was noticed by J. S. Miller when describing the typical 
genera, for he placed Cj^a^Aoertiius separately among Inarticulata, 
and Poieriocrinus among Scmiarticulata. These names, as 
applied to the rays, are very chtirnctcristic of the two groups, 
for the PoteriocTinidiif an* in their nrticulation much more hiifhly 
ditferentiated, approaching in some ca^en the Nei>crinoidi'a, 
Miller*8 Articiilatu. 

In none of the Poterioerinid«» han the ventral eoverinj;, wiih 
the exception of the so-called ventral s»»e, ever lHH»n ohnerved, 
while that of the C^'athocrinitla' is comparatively well kn(»wn. 
This, however, is partly explained by the condition of the radial*, 
which in the Cyatliocrinidje had ample npaee fi>r the reception of 
interradiaN, contrary to the Poteriocrinidie, in which the articu- 
lation extends over the whole width of the radialH, and the inter* 
radials, partly or wholly, ha<i to rest aj;ainst the muHcle plate!!« as 
in the Sy nilmthocrinida'. In the Cy at l)ocrini<1ie the interradiaU 
Were jKTsiHlent through life, hut tiiey m:iy have l>ecome rt»florUil 
in the Poterioerinitla* hefore reaching maturity. The condition 
of the ventral side aniontr the ('vathocrinid;e varies considerahlv. 
and even among the *»iH*cirs now referred to the genus Cvatho- 


crinus there are several which range infinitely lower than others, 
and these should be placed under new genera. 

The azjgous side of the Cyathocrinidae consists rarely of more 
than two plates in the calyx — the azygous plate and tlie anal 
piece ; but the Poteriocrinidte generally have three, owing to the 
fact that the first plate of the ventral tube extends often into the 
calyx. The ventral sac is perhaps more club- or balloon-shaped 
in the Poteriocrinidse, more cylindrical in the Cj'athocrinidje. 

We subdivide the Cyathocrinidee into: 

Dendrocrinites, genera with a large az^-gous and well-developed 
anal plate, embracing : Merocrinus, CarabocrinuSj Dendrocrinus, 
Homocrinus, Ampheristocrinus and Farisocrinus. 

BoTRYOCRiNiTES, genera having no special azygous plate or 
occasionally a rudimentary one, and armlets in place of pinnules: 
AtelestocrinuSj VasocrinuSy Botryocrinus, Sicyocrinus, Streblo- 
crinus and (?) Barycrinus. 

Cyathoorinites, genera without azygous plate, with branching 
arms without pinnules : Gyathocrinus, Arachnocrinus, Oisso- 
vrinus, Sphssrocrinua, AchradocrinuSy Codiacrinus and (?) 

Zittel placed Gissocrinus among the Taxocrinidie, the perfectly 
symmetrical Codiacrinus among the most unsymmctrical Gastero- 
comidse, and OphiocrinuSj Dendrocrinus and Honwcrinus, which 
are devoid of true pinnules, among the PoteriocrinidtP.* 

We subdivide the Poteriocrinidae as follows : 

PoTBRiocRiNrTES, genera having an az3^gous plate, a regular anal 
piece, and the first plate of the ventral sac enclosed in the calyx : 
Poteriocrinus,Scaphiocrinu8, ScytalocrinuSj DecadocrinuSy Woodo- 
crinus^ Zeacrinus^ HydreionocrinuSy Creliocrinns, Eupachy crinus ^ 
Cromyocrinus and Tribrachiocrinus. 

Graph lOCRiNiTES, genera without azygous or anal plate, but 
the first plate of the sac within the limits of the calyx : Graphio- 
vrinus^ Bursacr-inus, Phialocrinus and Ceriocrinus, 

Erisocrinites, genera without azygous or anal plate dorsally : 
Erisocrinus and Stemmatocrinus, 

* Prof. Zittel figures, Haiidb. d. Palseont., i, p. 3 )9, aa type of the Poterio- 
crinid» a species devoid of pinnules. Poteriocr. cartas Miiller, is evidently 
a HoTnocrinits, 

116 PBOCtnOtllOS Of THB AGADIMT 0» [18M. 

Our Poteriocrinidae contain essentially the same genera as those 
of Zittel, but we except from his list Hamocrtnu$^ Dendrocrinut^ 
Agasnzocrinus and Belemnocrinua. For the two latter we pro* 
pose distinct families. 

The Encrinidae are closely allied to the Poterocrinids, ami we 
think will ultimately be consolidated with them. Nothing, as yet, 
is known of their ventral structure, but neither of that of the 
Poterocrinidae except their ventral tul>e. There is nothing which 
proves that the ventral surface of Encrinus was composed of soft 
parts, or that it was exclusively |)erisomic or differed fh>m that 
of the Poteriocrinidae which are universally regarded as Pal«o> 
crinoids. The only difference which we have discovered Is that 
in the Encrinidffi the brachials are united by syzygy and also 
the proximal arm plates ; contrary to the Poteriocrinidtt In which 
syzygies, so far as known, do not occur. 

Among Attylocrinidm^ which represent the free floating Palso- 
crinoidea, we include Agassizocrinus and Edrwcrinus^ the former 
with underbasals, the latter with iKisals only. It is very possible 
that Edriocrinus will prove to be the type of a distinct family. 

The CaiUlocrinidm contain : Catillocrinus and MycocrinuM, 
The allied Calceocrinidae only the genus CalceoerinuM. 

These ten families are defined by us as follows : — 

A, IlTBOCRiNiDiC Hase monoi*yclic ; calyx large compareil 
with the arms. Hanals 5, unusually large. Radials irregular, the 
l>osterf>-lateral one either unropresontod or very much smaller, and 
sometimes uon-arm-bcaring. Arms frequently undi'velo|HH.l in 
one or more rays, or recurrent and approssetl onto the outer 
surface of the calyx ; simple, an<l without pinnules. Azv^ouh 
Hide composed of a single, large azygous plate, and frequently an 
anal piece, ^hich in form resembles the right posterior radial. 
Ventnil sac very small, consisting of a mere tumor-like pn»tn- 

B. Heteiuxkini !».*:. Base monocyclic. Calyx small; platef^ 
irregular. Basals r», varinMe. Kadials irregular, frequently com- 
ponnd in one or more rays; the right posterior radial smaller. 
resting upon the a/.ygous plate. Brachials consisting of tw«» ur 
inori' pieces, united hy r^yy.yizy. Of the succeeding arm joints 
only every se<*ond, thin! or fourth *tuo pinnulo-lN*aring. A/.ygous 
plate hirge; anal plate ronsuIiii.Mtetl with the right |N)^teriur 


radial, which toward the left supports a series of anal plates ; 
toward the right the brachials. Arms long; the pinnules some- 
times take the form of arms, and attain the same general height. 
Column tri- or quinque-partite. 

C. ANOMALOCRiNiDiE. Base monocycUc. Form irregular. Calyx 
capacious. Azygous plate large ; supporting the right posterior 
radial, which toward the right is succeeded b}' a row of brachials, 
and toward the left by the ventral tube. Arms composed of large 
quadrangular joints, giving off pinnules from one side only, from 
one bifurcation to the next, when all pinnules change to the oppo- 
site side. Column strong, central canal wide, stelliform, its pro- 
jecting angles directed interradially. 

2). BELEMNOCRiNiDiE. Base monocyclic. Basals large ; cylin- 
drical ; solid, only pierced by a narrow central canal with a shal- 
low concavit}' at its upper end. Radials small, quadrangular, 
enclosing an anal plate of the same form. Yentral sac large, 
club-shaped. Arms long with numerous syzygies, only every 
second or third joint pinnule-bearing. Pinnules long, often 
bifurcating. Column round or pentangular, frequently with long 
cirrhi given off interradially. 

E. Cyathocrinid^. Base dicj^clic. Calyx globose, rarely 
turbinate. Kadials with horseshoe-like lateral facets supporting 
at least two, but frequently several more brachials. Arms without 
true pinnules, but with branches in regular succession to their 
tips. Arm joints with a few exceptions long and narrow ; quad- 
rangular with almost parallel sides ; united either by suture or 
ligament, apparently not by muscles. Ventral sac large, cylin- 
drical. Column round or pentagonal ; central canal rather above 
medium size, pentagonal, the projections directed radially. 

F, PoTERiocRiNiDiE. Base dicj^clic. Calyx deep and turbi- 
nate, or shallow and disk-like, owing to the form of the undor- 
Iwisals, which are eitlier extended into a cup, or are turned inward 
and concave. Radials somewhat irregular, of variable size, the 
right posterior one generally smaller ; all truncated at the upper 
face. Brachials one or two, connected b}' suture ; the lower or 
proximal face truncate. Arms simple or branching, with pinnules 
alternately arranged from ever}' joint; without syzyg3\ Arm 
joints cuneate or interlocking. Articulation between brachials 
and radials by muscles and ligament, and also between the upper 


faces of all axillaries and succeeding plates. Ventral sac large, 
frequently inflated. Column more or less pentagonal, its outer 
angles placed interradially, the cirrhi radially. 

Cr. Encbinid^. Dicyclic. Closely allied to the Poteriocrinidw, 
but, as a rule^ without anal plates. Basals with well-developed 
axial canals proceeding to the radials. Their brachials com- 
posed of two pieces, united by syzygy, frequently with other 
syzygies in the higher portions of the arms. Arms biserial^or 

H. AsTYLOCRiNiDiE, Pedunculate in earlier life, detached from 
the column and free-floating in the adult, but not cirrhus-bearing. 
Plates of the culyx massive, and hence the visceral cavit}^ com- 
paratively small. Underbasals present or absent, and also the 
azygous piece is sometimes wanting ; while the anal plate is 
always well developed. 

7. CATiLLOCRiNiDiE. Base inouoc3^clic. The pentamerous sym- 
metry greatly disturbed by the unequal size of the radials. Those 
of the antero-lateral rays much larger and supporting many more 
arms. Arms simple; composed of single joints resting directly 
upon the radials, with a separate socket for each arm, and a furrow 
for each ambulacrum. Anterior ray, and both posterior rays 
rarely with more than one arm each. There is no azygous nor 
special anal plate, one of the posterior radials supports towards 
the left a large ventral tube, composed of a single row of heavy 
curved plates, longitudinali}' arranged, with an open furrow along 
their inner, i. e., ventral side. Column circular. 

J. Calceocrinid.k. Base monocyclic. Calj^x laterally de- 
pressed ; hanging downward from the column; composed of 
three unequal basals, three arm-bearing radials, and two azygous 
radials without arms. Basals and radials united by ligament, 
and toward the anterior side by muscles also. In the normal 
position of the crinoid, the basals are located posteriorly, 
and the three radials at the opposite side. Anterior radial 
smaller, comjmund ; composed of two pieces, which frequently 
are separated by the overhanging sides of the two lateral radials. 
Arms of the lateral rays more numerous and branching; anterior 
ray with a single arm, which sometimes dichotomizes toward the 
upper end. Anal tube as in the Catillocrinuhe. 


(Emend. W. and Sp.) 


1^64. Volburth, Eine neue Crinoideen Gattung. (Author's copy, p. 35). 

1805. Volborth, Bulletin St. Petcrsh. Acad., vol. viii, p. 178. 

18r>6. Volborth, Bulletin Soc. Imp. de Nat. de Moscow, ii, p. 442. 

18<>7. Grevingk, Archiv. f. Naturkunde Liv.-Ehst. und Kurlands, Ser. I, 

vol. iv, p. 1 10. 
1807. Grevingk, Uber llyhocrinuH dipentas and Bnerocr, Ungnrnif Dori)at, 

p. 14. 

1882. P. Herb. CaqMinter, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, London, Augu>t, 

pp. 298 312. 

1883. W.and Sp., Amer. Jour. Sci., vnl. xxvi, November, p 365. 

Syn. Ilomoerinus Eichwald (in part), 1865-66 ; J/yhoerinui 
Schmidt (in i art), 1874 ; Zittel ^in part), 1879. 

The genus Baerocrinua has been a subject of much controversy 
ever since 1864, owing to doubts whether the genus should be 
admitted or rejected. It is unnecessary to give again a full 
history of these controversies, for which we refer to Dr. P. H. 
Carpenter's paper '* On the Relations of Hyhocrinus^ Baerocrinus 
and Hybocystitea,^^ and to our notes *' On Hyhocrinus^ Hoplo- 
crinus and Baerocrinus^^^ in the American Journal, of 1883. 
Carpenter agrees with us and with Yolborth and Grevingk that 
Baerorrinus is a good genus, and not, as suggested bj^ Eichwald 
and Schmidt, an abnormal specimen of Hybocrinus dipentas. 
There has been also much difference of opinion as to the meaning 
of certain plates. The type specimen has on its surface, along 
the basi-radial suture, and between two of the plates within the 
second or so-called radial ring, a peculiar structure, composed of 
numerous, irregular pieces, and upon this, principally, Volborth 
founded the genus. He took this structure to be a madreporic 
body ; while Grevingk, Eichwald and Schmidt held it to be an 
accidental break in the test, due to mechanical agencies. Car- 
penter considered it to be the regular anal opening. He pointed 
out that it had the position of the anus in the Pentacrinoid larva 
at its earlier phases. 

We stated in our paper that we did not agree with any of those 
views. W^e think it possible that this structure may have served 
as an anal opening, but as an abnormal one, which had opened 
out when the regular opening became functionally defective. 
We also differ from other autliors in our interpretation of the 

IM PBOCEsmiiQB or thb aoadimt or [18M. 

plates. Those of the second circlet lutTe been ragmided all Sve as 
radials, and the eal^'x to the top of the ndials as being perfectly 
symmetricaL It looks to us unreasonable, when we oompam 
Bmeracrinus with HaplocrinuM and fTytocriiiMS, and finding their 
structure in other essential |K>ints almost Identical^ that the one 
geuus should be almost perfectly symmetrical, the other ex* 
tremely irr^^lar. And, therefore. It is probable that one of the 
uon-armbearing so-called radials represents an aaygons plate, such 
as we fiml in most of the Fi^ulatm^ that the right posterior radial 
and the anal plate were as yet undeveloped, and that Baeroerimm$ 
had but four radials. This interpretation of the plates, it seems to 
us, is corroborated by the gradual disappearsnce of the azygons 
plate among allieti forms in palieontological times, and by the 
contemporary increase in the dimensions of the right posterior 
radial and the anal plate. The two latter pieces probably were 
abtfiorbetl from the azygous plate: at first the posterior radial, 
which in Hoplocrinus took the right upper comer, the left side 
remaining intact : afterwaiils in HybocrinuM the anal piece, which 
absorbed the left comer of the plate al^uo.' 

All thi« goe:s to prove that BiMerocrinujt ivpnMents a very low 
organisation, or is« acconling to P. II. Carpenter, ^ a permanent 
larval form.*^ 

Recistd (i-ner,..- lnii'j"'-^i.^. — F«'rui «»f tin citlvx cn|»> «>r ;:«.»Mft- 
>hH(Hxl. ru*UTbASA!> wuritin^. B:i'iaN five. *uf»ei|iial an«l i-om- 
j W4 r :i t i V o ly In r i: *■ . 

Ra«UaU Ur*:t'. ir\-^ular. •■ii!\ f'ur of them iIv^eK'pe^l. tht* rinhl 
^H*>terv»-!aterai oiu* :ibs» iit. Thretr of t!i»' {'Ute^ e«(ual. the fourth 
oMc ii:*r!\.»wer. A icir^v hz\ ;i:*.'ii«i i-Lite ••ccuf*iei* the 4ame mn^ 
mi*.!: *^'.K* ri'l;i''. :iit»l. IiW*. tle^v. r^'its AlterriAtrly upon the basaU. 
\i i< ';!t.l\''l»'i. x'ld r»s» itiMc* th*.' ri«I':i!< in f*.»rnL la the tx|"e 
^i-^viitvn .mIn M.r'v ••:" •'.. ri'l:i!-i ;ir» .-trtu-U urioc. the <maller 
v»iie II'.'*. *:*^ v:^ o^vM .t:: :iriii r*:i.;»rr. A"i;«* live. -^inii-'l** thri>u^hout, 

III ••'■" ■ ,t' * T 'I! .'"v'--''"' ■ f, /.*» Ayp-r*'!!* iiiii B*t- r »criik'ia, we «tatttl 

l!»At '.•n«l-.i "^ !■*.' i'\.;i'ii'* ■ !.it« "f llii- .iTT«*r « k« Iw-iiriMi-tfi*!!** with the 

i"ji V. i'.» A" .'•>■»«' :•!'. ■. • • '^ \^-'i .\ ■ ■«/.»-■». Ttj iii^k'.n^ ch:ik *ta*r- 

•• vii*. *v h.i' ■• ii- •' • ; •■ : \- ' :. t* • ::, jl'Ik - ' .a:*- !• -.inij'Iv An nttf- 

S» -tlj. .- »•*." *• * ■• ^••.- ia'' .1 .c II -.» i;i .1 . y •.ho rj^*!" t* !*trr«»f 
». : .»: !•:•.' I :.t . i' . '. • ■ • . ri -...I ^'* * :r^ im mi.i. ■.■\*t thtf «fa^»ie 


composed of single quadrangular joints and destitute of pin- 
nules ; the ventral grooves lined by alternate plates. Form of 
the anus, ventral covering and length of arms unknown. 

Remarks. — In our analysis, we have taken the absence of the 
right posterior radial to be a fixed character. It is, however, 
possible that this plate was exceptionally undeveloped in the 
type specimen, and in this case Baerocrinus Ungerni^ the only 
known species of the genus, must be placed under Hoplocrinus. 

1S64. Baeroorinni Ungemi Volborth, Bull, de TAcad. des Sci. de St. Petersburg of 
1865, tome viii, p. 178, with plate (adv. sheet), November, 1864, p. 37. — 
Eichwald, 1859, described and figured under the name of Homoor. dipentaf 
Lethseca Ross., v, p. 183; and 1865, Bull, de Moscou, iii, p. 160. — Volborth, 
1865, Baeroor. Un^rni, Bull, de Moscou, iv, p. 442. — Eichwald, 1866, 
Homocr. dipentaf, Bull, de Moscou, i, pp. 149-161, PI. 8, fig. h. — Grevingk, 
1867, Baeroor. Un^rni, Ueber Hoploor. dipentaf and Baeroor. Un^mi, 
with plate ; also Arch. f. Naturk. Liv. Ehst. and Eurlands, Ser. I, vol. iv, p. 
110. — Schmidt, 1874, Hybociinnf dipentaf, Memoires de I'Acad. Imp. des 
Sci. de St. Petersb., Ser. vii, tome xxi. No. 11, p. 3, PI. 1, Figs. 1-2. — P. 
Herb. Carpenter, 1882, Baeroor. Ungerni, Quart. Jour. Geo!. See. London 
(August), pp. 298-312. — W. and Sp., 1883, Baeroor. Ungemi, Amer. Jour. 
Sci., vol. xxvi, November, p. 365. — Brandsohiefer, Lower Silurian. Erras, 

HOPLOCRIinJS Grevingk. 

1867. Grevingk, Ueber Hoplocr. dipentas and Baerocr, Ungemi^ p. 9. 
1867. Grevingk, Arcb. f. Naturk. Liev.-Ehst. und Eurlands, Ser. I, vol. 

iv, p. 110. 
1883. W. and Sp., Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xxvi, November, p. 365. 

Syn. ApioerinuSy 1843, Leucbtenberg ; 1856, Eicbwald. — Homo- 
erinui, 1859, Eicbwald.— JJyftocnntw, 1864, Volbortb ; 1874, F. 
Scbmidt; 1879, Zittel; 1882, Carpenter. 

Volborth, F. Schmidt, Zittel and Carpenter have made Hoplo- 
crinus a synonym of EyhocrinuSy although they admit that the 
two forms differ in the construction of their azygous side. We 
have heretofore directed attention to the fact that the differences 
in the number and arrangement of the azygous and anal plates 
have been generally regarded as good characters for distinguish- 
ing genera, and especially among the Cyathocrinidse and allied 
families in which those plates frequently form the only means 
for generic separation. That the one azygous plate in Hoplo- 
crinus is equivalent to the two in Hybocrinus, which we have 
fully admitted, does not warrant an exception in this case, as the 
differences in the arrangement of the respective plates are 
evidently the result of modifications from one to another. We, 

therefore, accept Grevingk's genus, and give the following — 


Generic Diagnosis, — General form pyrifonn, more protuberant 
u|K>u the azjgouB side. Caljx composed of five bnsals, four 
large radials, and a large azygous plate. The latter with its left 
i»ide extending to the upp>er margins of the four large radials, its 
iiloping right side supporting the fifth radial, which is small and 
triangular, and, taken jointly with the azygous piece as one plate, 
the two resemble in form the four large radials, only that the 
arm-facet is pushed to one side. 

Basals large, pentagonal, nearly equal in size. Four of the 
radials pentagonal, the smaller one subtriangular, resting upon 
the right sloping upper side of the azygous plate, which is 
irregularly pentagonaL Arm-facets occupying scarcely one-third 
of the width of the radials. Arms simple, without pinnules; 
composed of quadrangular joints, arrangcnl [parallel to each other. 
Column cylindrical. 

The only known species is : 

1S43. Hoploeriniu dipentai Li-uchtenWrg >Apiocriiiiu diptLtai . Brmrhmhonc 
neuer Thicrre^te d. Urweh von Zar«k<'je. Selo, p. 17. T«H. ii, fl|f#. \f-10; 
a1»o £ichwaM« 1*^66, Ball, de Munm»v, i. |*. 1 15.— HoBoeriaiu diptatat, 
l.'^iy, Eicbwald. L«th. Kofji., v, p. 5>"». Tab. r.l, fig*, n-c (excl. fpmioeB 
fruni KrrA»).— Hjbociinaf dipentas, l'»64. V«>llK>rtb. Bull. d. r.Ac«d. dr. St. 
Ptftertb., Tome \iii. y. I7*>. — Homocrinai dipentai. 1><^6. Kicbw., Bull. 4. 
Mofcow. No. iii, p. l.»9. — Hjbocrinuf dipentai, l^^^i, V«»ll«»rth. Bull, de 
-M"pc.. No. iv. p. 44."..— Homocrinai dipentai, !*'•'•♦'', Kiihw»ld. Bull d* 
.M^.i'Ci.w. No. 1. pp. Ml* 161. Tal.. ^. tlkT" -, . 4. Hoplocr. dipentai. l^'^'T. 
(ir»\ iiigk. I J'« r. Hoplocr. dipentai lii.l Baerocr. Ungerni, p. 1". ti^-. 1 .i /; 
ali««» Ar'*h. liir Naturk. l,iv. Kh»t. un I hurlui-l* >«r. i . \'ol. iv. p. ll" - 
Hjbocrinni dipentai. i"*^*. S.-hmilt. .M»iii">n* .!• r.\r:t.l. Im}.. .1. • .<m Ic 
St. l'et«'r*l»., T'liH' \\i. N". 11. p. •. ri. i. f\j^'. \. ••. "^ . ;iN«' '^rprr. !* r. 1**.*, 

ijuart. Jourij. tiiol. S^c. L..iii.i..ij Aiij:u-i . pp. 2v"* -I-. Hoplocr. dipentai. 
In**".. W. and Sp., Amor. J-uru ."^ci.. \ <'l. \\\\ N"\«ujUr , p. . f- ». — 
\ agin lit ill Kulk.. L"W. ."^ilur. l*ulk<<w.i. Ku»»iii. 

HYB0CRINU8 r.llit.KV 

18.*)7. P:. Billinj,^. C.col. Surv. Can. for l^Vt o»; R».p. of Pn»gr.). p. 'JTo. 

iNMi. K. Hilliiiy^s Oi'ol. Surv., I)r«aile iv, p. •:». 

I87y. ZitU^l, lluiulb. k\. Pal.iont., i, p. 3.'»o. 

187\J. W. anil Sp., lUv. of the Pal»t>»r.. i. p. 71. 

1*<8<>. Wfthrrhv. Jtuini. Cin« in. Sh-. Nat. ni>t, 'Jiil\ *. 

1882. CarjH ntvr, (.2»i'^'<- ''^>«»ni. <moI. S«h\ L«»n»l«'n f.Vu^'.X i p. 'J*.»S ;UJ. 

IHKI. W. ai»«l "^j*., AiiuT. .To.ini. '^ci . \ ••!. xw . p :Wl"i. 

Wlu'ii \\v «liTiih <1 //'/'•"« rniu,<, \{v\\. l*t. i.p. 71, wo rri::ir'it<l il us 
f*Viu»n\ nn»us with //('i'/»'«/"j '«'/.> an-l Jl<ttrin ri>t>t,<, w\\'ii'\i. w*' li:»\e 
hinoe hliowii, :iro gtMuric.ully tlislinct. HowiviT, in our l.Hto 
paper in iho A hut. Journal ^no made st>iiio roinaiks upon tbi' 


azygous side, which must be modified. We asserted that the 
upper end of the anal plate possessed a peculiar crenulated sur- 
face, a structure which Wetherby had previously described, and 
which we thought we had observed also in some of his specimens. 
The fact that the so-called " crenulation " was visible, more or 
less, in every specimen which Wetherby had sent us for com- 
parison, led us to believe that it was an organic structure, prob- 
ably of a similar nature as the pectinated rhombs of the Cystidea. 
We are now satisfied that we had not sufficiently taken into con- 
sideration the peculiar state of preservation of Wetherby 's 
specimens, which are not only highly silicified, but the surface 
of the plates is badly weathered, and more or less destroyed. 
Through the kindness and liberality of Mr. Walter Billings we are 
now enabled to give a more satisfactory interpretation of these 
parts. On receiving our paper he promptly informed us that in 
the Canadian species of Hybocrinus the azygous plate was not 
crenulated, but crowded by numerous, very small pieces, forming 
a short pyramid. He accompanied his description with good 
figures, and offered us his specimens for examination. In these 
we found, resting upon the upper side of the anal plates, seVeral 
rows of minute subquadrangular pieces, about six to the width 
of the plate, which together form a tumular protuberance without 
any visible opening. There appear, however, minute pores along 
the sutures, and it is evident that the protuberance represents a 
Tentral sac, reduced to its minimum size. The crenulated 
appearance in Wetherby 's specimens is evidently the result of 
weathering, the apparent grooves representing the sutures 
between the small plates. A similar short protuberance has been 
observed in Hybocystites^ and in all probability was present in the 
two other genera. 

No new species of this genus have been described since our 
first discussion. We found several specimens in the Trenton 
limestone, near Knoxville, Tennessee, but none of them perfect 
enough for specific identification. 

HYB0CY8TITE8 Wetherby. 

(Revised by W. and 8p.) 

1880. Wetherby, Cincin. Joum. Nat. Hist. (July). 

1882. P. Herb. Carpenter, Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc. London, pp. 298-312. 

Hyhocystites combines, in a remarkable degree, some of the 
charact^ts of Palseocrinoidea, Cystidea and Blastoidea. Wetherby 


describes it as a Cystid, Carpenter was more inclined to place it 
with the Blaptoids ; while we take it to be a Paleeocrinoid of low 

There are several points in Wetherby's description with which 
we cannot agree. He describes the mouth or ambulacral orifice 
as situated nearly centrally upon the upper surface. We had 
several of Wetherby's best specimens for comparison, but were 
unable to observe in any of them an external oral orifice, and 
doubt if such an orifice existed in this Lower Silurian genus 
" upon the surface." Neither can it be ascertained from the 
specimens whether there were proximals surrounding the oral 
plate. Wetherby further speaks of " a valvular anal opening, 
placed between the upper azygous plate and the mouth," and he 
mentions " a proboscis or ventral sac " which was said to be 
" indicated by the presence of the upper azygous plate." If it is 
meant that the so-called " valvular opening " is separated from 
the ventral sac, and we infer it from fig. 1 on Plate 5, which shows 
an irregular break upon the ventral surface in the direction to 
which he alludes, he is certainly in error. Even if an opening 
did exist, we doubt if he could have observed small, valvular 
pieces in specimens in which even the larger ventral plates cannot 
be distinguished. If he means that the anal opening is connected 
with the ventral sac, placed along its inner or ventral side, we 
can partly agree with him. 

Wetherby described the genus as having in three of its rays 
arms like those of the Crinoidea, in the other two rays appressed 
ambulacra, such as occur in the Cystidea. He does not say any- 
thing about the length of the three arms, leaving it in doubt, 
whether he took the three projections to be onl}' the stumps of 
the arms, or as representing their full length. He only mentions 
that the arms are composed of a single row of plates, that they 
are very deeply excavated at the inner side b}^ the ambulacral 
furrows, and that the latter are covered by a closely interlocking 
series of small plates, having the same arrangement as those of 
the two appressed ambulacra. He mentions further a more or 
less obscure furrow upon the outer surface, " of which nothing 
further is known. '^ 

Carpenter, in his paper on Hijhocrinus and Hyhocystites^ called 
attention to the fact, that in Wetherby's figures, and in the speci- 
mens which he had examined himself, only one or two so-called 


arm joints were shown, that from appearances there had been no 
others, and that these formed, in all probability, " merely upward 
prolongations of the radials." He states further that the " more 
or less obscure furrow," seen by Wetherby upon the outer surface 
of each arm, was in reality a recurrent ambulacrum, and that in 
his opinion the relations, of Eyhocystites are rather with the Bias, 
toids and " Crinoids than with the Cystids." Upon the latter 
point we cannot agree with him, although we admit that there are 
recurrent ambulacra in all five raj^s. We think, like Wetherby, 
that the ambulacra resemble decidedly those of the Cystids, and 
not those of the Blastoids. Hybocystites evidently had no hydro- 
spires and no hydrospire pores, and the ambulacra, contrary to 
any of the Blastoids, extend beyond the radials down into the 
basals. Neither has it calicine pores, nor pectinated rhombs, and 
hence cannot be a Cystid, even if it has appressed ambulacra, 
which, we think, take the place of true arms. 

Among the specimens from the Canada Survey Museum, which 
we had the good fortune to examine through the kindness of Prof. 
Whiteaves, we examined the type of Lecanocrinus elegans Billings 
( TaxocrinuB elegans W. and Sp.), one of the earliest of all known 
Crinoids, and which seems to be destined to throw light upon the 
peculiar ambulacra of Hybocystites, This beautiful and well- 
preserved specimen has upon the outer or dorsal surface of its free 
arms, upon each one of them, from their tips as far down as the 
top of the secondary radials, in addition to their regular ventral 
furrows a recurrent dorsal furrow, such as is found in Hybocys- 
tites upon the calyx, and dorsally and ventrally upon the two arm 
joints. These dorsal furrows are indistinctly represented by 
Billings in Decade iv, PI. 4, fig. 4 a, although in the specimen 
they are well defined, and it appears as if they had been lined by 
a double series of alternating plates. Such dorsal furrows have 
since been identified also in the type of Taxocrinus leevis by 
Walter R. Billings. That these furrows are continued from the 
ventral side, and as such form a part of the ambulacra, cannot be 
doubted, and is further proven by the fact that the furrows 
diminish in width as they descend the surface of the arms. In 
these species the regular furrows of the arms probably were not 
sufiScient to supply the animal. This was certainly the case in 
Hybocystites J which in two of its rays has no brachial appendages 
whatever, and these consist in the three other rays of but a few 


Ns:tti«« the ambulacra resting almost exclusively against the dorsal 
«nW vvt' the calyx. 

Hst(^*cystiies is one of the earliest and lowest forms of the 
(N^lAHH^rinoidea ; it may be regarded as a permanent larval form 
\\f Ni^NH^rinus, which had no arms, but in their place food grooves 
u(svu the dorsal side of the calyx. It is interesting that in this 
vH^M^ a» in that of Baerocrinus, which has similar relations to 
H^^>iocrinu8 as this has to Hybocrinus, three of the rays are some- 
^ hat higher developed than the two others. 

We propose tlie following: — 

AVvwd Generic Diagnosis, — Ilybocystites agrees with Hybo- 
oriHNjt in its general form, the arrangement and proportions of 
the plates in the calyx, in the ventral covering, and in the form 
and Hice of the ventral sac, but differs from that genus essentially 
\\\ the arm structure. It has no underbasals; five large subequal 
tvaaals, tive radials, one of them much smaller and resting u\xm 
the right sloping upper side of the large azygous plate. The 
Utter supi>orting at its left sloping side an anal plate, in form 
renombling the adjoining small radial. Arms rudimentary, of 
the mi>st primitive kind, restricted to the two posterior rays and 
the anterior one. They consist, so far as known, of two quad- 
lau^uhir joints, whirh are united with the radials by close suture. 
Tho jt»iiit> Hr\* pn.>vidiHi with an ambvilacral furrow, which enters 
\\\v Kii\\\ app-iri'iuly at the top of the ra«lials as in H'tpUj* rinui. 
Thi** !urro>^ j^i«»sos frxMu the Nonlral side of the two arm joints, 
owr llu' lop v>f the upjvr v>ue. and follows the «lors:d side of the 
pliitr?* until ivrulr.iii: tho ohIn x. whonot it extends up*.»n the sur- 
Thoi' ol* tho radirils to thi l»Hsals, either onttrinc them or terminat- 
lui: v'Kvso to tlio Kusi-radial siitr.rt^ or aloUi: the fa^^ of the large 
KtN^xnis y\x\\k\ Thi :^o antorv^IaterAl rays have no arm platvs 
^h.ktt'xti. but tavh > prv^M tol w;:;, jtn amlnilacral furn:»w. |>aiis- 
iiiv; x'ut iKnn lu :*i il.i top of t:.< rad:al>. :ravii>inj: theSt- plates, 
j^ud *•..:»: -..i; t:.o ^iv.-i'.v, T:.vre > o^r.^iit-raMe irreirularity in 
\\\c\\ pv^N : .v'u \\\ \ x\\;,\\\, V..: a^< * r.;*t these latter furrows enter 
doi^H I i.U' W.K *viv.*.x ::^:» tlo"^ of :hi thrx-e other ray «*. Tho 
t.tu'^'- .ix \*:o\ U ,; ^ :/. :^. '\»< ^ :* ^:ie jii-ce^ which aro 

\ »• : ! .. ^ »» ^ . • : \x V. ':'. •v-^, '^ : r\.^% . u-: al Hi: :t< vontral 


The only known species is : — 

1S80. Hybocystites problexnaticns Wetherby, Cincin. Journ. Nat. Hist. (July). 
P. Herb. Carpenter, 1882, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London (Aug.). — Trenton 
gr. Mercer Co., Ky. 

(Emend. W. and Sp.) 

Zittel and S. A. Miller included among the Heterocrinidae the 
genera Oraphiocrinvs and Eriaocrinus, which both have under- 
l)a8als, and which differ essentially in the plates of the azygous 
side. We place in this family only Heterocrinus, locrinus and 
our new genera Stenocrinus and Ohiocrinus. 

The Heterocrinidae differ from the Cyathocrinidae and Poterio- 
crinidae in the absence of underbasals, in the arm structure, and 
the arrangement of their azygous plates. 

In 1866, Hall thought he observed in Heterocrinus two rings 
of live pieces beneath the radials, and he adopted the term basals 
for those of the proximal ring, and that of subradials for those 
of the succeeding one. Afterwards, it was proved by Meek, Ohio 
Paleont., i, p. 2, that the so-called " basals " — proximal ring-^ 
were not plates of the calyx but parts of the column. He de- 
scribed the stem to be divided longitudinally, and the so-called 
"basals," which in their vertical range were said to correspond 
with the five segments of the column, as constituting the imper- 
fectly developed uppermost stem joint. Meek proposed for these 
plates the name " subbasals," and called those of the next ring 
basals, while we used on Pt. I of the Revision the terms under- 
basals and basals, respectively, as we took all of them to be 
integral parts of the calyx. 

We have lately given this subject careful consideration, and 
found by grinding the column in various species, that important 
differences exist among the species originally referred to this 
genus. We found that most of them have a pentapartite column, 
of which the five sections alternate with the basals without form- 
ing a part of the calyx, but that the column of Heterocrinus 
simplex^ Hall's typical species, is tripartite, composed of three 
equal sections. 

We have elsewhere shown that whenever the column is divided, 
its sections alternate with the proximal ring of plates in the 
calyx. They are placed interradially when those plates are under- 


basals, radially when they are basals, and as they have in Eetero- 
crinus and allied genera a radial position, we may assert that these 
genera had no underbasals. The Heterocrinidae occupy, owing to 
the absence of underbasals, relatively, the same position toward 
the Cyathocrinidffi and Poteriocrinidee as the Actinocrinidae and 
Platycrinidfle hold, toward the Rhodocrinidae. They agree with 
the Cyathocrinidae and Poteriocrinidae in having the azygous 
interradius extended into a porous ventral sac. 

The arms consist of single joints, are comparatively strong, 
and either bifurcate or remain simple from above the brachials. 
The pinnules are given off not from alternate joints, but alter- 
nately from each second, third or fourth joint. They are heavy 
and long, and sometimes bifurcate near their tips. In the 
typical form of Heterocrinus always two joints are connected by 
syzygy, but we are unable to prove the syzygy in species referred 
by us to StenocrinuB and Ohiocrinus^ unless by the pinnules 
which are given off regularly from every third or fourth joint. 
Most probably in locrinus and Stenocrinus the pinnules, and 
sometimes even their branches, were developed into regular arms, 
for the divisions follow each other alternately and at regular 
intervals, and the branches have no further pinnules. 

The Heterocrinidse agree with the Hybocrinidae in the absence 
of underbasals, but differ essentially in the proportions of the 
calyx and ventral sac. In the former the calyx is extremely 
small, the ventral tube large ; in the Hybocrinidae, on the con- 
trary, the calyx comparatively large and the sac small. They 
also differ in the structure of the arms, which in the Hetero- 
crinidae are more highly developed. 

The structure of the ventral side has been observed only in 
^''Heterocrinus juvenis,^^ where it is composed of five compara- 
tively large plates, which enclose a small oral plate. The ventral 
sac throughout the whole family is much stronger than in the 
Hybocrinidae, reaching sometimes the tips of the arms, and it is 
profusely perforated. 

Position, Locality^ etc. — Confined to the Lower Silurian of 
America. The Heterocrinidae, although forming a neat little 
group by themselves, may be considered as the forerunners of 
several types which afterwards became distinct families. Hetero- 
crinus foreshadows the Belemnocrinidae, locrinus the Poterio- 
crinidae, while Anomalocrinus is a prophetic type for the Cyatho- 




I. HETESOGBIinTS Hall (not Frass). 
(Restricted and redefined by W. and 8p.) 

1879. Reyision Palseocr., Pt. i, p. 68. 

1880. Wetherby, Cincin. Joum. Nat. Hist , July number. 

1881. Wetherby, ibid., April number. 

Heterocrinus, as defined by Hall and revised by Meek, contains 
so widely different species that a subdivision becomes necessary. 
This has been conceded by previous writers. Wetherby, in 
describing his H, Milleri, expressed the opinion that in the com- 
parative size of the column, and in the plates of the calyx, that 
species differed suflflcientl}'^ from Eeterocrinus simplex to be sep- 
arated at least subgenerically. And a year later, he directed 
attention to his H, Vaupelij which he thought to be very distinct 
in the structure of its arms. H. Vaupeli^ if it is a good species, 
which we doubt, agrees in its arms and pinnules closely with H, 
constrictus and H, laxus, with either of which it may be identical, 
l)ut not with H. simplex, as suggested by S. A. Miller. The 
species heretofore referred to Heterocrinus vary in the composi- 
tion of their radials, in the structure of arms and pinnules, and 
in the column. Heterocrinus simplex, Hall's type, has five basals 
of varying form, owing to irregularities in the radials. The 
Tadials in two of the rays consist of a large single plate, two 
others are divided into two sections, and the fifth one rests upon 
the azygous plate, which agrees in size with the lower half of 
the compound radials. The compound plates consist of two 
pieces each, which together, agree closely in form and size with 
the two single plates. The brachials are large ; they consist of 
two nearly equal plates, united by 8yz3'^gy, and support ten heavy, 
simple arms. The arms, to their full length, are composed of 
syzygial joints, which, as we think, were connected by suture and 
not by articulation. The epizygal or pinnule-bearing pieces are 
slightly wedge-shaped, and alternate with one another; the lower 
or hj'pozygal ones rhomboidal, and their upper and lower sides 
are parallel. Pinnules stout and comparatively long. 

All other species heretofore referred to this genus, with the 
exception of H. canadensis, which may be identical with H. sim- 
plex, have a somewhat different arm structure. Not only are the 
pinnules given off at greater intervals, but they attain the size 
and form of arms or armlets, which sometimes branch again, and 
extend to the' general height of the primary arms. The latter 
agree also in having a strictly pentagonal and pentapartite 


column, contrary to H. simplex^ in which the column is stouter, 
almost circular, and regularly tripartite. The species with a 
quinque-partite column are divisible again into two groups, the 
one with a straight, comparatively small ventral tul)e, the other in 
which the tube is thread-like, convoluted, and even in its coiled 
state extending beyond the limits of the arms. We hold these 
differences important enough to make them the basis for another 
separation, proposing for the latter the genus Ohiocrinus^ with 
H. laxuB Hall = Ohiocrinus laxus as type, and for the other 
the genus Stenocrinus with H, heterodactyluA Hall = StenocrinuM 
heterodactylus as type. 

Heterocnnus insequalis and H, articulosus Billings have been 
referred by us to Calceocrinus ; //. crasi^us and avbcrcissus 
to locrinuB. 

The genus Jleterocrinus thus restricted may 'be defined as 
follows : — 

Revised Diagnosis. — Calyx small ; sulKjylindriral ; tajMiring but 
slightly from the column upwards. 

Basals five, more or less unequal, without underbasals ; the so- 
called subbasals of Meek representing the upper stem joint. 

Radials very irregular, and varying among the rays in number 
as well as in size. There are two segments in the two antero- 
lateral rays, while the tlirec rcniaiiiinj; rays have but one, thi-*. 
however, nearly as larj^e aa the two in tlie other ravs. The two 
phites at thf rij^ht postero-Iateral side consist of the azxgous 
piece — tlie lower one — ami of the radial, whieh upon its upp^T 
side snpj)orts the brachials, «^iviii«r oil* laterally a small ventral 
tube. Arms ten, composed of single joints, alternately united bv 
syzy<ry, with strong pinnules from every seeond joint. 

Colunin trij)artite, almost circular; axial canal large, j>ontali>- 
bate, the lobes directed interradiallv. 

Lttcalitf/, /Wi7/V);j. etc, — Trenton and Hu<lson Uiver group of 

I*^.>y. Heterocrinat canadensis IJiIlin;:-, «;«..!. i;r|.. (':in.. I)r< i\.|'. !•», IM. 4. 

\^i-'. H. iimplex Hall. «;.-.. i. K,|.r. N. \'>Tk. \..l. i. p. :»so. V\. 7»*.. f\^-. '2 it .1 at*.* 
<M«»|. Sjiv. nhi. , I, I'. 7. IM. I. Ii^'-. 4 II .-. • :i K, »■- .1 J'. — IIui>n 
]{i\ vT izr. I'liniM :it 1. < >lih>. 

•I-:.. H. grandii M- • k, 1. -. I !».. 1 .i- H iimplex Mir. grandii. •J.--). Siir\. u\n< .»"!jt. I. p. '.*. I'l. I. fl^'. »*'. aicl fij;ur«.l l.\ Hall u* H. simplex 111 th.' .M'h 
Kry. N. V. Mai.' Muv H.-t. \'\. ::. t)^. II.- Hu.|-..i, K»wr ,cr. 
Tiui iiiiititi. Ohio. H grandit ••mir- at a hi^lit r li<>ri£< ii, i-> inert* rohtKt acJ 
ha« shorter arm jomtp thuii H. limplez. 


STEHOCBIKTIS, nov. gen. 
(Syn. ffeteroerinus in part). 

(ffTcvSa, Darrow ; rptVo*', a lily). 

Generic Diagnosis. — General form subcylindrical ; calyx small; 
arms long. 

Basals five; of a more regular form than in Heterocrinus^ 
angular at their superior margins. They form a cup, which 
spreads but little from the column upwards. 

Radials irregular, consisting of one or two plates ; two of the 
rays — sometimes three — being composed of two segments each, 
the others of only one. The single plates are almost as large as 
any of the compound ones. Only four of the radials supported 
upon the basals ; the fifth one sftialler, resting upon the truncate 
upper side of the azygous plate, and occupjang toward the latter 
a similar position as the two sections of the compound radials 
toward each other. The smaller radial is transversely penta- 
gonal, and resembles in outline a bifurcating plate. It supports 
upon its sloping right side the brachials; toward the left the 
Tentral sac as in locrinus. Brachials generally four to each ray, 
the upper one axillary, and supporting the two main arms, which 
sometimes branch again, and give off at regular intervals, from 
alternate sides, strong, arm-like pinnules. All arm joints which 
have no pinnules are strictly quadrangular, while the pinnule- 
bearing joints have almost the form of bifurcating plates. 

Axygous plate pentagonal, shorter than adjoining radials. 
Ventral tube, near the base composed of quadrangular, heavy 
plates, generally longer and narrower than the brachials. The 
structure of the tube in its upper portions not known. The plates 
of the ventral side have been observed only in H.juvenis^ in which 
they are composed of five comparatively large interradial pieces, 
enclosing a small oral plate as in Eaplocrinus, Column large, 
pentagonal, pentapartite, the sutures directed interradially, giving 
to the segments a radial position. Axial canal large, pentagonal ; 
angles interradial.^ 

Geological Position^ etc, — Stenocrinus is known only from the 
Silurian of America. 

We refer to Stenocrinus the following species, all previously 

^ The columnar canal of Stenoerintu is correctly represented in fig. 12 of 
Pi ri, not^ however, in fig. 13, in which the rays should be directed inter- 

132 PROGEEDtNQS Of THl! AOABEMT 07 [1886. 

described under HeterocrinuSj and noted under that genus in 
Rev. I, p. 70 : — 

*Stexioorixius heterodaotylus, the type of the genus, and its variety propin- 
quus; *S. ezilis Hall (not Meek); *S. juvenls; *S. Mllleri, and perhaps 
Heteroorinus tenuis Billing?. 

To these we add : — 

«1883. Stenoor. beUviUensis (W. R. Billings), Heteroor. bellvillensis, Ottawa 
Field Naturalist's Club, Trans. No. 4, p. 49 with plate. — Trenton liniest. 
Bellville, Ont. 

*(?) 1879. S. genloulatus (Ulrich), Heteroor. geniculatus, Joum. Cincin. Soe. Nat 
Hist. (April), PI. 7, fig. 13. — Utica Shale. Cinoinnati, Ohio. This species 
differs too much from the other species to be left under Stenoorinus, but the 
only specimen which we examined was not sufficiently perfect to warrant a 
satisfactory generic description. 

*1882. S. pentagonus (Ulrich), Heteroor. pentagonus, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. 
Hist., p. 176, Pi. 5, figs. 10, 10a.— Hudson River gr. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

OHIOCBIKTJS, nov. gen. 
{Heterocrinui HaU, in part.) 

This form is closely allied to Stenocrinus, but differs from that 
in two points : the form of its arm appendages, and in the con- 
struction of its ventral sac. 

The plates of the calyx are arranged as in Stenocrinus, and 
also the column is strong, pentangular and pentapartite. The 
arms, which are ten, do not bifurcate, and are provided with stout 
pinnules, given off alternately from every fourth or fifth plate. The 
pinnules are long, bifurcating, and extend to the tips of the arms. 

The ventral tube rests upon the left sloping side of the right 
posterior radial ; it ascends spirally, and in such a manner that 
adjoining convolutions touch each other, being perhaps suturally 
connected. It is composed of numerous hexagonal pieces, 
arranged alternately, and in longitudinal rows. 

Column strong ; indistinctly pentangular ; pentapartite. The 
older stem joints are rather long j)ieces which have a well-marked 
pentapetaloid concavity upon their articular faces. The younger 
joints consist ot five small convex leaflets, disconnected laterally, 
which fill the concavity of the older joints, exposing to view along 
the lateral face of the column a small trigonal piece. A similar, 
if not the same, columnar structure is found in Stenocrinus.^ 

' Ohiocrinus resembles Stenocrimis very closely, and can only be upheld 
by the form of the ventral tube. We never saw the aj)pendajTe of Steno- 
crinus, but Mr. S. A. Miller claims it to be distinct, and this induced us to 
make the separation. 


Geological Position^ etc. — Restricted to the Lower Silurian of 
We place in this genus the following species : 

M866. Ohioorinus oonstrictus (Hall), Heterocrinus conBtrictns, 24th Rep. N. Y. 

St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 210; also Geol. Surv. Ohio, Paleont., vol. i, p. .3, PI. 

i, figs. IQah; W. A Sp., Rev. I, p. 15. — Hudson River gr. Cincinnati, 

Ohio. g 

*1866. 0. laxni (Hall).— Type of the genua.— Heterocrinus lazns, 24th Rep. N. Y. 

St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 211, pi. 5, fig. 15; also Geol. Surv. Ohio, Paleont., 

vol. i, p. 14, PI. i, figs. 8 a //. — W. & Sp., Rev., I, p. 70. — Hudson River gr. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. 
*18S2. 0. oehanns (Ulrich), Heteroor. (locrinns) oehanus, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. 

Hist., vol. V, p. 175, PI. 5, fig. 9. — S. A. Miller, 1883, Heteroor. oehanus, 

Cat. Amer. Palwoz. Foss. (Edit, ii), p. 288. — Hudson River gr. Cincinnati, 



1879. RevisioD of the Palajocr., Pt. I, p. 70. 

3882. P. Herb. Carpenter, Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. London, p. 806. 

1883. W. & Sp., Amer. Joiim. Sci., vol.xxvi (Novbr.), pp. 870, 376. 

The genus locrinus must be slightly modified, as stated in our 
recent notes " on Hybocrinus, Baerocrinus and Hoplocrinus,'*^ 
In that paper, to which we refer for further particulars, we gave 
at some length the reasons which impelled us to regard the large 
plate, which we had formerly called a radial, as representing the 
azygous plate, and the smaller pentangular plate above, as the right 
posterior radial. 

Walcott discovered lately a new generic form, for which he pro- 
posed the name Merocrinus. It agrees with locrinus in the 
structure of the azygous side, and would probably be identical 
with that genus if it had not well-developed underbasals. That 
nnderbasals are entirely absent in locrinus is plainly shown by 
its strictly pentagonal column, in which the angles have a radial 

Revised Diagnosis, — Dorsal cup broadly spreading and per- 
fectly symmetrical to the top of the second circlet of plates ; it 
is shoi-t, and resembles an inverted pentagonal pyramid with the 
five sides deeply concave. 

Basals small, nearly equal. Radials five, four of them of equal 

form and height, comparatively large, strong and pentagonal ; 

^ their upper sides truncated throughout their entire width for the 

reception of the brachials. Adjoining these radials, in the same 



ring, 18 the azygou8 plate, which has not only the form but gene- 
ral api>earance of the four radials. It supports upon its truncate 
upper side the fifth radial, that of the right posterior ray. The 
lattvr, which resembles in form a large bifurcating plate, sup- 
l>orts upon its right upper side the brachial, and toward the 
loft the first plate of the anal tube, being thus a radial, but partly 
with interradial functions. The radial» in all five rays arc fol- 
loweil by five to six brachials, the upper one bifurcating, the 
others quadrangular, all wider than long, and those of adjoining 
rays meeting laterally. These are succeeded b}* the regular arm 

Arms long, gradually tapering to the tips; bifurcating at regu- 
lar intervals, and most of their branches bifurcating once or 
twice again ; each division extending to the general height of the 
arms. Arm joints quadrangular, resembling those of the brachi- 
als, but somewhat narrower. 

The ventral sac, at its posterior side, consists of a single row 
of rather large and strong plates, extending up to the full length 
of the sac, and forming all the way up a keeMike projection. 
In general api)earance, these plates, which rest against tht* sloping 
side of a radial, resemble the brachials and arm plates, although 
they are somewhat higher and not as wide. Both sides of the 
ridijt'likc pnjjection are in«b'nto<l for tlu' n*c< plion of otht-r plat*-*. 
At i'adi si<b' tluTo an- tw<» pieces coiniectcd toearh median plalr. 
one abiittin;^ airainst the inid<ll(' part, and the other phice<l opjx>. 
site the suture. These nl.ites jire vny >hort and witle, lonnitu- 
dinally arran<red ; they iireeiirMMl so as to form a deep tran^ver^e 
groovi*, tlieir lower side*^ turned uj) :ind forming a transverse 
ridi^e. The phite-^ do not meet horizontally, but have a narrow 
<»pen spaet' :it the toj) of the rid^'e, which in perfect *»iH*eimen8 i-* 
eoverrd by a row of niinnte j>ieces, aj>parently with a jMire or 
small opi'ninir at the place of juncture with the larirer pl:it«'S. 
The sac is coinj»o<e(l ol live rows of the**** plates, uhich are (Con- 
nected laterallv by a strai'dit sutun* all the wav up. 

Colunin stmn;;, ^iharply pentaironal. its nn^Ie** in a line with 
thr ra«lial j>late>i. 

We add the lollowinL' specjr*^ to <»ur foiiner list : 

I ""• locnnui irentoneniii ^N •■.■•••». Al\ -li.«t- ..t . .tl. K.|. N^. >».«"., N »r 
II.-' . |.. t. I'. i:.'..:'7.- 1 :. f.'.-t. liiiM -f Tti i.f .1. 1 .ill-. \ V 


Family XIX.— ANOMALOCBINIDJE W. and 8p. 
AKOMALOCRIKTJS Meek and Worthcn. 

1879. Revision Palseocr., Pt. i, p. 72. 

1879. 8. A. Miller, Joum. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist. (Decbr., p. 6). 

1882. 8. A. MiUer, ibid. (April, p. 14). 

This genus differs from the Heterocrinidse in the form of the 
calyx, which is depressed and not obconical, and in the arrange- 
ment of the pinnules. It agrees with them in the plates at the 
fizygous side, which we misunderstood in our former description, 
and this renders a redescription necessary, which we substitute 
in place of our former one. 

Revised Diagnosis. — General form depressed, calyx compara- 
t;ively large, rather shallow, subglobose ; arrangement of plates 
extremely irregular, scarcely two plates being of equal size. 

Basals five, small, subequal, partly hidden by the column. 

Radials irregular, all differing in size and form ; simple or com- 
pound ; sometimes divided vertically. The left antero-lateral 
Tadialis compound, composed of two pieces; that of the opposite 
«ide and the anterior radial are simple. The left postero-lateral 
Tadial is the largest plate in the calyx, and either simple or 
l)i8ected vertically, composed of two nearly equal parts. The 
lower segment of the left antero-lateral radial is subquadrangular, 
the angle along the basi-radial suture being so obtuse as to form 
almost a straight line ; upper side truncate and slightly convex. 
The upper segment is irregularly hexagonal, truncate above and 
below, much wider at the lower than at the upper side, widest 
across the lateral angles. The two together have almost the 
dimensions of the single radials, but, in place of being wider than 
high, they are higher than wide, with a narrow concavity for the 
reception of the brachials. The fifth radial — the right postero- 
lateral one — rests against the truncate upper side of a large 
azygous plate, and as this stands in line with, and has nearly form 
and proportions of the lower section of the compound radial, and 
the radial plate the form of its upper segment, the two appear in 
the specimen as if forming jointly another compound radial. 
(See Diagr. Rev. i, PI. ii). 

There is also among the rays a great diversity in the number 
of brachials, and this gives to the specimen that abnormal, irregu- 
lar outline which is so characteristic of the genus. Some of the 
rays have two, others three brachials, while the right posterior 
ray has generally four or more. 


Arms long; bifurcating at regular intervals ; widely divergent, 
rather stout at their origin ; tapering upward. They are com|>osed 
of a succession of rather long, quadrangular pieces, intermpted 
only by the axillaries which are pentangular, and which divide 
the main arm, and each division of the arm, into two equal parts. 
The pinnules are slender, composed of long pieces, given off from 
every arm Joint, but at one side only in succession — not alter- 
nately — until the next bifurcation of the arm, when on both 
divisions they all change to the opposite side. By this arrange- 
ment there are always 8 to 10 pinnules in succession, first on one 
side, then on the other. The first pinnule occurs on the second 
arm plate, not on the first, but every succeeding plate is pinna- 
lated with the exception of the bifurcating ones. The proximal 
pinnule after each bifurcation is considerably heavier and longer, 
almost arm-like, and bifurcating, the others are simple. The arm 
furrows are shallow but wide, only one side having sockets for 
the reception of pinnules.* 

The ventral sac is tubular, and rests upon the left side of the 
posterior radial as in the Heterocrinidae. The proximal plate of 
the tube is large, sul)quadrangular, and is succec<led by other 
apparently large pieces. Of the plates at the ventral side little 
is known. S. A. Miller mentions two rows of small pieces near 
the ventral tulnj, Imt, :is nothing is known us to their arrangement, 
they niJiy he covtring phites. 

Column very lurg<', alnio^^t circular, pcnta|»artitc, highly orna- 
mented ; cmtral canal large, star-*^liap(Ml, the projections U>oate«l 
intcrradiallv. Tiu* structure <»f the column along the axial canal 
resembles that of Baryrrinun and Vdintvrinun, with which 
AnoDialtK-rinus agrees nNo in the form of the calyx. 

(renloyiral Po.'iitton, etr. — Lower Silurian of America. The 
only known sjM*cies are : AnomnUnriiwtK iaj>onih>rmiy Lyon. ah<i 
A. tnrurvus M<'ek an<l \V<»rthen, which have been previoU'^ly 



S. A. Miller has propo*<*d for the genus Iirlrmt>*>*^nn'i.* % 
separate fannly. in which \Ne fully aL^ee. It cannot he place*! in 
any of the other ^r«>u|is, without (le|>riving them of iheir U-««t 
<ii>tinclive eharacter*-. it fMrnl•^ a link Intween //f^r'»« rini/.f 

' ()nr th ;M.ripti.n> "f ariii>» ami piiinulr- in tl.i>» iiit^'n.stin^' ^eimv win- 
iiia«h* fn»iii aniMHt Uautiful *»jKM'im« n in the c«»IUm tioii ^fJ. H. IlArriK. K*«j.. 
of Waynehville, O., vsln* had the kindness t<» stud it to uh for deMTiptii»iL 


tnd CyaihocrinidsB, resembling the former in the absence of 
underbasals and in the arm-structure, the Cyathocrinides in the 
arrangement of plates at the azygous side and of the ventral 
tube. As the most characteristic features we mention the 
extremely small visceral cavity, in which the genus resembles 
Apiocrinus of the Neacrinoidea ; the comparatively large size of 
the basals ; the absence of underbasals ; the position of the 
azygous plate in line with the five radials; the large porous 
ventral tube, and the condition of the pinnules, which are given 
off regularly at certain interviils, not alternately from every joint. 

Belemnocrintia was referred by White to the GyathocrinidXy 
and he desoribed the calyx to be composed of three rings of 
plates. We have shown in 1877 that the part which he took to 
be the '^ basals " is the upper stem-joint, and that the dorsal cup 
consists of only two rings of plates. We further directed atten- 
tion to the affinities between Belemnocrinus and the recent genus 
Bhizocrinu8y which had been pointed out also by Pourtales, in 
the Memoirs of the Museum of Comp. Zoology, vol. iv. No. 9, 
p. 29. The construction of the dorsal cup in the two genera is 
very similar, however, in Bhizocrinus, the sutures between the 
banls are fused together; while in Belemnocrinus they are 
plainly visible, and the former has no anal plate and no ventral sac. 

Belemnocrinus was placed by Zittel among the Poteriocrinidm^ 
although it has neither the arm structure nor the pinnules of that 
family, nor the aEygous plate, and not ev^i underbasals. 

The name Belem7u>crinu8 was used in 1876 by Munier-Chalmes 
(Jour. Ooneh., Ser. 8, vol. xvi, p. 102) for certain basal plates, 
evidently of a Blastoid, and changed by Oehlert to BelocrinuSy 
1882 (Extr. du Bull. Soc. O^ol. de France, Ser, 3, p. 362). 

(PL 5» figs. 10 and 11.) 

1863. White, Proo. Best Soo. Nat. Hist., vol. iz, p. 14. 
186S. Meek and Worthen, Proo. Aoad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 251. 
18S8. Meek and Worthen, Geol. Bep. niinoia, iii, p. 463. 
1877. W. and 8p., Amer. Jour. Sol. (April), p. 268. 
1879. Zittel, Handbuch der Palnont, i, p. 862. 

(Not Bekmnecrimui Mun.-Chalmes = Beloerinui Oehlert.) 

Oenerio Diagnosis. — ^Dorsal cup small, narrow, sometimes 
slmost tubular. 


Basals five, very large, long, narrow, of somewhat irregular 
shape, forming an ovoid to cylindrical cup. The cup is nearly 
solid, having only a small central canal, and a shallow subconical 
excavation at its upper end, the latter forming a part of the 
visceral cavity. 

Radials five, always smaller than the basals, enclosing an anal 
plate. They are subquadrangular, slightly excavated at their 
upper side, and support four (exceptionally five) brachials, of 
which the upper one is bifurcating and gives off the arms. Arms 
two to each ray, simple throughout, composed of compound 
joints, with one or two syzygies in each joint ; the upper segment 
giving off a strong pinnule. The oblique upper faces of the 
epizygal or pinnules-bearing joints are arranged alternately, and 
this gives to the arms a strongly waving, zigzag outline. At the 
extremities of the arm the pinnules are generally given off from 
every joint. Pinnules long, arm-like, bifurcating once or twice, 
like arms. With the arms the pinnules also correspond in length, 
all of them extending to the same height. 

Anal plate resting between two of the radials and upon one of 
the basals. This plate, which resembles the radials in form, sup- 
ports a large ventral sac, composed of numerous hexagonal 
plates, alternately arranged, with slit-like openings along their 
lateral edges, which meet with corresponding slits in the adjoin- 
ing plates. 

Other parts of the ventral side unknown. Column with or 
without lateral cirrhi ; more or less 8harj>ly pentangular, the 
outer angles radial, the rays of the central canal and the columnar 
cirrlii directed iuterradijilly. 

Geological PoHitum, etc, — Known only from the two divisions 
of the Burlington limestone. 

1S77. Belemnocrinui floriftT W. an<l Sp., Aimr. Journ. Sci. Ser. "it. Vol. mi. y 

2.'>fl. I |'|»«'r ltnrliii>:f«»rj luin'«t<»ii»'. liurlint^t^n. la. 
1S77. B. Poartaleti W. sin-l ?^p., Amrr. Journ. >ci. i Scr. .'!;, Vi>l. xiii. ]». 2.»**.— I...wrr 

Kurliii^ton limc't. I!urliiii:t<'ti. I »».i. 
I>»ft2. B. typut Whito '»yiH> of tho jr.-im--. IVoo. pi.-t. .•^•>o. Nat. Iliiit.. V.-l. n. |. 

14. -\V.ati<l ."^|» , I'*77, A Jii'T. .I"iirii. ><m. S«t. .'.., xm. ]>. 2.'>l. — ^ } f <^f 

Hurlin^ton !inji"»t. nuriifi;^t"ti. I<.wa. 
186«. B. WhiUi Mtik nn-l Worth, n. Acm.1. Nat. Sci. Phila.. p. 2.M . aUo i}t^,\. R#f.. 

Illinois, ill, p. ift.',, IM. 1**. fi^«. in,h,c. — Lower HurlingtMU liuirft. Hur 

liDgtuD, luwa. 


(T) HOLOCSnniB W. ana Sp. 
(oXo( solid, Kpikoif a lily.) 

The above name is proposed to include a species which was 
lately described from rather imperfect specimens by Mr. Picard, 
under the name of Encrinus Beyrichi^ but which certainly is no 
Encrinus, We entertain little doubt that the species must be 
referred to the Belemnocrinidse ; we are, however, not quite so 
sure that it is generically distinct from the typical form, which 
depends upon the presence or absence of the anal plate. No 
anal plate has been described in this species, and it is more than 
probable that none was present. It perhaps represents one of 
those transition forms, which in their earlier life were good Palseo- 
crinoids, but by resorption of the interradial plates attained, to 
some extent, the characteristics of the earlier Neocrinoidea. 

Generic Diagnosis.^ — Dorsal cup strictly pentahedral; con- 
stricted above the basals. Basals large, forming an almost solid 
Bubglobular body, without underbasals. Radials very small, 
quadrangular, supporting three to four narrow brachials, the 
upper one bifurcating. There are two arms to each ray which 
remain simple. Arms thin, composed of short, cuneate joints, 
with rather stout pinnules. 

Column pentangular, and, as in Belemnocrinus florifer^ pro- 
vided with long cirrhi, given off at intervals in whorls from the 
nodal joints, and extending up, and partly covering, the calyx 
and the lower portions of the arms. 

The only known species is : 

*1884. Holoerinus Beyriohi (Pioard), W. and Sp., Zeitaohr. d. Deutsoh. geolog. 
Geaellsch., Jahrg. 1883. — Mueohelkalk. Sondershausen, Qerm. 

Family XXI.— CYATHOCBINIDiB Roemer. 

(Emended Zittel, emended W. and Sp.) 
a. Dendbocbinites. 
1888. Adv. sheet 85th Rep. N. T. State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 2.' 

In the arrangement of the plates at the azygous side and in 
the construction of its ventral tube, this genus has close affinities 
with the Heterocrinidse, but differs f^om them in having under- 


^Oor diagnosis is made from the figure of Mr. Picard's imperfect 


basals. In addition to Walcott's typical species, we refer to 
Merocrinua: Dendrocrinus curtus XJlrich. 

Generic Diagnosis, — Dorsal cup very small ; short and extend- 
ing laterally but little beyond the periphery of the upper stem 

Underbasals five, comparatively large, seen distinctly in a side 
view. Basals short, all hexagonal ; alternating with four of the 
radials and the azygous plate, which all are of similar form, pen- 
tangular, wider than long. The four radials support upon their 
truncate upper face a row of brachials, the azygous plate from 
the same level the fifth radial. The right posterior radial has 
the same form as the azygous plate, but, while the latter is 
angular below, the radial has an angular upper side, giving off 
toward the left the ventral tube, and toward the right a row of 
brachials. There are generally six or more brachials to each 
ray, composed of short quadrangular pieces, except the upper 
which is axillary. Arms long, bifurcating ; without pinnules ; 
tapering toward the tips ; composed of quadrangular joints. 
The bifurcations take place at regular intervals, and both arms 
of the same division are of equal size. 

Column round, very strong, composed of unusually narrow 

Locality^ Position^ etc, — Lower Silurian of America. 

♦1879. MeroorinuB cnrtns (Ulrich), Dendrocrinus oartns, Cincin. Soo. Nat. Hist., 
vol. ii (April), PI. 7, fig. 14. — Utica shale. Cincin., 0. 

1883. M. corroboratus Walcott, Adv. sheet Hoth Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist., 
p. 4, PI. 17, fig. 6.— Trenton limest. Trenton Falls, N. Y. 

1883. M. typUB Walcott, Ilnd., p. 3, PI. 17, fig. 5. — Trenton limest. Trenton Falls, 
N. Y. 

CARABOCRINUS £. Billings. 
(Revised by W. and Sp.) 

1856. E. Billings, Rep. Geol. Siirv. Canada, p. 275. 

1859. E. Billin:rs, Ibid., Decade iv, p. 30. 

1879. W. and^Sp. Revision T, p. 143. 

1881. Walter R. Billings, Trans. Ottawa Field Natur. Club, p. M, 

In Part I of this Revision we placed Carabocrinus among the 
doubtful genera. It was founded by E. Billings upon certain 
peculiarities among plates of the azygous side, resembling other- 
wise closely Cyathocrinus. When Billings proposed the genus, 
the azygous side had been observed only in a single specimen, 


and as the plates were arranged very differently from those of 
other genera, we suspected that the type specimen was a mal- 
formed or recuperated Cyathocrinus, This view, however, must 
be given up, since other specimens have been found which show 
the plates under similar conditions. Mr. Walter R. Billings 
informed us, in 1880, of the discovery of two more specimens in 
which the azygous plates were arranged as in E. Billings' type. 
These specimens were afterwards noticed by him in the Trans- 
actions of the Ottawa Field Naturalist's Club of 1881, p. 35. 

Carabocrinus was described by E. Billings —using our termin- 
ology — to be constructed of five underbasals, four of them penta- 
gonal, the fifth hexagonal ; five basals, three of them hexagonal, 
one heptagonal and one pentagonal, the latter smaller than the 
others ; of five radials ; three azygous plates, one of them sup- 
ported upon the hexagonal underbasal, a second upon the small 
pentagonal basal, the third between two radials. Consulting the 
generic diagram, Decade iv, p. 30, we find that the small, penta- 
gonal basal (subradial plate of Billings) has scarcely half the 
size of the other basals, and the first azygous plate is placed at 
its left side, contrary to all other Cyathocrinidae. This structure 
seemed to us so improbable that before accepting it we applied 
to Prof. Whiteaves of the Canada Survey Museum for the type 
specimen. We now found that in Billings' diagram the plate in 
question is represented considerably larger than it is in the 
specimen, the so-called " azygous plate," to the left of the former, 
smaller, that the basals at their lower sides form in the specimen 
a much more obtuse angle, almost a straight line, and that the 
underbasals are comparatively smaller. 

From our diagram it will be seen, that the second or basal ring 
really consists of six plates, four of them equal, the fifth one nearly 
as high but somewhat narrower, the sixth subquadrangular, small, 
not more than half the size of the former. That the latter piece 
which is united with the azj-gous plate by a horizontal suture is 
a basal — subradial of Billings — seems to us exceedingly doubtful, 
the more as the adjoining plate meets all the requirements of a 
basal. This plate, which Billings called the first azj^gous piece, 
and which we take to be the posterior basal in conformity with 
other Cyathocrinidae, has an azygous plate at its right side, 
and this supports with its right upper sloping side a special anal 
plate. The small plate within the basal ring, which is only known 

lit nocxxDciai or tsx ArAPPrr m [188C. 

in tbiA z^nos. is, we think, a fnpplementarj azyi^oas pUte of no 
fondAment^ importance, a f^jUe 4»mruig to the regnUr azygooM 
pUte simiUr relations as the small accessory interrmdials in some 
specimens of ArchmocrinuM wculpiui to the regnlar inteiradials. 
We offer the following : — 

ReviMed Oeiuric DiagnoM^ — Underfaasals ilTe. of Taiiable form 
and size ; foar of them quadrangular, but onlj three eqnal ; the 
fourth one, that facing the azjgons side, narrower ; the fifth pen- 
tagonal, truncate abore. CarabocrinuM is closely allied to Den- 
dorrinuM and EomocrinuM^ but differs from both in the number 
and arrangement of its azygous plates. 

Basals five, four of them hexagonal ; the one toward the right 
of the azygous plates heptagonal ; that on the left side somewhat 
smalkr, truncate below, and occupying the full width of the upper 
side of the fientagonal underbasal. 

Ra^lials heptagonal, the upper side excavated for the reception 
of the brachials, which occupy about one>third the width of the 
plate. The brachials, so far as known, consist of two or some- 
times three piecen, the upper one sharply wedgeform. Arms, 
compan^d with the size of the cal^'X, remarkably short ; composed 
of quadrangular Joints with parallel sutures; bifurcating; tapering 
grailually to their tipB. The branching is similar to that of Cya- 
thof rinuH, and tin* arms throughout, as in tliat ponus, are devoid 
of pinnnlcM. 

lMat<»H at the azy^ouK side tliree. A snppleracntarv azygous 
phite H'HtM lM*twe«*n tlie basals and extends to half their heii;hl. 
The regnlar azygous plate is place<l Ix-tween the up|x*r lalenil 
portiohH of the live hasals, and uix)n the supplementary piece; 
MUpportinp with its left upper side the anal plate, with its riirhl 
wide the rii^iit postejo-lateral radial. The anal plate resembles the 
radiaN in form and proportion, but its upper face is irrejrularly 
convex, ami is lM)rdered by a row of small pieces which form 
a part of the ventral tube. 

Column conjparatively snuill, obseurely pentangular, with a 
larjje, sharply |>entaponal canal. The column is (piimiuepartite. 
the suturcM arranged altcrnatily with those of the underbasals. 

//orvi/iVy, Pttsitinn^ fir. — Known only from the Trenton lime- 
stone of ("aiuida, but wt* tound (letache<l plates, apparently of thi** 
penus, in rocks of the same a;^c near Knoxville, Tenn. 


The following species have been described : — 

1856. Caraboorinus radiatus Billings. Type of the genus, Geol. Surv. Canada, p. 

276; also 1859, ibid. Decade iv, p. 30, PI. 2, figs. 3 a-c; also W. and Sp., Re- 

Tision i, p. 144. — Trenton limest. Ottawa, Can. 
1859. (?) C. tuberoulatns Billings, Geol. Surv. Can., Decade iv, p. 33, PI. 10, figs. 

2 a-<j. — Hudson River, gr. Island of Anticosti. 
1859. C. Van Conrtlandti Billings, Geol. Surv. Can., Decade iv, p. 32, PI. 2, fig. 4. — 

Trenton limest. Township of McNab, Can. 

EU8PIR0CRINU8 Angl., Rev. I, p. 143. 
1882. 11th Geol. Rep. Indiana of 1881 by CoUett, p. 278. 

This is one of the few genera of the Gyathocrinidse which have 
only three underbasals, and this distinguishes it readily from 
BomocrinuSy with which it agrees in the plates of the azygous 

Generic Diagnosis, — Underbasals three, two equal and with 
truncate upper sides ; the third one-half smaller, angular above. 
Basals five ; two of them resting entirely upon the two large 
underbasals ; pentagonal ; the two alternating with them hexa- 
gonal ; the posterior one, which has a truncate upper side, hep- 
tagonal. The latter is larger and supports toward the right a 
pentangular azygous plate ; at its truncate upper side a large anal 
piece ; along the left side a radial. The azygous plate is followed 
by the anal plate, which is laterally connected with the right pos- 
terior radial. The radials are pentagonal, with a small semi- 
circular excavation for the reception of the arms. Only one 
brachial is known, which is quadrangular and extremely small. 
All other parts are unknown. 

The only known species is : — 

1882. Ampheristoorinus typus Hall, 11th Ann. Geol. Rep. Indiana by Collett, p. 
278, PI. 15, figs. 17-18. — Niagara gr. Waldron, Indiana. 

BEKBBOCBIKUS Hall, Rev. I, p. 75. 

The following species must be added to our list : — 

*1866. DendrocrinoB angnlatns (Billing?), Faleocrinas angalatns, Geol. Surv. 
Canada, p. 269 : also Decade IV, PI. 3, figs. 6 a h. — Cyathoorinus anga- 
latuif Rev. I, p. 85. — Trenton limestone. Ottawa, Canada. — In examining 
the tjrpe-specimen in the Canada Survey Museum, we found it to be a good 
Bendrocrinus. Toward the right of the basals, underneath the postero- 
lateral radial, it has a good-sized azygous plate, which at its left sloping 
upper side supports an anal piece, exactly as in Bendrocrinus. The species 
bai a strong ventral tube, of which only the transverse section is seen. 

144 vmocEMDom or thb academt ov [18M. 

1881. D. errmtieiia S. A. Miller, Jo«ni. Cinein. Soe. Nai. HUt. (Dwcabv), 1881.— 
Hudioo Kirer gronp. CioeiniiAtiy Ohio. 

1880. D. nATifioloB 8. A. Miller, Joara. Cineto. Soe. NaL Hist. (October), p. 4. 
PI. 7, flgB. if 6 a. — Uties alate. CineiooAti, Ohio. 

1883. D. rttraetilit Waleott, 35th Rep. N. T. SL Mat. Nat. HiaL (Eztr. p. S\ PL 
17, fig. 4.— Trenton limest. Trenton Fallt, N. Y. 


HOMOCSnrUS Hnll, Rer. I, p. 77. 

This genus has been lately so often confounded with Foterio- 
crinu8, that for better information, we point out their distinctive 
characters. Homocrxnun differs from PoteriocrinuM in the more 
slender form of the calyx, in having no plates of the ventral tube 
within the line of the first radials, in being provided with horae> 
shoe-shaped articular facets, pierced by a round dorsal canal, and 
in having at least three brachials. Contrary' to FoleriocrinuM^ 
the arms are not pinnulated, and they are composed of qoadran* 
gular joints with parallel lines of union. Its relations are much 
closer with Fari90crinu8y which, ho we very has no separate dorsal 
canal, and the first plate of the tube rests within the calyx. 

We add the following species : — 

*1879. Homocrinui aneilla (lUII), Dendrocrinui aneiUa, Trana. Albanj loft., vol. 
1 (Abntr. p. V); also 11th G«ol. Kq). Indiana by Collett, p. 271, PI. 16, fig. 
19. — NiaK<^rA gr. Waldron, Indiana. 

•IMjS. H. onrtni (Miilier), PoteriooriBni OUrtUl, Verb. d. naturb. Verein f. Kb* in 
lande xii, \k MO, IM. 10. fig?. 2-3; alcu Nouc Echinod. Kifl. Kalk.. p. 230. PI. 
2. fig. .'{.— Schultie, lS«rt, Kobin. Kifl. Kalk . p. 4rt, PI. 5.— \V. and Sp., 
Paritoorinns ourtni, Hcv. i. p. llj. — Dovuuian. Kifcl. (Germany. 

*18M2. H. daTitanas (S. A. Millrr), Poterioorinns daTiianni, Journ. Ciuom. s<x*. 
Nat. llj>t., |>. 22rt, IM. l», fig^. I, 4a b.— Upper Ilrlderbcrg gr. iMputj, 

• \ss2. H. nettalrothanni (S. A. Miller), Peterioorinns nattelrothanns. .l>>urn. 
Cincin. S<>c. Nat. lli«it., p. 227, IM. W, figj«. .S, 5 a. — I'ppcr llrlderber^ gr. 
Pfputy, Indiana. 

'*\^:f\. H. nucleai i Hull), Dendroorinni naolaui, I^t Kdit. 2'<tb Rep. N. Y. St. Mu*. 
Nat. Ilift., IM. l.>. figt. 7 v.— Cjathoorinni nnoleai, 2d K<itt. ibid., p. \:\^. 
- -.\iag:ira gr. Wiildfon. Indiana. The arrangement of the plateii at lb** 
arygi»u;« interradiu.-* are not like in Cjathoorinni a:* Hall «ugge«trd. >>ut 
exactly like in Homocrlnut. 

•l^r»;'.. H. poljxo i Hull , Cjathocrinui poljzo, N«w sp. K-t**. Niagara gr..uj., p 5. 
•JMh Krp. N. Y.St.<'.ih. Nat. lliM. l-t E.lit., IM. KS. fi^ji. 10 17.- Ib.d. .'d 
IMit. p. !.'..»; ul«i> W. and S|.., Krv. i, p, s7 . Ilfh Kt-p. In<liana by •"..ll«'t!, 
I^-J. J.. '.''.4, IM. II. ri.'.. m 17. Niau'.ira gr. Waldmn. Indiana 


PABISOCKINTIS W. and Sp., Rev. i, p. 115. 

Closely allied to ffomocrinua is Pariaocrinus, which we made 
a subsection of Poteriocrinus, In doing so, we were not aware 
that this form is devoid of pinnules. In our descriptions we 
only pointed out the great resemblance which it has to Gyatho- 
€:rtniis, especially in the branching of the arms, but finding the 
Azygous side constructed as in Poteriocrinus j we placed it with 
that genus. More perfect specimens which have since been dis- 
covered leave not the least doubt that it is very distinct from 
I\>lertocrinu8, and a true Cyathocrinoid. 

Revised Generic Diagnosis. — General form turbinate. Under- 
basals large, equal. Basals five, three of them hexagonal ; the 
two connecting with the azygous side heptagonal. The radials 
are rarely larger than the basals ; four of them are equal, the fifth 
one has an additional side for the reception of the lower plate of 
the ventral tube. Articular face horseshoe-shaped, supporting a 
row of three brachials, of which the upper one is axillary. Arms 
composed of long slender joints, branching like those of Cyatho- 
crinus and without pinnules. The azygoas side is arranged as 
in Poteriocrinus^ with three plates in the calyx. Ventral tube 
long, cylindrical, composed of alternately arranged rows of hexa- 
gonal pieces, with a pore at each angle. Column round. 

Geological Position, etc. — Subcarboniferous. America and 

We place here Parisocrinus inlermedius^ P. njf^reus, P, per- 
plexuSy P. tenuibrachiatus^ P. qyinqtumgularia. P. radtatim ajod 
P. salignaideus ; but Poteriocrinus curt us. which we T^fmmd yjj 
it in Pt. I, p. 115. is a Homtocrinus. 

b. B<4rf^frrimilfiB. 

PL €, fl^. 4, «iC K. K fig. 4. 

We have had, for sereraJ T«i.r*. & T*:ry r^ ii:tr)Li.rnt 1 -:ii'.»ji 
from the BorlingtOD linMJfstoDe. viucli ooujC li.-t 'Jt yiwj^i a la ; 
of the estaUiahed geDer&. At fret ▼*: VyJt ;: t'. 'j^ ll uthi jrnii* 
specimen, with only fonr nadiak. aiiO b >-iluI. iJ'ji^.nL-i/^aariii^ 

146 pRooEEBiNas or the aoadsmt or [1886. 

plate at the anterior side, and therefore did not describe it. It 
resembles Belemnocrinus in its general appearance, but differs in 
having underbasals, and curiously enough, these have a similar 
cylindrical form, and are as solid as the basals in that interesting 

We have since obtained from the Burlington and Keokuk transi- 
tion bed near Burlington, and from the lower part of the Keokuk 
limestone proper of Tennessee, two additional specimens, clearly 
of the same genus, but of a different species. Both specimens 
show the same irregular structure, i. e., four arm-bearing radials, 
and in line with them a small azygous, non-arm-bearing plate, 
thus proving that the apparent irregularity is a persistent char- 

Generic Diagnosis. — Form of calyx elongate, bell-shaped, the 
sides concave, constricted along the suture between basals and 
underbasals. Underbasals five, large, forming an almost solid 
ovo-cylindrical body, pierced only by a longitudinal canal. Basals 
long and narrow, widening above, irregular in form ; three of 
them hexagonal, two heptagonal. Radials four, of nearly equal 
size, with an obtuse facet covering the greater part of the width 
of the plate. Anterior radial non-arm-bearing. Like the regular 
radials, it alternates with the basals, has the same general height, 
but less than half their width. Brachials from two to four, ex- 
ceptionally five; comparatively strong; with parallel articular 
lines, except the upper one, which is axillary. Main arms eight, 
which from every second joint, alternately, give ofl' armlets, or 
arm-like pinnules of less than half the size of the main arms, but 
extending to the same height and branching. The arm joints, 
from which the branches are given off, are formed almost like 
axillary plates, one side, however, being shorter and slightly more 
obtuse. The alternate joints are quadrangular. Whether these 
and the axillaries are united by syzygy, could not be ascertained 
from the specimens. 

Azygous plate large, resting between the upper sloi)ing sides of 
two basals, and against the right posterior radial. It supports 
towards the left the anal plate, and at its truncate upper side the 
first plate of the tube. Nothing is known of the ventral side. 
Column obtusely pentangular, with a medium-sized central canal. 


AtteleBOorinui delioatni, nov. sp 

Calyx bell-shaped ; twice as high as wide, greatly constricted 
along the sutures between basals and underbasals. XJnderbasals 
forming a comparatively long ovo-cylindrical body. Basal cup 
funnel-shaped, resting upon the underbasals as if proceeding from 
their inner cavity. The basals are delicate plates, elongate, gradu- 
ally increasing in width. Arm-bearing radials wider than high ; 
each one supporting two brachials. The latter fill nearly the 
entire width of the preceding plate, and are twice as wide as the 
true arm plates. Anterior radial narrow, less than half the width 
of the arm-bearing radials. Arms two to the ray, tapering 
gradually to their tips, where they become extremely delicate ; 
they have a waving outline, are composed of long joints, and 
give off armlets alternately from every second plate. All armlets 
extend to the tips of the arms, and branch once or twice. Their 
size along the lower part of the arms is only half that of the main 
arms, but higher up they are of almost equal thickness. Column 
obtusely pentangular. 

Geological Position, etc. — Lower Burlington limestone. Burling- 
ton, Iowa. 

Ateleitoorinui robuitas, nuv. sp., PI. 9, fig. 4. 

Larger and much more robust than the preceding species ; less 
constricted between basals and underbasals; the form of the 
latter, taken together, more oblate. Basals twice as long as wide. 
Arm-bearing radials heavy, wider* than high ; the anterior radial 
less than one-third the size of the others, hexagonal. Azygous 
side with four plates in the calyx, two of them constituting parts 
of the ventral tube ; alternately arranged. Brachials four ; three 
of them quadrangular, the upper one axillary ; all rather large, 
but decreasing in size upwards. Arms long, comparativelj'^ heavy 
at the base, but tapering rapidly to the tips, where they become 
very delicate. They are composed of quadrangular, rounded 
joints, with parallel sutures, giving off armlets alternately from 
every second joint. The armlets are much thinner, and more 
pinnule-like than in A, delicatus, but extend like those to the 
height of the arms, and bifurcate in a similar manner. 

Geological Position, etc, — Burlington and Keokuk Transition 
bed near Burlington, Iowa, and at the base of the Keokuk 
limestone, White's Creek Spring, near Nashville, Tennessee. 


TAsocsnrnt Lt ,t, e*t. i, j.. >:. 

«■>?•-'», tni*te«i : «*.*•', m Ifly. 
OjpAioerMiu Ang^lin. 1^78. Rer. i. p. 97. 

The name OphuyrinuM \b preoccupied bv Salter, who proposed 
it in 1856 for a Uho^locrinoid from Soathem Africm, which, how- 
ever, is not profK-rly defined. Semp^-r also Q!»ed the name in 
1868 for a Neocrinoid, and again Charlesworth, but without pub- 
lishing the de»*.-riplion. Thr Swedish form, therefore, requires a 
new name, for which we adopt Streptocrinus^ in allusion to the 
convoluted state of the ventral tube. 

*f trtptoeriBm erotalanu ' AnsfltD i, OphiMriaiis er«talmnu, Icnnofr. Crin Sum., 
p. 21, PI. 4. fii5». * •-<:. — L' StiuriA^. G«.'tb!«ti'J, Sweden. 

BOTSTOCRIVXrS Au^iio, her. I, |.. VT. 

8ICTOCRIVU8 Anz'li". Kev. I. |.. V9. 

BARTCRIVU8 W.i.;hMnu!h. \W\. I. {.. fl). 

The genus BanjrrinuH dilfers from other Cyathocriuida in 
having a shallow calyx, constructerl of heavy plates, arms massive, 

and compose*! of short joints. These dilferences are so m:irke<i 
that we have strong doubts whether it ought to U* placed in this 

Tin- dia;:r:ini of Bnry'rinua, 1*1. 1, tig. 3, in Part I of thi* 
llevi'^itju, i"^ incnrrect a*- to the axial eanal, which should have 
shown the j)rocesse'^ /v/'/iV//^ instead of intt'rradial. On page 101, 
of Tart I, wr were ni:ide to say that the sections of the column 
of Ban/rritiuH are radial and the ^-uturo interratlial. whereas it 
should be that the srctioijs of the column are '* iritfrrtuii'jl and 
the sutures radial : the oppo^-itt* (»r Ilffrrnrrinus, in which they 
are interradial." 

No new sju'c'ies have 1mm n dr-^crihcd since our li'^t. but Ararh- 
jiorrinns hnlhosus (Unlh, W.nnd ^p.. w.m referred by S. A Miller 
irrone«»usly tt> Il'ir'/<'riii"s. 

( 'f/atliorrin'ts suhfnini'l 'ts<l \N ., whicli wt* took to be a 
Jl'in/'/'infis, iu\\<i Im- rli:uii:»(l ).:nlv t'» ('^/•ithttrn nnti. The ««pecie« 
!«% elo«.«'lv allied to i'u'itf'" ri " us b'l r'/>l(i' f'/Ins \V. and Sp. 


0. CyaihocHniUs, 

CTATHOCKINTJS J. S. Miller, Rev. I, p. 79. 

Through the kindness of Prof. Whiteaves wo had an oppor- 
tunity to examine E. Billings' type specimens of Palaeocrinus in 
the Canada Survey Museum. The specimen of P. striatus^ upon 
which the genus was proposed, is very imperfect, and may be a 
CarabocrinuSy Dendrocrinus^ or a new genus. The construction at 
the ventral side, to which E. Billings attached so much weight, is 
that of the Cyathocrinidae generally. They nearly all have ventrally 
five interradial plates resting against the radials, and alternate 
rows of covering plates. Heretofore we have placed Palseocrinus 
angulatus Billings under Cyathocrinus^ but we satisfied ourselves 
from the original specimen that it is a true Dendrocrinus. — Gyatho- 
crinus fasciatuH Hall, is a synonym of Macrostylocrinus Meeki; 
Cyathocrinus hamiltonensis Worthen, a synonym of Cyathocrinus 
parvibrachiatus Hall. C. nucleus and (7. polyxo Hall are now 
referred by us to Homocrinus; G. waldronensis to Macrostylo- 
crinus. — Cyathocrinus graphicus Bigsby (not Hall) is Platycrinus 

1879. (?) Cyathoorinui Harrisi S. A. Miller, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, 
PI. 15, fig. 2. — Keokuk limcst. Grawfordsville, Ind. 

We leave this species for the present under Cyathocrinus^ al- 
though aware that it represents a very different generic form. In 
some respects the species closely resembles Belemnocrinus 
fiorifery and might almost be considered identical with it, if the 
column did not indicate a dicyclic base. The column of both 
species is sharply pentagonal, and beautifully fringed with whorls 
of cirrhi, but while in Belemnocrinus fiorifer the outer angles of 
the column are directed radially, the cirrhi interradially, the very 
opposite is the case in Cyathocrinus (?) Harrisi. Neither can 
the species be referred to our genus Atelestocrinus, as this is 
remarkable for its large underbasals, nor in fact to any other 
known to us, and we should make it the type of a new genus if 
the two specimens which we examined were more perfect. The 
specimen in the collection of Mr. Harris, which he had the kind- 
ness to send us for examination, leaves us in doubt whether the 
so-called azygous plate of Miller does not represent the anterior 
mdial. Among the Fistulata the anterior ray very frequently 
supports a single arm, which either remains simple or branches 


on a level with the second biftircation in the other rmye, and this 
may be the case here. Miller in describing the species^ we think, 
had in mind the Silurian genns Iocrinu$^ in which the platea of 
the ventral sac take the form of arm plates, bnt these are given off 
laterally flrom the azygoas plate and not, as it wonld be here, 
Arom the truncated upper side of the anal piece. 

1M9. OyaHMwiaaf iatplrstni (?) Lyon, Trsni. Ain«r. Philot. Soe- toI. till, p, 157, 

PI. S7, fig. k.— Keokvk in*. CrawfordfTilto, Ind. Tk« dMoripUoa if Ml 

•ufloient for fpeelflo identifioation. 
1881 C. ■>nfcaHtltit Wortben, Ball. I, III. 81. Ma«. Nat. Hist., p. SS, 4l«ol. Kcp. 

III., Tol. Til. p. 310, PI. .10, flg. 4.— Kind^rbuok gr. MankAlltovB, Ib. (A 

eonneetiog link with Fsrifosriaaf.) 
•1844. C. Xilltrl MeCo7 (AtoorUai KiUtri), Sfnopi. Garb. F<mi. IrtkMl, p. 111. 

PI. t& ; F. Ro«ni«r, 1855, Letb. iltogn. {U Bd.), p. 146, PI. 4, fig. IS ; BnNw'i 

KUm«d d. Thiorreiebt, PI. 28, fig. 6. — Sabearb. Irelaad. 
(r)1880. C. (?) StUUtivrnf Wbito, ProoMd. Kai. M». for I879» p. 158, PL I, igii. 9, IS; 

I2tb Ann. Rep. Terr, for 1878, by Ifaydeo ( Antbor'f BU.. p. 115. PI. M, Sgi. 

8 ft, b).— Carbon iferoQf. Collcetod .10 ml let wett of Hanboldty Kmimwl 

Tbii it DO Oyatkoeriaai; it evidentlj betongt to tbe Poterioeriaids, b«ft 

tbe ipeeimeii is too inperfsot to be referred properlj. 
•1865. C. rabtnaildaf Meek aod Wortben, Proceed. Aead. Nat. Rei. Pbila., p. 151: 

BsTTOriaSf rabaaidSf Meek and Wortben, 1868, ibid., p. U%i alM 0e4. 

Rep. III., vol. T, p. 487, PI. 18, flg. 3 ; W. and 8p. ; lAijtriaiS T^MlMJSn. 

1879, Rot. i, p. 87.— Keoknk linest. Green Co., 111., and Wkite's Craek 

Pprings. Tennessee. 
1881. C. Tan Horni H. A. Miller, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. lliitt., r»I. ir fOrtober^ 

PI. 6, flg. :i.— Nm^nra gr. Chicago, IIIiD«»i)«. 

(?) 8PHJER0CRIVU8 Huiiuir. 

In referring Sphmrocrinus to the genus CycUhocrinus (Ilev. I, 
p. 83), we overlooked the fact that Roemcr's type has separate 
dorsal canals piercing the radials. Whether this character is 
sufficient for generic distinction is a question which has nerer 
been brought up for discussion. It i^ in this regard worthy of 
notice that this structure occurs exclusively in si)ecies from the 
Silurian and Upper Devonian, never in the CarlwniferouA, neither 
in Cyathocrinus nor other genera. Whether all species of Cyaiho- 
crinus from Gothland and Dudley possess this structure, cannot 
be usci'rtained from the figures, but if lliey do, it may form the 
basis of a sefmnition whidi seems to ua very desirable. If the 
genus SpharrocrinuH in accepted, it will probably include not only 
Sphsrrijcrinus geometricuH (loMfus.H, Roemer^s t^'pical species, 
but many others. 


ABACHNOCKINUS M. and W., Rev. I, p. 92. 

In our former list we erroneously placed Poteriocrinus pi^i- 

^ormis Roemer under Arachnocrinus. From specimens which we 

obtained lately in western Tennessee, and in which the azj'^gous 

side and also the brachials are preserved, we are convinced that 

it is a Lecanocrinus, 

GISSOCRINUS Angelin, Rev. I, p. 89. 


1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palasont, i, p. 364. 
1866. Schultze, Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 101. 

Schultze in defining this genus thought it to be closely allied 
to Oasterocoma, and Zittel and de Loriol place it among the 
GasterocomidaB. In our opinion, the similarity between OaHtero- 
coma and Achradocrinus is more superficial than real. Oastero- 
coma has five underbasals, and the column in addition to the 
axial canal is provided with four peripheral vessels, which are 
altogether unrepresented in the other form. The two agree only 
in the position of the anal aperture. The affinities of Achrado- 
crinus are much closer with Sphserocrinus, from which it differs 
only, as far as known, in the position of the anal plate. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Dorsal cup deeply cup-shaped ; symmetry 
decidedly bilateral. XJnderbasals five, equal, of medium size, 
extending beyond the column, and visible in a side view. Basals 
five, four of them angular above, the posterior one truncate, and 
supporting an anal plate. Radials all meeting laterally, three of 
them equal ; the two posterolateral ones deeply excavated for the 
reception of the anal plate, which they inclose on three sides by 
meeting above. The radials are slightly notched at their upper 
margin, and have upon the outer side of the plate a narrow, 
horseshoe-like articular facet, pierced by a small dorsal canal, 
which is located at some distance from the notch. At the azygous 
side there is only an anal plate, which is subquadrangular, its 
lateral margins arched, its upper face narrower and excavated for 
the ventral sac, which is cylindrical and placed between this plate 
and the lateral extensions of adjoining radials. The tube has a 
ventral position owing to the strongly inflected upper portions of 
the radials. Arms unknown. Column circular; with a small 
central canal. 

The only known species is : 

IMO. Aohradoorinus ventrofus Schultze, Eohin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 101, PI. 12, fig. 6. — 
Devonian. Eifel, Germany. 


CODIACKIirCTS Sohultze. 

1866. Schultze, Monogr. Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 31. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. PalsBont., i, p. 864. 

Codiacrinus is closely allied to Achradocrinus ; the anal plate, 
however, is here, we think, fully resorbed by the radials, and the 
basals consist only of three plates. 

Oeneric Diagnosis, — Of small size ; in the form of a poppy-head, 
reversed bell-shaped, or subovoid. Plates thin. Symmetry 
strictly pentamerous. 

XJnderbasals three, forming a pentagon; two of them larger 
and hexagonal, the third smaller and rhomboidal. Basals eqaal, 
pentangular. Radials equal; all touching laterally; upper face 
concave, with a narrow semicircular lateral articular facet for the 
reception of the brachials, and with a separate dorsal canal. 
There is no anal plate in the dorsal cup. Nothing is known of 
the ventral side, nor of the arms. 

The only known species is : 

1866. Codiacrinug grannlatus Schultze, Monogr. Echin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 31, PI. 3, fig. 
9. — Devonian. Eifel, Germany. 


1880. White, Proceed. Nat. Mus., p. 256. 

1880. White, 12th Aun. Rep. Terr, for 1878 by Hayden, p. 122. 
1880. Worthen, Bull, i, Illinois St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 37. 
1880. Worthen, Illinois Gcol. Rep., vol. vii, p. 317. 

This name must not be confounded with LecythocrinuSy Miiller, 
which represents a very different generic form. The adoption of 
such similar names, even if permitted b}^ the generally accepted 
rules, should be avoided. The species for which it was proposed 
agrees in the arrangement of its calyx plates with Codiacrinus, 
except the articular facet of the radials, which is wider, directed 
upwards (not obliquel}' as in that genus), and it has distinct liga- 
mentous fossae, but apparentl}^ no central canal. 

18S2. Lecythioorinus Adamsi AVorthcn, Bull. I, III. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 37; also 
Gool. Hop. 111., p. .nr. PI. :;0. fip. S.— Coal measures. Peoria Co., 111. 

1880. L. oUiculseformis White Proc. Nat. Mus. for 1879, p. 256, PI. 1, figs. 4, 5.— 
12th Aun. Kcp. Torr. by Ilaydin, for 1878, p. 124, PI. :\b, figs. 2 a, 6.— Coal 
measures. Near llumbold, Kauj^as. 



It has been stated that the distinction between Poteriocrinidse 
and Cyathoerinidae is based principally upon their different mode 
of articulation. The articulation, however, in the Poteriocrinidae 
undergoes certain modifications, and toward the close of the Car- 
boniferous even the calyx begins to show signs of being capable 
of slight expansion, if not mobility, the plates being frequently 
provided with a fossa along their margins ; while in others the 
plates are united by syzygy. Those fossae which extend over the 
whole surface of the opposed faces not only occur between the 
radials, but extend in a vertical direction to the basi-radial suture. 
That they lodged bundles of ligament is almost beyond doubt, 
and Dr. P. H. Carpenter, whom we consulted on this subject, 
regards this union as a suture, but *'less close, with longer liga- 
ments, and therefore more expansible and movable, than in an 
ordinary suture.*' A syzygial union is found among the species 
which Trautschold referred to the genus Cromyocrinics^ and 
seems to extend in some of them even to the suture between 
basals and underbasals, the striation being plainly visible along 
the suture lines. In some of these genera the articulation between 
brachials and arm plates is as highly differentiated as in most of 
the Neocrinoidea, and much more so than in some of them. 

The progressive development in the mode of articulation that 
takes place from the earlier to the later Poteriocrinidae is, no 
doubt, of some classificatory value, but we have not been able, 
as yet, to separate them on this ground, as the respective parts 
are generally in an imperfect state of preservation, and there 
appear to be no other distinguishing characters. Moreover, a 
comparison of the earlier Poteriocrinidae, such as Scytalocrinus^ 
Scaphiocrinus, Pachylocrinus, Gceliocrinus and Oraphiocrinus^ 
with the latter genera Eupachycrinus, Zeacrinus, Hydreionocri- 
nitSj Ceriocrinus^ ErisocrinuSj and of the latter with EncrinuSj 
shows that the two sections shade into one another by such easy 
gradations, that in many cases it is absolutely impossible to draw 
a dividing line. 

The genera of the Poteriocrinidae are principally based upon 
the arrangement of the plates at the azygous side, the form of 
the calyx, the proportionate size of the ventral sac, and the 
branching of the arms. Some of the genera have a well-developed 
azygous plate, a special anal piece, and one of the plates support- 


154 pBoonDmas or thb agamdit or [188& 

ing the ventral sac enclosed within the calyx. Others, such aa 
Oraphiocrinus and CeriocrinuSy have no aajgoas plate, but only 
an anal piece ; while in ErisocrinuB^ Slemmatocrinus and Encri- 
nus no such plate is found, either within the ring of radials or 
below. In the same degree as palsontologically the calyx growa 
more symmetrical, the ventral sac decreases in size, and probably 
disappeared entirely in Encrinus, which is closely allied to the 
Poteriocrinidse. Along with these modifications, others are going 
on which take place in the arms. Throughout every genus, a 
development goes on from the uniserial to the Inserial arm stmc- 
ture, a feature which has not been observed in any other family 
of the Fistulata, and which has no parallel throughout the Neo- 
crinoidea if we exclude ^nrrtn ii«, which we regard as a somewhat 
higher developed Poteriocrinoid. Encrinus, especially, offers in 
its arm structure a very striking example. Among its species 
are found arms in all stages of development, some having single 
quadrangular joints, others two rows closely arranged. The 
same variations are found in the arms of Eupachycrirms^ Ceruh 
crinus and E risocrinus ; while in the earlier Poteriocrinites the 
arms never pass beyond the interlocking stage. That the biserial 
arm structure was develo|>ed from single cuneate joints, and not 
only pala^ontologically, but alt^> in the growing animal, we bad 
opportunity to observe in a very youn«; En'^rinus Ixliiformi^, in 
wliich tlic arm-^, to al>oiit two-thinls their height, are coinjK>s»e«l 
(if siiijj^Ie joints, which gradually l>econie more cuneate, and 
towar<l the tips are interlocking. This one case, we think, alone 
would he "^utlicient evidence to |>rove that the biserial arm struc- 
ture is the hi^xher form, if it was not confirroiHl by other speci- 
uwu^ <»r this and i>ther groups. If Etn^i nus were a Neocrinoid, 
as «.uppns*Ml by Zittel, He Loriol and Tarj^enter, the Neocrinoitlea 
would be;iin their existence with the highest differentiated arm^ 
known to us. an<i the arms of all other Neoerinoidea up to the 
Coniatubi- <»f the present seas, would ap|>ear to have remained 
|H'r«^i.Ht<Mitly in their larval sU\te. This does not seem to u> to 
favor tin* i<b*:i ot* /w?rrf/n/.« beini: ^ Neocrinoid. 

Coinpariirj /! riK(trrifius with Kncrinu,^, the (»nly noticeable 
dilI«T«iM«- in their \\>^^\\ •^tate i^ the presence of a single brachial 
ill tli«- I'TUK r, and two in the laltiT. To this P. H. Cari»enter 
jilhided (('hall. Ktp., p. 154), admitting it to Iv ** the only pi»in: 


of difference about which we are enabled to speak with certainty.'* 
This character, however, is not restricted to Encrinus ; we find it 
more or less among all Poteriocrinidfle, but exclusively there and 
in the Enerinidse. The two brachials are always joined by suture, 
not by articulation, and this is the case in Encrinus^ in which the 
two pieces are united by syzygy and form actually one plate. 
The compound brachial is scarcely more than a specific character, 
and hence has no value as a distinction between two orders. 

Carpenter takes not only EncrinuSy but also Erisocrinus and 
Stemmatocrinus to be Neocrinoidea, because they have no anal 
plate. Anal plates, he states, " are absent in Erisocrinus as in 
EncrinuSy and since a ventral tube or sac like that of Gyatho- 
crinus is always found associated with a system of anal plates, 
the lowest of which is intercalated between two radials, it seems 
rash to postulate its presence in the symmetrical Erisocrinus.^^ 
That our conclusions were not so " rash '' as Carpenter suggested 
is emphatically proved by the fact that an anal plate has actually 
been discovered by Dr. White in Erisocrinus. It is located above 
the radials, being enclosed among the interradial plates, where we 
should have expected it from analogy with other groups. Anal 
plates are absent also in two genera of the Cyathocrinidse, in 
Godiacrinus Schultze, and Lecythiocrinus White, which both 
have a perfectly symmetrical dorsal cup. But does that make 
them Neocrinoidea ? What more do we know of the ventral struc- 
ture of the Poteriocrinidae than of Encrinus and Erisocrinus? 
If Encrinus is a Neocrinoid, why not all PoteriocrinidsB ? No- 
body ever saw the ventral covering in any Poteriocrinoid — we 
have only found the ventral sac. Yet from analogy with Gyatho- 
crinits and allied forms in which a vault has actually been ob- 
served, it was generally supposed that vault plates were present 
also in the Poteriocrinidae. We think the width of the brachials, 
which in this family frequently occupy the entire width of the 
radials, gives a satisfactory explanation why the vault plates are 
not preserved in forms like these. The plates either rested against 
the sloping edges of the radials as in Stemmatocrinus Traut- 
sckoldi, or only against their articular extensions as in Symbatho- 
crinus. It is even very possible that the interradials were par- 
tially or wholly resorbed by the muscular processes of the 
radials, as these became developed in the growing Crinoid. 

The subdivisions of FoteriocrinuSj which we proposed, have 


been accepted by Wetherby and Williams, but ignored by S. A. 
Miller and Prof. Worthen.* 

Extensive collections made by us during the last two years, 
enable us to give additional information respecting these divi- 
sions. Parisocrinus proves to be not only a good genus, but, 
moreover, is a Cj'athocrinoid, having no pinnules. Pachylocrinu* 
is closer allied to Zeacrinns than to Poteriocrinus, and is proba- 
bly identical with PhilocrinuR, De Koninck described this genus 
with a monocyclic base, and the calyx strictly pentahedral, but 
from appearance it had underbasals and azygous plates, and is 
identical with Pachylocrinus. We have redefined Sctjtalocrinu$ 
and DecadocrinuSy which should both l>e ranked as subgenera 
under Poteriocrinus, and likewise Scaphiocrinus. 

Mr. Percy Sladen, in a pjiper " On the genus Poteriocrinus and 
allied forms '' (read before the Geol. and Polyt. Soc. at Yorkshire 
in 1877), separated the English Carboniferous Poteriocrinites 
into four groups: PoteriocrinuH^ Dactylncrinus, ScaphifKTinuM 
and Zeacrinns, To the typical form he referred : P. rra;fsui<, P. 
8pt8sit8, P, conicus. P, pliratus, P, impreAsus^ P. radiatua and P. 
quiiKjuatujulariH. We agree with him as to the first four species, 
but we think the lust three are Cyathocrinidap and should be 
referred to PariHOcrinns. Mr. Sladen, unfortunately, figured 

' S. A. Mill.r, ill thr 2<1 K<i. of liis Catal. «»f P;il. F.»ss.. c;ill.-<! ihtin 
" subj^nuni of iltmhtful utility." Prof. \V«>rtl»»*ii givrs t lie follow iii;; n-A- 
soiis f.»r rrfusiii^' thrir ;u»tptaii»t' (Hull, i, Illinoi.s St. Mu**. lli>t., \>. 
4): " Fir>t, I mm- im Ihik tibial r» >^ult that is likrly to i-oini' from nuulHTinj; 
tlu' iioiiKii«latnrr i>f i»al> ont«»lo;;y with surh ttTiiis, antl wh-oiuUv. )««'«"aUM' 
any j»r<'iM»>- <l >ul);:«iu'ric lonimla tliat j^roups toj^cthor Mirh «liv«'rM' form* 
as /ta<'ri/if/,-< in'iiiifor<ii,» V. ami Sh., aiul Ihtt rv^cfinus liiifVi \V<»rthtii. 
CAW lH't.»f ii<» I'Tat tit'.il a<hanta;;»' \i\ the ^tiuiy of this group t»t (*riiioi«U, an«i 
h«ii« t'. uiil:l •^«'iin' >ali'-«t.i« lory L:«ufii«- « hanirti-rs can Ik* ]H»int»«i *>\\X hy 
\\hi< h llh \ iiiaN 1m .Nrparat* «h it s»<ins advisahh' to in« luth- tlifin all uu«I«t 
thu ^^rU' t :• II iiii« oi ij^inally |>n»iM..s«il li\ Milhr for thtMU." If •»ur g"-"! 
fri«-n<l hail n a'l «»ur I'ajnr nioir «in-fully, Im* \\ou'«1 hav»' o'««MrviiI that wo 
prop .-s. .1 Miir -^iv --ulHliv >>s .»f l\>t, riocrihw* with th»' distinct >< nu-nl 
thit \\«- **>»«aii«l\ tl««'ii»»l th«' tliar.nttis up«»n which th« y an* ha-M-^l ^u^tl• 
cirirly !iiip<"F • .III' •V'lif"? ^ il'i;< 111 rif >tpara'i'»M," and th it w «■ alludoi :n 
d« tail t- ' t Im *{.".' iity«>t' i • !• ii mi; t h. " /e ir; {rt m " tuiti^f'-rmii^X*' .iny of 
t h» -« . T .iCi^. I !i !•■■•• t Ml; t in -. >.ii ' •<! \ i ^i« »n». lu • »\ «*\ ii . w •• onl\ 1*. •"• -Wf 'i 
tl.« su-j. -t •■;! ..r Nj. . k .i:i-l W- Mt h. n iii 1 ^r, » r pp. . . A<ad. Nat. S» i. I'hi * . 
p. i:'.'^an>l !i''t* I. \\ t '■.-. aft' r •!• lining >■• i j-h, '<>■'■ /■ • n, /> <iriuus :iu\ C ' u"^ 
rrt.t -, • a- -;'!•;.:• :i' i .i u:.'!- r 7* ■/< r.<"- . ;< un, t In \ .idd, und« r ihi- hrad ^f >--«j. *.k> 
cnnuA : ' TIm ;;iiMi;., Ih.u.v. r. has In »n , xt« ndt il h\ Proi*. llall .mil othi-r* 
so :i.s t<» ill' lud» -^i" < M «- j»r» >« ntiu:; all tin- < ha^art<.•r«^ ;,'ivin above, and ni:glii 
be dividcil ml" ^i \. ral •-« • lion.Sj di-'liii^'ui-*hi«l fr«Mn «a«li <»ihiT and from iht 


Parisocrinus radiatus to illustrate the genus PoteriocrinuSj a spe- 
cies without pinnules, with the arms of a Gyathocrinus, but with 
a Po/eriocnfw MS arrangement of azygous plates. JJndeT Dactylo- 
crinus he included P. tenuis, both of Miller and Austin, T, isaco- 
bus and P. rostratus, Austin (pars), Monogr. Rec. and Foss. Crin. 
PI. 9, figs. 2b,c (non 2 a, d). Comparing Austin's P. tenuis, 
which Sladen redescribed as Dactylocrinus loreus, with " Poierio- 
crinus " radiatus, there appears to be considerable difference 
between the two forms, but comparing it with P. crassus, Miller's 
typical species, the difference is not so very great. Austin-s figure 
apparently was made from a very young specimen, as indicated by 
the unusually long arm joints, and it may be a somewhat aber- 
rant form of Scytalocrinus. Sladen 's name Dactylocrinus would 
have priority over Scytalocrinus, had not Quenstedt in 1876 used 
the same name for a different form. P. isacobus is, in our opinion, 
a good Poteriocrinus, Sladen refers to Scaphiocrinus: P. latifrons, 
Austin, which we take to be a Pachylocrinus ; and to Zeacrinus : 
Cupressocrinus impressus (Cupressocrinus calyx, McCoy) ; Pote- 
riocrinus McCoyanus, and Zeacrinus Phillipsi. We agree with 
him as to the latter species, but we doubt if the other three are 
sufficiently known to assert whether the calices belong to either 
Zeacrinus, Eupachycrinus or Hydreionocrinus, 

typical form, on quite as good characters as those distinguishing the latter 
from Zeaerinus.^^ At the time of J. S. Miller the genus Poteriocrinus was 
fully sufficient to hold every species then known, but for each species then 
known one hundred have been discovered since. 

When we attempted to revise the Poteriocrinites we found a confusion 
8u<*h as existed in no other group of the Palaeocrinoidea. The subdivisions 
that had been proposed were so indistinctly defined, and contained such 
diverse elements, that they rather increased the difficulty instead of diminish- 
ing it. As a temporary remedy we proposed our subdivisions, and expect- 
ing they would eventually prove to be distinct genera, we applied to them 
It once generic names. It was at the option of Prof. Worthen to accept 
these divisions or not, but in adding some fifty or more species to the three 
hundred already described, he surely would have aided in the identification 
of his species, and science generally, by referring them to those groups. 
This would have lightened the labors of others, who are now compelled to 
look up for comparison every one of his species. Besides, if Prof. Worthen 
had consulted the Revision, he might have avoided a number of synonyms, 
which "cumber the nomenclature of paleontology" more seriously than 
those few systematic names. It is somewhat curious that after refusing 
to accept the subgenera proposed by us and Prof. Hall, Prof. Worthen 
repeatedly employs the specific names which had already been used by 
pievions writers in one or the other of those subgenera. 

158 PBOoiKDnias or thb aoadkmt or [1886. 

a. PoUrioeriniUi. 

POTSRIOCBIiniS J. S. Miller. 
Rey. I, p. 111. 

Dorsal cup obconical ; plates delicate and frequently covered 
with wrinkles or radiating plications. Radials with a semicir- 
cular scar, facing outward, and provided with a transverse artic- 
ular ridge. Brachials one ; laterally constricted ; sutures gaping. 
Arms long and branching ; composed of wedge-formed plates. 
Ventral sac long, constructed of six longitudinal rows of short 
transverse plates forming a tube ; one of these rows resting upon 
the anal piece, another upon the third azygous plate. The plates 
of the tube, which are heavier along their median line, are pro- 
vided laterally with transverse ridges or plications, which all have 
long open slits along their margins. Column circular. 

We add the following species to our list : 

1882. Potorlocrlnui Cl&rkii Williams, Pror. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 21, PI. 1, if. 

4. — ChemaDg gr. Steuhen Co., N. Y. 

Var. alpha, ibid., p. 22, PI. 1, fig. 6.— Chemung gr. Ithaca, N. T. 
1S82. P. eornellUnai Williams, Proo. Acad. Nat. Soi. Phila., p. 18, PI. 1, flgt. 1,2, 

3. — Chemung gr. Ithaca, N. Y. 
1836. P. impregms PhilL (not McCoj, 18:>4 -^ Hydrtioaoerliivi KeCoTmaat, nor 

Kichter and Unger, isno). (}coI. Yorkshire, p. 2oft, PI. 4, fig. 1.— Autia, 

iHjn, Kcc. and K«»!>s. Crin., |». 10, fig. 6.— W. and Sp., Kev. i. p. 120. — ;^ladro. 

1>77, Un Ihu (nrm.<* IN»lrrn»criuu.«. p. S.— iJri-lul, Ku^^land. 
1^S2. P. ottereniil Wurthin. Hull. i. 111. St. Mu-. Nal. Hi«t., p. II: aN.» tJ^.l. Rrp. 

lllin-.j.'. vii. p. 2>.'., PI. L*^, tig. 1.— Otti-r <;ri«fk. Jtrn^v Co.. I.l. 

iyjiecut harin(j the rhiiract> r$ of thf Poteriocrinitfn, but not iujficieut^y X:n<'trn 
to be referred to the projnr 'jt nun : 

P. exnalai Hall, l^^?'.', Klrvonth Indian:! H*'p., p. 2(>), i« pr>dt.ihlv a HoBd- 

orinui >1). 
l^^'^O. P. anomaloi W«th«rl>y, .loum. Cintiri. Smv Naf. llMt. 'July , p. l.'>, PI .. fi^. 
<*>. — Kjfkii-kia ;;r. i*ul:i»ki <'i».. Ky. — Tliix i'* uuv i»f tlu' ui'.«t prrpl«-%iiif 

i«ptM io!* uf ihi> i;ruiip. It .i^jr*-... initlnr v*iih Graphlocrinaa, h-t DccaAo 
erinui, wv Scaphiocrinui, ikt Eapachycrinui, .tttd xvn\\\ «1]a !«•> u.t-« %.\ 
ff th'tn. 
\^>2. P. arachnKformii W..rf»i.n. p.uii. i. III. St. Mu-. .Nut. Ili-t.. p 1.'.. IM. :»*. fir 
11': aUu «mm1. \Uy. Illii,..,.. Ml. p. Js|. IM. L'^, ti.;. 12.— Kv-kuk l.tu.-r 
W«r*;»w, III. 

P, Bockschii «t«i'<if/. <>t.;\ kii'-v^n t. w tr'-tn <jM' t.ifi >>i"«. 
P, calyx Hall, l"*?'.* li'ii l»r K"iiiii'-k. !"*•'• . i- '>iil\ l. tiiM-d fr'-m > %•% 
pl.itr-. — Ni.»;;.ir;i ;:r. 

\^^'l. P. clylii WMrflini. Hull. N". I. Ill ^f. .Mu-. \ it. Ih-t . V. IT. i,..t P. elytif b 

p. -.» ■: al;-!* (mm.I. \W\.. III., \ II. p. L".'t. IM. .>'>. ti^. h'.-- St. L.-ui- liiii* -t. M'.i,-# 
Co., 111. — .K vvry \<»uiii; -p»-«Minrh, u^ »<•♦ u \>} tb*- form of ibc braoLial* AtJ 
arm juiul.«; it prub^bU bud lo uriu< in its adult .-into. 


1849. P. craaiimaniii McCoy (not P. orasiimanni Eichw.), Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 

(Ser.ii),yol.iii,p.245.— Contrib. Pa1seont.,p.106. — Carboniferous, Derbyshire. 
1882. P. iUinoilieniii Worthen, Ball, i, 111. St. Mas. Nat. Hist., p. 10 ; also Qeol. 

Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 289, PI. 28, fig. 17— Warsaw limest. Warsaw, 111. 
1844. P. ineqnidaotylus McCoy, Carboniferous Foss. Ireland, p. 179, PI. 26, fig. S.— 

Carbon iferoua. Ireland. 
P. minimus Austin (not Ad. Roemer) is probably a synonym of Soaphio- 

crinnt iiMobat. 
1882. P. limilit Worthen, Bull, i, 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 23; also (Jeol. Rep. 

Illinois, vii, p. 295, PI. HO, fig. 12.— Kaskaskia limest. Monroe Co., III. 

This is evidently a young specimen, probably of one of the other species. 
1882. P. ▼alidus Worthen, Bull, i. 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 18 ; also Geol. Rep. 

Illinois, vii, p. 287^ PI. 28, fig. 16.— Warsaw limest. Warsaw, III. 

SCAPHIOCRIKXrS Hall, Rev. I, p. 112. 
(Emend. W. and Sp.) 

Dorsal cup oboonical to semi-ovoid ; all its plates closely united 
by suture. Radials truncate above, the articular ridge filling 
almost the entire width of the upper face. Brachials long, simple 
or compound, similar in form to the radials but truncate below ; 
line of articulation gaping. In species with compound brachials, 
the two segments have the form and proportions of the one plate 
in the others, and are joined by suture. Arms long, branching; 
arm joints rather long, wedge-form. Azygous side as in Foterio- 
crinus. Column obtusely pentagular. 

Foteriocrinus Jesupi Whitfield, Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 
Bull, i (Decbr., 1881), is evidently a synonym of P. Swallovi M. 
and W. (compare 111. Rep., ii, PL 16, fig. 4), although Whitfield 
thinks it distinct in the bifurcation of the arms, and in the number 
and arrangement of the anal plates. In the type specimen of P. 
Swallovi only two bifurcations of the arms were preserved, and 
Meek and Worthen remarked on p. 84, that the arms in the upper 
parts " seemed to be simple " in this species. The latter is not 
confirmed by our specimens, of which many have arms and ven- 
tral sac beautifully preserved ; they all show essentially the same 
bifurcations as Whitfield's specimen. Slight variation in the num- 
ber of arm joints in one of the bifurcations cannot be regarded 
as a good specific character, and even an additional division 
of the arms may take place in the same species. The apparent 
variation in the number of " anal '* plates is explained by the fact 
that in the type of P. Swallavi the arms accidentally cover the 
lower portion of the ventral sac, exposing to view only four plates ; 
while in Whitfield's specimen a much greater portion of the ven- 
tral sac is visible. 

160 PAOGUDnras of thi aoabkmt or [1886. 

The following species are to be added to our former list : 

a. With iimple hrachiaU. 

•18S2. Soapliioorinat kaikaikientit (Wurthen), Potorioerians kaikasUaasit. 

Bull, i, 111. St. Mu9. Nat. Hist., p. 27: alio Gcol. Rep. 111., Tii, p. 304), p|. 

30. fijT. 15. — Ka.«ka8kia lirae^tt. Near Chester. 111. 
*1882. 8. Utidaetylat (WurthoD). Poterioorinat Utidaetylns, Ball, i, III. St. Mo*. 

Nat. Hi.<t.. p. S; aUo Geol. liep. Ill.» vii, p. 275, PI. 28, fig. «.— Keokuk 

liine^t. Iliimilton, 111. 
*1884. 8. obtoarnt W. ami Sp. ( PotorioorinoB tonnidaetyluf Worthen). Ball. i. of 

the III. St. Mu9. Nat. Hist., p. 6 (not p. 10 ; nor Pot. [Seaph.] teanidactylmB 

M.and W., 1865 j; also Gcol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 271, PI. 28. fig. 13.— Ke<»kak 

limcst. Keokuk, Iowa. The specific name being preoccupied bjr 31. aii«i W. 

in Geol. Rep. III., iii, p. 4U0, Pi. 18, fig. 10, we pmpose for this specie* the 

ahove name. 
*1882. 8. oeoidenUlit (Worthen^, PotorioorinuB oeoidentalit Worthen inot Sbum. ;, 

Bull, i. III. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 10; ali^o Geol. Rep. Illinois, rii. p. 2T*«. 

PI. 29. fig. 2.— Keukuk limest. Hamilton, III. The name Pol. oeeid«BtalU 

was preoccupied, in 1852, hjr Owen and Shum., (»e<>l. Rep. of Wise.. Io«» 

and Minnesota, p. 596. PI. 5 h, fig. 5 : but, as it has since been referml t<* 

AgaitilOOrinut, we propu.te retaining Worthen's name for the a)M>rr *pe«<i4>#. 
*1882. 8. okawentit (Worthen). PotoriocrinoB okawensit. Bull, i, 111. r^t. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., p. 24; also (Jeol. R«'p. Illinois, vii, p. 2%, PI. 2», fig. 2.— Kai*- 

kaskia gr. Okaw River. III. 
*1882. 8. Oreitei (Worthen). Poterioorinat Orottot, Bull, i, 111. St. Mas. Nat. Hi«t., 

p. 7 : also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 273, PI. 27, fig. 3. — Keokuk limr«i. 

Keokuk. Iowa. (Compare with Soaph. Coreji M. A W.) 
•1S82. 8. popensis (Worthru», Poteriocrinui popensis. Bull. i. III. St. Mu«. N*r 

Ih.-^t.. p. 2:'.: al-.. CmvoI. K.'}.. Ill:n..i.. p. :»'.»% IM. ^J. fi^. I .». — K.i^k i-k • .;: 

p.. p.. To.. III. 
♦I^^2. 8. propinquus W-rth.-n . Pot«rio3rinu« propinquus, P.ull. 1, II!. .*^t. Mu-. N ♦• 

lli-f.. p. •-•»'.: 'J.'.l. U. p. III.. \ li. PI 1".'. fj.:. '.». — K.i-kii'kiAirr. M »nr'M- «•... I : 
•I'-'-J. 8. Salteri W Tfli.-n . Poteriocrinus Salteri, Bull. i. III. St. Mu-. .\.»f. H .t . 

p. :\ : (m'..1. R.p. III., vii. IM. -'•.«. t'u'. In.— KA>k.iHlvi.i irr. Ch-*t.r. 1:. 
l*^"^*'. 8 spinifer W.ili.ri-y. .I'lirn. ('iii-'ij. S ..v Il>-.t. .iiiiy .p |... p:. .. '^ 

.'».— Oraphiocrinus spinifer S. A. .Mill<»r. I"*^:, r.ital'»^ue .\:m'r. Pui. K •• 

Ki. 11. p J "^7. -K.i*k.ik. i ^r. Piilit-ki r.i., Kv. 
•l"*^.*. 8. spinobrachiatus NN rth-ni. Poteriocrinus ipinobrachi.itas n ■: 11 i 

HiiM. I. III. Sr. .Mil-. lli-t.. p. J'l . .»h., «;,.,, l. K.-p. I 1.. \,i. p. :■.♦•. p 

■J'.', fi.'. I. — K:i'k.i-ki;k ;:r.,.. (\) . HI. Hill .|,-,.TiJ.ri jn l-'l x 

-p..:r- nultr P. ScaphiocrinuB spinobrachiatus. »h».h we rti'..--. i -.. 

11. V. i. p. U '.. f • Graphiocrinus. 
•I-*:'. 8. varsoviensis NN-fli.ii . Poteriocrinus varsoviensis Bull. i. I". ^•. 

.M'l-. II '•.p..'". .il- . <i.-.l. K-p. III. 11 .1-. \ii. p. 2'.».». P;. .'*. '^ 
1 '• W »t - iw ! im -t. W ir - ».* . hi. 

•I *""-*. S. venustus ^^ rt!..-! . Potenocrinu* venustus. I'nU. i. Ill ^'. M;« n %■ 
II -• . |. Ji : i - . «.• ■, !;• p. 1... ^ :•. p. :.':. r.. :j. ti.-. i... k .-k...* » j- 

M .:.' ..• < ... III. 
>.. P. peculiaris \N .••'m«;. !• - H- 1 i: ill. .. I: --; Mu-. N»' 11. -.t .'i *• 
Pot. clylis . 'i- !. K- !•• I.; . \ 1 . p J '-. I'i. .".*. f'u'. |i.. - Ih.' -p.- u.:. r- . 
w Li' !i ■ .'»•• -p»-.!»-« w.i- !• - T •'< 1 li.i » Ml .iij"iu.ii'fi« .irr;Mi^«'iu« ut ••! ariai ) .a:- • 


b. With compound brachials, 

-•►1882. 8. briarens (Worthen), Poterioorinns briareus, Bull, i, 111. St. Mas. Nat. 

Hist., p. 12; also Geol. llcp. 111., vii, p. 279, PI. 27, fig. 4. — Keokuk limest. 

Keokuk, la., and Bono, Ind. The specific name is giiren at all places as 

P. briaBrius, but evidently was intended for Pot. briareus. 
^ 1882. 8. Burketi (Worthen), Poterioorinns Bnrketi, Bull, i, 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

p. 5; also Oeol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 270, PI. 28, fig. 8. — Keokuk limest. 

Hamilton, 111. 
» 1882. 8. coxanns (Worthen), Poterioorinns coxanns, Bull, i, 111. St. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., p. 4; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 269, PI. 27, fig. 1. — Keokuk 

limest. Keokuk, Iowa. 
S. onltidactylns Hall, 1859, was redescribed and figured Geol. Rep. Illinois, 

vii, p. 301, PI. 30, fig. 1. 
*1S84. S. extensns W. A Sp., Poterioorinns asper Worthen, not Pot. (Paohyloor.) 

asper (W. & Sp., Rev. i, p. 116), Bull, i, 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 11 ; also 

Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 278, PI. 27, fig. 8. — Keokuk limest. Keokuk, Iowa. 
Poterioorinns asper being preoccupied, we propose the above name in place 

of it. 
*1882. 8. iowensis (Worthen), Poterioorinns iowensis, Bull, i. 111. St. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., p. 6; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 272. — Keokuk limest. Hamilton, 

♦1844. S. macrocheirns (McCoy), Cyathocrinns maorocheirus, Synop. Carb. Foss. 

Ireland, PI. 25, figs. 8, 10. — Subcarboniferous, Ireland. (This species has 

three brachials.) 
^^1873. 8. montanaensis (Meek), Poterioorinns montanaensis, Ann. Rep. U. 8. Geol. 

Rep. Terr, for 1872, p. 469 ; also White, 12th Ann. Rep. of the Terr., by 

Hayden, for 1878, p. 128, PI. 33, fig. 6 a. — Carboniferous. Virginia City 

''^1882. 8. nanvooensis (Worthen), Poterioorinns nanvooensis, Bull, i, 111. St. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., p. 13 ; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 282, PI. 28, fig. 10.— 

Keokuk limest. Nauvoo, III. 
^*1S82. 8. pikensis (Worthen), Zeaorinns pikensis. Bull, i. 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

p. 304 J Geol. Rep. 111., vii, PI. 30, fig. 3.— Burlington limest. Pike Co., 

^1882. 8. sonlptns (Worthen), Poterioorinns sonlptns. Bull, i. 111. St. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., p. 21 ; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 292, PI. 29, 6g. 8.— Kaskaskia 

gr. Monroe Co., 111. 
(Poterioorinns snbramnlosns Worthen, 111. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 14; Geol. 

Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 284, is a synonym of Pot. (Soaphiocrinns) Swallovi 

M. & W. This species passes from the upper part of the Upper Burlington 

into the Keokuk limestone). 

8GTTAL0CBINUS W. and Sp., Rev. I, p. 116. 

Syn. DaciHocrinus Sladen, 1877 (not Quenstedt), in part (On the genus 
Poteriocrinns, p. 4). 

General form, including arms, slender, almost cylindrical. 
Dorsal cup obconical or bell-shaped ; plates strong but not mas- 
sive, connected by close suture. Underbasals well developed, 



bent upward and forming a conspicuous p&rt of the calyx. Radials 
and brachials of nearly the same form, apposed faces truncate, with 
a transverse articular ridge and somewhat shallow fossae ; line of 
articulation gaping. The brachials either single or compound, 
generally elongate, constricted along the middle. They support 
two simple arms each, except in the anterior ray, which some- 
times has but a single arm. Arms long, rather heavy, composed 
of quadrangular or slightly cuneiform Joints ; pinnules of mode- 
rate size. Azygous side as in Poteriocrinws ; ventral sac tubular, 
with slit-like openings, and frequently spiniferous at the distal end. 
Column circular or obtusely pentagonal. 
Additional species : — 

a. With iingle brachiali, 

*I877. SoTtaloerinoi lorens (Sladen), Daetyloorinat loreui ( Potorieerians toamia 
Austin, DOD Miller), Mon. Kec. and Fo6s. Crin., IM. 10, ftg. 6. — On the genu 
Potcriocrinun, etc., p. 5. — Subcarboniferoaf. England. 

•1821. 8. tonais Miller, Nat. Hist. Crin., p. 71, PI. 21 -3:{. Daetyloerinns toamia 

Sladen, 1S77, "On the genus Poteriocrinu.*, p. b.'* 
♦1880. 8. Waohsmatlli Wetherby, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist. (Julj>, p. 12. PI. 5. 
fig. 4. — Kaskaskia limeit. Pulaski Co., Kj. 

b. With compound braehiaU, 

(Fotarioorinns hamiltonensis Worthen. 1882, Bull, i, III. .<t. Mus. Xat. l!i«t., 

p. 7 : <MM)1. Rop. IIIiiK.i.'j. vii, p. 273, PI. 2?*, fig. l>. .'^yn. uf Poteriocr. 
(ScyUlocrJ robastas llalh. 
•I^"*:*. Scytalocrinus Talboti i Worthiin. Poteriocrinus Ttlboti, Hull. i. Iil.Sr. Mu«. 
Ntil. IIi«^t.. p. 17; uNo <M'ol. U.p. Illm-.i-, vii. p. 2^7. IM. :;0. fijc. 7. - S:. 
Louin liiiK'-t. Mitiir'M' ("n., III. 

DECAD0CRINU8 W.nn.j Sp.. K. v. I. p. liy. 

Arms ten, rarolv nine, the anterior rav sometimes iin<livi«ie«l. 
Dorsal cup dipresseii, saucer-shape*!, with a deep concavity aloni: 
the liasjil regions. Underhasals small, not seen in a side view, 
and friMiuentiv covered almost mtinlv l>v the column. Form o( 
radials and hrachials and articulation as in Scijtaloi'rinua ; brachi- 
als siui|)li' or compound. Arms composed <>f single wedjxeforni 
joints, with krel-like projections at alternate sides, and with 
strtJUizlv wavinii <^r ziizzair outlines. Pinnules unusually siroiiir. 
|)l:i('e<l far apart, an<l rrsi-mMin*; armU'ts; composed of short 
cunt'ate joints, with ^^purs or kri-ls upon theirbasal j<»inls. Azvi^ou-* 
^i^le as in Pnterinrrinus. Ventral sac more or less cluh-shajvd ; 
con-'tructed of numerous rows of regularly arranged hexagonal 


pieces, with a pore at each angle. Column pentagonal, with 
rounded angles. 

Decadocrinus agrees closely with OraphiocrinuSj but the latter 
bas no azygous plate, only an anal piece. 

Additional species : — 

a. With simple brachials, 

*1S82. Deoadoorinns oolumbiensis (Worthen), Foteriocrinns oolnmbienBis, Bull. 

i, 111. St. Mu8. Nat. Hist., p. 22; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 293, PI. 19, 

fig. 6. — Kaekaskia limcst. Monroe Co., 111. 
*1882. D. fountainensis (Worthen), Foteriocrinus fonntainensU, Bull, i, 111. St. 

Mu8. Nat. Hist., p. 17; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 286, PI. 30, Fig. 

11. — St. Louis limest. Monroe Co., 111. 
*1881. D. Milleri (Wetherby), Poterioorinns Miller! (not Worthen), Journ. Cincin. 

Soc. Nat. Hist. (January), PI. 9, figs. 12, 13. — Kaskaskia gr. Pulaski 

Co., Ky. 
*ldS2. D. penicilliformis (Worthen), Poterioorinns penioilliformis, Bull, i, 111. St. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 8; also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 276, PI. 28, fig. 9. — 

Keokuk limest. Hamilton, 111. 
1882. D. setlins Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 27, PI. 1, fig. 9.— Port- 
age gr. Ithaca, N. Y. 

b. With compound brachials, 

1882. D. gregparins Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., p. 22, PI. 1, figs. 6, 7, 8.— 
Chemung gr. Ithaca, N. Y. 

WOODOCBIKUS De Koninck. Rev. i, p. 124. 

(Emended W. and Sp.) 

8yn. Parisocrimis W. and Sp. Rev. i, p. 115. 

Syn. ZectcriniLS Hall (not Troost) in part. Oeol. Rep. la., vol. i, p. 544. 
Syn. Ze€tcrinus Sladen, 1877. On the genus Poteriocrinus, etc., p. 7. 
Syn. (f) PhUoerinus De Eonlnck, 1862. Quait. Joum. Geol. Soc. London. 

The ventral side of Woodocrinus has not been observed, but 
we may suppose from the spreading of the arms that its sac was 
rather bulky. This is further suggested by the great width of 
the azygous side, which, however, is composed of the same 
elements as in most Poteriocrinites, and is not structurally dis- 
tinct as has been generally supposed. It has, like Poteriocrinus ^ 
within the calyx three azygous plates — the succeeding pieces 
forming the abactinal parts of the ventral sac — which for some 
distance, are exposed between the arms. It differs from Scaphio- 
crinus in the shortness of its arm joints and arms generally. 
This it shares, however, with Fachylocrinus as defined by us, and 
with Zeacrinits Troost. 


In our description of Zeacrinus (Rev. i, p. 125), we stated the 
difficulty of separating it from Woodocrinus. The only differ- 
ence, there noted, was the folding up and the smaller size of the 
arms in the former, and upon this distinction almost exclusively 
we based the separation. We also stated that the calyx in 
Woodocrinus was generally more turbinate, in Zeacrinus de- 
pressed with concave basal regions, but also to this rule we 
found exceptions among the species which had been referred 
to the latter. Equally impracticable would be a separation 
upon the arm joints, although these vary considerably among 
the typical species. The arms of Zeacrinus magnoliaformis are 
dorsally perfectly flat, those of Woodocrinus macrodactylus 
decidedly rounded, and Hall, Meek, Worthen and White placed 
under Zeacrinus species with flat, rounded and angular arms. 

The species which we arranged in Pt. i, under Pachylocrinus, 
had been originally, with a few exceptions, described under 
Zeacrinus. Their arms, like those of the latter, are more or less 
closely folded up, and they dichotomize in a similar manner. All 
are composed of short quadrangular joints, and all have a club- or 
elongate balloon-shaped, ventral sac ; while the sac in Zeacrinus 
magnoliaformis is pyramidal, with sharp lateral edges and concave 
sides. In the latter the form of the calyx is disk-like, in the 
others bowl-shaped. Mr. Percy Sladen, the only English writer 
who advocated the necessity of subdividing the original genus 
Poteriocriiius^ placed Foteriocrinus McGoyanus^ P, calyx ^ P. 
granulosus and P. Phillipsii under Zeacrinus, We fully agree 
with him that these four species cannot be retained under Poterio- 
crinus, having close affinities with Zeacrinus, but we believe the 
three former will prove to be Hydreionocriiius, his Zeacrinus 
Phillipsii a Pachylocrinus or Woodocrinus, as also Poteriocrinus 
latifrons Austin, which he referred to Scaj)hiocrinus, Sladen 
probably was not acquainted with Troost's type of Zeacrinus. as 
he took Z. elegant' to be a typical form, an opinion in which we 
have shared until quite recently, when we obtained numerous 
l)eautifully-preserved specimens, both of ^''Zeacrinus " elegans and 
Troost's typical si)ecies, from the Kaskaskia limestone. The 
later forms differ from the earlier not onlv in the form of their 
ventral sac, but also essentially in the constiuction of their 
calyx. In the typical species the dorsal cup is disk-like, almost 


flat, the radials extremely large, touching with their acute lower 
angles the underbasals, thereby almost isolating the five basals. 
The basals in these species consist of minute trigonal pieces of 
irregular form, and also the underbasals are small, and rest 
deeply within the columnar concavity (PL 6, fig. 9). In the 
earlier form, notably " Zeacrinus " elegans, however, the basal 
cup is bowl-shaped, and the basals are comparatively larger. The 
arrangement of the azygous pieces upon which DeKoninck 
placed so much stress in defining Woodocrinus, is, in our opinion, 
not different from that of Foteriocrinus or Scaphiocrinus, only 
more plates of the ventral sac are exposed to view, owing to the 
width of the azygous side, and as we see no other distinction 
between Woodocrinus and our Fachylocrinus, we place the 
species which we had referred to the latter, including ** Zeacrinus^^ 
elegans and a few others of the same type, under Woodocrinus, 
as this name has priority. Perhaps, if all American species were 
as distinct as " Zeacrinus " elegans from Woodocrinus macrodac- 
tyluSy it might be possible to make the former the type of a 
separate group, but as we find all intermediate forms, from 
infolding arms to spreading arms, and two to five or more bifur- 
cations, flat, angular and rounded arms, any such separation must 
be adandoned. 

Philocritius, De Koninck, from Punjaub, India, is probably, to 
judge from the figure, a species of Woodocrinus, We think it has 
azygous plates, but these were covered by matrix in DeKoninck's 
specimen. We also doubt if the arm plates of first and second 
order were laterally connected by suture ; these evidently were 
free as in the Fistulata generally. 

Revised Diagnosis, — Cal^'x sometimes obconical, more fre- 
quently depressed-bowl-shaped, and the underbasals bent inward, 
forming a concavity. Basals large, constituting a continuous 
ring beneath the radials. Azygous plates arranged as in Poterio- 
crinus; ventral sac slightly inflated. Brachials composed of one 
or two pieces, which jointly have the form and size of the radials ; 
they are wider than long, and their lateral margins are fitted 
closely together as if they were united by suture. This infolding 
of the brachials extends also to the arm plates up to the second 
bifurcation; and is often found throughout the full length of the 
arms. The arm joints are short, quadrangular, rarely cuneatc, 

1C6 pBocsn>i5os or tub ACADimr or [ltt(. 

the apposed faces, more or less parallel an<l flat. aD^rular or 
rounded on their outer face. The arms dichotomixe and each 
branch gives otf one or more branches to the inner «ide of the 
rajf which either bifurcate again or remain simple. The artico- 
lation is the same as in Seaphiocrinutt. Column circular, or 
obtusel}' pentangular. 

The zoological |>osition of Wtjodocrinus iss probablj between 
Scaj)hiocrinus and Zeacrinus. 

Geological Position ^ etc, — The genus occurs onlv in the Subca^ 
boniferous, and almost exclusively in the lower portions. 

We place under Woodocrinun the following species, all «»f which 
were referred by us, Rev. i, p. IIC, to Pachylocrinu* : Zeacrinui 
arboreus Worthen, Zeacrinus asper M. and W., Zeacrinus concin- 
nu8 M. and W., Poteritjcrinns latifrons Austin, Scaphiocrinu^ 
liliiformis M. and W.. Zeacrinus merope llvkW^ Zeacrinuf patemus 
Hall, Zeacrinus perantjulaius White, Zeat:rinu8 planobrachiaiua 
M. and W., Parhylocrinus suhaef^ualis W. and Sp., and the follow- 
ing, which in Rev. i, p. 128, were placed under Zeaori^uit: Pt^t- 
eriocrinus bursit/ormis White, Zeacrinus elffjans Hall. Zea**rinus 
ramosus Hall, Zeacrinus scoftina M. and W., Zeacrinus serralus 
M. and W., and Zeacrinus troostanus M. and W. 

The following siwjcirs an* to bi* added : — 

• ;^^;^ Woodocrinui asperatui W-tih. t, . Poteriocrinus aspcralui. I'. .,: .! *• 

Mil-. .\;»f. lli-t., p. IL'. .»!-•. •..■■■I. K.|.. li::r,...., \.i. |.. i'<».i, |';. .•«. :.^.. j 
Kf'kuh liin««t. K'okiik, I;i. 

•>''J. W. claylonensii W"rfl..n , Poteriocrinus claytonensis. li i:. i. I. '^^ M.- 

-:iw lnii'«t. Al nil- < '<».. 1 11. 
->''■-*. W. cometa 'I»'- K-.riii..k , Philocrinus comela. V"»f* l-.m «;. ■' .■^ 

I, 'ii'l"!!. I'l. II, ti^. I. >ii^ .iri. irt. r-.ii«. lii\.r Inlii-. 1 1. li.». 

'^ 1. W. macrodactylui !>»• K'uii.-k. T>| t tl».- ^''im-. i:..ii.r.!i < : r, 1:...- . 

Suj'i'l.. I'. ••. I'l. *«. ti^-. I a I .'^iif.-.u li-i:i!.r. ■•.!-. \\,\ Imi-l 1. 1 r ^ »:. l 

*^.' W. richtieldensis . \N -i 'Imi. , Poteriocrinui richfleldensis. V- * . -.. I. *■ 
Mil-. N.i!. 111'! . I-. 1 .; .1 :-..(;,..:. i;. |.. in., v,,. j-. J^ .. V, . .. ! J 
\\.t\rr!\ K imI< I li '"k :;t .i||.. H ..I,!!! I 1. n. 

• XX W. trntaculatus \N .tiIi'I. . Poleriocrinus tenuidactylui, I: :. . I *• 

M IV N.i!. II-*.. I'. 1" ; Poleriocrinus tentaculatus. "•■ '. !.•: 1 :, ■ . 

1 ::',. 1* -■".:.-' ii K' ■•^'ll» . ri..-t. K' ■i.iiK, l;i r.'-;. \^ -:'..: ■ , .• 
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IMC * MATTEAl tl-IBJVrn Of nttL«^tLnl! A. KT 

/#*'!• I i ;!• r« fr n. U •• • ^ - r •. . / »i ' .' - r i -i • ti '.ijr 

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!*••••■.•» I ■■•:••• -v. 


forming a shallow inverted cup, decagonal at the outer side. 
Basals trigonal, very minute, irregular in size, the two anterior 
ones smaller than the others. Radials large ; broadly truncate 
below; subquadrangular in outline but hexagonal; the three 
lower faces scarcely as wide as the lateral ones, and narrower by 
one-half than the upper side. Brachials 1X5; four of them tri- 
angular, giving off two arms each ; the anterior one quadrangular, 
with only one primary arm. The arms bifurcate on the fifth 
plate, and again on the tenth to fifteenth ; the higher divisions 
are not known. In this species, exceptionally, the inner arms 
branch again. 

Azygous plate elongate, resting upon the underbasals ; the 
right lateral face, which is slightly convex, abutting against the 
right posterior radial, its upper side supporting the anal plate ; 
leaning with its left lateral side against the other radial, and with 
its lower sloping side against the adjoining basal. 

Geological Fositiorij etc, — Keokuk limestone. White's Creek 
Springs, near Nashville, Tenn. 

CffiLIOCEINUS White, Rev. I, p. 131. 
Syn. SpTupronites Phill., Palseoz. Foss. Cornwall, p. 135. 

We have heretofore made Coeliocrinus a subgenus of Hydreio- 
nocrinus^ owing to slight variations in the form and construction 
of the ventral sac, which we thought to be the only distinctive 
character. Beautiful specimens, however, which we obtained since 
in Kentucky, show that the two forms differ in their mode of ar- 
ticulation in a similar manner as Woodocrinus and Zeacrinus^ 
Scytalocrinus and Eupachycrinus^ which we ranked as full genera. 
In Ccvliocrinua the calyx is conical, in Hydreionocrinus depressed 
— saucer-shaped. 

deliocrinus is found also in Europe. Phillips, in his work on 
the PaliEoz. Foss. of Cornwall, gives on PI. 59 a good figure of 
what we take to ha the balloon-shaped ventral sac of this genus. 
His figure was copied from the Geol. Trans, (new ser.), vol. iii, 
PI. 20, which had been published with a note by Mr. Broderip, 
" calling attention to some analogy between this fossil and 
Chelyosoma macleayaiifim^ a species of tunicate Mollusca, which 
has a few coriaceous plates on the ui)per surface only." Phillips, 
and apparently Austin, took it to be allied to Echinosphe rites of 
Wahlenberg, and called it provisionally Sphaeronites tessellatus^ 
which we propose to change into GaeliocHnuss tessellatua. 


In its arm structure Cceliocrinus leans decidedly toward Woodo- 
crinus^ but approaches Hydreionocrinus in the form of its sac- 
like appendage. 

We have already referred to it Cceliocrinus dilatatus (Hall) 

White; G. cartmyer ws(Worthen) W. and Sp.; G. lyra (Worthen) 

W. and Sp. ; G. subspinosus White, and G. ventricosus (Hall) 

White, and now add further : 

*1S40. C. tesselUtns (Phill.), SpaBionites tessellatuB, Palneoz. Foss. Cornwall, p. 
135, PI. 59.— Subcarbon. (?). Locality (?). 

HTDKEIOKOCBIKUS De Kon., Rev. I, p. 123. 

Wetherby, in a paper on the Crinoids of Pulaski Co., Ken- 
tucky, figured and described a new species of Hydreionocrinus^ 
'which he referred with doubt to Hydreionocrinus (Zeacrinus) 
armiger (M. and W.). Several fine specimens of this form, which 
'we obtained lately at Sloan ^s Valley, Ky., show it to be specifically 
<listinct from either H. armiger or H. depressus of the same 
locality. We propose for it the name Hydreionocrinus Wether- 
hyij in honor of the discoverer of this interesting locality. The 
species, which was figured Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. iii, 
figs. 7, 8, 9, 10, diflTers from H depressus j -with which it has prob- 
ably the closest affinities, in the less depressed form of the dorsal 
oup, and in the basal concavity, which is shallow and almost re- 
stricted to the underbasals ; while in the other the cup is deeply 
excavated, and the concavity includes even a portion of the 
i-adials. In our species, every brachial bifurcates, in the other 
only four ; the anterior radial which is quadrangular, supporting 
^ single primary arm. In the former all five radials are spinifer- 
ous, in the latter only four, and the spines are shorter and sharper. 
In H. depressus the primary arms branch four times, in H. 
TVetherbyi only twice, and the arms, which in the former taper to 
2^ small point, remain comparatively heavy in the latter. Again, 
In M. depressus the arm joints, from the second bifurcation up- 
^^rards, are biserial, while in H Wetherbyi they do not pass the 
ixiterlocking stage. In the former the ventral sac is armed with 
tien spines which join along the centre, the latter has five only, 
And these enclose a variable number of small plates. 

Hydreionocrinus (?) orbicularis De Koninck will be found 
under Cromyocrinus. 

♦1884. H. Wetherbyi W. and Sp.— Hydreionoorinus (Zeaorinns) arminger (M. A 
W.) Wetherby, Joarn. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, p. 5, figs. 7-10. — Kasku- 
kia gr. Pulaski Co., Ky. 


CB0MT0GBIKTJ8' Trautsohold. 

(Reconstructed W. and Sp.) 

1867. Trautschold, Crin. jung. Bergkalk bei Moskau, p. 19. 
1879. Trautschold, Monogr. Ealkbr. von Mjatschkowa, p. 117. 
1879. Zittel, Handb. der Palaeont., i, p. 360. 

Syn. Bupaehycrinus in part (W. and Sp.), Revision i, p. 188. 

Syn. Sydreumocrimu in part (De Eoninck); Syn. Agassizocrinui in 

part (Worthen); Syn. PoUriocHnus in part (McCoy). 

Placing Cromyocrinus as a synonym under Eupachycrinus^ we 
found it impossible to uphold the genus upon any of the charac- 
ters that bad been pointed out by Trautschold. Wetherby has 
asserted (Joum. Cincin. Soc. Nat. Hist., iii, p. 8), that the genus 
was " well fitted to embrace all those species having three or more 
anals, a body composed of comparatively heavy, convex plates, 
and ten arms composed of a single row of joints." He further 
proposed to refer to Eupachycrinus all those species of this 
group having one or more anals, heavy rounded calyx plates, ten 
to fourteen arms, and these composed of a double series of inter- 
locking plates. The biserial arm structure, which is only a higher 
form of the uniserial one, is as closely intermingled with the latter 
in the Russian form as in the typical Eupachycrinus^ and also 
the plates of the calyx are heavy and convex in both groups. 
The only distinction of Wetherby upon which perhaps a separa- 
tion of the species referred by us to Eupachycrinus might be 
established, is the number of azygous plates. We can separate 
the species with a single plate from those with three pieces, as 
proposed by White. A division of this kind, however, does not 
in the least affect Cromyocrinus^ which, like the typical Eupachy- 
crinus, has three azygous plates. But Cromyocrinus differs from 
the typical form of Eupachycrinus^ in the form of the calyx, the 
relative size of the various plates, and in their mode of union. 
In all American species of Eupachycrinus, the form is de- 
pressed, more or less saucer-shaped, and the underbasals, which 
are very small and totally covered by the column, rest within a 
deep concavity together with the lower portions of the basals. 
The latter plates, and also the radials, are comparatively large, 
the underbasals small. In Cromyocrinus the calyx is globular, 
constricted at the upper end, the underbasals large, extending 
conspicuously beyond the column and forming a shallow cup. 


The basals are so extremely large, the radials so comparatively 
small, that the former, together with the underbasals, frequently 
constitute over three-fourths of the cup, while in Eupachycrinus 
the same parts occupy not more than half that space. Besides, 
iihe plates of Cromyocrinus are united by syzygy, and not by 
ligamentous fossae, as in most species of JEupachycrinus. 

Our attention was directed to these facts by a species figured 
and described by De Koninck under the name of Hydreionocri- 
nus (?) globulaHs, which in a somewhat higher degree has all the 
characters of Cromyocrinus ^ and at the same time resembles cer- 
tain forms described under Agaasizocrinus. 

To Agassizocrinus have been referred two very distinct groups, 
the one almost always without column or even columnar attach- 
ment, with a large almost solid, subglobular or semiovoid under- 
lyaaal cup, nearly truncate upper side, and small basals. The 
other, always attached to a column, with comparatively small 
underbasals, stretched out horizontally so as to form a five-rayed 
star, and with extremely large basals partly on the same plane 
with the underbasals. The latter species, which include Agaasizo- 
<^rinus globosus and Agassizocrinus papillatus, both described by 
Worthen, agree most closely with Eydreionocrinus (?) globularis 
De Koninck; Foteriocrinus nuciformis McCoy ; Cyathocrinus (f) 
sangamonensis M. and W., all previously referred by us to Eupa- 
chycrinus^ and all agree equally well with Cromyocrinus simplex 
from Russia. These species, we think, might be arranged under 
Cromyocrinus^ and the only thing which prevented us from doing 
so before, is the similarity with Trautschold's two other species 
{Cromyocrinus geminatus and C. ornatus)^ which in their arm 
structure and general form approach Epachycrinus ; while they 
agree in other points with Cromyocrinus simplex. 

Cromyocrinus is closely allied to Agassizocrinus^ to which it 
holds a similar position as Pentacrinus to Antedon. We doubt 
if Cromyocrinus ever became detached from its column, while all 
species of Agassizocrinus lose their column comparatively early. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Dorsal cup globular, constricted above; 
composed of heavy plates ; sometimes (perhaps always) united 
^y syzygy. 

Underbasals comparatively large, plainly visible beyond the 
column, horizontally arranged and forming a sharply delineati 
star, or sometimes a very shallow cup wjith a * <* 

172 PBOGnDmafl ov thi aoabuct of [1886. 

the attachment of the column ; suture lines well defined. Basals 
large ; generally as high or higher than wide ; three of them equal, 
hexagonal ; the two adjoining the azygous side heptagonal, larger 
and of a different form. 

Radials all pentagonal ; the lateral faces often so short as to 
give to the plates a trigonal outline ; their outer faces abruptly 
depressed or rounded off toward the brachials ; upper side straight, 
facing upward ; articular ridge well developed and occupying the 
full width of the plate. The right posterior radial narrower than 
the others, its lower left side disturbed by the azygous piece. The 
azygous plate is very large, placed in a sloping position, its two 
lower sides resting between two basals, its left side against the 
adjoining radial. The small truncate upper side supports the first 
plate of the ventral sac, the right side faces the anal plate, which 
is always considerably smaller, and extends beyond the limits of 
the radials. Brachials one or two ; short ; laterally touching their 
fellows of adjoining rays. Arms 5 to 10 or more ; heavy, composed 
of short quadrangular joints, which change into cuneate pieces 
and in some species interlock. Arm furrows wide ; pinnules 
strong. Articulation between radials and brachials and between 
the lower arm joints by transverse ridgen and fossae. 

Ventral sac imperfectly known, but evidently short. Column 
small, circular; axial canal minute. 

Geological Position, etc. — Cromyocrinus is found in the upper 
portion of the Siiljcarbonifcrous of Kiissia, Enj^land, Scotland, 
Belgium, and of tlu* United States. 

We pljice here tlie following s|)i'cies : — 

ls<'»7. Cromyocrinus geminatns Tr;mf^<h<'M. H. !. rrt-.l \>\ u-. IN\., i. j.. i:>. i., 

*H73. C. globosns iW<>rtli<-n . Agassizocrinas globosas. (muI. K.j.. IIImi.>i*. v.-i. « 

p. ...M. IM. LM. fi/. IJ — Kii-k:»-kiu uT. ChoMrr. Illinois. 
•l"*.)?^. C. globularii (I>«' K.nin.k . Hydreionocrinui ' globuhiris, ^t.•tIl■.^r• . 

I'iil/^'.nt.. |.. 21, ri. 2, ti-v I 1. I:.».rr. ■! I.y u-. \\v\ . ,. |.. 1 >, ,.. Eupach 

CrinUB. 1 |i|m r y.wl mI XiIh .irliMiiit'-rKU". Ni;ir ^ila-cw. S ■.iLirni. 

•l»»4y. C. nuciformis M •(•..\ >, P.icriocrinus nuciformis. Adm .ui I M »- N^t H 

iSi-r. li;, n-'f P. nuciformis. O.lltu-- Ki-.-h.-r . .il-. l^.M. ('..tifril*. I 
I'aliiuiit. \'\ Sril^wi- k. |>. Il'"', SulMiirl'MiiiI' T'tii-. h.-rhv 'hirr. KutrlAri 
l'»7y. C. ornatui Tr-iu^M-h -M. l:.!.rr. |l.\ (1-. K.\., I. p. I >. t.. Eupacbycrinr 
•I8f*'7. C. papillalus ^N rti.. '1 . Affassizocnnus papillatus. I'ull . i. III. >t, 

N.H. lli-f.. |.. ■'■■ . il- I K. I 111. \.-. V\ :.». !_', i: -Ka'ka.k 

M-nrt'C <'"., III. 


*186l. C. sangamonexLsis (M. and WO^Cyathoorinns (?) sangamonensis). Referred 

by us, Rev., i, p. 138, to Enpaohyorinus. 
1867. C. simplex Trautschold (Type of the genus). Formerly referred by us to 

EUPACHYCEINU8 M. and W., Rev., i, p. 133. 
(Restricted, W. and Sp.). 

Accepting the genus Gromyocrinus, we have to consider only 
those species in which the cup is depressed or saucer-shaped, with 
small underbasals hidden from view and placed at the end of the 
basal concavity. These species, however, are divisible again into 
two groups : a, species with three azygous plates within the dorsal 
cup, i. 6., the typical form of Eupachycrinua, and : b, species with 
a small anal plate, partly extending into the equatorial regions, 
for which White proposed the genus Geriocrinus. Accepting 
also this division (see (7eriocriwu8),and admitting into Eupachy- 
crinus such species as " Gromyocrinus " gracilis Wetherby, which 
has but five arms, and Eupachycrinus spartarius^ Miller, with 
fourteen arms, we must modify our former generic formula so as 
to admit species with five to fifteen arms in place of ten, as we 
had previously given it. Thus restricted, Eupachycrinus is a 
strictly American genus, embracing only the following species : 

Eupachycrinus Bassetti Worthen, E. Boydii, E, crassus, Meek 
and Worthen, E, formosus Worthen, E. orbicularis (Hall), E. 
quatuor-decim^rachiatus (Lyon), E, subtumidus Worthen, E. 
tuberculatus M. and W., and E, verrucosus White, all previously 
reported, and perhaps also E, platybasilis White, which is very 
imperfectly known, and may be a Zeacrinus. 

We also place here : — 

1882. Eapaoliyorlnai asperatus Worthen, Bull, i. III. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 34 ; 

also Geol. Rep. Illinois, vii, p. 311, PI. 29, fig. 4. — Kaskaskia gr. Monroe 

Co., Illinois. 

,♦1880. E. gracilis (Wetherby), Cromyoorinus gracilis, Journ. Cincin. Soc. Nat, 

Hist., p. 4, PI. 16, figs. 2 a, b, c. — Kaskaskia gr. Pulaski Co., Ky. 

♦1847. £. maniformis (Shum.), Zeacrinas manlformis. This species was referred 

by us Rev. i, p. 117, to Scytalocrinus. 
* E. Moorei (Whitfield), Zeacrinus Moorei, Paleont. Ohio, vol. iii, PI. 11, 

figs. 6, 10. — Coal measures. Hooking Co., 0. (not published). 
1882. £. monroensis (Worthen), Bull, i, Dl. St. Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 34 ; also Geol, 
Rep. HI., vii, p. 312, PI. 19, fig. 16. — Kaskaskia gr. Monroe Co., Hlinois. 
1879. E. spartarius S. A. Miller, Journ.' Cinoin. Soo. Nat. Hist. (April), PI. 8, fig. 
2. — Kaskaskia limest. Pulaski Co., Ky. 
Sy%. £. germanui S. A. MiUer, ibid., PI. 8, fig. 3. 

pBocmiiKtM nr TBS teumMt m 




tiH7. McCoy, Ann. umI Uag. N>U UkL. xx, p. ttt). 
ia». PielA, Tnttit dc PalAonL, toL Ii, !•■ UI. 

IBM. P. HaUe, pTOcvnI. LinBNwn fine of Ntrw 8ihiUi Walo^ *oL la. 
Pan 4. 

(Dta^rnint, PL 0, Of. S). 

This gcntw ww orif LtiKlly pmpawei] for n. Kindle upccimen from 
the Sobcarbontfcrotto of AtuttralU. Aecorilin^ to MeOo.v. it 
difl^rs from Cyathoeriaxit mid allied graen by hKTJng ontf thrM 
arms. Th« cap ia described u CHfuillform, Urj^, oompowd of 
tlirM pUtes in the proxlnul Hn;^, 5 plala In Ibe ■oocwdinft one, 
fonowcd by 1X3 ntdiftis, 3 inuinvdlftlfi, and ooe or two ftnml 
phtM. A sinllu- ftzplanatiou of tliG plAt«« bu been girm Utcl^ 
by Mr. lUlte, who dcftcrilwd ututb«r aiMTcimt in wbich " th*i mvodiI 
ndiala," Uie bractiinU nocorrltng to our UTminalogy, wi-t« pr^ 
•erved. Mr. Ratt« had tho kindncM to wad ns un vxcotlent cast 
of the type DpeciiueD, csamiaatiou of i*hi<.-h leftilN ii* to Infer tb*t 
tlie thtrd riDK ot pUtea in the cktys wa4 ocimpiMe'l of Mven 
picoeA, of wbiob Bve were r»di&la, the two others nzji^u* |>Ute«, 
but that nonj of th«is arc intemultalfl. In tbrpc of tlt« radial*, 
the articulating tiit»'» form a sin.:.! ' ' .<'<:.! ■) Viav, and onlj 
thc-i* platen arc api>owl hy tv^> ■ , M.c two othnv, 

thou of the two ant«ro-lateral rays being angolar and higher at 
their distal ends. The general outline of the two last mentioned 
plates, Indicatee that tbey are compound plates, each repreaentiiig 
a radial and a bifurcating brachial, wbich probably beoarae 
anchylosed. They evidently supported two arms, one at eaofa 
side ; while the three radlals with articulated brachials apparently 
bear but a single arm like Cromyocrinu$ nmplex Trantcbold. 
Ratte observed in Trffxichiocrinut corrugatua along the ventral 
surface between the brachiala, " the casts of very small plates, 
irregular in shape, which doubtless belong to the so-called voflte 
(vaolt), or outer part covering the calyx as in IthoA)criHua, for* 
instance." We seriously doubt if these plates, which he BgurM 
on PI. 98, flg. 8, are any such thing as vault plates ; we believe if 
they are plates at all, tUnt they formed a part of the dink, and a* 
such were covering piccuB. The rndials enclose the azygous plaU 
proper and an anal piece as in most of the Poteriocrinidc- 
Tribachiocrinua is not such an aberrant genus, as it was supposed 
to be. It is closely allied to C^r<rniyocrinus and Agastizocrimtu, 


mnd like them ]ias large basals, comparatively small radials, and 
^n unusually large azygous plate, followed by the anal piece and 
proximal plate of the ventral tube. It differs, however, from 
l)oth genera in the number of underbasals, and the peculiarities 
in the radial regions which have been mentioned. 

Revised Oeneric Diagnosis. — Dorsal cup globose ; composed of 
heavy plates. Underbasals three, comparatively large ; two of 
them larger than the other, but not of equal size ; the smaller 
piece placed in a vertical line with the anterior radial (PL 6, fig. 
5). Basals five, extremely large, very irregular in form; the 
posterior one heptagonal and larger than any of the rest ; that to 
the left pentagonal ; the three others hexagonal. The upper side 
in four of the plates is angular, in the other truncate, supporting 
the right postero-lateral radial. 

Radials five ; irregular in form and size, the postero-lateral one 
considerably smaller than the others. The two posterior radials 
as well as the anterior one pentangular, truncate above, and 
they support a short subquadrangular brachial ; the two antero- 
lateral ones hexagonal, angular above, supporting on each side an 
arm. The line of articulation between the; three former radials 
and their respective brachials is widely gaping, and the mode of 
articulation similar to that of all later Poteriocrinidae. The 
brachials, although short, are twice as wide at their union with 
the radials as along their upper ends, which are truncate, moder- 
ately concave, each supporting a single arm. The two other 
radials, which have angular upper faces, are slightly constricted 
along their upper ends so as to indicate an anchylosis of 
brachials and radials. 

Nothing is known of the ventral surface except imperfect 
impressions of small pieces. The azygous plate is unusually 
large, subquadrangular or trapezoidal ; placed obtusely between 
the posterior basal and the right postero-lateral radial ; its upper 
angle, which extends almost to the top of the radials, is slightly 
truncated and supports the ventral tube, its left upper side abuts 
against a large subquadrangular anal plate. Column apparently 
small and circular. 

1847. Tribraohioorinns Clarkei (Type of the genus) McCoy, Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., Vol. XX, p. 228, PI. 12, Figs. 2, a.b.c.-Pictet 1857, Traite de Paleont., 

Vol. rV, p. 321. — Carboniferous. — Australia. 
1884. T. OOrrngatus Rattc, Proceed. Linnean Soc. of New South Wales, Vol. IX, Pt, 

4. — Carboniferous. — Australia. 


b. Oraphiocrinit€$. 
OaAPHIOCBIinTS De Kuninck, Rev. i. p. 121. 

irafnnucr*nui hiis a bihiteral symmetrjf and is in some 

^rt4.»^v;tN 'iis;hor developed than the preceding genera, owing to 

Lu .t>>e<iicv of the azygous piece. It has onl}* an anal plate, and 

uis s <iuall and placed between the radials, resting upon the 

tuucaie upper side of the posterior basal. The ventral sac is 

-V linurieal, and in G raphvKrinus rudis compose<l of longitudinal 

Tvws^ of *ubquadrangular pieces. We have not been able to 

ox«uuiae the tube in other 8i)ecie8, and hence are not aware 

vkhclher the arrangement of these plates is of generic value. The 

sjKreies her^»tofore referred to Graphiocrinus have but a single 

'uav'Uial and ten arms ; we have, however, in our collection an 

viude^eribeii species with only five arms. 

No additional species have l>een describe4l. 

BUB8ACBIHU8 M. und W.. lUv. i. ].. 12::. 
sjii. Sifnjfi^hocTxnut TrautsrhoM, Hull., ISSO. 

lu a i^ajH'r ** UeK-r Si/nf/phorrinfts,^" Trautschold described a 
new s»iHH.*ies from Moscow, for which he j)roposes the alxive 
j;enerio desiirnation. Ue asserts that it tl lifers from Fryleriw^rinui 
iiivl ullii'd iZiTUMMi in having' *' pt'iitiiironnl. nmf-like serond radLiI-J, 
:mkI tlu"-c pn»\:tlt«l :tl«»iii: xUv vmtral >'u\v with two tliorn-likt- 
pivH\'-NO*». >*r|»:ir:ittMl ]t\ tin- imtacU- furrow:*' thai tlic thipi 
i:ivhals ha-l similar |'io(.*«>-«-«^ aipi !<'-«iitfi i!i;j anL^lrs. ovrrlyinj 
:u»d v'ovrrini; Xhv \\ut[' oT t!ir prr« fdini: plalr ; that iht* u[>j'<r 
tiuiu'atr si'io **uj»p««rtr'l t\No '•ifiiioatini: |«latr«« : that thi* s[>i-r;»"» 
l\ad no piiiniiU>, an«l that thi- \aiilt rt-t««l upon tho th«>rn-lik«' 
r\tin>ioii«. of thi thirl raiiaN. \Vi- think Traut-«h«»hl mi-^un-lor- 
•^tood h:** ^'ij. F:»»iii ir.^ «'\^h ti::uit"i and ih-ioi iption** it i-* 
I'Nidont tliat : in- r;i' \ \. f- .ii»'th«r K.^tiihita. i>»ntainfd .•! ^iuirlf 
ra'<l ■ !.:it ;v'.N .V -i i !._; platr^ \>» n rm. and trur arm j»lat<-i. 
Mis •' "^iT.'i.l r.i'ii •; ' - ^'-'^v t -1 r«»i t:.« r« <*♦ prion oi' tin* ** tinlai'It' 
furrow ,** an«l, ;i^ - ■u:. \ .•>!'••!!!.. .v ii _:ular i'ifuiratin:; plat*-. 
I'.is uMnark..'l« ••:" . ; i i ' ■.;:■-.■>:'.. two proximal arm 
pia'.i -. p'.a» » «i .»- i« < * - ••..■.:._ \ t :. "l' iVoni th« phitv l-»'h»w. 

That pi nnu'.i •» ^^ « : » 1 ' • " " ■ "*'*•' r-* •* •»K^•^^ n t\ < u ''V t h' 

l\;; .^^^h. ''.« •"...- . < ".:'•.■■; .^' nt' l. T!;*- pror. -i-^c 
;il t'.» :r » '. *- i. :.i\» ..•:.»:. \ ..<.'. ..«\ Hrt* iii « «»nn«' ' .<»n 

wiih *.\\x »•'. .:' ■: "..v* - .•• : « : \.r.> -.:... i .iTi tV'»jnd. morv or U'^'«. 


in all later Poteriocrinidee. Prof. Trautschold overlooked the 
only important distinction between his form and Poteriocrinua, 
ECis species has a single anal plate within the dorsal cup, while 
.^\>teriocrinu8 has three. However, in this character SynypJia- 
€Tr%nu8 resembles Oraphiocrinus, and especially the subgenus 
^ursacrinus^ which has the same general form, a similar funnel- 
^baped underbasal cup, and also branching arms. 

It is possible that Foteriocrinus meekianus Shum. (Swallow's 
<3eol. Rep. Missouri) is a Bursacrinus, but it may be a Barycri" 
'vmu^. Only the dorsal cup is known. 

Additional species : — 

^1881. Bnrsaorlnns oomntns (Trautschold), Synypliooriniis oornntns, Bull. Mos- 
cow, Ueber Synypliooriniis. — Berg-Kalk. Mjatschkowa, Russia. 

(?) Subgeu. PHIAL0CRINU8 Trautschold, Rev., i, p. 124. 

CEBIOCBIKTrS White (not Koenig).i 

(Emend. W. and Sp.). 

:1880. White, U. 8. Geol. Surv. under Hayden for 1878. Paleont., Nos. 
2-S (Author's Ed., p. 12). 
Syn. Bitpachycrinus (in part), W. and Sp., 1878 ; M. and W., 1873. 
Syn. BrioBoerinus (in part), White, 1879. 

Ceriocrinus is very interesting as representing a link between 

^he unsymmetrical Eupachycrinus and the symmetrical Eriaocri- 

-Kius. The three are very similar, and some of the species cannot 

"be separated even specifically, unless the azygous side is exposed. 

We were at first inclined to follow Meek and Worthen in placing 

species with one and three anal (azygous) plates under Eupachy- 

crinu^j which has three in its typical form, and to separate those 

only which have no azygous plates within the dorsal cup. Our 

way of disposing of this question was contrary to the rules laid 

down by ourselves among other groups, but we took it to be a case 

of rapid and extravagant development, and as such possibly only 

of specific value. A similar view, but in a somewhat different 

direction, was taken by Dr. White, who placed in his Ceriocrinus 

species having an " anal plate " between the radials (none below), 

together with species in which a similar plate is supported by the 

radials (beyond the limits of the dorsal cup), and he ranked 

Ceriocrinus as a subgenus of Erisocrinus, 

^ Eoenig's genus has not been accepted (see De Loriol, Monogr. des 
Crin. Fofls. de la Suisse, 1877, p. 61). 


W6 m not Mtiifl6d wlwlhii llic pi80^ iMllaff mm ths 
(Wldla% ig., 5 ft) h •qnHriwit to tii» om liJWiW th> wriJlali |Mi 
ig^5e),U to «ft toMt poMlUe Ott Ae ftnMT toi IImi «mI pli4% 
Mil plale. Wt, Uimntofr^ eMBOt agiM wfiii WUte In 
iiiff tiw two foriDt goDMioAlhr id0iilioil|ttMl 
If tiie dUhrenoe tn the two Bptsrimummm toko MfWMA Ijf 
fndiTidiial developiBeiit, Oot pnhopo the «m1 pioM hoA 
feeortwd fai the edbitt, the speeiiMM ehoidddUhr ti 
to not the eaae. Thfoui^ioiit tte mm\ mimohi ho laA Mil 
Cotnie eido hy Mb oad of oeoriy equal die, £ oertahi proof ttil 
the Mocmeotioii took i^eoe In the ggMe^oad «ot fai tlio IrtHiMiri 
We moat theiofoie either eeponte the two tent geneiioelljr,or 
imite both with XmpatAjfcrimmM. 

We stated mider Jff iipao%|fcrl»ait Oat we aepawite Ikoai that 
gnoa all epedea with a aing^ ajgrgooa plate, and thaee wo phea 
under Oerioerimu. Oontnutf to White, howeror, we OMhrito 
thoae apedea in whioh that {date reato npon the nidtola, wUA wo 
l^aoe nnder Eri9oerinu$. Whether ErimerimMM and Ofrterfnot 
are ftdl genera or only anbgenera of Bupaekjferimm^ or the lallar 
two of ErimcrinuSf to a queati<m whioh we leave <qpeau 

OeHocrinuB oocnpiea tiie aame rdattve poaition to OrwjriMi 
erinus as Zeacrinus to Woodocrinus, and as J^upadkycrtntw to 
ScytalocrinuSj their differences being more of degree than of kind. 

We refer to Ceriocrinus the following species : — 

•1875. C. Craigii (Worthen), EupMhjeriBiu Craifii, Rcr. i, p. 138. 

•1873. C. fajetteniii (Worthen), EupMhyerlBiu fiirtttoBiU, Rer. i, p. 13S. 
18M. C. inflexoi (Geinits), CTathoeiiaiu iaacxvi, C*rbon. Mid Dymi im TTihiMJa, 
p. 62, PI. 4, fig. 20; White, 1876, ScaphioorUiu Mrbouuiu (soC If. mA 
W.). Puweiri Rep. Qeol. UinU Mu., p. 89; White 18S0, OtriMfiaas 
Inflexni, 12th Ann. Rep. Terr., by Hajden for 1878 (aathor'sed., p. 127).^ — 
CarboniferoQfl. Grand snd Green River. UtAh and Nehr*«ka. 

•1868. C. hsmiipheiieiu (Sham.), SeaphioeriBOi (1) hsaiiplMrUmt, Tnuu. St. 
Louis Acad. Sci., vol. i, p. 221. Meek 1873, Pinal Rep. on NebrMka^ fu 
1 47, PI. 5, Fig. 4, and PI. 7, fig. 1 ; alfo Geol. Rep. 111., iii, p. Ml, PL S4, Sg. 
6. — Carboniferous. This species we took (Rev. i, p. 138) to be a •jraoajai 
of Eupftohjerinm Cimigil, but, if Meek's identifieatton b eorreet, if U » 
good i(|>ocirs. The platen, which in the latter are stronglj spiniferona, art 
in the other iiut little cunvcx. 
ISHO. C. planm ( White ). Eriioorinai pUnas (Trpc of the genus), Proe. T. S. X^t. 
Mus.. vol. ii, }>. 2:i7, rtg!<. 6-7. White 1SM0, SritoerUBi (C«rioaimsa^ 

plantu, 12th Ann. Krp. Ttrr., by Harden, for 1878, Author's copy, p. 127, 
PI. :t5, fig. 6 c cnut :> a Erisoeriani White).— Coal measaret. Ui 
River, Kj. 


c. ErUoerinites, 
EBISOCBIKUS Rev. i, p. 139. 

AdmittiDg CeriocrinuSj we place under Erisocrinus all species 
in which no azygous plates are represented at the dorsal side, 
but we also include those in which a plate of the ventral tube 
rests upon the radials. In all probability was the latter piece 
always present in this genus. The structure of the arms is the 
same as in EncHnus and Eupachycrinus. 

The only new species to be added in the list is : 

•1880. ErittncrinuH Whitei W. and Sp., En'socn'ntu (Ceriocrinug) planus (in part). 
White 12th Ann. Rep. Terr, by Hayden for 1878 (Author's copy, p. 127, PI. 
35, Fig. 5a (not 5c = Ceriocrinua planus). Distinguishing the specimen Fig. 
5c specifically, we propose the above name for the other to avoid confusion. 

STEMMATOCBIinrS Trautschold, Rev. i, p. 141. 

In Part I, we separated Stemmatocrinus from Erisocrinua only 
snbgenerically, from the fact that it agrees with that genus in all 
its particulars, except that the underbasals consist of a single 
pilate instead of five in the other, which we explained by anchy- 
losis. This explanation was doubted by Carpenter, who in the 
Chall. Rep., p. 152, says : " the plate in question appears to me 
:Knuch more truly represented by the central pentagonal piece on 
"^rhich the basals rest, and it is obviously what Schultze calls 
^ eine fiinfseitige aus der Erweiterung des obersten Saulen- 
liedes gebildete Platte.' " And again : " the analogue of the 
evelopment of the other calyx plates indicates that they (the 
^mmderbasals) are primitively five separate plates like their homo- 
I&ogues in the apical system of Ophiurids and starfishes ; and a 
theory which would homologize them with a plate that first 
^appears as a simple ring seems to me to run counter all true 
Jiotions of morphology." We confess that we do not understand 
Carpenter's argument, for we believe Stemmatocrinus had primi- 
tively five plates, which were united by anchylosis leaving no 
vestige of the sutures. Similar cases of anchylosis among basals 
and underbasals have been observed among other Palaeocrinoidea 
and even among Neocrinoidea. In one of the two species of the 
recent genus Bhizocrinua, the basals are distinctly divided, in the 
other united by anchylosis. In Platycrinus it is absolutely impos- 
sible to discover a suture between the basals, the anchylosis 
between the plates is complete, and only in comparatively few 


species the place of union is still indicated by a depression. Sucl 
is the case also in Dolatocrinus and Stereocrinus. In Agassizc 
crinua an anchylosis takes place between the underbasals, al 
suture lines disappear in the older specimens. In Eupachycrinu 
ornatus and Eupachy crinua gemmiformis, which occur in th< 
same bed with Stemmatocrinus cernuus, the sutures are frc 
quently not visible, and the plates apparently constitute a soli< 
disk which in form and proportions resembles that of Stemmaic 

(PI. 9, figs. 7 and 8.) 

Of large size. Dorsal cup subglobose ; plates heavy. Under 
basals of medium size, anchylosed, forming a solid pentangula: 
plate with concave sides, the latter with a somewhat waving 
outline. The plate is slightly convex, except the columnai 
attachment which is rather deeply impressed. There are abso 
lutely no sutures visible either upon the dorsal aspect or upoi 
the inner floor. The centre is perforated by a minute star-shapec 
canal, with rays directed radially. Basals about as long as wide 
pentagonal in outline, but really hexagonal, the two lower sides 
having together the length of the four others ; their upper sides 

Radials once and a half to twice as long as wide ; couGavc 
along their basi-radial suture, along their distal side slightly 
excavated. The articular faces are directed upward and occupj 
nearly the full width of the plates. The articulation with the 
brachials is by a transverse ridge with a central canal and shallo^f 
fossae. Brachials two, both extremely short but deep. They 
are followed by several short, cuneate pieces. The upper part oi 
the arms is not known. 

The specimens show traces of interradial plates resting against 
the inner edges of two radials, of which the places of attachment 
are plainly visible (PL 9, fig. 8), and detached plates were placed 
aside of them. 

Geological Position^ etc. — From the Keokuk limestone near 
Nashville (White's Creek), Tenn. The original specimens, some 
thirty in number, are in our collection. 

^ 111 honor of Prof. Trautschold of Moscow, Russia, the author of the 
genus, who had the kindness to send us a beautiful series of the Mjatsch- 
kowa Crinoids. 


Family XXni.— ENCRINIDiB Pictet. 

J. S. Miller refers the genus Encrinus, together with Penta- 
crinus^ to his Articulata, Poteriocrinus to his Semiarticulata. 
Zittel, and after him De Loriol, to the Articulata of MUlIer; 
while they refer the closely allied Poteriocrinus to Miiller's Tes- 
sellata. The mode of articulation is identical in Encrinus and 
the later Poteriocrinidae, as pointed out in our general remarks 
on the Fistulata, and our notes on the Potcriocrinidse. A sepa- 
ration, therefore, in the sense of either Miller or Miiller, cannot 
be carried out practically. A ventral covering was never found 
to be preserved in Encrinus, and as the same thing happens to 
be a rule among all fossil Neocrinoidca, it was postulated that 
this genus had an open perisonic, and as such was a Neocrinoid. 
Bowever, the ventral surface is also unknown among the Potcrio- 
crinidse, which are universall}'^ regarded as Palaeocrinoids. Neither 
is the absence of azygous plates in the dorsal cup exclusively 
found among Neocrinoidea — we need only allude to Codiacrinus, 
Ceriocrinus and Erisocrinu^ — nor the presence of two brachials 
(three radials), which was pointed out by Carpenter a good dis- 
t^inctive character. The latter is a very common occurrence among 
the Poteriocrinidffi, among which we failed even to make it a 
generic distinction. We are willing to admit that Encrinus con- 
stitutes a transition form toward the Neocrinoidea, it is even 
possible that in the adult the interradials became partly or wholly 
resorbed, but it is otherwise so closely connected with the Poterio- 
crinidffi that we must regard it a Palaeocrinoid or place also the 
Poteriocrinidae among the Neocrinoidea. 

Pictet, and after him Dujardin and Hup^, placed Encrinus 
under the Pycnocrinid^es, which they subdivided into Encriniens, 
Apiocriniens and Pentacriniens. This division was accepted by 
De Loriol in his work on the Swiss Crinoids, but in his later 
monograph on the Crinoids of France he followed Zittel, who 
made it the type of a distinct family of the Neocrinoidea. All 
'Writers preceding us, with the exception of Zittel, described En- 
crinus with 3X5 radials, although the two upper plates are 
laterally free, and morphologically and functionally identical 

with the brachials of the Poteriocrinidse. 
We agree with De Loriol and Zittel that Von Meyer's genus 

ChelocrinuSj which is based on species having a second bifurca- 


tion in the arras, cannot be sustained. His Dadocrinus^ however, 
seems to be a good generic form, and will be treated by us as 
such. We separate from the Encrinidse Picard's Encrinus Bey- 
richi, which we refer to the Belemnocrinidse. Von Meyer's genus 
CalathocrinuSj which some writers assert to be identical with 
JEncrinuSj is known only from a single imperfect specimen. 

ENCRINUS (Lamarck), J. S. Miller. 

1816. Lamarck, Descr. des Animaux sans vertebras (Ed. i), vol. ii, p. 485. 
1821. Miller, A Natural History of the Crinoidea, p. 37. 
1823. Schlotheim, Nachtr. z. Petrefactenkunde, p. 385. 
1826-33. Goldfuss, Petrefacta. Germ., vol. i, p. 177. 
1857. Pictet, Traits de Pal^ont. (Ed. ii), vol. iv, p. 837. 
1857. Beyrjch (in part), Ueber die Crinoid. d. Muschelkalk (Berl. Acad. d. 

1876. Quenstedt, Petrefactenk. Deutschlands, vol. iv, p. 455. 

1877. De Loriol, Monogr. Crin. Foss. de la Suisse, p. 7. 
1879. Zittel, Haiidb. d. PalsBontologie, i, p. 383. 

1882. De Loriol, Paleont. Francaise (Ser. I), Crinoidea, p. 6. 

Syn. Entroehus and Trochites Agricola ; Chelocrintts and perhaps 
CalathoerinuB v. Meyer, (?) Teiraerinics Cotullo, FlabeUocrinus 
Klippstein, and (?) Gas8ianocr%nu% Laube. 

Generic Diagnosis. — Dorsal cup regularly pentamerous ; short, 
saucer-shaped ; composed of 5 underbasals, 5 basals and 5 radials, 
all equal in size and form ; there being no azygous plates. 

Underbasals minute, rhomboidal, forming together a five-rayed 
star ; entirely covered by the top stem joint. Basals small, hexa- 
gonal, for the greater part hidden by the column. They rest with 
their lower sides between two underbasals, are laterally united, 
support with their sloping upper sides the radials, and form 
jointly a pentagon with almost straight sides. The radials are 
large, subquadrangular ; their distal sides once and a half as wide 
as their lower or proximal sides ; they are thick, heavy, the faces 
toward the basi-radial suture somewhat hollowed out, showing 
shallow fossae, while their lateral faces indicate a syzygial union. 

Brachials two, the first quadrangular, the other pentangular ; 
they are heavy plates with straight lateral faces by which they 
abut against the apposed faces of adjoining plates. The upper 
plate is axillary, supporting two arms, which either remain simple, 


^>T of which one or both from the second plate branch again. 

^nns massive, composed of short transverse plates, which in 

their upward arrangement change from quadrangular pieces with 

strictly parallel sides to cuneiform and gradually interlocking 

plates ; some of them, however, possess a fully developed biserial 

ann structure. The union between radials and first brachials, 

and also between the axillaries and proximal arm plates is by 

articulation, the apposed faces having highly developed facets 

with transverse ridges, and a central canal and fossae. The 

two brachials are united by syzygy, as also the two proximal arm 


In EncrinuSy the inner floor of the dorsal cup is grooved by 
five primary canals, which, as they pass outward, bifurcate within 
'ttkQ basals, and the ten secondary canals thus formed proceed to 
t;lie radials, and thence after dividing again to the arms. These 
grooves which are by no means restricted to Encrinus or to the 
^N^eocrinoidea, are, according to P. H. Carpenter (his paper on the 
and Apical system of Echinoderms, Quart. Journ. Microsc. 
A. London, 1880, p. 362), passages for the fibrillar cords going 
out from the interradial angles of the chambered organ. 

Nothing is known of the ventral surface, except in a young 
eipecimen in which we thought to observe a few plates of a ventral 
^ube. The interradial plates, owing to the large size of the artic- 
valar facets, must have been small at any time, and possibly were 
fiibsorbed in the adult. Column composed of circular joints with- 
out cirrhi. 

Geological Position^ etc. — Muschelkalk, Trias. Germany and 

We recognize the following species : — 

3847. Snoiinni aouleatni v. Meyer, Leonh. Bronn's Jahrb., p. 576 ; also Palseontogr. 
i, 1851, p. 262, PI. 32, fig. 1 ; also Beyrich 1857, Crin. des Muschelk., p. 38, 
PI. 1, figs. 16 a, b. — Muschelkalk, Trias. Upper Silurian, Germ. 

1850. E. Brahlii Owerweg, Zeitschr. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellschaft, vol. ii, p. 6; also 
Beyrich, 1857, Grin, des Muschelk., p. 39, PI. 2. — Muschelkalk, Trias. 
RUdersdorf, Germ. 

^^6. E. Camalli Beyrich (Cheloorinus Carnalli), Zeitsch. d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. 
p. 10; also Leonh. Bronn's Jahrb. (1856), p. 28. — Muschelkalk, Trias. 
RUdersdorf, Germ. 

^^77. E. Chrephini De Loriol, Crinoides Foss. de la Suisse, p. 12.— Muschelkalk. 
Meyenbiihl, near Basle, Switzerl. 



in*. S. lUfUUrall Ununk. IiaMT. da* AsUnul nui •rtUI-na. I MIL, niL U,^ 
4U, MdDlbBliii lf>3U. Pelmlactcnk.. p. SS».— ^(Mnt, l*U, l>r*dr. Ma. 
Km. 8<t< DM. <U Hni^hntal, *nl. I. p, llU.-n^^udUl (la Unank), IIW. 
Dwr. dM Aniuaux aaoi v«l*bf«, Iw* Mli.. *oL U. f. UI^Daw. IMf. 
Noai*MrlMOriaeUt*ital>Hi.p. Si Ball Bw:. M. mM- da KtaahaW. *A 
I, p. 111.— Plttct, ISJI, Tnit* <1< PalfBBL, In* Mlt„ nH. !•, p. IXT, fi. in, 
fi|. i^Bfjrlnb. INiT. V*t>n<li«Crin. d» HflHtwIkAlkM, p. I. PU I, Rt-t- 
It— t«aanl»lk IHM. UbW Ml»t>lMan|*n •no K. UUUblBlt, l^lvaNla- 
Kmphloa, rot. Ir, p. IIW. PL Al^DuJanllii H IlBp4, 1*41, fialM k K^m | 
KitMBiHC*rn«, p. 1M.— Od*Ih, iUi, S^a. dw KcIiIk. dv AtpM .•«>d«M>i.^ 
tOi UocMb. 1H«I. dn AMiauar Junkpii. t*. 3;^(l<IMnkf**.(i<wt IUUm 
der ^obatii, 4I> Ll*f«.U On^'plD. IVTV, UoDT. c^L da Jan bwUHU, p. II— 
ll>«»b, mri, dn •Bdlifb* Asrsauc Jura. p. «, ADbaac p. «.— QaiuUill, 
IMTA, Palnfaitank. UcaiMbl.. ciL l>, p. tit, PL IB*. I(t. lU-IM — bnn, 
Kla>«D dra ThlarnUhi < AetlBnma). >fd. II, PI, », tg. 3~II* LmM, RtImU. 
r-'u. da la 6nl«*, IHrT, p. ».-ZUl<l. lUo-Ib. •!. l>al*«M, 1. p. M^ 
MuHbolIulk Triw. OcraiaDr and liwlltatlaud. 

.S>a. Lily aBeriiUU, ISiW, Uiurck, Orfau. ItHDitni, >uL I), p. II, tea. I-^. 

Sf. BncrinitM aosiUtorala NIITn, is:tl. A Nal. lli>«. oT Ita CrtaaM^ r- 
ST, PL 1,1.:-; »!•■• Ij'ddruH. IX3IU33. PMtvfaeU U«nB., loL I, r ITT, n. M. 

.Vya. PlBturlBO* antTMha Hlalm 1U>, 11>31. HanUl d'ArOkalafti, p. UI, Ft 
'.'», an. :, and Ibid., p. dll. 

.V> ■»'!'»■ MtToclu D-(irbi|[n/, Isr^v. Uonufr. del Criaald.. rL l«) aba 
D'Orblcuj. ISiO. I'lodruiBP, i «1 1, p. ITi". 
lUa. XuriaitU fcUoUuini guai»t«dt. Wirco.. AnJi.. II, p. Mr, •■*. <, ■«. 1 1 al^- 
IMJ:, v. "H, »!-<' OhalMTinu ItUsthtltil H. *. 1I*J*>, lUI, to ti iik 
III. ..!.!..'.,. '.m, ind MuL Hcnkaah.. U, Ih;, p. Kt, roL it, >«.•» 

U«bFr dio Cricoid, du Maubtlk., ISS;, p. 34, toI. 1, Bf . IS.— MBnbaIkaIk,r 

Dur UullingBP, lloraiaoj. 
Syn. CkaloerlHU p«lUetiBnt H. v. Ucjar, 1S37, LeoDb. BroDo'i Jabrb., p— > 

;;IC: alao IB:IT, Mat. Srnkinh., ij, p. 3et, voL 16, »g.»; aln L. r. Baak.* 

IS4B, in Leocb. Bmon't Jabrb., p. MO. 
.V'iBalinaa lUiUOrmia, Hcbcr HiinblldaDgta, Stronbaok, IM9, ZaiUakr— 

d. deutHh. gcaL ilcHllwh., I, p. 103 ; IBAS, PalKOnten-r W, p. ITT. 
Sf. XnariniU penUetinni, Bronn, 183T, Leonh. BniBa'i Jakrfc , p. S*, ToL *r 

I8»l; alio Lflhaca Oaogn. |Ed. 3), Bd. ili, p. 47, PI. IS, If. I.— Ala* 

aainili, 1H38, Lcoob. Brunaa Jabrb., p. ^0. 

DADOCBIKiri T. Mtjrt. 

1B47. T. Meyer, Leonh. Bronn' h Jkhrb., p. STS. 

1831. v. Mejer, PaUeoDb>K'^pt>>cA, I, p. 9M. 

Bjn. JSneriiiut (In part), L. v. Buch, Berlcht B«rL AcmL, 16U, p. 
27 : also Bcyrith, Uvlier Crtnotdeen des HoKbelk., p. i2 ; alao Da 
Loriol. 1BTT, Crin. Pohb. de U Bulm, p. 8 ; abo ZlUel, Ilandb. d. 
PalAOnt., i, p. 383. 

This genuB baa not been accepted by Beyrich, Zittel, nor D« 
Loriol. It waa proposed by H. v. Meyer for a specie* previously 
described by L. v. Bucb under the name of Encrinua gracHU. 


The latter has a turbinate calyx, underbasals (observed by Bey- 
rich not by H. v. Meyer), an apparently round stem; ten arms 
which are not very closely folded, composed of cuneiform flat 
Joints, and pinnules which are alternately arranged. The totally 
different form of the dorsal cup seems to us suflScient to warrant 
the generic separation. L. v. Buch's tj-pical specimen came from 
Recaoro, Italy, and was supposed by Beyrich to be identical with 
certain fragments which had been discovered in the Trias of 
Upper Silesia, too imperfect, however, for critical comparison. 
From this locality a more perfect specimen was found lately by 
Mr. n. Kunisch, who figured and described it in the Zeit- 
schrift d. deutsch. geol. Gesellsch. Jahrg., 1883, under the title 
" Ueber den ausgewachsenen Zustand von EncrinuB gracilis 
Buch." We cannot altogether agree with Mr. Kunisch in his 
views. The Silesian species is, in our opinion, essentially differ- 
ent from the Italian one. The column is pentagonal iu place of 
circular ; the arms rounded, angular at the outer face, and the 
pinnules are given off alternately from every second joint, every 
other one being united by syzygy ; contrary to the typical species, 
which has flat arms, cuneiform joints, and of which ever}' joint is 
pinnule-bearing. The distinctions are so obvious that a specific 
separation is necessary, and we propose for the Silurian species 
the name Dadocrinus Kunischi. To explain the diversity in the 
arm-structure by individual growth is at variance with the obser- 
vations made upon recent as well as fossil Crinoids. We agree 
that the arms undergo important modifications in their growth, 
but we do not find cuneate arm joints turning into quadrangular 
ones, though frequently the opposite is the case ; nor that single 
joints are undergoing segmentations and are uniting again by 
syzygy. The angles of the column in Dadocrinus Kunischi are 
directed interradially, thus proving theoretically the base to be 
dicyclic, which could not be ascertained from the specimen. 
We propose the following : — 

Revised Generic Diagnosis. — Form of dorsal cup obconical. 
TJnderbasals small, covered by the column; basals forming an 
elongate hexagonal cup. Kadials comparatively smaller than in 
Encrinus, but yet twice as large as the basals. Brachials in 
number, form and articulation as in Encrinus, Arms long, uni- 
serial, composed of single or compound joints, the latter united 



by 83'zygy ; pinnules long, and placed far apart. Column roanc 

or pentangular, witli or without cirrhi. 

1845. Dadoorinns graoilis (L. v. Buch), v. Meyer, Enorinni gracilis, Bericht ( 
Berl. Aoad., p. 27.— Dadoorinus gp-aoilii H. v. Meyer (Type of the genas 
1847, Leonh. Bronn's Jahrb., p. 576; also Palaeontogr., i, p. 266, PI.. 31, fi| 
2 and PI. 32, figs. 4, 5, ft; PI. 31, figs. 9, 13; PI. 32, fig. 7.— EncrillTii gri 
oilil Beyrich, Ueber die Crin. d. Muschelk., p. 42, PI. 1, fig. 16. — Masche 
kalk Trias. Reoaoro, Italy. 
4»1884. D. Knnisolii W. and Sp. Described and figured by Mr. Kunisoh as Enorini 
gpraoiUs, Zeitschr. d. Deutscb. geol. Gesellsch., Jahrg., 1883, p. 195, wit 
plate. — Musohelkalk. Upper Silesia. 

The Astylocrinidae embrace only the genu8 AgassizocrinuSyYfhic 
Pictet referred to the Comatulidae, Zittel to the Poteriocrinids 
Roemer included in this family Marsupiles. We place here pr< 
visionally the genus Edriocrinus^ which, however, in all prob 
bility, forms a family by itself, being sessile in early life, an 
having no underbasals, 

(PI. 5, fig. 17.) 

1850. Troost, Journ. Am. Ass. Adv. Sci. Camb. Meeting, p 60. 

1851. Owen and Shum., Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pliila. (n. ser.), vol. ii. 
1853. Shumard, Marcy's Rep. Red River Exped., of Louisiana, p. 173. 

1852. Owen and Shum., Geol. Rep. la., Wise, and Minn., p. 597. 
1858. Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, Ft. ii, p. 684. 

1873. Worthen, Geol. Rep. Illinois, vol. v, p. 556. 

1874. Meek, Amer. Journ. Sci. (Ser. 3;, vol. vii, No. 41, p. 484. 
1879. Zittel, Handb. d. Palaeontologie, i, p. 361. 

Syn. Astylocrinus, 1854, F. Roemer, Leth. Geogn. (Ausg. 3\ p. 22 
also Dujardin and Hupe, 1862, Hist, natur des Zooph. Echin., p. 1' 

The name Agassizocrinus appears in Troost's List of the C 
noids of Tennessee, but the genus was not defined until 185 
when Shumard, in Marcy's Report on the Red River Expeditio 
published Troost's MS. o^ Agassizocrinus dacty It/oj^mis, yfhich 
accompanied with a short generic description of his own. Asi proposed by Roemer as late as 1855, when he describ 
under the name Astylocrinus laevis^ a nearly perfect specimen fro 
a plaster cast, sent to him by Shumard 's brother with Troos' 
name Agassizocrinus dactyliformis attached. There cannot 
the least doubt as to the priority of Agassizocrinus^ but it 
probable that Roemer's specimen, which was Troost 's type, 
specifically distinct from the one figured by Shumard und 
Troost^s name, and hence we recognize Roemer's specific nan 


Detached plates of Agasstzocrinus are found in great abundance 
throughout the Kaskaskia group, but perfect calices are extremely 
rare. The cause of this is perhaps explained by the mode in 
which the different plates are united with one another. Only the 
underbasals seem to have been united by common suture, and 
these, as a rule, are the only plates which are not found discon- 
nected in the fossil. The apposed faces of the succeeding plates 
are vertically and horizontally provided with rather conspicuous 
ramifying furrows, which enter the surface of the plates (PL 5, 
fig. 17). The ramifications vary somewhat, even among corres- 
ponding plates, but those of apposed faces correspond with each 
other, and together form small tunnels, which branch once or 
twice, growing narrower at their outer ends. Between basals and 
underbasals there are generally three of these furrows to each 
plate ; but they unite to one on entering the underbasal cavity, 
where they seem to communicate with certain pits or openings, 
which have been overlooked by previous writers. 

The underbasals form an almost solid disk, with a shallow, cup- 
shaped inner cavity. The latter contains six deep pits or cham- 
bers, closed at the bottom, a central one surrounded by five others. 
These pits either contained the lower part of the chambered 
organ, or they indicate where the vessels extended down from 
the chambers into the larval stem. It is possible that the axial 
canals which descend from the body cavity were lodged in these 
chambers, together with the vessels of the latter, and this might 
explain the apparent communication of the pits with the radiat- 
ing furrows above mentioned. But it may be possible, also, that 
the furrows lodged groups of ligamentous fibres, by which the 
union of the plates was rendered firmer and closer than it would 
be when only two smooth surfaces were apposed. The plates, 
however, as a general rule, are found to be disconnected, and the 
radials at their lateral faces possess fossse, thus proving there 
existed a certain degree of mobility between the calyx plates 
generally. Similar ramifying furrows were discovered by us in 
the genus Barycrinus between the apposed articular facets of 
radials and brachials, plates which evidently were not united by 
a close suture. 

Agassizocrinus in the earlier stages was attached by a column, 
but led a free life later on, when the scar to which the stem had 
been attached was gradually obliterated, so as to leave no traces 
behind. The secretion of calcareous matter extended over the 

188 noQUDnrag ot fn loiMiir or pSML 

greater part of the underbasal dUk, which beeame more cloiigat% 
until at last the aotare linee between the platM dieappeared mk^ 
tirely, although in the yonng Orinoid theie axe wett marlced. 
Owing to the very oonsiderable changes of fomii which oeemr ba 
tiie growing animal, it it extremely difflcult to idoitlfy the apeetaa 
of this genue, and we fear that eeveral of thoie deaoribed xepi^ 
•ent merely different stages of the same species. 

Aga99ixiM^inu» globowM and A. papilUUuB Wortbea hara baea 
referred by as to Cromyocrtituir; his A. AemiqoAertocs, la wUcii 
the nnderbasals do not extend beyond the colomft, is eithar 
EupachycrinuM or ScyUdoorinuB^ probably the latter* 

Oenerie DiagnottU. — Form of calyx elongate, oompoaed of auui* 
sive plates, and containing a comparatirely smaU Tbioeral oaTilf; 

TTnderbasals extremely large ; obconical ; almoal solid ; with a 
very small inner cavity. Young specimens have an articular aear 
for the attachment of a colamn, plercisd by an axial canal ; ibls^ 
however, becomes obliterated soon after the Orinoid enters tnm 
life. The inner cavity lodges the chambered organ, and ia pro* 
vided with six deep pits, a central one snrronnded by five otiiera, 
which either constltate the chambers of this organ or their lower 

Basals large, three of them hexagonal, two heptagonal, but tbey 
appear to be pentagonal and hexagonal, owing to the convex form 
of the two lower sides. Tlie lieptagonal plates enclose, and partly 
support, tlie azy gous pieces, consisting of the azygous plate proper, 
which has a sloping position and is generally large, a smaller anal 
plate, and the first plate of the ventral tube. The size and form 
of the tube is not known, but it was evidently small, perhaps 
similar to that of Cromyocrinu8, with which AgaBsizocrinus agrees 
in the arrangement of its azygous plates. 

Radials unusually small ; wider than high ; the upper face trun- 
cate; they are all pentagonal, faur of them of nearly equU size, 
the fifth one considerably smaller and of irregular form. The 
articular facets are on a level with the outer ed^es of the plates, 
they are somewhat extended inward, and pierced by a transverse 
axial canal. Tbe articulation between calyx and arms is regu- 
larly bifacial, resembling that between the oval stem-joints of 
Flatycrinus. The brachials are single, axillary, and abut later- 
ally against each other. The arm^ are long, nther stout, rounded, 
and composed of short, cuneate pieces. Pinnules strong. 

The mode of union between the plates of the calyx is variable. 


The underbasals were united by a common suture, the lines of 
which in the adult Criuoid are completely obliterated. The basals 
possess, among each other, and where they meet the underbasals 
and radtals, ramifying furrows along their faces, which, together 
with similar furrows on apposed faces, form tunneled passages, 
probably containing ligament; the lateral faces of the radials, 
however, are excavated for fossae. 

Geological Position, etc, — Restricted, so far as known, to the 
Easkaskia group of America. 

The following species have been described : — 

1873. Agassizoorinas oarbonarius Worthen, Geol. Rep, 111., v, p. 566, PI. 24, fig. 4. 

— Coal measures. Shelby Co., 111. 
1873. A. obesterensis Wurthen, Qeol. Rep. III., v, p. 558, PI, 21, fig. 9. — Kaskaskia 

gr. Chester, 111. 
1851. A. oonions Owen and Sham., Journ. Acad. Nat. Soi. Phila. (n. ser.), vol. ii, p. 
93, PI. xi, fig. 6.— Geol. Rep. Iowa, Wise, and Minn., p. 597, PI. 5 b, fig. 6. 
—Meek and Wurthen, 1873, Geol. Rep. Illinois, PI. 21, fig. 8.— Kaskaskia 
limest. Chester, Illinois. 
X858. A. oonstriotui Hail, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, p. 687, PI. 25, fig. 10. — Easkaskia 

gr. Chester, Illinois. 
X850. A. daotyliformis Truost, Type of the genus. List Crin. Tenn. Carabr. Meet., 
p. 60; Shum. 1853, Marcy's Rep. Red River, p. 173.— Hail 1858, Geol. Rep. 
Iowa, vol. i, p. 685, with diagram. — Kaskaskia gr. Chester, 111., and Crit- 
tenden Co., Ky. 
^858. A gibboBttS Hall, Geol. Rep. Iowa, vol. i, p. 686, PI. 25, fig. 6.— Worthen 1873, 
Geul. Rep. III., v, PI. 21, fig. 11. — Kaskaskia gr. Chester, 111. 
A. gpraoilis Troost is a catalogue name. 
^ J1855. A. Iflevis (Roemcr), Astyloorinni leevis (Second type of the genus), Leth. 

Googn. (Ausg. 3), p. 229, PI. 4, fig. 13. — Kaskaskia gr. 
^ X852. A. oooidentalii Owen and Shum. (Poterioorinus oooiden talis), Journ. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. (n. ser), vol. ii, p. 92, PI. xi, fig. 5 ; also Geol. Surv. of 
Iowa, Wise, and Minnes., p. 596, PI. v 6, fig. 4. — (Probably a young speci- 
men of A. gibbosus Hall). — Kaskaskia gr. Chester, Illinois. 
A. pantagonns Worthen, Geol. Rep. 111., v, p. 556, PI. 21, fig. 10. — Kaskaskia 
gr. Chester, Illinois.^ 
1852. A. tumidus Owen and Shum., Journ. Acnd. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. ii, p. 90, PI. 
xi, fig. 3 ; also 1852, Geol. Surv. of Iowa, Wise, and Minnes., p. 595, PI. v 6, 
fig. 3. — Kaskaskia gr. Chester, Illinois. 

(1) EDBIOCBIinJS Hnll. 

\a59. HaU, Pal. Rep. N. York, vol. iii, rP- 199 and 143. 
1833. Hall, 15tli Kep. N. York. St Cab. NaL Hist., p. 115. 
X83'<. Meek an I Worthen, Q30I. Rap. lUiuois, vol. iii, p. 119. 

1879. Zittel, Handb. d. l^alaeontologie, i, p. 350. 

1883. P. H. Carpenter, Ann and Ma^^ Nat. Hist. (May, 18S3), p. 833. 

Edriocrinus led a life similar to that of Agassizocrinus, being 
attached in its larval state, and free-floating in the adult. It 


Ill wmmmmam m bb jaariiar it flUiib 


ggiKrig J>iiyortt, rtr Biwik fai liilMmliliii; 
fa tte idiilt, 1wii« attuned bj tfat lomr Ml if tt» 

BsmJs mwiHilly hagt^ tlowgatii, clo—^y 
fboir BO Mrtnre Ines si tteooler Ibea; fatftMi H^^ — ^-w.^.^ 
flie indkatioH thsi tte teae a^siht 1«f« bMi tkiBUi, b tt» 
yamg ttdoud tte foim of tfco b—e It imgaLu r —i BMMTyte Iho 
•dolt sabgioboM or Jogpiy boid^hapod, aai tfat ooftr bj wkieh 
the ftfiimal was ■ttichod^ b i ep ian t tolallj uMIIantad bj biiaij 
depoaita of ealcaiaoos laaltar. Owiag lo lUa dflporil tfca 
form of tha bate diflbn ooaaidenibly ftoai the fbrai of tta 
caritj, which growa gnulaaUy nanowar towaid Iha bolioM, 
fraqoenUy enda in a sharp point. Tha walk aia wmmiwm at tlwir 
lower parte, thin at the appo* edge, whieh ehowa aiz asaavaled 
fkoee for the attachment of Htc nMliala and an anal plsta. 

Badiala comparatiTcly small, qoadrangnlar, aitiealtf fteal boi 
sUghtly excsTated, occapjing the ftdl width of tha plales ; pit^ 
Tided with a transrerse articolar ridge. The anal plala ia In Hna 
with, and has the length of the ndiala, bot is narrows; It anp- 
ports a Hinall plate, but beyond that nothing is known of the anal 
apparatus. The structure of the ventral surface has not been 

The arms are broad at the base, composed of extremely short 
transverse pieces, of which ten or more occur between the first 
bifurcation. Nothing is known of pinnules, nor of the condition 
of the ventral furrow. 

Geological Position ^ etc. — Edriocrinus occurs in the Helder- 
berg group of America, in which portions of the basal cap are 
rather abundant. 

18.19. Edrioorinat poeilliformit Hall, Pal. R«p. N. York, iii, p. 121, PI. i, (kg: fUii ; 
aIhj iHfH, <t(M)l. Hop. Illinois, iii. p. 370, PI. 7, figs. &a,fr.— Low«r Held«r- 

hrrj5 jfr. Albany, New York And Perry Co., .Mo. 

iHrt'j. E. pyrlformii ll«ll. Hep. N. Y. St. C»b. Nat. Hidt., p. 116, PI. I, 6k». 23 

aiitl 'J4. — rppor llrlderlHT^ gr. Utioa, New York. 

IS:»9. E. ••OOUlUi II all. typr of the genus. Pal. Rep. N. York, vol. iil. p. 14^, PI. 
m7, figi. 1-22. — Ori«kiinv fandnt. Cumberland. Maryland. 


^«::Aft: tm t% r« <>r mi:i\:i!ii|'a 


> - \\. (ATIM.OCHIMn.f: .^ . 


I ' 


• ^ 


M. . 


/ • 

, ^ 

■ I 

' . 

■ • 



• . 


differs from that genus, however, in having no underbasals and no 
stem, being simply attached by the basals. In its sessile state it 
resembles the recent genus ffolopus, with which it also agrees in 
having an undivided base. 

Oeneric Diagnosis, etc. — Sessile in its larval state ; free-floating 
in the adult, being attached by the lower end of the basals. 

Basals unusually large, elongate, closely anchylosed so as to 
show no suture lines at the outer face; internally, however, there 
are indications that the base might have been bisected. In the 
young animal the form of the base is irregular and linear, in the 
adult subglobose or deeply bowl-shaped, and the scar by which 
the animal was attached, becomes totally obliterated by heavy 
deposits of calcareous matter. Owing to this deposit the outer 
form of the base differs considerably from the form of the inner 
cavity, which grows gradually narrower toward the bottom, and 
frequently ends in a sharp point. The walls are massive at their 
lower parts, thin at the upper edge, which shows six excavated 
faces for the attachment of five radials and an anal plate. 

Radials comparatively small, quadrangular, articular facet but 
slightly excavated, occupying the full width of the plates ; pro- 
vided with a transverse articular ridge. The anal plate is in line 
with, and has the length of the radials, but is narrower; it sup- 
ports a small plate, but beyond that nothing is known of the anal 
apparatus. The structure of the ventral surface has not been 

The arms are broad at the base, composed of extremel}^ short 
transverse pieces, of which ten or more occur between the first 
bifurcation. Nothing is known of pinnules, nor of the condition 
of the ventral furrow. 

Geological Position , etc. — Edriocrinus occurs in the Helder- 
berg group of America, in which portions of the basal cup are 
rather abundant. 

1859. Edriocrinus pocilliformis Hall, Pal. Rep. X. York, iii, p. 121, PI. .% figs. 8-12 ; 
also 1868, Geol. Rep. Illinois, iii, p. 370, PI. 7, figs. ba,b. — Lower Ilelder- 
berg gr. Albany, New York and Perrj Co., Mo. 

1862. E. pyriformis Hall. 15th Rep. N. Y. St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 116, PI. 1, figj.. 23 
and 24. — Upper llelderberg gr. Utica, New York. 

1859. E. saoculus Hall, type of the genus. Pal. Rep. N. York, vol. iii, p. 143, PI. 
87, figs. 1-22. — Oriskany sandst. Cumberland, Maryland. 


Family XXV.— CATILLOCRINIDiB W. and Sp. 

The group of Crinoids for which we propose the name Catillo- 
crinidte consists only of the genera Catillocrinus and Mycocrinus^ 
which have been distinctly separated by all previous writers. 
Catillocrinus J which was described by Meek and Worthen as 
closely allied to SymbathocrinuSj was referred by Zittel and De 
Loriol to the Pisocrinidse, which we regard as a mere subdivision 
of the Symbathocrinidse. The form, when we include the arms, 
is similarly cylindrical, the arms rest likewise directly upon the 
first radials, and are composed of a single series of plates. Piso* 
crinva even has irregular radials, which is so characteristic of 
this family, but beyond that the two groups are quite distinct. 
Mycocrinus^ according to Schultze, forms a family by itself. He 
took it to be a Crinoid without arms, which, in place of arms, he 
thought had been provided along the ventral surface with numer- 
ous ambulacral grooves. Zittel, and also De Loriol, have placed 
Mycocrinus among the genera which were said to be imperfectly 

In the CatillocrinidsB, the calyx is composed of only two series 
of plates, and these are most remarkable for their extremely irreg- 
ular form and distribution. The radials are massive, especially 
at the upper margins, where they are transversely truncated on 
the same plane all round. The radial plates differ in form and 
size. Those of the two antero-lateral rays, as a rule, are much 
larger than the three others, but, while at their upper margin 
they are from three to six times as wide as the others, all are at 
the basi-radial suture about equal in width. The anterior, and 
both postero-lateral rays, rarely possess more than one arm each, 
but in the two antero-lateral ones the arms are always numerous. 
Every arm articulates directly upon the truncate upper margin 
of the radial without the aid of axillary pieces, and remains 
simple from the base up. The arms are in contact all around the 
calyx, and are composed of a single series of very similar pieces. 
They connect with the inner cavity by a peculiar groove, which 
follows the truncate upper face of the radials. This groove con- 
toins the ambulacral canal and food passage, and there is under- 
neath, separated by a solid partition, another groove, which near 
the inner margin penetrates the plate, and takes a distinctly down- 
ward course toward the inner cavity, which throughout this family 
is exceedingly small. 


upper margins constitute fully three-fourths of the periphery at 
the top of the radials, occupy together less than one-half of the 
circumference of the basal cup. This disproportion is caused by 
the peculiar form of the other radials, which, notwithstanding the 
great spreading of the calyx, diminish in width upwards. The 
anterior radial is much smaller, heart-shaped, with strongly con- 
vex lateral e<lge$, which converge almost to a point at the top of 
the o^ilvx. The basi-radial suture is somewhat concave, and fullv 
as wide as that of the larger plates. The two postero-lateral 
mdials tchrethor are very little larger than the anterior one ; that 
towanl the right is smaller, very narrow, wider at the bottom 
;hau at the top. and triangular when the sides are straight ; but 
when these are curved, which is more frequently the case, it is 
s\^mewhal lunate. The other radial is quadrangular, fully twice 
as high as wide, and of equal width throughout. 

The articular surface of the nuiials is provided with conspic- 
uous grooves and intervening ridges, the former with a depres- 
sion near the outer margin of the plate. The grooves along the 
surface take a tortuous or undulating c*our»e.and near their inner 
end turn rather abruptly toward the anterior radial. The latter 
plate has generally but one groove, which is deeper than any of 
the others and perfectly straight, but when it has two grooves, as 
is exreptionally thi' crist* in f'ntiJInrnnns 7'* '>*'?»>'«'». these unite 
K'foro t'litorini: iliv iini«r «:i\ity. Tlie tw«.» h\ri:er ru'liaU coiita-.n 
nuineroiis <_!r«»»»vt-s — tin- nnuiln r varvin-j witii the s|H-eie"^ — 
towanl thf riLili' , :is :i n\\v. ha^ nn>re iIjmIi lite «»in- on the K-ft. Tlie 
fornur ra-lial ha< I'v* n oi.^frvtMl i<» liave in C. 7Vrj ♦}»•'/;'<: vr '21 t<» .'A 
^roovi-^. in ( '. W'-ii JisrW'tf'i 1». t<» »«» ; the phfe t«->war«l the rii:lil 
in till" f«'iinor specie^ hi^ l*r«'ni '2\ to -■^. the opposite one 16 
L:i«H»ves. Till' two small irrtjr.lar ra<li:ils have, so far as ohs«.r\ rd. 
only on»- i^roovo ea<li. 

In ptiUrt >|'iriin« ns. tli«- ::r"o\r< ar*^ lined l»y two rows of 
>hoit. ttau'-xir^r jin*. -s. wiiAii |:utl\ • o\er the groove, but leavr 
imtlern* at '. a ^«'»Mi-^:,'. i pa^>:i_:«-. Tiit- plates rest upon th*- rid'je-*, 
wl.iM* ili» \ aiiit a_:a::i-t th« r f«llnNx«» rr«»ni acljoininiT irroovi'*. 
\\:t.. t: t i\ rjf.'', .■!' ' . r '.j«^ ,i\.>\ Ljr.-.vrs, tin- truinnt»Ml 
i: j \\ \ > 1< • t' • "f ! .. i - :• :■:..- a i: . t" Tin piain-, iiitrrru['t* «l "i: 1 v 
l'\ I >:; i" . !• \ i*.: •:. .*; "_:•'.• !•!!-. l* - l' : :.e 'pia-IranLinlar r .-i :a! 
I >' I '.' \ -v! '■: •» o • .; ' •[ '■ \ a •'K; .'...»'.• !ijat»- anal plate, w [,:.•», 
\\' *^ .' k ; -' ' . • NN • : • -v :. ;/ ■ -/^ of a iioimm: arm^. TL. 


Of Catillocrinus Wachsmuthi no descriptions were given of the 
plates in the calyx, but the arm structure of the genus was here 
for the first time described. Meek and Worthen, who had not 
seen Shumard's description of Catillocrinus^ and being unac- 
quainted with the arrangement of plates, referred their species at 
first to Symbalhocrinus, not, however, to the typical form, but to a 
new subgenus, for which they proposed the name Nemalocrinus. 
On a republication of the species, in vol. iii, of the Geological 
Report of Illinois, the above name was abandoned, and the species 
placed under Catillocrinus, 

In Catillocrinus Bradleyi^ Meek and Worthen undertook to 
describe also the plates of the calyx, but without applying to 
them their proper terms. They simply designated them as plates 
of a first and o( a second series, except a few plates in the second 
series which they introduced as " anals (?)." Of the five plates in 
this series, three are easily recognized as radials, but also the two 
others, although much smaller and very irregular in form, are 
radials, as both are arm bearing. 

The one toward the right supports at one end an arm, at the 
other an elongate narrow anal plate, which abuts against the sides 
of the proximal arm joints, and has nearly their form, being only 
somewhat larger. Bigsby (Thesaurus Devonico-Carboniferus, p. 
224) places Catillocrinus as a synonym of Calceocrinus. 

We propose the following : — 

Revised Generic Diagnosis. — General form, when the arms are 
folded, elongate-cylindrical. Calyx in form of a shallow basin or 
cup, concave at the bottom, uniformly truncate at the upper 
margin. It is composed of two series of plates : the upper one 
supporting the arms, which are very numerous. Test exceedingly 
thin along the basals, thickening rapidly upwards. 

The basal disk is apparently undivided ; the greater part hidden 
by the column. It is irregularly pentagonal, three of its sides 
being nearly equal, the other two, which are adjoining, equal to 
one-half the larger ones. The side opposite the two smaller sides 
extends considerably be^'ond the column, while at the other side 
the basal disk is either altogether invisible, or reduced to a ver}' 
narrow band. This want of regularity has been observed in all 
specimens, and seems to be characteristic of the genus. 

Radials five, very irregular in form, those of the antero-lateral 
rays much larger than the rest. The two larger plates, whose 


upper margins constitute fully three-fourths of the periphery at 
the top of the radials, occupy together less than one-half of the 
circumference of the basal cup. This disproportion is caused by 
the peculiar form of the other radials, which, notwithstanding the 
great spreading of the calyx, diminish in width upwards. The 
anterior radial is much smaller, heart-shaped, with strongl}' con- 
vex lateral edges, which converge almost to a point at the top of 
the calyx. The basi-radial suture is somewhat concave, and fully 
as wide as that of the larger plates. The two postero-lateral 
radials together are very little larger than the anterior one ; that 
toward the right is smaller, very narrow, wider at the bottom 
than at the top, and triangular when the sides are straight ; but 
when these are curved, which is more frequently the case, it is 
somewhat lunate. The other radial is quadrangular, fully twice 
as high as wide, and of equal width throughout. 

The articular surface of the radials is provided with conspic- 
uous grooves and intervening ridges, the former with a depres- 
sion near the outer margin of the plate. The grooves along the 
surface take a tortuous or undulating course, and near their inner 
end turn rather abruptly toward the anterior radial. The latter 
plate has generally but one groove, which is deeper than any of 
the others and perfectly straight, but when it has two grooves, as 
is exceptionall}^ the case in Catillocrinus Tennesseae^ these unite 
before entering the inner cavity. The two larger radials contain 
numerous grooves — the number varying with the species — that 
toward the right, as a rule, has more than the one on the left. The 
former radial has been observed to have in (7. Tennei*sede 27 to 31 
grooves, in C. Wachsmuthi KJ to 20; the plate toward the right 
in the former species has from 21 to 23, the opposite one 15 
grooves. The two small irregular radials have, so far as observed, 
only one groove each. 

In perfect s))ecimens, the grooves are lined by two rows of 
short, transverse pieces, which partly cover the groove, but leave 
underneath a good-sized passage. The plates rest upon the ridges, 
where they abut against their fellows from adjoining grooves. 
AVith the exception of the ridges and grooves, the truncated 
upper side of the radials forms a uniform plane, interrupted only 
b}^ a small elevation along the left side of the quadrangular radial. 
This elevation is occupied b}^ a small, elongate anal i)late, which 
abuts against the two proximal joints of adjoining arms. The 


pifite is placed on a level with the arm joints, has a like width 
an<^t therefore, is easily mistaken for an arm plate. 

The anal plate supports a very stout appendage, composed of a 
siri^le row of exceedingly large and heavy plates, longitudinally 
a,rx«.iiged, which, instead of forming into a tube as in the case of 
otilier Fistulata, are transversely curved like arm joints, leaving 
& x-a.ther shallow, semicircular furrow on the inner side. These 
plo.tes are along their back extremely heavy, as thick as the radials 
titi "tlieir upper margins, but they thin out toward their ends, 
and approaching the furrow become extremely delicate. The 
prox>ortions of the plates are well shown by our figure of Catillo- 
oriniis Wachsmuthi (PI. 5, fig. 16), in which five of these plates 
occupy an inch, while in the same space there are seventeen arm 
joints. It must be further mentioned that up to that point the 
pl&tes suffered no diminution in height nor in width, nor is there 
SLrty decrease in the thickness of the wall, which in Catillocrinus 
TVachsmuthi^ at the top of the fifth joint, is nearly two thirds of 
tlic '^hole width of the appendage. The cross section is semilunu- 
la.r except at the base. The stoutness of the plates on the one 
st<ic, and the grooved structure on the other, are perhaps due to 
tine great thickness of the radial plates upon which the tube rests ; 
It; tkwkd to be so necessarily in order to effect a communication with 
**ti^ inner cavity of the cal3'x. The groove was probably covered 
^^ii*ing life by perisomic plates. No traces either of a vault or a 
^isk have been observed. 

Tie arms rise directly from the truncated summits of the 
ials, without the intervention of axillary plates. There is an 
to every groove, and, hence, some of the radials, contrary to 
rule in other Crinoids, support a large number of arms from 
tih^ same level. The arms are simple, slender, comparatively 
;, scarcely rounded outwardly, of almost uniform size, and 
Cin closed the}' appear as if united into a solid wall. The arm 
ts are quadrangular, much longer and somewhat deeper than 
€, with parallel sutures. Arm furrows deep, triangular, 
he column is circular, composed of thin joints, the upper part 
^^ "Very stout but tapers rapidly downward. 

Geological Position^ etc. — The genus is apparently restricted to 
^^ Upper Burlington and Keokuk divisions of the Subcarbonif- 
^roiis of America. 

/w\'*^r ■''''■ '''•'".'•'■-■'■■''^ 

Its wmmmMinmm m «b hhwit m {t/KL 

fbe Oeologioal Beport of 9ew Toffc, toL il, pu 881, gtv^ wMm «f 
A peoalisr Oriooid ttom tbe Niaipuft groqpi <rf whMi ht ImI 
obCidiied what wpfmjnA lo be a Wpuilli 1mm or pdvto •fco w ing 
A oolonuMur Atteehnieiit, for which he prop o e e d the mmm Otlmi^ 
crintu. In 18M, In the ISth Begeate Beport <rf tiie Vow To* 
Slate CaUiiet of Net. Hietorjr, the eeise Mtbor deeerihed 
OMftierfiiw eiz new epecleeof Amerioeii Oriiiolde heviaf m 
eimikr to Oofeeocrjntit, mad which erfdeatl^ beloBged to 
e TCfy doedj allied gemie. According to Salter (MiireMeon% 
Silaria of 1859), the name 0hrirQiBri$m9 had been need bj Anelia 
in MS. for a similar fiirm ttom the Wimlock Bmeetone, bvi Bleh 
wald had already in 1856 preoccnpied tbe name Hmt aoetftafai ^jrpe 
of Cyctidea. Shnmaid was the llret writer to direct atleBlios to 
the probable identity of OWeoocrdint with Hall% Chwtfmrimm^ 
and in his Oatalogne of the Palmosoic Foeeib cf Korth Amerha 
he added tbe name Oaiceacrinvm in panmthesis to all deactlbed 
species of OheirocrinuM. In this lie was followed In IStf \f 
Meek and Worthen, and in 18t9, Hall himedf actopled CRsbeoeri- 
nuB^ while both Angelln and Zittel baTC retained OkriroeHmm* 
It seems to us the latter name, according to eetaMlehed reim^ 
<»mnot be upheld for Hall^ type, becanse It wae preoemspied by 
Etcbwald for a Cystid, and even if It be troe, ae sseerted bgr T. 
Schmidt (Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersburg, Ser. i!, vol. xi, No. 11)^ 
that Eichwald^s Cheirocrinus is identical with OlypiocyMieM^ 
which has priority, this would not alter the case. The same view 
was evidently taken by Meek and Worthen, who proposed, in ease 
doubt should arise as to its identity with HalFs type of Calceo- 
crinus^ to change the name Gheirocrinus into BucheirocrinuM. 

We would accept the latter name, had not Hall himself, who 
had the best opportunity to compare the type specimens, giren 
preference to Calceocrinus. Bigsby, in the Thesaurus DeTonico- 
Carboniferus, erroneously placed the genus CatiUocrinuM mm a 
8ynon3'ra under Calceocrinus. 

Calceocrinus was made by Meek and Worthen, in 1873, the type 
of a distinct family, for which they introduced the name ^^Calcto- 
crinidet.'*^ This was adopted by De Loriol, but Angelin and 
Zittel in their classification apply the name ^^ Cheirocrinidap,** 

Calceocrinus ditfors in external ap|)earance8 so essentially from 
all other Crinolds, that Hall introduced for its description a spe- 
cial terminology, which was adopted by all succeeding 


one-half narrower above than below, owing to an angular exten- 
sion at the lower half of its two lateral faces, which fit closely 
into the adjoining excavated side of the large radials. Similar 
processes arise from the sides of the two smaller plates, but here 
only along the suture toward the larger one, the opposite suture 
being perfectly straight. By means of the lateral extensions, the 
large radials, which at their basi-radial suture have nearly the 
same width as the smaller ones, attain at their upper face three 
times the width of the other plates. 

The articular surface of the radials is truncated, unusually 
thick, and closely resembles that of Catillocrinus, Mycocrinus 
boletus must have had fifteen arms, for there are fifteen rather 
shallow ambulacral grooves, which pass from near the periphery 
of the calyx to the radial centre. There are six upon each of the 
two large radials, and one upon each of the two smaller ones. 
The six grooves upon the two larger radials unite into one, and 
hence there are but five main trunks entering the inner cavity. 
The median part of every groove has a deep linear furrow, which 
takes a somewhat downward course, and penetrates the walls of 
the radials. Close to the peripher3% outside of each groove, there 
is a well-marked slit-like axial canal, making fifteen in all, which 
pierce the radials throughout their full length, and enter the upper 
margins of the basals. These canals or tunneled passages are 
evidently axial canals, which entered through the twelve slit-like 
openings at the inner floor of the basals the chambered organ, 
and as such communicated with the arms. 

The body cavity is very small, its width not equaling the thick- 
ness of the radials ; its depth being less even than its width. 
Form of the arms, construction of summit and anus unknown. 

The column seems to have been circular, with a small, round 
central canal. The only species is : — 

1866. Kyooorinng boletus Schultze, Monogr. Ecbin. Eifl. Kalk., p. 222, PI. 7, fig. 4. 
— StriDgocephaleakalk, Devonian. — Nollcnbach (Eifel), Germany. 

Family XXVI.— CALCEOCRINID.ZB Meek and W. 

1878. Meek and Worthen, Geol. Kep. Illinois, v, p. 443. 
1832. De Loriol, Paleont. FianQaise, vi (Crinoides), p. 51. 

Byn, ChiroerinidcBj Angelin, 1878, Icon. Crin. Suec, p. 22. 

Syn. Cheirocrinidcp, Zittel, 1879, Haudb. d. PalsBont., i, p. 357. 

The only known genus of this family has been variously referred 
to CheirocrinuB and Calceocrinus. As early as 1851, Hall, in 


ia form and size. The two lateral rays are composed of a large 
HidiaU which is followed by two very small bracliiaU. The ao- 
Wrior ray has two radials, which combined are smaller than the 
t^D^le lateral ones. The two are generally separated by the lateral 
radials which join between them, placing one of the plates at the 
upj»er, the other at the lower end of the calyx. This peculiar 
structure has evidently prevented all former writers from recog- 
uixiuix those plates as radials. That they are radials, and were 
gmdually separated in the course of palteontological times, is 
pnn-eil b}' HalPs Silurian species Calceocrinus chrysalis and 
Ctilcf'ocnnus inaeiiitaliH Billings,^ by C. radiculus Ringuebergand 
(\ Barrandii Walcott, in all of which the plates are narrowly 
elongate, and united by a short suture. In Calceocrinus goth- 
landicus of UpiH»r Silurian age, they are separateil, but the first 
radial extends almost to the second. In Calceocrinus clarus and 
Ciilceocrinus Barrisi from the Devonian, the distance that sepa- 
rates them is somewhat greater; while in all Subv-arboniferout 
s|Hvies the two plates stand widely apart. 

Cnlc*\h^riniiS a«;n.'es with Catillocrinus in the arrangement 
and form of its plati*s. In both of them the second ring consists 
of five extix'mely irrejjular pieces, but, while in the latter all five 
an* arm-l^aring, those of Calceocrinus are arm-bearing only in 
tlio thrvo :intcri^'r nw--. The two pt»>tvri<»r «»nes are small :iiid <n\*- 
pv»rt :i l:irjo t..l»o. The v^'>rro-i;» •n-imi: plntt-s in C'lUH'*' rm i* 
snpp«»rl u;H>n .»iu i-r. \ of ti.v.r *«^:i'MT >: io mi :\rm, iiiM»n tin- <»!lit*r 
:i >:iu.;*r t.'/'O :\< '/:. - '"i . ..-,:t!.'i in h^tli iji-iUTa tlK* two :l^t^•^^- 
!;i:^•I■:l! r.n -i ;i'"^ ':i: >*.r'!;_:tr 'uxtl^^jn-l th:»n any '»f tliO <»tlKT'». 
riu :^^»• t" r:i> ro^i:.':'.t t.». V. < i!u r ii.-re cIosti\ tlr.m inii:ht l«e 
cxick'.v \ :: '".n i': i., 1- ::...: '..:Vvt ^o w:,ivl\ in their irt-niral 
vNjVvt, :i< ^' ^"^ V. Vn v".::i:.-: n.: C .'^ -i .< I*. Min its iiatiini! po^j. 
{ v".'. .'..'.v' :.. .: V f :» c : r '.' .>. T...^ ::.:t\ l-v d'»ne the«»rt t.t':kily 
V\ ; ic"*-- .. '. . V . x'.'. X > ii •^;%v> ::i > .^:. n :i;.'ir.iit'r lh:\t the l»:i*;\U 

N ., > .; V I ■ ,:v '... . ri -. . «^.^ tr. I'winj t«> l:irj»' 

: . N I \ '. • : t ■ .^.v. - it . "«. .. n tli y i.r.n tlic <um\\ 

•, . - ^-^ :-^ -* :; i -. i : :% ^.::,:!:ir p<.^i!i,in 


\ » . 

■» k- ' ' - -» iii> vkt r» }'«.nf<l S\ 

X, % » 

\ ■• 


In this special names were given to parts of the calyx, which, as 
we will presently show, are represented in other genera, and hence 
should be designated by the same name, the more since some of 
his appellations conflict seriously with terms long ago established. 

Hall divided the calyx into two parts. The one, which he called 
the " dorsal side," comprises the anterior side and not, as should 
be expected from the name, the aboral part ; the other, which he 
designated as the " ventral side," by which are usually under- 
stood the oral or summit portions, represents the posterior 
side. According to Hall, the " dorsal side " consists of three — 
perhaps sometimes five — " basals," of the " upper and lower dor- 
sal plate " or the first and second anterior radials^ and of the 
right and left " dorso-lateral plate " or lateral radials. He further 
discriminates between " plates of the dorsal arm," the brachials 
of the anterior ray^ and those of the " dorso-lateral arms," or arm 
plates of the lateral rays. The " ventral " side is described as 
being composed of the *' ventral arching plate" — which actually 
consists of two pieces, and which either are anal plates, or non- 
arm-bearing radials — and succeeding these of a row of plates, 
longitudinally arranged, which were designated as " plates of the 
ventral side," but which are plates of an anal tube. There are 
besides summit or vault pieces which, however, were not described 
by Hall. 

The most remarkable feature of this genus is represented by 
the basals, which are located on the posterior side of the calyx. 
They connect with the plates of the anterior side, which is trun- 
cated, toward the basals, not by suture as in the case of other 
Crinoids but by muscles and ligament, thus producing between 
basal3 and radials a marked articulation. There is a widely gap- 
ing suture along the articular line, which, as Meek and Worthen 
suggested, permitted the basals to be opened out on a line with 
the radials and other parts of the calyx. That the calyx was 
capable of bending at this point is well shown by a unique speci- 
men of Galceocrinus tunicatus Hall, in the possession of Mr. 
James Love of Burlington, in which the main body stands out 
from the column at an angle of sixty degrees ; while in most of 
the specimens which we have examined the crinoid hangs down- 
ward, almost parallel with the column. No specimen, however, 
shows the calyx in an erect position. 
There are in this genus but three rftys, which vary considerably 


CAICEOCBUniB UaU (Revised by W. and Sp.). 

!»«t. 3mL ^^^. Rep. N. York, vol. ii, p. 352, PI. 85, figt. 5, «. 
^«. SiamATii Trans. Acad. Soi. St. Louis, vol. if, p. 858. 
:?«». Hwk And Worthen, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., p. 78. 
>«*;S. )l«.««:k and Worthen, Oeol. Rep. Illinois, voL v, pp. 442 and 502. 
ST*. 5. A. Miller, Cat. Amer. Palieoz., p. 72. 
W. KaIU tJ^th Rep. N. York St. Cab. Nat. Hist ( Ed. li), p. 146. 
;!|^f. IV Loriol, Palieont. Francaise, Ti»me xi iCrinoidcs), p. 51. 
SSL Kui^eber.r» Joum. Cincin. See. Nat Hist., p. 120. 

<yii. CMrocnnu$ Hall (not Eicliwald, la'iG); Hall, 1860, irth R#p. 

N. York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 122 ; Salter, 1859, Muroh. Siluria 

ilui 3), p. 535 (CaUlogue name); Hall. 1862, 15th Rep. N. Y. St 

Cab. Nat Hist, p. 16t5 ; Zittel, 1879, Handb. d. Palsont, i, p. 358. 

Syu. Chirocrinuif Angelin, 1878, Icon. Crin. Suec., p. 22. 

:^yu. Pendulocrinuty Austin MS. (Salter, Siluria, p. 585). 

Syu. Eucheiroerinut, Meek and Woithen, Qeol. Rep. 111., v, p. 443. 

In gtMieral form the specimens resemble a wilted flower, owing 
to the position of the calyx, which hangs downwanl along the 
vx^luuin. The calyx is laterally compressed, especiall}" at the 
uiuctiiro of basals and radials, where it is almost linear; while a 
irnnsiYorso section across the median part of the radials and 
thn>ugh the centre of the basal disk is decidedly triangular. 
The anterior side forms a flat body, broadly truncate at the lower 
eiul, constricted in the middle, and composed exclusively of the 
livlinl pl;ili'S, The basals, which arc placed upon the i)osleri<»r 
Mvic. :i!e separated from the radials of tlie opposite >itle by a 
\\ i;»p'.ni: aiticular lino, occupying; the lower end of ihr 
ci'n \ VlvMJ^ thi^ line, probably, the np|»er part of the Crin«»id 
vvuil i \r Iam: '.:i>>\anU and be bn)ni;ht in an erect position. Tht- 
pv'Niv I *M >'.vlo iv vonipo^i'd, in addition to the basals, t)f two n<»n- 
Hiin It n:;i^ rliitis, whuli tace laterallv the incurvin;; sides ni* th»' 
i!idi:iU, .iibl ^i:|| *»rt iipvn llnir nppt-r side an extremely Lir^t- 

I'lu' b:i>.il> i.«'n*!\ ft'rni a kintl of seniicircnlar disk, of whirh 
llu- st ia:.-.hl l:i:e t:ic» < the truncated lower side of the anterior 
I i»li:il, aiiil the <iii\td part rots apiinst the infoblin;; lat» ml 
iiiiimn-* i»t" tlic : it< !:i! ladiaN, and against tin* two n«»n-ariu- 
Im;ii m^ pi »t» >. r!.« ! i.-^al ■ii'-k, u liiih i-^ >lii:htly convr\. i> cmui- 
poM-tl i»l till! * j .1 VI •». : N\ «' v'l u liirh an* equal, the other bir^^t* ani 
v.l -i \ti\ »l::!i:ri,t --I.MjM'. Tin* t ^^ «» lornier taken toL^t-thi-r ar» 
luii:ilc, and ii.<'.»'^t ^^:t!.iu thrir arrlud >itlfS the ollit-r j I;it» . 
whuh liis lian^Nri>t'ly. and occupies almost the entire width *»f 


as the anal plates in Calceocrinus, resting like them against the 
basals and supporting a similar anal tube. By thus changing 
the respective parts into a relative position, the affinities wh'ch 
exist between the two genera can be better appreciated. The 
form of the calyx, however, the articulation between the basals 
and radials, and the sloping position of the .lateral rays is so 
unique, and strikingly different from Caiillocrinvs and other 
genera, that Calceocrinns must be referred to a distinct family. 

The slight variations, which naturally occur in the brnnching 
of the nrras, were taken by Hall, and Meek and Worthen, for 
specific distinctions. We fear these differences are too trifling to 
be regarded as such, and we have felt obliged to refer some of 
their species to our list of synonyms. 

Poafscriptum, — While our descriptions upon the Calceocrinidfle 
were in press, we received a paper from Mr. E. 0. Ulrich (extracted 
from the 14th Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. Minn., p. 104): Remarks 
upon the names Cheirocrinus and Calceocrinus, with descriptions 
of three new generic terms and one new species. The author sub- 
divides the species heretofore known under Calceocrinu^i into three 
genera : Cremacrinus, Deltacrinus and Hahjsiocrinus^ and applies 
to them the family name "Cremacrinidse." There is, in our opinion, 
no valid reason for discontinuing the names Calceocrinus and Calce- 
ocrinidaB. The genus Calceocrinus was properly defined by Hall 
and others, and several species have been referred to it by them. 
Moreover, Meek and Worthen 's name Eucheirocrinus would have 
priority, and also Calceocrinidae, as both were proposed in 1873. 

Under Cremacrinus Ulrich placed the species in which the two 
anterior radials (the two central plates of his) are connected ver- 
tically' ; under Deltacrinus those in which said plates are sepa- 
rated by the two lateral radials (his two large dorso-lateral 
pieces). This difference, we admit, exists between the Lower 
Silurian and Subcarboniferous species, but in the Upper Silur 
and Devonian the two forms pass gradually into one another, so as 
to make a generic separation impracticable. Ul rich's statement 
on p. 110, that Cremacrinus has " three primary radials," Delict 
crinus " five," HaJyaiocrinus *' eleven," is based altogether upon 
incorrect observation. All these species have but three arm- 
"bearing radials — one of them compound— and the plates which 
Ulrich regarded as "eleven primary radials," are axillary bra- 
chials of ascending orders. — (May, 1886). 
14 4 

203 ttOCKBDlftOB Of THB AOABUnT Off [18W. 

OALOBOOKISirt HiOl (B«tli6d bj W. lod Bj^). 

1851. fiall, GeoL Rep. N. York, T(d. i^ p. 868, PL 8S, flga. 6, 8. 
1806. ShmnArd, Trans. Aead. 8oi. St. Loidft, toL il, p. 858. 
1889. H^ek and Worfchen, Proc. Acad. Nali. 8eL Pliikt.» p. 78^ 

1878. Meek and Worthen, QeoL Rep. DUiioia, tqL t, pp^ 4«S and 500. 
1877. 8. A. Miller, Cat. Amer. Pakdos. Fo88ll% p. 78. 

1879. Hall, 28th Rep. N. York St. Cab. Kat Hist (Ed. ii), p. 146. 
1883. De Loriol, Pal»ont. Francaise, Tome xi''(Crinoide8), p. 61. 
1888. Ringueberg, Joiim. Cinoin. Soo. Kat Hist., p. 180; 

Syn. OhHroerinfu HaU (not ZHofawi^ ia56); Hall, 1800, l^lh Rep. 
N. York St Cab. Nat Hist, p. 128 ; Salter^ 1869, Mmoh. Satuia 
(Ed. 8), p. 586 (Catalogue name); HaU, 186*^ 15th Rep. N. Y. 8t 
Cab. Nat Hist, p. 166 ; Zittel, 1879, Handb. d. Pa]flMmt» i, p. 858. 

Syn. Cfhiroorinutf Angelin, 1878, Icon. Crin. Sueo., p. 28. 

Syn. PendtUoerinuSy Austin MS. (Salter, Siluria, p. 585). 

Syn. Euchtiroermu9^ Meek and Worthen, GeoL Rep. DL, ▼, p. 443. 

^ In general form the specimens resemble a wilted flower, owing 
to the position of the calyx, which hangs downward along the 
column. The calyx is laterally compressed, especially at the 

Jonctare of basals and radials, where it is almost linear; while a 
ttansverse section across the median part of the radials und 
through the centre of the basal disk is decidedly triangular. 
The anterior side forms a flat body, broadly truncate at the lower 
end, constricted in the middle, and composed exclusively of the 
radial plates. The basals, which are placed upon the posterior 
side, are separated from the radials of the opposite side by a 
widely gaping articular line, occupying the lower end of the 
calyx. Along this line, probably, the upper part of the Crinoid 
could be bent upwards and be brought in an erect position. The 
posterior side i^ composed, in addition to the basals, of two non- 
arm-bearing plates, which face laterallj^ the incurving sides of the 
radials, and support upon their upper side an extremely large 
ventral tube. 

The basals jointly form a kind of semicircular disk, of which 
the straight line faces the truncated lower side of the anterior 
radial, and the curved part rests against the infolding lateral 
margins of the lateral radials, and against the two non-arm- 
bearing plates. The basal disk, which is slightly convex, is com- 
posed of three pieces, two of which are equal, the other large and 
of a very diflerent shape. The two former taken together are 
lunate, and enclose within their arched sides the other plate, 
which lies transversely, and occupies almost the entire width of 


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single one in the anterior one. The articular line between the 
lateral radials and brachials is widely gaping, the union between 
the two succeeding plates apparently b}' syzygy. They are closely 
fitted together in the specimens, and a suture Is rarely discern- 
ible. The lower one is short and quadrangular, the upper one 
axillary. The brachial of the anterior ray is generally twice as 
wide as high, and truncate at its upper side. 

It has been stated that in the lateral rays the first brachials 
are placed obliquely against the radials, in consequence of which 
these two rays lean over toward the posterior side. By this 
peculiar structure, the outer sloping faces of the bifurcating 
brachials are brought into a vertical, the inner ones into a hori- 
zontal position. The vertical side supports laterally another 
axillary, the horizontal side vertically a free arm. The former is 
followed again by an axillary on one side, and an arm on the other, 
and so on in-the same manner to the last bifurcation, the axillary 
plates all arranged in a nearly horizontal line, the free arms hav- 
ing an upright direction. In species with but few bifurcations 
the position of the brachials is more erect. 

The arms are composed of single joints, which are generally as 
long as wide; rounded exteriorly and provided with a deep tri- 
angular groove at the ventral side ; they are comparatively long, 
rather stout at the base, but taper gradually upwards. The 
lateral arms, after their first bifurcation, do not branch again, but 
give off from every third or fourth joipt a large arm-like pinnule, 
which extends to the end of the arm. The lower pinnule is less 
than half the size of the arm at the place of attachment ; the one 
or two succeeding ones have nearly the same size as the arms at 
the place of their origin. The pinnule-bearing joints appear to 
be somewhat stouter owing to a thick callosity at their upper end, 
and their line of articulation is directed obliquely. The interme- 
diate joiuts have parallel sides, which show neither fossae nor 
radiations, and probably were united simply by suture. The 
anterior ray has but a single arm, which is given off in an upright 
direction. It is stouter than the lateral arms, and remains fre- 
quently simple throughout, but when it branches occasionally, 
the division takes place near the distal end. 

Anal plates two, resting against the basals and the incurved 
wings of the lateral radials. Their upper side supports a row of 
very large and heavy quadrangular plates, which are longitudi- 


*»: i:i: ■.:!% i-i l;t:«i 

! . 


t • 


and in the position of the ambulacra it agrees with the Blastoids ; 
and yet it is, as we shall prove, unquestionably a Palfleoerinoid. 

It seems Roemer^ had discovered sockets for the reception 
of brachial appeodages, and probably these sockets and the val- 
vular covering of mouth and anus induced him to place the 
genus with the Cystidea. Johannes Miiller, who also regarded it 
a Cystid, makes the remark : " Nierenformige Warzen am Ende 
der Strahlen des sternfdrmigen Feldes deuten auf die Gegenwart 
von Armen hin." Hall, in vol. ii, p. 351 , of the New York Report, 
does not describe the appendages which he had discovered as 
Blastoid pinnules, but speaks of tentacula attached to the margin 
along a slight groove in the base of the depressions between the 
angular processes which ornament the summit of the body. 
These tentacula or fingers consist of ten branches^ each composed 
of a double series of plates above, hut uniting below a series of 
coalescing plates which have a different arrangement. It seems 
to us this description does not apply to ambulacral appendages, 
nor do we think that Hall took the genus to be a Blastoid. On 
p. 212 of the New York Report he called it a Crinoid, and in 
1879 he placed it aside of well-known Palaeocrinoidea. Pict^t 
describes the base as composed of *' five subradials," and " five 
basals," and the mouth as surrounded by " ten tentacles," Du- 
jardin and Hup6 place it among the Haplocrinidae, between Haplo- 
crinus and Coccocrinus, and also these writers describe within 
the radial groove a reniform impression for the reception of an 
arm, but thought to observe " lames paralleles " along the grooves. 
They regard, like Roemer, the central pyramid, the mouth, and 
the lateral aperture an ovarian opening. 

Considering that Hall, Roemer, Miiller, and Dujardin and Hup^, 
all describe at the outer end of the ambulacral groove a reniform 
scar for the attachment of an appendage, it is somewhat surprising 
that Etheridge and Carpenter place the genus among the Blas- 
toids. They undertake to explain this by Hall's discovery of 
*^ ambulacral appendages .... like those of other Blastoids," 
and give it as their opinion that the reniform scar of Roemer *' is 
nothing more than an infolded radial lip." We stated already 
that we thought Hall never regarded Stephanocrinus a Blastoid, 

* We do not possess Roemer's description of Stephanocrinut which 
appeared in Wiegmann's Archiv for 1850, and know it only from the quota- 
Uons of subsequent writers. 

fa«aaMelkM with the uabalseiK, U beaestfa tbe eovcrisf piktw 
thfWgfc th0 eskaU or tuiincla wbicli we bavi dMcriboL Ttww 
pMMCH. wUeh mn cIoMd ftt tbe boUom by tbe deflrcbd Uluml 
w|gM of twoa^^rtipipg im^rradwl*, » in th^MMof Cyal&ocrn««, 
Snnr iIm|iw aad dutowit on ap[>T<^«cfaiDK tbe onl plate* : «bik 
towud tbe MB* they widen ud diTide, trssHnittioK a bnncb u 
■Mk a«i> ArlBioD of Uw njr*. All tble goci to prore ibat tfac 
pemgea an toboUr canal*, agch a* we Had In ihe Pali»ocriiMii- 
dsa, aad that tbe apparent reaembUnoa Iwtwven tbe anbalacra of 
I anil tbo*e i>( tbe BUoUiid*, to a Urge rxtent, la 

but Kkioa 
ar opolH^ 

■ of^^^H 

The onl pyramid, wbich in ratber Fymiaetrical Id ootllita, 
oeeoiiieatba wmj emtitn ut the vuntnl larboe. It u eompoMd 
of Ave pisoea of DcaHv equal fixe, wliicb meet in tbe eeatre, aad 
•n ao oloadj (.-onnect^d by suture Hut Ibe lints of tuion an 
nnlj aaea la tbe upecUncmL A lata cl(i«e aalon aeenu to ban 
d tlic Intcmdiali, for tbe oral ptatca are but addoa 
I We llnd in tbt^ir place a nntrly circular t 

tht ladtala extend to the full height of tbe connul |i 
and reaemUa In their form cloaely the forked | 
Blaattrfda; while in Uall's fienre iN. York fUp.. toL II 
ftga. lA andS/j itiey acgieftr lik^' Iti. r.' ' 
Hall evidently mistook tbe cracks which so frequently are fonad 
at tbe base of tbe interradial processea, for sutures, and supposed 
tlie uoiU'd limbs of two contiguous radials, formed a deltoid- 
shaped interrodisl piste. 

The most interesting feature of Slephanocrinu$ unqnestionably 
is the quinque-partite oral pyramid, which, we think, gives as 
valuable information regarding tbe undivided oral plate in other 
groups of the Palseocrinoidea. It was suggested by tu on p. 56, 
that probably tbe central or oral plate of the Paleocrlnoidea 
primitively consisted of five pieces, of which the suture liDca 
gradually were obliterated liy deposition of new material. In 
support of tbia theory we could only refer to the parallel cases of 
the basals and underbas.ils among wbich similar modiflcattons took 
place not only pal^cnntulnfficnlly by anchylosis of one or more of 
tbe plates, but also in the growing Urinoid by deposition of Ume- 
stone at the outer siirrace of tbe plates, as in the case of Edrio- 
crinus and Agaatitocrinut. We were unable at that time to point 


of two adjacent radials, and an inner portion or deltoid/ and 
that the calyx consists of three rows of plates — the basals, radials 
and deltoids. The canals which contain the food grooves are in 
their usual preservation, more or less compressed, and in conse- 
quence thereof the two series of covering pieces became separated 
longitudinally, and appear in the specimens as if forming a deep 
groove upon the surface following the median line. Little of this 
groove, however, is seen in plump specimens. 

Etheridge and Carpenter, and also Zittel, regard the two rows 
of anchylosed covering plates as constituting a single piece, and 
this, they think, represents the lancet plate of the Blastoids. 
Upon this point they make on p. 240 of their paper the following 
statement : " The paired linear plates in the ambulacra we believe 
to be single, and to represent the lancet plates of other Blastoids. 
They seem to be usually much eroded and to have a strongly 
marked median groove, which has been taken for a suture. Even 
when these plates are preserved the side plates of the ambulacra 
are generally missing ; but since Hall has discovered specimens 
of 8. angulatus still attaining ambulacral appendages like those 
of other Blastoids, we see no reason to doubt the existence of 
side plates and outer side plates. In fact, the former have been 
described in S. pulchelliis by Miller and Dyer." We doubt if 
Etheridge and Carpenter ever saw a Stephanocrinus with either 
side pieces or outer side pieces, or ever will see one, and if Miller 
and Dyer found such plates in their St. pulchelluSj we assert that 
their species is not a Stephanocrinus. Aside from the fact that 
the " so-called lancet pieces " are compound structures, we think 
it utterly impossible from the position which these plates occupy 
toward the oral plates, that they could represent lancet pieces, as 
in that case the food grooves would have to run out into the air 
in place of entering the interior. 

In both of the New York species, the oral plates are on the 
same level with the covering pieces ; they meet with each other so 
as to leave externally, when both plates are in position, no open- 
ing or passage. The only communication with the inner cavity, 

* We have suLstituted here deltoids for ^^orals,^' the latter term being 
uaed by Etheridge and Carpenter in their paper. When they wrote this 
they still regarded the deltoids as representing the orals, a mistake which 
Dr. P. H. Carpenter explained and corrected in his Challenger Report, 



a satisfactory conclusion as to the morphological resemblance of 
the respective plates. 

In Stephanocrinus interradials have been admitted, and the 
plates which do represent them correspond in our bj'iiolheticAl 
Crinoid with the plates which we opened out to receive ihc ambti* 
lacra. The plates have relatively a similar position, both rest 
against the uj^per edges of two adjoining radials, and both support 
a small pyramid or disk, which in both cases not only occupies a 
strictly central position, but covers the poristomial area and closes 
the oral pole. Now, if this is true, what makes those plates inter- 
radials only in the one case and not also in the other, and why does 
the central disk which they enclose represent the oral pyramid in 
the one and something else in the other? That the central P3*ra- 
mid is quinque-partite in Stephanocrinus, coalesced in the other, 
is apparently the only structural difference between the two forms, 
and simply upon this ground the former has been regarded bj 
Carpenter (Chall. Rep., pp. 269 to 271) an oral pyramid, and Ibe 
central plate of Haplocrinus a bO-called "oroceutral," something 
totally unknown in Crinoid morphology and that of Echinoderms 

According to Carpenter the orals of Haplocrinus were repre- 
sented b}' the five large ventral plates, although these, like Ibe 
intiTnulials of other Paheocriiioids, apparently cover the tlisk and 
tentacular vestil»nle, contrary to the case ol the oraL^ and siimnjil 
plates f^enerMlly which close only the peristoniial area. If H^tph^ 
rrinus <li(l reprcsi nt a permanent larval form of the Neocrinc»idf.i 
instfad ot" tin* Taheoci inoitlea. Carpenter would be justified m r«'- 
ganlinix those live phitcs as orals, and could assert that the \ late* 
were in the s^rowin;: animal, and in pahvontological time** carrlvd 
inwanl by peri-onie. a> he and Ktheritlj^e su;iLreste<l to have Xn-vn 
|)rol.altl\ the case in thr jjrowiuLT yl/Z^/yf-crj/n/s, but we cannot find 
in the i>h\ lo'jt'nv of ihe <»hlrr Crinoiils the least evidence to justify 
that suppn'^it ion. On tin* contrary, everything [toints at the i-on- 
chision that tlu* oraN. nnd other summit plates, had relatively the 
same proportion*^ in the yoiniL^tT :tn(l lower forms, as in the .-liluU 
an<l hi'jhrr t y [■•■< ; an<i uc. t ht r»t'"n', icLTar-l the respecii v»» jtlatt-* 
in //'//■/'>«•/•/" "slikf t ho-t' « 't" S'f'/'A. //<'-( rt n 'isJ't^ntfuKrinus :ii\^\ tt.e 
l>l:i^t..itba, VNliicii (' tijM iitrr. likcwi'^t', oiin- reirardtMl as oraU, a*» 
true inUrra<lial platt ^. If tin- |'hitv> in Hii]hjvrinut< really Wt re 


out a single Palaeocrinoid in which the peristomial area was 
closed by five plates, and therefore regard the case of Stephano- 
crinus of the utmost importance, not only as confirming our 
suggestions, but as throwing light upon the orals of the Palaeo- 
crinoidea generally. Before, however, we discuss this question 
any further, it will be necessary to point out the relations of 
Stephanocrinus with other Crinoids. 

SlephanocrinuSj undoubtedly, is closely allied to AllagecrinuSj 
Haplocrinua BXid PisocrinuB^ and must be placed with them among 
the Larvlformia, but, owing to marked differences in the form and 
arrangement of the arms, it cannot be arranged either with the 
Haplocrinidae or Symbathocrinidse, and it will be necessary to 
establish for it a separate family. Except in the arm structure, 
the aflSnities seem to be particularly close with Ptsocrtwws, which 
has similar interradial processes, formed likewise by the extended 
limbs of the radials ; but as we know little or nothing of the oral 
plates and ambulacral structure in this genus, a critical comparison 
is difiQcult. It differs also from Haplocrinus in the position of the 
dislc-ambulacra, which in the latter are subtegminal, in the other 
exposed to view. This, we explain by individual growth, and 
assert from palseontological evidence that Stephanocrinus^ like 
CycUliocrinus and other Palseocrinoidea in its younger state passed 
through stages in which it closely resembled Allagecrinus and 
Haplocrinus. Admitting this, it will be interesting, and in- 
structive, to transform theoretically the lower differentiated 
Haplocrinus J so as to conform with the conditions of the adult 
Stephanocrinus. To this end we open out the five ventral plates 
of Haplocrinus J so as to expose their ambulacral skeleton, and 
push the ambulacra and the oral plate, which latter occupies the 
central portions of this skeleton, in an outward direction, in such 
a manner that the covering pieces fill up the clefts between the 
interradial plates, and the oral plate the centre, increasing in size 
as the space gradually grows larger. Nothing further is neces- 
sary to complete the structure of Stephanocrinus but to extend 
the sides of the interradials laterally, so as to close the ambu- 
lacral groove from beneath. By these manipulations, in which, we 
think, we closely imitated the natural development as it took 
place among Palseocrinoids palseontologically, we placed the two 
genera in the same relative position, in hopes to arrive thereby at 


a satisfactory conclusion as to the morphological resemblance of 
the respective plates. 

In Stephanocrinus interradials have been admitted, and the 
plates which do represent them correspond in our hypothetical 
Crinoid with the plates which we opened out to receive the ambu- 
lacra. Tlie plates have relatively a similar position, both rest 
against the upper edges of two adjoining radials, and both support 
a small pyramid or disk, which in both cases not only occupies a 
strictly central position, but covers the peristomial area and closes 
the oral pole. Now, if this is true, what makes those plates inter- 
radials only in the one case and not also in the other, and wh}' does 
the central disk which they enclose represent the oral pyramid in 
the one and something else in the other ? That the central pyra- 
mid is quinque-partite in Stephanocrinus, coalesced in the other, 
is apparentl}^ the only structural difference between the two forms, 
and simply upon this ground the former has been regarded by 
Carpenter (Chall. Rep., pp. 269 to 271) an oral pyramid, and the 
central plate of Ilaplocrinus a so-called " oroceutral," something 
totally unknown in Crinoid morphology and that of Echinoderms 

According to Carpenter the orals of Eaplocrinus were repre- 
sented by the five large ventral plates, although these, like the 
interradials of other Palaeocrinoids, apparently cover the disk and 
tentacular vestibule, contrary to the case of the orals and summit 
plates generally which close only the peristomial area. If Haplo- 
crinits did represent a permanent larval form of the Neocrinoidea 
instead of the Palaeocrinoidea. Carpenter would be justified in re- 
garding those five plates as orals, and could assert that the plates 
were in the growing animal, and in palaeontological times carried 
inward by perisome, as he and Etheridge suggested to have been 
probably the case in the growing Allagecrinus^ but we cannot find 
in the phylogeny of the older Crinoids the least evidence to justify 
that supposition. On the contrary, everything points at the con- 
clusion that the orals, and other summit plates, had relatively the 
same proportions in the younger and lower forms, as in the adult 
and higher types; and we, therefore, regard the respective plates 
in HaplocrinuH like those of Stephanocrinus, Cyathocrinus and the 
Blastoidea, which Carpenter, likewise, once regarded as orals, as 
true interradial plates. If the plates in Haplocrinus really were 


orals, and also the homologues of the six or more proximals of the 
Platycrinida3 and ActinocriDidse, and of the five summit plates in 
StephanocrinuSj which all cover the peristomial area but not also 
the tentacular vestibule and tbe disk, it would follow that in the 
three latter the orals were carried inward by the cah-x interradials 
by which they are surrounded, but not only, as perhnps might be 
tbe case in the Camarata, by their higher orders or upward growth, 
but even by the primary interradials. It would furllicr suggest 
that in the earliest genera lieleocrinus^ Glyptocrinua and allied 
forms, which have no proximals, the "orals '^ were unrepresented 
or resorl>ed. Also Nanocrinus paradoxus (Eehin. Eifl. Kalk., 
PI. 12, fig. t i) has no proximals, the covering pieces, according 
to our interpretation, rest directly against the central plate. 
This, we know, is the case in two undeseribed species of Talara- 
crinus^ which we discovered lately in Kentucky. In these species 
the central piece is relatively larger than the combined orals of 
Slephanocrinus, there are no proximals, and no other interradial 
plates touching the central plate. The covering pieces occupy 
here a similar position to the central plate — the coalesced orals — 
as in Stephanocrinus to the quinquepartite oral pyramid. There 
we have actual specimens, which in all essential points conform 
with tbe hypothetical Crinoid which we constructed. 

From Carpenter's arguments (Chall. Rep., pp. 268-271) we 
conclude that he regards the hypothetical " orocentral " a kind 
of keystone, by which the actinal system is closed in a similar 
manner as at the opposite pole the dorsoceutral is said to close 
the abactinal side. Unfortunately, however, this theory as stated, 
is not sustained by embryology. No such plate has ever been 
discovered among living Crinoids, not even in their larval state, 
before the opening of the tentacular vestibule, which is said 
to represent the condition of Haplocrinus morphologically. 
This difiQculty Carpenter undertook to explain on p. 270 by stating, 
that if such a plate appeared " it would only be in the way, and 
have to undergo resorption to a greater or less extent." A weak 
argument considering that orals of recent Crinoids actually 
undergo that resor[Aion. But, admitting it, what then became of 
the orocentral of Slephanocrinus, Allagecrinus and Coccocrinus^ 
and what of the central piece in the oral pyramid of certain Cys- 
tldea? He states further "the former (basals) are within the 


ring of radials, and next to the dorsoeentral ; and it seems there- 
fore only natural to regard the six proximal interradial plates 
surrounding the central piece (oro-central) in the vault of a Palaeo- 
crinoid as representing oral plates." This argument is not quite 
correct, in so far as the central piece is frequently surrounded not 
only by the proximals — his orals — but also by the radials and 
anal plate (see PL 7) ; contrary to the basals, which form a ring 
by themselves. Besides, his argument is based to a large extent, 
if not altogether, upon the hypothetical plate which he calls 

Taking everything in consideration, is it not reasonable and 
more natural to regard the five orals of the Neocrinoidea, which 
in the larva are loosely folded together, and which in some of the 
Cystidea and also in Stephanocrinus were united by a close suture, 
as gradually becoming anchylosed in a group in which they were 
permanently closed, than it is to invoke the existence of a new ele- 
ment unknown in Echinoderm morphology, and even then have to 
assert that six plates take the place of five ? ! But not only that, 
we also have to admit that these so-called "orals" contain in their 
midst anal and radial plates contrary to the case of the orals of 
the Neocrinoidea, Stephanocrinus and the Cystidea, and contrary 
to the basals, the abactinal representatives of the orals as Car- 
penter admits. 

As a further proof that the central piece is the representative 
of the orals, we refer to the C3'stid genus Caryocrinus, which 
has three in place of live groups, of arms, and which, according 
to our interpretation, has no proximals. The central piece which 
occupies the centre of figure, and which we think represents the 
oral p3'ramid, is surrounded by eight plates, b}' Jive (not four) 
large ones, and three smaller ones, the latter conforming jointly 
to one of the other five. Three of the plates have a strictly 
radial position, the three others, including the compound one 
which takes the az3'gous side, are interradial. We doubt if 
Carpenter will regard these six plates, wholly or parti}', as the 
representatives of our proximals — his orals — or his theory will 
have to undergo further modifications, as he will Gnd it diflScult 
to restore five primitive pieces from an assemblage of plates as 
here exhibited. 

I'fil |\ r *ti. I « *. • ?. !■< • 'i| 'f« •*.« t-i • If' "f ! „'i.f • ■ I * fc- • I 
«r 1 «.t^ !'.« "if »!»• I • • 1 l.p ■ ■..' ?. ! • . .!•*- \ *•.•*• '.•'!. 
I ^m.i.*' V.I r r r. *:«-l n. ir.'i* • ■ f • '• i^ti rr i I . i:« « !. > .'i 

f*« • j • 'f* \r- •! ,:'.?** • \« .1% *•• 1 \', • ' ■•till- ■•« l ttf • % r 
%I |:«r«« •' *. »•• •• . i!.i«i!\ iiti.!r>l *i\ •.*.?• !tS-r%li\ 
r-lfklii, !*\' • '.i • .t'..r» ;.!.•• :»ri riri'\ * "i' «■. »i. I '!»• 
l|<|« «r k* ' f VI..*,. 1 •■f»/!r I fCi 
• &ft2 »{• f*. r* • ! ■« iS 1 II n'.r t.!\ . nt if tli* \>t\ * f • ij* "f 

rr%*l a J r - , •.. • t! r '.r ; \ • « t.i rr t « •• i>f tiir^M rin* t 
.4 .1.'.- 'f \ ! 1 I • • • .-'i »'. jfi •• r\ i! ■ 'fi t • ■ '?»• ••,« 'if ft 
'.%ri* I •• *r ■ . - V fi.-. ■ • ■ K b"W« V* r, ill |«-f f» • t •! 

I r J -•• i ^ i . . . . f : ' II) f . . - •. . . • \ •!:;%:! J 

W: * I . . . ■ ■ ' ' II *:. I. *. f '-■! Ml I • ,- .rw I .!» !'.r 
. J* .'f ' N Vi fc -!.<*■ N%*. II •! *. . r* I K I ^ -r. ' 

r. 1 1 • /• : .'■• • T. .f ..• • I) ^j-. :. \ .% I ••. r. •. 

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r . • ... - . r . ' . ■ ■ •• 1 

flit '^' 1 va ttf .i'ii . < • • ^k 

•ik .■ '* *-ii 

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I-. ■ i« I !»•! 

•il*. • ■ • • *'t' *■«•■ 

I • 1.1 I J '- • k 


216 PR0GBBDINO8 Of THB AOAmnr OT [188t. 

inward. The outer ones of these proJectionB are wiDg4ike, rest> 
ing against, and partly upon, the interradials ; the inner one 
sword-shaped, their sharp point extended deeply into the ambn- 
laeral groove, so as to divide it, and to form a branch groove for 
each main division of the rays. StephanocrinuB angulatus evi- 
dently had ten arms to the ray, but the mode of branching 
beyond the second radials is not well known. We found, how- 
ever, in one instance the second radial succeeded by two other 
axillaries. The arms are biserial, thin, short, pinnule-like, and 
they cover the whole ventral surface. In length they do mot 
extend beyond the interradial processes, which apparently were 
to protect these delicate organs. 

The interradials are comparatively large. They resemble in 
form and position the deltoids of Codanter^ TrooHtocrinua and 
other Blastoids, in which, like here, no part of the plates is visi- 
ble in a side view. They extend to the top of the projections and 
rest against the inner faces of two limbs, the suture running 
downwards so as to divide the processes into an inner and outer 
part.' The plates are connected laterally with ope another, but 
not centrally. They leave in the centre a moderately large open 
space, which in perfect specimens is filled by oral plates. The 
lateral edges of the interradials are deflected, curving downward, 
so as to form a wide and deep ambulacral groove, which on 
approaching the inner end becomes deeper and narrower, and 
toward the arm bases divides as stated above. The ambulacral 
grooves are readily distinguished from the general gutter formed 
by the protuberances. Thej' contain neither hjd respires, nor 
pores, nor other openings, but there seem to be small axial canals 
at the arm bases. At each side of the ambulacral groove there is 
a sort of depression, which forms a place of attachment for two 
series of small, subquadrangular covering pieces, which form a 
vault over the groove, leaving underneath a circular, compara- 
tively large passage, which at one end communicates with the 
arms, at the other enters the calyx beneath the edge of the oral 
pyramid. The covering plates of the same series are so closely 
anchylosed that they appear in the best specimens, even under a 
magnifier, as two single plates, one at each side, as which they 
were figured by Hall. Their composite nature and alternate 


arrangement, however, was ascertained in places where portions 
of this integument had been weathered. 

The oral pyramid, which occupies the centre of figure, is placed 

on a level with the covering pieces to which it is closely attached. 

It rests against the truncated margins of the interradials, which 

for its reception are slightly excavated. It is composed of five 

subequal pieces, which are so closely united by suture laterally 

snd centrally, that the suture lines are rarely visible, and the 

plates appear as if forming a single piece. 

The anal aperture is located ventrally, near the top of one of 
'fche interradial processes, at the place where two of the limbs meet 
'^with the interradial. In its usual preservation it consists of a 
s^ther large circular opening, which, however, in perfect speci- 
snens is closed by a valve of from four to six small pieces. 

The Stephanocrinus which Hall described and figured in the 
S8th Rep. of the N. York St. Cab. Nat. Hist. (Second Edition), 
jp. 146, PI. 14, figs. 15-20, is in our opinion specifically distinct 
:^rom S, gemmiformia, and even generically unless the small inter- 
:x*adial plates are very incorrectly outlined. 

S. osgoodensis S. A. Miller ( Cadaster osgoodensis) y Cincin. Journ. 
]3^at. Hist., vol. ii, PI. 10, figs. 7 and T a, which the author in his 
datalogue of the Palseoz. Fossils (Second Edition) referred to 
Stephanocrinus is described from internal casts, and too incom- 
pletely known for identification. St, pulchellus, S. A. Miller, is 
m Cadaster. 

The column is small, and composed of comparatively long 

Oeological Position, etc. — The genus has been found exclusively 
in the Niagara group of America. 

The following species have been described : — 

1842. Stephanoorinus angulatns Conrad. (Type of the genus). Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., vol. viii, p. 279, PI, 15, fig. 8.— Pictet, 1857, Traits de Paleont, 
vol. iv, PI. 99, fig. 23. — F. Roemer, 1851, Wiegmann's Archiv., Jahrgang 
xvi, pp. 365-375, PI. 5.— Hall, 1851, Palseont. N. York, vol. ii, pp. 213 and 
351, PI. 48, fis. 1 a-mf and PI. 85, figs. 1-4. — Niagara group. Lockport, N. 

1851. St. gemmiforxnis Hall, PalaBont. N. York, vol. ii, p. 215, PI. 48, figs. 2 a-?; also 
1879, 28th Rep. New York St. Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 146, PI. 14, figs. 15-20 ; also, 
1881, 11th Ann. Geol. Rep. Indiana by CoUett, p. 279, PI. 13, figs. 15-20.— 
Rochester, N. Y., and Waldron, Indiana (?). 


Sn pKooitDiifoa OP Tm aoadrmt op [ISH. 

iKingbsn absent, and tlic apace wbicfa tbcy fthoiilil fill left Tnoat 
in die fiMril. Tn idl these specU-tt the top »Xem Jinnt ocouplM tli* 
aaiM pOfition towanl t)ii^ baxaU that il fUtf» in the !*■ 
SpcoiM In wbtoti ttie iindcrlHuinU itn> in pUci!, dtbuogh tbt 
|Jate Tiries coDsitlitrsbly tn rorm. In Bome or them il a|K 
peMts u if foriniDtc a part of the calyx, tn otJ>en aa sii ordinaiy 
•ten Joint. In aajoe specleti It fa much widertluui the ■nrrwilllm 
Joint!, In oUiera of the uame widlli; Uit there are all pOMibI* 
IpidAttmiS lietwci-n the extrumcH. In all of tbem, how«T«r, tlw 
plat* tmU againat tU« ohut wrIU of the hnmU a* in MM, jnolf- 
d4Htf/lu», not within the basal ring, and in all of them the banl 
concaTl^, irheth^r largo or email, is completely filled by tha top 

It U Tny inlereating tbal In the two oaaoa la wUcli De Loriol 
ocddantaUy discovered underhaaalB, tltcae wore wpsratvd tram 
Uic ImhIi, and are oloaely attaolietl to the colamn, wlilch goca ts 
pron that probably already a partial r«*4ir|ttiMn of tha pUtaa 
tockpl^eou Itaa^jgRMtH fnrthor that the nntiio with the iuidar> 
luiHals «u tigliU-r than with llir loM-ilx, lli«t probably the foracr 
wal«flbot»iI by oonimon nntiirv, tb)< other by ayzygy or aone other 
lu<M my, Uii^ nppo^ccl rai.cs b«-inf{ cither atrialnl Ur ahowiaf ■ 
truOM of fu*Mj. ™ 

A near approitch to the atructure of Jfitlertmnua polydact^VM 
we find in Mill. Pilelli (PI. 63), in which no underbaaala wen 
obaerved, but the lateral faces of the baaaU (fig. 8 a) ahow elearij 
that undcrbaeals were onoc present. The column &lao here, bom 
the first Joint down, is strictly interradial, the axial oanal nnll 
and round, and not in proportion to the large open spacfl between 
the baaals. The basal concavity ia funnel-shaped, very deep, 
wide at the outer end. The upper stem Joint is lai^e, and exteode 
in width considerably beyond all succeeding Joints. 

A similar base exists in Mill. Mitleri (PI. 96), in which again 
the upper columnar Joint is laterally extended and atriotly tntet^ 
radial, the columnar canal round, and much smaller than the 
open space within the basal ring, which ia atar-ebaped, the raya 
directed radinlly. 

A very different liase in figured by De Loriol in Api4Xriitiu 
maijnijicua (Pts. 46-48), in which the top stem Joint takes the 
form of the nnchylusud umlcrbasal diak of the Palfcoorinoid geaos 
SUmmatocrinus. A cumpariNon, however, with other 
proves very clearly, that it is a top stem joint of a very 

• •' 

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■ " :T *. 'AnK.MY nF 

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ki :i li^.t"* ol T ■:! . • - 

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OAfum (Sz. EdL, p. 101% 
Ob p. m (Ks. Xd^ fu 16f9), lift 



Oa pi lis (Ex. Xd^ pu IM), id 

Cf ^^^g^^gg^^^m 99 

on pi iii cxz. Sd., p. lii), WiBm ton tBi^ i» 

Oiip.ili(Ez. Sd.,p.l4iX SdUMfton 

On pu a» (Ss. Ed^ pu ttf), ui bm ftMB top^ ii 

Onp. iii (Es. Ed., p. 181), IMi Um ftwi top^ 
Ob p. iii (Ex. Ed., p. ttS), 4ft nd lllh 





On p. «» (Ex. Ed^ p. Sli), t4ft Bm ftM lop, iv •* 



Part HI, Sect. I. 

On p. 228 (Ex. E<L, p. 6), top Une, insert after **and'* the wonU ••tM 

On p. 229 (Ex. Ed., p. 7), 5th line from hottom, for <'rmdials** rend 
*' itUerradiaU," and 4th line from bottom, for *'interradiaU** remd 

On p. 2:K) (Ex. Fxi., p. 8), 15th line from top, after the word "cirrbi '• 
insert "wA^n present/* 

On p. 232 Ex. Ed., p. 10\ lOtb and lUb lines from top, for "poHtMo- 
Uterar* read '' antt relator oL^' 

On p. 235 (Ex. Ed., p. 13), 8th and 10th lines from top, for '« PL 6 ** rMd 
'*Pl J;" also 4th line from bottom, for •* Hoplocrinoa** read ** ffaploerimms.'* 

On p. 241 (Ex. E4I.. p. 10): Our statement in the 16th and ITtii lines ttom 
bott4>m has bi>en made the batiis of a criticism by Dr. P. H. Carpenter, which 
is well founded. It did n*>t i»n>iicrly express our meaning, and we changv 
it as follows: Strike out all after tlie wonl "present** t4> the end of the 
Bententx*, and insiMl : *' in other* app'irtntly (tb$ent exUmtdlj/y Hther as m 
ruts or i>fC<iiioniiUp, hut in thi$e ra»,» irf hflure them to be repretentsd *m tk^ 
rtntral nde^ a» ta the ('rvUilocrinid-f." In the same connection, on p. 2i% 
(Ex. Ed., p. 7;i), in the 12th line from the top, .strike out **aa," and after 
the word **are" insert '^gtrnrtiUg.'* 


Zittel suggested (Handb. d. Palseont., i, p. 390), that the plate 
which connects with the basals in Apiocrinus probably repre- 
sented an anchylosed underbasal.disk, composed of five pieces. 
That this is impossible is shown by the case of Mill, polyddctylus^ 
which in that case would have two rings of underbasals. We 
fully agree with De Loriol and Carpenter that it is an enlarged 
stem joint, and believe that the plate represents morphologically 
the top joint (the first one beneath the basals) <rf all Crinoids, 
recent or fossil. The plate forms no integral part of the calyx, 
but rests in all cases either against the dorsal (outer) face of the 
basals, against the underbasals, or against both of them. It is 
disposed interradially in the Apiocrinidae, Pentacrinidae and Com- 
atulae, similar to dicyclic Palseocrinoids, and undivided ; while in 
other groups it is sometimes compound (tripartite or quinquepar- 
tite). The underbasals, however, form an integral part of the 
calyx, they rest within the basal ring, against the lateral faces of 
the plates, and they are composed primarily of five pieces, which 
occasionally are reduced by anchylosis to three, or coalesced into 
a solid disk. If this is correct, it follows that the inner plate of 
StemmcUocrinus, Cupressocrinus and allied genera is not a stem 
joint, as suggested by Carpenter (Chall. Rep. 153) and others, 
but an anchylosed underbasal disk, as seen by examining the 
inner side of the calyx, which shows that the plate forms a part 
of the calyx, and rests against the lateral faces of the basals, 
within the basal ring, and not against their outer faces. 


Owing to peculiar circumstances preventing a sufficiently careful super- 
Tision of publication (although the proofs were carefully examined by one 
of the authors), a number of errors have been detected, especially in the first 
section of Pt. III. Two or three of these arc exceedingly annoying, entirely 
changing our meaning. We request our readers to make the changes at 
onoe in their copies as indicated ))elow. 

Part I. 

On p. 239 (Ex. Ed., p. 16), 6th line from bottom, for ^TalBBOcrinoids" 
read "i^ntomnoKft." 

On p. 251 (Ex. Ed., p. 28), 16th line from top, for "first radlals" read 
**b€i$al$^^ (although the interpretation thus indicated has been modified 
l>y us). 

On p. 824 (Ex. Ed., p. 101), 11th and 10th line from bottom, change 
trwlce: ** radial" mto ''interradial,'' and **internvdiar' into '*radiaV' 


Part II. 
On p. 207 (Ex. Ed., p. 33), 4th line from bottom, for "inverted" read 

On p. 247 (Ex. Ed., p. 73), 19th line from bottom, for "omigranules" 
read ^^ omigranvXus,^^ 
On p. 250 (Ex. Ed., p. 76), 4th line from top, for "vesiculus" read 

On p. 281 (Ex. Ed., p. 107), 20th line from top, for "elongatulos" 
read ^^ eUgantulu^,^^ 

On p. 281 (Ex. Ed., p. 107), 16th line from top, for "comptus" read 
"cow^w«;" and 20th line from bottom, for " Harbrocrinus " read 
^^ Hiibrocrinus,^^ 

On p. 298 (Ex. Ed., p. 124}, 2d line from top, for "posterior" read. 

On p. 299 (Ex. Ed., p. 125), 7th line from top, for "first" read '* second.'' 

On p. 319 (Ex. Ed., p. 145), 2d line from bottom, for "tennuis" read 
** tenuis,'' 

On p. 320 (Ex. Ed., p. 146), 1st line from top, for " tennuisculptus " 
read ^^ tenuisculptas," 

On p. 856 (Ex. Ed., p. 182), 12th line from top, for "basals" read 
^^ underhasaU," 

On p. 389 (Ex. Ed., p. 215), 4th and 11th lines from top, for "pendant" 
read ^* pendent." 

On p. 393 (Ex. Ed., p. 219), 14th line from top, for " mammilaris " read 

Part III, Sect. I. 

On p. 228 (Ex. Ed., p. 6), top line, insert after "and'' the words "if« 

On p. 229 (Ex. Ed., p. 7), oth line from bottom, for "radials" read 
*^ ititerradials," and 4tli line from bottom, for " interradials " rea<i 

On p. 230 (Ex. Ed., p. 8), 15th line from top, aft.^r the word "cirrhi" 
insert * * when present. ' ' 

On p. 233 (Ex. Ed., p. 10\ 10th and 11th lines from top, for "postero- 
lateral " read ^^ antero-lateraV 

On p. 235 (Ex. Ed., p. 13), 8th and 10th lines from top, for " PI. 6 " read 
"P^. 5;" also 4th line from bottom, for "IIoi)locrinus-' redA^^Haplocrinus.^* 

On p. 241 (Ex. Ed., \). 19): Our statement in the 16th and 17th lines from 
bottom has been made the basis of a criticism by Dr. P. H. Carpenter, which 
is well founded. It did not properly express our meaning, and we change 
it as follows: Strike out all after the word "present" to the end of the 
sentence, and insert : ^' in others apparently absent externally^ either as a 
rule or occasionrdly, but in these rasis ire bcliere them to be represented on the 
ventral Hde^ as in the ('rot<iIocrinid<f'/'' In the same connection, on p. 295 
(Ex. Ed., p. 73), in the 12th line from the top, strike out "oZi,'* and after 
the word "are" insert ^* (/tncrally/' 



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db0 COSdlliOHIIlC db0 glOTik nf ttM 

He«ji:''TheUioii it MiesHawiB 
tiba frost do«t Bol fo wqr dcqp nto tbm 
ia Moirwbgr or PieiMttr witt 
«ril nMwiB dowd nrtfl tte cad of AfnL 
tan dorfaif: c%^ jws, froa ISBt to UM, 
Amafe — flaw thu'woMrtii doiim tibo 
afadsmT^. latto jcar ISTfytto 
KAi^; kMbcsl looofd AoKVil S, tt^ 
b VoTO SeoHa, thoi^^ tiMft ii oo 
io fiyr graolor, froa +M<' to —M<» or —M^ filter Witt 
omnifo of ii^.** 

Tfcoipo dm w o ofqpoi^tcoooldadlj tiiWMi Jo d lylfclfawKoy 

Moagod to tho opeeiot flfpoaydbi kiemibru^ AmtfL^ AfirmgUiB^ 
hMji 8. fliadbiyty Caftnr; Jfiymia JiMiiiyilii, Aaoiit mA 
Mtlerdmg^emm pfetoowitfe aad fWtoBa pmnu§immtm^ fjotta; Of 
th«Mt SpamgiUa /ragUi9 mm bj tkr tho moH 
kaowlo^jo of iU imago fa tbat extwidcd aloaf tibo 
of Horth Aaierieit froai Florida to Howi to a a diaad ; wfcwaai tt 
had inorioasly beea tiaoed vaitwaidlj to grithii OolaaAia 
atar tho Paeille Ooeaa, mad more laoeatlj has beea di eo ot a ta d ia 
Batefa, Bohemia mad Eai^aad* Beeide tho fiHBmarqfMntaa,& 
kieu9iH$, 8. frogOU mad M. flwoiMMKMy TUWIa jiiamjihuafBe 
has been rapidly enlarging its borders beyond the aanow Ihaita 
of ito original territorial designation ; while S. mackayi and If. 
pictoventis had previously been known only from the diseoTerie« 
of Mr. Mac Kay in Nova Scotia. 

One other form remains to be described, and at the suggestion 
of its discoverer it is hereby designated — 

SruMGiLi.A N«>v.f': Tekh-k, n. sp. 

S|K)nge incrusting ; sarcode of the young growth, a dense 
mass of minute Bpherical celln, embedding slender curring lines 
of fasciculated skeleton spicules, developing later into a rery 
loose, open tissue, with few connecting spicules. 

Oemmulen rather numerous, unusually large, spherical ; chitin* 
ous coat thin ; " crust '' appiirentl}* wanting. 

Skeleton spicules relatively few, slender, cylindrical, smooth 
or sjMirsely microspined ; gradually pointed. 

Dermal or flesh spicules very abundant, minute hirotulates of 
unequal size ; shafts slender, cylindrical, occasionally spined ; 
outiT surface of rotules dome shaped ; rays prolonge<l, termina- 
tions acute; malforniation** fretpieut. Mixe<l with ot^castonal 
linear, spined spicules. 

• mmi 


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S30 noommnM op thi acaodit or pM<- 

thr. fliBUnGt[vi> lino oomgianitiTcly nniin|iorlsiiL BertUtton, 
hetweea the |[M)as Spongilla uDcl tlioao iceucra cotopruing Um 
oth«f ((Toup, tlicrc baa been " a great ^tilf JBxed." Odo odI/ emae 
In tbe p»Bt h&H fitigge8t«d tlii-ir poMiltle SMoubitlon, or tfie 
dovolopturnt of une group Troai the utber. 

In ifcym^a ociiminota, VotlA {Proc. Aead. KhU Sci. fblk., 
1883, p. no), stluce r^arded aa a variety of Jf. /tufiutUig. tbe 
vlialU iif th« birolulatCH ant prolonmd ut «acti «xUvmity, Tom- 
Ip^ ncuinlnale tecuinatlona nome tliriancio b«-ynnd Ih^? mrbo« or 
thr rotiilo. In (Kmitlon.olao, thew i)|ifcu>v)i are abnormiU. lylof; 
0al iipitn tlic cliitingnit coftt, tonti-ad of riitting upon one roiule, 
ttieir RlmflM Inking th<- jxiaition of rft<lii, mi w naaal in tliia torn. 
In l^ot WG hnvc tbr KpicutuH uf n M(!y«n>ai>c<)ilpyinc: the ordinary 

Irasitions, nnit in decree approximating the rorto* of thoac iiecn- 
inr to the SpongillR-. 

In the pre»i>nt inHtanec their int<>nR«diatc ehanctvr U •till 
taon itrllcing, and while tbrir form ntid powiUon prolMibl* mon 
closely asMMiinf th«in with the gmiin S^ponyilta In wbfch tlw 
ftjH'oies hM now U-en placed, ttie grouping of the ray4Iltc a|ieries 
clearly ttuggcst* Mrynia. It hiM bi-rn an altoHCther un|»rM!»- 
dented cxiK^rience with the iiuthor to hesitate bHweeo tLcM two 
gouent, and it will be no cause of surprise If tlw ftalurv Uxthf^ 
•ball shift U from its prewmt i>osition. 

It must not escape notice that in hotli of tlicvr Inslancr^ thi- 
gcminiil.F' :in Kit|,,-.rf - rrn---f :" tint it i- --lirll.-iilr t.-. ..ti I i--., 1 

toMiovt these embedding granules; and that we may not nnrok- 
sonably infer that the change in position has iQ<liiccd the modifi- 
cation of type that we here find. 

This collection of sponges, including the new species, hw been 
examined coincidently by II. J. Carter, Esq., F. R. S., and their 
identification and this description art? believed to me«t his 

April 13. 
Mr. John H. Redfield in the chair. 
Nineteen persons present. 
The death of the Hon. John Welsh, a member, waa annooDced. 

Ai'Kii. 20. 
Mr. Geo. W. Thyos, Jr., in the chair. 
Kiftevn perwons present. 
The death of Andrew Ncbinger, M.D., a member, was annouoced. 




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tmeaaaam or tas tcAxma m [IIW. 

The ■pcviineB* are kU tupeifcct. •howiAj; obIj 
ucaM<MW«Mk4a|«rtoribec*plMloUwnkx. TbeowMorUieB 
«cR i M Wfu WMl nttiadly mad pn s tnacrane tIcw. Tba 
eoHpfi^wd a hdo ww mafaids (mw of tkc ^jfgMmia ottt triluUu, 
heooetbeapwilcBaac A ifa^e ■p>d— oawptw J hteimllr 
akem* well tbe dented aad toaadad abdaiaaa cbanateriaUc M 
ovr aodcra ^liden. TIm eepbalotbonx k Miaelely puMcUbe. 
Tb* epeeiai b latenatlng m oeearring tx the Imm «f ifce coal 
BBMam. The locality Is &ft loager trorfced aad the spcrtca ■»/ 
be cootlderoa iearoe- 

McHim. CalrlB McComich kimI Smdo«1 Wagner wen- ekctol 

The ruUiiWiBg WAS orrlvrid to be printed t — 


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■ a 

232 PROOXEDINaS of the ACADElfT OF [1886. 

this evening. The specimens are all imperfect, showing only 
the abdomen and a part of the cephalothorax. The most of them 
were compressed vertically and give a transverse view. The 
compressed abdomen reminds one of the pygidium of a trilobite, 
hence the specific name. A single specimen compressed laterally 
shows well the elevated and rounded abdomen characteristic of 
our modern spiders. The cephalothorax is minutely punctate. 
The species is interesting as occurring at the base of the coal 
measures. The locality is no longer worked and the species may 
be considered scarce. 

Messrs. Calvin McCormick and Samuel Wagner were elected 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



In this paper I have attempted to give the synonymy of the 
American species of Gasterosteidse with analytical keys for their 
identification, and such notes as my studies of the group seem 
to justify. The specimens examined all belong to the Museum 
of the Indiana University. 

I am indebted to Dr. David S. Jordan for the use of his library 
and for many suggestions. 

Analysis of Genera of Gasterosteidse, 

a. Snout not prolonged ; dorsal spines 3 to 11. 
h. Innominate bones joined, forming a median plate on belly 
behind ventral fins. 
c. Gill membranes joined ; their posterior border free from the 
isthmus ; spines small, mostly feeble. 
d. Dorsal spines 7 to 11, weak, divergent; innominate bones 
with the outer edge stout and thick ; the median part 
scarcely ossified ; pubic bones long, weak, widely diver- 
gent, leaving a O-shaped naked area in front of ventral 
spines ; body slender. Pygosteus. 1. 

dd. Dorsal spines 6, non-divergent, of moderate size; innomi- 
nate bones united, forming a short, narrow but strong 
ventral plate ; pubic bones weak, short, widely divergent, 
leaving a subcircular space in front of ventral spines ; 
body rather stout ; skin smooth. Eucalia. 2. 

cc. Gill membranes narrowly joined to the isthmus ; innomi- 
nate bones large and strong ; spines of fins mostly 
strong; divergent; dorsal spines 3 or 4 in number; 
pubic bones very broad, long and little divergent, 
leaving a lanceolate-shaped, naked area in front of the 
ventrals ; form robust ; skin mailed or naked. 

Gasterosteus. 3. 
66. Innominate bones not joined, but each extending as a strong 
process under the skin on outside of insertion of ventrals^, 
the area between them flat and not ossified ; pubic bones 
short and weak, not visible externally; dorsal spines 
strong, divergent, 4 in number; gill membrane broadly 
joined to the isthmus; body rather stout; the caudal 
peduncle very slender ; skin smooth. Apeltes. 4. 




aa. Snout projecting, subtubiform ; dorsal spines small, about 15 ; 
innominate bones joined only at base ; body elongate ; sides 
mailed. Spinaohia. 5. 

1. PYG08TEUS. 

Pygosteus (Brevoort MSS.) Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 39, 1861. 

(Not characterized); Canadian Naturalist, ii, 8; August, 1865 (occu 

Oasterostea Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 29, 1874 (pungUius). 

This genus is characterized by the presence of t to 1 1 divergent 
dorsal spines and by the weakness of the innominate bones. It 
differs from Gasterosteus also, in having the posterior margin of 
the gill membrane free and by the less development of the spin- 
ous armature. 

But a single species, variable in its characters, seems to be 
known. It is widely distributed in the fresh and brackish waters 
of northern regions. 

Analysis of Species of Pygosteus, 

a. Body extremely elongate and slender, deepest at ventral spines, 
decreasing in height towards head and tail. Head long, 4 
in length to base of caudal. Mouth large, very oblique ; 
maxillary not reaching to anterior margin of orbit. Teeth 
small, in a single series. Eye large, its diameter greater 
than snout. Caudal peduncle keeled, slender and long, 
about 5 in length to base of caudal. No bony plates along 
side ; small plates extending along the bases of the anal 
and soft dorsal. Post pectoral plate present, large and 
faintly granulate. Scapula forming a triangular post oper- 
cular plate ; operculum striate. All the surface bones very 
weak, bones of scull granulate; innominate bones weak, trans- 
lucent, thin in the median part. Gill openings extending to 
below posterior edge of preopercle. Yertebrae (pungitius) 
14 + 18. Caudal fin lunate, long and narrow. 

b. Ventral spines more than one-third of head. D. VII. to 
IX-1, 9; A. 1, 8. Pungitius. 1. 

bb. Ventral spines less than one-third length of head. D. X- 
I. 10 ; A. I, 10. Brachypoda. 1 (a.) 


1. P. pangitim. 

Oasteroitetis acuUU in dorso decern Artedi, Gen. Pise, 52, 1738. 
Oatterosteus pungitius LinnsBus, Syst. Nat., Edit, x, L. 296, 1758 (bast>d 

on Aitedi) (and of European authors generally); Storer, Kept. Fish. 

Mass., 32, 1839 (Salem); Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1879, 10 

(Boston); Goode & Bean, Fish. Essex Co. and Mass. Bay, 5, 1879 

(Salem Pond); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 77 (Wood's Holl); 

Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1881, 128 (Hudson Bay); Jordan and 

Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 393, 1883 ; Steams, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 

1883, 124 (Labrador). 
Pygosieus pungitius Forbes, Bull. HI. Lab. Nat. Hist., ili, 69, 1880 

(Calumet R.; Lake Michigan); Jordan, Ohio Geol. Rep., 999, 1882 

(Name only); Jordan, Cat. Fish. N. A., 63, 1885. 
Oasterosteus pungitivus Walbaum, Artedi Plscum, 446, 1792 (After 

Oasterosteus oceidentalis Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poissons, 

iv, 509, 1829 (Newfoundland); Dekay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 68, plate 

XLH, fig. 1&5, 1842 (New York) ; Jordan, Cat. Freshwater Fish. 

U. 8., 441, 1878 (Name only). 
Ocuterosteus pungitius Y&T. oceidentalis Guntherj Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 

i, 6, 1859 (North America). 
Pygosteus oceidentalis (Brevoort MSS.) Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. 

A., 39, 1861 (East Coast); GiU, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 16, 

1873 (Name only); Jordan, Man. Vert., 248, 1876 (Great Lakes); 

Goode, Bull., xiv, U. 8. Nat. Mus., 58, 1879 (Name only); Goode, 

Bull, xxi, U. 8. Nat. Mus., 31, 1880 (Name only). 
Oasterastea oceidentalis Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches 30, plate i, 

fig. 18, 1874 (Newfoundland). 
Gasterosteus coneinnus Richardson, "Fauna Bor. America, iii, 57," 

1836 (Saskatchawan and Mackenzie Rivers) ; Dekay, Nat. Hist. N. 

Y., 68, 1842 (Northern regions); Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 

6, 1859 (copied). 
Pygosteus coneinnus Jordan & Copeland, Checklist N. A. Fresh Water 

Fish., 40, 1876 ; Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water Fish N. A., 441, 1878 

(Name only). 
Qasterostea eoneinna Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 85, 1874 (Name 

Oaftterostetn mainensis Storer, Boston Journal Nat. Sci., i, 465, 1837 

(Kennebec Co., Maine); Dekay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., 68, 1842 (copied); 

Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 6, 1869 (copied); Sauvage, Revi- 
sion des Epinoches, 33, 1874 (copied). 
Pygosteus mainensis Jordan & Copeland, Checklist N. A. Fresh Water 

Fisb, 140, 1876 (Name only); Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water Fish N. A., 

441, 1878 (Name only). 


PygoBteu$ oceidenlalis var. mainensis Jordan, Man. Vert., 248, 1876 

(Kennebec Riv.). 
GasterosUus nebulosus Agassiz, Lake Superior, 310, plate iv, fig. 4, 1850 

(Lake Superior). 
Pygostetis nebulosus Jordan, Fish. Indiana, 31, 1874 (Lake Michigan); 

Jordan and Copeland, Checklist N. A. Fresh Water Fish., 140, 1876 

(Name only); Nelson, Bull. 111. Lab. Nat. Hist., i, 42, 1877 (Lake 

Pygo8(eu8 occidentalis var. nebulosus Jordan, Man. Vert., 248, 1874 ; 

Joi-dan, Bull. Ills. Lab. Nat Hist., ii, 51, 1877 (Lake Michigan); 

Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water Fish. N. A., 441, 1878 (Name only). 
Gasterosteus dekayi Agsissiz, "Lake Superior, 311," 1850 (after Dekay); 

Putnam, "Proc. Essex Inst., 148, 155;" Putnam, Bull. Mas. 

Comp. Zool. i, 11, 1863 ; Storer, Hist. Fish. Mass., 91, plate viii, fig. 

3, 1867 (Massachusetts). 
Pygosteus dekayi Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 39, 1861 (Name 

Oasterostea dekayi Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 31, 1874 (New 

Oasterostea blaneTiardi Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 32, 1874 

(New York); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 31 (Boston). 

1 a. P. pung^tius braohypoda. 

Gasterosteus jmngUius brachypoda Bean, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., xv, 
129, 1879 (Oost)oadliu — Mtmntain Streams and Lakes); Bean, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 77 (American Harbor*; Bean, Arctic Cruise, 
118, 1881 (Elephant Point, near Icy Capei; Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1881, 240 (St. Paul, Kodiak ; Unga Island, Shumagins ; Iliu- 
liuk Lake, Uiialaska ; St. I^aul Island, Bering Sea ; St. Michaels : 
I^ort Clarence ; Elephant Point ; Eschscholtz Bay ; ley Cape, Arctic 
Ocean; Alaska; Hean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 270 (Pacific 
South of Bering Strait); Jortlan & Gilbert, Sjni. N. A. Fish., 394, 
1883; Bean, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., xxi, 19, 1883 (St. Michaels, Alaska). 

Oastirosttus pungitius Stcjneger, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1883, 65 
(Commander Islands). 

Uabitat. — Shores of Xorthoru Europe and Eastern America 
South to New York, also in the great Lakes and northward ; var. 
brachypoda in the North Paciiic, the specimens examined by me 
are from Calumet Lake, Ills., and from Massachusetts. 

The synonomy of this species, as given above, needs a word of 

The pungitirus of Walbaum is of course identical with the 
pungitius of Linnanis. 

I cannot see that east coast specimens, representing the ovvi- 
dentalis of Cuvier and Valenciennes, and that of Dekav, differ 


at all from descriptions of the European pungitius^ but I have 
had no specimens of the latter for direct comparison, I cannot, 
therefore, regard occidentalis as a separate species or variety. 
The dekayi of Agassiz is based on the occidentalis of Dekay ; 
I have therefore placed it also in the synonymy of pungitiua. 

The mainensis of Store r is said to differ from pungitius only 
in having a " bony serrated plate on the side." This probably 
refers to the plate behind the pectorals. 

The C07icinnu8 of Richardson is said to differ in having seven 
dorsal spines, but as the number seems to vary from 7 to 11, this 
cannot be considered as a specific character. I have examined 
specimens from Calumet, II. Illinois (presumably representing 
the form called nebulosus). I can find no difference whatever 
between these and Massachusetts examples of pungitius. 

The var. brachijpoda seems to differ from pungitius only in the 
shorter ventral spines. It is known to me only from the descrip- 
tion of Dr. Bean (above cited). 

Eiiealia Jordan, Man. Vert., ed. i, 248, 18TG (incotmtans). 

This genus is closely allied to PygoHteus, agreeing with it in 
the structure of the gill membranes, but differing in having the 
dorsal spines few and non-divergent, and in having the innomi- 
nate bones more fully united. The species are the most feebly 
armed of the Sticklebacks. 

Analysis of Species of Eucalia, 

a. Body moderately robust, the caudal peduncle not very slender; 
depth 4 in length to ])ase of caudal. Head pointed ; 
month small, very oblique ; maxillary reaching to anterior 
margin of eye ; teeth small, stout, in a single series ; 
eye large, much longer than snout. Caudal peduncle 
moderately compressed, 7^ times in length to base of 
caudal. No bony dermal plates ; skin naked ; no post- 
opercular (suprascapular) plate ; post-pectoral plate covered 
by skin ; skin of head not ossified. Lateral line beginning 
at upper angle of preopercle and curved to below fourth 
dorsal spine, from where it goes straight to middle of tail ; 
a second row of tubes is seen for a small distance along its 
origin. A patch of mucous pores at beginning of lateral 
line ; a row along the edge of the preopei'cle and a c-shaped 


fully arme^i. All of them are very rariahle and very closely 
rflat**<I one to another. The species with the bony pUte« ]ii«><t 
(\cv*'\o\tcd are most marine in their habit, while the partly or 
wholly naked forms s^em rather to inhabit the rivers. It mar 
\tf that a complete {n*a<lation exijits from the fally armed anileatu* 
to the nake<l vrilliammm, in which ca.«e all theste forms should 
l»e reffarderl as varieties of arnleaius. All northern re«:ion* «««rra 
to pf>s«te8s full mailed species (ac»ileatuA and vars.) and half 
maile^l "species rallie*i of gi/mnuru:*). The former type sc^'^m* 
identical on l»oth shh'S of the Atlantic, but the latter ty|« so far 
as our specimens can show seems to l>e ditferent in America from 
any descriUfl in Europe. 

Analysis of Sjtecies of Gasierosieus, 

a. Sides entirely' covered with (28 to 30) l)ony dermal platen. 
Caudal peduncle keele<l ; ventral spines each with a laryre 
cusp on outer edge of Itase. Rones of head striate, the 
skin ossified. Mouth large, little oblique ; maxillary not 
reaching front of eye ; teeth small, in a single series in lower 
and double series in upper jaw. The anterior plates are 
joined al»ove to the large bony plates at base of spines ; the 
posterior plates are separated from the small plates at bases 
of soft dopHjil and anal by narrow naked strips. Lateral lin*» 
lii'-rli lip. i»:ir.'iIU-l willi oiitlirir of l»ack :iiul :il<»n«x uiitMlr 'tfi :n; 
• I:il |M«liinr'l«-, which is strongly k»M l»Mi. l)(>r>:il *»pine*» -^t-rriiTt 
<ni t h«ir ♦•«Iur«i. ( )rii:iii of soft dorsal far in advaini* nf oi ijni 
of iiiial. Caudal Iiinatr ; anal spiiH' nM'iirv«*d, *»iual!rr thnu 
thir«l 'lorsal spint*, tin- lin *»imilar to soft •jor'^al. Vtritr?\N 
loll'.: .'ni'l -^hTi'lor, ^^rrratr. r«'ct«»raU narrow. P. 1 1 1,11 
to i:; ; A. 1. or 10. 

/*. l{o«|\ iiwMlrratrly robust, tin* <lrpth \\ in K-nixth. 

A» 1 IT. ATI s ;: 
/»/». ImmIv d« rp«r and strctn-^i r; caudal keel vcrv **troni:. 

idtn i>}n'(ii tus. 3. • i. J 
nil. Si<lr-^ partl\ « ovrrtil with (lito 1 fo l»on\ tU'inial plat*><. tl,.- 
po--t»iior pait of the l)o(|\ naknl. Ventral *^piiie> with "f 
wit liMiit eii«-p -it ha-^e. 
t Sl«l«"* with 1 .'• hon\ platr*^ : eau<l:»l peibnu'le kr^h-rl ; *-...j\ 
^h'li'lii ; vi nt ral <piiM- h»nL:, alnn»»t or (piit«- rf!ieliiii j \% \.', 
A'*v^:\\ ».|•i^^•-^ in a «-t rai^ht linr. Il«'a<l .■*•'. in l»'ni:'h t«i b i^r 
..f .auilal ; .lepth r.. 1». 1-1 1,11; A.1,S. Sil\ .TV U 1. .w 
with dark band** .lerosv; the ImmIv > Uran >. ArKIN«*ii. 4 


2 a. £. inoonitans oayuga. 

Eucalia ineonitam, var. cayuga Jordan, Man. Vert., cd. i, 249, 1876 
(Cayuga Lake) ; Jordan & Copeland, Checklist N. A. Fresh-water 
Fish, 141, 1876 (Name only); Jordan, GeoL Rei>ort Ohio, 998, 1882. 

2 b. £. inoonstans pygmeea. 

Gasterosteus pygrmeus Agassiz, Lake Superior, 314, 1850 (Lake 

Eucalia incorutans, var. pygmaa Jordan, Man. Vert,, ed. i, 249, 1876 

(Copied); Jordan & Copeland, Checklist N. A. Fresh- water Fish, 

141, 1876 (Name only); Nelson, Bull. Ills. Lab. Nat. Hist., i, 42, 

1876 (Lake Michigan). 

Habitat — Fresh waters of North America, from Kansas and 
Great Lake region northward to Greenland. Var. cayuga in 
tributaries of Lake Ontario. Var. pygmseus in Great Lakes. 

The specimens of the typical inconstans examined by me are 
from Rock River, Illinois. 

Those of the var. cayuga are from Syracuse, New York. 

The micropus of Cope would seem to differ in its shape, being 
shorter and deeper, and in having a smaller post-pectoral plate 
and ventral spines. All of these characters are of doubtful per- 

The globiceps of Sauvage offers no peculiar characters. 

The var. cayuga seems to differ from inconsians in having 
longer ventral spines and smaller post-pectoral plates ; it is per- 
haps identical with it. 

The pygmsea of Agassiz is said to differ from incovstans in 
having the body shorter and deeper, and in the number of fin 
rays. The difference in form is of no importance, and it is not 
likely that the alleged difference in the fin rays is real. 


Oavterosteus Artedi, Gen. Pise, 52, 1738. 

Gasierosteut Linmeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. x, i, SO*), 1758 (aeuleaius), 

Ga$ter acanthus Pallas, **Zo()gr. Rosso. Asiatica, iii, 228," 1811 {cata* 

Leiurus Swainson, Nat. Hist. Class Fishes, ii, 242, 1889 (gymnurus, etc.). 

This genus is distinguislied from Pygosieus and eucalia in hav- 
ing the posterior margin of the gill membrane joined to the isth- 
mus. The body is more robust ; the spines and innominate bones 
much stronger ; the pubic bones very broad and little divergent. 
Its species are the strongest of the sticklebacks and the most 

34S pnocERDtmiK or tar aoadiht or 

ouL Sidra entirely ii&ke<] ; no bony dcraul plata* ; esodal | 
duncle oot keeled. Tip of first donnl tfiae not i 
lnij[ M'cond. Head 3 in I«nf[tb U> l»se at MudaL Deptii 
fi In lotAl ItnigUi. D. I-I-I-l, 10; A. 1, 7. OUtusmm 
lirpwu, diu-kcr above; oidc* v|>ott«d with bUck; belly 
yollowUh. WiLUAJtfOtii. S. 

■■■• OASTZUSmS- 
3. 0. Mntlntoj. 

OnHmNAw th it^to trOiut. .KxtvAi. (hn. PU'„ ai2, t7» (Rvrofm): 

Pomuit, Antic Za.iL. 11, SU. 1T».> (N.i dawrttAlim). 
i7iM(«rMtMM oevlMfu* LlQI1«lIJ^ Synt N^t. Ed. X, I, 3»V ITU (>ftiw 

Arttvll}; Fatarkrlua, "KkiinB OM-ntMidli-a," in. mO {OrMaOkod); 

Ulocb, S^at Nat., plktc 58. Og. a ; RlchardMiu, F*«n Bw. AnMtA, 

An, ItVlfl; GUI, Cat. PUh. EwtCoMt N. A.. ««, IWt (NkOM aniyr. 

Uill, Cat. Fi«U. But C-out N. A., 10, ISTa (Naaw only); fteuT*«e. 

R«vliUunilM EphmehM, g, l>t74<BoiUH>T{ll«.iia>rCMB}; JiinliLB,C«i. 

Knwh Wkin Flah. N. A.. U%. ISTB iNkmo cnljl; Ooodc * Dou. 

PUb. K«H)x C>i. Mmi. Bay. .1, 1X7P (Emms Co.)-, Bcuu Pitxu T. S. 

KmL Hiw., IWtO. T7 (Wood* HoU, Wlliuliif[ioit, IMLi; Jocdu A OU- 

bnt, Sytu Fuh. N. A., aofl, 1B83 (}UM Cnwti; Stekrat, Pme. i:. 6. 

Hat. Una., 1888, li» (Ubnulor). 
OMt«rH(«tif iiipinanM Wklbtum, ArteiU Iclitk., UO^ tTH (afln Pan- 

^offeroifpui till ^ufi-iitui Htiaw, %iol., Iv, 608. IB39 (aArr Peniunt); 

Milcbill, Tnns. Lit. and Pbil. 6oc., 430, 18U (Salt Water at ^rw 

York); Deka;, Nat. Hilt N. T., 05, plate Itt, flg. B, IMS (Nrw 

Yorkl; Storer, 8yn. Pish. N. A., S3, 18J0; H. R. Btoitir, FbA. 

Labrador, 200, 1649 (Brooka emptying Into Out of Canao); OUt, Cat. 

Fish. East Coast N. A., SB. 1801 (Name onl;); Putnam, BulL Mui. 

Comp. Zool,, II, 18e;t ; Stoi^r, Hist. Fish. Mhsk., 87, platr rili, tig. 

21 s, i-^nr 

GatUrotUvt nortborarrntu Ciiricr ft V'alenciennea, Hiat. Nat. Poia- 
lH)Il^ It, 903, 1829 (Nrw York); Sloror, Kept FUh. Haiia., 30, ISSS 
(ManHacliiif^ttsI; Ayrr-H, Fish, llrookhaveu. Long Ulaod, 2Aft, ISi! 
(Old Man'n llaibor, Storer, Syn. Fish. N. A., OS, 18«; OUl, Cat. 
FiHii. Kant Coaal N. A., 10, I8T3 (Name only); Bauvage, Rrvlakia 
deM EpiDiichcH, 11, \K'i (Now York, Newfoundland, BoatOD); Jor- 
dan, Han. Vi-rt., Ed. i, 2.V>, 1870 (Name only); Qoode, Bull. L". 9. 
Nat. Mum., liv, .".H, 1H79 (Nume only), 

«ri.Wro»(«r(jt atuh,iluii var. north'Tacf'.n» Giinther, Cat. Fiah, Briu 
Miis., i. -1. l>»-".9 ((iriTnlaiid;. 

Cii-(^rn«'^i(«nip«rCuvi.T.]i;giH. Animal. 7H, IS-I* (llaiwil on 6i.(fi,//o(-, 
of Mlt-'hill^; Cmin A Vftlrndtanrs. lliht Nat. PoU*onii. U. ,103. 
IMJfl (Newfoiiii.llanii); M.-ksy, X«t Mist. N. Y., 08. 1S43 (N»«- 
Toundlaud); Storer, Sju, Kinb. N. A.. IW, 18i«; GUI, Cat. Fbih- 


cc. Sides with 2 to 6 bony dermal plates ; caudal peduncle 
keeled or not. 
d. Ventral spine without cusp at base. 

e. Dermal plates 4 to G ; body stout, little compressed ; head 
large, flat above, a small knob at occiput. Mouth large, 
maxillary almost reaching front of orbit. Teeth in broad 
bands in front. From occiput, two rows of mucous pores 
diverge to posterior borders of eye, extending thence 
parallel with the orbit to above nasal opening forming an 
arrow-shaped figure. Plates on sides imbedded, thin ; 
striate ; the last one immediately in front of second dor- 
sal spine. Post-pectoral plate striate j][-shaped. Scapula 
forming a striate post-opercular plate. Caudal peduncle 
very thick to a point immediately in front of caudal 
where it is much compressed. Innominate bones and 
vcntrals varying much in relative length, so that in some 
specimens the one is the longer in others the other. 
Dorsal spines short, straight, broad at base, serrate on 
outer edges. First spine about § in eye, third very 
small. Caudal slightly lunate. Anal inserted under 
fifth dorsal ray, coterminous with the dorsal. Ventrals 
coarsely serrate on outer and finely on inner edges. 
Pectorals broad and short, fan-shaped. D. I-I-I, 11 to 
13; A. 1, 9. Olivaceous, silvery below, thickly punctu- 
late. MiCROCEPHALUs. 5. 

ee. Dermal plates on side 2 or 3, strong, not imbedded. Mouth 
large, maxillary reaching to below front of orbit. Mu- 
cous pores none. Scapula forminga post-opercular plate. 
All bones thicker and stronger than in viicrocephalus. 
Caudal peduncle compressed for its whole length. 
D. I-I-I, 10 to 12 ; A. 1, 8. Wheatlandi. 6. 

dd. Ventral spines each with a distinct cusp at base. Lower jaw 
the longer. Teeth in lower jaw stronger than in upper. 
Diameter of orbit 3^ in head. Sides with 7 plates. In- 
nominate bones almost reaching vent. Caudal peduncle 
with a membranous carina. Caudal fin forked. Ventral 
^ in. finely serrate. Pectoral i in. Length of specimen 
2^. D. I-I-I, 12 ; A. 1, 8. Uniformly grayish on back, 
head and posterior half of body ; abdomen yellowish. 


244 noCMXDlSGM Of THE ACADDfT OT [1S84. 

O'uOr^ty'fJi vkft>rm/dtns Gir^rd, Prrn*. Ai^ad. NAt.Sri. Philft.. IVA. 1 35; 
Girarri Pacific R. R, Sorrey. «^, 1^59 Cape FUttery ; J.Td*n. Cat. 
Fr. jih-wau-r Flj*h X. A., +42, 1^> Xime only . 

Ila^niai. — Northern Atlantic Co!Wt of both Continent*. Var. 
f'ata]thract>AJi is foond on the West Coa.«t of North America, from 
San F^rancisf'O to Alaska and Kamtsohatka. 

This fl[H-cie9 differs from the others in having the whole ^ides 
covffred with (2*— *J«») bon\' plates. 

The hiac^sleafuM of Mitchill po<*esses the (33) plates charar- 
izing the nc^leatuA and otherwise agrees with the latter ; the 
Alight variation in the num>>er of lateral plates may perhap« 
arise from a different manner of counting them. 

The f/iitpinoAiui of Walbaum and biaculeatus of Shaw are alike 
liase<l on Pennant. The description given by the latter author i« 
of very little imjwrtance, but the probabilities all favor that the 
B|»ecics he had in mind was Oasleroateug aruleatug. 

The novebfjracensis of Cuvier and Valenciennes is said to 
differ from aruleaitts in the position of the lateral line and in the 
stronger caudal keel. Neither of these features is likely to lie 
of s|>ecific value, and I therefore place it in the synonymy of 

The niger of Cuvier is based on the hiacHleatt^a of Mitchill. 
wliifli is nrx/t'fifus. Tin* //•'/'•// "T'/y <»r tin* same ant h«»r ha-s tIm- 
sjjlrs roiMpl«-t«ly covtTr'l witli platf"^, and is, of rom*'^*, t hi- 
ordinary Knr<>p<*an form of ncultfifns. 

Tin* snjtif^tstf'i,^ ofSanvai^r i*^ a snppo^^t'd nrw s|>t»cies «l«'S<*ri)ud 
l>V Urkav a>^ nrnfK,rfJf't'n.<i>\ }»ut tlir ;>^'o/»<*/v^•f■/^^•|> of l>«*ka\ i^ 
i<l«-nti<al with tin- nnrf^Htrncfnsis of Cnvirr and ValtMit-ii nm ^. 
an«l ^11 jijinsit ii.< \<. tln'r« lorr a "^yn<»n\in of arnletiti/s. Tlit- fijnr* 
of I>rkay ha-^ latnal plates ♦'xt«'n<linL: from the po*it-pf(lt»r.i[ 
plalr to the ('an«iftl, hnt a^ this dillrrs from the natnn- of !h» 
armatnn* of thi-^ pronp, an«i a> l>i'kay i\{)i'> not nientioji tl.«' 
nak«Ml ana alniut thr vrntral rr<^i()n an<l irivcs tlie nuniU'r of rh. 
platr>- as 3n to :\:\. tht^-f *li-<'r«pan(i«"^ ninst br dnr to a n)i»»tak« 
n\' t h«' a 1 1 i'-t . 

Thi- ( t'/i -'' /'n^ff-iK h'.ran'is of SiuxMiT*- i>- soini'uhat 'litN-r-f* 
It, lri> fh \(n pl:it»'^ r\trn<i ill.: t«) th<* srcDiid fa \ «»t* thf -...:• 
• |.»r-:il ; tliriic«' to t!ir la^t r:i \ . t h<' I >• h 1 \ i«^ n:ik««l. th»' pt'li.i, !> 
|.«i!ii.; :i.;iiii iMiihil :\]\<\ stl»>n'_:l\ k«'«I«'<l. A-' no •>t ;«-k 1« ' ••»< n * 
:iii tinni'l niiM-h --•Mith ol' thi' ( l,:ik«' ri'Lri"n, it i** \<'r\ p'- • 
:il«h- that thf t \ p«- ot* (/. ^./7//l'/> dii] not I'onie tVoiu Texas. At 


East Coast N. A., 39, 1861 (Name only); Sauvage, Revision des 
Epinoches, 13, 1874 (Newfoundland); Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water 
Fish. N. A., 442, 1878 (Name only). 

Ooiterostetn traehurua Cuvier, R<^gne Animal, 76, 1829 (Based in part 
on Bloch); Storer, Syn. Fish. N. A., 02, 1846. 

Oasterosteus loricatus Reinhardt, Green. Fauna, 37, 1837 (Greenland); 
Reinhardt, *' Kong. Danske. Vidensk. Selsk. Nat. Math. Afh., vii, 
114," 1838; Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 13, 1874 (Newfound- 

Oasterosteus neoboracensis Dekay, Nat. Ilist. N. Y., 06, plate vi, fig. 
17, 1842 (New York). 

Oasterosteus dekayi Ayres, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Cal. (based on biacule- 
attu of Dekay). 

Oasterosteus suppositus Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 11, 1884 
(after Dekay). 

3. 0. aonleatni oataphraotus. 

Oaster(ieanthus cataphractus TeLli&Sy '*Mem. Acad. Petersb., iii, 825," 

Oasterosteus eataphraetus Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1881, 239 
(Kodiak, Cook's Inlet, Sitka, Port Mulgrave, Shumagins, Uualaska, 
Amchitka, Kyska Harbor, St. Paul, Bering Sea near Bering Isl.); 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 270 (Pacific South of Bering 
Strait, Puget Sound, San Francisco); Stejneger, Proc. U. 8. Nat. 
Mus., 1883, 65 (Commander Island); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1883, 353 (Duncan's Bay, Brit. Col.); Bean, Cat. Fish, in Intemat. 
Fish. Exhib. London, 19, 1883 (St. Paul Isl.). 

Oasterosteus aculeatut var. eataphraetus Jordan & Jouy, Proc. U. S. 
Nat Mus., 1881, 1 (Puget Sound); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1881, 69 (San Francisco to Alaska). 

Oasterosteus aeuleatus subsp. eataphraetus Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. 
N. A., 396, 1883 (West Coast). 

Oasterostetis obolarius Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poissons, iv, 
500, 1829 (Kamtschatka); Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 12, 
1874 (Name only). 

Oasterosteus inseulptus Richardson, Last Arctic Voy., 10, plate xxv, 
fig. 1, 2, 8, 1854 (Northumberland and Puget Sound); Bean, Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., XV, 129, 1879 (Northumberland Sound). 

Oasterosteus serratus Ayres, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1855, 47 (San 
Francisco); Girard, Pacific R. R. Survey, 88, 1859 (Shoal Water 
Bay: San Francisco); Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 13, 1874 
(San Francisco Bay); Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water Fish. N. A., 442, 
1878 (Name only); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 1880, 
452 (Puget Sound, San Francisco) ; Jordan & Jouy, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1881, 1 (Foot note). 



O/iHeroMtW pULeitu Oirwl, "Pnc. An. Nat ^1. I'lilU. \*M, \Vt ^ 
Glnnl, pAolfU R. R. eurroj, HO, ]M« (8an t' : Ban Jurf; 
PcUlunik) ; S&UTitfe, Rrvlaion (Im Kplnoctwn^ la, 16*4 ( Pi>t«liiiu) ; 
Jordan, C«l. FrVMh-wotor Fbih. N. A.. 44^. 1078 (Kmiw only). 
Giul^roiU>i*(nepinatatQ\n.TA. "Pnw. Ac. Nat Sot. i*Uk.,1)a4, XVii' 
atrsnl, PaciOn It It. Hwrtvj, 00. IfUA (PimUjo); SMmtf^ RvrWoo 
d«< EpinoutiiM, 18, Plata i. (!(. 4, 1974 iPmldki Omk, Okl.): 
Jonlnn. Cat. Prmb-imtttr Ptnh N. A., 442, 18714 iNaluv only ). 
(/a*UroUeii» pugMi Glraitl, '■ P»tt«. A«. Nat Sci. PUIU., IBM. IHB;" 
Olnutl, Puiifir it. R. Snrvejr, ftS and niU, 1fl!M (Pnpit Bouadi; 
Jonlan, Cat. Fr«s)i>watur Pish N. A., 44e, 1818 jNuMOnI?). 
^niiifaJ.— PkcIAo Coast Nortli America, tntm Berin|t Strait 
■outli to Todos StuitoH H»y. A»ceii(lfl rivcni. 

Thia spfcip* difTcrM from dimiilialuit iii Imving no ciup kt base of 
Tentrals and no caaital knel ; it dilTDra fVom wheattandi in tutrinf; 
all Its boD«s much weaker and in tbe arrangement of tho mnoous 
poren about the lieMl. 

The collection of Jordan and Gilbert ahona that all aaJtnl- 
tnilvd Sticklebnckfl (mt<--rorr;>Aa/M*, pM>eiu», iitojrinntuM utd 
pugetti) belong t« one Kpccicx. 

It !a possible, as Hoveral wrtten tiavp amrniM), that all tlieae 
naked-tailed Sticklebacks (gymnurvf. murrocejAitlmi, ii4en/i«NA', 
tPiY/Minuoni) are simple Tarieties of the ordinary O.aeuUatMM. 
It Mi-m.-' to uie tliut the jiecitlinritii'ii of the OnliforDlBn fom arr 
so constant that we may re^^ard thia one at least as preaenting 
a distinct spccieF*. Of 0. wheallandi and gi/mnurna I am not ao 
certain, but I bnve not yet seen any distinctly intermediate 
forms, although all thcRC types, like nil other Sticklehacka, are 
subject to much individual variation. The characters girco in 
the analysis above arc to Im; regarded as simply prorisional, an 
representing the ditfcrencein shown by the material at my diaposaL 

The specimens examined by me are from San Diego, Cal. 
t. OattarMtaai whMtlaadt. 

f!iulere$lrui ithtaltandi Putnam, " Proc. Kasex In«t., t, 4, IMT;" 

Sb'nr, insL Pisb. Maw., 254. ISAT (Nahant). 
GattrrotUu* tr-ifhurvt Goodr kt llcan, FiHhei' of Eitaci t'o. and Ha**. 
Buy, .">, 187U (Nahaal, ii..t U. (racffirua .ifCuvfer). 
Ilnhilal.—V.Afl Const Uiiiliil St;ites. northwanl. 
Thi* species ilifft'rs from O. i/iirroc/'ftn/rm in having stronger 
surface Inmcs, no mucous porC' about the head. and the caudal 
jH-diincU' compresseiL 

The s|>ecimens examined by me arc from the coast of Maasa. 


present I place texanus in the synonymy of aculeatus, the pecu- 
liarities above mentioned being perhaps due to mutilation. 

The many specimens examined by me are from Wilmington, 
Delaware, and from Woods Holl, Massachusetts. 

The var. cataphractus differs from aculeatus in its deeper and 
shorter form. Northern specimens are larger and more robust 
than those found further south, and it is not likely that with a large 
series any tangible permanent differences could be maintained. 

The names cataphractus and obolarius were given to Alaskan 
specimens ; the insculptus from the Arctic is not essentially 
different, and the serratus of Ay res and intermedium of Girard, 
from further south, are also certainly the same. 

The large collections made by Jordan and Gilbert of the West 
Coast of the U. S., show conclusively that not more than two 
distinct forms of Sticklebacks, cataphractus and microcejjhalus, 
exist on that coast. 

4. Oa<tero8teu8 atkinsii. 

Oasterostewi atkinsii Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 67 (Schoodic 
Lakes); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 395, 1883 (Copied). 

Habitat. — Schoodic Lakes, Maine. 

This species is characterized by the presence of 16 lateral 
plates; it is therefore intermediate between the full armed 
aculeatus and the partly mailed gymnurus^ etc. The species is 
known to me from the description of Bean {loc. cit.). This 
description indicates some affinity with the European Gasteros- 
teu8 semiarmatus^ which has also 14 (12 to 15) plates. 

5. Oasterosteus mioroceplialas. 

Gasterosteus microcepMlus Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat, Sci. Phila., 1854, 
133 ; Girard, Pacific R. R. Survey, 91, 1859 (Tulare Valley); Sau- 
vage, Revision des Epinoches, 22, 1874 (Tulare Valley); Jordan, Cat. 
Fresh- water Fish N. A., 442, 1878 (Name only); Jordan & Gilbert, 
Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1880, 453 (Puget Sound ; San Francisco ; 
Monterey Bay ; San Pedro) ; Jordan & Jouy, Proc. U. S, Nat. Mus., 
1881, 1 (San Francisco); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1881, 69 (Los Angeles to Puget Sound); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1881, 240 (Piseco Lake, Sitka; St. Paul, Kodiak; Chirikoflf 
IsL ; Iliuliuk Unalaska); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 270 
(Pacific, south of Bering Strait; Puget Sound; San Francisco); 
Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 395, 1882 ; Rosa Smith, Proc. 
U. 8. Nat Mus., 1883, 217 (Name only); Rosa Smith, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1883, 233 (Todos Santos Bay); Bean, Proc. U.S. Nat. 
Mus., 1883, 853 (Mountain Lake, Alaska); Bean, Cat. Fish, in 
Intemat. Fish. Ex. London, 19, 1883 (St. Paul, Kodiak). 

248 paooEJCDiNQs of the academy or [1886. 

4. APELTE8. 

Apt'lten Dekay, Nat. Iliht. N. Y., 67, 1842 (f/uadraaa no de«cripti*m). 
Apelte* .Ionian, Man. Vert., 249, 1876 (Characterized). 

ThiH genus is distiiigiiisbed by tbe form and position of the 
innominate bones, thest' being sepanited and forming subdrrmal 
spines on the outer edges of the abdomen. The pubic bones are 
small and weak, not visible on surface. It is a more sharply de- 
fined group than Eucalia or ri/tjoateus and its single 8|ieeies hsis 
shown no important variation. 

Analysis of Sjyevies of Apeltes. 

a. Trunk oblong; head pointed; caudal |>eduncle slender, not 
keeled. Mouth small, horizonUil ; maxillary not reaching 
to eye ; teeth slcikler, in a single series. No bony dermal 
plates along sides. Scapula forming a small granulated poet- 
opercular plate. Innominate l>ones wide ajKirt ; the area 
between them tiat so that a section of the fish is triangular. 
(xill membrane broadly unitoil to the isthmus. Fnre donial 
spines divergent. The spines slender, pointeil, slightly 
Semite. Distance Ix'tween first and third spine much Ie>» 
than that l)etween third and fourth ; the first extending 
K»vond base of thinl. Caudal long, narrow; anal similar 
to soil dorsal ami coterminous with it : its spine under third 
ra\ of ilnrsal. Viiitial >|>iih'> slroni:, «^lll»t^'^^U' ; ^t'tmlc «'i. 
l»i)lli i'«1l:i'^ :in<l v*«)viri'il h\ skin ti> luar tip. Whon \» iil;:*! 
^piih'^ aii' ^t t tlu'V point almost •^i<lrwi'>t'. wlim «K'pU"^-« •! 
tlu'\ lir aUuiL: in-'itlr •»!' innominatr )>oiii«>i. (^tapra' i ^. '• 

'.' Apeltes qu:idracu8. 

t' >tero^-. 'j> ', .;.'. .7^' <* ^l t. lull. Trail «. Lit. .in.l Vh I. Sh-.. i. l.i'»^ I'^I < , 
( u\ur A« lun iiiM •». i\. .'»(»!. I'^i'.^ Nt\^ fomnll.iiHl ; St.»n-., K. : • 
Fi-h. - M t-^.. :::. 1^;U» ^il.m ; I).k.i\. lli>r. N. Y. .♦*.:. p! .!. v 
\\^. 1^. I'^rj Ni\N Voik ; Sl..n!. Syn.. •',.:, 1^4»1 . r..unl, Fi-1.. -l N 
.ItiMN i ot^t. H. 1S."»'» Silt r<'ini> Mt' Ntw .Iir«^y ; >t«-n r. *" M- - 
.\in. Ai- . N. \\ S, I < N. i. ;i *» ;■ ^tnnr, Ti^h. M.»» , *^'.«. | 1 it« \ •: . n^ 

<J .nllnT. (a, {'.-'[i. \W\\. ^!ns.. 1. T. ■.'*'.■• 
"U «i«^ l!l'iin»« 1:« >, *JT. '**T1 <":'»d 
• T;-* . !->» \ lii^T . 1^'»"». ! l**. i'.: » ..* . • 
-■ N . \ . . ■' >••■- N 'in. .'ii'. \ ' • .. ■ 
1 "* ^ \ !!.' ■•'. \\ . !.■:»! .i.. Nl. ' \ 
'■■■'. '. vV < •• . ! .ii-*. I i.c k" -«■ i" .. -. \\ 
^- ■ ■•;-• .■•■•• v:.. r r V' ^1. \N ■:. r ;• . . 

■. > A !•• i'... }* '•!.. }^^. \ { \ 

••; \ .. :.'\ •,,H-i. . Hi"!. I" > N • 

. r.'.:.. u s. N.t M .^ IV 



' « 

M ,>^. 

. 1. .i^» t ■ "» 

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.^ , i:.N.- 

1, * 

• • 


; //.; 

• !' .'1: ^'"1 

t 1 

■ 1 • 


>! 1 ^1 

. V.,-' ( . 




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>:*•• \ .:. 

t w » 


7. Gmaterosteus dimidiatus. 

Ocuterosteus biaculeatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat PoiHsons, 
iv, 503, 1829 (Newfoundland, not O. hiaeuleatUM of Shaw) ; Giinthcr, 
Cat. Fish. Brit. Mas., i, 5. 1859 (Coast Newfoundland and Labra- 
dor); Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 1(5, 1873 (Name only); 
Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 21, 1874 (Newfoundland); Jordan, 
Cat. Fish. N. A., 442, 1878 (Name only); Jordan & Gilbert, Byn. 
Fish. N. A., 395, 1888 ; Steams, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1888, 128 

Ocuteroiteui dirnidiatus Reinhardt, Green. Faun. 87, 1887 (Greenland); 
Reinhardt, **Kong. Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Nat. ^^\*, Math. Afhand. 
vii, 198," 1888; Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 28, 1874 (Name 

Oasterosteus aeuleatus var. dimidiatui Gill, Cat. Fisli. East Coast N. 
A., 39, 1861 (Name only). 

Oa$Uro$teu$ euvieri (Girard MSS) Storer, II. R. Fish. Nova Scotia and 
Labrador, 254, plate vii, fig. 1, 1849 (Bras d'Or, Red Bay). 

Habitat — East Coast North America, northward. 

This species differs from its nearest relations in havin^^ a cusp 
at the base of the ventrals and a fleshy caudal carina. 

The name biaculeatus cannot be retained for this species, an it 
was originally based on a description of Pennant which appar- 
ently refers to G, aculeatus, 

I have examined no specimens of this species, and I am not 
sure that it differs in any important respect from the naked tailed 
sticklebacks ((7. gymnurus Cuvier = G. leiurus Cuv. and VaL) 
of Europe. 

8. Oatterof teus williamsoni. 

GaMt£ro9teu» wUliamtoni Girard, '*Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 133," 
1854 (Williamson Pass); Girard, Pacific R. R. Survey, 93, 1859 
(Wflliamson Pass); Sauvage, Revision des Epinocbi^, 25, 1874; 
Jordan, Cat. Fresh Water Fish. N. A., 441, 1878 ; Jordan h Gilb«t, 
Syn. Fish. N. A., .^3, 1883; Rosa Smith, Pro*:. U. S. Nat. Mtia,, 
1883, 217 (Artesian well at San Bernardino). 

EueaUa viUiammmi Jordan & Copeland, Checklist Freith Water Finh. 
N. A., 141, 1S76. 

Habitat, — Streams of California. 

This species difiTers from the other species of this gemm in 
having no lateral plates. Miss Rosa Smith records one from an 
artesian well in California and pronounces it a tnje GagterofUeun 
and not a Eucalia, 

The species is known to me from Girard's defK;ription in the 
Pacific B. R. Survey, and from the account i^ven by Mxm Smiths 


pftooxxDtHos or Tax ACinntr or [t88f- 

from Nerfonndland, This record needs veriflcatioo, and i« prob- 
nbly tlie result of au error in labeling. 

or OAtmAi. 


CntM Pidiiinlc^ - . . . . 


InlraorblMl apM^ 


Orbit. . 

Ftt>t Donol Spine tmm Scout,. 


AntMcdisat Spine, 



Aonl ftont SniMtl, . . . . . 

Fvrtnral fnim Siuiut, . . . . 


VenlnU from Snout, . . . . 

lunomlnaU boBM, 




1 an 










LiBT or NoMiMAL SPEciBs or Oasteeostuda, Akkahokd ni 
Chronolooical Order, vitb InxtcTiriCATioti. 

(Tetisbic SpwlBB NUDH 

Ifominal Speciei. 
GtateroKteiit atuUaliu Llnn»ii.'«, 
Gaat^nwteiiB pungilivi Linnifiii'. 
OkRtcruetvus ipinarkia Linnivii>i. 
(iatitenMleuii pimKitiuH Watl»uin, 
(iuUraMcun binpinOKUa WklUaiiiii, 
GmsterostciiB calapkrattu* PftllAH, 

Datt. IdtntiJIfatioH, 

1758, GftHtroeteuB ai'ulpktiiL, rfgONhiiia punglliiu. 

IT5S, Spi HAcI 1 1> spinach i&. 

17H3, PygMteuH puntcitiiu. 

1702, Gutero>teuii MulemtuA. 

1811, Gastcroatoua cAtAptuactiu. 


31, 1880 (Name only); Bean. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 77 (Woods 

HoU, Noank); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 396, 1883. 
Oasterosteui apeltes Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., iv, 

505, 1829 (No locality); Storer, Kept. Fish. Mass., 31, 1839 (Salem); 

Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 26, plate i, fig. 13, 1874 (New 

Oa$t0ro$teu$ millepunetatui Ayres, Boston Jouni. Nat. Hist., 259 and 

294, 1842 (Old Man's Harbor); Brevoort in GiU's Cat. Fish., East 

Coast N. A., 89, 1861 (Name only); Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 

27, 1874 (copied). 

Habitat. — Atlantic Coast of North America ; Northward. 

This species is easily distinguished by the separation of the 
innominate bones and by the four divergent dorsal spines. 

The apeltes of Cuvier and Valenciennes does not differ from 
the quadracus of Mitchill. 

The millipunctatus of Ayres is also identical with the quadra- 
cus of Mitchill. 

The numerous specimens examined by me are from Woods 
Holl, Massachusetts. 


Spinaehia Fleming, "Hist. Brit. Animals, 219,*' 1828 {$pinac?iia). 
Bolycanthta Swainson, Fishes 175 and 242, 1839 (%p%naehia), 
Oastrcea Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 7, 1876 (spinaehia). 

This genus differs from the others in the prolongation of the 
snont which approaches in form the snout of Aulorhynchus and 
IHstularia. The innominate bones are as in Apeltes ; there are 
about 15 free dorsal spines. 

Analysis of the Species of Spinaehia, 

a. Snout prolonged ; dorsal spines about 15 ; dermal plates, 40 ; 
depth 10 in length ; head about 4 ; a carina running entire 
length of lateral line ; body five-sided ; tail four-sided. Ver- 
tebrae 18 + 23 ; D. XV, 6 or 7 ; ventral, i, 2 ; A. I, 6 or 7. 

Spinaehia, 10. 
10. Spinaolvia spinaohia, 

Oasterosteiu spinaehia LinnsBus, Syst. Nat. Ed. X., 296, 1758 (based on 
Artedi) (and of authors generally). 

Ocutraa spinaehia Sauvage, Revision des Epinoches, 36, 1876 (New- 

Habitat. — North Atlantic on both continents. 
This species has been but once ascribed to America. Sauvage 
notes a specimen in the Museum at Paris which he said to be 



!iB fMGm>n«aii or rat ACAmm or 


a«iu 1. rxaoBTxns &»<-«(. 
t. J^*M>ii|*fii Llawu (P.. A.)- (P> o.u 
k.«. J)«MiMpufttfM tracJIyfwAi ( W. U.). (UBkwn to mt). 

Omni 1. SOOUU Jor4aL 
». J^^tewMtoMKlfUuuliO. El. 

«*■ Jh— IBi JW M J fn iMMiiWfla JortUn iQ.). (VwMjrufib'Bbtfol vklwl. 
X4k Jhaab iMM«taiu pjffmaa Apuab (Unknowa lu ■■•; rharartw* 

MrifMl INThapl BTInOMHlB). 

OtBM X. OAITEBOami lA^mtm. 
K gMatiiliiiJwtoalw (K. A.) (P.). 
S«i gaiiiWiiOMi <« ri a »l M* wrtapJIroMiM FallM (W.j. i TMkty rf dttab tf u l 

4. CtaMTMiMHiiaiMKBtftit (P.). (Unloium tp iM;p«rfc«f« kwrinr. 

K. 6MCfrw*b«f MfcrwttpAnlMUtntdtW.). fPw»H>ly »»ritlr rf •wfc^BiJ. 
fc gMJiriWu* MjUa<to>rf/ Patnam (P.). (PwbkiwTw. «f msImm*), 
T. eoHmMttut MmidkUt- Raliiluudt (P.;. tVnkDwn W am-, pehi»f» 

IdMtkal wttb 0. nwwunuf. 
Sl (hifarMMw wdUsHUMt Uinrd (U.). (PoMildy m extrvBw Twrtay of 



Omoi I. AFBITBB DaKa;. 
0- ApttUt 'piailraeut MitotilU (P.^. 

0»u. 1. tPDIACHU n.i>.i<.|. 
10. ^iitaekia ipmathia Ltnnaiiu fE. P.)> iProbkbljr But Amrriam). 





Nominal Species. Date, 

Gasterosteus quadracus Mitchill, 1814, 

Oasterosteus niger Cuvier, 1829, 

Gasterosteus trachunis Cuvier, 1829, 

Gasterosteus obolarius Cuv. & Val., 1829, 
Gasterosteus noveboracensis Guv. & Val., 1829, 

Gasterosteus biaculeatus Cuv. & Val. 1829, 

Gasterosteus apeltes Cuv. & Val. 1829, 

Gasterosteus occidentalis Cuv. & Val. 1829, 

Gasterosteus concinnus Richardson, 1836, 

Gasterosteus mainensis Storer, 1837, 

Gkisterosteus loricatus Reinhardt, 1837, 

Gasterosteus dimitiatus Reinhardt, 1887, 

Gasterosteus biaculeatus Shaw, 1839, 

Gasterosteus tne<m«ton« Eirtland, 1841, 

Gasterosteus millepunctatus Ayres, 1842, 

Gasterosteus cuvieri Girard, 1849, 

Gasterosteus nebulosus Agassiz, 1850, 

Gasterosteus de kayi Agassiz, 1850, 

Gasterosteus pygmegus Agassiz, 1850, 

Gasterosteus inseulptus Richardson, 1854, 

Gbsterosteus nUcrocepTialus Girard, 1854, 

Gasterosteus foittiamsoni Girard, 1854, 

Gasterosteus plebeius Girard, 1854, 

Gasterosteus inopinatus Girard, 1854, 

Gasterosteus serratus Ayres, 1855, 

Ghisterosteus intermedins Girard, 1856, 

Gasterosteus pugetti Girard, 1856, 

Gasterosteus atkiniii Bean, 1859, 

Gasterosteus micropus Cope, 1865, 

Gasterosteus foT^atlandi Putnam, 1867, 

Gasterosteus suppositus Sauvage, 1874, 

Gasterostea blanchardi Sauvage, 1874, 

Gasterosteus globiceps Sauvage, 1874, 

Eucalia eayuga Jordan, 1876, 

Gasterosteus trachunis Goode & Bean, 1879, 

Gasterosteus hrachypoda Bean, 1879, 

Apeltes quadracus. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Gasterosteus cataphractus. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Gasterosteus dimidiatus. 
Apeltes quadracus. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Gasterosteus dimidiatus. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Eucalia inconstans. 
Apeltes quadracus. 
Gasterosteus dimidiatus. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Eucalia inconstans. 
Gasterosteus cata])hractus. 
Gasterosteus microcephalus. 
Gasterosteus williamsonl. 
Gasterosteus microcephalus. 
Gasterosteus microcephalus. 
Gasterosteus cataphractus. 
Gasterosteus cataphractus. 
Gasterosteus microcephalus. 
Gkisterosteus atkinsii. 
Eucalia inconstans. 
Gasterosteus wheatlandi. 
Gasterosteus aculeatus. 
Pygosteus pungitius. 
Eucalia inconstans. 
Eucalia eayuga. 
Gasterosteus wheatlandi. 
Pygosteus brachypoda. 


In this review I have admitted 10 species and 5 genera of Oas- 
terosteidffe as valid. Below I give a list of the species. The gen- 
eral distribution of the species is indicated by the letters A. 
(America); E. (Europe); W. (West Coast of North America); P. 
(East Coast North America and Greenland); G. (Great Lake Re- 
gion and Northward); U. (Western Slope of Rocky Mountains;. 

252 PBOdBDINGB or THE AOAISDCT Off [1886. 


Geniu 1. PT00STEU8 BreTOort. 

1. Pyffost&ui punffUiui LimuBUB (£. A.). (P- G--)* 

1 a. J^go$t&u» pungitms braehypoda (W. U.)- (Unknown to me). 

Genas 2. XUCALIA Jordan. 

2. Euealia ineonttans Kiiiland (G. £). 

2 a. JBhieaUa inconitaiii eayuga JoxdBji (Q.), (Variety of donbtfnl value). 
2b, EucaUa ineonstans pygmaa Agassiz (Unknown to me; dharaotors 

assigned perhaps erroneous). 

Genus 3. OA8TEB0STEUS Linneeas. 

8. Goiteroiteui aeuUatus (E. A) (P.). 

8 a. G(iitero$t&u8acuUatU8eaiaphra6tu8'PBXiM{'W.). ( Yariety of donbtf ul 

4. G<ut&ro$tm» aikimU Bean (P.). (Unknown to me ; perhaps local var. 

of oeuUatfM), 

5. O(ut6ro9teu$ mhroeephahu Girard (W.)« (Possibly yarietj of oetf iMdvs). 

6. GoiUrosUuM wheaUandi Putnam (P.). (Perhaps yar. of aeuleaiui). 

7. GatUroiteui dinUdiaitii Reinhardt (P.). (Unknown to me; perhaps 

identical with G* gymnurui), 

8. G(ut0roit&u» wUUam$oni Girard (U.). (Possibly an extreme yariety of 

mieroeephdlus or amiecUui), 

Genus 4. APELTES DeKay. 

9. Apeltes quadraeus Mitcbill (P.). 

Genus 3. 8PINACHIA Fleming. 

10. Spinaehia spina^hia LinnsBus (E. P.). (Probably not American). 


Mat 4. 

Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 
Twenty-eight persons present. 

The Bailway Cutting at Oray^s Ferry Road. — Mr. Aubrey H. 
Smith remarked that the Schuylkill River, as is well known, 
makes a curve to the westward just below the U. S. Arsenal 
grounds, returning to its southwardly course at Harmar's wharf, 
nearly a mile below. The new iron bridge of the Baltimore and 
Ohio R. R. Co. spans the river obliquely from the northern side 
of Bartram's Garden to Harmar's at the height of about 23 feet 
above tide. The tract of land half enclosed by the river is ele- 
vated about 50 feet above tide and is composed of the same 
diluvial gravels and clays which form the plain on which stands 
the old city of Philadelphia. 

The railroad proceeds from the bridge by a deep cut of half a 
mile transversely to the streets on the city plan northeastwardly 
to the low grounds on the river below the arsenal, thus forming 
a chord to the arc of the river bend. The cut is a deep one, as 
the railroad company was required by its agreement with the city 
to construct its line beneath Wharton Street and the Gray's Ferry 

Soon after leaving the bridge the cutting enters the plateau and 
is soon twenty-five or more feet deep. The excavation is through 
yellow clays and river gravels to the depth of about twenty-five 
feet. It then discloses a compact bed of dark blue clay, sharply 
defined under the gravel, apparently a river deposit. Its thick- 
ness is not exactly known but it exceeds six feet. This bed of 
blue clay extends from just bej'ond the Harmar house to the 
Gray's Ferry Road, a distance of 500 or 600 yards. 

It is apparently thickest near the Harmar house, but thins out 
at the Gray's Ferry Road, where the excavations show it to be 
only about four feet thick and to rest upon a bed of yellow gravel 
or sand. It does not appear at all northeast of the Gray's Ferry 

Some observations and inquiry in November, 1885, for organic 
remains resulted, so far as he was aware, only in showing that 
the blue clay contains numerous genera and species of diatoms 
and several species of recent woods. The observations on the 
diatoms are due to Professor Koenig. The gravels and clays 
above the blue clay were barren of all organic forms. The woods 
then obtained were apparently birch, maple or oak, and were 
neither mineralized or decomposed. They came from the dump 
heap where the excavated clay was deposited by the workmen, 
but are doubtless from the blue clay bed. 

'SS4 FBoOBDiifos ofiHi AauMnr>inr (^raSK. 

The specimen of wood exhibited to the Academy to-night is of 
some coniferous tree, probably a white cedar, Ovprewus Piyoufra. 
This tree, nntil very recently, was common along the Schuylkill 
and Delaware, and isolated specimens may still exist there. The 
wood now shown is in no degree" mineraliKed-«nd bnt eligbtly 
decomposed. It came from a log which lies in th« bine clayjnst 
north of the Wharton Street Bridge and is still to be seen there. 
No shells, BO far as he knew, have been found in the excavation, 
bnt more oaTeAil search in this directioo might be rewarded. 

The blue clay bed appears to mark one of the periods of qnies- 
cence in the glacial action which, in its torrential course, scooped 
out the valleys of the Schuylkill and Delaware and afterwards 
filled them up again at the mai^n of tide-water. It harmonizes 
itself with similar beds which have been observed at several points 
^ong the shores of the rivers — notahly at the Lazaretto and 
Fiintz Hall, Tinicum, aodrnear Camden,' N, J. 

There were probably several of these periods of comparative 
rest in the course of the retirement of the ice trom northern 

The artesian well of Mr. Black, at Black's Idand, below Fort 
Hifflin, which is 156 feet deep, disclosed at the depth of LOO feet 
a bed of white beach sand 47 feet in thickness, as Well as many 
of gravel and clay. The decomposed gneiss rock was reaohed at 
the depth of 340 feet or thereaboats. 

Section of the strata of Black's Island, Delaware River below 
Port Mifflin, from the artesian well of E. N. Black, Esq.: 

Blue alluvium 4S feet. 

Band, I " 

Blue alluvium 8M " 

Gravel, 6 " 

White day 2 " 

Beach sand, 47 '* 

Gravel, 10 " 

Clay 3 " 

Reel gravel, 8 " 

White gravel and sand, .... 17 " 

Beach sand and gravel, . . . . 38 " 

Decomposed gneiBH (mica), . . . 20 " 

Gneiss rock, 228 " 

456 feet 

Mat U. 
The President, Dr. Lsisr, in the chair. 
Twenty-two persons present. 

Fatal Cases of Trichiniasis. — The President read a letter tima 
Mr. EcoENB A. Rap, of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, giving an ac- 
count of recent cases of fatal trichiniasis arising fh>m imperfectly 


cooked, measly pork, which had been eaten for a week from 
January 6, 1886. The family consisted of a man and wife and 
two daughters, aged respectively five and thirteen years. The 
older daughter and the mother, aged 37 years, have died ; the 
other members of the family, although affected, are recovering. 
In the mother, who died March 8, the deltoid muscle showed, 
under the microscope, three to nine ; the rectus femoris, two to 
six, and the diaphragm, one to three trichinae, in a field view 
about one-fifth of au inch in diameter. In the daughter, who 
died February 19, trichinae were found imbedded in the deltoid 
muscle, in some portions as many as forty-two being counted on 
the field of view under the microscope. No other portions of 
the daughter were examined, but the lungs, heart, liver, spleen 
and kidneys of the mother were found to be unaffected. 

The pork used was home-raised, and, according to the owner, 
the animal did not at any time show signs of ill health. An 
examination of two other hogs raised on the premises was made, 
but no trichinse were found. As usual in such cases, the meat 
was imperfectly cooked or fried, the tenderloin, sausage meat, 
spare ribs, etc., all being freely used. For several days while in 
water the human trichinae showed signs of life, coiling and 
uncoiling when freed from the muscular fibre, but the stage of 
development found in the pork showed no activity under the same 
conditions. The communication is accompanied by excellent 
photographs of portions of human muscle and of the affected 
pork, showing a number of the worms imbedded in the tissue. 

May 18. 
Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 
Seventeen persons present. 

May 25. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Nineteen persons present. 

Charles P. Sherman was elected a member. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 

258 PK00SIDIKG8 or THB ACADSMT OF [1886. 

j. Body ovate, the outline somewhat regularly elliptical, 
depth 2^ in length. Dorsal spines slender, but little 
flexible, the second scarcely stronger than the third, 2 in 
length of head. Second and third anal spines 8ul»equaK 
2J in length of head ; second stronger than third. 

AureoluB, 8. 

jj. Body rhomboidal, short and deep, with angular outlinen, 

the depth usually more than half the length ; spines long 

and slender. 

k. Anal rays III, 8 ; second dorsal spine j or more length ot 

head ; second anal spine more than half length of head 

Peruvianu^ 9. 
kk. Anal rays II, 9 ; second dorsal spine about ^ length of 
head ; second anal spine 1 j in length of head. 

RhombeuM. 10. 
a, Premaxillary groove broad, oval, and covered with scales 
(these sometimes deciduous in poorly preserved speci- 
mens). Anal rays III, 8 ; second dorsal spine 1^ in head ; 
second anal spine 1 J in head ; teeth rather long and 
slender. Olisihostoma. 11. 

hh, Preorbital serrate, a distinct dark streak along each row of 
scales on back and sides ; bod}' rhomboidal, with angular 
outlines; sj)ines vory strong; nnal rays III, 8 or 9 
/. Vcntnils l>l:ic'kish ; upprr inaririn of dorsal fin falen-*' . 
<loj)th 21 in li-ngtli ; scales 5 .'JS 0. BrasiHun'is. l*i. 
//. Vontrals palf. 
m. Spines moderate, tlie sic'on«l dorsal spine j i<» ^ len^'I. 
of iiead. 
IK Teetorals loni:, ri*aeliin^ to front of anal : c:iuila! 
Ioniser than lirad ; laleial stripes numerous; depth 
nearly 2 in leiiLTtli. Lintiifu.*. \:\. 

nn. Pectorals *>lH»rt. )»arely rrachin^ vent ; caudal ^hortt r 
than ; hiterai stripe^ few ; depth alnjut :i " in 
len;jtli. Jirrrimnnhj!. 14. 

lu tfi. SjiJiH's \ \'i y hi'jh, t hr >«(«»nd doi sal spine lon^ii r t 
hrad : ^r«<tiid anal spiiir about e<[nal to len^Tl. .f 
h«*ad : lateral ^t ripes very distinet . about 1 J in n 
Iht; d« ptli «»t' I'tnly -," in Iriij^th. Vl'Dii* r\ . 

•I . 


b, Premaxillary groove naked. 
c. Anal rays II, 8; body very elongate, its depth 3f in its 
length ; eye 2 J in head. Lefroyi, 1. 

cc. Anal rays III, 7. 
d. Premaxillary groove narrow, linear. 
e. Eye very large, its diameter much greater than length of 
snout, 2§ in length of head. Exposed portion of 
maxillary small, triangular. Doun. 2. 

ee. Eye small, more than 3 in head, its diameter about equal 
to length of snout. Exposed portion of maxillary 
triangular in front, oblong behind. 
/. Body elongate, the back little elevated ; greatest depth 
3J to 3^ in length. Anal spines small, the second 4J 
in length of head. Pseudogula, 3. 

//. Body more compressed, deeper, the back more elevated ; 
greatest depth 2§ in length. Anal spines larger, the 
second 3^ in length of head. Oracilis. 4. 

dd. Premaxillary groove broad, oval, naked. Body elevated, 
compressed, its greatest depth 2^ in its length. 
g. Caudal fin shorter than head, sides without dark ver- 
tical bars. Second anal spine short, 3 to 4 in head ; 
ventrals short, little more than half the length of 
head, their tips not reaching vent; dark punctula- 
tions on body few or none ; upper part of spinous 
dorsal becoming gradually blackish ; other fins 
nearly plain ; axil faintly dusky. Calif or niensis. 5. 
gg. Caudal fin longer than head. Sides with 7 to 9 dark 
bluish vertical bars, about as broad as pupil. Anal 
spines longer, the second 2f in length of head. 
Ventrals longer, If in length of head, scarcely 
reaching vent. Cinereus. 6. 

66. Premaxillary groove scaled in front, forming a naked pit 
behind. Depth 2| in length ; head 3 to 3J in length of 
body. Second anal spine about 3J in head. Gula. 7. 

aa. Preopercle distinctly entire. 
h. Preorbital entire ; body without distinct dark streaks along 
the rows of scales. (Moharra Poey). 
t. Premaxillary groove broad, triangular or oval, and free from 

268 r&ooizsixaa or the ACJjaan aw [lUt. 

j. Hod; Mv&tc, the outline somewliat reguUrlj elltptic«l, 
iloptli 3} ID length. Donnl Hpint-ii idcnder, Irnt litU* 
npxiblci, the second scarcely stronger Ui*n tliu tbinl, S is 
len;;th of h<>ad. Second and third ■mil spinaa saheqiul, 
SJ in li>n^tb of bead; iMtood itTongvr thaa third. 

jj. lioAy rlioinlmidAl, «hort and dorp, with aogalftr outliB««, 

the dir-pth utiinllj' more thun half the Iriiflh ; aiiltieM Inng 

and slender. 

k. Anal nytt III, 9; second dontal spino } or mon Icoglh m 

bead ; flvcoud anal spfne more than haJf length of h*wl 

Pn-uii'aHii& 9. 

kk. Anal nys II, 9; M-oimd dontal ipiDc xbont j length of 

bi«d ; second nnal Mpine I j In Iflng^ of beul. 

Shamh^tt*. 10. 

II. PreinaxiUary Kroo^^ bro»d, oval, and ouvnrMl with scnini 

(tbesf somettmea deeidouus in poorl; |«««erT«l iiwci- 

mi^us). Aual raya 111,8; second doraal spine 1} inhekd; 

■>4!cond nnnl spine 1 j in lu^ad ; tet'th nlher lon|t uiJ 

slender. Oli^vtiona. 11. 

hh. PreorbitAl serrate, a distinct dark stnmk along cub row of 

•onles on liack and sides ; body rhomboidml. with uifiilar 

oulUiies; spines v.ry slroniz; (inat rays III. S or ». 


I. Ventrals black isb ; upper margin of dorad On (kicate; 

depth S^ in length; scales &-38-9. Bratilianut. IS. 

U. Tentrals pale. 

m. Spines moderate, the second dorsal spine { to | length 

It. Pectorals long, reselling to front of anal ; caudal 
longer thnn hoivd ; latei'al stripes numerous; depth 
nearly 2 in length. LintatvM, IS. 

nn. Pectorals Hliort, barely reaching vent; caudnl ahorter 
than head; Literal stripes few; depth aboat 3J in 
length. BrtvimanuM, 14. 

mm. Spines very higli. the second dorsal spine longer tban 
head ; xecond anul spine nbout equal to length of 
head ; lateral stri]>e8 very distinct, at>out 12 in num- 
ber; de|>th of lM"iy 2^ in Irnglb. PUtmieri, 15. 


1. Q«rrM lefroyi. 

Diapterus Ufrayi Goode, Amer. Jour. Soi. and Arts, 123, 1874 ; Goode, 

BuU. U. S. Nat. Mas., 1876, 39 (Bermudas). 
Gerres lefroyi Gunther, Voyage Challenger, Fishes, 10, 1880 (name 
only); Evermann & Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Soi. Phila., 1883, 118; 
Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 130 (Key West); Jordan and 
Swam, Proc U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1884, 233 (Cedar Keys); Jordan, Cat. 
Fish. N. A., 1885, 95. 
Eucinoitamus producttis Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 55, 1875 (Havana); 
Poey, Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N. Y., 1876 (Havana). 

Habitat. — Atlantic coast of tropical America ; West Indies; 
Bermudas ; Cedar Keys ; Key West ; Havana. 

The specimens examined by us are from Havana (8 specimens), 
Key West (5 specimens), and Cedar Keys (1 specimen). In size 
they range from 2 to 8^ inches in length. 

Head 3^ to 3^; depth 3f ; scales 5-47-9. D. IX, 10. A. II, 8. 
Body elongate, elliptical, not very strongly compressed ; back 
little elevated ; snout conical, not much pointed ; mouth small, 
end of maxillary reaching scarcely beyond vertical from anterior 
margin of orbit, its length 3 in length of head, exposed portion 
nearly triangular, its greatest width 2 in its length, which is 5 in 
length of head. Top of head flattish. Premaxillary groove long, 
linear and naked. Eye large, 2^ in head ; snout 3^ in head, inter- 
orbital area 3 in head. Q ill-rakers weak, small, 7 or 8 below the 
angle. Dorsal spines all weak and flexible, second and third sub- 
equal, 6^ in length of head ; upper margin of the fin concave. 
Second anal spine moderate, its length 4 in head. Least depth 
of caudal peduncle 3§ in length of head. 

Color silvery, darker above, everywhere with fine dusky punc- 
tulations and traces of crossbars. Top of spinous dorsal black, 
dorsal, anal, and caudal dusky. Yentrals and pectorals paler, 
but with dusky punctulations ; axil dusky ; a dark spot on supra- 
orbital ; snout dusky ; no distinct stripes along rows of scales. 

In form, size and color, this species resembles G. dowi, but is 
readily distinguished from the latter by the presence of two anal 
spines instead of three. This character is apparently a constant 
one, observed in many specimens. 

3. Oerrei dowi. 

Diapterus dowt Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 162 (Panama). 
Oetret dowi Qiinther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 448, 1866 (Description taken 
from Gill); Steindachner, Ichth. Beitrage, iv, 13, 1875 (No descrip- 
tion), (Oallao, Peru ; Gkilapagos Islands); Jordan & Gilbert^ Bull. 

i60 PBOGtSDincw or thx acadkkt c9 [18W. 

U. S. Fish Comm., 1881, 829 (Panmma): Joidan & Gabcrt, BnlL U. 
8. Fish Comm., 1882/111 (Paiuunai; Jordan A Gflben, Proc U. 
8. Kat. Has., 1882, 377 (Panama); Evermann & Meek, Proc Acad. 
Nat. 8ci. Phila., 188:3, 120 (Panama). 
Oerren aprion Gunther, Fish. Ctntr. Amer., 391, 1866 ^Xanir obIji 

Habitat, — Atlantic and Pacific coasts of tropical America; 
Galapagos Islands, Peru ; Panama ; Havana ; Key West. 

The specimens examined by ns are from Havana (2 Bi>ecimeDf, 
5^ and 6 inches in length), and Key West (5 specimens, 3 to i 
inches in length). 

Head 3f ; depth 3; scales 5-4.=^- 10. 

Body rather slender^ compressed, elliptical, Itack little elevated, 
head flat, with a slight depression above front of orbit. Maxil- 
lary triangular and small, the width at posterior end being \ tht 
length, which is about ^ diameter of eye, also ^ length of secoDd 
dorsal spine. Preorhital and preopercle entire. Eye large, 2J 
in head ; snout 3^, and interorbital. 3^ in head. 

Second and third dorsal spines about e<iual, the third perhafM 
slightly longest, 1 J in head, all weak and flexible. Second anal 
spine relativel}' strong, third weaker but slightly longer, 2 J in 
head ; base of anal 1 J to 2^ in length of head. Least depth of 
oaudril piMlunch* 2f, in he:i<l. Pectorals i\]>out J length of head. 
tlit'ir lips re.'ifliiii'j vent. Venlrals 1 ; in li«;ni, n-achinj n^^'tr. * 
<listan«f to viiit. rrcniaxillary L^roovi* narrow, linear an«i n;ik»<l. 
an<l not txtih'lin;^ ijuite to iIh- vertical of centre nf pupil. 

Color ^iUery with l>lni--h rrllection^. darker aUove lattrul \.i:». 
'V\\>^ of spinoii-i «lo?--al Maek. \i*nliaU dusky (lii:ht«T \u K«\ 
\\\ ^l ^ptMinn'n> » ; a Mack -^upraorlMt.-il *ipot . r:tu«ial dn^k\ . l..-i'. 
covert «1 with mtv line dark punetnlations. 

Thi"- --pee;* •- li:is not i-et n hitherto reeor«le«l fr<»ni tlu- Alliiit.. 

Gerrrs pseudogula. 

, ll.t\ .m.i'i. 
i.,r-^> '" <;:• Ai.ii ami M.ii;. . 11 i-^t., ili, !»*:'.», : %o^ ;'>:* 
ilvtT'..; .."; i» '♦ '.r'.tv, \ "\ A'j,i ( "li.»;!. ni^iT. Fi««h« V, i. jo >*»(■ 

\\. " . .>. , I v.-:: »-.!. A M..k. P-.M . Ara.l. >. ]' \ 
\>^\ 1 <'(^;-, •• . . .! .:.ii:.. K>;.. N. A.. l^-'». l»".. 

//.•'..,. W 1 ^t l!.i«-; r»' I niii'hi-- ; I'uha. 

\\ f h.iNt e\:im;iu i i.^lit •^iMcinun'^ ot* this spe<'u-«-. :\.. :• ::. 
liaxana. Tht \ tan^t fioin '2 ^ to 7 iiulu'S in h-n^th. 


Head S^toSi; depth 3^ ; scales 5-49-9; D. IX-10; A. III-7. 

Body elongate, elliptical, not much compressed ; back little 
elevated ; profile evenly convex ; top of head little convex ; 
mouth rather small, end of maxillary reaching slightly past 
vertical from front of orbit ; length of maxillary 3^ in length of 
head, its exposed portion nearly triangular and about J length 
of head, its greatest width ^ its greatest length. Preorbital 
and preopercle entire. Snout not much pointed, conical ; cheeks 
each with three rows of scales ; seven gill-rakers below the angle. 
Eye 3J in head, snout S^ in head ; interorbital area 3| in head. 
Dorsal spines all weak and flexible. Second and third dorsal 
spines subequal, 1^ in length of head. Base of anal 2 in length 
of head, spines small, the second the stronger, its length 4^ in 
length of head, about equal in length to third spine or slightly 
the shorter. Least depth of caudal peduncle 3 in length of head. 

Tips of pectoral fins reaching vent, their length about 3f in 
length of body. Ventrals 1^ in head, their tips reaching | dis- 
tance to vent. Premaxillary grooves long, linear and free from 

Color greenish above, with bluish reflections, silvery below ; 
snout blackish ; tips of spinous dorsal black ; pectorals pale, 
dusky in axil. Yentrals and anal pale. Caudal reddish. 

This species has been sometimes confounded with Gerres 
gracilis. It can easily be distinguished from the latter by its 
more elongate form and its comparatively small anal spines. 

There seems to be no room for doubt of the identity of G. 
jonesi with G. pseudogula. 

4. Gerres graoilis. 

BiapteruB gracilis Gill, Pioc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 240 (Cape 
San Lucas). 

Qerres graciliB Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 274 
(Guaymas); Jordon & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1881, 329 
(Guaymas ; Mazatlan ; Panama); Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish 
Comm., 1882, 108 (Mazatlan; Pauama); Jordan, Proc. U. 8. Nat 
Mus., 1884, 130 (Key West); Jordan, Cat. Fish. N. A., 1885, 95. 

Oerres aprion Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 352, 1859 (San Do- 
mingo ; Jamaica ; West Indies ; South America); Giinther, Cat. Fish. 
Brit. Mus., iv, 255, 1862 (San Domingo; Jamaica; Bahia); Bean & 
Dresel, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1884, 154 (Jamaica) (not of Cuv. & 


EudnoBtomns harengulus Goode & Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mas., 1879, 

132 (Western Florida). * 
Diapterus harengulus Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 389 

(Clear Water Harbor, Florida). 
OerreB hareTi^vXus Jordan «fe Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 584, 1883 (Pen- 

sacola, Florida); Bean & Dresel, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1884, 154 


Habitat, — Atlantic and Pacific coasts of tropical America, and 
the West Indies (Cape San Lucas ; San Domingo ; Jamaica ; 
Havana ; Bahia ; Western Florida ; Panama ; Guaymas ; Mazat- 
Ian ; Key West). 

The numerous specimens examined by us are from Havana and 
Key West, and range from 1 to 7^ inches in length. Head 3^ ; 
depth 2§ to 2f ; scales 5-45-9 ; Dorsal IX-10 ; A. III-T. 

Body elliptical, compressed, back moderately elevated ; anterior 
profile little convex, not very steep ; snout rather pointed, mouth 
moderate, maxillary reaching almost to vertical from front of 
orbit, its length 3 in length of head ; exposed portion of maxil- 
lary triangular in front, oblong behind, its width 2 in its length, 
which is 4| in length of head. Preorbital and preopercle entire. 
Eye not very large, its diameter 3 ^ in length of head, snout 3^ in 
head, Premaxillary groove long, linear, and naked. Gill-rakers 
small and weak, 7 below the angle. 

Dorsal spines weak and flexible, the longest 4 J to 2y'5 in head; 
anal spines rather short, the second the stronger, its length 3^ in 
length of bead ; ventral fins short, their tips reaching about half- 
way to anal, their length 1 1 in head. 

Pectorals slender, their tips reaching about to vent; length of 
pectorals about equal to head ; ventrals and caudal mostly covered 
with small scales ; other fins naked, color in life silver}', greenish 
above ; snout and upper part of caudal dusky ; spinous dorsal 
punctate at base, usually abruptly black at tip ; the dark areas 
are separated bv a transparent horizontal bar (these markings 
wanting in some specimens, perhaps females): soft dorsal punc- 
tate ; caudal with a faint dusky margin ; ventrals pale. 

This species is very common at Key West and Havana. There 
seems to l>o no difference between the " harengulus *' of the East 
Coast and the West Coast *' gracilis/' 


5. Oerrei oalifomiensii. 

IHapterus califomienHs Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 245 
(Cape San Lucas). 

Oerres cdlifomiensis Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 
274(Guayma8); Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish. Comm., 1881, 
319 (Guaymas); Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1882, 
108 (Mazatlan); Evermann & Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1883, 120 (Guaymas ; Mazatlan); Jordan, Cat. Fishes N. A., 1885, 95. 

f Gerres gula Steindachner, Ichth. Beitriige, iii, 60, 1875 (name only ; 
nee Cuv. & Val.); (Magdalena Bay). 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of Mexico (Mazatlan ; Guaymas ; 
Cape San Lucas). 

This species is certainly close to O, cinereun^ and it may 
eventually prove to be a variety of the latter. 

6. Oerrei einereni. 

Tardus einermts peltatus Catesby, Nat. Hist., pi. ii, fig. 2, 1750 
(Florida Keys ; Bahamas). 

Mug CI cinereus Walbaum, Artedi Piscium, 228, 1792 (After Catesby). 

Qerres ein&reus Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1882, 108 
(Mazatlan); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N, A., 935, 1883; Ever- 
mann & Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 120 ; Jordan, Proc, 
U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1884, 130, 148 (Key West); Jordan, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., 1884, 194 (identification of Catesby's figure); Jordan, 
Cat. Fishes N. A., 1885, 95. 

Gerre$ zebra Miiller & Troschel, Schomburgk Hist. Barbadoes, 668, 
1848 (Barbadoes); Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 349, 1859 
(copied); Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., iv, 254, 1862 (copied); 
Steindachner, Ichthyol. Notizen, iv, ii, 1867 (Surinam); Steindaohner, 
Zur Fisch-Fauna des Magdalenen-Stromes, 9, 1878 (Rio Magdalena. 
Identified with Oerres eqnamipinnis Gunther); Jordan & Gilbert, 
Bull. U. 8. Fish. Comm., 1881, 329 (Mazatlan); Be&n & Dresel, 
Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1884, 154 (Jamaica). 

Oerrei aprion Cuvier, Regne Animal, ed. 2, 104, 1829 (Based on 
Catesby) ; Cuvier & Valenciennes, Ilist. Nat. Poiss., 461, 1830 

Diapterus aprion Poey, Enum. Pise. Cuba, 51, 1875 (Havana). 

Euexnoetomus aprion Poey, Enum. Pise. Cuba, 328, 1877 (Havana). 

Oerrei equamipinnis Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 349, 1859 
(Jamaica ; Guatemala); Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., iv, 254, 
1862 (Jamaica; Guatemala); Steindachner, Ichthyol. Notizen, iv, 
12, 1867 (Surinam); Gunther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 39, 1869 (Jamaica; 
Chiapam ; Panama). 

Eueinoetomue zebra Poey, Enum. Pise. Cuba, 51, 1875 (Havana). 

Habitat, — Both coasts of Tropical America, and the West 
Indies (Havana ; Jamaica ; Chiapam ; Panama ; G^uatemala ; 
Martinique ; Bahamas ; Florida Keys ; Barbadoes ; Mazatlan.) 

SU Mo oM B t wrn or no toksmtJ or [ISM.' 

The •peeitBctu before us ki« ftvA C«7' Wwt ftnd Hatvbb. 
Tbej Twi^ from ft^ to 13 isefac* in Jwgth. Tbw t f uci w •«»•■ 
to nmch * larger «tcr tbui aojr or tW ctben ben mratiumtd. 
Hewl St : dopili 3^ to 3| ; ec&lM S-45-1*. 

Bodj GOMpraMed, eloi^pde. tmck moiiawUij efevued, IW 
dovssl proAl* being cruO; coavcs. M«alli BodtnU, the Main 
bry extnidiii|{ bM BllfliUj bey ood ifcc vcrtlcKl at aBUrkw (HU^gia 
of orbit, iu ezpoaed portioo iri&ag«lar ia Gim.uid twtc* ■• loa^ 
M -vld*, ita kn^b being amlain*4 Stv timM in ihat of tb« baftd. 
PrMirliiul ux) prpopercU miiirv; |irvii)«<iilaTj gnioTa bfoad 
bmI frra fhim wxlm ; gill-nken wrjik, 7 hrluw ito nnglB. Bn 
modcnttf, ■Iwot 3( in beul ; snuat 3^. aatl intonirUtsI cpMx SJ, 
is bawl. Distance tnita md uf uraat to rlnrsAl tn SJ In lenytb 
of body. SMood dnr^al ftpinc kin][««t, about 1^ in hm»d, utd imK 
ndcb •tfuo);er tfaan the ntbera ; aU the doraal apioea ar« vaak 
and <l«xitile ; general outtine of tbr oppM aatfia of tfae ip lBBiwa 
dona] fnlcato. Seoomt and tbiH aaal apjnaa Mbeqnal, Mcoad 
9} to il in lengtb of bend, Uit paotonU Karmlj re«diln( ana), 
ibair length being contained tknt limaa in that of tba bodjr. 
Tentrala Qonlaiaed IItiiDcaiith«Md,and«»nclyrMdii&][UMVfrBt. 
C^il'ir «llv<-ry >iUt Miilih r»Bectlona above. SIdMi with T or S 
hr-U'i: 'I.-'. 'T-; , t.'.i-, 1-..j: . ^ : Jh.:' [liiti.l iTi •i.liii. No 
dark stripes along the scales. Dorul and caudal flna dnakT, and 
aligbtlyito; other Qns pale. ventniU with a few dark punctula- 
tions; aiil darlt. 
T. 0«rrM fiU. 

0»rrf guia Cuvier A. V*1euciennes, lliM. Nat. Poita., *i, 464, 18:M> 
lM>rtitfI<iue; Bniill; Jenyni, Zuol. Beagle, Fiabe>, 58, IMS; 
Giinthvr, Cat. Fiih. Brit. Miu., 1, 34S, 185B {B>hU; Ban Dtmlnco; 
Jamaica); Giinther, Cat. FHib. Brit Hub., It, 3K. 1863 (B»bia ; San 
Dorologo: Jamaica); Poe;, Rep. PlK^. Cub., 31«, 1805 (Hanna); 
Ooude, Dull. U. S. Nat. Mna.. v, 1870, SB (Bermadaa) ; Jonlan * 
Gilbert, Syn. FUb. N. A., B34. 1883 ; ETeraanD A Mnsk, Pmn. Acnd. 
Nat. Bel. Pbila.. 1SH3, 19-2 iBcrniudas; Beaufort, H. C; Charleaton, 
S.C.; A^pl^<IBll ; Penut-ula); Jordan. Proo. Acad. NaL Sol. PhOn^ 
18S3, 2A9 (KotcK oil original ijjK); Jonlan, Pror. U. S. Nat. Mw, 
I'«t, 130 , Key Wert ; Jordan & B*aln, PiOf. C. S. Nat. Una., l»i. 
■,>:U iCwUr Kry« ; Jordan. Cat. FIhIi. N. A., \HX\ 9S. 
Du,,.urv gttla l\*y. Syii. VU: lul... 3:3. I>«s (llnana). 
EiHnv*tomiit ar-jthttut Baird & Oiranl, Nintli Smitb. Rvpt., 1^-1.% 34.1 
(S,« Jtrs.y CiMct); (iiranl, T. S. and Mii. lid. Surify, Plabca, IT. 
V\. ix, tg*. S-l->, 1856 (BniziH Santiago, iDdianula, and St. Ji»Kt<fa'i 
lilaod, Tcias). 



f Gerrei argenteus Gunther, Cat Fish. Brit. Mus., 256, 1862 (Texas). 
JSkieinostomus gtUula Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 54, PI. 3, 1875 (Havana). 
Diapterus homonymus Goode & Bean, Proo. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 340, 
(Clear Water Harbor, Fla.). 

Habitat, — Atlantic coast of America from New Jersey to Brazil, 
and the West Indies. 

(New Jersey; Beaufort, N. C. ; Charleston, S. C; Clear Water 
Harbor, Fla.; Cedar Keys; Key West; Brazos, Indianola, and 
St. Joseph's Island, Texas ; Aspinwall ; Brazil ; Bahia ; Martin- 
ique; Jamaica, San Domingo ; Havana; Bermudas.) 

We have examined numerous specimens of this species from 
Cedar Keys, Key West, and Havana, varying in size from 1^ to 
6^ inches in length. 

Head 3^ ; depth 2? ; D. IX, 10 ; A. Ill, 8 ; scales 5-42-9. 

Body elliptical, compressed, back moderately elevated, mouth 
small ; end of maxillary reaching slightly past vertical from front 
margin of orbit ; exposed portion of maxillary nearly oblong, its 
width about 2 in its length, which is from 4 to 5 in the length of 
the head. 

Preorbital and preopercle entire. Gill-rakers small and weak, 
7 below the angle. Eye 3 in length of head, snout 3^ in head. 
Interorbital area 3 in head. Premaxillary groove scaled in front, 
the posterior part naked, forming a sort of pit ; longest dorsal 
spine 1^ in head ; second anal spine shorter and stronger than 
third, its length about 3^ in head ; ventrals reaching nearly to 
vent ; their length If in length of head. Pectorals reaching front 
of anal, their length about 3 in length of body. 

Color silvery, greenish, darker above; no distinct longitudinal 
lines except in very young ; upper margin of spinous dorsal more 
or less black. 

Dorsal and anal fins dusky, other fins pale. 

The form of this species resembles that of G, gracilis^ but the 
body is always less elongate than in the latter. The form of its 
premaxillary groove differing from that of any other species, 
affords the best character for distinction. 

The many specimens of this species which we have examined 
present no marked differences or variations. They also agree 
very well with the description and drawing of Encinostomus gulula 
of Poey. 

We have no doubt of the identity of gulaj argent^uSj gulula and 

966 PBOCEKOtNOB Or THB A0AI»3fT OF [1886. 

H. Otmi knnoliii. 

(7mt<i aurMlun Jordu) & OUtMirt, BiiQ. V. 8. FUh, Conm., IW, IH 
(FukUDA}; JonUii & QllUsft. Bull. V. 8. Fl^ Ciwiik., 1881; til 
(Pan«ma); ETormkD ft Herk, Proo- Acad.Kat 8d. PUla., 1881^ Itt 

Habitai, — Bny of P&nftUM. Only tbe original type of Uiia 
strongly mnrkei) «pcciM is yet knowu. 

> Qtm pwnTlknni. 

Oemt ptruvianut Cuvlcr A VftleoelMUiM, HIhL Xat. Pniah, vt, MT, 
1630 (P^yt*. yoTthen Peru); Lnuon, Yojtfco CnjuUla, Po(m., 1^ 
18S8 ; Jordan A Otlbott, Biilt. U. S. PUh Comin.. 1081, 390 (Mual- 
Ian ; Vuutmt); Jonbn A ailb«n, BulL V. H. Fl*li Cimua^ tStt. 
106, 111, 113 (Pumnut; HuatUa ; Ptinta Arvnu); Evrnaan * 
Hack, Proo. Acad. S».t Set. Plitla., 188S, 13it : Jonlan. Pmv Aod. 
Hat, 6oi. PUU.. 1883, S6V CNotM on original type); JonUn. Cat 
Fiaii.K. A.. 18Sfi,BS. 

Gtrrtt rk^tiibmt Otialhet, Fluli Cuntr. Amcr., SSI, 18BS f Nmm wly), 
(Chlapam}; Joidan ft CfllU^ Proc, V. 8. Itat. Vut^ 1881, 881 
(Baliua OruE}, (not of Cuv. & VaL). 

.fioMfaf. — WcHt Cimat of Trofiical Amvrica (MaxaUsn; Salliw 
CriU; Chiapam ; Panniua; Pltu). 

Dr. Jordan ha« csamiinMl th* type of thi§ apfrclea, tif whEcb h« 
aays: "The type or Ibis spccits is appamiitly iilr-Qifi-al with tb* 
commoD west-coast species called by this oaine by Jordan and 
Gilbert (Bull. V. S. Pish Comni., 188, 330), and later by Ever- 
mann and Meek (Proc. Acad. If at Sci. Pliila., 1883, 123)." 

10. e*mi rbanbtot. 

Blone bait Stoatic, NaL Hist. Jamaica, II, pi. 3.'<3, flg. 1, 1TS7 

Oeirtt rhombeua Cuvler ft Valencleune*, Hist. Nat. Poln . tI, US, 
1830 (MartiDl<(iic ; 8an Dumlugo); OOnther. Cat. FUh. Brit Miu . 
t, 341, IMO (Cuba; Jamaica; Pueilu Capello; Sootb America; in 
phrt U.oUtthottoma Ooode ft Bean); tin Uicr, Cat Fish. Brit Mu*., 
iv, 253, ISfla (Cuba ; Janiaii-a ; Puerto Capelli>l; StclDdacbDer, Zur 
FlBcb-Fauna Magdalen en- St romi;K, 0, 1878 iltio Hagdalena>; Jonlu 
ft OilUrt, Proc. U. S. Nat. MuR., 1893, 883 ( Aapinwall ; Eve rmaan 
ft Mwk, Proc. A<»d. Nat. Sci. PhlU., 1883, 123; Jordan. Pnc. 
Aca.1. Nat Sfi. I'hila. 1883, 2JH) Note- on original type ; IW-an ft 
DrcMl, Proc. I". S. Nat Mu-., 1884, l,-.4 iJamaica). 
Sabilal.—Weet Imlits and .Mlantic Const of Tropical America 

(Jamaica; San Domingo; MHriiiii<|iic ; Puerto Capello ; Havana : 

Aspinwall ; Uio Magdalena;. 


We have examined a number of specimens from Havana, 
ranging from 2| to 10 inches in length. 

Head 3^ ; depth If ; scales 6-38-10. D. IX, 10 ; A. II, 9. 

Body much compressed, rhomboidal in form, the back much 
elevated ; profile evenly convex to supraorbital where there is a 
slight depression ; snout somewhat pointed ; mouth rather large ; 
end of maxillary reaching to vertical from centre of pupil, its 
length 3 in head. Exposed portion of the maxillary oblong, its 
width about 2 J in its length, which is 4;^ in head. Eye 3^ in head ; 
snout 4 in head ; interorbital area 3;^ in head. Gill-rakers stronger 
than in gula or olisthostoma 18 below the angle. Premaxillary 
groove broad, oval and free from scales. Pectoral fins reaching 
to front of anal, their length 3 in length of body ; ventral fins 
reaching beyond vent, their length 4;^ in length of body. Second 
dorsal spine stronger, but shorter than third and fourth, its length 
about 4^ in length of body ; margin of fin falcate. Suborbital 
entire ; preopercle entire. Caudal peduncle 2§ in length of head. 
Anal spine constantly two in number. Second anal spine If in 
length of head. 

Color silvery, with bluish refiections, darker above ; margin of 
dorsal fin black; fins rather pale; ventrals and anal with dusky 
punctulations ; snout dusky ; no distinct dark lines along the rows 
of scales. 

11. Oerrei oUithoitoma. 

Qerres rhomb&us Poey, Rep. Pise. Cub., 316, 1865 (Havana); Poey, Syn. 

Pise. Cub., 821, 1868 (Havana). 
Mojarra rhombea Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 51, 1875 (Havana); Poey, 

Enum. Pise. Cub., 327, 1877 (Havana) (not Oema rhombeui 

C. &V.). 
Gerres olUthostoma Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 423 

(Indian River, Florida); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 934, 

1883 ; Evermann & Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 123 ; 

Jordan, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus.. 1884, 130 (Key West); Jordan, Cat. 

Pish. N. A., 1885, 95. 

Habitat. — Coast of Florida and Cuba (Key West; Indian River, 
Fla.; Havana ; San Matheos). 

We have examined specimens from Key West, Havana and San 
Matheos. They range from 5 inches to a foot in length. 

Head 3^ ; depth 2^ ; scales 5-38-9. D. IX, 10 ; A. Ill, 8. 

Body compressed, rhomboidal in form, back very much ele- 
vated. Mouth large, maxillary extending to vertical from ante- 

S6S piocKEDnfos OP thi acadkmt op riS84. 

rior portion of pupil, its length 2| in head : exposed portion 
oblong, its width 2| in its length, which is 4 to 4 j in head* 

Preorbiul entire; preoi>ercle senrmte; premaxilUry groove 
broad, closely covered with small scales (an important diagnostic 
cbaracter): gill-rakers weak, 11 below the angle. Eye 3^ in hvad; 
interorbital space 3j, and snout about 3^ in head. Distance from 
«aK>ct to dorsal fin about 2 j in length. Second dorsal spine K to 
1| in head ; third about equal to second, the others decreasing in 
k^gth, the sixth being Imt one-half length of second — the gentrral 
octline of upper margin of spinous dorsal being sickle-$hap«^L 
Pe^'torals reaching slightly beyond front of anal, and equal a little 
Itess than one-third length of body. Ventrals reaching just lieyond 
T^nt and are one-fourth length of body. Anal spines always 3. 
Second anal spine stout, about 1 J in head. Least depth of caudal 
|ieduncle about 2^ in heail. 

Color silvery with bluish reflections, darker above. No distinct 
dark lines along rows of scales. Dorsal, ventrals and anal dusky, 
other fins paler. A dark supraorbital spot ; snout dusky. 

This species has, until lately, been confounded withO. rhambeus. 

IS. OtTT— brMiliAnm. 

0$rre» hfa»ilianu» Cuvut Jc Valenciennes, Hi»«t. Nat. Potss., ri, I.'jS, 
18aO (Brazil; Porto Uico : Poey, Ri»p. PiKC. CuK, i, 315. l«Jftr, 

'HavaiKi : I*.h y, Syn. l*i-i\ CiiK., ::-J<^, 1*-»W II.i\;in.i : r.^y.Kniuu. 
Fix-, (ul... :>n, 1^::> H;iv;iiii : P.^y, Kimrn. l'i>. . (.'!:*•.. ::.*:, 1^77 
II;i\:ii»a ; 11\» nii;iim cV ^It'« k. Phh-. A> .i«l. N.4t. S*-!. V\.:\x . IS^".. 
1*JI : .T<.r«i.iM. Pn>c. Acad. *^< i. Pi.ila.. 1**^ '.. J^^l* Ni»t.'^ *m, \\\-» . 
(i'rrtK ; '</" r<M\. M« iiM»riaN < nl.a. ii. \\*'2. \<*^ ifax^iiia : !*•» v. ^-t i. 
I*is4-. CuK.. :*.jn. l^«;s Havana;: P.^y, Knirn. Pi^^-. Cnl'., '»'». 1^:'. 
< Havana : <i'.nth.r. (.it. P.-h. Brit. Mu-^., iv. 2."»:i, 1^».J (..j;..: . 
Kvtnnann \ M. . k. Pro.-. A.a<l. Nal. Si. Ph-.Ia., l^^-V PJ:V 

Wf h:i\e «'\:iiniiji«l :i viry hiri:** -iprcinK'n of this -^pt-rits . ..I- 
k'ctt-<l :it Cliurlr-ton. South Cnroliiiii. hy Mr. l'h:irh-s ('. L«-^h. 
as wrll a*- niuiKTuus «iin:ilkT oiir-^ Iroiii Havana. 

Hi'a.i 3J: -Irptli -J' ; ^cah-s f>-:5^-:» ; D. 1\-1«»: A. 111-7 or >. 

Bodv coiniirt-^-t •!, rhoiiilu'iilal : back vt-rv much i'U-v:tt* .1 ; 

• • • 

protiK- iK-aily >tiaiL:!it tVoiii ^pinou- <lor^al to j»r«!na\;l!i: y 
«Mot.»vt\ \Nh«r(.' th» IX- i^ a •''i_:ht •l«-|»n-«^i«'n. Snout c'o:ii.-a!. I'l.:,:- 
i-h : in«'U!h ralhrr l:ir_«' : luMxiilaiv rrachin:: -l:;^htl\ l'«\.:..i 
t!ii' V'ltu-al Tioni :in:<!i..r inirjiii «•;' j-upil. it^ ltii;>'*h .* . . 
himt!. I'f !n:i'l. Kxp"^. -1 j.- -r' I'-n <»f in:i\iilar\ ••^•'.•'Iil:. ;■ ^ \n 1: 
'?\ in ii> U-ni;th, ii> K-ii.:th 1 . in hn^lii of h« a-l. 


Preorbital and preopercle serrate ; premaxillary groove broad, 
narrowed posteriorly, entirely free from scales. Gill-rakers 
short and weak, 11 below the angle; eye small, 3| in length of 
head ; snout 3^ in length of head. Dorsal spines rather strong 
and stiff, second and third subequal in length, the second much 
the stronger, its length If in length of head, upper margin of 
dorsal fin falcate. Second and third anal spines subequal, the 
second much the stronger, its length 1§ in length of head. 
Least depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in length of head. 

Color silvery gray, with bluish reflections, darker above, a dark 
streak along each row of scales, most conspicuous on upper part 
of body ; fins all dusky except pectorals, which are pale ; dorsal 
and anal blackish on their margins. A dark supraorbital spot; 
axil dusky. 

The description of Gerres brasilianus Cuv. and Yal. is very 
poor indeed. Dr, Jordan has examined the type, and we here 
give a copy of his notes : " The type of this species is in very 
bad condition, unfit for detailed description. Sides apparently 
with dark stripes along the rows of scales. Preorbital and pre- 
opercle serrate. Frontal groove broad, naked. Longest dorsal 
spine 5 in body. Second anal spine 5^. Anal spines 3 in number. 
Caudal fin long. This species is allied to Q, plumieri^ but the 
back is less elevated and the spines smaller than in the latter." 

The above agrees very well with our specimens from Charles- 
ton and Havana, the latter being evidently identical with the 
Oerres patao of Poey. 

13. Oerrei lineatns. 

Smarts lineaiui Humboldt, Observ. ZooL, ii, 185, PI. 46, 1807-1834 

Oerres lineatus Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 470, 

1830 (Description from Humboldt); Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. 

Fish Comm., 1881, 330 (Mazatlan ; San Bias); Jordan & Gilbert, 

Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1882, 108 (Mazatlan); Jordan & Gilbert, 

Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 377 (Fresh-water Lake at Acapulco); 

Evermann & Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 123 ; Jordan, 

Cat. Fish. N. A., 1885, 95. 
Oerres aTtllaris Giinther, Proc. Zool. 8oc. London, 1864, 102 ; Gunther, 

Fish. Cent. Amer., 448, 1866 (Cbiapam); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. 

U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1881, 232 (Name only) (San Bias). 

Habitat, — West Coast of Mexico (Acapulco ; Mazatlan ; San 
Bias; Chiapam). 


14. Gerres brevimanus. 

Oerres brevimanus Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1864, 152 ; 
Gunther, Fish. Centr. Amen, 448, 1869 (Chiapam); Evermann and 
Meek, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., 1883, 124 ; Jordan. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 290 (Notes on type). 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of Tropical America. 

Concerning this species, Dr. Jordan observes : " This species 
is distinct from O, lineatus (Humboldt), although closely allied 
to it. Only the original type is yet known. On this I have the 
following notes : — 

" Head 3^ in length ; depth 2^ ; eye 3J in head. Coloration of 
Gerres lineatus. Back much lower than in the latter, and pectoral 
fins very much shorter; their length 1^ in head; their tips not 
reaching nearly to tips of ventrals, which are 1^ in head ; caudal 
3 in body. Preorbital very little serrate, almost entire. Pre- 
opercle weakly serrate. Second dorsal spine If in head ; second 
anal spine If. Teeth small and short. No black on base of 
pectoral, or on lower fins. Spinous dorsal dusky above. Frontal 
groove broad and naked, as in O, lineatus^ 

15. Oerres plumieri. 

Oerres plumieri Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 452, 1830, 
(Antilles ; Porto Rico); Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., i, 340, 1859 
(San Domingo; Guatemala; Pemambuco ; Bahia); Cat. Fish, 
Brit. Mus., iv, 253, 18G2 (San Domingo; Guatemala; Pemambuco; 
Bahia); Poey, Rep. Pise. Cub., 315, 1865 (Havana); Poey, Syn.Pisc. 
Cul)., 321, 18G8 (Havana); Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 49, 1875 (Ha- 
vana); Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 327, 1877 (Havana); Steindachner, 
Zur Fisch-Fauna des Magdalenen-Stromes, 9, 1878 (RioMagdalena); 
Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 583, 1883; Evermann & Meek, 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil.. 1883, 124 ( Aspinwall ; Indian River, 
Florida); Jordan, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 290 (Notes on 
tyie); Bean & Drcsel, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884, 153 (Jamaica); 
Jordan, Cat. Fisli. N. A., 1885, 05. 

Habitat. — West Indies and Atlantic Coast of Tropical America 
(Antilles; Havana; Porto llico ; San Domingo; Jamaica; In- 
dian River, Fla. ; Pemambuco; Bahia; Aspinwall; Guatemala). 

We have examined six specimens from Havana. They range 
from 5| to G inches in length. 

Head 3 ; depth 2^ ; scales 5-31-11. D. lY, 10 ; A. Ill, 8. 

Body compressed, rhomboidal in form, back very much ele- 
vated. Mouth rather large, maxillary extending slightly beyond 

lft%' * «ATrmAi. mriMnrm of raiLADturaiA. 971 

• • fc si' • ■,...•■ i'»..^I 

fc-l •■ •< . '•«. f t;, .. ik!f« <f .' 'ik'f* •:!.*!. wi^k, 1 *«'..• 
*\.' %• ^' K • r i' « • »•/* r,'i tfT •:! I .!. ).• * i P • 

! ^ r . ' ■ ' • ; ' • ' •. • - I r • I ! '!..,. a * r . ^- ' ■ \t* « *. ". • ; ^ ti • f 
Jt lj«*--, • '..'^i»«\*:. •• k. ••'.]!:« 1 >«.'il«»'«%l 

• ; • . .•'•-.%•! • . •• . • /•!. :f r. I. : ,V • t f--U •.' r 

• !!*'••; ■ • • • . • ■ .»k -. \ f. 1 ■ . S. . r, I :»• \ •; ?.r %* r» 

. • ,' ..... •...•,/.*..;.,:• ;. !;^*!. of li. » i 'J. -i \utk\ 

ft* • . '. . •••■••' vr. . •!.. f :t:,:*l. :\ t. *«T^'ti. •/ 

< • ' • • . • • . \ • \ . * ■..?>•■'» !•!••. 1 »• 4 ■ r ^* 

t- •! ■•■. ii. •..1*. '•.».. I»r«! \.lft'&'!ft*%^ 

I". • I 

X ' ■• ,' * \ •* f'-r .•« t«'i*,--..' fr 

*. * I • ' . ■ I . * • • ; ' ' f \ • • • % • • J • • •. r I • •. i • • 

• •*•-•• •■ I • g Ik"' « '■•• <•«**««' i *• 

'*••--■ M »■ a *'•» * •♦•••*§'•*■ t'4t 

• »•---« 4 • • i t k »* ' '• •—• - I 

•■•••-*".. % * % *! "•"'•^i 

It- " . • , ■ fc A i • • ■ » . » 

■«<■■!•■• "• ''fl'kik.i 

• fifl ••- ■•» ■ • ■■■•.•i 

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**•'••■ r- ■»* r ..» • • * 4 •.-•--«•*« 4 I 

I ••* It •»- ■ ..I pmi^i. /■.':»• * '«-^«;«» -.4 


Nominal Species, Tear. IdenHfieaUon, 

Eucinostomus productus Poey, 1876, Gerres lefroji. 

Gerres jonesi Giinther, 1879, Gerres pseadogula. 

Eucinostomus harengulusGoode and Bean, 1879, Gerres gracilis. 

Diapterus homonymus Goode and Bean, 1879, Gerres gula. 

Gkrres aureolus Jordan and Gilbert, 1881, Gerres aureolus. 

Gerres olisthostoma Goode and Bean, 1882, Gerres olisthostoma. 


We have in this paper admitted 15 species of the American 
Gerridee, and repeat here the list of species. The distribution 
of the species is indicated by the letters W. (West Indies and 
adjacent coasts), U. (Southern Atlantic coast of the United 
States), and P. (Pacific coast of Tropical America). 

1. Qenus OEBSES Cuvier. 

1. Gerres lefroyi Goode (W.). 

2. Gmres dom GiU (U. ; W. ; P.). 

3. Gerres pseudoguUt Poey (W.). 

4. Gerres gracilis GiU (U. ; W. ; P.). 

5. Gerres califomiensis GiU (P. ). 

6. Gerres cinereus Walbaum (U. ; W. ; P.). 
7 Gerres gula Cuv. and Val. (U. ; W.). 

8. Gerres aureolus Jordan & Gilbert (Panama). 

9. Gerres peruvianus Cuv. & Val. (P.)» 

10. Gerres rkomheus Cuv. & Val. (W.). 

11. Gerres olisthostoma Goode & Bean (W. ; U.). 

12. Gerres hrasilianiis Cuv. & Val. (W. ; U.). 

13. Gerres lineatus Humboldt (P.). 

14. Gerres hrevimanus Giinther (P.). 

15. Gerres plumieri Cuv. & Val. (W. ; U.). 



June 1. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-five persons present. 

The deaths of C. J. Hoffman, a member, and of C. U. Shepherd, 
a correspondent, were announced. 

Trapa bicomiSy L. — Mr. Meehan called attention to the Ling 
nut of the Chinese, of which a specimen on the table was four- 
homed, as in the European species T. natans, and another with 
three. It showed that the calycine horns were little more than 
bracts, and that the European species was one more highly 
developed than the Asiatic species. 

Formation of Crow'^s Nest Branches in the Cherry Tree. — In 
regard to fasciated branches, or as they were familiarly called 
" crow's nests," in trees, Mr. Meehan remarked that they might 
be classed as different species, and perhaps each species might 
have its own peculiar law of development. In former contribu- 
tions to the Academy, he had explained some of the phenomena 
attendant on fasciation in trees and plants, which gave clues as 
to their origin. In the cherry there was a species of fasciation 
distinct from that prevailing in most trees. In a portion of the 
mass of branches cut from the main mass, very little of an 
abnormal character could be noted. But on the tree itself a 
huge mass of small branches proceeding from one common 
branch might be noted, in striking contrast with the prevailing 
character. The specimens exhibited were from a mass of about 
four feet in diameter. In this there were about two hundred 
branchlets. In one of the thickest growths of a normal charac- 
ter, only about twenty branchlets could be counted in a similar 
space. The weight of these fasciations was so great that the 
masses hung like pendulums from the trees. The garden cherry 
had for more than a century been naturalized near Philadelphia, 
and he knew of three of these fasciations, one on each wild tree, 
within a half mile of each other. He had not seen any on culti- 
vated trees. They had been under his observation for years. 
They might be said to never flower. On one he had seen two 
weak flowers last year. There were none this. The leaves are 
attacked by a species of fungus, which Professor Farlow, of 
Cambridge, had kindly worked out for him, and found to be 
Exoascus Wilsneriy an European species closely allied to E. 
deformanSy the species well known as causing the disease called 
the " curl " in the peach. Prof. Farlow states that the specimens 
sent by Mr. Meehan gave him the first knowledge of the existence 
of the species in America. 


A* tn the pCMli Imf-eail. Um Cm leaves Uat poA ia ite 
tprifig M« mUacktd, u>d mv mkm daatrofcd, Uw bUrtend asd 
browned I«*vc* kU fiiUiiw br tb* flnt of Ja»ft. Xc« I w t m . &•• 
fron the rQDjriM, nni wcMt »ooU follow tbc kU*ek. Th« a b iaw 
of Oowcra Ind to tbc diaeo-mr of tb» OMtfaod by wbteh tte 
^•cimioa U fanned. In tb« noranl eondKioa oftbe ebctr; tttv, 
Uie weak abooU beooow frniVlMBriDE nqn. Pnnn tb<>ae spor* 
Ipftvm anntiBlljr ■fipwr. iMriog «a &xUfauy bod, ablcb bvooair* 
tb4' flower bud of Uw noxt fiaann Tb« iMf cootijiiu-* bnltbf 
tfamngbout tbe growlBg bmuoo, uid tbo [Mtrta tbat, norpbolo^ 
mlly vprskini;, nigbt vuke • wMk growUi of wood, rm»tai a 
m Und of microeovn m MpaU, petals, Manwiw.iad BMp<li, M 
bjr tbe l«Kf for Mtotber jrur. Bat when tUi to«r ia i^Jond OT 
destroyed, iaatcad of tbe bod mBaJntnc qalaaosat, or tba 
theoretical leaves ohaii|{iii|* inla floral paiu fa Ui» bod, » ■«« 
growth of Imtm and (be wtmk ahoot ue prodnced tMtnd. It 
ia indce<] so clour wbcn once obMi-ved tlutt tbe flMcbtko hi 
■imply the developoient to weak bnuwdwa of what wonU war- 
aully be UoMon apon, that it waa provokinn to nUeot thai it 
bad taken to many yean to disoover it. 

An lntcre«t]»|C OMerratJon wu lliat tbe fkragna ahoold conlltta 
Itaeir to tbe Ika^ted maaa for ao many jcan, km] ahow no dU- 
poaitlon wbatcTer to apraad to any oUier part of tlie tree, la 
imetlcal gardminn we .were tauf^bt when tbeoe ftingoa peat* 
appeared on orchard troca it waa highly important to cut off 
tbc branohoa or leavea, and bnm tbnn, In order to check lk» 
■pread. In the abnenoe of actual demoaatratlon In tbU caae.oat 
nii^til will) jin<n\ it-at'jn nnaunu' tliat ttif mvevliuin of thr para- 
•ilp lui.l olitiiinr.1 nil i-iitnuiri^ iiii.j Un- ii!.*iii- im.l jiruj«^Ir.l 
itself continuously as the branches grew, and that a crop of 
sporeM in myriads must be produced snouslly. Only in rare 
instances were the circumstances favorable to their germination. 
The cnrefiil cutting away and burning of a few thousand aporea 
woul<l i>e a matUT of small importance in comparison with the 
immense number tliat must escape the etfurt of the cultivator for 
their dcHtruction. Safety lies evidently rather in the difficulty 
these minute bodies <.'s)>e Hence in finding tbe exact conditions 
neci'ssary for their growth and development, than from tbe 
destructiun of the germs themselves. 

Diftribulion of M-idioIa tuHpa. — Mr. Jons Ford reported tbe 
flndinf! by him of a half-grown specimen oX Modioln tulipa Iadl., 
near Cn|)e May, N. J., nn the inth ult. As the species is eKsen- 
tiiilly ;i fonlluTU one. it was at tirst sniiposed that tlic s)<ecimeB 
had been earrivd norlli on the bottom of a vessel, or in some 
other artiticini manner. The dincoverv two weeks later, by Sir. 
Ford, of a dozen or more ailiilt specimens, at Anjilesca, ten 
miles further north, seems to i)rove that the species li&s entered 

1886.] NATtJAAL 80IEN0£8 OF PHItiADELPHlA. 275 

upon its new conditions in large numbers, and with the purpose 
of making its new home a permanent one. 

There is no record of the species having been found north of 
South Carolina before. 

Toxodon and other Remains from Nicaragua^ C, A, — Prof. 
Leidt directed attention to some fossils, and remarked that they 
were part of a collection which he had been invited to examine 
by Mrs. Dr. B. F. Guerrero, now residing in this city. The collec- 
tion was obtained from the northern part of Nicaragua, but 
nothing further had been learned about it. It mostly consisted 
of uncharacteristic fragments of bones, but among them were 
many interesting specimens referable to Megatherium, Elephant, 
Mastodon, Horse, Ox, Toxodon, and Capybara. The association 
of these animals is another illustration of the extension of the 
early South American quaternary fauna into North America. 
Among the remains of Megatherium there is the greater part of 
the distal extremity of a femur and a fragment of the mandible 
with two teeth. Of the Elephant there is a portion of a molar 
tooth. Of the Mastodon there is a molar tooth and portions of 
several others apparently of the M. andium. Of the Horse there are 
two upper molar teeth, with no well-marked difference distinguish- 
ing them from those of ordinary varieties of the Domestic Horse. 
Perhaps they may pertain to one or other of the species indicated 
by Prof. Owen with the names of Equus curvidens or E, tau. Of 
the Ox, the collection contains several horn-cores of different 
sizes ; one, double the size of that of the Domestic Ox. 

The Capybara is indicated by a fragment of the left ramus of 
a mandible with the first molar alveolus containing the greater 
part of the tooth. The specimen conforms to the corresponding 
portion of the jaw of the living Capybara, but indicates a con- 
siderably larger and more robust animal. Considering the dif- 
ference in size and age of the fossil, it was 
probably a different species from the Capy- 
bara, and regarding it as such he proposes 
for it the name of Eydrochoerus robustus. 
The first molar tooth complete would have 
the appearance represented in figure 1, and, 
^' except in size, does not differ from that of 

the Capybara. Comparative measurements of the fossil are as 
follows : — 

Depth of mandible at first molar, 
Length of first molar. 
Fore and aft diameter, 
Transverse diameter of last dental 

piare, . . . • . 
Diameter of incisive alveolus, . 

Dr. Lund, in his Fossil Fauna of Brazil (An. Sc. Nat., 1839, 

[. robustus. 


56 mm. 

33 mm. 

55 " 

36 " 

25 " 

17 " 

13 " 

9 " 

20 " 

10 " 

276 PBOcSEDmas of the academt of [1886. 

214) refers to remains of ffydrocTioerua, which he refers to two 
species, one as H. affine Capybarae, not different from the living 
Capybara, and another which he calls ff. sulcidenSj of a size inter- 
mediate to the latter and the Tapir, and having the incisors 
deeply grooved in front. He remarks the former differs in having 
the incisors smooth in front as in the living species, which saying 
is obscure, for in the living Capybara the incisors are con- 
spicuously grooved in front. 

Prof. Owen (Voyage of the Beagle 110), speaks of a decom- 
posed molar tooth of HydrochoeruSj found with remains of Mega- 
theriurriy Toxodon^ etc., by Mr. Darwin at Bahia Bianca, S. A. 
He remarks that the fossil differs from the corresponding tooth 
of the Capybara, in the greater relative breadth of the component 

Prof. Gervais (Rech. Mam. Fos. de I'Amerique Meredionale, 
1855, 12), describes remains of Hydrochoerus, found with those 
of Megatherium, Toxodon, etc., at Tarija, Bolivia. They con- 
sisted of portions of upper jaws, which are regarded as pertaining 
to a species but little different in size and in the form of the teeth 
from the recent Capybara. They are referred to the H. affinis 
Capybaree of Dr. Lund. A specimen of a maxilla with the last 
two molar teeth, figured in Plate xiii, fig. 3, of the work, indicates 
a more robust animal than the living Capybara, and the last 
molar tooth is composed of fourteen plates, a greater number 
than exists in the recent animal. In four skulls of the latter he 
found the last upper molar to have twelve plates, while in the fossil 
described by Gervais there are fourteen plates. Comparative 
measurements of the latter fossil with the recent animal are as 
follows : — 

Capybara. Tarya foasU. 

Last molar, fore and aft diameter, 33 to 34 mm. 50 mm. 
Last molar, transverse diameter, 12 to 13 " 20 " 
Penultimate molar, fore and aft, 9 to 10 " 14 " 

He thought it probable that the remains of Hydrochoerus^ 
referred by Lund and Gervais to H. affinis Capybarse^ and those 
mentioned by Owen, as above noted, probably also belong to the 
species he had named H. robuatus. He formerly described some 
remains of Hydrochoerus^ which were found in association with 
those of Megatherium^ etc., in the Ashley Phosphate Beds of 
South Carolina (Post-pleiocene Fossils of South Carolina, 1860, 
112, pi. xxi, figs. 3-6). These consist of teeth, which agree in 
size with those of the recent Capybara, and were referred to s 
probably extinct species, with the name of H, JEsopi. 

The most interesting fossils of the collection are those of Toxo- 
don, as being evidence of the former existence of this remarkable 
animal in North America. The best preserved and best marked 
specimens consist of a nearly complete lower molar tooth, and 
two portions of a lower incisor. These in their form and size best 

• • ••• 


«4rifttL m :t\ IS r rii:LA[*nj iiia. 

■* • • 



• 1. 


!•- II . 


• ■ • 

• I 

ft • 
T . 

• 4 • 


< » 

■ ■ » ■ 


k ■> 


w •• 

■ t • 

* . 

' 1 . 

\ » ' 

i • 

!•• ' 

* • . 

, • 

• « 

I «i I . % - 

h ' 

:. m \ • X* % ' I, ^9 \^. . 

S18 ritocKKDiNas or thk acaoeht or [ISM. 

of the lii^mcot In relofued. Tlie U-n* In IUtU)nr>I. or iU o|>tinl 
axis ifl Bhortened, as soon &a tht- cUUrj- miiitclv ia reikxed ; tli« 
ligKmoiit Iwing drairn upon by llt« eltutioit; of tlir scl«n,uKl 
{lerLnps it b i^omowbat aiUml l>y the intmociilar proMure. Dr. 
Sharp ■tuLcJ ttiat as fur a.i lie knuw tlip idiwIuitimid of tiM 
"iMiticiilar oxputision " hftf] nut Ii'rn <lr*t-ribMl. This BctloB U 
eAHily Ek-cn on turniuf; to the (luvrlopiacnt of ilio leuL Tba 
Ivnti l» funned by tin liivnginntion of thv oxti-mal ootodisrtD •oon 
closing, U)d hh u rcmilt w havu k Kphrrical VMiolt!.s4Mn eoclos«cl 
in thv mouth of tlie HfCondAry optic vcslclf. When ihla biu 
taken plnre, tlie puAterior wall of the lcti(i<vMii;l)! tblck«fl*, thai 
is, tiic [>oHl«rior ctdU coniniitnc« to olungatc, and itniw toward 
thv nnterior nail of the vckicIc, the cells of which rvnnin, 
generully Hjwaking, uf the mmv sixe, nod latiT funu the atxAllsd 
epithelium of th« hma. KL>cpintt this Btriu-tiire In view, we mc 
tliBt when prvMnra im I>rongbt to bc^ar on the [ens, these «loa|pitcd 
cells of the ptutttrior wall nrv compreMed iu their lonj^tadbial 
uxis, so that aa »oon im the prcssura is rvoiovcil, thty mmplj 
Htrait;hteu out. TUim will also account for Ibt Tart, tiiat tlw 
anterior facig of the Ii-hh Ik the only portlou Uiat movet in ibe 
act of accommodation for distance. In tliK adult IcDi tbia 
structure is to a certain extent lost, and thi! tens ia gcoenillT 
(leBt'ribed as to'ing made up of layer* ooneentrtvallj arranged. 
This is true, but the embryonic " iiupresalou " still ranudBs. If 
we aujiposed tbnt the lens wcr« made up of tarers oonoentrioallj 
arranfEcd and no formed, when the ca|HiuIar Itgaisant " <<ff<'kil 
lip " the tendency of the Ions would be to shorten Its optical 
axis instead of lengthening it. 

The Opal Mines of Querelaro, Mexico.— Dr. A. E. Foon 
remarked that the locality referred to is particularly interesting 
as beiiiK tlie only one in North America that is being worked 
solely for the protluctiun of gems. 

The opals of Mexico liave In-en celebrated since I8S0, when 
Karsten and Dtl Itio referred to the opals of Zimapan and that 
neighborhood an \)e\ng in many respects equal and in som* 
i-espectB BujKTior to the llnngarian. There are quite a number 
of fine hicalities from which considerable quantities have be«B 
exported to Kiitoim;, so th:it among the lovers of the beautiful, 
Mexico is as well known for its brilliant oimls as for the soft and 
exquisite tints of the teculi or Mexican onyx. 

As in the case nf di:inionds fri>m Brazil and Africa, there is a 
jewi-ler's prejudice ncainst llie new li)cality, and they are con- 
Kidered even more iiulm ky jiini liable to break than those of 
lluiinftiy. 1 liiive. buwevir, seen in the possession of Senor 
Cosii) niii^jnifKenlspecimi-n- iliiit ti:id been taken out over ten 
ye«r». and were with..iil a ll^tw. 

Tlie locality in t^ueretjiro is the only one in Mexico that i» 
being worked to any extent now. 


The principal mines are on the hacienda of Esperanza, where 
the opal was discovered, by a servant, ten years ago. No mines 
were taken up until 1870, when Dr. Jose Maria Siurob located 
the mine of Santa Maria Iris. The fine specimens secured during 
the next few years created so much excitement that a large 
number of mines were located, most of which are now abandoned. 
The district is quite extensive, having been traced over a region 
about twenty leagues long by thirty-one leagues wide. At 
Ciervo, fourteen leagues from Esperanza, the opal is quite 
abundant, though none of the precious variety of good quality 
has been found. 

The mines of Esperanza can only be reached on horseback, 
and the ride from Queretaro is a very hard one. San Juan del 
Rio, said to be the nearest large town where one can get accom- 
modations for the night, is ten leagues to the S. E. 

Leaving the Mexican Central Railroad and crossing a rich 
alluvial plain, covered with fields of corn and the so-called cen- 
tury plant, surrounded by fences of Cereus giganteus, we came 
to the foot hills. Here at once abundant evidences of volcanic 
action were seen. Round nodules of obsidian, large masses of 
agate, milk opal, and other siliceous products, were mixed with 
the cacti on every side. The rough trail soon led into the dry 
bed of a barranca, where porphyritic trachyte carrying the 
common varieties of opal were quite abundant; the trend of 
these porphyritic banks was from S. E. to N. W. The color of 
the rock is reddish gray. As the barranca terminated in a 
narrow valley, on the mountains on each side were seen the red 
dumps standing out conspicuously upon the gray surface. 

Of the mines that he visited only one, the Jurado, was being 
worked. The deposits of opal-bearing trachyte are so irregular 
that the mines are soon exhausted. 

The Jurado is an immense excavation about 150 feet deep 
several hundred feet long, and about 100 feet wide. At the 
bottom, the porphyritic rock seemed to be thoroughly impreg- 
nated with hydrated silica, even occasionally being converted 
into common opal. 

The general appearance of the rock furnishes a very good clue 
to the character of the opals that it may contain. Thus if the 
rock is less red in color and close and compact in texture fire 
opals and related forms abound, while if the rock is deep red in 
color or clayey and pockety, the Hungarian, harlequin, and milky 
opals are much more abundant. 

There is no locality of which he had ever heard where such 
an extraordinary variety of opals can be found in a single 
matrix. The same small piece of rock will show fire opal fire 
opal showing green and blue reflections, the Hungarian, harlequin 
girasol, hyalite, milk, and almost every variety. The harlequins' 
showing a mosaic of brilliant minute spangles of color in a 
milky base, vie with the broad sheets of dazzling blue, red and 


grcon. Perhaps, like Rtiskin, we ehnuld f\ve tlw palra to Um 
"Milky opals that gleam and sktoe like aallen Gr«H in k pAlUd 

VUalit;/ 11/ Molla»t:a. — rror. ItKlU-itlX calloil attention to s 
rcmnrlcnblo cast' or vitality nmong ourtnin members of tbc fsims 
of thu Nfw Ji-rmn' conttt. S[>rcimpnR of ^a«sa obgoleln coU^Tted 
by Miss KmmH ^alUir, ttt Atlanliu City Jiiet one year &pi. uid 
rctAiavd dry iliirin^ thn entiro yitar of tticir Docidootal vaptlrlty, 
were Btatrd to bo still nlivir, alttioii^h Biibjecti^d fur RKvural ramth* 
to the nbiiorm»l tempcmluri; occosiooed by proximity to * iMsted 
wall surfkcc. 'rhii>, tlie Hpeakcr contended, w&» irarliaps tbtt ntort 
extraordinary inslAncu of vilality known nmnuK Iho marinr malL 
Iiisca, although among the terrestrial and friMbwater foniM, 
especially among tbose which undergo a pHrtUd hlbemalion, 
lon;ter periods of scmi-adaptAtion to imposMl oiiailitlou have 
boun noted. Instances of snob nurvivala weri? cilerl by tliea|>eaket 
and Prof. Leidy. 


Joire IS. 
Mr. JoHK H. KKonELO in tba obair. 
Twftnty-two itentons prvaent. 


Mr. Thob. Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Thirteen persons present. 

A pnpcr, entitled " Notes on the Paspali of Le Conte'a Mono- 
graph," by Geo. Vasey, was presented for publication. 

Note on Quercus <lentala. — Mr. Thomas Mibhan exhibited 
specimens of Quercus dentala with female flowers, from a speci- 
men raised from an acorn received from Japan ten years agf>. It 
is of very rapid growth, being now eighteen feet high, and six 
inches in circumference. So recently as the issue of the volume 
of De GandoUe'ft Prodromus, it was noted that the fruit was un- 
known. Some account of these female Howera might have an 
interest. Like our annual fruited oaks the flowers appear at tb« 
end of the youn^r growth, in pairs on (leduncles about half an 

' The h|H.'aki?r hail uolU-rtcil at the 0|<al mincB s number of •pcclmnia of 
niinntu brit(l>t whit*.' rhoiiitHilinlrouii NhimlDg Ihu bual plane* ; theae ban 
Utn ciamini'd by Prof. ¥.. S. I>iiiia. who |>n.nouDce« them alunitr. Well 
['r>'"talli£<x] aluiiiU is nut < ominun. ami Im 1-elii'v«<l thla is Ibe ArM Unr its 
Rlipcaiaun: has bevn noted iu Xorth AniericB. 


inch long, the pednnoles of course springing from the axils of the 
upper leaves. Early in June a secoud growth occurs, on which 
are also female flowers. 
On many of the stronger 
a third growth is made 
before autumn. The sev- 
eral growths during the 
season on this tree, have 
no doubt had much to do 
with its great size in bo 
short a time. The in- 
volucre is a mass of loose 
scales, in the centre of 
which the four blackish 
ligulate stigmas are seen. 
Bisecting the flower verti- 
cally, the usually minute 
calyx segments, immediately beneath the stigmas are represented 
here by numerous brown scale-like hairs, which simulate the scales 
of the involucre, and are at the apex of a slender stipe or beak 
four lines long, that seems to spring from the true ovarium as if it 
were a true style, and the real pistils represent a four-cleft stigma 
at the apex. He did not remember any American species that 
had so long a beak in this early stage of growth, though there 
were some species that he had not had an opportunity of dis- 
sectiog. From those that he had had the opportunity of exam- 
ining the differences in this feature were striking, and the 
character could certainly be made more useful than it had been 
in enabling us to discriminate species in this very difficult genus. 
A horizontal section of the ovarium shows it to be four-celled, 
with each cell tno-ovuled. 

1, PedancleiriUifloiTen.^HfmurlimMa.nHl 

irgcd, Qua 

June 29. 
The President, Dr. Leidt, in the chair. 
Eighteen persons present. 

A paper entitled "Notices of Nematoid Worms," by Dr. 
Joseph Leidy, was presented for publication. 

Mineralogical Notes. — Comj)Osilion of Stromeyerile. — Professor 
Geobok a. Ecenio placed on record the identification of Stro- 
meyerite from Zacatecas, Mexico. At this locality the miners 
designate the various silver minerals by their colors as black 
silver, red silver, green silver, and blue silver. Under the 
latter name — plata azul — several minerals are imdouhtedly com- 
prehended, but probably the most prevalent is the mineral 
here identified as Stromeyerite. One large specimen is com- 

yaaai «r nimerous prlanutit: ery«uU, tlie tennln&tian* broken 
~ '"* tf OD well-cry BtAllSzcl fjnftrLi, an't rrom »evt>r»t •nuUlnr 
I It would nppear that ((luirU U tbe nrtllanry com- 
I of StroDiejrerltu kt ZiicxtrcaK, whilst the either silvrr 
ih P-— — '"- polyb&iiitv, St<-]ih*nitc, Argentite — sre mon- 
^^ coaannljr aMoctated with Ciitj;ite. The (mm* of the crykUU are 

^^L nm^, oat admitttnii cl')«c mraKiimnontJi ; the privmntie mngl« i« 

^^H aaar lSO^-1 IS"- The mineral h*^ no <:l«tra|^ It« fmotDrv is 

^^H *MTni to flat H u he hone hoi da 1 ntiiii rerjr splintory Th« IdMt* 

^^^^ !• briUiwttljr metallic iin<1 tlip color iron-finy witli » ttroof blnlili 

^^H Borpl* wlmixtnre. The color of the po«ti«r is nmrl; tke hum 

^^H Ikia nolKclilc.bat mild, &□<! hai a tiardneu of 8,6. 

^^H Speo. grarity = 6-2303, ma<le upon 1-*<S3 gttkwm ot frMffmenta 

^^M ttota sevcrnl oryBtnls. Bofore the blowpipe it mclta nrjr readUj 

^^H to a globiilo. cniittinjr aulTurdioxide, and cfaanj^iiK to a grmj 

^^H |:lobiilc or Bilvcr-copp^r. Gives no sublimate on cbArcoal, nor 

^^H in open or closed tube, and dissolves in nitric add to a bine tola- 

^^H tion, Sn which bydroohloriu aoid precipitates floeoulent ti\itt 

^^H chloride. 

^^M A prelimiRnry analysts made with a fragnent from on* orrvlal 

^^M (0 2346 g:riim) gave tlio result I; a second analyAla made npon 

^^M the mixed rrn|;ment»»spd in the dctvnninatjim of vjiecifio gravity 

^H (Ofi Sr.) gave the result II. 

^^^^^— 1. AgCI =0-1615; Cu<S =! <}-09^8 ; BaSO, = O-SSST- 

^^^^^K II. AgCI = 0-2509 ; Ga.8 = 0-4105 ; BaSO, = 0*5158. 

^^^^^^^^ From lUia wi- calculate : 

K Inaoluble — OW 

■ Ag 6t-<« KO-IB 

m Cu 92-» U-A9 

W 8 16-64 IS-St 

^L lUO-91 9991 

Analysis having l>een made witli twice the quantity of anlv 
stance and with ii''>-*'>t«r care-, deserves alone to be taken oa baala 
for tliti ul'>mic ratio. Pividing tht! ])ercrntAg<-« by the alomir 
^^^ weight*, we obtain : 

^^b* Ag : Cn : S = 0-46G1 : 0-5322 : 0-4975 

^V Ag-i Ou : S = 0-9983 : 0-4915 

^V =2Uil1 :1 

I Hence, 41 AgiS i 53 Cu.S 

It i« seen that Ar and Cu are not exactly in the ratio I : 1. 
L but vi-ry near. Undoubted Stronieyerite h'aa been dMcribad 

L heretofore only from two loealilies, Soblangenberft, in Silwria, 

9 anil RiideUtadt, in Sile»ia, and from tbe latter place only is 


crystals. The analj'ses of the mineral from these places do not 
give the ratio of 1 : 1 for Ag and Cu either, but a little closer than 
the present locality of Zacatecas. Since Ag.^S and CujS may 
replace each other isomorphically in all proportions without 
question, we may look upon such a ratio as Stromeyerite demands, 
1 : 1, as quite an exception, owin^ no doubt to peculiar condi- 
tions present at the time of crystallization. 

The material for this investigation was obtained from Dr. A. E. 
Foote, who collected it during his recent visit to Zacatecas and 
other mineral localities in Mexico. 

Christian E. Metzler and Charles H. Marot were elected 

The following was ordered to be published : — 



iiT oeouii: VAstr. 

T)i€ monograjili of tj. S. species of thi> g«nus Patpalum, bjr 
CftpL (itlncf Major) Le Conle, wn» piililtshed in the Joum&l dc 
Pbyniiiutt, PttriK, vol. 91 (1820). It conUin* ilt^riptiona of 
cighk>un apccica. 

Through the kindness of Mr. J. B. Bedfleld, sll the LwWDtau 
BpcoinieDs of Pagpalum in tbe Ilcrbariiim of the PbUaddpUft 
Aoudeiny of Natur&l Sciences, bftve been jilvccd (n my huidB fl>r 
exunhiutlon, and I hsve given tbeoi lui nsrrful a rvrUlun am I flad 
possible The r«>«ull ia expromiixl in the following notes. I have to 
premise that autograph e|>ccinicns of some of thcw fl|>ecic< sre 
wiinting, and of some others are mixed in tbe sheet with otli«r 
ep«!cies, making it doubtful which wss the typlctU planL But In 
most coses the specimens and deitcri[itiun« rmiblc us satls&ctoritj 
to di-lermitie the species iiidicfitird. M 

i. Pupalnn prseoi. Wftltci. ^ 

Tbe specimen to which I^e Conto'a ticket is atLached U a fora 
<if P. Ifve. Miib., not answering, however, to all the ebarai:ter» 
given, as the sheaths and leaves are not " vt7om«i'mui " and tbe 
number of spikes id four instead of three. In the same sheet, 
however, is another npecimen which has hairy leaves and aheatbs. 
Le Conte evidently thought he was describing the plant of Walt«r. 
but the description does not answer for the plant which is now 
accepted as the P. preecox of Walter, nor does it agree with the 
description either of Michaux or Elliott. 

The ticket bearing this name is in a sheet with another bearing 
the name of tbe next species, and the plants are all tbe common 
erect hairy form of P. selaceum, Michx., except one specimen, 
ticketed P. ciliali/olium, from Georgia, and marked " Baldwin.*' 
Mr. Le Contc's cU'scription answers well to the coromonly ac- 
cepted plant of Michnux, and he gives after his description this 
reference, " P. selaceum et debile Michaux, Nova Cesarea ad 
Floridam," with the mark O for annual, which latter point i« 
open to doubt. 


3. P. eiliatlfoliiim, Miohx. 

As above stated, the ticket for this is in the same sheet with 
the preceding, and if it has not been changed, must apply to the 
same plant, as the description does not at all apply to the smooth 
long-leaved specimen of P. ciliatifolium from Georgia. Some of 
the specimens have " spica unica," and some have ^^ spicis 1 sive 
2," and some with the usual lateral ped uncled ones. 

4. P. longepedonoiilatam, Le Conte. 

The specimen to which this name is attached is commonly 
referred to P. setaceum^ Michx., but is a different form from Nos. 
2 and 3, more like the southern P. ciliatifolium^ but having the 
leaves shorter and narrower. There are several long peduncled 
lateral spikes which are not mentioned in the description, the 
name being based on the *^ very long peduncled common spike." 
In Herb. Scribner is a specimen, collected by Mr. Isaac Burk, on 
the ballast grounds of Philadelphia, which is almost exactly like 
the Le Contean one, and if P. ciliatifolium is considered a species 
this might be called variety brevifolia. At the close of his de- 
scription Le Conte says " P. debile, Muhl. Gram." 

6. P. Floridanum, Miohx. 

There are two tickets with this name, one of which is attached 
to a specimed of P. racemulosum^ Nutt., which specimen does not 
agree with Le Conte's description; the other is attached to a 
much smaller plant, very well answering the description of Le 
Conte but not of Michaux. The specimen is not different appar- 
ently from the one to which Le Conte's ticket " P. prsecox " is 
attached, which we take to be Faspalum lasve, Michx., the short 
broad-leaved form which is perhaps the typical one. 

In Herb. Torrey is a specimen of Palatum Floridanum with a 
note, "not of Le Conte, which is P. Iseve. Ell. i, p. 106, non 
Michx. ? " We see from this note not only that Dr. Torrey 
referred Le Conte's P. Floridanum to P. lasve^ Ell., but also that 
he had doubt if Elliott's plant was the same as Michaux's. 

6. P. l»Te, Michx. 

Le Conte's ticket with this name is loose in a sheet with the 
preceding, the three specimens being apparently all alike except 
as to the pubescence of the leaves. There is also in another sheet 
a specimen with the ticket attached, which specimen is the form 


■r r. tew, witk k^, okmU Imtci, boC w STa. C i» 

1W Mac u ptiatad u " cfiflbcsB," •ridMtlf • tjpafnfMnl 
■ras. n« •padaa b i«tw»iiliH bccwsen P. tevr mbA A 
Jftwifc^w, ni OOnii fria lilfcK U Conu mj>. " Bcfcft 
P. ItmrUammm mi ifld* ewrt k, ^aabiine nftfon^o* 1*^1* <li»- 
tfa^vKMr.* TUft cMBputMa *«• eridcKir nada vtth Ut Vou ». 

SaToflUbkatafv^Gima. to tb» plut, b«C the d«Mri|itifl4 te 
tM» otann to In of any tiJm^ We terc spcdaeM la tW T. & 
Baflarisa tnm V. O^aad ftoa Florida, vUeh aj* afipKnatlj 
Ibt MBS aa La CoMa^ plaat. Tbef ban btan ivfevnd to f. 
/lortfasMB, bat an ckarij <IUB»«Bt ia the nnaUar sita uT tbf 
plant, In tbc aborter apQus, and tn Um Bacb ■bortar kavaa. V« 
han tba aa»M plant, abo, fron Dr. CbariM If ofar, Mobile. Ala., 
wbo DOiUd that it dttfcnd from the P. Florid^mmwk. He aaja P. 
Floridattvm Uooms fritBi tlir middle of Jnoe to tb« utddlc of 
Julj, wEiile the otber kiod begins bi Itower aiz or eight wadu 
lalcr. AltOftettMsr It M;eiiit Lhml for theae ■pecimctH Le CoaU% _ 
lumc aliotild bi! rveogniaed and added to our Urt. « 

I. F. uimlMsa. U C«Dir. 

Tbe ■i>ecimeii over this DAme is Attpareotly a form of P. l»oe, 
Micbx., with wider and smoother leaves, more numerous and 
shorter spikes than in the common form. I bare seen no other 
■pecimeDB quite matching it, and it may verj' well be called P. 
Imve, variety undulo$um. The undulate margin of the leaves is 
also shared by other species. Scbultes subsequently published 
this as P. Leconleanum (ManL 2, 168), probably because Le 
Conte's name was too much like P. undutatum, Poir. 

V. r. UtUeUoB. L« i\.Dif. 

The specimen with tbis name looks like a very exuberant P. 
ciliati/olium, with equally small spikelets, but in three or four 
series. The leaves are s)>out an inch wide, and eight to ten 
inches long. 1 bave seen no utlior sucb specimens, but the 
general appearance and habit is that of P. ciliati/ulium, of which 
it is probably a luxuriant form. 


10. P. ▼irgatam, Walt. 

The ticket bearing this name is loose in a sheet which contains 
two specimens of P. plicatulum, Michx., and two specimens of 
P. praecox, Walt., one of which is ticketed, " Herb. Schw., P. pW 
catulum^ Georgia, Hermann." The description seems to refer to 
what we call P. prsecox^ Walt., " spicis 5-6, altemis, erectis, 
glumis biseriatis, rachi latiuscula, non flexuosa, dentibus bifloris." 
Le Conte apparently mistook his No. 1 for P. preecox, Walt., and 
this for P. virgatum, Walt. The true P. virgatum, Walt., is prob- 
ably P. purpurascensy Ell. Le Conte adds to his description this 
note, " Calicis valvulse omnium paspalorum, cuve semina matures- 
cent joxta margines trans versse plicatse fiunt." If this means that 
the glumes of all Paspalums when mature have transverse plica- 
tions such as mark the P. plicatulum^ Michx., it is a great error. 

11. P. angaitifoliam, Le Conte. 

The specimen bearing this name is evidently one of the forms 
commonly called P. Isevej Michx., having long, narrow and smooth 
leaves, and three slender spikes three to four inches long. It is 
quite difTerent from No. 6, which represents a form with much 
shorter and wider leaves, and which is possibly the typical plant, 
as Michaux says " foliis breviusculis." No subsequent writer 
except Elliott, however, quotes these words of Michaux. Gray says 
'* the pretty large and long leaves ;" Chapman says ^' leaves and 
sheaths smooth or the latter hairy;" Elliott quotes Michaux's 
words, " leaves short," but does not recognize the plant. It is, 
therefore, difficult to say precisely what was Michaux's type, and 
some botanists will prefer to consider this species of Le Conte as 
a distinct one. Otherwise, it may be distinguished as variety 

12. P. graolle, Le CoDte. 

The two specimens bearing this name, one ticket marked " Pas- 
palum gracile mihi, P. Za?i;c, Schweinitz," the other " Paapalum 
tenue^ Kth., P. gracile^ Le Conte, *Durand,'" are clearly what 
is commonly understood as P. plicatulum, Michx., or P. undulc^ 
tunij Poir. Kunth published P. tenue, evidently based either on 
Le Conte's specimens or on the description to which he refers. If 
Kunth saw the specimens, and they were the same as these in the 
Herb. Acad. Phil., it is not easy to understand how he should 
make a new species of them, unless, as may be the fact, Michaux 's 
plant is the P. purpurascenSj Elliott, in which case indeed another 


name would be needed for Le Conte's plant, and as the name P. 
gracile had been earlier appropriated by Radge for a S. American 
plant, Eonth distinguished this by the name of P. tenue. An 
inspection of the Le Contean specimens in the Herb. Mus. Paris 
will probably settle this question. Eunth, however, refers 
Michaux's P. plicatulum not only to P. purpurtucens^ EIL, bat 
also to P. undulahLnij Poir, as if Michaux had confiised two 
species, which is very likely to be the case. On the other hand, 
if Eunth saw Le Conte's specimens, and they were like these of 
the Herb. Acad. Phila., he should have recognized them as the 
P. undulatumj Poir. 

Le Conte, at the end of his description of this species, says, 
'' Muhlenberg Gram, sub Paspalo, No. 8,'' with the description of 
which Le Conte's does not agree. Furthermore, there is in Herb. 
Torrey a specimen of Paspalum setaceum^ Miohx., which is also 
referred to '^ Pasp. No. 8, Muhl. Oram.," and which agrees saffl* 
ciently well with the description. 

13. P. altlMimiiiii, Le Conte. 

The single specimen to which this name is attached is evidently 
what is commonly called P. Flaridanum^ Michx., for which, 

according to Eunth, the earlier name of P. macrospermum^ 
Flugge, must be adopted. Le Conte's specimen has only two 
spikes, although his description says ^' spicis 4-5." Tiie species, 
however, or some forms of it, often have 4 to 5 spikes. One 
form has pubescent leaves or sheathes, and one form is quite 
glabrous. Le Conte mistook his No. 5 for P. Floridanum, Michx. 

14. P. oonfertam, Le Conte. 

The specimen to which this name is attached is evidently P. 
purpurascenSy EII. Mr. Durand recognized this and attached a 
ticket marked " resembling P. purpurascens, and I believe iden- 
tical, E. D." On the same sheet is another specimen of the same 
species, ticketed "P. purpurascenSy Ell., Georgia, Dr. Baldwin." 
Kunth gives both P. purpurascens^ Ell., and P. confertum^ 
Le Conte, as if they were distinct plants. Probably he did not 
see Le Conte's specimens. 

15. P. distioliiim, LIdd. 

I find no specimens with a ticket in Le Conte's writing, but 
there are in a sheet marked P. distichurriy specimens noted as 
coming from Le Conte, and others, Georgia, Baldwin. The 


description of Le Conte seems to refer to P. dislichum, Linn., 
but at the end be gives, as a S3'nonym, Digitaria paspalodes^ 
Miebx., whicb is understood by Elliott and by Dr. Chapman as 
applying to Paspalum Digitaria, Poir, which seems not to have 
been known to Le Conte, unless he agreed with Elliott in referring 
it to the genus Milium^ in which case it would not appear in a 
revision of Paspalum. 

16. P. triftaeliTam, Lo Conte. 

The specimen bearing this name is apparently a three-spiked 
form of P. vaginatumy Swz. The description also conforms to 
that species, and Mr. Le Conte adds the remark, " Refert prius 
sed primo obtuto facile distinguitur, foliis angustis glaberrimus. 
Habitat in subsalsis, Georgia." 

Mr. Bentham considers P. vaginatum, Swz., as synonymous with 
P. distichum, Linn., but the two are well defined by Le Conte, 
and I think are clearly distinct, although with poor or imperfect 
specimens it is not always easy to discriminate. Although this 
Bpecies commonly has but two spikes, it sometimes occurs with 

17. P. membraiuuseiim, AVult. 

I find no specimen of this species with Le Conte 's ticket, but 
from the description, and the reference to P. vaginatum, Ell., it 
is pretty clearly the P. Walterianum, Schultes. 

18. P. natani, Le Conte. 

I find no specimen with Le Conte's ticket, but from the descrip- 
tion and reference to P. mucronatum, Muhl., and the additional 
notes, it can hardly be doubted that this is the P.fiuitans, Walt. 
(Ceresia Jluitan8j Ell,). 

Mr. Le Conte undoubtedly observed and collected many of the 
species of Paspalum in Georgia, where he spent many years of 
his early life ; he was also acquainted with Baldwin and Elliott. 
The latter had already published the earlier numbers of his 
" Sketch of the Botany of S. Carolina " before the appearance of 
Le Conte's Monograph, and Elliott is referred to in Le Conte's 
PaspaluMj No. 17. Reference is several times made to Pursh 
and Muhlenberg, whose works had been published but a short 
time. Michaux described seven species of Paspalum, all of 
which are referred to by Le Conte. Muhlenberg describes ten 
Bpecies, including two to which he gave numbers without sjyecific 

SM pBOCEKDiNoa or rm aoaskxt or [18SS. 

ttaoM, and lo tbeee Le Conte makes reference, No. 7 under bki 
T. diffbrme, and No. 8 under bis P. gracile, but ■ i;otnp«riwni at 
the desrr![itloB« does not klTord mucli HAito&otion. Ellintt 
du«cril>i.-d ntevcn •p«eie« of Paxpalum, or tliirtc^n, if we inclatle 
hii Uihum patpatoJe* and Ceretia ftuilan^ Tli« moDiturapb itf 
Le CoDto eOQiiioratce dghtcrii spocifs, of wblcb tour or five had 
not been previouslj described and may be counted nrw aptcia 
or varii-tiea. }t\\ tbeue are Indijcenouii to the AUanUc 8tat«a: 
the additional ouva of the S^utbweat bad not, |>rob«bly, been 
ootlectcd at tbc time of tbta monograph. 



July 6. 
Mr. UsELMA C. Smith in the chair. 
Seven persons present. 

July 13. 
Mr. Thos. Meeuan, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Ten persons present. 

On Torsion in the Hollyhock, with some observations on cross- 
fertilization, — Mr. Meehan observed that the torsion of the 
opening flowers of the hollyhock was towards the sun ; but after 
the expanded flower had become fertilized, and the flower closed 
for fading, the torsion was in the contrary direction. The same 
thing occurred in Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. He had no opportunity 
to this date to note the facts in other Malvaceae.^ As a general 
rule the spiral revolutions of plants are uniform through every 
stage of growth, at least this is the general teaching of botanists. 
Prof. Goodale notes (" Bot. Text Book," vol. ii, p. 407), that in 
the Tropics, some plants twine indifferently from right to left. 
If we had given thought to the manner in which secund inflores- 
cence is arranged, we might have seen that the torsion is anything 
but uniform throughout the same plant, for a secund raceme 
could only be formed by the twisting of each succeeding flower 
in an opposite direction. This alternation of convolution is 
indeed necessary in a branch with a horizontal direction in order 
that each flower along the spiral should assume an erect attitude. 
When a horizontal or geotropic branch assumed an upright posi- 
tion, the inflorescence was necessarily secund. One might almost 
infer that secund inflorescence had its origin in geotropic plants 
which had retained the power of alternate torsion after assuming 
the erect form. So little is known of the laws operating in 
connection with the turning habits of plants and flowers, that 
every fact is of value, and this one relating to the reversal of the 
direction in these two malvaceous plants, and probably in others 
of the same order, must be worth placing on record. 

Mr. Meehan further noted that the hollyhock, notwithstanding 
its gaudy coloring and general attractions to insects, is a sel^ 
fertilizer, and that insects rather aided than otherwise in this 

^ The author has since noted that in Palava flexuosa the flower twists 
also in the direction of the sun, and in the contrary direction when fading, 
but in GallirhcBa involuerata the flower is twisted against the sun, when 
fading as when opening. 

rsonEeDiNas or mt acauimt or 


HtroDgly proterandrooo. TW 
AUMB« are nmturc nnd shed tboir polUn oo-inc)dMil with tbt 
cspaatioii of tfao coruIU. Th« rit«cicuiiM of pistil* at this tim», 
haw not rvaotufd bnlf tlicir growth, nnd is com(il«U!ly oovcrad 
hy tba aUiBVoa, whicli form a dea^t mau in tbe oentrv of tli* 
floTtr. I>ar1iig tliv day, Atui lli(< ono sooceefliDR, tiurabfe and 
lMM]r b««a makn tliis crovrn of itamene their rMtlng-plao*. 
Dnriaf tlitM two dny> the putils have not ret thmat thctr 
Riipnaa abov* tho stHtn^nB that crown them, if now wv cut a 
iower Uirongb lont;itiidinall,v'. we aliall find that a very largi 
quaniily of pollon has fallen down within th» Imndle of pi«til»_ 
this gattaeiinfc of pollen beina cvldenlly aided by tb« fi«t at 
iuavcts that made a landin|i-|>lftC« of the atamlnal cniwn. tTp 
to thU time, however, tho pistil* not bavliifc comv tu maturity, 
lh« imllcn thraal in amons them would hart- on phynitilngteal 
algniflcanoe. But on th« morulne uf the tbinl day, tbe pUtib 
prutrtide and are In ^«c«ptlve oondition, and iboy briug np with 
th«in large qnniitltSes of pollen, «o i:on)plot«ly oorifring the 
•urfaec of vach piJilil tiial it wnald Kt-m atmovt impmaible titr 
any (jTrainB uf fori'lgn polltn to And nny loi|giii«>nt for effM^tira 
aw; and tliou^h a grain of foreign pollrn shuold fret an oiipor^ 
Innity tu pernirm itM function, it mu*t bo evident that tbm 
Aowrr's own |M)llvn h&i thv rarlimt opportnniliea for u»efutDe«a, 

be the fertilialnK affcnt. An 
fr^reuoi! ta tiw 

and luuHl in atmoxt 



I hti^Cni 

- -ingle esfiert- 

ment among mnivacciius piants, tnoiMCug j^/rtcanut, Tonnd a 
larger number of crossed flowtre produced cap<iulefl than amonft 
the Bt'lf-rerLiliiing ones; but in the case of these e^^dcntly aolf- 
fertilized dowers, no one seemed to fail in producing seed — 
every pistil, indeed, producing a pt.Trectly fertile carpel. At the 
end of the third day the Hewers closed, tntsting in the opi>oaite 
direction, as already noted. 

On Projerlion of Pollen in the Fhtcers of Indigo/era. — Exhib- 
iting some tlowers of Indigo/era Dosua, Mr. Mcehax remarked 
that the i>cculiBr bending bavk of the carina in the flowera 
of Indigofcra hnn Iwen long known. Referring to the whole 
genuH, Don, in the <li-nerai HiMortj uf IHchiami/dt-out Plants, 
published in 1x37, wHys, " Keel furnished with a aubuhte spur on 
both sides, at U-neth usually bending back elastioally." In li}<3 
Pecnndolli- nnd TreviniiniB, in Hotanirche Zeilung, page 3. refer 
to this IfTiicling bnck of the keel :ind say it is not an elastic 
motion, but simply a fulling' down on K\w full development of the 
flower ; and tin- latter nncirk-;, n« c[uotiil by llcnsluw, that " all 
lliene niovvnientt occur in the natural develop nunt of the {tarts, 
and only after Mdf-leciindation takes place." Dr. Ilildebrand, in 
the same magazine for 186G, scema to admit that Anally the ked 


i;-i. i! -^ii^ I- I iM::\.r:) ' ^ 

: 1 

• • 

t.r ]{. 

• > • 

' 1 


V V 

» •- 



394 FBOCKEDntas or tbb acadkht or 

otlicr Rowt^rf. The otAiDena were not UWrnt<<d natuntUv till tb« 
flower bnil lust nil attrtiction* fur inwcu, fttid the set of 
litxTtitin^ and Munttvring the polleo save th« {lUUl it« (Int chuioa 
for pollinizbtion. Thv grml prufaahilily In ttuU la tl>e majoritj of 
fnstAncc* tho flower* am svlf- fertilized. 

On ParalUIifm in DMinrt Linen of £(Mfufi»n.-~Gxbibitii>c 
some onk nnd chmtnut Icnvos, Mr. Mkbhan n-mnrlinl that th« 
fact and the thcork- uf evoliitioii art- distinct linn of thought 
Tbure fli>(>me no difficulty alwut tlir fact. Thai on« form nuT 
and hftfl been born of a prc-etisting, and often very dtatiDct form, 
OAUiiot )m> disputed. What iu'tiiccs ttkJs chanfjc l« another mfttter. 
It is here that science itcflires more light. A popuhir belief ii 
that chnoge of circiim stances leads to change of form. Thia 
theory is embodied under the word "envtroDment." In other 
words, planta, In their chances, are the "creature* of eiretm. 
atanoes." In some sense this must be true. A seed will not aproul 
unleaa there be a necessary " environment " of heat and mowtare, 
but thh la not the sense in which "environment,'' as the t«nii b 
here uaed, ia (generally undi.*rstood. If one were to say that nnder 
a torrid ti'mpt-mture, endurett for ages, a Ht^ht-skinnol, fair-haind 
Caucasian, miglit have doaci'ndcnta that wem tikir wonlty-braded, 
dark.skinDOd wniilil come nrarrr the grncnil nndurvland- 
ing of the t*!rm " environroitnt," tlinn tiomr would limit it to. Tlie 
apeakpr's ol.«iTinlinfii. nnil 'toAU-* liixl l.-.l liiin to wli:*t might. 
perlinr. !.. ■.j:r.i,.| , - l !■,■ ,p.,.. , '.r ^ , ■, v, < .r ■ .r-lftii.wi— 
"fill ■ ■ ■ U:an tn 

incite to aciion a change airpndy ripe lor development. In a 
paper read before the American Associnlion for the AdoancemenI 
of Science, 1874 (See Proceedings Hartford MeHing, p. fi, Haturat 
Hillary), he presented a number of facts to show that "change 
by gradual modification in not the universal law." New forms 
" jumped " into existence, and frequently these new forms were 
diverse from each other, under precisely the same " enrironment " 
eo far as human knowledge hail yet reached, as had been the sur- 
rounding circumstances of the parent form. Since that time he 
had eontrilmted numerous observations to tlic Proceeding* of the 
Academy and elsewhere, confirming these views. 

To-night he would offer to the Acsdemy some thoughu* in a 
new line, hut confirmatory of the same views. lie exhiliited some 
different forms of the American Qiiercui Prinut — the chestnut 
oaks, and a dwarf species from China, Qiiercug Chinenni of 
Itunge. Also 8omes]wcimens (if various forms of Caxlanea Ve»ca 
— the clioi'tnut, and uf Cntlnnen pitmitn. .Vj-,. the chinquapin. It 
wouhl l>c conceded by any evnhitionist conversant with plant 
forms, that the chestnut and the onk nrc not remotely' de8c<-nded 
from the M»mc parent. We nmy suppose, for the sake of argument, 
that" use or disuse." or some ot Hit item in the genemi catalogue 
of" environment " had affected some portion of the structure of 
the original parent, and resulted in a slight modification, leading 

^*T*R*! -'f^ r« r irfriiTrrtfi 

« ■ 

I f 

• • 


I • 

\» \' 

I • •■ 



Jolt i1. 
Dr. J. BxKNARD Bbimton in the cbair. 
Thirteen persons present. 

A paper entitled " History and Biology of Pear Blight," by J. 
C. Arthur, was presented for pablioation. 

Mr. Thob. Mkkhan, Vice-President, in the Chair. 
Eleven persons present. 

Orukany Satidntone in Lycoming Co., Pa. — Mr. Lewis Wood- 
UAN remarked that, accompanied by a resident of Lycoming Co., 
Pa., he had recently made a tonr tiirougli that and the adjoining 
county of Sullivan, with an eye to the geological features of the 
region, using as a guide the most recent publications of the 
Second Survey. In Hand Attae X, the Oriskany formation is 
omitted from the map of Lycoming County, while the text speaks 
of it as " being absent." It is also omitted from tbe larger map 
accompanying the Second Sar\'ey. He was, therefore, surprised to 
find on the roadside, at the villafje of Pennsville. Mtincy Town- 
ship, blocks of the sandstone, containing its characteristic fossils. 

Further examination resulted in finding a belt of this forma- 
tion ; not, however, making the bold, elevated ridge it so often 
does elsewhere in the State, but existing as a prominence upon 
the lower slope of tbe hill that rises from the north side of the 
village, the ascent beyond being over the lower members of the 
Hamilton group. Time at command being limited, tbe formation 
was traced only about a mile, but without finding it to disappear. 
The Friends' meeting house at one end of the village, and tbe 
Bchoolbouse at the other end, both stand upon this ridge. The 
former has its corners pointed with this sandstone, from an old 
quarry in sight, while all around the latter are strewn weather- 
worn fragments, beautifully exhibiting the fossils. Several of tbe 
bouses and bams intermediate are also situated upon this forma- 
tion, and for some of these it has furnished building material. 

The location of the belt is within the area shown on tbe maps 
as Hamilton, and a few hundred feet from the division there 
marked as separating that group from the Lower Helderberg. 
Along the lawn leading to the country residence of William 
Ellicott, the rock was seen in place, pointing upward over tbe 
anticlinal forming Bald Eagle Mountain. A letter from his com- 
panion states that he has since found this rock upon the other 
side of the mountain, in Clinton township. 

%»: '. •! -• ^^ •■ I l;fT*:r-« ■ • 

• f 


1 I 

S98 pROCKEDmoH or tsi academy or [18SS. 

world; but thU ta erldontly ^om Rome bilure ot nittrttioD, for 
when It is aervod witli its own {jolluii, or the polltin of otber pIxiitB 
or other apeciea, It In alike barnm. 

At (lAgeH 412, 413 in the Procetdina» o/lhe Acadrmy for I1TS, 
bft had csUud attention to th« fAct tul in niAny 8p«a4m of lilj, 
where the flower U oirniiiuu*, the point of bcodinK alr^iifatcoed 
ftftiiT fertlliz.ition; An<l the ormriaia, pwndnloHit In B(iwi>r, becMM 
erect. Theronrc •orov in which the nuwcn Arc alwAyfl ervet.uid 
thoy Accni to be Jn«t m Muoccaaful in thoir serenil ecciooaiie*, ■■ 
thoav thAt An; At first ournuoita, and afterward crceL At thrt 
time, with thiH ri»l!cction, it itucnied to him reAaonkble to t 
thAt the bending down of tho flowera in aomc spcelea 
iDAtter of choice with the flower — if one mlfcht metajihorii 
thia esprcHaion — bat was the roault of a curving of tJie m 
for aome other reaiion in plant economy thati for good to tb* 
fioweror ita special objccta alone. Out here were aome aiNwiawiM 
of I.iliutn tigrinum ihAt bad blown over when youtt|[. TIm 
pediolea fVom these stems went HtrA<f;hl down towuxla Um« 
And bore the ezpAnded flower without the altgbtMt oun 
flowers on tbe erect atema Are all on recurved pvdicAls. 
we Are itill without light ab to whAt oilvantAgs th« reourvvd flL 
guin over tbe erect onea, this little ioetdont tsAohn ni, ki li 
that it la the flower that demanda the curv«, and not a caw of a 
curve demunding a |H!iu]u1oua flower. 

Fithing Liner and 1,1 ■ '■ ' .'■■■■ - .' ..'' Ltfu. 

dOpttrouK Mr.w.— A .■■ i . ■■: Ml« 

Adelk M, FlELHE, Stating uua in ttic locality Irom wtiich abe 
wrote, Swatow, China, th<- silh-);Unds nre talicn from the larvx 
of aevcral ^pccieaof large lepiUopterous insctUjiiH before thej 
enter the pupa stAgc, nnd arc made into fishing lines. At this 
period in the life-history of the insect, tbe glands are fhll of the 
viscid white subslnncc from which the cocoon is to be spun. The 
ailk-gtunds of a species of Atlag were found to be one yard long, 
a tenth of an inch in diameter at tbe free, posterior end. and a 
hundredth of an inch in diiimelcr at ita Anterior end. Tlie two 
gtAnils txtend nearly the whole length of the butty cavity, on 
either side of the alimentary canal, lying in loops of varying 
length, and uniting in a single duct under the mouth, as in tbe 
ailk-worm, Bombi/x viori. The Chinese mske a transverse cnl 
Across tbe hack of the caterpillar, take hold of one of the loops 
of the silk-gland, draw it out entire, drop it in vinegar to take 
olf iti< external coat, then Btretih it to double or treble it* 
original lenglli.nnd <lry it. A durable tilanient i^ thut furmetl. 
strong as cutgiit, antl uiiieli cheaper. The tcnai'ily of ilie fila- 
ment is conslHiitly n-stured liy sonking it for a few miuiit*?' in 
warm rice-wati-r, tli:it is, in the water in wliich riee has t>efn 
Wili-d for food. The liBhernieu say thai when thus pre|>arvil a 

\\.%*. ] SATIftJiL ■ 1%%' U of rilliat'U^HlA ttt 

li|»r m .\'i Is \\ tl.r lftr^*v«t 0tth tftkrri iifi *hr rt»%at |t Wa« fi«iin>|. 
h«>*rirr, thftt « ftiti^^'tr ;;i«!urfit Vnul fi>t ••i«!a:II tl) 'fr tt.ftli 
f ■ .f %iv\ % f.».f I- ! U l»r • « .•.lf» I ti • \r^*r ( M.r i|.*«(.i*«I 

i% tl.r f.rt^i.*^t l*r«** %trr,ft!. \l •«. r, X* >■»( m l.\ \ •-.^•««' ..[% 
■-•••I 'i.r** r.iriirl.!* fr •. »••••'• .:• •.r^ ». ■|«f%''-?,« 

It •%• •.^■^•••U'l ?.'.%l t.*.' ■ '* •■ ». •! r.*. r./ ;. I i ,!«»% ..f ll.r 
I 14 tt -I '^tA'r* li. ^'J.*. f .rv.«-. .r. l!n . ' t A pTijir. I* ' ft • •• '•» 

I-' « .1. !• ft f ft » I •!..!. ■ . . . . t !.»* • « • '• ^ :'..'•'•'. sputi 
• .4 • •' •• * ** ifift' .« If* !• *» fc • r"..« ' »>• '-•II 

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1 '.♦ • k fr ti. • . ;. i i!r • j !*.'• '• .1.^' . »■ •• r i;.* •, . »t :r 9 



t • • fc» : . » 'c f '..I . t ! r. :. i . » i :. • ,a* *■ . • . f t ..c 

'« ■ '. •' ■ r*? .' ' r. ,- •• ' ». ••«.■. a' :.. I : M f »»l 

• .'•". • . • ..r ■. ' ■ . f •■ . ■ . ' ■ »* > • M» 1* «• ?v 

• : • ■ • ft ^ ■ ■ 1 % ft. « < • . • •. • • , 

T • t. uT. M * t ^ • •' ■ . • • '••*•• r, 

•■• * I { ■ » ft f- • I. ■ 1 • ■ • ■'••.• ^ \ :. * I ■ ' ■ • r 

" » r t ' • * . ' ' ' ■. ' • • • L ••*;••» • ^ 

;*&•• I •'.. ^ •.■•»• •. .' .•• ;•.!. ! 

I -.-. 'f t:. k' • . ■ .' • ■ •■ \ ' ' ■ \ ■ X k r I r , 

ft T- ^ * » ft: i • . %'.•''■' ' \ • . '* • • . . ■ . • . ••...'. 

' ( • 11 

1J»»« ' ft W» ,• • ft' l» . « Ift • ft*^ ' 1 • %* 1' • I 

ft*«l*:« ! i**fWk»*,ft*. 'ft\ *.^ .•?*•■ • 


* • 

•. t* • . cft • • tt. ft • ♦ J I. :. ft • " \ • . . : ••.»:. ' •* » . • ft. 

• ♦•'■ft.-'- f I". ••' ' •'. - '.J.* 

1 ■ 


I PROoieDiNus or tbi acadkmt or [1886. 

W this case, that the young man had been in the countr)- bnt a aboft 
while, anil was at the time exhibiting the iihyslcal effecU of aucb 
a radical change of climate. 

" In raaklug the above statements I do not wlah It to be oader^ 
Blood that I hnjiugn the truth of the atatemeiiU of Dr. Qoniales. 
Duruiigo and Yiioatau are two Statea in thi* Mi-xloan R«pDblle 
widely separate, and diroumittiincea governing bj) faota In tbe oiw 
may not so govern in tbii othuir." 

The Form of tht Puyil in Snak«». — Mr. LocKlHOTON otaUil 
that amon^t Itie cohibriform unakes, the Boidie, a bmilj whicb 
has it4 headquarters in .South America, and has reprexent^tivvs 
In the West of this country, have elliptical vortical pupil*, like 
tboae of rattleanakea. At least, tliis is the oaso with Boa con- 
Mrietor, B. equeg, Eunectea murittue (ihe anaconda), Sipkoaomka 
comnum, ana Xwnoloehirna muUiaectua. Tlie Acrocbonltdie, or 
wart-snakes of eastern Asia, liave cit-cular pupils. The Ten- 
omoua snakes witli fixed fanjra are usually claase<l In three 
families : Elapidie, Natidie, or cobras, and Hydrophide, or •«•- 
fnakes. Some heruvtoloni^ts unite the firot two families. Aa 
far aa the shape of tliu pupil ifues, tbey seem to agree, tiaj* 
tripudians, the cobra, Naja haje, the African asp, PunatecAia 
pOTfhyriacut, Sipedon h^macfuiten, have oiroular pup^, u weQ 
as the species of Bumjarua and Elapn. The sesi^nakea, bo Gu H 
exiimiiied, have cirvulnr nupila. Thin is the oaae with the oofl>- 
mon and well-known Mamyn bicotor, with UifdrDfAu palami- 
doidet, U. gracilu, U. nigrocinclu»y Diateira dumeriUi, and rtu- 

Among the snakes with movable fangs, the Crotalidte (rattle- 
snakes), and among the Yiperida!, examples of the genera Clothe, 
Pelias, Vipera and Cerastet, have elliptical pupils, but CautMn 
rhtrmbeatiig (Causido;) has rounded ones. It is tbus evident that 
the form of the pupil has no relation to the venomous or non- 
venomous character of the snake. 

Ur. Thos. Meehan, Yice-Prcaidcnt, in the chair. 
Nine persons present. 

A paper entitled " On the Fertilization of Cassia Marylandic,-*," 
by Thomas Meehan, was prosunled for publication. 

The deatli of Wm. R. Cruice, M. D., a member, August 15, 
188C, was announced. 


The Prt^itlmt. I>r J«Hi Lbidt, m thr rhhir. 
I'ifWra prrk»n« |>n^«rot. 

The «|rftth of R4t|*rr ShrrmAti. • mrmlvr. «»• annninml 
r I.. kiU'uni «»• rlerirvf • mrmfa'r. 
Tbr ftitlifWiDj; «rrr ontrrrti l«i )« |>hntr«l 

I or TBB ACADxm or [1888. 



pert.'oivtt objccU \a titbit eamct pMitioo, 
don npon the retina is ti reveravd oiu>, foriBB k 
ta given rise to much fi|>ec'ulMtiun,ort«ii unproflt- 
t}. In the effort to explain it. None of tboe 
M«r tAc older wrtu-rs now remain ciiirpnt. More nod«ni 
^^Mo f^** vxploDntioDa wbicli arc little more «atiifact4ir7. 

■ft * IVwlon wys : " Ttiv rtttina tiess or localizes objt«ts wbure 

IMf an: Utat U what wv call 'erect;' if the picture be rervrsod 
% » a ■«« matter of geometry." Helmhoitt uf«: "Onr 
^iian* eonacioasness is completely Ignorant cnm of the exiat- 
^got ^ Uw rctlaa and of the formation of images ; kuir sbouM 
A kwio anything of till' position of images formeil upon it!*^ 
Il «aaM>t be claimed that Iheso remarkB are explaiutioas, and ws 
M^r proceed to the more elaborate theory advanced by Lel'onte, 
M U» work on " Sight." He remarks that "the reUnal im»ge 
lM|iriTr the rslina In a definite way. This impr«wion U then 
tfomrtyi by the optio uerve to tbn bnun, and deUmtnM ohukgM 
ltt«re. . . . And then the bn«in or the mind refers or projects 
the Inipresnion oiilwunl into ipwr us nn external image, ibr sign 
wr (koaimilo of an object producing it." He proeeeds : "The 
law may be tlitm slated : When the rayKfrom dsy rtuliani ttrike 
Ou relina, the imfiression is referrrd Imck along the ray hut 
{ctKtral ray of [lit pencil) into tpace, and iKert/ort to its prtjptr 

It cannot )w Raid that his arguments are suBleient to establish 
tills theory. That wo mentally refer an impression to the ncrrr 
extremity that received it is unquestionable, and where a Hnh 
has been lost, impressions seem lu be rcfi^rred to the location of 
the original nerve termination. But this is very probably a 
T«snlt of long.contiDued her^ltary infliieaces, through wUeh 
eaeh nerve tie(>ome» adaptivl to give a mental picture of the loca- 
tion of its imprcsMon". and conlinnc* to do so even if Louchnl 
at Mime intormciiinte ]>oint In the case of sight, no localiwd 
refenncc to the nerve exlremily exists. In this sense the aoaree 
of our impn^iuion sofms exU-raal to the l>ody. And yet this is 
in all probability equally a rvoult of hereditary accommodation. 

^%: r. «i. «i 1^ I* ri.:: I. i:i::r« 

■ I 
• 1 


or TBI. ACAD&mr or [I88C. 



The faet Hint wv pcrcoive objccu ID tli«ir correct poAitiuD. 
while their iiDpression upon tb« retina la a revcnMcl one, fom* & 
[irobli'm which bae given rise to much apevuUtiua, ntlva iinprolt- 
nbly me tup liy a teal, In the effort to explain U. Nono of thMC 
tbcorlca of the older writers now remain cumnL Morv modem 
SQlhora g\f» vxptanationa wUich ar« little morv satisractdry. 
Oiraad Toulon myt : " The retina iwm or localises iibjecta wberv 
tbey are; that is what we call ' erect;' if the picture be rvvencd 
It is a mere matter of (geometry." Helmholtz aaja: "Oar 
natural ronaciouiiiieHa is completely l^orant cvnn of tb« exiat- 
BDc« of th« retSua nud uf the fonnation of images; kow ahoald 
it know anjtbipg uf the ponition of imagn formed upon itf" 
It cannot be claimed that theso remarks are explanations, aad we 
may proceed to the more elaborate theory advanced by LeCont*, 
in bla work on " Si^ht." He remarkn that " the rvUnal Image 
imprcsaoH the retina In a definite way. This iin]>n;««ion ia Ifaeti 
conveyed by ttie optic ncnreto the brain, and di'terminita changca 
there. . . . Ami thpn Uic hmin or the mind refere or prtijerta 
the impression outwani into space as an external image, the sign 
or facsimile of an object producing it." He proceeds: "The 
law may be thus stated : When the rayg/rom any radiant giriLf 
the relina, the imprftssion is re/erred back along the ray line 
{central ray of the pencil) tnlo space, and there/ore to itt proper 

It cannot be said thnt his arguments arc sufficient to establish 
this theory. That we mentally refer an impression to the nem- 
extremity that received it in unquestionable, and where a limb 
has been ioxt, impressions seem to be referred to the location of 
the original nerve termination. But this is very probably a 
result of long-continued hereditary influences, through which 
each nerve Incomes adapted to give a mental picture of the loca- 
tion of its imprcMBioii'', iinil continues to do so even if touched 
at some inlt'i'niediate point. In tlie ease of sight, no localizeil 
reference to the nerve extnniily exists. In this sense the source 
of our impression seems external to the ImxIv. And yet this is 
in ail probability equally a result of hereditary accommwlation. 


What we really perceive is the impression produced upon the 
retina, which is transmitted by the optic nerve to the brain. The 
theory that the brain or mind, by some secondary action, physically 
refers this sensation back again to the nerve extremities, or even 
projects it beyond them into space, along reversed lines, has no 
warrant in known physiological facts. Far more probably the 
seeming projection is a mental action only. Natural selection 
may have adapted each nerve to yield a sense of the distance 
and direction of its impressions and, therefore, of their external 
location. An animal destitute of such sense would be unable to 
estimate the exact point of a threatened danger, and only those 
capable of localizing their sense impressions could survive. Yet 
if the brain estimates the distance from which any sensation 
comes only through conditions hereditarily existing in the trans- 
mitting nerve, the idea of referred sensations, with all theories 
based upon it, falls to the ground. The reference of a pain to 
the natural location of an amputated foot would form a constituent 
portion of the impression conveyed to the brain by the nerve 
which formerly passed to that foot. In like manner the optic 
nerve may, among its hereditarily-gained powers, have that of 
referring its impressions to a point beyond the nerve extremity — 
or in external space, the locality from which danger from visible 
objects comes. But this would have no bearing upon the ques- 
tion of the character of its impression, the retinal image as a 
whole being mentally transferred to an external region, but in no 
sense changed in character. The question seems to be solely one 
of a certain power or strength possessed by the nerves, through 
which each of them indicates that location of its impressions best 
adapted to the eflSciency of protective activity. In the case of 
sight this distance would necessarily be beyond the actual posi- 
tion of the retina, and external to the body. The same rule 
holds good in the case of sound. In every case it is very prob- 
ably a resultant of long-continued natural selection. 

We do not actually see objects. We simply perceive the 
images of them which are impressed upon the retina. This 
stands as a picture-plane between our mind and the universe. 
We perceive the impressions with which it is affected — incor- 
rectly, if this affection is in any sense an incorrect one. But the 
conception gained from these impressions is subject to mental 
accommodations, the result of experience and of hereditary influ- 


ences ; and we may, therefore, gain a correct idea from an impres- 
sion which is physically incorrect. 

Though the retinal image seems to be referred by the optic nerve 
to a position external to the eye, yet it is certainly not exactly 
located by the sense of sight, and the mental accommodations 
above mentioned are the locating influences. It is said that to a 
blind man suddenly restored to sight, the surrounding objects 
seem like the details of a picture, and within easy reach. He 
appears to see the retinal picture, somewhat projected, but with 
no correction except that the reversal of the image does not 
appear. Our perception of roundness or solidity is, then, a 
result of experience. This is followed by a knowledge of rela- 
tive distance, comparative location being one of the most appar- 
ent relations between objects. But the actual distance of objects 
which are somewhat removed from the body is learned by experi- 
ence, aided by several of the senses. Of more distant objects, 
we seldom properly estimate the actual distance. All this, how- 
ever, is a result of the action of the reasoning powers, guided by 
the senses. The evidence of the blind man assures us that what 
we actually see is the retinal image, somewhat projected into 
space, and diflering from an ordinary picture mainly in that it is 
perfect in its lights and shades, and thus forcibly tends to pro- 
duce that illusion of solidity which is the effect sought in all 
pictures. The only correction is that of the reversal of the 
image. This correction, therefore, seems a natural one, inherent 
in the sense or the mind. 

In attempting an explanation of this phenomenon, in ^^ew of 
the considerations above taken, the question may be asked : In 
what way can the mind discover that there is anything incorrect 
in the direction of the retinal image? To do so it must have 
some standard of direction with which the impressions upon 
the retina can be compared, and their agreement or disagree- 
ment observed. If there be an}^ such standard, it must exist in 
one of three locations : on the retina itself, in external nature, or 
in the mind. If on the retina, it could only be some line, or 
group of lines, apparent to sight, and serving as directive guides 
with which to compare retinal impressions. It need not be said 
that nothing of the kind exists. 

The standard of comparison, therefore, by whose aid alone we 
can discover that the retinal image is reversed, if it exists. 

1886.] NATUftAL SCnSMOi&S Of PBtLADtLVmA. 305 

must do so either in the mind or in external nature. If it be 
internal, it must be of the nature of an idea — an innate sense of 
absolute direction, a mental power by which we can at once 
distinguish the truth or falsity of any apparent direction. That 
we have any such idea of tlie absolute, is in itself highly improb- 
able. It may, in fact, be readily disproved. We are aware that 
the revolution of the earth on its axis reverses the absolute direc- 
tion of all the objects upon its surface every twelve hours. And 
yet this reversal is not perceptible to us. The direction of all 
objects, as related to that of our bodies, remains unchanged, and 
this relation is all that we perceive. Indeed, we must have 
remained forever ignorant of the revolution of the earth but from 
the fact that the spheres of space do not revolve with it. These 
retain their positions in' space, while those of all objects upon the 
earth change. They, therefore, serve us as standards of compari- 
son by whose aid we intellectually discover the earth's motion. 
We never become sensibly aware of it, for the only motion 
apparent to us is that of the spheres of space. We impute 
motion to objects at rest, and rest to objects in motion. This 
error could not arise, had we any innate idea of absolute direc- 
tion, or an internal standard of comparison. Therefore the mind 
in itself is incapable of perceiving that there has been a reversal 
of the retinal image. It has no faculty of deciding on questions 
of direction, and what is relatively correct is absolutely correct 
to its perceptive powers. 

If we have no internal or retinal standard of direction, have we 
any external one ? No object upon the earth's surface will serve 
this purpose. The images of all objects alike are reversed upon 
the retina. The same is the case in regard to the spheres of space. 
They do not retain their true positions in this case, as in the 
former case considered, but are reversed in direction, and the 
whole universe is turned upside down by the crystalline lens of 
the eye, and is perceived by the mind thus reversed. Though 
nothing is absolutely correct, everything is relatively correct in 
direction, and we have no guide to teach us that such a reversal 
has taken place. 

The fact is that in this, as in the other case, we involuntarily 
take our body as the measuring rod of t uniyerse. Distance is 
at first estimated by the lei h of the m by the 

spread of the fingers and the i 

I W mtKM IWMI or TUB AdAtilMT or [IStt. 

tint of the body. Our knowledge Uikt tlie rvtiaal lauft h 
niTvnrd )• not ^IdmI by fNimpptioD, bat bv our vtodj of tW 
Iftwi of opticL Wv DODCcive of « picture utxin the retiita wha»« 
directitio La revene to Uiut of Ibe bodj-, and nr« fKixxlcd to ander- 
Uand whj' llie mind does not iwrceivt^il thii» roTvrMvl. Id tbt» 
we kre coffiparlng •eniatinn* with idea*. Tb» iBMg[« of tfcs bodj 
»nUo nivor»od upon llir rnlinn nnrt Itiin itn ilTfrtlcm.Mnpllfnj 
recognized, ftgrvM with ibnt of all otkrr obfiota. Oor ue«pb4 
Btaiidard of dirmtion therefore flUU \a la thU partlenlar. The 
nnivcrae, w perceived by the rolnd througli the oMtium of the 
wjr, is lelntlvel; In bnnnonjr In all It* particaUn of dirwtioD 
and pooitfon. and unl«M tbe nulnd had aumc innate oinopption of 
ah«olali- direction. It w<^ald be imixuwiMe fur it to ditcover thai 
a reri^nwl of Uie Itoa^ had takitn ptacu. Vir ha*B alniadv abown 
tint it haa no such Innate idea* of dircciion. and in entireiy depend- 
ent ufion it«> perception* in tbia particnlar. The body, uuraocepttd 
standard of dirvction, it pcrcvivFd to be erect aa n>m|iared with 
our perception of the esrtb'a aurbce. All other obJMts aptm 
Ibts surface bear the siimQ relation to tl, and we baw no wimM 
of ditcornring that we are optically de4:eivcd,«xcept bynseeood- 
ary proooss of reasoning, biuicil upon th« iawe of optica. Ko 
tree, for Inatance, could seem to us upside down nnlen the«Mth% 
unrijicc secnu-il upside down, which i«i impos^ibl*'. 

The mystery in which this question has been so long iovolTed. 
therefore, vnnhhus when considered from this point of view. 
The mind fails to discover that it» optical image is reversed 
simply from the fact that this reversal includes all things, nothing 
retaining its erect positi<iD to serve as a standard of comparison, 
and from the second fact that the mind has no innate idea of 
direction to make it nware of its error. There is no error in onr 
perception. KeUtively it is in every i>arlicular correct, and of 
the absolute we have no knowledge except through the process of 

■ Since formiiiK these theoretical viewR, the writer ha« become awaiv ihat 
tlip Mine Ihoory him l>eeii imvii-nnly priwiiltd. Dr. William Mackcnxi^- 

'■ PhjBiolngj- of Vi>ii.ii.'" ],<iii.loii. I'i4l-»ajs: ■•)ii Uio iniap' ,.n lb* 
nliiiB, tin- iflative i«.-ili"n i>f llii' parts of (hi- ■■hji-ct rrnmin uupliaDp-d, 
an Bcll a* it* relatiiili* to KurroumliuK objwtii. Thr imagiK ut all objiitu, 
cvonlh"-* of oiirowtihiidiris an> .■(jually invi-rtcl on the n^lina, and tbp»- 
forc maintain the Kime n'Utivc ]>i«ition, Evi'n the image at our hand. 


while used in touch, is inverted. Hence, the notion is evidently absurd, 
that infants at first see objects upside down, and learn to see things in their 
proper positions, by comparing the erroneous information acquired by sight 
with the accurate information acquired by touch. Many of the lower 
animals manifest a perception of the true position of objects by means of 
the sense of sight from the very first, and before any experience derivable 
from touch can have had time to operate. To some philosophers, then, 
there appears no difficulty respecting erect vision, so long as all things 
equally, and not some objects only, are seen by means of impressions coin- 
cident with inverted images." He further says : "The mind neither views 
the images on the retina, nor is in any way conscious of their existence." 

This theory is so identical with the one we have given, as to render the 
latter, in a considerable sense, a repetition. Yet Mackenzie's views do not 
seem well known, and are worth restating. Moreover, his theory is far 
from being fully argued out, and no theoretical views can be held as in any 
sense substantiated until they have been shown to be logically defensible. 
This we have attempted to do. The hypothesis we have given of the prin- 
ciple through which nerve impressions are mentally localized in position 
has, we believe, not been previously advanced, but is here first presented. 

MOOMDmo* or ths acajavt or ^88A- 

voncB or vnuTont wobhi. 



yllndric, roanded a.t tbe « 
pore witboDt labia, papi 

Bbdj- cylindrical, nearly equally tapering at tbc roda. Cephatts 
■■trcaity abruptly narroHiiifC, cyllndric, roanded at tbe sammU 
iMinDocUi. Moiilb a lemljial pore witboat labia, papUlv or 
Inuor anDfttare. Caodal sxtreinLtf 
r fenale n«aT)y itntf^l, eoaie*), 
oliUuMly rounded, mnooth, without 
appvmlagMi ; of tiui male corfMl, 
tiirrmittof (^oitiral, obtQMly Foondttd alate and 
papilUt«; aUe half oval; papQlc 
fiw pain, pyrirorin, naoceiulvely ilecreasiDU to the laat at tlt« 
oik) of tbn lall. Genit&l a]>ertur« opening betwrvii tbe ant*- and 
penultimate papilln:; penal npiculv* abort, earrrd. 

Female 36 to 30 mm. \oag; 0'15 wide at middle; b«ad 0-1T5 
wide. Male 12 mm. long ; 0'»75 wide at middle. 

KIgbt females and fire males were obtained fton beneath Uw 
akin of tbe hind fool of a rabbit, LejMt n/loalicut. 
nUrU obtanft. 

Bo<1y cylindrical, nearly uniform ; bead conical, obtusely 
rounded, or pounded truncnte, smooth; mouth a minute central 
pore, devoid of lips, papillie, or intcmnl armature; caudal end of 
female straight, conical, obtusely rounded, devoid of papilln; of 
male abruptly narrowed, n len^h about equal to tbe breadth of 
the body, nipple-fthniMxl, obtusely rounded and devoid of papillie. 
Female genital a|)«rturc near tbe he^d end. Male aperture ter- 
minal ; penis of a longer curved spicule and a spiral one of half 
tbe length. 

Female < inchts or more long, 0(125 mm. wide. Male 2 incbe* 
long, 0'5 mm. wide. Abundnnt in the visceral cavity of the 
snow bird, Junco hyi-maHi*. =^ I-'ilaria oUuxa, Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., 
1886, 10. 

In llic mrndow Inrk, Slurnrlln moj/im. = F. oUiisa, Ibidi'm. 
Chester Co., Pa. 01>tjuiied by Dr. H. II. Warren. 

Miiuy spi'ciuK'us from the viMccrnl cavity of the meadow lark 
in tlie collirtion of tlic Army Mwiictl Museum, Washington. 


Female from 4^ to T^ inches long, mostly to 6 inches; width 
0-625 mm. Male 2^ to 3^ inches. 

Four females and a male from the crow black bird, Quiscalus 
purpu7*eu8. They are proportionately more robust than the 
preceding. Female 4 inches long and 0*875 wide. Male 1^ inches 
long and 0*5 mm. wide. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

I at first viewed this species as the Filaria obtusa, Rudolphi 
(Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 267). The caudal extremity of the male, 
with its penal armature, accords with Dujardin's figure of that 
species (Helminthes, Pt. iii, fig. j, 2). In F. oblunsa I can detect 
no buccal armature such as exists in F. ohtusa, according to 
Dujardin; and later, Molin (Versuch einer Monographic der 
Filarien, Sitzungsb. Wien. Akad, Wis., 1858, 397). 

Filaria oirrnra. 

Body cylindrical, nearly equal, cephalic end conical, rounded 
truncate, smooth ; mouth a minute funnel-like orifice without 
papillse or interior armature; caudal end of female slightly 
curved or nearly straight, conical, obtusely rounded, without 
appendages ; of male closely rolled inward, conical, blunt, 
without alse or papillse ; penal spiculae strongly curved, with the 
points projecting from the prominent genital aperture situated 
above the tail end. 

Length of female 16 mm., breadth 0*5 mm. Length of male 
10 mm., breadth 0*375 mm. 

Four females and two males from the orbit of the jackdaw, 
Quiscalus major. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Filaria nodulosa. Rudolphi. Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 274. 

Body cylindrical, nearly uniform, slightly more narrowed, 
behind ; head conical, obtusely rounded, with a circle of minute 
tubercles. Caudal extremity of the female straight, conical, 
obtuse ; of the male slightly curved, obtuse ; genital aperture a 
little in advance of the tail end ; penal spicules short, curved. 

Female 3 inches long, 1 mm. wide. Male 1^ inches long, 0*5 
mm. wide* 

One of each sex from beneath the skin of the head and neck 
of a shrike, Collurio ludovicianiLS. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Filaria itiirmatiira. 

Body filiform, nearly uniform cyl ri ^ but a mated at the 
cephalic extremity; head roan 9t con mouth 

SIO rwacnamnm op vbm. uAbarr ov [isai. V 

larf!*, bordMol tiy two or Un»« ? mimiU, eogical i»|MUir. ma.n»»d 
viihin ; iat^inniMnt •mowib ifaroagfaonl, Qot utnnlste. FcibbU : 
cawUl extrcmitf stnigbt, naootb ; tail stTBiglit or alightlj bMtt 
bock trom i\w ilisliDCt aoal ap^rturv, etnical, UonL Mmiei 
owulat iMtremitj^ ifinll}- enrciUed t«o cir tliRM tinea, hnilaliad 
with n&rrow ban't-tike fEraunlar oIm aiutslDMl by twelve pftin of 
ribaor cjrllndroJd |«]iilb!,of wbieb wven pair an pRutal; tall 
eonred ooaicsl, «ubsout« ; penal apiiculc*, ooe four time* lb* 
lensth of tti« otiK>r. 

Leni^b of fvmalv 40 to £5 mm., brrndtfa O'S mm. ; tail 0^ loOf. 
I>«!ngtb of inalo 24 to 30 mm.; brcadlb 0.315 mm. ; tall 0-S6 from 
gvnilal npcrtur*. Long penal spienia 0'8S mm. ; abort ooa 0-t 

Ptwrj-nx cylindrical, Q-9& mm. hmg; (MopbagiM cyUodrical, 
allfbtly ezpaodiNlat lowrr(tiid,Smm.loag; iaLeattDo nearly muds 
dlami;t«r. Kgg* thiuk ahfUed, oval, D-OI long, 0-094 broad. 

A tniiltltiHle of indJTidnala obtaind ^n the swlmnilag blad- 
drr of tite lake trout, Satvtlinuji namaifcudL Lake Sufterior. 
Dr. Jam«N H. BlucL 

The ■proiM bvar« conoid erabln rcMrmblanen to JarymrflaMits 
c}fiMieola {Hurl, Solioridcr, Moo. d. N<'matodon, 105), from a 
Ukfl poaltioo of 8aimo/urio of Europe, but it poaaeaaes dlatlnot ^1 
(Hiaroptera ema generic- It nl*o r«««n))>los fStaria lientictitata ^1 
(II). 102), but it* di-voiii of tlie tcgitmL'tiUry spines and other char- 
acterJHtic muikM oT tliat siiccii-s. 

rilarik halMlDB. Malin, J^iiiun^.h. V,^n. Ak..i. U-i>i., I-<M. iiTiii, .^Vl. 

/■;„.„„„.„(„.. l*,i.-kJ.r.i. H*v.i-n-. R-p. (*. 8. (ipul. .^urv., l.-::i. 7.1J. 
t:ia.,'i H'.v"<"~i- Lt'Kiy, I'luc. A. N. .S.. I-->2. lOV. 

Numrrous ndditional iipecinii'iis from the brain of a dozen indi- 
\Uh\ii\H of I'lolint aiihin'ja. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 
TrkoheiomnD tanniMimam, l>ii"inK, Syil. Ilvlm.. ii, an, 

Ittxiy cylin'trical.obtusc at lioth ends. 

es by 0-25 


irk. Int«Htine of the dove, Zi^naidtira 

incNXM. Frou 

1 t* 

l-y b 

irds. Flo 


. Pi 

r. B. II. Wa 


ipeUloncnik ercmi 


.Iv t-yliii-iriftil 

, si 


It narrow 

r-t 1 


iorly; he;id 

with an 

U.r cx|K,nsi,.n 






■h i« more 


f ; iii.iiitii Willi 


of hi.lf-*-o 

1 lip, 

^ divid.-.! ii 

ito four 

Iiijiltia- ajHx; 

: t" 

>il »] 

lort, striii; 


al, obtuse. 


A single female 19 lines long and nearly 1 line thick at the 
middle. Obtained by Dr. J. Van A. Carter, from the masseter 
muscle of a badger, Meles labradorica^ at Ft. Bridger, Wyoming. 

The head and mouth have the characters of Physaloptera. Two 
apertures are visible in advance of the end of the tail, one at the 
distance of 0*25 mm., the other 0'625 mm. 

Asoaris simplex. Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst Hel., ii, 155. 

A large quantity, from the stomach of a dolphin, Lagenorhyn- 
chus? Pacific ocean. Dr. Wm. H. Jones, XJ. S. N. 

Asoaris oompar. Schrank, Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 170. 

One male. If inches long. Intestine of the quail, Ortyx mr- 
ginianua. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Asoaris vesioularis. Frbhlich, Diesing, Syst. Hel. ii, 148. 

Two females and two males. Intestine of the quail, Ortyx 
virginianus, Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Asoaris depressa- Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 156. Intestine of Strix nivea, 
Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., 1858, 112. 

Two females 2^ inches by 3 mm. Intestine of StHx brachy- 
otu8. Florida. One female 1 finches. Bubo virginianus. Chester 
Co., Pa. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Asoaris ensioandata. Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 184. 

Labia large and prominent;. apex of tail defined as a short 
ensiform appendage. Five females, to 3 inches long, by 1 mm. 
broad. Ejected from the mouth of a mocking bird, Mimus poly- 
gloUus. Jacob Geismer. 

Asoaris miorooepliala. Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 155. 

Numerous specimens from the stomach of the night-heron, 
Nyctiardea grisea, Chester Co., Pa. G. W. Roberts, through 
Dr. B. H. Warren. Specimens from Ardea herodias. Hydro- 
nassa tricolor and Botaurus mugitans. Florida. Dr. Warren. 

Asoaris spionligera. Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst. Hcl., ii, 157. 

From Oraculus dilophus, Flotus anhinga^ Pelicanus trachy- 
rhynchus and P. fuacus. Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1868, 
110 ; 1882, 109. Numerous additional specimens from the former 
two birds. Florida. Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Asoaris tenoioollis. Rudolphi, Diesing, Syst. Hel., ii, 160. 

Numerous specimens, all females, up to 1^ inches long, and 2 
mm. thick. From the Alligator mississippiensis. 


llMOf- _ 



NuDieruas fi>Qialos, 3 ftnd 4 inches long to 2 utm. thick. Tboe 
wiu* tH *uiipt*n<le't iu the Btomaob, ttiroagh doublo aportures of- 
thvnncoua meaibrane, and ttiUN tf gbtly retained in poriUon. 1 
ft snks, wblcb, ttota the deiit-riptiun, la mppcMuA to be the ■ 
main, OphOvlu*. Obtuinol by Dr. Jftinea BiMsU, In the TiciNlt|(l 
of Umrriifburg, I**. 

Body cylindrical, tn|>erini* at tb« extremltlei, uid niMt stteaa- 
at«d Id front ; mouth trilabiate. Tail of fcmolti, lung, «tr&igbt, 
ounicitl, HiibuUte; of male of same form, ittrongly uarvMl, villi 
the point brouglil near the geiiitui api^rture; pnividn) at tlio po«* 
tcrior third nilh four paim of pnpilla>. Pciial tpiotdit ninarfc- 
ably robust. 

Length uf female .1 tn 7 lioes, by ^ lino io iridlh; of male, to 
b liuea, liy 0~37S mm. in width. Numeroua iiMxiiovD* from the 
lutestlue of Trachemi/s aeabra. Qencratiru spertarv of the 
foitMie at the pouterior third of the body. IKaopbftgua Long cyl- 
indrioul, followed by an uva) or «phi'riait ginurd. Ochdbmro*- 
neDt of lntrstin<- dilated. CEHOphagiu 175 inm. lobg, bf 0-|3ft 
wide; gSzzard about 0*35. Tail of female l-itt mm. long. 
Bnuidth of penal apical«8 0-1)8 mm. 

PhrHlopMIk MrquitU. , 

Body cylindrical, most<;<] anteriorly; bead inth a cnn- 
epicuuiis narrow annular fold or collar; mouth bilabiate, labia 
hair conical with a puir of lateral papiUie and the apex provided 
with a group of four, of wliicb oui' is external to the other. T;iil 
abort, conical, obtuse, recurved from the anal aperture. 

Numerous Bpecimena, all females, from 3 to 6 lines wide and 
one-fourth of a line thick. Worms all more or leas spirally cuiletl. 
From the stomach of the b.iilger, Helen Inbradorica. 

FhrialopUra tnrgida, Bu.l"l]ihi, liiivitig: Sjd. Hrliii..ii. !:i:;. UiJy. fr A.S.?. 

From stumaeh of the opossum, I>idri}ihU virginiana. Collec- 
tion of the Army Meilicat Museum, Washington. Also received 
from l>r. Iletijamiii Sli.irp. 
PhjfiBlopler* «bbrcsiau. Rn i'.l|.lii, In ,£. -j-i ll.lm ; i. 

Niinjeri>us fem:il.>s from 3 to S lines, and throe males al-ut i 
lines, l-'roui the visciTiil cavity of /Vi/-y,iu«iniii re-jaU: CoIU-c- 


tion of the Army Medical Museum, Washington. Nose, mouth, 
and throat of Phrynosoma hernandezi ; Sonora, Mexico. Dr. T. H. 

Hedmris androphora. Nitzsph, Diesing ; Syst. Uel., ii, 205. 

SynpUcta pendala Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., 1851, 210; 1856, 52. Diesing, Sitzangsb. 
Wien. Akad. Wis., xlii, 1861, 647. 

Stomach of Nanemys guUatus. 

Caoulanas roseni. Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., 1351, 155; 1S5G, 54. 

Intestine of Manouria fusca, Java. 
Tropidooeroa oerta. 

; FUan'a dnhin. Leidy, Pr. A. N. S., 1856, 55. 

Female subglobular, broader than long, divided into zones ; tail 
abruptly projecting and conical. Male of the ordinary nematoid 
shape, cylindrical, most attenuated in front. Mouth trilabiate. 
Caudal extremity strongly rolled inwardly, sigmoid at the end, 
which is conical, recurved from the genital aperture, mucroriate 
and alate ; alse half oval, narrowing to the end of the mucro, 
which is truncate. Female 7 mm. long by 7 and 8 mm. broad. 
Male 12 to 18 mm. long, and 0*375 to 0*5 wide. The specimens 
of this curious parasite were contained in two spherical cysts in 
the wall of the stomach of the albatross, Diomedia exulans. 
Each cyst contained a corpulent female with severally four and 
five males. Obtained by Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 


. r\ 

814 nocoDBiiQiod or Tin AOAmatr or ^Mt^ 



The relation of insects to flowers oontinoes to be a qoMdiKm of 
profound interest. It has never been olear to my miiid that 
insects are any material aid to plants through the pcdUnisatioB 
which they often undoubtedly accomplish. There has been litUe 
to prove tiiat in-and-in or close breeding is an injury ; and it has 
been assumed that cross-breeding among plants must be a benetli 
solely because arrangements for its accomplishment surely exist 
I have shown in various papers (see chiefly Pr oc eeHngM of 
American AasocioHan far the Advancemeni of Seienee^ Detroit 
meeting), that in a scheme of nature for progressive develop m en t 
there must be provided arrangements for the removal of oM as 
well as for the introduction of new forms, and from the fhota ad- 
duced we have as much right to look on them in the light of 
agencies for removal as for the strength and preservatioii ci a 
race. In my mind, the &cts rather show that instead of any 
material aid to the propagation of the race being gained, the 
dependence of a plant on insect aid for fertilization is rather an 
indication that its race is nearly run, and that it is on the down- 
ward track in the order of nature. 

The assumption that cross-fertilization is a factor in develop- 
ment instead of in degradation, has, I believe, been an injury to 
the study of the main question, as it has led to generalizations 
that cannot be sustained, and to assertions regarding facts that I 
think would not have been made had not the observers been pre- 
possessed in favor of this hypothesis. The followers of those 
who have done so much to advance this branch of science, have 
gone much further in their speculations than those who first 
originated the line of thought ; and even the leading minds in 
that path have often been the victims of an enthusiasm of which 
their cooler moments would not approve. Here and there we 
meet with statements by even such eminent naturalists as Darwin 
and Asa Gray, that would seera to sustain the wide genralizations 
of Grant Allen or Sir John Lubbock ; but a careful study of their 
writings will show that they look on cross-fertilization as a flict, 
and as a measure of race utility, from a much more limited field 


than the supporters of the wider speculations seem to believe. 
It is not the most eminent writers who assert that '* cross-fertiliza- 
tion is the general rule," "the greater number of flowers are 
cross-fertilized," etc. (see Popular Science Review^ 18T3), though 
the casual expression of Dr. Asa Gray, in his papers of 1877, 
that "many flowers freely self-fertilize," certainly might imply 
self-fertilizers to be a minority of the whole ; but the same eminent 
botanist has also said " it is a common case that flowers cross- 
fertilize when duly served by insects or wind, and self-fertilize 
when not," and this by no means bears the impression that he 
regards self-fertilizing flowers as composing a particularly limited 
class. Indeed no one is more severe than Dr. Gray on theory- 
makers who run off in haste on one line of facts. The true 
sentiments of Dr. Gray are that " cross-fertilization, we may well 
believe, is a very risky affair," and in view thereof very few plants 
have become wholly dependent on this mode, but act on the rule 
to prefer cross-fertilization " if they can," but failing in this, to 
self-fertilize, " if they must." And, though it is not so generally 
understood, I think a careful study of Mr. Darwin's works will 
show that this is essentially his view also. 

Though unwilling to concede that any material benefit comes 
to the races of plants from the aid which insects give to plants 
by cross-fertilization, the fact that some species are evidently 
wholly dependent on this agency for fertility, is no less interest- 
ing, and any original observations must have value to the student 
of this branch of science. 

Cassia J in a general way, has been a subject of study. In 1875 
Dr. Leggett writes (Bull. Torr. Club, p. 171) that Dr. Torrey had 
noticed the difficulty Cassia niclitans had in rejecting its pollen. 
Dr. Torrey believed, however, that though the anthers seemed to 
provide a pore at the apex for the emission of pollen, they finally 
slit longitudinally, and thus permitted the pollen to escape. Dr. 
Leggett does not seem satisfied of this. In 1882, however, Prof. 
J. E. Todd published some extremely interesting observations on 
this species, and on Solarium rostratum^ which has a similar 
staminal arrangement (see Am. NaturalisL Ap. 1883, p. 281-S87). 
C. Marilandica is referred to as one that would pn 
in the same way. Before noting what Mr. Tc 
will note the observations I have made on this 

As nothing seems to have been placed on 


Cassia Marilandica, and I having a good opportunity for dally 
observation, I undertook its close inveatigntlon this year. In 
Cassia Marilandica the flower consists or five petals, as in other 
leguminosie; but the two whiiili usually unite ami form the carina 
are hero distinct und spread widely, taking the place apparently 
often occupied by the wing -petals. The two actual wing-[ii>tala 
are Bomewhat erect and lap under the upper orvcxilhim. This 
arrAno^ement gives the Sower a "aomcwhat two-lippci) appi'jir- 
ance." The style curves griidually, but more rapidly at the npcx, 
curving there so much that the stigraatic surraca can scarci-ly bq 
closely examined without breaking the style. If the petals be 
opened just before the natural time for tlieir eX|>ansion, a globule 
of liquid is pendant from the surface. The aiamens are arranged 
In separate sets. Tliere are three beneath the pistil — the two ones are very strong and equal the plttil in length — Uic 
central one immediately beneath iLe pistil is aa long as those on 
each side, but more slender. Immediately above the pistil ane 
four stamens, with short, stout QIaments, the anthers being per- 
fectly formed, and nearly as lung as in the lower set. Above are 
throe petaloid stamens, which we can only see are ataminal elTortS, 
by noting llie iiiti-niu'dlato stnai't of tlie si'vera! [ifti'ts betweeo 
the stamens and petals. The only use for them seems to be to 
afford a good morphological lesson to the student. 

The moat interesting feature of this Cassia is that the Btameni, 
not mono or diadelphous as in many leguminoste, have long, 
black anthers, full of pollen, but which seem never to bnrst tlu 
anther cases. The ohly " opening is at the apex," and this " open- 
ing" is covered by a membrane — never opening, as I believe, 
except by insect agency. 

As soon as the flower expands it ia freely visited by hamble 
bees, and, as their loaded thighs evidence, for the pollen. To 
collect this, they alight on the anthers of the long and lower 
stamena, as on a platform — make an opening in the apex of each 
of the four shorter Ques, and then rifle them of their contento. I 
watched a mass of plants containing eighty -eight flower Stems, <» 
the 30th of July, and the same lot for an hour on 6th of Aogait, 
but saw no attempt to get pollen from the longer anthers, or to 
nse them in any way but as a platform. It would, indeed, bs 
hardly possible for the bee to stand anywhere so as to get power 
to pierce the apical mewbranes of the longer stamens. When tlu 


flower matured, and the anthers were ready to fall, they were exam- 
ined — the four short ones were empty sacs — the three lower ones 
proved they had not served any purpose to the bees, for they 
were full of pollen. There could be no doubt that, perfect and 
full of pollen as they were, they served no purpose that I could 
see either to the flower or to its insect visitors. Hive bees on 
honey-collecting expeditions hunted around among the base ot 
the petals, but were not, apparently, well rewarded for their work. 
No pollen could be detected on the stigmatic surface ; but as about 
three out of every twelve flowers yielded a pod, thej'^ were evi- 
dently fertilized in some way. On the 30th of July I covered 
one panicle that had not yet opened a blossom, with a gauze bag 
twelve inches wide and eighteen inches deep, tied at the bottom 
to prevent ingress. Not one of these enclosed flowers produced 
a seed vessel, nor could I see that any one antlier " opened at the 
apex." The membrane covered it as completely as it did in the 
unopened flower. 

Now all these observations confirm those of Mr. Todd in the 
other plants except in the following particulars : As in my 
case, he found that the bees never attempted to collect pollen 
from the longer and lower anthers, but " by the movement of 
her feet the larger stamen is repeatedly sprung backward, and 
as often throws a cloud of pollen on one side of her body.'' I 
am sure no pollen was ejected in this way from Cassia Marilan- 
dica, for the membrane at the apex was not even ruptured when 
the stamens were ready to fall. In regard to the manner in which 
the pollen is extracted, he found that "this she does by seizing 
each anther near its base between her mandibles, and, with a sort 
of milking motion, crowds the pollen out of the terminal pore." 
If this were the general way there would be no necessity for any 
pollen being ejected from the long stamens, for the stigma would 
certainly receive some during the ** milking " process ; and the 
pore at the apex in the long anther is beyond the line of the 
stigma, so that on ejection from the pore the pollen would go 
still further beyond. At any rate I am satisfied that in this 
species the anther cases did not under my observation ultimately 
split longitudinally, as stated by Dr. Torrey in al d 8p< es, 
nor was there any drawing out of the pel 
Todd. It is abstracted solely ro 
could see no evidence that bu 

319 pioocEDtmia or thi acadkht or [IBM. 

IcTtlUzation could only occur tbroii{[b mbu nf thu extrmctod 
poUrn *:>c»ping from tli« inkect to th« Btlgtiu. 

Uowcvcr. the f&ct wiw clG«rly ()«nton«trat«d ihmi Ca*0itt M*ri- 
landica. in Ibis exponm^nt, dot* not pnxtiMw a «iDgl« M»cd, wbrji 
the flowers arc protecbMl rrom the visiu of inaccU. 

Tbia plant Is Uie more tnteresUnt; as It Monga lo an order 
whichtbecatliuxlaMtatowlioml hare referre4l,ac«" from itaatrac* 
tan " U> be so wrll " armngp<) fur croaa-frrtl 11 cation ," bat which 
those who, like the following author, bare followMl re«ult«. mw 
Joat the reverse. " To the casual obacrrrr of topical iilnHrtarva 
th« papilionaccouH planta must prcMitt the miMl dilDRnlt nut to 
crack for a atudent of cross-Ureeding. * * ■ As mlKht be rxpte- 
ted fivm tb« Btmcture of Ui« flowers, we have In theae planta 
|)rn>iHt«nt uxainplM of Mlf-fertittzation, and hence the ofioitaney 
of garden rarietiea " ( Oonrf. Jfo;.. Peh. 3, 187?)- 


September 7. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Thirteen persons present. 

September 14. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-four persons present. 

September 21. 

Mr. John H. Redfield in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

The death of Wm. P. Jenks, a member, was announced. 

Chinese Women and Spiritism. — The following communication 
was read from Miss Adele M. Fielde: — In the eighth month 
of the year, early in autumn, when the full moon is worshipped ; 
when the gods of grain are rewarded with gifts ; when friends 
exchange many souvenirs ; when the upper and nether worlds 
are thought to touch boundaries, then the Chinese women meet 
privately and fall into trances. Nearly all women are interested 
in these secret sessions, but many are prevented from being 
present by necessary occupations elsewhere, or by fear of rebuke 
from the men of their households. These conclaves are entered 
by women only, and are regarded by men with great disfavor. 
The women assemble in an apartment where they may be for a 
few hours secure from interruption. From three to a dozen or 
more gather around a table in the centre of the room. Incense- 
sticks, spirit-money and bamboo-roots, bought by a previous con- 
tribution of farthings, are distributed among all present. A 
fetich of some sort, a decayed splint hat, an old broom, a chop- 
stick, or possibly a more uncleanly object, taken from a rubbish 
heap, is brought in, and spirit-money is burned before it, with 
obeisances. Then those who desire to fall into trance sit down 
at the table, throw a black cloth over the head, hold a sheet of 
spirit-money and a lighted incense-stick between the palms before 
the face, shut the eyes, and remain motionless and silent. Of the 
other women, some light incense-sticks and whirl them around the 
heads of the sitters ; some rap constantly, gently and rapidly, with 
the bamboo-roots on the edge of the table ; some chant invoca* 


tions, petitioninfc the ^fods to ndnilt Uism thctr ohildran to tbrir 
abmle. Many and divi-rse lnc»utKti»n« xrc iterated. Oo«, gicui 
to me by « woman who B)ii>eared to Iw hd ttxpart, majr )m trui»- 
Uted as followa : 

Sl«ter spirit, KhiMt r>f nun. Spirit, spirit, coaw and mcb 

Bodj ti>k« b.\ aliariiic uat- ; Hand to lead ih ; vcMicIwalW ap*«il> ; 

Twoor three awailtiiTO bcrv, Ba lixMniate lutubMv; 

Ctioo-«lD wlikbtliouwlltaiiiwar. Cbooae Ui wboni Uiou wUtaiipear. 

Two or tt)n>c of the women, perhapa, fall Into tnnce. Tbi^lr 
doing ao ia iiidit-ated l>y lii?ir trcmbiinK rlotently, dnitifioie tfaa 
inccnttr-ntklca tlu-y wnv tiuliiing, livginning to tteai tbe table «rl(b 
th^ paliDH of tiifir hands, and to diiwourae iDCoben-ntly. Tbcj 
a|>eak of mi-uting th<tir own lost ft-icnd:*, or thuae of olber wonws 
who ore pri;»cnt. They wppp bitterly while Ibey a]i[i«ar to OOQ- 
Terne with the dead. They descritie atreet«, ■ImtM and lioasw 
and say that certain person are eoEnjccd In agrivnllure or tnd*. 
Soinetimes they, by requeat, make l»i)u!fy v(ini>«Tiiinfi the wli«r^ 
ahuutd ofa dvad person, and tlien givn Uu: irifnnnatiofl that be 
baa Imh'U born into the human family for the aecood lime, t^ome^ 
time* they re{>ort that a dead ueitthlmr ia ahnt up in Uadea with 
nothing to cut but the salted flcah of ttie infant daughtvn the 
licctroyo't when afa« waa olive. 

H»ny wotDuu go to these meetiuga mcrrlr aa obftenren ; nut; 
nore ffo in onlrr to avull th<*m*c)rr< nf what thoy belivvu la ha 
an o|>|-i^ ,'■.■! ■,!. t.i ,r '■■■ .^,1 f, , ! I. M'l'ca; a few go with tba 
ht>pt' ti JADce.and >t<« the aptrit 

of r...i:. - L|.l lliHl tb«.«€. Wh.i wi.h 

to enter i-av^niiii .unl wc: tlie ilw.lliti^:'. of the (I"*'" "nil emi. 
miiHt m:ii(e iin- ultrTiipt iii thy for.'iKX.ii, wiiile thi.-e wlio wi,li to 
visit l<)«tr spliiri's yi-t adrnjltint'e only in tliu alternoiin. 

A» no (lei-uTiiiiry lieni-lit iitcriii-H, dirt'ctly or indinrtly, to tlic 
actors in tliese sofnei, tliere is k-Ms ron^itn for "uspri'liiifi i'i>nsci<>us 
decejition than in the I'lise ol' ilie piihllu interpretiTS for the ^ods. 

No loifign liiiiy cjin )>et acw-^n to tlicse »illinjr». and no nntive 
Christian noninn is admitlfl to Iheni. It i* mid tlial no one falls 
into the Irance-stali', if a .Mimotlieist Iw within sight or hi-arini;. 
My knowii'diri- is ciiinuii wholly IV»m a scnre of Chinese women, 
now mv pniiiU. who in former yenrs attended these aitlings, and 
who huvt discrilie.l to me the scenes of the ei^'htli montli. 

Tiiioii<:h<>nL the whole tliere is indication ttiat the nindsofthe 
woiiHii are, duiiiif: tiie-e tniiees, moving in ciistomarv gnvovea. 
Tli'V .■viil.-iillv see whnt tlicv expect to eve. The ganlens of 
l-.l^-iimi arr laid uut in Cliiiu-^e M\le; Hit arcliit.-cliire of the 
l.ii'iUiiii--' is Cliim-.i-: liiepiirii-liineiil- are those mndi- fnmiliur to 
llie ima-inaiioii l.y iiu.ldliisni an<l Taiiism ; the costumes, the 
inipli'lLients. atnl Iti.' |i;ir.i|iliernalii are siieli as are common in 
Swaiow. These aeelitre alter tnilh in tlie land of shades bring 

1886.] NATURAL 80ISNCBS Of PHltAD£t.PmA. 32l 

back no ideas save those which the}- took with them when starting 
on their quest; and this leads one to doubt, in spite of their dis- 
heveled hair, pallor and exhaustion, whether they have after all 
really been away from home. 

At nightfall the supposed traveler is lured back by incantations, 
and then she slips slyly back into her accustomed duties, with no 
chance, for another whole year perhaps, to take a jaunt either 
with body or soul. 

SwaUno, China, Augtui /, 1886. 

September 28. 

Mr. W. W. Jefferis in the chair. 

Seventeen persons present. 

The death of Charles Baeder, a member, was announced. 

Richard H. Day was elected a member. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 

rBocBRDniw or tbb acaskxt or [lB8(#j 


»T J. r^ AKTDCK. 

To the AmeriMn orchftrdist or nurwrynuui tlie nmmc 
bliflht, or Arc lili^bl, U it in often cmlird, briti)^ lo ininil * •erimi* 
inalartj of fruit ttrcn, whicti hM bren U>e tbwnv of inocMuii 
oua^ioD hy horticultural wriU-T« and speakers >'moc (he ekrliett 
dftya of fruit culture in this country. Themoiit tnarked r««tnrM 
of the liifleuAe were admirably characterized by WUlUm Coie' atj 
tlie Itejiliining; of the present century, lu the followls^ wurdi; 
" Tbnt oprcieji of blight wblnh is aometi me* called tii« On hiipht, 
frcqiiCDtly dcntruy* ttt^» In tbe futlMt apparitnt rigor and bMlth, 
in a few hour», turning tbc Wavntt nuddcnty brown, aa if tbey had 
passed through a hot flnme. and canoing a morbid matter tOflXud« 
fW>m tbe pores of the bark, of a black feirUffiDouJi ap]>earaiK»; 
this happens through the whole course of tbe warm seaAon, mutv 
rrcF|n<'nil.v in wcalber both hot anil moist." The disease o<>cnra 
from Canada and Minnvsota on the north, to Georgia and Loai^- 
iaiia on the south, and from the eastern limit of the Rocky 
Uountalns to the Atlantic ocean. No part of this vast extent of 
poiintry la exempt, although it doon not a]ipoar with tbi- utiue 
frequency and iwwer in all localities, and is nsualiy rare in the 
immeilintc vicinity of the sea^coast. 

So far as at prtsent known, it is exclusively confined to this 
part of North America. This is partly inferred from the absence 
of any ilistinct mention of such a disease in the horticultural 
liteniture of otliiT regions, and partly front direct testimony. 
Prof. Dwinellf, late of the University of California, has told the 
writer tbnt it does not occur on tlie Pacific coast. Dr. De Bary.' 
whoHc word carries great weight, says, nfter giving a brief 
description of the liisiase, " this phenomenon is not to my know], 
edtri' known in Kurope." A long account of the disease has l)een 
published by Itr. Wakker," in a gsnlening journal of Holland, in 
order to leurn if it occurs in tbnt roiiiitry, but up to the jirescnt 

' CiillnBli-n of Fmil Tr,f«, I'liil.i.ii-lplila. 1SII, p. 174. 



time no one ha& intimated any knowledge of it. In a recent 
letter Dr. Masters, editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle of England, 
says that no such disease has been recognized in the British isles. 
The testimony of one of our own horticulturists, Prof. Budd,^ of 
Iowa, who is familiar with the disease in this country, and has 
inspected the orchards of the old world far into Russia, is especi- 
ally valuable ; he says ** no trace of blight of pear- or apple-trees 
can be seen in Europe." From these statements, and the infer- 
ences to be drawn from other sources, it appears highly probable 
that the disease does not extend to Europe. An account of the 
principal diseases of fruit-trees of New Zealand, by Prof. T. Kirk,^ 
has been published, which describes a disease of the pear known 
in that country as fire blight^ due to a fungus, and another of the 
apple, the American blight, due to an insect. No true pear blight, 
as recognized in the United States, is mentioned, and in a recent 
communication the author has definitely stated that it is not 
known in the colony. Whether it occurs in other parts of the 
world is not yet ascertained, if some slight testimony regarding 
its absence in Japan be excepted. 

It is only within a year or so that European writers have become 
aware of its existence, and this only through American authors. 
It is remarkable that a disease of such virulence and so easily 
transported should not have found its way across the ocean, when 
one remembers the number of destructive plant maladies that 
America has already involuntarily foisted upon European culti- 
vators. It will not be profitable to speculate much at this time 
upon the reasons for this, but we may suppose that the small 
exportation of American fruit-trees, or of scions,^ has been a 
factor in keeping it in check. The influence of climate, and some 
less evident factors, need not be discussed in this connection. 

Amount of Loss. — It has already been intimated that pear 
blight is a frequent and destructive affection ; it will tend to give 
a fairer appreciation of the subject if it be stated how frequent 
and how destructive it is. Coxe/ as early as 1817, in the oldest 
pomological work by an American author, says it " frequently 

' Trans. Minn. Hort. Soc. for 1883, p. 281. 

' Fniit Blights and Diseases of Fruit-trees in New Zealand, 18S5. 

' For an account of the destruction of stored scions by blight, see Rep. 
Hort Soc. of Mich, for 1881, p. 137. * L. c, p. 174. 

334 PKociEDiMOS OP TBB ACADtxir or [18SC. 

destroys tntm in the fallcflt apparent vig;or nnd braltb, in t fvw 
hours ; I have in twenty jcar* tuiit upnrnnla of Bfly trw*." Tbe 
years 1826 and 1«32 were uotulilc in lu-rlioHltwrnl circles for the 
Increused prevalence of ilic di»es8o; t>ut it was In IK44 titat tbe 
nio«t wl(Jriipri-»d iiud ratal «pi<l«niic, that the country luti yet 
known, occurred, few, if any, pear'Orcliarda v«cji{i«d at that 
time without the partial or total loan of ninny Irro, and lome 
ordiards, even larf^ onea, were quite (Ieiitn>yrd. Tbe fiillii»in|[ 
year the e|iidcniiG was iniicli liglittrr, and had fully dt>a)ipeared 
by 1846. Altliongh it had atilmided as an epidemic, (t aiUI 
occurred in localiticfl here and there, and has continued lo do m> 
until the prcMut time. Jiidginf; from ttie ooniiiiu»ti:atioii« in the 
horticultural presi, the whole country, or vnriona aection* of it 
independenlly, have been subject at variou* tlmvm to epidomia 
viaitaiionH, but none Imvc eciuuled in Hcverity that of the memor- 
able year of 184t. 

It is often DinintAinod tiiat a certftin periodicity of ocenmnce 
is oboervalile, the perio<ls usually being placpil at five, ten, or 
twenty years. A careful exnminatiou of the literalufr of the 
aubjeet, however, jilvea little support to thCM* views, and makea 
it more probable that the interval!* arc irregular, and that tbej 
Tary for diOlcrcnl sections of the country. The yearof duximum 
prcviilt-nee mny or mny tnjt W preceded by i-m- in wliipb the 
disease is nolicinlily common, but it in quite invariably followed 
by a yt-nr or two of succeasivc decadence. 

In the absence of cxnct statistics, which it has not been prac- 
ticiible to obtain, som(.'thing of tlie importnnt nature of the diseasie 
may 1k' ^nlbertd fiom the stuteroeuts of horticultural writers and 
the jiliraseolopy which they employ in siH-akin); of it. 

The renowned hoiticidlurist, A. J, Downing.' calle<l it the 
"munslMUs mnlady of tlie pear." Chas. K. Baker' says it is 
" the worst ninlady with whii:li the cultivator of the pear-tree hn» 
to contend." In southern PeiinHylvania '* the pear is so generally 
destroyed by the blight," according to J. B. Qnrbcr* writing in 
1850, "tluit very few trt-es arc to l* found." At Philadelphia. 
howvvtr, the disease bus bfcn rarely observed, according to 

' Hiini.'iillur:-.t, vol. i, 1840, ].. 03. 

' Pr.iciical and ». i.ntiflc Kroit Culture, Bo ton, 1860, p. -tTO. 

• U. ^. rait^ut Oflict R.i«irt fur ISOO, (>t. li, p. 418. 


Thomas Meehan.^ T. T. Lyons,' of Michigan, states as the 
opinion of many cultivators in that State, that the pear-tree can- 
not be grown with financial success on account of the blight. 
Illinois has always been much subject to the disease, and Prof J. 
B. Turner,' in 1868, gave expression to the general feeling of his 
region by describing it as** that deadly Upas of the pear-tree 
known par excellence as the pear-blight." In 1882 Dr. J. L. 
Hallum,* speaking for southern Illinois, says, " pears have failed, 
utterly failed, so that none are now cultivated for market, the 
blight has destroyed the trees —branch and root," and S. G. 
M inkier,* in the northern part of the State, observes that it is a 
very uncommon thing to see pear-trees without dead branches or 
other signs of the ravages of blight. Wm. A. Nourse,^ of the 
same State, is led to " doubt if one-tenth of the pear-trees that 
are set, live ten years," on account of this one destructive agent. 
Geo. M. Dewey,^ of Missouri, says that " with good cultivation 
and rich soil the pear generally dies of blight before the eighth 
year." In Minnesota the severe climate has not permitted the 
cultivation of pears, and almost the only apples grown for many 
years were the hardy crab-apples. The latter have been rapidly 
improved, and together with the hardier varieties of the common 
apple would now furnish this part of the country with an abundant 
supply of fruit, were it not for this same disease, which elsewhere 
most conspicuously preys upon the pear-tree. E. H. S. Dartt * 
held the opinion in 1874 that the severity of winter was not so 
much to be dreaded as the ravages of blight. He had at that 
time one or two thousand trees affected. Dr. P. A. Jewell,® up to 
1876, had lost ten thousand Tetofsky apple-trees by it. F. G. 
Gould ^^ says that *' onl}' for this scourge every family living on a 
farm in Minnesota could have a supply of apples." 

> Rep. Penn. Fruit-Grower's Soc. for 1877, p. 77. 
» Rep. Pomol. Soc. of Mich., for 1878, p. 368. 
• » Trans. 111. Hort. Society for 1868, p. 42. 

* Same for 1882, p. 118. 

* Same for 1880, p. 30. 

* Trans. lU. Hort. Soc. for 1880, p. 63. 
^ Proc. Mo. Hort. Soc. for 1870, p. 18. 

» Trans. Minn. Hort. Soc. for 1874, p. 22. 
» Same for 1876, p. 73. 
^^ Same for 1884, p. 127. 

88B rBOORKDiKos or thb acacbut or [181 

Cltationit vnougb bnvt dotibtleiH be«a given, kltbou^b wveni 
pftgea of «qiinlt}' Ktrong one* might Iw >d<l«(I, lo »bow tliftt fVtiIt- 
(growers, who lixrc llio b«flt opi>ortanitiM for obwrrKtion, cub- 
ai<ler It B discaee gruntty to bcrlniiul<Kliiii<l ODeofvpi-cialcconualc 
iroportBDcc. Otbcr ^ectioixi of tlie country, noubty Uimw of 
Ohio, weatLTii New York ami OeoTRia, couM fbrniuli w|iially Im- 
porUint prontttt tbe»e proiwflltlons. All thnt in ilrairwl id this 
conni'ctlun, bowevtr. ia to g\vG ttiow not familiar iritb th« suliject 
aouip iilen nf t)i(: (llN4!ii»e And lU eScvU n--< oHiiiAnty observnl 

Eaft]f Hr>ffr<l».^Tl\t< oMvl, mi-ntinn of thi> iliweaaie, that gin* 
a good and n-nsonably fall di*»cn|>tion ur it, i» in Coie'a work on 
^alt-trees, bearing tbi- iliiUi of ISIT. Tbe manner nf tlii* antbor 
IriiviM no doubt that it wan welt known at tliat tli)i«, and tlw 
rsfrrence to his loexoa durin;; twenty yeani initkut It rauonably 
certain that be bad observeit the diaesiw aa early u the opsnlnif 
of iho century. Tlie i^rttfst ooiic*. bowever. which has yet oon* 
to band, i» in a letter written by Wen. Denning,' deMiriUBg tba 
(Iheaac in apples, pear*, and iininc«a. IIo S|>eaks of Aral obmrr- 
Inn it on the [ItRhlands oftlic lIa<I»on in ITtlO. 

Thtin» \a no lnt«r«at, liowovor, in tra«ln)i ahronatogically Uw 
tariona nuticm found In dltTercnt pabllcattona, fnr withoat exoep- 
Uoo they have th^ Ions of tr«<illn)[ a familiar tlienH!, and sbo* ao 
cvl.leni-e Hint the diM-niir in tlir fimt purl -jf thf i.-nuiry waa in 
any rospeL-t dilTurcnt from ttwlay, 

Conieftitien Ite'jarding its Cauw.—K brief treatment of tbia 
toi>ic will be all that is rc<[iiire<l for the purposes of this paper: 
and (inly those liypothcseH will be touched upon which rcceiveil 
such careful pn'sirntzition an to attract the favorable attention of 
the pnlilic. 

Few wriliTH iip|H.'ar to uKi-ribe the diisease to a single agencv. 
but re;;!ird it as rusiiltin); from scvural canites, either actinj; to- 
gether or brou^Iit alvoiit by dissimilar cireuniNtances. Little di»- 
criminatiiHi is nutde iK'twci-n predisposing eonditionsand aetive 
agents. Ill fiict sh;irj))y defined treatment could not be expected 
when all was conjecture, and when the Hhrcwdcst observers did 
U<.t h.--it!H.- t.. av()W th;.l after years i.f lo-s un.icr all kinds of 
.■\|..rimeiil:iti..ii, ami alter iiilerritinal.le iliNCUSHiods, the <-au*t 
slill lav >lir..nilfil iti im|ie net ruble obscnrlty. 

Triiiv SiK-. for I'mm. uf Atrk-., vol. ii, 17M. |.. 219. 



Coxe,^ who has had many followers, thought that the hot rays 
of the son when acting through a misty or saturated atmosphere 
deranged the vital activities of the plant and brought about the 
disease. He considered old varieties more subject to it, on 
account of having lower constitutional vigor, than new varieties, 
of which the St. Germain and Seckel were respectively conspicu- 
ous instances. 

The insect theory, as it was called, was promulgated at this 
time. It was started upon firm facts by the discovery of a small 
brown beetle, about two millimeters long, which penetrated the 
branch, and caused the part beyond to die. The beetle received 
the name of Scolytus pyri Peck, now changed to Xyleborus pyri 
Pk., and is still known as the blight beetle. The effect of its 
attack appears to the casual observer similar to that of the true 
blight — the branch in June or July rapidly withers, and the leaves 
and fruit turn black. The beetles being minute and inconspicuous 
escape attention, and the fact that the branch does not die below 
a definite point is sometimes overlooked. It is not difficult to 
see how many persons came to connect this comparatively rare 
affection with the common fire blight, and to believe that insects 
of some sort were to be held accountable for all — their supposed 
minuteness and wary habits being sufificient reasons for the failure 
to find them, and the spread of the disease along the limbs of a 
tree being ascribed to a poison which the insects were supposed 
to emit. Among the prominent supporters of this view was the 
" Genesee Farmer,''* published at Rochester, N. Y., with Patrick 
Barry as the horticultural editor. It has not, however, been so 
strongly advocated for the last decade or two. 

The next hypothesis that attracted general attention was known 
as the frozen-sap theory. This was based upon the supposition 
that the autumn or winter freezing of unripe wood produced a 
poison which the moving currents of sap the next spring and 
summer distributed, causing the death of the parts. It was first 
published in 1844 by Rev. H. W. Beecher,^ of Indiana, in a long 
and able article in *' Hovey's Magazine." In the following year 

* L. c, p. 175. 

' See Genesee Parmer, vol. vii, 1846, p. 216 ; vol. viii, 1847, pp. 122, 
218, etc. 

* Magazine of Horticulture, vol. x, p. 441. 



It wm* Independi'ntly «lal*ont4>d by A. J. Downing' in hi* work 
on Fruit* and Fruit-tre«« of Ami-ricn, who flrat called it the 
froz«n-««p theory, nnd who ia uatuUiy spoken of mn Ibe Kutbor of 
it. This vt«w ba» probnbly tuul'mon) firm ■dbfrvnts ttuin any 
olbcr, u it explained many pbenooMiu eimnectcd with the dia- 
eaM lu a fairly aatisbctory manner. It wai vapecially wkU 
rcceiviKl In tbv wu-tlem Statet. 

The ni-xt by|ioLliiB»l* wbicb gained iIhi attention of tbe pnhUe 
WM thu rnnKUH tbitury. lt« llr*t *uocBMfuI pfL-Heotatiun waa In 
18G3 by [>r. J. H. Salisliary,* who H^ireil tlie fuajjua wbicb be 
decided to he the Bpuoiflu caaso of this kind of blight, and ven- 
tiire<l to tlive itaname,ii!tbuu|{b bewnauilly inerrorin most that 
he did. TboinsB Meehau/cditurof tbe " Oardrner 'a Monthly." 
has alily ubntui'loucd Lbia csplanattoD, and done mnch to keep It 
In favor. Ill 187o, Dr. J. O. Hunt.* by Mr. Mceban's rcquMt, 
tindvrtook a mivruacopical CKninination of Uinbted peitr-iwiga, 
and oonflmiod Ibc opinion that it waa duo to a tungoa, witbtiut, 
however, dcoidtiig ujtoo the apecifle iliaracter of It. 

illl)Ehted trvva nflen attract att«ntloD linmitliately after a 
tliiliHUr ntorm, and from tliU and other oircuiDKLuHxa the belief 
that tlii; Dialudy ia dutt to tdeclrivlty ha« gaininl many ailberwnta. 
bat tbo argiimi-nl haa not had a full and ooonwted pnwentatioa. 

Till! liixt liyii'ithi'NiN iif impurtaiice ia tbe Iiai,-t4-rial 
theory. Althuiixli liintcdat by a iiumbtT of horticultural writera, 
yet the credit of it is due to Prof. T. J. Burrill,' who in 1878 dis- 
tinctly 8tittc<l his bulic-fthat tlie cause resides with the bacteria 
which he fuiiiid in grtat abiind:ince in the tiasuea of affected 
braiK^lics. In ISHO he pcrfurmcd a series of experimenta * by 
inoculntiii^ liealtliy brani;hcs with th<: Juiuea of diseased ones, the 
results of which were presented to the American Aasuciation at 
its Buaton meeting, IhuH first bringing the autiject clearly to the 

' Fniiu *n(l Fruit-tTPV* of Amoiica, p. 394 ; tatnv, 2d Revision bj Cbaa. 
Dowiiin|{, p. 010. 

'Ohio Auric. Rip. for 1863, p. t'lO. 

'Pfoc. Amcr. I'umol. Soc. for 1807, p. 50 ; and elsewhere. 

• fiankmr's Moutl.l}, vul. xvii, I^T.'., (.. 2«, 

> Trann. 111. U^rt. Sx;. for ItjT-, p. W». 

*l'rc. Amir. Aks.k-. Adv. Sii.. vol. jiiii, IS'*, p. 5M ; Rep. of III. 
IniluhlriHl I'liiv., lor l;^. p. C : Trane. 111. H.irt. Soc. for 1S». p. 157, 
Amtr. Nitiirilm, vol. xv, ISSI, j.. &J7. 



attention of the scientific world. Although this was now the 
popular hypothesis, it cannot be said to have received more sub- 
stantial credence than those which had gone before, either from 
the horticulturists or the scientists. The experimental results 
gained by Prof. Burrill were confirmed and extended by the 
writer ^ during 1884, by means of a similar series of inoculations. 

Of the multitude of minor hypotheses which were put forth in 
explanation of phenomena connected with pear-blight, and which 
were variously received, and of all degrees of plausibility, it is 
impossible to speak at this time without carrying this paper to 
undue length. 

Beginning of Experimental Research, — The question of the 
cause of pear-blight was finally removed from the domain of 
speculation to that of established fact by a series of crucial 
experiments performed by the writer ^ a year ago, and recorded 
in a paper before the American Association at the Ann Arbor 
meeting. These consisted in showing that the bacteria when 
removed from the tree and passed through a series of artificial 
cultures would generate the disease when again introduced into 
the tree, and that the juices accompanying blight when cleared 
of bacteria by filtration will not produce the disease. 

Having now come to a firm basis for scientific advancement, let 
us look over the historical ground again to see if some one did 
not hit upon the true explanation of the disease, although he may 
not have been aware of its significance. In a connection like 
this, facts derived from experiment have greater weight than 
statements of opinion ; the latter acquire importance in propor- 
tion as they are logically derived from correct and close observa- 
tion. Bearing this in mind, we need not give much heed to the 
not uncommon inference that pear-blight was in some way inti- 
mately related to the epidemic diseases of man, e. g. cholera. 
This view is said to have been quite frequently entertained in the 
early part of the century, but was not sanctioned by the learned. 
The use of such phrases as " first cousin to the cholera,*' " a spe- 
cies of vegetable ferment," etc., surely does not entitle the author 
to any priority in way of discovery. 

» Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station for 1884, p. 357. 

' Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., vol. xxxiv, 1885, p. 295 ; Bot. Gazette, vol. 
X, 1885, p. 343 ; Gardeners' Chronicle, vol. xxiv. 1885, p. 586. 


330 PKOcsEDivos or the ao&uemi or [IS86. 

Wc turn from these elight hint* to the record of an experiment 
In inoculation, iDikdi> in IHih nnd published tb« following jrear. 
Wc Are totd by S. B. Oooklns,' of Indiana, lliat viaiiing Mr. 
Ragan (the tuimti person who furnitihH Mr. Bmclivr with many 
of the fiutta on whicli li« fonnilvd tlio theory to whli;h we have 
fdready reforreil) he was Hbown a thrifty yoanK pear>trec in ttie 
nursery, which had been " inooulatcd " " by way of experiment " 
with " the sap of a blighted tree," " a few days prevlnua.'' •• He 
made an iuolstou about thrte feel ftHxn thti iiround, IIUmI th« 
baric a« in the proceMi of budding, and inji-ctvd a atnall qaantity 
of the diseased sap." " Wc found the leaves of the patient chaQi;- 
ing color, and emitting that peculiar odor which iaalwaya present 
in cases of blight, and ui^on applyini; the knife, the Inner ba^ 
waa found to be blaeic from the root to the top, wblle nothing of 
the kind appearnd cl»ewberu in the nuraery." 

This adinirabl« experiment was combined with a no le«a admir- 
able interpretntion of the cause of blighL The writer cUm facta 
to disprove the hypothesis of Mr. Ueocber, and then saya; "I 
atrontfly incline to the belief, that the pear-bll^ht U an epblemie, 
tliat it prevails like otiier epidemics, and will pass off like thtan. 
The atmoapberc is, I l>elieve, generally admitted to be Ute medhiiB 
by which they prevail, and ara carried from plaee to placo. What 
that su1>tlc principle may be, wliicb )KTv;idi-n niir ntiiuMphere. bv 
which infection is retained and transmitted, human science has 
not discovered ; but that such a principle exists is sulBoicntly 
obvious from its effects." 

This clearly conceived elucidation of Ibc matter couM only 
have been improved by a knowledge of tlie germ theory of disease, 
and when wc remcmtwr the date at which it was uttered, we do 
not feel that the writer was guilty of any lack of acuti'DvAS in not 
perceiving the relation which we now know to exist between his 
theory and his facts. lie seems to have been a modest man, for 
be only signs his initials, and dues not defend his views when the 
editor, A. J. Downing,' oppo^^es the opinion that "an epidemic 
conveyeil by the atmosphere is too slightly supported by facta to 
weif^ii at all agriinit ihe observations of cultivators," which 
'• Hlronglv iiiiint to ihr fR-i*zinj; of the sap as the caufie." 

■ llunicuIturUt, val. i, 1846, p. 233, 
' Ilortlculluribt, vul. i, IWO, p. M.I. 

1886.] NATUBAL SCrSNCes OF PfilLABELPHlA. 331 

Another interesting experiment was performed by Dr. E. S. 
Hull,^ of Illinois, in 1868. Having received some blighted apple 
twigs from a correspondent, he cut pieces from them with which 
he " inoculated several succulent pear shoots by tying in the pieces 
as in budding." This was done the middle of June, and no ob- 
servation taken for thirty-four days, when the blight was found 
to have extended several inches into the healthy tissues. From 
this he very justly concludes that the blight in apples and pears 
is but one disease, but seems to take it for granted that in both 
it is due to " vitiated sap." 

The fact that the disease may be transferred to healthy trees 
by the pruning knife has been observed by several persons. H. 
Wendell,* of New York, says in 1849, "I am also careful that the 
blade of the knife is perfectly clean, and that it has none of the 
sap of a diseased tree adhering to it, because I have known many 
valuable trees destro^^ed by having been inoculated in this man- 
ner." Prof. Turner,^ of Illinois, makes a similar statement : " I 
found that this disease is exceedingly contagious, for if I used 
my knife to prune a healthy tree after having used it in shaving 
the diseased one, I communicated the disease to that tree.'' 

Prof. Burrill first observed the bacteria of blight in 1877/ 
but did not recognize them as such till the following year,^ when 
he avowed his belief that they were the cause of the disease. 
His first inoculation experiments were made in 1880, as already 
stated. In 1882 he characterized the organism under the name 
of Micrococcus amylovorus^ 

Description of Micrococcus amylovorus Bur. — The form of 
this species of bacteria is very constant, under all conditions. 
The single cells are from oval to roundish-ovoid, and only vary 
by slight changes in the ratio between their length and breadth 

1 Trans. 111. Hort. Soc. for 1808, p. 220. 

» U. 8. Patent Office Rep. for 1849, pt. ii, p. 446. 

' Trans. IlL Hort. Soc. for 1878, p. 81. 

♦ Same for 1877, page 114. 

* Same for 1878, page 79. 

• The Bacteria (a reprint from Rep. of 111. Industrial Univ. for 1882), 
p. 42 ; Amer. Naturalist, vol. vii, 1883, p* 319. In the last publication, 
by a typographical error, the name was made to read M, amylivorus, a 
mistake which has been copied into other works — see Grove's Bacteria 
and Yeast Fungi, London, 1884, p. 10. 


S8S noomiM* or tbi acapuct m [18M. 

(PI. III,llg«.l,a,$>. Tber«n>ltolt«><»g,britoi«ibnMd, 
■ad quit* colorlna. For Uie racial pttn, Ui«f cxUtuiiii|;ie l>d*- 
pendent oelU. bgt ma; often lie Tuitntl (n [wn, cappctall; what 
■(1)1 multiply ing. ftod in rsn ioatono-* u* imibed into » «*riu oT 
four or even aurr, but lu-vor pxlrnd into cbsiiu. 

DnriniT rapid vi-gviation, in rioh nntrJUve ncdia. the inor»> 
mnnta n-acli a «\a^ of estrrme activity. Tlic aiipearwu* la 
what i> t«rm(><i manuinft. ia vlticb the baeleria move npidi/ 
back anil Turlli, In nud on! aiD(iO|i each oUi<t, but n«vcr in % 
fltrniKlit line tn hdj' dlstancti. \m tbe rat* of growtli hcconw 
ItM* frftni any (move tlie inovf-iu«au aro rcUrded. Takrn dirvaHJv 
from tbv tia*u«s of a bliglitiDg tree, Urn movvinvnta of IranaW 
tk>Q ara uaitally Rlngpah or imiwrcepUble. althoiich tbe nnivennl 
Brownian tnoveawnt ia likel}' to (•ire a miBlM^linir appcarmnee of 
aotivltjr. L'Dder apreiallj- favorable condiliona, aa arhra gtvwa 
dnriim bot vmtlicr In verjr Boccnlent altoott, or from artiSeial 
InoGuUtloD In unripo tyult. tbe movement* are miKh incn-aiwd 
and may beeome quite rapid. Wbnn taken tVom the trve tn 
wintiT, or *rbcn proirn In aolntions that are U*o add or tim aUuM 
lini!, or wliiob are di-llclrnt In the proper outriUve aubataOMa, 
tbnru la do (Mtrcuptilile locomotion. 

When in acUvn growlli, the uella preacnt a nniformly dull 
ttjijifnruiiLH-. lly fuinlilinn't wbipli Bfe utifnvoraMc to noruial 
fCruwlb, vet do not entirely clie<;k it, such as atrongly acid or 
alkaline; HolutionH. delleient nutriment, or exfaaitHtion by keeping 
ibe oiiltiircH Hevoral mi)ntbs,tlie cells become higbly refractive, 
and to some extotit take on tbe appearance of the sporea of 
otlier R]>e<k'H ol' baitoria. Wlietlier in Ibis state they poa-^eaa 
any of llio ebaructei'istic powers of resiatance which belong to 
e]>on-H, h;i8 not been ascfrtnined. 

Fiirmnlvin of Zooijlira. — By far the motit characteristic fealnre 
in the lifv lii«toiy of Microrm-ciit amylovorut is tbe formation of 
Z[>o^Iii'n (tin". -. 'ii 5)- These have never been observed in tbe 
tissm'>i of tli<- tree under any conditions, or in or upon any Kort 

of 80li< 


. l.ut th.y o<-.i 

r with mufh regiitarity in flnid 



plricid iiria.T 

fftvoriiMe conditions for rai'id 


an> |.r 

o-liKvd to SOIII,' 

■Mint thronchoiit the fluid, bat 

are mo 

1 :it>u 

• iutit iti iIk' Ilii 

1 I'l'llii'le which form!! ii|x>n tbe 



iiig within forl\ 

-vi;;iit hoiiri froiii Ihi' l-e^innin^ 


of the culture. The substance of the pellicle consists of a color- 
less matrix uniformly filled with motionless bacteria, and against 
this the Eoogloea are sharply defined. They are often brought out 
yet more distinctly by being surrounded by a colorless layer, free 
of bacteria, which is doubtless an extension of the ground sub- 
stance of the zoogloea mass (fig. 4). 

The masses are far more dense than the pellicle, and are com- 
pactly filled with refractive bacteria. They possess a definite 
outline, and are recognizable when very small ; and although 
they may reach 30 to 40 m long by 20 to 30 /i wide, they rarely 
lose their distinctness. When below 10 /i in length, their usual 
form is oblong, varying to globular. They occur singly, or united 
more or less intimately end to end in pairs, and sometimes several 
form a short chain. At this stage they possess a uniformly even 
and unbroken surface, which now becomes uneven and wrinkled, 
and is finally thrown into folds, giving some resemblance to the 
external aspect of the brain. Zoogloea more than 20 /i in length 
have the folds of somewhat unequal height, and the sinuses deeper, 
giving a stronger cerebric look, or when the folds are small and 
circular, they are better described as mulberry-like. The elon- 
gated forms, which at some stage of growth might doubtless have 
been composed of two or more distinct masses, often take on a 
vermiform appearance. But whatever the variations may be, the 
distinctness of outline, the general form, and the cerebric surface 
are unfailing characters, which so far as my knowledge extends, 
are not found in any other species of bacteria. 

Cultivation in Fluid Media. — The range of substances which 
may serve as culture media for this organism is very wide. An 
infusion of almost any vegetable substance containing a fair 
amount of soluble carbohydrates is likely to be sufficient to enable 
growth to take place, even if not very luxuriantly. 

The substance which on the whole has proved most satisfactory 
is an infusion of potato. This is prepared by paring a potato and 
slicing it into three or four times its bulk of water. This is kept for a 
couple of hours at about 70° C, by placing it over a water-bath, 
during which time it is occasionally stirred. It is then filtered, 
and is ready to be placed in the culture vessels for sterilizing and 
use. If the heat is allowed to rise much above 70°, the starch is 
gelatinized, and it is only with difficulty that the solution can be 
filtered. The resulting liquid is clear and watery, but is often 

W^£^:^!Ci^B:[T^S-^''^ '"'i^^^^'^k 

Ul [IMM. 

light brown from eolorixig m&tter contained in the ppitato, n^ch 
does not, however, materially interfere with obeerraticms on the 
growth of bacteria in it» Iodine gives a blue coloration to tliis 
liquid, showing that it contains starch, probably in the form of 
amylon. Another equally good culture fluid is made by treating 
com (maize) meal in a similar manner. The solution is colorless^ 
but it is very apt to throw down a troublesome sedimenti which 
makes it less desirable to use than the potato solution. 

Test-tube or flask cultures with these liquids, n^en kept at a 
temperature of 25^ to 80^0., usually show some turbidity in 
twenty-four hours after being infected, and if the growth is very 
rafHd, bubbles of gas (COs) will be given off, which collect at the 
surface into a alight froth* In forty-eight houra the liquid baa 
become thoroughly turMd. By this time a thin whitish pellicle 
has formed on the sur&ce, which does not increase much in thick* 
ness up to the end of active growth, and rarely becomes wrinkled. 
With the formation of the pellicle, a sediment gathers at tiie botp 
tom of the liquid, often a centimeter in depth, but whidi is so 
ll^ht that it only Jtppuently differs from the liquid above by being 
whiter. In tiie course of some weeks this sediment will moatly 
gather upon the bottom of the vessel. No difference has been 
observed in the appearance of the bacteria taken from different 
parts of the culture. Those imbedded in the pellicle are not 
arranged in any recognizable order. 

In proportion as liquids are less suitable to the growth of 
the organism, the visible changes are less. The pellicle may not 
be formed, and there may be no turbidity, but if any growth at 
all takes place there will be some evidence of it by formation of 
a slight sediment. But the occurrence of a precipitate does not 
necessarily imply growth, for it not infrequently separates from 
a liquid containing organic matter, although remaining perfectly 

An infusion of hay, and also of dead, partly decomposed 
grass from a marsh, gave nearly a normal growth of blight 
bacteria, but the cells were considerably more refractive than 

A solution of starch, having one part of starch to fifty of 
water, gave but a slight growth of highly refractive bacteria, 
without a pellicle, turbidity, or zoogloea. A strong decoction of 
old barnyard manure acted in the same manner. A solution of 


one part of glucose to fifty of water gave no growth of the 

In testing the effect of acids upon the development of blight 
bacteria, a ^ per cent, of malic acid was added to the usual infu- 
sion of potato. This prevented the formation of a pellicle, tur- 
bidity or zoogloea, but gave a very considerable cloudy sediment, 
largely made up of loosely aggregated groups of blight bacteria, 
which were brilliantly refractive. A similar solution with 2 per 
cent, of malic acid gave a slightly less abundant sediment, but with 
otherwise the same results. Some of the latter was transferred 
to a corn-meal solution, producing the characteristics of a pear- 
blight culture, except the formation of zoogloea. After some 
days this was introduced into a pear tree, which in due course of 
time gave the true blight, showing that the bacteria of the acid 
solution were really blight bacteria. Attempts to grow them in 
a nutrient 5 per cent, solution of citric and tartaric acids have 
not been successful. 

Testing the nature of the bacteria in cultures producing 
limited growth, by inoculating directly into the tree, has not, as a 
rule, proved successful, as for some reason they seem unable to 
gain a footing in the living tissues. It is therefore necessary to 
trausfer them first to richly nutrient cultures, from which, after 
a time, they may be introduced into the tree, and, if the blight 
bacteria are present, will start the disease. 

Cultivation in Solid Media. — In test-tube cultures with nutrient 
gelatine the most characteristic results have been obtained by 
adding a drop containing blight bacteria to the gelatine while 
liquid, and thoroughly distributing the germs by shaking the 
tube. In from two to three days the gelatine contains numerous 
small white dots, which, upon examination under the microscope, 
prove to be a mass of bacteria of the usual appearance. The 
dots are globular or oval, and increase to about .5 mm. in 
diameter. No further growth or change takes place, and in this 
condition they remain for weeks,- without liquefying or otherwise 
atfecting the gelatine. 

When sown upon the surface of the gelatine by drawing a 
needle or glass rod over it, or by placing a drop on it, the growth 
is feeble and does not amount to more than a slight shining 
appearance of the surface. 

A nutrient solution made from an unripe pear, in which blight 


psooKCDiENiB or ras acabkmt or 

germa were well dUtHltutiNt br vliakln^ aad tbttn left undi*- 
turtiecl fur two dftyn, gave tUv Nunc i«olKl«d white doU •■ la 
IpiUtlnei but they dropprd to tli« bottom of Um liquid opoa 
bein^ jarrvd. Tlii* bwtana wen eridnilljr prvrcntcd tivm 
tnoving frrrljr by th« J«tly, wbtoh wu aot, baoevM. Uiiek 
VDoagb to l(Mp thp K'^op* In plaee when [U euhMiun wbs 
once diMarbod. Prait JcIIIm, doubtlcM, namjr ba Taiiod to bat 
Mnrenliqit incdU for tbv oultlrmtion of UiU iiwcieM uT b»»- 

No MioceM fas* buftn alti^nnl in tlm um of K|f*r aipu, but 
Wtietber dan to a want of adaptability in thx sDliataitcc, nr to 
wrung Rtaalpalaticni, mnxt be \eTt to talan experlmenla to 

"Hii! npBquia nolid oultutvs |irovlti|t rao«t •DUceuAil b«v« b«Ml 
Doaductnd upon fTettUy Kntliered unripe prart. 8li««« of tl 
are plnoed undor a moUt bell-Jar, ium] infvetod bjr tonohiiifij 
B tiM^tlu tliul ban liMu ilipperi in aomc subMaoca oootaJn) 
bacteria. In two ur tJinw days Him milky dropi, Uk« t 
dew, will npi>var aoatterrd ovor tlw surAMW for i ran. or |l 
about tbo inTirctad spot. Tbew will become aomawbat I 
after a Hmo, while the apot wUiob rvwlved ibe (uCoclion wind 
■lightly brown, tbe tiaauea gradually waiting away and fonafaf 
a mniill d<'preB*ion. 

If, however, the fllices, liaviu^ freitlity fut Htirfaces both above 
and Ik'Iow. are laid upon a plate with a little water, and placed 
under a bvli-jiir, tbe result ia nut tlie same. The dtw-like drupa 
appear witliin forty-eight lioiirH, as in tlie other case, hot inereaae 
rapidly in Hize, while a drop is aloo formed at the point of infec- 
tion. Drops llnnlly apiwnr uver the whole surface of tlie ^lice. 
They remain more ur leits distinct, and soon twcome aa large as 
a |>cii, rct^iining the ^lohnlar or roundeil form to a remarkat>le 
decree. MiiroHOopically they iire composed of the usual form 
of blight l)acteria, Hii!i]>ended in a colovle^is Ouid. After alioul a 
week, the ilrop« cualeHce and the tiAsues of the jwar begin to 
break dowu. Thin sort of culture requires no precautiuna of 
sterilizing. »n no oihir biteteria cnn multiply ujvou it till atit-r the 
.-ell-ortlK- ]..-«r iK^gin to die. 

VVIien blight 1».cteriit ure 80wn upon slices of Uked or boik-'l 
l«.taiii. th.'y Rpre;i.l out out tiie suifuce in a thin, slightly moi*t 
layer. «liii!i i^ usually sonunliai yelluwisli, Imt do not grow 



readily, or produce a characteristic appearance. Under the 
microscope the cells are strongly refractive. 

A boiled potato was infected by thrusting a platinum wire, 
smeared with blight bacteria, into one end. After sixteen days 
it was cut open. No external change had taken place, and, to 
the unaided eye, no internal change either ; the odor and texture 
were still those of a freshly boiled potato. The microscope, how- 
ever, revealed the blight bacteria in every part of the potato, in 
irregular motionless masses, and with more than the usual 

These opaque solid cultures have brought out one fact very 
distinctly, which is, that Micrococcus amylovorus requires a 
large supply of water for its best development — a fiict which has 
an economic bearing. 

Behavior toward Staining Fluids. — So far as trial has been 
made, nothing especially characteristic has been detected to dis- 
tinguish this form of bacteria from the majority of micrococci. 
The most successful results have been obtained with a watery 
solution of Bismarck-brown, especially in cover-glass prepara- 
tions. These make excellent specimens when mounted in 
Canada balsam. 

The zoogloea are inclined to be too deeply stained by this pro- 
cess, and for most purposes they are best studied unstained. 
They may be well preserved by mounting in glycerine. 

Hematoxylin has also given good results, but has not been 
found particularly useful. 

Chemical Products. — The chemical changes brought about by 
the activity of the blight bacteria have not yet been fully and 
carefully worked out. The most obvious product is carbon 
dioxide, which often passes off so freely from a cultivation as to 
produce a slow effervescence. Butyric acid and alcohol are 
formed in very small quantities, if at all. The tests by which 
these facts have been determined have already been published,^ 
and need not be repeated here. Vigorous cultures of the bacteria 
in infusion of potato give no reaction for glucose with Pehling's 
solution ; and blighting tissues from the tree give no indication 
by the same test of more than the normal amount of glucose to 
be found in healthy tissues. On the other hand a quantitative 


1 Rep. N. Y, Agric. Exper. Station for 1885, p. 247 ; and less fully in 
Amer. Nat., vol. xix, 1885, p. 1181. 



888 ntooKKDiNQs or Tin aoabkmt or [ISSfi. 

determination of mouikI and blif^htlng pcwn, Ukim frota Uie trM 
at lliu HHiui' time, nhowi> considerably Icsit sugar in tlu- latutr. 

A favorite- explanation with horticalttirints of the action of Sifr 
blight upon the pcar-treo, has )i«en to saj tliat th« mp is poftoned. 
This poiBon waa aupposetl t« be introduced \>y insects, or to b» 
due to some disorganization of the tissuea. Althoujih it ia now 
known that B]MwIfio bacteria are directly answerable for tba dl^ 
ease, It is ,vct worth while to etce if thi; old idea of a poUoD hMM 
not name fuiimUtion in fact. 

It hn* Iwun ascurtninivl that certain bai^terJs produce, during 
their growth, characteristic poisons which are classed under Lbt 
name of ptomaines. Most of the ptomaines are non-voIatUn, ami 
raadil; aolnble ia water or alcohol. The obemical t«ata whkk 
are applied for their detection cannot be couaidcred euncliiBiw 
except when taken c(»llectir«ly. The tesU tried below ans aouM^ 
the moat sattafnetory known at prcoent.' 

A cultivation in infnsionof potato, giving about 300 oc. of llqald 
was filtered, and the filtrate evaporated to a ityrnp. Tbia WM 
treated with alcohol, and the solution U^ted with the nost«li«r- 
act«ri6tic test for ptomaines — the reduction of potosalc furifr 
cyanide. Other portions of the solution were suocesalrftly tMted 
with pboBpho-motybdIc uoid, potaMio-mercurie Iodide, and lodime 
In potasalc Iodide, all of which failed to give any diatinotlve 

Another trial was made with alwut 200 cc, of material prepared 
by cooking a potnto in just enough water to cover it, sterilizing, 
and cultivating the bacteria in it as usual. In four days from 
beginning of the culture it was filtered ; the residue upon the 
filter was treated with lOOcc. of diatille<i water, slightly acidulated 
wiih hydrochloric acid, heated to 10°C. and filtered. The two 
filtrate's were united and evaporated to a syrup. This was digested 
in the cold with alcohol containing a little eodic hydrate. This 
solution waa tested as before, and also with platinic chloride and 
concentrated sulphuric acid, and all with no distinctive reactions. 

A third trial was made with a boiled potato, which bad been 
permeated with the blight. The extract was made by the Stoa- 
Otto method, and the same reagents used as in the last case, with 
equally negative results. 

■ Cf. Brieger, Ueber Ptomaine, 1663, p. 22, ef uq. 


These testa do not cover the possibility of the ptomaine being 
volatile, which is really not very great. It is yet necessary to 
make tests of freshly blighted tissues from the tree, which can 
only be done during the hot months. 

Action of the Organism in the Living Plant. — The bacteria of 
blight have the power of growth and multiplication in the pres- 
ence of the living cells of the pear, and in this one important 
respect differ essentially from other species of bacteria. By arti- 
ficial inoculation into growing unripe pears, Which give most 
marked and certain results, it is found that other bacteria are 
entirely innocuous, at once disappearing without having made 
any growth or induced any changes in the tissue of the pear. If 
blight bacteria in active condition are intermixed with the other 
forms, they penetrate the cells, multiply, and finally bring about 
the disorganization and death of the tissues which marks the pro- 
gress of the disease, but the associated forms disappear the same 
as when introduced alone, and the product is a mass of practically 
pure blight bacteria. 

This result is rendered possible on account of the fact already 
stated, that the blight bacteria penetrate the tissues, and main- 
tain their normal growth for some time (days or weeks), before 
the life of the cells is sufficiently interfered with to permit the 
growth of other forms. The bacteria always extend beyond the 
visible location of the disease — in small branches, often to the 
distance of a third of a meter or more. 

One of the properties which enables this species to successfully 
penetrate the pear-tree is evidently its unusual indifference to 
acids, which prevents most other forms from making any 
growth ; the juices of the pear give a strong acid reaction with 
test paper. 

What chemical changes are brought about by its activity in 
the plant cannot be definitely stated, further than to say that a 
mucilage or gum, which is soluble in water, is produced in abun- 
dance, with the disengagement of carbon dioxide. The contents 
of the cells, together with the cell-walls which have not been 
liquefied or changed into stony tissue, pass over into this viscoiis 

* Rep. N. Y. Agric. Exper. Station for 1885, p. 248 ; Amer. Nat., voL 
xix, 1885, p. 1181. 

840 FSOoubmQB or tbb aoadsmt or [Itftt. 

It was early observed by cultivators, beipR recorded by Coxe, 
that Biiccukot shoots blight tlie moat readily, aod any proccat of 
cultivation which as far as poasiblo preveuta lueGulency hu 
always been coDsideroil nu aid in keeping the diiwaiw in check. 
Tti« avidity of thtt tiliiiht tmcteria Tor water boN liorn well demon- 
atrnted in the cultures on nliccti of peant. There nn-ms to b« 
Kome connection between these foots and tho well-known tmrt 
that the disease shows difTerent degrees of vinilcnce in diffen-nt 
varieties of fruit trees, especially in dlCTerent varieties of the 
pear. The variation, or at least part of it, to be observed in 
pears, apples, quinces, hawtbornit, etc., raay be due to aomi- inhe- 
rent ditfer^Qce in the nuture of the hont, not rtMidily fomiulaud ; 
for we tind that the blight bnoteria will grow to only a alight 
extent in the •ucculeut peach shoota, and not at all in most 
Otfa«r plants.' But in varieties of the same fniit it may nmBo&> 
ably bo inferred that to a oonsiderable extent the diffcrcnoe In 
tbe progrees of the disease is due to phynloal causes. 

To determine what relation the hydration of the tiaaue* bulda 
to this question, a series of determinations of the jierfirnUgv of 
water in the parts of the tn>e moat aut>]ect to blight has been 
begun. These are yet incomplete, am) can only now be rcferml 
to briclly. 

Tlir Bsrtlett and Scckol pears very well represent the extremes, 
the first being most affected by the disease and the second leaitt. 
Twigs taken from the tree in February were found to contain 50"S 
per cent, and 50*85 per cent, of water respectively. Twigs taken 
in the same way April 30, liearing flower buds, but with the 
leaves removed, gave 687 per cent, and 67'3 per cent, of water. 
The half-wrown fruit, tAken the first week in July, gave 793 per 
cent, of water for the Bartlctt and 77 jwr tent, for the Seckel. 
According to these figures the amount of water in the Bartleit 
and Seckel twigs during the winter is practically the same, but 
during growth l)oth the twigs and fruit of the Bartlett contain 
more water than those of the Seckel. These numbers give some 
support to the view that Kucciilency and the strength of the dis- 
ease arc <lirectly rclatod, l>iit the data sire yot too incomplete to 
wnrriiut a ilt-liuite st;itenii'nt. 

.■II. N. Y. Agrlc. F.xpur. Station for ISSi, pp. 3 




The drawings were made with a camera lucida and a Spencer's ^^pobjec- 
tive, homogeneous immersion, of 125^ balsam angle. They are uniformly 
magnified 890 diameters. 

Fig. 1,— Micrococcus amylovorua Bur., grown upon a slice of boiled 

potato, stained with Bismarck-brown and mounted in Canada balsam. 
Fig. 2. — From a cultivation in hay infusion : a, separate bacteria ; b, zoo- 

gloea. The large mass, only part of which is shown, is made up of 

smaller masses more or less united. 
Fig. 3. — Small zoogloea from a potato infusion, drawn from a preparation 

in Canada balsam, stained with Bismarck-brown. 
Fig. 4.— Portion of a zoogloea mass from the same culture, showing an 

envelope free from bacteria. Drawn from an unstained preparation 

mounted in glycerine. 
Fig. 5. — ^Three zoogloea from the same culture. 
Fig. 6. — ^From another culture in hay infusion. 

.'■•■... . 

.:. • :."■ I'l.:; 

' '.v .i 

';. ..j n ••■ ■■■••! 

• ~ \ 


• \ 

« I 


: -'.w- I :; .... 
•.... I. •■. I 

1 1 


Herbarium is 736. In the general collectK)n are 570 species, and 
in the Schweinitzian are 462. The general collection contains 
244 species not found in the Schweinitzian, and the latter has 
282 species not found in the former. In all, 65 genera are well 

In regard to the Schweinitzian collection he remarked that the 
same species often there appeared under several names, being 
simply in diflTerent stages of development. Genera too were 
founded upon juvenescent stages or gonidial conditions which, from 
the time of Acharius to that of Schweinitz and later, were con- 
sidered sufficient to establish generic distinctions. For example, 
such genera as Leparia, Iridium and Byt^sus, were then deemed 
valid, but are now considered to be, some of them young and 
irioid states of plants mostly belonging to the section Lecanora ; 
others, sterile states of Omphalaria^ Gsenogonia, or other CoUe- 
matous Lichens. 

He spoke of several rare and interesting specimens in the col- 
lection. Of these, in the Schweinitz Herbarium, is a crustaceous 
Lichen found in 1812 at Salem, N. C, on a granitic rock, and 
called by the collector Gyalecta Candida^ and by this name known 
only to a few up to the year 1866. At this period Prof. Tucker- 
man described the plant in an Appendix to his Lichens of Cali- 
fornia as Opegrapha ontocheila, thus placing it permanently in a 
well-established genus of gymnocarpous Lichens. This specimen 
was the only one known until 1885 when Mr. Green found upon high 
projecting schist rocks along the Catawba River at Landsford, 
Chester Co., S. C, a lichen which was supposed to be new, until 
Prof. Tuckerman, just previous to his last illness, identified it 
with that found by Schweinitz as above. Dr. Eckfeldt also re- 
ferred to a remarkable foliaceous Lichen found near Cincinnati by 
Mr. T. G. Lea in 1839, formerly known as Parmelia Ohionis (Lea, 
Catal. PI. Cincinnati, p. 45), but since described by Tuckerman 
as Physcia Leana. So far as Dr. Eckfeldt was aware, this rare 
species had not since been found. He also referred to the diffi- 
culties encountered in the examination of much of the material, 
many of the types being old and fragile, having lost the parts 
most important for study, for want of proper care. Only a prac- 
ticed eye, aided by constant use of the microscope, and by com- 
parison with authentic specimens, can surely determine the doubt- 
ful and difficult forms present in this section of cryptogamio 

October 19. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-seven persons present. 

A paper entitled " The Genera Mesonyx and Pachyaena Cope," 
by Wm. B. Scott, was presented for publication. 


On ike Interdependence of Plants. — Mr. TrtOMAS Meehan called 
attention to the well-known fact in geographictil botany, that 
epecies of plants wbicli once had evidently a wide dispersion now 
existed only as separate colonies often of a few plants only, the 
intermediates between these widely separated colonies having 
evidently disappeared. The caase of these disappearances had 
not been deBnitely determined. It was found that the still exist- 
ing individuals were evidently in good health ; they flowered 
freely, and perfected seeds, bnt still the plants did not spread. 
He gave a number of illustrations within his own oliservation of 
a few riire plants that had maintained their existence for over a 
([uarter uf a century, with about tlie same number of individuals 
now as at the beginning of the term. As the seeding was regular 
and perfect, why was dispersion arrested ? There could be bnt 
one answer. Something prevented the germinati«n of the seeds, 
or of subsequent growth after germination. No doubt there may 
be other causes, but this one must have a leading influence. 

It then becomes an interesting branch of study to inquire why 
these seeds do not germinate, and thus aid the plant to recoYer 
the ground lost through destructive agencies ? 

An observation extending over about sis years led him to oon- 
clude that there was much in the interdependence of plants. What- 
ever alfccte<l the existence of individuals of one species might 
lead to the extermination of numerous others, and the successful 
endeavor of one to establish itself in one locality gave the neces- 
sary opportunity to I'oUoiv and su,sl;iiii tliein-ielvt"^. This obser- 
vation was as follows : A wood, chiefly of chestnut and oak, of 
about an acre in extent, was turned into a picnic ground — a place 
for summer pleasure parties. All the shrubby undergrowth was 
cut away. The plants which might have grown up, were kept 
tolerably well trodden down by the numerous visitors to the 
wood, except one solitary blackberry plant (Rubus villosus), 
which, being thorny, led to its avoidance by human feet. Afler 
the second sammer, some change in railroad arrangements led to 
the abandonment of the wood for picnic purposes, and plants had 
a chance to grow up again without disturbance from human 
beings. The blackberry plant, by the aid of its creeping roots 
now forms a thicket of about thirty feet in diameter. The follow- 
ing list of plants growing among the blackberries, that were not 
found in any part of the wood, except the last two, which were 
in small quantities here and there, was made in October of this 
year : — 

Eupatorium perfolialum, Hubus occidentalis, Liriodendron 
tulipiferuTn, Comus allernifolia, Smilacina racemosa, Ambrosia 
artemirias/olia^ Laurus sassa/ran, Polygonum Pereicaria, Achillea 
millefolium, Solidago canadensie, Mulgedium acuminatum, Bidena 
frondosa, Silene verticillata, Fragaria virgitiiana, Aster longi- 
folia, Eupatorium album, Circua lutetianoj Geranium maculatum. 

1886.] NATURAL BOHNOBB ov philadslphia. 845 

Acer rubrum^ Phytolacca decandra^ Muhlenhergia diffusa^ Potenr 
tilla canadensis^ the last two to some extent in the wood. 

All the kinds, however, grew in the vicinity of the acre of 
woodland, though not within its limits, and it was easy to note 
that they had grown from seeds falling or brought to the black- 
berry patch during the last three or four years. Those who are 
familiar with the seeds of these plants will understand that there 
is nothing special about the seeds of these species that would 
easily lead to their being brought there by birds that might 
rendezvous in the thickets. We must look to the wind as the 
chief agent in transporting them there. This being the case, we 
should look for the plants from wind-sown seeds in other por- 
tions of the wood, as well as in the blackberry patch. That they 
are not in the wood elsewhere permits us to say that the shade, 
moisture, preservation of decaying leaves, or of some other inci- 
dent not acceptable to other plants in the wood, but favorable to 
these strangers, gave them the chance to sprout and grow. 
They were, in fact, dependent on the blackberry for their 
first start in life. This conclusion was further evidenced 
by the fact that, though some of the annuals had evidently 
seeded and reproduced plants for several successive seasons, no 
plants were found spreading out of the protecting area of the 
blackberry thicket. Certainly these species were all dependent 
here on this plant, as this plant would probably be dependent on 
others in some other instances. 

How some plants can exist, grow healthily, produce seed, and 
not spread, Mr. Meehan illustrated in the case of Shortia galaci- 
folia, the original locality of Michaux having a few months ago 
been rediscovered by Professor C. S. Sargent. Though it had 
maintained itself for the best part of a century, it had existed 
without spreading. Some circumstance had evidently prevented 
the seed from germinating, and these circumstances would 
undoubtedly be controlled by the presence or absence of some 
friendly plant. He offered the facts as a contribution to the 
study of the interdependence of plants. 

October 26. 
Mr. Qeo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 
Thirteen persons present. 
The following was ordered to be printed : — 





On the 4th of July, 1886, I was esataining the forms of lift 
contained in a Holnian life-alide, which had been filled for 
several boura. It (jontjiined ditferent Infusoria, and among 
other animals, speeimeas of jEolomma. But it seemed for some 
time as if there were no amcebte in the slide, until I discovered 
a email one near the channel. In shape it seemed like an elon- 
gated trifingle, and was rather torpid, or at least moved hot little. 
While I was examining it, it moved up closer to the line of the 
channel, and anotber ammba, about twice the size of tbe first 
one, came gliding on the scene. It moved up very close to the 
other, and in a few moments I noticed that it looked as if it were 
trying to swallow the smaller araceba, in the same manner that 
it does its ordinary prey. As I had watched many ama?b» and 
had never seen anything like this, and as I knew that they did 
not prey on each other, and tbe question of their conjugation 
was a very doubtful one, I dismissed the idea of tbe larger 
absorbing tbe smaller, and concluded it was merely the fact that 
tbey were in too tight a place to allow of tbeir passing each other 
which gave them this appearance, I watched them constantly 
for about half an hour, in course of which time I became con- 
vinced that something unusual was going on. 

The larger amceba had entirely surrounded the smaller one, 
which, however, did not seem to lose its vitality. First it seemed 
to be under tbe endosarc of the larger, and then above it. 
Sometimes it would project a pseudopod out from beyond the 
ectosarc of the larger animal. All tbe time it was distinctly 
visible in its own individuality, if one may so call it, and did not 
at alt seem to be trying to escape. I called Mr. Holman's atten- 
tion to the singularity of their behavior, and expressed my 
belief that it was a case of either cannibalism or conjugation. 
He expressed his disbelief in either of these cases, and observ- 
ing that the water in the slide was evaporating, we allowed a 
little to creep in under the closed edge of the cover-glass. This 
seemed to relieve the large amreba from the constrained position 
and flat contour which it had assumed, and it immediately com- 

1886.] ' NATURAL sansNoss or philadilphia. 847 

menced to put out pseudopods and move away ; and the smaller 
one moved off with it, evidently engulfed in the larger one, and 
quiescent in that position. 

The small amoeba occupied a position in the upper part of 
the larger one. As this last moved on, it seemed to push 
the small one in an opposite direction from that which its gran- 
ules were taking, till it reached about the centre of its body. 
Then it commenced an evident effort to expel the smaller one. 
It reached out its pseudopods in every direction, gradually ex- 
pelling the smaller one until it was completely discharged. The 
smaller one, by this time, assumed an almost spherical shape. * 

At last the large amoeba ceased moving, and commenced to 
expel refuse matter such as is common with them. It had 
anchored itself near some other refuse matter, probably vege- 
table, and really looked as if it was using it as a sort of grapple 
for the purpose of ridding itself of the rejected smaller amoeba. 
It was successful ; for in a few moments it moved away to the 
upper part of the field, leaving the round ball, looking in every 
respect like an encysted amoeba, near the little group of refuse. 
It went on in the field, and we followed it for some time, when it 
became quiet, and we went back to the encysted one. I watched 
it to see what would happen next, for it seemed as if there must 
be some strange sequel to our remarkable observation, and the 
watching was not in vain. The flat disk commenced by a sort 
of contractile movement, to throw out particles or granules, as if 
it were laying eggs. I can think of no other expression, although 
the particles, while approximate in size, had no regularity of 
shape. This continued till the amoeba again assumed its clear 
and transparent appearance, and at last, seeming to fully regain 
its activity, put out a pseudopod and moved in the field, leaving 
behind it a group of the particles or granules. Only for a little 
while, however, did it move ; in a few moments it lost its anima- 
tion, seemed to become transparent, and at last faded into one of 
those disks which seem to be merely the shells of once active 
forms. I did not see it move again. 

This observation was carried on continuously during two 
hours and a half, and every stage watched most closely. I was 
at a loss what to call it, if not a clear case of conj ugation and 


Tbe moat etmvia^ng proof to mjr Miisd that thU wma & pnv 
eecding which «*» for ft paqtoM, wu gixwa wben, tvo nl^ts 
ftfter, this slide, vrhich wu laid cwfbllj uide for ftiUire «XMBi< 
nation, wh foond to b« Ml of voung kni<cbc Tlirf litrnllj 
swkiiDed ; I coant«d in the fl«ld at one time tweotj-rDar uf bo^ 
form »lLb, while I have no hecitstion in ssring that tb«rp wen 
between one and two htmdivd in the alide, which bwl bwfura twld 
bat two. Tbe wnTiM>Dt iltac wad recoeniud, and alMi wbnt 
MCmed to be the renuina of the larger amatba. 

1886.] NATimAL BCCeNdSS Of PAlLADlELPfittA. S49 

November 2. 

The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 

Nineteen persons present. 

The death of Dr. Geo. Martin, a member, October 28, 1886, 
was announced. 

November 9. 
Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

The death of Chas. C. Phillips, a member, November 5, 1886, 
and that of John S. Haines, a member, November 4, 1886, were^ 

The Publication Committee reported that the paper entitled 
" The Genera Mesonyx and Pachyaena, Cope," by Wm. B. Scott, 
would be published in Vol. IX, Part 2, of the Journal of the 

November 16. 

Mr. Thos. Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-five persons present. 

A paper entitled " On an Undescribed Meteoric Iron from East 
Tennessee," by F. A. Genth, Ph. D., was presented for publication. 

On Petiolar Olands in some Onagracese. — Mr. Thomas Meehan 
remarked that stipules were unknown in Onagracese, but in LucU 
wigia (Isnardia) palustris there were two minute conical gelatin- 
ous glands that appeared to be stipular. Tbey existed in series of 
specimens representing the Atlantic and Pacific coast, and from 
Europe, those from California being larger than in specimens 
from other locations. They are found in all the species of Lud- 
wigia and Jussieua that he had been able to examine. In these 
they appeared petiolar rather than stipular. In the dried speci- 
mens of Circsea a dark spot indicated the position occupied by 
the glands in other species. They mostly varied in form and 
exact position with the species, and only for having been wholly 
overlooked by describers might have afforded some good specific 
characters. The discovery he regarded as interesting, as con- 
firming the views of those botanists who had brought Turnera- 
ceagy in which the petiolar glands were known to exist, in close 
relation with Onagracese, 

In the specimens of Ludwigia paluatris, dried to exhibit with 
this communication to the Academy, a single capsule only, cut 

\ ieea mio nis lace while the 

1 t ns, indicating a projecting 

» - w > species. _ ^ ^ ^ 


Mr. JoBH H. BsDTicLS in the cbiUr. 
mneteen perflons present. 

Manganese Zinc Serpentine from Franklin, N. J. — Prof. 
Gkobok a. Kokitio placed on record the determination of a man- 
ganese zino serpentine from Franklin, N. J. The material was 
collected in sammer, 1 S85, as a very peculiar Willemife, ho called 
ftt the mine. It is % very compact mineral substance, having a 
dark brown dnll oolor and subconchoidal fracture, the splinters 
resembling horn ohipt. It is translticent on the edges, nnd when 
STonnd into a thin plnte transmits a uniform brown-yellow light 
Under the mioroscope tbi,s section of the purest material shows 
itrings of minute bhtclf grains. Between two crossed nicol 
prisma the section apjienrs light, proving a crystalline structure 
other than isometric. But a few grains, a light yellow in ordi- 
nary light, behave like aii isometric substance, and are probably 
sraina of yellow garnet, which is one of the associate minerals. 
Spec gr. = S'685. It is decomposed by aulphnric acid like 
The mean of two well-agreeing analyses gave 

SiO' = 42-20 (including 0-298 MgO,0-2 ZnO>. 

Fe'0>= 2-80 

MnO = 7-44 

ZdO = 3-90 

MgO = 29-24 

H,0 = 1404 

Let Fe*0' be supposed to be present as Franklinite, requiring 
0-8 ZnO and 0-53 ZnO, then we have 415 per cent, of Franklinite 
mixed with the silicate, and the composition is now 

SiO» =41-70:1-390 

MgO =29-24:1-462) 

MnO = 6-91 ; 0-194 V 1-733 

ZnO = 310 : 0077) 

H'O = 14-04 : 1-533 

Franklinite ^ 4-15 

Pyroxene = 102 

This gives the ratio, SiO* : RO ; H^O 

1886.] KATUBAL donSNOSd OF t»HIt«A]>BLt»titA. 351 

Under the circumstances, that is, in view of the microscope 
showing the admixture of an isometric or amorphous body, this 
ratio is sufficient to establish the material as a Serpentine. 

Associated with the Serpentine, besides the minerals already 
mentioned, is a light grayish fibrous mineral. This is composed 
of Calcite and two Silicates, a silicate decomposable by Hcl 
(probably equal to the above serpentine), and a silicate insoluble 
in Hcl, which is probably a pyroxene. Several analyses have 
been made without establishing the nature satisfactorily. 

On Miocene Fossils from Southern New Jersey. — Prof. Heilprtn 
called attention to a limited collection of fossils from near Bridge- 
ton and Jericho, Cumberland Co., New Jersey, representing the 
Miocene formation of that State. The species identified were : 
Terehra curvilirata, Turritella aequislriata, Turritella Cumber - 
landia, Trochita centralis^ Fissurella Griscomi, Chama congre- 
gata, Astarte distans {undulata), Crassatella mehna, Area cen- 
tenarian Nucula ohliqua (proxima), Perna maxillata^ Fecten 
Madisonius, Fecten sp. ? Orbicula luguhris, 

A number of these forms — nearly one-half — had not been 
identified in the State before, although fairly abundant in the 
Miocene tract of the region to the south. They are therefore 
interesting as bearing directly upon the question of horizon 
which the scantily-represented Miocene fauna of New Jersey 
indicates. The speaker stated that in his work, " Contributions 
to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of the United States" 
(1884), he had suggested that the probable position of the 
deposits in question would be found to be in the *' Marylandian " 
series — Lower Atlantic Miocene — a view sustained by the addi- 
tional fossils that have now been brought to light. 

On the Eelictites of Luray Gave, — Dr. Charles S. Dolley 
remarked that during a recent visit to the celebrated Luray 
Caverns his attention was called to the peculiar branching stalac- 
tites known as helictites {eXi^^ a spiral), and the question arose as 
to the method by which a stalactite gives off a horizontal branch 
at right angles ; this branch in its turn perhaps sending out twigs 
at greater or lesser angles, and at varying degrees of inclination. 

For a better opportunity of studying this interesting phe- 
nomenon he was permitted to visit in company with Dr. Leidy a 
chamber seldom opened to inspection, and which, from the deli- 
cate and fantastic character of its limy deposits, has been called 
the " Toy Shop." Here the stalactites were found to be of very 
recent formation, small, hollow, and increasing rapidly. Many 
branching specimens, or helictites, in all stages of growth, were 
to be seen. After some time spent in a vain search for an expla- 
nation of this anomalous structure, he happened to notice two 
specimens, the incipient branches of which were directed towards 
each other ; stretched tightly between the branches, and entering 

s or not ACADntT M [199S. 

Uht koUow li|i of each, «u % delicate thtowl, bMring ■ etring of 

4l»^**lrop* glisleiilng tirif^litlj; in the ouidte-lit^t. Fortber 
MkiDb rvvintlm) numeroaa s^xcimeiu in whicb liw Ume-vkter 
triukltn|[ >)uwii the aUklacliU: ra«t a aimllar liUuent, uad betOf 
)«r(iiill,v ilivrtb'il tind fonnitt n (Imp at liie |>oiBt of Junctloa; 
kImuI thia ilnifi bt^ntifiil kniganiUt <ii)i(^ule* wtn fomlnc Um 
bwlluw b(irixi>nt«l bmncb, tbr ilnip of irml«r In tbe «nd MinK 
ntt«ln«Hl In ixiiition 1>t tlii' filsiarnt piercing H, umI upoo which 
U I* Ktwluallv pushcii alon^ u prft|M>r»tion ()i-p(Mit« th« liiiM 
bobtuii It. Tlu' Ivn^h of tbv bmncli cIc[m-ii<U, of conne, upon 
Uie Iviijitb nf tiinu In wliJch thr nUmrtit rvuiaiiH intMt. 

Tbi^Ai- niannriitH, wliicb an- Ihus itrcii tci U- tb« caiwe of tbt 
foriDiiltoii itf lateral olfshooU to atalactites, are tbe prodnda ofa 
awall iTftVi" spider. 

The PmaMent, Dr. Jos. Lntis, in tbe chair. 
Thlrtjr-thPM pf^non* prcmnt. 

A paper entitled " On Schortotnite as a variotjr of Melanite," 
h; 0*0. A. Eoenig, H.I>., was presented for publication. 

On Hamatoxj/lin in Ihe Bark of Saraca ItuOea. — MiM IlBLn 
0. IlK H. Abbott NtaLcd that He Candolk- ' and Linn«u> <)<««ribe 
Stnwn Jndica aa ■ maoiber of tbe fatnilj- Ijrgumiooaa. AoBoi4r 
init to Da CaDdolle it belongs to thv genna Jonrnm, Saracm Una., 
anil !■ (n-pftrntr'l by fivi- i;i'niT:i from tiic gcntii HirmaU^xylnn or 
the logwuud. 

In an article on certain drugs indigenous to India, Dr. Waring* 
givKB iin account of the medicinal uses of tlie bitrk of SarofHi 
Iitdica. Tlie attention of Messrs. Paike, Davis & Co.. Detroit. 
Michigan, was calleii to this drug, and through their correspond- 
ents in India they securi'd a sni>]ily, samples of which have been 
submitted to tbe s|K-akcr for n chemical analysis. The full 
results of this analysis will appear elsewhere, but it is no* 
dcHircd to announce a discovery of practical and sciontiGc 
interest in this connection. 

A coli>ring principle, identical with logwood dye, has been 
isolated by her from tbe bark of Sarara Imiica, where it existed 
In two conditions, as hiematoxylin and an oxidized pro<luct. 
Tbe former was separated as yellow eiystals, analogous in form 
to bienmtoxylin cryst,ils frimi Ihe true logwood, llrmaloii/ton 
latnj/echiaiu'im. TJie alrolinlic I'xtriiet of the bark contaiue-l 
aliout 18 |»r cent, i.f a red 'olored substance, wbieh agrit--d in 
color and dve tests with a like constituent foumi in logwood. 

' I'n). Bj-B. Xnt B.-g, Vi-. tal.ilK vol. ii. ].. ^--T. 
'British Med. Juur., .luui' e, I'm. p. 11-13. 




Mordanted cotton fabric was dyed with haematoxylin, extracted 
by ether from the Saraca bark, and presented the characteristic 
logwood dye colors. 

The following is a table of dye wood colors with reagents, 
yielded by Brazil wood and logwood :^ 





Claret-red sol., . • 

Reddish purple sol. 

Acids (dilute), . . . 

Orange ppt., . . , 

Pink solution. 

" (strong), . . . 

Yellow '• . . . 

(( a 

Alum sol., .... 

Crimson-red ppt., , 

Yellow then violet sol. 

Lime-water, .... 

(< ( 

Bluish purple ppt. 

Ferrous salts, . . . 

Purplish bl'k * 

" black " 

Ferric " ... 

Brownish red * 

Black ** 

Copper " ... 

n n t 

Purple sol. 

Lead " ... 

Crimson-red * 

Violet " 

Mercuric ** ... 

Yellow * 

Yellow " 

SUver " ... 

<( < 

Gray ppt. 

Tartar emetic, . . . 

Rose-colored * 

Purple sol. 

Stamious chloride, . . 

Red ' 

" ppt. 

Sodium aluminate, 

Claret-red * 

(( it 

The extracts of Saraca Indica bark, containing the coloring 
principle, were tested with these reagents, and it was observed 
that the reactions agreed with the hsematoxylin colors, and in no 
case with those of brasilin. However, the colors produced by 
different alkalies varied in tints as she had found in both the 
logwood and Saraca extracts, but the general term " reddish 
purple solution " is comprehensive. A rose-violet precipitate 
was yielded by stannous chloride solution with the neutralized 
acidified extracts of the barks. 

The bark of the logwood-tree is not used for making the com- 
mercial logwood extracts, the wood of the tree being employed 
for this purpose. The presence of a small quantity of hsema- 
toxylin was determined in the specimens of logwood-bark which 
she examined, and with the bark extracts the same reactions with 
reagents were obtained as with the logwood extracts, but owing 
to the smaller percentage of d3'e in the bark the colors were less 
intense. In the case of the Saraca Indica bark the colors were 
very brilliant and indicated the presence of a larger proportion of 
the coloring matter than in the logwood bark. These results 
should encourage investigators to secure specimens of the toood 
of the Saraca, in order to determine if it contains the coloring 
principle, and should this be ascertained affirmatively, whether it 
exists in sufficiently large quantities to warrant its introduction 
as a new source of this commercial product. 

To exhibit the colors produced by alkalies upon the dye from 

» S. P. Sadtler and Wm. L. Rowland, Am. Jour, of Phar., Feb., 1881. 

nooiXDnrai or rm aoapkut or [ISM. 

1 btrk ind fiaroca tn4ica bark, the powdered niKterlftl 

)»rftt«) ov*r tba wKtor-faatfa with distilled or Httrrvd river 

r widttUted vlUt dilat« §tilp|juric Mtd (1 («rt to 50}, the «x> 

tnot WM filtered ^od the procem re[)e«t«d unUI no more color 

wu ranoTed. This extract was trent«d direcliy wiUi tbe nwi^enu. 

Exoeaa of reagents i>roducod darker linu, lud aiter a time tb* 

■olDtJoiu mra deooiorkod. 

Pkle purple to n<i1i11*li riolot ail. 

Ploklsh-purplfl kolutlon. 

Among utborooiittituontscoDtAiDed in thcSsmcabark.catacbtB 
and saponin w«re dutcrminrd. Tlioir presence alonx *■"> l"^m^ 
loxylin ii sii^ilionnt m Kbowing the chemical posiiiun uf SarwM 
In relation to the gcncm Ai-<icia and tiecmaloxyhn ,- cati-ctiio and 
aaponin being found. as is well known, in Acncia. Ttii.- eralnllonary 
poeition of llic order l,cguinino«i«, to wbicli Uummi gvniTa liclong, 
wafl pointed out in a Toimcr pa|>cr.' and it wa« aUtet) that alt 
orders .■..nlnininv •!i)...iiiii .■.■kiiii' nii.l.r tl.c middle dirUluB of JL 
Heckil- I ' ' I ' i.'ity of Ihimt aluaeoU. 

The i:i' M Iiw, linif th.-pnblir». 

tion of tier iirticle in tlie Botnnicat 0\j:r»c. and the discovery 
of siiponin in many ]ilanlM of wiiioly iliiliTenI itenera and familit-«. 
seeni to jOKtify and confirm wiiiit nns staltd in tlie anicle 
referred to above, "saponin is inviiriahly al>sent when- ihe floral 
elements are simple; it is iiivnriubly nhsfiit where thi- fl.iral 
elements are eonilensed to their fireatest extent. Its |Ki> t» 
jdaiidy that of a factor in tlie t;r<"U middle realm of iilant life 
when the elements of tlie iniliridiml are striving' to condmse. and 
thus increase llicir physiological action and the economy of part*.'"" 

Gorge MeClellan, M. D., and Georye L. English i 

Prof. v.. Selenka was eleeteii a corresimndi-nL 
The following wa- onlcrcil to Iw printed :— 


J. 1--.'M- ■-•TO. 

si.I.iut.Mt laHi.-,.riiMi.l.:>- 

■( HL Botaiiioil Glulle. 



On the basis of a titanium Melanite from a new locality in 
Southwestern Colorado, the hypothesis is proposed that Schor- 
lomite from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, may be considered as a 
Melanite in which Titanium replaces both Silicon and Aluminum. 
By a series of analyses of Schorlomite and Melanite, it is pro- 
posed to establish the above hypothesis beyond doubt. The 
following results are merely given as preliminary information. 

The material from Colorado, obtained through Moritz Stockder, 
Mining Engineer at Lake City, shows the Melanite as black 
masses imbedded in a greenish yellow, fine granular matrix, with 
undefined boundaries. No crystal planes were observed. The 
color is deep black, brownish at thin edges, and in thin plates. 
It has an uneven fracture, rather resinous lustre. Sp. gr. = 3*689. 

Thin sections under microscope show the homogeneous charac- 
ter and optical indifference of the substance. 

B. B. several splinters fused at 3 with slight formation of 
bubbles (CO*). Hydrochloric acid decomposes the mineral very 
slowly. The analysis gave in two determinations : 

Si02 =30n 

TiO* = 811 

AP03 = 2-26 

Fe^O^ = 22-67 

CaO =34-29 

MgO = 0-304 

C02 = 1-48 (loss by fusion). 


0*5 gr. decomposed in sealed tube required 2*2 cc. of per- 
manganate (titre = 0-0058 Fe). TiO* + Al-O^ were separated 
from Fe203 by (NH^)^S in tartaric solution, and APO^ from TiO* 
by acetic acid according to Gooch. 

Assuming that Ti replaces Si the ratio is obtained (Si, Ti)0^ : 
(Fe, Al)203 : CaO = 3-T28 : 1 : 3-49. But assuming that Ti re- 
places the sesquioxides in part as Ti^O^ under the hypothesis that 
the permanganate was reduced by Ti^O^ we obtain 3-28 Ti^O^ as 
replacing alumina = 3*64 TiO*. It having been ascertained that 



the loss by ignition is owing to CO' aad not to water, its equiva- 
lent of CaO was subtracted. Thus corrected the composition of 
the mineral is : 

SiO' =30T1: 60 = 0-5190 1 

TiO' = 4-47 : 80 = 0-06C0 J 

Ti'O' = 3-29 : 144 = 00230^ 

Pe'O' = 22-67 : 160 = 0-1420 U-1S7 

Al'O' = 2-2fi : 103 = 0-0220 J 

OaO =32-41: 56=0-57301 

\ 0-568 

MgO = 0-30 : 
MnO =; trace 

40 = 0070 


This giv 

s'the ratio 
(Si, Ti)0' ; (Fe, Ti, A1)'0' : (Ca, Mg)0' 



quite eatiafactory to the formula of Garnet 
Ca-XFe, Al)' Si'0'= 
The greenish yellow mutrix shows Tiiidei 

the 1 

■roscope a 

intimate mixture of three minerals, one of which is Calcite, one 
a green and one a white Silicate. Its composition is given with- 
out at present expressing an opinion as to its mineral natuie. 
Spec. Gr. 3-137 


= 40-76 


= 1-21 


= 8-20 


= 29-60 


= 3-98 


= 5-S2 


= 0-89 


= 0-96 


= 6-96 


A specimen of Schorlomite from Arkansas was analyzed with 

great care to test the hypothesis that Schorlomite is simply a 

titanium Melanite. The material was like anthracite in lustre 

and color, quite opaque, even in thinnest sections. It decomposes 


readily with HCL. The reduced permanganate was calculated as 

Spec. Gr. = 3-816 at 23°C. 

Si02 = 25-80 : 60 = 0-430 1 ^.^g^ 
Ti02 = 12-46 : 80 = 0-156 J 
Ti203 = 4-44 : 144 = 0-031 \ 
AP03= 1-00 : 103 = 0-009 > 0-185 
Fe203— 23-20 : 160 = 0-145 j 
CaO =31-40 : 56 = 0-561^ 
MgO = 1-22 : 40 = 0-030 > 0*597 
MnO = 0-46 : 71 = 0*006 j 

This gives the ratio — 

(Si, Ti)02 : (Fe, Ti, AiyO^ : (Ca, Mg, Mn)0 
3-16 1 : 3-22 

While not so near to the normal ratio, it is near enough, espe- 
cially considering the difficulty of estimating Ti^O^, in warranting 
the hypothesis that Schorlomite has the formula of ganiet, is 
isomorphous with it, and exists, as the writer hopes to establish, 
in a complete series of intermediate members; so much so, that 
it will be impossible to say where Melanite stops and Schorlomite 
begins, even though every titanium Melanite be not called Schor- 



December 1. 


Mr. Wm. W. Jeffebis in the chair. 

Seventeen persons present. 

A paper entitled, "Observations on the upper TriasBic mam. 

nials Promatheriiim and Microconodon," by Henry F. Oabora, 

Sf;. D., was presented Tor publicntion. 

December U. 

The President, Dr. Leidt, in the ehair. 

Twenty-one persons present. ^^h 

The death of Isaac Lea, LL.D. was announced. ^^^H 

The following was ordered to be printed : ^^^^| 






In 1857 Prof. Emrnona ^ described portions of three small mam- 
malian jaws from the Upper Triassic (Chatham Coal Fields) of 
North Carolina, which he assigned to the new genus Dromathe- 
rium. The type-specimen is now in the Geological Museum of 
Williams College. Another specimen is in the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. I cannot ascertain 
the whereabouts of the third fragmentary specimen mentioned by 
the author. I am indebted to Prof. Samuel F. Clarke, of Williams 
College, for an opportunity of studying the type specimen. 
Although slightly injured in the original removal of the matrix, 
this fossil is in beautiful preservation, and gives the complete 
mandibular dentition, with the exception of two molar crowns. I 
soon observed that my drawing, made under a camera, did not 

Microconodon and Dromatherium. Natural size. 

agree with that given by Emmons, in his American Geology, Part 
YI, p. 94, which has since been copied by Owen, Dana and others. 
This discrepancy was apparently explained later by a comparison 
of the Williams College specimen with that in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. In the latter, although the 
mandible is nearly complete, two molars and two premolars only 
are preserved, but these indicate a distinct genus. As Emmons 
referred both jaws to the same genus, it is not unlikely that he 
supplemented the rather obscure characters of the teeth in his 
type-specimen with the very obvious tooth patterns of the less 
perfect specimen. Thus, while the number of the molars in 
Emmons' drawing follows the type-specimen, their form resem- 
bles that observed in the Microconodon molars, which will pre- 
sently be described. 

Those familiar with the works of Professors Owen and Marsh 
upon the Mesozoic mammalia are aware that sharp distinctions 

1 American Geology, Part VI, pp. 93 and 94. 


in the molar scries of the mammaJa of this period do not exi»t. 
That is, the only diBtinction drawn between molars and premolan 
IB one of form ; we have no data as to permanent and deciduoOB 
dentition, except possibly in the genus Triconodon. The rule 
adopted ia that, where the post^anine teeth are not all alike, the 
series of like form following the canine are called premolars; 
and those behind these, of another form, are called molars. 
This rule baa been applied to all genera, excepting Phaecolo- 
therifm and Diplocynodon^ where all the post-canine teeth are 
practically alike. 

Dromslheiittm sylvcBtTc Emowna. 

Generic Characters. — Incisors and canines erect. Molars and 
premolars unlike. Molar-premolar aeries compact, leaving a 
wide diastema between the canine and first premolar. Prcmolarit 


high, styloid and procumbent, with no cingulum and probably 
single fanged. Molars bifanged with high pointed crowns and 
mionte sometimes bifid cusps on the anterior slope and distinct 
pointed cusps on the posterior slopes. The dental formula is 

1.7 0.7 pm.7 M.7 

The incisors are nearly erect, and are separated by interspaces 
equaling the diameter of their crowns, which indicates that the 
superior incisors interlocked with them. I, is low and small ; I, 
is larger and more erect ; Ij is very high, slender and slightly 
recurved, resembling the canine. The canine is tall, stont and 
recurved, and in form is similar to the canine of Peralealea. 
There is no indication of a double fang. A wide diastema sep- 
arates this tooth from the premolars. These teeth are styloid 
in shape, and strongly procumbent. The two anterior are appar* 


ently supported on single fangs. The crowns are subeylindrieal, 
with obtuse tips. The third premolar is larger, more tapering 
from base to summit, and has an indication of a double fang. 
The first molar in general outline is transitional between the 
molars and premolars. On the anterior slope of the main cone, 
near the summit, is a fine accessory cusp ; while near the base of 
the posterior slope is a more distinct cusp. The second molar 
has two accessory cusps on the anterior slope of the main cone, 
and one on the posterior slope placed half way down. The 
third molar differs from the others in the large size of the poste- 
rior cusp. On the anterior slope there is an indication of a 
small accessory cusp. In the fourth molar the crown tip is de- 
tached, but there is an indication of the usual anterior and posterior 
accessory cusps. The fifth molar, besides the anterior and poste- 
rior cusps, has the trace of a posterior cingulum and possibly of a 
postero-external cusp. The sixth molar is like the fourth. The 
seventh molar is the most complex tooth in the series ; like the 
second, it has two accessory cusps on the anterior slope of the 
main cone, the uppermost of which is distinctly bifid. The 
posterior slope also has a bifid accessory cusp, and a faint basal 
cingulum. The anterior cusps throughout rise like needle-points 
on the sides of the teeth ; the posterior cusps are more distinct. 
All the molars are compactly placed with high, rather narrow 
crowns, and deep depressions above the double fangs. The char- 
acters of these crowns were made out with the greatest diflaculty, 
and a more perfect specimen may show slight difference of 

The mandible of Dromatherium is heavy and well-rounded in 
section. It is marked on its inner face by a deep mylohyoid 
groove, widening posteriorly into a broad pterygoid fossa. 
The upper border rises behind the molars into the coronoid pro- 
cess, cr. The summit of this process is broken, but a faint impres- 
sion on the matrix shows that it had a high, slightly recurved 
outline. A small portion of the hind border seems to be pre- 
served just above the angle which would indicate that the condyle, 
cn^ was placed midway between the coronoid and angle, somewhat 
as in Amblotherium. The thick lower border has a gentle double 
curvature. There is no trace of the symphysial surface. 

The unique character of the dentition separates Dromatherium 
widely from any known fossil or recent genus. 


mocKBDnniH or tbs acaokvt or 


MUroeonadsn teaulrMtri*, if'V. t> ■[•. nnv. 

ThU gt'utiJt U foiimlw! upwri the ojiircimcn in tbr i.->otI«etion of 
the Acftil«my of Natnml Sciences of PhilftdHpbU, whicfa w«s 
described by Emmons as Dromalherium. 

Qenerie CharacUrn. — A wide diastema between Ibe eanln* 
and first premolar. Molars and premolars unlike. pKinalar* 
simple, ereft oones with a faint poal<>r!or i*iRguttim and partlj 
bl.fanged. Molars l>i-fan^cd w\lh broiid cmwnN ■upporting a large 
me<lian cu»p, at tL« ■id«» of which arc anterior and povtrrior 
conicnl oiisps, fHilMiqunl in sizo, nnd n distinct poaierior oin^tnm. 

Thi- ramus is about two.tliirds the length of thst of Ifrom/t- 
therium. It! i;onoral lower curvature Is Bir]|;le, Tbcro is ■ d«- 
preesion extODdinp iK-ncath the molar-preotolar series, bat this is 
shallower than tbe mylohyoid groove, and I Infer thai tbe ouUt 

(Ml. Mmsnihi 

surface of the jnw is the one expoaed. The coronoid rises by a 
gentle curvature ahove the molars nnd the frnetured jiortion sotms 
to have left a faint im])ression on the mntrix, which imlicntes a 
low rounded contour. The |>osterior half of the lower l>order is 
marked hy n downward process, somewhnt similtir to tlmt in 
Peramiis. Tlie Biirfncc of the process U'lirs a shallow fu-isa. 
Above this the crotaphj-te fossa is faintly mnrke<l. The i»ym- 
physial portion of the jaw is partly fractured. Thi' matrix Itar* 
nn impression wliieli may have been left hy a tooth, but more 
probahly is accidental. Altojrether, the delicate chftraclerof this 
ramus indicates an animal of feebler masticating power tlinn I'ro- 

The molars eMi'tiilcl haekward to the rNc of ihe 




i.,na! ^p:.. 

th.>^.- of J)r. 

r,d a -r 


the hindermost were two other molars. This would give four 
premolars and six molars. Or there may have been three pre- 
molars and seven molars as in Dromatherium, Unfortunately no 
easts are preserved to settle this point, and the restoration of the 
missing teeth is purely conjectural. 

The molars are somewhat like those of AmpJiitherium except 
that the crowns are higher and the anterior and posterior cusps 
arise from the sides of the main cusp instead of from the base of the 
crown. The posterior basal cusp which may be the continuation of 
an internal cingulum is well marked, as is the depression between 
the two fangs. The third premolar is much larger than the 
first, and has an indication of two fangs. There is a trace of 
the fang of the intermediate premolar. These teeth, unlike 
those of Dromatherium J are erect and do not rise to the level of 
the molar crowns. The simple premolars differentiate the genus 
from Amphitherium. ^ 

PuixcKTON, N. J., December 20th. 


December 21. 
Mr. John H. Redfikld in the chair. 

Fourteen persons present. 

[688. I 

A New Species of Aplysia. — Prof. HEiLPitra exhibited speci- 
mens of a new species of Apl'jsia, or sea-bare, from Little Gas- 
pariUa Bay, west co&9t of Florida. The aniimtl in geDeral 
appearance was probably most nearly related to the European A. 
depilana (leporina), biit differed in several well-marked points of 
structure, notably in color, tbe position of the buccal aperture, 
and in the character of tbe pore connecting with the shell cavity. 
While in A. depilans the mooth is placed beneath the tentaciilsr 
lobes — t. c, the latter are superior — in the Floridii species it is 
central with regard to these organs, the lobes being circumfercn- 
tially connate, and completely encircling the aperture. The pore 
leading to tbe shell-sac is minute, and raised on a smail papilla ; 
tbe stellate markings radiatiDg from the base of the papilla are 
very feeble, and can barely be discerned without close examina- 
tion. The shell, which is about an inch and three-quarters in 
length, is homy-calcareous, deeply emarginate, and striated 
Ion git u din all}' and transversely. General color of the animal 
aea-green, tinged with purple, and irregularly blotched and 
speckled with spots of lighter color. Length, 7-8 inches. The 
animal emits a brilliant crimson fluid. It wns proposed to name 
the species Aptysia Willcoxi. 


Announcement having been made that the collection of shells 
formerly belonging to Albebt Dod Bbown had been presented to 
tbe Academy by his mother, Mrs. Susan D.Brown, Dr. A. E.Foote 
stated that Mr. Brown, who was formerly Curator of the Prince- 
ton College Museum, died April 30, 1886, aged 45 years. He had 
a well-reoognized reputation as a stadent of conchology, botany, 
and horticnlture, the latter years of his life having been devoted 
to the last-named pursuit. He was one of the founders of the Con- 
chological Section of the Academy, and was for years associated 
with it as a member. 

The collection now given to the Academy is to be known by 
his name, bat no other condition accompanies the generous gift. 
A valuable portion of the collection consists of tbe cabinet of 
the late Mr. Thomas Bland, including his types of West Indian 


shells. By this valuable accession about five thousand species of 
shells represented by perhaps thirty-five thousand specimens 
have been added to the already unrivaled Conchological cabinet 
of the Academy. 

December 28. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-five persons present. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 

nunnDiKas or vat acackht or p^"- 

Th« hiatory or lUU iiil«restiag meteoric !rou U vi 
In August, ItiflT, I received f>om tbe late Dr. luau L«k ■ •ouU 
Dement, wdgtiing about five gniai!!, wiUi the rfqu<^1 to cl«tcr- 
taiHG whctb«r or not it wu roatcorio ima. Tho naalyii* (I), 
flatsbed August 11, 1867, proving it to bo tnvt«oric iron, {ndiiotd 
Dr. Lea to purchase the K[>ocimcn. 

Under datQ of May 11, 18S8, the lute Julias E. Rabt. uf CUto- 
Iniid, Ti^un., wi-otc me: "1 send you to-day a rhuiU piocv (It 
ivflght-'d 14 grams^^F. A. Q.) of meteoric iron, which wiu brokra 
oir frtfm a rnnas, weijihini; lifty ifOuntU, wliiok fdt kbont Ki]{b( 
yuan ago uear the Slati' line of Quorgia, ten milra tntm fact* 
(Cleveland, Tenn.)- Tbe pivcu bn* been *old inlu MiMlMippL" 

In the rail of the y«-nr 1868, Ihc lute Dr. Jamra L. Smith, of 
Louisville, Ky., thu ci-lobrated inviwti^pitor of tiu-tiruril«a, on hi* 
return tram Kuropo. wrote to Dr. Isaac Lea. conyrMulating hla 
on the aoquUitiou of the Sliamaitipfii meteorite, reKtvttinf aA th* 
aamo time tUui hia absence iu Europe had prcvtmtod him Ttom 
securing it for his own cabinet. 

It now reiiiuincit iu tlu' possession of Dr. Len, until he prescnte-i 
it to tlie Auaiituiy of Xiitur:il Sciences of I>hiliidi'l|>hi». Tht- 
Museum rtconi of the Afrulemy simply notes the date of iu 
reception, on OcUiber '24, I87C, that it was from the iuouiitain-> 
of Kast Tennessee, and that it weighed 2.*i4 ])ound». ,\ll my 
ell'urts to obtain fuller information about its fall and discovery 
have proved nusucccs.Hful, 

Tiie discrepancy between the weisrht given by Mr. Uahl .ind 
the actual weipht of the mass, niu^t be cllargi'd tti inriirn-el 
infurinatiou received by Mr. Kaht; this is insiu:nitic.tiit, however. 
compared with the proof which Hr. Smith's letter sive- t.> the 
fi.ct that his Mississii,|.i mete-nile is iiler.ticai with the one which 
Mr. r.iihl -t;.Iea U. Iiav been s.,|,| i,,!,. 1 h.'U -^late. 

The mii->liMW- ,,n ..Iiecnruer the phiee ivlieie the It .Tvii' 
whieh Mr, K:il-t sent me b:id been broken olf. 

i- iin u- 


riy -ha 



T Ui. 

n- :ihoi 

I 4J 

reatest th 


ss about 

22 c 


Its crust is very thin and mostly free from rust, only here and 
there covered with small spots of the same. It shows one fracture, 
which, however, cannot be seen on the photographic representa- 
tion on Plate IV, as it is on the opposite side near the indentation, 
and extending for about 15 cm. ; its widest part is about 10 mm. 
in size. 

This meteoric iron appears to be an original whole mass, and 
not a fragment torn off from a larger one ; its surface is pitted 
all over and shows numerous depressions and excavations, from 
a few centimetres in diameter and depth to about 15 cm. in length, 
8 cm. in width and nearly 5 cm. in depth. The photograph shows 
beautifully the pitted appearance of the mass. 

Its original weight was nearly 115*5 kilos.; probably 25 kilos, 
have been cut off in slabs which have been distributed amongst 
learned societies and individuals. 

The crystalline structure of this meteorite is beautifully shown 
on three etched slabs which are represented in their natural size 
on Plate y, 1 from my cabinet, 2 in the Vaux Collection, and 3 in 
the general collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences. All 
three show the very perfect octahedral structure of this meteorite. 
The specimen presented to me by Mr. Raht gave on etching 
exactly the same crystalline structure, which adds another proof 
that both came from the same piece. 

The usual constituents of this class of meteorites are quite 
perceptible: the Kamacite (Balkeneisen) largely predominating 
and forming bands from 1 to 3 mm. in width. The Taenite 
(Bandeisen) enveloping the Kamacite, frequently subdividing in 
narrow lines the broader bands of the latter. The length of the 
Kamacite individuals is from 1*5 cm. to 2 cm. It has a dull gray 
color ; when magnified, it can be seen to be intersected in every 
direction by very fine lines, probably of Schreibersite. The "Pies- 
site, somewhat darker than the Kamacite, mostly shows a very 
fine crystalline, mottled structure (moire metallique) and a 
glittering lustre; a small portion, however, is quite dull and 
much darker. 

On my specimen, fig. 1, Plate Y, there is in two places a remark- 
able admixture of an iron which is a great deal smoother and 
hardl}' shows any crystalline structure. One begins about 9 mm. 
below the right-hand corner, first forming a somewhat oval mass 
of 2 to 3 mm. in diameter and then extending in a dagger-shaped 



fbrm fori mm.; tbe other U ir>mm.flrom the ri^t cnljte &ad 8 or 
9 nni. Iwlow Uie liorder, alwut 13 min. loBg, on both etida 1-5 bb. 
and in tbo centrr about 1 mm. wide. Thi» inm i» brigbl«T than 
anjr other portion of tht cdgvd sarfaoc and h%* a sUghtl^r jeliow. 
Isb hue. 'rb« patches are not perfectly smooth, howvTer. hm 
Hhow man; rer; ninnte depreulons. In the centre where thla 
iron la narrowest and oo some portion of the noctched snrfac« of 
my Blab, ■mall apotBof rust have made their appearaDoe. An 
examination proved the prMenoo of eonnidenhle quantity of 
clilorine, trvm which it t« rvident that Uiey are the mnlt of Uw 
oxidation of ferrous chloride, which this meti^oritc contains in 
small q nan ti lies. 

The Bo.ciaUed " alteraliot tone " next to the hrtHdrind la i^aite 
dlniuct and from 1 to 1-& mm. in width. 

I have made ihree analyic* of tbtit ntct«oric iron, the firat naarly 
twenty yean ago, of the slightly maty IVagmemt, Mat by Dr. I^k 
( 1 ), tbo second of a perfectly fresh fV^rment of that portion cot 
off for epecimens (it), and the third of the oareAiIly purified •■«• 
dust obtained by tbb operation, which reptucnts the avtta^ 
eonpoaitlon of Iht; whole maaa where it was cut (3). 

Tboy gave the following results : 






= 88-92 




= 0-23 




= 9-82 




= 0-7 




= 019 




= not det'd. 


not det'd. 


The following annual reports were read and referred to the 
Publication Committee : — 


The Recording Secretary respectfully reports that during the 
year ending November 30, 1886, twelve members and four corres- 
pondents have been elected. 

Resignations of membership have been received and accepted 
on the usual conditions, from Dr. Charles Harrod Vinton and 
Jerome B. Gray. 

The deaths of seventeen members and one correspondent have 
been announced. 

Eighteen papers have been presented for publication, as 
follows : — Prof. Angelo Heilprin, 2 ; Chas. Morris, 2 ; S. Frank 
Aaron, 1 ; Calvin MeCormick, 1 ; W. D. Hartman, 1 ; C. Rominger, 
1 ; Chas. D. Dolley, 1 ; Geo. Vasey, 1 ; Jos. Leidy, 1 ; J. C. 
Arthur, 1 ; Thos. Meehan, 1 ; Lillie E. Holman, 1 ; John W. 
Eckfeldt, 1 ; Wm. B. Scott, 1 ; F. A. Genth, 1 ; Geo. A. Koenig, 1. 

One of these has been withdrawn ; one will be printed in the 
Journal ; one has been deferred in consequence of the inability 
of the Publication Committee to provide the required illustrations, 
and the others have been reported on favorably and form part 
of the current volume of the Proceedings. 

One hundred and twenty-eight pages of the Proceedings for 
1885, and three hundred and twenty-eight pages of the volume 
for 1886 have been printed, together with three plates. 

Four foreign societies have been added to the list of exchanges 
to which the Academy publications are sent, making the entire 
number at present 379. 

The average attendance at the meetings has been 21. Verbal 
communications have been made and for the most part reported 
for the Proceedings by Messrs. Meehan, Koenig, Heilprin, 
Woolman, Moody, Morris, Potts, Leidy, MeCormick, Holman, 
A. H. Smith, Seiss, Holstein, Allen, Brooks, Sharp, Harvey, 
Willcox,U. C. Smith, Foote, Gibbons, Horn, Lockington, McGook, 
Lewis, Ryder, Dolley, Redfield, Tryon, S. R, Roberts and Miss 


At the meeting held June 22, the Academy, by resolution, 
joined with other scientific societies in an invitation to the 
International Congress of Geologists, to hold in America, the 
meeting after that provided for in London. 

On November 2, a committee consisting of Messrs. U. C. Smith, 
ThoB. Meehan, Angelo Heilprin, Rev. Henry C. McCook and 
T. D. Rand, was appointed to solicit aid from the Legislature 
in the erection of an addition to the present building. No result 
lias as yet been reported to the Academy. 

AH of which is respectfully submitted. 

Edw. J. Nolan, 

Hecording Secretary. 


During the year the duties of the Corresponding Secretary 
have been unusually light, and have consisted in great part of 
the reception of acknowledgments from corresponding societies 
of publications sent by us and the usual letters of transmittal 
from them. As many of onr exchanges are now sent through 
the mail, the acknowledgments are in the form of postal cards, 
which indicate by their dates how much earlier our publications 
are brought to the notice of the soientiflc world. 

The four corresponding members elected during the year have 
been promptly notified, and letters in return have been received 
from them and read to the Academy, 

The donations to the Museum have been many and important, 
as will appear in the Curators' report. It is one of the duties 
of my office to send receipts for these, but to the Curator-in- 
charge I must acknowledge my indebtedness for the fulfillment 
of a duty of which I officially know nothing, having merely affixed 
my signature in former years. 

Very little correspondence of a miscellaneous nature has been 
received, the Bureau of Scientific Information having apparently 
been communicated with directly. 

Acknowledgments of the receipt of our publications have 
been received by postal card, in total, 56 ; representing foreign 
societies, etc., 12 ; American, 15 ; Canadian, 3. 




Letters of acknowledgment, numbering . . 105 

From British and Colonial Societies, etc., . . 16 

From Continental European Societies, etc., . 18 

From American Societies, etc., . . . . 15 

Letters of transmittal, number in total, . . 36 
Representing twenty-eight foreign societies, 

etc., and but two American. 
Letters asking deficiencies and desiring exchange, 

number 11 

Miscellaneous letters, 11 

The number of societies with which we exchange publications 

shows an annual increase greatly to the advantage of those who 

use the library. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George H. Horn, M. D., 

Corresponding Secretary. 


I have the pleasure of reporting to the Academy that 3765 
additions have been made to the Library from December 1, 1885, 
to November 30, 1886. These consist of 481 volumes, 3245 
pamphlets and parts of periodicals, and 39 maps. 

We are indebted to the following for the additions, a detailed 
list of which accompanies the report : — 

Societies, 1513 

Editors, 915 

Isaiah V. Williamson Fund, 648 

Authors, 323 

C. H. Hitchcock, .... 46 

Department of the Interior, . 30 

University of Kiel, . . • . 30 

Wilson Fund, 24 

War Department, .... 24 

Geological Survey of Sweden, 23 

University of Wurzburg, . . 14 

Stuart Wood, 13 

Thos. Meehan, 11 

Geological Survey of Belgium, 1 1 
Geological Survey of Pennsyl- 
vania, 10 

British Museum, 9 

Dr. Jos. Leidy, 7 

Chas. M. Betts, 7 

Geological Survey of India, . 7 

Her Majesty's Government, . 6 

Treasury Department, ... 6 

Engineer Department^ U. S. A. 5 

Australian Museum, ... 5 
Geological Survey of New 

Jersey 5 

George Vaux, 4 

Geological Survey of Russia, 4 
Cambridge Scientific Instru- 
ment Company, .... 4 
Geological Survey of Rouma- 

nia, '4 

United States Commission of 

Fish and Fisheries, ... 3 

Geological Survey of Canada, 3 

Smithsonian Institution, . . 8 

Hon. Charies O'NeU, ... 2 

J. Stockton Hough, ... 2 

George W. Try on, Jr., . . 2 

E. Indian Government . . 2 


CbKha C. Abtintt, .... 
gaU wi il y of fiiiTlymU, . 

Tkey were distributed to the MTenl dvpaitmcata of 1 
Ubnry u follows :— ] 


IliirtiMj ■iiiiriijilnliinj. 


V<i7^«B twl Tm*«lii , 

It will ba wca tnm tba ftbon mnuiuuy that our isaia d»p««i 
cnce for incrcsM during tbp reur hu bo-o. a* bcrctofon. npoa 
onr oxcbanges and the I. V. IViIhamson Fund. 

Through the kindness of friends of the Academy I have been 
Kgain enabled to avail myself of the assistance of Sig. Emanoelc 
Fronani during tbe four months from June 14 to October 14. 
inclusive. Besides helping me with tbe routine work of the 
Library, especially during my vacation, he fafts completed tbr 
copying of more than half of the card catalogue. This work 
has progressed slowly, as it is only during tbe engagement o( 
tbe assistant that time can be devoted to it. It ia, howerer. 
desirable that means should be provided for placing the c&nlf 
now prepared at tbe service of those using tbe Librarr. 
Additional cases for the reception of Journals, also, are no« 
absolutely necessary, and it i* ho|>ed that an appropriation ib»t 
K> made i>arly in the year for tlu'ir iTection. No other de|«rv 
nient of ilie Library grows so rapidly, and it is im|>oHsiMe to 
m:iinl.iin the geographical arrangciueiit which has botn fmnJ 
eonvviiicnt without mort> room. 

Fur llie reason that 1 have had to refer to so often bef.Tr. 


namely, lack of funds, I have been able to have but 168 volumes 
bound since the last report. These have been for the most part 
Williamson books, the work being paid for from the I. V. Wil- 
liamson fund. Nearly all our exchanges and accumulated pam*' 
phlets remain unbound, thereby not only exposing the Library to 
loss, but causing serious inconvenience to readers and students. 
A liberal appropriation for binding, therefore, is one of our 
immediate and pressing needs. It will be seen by the accompany- 
ing list of journals and periodicals received, that our exchanges 
have been kept up and increased. The applications made for 
deficiencies last year have been productive of their full result, 
and the gaps still existing will probably have to be supplied by 

The shelf list begun last year has been carried forward as 
rapidly as my other duties would permit. Four or five sections 
of the Library yet remain to be included, but even in its incom- 
plete condition the catalogue has proved useful in locating 
accessions, detecting displacements and facilitating reference to 
the shelves. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Edw. J. Nolan, 


The Curators present the following statement of the Curator- 
in-Charge, as their report for the year 1886 : — 

The Curator-in-Charge respectfully reports that during the 
past year the work of arranging, classifying and preserving 
the collections of the Academy has made considerable progress, 
for which, as heretofore, the institution is largely indebted to 
volunteer labor. The special thanks of the Academy are due to 
Mr. George W. Try on, Jr., Conservator of the Conchological 
Collections, to Mr. John H. Redfield, Curator of the Herbarium, 
and to Mr. Jacob Binder, Curator of the Collection of Minerals 
covered by the Wm. S. Vaux Trust, for their disinterested labors 
in their several departments. To the Entomological Section, 
likewise, acknowledgment is due for work done in connection 
with the caring of the collection of insects. 

In the departments other than those here indicated, the work has 



been done under the immediate superintendence of the Curator- 
in-Charge aod bis assistant. Almost the entire collection of recent 
Invertebrate contained in the Museum — barring the Molluscu — 
has been re-arranged and re-classiflcd, and the different groups 
have been so placed ae to follow one another serially according 
to their position in the natural scale. The very extensive sciiea 
of crabs, which have heretofore occupied the window spaces on 
the first gallery, filling some twenty-four cases, have been inter- 
calated with the general collection of Invertebrata on the top 
floor, where they occupy practically the entire western wall. A 
re-arrangement of the Carcinological groups, following Oer- 
steecker, has been effected. By tliis shifting of the colleotions, the 
first gallery will be relegated exclusively to ornithology, tbe 
vacated window cases having been removed to the main floor to 
relieve the crowded condition of the geological and paleoDtoIogi> 
oal collections. Despite this large accessioti of table cases, and 
the addition of an equal number from other parts of the hall, tlie 
CollectioDB of Invertebrate Paleontology will barely find aeooin- 
modation. Roughly estimated the fossils of the different geo- 
logical formations fill some 20,000-22,000 trays, and in point of 
individual numbers probably do not fall short of 15,000-80,000 
Bpecimens, or about one-half the number that is registered in the 
department of recent conchology. The work of arranging tbe 
American series of fossils is now practically complete, and con- 
siderably over three-quarters of tbe collection is permanently 
labeled. The re-labeling of the entire series of fossils collected 
by the late Wm. M. Gabb in Santo Domingo and California 
has been effected during the year, and much has been done 
toward re-determining the type fossils of the first New York 
survey, collected by Mr. T. A. Conrad. The largest and most 
important accession to this department is a collection of 
fossils fVom the Miocene and Pliocene formations of the State of 
Florida, collected in the early part of the year by the Curator- 
in-Charge, to whom leave of absence had been granted by the 
Academy for tbe purpose of prosecuting researches and oolleat- 
Ing, in conjunction with the Wagner Free Institute of Science. 
This collection, together with an extensive series of inver- 
tebrates dredged in the Oulf of Mexico and in the inland waters 
of the State, have not yet been placed in the Museum proper, but 
are temporarily deposited in a side room, where the specimens 


may be conveniently studied and determined. This work is now 
accomplished in great part. 

Some attention has been given during the year to the re- 
arranging of the collections of Vertebrata. The lizards have 
been removed from the south wall of the second gallery to the 
east wall, and the amphibians to the north wall, thereby placing 
the collection of reptiles in a continuous series. In the depart- 
ment of Ornithology, beyond a general oversight of the collec- 
tions, no work has been accomplished. Some four or five 
Dermestes-eaten specimens, which had apparently not been 
properly cured, have been permanently removed from the cases, 
being no longer fit for exhibition. Barring such sporadic cases 
of destruction the collection is in a fairly good condition ; never- 
theless, it is absolutely necessary that an early examination of 
all the specimens be made by an expert taxidermist, and such 
steps be taken as will insure the collection from further loss. ^ 

Work in the department of Vertebrate Paleontology has been 
almost exclusively restricted to the collections of mammals and 
fishes; both of these have been entirely re-arranged, and are 
now much more accessible than they have been heretofore. The 
large specimens of fossil reptiles from the Lias of England, the 
valuable gift of Dr. T. B. Wilson, which had been built up into 
cases on the main floor of the Museum, have been permanently 
placed on the wall surface of the vestibule, where they are dis- 
played to good advantage. It is designed to cover the remainder 
of the wall-space with two large maps, respectively illustrative 
of the geology of the national domain and of the zoogeographi- 
cal regions of the earth's surface. The undersigned has charged 
himself with the preparation of this work. 

The collection of alcoholics is in good condition, the entire 
series having been overhauled as in previous years. Consider- 
able alteration has been made in the disposition of the cases 
throughout the Museum hall, and much floor space has been 
gained thereby ; but such gains are far from suflScient to satisfy 
the wants of the institution , the future usefulness of which will 
be largely impaired unless immediate aid toward the erection of 
an extension to the present building is afforded. It is well within 
the truth to say that the existing collections, if properly displayed, 
would completely fill a building of twice the dimensions of the 
present one. The large and very valuable collections of the 

8TC >BociKnwoB or im iCADtnt or [ISaC 

I'^nnsflvuiU Oeologicftl Sur^e^', DonUined ui apiruils of MO 
CM4S, bUII remain in Ui« cdUr, boxM, for wutt or esUbiUoB 
spue. Tlie types of the grvAtcr nambcr of the foMil pfauU 
dwribed by Lv»qDereiix in bis Coel Flora of tbe United State*, 
probably one of tbe moat raloabto coUcctioos of foesil pbutta ta 
the world, hare hvra added Co this collection daring tbo yoar, 
but, for similar reawns, still reinaio boxed. Tbe report of the 
I'rofiwsor of Etbnology and Arclueology indicates that a 
to tbis dopartment of tbe Academy's Museum ooald i 
bad were proper exhibition space provided, but that under p 
oondltious tbe same is imposviblc. In view of ifarse fw 
iit^cessity for aa cxtvnoion to tbe Academy's building cannot 1 
too Mtiongly insisted apon. 

Of i-qusl importance to tbe Hiture wulfure of tbe iDstitntioa Is 
a fund (lesigued for tbe puq>0MeB of ioo;[eo^raphlcal expliiratioo. 
As Bn)i^e9ted in our Uat report, ilie interest ilorived fnim s prlDci' 
pal fund of |60,(>00 would fairly vquip uti annual ex|i«dllioD to any 
of tbe largely unexplored regions lying atiout our domain, such 
as Mexico, Central America, tbe Babamns, Labrsdor, etc Only 
tbroagh tbia melbod of research can it be hoped to Wag to larg* 
accessioDB of now material to tbe working nalurallat, and thereby 
plaoe him io direct relation with the problems of natnreL The 
huco.-t<« iilU'ii.lLiii^ till- FU.ri.iji K\|.i-.iiti..(i i.r il.t: Wn^L.T Fw 
Institute of Science of tbis city, nhicb was organized wiib the 
co-operation of the Academy in the winter of llie prcst'nt year, 
fully demonstrates the wisdom of such a plan of ex|»loration9, at 
tbe same time that it proves its ready feasibiliiy and possible 
economic character. 

Specimens have been loaned for study during the year to Trufs. 
Whitfield and Britton,of New York, to Profs. Osbom and S^olt. 
of Princeton, and to Messrs. Kidgewiiy and Tasev, of Washing- 
ton, all of whom have rendered service to tbe institution in tbe 
determination and description of its specimens. Tbe Academy 
baa also profited through the studies of three Jessup Fund bene- 
flciaries, who have at various tiuns rendered srrvice to the 
CurHlor-in-Char>;e; to these persons tin- Ciinitor-iu-Ctuirife l-egs 
to tender bis thuuks. 

Very resiK-cl fully, 

Anoelo Ueiu-kin, 





The Curator of the William S. Yaux collections respectfully 
submits his fourth annual report to the Council of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences : — 

The collections are in good order and condition, no change 
having been made since the report of 1885, except the introduc- 
tion of one hundred and fourteen mineral specimens, purchased 
by the approval of the Curators of the Academy, during the year 
ending November 30, 1886. 

No. of mineral specimens as by report of Nov. 30, 1885, 6,516 
Purchased between Nov. 30, 1885, and Nov. 30, 1886, . 114 

Total, 6,630 

Archseological specimens (same as noted in report of 

1885), no additions, 2,940 

The growth of the collection since it came into possession of 
the Academy is as follows : — 

Nov. 30, 1884, specimens purchased, .... 60 

Nov. 30, 1885, specimens purchased, . . . . 104 

Nov. 30, 1886, specimens purchased, . . . . 114 

In aU, 278 

These 278 specimens have been purchased at an aggregate cost 
of $1448.70. 

It will be conceded that the new material added to the mineral- 
ogical collection since 1883 has very materially improved its 
character, not only in beauty, but for scientific study. 

Among the specimens most worthy of special note which 
have been added are a number of fine transparent crystals of 
Topaz from Siberia. One of these is a crystal 1^ inches square, 
f^ 2 J inches in height, on a matrix of Feldspar, coated with Albite ; 
it is a well terminated rhombic prism, showing the basal cleavage 
planes with great beauty. Also worthy of mention are a fine 
specimen of Zircon from Canada, weighing 12^ pounds, made 
up of a group of square prismatic crystals, measuring 3^x4 
inches and 9^ inches in height; a specimen of Stibnite from 
Japan, a cluster of long, well terminated crystals, with interesting 


ST8 paocEESiNOS of the acadeut of [1B8S. 

mod iBuiit ions 2^ by 3^ tiiohes, 18 inches long; specimenfl of 
Vanadinite, Wulfeaite, and Descloizite, from Arizona; emorald 
and Hiddenite from North CaroliDa. The TourmaUnea, RutUes 
and Molybdenites, already well illustrated, have received rich 

A number of new species, not before represented in the collec- 
tion, have been obtained together with many varieties from new 

All the income of tlie fund has been expended on the collec- 
tion, except a balance in hand of $513.54, applicable to the pur- 
ohase of new specimens and of books. As the cases aio now 
paid for and no other expense anticipated, the entire income can 
be used for the purchase of additional specimens and books, 
which will — unless some unforeseen accident occurs — alwaj-a keep 
the collection up to a high standard of importance. From a 
scientific point of view it is one of the best public collections in 
our country. 

Bespeetfolly submitted, 




During the year the Section held fourteen meetings, with an 
average attendance of twelve persons. 

At these meetings a great variety of objects was showo. 
Especial notice should be made of the observations on embry- 
ology at various meetings by Messrs. Sharp, Wingate and Ryder ; 
upon the fungi, by Dr. Rex, and npoo the different methods 
of mounting, by Drs. Hall and Brinton. 

The following are some of the more important events occurring 
during the year: — 

December 21, 1885. Lecture by Dr. Thomas Taylor, of the 
Agricultural Department, Washington, upon " The Work and 
Results in the Investigation of Butter and other Fats." 

February 1, 1886. Commuuication by Mr. H. Wingate, upon 
" The So-Called Visual Organs of the Ampbioxus." 

February 15, 18S6. Communication by Dr. M. B. Hartzell, 
upon "Glycerine as a Mounting Fluid." 


Four lectures were delivered in course by Dr. Benjamin Sharp, 
upon the " Special Senses," October 1 8. 

Communication by Prof. J. A. Ryder, upon " The Eggs of 
Pelagic Fishes ;" by Mr. H. Wingate, upon " Cribraria purpura. '^ 

November 1. Communication by Dr. L. B. Hall, upon the 
^'Comparative Merits of Demar and Canada Balsam mounts;'* 
by Prof. J. A. Ryder, upon the " Moulting of the Lobster," also 
on a " New Section Cutter ^" by Dr. J. B. Brinton, upon a " New 
Cell for Opaque Objects." 

November 15. Communication by Dr. George A. Rex, upon 
" The Use of the Brass Cell." 

Two new members were elected : Dr. Charles S. Dolley, Prof. 
John A. Ryder. 

Mr. E. S. Campbell resigned as a contributor. 

The Section passed a resolution of respect upon the death of 
Dr. J. G. Richardson, who, although not connected with the 
Section at the time of his death, had been at one time an active 
and useful member. 

Yery respectfully, 

Robert J. Hess, 



The Recorder of the Conchological Section respectfully re- 
ports that during the year ending December 1, 1886, the Academy 
has continued the publication of conchological papers as hereto- 
fore. The death of one member has occurred, that of Mrs. Lucy 
W. Say, the venerable and esteemed widow of the eminent 
naturalist, Thomas Say, which occurred November 16th last, at 
the advanced age of 86 years. 

No new members or correspondents have been elected, nor has 
there been any change in the By-Laws of the Section. 

Mr. George W. Tryon, Jr., Conservator, reports as follows : — 

'' During the past year, thirty -nine donations and purchases of 
shells have been received from twenty-six persons, aggregating 
1252 trays and T506 specimens. A detailed list of these acces- 
sions is appended (see 'Additions to Museum '). 

"Among them may be especially mentioned the purchase of 

coTtTT I 
pwl at Iha MedttemMMB, t 

"•Vwm iW Polywtiim ami . 
arind tmfortaai eoOcclioiw ftum Mr. Joto Bnatr, sf flydMy, 
AMinliA, Mr. AiMlnrw Gamtt, of PapMU. Trt«iH, aaA Mc 
W. 7. PaUml. of Hofavt, Tuicmsi* ; 
faering abaat 300 apMU*, wis naaClj bcv ts nor ■ 

" BhelU of oar own law U y ban been neeiTcd ttnm Wawn. 
Biniiej^. D»U, Dore, Ford, OeraMiui, Hei^riB, JeSeci*. Lti^fi 
MMMjtk, UotttMtm, Motse. OreuU, Pfkbtj, QoijUBid. T 
Aoak, Bbup, BtDgley, Ste*nM, TboBi|)«m- TbaM i 
tmhntet tom* ot the now uid nn •pvoM nanlad to c 
oar Kries, bat for tfa« mott p*rt add iww tooHtl— f 
almady poHcawd by u». Yoar CoBMmtor { 
Hr. SovcrtfX. of Loodoo, mud preMDl«d about l(M i 
nvw to n*, aad IlUinft nomt ImporUnt gap* io tb* euUnetloa. 

"Tbn Cnofibological HuaeniD now contaiiu 45,1<II trars and 
wrlUan tablati, and ie5358 ipMinicnii. 

"Mr. Frank Sbiot ba«, aa lunal, mciuDt»il and labelnl Uw 
arc«Ml'tn* nt tbe year, and ifci-y liavr biren distributnl to tlia 
ctinen in the museum by Mr. Wm. B. Marshall. 

"The work of redetermining the collection, in connection wiib 
tbe i>rvpnration of monographs of the genera for the ' Manual 
of Concholosry,' proRresses steadily. Our fipecies of the fami- 
licB CHlyplrieiiliB, Xenophoridw, Turrit«llidiif, ('jecidse, Verme- 
tid», l'yramid(.-llidK', TurlKtnillids and Sc&lariid»?, hare been 
carefully studied by your Conservator; the Solariide by Mr. 
Marsliall. In the land slielU, the Zonitidre bave been completed, 
and a commencement made uiH>n tbe Ilelicidn;. 

" In accordance with the new plan of arrangement of the 
Museum sketched in the Inst Annual Report, a considerable por- 
tion of the marine gastropods have l)een claasiReil, both in the 
Systemalic and Gcojrraphical Series, and the Synoptical Collec- 
tion (a ri-|irc(tentali<>ii -if tbo prini'ipal neni-ric ty)H!«, wiih printfl 


I \,n 

ished. It 

that for 


favorably with s 

ecs. U-auly o 

a r ran fie 1 

u'lit ftn( 

adaptability t 

IcntH, those 

several i 


8 will compa 

ilar ones in 

ny other 

1. An indei 


intended to be added to the Synoptical Series, by the aid of 
which the student, after determining the genus of any specimen, 
will be referred to the ease containing the species ; in the latter 
he will find represented, either by specimens or colored illustra- 
tions, all the (figured) species of the genus known to science, 
arranged in the order of their natural relationships. 

"Much of the success of these features of arrangement is due 
to the eflScient co-operation of my assistant, Mr. Marshall. 

" Messrs. J. H. Redfield, S. R. Roberts and Wm. L. Mactier, 
have contributed to the Section's collection of autograph letters 
of conchologists/' 

The oflScers of the Section for 1887 are — 

Director J . . . . W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 

Vice-Director J 
Treasurer^ . 
Librarian^ . 

. John Ford. 

. S. Raymond Roberts. 

. John H. Redfield. 

. Wm. L. Mactier. 

. Edward J. Nolan. 

. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 

All of which is respectfully submitted by 

S. Raymond Roberts, 



(American Entomological Society.) 

The Entomological Section of the Academy has experienced 
an improvement this }■ ear, in comparison with preceding ones. 
The meetings, which have been regularly held, have been better 
attended, and a more general interest taken in the proceedings. 

One member and five associates have been elected. During 
the year the Section has lost two members by death. Mr. Chas. 
Wilt, one of the deceased members, was one of the founders of 
the American Entomological Society, and had been very active 
in all the work of the Section. His valuable collection of Coleop- 
tera has been given by his son, Mr. H. C. Wilt, to the American 
Entomological Society, while the Lepidoptera were purchased at 
an almost nominal price by the same society. The custodian of 
the society is now engaged in arranging these collections. All 
duplicates will be set aside for placing in the public exhibition of 

nocuxDinQt or TBI ACADioa or [18SC. 


^^H LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND, (for »»!iiteiuu><».) 

^^^r Inoomo from Invnitineiitji | im (U 

I Life Honiborshl(> tiwivfomxl fhtiu Ueneral Account IW W 



ISIS 00 

Bslauoe ov«nlrftirn iMt iiUI«iuciit, llflO 00 

Tnojttmud toOeoontl A<itiouiil ICS DO 


BalftBoe. fao 00 


IntoTMt from InvestmenU $ tW W 

Tnuufemd toUcnunl Aooount MO 00 

JBSSUP KUNO. (ForAMlttAtiMnfStadenU.) 

I>iflbureoiiinpt« I TVS 00 

liiUuU'« iMtr Luit Htat«mrut )F9!H 01 

Intvmit frnm InTcnUiuiiiW MD 00 


Bjiliiiion ovsrdrawD M 


Inoonie from IiirMtiuenU, ( MS n 

LoKBoy of Joa. L. Ndll, dcccBued, on oooounL SIM W 

Tmufcmn] to OodotilI Account 9W 00 

Balancv fur InvoatnicnL friton 00 


Income from InventmentH ( 135 On 

Transferred U> Uoucral AccuuQt rJ'> 00 


Balance per last Htatemeiit 9 .V'l 00 

Income from InveiitmoutH 3'i 00 

«10S 00 

Ilalanco last BUt«went t3()l« M 

RenU oollectM lOIB *; 

tiround-rcniH uoUecU'd tUl iS 

BcK)kR $1 111-; !-' 

Rejiaii-s U> i louses ^'4 1 (Ki 

Ta\t.'s and Waler-n'nts ■H<i n\ 

Kindini; l-'n 4" 

C'ul let lint; U J T7 

-— i-^.- ;w 

Balance (Princiiial, awaiting' inM-tiiitnt, *17r)(i,00) 9S<r:-i W 

1886.] KAttTkAt 80t£NClSS 6t ^HtLADSLP^tA. SSS 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are : — 

Director, . . . W. S. W, Ruschenberger, M. D. 

Vice-Director J . . Thomas Meehan. 

Recorder^ . . . Chas. Schaffer, M. D. 

^Treasurer, , . . Isaac C. Martindale. 

Conservator^ . . . John H. Redfield. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Meehan, 


Conservator's Report for 1886, — The Conservator of the Bo- 
tanical Section reports that the donations to the Herbarium, 
during the year just closed, consist of 2452 species of plants, of 
which 2433 are of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams, and 1 9 
of lichens. Of these, T26 species are new to the collection, and 
among them are representatives of 40 new genera. Of the 2452 
species, 847 are North American, 858 are from Tropical and South 
America, and 747 are from the Old World. The total number of 
species of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams now in the 
Herbarium is estimated at 26,189. 

A list of the donations for the year is appended to this report. 
Among them may be specified 232 species of North American 
grasses from the U. S. Department of Agriculture at Washington, 
embracing 73 new species. These, with a collection of 54 species, 
made by P. Tweedy in the Yellowstone Park, make our series of 
N. American grasses unusually complete. Prom Dr. A Gray, of 
the Harvard University Herbarium, we have received about 300 
species from the Old and the New World, embracing many 
novelties. Members of our Section have presented two fine 
collections made by Pringle and by Palmer in the Mexican 
province of Chihuahua, consisting of 710 species, of which 267 
are new to us, and a very choice collection of South African 
plants made by Miss M. E. Cumraings, nearly one-half of which 
were not in our Herbarium. Mr. Aubrey H. Smith has presented 
us 154 species which he collected in Colorado, New Mexico, and 
California (see Additions to Museum). 

The work of mounting the specimens in the North American 
Herbarium is still continued, and considerable progress has been 
made during the past year with the assistance of Mr. Burk. 


pBooKKonas or Tm acadbht or 

The election of Ollloere, 
Pinuice CommMUv, to aerr 
following rMtilt:— 
^^^^ Vifx-PrenilenU, 

^^^^ llecordin'j Secretari/, 

^^^H Vorresponding Secmlartf, 

^^^M 7Ve<uurer, 

^^H Librarian, 

^^^^ Curators, 

CouncUlon lo m 

Finance Committee, 

Councillors and Uemb<>n of Um 
re durinf; 18S1, was beld, with the 

. Jofir|iti Lciily, M. P. 
. Tliomms Ue«tiui, 

Rev. Hear; C. HcCook, D. D. 
. Edward J. NoUii,H.D. 

Ooorge H. Horn, M.D. 

Willtain C. Hecue)-. 

E'lwanl J. Nolan. M.P. 

Joseph Uidy.M.U. 

Jacob Binder, 

W. S. W. RDftohenbe^er, M. D. 

Angelo HeilpriD. 

OeoTgo 7. Shotnakcr, 

Aubrejr H. Smith, 

Q«org« A. Ko«nig, Pb.D. 

G«oi^e A. Res, M. D. 

Isaac C. Hartiodale, 

Aubrvy H. Smltli, 

S. Pisii«r CorIrM, ■ 

Gi'orirr T. Khoomatcir, ^^ 

Wm. W. JelTcria. 


January ?5.— Rohmd D. Jones, M. D. 

Februar'j ;'3.— Miss Marj- A. Cflnii>l*Il, F. L. Harvey. 

AprU -'7._Cfllvin McCorrnkk, Samuel Wagner. 

May i?J.— Cliark-s T. Sliornidti. 

June ;'9.— Christifin E. Mitxler, Cliarlcs 11. Marot. 

August 31.— C. L. Killjurn. 

September £■,¥.— Uielmnl H. D;iy. 

NoeemberSO.—V.wT'ii- Mt'Cl.llnii, M.I)., Oeorfje L. Engli:* 




ir>j J't.-Whx-A M. M;i; 

of Ilu 

■ft 50,— J. C. Artliur ..f (ietievii, X. Y. 
mbcr SO.— V.iiM .'^elcnkii of Eilangni. 


tions of both zoological and geological material. Special atten- 
tion was directed to the study of the fossiliferous deposits of 
the Island of Nantucket, with the result of demonstrating the 
erroneousness of the hitherto described sections of those deposits. 
The data obtained during this trip will be published in the 
Proceedings of the Academy. 

The collections of the Academy in the department of Inverte- 
brate Paleontology have been, as far as arrangement and classifi- 
cation are concerned, materially improved during the year ; the 
entire series of fossils pertaining to American geology is now 
readily accessible, and in a condition for easy reference. More 
than three-fourths of this collection are permanently labeled. 
Roughly estimated, the collections in this department, embracing 
both foreign and American fossils, occupy upwards of 20,000 
trays, and are probably second to no other collection in import- 
ance in this country. Special importance attaches to the series 
of Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils, especiall}^ the latter, in which 
are included probably four-fifths of all the types that have been 
described from this country. The Paleozoic fauna is, on the 
other hand, very inadequately represented, although the collec- 
tions of the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, now deposited with 
the institution, will add very materially to this section when 

Further reference to the collections in the department of 
Invertebrate Paleontology is contained in the report of the 
Curators of the Academy. 

Very respectfully, 

Angelo Heilprin, 
Trof, of Invertebrate Paleontology. 



The Professor of Invertebrate Zoology respectfully reports 
that during the past year he has delivered a course of ten lectures 
on the " Special Senses." 

He further reports that the collections under his charge have 
somewhat increased. 


or THk Ai-ASEHT Of 


Then la a good colli-otiun or nwtiDe intprtebtrntes, not ;et 
ofBciiJty prvseoted to Uk Aondeoiy, fruu Uu West Coact of 
Florida, collected in tbe siuiof uF Uila ye&r by Prot Aa|pelo 

A counw; of t«u or twelve l«oture» will be given in Ui« cpring 
of the coming year (M&rch and April), the »at>}tct bving " ~ 
OrgaoB in the jLnioul Kingdom." 

Very rcajteclflJlly, 

BiKJAimr Sbabt, 
Pnjenmrr of InverttbraU Zooloy^. 



During thtt l&et year two short countM of Im-tan« were deliv- 
ered in the rooms of Lb« Academy, one on the Oen«r»l PrineiplM 
orEtlinoIogy.tliGHecondon ttte ap«oial topic of Am4!rieaii Arche- 
ology. I'he Utter wu UluBtTmlnl by numvroui flpKimoM froa 
the collt^ctionH of the Aawlcmy. Both wrrr rMsonablr weB 
attended, and it is believed that an iucrcftsing interest is shown 
in these Bulijects. 

Some material was aiUlud to the colWtions in this depitrtment 
during the year, but the same dilllciilty mentioned in the l.i.ti 
report, has interfered wilh obtaining as many specimens as would 
be practicable — that is to ssiy, a lack of space for their proper 
accommodation and display. 

lieBiiectfiilly submitted, 

D. G. Bkistos, M. D., 

r of Elhnoiogy and Arvlixolo-jy. 


Am («nkjr 41 •!»• ««• <i^ |>^%nU f«*tUv|««l tn llr t mh A'r.*r.^ I'V J M 
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W ii I v« ^4*1 I. *•»; c«< N • 

1*1 Ij. U»€*tf~ CwbontfcTtnw rode, Saown 8prbig)t, Alk. 

Tt. "i ThMMf MMMrtto, AItl«iMll.\luIv: anMtef]rrtal,Catondai. 

(i. 'K Kan. Htteuilte, Jtaxifa Ctr*k, W. T«. 

CI, [!. aiHpari. Hetcorite, DftlUm, O*. 

BL J. XalM. HMnktlt« ore, Btmn^mt. KMt. 

Ml ttuMelL CooantJimary nodule, Woodburjr. K. J. 

i. lUgtVn. SuUetitfi? tinunz, Belmont Creek, O. 

li, Woaluaa. FoiKUlfnniua twuldtt, Tmodt, Pil 

h. OuOftia. Ctmbrlftu pelible, OluaboTO, a. J. 

D. WdU*. BuIliT intnuUtlim. 

X BmaUia. 4iloriatU matcorlbi (hasiiuait^. 

Ui P. Wnilmnx. DwtM, wlUi nndMnn! of feUj>i«r. AMbui, i 

1. 0. tlliu). Mii^iwtlc Iron imd Irtm or«, frncmtnt of trai 
mmMubcv «id B^adatMl boalclM. fhnn OutMogay, N. 

C P. IVrot Fum>-inMiipui««ie, Edgar TbonipMm gtMl Woick:^ F 
l>a.: cokP, <uinir lucnllty. 

W. B< J(iu««. Hllvnr uns, Orori' I*Dni ; lulvor om (&a toe); allTrr nt% 

' '" '.. Califomln ; nftuiabu, St. Jtifati'* Mine, CaHfenla; 

larfao, California; coppor oi«, " ' ' ~ "' 

J. lluUiPT. Dovonlau slialv, Lyuooilag Co., !*«. 

J. H. liirkt'r. Camelliui (nu U'v.). 

Editor Phdndrtphta PulMt IMger. FbKan> prodacU fto«n Uw CWuDia 

C S. Natiouat Muaeum. &Iet4:«rito, Gmnd Rajildn, Mkh. 

AnDtTiciKa TO nti Wu. B. Vau^x CoLLBcnns.— Tutrtiiotw, Nw Uviko; 
Holjbdtinlta, Canada ; fl Spinel Rubj, St. rMorabaw i 9 Splialvritn XW 
■ouii; 9 CalclU on Aphafnito. Mtawnrt ; 2 AnropI.y'.Ilu-. r.>l,>Tsil>. I 
TtnMu, Coloracto : Sphalerite, UlMouri ; OrtkocUML hr - 
Atutoaa; aHalacbltt^Artxom: SMalBehlbcandOui-r 
Cftnaiii ; 8 Pn>bnlt«>, IlnrU ; 3 Itnlllo und Mica. \ 
V^.»n.lii,rl.., ,\ri-/..|.it: 2 Cut A.,t'i'-i"»ni,r, . 
2 W i.lf.iiil.', Aii.'..,,^; i n,,ni, Jlrxi.-o : '.' V--lt. it- ^. 
Cali'lU'. C'liitiuahiia ; 2 Rhoduchrositt', Coloiado; ayiwiim. Chihuabua; 
Oiinrtj: ; 2 Anictlijst, Ccinianv: CtlcBtiie, Lake Kric ; 3 (VlrtUtt 
T<-xa'< : 4 Miir<':.HiU\ MiMWiiri ; S|ihalei Iti', Missouri ; 30b«i(lian, Mciii-o; 
<)|»1. Mcxu-o: Triilyiiilh-, Meii.o; Valoiilinile. Mexico; Uuartz Mt-iico; 
(:«1i;il.>. Mi'Xiio : B Gi-otifis Florida ; Diamtiud in Bort, Br.nil ; (j.iartz. 
New .Ii'nu'y ; Silvvr Anial);ani< I't'ni ; Gumi-l. out tipo. : 4 Pblof^i-ltCt 
New York; 2 I1ilo>;oii;t*\ Canada; 3 Mokoti!^ ; Apopliylllt.-. IVniaii- 
viinia ; Kniirald, North Camlitia ; Microciine. Colorado; Silioifiril W.««l, 
C'liliimdf.; Five-pound Uamct, Colorado ; 9trv>myi>rit«. Mrxico ; STopai. 
SilxTis ; Kyanite, P< niisylvania : Dog Tooth S|>ar. New Yi<rk : Conindiin. 
Niirtli ( ariiliii.-i ; rvtaruvrilo. Sanonv; CdwtiW, Tumi-rii!* ; Cairngorm: 
S)K-oii1ar Iron. KiU ; Binoky lltiartx. Colurado; Wittit-rite. Enniand ; 
Antifi'iiilt'. PrniiM'lvBTiin ; Milant«. Tavelrh : 'i Hyalo«ideriU\ Gennaiiy : 
SU'iitili': 9 (')iai>i<i>vriU', Ptimnvlvania : Tetrahi-drito. Penn*yl*ania ; 
MauiK'tilo, Pt'iiiisvlvHnia : (rv-tai of I.imonitc, I'enn"! Ivanla : :i CaloitA 
KiikUihI : 3 Toil rill aline, No» i.Twt: Uhodorhroaito. S'tw ivnr-j-. F.>t«1 
r<>nil. I,<wn: lliddviiiU'. North C.rolina; AlaUiul^It-, Mi'ii.-«: IrnlrKnit 
Itl, ii.l.'. Mi'vit'o. 



Balance oyerdrawn as per last statement $ 272 88 

Cash paid Georce N. Lawrence, New York 96 40 

Cash paid B. Westermann & Co., New York, Books 100 04 

Cash transferred to General Account toward Salary of Librarian, 800 00 

$768 77 

Less Henry Sothem & Co., London $ 96 69 

Interest on Investments 525 00 

621 69 

Balance overdrawn $147 08 


Balance per last statement $ 225 00 

City of Philadelphia Loan, July 10, 1868, No. 2945 paid oflf. 500 00 

Interest from Investments 840 00 

$1065 00 
Transferred to General Account 840 00 

Bsdance for investment $725 00 


Income from Investments $100 00 

Transferred to General Account 100 00 


Balance per last statement $512 08 

Interest on Investments 600 00 

$1,112 08 
Cash paid for Minerals 699 54 

Balance $512 54 


Balance overdrawn last statement $ 221 81 

Disbursements 1800 85 

$2022 66 

Interest on Mortgage $ 26 84 

Cash received, to entering satisfaction on Mortgage. . 50 

Rents Collected 1441 96 

Ground Rents Collected 189 00 

$1658 80 

Balance overdrawn $864 86 

The H. N. Johnson Estate was indebted for j\ of a mortgage of 
$6000 to Charles J. Wister, the proportion being $1600, which was 
settled by W. N. Johnson's mortgage to Academy, $1500, and the pay- 
ment of $100 in cash, and both mortgages were satisfied of Record. 

. JUM nooumntoi or rat ACAtinnr or [ISSli 

C^iiniltMi Iti-pu1>l'o- StoliDcr'H Beltricv Mr Gaolo^ and Pil«nmri«B»«. 
" ' '^ tvo. 
AfMdd Arborvtmn. Annotl rai'ort of the DliVEtor foe 1984~tG. Oia- 
brlilKr, Mm>., 1SN4. 8vix T. TW Atalfew. 

AmoliL Jiiltiu. BiiltiKffB cur EntwieUwiffinM'Ji'^te Am Kati»~ lU- 
ikllwra. 1f)74. »ro. L V. Wmknww FumL 

AjliburoeT, Cba*. A. Ttie product ui>l MhawUon of tb« oU r>i)[(anf 4f 
PcmwylvMiU »nd Xpw York. Slh Scptonbcr, IWV. ^n\ T. 
The Kw>U%7' of lutur^l km In reiiiuijliuiU and N'lif Yoric 9tli S*^ 
t-inlKT, \»Vi. «vo. T. Tb- A<i«lw. 

AaIof Lilirary, :17th unniul nport of Uui tnuU-o* of Uw, 1685. dni, T. 


ABriiillluo, Carl W. 14. OvcnlKt (MV«r de af Ttcft-EsprdlthMM >■«»- 

lkd« arktlilUL Uarwiialliukcr. IL PUorabon odi OaMroMda. 1m, 

T. 188-1. 

H*ftiOTert«brater frio nonllltfuto TraiiMi& ui*l Mb TcaUoauAs. 

fitookhobn, laSft. 8*0, T. Tba Attlhw. 

AuMimllui HnMiim. RaBUMj'a CftUloao* of tba EeUandenaat^ Put 

]. Sto. gydiiMr. 18ft:i. TbtMwiw. 

Autoenpb L«tt«n af ConuhoIoi^lKti. 3 toU. Om. W. Tijpai^ Jt 

BmkiIo^ Mrtolomco. Kuovo ricivrcbv fntAnw V%mm,-ntu gwwlkRwat !»- 

trfiMMo do) ou»rt ItDtUJcl. 8*0. T. Nftinli. 1MB. TIm XnOm, 

Balfour, Kniicla Maltl&oiL Memorial EdlUou. The Wotfa tt Tnmdt 

HiUtUnd Ualfour. Svo, 4 voU. Ixmilon, 18ML 

Caiabrldiir 8oh>itiflo InatfWMA Oot 
BalOui, M. B. DioUuniuin' di; DoUniqtic. Taau. 19 and M. 

nin<rna MnrlMO ami Miguel P<Sra 


Ei^diM do Mob<onik«la mntMrad^ 

1. TlwABUyn. 

Bargum, Jnalaa. EIo Pall toq AcUnomjImtia homliib mter den BOli 

plner icutn biftctionsknnUialt vaiUatUtd. Iamc.-DlMMn. mmSe. 

FaciUUt ni KM. Svo. T. ISSt. UBiwnltr of KM. 

narnil. .1. .A., rt LoinK I'«sv. Sno. Nnt. d'Auri.-. t!<. Fmi.T. F.-nr'''t'- •■' 

l.^Cr-'tlll Ai;rir.,l.-, li, K.o. T. I';.ri.. I-.-'.. TU. -..-i." 

BarUiii, !■:. H., M. n. I^i...ri t.. ili.' I...i,i-i,.iM --Ul.- M,/i. ..t -- . . ■ -.. 
thu Meti'Oi oliiKy, ViUI Statistics and iryi:iunf of Uif SUlc of I.ouk 
Biana. 8vo, T. N.w Orleans Ifir.T. Win. .I-hii F-tiK 

Itahtiaii, A. Die CulturliinderdeBitltfn America. ITT, 1. Ittrlin, \'^**. 
I. V.WiUi>iii£..DFaDd. 

Ilauer, Max. Lelirlmch diT Mincr»l<)),'ie. flvo. Ikriin. 1**<1. 

T, V. WilliamwmFund. 

Itcaiirtinnip. W. M. Lanil an<l frvsh-ivater gholls of Otiondai;a (.'iHinl^. 
S\«. T. lialdwliisville, N. Y . 1866. The \\ithor. 

Becker, Kmst F., Ph. /.nr AcliolciKir dcr DaniieiiiK<'hifl)un:;cn. InauK.- 
DinH-rt. nn-1i,.iii. FaciiHiilinKi.O. Hv... T. M*-<\ Univtryitv of Kh-L 

Bt'lgiiiin. Miis/t' Royal il'Histoire Naliirvlle dt- Bi'1i:lqilc. S<>nri.« ■<<• U 
Carte K'''"1'>ei<l>ie dii rovniiiiii'. Explication de la feuillf dv Mrii- 

IViMiit Virt Wailct-ii, 'n...un>tit, Jt.mlera, Maiche. ^tauMor, 

Duri-uy, with Mii|w. Tlie Surrey. 

Heiltli:iiii, IJi'iiri-e, CaUiiicvie di's Platltt'ii Indiijrr ■ " • ■ 
,-u..doo. AT'aris. - 


IS Laiiuu. 


> i.n 

lt<Tj;lii.ii-.- Phi.ik.iliM-li. 


Sdl-H P 

V. Will 

lilt. S\ 

1. T. 

.■t do 




;.-. R- 


In. .1,' 

V. Will 
ml III. 
V. Will 

1 Fiu 

n» Af- 




Archaeology and Ethnology. — Stuart Wood. Lapp baby-basket. 
W. 8, W. Kuschenberger. Spear-head from Zanzibar, obtained in 1835. 
Adele M. Fielde. Product from the silk-gland of Gecropiay Swatow, China. 
W. H. Jones. Collections of Peravian pottery, Esquimaux implements, 

shoes, fur suit, etc. Indian mask and figure-head, Alaska. 
J. Collins. Shells from Indian mound, Tennessee. 

>Iammalia.— W. P. Gibbons. SciuruB fossor, Thomomys talpoides from 

M. Mattson. Lynx, Colorado. 

Birds.— S. M. Brice. 81 North American birds, principally from the 

neighborhood of Philadelphia. 
W. P. Gibbons. 5 species of California birds. 
A. J. Garrett. Crex Tabuensis (.'), Pacific Islands. 

Reptiles. — ^W. W. .Teflferis. Vertebrae of snake. 
H. C. Chapman. Bothrops atrox, Martinique. 

Fishes (Kecent and Fossil). — A. S. Rowan. Vertebrae of Partheus (?), 

Crv^taceous of Fort Randall, Dakotah. 
A. M. Smith. Dieerobatis Japonica, 

W. E. Meek. Petromyzon (male and female), from Cayuga Lake, N. Y. 
W. P. Gibbons. Two uteri of viviparous fishes. 
J. D. Casey. Carchcmas Americamcs, Townsend's Inlet, N. J. 

MoLLUscA. — ^Wm. G. Binney. Helix EemphUli, Oregon ; Planorbis bicoH- 

natuSf N. Mexico ; Helix Cantiana, Quebec ; three species of Land 

Shells from the New Hebrides, Tennessee and Lower California ; Pom- 

pholix eostatay Oregon. 
John Brazier. Twenty-eight trays of Land Shells from Australia and 

New Guinea. 
C. Conemenos. 497 trays of land, fresh-water and marine shells from 

Greece and the Mediterranean Sea. (Purchased by the Conchological 

William H. Dall. Operculum of Fasciolaria princeps. 
M. DoUfus. 277 trays, Mediterranean shells, principally from the coast of 

France, at Roussillon, etc. (Purchased by the Conchological Section.) 
Harry E. Dore. 26 species California marine shells. 
John Ford. 3 marine species, Atlantic City, N. J. ; Ostrea borealis, Lam., 

Greenwich Bay, R. I.; Area pexata, Say, Atlantic City, N. J.; Ostrea 

Virginica, Area pexata and Modiola tuUpa^ from Cape May, N. J. ; nidus 

of Natica, and variety of Mactra solidissima, Atlantic City, N. J.; Helix 

hyraides and Sueeinea obliqiLa, Wissahickon Creek, Philadelphia ; Area 

pexata, Greenwich Bay, R. I. 
Andrew Garrett. 96 trays of land, fresh- water and marine shells, mostly 

of the Society Islands ; 69 trays of Polynesian shells, 228 specimens. 

(The above both purchased by the Conchological Section.) 
Wm. D. Hartman. Photographs of three new species of Partula; V&roni- 

ceUa Floridana, in alcohol. 
Theodore Hermann. Five specimens of Spondylus princeps and 8, Uuca- 

cantha from the Gulf of California ; Ehuma lutosa, China. 
Angelo Heilprin. Spandylus princeps, Var. 
W. W. Jefferis. Vermetu^ lumbricoides, Florida. 
Jofieph Leidy. Modiola modiola, Kennebunkport, Me. 
Wm. Q. Mazyck. Helix terrestris, Charleston, S. C. (naturalized). 


Prof. J. H. Morrison. Helix nemoralit, Levingjon, Vs. (introtluMd) . 

8. B. Morse. 9 marine species, Atlantic City, N. J. 

C. R, Oreutt OhlaiiiydoeoncJta OrctUti and tlirw other raarlue Bpecies, 

Bui Diego, Cal. 
W. T. Pettard. 21 species land and fresh-water aliells, TasTORnIa. 
H. A. Pilsbry. 7 species land and fresh-water Bhelis, Louisiana and Texai. 
J. B. Quintard. 37 trays freEh-water shells, from Kansas. 
John n. Redflold. Peeten i/ageUanicii*, Mt. Desert Isl., Me. 
Wm. H, Rush. 3 species of Hudibranchs, from Fli^rida and Ihe Bahsinas. 
Betu. Sharp. Dry preparation of Limat tgruti*, Philadelpliia. 
J. A. 8ingley. 27 species of land and fi'esh-n&ter shells from Texas. 

(Pnroliased by the Concholoitical Section.) 
R. E. C. StJjams. 8 speoies of marine shells from the W . Coast of America. 
Rot. J. H. Thompson. Bvlimm tcalariformit. 
Gbo. W. Tryon, Jr. 11.^ species marine, land and fresh-water shells, new to 

the coUectiou. 

P. C. Tucker, Jr. RenUla Dana., Galveston Beach, Texas. 

G. H. Parker. Tiibulitna inditita, Atlantic City, N. J. 

H. M. Smith. MUhram wpinonitimiit. West Indies. 

B. Sharp. Oymoihtia (from OrtnilabT'ii), Villefranche, France. 

A. Orr. OeMMtniM intetalU, Jamaita. 

W. A. Stewart. Liiinia eanalieuUila, Arkadclphia, ArkansaB, 

Invebtebiiatb FosaiM.— A. D. Durhishire. 30 species of British Plio- 
cene and Post-Pliooene fossils (in exchange ). 

T. H. Aldrioh. S3 ti^ys Eocene uid Oligocene fossils, from Alabama and 
Mississippi ; species of Alabama Eocene fussits. 

E. T. DuniWe. 1.1 trays Eocene fossil.-- frnm Texits. 

A. U. Wetherby. » trays Oltgooene fossils from Iflorida. 

F. L. Harvey. AnthToeomartua trilobitui, Subcarbonlferous of Arkansas; 
Ottrea laroa, CtetaceouB of Arkansas. 

6. W. Tryon, Jr. 96 species of Eocene fossils from the Paris Basin, col- 
lected by M. Antheaume ; 46 species of Tertiary fossils from the same 
region ; 3 species of French Cretaceous fossils. 

A. HeilpriD. Pyeidium of Phaeopt, Upper Silurian of Walpack Bend, Pa. 

J. M. Hodgin. Calymeru BlumenbacAii, Baston, O. 

H. B. Abbott. Collection of Miocene fossils tVom Southern New Jersey. 

A. F. Gentry. 4 trays Miocene fossils from Southern New Jersey. 

1, Bernard Brinton, 4 species of plants from Louisiana and Lower 


J. H. Sandberg, Red Wing. Miimesota. 23 species of plants collected 
by him in Nez Perc6 Co., Idaho, in IttS.'i. 

Chas. S. Sitrgeiit, of the Arnold Arboretum, Mass. 31 species of trees 
and shrubs, mostly from the Southtm United States. Shortia gidaeifoiui 
Gr., from Mlchaux's original locality, Toxaiiay R., S. Carolina. 

Horace J. Smith. Ptnut faala L., from Aiki'n, 8. C. 

Frank Tweedy, through F. L. Hcribner of the Agricultural Department, 
Washington, D. C 54 Bi>ecies of grasses collected in the Yellowstone 
Park in 1885. 

Wm. M. Canby. 250 species of plants from Southern Europe and North- 
em Africa, mostly from the herbarium of John Ball, London. 

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OodnmtilB ColUicv. Bobool of Ubnu; Eoonom;. CirnU»r of InfontuUoB. 
«vo, T. 18B6-7. ajumbU C«- 

Smimd Mill third umtul reportn of Uie Vhiat LUmrian, J tian M^ 
K«nprYorlc, 181*6. TbcAr 

ilwluuer vt EiluvMaa. Report for the j«»n I9S1 M. ftvo. ' 
inst^in, 1S85. OFpUtnMBt of tbo 

OonunlMofior of I-kbor. PIM kntrnal nport, UBreh. 18 
DvpnMsloui. Hvo. WuliingtHii, 1^. D«Mran«ni • 
COBUL H. W, Efulutjon of TimUv. 8*o. N«w yoA, Il*_. 

I. V. WOlluBwia Pmd. 
Cope, Rdw. D. Origin of Mad and tbo ottiM n)rtchtw«>, aud Uw «n«sr 
of lift i-rolution. 8to, T. 1885. 
RrjMMt on thn Coal Dcpgaju near Zwtutlttpui in lb>i Stau oT TTHalOT 

Mojcluo. 8vo, T. 1885. 
Oil the atmotun) uf tbo bnfn And toAtUytJ apjianlnii of a Tlir HmiM r 

phmu niptUo of tlic IVtrniui npocfa. 8to, T. IH8S. 

Oh the lutorMintrum of Uie Kmwtrlal Vanr^hnta. 8to, T. .ISM. 

The Vurtebntu of V\« SwUt Currtiil Ciwk r«sion of tbe Cn>n* 

Hilla. 8t<i, T. IB85. Th« Awthar. 

Cornoll UnlTPr«lly. FrovMMlliigR nt th«onT«llliig of Ihn Ulikitto ttan mtnmtj 

of Louis jgaanix, uid at tb« funiial ojieDiiiK iif thf> Sililej i'li' — 

of thf Rock; Muuniatn RrgUin, Irom MexToo Ui tiM BrttUi I 

ar7. 18Ha. 1. V. WUltennun rvM. 

R«rbiicui of tlio North Aniorioan Ryi)«ricM»ae. IHW. Tb« Awhut^ 

Cownu. Frank. Australia : a charcoal nlcL-toh. Sni. OMcnthMq, I^ 

18i^. Tbw AmImk 

Ctma, Whitman and L. 0. Gaktna. On F ' ~ 

188«. Sro,T. 
Dahl, Fried. Bnttril|^ mr ImmtnlMtr d 
' H^ktorilxnric InaiiL/ -ni»«*url !■! 

reity of Kiel 

Uall, Wm . H. On Turbinella pjnitii Latnank, »nd ita dcotitloii. "to. T. 

LiHt iif the marine molhiw'a comiirmiiig tlio >|Uiit«n)ar^' fuMJIi and 

reci'nt foniis frum Aiticrican localities between <?ap<- Ilatttrao and 

Cape!tiH|Uu,lncludhietheBennudas(TtuI.U.S.Nat. Mu-..^1 . ■'to. 

Rejiort on Hfhring lnlftnil MoIIukc;i collotled I'y Mr. Nicholas (irrb- 

nitzki. ISmi. Hvo, T, The Author. 

DameH, W. and K. Kayitcr. Paleoi^tologlsihe Abhandluiieen. III. 1-3. 

I. V. William-o..FuDd. 

DamjiiiT. Wm. Tlie Voyage of tlu" Roe-Buck. Dampier h V-yagc^ Vl-I. 

lit. A Voyage to Terra AiiBtralia. 8vo (no tit]e-)>agei. luae Burk. 

Dana, .1. D. (.)n Lower Biiiirion roxsilK from a llmt'ittuue of the oriL'ituU 

T»ii>ni<' of EninionH. 8vo, T. ISrtO. The Author. 

De Claudiille, Aug. I'yi'. Itegni Vegetabiilii System:! Naturalr. Voli>. 1 

and -i. 8vo. Parisiis. 18IS, IMJl. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Dek-bmiilkr, J. V. V.-ber Unieufumle in Uebigau bil Diewlen. 8iro. T. 

. Tbe Author. 

D.lKftd.1. J. F. N. TerraiiiH iwil^.^oiqui-s du PortMg;,!. Etud,-, W el .iutr.-,s r..><i1e-. lies (Jnil^l/,il.■^ ile b l.;i-e dii sy-t. m- -ilur- 

D'llivil'l'i,^-.'. K,l'«. V." '■nu'cuni«:ill lf,m On' Mine, Lel^iii ii"f.... \'t. 

Hi,., T. IHXK. Til.' .\ulb.T. 

Iletbv. Oiville A. (Ill the llexibililv of It;.e,>hiinite. S].!. inUr, 1>--.. 

Tbw AmImk 

On PUlcdite, ft MW ikbMAL Aa«„ I 
TbeAotbor. ■ 
IT dM BuiMi and d*r FonktloMn lUr ^ 
1. |.hH..«, *■..., T. 1"J 

li.' >;'"l"g!' "f f'f diaiiiaiitifch.iis 
linnl May lU, 1879. Svo, T. 

1886.] itATtlftAL S0tEN0£8 Of PHILADELPHIA. 395 



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I. V. Williamson Fund. 
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Ueber die morphologische Bedeutung der Pharynxdivertikel. Ueber 
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Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen. I, 1. 8vo. Hamburg, 

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Cambri^e Scientific Instrument Co. 
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I. V. Williamson Fnnd. 
B&rcena Mariano aod Miguel Ffrcz. Estudios de Meteorologia comparadn. 

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Bargiiin, Josias. Ein Fall von Acticomykosis hominiB unter dom Bilde 

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Berffhaus' Physikalischer Atlas, Lief. 1-4. I. V. Williamson Fund, 

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Especes nouvelles et genres nouveaux d6couverts par les R6v. Peres 

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I. V . Williamson Fund. 

BrauDS, Julius. Ueber Quelle und Entwicklung der altfranzosischen 

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zu Kiel. 8vo, T. 1884. The University. 

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8vo, T. 1884. 

Synonymy of and remarks upon the specific names and authorities of 

four species of Australiau marine shells, originally described by Dr. 

John Edward Gray, hi 1825 and 1827. 8vo, T. June, 1885. 

The Author. 
Biedichin, Th. Sur les Oscillations des jets d' Emission dans les cometes. 
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Sur les Anomales apparentcs dans la structure de la grande Comete 

de 1744. 8vo, T. Moscau, 1884. 
Quelques remarques coucemant mes recherches sur les Comets. 8vo, 

T. Moscau, 1884. 
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lajeflf, 1884, The Author. 

S or THE AcmtMt ot 



V SpneliB md Twabwi 4m 1 
> tf tbi tmdjr and lb* mmL" 



I boAr % . 

. «&}. Inuv^Dtaert. Diri«. EM. <w^ T. 

BflfaB, Albert. HutdbarJi iter Gletocherkunda. Hro. IMB. 

fblUnd. Anuud. L«kla knten oc Lanrtnaoa*. 4ln^ T. ChfMkaM, 

n«linboH«. n. «tn. IlAadliacli der pbr^olotlMlMn Ooilk. '- * 

i-i. it«o. LvTroi 

H«niiiidca, FV*w). Fnoei«ei BprnaiuU tMdd ati|n hMotltl P 
Bt«|i. at li^iar. n4^ «t totnio tio*l orbk AieUMrt, Oi 
•dtu. toiB iMdlU, aJ mulosnpbl fldMB «i toWfrtfUw ■ 
impouB «t Jdmb ragto. S vote. 410. KaMtii 17W, Tbaik 
H iiMf) . BsniT. On Uw eewMntl** tanpontBiaof Ifa* w 
■onlhuubMnitaptaMworuiaMrtb. HW., UW. Sn^T. 
On the winton of OnMrf Btttain iad Iidwl, a* iBflam 

GnlfURWB. Hm.. tsm. ^n,t. 
Ob Um pbpfcal «(nictim of lfc» earth. Srat, IHM. Avot ' 
On the KCamttrtaa) eoaafaiHtkw of Uh ooU M tba I wg li 

Kote oil Ibe artmul praeewlcm ealoaUtad on (ha hjpotbwto « 
earth'* wUdity. Oct. 18W. S*<s T. — - 

Ilorting, Adolf. Vht Vcnljan Ctknno JodaHa'a 

CUr. Alb. TTnlv. f u KleL Sto^ T. 18M. Tba Ualn 

II«iKi>, R. )'. ConcbjtiolagM flnvlatUe da la PravfoM da 1- 
U Cbhw Cmtiak T-IO. Paac Mo. Park. LT.WBIbi 

llldn, Hmry aad W. Daviaa. RcMlta at twMBt riMafcbM to 
uvea In NoTtfe Walca <FYniMn BcoBO and Caa " ~ 
rnito nn tbe aBtma] ramataa. %to, T. Feb., I8M. 

Bltlda,0«a Janalnn. Onbedaof apODgvremataalii IbaLowwaad 
Gtenuand or Uur MMitb of Bnsland. ISW. Mo, T. 
ny-lricrliiii% Hiniic, Tcmi. Artlinmoacihi. Willi,..nt 8»o. T. 

niB, Williclm. TTnaore Eurperform und du ph;rslologlgcbe Prubleu ibrer 

F.titJiIebung. 8vo, T. Let|>2ig, 1H75. 
VnterBuchuogeii liber die «rste Anlaice di-B WirbelthierleibM. Dia 

cibU' £utwickc1uiig den IluDcliena Im Ei. Sto. L«iptig. I'^Ai'. 

I. V. Willi«n«mFai>d. 
Hltcbrook, C. H, The Roo'ogy "f Porttiind. 8»o, T. li*:3. 

Exihtenccofglioial lotiou ui>od thi; aiunmitor Mt. WaahlDgton. i^to. 

T. 1H75. 
On Hi'liierbirg rock* in New Hnmpfihire. Svo, T. 
Tliu litliiilogy of New Hampshire. Prelimitiarj catalogue of 850 tjpi- 

r kI B|ieciiiieiiii. Hvo, T. 
N..ri»ii rockH Id New Hampshire. 8to, T. 1872. 
( 'laMification of the rocks of New HanipBhirc. 8vo, T. 1873, 
Geological HlHton- of Winnl|>i8eogec Lake. 8vo, T. 1873. 
Note upon the Ci^laiTeoux strata of Long iHland, 8vo, T. 187t. 
Recent geologiail liiacoveriea among ihe White MounUina. Ato. T. 
The distribution of the marine plants of North America a proof of 

niBaiiic siiliniiTjtence In tlie Chamlilnln |«ri0(l. Mvo. T. 
Di'MTi]>tioii of ;l iit'w rejiliiiiLn binl from the TriaK of Ma^sai-huM-it*. 

Nvi.. T. IHi-Ji. 
lVtr.ileuiTi in North America. «vo. T. l-^OX,.fK,-.,lo-yt..ll.e-.logy. 8vo. T. 18fi7. 
Thi' reliKlon of B^.li.jiv. «vo, T. 
])r. Ilil'licoL'kaud Di.'D.ane. Who Hn't f^eiontifically InT.-atigat.'d ind 

duauiibed tliu fo«Hil fuolniarks of tbe t'uniiivticut'Vatlej .■ »to, T. 




t>» \ M ^^• <«-.«lr t.- Amb«r«« 4 ^k^ •«>.? •<} 
11^ #«•■ - r f rji.% f ' tm •? « T 

lU ij'"- v; f N«* l!*r i«:.i-v N... Ml. » -1 f . \Km 
7>-. ^€. ^1 f •l^ \- *: «*•••*. n •-«»,• t«<r^*& •? . T !•'• 

I ••4 Vr'-r. 't !•?? •• ■, f •*^: 

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fftffi;-V*^« .'ft ■•«•• ) • •*«!>■' ft:4*l (IK « ft'-tt k tr . ^" • i \,ft*.«ft 

6 pRocEEOtNaa or thb jloadkmt or [1881. 

Hunt, Thotnaa Strny. Mlornl phjrulologjr andpb^loKnjAy, A Mcwil 
MohM of cbt'mioal uid |wol(>gl<«l £«uyti, with a geaenl IntTCxlMV 
tloD. 8to. BoatoD, 18^. I. V. Wailanuon rand. 

Hurlbut, lU-nrf H. Hamiivl do tliamplaln. Sto, T. Chhwgo, IMS. 

"m Attibot. 

Huaaak, "B., and E. O. Bmltb. The dutennSnaUon of rack-fonoli^ »(■- 

«nla. Br Dr. EiiK«iie Hi^mak. . . . AuUioriud UmiuUthM Itvm 

tlifflrstUermaueilitiuu by Entaliu O.Suiitli. , . . flio. Knw T<ffk. 

1S86. L V. WllUanuHn PiunL 

Uuyganii, Chrlntlan. I.i><U> alnliabAtli|u» d« la Coi rvniiondaniv &• <;iiii«Ua 

Uuysuufi nui aera publiM uar la noaift^ UollamlaiM dc* S^imom a 

Uarlcm Id. d.). /to. T. Tbn Horirtr. 

n^Att, Alpboua. Larval tboorj of tbr origin of oollular tiviM. ita. T. 

Inpoiial Huaalan GoograpIilDal Soolcty. Kcpurt on tlie Anl9.Ka«fte 
L«v(illi>g, roads w IWH. 
W. KwuiHr. LItcntture of AuUiTDpulug}', Elhtnibi^ anal theSekani 

of AntiiinHy, 1878. 
Ex|H<dlUon to tlw Holy I^nd. Ry Frino* LaOlalaV'^Tnilu, UHB- 

Kadtbiuia. By A. N. Kuropfttktno. I87». 
Infoniiatlon of ttia Countrit* of Uii> Ciipcr Ainu I)aija Rltvr. St J> 

Miuv'W. 18TO. ■ 
Invmllntiotw of the Glacial Pntiod. By P. RmpotklM. IBM. 
HftterlaiB for the Qeology of Turk«nM>. By 11. D. ~ 

Ubon (RMuIti) of Um SlborUn Ei[>«dlUatk T. I; D; m. l.S, a^ 
Hatbomatlo*. lSH-1878. 

Ubon (Reaulw) of tlia Amu t>uj* Expoditton, Sd, 4tb ud Mb flatte. 
BocAwotituunii jnaunoMlt von d«r auUemiag^hmi AbttMdtakf te 
viaonMhtfOlelMo K^edlUon an dw Amn Jwja, fi^. 

India, Geological Surv.'i _ __ 

V..1. Ill, Pt>, 7. K; Vi.l. I\'. rt. I; --iii.l. 1 ; S.r. XIII. !. :, , -i-r, 

\IV, I. ■). R.r..r.lK, \nL XVIII, 1: XIX, I -1, Tl., >,,r.,y. 

Iiidiana. Owen's lte|Hirt ol' a gL-oli>gical iv<.[)niiiiissuni.-e. S\<t. 1S6'.'. 

In EirhaDf^, 
Intcniational Geonrapliical roiign^Bn and ExIiil.iUiin : Rcp<ir1 iip.>ii ilw 

Third Congress, at Viti !>.->-, lUily, IH8I. jircjAn'.l :inil Nubnultnl hy 

Cai>t.Gto. M.Wheeler. 

International Folar Ex[>editi>] 

4to. London, 18Hlt. II. B. Mai>-Kty'i> GoTemmcnt. 

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Janca, 'ITios. P. Hamlliook of the SUti> of Georgia. Svo. Atlanta. IfTTti. 

In Exrhaner, 
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formed by. Anrtion list. 8v.^ T. June 17. I8»6. 
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Iran7.r«iH.'lien. liian){.-l>in!U'rt. ]>bilos. Faknltiit Chr. Alb. I'm*. 

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'""*'' I. V,' Wil'li,i'iii-^".ri Fuii.l 

Joii.'iM'iiiiiu-, F. KiLiiiv Mir 1,. riuiiiil, .1,-^ (, --vo. T. 

S. It. R.vl,.r-^ 

C."iiiill.'> dii^.'iirt,'al- ^-v.', T. ly.-if.. Tht Aiilh..r. 

Juhl, ChiifiUn. lii.itr.{;e -^ur (u-siiistik .Ivk jirinnirtu Oi* 

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A contribution to the geology of the Lower Amazonas. February 21, 

1879. 8vo, T. 
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Relatorio apresentado ao Ezm. Sr. Conselheiro Manvel Alves de 
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I. V. Williamson Fund. 
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S. H. and H. Chapman. 
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I. V. Wilfiamson Fund. 
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The School. 

Ehrenbaum, Ernst. Untersuchungen ueber die Struktur und Bildung der 

Schale der in der Kieler Bucht haufig vorkommenden Muscheln. 

Inaug.-Dissert. 8vo, T. Kiel, 1884. University of Kiel. 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Vol. XX, 4to. 1886. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Encyklopaedie der Naturwissenschaften. I Abth. 44-48: II Abth. 82-88. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
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Coleoptera ; 6er Bd., 4e Lief. 8vo. Wilson Fund. 

Emi, Henry. Mineralogy simplified. 12mo. 1885. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
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Etheridge, Robert, and P. Herbert Carpenter. Catalogue of the Blas- 
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Everhart, B. M. Ellis, North American Fungi. Alphabetical index. 
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Fenton, James J. Royal Society of Victoria. Fuller's calculating slide- 
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I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Farlow, W. G. The development of the Gymnosporangia of the United 
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Filhol, H. Bibliotheque d. 1. Nat. La Vie au Fond des Mers, les Explora- 
tions sous-marines et les Voyages du Travailleur et du Talisman. 
8vo. Paris, n. d. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Fischer, P. Manual de Conchyliologie, Fasc. x. The Author. 

Fletcher, James. Report of Entomologist, Dep. of Agriculture, Canada. 

8vo, T. 1885. 
Flower, William Henry. An Introduction to the Osteology of the Mam- 
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Hunt, Tboiii&s Stvrry. MIihtilI phjtiiAiiKy 'iwl pbyniucnphy, 
Miriuk at obi'Dilcal uid j[<y)loguuU fcuajrK, wltli ■ fffqirr 
Bonlim, 18M. I, V. fflllU 

Buribut, Unary H. Snmuul de Chnoiplvu. Bro, T. Chic««o. ISHB. 

Tb» Astbor. 

HuMlt, K., knd K. II. Smitb. Tho daUrmlnfttlon of txtck-ttmabi^ mia- 

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tliF flntdcjKiktiHlitlDii by ErnMiu G. Stultli. , . . Sro. Kvw Toffc, 

1084. I. V. WrUlamna Fund. 

Huygeiia, Cliristisiu Llntu nlpbst>^-U<(UKiJplft CuinaiiuiHluioedeCluiM.lan 

nuTgcna (jai Mira publico p<ir U iioci^l^ tloIUndklwt de* SriHwv k 

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nyatt, Aljihcus. Larval tbeury of Iba origiu uf cuQuUr tlania Avot T. 

Ttw Anibi>r. 
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Lpvdin^. wade in IBTI. 
W . Eonncr, Litemtnre of Antbropolcigy, BUuKdaRy aod tba flalnw 

of Aiitifiiilt;, 1B7& 
Exutsliiiun U> tiM Boly Und. Br Prinoa LwUalAt-Bjmtka, lUS- 

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Information of th» Countrira of tbc I'liiier Adiu Dsria iUf«r. Br J. 

InvMil^Uonn of ttio Olai^lal PeHod. B; P. KrotHAklUK. tSTK, 
MatcriiklB {...r tbi- Gtolog? of TurlceaUn. Uj U. 11. RoinaMiwikr, 

!■! 1 n. Siberian EKj-ndltlou. T. 1 ; H ; 111, 1. 1 Md 

M ■ I I-7S. 

i.4> : :i:. Amu Daija RzK'l<Uc>», 3d, -lUi auil 5Ui Suta. 

U.jix.: [ <]:^ ij ^<j~auiuivHvuaderiuot«oniloi[ia>tbao AhOtidlaafdu 
wianaiisohalUiubFii KxfiediUoa an dm Amn-Diaija, tSTi-Tt, 

India, OooIf^WI Siirvv ■.•f. M.-m.-irn. Pala-ontoli .i;i* linlica. Srr X 

Vol. Ill, Pth. 7, 8 ; Vol. IV. rt. I ; .Sii.l. 1 ; SiT. XHI. I, 5 : S-r. 

XIV, I. 3. Rfcrds, Vol. XVIII. 4 : XIX, 1-3. Th.- Sunrj. 

Indiana. Owtn's Ittiport of a (^eologkal ri'L'oiiiiiiissuui.<e. t*vi). is^-j. 

In KlchaoKP. 
International Oeo|;rapliica! Con^rri'Mi and Kxliil'ition ; Rpport iip->ii tbi- 

Third Coniin'BB. at Vonkv, Italy, IK81, j.reiianil ami siibmilUil hj 

Caiit. Geo. M. Wheeler. 4tn. Wai.hlnBton. !f*85. War IVjwrtmrot. 
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Iowa. Wbitu's Report of the Gfolo);ical Suncy. \uU. 1 and II. ^t'>. 

1870. In Etehanee. 

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I. V. \Vj11i;iiii-.|1 Fl.ii.l 

JuliI, Cbii:.Uu. Beitritu : 


Goodale, G. L. Gray's Botanical Text-Book (6tli edition), 11. Physiolog- 
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Goode, George Brown. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United 
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The U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. 

Govi Gilberto. L'Ottica di Caudio Tolomeo, da Eugenio, Ridotta in Latino 
sovra la Traduzione Araba di un Testo Greco imperfetto, per la 
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1885.- The Academy. 

Graber, Vitus. Die auszeren mechanischen Werkzeuge der Thiere. I 
Wirbeltiere ; II Wirbellose Tiere. 1 vol. 8vo. Leipzig, 1886. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 

GraflF, L. v. Turbellarien von Lesina. 8vo, T. The Author. 

Gray, Asa. Botanical Contributions, 1886. I, A revision of the North 
America;a Ranunculi ; II, Sertum Chihuahuense ; III, Miscellanea. 
8vo, T. May 4, 1886. 
Supplements and Indexes. Synoptical Flora of North America. The 
Gamopetalse, being a second edition of Vol. I, Part 11, and Vol. 11, 
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Synoptical Flora of North America. The GamopetalaB, being a second 
edition of Vol. I, Part 11, and Vol. 11, Pari; I, collected. 8vo. New 
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Gregorio, Antonio de. Fossili del Giura-Lias ( Alpiniano de Greg. ) di Segan 
e di Valpore (Cima d'Asta e Monte Grappa). 4to, T. 1§85. 

The Author. 

Grosner, Karl. Ueber die Einwirkung von Natriumaethylat auf Citracon- 
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University of Wurzburg. 

Gruber, August. Ueber nord-amerikanische Papilioniden- und NymphaU- 
den-Kaupen. 8vo, T. Dr. J. Stockton-Hough. 

Gruber, Wenzel. Beobachtungen aus der menschlichen und vergleichenden 
Anatomic. H. 6 und 7. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Giinther, Siegmund. Lehrbuch der Geophysik und physikalischen Geo- 
graphic, I, II. 8vo. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Guntz, Max. Untersuchimgen fiber die anatomische Structur der Grami- 
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Haeckel, E. Gesammelte populare Vori;rage aus dem Gebiete der Ent- 
wickelungslehre. 2e Heft. 8vo. Bonn, 1879. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hager, Albert; D, Report on the Geology of Vermont. 2 vols. 8vo. Clare- 
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Hale, Horatio. The Origin of Languages and the Antiquity of Speaking 
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Hampden, John. Letter to Professor Huxley. 8vo, T. 1886. 

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Hansen, Jorgen A . Ein Beitrag zur Persistenz des Ductus omphaloenteri- 
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Harvey, F. L. Photograph of doubleheaded snake. Mr. Harvey. 

Hawes, G. W. Catalogue of mineral localities in New Hampshire. 8vo, T. 

The greenstones of New Hampshire and their organic remains. 8vo, 

T. Prof. C. H. Hitchcock. 

Hector, James. Indian and Colonial Exhibition, London, 1886. Catalogue 
of geological exhibits. 8vo, T. 
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On tluvo Hums ot Htstootie Inn frMB Glorfib ManttUB, nmt 
Canonottn, SanU Fo Co., N«w Haxioo. 6m, T. Bwit.. iriW. 

On R«iiurkftble Comiar Hlnanla from ArtMtnk. (^t%,T- l^W. 

Ibitoorio Iran fonn Jeim*'* Cnck, Wajnu Co., W. Tlnriiiik Snv T. 
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Ifktlv« Antimony U Prtiiee -WiUikm, York Co., K. B. Oct, US. 

Hotfortc Iran from Jonnj'e Crock, Wariw Co., W, VlrslBlft. •?& T. 

Tlw WftiUuglcii Cd. Prniik. Mrtrorltf. Sro, T. 18M. 

On Roiniirkkfile Co{i|>er Mlnentlfe fivm Ariiona. tfvu^T. Oei.l,I8l& 

Ktiii>titttl(lnr, A. TT. Kukbftiik. An hlrttirlra-gnoftnphle^ ikabib of tbl» 

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Imp. RnariAn OeopuiditMl §ocWt. 
Luxguer, Otto. tTobnr Oustronomlc. IiwU){.-DiMwrt awdk-ln. FakultU 

tuRiol. ttvi>.T. ItUM. Univrnlty »r KaL 

Lamed, lidwtn Chimniiiji. In mriuory of. Bvo. T. Oi)c«f'\ I8M 
lAtohford, P. R. Obaorvatloiw of tl»- tflm^trlal moUiuoi of t tUWk tai 

vManj. evo, T. UtUwa, 1(486. Ttia AaliaDt. 

Lhwub, Sir J. B. Onxmu-poinbiUiUii^cuDipwiUonor niilli; irlib nmlt^ 

lUuiitrktbiff ttia noiir.'M of tbo fertility of Mkiiliolu tnliim toiL 

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Mviuunmda of the oriffio, tibe uul result* of the fl«dd uhI Mte* 

«xpiTlintq)t«c<>nili)t't«Jc>n (nv firm uui In tko Ubtirstotj of Sir Jola 

B«iuitdUw«fc Juau, 18M. 8vo. T. Iss6. 
Oa tlio ouninoaitldn of tbo A*h <jf vrlicat-sraln, uiil wTitt Ml tw. 

ETv^vrn >t KotbMn*t«(j, In dlOamit HOMuia, >n>l l>T<llin'fi 

_ ,1884. 

It>-port of Expuriment* on the growtb uf wlieat for tbc aoooad paiiai 

of tvrenty j^u* In luoMmoa on tbo cum Uod. 9n^ T. Lootah 

1S8S. Tlw AntluM-. 

Li.««, ,1. R. and .r. II. OillHTt, Puiii, t*. U'Tj„.-t ,..,«T. rniiiiiAi. 
Ex pi' ri mental iniiiiiry into tlie I'ompiisitum of some of the uiiniaU 
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Eipuniueutji ud KuHilagc, coiiiliivtt.<d at liuChamHtod ; wason 1884 5. 
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Lawvs, f>ir J. B., J. H. (lilbvrt and B. Warrington. The nitroccii u 
nitric acid, in thu soilH ami fubsoiU uf wiiio of the ai-lds uf Iloth- 
amsh-d. 8v.., T. London, IKna. 
New detcmiiuatiouH uf Ammonia, Chlnrine and Sulphuric Arid in 
the min-watcr collect4.'d at lluthaDieted. Bvo, T. London. 1rtH.t. 

The Autli.>r>. 
Lawivnct', Geo. N. DcBoription of a new Eni>cic« of bini of the gtauf 
En^yptila, nilh nolec .iii t»'> Yu.atan birdK. 8vo, T. INU. 
Dewriptlons of new e[>ecieh of binJB uf the famitv Culunibids. 8vo^ 

T. ISx-i. 
Char»i'tt.-rs of two suiJfioBetl new apccics of birds from VucaUm. 9\t\ 

T. 1S85. 
Lilt of a few KiiccieR of birds nt-w to the fauna of Oaudelau]>e, W«t 
Indieit, witli a < list ript ion fit new b]H.'i'ieK of Ceryle. Bvo, T, 

The Author. 
U'Conl.', Jiwj.h. Pij;l.t: an ex|-isiti..ii of the [.nn.iiiles of mon.Kiil»r 
anil biiiiMilar vi^i^.ll. r^^i; T. -NeH York, is-l. 

I. V. WilliamM.n Fiiii.t. 
Lt-idv, Jo:.. Reii.iirlis >■„ l'.,riwt.s nml S<' Hv... T. 

I\ti Hddns. nil i-\'>iiilii'ii anil the i.,<I1iulogiral inipurt^kiiee 'ir Ioikt 
foniLj, of life, limo, T. ISSG. 'llie Author, 


The Albert coal, or Albertite of New Bninswick, Bvo, T. 

The Visitors' Guide to Amherst College. 8vo, T. 1862. 

Review of Lyell's (Geological evidences of the antiquity of man. 8vo, 
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The elevation of mountains. 8vo, T. 1870. 

The earlier forms of life. 8vo, T. 

The world before the introduction of life. 8vo, T. 1874. 

Report on the Ammonoosic gold fields. 8vo, T. 1879. 

First and second annual reports upon the geology and mineralogy of 
the State of New Hampshire, 1867, 1870. Report during the year 
1870 (imperfect), 1871, 1872. 8vo, T. 

The geology of New Hampshire, Vol. m, 1878, with folio Atlas. 
8vo, T. 

Lenticular hills of glacial drift. 8vo, T. 1876. 

(Geological explorations in New Hampshire. 8vo, T. 1874. 

The geology of the Ammonoosic mining districts. 8vo, T. 1878. 

The geology of northern New England, Maine, 1885 ; New Hampshire, 
1874 ; Vermont, 1872. 8vo, T. 1882. 

The early history of the North American Continent. 8vo, T. 1883. 

Description of geological sections crossing New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont. 8vo, T. 1884. 

(Geological sections across New Hampshire and Vermont. 8vo, T. 

(Geology of the White Moimtains. 8vo, T. 

Physical history of New Hampshire. 8vo, T. 1877. 

The glacial flood of the Connecticut River Valley. 8vo, T. 1882. 

The geological position of the Philadelphia gneisses. 8vo, T. 

The Author. 

Hitchcock, C. H., and J. H. Huntington. (Geology of the northwestern 

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I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hugounenq, L. Les Alcaloides d'origine animale. 8vo. Paris, 1886. 

I. V. Williamson Fimd. 
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Homaday, Wm. T. Two years in the Jimgle. 8vo. New York, 1886. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hough, Franklin B. Historical sketch of the Universities and Colleges of 

the United States. 8vo, T. 1883. Department of the Interior. 

Hoy, P. R. How and by whom were the copper implements made ? Who 

built the mounds? 8vo, T. Racine, 1886. The Author. 

Howes, G. B. An atlas of practical elementary biology. 4to. 1885. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hubrecht, A. A. W. Proeve eener Ontwikkelingsgeschiedenis van Linens 

obscurus Barrois 4to, T. Utrecht, 1886. The Author. 

Hudson, C. T., and P. H. Gosse. The Rotifera ; or wheel-animalcules. 
8vo, Pts. 1-5. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Huergo, Luis A. Examen de la propuesta y projecte del Puerte del 8r. 
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Humphrey, James Ellis. On the anatomy and development of Agarum 
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■ or tm AUfiKKT or 


CbMHttiK flnta r« Cos Hew Xatoa. t^T. BmU UK. 

3bll«« AaCtooaj tt PitaM imitaM, T«t Co., H. B. OeI, HH. 
XrtMrie'liva&wJanv'BCHak, WK7wC«.,W.Tii|iiik Sm^T. 

K>no|Maine. A. N. KMkluulK. An hMuilwijiaMMiti 
Uod, lu mllitorr t*m», tMhiatti aad tnd*. Ifln. 

Iwi^ Bmim ni^iMiiiiatgiKkB. 

Luinttr, Otlii. Ueivr OM twHi ii l a. IiMaK.JNa«t. MMAte. FkkaMt 
m KkiL »n. T. Uftt. UniTCnito^qf KM. 

t«nad, Bdwia Olwiudiig. In taramatj g£ 8f«, T. CUeac*^ IMl 

Lacafcfoni, F. B. OtMnrntfaxw uf Um tamMfW RMOaMa of Ottawa mI 
vkteltr. 9ro, T. Ottam. I9S». 

UwMLStrJ. 8. OMaoMpaiBliUiUwnmBiMlttaBal 
[ tlM Mtiow of Um Artillli of It 

» Bum and )p Ihe bbtmiHT «r Sfa- Jota 
OMwai UBWM. JiHH, 1883. »n>, T. 18M. 
On Uw tnnMattlaa o( the Atfa of whMtfiai^ and ■Iwlaliia. 

SratT. Undfla.liM. 
Bmrt or BxpartnMOU on tte ktowIIi dC wb«at for Ifea aaoskd partal 
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IBM. Tha AMtac. 

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T. 18«.V 
ChancUrrs of two su|i]ioficd new species of blnls from YuratuL Siu. 

T. 1x85. 
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nocsKDona of raa AcinEin' or 


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X«7n«n, Thoodor. pif chlktrr, » cUnloal tnwtJac on d' - — — 

BnlD IxtMtl upon » itiiar of n* Mmctan^ AiiKt 
1 ruiiiUhid b; tt. Buha. H. D. Pkit L Tb* •> 
Ukd ehemlttiT of tbo hr%ln. Ski. New York, 11 
I. V. 1" 
Moyvr. Olto. llie Oemniloe; sml Age of U>« apMilM b> tUe ft 
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iBMcIivoran uih) Gklpopttbccuft gvologincli *Jl« Fumwai. 9wt>, T. 

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DiagnOMh <U Uc^iuqina terraatrM at flarlatllM du 1 

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New Hampshire. Report of the Geological Survey of the State o^ show- 
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IM4.] MATtaAL mrttmrwm or rvfLAHiLrviA. 4t3 

t >rr >f AUh ti .*4 . tt in. 1 A i^r . tv. t-i tw^r 

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•• K 1 T ^ %utK ^ 

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t « • I U*« • ^At« •V JT'.t f , i** • i « *"^"' * •'* • %t I ** • '• ♦--•t . r « 

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:^ « »^1 1»* •-. v.^i ^ to *4«ifc |L><M K.*t. «r^tr. r Kftci* I # ^ •» » ■^u 

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► - ; ^ -**-n ii«i«i«i it . ••*•.-* ^ -^"^ i^'v . 1^ •, • 


Paleontologie FranQaise. Ire ser., Ter. Jur. L. 79, 80, 81 ; Ter. Tert I, t 
1-9 ; Ter. Cret. L. 81 et 32. 2ine ser. Veget. Ter. Jur. L. 31, 33, 34. 

Wilson Fund. 

Pal»ontographica. XXXH, 1-4 ; XXIH, 1-7 ; XXIV, 1 ; Suppl. I, 5, 6 ; 
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Parrish, S. B. and W. F. Supplementary list of plants of Southern Cali- 
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Parry, C. C. LastarrisBa, Remy, conformation of the genus, with char- 
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Peale, A. C. Mineral waters. 8vo. T. 1885. The Author. 

Pennsylvania, Second Geological Survey of. Annual report, 1885, with 
atlas. Grand atlas, Div. II, Part II ; Div. IV, Part I : Div. V, Part 
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I, T. 8. A. A., 2d Rep., Pt. I. The Survey. 

Pennsylvania, Second Geological Survey of. Reports A. 2, 2d report of 
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Pennsylvania. Third annual report of the geological survey of the State 
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Peres de la Compagne de J6sus. M^moires concemant I'histoire naturelle 
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I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Phillips, George. The seaports of India and Ceylon, described by Chinese 
voyagers of the 15th century, together with an aci'ount of Chinese 
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Phillips, John. Manual of Geology theoretical and practical. Edited by 
Robert Etheiidge and Harry Govier Seeley. I, II. 8vo. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Plambeck, Christian. Ein Beitrag zur Statistik und Verbreitung der 
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Prestwich, Joseph. Geologv; chemical, physical and stratigraphical. Vol. 
I. 8vo. Oxford, 1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Prieto, C. F. de Landero y Raul. Dinamica-Quimica. 8vo., T. Guada- 
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Provideijce City Library. Catalogue, 1880. 8vo, T. The Librarian. 

Provident Life and Trust Company, mortality experience of the, 1866- 

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Lief ; 3er Abth., 31-24 ; H ; HI, 1-8 Lief. ; IV, 1-4 Lief. 

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Acetbemsteinsanreeste. 8vo, T. 1886. University of Wiirabnrg, 

Ramsay. E. P. Catalogue of the £chinoderniata in the AustraliaD 

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Hineralogische Hittheilungeo, n. F. 23. Quarze aus Burke Countj, 

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v£n£neus de la France et des Pays circonvoisins. le Faac, 

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und Volkskunde Mittel Europos. 8vo, T. Dresden, 1886. 

Otjographical Socieiy of Dresden. 

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Ding au Sich. I naug.- Dessert, philos. Fakultiit der Chris.-Alb. 

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Riley, C. V. Annual address, as President of the Entomological Society 

of Washington for the year 1884. 8vo, T. 

The Mildews of the Grape- Vine. An effectual remedy for Perono- 

spora. 8vo, T, February 6, 1886. The Author. 

Roberts, W. Wilson. Relatorio sobre o exame do Rio S. Francisco desde 

o Mar At£ a Cachoeira de Pirap6ra feito em 1879-1880. 1860. 

4to, T. Prof. O. A. Derby. 

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RomanowEky, H. D. Materials for the [geology of Turkestan. 4to. 1884, 

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RoasmassleT's Icottograpbie der Europaiscben Land und Busswasser- 

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Bonmaida. Hinisterulii LucrBrilorii publico. Anuarulu Biurouliii Ueo- 

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_B«rta Geolugtoa generala a Romanlei, sub-directuinea domnului Gr. 

°'~*---Kii. Jadet«1e, Mebedintfi Goijlii, Vllcea (parte), Do^iu 

4to. BbeeUT-Q. TbeSnrvey. 




1 ayioT, 1 ho«i. iiw cryaUlH of butter and ftt. 

Teall,J. J. lUrrifl. Sritlih PetniKi-aphj-. Pta. _ _ . _ .. 

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rnWi'tatt; of WanlnrK. 

Mua. autOv In l>n4, IKT 

liD{>. Huul&n 0«airra|ihtrA] !i 

TownMod, CIiMi. n, An account, of recant cAjitan* at lbs Califonata Sa*- 
oln|itiaiii Kiid siatlHllM rvlatiiig to tbe iirmcnt almndanca of tW 
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Tracy, B. M. CktaloKuo of tho phnnK^unnn* uid vuctUftr erjftlntua- 
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Trjfon. Otfo. W., Jr. Mantial of Conuholotfy ; atruutunl mm) • " 
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TurkRxtan Itiu«>«. RoniitnovHky and Mouclikrtow** Cut« a^rfaciqa*, wH- 
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Uhlwann, O., und F. II. Ukonllm. Blbllothoc* BnbuOr*. H. L Uo. 

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ririoh. B. 0. CoutribuUona Ui Amurioun Pala-ontolocy. Vol. I, 9^9, 
1988. TbeA^- 

United iHBl«« CItII ^rtlcc Ooniini»*lon. 8d ftnnnal ni[N>n. Jan. V 
Jan. 16,188«(SdBa.). t>«n. Wanhiui^uii, 18M. ThaOcM 
United StatM Cowt and (ioiidcLlc Hiirvny Report, fiscal yanr endi 
1884. Svo. TnunuT D«| 

Untied 9lau-« CoinuiiMiiciii of Fisb «)d PinhrfiM. Tha tibartat u 
iuduitrlea of the United BUtM. ...By G«olsa Biwwa Om 
tlof) I, teol and platM. 9 rol*., 4U>. WaatilnctDn, I8H. 

KeMtt for ItW. 8TO. Waahlnetim, 1«W. Tlii Cm 

United 6l ate* Dcpiirtmriil of Acrlcnltiir*. DiviniMi of Kntoioulivy- 

w(*al1i,Tlin;j tli.-llr»i.t''-. liv II. <i , Hi.l.lmr.1. ^%.\ W«;t..(i, 
1883. The ft^ranmerii. 

United States Geological Survey. J. W. Powell, Hir, Hinenl ReKmiivn 
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chiata of the Itaritan Clays and GreeiiBaod Maria of New Jcix-t. 
4to. 18H.). 
Bulletin, No*. 7-29. 

Bth aiiDiial ii-port. Deprirtment of thi- Intrrior. 

United SUt«8. Tenth Census of. Vols. XIII, XIV, XVI, Pt 1, XX. 4ta. 

Dt')>artnicnt of the Interior. 

United BUt<'s. Joint fomiulsHion to consider the i)refH'nt orKaiilKatloai> of 

the signal Kervice, ^eoloxical aiiney, coait ami geodetii' surri-ya. and 

the hrdroKra)ihlc olliie i >f Ihe Navy ncparttiicnt. Tpntiniouy before 

the. 8vo. Washin^'t-m, 188fi. lion. Chaa. O'NeilL 

United 8UU-S. War Dejiartmi-Lit. Weather M,lp^ 18>«i. Jan. 8, 3 P.M.. 

' '" " " " 14 inA|iH. Thi- Department. 


^■iif Ki..l. Kij;lit> IH.T 


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The r 


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1386.] NAtUfiAL BOtBNOlBS OF ^HILADSLPfilA. 4l5 

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rsooSEbiNas or THI ACADEVT [ 

fliiltctin Xo. ; 


Innrra, 1 

T«rbudltiD«B, XXIU, 1, t. IMcto 
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K&turfondiAtider V«r«tii. 
■lor mi^tcoiDloiilichoi 
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mutlienitUlMl Tiidoiniui;ok KdrtUf), XI, \-» ; Tki_ 

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Mt Tonnt^Mttudomftnj'i EilcKiIJi, III, 1-S. 

iuNJwlU)elw B«rteht» 

BiM Untcnm, n. ni. 0<i/tal7Kiuik Klitiin KiodosBjB, I9M. It 

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r(<-llr>-I^lrr«. Mi'm^im. 


(■ilUl.ll:,, ANi;.li<' S,«i,tJ Of HiMIKill. JniiMi.U I.IV, i'; 1. N,. ,■. i'; : 
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I'enlKMly MiiKenm of American Anlucology and Ktbnolotcy. Ixtb and 

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TiO NaturnliHtc <' 

i;.di.ii. XV. a-xvi. 

Tranaactiona 111, 
The S>f ietT. 
The Edii.T 

i. 3eS,T. XVni 

irkiindo. KostM 

N. v.. HE. V11I. 
rift fur r.(ij;ihr. .Ii' 


Bath. Postal Microscopical Society. Journal of Microscopy and Natural 
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Deutscher Fischerei-Verein. Haupt-Sachregister, 1886, No. 4. Mitt- 
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NatursB Novitates, 1885, No. 22 ; 1886, No. 22. The Publishers. 
E. Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen, physi- 
kalische, 1885. Anhang zur Abhandlungen, 1885. Sitzuugsber- 
ichte, 1885, Nos. 1-52 ; •1886, Nos. 1-39. Society. 
Der Naturforscher, XVH, 27-39 ; XVIII, 27-^2. Editor. 
Repertorium fur Anatomic und Physiologic (Valentin), I, 1836-VIII, 
1843. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, Nos. 1092-1101, llOa- 
1142. Society. 
BesauQon. Academic des Sciences, Belles Lettres et Arts, 1884. Society. 
Birmingham. Philosophical Society. Proceedings, IV, 2; VI, 1. Society. 
Bonn. Archiv fiir mikroskopische Anatomic, XXY, 4-XXYIII, 4. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Naturhistorischer Yerein. Yerhandlungen, XLII, XLIIL Society. 

Bordeaux. Academic nationale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts. 

Actes, 3e Ser. XLIV, XLV. Recueil des Actes, XLYI, 1-4. Society. 

Soci^t6 Linn^enne. Actes, XXXVIII. Society. 

Soci^t^ des Sciences physiques et naturelles. M^moires, 3e Ser. I; 

n, 1. Society. 

Boston. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Proceedings, XXI. 

1 and 2. Memoirs, XI, Pt. 3, Nos. 2-4. Society. 

Commissioners of Inland Fisheries, 20th annual report. 

The Commissioner. 
Library notes (Dewey). I, 1, 2. The Editor. 

Society of Natural History. Memoirs, III, 12 and 13. Proceedings, 
XXIII, pp. 193-304. 
Braunschweig. Archiv fiir Anthropologic, XVI, 1-3. 

. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau, I, 1-47. The Editor. 

Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftlicbe Mikroskopie, II, 3 — ^HI, 2. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Bremen. Naturwissenschaftlicher Yerein. Abhandlungen, IX, 2, 3. 

The Society. 

Bristol. Naturalists' Society. Proceedings, V, 1. The Society. 

Brockport. The Naturalists' Companion, I, 12. The Editor. 

Brooklyn. Entomologica Americana, I, 9— II, 8. The Editor. 

Library Bulletin of new books. No. 24. Annual report, 28th. 

The Librarian. 

noctxDixafi or tsi ACiiintT or 

BoIMUtMv \m, XcN. 

Vaoto OioRwlA SotMioo ItUiuo (CariMl), XVIU, >-i. Tbt UUv. 
SooiMi EntonoU-gtca IUIIum. BollelUiii^ XVII, «, 4; XTUI. 1. 1 

!<oeltitik lulinos dl ADtropuIoBla. RlaoliwU ■ PitmlMtl* eomvmnu. 

AkUtIo. XTV, I, 9 ; XV, 1-4 ; XVi. 1. tlw SodMr 

FiJkeriuDE. :<alural tialtirj Saoitrtj. Sd 8«rU% Ost^ If'^i. Jul, I^M. 

The fiooiMjr. 
PnutM. AaaodfttlonP'TwigfttwpovTrAtvwenieiit dot'cMBoca C^NntM- 
Rcndu ISM. Tlia HodMr. 

Pnnkfbrt a. kl. Acixtllclwr Vnrato. Jahraberlclu. XX\'UI. 

Pcutoeha nwUkoxaalofriMhe GaMlbckin. h'adiHditittUu. WO, Km. 

1-ia ; Ifm. I. a, 7-lO. JniirbOrber. XH, *-XUL a. "nw &mMj. 
Pranbruiter Ven-'in filr Qeogrnptiia and t«tiitUuk. JwbnAthtiHn, XL 

VIII, XUX. TtoSo^S- 

Baiii;k«ub«tKiM^I«> NktUTfoncht-iideOcaellMJuft. Abbaadhumn, XlT, 

Kiuihrurt a O. NMUTwin«n*obiinii<)in Votvln. UonUlldw KtllMU 
lui,fi«u III. 10, II. -n.a SmMv. 

H. T. Tbm S3>S- 

Frieburg I. B. Naturforwbeoila G««ll«faan. DcriebUi ikt*r at* V«r- 
tiADdliinKoD. Tin, :). TlM SooiMj. 

Uftnd. Aii^lttu do Blologie (Van BetnNkn «t Van EUinUJeo). VJ. 1, 1 

I. V. \Vllli»ii.«.n Fua.1 
Owwva. InaUtut Ntttioual OoaovirfH. Bulletin, SJEVI. i - . - 

ftMiull Zooloffi>]ne Bui*M iKul.), III. l-A. L V- W 
So. ii^i^ I'by-i.iuo pl d'Histoim Niiti.r.-lli-. Mi-m.Mi 

'llie Sociftj. 

Genoa. Heale Aci'ademia 6cUi- Scienze Mediche. UoDdiconto sonimario, 

I,18m5. Tlie Soeii-lj. 

Bocietii tti Lctturc o Coi]Ter8.izioiii si'icntifiche. Uiomak', IX. la, 

8em. 1-H. The SociM;. 

BIuHcooivicodi Storia Natursili, Annali, l-Vl, SVIII-XXII. 

The Society. 

Gicssen. JahrcRbericht iiber liie Fortscliritle der Chcmie (Filtic»\ l"^!, 

No. 5— ISH4, No. 3, Tlie Editor. 

Oborhessiscbc QesellHclinft fiir N.itur- und Ilcilkund*. 34er Berii-lit. 

The Sioiety. 

01aH);ow. Natural History Soi'icty. I'roreediD^ Nen S«riM, I. tl. Index. 

VoIb. I-V. The SociM;. 

GOrliU. Oberlaunititiftcbc (iescllscliaft der Wii>«euschaneii. Xciies Uuint- 

ciM'heB Mauazin. LXl, 2 ; LXII, 1. The SociriT. 

Gotha. Dr. A. Petonn .-inn's Mitthi'tliinKen auH JiiituH Pcrthen' Keof:raphi- 

Bclier AtuUlt, XXXI, 11— XXXlI, 10. ErKiin/uitKiilieft, Nos. KM«.1. 

I. V. WilliunM,n Fnixl. 

Granville. Ohio. Dciiison I'liiversity. ESiillitin ..( llio S'i.-mitic I,.-il..r»- 


Graveiihap'. Nederlaiiiii-i he Piil.iTii.n.i-i>', he 


voor X.WIII. 1 1 ; XXIX 

1. 2. 

raz. Uirtiiiiisclies lusiitul iI.L-LlKrl..j. Mini 

'iliiiiceti, II. 

1. V. Will 

Nauir«i.-*erisibaaiiLlicr VLTcin fur .-^U'lmi 

irk. Mil the 


Charleston. Elliott Society of Science and Art. Proceedings, XI, pp. 

41-80. The Society. 

Chicago. Academy of Sciences. Bulletin I, 6. The Society. 

American Antiquarian, VII, 6— VIII, 6. The Editor. 

Historical Society. Constitution and By-laws, 1885-6. The Librarian. 

Christiania. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, X, 3, XI, 4. 

The Editor. 
Norwegisches Meteorologisches Institut. Jahrbuch, 1883-84. 

The Institute. 

Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, XXVIII, 2 ; XXX, 2. 

The Editor. 
Videnskab-Selskab. Forhandlingar, 1885. The Society. 

Cincinnati. Society of Natural History. Journal, VII, 4-IX, 3. 

The Society. 

Copenhagen. K. D. Videnskabemes Selskab. Oversigt, 1885, No. 3; 

1886, Nos. 1, 2. Skrifter, 6e, R. H, 8, 9, 10 ; III, 1-3. The Society. 

Soci^t^ Royale des Antiquaries de Nord. Tillaeg, 1885. The Society. 

Botaniske Forening. Tidsskrift, XV, 1-4. Meddelelser, 1886, Nos. 

8, 9. The Society. 

Cordoba. Academia nacional de Ciencias oxactas. Actas, V, 2. Boletin, 

VIII, 2-4. The Society. 

Crawfordsville. Botanical Gazette, X, 12-XI, 11 ; Index to Vols. I-X. 

The Editor. 
Danzig. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Schriften, N. F., VI, 2. 

The Society. 
Davenport. Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, IV. The Society. 
Denver. Colorado Scientific Society. Proceedings, II, 1. The Society. 
Dijon. Acad6mie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres, Memoirs, 1883-84. 

The Society. 
Dorpat. Naturforsher Gesellschaft. Sitzungsberichte, VII, 2. Archiv 
fur die Naturkunde Liv-Ehst und Kurlands, 2e Ser., X, 2, 3. 

The Society. 
Dresden. K. Leop.-Carol.-Deutscher Akademie der Naturforscher. 
Nova Acta, XLVII and XLVIII. Leopoldina, H. 20, 21. 

The Society. 
E. mineralogisch-geologisches und prsBhistorisches Museum. Mitt- 
heilungen, 6es, H. The Director. 

Naturwissenschafbliche Gesellschaft Isis. Sitzungsberichte und Ab- 
handlungen, 1885 and 1886, Jan.-June. The Society. 

Verein fiir Erdkunde. Jahresbericht, XXI. The Society. 

Dublin. Royal Dublin Society. Proceedings, IV, 7, 8, 9 ; V, 1, 2. Trans- 
actions, III, 7-10. The Society. 
Royal Geological Society of Ireland. Journal, XVI, 3; XVII, 1. 

The Society. 

Royal Irish Academy. Proceedings, Science, Ser., II, Vol. 14, Nos. 

3 and 4 ; Polite Literature and Antiquities, Ser. II, Vol. 2, No. 6 ; 

Todd Lecture Series, Vol. 2, Pt. 1. Transactions, XXVIII, 17-20. 

The Society. 
Dunedin. New Zealand Journal of Science, I, 1, 3-12 ; II, 1-12. 

In exchange. 

Edinburgh. Botanical Society. Transactions and Proceedings, XV, 2; 

XVI, 2. The Society. 

Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, 1884-85. The Society. 

Scottish Naturalist, new series, Nos. 11-13. The Editor. 

Emden. Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 70er. Jahresbericht. The Society. 

Erlangen. Biologisches Centralblatt, I- VI, 17. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Physikalisch-medicinische Societat. Sitzungsberichte, H. 17. 

The Society. 


431 riUKiODiHos or vat acaduci or [ISSC 

Puratllch jRblonowitki'iMihe Unwllscban. rrelHuUiriRni, XXVL 

JalinxlM'riRlitn niwr dio Fortaclirllt* il«r AnitoniB und t^jrriafaww 
(HoftiiMiu uiid Ciioliwklbe}, XIU, 1 miu) 3 AInlu XIV^ 1 Abtb. 

1. V. WnUuuKin Fud 
Journal fllr nmlUioloclc. XXXIII. 3-XXXIV. I. 

1. V. WlIlUiwM PomL 
HotpboloftlnJiM JiUirtiach, XI, 2-xn, ». L V. WUIlanKn VvmL 

Natarfonchande OMellsoliftlt. SlUuoBfbericbla UM, 1880. 9aeMr- 
K. BaotuuMitM GeaeUMlwd dar WiMaiudi»ft«ii. Baftolil* iMb«r Sm 
Varhkndlutimii, 1HS4, No. >. flatfaty. 

ZtitM^rift fur Krystkllogniiluo nnd Minenkwi* <Gii>tlii, Xt, l-XQ, 
3; HL>pertoriutii, Bd. I-X. I. V. WIUImuum Ftel 

ZoitKobrin r>ii wiMcnMlinftllchu ZooIokIo, XI.II, 4-XLIV, 9. 

1. Y WaUunaoa 

ZuoluiiliiolioT AnwtiKcr. N<hl 208. 2SA. Tli* ~ 

}!o>ilnxl»obe Station «u Neawl. Uiltlielliuuen VL 8 Kad 4. 

b«riclit, IHHl. Nutt. I, 3. < ; 1#0. No. 3. Tb* 

Lojdcn. t«j(Icn UuMOiD. Nntoa, VII, 1-4, Tha 

NfidprlMKlschfi nierkuDiligu VprDeuigiOE, TijdMbrift, 9da 


Lleffo. Sorlftt'-KayBlDdHSc-Ionewi. Ht'rooIrM, lime 6ar. XL Tlw 
LUb. Bucifi6 Gf«l(i|:l(|iie <Iu Nunl, Aiiu«le* XII. Tb* _ 

Dullotiu ic)eatilli|uu du U^iMirlcniorit da Noitl, VH ; VUt 1-lB. 

AiuucUvBO do* Eii^iilii'ircNt Civis i'ortu|[unua. RmriAi 4m, 

publico* B Minwi. Nu*. 191-104. Th* 9odMr. 

Liverpool. Fn^« Public Library, MuMum and Wallwr Art Gtdbtrj.ttt 

annual rciion. Ttw Dtwilir. 

Umloglcol ftociotr. I'rocnndliiKK, V, 3. Tbu Sucietr. 

Natur&Iiata' field Cliib. Procwdiug*. IWS-Ka. 

Londm. Anna)* and Hajpuine of Natuml Ilixtnry, Srh S< r . 

Anthropoli)([ic;il InHtitutc. Journal. XV, 3-XVI, 2. TheSocirtv 

AHtroitomicai Hegirtcr, Nos. 378- ■,'«". I. V. \\'il1i»m»oii Fund. 

Chemk-al Swiety, AbHtrai't of the I'roceediDgt, Sob. 18-27. Joumal, 

Nob. 277-2^« ; to Vols. 47 aoii 4>>. CaUloguo of the I.ibruy 
The Society. 
Curtis' llotanital Hagnzliio, Nos. 11S'>-1197. I. V. Willianiw>a Fund. 
Tbe Eartli, Nos. l-:(. The Editor. 

Tbo Klt-otrician. SVI, 2-XVn. 2. The Editor. 

Knloitioto),'ica1 Society, Tranaactlonii, 1N8S, Nos. 4 and 5 ; 1Nm8, N<w. 

1-3. Tbe Society, 

tiardcner's < lironicle, No«. 621-973. The Editor 

(icologicnl Magaxiiie, Ni>«. 2.''iH-2tia. I. V. WilllamaoD Fund. 

Oi-oloKiial Society, (luartcrly -lounial, No*. 160-107. l,i»L 

The Sooietj. 
Ocolo^iHtii' Afoioiiatioii. Procpedinj.Ti, VIII, 7-IX, fl. The Society. 
llardwickc'H Sricncv Gofwip, Nob. 232^ 26:1. [. V. WilllamMm Fuod. 
Ibis, ,'ilh Ser,. Nos. Kl IS. I. V, Williamioii Fund. 

Juurunl of Aniiloniy and I'bysiolopy, XX, 2 ; XXI, I. 

I. V \VLlliam.-.Q Fiiu.1 
,Ioiini:il of licjtiinj, British and Foreign, Nas, -JT'J ■,"«7. 

I. V. \Villiam«OD KuDd 
J.iimKil <•('y, V. 1 ;l. Tbe E-l.toi, 

.iLiiniiil ..f l'!ijsi.,I.FKy (Koslprt, VI, <! \ 11, 6. I. V.>n I'uD.t 
,I.iiirii:il u( S'lftiM, lid Sr., No. 1 M. 1. V.«.n Fund, 

Kiiuwlicl),',., Nub. 174-1^(1; IX, 1-7; X, 10, The Ed. lot. 


Yerein der Aerzte in Steiermark. Mittheilungen, 1884, 1885. 

The Society. 

Zoologisches Institut. Arbeiten, I, 1, 2. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Groningen. Naturknndiff Genootschap. Yerslag, 1885. The Society. 

Halifax. Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Science. Proceedings and 

Transactions, VI, 3. The Society. 

Halle a. S. Verein fur Erdkunde. Mittheiluriffen, 1885, The Society. 

Zeitschrift fur Naturwissensohaften, 4e F., IV, 4— V, 2. The Editor. 

Hamburg. Geographische Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, 1885, No. 2. 

The Society. 
Hamilton. Hamilton Association. Journal and Proceedings, I, 2. 

The Society. 
Haarlem. Mus^ Teyler. Archives, 2de Ser, H, 8. The Director. 

Soci^t^ HoUandaise des Sciences. Archives XX, 8— XXI, 1. 

The Society. 
Heidelberg. Naturhistorisch-medicinischer Verein. Verhandlungen, n. 
F., Ill, 5 ; Festschrift zur Feier des 500 jahr. Jubilaums. 

The Society. 
Helsingfors. Sallskapet pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Acta, II. Medde- 
landen 12, 13. The Society. 

Hermannstadt. Siebenburgischer Verein fur Naturwissenschaften. Ver- 
handlungen und Mittiieilungen, Jahresberichte, 1884-85. 

The Society. 
Iowa City. State Historical Society. Iowa Historical Record, 1885, Oct. — 
1886, Oct. The Society. 

Ithaca, N. Y. Cornell University. Bulletin (Science), I, 1, 2. 

The Trustees. 
Jena. Medicinisch-naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift XII, 
2-4, Suppl. 1, 2. Sitzungsberichte, 1883. The Society. 

Zoologische Jahrbiicher (Sprengel), I, 1-4 ; Suppl. T. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Kansas City. The Kansas City Review of Science and Industry, IX, 5. 

The Editor. 

Kharkow. Soci^t^ des Naturalistes a I'Universit^ Imp^riale (In Russian) 

Travaux, XVIII. The Society. 

Kiel. Naturwlssenschaftlicher Verein. Schriften, VI, 1, 2. The Society. 

Universitat. Verzeichniss, 1885, Nos. 1, 3; 1886, No. 1. Chronik, 

1884-5, 1885-6. The University. 

Klagenfurt. Landesmuseum von Kamten. Jahrbuch XVII. Bericht, 

1884. Carinthia, 1885, Nos. 9-12; 1886, Nos. 1-11. Diagramme 

der magn. u. meteor. Beobachtungen, 1884. The Director. 

Konigsburg. Physikalisch-okonomische Gesellschaft. Schriften, XXVI. 

The Society. 
Landshut. Botanischer Verein. Bericht, 1881 85. The Society. 

Lausanne. Soci6t6 Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, Nos. 92, 93. 

The Society. 
Leeds. Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of York- 
shire. Proceedings, n. s., IX, 1. The Society. 
Philosophical and Literary Society. Annual report, 1885-86. 

The Society. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Transactions, 1883, Pt. 8. The Society. 

Leipzig. Archiv fur Anatomie und Physlologie. Anatomische Abhand- 

lungen, 1885, Nos. 5, 6 ; 1886, Nos. 1-4. Physiologische Abhand- 

lungen, 1885, Nos. 5, 6, Suppl. B.; 1886, Nos. 1-6, Suppl. Bd. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Botanisches Institut zu Tubingen. Untersuchungen, I, 3 ; II, 1. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 
Botanische Jahrbiicher (Engler), VII, 1— Vm, i. 

I. v. Williamson Fund. 

id^DLlL TWE 

■mMmI IteilMM Ai BiMMte SjtanL U XntitnUm. VU. n-t- 

briidai rtifffi "AMa^ Alolib** Bbm^ Mta* ^ MifeM- 

ZVni, 1%-XIX. 11. Miiri^ XJY, XYT; XDL TteS 
BwinlMllMtMlMlmiMMNclim. I1«pmbb* U<«-«I. Ita d«i«». 
li^An. PdUIi Hhnm, Id Mn>] ninrt. 1^ IMnMor. 

dM*. a AawJMli di fldM— ^ LWOT »d Art. X«Min. Mt. s. UL 

- ItMXMd<rf8<iMM,ai-l. TWBMML 

^ndUB Bmnl oTJi'Mnl BMetyaMlGMlocr. !.«, Si IImI^ 

HocMfc dol KdaaalML AUi, Hfto t, n. pp. Ut-l^i T 


ILa AkidMBia dn Wii 

imi, 1-4. 

L4iii.i-«- iMHM: 0,11.4. tm,t, 

7> ^ ■Uh..pkfa. CiMtm, XT, & 

MftnUr. WmtaOaAtr Prafbudat-Tante (ir WlMMsbUl nwl Kan*. 
Jalin-*l«ri(l>t XIII, TJir S.«,ti 

/.-■it«li(iri dtr H...l,.^;n!, I-X-\I : XXII. 1 — KXIII, -J. 

r. V. WilliWMOoFutid, 
Nancy. SxK-ti' <le« Sciencea. Bulletin, Mr. 8me, Fosf. IH. Tho SociHj. 
Napltw. It. Aocademia delle S:i>.'n/« fisiche e m»t«in»licbc. Rendiconio 
XXII-XXV. 3. TheSocietj. 

It. Utitutu il'IncoraRiKiamento alle Scicnie Nfttonli «ronotnioh« e 
Uchnologicbe. Atti, 2e ser, IV. Th* Socicij. 

KcubrandeDburi;. Verein iler Kreunde der NaturgMchJcbte io Mecklen- 
burg. Arrlilv, 39er Jalin;. The Socielj. 
NewuaxtlC'Upon-Tytie. Natural lliatory Society of Northumberlutil, Dur- 
liam and Newcaetle-upon-Tyne. Trmiuactiont VII, 2. The Socieij. 
New UavuD. American Journal of Bcieace, 3d net. No«. IftO-lSl. 

The Editor. 

New York. Academy of Scieoces. Annalii, III, 0, 10. TmuActioom V, 

1-n. Thi- Society. 

Amorican Booki«11er, XIX. .'i ; XX, 2, Tbe Editor. 

American Eutomoiogist, new Rories, I, 1 ; III, S, .Vll. 

EDtomnto(^r;tl t^ection. 
Am( flcograiihical Society. Hiillctin, IH-«, Nok, 5. S; !■;'••(. 
No*. 1, .'. T, TlieS,*:ctj .Museum of Natural IliRtDry, Amiiial repoit. l-isj -i 
Itulletin. N... 7. The Din<.'t,.r 

Til.- Auk. III. 1-^- The Witor 

Coi.iMTative hides In reriixiicalB, I. 4. The Kdit.w 

Fotcbt and Stream, XXV, W-XXVll. 19, The Editut 


Linnean Society. Journal— Botany, Nos. 138-160 ; Zoology, 109-113. 
Transactions, 2d Ser.— Zoology, U, 12-17 ; III, 2-4. List, 1885-6. 

The Society. 
London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, 5th Ser., 
Noe. 127-138. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Mineralogioal Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Mineralogical 
Magazine, Nos. 31 and 32. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

The Naturalist, Nos. 125-136. The Editor. 

Nature, Nos. 838-890. The Editor. 

Paleontographical Society. Publications, XXXIX. Wilson Fund. 
Physical Society. Proceedings, VII, 3-VIlI, 2. The Society. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, n. s. Nos. 100-106. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings, VII, 12-Vni, 11. 

The Society. 
Royal Horticultural Society. Journal, VII, 1. The Society. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain. Proceedings, XI, 2. List, 1885. 

The Society. 
Royal Microscopical Society, V, 6, 6 a ; VI, 1-5. The Society. 

Royal Society. Proceedings, Nos. 239-246. Philosophical Trans- 
actions, vol. 176, Nos. 1 and 2. The Society. 
Scientific Enquirer, I, 1-10. The Editor. 
Society of Arts. Journal, XXXIII. The Society. 
Society of Psychical Research. Proceedings, I, 9. The Society. 
Statistical Society. Jubilee volume, June 22-24, 1885. The Society. 
Trubner's Literary and Oriental Literary Record. Nos. 217, 218, 221, 
222, 225-228. The Publishers. 
Zoological Record, 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Zoological Society. Proceedings, 1885, IV; 1886, I-III. Trans- 
actions, XII, 1-8. The Society. 
Zoologist, 3d Ser., No. 108-119. L V. Williamson Fund. 
London, Ca. Canadian Entomologist, XVII, 11-XVIII, 9. The Editor. 
Lucca. Reale Accademia Lucchese di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. Atti, 
XXIV. The Society. 
Lund. University. Acta, XXI. Katalog, 1885. The Dnivei-sity. 
Lyon. Academic des Sciences, Belles- Lettres et Arts. Memoires, Classe 
des Lettres, XXIII. The Society. 
Soci6t^ d' Agriculture, Histoire Naturelles et Arts utiles, 5me ser. 
Annales, VI— VIII. The Society, 
Soci^t^ Linn6enne. Annales, n. s., XXX, XXXI. The Society. 
Madison. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Lettres. Trans- 
actions, VI. The Society. 
Madrid. Observatorio. Resumen de las Observaciones, 1881. 

Real Academia de la Historia. Boletin VIII, 4. The Society. 

Revista de lo s pr ogressos de las ciencias exactas, fisicas y naturaJes, 
XXI, 7-9 ; XXIt 1. The Society. 

Sociedad Geografica, Boletin XIX, 4-6 ; XX, 2-6 ; XXI, 1, 2. 

The Society. 

Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein. Jahresbericht und Abhandlungen, 

1885. The Society. 

Manchester. Biological Laboratories of the Owens College. Studies, I. 

The Trustees. 

Geological Society. Transactions XVIII, 11— XIX, 1, The Society. 

Literary and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, XXIII, XXIV. 

Memoirs, 3d ser., VIII. The Society. 

Marburg. Gesellschaft zur Beforderung der gesammten Naturwissen- 

schaften. Sitzungsberichte, 1884, 1885. Schriften, 8vo, XII. 1. 
Metz. Academic. Memoires, 1882-88. • The Society. 

Verein fiir Erdkunde. 8er Jahresbericht. The Society. 


■ lit PrawM. ItaUMia, vm, t—tX. *. 

•tt.S _, 

-- AipiealtMUB da Tntm. BoDMia. l*a; S* •— 

KM. Hn t. TW SmoA. 

BariBt PhOomllttene. BaDeOn, tM4-19ei ; -83^ Iter Sit^ X, 1. 1- 


SoMtftf ZoolMbrM- BmUmOa, tSBS. N> 4-llM, Sat L 1W Smimm. 

FiMii H^StariMhw V«nik. BkMO. 1, 1, 4, •, T-I^ 11^ U. 

ffiiiiiLi S*val OMlmhal 8odMr «f Conw-a TimmmOm^ X. t. 

PnuiUfai iMtitato Jounwl. U Sn„ Ncm. . 
OMdmv'aSfntitiar. Dos. IHtS-Vo*. !<««. 
BWotled ItociMj of PiraMTlTiuilk. PMMiiiyttM^ft 

uul B-iWMfar. I.\, 4-X. 3. 

Anerteu Joomal ot Um Medical eMmm*^ Jui.-Oct^ 1AM and 

bmL TIw 

ABWrtaan Jonnnkl uT PfatuaiBrCT, Uli Bar., LVTI, IS— LTII. 11. 

Tba Editiw. 
Wtary Cnttpanr oJ I^laildphla. BoiUiUii, Jaa. and Jolr, IstA 


AnariMQ MMonUM, tSUMM., IMl Im)^ «Mnl Jul, !»&. 


f*mv. XTX, 1-XX. 11, TI.C ^>1iw. 

Tlie Mi<rr*c->pic Hull.-tin, H. 6— III, .',. The K.lii.w. 

Niituralista' I^iKiire Hour, Jan. -Sept.. l^^C. The Mitor. 

I'vilOKylvania forestry AMOciatioQ. Forest Leaves, No. 1. 

The S.ciftj. 

American I'hiloBojjhical Society. Proi'eedings, Hem. 121-129. Linof 

MfmU-m, 1^1. The Society. 

I'olyrlinic, I, 4 : HI, H_IV. 5. The Kditot, 

Z<H)hi|>ical Siicicty, Utli anDnal report. llie Sucirt; 

«a. Socii'tii Malac-uloi^ica luliana. Uollettino, XI, Koglie»<-IT 

l-(. . TheSoiety. 

:i Tosoana di S^ieiizB Naturalj. Atti V, pp. [-."W, 43-5.">. -O-ftS, 


■».'> 117 


; VII. 

The S 

Port of Spain. Trinidad ufticial and commercial Register and Almanack, 
lf«HU. TLie Editor. 

Provitlenie. llamhim Notes on Natural History, II. The Editor. 

Quebec. Literary and Ilihturical Society. TraiiitactloriK, Se«aion> l*o;t~ 
l-f^O. The So. iety. 

Ilal.-i>;li. Elisha Mitchell Pcientitic Society. Journal, l^-XS-"*, 1-^ -v-k 

TllC >.^ IrtT 
H.Wa.liHrK. K H. [Lit^iiiisrhc G<-Bcl!sihan. Floia. u. H., .|:i..r Jjhr^-,' 


ht-r Vci 


i\i [ u rfofhi: he r- V B 1 

:l, tl. 7. 10-U, 1«-3;l. The KJil.x. 

L'S|«3iideuililati, 2>mr Jahrk'. 

The Society 


Library Journal, X, 11— XI, 11. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Literary News, VI, 11— VII, 11. The Editor. 

New York Medical Journal, XLII, 22— XLIV, 22. The Editor. 

Mercantile Library Association, 65th Ajinual Report. The Librarian. 
New York Microscopical Society. Journal, I, 8, 9 ; II, 3-5. 

The Society. 
Popular Science Monthly, 1886, Jan.-Dec. The Editor. 

Science, Nos. 147-199. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

New York State Pharmaceutical Association. Proceedings, 8th An- 
nual Meeting. The Society. 
Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin, XII, 9— XIII, 11. The Society. 
Nijmegen. Nederlandsche Botanische Vereeniging. Nederlandsche 
Eruidkundig Archief, 2e, Serie., IV, 4. The Society. 
Niimberg. Naturhistorische Gesellschaft. Abbandlungen, VIII. 

The Society. 
Odessa. Soci^t6 des Naturalistes de la Nouvelle Hussie. Memoirs, IX, 
1-XI, 1. The Society. 

Soci6t6 des Naturalistes a I'Universit^ Imperiale de Kharkow. Tra- 
vaux, XIX. The Society. 

Orleans. 8oci6t^ d' Agriculture, Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts. Me- 
moirs, 2me, Ser., XXV, 1, 2 ; XXVI, 1, 2. The Society. 
Ottawa. Ottawa Field -Naturalists* Club. Transactions, 1-6. The Society. 
Padova. Societa Veneto-Trentina di Scienze Naturali. Atti, IX, 2, 
BoUettino, III, 4. The Society. 
Reale Accademia di Scienze. Letter e Belle Arti. Bollettino, II, 1-6. 

The Society. 
II Naturalista Siciliano, I, 2—11, 11 ; V, 2— VI, 2. The Editor. 

Paris. Academic des Sciences. Comptes Rendus, Vols. 99 and 100. 

The Society. 
Annales des Mines, 7me, Serie, VII, 4— IX, 3. 

Minister of Public Works in France. 
Annales des Sciences G^ologiques, XVIII. The Editor. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie et Pal^ontologie, 6me, Serie, 
XIX, 1-6 ; XX, 1-6. Botanique, 7me, S^r., II, 2 -IV, 4. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Archives de Zoologie experimentale et g6n6rale, 2me S6r., IV, 1-3. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
La Bibliophile, Nos. 1-24, 1881-82; Nos. 1-10, 13-31, 1882-86; 1886, 
, Nos. 32-35. The Editor. 

Ecole Polytechnique. Journal, 55e Cah. The Director. 

Journal de Conchyliolcjgie, 3e S^r., XXV, 1— XXVI, 3. The Editor. 
Journal de Micrographie, IX, 11 — X, 10. The Editor. 

Mus<5um d' Histoire Naturelle. Nouvelles Archives, 2me S(5r., VII, 
1, 2; VIII, 1. The Society. 

Le Naturaliste, 1885, No. 22—1886, No. 46. The Editor. 

Revue d' Ethnographie, IV, 4-V, 3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Revue G6ographique Internationale, 8me Annel, Nos. 120-123, 126, 
128-131. The Editor. 

Revue Scientifique, 3e Ser., V, 20— VI, 21. The Editor. 

Societe d' Acclimatation. Bulletin, 1885, No. 9-1886, No. 8-10. 

The Society. 
Soci6t6 de Biologic. Compte Rendu des Seances, 6me Ser., 1885, No. 
38—1886, No. 39. The Society. 

Soci6t6 Entomologique de France. Annales, 5me Ser., V, 1-4. 

The Society. 

Soci6t6 G6ologique de France. Bulletin, 3me Ser., XIII, 7, 8 ; XTV, 

1-5. The Society. 

Soci6t6 Malacologique de France. Bulletin, No. 2, Dec, 1885; No. 

1, Juillet, 1886. Annales de Malacologie, II, 3. The Society. 


Sooi^t6 Min6ralogique de France. Bulletin, VIII, 8— IX, 6. 

The Society. 

Soci6t6 Nationale d' Agriculture de France. Bulletin, 1885, No. 8 — 

1886, No. 8. The Society. 

Socidte Philomathique. Bulletin, 1864-1884 ; '85, 7me S6r., X, 1, 2. 

The Society. 
8oci6t^ Zoologique. Bulletin, 1885, No. 4—1886, No. 8. The Society. 
Passau. Naturhistorischer Verein. Bericht, 1, 2, 4, 5, 7-9, 10, 13. 
Penzance. Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Transactions, X, 8. 

The Society. 
Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, 1885, No. 8-- 
1886, No. 2. Publication Committee. 

College of Pharmacy. Alumni Association, 22d annual report. 

The Society. 

Dental Cosmos, XXVII, 12— XXVHI, 11. The Editor. 

American Entomological Society. Transactions, XI, 1 ; XII, 2-4 ; 

XIII, 1, 2 
American Pluirmaceutical Association. Proceedings, 83d annual 
meeting. The Society. 

Engineers' Club. Proceedings V, 8 and Suppl. 4, 5. The Society. 

Franklin Institute Journal, 8d Scr., Nos. 730-781. The Society. 

Gardener's Monthly, Dec. 1885-Nov., 1886. The Editor. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Magazine of History 
and BioOTaphy, IX, 4— X, 8. The Society. 

American Journal of the Medical Sciences, Jan.-Oct., 1886 and Supple- 
ment. The Editor. 
American Journal of Pharmacy, 4th Ser., LVII, 12— LVII, 11. 

The Editor. 
Library Company of Philadelphia. Bulletin, Jan. and July, 1886. 

The Librariau. 
American Naturalist, 1878-Oct., 1886, ind., except Jan., 1883. 

Stuart Wood. 
Same. XIX, 1— XX, 11. The Editor. 

The Microscopic Bulletin, II, 6--in, 5. The Editor. 

Naturalists' Leisure Hour, Jan. -Sept., 1886. The Editor. 

Pennsylvania Forestry Association. Forest Leaves, No. 1. 

The Society. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Nos. 121-128. List of 

Members, 1886. The Society. 

Polyclinic, I, 4 ; HI, 8— IV,' 5. The Editor. 

Zoological Society, 14th annual report. The Socie^. 

Pisa. Societa Malacologica Italiana. Bollettino, XI, Foglie 8-17, Xu, 

1-4. . The Society. 

Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Atti V, pp. 1-89, 43-55, 80-98, 

'95-117. Memorie VI, 2 ; VH. The Societv. 

Port of Spain. Trinidad official and commercial Register and Almanack, 

1886. The Editor. 

Providence. Random Notes on Natural History, II. The Editor. 

Quebec. Literary and Historical Society. Transactions, Sessions 1883- 

1886. The Society. 

Raleigh. Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal, 1883-84, 1884-85. 

The Society. 
Hegensburg. E. B. Botanische Gtosellschaft. Flora, n. R., 43er Jahrg. 

The Society. 
Zoologisch-mineralogischer Verein. CorrespondenzBlatt, 39er Jahrg. 

The Societv. 
Richmond. The Industrial South, VI, 6, 7, 10-14, 16-23. The Editor! 
Riga. Naturforscher- Verein. Correspondenzblatt, 28er Jftbi^^. 

The Society. 


Rio de Janeiro. Escola de Minas de Ouro Preta. Annaes No. 4. 

The Director. 
Museu Nacional. Archivoa, I, 2-4 ; II, 1-4 ; III, 1-4 ; VI. 

The Director. 

Observatoire Imperial. Revista, I, 1-10. The Director. 

Rochester. Ward's Natural Science Bulletin, May 1, 1886. The Editor. 

Rome. R. Accademia dei Lincei. Atti, Serie Quarta, Rendiconti, I, 24 — 

n, 7. Atti, Ser. 2, I— III, 1, 2. The Society. 

Archives Italiennes de Biologic (Emery et Mosso), I, 1882 — ^Vll, 2. 

Catalogue des Travaux, 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale V ittorio Emanuele. Bollettino Noe. 1-4. 

The Librarian. 
Societa Geografica Italiana. Bollettino, Ser. II, An. XIX, 11 — XX, 10. 

The Society. 
Societa degli Spettroscopisti Italian!. Memorie XIV, 9— XV, 7. 

The Society. 
St. Gallen. St. Gallische Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. Bericht, 
1883-84. The Society. 

St. John. Natural History Society of New Brunswick. Bulletin, 5. 

The Society. 

St. Petersburg. E. Akademie der Wissenschafben. Repertorium fiir 

Meterologie, IX. Mtooires, XXXH, 14~XXXIV, a BuUetin, 

XXX, 1-3. The Society. 

Bulletin of the same, VI, Ser. IV, 2e Partie, 1. Dr. Asa Gray. 

Comity Geologique Russe. Bulletin, 1885, No. 8—1886, No. 6. M6- 

moires, II, 2. The Survey. 

Hortus Petropolitanus. Acta, IX, 2. Catalogus Syst. Biblioth., Ed. 

Nov., 1886. The Director. 

Physikalisches Central-Observatorium. Annalen 1884, 1, 11. 

The Director. 

Russian Physico-Chemical Society of the University of St. Petersburg. 

Journal, XVII, 7-9 ; XVIII, 1-7. The Society. 

Societas Entomologica Rossica. Horae, XIX. The Society. 

Imp. Russkoye Geografitcheskoye Obschtchestvo. Izviestiya, XXI, 

5— XXII, 3. Zapiski, 1885. 

Salem. Essex Institute. Bulletin, XVH, 4— XVIII, 6. The Society. 

Peabody Academy of Sciences, 18th annual report Memoirs, II. 

The Society. 

Salzburg. Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein. Mittheilungen, 

1885, No. 1-2. The Society. 

San Francisco. California Academy of Sciences. Bulletin Nos. 4 and 5. 

The Society. 

Mercantile Library Association, 38d annual report. The Librarian. 

Semur. Soci^t^ des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles. Bulletin 2e ser., 

No. 1. The Society. 

Staunton. The Virginias, VI, 12. 

Stockholm. Entomologisk Tidskrift, VI, 1-4. The Editor. 

Geologiska Forening. Forhandlingar, VII, 13— Vm, 5. The Society. 

Svenska Sallskabet for Anthropologic och Geografi. Ymer, 1885, Nos. 

5-8. The Society. 

K. Vetenskaps Akademien. Ofversigt, 1885, No. 5—1886, No. 8. 

Bihang, X, 1, 2. 
DCgart. Humboldt, 
Kosmos, 1885, No. 5—1886, No. 3. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Stuttgart. Humboldt, IV, 11— V, 11. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, Geologic und Palseontologie, m. 

Beil. 3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Verein fiir vaterliindische Naturkunde in Wiirtemberg. Jahreshefte, 

42er Jahrg. The Society. 

480 PBOotmiNas or thb ACAbewr or [I88C. 

SwitMrlknd. Sooi^M Belvetiqae dw Bdonce* Nnturellw, (KIbw ■■■![!■. 

SjrdDey. Lloneui Socit>ty of New South WsIm. ProoMdl^B X. a, 4. 

Ftoo. LiniwM) Hall, Oct. ni, UmTi ; sa ner. I, I. 
TumtuiU. Royal Society. Paper*, I'racotdlngK antl R^tiM^ l'"^- 

Tokio. B«i i Kwai. TmninftiniM, SuT>plnm«iat IV, 11— V, ID. The StwlMT. 
Topoks. Wnshtium Laboratory of Natural Htsiory. DwIlotiM, 1, H-t. 

Th« DliMMir. 
Toronto. CaDodiiui iDntltnte. PnxxriAiiurn, nei* mtIm m, S~tV, I. 

^ Th« S«dHy. 

Bntomoloipcal Sooioij, Annuul rop-irt, lf«9, Th« StKlMy. 

ToDloiiM. Aciul^b do* Bilsnctwi, IntcripUona ot BeUv-LstMi. Mi- 

mutTM, Hiiie ser,, VII. 1, 2. 

ncTiin Hyoologiqua. VII, S&-33. Tb» KdHo. 

8oclM<^d'HI«t«rlcNatur«llo. Biitlotln. XIX. Apr.— SapL Compta- 

nudu Hiiiimaira Jaii. O-Mui 10. \*<X6. TlMiSnatMT. 

Tnntnti. Nnturml tlUtory ^^leiety. jnaraal I, 1. TbeSndety. 

TrleaM. Boclftit AdiiaticA dl Scl^iLte NatimUl. BotWuiiu IX, I, C 

Tmro. Royal IiwUtution of Cornwall. Jouni*! VIIl, 4 ; IX. I. 


TriUngen. Der Naturfuntobor, XIX, 1-36. Tbe UtMr. 

Turin. A(>cadMBla Iteale (l<^lla ScLoiim. AtU, XX, t-4. Hoaiani^ ante 

aa. XXXVI. 

MuMi di ZoologU od Anatomin coniparata ddla R. Ufllvnalta. Bot- 

lotlDo I, l-lft. Thm WtmtUK. 

ll«(^o UimemtuHo della Ite^'ia UnivtniU. BuUettinOk XDL 

Vnltod StaWa. American AsuoclatlMi for (lie AiKancaiM^t of ^it^-*. 
Propeedlog^ XXXIII. 1,3; XXXIV. ii - - -■•■ 

American Society of MlcroaoopliitiL Piw- m 

(JpKal. Olwervatoirc de 1' Inivetsiti'. Uulletiii Mcteorologique, XVII. 

The Director. 
l{p);ia Societax Scieiitlanim. Nova Acta, XIII, 1. The Soctetj, 

Utrecht. K. Ncderlandscb Metcorologisdi luslitut. Jaarl>ock, l^t'i. 

Thf Dirw-fr. 

Provincial UtrechtRch OcnootNcliap van KiiniiteD on WetenHrliappen. 

Vcnilap, Ifwr,. Aanteekeiiiiikfen \>''*i ami H'K'i. The Soiieij. 

Valparaiso (Iiulinna). Tho Hoosi.r Naturalist. I, "i, 13. The Kdifr. 

Vali>araisa (Chili). Wiai«iiscliurilicher Vereio zu Santiago Vrrhand- 

lungcn, SU., INko. Dr. I-. Dara|wkv. 

Venice. LAteneo Veneto. Sir. IX, Vol. II, 6-Ser. X, Vol. II. 8. 

The E-litor- 

II. iBtitiito Voncto di Scituze, U'ltere cd Arti. Atti, S. VI, T. IL 1 — 

III, B. Th,- Socivty. 

NoLiriRia, I, 1-1. Thi' Kditor. 

Vienna. K. Akiiilrmic dor Wiwwnschaflen. Siliimgsbericht*', mathrni.- 

natiirw. CliuiHe. LXXXIX, :V Abth. l-i ; XC, ler Ablh. 1-5; Je 

Abth. 1-') ; 3fl 1 r. ; XCI, Ic Alitli. 1-1 ; 2c Abth. l-t. Kce 

iM.T, -ii-l"i lid. ncnkx-liriftvi.. XI.VII, The S-i. ly. 

AntI.r.ii-ili.;:i-.lir(;.'>,-'lMl.:ifL Mittti.'iluii;.'.'!!, XV. l-:l. -I'll.- S.i,-:v 

K. K. i;B.i!..-i>r!i,- Itrid.^:lll^r:ll(. .I.Uiil-iiH., XXXV, 4 ; XXXVI. ',, 

V<TliiiIidlillii;ru, l--'!. Nil. l:t_l>.-ll, Nil. 13. Th.' 

MiLi(Tili.-L-«Oi.> iirul |«(.,ij;i:.i,his,hi> .Mmhciluiiinn T- hcnuik .. 

Neil.. rnkT. VII, :i-(i. 1. V. WilliaiuR-vi Kiiii.l 


Rio de Janeiro. Escola de Minas de Ouro Preta. Annaes No. 4. 

The Director. 
Museu Nacional. Archivos, I, 2-4 ; 11, 1-4 ; HI, 1-4 ; VI. 

The Director. 

Observatoire Imperial. Revista, I, 1-10. The Director. 

Rochester. Ward's Natural Science Bulletin, May 1, 1886. The Editor. 

Rome. R. Accademia dei Lincei. Atti, Serie Quarta, Rendiconti, I, 24 — 

n, 7. Atti, Ser. 2, I— in, 1, 2. The Society. 

Archives Italiennes de Biologie (Emery et Mosso), I, 1882 — ^Vll, 2. 

Catalogue des Travaux, 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale Yittorio Emanuele. Bollettino Nos. 1-4. 

The Librarian. 
Societa Geografica Italiana. Bollettino, Ser. II, An. XIX, 11— XX, 10. 

The Society. 
Societa degli Spettroscopisti Italian!. Memorie XIV, 9— XV, 7. 

The Society. 
St. Gallen. St. Gallische Naturwissenschaftliche Gtesellschaft. Bericht, 
1883-84. The Society. 

St. John. Natural History Society of New Brunswick. Bulletin, 5. 

The Society. 

St. Petersburg. K. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Repertorium fiir 

Meterologie, IX. M^moires, XXXH, 14— XXXIV, 3. Bulletin, 

XXX, 1-3. The Society. 

Bulletin of the same, VI, Ser. IV, 2e Partie, 1. Dr. Asa Gray. 

Comit6 Geologique Russe. Bulletin, 1885, No. 8—1886, No. 6. M6- 

moires, II, 2. The Survey. 

Hortus Petropolitanus. Acta, IX, 2. Catalogus Syst. Biblioth., Ed. 

Nov., 1886. The Director. 

Physikalisches Central-Observatorium. Annalen 1884, 1, II. 

The Director. 

Russian Physico-Chemical Society of the University of St. Petersburg. 

Journal, XVII, 7-9 ; XVIII, 1-7. The Society. 

Societas Entomologica Rossica. Horae, XIX. The Society. 

Imp. Russkoye Geografitcheskoye Obschtchestvo. Izviestiya, XXI, 

5— XXn, 3. Zapiski, 1885. 

Salem. Essex Institute. Bulletin, XVII, 4— XVIII, 6. The Society* 

Peabody Academy of Sciences, 18th annual report. Memoirs, II. 

. The Society. 

Salzburg. Deutscher und Oesterreichischer Alpenverein. Mittheilungen, 

1885, No. 1-2. The Society. 

San Francisco. California Academy of Sciences. Bulletin Nos. 4 and 5. 

The Society. 

Mercantile Library Association, 33d annual report. The Librarian. 

Semur. Soci6t6 des Sciences Historiques et Naturelles. Bulletin 2e ser., 

No. 1. The Society. 

Staunton. The Virginias, VI, 12. 

Stockholm. Entomologisk Tidskrift, VI, 1-4. The Editor. 

Geologiska Forening. Forhandlingar, VII, 13— VIII, 5. The Society. 

Svenska Sallskabet for Anthropologic och Geografi. Ymer, 1885, Nos. 

5-8. The Society. 

K. Vetenskaps Akademien. Ofversigt, 1885, No. 5—1886, No. 8. 

Bihang, X, 1, 2. 

Stuttgart. Humboldt, IV, 11— V, 11. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Kosmos, 1885, No. 5—1886, No. 3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, Geologie und Palseontologie, HI. 

Beil. 3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Verein fiir vaterltindische Naturkunde in Wiirtemberg. Jahreshefte, 

42er Jahrg. The Society. 




Acacia 854 

Acer 61, 344 

Achardocrinus 151, 152 

Achatinella 35 

Achillea 844 

Achradoorinus 115 

Aeolosoma 346 

Agassizoorinus. . . 116, 186-189, 210 

ABagecrinus..78, 79, 82, 87-89, 211 

Alligator 311 

Alveolites 44, 55 

Amblotherium 361 

Ambrosia 844 

Amia 62 

Amoeba 346 

Ampheristocrinus 115, 143 

Amphientomum 17 

Amphiozus 25 

Amphitherium 368 

Anoyracanthus 310 

Ancyrocrinus 79, 80 

Anisocrinus 65, 67 

AnomalocrinuB. .110, 111, 117, 

128, 185, 136 

Anomia > 57 

Antedon .120, 222 

Anthocrinus 66, 71, 74 

Anthraoomartus 231 

Apeltes 233, 248, «51, 252 

Apiocrinus...74^ 187, 218-221, 223 

Aplysla 364 

Arachnoorinus 115, 148, 151 

Area 351 

ArchsBocrinus 142 

Ardea 311 

Ascaris 311 

Astarte 351 

j^^jB^r 344 

Astylocrinidffl '.'.'.' '.W'l 16,' iVs, 186 

AtelestocrinuB 1 15, 145, 147 

Atlas 298 

Auchenia 12 

29 . (488) 


B8Brocrinus..llO, 119-122, 126, 133 

Barrandeocrinus 221 

Baryorinus..ll2, 113, 115, 148, 222 

Batocrinus 75 

BelemnocrinidsB 186 

Belemnocrinus. ..Ill, 116, 117, 

136-139, 146, 149 

Bidens 844 

Blattina 231 

Boa 300 

Bombyx 298 

Botaurus 311 

Botryocrinus 112, 115, 148 

Bubo 811 

Buccitriton 57 

Bungarus.: 300 

BursacrinuB 115, 176, 177 

Byssus 343 

CseciliuB '. .13, 14 

CaBnogonia 848 

Calceocrinidsa 118, 197 

Calceocrinus 116, 192, 202, 205 

Calpiocrinus 67 

Carabocrinus.. 112, 115, 140-143, 149 

Cardita 57 

Carterius 229 

Cassia 314-818 

Castanea 294 

CatillocrinidsB 118, 191 

Catillocrinus 89, 116, 192-196 

Catochaenum 256 

Caunopora 50, 52 

Causus 800 

Ceramocrinus 88, 107, 108 

Cerastes 300 

Ceriocrinus .115, 153, 154 177 

Chama 851 

Chelrocrinus 197 

Circaea. 344, 349 

Clathrodictyon 48-52, 56 

Cleiocrinus 65, 66, 76 


pftocxE&nioB or 

8»-84, WI 

MS, 2IC, ail 

lis, los, isn 

.«, 47. lis, ISS, IW 

cwiBri" »oa 

CUrtMla ffj 

Ooniiu. U4 

OnMBtdU ST, 831 

Crouoorinu* 115, ISS^ I7V-17S! 

Crabloorinllm TO 

CraUkwrian*. .04, (tS. M, efl, 70, 

71}, 7^ 77 

Cnmluitu 818 

CapnMoorlDiui 80,81, 9», 

IMV-lOe, 157, %3l 

CjKlitm^tMm 117, llt& 

CjrtUioorimw. .97, TO, 71, 73, 74, 
IIS, UH, US, 140, 148-190, 

I5S, 1S7, 1«1 

C^iitocrinua tS, OS 

CjMfbjWam , 4fl, 40 

Daotjtucrinu*. 83, ISe, IS?, 142 

Dftdocriniu. IM 

Daeadorrioiu....ll4, US. IM, 

108, 108 

OuidnKXlDltai ISU, 140 

I)aiuiioeriiiiu....lI(^ US, Ita, 

1«. 148 

DSapUinis H^fi, 271 

Dictywitnunii M, .l:i, .Ml 

DldelftilR B13 

Dimeruvriiiua M, dr* 

Dlom*iIlB. 818 

Dtplijphyllum 44, M 

DIplocyDodoQ atiO 

Dlploinonilik 8S 

DUWtra ;... HOD 

DolntooriniuL HO 

Droiuktlierium S0»-&fl3 

E^hmniiUTTi 17 

£drioeriuiii> 110, \»9. 210 

ElltNKKiui \a 

KaoriDtdtu IKl 

Bt>crlDtu..llO, 136, 1S3-1SA, 18S-1H4 

Eiuaioorinu* e4-6», 74, 70 

EDciinidv IIK 

Etuu-UN-riniiK ,,,)% lOT, lim 

^kiuiu , ST5 

Erf»»rriuii«..lll, 114. 110, 197, 

1.-.M-K.5, ITfl 

EoralU 233, 237, S3N, ^39, 

ani, •i.V2 
Euvalyploeriiiuii. 221 

TBI ACADXirr Of [ISSC ^^1 

, no, sn ^H 

KuMctM MB 

M..tOS, 114, IIA, • 
1&3, 184, 1«T, ia«, 17t 

EuptnM>riiiiu"V..V.'.V.'.'.'.ii% 141 

EnanxHiTliK,,.... lit 

En^vdmi 11 

E m M fi m . .... I II StM 

£itncriiu» na, m 

FllarU 90*, SH, SIO, m 

FiwuMtla. SI 

PUtnlola- 110 

FurbMlurriiuu ...OS. ^ OB 

Fnfpcin M* 

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