Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 









1 88 O. 


Joseph Leidt, M.D., Geo. H. Horn, M.D., 

William S. Vaux, Thomas Mebhan, 

John H. Redfield. 

Editor : EDWARD J. NOLAN, M.D. 


S. W. Corner Nineteenth am! Race Street?. 


A« AltKMT or NaTI KAI. SrlK>« KH nK I'Htl.AItKI I'lllA. 

M.irrh, IS'^I 

I lieivl>y certify tliat printeil copietiof the I'rot^tHliujjs for I8><n have I»ih.mi 
l>reMMil€<l at the moetings of the Academy, as follows : — 

Pa«e.H l> to 56 

'u to h*.s 

Hl» tt> 120 
121 to 152 
15:i to 2<H) 
2<a to 21« 
217 to 232 
2:W to 24H 
249 to 2H» 
2M1 to :{2H 
:ttl» t«» :i52 
35:^ to :i*<\ 


23, \^^K 


30, isso. 


ft, 18>*'». 


1, 180O. 


27, ISHi- 


10, \s^K 


17, 1HH<). 

SeptemlHT 7, l^sO. 
J?ept**nil>er2s, lss(i. 
<)ctol>er 12, 1>^**0. 
NovemlKT l», lx>»n. 
Fehniary 22, ISxl. 
March 1, \^^\ . 


API* lD^-** PniH*I« 


With reference to the several articles contributed hy each. 
For Verbal Communicatiuns see <Jener}il Iiulex. 


Allen, HaiTisou. Description of a foetal walrus 88 

On the Temporal and Masseter Muscles of Mammals 385 

Barbeck, Wm. On the Development of Lemna minor. (Plate XVIII.) 280 
Berfrh, R. On the Nudibranchiate Gasteropod Mollusca of the North 
Pacific Ocean, with special reference to those of Alaska. Part II. 

(Plates I.- VIIL). . . .^ 40 

Chapman, H. C. On the Structure of the Or'ang Outang. (Plates 

XI.-XVII. ) 160 

Oenth, F. A., Jr. The So-called Emei-y Ore from Chelsea, Bethel 

Township, Delaware County, Pa : . . 811 

Hart man, W. D. Description of a Partula supposed to be new, from 

the Island of Moorea *i2J» 

Keilprin, Angelo. On the Stratigraphical Evidence afforded by the 

Tertiary Fossils of the Peninsula of Maryland 20 

On some new Lower Eocene Mollusca from Clarke Co., Alabama, 
with some points as to the Stratigraphical Position of the Beds 

containing them i Plate 20) . . 804 

Kingsley, J. S. Carcinological Notes, No. 1 84 

Carcinological Notes, No. 2. — Revision of the Gelasimi. (Plates 

IX. and X.) 185 

Carcinological Notes, No. 8. — Revision of the Genus Ocypoda 179 

Carcinological Notes, No. 4.— Synopsis of the Grapsidae 187 

Leidy, Jos. Rhizopods in the MovSscs of the Summit of Roan Moun- 
tain, North Carolina 888 

Lewis, Henry Carvill. The Optical Characters of some Micas 244 

On Siderophyllite, a new Mineral '. 254 

The Surface Geology of Philadelphia and Vicinity 258 

The Iron Ores and Lignite of the Montgomery Co. Valley 282 

On a new Fucoidal Plant from the Trias 298 

The Trenton Gravel and its relation to the Antiquity of Man 200 

On Philadelphite (Sp. Nov. i 818 

Lockington, W. N. On a Pacific Species of Caulolatilus 18 

Description of a new species of Hemitripterus from Alaska 288 

Description of a new species of Catostomus (Catostomus Cypho) 

from the Colorado River 287 

McCook, Rev. H. C. The Shining Slaveniaker. — Notes on the Archi- 
tecture and Habitsof the American Slave-making Ant, Polyergus 

lucidus (Plate 19) 870 

Rand, Tlieo. D. On Randite 274 

Report on Plants introduced by means of the International Exhibition, 

1876 \ 182 

Vodges, Anth. W. Description of a new Cnistacean from the Upper 

Silurian of Georgia, with i-emarks upon Calymene Clintoni 17<> 

* 9 


a vital power, tliat thoy were soon killed when Revere weather 
oceiirre<l. In the jrni|)e vine, for instance, the extreme ends of the 
Htronjx branches and whole lenp^ths of weaker ones died during 
the winter. These remained on till cut away hy the pruner, or 
until they fell by natural decay. In the Ampehpsis named they 
were thrown otf by an articulation, so that by spring no dead 
wood of the j)ast season's growth would l>e found on the plants. 
Every ncwle inclu<ie<l in the dead jiortion, separated ; so that under 
the plants the pieces may he gathered like the separate vertebne 
in a skeleton. 

The AmpHlopstA, when running up a tree or wall, seldom sent 
out lateral bnmches till it reached the summit. When thest* side 
branches were |)roduced, they appeared. after a few years, as thick 
bushy masses, having the look of a hedge annually pruned. It 
appears that in these cases the annual growth is disarticulated at 
just one node alK»ve that one made last year— the branch thus 
gaining but one node a year. A bushy branch of a dozen years 
old, will thus have but a dozen nodes of living wood. 

The observations were of some interest just now, from the dis- 
covery of a s|x»cics of Vitin in the South Pacific, which produced 
tubers at the end of the branches, whi(rh at the end of the S€»ason 
were thrown off bv a disarticulation, and in this way aide<l in 
propagation and distribution. Though the disarticulation in the 
neighboring genus Am]>t'lopifiif^ as now noted, results only in 
ridding the plant at i)nce of useless woml, it showed a relation of 
p4>wers in allied sjH'cies that must Ik' of service to those engaged 
ill studies of derivation. 

(ieo. Vaux was ek»cted a member of the Council to serve for 
the unexpired term of (\ Xewlin Pierce. Aubrej H. Smith was 
elected to M»rve f(»r the unexpire<l term of Edw. T>. Coim'. 

January 20. 
The President, I>r. KrsciiENBRRORR, in the chair. 
FoKy jierscms present. 

Soiice of the Cruel Thread Worm^ FUaria immitin^ of the 
Ihxj, — Prof. Lkii>v cUrccttHl attention to a specimen, presenttMl by 
Mrs. Laura M. Towne, of Beaufort, S. (\, consisting of the heart 
and part of one lung of a <log, containing thread worms. The 
right ventricle of the heart and the pulmonary artery contained a 
iHiuoh of the |Mirasites, anil si»veral also were contained in the 
lung. A similar s|K>(Miuen, with the ventricle literally stutfWi full 
of worms, is preservi»<l in the musi*um of the University of Penu- 

: ^"O *; HiTtiiii ^ii%*i.« i-r riiiMi I M-iii % 


l'r«- 1 • I I »•* : t!|i» \' I li IJ;\ ikt. tt r t !■• l. %li • • • -f /' ■ ' : .l • 

■ •iri • I'll / .Til i»'i' *•« I'r-" l».i' !)• I*»» J * * h 

%u I • t • !. i« ' •• • n r» |-« kN ■ I'l \ If ■! • • >l \'\ • ''o 1 ^ « r « ■ ^ .f.*> •! iiiif 

tht '.- -i|M'-|t.|:i>.i <!. lit .li|--iiiiii-l!!i.^ . !:. 

Id - ; • • . IF • ii {.fi <• iitt ■ t • •> ■!• < • -111}' iii.« •! M .* !. I i *. • ; f;« •III 

Mf* I •• 'i- .• V 11/ i!' !■ " Milt • * I'h ■ • ■ ■ rit I.- • »fi I -• . • fn* 

■ ' I ' • . ■ . T I • ? . « « ! • . 1 • w • 


Vi. •• 

• !■ « 

1*1 1. 

. r t 

n \ ' 

«i» 1 . 

• *• 

♦ ■ 
1- •■ 

m» • 


\\f . 

•» . \ 

i ■ 

•l* » 

■:. T 

V t ' 

? . * ■ 
• If 

•'••■••'• i ^- • r iliTf. n I.! I ri • 1. I,'. i!i I ' • : I I • • • :tli 
1 i ..•.;' '-i-* » *. \i ri .III 1 !-•'.! «' • ■ ..'.'* ! ^' ' ' • 1 rifi 
\ . ■ I * : . ■ I ■ i . i . ^- t . • . I.I ^' i , f ■ I . I , t ■• , 1 1 ■ i : ' I ^«*a 
' "^ • I I t t I -t . I . r M I* •. '.■•'., I - . • Hit 

• * « M. • I . ••; . » \ 't I r . l:i-« 1 %» ». • . I fi . ! t» . r^- 

. - ' *• \\ I 'i \ w • T- -i I If .:• \t w : ■ .; " I'l 1 III \f«| I 
. ♦. • . ! lit', r 1-1 t fi. I* ■■ ;. .f ' -1. !.. m • :!• 

■ •• « ■ . : ■ . \ \ ..!.'••• ! • ■ • I . .' / * ■ ' fij: 
.• I ' • ■! { I.' • • . • . • I ■>. . . r -. * ' ■ . »iil 
r t ' • . M ; • . 1 • \ ! ' i ■ I / 1 • V ■...'» . • » I - . . t • < 
• r i! t • twil..-- !.i.l »■ •'.' -\!i •.-III 

••!■•• : \ • . :.l V 4« il (. ■,•-. ■ I » •!r%' ,•• »••!•. 
-I" fc* ' ,. I .1 .. ,, ! ,. \ - * riit 

. . I .'*•■. 'i. ■ • • .. I •• •!! •' ■ '..Mr • K. 1 

1 .' • -I '■ /^ii I" ' ■.*.•: ■ . - -! \ ]■'.'« .v., n it ♦» 

• • I 1 i! r ■'-• • I ! .! I i*i * • I'l.i- , f*t 

I ■ I ■• -• - \ >'..'.* . '■«• I -• fiT 


t • 

'• . 

ft! f 


. II - . r 

t • ■ 

) :.' 

I • 

■■- t . I I I • 1 •• . 

I . • 


.It 1 

■ ■ 

■ . r - . . ' • 1? I !. I I ! ?i. -? • li • • • • 'If 

■«■ ] _-*i» •■.• '.j;-rt\il"'.'»»' « • *»•■ 

* ' . . ■ • [• 1 '. 1 -r J I; - '.• * I •■ • ' !■ lit 

I . t. •. i . _• : :• • ^ t ■ I *• ' ••'! 

: • . . • _■ i 1 • . \ «» f • I « 1 • I ! » . . . «• ; I r* 

■ f •• I It- 

r •, • . V . 

• - • 

I ' 

t ■ I 


I •• ' m • ■ , : . r • .•' ' ' - ■ m 

\ • 

■ • » k* I 

• • 

•'. r' • . it . •. • . I. ■ 

• • 

. . • .• |. .: I r 

I. i\ I- . »• I IT. •• 

I \ 

* • 

■ • .ft 111 •■ ^^ #• I 


' ,• 

• • 

• • 

• t«. 

1 * 

II. ff 



.-. f 




• . f* 

.» ^ 


heart, the wormH burst forth in bunches, slowly uncoiling them- 
selves. They were white, stiff ami wire-like, and not in tlie least 
stained with blood. They lived in water about twenty-four lionrs. 
The large blooil-vessels of the lungs were filled densely, and even 
from the small ones long Filarite were with some difficulty with- 
drawn. No worms were found in the kidneys." 

January 27. 
The President. Dr. RrscHENBEROKR, in the chair. 
Nineteen jH^rsons present. 

A |)aper entitled *' Carcinological Notes, No. 2. Re vision of 
the (lelasimi/' by J. S. Kingsley, was prcsentetl for publication. 

The deatli of Thomas M. Brewer, a corres|>ondent, w:is an- 

Chas. W. Pickering, John S. Jenks, Wm. If. Jenks, A. K. 
Thomas, Ferris W. Price, John Wagner, Chas. P. Tasker, Henry 
F. Formad and George W. Biddle were elected meml»ers. 

Angelo lleilprin, of New York, Dr. C. A. White, of Washing- 
ton, Albert De Selle, of Paris, R. Hoemes, of Vienna, (ieorges 
Rolland, of Paris, and Victor Raulin, of Bordeaux, were electtMl 

The following were onlere«l to be printed : — 



In the Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1865, pp. 66-68, Dr. Gill 
enumerates four species of his genus GaulolatiluH^ one of them, 
G, chrysops (Latilus chrysops, Val.) from the Atlantic, the others 
from the Pacific Ocean. 

These species are ; C, anomalus {=Dekaya anomalus^ Cooper), 
G. princeps (=Latilus princeps^ Jenyns), and G, affinis^ Gill. 
The first and second of these are stated to differ in the proportion 
between the length of the posterior dorsal spines and the distance 
between the dorsal fin and the lateral line ; as well as in the length 
of the pectoral ; while the third species (characterized from a 
specimen about three inches long) is described as follows : " Pro- 
file quadrant, in front almost vertical; Greatest height less than 
four times (.27) in the length (exclusive of the caudal), that of 
caudal peduncle about nine times. Head more than ^j^ of the 
length, while its height is to its length as 22^ : 31. Diameter of 
eye equal to almost ^ the height of the head. Preorbital very 
narrow. Teeth of preoperculum strong and distant ; those of the 
middle directed obliquely upwards. Sixth dorsal spine equal to 
I of the length. Anus behind the middle of the length. Caudal 
rather exceeding the height of the head. Pectorals equal to J of 
the length. Ventrals shorter (.18) inserted beneath the base of 
the pectoral, its spine at the vertical of the upper axil. D., vii, 
25. A., ii, 22. P., 18. Color reddish brown on head and back, 
lighter on the sides. A very distinct blackish spot above the 
axilla of the pectoral. Localit}', Cape St. Lucas." Dr. Gill 
states his belief that the large eyes and the narrow preorbital are 
characters of youth ; and, moreover, hints a doubt as to the spe- 
cific identity of G. princeps and (7. anomalus, but thinks it 
scarcely probable on account of the few species known to be 
common to Lower California and the Galapagos, the localities 
from which the types of (7. anomalus and G, princeps were re- 
spectively procured. 

As I have lately obtained two individuals of a species of Gaulo- 
latilus in the markets of San Francisco, I contribute a tolerably 
full description, embodying the characters of the two (which 
eWdently belong to the same species) and notes upon the 
peculiarities of each. The difference in some of the proportions 

14 P1lOCE£DIlfO« or THE ACADEMY OP [1880. 

t)etw<*<'ii these two individuals has almost convinced me of the 
identity of C. princepn and C.anomalus; and I am inclined to 
think it prolmlile that the type of C. affinia is only a somewhat 
abnormal sjH*eimen of the same species. The chief differences 
between the smaller of my 8|>ecimens and the type of C, affinitt 
are tlie more < j uad ran ti form outline and greater length of the head 
and tlie smaller numlx^r of dorsal spines and anal rays in the latter 

As, however, the form of the head differs so considerably in 
individuals evidently lK»longing to the same species, Um much 
stress must not Ik? lai<l on the former character; and the variation 
in tlie numlM*r of dorsal spines (viii-ix) and dorsal and anal fin- 
rays in s]K*eimens of undoubted C. anomalus on record, forbid us 
to think the latter a fK>sitive character. 

It is quite |H)ssible that an individual may have acquired the 
fonn of head of the adult, while still of small dimensions. The 
dorsal spine may l)e expt»cted (judging from the two si)ecimens 
here deseribed) to increase in their projiortional length inversely 
to the size of the fish. 

If my conjecture l>e correct (and I only give it as a conjecture), 
then there is only one Pacific 8j)ecie8 at ])resent known, ranging at 
least from the (iaIa])agos to the Bay of Monterey, near Sun Fran- 
cisco ; representing in this ocean the C, vhrynopH of the Atlantic, 
and varying somewhat accortling to age and locality. To thor- 
oughly settle the (piestion, a thorough examination of several 
s]KM*iniens from the Gala])agos, and a comparison of them with 
others from Lower and Up|K*r California, will Ik' necessary. 

Presuming, for the occasion, that they are identical, the 
synonymy will Ik* as follows: 

OamloUUliii priaotpt (Jenjn*), Gill. 

LttUlui princepMj Jeiiyns, Zool. Bca^^le, 52, pi. 11. 
LiidluipriMept, Giinther, Cat. FihIi. British Museum, II, p. 253. 
Dekayti anomala^ Cooper, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil., 1H65, p. 68. 
Caulolutilui arwfn4tlui. Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci., Cal., 1H05, p. 08. 
CttuUAatilui tijflniMj (till, loc. cit. 

CauloUttilui anofiuilui. Streets, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 7, p. 48, 

I>. viii-ix. 2,V2«. A. ii. 24-20. P. 19-20. V. l i\ ac. i:i-14. 
i\ 13. 

General DeHvrijttion. — Profile more or less decurve<l, the curva- 
tun* increasing with age; i>osterior portion of dorsal outline 
nearly straight ; abdominal outline regularly curved. Greatent 


depth slightly less than four to rather more than fives times in the 
total length ; head, 4f-4f in the same. Greatest thickness about 
2^ in the greatest depth. Eye, 4-5 times ; snout, 3-3^ times in 
the length of the head. Interorbital width, measured round the 
curve of the forehead, 2|-2^ in the same. Caudal peduncle, 3-4 
times in the greatest depth. Distance from the spinous dorsal to 
the lateral line, jj-lj times in the height of the last dorsal spine. 
Nostrils conspicuous, on the horizon of the centre of the pupil, an- 
terior with a valve posteriorly ; posterior larger, simple, subcircular, 
distant from the eye about one-third of the diameter of the latter. 

Eyes large, lateral, subcircular, their posterior margin nearer 
the tip of the operculum than that of the snout. 

Mouth slightly ascending forwards ; tip of the intermaxillary 
level with the lower margin of the orbit ; posterior extremity of 
maxillary nearly vertical with the anterior orbital margin. Max- 
illary narrow throughout, its posterior portion free, but the 
greater part of its upper edge concealed behind the large preorbital 
in the closed mouth. Jaws equal in front in the closed mouth. 
Teeth in jaws in several rows in front, diminishing to a single row 
farther back on the sides, rather small, slender, acute, recurved at 
tip, but those in front of the mandible in the outer row inclined 
forwards. Teeth in front largest, those on the sides diminishing, 
but the hindermost tooth on each side of each jaw more or less 
developed as a canine, though still shorter than the anterior teeth. 

No teeth on vomer or palatines. Upper pharyngeals set with 
sharp, irregularly spaced, cardiform teeth; lower pharyngeals with 
an outer and inner row of similar teeth, with some irregularly placed 
teeth between the rows. Lower pharyngeals entirely separate. 

Gill-rakers of front of first branchial arch slender, rather stiff, 
about ^ the diameter of the eye, all the others tubercular. 

Hinder border of preoperculum vertical, very slightly curved, 
lower angle rounded, set with teeth which slightly increase in 
size at the angle, but do not extend along the lower border. 
Operculum ending behind in a broad flat spine. 

Dorsal commencing above the upper pectoral axil, very long, 
the tips of its terminal rays reaching the caudal accessories ; the 
length of its base about half the total length of the fish ; spinous 
dorsal 3§-4 times in the total length of the fin, and lower than the 
soft portion. First dorsal spine shortest, the others increasing 
rapidly to the fifth, more slowly to the eighth or ninth ; the longest 
6^-8 times in the total length of the fin. 


Soft dorsal continuous with the spinous portion, and aimoet 
equal in height throughout, the last ray excepted. Last raj 
much shorter than the others. Height of soil dorsal, in front 
5^7 J times in the total length ; many of the rays simple, some 
slightly bifurcate at the tip, the two or three last rays twice 

Anal commencing under fifth dorsal ray, its length about | of 
that of the dorsal, with which it is coterminous. Anal spines very 
small, closely adpresseil to the first rays ; rays similar and about 
equal in length to those of the dorsal, the last much shorter than 
the others. Pectoral lanceolate, the seventh ray longest, the rays 
decreasing rapidly on each side, the lowest scarcely one-fiflb as 
long as the seventh. Length to tip of longest ray l^-lj in that 
of the head. Most of the rays twice branched, tip of the longest 
reaching a little beyond the anus. Base of pectoral slightly 

Ventrals inserted under the hinder margin of the pectoral base, 
their tips not reaching to the anus ; their length about | tliat of 
the pectoral ; the last four rays twice bifurcate. 

Caudal alK>ut one-sixth of the total length, with numerous acces> 
sor}' rays, causing a widening of the caudal base ; principal rays 
three times forked ; hinder border deeply and triangularly eniar- 
ginate, almost forkecl. 

Lateral line indistinct, tubes simple; alK>ut 145 scales in its 
length, parallel or nearly so with the dorsal outline. 

Aliout fortv scales l)etwecn the ventrals and the lateral line, and 
thirteen alnivc the latter. Scales of body almost rectangular, their 
longitudinal excH'eding the transverse diameter, the free margin 
finely ctenoid. All the scales small, those of the alxlomen rather 
smaller than the others, especially front of the paired fins. 

Scales extending U|N>n the cheeks and opercular apimnitus, but 
the snout and fon*head to alK)ve the centre of the eyes, the up|>er 
lM»nlor of the orl>its ; preopercular margin, jaws and gill-membrane 

No scales u|H)n ilorsal or anal ; caudal covered with small scales 
*<»ver the greater portion of its surface. Pectorals more or less 
scaly exteriorly near the liase, the scales extending farther l)etwet»n 
the (*entRd than U'tween the lateral rays. 

Color leaden-gray, lH»t»oming <larker al>ove, but fading to a dirty 
creamy -white 1k»Iow. Vertical fins slaty-gray. Dorsal surface of 
head darker than the rest of the body. 




The two specimens on which the above description is principally 
founded were procured in the market of San Francisco, and were 
bronght from the vicinity of Monterey Bay. One is an adult, the 
other an immature individual, and the two present considerable 
variation in externa) form, and in the proportions of some of the 
parts, as will be evident by the dimensions and further description 
of each specimen here appended. 

DufEKsiONs OF THE Two Specimeks. No. 1. No. 2. 


. 17.75 10.05 

Total length, including eaudal, 
Length without caudal, . . . 14.65 

Greatest depth oi body, . . . 4.50 

Greatest thickness of body, . . . 2.38 

Length of bead, 3.74 

Circumference behind base of pectorals, 10.88 

Longitudinal diameter of eye, . . .80 

Length of snout, . . . . . 1.35 

Intexorbital width, round curve of forehead, 1.75 
From ti^ of snout to dorsal, along dorsal 

outline, 4.75 

Length of base of dorsal fin, . . . 8.96 
**- " " spinous dorsal, . . 2.40 
Frmn tip of lower jaw to anal, along ab- 
domen^ . ^ . . . 8.' 
Length of base of anal, .. .. . . 5.02 

Length of peetoral base, . ... .87 

Length of pectoral to tip of longest ( 7^ ' ) ray, 3.36» 

From tip of snout to insertion of ventrals, 4.46 
Length of ventrals, 


ght of fii*8t dorsal spine. 



























" seventh*' 

eighth ** 

ninth " 
Distanee from Ist dorsal to lateral line. 
Height of soft dorsal, in front, 
Depth of anal, . . ^ . 
Width of eaudal peduncle, . 
Length of lower jaw, 

*' ** maxillary, along its curve, 

Rays of dorsal^ ix-26 

^' anal, . . • . • iir25 




















































































Further DeHcrxption of No, 1. — Snout very declivous, dorsal 
outline in advance of the dorsal rising rapidly, owing to a great 
accumulation of adipose tissue about the upper part of the bodj* ; 
posterior part of dorsal outline regularly descending almost in a 
straight line ; alnlominal outline regularly curved. 

Ureatest depth a little less than four times; head, 4 J times in 
the total length; greatest thickness, IJ in the great4?st depth. 
Eye, 4JJ ; snout, 3, interorbital width (round curve of forehead), 
2} times in the length of the head. Caudal |)eduncle, four times 
in the greatest depth. Distance from the spinous dorsal to the 
lateral line, measured along the curve of the side, one-third longer 
than the longest spine. 

Denticulations of preoperculum rather blunt ; opercular spine 

Teeth somewhat irregular, canines less distinct in the 

Anal spines short and weak, but stiff, and distinctly rci*og- 
nizable as spines ; the first ver}' short, the second al)out half aK 
long as the first ray. 

Lat4»ral line less conspicuous than in the young. 

Upi)er pnrt of the head and along the line of the l)ack approach- 
ing a chocolate tint. 

Vertical fins darker nearer the miirgin. Xo black spot alK>ve 
peirtoral axil. 

The whole' fi'<h is exceedinjjlv oilv, and the abundant exudation 
of this oil renders it exceedingly disiigreeable to handle. 

Further Description of No. 2. — Dorsal outline from tip of lower 
jaw to vertical from posterior margin of eye,«nuch less convex 
than in the adult ; rise from thence to the ongin of the dorsal 
very slight ; a gradual descent in an almost stniight line from 
thence to the caudal pcnluncle. AlMlominal outline regularly 
curved to caudal |KHluncle. Greatest depth, 5J; length of head, 
42 times in the total length ; eye, 4 times; snout, alw^ut 3J timcH 
in the length of the he.«id. Interorbital width, measured roumi 
it* curve, alniut one-firth more than the length of the snout, or 
iy in the length of the head. Caudal ]K'duncle, 3 times in the 
greatest depth. 

Distance from the s]>inous dorsal, at its ]>osterior part, to the 
lateral line, nearly H in the length of t-lie longest spine, and less 


than one-third of the seraicireumference of the body. Longest 
(9th) dorsal spine, 2J in the length of the head. 

Forehead and occiput transversely much less arcuate than in 
the adult, the large deposit of fat on these parts in the latter being 
absent in the young. 

Opening of mouth slightly less oblique than in the adult, the 
maxillary extending a little farther back. Teeth much as in the 
adult, but the hindmost tooth in each jaw, but especially in the 
upper, assuming more distinctly the propoilions of a canine, 
though still smaller than the front teeth. 

Denticulations of operculum proportionately more conspicuous, 
and more acute than in the adult, opercular spine ending in three 

Ninth dorsal spine, 6^ times in the length of the fin, about 2^ 
in the greatest depth. Rays of soft dorsal about 2^ in the great- 
est depth, the antepenultimate ray slightly produced. Anal spines 
closely attached to the first ray, very small ^fiexible, and scarcely 
recognizable as spines. 

A black spot above the upper axil of the pectoral ; upper parts 
without the warm tint of the adult. No large development of 
adipose tissue. 

Since the above paper was written, a third specimen of Gaulola- 
iilus from the same locality has come into the possession of the 
California Academy of Sciences. This example is about equal in 
length to the larger of the two described, but the development of 
fat upon the occiput is much less marked, so that its proportions 
are very nearly those of the type of G, anomalus. 

Although I am perfectly aware that specimens from the Gala- 
pagos would be required to settle the question of the identity of 
G. princeps with G. anomalus and (7. affinis, I believe that the 
comparison of these three examples, evidently all of one species, 
and sharing among them characters relied upon as specific, cer- 
tainly throws great doubt upon the distinctness of the three de- 
scribed species. Dr. Bean (in lit,) doubts the specific identity of 
the two specimens described in this paper, and draws attention to 
certain differences of proportion, but the only differences of mag- 
nitude are those caused by the development of fat on the occi 




The Tertiary depoaits of Maryland have from time to time 
iittraotcd the attention of investigators more or less eminent in 
their special lines of research, the results of whose observations, 
owinjf to the then im|>erfect state of American geologi(»al and |>ale- 
4intologieal science, only very gradually tended to unfold the truif 
relations existing K^tween the synchronous formations of the 
east-Atlantic and west-Atlantic countries. 

Maclure, on the map accompanying his " Observations of the 
<ieology of the United States " (1817), classtnl all the late super- 
ficial deiK)sits of Maryland under the general term *' Alluvial," 
which term was likewise applied to almost the entire border 
4le]M>sits of the Atlantic and Gulf 8lo|H*8. In 1824 (J. A. X. 8., 
vol. iv) Hay descril)cd alK>ut forty sjK»cie8 of fossil shells collectiMl 
by Mr. Finch from the same state, but excepting some passing 
retlt»ctions on the nature of the deposit whence they were obtained, 
and on the great resemblance existing l»etween some of the formn 
and forms still living on the coast, no special geological infert»nce« 
wen* drawn from tlie collection. From a comparative examination 
of the contained fonsils. Van Kcnsselaer (" Lecturers on (b»ology," 
lH2r>. p. 2t»l ) subsetiuently referred the deposits in <piestion to 
the Vp|H*r Marine fi»nnation, which view was concurri'd In by 
Morton in a pa|K»r n»ad iK'fore the Aca<lemy of Natural Sciences 
<»f IMiiladelphia in June, 182H. In a previous paper ("Geological 
Observations on the Secondary, Tertiary, and Alluvial Forma- 
tions." J. A. N. S., January, 1828), published conjointly by 
Vanuxem an<l Morton, no attempt was made to correlate the various 
divisions of the American and European Tertiary formations. 

Conrad, who, more than any other American geologist, con- 
tributed Ut advance our knowlwlge of the geolog>* and paliNm- 
t<»t<»gy of this latest jHTiod, was tlu» f1i*st to riHM>gnize the exist4»iice 
of at least three clistinct |M)st-Secondarv formations in M dryland, 
the ohlest of which he identified l»y a series of a few fossils found 
near Ft. WashingUm.on the Potomac, as lM>longing to the KiK»ene, 
and the newest, as ex|>oscd on the southeast extrt»mity of the 
pt*ninsula, to the Post-lMiocene (J. A. N. 8., vol vi, and Bulletin 




of the National Institution, 1841). The intermediate deposits 
were classed as the Upper Marine, but subsequently under LyelPs 
designation of Miocene. Conrad's original observations were in 
general confirmed by his later researches, and the relations of at 
least a great portion of the Miocene of Maryland, as well as of 
almost the entire Atlantic slope, were clearly pointed out by 
Lyell in 1846 (Proc. of the Geolog. Soc, vol. iv, p. 547). 

It is mainly in relation to this last formation that we wish to 
draw special attention, there being but little question concerning 
the original determination of the Eocene and Post-Pliocene 
(Pliocene?) deposits. That the great bulk of the deposits known 
as the Medial Tertiary of Maryland are not synchronous with 
the South Carolina deposits classed by Tuoraey and Holmes as 
Pliocene, an assumed fact insisted upon by Conrad, and for which 
there appears to be no evidence, an examination of the following 
table of mollusca will clearly demonstrate : 

Lamellibranehiata of the Xedial Tertiary Formations of Maryland. 

Anomia ephippiumf* Cardita protracta, 
Amphidesma carinata,* '* granulata,^ 

*' subovata, Cardium laqueatum, 

Area callipleura, " acutilaquea- 

(— A. dipleura?), turn. 











Corbula cuneata,* 
'* idonea, 
" elevata^ 
" inequalis,* 

Crassatella Marylandica, 


Leda concentrica, 

Lima papyria, 

Lepton (?) mactroides, 

Lueina anodonta,* 

(— L. Americana), 




Artemis acetabulum,* 
'* concentrica, 

{= A, elegansf)f Cytherea Sayana,* 
Astarte vicina, 

Cardita arata,* 







turgidula, Mactra incrassata, 
melina, '* ponderosa, 

uudulata,* *' fragosa, 

'* Bubcuneata, 
albaria,* ** delumbis, 

(= C. idonea), Modiola Ducatellii, 
Marylandica, Mya producta. 

Isocardia fratema, 
" Markoei, 
Leda liciata, 
" acuta,* 
" (Yoldia) l»vi8, 
*• (Nucula) proxima. 

Mytilus incurva, 
Ostrea Virginica,* 
" percrassa,* 
PanopoM, Americana, 
(— P. Goldfussi ?') 





Pect«n Madisoniuft, 
concent ricus, 
IV*ctnnculus pariliis^ 





Fema inaxillataf Tellioa lenit, 

Petri col a ccntonaria,* Venus tetrica, 

Plicatula marpnata,* 
Pholadoinya abrupt a,* 
Pliolas ovaliR, 

(— P, coitatafi* 
S<ixir4tra rugo$a, 
8oUn eruii.* 
Tcllina aHjuistriata, 













Rileyi .* 


Fubovatus * 



The Rpocies in ittilics are Ktill Hvinj; on the American coasts; those fol- 
lowed by an * are described by Tuomey and Holmes as occurring in Cbe 
Pliocene fonnation of South Carolina. 

[NoTJu — Tlu» pro(H'(lin<r tabU* has U'eii rompiled as a(*curatelv 
a** |M)ssibK' fmin tlio various |»a|H»rs iHTtaininjr to the i>aliv>ntolog\- 
of the StMtr. hut owiiii; to their numl»er. and to the numorouH 
puhlieations in whieh they have l>een spread, it has proved irnpof^ 
sihle to e«>lhMt theui all. and no doubt s<»nie frw s|K'eies will Ik* 
found oeeunini; in the State which have eseajxHl our notice. 

Thest» will probablv be vcrv few in numl)er. and will not tnateriallv 

• • • • 

HlftH't the ireiiend etuieiusion. The f(dlowinj[ twenty-two s|KH*ie!i. 
niainlv thoM' dcserilK'd bv Sav from the eolleetion of Mr. Fiiioh 

• • • 

(.1. A. N. S., \(d. iv), have no statiMl looalitv : Area f^nirnaria, 
A. imfro'tTfi^ A, incilt\ Astartr tiiainn.^^ CrnsaoteUa umlnlnta^ 
Lniti (irnfn, L. i'nurt'ntrira^ L. prarima^ L. Urvis^ Lnrinn mn- 
tnirfa^ I., tlirnrirnfa, L. y»//>«»^//</K/i, Pannppfa retlt'xa, Prcfen 
Jt'fr*'rsnin'(s^ /*. Cltufonnis. /\ conrt'iifricua^ P. ^f7>/#'/Kinwx, /Vc- 
tnnrulus sufun-ftfiiM, Piit-nfula matyinata, Trlh'na /r/yuiWriVi/fl, 
IV/n/." ilt*f''>rmis {frui'irnnidrs)^ and W 7?Jf'v?.] 

It will tlui** Ik* srrn. that «>f alH>ut one hundnNl 8|XH*ies of 
bivalve^, only thirt\-»»i\ {'M\ |H»r cent.) Ji re <*onnnon to alxuit an 
eipial nmnU r (lo.'>) from the South Carolina dej>osits : and 
further. l!i:it . >\herea*i, »>f the preeiMlinu einnueration of Maryland 
niollu«»r:i nhh nboui fif'tfru ikt cent, are ree.'Ut forms, no h'jis 

• s 

than /'"/•'/ I ••!• <ent, (or a«'<M)nlini; to Tuomcv and Holmes, nearlv 
fiOy |wi niit.) oftht* Soutli rarolina PlitxM'iU' (Conr*i«rs MiiH'eno) 
bivalve inolbi<ra an* still livin*;. Thrre remains, therefore, no 
question pf^ardini: tlie irlativc a^res of the two t'oriuations. 

An *'\aiiiiuatii»ii i*\' tlie fos»<iliferous strata ex|M>sed in sections 
at variouH jM^int^ on the western shon* of rhe?<a|H»ake Bay, iu 


Anne Arundel and Calvert Counties, on the Patuxent River, near 
Benedict, and on the St. Mary's River, St. Mary's County, tend 
to show, moreover, that the series of deposits intermediate between 
the Eocene of Fort Washington and the Pliocene of the south- 
east extremity of the peninsula belong to two different periods of 
formation, an older and a newer; those belonging to the latter 
period being characterized by a fauna, the proportion of living 
forms in which is far in excess of that in the former. Sections 
of the newer deposits are exhibited in Calvert County, near Cove 
Point, on the Patuxent River, below Benedict, at about water 
level, on the same river, further north, in the deposits above the 
Perna beds, and more especially on the St. Mary's River, St. 
Mary's County. The older deposits are best shown in the oyster 
l>ed8, rising a few feet above tide-water, at Fair Haven, Anne 
Arundel County (which point was considered by Conrad as the 
northern termination of the peninsular Miocene formation), in 
similar beds, also only a few feet above water level, at a point 
about twenty miles further south (" Colonel Blake's," of Conrad), 
in the sections exhibited by the Calvert Cliffs, and in the Perna 
l)eds on both banks of the Patuxent River. There is, further, 
strong, although not conclusive evidence, for considering the beds 
containing Perna maxiUata and Ostrea perci^ansa as the lowest 
of the series. 

The following tables exhibit as nearly as possible the distribu- 
tion of Lamellibranchiata in the deposits of both periods, those 
of the newer being for convenience ^of comparison divided into 
the Patuxent and St. Mary's groups : 


1 Area dipleura, 11 Corbula elevata, 

(= A. calilpleuray), 12 Crassatella melina, 

2 " Maryland ica, 13 " turgidula, 
.S " subrostrata, 14 Cytherea subnasuta, 

4 " triquetra, 15 Isocardia Markoei, 

5 Artemis acetabulum, IG Leda liciata, 

l> Astarte varians, IT Lima papyria, 

7 " exaltata, 18 Lucina Foremani, 

8 Cardium craticuloides, 19 ** subplana, 

9 " leptopleura, 20 " crenulata, 
10 Corbula idonea, 21 Mytilus incurva, 


22 Mo<lio1a Pueatclii, 29 Pcma maxillata) 

23 Ostri'a porcrassa^ 30 Pholas ovalis, 

24 Pano|)»^a{K)rrocta((}ol(lfus8i) (= P. cosMaf) 
2«S IVoton Humphrcysii, 31 Tcllina lenis, 

20 '^ Miulisonius, 32 Venns aloeata^ 

27 Poctiincuhis parilis 33 '' stamin^a, 

28 ** lentiformiH, 34 ** Mortonif 


1 ATiomia Oonradi, 13 Lueina Americana, E^ 

(-- A,rf>fnppinmf)^ (— Z^ Floridana)^ 

2 Area idoiion, SU M., 14 Mactm inorasRata^ 
^ ArU*tut8 acetabulum, St M., 15 Mya proilucta^ 

4 Astartc undulata, ^t. M. IG Panopxa Americana^ 

^ Canlita prot facta, 17 ** porrecta (Gold- 

f> Cardium la<pieatuni, SU M., fussi)^ St« M.. 

7 Carbula klonea, St. M., K,, 18 Peeten Madi8oniu8,8t. M.^ K.. 

8 Crassatella Marylaiidica, K., 19 Petricola centenaria> 
t) Cythvrea Sayana^ St. M.^ 20 Pholas ovalis, 

10 ^ Marylandiea, {^ P. coMataJ)^ St M„ 

11 ** allmria, 21 Tellina biplicala, E., 

12 Isocardia fratema, 8t. M., 22 VentiA Mortonit St M. 

IK ST. Mary's group. 

1 Amphidesma earinata,t 14 Corbula idonea, 

2 *' »ul)ovata,t 15 Cytherea Sayana^ 

3 Area idonea^ IB ** (-<! r/^?n in) con wn- 

4 ** arata,t trica^f 

6 *• stiliridiuiii.t (^ A, elegannt), 
fi Artemis acetabulum^ 17 Isocardia fraterna, 

7 Astiirte undulata, IS Lueina cribraria,t 

H *' plnnulatn^t 19* Maetra ponderosa,f 

( -^ A. |HTi)lann?), 20 " Hu)K*uneata,t 

9 '* vicina.t 21 *' fVajfosa^f 

10 Canlitu j:ranulata,t 22 *' delumbis,t 

11 Canlium laqueatura« 23 Ostrva Virgifiicayf 

12 Corbula inequalis.t 24 Pano|)iea porrecta, 
13* ** eune.itn,+ L'5 Pwten MadinoniuH, 

* Corbula cuntaUi and Mii^tni ponderom are also found in the m^wer 
depotiU of (*alvert County, near Cove Pi>int 


26 Pholadomya abrupta,f 30 Venus aloeata^ 

27 Pliolas arciiata, 31 '^ Morloni^ 

(= P, co8tata\ 32 " tetrica,t 

28 Saxicava rugosa^lf 33 " mercenariajf 

29 Solen ensis ?f 34 " inoceriformis.f 

Note. — The italicized names represent species supposed to he 
identical with living forms; those (in the Patuxent gi'oup) fol- 
lowed by the letters St. M. and E., species common to St. Mary'« 
and to Easton (Choptank River) ; and those (in the St. Mary's 
group) followed by a f, species peculiar to the locality. 

A comparison of the foregoing lists will show at a glance, that 
of the thirty-four bivalves belonging to the older formations, at 
most only three (or 9 per cent.) are found to be living forms 
{^PhoUu ovalis [= P. costata ?], Venus cUvecUay and Venus Mortoni)^ 
and that only six (18 per cent.) and seven (21 per cent.) are com- 
common respectively to the Patuxent and St. Mary's exposures, 
viz. : 

To Patuxent. To St. Marias. 

Artemis acetabulum,'*' Artemis acetabulum, 

Corbula idonea, Corbula idonea, 

Pholas ovalis,* Pholas arcuata (= costata), 

Panopsea porrecta, Panopsea porrecta, 

Pecten Madisonius, Pecten Madisonius, 

Venus Mortoni, Venus Mortoni, 

" alveata.* 

* There appears to be much confusion regarding the species of Artemis 
found fossil in the Atlantic tertiary deposits, and their relation to the 
forms now living on the Florida coast. In 1832 ('* Fossil Shells of 
the Tertiary FormatioDs," p. 20) Conrad characterized the species A, 
aeeicUnUum, which appears to have been until then confounded with the 
A, eaneenirieaj Con., non Bom {A, discus^ Reeve, *' Conchologia Icomca," 
Tol. vi, sp. 9), inhabiting the southern coast. No mention is there made 
of its being found also in a recent state, but subsequently, 1838 (** Fossils 
of the Medial Tertiary Formations," p. 29), we find the following statement : 
"This fin^ species is very common in the localities named, and also ooours 
recent on the Florida coast." In the list of shells inhabiting the Florida 
coast, prepared by the same author in 1846 (A. J. Science, 2d series, ii, 
p. 393), only two species of Artemis are catalogued, A. elegans and A, eon- 
eentriea, and it therefore appears highly probable that the statement oon- 
sidering A, acetabulum also as a living form was founded on a misoonoep- 
tion, the more especially, as an examination of the recent shells in Uie 


Deducting two or three species that are also found at Easton, 
we still have left twenty-three (or 68 per cent, of the whole 
number) that are not found in the later deposits. 

Museum of the Academy fails to rereal anything anftweting to Coarad** 
original description. Thin species appears moreover to he identical with 
the Venus eoneentriea described by Tuomey and Holmes in their work on 
the Pliocene fossils of South Carolina (1857, p. 82), and to which Conrad, 
apparently without good reason, applied the specific name of inUrmsdia 
(Dainia [Artemis] inUrmsdia) in his check list of Miocene fossils (Proc 
A. N. 8., 1862, p. 575). The A. acetabulum is found fossil in the tertiary 
deposits of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina, and 
must be carefully distinguished from the A, eoneentriea of Bom, to which 
it bears only a distant resemblance. Another fossil species is probably the 
A. elsganMf Con. (living on the Florida coast) ; one almost perfect speci- 
men, which agrees in all essential respects with the recent forms, is in the 
Academy Miocene collections, but, unfortunately, the locality whence St 
was obtained is not given. In his account of the geology and organic 
remains of the peninsula of Maryland (1830, J. A. N. S., vol. vi, p. 212), 
Conrad mentions the Cytherea (Artemie) eoneentHcOy Lam., as occurring in 
the St. Mary^s exposure, but as subsequently ("Fossils of the Medial 
Tertiary,*' 1838, p. 30), it is distinctly sUted that the same does not ooeor 
in the Miocene formation, it is highly probable that the original observa- 
tion was erroneous. Certainly nothing corresponding either to the species 
in question or to il. diecui is to be found in the Maryland Miocene oolleo- 
tion of the Academy. 

The common species inhabiting the southern coast is not the A. eonesn- 
trica of Bom, with which it has been frequently confounded, and to which 
it bears only a very slight resemblance, but the A. diecui of lieeve (loe. eit, ). 
A third species, tlie A. {Dotinia) Floridana Con., is unquestionably very 
eloeely allied to the last, from which it differs essentially only in the 
greater obliquity of the pallial sinus. In other respects it agrees with the 
figures and minute description of Bom*s species as given by Agassis in his 
**Ie^ographU dee Coquillee Tertiairee'* (Aour. Mhn. de Ui SoHete 
SeMOque^ 184% vol. vii). 

I am dispoflod to consider the various forms of Venue alveata and I'. 
latilirata as mere varieties of one and the same species, a series of inter> 
mediate stages seeming to link them together. The V. athleta constituted 
by Conrad to embrace the V. athleta of Say, V. latilirata of Tuomey and 
Holmes, and the V. paphia of Lamarck, appears likewise to be nothing 
but a variety of the same form. The V. alteata is included by Stimpaon 
among the living moUusca of the Atlantic coast (Smithsonian Check 
Lists, 18^;, but this fact appears very doubtful in the opinion of Tryon 
(** American Marine Conchology,*' 1873, p. 160). It must be confessed, 
however, that there exists a very striking agreement between the fossil 
shell and specimens of the V. paphia, Linn., from St. Thomas, the main 


On the other hand, the fossils of the newer deposits as exhibited 
in the sections on the west bank of the Patuxent show a very 
decided similarity to those of St. Mary's, for out 6f the twenty- 
two species of bivalves occurring there, no less than eleven ( or 
jost 50 per cent.) are also common to the last mentioned locality. 
There can, therefore, I believe, be no reasonable doubt that the 
deposits exposed on the Patuxent River immediately above the 
Pemn beds constitute a direct continuation of the highly fossili- 
ferous strata bordering both sides of the St. Mary's River. These 
last number among their fossil fauna also about thirty-four species 
of Lamellibranchs, the same number as is found in what we have 
designated as the older group, but of these thirty-four, about 
twenty-two (or, deducting Corhula cuneata and Mactra ponderosa, 
twenty), or 65 per cent, are peculiar to the locality. Moreover, 
of the entire number, about nine (or 27 per cent.) are still living 
on the Atlantic coast. The dissimilarity of the two faunae cannot 
fail to strike the least observant investigator, and Conrad has 
dwelt at some length upon this curious manifestation (A. J. 
Science, vol. xxviii, p. 282, and Bull. National Institution, 1841., 
p. 176). That paleontologist singularly enough (apparently not 
having made an}' exact numerical estimates either of the living 
forms, or of tlie forms found in one locality and not in the other) 
explains the differences as due solely to variable local conditions.' 

difference being a tendency on the part of the latter to lose the full solidity 
of its ribs some distance before they reach the posterior slope. The F. 
alteata exhibits a similar tendency, but not quite to the same extent. 

I have been unable to discover any description of the Pholas ovalu, 
Con.9 nor is there any mention made of it either in the Miocene check 
list prepared by Conrad in 1862, (Proc. A. N. 8.), or in that of Meek, of 
1864 (Smithsonian Miscell. Collectiens). I have, therefore, only doubtfully 
referred it to P. eostata, 

* Thus he states (A. J. 8. loe. eit) : "If our coast were now suddenly 
elevated, we should find spots where the shells would consist chiefly of an 
immense number of Modiola demUsa mixed with Littorina liitorea and 
MdampiM lndeniaiu9 ; these are found on the margin of the lagoons at 
h%h water mark, the Modiola imbedded in a tenacious soil. At a little 
cHstanoe would be found VenuM rMrcenariOf My a a/renaria^ 8olen ^nm,. 
80leeurtu$ Ca^ibeiu; among these would be Ostrea Virginiana, Funts 
eiltereuMf and a few of Peeten concentrieui. Such is the group existing on. 
tbe sandy shore of the Estuaries. Hard by, would be a vast deposit of 
ojster shells with EcMnui, and immense masses of Serpula, These live 
OB tbe bottom of the lagoons, which is composed of a mixture of sand and 


This interpretation might very satisfactorily account for the phe> 
nomcnon as far as generic distribution alone is concerned, and, 
indeed, it would even hold good in its bearings on a limited number 
of species, but it would hardly apply to a case such as the present 
one, where the specific dissimilarity is so vast in such a compara^ 
tively very limited geographical extent. 

Now, if the supposition that the deposits in question were 
deposited at two different periods be a correct one, and paleon- 
tological evidence goes far to prove that they were, we shonld 
naturally expect to find also some direct stratigraphical evidence 
afiforded by the superposition of the strata themselves.* The 
following section was obtained by Conrad at a point on the Cheaa- 

znud. Then would be found another group of shells which live only in 
deep water, the AstarU lunulatay Nueula Umatulat N, ^axima^ Cardita 
borealiMf Pholoi eoiiata^ in company with gppeat numbers of M$HU, Thia 
deposit we should recognise as having been formed in harborsi like thoee 
of Newport and Charleston. ..." 

It will be observed, that in the above conception Conrad has confined 
himself entirely to generic and not specific distribution. 

* It may as well be remarked, that, although in the foregoing examina- 
tion of the molluscous fauna I have dwelt exclusively upon the LafoeUi-^ 
branehiatOf the Oaiteropoda offer equal, if not greater support to the 
genersil conclusion arrived at. On comparing the lists of geographical 
distribution given by Conrad in the Bulletin of the National Institution 
(pp. lBl-7), it will be seen, that not a iingU recent form occurs among 
the eighteen enumerated from the Calvert cliffs at **IIance*s;'* and 
further, that only two species, Voluta mutabilii and F. iolitaria^ are 
common to the forty-two found at St. Mary^s. Of these last eight (or 19.per 
cent. ) were considered by Conrad to be recent forms : 

Buccinum trivittatum, Natica duplicata, 

iunalum, Dentalium dentalis, 

quadratum, Fusus cinereus, 

Natica hesus, 8calaria clathrus. 

Nearly all the species found on the west bank of the Patuxent also 
occur at St. Mary*s, and the same can be said of those collected in Calvert 
county near C*ove point the sQuthem extremity. Singularly enough, tliat 
although three species of TktrriUUa — T. indenta^ T. ^aUata^ and T. 
fm-laqutata ~ wore collected fhmi Calvert cliffs in the upper portion of Um 
county, none of them appear to have been found near Cove Point, where 
** vast quantities** of a new species. T. pUbe.'a, '*the common species of 
St. Mary*s River'* (loo. dt p. 189), appear suddenly to make tbair 




peake, near " Beckett's/' about twenty-eight miles south of Fair 

Fui in Thickne$a. 


Sand, without shells. 

Sand, with innumerable shells. 


Mingled sand and clay, without fossils, or very rare. 


Same as below, less numerous. 

Sand and clay, with a group of shells like that at Hance*s. 

The shells obtained at Hance's, about four miles further north, 
were the following : 


Astarte varians, 

" exaltata, 
Artemis acetabulum, 
Area subrostrata, 

" dlpleura, 
Cytherea subnasuta, 
Cardium leptopleura, 
Crassatella melina, 
Corbula idonea, 

" elevata, 


Bonellia lineata, 
Cancellaria biplicifera, 

" engonata, 

Dentalium thalloides, 
Fissurella Marylandica, 
Yoluta mutabilis, 
Infundibulum perarmatum, 
Marginella perexigua, 
Pleurotoma Marylandica, 


Isocardia Marko^i, 
Lima papyria, 
Lucina Foremani, 


Pectunculus lentiformis, 
Venus latilirata, 

Mortoni ? 







Pleurotoma bellacrenata, 
Scalaria pachypleura, 
Solarium trilineatum, 
Sigaretus fragilis, 
Trochus peralveatus, 
Turritella indenta, 
Yoluta solitaria. 




It will be at once noticed that in addition to the lowest fossil- 
iferous stratum, extending to about seven feet above water leyel, 
a second highly fossiliferous one manifests itself at a height of 
about twenty-seven feet, in which were recognized among other 
shells Artemis acetabulum and Pecten Afadisoniue. The mineral 
character of this upper deposit is described by Conrad as being a 
^ quartzose sand,verjr incoherent," which is exactly what we meet 
with in the arenaceous deposits on the west bank of the Patuxent 
River, near Benedict, and which we have identified as equivalents 
of the St. Mary's deposits. They are described by Conrad as 
being composed of an *^ arenaceous, fossiliferous stratum," the 
sand of which is ^^ quartzose and incoherent" (B. N. I., p. 185). 
We have thus exposed in one section two highly fossiliferous 
strata, the upper of which shows a very decided analogy to what 
we have designated as the newer group, and the lower of which 
assumes a distinct personality for reason of its position, and the 
paleontological characters impressed upon it. Proceeding from 
this pomt southeastward, and therefore in the general direction 
of the dip of the beds, we should naturally expect to meet a point 
where our upper stratum, or its equivalent, would descend nearer 
to the level of the Bay, and in fact we do find just such a point 
near Cove Point, where *^ the group most characteristic of these 
tertiary deposits, imbedded in sand," descends to a height only 
about fifteen feet above water mark (B. N. I., p. 183). The 
fossils found here are also nearly all found at St. Mary *8, and they 
are, moreover, ^^ highly ferruginous, as much so as man^' of the 
crag fossils of Great Britaiu, which they greatly resemble, also, 
in other respects'' (Conrad, loc. eit.). On the St. Mary's River, 
the southeasternmost extension of the formation, the same deposit 
sinks almost to water level, as might well be expecttKi on follow- 
ing the general direction of the dip. Here, the Pliocene deposits, 
well characterized by their fossils, make their ap|>earance. 

On proceeding from our first point almost due northwards, and 
therefore at a considerable angle to the line of strike, we meet 
with just the reverse phenomena met with on our southern 
Journey. At Fair Haven, where Conrad obtained the following 


F(Ut in Thiekneu. 


Whitish Clay. 

Bones of Cetacea. 


Clay^ with siliceous casts of marine shells and fragments of bones. 

Clay, with Oatrea pererasaoj P&eten Humphrey bH, 

the highly fossiliferous stratum found at water mark, at Beckett's, 
18 probably represented by a bed of clay three feet in thickness, 
commencing at a height of five feet, and which contains ^' great 
numbers of black, water-worn, siliceous casts of small shells, 
chiefly Turritella^ the species not yet determined." Below this 
an entirely new deposit now makes its appearance, a bed of clay 
of five feet thickness, characterized by Oatrea percrassa and 
Pecten Humphreysii, This last, therefore, probably represents 
the most ancient post-Eocene deposit exhibited on the Chesapeake. 
Ostrea percrassa and Pecten Humphreysii were also found by 
Conrad at Huntingtown, Calvert County, where in a " depression 
or small valley " a race-way had been excavated through the 
fossiliferous " marls." The lowest member of the section was 
" quartzose sand, with casts of Perna maxillatay On the east 
bank of the Patuxent River, moreover, near the mouth of St. 
Leonard's Creek, Conrad observed innumerable casts of Perna 
maxillaia imbedded in a stratum of fine siliceous sand, and rest- 
ing on the fragmentary rock considered by him as the " founda- 
tion of the peninsula " (B. N. I., p. 184). 

We should naturally look for some deposit contemporaneous 
with that occurring on the west bank of the Patuxent, at some 
point northeast of that locality where a section may present itself. 
This we find at Easton, on the Choptank, where the mol- 
loscous fossil fauna corresponds very closely with that observed 
on the former river. The deposits of the older period, on the 
other hand, reappear in Cumberland County, New Jersey, in the 
*^ Miocene marl " of Shiloh, containing the following assemblage 
of fossils (Cook, " Geology of New Jersey," 1868, p. 29t) : 



Ofltrea MturicenBis, Astarte Thonuuii, 

" percrassa, Tenua Diic&tellii, 

Fiicatula densata, Periploma alta, 

Carditamera aculeata, Corbala elevata, 

" arata, Saxicava my Kfonnis. 

CnuMatella melina, 

Four species of the above are also found in Maryland, three of 
which, Ottrea percraesa, Crassalella melina, and Corbula eleoala, 
are foand, I believe, exclusively in (he deposits designated as 
those of the older period. None are recent forms. 

The small pereeotage of li^'ing forms occurring in the " older 
deposits," as compared with that of the " newer," leaves little 
doubt for the inference that the deposits in question were formed 
ftt two different periods, the latest of which clearly belongs to the 
Miocene- A comparative examination of some of the pecaliar 
fossil forms of the older deposits, together with the extremely low 
percentage of living forms, seems to indicate an age more nearly 
Oligocene than Miocene, although perhaps not a single Eocene 
species is represented. This last fact need not surprise us, howeverT 
as the relationship of the Oligocene to the Miocene appears to be 
^eater in almost all the localities of its representation than to the 
Eocene. The Eocene, moreover, of Maryland is represented only 
by a very limited number of fossils, and Conrad, himself, has called 
attention to the Cwt, that there appears to exist a greater amount 
of difference between the Eocene and Miocene formations than 
obtains between the Secondary and Tertiary, or between the 
Devonian and Carboniferous systems (B. N. I., p. 111). The fol- 
lowing comparison may serve to throw some light upon the rela- 
tive age of the deposits in question : 

f«ru nsxUlata, Lui. 

This species agrees thoroughly with the figure and description 
<>f the same given by Ooldfuss in the " Pectrefacta Germaniee " 
(vol. ii, p. 106), and to which the locality Weinheim (Oligocene) 
Is assigned. The sub-Apennine species, formerly classed under 
the same name, is considered by Deshayes to be distinct, and he 
has applied to it the specific name of Soldanii (Lamarck, "Animavx 
tans FeWlftres,"2ded.,vol. vii,p. 79). A second species of PerTW, 
the P. Sandbergeri, Deah., also occurs in the Oligocene locality of 


Weinheim (Sandberger, " Conchylien des Maimer TertidrbeckenSy^^ 
p. 367). 

Mjtiliii ineurra, Conr. 

This large species of Mytilus may perhaps be taken as the rep- 
resentative of M, HaidingeH^ Homes Q^Fossilen Mollusken des 
Tertidrbeckens von Wien^^^ Abhand, d, k, k. geolog, Beichsanstalty 
iv, p. 356), found both in the Oligocene (Eggenburg) and Miocene 
divisions of the Vienna basin. Rolle (Sitzungsberichte d. k. Akad, 
d. Wissenschaften^ 1859, p. 64) and Sandberger consider the M, 
Uaidingeri as the equivalent of M. Faujasi, Brongn., occuiTing at 
numerous Oligocene localities of the Vienna and Mentz basins. 

Isoeordia ItarkMi, Conr. 

This Isocardia is, it appears to me, erroneous!}'' referred by 
Homes (loc, ciL, p. 165) to the /. cor^ L., from which it is very 
readily distinguished by it^* relatively much greater height, and 
greater development of the umbones. It is a singular fact, that 
this species of Isocardia was followed in the later period b}' the 
/. /ratema* Say, which is barely distinguishable from fossil 
examples of the /. cor from Astigiana and Sicily. 

It is worthy of remark, that Rolle (loe. cit., p. 81), as early 
as 1859, only four years after Beyrich first applied the term Oligo- 
cene to some of the middle Tertiar}'' deposits of northern Germany, 
hinted at the possible existence of the same formation on the 
banks of the Patuxent, his conclusions being drawn from an 
examination, among other fossils, of specimens of Lucina anodonta^ 
Say, Area idonea^ Conr,, and Cardium laqueatum^ Conr. 

* On comparison with specimens from the English Crag this species will 
be found to differ veiy broadly from the /. ( Cpprina) ruaiiea of Sowerby, 
with which it has been confounded. 


BT J. 8. KIN08LEY. 

It i8 the intention of the writer in this series of notes to give 
descriptionH of new species, rectifications of synonym}', facts 
relating to geographical distribution, and other matters of im- 
portance concerning the Decapoda. Unless otherwise stated all 
specimens are in the collection of the Academy of Natural Scienceti 
of Philadelphia. 

{Potamia Latr. et Botim Edw. preoo.) 

FMttdothtlphnta UtlfroBf. 

Potamia lat^from Randall, Journal of the Academj of Natural 
Bdenoes of Philadelphia, yiii. p. 120. 

Carapax smooth, regions and sutures indistinct. Frontal crest 
very prominent, uninterrupted. Front retlexed, making with 
the surface of carapax an angle of about 45^, its margin undu- 
lating and its surface and margin granulate. From the front 
arise procc^sses which all but join the inferior margin of the orbit. 
Superior margin of orbit crenulated. Anterolateral teeth more 
prominent than in any other of the genus and extending back to 
the posterior third of the carapax. Below, the carapax is every- 
where granulate and e8|H'cially so on the sub-branchial regions 
and near the mouth. Inferior margins of orbits denticulate. 
ChelipiMls nearly equal. Anterior surface of meros granulate, as 
are the outer i)ortionH of carpuK and upper portions of the hands. 
The dactyli with rows of small tulK'rcles above. 

The s(KH.MeH is a true PHeitdtplheljfhum, the antennae being as in 
that genus, but the retiexed front gives it a peculiar appearance 
and with the larger anterolateral teeth will readily separate it 
rom all other kn(»wn forms. The emargination of the external 
margin of the orbit is no more ni:irk«Hl than in I\ rhilennis (Kdw. 
and Lucas) Smith, the ty|>e of which, by the way, is in the 
Museum of the Academy. 

Fttadothtl^mM ilBattifroBf (A. M. R Iw. > Smith. 

The l(K*ality of this species was not known to Alphontu* Milne- 
Kd wards. There are two males in the Academy's collection from 
8an Domingo (W. M. Uabb\ 

1880. J 




DUocarcinuB pardaXinuB Gtorstsecker, Archiv fur Naturgeschichfe xxii, 
p. 148, 1856. 

Gerstaecker gives doubtfully South America as the habitat of 
this species. There are specimens with the label " ? Upper 
Amazon, Dr. Wilson." 

Dilooaroiani •pinifroni, nor. 

Carapax regularly arcuate, regions obsolete, sides arcuate, armed 
with four spines besides the spiniform angle of the orbit; the 
margins of the sjnnes finely serrate. Superior margin of the orbit 
obscurely crenulate, inferior denticulate with a strong spine near 
the interior angle. Front advanced, with about fourteen spines. 
A spine at the anterolateral angles of the buccal area. Chelipeds 
sub-equal, meros with two spines at about the middle of the pos- 
terior margin and a single one on the anterior margin at about 
the middle, and one on the distal portion of the upper margin ; 
the spine on the interior surface of the corpus long, slender, acute. 
Hand with an acute spine above at the articulation of the dactylus, 
fingers with the denticulations fine but acute. Ambulatory feet 
less dilated than is usual in this genus. The spined front readily 
separates this from all other species. 

Upper Amazon^ Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

Genus THELPHUSA (inolading Oeothalphuia Sim.) 

Of this genus forty-five species have been described. The 
localities from which I have examined specimens are marked with 
an exclamation point (I). 

afrieana A. M.-Bdw. West Africa. 

aneldetSB Capello. West Africa. 

aadarioiiiaiia Wood-Mason. Barmah. 
aagoitifroBf A. M.-Edw. Australia. 
ambrji M.-Edw. « 

West Coast Africa (!) ; NaUl (!). 

aurantia Herklots. 

flii HerkloU. 
AfkiAtoiiiaiia Wood-Mason. 

Northern India, 
aaateniana Wood-Mason. India. 

bayonioa Capello. West Africa. 

bajonioa Tar. a Capello. Wetst Africa. 
Wirmrdi Sarigny. 

Egypt, Nile (!); Red Sea. 
ddUmis (Heller) A. M.-Edw. Chili. 

oormgata Heller. 

Madras, Jara. 

oraiia A. M.-Edw. 


oriitoto A. M.-Edw. 

East IndiesC). 

dahaani White. 


berardi DeHaan. 

j'aponica Herklots. 

dentioiilata M.-Edw. 


dapreiia Kranss. 

Port NataL 

difformii M.-Edw. 

Red Sea. 

adwardtii Wood Mason. 


fluviatiUi (Boso.) Latr. 


Region, Greece (!), 

Gaarda Sea(!), 

(Museum Peabody Academy). 

grapioidei White. 


? $ybquadrata Gerst. 

gondoti M.-Edw. 






•btta A. M.Edw. 

•btssipM (St».) A. M.-8d 


Ja|>aa, Pbi]fppiB««. 

pnUta Edw. Soatk Africa, PL HaUl (!). 

^ilipftlA yon MMtcBi. 


piata TOD MArtent. 


pUaata A. M.-Edw. 


= 7 gmerimi M. Edir. 

■ia»iimii A. M.-Edw. 


riwtifroM M.-Edw. 


•ubqnadraU Oent. 

= ? grapwide^ 

traiiff ena ron Martens. 


tumida Wood-BCason. 


fMriaiM..Edw. India, 

kispida Wood-Mason. 
kydradrvmas 0«rat. 

emmcmlarit Westwood. 

? amraniia Gersl»eker. 

? rotMtnda Frejeinei. 
iaflata M.Sdw. Pt. NataL 

Jagori Ton Martens. Philippines. 

Unria Wood-Mason. India, 

laraaiidi A. M -Edw. 8iam. 

laMkanaaltl Edw. 

IndU (!), Maoritins, Tahita. 
Ingakris Wood-Mason. India, 

margaritaria A. M.-£dw. West Africa. 
miloUea M. Edw. Nile. 

To this list I would add three more : 

Tkalpknia emarginata dot. 

Carapax glabrous, longitudinally strongly arched. Post-frontal 
crest continuous, nearly straight, obscurely orenulate, epibranchial 
tooth obsolete, a tooth between the extremity of the post-frontal 
crest and the angle of the orbit. Protogastric region very short, 
front about one-fourth the width of carapax, slightly sinuate. 
External angle of orbit slightly emarginate. Anterolateral 
margin cristate ; crest, however, soon becoming obsolete. Chelipeds 
sub-equal, meros with the margins tubercutate and with a strong 
spine on the distal portion. Upp)er and outer surface of carpus 
with indistinct squamae, inner portion two-spined, the proximal 
spine exhibiting a tendency to become bifid. Hands with the 
upper margin obsoletely tuberculate, fingers roughened, not 
gaping. Ambulatory feet slender, compressed. 

Is very near T. depressa Krauss, but differs from that species in 
the narrower and straighter front, the tooth just behind the angle 
of the orbit, and in the non-gaping fingers of the chelipeds. 

Length 34 mm., breadth 56 mm. 

West Africa, Du Chaillu ; Port Nataly Dr. T. B. Wilson. 

The name is proposed on account of the emargination of the 

Tkelpknia enodit nor. 

Carapax smooth; post frontal crest wanting. Epibranchial 
tooth very small. Front narrow, strongly curved downward, its 
margin concave. Chelipeds unequal, hands with the inferior 


margin regularly arcuate. Is very closely allied to T, laevis, but 
differs in the flatter carapax, the concave front, and the regularly 
arcuate lower margin of the hands. In all other respects Mr. 
Wood-Mason's description and figures (Journal Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, vol. xl, p. 201, PI. xiv, fig. 1-6) would well apply to it. 

Thelphnta mgoia dot. 

Carapax depressed, cervical suture and post frontal crest well 

marked, the crest interrupted. Front nearly straiglit ; proto- 

gastric region nearly smooth ; epibranchial tooth small, directed 

inward, lateral portions of carapax with transverse rugae as in 

many Grapsi^ the margin of the anterolateral portion obscurely 

crenulate. Chelipeds subequal ; the outer surface of meros and 

carpus with squamose rugae, the rugae on the hands indistinct. 

Carpal joints of the first three pairs of ambulatory feet with the 

sides cristate ; dactyli pointed. 

Length 26 mm., breadth 32 mm. 

This species is nearest T, denticulata, but will be readily 
identified from that species by the more crenulated margin 
between the orbit and the epibranchial tooth, and by the rugae on 
the lateral poilions of the carapax. 

Aea&thooyolni gayi Edwards and Lnoas. 

The type of this species is in the museum of the Academy. 






The Academy is the possesBor of a fuetal walrus, which 
preHented by Dr. I. I. Hays, and brought by him from the Arctic 
ref^ion of eastern North America. I have thought that a figure 
with measurements of this rare, if not unique, specimen would be 
of value. 

The 8|)ecimen is straight, or nearly so, and it is by this simple 
test distinguisluKl from other embryos of Carnivora. There is 

neither flexure of the head upon the tnmk, 
or the trunk upon itself The limbs are 
folded close to the trunk, this feature being 
most pronounced in the inferior pair, which 
are inclined upward upon the ventral surfacre 
of the Ixxiy, and carry between them tke 
rudimentary tail. The median margin of the 
first toe of the anterior extremity beam a 
small, rounded membranous lobe, or lappet. 
The muzzle exhibits the future position of 
the vibrissa* by six rows of minute i)apill». 
The muzzle projects slightly l)eyond the line 
of the mouth. The i)08ition of the future 
nostrils is seen by two slightly convergent 

The vent is a semicircular slit-like opening 
ujKin the lateral and i>osterior surfaces of a 
rounded nipple-shaped organ, which is prob- 
abl}' the future |>enis or clitoris. 

The eye is closed, rather prominent, and 
prcHients a pal|>obnil tiHsun», which is directed obliquely upward 
and forwanl. 

The auricle is repn*sente<l by a membranous fold laid close to 
the head. The slit-like opening defining its position lies 3^'" 
behind the eye, and extends slightly downwards and forwards. 
Tlie aurich* extends in advance of this slit to the distance of l"\ 


where it ends in a minute elevation. A probe can be readily 
inserted in the slit, and can be passed forward. 

The color of the specimen is a dull white or waxy. 

No trace of hair is anywhere visible. 


Length of specimen, 1" 9'". 
Length of head, 9". 
Width of body at widest part, 1". 
Length of anterior margin of anterior extremit}", 4 J'". 
Length of posterior margin of anterior extremity, 2'". 
Length of anterior margin of posterior extremity, 4'". 
Length of posterior margin of posterior extremity, 4'" 
■ Distance between vent and navel, 7^'". 




PART 11. 


JHaultUot Bgh., Malaoolog. Untera. (Semper, Philipp.II, ii), Heitxiii, 1878^ 
p. 5C7 ; Heft ziv, 1878, p. xxxv. Qattungen Dordiacher Doriden, Arch, 
f. Naturg., xxxv, 1, 1879, p. 843. 

Forma corporis siibdepressa. Dorsum minutissime yillosam, holo- 
aericeum, molle. Tentacala digitiformia. Apertura branchialia ro- 
tundata, crenulata; folia branchialia tripinnata. Podarium antiee 
bilabiatum, labio superiore medio fisso. 

Aimatura labialis nulla. Lingua rhachide nuda, plenris mnltideii- 
talis, dentibus hamatis. Prostata magua ; penis inermia. 

In their general form the Diaulul«} somewhat resemble the DiMSh 
dorides and the Tliordisxy* although their habitus still is peculiar. 
The back is villous, as in these genera and especially as io the Thor- 
dutK^ but finer and more velvet-like. The tentacles are finger-shaped, 
smaller than in the DiacodorideH^ larger than in the Thordism, The 
branchial-hlit is rounded, crenulated ; the branchial leaves tripinnate. 
The anterior margin of the foot bilobed, the upper lip broader, with a 
median figure. As in the Thordinsr^ there is no armature of th« 
lip-dink. The radula nearly agrees with that of the Diticodorides; 
the rhachiii is naked ; on the pleune there is a rather broad series of 
plates of the usual hook-shape. The stomach is enclosed in the liver 
(not frre, as in the Discodoridett and in the Thordism). As in tha 
DiMCtniorideHj there is a large prostate and an unarmed penis. 

Only the following species appears to be hitherto known, from the 
northern Pacific. 

1. D. SandUgtfuU (Cooper). 

* Dinulxu^ medicua, of. Martialis, I, 48, p. 40. 

* Cr. my MmlacoUig. Untersuch. (Semper, Philipj^ II, ii), Heft xii, 1877» 
p. 51b, {Ihtcadoru) ; p. 540 ( Thordisa), 


1. D. Sandiegentii, Cooper. Plate Y, fig. 3-9. 

BorU (Aetinoeyclus f) SandiegensiSf Cooi>er, Proc. of the California 
Acad, of Nat Sciences, ii (1862), 1863, p. 204;^ iii (18(J3); 1868, p. 58. 

Color corporis e brunneo lutescens, annulis nigris maculatus; vel 

Habitat, Oceanum Pacificum orient. (San Diego Bay ; Santa Bar- 
bara; Sitka Harbor; Puget Sound). 

According to Cooper, numerous specimens of this species were 
found from November to May among grass on mud flats in San Diego 
Bay, at or near low water mark ; according to Cooper, it is a very 
** active " species ; Cooper later obtained two specimens at Santa Bar- 
bara Island, on rocks at low water. During the expedition to Alaska 
a specimen was taken by Dall in Sitka Harbor, on algae, in August, 
1865, at the depth of six fathoms (another in August, 1873, in Puget 
Sound, by Dr. Kennerly, on algse, at low water). 

Through the kindness of Dall, I have seen the original (rather 
rough ) drawings of this species by Cooper ; a colored one represents 
the back bright chocolate-brown, with six black rings, of which there 
are two smaller ones between the rhinophoria ; the rhinophoria, the 
gill and the foot seem bright-yellowish ; one figure shows five, another 
six branchial leaves. 

The length of the first specimen, sent to me preserved in spirits, 
was about 22.0 mm., the height reaching 9.0 mm., and the breadth 
13.0 mm. ; the breadth of the foot reached 10.0 mm., the height of 
the rhinophoria 2.0 mm., the branchial leaves 3.3 mm. The color 
was uniformly brownish-gray ; nearly symmetrically on each side of 
the true back was an annular black spot. 

The form of the rather soft body elongate-oval, not much depressed. 
The head quite concealed between the mantle and the foot; the 
ODter mouth had the form of a vertical slit ; at each side a short 
finger-shaped tentacle. The margin of the rather large rhinophor- 
boles rather prominent, crenulate ; the rhinophoria strong, the dub 

* "Tale brownish-yellow, with large, annular, brown spots, irregularly 
scattered, varying from twelve to twenty, Or entirely brown. Snrfoea 
slightly rough ; sometimes a little tuberculated. Dorsal tentacles conieal, 
retractile ; branchise large, rising in five parts, which become tripinnately 
divided, expanding so as to cover the posterior third of the bo^y like an 
umbrella. Mouth proboscidiform, with two short lateral tentacles Length, 
3J inches ; breadth, 2| inches ; height, | inch.— Coopsb, 1. c. 


With ubout thirty leaves (on each side). The back all over miniitelj 
mill (ifiiHely villous (tig. 3 ). The margin of the rather wide (5.0 min.)^ 
ruuudiah branchial aperture like the margin of the rhinophor-holest 
pruminunt, finely crenulate ; the branchial leaves (retracted) six in 
uumber, very strong, tri- or quadripinnate. The anus strong, about 15 
mill, high, cylindrical, closing the branchial ring posteriorly ; the renal 
pure as usual. The edge of the mantle rather thick, projecting about 
i.O mm. from the body; the sides low. The genital opening as 
usual, with two distinct apertures at the bottom. The foot strong, 
broad, somewhat narrower towards both ends ; in the anterior margin 
a strong furrow, towards the median line deeper and forming two lipa ; 
the superior broader and divided in the median line. 

The cerebro- visceral ganglia kidney-shaped, tlie visceral larger than 
the cerebral ; the pedal of roundish contour, scarcely larger than the 
visceral. The buccal ganglia of oval form, connected by a short 
oomroissure; the gastro-ccsophageal roundish, short-stalked, in tixe 
about one-fifth of the former, with one very large and one large cell. 

The eyes short-stalked, with black pigment and yellowish lens. The 
otocysts scarcely smaller than the eyes, overcrowded with otokonia of 
the usual kind. The leaves of the rhinophoria strengthened with long, 
perpendicular spicula, calcified at the surface. The tentacula with a 
mass of shorter, but otherwise similar spicules, lying irregularly. 
The villi of the back closely set with perpendicular spicula (fig. 3). 
The anal papilla with long, perpendicular spicules ; the stalk of the 
branchial leaves with many shorter spicula, irregularly situated ; in the 
leaves themselves were no spicules. In the interstitial connective 
tissue large spicules were seen rather sparsely. 

The oral tube was about 1.5 mm. long, wide, with strong longitudi- 
nal folds. The bulbus pharyngeus only about 4.0 mm. long, by a 
height of 2.0 mm., and a breadth of 4.0 mm. ; the rasp-sheath very 
prominent on the hinder part of the under side of the bulbus ; the 
inner mouth with a yellowish, not thin, cuticula. The tongue with 
nine rows of teeth, in the rasp-sheath also eleven rows of developed 
and two of not quite developed teeth, the total number thus being 
twenty-two. In the posterior rows of the tongue the number of plates 
was twenty-eight or twenty-nine, on each side, and seemed in the suc- 
ceeding rows not to suqiass thirty. The color of the teeth horn- 
yellowish ; the height of the outermost COG to 0.08 mm., the height 
rising to about 0.18 mm. The form of the teeth as usual ; the wing 
rather narrow ; the innermost (fig. 5aa, b) not very diflferent from the 


Others (fig. 5, 6), the body of the outermost three or four (fig. iaay )), 
as usual, of reduced size. 

The glandulae sali vales (5.0 or 6.0 mm.) lon^, in the anterior part 
about one-third larger than in the rest, measuring 1.0 mm. in diameter, 
yellowish ; in the rest of the length much narrower, whitish. 

The oesophagus is about 9.0 mm. long, rather wide. The stomach 
is included in the liver, not spacious. The intestine appears on the 
surface of the liver in the usual manner, passing forwards, forming a 
short fiexure, and running straight backwards to the anal tube, which 
has in its interior many fine longitudinal folds ; the total length of the 
intestine about 20.0 mm., with fine longitudinal folds through its whole 
length. The cavity was empty. The liver yellowish, about 17.0 mm. 
long, by a breadth of 8.0 mm., and a height of about 6.0 or 7.0 mm. ; 
the anterior end truncate, the posterior end rounded ; on the right side 
of the forepart a flattened impression for the anterior genital mass. 
The vesica fellea, as usual, behind and at the left side of the pylorus, 
elongate-pyriform, grayish, taken together with its duct about 2.5 mm. 
in length. 

The heart as usual. The two gland, sanguines as usual, whitish ; 
the foremost more triangular, about 3.5 mm. long; the posterior 
broader, about 2.0 mm. long. 

The gland, hermaphrodisiaca with a rather thick yellow layer 
clothing the greater part of the surface of the liver (except the pos-. 
terior end) ; in the lobules of the organ were rather large o'ogene cells 
and masses of zo'osperms The anterior genital mass large, com-, 
pressed, about 10.0 mm. long, by a height of 6.3 mm., and a breadth 
of 3.0 mm. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic duct strong, grayish,, 
when unrolled about 25*0 mm. long, somewhat coiled on the anterior 
end of the left side of the mass and on its inferior flattened edge be-, 
hind the large prostate ; it reaches a diameter of 1.2 mm. The male 
branch of the ampulla (fig. 8a) thin, white, passing into the narrow 
inferior end of the prostate, thus forms the fore-end of the whole 
genital mass. The prostate (fig. 86) is of dirty yellow color, flattened- 
and irregularly pyriform, the length about 6.3 mm., by a breadth of 
as much as 3.0 mm.; the spermatoduct (fig. 8c) issuing from the 
upper part of the posterior side of the gland, in its first thicker part- 
nearly as long as the prostate ; in the rest of its length thinner, mak-. 
ing several coils and passing (^g, 9a) into the male organ. The re« . 
tracted penis (fig. Sd) strong, about 2.5 mm. long, the prseputium with . 
fine longitudinal folds (fig. 9), from the aperture upwards and nearly 


filled by the glans, which had nearly the form of a human penis, with 
a well developed head with round aperture ; this head seemed covered 
with very small, low and rounded, soft papillas. The spermatotheca 
weh) whitish, spherical, of the diameter of about 2.3 mm., filled with 
epithelium, fatty matter and altered semen ; the chief duct a little 
longer than the spermatotheca, gradually passing into the simple 
vagina, that was about half as much in length (and was filled with 
9pern)a\ The spermatocysta of violet-gray color, somewhat flattened, 
of oval outline, of the length ot about 2.3 mm., filled with sperma. 
The |K>sterior half, or a little les^ of the large mucous and albuminous 
gland, chalk*white ; the anterior, more than half, of grayish or (on 
the leA fide) yellowish color; the structure as usual. 

A variety of the species ^according to Dall, it also belongs to this 
«|iecu*^) was, moreover, obtnined by Dr. Kennerly, in August, 18T3, 
on alga\ at low water, in Puget Sound, Washington Territory 

The single individual was mtber large ; the length 40.0 mm., by a 
breadth of :^S.O mm., and a height of 13.0 mm. : the breadth of the 
fool l^•0 mm., i^ the margin of the mantle Il.O mm. ; the height of 
the rhinofUuvia 6,0 mm., of the bnuichial leaver nearly 5.0 mm. The 
color of the tt|>p*T ;^de obscure olive-gray* with rather large ^diameter 
abottl 4^0 mm.^ black and blacklsdi spoti^ : the under side yellowish. 
The ]{^fsne^J tvcm and the head, with the tentacles^ as above described. 
The \>|^f«ini?? of the rhim>phor-lK4os a< above, the club with about 
iwt^ty 6re lea^irt^ The branchial ojxnini: as aK^re diametrr, 3,5 
■tuau"^; the Of^mcted branchial leavcis six in rumber; the anal tube 
»rtur\v ;^v* wnu hiih. The hack. >ilk^us^ as in the tvptoal iadividuaL 
TW r,vi as aS>vvw 

*f t^ >svflt:r^rif c«' the h^art the j>fricari:u» is Vcv*«r.isiu 

TV ope.;raI r>fo\>QS s>i^«>rta as aVxr : the rcvxirijl ovravicrr 
jfWiyhft StN^^TVK a !,;:> Ur^c :>.a2: :he KxvaI ; ;iw i5>cjil cot* 

WkXTkl fay^>*a cc cx-al r^ina ; ti?^ cwntt.^i^sm:-?-^ SfC^-rifit ;irm 

^le ♦(•Af^'sak 5J!* jwk»';f^ .-»: iW r):",'CA a=^i 5.K' ^ -/,:: ,*c :*i>^ :*:1 as 

rW 4r%I T-oSf >JtT^v ."C a i.tnr;V aTs\ .^vj^Th.-vvr ,v 4 ; tttt^ Tbe 


specimen ; the cuticula of the lip disk as above. The tongue with 
ten rows of plates, further back eleven developed and two younger 
rows, the total number thus twenty-three. In the posterior rows of 
tbe tongue there were as many as thirty-four dental plates on each 
side of the rhachis ; they resembled those above described (fig. 6, 7). 

The salivary glands yellowish, ribbon-shaped. The stomach as 
above. The anteriorly proceeding part of the intestine 7.0 mm. long, 
by a diameter of about 2.0 mm. ; the receding part about 20.0 mm. 
long, by a diameter of 1.5 mm. In the stomach and the rectum were 
pieces of a Keratospongia and different Diatomacea. The liver 23.0 
mm. long, by a breadth and a height of 11.0 mm. ; the anterior end 
truncate, with a median deep and narrow slit for the c&sophagus and 
for the intestine ; the right anterior half of the liver rather excavated, 
especially beneath ; the substance of the liver yellow. 

The foremost glandula sanguinea about 4.5 mm. long, by a breadth, 
of 2.5 ; the posterior 4.0 mm. long, by a breadth of 2.5 mm.; both very 
flattened (about 0.8 mm. thick), grayish-yellow. The kidney with its 
whitish network, eontrasting prettily with the yolk-yellow hermaphro- 
ditic gland ; the urinary chamber not wide ; the tube on its floor thin. 

The hermaphroditic gland clothing nearly the whole liver (with its 
posterior end), as in the former specimen. The anterior genital mass 
about 11.5 mm. long, by a height of 9.5 and a breadth of 5.0 mm., the 
ducts also projecting 3.0 mm. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic duct 
yellowish-white, about 35.0 mm. long, by a diameter of 1.25 mm., run- 
ning across the upper part of the left side of the genital mass, and 
forming several windings on the anterior part of the upper margin. 

The large prostate as above (fig. 86), dirty yellow ; 7.5 mm. long, 
by a diameter at the upper end of about 4.0 mm. ; the part (fig. 8c), 
from which the spermatoduct proceeds, much brighter than the rest of 
the organ. The thin spermatoduct forming (fig. 8) a little coil at the 
upper end of the penis ; when unrolled about 12 mm. long. This last 
(fig, Sd, 9) organ strong, about 4.0 mm. long, by a diameter of 1.5 
mm. ; the prominent orifice in the vestibulum (fig. 8^) with strong 
longitudinal folds ; the glans conical, filling nearly half (fig. 9) of the 
cavity of the organ, the surface (under a power of 850) smooth. The 
spermatotheca whitish, spherical, with a diameter of 3.5 mm. ; the 
spermatocysta short, sausage-shaped, about 4.0 mm. long, of reddish- 
yellow color. Tbe duct from the spermatotheca to tbe vagina rather 
thick, 3.5 mm. long ; the vagina larger than the penis, 6.0 mm. long, 
by a diameter of 2.5 ; the inside with fine longitudinal folds, and with 


sperma id the cavitj. The macous gUuid larfi;e, 9.0 mm. loog, bj a 
height of 7.5, aod a thickness of 4.0 mm.; whitish, yellowish chalk- 
white and yolk-yellow ; the duct rather short, with the usual strong 
fold. The vestibulum with longitudinal folds. 

IDRVraA, B«rgh. 

Jorunnoy Bgh., Malacolog. Unten. (Semper, Philipp. II, ii) Heft x, 1876^ 
p. 414, note. Oatt. nord. Doriden, Arch. fQr Naturges., xxxt, i, 18711, 
p. 346. 

Corpus subdepressum ; dorsum minutissime granulatum,sub-aspen]m, 
branchia e foliis tripinnatis formata ; tentacula digitiformia ; poda- 
rium sat latum, margine anteriore sulcatum, labio superiore latiore ei 
medio fiaso. 

Armatura labialis nulla. Radula rhachide nuda, pleuris multiden- 
tatis, dentibus hamatis. Penis stylo armatus; glandula et hasta 

This genus was established by the author on the D. Johnstont (1876) 
in reference to the results of the anatomical examination of Hancock 
and Embleton ; he regarded it as nearly allied to the Kentrodorides^ 
just founded by him.* AAer the present examination of the D. John* 
itoni by the author he is not entirely certain of a generic diflerence 
between the Jorunmg!* and the Kentrodorides, The latter have been 
examined only from rather insufficient material, and the basta has not 
been seen in any of the species, only a papilla in. connection with a 
peculiar gland ; still the Kentrodorides are of a quite different habitus, 
Tery soft, and the upper lip of the anterior margin of the foot is more de- 
veloped, while the innermost plate of the tongue is somewhat different 
from the others. If not identical with the Kentrodorides, the Jorunnm 
are certainly very nearly allied to them. 

The Jorunmt are rather depressed ; the back finely granulated, 
eovered with equal minute papillulae ; the retractile gill formed of tri« 
pinnate leaves ; the tentacles digitiform ; the foot rather broad, deeply 
grooved in the front margin, and the upper lip of this larger and cleft 
in the middle line. The lip-disk not armed, covered with a simfde 
eaticala. The rhachis of the radula naked, the pleune with many 
hook-formed plates. In the vestibulum genitale are four apertures : 

* R. Bergh, Malacolog. Unten. (Semper, Philipp. II, ii) Heft x, 1876, 
p. 418 427, Tab. XLIX-LI. 

* Jonmna, Bjomit filia. LaxdalaSaga. Hafnin, 1826, p. 21. 


one for the penis, which is armed with a stylus ; another for a haita 
amatorioy through which opens a peculiar gland (quite as in the genus 
Asteronotus) ;* a third for the vagina, and the fourth for the duct of 
the mucous gland. 

Only one species of the genus seems hitherto known, belonging to 
the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The spawn of the species 
is known from Alder and Hancock, but nothing else is known of the 
biology of the animal. 

1. J, John$toni (A. et H.). 

Dorii Johnttoni, A. et H. Oceanum Atlantic, septentr. 

loniniia lobnttoni (A. et H.). Plate VIII, fig. 10 ; Plate IX, fig. 1>U. 

Doris Johmtoni, Alder et Hanc. Monogr. Part 1, 1845, fam. 1, PI. 5 ; Part 

V, 1851, fam. 1, PL 2. f. 8-11. 
Dorii Johmtonif Hanc. et Embleton, Anat. of Doris. Philos. Trans. 1858; 

n, p. 212, 215, 216, 220, 238, PL XII, f. 2, 10 ; PL XIV, f. 9, 10 ; 

PI. XV, f. 1-2 ; pi. XVII, f. 2-8. 
Dorii Johriitoni, Forbes and Hanley, Hist, of Br. Moll., Ill, 1853, p. 564. 
f Doris tomentoiOy Cuv., Fischer. Joum. de Conchyl., 8me S^r., x, 1870; 

p. 290-293 ; XV, 1875, p. 211, note. 
f Doris tomentosoy C. Verany, catalogo. 1846, p. 16-21. Ver., Hanc. et 

Embleton, 1. o. 1852, p. 220.' 
f Doris tomentosOy C. Philippi, En. Moll. Sic. I., 183, p. 104 ; II, 1844, p. 

79, Tab. XIX, f. 9. 

Color flavescens, dorso interdum maculis fuscis seriatis omatos; 
rhinophoria fusco-maculata ; branchia albescens. 
Jffab. Oceanum Atlanticum septentr. 

This species, that was first described by Johnston under the name 
of D, ohvdata (Miiller), was (1845) established by Alder and Han- 
oock. Hancock gave a series of anatomical remarks upon this very 
interesting form and of figures referable to it. Since then nothing 
new seems to have been published about the species ; but a few months 
ago I (1. c.) gave a short notice of the generic characters of the 

Of this form I have only examined a single specimen, captured in 
March, 1870, in the neighborhood of Hellebak, on the north coast oC 
Seeland (Denmark). 

> R. Bergh. Ueber das G^eschlecht Asteronotus^ Ehrbg. Jahrb. der Deut- 
schen Malakozool. (^es., iv, 1877, p. 161-173^ Taf. I-II. 

' According to Hancock and Embleton (1* c.» P* 2^)t ^ha dart (hasta 
amatoria) in Doris Johnstoni is straighti in D. tomerUosa, Ver., curved. 


'f ho 9|R*i'imt*n WHS of a uniform yellowish color ; the rhinophoria 
ikKKKAy ilolli'tl with hrown (but not the branchial leaves). The length 
v4' {\w ralhvr cuntracted and Aomewhat contorted individual wa« about 
ICiU iiiiii. by a greatest breadth of lO.O and a height of about 7.0 mm. ; 
ihu height o( the (retracted) rhinophoria 2.5, of the tentacles nearly 
I .Oi i>f the (retracted ) gill 2.5 mm. ; the greatest breadth of the mantle- 
UiHigtu «t.f> mm., of the foot ;> mm. 

The fdriii id elongate-oval, the mantle-margin rather thick, not Terj 
bi'dud. The haek covered all over with very minute granules, some- 
liuiet*! fhiM'ciHlly on the middle of the back, crowded in irregular and 
rtiuiidinh tfuiiill groups ; the under side of the mantle-margin smooth. 
Thti (contracted) o|»enings of the rhinophor-hole^ appear as a simple 
lrttii5\(ir«e hlit, the granules of the back reaching forward to the open- 
ing, those in this neighborhood not larger than the rest. The club of 
the rhinophoria Htout, with about thirty* broad leaves. The opening of 
the gill-cavity small, transverse, triangular-crescent ic, with theconvexitj 
forwards (as contracted) ; the granules of the back reachin<t to tbe verj 
margin of the gill-slit, but not larger than the rest. The gill consisting 
of elitvijn branchial leaves,- five lateral pairs and an anterior unpaired 
li;uf ; lh«' anal tube low, truncate, nearly c«*ntral; the renal pore at ita 
right side. The head rather small ; the tentacles digitiform, somewhat 
Haltened. The sides of the body nearly impen*eptible ; the genital 
u|HUiing (Hintracti'd.^ The foot rather strong, somewhat pointed at the 
•ind ; ihtf antiTior margin with a deep furro^*, the su()erior lip rather 
utrong and pmniinent, rleft in tht* median line. 

Tilt* |M*ritont>um with very line dark points (brown-black) spread 
every whi*n» ; entin*ly without true spicule-*. 

Tin* central nervous system showt^l the cerebro-vi.-jceral ganglia 
poniewhat elongate, thicker and broader in the {Misterior ;iart, nearly 
not excavated in the exterior margin; the pedal one-* of oval form, 
larger than the visceral. The olfactory ganglia very short-stalked, 
liulbitMrni, a lilth* ^nlilller tlian the buccal ; a small optic ganglion, the 
o|itic nt rve hlntrt. At the interior siile of the post«'rior |iart of the 
right vi-ciTul (tig 111) guiigliim is a short->t:ilked (ti«r. \h) ganglion 
genitale giving off sevend nerves, one of tliem ha^t at its nnit another 
ganglion (fig. Id. The common commissure n<»t hmger than the 

' Alder «uid IIiiiiciN'k mention men*lv ton to tiftoon Kmvcs. 
' AMeruiMl ]I.iiM-«K'k nn-ntion lifterii Umvcn. 

* 'Mil ii*pirMMit.ttion .»f till* prnis (.'> 0- c. V\. \ 1*. U l»y Alder and Han- 
«'iu'k I .inhi't Ih* <-«>riei'L 


transverse diameter of the pedal ganglion, rather strong. The buccal 
ganglia. of roundish form, connected through a very short commissure ; 
the gastro-ocsophageal ganglia short-stalked, reaching scarcely one- 
quarter of the size of the former, with one very large and some 
smaller cells. ^ 

The eyes with black pigment and shining, horn -yellow lens. The 
otocysts at the slight emargination at the outer margin of the cerebro- 
visceral ganglia, crammed with otokonia of the usual kind. The broad 
leaves of the rhinophoria stiffened in the usual way by long, much 
calcified spicula, perpendicular on the free margin of the leaves. The 
skin of the back crowded with spicula,^ mostly very large and much 
calcified; in the rather low (height 0.5 mm.) granules (fig. 2) crowded 
erect spicules. In the interstitial tissue of the intestines true spicula 
are neither many nor large. 

The mouth-tube about 2.0 mm. long, strong, rather wide, quite as 
usual. The bulbus pharyngeus 3.0 mm. long, with a height of 2.3 
and reaching a breadth of 2.5 mm. ; the rasp-sheath also projecting 
1.0 mm. from the hindermost part of the under side of the bulbus. The 
form of the bulbus and its retractors as usual ; the lip-disk whitish, 
clothed with a yellowish cuticula. The tongue of usual form ; on the 
shining horny-yellow radula eleven rows of teeth, further backwards 
twelve developed and four younger rows ; the total number of rows 
thus twenty-seven.^ The teeth of yellowish color ; the height of the 
outermost 0.06, of the next 0.08 mm. ; the height reaches at most 
about 0.22 mm. The two foremost rows were rather incomplete, in 
the fourth row were twenty-four, and the number of teeth then in- 
creases to twenty-seven.* The rhachis (fig. 3a) rather broad. The 
plates of the usual form.^ with the usual wing-like expansion of the 
exterior part of the body and of the root of the hook (figs. 4, 5) ; the 
first (fig. 3) with lower hook, which on the succeeding teeth slowly 

^ This representation of the central nervous system in most points agrees 
with that of Hancock and Emblcton (1. c. p. 233, PI. XVII, fig. 2, 3j. 

* Colliiigwood (Annals and Mag. of N. Hist., 3 Ser., Ill, 1859, p. 462) 
mentions the spicules of this species (from the estuary of the Mersey) as 
''very elegant, consisting of a broad embossed plate with a double and 
beautifully serrated edge, terminating abruptly in a blunt apex/' 

' Aider and Hancock mention twenty-four rows, whereof eleven were on 
the tongue. 

* Alder and Hancock mention twenty-five plates in the rows. 

* Cf. my ^lalacolog. Unters. (Semper, Philipp. II, ii). Heft XIV., 1878, 
(Astcronotus), p. 636. 


iiiv'rt:4iM?H ill height ; then the teeth keep the same height and 

iigi4iii ill the outer part of the rows (fig. 5) ; the four to six interior 

MH;ih HIV wore erect, with shorter body and thinner hook (figs. 69 6)* 

'Vhi) luUivary glands long, thin, whitish.' The (csophagufl about 
uiiu. lung, rather wide, with strong longitudinal folds.' The sionweli 
RUtall, included in the liver ; the biliarj apertures as usnaL 

The iiitetitine issues through the liver behind the region of jiino- 
iiun uf the first and second third of the liver ; the first anteriorly pro- 
(MH^diiig |>art lodged in a groove on the superior side of the liver, not 
paMJiiiig lH*yond the anterior margin of that organ, about 2.5 mm. in 
length ; the rest of the intestine about 10.0 mm. in length ; the diameter 
of the inte8tine 0.8-1.3 mm.; the longitudinal folds rather strong. 

The liver of yellowish color, more grayish on the surface; 9.0 ma. 
in It^ngtii, by a breadth of f)..5 and a height of 4.0 mm. ; the posterior 
end rounded ; more than the anterior half of the under side, espectmllj 
itn right part, is excavated (for the anterior genital mass) and behind 
this iri a deep transverse groove. The vesica fellea lying at the left 
side of the ofitihoot of the intestine^ rather small, in height about l.i5 
niui., reaching nearly to the surface of the liver, nearly cylindricaL 

The heart as uausA, The sanguineous glands whitish, rather 
flattened ; the anterior obliquely triangular with the point, as usual, 
adhering to the under side of the junction of the two cerebral ganglia ; 
in length 2.0 by a breadth of 1.5 mm.; the posterior transversely 
elongate-oval, with a breadth of ^^5 by a length of 1.5 mm. The 
renal syrinx melon-shaped, its largest diameter about 0.75 mm. ; iU 
free duct nearly three times as long ; a strong continuation of it pass- 
ing along the floor of the rather large renal chamber, to the region of 
the pylorus. 

The hermuphroditic gland spread in large groups of ramifications 
over nearly the whole liver and by its brighter yellowish color some- 
what cx>ntra.Hted with it ; in its lobules were masses of zo )8penns and 
rather pniall o gene cells The anterior genital mass' in length 5.0 by 
a breadth of 2.5 and a height of 4.0 mm. ; the right side rather coo- 
vex, meeting th<* more flattened left side at the sharp superior margin, 

• Tlicy are in this way also mentioned by H. and E. (1. c, p. 215, PI, XII, 
fiR. 24-<r). 

' Tilt' dilatation cm the CDAoplia;uA mentioned and fi;^irc<l by H. and E. 
^1. c, p. «!.*», PI. Xtl, tig. '2d' could not bo seen in the specimen examined 
by im». 

' Cf. the PL XIV. f. 9, of Hancock and Embleton. 


the under side flattened. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic gland 
resting on the superior posterior part of the genital mass, whitish, 
making a large curve, about 5.0 mm. long, with a diameter of nearlj 
1.5 mm. The spermatoduct in its first part, as near as could be de- 
termined, rather thick than thin, not very long, forming (fig. lie, 7«) 
a little coil on the upper end of the penis. The penis (fig. 7/) cylin- 
drical, curved, about 2.5 mm. long, by a diameter of about 0.8 mm. ; 
the inside with many longitudinal folds ; at the upper end of its cavity 
a low truncated conical prominence (fig. lib), with a rather wide 
aperture (fig. lib), through which opens a little bag (fig. 11), whose 
inside was clothed with a thin yellowish cuticula, and contained a 
hollow, nearly colorless tube, that could be extended by tension ; it 
was probably pointed (the point seemed broken off) ; its length was 
about 0.9 mm.; the spermatoduct opened (fig. 11a) in the upper part 
of this bag. Hancock has (1. c. PI. XIV, fig. 9c, 10; PI. XV, fig. 
1, 2) seen the penis and the " stiletto," but he too seems (1. c. p. 220) 
not at all clear about these organs. At the side of the opening for 
the penis in the vestibulum genitale was another aperture which led 
into a bag, from whose bottom projected a hard, whitish, somewhat 
compressed conical spur (fig. *ld, 10), that under the influence of nitric 
acid grew more pellucid, but developed very little gas ; through the 
axis of the organ down to the fine aperture on the point, passes a 
slender tube (^g, 10), the continuation of the fine coiled duct of the 
gland of the organ.' This gland (glandula hastatoria, fig. 7e, Sd) 
overlies the upper part of the vagina (fig. 1a,b) ; it is heart-shaped, 
of a transverse diameter (breadth) of 2.0, and a thickness of 1.0 mm. ; 
the gland did not contain any larger cavity. The spermatotheca (fig. 
8a) whitish, nearly spherical, having a largest diameter of 2.5 mm. ; 
filled with fatty cells and detritus ; the two ducts (fig. 8c, e) as usual, 
the vagina rather wide (fig. 7a, b), with longitudinal folds on the in- 
side. The spermatocysta yellowish, spherical, 1.5 mm. in diameter 
(fig. Sb), filled with zo'Jsperms ; short-stalked. The mucous gland 
not forming quite half of the anterior genital mass, consisting of a 
smaller anterior biconvex part, and a large flattened wing-like poste- 
rior part ; the space between them nearly filled by the spermatotheca 

' These organs, the gland and the spur, have also been seen (1. c, PI . 
XV, fig. 9) by Hancock, but he does not mention them (in the text, and 
explanation of the figures). In another of his figures (fig. 106) the spur 
is designated (1. c, p. 248) as ''male intromittent organ," and the (fig. 
lOd, f) true penis as "penis-like organ furnibhed with a stiletto " 


and the Fpermatocysta, the color of the gland yellowish-white, on the 
left Bide of the anterior part a central yellow mass; the doct of 
the mucous gland rather short. 

All the former genera of Dorididte belonged to the large groap of 
Dorxdidm cryptohranchiatst ;* the following are to be registered in the 
group of Doridida eleutherohranchtatae {D, phanerobranchiattr). 
This section is also characterized by the non-retractility of the giD, 
by a sucking-crop connected with the bulbus pharyngeus and by a 
peculiar armaiure of the tongue, consisting usually of a single large 
lateral plate and a single or several outer plates. This group seemi 
chiefly limited to northern climes, and contains at present the genera 
Akiodon'sj Aconthodorisy Adalarin, LamellidoriSj Goniodarii and 
DoridunculuSy' also Ancnia^ Drepania^ and Idalia. 

AKI0D0RI8, Dergh 
Akiodoriiy Rgh. Oattungcn nordischer Doriden, 1. c, 1879, p. 854. 

Forma ut in LameHtdotidibus. Notha^um supra granuloeam. 
Branchia non retractilis, e foliis tripinnatis non multis et ad modua 
ferri equini i>ositi8 forniata. Caput latum, vcliforme ; tentacolia 
brevihu.s lobiformibus. Apeitune rhinophoriales integrse. 

I)i!>cus labialis t^ine armatura. Ingluvies buccalis bulbo connata. 
Radula rhaoliide (juasi nuda ; pleuris dentibus lateralibus depressis non 
multis; (12-lo) quorum duo intimi fortiores, quasi subhamati. Penis 
glande uncis Hinipliribus, furcatis vcl palmatis armatus. Vagina in* 
dumento valloso iieculiari instructa. 

TIm» animals belonjrinjr to this jrroup resemble externally especially 
the Lamellidoridrt, The back is finely granulat(*d ; the head large, 
veil-shajifd, with short t«ntarl<»s, whifli are lobate and |)ointed The 
openinf^s of the rhiiiophor-holes with plain margins, surrounded by 
several larg«T papilla*. The non retractile branchia nearly horseshoe* 
sha|H'd, consisting of a mediocre number of leaves. The lip-di(«k 

' (T. my **(;attuii;,'en nor(lis<'hor Doriden," I. o. p. '^\\, 

' The ;^e!»iiH Ihiridunrulu* ofCt. <). S;ii*s Moll, re^ionis arctit*a» N«»r>eg., 
IHT^ i». :iO<i. Tab. -JT. lig. 2/i rf. Tab. XIV. ti-. 5). which externally ap- 
proaelifH //.//iiV'J-tm aiwl «ither Doridtdtr elnithfrobranrhintkr in the char- 
acter or the ra<lii1a, is liithcito only known U\m\ the n4»rtheus'eni part of 
the .\tlantie Lolotfii), and by a siii;;le Kpei'irs "7). fchinuhituM^ S. . 

^ In the Anru'tr and Drepauuf the i>cnis is aimed as in so niuuy Dorididm 
with a M'lii-h of small luH>ks. 


without armature. The tongue with transverse thickenings of the 
rhachis ; the lateral plates somewhat depressed ; the two first different 
from the rest, larger and with a denticle at the root of the hook ; the rest 
without any such, the external quite without a hook. A sucking-crop 
on the upper side of the bulbus pharyngeus, but sessile, depressed con- 
ical, and not consisting of two symmetrical halves. The large 
ptomach free on the surface of the liver. The glans of the long 
penis with a strong and quite peculiar armature, consisting of strong 
hooks, partly simple, partly bifurcate and partly digitate, with strong 
digitations. The vagina with a peculiar armature of high palisades. 

This interesting genus externally most resembles the LamellidortdeSf 
both in reference to the nature of the back, to the form and size 
of the gill and in the want of armature of the lip-disk ; the region of 
the openings of the rhinophor-holes difler in the want of a glabella 
and by the presence of a larger number of surrounding papillao!. The 
genital opening somewhat recalls the AcanthodorideSy as do also the 
(tripinnate) branchial leaves and the sucking-crop, but this is not 
divided in two distinct halves as in this last genus. The armature 
of the tongue is very different from that of the Lamellldorides^ 
Adalariae and Acnnthodoridet ; the large hook-formed lateral plates 
of these genera are wanting, and in their places are two large de- 
pressed lateral plates, with small hooks ; the external plates somewhat 
recalling those of the Adalariae ; the rhachis rather broad, with 
transverse thickenings of the cuticula, corresponding to the rows of 
plates. In the very peculiar form of armature of the glans penis, and 
by the peculiar clothing of the vagina, the Akiodorides difler from all 
the above-cited genera. 

Only a single species of the genus is hitherto known, the new oncy 
that will be described below. 

1 . Ah, lulescsM, Bgli., n. sp. Oceanum Pacificum. 

1. Ak. Intesoeni, Bgh., n. sp. PI. IV, fig. 3; pi. V, fig. ll-U: pi. VI, fig. 1-20; 
pi. VII, fig. 1-8; pi. VIII, fig. 1-2. 

Color lutescens. 

Habitat, Oceanum Pacificum septentrion. (Nazan Bay). 

Of this form I have had a large single specimen for examination, 
obtained in August, 1873, by Dall, on stony bottom, at low water, in 
Nazan Bay, Atka Island, Aleutians. 

According to Dall, the color of the living animal was << yellowish- 
white ; " preserved in spirits, it was of a uniform dirty yellowish color. 


' tK -iuta wa.'t 32.0 mm., bj a breadth of 19.0 mm., and a height of 
uut. : ilio breadth of the foot 12.5 mm., of the maDtle-brim 3.0 
.,..4. .K luight of the rhinophoria 3.0 mm., of the branchial leaves 
' i.a4. . tho length of the genital opening 2.25 mm. 

I iK 'oiiii vvaH elongate-oval, somewhat larger than that of the Lam. 

. ..;.^i. 'Ihe papillae of the back relatively smaller and more 

vu»«^vU ituin in that animal. The openings of the rhinophor-holeo 
«.. .'K<K(uc o\ul 8lit; the margins plain; several (six to eight) larger 
^<Jlu ot' abiiut 1.0 mm. in height) in the immediate vicinity of the 
»v',i.». iho club of the rhinophoria with about thirty leaves. The 
ii.4:(v«iiH v^ith about ten leaves. The anal papilla low, with a stellate 
^s'^^iiv ; tho renal orifice as usual ; the inter branchial space crowded 
H4iU mthrr |K)inted and high papilhr. The head and tentacles as in 
•Ulivd U»i-ni!4. The genital papilla of oval form, with a large, longitQ- 
.liiirtl, orvNoentic slit. The rather broad foot with the usual anterior 
iu4ii<nial furrow. The {>eritoneum colorless, without spicula. 

|1u' central nervous system mon; flattened than in allied forms ; 
ihe eerebro- visceral ganglia reniform, a little broader in the anterior 
|kAi( ; the pedal ganglia less flattened than the former, larger than the 
\ lAceral unef», of oval form, on the outside of the cerebro-visceraL The 
prttxiniul olfactory ganglia a little smaller than the buccal ones, bulbi- 
liirni ; distal ganglia could not be found. The commissure not broad, 
not hhort. The buccal ganglia of oval form, closely connected ; the 
KHrttro-osopliagenl roundish, rather long-stalked, in size about one- 
Hixth t)f the former, with one large cell and several ( three or four) 
unuiller ones. 

'i'he nervi optici rather long ; the eyes with yellowish lens and 
lilack pigment. The otcH'ysts in the usual place, filled with otokonia 
of the usual kind. The h*aves of the club of the rhinophoria very 
richly furni^lled with thick (diameter. 0.04 mm.) and long spicuUu 
more or less calcareous, and very often giving off a thick twig of 
greater or less length (PI. V, fig. 12); for the most part set perpen> 
dicularly or ohlicjuely on the free margin of the leaves. The axes of 
th(* organs and the short stalk stuffed with strong and very much cal- 
riti<*d spiciih's. In the skin of the back a mass of spicula of the same 
kind (PI. IV, fig. l.'>) as above, or still more hardened ; the papilhr of 
the back solidified in the usual way ( PI. V, fig. 11). In the interstitial 
tissue ft'wer and smaller spicules. 

The oHil tube rather short, wide. The bulbus pharyngeus of usual 
form, about ^).l) mm. long by a height of 4.5 mm., (and at the upper 


put of the sucking-crop of 5.5 mm.), and a breadth of 4.75 mm. ; 
the iheath of the radula projecting about 1.3 mm. backwards and 
iownwards. The lip-disk large, clothed with a thick yellow cuticula ; 
tktrae mouth forming a narrow vertical slit. The cap-shaped suck- 
of^rop almost exactly as in Jc. pilosay but more conical and with- 
•it external signs of duplication : on the inside clothed with a yellow- 
iihcoticiila, opening into the buccal cavity through a wide slit. The 
toagoe rather broad ; on the fine reddish -yellow colored radula seven- 
teeo rows of teeth, also on the point of the tongue were traces of six 
entirely vanished rows ; the two first rows very incomplete, reduced to 
woe external plates. Further backwards were seen forty-two devel- 
oped and three younger rows, or, all in all, the animal presented sixty- 
two rows of teeth. The most external plate of each row is quite 
cdorless, the next two or three pale yellowish, the following all of 
Iwraj-yellow color ; the rhachis colorless. The length of the most 
external plate about 0.035 mm., of the next about 0.05 mm., of the 
foUowing 0.07 mm. ; the length of the second large plate about 0.2 
n»n., of the first 0.022 mm. ; the breadth of the rhachis about 0.22 
twn. The rhachis thickened between the rows and forming arched 
elevations between them (PL VI, fig. la, 3 ; PI. VIII, ^g. la). The 
firettwo plates rather large (PI. VI, fig. Ibb, cc, 4-6 ; PI. VIII, ^g. 
1^ c) ; with a short strong hook and a stout denticle at each side of 
l^ the outer denticle broader ; the hook of the second plate somewhat 
^ger than that of the first ; sometimes a slight crenulation on the 
outer margin of the first plate (Gg, 5). All the following ten or eleven 
Mes (PL VI, fig. 26, /; PL VIII, fig. 2a, 6) of the same type, by 
^^grees decreasing in size, consisting of a quadrilateral basal part, 
worn which (PL VI, ^g. 7-13), in most of them, rises a strong, short, 
^^d hook ; the two or three outmost plates (PL VI, fig. 2/; PL VIII, 
^* 2) formed of the basal part alone ; the rest with the hook gradu- 
^'v Hiore developed. 

*^e salivary glands yellowish -white, flattened, ribbon-shaped, of 
***Ut 10.5 mm. in length, reaching to the cardia, where they 
^ Agglutinated one to another ; the breadth in the foremost part 
**^Ut 0.75 mm., in the middle 1.5 mm., the posterior part again some- 
^"^t narrower ; the duct of the gland rather short. 

^e oesophagus rather wide, about 13.0 mm. long, the inside with 

^^er strong longitudinal folds ; it opens into the stomach, which lies 

^ in a cleft on the upper side of the liver. This organ (PL VI, fig. 

17a) is of oval form, of about 6.5 mm. largest diameter ; the inside 


vrith rather strong longitudinal folds; tho pylorus (fig. 17) in tbe 
neighborhood of the cardia. The intestine advancing from the stoni* 
ach to the fore-end (fig. lib) of the liver, in this |>art about 10.0 mm. 
long ; funning a knee and retrograding to the anal nipple in a length 
of 23.0 mm. The contents of the stomach were indeterminable animal 
matter, mixed with some diatomaceR\ 

The liver 20.0 mm. long by a height of 10.0 mm. and a breadth of 
about 12.0 mm. ; the posterior end rounded ; a little more than the an- 
terior half of the under side obliquely flattened (by the anterior genital 
mass) showing the cardiac end of the (rsophagus and the root of the 
bermuphroditic duct. On the anterior part of the upper surface is a 
cleft for the stomach and for the biliary sac ; the color of the surface 
and of the substance of the liver is grayish-yellow. The biliarj sac 
(fig. 17^) lying before the stomach, on the right side of the Intestine, 
large as the stomach), somewhat flattened, grayish, of rounded oat- 
line and about 4.5 mm. largest diameter; the contents, as in the 

The heart as usual. The sanguineous gland whitish, entirely coTer* 
ing the nervous system, about (j.O mm. long, by a breadth of 4.5 and a 
height of only 1.0 mm. 

The hermaphroditic gland yolk-yellow, covering the upper side of 
the liver with a thick layer; in its lobes large oigene cells and maaaet 
of 2o s|)erm8. The anterior genital mass large, about 14.0 mm. long 
by a breadth of 9.0 and a height of 1 1 .0 mm., flattened and a little ex- 
cavated on the left side, with an excavation on the fore side, the right 
side very convex. The hermaphroditic duct whitish, rather thin 
(diameter al>out 0.75-1.0 mm.), passing straight over the left side of 
the genital mass to its anterior end, without formation of any (distinct) 
ampulla. The first part of the s|>ermatoduct whitish, forming several 
long windings on the up|MT part of the forepart of the mass and pass- 
ing into the yellowish (1*1. VI, flg. 18ri) continuation; this, with its 
numen»us coils, forms a large flattened layer on the fore-end of the 
right sidf of th«* mass ; it then rather suddenly passes into a much 
thinner whitish continuation (fl*?. \Xh) about G mm. long, that slopes 
(tig. iNr) into the jwnis, which (retracted) was lying on the lowest 
antfrior part of tin* right side of the mass. The penis was cylindrical, 
of the len;:lh of 11.0 mm. by a diameter of 1.5 mm.; the tnincated, 
cylin<lriral, yellowish (under a magnifier nodulous) glans forming 
(PI. V, ti^. l.'I, H) a prominence of the h»ngth of neariy 1.0 mm. in 
the vfstibuluin. This glans was partly covered on the outer side 


(fig. 13, 14), but especially on the margin of the wide, gaping orifice 
and on its inside for a length of about 4.0 mm. (PL VII, figs. 2-4), 
with rather crowded and apparently irregularly set claws. The claws 
were very strong and for the most part broad and high (fig. 3, 4), 
even reaching a height of about 0.3 mm. (fig. 4). In the interior of 
the glans, especially in its posterior part (fig. 5c), the claws were lesd 
broad and simply uncinate or bifurcated, otherwise mostly broader and 
with digitations of the margin. The body of the claws was plain or 
curved ; the end simply pointed, bi- or trifurcate or with digitations, 
sometimes very strangely formed. They consisted of a cuticula and 
its matrix ; very often, especially on the outside of the glans, the 
cuticula was torn off and the (fig. 20) rounded or pointed naked matrix 
was left. The whitish spherical spermatotheca (PL VI, fig. 19a) was 
about 3.5 mm. in diameter, laterally communicating tnrough a short 
peCiolus adhering to tne upper end of the vagina, with a sinuosity into 
which opens the elongate, yellowish spermatocysta {fig. 19&), which had 
a length of about 2.0 mm., and from which issues the long duct of the 
mucous gland (fig. 19c). The grayish vagina very strong (fig« IS^), 
about 7.0 mm. long, elongate-conical ; the lowest part wide, having a 
diameter of about 3.25 mm. ; the walls thick, with a very peculiar 
internal lining, consisting of cylindrical palisades (PL VII, fig. 6-8) 
of a height of about 0.4 by a greatest diameter of 0.07-0.08 mm. ; 
between the larger were seen ssoalLer and very small ones. The pali- 
sades seemed to be densely clothed (fig. 8) with cilia, and showed a 
nearly colorless axis (fig. 6, 8) up to their points ^ the axes were often 
denuded (fig. 6) after the sheath has been torn away. This lining 
continued up to the superior end of the vagina, but not beyond it. 

The mucous gland large, whitish, and yellowish- white ; the anterior 
half yolk-yellow, denuded on the fore-end of the genital mass ; the duct 

A variety (PL VI, fig. 14-20) of this species has also been found 
by Dall, in July, 1873, at low water, in Kyska Harbor (Aleutians). 
According to Dall the color of the living animal was " yellowish." T he 
animal preserved in spirits was of a uniform light yellowish color. The 
length about 18.0 mm. by a breadth reaching 8.0 mm and a height of 
6.0 mm. ; the breadth of the foot at the fore-end 5.0 mm., the margin 
of the mantle freely projecting 1.5 mm. ; the height of the rhinophoria 
1.5 mm., of the branchial leaves 1.5 mm. Around the plain margins 
of the rhinophor-holes seven to nine large conical tubercles ; the club 
of the rhinophoria with about twenty leaves Around the branchial 


ring, tLF well as in the centre of it around the Tent, rather large conical 
tubercles 1.5 mm. in height; the branchial leaves, fiflteen in number, 
as far as could be determined. 

The oral tube strong, 4-5 mm. long, wide. The bulbus pharjngeiis 
about .5.5 mm. long, by a height of 3.0, and a breadth of 3.75 mm. ; 
the rasp-sheath about 1 .75 mm., freely projecting, bent upward*. The 
cuticula of the lip-dis^k The tongue with about thirty-five 
rows of plates (fig. 14-If) » ; further backwards, twenty-five developed 
and four younger rows ; the total number of rows sixty-four On the 
posttTior part of the tongue fourteen plates, the number incremsin|t 
backwards to fifteen or sixteen. The ^ve anterior rows very incom- 
plete, only represented by 1, 7, 9, 10, 12 plates (on each side). The 
plates as above. The breadth of the rhachis reaching to about 0.17 mm. 
The glanduhi* salivales G.O mm. long. The stomach {hg. 11a) about 
4.0 mm. long. The contents of the digestive cavity a mass of sponge^ 
The vesica fellea (fig. 17c ) about 2.5 mm. high, with strong folds on 
the inside. The anterior genital mass quite as above, also the sper- 
matotheca and the spermatocysta (fig. 19 s the penis (fig. 18, 20), and 
the vagina (fig. 18, 19). 

LA1UELLID0BI8, Alder et Hancock. 

LameUidortM, A. et H., Monogr. Brit. Nudibr. Moll., Part VII, 1855, p. xvii. 
Lamellidorii, A. et H., K. Bcrgh, Malacolog. Untersuch. (Semper, Philipp. 

II, ii). Huft xiv, 1878, p. 603-Oir). 
LiiiiMidorit. A. et H., R. Bergh, Gait. noni. Doriden, 1. c, 1879, p. 

Corpus vix dopressum, nothiro granulate. Branchia (non retracti> 
lis) e foliis (multis) simplicita pinnatis, ut plurimum in formam ferri 
equini diii|>obiti.<, furmata. Cuput latum, semilunare, angulis tcntacu- 
laribui4. Ap<.'rtuni' rhino[)huriiile.s, margine integro ; tuberculis anticit 
2— 'i, calvitie postica. 

Cuticulu apertunr oralis infra asserculis duobus incrassata, et ante 
annulu'i papillurum angustus. Lingua rhachide lamellis humilibus in- 
structa ; pleuris dt^ntv int^Tuo haniifurmi pi'rmagno et externo com- 
presMj lamt'llifurnn unco niinuto pradito armatis. Ingluvies buccalit 
friuctoria) petiolu hulbo pharyngeo connata, tympanifonnis. 

TeniH apice (glande) eurvatus, non armatu.x. Vagina brevis. 

TIm* g»*nus Lamrfiidnn't was established i ix^y^)) by Alder and Han- 
r«Mk. to riTcive two small groups of Doridida\ one with the D, bilam- 
elhitn as t>[K.*, to which especially the name of the group is here 


restricted ; and the other, characterized by a more depressed form and 
the naked rhachis of the tongue, with the D, depressa, A. et H., as 
ijpe. Hancock has given some anatomical remarks on the typical 
form (2). bilamellata, L.) ; but nothing else had been since mad<^ 
known about these animals* until my just cited notice and those of G. 
O. Sars.* 

The Lamellidorides approach the AcanthodorideSj but differ even 
liere, externally, by the coarsely granulated surface of the back and 
by the larger number of the branchial leaves, which are set in the 
form of a horseshoe ; the openings of the rhinophor-holes, the tenta- 
cles as well as the genital opening are also of a different shape. 
More notable still are the anatomical differences ; the Lamellidorides 
want the armature of the lip-disk, which is found in the other group ; 
the armature of the tongue is quite different (1, I — 1 — I, 1 ), and the 
buccal crop is connected with the bulbus pharyogeus by a stalk. The 
penis is quite different from that of the Acanthodorides, and without 
true armature ; the vagina is short. After all the Lamellidorides are 
much more allied to the Adaiaria, 

The form of the body, as in the AcanthodorideSy not very depressed. 
The back covered all over with semi-globular and short club-formed 
papillae. The openings of the rhinophor-holes with plain margins and 

^ According to H. & A. Adams (the Gen. of Recent Moll., II, 1858, p. 
657), LameUidaris is a synonym of ^^ Onchidoris, Blv.,^' which name is 
employed by Adams for a group, whose type should be D. pusilk^^ A., et 
H. (that scarcely belongs to the true Lamellidorides). CL also Gray, 
Guide I, 1857, p. 207. 

The genus Onchidoris of Blainville (Man. de Malac., 1825, p. 480, 
PI. XL VI, f. 8.), ought to be rejected entirely, as founded very likely only 
on bad observation ; the genus figures with nearly impossible characters, 
both in relation to the tentacles ("quatre tentacules comme dans les Doris, 
outre deux appendices labiaux'^) and to the anus (''median alapartie 
iuf^eure et post^rieure du rebord du manteau"). The type of the genus 
Blainville found in the British Mus. (London), where it seemed to have 
disappeared, at least it was not to bo found in tlie collection of nudi> 
branchiates which I looked over in May, 1873 (while, on the contrary, I 
found the long-lost type of the genus Linguella, Blv., in his original glass, 
and so have re-established the denomination Linguella for the much later 
(1861) Saneara, Bgh. Of. my Malacolog. Unters., Heftvi, 1874, p. 24«). 
Later, Mr. Abraliam (1. c. p. 225) seems to have found the original speci- 
men again. 

« G. O. Bars, Moll. reg. arct. Norv., 1878, p. 300. Tab. XIII, figs. 5, 6 ; 
Tab, XIV, fig. 2, 3. 


ouinnionly two larger papillae before and a bare space behind 
The gill (not retractile) consisting cbieflj of several (asoallj 20-30) 
iripinnate leaves, set in tbe form of a horseshoe. The head largCt 
veil-furmed (semilunar), with produced and pointed side-^iartfly which 
are adherent to the foot nearlj to the point. The genital openings 
not being a slit, but on a large tubercle. 

The cuticula of the oral aperture is thickened below, near the median 
line, into a ledge; and on the outside is a ring of hard papSIieu 
The buccal crop, connected through a petiolus with the foremost pari 
of the upper side of the bulbus pharyngeus, is drum-shaped ; on the in- 
itide clothed with a strong cuticula. The tongue has on the rhachia 
ihort compressed lameUsc, on each side of these is a very large iip-> 
right plate with large compressed body and a hook which on the inside 
18 either plain or denticulated ; at the outside of this plate is another, 
compressed but much smaller and with a little rudimentary hook. The 
tialivary glands forming a short, coiled mass at each side of the root 
of the oesophagus. The oesophagus without diverticle at its origin. 
The spermatoduct (as in the Acanthodorides) very long; the penis 
short, its glans curved and clothed with a rather thick cuticula, bat 
otherwise not armed. The spermatocysta imbedded in the mncont 
gland ; ' the vagina short. 

About the biological relations of the animals belonging to this 
group very little is hitherto known. Where the species occur, they 
Aeem to be rather abundant in individuals (cf. about the Lam. 
hilamellaiaf Collingwood, in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 8. Ill, 1859, p. 
4ri3). The spawn of several 8|)ecie8 (L, bilamellaia^ L. diapkcmOy JL 
inronsptcua, L. asperOf L, depressoy L. ptuiiia) has been described 
by Alder and Hancock, and that of a single species {L, muricaid) by 
Sur8, Meyer and Moebiuti, etc. The first stages of the development 
of this last form have been followed by Sars ' 

The group seems limited to the northern part of the Atlantic and 
«>f the Pacitic. To the same belong with certainty some properly ex« 
mmined specie4, and, besides, several others mentioned in the litera- 
ture can, with more or less probability, be referred to it. 

' 'Ilie ni^ormatocysta has not been seen ))y Alder and Hancock. Cf. 1. c, 
IW2. PI. XIV. fi^. 8 (p. 219). 

• Archiv. Ajf Nalurges, 1840 p. 210, Tab. 7. 



1. Z. bHamellata (L.). Oc. Atlant. 

2. L. varians, Bgh., n. sp. Oc. Pacif. 

8. Z. hifiirieina, Bgh., n. sp. Oc. Pacif. 

4. X. murieata (d Fr. MuUer). Oc. Pacif. 

5. Z. diaphana (Aid. et Hanc). Oc. Atlant. 

D, diaphana, A. et H., Mouogr. Part ii, fam. 1, PI. 10 ; Part vii, PI. 

46 suppl. fig. 9. 
d. L. oipera (A. et H.).' Oc. Atlant. 

2?. oipera, A. et H., 1. c, Part v, fam. 1, PI. 2, fig. 15 ; Pai-t vi, fam. 

1, PL 9, fig. 1-9; Part vii, PI. 46, suppl. text ; PI. 48, suppl. fig. 2. 



7. Z. ipana (A. et H.). Oc. Atlant. 

D, sparsa, A. et H., 1. c, Part iv, fam. 1, PI. 14 ; Part vii, PI. 46, 
suppl. text. 

6. Z. depreisa (A. et H.). Oc. Atlant. 

D, deprena, A. et H., 1. c, Part v, fam. 1, PI. 12, fig. 1-8 ; Part vii, 

PI. 46, suppl. fig 12. 
f Villiersia scutigera, d'Orb., Mag. de Zool., 1837, p. 15, PI. 109, fig. 


9. Z. incontpieua (A. et H.). Oc. Atlant. 

jy. inconspieuOy A. et H., 1. c, Part v, fam. 1. PI. 12, fig. 9-16 ; Part 
vii, PI. 46, suppl. fig. 18. 

10. Z. ohlonga (A. et H.). Oc. Atlant. 

D, obUMga, A. et H., 1. c, Part v, fam. 1, PI. 16, fig. 4-5 ; Part vii, 
PI. 46, suppl. fig. 10. 

11. Z. puHUa (A. et H.). Oc. Atlant. 

D. pusiUa, A. et H., 1. c. Part ii, fam. 1, PI. 18 ; Part vii, PI. 46, 
suppl. text ; app. p. iii. 

12. Z. luteoeineta (M. Bars).' Oc. Atlant. 

13. Z. (.') ulidiana (Thomps.). Oc. Atlant. 

v. ulidiana, Th., Ann. Mag., Nat. Hist., xv, 18, p. 31. 

2>. ulidiana, Th., Aid. et Hanc, 1. c. Part vii, p. 42, app. p. ii. 
Ii Z. (.') tenella (Agassiz). Oc. Atlant. 

D, tenella, Ag., Gould, Rep. on the Inv. of Massachusetts, ed. Binney, 
1870, p. 229, PI. XX, fig. 289, 290, 293. 
15. Z. (?) pallida (Ag.). Oc. Atlant. 

D. pallida, Ag., Gtould, 1. c, p. 229, PI. xx, fig. 284, 287, 288, 291. 

* According to Morch (Synopsis Moll. mar. Danise, Vidensk. Meddel. fra 
naturh. Foren. i Kbhvn., 1871, p. 179) this species ought to be identical 
with the D, murieata of Meyer and Moebius ; but this is, of course, im- 

' The organs of the bulbus pharyngeus of this species have just been 
figured by G. 0. Sars (Moll. reg. arct. Norv., 1878, Tab. xiv, fig. 8), 



IG. L. (?) diademata (Ag. ). Oc. Atlant. 

I), diademata, Ag., Gould, 1. c, p. 230, PI. xxi, fig. 298, 900, 301-^04. 
17. X. [f) grUea iStimps. ). Oc. Atlant. Gould, 1. c, p. 232, PI. xx, fif. 

292. 295. 
IS. L, (.') denlicta i Fischer >. Oc. Atlant. 

1). derelicUiy F., Jouin. de conchyl., xv, 1867, p. 7. 
19. X. if) tubereulata (Hutton). Oc. Pacif. (Nova Zeland.). 

OnchidorU tubereulatus, Hutton, cf. Abraham, 1. c, p. 226. 
30. L, if) eubalia (Fischer). Oc. Atlant. 

Dorii eubalia, F., Journ. de conchyl., xx, 1872, p. 10. 

1. L. blUmellata (L.), rar. /Hici/ica. Plate V, fig. 10 ; Plate XT, fif. 5-9. 

Color albido-flavescens, maculis fuscis plus minusve variegatufi. 

Dentes latcrales margine la^vi. 

I fab. Oc. Pacific. 8e|)entr. (Mar. Beringi). 

Six specimens of this Tarietj of the Atlantic species were taken bj 
Dall, in Bering Sea (Hagmcister Id.), in August, 1874, at low water» 
on a gravel beach. Three were sacrificed for the anatomical examin- 

According to Dall, the color of the living animal was ** yellowish- 
white with brown macula*." 

The length of the 8|>ecimens preserved in spirits was 11-13.0 mm. 
by a height of 4.r)-r> 5 mm. and a breadth of G-10.0 mm. ; the height 
of the rhinophoria 1.75-2.2, of the branchial leaves 1-1.2 mm.; the 
brtfadth of the foot at the fore-end about 5 8.0 mm.; the margin of 
the mantle pn>jceting freely about 1.5-2.0 mm. The color of the 
individuals on the back was yellow-white, murmorated with light 
reddi.*»h-brown. this marbling always occupying the spaces between the 
tulHTcles, which are nearly white • or li;;ht yellowi>h * ; the branchial 
leaves of the same reddish color ; the club of the rhinophoria yellowi^h- 
white ; the under side of the botly yellowish-white or whitish. 

The form was elongate-oval. The head flattened, nearly st*micircu- 
lar, with the tentacular edges a little prominent. The vicinity of the 
()osterior margin of the rhinophor-holes pliiin, at the anterior two 
large erect tubercles ; the club of the rhinophoria with about twenty 
leavfi, the stem rather short. The back covered all ovi-r with semi- 
globular and short club-sha)K'd rounded tubercles of ditft-rent size^, 
mostly small, mixeil with many larger ones (K75 nun. in diameter; tho 
larg»T tulwrcles mostly showing a spinous surface ( 1*1. V, fig. iny when 

' Cf. my •*Malacolog. Uutcrs.*' , Semper, II, ii) Tub. LXVIII, fig. l.Vlft. 


The openings of the rhinophor-holes and of the branchial area (fig. 
Sbb) surrounded by large and small tubercles which also were spread 
over the central part of it (fig. 3). The branchial leaves (fig. Saa) were 
about twenty-four or twenty-five in number, set in a transverse reni- 
form ring ; the leaves in the front part much larger than the rest. 
The anus as usual, scarcely projecting. The under side of the margin 
of the mantle quite*8mooth. The genital openings always quite con- 
tracted. The foot large, with a fine line along its anterior margin. 

The cerebro- visceral ganglia short-reniform ; the pedal ones not 
much smaller, of oval form, set nearly at a right angle to the inferior 
face of the former ; Ihe olfactory ganglia bulbiform or ovoid. The 
buccal ganglia rather flattened, of roundish contour, a little larger than 
the olfactory ones; the commissure between them very short; the 
gastro-oesophageal ganglia not very short-stalked, roundish, in size 
about one-quarter of the buccal ganglia, with three large cells. The 
three commissures very distinct, the sub-cerebral and the pedal con- 
nected throughout most of their length ; the visceral thin, not giving 
off a genital nerve. 

The eyes with black pigment, yellowish lens ; the nervus opticus 
nearly as long as halt* the breadth of the cerebral ganglion. The 
otocysts as large as the eyes, crowded with otokonia of the usual kind. 
The leaves of the rhinophoria without spicules ; the axis of these organs, 
on the other hand, were filled with such spicules, partly circularly and 
concentrically arranged. The tubercles of the back stuffed with ordi- 
nary spicules (fig. 10) in the usual way, the larger spicules mostly very 
prominent on the surface 

The oral tube as usual. The bulbus pharyngeus of the usual form, 
about 2.0 mm. long; the lip-disk with a rather thick yellowish cuticula, 
and inwards with the same belt of (about ten to fifteen) rows of small 
denticles as in the Z. hystricina (cf. below) ; the sheath of the radula 
somewhat bent upwards, freely projecting behind the bulbus for as 
great a length as that of the bulbus itself. The tongue (in the three 
individuals) with ten or eleven series of plates, in the sheath ten or 
eleven developed and three younger rows ; the total number of rows being 
thus twenty four or twenty-five. The plates light yellowish in their 
thicker parts, otherwise nearly colorless. The length of the median 
plates reaching about 0.12 mm., the height of the external ones 
0.10 mm. The median (fig. Xa) and exterior plates (fig. Ih) quite as 
usual ; the large ones of the usual forms (fig. 76), sometimes, especially 


the forernost, with rather obtuse point (f!g. 9). The buccal crop (fig. 
4, 5) as large as the bulbus, of quite the usual form, rather petiolate.* 

The salivary glands forming (on each side) a large, thick, whitub 
mass between the bulbus and the central nervous system (with the 
glandula' sanguinete). 

The (Tsophagus rather wide. The stomach and the intestine as 
usual. The liver as usual, much flattened on the right anterior half 

The heart rather large. The gland, sanguines^ large, whitish, cover- 
ing the upper side of the central nervous system, the foremost part in one 
individual very narrow. The renal syrinx about 1.0 mm. long, with 
strong longitudinal folds, its clothing as usual. 

The anterior genital mass 4-4.5 mm. long by a breadth of 1.25-1.5 
and a height of 3-3.3 mm., yellow-white, plano-convex ; the anterior, 
and partly the superior portion formed by the coils of the whitish ^per- 
matoduct ; in one individual one coil embraced the sheath of the radula. 
The first part of the spermatoduct strong, when unrolled about 25.0 mm. 
long ; the succeeding part of the length of 4-5.0 mm., thinner ; the 
rest about 7.0 mm. in length, stronger, nearly as in the first part. In 
the beginning of this last part the true spermatic duct was rolled up in 
tight coils, the remaining part of its length was nearly straight. The 
penis about 1.5 mm. long, with the usual glans in the interi(»r. The 
sperroatotheca (fig. (>a) spherical, its chief duct nearly twice as long as 
the bag, the vagina short (fig. G^). The spermatocysta appeared 
pyriform (fig. i)d) 

In color this form seems to diflfor from the typical one, as that is 
representc-d by Aldor and Hanc(H*k (Monogr., Part vi, 1854, fam. 3, 
I 1. 9 ) ; in the anatomical rt^hitions no specific difii'rences could be 

A specimen of another variety was obtainiHl by Dall, on a gravel 
beach, at low water, in .June, ls74, at Port Etches (Prince William 
Sound . According to Dall, the mantle was of "brown" color. 

Th«' s|M'cinnin had a length of l.'i.O mm., by a bn>a4lth of 8.0 mm., 
and a height of 5.0 mm. ; the height of the leaves of the gill was 
about 1.0 mm. The color of the back was brownish and yellowish; 
that of the gill, as well as of the rhinophoria, yellowish. The number 
of leaves of the gill was about thirty. 

The bullMK phuryngeus alH)ut 1.75 mm. long, by a height of 1.5 mm. ; 
the >heHth of the radula nearly as long as the bulbus ; the buccal cn>p 

' I» one HjK'rinieii tlic form of this or;^jm w;i.h entirely as fi«;ured in my 
Mul;in»l«»g. I'nlersuch. SeniiH-r, lleisen). Tab. LXV, tig. 2. 


a little larger than the bulbus. The radula brownish-yellow, with 
nine rows of teeth, further back fifteen developed and two younger 
rows, the total number being twenty-six. The teeth quite as above, 
dark, horn-colored . in their thicker parts ; the median ones reaching a 
height of 0.16 mm. The salivary glands as above-mentioned. 

The biliary sac uncommonly small. The black contents of the 
rectum consisting of undeterminable animal matter, mixed with larger 
4ii3d smaller pieces of small Crustacea. The liver much flattened on 
tlie right anterior half. 

The anterior genital mass large, about 7.0 mm. long, 5.0 mm. high, 

Acd 3.0 mm. thick. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic duct whitish, 

forming a long ansa, about 5.0 mm. long. The spermatoduct shorter 

tbark in the other form, otherwise, with the penis, as in that form. 

The spermatotheca yellowish, short, sac-shaped, of a largest diameter 

of 3.€mm. ; the spermatocysts about 0.3 mm. long, pyriform. The 

mucous gland chalk-white and brownish-gray. 

another variety, Dall, in August, 1872, obtained six specimens, 
in S inborn Harbor (Shumagin Ids.), on stony bottom, at low water. 

-A^ocording to Dall, the color of the back of the living animal is 

" ''^^ -brown, with whitish papillae." The color of the backs of 

the specimens preserved in spirits was rather uniformly, dirty brown- 

yello^rish, commonly much lighter on the middle, the papillae whitish ; 

the gill and the rhinophoria of the color of the back ; the under side 

^* tHe whole body yellowish ; more whitish on the mantle. The 

lengtH of the animals varied from 18.0 to 25.0 mm., by a breadth of 

1^1 -O to 16.0 mm., and a height of 8.0 to 12 mm. ; the breadth of 

^he Foot 7.5 to 12.0 mm. ; the height of the rhinophoria reaching 3.0 

'*^*'^-> that of the gill 2.0 mm. The form as usual. The horseshoe 

**^pe of the gill very pronounced, the number of leaves, twenty-eight 

^ thirty. The gill was surrounded by higher papillae, which, in the 

^'"^est specimen, reached the height of about 2.5 mm. ; the space 

*^closed by the gill closely set with similar papillae, the largest (as 

^S^ as the above mentioned) in the periphery. The gill can bo so 

®^ply drawn back in its groove, that these external and internal 

P*¥^^lUe shut over and quite conceal it; the papillae of the centre 

™^^ller; a crest or some few papillae in the median line go from the 

^'^^^ backwards, between the incurved ends of the gill. The anus 

^"^HJl^yery slightly prominent i the renal pore on the right side. The 

^P^^ings of the rhinophor-holes as usual, before them the two usual 

P^^ilkc, behind them a bare space. The papillae of the back quite as 


in the previously examined form, the largest (in the largest Bpecimen) 
reachintj: the height and the diameter of about 1.5 mm., ibose in ibe 
neighborhood of the gill somewhat larger. 

Two smaller individuals were dissected, the larger being harder than 
these and not so suitable for that purpose. The peritoneum was 

The central nervous system just as in the former specimens, but the 
buccal ganglia smaller than the olfactory, and the gastro-ccsophageal 

The eyes as above. The otocysts, under the gla&», very distinct as 
chalk-white points on the hinder and outermost part of the cerebral 
ganglia. The leaves of the rhinophoria without spicula. The skin 
and the papilLe of the back as above or still more crowded with very 
hard spicula. 

The oral tube large, (in both individuals^ about 2.5 mm. long. The 
bnlbus pharyngeus of the usual form, < in both individuals) about 3.0 
long, by a breadth of 1.8 mm, and the height nearly the same; the 
sheath of the radula projecting straight backwards 2.0 mm. The 
buccal crop, lying to the left side of tlie bulbus, somewhat compre«5ed, 
of alM>ut .'{.0 mm. largest diameter, the stalk nearly half as long as 
the largest diameter of the crop. The tongue with ten rows of t«-eth, 
furthtr backwards aNo eleven or twelve develojwd and three younger 
n>ws, ihe total number thus being twenty-four or twenty-five. They 
wen* entirely as in tht* form first examined. 

Thf salivary glands, the pyloric part of the intestine, with its biliary 
sac, and th<* liv<'r as u<nal. The sanguineous gland whitish, much 
fhittfned, covering tli<' whole iip|M*r >i(le of the hulbus phar}'ngeus and 
the ei'iitral nervous svsteni : a tiattent-d eavitv in its interior. The 
hcriiiaphnHlitic gland, tlirougli its more reddish eolor, contrasting with 
tht* •Tavi'ih e(»h)r of the liver. 

Till' uritt-rior genital ina<s 1 1.0 t(» ]'2A) nnn. long, by a height n*acb- 
in;: T.n to ^.(» mm., and a breadth of t.n to 1.') mm. The ampulla of 
thf li* riiiar»liro(litie duet I\in<; tr:in*>ver>elv on the low«*>t and ni0!«t 
ant' rinr p.irt of th«> back of the n)nr(»us ;:Iand, rather straight or 
foriiiiiii; n< Mflv a eirelf, about ;'>.() to 7.0 nun. Ion;;, whitish. The 
*ipi'nii itodiiet making many eoiU on and before the anterior part of 
till- niMriiii>. ;rhind ; the tirot part about !!.'>. to 4.').0 mm. long, the 
-reoiid marly *J.'i.O mm. long; the ptiii^ about 1..') to :?.0 mm., pro- 
jfctiiig fr^'i ly from tin* vi>ti!iuluni, eoiiifjil ; the glans seemed rather 
•khort. The ^{K'rmatothe(*a of alntut .'>.U nim. diameter, whitibh. The 


8perraatocy8tn (fig. G6) quite imbedded in and concealed by the mucous 
gland, only a part of its chief duct free on the surface of this last ; 
the spermatocysta scarcely shorter than the spermatotheca, pear-shaped, 
incurved ; the duct to the mucous gland (fig. ^d) passing from the end 
of the bag, the other strong, longer (fig. 6cO, opening in the duct of 
the spermatotheca, where it begins to be wider (vagina) ; the vagina 
(fig. Ge ) rather wide, but short. The mucous gland whitish, yellowish 
and dirty yellow.* 

2. L. variant, Bgh. PI. XI, fig. 13, 14 : PI. XIII, fig. 1. 

L. variant, B. R. Bergh, Malacol. Unters. 1. c, 1878, p. 613, G14. 

Color coerulescens vel albescens vel flavescens. 

Dentes laterales margine interno denticulati fere usque ad apicem. 

Hab. Oc. Pacif. (Ins. Kyska). 

Of this species six specimens were taken by Dall, in July, 1873, at 
Kyska Island, on sandy ground, at a depth of 9-14 fathoms. Four 
specimens were sacrificed to the anatomical examination. 

According to Dall the color of the living animal is '^ bluish." The 
animals preserved in spirits were of a uniform whitish color, so too 
the rhinophoria and the branchia. Their length was 9-12.0 mm. by 
a breadth of 5.3-7.0 and a height of 3-4.5 mm.; the breadth of the 
foremost part of the foot 3.6-5.0 mm. The height of the rhinophoria 
reached about 2.2 mm., of the branchial leaves 1.0 mm. 

1 he form almost entirely as in the typical form and as in the L. 
hystricina, 'J he head as in the last species ; also the openings of the 
rhinophor-holes, with their (mostly three) larger tubercles, set with 
equal spaces ; the club of the rhinophoria with about twelve to fifteen 
rather thick leaves. The tubercles of the back as in the Z. hystrx* 
cina ; the number of larger ones much exceeding that of the smaller, 
which are scattered between them. The branchial disk as in the Z. 
hystricina, also the branchial leaves, whose number did not surpass 
twelve to twenty. The foot as usual. 

The central ntrvous system (fig. 1) nearly as in the Z. hystricina. 
The cerebro-visceral ganglia of roundish or oval form, as also the 
pedal ones which were not much smaller than the former. The com- 

» In icy «*Malacolog. Unters." (Semper. Philipp. IT. ii, Heft xiv, 1878, 
p. 606-613 ; Tab. Ixiv, fig. 13, 14-1^ ; Tab. Ixv, fig. 1-5, 6-18) I have given 
some anatomical remarks on the typical Z. bilamellata and on the Green- 
landic variety {D, liturata. Beck). 


a pedalia nearly aa long as the diameter of the pedal gangUa; 
the Bubcerebral lying rather elose up to the pedal ; the visceral quite 
free, much thinner. A very short-etalked Bmaller ganglion (fig. le) 
connected with the under side of the right visceral ganglion, gives off 
a nerve that swells into a new ganglion, which sends out three nerves 
(N. genitalis). The olfactory ganglia short-stalked, spindle-shaped. 
The buccal (fig. li^ and the gaatro-wsophageal ganglia (fig. le), nearly 
as in the L. kystridna ; the commisiure between the first extremely 
short, the gastro-oesophagea] somewhat smaller. 

The nervi optici one to one and a-balf times aa long as the diameter 
of the cerebral ganglia ; the eyes with blade pigment, yelfowish lens. 
The otocysts (fig. 1) tying rather backwards, a little smaller than the 
eyes ; the otokonia of the usual form, in number about fifty. The 
leaves of the rbinophoria without spicnla. In the skin were almost 
no Fpicula and no larger or calcified ones on the surface of the rigid 
papilla of the back, which thus were rather smooth. In the intersti* 
tial connective tissue small calcified cells, but no larger spicula. 

The mouth-tube as in the L. Iiyitridna. The hulbus pharyngeus 
as in that species, but the sheath of the radula shorter and less 
prominent, bent upwards, sideways or down and forwards. On the 
interior part of the nearly colorless lahial disk, the usual belt of 
(about twelve to fifteen) rows of small denticles. The tongue strong, 
rather long, with curved superior and nearly straight inferior margin. 
In the mature radula twelve to fourteen or sixteen rows of teeth, 
further backwards fifteen or sixteen to eighteen rows of developed, 
and three of partly developed teeth ; the total number of rows thus 
thirty, thirty-one or thirty-five to thirty-seven. The median plates 
(fig. 14) of nearly the usual form, in the under side rather excavated, 
with thickened margins. The Urge lateral plates (fig. 13) formed 
nearly as in the L. hy^tridna, but larger, reaching a height of 0.12 
mm. -, the denticulation of the interior margin of the hook stronger, 
with more (about twenty) denticles and reaching farther out towardx 
the end of the hook. The exterior plates nearly of the same form aa 
in the last species, reaching to the height of about 6 mm. 

The sucking-crop quite as in the former species. 

The saUvary glands much smaller than in the former species, re- 
duced to a large, scarcely lobed, whitish mass on each side of the 
root of the (esophagus. 

The oesophagus somewhat spindle-shaped. The stomach included 
in the liver. The intestine issuing from the liver behind its middle. 


The liver of grayish-white color, of the length of about 9.5 mm. by 
a breadth of 4 and a height of about 3.75 mm. ; the hinder end 
rounded, the fore-end rather truncated, the anterior one-third on the 
upper and right side flattened by the anterior genital mass. 

The heart and the renal syrinx as usual ; the median renal cham- 
ber continued to the fore-end of the liver. The sanguineous glands 
connected on the upper side of the central nervous system to a flat- 
tened whitish mass. 

The glandula hermaphrodisiaca clothing the upper side of the liver, 
and scarcely distinct from it in color ; in its lobules were large oogene 
cells. The anterior genital mass compressed, plano-convex; 4.0 mm. 
long, by a height of about 3.3 and a breadth of 1.2 mm. The albumi- 
nous gland on the left side of the mass and forwards, yellowish, very 
finely gyrated on the surface ; the mucous gland whitish, pellucid. 
The spermatoduct as well as the (3.0 mm. long) penis as in the Z. 
echinata. The spermatotheca rather small, spherical. 

L. yariani , rar. 

To this same species belonged certainly five specimens of a Lam- 
ellidoris, which were taken by Dall in July, 1873, at Unalashka 
Island (Aleutians), at the depth of sixty fathoms on mud and stones. 
Nevertheless, the color of these animals in the living state was, accord- 
ing to Dall, " yellowish -white." 

The size and the particular measures accorded with those of the 
more typical individuals, referred to above. 

The central nervous system as just mentioned, so even the eyes and 
the otocysts. The bulbus pharyngeus of the usual form ; on the tongue 
eleven rows of teeth, farther backwards twenty-six developed and four 
not quite developed rows, the total number thus forty -one. The plates 
quite as formerly described. The sucking-crop quite as in the typical 
form, also the salivary glands. The whitish sanguineous gland entirely 
covering the central nervous system. The penis as usual. 

Two specimens of another variety of this form were gotten by Dall, 
in July, 1873, at Kyska Island, on sandy bottom, and at a depth of 
nine to fourteen fathoms. In a living state they were, according to 
Dall, of yellowish color. 

The length of the animals preserved in spirits was 8.5 to 9.6 mm., 
by a breadth of 6.0 mm., and a height of about 3.5 mm. The color 
was uoiformly whitish or yellowish-white. One individual was dis- 


The central nervous system was as above mentioned, and also tht 
eyes (their nervi optici rather long), and the otocysts (the number of 
the otokonia about one hundred). The bulbus pharyngeus as asual: 
on ttie tongue sixteen rows of teeth, farther backwards eighteen rowt 
of developed and four of younger teeth ; the total number of rowa, 
thirty-eight. The plates as above ; the length of the median platen 
0.0*') to 058 mm. ; the height of the anterior large lateral platet 
about 0.14 mm., of the posterior about 0.17 mm. ; the number of den- 
ticles on these plates mostly fit teen to twenty. The vesica fellea waf 
at the left side of the pylorus. 

8. L. hystrieina, Bcrgh. 

X. hyitricina, Hergh, Mai. Untorauch., 1. c, 1878, p. 614, Tab. Izviii. 
tig. 17 23. 

Color ccerulescens. 

Dentes Uterales margine intcmo denticulati sed non usque ad 

Habitat, Oceanum Pacificum (insula Kyska). 

One specimen of this species was found by Dall, at Kyska Inland 
(Aleutians), on rocky bottom, at a depth of ten fathoms, in Jane, 
1H7:S. Acconling to Dall, the color of the living animal is bluish. 

Tlie si>ecimen preserved in spirits was 9.5 mm. in length, reached 
A breadth of i\ mm., and a height of tlie true Inxly (without the 
]Uipill;e^ of .'{.5 nun.; the breadth of the foremost |mrt of the foot 
was :')..*{ mm., the height of the rhinophoria was about 2.1 mm., of the 
)»ran('hia alniut 1/2 nun., (»f tli«' dorsid papilhe 1.2 mm. The cokw 
was uniformly wirui>h. 

Thr form was oval, the baek not very convex. Tlie head rather 
large, fonneil like a velum, that is radiately folded, and has its side 
parts eonnet'ted with the vtuU of the anterior margin of the foot ; in 
the middle of the hinder part of the under side of the velum is a trani>- 
vtTM* slit, in wliieh tlie small month-|M)re op«*ns. The o{M'ning of thr 
rhinophor-lioli's was nearly round, with the mar;rin rather thin, here 
wiTe three papilla- of the sanie kind as on the back ; the rhinophoria 
stout, the club with about twcntv h-avi'S. The back covennl all over 
with mostly >tout, clul>-slia|M*d papilhe, apparently set without order. 
and txtt-ndiii;: nearly out to th»' very margin of the mantle, which is 
thin and has on the up|MT >iiie smaller, cylindrical or club-shapt*d 
papilla-. The papilla- all tirmly adhen'nt to the hkin, the spicules shin- 
ing throu;:h all over on the back and in the papilhe. The branchial 


disk ratlier large, at the inarpcin set with about fourteen papillae, irregu- 
larly alternatixig in size. The branchia composed of twelve small 
leaves of the usual kind. The centre of the disk and the anus as 
usual. The foot somewhat shorter and narrower than the back, 
broader in front, with the anterior margin rather straight, rounded 

The cerebro-visceral ganglia showed the visceral part a little larger 
than the cerebral, the pedal somewhat smaller than the visceral ; the 
four commissures as usual ; the off:$hoot of the nerva genitalis could 
not be determined. The buccal ganglia rounded, connected through a 
short commissure ; the gastro-ocsophageal having about one-quarter of 
the size of the latter. 

The eyes with very rich black pigment ; the nervus opticus not short. 
The otocysts as large as the eyes, filled with otokonia of the usual 
kind. In the thin leaves of the rhinophoria no spicala. In the skin 
of the back and in the dorsal papillae an enormous amount of irregular 
or rounded particles, often coalescing together in larger, irregular 
lumps, which very often were crowded together in irregular heaps ; in 
the papillae also were long, strong and very much calcified spicula, 
often of uneven surface, whose points, as usual, often projected on the 
surface of the papillae. In the interstitial connective tissue, including 
the ends of the different ducts of the genital organs (vagina, mucous 
gland duct), masses of large and long (as much as 0.9 mm.), calcified 

The month-tube was about 1.0 mm. long, rather wide, with strong, 
longitudinal folds. The bulbus pharyngeus of usual, irregular form, 
the bulbus proper of the length of about 1.75 mm. ; the sheath of the 
radula, nearly as long as the bulbus, curved downwards. . The labial 
disk oval, at the inner margin of darker color, and there showing 
(^g* 17) a narrow belt of small, yellowish denticles, of a height of 
0.007 to 0.015 mm. ;^ this belt seems continued a short space up in 
the mouth that is otherwise, like the rest of the buccal cavity, clothed 
with a rather thick, yellowish cuticula. Q be tongue rather long and 
narrow, in the groove on its back sixteen rows of teeth, in the sheath 
eighteen developed and six undeveloped rows, the total number conse- 
quently forty. The color of the true lateral teeth yellowish, the others 
nearly colorless ; the height of the outer pseudo-plates about 0.075 mm. 
'I he median pseudo-plates elongate, narrow (fig. 21) ; the true (lateral) 

> In the outer mouth was found a little Caprella, of the length of 3.0 mm. 


teeth strong, finely denticulated (with six to eight denticles) on the 
inner side of the hook, and with a strong, rounded promineoce al 
the base of this (fig. 18a, 19, :^0); the external pseudo-plates with 
the usual curved points (fig. 186). Irregularities in the form of the 
last were often observed (fig. 23).' » 

The crop entirely as in the typical species, the largest diameter 
1.3 mm. 

In tlie stomach indeterminable animal matter and a little, undeter- 
miuable worm, of the length of 2.0 mm. 

The hermaphroditic gland as usual ; the lobules filled with sperma. 
The anterior genital mass rather large, measuring in length 4.5 mm., 
in height 2.'} mm., and in breadth 2.3 mm. ; the left side fiat or a Utile 
excavated, the right rather convex. The mucous gland, as well as 
the albuminous gland, white and yellowish-white. The s|>ermatodiicl 
not very long, but rather strong, continued in the very strong penis, 
that (retracted) forms the fore-end of the wliole mass. The penis has 
a length of about 3.5 mm., by a diameter of 1.3 mm.; the inftrrior 
end rather constricted ; the superior three-quarters of the organ com- 
pact, |MTforated through the axis by the dense coils of the splsrmakK 
duct pn)|K'r ; the inferior one-third hollow, including the curved and 
|K>inted ghins. 

8. L. marioaU (Mlilltr). PUte IX fig. IS; VUU XT. Ag. 10-1 :. 

DortM muricnUi, (). F. Miiller. ZtK>l. Dan. Fa.s. Ill, 17S9, p. 7, TaK, 

LXXXV, f. 2, 3, 4. 
DorU muric.aUiy Mullcr. Bars, (forma w) I^vt^ii, Ind. Moll. Scand. 1S46. 

p. 5. 
DorU muricata^ Meyrr uml MocbiuH. Fauna dor Kiclor Bucht, I, IMS, 

1». 7:i-7."», Taf. Vc, H. 1-8. 
f Lnme^Hdori* mnricata, Miiller. (1. (). Sar», Moll. reg. arct. Nonr., 

1>*:m, p. aoT. Tab. XIII, fig. 0. 

Color fiavidus vel luteo-albus. 

Deiites laterah*M niagni hamo denticulate sed non usque ad apicem. 

llfih. ()c. Atlanticum septentr. 

The f)ri;:in:il siM'cimen on which Miiller founde<l his Doris muriraia 
•loes not cxi.Ht and by his incomplete <iescription it is now completely 
im|HMi**il)l«' with full certainty to determine what .xjtocies wan meant by 
Ills dt'srriptioii. In future lh»* .•*pt*ci«\H described by Me\'er and Mot*biuj( 

' Fri>in tlu* )>reHi*nceof only Olio individual, the examination of the radula 
watt extivuiely difticult and limited, as also that of the genital organs. 


and by me ought to be called by that name. To the same is without 
doubt to be referred the second variety (^)' of the D, muriecUa 
(Miiller, Sars) of Lov^n (the first being the D. LavSnt of Alder). 

Of this form, and under that name, I have had two well conserved 
specimens for examination, kindly sent me by Mr. Friele, of Bergen, 
and caught in the neighborhood of that place. 

The individuals (preserved in spirits) were of light yellowish color. ^ 
The length 9-10 mm. by a breadth of 5-6.0 and a height of nearly 
3.0 mm. : the breadth of the foot reaching 3.5 mm. ; the height of the 
rhinophoria 1.5, of the branchial leaves 1.0 mm. The form of the 
animal as usual ; the warts of the back not large, mostly truncate, 
clavate. The openings for the rhinophoria as usual, with two tubercles 
before them, or one on each side ; the club with about fifteen to twenty 
leaves.' The branchial lelEives about twelve, to fourteen, as far as could 
be determined ;^ the space inclosed by the- gill covered with the usual 
tubercles ; the anus presenting the ordinary features. The head rather 
large, the side parts adhering to the foot throughout their whole length. 
The genital groove with three openings ; a foremost round, a median 
spalt-formed, and a posterior large and round. 

Both individuab were dissected ; the peritoneum was colorless. 

In the central nervous system the cerebro-viscend ganglia appeared 
rather short, reniform ; the pedal ones of roundish form, somewhat 
larger than either of the former ; the commissures rather short. The 
olfactory ganglion short-stnlked, nearly spherical, situated rather 
posteriorly on the upper side of the cerebral ganglia, and nearly as 
large as the buccal ones. The buccal ganglia of oval outline, con- 
nected by a short commissure ;. the gastnMBSophageal nearly spherical, 
in size about one-quarter of the former, short-stalked: a secondary 
ganglion lying above the last on the oesophagus. 

The eyes not short-stalked ; with rich black pign^nt and yellow 
lens. The otocysts a little smaller than the eyes,, filled with otokonia 
of the common kind. In the leaves of the rhinophoria rather few but 
large spicula of the same kind as in the skin, more or less perpendicu- 
lar on the free margin ; the axes of the club like the stalk still more 
richly endowed with smaller and larger spicules. Under the glass the 

' Ajccording to Lov^ the color is yellowish; to Meyer and Moebiua wbite 
or yellowish- white, the rhinophoria orange-oolored. 

* Accx)rding to Meyer and Moebius the olub of tiie rhinophoria ban but 
nine or ten loaves. 

' Meyer and Moebius mention eight leaves as nearly constant. 


•kin between the warts, as well as the warts themselTea, showed the 
white spicules everywhere shining throagh ; the spicules often prD Jee » » 
ing from the surface of the warts The spicules for the greater peit 
▼erj large, long, and reaching a diameter of at least 0.05 moi. ; tiMj 
were stronglj calcified, mostly straight or slightlj cunred, the 
nearly even. In the interstitial tissue were rather many spii 
(as in the rhinophoria) less calcified than in the skin. 

The mouth-tube rather wide. The bulbus pharyngem of nearfy 
usual form, about 1.6 mm. long ; the sheath of the radula, more o v e r , 
projecting backwards about 0.4 mm., bent somewhat upwards or down- 
wards ; the lip-disk with a rather thick yellowish cuticula ; the sucktiif- 
crop large, larger than the true bulbus, to which it adheres by a Tery 
short petiolos. The tongue with nine rows of teeth, further bnck 
twenty to thirty-two developed and three younger rows ; the total 
number of rows, thirty- two to forty- four. > The yellow median f^atet 
(fig. 10a) about 0.05 mm. long, of the usual form. The large lateral 
plates yellow, of about 0.12 mm. height ; the form as usual; the book 
with about fifteen to sixteen fine denticles, and a strong tooth at the 
inside of the base (fig. lObb). The external plate colorless, about 0.04 
mm. in height, with the usual rudiment of a hook (fig. 10^, 11^).' 

The salivary glands white, rather thick, making two or three short 
ooils at the sides of the (esophagus. The oesophagus as usuaL Tbe 
intestine emerging from the liver at about the middle of its lengtb : 
the biliary sac (fig, 18) is at the pyloric part of it, situated deeply, 
Acarcely showing itself on the surface of the liver and opening (fig. 
i8a) into the stomach close to the pylorus. The liver about 6.5 mm. 
long by a breadth of 3.0 mm. and a height of 2.0 mm., deeply excav- 
ated in the anterior third of its right side, and of light yellow color. 
The sanguineous gland much flattened, whitish, heart-formed, of abooi 
1.5 mm. largest diameter. The renal chamber rather wide, the tobe 
on its floor strong. 

' Meyer and Moebius 0- c. p. 78^ mention twenty-nine rows ; Alder 
Hancock thirty. 

' The representations of the external plate by Meyer and Moebius (L e. 
ti^. ^f 6) are not natural. Aider and Ilanc. (1. c, Part VII, p. ii, PI. 4C 
■upplcm. text) mention two external plates in their D. murieata (as in their 
D. diaphafia) ; either the D. muricata of A. and H. must be another species, 
(>r Uiey rouMt have fallen into errxir from the particular view which is 
timen had in certain positions of the hind ends of the lai^ lateral 
with the external ones. 


The lobes of the hermaphroditic gland without developed sexual 
elements. The anterior genital mass about 2.5-3.0 mm. in length by 
« height of 2.0 mm. and a breadth of 1.0-1.5 mm. The ampulla of 
the hermaphroditic duct of yellowish color, rather thick ( — 0.75 mm. 
diameter), making a wide curve, about 2.5 mm. long. The spermato* 
duct long ; its first part thinner, about 9.0 mm. long, then through a 
stricture of the length of nearly 1 mm., passing into the thicker part, 
which in its last half increases in thickness, and, all in all, has the 
length of about 6.0 mm. by a diameter of 0.75 mm. ; the last part 
(fig. 12c) passes into the penis*, in whose cavity (fig. 1266) the'glans 
(fig. 12a) projects as a short club, the proper seminal duct passing 
down to the gland in nearly continual cork-screw windings, and often 
shining through the walls of the external coat. The spermatotheca 
whitish, nearly spherical, of about 1.3 mm. diameter, filled with sem- 
inal matter and detritus ; the spermatocysta elongate, nearly twice af« 
long as the former, yellowish, deeply imbedded in the mucous gland, 
filled with ripe semen ; its duct somewhat longer than the cysta. The 
vagina short.^ The mucous gland yellowish and yellow. 

. The species approaches to the Z. hyitridna and L. variant (of 
the Pacific), but diflers entirely in its colors; still the possibility can- 
not be denied that further investigations may show both the Pacific 
^'species'* to be merely varieties of the old LavneUidorit muricata 
of the Atlantic. 


Adalaria, R. Bergh. Malaoolog. Unters. (Semper, Philipp. II, ii). Heft 

XIV, 1878, p. xl. 
AdqlariOf R Bergh. Gattongen nord. Doriden, 1. c. 1879, p. 860. 

Forma corporis fere ut in Lamellidoridibus. Nothseum papillula- 
turn vel subgranulosum. Branchia (non retractilis) e foliis vix mul- 
tis, in formam ferri equini ut plurimum dispositis formata. Caput ut 
in Lamellidoridibus, latum, semilunare, tentaculis vix ullis vel brevis- 
simis lobiformibus. Aperturse rhinophoriales integrse, tuberculis 
anticis 2-3, calvitie postica. 

Discus labialis non armatus. Lingua rhachide lamellis depressis 
instructa ; pleuris dente lateral! interne hamiformi majore et serie 

^ The exserted penis is figured by Meyer and Moebius (1. c. taf. fig. 4) 
and mentioned as cylindrico-conical. 

' The upper end of the vagina seemed to present a particular diverticle. 


dentiam externorum sat applanatonim pnediUs. Inglaviea boecttfi* 
bulbo pharjngeo petiolo coDData. 

Penis glande parva iDerroi. Vagina brevis. 

The genus has been established by the author (1878) to recetre 
the D, proxima and its allies. The Adalaria externallj approttck 
nearest to the Lameliidorides ; their branchial leayea are alio dis- 
posed mostlj in horseshoe form, but fewer in namber. The bead and 
the tentacles are more as in the AcanihodoricUt. The back it nearlj 
a^ in the Lamelltfiarides, but the granules are someUmea more pointed. 
The opening for the rhinophoria as in the LameliidarideSy with pkun 
margin ; before them two to three tubercles, behind them the ^beBa. 
The lip-disk onlj covered by a strong cuticula. The armature of Ike 
tongue approaching to that of the Acanthodarides, The rhacbis of Ike 
tongue carries depressed small jellow plates ; at each side of these a 
large hook-formed yellow plate, and further outwards a series of 
smaller, nearly colorless plates, of which the inner ones are man 
compressed, the rest depressed. The sucking-crop as in ike LamM^ 
df>ride$, through a petiolus fixed to the bulbus. The saliTary glands 
as in the LameUidor%de$. The wsophagus wider at its root. Tke 
penis unarmed ; the vagina short 

The Adalarict are LameUtdorides with a tongue resembling that of 
the Acanthodarides : they form a sort of connecting link between these 
two groups. 

Of the typical species, the spawn is known (through Alder and 
Hancock) and some few notices have been published about their 
biology (through Meyer and Moebius i ; Sars mentions' the swimming 
of Ad. Lovtni, 

The genus t^tHsms to belong to the northern oceans ; only five species 
<teem hitlierto known. 

1. Ad. projeima A. et Hj. Oc. AUanticus aept. 
*J. Ad. paeifiea, Bgh., n. up, Oo. Pacif. 
:i. Ad. tireseens^ Hgh., u. Hp. Oc. Pacif. 
\. Ad, albopapi'loia (Dall). Oc. Pacif. 
Ad. Lptrni ( h,, et 11.^. Oc. Atlant. sept. 


AdaUrU proxima < Aider et Hancock;. IM. IX, ^g. 12-16. 

DQrit proxima, A. «t U. Monogr. Part VI, 1854. Fam. 1, PI. 9, 
10-16 ; Part VII, IBoft. PI. 46, suppl. f. 8. 

DoriM proxima^ 5Ieyer u. MoehiuA, Fauna dor Kieler Bucht, I, 
P. 69-71 ; Uf. V b, %. l-«. 

> 8ar^ Bidr. til Suedyrenes. Naturhist. 1829, p. 17. 




Color flavus vel e rubro flavus. 

DenteB laterales (magni) hamo edentulo ; extemi Dumero 10. 

Hah, Oc. Atlant. septentr. 

Of this form I have had for examination three specimens of nearly 
equal size, kindly sent me by Prof. Moebius in Kiel, and caught in 
the neighborhood of that town* 

The individuals were of a uniform whitish color, the liver shining 
reddish-gray through the foot. Alder and Hancock have already re- 
marked this shining through of the liver. The length was 7.0-8.0 mm., 
by a breadth of 5.0-5.5, and a' height of about 3.5 mm. ; the height of 
the rhinophoria about 1.25, of the branchial leaves 0.75 mm. The 
form nearly as in the Ad. pctctficc^ also the tubercles (fig. 12) of the 
back and the surroundings of the rhinophor-holes ; the branchial 
leaves nine to ten in number. The number of branchial leaves ac- 
cording to Alder and Hancock is eleven, according to Meyer and 
Moebius eight or nine. The rhinophoria with about fifteen to twenty 
leaves. The lateral parts of the head nearly connate with the foot, 
and only slight traces of true pointed tentacles. The foot as in the 
next species. 

The three individuals w^re anatomically examined. The peritoneum 

The central nervous system as in the Ad. paeificoy but less de- 
pressed. The eyes and otocysts as in that species; the last with 
about 200 otokonia of very varying diameter, reaching about 0.02 
mm. The spicula of the skin as described by English and German 
authors ; a rather large quantity spread in the skin of the head. 

The bulbus phar3mgeus (with the crop) of the length of about 1.5 
mm., by a height of 1.5 and a breadth of 0.8 itim. ; the crop making 
about half of the bulbus; the lip- disk with strong yellowish cuti^* 
cula; the sheath of the radnla a little prominent, bent more or less 
upwards. The tongue narrow and pointed, with seven to nine rows 
of teeth, further backwards thirty or thirty-one rows of developed and 
three of younger teeth; the total number thus amounts to forty or 

The teeth as in the Ad. pacifica. The large lateral yellowish, the 
rest nearly colorless. The length of the median teeth about 0.025 to 
0.03 mm. Ihe large lateral (fig. 1366, 14) showed the promin^ice 

^ Alder and Hancock notice forty-one, Meyer and Moebius thirty-nine 
rows of plates. 

"^ pmocuDiNQs or thb acadimt or [1880. 

« r^ «Mii» of tlie root of the hook quite as in the Ad, pacifica. 
TV rx-wrwl teeth (fig. 15) only nine or ten in number,' fewer than 
•: ONI ^9«K*Mk always absent on more than half the tongue. 

*">! ^varr elands as in the next species, also the oeioplnigm, the 
<i.Y'«Mft.^> a»i the intestine. The liver also of nearly the same fors, 
*^: (ftiKn^r part of the posterior end continued as a little oone ; tlw 
4n*iWv fNf<>cially of the back part) yellowish-white ; the iabetanee 
^Hr« The vt'sica fellea in its usual place, smalL The heart as 
ifM^i jlW the sanguineous gland. The renal syrinx and the urinary 
«H%M^«^ as usual. 

^"^ anterior genital mass rather compressed, of angular-roon^ah 
%««#i)^A \*f about 1.75 mm. largest diameter. The spermatodoet seemed 
^iw« v^ than in the next species, especiaUy the second part ; the peak 
^i«/ii. The spermatotheca pyriform ; the spermatocysta of more OTal 
iHHK having only about one-quarter of the size of the former, and filled 
^ii,^ »|ft«trma. The mucous gland whitish and yellowish. 

^ 4^UrU pMiflos, Bergh, n. tp., PI. IX, flg. 17; PI. X, fig. 1-3; PL XI, flg. 16. 

\\i|ikr lutescens. 

IWiites laterales (magni) hamo edentulo; extemi numero 15. 

thbilat, Oceanum Pacificum ( Unalashka). 

m' this species Dall caught three specimens, in September, 1874, at 
riinlMHhka, on a bottom of mud and shells. 

According to Dall, the color of the living animal is ** yellowish ;'* 
I ho ii|K*cimen8 preserved in spirits were of a uniform yellowish color, 
rhti h'ngth of the two larger specimens about 12.0 to 14.0 mm., by a 
hnrndth of 8.0 to 9.0 mm , and a height reaching 4.5 to 5.0 mm. ; 
ihti breadth of the foot 0.0 mm., the height of the rhinophoria about 
|.[i mm., of the branchial leaves 1.2 mm. 

The form as in the Ad. proxima^ a little broader anteriorly. The 
Imck covered all over with a mass of rather stout, subglobose and sub- 
|i«*tiulate tubercles quite as in the typical species, mixed with much 
Ifwer smaller ones. The larger ones, under magnification, showing 
ih«* |N*r|>endicu]ar spicula shining through, while other spicula were 
f|«*tect«*d irregularly scattered in the inten*uls between the tubercles. 
The rhinophor-holes nearly without projecting margin ; the adjoining 
part of the back, behind, smooth ; immediately before the holes, on 

' The numlier of external plates ia, according to Alder and llanoo<^, 
trii, tu Mejer and Mocbius, eight or nine. 


the coDlrary, two or three larger tubercles ; the club of the rhinophoria 
with about thirty leaves. The branchial area surrounded by larger 
tubercles. The branchial leaves in number, eleven or twelve ; imme- 
diately before the two hindermost was the slightly prominent anus, and 
at its right side the renal pore ; in the space between the anus and 
the branchial leaves, three or four larger and two or three smaller 
tubercles. The head large; the tentacles short, pointed. The foot 
broad, rounded behind, a little broader in front; the furrow on the 
anterior margin very indistinct. The three individuals were all dis- 
sected. The peritoneum was colorless. 

The central nervous system rather flattened ; the cerebral ganglia 
larger than the visceral, which were lying at their outer margin and 
were a little larger than the pedal ones ; the proximal olfactory ganglia 
bulbiform, less large than the buccal ones, which were of short, oval 
form, connected through a very short commissure ; the gastro-oesopha- 
geal ganglia short-stalked, rounded, nearly half as large as the former, 
with a very large cell. The subcerebral and the pedal commissures 
connected, the visceral free. 

The eyes with coal-black pigment, yellow lens ; the nervus opticus 
in one individual with black pigment. The otocysts, under a mag- 
nifier, very distinct as chalk-white points at the hinder margin of the 
cerebral ganglia, nearly as large as the eyes, filled with ordinary oto- 
konia. In the leaves of the rhinophoria scanty, scattered spicules, 
perpendicular on the free margin, not much more calcified than in the 
«kin ; in the stalk of the organ the spicules larger and less scanty. 
The skin, especially its tubercles, with many long spicules and calcified 
'^Mills and groups of such cells ; the form of the spicules different from 
^hat of the Doris proxima^ as figured by Alder and Hancock (Monogr., 
^art vi, fam. 1, PI. 9, fig. 15), and by Meyer and Moebius (1. c, figs. 
^^, 9), much less calcified, more straight and of more uniform shape, 
^n the interstitial connective tissue of the chief ducts of the anterior 
j^enital mass were scattered large spicules. 

The mouth-tube wide, about 1.3 mm. long. The bulbus pharyngeus 
"^^f rather compressed form, about 2.0 mm. long ; the sheath of the 
^ir-adula strongly projecting from the hinder end, nearly as long as 
^he bulbus, more or less curved upwards ; the lip-disk oval, with a 
'^ery strong yellowish cuticula. The tongue with ten or eleven rows 
^>f plates, further back twenty-nine to thirty-four rows of developed 
«fcnd three of younger plates ; the total number thus forty-two, forty- 
three, forty-seven. The median plate (PL IX, fig. Ha ; PI. X, fig. 1) 


jellowish, of a length of about 0.045 mm., with a median famm 
along the upper side and with thickened margins. The large laterala 
hom-jellow in color, reaching the height of about 0.1 mm. (PI. IX, 
fig. 1 lb ; PI. X, fig. 2aa)y hook-shaped, with a strong, rounded proM- 
inpnce at the inside of the root of the hook {fig, 17). On each side 
(PI. X, fig. 2b, e) of the two large plates (in two indiyiduala) ooo- 
8tantly fifteen smaller, nearly colorless plates of a length of aboot 
0.06 mm. These plates were all somewhat depressed; the five inner 
ones smaller, somewhat compressed (fig. 2, 3a, 1.5 ) ; the others (fig. 2, 3) 
broader, with the upper edge broad and irregularly toothed ; the oat€r- 
most (fig. 2c) a little smaller than the adjoining plates. The bates in 
each of the>e { fifteen) plates large, forming nearly half, or at lea*l 
making more than a third of the size of the whole plate.' The cro|» 
of the bulbus of the usual form, as large or a little larger than the bulbua 
itself; with a very short stalk with strong longitudinal musculature* 
its aperture opening immediately behind th^ lip-dink. 

The salivary glands large, white, very elongate, in their foremost 
part broader, and with several coils filling the space left between the 
crop, the bulbus and the crsophagus. 

The (josophagus long. The stomach small, enclosed in the liver ; 
the intestine rather short, forming its knee behind the fore-end of the 
liver. The large posterior visceral mass about 9.0 mm. long by a 
brt^adth of 1.3 and a height of 3.5 mm. ; the posterior end somewhat 
pointed, though rounded ; the fore-end broader, perpendicular, somewhat 
flattened on the right side; the color of the surface v hermaphroditic 
«:lund) AMh-gray, the interior (the liver) brown or black brown, or 
(juite yellow. 

The heart as usual. The sanguineous gland irregularly renifonn, 
situated somewhat morif towards the left side, rather thick, whitish, 
covering the central nervous system and a large part of the bulbus 
pharyngeus from above. The renal syrinx as usual. 

The hermaphroditic gland without deveh>ped sexual elements. Th** 
anl(*rior genital mass proper rather small, compressed, of about 2.5 mm. 
largest diameter, but the loop of the spermattKluct (and the peni») 
nearly as large as the rest of the mass. The spermatoduct long, 
in its first part white, rather strong ; nearly as long as the second in 
which it passes thn>ugh a stricture; this last ^»art is thicker, cylindrical, 
elongated, about .">.() n.m. h»ng, pahsing without exact limits into the 

' In hoth in(li\i<liials tlu* three to live foremost rows were without the 
i»nialler plates, and the following two or three veiy incomplete in Uiis respect. 


short penis. The spermatotheca pjriform, about 1.3 mm. long ; the 
spermatocYsta not having one-fourth of the size of the last; both 
empty. The mucous gland whitish and yellow-whitish. 

This seems even externally to differ somewhat from the typical form, 
of which it nevertheless may prove to be but a variety. Neither Alder 
and Hancock, nor Meyer and Moebius saw more than eight to (nine) 
ten external plates on the tongue of Ad. proxima^ while this Pacific 
form always presented fifteen. 

S. AdaUrU vireseeoa, Bgh., n. pp. Plate X, fi^. 4, 5. 

Color virescens. 

Dentes laterales ^magni) hamo edentulo ; externi numero 15. 

Hah. Oc. Pacific, septentr. Unalashka. 

Of this species Dall found four specimens at Unalashka, on gravel, 
io a depth of nine to fifteen fathoms, in September, 1874. 

According to Dall the color of the living animal was " greenish," 
and the animals preserved in spirits showed remains of the same color 
as a uniform grayish green. The length of these was 11.5-12.0 mm., 
by a breadth of 8.0 mm. and a height of 5.0 mm, ; the height of the 
rhin<^horia about 2.0, of the branchial leaves about 1.0 mm. 

The form, as well as the rhinophor-openings, were quite as usual ; 
the chib of the rhinophoria with about thirty-five leaves. The gill not 
large, with nine to twelve leaves ; the space within the gill as usual, 
also the arms and the renal pore. The back covered with granula- 
tions apd short clubs. The head, with the tentaculse and the genital 
opening as usual. 

Three individuals were dissected ; the peritoneum was colorless. 

The central nervous system showed the cerebral ganglia larger than 
the visceral, which were lying on the outside of and behind the former, 
veij distinct from them ; the pedal ones being intermediate in size 
between the cerebral and the visceral ganglia. On the exterior part of 
each cerebral ganglion a little short-stalked ganglion (gang, opticum?) 
was easily visible under a hand magnifier. The (proximal) olfac- 
tory ganglia bulbiform, short-stalked, a little larger than the buccal 
ganglia, which were short-oval, connected through a very short com- 
missure ; the gastro-oesophageal being about one-fourth to one-fifth of 
the size of the former. In the neighborhood of the penis a little oval 
ganglion (g. penis) having a largest diameter of about 0.25 mm. 
(fig. 5), containing only rather small cells. 


The ejes with black pigment ; the otocysts with not verj maoj mad 
not much calcified otokonia. No distal olfactory ganglioiit mm far aa 
could be seen ; no spicula in the leaves of the rhinophoria. Tbe akia 
as in other species ; the spicula projecting on the surface of the gnum- 
lations of tbe back. 

The bulbus pharyngeus about 1-1.5 mm. in length; the sheath of 
the radula projecting 0.75-1.0 mm., bent upwards; the sockiDg-^rop a 
little larger than the bulbus itself, short-stalked ; the lip-disk as osoaL 
The tongue compressed, rather prominent, with six, eight, and nine 
rows of teeth, also further back twenty-four, thirty-two and thirty-tliree 
developed and three younger rows ; the total number of rowa thus 
being thirty-five, forty-one, forty-five. The median plates, the large 
lateral and the (fifteen) external ones scarcely different from thoae ef 
the last species. 

1'he salivary glands rather strong, with two or three short coils ftU- 
ing the s|)ace at the sides of the oesophagus (fig. 4), white. The 
<i;sophagu8 ( fig, 4a ) wide in its upper part, the rest narrow. The an- 
teriorly proceeding part of the intestine 2.0 mm. long, the other retr^ 
ceding part >'.0 mm. long ; no biliary sac could be found either at the 
pylorus or higher up. The liver about 9 mm. long by a breadth ef 
4.2 and a height of 4.0 mm. ; of brownish-gray color ; the anterior tmi 
truncate, inclined downwards and backwards ; the anterior one-third of 
the right side flattened for the anterior genital mass ; the posterior end 
M)m<'what pointed, rounded at the |)oint. 

The sanguineous gland whitish, covering the anterior end of the 
bulbus pharyn^^euH and the foremost part of the central nervous system 
or this lust and the hinder part of the bulbus. 

Th<' anttTior genital mass about «^5 mm. lung by a breadth of 0.76 
and u height of 1.:') mm., a vt'ry large part of it formed by the thick 
part of the spermatoduct. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic doct 
alK)Ut 2.(> mm. long, rathc-r thin, whitish. The spermatoduct long; 
tht; first part thinner, about H.O mm. long ; the rest making a large 
curve, about .').r> mm. long. alK>ut thn?e times as thick as the first, with 
a diameter of 0.r> mm. ; the spermatotluct pro|M*r making many coils in 
its intf'rior course downwards to the |)enis, which shows a little on- 
arnii <1 ^lans in the bottom of its orifice ; in one individual the penis 
was exMTtcil as a conical prominence of the height of 1.0 mm. The 
s|HTmatotlifca pyriform, about 1.0 mm. long, of grayish color; the 
^(M•r^latocy'*ta a little h*ss large, s[>hencal ; the vagina rather short 
The mucous gland rather small. 


Even this ppecies might perhaps be merely a variety of the former ; 
^till it is of a quite different color and the back much more coarsely 

4 Adalaria albopapiUosa (Dall), PI. IX. fig. 1ft; PI. X, fig. 9-11. 

Alderia if f) albopapillosa, Dall, Amer. Journ. of Conch., vii, 2, 1872, 
p. 137. 

Color pallide flavescens, papillis dorsalibus niveis. 
Dentes laterales (magni) hamo basi denticulato. 
Habitat, Oceanum Pacificum septentrion. (Sitka). 

Of this curious animal Dall caught three specimens [in company 
ymth the Doris (Archidoris) Montereyensis and the jEolidia (Her- 
missenda) opalescens'}, in July, 1865, on algae, at the depth of six 
fsthoms, at Sitka (Alaska). 

According to the drawings of Dall, the color of the living animal is 
very pale yellow,* the back all over covered with chalk- white pa pills ; 
tiie length was 3, the breadth 2 lines. The three original specimens 
preserved in spirits were of a length of 5.5 to 7.0 mm., of a greatest 
t>readth of 4.0 to 4.5 mm., and a height of 2.75 mm. 1 he color was 
viXiiformly translucent grayish and yellowish whitish. The form of the 
fl^nimal was oval, the mantle a little larger than and hiding the rest of 
t.lae body. 1 he back convex, covered all over with a multitude of 
oylindrical or fusiform, relatively rather large papilke, reaching to the 
tm^ght of a full millimetre, and with some few small ones spread 
l>^tween them. The rhinophor-openings at their usual place, having, 
m^ usual (with retracted organs ), thin margins ; before them always 
t wo larger papillae, behind them a little naked space.' The club of 
tb^ (yellowish) rhinophoria with about twenty-five leaves. The gill 
.C4ier small ; the branchial leaves (yellowish), as usual, set in horse- 
form, lower or at least not higher than the dorsal papillae, in 
nanber, ten to twelve; the anal papilla rather low, with one of the 
or-^d^inary papillae before and one behind it ; the space between the 

* **0f an opaque white, the remainder of the animal except the eyes, 
bfei»ig translucent yellowish."— Dall. 

^ Dall did not detect the retracted rhinophoria (''tentacles none '*) ; the 

^^ ^Xack eyes sessile on the anterior surface of the body, near the mantle 

tf^^LTgin," did not exist in the figure, but in one individual two black sand- 

p**tiicles were lying there. The true eyes of the animal could not be de- 

>i^^2^d through the skin, and were lying more backwards. 



branchial leaves and the anas otherwise naked.' The genital 
ing as usuaL The foot rather large, with a very floe furrow in tl» 
anterior margin. The head as usual ; the tentacles relatirelj rathn* 

The three individuals were dissected. The peritoneum was color- 

The central nervous system quite as in the former species, the vis- 
ceral ganglions lying outside of the cerebral; no distal olfactory 
ganglion could be detected ; the buccal ganglia connected through a 
commissure at least as long as the diameter of the ganglion ; the 
gastro-a*sophagoal ganglia and the eyes as in the former species. 
The otocysts could not be detected. In the leaves of the rhinophoria 
the spicula much more scanty. In the skin the same kind of not 
much calcified spicula as in the former species ; the papillsB of the 
back very richly endowed with such, and commonly with a mass of 
them projecting with their points (PL IX, fig. IG) on the surface of the 

The bulbus pharyngeus as in the former species ; the length mbont 
1.5 mm., two-fifths of which is the straight, backwards projecting 
sheath of the radula ; the cuticjula of the lip-disk as usual ; the 
buccal crop somewhat compressed, with rather long pedicel. The 
tongue with nine or ten rows of plates, farther backwards sixteen or 
seventeen developed and three younger rows ; the total number ef 
them, twenty-nine or thirty. The median plate.s \^i\g, 9a, 10a) nearly 
as in the former s{K'cie8, or a little shorter. The large lateral plates 
{fill, lM>, lo/>) ri>-ing to the heijrht of 0.12 mm., yellow ; their form at 
in the former 8|>ecie.«t, but at the inside of the hook at its root were 
thrcH* to six or seven to (*ight small denticles. The external lateral 
plates (ti>;. 10<v/, 11 i further backwards, in number constantly eight; 
the outermost ti^. Wn) wry small, the others as in the former species. 

The salivary glamls, as far as could be determined, were as in the 
last s(H*cies ; so also the lesopha^us and crop ; also the stomach and 
tlie iiitfstine, which seemed to have the usual bag (pancreas, biliary 
saoutthe pyloric |»art. The sttn<;uineous gland flattened, grayihh. 
conlate. The liver of hrownish-pray color. 

In the heriiiaphnxlitic jxland no ri|M* eh-ments were found, and the 
anterittr genital mass wus very small 

' Aceonlinj; t<» Dall, the '* .inus is tomiinal under the edjje of the mantle.** 
Thi*«u;ii»i>rri»ne<>us. Heditl not s«*o the ^ill. Imt rcj^inled tliedorMil papill* 
as **braiultial upi*onda^cs.** 


The species is ea»y to di^^tinguisli from the former, by its color and 
especiallj by the denticulated hook of the large lateral plates. 

5 AdaUria Loveni (Aldtr et Hancock). PI. X, fig. 6-8. 

Doris murieataf O. F. Miiller, Sars, Bidr. til Soedyrenes Naturh., 

1829, p. 15. Tab. II, fig. 7, 8. 
Daru Loveni, Alder et Hanc. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 3 Ser., X, 1862, 

p. 262. 
LameUidorii LovSni^ Friele et Arm. Hansen, 1. c. p. 3. 
LameUitUyris Li^eni, G. O. Sars. Moll. reg. arct. Norv., 1878, p. 364. 

Tab. XIV, fig. 1. 
y LameUidaris muricata (Miill.) Abildgaard. Morch, Faunula Moll. 

Ins. Faroens. Naturh. Foi'en. Yidsk. Meddel., 1867, p. 75.' 
J)orU muricata, Miiller, Sars (^), LovCm, Ind. Moll., 1846, p. 5. 
Darii murieatay M. Sars. Reise 1 Lofoten og Finmarken, 1851, p. 75. . 

Odor dorsi et rhinophoriarum e brunneo lutescens, paginae inferi<Mns 
e^* branchiae lutescens. 

-Dented laterales (magni) hamo edentulo; externi (linguse) 
nrnjA-xnero 12. 

-JIab. Oc. Atlant. septentr. 

*irhis species was first noticed by Sars, who hesitatingly regarded it 
a^ l)erhaps the Doris muricata of Mueller. It is, moreover, the prin- 
cipal form of the Doris muricata (** Mueller, Sars") of Lovtn (his 
s^^^ond variety being the true L. muricata) ; has been established 
(1^362) as a species by Alder and Hancock, and has as such been 
*^€>pted by Friele and Hansen, as well as by G. 0. Sars, who lately 
S^v-e figures of the teeth on the tongue. The species has been much 
^^x^founded with the *' D, muricata,*^ which is a Lamellidoris ; it is 
<^*"tainly distinct from the Ad, proximn^ and seems also to difler from 
th^ other described species. 

Of this form I have had fifteen individuals for examination, kindly 
^<it me by Mr» Friele, of Bergen, and dredged in the neighborhood of 
^t^ait place. 

^ According to Morch (Rink, Gronland, I, 1857. TiU»g 4, p. 78), the D, 

*^^rteato, Sars, should be the D, liturata. Beck ; this last is a mere variety 

of the LameUidoris bHameUaia, and with this should, on the other hand, 

according to Morch (Faunula Mollusc. Isl. Naturh. Foren. Yidensk. Med- 

^^•« 1868, p. 208), the D,prox%ma of Meyer and Moebius be synonymous, 

iv^oh belongs to the quite different genus, Adalaria, An example more — 

il such W9re needed — of the way in which the Nudibranchiata have been 

ifSHMmymized and systematized. 


The color of the animals preserved in spirits was imifonnlj pel- 
lowish. The length was 13-15.0 mm., bj a breadth of 8.5-9.5 and a 
height of 4-5.0 mm. ; the breadth of the foot 6 mir. ; the height wi 
the rhinophoria ubout 2.5 mm., of the branchial leaves 1.0-1.3 
according to M. Sars the height of the rhinophoria is four to fire 
that of the tubercles of the back, (1. c. p. 16, also in one of his figans 
fig. 7). The form as usual; the back covered all over with laigr 
rounded tubercles, which rose to the height of 1.5 mm., and were of 
a similar breadth ; thej were sessile or more or less subpedoncalatc 
sometimes set in indistinct longitudinal rows; between the larger 
tubercles everywhere were smaller ones of different sisea; on the 
margin of the back were tubercles of middle size or smaller; the 
spicula rather indistinct between and in the tubercles. The rhinoplMir* 
openings as usual, two large tubercles before them ; the club of thp 
organs with about twentj-five leaves. The gill with eight to twelve 
leaves ; according to M. Sars, the number of branchial leaves is ten^ 
to Ix)v^n, eight to ten. A large (high ) tubercle between the hindermosi 
leaves, before it the low anal papilla, and to the right side the renal 
pore ; some few smaller papilla' were spread over the space b ctw eia 
the anus and the branchial leaver. The head large, broad ; the ahon 
tentacuUe pointed. The genital opening as usuaL 

Six individuals were dissected. The peritoneum was oolorleM. 

The central nervous 8ystem rather flattened, especially the viAoeral 
ganglia, which lay on the outer side of and behind the cerebral one». 
which were a little larger ; the pednl ones larger than either of tbr 
other ganglia, situated p<T|)endicularly upon the former. The proxi- 
mal olfactory ganglia bulbiforro, a little smaller than the buccal ones : 
no difttal could be found. The length of the commissures equal to thr 
largent diameter of the [>edal ganglia ; the subcerebro-pedal about 
three tiroes as thick as the visceral. 1 he buccal ganglia of oval form, 
connected through a short commissure ; the gastro-ccsophageal about 
one-Kixth of the former in size, with one very large cell. 

The eyes with black pigment, yellow lens ; the nervus opticus about 
as long as the largest diameter of the cerebral ganglion. The oCocyst^ 
of the same size as the eyes, situated externally at the junction ot 
the cerebral and the visceral ganglia ; with about fifty ordinary 
otokonia, but among them four to six larger ones, of a diameter ot 
about 0.025 mm. The leaves of llie rhinophoria nearly without 
«picula ; in the axes, and es|>ecially in the stalks, on the contrary, an 
fnonnous quantity of large spicula, in great part transversely sit«- 


ated. In the skin a rather large quantity of spicula. The broad 
eentres of the warts of the back chalk-white in transverse section, on 
account of the mass of strong spicula which ascend in bundles through 
the axes of the warts, their peripheral parts being free from spicula. 
The spicula, for the most part, staff-shaped or cruciate, reaching a 
diameter of about 0.08 mm. ; small and large rounded ones were 
also very common ; the spicula mostly very strongly calcified. In the 
interstitial tissue calcified cells were seen scantily. 

The mouth-tube was 1.5 mm. long; the bulbus pharyngeus about 
1.5 mm. long, the sheath of the radula projecting about 75 mm., 
bent upwards ; the sucking-crop nearly as large as the proper bulbus, 
abort-stalked. The lip-disk with the cuticula rather thick, especially 
at the inferior median line, here sometimes prominent and reminding 
one of the two blades in the Acanthodorides, The tongue (in the six 
individuals examined) with seven to nine rows of teeth ; further back- 
wards twenty-nine, thirty-one, or thirty-four (in three individuals) 
developed, and three younger rows ; the total number of rows was 
thiiB forty-two to forty-six. The median plates (fig. 8a) and the large 
lateral (fig. 6aa, T, 86) ones quite as in the Ad. Pac 'ficay also the ex- 
ternal ones (fig. 66, 8c), but the number of those never surpassed ten 
or twelve ;' frequently all gone from the tongue, and only existing in 
the two to four posterior rows ; the height of the large lateral plates 
rising to about 0.09 mm. 

The salivary glands, as usual, white. The oesophagus somewhat 
.wider in its first part ; the stomach as usual ; the liver of usual form, 
its substance of yellow color ; on the first quarter of the right side an 
impression for the anterior genital mass. The vesica fellea rather 
■mailer, on the right side of and a little behind the pyloric part of the 
intestine, with its upper end appearing on the surface of the liver ; 
the duct nearly as long as the bag, opening in the stomach. 

The sanguineous gland of subquadratic form, the largest diameter 
about 2.3 mm., very much fiattened, whitish. The tube on the floor 
of the renal chamber rather strong. 

The hermaphroditic gland clothing the liver with a thin, whitish- 
graj layer. The anterior genital mass small, nearly undeveloped, 
mach compressed, of about 1.75 mm. in length, the height a little less. 
Tie ampulla of the hermaphroditic gland thin, otherwise as usual. 

^ Accordinjg to Friele and Hansen (1. c. p. 8) the number of external 
plates is twelve ; the figure of these authors (Tab. II, fig. 1) is rather bad. 
G. O. Sars has eleven to twelve external plates in his figure. 


The spermatodact as usual, also the penis.' The spermmtotlieca aod 
the spermatocysta as usual. The mucous gland Yerj smmll, wUciik 
and yellow. 


AcanthodorU, Gray, Figs, of Moll. Animals, iv, 1850, p. 108, Guide MoO. 
Brit. Mas. 1857, p. 207. 

AcanthodoriM, Alder and Hancock, Hon. Brit. Nad. Moll., Tii, ISftS, p. 4t 
app. p. zvii. O. (). Sara, Moll. reg. arct. Nonregi», 1878, p. 108, 
Tab. xiv, fig. 4. 

Aeanthodoris, R. Bcr^h, Qattung. Nord. Doriden, 1. c, 1870, p. 856-160. 

Forma corporis subdepressa. Nothffium supra sat grotae Tillq^WB. 
Hranchia (non retractilis) e foliis tripinnatis non multiset in orbea 
l>osifis formata. 

Caput latum, veliforme ; tentaculis brevibus, lobiformibut. BImrgo 
apertuni^um rhinophorialium lobatus. 

Discus labialis armature e hamulis minutis formata et infra coticulm 
incrassata prominent! instructus. Lingua rhachide nuda ; pleoria aa- 
fTUstis dente latereli, hamiformi permagno et dentibus extemis minotia 

Ingluvies buccalis bulbo pharyngeo connata. 

Penis armatura e hamulis minutis formata instnidus. Vagina 

The genus Aranthoitoriti was established by Gray, to receive ibe 
/)uri!< jfilnsa with its non -retractile gill. Alder and Hancock adopted 
the genuiS made an anatomical examination of the typical form and 
gave it natural chara<;terrt, which were then adopted by Gray. In 
Tieveral new malacological publications of a systematic nature the gennt 
has been omitteil, and in the last twenty years no new information ha« 
l»een published, until G. O. Sars lately gave some notes on the bulbot 

The AriinthodnritL*it approach the Lamellidorides, yet differ ex- 
ternally in the scattered soft villosities of the back and in the snudkr 
numbiT of the leave;* of the gill, which are arranged in a circle. 

Int«'rniiliy they dilfer still more, in the presence of a strong, oral 
arniatun'. in a ilit1en.»nt dentition (4 • H-f* 1-1-0 » I : 8 t 4), by a peca- 

Sam I. c. p. V\) iiii'iitioiiH and tl^ures ^tig. 8< the penis as "a large, 
%^liite, C4>nlcal** organ. 


liarlj armed penis and by the imbedding in the pharyngeal bulbus of 
the buccal crop.^ 

The Acanthodorides are not much depressed. The back is covered 
with soft villi or papillss ; the openings for the rhinophoria have lobed 
margins. The gill is not retractile, and consists of several (generally 
seven to nine) tripinnate leaves, quite distinct from pne another.^ 

The labial disk is provided with a densely set armature of small 
hooks, passing backward on the cuticula of the mouth. This last abo, 
in the lowest part of the mouth, at each side of the median line is 
thickened and projects like two thin, lancet-shaped blades over the 
bare space left between the lower parts of the prehensile collar.' The 
form of the bulbus pharyngeus is as in the Lamellidorides^ but the 
boccal crop is imbedded in the upper wall of the bulbus, opening into 
it through a slit, and is not connected with it by a short stalk. 

The tongue is not broad, but nearly fills the buccal cavity, with a fiat 
farrow for the radula. This last has a naked rhachis, with a low and 
narrow, lon^tudinal fold. The pleurae contain a very large, com- 
pressed, upright, lateral plate, with a large body and a rather short, 
strong hook, denticulated or plain along the inner margin ; at the 
outer side of the large plate are several (four to eight) small, external 
plates (increasing in number backwards). The salivary glands long, 
tbicker in their foremost part. The oesophagus with a little, crop-like 
^iverticle at its root. Above the pyloric part of the intestine opens a 

^ The genus Calyeidoris, of Abraham (Notes on some new genera of 

Nudibranchiate Moll., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 4th ser., xviii, 1876, p. 132 ; 

and Revision of the Anthobranchiato Nudibr. Moll., P. Z. S., 1877, p. 224), 

which is said to be allied to the Acanthodorides and LamellidorideSf still 

dififers by its " subretractile " gill, with simple pinnate leaves, and does 

Qot possess external plates on the radula. The genus is very probably 

tpocryphal ; io the phanerobranchiate Doridida it often happens that the 

gill appears as if more or less retracted in a cavity. A single new species 

is mentioned, of unknown habitat, the (7. Ountheriy Abr., 1. c, p. 133, PI. 

▼i, fig. 1. 

' Alder and Hancock mention and figure (1. c, PI. 15, fig. 2, 8) the 
branchial leaves as "united at the base ;" so do Meyer and Moebius (1. c, 
p. 65) ; this is not the case. The leaves are quite isolated, but there are 
Qsoally one or two foliola standing between them, which might simulate a 
coherence of the leaves (cf. also PL xv, fig. 6, A. and H.). 

' These thickenings of the cuticle have been regarded, both by Alder 
and Hancock, and more lately by Meyer and Moebius (1. c, p. 64, taf. v 
A, fig. 8, E 9), as ^^ws," but have hardly anything in common with those 
ofgans properly so called. 


littlo sac, which seems to be homologous with the biliary sac (pancreai. 
milt.) of other Dorididse, Alder and Hancock, therefore^ haTe de- 
nominated that part of the digestive tract as ** stomach/* although it 
in no essential respect differs from the rest of the intestine, and it 
just like that part in the Chromodorides, and should be undoubtedlj 
r(*ganlcd as the pyloric part of the intestine, when that sac opened 
lower down, as in the Chromodorides,^ in the cavity, which Is incloded 
in the liver, and seems to be the true stomach. The spermatoduct and 
the chief duct of the 8i>ermatotheca ( vagina ) are of very considerabk 
length ; the former consisting of two different parts, a superior softer, 
and an inferior very muscular part, internally clothed with an annap 
ture, which is continuous through the penis. This last is rather short, 
the superior part solid and projecting as an armed glans into the in- 
ferior, hollow part (pnpputium>. The armature consists of rows of 
hooks continued in the interior of the organ, and, as mentioned above, 
farther upwards ; quite like that of the Polycerida'^^ Phyllidiidm^ 
Mnd Ihriopstdir.^ 

About the biological relations of these forms very little is yet known 
and that only with reference to the typical species, through Alder and 
llancoi^k, as well as Meyer and Moebius. The spawn is figured by 
Alder and Hancock (1. c, PL 1.'), fig. d\ and by Meyer and Moebius 
(I. c, li;;. l.'{, 14 ^ ; about the development nothing is yet known. 

TIh* few known s|K'cics of this genus seem limited to the northern 
purlM of till' Atlantic and of the Pacific. 

1. .lt-fiftrA()(/f/i-M ;>i7i>«<i .0. F. Mullcr\ Ocoanum Atlanticumct Pacificura. 
ihtrin /»<7i»*ii, C'uv. 
/>..rii BUllata ,Gm.\ Vuv.^ 

' ri my MaIafolt>:;. I'nters. Soinivr, Philipp , H, ii, Heft xi, 1><77, p. 
till lUl ; Ni'ur NarktsrliiuvkiMi iler Sud>ef, it, Journ. der Mua. Gtxleflroy. 
Mill vHi, |h;;i. p. ;■,» 82; uifm, iv, I. c. Heft xiv. 1S71». p. 1-21. 

* t f iiiv M.ilari»lt>j;. llulors. .SemiH^r, Philipp., II, iif, llefl xi, 1S77 
VivM l>.iii.i, Nriiibrotha). 

' I I iitv Hull, til I'll Mt»iu»;;r. af Pbyllidicrne, Natiirh., Tidskr. li, R. V.« 
I mm;; I'ntriH. SiMniK»r, Philipp., II, ii). Hcfl \, ISTPk \i. 377- 

• I r . I . . Ml ft X, lH7t;, p. :tSI :n:; ,Ti»uri». der Mu*, GodcfTroy. Heft 
• ill l*«, ,. !• ^- t»l 

\ iiiit^.' In rimluT ( Nt»to Mir iiuoI«iuo.'* C'^jmoc^ dxi O. DoriM^ dtVritfA 

|..ii • .ivtii, Jiiiiiu ilr t'oiu"h)l W m't. \. 1^7i», p. 21*0, the DoHm iUHata, 
(w. .iinl I III' ff /.rrM, Ciiv , arouloiitioal with liis D. piloia^ and this with 
till i;|iti .il liHiii mI Mullrr 

1* '« •/«//.i/ii ill I'liiltppi ik'oiuH a <piitu ditferent form, a Ftat^dfH§ 


Bori9 l(Bvi8y Cuv. 

.' Doris fuscot O. F. Mull., Zool. Dan. (descr.).* 
f Doris tomentosa^ Loven, Index Moll. 1846, p. 4. 
3. A, suhquadrata (Aid. et Hanc). Oceanum Atlanticum. 

Doris suhquadrata^ A. et H. Monogr., Part. V, 1851, fam. 1, Plate 

16, f. 1-3 ; Part VII, 1855, p. 43, and III, Pi. 46, Suppl. f. 14. 
f {D. stellatOy Cuv. ?). Lebert, Beob. iiber die Mundung einiger 

Gasteropoden. J. Muller, Arch., 1846, p. 444-446, Taf. XII, fig. 


3. A, ecBTulescens, Bgh., n. sp. Oceanum Pacificum. 

4. A, omata, Verrill. Notice of recent additions to the mar. fauna of the 
eastern coast of North Amer. XXXVIII ; Amer. Joum. of Sc. and 
Arts, XVI, 1878, p. 313. Oc. Atlant 

0. A. stelUita (Gm.), Verr., 1. c, p. 313, D. bifida, Ven*. Oc. Atlant. 

6. A. eitrina, Verr., 1. c, p. 313. Oc. Atlant. 

7. A. f mollicella, Abraham, 1. c, 1877, p, 228, PI. XXX, fig. 1-4. Oc. 

8. A. f globosa, Abr., 1. c, 1877, p. 228, PL XXX, fig. 5-9. Oc. Pacif. 

1. AeaBthodoris pilosa (0. F. MUlIer). Plato X, fig. 12-15; Plate XI, fi^^ 1-2; 
Plate XII J Plato XIII, fig. 2-5. 

Acanihodoris pilosa (O. F. Muller), Alder and Hancock. Monogr. Br. 
Nudibr. Moll., Part V, 1851, fam. 1, Plate I, f. 1, 3-5, 12; Plate 2, 
f. 2-6; Plate 15; Part VII, 1855, Plate 46; Suppl. Plate 48, f. 1. 

Doris pilosa (O, F. Muller), Meyer und Moebius, Fauna der Kieler Bucht, 
I, 1865, p. 63-67 c. tab,; taf, V, A. 

Color paginal superioris corporis albus vel luteus vol fuscus vel 

iseus vel rubro-brunneus vel niger. 

Denies radula; hamo pro parte denticulate. 

Eah, Oceanum Atlanticum septentr., Pacific, septentr. 

*^yd, Philippiif Bgh.). Cf. my Malacolog. Untersuch. (Semper, Philipp. 

ii.). Heft, xii, 1877, p. 507. 

^ It is in most cases a quite useless task to try to elucidate the species of 

*^^^iide8 of the elder authors ; their examinations were all too superficial 

**^<i their descriptions don't contain the data necessary for their verifica- 

**^^^. The best way would be to wholly cancel these names [D. fusca, M. ; 

^^ i(S0M, L., etc.) which have given later authors so much trouble. On the 

*^^^'9ii fusca of O. Fabricius, Morch has even formed a genus Proctaporia 

C'ftink. Gronland. I, 1857. Tillag. 4, p. 78), that must be cancelled, too. 

The short statements of Lebert about form and color of the animal 

examined by him can scarcely entirely prohibit the identification of it with 

^^ species described by Alder and Hancock. The figures of the (tongue) 

^^^th given by Lebert, rough as they are, suffice, on the other hand, to 

^^^^tire the identification with the 2>. subquadrata^ or at least with a nearly 

t^lated species. 


Of this species I have had a lot of specimens for examinatioD, aD 
preserved in spirits; partly (two) from the neighborhood of Bergea 
(Norway), kindly sent by Mr. Friele, partly (one) from the Frith cf 
Kiel, sent by Prof. Moebius ; but particularly (seTentcen) from the 
coast of Denmark (Striib, lille Bait.) 

The individuals varied much in color. The variability of the edor 
is noted by Alder and Hancock. They were whitish, or whitish sprinkled 
witli brownish, or dark (bluish) gray, or yellowish, or brownish, or 
reddish-brown on the back, with whitish or yellowish sides and fooC 
The length reaching 1 2.0 mm., by a breadth of 8.0 and a height of 
5.0 mm. ; the foot then about 4.0 mm. broad, the branchial leavefi 
reaching to the height of about 1.0 mm. 

The back covered all over with the soft, slender, conical and pointed, 
erect (or curved) papilla; of very different sizes, most of them small ; 
between these are larger ones ;' some of the largest divided into two 
or three points, and some of them connate and forming small cretta, 
divided above into two or three points. The margins of the theathi 
of the rhinophoria rather prominent, divided into several (six to eight) 
smaller and larger pointed lobes ; the club of the rhinophoria with about 
twelve to twenty leaves.' The brnnchia, in both Norwegian specimeot, 
with eight tripinnate leaves, otherwise with seven to nine (as me*- 
tioned by Meyer and Moebius). The anal papilla low, with several 
papillula* and a atar-sliaped aperture ; on a low crest, issuing from its 
posterior, is a Htrong papilla. The head and the tentacles (Plate X. 
fig. Mb) as figured by Alder and Hancock (1. c, Plate 15, fig. 1 . 
The anterior margin of the foot with a fine transverse furrow (Plate X, 
fig. 1 In). The genital opening is a longitudinal slit (Plate XI, tig. 2). 

The |>eritoneum was mostly of reddish-brown color. 

The central nervous system showed' the cerebral ganglia rounded- 
triangular, not much flattened, a little larger than the more rounded 
visceral, which lie behind and on the outside of them and show a slight 
notch in the outside ; on the inferior side of the visceral ganglia the 
pedal ones are set nearly ()er{)endicular on the latter, connected by the 

* .\lder and Hancock, a1»o Meyer and Moebius give eighteen to twenty 
leaves. Cf. the li^urt»H 7-H of Meyer and Moebius. 

* ( ollin^^wood ^ Ann. Mag. N. II., 3 scr. vi, 1850, p. 463) remarks that it 
*• whiMi not in motion, bears a great retieroblance to a miniature hedgehog.** 

' The representation of the syntem given by Hancock and EmbletOD vOn 
the anatomy <»f Doris, Thilos. Transact. MDCCCLII, Plate 17, f. 8) is not 
very like nature. 


three distinct commissures, which are nearly as long as the diameter 
of the ganglia. From the outer part of the right visceral ganglion 
issues a nerve nearly as long as the transverse diameter of the whole 
central nervous system and swelling to a rather large ganglion (gangl. 
penis) at the root of the penis ; this ganglion contains only rather 
small cells and gives off three or four strong and several thinner nerves 
(Plate X, fig. 15). The part of the brain which gives off the nervus 
opticus, simulates a ganglion. The proximal ganglia olfactona bulbi. 
form, somewhat smaller than the buccal ganglia, but much larger than 
the distal ganglia olfactoria ; the buccal ganglia flattened, rounded, con- 
nected by a rather short commissure ; the ganglia gastro-oesophagalia 
rounded, having about one-fifth of the size of the last, containing one 
very large cell and a few smaller. 

The eyes with black pigment and yellowish lens. The otocysts 
lying at the hinder part of the cerebral ganglia, as large as the eyes ; 
with numerous small otokonia, which in the specimens from Kiel, 
were not much calcified. No trace of spicula in the leaves or other 
parts of the rhinophoria. The spicula of the skin were, so to speak, 
limited to the margins of the mantle and of the foot ; in the last they 
were chiefly arranged perpendicularly or obliquely against the margin, 
except that in the foremost and hinder part of the sole some few spic- 
ula were seen scattered. 

The amount of spicula in the skin seems to vary notably in the 
Acanthodoris pilosOy as seems to be the case in general in different 
forms of DorididcBy especially, as far as hitherto known, in the Poly- 
eeratidce (Polycera, Anciila), (Cf. Meyer and Moebius, Fauna der 
Kieler Bucht, I, 1865, pp. 52, 60.) Frey and Leuckart (Beitr. zur 
Kenntn. wirbellose Thiere, 1847, p. 145 i described a very regular 
position of the spicula, but not^ as it seems, in accordano.e with nature. 

In the margin of the mantle the spicula were arranged as figured by 
Alder and Hanc, 1. c. Part VII, PI. 48, supplem. fig. 1, only more con- 
centrically at the transition from the margin to the side of the body ; a 
naiTow belt of spicula crossed the back before the region of the gill. 
Some spicula were also seen in the tentacles.- The spicula reached a 
notable length (at least 0.6 mm.), in old individuals they were more 
calcified than in younger ones. The skin was filled with unicellular 
glands, especially in the dorsal papillae.^ 

The mouth-tube was wide and strong, about 1.5 mm. long; the 
bulbus pharyngeus in the largest individuals about 2.75 mm. long, by 

* Cf. the (not very good) fig. 6 by Meyer and Moebius. 

94 PB0C££D1N0S OF THE ACADEMY OF [1880. 

a breadth of 2.0 and a height of about 3-0 mm. i thu sheatli of the 
radula projecting baekward nearly 1.0 mm. ; the lip-disk sometimes 
surrounded by a ring of black pigment. The armature of the lip- 
disk entirely aa shown (PI. XII, figs. 1-4, 10-11) by me in the form 
from the Pacific, also the crop (PI. Xlll, fig. 2) of the bulbus.' 
The tongue in the eight specimens examined was provided with fivje, 
seven, eight, nine rows of plates, farther backwards also sixteen to 
twenty developed, and three younger rows; the total number amount- 
ing thus to from iwenly-seven to thirty.^ The large lateral- teeth^ yellow 
in the body, especially in the anterior-inferior part, witli commonly five 
to eight denticles on the inside of the hook ; sometimes, especially in 
the younger plates, the number of denticles rose from eleven to fifteen, 
sometimes the three to four oulermost denticles were much larger than 
the rest, sometimes the denticulation was quite irregular ; the height 
of this plate reached 0.4 mm. The outer plates (PI. XI, fig. 1) com- 
monly four to six, seldom seven to eight ; in a series of four on the 
hinder part of the tongue, the oulermost measured about 0.0.5, the next 
0.09, O.ll, 0.125 mm.; they were quite colorless, compressed, with 
the upper side flattened, and rather erect. 

The salivary glands as in the purple^ colored form from the Pacific. 
No constant dilatation of the middle of the cusophagus (as figured, 
Pt. I, f. I2g, by Alder and Hancock), but a strong, particular one at 
the root as figured (1. c. PI. I, f. 12/ ) by Alder and Hancock and by 
me (Gfttt. nordischer Doriden, 1. c. Taf. XIX, fig. }^c). The 
stomach as in the Pacific form ; tlie intestine sometimi's dilated in its 
first part, sometimes absolutely of the same caliber as the rest, and 
neither externally nor internally different from it ; a liiile bag 
(biliary sac) which lias been noticed by Alder and Hancock (1. e. PI. 
I, fig. i2k), opening into the right side of this part of the intestine. 
The posterior visceral mass (liver) flattened and excavated on the 
anterior- inferior right half. The sanguineous gland whitish, convexo- 
concave, short and irregularly kidney-formed, with ihe excavation 

■ Tlic fust specimens of the Northern Atlantic ]cft at my disposition 
being too hmall nnd too few for a tliorou^^h examination, I am obliged to 
refer to my examination given licrewith of the form froui tlie Pacific. Cf. 
moreover my figures in "Gatt. nord. Doriden," I. c. I'l. XIX, figs. 10, II. 
The crop i.s ratlier well figured by Alder and Ilanc. (1. c. PI. I, f, 13«). 

' According to Meyer and Moebius, the number of plates ("of the 
radula '") is thiity-onc, to Alder and Hancock, twenty-seven. 

' Cf. my Gattungcu nordischer Doriden, 1- c. Taf, XIX, flg. 13. 


forwards, transversely situated, with a largest diameter of 3.0 mm. 
The renal chamber and the syrinx as in the form from the Pacific. 

The hermaphroditic gland as in this last variety, it« white color con> 
trasting with the hue of the liver. The anterior genital mass of short 
pyramidal form, with the point outwards, about 4.75 mm. long, the 
breadth and the height a little less. The ampulla of the hermaphro> 
ditic gland yellowish- white, forming a single ansa, about 4.0 mm. long, 
by a diameter of 0.75 mm. lying on the upper part of the back of the 
mucous gland. The spermatoduct yellowish, about 15.0 mm. long, 
constricted a little above the middle of its length ; strong, sloping into 
the penis, which is about 1.0 mm. long. The armature of the penis 
entirely as in the form from the Pacific, continued backwards in the 
interior of the spermatoduct for a length of 6.0 mm. ; the hooks 
rising to the height of about 0.035 mm., nearly colorless.* The sper- 
matotheca (PI. XI 11, fig. 5a) spherical, of a diameter of about 2 
mm., greenish or whitish ; the spermatocysta {^g, 56) much smaller, 
pyriform, yellowish ; both filled with sperma. The chief duct (the 
vagina, fig. 5dd) very long, with several (four) longitudinal folds, which 
are folded again transversely ; the structure seemed to resemble en- 
tirely the form from the Pacific ; in the cavity was more or less sperma. 
The mucous gland yellow and yellowish-white ; the fold of the duct 
with brownish-gray points, but no black pigment on the lower part of 
the vagina or penis. 

One specimen of this typical form, with " brown mantle," and in 
all respects agreeing with the Atlantic, was dredged by Dall at Kyska, 
in June, 1873, on rocky bottom at the depth of ten fathoms. 

An individual of a (in living state) " yellowish-white " variety was 
dredged by Dall in Popoff Strait (Shumagin Islands), on rocky bot- 
tom at a depth of six fathoms. 

The animal preserved in spirits was 10.0 mm. long, by a breadth of 
6.0 and a height of 4.5 mm. ; the rhinophoria 1.5 mm. high, the gill 
1.0 mm., the foot 3.0 mm. broad. The color yellowish- white. In the 
club of the rhinophoria about thirty leaves ; nine branchial leaves ; 
the anal papilla with three small protuberances; the renal pore very 
distinct on the right side. The genital opening very wide ; the bul- 
bus pharyngeus 2.0 mm. long ; the tongue with seven rows of plates, 
the total number of these twenty-six (16 + 3); five external 

* The armature of the penis has been first seen by H. Friele and G. 
Armauer Hansen (Bidr. til Kundsk. om de Norske Nudibranchiar. Christi- 
ania, Vidsk. Selsk. Forh., 1875, extras, p. 4). 



plates. The diverticle of the ccsophagus nearlj aa large as Ibe trat 
bulbus. The Bperroatoduct and the penis as usual, also the ▼agina; 
the spennatotheca of 1.6 mm. largest diameter. No tmee <if pig* 
ment on the vagina or penis, and the peritoneum was colorlesa. 

Another variety of the species, with *' brown mantle and jeUowisb* 
white papilluE*," whs dredged bj Dall, in Yukon Harbor (Shamagins), 
in August, 1874, on sand and stones, at a depth of six to tweotj 

The individual preserved in spirits was 9.0 mm. long, bj a breadlb 
of 6.5 mm., and a height of 4.5 mm. ; the breadth of the foot 4.0 mm^ 
the height of the gill 1.5 mm. The back of the animal densely brown- 
dotted, especially the circumference of the gill and the free area left 
in the middle of the gill ; the dorsal papillte all whitish ; the stalk Jt 
the rhinophoria and the inferior part of the club densely dotted with 
brown, also, in a somewhat slighter degree, the outside of the branchial 
leaves. The under side of the mantle and the upper side of the margia 
of the foot and, in a slighter degree, the sides of the body and the sola 
of the foot dotted with an enormous quantity of brownish-gray pointa. 
The form as u^ual. The gill with nine leaves, of which the two po^ 
terior were much smaller than the others. 

The central nervous system as usual ; the otocysts very conspicoooi 
under the magnifier as chalk-white points. The mouth-tube 2.0 mm. 
long. The bulbus pharyngeus 2.0 mm. long ; the sheath of the radula 
pn)j<*cting 2.0 mm., b<*nl downwanls. The armature of thr lip-di:*k 
. IM. XII, fig. 10, inverylike that of the var. r///>mr;?it (cf Pl.XIII, 
tig. 4 ). The buccal cmp as usual. The tongue with nine row* of 
platen; \\w total numbt^r of rows, twenty-five (1.3 '3). The large 
lateral plates as usual; tin* d.-ntii^ulations rather long and somewhat 
irrepular. The number of the external plates (fig. 12) reaching to six. 

The salivary glands, the o-sophagus with its div«Tticle, the pyloric 
part of the intestine with its bag biliary sac), and the liv<T, as u^ual. 
The sanguineous gland rather lar;;e, eovering, l>esides the central 
nervou> system, the whole of the bulbus pharyngeus. 

In the hibes of the hemiaplinMlitic ^iand, masses of zoisperms. The 
anterior genital nia>s of the usual form ; the ampulla of the hfrma- 
phnxlitic duct somewhat larg«T. The sprrmatfMluet as usual ; so, too, 
the (M'nis, with its armature ; the length of the glans about 0,'> mm. 
The sfterniatotheca and the s|>erniat(H'\>ta as u^nal ; also the chief 
duet (vagina), the cavity of the last filled with spt^rrna. The mucous 
^land yellowish- white and in the centre (albuminous gland) brownish- 


yellow. Very scanty black pigment on the inferior part of the vagina 
and of the penis ; the peritoneum of the back, on the contrary, very 
dark brown. 

2. Aoanthodoril piloia (0. F. MUller), yar. albetcem, PI. X, fig. U, 15 ; PI. XI, fig. 2 ; 
PI. XII, fig. 13-16. 

Color flavescente-albidus. 

Hamus dentium (linguae) edentulus vel parce denticulatus. 

Habitat, Oceanum Pacificum septentrion. (Aleutian Islands). 

Two rather large specimens of this variety have been dredged by 
Dall, in June and July, 1873, at Kyska Harbor (Aleutians), on sand 
or on rocky bottom, at a depth of nine to fourteen fathoms. 

According to Dall, the color of the living animal was ^^ yellowish- 
white ; " that of the specimens preserved in spirits was so, too, but 
very likely much more whitish. The length was 16.0 or 17.0 mm., 
by a breadth of 6.5 to 8.0 mm., and a height of 6.5 mm. ; the height 
of the rhinophoria 2.5 to 3.0 mm., of the gill 3.0 to 4.0 mm. ; the 
breadth of ihe foot 50 or 6.0 mm., the length of the genital opening 
2.0 or 3.0 mm. The form as in the typical D, pilosa; the rhinophoria 
showed about twenty-five broad leaves in the club ; there were nine 
branchial leaves ; the anal papiUa very low ; the renal pore rather large. 

The central nervous system as previously described. The distal 
olfactory i;anglion small ; a large (diameter, 0.4 mm.) ganglion penis 
{^g. 15). The eyes with rich, coal-black pigment ; the otocysts visible 
under a lens as chalk-white points, with about one hundred and fifty 

The bulbus pharyngeus 3.5 mm. long, with the sheath of the radula 
projecting 1.3 to 1.5 mm.; the height of the bulbus, with the crop, 
4.0 to 4.5 mm., its breadth 2.5 to 8.0 mm. 

The older elements of the lip-plate (PI. XII, figs. 13, 14) agreeing 
in form with those of the typical species, but oftener showing a granu- 
lated interior ; the said elements reaching a length of about 0.04 mm. 
The diameter of the disk and mouth about 3.0 mm. The breadth of 
either half of the disk 0.66 mm. 

The tongue showed nine or ten rows of teeth ; the whole number of 
rows, twenty-nine ( 1 6 or 1 7 + 3). The large lateral teeth were as in the 
typical species, reaching 0.65 mm. in height (PI. XII, fig. 15, 16), 
without or with only a very slight denticulation of the hook (fig. 15). 
The number of the outer teeth, three to ^ye.^ 

' Cf. my Gatt. nordischer Doriden, 1. c, Taf. xix, fig. 18. 


Tho salivary glands deeply imbedded in the cavity for tbe cpsophagw 
at the fore-end of the liver. The oesophagus with its rather lar^ge 
(l.f) mm. long) diverticle, the stomach, the intestine with its lilde 
(1.0 mm. long bag, as above. The liver 7.0 to 9.0 mm. h>ng, 5.0 to G.0 
mm. broad, r).0 to G.25 mm. high, of yellowish-gray color. The MW- 
guiiieous gland of irregular, oval form, of a largest diameter of 4.0 
mm., by a thickness of 1.0 mm., and of grayish color. The renal ftjrinz 
about ().7r> mm. long. 

Th(* anterior genital mass G.O or 7.0 mm. long, 4.0 to G.O mm. high, 
and .'{.0 or 4.0 mm. thick. The ampulla as usual; al^^o the (about 
40.0 nun. long) spermatoduct and the (nearly 2.0 mm. lonj;: pcnii. 
with itn armature ; the hooks often set in pairs. The spermatotheca 
(diameter, -1.0 mm.) and the spiTmato<'yhta (diameter, l..^> mm. > af 
above; the chief duct, with the vagina (about 23.0 mm. long, b j a 
diameter (»f 0.4 to 1.0 mm. s us usual, and also its internal cellular 
clothing < V\. X, fig. 13); the yellow nucleoli somewhat brighter; the 
cavity nearly filled with sperma. The mucous gland as usual. No 
black f>igincnt on the inferior part of the vagina or on the peni». 

S. Acanthodoris pilota (0. F. .MUIIcr), var. purpHrett, PI. XII, fig. 1-0. 

Color i' purpureo brunneus et flavescente-albidus. 
Jfnhitdt, Oceanum Paciticum septentrion. Insular Aleutian;!* . Una- 
lash k a;. 

Only two >pccimens of this species were dredged by Dall, in S**p- 
tenilM r, I'^T 1, on mud and stones, at a <lepth of about sixty fathoms. 

TIm eiilur of the living animal was, according to Dall, " purph-bnkwn 
and Ti ll«»wi-li-wliit«*.*' The hiigth of the animals preser\ed in spiritit 
was lM.O or -Ti.t) mm., by a breadth of \K0 or 10.0 mm., and a h<-ight 
of 7.'> mill. ; the foot 0.0 mm. broad ; the height of the rhinophoria 
alMMit •».() mm., of the branchial leaves ^1,'.\ mm. The color of the 
barU n d'ii^li-lirown ; the >talk of the rhinoplioria browni>h, thtr club 
yellu\\i-h; tin* branchial l«*aves yellowish-white, the hi'^t brownish at 
the rl»a<lii- : the under ^id«* of the mantle margin, with the -iides of 
ihf ln.'i\. tin* h» ail arnl the foot, yellowish-white, dotted with brownish- 
irrav all ovrr. tin* <'olor much more scant v on the si«les of the fo«ti and 
still rimn* ^t» <»[i the head an<l on the sole (»f the fool. 

T!f luriii wa«« •«om«uliat el »n;:ate. The back co\rred all (jxer \iith 
|Miii, !••«!. rail:' r o.7.'> mm hinli, digitif<irm, -^oft papill.i* and with int«T 
mix«''l -iiii!!' r Mn«-s. Tin* m:ir;^iii of llie rliinoplior-l.o^-s with >«-viraI 
point* •!. prnj' iiing, tll^ililorm process* s ; the stout club of the rhino- 


phoria with aboat twenty leaves. The branchial leaves stroncr, (in both 
individuals) eight in number, the two hindermost separated by a narrow 
crest, which rises into a larger papilla ; before this the anal papilla, 
covtTed with some papillae, at its right side is the r^^nal pore ; on the 
space before it were several smaller pnpilhe. The under side of the 
free margin of the mantle (about 2.0 mm, broad) smooth. The head 
larj^o, the tentaoles short. The gerrttal opening a rather large, cres- 
centic orifice. The foot rounded behind. 

The perit(»ieum was richly dotted on the back with brownish-red. 

The central nervous system nearly quite as in Ac. pilosa; the 
proximal olfactory ganglia of oval form, true distal ones could not be 
detected in the root of the rhinophoria, but only a fusiform swelling of 
the nerve, with scattered nervous cells. The subcerebral and pedal 
commi.<sures connected, the visceral isolated. The buccal ganglia 
larger than the olfactory, of oval form, connected by a commissure 
nearly as long as each ganglion ; the gastro oesophageal ganglia de- 
veloped on the side of the nerve, which is a little longer than the 
ganglion, and in size about one-fifth of the fonner ; the conteifts one 
very large cell, three or four smaller and several quite small ones. 
On tlie upper part of the penis the large ganglion genitale, of about 
the diameter of 0.3 mm., rounded, partly covered with black pigment^ 
consisting of only rather small cells ; in the first parts of the nerves 
given off from the ganglion, one or two rows of nervous cells of the 
same kind as in the ganglion. 

The eyes with black pigment, yellow lens; the optic nerve rather 
long. As chalk-white points the otocysts were situated on the hinder 
part of the ceri'bral ganglia, where they touched the pedal ones ; they 
were filled with solid, yellowish otokonia of about the usual form and 
size, but, in both respects, rather irregular. In the leaves of the 
rhinophoria no s'picula. In the margin of the mantle and of the foot 
almost no spi4*ula at all, but everywhere in the skin, especially on the 
back and the papilla, were an enormous quantity of large and small 
glandular openings. In the interstitial connective tissue were hardly 
any calcified cells at all. 

The mouth-tube was about 2.3 mm. long, wide, with a glandular belt 
on the outside, not closed below ; on the inside lined with a yellowish 
caticula. The bulbus pharyngeus strong, about 4.0 mm. long, and 
the sheath of the radula projecting nearly 1 .0 mm. from the posterior 
part of the fmder side, directed straight backwards or downwards ; the 
height (through the buccal crop) 4.0 mm., the breadth 2.5 mm. T)ie 


buccal crop making nearly half of the whole bulbus, and of the uml 
form ; the walls very thick ; the compressed and rather amall cavitj 
communicating through a long cleft with the anterior half of the 
small buccal cavity. The lip-disk (fig. 1 ) of rounded contour, clothed 
throughout its whole breadth (on each side to about 0.5 mm.) with the 
light, horn-yellow colored armature ; the lowest part of thic^ as nsoal 
in the AranthodoriJetty injured or wanting; the breadth of the bek 
decreasing towards the upper end, where it is interrupted in the middk 
line, also at the lower end. The armature ( fig. 266, 36, 4 ) composed 
of hooks, whose points are directed forwards (towards the opening of 
the mouth ', nearly like, but still differing a little from those in the 
typical Ac, piloAO^ reaching the height of about 0.04 mm., jellowith, 
with rounded, bifid or irregularly clefl points. The lancet-shaped 
(fig. la, 2a, Wn) bta<]es at the inferior angle of the mouth as usual. 
The tongue with nine or ten series of plates, farther backwards 
thirtt^en to (iftet^i develo|)ed and three undeveloped series ; the total 
number in this way, twenty-five to twenty-eight. The large laterd 
plates n lutively larg(*r than in the Ac, piloHaj and (fi*^, [\^ ()> lets 
thick in th<; anterior-inferior part of the body, with relatively larger 
hook ; tlie denticulation of this last much weaker and much more 
irre<;ular; in one spr*eimcn generally two to four denticles, sometimes 
only a few very insij^nificant ones or none at all (fig. 6) ; and this was 
th(* c:i<e witli tlie otiier s(>ecinien, in which only some few plates showed 
two >niall <l<-nticlfsJ The outer lateral plates as in the typical form, 
-icanM'ly nion* than fn)m four to six. 

The salivary jrlands whitisli, rather strong at their short first part, 
in the n -t of their len<ith thin , ti«!. 7), aeeompanying the M^tciphagus 
to the «*anli:i ; the tliiet rather sliort . fi*^. 7fi . 

The u-o|»ha;iUH tnrining a little erop,- with thin walls and longiia- 
ilinal f't'hN on th«' iii<iile ; in iUv rest of its length rather thin. The 
•itoniaeh rath* r <nialK witli the u<ual biliary a{H'rtures. The inteistine 
■ ti;:. **'/ »ii»in»what inthiteil in its first part, with many rather strong 
folii" ami OIK- partienhirly thiek ; a litth' over the point, where it 
a|»|M'ar«; on thi* >urtat-e ot' the vi.MMTal mass, on the right sitle, a little* 
^•■an-»Iy |M«l«irnMil:itiMl ha;: fi^X- ^f' . '»f th»' lrn;:th of 1.0 lo l.i*."* mm., 
with tin*-, li>n;:itn<liital loitN ; the re<t <»r the inte>tin«' fi^:. Si- S4»me- 
what riarruutr; th<' total leni^tli of tlie intestine about Ti (t to lo.O 

' AlMi.Hiuh v«-ry liko thr phitrs of tlio Athintic fonn, they still bt»re a 
.'*4»int'w) |xM*uliai' a«>]>e«*t. 

( f. my <iatttin^'rn iionliM.-her Dtiridrn, I.e., Taf. xix, fig, 14. 


mm., bj a diameter of 1.0 to 1.5 mm. The contents of the stomach 
and of the intestine indeterminable animal matter, mixed with an 
enormous quantity of different and partly very handsome forms of 
Diatomacese, with some polythalamia and some small copepoda^ and 
fragments of the same. 

The liver about 9-9.5 mm. long by a breadth (at the forepart) of 
6.5-5.5 and a height of 6.25-6.0 mm. ; the posterior half somewhat 
pointed, the anterior notably flattened and excavated on the right side ; 
around the cardia the liver appeared naked (not covered by the her- 
maphroditic gland) of (greenish) gray color, in sections it was- yel- 

The ramifications of the aorta nearly as in the typical DorididcB,^ 
the root of the posterior aorta still longer and the Art. syringis renalis 
stronger and more ramified. The sanguineous gland yellowish-white, 
rather flattened, of irregular triangular form, lobulated, about 3.5 mm. 

The renal chamber large ; the yellowish- white renal syrinx about 
0.75 mm. long, its tube somewhat more than twice as long, imme- 
diately continuous with the tube on the floor of the renal chamber. 

The hermaphroditic gland easily distinguishable from the liver 
through its more whitish color; the secondary (ovigerous) lobes rather 
small ; in the lobes zousperms and large oogene cells. The anterior 
genital mass of plano-convex heart-shape with the point down and 
backwards ; the length about 5.0 mm. by a breadth of 4.0 and a height 
of 5.0 mm. The ampulla of the very thin and white hermaphroditic 
duct resting on the upper posterior part of the mucous gland, yellow, 
short and thick (4.0 mm. long by a diameter of about 1.25 mm. form- 
ing a simple ansa. The vas deferens yellowish, strong, resting upon 
the upper side Of the genital mass with its large coils and freely de- 
scending before its anterior margin to the penis, constricted about the 
(fig. 9c) middle of its total length (30.0-35.0 mm.). The penis forming 
the end of the spermatoduct somewhat thicker, about. 2.0 mm. long, 
somewhat curved ; its lower part hollow, the rest solid and prominent 
in the cavity of the former as a cylindrical glans of the length of about 
6 mm. The glans with about ten series of yellowish hooks, which 
from a rather large basis raised to the height of about 0.04 mm. ; the 
continuation of the armature reaching through the interior of the glans 
and of the spermatoduct nearly up to the stricture of the last, but the 

1 Ct my Malacolog. Unters. (Semper^ Philipp.) Tab. XLVin, fig. 11. 


number of scries here smuller, about five to eight. The spennatothecft 
whiti^h, forming an oval bag of 3.0 mm. largest diameter ; the ffperm*- 
tocysta yellowish, of l.:i-1.5 mm. largest diameter, the ducts as in the 
typical Ac, pi'fvsa The chi(;f duct, too, very (about 25.0 mm.) loii|^ 
rolled up in many coils, partly spirnl, the diameter varying between abooC 
3 and 0.7r> mm. ; the last fourth of the duct (vagina) with scattered 
black pigment, somewhat narrower and with a rather strong retractor 
muscle at its commencement ; the interior of this duct with f<ome few 
strong longitudinal folds, clothed with a cuticula, and under the same a 
very line layer of round and angulated cells with a large round or otiI 
nucleus of the diameter of about 0.4 mm. and a rather large yellow 
nucleolus < Tl. X, fig. 13). In the cavity of the vagina more or lets 
s|>erma.* The mucous gland yellowish and white ; the central 
(albuminous gland) yellow ; the duct with scattered black pigment 
the outside (also on the outside of the lower part of the |)eni8), 
the usutil fold. The vestibulum genitale with black pigment on the 
folds, the same pigment was seen in the lowest part of the cavity of 
the penis and of the vagina and on the folds of the duct of the mucout 

A very similar animal, but *' with brown mantle,'* was dredged by 
Dall in Kyska Harbor (Aleutians) in July, 1873, on sand, at a depth 
of nine to fourteen fatlioms. 

It wa5 of larg<^ size ; the length 21.0 mm., by a bn'adth of 1 1.0 and 
a height of IKU mm. ; the margin of the mantle 2.0 mm. broad, tlie fool 
ti.O mm. broad ; the height of tlie rhinoplioria and of the gill 3 mm.; 
the genital aprrture .'!.() mm. broad. The color dirty brown on the 
up{KT >id(' ; the rhinoplioria and the branchial leaves yrllowi>h, dotted 
with ^M'ayi-'li, i-spi-eially on the stalk of the rhinophoria ; the Side of 
th<? foot \illo\vi>ii, the undtT side of the animal whiti>li : tlie under 
-iilr e\rr\\\ln'n* with an* t*nornious quantity of gray anit blaek dot*. 
Thf nuiithrr of hraiiciiial leaves nine. 

Til.- iHTitonciim lda<-k. brown ; the central nervous svstem. eve*, 
oti»cyst-. n* pr \iou"-ly dfserihi'd. The bulhus phar} ii^r'n-* of the 
l*'ii«:th of t..') iiiin. by a breadth of 3.0 and a height (with the erop) 

• if IT.) mni. : tlie .•*!it-Mtii of the radula projeeting 1.2.'> mm. ; the erop 
:iloii>- (»t' tli* leiL'lit nt' '2.'\ mm. and ',].:lo mm broad. The li[»-di->k as 
u!to\e, till iliiekt-niii;:^ in the lowest part of the mouth 1.:^ nnii. long, 

• »l' uhieli ii»:irl\ liulf freely projected. On the tongue nine n»ws of 

The 1i-i i^'th n|* t)ie ^^peiiiiatoiluet and the duct of the speiniatothi^ca 
'. .i;:iii;i wu-^ iniirh iiioio eo:)^idL•r.ilde than in thu typical form. 


plates, farther backwards eighteen developed and three younger rows, 
the total number thirty ; the plates denticulated as previously men- 
tioned, the height of the large plates rising to 0.7 mm. ; the number 
4)f external plates four to five. The (Esophageal diverticle of a largest 
<liameter of about 3.0 mm. The pars pylorica of the intestine of about 
4.5 mm. length, with higher folds than in the rest of the intestine, which 
ttad a length of about 15.0 mm. ; the bag at the first part of the intes- 
tine 1.5 mm. long. The liver 12.0 mm. long by a breadth of 8.0 and a 
tieight of 6.0 mm. The sanguineous glands whitish, 5.0 mm. long by 
9. breadth of G.O mm. and 2.0 mm. thick, convexo-concave, the fore-end 
flattened (by the buccal crop), the hinder end with two transverse fur- 
rows (produced by two coils of the spermatoduct ; the anterior genital 
mass 8.0 mm. long by a breadth of 3.5 and a height of 7.5 mm. The 
ampulla of the hermaphroditic duct 5.0 mm. long, whitish. The coils 
of the spermatoduct and of the vagina in this individual covering the 
upper side of the mucous gland, and ascending to the back between 
the pharyngeal bulbus and the liver ; a coil of the former embraced 
the sheath of the radula. The first part of the spermatoduct 12.0 mm. 
loDg, the last of the length of about 25.0 mm ; the penis about 3.5 mm. 
^ng, the armature as usual. The spermatotheca nearly spherical, of 
3.5 rom. diameter ; the spermatocysta yellowish, round, with a diameter 
^ 1.5 mm. ; the chief duct (vagina) 33.0 mm. long with a general 
"IOmeter of 1.2 mm. ; the structure of the wall as above ; the last, nar- 
'^''ver part (from the m. retractor downwards), 5.0 ram. long. 'J he 

'^^^tibalum, as well as the inferior part of the vagina and of the penis, 

'•^^tili very scanty black pigment. 

^eanihodorii csBmleioeiiB, Bgh., n. ep. Plate XIU, fig. 6-7; Plate XIV, fig. 16. 

^olor paginal superioris corporis cffirulescens. 

^Dentes radulsc hamo per totam fere longitudinem denticulate. 

^^ab. Mare Beringianum (Nunivak Island). 

^3ne specimen of this species was found by Dall at the north end of 
^uivak Island, Bering Sea, in July, 1874, on stony bottom, at the 
^^l>th of eight fathoms. 

-According to Dall, the color of the living animal was bluish. The 

•*^^inal preserved in alcohol had the length of 1 4.0 mm. by a height of 

^O and a breadth of 8.0 mm. ; the length of the foot was 12.5 mm. by 

» V^readth of 6.5 mm. ; the height of the rhinophoria 2.0, of the bran- 

cViial leaves 1.5 mm. The color uniformly yellowish-white, with the 

^^ck of a slightly bluish hue. 


The form elongate-oval. The back covered all over with iiregnlar 
(the greatest height reaching about 1.5 mm.), conical, rmtker aofl mai 
flexible papillae, in general larger than in the typical species. Tbe 
margin of the rhioophor-holes thin, somewhat prominent, with two 
anterior strong tubercles and a posterior much smaller one ; the 
of the club rather low, the latter with about twentj-five to thirlj h 
The branchia consisting of nine to ten leaves, the adjacent border set 
with several strong tubercles ; the branchial leaves quite ts<J«ted at 
their base, apparently simply pinnate. The anus prominent, before 
the same a small tubercle, behind it a much larger one. The marga 
of the mantle rather thin, on the upper side covered with a mass of 
smaller and larger papilhi? and tubercles, the under side smooth, 
head broad, flat, with prominent rounded, flattened tentacaUu 
foot broad, rounded behind. 

The central nervous system as in the typical species ; the buecal 
ganglia rounded, the commissure between them very short. The eyes 
with black pigment and yellow lens. The otocysts a little smaller 
than the eye^, with numerous otokonia of the usual form, and reaching 
a length of 0.03 mm. The leaves of the rhinophoria without spicnla; 
in the axes of the organs large, molecularly calcified cdls and groops 
of smaller calcified cells. In the papilhir of the skin of the back were 
no spiculu at all, on -their surface the usual large quantity of glandular 
cells ; in tlie skin beneath the papill:i> cells and groups of cells as in the 
case of the rhinophorin. 

The mouth-tube rather wide, with strong cuticula. The bulbw 
pharyn^jf'us formwl apparently as in the typical species ; the lip-platr 
coiii|)os<m1 of many rows of rather low (the height rising to abool 
0.0'J mm.), very (fig. 0) finely striated columns. The tongue with ten 
rows of te<'tli ; further baek, twenty-six developed and three andevd- 
0{>ed rows ; the total number thus thirty-nine. The lateral plates 
large, yellow, of usual form, with a series of denticles along nearly 
the whole of the inner margin of the hook (fig. Ifia). The external 
plates c(>l(>rl(*ss, eight in number; somewhat depressed (fig. 7, 16;« 
obliquely rising from the cuticula of the tongue (fig. 7 \ of nearly equal 
size cxorpting the outermost (fig 1<)6), which is much smaller. 

Tiie salivary glands seemed of the usual form. The (esophagus and 
the stomiu'h as usual. The intestine issuing from the liver at the 
roiddlt' <»f its length on the l<*ft side, rather short. The liver of the 
length of about 1).0 mm. by a breadth and a height of about 4.3 mm. : 


the right anterior half excavated (on account of the anterior genita 
mass) ; the color brownish-gray. 

The heart and the sanguineous gland as usual, also the renal cham- 
ber and the renal syrinx. 

The hermaphroditic gland by its yellowish color contrasting with 
the liver, clothing the under side, part of the left side, and its right 
anterior half. The anterior genital mass rather compressed, about 
(>.0 mm. long by a breadth of 2.0 mm. The ampulla of the hermaphro- 
ditic duct rather short, sausage-shaped, about 2,3 mm. long, curved 
and whitish. The larger part of the penis was gone, but hooks were 
seen in the remaining part as in the typical species. The sperma 
totheca rather large, bag-shaped, about 3.5 mm. long ; the vagina 
rather wide, about 10.0 mm. long. The mucous gland white^ and the 
albuminous gland yellowish-white.^ 

This species seems very distinct from the typical one, by its color 
and by the different form of denticulation of the large plates of the 


This large family, so rich in generic forms, was found represented 
in the northern Pacific only by two generic types, Polycera and 

POLYCSEA, Cuvier. 

Polyura. Cavier, (1812?), Regne-anlm., 1817, ii, p. 390.* Regn«-anim., 

ed. 2, ill, p. 52. 
ThemUto^ Oken, Lehrb. der Zool., 1815, p. 278. 
OufotOy Leach, Moll. Britann. Synopsis, 1852, p. 21. 
Polycera C, Aid. and Hanc, Observ. on the* genus PolyesrOy Ann. Mag. 

of Nat Hist., vi, 1841. p. 837-842, PI. IX. 
Limaeia, O. Fr. Muller, Zool. Dan., i, 1781, p. 05-68.' 
PhanerohranehvM, A. Fr^dol (Moquin-Tandon), Le monde de la mer, 1864, 

PI. xii, figs. 1, 2. 

* The anterior genital mass was so hardened and altered, that the nature 
of its di£ferent components could not be determined with certainty. 

* According to a note of Hermannsen, under the genus TJiemisto^ Oken, 
(Ind. Gkn. Malacoz. primordia, ii, 1849, p. 572), the genus Polycera was 
established by Cuvier, 1812, [but this is probably a typographical error, 
•tnce, under the genus Polycera itself, he indicates only the year 1817— 
Dall,] (cf., 1. c, p. 314). 

* Limada, Hartm., Neue Alpina, i, 1821, p. 208 {Arion, F^r.). 



LimbuA frontalis digitatua vel tubercuUtttu. Branchia 5— 7-foUata. 
A ppcndices dorsales Textrabranchiales) 1-3. Tentacala breYia, lobi- 

Lamellii^ mandibulares latcrales fortep, sat applanatv. Radda 
rhachide nuda; pleuris dentibus lateralibus hamatis duobns (margiae 
luevi ), interno minore, externo majore, et dentibus extemos 4-8. 

Prostata magna ; pleuris ut in omnibus Poljceratis. 

The genus Polycera was established by Cuvier ( 1812 ?), to receive 
the Dorin quadrilineata of Miiller and (in 1830) allied forms ; a few 
years afterwards (1815 ), and not knowing the genus of Cuvier* Okeo 
formed his ThemiMoy nearly identical with the Polycera of Cuvier.* 
The Cuffra of Leach ( 1852), is entire-y congeneric with the genera 
of Cuvier and Oken, as is also very likely the Phanerobranchus of 
A. Fn'dol ( Moquin-Tandon ). The Limacia of O. Fr. Muller ( 1781). 
contains a whole series of different Nudibranchiataj among them the 
D. quadriliueatay and, as first-named species, the D. verrucosa; the 
name cannot therefore be employed here. 

Although, til rough Cuvier and Alder (1841), their external char- 
acters were somewhat made known, still Polycera^ like so many 
other NudibranrhiatOy remained very superficially known, until the 
large monograph of Alder and Hancock,* that first really unveiled 
thv'iT external and internal structure, although Prey and Leuckart' 
had given some anatomical n(>tices of these animaU. Lately more 
li^rht lias Im'^ii spread over the northern s(>ecie8 of the group, through 
the investigation!* of Meyer and Moebius,' and of G. O. Sars.^ 

The true Pofycera shows a form of bo<ly <*ommon to the whoI«* 
family. The well-develo|M;d frontal margin is more or Icfls curved in 

• A i-nreful 8oarch has failed to find any other ground for suppoRin^ that 
Cuvier de.seribijd the j;enuH Polyreru in 1812, or at any date before 1M|7, lu 
that the 1^12 of HermannHon is aliii<»st certainly mcivly a misprint. The 
iiaine ThemiitOf of Okcii, if congeneric, should therefore take precedence. 

— I) ALL. 

' Alder un<l Hanco<'k, Mono;;r. Hrit. Xudibr. Moll., Part 3, 1A4^ fam. 1, 
PI. j:'. ; Part I, 1848, lam. 1, PI. 24 ; Part .\ 1S.")1, fum. 1, PI. 22 ; Part 6. 
I<'i4, f.4ni. 1, PI. 17 (aniit. I) ; I*:ut 7, 18.M, PI. 40 mipplem. fign. 2i\ 21. 

• Kr^y and lA'uckurt, Beitr. zur Kenntn. wirbelloHC Thiere, 1847, p. (Wl- 
70, taf. i. fi«. 12, 1:J. 

' M»->er and Mo<*bius, Pauna der Kieler Hucht, i, 1865. p. 49-57, m. 2 
taf. und taf. iv, A, H. 

• <;. <J. Sarh, Moll. rog. ant. Norv., 187H, p. 312, 31.% Tab. xiv, fig. 14 \K 


the middle, with its free margin tuberculated or digitate. The frontal 
veil is continued in a more or less tuberculated ridge, that limits the true 
back, and posteriorly ends in a single strong or in several smaller 
dorsal (branchial) appendices on the outside of and behind the region 
of the gill. The true back with longitudinal rows of more or less 
developed connected tubercles, sometimes forming low longitudinal 
ridges. The number of leaves in the club of the rhinophoria is not 
large. The gill is composed of a moderate number (^ve to seven) of 
leaves, which are either simply pinnate or composite (bi- or tripinnate). 
The tentacles are small, flattened or auriculate. The jaws or man- 
dibular plates in form somewhat recall those of the .^EoltdiidtE, strong, 
flattened, sometimes with a peculiar superior process. The rhachis of 
the radula naked ; on the pleurae two large hook-formed lateral teeth, 
of which the outer is much larger than the inner ; at the outside of 
the laterals are four to eight, somewhat flattened uncinaB. A large 
prostate gives the genital apparatus a particular feature ; the arma- 
ture of the penis is of the usual kind. 

About the biological relations of Polycera Yery Utile is known, as 
usual among the Nudihranchiata, The spawn of the most common 
northern species is known, and a part of the developmental history 
Las been investigated by Ray Lankester.^ 

A small number of species have been described by different authors 
In the course of years. Alder and Hancock (Monogr. part 7, 1855, 
p. 45, XYllI) established and rather well characterized two groups 
of Polycera; according to these authors Gray soon after (Quide I, 
1857, p. 213) denominated these groups Polycera (typical) and PaitOj 
which perf^aps might be conserved as subgenera. 

I. POLYCSBA (striote). 

Margo limbi frontalis digitatus. Folia branehialia simplieiter pin- 
nata ; appendices dorsales (branchiales) singula? majores. 
Lamellse mandibulares processu superiori alseformi. 

1. P. quadrilineata (O. F. Muller). M. Atlanticum ; Mediterraneum. 

2. P. horrida, Hesse. Joum. de Conchyliol., 8 S., XllI, 4, 1873, p. 845. M. 


* Ray Lankester, Contrib. to the Developm. hist of Moll^ Philos. 
Trans., MDCCCLXXV, p. 29, PI. 10, f. 1-9. 

Meyer and Moebius have, moreover, given a figure of the shell of the 
embiyo of their Pol. oceUaia (I. c, fig. 10). 


n. P, plebiia, JjOT^n. Ind6x Moll., 1846, p. 6.* M. Atlantioain. 

4. P. doriformii (Quatref.). PhaDerobranche doriforme. Moqnin-TudM 

(pieud. A. Fh^dol) Le monde de la mer., 1864, PI. XII, fig. 1. M. 

Medi terraneum . 
T). P, eanteriata {Qutitref,) Phan^robrancbe a clievrODs. Moqain-Tandott 

(doj 1. c, pi. XII, f. 2. M. Mediterraneum. 

II. PALIO, Or»7. 

Margo limbi frontalis tuberculatus. Folia branchialia bi- Tel Iri- 
pinnata ; appendices dorsales (branchiales) minores, compluref. 
Lamelliu mandibulares simplices (sine processu superiori). 

6. P. Lesionii (d'Orb.). Pol oedlata, A. et II. M. Atlanticinii. 

7. P. pudiea^ Lov^. Ind. Moll., 1846, p. 6. M. AUanticum. 

8. P. pallida. Bgb.. n. sp. M. Paciiicum. 

\K P, dubia, San. Bidr. til 8uedyron^s. Naturh., 1839, p. 13. Tab. t, 
iig. 5, 6. Loven, Ind. Moll., 1846, p. 6. M. Atlanticam aapi. 

10. P. f Cookii, Angas. Journ. do ConcbyL, 3 S., IV, 1, 1864» p. 58 ; PL Y, 

f . 6. M. Paciflcum. 

11. P. rCaperms, Quoy et Gaim. Voy. de rUranie. Zool., 1834, p. 417; 

PI. 66. f. 4. M. Capense.^ 

P. jMaiida, Bgh., D fip. rUte XV, fig. 14; Plato XVI, fig. 1-9. 

Color flayescens. Brancbia sexfoliata. 

Lanielhr mandibulares fere ut in Pol. Z^ssontt\ sed magis eloDgmt». 
Armatiira lingualis fere ut in Pol. Lessonii; dentea extcrni 5. 
I/tth. Oc. Paciiicum septentr. 

Of tbid form Dall dredged a single individual in June, 1873, at 
Kysku Harbor (Aleutians), at tbe deptb of ten fatbom^ on rocky 
bottom. According to Dull, tbe color of tbe living animal was **yel- 

Tbe lengtli of tbe animal preserved in spirits was 7.0 mm., with a 
beigbt of 4.0 and a breadtb of 3.0 mm. ; tbe beigbt of tbe branchial 
braves about 1 .0 mm., also that of tbe rbinopboria ; tbe breadth of the 

' ** ViridifuM^i, sulpburco macuhitii, papilUs frontiH 10, brancbiali 
utrinquc una iM>Ktica maj<»re ; 11 mm. Hobus/' lAtvvn. 

Til is, a.s wrll as tliu other new Poly re nr of I»vi'ii, bas not since been 
sei'U (<'!'. (1. o. Sans Moll. leg. artt. Nor>-., 1H7S, p. \n:\). 

Of thf throe -not too naturally rcpit'soiited) ** Polyccnu *' of A. Fredol 
(MtMpiiii Taiuioii , the one (1. v. PI. XU, tig. Oi Si'em.s to be the P0I. 
Le$ivrtii. tbe otbt-r two >fig. 3, 4; belong undoubtedly to tbe geniu 


foot 2.0 mm. The color of the animal whitish, that of the rhinophoria 
and the branchial leaves more yellow ; the margin of the foot white. 

The form as usual. The head rounded, with a prominence on the 
upper lateral part; the mouth a vertical slit. The margin of the 
rhinophor-grooves plain. The stalk of the rhinophoria nearly as high 
as the club, cylindrical ; the club rather flattened, with about fifteen 
leaves; before the rhinophoria a low transverse frontal veil with 
scarcely more than two prominences ; the veil continued backwards as 
a rather indistinct prominent line on each side of the smooth rounded 
back ; the pericardial region a little prominent ; behind the middle of 
the length of the back, the gill with six tripinnate leaves in a slight 
curve ; behind them the quite low anal nipple, and towards the right 
side the renal pore ; behind the gill a little flattened space with a slight 
crest on each side with three papillie. The sides of the body rather 
high. In the region of the anterior angles of the foot the genital 
papilla with the everted penis (without its recurved point, 0.75 mm. 
high), and below it a folded lamella, the duct of the mucous gland. The 
foot rather narrow, of nearly the same breadth ; the rounded anterior 
angles somewhat prominent ; a fine furrow in the anterior margin. 

The intestines indistinctly appearing through the walls of the body. 
The peritoneum colorless, nearly without spicula. 

The central nervous system (&g. 1) very depressed; the cerebral 
ganglia of rounded-triangular form, a little larger than the more 
rounded visceral (fig. la); the pedal ones more pyriform, a little 
larger than the last ; the (proximal) olfactory ganglia bulbiform, not 
quite as large as the buccal ones, which were {dg. lb) of rounded form, 
connected by a not very short commissure ; the gastro-oesophageal 
ganglia of about one- eighth of the size of the former, rounded.^ The 
three inferior (subcerebral, visceral, and pedal) commissures (^or at 
least the visceral one) free. 

The eyes (fig- 1) short-stalked, with black pigment and pale yellowish 
lens. The otocysts (fig. 1 ) in their usual place, very short-stalked, 
with about eighty otokonia of the ordinary kind. In the stalk of the 
rhinophoria some scattered yellowish thick spicula, of the same kind 
as in the skin of the back ; none, on the contrary, in the leaves of the 
club. In the skin some scattered, yellowish, thick, straight or curved 
spicula, mostly of about 0.15-0.3 mm. in length, and of the usual 
form. In the interstitial tissue very few larger spicula. 

' In the other species of Polycera I have examined. I never saw gastro- 
CBSophagoal ganglia, nor any in Euplocamtu or in Ploeamoph&rui. 


The oral tube whitish, of about 1.0 niin. length, wide. The bulbiM 
pharyngcus clear brownish-yellow, somewhat pyriform, with oblique 
flattened posterior end, in length about 1.0, by a height of oeariy 1.3, 
and a breadth of 1.5 mm. ; the sheath of the radula a little promineni 
downwards, and to the left from the hindemiost part of the under «ide of 
the bulbus. The lip-disk clothed with a brownish -yellow cuticula, that 
is continued into the two mandibular plates behind the lip-disk at the 
entrance of the oral cavity, the form of the mandible could nol be 
determined with certainty ; a yellowish cuticula clothes the rest of the 
cavity. The tongue with ten rows of plates, further backwards nx 
developed and two younger rows ; the total number eighteen.' The 
rhachis (fig. 2) not Y&ry narrow. The i>lates yellow. The length of 
the first plate about 0.11, of the second 0.20, of the inmost of the ex* 
temal plates 0.14, of the following 0.12, O.IO, 08 and 0.06 mm. {all 
from the hinder part of the sheath). The first lateral plate (fi|(. ^ao* 
5, G) formed somewhat as in the P. J^ssonii, the hook still smaller; 
the second of the same form, but larger (fig. 2bb, 3), the hooks much 
larger, especially the anterior, which is broader and excavated (ti«s. ?)• 
More outwards five external plates (fig. 2cc), all with a crest, which u 
larger in the two innermost ; adjoining the outermost of these plates 
several longitudinal folds of the lingual cuticula, which sometimes 
simulate one to two plates more (fig. 2). 

The salivary glands whitish, elongate. The (rsophagus rather wide, 
tlie stomach inclosed in the liver. Tlic intestine appearing at the 
middle of the length of the liver a little to tlie left, at the bottom of a 
deep and large cavity in the upper side of the liver ; thtj pyloric part 

' Arconling to Alder and llaiirt>rk (Muimj;. Part VII, 1RV>, 1*1. 41 snp- 
pieiiient, liu'. •<^ '-M *, the iiuinl»er of rows was tiflocn in the Potpcrm ^uttd- 
rUineata^ Mxtecn in the 1*. ocellata thirteen in the /*. Lrnnonii : Alder .ind 
lI:ine<N'k Kiw 1. v. four external pl.ites in the Pol. tjuadrilinenta^ tiw in 
/'. oct Until, and six in /*. Lfumtnii. Meyer and M<»obius saw liv«j t(» M*veD 
external plates in their Potprerti orfHata, whiNt the nunilter of niH> I. c. 
1*1. .')n is n«»te<l as thirteen to fifteen; in the /*. qnadrUiueiiUi X\\cy Iniuid 
fniir to fiv(> «>xternal plates and twi'lve to thirteen rows. In four s|h-4 iniem 
of /'"/. ifititlrilinfata I saw six U* ei;;ht i-ows on the ton^^ne, moie l>.ick- 
wsids six to seven developed, and one not (piite (1(>vc1o|k-<I n>w ; tlit* tutal 
iinntlxT of rowr« was fonrti'en t^ tifteon. In all siK^einiens there wt-ie l^ut 
four extrrnal plates. In t'onr s}K'4*in)ens nt' /'"/. f.e»nohii I saw nine to ten 
rt»ws iiii tlif ton^ne, more hack wards ei^ltt to st'\i*n or tive de\fl«i]<d« 
aiwl a -iii^lc not d(-\('lnp((i iM\\; tlu- total number «>f io%%s was hixtceu to 
eiulitecn. In all the sin'cimens there were ei;;ht external i>lates. 



of the intestine rather wide, its curve reaching to the bulbus pharjn- 
geus. The liver about 5.0 mm. long by a breadth of 3.5 and a height 
of d.25 mm. ; the form conical, the posterior end rounded, the anterior 
moeh broader, flattened and adjoining another flattening on the infe- 
rior part of the right side of the organ ; the color was yellowish. 

The sanguineous gland of quadrangular form, of a diameter of about 
1.5 mm., whitish. 

The hermaphroditic gland with its yellowish-white lobes covering 
nearly the whole surface of the liver : in the lobes large odgene cells. 
The anterior genital mass of the length of about 4.0 mm. by a height 
of 3.0 and a breadth of 1.5 mm. The ampulla of the hermaphroditic 
dvct resting on the inferior margin of the genital mass, whitish, 
straight, of the length of 3.0 mm by a diameter of about 0.5 mm. 
At the anterior end of the ampulla a flattened body (prostate) that 
freely projects before the anterior margin of the rest of the genital 
mass ; it was of about the same length as the ampulla, but nearly twice 
as broad ; the cavity of the organ rather large and the walls rather 
thin. The prostate slopes gradually into the thin but strong spermato- 
duct, which is about 6.0 mm. long and terminates in the penis, which 
was short, conical (fig. 8a, 9), about 0.75 mm. long, and terminated 
in a somewhat flexible, yellowish glans (fig. 8, 9, 14), of the length of 
about 0.37 mm. by a diameter at the base of about 0.09, and at the 
point of 0.037 mm. ; through the largest part of its length it was 
covered with (in all about twelve) series of small chitinized crests, 
which did not surpass the height of about 0.0025 mm. (fig. 14); the 
armature only continued through a short part of the interior of the 
spermatoduct. The spermatotheca spherical ; the spermatocysta pyri- 
form, filled with sperma. The cordate mucous gland whitish and 
yellowish- white (fig. Sb), 

This species approaches to the PoL Lessonit, but seems even dif- 
ferent in color from that and the other Atlantic forms, and also diflers 
in the slight development of the frontal veil and of the lateral crests of 
the back, as well as in the number of the external plates of tongue, 
and^ in the nature of the armature of the penis. 

* The armature of the penis of Polyc. quadrilineata (hitherto the only 
species in which an armature has been described) as figured by Friele and 
Hansen (1. c. Tab. II, fig. 3) is very di£ferent from that of the Pacific spe- 
cies, and that difference has been confirmed by my examination of typical 

Hi pmorm-isG* rr the jicAnsiT or [Ir 

TXXOFXA. B^r^-., i- ^a. 

FoTTLA. rorp'^rl's f»-rc- u: ia Tritj^.i*, »;•. u: t|u«>^Ge iii;ir^ froot*- 

.1.4 : zZiAr^o 'lontAiis a('[A:L'ii«.-i'L-ri9 nvomJIid Qtjdo*U vrl Nreve 
ratiO-i-. TtrfitACulA cou4j.r»r-?^.«-p-Aul*iorTnt:» laurifoniiui/ : rhino- 
pLoriA rntra^'tilLi. cLiTu (jrrfvliato. Braiivhui iiniO'iurfuIiAta. 
foli.** tripirifiati*. 

O-* lan.'-liii 'i>iab»i'» f-jrti'-rlb'i* c bacilli^ luinuiU t>»nipi.»s»iti* 
ariiiri*. i.fii. Lih:;ii:i rLnchMv «It-nLil'ii<» >piirii«« (4 : pltruri» 'K'nti- 
be- iat'-ralibun i*-l (corj-oix- pr'^ov^-^u aLk*foruii trt Luimo a|>- 
planato in-triic:I-> et Mrric •kntium t-xternoruiu (li>-ll> ariuAtis. 

Pro-iaU ; 

TU\< interc-«<tin2 f«>nii, that fi»nns a link between Pol^jctrm 
an'l Triopa on on** si'lc*. and the £*t/»locnmi on the other* ap- 
]»709if:\nr^ in on* nearly to the latter than to the former. 

In the exterior, the Triopha^ resemble the Tritfjtit. but still 
diffr-r in some |KHntfl sufficiently. The appendicH'^ of the l»ack 
:in- more eornj^^wite ; the tentaHe*« sc-em ditferent from those of 
the TriojtiF (which have them folde«l lenirthwise and obtuse at 
the «-nd : »*ee for eomparison, PI. XV, fig. 12 ; thev are con*- 
preH-«r| #-ijp-«i|i:i|»ed or aiiriculate. The jjill contains five lea\"e«. 
Whil--t the Triojur want an armature of the true mouth.' the 
Triophti MH* |»rovided with two stron;: plates (compos<»i! of 
• bn-» ly *-i'\. "^tair**). NVhiUt th«- rh:irhis of the touLrue in the 
Trt"p*/ !•< nakid, tlie Trtitph(r show f«»iir r:il«i<' plates, ("bossies" of 
|l:ill. ^iiiipU* tliickcniiiir*^ of the base iiiembi-ane of the railnlai. 
hi-n- ; iii-t(ad of the two |K'eiiliarly foniifd lateral plates on tin* 
pli-iiiji* in the 7/"7oyw,^ tht* Triaphtr have three or four lat(*ral 
plat I- (with a wiii^-lik<' pnK*ess of the btnly and a «leprv>sed 
hook) : with, on tlie outside of these, a series of (ten t«» eleven) 
iim iiKil plat«s, iirarly as in the Trinp<i\ Atter all, the Trinj,h^ 

tixv rlu-«*lv allifil t(» til*' (*nhiif\* and es>fnliallv ditlor from tht'se 

« »' » 

' Iliuin;^' at first and rather KniK'Hicially I'xaiiiined the extorior, I tint 
r«'t:.iMli«l tlM" a*i a 7Vi"/'<i, ami oalU'tl it n<> [s. part 1, \*. V2*< ' T'J , 
.iml !l..' IMat.H XIV, XV ]. 

• Si-»- for roiiipuriHou IM. .XIII, li«;. \\K 

• N'«- f.ii rMiiip;iiiMm ri. XIV, tii;. *21, 22. 

• Till" «lia::iniHi?, of \hv Cofnr wmild Ik* : 

Km ma rt»riM»rij» frn* nt in Tiiojiis. Vatjina* rliinopliorialcs caly(.Mf«>nnMi 
«itilii|ii:i' : ihiii**iili<iria irtrartilia. clavo {MTfoliato. Teiitaoula aunforniia. 


only in the armature of the tongue, which in the Colgce exhibits 
only a single series of (false) rhachidian plates and (on each 
side) two lateral plates in form approaching those of Polycera. 
The nature of the prostate is unknown ; the armature of the 
penis not differing much from that ordinary in the large group of 
the Polyceratidis. 

Although somewhat approjiching to the Euplocami in the form 

of the appendices of the back, in the armature of the true mouth 

and of the pleurjB of the tongue, the Triophce still entirely differ 

in the form of the tentacles, iu the number of the branchial 

/eaves and very likely in the nature of the prostate. 

The TriophdB have hitherto been only found in the Pacific 

1. 2V. modMtOf Bgh. n. sp. Oc. Pacificum. 

2. ^r. Garpenteri^ Steams. Proc. of the Cal. Acad, of Sci., April 7, 1873, 

p. 2, fig. 2. Oc. Pacificum (California). 

Tr. xnodesta, Bgh. n. sp. PI. XIV. fig. 17-20; PI. XV, fig. 1-10. 
f Triopa Carpenteriy Steams. 1. c. p. 2, fig. 2, 

Jolor e flavido albescens. Appendices dorsales pauciv ; folia 
^'^^•-iiichialia 5. 

fab. Oc. Pacif. septentr. 

►f this form Dall has obtained a single individual at Yukon 
°^^^:*'bor (Shumagins), in August, 1814, at a depth of six to 
^^^^^^nty fathoms, on a bottom of sand and stones. The color of 
^^^^ living animal was, according to Dall, " yellowish-white." 

^Sr^he animal preserved in spirits was of whitish color; the 
^^^^^^al appendices, the gill and the rhinophoria more yellowish. 
'^'^^^ length of the animal 16.0 mm., by a height of T.O and a 

l^*^^^*TiSum papilligerum, prsesertim margo frontalis et dorsalis. Branchia 
^stndibulse triangulares, fortes. Kadula fere ut in Polyceratis, dentibus 
***^^:»^libus (2) et extemis (7), sed prsBterea dentibus mcdianis (spuriis) 

^'^^rely one species of the genus is yet known, one of the first described 

^^^'^ibranehiata, the Doris lacera of Abildgaard (Zool. Dan., IV, 1806, 

p. ^3, Tab. CXXXVIII, fig. 3, 4), which has been found too on the coast 

oC America (Cf. Verrill, notice of recent- addit. to the Mar. Fauna of 

^«»rth Am., XXXVIII. Amer. Jour, of Sc. and Arts, XVI, 1873, p. 211>. 




brca<ltli of t)J} mm. ; the height of the branchial leaves 1.25, of 
the rhinophoria '2.0 mm. ; the breadth of the foot 3.5 lum. 

The form as usual. Tlie head flattened in front, semilunar; 
the tentacles eom|>ressed-c*ui>-sha|)ed, rather short (alK>iit 1.0 mn. 
long >, truncated at tlie end, longitudinally folded and ufien at 
the outer side. The frontal margin not proji»cting much* with 
many smaller and larger short digitations and crenulntions; in 
front in the median line were two small conical papillae liefoR 
the region of the rhinophoria. The margin of the rhinophor- 
lioles somewhat projecting, smooth: the (deeply retracto<l) rhino- 
phoria with rather short st:ilk ; the club with thirt^'-five to fortr 
rather broad and thin leaves. 

The back rounded over from side to side, without e<»rtain limitii 
between it and the sides of the body. At the latenil part« 
of the b:i(*k (on each side) five appendices; the first standing a 
little behind the end of the frontal margin; the next alM>ut in 
the middle of tlie space l»etween the first and third ; this laat a 
little before the region of the gill; farther backwanls were sIm) 
two similar ones. The appendices were elub-shaiK»d, with simple 
or com|M)site nodosities spread upon their iKxlies, ami especially 
at their bases: the third was the largest, reaching the height of 
about 2.r> mm.; all the -others a little smaller, and all of al)oat 
the same size. Much smaller, c<>nic:d or clul»-formed simple 
papillM' w«re scantily Mud inegnlurlv scattertMl on the back. The 
irill (M»n*»i*iting <»f live strong, tri]>innate, quite separate Iraves, a 
single aiitriior an<l two lateral pairs. The anal nippb* nearly 
in tln'cenireof the jM.steiiorly <»pcn branchial circle, a blunted, 
nearly i'\ prnnrnhncc, about t^.f) mm. in hei;j;lit ; at ittf 
basr on iln- ii;:ht sid*' and a little foiwanls was the verv di**tinet 
n-nal iM»re. The >idcs of the bodv rather hiuh an<l smooth: the 
L'«nitMl niMiiiiiLi a ^liort lMiii:;itiidinal slit Ivintr ratiuT t'«»rwanl8, 
with t \\«» M|.,niiiir^ ;it it-, ]M)ttniii. The toot not verv narrow, of 
nearly tlie ^:\\\\r lui-adtli tliroii^liout its whole len;.xth ; theanttrior 
ImimIi r » iiiai'^iiiateil in the middle, witli a line line. 

Tile lull stilus did n<»t •^liine thnnii^h the integumenl>. The 
peritoih iiiii ua-^ eiilorle*»s. williout spicula. 

Tlie «ei,ti:d ner\nu^ s\>teni (1*1. X \" , tig. 1) flaltcnid: iho 
• eii |iin-\ !^i-, i;il .jaiiL:lia i\\[i. I//) reiiit'oini, a little nan^wer at 
t^' t'lie I 'id ; tIm- |M'il:il oiii"« (ti;^. 1'/' rounded, s»'are« ly larger 
f 'i.iu •!• \ ■.'»ii r.d ; lli«- lari^e eniinni*-siuv ti;i. l- as usual : small 


optic ganglia (fig. 1). The proximal olfactory ganglia (fig. Ic) 
bulbiform, the n. olfactorii not very long; the distal olfactory 
ganglia inverse pyriform. The buccal ganglia (fig. Idd) ovoid, 
connected nearly without commissure ; the gastro-oesophageal 
ganglia small (fig. le), with one large cell. 

The eyes (fig. 1) with coal-black pigment and yellow lens.' 
The otocysts at the usual place on the under side of the cerebro- 
visceral ganglionic mass, crowded with otokonia of the usual 
kind (fig. 1). In the leaves of the rhinophoria no spicula; in' 
the axes and in the stalk, on the contrary, spicula of the same 
kind as in the skin or often larger. The skin with few and 
small spicula and calcified rounded cells, here and there lying in 
groups. The marginal dorsal appendices covered all over with 
above-mentioned nodosities ; at their points perhaps a similar 
(but empty) bag as in the typical species (Cf. PI. XIII, fig. 16, 17). 

The anal tube large, 3.0 mm. long. The bulbus pharyngeus 
strong, of the length of 4.0 by a height of 3.0 and a breadth of 
3.3 mm. ; the radula-sheath projecting about 1.0 mm. from the 
hinder part of the under side of the bulbus. The lip-disk rather 
convex, with vertical' oral slit (PI. XV, fig. 2), clothed with a 
pale yellow cuticula, that behind the oral slit on each side is con- 
tinued in a triangular, brownish-yellow lip-plate of a greatest 
breadth of 1.0 mm (fig. 3), narrow at the inferior end, broader 
at the superior, and composed of simple, somewhat cun^ed, erect 
staffs {Qg, 4, 5) about 0.18 mm. in height (fig. 4). The tongue 
broad ; in the amber-yellow radula, thirteen rows of plates, 
further backwards in the sheath, six developed and two younger 
rows ; the total number thus twenty-one. The three foremost 
rows of the tongue very incomplete, reduced to the outermost 
(four to five, six to seven, nine to eleven) uncinal plates. The 
rhachis rather broad, bearing two quadrangular thickenings of 
the cuticula (PL XV, ^g. 6a) of the length of about 0.18-0.2 
mm., more thickened and yellowish in the anterior margin, other- 
wise colorless. At the outer side of these median plates is a 
somewhat shorter and narrower plate (fig. 666), of yellowish 
color ; in the posterior rows (PI. XIV, ^g, 20) much broader. 
The three succeeding plates brownish-j-ellow, book-shaped, all 
nearly of the same form and of the same but outwardly slowly 

' Alder and Hancock (1. c. part YI) also saw small optic ganglia in the 
Triopa elavigera. 


decreasing Bizc (PI. XV, fig. 6e<f) ; the fourth lateral plate, on 
the tongue especial^', with a small hook (fig. 7a) that is morr 
clevi»loi>ed baokwanls, and in tlie four youngest rows in <levelo[«d 
quite ( PI. XIV, fig. 17) as in the throe plates mentione^l. On tht 
lateral parts of the pleurie ten to eleven exti*mal (uncinal) plat««w 
the four to five intt»rior (fig. 7, Xah. 10 ; \1bc) with a more derel- 
oi)e<l erest, the rest {i\g, 7ft) narrower. 

The salivary glands (PI. XV, fig. 11a) nearly as long as tbr 
ihirX {r\fr. lift); hoth together about ^yS^ mm. long, tloscondin^ 
along the whole back si<le of the bulbus pharyngeus ; the gland 
whitish, smooth. 

The oesophagus rather long (6.5 mm.), and wi<le es|)eciallj 
in tlie i>osterior part (diameter 2.0 mm.), entering into the inferior 
part of the liver; with rather strong and numerous fohN: tbr 
contents (as in the intestine) spongiary masses and diffen*nt Ea- 
diitlnritr of a diameter of 0.09 mm. The intestine issuing from thr 
liver a little before the middle of the upi^er side of this organ- 
the anteriorly proceeding part reaching the anterior margin of 
the liver and about 4.5 mm. long by a diameter of 1.5 mm.; the 
retrocessive part 7.0 mm. long by a diameter of 0.75 mm. The 
liver divided by a deep furrow from the right margin into two 
halves of nearly equal size; CO mm. long by a breadth of 3.75 
an<l :i hfi^ht of '5.4 mm.; the posterior extremity rounded ;t!h' 
antiTJor half of tlie inferior side obli(pieIy flattene<l ; the «uli>r 
vell'wisli-ijrav : the oavitv of the interior rather small. 

The prrieardiuni of oval f«»rni, large, having the length of 
:>..'» nun. The sunLTuiiu'cui-i gland whili-^h, of the U^ngth of 2..'» mm. 
bv a brradth (at the anterior end) of 2..') mm. Tlie n*nal svrinx 
sliort-j»\ rif<»rni ; the tube of tli»» opj:an strong. 

Th»* herma|»]iroditic gbuxl not niurh <leveloped, paler than 
the livrr, witli hirire oogene cells. The anterior genital m^<^ 
small, abont l.f) mm. loiijr hy x\ iu'i'.:ht of 0.7.'» and a breailth of 
:ibont 0.r» nun. The ampulla of the hernia]»hroditie duet \i lli»w- 
i^li, r:»tlirr loiiir. foriniii;: (ork-^irn-w-like win<lings. The ^^pt rui:*- 
t i'Iiu'I not lonir. pa-^sing into the short ]»enis. This, with it> 
arniMtiue of vrry iniiiut*' hook"^, the s]»erinatotheea, the sj>«Tm:it(»- 
«vst:i and tin' va'.:ina, as far as ronhl l»e deti'rmined, as in lh« 
tv|»i'"il 7Vi'»;;a.' Tin* irland \viiiti>h. 

' S'l fi»r I'onipariH m, PI. W, llj;. i:5. 


This species may perhaps be the Triopa Carpenteri of Stearns ; 
it has, like that, five branchial leaves, and does not differ much in 
the number of the dorsal appendices (six) or the form of the 
frontal margin ; but the dorsal nodosities of the last species are 
orange-colored, and the rhinophoria, the dorsal appendices, and 
the branchial leaves tipped with orange. Through the great 
kindness of Mr. Dall I have seen a drawing of the animal of 
Stearns, from specimens secured after those he had described, 
but they do not give more details than the original description ; 
and Steams seems not to possess the original specimens, which 
very likely are lost forever. On the other side,it must be remem- 
bered that Sars (Beretn. om en i Sommeren, 1849, foretagen 
zoolog. Reise i Lofoten og Finmarken, 1851, p. 74) found '^the 
young individuals of Triopa lacera (M.) entirely white, also on 
the tentacles and gills, merely the liver shines brownish through 
the skin." 


An asterisk denotes that the drawing is by camera lucida, the 
fraction denotes the magnification. 

The serial numbers of the plates (Part I, plates i-viii, Part II, 
plates ix-xvi) are solely referred to throughout the text. As 
Part II appears in another volume of the Proceedings of the 
Academy, the plates of Part II have been for that reason renum- 
bered with a second set of numbers, Plate ix being Plate i, Plate x 
being Plate ii, etc., in the new volume. The serial numbers re- 
ferrc<l to in the text, follow the new numbers for Part II in 
parentheses throughout this explanation. 

Plate I (IX). 

Jorunna Johnatoni (A. and H.). 

1. a, stalk of the (b) gangl. genitale; c, gangl. gtnit. secunda- 

Hum* ^JA. 

2. Granules of the back, stiffened by spicula,"*" ^f^. 

3. Part of the middle of the radula, with the two innermost 

lateral plates ; a, rhachis,'*' ^f ^. 

4. The hook of a plate from the back,"*" ^{^, 


5. Outer part of two series of plates with 8 plates,* *}*; •«, 


6. Outer part of another series with 3 plates,* ^}*. 

7. a-/>, vagina; c^ gland, hastatoria; d^ opening of the bag <>f 

the spur; e, si)ennatoduct ; /, penis,* -\^. 

8. 0. S])ermatotheca ; e, its chief duct ; dy gland, hcuUaioria : I. 

H])enmatocyKta ; e, <luct to the mucous gland,* *y** 

10. a. Duct of the gland, hastatoria; h^ the bag of the spar: •\ 

opening of the hag,* ^J^. 

11. a, spermatofluct ; 6, o[>ening of the bag at the bottom c^ the 

ponis; in the interior a dart (?),* ^J^. 

Adalaria proxima (A. and H.). 

1 2. Tul)erclcs of the Imck. 

13. A ]>nrt of the rhaehis from above; a, median plates; 66* larg^ 

lateral plates,* ij^. 

14. Part of the radula, obliquely, from the side, the hooks of the 

large lateral plates of both sides,* ^{^. 

15. Two series of (\)) external plates; a, the innermost; ft, th^ 

outermost,* ^J^. 

Adalaria albopapillosa (Dall). 
IC. Part of the* surfaco of a tul»erde of the back,* ^J*. 

Adalaria paci/im^ Bergh. 
17. r/, iiHKlian |»Iat(*; 6, largo lateral plates from the side,* ^^J*. 

Lamvllidoris muricata (O. Fr. Miiller}. 
IS. Tho vesica ffllca ; a, its duct. 

Plate II (X). 

Adalaria jtarijira, Horgh. 

1. .M<'dian pwudo-jilatc (or boss), from the upjn^r side,* ^{^, 
'J. i*. Part of tlio ratlula, with scries of (5-7) lateral plates; a-fl. 
1 2 complete rows of (15) external plates, and 1-2 incom- 
plete rows; hb, innermost jilati's of the row; cc^ out»T- 
moHt,* 'J". 
:>. Outer |mrt of a row with 1» ert^^t plates; a, innermost^* ^J-. 


Adalaria virescens^ Bergh. 

4. a, oesophagus, with its dilatation ; 5, salivary gland ; c, its 


5. Ganglion penis^* -^?^. 

Adalaria Loveni (A. and H.). 

6. Median part of the radula from above, with (aa) large lateral 

plates ; bb, innermost part of two rows of external plates, 
with 1-5 plates,* ^^K 

7. 'Large lateral plate, from the side,* ^^^. 

8. Piece of the left part of the radula;* ^^ a, two median 

pseudo-plates or bosses ; 6, large lateral plates ; c, two in- 
complete rows, with 6-7 plates. 

Adalaria albopapillosa (Dall). 

9. a, (2) median pseudo-plates ; bb, (2-3) large lateral plates of 

both sides,* ^f ^. 

10. a, (3) median pseudo-plates; bb, (2-4) large lateral plates of 

both sides ; c, innermost part of three (right) rows of ex- 
ternal plates, with 3-4 plates ; cZ, (left) row of T external 
plates,* ^K 

11. Fonr outermost plates of a row ; a, outermost,* ^f^. 

Acanthodoris pilosa (0. Fr. Miiller). 

12. End of the everted penis; a, opening,* ^J^. 

13. Epithelium of the vagina,* ^f^. 

Acanthodoris pilosa, var. albescens {Pacifica), 

14. ff, anterior margin of the foot; 6, edge of the tentacle. 

15. Ganglion genitale from the penis,* i?^. 

Plate III (XI). 

Acanthodoris pilosa (Miiller). 

1. Three external plates ; a, outermost,* ^J^. 

Acanthodoris pilosa^ var. albescens, 

2. The genital opening with its everted margin ; a, the two fore- 

most apertures. 


Lamellidoris hilamellata (L.) var. Pacifica. 

;]. Part of the branchial area with {aa) some branchial leaves ; 66, 
some of the larger surrounding tubercles. In the centre 
the anal nipple, the renal |>ore and interbranchial tubcrelea. 

4. The sucking crop, from the edge. 

r>. The half of the Siime, from the inside; a, stalk. • 

Ti. a, ^permatotheca ; ft, sperinatocy»ta ; c, duct of the last ; d^ 
duct to the mucous gland ; e, vagina. 

7. a, two median pseudo-plates; 6, a lateral plate; cc^ three 
external plates,* -^J^. 

^. External phite from the side,* -^J^. 

9. Two of the foremost lateral plates with blunted end,* -Zf-^. 

Lamellidoris muricata (Miiller). 

10. a, Median pHeu<lo-plate shining through the left of the lateral 

plates, bb : c, three external plates,* ^}A. 

11. aa^ Hasul e<lge of three lateral plates ; by external plates,* ^f *. 

12. a, Olans penis; 66, pra'putium ; c, spermatoduct,* -^J*. 

Lamellidoris raria/is, Bergb. 

13. Lateral plate from the side,* ^{^. 

14. Mcdijin i»s«'U'lo-platc, from above,* ^J**. 

Adalnria Pacifwa^ Bcrgh. 

1.'). lnihTin()--l part of two rows of external plates,* -y^\ fl, two 
iiiiMrnin-t ; /*. thr thinl failing lin the anterior r»)w); *\ 


Plate IV (XI 1). 

A'ifi'li'"l"risinln.<n (O. F. Miiller), var. purpurea. 

1. LaMal 'li^^k, with n) the laiUM't-formcd blades project inj in 

\\n' iMWf^t part olthe !iH)Uth pn)|K'r. 
J. TIh" hiiui'-fonned blades (//) \\ it h the adjoining part (/* i»f 

tin aiinature of the mouth,* ''/". 
;. //. riif lijht lancel-t*'»rined blade; A, the ailjoining part »)f the 

annnturr,* *J'". 
I. MbiiHiit'i Mt* tlic aiinalure,* 'f'*. 
■». Lateral pl.ile, from the sitle,* 'J"\ 


6. The hook of a plat^, from the side.* ^^. 

7. Salivary gland ; a, duct ; 6, posterior end. 

8. a, parM pylorica intestini; 6, vesica fellea; c, iniestinum 


9. Part of the vas deferens^ with its stricture,* ^^K 

Acanthodoris pilosa (M.) var. brunnea albopapillosa. 

10. ab, Lancet-formed blades from the under side,* ■^?^. 

11. a. Part of left; 6, of right lancet-formed blade; c, adjoining 

part of the armatur^e .of the mouth,* ^^^, 

12. aa^ Upper part of three lateral plates ; bb, two series of exter- 

• nal plates; from the sheath of the. radula,* ^f^. 

AcantJiodpris piloaa (M.) var. albescens, 

13. Elements of the armature of the mouth,* ^f ^. 

14. Isolated element,* x»^. 

15. Upper part of a lateral plate, from the outside,* ^f^. 

16. Upper part of a lateral plate, from the inside,* ^f^. 

Plate V (XIII). 

Laraellidoris varians^ Bergh. 

1. The central nervous system, obliquely, from the under side, 
* \4 ; a, ganglia cerebro-visceralia; bb, ganglia pedalia; c, 
gangl, penis and gangL genitale; d, ganglia buccalia; ee^ 
ganglia gastro-oesophagalia. The eyes and the otocysts 

Acanthodoris pilosa (M.), var. albescens. 

2. The bulbus pharyngeus, from the side ; a, cuticula and the 

lancet-formed blades; bb, mm, retractor es bulbi; 'c, the 
sucking-crop ; c2, salivary gland^ above this the right buccal 
and gastro-cesophageal ganglion ; e, the sheath of the radula 
/, the crop of the oesophagus ; g, continuation of the oeso- 

3. Lateral plates, from the outside,* ^^. 

4. Part of the armature of the sperioatoduct^ with its hooks,* ^ { . 


Acanthodoris pilosa (M.). 

> a« »pertiiatotheca ; 6, apermatocjsta ; c, duct to tbe mooooi 
gliuid ; dd, duct to the vagina. 

AcanlhodoriH catrulescenSf Bergh. 

^ l*art of the armature of the mouth,* ^f^. 

^- Kxtornal plates, from the side ;♦ ^^ a, innermost. 

Chromodoris Dalli^ Bergh. 

H. Tho upper part of a branchial leaf,* ^\K 
^*. Part of the lip-plate, from above,* ^p. 

10. Klements of the lip-plate,* ^SL. 

11. Tart of the rhachis, with three (bosses or) false plates,* -^f*. 
14. a, false plate, obliquely, fVom the side,* ^f A. 

\y The 13th plate, from the side,* ^^. 
14 Tlie 9th plate, from the side,* ^^. 

Triopa clavigera (0. Fr. Miiller). 

1;*. TulK»rele8 of the back. 

1(>. Vertical section of one of the appendices of the back; a, bag 

at the point, 
r: Kli'TOcntH of this last bag. 
t s. Spicnia of the skin.* 
i*». liOwcHt part of the mouth, with its cuticula; a, the fVee 

margin,* ^J-"-. 
io HiiulermoHt part of th(^ bulbus ; a, tongue; 6, sheath of the 


Plate VI (XIV). 

ChromodorxB Dalli^ Bergh. 

I The buccal (a) and ga8tro-<csophageal (6) ganglia,* ^f^. 

4. Tart of tho median portion of the radula; a, false plates, on 

vTivXi side th«» 2-3 innermost (lateral) plates,* ^f*. 
^ Outer part of two series of plates with II plates; a, outer- 
most; 6, eighteenth,* ^\K 

^matothi'ca ; 6, ypermatocyBta ; c, duct to the vagina ; 
.*t tc the mucous gland,* V'. * 


Chromodorie Califomiensis^ Bergh* 

5. fiinder part of the body, from the under side^ with 6 knots 

on the mantle-margin ; a, foot,* ^4^. 

6. Upper median part of the true mouth,* ^K 

7. Part of 4 series of hooks of the lip-^plate, from above,* ^^K 
8-10. Elements of the same, in different positions,* J^^. 

1 1. Three innermost plates ; a, the first,* -14^. 

12. One of the largest plates,* ^^. 

13. Hook of 3 larger plates, obliquely, from the foreside,* ^4^. 

1 4. Four outermost plates ;• a, outermost,* ^f ^. 

15. Two irregular outermost plates; a, outermost,* -24^. 

Acanthodoris caerulescens^ Bergh. 

16. Series of plates; ay two lateral plates; 6, the outermost of 

the external plates,* ^K 

Triopha modesta^ Bergh. 

1 7. Part of one of the hindermost series of plates (in the sheath), 

with (a) 4 lateral plates and (6, c) 2 external plates,* ^K 

18. a, second and 5, third large lateral plates, from above and 

from the back,* ^K 

1 9. a, fourth ; 6, fifth plate (as in fig. 18 from the tongue),* ^K 

20. Outer false plate of the rhac^his (from the sheath),* ^f^. 

Triopa clavigera (M.). 

21. a, second lateral plate ; b, two external plates,* ^K 

22. First lateral plate,* ^fa. 


Plate VII (XV). 

Triopiia modesta^ Bgh. 

1 . Central nervous system,* ^^ ; a, ganglia cerebro-visceralia ; 

bbj pedal ganglia ; c, ganglia olfactoria proximalia ; dd, 
buccal ganglia ; e, gangL ga8tr(HB8ophagaL 

2. The labial disk with the true mouth. ' 

3. Upper commissure of the lip-pUtes,* ^^. 
• 4. E^m^nt^of the lip^plate,* ^K 

5. Upper ends of two elements,* xp. 


C. Median part of a series of the teeth ; a, (false) medimn f^airc 
of the rhachis ; 66, external plate of the same ; cCf first 
lateral plate ; rf, third lateral plate,* ^^. 

7. Continuation of the former; a, fourth plate; b^ outermost 

plate,* ^p. 

8. Four (inner) uncinal plates; a, the second; 6, the fifth,* -^f*. 

0. First lateral plate,* ^K 

10. Seventh and eighth external plates,* ^^. 

1 1. Salivary gland ; a, gland ; b, duct,* \'^, 

Triopa clavigera (M.). 

12. Tentacle. 

13. Part of the armature of the penis.* ^^. 

Polycera pallida, Bergh. 

14. The glans penis,* -^f^. 

Plate VIII (XVI). 

Polycera pallida^ Bergh. 

1. Central nervous system, from the upper side,* Y- ; aa^ visceral 

ganglia; 6, ganglia buccalia and gastro-wsophagalia, 
'J. I'art of the radulii with two rows ; fla, interior ; 66, exterior 

lateral plates ; vc^ uncinal plates,* ^y-. 
.'). Kxtcrior lateral plate, from the si<le,* '-\-, 
4. lender side of the two lateral plates:* aa and 6, as in fig. 2. 

* :\ 5 
1 • 

/S. P^irst lateral plate, from the 8i<le,* ^\^ 

♦;. The same, from above,* -'*-J^. 

7. Hook of the second lateral plate,* 'J-. 

H. (iriiital papilla and evertcMl \yQ\\\^ with its glans; 6, prominent 

fold of the duet of the mucous gland. 
*.♦. (ilans of the |K*ni8, with the end of (6) the spermaUxluct/ 

'J'- ; a, point of the glans. 

Archidorin Montrreyetisis (Coojier). 

1«>. Large lateral platt*. from the side,* ^J'-. 

11. Outer part of two stries of plates with 4 plate**; aa^ outer- 
most,* ^f«. 


Aphelodoris Antillensis^ Bergh. 
(Cf. Malakozoolog. Blatter, N. 8., i, 1879, p. 107-113). 

12. a, ganglia buccalia, with 6, ganglia gastro-ossophagalia ; c, 
' s(<econdary ganglion,* *f^. 

13. Median part of two series of plates ; aa^ innermost ; 66, second 
plates,* -^4^. 

14. A large lateral plate,* -Z-J^- 

15. Outermost double plates of two series,* ^^. 
J 6. Outer part of two series with two plates ; aa, outermost,* -Z^^ 

1 7. The sixth plate from the outer margin of the radula,* ^$^. 

1 8. Outer part of three series with 3 plates ; a, outermost,* ^^. 

Polycera Holholli (Moll.). 

Ji9. The genital papillae, from the front. 
20 The same, from the side. 

1. First lateral plate, from abo^^e,* ^f^. 

January, 1880. 


On account of the inability of the author to read the proofs, 
^^^^nd from certain obscurities in the manuscript, some errors crept 
^ ^»ito the first part of this paper, and the arrangement of the para- 
^^s^raphs was somewhat confused by the printer. • 

The delicacy and beauty of the plates in their original state, 
^ ^aWng been destroyed by the printer, the present ones have been 
^^^*» teel-surfaced, to avoid, if possible, a similar misfortune. 

The specific name Galiforniensis ( Ghromodoris) was substituted 
"^ :» the printed text for CalensiSy which appeared on the plate and 
^ :m the manuscript under the idea that the latter was intended 
'*^"iQerely as an abbreviation. 

The following list of errata has been received from the author ; 
>% is believed that the present concluding part of the paper is 
Tnuch less in need of such corrections. 

T^age 128 ( 72), line 15 : for Triopa modeata^ B., read Triopha mod6$ia^ B. 
*" 129 ( 73), line 22 : for mandibu1» read . Mandibul». 
•* 130 ( 74), line 2 : for genus read penis. 

'* 132 ( 76), line 80 : a comma to be put before the parenthesis, and 

the comma after the parenthesis to be cancelled. 


Page 135 ( 79), line 11 

" 185 ( 78), 

" 185 ( 79), 

•' 186 ( 80), 

" 186 < 80), 

138 { 83), 1 
1« ( 84), 1 

HI ( 85), 
141 ( 85), 
141 ( 85), 
HI ( 85), 
141 < 86), 

143 ( 86V 

144 ( 88), 

145 ( 89), 
145 ( 89), 
145 ( 89), 
14G { 00), 
147 ( 91). 
150 ( 94), 
150 ( 94), 
153 ( 96), 
163 ( 971, 

153 ( 97), 

154 i 981, 

154 ( 99), 

155 ( 99), 

156 (100), 
156 (100), 

156 (100), I 
156 (100), li 

159 (103), line 30 

line 1 
line 8 
line 34 

line 37 
line 27 
line 33 
line 11 

line 3 
line 37 

tine 37 
line 15 
line 10 
line 8 
line 11 
line 16 




161 (105) 



let 11061 



163 (106) 



163 (107) 






165 (109) 




: for deutibos medianifl dentionlati rtfod dencibui 

niedliuiis denticulatis. 
: for caducous read not caducous. 
: a semicolon is needed before " the foot." 
: the comma after "latorales !' to be cancelled. 
; a comma is needed after " 1, 5 "; tba comma ^fter 

" rhinophoria " to be cancelled. 
: for Plate I, fig. 9, rtad PI I. fig, 9-12. 
: /or (fig. 11, one to fourj rtad (pi. I. f. 11 ; pi. II, 

f. 1-4). 

far The intestines are rtad The intestine is. 

for anal papillae rtad anal papilla. 

for 2 w. pi. rtad w. 2 pi. 

for 3t« Heft read 3tes Heft. 

for ab rtad ob. 

for denticalis read denticulis. 

for M. retractorlB read M. retractor. 

for 8 R. J. rtad 8 B. I. 

for Dentes medians read D. mediani. 

for altamen rtad attamen. 

for mantle rtad muzzle. 

for anal read oral. 

for Animal read Color auimalis. 

before Dendron. Dolli, B., intert " %." 

for Bide, the read side. The. 

for Dalzell read Dolyell. 

for Tr. glau«e rtad Tr. glamae. 

far cuc«ulata read cucullata. 

for Duvancelia rtad Duvaucelia. 

f*r of the papillffi read of the papilla. 

for is contracted read was contracted. 

for The larger mucouB gland read The larger 
opening of the mucouB gland. 
; for before which read , below which. 

for in the hinder part rtad between the hinder 

for The oardia were wide, etc., read the cavity 

for but backward at the front and end rtad bent 
backward at the frontal end. 
for Fig. 65 a rtad 15 a. 
for bulbus, and rtad bulbus, or. 
for Beltr. read Bidr. 
for dentates read dcntatis. 
for leaves 80 read loaves 8, 
for Fig. 6, 7, rend Fig. 10, 11. 
for Fig. 1-7 rtad Fig. 8-U. 

















166 (110), line 19 

167 (111), line 4 
167 (111), line 6 
167 (111), line 15 
167 (111), line 16 
167 (111), line 16 

167 (111), line 1^ 
167(111), line 28 

168 (112), line 5 
168 (112), line 6 
170 (114), line 5 
170 (114), line 24 
170 (114), line 26 

170 (114), line 33 

171 (115), line 34 

172 (116), Une 17 
178 (117), line 80 

173 (117), line 31 
175(119). line 23 
175(119), line 23 
175(119), line 24 
176 (120), line 7 

176 (120), line 21 
177(121;, line 1 

177 (121), line 32 

K. ( 

180 (124), line 10 : 


180 (124), line 33 : 

k 4 

183 (127), line 3: 

S. 4 

183 (127), line 18 : 

B, 4 

183 (127), line 21 : 

t 4 

183 (127), line 23 : 

184 (128), line 13 : 

184 (128), line 16 : 

186 (180), line 12 : 


186 (130), line 26 : 

K A 

186(180), line 83: 


187(181), line 27: 


188 (132), line 12 : 

for Fig, 1 read Fig, 8. 
for Fig. 2 read Pig. 9. 
for Pig. 8 read Pig. 10. 
for Pig. 4 read Pig. 11. 
for Pig. 1 a read Pig. 2 a. 
for Pig. 5 read Pig. 12. 
for Pig. 4, 5, read Pig. 11, 12. 
for Pig. 6, 7, 8, read Fig. 13, 14, 3 b. 
for Plate XII read PI. XIV. 
for punctus read punctis. 
for Pig. 13 read Pig. 15. 
for latium read latum. 
for minutissimus read minutissimis. 
for the gills read the gill. 
for BranchisB read Branchla. 
for Samso read Samso. 
substitute a semicolon for the period, 
substitute a period for the semicolon. 
for 1.3 read 13. 
for n.O read I'l.e, 
for the light read the right. 
for individual read individuals. 
for leg read bag. 
for branchiffi read branchia. 
for of the right hand &re read of the right hand 
one, is. 

for spermatocysts re€td sperm atocyst. 
substitute a semicolon for the period. 
for e read a. 

for (P.) read (6. P. Mull.) 
for inside read outside. 
for the same read Uie same from the inside. 
for d read a. 
for b read a, 
for of read f. 
for 2. read 2, 2. 
for e read e, 

for to the twelfth read to b, the twelfth. 
for cuticle read skin. 


128 PB0CEEDIN08 OF THl ACADlMT OP [1881 

Febeuabt 3. 
Mr. Meehan, Tice-Pre8ident, in the chair. 

Twenty-one ))orsond present. 

February 10. 
The President. Dr. Ri'SCHBNbeboeb. in the chair. 
Twenty-six |)er»ons present. 
The death of Adolph K. Borie, a member* was aunoonced. 

S'lrfnritts Muttcle of the Gorilla, — Mr. Howard A. Kbllv 
de'«<Til»e<l the sartorius niuseh^ in the right leg of the Oorilla 
fnnfffHiijf('t< (young), from the ()go<le river. West Africa, partially 
dissected, and deseri1>ed hv I>r. Chapman in the Proc. Actd. Nat 
Sri.. Phila.. 18T9. 

The niusrleis 10 incites long, and ^ inch broad. Tendinoaa for 
:il>out 4 inch at its origin, and its insertion. It arises fW>iii the 
iliac b<me at the lieginning of the middle third of the diataace 
from Itetwt^n tlie anterior su|K*rior spine of thfe iliam, and the 
symphysis pubis. Its insertion is on to the inner face of the tibia 
< which is 5 J inches long), 8 inches l)elow the knee joint. 

Six inclir^i from its origin the muscle is reinforced by a mascular 
•»Iip \ inrh in brea<lth. This slip arises at the lower part of the 
Tiii«Mle third of tlh' IVniur. between the origin of the qiiadrice|MK 
exti-n-ior. :iiid th«* inseiiioii of the acUluctors, it joins the sarturiuH 
rmi«»(lr oppM-iifc the knee joint. 

Ill coiwultintr the liteniture on the tnvolonrv of the Gorilla, no 
rifftfur*' \<* any such slip lias }\i'vn foinid. Among all th*^ 
nunnTiMi'* jinninalies reconled of tliis muscle, in the human suK 
i.< t. no (Murr«*|rt»n«linL: variation has b«'en fonn<1. 

FeBRI ARY 17. 

The President. I>r. Klsciiknheroer, in the chair. 

Thirty-three |M*fson> present. 

A pajM-r entitled *• Deseription <»f a New Crustacean from th«^ 
rpjMT Silurian f>f (n'<>rL:ia, with remarks upcm iUihjmrnt* i^lv ■ 
.'"/•'." by Anthony W. Vogd«'s, was presented for ])ubncation. 

(i*rtnifnitin)i in Actrtis. — Mr. TiioMAS Mreiian referre<l t** 
^.►in«- intin-itin*^ Uwl^ in the irerniination «»r ijnfrrua iirfM**, a«» 
I"' jlit t«» hi** attfnti«»n by W. St. J. Mazy<k, of Georgeti>wn, 


South Carolina. It was generally known that in this species the 
cotyledon did not divide into two lobes as usual in acorns, but 
seemed 4io be of one solid mass, without any trace of a division. 
In germination, however, two petioles were developed as in other 
acorns, but instead of these being very short, indeed nearly 
sessile, as in the ordinary white oak, they were produced appar- 
ently in the much advanced specimens sent by Mr. Mazyck to 1^ 
inches in length before the plumule and hypocotyledonary portions 
of the embryo commenced their growth. In respect to the latter, 
a small ovate, striate tuber, apparently as one might judge from 
the shrivelled specimens on hand, nearly one-foutth the size of the 
acorn was formed, and from this tuber the radicle proceeded, and, 
afterwards, the plumule on its upward gtowth. 

Mr. Meehan said he had since examined sprouting acorns of 

Quercus alba^ Q. rubra, Q. arenaria^ and Q. prinoides, noticing a 

very slight tendency to a tuberous condition, only in the last 

n&iiied. But in regard to the lengthefting of the petioles, he was 

surprised to find a variation in each species. In Quercus pri- 

n€>€de8, the petioles were nearly an inch in length. 

Ee believed the discovery would be of great value to systematic 
bot^Anists in the determination of species in this very difficult 
gexB-Us, and should examine and report after an examination of 
VBLSLWiy other species, but thought proper to call the attention of the 
Ac^^uiemy to the matter in this early stage that due credit might 
be recorded to Mr. Mazyck for his interesting discovery. 

Sdr. Edw. Potts, at the request of Mr. Meehan, had made 

se^^^ions of both the acorn and the spindle-shaped radicle, with the 

resiidt of ^finding the cell structure of the latter an almost exact 

coi]mterpart of that in the nut: i. e., sub-spherical cells of uniform 

i\xt&^ gorged with starch grains. So similar were they that it 

^otxld be nearly impossible for an observer to say which he was 

exa^mining but for the cortical tissue surrounding the root. It 

seemed that the food supply of the young plant had been thus 

iritlidrawn from a position exposed to hot sun and drying winds, 

to one protected by the earth and in the direct line of growth. 

No line of specialized cells could be discovered in the sections of 

the nut, indicating the possibility of a separation as in other 

species into two cotyledons ; so that to all intents and purposes it 

might be called monocotyledonous. 

February 24. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenbebger, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

A paper entitled " Carcinological Notes, No. 3," by J. S. Kings- 
ley, was presented for publication. 


The death of John Rice, a member, was annoimcecL 
R. S. Huidekoper, M. D., David Townsend, John B. Wood, 
Thos. Miles, Frances Emily White, M. D., and John S. Capp were 
elected members. 

The following were elected correspondents : — Robert Caspary, 
of Konigsberg,. Agostino Todaro, of Palermo, J. E. Bommer, of 
Brussels, Teodoro Caruel, of Pisa, H. T. Geyler, of FrankfortrOn- 
the-Maine, Robert Schomburg, of Adelaide, and A. Inostranzeff, 
of St. Petersburgh. 

March 2. 

The President, Dr. Rusohenbebgeb, in the chair. 

Twenty-eight persons present 

The death of Wm. Maxwell Wood, M. D., a correspondent, was 

On a Filaria Reported to have come from a Man. — Prof. Leidt" 
exhibited a large thread-worm, which had been submitted to his 
examination by Dr. J. J. Woodward, U. S. A. It was recently 
presented to the Army Medical Museum, at Washington, by Dr. 
C. L. Gamett, of Buffalo, Putnam Co., West Virginia. Accom- 
panying the specimen, is the copy of a letter from Dr. Gamett to 
Dr. Woodward, from which the following is an abstract : " During 
the winter of 1876, a man, a common laborer, aged about fifty, 
presented himself to me for treatment having a gleety discbarge 
from the urethra, with a burning sensation during and after mic- 
turition. Previously, he had been treated for gonorrhoea, and I 
prescribed accordingly. The patient not improving, applied .to 
other practitioners. In April, 1878, he came to me with a round, 
vivid-red worm, twenty -six inches in length, (the specimen you 
now possess) which was alive and very active in its movements, 
instantly coiling up like a watch-spring on being touched. Having 
no work on helminthology for reference, the only description I 
found which appeared to answer to the worm was that of Strongy- 
lus gigas^ in Niemeyer, vol. II, p. 47. The patient is an illiterate 
man, with no motive for deception. He informed me that he dis- 
covered the worm protruding from his penis and drew it out 
without pain or difficulty. He was in much agitation and alarm 
about the occurrence, fearing, as he said, that "there might be 
more behind that one.'^ For a few days previous to its passage, 
his urine was of a milky hue and some time subsequently of a yellow 
cast and slightly tinged with blood and mingled with mucus. The 
man is truthful, and no doubt exists in my mind, or in the minds 
of his neighbors as to the correctness of his statements. I regret 

1880.] hatubal sciences or Philadelphia. 131 

exceedingly that I did not appreciate the scientific interest of the 
sabject, and send you the specimen in a fresh state, but the busy 
roatine of a country practitioner's life leaves no time for the study 
of other than subjects of practical value in one's every day ex- 

The worm preserved in alcohol is much coiled, of a clay color 
and opaque, or only feebly translucent, but more so at the head end. 
If it is really a human parasite, it appears to differ from all those 
heretofore described, and also seems different from other known 
parasites. It certainly is neither Eustrongylus gigas^ nor is it the 
. Guinea-worm, Filaria medinensis^ though nearly related to this. 
Its characters are as follows : Body long, restiform, nearly uni- 
formly cylindrical, smooth, shining, elastic, 
tough, witht>ut evident annulation other than 
transverse wrinkling, with the anterior ex- 
tremity evenly tapering in the continuous 
head, the end of which is rounded and smooth 
or without appendages of any kind ; the pos- 
terior extremity not tapering, with the caudal 
end incurved, bluntly rounded, without ap- 
Ki. L Wig. 2, pendages and imperforate or without evident 

i.OwhaHc eztremi^r; 2- 'anal or genital aperture. Mouth a terminal 
vai oiarking indiMtca the porc Without lips, papillae, or armaturc of any 
SSiSLwl^jS^aXlJii ^^^^' I'harynx cylindrical, and opening into 
I. a straight cylindrical intestine, apparently 

Boding in a blind pouch. Generative organs unobserved. Length 
Df worm, 26 inches, greatest thickness, 1*5 mm. Width of head 
oat behind the rounded extremity, 0*375 mm. ; opposite the com- 
mencement of the intestine, 0*625 mm.; at the middle, 1*5 mm. ; 
the incurved caudal extremity, 1*5 mm. Length of oesopha- 

The worm, of exceedingly simple character, is clearly neither a 
^^^ardius nor a Mermia, and though apparently more nearly allied 
Filaria, a more intimate knowledge of its structure may prove 
to be different. For the present it was proposed to distinguish 
with the name of Filaria restiformis. 

On' Rochelia patens, — Mr. J. H. Redfield remarked at the 
^^^^□eeting of the Botanical Section, that Rochelia patens was 
^oooded byNuttall, upon a plant collected by Wyeth on Flat 
River, in the Rocky Mountains, and was described in the 
oomal of the Academy, 1st series. Vol. VII, p. 44, in 1834. 
Dr. Gray in the Synoptical Flora of North America, II, p. 197, 
concerning the plant that it may be an Eritrichiwm, but 
not been Identified, nor was it in the Academy's Herbarium. 
Mr. R. stated that this specimen had been recently found among 
^^e Academy's specimens of Echinospermum, and had been pro- 
^oooced by Dr. Gray to be Echinospermum florihundum^ Lebm.^ 
^ species widely diffused in Western North America. 



132 pftocBBDi.Nos or THE agaduct or \\ML 

The following report upon the pUnta introduced throng tW 
medium of the Centennial Exhibition was read : 


zxHiBinoH, lare. 

The committee appointed on the 10th of October, 1876. at the re- 
quest of the United States Centennial Commission, to examine aad 
report upon the subject of the introduction of insects* and 
through the medium of foreign exhibits, respectfully reports 
it has delayed reporting on the plants till now in the belief tlMl 
some solitary plants might be overlooked, which producing seed 
and increasing in following seasons, might be then discovered bj 
their greater numbers. But only those named in the list hare ban 
found, and only in isolated s])ecimens showing no dispodtta 
whatever to spread and remain with vl^. So far, therefore, as tte 
object of the committee appointment is concerned, it may be aaU 
in etfeet that no plant has been introduced, to our knowledge. 
by the agency of the exhibition. 

It is but justice to say that the ]>lants have been collected bj 
our esteemed fellow member, Mr. Isaac Burk, whose familiaiitj 
with the botany of Fairmount Park, rendered him particularly 
fitted lo detcx't any new introduction. Some of the few pbali 
naiiUNl an* from the western ])orti()n of our country, others from 
Kuro|M*. and a f<*w from Japan. 

L^idHum mitirum^ L. Ktllingia pumila^Mx. 

Bunia$ Erurago. L. FimhrutylU miliaua^ Muhl. 

Crepi$ Uctoruthf L. Cppfrui diandruM^ Torr. 

("€nUiurf'i nii/ra, L. TrUicum villoium, Reand. 

Ilyp^ychtPrU rudirata^ L. Triiieuin elaratum^ Stedl. 

DtMUhodium toiMntoitum^ I). C. Leucata Lang$dorffiana^ St«udl. 
Cycloli/ma platyphylla, Moq. 

UesjK'ct fully submittt^d. 

John L. LeConte, 

(Ieo. II. Horn, 

Joseph Leidt, 

J. (ffiBBoNS Hunt, 

Thomas Mebhan. 

C&ni m ittef. 

* The rt'lMtrt \\\h}1\ the insci'ts was printed in the Prooeodingii of tb« 
Aoadfiny uf Natural Scienceii of Philadelphia, fur 1H7<>, page 267. 

.^ N 


March 9. 
The President, Dr. Rusohbnberosr, in the chair. 
Twenty-three persons present. 

Mammary Glands of Bats, — Dr. H. Allen exhibited specimens 
of bats dissected, to show the position and peculiarities of the 
mammary glands. These bodies have been described as post- 
axillary and two in number. For Desmodus this account is cor- 
rect. For Fhyllorhina, Nycteris and the common red bat of this 
country {Atalapha {= Lasiurus) naveboracensis) it is incorrect. 
In the first two the glands answering to the axilla are low down 
and have their nipples on a line with the middle of the clavicle. In the 
common red bat the gland answering to the so-called post-axillary 
is outside and below the axilla, but on a line with it. It occupies, 
indeed, the lower third of the side of the chest and borders upon 
the inferior line of the chest. In addition to this there is con- 
stantly present a pectoral gland situated as in Quadrumana and 
the human species. .These glands resemble one another in general 
appearance and size, being circular in form, without hair, of a 
dull yellow color, possessing a well-developed nipple, and meas- 
uring 3 lines in diameter. 

It is interesting to observe that the specimens of non-lactating 
bats show no external signs of mammse. The mammary regions are 
covered with fur of the same character as seen elsewhere. 
Neither in a female with embryos 2 lines in length is there any 
external development. If such a specimen be dissected, the 
locality of a rudiment of the gland can be detected by the posi- 
tion of a small circle of thin, dark skin with a central white spot, 
such structures representing the patch of modified skin and nipple 
ready to receive the future developing active gland. No mam- 
mary structure in this stage is anywhere visible, nor is there any 
subcutaneous fat. Dissection of the body of the lactating female 
on the other hand shows the mamma to be as large as the external 
conformation, and the pectoral and lateral thoracic regions to be 
occupied by a large but sharply limited mass of fat, which runs 
up into the axilla and encroaches upon the dorsal surface of the 
tnmk. The rest of the under surface of the animal is without fat. 
It is likely that there exists in the bat the same provision noted 
in analogous • structures of many lower animals, — namely, the 
presence of secondary sexual characters (among which the milk 
gland may be placed) which practically disappear in the periods 
between sexual activity. 


March 16. 
Mr. Vaitx, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Thirty-ftvo persons present. 

A |Mi|>er entitled '^ Carcinological Notes, No. IV/* by J. 8. 

Th«* death of Dr. Wui. M. King, U. S. N.-, a member, vw 

March 23. 
The President, Dr. Ruschbmbbrosrj in the ohair. 
One hundred and fifteen persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication :-^ 

*' On the (testation and Generative Apparatus of tbe Elepbaai,*' 
by H. C. Chapman, M. D. 

^' On a New Species of Ileniitriptenis from Alaska,** by W. 5. 

The death of IIect<»r Tyndaie, a member, was announced. 

March 30. 

Mr. V A vx. V ire- President, in the ohair. 

Thirty-c*ight perKon?^ premMit. 

The dr:ith r)f Jurob StautfiT, a eorreA|>ondent, was aunounecd. 
Paris Ilaldiin:in.(iei>. R. Meckel and Kmlen Physic, M. I>., were 
♦»h»ot«*d nu'mlK»r». 

Thv following won* onli'n»d to l>e printed : — 



BT J. 8. KIN08LET. 

I have endeavored in this paper to straighten out the species of 

the *' Fiddler Crabs," basing my work on the large collections of 

the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and of the 

Peabody Academy of Sciences at Salem, Mass. My material has 

been ample, embracing more than half the known forms, among 

which are types of Smith, Guerin, Eydoux, Leconte and Say, 

with other specimens from Guerin 's collection which were identified 

by comparison with the types of Milne Edwards. I have reduced 

considerably the number of specific forms, and in so doing I have 

been actuated not by any desire to overturn the work of others, 

bat merely to arrive at the true limits of the species. A similar 

reciaction in other genera must be made, and will be made, by 

anjr one who attempts to study the forms of the whole world, and 

doos not limit himself to those of a small portion of its surface. 

Among the important features of this paper is the extension of 

the range of many forms, which has been accomplished either 

\>y finding new localities among the specimens studied, or by a 

iinion of two or more so-called species which bore diflferent names 

'^ different portions of the world. 

I have endeavored to give descriptions and figures of all known 

forms of Gelasimi, and when possible I have taken them from the 

specimens themselves ; when I had no specimens, I have given a 

description compiled from some other carcinologist, and have 

followed it by the initial of his name. The same remark will 

*Pply to the figures. Localities from which I have examined 

specimens are followed by an exclamation point (I), and the 

"■^^laeum in which the forms are preserved is indicated by an 

*^reviation ; these abbreviations are : Phila. Acad., Academy of 

Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pa.; Peab. Acad., Peabody 

Academy of Sciences, Salem, Mass. ; U. C, Union College, 

Schenectady, N. Y. 

Oenna QZLABIKUB Latreille. 

^''^cer (para.) Linne, Herbst, Fabriciu% De Geer. Ocypoda (pars) Boec» 
Histdre Natorelle des Crustacea, ii, p. 240 (1828)^; Latreille, 

* I have never seen a copy of the first edition of this work published in 
^ **An X " of the first French Republic (1802^ of accepted chronology), 
^ my references are either quoted firom the second edition by Desmarest, 
OTitseoQiid hand from Milne JSdwards, or some other author. 


Hutoire ilea CnistitceH et de la losecta, vi, p. 37, "An. XI " (1803^.) 

Uea Leach, Trans. Linn. Boc., London, li, p. 809 (1810). 0*la*imui 

Latreille, Nouvelle Dictionnaire d'Hlatoira Naturelle, xii, p. 017 

(1817) ; Henri Hilue-Edwants, Histoire Natnrelle des Crustacea ii, 

p. 49 (1887) ; AtmalM des Baieucm NatnrellM, III aerie, zvlii, p. 

144 (18S3) ; Dana, Cniatacea of the tJtiited States Exploring E:^ 

dition, pp. 819 and 815 (1B52) ; Heas, Ai«hiv fiir Natargeeohiohto, 

xxxi, Pt II, p. 145 <13^): Alphonse Uiloe-Edwards, NoanUe 

Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, li, p. 371 <1878] ; 

Qimoplax (para.) Lamarck, Histoire Aniroaux Bans VertebrM^ r.'p. 

268 (1818). 

The genuB Gelasimas belongs to Gyclomelopa (Ocypodoidea of 

Dana), fumily Afacrophthalmidfe (Dana), and sub-Eamily Ocypo-, 

dinae of the same author. It ie characterized by the rhomboidal 

CHrapax, broader in front, the elongate ocular pedicels, the eyes . 

proper being placed at the extremity, and by the great inequality 

of the chelipeds in the male. 

In my studies I have found the charaetera derived from the 
larger cheliped of the male to be the most constant, while the 
relative proportions of the carapax, the front and the margins of 
the orbit, are of but slight importance and very variable. 

But two species ever referred to this ^enus by authors, are 
now referred to other genera; Oelasimus cordi/grmis forming 
the type of the genus Helcecius of Dana, and Oelasimus lel- 
escopicus Owen, which belongs to the genus Marrophthalmus. 

The genus may be divided into two groupa, possibly of sub- 
generic value, according as the front between the eyes is wide or 
narrow, and the wide fronted section again according as the male 
abdomen is seven or five jointed. 

§ A. Front very narrow between the eyes. 
I. OelmiliBBS naratotuni Lfttreille. PI. ii, f. 1. 

Oegpada maroMani Latreille, Hist. Crust, et Ins., vi, p. 46 (1803). 
OfliMimuimaraManiLatreille, Dict.d'Hist. Nat., xil, p. 019 (1817); 
Deemarest. Coneid. |par«) p. 123 (1835); Edw.. Hist. Nat. Cruet., 
ii, p. GI (1837) ; Ann. Sci. Nat., 11^ iviii, p. 144, pi. Ill, f. 1 (1658) ; 
■ Dana, U. 8. Ex. Ex. Cruat., p. 318 (1853) ; White, List, Crust, Brit. 
Mus., p. 8Q (1847). Qonoplax maraeoani Lamarck, HisL An. 
Sans Vert., v, p. 254 (1818). Otlatimut armatut Smith, Tnuu. 
Owm. Acad., ii, p. 133, pi. ii, f. 5, pi. iii, f. 4 (1870) ; Report Pea- 
bodj Acad. Sci., iii, p. 91 (1871). 

Regions distinct, each branchial ornamented with a longitudinal 
ridge, from which branch olf smaller ones. Ischium of larger 


eheliped with a prominent tooth below ; meros with a tooth on 
posterior margin at the articulation with the carpus, otherwise 
smo6th and rounded, its upper and lower margins with spiniform 
teeth which are more prominent above ; carpus elongate, with in- 
distinct tubercles. Hand very large, compressed, externally 
tubereulate on the basal portion, above with several teeth like 
those of meros, inferior margin proximaby tubereulate, outer sur- 
face of thumb with large shallow punctae, the lower portion being 
marginate. Occludent margin with three rows of tubercles, the 
middle one forming a prominence at the basal two-fifths, the other 
rows undulating, extremity contorted, acute ; inner surface nearly 
Hmooth, with a tubercular ridge running from the articulation of 
dactylus to the middle of lower margin of the palm ; dactylus 
iainellate, externally granulate, lower margin nearly straight, 
upper margin arcuate, basally tubereulate, tip acute and nearly at 
right angles with occludent margin, inner surface nearly smooth, 

somewhat concave, with a longitudinal tubereulate ridge near the 

ooclndent margin. 

Bahii^ Brazil/ Dr. Wilson. Natal/ [f] Dr. Wilson (labeled O. 
tuUalen$i$). South America / (Phila. Acad. ) West Coast of Nicara- 
gua/ MeNiel (Smith's types in Peab. Acad;). Cayenne (Latr. 
Edw.), Brazil (Latr. White), West Indies (White), Bio Janeiro 

The only differences between Smith's types and specimens 
f2r*<«=>m other localities, are the more crowded spines on the 
.11. E^P^r border of the meros and the more sparse tuberculation of 
tftm^ basal portion of the hand, characters surely not of specific 
icK^ ^lM)rtance. 

3> ^eltsimus heteroeheles Ktngslej. PI. iz, f. 2. 

Seba, Thesaurus, iii, pi. xviii, f. 8 (1758) ; Caneer voeans major 
Herbst, Naturgesch. ' Erabben und Krebse, pi. i, f. 1 (after Seba) 
(1790). Oeypoda heteroeheles Bosc, Edit. I, /<tom. ii, p. 107, 1802" 
(teste Auct.) ; Edit. II, i, p. 250 (1828) ; Caneer uka Shaw, Natur- 
alist's Mibcellany, XIV, pi. 588 (after Seba).^ Oelasimus maracoani 
(pars) Desmarest, 1. c, p. 123 ( 1825). Oelasimus platydaetylus Edw., 
Hist. Nat. des Crust., ii, p. 51 (1837) ; Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 

* I have been unable to ascertain the date of this volume. The first 

tolume of the series bears the date 1700, the twenty-fourth (and last) 

1^1^, but no others are dated ; it would, however, seem probable that the 

fourteenth volume appeared in 1808, while the *' An X," in which Bosc*s 

iirst edition appeared, embraced parts of 1802 and 1803. 


IW FmoouDiMoe ot thb agammt ot 

lU i4. Ilt» t a {185S) ; 8MMiin» BmwctlfagMtedtloolagHK 
V. ]». 911 (1858) ; Bmith, TraiM. Coim. AcdL, 1^ ^ Itt (IM^ 
ir#lNi«««it |»WiMffM Smitli, 1. 0., p. 180^ pL u; t 10^ yl. iii, £ t-it 
1 1170) ; Report Peab. Acad., iii, p. 81 (1871) ; U M b^/ Um k P^ 
ITalllbmia Add., vii, p. 145 (1877). 

(hini|Muc transversely nearly flat; meroa of faugier chaHpei 
HHiiiiled posteriorly, its lower margin ere&iifaifte, its nppcr 
(IikhhI Into a broad, aronate, laminiform,. dentate crest; 
4«lott|ratis externally toberonlate, inner margin crsnnlale, ibe 
«u r Am^ with one or two tubercles. Hand laige, oomprsased, 
IHirllun swollen, upper and lower margins tubereolatey eztttnal 
IHi«« of |mlm tnbercnlatei of thumb smooth, earaept m 
I'lUge below. The inner surface smooth, with a tuberoiilate ffid||i 
luunlng flrom the lower margin at the base of the thomb obHq»4y 
u|iward and backward, and meeting a similar ridgo firom the bait. 
of the dactylus ; occludent margins of thumb with Ihvea vows eff 
tulieroles, (the middle the most prominent) and somewhat anpdalsi 
lieyond the middle. Dactylus with the upper maigin and 
lissal portion tubercuUtb, the occludent margin rather 
in the middle. 

Mmdeof (Goerin-MensvUle). jMmaiea/ (Dr. Wilsoa) FbUa* 
Ca^i^ns. Edw. W. ComH Niearagua/ (MeNisl. 8Brftb*B l^fiB 
Paab. Acad.). L^mr California (Locklngtcm). Jfiisifaw (Sns- 


Seba*8 figure represents the carapax a8 granulate and the froitf 
rather broad (in these respects he has been followed by Heftet 
ruid Shaw), otherwise his figure answers well. Bosc says that the 
rt|)ecies is black! Smithes types agree well with the Jamaica 
i4|K*cimcn8 which 1 have seen, except that the meral crest in the 
Nicaraguau specimens is more distinctly dentate. 

S. OsUiiatu btUator White. PI. ix, f. ^. 

Petiver, Opera, i, PI. 78, f. 6 (1767) ; 0^a$imui btUator White, Gala- 
logue British Museum Crustacea, p. 86 (1847) ; (sine deser.) Vojaft 
of H. M. 8. Samarang, CrusUcea, p. 49 (1848) ; Edw.. Ann. 8d. 
Mat^ III, xyiii, p. 146 (1^52). 

Carapax an^uate, front but little enlarged lielow the eyes. 
MeroH of larger clieiii>ed posteriorly with an oblique rounded 
ridge, its ii|)|H*r and lower margins crenulate, the former even 
denticulate: carpus externally |M>lished, above granulate, inoer 
ffiargin denticulate, outside of palm and basal portion of daotyln^ 
granulate, inside of |>alm granulate but without tubercular ridges 


except a short curved one near the occludent margin ; thuml) ex- 
ternally margined below, its occludent margin forming a promi- 
nence at the distal third ; dactylus with the margins nearly 
parallel, the occludent one with scattered larger tubercles, tip 

Australia ! (Dr. T. B. Wilson) Phila. Acad. Luzon (Petiver) PhU- 
^PfiMM (White). 

4. Oelaiimui itylifema, Edw. PI. ix, f. 4. 

Qeloiimus platydaeiylus Edw., 111. Edit. Regne Animal, Crustaces, pi. 
xviil, f . 1 a (without date) . Oelasimus »iyliferu» Edw., Am. Sci . Nat. 
in, xviii, p. 145, pi. iii, f. 8, (1852) ; Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, 
p. 118, (1870). 

A species very near O. platydaeiylus^ but having the marginal 

crest of the arm less developed and the eye stalks terminated by 

a small stylet as in the Ocypodas (Edw.), Is possibly but a variety 

of heierochelos. 

Ouayaquil, EquadoTy (Edw.)* 

i. Gelftiiavi heterophtbalmus Smith. PI. ix, f. 5. 

GeUuimui heterophthalmus Smith, Trans, Conn. Acad, ii, p. 116, pi. 
ii, f. 6, pi. iii, f. 1 (1870) ; Rep. Peab.. Acad. Sci. iii, p. 91 (1871). 

MeroB of larger cheliped with posterior margin rounded, the 
inferior crenulate, superior with a broad crest, carpus with the 
upper outer surface granulate, elsewhere smooth. Hand inflated, 
l)a8al portion of palm externally granulate, thumb punctate, with 
^n external elevated ridge. Inner surface of palm smooth, with 
"two rows of tubercles much. as in G. heterocheles. Fingers com- 
3pressed, the thumb with a deep emargination at the base and a prom- 
inent tubercle just beyond, occludent margin of finger nearly 

Oulf of Fonuca^ West Coast of Nicaragua / McNiel (Smith's types 
in Peab. Acad.). 

This species is closely allied to G. heterocheles. When I exam- 
ined the specimens, the prolongations of the ocular peduncles 
described by Prof. Smith were broken off. 

C OeUfimui heteropleiinis Smith. PI. ix, f. 6. 

QdoMimus h&teropleurus Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 118, pi ii, f. 
7, pi. iii, f. 2 (1870) ; Rep. Peab. Acad., iii, p. 71 (1871). 

Carapax but slightly convex, one side produced laterally. One 
eye with a stylet about as long as the cornea, similar to those 
found in certain Ocypodas. Meros of larger cheliped with the 

ctrpot gw— late aboiVL Haad t iUimIIj 

poftioB, Ite opprr aad kmcr 

&C8 of the imIm has u obliqveliaeof tafacnslis] 

upward aad tiadcwaid fincNB the lower 

thaaib to aeer the artiewletMMi with the 

compreeeed, the thmib with the lower —ijiiB 

the upper meigiB of deetjlm Bcarlj etndght ee mm the 

mergiaeof each. 

gay tf FtutmB I lUmM (PHah. 

dea Bd. Hat, IDtzvllil^ lUkll 
lli» 1 4 nSMi; fltiiipao% Phie. Fhiia. Aa^ IMk »> i»(1 
HiOar, BiiM dar Sotaa^ Ciaatitaa^ p. 17 (UM); 
vaa dar Oacfctw** Raiai^ p. 81 (1817) ; 
Jtanr. Anh. 4a Mw. d*Hiil. Kat^ iz. p. tVt (1811). 
iaiaifaiaaai WUta^ Crtakfaa Brit^ MaiL Ckait, p. 81^ 
(f8#7) ; Vayafa af the Baaunag; OnwL, p. 81(1818). 
aMla#Daaap U. 8w XipL Sxped. GnHl, p. 81% FL X.! 8f1 

Catmpaz amootb, areoate. Meroa of laiger ehaHped wHh m 
oMiqoe ridge on the npper poaterior aorfboe which giadaal^ 
a|ipeari before tiie articulation with the carpoa; the 
nomewhat criatate, diataUjr with a prominent tooth and 
t races of a aef'ond; carpus externally granulate, a portion 
the articulation with the meros smooth, inner surftce with a: 
Hpifiiform tulicrcle. Palmar portion of hand swollen and exter- 
nally granulate, granules larger below. On the iQner anrfi»e thtie 
i« an oblique tubercular crest near the lower margin hot not ex* 
temling to it, and a second near the occlodent margin. Thnmb 
with an impressed line on the outer surface, the lower maigia 
)^ranulous, the occludent nuirgin broadly excavate ; thia exoaTa- 
tion is sometimes regularly curved, but generally abowa traoea of 
a division into two sinuses; the distal fourth benda a b tu pU y 
downward to meet the inferior margin. Finger granulate above 
lioar the base, occludent margin nearly straight. 

Phaippineif Dr. T. B. Wilflon ( Phila. Aoad.) ; iferwiaa B^ ilaf- 
traUmf E. Wiliion (Pliila. Acad.); Coa^ of MaMmr! QMtia*a 
(dlecUon (Phila. Acad.). This ipeoimen ilabellad ''O. 
manus Coll. Mub.*') has the excavation of the thumb of the li 
cheliped plainly divided into two parts, /aea, JfaMar (Edw.) ; 
Nieok€r$ (Heller) ; Zantibar (HilgeodorO ; ^^ OiMaai'a (A. 


There is a considerable confusion regarding this species. Ed- 
wards considers this as the Cancer vocans of Linne. Linne in 
his tenth edition /p. 62f>, 1757) quotes Rumphius, PL XIY, f. E. ; 
and Catesby's Carolina, ii, PI. XXV. Rumphius' figure (of a 
specimen from Amboina) represents a form with the fingers regu- 
larly tapering, and resembling G^. tetragonon more nearly than any 
other species with which I am acquainted, but the figure is not 
accurate enough to have any systematic value. Catesby's figure 
is the well-known Ocypoda arenaria of North America. Linne 
(in the Ama3nitates Academici, vi, p. 416) gives a description, 
which does not at all apply to this species, and quotes in addition 
Marcgrave, Piso, Rumphius, Catesby, and Seba, in the order 
given, showing a still greater confusion. In his 12th edition, p- 
1041, Gronovius and Petiver are added to the list, but no hints 
showing what should be regarded as the Cancer vocans. As there 
exists such confusion, it is impossible to apply the name vocarns^ 
with certainty, to any species, and for that reason I have thought 
it best to allow it to lapse into synonymy and take the first recog- 
nisable description for this species. 

8. Gelasimai maiionii Desmarest. PI. ix, f. 8. 

Oekutmui marionis Desm., Consid. sur le Crust., p. 124, PI. XIII, f. 
1 (1825) ; Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 145 (1852). 

Carapax smooth, and with each margin terminated by an acute 
angle directed forward ; an H-^^^P^^^ impression on the carapax. 
Ocular peduncles slightly enlarged at the extremity, and without 
a terminal point. Inferior border of the prbit crenulate. Right 
hand greatly larger than the* left, greatly compressed, basally 
granulate ; finger straight, its sides smooth, its occludent margin 
granulate ; thumb arcuate below, with its internal border broadly 
excavate in the middle, and armed with fine teeth. Length, 8 
lines; breadth, one inch (Desmarest). 

Manilla ( Desm . ^ . Malabar ( Edw. ^ . 

I have not seen any form corresponding to this description or 

9. Oelatimns duMui Stimpsoo. 

OeUuimui dubius Stm., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1858, p. 99. 

Carapax and front as in G. cultrimanua. Inferior margin of 
orbit crenulate, externally angulate. Meros of larger cheliped 
Bpinulose, hand stout, externally granulate or tuberculate ; in- 



ternally with erests m in 0. eicftrtiiimait, bal 
IXgito imtiier brottd, externally snleate; laner 
straight, irregularly dentate, two or three teeth 
others (Stm.). 

10. Oslssittms Imlpstas Whit*. PL is, f. f. 

G§lMaimu9 ffreipaiuM While, Catatogne Brit Moa. Crask, p» M^ 
dtter. (1847) ; Vbgrage Samarang Cmst, > 8d (1818). 
tfMretelM Edwaidi, Ann. Bd. KaL, IIL srili, ^ 14% FL m, £8 
(1HS3;; Heller, Cnistaosen Sod. Eniopas, ^ 108 (1888); MH^/k 
Milna-Edwaids, Nonv. Aieh. dn Mas. d*Hlst Kat, IZ, p. 81% fl 
XII, f. 4 (1818). 

Carapax oonyez, narrowed behind. Meroa of hufar oheHpei 
externally grsnnlate, its margins dentienlate. Carpns 
inner margin prodnoed hot without a prominoit tooih. 
externally granulate, its upper border slightly nargiiied, its 
tuberculate ; on the inside a few tubercles in a eurfed Una 
the base of the daotylus, and an oblique line tkcm the lam 
margin runs up to the articulation with the carpoa, dneijhs 
granulate at the base, otherwise the hand and fingers an a »oo4k 
Thumb regularly tapering, with an external impressed Hne, Mi 
occludent margin regularly arcuate, with geneiallya ptoaiiBsnl 
tubercle near the middle. Dactylus with a prominent dislsl 
dentate lobe. 

[?1 OdMia! Ouerio (Phil. Acad.). PMippinM! Drs. Wllsoa 
Rurrouglis (Phil. Acad.>. Australia/ £. WilKm (Phil. Aesd.). 
Barnio (Adams and White . Odeaa (£dw.). Jir#ii CkMMt 
(A. M.-EdW.). 

I liave united tliese two nominal 8|)ecics from an actual corn- 
pa riKon of MpecimenH. In the collection of Onerin-Meneville now 
in tlie posHCHHion of the Philadelphia Academy, is a apecinwa 
lalK'llcd ** (hloMmuH coarctaluH Kdw., Cat. Mus., Paris, Odessa,'* 
an<l whioli waH pn>l>ably one of the original specimens which was 
tlu* foundation of Kdwar<l*H description. I am strongly' inclined 
to d<»u)>t of the authenticity (»f the locality ^^ Odessa,** aa I have 
)H>en unaMe to find any other authority than that of Bdwardn. 
MarcuHm^n in his Fauna of the Black Sea (Archiv. fiir Natnr- 
^esrhichto xxxiii^ pp. HfiSsiG.S, 18(>7) docR not mention it. His 
•»u)»^o<(uent pa|>er and that of Tljanin, I haye not seen. Heller 
iniTi'ly (|uotes from Milne-Edwardt*. 


U. OeUaimni arevatvi De Haan. Pi. ix, f. 10. 

Oeppode { Oelanrnm) areuata De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crustacea, p. 
58, PL VII, f. 2 (1835). OeiUinmuB areuatus M.-Edw., Ann. Sci. 
Nat. Ill, xviii, p. 146 (1852) ; {?) Krauss, sud Afrikanische Cnia- 
taceen, p. 39 (1843) ; A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., ix, p. 273, 

Carapax with sides carinate, carina acute, scarcely granulate ; 
Inferior margin of orbit granulate. Meros of larger cheliped, 
above concave, below flat ; internally with an acute granular ndge. 
Carpus externally convex, above flat, hand twice the breadth af 
the carapax , fingers compressed, smooth, externally longitudinally 
sulcate (De Haan). 

Japan (De Haan). Hew Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). [f] Natal Bay 

18. Gelasimvs tetragonon Roppell. PI. ix, f. 1 1 . 

Seba Thesaurus, iii, PI. XIX, f. 15. f Cancer serratan Forskal, Desor. 
Animalium, etc., p. 87 (1775). Cancer tetragonon Herbst 1. c, i, p. 
257, PI. XX, f. no (1790). Oelaeimui tetragonon Ruppell, Beschrei- 
bung und Abbildung 24 Erabben des rothes Meeres, p. 25, PI. V. 
f. 5 (1880) ; Edw., Hist. Crust., ii, p. 52 (1837) ; Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, 
xviii, p. 147, PI. Ill, f. 9 (1859) ; White, Cat. B. M. Crust, p. 36 
(1847) ; Guerin, Voyage Coquille, p. 10 (1889*) ; Heller Heise der 
Novara, p. 37 (1868j ; Hilgendorf in van der Decken, p. 84 (1867) ; 
Kossman Reise nach rothen Meeron, p. 52 (1877). Oekiiimue 
* duperreyi QnenUf 1. c, PI. I (1826) ; Dana, U. 8. Ex. Ex. Crust., p. 
817 (1852). Oelaeimui dcftjardinii Guerin, MS. Oelaeimue tetra- 
gonon tar epiniearpa Eossmann, 1. c, p. 52. Kossman gives a 
reference to a paper by Poulson, but as the title is written in Russian 
I have not been able to verify it. 

Carapax strongly arcuate, front not expanded below the eyes. 
Meros of the larger cheliped with the upper margin terminating, 
distally in a strong spine, carpus smooth, the inner margin acute, 
its basal portion sometimes expanded into a strong tooth. Hand 
compressed, externally finely granulate, a shallow pit with coarse 
punctae near the base of the thumb; internally granulate but 
without tubercular ridges ; thumb with two prominences on the 
distal half ; the finger regularly tapering. 

Mauritius ! Dr. Wilson, Guerin's Collection ; Tongatahou ! Wilket 
Expedition ; Tahiti! A. Garrett ; Sandwich Is ! Dr. W. N. Jones 

' The title page of the volume bears the date 1880, but the introduotion 
to the Crustacea and Aiachnida is dated '* 15 Novembre, 1838," so that it 
is probable that the volume did not appear complete uutil 1839. The 
plates bear date 1826. 



fVhilsi, \CA4\ ; T'lhiti and Sandtcieh Is..' A. Gamtt * 
Acad. ; lUd Hen and Xie^bar /«. i Heller ; ZamtAar (Hil 
rlorf : B'jurbom (EUlward>> : A<ir Cafedoaiia lA. Miliie-Edwaidi). 

IS. GtUtimvt mtutua .^'in. 

GtUi$:rnu$ aeulu$ 6im,, Proc PhiljL Acad., 1858, p. M. 

C*ara|iax narrowcfi behin<], anterolateral angles prominent, acnte. 
marginal line distinct. Front narrow, not constricted, inferior 
margin of orbit crenulatc, externally acute, internal suborbital 
lolio convex ; a crest on the 8ul»-hepatic region parallel to the in- 
ferior margin of the orbit, the includeii surface smooth. Larger 
hand coarnely granulate, a tuliercular ridge on the inner surface. 
Fingerrt not longer than the palm, externally sulcate, inner margin 
dentate, median tooth larger, but no sub-terminal tooth ( St impsoo). 

M<ua0 (Stimpnoo). 

14. OeUaiaui forotpt Milne- Ed wardi. PI. iz, f. 12. 

Oelaiimui foreep$ Edw., Hist. Nat. des Crust, ii, p. 5d (t8S7) ; An> 
naleii des 6cience8 Naturellei. Ill serie, tome zvili, p. 148^ PL III* f. 
U (1852j ; White Cat. Brit. Muk. Crust., p. 36 (1847;. 

(*arapax narn»wed liehind, lateral angles prominent, acute: 

orbitrt Im'Iow with two denticulate margins. Meros and carpOK 

Hni<K)th, the lower margin of the meros crenulate, upper cristate, 

flnely dentate ; hand smooth or indistinctly granulate, fingen 

long, slender, finely denticnlnte, tlie thumb with a distal loN* 

(Kd wards). 

Australia (Kdwarda, White). 

I liav4' not forms referable to the two foregoing sfjccies. 

15. GfUsimns loDfidifitnm (nov.). IM. ix, f. 1.1. 

Closely allied \o /onrpH in si»ape of carapax, orbits Ik'Iow with 
H Hiinple smooth margin. Meros and carpus smooth, the inner 
margin of the<*arpiis acute, ereniilate. Basal i)ortion of the hand 
ext4rnally obscurely graimlati' ; internally with an (»bli(|ue tuber- 
<*iil:ir ridge, :ind a lew tubercles ne:ir the base of the fingorn. 
Finders <'nmpreKM'tl, lontr, finely denticulate, and narrowi,»r near 
the base than at the middle |>oint. 

}foreton /?f»y, AuntralM f E. Wilson. 

16 GfUsimns smithii mnv :. IM. iz. f. It. 

('jii:ip.MX gibbnu'', front n irrow ; uhtos with a stn»ng. obliqiir 
rid/«' .'h tin- upjM-r out«'r surface, the inner upjHT nvirgin pnNluctHl 
iut«» :i piominent vertical inst. <'arpu»* extern:dly nearly sm<Kjth. 


the inner margin slightly produced and denticulate. Palnj exter- 
nally granulate above, smooth below, its up|>er margin granulate 
and indistinctly indicated by an impressed line on the outer sur- 
face, and its inner surface smooth, without tubercular ridges, 
except one at the base of the fingers. Fingers long, slender, 
slightly compressed and regularly tapering, the extremity of the 
dactylus somewhat expanded and excavate. 

Natal! E. Wilson (Phila. Acad.). 

Named in honor of my friend Prof. S. I. Smith, of Yale College, 
who has monographed the American species of this genus. 

17. Oelaaimni urrillei M.-Edw. PI. ix, f. 15. 

Oelasimus urvilUi M.-Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xviii p. 148, PI. Ill, 
f. 10 (1852). 

Resembles closely G, forceps, but has the medio-frontal sulcus 
nearly linear, and the fingers shorter, the anterior border of the 
meros of the larger cheliped obtuse and granulate (M.-Edw.). 

Vanikoro (M.-Edw.). 
II. OelMimni dniramieri M.-Edw. Pi. x, f. 16. 

Oelasimui dutsumieri M.-£dw., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xviii, PI. TV, f. 12, 
(1852)? Hilgendorf in van der Decken*8 Reise in Ost Afrika, 
Crustaceen, p. 84, PI. IV, f. 1 (1867) ; Alph. M -Edw., Nouv. Arch, 
du Mus. d'Hist. Nat. IX, p. 274 (1873). 

Resembles closely O, urvillei, but the accessory sub-orbital lobe 
is less marked, the median sulcus of the front entirely linear and 
the anterior border of the meros of the larger cheliped denticu- 
late. Chela very large, G, rubripes is closely allied, but appears 
to be distinguished by the form of the fingers of the larger hand, 
the larger tubercles of the carpus, etc., (Ex. auct.). 

Malabar and Samarang (Edw.) ; Ifeto Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.) ; 
Zanzibar (Hilgendorf). 

19. OeUiimni mbripei Jacq. and Lucm. PI. z, f. 17. 

GelaBxmun rubripeB Jacquinot and Lucas, Voyage des Astrolabe et Zelee 
Crustacea, p. 66, PI. VI, f. 2 (1853) ; Heller, Reise der Norara Crus- 
taceen, p. 38 (1867). 

Orbits granulate above and below, carpus of larger cheliped 
with the external portion granulate, its margins finely denticulate. 
Hand prominently granulate, internally smooth except fine granu- 
lations at the origin of the thumb ; below strongly dentate, finger 
smooth except at the base where it is granulate ; Uic inner margin 
of the thumb with three large teeth, the intervals between which 


are finvly denticulate. Thumb smooth below its inner margii 

with sovoral rows of granulations and a prominent tooth nemr tb^ 

middle (J. et L.). 

Unknown (J. and L.) Nieobaru (Heller . 

90. Oelaiimui tigaatiu Hew, PI. z. f. IS. 

QeUmmun aignatui Hess, Arciiiv fiir Naiurgeseliichte» zzzi, p. lltt* P 

VI. f. 6(1865'. 

'' P'roiit U^tween the eves not ao Hmall as a U. variatum^ cbelipcti 
one and u half times the breiuUh of the body; arm, cnrpiu and 
han<l bright red, Huf^ers wliite. Arm below with two rows of 
)>early tidH*rch's, fingers with an elevation at the middle uf tfar 
iTixwv border, dintidly arcuate and pointed '* (Hess). 

Sidney, AutirMm < Ilea . 

31. GvUiimai erasiipei White. IM. z. f. Itt. 

GeLiU'mtii erauipe* White, Cat. B. M. Crust., p. 861, due dcatr. ; 
AdaiiiM and White, Voyaj^ Samaran^ Cruntaoea, p. 49 (1848). 

f O. brev'pei Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 146 (1858). 

" Ciir.ipaee wry much arched, suddenly narrowed behind, froot 
with a IoIk' without narrow stalk. Four hind pairs of legs Ihtckrf 
:i:id stronger than in the <»ther siKH.*ies " (Ad. and White). 

PhiUnpinf iamn49 (White . 

Tlun- li:iV4 l)«*tii dc'^rrilM'd thnn* other spfeies ♦ licloiiging to 

^if II u rnw-fVonttKl stt-tuni, on*'' of whicli h:i> been made tije tvpe 
■ i' tin* Li«iiiis Ai'auth^H'In.r by Mihie K«l wards. A fourth s|iecit«& 
rVotii Piihia, Hrazil, i*« in the collrrtioti of the Philadelphia 
Ac:id('iii\. So far us 1 :ini aware these n re all fi'malcft and air 
r-pn MiiN-.l by only :i siii-jlt' ^ixciintn eaeh, and as 1 am strongb 
iiirlincd ti» eonsider thiin tli<* fcinaK s nf wt'll-khown forms I oni- 
li'<<Tipti<»n-^ of thrnK 

• //>■./• ihVA in»i(fni* Smith, Trans. C«>nn. A rati., ii, p. 12i5 ld?l» 
A'''t t!i'i ji'iixihiit'/ui^ K<iw., Ann. Sri. N.ii., Ill, xviii, p. 151, PI. IV. 
f. *,:: \y<*\! ; Anliivos at> MuM-um. \ii, ji lO:, IM. II, f. 1 IN%4 .- 
< l.iii r.«Iw. . 

h'f'>fi>i'i» r) i* Siiiitli. Tuins. Conn. Ai.iii., ii. p. 185, IM, II. f f". 
I'l ir. t. :» l*«:n ; KrjMUt INiiLo-lv \r.ii\. Sri,nii», iii, p.«M ls7l . - 
Wiv| < 'ti.iht Niiar;i:,'ii;i : MrNirl I*i'ih. .\.ad . 

A'''f ■ ■^- -^f 'IT (Tc-'-^h* < MT'.t.irkiT, Aii'liiv f.r N.^tar^mchit li:r. x*n 
ji. \'.\x \K,i\ .- No iiNMlity. 


§ B. Front broad between the orbits, 
* Male abdomen seven-jointed. 

^2. OelMimm Tooator Martens. PI. x, f. 20. 

Cancer voeator Herbety Bd. iii, h. iv, p. 1, PI. LIX, f. 1 (1804). 
Oetanmus vocani Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 54 (1837) ; 111. Edit. 

Regno Animal, Crastecea, PI. XVIII, f. 1 (no date) ; White, Oat. B. 

M. Crost., p. 36 (sine synon.), 1847. 
GeUmmtM voeans (pars) Gould, Invertebrata of Mass, p. 335 (1841). 
Oela»imu8 voeans var. a Dekay, N. Y. Fauna Crustacea, p. 14, PI. VI, 

f. 10(1844). 
GeUuimus palustris 'Rdw.f Ann. Bci. Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 148, PI. IV, f. 

13 (185J) ;ifitimp8on, Annals N. T. Lyceum Nat. Hist., p. 02 (I860); 

Smith, Trftns. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 127 (1870).. 
Qel€uimu$ pugilUitur Leconte, Proc. Acad. Nat. ScL, Philadelphia, 

1855, p. 403. 
Qelanmus brevifrons Stimps., Ann. N. T. Lyceum, vii, p. 239 (1860) ; 

Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 131 (1870) ; Lockington, Proc. 

Cal. Acad., vii, p. 147 (1877). 
Oeloiimus sp. Saussure, Memoirs Societe Phys. et Hist. Nat. Geneve, 

xiv, p. 440 (1858). 
&ela»imus voeator Martens, Archiv fur Naturgeseh., xxxv, p 1 (1869 ; 

xiomii, p. 104 (1872) ; Kingsley, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1879, p. 400. 
ManmtiA pugnax, mordax et rctpax Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, pp. 

181, 135, 134, Pis. II, f. 1, 2, 8, IV, 2, 3, 4 (1870). 
Oaanmus affinis Streets, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1872, p. 131. 
Oefasim%» crenulatus Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad., vii, p. 149 (1877). 

Oarapax smooth, meros of the larger cheliped witii its margins 
<l^iiticulate or tubcrculate, carpus externally granulate, internally 
^^•th an oblique tubercular ridge. Hand tuberculate, its inner 
*^^ce with a ridge running up from lower margin to carpal 
ff ^cove ; in firont of this are scattered granules. Thumb straight, 
^^"tremity oblll|uely truncate, finger strongl}^ arcuate, longer than 
^H© thumb. 

Eati Coast of America, from Cape Cod! to Pnra^ Brazil f West Indies! 
and Aspinteall ! West Coasi of Mexico ! Panama ! 

The localities froin which I have examined specimens number 
^ver thirty and embrace several hundred specimens. I find in 
^^e Guerin Collection two specimens from Mauritius which closely 
'Arable Cuban forms. 

This is, without much doubt, the species intended by Ilerbst ; 
Bdwards qnotes the Cancer palustria of Sloane as this species, 
^t aside from the fact that his History of Jamaica was i)ul)lished 
in 1*735, and his name is therefore ante-Linnean (and is also poly- 


»-.v/r *"\ Sloaiic irivcs not the slijjhtest deiimption, but nay* tl*' 

t;*^ |K»rf(i»i'tly with the fiji^iirr of Marcj,n^ve which is* thr •» 

i* '•':.■■ yiui of iiuthorn. I think that any one stu<lyin|; sla I YiK^t 

'i?-4v MTivrt of specimens, will -apree with mc in uniting th*-»-- 

» 'iiioiis forms under one siH»oific name, an the characters wLict 

'^^•luv.ile them are vnriahle and not of specific importance. ProN 

*l»l\ (/. minax should also Ik* incliidtHl here, as »u^}s;i.^Mvd \'\ 

ri\»!\'8sor Smith. 

V9 U«Utimai minax LeContr. IM. z, f. 21. 

Ufla»imu$ viinm I^Coiite, Proc. Phila. Acad., vii, p. 403 'IKV 
Smith. Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 128, PI. II, f. 4, PI. IV, f ' 
ilHTO ; Itep. r. S. Finh CoinmiiisioD for 1871.73, p. 545 (l!<r. 
Kin^sley, Proc. Thila Acad., 1870. p. 400. 

Canipax strongly arcuate lonp^itudinally, the branchial re«noi> 
granulate anterior!}'. Meros of larjjer chelipeds, with the npf*-" 
and low(T mari^ins tnlKTculate as is the up|ter portion of carpn* 
inner margin of carpus with prominent tuliereles, its inner surface 
with an oblicpu' tnlK^rcular rid<re. I^alm cristate above, oxtemalh 
with lar«;e depressed tu)>ercle8 above, smaller 1>elow, inner sur(ao 
also ttiherculate and with a ri<Ige of tubcrclca mnninf; oMiqueh 
up fmm the lower margin at the luise of the thumb to the depre^ 
Kion into which the carpus folds, and a second curved one near tiir 
base of the finders. Finjrers lon^, slender, n»;rularly taperinp. 
finder l(in;:cr than the thumb :ind di>tally strongly arcuate. 

/jVmV^'a l*oint, litnuU Oetk\ S.J..* S. Ashmead -Ihila. Acad. 
r«'< iintcV types) ; Hhjjf'fi>n, S. (\ ' Dr. Melliehainp (IVali. Acad . 
ytrthtimytnn f'n., \',i. ' \\. K. Wcliu'er Union Collej** ; Sfir 
If-irfu, Coun., aiul St. Avgundnf^ Fin. ; Smith . 
f4. Ofliitimai annulipei M.I-.Mw. V\ \. t '21. 

(hlifffaVM .irsnuh'j'tii .M.-Kdw., Mist. Nat. Cnist., II, p. .Vi. 1*1. Ih. f 
10 i:! 1KJ7 : NNhite, Cat. M. M. Cruht., |» :m(IS47 ; Kdw., Anr. 
Sn. .Vat. III. wiii. p. 14H. IM. IV, f. 4f>(lK.-i2); lUua, U. S. F.i 
h\. Ciu>t., :U7 1 **"►,! ; llelhT. Heiw ilcr Novara, Cniht.'wva. p. :<^ 
■1>»»i7 ; IIili;i>iHiiMt' ill r.aion I»«Tkrir>i ]{eiM>, p. M vb*^7) ; Mi*nat*- 
I'liiilitf r»4'rliiii-i' .\ka<l«'!iiie, 1><7S, p. **i\.\; Ko^mann. IleiM* narh 
mtlieii Meen'ii. p. ."iiJ 1^7'- ; SjK'nee Hate in J. K. I^ni'i« Natural- 
ist III VaiicMiivcr. firf.iniritfm thnrr>-tlii^fjflu» Kdwardi ami Liic.v ic 
I»<»iJi;:nvV \..ya;:r, 07, 11 \I, f. ;J ( l^t-'i ; Nin.llet IntlajMb*! 
( liili y.iHi].. iii. ir,:. \^\\) ; r.i|\%.. Ann. Sri. Nat . III. xviii. 1« 
(I*«'iJ . (rf^tiMi'ffiuf hirttUM Kran^N Sml. Af. CiU!*t.. p. 3U tft^Xr Ui. 
;;»!iiinif . (it'ini <'.•;.».*'•/•# '/i/« Mimpwm, IVik-. IMiila. .\i\iii.. !?•> 
|-. !''' . //»*...•(#..».* ii,.;i»i ';«■.< vai ■;*'// «i/.<i K>>>Mii.oiti I.e.. Urla^'^ 
; ' • rrrtfutuM I.*»i kin^tmi, I'n.i- CalitMruia .\ead. Sci,, p. i4» 
1S77 . 


Carapax transversely nearly flat; inferior margin of orbit 

crenulate. Meros of larger eheliped smooth, angles rounded, 

carpus the same with a few" obsolete granulations on the upper 

.surface. Hand smooth, sub-marginate below, an oblique row of 

tubercles oh the inner surface, rimning up and back from near the 

lower margin half way to articulation with the carpus, and .two 

.^i milar curved lines near the articulation of the dactylus. Thumb 

x-ogularly tapering, a prominent tubercle near the middle, extremity 

.^lab-excavate. Dactylus distally strongly curved, extending 

w^lightly beyond the thumb. 

Atuiralia! E. Wilson; Singapore! Dr. McCartee (Phila. Acad.); 
ZamilHir/ (C. Cooke) **N. W. Boundary Surrey, A. Campbell^ 
Commr., Dr. C. B. Kennerly " ! (Peabody Acad.) ; Seas of India 
and Asia (Edw.) ; Ceylon, Nicobars Madras (Heller) ; Mozam- 
bique Tnhambeni (Hilgendorf ) ; Pondieherry (White) ; Valparaiso 
(Edw. and Lucas) ; Vaneoitver (Bate) ; Lower California (Lock- 
iDgton) ; Tahiti (Stm.) ; Red Sea (KoBsmann). 

89. GeUtimu Uetem DeHa&n. PI. z, f. 28. 

Oeypode (CMasimus) Uietetts DeHaan. Fauna Japonica Crust., p. 54, 
PL XV, f. 5 (1885). Oelasimus laeteus Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., HI, 
xvili, 150. PI. IV, f. 16 (1853) ; Stm., Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, 100; 
Micra, Proc Zool. 5oc., 1879, p. 36. 

Oarapax longitudinally strongly arcuate, transversely nearly 
d^-t ; antero-lateral angles prominent; meros of larger eheliped 
^^ternally granulate, a constriction of the upper margin near the 
articulation with the cai*pus, lower crenulate or even denticulate. 
Carpus externally smooth, inner edge acute denticulate ; hand ex- 
tei'Oally finely granulate, above more plainly so; a crenulated 

i^dg^e near the inner lower margin and one or two near the fingers. 

^^ngers elevated, strongly compressed, the thumb suddenly nar- 

^Wed near the apex. 

Japan! B. Wilson ; Pondieherry! Dr. T. B. Wilson (Phila. Acad.) ; 
Japan (DeHaan) ; China (Edw. Stm.). 

K- Maiioittt tpleadidai Stm. 

Giiaaimus 9pl$ndidu»%tm., Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 99. 

Inferior margin of orbit crenulate, externally rounded. Larger 

lumd nearly smooth, internally with an oblique tubercular crest. 

Crest at the base of the fingers nearly obsolete. Fingers long, 

sifloder, slightly denticulate. Thumb with the apex excavate 


Hong Kong (Stm.). 

t. _ 

150 PK1iCE£PI50s or THE ACADEMY OF [ltf# 

1 hfive LOT ^trn ?h> -j^.-c:*-*: it, however. ftp|)ear« to be t.t^ 
near 'f/>/i»/n/*'j'. 

fir''iu'r..^$ Muor imetu in F<:«cheT'i Vqja|;e of the Biamom : A^ 
i^ndii : ( m^tac^a. p. T^ PI. XXXV, f. 2 (1«IS1 . 

OaAv, Sandviek /«. 'Owvc . 

Tlii- ««j,f<;lfc* i^ v*-ni- n»:ar the nt^nnlip^r of Edward*, the ^aU 
ditftrfi n' f rA'iri^ thi- 'jrjtr tttrth ff the fingeiv of the cheliped. 

St GcUfiBOj triABfvIaru A. N.-E-J*. 

0>'-'* m%4 rr nfur^l rt* A. M.-Edv.. Noot. Arch, dii Mas., IX, p. 3«\ 

*iffn*t h. </ y * # ►• /f « » <- r • . /.^^ /■/ '/*i> /"'ij* t- 1 tat reilM by t he ca rapas grvaSi^ 

iarv*'' i't fr«'C<t ^tA -ir;ftiler K-himi : the latrral anglea are »piiii- 

forifi rjii'l 'lin^'V'l ^T'^-rirlv fomanl. the frcint tietween the eve» i» 

lar;:*' mj'1 roundel. I^rirc-r <.-h*-Ii|<'*t externally smooth, palnMr 

port i^' II lon^ stu'l iiroxirnally indatei]. Inner purfaeo with a {Tibb- 

iilar riH(!f . irin^-r ruar^rin of fin}zer> dentate, finfier a little lon^ 

than the thi:rob. 'TU'i^ s|Hfie?* i?> allied to (J. mimir by the forai 

of thf hand, hut \*^ diMinsiiishe*! hy the moff triancnlar canjiss 

(A. M.-K.). 

A>«r CaUdohia A. M.-Edw. . 

t9 Oeiaiimni ^mardi Fi«. P:. i. :'. 

*rf'- M rAU« 5'Mf/i srdi K']w.. Ai.n. ?ni. Nat. Ill, x\iii. I'V>, PZ IV, f ." 
;-./J : lit;;*! I:«im.* Nu\aia. ( :>l^t.,I•. :> >ti7 . 

V« r\ in-:ir //r//" .^/♦.-. ).nt )i;i>ii>^ ihf frtiut n;t»re |»n>ii>npe«i iif: 
iimri !<>iiii(l«-<l I'tl'.w nijil il.iM-xti'rrial . intt rn:il ' rn'st of the h.iii t 
olitij-* .'iihI hot «h iitiriil:tti-. ri***iriihliiiir th:iT i»f ^r. /'I'r^/tVi ( K<1» . 

TurtfyiOibvK K<1«. : T'lhiti Heller . 

30 Gclaiimni paDameBiia .'^tm. V. \. t i'4. 

(t^l'iM ftivi i'fht:fi'f7,»-t Still., Ai.ii. I.Vi- , Vll. p. fi3 1H40. ; tett).. 

ii:,i.K Ct.Mi. A«:i.i.. II. irc. n. IV, f. r» i*»7«». 

rar:i) :l\ <lt'{ rr>-i'I. A nt« ri«-r :iiitl infi rior ni:irt:ini« of thonu ri>« 

m|' ti.i l:irpr ( In li|'« «1 < r« ijiil:iti-«l. I'ttstt riiir rf>un«li'<l. TarpUH vir\ 

•^liMf*. *iii"oth : h:tii«l ^iiiootli »'\trm:illy Hn«l in!rmaIU\ finp» r* 

rftrMl:!r'\ t:iii»riiiL'. 

(iu'f r.^ F',nt^oi ' y^yw\ ]>iS Acad 

31 Ge'afimna pufrillator. 

f'f,j"t:.: /• ..r.'/'. r I'nsr.. Ili-t. « nut , YaUx. I, i. p. 197, Is^I 1 
•f^v .ft*.-' I.«i.t. II. J. p. 'J"»M 1*^'> ; I.atr. Hi»»t. Cniht, el In* * 
47 !*-<»:<- 1 ^ ■•;•«/./ p'l;; './f - j njb. . t^ay. Jour. 1*1::!.% Aca-' 


71 and 443 (1817-18). Oelanmus pugillator Latr., Nouv. Diet, d'- 
Hist. Nat. Edit. II, p, 519 (1817) ; Desraarest Consid. 128 (1825), 
Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat. torn. cit. p. PI. IV, f. 14 (1852) ; Stm. Ann. 
N. Y. Lye. VII, p. 62 (1859) ; Smith Trans. Conn. Acad. 11, p, 136, 
PI. IV, f. 7 (1870) ; Rep. U. 8. Fish Comm. 1871-72, p. 545 (1875). 
Gelanmus vocans (pars.), €k>uld, Invertebrata of Massachusetts, p. 
325 (1841) ; Dekay, N. Y. Fauna, Crust, 14, PI. VI, f. 9 (1844). 

Carapax polished, swollen, nearlj' quadrate. Meros of the 
larger cheliped with the outer surface rugose, upper and lower 
margins crenulate. Carpus granulate externally, its inner margin 
acute; hand inflated, the basal portion granulate and margined 
above and below ; inner surface rounded, granulate, but without 
any trace of a tuberculate ridge except one formed by a continua- 
tion of the inner margin of the thumb. Thumb nearly straight, 
a ridge on the outer surface, a large tubercle near the middle of 
the inner margin, the extremity obliquely truncate. The finger is 
longer than the thumb, regularly tapering and distally strongly 
arcuate. There is a specimen in the collection of the Philadelphia 
Academy from Surinam which appears to be intermediate, in the 
characters of the hand, between this and G, vocalor. The fingers 
are shorter, the granules on the outside of the palm much more 
prominent than in typical pugillator^ and there are traces, though 
faintly indicated of a tubercular ridge on the inside of the 

Xew Jeney ! T. Bay, Wm. Wood ; Manat&e River f 8. Ashmead ; 
Mauritiui / Guerin*s Collection ; Oreenpoint, L, L ! 8. F. Baird ; 
Bott^n Barb&rf J. H. Black (Phila. Acad.) ; Nantucket and Key 
Wui, Fla.! A. 8. Packard; Bluffton, 8, 0. ! Dr. Melliehamp ; 
Savannah, Ga. / no collector's name given (Peab. Acad.) ; BeauforU 
N, 0,! 11, Y^ Webster (Union College) ; New Haven, Conn,, Eg- 
mnni Key and 8t. Auguiiine, Fla, (Smith) ; South Carolina and 
Cayenne (Kdw.). 

sa. Otlssimai ekloropkthalmas Edw. Pl. x, f. 24, 27. 

GOaeimui chlorophthaltnue Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust. II, 54 (18B7) ; Ann. 
Sci. Nat. torn. eU, 150, PI. IV, f. 19 (1852) ; Mcl^eay in Bmith's 
Zool. 8. Afnca, p. 64 (1838) ; Wl^ite, Cat. B. M. Crust., p. 86 (1847;; 
Guerin, Iconog. Crust., PI. IV, f. 3 ; Hilgendorf in Deokcn's Reise 
Crust, p. 85 (1867) ; Monatsberiehte Berlin Akad., 1878, p. 803; 
Geloiimue marionie Edw., Hist Nat. Crust, II, 58 (1837) ; Gelaei- 
mu$ perplexue Edw., Ann.' Bci. Nat. torn, cit,, 150, PI. IV., f. 18 
(1853) ; Heller, Novara Crust, p. 88, PI. V, f. 4 (1867) ; A. M.-Edw. 
Nouy. Arch. Mus. IX, 274 (1878> ; teste Hilgendorf. 


Carapax :ir nriU. Larger luintl Ismail, joinU mil smooth, flnfcn 
•^hort. frc'fjiic-ntty shorter tlian the ymlm ; the ridges on the inade 

• >r* the pitrii I'ithcr amfffAh or olr^oltftelv gnmulate; fingen dentir- 
•iljitf. re^THhirlv arcuate. 

hUhdof li'jurou! (ruerin'a rollection iPhilm. Addemy); JfrnnMu 
^ l'l«] w ., W h ite xZ'tnz&HiTf Mom mMyue and Masea reitet ( Htl gvn-iaif • : 
Jira KfJw. , Ctylon and Madra$ j Heller.; Nnf CaUionia A. M. 

I aUo Mil l«'rstan<l that Maillard found Una apecies at Reoakm, 
!'-it I havr not seen the work. 

Hil;;4'ri(lr»rf from an actual conipariM>n of apecimena aav« tkit 
'.^je ff^rfflfrait -mmX rhloroptithalmua of Edwards are the aame. TW 
ft. att'tunlnrfijh.iA of L^K'kington (Proc. California Ac«d., vii, pi 
114, 1><77). from West Coast of Lower California, would appear 
:'rorii tli«' «h*^f*riptioii and a rough flgure of the hand sent me bf 
'lit* author to lie near this species ; it certainlj is not stewHiact^mM 
tf K'lwanls and Lucas. 

SS 0«Uiimai inbeylialrieat SMmp^on. PI. i. f. 29. 

QtltiiinuB tubrylindricus Stinapson, Ann. N. Y. Ljc* ril, p. 63 1891); 
Sniitli. TniiM. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 137, PI. IV, f. 6 (1870). 

Cai-:ipn\ ohM:ureIy granulate. Margins of meros of larger 

•■!ti*]i(HM| ^niiiiil(»us. Hand internally without tubercular ndge 

^ i'lit two or thriM* panilifl carveil rows near the ha'«e <»f the 

:*n^« r-. «'\t»r!i:il!y ^raimhitr. Finjjers closely rcsemblin;: thus* 

,f /;. r.,i ii*',i\ th«' coiiunoii east coast form (Smith). 

MitdimoroM on the Rio Orande (Smith, Stm. . 

It Oelaiimaa latreillei K Iw. IM. x, f. 31. 

fir'.in-inn* lotreilUi K<lw., Ann. S<'i. N^at., Ill, iviii, p. 150, PI. IV, f. 
.!«» \<i:t : A. M. K«lw . Xoiiv. Arch. Mua,, ix (1873). 

r:ir:ip:ix -^iiiooth, lat«'rai aii<j:les f:ir l>ehincl the front, (ireater 
' -LlMil •-lU'M*!!!; Micros with the up|>cr and posterior nianpn* 

• Miii'liil. the n|))HT ending in a prominent tubercle, the liiwer 
I 'niilMti' :iii<l jironiinciit. Inner upptT inar>|:in of carpus minutely 
i-:iul:ri'. tlii* others riMUiiled. Hand <'ristat(* above, ex ternalh 

ii::rni-«iM|»i«':t]ly ;;r:iniil:ite, internally with a smooth rid^e near 
•■I* |.>\\rr iii:iri:in, iii» tiilH-n'les present; finjjcrs slender, si ijjhth 
iij|in--«i|. n',:u!:irly :in*ii:ite, with fine tulH*rcu1ations i»n the 
Indrfit iiwtiL'iMH, thr i-xMcuiilv ot' llic thuuib sulH'Xcavati'. 


I'Kil ppihrM .' Dr. T. H. WiliwMi IMiila. Academy ; Itle of Bumbt^i 
' Kdw. ; A^iT Ci^'douii A. M. YAv . . 

I««0 * ^Ati EAL •riKHru ^r nitl.AI>KtrNI \. t.%.1 

l«i at It t. f V 

';w»z«i«««« toKfk^ K;«loQi. Maipuan tW 2e*«il«H^«» \^1\ rltti. It X\ II 
Ka* . Am. ^ri NaI.. l*^'^.*. !•. tM. 11 IV, f .M; llrlWr. ( n«aUr<vii 

i %r%\mx tran«%« r*rl\ iiiarl\ ( tSr Ai-lr* <*f thr l<riiiit Inal 
fry •■•.• •tri*ti(*U afi ti%!«- . a)«i\r r\iT_\ iih«*r«' ;:r!tniilali- . l-'tirr 
t^MT^' ni»f i'tIhI f*itu'»r;:iii!itr .M«'ri>« i'f lar^rr rliili|if«l ••\t«-iii»!l\ 
r«i«i^-V« fi«*l, tSr ti|']« r iiiar;;iii |>r*><lti< f*<l lOt** an .ir tinti- « ri-«t 

• h-rV ;• friii.-««l tilth liair*. ttn- l^wrr inir;:iti mth !»•► r«i«« of 
tuf* r !« «. rar|>ii« «*l.iii^*^t« . « tt« rnall\ with |ir«tiiittH-tit tiiU ri li-«, 
ftB • *I, i'n fi*l«f»* ••n ?h»* jniH r •iirfsn nilli a «I«-ii<Ii r ii'«tii*r *|itn«* 
at »*• 'il *.h«- tiixMlr. I*ai!iii iiiAr.*«<l aNit<>. nft<| Anni«l mMi 
•|»-i. f nil t'!>ii n !•••. MtiTiiali) w:!!! <lr| ri'*««-<l tuUrrlr*. infrr-.i>r 
mA'w' -^ I*n^.« i!;«tr !<» thi' t |< «»f !hi* th'tfii^- . itil«'ni«II\ a rnvi i.f 
ld*»f*'«« n« tr tl.t !«*«• ff tli«* fiit;:« r«. A m'» on-l run* «•* li jm*?\ 
t:|'«i' I fr-'Mi t!:»- I'«t r niar^-.ii. irm tii»^' a thjr»l fiith'ti;: *>.ii-k«<ar<l 
ff'.r • %T .* ..!i!;"ii ff llj«* !iii;;i r. t l*«-iih« r»" (fit«-rnaI1v *rii'i«»V« 
I' : .•• ?• • !• 1 »N^I. •tr«'!i.'l\ I' •fii|>r« •«« «| I*a«'t\lti« mtli thi- u|t}«'r 
iba'«: •■ ai»l •■ i?< r **.»•*! ••irfur tii*«*rriiUt«- . lli» r«*t i'f th. i.u!t r 

• t:f'i. • f'.tS ^rariiilkli- tKrl'i'ltiil niir;*iii4 ff Nith fiu^i m n a\ 

!•-• ■ • . f ! .*« fi 1«-*. il,f inar^'Mi *>f XU* fiii;;* r f» f;'.ilar!\ ar* ■« it. 

:i.A! -^ *..'.< *.!. ;tiitt « .:ti a |»r<'m::ii-i^ «- iitar tht !;«• M* r i! 
ii"m'.« • f !*.• aiii*'tiU!"r^ U'*X «!• titii ti'.atr a'»»%i %u\ U !..• 

|f.'pvkr.'« la«air«U . 
«ff«»iA«M*< i^rCrkt lletkiot^ A«kl4iaBiratA ad y. *.A 

LiSv . Ami. %^ Nai.. 111. t«ui« |>^ I'^l 1^1;. U.Iwrt^-^f. Mimla!. 

l'ani|«i art oatr iti U>th «li;«vtiitn«. a)a*\r « .*. i |«a:i t*^ • T 
grhi»x^r% tb-ifr |ir«iiuiiM-iil <tii xUr aut« r«*Ut« ral |"ir:.<*ha. |.ar«;t r 
r^!.|^i n.'i* !• «iiialii r than \% u*tial ;ii t^« .;«».« Mt r«*« «*rat. . 
ia'.r thr ^•••* luai^'.ti r«*iii»<h«l, th* aiit« r.*'r i :>»Ii.t««l .u a:i 
air..***.'' t rr^t . c ari'U* aii*l haij I •itiniall} ;;r tii'.ilata- ll«:*'i 
« ri«tA*.r a^* ir. iiitc riiali\ «itii«>.it t •*■ n -il^r * ■!•;««. ?:.«*« r« < i*. 

«#%iaM ' i: II *.«u« |"LiU AeaiWm; . i2#%f'^. HV** 'V k #/ 4^-i'« 



This si>ccios is closely allied to tangieri^ but differs in the pro- 
portionately smaller chcliped without tubercular ridges od tiie 
inner surface and in the more sparse tuberculation of the caraptx. 

* * Male Abdomen five-jointed. 

87. OeUaiBoi itanodaotyloi Edw. et Laema. PI. z, f. SS>SS. 


G la^imui 8tenpdactylu» Edw. and Lucas, in D^Orbignjr's Vojagt 
CniKt. p. 26, PI. XI, f. 2 (1843) ; Nicollet in Gay's Hist, of Chili. 
Zoologie iii, p. 105 (1849); Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat III, ZTiii, 1# 
(1852). Otlasitnus gibboiui Smltli, Trans. Conn. Acad.» II, p. Hi, 
PI. II, f. 11, PI. IV, f. 8 (1870;, Lockington, I. c Osla$imu» Upl$^ 
daetylui et poeyi Guorin MS. 

Caraj^ax smooth, transversely flat, the regions strongly gibboui. 
Meros and carpus of larger cheliped elongate, meros smooth, its 
angles rounded, carpus externally unconspicuously granulate, its 
inner margin acute denticulate. Hand externally smooth or 
granulate, a tubercular ridge on the inside of the palm, running 
obliquely from the lower margin to the groove in which the carpus 
folds. Fingers much longer than the palm, internally denticulate. 

Mexico ! Cuba! Brazil! Guerin's Collection (PhQa. Acad.) ; Q%^ 
of Forneca ! McXiel (Poab. Acad.) ; Gulf of CaUfomiti ! W. K. 
Lockingtou (Ihx>wn University) ; Vulparaiio (Edw. and Luc. >. 

Of the following sikhjIcs I can say but little. I have not iieen 

s|M*<iiii('iis which would auswiT to tho descriptions an<l figures, 
whilf \\\v <U'MTiptions :in* so meagre tliat I cannot decide regard- 
in;^ their allinities. 

38. Gelaiimui Tsriegatut H«IIor, Vorhaudlung di*r Zool. But. Gcfell^.^hift. Wirn. 

lMi2. |.. 621. 

*' ^r. «/n/i?//<rri atVuiis sed brachiiiiii cboliixMluin ad niarginem s^ufier- 
ion'in (Mrinatnm et dentatiini, index daetylu paulo brcvior acumio- 
atus. JA/</r/rj»/* 

T!ii»% i*i (le-Neri!»«Ml :is one of the sj)ecinK'ns colloctinl by the 
N«>\:ir:i in \\vv v«»y:\<!:e Mnnnul the worM, hut in l>r. Heller'** final 
inniiMir on the Crusiaera of tliat exiKMlition, this >i>ecie«N i«i not 

39. Gelaiimai varUtni II***, Archiv. fiir Ninurgoi>ohicht<', XXXI, 146, Pi. VI. f. T 

('» |ilja!oth<»ni\ sinootli, greatly swollen. Front U-tween tho 
«NrN sin:ill. Grratrr ehelipe«l of male somewhat longer than the 
l'r«:ellli of I lit' earajKix. Tlnre is a larire triangulardepres>iouat 


virrEAL M-iK^rKA cir rftiL4iiftiniii 


!F*r •*, ifn». itt •trii;;ht . ♦"»t!i »rv InU ri n!i*r on •!.!• mh r ii;.ir^ii 

Sft* lit t< I ir: I- ; 
•• \ \' j-'lirtU ^fr\ I'-tij;. fniii'al |H*rtt«*ii of • i- 1| i\ »»iii ft-^r 
r ■•« I •! ?>!« ?!»•• Lifnl jnrt of rar«|ii\ tipu '» '•?.,;•■: !^An(^■ 
• i !• • F«»r« !• ^'^ « .t*i !!.•' ImHi r rU«* tK:i-kt lit -I i* *.).* • : -I. !*it 
It.* t • t't«rjin« iif U.!*i i!iw» mtti fiMir I ir,:' r tn»t f» !i • :ftiii>*!i;;^«l 
lb* •iii»IIt ? • ?• fi'i!i « 111*', ii -t 'i"i " i ,\>\.'\tn* ^* * W'tti't 

«1 0»:Mia»i lawrtM II fw*'*. k««^ !••» . ii*iA4«*r«' j :, v i\ f : :< 
I t.&«f m %* r •«<^-ii till* Work, thr •|n<i* it^'iri l«*iit^ tAki n fc*'ni t!tr 

r\ri \%%Tinx nr n iti:^ 




'• • •- 
mi-. •4f ftf^«r |tr«»%«*« 

rf ». ■ • .« kf'cr 11 ^^ f % t: 

}%f ..% • 



' '' ^§ ftf'ff >i**ik« lii 

'• • 





* ^ !•••» f'-.r. if|-# 

• • 


«« "tk.^M* 



i «k f«4> 


^ ■ 

♦. f » » »f •'•*? I •- •»• :• 

'» ■ • /!*•! fr ,ta * « (< 

'• r4«Mi»« »'**« l|f»t 

•• • ' l«- 1 » '• 1 I •*! 

*« # ■ I /■ t • » •*€• I . V i* • 

fctt raocnoiNos or tiu aoapimt or [IHL 

The President, Dr. Bumhxn bbioib, in tht ohAlr. 
l\Nrl^*4wo persons present. 
Tlk« desth of Wm, Theodore R<Bpper| a eorr wp ondmt, 

Aful 18. 
The President, Dr. Buschxnbxboki, in tiie cbair. 
Twenty-eight persons present. 


wus (C* cjpho), from the Colorado River," by Wul N. 
liMi, was presented for publication. 

The death of M. Lsporte, Count de Castelnaa,a 
was announced. 

Itemarks on Pond Life — Prof. Leidy remarked, Ihal 
invitation of Mr. Joseph W. Oriscom, he had nomOj 

some little ponds in the vicinity of Woodbury, New ^, 

which wore remarkable for the proAision of minute invertebtali 
lifif. The iK>iul8 occupy liollows in the woods, and consist mostly 
of accuniulnted rain water, though several arc likewise supplitd 
by Hpriiigs. Several are completely dried up during the sammer* 
\)r. GriHcoui says they continue rich in animal life even dmring 
the winter. 

Of animals, entomostracans are exceed ingl}* numerous and 
varied. Among some of the most l)eautiAil and conspicuoos wen 
n(>tice<i abundance of Branchipus^ of which two species tkom 
the same locality have been recently described by Mr. Ryder, 
under the names of Chirocephalus holmanii and Sirepiocefmmhm 
utialiL There are alno wonderf\il multitudes of nmny species of 
ooik'IKhIh, oHtraco<ls and cla<locere8, several of which are ccfr* 
spicuuUA for their larj;e Hize ami bright rt^l color. 

In one of the ]>onds a bright green Hydra was frequent, and in 
another a pinkish one was abundant. ThcMe ap|)ear to he tlie 
//. (jraciliH M\i\ H, rarnea of Agassiz, but it is a (|uestion whether 
thi-y are not tlie Name as tlie //. ririditi and //. fusva of Eun>pe. 
Some of the Hydra** wen* of a bright red color, and Mr. Oriscoai 
intimated that this war^ due to the pinktHh variety feeding on red 
elltonlo^tracanH. Thi> was conilrnieil by some of the pink OMS 
which were hrouglit home and kept in a Jar with abundance of 


red C^xlops, becoming, after a few daj^s, as a result of feeding on 
the latter, of the. same orange-red hue. Subsequently, when food 
became scarce, the red Hydras lost their bright color. 

In one of the ponds, the stems of rushes and dead branches of 
trees were invested with a bright grass-green stratum, consisting 
of a bright green Vorticella^ probably the V. fasciculata of Miiller. 
The green color is dependent on chlorophyl granules, as an 
element of the structure, and not on food. The body of the 
animal ranged from 0*108 mm. long by O'OG mm. broad, to 01 2 
mm. long by 0*09 mm. broad. A few measured were 0*15 mm. long 
by 0*102 mm. broad at the peristome. In a large active bunch, 
most of them measured 0*09 mm. long and broad. The pedicels 
were from five to eight times the length of the body. 

In another pond, the water was rendered turbid from the pro- 
fusion of Vol vox glohator. In a bay of this pond filled with dead 
leaves, a portion of water taken into a jar appeared opalescent 
from the quantity of minute white flakes it contained. These, on 
examination, proved to be Spirostomum amhiguum. In the same 
pond, the Spatterdock, Nuphar advena, was just about unfolding 
its leaves, and many^of these were thickly invested with a clear 
jelly, dotted with bright green spots. These proved to be Stentor 
polymorphuH. On the under side of a few open leaves on the sur- 
face of the water, were many spots of bright green and dull red- 
dish. The former consisted of groups of the green Vorticella 
before mentioned, the other consisted of attached groups of a 
lilac- or amethystine-colored Stentor^ probably »S. ignens* Similar 
groups of this Stentor were observed on a floating log, which had 
been in the water since last year, as it exhibited attached many 
statoblasts of a Plumatella, Ehrenberg describes S. igtieus as 
bright yellow or vermilion ; Stein as blood red, or often lilac- 
colored, or vermilion to brownish red. Ehrenberg found it at- 
tached to Hottonia. Stein says he never saw it fixed , but always 

The Woodbury variety which might be named S, amefhystinus^ 
was abundant and invariably found in conspicuous groups, visible 
to the unaided eye, and when detached, though the animals swam 
about actively, they were not onl^- disposed to become fixed, but 
they actually gathered together in groups. They all contained an 
abundance of chlorophyl, apparently derived from food, but the 
exterior structure was invariably of a distinct amethystine hue, 
dependent on fine molecules. The color was more pronounced in 
the longitudinal bands approaching the peristome. The nucleus 
was spherical. 

In the attached state, when the animal was Ailly extended and 
presented a trumpet shape, it was O'B mm. long by 0*18 mm. wide 
at the peristome. This was a common size, but some measured 
were 0^84 mm. long. In the conical form, when swimming, indi- 
viduals ranged from .0*2.7 to 0*42 mm. long. In the most con- 


tracted condition of oval shape, they measured 0*18 mm. long by 
0*15 mm. broad. The nucleus, 0*03 mm. in diameter. 

Ehrenberg and Stein give for S, igneus one-sixth of a line 
length, so that the variety indicated would appear to be much 

April 20. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Twenty-nine persons present. 

April 21. 
The President, Dr.RuscHENBERGER, in the chair. 
Thirty-four persons present. 
Lionel S. Beale, of London, was elected a correspondent. 

May 4. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Twenty -eight persons present. 

May 11. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

The following papers were ordered to be printed in the 
Journal of the Academ3\ 

^' The Terrestrial Molhisca inhabiting the Cooks or Ilarve}- 
Islands," by Andrew Garrett. 

"The Placenta and Generative Apparatus of the Elephant,'' 
9 by Henry C. Chapman, M. D. 


May 18. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenbebqer, in the chair. 
Twenty-six persons present. 

A paper entitled " On the Structure of the Orang Outang/' by 
Henry C. Chapman, M. D., was presented for publication. 

The death of Wm. Logan Fox, a member, was announced. 

A fine portrait in oil, by Uhle, of Isaac Lea, LL. D., was pre- 
sented to the Academy, and the following resolution was unani- 
mously adopteii : 

Besolved^ That the thanks of the Academy be presented to 
Dr. Isaac Lea, for his gift of an admirable portrait of himself, 
which has been long desired by the society, and especially by the 
senior members, who are cognizant of his valuable contributions 
to science, as well as towards the prosperity of the Academy. 

May 25. 

The President, Dr. Rusch£NB£;bg£B, in the chair. 

Twenty-two persons present. 

The " Proceedings of the Mineralogical and Geological Section 
of the Academy of Natural^ Sciences of Philadelphia, for the 
years 1811, 1818 and 1819," was presented for publication. 

Henry S. Gratz, R. S. Peabody, Mrs. R. S. Peabody and Wil- 
liam Barbeck, were elected members. 

Adolf E. Nordenskiold of Stockholm, Carl Ochsenius of 
Marburg, Oscar Hertwig and Richard Hertwig of Jena, were 
elected correspondents. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



Various parts of the Orang, Simia satyrus, L., have been dis- 
sected^ described, and figured by Tiedemann,' Owen,^ Sandifort,* 
Cuvier,* Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik,* Rolleston,* Selby,^ 
Huxley,^ Bischoff,^ Barnard,*^ Langer," Gratiolet,*^ Spitzka,^' and 
others. It was hardly to be expected, the subject having been 
investigated by such eminent observers, that I could hope to find 
anj^thing particularly new to science. It occurred to me, how- 
ever, that it might not be altogether useless to bring to the notice 
of the Academy a general resume of the results of my dissection 
of the Orang that died at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden in 
February last, more especially as the memoirs referred to below 
are scattered through the journals, and are often limited to descrip- 
tions of certain parts of the animal only, such as the It^rain, mus- 
cular svstem, etc. 

My Orang was a 3'oung male, supposed to be about three years 
old. The following measurements were taken : From vertex to 
rump, 16 inches ; upper extremity, 20^ inches ; arm, 7 inches ; fore- 
arm, 8 inches; hand, 5^ inches; lower extremit}', 11^ inches; 
thigh, 5 inches ; leg, 6 inches; foot, 6^ inches. What struck me at 
once was the length of the upper extremity, it being 3 inches longer 

^ Tiedemann, Zeit. Phys. Darmstadt, 1827. 
2 Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc, i, 1830, 1831. 
^ Sandifort, Ontleerhundige Beschryving, Leiden, 1840. 
* Cuvier and Laurillard, Planches, 1849. 

^ Schroeder van der Kolk and Vrolik, Verhandelingen Kon. Nied. Inst., 
1849; Verslagen Kon. Acad., 1862. 
« RoUeston, Nat. Hist. Rev., 1861. 
' Selby, Nat. Hist. Rev., 1861. 
8 Huxley, Med. Times, 1864. 
» Bischoff, Munich Abhand. 1870. 
^^ Barnard, Proc. American Assoc, 1876. 
" Langer, Sitzungsberichte, AV^ien, 1879. 
^2 Gratiolet, Plis Cerebraux des Primates, no date. 
" Spitzka, Journal of Mental and Nervous Diseases, 1879. 

Note. — I regi*et that when dissecting tlie Gorilla I was unacquainted 
with Mr. Macalister's valuable paper in the Proceedings of Royal Irish 
Academy for 1873, 


than the lower one, the Orang agreeing nearly in this respect with the 
Gorilla^ which 1 dissected, the difference in the extremities in that 
animal being 3J inches, whereas in the Chimpanzee^ I found only 
a difference of 1| inches. The foot in the Orang, however, was 
i inch larger than the hand, whereas in the Gorilla the hand was 
^ inch larger than the foot ; in the Chimpanzee the difference in 
this respect was | inch in favor of the foot. The foot in the Orang, 
however, resembled sui>erficially a hand much more than it does 
in the Gorilla. Indeed the distinctness of hand and foot super- 
ficially is more marked in the Gorilla than in the other anthro- 
poids. I found the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic viscera; per- 
fectly healthy. The animal seemed to have died from congestion 
of the brain ; there was also some cerebritis. As the osteology 
of the Orang has been thoroughly described by Prof. Owen^ and 
others it will not be worth while for me to dwell on that part of 
its organization. I will pass therefore to the muscular system, 
and more particularly to that of the extremities, as being the 
most interesting as compared with man. 

Muscular Systems — In Prof. Bischoff 's* paper on the Gorilla an 
excellent figure is given of the muscles of the face of the Orang, 
from a preparation by Rudinger. These muscles were described 
by Prof. Owen,* but not figured. The same facial muscles are 
found in man and the Orang with the exception that there is but 
one zygomaticus possibly corresponding to the zygomaticus minor 
of man, though on account of its size it may represent both the 
zygomaticus major and minor. The facial muscles in the Orang 
are not as well differentiated as in man, rather hanging together. I 
noticed that the digastricus had only the posterior head. There 
was nothing |>eculiar, however, about the stemo cleido mastoid, 
omohyoid, or the scaleni. The omocervicalis or elevator clavicula; 
passed firom the transverse process of the atlas to the acromial 
end of the clavicle, as I found it in the Chimpanzee and in the 
Gorilla. The pectoralis mnjor arose in three portions : the first, 
from sternum and first intercostal space ; the second, from sternal 
part of third, fourth, fifth, and sixth ribs, and the third from costal 

1 Proc. of Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, 1878. 

* Proc. of Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, 1870. 
> Trans, of Zool. Society, 1835. 

« Beitrage, Munich Abhand., 1870. 

* Proc. of Zool. Society, i, 1830, p. 28. 

lit PBOoxDiiras ov thb AOABBinr*oif P"^ 

yoiHtoo of foarth, fifth, sixth and terenth rilM. TUs 
gtrtgin is partly visible even in msn. There was 
aUe about the peetoralis minor or sobobiTiaa, 
leres« The latissimos dorsi, as in all nonkejs, gjKwm off 
the latisrimo condyloideSi which, however, in the 
rsaohed the condyle, and was pierced bythenfawr 
Ueeps, triceps, and brachialis antioos were well de^elDpai, 
the external cntaneons nenre passed throogh the 
as in man. Tlie anterior aspect of the forearm was qrfto 
The pronator radii teres arose by two heads, between wUd 
the median nenre. The flexor carpi radialis and alnafis 
palmaris longus were well developed. The flexor 
iiWdT from that of man. Tlie flexor proftmdns was 
rated into two portions, one for the under and the other 
remaining flngers. There was no trace of a flexor 
licis either as a distinct muscle or as a slip from the 
frudns. The abductor, flexor brevis, addnotor ami 
polUcis, abductor flexor brevis, snd oppon«is minimi digM, 
the lumbricales were all present As regards tlis baok ct Ike 
arm, the supinator longus arose liigher than tn 
nator brevis, and extensor radialis longior and brsvior« 
ossi metacarpi pollicis snd exterior secundl intemodil polHeh 
not differ from those in man. The absenceof an extensorpriad 
na<lii poUiciH was noticeable, as was also the fact of the 
iiuiicis giving a slip to the middle finger and the extensor minimi 
digiti one to the ring finger, making eight tendons supplying the 
Imc'k of the fingers with the four from the extensor eommunis 
digitorum. The interossei were the same as in man. Briefly,ths 
up|KT extremity of the Orang in its muscles diflisred essentiallv 
from that of man in the absence of the flcxus longus, and primi 
inteniodii |>ollicis and in the presence of the additional tendoM 
to the ring and middle fingers. The Orang agreed with the 
Gorilla in not having a flexor longus pollicis, but disa g r ee d with 
it in having the pronator radii teres arising by two heads, in the 
prt'Honce of a palmaris longus, in the additional tendons for ring 
and middle fingers, and in not having the extensor primi intemodii 
pr>llieiH. As rom|)ared with the Chimpanzee, the Orang agreed 
in refi'reiico to the pronator radii t«*res and palmaris long^i8,but ia 
tlie exteuHor ossi metacarpi |>ollicis l)eing single, and in tiw 
al^Hence of the flexor longus |>oHicis as a slip from the pro- 


fundus, and in the presence of the additional extensor tendons it 

As might be expected from the elongated form of the pelvis and 
the absence of the round ligament of the hip-joint in the Orang, the 
glutei muscles differ somewhat from those of man. The glutaeus 
magnus (PL 12, e) in the Orang — not as large or as fleshy as its glu- 
teus medius — ^is inserted together with the tensor vaginie femoris, 
which is scantily developed, if at all, into the fascia lata of the thigh, 
the glutseus medius being inserted into the great trochanter. Parallel 
with the lower edge of the glutaeus medius (PL 12, c), is seen a small 
muscle rising from the edge of the great sciatic notch, and inserted 
into the great trochanter (PL 12, b). This muscle seems to corres- 
pond to part of the pyriformis in man, the sacral portion of the 
muscle not being developed in the Orang. The glutfeus minimus 
is represented by a muscle arising from the external edge of the 
ileum, and passing almost vertically downwards until inserted into 
the great trochanter, close to the pyriformis (PL 12, a). At first 
sight this muscle seems much displaced if it is the glutseus mini- 
mus, but if one can imagine the ileum (PL 12, d) in the Orang to 
be widened outwardly to the same extent as seen in man, there 
would be little or nothing anomalous about the muscle. From 
the position of the glutaeus minimus in the Orang, it would seem 
that this muscle would supplement, to a certain extent, the want 
of the ligamentum teres, which, it will be remembered, is absent 
in this ape. 

In the Chimpanzee there is so little that is peculiar about the 
glutaeus minimus that I had no diflSculty in identifying it, and the 
same can be said of the Gorilla. In the account of the Chimpan- 
zee by TrailP however, the glutaeus minimus is described as a 
distinct new muscle, the scansorius ; the muscle I have described 
as pyriformis, Traill regarded as the gluteus minimus, the pyri- 
formis, according to Traill, being absent. Since then, this so- 
oalled scansorius muscle has been referred to by Bischoff, Owen, 
Huxley and others, as a distinct muscle. With all deference to 
such eminent anatomists, I cannot see any essential difference 
between the scansorius of Traill, and the glutseus minimus in man.* 

^ Weroerian TranBactionB, p. 18, 1821. 

* On looking up the literature upon the anatomy of the Orang, I find 
that in 1876 Prof. Barnard, op, eit., considered the scansorius as being 
homologous with the glutfeus minimus, and mentioned in his paper that 

v = . T*;. 

IM FBocuDiirot or thi ^oASBinr ov OW 

The obtnnton, gemelli id i iimbiw Mmammm^ «w» w^ f^ 
vdoped. There wis notl liar about the m— pIm eCj||i 

thigh either on the i trior or posterior sodhoe; th« ip^|p 
arose, however, only fh t srior spine of th« Bmm» 1% 

the leg anterioriy, I »Uc< t tiUalis antieiMi Awidad i|||| 
two tendons; < 1, t leks were aa ta 

peronens longos and brevis v d well dendoped, bat 
no peronens tertius. TheM asnsnal in.flMakqfflb 
the plantar head, and there was no trace of a 
according to Sandifort, it is pi nt. The flexor Infa d||||^ 
tomm supplied the perforating Ions for the 
the flexor longus hallncis those for the third and 
Tliere was no slip from the lon{ us halloeia fl^r the b^, 
that muscle, therefore, except fb i its origin, nemntij 
that name. The flexor breyis orum supplied the 
tendons for the second and thi: toes. Those tar ttn 
and flfth came off from the xor loogoa digltonnn. Sly 
tendon for the flfth toe was not perl orated. Tliere mm n 1 
ing slip between the third and fourth tendona. The 
only of the flexor acccssorins was present In adffitloo tottisd^^ 
doctor, flexor brevis and adductor of the hallnzi tiiere wna • impn 
marked opponens halluds. The In abricalea finr the aaooai^inl 
flfth (ll^ts came from the flexor longus digitorum, tboae ftirtis 
third nixl fourth dij^its iVom the flexor longus hallucis. Thesb* 
diictor and flexor 1 in* vis minimi digit! were well dereloped, iMI 
there wan no transversus pedis. The interossei were like thoit 
of the huml. Briefly, as compared with man, the leg and fool of the 
Orang dilHer in the abnence of the peroneus tertius, plantaria,flaXDr 
loiiftiiH hallueis and transversus pe<li8, in the flbular origin of the 
HoleiiH, and external origin of acce88orius only, in the distribotioa 
of the |H«rforatiug and perforated tendons for the toes, in the inle^ 
ostM'i^aivl in the presence of an op|)onen8 for the big toe. In tUi 
latter respect the Orang differs not only from man, but Anom all ths 
other monkeys and anthropoids, the foot having a very hand-Uks 
ap|H*araiiee, as compared witli that of the Gorilla and Chimpaues» 
The f[K>t of the Orang differs further in the absence of a special 

Prof, numphrcy held cMtentially the same opinion. I was not awaie, oalfl 
I hiu\ tiniHhcd my dissection, of the views previously published hj th— 
anutoniihtM, and am glad to have been able, independently! to oooie to ths 
same cuncluKion. 


flexor for the big toe. This is supplemented to a certain extent by the 
opponens, and in a partly developed accessorius. The perforated 
tendon for the fifth toe in the Gorilla came from the flexor longus 
hallucis, whereas in the Chimpanzee and Orang it is supplied by 
the tendon of the longus digitorum. If Prof. Huxley's canon be 
accepted that the distinction between a hand and a foot consists 
in the latter possessing tarsal bones, the peroneus longus and 
brevis, the short extensor and short flexor muscles, then the pos- 
terior extremity of the Orang terminates in a foot. It appears 
to me, however, that the difierence between the hand and foot in 
man, the Gorilla, Chimpanzee, and the lower monkeys, is greater 
than that observed between the corresponding members of the 

Alimentary Oanaly etc. — It is usually stated that the uvula is 
absent in the Orang, and, on looking into the mouth, at first sight 
this api)ears to be the case, as it does not hang down as in man 
between the pillars of the fauces — nevertheless it exists. I found 
it pointing directly backwards in a straight line from the i)Osterior 
palatine spine. It contained the azygos uvulae muscle. Prof. 
Bischoff' mentions also finding the uvula in the Orang. The cir- 
cumvallate papillae of the tongue are disposed in the form of a 
/\, as in man; I found this to be the case in the female Chimpan- 
zee,* of which I gave an account, and also in a male which I had 
the opportunity recently of dissecting. The salivary glands with 
their ducts were well developed, the submaxillary being very 
large both relatively and absolutely, as compared with man. The 
stomach in the Orang (PI. 13, fig. 1) is not so human in its form as 
that of either the Gorilla or the Chimpanzee, the cardiac portion, twp- 
thirds of the stomach, being more elongated and constricted from the 
pyloric part, which was tubular. The greater curvature measured 
6 inches, the less 4. The small intestine was 8 feet 4 inches in 
length, the large 4 feet. The constant presence of valvulae con- 
niventes in the small intestine of the Orang appears even at the 
present day questionable by some anatomists. In speaking of 
these folds occurring in the Gorilla, Bischofl"' refers to Owen not 
finding them in the Orang, while they are said to exist by Sandi- 
fort, Mayer and Barkow. As to his own opinion on the subject, 
he expresses himself as follows : ^^ Die beiden jetzt aufs Neue 

* Beitrage sur Gorilla, p. 37. ' Op. cit, p. 57. ' Op. cit., pp. 40, 41. 

-— ^ 

■ ii 

166 PBOoiKDiiiot or THB ACADmmt €V I,: 


von mir i m shten Diinndar aes OiangB 

«ii8 der hi< . Zool< ml ing, lowte dnr 

ChimpAn: » aiu Dreads i gen Kdne Spur dir 

ten. Ich I die« ih re Qegeuwmrt 

Ch e fiir ] t; im OoriUs, 

■ohwaeher :, 9 m; indiTldwDe ▼< 

heiten sind ch in ein< » Pnnokte nkht 

I found indications of t«1ti o tdventes in the Qm^g^ 

the most mdimentary cha *as oompaied irttk ma. In 

they ran parallel with the lo is of the IntesliBe^PL 14%4|k 

then transTersely as in {trL 14, flg. 8),tlieB 

and afterwards again f. ThqraveftMiiid faipartiflff' 

Jejunum and ileum. The Tain connlTOites I flmnd 

dCTsloped in the male Ohim (PL 14, fig. 4),1iaft 

the female. I noticed in the O ; the TiUi and aolH M y 

the Peyer's glands were i * weu developiA I 

some of which measured 4 length. The 

colic valTe did not difbr fin the same parts in 

miform appendix attained a | b of 6| inohes 

was relatiTely much larger n that of maBi 

the condition of this structure e human eminyo. * Am 

the large intestine, the only noticeable peenUarHiaa 

large size of the solitary glands, and the Ikot that the 

membrane of the ascending colon was thrown into wril-maikii 

longitudinal folds, with transverse connecting ones, exhihitfm 

quite a reticulated appearance (PI. 14, fig. 1). This is not thi 

case in the Chimpanzee. The peritoneum was disposed as ia 

man. The transverse colon was connected with the stonaeh, 

as was also the case in the ChimiMinzee, and Prof. BiadMrfP 

noticed that this obtains also in the Gorilla. As is well known, tki 

transverse colon in the monkey's can be raised entirdy wMkmI 

drawing up with it the stomach, with the exception sometimsi 

of the Maeacciues, in which I liave noticed a slight peritOMsl 

connection between pyloric part of stomach and colon, iadt 

eating a beginning of a gastrocolic omentum? I did not Bodes 

anything i)eculiar about the spleen or pancreas. The quadrate Mt 

of liver was absent ; the spigelian lobe, however, was rery wdD 

develoiK*(l ; the hepatic duct ofHined at a little distance fiom the 

pancreatic. I found in the small intestine, five fine specimens of 

> Op. cit, p. 89. 


the Ascaris lumhricoides, and one in the large, and in the caecum 
a Trichocephalus dispar, I believe this is the first time these 
entozoa have been found in the same anthropoid. According to 
Diesing^ the Trichocephalus is found in the Orang, and Cobbold- 
states that Murie sent him an Ascaris from the Chimpanzee. 

Respiratory System, — In the Orang, as in the Gorilla and Chim- 
panzee, particularly in the males, the ventricles of the larynx are 
prolonged into the so-called laryngeal pouches. In young speci- 
mens of the anthropoids, these pouches, though not so well devel- 
oped as in the adults, can usually, however, be perfectly identified. 
In dissecting my Orang, after removing the skin in the cervical 
region, I noticed what appeared to me to be the laryngeal pouches, 
and by passing a tube into one of the ventricles of the larynx, the 
pouch of that side could be readily inflated. On tracing, however, 
the anterior wall of the pouch downward, I noticed that it was 
attached to the front of the sternum and clavicle, and on opening 
^he pouch and following its posterior wall, I found it attached to 
-^he back of the sternum and first rib. Thus the interior of the 
>uch corresponded with the space between the two layers of the 
jervical fascia in man, usually filled with fat and absorbent glands, 
mt in the Orang it is empty and communicating with the interior 
>f the larynx. The pouch was not lined with mucous membrane, 
isembling the remaining fascia, which was indeed continuous with 
L "^. Supposing that my dissection really represented the true rela- 
z^ don of these parts, then, morphologically speaking, the laryngeal 
ziz^uch in the anthropoids would be homologous with and replace 
z-r Hie two layers of the cervical fascia in man, so familiar to the 
»■ ^«rgeon. There was nothing especially noticeable about the vocal 
=• ords, epiglottis or trachea. The lungs (PI. 13, fig* 2), however, 
■^•ere not divided into lobes as in the Gk)rilla and Chimpanzee. 

Vascular System, — I did not notice about the heart anything 

especially difl*erent from the human. In reference to the origin 

•■:fthe vessels, however, the iiinominate gave oS the left carotid 

'^d continuing an eighth of an inch then divided into the right 

<«rotid and right subclavian, the left subclavian coming off sepa- 

itely from the aorta (PI. 13, fig. 2). In the Gorilla and male 

Chimpanzee I found the disposition of these vessels the same as 

man, which is the case in the Orang, according to Sandifort. In 

^lie female Chimpanzee there were two innominates, a long and a 

>Hehn., voL ii, p. 534. < Entozoa, p. 1^1. 

-■■ -^1 

168 VIO0SIDIIIO8 or ths jkoAaaaa m [NHL 

short one, the latter diWding into left eaiolii 

The arteriee and Tefaia of tte eztremltiee did not 

of the' Gorilla and Chimpaniee. I ibvnd in ibmfhmm^'wm b' 

the ^loDg saphenone arteiy ** aecompanying the 

of eame name. The mesenteric reeicli ezhfbMad 

borders of intestine. 

Oeniio^rinafy Apparaius^ — ^Tbe general 
stroctaies resembled strikingly those of man (IL It). 
kidney measured 1^ inches in length, and eadrfUla «a|f Ml 
papilla. The ureters were 5 inches long. The 
inches in length and 1 in diameter. The testlelsa 
an inch in length, and were situated near the Ingubil' 
cavity of the tunica vaginalis testes was drat 
peritoneal cavity. The vas deferens was 4 tnebsa ta 
seminal vesicle 1 inch ; the seminal duct was very 
caput gallinaginls was' well developed, as was also tka 
The penis measured 8 inches in length, the gbns was of 
calshape. There was no bone in the penis. TbeOowpsA 
were relatively large. "^ 

Nervous StfMiem. — ^The brain of the Orang haa bastt i gM t MI Jl 

I, Sandifort, Schroeder van der Kolk aad TiiBlr, 
tiolet,Rolle8ton,etc On account, however, of the ftwIBMMilli 
extant, and of the importance of the subject, I avail ttyneirof tts 
op|)ortunity of presenting several views of my Orang^ bimin (tl\ 
1 <) and 17), which was removed flrom the skull only a few hcrais after 
death. The membranes were in a high state of congestion, anl a 
little of the surface of the left hemisphere had been disorgsniacd 
by disi^ase, otherwise the brain was in good condition. It weighed 
exactly 10 ounces. The brain of the Orang in its general eon to nr 
resembled that of man more than those of either of the Chimps^ 
zees which I examined. In these the brain was more iilranilsil 
Tlie general character of the folds and fissures in the brain of tht 
Orang, Chimpanzee, and man are the same, there are oertaia 
minor differences, however, in their di8i)Osition in all three. Tht 
fissure of Silvius in the Orang runs up and down the poeterior 
iirnncli pursuing only a slightly backwanl direction, the anterior 
l>ninch is smnll. The fissure of Ilolnndo, or central fissure, qnile 
apparent, is, however, situated slightly more forward in theOnmg 
than in man. It differentiates the frontal fVom the parietal lobe. 
The parieto occipital fissure is well markeil, bordered extemaUv 


by the first occipital fold it descends internally on the mesial side 
of the hemisphere, separating the parietal from the occipital lobes. 
In the Orang, the parieto-occipital fissure does not reach the cal- 
carine, being separated from it by the " deuxieme plis de passage 
interne '' of Gratiolet, or ** untere innere Scheitelbogen-Windiing'' 
of Bischoff. I have noticed this separation as an anomaly more 
than once in man. 

According to Bischoff, this disposition obtains in the Gorilla, 
and seems to be usual also in the Chimpanzee. In the female Chim- 
panzee, however, on the left side I found the parieto-occipital 
fissure passing into the calcarine, as in man. The frontal lobe is 
easily distinguished from the parietal by the fissure of Rolando, 
and from the temporal by the fissure of Sylvius. In the Orang it 
is higher, wider, and more arched than in the Chimpanzee. The 
anterior central convolution in front of the central fissure runs 
into the post-central convolution above and below, as in man. It 
is diflScult, however, to identify the three frontal convolutions 
seen in man and the Chimpanzee, the frontal lobe of the Orang 
dividing rather into two convolutions, the middle one being badly 
defined. This is due somewhat to the length of the^ pre-central 
fissure, which is as long as the fissure of Rolando, extending 
£uther upward than in man. There was nothing particularly 
noticeable about the base of the frontal lobe; on the mesial 
snr&ce it ran into the parietal. The part above the calloso- 
marginal fissure in the Orang is not as distinctly divided into 
convolutions as in man, though these are not constantly present 
^ven in all human brains. The parietal lobe is separated from 
^e frontal by the central fissure, from the occipital and temporal 
:incompletely, by the parieto-occipital and Sylvian fissures. The 
3K)sterior-central convolution is well defined. The parietal fissure 
:in the Orang is more striking than that of man, resembling the 
^rilla's ; it is twice as long as the corresponding fissure in the 
Ohimpanzee, extending from the transverse occipital fissure, as is 
-sometimes the case in man, almost into the fissure of Rolando. It 
is unbridged and without a break, and divides the parietal lobe 
completely into upper and lower parietal lobules. The upper 
parietal lobule is bounded externally by the parietal fissuriC; 
poBteriorly it is separated from the occipital lobe, internally by 
the parieto-occipital fissure ; externally it is continuous with the 
occipital lobe, as the first occipital gyrus, anteriorly it is sepa- 





rated from the posterior central convolution more completely 
than in man, by a fissure which nms parallel with the central 
fissure. There is in the Orang, also, a fissure running parallel 
with the [parietal, which subdivides the upper parietal lobule into 
inner and outer portions. The precuneus, or the space on the 
mesial side of the parietal lobe between the parieto-occipital 
fissures and the ascending branches of the calloso-marginal, is 
well defined. The lower parietal lobule in the Orang divides 
naturally into the supra-marginal and angular gyri. The supra- 
marginal fold curves around the upper end of the posterior 
branch of the fissure of Sylvius and runs into the superior tem- 
poral gyrus. The angular gyrus, which is very evident, arches 
around the first temporal fissure, and becoming continuous with 
the second occipital fold, passes then into the upper temporal 
gyrus. The occipital lobe, separated from the parietal, internally, 
by the parieto-occipital fissure, is continuous with upper parietal 
lobule through the first occipital gyrus, and by the second 
occipital gyrus with the angular. There are no sharp lines of 
demarkation between the occipital and temporal lobes. In the 
occipital lobe of my Orang the transverse occipital fissure was 
present, and received the parietal fissure. The calcarine fissure 
was well marked, but was separated in the Orang from the parieto- 
occipital fissure by the " deuxieme plis de passage interne '' of 
Gratiolet, the *' untere innere Scheitelbogen-Windimg " of Bischoff. 
The cuneus of the Orang is therefore somewhat different from that 
of man. In man I have seen these two fissures separated as an 
anomaly. The calcarine passed Into the hippocampal fissure, so 
that in the Orang, as in monkeys generally, the gyrus fornicatus 
was separated from the hippocampal gyrus , whereas in man these 
convolutions are continuous. This disposition has been noticed 
in the Hylobates, in Ateles, and in one Chimpanzee, where 
the calcarine did not reach the hippocampal. The first occi- 
pital gyrus is very well developed, and, as the late Professor 
Gratiolet observed, is one of the most striking convolutions in 
the brain of the Orang. It rises so to the surface that the 
internal perpendicular fissure or external part of the. parieto- 
occipital fissure is almost entirely bridged over, the operculum so 
characteristic of the monkey almost disappearing. It is con- 
tinuous with the upper parietal lobule arching around the parieto- 
occipital fissure. This convolution comes to the surface in the 


Hylobates and A teles almost to the same extent as in the Orang, 

but it is more developed in the latter than in the Chimpanzee. It 

is called also the " premier plis de passage externe," by Gratiolet, 

the " obere innere Scheitelbogen-Windung," by Bischoff, the ^* first 

annectant gyrus," by Huxley, and " first bridging convolution," 

by Turner. The second occipital convolution connects the occipital 

lobe with the angular gyrus. In my Orang it was parti}* concealed 

by the first occipital. It was not as superficial as in man. The 

third occipital gyrus is continuous with that part of the temporal 

lobe below the first temporal fissure. I noticed, also, in my 

Orang the " quatrieme plis de passage " of Gratiolet. On the 

mesial side of the occipital lobe in my Orang, was well seen tlie 

^^ deuxieme 'plis de passage interne" of Gratiolet, the " untere 

innere Scheitelbogen-Windung '' of BischofT, which separates the 

calcarine from the parieto-occipital fissure ; and in both the 

Orang and Chimpanzee, more especially on the left side, I had no 

^ifilculty in recognizing the '* premier plis de passage interne '* of 

Gratiolet, its convexity turning inwards, while that of the first 

occipital gyrus, or the *' premier plis de passage externe,'' turns 

^)atward. These two convolutions, the first occipital gyrus and 

^•he " premier plis de passage interne," in my Orang were con- 

'ttinaous. They are regarded as one by Bischotf, forming his 

'*^"* obere innere Scheitelbogen-Windung," but as two by Gratiolet, 

<^czx)DStituting his " premier plis de passage externe et interne." 

The temporal lobe in the Orang is much less convoluted than in 
, or even in the Chimpanzee. The first temporal fissure and 
rst temporal convolution are well marked, but the second and 
bird are badly defined. The fusiform and lingual lobes are sep- 
ted bj" the inferior occipito-temporal fissures, the collateral 
ssarcs of Huxley. The island of Reil was perfectly covered in 
~3oth the Chimpanzee and the Orang by the operculum, but was 
ot convoluted in my Orang. The surface in places was slightly 
nghened. I noticed, however, three or four convolutions in 
he Chimpanzee. On making a section of the left hemisphere of 
he Orang I noticed that the corpus callosum was relativel}^ 
mailer than in man, but that the ventricle exhibited an anterior, 
^^awddle and posterior cornu, the corpus striatum, tjenia scmi- 
^^iicularis, thalamus opticus and fornix were well developed, the 
liippocaropus major with corpus fimbriatum were perfectly evident, 
^nd the hippocampus minor larger relatively than in man. I did 



lYD PBOOIBDINGS or TBI aoadhit ov • [UHt 

imted from the posterior oentnd conyoliitioii won 
than' in man^bya fisanre which mna panlM wtth tib* 
fissure. There is in the Onmg, alsoi a issue 
with the parietal, which snbdivides the upper parietal 
inner and outer portions. The precuneus, or the 
mesial side of the parietal lobe between the 
fissures and the ascending branches of the 
well defined. The lower parietal lobole in the (h$ag 4hrlis» 
naturally into the supra^naiginal and angular gyxL Tha 
marginal fold curves around the upper end of tiw 
branch of the fissure of Sylvius and runs into the aaperior 
pond gyrus. The angular gyrus, which is very evMst, 
around the first temporal fissure, and becoming oontinwMW 
the second occipital fi»ld, passes then into the npper 
gyrus. The occipital lobe, separated from the 
by the parieto-occipital fiMure, is continuous wHh vtppm 
lobule through the first occipital gyrus, and bf the 
occipital gyrus with the angular. There are no shaip Vam'ttt 
demarkation between the occipital and temporsl lobsa. Is 1k» 
occipital lobe of my Orang the transverse occipital 
present, and received the parietal fissure. The caloariaa 
was well niariccd,but was separated in the Onmg from the 
occipital fissure by the ^ deuxieme plis de passage interne " eT 
Q ratiolet, the ^^ untere innerc Scheitclbogen-Windung " of BisdioC 
The cuneuB of the Orang is therefore somewhat ditferent from that 
of man. In man I have seen these two fissures separated as sa 
anomaly. The calcarine passed into the hippocampal fissure, m 
that in the Orang, as in monkeys generally, the gyrus fomkatos 
was separated A*om the hippocampal gyrus , whereas in man thess 
convolutions are continuous. This di8|)08ition has been noticed 
in the Hylobates, in Ateles, and in one Chimpansee, wheie 
the calcarine did not reach the hippocampal. The first ooei* 
pital g3'ni8 is very well dcvc1ope<l, and, as the late Professor 
Gratiolet olMerve<l, is one of the most striking convolutioaa in 
the brain of the Omng. It rises so to the surface that the 
internal perpeii<licular finRurc or external part of the parieto- 
occipital flBRure ifl almost entirely bri<lgcd over, the operculum m 
ch.inictcristic of the monkey almost diftapix'aring. It is eon* 
tiimoimwith the upper parietal lobule arching around the parieto- 
occipital fiHHure. Thin convolution comes to the surface in the 


monkeys, for there is no necessity of having recourse to such 
measures to prove that the cerebellum is covered in the latter? 

In the account I gave of the female Chimpanzee/ I stated that 
I found the cerebellum uncovered. I had the opportunity a short 
time since, of verifying that statement in the male, noticing in 
•^itu that the cerebellum was uncovered by the posterior lobes. 
This was foimd to be the case by Mr. Arthur Browne, the Super- 
intendent of the Phila. Zool. Garden, in a third Chimpanzee 
which died there. With all deference to Prof Marshall's* photo- 
graph of a plaster cast of the brain of a Chimpanzee, and how- 
ever it may truthfully represent the relations of the cerebellum in 
his specimen, I must say that it would be simply monstrous if 
accepted as an illustration of either of mine, and with profound 
respect for Prof. Huxley's^ opinion regarding the interior of the 
skull being a guide for the determination of the proportion between 
posterior lobe and cerebellum, I find it anything but a safe one as 
regards the anthropoid apes. For the space betweeii posterior lobes 
of brain and dura mater and bone, both posteriorly and laterally, I 
find very variable in situ, due to the state of the blood vessels and 
amount of fluid in arachnoid and subarachnoid cavities. In speak- 
ing of the Gorilla, Prof Bischoff * observes, p. 100, " Das es bei 
erstercm am wenigsten von oben Hinterlappen der grossen Hemi- 
sphare bedecktwird und bei der Betrachtung des Schadel gewiss von 
oben mit seinem hinterem Rande sichtbar wird." And in reference 
to the Chimpanzee,* p. 95, " Die Hinterhauptslappen des grossen 
GFehims bei diesem Affen wie bei dem Menschen das kleine Gehirn 
iiberzogen und von oben fast ganz bedecken.*' And Vrolik* states, 
p. 7, of the Orang : " Ce lobe posterieur ne se prolonge pas autant 
que chez Phomme ; il ne recourve pas si bien le cervelet du moins il 
ne cache pas compl^tement surtout vers les cotes." The fact of the 
cerebellum being covered by the posterior lobes in my Orang and 
that figured by Gratiolet, and but slightly uncovered in that of 
Vrolik's, is no more strange than that Bischoff^ should find it 
covered in one Hylobates, and Prof. Huxley ^ having stated it to 
be uncovered in another. 

I did not observe anything particularly noticeable alK)ut the 

» Proceed, of Acad., 1879. « Natural History Review, 1801. 

' Han*8 place in Nature, p. 97. ♦ Das Gehirn des Gorillas, 1877. 

* Gehirn des Chimpanzee, 1871. • Amsterdam Verslagen, Dee! 13, 1803. 

' Beitrage zur Hylobates, 1870. ** Vertebrate Anatomy, p. 411. 

172 Faoi;KRiii\UK op the acadkmt or [IS 

not Hbc a tra4.-u of the cmRicnrnUa collaUiDilis ; this 
bowcrer, aliBent in mnn. 

Ttie (.I'lvbelliitn Id my Orans wna rclntivcly larifpr than that of 
nwii, lint sniallcr than tlial of eitlier ibe f 'hlinp»mH*s I b«»e 4 
docted, and was just covewii and no more by llie |>oaivriur lol 
of tlie rt^rehruui. TliU relntiou i§ ftill retain^] Iti toy 
tbougb tbi> brain bax \>wn lying in alvobol for tlirw tuonUt* • 
it was tukt-n out of the chlnridr of xiiu> in wblvh it « 
aiitil the i>in could )><■ removed. During tbf« period it I 
liren HMl'ject to thr conditions, vnch am the want of tbr stipporl 4 
the mctJibrance, the ciTeot of pressure, etc., urftcd by GntioiA 
Uuxtpy, Kollcston, Mar«hall, etc., as sumoicnt to explain wfcT 
aftpr death the oerebelUim waa uncovered by tbc cerebrum In iht 
OraRK and Chimpanzee, aa held by Owen, Schroeder nut dw 
Kolk and Vrolik, and Blachoir. Kvery nnatomiDt koow* that 
tbe brain aflrr n-movnl IVuin Ihi; nkall, especially witbont tk 
mtimlirunv, if hrft to itiudf, very Hoon Iom-m itx ahape. It if aWi>- 
lately nei?cMnry tiiervforc to rxamino the brain in ntto, atMl aftrr 
removal from iikuU to plac« it in some hardening fluid in whkli it 
will float. Even with ttiese precautiona, throiich the cbaag* ■( 
the eurronudiniia, ahriDkage. etc., the brain ia alwaya ■onvahal 
altered. It bap|wiia, however, that [ have bad lying-in aleebol 
for aome years a nitmber of human ami monkey bmiaa. ,Kia*mf 
the lulltT, exnmplea of the genera Vehu*. Alflm. Jlni-at-ut. I'ywn- 
irrjJialvn, t't^rcojiitln-'-un, vtc., uken out of tlit) akatl ■ulRci«iitlr 
mrafully, but pn-Mer^-i'd in thv rtidvnt manner withoat aiy 
regar<l to the above precautions. Now, while all of the** Into 
have aomewhal lo»t their natural contour, thcr are not « 
that iu a ain^le one, human or monkey, do I find th« c 
■ncuvervd by the ceretirum, and in every tnatano* tb» | 
lotHii overlap thr censtHdlum to n gn-nter extent lltan I find ia tfca 
on«r in rny Orang. If the ecn-hnnn and cerelx-lhim In %hv Oiwp J 
and Chimpanzee invarliil'lr bcir the ■mm- pruimrlion to «Mfe>]| 
other as they do In man and the monkeys, why ■bonM aat !!• 
brain of an Orang or Chimpanzee, after lying in aksohol fi>r ■■■■ 
years, exhibit the cerebellnm covered by the cerebrum aa in thm? 
Why ahould it Ix- neceasary to replace the btain of the Chifa 
lee or the Orang in the skull, to make plaster casta, etc., if !)«• 
is no dilTcreace between their l)rBins and those of man Uid the 


from other points of view the Orang approaches man more closel}^ 
than cither the Qorilla or Chimpanzee, and that as regards certain 
mosclesy man and the lower monkeys agree in having them, while 
they are absent in the anthropoids. From these facts we may 
reasonably infer that the ancestral form of man was intermediate 
in character as compared with the living anthropoids or lower 
monkej'^s, agreeing with them in some respects, and differing from 
them in others. The Orang is closely allied to the Gibbons, the 
Chimpanzee to the Macacques, and the gap between these and the 
Semnopiihecus is bridged over by the MesopitJiecus of Ottudr^*. 
Until, however, the paleontologist will have procured more 
material like that from Pikermi, and interpreted it as ably, it 
will seem to me premature to offer any detailed genealogical tree 
of the Primates. 


pouo or rimIuIIb, «xn-)>t itmt In Xbc Utter the oUvarjr I 
not ftd (littinct ■• in ntan. A* rvgudii the pfripbenU ■ 
•,irRti!RiIt«a«i-«MM]tial)r llM-iiunraatti«liuiiuui. A«ttt#b 
Ornni; wliirli 1 hnrv jwot vinIcaron-U to <l«tcribe b tht pcopw^" 
i>r tliv A intk-my, tlicnntnul luiring brrn liunghtftiHl preMmtedhr 
Mr. Will. S. V»nx, timl iu> it nix dittirablv In piv«erT» It is Hi 
pr<*airDl roibHilion, I coiilrl nut tniikip n)w or it to rxmmim* li^ 
•tmvtnn- iniunti>iv. I wonM refer tliovr intetmtod la \h» MH 
t<Aimj (iT till! ■ntliropoid )>rain, to Dr. Spitzks's |Mper.' ^H 

Whut irin Im> Inferred (Void th« geDernl organtzalion nf fl^ 
Onin^ BA Lo its relation to tbe other ]minat«« T The Onni Rto 
inui hn* twelve ribi, wb«re«s the ilnrilU and Cbini|«nZM> hatv 
thirl4Mn ; on thr othM- hand the caqinl fliid tuwU baiie« an ihh 
in niinili«ir in the Omng, wbil*- the Chim|M»x«e anil Qorilla sfR* 
with ntau in hanng Hfcht. TIw it|>(>cr exlivmity of tfar Oi*ac 
rp«cniliW thnt of the Gorilla in tho xb^vneo of tb« flmor loa^ 
|M>UU;li« The Chimpaiueo and man are altko in tfaia mprrt.>i 
leaat the Hlip tiam the flexor longus ditiilonim in the fonaff ■> 
ntncllooally a flexor longua. lu the abMuoc of a flexor lonpv 
hallihrl*, anil in the preaence of an opponena ballocb, the Oraof 
diffenfmni nrnn, thttantbropoidii and all the monkey*. The gnat 
hlooil-vriuHtlK nriM! from the arch of norla in llie OorilU aal 
IJian hi (111-- "mill- may: Id'- ■"»mi- .liijiovitinn i" ti"iuiU\ -■-•■fi in l|w J 
Chiinpnnzee, rarely in the Orang. The longs in the Oraag an 
not divided into lobea as in the OorilU, Chimpaniee and mam. 
Tbe etomach in the Uorilla and Chimpanzee is hnman is it* 
form ; in tbe Orang, however, it is quite different. Tbe ptfi' 
toneum in the Gorilla, Cbimpanzee and Orang ia like that of ■■■■; 
in the low^r monkeys it is different. The brain of the Oraaf li 
its globular form, in tbe cerebellum being iistutUy oovcnd bgr Uw 
cerelirum, and in tbe development of the first ocdpHal gjww», 
rcacmbli'B man more than that of the Qorilla and Phimpaniw 
On the other hand, the frontal and temporal lobes in the Onag 
art- not as much convoluted as in the Chimpanzee, and atill Icm 
than in man, and the island of Reil is not convoluted at all, at 
It-aitt in my Orang. 

It «ill bf Keen IVom the above illustrations, of which mu,r 
othert mi}rbt l>r jfiven, that the Gorilla and man, in aome respects, 
ngrt't with an'l differ from the Chimpanzee and Orang; wUlt 



head. The frontal limb is triangular in outline, and prolonged 
into a prominent projection, the bourrelet of the limb is defined 
by a triangular ridge which forms the base of the projection. 
The projection is formed by the thickening of the crust and by 
the union of the outer marginal borders along the median line, it 
is pointed and has its sides deflected. The space between the front 
of the glabella and the base of the projection is somewhat de- 

The pygidium is obtusely triangular, with the front greatly 
arched in uncrushed specimens, but this character seems to be 
confined to the medium-sized specimens ; the larger forms are not 
so much arched, and correspond in this respect to typical pygidia 
of C blumenbachii. The axis occupies along the anterior border 
about one-third of the width of the tail, and gradually tapers 
posteriorly into an obtuse point ; it is marked with about eight or 
nine articulations, the anterior one being slightly arched forwards, 
but the others are extended almost straight Fig. 2. 

across it. The dorsal furrows are well defined. 
The lateral lobes are marked with five pairs of 
ribs, four of which are grooved and double half- 
way up ; they are contracted along the dorsal 
furrows, but widen out laterally. The ribs curve caiymene rottrata 

" Vogdes. The i)y#- 

downwards and backwards, and are separated dium upuaiiy found 

. associated with the 

from each other by well-defined grooves, the head. 

last pair unite and form a ridge extending around the posterior 

termination of the axis. 

Geological Position. — Clinton Group, Taylor's Ridge, near 
Catoosa Station ; and also at Dug Gap, Georgia. 

Among the trilobite specimens which I have collected in 
Georgia, there are three movable cheeks and one pygidium 
showing a strong resemblance to the same parts of Caiymene 
Clintoni as figured by Prof. Hall in Pal. N. Y., vol. ii, pi. 66 a, 
fig. 5. These fragments were found associated with two glabellae, 
having characteristics not shown by the illustrations of the species 
just referred to; therefore, for the purpose of comparison, I 
carried the specimens to the American Museum, and through the 
courtesy of Prof. Whitfield was enabled to study the trilobites 
found in the Clinton Group of New York. The Georgia forms 
are almost identical with those of New York, but show some 


This Bpeciefl dtflfan In ooe upeot from iLc 

under the geniu Calywimie, in bsTing a pmji^c 

diKoUy from the oepludio ahield in front of tbo ]tlnbefia,aM<i 
this respect reeembles BamaiotuitMa rhiiu^n,i,ia of An|[i'ltB,] 
■peoles which hu been referred by Saltw, in iitu moau|^ra|>h ^ 
British TriloUtea, to E. KnighHi. Salter bs,^ > >- Uk- fn>ut aini| 
n^^ is of most eiagalsr ^inn'tiiri' uiii maj k 

described ss trionspiil. The nnrrow v 
is so deeply indanted^Hii'l ut thvMiot- 1 
folded, that the ftaot inrtioo orcrfi 
ttte rostral ahietd,' tonus odc iintjn 
..jf... angle flanked by two aiuAUer projetftifll 

Th!^SS^amttiMSS^ Opposite tlie azial ftirri'WH.vxKcUy liki' t' 

AeW^ tk* pnlMlBS pro- ,f . I . _i ^ . 

floation." Our species has only tlie central tiiniiguUr proJrctMi 
the margins of which are deflected, and the mnrg^inal border oniH 
anil forms a triangular projection, directly in front and ( 
median line. 

The foUowing characteristics are drawn from three specimcaa, 
coDHJBting of the glabella and fixed cheeks, and many pygidla 
found SMSuciated with them at the same locality. 

The glabella is convex and widens out posteriorly, being 
contracted in front ; the sides are marked with three lobo, 
the basal one large, the mid<Ue lobe ncariy spherical, the thlid 
is somewhat obncurel}' defined. The fixed cheeks are scpantal 
from the glabella by deep dorsal fbrrows, but opposite the cy«i 
the furrows are n'Htri('U.-d by'a buttrees thrown across it, neariy 
touching the middle side loltcs; the checks are gibbous bat 
not vlt'vate<l ah<»vo the glnlwlla, tbey are narrow along the 
siiK-tt of the glalM-lla and widvii out laterally from the eyea^ 
The facial tiiitures cut the posterior angli^ of the head, bat 
anteriorly from the t>yca these liiit'H nin almost straight with 
a Mltght tcnili-ncj' outwanl, and iwmb over the margin. The 
tii-ck furrow is continued ni'ariy to the posterior angles of tbc 

1««« ' «ATt &AL MU^* tm of miLAIiftLmi A. 17* 

l T*»r friiiital liiiih !• triaii^iiUr in outlmr. mwi |iniii»n^l 
iU% ' a |*r<>miit« itt |irit;t*«'ti«*ti. IIm* lH»iirr» Irt of tbr lltu** i« ilrflocHl 
*'\ % triati,;iiUr ri*l^«' «huli fi»rtii« thr l««r of th«- iirKji^'tion 
T^'f- ; r>.;«<< ti<iii !• ftirmr^l !•% tli«- tliH'k«*nin)* «»f ihr rrti*t atnl U\ 
tS«- II!.:' ti **{ tH«- «iiit« r nuiririnal tNtnlrr* aliiiit; tlu* r»«^lt«ti Itnr. it 

%m |a':r:tar<l At)*! Iift« l'« •l«|f-« «l«-ft«T?r«l. Th«- •pAr«- !■-!«• rti ttir friitlt 
<ftf th«> «;UUlla ftti*! thr l««r nf thr |ir«t)i<<*tiiBU i« ««»ffii«-«hBl «ir 

Tlir |i^iri4liQm i« «iMii*rl;i tnmnifiiUr. with tbi- froiit u«natl\ 

arrbr«| ifi uti«'ni*lftr«l •!«<• iiurtis. \nit tht« rhftrsi'trr M^rtii* to \»r 

rvittfli>r«l U» thr tiH^liiiiii •ii<**i •|«^'itnrri« . thr Urift'r ftirni* mrr n*^ 
mn mof-h an hnl atnl i iirn-«|«»ni| in thi« rr*|M*f*t t<» t\|Mr^l |««i;i«lia 
r»i C M'.m*m^^* K%% Thr a\t« ita«Mi|»ir* ahini; thr antriii»r U»ft|rr 
Al«*':t i-tM* thirl of th«- «i«lth of thr tail, an^i i;r»<liitll> (a|«-r« 
|Bi«l« ri"rl% iiito an oNufti inMiit . it i* in-irkr*! with a*«»iit «-i;;ht **x 
ntiw trlit Illation* thr antmitr tinr *■ intf •lii;htl\ afi'hnl fon^anl* 
^•it *..>¥r fihrra an- t \t«-ii<lol alnio«t «tniiirlit 
arr^*** :t Tfir ilfr^il furrow* arr wrll ilrAur*!. 
Tt»«' Utrrml lt»t«-* an nitrkt-«l with ft^r |i«ir* of 

f,\m f KJf iif whirh arr j;r«*»%r«l ami •|i»llMr half 

wa« Q|' thr\ an f'«intr»rt«'«l al*>ti^ tht- il«ir%al 

fWm>«* Ni! fiiiirn out UtrralU. Thr n*«»riir»r '•it*^* •*<•»•*« 

ft«««ii«ftr«l« afi-l )«<*k«anU. an*! ar^ •ri^rwtr^l * ■• ••••-•• »«».i 

tt*tn r»i h othrf h\ «rlN|rAli««l tfr«-i%r«. thr !••! 

l»«t pftsf t:Tnt«- ari«l form a n«l;:r r\trti«|tii^ annin*! !)m \'—X* r.or 

1rnfciiiA*i<*n f»f thr ait* 

'#>.*-;• 1.' /\»«i.*i 1. - <*hiitiin lin«ii|.. Ta\**or'* lliilj^r. n«-Af 
4*at«H«A >tktifn . aiil al**> at Pu,; <tA|>. (tt-^'r^Ma. 

.Itb 11^ thr tr:!«»* '.tr •j*-<lllirtj* «hlt-h I hs\i i-'Iltftr*! II* 

!•«• r^'.a t!ir'i ar«- thnv nit •%»*!#- « l«f^ W* an*! ott« |>\ p;i«l*.iini 
• 1» '• r .• a •tn»u^' n*«in'lati«' X* thr ftaiiM* |<irt* *•( f*:.,n\*p.r 
C:%*' « »• fiiCtin-l f% Prof \U\\ in |*al N Y %ol. n. |»l ^.< a. 
€^ '■ T^« •• fr^i^ra* fit •«• n fiitin 1 a*«*«^ •ata'vl «ith t«** ^-li** Il.r. 
ka« :r.«' « !i»M4 *c r "tK « ii>*t ttlntan h]i thr i!lii*traV>-n» «'f Ch< aim* ir^ 
;a*t r«'*rrr'l t > tSt r« f*>rr, !>>r thr piir|«**4 of r«ini|an**<n I 
r^fr-wl M,r vivY.iiHn* t** t^H- .Immian Mii«iuni. an«l thr>*u^h thr 
'••'jrtf*^ of i*rof U hitAt I I «»* rna^*h«l t«i •ti«t|\ thr triioUtr* 
f-»-i^l in tin- l"l'.nt«»fi *iT*»u\t •»{ Svm York Th«- tir-irj*!* f**rin 
arv kin***! i>lrtiti*al «:th tb«Mr t*f Srm \ork. tut ah 


nHuran ov a war axntAouM vyoK m i 

UtOBU, wits *"*»*■ VtOM OJATMBli « 
Vr ABiaORT W. TOWM^ O. i. A. 

Thia Bpecies diffen in one Mpect flx>iii tbc hmihI rnmw 
ander the geniu (7aly«ene, in h&ving a prc|]>'^-i in); ptuc«m ahaiBg 
diieotly from the oeplimlic ahield in front of ihv glnlwIU, anil a 
thia respect reeemblee HoTHoUmotut rhvutirujiif, of Atigt-Uj ^ 
■peoles wbioh bu been referred by SaltWi '■■ l>i>) nioai>Kn>{i(k j 
British TriloUtes, to H. KnigUxi. Salter au) s " Lbc frt.ui iu>i| 
n»i. is of moat eingalar ^tvucturv uiJ uujrl 

described w trionapil. 
is so deeply lndented,uii<l m Ui>' 
folded, that the bant iKiriion ovrrt 
the roetral shield,' form* une prvjcc 
_^ angle Hanked by twi.- ttuiiillor projn 
T^^SSLMdaudSSSi opposite the axial fturions, exactly liked 
•M. Bsuent and i«-enterii)>; niiglva of a AiH 

fication." Our species baa only the central hinngular pn>ir«fi4 
the margina of which are deflected, and the sutrglnal bunlrruniia 
and forma a triangular projection, directly in Frunl nn<J tm tWj 
median line. 

Tlie following ctiaracteriatica are drawn from three ii|iiii iimw, 
conttiating of the glabella and fixed cheeka, and many pygidk 
found aeaociated with them at the some locality. 

Tlie glabelta ia convex and widens out posteriorly, bdif 
contracted in front ; the sides are marked with tbt«e lobee, 
the basal one large, the middle lobe ncariy spherical, the thM 
is somewhat obscurely defined. The fixed cheeks are eeparatd 
from the glabella by deep dorsal furrows, but opposite the eyta 
the Airrowa are restrictc-d by a buttress thrown acroaa It, neariy 
touuliing the middle aide lobea; the cheeks are gibbooa bat 
not t'terated above the gloltella, they are narrow along the 
aidvfl of the glal*ella and widen out laterally ttom the eyes. 
The facial sutures cut the posterior angles of the head, b«l 
anteriorly fi-om the eyes these lines nm almost straight with 
a slight tendency outward, and jwas over the mavj^n. The 
neck furrow is continued nearly to the posterior angles of the 


XATt &AL Ut%\* tm or miLAIiEtJill.%. 

I • • 

1 T*ir fnifitAl linih i* tnanciiUr in outlmr. An«l |kriiii»n};nl 
tt.1 a |*r«itiiitM lit |»rii;n*ti«*ti. lli«* UmmlH of iIm* lituU i« i|r fiord 
*'t » !riMtip;uUr ri«l,:r «liu'li fonii« thr l««r of thr |»ri*jff^*tion. 
Tt.*- I r<.H4 tf»ti 1* f«*nnr«l !•% tli«* tliK'krnini; «»f thr rrii«l mtu\ >•% 
tJBc iiTii'>ti i»f thi- oiitrr nuiri;in»l ImimUt* Al«»n^ tin* n»«'«ii«ti Imr, it 
!• |a>:r.?«^l sml lia« !*■ sitlr* i|i-lfrrfc^l. TIh* •}>ac'«* In'tv***!! thr front 
Cftf thr ^ImU-IU Atl«l thr t«*r of thr pn»)«^ti«ili l« MiffiirnhAl tlr 

Tltr |i%|»t<|iafn !• <iMii««*lv tnmnifiitar, with tbr fri»tit ^natly 
Aft br«l in uni*ni«lir«l •|ir<-|iurn«. iHit thl« rluU^M'trr •c^'in* tti br 
<>niifltM*l u> thr tii«'«ltuni «i«i*«l •|«'<'inirn« . thr Urvvr fortii* art* n^K 
mn m<Kh ftrrhcvl. atnl i-«*rrr«|«»n*l in thi« rr*|irrt t«» t%|*tr^l p«;;ii|ia 
«»f #• ^/l. i»k#*n^i^f ^ti Thr tkWrn m ril|ilrM aIoih; thr AntrMor tvifilrf 
Alv..:t ii>«*thiri of X\u' «i«ith «>f thr tail. An<l i*r!h>hi!ilt> t»|ii*r« 
|«iM« rt<'rl\ int«> mti <iMii«i |M>iiit . it t« inirkr*! with m*«»iit «i)«hl it 
nttM- irli* uUtii»n«. tin* antrnor onr taint; •lii;htl% AH'hrtl f«*rwanl*. 

^mi •.}»• i*<hrr« mrr r%trn«lol Altii*i«t «tnii|;ht 
trt*—* '.\. Thr i|t>rMil fiirftfW* arr wrll «lrAiHN|. 

T^«« tftlrml hAwrm An* ffliArki-*! Wtth ft^r |iAir% of 

n»« f.f)f of whirh Afr jrr^-i^r^l Ait«l «|ouMr half 

wa% Q|' thr\ %r» I'wintrArtfxil Alotij^ tlit- «|or«al 

fnrf**mm tait «i«lrn «*iit UtrnilU . Thr ril*»«*iir*r 

•|«i«A«%r*U »n*l l«rkwApU. Ati«l art* •r|«ratr«l 

f^*tB r%t h othrr !•% Wrll^lrfllH^I ^r%Hi%t-«. thr 

IaM |iir i.iiit** an*! fi*nii a r^l'^r r\trti*lti»<^ AriMin*l th« |»»«trr.i'r 

ttfrtti.tiA*:>>n of thr Ali« 

*#>-■•;« !•' /\*#i.'i-"». - <*!iiit**it <tr»Mn». TA\lor'* Ki*i;;r. in-ar 
( at«B«4 >tAti**ii . aii'i aI«>i At Pu,; t>j|>, tio.r^'iA. 

.Itk rjp^ thr tr.I«»l il«- •j*i-riii:rn% whuh I h%\* »••*.*,• ^-?«-« I lu 
IW* r«'a t^trrt- Aft* thn«- iii"tA*lt- « hf^ k* aii«l «'iit |-\,:i*l!Uni 

• i* •• r^ a •tr»ilij: n •• m* lati t t-« tht ftaliir j<iil« **( C: .in'';* 
€•;•-' -• *• ftiCiin-l I % Prof lliill in p.l N Y . %*A. :i, i^ •*.•. a. 
€^ T?-« •« ff»ijrertil» •• r* fmm I a*«*«i »*.'-« I «:th !•«» i:!*'»Il.r. 
kai.*-.' « '.*Af •• *€ f ."tlr* ii.'t ftht^wn h\ thr illii«tr»*-«*rj* '-f tl.« •j««i«-^ 

• ««t 't'.ffr-l t». tht M fofv, f..r ?!»•• |.i*r|««*« i»f r«mi|an««-n 1 
cArrv^ M«c ttiw^cBirti* t** t^M* AmrMian Mii«iuni ai»*I thr^^ti^h thr 
'•-'jr*.««\ i*f rr«'f U hitA< M wa« tnaf^h^l to tttiAil) t^<- tr-.i«*Utr« 
f«^.c»l .n tt>r lMmt«*n ttroni* of Sr« V<*rk Thr ltr««r^ta f«*rin* 

»!•!••«( i*t«nti<Al With thcMr of Nr« York. * ut ah<«w •»»mr 



variatlnnfl from th« typical C. Clinioni; I shall, then 
(li-*cri1« tliese rraRiDeoto. 

Calymeat OUntonl Vuaum. 

tilabelk sllgbdy couvex, IUl- Ihi.'M.' brom), ao fts to tona a nettij 
eqnllateral trfangle. Tlic sid^rn nre cnarkiHl with thtvc Ii>bcA,tk 
posterior one U-ing twico an Inrgr aa llic rol'lillc lutw, tfOt Uc 
anleriiir onft is ill-dcflnpd. The Jomnl fiirronni an; iltrp. Tb» 
occ-tpital ring triangatar ia IVotit, and narrowing oat. laterally. 
Tbe fVontal limb is broad, aud equal to iiolt rbf> Icujtb uf tfea 
glalH'lla, »Dd arcbed hi frout. tt [s worthy of remark that that 
cbaractcr ia not common to the mbiute gU1>c11a found iuthe m^ 
beds- Tbo fixed chcukH Lave a bullrt-iia thrown acma* this 
>iK, 1. f xlvnding along Lliu ables of tbt! jtlabclla, but thkt 

adoea not i-dcvxtu them above it. Tbe monUt 
cbMka arc triangnlar in outline, and |K>«t<Tiotl| 
pxtmd<-d into apinc*, and rormpoa'I to Ihow 
flgurcd by Prof. Uall, Pal. N. V., vol. ii, pi. H k 
fig. A, c. They are convex latcnllj* aloag tWr 
lnii«rlialf,aiid grooved n«w the outomu^ti,wUdi 
I '" <l<^'li"^ ''y <i raiaed border. Tbe pysidinin fa 
I" Tiie triangubtr in outline, and reaemUca tbe Hffomut 

[>I. SC a, fig. 5 ft,d, fxwpl in mw. The a«» b 

*''"■ *' mark«^ with about ri^ht arti<;ulation». llit- latMal 

yV loltefl are not marked witli ribs, aa iiaaa] in CaJf- 

A^^^ uiirni', and In tbiH respect tbe pygidiiim bears mmbc 

i^^^M resi'mbluiice to that of C arago and L'.Mt/f^rt'.twa 

^^^ KuroiK'un t'orm^ foiiud lu tbe Lower Stliirian, and 

^^ detwrilied by iiousauil iu iti4i». 

W Geological Poailion. — Clinton Oroap, CWoMt 

c*Jrwa( cKiKni Station ; also iu the Hematitic bed at Dng Qif, 
i5?.".%'h«t *• Georgia. 

!«*«• AAlt ftAt HUiit ftt or rHiLAtitLrtiiA 1«9 

CAtcisoLooicu aoTU. !• I tiTUioa or rsi oivvi octpoda 

T^• f<>llit«(ti^ |*"|**^ !• I4l»r4| nn the* l'i»tl« • tl«»li» of liir Ai'A*l«'lll_\ 

I h»i« .*>«« r^i"! xUr rule* Ai|ii|i|r«l 111 |irv% It'll* |i«|«*r« **( (**\U*miuj^ 

l^it ' • x't.'.s fr«<li« »hi' li 1 h»%r M I ti *|«-4'lllH-tl«. \»\ Bll r\t-iaiu^!in|i 

|«>.itt 111 %\\ iiIIm r *«•«-« tli«' tiAiiit* iif ttir |N*r«uiii who lia« r« |Hirtt-«l 
ft •!•■ It « fr«Piii Bit% |*l.ii-r f*«IUi«* that «*f tlit* l«H*Alit> 'I ti«* %ain« 
^ ct»« rt af .11- »|>irr. «hiiti f^Tift'lr* iu% |**|*"*r *'U ^'>** ** TiiMIrr 
C'r»'M '»».*.t«if4i t Will l«- f**iili>l 111 thl« MAn% iif llir «-li3rB« ;rr« 
iC.^tu ^•\ atitht't* |>rii%i> t«* ta* «»f it«* •|M^'ifl« %alur« ('Ut 1 (im\«- ii«>t 
«ff;«r.i*fl \tt liiittr fiirttl* liuit«* 1 lia*! •|M^-ilia-|i« villi ti it.rrr 
• |« li<*i-l t'l •'Aril lliitflltlAl •|a^-|t-« 

i.i« . Ilia. N*i t lutt . II. I* 41 t*c7 . i»mttA. r. i^ i:i. t.i 

« ru«l . |« S.*4 !<»*•.* 

I'trvitii trftii««irM. rli**niU*i*lAl «ir iirarlv AiiUBn K)f« ^ttxtt. 
t^MT '••rtsff-a lit till •« III.: t)j« Uri;« r |B*rti<iii. Mrr*«« t*f rxtcmal 
z«fti.lli|«^U •ifirtrr tliAii iM hiuin 4*Urli|v«l* iiiif«|(ial 

I- m»ti« vi^-f i< « tht rr i» a •tri«liilattii|C <>rfe;aii ci'UifM*** I «'f a 
fiiw • f t it« n !• • ••ci tlir iiiii« r •urfjtr «»f tL« |ttJiii. vttM h. ^% *• iti^ 
clra«ii a4r'**M a n*i^*«- «>ii thr i«« hiiitii «»f \\*r rlirlt|ir«l. |*r«*l •••« a 

1 • m» la y4tiiaUia r^^t 

r •^vr i^rf^*yifUi»»< faiiaa. «t4<«Wcia. ^ Hs. 11 V. f *.* i::* 

«*' f f * ds f*'4t0f.ltX*lm^ PaW. 1 r . S47 17«« . l^friH*, lliti 
I r«rt rt Im. 11. 47 X^il A . lUw-yr M««Jl . t. It ?:4. f I . U. 
mjuvli. Ilia \utwaut fcaM Vert., t. i\* l«t« . UrMnaiML t t«Md 

Mff w 1 rua^«^ :.'l. I ; \I1, r l l*r« . C«i« . Ilia Nm « ma . 

... ^ 4^ t-^r . Ml IMtt Hr^'tir .\mniAl. I'l \ V II. f. ! \ba •^ i 
Nat. 111. t«iii. f Ml 1«S . Krhum, "< ^fnrAii « rua . |. 41 
:«U . !KiM|M^ iVv. I'tuU. Ana. lVfi««. {• !•«. llrvK Ar*hi« 
r.f Nal«rc««l»rKU. WXI. lU \^\ MartrM, V««tka»ll Z.-^ 
11.4 *»mmt'imh W i«^ 1*^ p^ ^** . lUtWr. I(rta» N^-iafa. « ruO.. |> 

i: '««i7 . |liU-yi^«f xm i liMk» • lUtiv. i imm . |. -:« :m: . 

A H t:^« . 7«cj«if Arr^ 4« HtM . it. p 770 1*71 '*«»r»r 

#•••#" IWftoL, IT I, f. »-• !:«• Or^ptd* »<^M«waM U«.. 


Biib CnHb, U, « (IWT) ; Am. M. Ha*, m. xtUi. Ui 
DwM, U. & Ex. b. Cra*.. p. ML Pi. XX. f- 
Otgff i m IfwiwraA wr ymfim m atm Daak. l. v~, *iT. 
C 4 (18»). OqipMto iWF*fa« ClliKllukll. Arrhir. r>ir Xat 
feMhUhta^ zrll, IM (1896) ; Hdn; 9^a^-'itichto Wi«i Aki 

>iiu,FkSn(i8n);r - - - - 

U(18T4tMlaZoQLIU«Md);](l«^ Am. Mid Matf. NmL IUa.^ 
a,4M (UTB). 
Csn|H« QMriy Mjiwre, gnniil»tei flont rtwgtjr d 
sinuate, obUqne, tbe latond anglM tiaiag flv btUdt tto ft** 
TbeM anglM am nmAj rlgbt uglM. Orbtts wlA n iMHrtlHl 
IbMra below. Eyes tenniiwtacl wlthartyl«wMAI»iMtWMli 
laag and oylindrioal, exbeodlng tu b&jtmi th* m^Hii. 'li tti 
yomqc, howem-, tt it ■mall and in aome a 
form, whan ainaU and oooioal, oharaoteiliM thv uontiita] t^xi 
brtvicornit; naxillipeda gnoolate. HerOH of Iniyt-i 
with tbe margins armed with apInUbnn tnben:li-->, m<>rv 
oa tiie anterior mai^na. Carpaa giannlato. iriili intt-nulh 
ortwo teeth. Hand externally aonte, taben ubtv, ■i-rr.itr MM 
the inner ear&ce with loattered tnberelea. ^iriilulnting riiljfv m 
■ome distance from the base of the fingers, at miglit ■ 
of roandei tubercles. Ambalatory Cset wiLh auutt* grsneU 
which exhIUt a tendency to arrange tbenne1v«* in mgM. 

NaUill (E. WIImw); JTawrMMl lOoeria'* Colleotioa); Aalt, 
TtrnitU, Amtnn'na, JdfMrw, ZapuAo'-, Stitk^ (Hngndnf); 
Sandwteh A., Tahiti, Bantu, Loo Ohoo, Hong Rmq. 0«Anw I'ak&l; 
Enpt. Xavritivi, Bombay, AulTiUa ( Edw. ) ; Gijrira and Wmian 
(IMIeri; Madufaiar {UitttBuaa) ; Tonffoiabu (Daoa). 

A Npocimen collptrtol by the Wilkes Expedition ('* Eaat ladiea ") 
hxH the canipax intermediate l>etween this specie* and ciuaar. 
The ooiilitr Htylei are wanting. Milne-Edwards' flgare in the 
Ri'^tne Aiiim&l is difft'rent from any specimens that I lure aeem. 
I n-;rvo with Kossninnn in connidering mgyplica as bat a Tutety 
nf iiTiilnjththnlma. 

I. 0. plstytanU Gdo. 

Oetitad.1 platgtarti* Edw., Ann. Sci. NsL, lit, xvili, p. 141 |1B»); 

Duller, ll«iM N'ovsra Cnut., p. 43<iaa7>. 

Carnpax wider than ist n^inl in this genns an'l covered with 

1ar;;c urAntilcs. Su[M>rior tDAfgin of orbit ninuatc, the external 

ati;;leM rounded ; hv\m |)arallel iibuiit one-fuurtl) of their length. 

Orbitv with an imlistinct fissure below. Eyes spined as in ctrat^k- 




The following paper is based on the Collections of the Academy. 
I have observed the rule adopted in previous papers of following 
the locality from which I have seen specimens, by an exclamation 
point. In all other cases the name of the person who has reported 
a species from any place follows that of the locality. The same 
conservative spirit which pervades my paper on the " Fiddler 
Crabs " (Gelasimi) will be found in this. Many of the characters 
given by authors prove to be of no specific value, but I have not 
ventured to imite forms unless I had specimens which corre- 
sponded to each nominal species. 

OCYPODA Fabrioius. 

Cancer I e., Fabr. Oeypoda Fabr., Suppl. Ent. Syst.. 347 (1798) ; 
Edw., Hiat. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 41 (1887) ; Dana, U. S. Ex. Ex. 
Cnwt., p. 824 (1852). 

Carapax transverse, rhomboidal or nearly square. Eyes stout, 
the cornea occupying the larger portion. Meros of external 
maxillipeds shorter than ischium. Chelipeds unequal. 

In many species there is a stridulating organ composed of a 
row of tubercles on the inner surface of the palm, which, by being 
drawn across a ridge on the ischium of the cheliped, produces a 

§ 1. Ocular pedicels prolonged beyond the cornea as a spine 
or style. 

1. 0. Mratopbthalma Fabr. 

Cancer ceratophthaimui Pallas, Spioelegia, p. 88, PI. V, f. 17(1772). 
Oeyp&da ceratophthalma Fabr., 1. c, 347 (1788) ; Latreille, Hist. 
Crust et Ins., vi, 47 (1803-4) ; Encyc. Meth., z, PI. 274, f. 1 ; La- 
marck, Hist. Animaux sans Vert., v, 252 (1818) ; Desmarest, Consid. 
snrle Crustaces, 121, PI. XII, f. 1 (1825) ; Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., 
ii, p. 48 (1837); III. Edit. Regne Animal, PI. XVII, f. 1 ; Ann. 8ci. 
Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 141 (1852) ; Krauss, S. African Crust., p. 41 
(1843) ; Btimpson, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 100 ; Hess, Archiv. 
ftir Natuigeschichte, XXXI, 143 (1865); Martens, Verhandl. Zool. 
Bot. Gesellsch. Wien, 1866, p. 381 ; Heller, Heise Novara, Crust, p. 
42 (1867) ; Hilg^ndorf in y. Decken^s Reise, Crust., p. 82, 1867 ; 
A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., Ix, p. 270 (1873). Cancer 
eunor Herbst., PL I, f. 8-9 (1790). Oeypoda breticornis Edw., 


extonial throe-fourths nearly straight and directed Blightlv hsicls- 
wards. Lateral angles nearly right angles, the sides behind th««i 
l)eing concave for a})out a fifth of the length of the campax; 
orbits with a deep median fissure IkjIow. Eyes with a short conical 
style reacliing to, or slightly Iwyond, the angle of the orfaiu 
External maxillii)eds nearly smooth, or with a few inconspiciKMH 
granules. Meros of larger chelii)ed with the upper and lower 
margins spino-tubcrculate, the posterior with transvenic nigK. 
Carpus granulate; hand subspinose alM>ve, finely serrate lielow. 
internally granulate and with a well-marked transverse stridulat- 
ing ridge, fingers lamellate, the extremities truncate. 

Chilil Giionn; Panama ! ('apt. Field and McNiel iPliila. Acad. : 
Gulf of Fonuea I McNiel (Peab. Aca^l. ) ; CaUao ( Edw. et Lqcsai ; 
ValparaUo (Dana). 

6. 0. fabrieii Elw. 

Oej/podiiftibricit'Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust, II, p. 47 (18S7), Ann Sci. 
Nat. XVIII, p. 142 (18.V2), Ililgendorf in Decken*8 ReiM Crust., 82, 
PI. Ill, f. l(1807j. 

Carapax convex, finely granidate, front strongly deflexed, 
orbits strongly sinuate ; lateral angles acute and some distance 
posterior to the l»ase of the rostrum ; si<les |>arallel for a)M>iit a 
third of the length of the carapax. Orbits without eniarginatioa 
bt'low ; oyi's witli a sliort conical style, not n»aching boyonil the 
<nMtMl niiLrb*. Anterior niaririn of iiuto** of larjr^-r <*hi*li]H>d rren- 
nl:itr, «li«it:illy spiuo^i', po«^tt*rior in:«ri^iii roiiiultMl, rugosi*. ('.•irp'i- 
irrainilMti'. :is i< the out«*idi' of tlie liMud ; iiiiuT surfirr of ihi 
h.Mii'l polished, with minute scMttored irnmuh's ; striduhitiii.; ridjt 
stniiLrh^, <*">ni]»o«itMl of sniill. <*lom*lv S4't irranuh"* ; lowor niar:*iii 
of hMii'l fint'Iy siTratt*; (injfcrs of nuxlfiati' length. •Joiiit'^ of 
:iinlMilMtf>rv t\*rr witli transverse ruira'. 

AuMtnifiii ! K. Wilson ; X,if<if ! E. Wilson ; fh^.mira (Edw.- ; 7in. 
^l'^.»r i llili^oinlorf . 


thalma (teste Edw., the single specimen I have seen has the eyes 
broken). External maxillipeds granulate ; meros of larger cheli- 
I)ed with the upper margin produced and dentate, the lower 
epined, the posterior with transverse granular rugte, carpus 
granulate ; hand with large granules, serrate below, stridulating 
ridges carved and composed of crowded granules. Ambulatory 
feet with rugae and subspiniform tubercles, dactyli broad. 

Pondieherryl Guerin^s Collection (labelled by Guerin "Ocypoda 
platytarsis, Edw., Cat. Mus., Paris") and probably one of the 
original specimens). TahUi and Nieoban (Heller). 

8. 0. nrvillei Gaerin. 

Ocypoda urmlUi Guerin, Voyage Coquille, Crust, p. 9, PL 1, f. 
1 (1836), Edw. Hist. Crust., II, p. 49 (1887), Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, 
xviii, p. 141 (1852), Owen in Beechey's Voyage Crust., p. 80 (1839;, 
Dana, U. 8. Ex. Exp. Crust., 328, PI. XX, f. 5 (1852). 

Carapax wider than long, superior margin of orbit sinuate, 

angles acute. Eyes moderate, ocular spines short, extending only 

to angles of orbit. Meros of larger cheliped rounded above, its 

two other margins denticulate. Carpus with a strong internal 

spine. Hand externally granulate, serrate above and below ; the 

stridulating ridge nearly straight, a little remote from the fingers 

and extending from the lower margin of the hand two-thirds of 

the way to the upper. (Guerin.) 

ToAtY^ (Guerin) ; lile Bouron (Edw.) ; Sandtoich li, (Dana). 

4. 0. BiMroeera Edw. 

Ocypoda macroeera Edw. Hist. Nat. Crust., II, 49 (1837), Ann. SSci. Nat. 
IV, xviii, p. 142 (1852), Heller, Novara Crust., p. 142 (1867). 

Orbits wide, oblique, angle obtuse, eyes with a spine as in 0. 
ceratophthalma. Larger hand very short, broad and a little 
spinose above ; its palmar portion broader than long. The fingers 
of the smaller hand lamellate and very broad at their extremities. 
Ambulatory feet roughened above. (Edw.) 

E, Indiei, Pondkherry, [f] Brazil (Edw.) ; Tahiti, Nicobars (Heller). 

6. 0. gaudiehaudi Edwards et Lucas. 

Ocypoda gaudichaudi Edw. et Lucas in D*Orbigny*s Voyage, Crust., 
p. 26, PI. XI, f. 4 (1843', Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, xviii» 142 (1852), 
Nicollet in Gay's Chili, Zool. Ill, p. 163 (1849), Stimpson, Ann. N.Y. 
Lye. Nat. Hist., VH, p. 61 (1859) ; Smith, Rep. Peab. Acad. Sci., 
Ill, p. 91 (1871) ; Streets, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1872, p. 240. • 

Carapax longitudinally strongly arcuate, distal portion of front 
nearly vertical. Superior border of orbit sinuate internally, its 


external three-fourths nearly straight and directed slightly back- 
wards. Lateral angles nearly right angles, the sides behind them 
being concave for about a fifth of the length of the carapax; 
orbits with a deep median fissure below. Eyes with a short conical 
style reaching to, or slightly beyond, the angle of the orbit. 
External maxillipeds nearly smooth, or with a few inconspicuous 
granules. Meros of larger cheliped with the upper and lower 
margins spino-tuberculate, the posterior with transverse rugiB. 
Carpus granulate ; hand subspinose above, finely seiTnte below, 
internally granulate and with a well-marked transverse stridulat- 
ing ridge, fingers lamellate, the extremities truncate, 

CMlit Guerin; Panama 1 C apt. Field and McNiel (Phila. Acad.) ; 
GuffofFbtudeal McNiel (Peab. Acad.); (7a{bio(Edw. etLncasI ; 
Vatparaiw ([>ana). 
e. 0. fsbrltii Gdw. 

Ocypoda fabrieii Edw., Hiat. Kat. Crust., II, p. 47 (1837), Ann. Sci, 

Nat. XVIII, p, 143 (1852), Hilgendorf in Decken's Raise Crust., 82, 

PI. Ill, f. 1 (1887). 

Carapax convex, finely granulate, front strongly deflexed, 
orbits strongly sinuate ; lateral angles acute and some distance 
posterior to the base of the rostrum ; sides parallel for about a 
third of the length of the carapax. Orbits without eniargination 
below ; eyes with a short conical style, not reaching beyond the 
orbital angle. Anterior margin of meros of l.ii^cr chelijDed cren- 
ulate, distally spinose, posterior margin rounded, rugose. Carpus 
granulate, as is the outside of the hand ; inner surface of the 
hand polished, with minute scattered grannies ; stridulating ridge 
straight, composed of small, closely set granules; lower margin 
of hand finely serrate ; fingers of moderate length. Joints of 
ambulatory feet with transverse rng.^e. 

Ay,tlralia\ E.Wilson; Natal\ E. Wilson ; Owanfoa (Edw.) ; Zan- 
zibar (HilKCndorfl. 

Canetr ettrtor Liun., Syst. Nat. Edit., xii, p, 1039 (1706). Oeypoda 
fpp«u* Olivier, Voyage, p. 234, PI. XXX, f , I 11807]; Bavi'gny, Egypt, 
PI. I, f. 1; Lamarck, An. sana Vert., v, p, 353 (1817); Desni., Con- 
sid. Crust,, p. 131 (1835); Edw„ Hist. Crust, ii, p. 47 (1837); Mose- 
ley. Notes by a Naturalist on the Challenger, pp, 48-49, woodcut, 
18T9. Oegpoda eurtor Dellaan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 29; Edw., 
Aun. Sci. Nat., Ill, xviii, p. 143 (1853); Btm„ Proc. Phila, Acad., 
1858, p. lUO; Heller, Crust. S. Euiopa, p. 09 (1863). 

1 A*0 J nkJi mjkV ti-tK^i'iA or rmt.huti.rnt k \<9 

Y«> :r«: *|>«^.mrnft (!<-•• lliJin 10 turn (ir«ni<l) hair tlir ljit«*r-\! 
iiitfi# f in!i. r liftrk thftii ill th«* A<liitt, «*itlf» tin- «|»itu'« nf 'h'- 
hrl.|w^l» ftfv wfttitlltif <>r )mi! fftintir ifi<lirftt«*<l 

TKr I* <i/*n«'#fi«» of n«»«<*. IjitfiAnk •ivl Pr^fUBfi-^r !n« :•• 
«%r« trrtnTit«t«^l 9»\ a •t\l«*. a frtturr I U%\r nr^t*r i»KM*r««<l m 
ftn% •!»» rwt» i»f '# rtrr I'iriii. Thr l4>«iilit\ iTlM fi i« South ^^'^t" 
)Utt Tht <« r^'iii'«rt ipf Kaltrii )il« l« il«'tf thi* •|tr<rii*«. A* U « 
e%n r^ — I til "f*fr^n« uirin^fitr tim./riifftfM, mam'* i« «b^-/ i#'i'i« " «'" 
A^ *i'|*'^ ^" (^1* fnrtn, )»iit ai(rrr« lirftrr «ilti f * «r ./unif^tj 
Fa* n«". !• c*^*** n** UwAlit) for hi« •iM'^'iiiii-iia Thr itrAxiliAt. 

furisa* <r* «.'••• .|ii*'t ) •ht'W Mil •liffrrm«'«'« friifil lit»rtlirrti aiitH . 
Art)* 1 hAir Arrti •|»r<-iHirffiM fritianirr thirt\ Iim »iif :r« «-tiihr*« •«! 

!• ibr lini.t* of lirrAt KiTg llAi^Mir, N. J <Sa\'m t%|«-*t.l*> lli<* 
J«fi' int. Hraj'l, An«l aU<» •|«*«*i turns fWun thr «t-«t i <««t ««f M« \ • <• 
Dr \V II J..IN-S 

<i' i y» < t rmmms^t H^wf M OAlMArd, Vof I rAUM, 2oul , til. |k M\ I* 
LXXVII« f f in* . lUlfi.. IliO. CnwL. 11, ^ l0't<Q7 . 

t •^'•(•tt fcrrBQulAtr. •i'lr« AmiAlr. front «li*lW«ro| i»r*'it« *int.ji*' 
Iml^rm] An«rl«-« l«*hin«l thr !«««• nf thr ro«triiBi. A«-u1r Mrr•i^ 
ibtrrr^^rt t f.» rr ilis'Atly t'l** r* iiUfr . t-ariMiA t'l^v-rriiUtr. it^ 
tttfiff r «*i»f««r «:th A h'fWI tiibrr«*lr IIaii«I« rt»r*lAtr. rtlrriialt 
f rmr MlAt* •• rrat* A*"*«r aihM«-|o« 

Th • • r:rf -Ir^rrijiti'iii i% fAVrll f^«»lil !hr AifMrr «if MM. ij.' 
ftT^I it« mart 1 *ia«r iH%er Arrti tt.r wi*^ :< a It t* ttAi'l t** hat* 

' r>r |; ><i^ r|>^Wi PaW . Njp(4 Knl Hyal . )» ^H : rSP* . '**y. v 
M^i j^ I lliMM. t cAMld. aur )#a < ruttarv^ |^ \1\ 1*:** . !:«(• 
II ■« >«-.. ( ma . It. |. i\ 19? AAA. !Vt. Nat III. gtiii. | :i 
'**7 ;a<«;Mii«i4 rt Loraa. V««y Aaln4al« et ttU^, y 44. IfriWr 
lU«r \.««ArA 4 mat. ^ 41 1««7 . A M IUI« . N.iuv ArvJt^ Mai 
t. |. n !»:« * l ry |V 4A pA««aiM ' IlrafMMwi. 1 r. |^ Itt. lUi. 
<'.al4, i"^x FlkilA A«ail . «til« |i^ IJ^ 'Ar|r|^>44 ;«a«<W%»-« Ja^v^iiA.- 
r1 I...M, 1 r. In VI f 4. ^*ffrMi4) L>#rM I»aeLA. I "^ I t|J Kir..l 
• -.ti . J H'. n X\. f f !V.i • 0-9;^^4 '.Af«jM «••» . IV. 
l-k .m A' ad. IViA (. )<Q. 

«'t-a|tM a-r at* rir?.!\ i*raiiiilAtr I'ron! «tr"ii^U 'Irflf ^. 
M'' ^. • : tr* a*«i.%r latrrml AHirlr* Ari;t« hnl ti-*'. iitr!!.! u^ t, 
if f ••af I A* tJ.«- ^••r ♦•f thr fr»-l.t ^. U« ill '.?.• at .• %; tjf,; 


•mate, bat ia th« jvog lli^ n« r"nlkl or •«■ Mi 
mxliglakW. Bjrai, wHkoB MgrlaaB fneM,H< 
aeuljorqriteloaaliriiHdBvb. ManaeTeUiiliil 

I, a* thimib di^iaj hoobd it ttBBtninit<r. 

pnpodd J«teto rinilsriy rongfawj ■■! eov««^ with i 

Jfai J w r i J 1 Mmm-IHki I (OwtiM) ; 4 « *illi I [ B- WU.— ; ; SmMd. 
(Mil & I (J. Z. TbvmBd) ; AMf I (A. Omn) ; JTm. 
—dffwinirqniyiilift-.JMJi^ ¥ Bit. 
Ahv'^'W £m Om (StMk) ; JivM (SAW.), 
Tbe fiillowiiig aic not tme nemben of A* gnw^ 

O. «wnite Ufar. «k B«tM 

O. lvA«A«i 

O. iwyJw — ■ Lur. 

C maa^ktta BoM. — r MMrfklkatmrni (p. 

O. yufatalor BoM. — Otl— mm* prnfi l Utpr. 

O- futdrau Bom. ^ J m — 9, 

C nftfUHttaUi lAXt. » H«rbit — TVapciw r^fifmrlwtn. 

O. ttma lAiT. •> Fabr ^ nt^ptwa y. 

0. IMro^Moii Boae. ax Barbsi ^ (Jilatmua tofrufww ■ ■ 

O. frtfou L«tT. ■■ Pkbr. = r PmeA ff r^mi ^. 

O. V0MIM Latr. — GtlanmM* 7. 

I h&re not been able to identify 

O. frmuUlm Bo«c. (Edit, ii) p. 247. 

O. iMr/Myaiu Hsn, Ardir. fOr N«tursM«h., XXXI. p 1«, PL TI. e f> 
I IMG). Awtlfmlm. 

O. Miupnwa tUlDMqde. Pracii da d^MUTarla* S«iiiU)lo|:iqu*i, p. 21. lU. 


Young specimens (less than 10 mm. broad) have the hitcrai 
angle further back than in the adult, while the spines of the 
ohelipeds are wanting or but faintly indicated. 

The 0. albicans of Bosc, Lamarck and Desmarest has tiic 
evcB terminated by a style, a feature I have never observed in 
any specimen of 0. arenaria. The locality given is South Caro- 
lina. The 0, rhombea of Fabricius is not this species, as his 
expression ^^ Carpus utrinque unidentatis^ manibus sublaevis '' will 
not apply tg this form, but agrees better with O. cordimana. 
Fabricius gives no locality for his specimens. The Brazilian 
forms (rhombea Auct.) show no differences from northern speci- 
mens. I have seen specimens from over thirty localities embraced 
in the limits of Great Egg Harbor, N. J. (Say's types), to Rio 
Janeiro, Brazil, and also specimens ft'om the west coast of Mexico 
(Dr. W. H. Jones). 

10. 0. oomTeziu Qaoy and Oalmard. 

Oqfpoda eont€9u% Quoy et Gaimard, Yoy. Uranie, Zool., iii, p. 525, PI. 
LXXVn, f. 9 (1828); £dw., Hist Onut., ii, p. 49 (1887). 

Carapax granulate, sides arcuate, front deflexed, orbits sinuate, 
lateral angles behind the base of the rostrum, acute. Meros 
internally entire, distally tuberculate; carpus tubcrculate, its 
inner surlhce with a bifid tubercle. Hands cordate, externally 
granulate, serrate above and below. 

• This brief description is taken froxti the figure of MM. Quoy 
and Oaimard. I have never seen the species. It is said to have 
<2ome Arom Australia.' 

11. 0. eordimaaa Dmid. 

/ Oeypoda rhombea Fabr., Suppl. £nt. Syst., p. 348 (1798). Oeypoda 
e<frd\mana Desm., Consid. sur lea Crustacea, p. 131 (1825); £dw., 
Hist. Nat. Crust., ii» p. 45 (1887 j; Ann. Soi. Nat. Ill, xviii, p. 14:j 
(1852); Jaoquinot et Lucas, Voy. Astrolabe et Zeleo, p. 04; Holler, 
Reise Novara Crust, p. 42 (1867); A. M. Edw., Nouv. Aroli. Mus., 
ix, p. 271 (1872). Oeypoda rhombea f Desmarest, I. c, p. 122; Ran- 
dall, Jour. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 128. Oeypoda pallidula Jaoquinot 
et Lucas, 1. c, PI. VI. f. 4. Oeypoda laevis Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., 
Crust., p. 825. PI. XX, f. 2 (1852). f Oeypoda convexa 8tm., Proc. 
Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 100. 

Carapax arcuate, evenly granulate. Front strongly deflexed. 
Orbits sinuate above ; lateral angles acute, but not extending as 
far forward as the base of the front. Sides in the adult slighth- 

186 PBOCEEmNas op the academy of ' [1880. 

arcuate, but in the young they are parallel or even concave, con- 
verging behind. Byes, vithout styliform process, and exteuding 
nearly or quite to the orbital angle. Meros of chelipeds with its an- 
terior margin crenulate in the young, in the adult with spiniform 
tubercles. Carpus externally granulate. Hand short, broad, 
cordate, granulate internally and externally, its lower margin 
serrate, the stridulating ridge nearly obsolete. Fingers short, 
compressed, the thumb slightly hooked at the extremity. Meral 
joints of the ambulatory feet with transverse rugse. Carpal and 
propodal joints similarly roughened and covered with a short 

New Zealand ! Mauritivt I (Ouerin) ; Aut^aUa ! (E. Wilson); Band- 
mchU. 1 (J. K. Townsend) ; TaMli\ (A. Qarrett) ; Umiaritigyt 
and Zamibar (HUgendort) ; Bed Sea, Manaia, Nieobart (Heller) ; 
Hong Kong, Loo Okoe (Stm.) ; Japan (Edw.). 
The following are not true members of the genus : 
0. angulalut Lstr. "= Gonoplax angtilaiut. 

0. aurantia Boao. ei Herbst = Tkelphma auranlia. 

O. carniffi Latr. ei Herbat = Cnrdioioma camifex. 

O. Iitlerochiloi Boec. = Gelatimat heleroehetoi. 

O. Iiiipana Dose, ei Herbtt ^ Setama ip. 

O. liydrodromui Latr. ex Herbet — TKilphtua hydrodromiu. 

0. longimana Latr. ^ Gonoplaz rhombaidaiii. 

O. maraeoani L»tr. ^ Gelaiimut moroeoani. 

0. niacrVchtlti Boso. -• T Macrophtkalmxu sp. 

O. pugillaloT Boac, ^ Gelatimut pagillator, 

O. guadrala Bosc. — Stiama tp. 

O. rafopunclatii LatT. ei Herbst — Trapezia rafopunclala. 

O. ttnex Latr. ei Fubr = Tktipkuia ip. 

0. Uiragonon Itoac. ex Herbst ^ Gelatinait letragonon. 

0. trident Lair, ei Pabr. =^ t Pnehygrapnu iji, 

0. irocant Latr. ^ Gelatimiu tp. 

I have not been able to identify.' 
0. granulala Boec. (Edit, ii) p. 247. 
0. nacUayana Hess, ArchU. fiir Nslurgesoh., XX.\I, p 143, H. Vt, f. 8 

(18«&). Auitralia. 

O. iinhpinoia Rafineaque, Precis Je dtoouvertea Semiologiques, p. 21. Ko, 
3') (ISUi. 



BY J. 8. KIN08LET. 

The following paper is a continuation of my studies of the 
Oatometopa contained in the Museum of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia. In it I have endeavored to embrace 
^very known species of the family with sufficient references to 
"t^heir geographical distribution. To aid in the identifications of 
species I have compiled analytical tables for most of the genera, 
iDat descriptions are given of only those species of which I have 
examined specimens. I have reduced considerably the number 
of nominal species, but believe that I am fully warranted in rele- 
gating to synonymy many so-called species founded on size, color, 
geographical distribution, or variations of minor importance. All 
localities from which I have examined specimens are marked with 
stn exclamation point (!). The classification employed is mainly 
't;hat of Dana, in the U. S. Exploring Expedition Crustacea (1852) ; 
^hose of Milne-Edwards (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, III 
Series, Zoologie, tome xx, pp. 163-200, 1853), and Kpssmann 
(Zoologische Ergebnisse, Reise in die Kiistengebiete des rothen 
^^eeres, 187t), being comparatively worthless. Owing to the 
Ximited amount of space at my disposal, the synonymy and bibli- 
ography have been condensed as far as possible. 

Family QBAFSIDiB Dana. (Orapsoidieng M. Edw.). 

Carapax subquadrate, depressed. Front generally broad. Eyes 
^hort. Antennulse transversely plicate. Epistome short, some- 
t;imes linear. Meros of the external maxillipeds beiaring the palpus 
Wit the summit or at its external angle. Second joint of the abdo- 
:xnen of the male nearly as wide as the adjacent portion of the 

-• The Grapsidas are all inhabitants of the temperate or tropical 
^waters, and generally live near the shores. A few, however (e.g. 
2iautilograp8U8 and Varuna), live on the high seas. The family 
may conveniently be divided into two^ sub-families, by characters 
derived from the antennae. In the Orapsinae the antenna? are 

* The characters given by Dana for the SesarminaB 1 do not consider of 
sufficient importance to warrant it8 retention as a sub family, and would 
rather consider it as a group of the Grapsinee. 

190 noouDiMi fk m AflAour m [MMi 

Cf^Mir nifie#l0 De G«ir. MnMinpowMtvirftl'Blift. 

417, PL XXV, 1778 (MB LfamA). 
G'rflfMiM ariMfiMM Lstallto. Hfaloira Va*ndto*iit (kMb •! 

▼i, pu 70 (im-i). 

■graytiit f piif»it BaadriL Jour. Fhilft. AmmL, lili, 91. Ui ( VP). 
<yofiSbpt<i ncHMa Wblte. Uak BiH. Mwl OMt, 9. 40 (ttlT). 

Afltai OeddwIilU 8k PL 1, £ 6-7<l801). 

PL XXL 1 7 (IStt). 

Front grmnnhta, jraprft-ftontal lobas ibor, JMU g in i 

orbits entire abore, distaHy emargiaate. Oenpes wMkoU^M 

tnmsvene lidgee. Anterior margin of meroa of ehiUpeia efr 

panded, doitate, the npper and lowiBr marglna wMi ^ilnHiiM 

tubercles, as is also the npper margin of carpus. Haada 

spiniform tnberdes aboTC and bdow^ the middle of the 

Ace smooth, the inner snrlhpe with scattersd prombMBt 

Thumb and. linger sub-ezcavate, the latter spinoaeabofUu 

latory ftet compressed and armed with stiff Uaek briaHesL Fb^ 

terior angle of meros of last pair ronnded| in the 


Florida! (H. E. Webiter, in Union Coll^fe MuNom) ; 

Cuba! (H. F. Baker); Surinam! (Dr. Hering, BsadsU*s Ijpe sf 
G. longipe$) ; Oahoon, W. Africa (Da Cbailln) ; W9H C—tH ^ 
Niearagtia! (J. A. McNiel, in MuMum of Feabody Acadsa^); 
Tropical 8«a4 of America (KucL). 

Genat lOTOPOOKAPSUS M..Rdw., 18&S. 

Front more than half the width of carapax, deflexed. Sides 
Htraight. Internal suborbital lobe Tery broad, reaching the frsvt 
and excluding the antenna from the orbit. Meroe of external 
maxilliped short, much broader than long. 

Key to Species, 
Antero-lateral msrg^in entire. 

Frontal margin sinuate. wfg—r. 

Frontal marinn straight lall(yVmM. 

Antero-lateral margin toothed. 

H. meseor Edward* cr Porikftl. 

Ctmetr muior Forskal. Desor. An. in Itin. Obierv., p. 88 (1775). 
(irap$u$ gaimardii Andouin, £zpl. PI. Savignj (teste Bdw.). 
Ontpgu* mf$$or £dw. Hist. Nat Crust, ii, p. 88 (1887). 


Meros of external maxillipeds broader than long. 
Meros as long as ischium. Glyptograpaus. 

Meros shorter than ischium. Utica, 

Meros as long or longer than broad. 
Front nearly half as wide as carapax. Heterograpsus, 
Front not over one-third as wide as carapax. EHocheir, 
Palpus articulating with the outer angle of the meros of the ex- 
ternal maxilliped. 

One tooth behind the orbital angle. Perigrapaus. 

More than one tooth behind the orbital angle. Platygrapsus, 
External maxillipeds with an oblique piliferous ridge. SesarminI. 

Meros of external maxilliped elongate, its apex rounded. 
AntennsB excluded from the orbit. Metaseaarma. 

AntennsB not excluded from the orbit. 
Carapax subquadrate, sides arcuate. 
Joints of ambulatory feet entire. ' Sarmatium, 

Joints of ambulatory feet dentate. Bhaconotus. 

Carapax quadrate, sides straight. Sesarma. 

Carapax elongate, narrowed behind. Aratus. 

Meros of external maxilliped short, its distal border truncate or even 
excavate, and bearing the palpus. 

Antennae excluded from the orbit. Clistoealoma. 

Antennffi entering the orbit. 
Sides of carapax straight. Helice, 

Sides arcuate. 
Sides entire. Cyclograpsus, 

Sides emarginate or toothed. Chasmagnathiis. 

nn» lodged in notches in the front, and visible from above. 

Meros of external maxillipeds largQ, as broad as ischium. Plagvsia. 
Meros small and much narrower than ischium. Leiolophus, 

Sub-family GrapsineB iOrapsincs et Sesarmince Dana). 
Antennulse more or less transverse, and covered by the front. 

Tribe GRAPSINI (Sub-family Orapsinse Dana). 

§ External maxillipeds without an oblique piliferous ridge on 
^lie ischial and meral joints. 

Oenns G0HI0F8IB De Haan, 1835 {Ooniograp»u» (pars) Dana, 1851). 

Carapax flat; front vertical, over half as wide as carapax ; 
%ides straight, one-toothed. Suborbital lobe broad, reaching the 
front an<J excluding the antenna from the orbit. External max- 
illipeds slender ; meral and ischial joints of equal length. 


190 PK0CKEt'IN«8 or TtIK ACAPEHT or [I880l 

I. entanutit D« lUnn it UMfOU. 

Vnnetr rvrifol'i I>« Goer. Meiiioin |»onr Mrvlr » I'lIlaC liuvdca, vU, 

41T. PI. XXV. 1778 tmm Lion*). 
Or'ipmt rnifr.tatut Latrollle. IllnUiira NMurello Am Crnat. et Ina^ 

Ovniopaii cruiTnlnfui De nnan. Faunft Japunica Cniat,, p. SB ( ISIS). 
Orapnu lu«gip*Jt nandall. Jour. Phil*. Au<l., vlli. j>. ISO (IJOB). 
<3of*op*it rtiHfota Wliite. List Brit, Sin*, (■rust,, p. 40 iI5l7i. 
Omjmit jiflli Ilt'i'ltlotR. Addllamfinln ul Faiiiukin CaroiDnlc^eun 

AMo» UooidenUlta. m, I'l. t, f. 8<7 ( I8S1 1. 
<0<Mtfaffr(ip*tM rru*nla(u< Dnnk. CD. Expl. F.xt*d. Crust., p. H\ 

PL XXI. t 7 (1863). 


lifiM I 

Front ijrnnHlnlf, Miipra-h-onUl lobnt Tour, nwrgiiB crrmil 
orbits cntirv BboTn, iliHtnlly ? margin Ati?. Carnpnx iritli oblif|i 
transvcTHo ridgvn. Antcnor niarfpn of mcros ot cMipnls i!X< 
pmidefl, doDtatc, tlio n)i]wr nnd lower mar^jins irith Rfiinlfortu 
tiitierclos, u 1b also the upper mar^u of carptiB. IlaodH wlUi 
Hpiolform ttiberelea bImvc uid Mow, tlio mtddle of the uuti-r aur* 
face Kmootii, the Inner surface with Huattercd prutnlneiil grtuiulp*. 
Tbumti and fiii^vr sulki^xciivBte, tLe hitler Hplitoiie Bhuri!. Amlio- 
Iffltory fi-^t compnmiiwJ aiid Nraml willi iillir lilavk brUlW, I'o»- 
t«rior angle of nicro« of liut pair rouniktl, in the oUicr feet 

jnwida! (B. E. WatMlar, in Union Cotlege Viueiun) ; BaAmuur 
Ouha! ill.T.JMidi); Surinam^ (Dr. I!«ring. Randall** Ifp*' </ 
O. Urngipt*); O.iAmfn. W. Afrirt (DuChnillul; VfH Voait rf 
Hieara^a! (J. A. McNicI, Id MuMum uf Pealiod; Acndcinr) ; 
Trt^itnX SfiM (i/ Anttrir-i (Aact, i. 

f)R.» nrOPOOKAPtOS M.Rdw., \'*%X 

Front more than half the width of carapax, doflexed. t^idm 

i>tntight. Internal auborhlt&l lobe vcrv broad, reaching the (Vont 

and i-xrliiding Ibo antenna from the nrbil. Mcrua of cxicmsl 

niaxitlliK-d «liiirt. mui-U bruiulir tbiui h'li):;. 

Ke\) to Species. 
Ajit«ro-lat«r*l margin entire. 

Frontal margin (innate. mru»r. 

Frontal margin atraight. lati/riMtt. 

Antbro-latoral margin toothed. tffanirv: 

M. MaMCr Kdwardj ar Panhal. 

Caite«r mettor Forakal. D«aor. An. in Itin. Obwrv., p. 68 1 1775}. 

OraptH* f aixardii Andonio, Expl. PI. Savignj (t«*t« Edw.). 

Orapn* nMttor Edw. Hlat NaL Cnut., ii, p. 83 < 1887}. 


Orapsus tkukuhar Owen. In Beechey's Voyage, Zoology, p. 80, PI. 

XXIV, f. 3 (1839). 
Chrapsus parallebis Randall. Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila. viii, p. 

127 (1839). 
Jfet&pograpstis mesBor^ tkukuhar, eydouxi et intermedius Edw. Ann. 

Sci. Nat., Ill, XX, p. 165 (1853). 

Carapax slightly narrowed behind, plications and rugae more 
or less distinct. Frontal lobes rather prominent, frontal margin 
sinuate, smooth or crenulat^ at the angles. Meros of chelipeds 
with the posterior surface rugose, the anterior margin expanded 
and distall,^ truncate, a few spinose teeth near the base and 
several on the truncate margin. Carpus externally rugose, inter- 
nally with a prominent bifid or quadrifid tubercle. Hands with 
oblique folds above and below, and a longitudinal ridge on the 
lower outer surface. Fingers sub-excavate. Last joint of male 
abdomen but slightly narrower than penult joint. 

Sandwich Is. I (Nuttall, Pease, Jones, Wilkes' Expedition); Tahiti! 
(A. J. Garrett); Australia/ (E. Wilson); Mauritius! (Guerin); 
Aden; ! Natal! (Dr. T. B. Wilson) ; Indian and Faeific Oceans 

M. Imtifirons Edwards ex White. 

Orapsus latifrons White, in Jukes' Voyage of the Fly, ii, p. 337, P\. II, 

f. 2 (1847). 
Metopograpsus latifrons et ma^ulatus Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, xx, pp. 

166 and 165, PI. VII, f. 1 (1853). 
Metopograpsus pictus A. M.-Edw., Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vii, p. 283 

(1867) ; Nouv. Arch, du Mus., ix, p. 289. PI. XIII, f. 2 (1873). 


Carapax narrowed behind, plications indistinct ; frontal lobes 

granulate on the edge. Front broad, nearly straight, margin 

denticulate. Chelipeds similar to those of if. messor. Base of 

last joint of male abdomen much narrower than the extremity of 

penult joint. 

Bdtavia ! (Dr. Wilson); Singapore (White); Java (Edw); Kew Cc^le- 
donia (A. M.-Edw.). 

"Mi, oetamons Jacq. et Lncu. 

Metopograpsus ( Orapsus) oceanicus Jacquinot et Lucas, Voyage Astro- 
labe et Z6elee, Crust., p. 73, PI. VI, f. 9 (Text 1853, Plates 1842-53). 

Metopograpsus quadridentatus Stimpson, Proc.. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1858, p. 102: 
Pulo Han (J. et L.); near Hong Kong (Stm.) ; Nicohar Is, (Heller). 

fusion. If 
JPfater*/ nUir (Hdkr). 

*8U«i mieiHite» with cm tooUi hMad tiieoriiital sai^; tnm 
wmnow, in^ttxbi ; Mi^Uamm ea^Usbug the orbit Bztenuil vaadU 
pcdsikiid«r,f^liig; aomoUoi^ Fiqgcrs of ehdipcds cm 

JFkfmnm m&mi§§ii§ Omiiiij, Kat Btat «C lh» OiwiihiM» M, PM 

* Dr. BiDii^ te Us fniteiMurj Mooail cT ttM ChmImm MOMldl «; 

Mt^BM)^ cbttMteiiti MfiBd § ■inifc and ifieiM of wJiidi aomMCtaii 

•My Jiiiiiftyf iwiilrfawi iu Mw.,of ttffcial wport ; Xml># frtniiiti 
U Aitf^ra <ifra#d^ OarpHodM grmnulaiiu appears to be (7. frM^ Dana 
Lupa hir$uta was probably referred to Neptunus safi^iiwi#iil«s. JU 
phusa wutUni&rJi appears to be /. ImeAsnaudUf Parathelphu$a d^fUipsM to b 
P. tridinUUa^ HsUteiuM arm>kUu$ to be iT. eordiformU, M§taplax kirUpm I 
apparently referred to a new genus, GrapiU9 deprtuus is probably Om 
^raptui erinipeSf Orapiut dseUviflrom is apparently rechristened Faikifgraf 
8US irUi i ' Mid iuif H§UrograpiU9 barbigeru% has its specific name alterei 
to barbiwM%%^ BpifprapiUM noT. gen* reappears as N§cU>ffrapmu nov 
gen. with no reason assigned for the change. MitaHMirma ffranulatus i 
redescribed as new nnder the name ruffulam. PhguseUi elatui is prob 
ably, as pointed out by Mr. Miers (Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ix, p. 147 
1H78), AeanihoepeluM gayi of the final report. Oelaiimus tariegatus appear 
to have been finally referred to 0, annulipeM, Palinurui pauUn^U wa 
afterward apparently referred to P. lalandii and PelioM notatus is referred 
to AfiehtMiia, All this shuffling of names is made without the slightest hin 
to aid one in correlating the two papers, aud is a proceediu^ which canno 
be too strongly condemned. 

' There were at least two editions of Catcsby bearing dates as aliore 

*"^ as the second appeared thirteen years ader the tenth edition of tht 

' Ttma Haiurm of Linn^ and five alter the twelfth edition, the name« em 

-- -» Ky Catesby will hold. 


Cancer grapsus Linn., Syst. Nat., Edit, x, p. 630 (1758). 

Orapsus pietus Latreille, Hist. Crust, et Ins., vi, p. 69, PI. XL VII, f. 2 

Chniopns pieiui De Haan, Fauna Japonica Crust., p. 38 (1885). 
Orap»u» »trigo8ti8 Brull^, in Webb et Berthelot Hist. Canaries, ii, PI. 

11 ; Crustacea, p. 15, 1886-44 (teste;Edw.)' 
Orapms nmculatuSj toebbif omaius et pharaonts Edw. , Ann. Sci. Nat. 

pp. 167-8, PI. VI, f. 1 (1853). 
Orapitts altifrons Stimpson, Annals N. Y. Lyceum Nat. Hist., vii, p. 

230 (I860). 

Carapax depressed, transversely plicate, folds anteriorly broken 
I J) into squamiform tubercles. Frontal crest four-lobed, median 
►bes the larger, their margins subtuberculate. Frontal margins 
■enulate, regularly arcuate. Lateral margin arcuate. Inferior 
>rder of orbit with a deep fissure. Anterior border of ischium 
id meros of cheliped spinose, the lower margin of the meros spino- 
berculate, the posterior surface plicate. Carpus with distant 
-bercles, its interior margin with a laminate spine. Hand above 
berculate, externally with longitudinal ridges, below with 
clique folds. On the inner surface the tubercles and folds are less 
X=^^K^~oniinent. Fingers short, tips excavate. Ambulatory feet com- 
r^cssed, propodal and dactylic joint spinose. 

Florida Keys! (Webster, Ashmead) ; West Indies! (Lawrence, 

Wood, Wilson, Gdes, Lea) ; San Lorenzo ! (Wilkes' Expedition) ; 

Ptmamlmco! (Dr. Wilson); Tahiti! (A. Garrett); W. Coast 

Mexico! (Dr. Jones); Central America ! (McNiel) ; N^ew Zealand! 

(Dr. Wilson); Mauritius! (Guerin) ; Natal! (Dr. Wilson); 

Georgia^ Calif orniOy Peruy 8t, Helena and Cape Verde Is. (Miers) ; 

Paumotu and Hawaian Is, (Dana) ; Honduras! (no collector's 


The genus Orapsus, as well as several others, is divided into 

■<2tions by Milne-Edwards, characterized either by having the 

jrior distal angle of the meros of the last pair of ambulatory 

:t regularly rounded, or dentate ; but in specimens of G. maeu- 

i*«, I have occasionally found this angle on one side entire, and 

^^^ other dentate. 

^BMolatos Tar. tennioristatas Martens ex Herbst. 

Cancer tenuicristatus Herbst. Exabben und Krebse, PI. HI, f. 33>84, 

1790 (teste Martens). 
Grapsus rudis Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii. p. 87 (1837). 
Orapsus hirtus Randall, Jour. Phila. Acad., viii, p. 124 (1839). 

^ Bnill6 gives not the slightest description which will distinguish his 
"l^^cimeng fh>m either maculatus or strigosus. 

SJj^mBL ' iJpOOBiwiioa DP TBI ArAi>KMr or fIflSt. 

n dbtini^n^ej f^on the tyjiloa] fbrnui of O. mmruliilvM anij 
i ifj the hairy carapax Kn<I meral JointB i>r the ■tnbuUtory ILbIh, 
,aod U]p uurn>niTcuf|iii] NitliHf. All otbur ctuu«ctcr» wblvh h»t« 
;lie«ii ^Iveti iiruvv iDoopKUiit. Dr. ^lartiOfl, Iqr ui «suiIiHLtloa at 
HerlMtt'n t.v|H-. liM hIiuwd th« identic of HntiA iMuuna'a/iM, 

Ihiit-iiaa U.I (J. K. TMiuwiut, RutUTstrr*)! 0»*«^ (I>r- W- 
H. JoDM) ; Cfylon (IltilVT) ; tiitnin (StlB.). 

0> ttrifMU liMniU* ■■ Harbit. 

CoMMr (fr^rMV Hcitirt, PI. XLVII, f. 7 llTDOt. 

O rqiWM wtHfOMu Latr, UiM. CnuL et Int.. vi, ]>. 70 ( lUU). 

O ray* alM(«MMj> Luauvk, ni«t. Anlmaux hm Tartabn% V| |k 

0Mi4pife*#MMO»bMI|VlMuikpc"i<«OnnL, jk-Sa (18901. 
tfripwM fFlMlian jiww* «l ftlafitHi Sdw., Ano. M. MaL, UI, 

Omjitut tmigipM ot nifvadniiH* SUmpcoai, Ptm. AomL Nat. 8ci. 
I'hlUdalphbs ISHt jip. 10S «l lOS. 

C«ni|iKX but little ccmv<ix, posteriorly with oUiqiM t 
liaM, flutvriorljr irith squamlform luliiiiniin 
cntc. ft'ontal martpn oreaaUte. Orfatti «Hh*4H| 
Bplstomo short Ueros Hplned antcrioriy, 111 < 
nMihivd, tlM parivrior BUiiaM •ritli (raoanrM n^c CupiM 
gninulato, and bearing lotcmally a elendor spine. Hands mncti 
as in O. tnaculahie. Poat«rior distal angle of meroa of last pair 
of ambulatory feet denticulate. 

Ifatal/ JwlraUa/ (Dr. T. B. Wilwn) ; AudmeA A. / (Id Peabody 

Acad. ). Ita dlrtrlbntlini is embraced within the abote Ilmita and 

Itong Ko%g (Stlmpaon). 

e. trttlllpM MUac-Bdwaidi. 

Qraptfu fratOiptt Edw., Ann. Sd. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 108 (1833). 

China (Edwanla). 

8ub|«lM OltkO|rap(Bl, DDT. 

CafHpax tranoTersc, broadest behind. Sidea straight, with one 
tooth behind the orbital angle. Antennie entering the orbit ' 
Fingfrs of chelipcds acute. 


Carapax depreosed, plications faint. Supm-frontil lobes mod- 
erate ; front straight, narrow, deflexcd. Siiles of cara|)ax straight, 
]K>st.orbitHl tooth small. Meroa of external ntaxiilipei) a little 


longer than broad. Chelipeds much as in Metopograpsus messor, 
the hand granulate above, fingers acuq^inate. Posterior distal 
angle of meral joints of ambulatory feet rounded, entire or finely 
seArate, there being a variation in the sides of the same specimen. 

West Indies ! (Dr. Wilson) ; Key West, Fla. ! (Dr. A. 8. Packard, Jr., 
Peab. Acad). 

0. longitarBii Kingsley tx Dana. 

Chrapsus Umgitarsis Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1851, p. 249. 
U. a Expl. Exped. Crust., p. 339, PI. XXI, f. 4 (1852). 

Paumotu Archipelago (Dana). 

Geniifl OE0OBAP8U8 Stimpson, 1858 (Diacoplax, Am. Ed., 1867J. 

Carapax depressed, sides curved in front, straight behind, one 
t^ooth behind the angle of the orbit. Front .narrow, strongly de- 
:£lexed. Internal suborbital lobe large. Antennae entering the 
orbit. Dactyli of chelipeds acuminate. 

Synopsia of Species. 

eros of chelipeds with a laminiform* expansion of the anterior margin. 
Front nearly straight. 

Folds of carapax transverse. Uvidiis, 

Folds of carapax oblique. grayi. 

Front arcuate. crinipes, 

eroB not expanded, carapax tuberculate anteriorly. longipes, 

. liTidm Stimpson ex Milne-Edwards. 

Orapsus limdus Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 85 (1887). 
Grapsus brevipes Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 170 (1853). 
Geograpsus Uvidus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1858, p. 101. 
Geograpsus occidentalis Stimpson, Annals N. Y. Lye, vii, p. 230 


Carapax much broader than long, depressed. Plications nearly 

t:K-;»nsver8e. Frontal lobes prominent, front deflexed, its margin 

rly straight. Sides of carapax slightly arcuate. Orbit with a 

«p fissure below. Meros of chelipeds above and below with 

sverse rugae, its anterior margin expanded, proximally den- 

^^<5ulate, distally the teeth are larger. Carpus granulate and with 

^ short spine on the inner margin. Hand and dactylus tuberciii 

^^t:« above, externally and below with short, oblique rugae ; fingers 

*<^«iminate. Distal angle of .meral joints of the last pair of ambu- 

• ^^tory feet rounded. 

IsU BarthalometDf W. L ! (A. Ooes) ; Chili ! (Querin) ; West Indies 
(Auct.) ; Cape 8t. Z/ueas (Stm.). 


(Ji-^ilfu* yri/Mpt^ Dmia» Proc Acftd. Nmt. Sd. Phibuielphia, 1851, p. 

i4». U. S. ExpL Exped. Crust., p. 841, PI. XXI, t • (1852). 
'Jtvyr^tpsus crinipei Stimpcon, Proo. Acftd. Nat. ScL Philadelphim, 

l<«l<i p. 101. 
*Jr^ip4*i* iirpresfus Heller, Verh. Z. B. Ge». Wien, 1862, p. 521. 

Oani(Nix depressed, the sides ne&rl}* parallel, folds of the cara- 
pa\ v>bliquo, frontal lobes but little prominent, front arcuate. 
l>^*hLal joint of cheliped spined in front ; meros with the anterior 
uiitrgius expande<!, finely serrate proximally, more coarsely ho at 
tho apex ; carpus and hand roughened above, a few inconspicuous 
Uuesi on the lower outer surface of the palm. Distal angle of 
uierosi of the last pair of ambulator}* feet rounded. 

Siind^kh li. ! (Dr. W. H. Jones) ; Tahiti * Heller). 

0. fnji A. Miloe-EdwArdi ex U. Milne- Ed wardi. 

Grapius grayi Edw., Add. Soi. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 170, 1853. 
Geograpsun rubidui 8timpsoD, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sd. Philadelphiai 

1858, p. 108. 
Geograpgui grayi A. M.-£dw., Noot. Arch, du Mos., ix, p. 288 (1878). 

Carapax somewhat inflated, its folds oblique; frontal lobes 
prominent, front nearly straight. Orbit with a slight Assure 
l)elow ; cheli])eds much as in O. crinipes. Distal angle of meros 
of last pair of foot rounded, entire or dentate. 

This is probjiUly tho adult of the prt'CtMlin*; species. 

T'ifiiti ! A. riaiTCtti; AuHtntliit^ ydni ritiu»^ Z'inzi*»'ir Mlilijen- 
(loiT) ; )f>ithiij<inrtir^ Imiiii, Ih'ut'n, \» ir f^iUdoui't (A. M.-E<lw. . 

0. longipet Kitif(«l«-v rj \. Milne- H'lwarJt*. 

JUMctjthiT littujijuM A. M.-E<iw., Ann. S«>c. Ent. France, vii, p. 25^ 
(1HG7 . Nuuv. Arch, du Muft., ix, p. JH PI. XV 1 1^7:1 . 

ynr ('tilttitthta ; A. M.-Kilw.). 

<f<'nu« LEPT00RAP8U8 M.Elwiml^ l|>ariii, 1H63. Stim|»c>n. 

Caiapax with thr .sides arciiati', two-tootht'd. Front less than 
half thi' wiiith of Xhv carapax, not dillextd. Internal sulM)rMtal 
IoIm' ^niall, antenna* entering the orbit. Mero> of external niax- 
illiprds as broad as lont;, bnt shorter than the isehiuni. 

Leptograpiui yariegatai Miliii> K<i.« rr FiiKrit-iu^. 

(\n,r,r r.irit ijiift/H Kuhr., Kilt. Synt., ii, p. 4")0 (IT'.KJ . 
fir-ii'",,/! tiouijihiitutt I.atr., Hist. Crust, et Ins.. vi, p. 71 1S4):m . 
fi r<if"<-."> jH / f.,/hft'iM LauKirck, IIi>t. -Vu. s.ius Vert., v. 2\\^ is;? . 
t; , .ij,-,'-, j,t''-f>i.H Hxmy vi (i.iiuianl, Voya^o rrauio vt Phy>itifue, p. 
V.M, PI. LXXVI, f. 2 (18J4). 


Grapsus atrigillatus Wliite, in Gray's Zoological Miscellany, p. 78 

Grapsus variegatus Edwards et Lucas, in d'Orbigny's Voyage, p. 27 

Grap»u8 planifrons Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1851, 

p. 249. U. 8. Expl. Exped. Crust, p. 638, PI. XXII, f. 3 (1852). 
Leptograpsus variegatus Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., HI, xx, p. 171 (1853), 
Leptograpsus bertheloti, verreauxif ansoni et gayi Edw., 1. c, p. 172 


Carapax nearly flat, transversely plicate. Protogastric region 
<*^::^iieave, with squamose tubercles, protogastric lobes but little 
j>:K-ominent. Front slightly depressed, its margin creuulate and 
im^-^rly straight. Orbits with a narrow, deep, external fissure, 
^^ros of chelipeds with the anterior border expanded, dentate ; 
other angles rounded, the posterior surface rugose. Carpus 
Iberculate and with a short spine on the internal surface. Hand 
tt:al3erculate above, externally smooth. In the young there is an 
el^^^ated line along the outside of the palm. Ambulatory feet 

h stiff setae. 

Pemambuco ! (Dr. Wilson) ; Chili ! (Wilkes* Expedition) ; Austra- 
lia! (E. Wilson); New So. Wales! (Capt Putnam, Peabody 
Academy) ; Isle Guam (Quoy and Gaimard) ; Canaries (Edw.); 
Norfolk /. (Miers) ; SJianghai (Heller). 

Genus OBAP80PE8 Heller, 1865. 

)arapax depressed, sides arcuate and dentate in front, behind 
^**^^*^ight. Front less than half the width of the carapax, strongly 
"^Qexed. Orbits externally open. Internal sub-orbital lobe 
^^^^X^ill, antennae entering the orbit. Meros of external maxilliped 
^^^^ger than broad. Male abdomen five-jointed. 

^* ^^tatnt Heller. 

Orapsodes notatus Heller, Novara Crust., p. 58, PI. V, f . 2 (1865). 

Nicobars (Heller). 

Qenus CTBT0OBAF8UB Dana, 1851.^ 

Carapax broader than long, front narrow, excavate, sides arcu- 
ate, with three teeth behind the orbital angle. External maxilli- 
peds widely gaping, without a piliferous ridge. Epistome very 

^For some reason. Prof. Smith in his paper on Brazilian Crustacea 
(Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of A^rta and Sciences, Vol. ii, 
pik l-42y 1869), and in his notes on Ocyi>odoidea (1. c, p. 154), refers 
several times to this genus, and always as Cryptograpsits. 

^fmeaouna or thk MeMMWt0iff [WK^ 

•Dtering tb« orbit. 
Jointed, the Mcond joint rcry shorL 

. et'timm— W^wlrtM Dh% FMb. Aoad- Mat. But. FUte., USt, p. 

OWiii'^JM WW'*"' *"*N ^^— ■ cpm^ Aoid.. u, r- n. iMi. 
Oii»|i«« oasmi, gnuuUate. Sides tbivv-tootlMd , Moood toolh 
mhIL OthtiM mth ft cUgbt ftMoro abore. Feot all gnnohte. 
Bandi iidbtsd, ftngcn •oomliut*. 

Afo JVffro, llHmfMiUt (U. 0. bpL Kxrad.}. 
ft ilrripH KiDfiiij H Soiiih. 

Orjffkfn^mu ehHf*t BniUi, Tnuw. Ooau. Acad. 11. p. 11. PL I, C |, 

OMit»K dtpniMd, arcolata ; fhrat narrow, sligbtl; exMTatib. 
8idMofe«a9MEltroDglyaroiiate,wtth fi>ar tooth behind tha aaglB . 
of tha orUt, tbo ai'^^nd and la»t t«etli mnflh i 
otbcn ; k11 of the bordora of the carnpax arc v. 
•tout, gnnnlar. l^rDpofLnl joints of first, seoood, taA fctntk, md 
daotjlBB and oarpua of fonrth p&ir of ambulatory foet haired. 

JUa JdaWrw/ (CaptalB HanlivtMi, PMbodj Aoadmqr oT flriiaw^ 
Baloin, H**., tjp«»). 
omim ruammMtwn ludan (in*) > bubtwi (last). 
Carapax somewhat narrowed behind, and with tnuurene atric 
Front more than half the width of the carapax, aides entire, or 
with one or two teeth ; inner eal)-orbital lobe small, allowing the 
antenna to enter the orbit. External maxiltipeda widely gaping, 
meroa aa broad as long. Type, P. crawipes. 

S}/n(^ms of Speciee. 
BidM entlra. 
Front 111*18111 or maHy so. 
Nomeroos traamne fold* tm earmpax ; low«r margin of hand spiiMd. 

Carapax but little plicate, hands nnooth below. mJiiopieiu. 

Froat strongly sinuate. 

tlands smooth. mittmhu. 

Hands ntanally wttb longitudinal ridge*. pUMhi*. 

Hldea with oue tooth behind the orbital angle. 
Posterior distal angle of meros of flfth pair of feet rounded. 

Prout with a prominent tooth at angle. rriunptt. 

Front slightly linnate without prominent teeth. maunti. 

Posterior distal angle of meros of flfth feet dentate. 


Fingers of cheliped smooth. iran»ver$u$. 

Fingers dentate or spined above. graeilU, 
Sides two-toothed. 

Transverse lines of carapax naked. . 7narmoratu%, 

Transverse lines of carapax haired. puhe%cen9 . 

Unknown to me. latipes, 

^. orattipM Randall. 

P<uhygrap9U» erassipes Randall, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

viii, p. 127(1889). 
Orapgui eydouxi ^dw,, Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 170 (1853). 
Zeptograpnu gonagrus Edw., 1. c, p. 173 (1858). 

Carapax somewhat arcuate /sides with a single tooth behind tlie 
o:ar"l)ital angle ; frontal lobes prominent ; front deflexed, its margin 
XM.^^^iX\j straight, the angles with a prominent tooth. Meros of 
c^^A alipeds with the anterior margin produced, distally truncate ^nd 
d^^aatate. Hands inflated, margined above and with a longitudinal 
ri^iMge on the lower outer surface ; fingers excavate. Distal angle 
otf* meros of posterior ambulatory feet rounded ; dactyli of tlie 
a*-"LM^ bulatory feet spinulose. 

(t) Sandwich h. ! (T. Nuttall, Randall's type); California from 8an 
FranetBcof to San Diego! (Many collectors) ; f New Providence^ 
W. I. I (H. C. Wood, Jr.); YoUhama (Tozzetti). 

P« ^^BBtiinif Lneas. 

Paehygrapeui maurue Lucas, Expl. Algiers, Crust., p. 20, PI. 11, f. 5 

Odniograpsus eimpl&x Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, p. 

349 ; U. 8. Expl. Exped. Crust.. p. 344, PI. XXXI, f. 8 (1852). 

Paehygrapnu iimplex Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858^ 

p. 102. 

Algiere (Lucas) ; Madeira (Dana); Rio Janeiro (Dana, Heller). 

^' ""-^^ — rertni Gibbea. 

Paehygrapms traneveriue Gibbes, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Science, iii, 

p. 182 (1850). 
QoniograpiUi innotatue Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1851, p. 

249 ; U. 8. Expl. Exped. Crust., p. 345, PI. XXI, f. 9 (1852). 
Leptograpiw ruguloiue Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, xx, p. 172 (1858). 
Baehygrapeug Uevitnantis Stimpson, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 102. 
Mei&pograpsuB dubiiisetminiatuSf Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phys, et d'Hist. 

Nat. Geneve, xiv, pp. 444-445, PI. II, f. 16, 17 (1858). 
Orapeue deeHmfrons Heller, Verhandl. Z. B. Gesellschafb, Wien, 1862, 

p. 521. 
PiaehygrapiUiinUrmediuB Heller, Novara Crust, p. 44 (1865). 
Paehygrapeue sociue Stm., Ann. N. Y. Lye. x, p. 114 (1871). 
liiehygrapms advena Catta. Ann. Sci. Nat. VI, iii, No. 1. p. 7, PI. I 



:, with tniutvisne pBo», oblh]ne t 
Side* gvfuinUljr uligfatljr uenU*, witt 
FronUl lobe* |iromiitrat, 
t with tmuvcnc rugn, the ioH 
B, with BD iDtcnul roumlw) tubwrciki 
»t% longitadinal ridKc oo Uw luwur o 
MrfhoMyiBUgtuioaadod; dact;lDs with the n 
PiNtenvdialBl an^ of the meroa of laat pair of a 

nwMa/ [A. B. PMkard: P«ah. A»H- Itn 
•iMh DiliB bolide) ; )l ■ ' 
A^h*«<t/ (Dr. T !'■ ^. 
AwXiMlM</(X.iri]aaa);7bMK{X.Gan«tt); V: Omi* 



:. fisjs, , 

lQUp», p. 46 (IWI. 


/WArrrupnj fr.>f»l|-« SUmpMB, AwL K. Y. Lye^ x. ^ 

ntfunit. ■ 

Ar Ktt«ii4 

1 tUohta. nzrUI, p. 102 { IflTS}. 


Ounpax naoh u in J*, frvnttwmw, bat vitit bo -fidd* (W Ikt ' 
oardlie re^on; htcnl mu^JA wkAj rtnlgfati oafrtootttd. 

Frontal lobes nearly obsolete ; front nearly horusontal, regulariy 
arcoate and minutely crenulate. Chelipeds aad ambulatory feet 
nearly aa In i*. Irantversut, the hand and dactylus, however, being 
spined or toothed above. 

f%>rii(a/(A.aPackard, Jr-.Peab.Aoad.); HVil hAia (AdcL). 
r. Mtngaia* KiDgitoj « HaHooi. 

Oraptat (Leptograp*tit) earragntiu Hartaiu, 1. c, p. 107, PI. IT, f. 8 

Cuba (Kartam). 
F. NtU«pl«aa Bilgradorf. 

Orapiiu {I\ithjigrap$iig) athiopif\i$ inigvndorf, in tod der Deokan'a 
ReiMU in Ort-AMka, Crutt., p. B8, PI. IV, (. S (1869). 

Ugumaga, Eatt AfHea I Bilgendorf I. 
t. yllMtai 8timp*aD u Uilac-Eilwknli. 

Grajmtt pli*ahi$ Edwarda, Hist. Nat. Cnint., ii, p. S9 |1B8T). 
Oriiptn* krauaii Edwmrds, Ann. Sci, Nat 111, ik, p. 170 (18»K 
I'liehygrtiptiif pUtalui Stimpaon, Proc. Acad. Nat, Scl. PbUa, p. 103 

liifAl/graptut $triat»* A. H.-Edw., Journal Hiueura OoA^tftvj, ir. p. 
83 (187S). 


Carapax broader than long, everywhere crossed by plications 
which are bordered by short hairs ; frontal lobes prominent, front 
sinuate. Sides of carapax entire.. Meros and carpus of chelipeds 
externally plicate, inner margin of meros expanded, proximally 
denticulate distally with spiniform teeth. Carptls with a promi- 
nent internal spine. Hand and dactylus grianulate above, exter- 
nally the hand bears several longitudinal ruga?. Fingers short, 
gaping, extremities excavate. . 

Oahu! {Dr. W. H. Jones); Tahiti! (A. Garrett, Peab. Acad.); New 

Caledonia ; Samoan Is, (A. M.-Edw.;; Natal (Krauss); Loo Choo 


P. mannorAtni Scimpson ex Fabrioiu^. 

Caneer marmoratui Fabriciua, Ent. Syst., ii, p. 450 (1793). 
Orap$u» varim Latreille. Hist. CniBt. et Ins. vi, p. 69 (1803-4). 
Qrap»us marmoratui Desmorest, Considerations, p. 181 (1825). 
Leptograpius marmoratus £dw., Ann. 8c!. Nat. IH, xx, p. 171 (1853 \ 
Bfichygrapsui mqrmoratug Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8ci. Phila., 
1868, p. 102. 

Carapax depressed, naked, transversely plicate*; frontal lobe?} 
prominent, front depressed, slightly' arcuate, or sometimes a 
little sinuate. Sides with two teeth behind tiie angle of the 
orbit. Meros of chelipeds expanded in front, expansion distally 
truncate and dentate. Carpus and hand tubcrculate above, the 
former with a prominent internal tooth. Fingers slightly exca- 
vate. Posterior distal angle of meros of last pair of feet rounded, 


Francs! (Guerin) ; Bosphorus ! (Smithsonian) ; Mediterranean ( Auct. ^ ; 
Madeira (8tni.). 

F. pabeiMni Heller. 

IHehffffrapsus ptibeseens Heller, Novara Crust, p. 45, PI. IV, f. 4 (18G5). 

Chili (Heller). 
F. minvtns A. M.-Edwarde. 

PachygrapiUB minutus A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch du Mus., ix, p. 293, 

PI. XIV, f. 2(1873). 

New Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). 
F. simplex Kingslej €x Herklots. 

Qrap$u9 simplex Herklots, Additamenta, etc., p. 9, PI. I, f. 8 (1851). 

Boutry, West Coast of Africa (Herklots.. 

Qenus VAUTIL0G&AFSU8 Edwards {Planet Bell ^). 

Carapax narrow, regular^y arcuate, sides slightly convex, and 
bearing a rudimentary tooth behind the orbital angle. Front 

* The genus Planes is a MS. one of Leach. Bowdich, in his '* Excursion 
to Madeira and Porto Santo," p. 15, f. 2 (1825), figures and mentions a si>e- 


more than half tlie vidth of the carapax. External maxillipeds 
broad, meros broader than long. Posterior feet compressed. 

K. minntiw EdMkrds ti Linnf. 

Canter minutm lAaad. Syst. Nat. Edit, xii, p. 1046 (1766). 
Oraptus minutu» Latreille, Hist. Cruet, et Ins., yi, p. 68 (1808-4). 
Oraptui cinertui Saj, Joum. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. i, p. 99 (1817). 
6rapm»pelagieu*QB,y, 1. c, p. 443 (1818). 
■ PiaMi elyptatm Bowdich, 1. c, p. 15, PI. f. 3 (1825). 

Orap»u» feitiidineum et pelagieag Koux, Cmet. Hed.i P).VI, f- 8-7 

Ocypoda ( Grnptiit) pu»iUu» De Haau, op. cit., p. 59, PI. XVI, f. 2 

Nautilograpm* minuhi* Bdw., Hist. Nat. Crust, ii, p. 90 (1837). 
Grap*ut diti* Costa, Fauna Napoli, Crustacea, PI. IV, f. I (1888-1851). 
Hanf» miTiutttg White, Cat. Brit. Mus. Crust, p, 43 (1847) 
NmiHlograptut Major et Smithii, McLeay in Smith Zool., South Africa, 

Annuloaa, pp. 66-67 (1849). 
Planet Unneana Bell, British Btalk.eyed Crustacea, p. 135 (1851). 
Manet cyaneu» Dana, Proc. Phil. Acad., 1851, p. 250. 
Nautilograpirif nugmtatut Stimpaon, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

1858, p. 103. 

Cara))ax smooth, arcuato in both directions; f^ont nearly 
straight, pOBt-orbital tooth small, sometimes obsolete. Sides 
arcuate. Meros of chclipeds with its inner distal border dentate ; 
Carpus with a tubercle on the inner surface ; hand smooth, fingers 
deftexed. Ambulatory feet compressed, ciliate. 

9>itf Stream ! (Many Collectors]; »>«( IiidU» ! (Dr. Griffith); Suri- 
'uimf (Dr. Heiing); F/iM'ind h.! (Dr. Wilaon); Peru! (Dr. 
RuBchenberger) ; Went Coni't of Mexifi ! Alnitka ! (Dr. W. H. Jones) ; 
f/AiHd.MCapt. Putnam); AV/r Ze-ittiiid: Natid! kDt. Wilson); Rio 
(inmbia! (J. Casein); Jledilerraiiinn (Dr. Wilson}; France.' 
'Uuerin); '^tovtet desmerif" (Guerin). Guerin's ideas of the dis- 
tribution leave nothing more to be said. 

(tenus EtrCHIKOQEAPSUB M.-Edwurd!, ISj.'t. 

Carapax depiesseil, stibquadrato, sides slightly arcuate, witb 

throe teeth bohind the orbital angle ; orbits entire. Antennie long, 

oies in tliese words : " A small crab, f. 3, " and b, which I conceive to be a 
new species of Pinna was found in great numbers amongst the anatifene." 
In a foot-note the species is described as follows : "It was of a delicate, 
but bright, rose-color ; from the symmetrical form of its test (notched so 
regularly as to increase the projection and distinctness of its chaperon), it 
may be called P. ctypcntim.'' This can hardly be considered as a sufficient 
description to establish the genus, and hence I prefer to retain the com- 
monly accepted name. 


entering the orbit; Meros of the external maxillipeds about half 
the length of the ischium, its outer distal angle rounded, its inner 
excavate and bearing the palpas. 

S. Ugnrioiit Edwards. 

Euchihograpsiis ligurtcus Edwards, Archives dii Museum, vii, p. 158, 

PI. X, £; 2 (1853). 

Nic^ (Edwards). 
Oenns BBACHT0SAP8US nov. 

Carapax broader than long, arcuate, without transverse lineation, 
sides nearly straight, with one tooth behind the angle of the orbit. 
Meros of the external maxillipeds shorter than broad, its external 
distal angle prominent, the internal one bearing the palpus.' 

B. IsBvit nov. 

Front straight, external angles of orbit not prominent, tooth of 

lateral margin spiniform. Meros of cheliped triquetral, bearing an 

obtuse tooth on the upper border. Carpus with an acute internal 

spine. Hands inflated, smooth ; Angers acute. Ambulatory feet 

elongate, slender, but slightly compressed, the dactyli longer than 

the proi>odal joints. 

Nett Zealand! (E. Wilson). 

Oenus PTTCHOOKATHUS Stimpson, 1858 {Gnnihogmpxun A. M.-Edwards). 

Carapax flat, lateral border emarginate. External maxillipeds 
very broad, nearly meeting, the exognath fully as broad as the 
ischium. The carpus bears the palpus at the middle of the ante- 
rior margin, and has the external distal angle strongl}' produced. 

Synapsis of Species. 

Exognath of external maxilliped extending to or exceeding the external 
distal angle of the meros. riedelii, 

Exognath extending only to the middle of the meros. 

Oblique portion of brancliial ridge bounded by a granulated ridge. 

Oblique portion without a prominent boundary. pyHUits, 

Insufficiently characterized. glaber, 

P. glaber Stimpson. 

Ptychognathui glaber Stimpson. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 

1858, p. 104. 

Bonin L (Stm.) 

^ I am not certain as to the exact position of this genus, as it appears to 
combine the characters of both the Cyclometopa and Catometopa, In the 
form of carapax and structure of the external maxillipeds it closely resem- 
bles Trapeeia. In the male genital appendages it is allied to the Grapsida, 
where for the present I prefer to allow it to remain. 


Dr. Stimpaon's short diagnosis presents no characters which are 
not held in common by both F. riedelii and pilipes, excepting the 
non-pilose hand, which in other species of the genus is only of 
«exual importance. 

T. risdsUi Eingsle; ex A. Milne- Ed ward a. 

Gnathograpsua riedelii A, M.-Edw., Nouv, Arch, du Musenm, iv, p. 
182, PI. XSVII, f. 1-5 (1888). 

Celebes (A.. M.-Edw.). 
F. pniillni Heller. 

Ptychognathut puetllui Heller, Itiese der Novara Crustaceen, p. 60, 1807. 
Gnathograpau* barbatat A. M.-Edw., Nout. Arch, du MuBeum, is, p. 
310, PI. XVII, f. 4, 1872. 

Carapax depressed, nearly smooth, with a few shallow impres- 
sions anteriorly. Front slightly sinuate. Antero-lateral mat^n 
with two indistinct teeth behind the orbital angle. Chelipeds finely 
granulate, but without spines or tubercles. Hands of the male 
with a lanose spot on the outside at the base of the fingers; in the 
female this is wanting. The exognath of the external maxillipeds 
reachesonly to the middle of the meros. Ambulatory feet slender, 

MduriHut! (Guerin'); NiMbare (Heller); Jfeie CeUdonia (A. M.- 

P. pitipai Kingiley <i A. Milne Edward?. 

On'ilhogr"pii'i» pilipes A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arcb. dii Museum, iv, 184, 
PI. XXVII, f. 0-10 (1868). 

This species is scajcoly more than a variety of P. p.usilhis, but 
I pffcfer for the pi-esent to leave tliem separate. 

PliilippiRO and Celebu (A. M.-Edw,). 
acTiUK ACKJEOFIEDKA Slimpjon, lii9. 

■Carapax depressed, the antevo-lateral margins entire. External 
inaxiilijK'ds nearly uicfting the meros, bearing the palpus on the 
middle of the anterior margin ; the exognath narrow. 

A.p»rvala Slimpaon. 

Ariiiircpliiirii piirtul<i Stimpson, Proc Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1858, p. 105. 

Japan (Stimpson). 

Oennl P8XTJD0GBAP8II9 M. EJirarJs (I83T), rt«r. 

Carapnx depressed, transverse; sides arcuate, with two teeth 
Ijehiuil the orbital angle. Front less than half the width of the 

' These were labeled by Guerin " ficxarma pcnii^itli'tii ap. ined." 


carapax. Mcros of external maicillipeds broader than long, 
shorter than the ischium and with ltd ttxtdrtlal distal aligle 
strongly produced. 

Synopsis of Species, 

Hands inflated without elevated lines. 

Fingers with many long hairs, carapax inflated. iito»u». 

Hains on the hand between the bases of the flngers short, 
carapax flat. (Mm. 

Hands with an elevated line on the k>wer outer surface, fingers 
without haiis. prcM^* 

P. Mtotnt. 

Cancer barbatu» Rumph., PI. X, No. 2 (1705). 

Cancer Mtoiui Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst^p. 889 (1798). 

ChrapiUBpemdUiger Latr., Reg- An. (I Edit.), iii, p. 16, PL XII, f. 1 


Eriochcirf peniciUiger De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 81 (1885). 

PuudograpiUi penicUliger Edw., Hist. Crust., ii, p. 8^ (1887). 

Puudograpitu barbatui Edw., Ajm. Sci. Nat, III, xx, p. 191 (1858). 

Eeutem Sea$ (Auct). 
P. albas Stimpfon. 

PieudograpHii albui Stimpson, Proc. A.cad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1858, 

p. 104. 

Japan (Stimpson) ; New Caledonia (A. ^.-Edwards). 


P. erattat A. Milne-Edwards. 

P$eudograp9Ui cra$$u$ A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., iv, p. 176, 

PI. XXVI, f. 6-10 (1868). 

Celebes (A. M.-Edw). 

Oenas YABUHiL Edwards, 1830 {Triekopu9 De Haan, 1835). 

Carapax depressed, sides arcuate, two-toothed. Antennube 
oblique. Antennae entering the orbit; external maxillipeds 
slightly gaping. Meros much shorter thdn the ischium, its ex- 
ternal distal angle expanded. Palpus articulating with the middle 
of. the anterior margin. Exognath half as wide as ischium. 
Ambulatory feet compressed, natatorial. 

T. litterata Milne-Edwards ex Fabrieins. 

Cancer litterata Fabr., Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 842 (1798). 
IVicJiopui litterata De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 32 (1885). 
Varuna litterata Edw., Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., xvi, p. 511 (1880), 
Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 95 (1837). 


Carapax smooth, cardiac region partly circumscribed. Front 
straight, orbits fissured above, lateral teeth separated by slight 
Assures. Posterior margin of iperps gi cl}§liped^ ^Qute, the 


inferior grtuiulate, the anterior witli spimfona toberolea. Oarpiu 
with ft prominent internal spine and one or two smaller onM. 
Hands inflated^ rough, an elevated line on the lower outer ma^;iii. 
Ambulatory feet strongly compressed, margins oiliste. In a 
specimen ftom New Zealand the carpal spines are wanting. 

PkOippinti! (E. & T. B. Wllacm) ; Indiait OMan/-(Giiieiin) ; ITmo ' 

ZttAtnd! (E. Wilson); China! (Capt. Putnam, Beab. Aoad.); 
. P<m<Mv/ (J.P'Wud, Peab. Aoad.); J'i)j)an<lIieM); JTatirWM 
(A. M..Edw.). 

Qmn UnCA Wbltc, IMT. / 

Carapax depressed, sides more or leas arcuate, two-toothed. 
Antennulse ohlique. Antenofb entering the orbit. Meroa of 
external shocter than the ischium, its external angle not expanded. 
Posterior feet compressed. 

Synopsie of Speciea. 

Inner nut^na of flngen strongly haired. barHmamu. 

Hands naked. 

Angles of front unte. graeOipit, 

Angles of front ronnded. floftra. 

IF. iTMillpei White. 

nHea graetliptf White, I^vc. Zocd. Soc., 1847, p. 8S. Adams and 
White, Voyage Samanng, CmsL, p. 53, PI. XIII, f. 6 (18S0). 

Fhitippine* (White.) 
IT. glmbn A. MilDC' Edwards. 

Utiea glabra A. M.-Edw., Nour. Arch, dn Mob., ix, p. £96, PI, SIV, 
f. 3 (1878). 

Nea Caledonia {&.. M.-Edw.). 
D. barbimuia* A. Miloe-Edwards. 

mica barbimanvi A. M.-Edw., 1. c, p. 2ST, PI. XIV, f. 4 (ISTO). 

iir«w CaUdcnia (A. M.-Edw.) 

a«Di» Oil FTOOSAFBirS Smith, 1870. 
Garapnx transverse, distinctly areolate, sides arcuate, three- 
toothed. Antennre entering tho orbit, External maxiUipeds 
Dearly meeting. Ischiuoi and meros nearly equal in length, very 
broad, the mei-oa being broader than long, Its external distal angle 
not expanded. Ambulatory feet elongate, the dactyU quadran- 
gular and spiiiose. 

0. imprMiD* Smith. 

Qlyplograpsut impreitut Smith, Trana. Conn. Acad., 11, p. 164 (1S70). 

Aeajv , W. Coast of Central Amt- -via (Smith). 


Genus HETESOOBAPSUS Lucas, 1849. . 
{ Pseudograp9U9, pars, Edw., Dana; ffemigrapsut Dana. 

Carapax arcuate, front inclined, antero-lateral margins dentate. 
External maxillipeds nearly closing. The meros as long or longer 
than broad, and bearing the palpus on the middle of its anterior 
border, the exognath narrow. 

As the distinctions between the species are mainly comparative 
and the descriptions of authors are ver}' brief, no synopsis can 
be given. The species may however be divided into two sections, 
according to the number of teeth on the antero-lateral margin. 

A. Antero-lateral margin with two teeth behind the orbital angle. 

JL Ineasii Edwards. 

Heterograpms sexdentatus Lucas, Exploration Algiers, i, p. 19, PI. 11, 

f. 4 (1849), (nee Edwards^ 
Heterograp9U8 lucasii Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 192 (1853). 

Carapax regularly arcuate, epigastric lobes but slightly indi- 
cated. Front four-lobed. Antero-lateral margin with two promi- 
nent, narrow, acute teeth. Chelipeds without spines or tubercles, 
the hands of the male are smooth and rounded, in the female they 
have a double crest above and two elevated lines on the outer 
surface.^ Ambulatory feet slender, naked ; dactyli long and 


Algiers! (Dr. T. B. Wilson) ; Candia (Edwards). 

H. texdentatnt Edwards. 

Cyelograpsus isxdeniatus Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 79 (1837). 
Hemigrapsus sexdentatui Dana, U. S. Expl. Exped., Crustacea, p. 348, 

PI. XXII, f. 2 (2850). 
ffeterograpsuM sexdentatus Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 192, 

PI. vii, f. 7 (1853). 

Carapax arcuate, surface uneven, laterally granulate; Epi- 
gastric lobes prominent. Front straight. Antero-lateral margin 
"with two teeth behind the orbital angle, the teeth broad, the 
^marginations narrow. Chelipeds without spines or tubercles. 
Sands small, fingers excavate. Ambulatory feet moderate, naked ; 
dactyli short and stout. 

Australia! (E. Wilson) ; New Zealand! (Dr. T. B. Wilson) ; Bay 
of Islands (Dana). 

^ Milne-Edwards (1. c, p. 192,) divides this section of the genus into 
two groups, one with the bands roimded and without longitudinal crests, 
the other with crests a division which evidently cannot be maintained. 

208 pRncERtiiNOH or Tan .utademt ur [181 

B. lugulMBi K.launlt ■! D* iUao. ' 

Oraptv* lanffvirtfui De Haan, F»uu& JaponiM, CniriM**, p. Ofl^ PL 

XVI, f. SdSM). 
Oraptat marmoratut White, ('>t. Brit. Mtuwim, Cnut-, p. 41, IMT 

I^ttviograpnu* nudat Dui>, Prac- Acul. NaL Bel. PlilU^ 1831, p. HO. 

Sspl. Etprd.. Ci-qM., p. 33^ PI. XX, r. 7 (18Ut. 
Jblrrogropiu* mngHiHtvt, mamtoratHt iX Mci(Wiih>* Bdw., Aim. Sd. 

Nat., Ill, xx, p. msiisas). 
Ifttfrograpjiut nnJu* t^llmpoAn, Proc Ac«d. Nat. M. PUU., 1838. 
p. im. 
Cantpax )io>t«Tiorl}* nt-arly flat, iii fVont arcuate, wltb M<alt«rMl 
liunoUf am) a oun-od lioo of largicr (1cp^l^»sioIW rtintiing iniranl 
'Voiu the last tooth or\bc lateral margin. Front oliaolvlcl}' twu- 
IoIkJ ; antero-latoral marpn with two twth clowly similar lo 
Ihow of jy. »ej:denlalua. Ch*Hj>eds amooth, with small red 4poU. 
wliich pcrHJat in alcoholic! <ir (Iried spevJmvns. Uands with an 
rxtemol CKwt, bt^Kuning i(W>lrHi;i'Hl wlUi h^; Hatfen i!X<.-avatr. 
Ambulatory trtt ahort, fitmit, nnkMl,jnmctat«; llw claclyll rerj 

CaUfpntM.' iBiany l»ciilltl«* and oollaoUn*) ; [*i>K4^Mi«rr /(.,' (Dr. 
A.. S. Packard, Jr., in Poabodf Acad. Scteniwl; San Lrrwiunr, 
(Mf «./ Valif,>n>U' (WIIUm' Kir«ditiim) ; Aiutr-lia' (B. 
WilHuti); Jajuin <D« Ilann) ; Puitiptt anJ AwlUiinl (Killer); 
/!.<:,; n,.,..j (i*iiro|i«)n> ; Wjt.i'WWl*); Vftgnni.! (E*.r»rf»). 

H. •ruilnapa* KlQiik* » l>ani. 

Hrmigraptut frainmanv Dana, Proc. Phlla. Aold., 1851, p. 390. 
C. S. Ex. Eipcd., Cnuk, p. 349, PI. XXI^ f. 4 (1893). 

Ilateaian It. (Dana). 
H. ertaalatu Kl'knia n nn'rip. 

Oraprui ertnulalvM OuBrin, Voy. Coqulll^ II, pL I, p- 13 (18a8>.> 
Ctelograpiut errnulata* Edw., Hist. Nat CrtiU., 11, p. SO (1637). 
Htm^Topittt rrtaylalu* Dana, U. a Ex. Ex., Crunt., p. 340, PL XXII, 

£ 8 (1833). 
Hrtirograpmt errnuliltit Edwards, Ann. Scl. Nat. Ill, xx, p. 193 

HrtfrograpMHi barbigmt II«ller, Vcrh. Z. B. Gcxellscbaft Wi«n, 

18«2, p. S23. 
Jtitrroijriipriit b-irbimuHu* Ilvllcr, Novam Cnutacea, p. 53, PI. IV, 
r. 5(I9«7). 

Aii.lnilui (Gui-rin); AW Znil'iml (Edwardn) ; Bag of hUnd, 
tDnna] ; Puuipft „»d Aufktand (Heller). 

' The title bears the ilnt« 1)^30, tbu introduction to the Cnutacea and 
Arachnids, " IS Novembif l^lUt," and the i>latcH leSO. Oufcrin In hii de- 
Mrlptlon, refer* to Hlluv-Edwardc' cla«[c work aa then In manuscript. 


H. •longatoi A. M.-Edw. 

Heterograp»us elongatui Alph. Milne-Edwards, Nouv. Arch, du Mu- 
seum, ix, p. 317, PI. XVII, f. 5 (1873) . 

iVetr Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). 
H. oregOBtniis Stimpson ex Dana. 

Pgeudograpsus oregonensis Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 
1851, p. 248. Expl. Exped. Crust., p. 334, PI. XX, f. 6 (1852). 

Heterograp»u9 oregonensia Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1858, p. 104. 

Carapax depressed, anteriorly irregularly roughened; proto- 
gastric lobes defined. Front four-lobed, the inner lobes the more 
prominent. Antero-lateral margin with two prominent teeth. 
Chelipeds without spines or tubercles. Hands with an elevated 
line on the lower outer surface, the inner surface of the hand of. 
the male with a pilose spot. Ambulatory feet moderate, ciliate. 
Piacific Coast of North America from Puget Sound! (Geo. Davidson); 
to Sanla Cruz! (Miss Hecox). 

There are two specimens belonging to this species in the Mu- 
iseum of the Academy, bearing the label " New Providence, W. I., 
X)r. H. C. Wood, Jr.'' 

penioillatBt Stimpson ez De Haan. 

Eriocheir penicillatus De Haan, op. cit., p. 60, PI. XI, f. 6 (1835). 
ffeterograpsus penicillatus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel- 
phia, 1858, p. 104. 

Japan (De Haan). 
BTythnrat Kingsley ex Eossmann. 

Pseudograpsus erythrcBus Kossmann, Reise in den Kiistengebiete des 

rothen Meeres, p. 61, PI. 1, f. 5 (1877). 

Bed Sea (Kossmann). 
K. x»«llipet Milne- Edwards. 

Pseudograpsus' pallipes Edw., Hist. Crust., ii, p. 82 (1887). 
ffeterograpsus pallipes Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 194 (1853). 

Australia (Edw.). 

"• ^ntero4ateral margin with three teeth behind the orbital angle. 

^' ^^^todentatut Edwards. 

Cyelograpsus octodentatus Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 80 (1837). 

Meterograpsus octodentatus Edwards, Ann- Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 194 

^ Locality unknown, 

* ^JBnii Eingsley ez Dana. 

Memigrapsus affinis Dana, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1851, 
p. 250, U. 8. Exp. Exped., Crustacea, p. 350, PI. XXH, f. 5 (1852), 

Patagonia (Dana), 


H. tpinoint Edw. 

Ileterograpftui npinoBUi Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xz. p. 194 (1853^. 

Vanikaro (Edw.) ; AuHralia (A. M.-Edw. 

Oenas SRIOCHEIE De Haan (1835). 

Carapax quadrate, antero-lateral margin two-toothed. Fron 
much less than half the width of the carapax. Antennob 
oblique. Antennae not excluded from the orbit. Ex(^nia 
maxillipeds nearly closing. Mcros as long as broad, the externa 
distal angle not expanded and the carpus articulating with thi 
middle of its anterior border. 

Synopsis of Species, 
Bides convex. 

Mesial fVontal lobes rounded. japouifu* 

Frontal lobes acute. simsiuU 

Sides straight. r^etu* 

X. japonions De IlMai. 

Eriochtir japonieui De Haan, op..cit., p. 59, PI. XVII (1835). 

Carapax nearly flat, surface uneven. Front four-lobc<l, mesia 
lobes rounded, outer IoIhss acute ; protogastric lobes prominent 
granulate. Antero-lateral bonier two-toothed, with indications o 

:i thinl. Mctos of cholipiMls with tlu* margins jrnuiulatr. th< 
posterior ttTininiitiiig iu an Jicnto tooth. Carpus with a promi 
m*nt intoniiil spine ; distal margin of the carpus ami externa 
surface of the han<l with thickly set lonjj: hair; thr in!ier ^urfaet 
of the palm with a short horizontal line of granules. Fingir* 
sulM'Xcavate. Ambulatory feet hairy above. 

f/tiptin ! (no donor's name . 
E. linaniii. 

Hrinchtirlun] nintn^iH Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, \\. 177 IS^^r 

Arch, du Muh., vii, p. 146, PI. IX, f. 1 iiaT^. 

China (Edw. . 

E. reetni. 

Eriochfir re^tn» Stimi»»on, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila , l^*)** p. ln:i 

}f( (Stiiiipruni . 

r,iiui* PERI0RAPSU8 H.i:,r, isf'.iv 
(':irapax <on\r\. ^i<lfs arcuate, with one tooth }»ehin«l thr an-jh 
of the orbit. Front narrower than half the wi«lth of the carapax 
Men)S of the rxt^-rnal mnxilliped a little Ioniser than ]>r«»:Hl an-i 
U^arinix tin* palpus on the extmial angle. Partyli c)f ainhulator\ 
fe*t spined. 


P. exoeUnt Heller. 

Per%grap»us exeeUus Heller, Verb. Zool. Bot. Gtes. Wien, 1862, p. 522. 

Noviara Crust., p. 50, PI. V, f. 1 (1885). 

Tahiti (Heller). 

Genos PLATT0SAP8US Stimpson, 1858 {Platynotm De Haan, 1835, preoeo.). 

Carapax flat. Front horizontal. Sides nearly straight, with 
two teeth behind the angle of the orbit. Meros of the external 
maxilliped longer than the ischium and bearing the palpus on the 
estemal angle. 

^. dtprettiia Stimpson ex De Haan. 

Platynotus depressus De Haan, Fauna Japonica, Crust., p. 63, PI. YIll, 

f. 2 (1835). 
Platygrapsus depresaus et eonvexiusculus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. 

Sci. Phila., 1858, p. 104. 


Carapax depressed, smooth; front horizontal, four-lobed, mesial 
Iol)es the larger; sides with two teeth behind the angle of the 
orl)it, the posterior tooth indistinct. Chelipeds smooth and 
. u^narmed ; meros with the anterior margin acute ; carpus without 
»I>ine8 or tubercles; hand with an elevated line on the low^er outer 
^'O.yface; fingers slender, gaping. Ambulatory feet elongate. 

Japan! (no donor's name); Hong Kong (Heller); LooChoo (Stimpson). 


Tribe Sbbabmini (Sub-family SesarmincB Dana). 

3fero8 and ischium of the external maxillipeds crossed obliquely 
a piliferous ridge. 

Genas XETABE8ABMA Edw (1853). 

Carapax quadrate, sides but slightly arcuate, entire; front 
^^oad, deflexed. Sub-orbital lobe large, meeting the front and 
^^^oluding the ai^tennse from the orbit. Meros of external maxilli- 
greatly elongate, its apex rounded. 

Synopsis of Species, 

S^xids smooth, eztemsklly and above. rousseauxt. 

H^nd roughened above. granularis, 

^^Qid roughened above and externally. trapezium, 

%* liUManzi Edw. 
. JfirfMMarma rou$$eauxi Edw., A.nn. Sci. Nat., HI, xx, p. 88 (1853). 

Ajrpb, dtt Kmrf yii, p. 158, n X, f. 1 (1854). 

Zanzibar (Edw.). 


M. grannUrUi Heller. 

Meta$e$arma granularu Heller, Verh. Z. B. Ges. Wien, 186'^ p. 9 

Metoiesarma rttffuloia Heller, Novara Cru8t«, p. 65 (1865). 

Takiii { HeUi 
M. trapeiiam Stimpson ex Dana. 

Sesarma trapezium Dana, U. S. £xpl. Ezped. p. 854, PL XXL 


Meta$($arma trapezium 8timp«OD, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.Phila., 

p. 873. 

Sandwich It. (Dan 

GeoQf SAEMATimC Dan*, 1S61 {Mttagraptu* Edw., 186.t). 

Carapax convex, sides arcuate, entire or toothed. FroB 
clined, less than half the width of the carapax. External ma 
l)eds nearly as in Sesarma. Ambulatory feet with the mai 

Synopsis of Species. 

Sides of carapax with two teeth behind the orbital angle. 
Hands externally smooth and rounded. 

Carapax smooth, hand transversely plicate abore. €rm 

Carapax areolato, hand smooth above. curtc 

Hands externally roughened. 

Hands externally bearing a pectinate crest* peeiim* 

Hands without a prominent external crest. ' 

Hands with an internal granulate ridge. pHneta 

Hands entire within. I'w/i 

Sides of carapax entire. iuUg 

8. oraiinm Dnna. 

Sarwntium rnmttum Dana, Pnxj. Acail. Nat. Sci. Thila., ISol, p, 
I'. S. i:\\)\. EviK'd., C'nist., p. 3r>8, PI. XXIII, f. 1 ls.V2 . 

8. oorvatam King^Icj n Milm -K(lwar<l^. 

Stinirimt rurrtifn Kdw., Hist. Crust., ii, p. 7.") il83T . 
MftfUjnijifuH ntrrutmt M.-Edw., Ann. Sri. Nat. Ill, xx, ]>. HO 1 
Arch, du Mus., vii, p. I'iO, V\. X, f. 3, 1854. 

8. peciinatam Kin(;i>l< v ox Milnr-Kilwaril". 

}ftt<ujrttintnn lurtiti'itiin Kdw., Ann. Sci. Nat. Ill, xx, ]>. \>*^ \'<u 

M'lrtiuiti'n I-Uiv 
8. panctatum Kiii^-l«'y • \ A. Milnr r<lwur<l"<. 

Mt (•iijr-ipiiuH p'//trf.ifni> A. M.-Kdw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., ix, p 
IM. XVII, f. 2 is7;j . 

.Vf ♦/• Ciifttioniti A. M.-l'^iv 

' I !»a\c luic a> in otlior pla<is nnjiloycd the earlier nanjo ; \%hat n 
pr. Ih'llcr had r»r tlie rhan^e I cannot imagine 


I. iadienm KiDgslej ex A. Milne-Edwards. 

Metagrapms indicus A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., iv, p. 174, 

XXVI, t 1-5 (1868). 

Celebes (A. M.-Edw.). 
I. iBtegrom Kingsley ex A. Milne- Edwards. 

Meiagrap9us integer A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus,, ix, p. 309, 

PI. XVn, f. 8 (1873). 

New Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). 

Oenus BHACONOTTTS Gcrstaecker, 1856. 

Carapax sub-quadrate, sides arcuate, toothed. Front narrow, 
about one-third the width of the carapax. Meros of external 
naxillipeds nearly as broad as long and about half the length of 
the ischium. Ambulatory feet coonpressed., the margins of the 
joints serrate. 

K. cnnttlatut Gerstsecker. 

Bhaconotus crenulatuB Gei^stsBcker, Archiv fiir Natucgeschichte, xxi, 

p. 142 (1856). 

Locality unknown. 

QcBVslBSABMA Say, 1818. (PacAy«oma DeHaan, 1835. ^o/o7n«fo;7ti« Edw., 1863.) 

Carapax thick, quadrate, lateral margins straight, entire or 
. toothed. External maxillipeds with an oblique piliferous ridge 
' ciOBsing the ischium and meros ; the meros elongate, its apex 
. nmaded. Antennae entering the orbit. 

I have not. attempted to revise the species of this genus on 

tecount of a lack of sufficient material. I merely give a list of 

the described species, indicating in a few cases the synonymy, 

hut leaving the task of comparing a large number qf poor descrip- 

[ tions to some future carcinolagist. 

I tfiikii Edw. (= ? qnadrata). 

Qrapius (Pachy$oma) qfflnt'i De Haan, op. cit., p. 61, PI. XVIII, f. 

5 (1835). 
Setarma affinis Edwards, Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 183 (1863). 

Japan (De Haaii); China (Edw.) ; Natal (Krauss). 
i>afriBt]IA Edwards. 

Bmrma africana Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 73 (1837). 

Senegal (Edw.). 
I* UNiImii^ Saasanre. 

Smrma americana Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phys. et Hist. Nat., xiv, p. 

441 (1858). 

St, ThomaSj W, L (Saussure). 

Bmrma angoUf^sis Capello, Descr. tres sp. Nov. Crust, du Africa Oc- 

ddent> p. 4, f. 2 (1864). 

. Angola, We$t Africa (Capello). 


8e$arma angutta Smith, Trans. Conn. Acad., ii, p. 159 (1870). 

Panama (Smith), 
t. angOStifrOBa A. Milne-Edirftrdf. 

Se$arma anguttifron* A. M.-£dw., Nonv. Arch, du Mua. BolletiB, t, 
p. 26 (1809). 

Sandwich 1$. (A. M.-Edw.). 
9. aagastipet Dana. 

Semrma anffuiiipei Dana, U. S. Exp). Expcd., Cniat, p. 853, PI. XXII, 
f. 7 (1852). 

Florida! Wtitlndiei,' Drataf . 

8. af pera Heller. 

Suarma aspera Heller, Novara, Crust, p. 68, PI. VI, f. 2 (1805). 

Nieobariy Ceylon, Madrai (Heller). 

9. atrombeas Heii. 

Sesarma atrombsm Hess, Archiy ftir Naturgeschichte, xxxi, p. 149, 

PI. VI, f. 12 (1865). 

Sydney, Aueiralia (Ilesa . 
9. aabrji A. Miloe-Edwardf. 

Seeanna auhryi A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch., Bulletin, ▼, p. 25 1 1809). 

Nouv. Arch., ix, p. 307. PI. XVI, f. 3 (187S). 

Neyo Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.^. 
9. bidans Miloe-tfdwards ex De Hmd. 

Orapeui {Paehyioma) bidene De Haan, op. cit, p. 60, PI. XVI, f. 4, 

PI. XI, f. 4(1835). 
Seearma bidene Edw., Ann. 8ci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 185 (1853). 

Japan (De Haan); Hong Kong, Nicobare (Heller) ; Fritndly It. 
(Dana) ; Ceylon, Zamibar (Hilgendorf)* 

8. bonoonrti A. Milne- Rdwar<U. 

ikiiirma boMcourii A. M.-Edw., Bulletin, 1. c, p. 28 ' 1860^ 

Siam (A. M.-Kdw. . 
8. cbirogona Tuzzetti. 

fkMttrfn<i chirogona Tiir^'ioni-Tozzetti, Zoolo^ia del Viaj^jj^io della 

Majcenta, i>. \M\ V\. IX (1H77). 

Yokohama i^Tozzetti . 
8. eineraai Sny ex Hose. 

OrapMui ein^rcuM Bosc., Hist. Nat. Cnist., i, p. '204 PI. V, f. 1, 1802 3 

(teste A net- '. 
fl^narma cinerea Say, .lour. Acad. Nat. Soi., Phila., i, p. 44*2 181>*^. 

Viryinia ' U^ Florida ! aiul \\\v We$t Indira * 
S dentifroni A. Milnr-K-lwurd-. 

S^ftitrma dentifrou* A. M.-Edw., Hulletin, 1. c, p. :n (iJ^nO . 

Sit moan h. A. M.-Kdw. . 
8 dehaani Milne Kilwnrih. 

(trupMus rarhj/noma- <ju>>diuttus Dv Haan, op. cit. i>. fi'J. 1*1. VIII. f. 3 

,if»arma dfhaaui Kdw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, ]>. \^\ 1**">3 . 

Jap'fTi I De ILian . 

■ATtEAL anKWUk or rHILA|iKlJ*IIIA. *JI'* 

U«.. Ann. ^H'l. !fat.. III. is. |>. I"*'* t^Vf . 

i rfiv«tt« lI«ffkUitJk A«t<ltt. aa KAunam A fur. <kmilrnt.. y. !••, 

r. !• 1^1 » 

Bcuirp, W§sl AfrUi Il« ikltit* 
i Vila* t4m%t4» 

m A M. IU1». Ilullrtin,! c, |.. V) l<WiO 
I mg i k * m4 >s ft f is llrw. Arvh. fur NattifKr*.. it&t, |>. IM. II. VI, 

iji i:«l« . Am 9ri. N«i . III. ti. |. IM tKVt 

i4*ri at Mvrl^t. 

fmant^lmru llrrUl. KraLUb uih! Krrl^. 11 M.VII. f : 

l««4«r. C4i», Ann S-i Nat. 111. «i. p. K. I***.: tr«tr Iti) 

iyW%f4^ A M lUU . Ilullrttn. 1 r.. |.. '/T I*<^.y 

Jfj^^MATjr A. M Kill* 

\ §armmmt A M Ed*., liallctiii. 1. r |^ ;*^ 1**<9 . 

I tefrawu ;«« ll<4nli rt Jar«| , V>7 AbI rt 3Si lee« Ourt.. 1*1 


i^Mtfifti C«l« . Anil. Nri Nai . III. it. )■ K l>^v: 

I ji«a K«l«. . .\4A'<4ri llrltrr . 
I f ««rtA« U« . Au Hrt. NaI . 111. &«. |. !^3 >Vt 

0ummimm^ A M. li^i* . Ilullrlin. I c . |> .*< !w;v . 

ir Ilv lljun, (f*. rit. |- «:. I*: VII. 

r llil* . Ann. Sci. N»i . III. *i, i :«^ !•*'.• 
i» at «ko<3| lAftdfoiOAU rhaf«nrr«. A timilAr |r<tf^««*l.n^ 


StmtrwM imprt$$a Edw., Hist. Nat. Crusty ii, p. 74 (1837i. 

Locality unkm»w%. 

S4m»rma imdkm Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., i i, p. 74 (1837). 

Indian Seas lEdw.); Ceylon and NicolMf ( Heller •. 

t. latSf His Milne- Edward! ex De Haan. 

GrapouM {Pachffoma) intermedia De Haan, op. cit., p. 61, PI. XVI, f 

SeearmKt intermedia Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xx. p. 186 (1858). 

SeoarwM late A. M.-Edw., Bulletin, 1. c, p. 27 < 1869 >. 

Japan ( De Haan ; Shanghai, Hong Kong (Heller:; 

Arrow 1$. )A. M.-Edw.). 
t. lafoadi .Taeqninot et Laoat. 

Seearma lafondi Jacquinot et Lucas, Voyage Astrolabe et 7elee 

Crust, p. 70, PI. VI, f. 4 (1853). 

Bataria (J. and I^). 

8. IsptOSoma Uilgendorf. 

Seearma leptoeoma Hilgeodori; in Decken*8 Reise, p. 01, PI. VI, f. 

( 1869). 

Zanzibar (Hilgendorf u 
8. liTidiLia A. Milne- Edwards. 

Seearma liddum A. M.-Edw., Bulletin, 1. c, p. 25 (1869), N. Arch., ix 

p. 303, PI. XVI, f. 2 (1873). 

JVIno Caledonia (A. M.-Edw. >. 
8. loBflpes Krausf. 

Sf$nrmn longipfi Krauss, Siid Afric. Cnist., p. 444, PI. Ill, f. 2 - \>^^ 

I'j/ihttM Uivfrj S. Africa ■ Kniu8»* . 
8. MUlleril A. Miln<-K.lwar.l-. 

Sffitrmn mitUeri A. M.-Eilw., Bulletiu. 1. c, p. 29 1809 . 

VfftUrrOf Brazil lA. M.-K«lw. . 
8. obaiam Pana. 

St-ntrma obf»um Dana, Proo. Pliilii. Acad., IBol, p. 250; U. S. K.\pl 

Kxi>t'd., Crust., p. 'Sry\ V\. XXII, f. 10. 

Diilabiic StraiU \ Dana . 
8. oblonga Martm*. 

Sr^.irma ohlon(ja Martens, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Ht'rliii, lSr»8, p. rtll 

l*hilip]>ineM Martens . 
8. obtasifroni Dmin. 

S/Miirum ofttHMt'/ronn Hana. I'nx*. Phila. Aca<l. 1H.*)1, j». 2.'K) ; V. S. K\pl 

ExiH'd., Crust., p. :r..\ n XXII, f. 9 1S52:. 

Suniltrich /<. Dana . 
S. occidentalii Smirh. 

Sfn^irtu I orcidffitaliM Suuihj Tran.s. Conn. Arad,, ii, j>. \'}^ l^7<>i. 

Weift C'nmt of (\ A'ut'rit'ii Smith . 

8. pentagons Hu'ti-i: ' 8. tetragona . 

ScMarrna penta'jona Mutton, Trans. Now Z^'aland Inst., 1^T'». p. J79. 

ye<r Zralnid IIutl«»n . 


8. qnadrata Miloe- Edwards ez Fabricius. 

Cancer quadratui Fabr., Siippl. Ent. Syst., p. 841 (1798). 
Oe^poda plicata Bosc., op. cit., i, p. 198, 1802-8 (teste A. M.-Edw.). 
Orap$u» {P€iehysoma) pictus et affinii De Haan, op. cit., pp. 61-60 

Setarma quadrata Edw.r Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 75 (1887). 
Se$arma pieta Krauas, op. cit., p. 45 (1848). 

Japan (De Haan) ; New Caledonia (A. M.-£dw.) ; Zanzibar (Hil- 

8. r«eta Randall. 

Setarma recta Randall, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., viii, p. 123 (1889). 

Surinam! (Randall). 
8. ntieuUta, Say. 

8e$arma reticulata Say, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., i, pp. 78, 76 et 

442, PI. IV, f. 6 (1818). 

Sesarma cinerea De Kay, N. Y. Fauna, Crust., p. 15 (1842). 

Virginia! to Florida! 
8. rieordi Milne- Edwards. 

Sesarma rieordi Edw., Ann* Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 183 (1853). 

Hayti (Edw.). 
8. roberti Milne- Edwards. 

8e$arfna reticulata McLeay in Smith Zool. S. Africa, p. 65 (18 ), vix 


Sesarma roberti Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xx, p. 182 (1858). 

Gori! (Dr. Wilson) ; So. Africa (McLeay). 
8. rotaadata Hess. 

Sesarma rotundata Hess, 1. c, p. 149, PI. VI, f. 9 (1865). 

Sydney (Hess). 
8. rotnndifroBS A. Milne- Edwards. 

Sesarmaroiundtfroni A. M.-Ed., Bulletin, I. c. p. 30 (1869). 

Safnoan Is. (A. M.-Edw.). 
8. mpieola Stimpson. 

8e»anna rupicola Stimpson, Proc. Phila. Acad., 1858, p. 100. 

Japan (Stimpson). 
8. sehftttei Hen. 

8$§arma sehiiUei Hess, L c, p. 150, PI. VI, f. 11 (1865). 

Sydney J Australia (Hess)* 
8. timilii Hess (= 8. atrombeat). 

8e$arma iimilii Hess, 1. c, p. 150 (1866). 

Sydney (Australia). 
8. liBeniis Milne-Ed wards. 

Suarma sinensis Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xx, p. 186 (1858). 

China (Edw.). 
8. laithii Milne-Edwards. 

Sesarma smitMiBdw,, Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xx, p. 187 (1853); Arch, du 
Mus., vii, p. 149, PI. IX, f. 2 (1854). 

Natal (Edw.); New Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). 


8. inleaU Smich. 

8e*aTfwi mkata Smith, Trans. Codh. AciuL, it, p. 156 (1870). 

Coriitto, Nicaragua.' [3. A. HcNiel, Peab. Acad. 
8. tanlaUla Mini «Wbiie HS. 

Betarma lanMala White MS., Miers, Proc. Zool. Soc., London (18TT), 
p. 137. 

PAiltppiTiei! (Dr. Wilson, with White's label). 

8. tetngona Miln«-f ilHardi tx Fsbticiua. 

Canear Utraaonon Fabricius, Suppl. Ent. Syst., p. 341 (1798|. 
Qraptui Cetragonon Latr., Hist. Crust, et lus., vi, p. 71 (1803-4). 
Stiarma ieirngona Edw., UUt. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 73 (1887). 

Zanzibar (Hilgendorf) to Nne Caledonia (&.. H.-Bdw.). 
B, trspeioids MHn».Ea-»nls. 

Seiarma trapizoida Edw., Hist Nat. Crust,, ii, p. 74 (1837). 

Locality *inkn»v)». 

B, UDgnlata Milnc-EilntirJ«. 

Bwnrma ungulala Edw,, Ann Sci. Nat. Ill, xx. p. 184 (1853). 


8. THtiU Stimpgun. 

Setama vttlita Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, p. 106. 

Japan (Stimpsou). 

8, rtllMttmA. Mili,«.Ed«8r.t-. 

St'arma villonvm A, M.-Edw., Bulletin, I. c, p. 81 (1869). 

Sarnoan It. (A. M.-Edw. V 

E. TiolacSB H«rkUita. 

Sf.-rma vioface,- Herklots, op. cit., p. 10, PI. I, f. 8 (1851). 

Wtft AfrUa! (Du CUaillu). 
(ienu! ASATDB .M.-E,ln., Xl^bA. 

(■iirap.ix trHiiCKoidal. eloDgato, narrow Iwhind, sides straiglit. 
I'lit^n-; front dcfii-xtd, vct-y hroa.i. Kxtrrnal inasilliiieds as in 
S'itarma. Ainbiilatoi-y tl'L-t compressed, the dactyli very short. 

A. pilDill .Mi1n«-Eiirari9, 

S.:>'rmfi jiifmi Edw.. Hist, Crust., ii, p. 7G, I'l. XVI, f. 4-5 11837). 
.irnl'if pUoni Edw.. Anu. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p. 197, 1853. 
(,'iirii| transversely arcuate, th« briuK'liial regions obliiiuely 
|ilirate. Kriml vt-rtieal, its margin two-lobtd. Mcros of cheli- 
jii^ds triijuetral. tiic- mai'giiiij domiciliate, tlie imterior one slightly 
(■x|>iinded diHtally. Carpus externally granulate. Hands every- 
wlirre granulate, tlie fingers ornamented ivith pencils of »tilf 
Mack iiuirs. 

Fliifidii .' ill, E. IVtbster, Union Collfgc; H>«t Iiidiei! (many 
mlleotont and localities); We^f Cviff "f yicar'igvi .' (J, A. 
MtNiel, I'uaU. Acad, i ; Ki., .I.„„in. illellen ; Prtiyi, DraiH 


Genus GLI8T0C(EL0MA A. M.-Edwards, 1873. 

Carapax sub^uadrate^ sides dentate. Sub-ocular lobe large, 
united to the front and excluding the antennae from the orbit. 
Mercs of external maxillipeds short and rounded. 

O. balanssB A. Milne-£dwards>. 

Clistocaloma balansa A. M.-Edw., Nouv. Arch, du Mus., ix, p. 311, 

PI. XVII, f. 1 (1873j. 

New Caledonia (A. M.-Edw.). 

Genus HELICE De Haan (1835). 

Carapax quadrate, front deflexed, sides straight, with one, two 
r three teeth behind the orbital angle. Antennae entering the 
rbit. Meros of external maxillipeds as long as or longer than 
^hke ischium, its external distal angle prominent, its distal border 

^ x^uncate. 

Synopsis of Species. 

X^.Ateral margin with three teeth behind the angle of the orbit. 
Ambulatory feet with a single distal spine on the meros. 

A transverse ridge on the branchial regions. tridens. 

No transverse crest on the branchial regions. 

Hands smooth. spinicorpn. 

Hands roughened. latreillei. 

Meral joints of ambulatory feet with several spines. dentipes. 

^^-•^Ueral margin two-toothed. 

Hand strongly granulate. gandichaudi. 

Hand nearly smooth. 

Meral joints of ambulatory feet with a spine on the 
upper distal margin, the hands of the male with a 
pilose spot at the base of the fingere. ;>i7/ma/?^. 

Meral joints without spines, hands of male without 
pilose spots. crassa, 

-*^^teral margin one-tootbed. gibba. 

^XKiperfectly characterized. Uachii. 

^^. trideni De Haan. ' 

Helice tridens De Haan, op. cit, p. 67, PL XI, f. 2, PI. XVI, f. 6 (1835). 

Carapax longitudinally strongly convex, punctate, front curved 
downward, its anterior border sinuate when viewed from above. 
Superior margin of the orbit sinuate, oblique ; lateral margin 
"With three teeth behind the orbital angle, the posterior tooth 
rudimentary. Branchial regions with an oblique ridge running 
inward from this tooth. Orbits coarsely crenulate below. In- 
ferior borders of the meral joints of the chelipeds with small 
tabercles. Carpus spined on the inside. Hands externally 

fln|;(^rs I'xi'nrntr. Cfn-i'"' i^^'' priiputlal j«tuU or tbe flr»t 
|inln. of nmlpiilnton- fw;t pilnsi; in fiont. 

JltfH»f ' 
H. (piaUtrp* Klirmnli. 

B. tpUifarpi EJwknh. Ana. Bri. Nat. III. is, p. IM ilSSH). 

H. daotip*! Jlrllrr. 

iItUe$ drnli/Mf Il'ltpr, No*ani Cnut-, p. OS, 11. V, (. X 

H. UtnilUI KiIaiirHf. 

Cyrl'Sfrapnt iatreilln Edwaiili, Ilijtt. Nat. Crwl., 11, ^ W 41937). I 

IMkt lalrtiUM Ed1^BH^ Ann. »ci. Nat. til, xx. t>. IM ^I^SIu J 

JfavHtMu I Edwaida). J 

H. faadUkaail Ed-nnU. j 

U»lif4 giiudiriandt Edwanlo, Ana. Set. Nat. til, ax, p. IM, 11. VOf'A 

r.O I !)»»). f 

AlaMirK I Eawwda). 

E pUlnaa* A. UII>it-Kd-i.r>lr. 

nrHt4 {.iUitaitd Ali)li. Hitiie Edwanlii, Nou*. Arab, ihi Hna.. U p. 
313, H. XVin, f. I (1871!). 

.Vw CWMbafa (A. U. IMw.). 
B. eruu luna. 

i/(ti<M«rd(Mnana. Prop. PlilU. AcaJ. (ISSK !>• tSB— C.B. Ex. ExpL, 

I'nut.. p. 8ft7. I'l. XXIII, f. 8 (I8M(. 
H. \iuaiU Edw., .^all. »d, Kal. in, xx. p. 100 <ll»»|. 

('iirn|>ax clooelv romiiiMin^ tliui of //.fn"(/e^i*.l"il wilh h'lt lw> 
t«eth behiod the orbital angle. Carpus of cheliped without ad 
iiiternal spioe, banda externally microscopically granulate, more 
coarsely so internally, the upper margin acute. Carpal and pro- 
podal Joints of the flret two jtairs of ambulatory feet, pilose. 

This ia probably but a variety of B. Iridena. Small females 
abow the elevatnl line on the band characterizing H. lucani. 

JVm Z*ata»d.' (Dr. Wilaoo); AuMaiuI (Hellar); AuMraUa iDana). 

H*Ue4 tMtekii U«m, Archi* fUr Naturgetchicbtc, xxxi, p. 15S <1B63). 

^iMf, Autlratia i Hm»). 

Qnat CTCLUIAPan tdw. (ISi;t|n>-mi). ( ffHiWtnw McLn;.) 

Carapax depren9e<l, Riile« arcuate, entire front aboirt half the 
width of the carapax. Antenna not excluded from the orbit. 
Meros of the external mnxilli|>od»t short, al>out aa long as the 
ischium; its external angl« well marked, tlie pnlpus articulating 
with the anterior margin. 


C. pnmoUtiu Milne-Edwards. 

Cyelograp9u$ punctatui Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 78 (1837). 

Onalhoehoimut barbatut McLeay, in Smith, Zool. S. Africa, p. 65 


Sesarma barbata Krauss, Sud Af. Crust., p. 45, PI. Ill, f. 3 (1843). 

CydograpsuB audouinii, lavauxii, whiiei^ granulosut et reynaudi Edw., 
Ann. 8ci. Nat. Ill, xx, p. 197 (1853). 

Cyclograpsus Ubvis Hess, Archiv fur Natur^^^eschichte, xzxi, p. 152 

Carapax smooth or slightly granulate ; sides arcuate in front, 
straight behind. Front broad, nearly straight. Orbits externally 
broadly emarginat^, the emargination continuing backward as a 
groove for some distance. Hands externally smooth, internally 
with a prominent longitudinal i-idge. Male abdomen triangular, 
regularly tapering from the third to the sixth joints, the seventh 
much narrower than the sixth. 

New Zealand/ (Guerin); Australia! (E. Wilson and Wilkes' Ex- 
pedition); Cape of Good Hope, Madras, Java (Heller) ; New 
Guinea (Edw.). 

C. granulatas Dana. 

Cyclograpeue granulates Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Bci. Phila., 1851, p. 
251 ; U. 8. Ex. Exp. Crust., p. 361, PI. XXIII. f. 4 il852). 

Sandwich Is. (Dana). 
G. einareni Dana. 

, Cyelograpsus cinereus Dana, Proc. Acad. (1851), p. 251; U. 8. Ex. 
Exp. Crust., p. 360, PI. XXIIl, f. 3 (1852^. 

Cyelograpsus eydouxi Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat, III, xx, p. 198 (1853\ 

Valparaiso and Sandwich Is, (Dana). 
G. longipet StimpBon. 

Cyelograpsus longipes 8tirapson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (1858), 

p. 105. 

Bonin Is, (Stimpson^ 

C. integer Milne- Edwards. 

Cyclograpsui integer Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., ii, p. 79 (1837). 

Florida! (A. 8. Packard, Jr., Peab. Acad.); Brazil (Edw.). 

Genos CHA8MAONATHU8 DeHaan, 1835. {Pamjraptnt Edw.). 

Carapax convex, sides arcuate, dentate, front curved down- 
ward Antenna not excluded from the orbit. Meros of external 
maxillipeds longer than broad, widest distally, its anterior border- 
slightly excavate, the palpus medially articulated. 






S<jno},ri» of Spt:i-ir: 
lateral tnsridn with thni« icdh beliliu) lh» ntblul 

Lha jMMlflrior tiiotb inoanaplcnffiu. 
Lateral margin vlUi twu tawtU. 
PniDt roiuitM. 
Fnmt aeutij ilraii-IiC- 
Pridi eumvnt*. 

V^npax ami iJicllpml* irnuinlat«. 
Catapiii M tit) i'li«l[ji«iU smootA. 
Kpiu'Ulric luliea pnrmliient. 
KjitKWtrk InbcK tncrni>picii(iu*. 
Latsnl mai't^n wllh lUw jmat urbitol tuutli. 

0. «OBTtSU Ih.[IiUI). 

ChatmagnalAu* trnMrvt Dclliuui, Fanna JaiHinhat, p. ns, PI. VH, T. 

Jvfan iDailaiui) ; Eatttrit Sttt lAdatu anil Wlilta). 
C. iBfaqnadralat fiaaa. ■ 

ClamntffnatAut *iibqiutir<itu» Danii, Proc A<Md. Xat. &H. Pttlla., 
IMI. p. Bl ; U. 8. E«. Exp., ('111.1.. p. BBS, PI. XXIH. f. » . )«3). 

C !■*!■ tXtiiK ( ^ C. nfefsadratBa. I 

CAfltmx^na/Aaj Iirrf* Dana, Proc Aead^ p. 339 ; Ei. Cxp^ p. ■■■% TL 

XXIII, f 7 118-.8 . 
/'iir«rr«fini«r«rrMv*/Edw., Ann. Sei. KaU III as, p. IV6 |1SS3}. 

r^rdjirii^Hiii f.rn". IlflUr, Ntivuvn (nut, p. M (J8BS'. 

Carapiiz eliglitly convex, punctate ; regiunn not defined. Kpt- 
gaHlric IoWh prominent. Front deeply excavate in the middle, 
wUeti viewetl frum nlove. Aiitero4»lenil tet.'tb Beparatcd by 
narrow flssurcH. ('lK'li)>cds everywhere smooth. Anterior surface 
of cerpuH and proiK>diis of flmt pair of ambiilntorv feet tomenlose. 
Auttraila ! (Uoerin ; Xnt ZMt^uad (Mien). 
C. arrtllai Kmsir. j » Miioe-Edo'di. 

/■iirairn}>nf(«rt>;(M>:dw., Ann. ScL Xit , lit, ix, p. 196;tH33>. 

Yenitoro J. r Gdw. 1. 
C. iraaalalaa Dunii. 

Chiitnagnaihvt grnnul.ilvt Dana, Proc. Acad., IWl, p. 2.11 ; U. S. Ei. 

Ekj.., (rust., p. :«4, I'l. XXIII. f. 8 dM.V' . 
lltliei granulnia Heller. Xovara Crui-t.. p. 01 >lKrt.-|i. 
('sra|nis <'"nvex, diitinetly nrecdate, praTuiIate; flie praniiW 
on till' branchial retriims Itring bilker; >'iiifrnstric li'lvos olisolote. 
t'ruiit fiirveil downward and, viewed from alvcivi', deeply exoavale. 


Sides of carapax acute, the fissures between the teeth l>eing very 
slight ; all of the border of the carapax finely crenulate. Clielipeds 
externally granulate. Carpus produced internally ; the inner sur- 
face of the hand with a patch of granules on the inner surface. 
Carpal joints of the ambulatory feet longitu<linally sulcate. 

Bio Janeiro / {WiVkQS Expedition); Eio Orande, Brazil! (Capt. 
Harrington Peabody Academy). 

C. gaimardi Milne Edwards. 

Cyclograpsus gaimardi^dw.f Hist. Nat. Crust., ii,p. 79 (1837). 

Paragrapiut gaimardiEdw., Ann. 8ci. Nat. Ill, xx, p. 106 (1853'. 

Australia (Edwards). 
C. qnadridentatai Kiogsley «jr Milne-Edwardr. 

Paragrapsut quadriderUatut Edw., Ann. Sci. Nat., Ill, xx, p 105 


Australia (Edw.). 

Sub family Plagnisinee Dana. * 

Carapax flattened, antennula^ longitudinally plicate, lodged in 
sinuses of the front, and visible from above. 

Oenut PLA0U8IA Latr., 1806 (restrict). 

Meros of external raaxilliped well developed, as broad as the 

P. ipeoiosa Dana. 

Carapax arcuate, covered everywhere with squamiform tubercles, 
the inter paces being clothed with a short pubescence, these 
tubercles being similar in their arrangement to those of F. deprensa 
Sa3', but much more depressed than in that species. The margins 
of the inter-antennular portion of the front is simple. Inferior 
margin of the orbit acute, minutely denticulate. Sides of carapax 
with two equal acute spiniform teeth behind the angle of the orbit. 
Feet closely resembling those of P. depressa^ the ornamentation 
being similar, but not so prominent. The hands, however, are 
externally marked by six longitudinal impressed lines, the lowest 
of them being on the inferior margin. The fingers are widely 
gaping, the extremities deeply excavate. The dentiform process 

^ This sub family having recently been revised by Mr. Miers (Annals and 
Magazine of Natural History, V, ix, pp. 147-154, February, 1878), and as 
I agree with his determinations and ideas of specific limits, I omit the 
synopsis of species from this paper, merely giving a few notes on the more 
uncommon forms. 

iH riLOcEKnixufl or thk acapemt or [ISMt 

on the <>oxa of tbo third pair of amliulatory f«el Ji minuteljr 
(IcntioaIat«. The ualy Mtditional olianift«r In tbv female l» tltsl 
tile Bquatnw of the caragMtx are amn depressed. 

Mr. Mien (1. r., [>. 151) remarks: "Onlj- a cnrapax »f tbli 
ii[>eci«H i« known." The uaraiws reft-rrtHi fo, Daiia'ii t;[>r, wM 
dtvlniyt-d In Iho Cliiciigo fin'. Th« Acadfiny ih>nihi>b«8 two 
Hiteoinieim, male nn<l frnmlr, neat by Mr. Andrew Garrett, from 

a*aa> LEILOFBtri > Ui-n, IBTA. {Ara*a«tHt IWHwu > 

MeroH of rxtemul tnHxilliprdii v^ry email, and muoti Barrowei 
than (ht? iacbium. 

I. plIimaBBI MInr* u A. M ' Bill. 

Sjieclmenft of this rare apecleo are Id the utmteiim of Uie A(mli'iii]p| 
from the Sandwich fa. (J. K. Totrniifnd) and Tidiiii (.V.Uarrrtt), 
So far aa ! aui nware, Ih*- only other (tpocimen. in any oolli-ctioii, 
i* the typt> in Jarrjin dr* flautca at raria. The llritiah Muaeim 
liM no spcoimens. 

I am 11 uable. either fk^ui the poomees of the deacriptiotui.ot 
iwaaitile ioaccuracy of thv Hpurea, lo aDHig;n the followln); a|Mcit( 
to their pTopiT (tent^rte pnaltions. 

Cgttngrim*** f Utmantfui Jaoqninnt et I.ucai^ Voyaf* Aatrollkfe j| 
U\>*. CnutaoM. p. Tfl. H. VI, f. 6 ( 1B43-S8). "^ 

Tuftiuiaiti ll. M L.1 
Cfehffrap'iu vtin%tut 3. et L., 1. c, p. Tt, PI. VI, f. 8 (184S-«8). 

CAM iJ. ML.) 
Orapnt§ inonntui HeM, Arcbiv fllr NaturgeMhtchte, xxxi, p. 148 
PI. VI, r. U (18M). 

SraK*g, jMlTMUa (Biw) 
Oraptu* hutardi Deainaraat, Could, lur tea Cniit., p. 191 (tSSS). 

BtiutiU (DeamaiMt) 
Caiutr-Mdtnt Fabridna, Snppl. Ent. Syat, p. S40 (1708). 

jr. fruliM(Fabrtdna) 

Oanetr Aupaaut Herbrt, PI. XXXVII, f. 1 (ITM). 

OonUffTapiiui pulektr Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad., tII, p. IBS (IB76< 

£«w«r California < Lookingtoa) 

M. Henri Milnc-EdwardH (Archives d.i Museum, vii. p. 15« 

1854) menlions a genutt Hoioijrapnun, [WBsiMy intending IMome 


' In tlie diAmpinbemient of the ^nus PLiguiia of Latretlle, the nan 
Plagvnit Uiould have been retained for tbii lectioD. 


June 1. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenberqeb, in the chair. 
Twenty-nine persons present. 

A paper entitled " Description of a Partula supposed to be new, 
from the Island of Moorea,*' by W. D. Hartman, M. D., was 
presented for publication. 

The Treasurer having announced the reception of a gift of 
twenty thousand dollars from Jos. Jeanes, acting for the heirs of 
the late Joshua T. Jeanes, who, in an unsigned codicil to his will,, 
had indicated his intention of bequeathing that amount to the 
Academy, the following preamble and resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted : 

Whereas, The late Mr. Joshua T. Jeanes in a codicil to his 
will bequeathed to the Academy twenty thousand dollars, an act 
which may be regarded as significant of his appreciation and ap- 
proval of the objects of the Society, but left this codicil without 
his signature, and therefore legally inoperative ; and, 

Whereas, His executors have placed in possession of the 
Treasurer of the Academy the sum named, thus manifesting their 
respect for the intention of their late brother in a most generous 
and affectionate manner ; be it 

Resolved^ That the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia highly appreciates and gratefully acknowledges the generosity 
of the executors of the late Joshua T. Jeanes in bestowing on the 
Academy twenty thousand dollars in compliance with his wish, 
simply indicated. 

Resolved^ That the money thus bountifully given to the Society 

be invested securely in the name of the Academy of Natural 

Sciences of Philadelphia, to constitute a distinct and permanent 

~fund which shall be named the Joshua T. Jeanes Fund and the 

■"dncome thereof shall be applied towards defraying the ordmary 

•■expenses of the Society. 

Serpentine Belts of Radnor Township^ Delaware Co, — At the 
meeting of the Mineralogical and Geological Section of the 
— Academy of Natural Sciences, Theodore D. Rand read a paper 
m the Serpentine Belts of Radnor Township, Delaware County, 
id the adjacent rocks. He adduced facts which he thought in- 
compatible with Mr. Charles E. Hall's view, that the middle belt 
^2onsi8ts of altered Hudson River shales, and stated that the belt 
^^as not continuous but was a succession of outcrops nearly east 

22C pR<icBEm;i(i8 or thi acadeuy or [ISM. 

ainl WMt ftiJin encli i)lli<T, tlii» strike of wlikU wm». wliHTri»r oK 
w>rrikblf, muri' N. K. an<l S. W. thmi tlic liiiu^ Juiuiiiji them.ik»> 
Afim'tnjr In slriiuttiiH.' with nlint i'rof. Kofci-ni oiatfit or tlK-trmp 
(lykpA north of tin- HtTiK-ntine In Chi^Hicr Count;. lie al>o calM 
nUciition III tliir fxUlL'iiLt! of ttrii trap ilykv* or two bnutctiee of 
tknt i-xl«ndiiig tlir»u);h ihu OnlT Vxtliry, nml to cnriwu* ranrklnf;* 
in (|iiurl)t rock in tlir vicinit,v, miggestive oT Towil* in a funnJilioa 
r^gftnlol o" naoic. 

J I. IE 8. 
Th*' rruslilinl, Pr. KuscnsNBzROKR, in Uie eholr. 
Twenty -two jicreoiw prpfwnU 

A pa[icr entitled " On tb<! Dcvolopmont of Lenma tulnor," by 
Wm. Barbwk, wu prcncnted for publication. 


Thf PreeiiaMit, Pr. HoscnKNBBRoiiR, tn tlie rlwir. 

Eighteen [wmoiw iMx-iM-nl. 

A pnptT entitled " A Ili1iUof!ni[)hical Calalocuv of tbc ficBia* 
Pnrltilu. witli obi«n-Htionfl on tbe Species," by W, D. llnrtaua, 
M. P., wiw jin'seiilwl for imMlcHlioa. 

June 22. 
The Trenident, Dr. KvscHe.vBEimER, in the clmir. 
Eighteen persons prceent. 

The deaths of Wm. O. E. Agnow and Morris L. Ilallowell, 
members, were announeed. 

June 29. 
The President, Dr. Ri'Miir.NnERUER, in tlie chair. 
Klcveri [Mraons prcapnt. 

The deaths of B. F. LanIenl»aoh. M. D.. and Wm. Kent Gill>ert. 
M. I>-, members, were annonncwl. 

On gome llnmoU^jun in H'lirxliDif Hentilii/n Dr. HARnifio>t s|>eakin(r'or the teeth of the Cdrnivora. hisectivora and 
C'biroptera, direlt upon the forme of the canines and premolars ns 


being valuable guides in interpreting the plan of the molars, lie 
traced the shapes of the last-named teeth from the sub-conical form 
of the canine, with its associated cusplets or cingules characterizing 
the canines, up to the complicated ilgures of the molars. Among 
the seals, Leptonyx exhibits to the best advantage the figure result- 
ing from the pronounced development of the antero-posterior cus- 
plets, and is of still gi'eater interest inasmuch as the molars retain 
in all essential features tiie same parts. In genera where the form 
of the molars is not so retained, the manner afler which the depar- 
ture takes place in the upper jaw is as follows : 

1. The buccal cingulum becomes developed. 

2. The buccal surface of the main cusp is directed oblique!}' 
backward and inward, and at the same time becomes concave. 

3. In genera having the W-shaped pattern, the first V answers to 
the concave, obliquely placed buccal surface of the main cusp. 
The second V is a vegetative repetition of the first, and is formed 
from the posterior cusplet of the canine. 

The W thus formed is a conspicuous feature in the molars of 
most Insectivora and Chiroptera. It can be traced through its 
several stages of development from the Caruivora. The genera of 
the Procyonidiv exiiibit the transition advantjigeously. The W 
of the upi)er jaw, while forming a portion of the free under-surface 
of the crown, is not functionally active as part of the grinder, but 
is an extremely ohliqvely placed portion of the Hh earing buccal 
surface, and is not articular. 

The V V seen from the palatal side of tooth form the summits 
of two downward-projecting, prismoidal, shearing columns. Ex- 
amined in relief from before backwards these columns are seen 
to be of difterent relative lengths. In VeHpertilio and Antrozoua^ 
for example, where the appearance of the under free surfaces of 
the crowns are almost identical, conspicuous differences in the 
lengths of the columns are detected when the teeth are examined 
with the columns in antero-posterior relief. 

Tlie elevations placed to the palatal side of tlie base of the 
columns are developments from the palatal fold of the cingulum 
of the caniniforin tootii. If one cingule be alone developed it lies 
to the median side of the first V. Should a second be present, it 
lies in an analogous position to the second V, and is much less 
pronounced than tiie first. 

Tlie diti'erences in the forms of the lower molars are traceable 
to similar modifications of the simple cone and associated cusplets. 
The second V is incomplete, the anterior limb not joining the 
first to form a true W. There is no disposition to form a lingual 
outgrowth. In its stead a tendency to backward projection from 
the Iwise of the second V exists. This projection is conveniently 
called the " heel " of the tooth, and is always articular. 

The forms of the canines and premolars are not as simple and 
uniform as tliey at first sight appear. They often present remark- 
able differences in their details. This is especially true of these 


teeth in the Chiroptera. The buccal, approximal and median surfaces 
should be carefully studied in the different genera. Full descrip- 
tions of these differences would be out of place in a communication 
of this kind. One notable feature of many as seen in the canines 
is especially well developed in the bats, viz., the junction of the 
buccal and imlatal surfaces resulting in forming a thin com- 
pressed posterior edge. This may receive the name of the 
" sabre " edge. It is repeated and exaggerated in the last pre- 
molar and forms at least in Chiroptera (other than the Pteropida?) 
the ^^ sectorial " surface of the tooth. It constitutes a sharp 
obliquely-placed ridge which is parallel with the last stroke of the 
first V, and is doubtless serially homologous therewith. 

The following were ordered to be printed : 





Psrtnla Mooreaiim, Hartman. 

Shell sinistral, ovate, elongate, thin, translucent, pale yellowish 
horn-color, apex darker ; whorls 5, flatly convex, body-whorl, with 
or without from one to three narrow, pale, brown revolving bands ; 
surface smooth, with fine, oblique striations, which are decussated 
by crowded waved spiral striae ; a narrow white litie beneath the 
suture ; aperture hearly half the length of the shell, lip white, 
moderately reflected, pillar tooth oval, prominent, situated nearest 
the superior angle, umbilicus open, moderately compressed. 

Length 18 mill., diameter 9 mill. 

Hab, — Yaianai Valley, Island of Moorea (Andrew Garrett, Esq.). 

In one hundred and forty-six species and varieties of Par tula 
represented in my collection, this shell possesses constant and 
well-marked specific characters. Mr. Garrett informs me that 
fifteen hundred specimens were all sinistral and dentate. The 
surface of the shell resembles P. spadicea and varieties from 
Moorea in possessing the thickly crowded waved spiral stria;. 

This species is arboreal, and is not uncommon on bushes, in 
Yaianai Valley, the metropolis of P. vexillum Pse. = P. sienostoma 



In the early part of last April, I found, in a little i)on<l nc-ar 
Camden, N. J., among patches of liiccia fluHans^ a nnml>er of 
minute brownish bodies, which under the lens had very much the 
appearance of germinating sj>ore8, showing at the top a greenish, 
prothaliium-like outgrowth. They were of an oval form, and Ies«« 
than a millimetre in size. 

I secured sevend of these little bodies, ami, upon further exam- 
ination under the microscope, I found that they contained a well. 
develo|)ed embryo, which was enclosed by a comparatively large 
cotyledon. Thus they were evidently the seeds of some mono- 
cotyledonous phint. 

I was not able to return to the pond until a week later. Within 
this wc»ek the germination had been completed in a numln^r of 
sjM'cimens, and numerous little plants were develoiKul, most of 
them still in connection with the seed. These obovate, indis- 
tinetly three-nerved individuals, with a single root hanging fmra 
the under surface, were apparently Lemna minor. Thousands of 
fVrsh seeds had meanwliilc appeared at the surface of tl»e wat«*r. 
mo-^t of tlu'in «;rrininalinLr, and thus 1 r<nild «x<*t the spcciimn^ in 
all ^taiirs <>r tin'ir devi'lopnicnt. 1 liavt* ti ii-«l to ^Imw thi> Lrr:»'lual 
d* vi'lopnirnl (Up to tlu' c'oniphtion of tlu' sc(«»nd tVond) l»\ a 
si-ri("< ot* illii>tratinns, IMatr XVIII. 

Fi^nn"^ I and II ii'pn'scnt loiiijfitndinal ^rctinn-^ lhr»MiLrh a •^«-i'<l 

in \vlii«h till* «;<'rnunMt ion is about to coniini'iu'r. ( I'wz. I i*^ tVt»Tn 

the < <nlr»', Fi;^. II tVoni a part nearer to the surfae*'). 

Tlh' »^ri*tls are seen surronn<l('d l»v a coinoaralivrlv ^tri»ni; 

• I » 

roat.the t»'sta (/). which i^ con^idrraljly thickened toN\ard-* tlie 
top. \N hrre it (•o\cr> tile lid, or openMlhim >o), h\ mean*' ol' N^liieh 
the ni\er<)p\le is cht-^iMl. In ') wr hav»* the larire eot \ h-d« 'U. 
*<uir«nmd«"l l»y a seant\ lay«'r of 4*n<lo'^perniinin (s/'.); in » ) and 
("•) ilh'tuM 1oIm'*< into \vhi<'h t In* e<it \ ItMhin will atP'rward*< ^plit. 
iM'^in t«» Im- dillrrent ia'ed. The a\i^ «»!' the iinl>r\»> I' > I^rni-^ an 
ol.tii-f an'jle with the medial line of t he eot \ le-h>n. In </•) wt- 
ha\r thr plunnila, in ir the radnla ot* the emhr\«»; ( f ) indieatt-^ 
a ti*»-nri- iu^i'h- <»!' \vhi«*h th«' Lr<*nnn:i ot' lln* '^eeond frond i-^ iM-iiiij 


In Fig. Ill the testa has been removed from the cotvledoiv(c). 
The two lobes are distinctly separate, ( w) bearing the operculum 
under wliieh the upper part of the pluraula is concealed. The 
radula (r) is further developed ; in (g) we have the bud of the 
second frond. The section in Fig. IV shows the plumula (p) 
fully developed into the first frond, whicli in (r) sends down its 
radula. The angle formed by this frond and the axis of the coty- 
ledon is about 120°. Corresponding to the first figures (r) and 
(ir),are the lobes of the cotyledon. (We have to bear in mind that 
all the figures represent thin sections through the dilierent parts.) 
In reality the lobes of the cotyledon are two parallel obovate 
sheets enclosing the basal part of the much larger, likewise obovate 
frond. In this figure the gemma has been so far developed as to 
show in (f) the fissure in which the bud of the third frond is 
lieing differentiated. Its elongated inferior part (j/) is the 
secondary plumula. In using a iiigh power, the microscojie will 
show in the region indicated by (x) several rows of very wide cells. 
Here the separation of the frond from the cot3'ledon will take place. 

In Fig. y this separation is comi)lete. In (}/) we have the 
yet more elongated plumula, in (/•') the radula of the second frond, 
and (f) shows again the fissure for the formation of the third 

The section represented in Fig. VI goes through the radula (r), 
showing a central vascular bundle (i) surrounded by a tissue of 
very loose, almost hyaline cells (/). In the further development 
of the rootlet this outer tissue will follow the growth of the vascu 
lar bundle to a certain extent ; then its basal part will be sepa- 
rated from the frond. But, remaining in connection with the 
more and more extending vascular bundle, this wide-celled tissue 
will form at the top of the full-grown root the well-known hood or 
calyptra, characterizing the roots in all Lemnaceae, 

The last two figures (VII and Vlll) need no further explanation. 
They show the formation and completion of the second frond (p^), 
from which the third individual will be developed in the same 
way as has been illustrated in the first figures. In ( j>") we have 
the plumula, in (r") the radula of the third fronds ; (/") in Fig. 
VIII shows the fissure for the formation of the fourth individual. 

In this way we see the propagation continued through the 
summer, plant after plant being formed from a cleft of the pre- 
ceding individual through a process of prolification. 

333 rsocsKDiNns of tqe acadkmt ur [1989 

My investigationi have bcon made only ou the Ltrmna muurr, 
tint there is nn reason to doabt Uiat In the devclopmi'nt of (lie 
whole faiully nf Lemnactai (HiitJogoiiB to our apeelM) we hare as 
inltfrcHling inMtancc of ]uirLhet)ogcn«»i)i, then- bt-ing hmkIs (pm- 
ilucrd in aiitiitnn by n tirxuEU jiroeen*) from wtiii^U, duriiiK 'Ik 
courM) of siiniiiii-r, generation aftor gvooratioD i» propagiu*^! M)Lk- 
out any further fertilization. 





RMdtripteniB oavifironi, nov. gp. 
D. iv-xiv, M2. A. 14. P. 20. V. ^. C. 3-12-3. L. lat. 44. 

Head very large and depressed ; abdomen protuberant, so* that 
the depth equals the width ; snout to tip of ascending process ot 
pre-maxillary rising at an angle of about 45*^ ; thence to occiput, 
along the median line of the fish, deeply concave ; from occiput 
to caudal peduncle regularly arched, the curve reaching its highest 
point at al)OUt the tenth dorsal spine. Outline of anal base 
corresponding to that part of the dorsal directly above it. 

Depth, 3^; greatest width, 3^; length of head, 3J; length of 
pectoral rather more than 4 times in the total length, caudal 

Axial length of snout, 3| ; longitudinal diameter of orbit, 6| ; 
interocular width, 2|| times in length of head ; least depth of 
caudal peduncle rather less than 5 times in greatest depth. 

Anterior nostril on a level with the centre of the pupil, and 
prolonged into a conspicuous tube; posterior nostril somewhat 

Orbits elevated considerably above the general surface of the 
forehead, so that the concavity of the inter-ocular area is equal to 
about J of the transverse diameter of the eye ; eyes lateral, some- 
what elliptical. 

Mouth very large, very slightly oblique ; its width from tip to 
tip of the opposite m^illaries, li in the length of the head, and 
exceeding that of the upper jaw by more than one-third. 

Pre-maxillaries not forming the whole of the margin of the 
upper jaw, the maxillaries entering into it posteriorly. 

Posterior extremity of maxillary considerabl3^ behind the orbit, 
its upper margin not concealed by the pre-orbital in the closed 

Lower jaw slightly projecting beyond the upper. 

Several rows of sharp, recurved, cardifonn teeth, forming a 
broad band,* in both jaws, also on the vomer, palatines and 
pharyngeal bones. The teeth on the vomer and palatines slightlj- 
longer than those on the jaws. 



No glU>rukrni ; phar^ngciil )iono8 liirge. 

Huprtt'Ociilar lutd iwit-ocnUr rKlgfs prominent, the former 
nurved inwnr'l^ poMrrtorl}*, parallel to ttip post-ocular : between 
liir two, at the poaterior iipp«r anple of the eye, are two small 
npinvH or short ridgett. 

UvcipitAl n<l(;es with three lulwreles, tli<? nnierlor Bojir the post- 
ocular ridfte, the two posterior near logetlier and elongnlud 
trsnsverwly ; n low riilgv U:tH-l^eIl the llrHt and »t-conil. 

Temporal ridgo witli thr»* tnliTcli'*, thu flntt immtnliatnl.r 
uxterior to t!ie flrsl of the oodpilal «TiP«, tlie wMjond n lotigi- 
tudltial rld^' ; the thirti rutmded, clow to tli« sL^cond- 

A long liiw i-reitt ncron^ thi- opvrcultitn ; Jiiet stmve and antnrinr 
to thi* a Kliorter ridge I'mtnicting it with the temporal fteritw; ■ 
tulwrc'Ie OD lhi> siipra-scapiila: uo Hpincs iipou the heail. i!xce|>t 
two iigtou the posterior border of the pre-operculuni. 

All Uietubereletof thetieadanil the ApEnt-Hoflhepre-iiiwrruiui 
r-o\ereil liv »kin. 

Maxillary with a fiuiliriiitvd ftkiiinj Itap near it« po«t«ri 
extrtmity -, lower toar^iii of maiiditile H«t along it<i whole leu| 
with •kiimy flap's of which three pairs are especially Iodk i 
fimbriated on both ed^», while the posterior flap is very broad. 

Lip* well developed ; lower lip pendulous at nidea, and tu aj 
ralber le«s extent In front, and >*earln^ a llmbriated Dap tm t 

Two jiair, ..r ..ImllHr fl«j.« oi. Uiu m<.xn. ami tw.. c.vur 

Q ill-membranes continuous below the throat. 

Brani-hiootegals, 6. 

Origin of flmt dorsal slightly anterior to the lower pectoral 
axil ; flrvt two xpines longest, about 2} in the length of the bead, 
fourth much shorter than the third, and a little shorter than the 
fifth; sixth, eeventh and eighth much longer than fourth, the 
remaining spines diminishing to the eighteenth, which is the 

A tag at the end of each spine, the membrane between the two 
parts of the lirat dorsal notched considerably. 

A npine hi the com men cement of the scconil dorsal, the Iiase of 
which is contained more than 2^ times in that of the fimt. the 
rays increasing in length to the fifth, which is about J longer than 
the longest spine of the first dorsal : upper margin of second 
dorsal, convex. 

1880. J 



Anal longer than soft dorsal, arising opposite the last spine of 
the first dorsal, and terminating somewhat posterior to the second. 
Ninth to twelfth raj's slightly the longest. 

Pectorals very broad and rounded, their base oblique, the tip of 
the longest (sixth) ray reaching to about the sixteenth dorsal 
jr&y ; rays simple, the longest a little less than one-fourth the total 
length of the fish. 

Ventrals small, narrow, the longest (middle) ray rather more 
'Chan half the length of the longest pectoral ray, but not reaching 
"tio the vent. 

Caudal truncate on hinder margin, rather narrow, rays simple. 
Vent midway between insertion of ventrals and origin of anal. 
Lateral line with a series of skinny fimbriated flaps, similar to 
^bose upon the head. 

Body and head scaleless, but the former covered all over with 
^ZDSseous papillae ; largest above the lateral line, smallest upon the 
;^rotuberant portion of the abdomen. 

Color, in alcohol, blotches of dark purplish-brown on a lighter 
^^Tound ; the blotches on the fins conspicuous, and running into 
ransverse bars on the pectorals. Abdomen, light dirty-brown. 

A single specimen of this interesting species was obtained by 

r. W. J. Fisher, at St. Paul's, Kodiak. It is in the museum of 
California Academy of Sciences. 

JSemitripterus cavifrons is the western representative of ff. 
cadianus of the Atlantic, and differs from that species in the 
owing characteristics, among others : — 

The great depression of the inter-ocular area, whence the specific 
ame ; the greater number of dorsal spines ; the shorter pectorals ; 

e lesser depth of the posterior anal rays ; the absence of hook- 

-ke papillae along the lateral line, and the presence in their place 

:f fleshy slips ; and the smaller size of the bonj' papillae along 

e dorsal region. 


Total length, 15.75 

Greatest depth, 4.50 

Least depth of caudal peduncle, 92 

Length of head, 4.50 

Width *' 4.50 

" of mouth, from tip to tip of maxillaries, . 3. 75 

Length of upper jaw along its curve, . . . 2.75 


Axi&l lengtb f>r unout, 1.96 

Loogltudinnl fliameh-r orcy^i tO 

Iiitcrociilar width, I.TO 

Width ot pectoml buse a.T5 

Length of Icingest (BUttli) pectoral ray, . 3.88 

Tipofsuoiit to origin of dorsal, axial, . . . 4.76 

" " ■' ■• " ttluiig lo]> of hMul, .1.95 

Length of )>ase of si{f!notu dnrHal, . , . ft.&0 

Height uf first itpimt, 1. 76 

'• second apinc 1-70 

" fourth apine, 90 

" Onhftpint, ■ ,98 

" iiixth spine, LOO 

" dgiith spine L90 

" eighteenth bpinc 89 

" Hpiue of second (lot-Hal, . LOO 

" longMt (fifth) ray of second dorwl, , 3.00 

Longtii ot base of aecond (Upnal, . 2.50 

Tip of lower Jnw to itiitnUi*, aloug ntNlonieii, . 3.T6 

" " " origin of aD&1,aloDg*t>doiiM!n. 8.80 

" " " vent, 6^9 

length of YHitnJs 9.00 

" baw of anal, S.44 

-" Jongeel anal laj-s (9-12) . . 2.1(1 





Catostoiaits oyphot sp. nov. 
D. 3, 14. A. 2, 7. C. 7-1-16-1-7. P. 18. V. 10. L. lat. 79. ' 

Head conical ; snout long, much depressed ; dorsal outline 
rising in a straight line to the occipital region, where commences 
a prominent and considerably elevated hump, which attains its 
greatest height at a distance from the occiput about equal 'to the 


length of the snout, and thence descends to the origin of • the 

Along the base of the dorsal fin the dorsal outline descends 
rapidly to about the end of the second third of the total length of 
the fish; caudal peduncle extremely elongated, and widening 
considerably toward the caudal base. 

Abdominal outline almost straight to the origin of the ^,nal, 
thence diminishing to the caudal peduncle. 

Greatest depth, at anterior pectoral axil, contained not quite 

4^ times ; head a little more than 4 times in the total length ; 

snout a little more than 2§, eye between 8 and 9 times in the 

length of the head ; length of top of head not quite 2^ times in 

^he distance (in a straight line) from the tip of the snout to the 

<lorsal^ inter-ocular width equal to the length of the snout; 

^pectoral about 1^ in length of head ; caudal peduncle about 3f in 

^he greatest depth. 

Mouth rather wide, inferior. Lower lip small, in two distinct 
^Dvoid lobes, covered with low, flat-topped papillae ; the front of 
"^he dentary bones covered by a well-developed, round-edged, homy 
^late. Lower lip quite distinct from the upper.; the skin of the 
'^3heek8 forming an obliquely ascending crease, which does not, 
however, cover the angle of the mouth. 

Anterior nostril horizontally sub-elliptical; posterior large, 
^vertical, crescentic, entirely covered by its anterior flap. 

Two distinct rows of pores on the top of the head ; connected 
^Dn the occiput with a series running behind and below the eye 
^most to the tip of the snout. 

Pharyngeals arcuate, with numerous teeth, regularly diminish- 
ing posteriorly. 


m tnoctumsoB of tbk acadcui or [1S80. 

OiHirL-ulnr n-gioii well tIevclo(»il ; ttie dialaiico from Ihv jiusltrior 
niitrgin of Ihv tryv to thut of Lbe o[)erou]iim Win);, to iliv It-Oirtti af 
tbr HiKim, sbaut a» tlovcn tunlue. PuHU-rior margin of i>|>crriilum 
Hod HuUopcrBiiInni forming n continuouit bold convi-x i-unv. 

I'pctoralH trianifular-.ancf-olatc, fourth and litth m;i> longivt; 
their ll[iti fxteudiu^ to beyond tho middle of the pnlilc tiuncs, 
nye oucti or twk«e bifurcate, Ibe first two cxcvpted. 

Vinitm]* rtvu-liing lieyouii the vent, the third rBya lunitvat, the 
Uuit nboiit iwu-tliirdK ** long ; nil 1 he ntyH twice UnirdntA e 
tli4> flmt. 

Dorsal well devdopcd, fourtli nnd liflh ray* loDg< 
taiued about 1| times In the greftU!«t drpth ; fint 1 
simple, Ihu othera twice bifkircstc. 

Anal eoDniilenibly afaorter thnn the doraal, but equal in d«i 
l,o Uic bright of Ihe latter; the first two rsys einivic, the o 
(except the liutt) twirc or thri<Ht bifurcate; flnil ny abwut tulf Ml ' 
long M t\w Mcond. 

Origin of the dorani about nnt-aisth nearer U* the tip nt tba 
snout than to the centre of tlie tiiuw of tbu caudal (mcasiiriiig 
along tbe axU of the body), th« base of its eighth rsy almw tbe 
iuiterli>r luil of tho yentrabi. 

The lips <if llic nun] rays ti-Ach l*yowd tbr lim! caudkl 

Caudal with numerous accessory rays, the longest about half aa 
long as tbe outer simple principal ray ; tbe other principal raya 
three times bifurcate ; post«rior margin of fin triangularly emar- 

Scales cycloid, of variable size; each scale with 8-IG conspicuous 
radiating stria; on its exposed portion ; the strie and their inter- 
sjiaces crossed by numerous, much Icfls distinct concentric striip. 
Engaged portion of each scale with numerous diverging stria-, Icaa 
distinct than those of the free portion. Scales along and near the 
lateral line larger than those above and below, and imrvaKing 
considerably in size posteriorly, as do also those above and lielow. 
HO that the largest scales of tbe body are upon the peduncle of the 
tail. The scales diminish much more rapidly in size donnwnnis 
thaii upwards, so that those of tbe abdominal region and behind 
the pectoral base are by far the Hmallcat. Scales sonicwliat 
pentagonal, the length exceeding the height; thoac upon the 
caudal peduncle almost twice as long as high. 


Pins scaleless, as is also a small patch on the anterior part ol" 
the dorsal hump. 

Lateral line deflected near its origin, then running along the 
median line of the body to the origin of the caudal. Pores 

Color of the preserved specimen silverj'-gray above, light 
straw-color or creamy on the abdominal region and under side of 
the head ; fins light uniform slaty-gray. The color is produced 
by numerous dark dots upon the scales and membrane between 
them, but fewer upon the scales, the outlines of which are there- 
fore quite distinct. 

The hump is supported anteriorly by a very large trapezoidal 
inter-neural, formed of a thick central pillar with anterior and 
posterior aire, the latter twice as large as the former. The upper 
margin of the bone is highest at the point of the central pillar, 
from which it slopes anteriorly and posteriorly. The base of the* 
central pillar is broadly expanded transversely, offering a double 
articulating sur&ce on its under side. The next inter-neural is a 
thin flat sub-rectangular plate, while the next three are expanded 
above, attenuated below; the fifth bent, and smaller than the 
fourth, the lower portion of which is also bent forward. Inter- 
neurals of dorsal fin with a central ray and an anterior anri 
posterior expansion dj'ing out at their lower fourth ; symmetrical, 
except that supporting the first two rays. This is evidently 
formed by two inter-neural bones, united by a thin bony plate, 
which forms a broad expansion in front of the first, and a narrow 
one behind the second. 

Upon the first vertebra there is a broad articulating surface, 
apparently for the reception of the first inter-neural, as a thin 
longitudinal i>erpendicular partition exactly fits into a notch 
between the two articulating surfaces of that bone. The trans- 
verse processes of this vertebra are broadly expanded inferiorly. 
and their lower edges suturally united to a pair of very large bony 
plates of complex form, connecting the air-bladder with the back 
of the skull. • 

From the anterior margin of each neurapophysis of the next 
nine vertebraj springs an upward-directed process, which, in the 
first of these vertebraj, is almost as long as the neunil «pine, but 
which diminishes in size on each successive vertebra. 

The neural spines of the first two of these vertebra^ are bifid. 

no PROcBEPIKOf or THB ACADEMY 01- [1880. 

The Mingle epcciiuen from wbUh tlio above deacriptiou i« Ukm 
WM brought from tUo Colorado River, at the Junction of the Gila, 
ami was ecnt to the muiteHui of the CaliforDla Academy of 
Scioncee by John K. Curry, Encj., Civil Knginoer. 

It ia itaid tbut thftH|Hr<-iG» ia not uncommon in the locality IVonfi J 
which thiN M]K:cimi.-n wa* procured, and it i* much to Iw rvgretted f 
that viv have only thi« example, i-apvcially iiincxt it in greatly j 
dainugcil by the txtraction of the large inter-neiiral mome too J 
yean ago. The air-bhidd?r is destroyed, so tlial it la fmpoaaili 
to tell whether it agrees tritii the otbeT s|)ecie& of ValoHomuti, ' 
Uii\-in^ tliat organ divided into two portloita. The estremitir* or 
the Una arc ahu uuch tii-okcn, and the iiha)>e of the body diHtori«<l. 


Tot4il length, m 

Length to iio*f> of caudal, S(| 

GrcBtcat deptJi, about . . . .21 

Length of bead, 3f 

" top of head, i' 

Hnout, from eye, I ,', 

LoDgitiidlnal diameter uf eye, . ^ 

Intrr-ociilar width, I|^ 

D«ptti iif hrad, at fmni of i-yi- 1^ 

Sm.iit, from rroiil of ui-^triU, - ■ ■ ■ U 

Tip of snout to origin of dorsal, in a etraight line, 4 J 

Length of base of dorsal, ..... 2^ 

Height of longest dorsal ray, .... Hi 

Tip of snoui to anterior portion of pectoral base, H j 

Length of pectoral fin, 2^, 

Tip of nnont to anterior imrtion of rentrals, . 5j\ 

Length of ventnds, Ij 

" iinal base j 

longest anal ray, 1]^ 

Tip of snout to origin of anal, . . . . 6J 

Width of caudal |>eduncle, jj 

Length .if first intcr-neural, ^J 

Heij-ht i.r •■ j; 



or THB 


OF Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 


May 28, 1877. 

A New Folariscope. — Mr. H. C. Lewis remarked that a cheap 
and accurate polariscope for the measurement of the optic-axial 
divergence in minerals had long been a desideratum among min- 
eralogists. He wished to direct attention to an instrument for this 
purpose, lately made for him by Queen & Co., of this city, which 
had proved very satisfactorj*. The light was polarized by reflec- 
tion from a plate of black glass, converged upon the rotating stage 
by two sets of adjustable lenses, and analyzed by a Nlcol's prism. 
A graduated circle of steel, having through its axis a sliding 
forceps, is fastened at right angles to the stage. A pointer records 
the amount of rotation of the forceps. The mineral to be examined 
is either held in the forceps or is attached by a drop of oil to a 
piece of thin glass which is held in the same way. Cross-hairs are 
fixed below the eye piece, and the measurement of the divergence 
of the optic axes is performed in the usual way. The instrument 
was found to work admirably and could be recommended. The 
adjustments were made quickly and the axial divergence could 
be determined to within 30'. It is simple, absorbs but little light, 
and gives good results even with very small fragments of minerals. 

A Oarnet with Inverted Crystallization. — Mr. Lewis ex- 
hibited a garnet which he had found in Germantown, and stated 
that it showed a very perfect example of inverted crystallization. 
Its form was a perfect trapezohedron except that one octant was 
depressed, its apex lying within the crystal, one-halfway towards 
the centre. The re-entrant angles corresponded in position with 
the trihedral edges on the opposite octant of the crystal. The 
garnet was an isolated one found in a matrix of gneiss. Atten- 
tion was called to the fact that such inverted crystallization was 
apparently more common in the isometric than in other systems 
of crystallization and comment was made upon the cause of sucli 

June 25, 1877. 

Change of Serpentine into Quartz, — Mr. Theodore D. Rand 
describ^ and presented specimens showing the change of ser- 

342 MiK;BeDi<(aE of Tne acadsut op [IS 

pontine lalo qiinrtz, very strittinjj;!}' hIiowu n«ar m ([uarry i 
NcrjivnlJiie rooh on the (krm of Jobn St*i-k4rr, aboai b Ibird offlj 
mile N. W. of Haduor Suiion, P. R U., HeUware Co., I'eu » 

The outcrop of the MirpenilDe is ftcctompuii«il by k rock, locsUy ^ 
caUed " Ironsloue," which liowsvfir i» n odiiilar <|iuirtx, ^nirnUr 
etaioed by uxidt- ot imu. It occurs ui loom mnue* in tbo m>U, 
^norally ot Htnnlt •!««, but •ommiiiK^fl of over a handrrd ponndi 
weight ; the cavities nre frequently lined with dru«y quarti. TU» 
rocli i» of ooinmoD (xwurrvnci- in connttction with MirpimliD* bella, 
but tbut it hM urineii from a dircom position of tb« Mrpentin*, 
ha», bt' believtn), not been obwrvcd rlKt^whtT*-. On thc»oath aide ot 
HtMk-kvt'n ijiiarry n few fc-et bolow tliv orif^inal surface of the |p«UBd, 
i« n bv^l of sod itcrpi-ntinc tniicb rtKckcd: a foot or two abov*, 
thtttocmckM arc found linpd witb rhalcodonic (juartx, of paper-Uka 
thinnfi«» ; abcxe, tlio ijiiartz tbickcns, th« serpentino beeomcM mort 
and moredoi-ompoM-d. until near tbv surface the i|Dartz only r» 
tnaina, with tbc cavities empty, or filled with what appcan to 1m 
oxide of iron witb alumina. It ie nn inntancc of pfeadonorpblan 
on a birg« aonltf, the progn'se of wblcb can be tnu^, Mep by 
step, from almoat uiialt«red serpentine to almost pure ciuartx. 

Tre//>iMi^. — In this oooneetion tlie analysis of the wairr of a 
well 50 feotd«ep in the aerpentinc, about -luo bundriil ft«t from 
tbc quarry, but under the same qourtz outcrop, may not b* 

In a gallon of tU.OUO grains, — mean of three analvEiea ; — 
OnUBi. |<*r Oftll. Fuu 

Silica. 2.-.S3 3fl.S 

Hagueaia, .... 1.263 18 

Lime, 263 3.7 

Peroxide of Iron and Alumina, . .577 8.2 

Sulphuric Acid, . . . .f.87 9.9 

Chlorine, 124 1.7 

6.i;r>5 80.8 

A New Localilt/ for Siderile. — Mr. II. 0. Lewis annotmced 
Dunbar, Fayette Co., Ponna., as a new locality for Sidoritc. It 
there occunt in finely crj'ntalHzed siiecimcns in the interior of 
nodules of amorphous Sidcrito. These nodules or concretions 
are of various and often curious nhapcs. Doubly terminated 
lim|>id quartz crvulalH and minute but verj' perfect crystals of 
Pyritc are associated with those of Sidcrite, forming handsome 

Ma^/netiffr MarLiniji' in Mufcorite. — Mr. Lewis miide some 
remarks on the ui.irkings in tlio Muscovite of Urandywiue 
lluniln-il, Delaware. He proved that these markings nere Msff 
nelite, by exhibiting their attractabilily by the magnet, and said 


that in order to exhibit this properly, the section must be 
exceedingly thin. He stated that an optical examination had proved 
that the direction of the main lines of the markings corresponded 
Trith or was at right angles to that of the crystallographic axes of 
the Muscovite. He exhibited a plate of the mica shown distinctly 
to be a twin by the two different groupings of Magnetite markings. 
Cixamination in the polariscope confirmed this structure. Thus, 
fjrequently, the crystalline structure of the mica and the direction 
of its axes may be ascertained by an inspection of these markings 
^one. It appeared, therefore, that the form and direction of the 
markings was determined, not by independent crystallization of 
tlie Magnetite forming them, but in part at least by the Muscovite 
from which it had probably been derived. These markings are, in 
some respects, pseudomorphs after Muscovite. He thought that 
tlie statement' in Dana's Mineralogy (p. 150), referring to these 
xi^arkings, that "the branching at angles of 60° indicates com- 
position parallel to a dodecahedral face," was misleading, implying 
t^tiat this form was produced by an inherent propert}^ of the Mag- 
■j^^tite, and not, as he thought now appears, by the crystalline 
structure of the Muscovite. 

September 24, 18TT. 

^ New Locality for Asbolite. — Mr. Lewis stated that he had 
:fV>«^nd Asbolite at Flourtown, Montgomery Co., a new locality for 
'C^ mineral. It is found in iron ore mines as an incrustation 
Psilomelane. It is of a bluish-black color, is as soft as 
s^phite, and gives a shining streak when scratched by the nail, 
c blowpipe indicates a considerable percentage of cobalt. 

-«4 New Locality for Fluorite. — Mr. W. W. Jefferis stated 
Bfc.t a few days since he was shown a massive specimen of Fluor- 
of a deep purple color, which was found in the limestone 
«^r the village of Howellville, in Tredyffrin Township, Chester 
> ^nty, Pa. This is the third locality of fluor in tliis county. 

-^pidote in Molybdenite, — Mr. Lewis mentioned that while 

^.mining some Molj^bdenife from Frankford, Phila., he had 

^^Bd plates of a transparent hard mineral, of a light greenish- 

-Ilow color, somewhat resembling Wulfenite, occurring in thin 

^">er8 and minute scales between the foliie of the Molybdenite, 

sometimes coating it as a thin film. It was not until after a 

^«ful examination that it was proved to be Epidote in an 

lasaal form and situation. 

October 22, 187T. 

New Locality for Millerite, — Mr. Theo. D. Rand announced 

discovery of Millerite in Dolomite, from the Soapstone quarry 

the Schuylkill, in Philadelphia, near the Montgomery County 

- It occurred in capillary crystals in cavities of the Dolomite. 



For the determination of the true characters of the micas — a 
class of minerals rapidly gaining in importance — a knowledge of 
their optical characters is almost as necessary as is that of their 
chemical composition. The optical is certainly th^ most ready 
method of determination. The investigation here recorded is bat 
a partial one, and it is hoped that in the future it may be extended 
so as to include most of the American micaceous minerals. The 
measurements have been made for the most part upon minerals 
which have never been optically exanMned, and are chiefly Ameri- 
can. A few foreign species have been introduced for com|mrison. 
The micas examined are largely those in the collection of the 
Academy. Others were either in the writer's collection or have 
been kindly given him by friends. The source from which each 
specimen has been obtained is noted in the tables given below. 

The polariscope used was made by Queen k Co., of this city, 
and was described before this Section at its meeting last May. 
It reads to within 30'. The figures given below represent the 
moan apparent optic-axial angular diverjrence for white Ught. As 
the an<jli* is somewhat ditlVTi'iit in ditU'rent s|K'cinu'ns and ^onu- 
times even in different portions of the same plate, the titxiires nin>t 
be repirded as only approximate. In each ease they represent 
a mean of a number of separate measurements, and collvctiveh 
are the result of over 1600 such measurements. 


1. Sussex Co., N. Y. Hexagonal or}stals, yellow, 

transparent (Acad. Nat. Sci.) i)-. 

2. Burgess, Ont, Can. Clear brown. (A. N. S ) r. - 45'. 
8. N« Shore of Bideau Lake, Burgess, Can. Angle 

Ttries in same piece. Clear brown. (J.Willcox.) 6^-12- 

4. HtT"?**^*'*^t St. Lftwrence Co., N. Y. Clear yellow. 

Hj^'trlwiil dOMT In the centre than they are 

•s ^-^mm of Urn cnytUli. Cr^sUls arc 

- -lidMhl ihi eentre and biaxial at 

--Vwi4(pi| 4ir«|ie optic axes at 


—, one end is at right angles to that 
^ at the other end, viz. : 

One crystal had angle at centre, 
7°30', angle at edge, ll^lS'. 
(A. N. S.) 10°4T)'. 

e£rersonCo.,Ky. Brownish-yellow. (A.N.S.) 11°21'.12°50'. 

'rooman's Lake, Jefferson Co., N. Y. Wine-yel- 
low. (A. N. S.) 12°45'. 

>xboro', Jefferson Co., N. Y. Light yellow. 

(A. N. S.) 13^12'. 

>ttey Lake, Burgess, C. W. Brown hexagonal 

crystals. (W. W. Jefferis). 13^20'. 

A crystal f^om the same locality (J. Willcox) 
gave for the outer part of crystal, 13°41'; 
centre of crystal, 11°23'. 

*alumet Is., Canada. Greenish-yellow, transpar- 
ent. (A. N. S.) 13°20M4Ol8'. 

New Hampshire. Reddish-brown, similar to 

Darby Biotite ; nearly uniaxial in thin plates. 1 3 ° 1 0'-l T °. 

Sparta, N. J. Dark brown; by reflected light 

nearly black. 14°20'. 

Trooman's Lake, Jefferson Co., N. Y. Clear 
pale yellow. Some crystals show identical 
phenomena with those from Hammond, St. 
Lawrence Co. 14°24'. 

St. Denis. " Plumose mica : " brown : thick, 

nebulous hyperbolas. 14^30'. 

Warwick, N. Y. Dark green; cleaving into 

rhombs ; often mistaken for Biotite. 14°52'. 

Pppe's Mills, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. Deep 

reddish-brown. (W. W. Jefferis.) 15^. 

Vesuvius. Black by reflected light, dark red- 
dish-brown in thin plates. With icespar: 
very opaque. (A. N. S.) 15°±. 

Claric's Hill, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. Brown. 

(W. W. Jefferis.) 15° 10'. 

Kennett Square, Del. Co., Pa. Brown ; in lime- 
stone. 15^20'. 

Edwards, N.Y. Pearly white. (W.W. Jefferis). 15^30'. 

Rossie, St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. Yellowish- 
brown. (A.N.S.) 15^62'. 


21. S. Burp'ss, Can, Large brown cri-sUi), pun>l<^ 

oil ctlfte*. (A, N. 8.) 
39. Clnrk'a Uill, noar Rosnle, N. V. BrovnUh. 

>*llow. (A.X.8.) 
as. Clark's Milli, S. Y. Light Iwown, tnini«p«rent ; 

(pmliaMv ItlMiiivsJ with Noh. IT, 30, Si). 

(A- N- 8.) 
21. Canada. AHtvriated riilogo)>tti<. 
S5. S. Bargom. Clear yellon-brown. (A.X. 8.) 
3C. Birr)^HK, C. W. VHIowii4h-liro»-n cr^-alals, wttfa 

seeoiMlarj' cleavage ti\ong diagonal. (W. W. 

ST. RtiHsie, X. r. Black l>y TcOcdbfl, mldUlt- 

Itmwu Itjr trant>mitt<^ light. (A. .N. S.) 

28. VesiiviuB. Blark, cnimliling, rery opaqur, 

oiLxi'd with black hornblende. {A.N. i^-) 

29. BargHK, C. \V. AaterialH, not transparvnt, 

fll very-brown. (A. N. S.) 

30. Iloaaie. N, Y. Black b}' rvfl«cteil, dark brown 

bjF inuMmltt^d liftht. Containii apatite. (A. 

N. g.) n'^l 

31. CbcaUT Co., Pn. FotiU.v natfriaUKl; lonalit.v 

wronjf?; prwbablv from Bnssit, N. Y. (A. 

N.S.) 83^15'. 

32. AUmuU;hie,N. J. Clear reddish-brown. (Fninkl. 

Inst.) 3005'. 

33. Tan Arsdale'a Quany, Buckn Co., Pa. RmI- 

brown; with graphite, et«. 34=. 


1. Easton, Pa. White, silver mica. 2=±. 

2. Antwerp, N. Y. Oreenisb-white. 0'. 
3.'CidBagee, N. C. White. 0=. 

4. Vesuvius. White. 0^ 

5. Darby, Del. Co., Pa. Deep red. 0^ 
C. Delawnrc Co., Pa. Crystal in muscovite; black 

by n'flected, brownish-red by transmitted light. 5 ^ i . 

1. Scotland. Brown. 0^. 

8. Rossic, N. Y. Brown. 0^. 

Probably several of these Biotites have an angle of 1 '-2°. 


1880. J 



Arendal, Norwa}'. 
Frankford, Phila. 


Black ; uniaxial. 
Black ; uniaxial. 


1. Brunswick, Me. Bright green scales. (A.N. S.) 

2. Pennsbury, Pa. (A. N. S.) 

3. Vesuvius. With adularia. (A. N. S.) 

4. Dutton's Mills, Del. Co., Pa. (J. M. Cardeza.) 

5. St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. Greenish-white, plu- 

• mose radiated crystals, showing Airy^s spirals. 
(A. N. S.) 

6. Darby, Phila., Pa. Small scales in gneiss. 

7. Siberia. (A. N. S.) 

8. Oermantown, Phila. Smoky brown, clear crystals. 

9. Plainfield, Conn. Margarodite. Contains 5 p. c. 

of water. 

10. Poorhouse, Del. Co., Pa. 

11. German town. Pa. 

12. Germantown, Pa. Containing enclosed crystals 

of a black, uniaxial mica. 

13. Frankford, Pa. In hornblende rock : in calcite, 

with fluorite and epidote. (T. D. Rand). 

14. Falls of Schuylkill, Phila. In hornblende rock. 

15. Cumberland, England. '^Nacrite." (A. N. S.) 

16. Goyaz, Brazil. (A. N. S.) 

17. Brandywine Hundred, Del. Containing mag- 

netite markings. 

After heating until it whitens, it has an 
angle of 49°. 

18. Litchfield, Me. (A. N. S.) 

19. Portland, Conn. 

20. Southern Colorado. Identical with mica of 

Pennsbury, Pa., and Brandywine Hundred, 
Del., having magnetite markings. 

21. Grafton, N. H. 

22. Chandler's Hollow, Del. (J. M. Cardeza.) 

23. Black Hills, Wyoming. (A. N. S.) 

24. Zinnwald, Bohemia. (A. N. S.) 

25. Buncombe Co., N. C. (A. N. S.) 






















36. Qermiintown, I'n. Large silvdry pUtes. t 

27. Dixnn'fl tjDarrj', Del. Pale grrcn, < 

38. Connecticut, tirccn scales. (A. >'. S.) ( 

20. Oeoi^elown, Col. 

30. Upland, Del. Co., Pa. Pale preen. (J. M. 

Canleza.) I 

31. Qvrmuutown, Pa. Pale gn-en. ( 
sa. C'hc-alcr Co., Pa. (A. N. S.) ( 
33. Wwlclicrtisr Co., N- Y. 1 

^i.^ Fabyans, Wliito Mountains, N. H. ' 

. Glacier of the Aar, Switi. (A. N. S.) ' 

. Trnmbnll, Conn. Marfcarodite. 

n. Paris, Me. RoiMsoolor. (A. X. S.) 1 

Wbere not ntlioi-witte Imlicaleil, the above rotuoovUm ai 

I'lear ydtowiali-hrown tint. 


1. AltenbiTg, .Saxunj-. With Pycnitu) Hometlmcs 

dUtortwl. (A. N. S.) 

2. Zinnwatd. tlofaifinia. Olt«n wry imgnlar. On 

diRvrvnt parts of the sami: piecci thv niiglu 
varies Tvota 34^30' to M'^SO'. (A. S. 8.) i 

3. ParJH, Mt.'. Much dlatorted ; sereral axes. (A- 

N. S.) 

4. Middletown, Conn. 


1. Lafayette, above Manayunk, Pa. Exfoliating : 

fan-shaped crystals : images much distorted. I 

2. Lafayette, Pa. Clear. 

8. Lafayette, Pa. Foliated talc ; distorted images. 

4. Harford Co., Md. White. 

5. Shetland Is. Clear pale green, sometimes nearly 


Weatana, Sweden. 1' 


Chrysotilcfi-om Chester Co., I'a.jHhowwstrtmg double ref 
when the fibres make an angle of 45^ with the plane of p* 


tion of the instrumeDt. Bissectrix apparently parallel to the 
fibres. Probably orthorhombic. Common serpentine and Wil- 
liamsite show no double refraction. 



1. Culsagee, N. C. In scales : anal3'zed by Koenig. 

(F. A. Genth.) 

2. XJnionville, Pa. " Emerylite : " irregular h3'per- 

bolas. (A. N.S.) 

3. XJnionville, Pa. On corundum. 

4. Unionville, Pa. " Corundellite." (J. M. Car- 


5. Horsjoberg, Sweden. (T. D. Rand.) 

6. Chester Co., Pa. " Margarite : " irregular, show- 

ing sometimes four hyperbolas. (A. N. S.) 
T. Haywood, N. C. ^'Altered from corundum." (F. 
A. Genth ) 

8. Unionville, Pa. Analyzed by Sharpless. (F. A. 


9. XJnionville, Pa. Analyzed by Koenig. (F. A. 


10. Newtown, Conn. With Cyanite. 

11. Newlin, Chester Co. "Margarite." (A. X. S.) 

It is evident that the minerals labelled Emerylite, Corundellite, 
Margarite, etc., are all Damourite. 


1. Chester Co., Pa. (A. N. S.) 37^-40°. 

2. Unionville, Pa. "Original." (F. A. Genth.) 30^30'. 

A thicker piece in which the h3'perbolas were very dim, had an 
angle of 45° ±. 

This result is interesting, as the optical angle given by Silliman 

is 71°. 


Paris, Me. In small scales. 42°40'. 














so raociUPixo* or tmk irApncr or 

1. B. Kottfnfli«iii, ChMter Cn^ P«. HalliU. ta 

gnea ctyttAU -. ttnbucUl 
S. C«oil Co.. Mcl^ Hai^nrMS gtuny. llallite, Con- 

utiu racIfMcd arir>«r.«hsp«l crystals like Bal- 

Uw: UDttxiaL 
I. CbMtcr Co.. Pm^ Brown's Qiuurj-. UnUxlal. 

4. Mmcoo Cow, N. C. Mat:<mife. In brawn scales ; 

uniaxial fir with a divvrgenoe or l":::. (F. 

A.Oenlli.) 1" 

f.. Mineral Kill, IM.C»., Pa. Palo^rvMt. (A.N.S.) 1 

€. Lenni, Del Co., Pa. Brown and gneo ; aone- 

tlmcs a very small optic angHe occnrs. I9°-S 

7. Ciil*ngc«, N. 0. CulMigtvile. YcIlo<rtdb4>rown : 
variaMn an^^le. Somi'timcs tlin angle varies 
as (lilTen-nl portion* of ihu sanut jm-ce are 
mov<-d into the firlil. Oiio pivco gare 9'', 
and anoth<>r wns ni-arly nniaxtsi. The angle 
)llv(!ii in th« inoKt constaiil one. S0° 

8. West Chester, Pa. Jefferinife. VarinMe angle: 

a specimen gave at one part 16^30', aiiH at 
another 25°, tiie latter being the most distinct ; 
a very thin piece gave ll°30', and a thicker 
piece 27°20'. Apparently the optic-angle in- 
creases with the thickness of the plate. .Some 
good s|)ccimens gave 22°, 25°, and 2S° ; mean 
angle prolwiMy, 26^ 

9. Lafayette SoapRtonc Quarry, Montgomery' Co., 

Pa. Brown Hcalea in chlorite ulato : constant 

angle 32=-36 30'; mean, 34- 

10. iQomiantown. Phila. Brown plates in horn1>Iende 
rock. Optic^ingle constant within 31 'tn'- 
39-30' ; the most constant angle is 37" 

It is very probalilc tliat,as sup}iested by Prof. Cooke, the va 

tion in the optic-angle of the VcrmiciilitcB is caused by twinning 



Patterson's Quarry, Newlin Township, Chester 
Co., Pa. Irregular green plates ; with corun- 
dum ; inclination of bissectrix to normal to 
cleavage plane, 5^30' : optic-axial divergence 
variable on the same plate on account of twin- 
ning, varying from 50° to 59^30'. (T. D. 
Rand.) Generally as given. 59^30'. 

West Chester, Pa. Green plates ; inclination of 

bissectrix 10° : axial divergence, t8°30'. 

Brinton's Quarry, Chester Co., Pa. Fine clear 
green plates ; inclination of bissectrix, 12°30'. 
p >. V, Axial divergence, • 82°. 

Dudley ville, Ala. Pale rose-color ; on chromite. 
Inclination of bissectrix, 16°. /> > >. (F. 
A. Genth). 94°15'. 

■1 all of these, double refraction is feeble compared with that of 
scovite. It is observed that the inclination of the bissectrix 
lie normal to the cleavage plane increases with the divergence 
the optic axes. 


rewster, X. Y., Tilly Foster Mine. Uniaxial. 0°. 


ITullakanee, N. C. White, " altered from corun- 
dum." Irregular figures. (F. A. Genth.) 110°—. 

Chester, Mass. Rose-color, with corundum ; 
irregular, in some places showing four hj-per- 
bolas; one piece gave 89°30'. 112°45'. 

>udleyville, Ala. White, clear ; inclination of 

bissectrix, l°zh:. (F. A. Genth). 122°15'. 

'ullakanee, X. C. White, " altered from Zoisite.'' 
Inclination of bissectrix to normal to cleavage 
plane, 2°±. (F. A. Genth.) 124°. 

he large optic-axial divergence of Margarite readily distin- 
hes it from Damourite and other micas which resemble it. If 
her observations agree in showing that the bissectrix is inclined 
txe normal to the cleavage plane, it will show that Margarite 
Tonoclinic and not OrthorhomKc as has been supposed. 


OctuBRK33, ISn. 

^ A AV»f If^lilir for Av>a\cxi«.~\>r. A. E. Poo« calM ntUb- ! 
'^ fe lo X\w Taot Uuit Analclto bml Iwvii found at Fall* of Sehuyl- 1 
n,— « r\v^ Iticnlliy forlluit tuiiiornL 

NoVEMBKit 2fl, 1877. 

fht lii* M'-agnrrvient nf Plane Angli"*. — Mr. I.Kiria ilMi'Hl)«d »1 
■impk- and «iUiok vray of measiirlnii plane biikK-a in niiii^ral*. It \ 
wan a uifthcxl which he luid foand very tiHcfuf in llw nh-mttinqnenL i 
uf all v^fs^ angW, of olvaraiie uuil Htriuliun nnglM. the angUitf J 
fif markings and denclriieit 1» mivn, an*! uf uthcr Hat anifleM tO'1 
which a goiitoineter could not conr«nient1,v he aiijiliod. 

A jiajH-'r proinictor was constnic'ti'd, the mdii of which, dUl 
Muh fruin cath 1^. wen- cuntinaoil rrniu tb« cinriimrnvne* 
to the C'l'uitv. Ilurixoiital lin«)t, ahotit twiMitj- iq nainl>rr, am 
drawn aoros* these, [lurulli-l to ihi- radiuH 0"^ and at riKlit anglra 
In the radius yi>^. Th«^' linm bi-ini; para I lot, the anglp» formMl 
bj- till' interswtion uf uiiy radin* with I'sch of tbrm an; rqiial. Is 
order to mca«urolhi'»ugloof a cr^«tat, itis laid on ihv pnrlrartor, 
wni< of ila (>dg«a is niaiti- [Kinillel to n horizontal line, and then Mm j 
vfyHt^il \* olid along thnt linv until the other edge, formin}; witk 
tile Dr»t the angle to br m«<asiir«d, becom«H [Jaraliel to one of tba J 
interxei-tiiig radii. The deairm] angle id now read off on tht> rAf* 
inimrrn-ncc i>f the imilmctor. AukU-h npjiroachtn;; 00" ar*- read 
i>o oni' ol'tlir u)>[HT hoiiKoiital lines, while those of lenn nQi|>titiid« 
Hie rend eorrei«[>ondingly fnrther dowu. A magnifjtinK lena ia 
ooiiveniently ucisd to determine the exaol colnoldeiuH.' of the odgM 
of the crjHtal with the lines of the protractor. Very lai^je CTJ*- 
tala as well a* crystals at small as a mllHnielre in diameter can be 
measured in this way. 

It wa;i found that this method of measurement was rery eonv©. 
nicnt, and, if the protractor bad lieen citrefUlly made, was exact to 
witbln ^d': while it applied to tlioxi- eaM'x In wbicb n«IUwr the 
rptl4-ctive nor the hand guuiometiT could he used. 

Ilfc-KMBBE 17.1877. 

ttn an Eifulialing Talc— Mr. Hk.vrt Carvili Lkwis described 
a variety uf tak, occurring at th« Mtaustune quarry above Mana- 
ynnk, wtittrh lo In some rvtpectn nt^w. It occurs iu fan-like orystala 
in I'Mlomltp. and Is much more similar to Pyrophyllite titan to 
common tali'. It moreoviT diRers from common talc I>y exfoliat- 
ing when held in the tin me of a candle or Bnusen burner, and 
was, therrforv, at Hnt minukun for I'jrrophyllite. IntheoloMd 


tube it exfoliates and gives off water. In optical characters 
it is identical with common talc, having been found to have an 
axial divergence of about 12°40', frequently distorted. It is 
marked with striations or cleavage planes crossing at angles of 60° 
and 120°. In this respect it is like Jefferisite or Culsageeite, 
while in common talc such markings are rarely visible, and never 
distinct. It has the chemical composition of talc, except that the 
percentage of water is larger than usual, being 7.02 per centum. 
None of this water is h3'groscopic, as its weight remains constant 
in a desiccator over sulphuric acid. 

The water of two other talcs from the same locality was deter- 
mined. A massive talc which does not exfoliate in the Bunsen 
burner flame or in the platinum crucible, but does so at the point 
of the blowpipe flame, contains 4.23 per centum of water. 

A foliated talc which is caused to exfoliate only very slightly 
even in the blowpipe flame, contained 2.84 per centum of water, 
and this was driven off only at an extremely high and long 
continued lieat. 

In these three talcs, therefore, we have the interesting results : 

1. That there is a direct ratio between the amount of oombined 
water and the amount of exfoliation. 

2. That there is a direct ratio between the tenacity with which 
the water is held and the temperature at which exfoliation occurs. 

It is thought that perhaps these results may have a bearing in 
an explanation of the properties of the various Vermiculites. 

January 28, 1878. 

Tin in North Carolina, — Mr. Lewis exhibited a small piece 
of tin ore said to have been found in Surry Co., N. C, and which 
had been handed to him for examination. It was a soft, light 
earthy mass of a brown color, crumbling when pressed, which, 
when held in a candle flame, became covered with small globules 
of pure tin. The earthy base was a silicate of alumina, iron, and 
lime, and was partiall}'^ soluble in acid. The tin was reduced by 
very gentle heat, far less than that required to reduce Cassiterite. 
It was suggested that the tin existed in it either native or as an 
ochre or hydrous oxide. No sulphides were present. It was 
questioned whether the specimen exhibited was a genuine native 

A New Locality for Oypsum, — Mr. Theo. D. Rand announced 
his discovery of gypsum^ as an efflorescence upon gneiss, at a 
quarry near Darby, Pa. 


01 nsnoPKnxiTK-A nw xinEAL. 


Aotoug r>(li«r iiitorfxting miiioritU vrbicb nr« fouiul bt Uik ui-iifk I 
liorlioocl <>r Pik4-V IVuk. Colnrnilo, ii a Unrd lilack ruii-a, occuirii^ I 
•oiuetiinc* in Inrgv nod fine ciystaU, wliicl) Uie irritcr h&s b 
utuitilo U> idoDtify with any known specip*. 

It U monoclinic, and has an eminent micaceous bwal clu 
ft ba« the following ctutrttcters : 

IlHr(lnGHs,3,S. SiKviQo gravity, 3.1. Luntrc, bright tnlaaccoHK'I 
Color, biwk liy n'llcctiHl light, and (Sne (>h^onM^.gre(■n tiy tn 
mittvd light. Opa.|ni- vxiwiit in very thin pi«c«H. Struak, pale 
([K-eD. I.niniuN- ri'rj* t>ritll<-. BiaKial;optic-oj[ial<HT«rgi.i«.'e 10'^:. 

In it« c^t)ni[>ositiun it appears to tw an iron^iluiaina niica. Ttw 
amtlvMii hpnt given ia a mt^an of two inadi> by the writer. In iinn 
thu luincral was fbFicd witb eodic oarbouatc heforv aolation, and in 
ttie other it waa diasolt-cd iu hydrochloric acid. Thu anatyMM 
woiv irarfonnt-d la the naual way. Iniu wiu ratimaln] t>y aolutlua 
in aalphuric aedl in ■ I'loMid Itaak, and HulMetiUbUt titratlou. The 
[torijetitage of alkalivo waa kJtidly di'lprutiot-d by Hr. F. A. {JtMitfa, 
Jr. The ptsrcrDt^-igc of water ia that gircu off on mo<lemt« tgni- 
lioii. On -ir'Ti^ ii,'iiiti..>n llio iiiiiierni loses over 3 j>cr ci>ntiim of 
its weight, some of the alkalies being driven off. 

O ratio. 






A 1,0. 
































99. He 

Thia giv.. 


H T Si ^, 1 : 

: 2. and for tl 

Riliea 1:1. 


s therefore a 

'nimlicate in 



It has the formula 

Si||0JI(HK„3?€) + i^A;),. 
and the symbol 

Rsi ^J ^'s? ^ir 

Before the blowpipe it fuses with intamescencc at about 2.5 to 
a black glass. It sometimes gives a red lithia color to the flame. 
It is soluble in hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, with separation 
of silica. In its pyrognostic properties it is thus similar to Annite, 
although Annite is less fusible. Its oxygen ratio is that of Biotite, 
but the absence of magnesia, and its physical and optical proper- 
ties, distinguish it from that mineral. It occurs in good cr3'stal8 
back of Pike's Peak, Colorado. Amazon-stone and Astrophyllite 
occur in the vicinity. The material upon which this investigation 
has been made was obtained from Dr. A. E. Foote, of this city. 

The name of Sidcrophyllite (ffidr^poi; tfuXXov) has been given in 
allusion to the large percentage of iron which it contains. 

On Slerlingile and DamovHIe. — Mr. H. C. Lewis stated 1 
an optical examination of a. number of American dnmourites 1 
showD that they all had a large optic-axial (livorpenee. This a 

s generally 73'^-74°- It is an angle aomowliat larger thau t! 
of muscovite, and is remarkably coaatant in different gpecimens. 
On the other hand, the original damonrite of Delesse has, accord- 
ing to Deacloiaeanx, an optie-axial divergence of only 10°-12°. 
No such angle has been found in any of the American damourites. 
As it has been shown that damourite (" hydro-mica") is an im- 
portant element in onr rocks, and is of wide distribation and 
frequent occurrence, it is essential that its chai'acters should be 
well known. 

The damonrite of Sterling, Mass., conforming precisely, both as 
to composition and structure, with the type of American domourite, 
and which Prof. Cooke has shown to have an optic-axial divergence 
of 10'^±, has been named by hXia., Steriingite. This distinctive 
name was given solely on account of its hirger optic angle. But 
it appears that this large angle is characteristic of all American 
damourites, and probaUS|^dU^£a^MHfr<^i'^^'' ''' therefore 
folloffs either that aUM^H^HUfiBjBawenllt'dStrrHri'jitc. 
or the name shO^^^^^^^^^^^^^BvoMM !« 

oonfliBtoa. NotwithennSn^B^Soq^^V optical cbaraocer of 
the mineral examined by Descloiseaux, it is thought that identity 
of chemical composition and of physical properties is sofflcient 
reason for retaining the original name of Damourite. 

March 25, 1878. 

Vanadium in Philadelphia Rocks. — Mr. Lewis said that he bad 
discovered the presence of Vanadium in hornblendic gneiss near 
Wayne Station, Germantown. The presence of sphene in that 
rock suggested the search for vanadium, recent researches having 
shown that this element frequently accompanies titanium. The 
following method was employed for its detection. The pul- 
verized rock was slowly heated in a crucible with sodic carbonate 
and sulphur. After partial fusion the mass was digested in warm 
water and the filtrate acidified. Theprecipitate was washed, ignited, 
and fused with sodic carbonate and sodic nitrate. It was now 
digested in water, filtered, the filtrate concentrated, and solid 
ammonic chloride added. A precipitate fell, which was found 
by blowpipe and other tests to contain pure vanadium. An 
exfoliating hydrous mica occurred at this locality, resulting 

> V. "The optioal characters of some Miuaa :" by I 
Hin. and Oeol. Bectton, October 33, 1877. 

C. Lewis, Proo. 


perhaps from the alteration of hornblende, and which was believed 
to be a new species, in which there was .38 per centum of oxide of 

A New Locality for Epsomite. — Mr. Lewis reported having 
found Epsomite in Sideling Hill Tunnel, E. Broad Top R. R., 
Huntington Co., Pa. It there occurs in small, colorless, acicular 
erj'stals in an olive-colored shale in the lower part of the Vesper- 
tine formation (No. X). 

Vtt rtucxxDDcos or ras ACAtinr or [It 

NoTKMKU i5. 1876. ^m 

TIB mrAci eiotoeT or pbilaphjia utd fuinrf. 
■r iii:>Bt CAiiviLi. Utwi*. 

At latemiU iliiring tbi^ [loiil yo*r llm writer bo* \x*u dovod 
*uiuv ntlrtiliifD tu Uk* grarrlo uitl rUv* of our citr, am) »lthua 
tbc •icrk M jrict » unljr linJimiiuir^, ami » •till in progrr^*, it 
UMogtil that a nkvtpb o( wlwt Iul* iM-nt •hmv nuv w-rvr Ui alii 
what &□ tutonwtiog Belli La oiwd ftir murv thurungli iDv«-Ai{>atii 
A Ur)ti' uuinlM-r uf loutlitim ha^e bc«n vxamlnod and mnaj m 
tliuiH liave iHwn nudv.liut It U t>ro)HMeil at [inwuit merely 
■uuunarlze the fairtA i))w«rvif I. 

7'h* Cplaud Terrarx. — I. A travrllrr gwing from tlio cltjr t^ 
tfav ijornuuttuwn lUilroait will notice in the catting* for » 
KtrMtii between TeDth aotl Broad StrceU, and in the railroiMl < 
At New York JiiootioD, numuxoua exposure* of nA or y«U> 
gravel, often oTerlitld hy clay. The bricltyanU in the vicinity 
Ntretown oxpoM large Unl* uf liriek-elay oontaining ix-rauioi 
wcll'rauiulird bonlilera and pi-litilr*. TIir Und to for luu In 
vonipantlivt'l; level, nod nu n>cks han- lucn nera. Jast Iwlli 
rwiciiiii^ Wnvni- St«, nx-kn ri*4' ii|Hm l-illi "idi-n of tin' rm 
the clay and gravel ditiappear, and n roJdng wooded country 
entiTed. A thin covering of light niiiaecous soil containing 
pebblcfl or boultlcrs covers the gncissic rocks from here to Che 
nut Hill. There is a great contrast between the two regions. 

2. On the Pennsylvania Railroad it will be noticed that, so- 
after leaving the depot, gravel covers the rocks along the Schuj 
kill, and as the railroad tnms back from the river, a plateau 
clay follows. The Centennial gronmU lie upon this cl.iy, ai 
boulders arc frequent. Upon reaching Kifly-sevcnth Street, o 
|Kisite liclmunt and George's Hill, the hill is entered hy a cut, tl 
rocks coroc to the aiirface, and the drill is no more fci-n. 

3. Again, on the North I'cnnsyivania Kiiilroad gravels fii 
appear, thvn, on liigticr ground, clay, and soon nftiT passing; tJrtv 
Lane Station, tlic ro<^'ky uphtnds, free from drift. 

4. So, too, on the West Chester Knllroad. gravels and chi, 
cover the ground up to the base of the hill on which Swarthniu 
College stands. 

5. On the other hand, the New York division of the IVnn*; 
vaoia Railroad and the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimo 


Railroad, which run parallel with the Delaware River, do not 
rise out of the region of drift. 

Now, connecting by a line the four points mentioned, it will 
be found to represent a long straight hill 200 feet or more in 
height, having a northeast and southwest trend, parallel to the 
river, and lying at a mean distance from it of about four miles. 
We have traced it from Bucks County, through Philadelphia and 
Delaware Counties, into the State of Delaware, and find that it 
uniformly defines the western boundary of the drift. This hill is 
easily recognized where uncrossed by creeks, being remarkably 
straight and of uniform height. It forms the limit of tidewater, 
and is recognized where it crosses streams by the occurrence of 
rapids or falls. Being the first hill of imi)oi*tance west of the 
Delaware, it often commands a fine view and is a favorite site for 
residences. The geographical position of this ancient terrace 
may be more exactly defined in the vicinity of Philadelphia, as 
the .hill which crosses Second Street Pike near Foxchase, and 
crossing Tacony Creek farther south, runs nearly parallel with 
it as far as Crescentville ; which crosses Green Lane and New 
Second Street road near the place of Mr. J. L. Fisher ; crosses the 
North Pennsylvania Railroad above Olney road, and the York 
road below the Jewish Hospital ; which crosses Germantown 
Avenue at the railroad bridge (being here called Negley's Hill), 
and running along the railroad to beyond Wayne Station, passes 
back of the Germantown Cricket Ground, past Old Oaks Cemetery 
to Falls of Schuylkill. Thence, passing Chamouni, Belmont, and 
George's Hill, it crosses the Pennsylvania Railroad near Heston- 
ville, and Haverford Road at Haddington ; passes back of the 
Bunl Orphan Asylum into Delaware County, and runs north of 
Kelleyville, Clifton and Morton to Swarthmore College, and 
thence past Village Green into Delaware. 

This hill, which is approximately parallel not only to the river, 
but also to the shore of the Atlantic Ocean and to the line of 
strike of the Cretaceous formations of New Jersey, forms, as we 
have seen, the main dividing line between the ancient and the 
modem formations. 

We shall call it for convenience the Upland Terrace, The strike 
of the gneiss forming it corresponds closely with the trend of the 
terrace itself. A boulder-bearing clay rests upon its southeastern 
slope at a uniform elevation of 150-170 feet above mean ocean- 
level. While it is true that, as will appear hereafter, there are 


. til ;iiicu'iit gravel on hiph points Iwiok of it, the Upland 
- »,. *. >vitiu'lcss remains as the most imi)ortant geoloj^ica 
.*. ..^. :i ^uuilictu»tern Pennsylvania. 

ici HiA u t lie Upland Terrace and the Delaware, clays and irravel 
^ wi liic rocks in a continuous sheet except where erodtil awa 
;i liie iu'i«;iilH»rhood of streams. The amount of their ero^^ion i 
11 M4ue res|H»i'ts a measun* of the a<rc of the surfaee formation* 
U has >>een noticed that these formati(ms in the vicinity of Phlh 
delphia have undergone very different amounts of en»sion, th 
amount of such erositm increasinjr a** we recede from the Pelawan' 
auil this fact is regarded as offering evidence that the de|>osits ar 
of different ages ; those lying fartliest from the river antl liighes 
in elevation iKjing the most aneient, an<l those which are elo?.e t 
the river, which have undergone but little erosion, Ix^ing the mos 
HKHlern of our surface formations. Examples of erosion of th 
Philadelphia gravel may Ik? well seen on the Philadelphia an< 
West Chester Railroad which crosses a nund>er of creeks and run 
nearly j)arallel to the terrace for several miles. As each creek i 
ai»proached the drift * disjipjH'ars an<l rocks come to the surfacf 
So on the Schuylkill, no gravel is seen on the river <lrive in th 
East Park, but upon going ba<*k from the river and rising 100 ftv 
above it, as far as the East Park Reservoir, gravel apjH'ars abur 
<l:intlv. Yet on tlie samr river, iicnnr tht* l>i lawan*, m ihu» 
gravL'I, made of dillcrent inateriaU, not onI\ loriii< it^ 1 ank^ !•;: 
uihlerlies it. 

Hi'rfiif Alhivnnn. Tlic iii<»st recent <»!' :ill the <urfa«-«' •b-j'.-^i! 
is t lu- '^liirbhii>h dav which covt r< Hu- 1<»\\ uroinul in tin- ^.i- t! • r: 
part ot'llie city. The Kichni<»n«I niiadnu^^ and the xYaX-^ »»t* M«'\:i 
men^^inir, (Jreenwieh and Tinicnni are coNrml I'V thi^ di jni-it. I 
is bonnded b\ a low terrace u hich inav bf callr.I '* Thr /-V-m./. .'n ■ 
T'/'niri/" T\\\< terrace. n|» to ^^l^H•h the river nl'trii «i»nM-^ ir 
t inio 111' ibnid, cro*^>c-. South l»road Stirrt ilia.:i'n;ill\ l«h»\\ M..\;- 
ineii^in:: ANennc. an<l crovsin-_r the hthtwair « \tt n-i«'n «.r ?'.» 
Penn^NUania Kaihoad near Penro^r ['.nv li«»;el. w in«N :t:"i;t, 
point l*r»« ze I'.irk bM<k t<>u:ii'N th«' <ia^ \\ "rk-, :inl |..-->>^ 
beh>w Snil'nlk Park ci*!--! s iiit'» Ihlauar* ('onnt\. 'j'l.i-- •.!;•.■. 
i-^ ab<»nt ten 1\ et alx.Nr nn an ti«b'. It i< the h'^r-^t :in 1 n. \\. >: . 
all the teriac< s Mud i«. tMinird •'!' the ne\t o-ih r l-ii in:it .• -n, * '.• 
** Pu\er irravtl." The mud «•!• el.iv In inLi bi tN\et n thi-- t« rvo . a:- 

« » 

' Tlu" tiTiii *Nhifr' heit* inrhnle.sall MijNilieial f»>«<iif whatt \» t a.:* 


tlie river is too stiff to be useful for brickmaking. Blackened 
fragments of twigs, roots and leaves are frequent in it, and it is 
said that trunks of the white cedar abound in it in some places. 
There is here an indication that these beds are sinking and that, 
as on the Atlantic coast, the water is encroaching. Frequently 
a good peat covers the clay. 

The Biver Gravel. — Forming the Floodplain Terrace and lying 
back of it, is a light sand and gravel free from clay, which may 
be designated the " River Gravel," since it formed the ancient river 
bed. It is composed of a light micaceous sand made from the 
"wear of gneissic rocks, overlying a clean, loose gravel, whose peb- 
bles are composed of the rocks which form the river bottom farther 
north. The pebbles are generally flattened and are composed of 
gneiss, Triassic red shale, Triassic argillite, etc. It is of a gray 
color, white quartz pebbles being comparatively scarce. It under- 
lies the river to a great depth and forms islands in it. Frequently 
large boulders lie upon the river gravel. Bridesburg and the 
Il«azaretto are built upon it. The sand is used for building pur- 
poses. It is bounded by the *' Biver Gravel Terrace^^' a terrace 
rising some twenty feet above mean tide, and which is capped by 
the red gravel and brick-clay about to be described, while rocks 
frequently exposed at its base. The Chester Branch of the 
ing Railroad lies below this terrace, and the present line of 
tlie Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad is above it. 
^The Bed Gravel and Brick-Clays. — The built-up portion of the 
'^^t 3' stands upon an extensive deposit of brick-clay and gravel, 
^^^otions of which are exposed in every cutting. The brick-clay 
^^"^^ariably overlies the gravel, and will therefore be first described. 
3^" far the finest exposures of brick-clay are those on either side 
^ Xong Lane, in the " Neck.'- The clay here is very compact, 
^e from sand and gravel, and is often 15 feet or more in depth. 
^>am lies above it, and is mixed with it for brick-making. Well- 
^^J^vi^nded boulders of Potsdam, Medina, Trias, etc., are frequent. 
"■^ l^e whole lies upon some 20 feet of stratified gravel. It is a 
^~^^cb finer and deeper clay than that of the northern part of the 
^^^t.^j as at Nicetown. It is interesting to note that while the clay 
^tiich is farthest from the Upland Terrace and lowest in elevation 
^^ purest and deepest, on the other hand that near the terrace 
^^d more than 100 feet above the river is both shallow and sandy. 
^ suggests that the former was deposited in deep water and the 
^tter near the shore. At the base of the terrace the clay is but 



^^ wmmamaot or nil AiUMorT ur [] 

^. ■ >!•<». .^^ >ls«^ Tbr tioitlit<T» or Ikr Niix-sovn chj 

' Ui« Nrrk rlay, cxcwgit in tin- &<.-t that ii 

iiLii^roiM ronnditJ Kiid felmrjifradineDU ortii 

'1 tbe fiirmtr InuMtfrH of tbot niBlvrlsl uv 

. I iiw )i»itj>ticr* itf botli (.-laj'H am iBTarUlily dcrlviid ft> 

<• ■ourv'v. Nt> sIn'IU fir orgmuio nMiium have u jret 

..'.•' mI <n tliM ramutinn. 

IhuMHtb tlw ctay, Ami »ft«n mwonfonHabltt with ft, is tba F 

^IvlpUiA mi imvcl. It is a cUfvy gpinl whlcb pacfefl wvU w 

liiitcli ij««U uu roads, and wboita r«d color )■ caD««<l by the t 

l^iuL>H» vbt5 in Kliicli ttie pebbles an* imbe<l(l«tl. Tb« pi>bMc 

ouut|'U(wO uf all klixU of rock and ans not llattMtetl as arv tho 

Um rivvr gnrel. TIig prMlominanl material i» wlilt* <|uanx 

IwliblvB of all ollwr malfrlalft, as ifmi^liimrnite, anndntoor, (i 

tfei-MM hiimiitiinr. Hint, rvd Hlialft, i:ti%, are nnmrron*. l^tnl 

Uiiu la oljH>rTMl in nlmtiMt ovrrj' Mwlinn i-spowdt. Oocxl w«;) 

uC ^niTi^ ans m-rn near tbe UDirrTsttr of PenDfiytvania. H 

htflv an elevation of abonl fiO fc«t. and comes to tbe aurfaoe o 

grvumi wllb but • very Bli|;lit coveriojc uf i-Uy. Tlut \p*^ 

h«t« oror IS fMt iiee|i, and as It U hi Home r>9>|>M-U ft Ijr; 

Mpoaunt,!! aution is berewlth prfM-ntml. 







It will be noticed, in the first place, that the clay lies in the 
rm of crests and hollows upon the gravel. This is almost inva- 
kbly the case. Beautiful examples of wave motion may be seen 

Twenty-eighth Street and Columbia Avenue, at Tenth and 
oga, at Fifteenth and Clearfield Streets, and in Fairmount Park. 

each of these we have apparently the action of a rushing flood 
water upon the gravel. Often the clay lies in a kind of pot-hole 
the gravel, and a concentric structure of clay and pebbles can 
seen. The following section, at Twenty-eighth Street and 
)lumbia Avenue, shows six well-marked waves of gravel and 
ay, the clay always filling the hollows between the crests of 

Fig. 2. 

_— —--TcLaY- 

•. • qi^aVeL 

T^he approximate dimensions of the waves are given in the 
^ram. Along the line of contact between clay and gravel there 
3 alternate streaks of fine and coarse gravel. 
-A very beautiful example of water action is exposed at Fifteenth 
d Clearfield Streets, in a cut about 100 feet in length (Fig. 3). 
The second point to be noticed in the section near the Univer- 
^' is the stratification of the gravel, and its division into layers 
three difierent colors, — red, black and yellow. It is instructive 
note that this division is by no means a local one, but exists 
►ng a line of about equal elevation (60 to 80 feet above ocean level), 
widely separated parts of the city. While the colors are of 
larse due simply to different states of oxidation of the iron, the 
?t that they mark continuous deposits through long distances, 
licates a uniformity in the condition of deposition which could 
due only to the presence of a large body of water, 
tn the third place, the section (Fig. 1) shows the important fact 
it the gravel rests, not upon a hard floor of rock, as is usual with 
i drift in more northern States, but upon a completely decomposed 
eiss. This is universally the case in every section examined in 
i vicinity of Philadelphia. In no case does the gravel rest upon 

•«vcisnaa» or tub ACAtiBMT or 

i 'umk^ touvpc powlbly in tlie 
VMW^v "i itiMiMi whrrv tlic water has 
caHlV>i- ''>■«•> '>>■* ""A F^"^''- '" "'"^^ P^' 
<'1W»> ii«(iMivwr, ttiK gravel also ti nniinlly 
««i»iaji. ■ juapt 'n the caae ur tlic " Rivnr 
^ny^'' )m>|Mr. It will be otHervcd tbat 
>k>)Uti^'>trMiflnil tnieatwoun Biincl,niaclti up 
ottlkv uMUanitls oftbr ilecompoAM! gneUB, 
A^ti ujOtvA tbowing *' Row and jiluugc " 
«UuuLUf«. lUrt below tlio iiravcl. In the 
^wliuit iciwva, a w^lLrounded IxmUlrr of ii 
tgwur Sllitruui undetone is &p«a partinlly 
^M>K>^*^ in tke decomposed iniciss. This 

I oOtn twi* int«n>8llii9 deductions ; — 
I.) That lliv i^elas wtia decomposed 

Ibnt ilw tlc|Hj«itlim of tbe gravel. 

(1) Tint water, Dot ico, naa the agent 
iiT suuti ilvposition. 

(L) As addiliuRiU cviduncc in xipiiort 
of the flnt dmluction, it litu Imc-n olnwrvHl 
lu wverml sections tliat portions of thu dv- 
flompowd ifnctsa bav« been taken nji and ^ 
int«r»tratiflMl In horizontal layon, eltber 
with llir gnois^ii.- unnd, or with tin- gMvi-l 
Itself. That llio rtcepIy-fiippiHR dcroiu; 
gK)M<d CDciM should bo thus re-^ 
tliuiigli bv a flood, and that, on tht? other 
band, no such phenomena are ever observed 
lu undoiibtoil glaelated rejiiona, can onl,v be 
t-zplalni'd u]ion the aaaiim|ition that the 
Ipipim waK deeomi)o«e*I before the Glncinl 
t>[H}ch. Thai such decomposition took 
placL^ in a yvl earlier geologit^sl age, will 1m- 
ludlrat»l tiL'low under a description of the 
" Brj n Mawr irravel," 

(H.) Absence of a glacier in thin region 
Is Indicated by -the w:lYt^Jike jnnc-tion of 
grBTel and clay, by the strstiHcstion of the 
grav«l, and by the presence of dcL-omitosed 
([neUs. No polished surfaces of rock havu 


ever been observed in this region, although the occasional slicken- 
sides upon the gneiss in some quarries has been mistaken for 
glacial striae. Frequently the lower yellow gravel is replaced* by 
a yellow sand more or less fine, which is used for building purposes ; 
and in this there are often good examples both of oblique lamination 
and of " flow and plunge;" — structures attributable to flowing 
water. Examples may be seen on the North Penna. R. R. and in 
the East Park. The boulders of both clay and gravel, if not 
brought down by water alone, have been dropped by floating ice. 
The absence of life in either deposit indicates that the water was 
too cold to support it. 

The conclusion is therefore forced upon us that, during the 
melting of the great Northern Glacier, whose southern terminus 
crossed the river probably near Belvidere, the flooded Delaware, 
then a great tori'ent five or ten miles wide and at least 150 feet 
deeper than it is now, deposited at first gravels and afterwards, 
when quieter, clays; while floating ice carried down already rounded 
boulders and dropped them upon its bed. 

The uniform elevation of the edge of the cla}^ at the base of 
"the Upland Terrace can hardly be accounted for upon another 

The presence of an actual glacier over this region has, however, 

"fceen brought forward as the only explanation of our surface 

deposits. Thus, in a recent paper,* the author, after inspection 

a gravel opening in West Philadelphia, concludes " that this 

ilt of drift deposit is no other than a glacial moraine formed by 

ihe Schuylkill glacier receding from the site of the city/' He 

^, " the surface of the gneiss where laid bare is comparatively 

imooth, and shows evidence of having been polished, though so 

»oft as not to retain the marks of glaciation.*' To us the very 

ocality described (Forty-fifth and Spruce) ofiers strong evidence 

the absence of all glacial action. The gravel, containing no 

^^cratched pebbles, is horizontally stratified and shows flow and 

^ blunge structure ; while the underlying decomposed gneiss, so far 

^rom being polished, is seen in several places to have been taken 

^ap by the swiftly flowing water and mingled with the gravel which 

"it bore along, so that several layers of decomposed gneiss, each 

^bout half an inch in thickness, and soon dying, out, alternate with 

t.he lower portion of the gravel. 

, » "On Glacial Deposits at W. Phila.,'' Proc. Am. Fhil. So€.,. Nov., 1875. 



it has been xupposiKl that tlie bendinp over of the outcrops 
Bteeply-dipphig rocks, somctitni'*; observed near Philaddphin, hw 
been caiisi'd by the prcssiireof aglacier. A very beautifnl pxanipt* 
of Bnch broken and hent-over strata is seen In a (juarrj at FMgt 
Hill. That 6iich phenomena are to be explained, not by glaciftl 
agem.'ifs, but by the force of gravity only, — being the gradual 
sliding-down-hill of the soil known as "creep," — ia shown by tiie 
&cts, ( I) tlmt snch bending over ie always towards a lower elera- 
tion, — down hill ; {'2) that on the two slo])es of the same hill the 
strata have been seen to be bent over in opposite directions. 
Thus at various jminta along the long ridge of altered PrimRj 
elates known as Edge Hill, the slates on one slope are bent towari 
the sonth, mid on the other towards the north. A similar Taofcl 
has been noticud in the gneiss forming the Upland Terrao&ij 
Moreover, such bending of the strata often occurs In regii^ns iinil 
free from drift. 

If, as wc have conjectured, the Delaware Valley wus tilled witli 
a large bodj' of water when the drift was deposited, it ie reason- 
able to snppose that the Schuylkill also was of far greater size, and 
tliat some boulders would be brought down the valley of that, 
stream. Here again tacts sustain the hypothesis. In the gravd 
taken from the excavation for the East I'ark Reservoirj associated 
with Triaesio red shiUe and other boulders, we have finind putislfy 
worn fragments of chlorite slate containing octagonal cryatalfl of 
magnetite, evidently derived from the steatite quarry at Labyette, 
BIX. miles above on the Schuylkill. At Twenty-eighth Street and 
Columbia Avenue is a large boulder of trap, identical with U»at of 
the trap-dyke which crosses the Schuylkill River at Conehohocken. 

It thus api)ear8 that during the Glacial epoch the waters of the 
Schuylkill emptied into those of the Delaware at Falls of Schayl- 
. kill, the city proper being entirely submerged. 

Before closing our account of the Philadelphia red gravel — ^tbe 
" University gravel," as it might be called for distinction — it will 
be necessary to say a word as to what occurs on the New Jersey 
side of the river. If we are correct in ascribing this gravel and 
brick-clay to a flooded river valley, similar deposits at the same 
elevation must be found on both sides of the river. Although we 
have been able to do but very little work upon this point in that 
State, it has been observed: (1) That there is a sand at Camden 
. near the river „ si milar to the sand of the " River gravel " of lower 



Philadelphia ; (2) that at a higher elevation there are deposits of 
superficial yellow brick-clay quite distinct from the underlying 
plastic clays ; (3) that boulders identical with those on this side 
of the river occur in the brick-clay ; (4) that a stratified red gravel 
containing Triassic shale, and similar to the University gravel 
occurs ; and, (5) that there are indications of the existence of a 
Terrace, several miles from the river, bounding the brick-clay and 
its boulders, and composed of an older, and probably oceanic, 
gravel and sand. 

The Fossiliferous Gravel, — There seems to be evidence that 
between the Upland Terrace and the River Gravel Terrace there 
is an intermediate terrace, back of which is a gravel somewliat 
different from the Philadelphia red gravel. It is characterized by 
comparative absence of Triassic red shale, and by the presence of 
numerous pebbles of flint, hornstone, or limestone, which are fre- 
quently fossiliferous. These pebbles, as well as those of white 
quartz, are not fresh-looking, but are eaten and weather-worn by 
age. In both its position and its appearau(ve it is an older forma- 
tion than the red gravel. It is of a yellowish color, becoming 
white when exposed to the weather, and is more sandy than the 
red gravel. For these reasons it is less esteemed for road-making. 
The German town Railroad cuts through this gravel at New York 
Junction. We have found here pebbles containing Cyathophyl- 
loid corals, Favosites, a Trilobite, etc. The Connecting Railroad 
at Ridge Avenue Station cuts tlirough the same gravel, and here 
we have found Strophoinena^ etc. Other fossils have been found 
below the clay in the East Park and at the Centennial Grounds. 

This gravel is found on the high level plateau which lies at the 

base of the Upland Terrace, and is covered by more recent briek- 

— clay. It lies farther from the river and at a higher elevation than 

the red gravel, and there is a decided rise in the ground from the 

^tter to the former. This terrace has been observed in many 

places near and in the city, but has not as yet been traced con- 

tinuously, and its existence is doubtful. Nearly all the brick-yards 

in the city, except those in the " Neck,'' lie upon this gravel and 

l)ack of this terrace, which lies at a mean distance of about a mile 

±i8ide of the Upland Terrace. It seems as though the flood, 

diminishing in breadth, had eroded away the clay within this " Red 

Oravel Terrace." The red gravel comes to the surface, with 

^ery little overlying da}', at elevations below about 100 feet; 

irhile at a higher elevation is the brick-yard plateau. 

Thp I*enn«j-lvnnia lloApJUil TorUu' InNanc nfciinU upou t 

to llii- innin U|i1nn<I Torrace. and h erosws Walnut 8ln»t i 
FifticthStrM-t,nntl Broad Street nenrtheB«adin|;C<»l lUxulorgM^j 
iog. In Pmt. Itof^nt' Quuloglfml Map of Pennsjlvaala. wlivn 4^ 
root^lt stU-in)it U mailat lu rvpruat'Dt llii^ Nmnilnrii' of the drift, tMy 
linv Id one plaoi- i-orrtrxponii!" qoiti: riowly with wlwl mr linrvprtt' 
•niucd 111 bo tile " Ki-d HruTvl Tiimicc; " Imt tt appmn that in moaCI 
ptucM iu tliat map tlic boundary (b mi-ont to bo inf-Toly ■ liy[iolli;^ 
t'tli-nl one. Wbile the t^xjatenop of IUIb inuur tcnuL-* i* yrt duobtii'i 
Tul.nnd wLiileit bprotxittletbutrcili^nivei willht-fouudnbi>rv llao^l 
rnMiiliri'n>n« gravi'l bt-low it, yet nMhIog tuui yet airiH^irMl lu eo^ 
troTort tb<i Rj»»nnipti'>n that tlic Uttir grux-cl In oUlrr than tb^ 
rormer. How tniicb uldrr, nnd whcthrr of ooMnU* or o( fivflte;' 
wat«r oriKin, is not ypt dctcnninwl. tlof^, again, a study of th^ 
Nr<T Jersey {(mvvlH will iio of aasistance. "j 

Thi^ Branchtototi Clay. — Uaving now deBcriti«d Cb» RiirfiMd' 
dfpiwiu l.vbg betwet-n the Delnwar« River and tbe UjiJaml T«» 
ran-, it n-nialHA I'> |Kiint out thnexiitluncv of tH>in« laulatattl pattih^ 
of gravel and day wbicb huvo tieon notim.'d on wimv of tfan hd^^' 
luuik of and nhoirr thSn tvrracv. J 

In tbt! villagf uf Uranclitown, or a plateau SriO fi-et bIhitv ihft 
river, tliert! is a Iwal di'poiil or }>rick-olay lying In an uliloii;: t<c<lt 
rminiuf; N. E- nnd S. W., perhaps a mile in length and an eighth 
of a mile in breadth. That it in not a clay formed in place by 
decompoaition of the gncina is nhown by the presence in it of 
liebbks nnd roimded l>onl<ler!i of foreign rocks. The Hinaller 
]iebbl(-s consist of qniirtz, nnd the larger of a friable ({uartz sand- 
Htonc, pn>b:ibly Potsdam. Not a single fragment of Triassie reil 
shale, and not a single pebble of flint or fossiliferous roclt was 
found: and in this it is distingnished from any deposit heretofore 
descrilied. Nor were any of the pebbles formed of the tuaterials 
of the l>ed of the Delaware lliver. Numerous slinr|> fragments, »if\en 
fix inches stpinn'. of white or yellow siliceous sandstone an<l of 
brown jasiiery i|n!irr/il.-, both prolwbly of lower Sibirian nge. were 
f.-nnd. The iweuliiir conglomirale destrilH-d Ulow as ".Mt. Holly 
Coiiglomerute" diii> nut o<»';ir. Deconiiiosed ;;iKiss lies txlow 
the clay, which is two to tlirec leet deep. The presence of sliarj. and 
roinidi-d Mulders uf a rock in phce fsrther north suggests an 
overland Hood during glaciid time-*; but the com|dete aliscin'c of 


all traces of Triassic red shale, a formation of large extent six miles 
north of here, over which such a flood must have passed, is difficult 
to explain upon that hypothesis. This belt of clay, which may be 
called for convenience the " Branchtown clay," extends S. W. 
to Chelton Avenue and Chew Street, in Germantown, and to the 
N. E. to Limekiln Pike and City Line Road, and is the site of 
several brickyards. The clay plateau is bounded on the X. W. by 
a hill 325 feet high. Doubtless this clay will be found in other 
places, when more light will be thrown upon its origin and age. 

The Bryn Mawr Oravel Upon the summits of some of the 

highest hills in the gneissic region back of Philadelphia, at a mean 

distance of about nine miles from the river, and at elevations of from 

525 to 450 feet above it, there are isolated patches of an ancient 

gravel, different from any yet described, to which we have given the 

provisional name of " The Bryn Mawr Gravel. '^ It can always 

Mje recognized by the presence of sharp or partially rounded frag- 

.Knents of a hard, heavy iron sandstone or conglomerate. Such 

ments are often covered by a brownish-black iron glaze. More 

ten 3'ears ago, the writer noticed in the soil of the upper part of 

xmantown, pieces of this conglomerate-, unlike any known rock, 

Lx^<3 it is only of late that its origin has been suspected. It con- 

i^'fcs of well-rounded pebbles of quartzite or siliceous sandstone 

ented by iron into a stone which is often very hard. This 

glomerate is found in occasional fragments upon ground over 

feet high, but is not found in abundance until an elevation of 

r 400 feet is reached. At these highest points it occurs in a 

gravel whose pebbles are identical with those of the conglom- 


ne of such points is near Chestnut Hill, on the City Line 
«d at its highest elevation, near Willow Grove Road. Here, 
Tly nine miles from the. river and 425 feet above it, is a patch 
t:his gravel and conglomerate. The larger pebbles and boulders, 
^ those of the Branchtown Cla}^ consist of a friable quartzite 
^^'^dstone or a jaspery quartzite. Sharp fragments of quartzite 
numerous ; but there are no traces either of Triassic red shale, 
tbssiliferous pebbles, or of rounded pebbles of the underlining 
^^eiss. It rests upon a much decomposed gneiss. The conglom- 
^"^ate sometimes contains cavities filled with white sand. The 
"^^ct of gravel is of an oval form, whose major axis points N. E. 
tod S. W. It crosses the Township Line Road near the Bethesda 


Home, near which place h&ye been found K sharp boulder i!>fo(»^Nm^ 
' erate three feet in diameter, BeTeral fhtgmentai^femi^otti sand' 
stone equally large, a partially rounded boulder of whits qttaitf 
nearly four feet long, and nn'meroue fVagmests of qnait^te mA 
Primal rocks. The gravel is here in part replaced by day. 

A similar tract of this gravel occurs at Bryn Mam, extendiq; 
firom that place to near Cooperstown. A good sfeotimi is exposed 
ia the railroad cat bdiow the station. From this locality, bo may 
of access from the city, we have named the fonnation. It la 
here about 430 feet high, and nine miles fktm the river. The 
gravel is ten feet deep, and lies upon a flteeply-dippii^ gneiss so 
completely decomposed that it is as soft as clay. Undtimeath the 
bridge, a soft white kaolin-like material, conformable with Um 
gneiss, shows a decomposed steatite, — being probably the etm- 
ttnnation of that which crosses the Soboylkill at La&yette. ' Here, 
as at Cliestnut Hill, the gravel lies in an isolated patoh upon a hill, 
distant from any stream or other eroding agency. The gravd 
holds sharp fragments of primal rocks and also, the iron con- 
glomerate. As at Oermantown, the fields bdow, to the aonth, 
contain oooasional fr^ments of the conglomerate. 

Another good exposure of the Bryn Mawr gravel is on a hill 
crossed by the road leading trom Haverford College to Coopem- 
town. The conglomerate is here in large, sharp fragments, and 
the gravel shows slight horizontal stratification. On the crest of 
the hill, some 450 feet liigb, there is a weather-worn boulder, 
four feet in diameter, of a soft, coarse, brown sandstone of Bryn 
Mawr ago, apparently in place. 

A fourtli, precisely similar exposure of gravel with conglom- 
erate, and at about the s.ime elevation, uaps the trill back of Media, 
near the Kosetree. 

Without ilescribing any further exposures, it already appears 
that in these elevated patches of ancient gravel we have the last 
remnants of a once eontinnous formation. The very great erosion 
which has swept away all but these few traces ia a suffltient proof 
of its age. There are no points at ail approaching the elevation 
of these bills, between them and the Atlantic Ocean ; and it is at 
once suggested that these patches are the remnants of an oceanic 
deposit, possibly of Tertiary age. It is interesting to find that a 
precisely similar formation caps some of the hills in New Jersey. 
On top of the hill at Mount Holly, N. J., is an identical con- 


glomerate and gravely similar in appearance, and composed of 
the same materials as the formation in Pennsylvania. The con- 
glomerate has the peculiar ferruginous glaze already noticed. 
It here overlies Cretaceous marls and sands. 

From its abundance at this place, and in order to show its con- 
nection with Penns}- Ivania deposits, we shall call the conglomerate • 
of the Bryn Mawr gravel, ^^ ML Holly Conglomerate.''^ Prof. H. 
D. Rogers^ suggests that this rock at Mt. Holly may be of Mio- 
cene age ; but Prof. Cook, not distinguishing it from the modern 
iron crusts in the red Philadelphia gravel near the river, considers 
it very recent. In the consideration of its age it is worth noting 
that the sand of southern New Jersey, apparently of late Plio- 
cene age, frequently contains rounded pebbles of Mt. Holly con- 
glomerate, thus showing that the latter is an older formation. 

From* the identity of their contained boulders, it is probable 
that the Branchtown clay and the Bryn Mawr gravel are nearly 
coeval. Being oceanic, it is presumed that they will be recognized 
»ll along the gneissic hills of the southern Atlantic States. 

We have given this detailed description of each of the surface 
formations near Philadelphia in the hope that they may be recog- 
a i2:ed elsewhere by other geologists. It has been found that a 
•eful examination of the materials comprising each gravel, taken 
connection with their elevation above tide, is the only means of 
iminating between them. Desultory observations in detached 
salities are of little value. Should this work be extended in 
mnsylvania and New Jersey, and the distinctions between the 
r gravels described be carried out, it is thought that, notwith- 
nding the shifting character of the underlying strata in the 
'•ier State, much may be done not only towards an exact deter- 
ation of their age, but towards a settlement of some of the 
ed problems of surface geology in Eastern America. 
ecapitulation. — The results obtained may be briefly summa- 
L^jd as follows: — 

orming the N W. boundary of the Philadelphia gravel and 
c;k-clay is a hill of gneiss, rising 200 feet or more above the 
r, which may be called the Upland Terrace. It has a N. E. 
S. W. trend, and in this vicinitv is at an averaije distance of 

7 ft/ O 

i miles from the river. 

Report on the Geology of N. J., 1839. 




Within the Upland Terrace, resting upon its slope, and extend- 
ing to the river, is k series of stratified gravels and a bonlder- 
Iwaring briok-clay. Of these, the oldest is the " FossUiferoua 
gravel ; " a gravel lying near the terrace and tinder the brick-clay, 
and containing pfbbles which freiiuently are foBSiliferoue. Of more 
recent age, and at a lower level, is the " Philadelphia red gravel," 
which is made up of the pebbles of the Fossiliferoua gravel 
niiKed with fragments of Triassic red shale and other rocka 
brought down the Delaware Valley. It ia distinctly stratified, 
rests upon decomposed gneiss, and contains rounded boulders 
dropped by floating ice. Upon both of these gravels rests the 
Philadelphia brick-clay, often lying nnoonfonnably upon them iu 
a series of pot-holes or wave-like forms, and apparently an aque- 
ons deposit. 

A yet more recent formation, the " River gravel and sand," 
lies within the others and close to the river, ami is made up of 
flattened pebbles composed of the rocks over which tlie river flows. 
Upon this, in the river flats, lies a modern mud, the " Recent Allu- 

Back of the Upland Terrace, isolated patches of two surface 
deposits, more ancient than any yet descnbed. He upon the hills. 
These .■vre, tlie " Branchtown cliiy," nt a height of 250 feet, con- 
taining boiilcUTs of rotsd;mi nxks. hut iio traces of Triassic red 
shale or of fossiliferous pebbles ; and the " Bryn Mawr gravel,'* 
which caps hills of a higher elevation, and which, containing 
boulders and pebbles of identical material with those of the last, 
■ is characterized by the presence of a hard iron conglomerate or 
sandstone. This conglomerate, ooeprring also in New Jersey, 
and named the " Mt. Holly Conglomerate," is coqjectured to be of 
Tertiary age. 

In these seven formations is written the geologic history of the 
Delaware Valley. 

Much remains to be done before any certain results can be 
expected. It is hoped that the imperfect examination here 
recorded may form the basis for a fiiture and more thorough 
study, which, extending to wider fields, shall make more exact 
the knowledge of our surface geology. 

UH * ^ATi AtL »-iK^ctA or rillLlUKLrilU. S73 

C>«T(iHBR 2h. IhTh 

••• 1 /kV.': . '* Sf, If,/, 11,../ >'.rj4 ii/i-.r iri /.'i/ .-.r /i. ' I'.. Mr. 
Tbi-- I* K t ^(i ri -Ail a j'aiH'r i'li .« )if!t •!! "^tt .1* .'• .lU-l >• r|t ii* ;ii*-, 
f lUlik>r T"«ri«lii|>. Ih-law.m* <''• . I*:t 
P.!4)*Ih^I 111 Vr-m-. .\<-a«l. Na^ S'-i » 

« ir- «i'^ nrntr iil'i'»ttt. /^I -Mr Till". !• KtM* aiiU'HIIH i-| 
!:^ •■ - :.rri t«f^' iif I *liriiliiit«* 111 I iiii^i'lff iMt- ■|iiaiiti'\ ill tin* 

^ -.tbtr-t >« r)4-iitiiif Urll. iii-:ir K.t'tnor >(.ili"ii. IN ^.iwari !'•».. Vx 


FeitBtrAny 24, 1879. 

ItV TlieuuOIlK l>. RAVD. 


At tb« Dwoiulier luceting of the Minrntlogicnl faction, lb 
QoliUinlUi tuttde a cnmmuTiioniioii ill regard to tbe anininni-ji'vllap* 
ROAtiug fotinil nt tbfi vuatb i>n<l of th« largcat qiiarrj *l Frankfort 
northpaflt of AilHtnx St^^«t. Blalins that be fi>iiml Id Ii, c»rhoal 
acid. »iHci« «mil, pbost>horic avid, iiranlutn, alumina aiul Unt, 
and that his oondusion waa, that It was a mixture of aiilnnnlt 
and i-alcltc. The writt^r stntd al tbi> Mumo aH'«tin)j that b 
bad madf an tnoaro)>U-t(.- CMaminatloR of thr Mmr roinrnl, irhtel 
In ^n>ut iHtn.oonAriDrd Dr. (lolditoiithV olfvorvntionti, Iwt that li 
failed to And |>b(>i>|ihoric ai^ii), and pronii)i(>d the Serlion the n^ 
of i-xix-rimrnt* Ihi-n under way. 

At thv meeting of the Ae.ideni; held Docember Slat, IST8, Dl 
KoeniK oommnnieatod the renidta of a fiill qiuntltatlvt- analjnll 
^rinfc the oompoHitlon. a hydrous rarbouatK nf urunluni and limi 
to which be gave the Dame Itandlt«. 

Tin- writer's rwtidl* dilfrr nomi-whnl from thn*** .,t .Mr. OoM 
smith and Dr. Roenig. Owing to the very Hmnll amount of tli 
coating, and itn close adhe-tion to the ro)'k, [iro|H-r scpitnition wa 
iro[>r>!«sihle, and the first esperimuntt wi-re made by treating th 
rock and coating, first with aci'tic acid, to remove calcitf. the 
with dilute hydrochloric acid. The coating was unatfLi-lvd liy th 
acetic acid, an proven by one Hpocimen, in which, after solution < 
a large amount of caleite, the Kanditc wat left in tuds ofaciotila 
cryxtaN. The acetic solution contained chiefly lime, with a littl 
alumina, but no uranium. 

The hydrociiloric solution yielded a small timount of nilic: 
alumina, aiilpburic acid, and phoxjihoric noiil, nith a large amour 
of lime ami uranium. 

In the treatment with acetic nciit, liuhlilco ap|ie:ir<'d to ri^-fror 
the coating— !i multitudt.' of liny bulibhs ; on tlic HiicccdirLi: Ir. a 
meiit with hydrochloric iicid. the were nmcU l.-.r-.T. h» 
fcwt^r in num>>er, and ii))p^<:ire.l to rise from :i e:ir)><>nate in tli 
crevices of tlic rock. 


Tlie proportion between the lime and uranium may be given as 
follows : 

Roenig. Rand, 1. Rand, 2. 

Lime, 56 38 26 

Uranium, 44 62 74 

10.708 gm. of coated rock, after treatment with acetic acid, 
yielded to 8 p. c. liydroehloric acid, cold, in about five minutes 
(the coating having (disappeared), .122. On evaporating the 
solution to dryness there was a residue less than .001 gm. The 
solution was precipitated by ammonia, in the presence of chloride 
of ammonium ; the solution with oxalate of ammonia gave car- 
bonate of lime, .0365. The precipitate treated with acetic acid 
dissolved wholly, except .001 of a white precipitate, which con- 
tained phosphoric acid, and was probabl}' phosphate of alumina. 
The solution precipitated by phosphate of soda gave phos. ui*an., 

.0711 =U2O3.0569. 

Per cent. 

Uranic oxide, .0569 46.71 

Lime, .0204 16.71 .001 .89 

Undetermined, 35.69 


About 100 grams of the rock, free from the coating, were treated 
with acetic acid in excess. A large amount of lime was dissolved, 
and a trace of alumina. The residue, treated with hydrochloric 
acid, yielded a little silica, some alumina, and considerable lime. 

I infer from these tests that the mineral has not the composition 
obtained by Dr. Koenig, and that further investigation is needed, 
if pure material can be obtained. 


March 24, 1879. 

Some Microscopic Enclosures in Mica, — Mr. Thbo. I>. Hand 
descril»ed, and exhibited under the microscope, certain cryntaU, 
etc., included in mica, chiefly from Swain's quarry, Chester Co. Pa. 

Of these, the magnetite dendritic markings, and similar mark- 
ings of red and brown colors, apparently alue to oxidation of the 
magnetite, are most common and best known. Besides these the 
following occur : — 

Hexagonal crystals, black and opa(|ue ; angles, 60^ and 1 20 • . In 
the form of the crystal in this description, the form of the section 
exhibite<i under the microscoiK* is intendcKl. A similar crvsfal, 
brown in color, perhaps the same substance, translucent ; probably 
biotite or lepidomelane. 

Hexagonal or rhombic cr^'stals of a bright red color, sometimes 
with the angles modified ; angles TiC^ and 120*^. There are some 
8iH»cimens which indicate the change of the black into the tvA 
rhombs. One of the red rhombs contained a blnck ervstal, with 
faces parallel to those of the re<l, and one, a very symmetrical anil 
simple crystal, from near Newtown S<|uare, Delawan* C<»., i*a., 
was black for about one-fourth its length, the remainder nnl. 

Rhombic crystals, polarizing light, giving very brilliant <*olorH. 
At first this was 8up]X)se<i to l>e due to films of the mica its«'lf, hut 
the regularity and brilliancy of the rhombs, compared with the 
mica, and their angles, seem to render this nion* than doubtful, the 
arijxles being In'tweon 1^\ and 7S . Tht\v an' ainn>st iiiiivrr-^ally 
acconipaniiMl by, an<l in contact with, t hi' red or black rlMHubs 
and generally both. 

Quartz crystal^, generally flattened. soinetinie*J very niinnte. 
sometimes large enough for the crystallization to U* se<*n with the 
naked eye; generally masses of crystals, showiTiu: <li>tinct crx^t il- 
lization on the edges only, occasionally separate <lonbly terinin:it«'d 
prisms. Some of the s|H*ciuiens with polarized light are v« ry 

A substance usually presentinir tln» form of ilisk^, J,, inrh .Miel 
less in diameter, showing, with polarized li^ht, a radiation lV»»in 
the centre, and a change of brilliant colore as the analv/er is 
rotatetl. Apparently the same material occurs in acicnlar er\ ^t tU. 
\ n twinnc<l at 00^ and 120 , in a plumose form, an*l in a t***rTn 
Cl4 ly reaembling a section of airate arrows the lawr*^. S.»in. ..f' 
t1 disks ap|M*ar to Ik* strictly a radiation »»t* a<*ieiil:«r «rv*.*.»l^ 

I centre, others to Ik» made up of three or mon" oval nia — « < : 
the latter are separate, or joined two. three. \\*\\\ . ..r 

; r, showing apparent twinninLT a! ♦',o and IJo : t h-^m- 

lift with polarized light, lake each a sini^le tint at :i tm.*. 

"""•n foun<l also in mica from n«ar Newtown S.j.i ir« , 


Delaware Co., Pa., and from the Junction Railroad, above Girard 
Avenue, Fairmount Park, associated with rhombs apparently of 
lepidomelane or biotite, and also with quartz. 

On the Bryn Mawr Gravel Mr. Henry Carvill Lewis re- 
marked, that since the presentation of his paper on the *' Surface 
Geology of Philadelphia and vicinity," he had been able to extend 
the investigation then begun, considerably beyond the limits of 
Philadelphia. The " Upland Terrace " has now been traced con- 
tinuously from near Trenton, through Bucks, Philadelphia, and 
Delaware counties, to beyond Wilmington in Delaware. As far 
as could be judged, the clay comes up to a uniform level along 
this terrace. It has been gratifying to find that the main charac- 
teristics of the dijQferent deposits, recorded in the paper referred to, 
are constant throughout the whole of this region. 

The principal difficulty in the work has been want of topographi- 
cal data. While within the limits of the city, the topographical 
map of the Water Department had been of great service, but 
Ijeyond these limits elevations had to be estimated from occasional 
railroad levels. Topography is an aid in all geological investiga- 
tions, but in the study of surface geology it is a necessity. 

It is now desired to call attention to the great development of 
the Bryn Mawr gravel in Delaware, and to the indications of its 
assuming an important position in the geology of the Southern 
States. In Bucks County, north of Philadelphia, the formation 
has been recognized but scantily, but as we go south of the city 
it increases largely in extent. Numerous hills in Delaware Co. 
have been found to be cap|)ed by this formation, and in northern 
Delaware it covers the gneissic hills in patches several miles long 
and comes close to the river. 

The Upland Terrace, after crossing the Delaware State line 
about two and a-half miles back from the river, gradually ap- 
proaches it, until near Bellevue Station, P. W. and B. R. R., its 
base is but half a mile from the river. It forms the upper portion 
of Wilmington, and then trends S. E. towards Baltimore, north of 
the railroad and away from the river. In the neighborhood of 
Wilmington the Bryn Mawr gravel lies directly upon and back of 
the Upland Terrace, which is here about 300 feet high. It is 
abundant to the southeast of Tallyville, Del., covering a large 
tract of country, and it appears on the hills on both sides of the 
Brandy wine in the neighborhood . of Dupont's Powder Mills. It 
is found on the Philadelphia and Wilmington Turnpike, two miles 
northeast of Wilmington, and one mile from the river. In many 
places it is five feet deep, and it seems less eroded than in Penn- 
sylvania. It consists of sharp pieces of Mt, Holly conglomerate 
and iron sandstone with well-rounded pebbles of quartzite and of 
Potsdam sandstone, being identical with that of Chestuut Hill 
and Bryn Mawr. 


Tlii« rorm&tion, on nbundsiit in Dolnnnrc, U ttiito ufuvetl to bt 
bj* nu mrnnH n local one, hiiiI it Jx probntilr tti»l it will Iw iilvnUAtd 
with MomH nf thu rormiitionii (;roii[)ed together iinilor the asm* of 
"Soutliorn I'rifl." 

The llr>'ti Mawr gravel baa al§o rtv«iitJy bwu fiiand in titt 
Montgomery County limi'stoiiu valley, and tben- •rptnii tu be a 
oloHt? connection belwcen It and tlie siirfare or drift iron urv* uf 
that valley- Some of thirAo orcn app^utr to In' siiii[ily a rcry frr- 
rii|(inoD« variety of the Ml. Holly eoD^lnmerete. Tliry ovtrlie 
tioconformably the steeply -dipping ilei-niupOMed shalea whirh bold 
a more ancient and rk-ber ore. 

In Bncbfl Connty there uccum ii gravis! diCTcreut ftiiniany >-il 
deaorilwd, whieb at flrat oceamiontHl houic confuiiUiiL It ha^ fiKinnl 
to !« Uie result of the draomiWMitiuii of tlif lower Ttlawli; wm- 
glontente, the p«bbleM of wliich, looM-u<-d from IbcU <«in<-nling 
material, have bvnn wrutlvred tliroiigU tb« aoil. Tl»e«i< Trla^BJc 
uebblfs arc romiiHl of gni-i>ki>, not I'otsdain. Hill> of ml xlialr 
border IbiM gravel. 

A prt'liniiuur)' map of tlip Snrbcv Ocologj' of Sontlmnti^ni 
PennMylvania waji rxhU'ili-<l, and it wa»i migj^piitml that tu pulilic*- 
tion would U* of "iTvitx to many bomido* geologiat*. 

A MIL iS, U'9. 
On mme Encloaurea in itiea. — Mr. IjKWIN exhlbltol tonui pl*t«« 
of Muscovite which b« had found on t41ioeinak«r\ Lanv. Uan 
town, Mhich contained mleroacopio vrystala of peenliar abApe. 
They conaiated of a dark gr««u micu, probably LcpJdomelaiM'. 
in minute nbarp crvhtaln ttiickty dlipoaed tbton|[honl UH^ 
mnacovile. Tbt-'se uryntaln were fr(N]uently arrow-«li«i>ed, ao4 
geueially mucb elongated. Largu niimlwn of tbetn were ahapvd 
like a uimiki-t. Tbey wvrt! ven,- difTengut IVom any of the enolo- 
eureiiin the iun«;ovitv of IVnnHlmry, I><'l ('i>..nnd wrre Inlervatlng; 
objecla under the niicroxropf. 

On DfiutrifrK. — Mr. Henby ('ARViLt Lewis ma<le some obtter- 
vationx ujwn dendrites anil their mode of growth. He 8tate<l that 
dendrites were not cnuseil by (iltration of melaliferoUH water, but 
that they fre(|uetitly grow upward by chemical or capillary action. 
He described an ex]K>Hure of white lower Triaesic sandxtone in a 
quarry in Ilie soutbeni part of Norristowii, where dendrites* of 
oxide of manganese were seen up<in the surface of the rook. 
growiu;: from Ix-low upwards. The dendritea were ap|>arently in 
pnicesM of growth, and a'cre so soft that they could l>c M.'n«|>ed 
with a knife from the ri>ok. The material thus obtained gave a 
hriglit metallic streak on the fingers, and was shown by the bbiw- 
pi|)e t" l>e bydrou^ oxide of manganese. It was obwrveil that 
while the roi-k iiliove niul below these dendrites was s[>otte<t with 
minute rust-sptikn of nmnganes«-, the ]X)rtion uiH>n which the 



dendrites grew was pure white and free from such specks. It 
seemed that the material of the dendrites is abstracted from the 
rock and by some segregating force built up into tree-like forms. 
An examination of their structures showed that the dendrites were 
quite amorphous and that very frequently the upper extremities 
of their branches were thicker than the stem portion, as though 
some concretionary or capillary force acted most powerfully at 
the growing points. No crystalline structure was apparent, the 
dendrites being bounded throughout by curved lines. It looked 
as though they might have grown by a succession of concentric 
metallic shells. 

It was remarked that these dendrites were quite different from 
those in muscovite and other crystals, which, frequently derived 
from the substance of the crystal, have been so influenced by its 
structure as to become often pseudomorphic. It was noted that 
there are several distinct kinds of dendrites. They may. be internal, 
as in moss* agate ; or external, as in the case now described. They 
may also be either cr3'stalline or amorphous. The ciystalline 
dendrites are subdivided into those which have been free to 
crystallize of their own accord, and into those which have been 
influenced by the crystalline structure of the mineral in which 
they exist. Examples of each were cited. 

On a Jurasftic Sand. — Mr. Lewis directed attention to a fine 
sand of considerable extent and depth, which he had found under- 
lying the lower Cretaceous plastic clay. I f this clay, as is supposed, 
is the base of the Cretaceous formation, the sand below it may be 
of Jurassic age. There is a fine exposure of this sand near Elkton, 
Md. From its coherence it may be regarded as a fine-grained 
sandstone. It is either white or pale yellow in color, and about 
15 feet are here exposed. Underneath the plastic clay south of 
Trenton, N. J., the same sand is at least 30 feet deep. It is sug- 
gested that, in the absence of fossils to fix its age, it may possibly 
correspond stratigraphically with the " Hastings sand." The 
overlying clay contains fossils at Baltimore, which Prof. Uhler 
identifies as Wealden. 

Upon the summit of the same hill, near Elkton, where the above- 
described sand is exposed, '^Bryn Mawr gravel" occurs in abun- 
dance. It contains *' Mt. Holly conglomerate," and has the same 
features as in Delaware and Pennsylvania. Whether or not it has 
any connection with the plastic clay is not known. This same 
plastic clay, of probably Wealden age, occurs at Turkey Hill, in 
Bucks County,. Penna. 

May 26, 1879. 

Potsdam Sandstone near King of Prussia.^Mw Theodore D. 
Rand called attention to primal (Potsdam) sandstone rocks in the 
bed of a valley on the farm of Samuel Tyson, South Chester Val- 
ley Hill, near King of Prussia, Montgomery County, Pa. 


A New Locality for AmethijsL-'Mr. W. W. Jefferis annoanced 
that Amethj'sts, well cr3'8tallized, and of a rich purple color, had 
been found this spring, for the first time, in the northern part of 
Newlin Township, Chester County. They were brought to the 
surface by deep plowing, and were supposed to be derived from 
a vein of this mineral. 

September 22, 1879. 

A New Corundum Locality, — Mr. W. W. Jefferis remarked 
that a vein of blue Corundum, similar to that found in North 
Carolina, was struck, on the south side of the Serpentine Kidgc, 
in Newlin Township, Chester County, a short time since. The 
vein is well defined, being between walls of Ciilsageeite, in large 
plates of a yellowish green color. Over 500 Iba. of massive blue 
corundum has been taken out within ten feet of the surface. 

The Minerals of Surry County^ N, C, — Mr. H. C. Lewis commu- 
niciited the following list of minerals which he had found near 
Dobson, Surry Co., X. C, during a recent visit to that locality' :— 

Native sulphur, galena, pyrrhotite, pyrite,chalcopyrite, hematite, 
menaccanite, magnetite, limonite, hausmannite, psilomelane, wad, 
hornblende, actinolite, asbestos, garnet, talc, steatite, ripidoHte, 

The psilomelane occurred in a bed about 18 feet in thickness. 

The magnetite was frequently polar. Native sulphur occurred 
in cavities in quartzite as a coarse loose powder of rounded wax- 
like grains, and was the result of the decomposition of pyrite. 

It was also stated that rutile occurred in Alexander Co., N. C. — 
a new locality. 

FoHfsil (?) Casts in Sandstone, — Dr. J. M. Cardeza exhibited 
specimens of quartz sandstone (Potsdam?) which he had found 
lying loose upon the soil at Dutton's Mills, Pa., in which were 
oblong rounded casts of sandstone, about an inch in length, and 
similar to one another in shape. It was questioned whether they 
might not be fossils. 

On a Peculiar Stratification in Gneiss. — Mr. Theodore D. 
Rand stated that while much of the porphyritic gneiss of the belt 
running southwest from the Falls of Schuylkill at the surface was 
in rounded boulder-like masses, which had been mistaken for trap 
some of it presents at the surface a thin-bedded structure with 
apparently, very distinct stratification. Recently the cut of th 
Pennsylvania Railroad through this belt, between Merion and El 
Stations, about a mile from the boundary of the City of Philadel- 
phia, has been widened, and on the south side may be seen a 
interesting section. A mass of the gneiss, perhaps 15 feet across 


has been cut through, and almost encircling it may be seen the 
thin-bedded variety, with its apparent stratification tangential to 
the mass from wliich, by decomposition, it evidently was derived. 
The true stratification of this bed of gneiss appeal's to be more 
nearly horizontal and less contorted than that of any of the rocks 
of the vicinity of Philadelphia. 

A Xew Locality for Lignite, — Mr. Henry Carvill Lewis 
announced the discovery of lignite, or brown poal, in the lime- 
stone valley of Montgomery County, a mile and a-half from the 
boundary of Philadelphia. He had found it, last June, at Marble 
Hall, close to the marble quarry, within a few feet of diggings 
for iron ore. In order to ascertain its extent and geological posi- 
tion more definitel}', he had caused a shaft to be sunk 40 feet deep 
on the property of Henry Hitner, Esq. After passing through 38 
feet of decomposed hydromica slate, there was found a stratum 4 
feet thick of a tough black fire-clay filled with fragments of lignite. 
These fragments, sometimes a foot or more in length, lay in all 
directions in the clay. They had the form of twigs and branches, 
and, though completely turned into lignite, showed distinctly the 
grain of the wood. The smaller pieces were generally flattened, 
and ofven as soil as charcoal, but the larger ones were quite hard 
and brittle and had the shininsr fracture of true coal. It burned 
with a bright yellow flame. Frequently balls of pyrite occurred 
with the lignite. 

The clay which contained it was underlaid by sand, and appeared 
to dip south. It had an east and west strike, like that of the lime 
stone and of the iron ores. In appearance it was similar to the 
8ub-Cretaceou8 plastic clays of New Jersey, which also contained 
lignite resembling that of Marble Hall. White kaolin and white 
and red potters' clay occur in the vicinity and are probably of 
similar age. They are all older than the surface deposits and 
gravel of the valley. 

It was stated that while lignite is not uncommon in the Triassic 
formation, its occurrence in a Silurian limestone valley is of great 
interest. Whether referred to Tertiary or Jurassic age, it brings a 
new geological epoch into this region and revolutionizes our ideas 
of the age of many of the so-called '* Primal ^ iron ores. 

On Serpentine in Buds County Mr. Lewis called attention 

to the fact that while seq)entine was abundant in Delaware Co., it 
had not been recorded as occurring anywhere in Bucks Co. He 
had recently noticed an exposure of it in that county, near the 
village of Flushing, Bensalem Township. A narrow dyke of hard, 
impure serpentine here crosses the road near the Neshaminy 
Creek. He thought that the genesis of serpentine and its relation 
to the gneissic rocks was still uncertain. 


0(TTount «1, 1810. 



Thi- ilifieoviTj' <rl li^fnili- in lite Iruri ore rojiion nottli of I'tilli 
ilolpliin introiluci-ii tome new ciintilclcrMtions in tlic ntuHj- < 
geology, and linn a direct iN'nring npun tlio up.- of lu Itod o 
Lif^ite w&H found in thin valley many yi.-t>r> ngo, hat *>>» bu[i|io 
to Im> TrUsBlo, and ther«' fore unJmporlanl.' Beforr jwlgingurti 
iMtnniH-tion that the oconrreuce of Ugnit« in the MontgonuTj Coh 
liiiiMitoD« vullpy will bavf with the |{eolotry of tlic Atlantic c- 
it will 1m! imiKirtAnt to I'liiimemto other localities of a aimfli 
nature where that iniiifral ban l»en found. 

In hi» Oeology of Vermont, I'rof. K. IIit*-lMttx-k (tt^>iTll<nl i 
ovourrcnce of lignite in a almilar poHJtion at Bmndon. Vt^ a 
proposed a tlicorj- which excit«d much attention, hut which I 
lieen rejected by many geolo^istt. It was shown that a ftecpl 
dl|ijilnK Ktratum of lignite lay wittitn l)edB of plastic clajr, I 
and iron ore, nil di|)ping t>ieti|}ly «uiittieast. The Iron ore d»|<( 
wan ■ametitnm 100 feel dvep, and all tlieae bed* rentml a|pitnat ^ 
limestoDo wbieb bad the Dame atre[i di]>. Moltleil etayn wtini 
di-HeriU-dftH»iiniilBrt..Ih..«.-grMi.rtli!i\! M»- N!.- ..f 
Wight, and much of the formation was said to resemble a meta- 
morphosed mica ^ehist. The stratum of lignite was opened from 
near the surface to a depth of 80 feet, and was usetl aa co«d. It 
proved to be generally dicotyledonous, and to contain twigs and 
fruits which belonged to a tropical climate, and which Profeaaor 
Leequereux referred to a Tertiary epoch, probably Miocene. Fron 
this discovery, Prof. Hitchcock proposed the theor>- that all tbc 
limonit« iron ores of the Atlantic coast in similar geological poei- 
tions were Tertiary and of oceanic origin. On the other liand, 
it was argued that an isolated example was not sulflcientto e«tab~ 
Ijsh such a wide conclusion, and the lignite was regarded an locally 
formed by having l>ecn washed into an existing cavern in the 
limcBloiie floor. 

The next occurrence uf lignite is a very Rimilnrone at Pond 
Bank, near ChamlK-rxburg, I'a., described in an Interesting 

' y. Prof. Leidj, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1861, 77. 


paper by Prof. Lesley.* Here again it was found in a limestone 
valley close to iron ore excavations. It was at a depth of 40 feet, 
below strata of clay and sand. According to the superintendent 
of the mine, it was in two strata, the lowest of which was 18 
feet in thickness, and was separated from the upper bed, 4 feet thick, 
by a stratum of sand. Below it, at a depth of 66 feet, red and 
white plastic clay occurred. The strata were nearly horizontal. 
It was thought that the lignite was not necessarily connected with 
the iron ores, but was a local deposit of late date, made in a shallow 
pond, and that, as at Brandon, a sink-hole had been formed in the 
underlying limestone. It was regarded as of the latest Tertiary 

Lignite has also recently been discovered by Prof. Prime, in 
Brown's iron mine, at I ronton, Lehigh Co., Pa,* He states that 
it occurs in a white plastic clay, but does not give the depth at 
which it was found. He believes that it was transported by ice 
and water in the Glacial epoch, and refers the iron ores of the 
valle}* to the same origin. 

The writer believes that in the light of facts now developed, 
this theory of the age of the lignite cannot be maintained. After 
an inspection of the locality, he has found that the surface-drift 
and boulders of that valley lie unconformably upon the forma- 
tion containing the lignite. The lignite lies at a depth of 46 
feet from the surface, in a tough plastic clay, which is entirely 
free from boulders. About 30 feet of potters' clay and decom- 
posed hydromica slate lie upon the lignitic stratum, and resting 
upon the whole is 15 feet of drift. This surface drift, of yellow 
brick-clay, boulders, gravel and drift iron ore, is thus of quite 
different character from the strata below it, and is probably de- 
posited by glacial waters. The underlj'ing formations have, 
apparently, in some places, a dip like that of the adjacent lime- 
stone, and are certainly more ancient than the surface ddft. 

The lignite recently found by the writer in the Montgomery Co. 
valley, and described at the last meeting of the Section, ocours 
under conditions very similar to those above indicated. In im- 
mediate proximity both to a limestone outcrop and to iron ore 
diggings, it was found at a depth of 35 feet, in a plastic clay 
which contains no gravel or boulders, and which is overlaid by 

^ Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc., ix, 463. 

^ Report DD., 2d Qeolog. Survey of Pa., p. 76. 





da,v and decotnpoeeil hyilromica xlfttr. A «uHh«> drin, ooiitalnlnf 
iron orf , gravel, and orciuional boiildom, lies unoonfonniMy u|3aa 
tiw whole funiiattdn. The section hero prv»cn«>d wm ma'tr in k 
*baIV wliU'Ii tlic writer was allowed to liavp sunk within ■ few fr^'t 
of Mr. IIltnrr*H nmrlile qiwrrv, Marlilc UatI, >I(rnt)foni«ni' Coouty. 

Top dirt," ji-llow, imptin-. 

8ofl white drvompoaed bydrondt-a Hlat« or 1 
pure " kaolin," contaiolni; oevaidoual liroki 
seams of sharj) f|uart2lte, bat no peliblM. 

Coarse white sand and rounded |)c1>b[e«; app 

cntly u decompoNi'd aandtttone. 
Tongh mottled ml clay. 

f.itiniU it) a vi-ry tough, dark elay. 

i- b.hik!, will] fragtiKnt* 
I Willi prliM.'s, 

The lignite bed contains oc^nsioaal streaks of Sne gray sand, 
and is Hnderlai<l by a coarser sand. So far as could be Juitged 
tVom tbe very limited exposure, it dipped south, at an angle nf 
about 30°; becoming thicker an it dipped. The lignite lies in 
IVagments in the clay, and consists of twigs and branches of Imnd 
plants, apparently all dicotyledonous. The lignite frequently 
iihowtt a brilliaut black lustre nlien transversely fractured. Tbe 
umall fragroontn arv more like charcoal, and are often in the fomi 
of flattened twifr>t. Some of these appear to be partially rounded 
by attrition. .Nn nhells or marine fossilH occur. I'yrite frequently 
i-ncnHls the lit;iiiti' or funns niHlules, and wlieu exjKried to the 
air decomiKwcH into ferrous niilpbate. 

.At this name locality, lignite has been taken fVom three other 
•haftM in addition to the one Just described. Two of these are 


close to the Marble Quarry, but the third is al)out 400 feet east of 
these, behind the barn of Mr. H. S. Hitner, who says that it was 
found many feet below the surface. These facts indicate an oast 
and west strike to the lignitic strata, and an extent of 400 feet in 
length and 40 feet in breadth. Shafts 100 feet north of these 
struck iron ore, but no lignite. They exhibited the following 
succession of strata: — (1) "Top dirt;" (2) Decomposed hydro- 
mica slate; (3) White clay ; (4) Yellow sand ; (5) Iron ore. 

Recent explorations have shown that Marble Hall is not the 
only locality where lignite is found, but that it occurs in a number 
ol other places in the same valley. About a mile and three- 
quarters west of Marbl^ Hall it was formerly found in a field on 
the Ridge Road, opposite a house once owned by W. Potts. It 
was at a depth of about 40 feet. Red and white potters' clay, 
white kaolin and iron ore are found close to the oi)ening. The 
lignite at this place is hard, and is said to burn well. Another 
locality is on the farm of W. Wills, south of Plymouth Creek, 
about one mile from Conshohocken. Considerable quantities of 
lignite have been here exhumed, the pieces being often a foot in 
length. This shaft was opened about thirty years ago, and was 
probably the locality referred to by Dr. Leidy. Lignite has also 
been found in a number of iron ore pits south of here and east of 
Conshohocken. It is said always to occur in fire-clay. 

The above localities are all included in a strip of country about two 
and a-half miles long and a quarter of a mile broad, lying in nearly an 
east and west direction. The lignite appears to form two distinct, 
nai row lines of outcrop with a definite E. and W. or E. N. E. and 
W. S. W. strike, — thus conforming with the limestone. While its 
dip has not been actually establislied, the decomposed slates and 
sandstones of apparently similar age have been observed to dip 
40° S. 20° W. 

From these facts it would appear that the lignite is not a mere 
local wash or accidental deposit, but that it is part of a stratified 
and distinct formation, having a trend like that of the limestone, 
and of considerable extent ; and when the strata in the Mont- 
gomery County Valley are compared with those in other parts of 
the country, it will be seen that we have here to deal with a forma- 
tion which, closely connected with the limonite iron ores of the 
great limestone valleys, and having remarkably similar characters 
thronghout, may prove an important feature in American geology. 

In entering upon a consideration of the age of the lignite, it will 



'Im SaAnVEk luldy to aketefi the geology, aaA m/miUBj 1t» 
SBrfnot) gciilogy of (lie vKlley tn whiob U o 

The untlnTljring rock i» an alu^red tower HIIuriRu llmcMcMie, tin 
*'Abmii1 ** or B^cnrt, i^tA bi Ob «Mrtb«B fMl «C lh» naqr-li 
OTitdHM ■»rU» aaid iB tb« MfllMiB pMt It « HB^f Bi^MriM 
llMiMnni, ItbM'MlLiadW.abaiMAai«Mpmrthdlp,aiid 
iftt^ppoMd to kanui iavwrtvl ■ynaltel ilnalBnb Tha >■•■ 
■tow itaw totkamfte^ is » Mrictitf panU fMlew,wMl bitawa 
AmlieaairoBentHidtbellgiiittettMta. ll]nM«t*l»idhy - 
anhmsoTiltondaMaof prolaUrFoiibB^fc BtfimHU» 
UmoTUUs to tiM north, «M As TitaNtei«d ikdM aad «■#• 
■toMi,iAlta to a* wMth fath«PUUdi*k tiiliil ilililil 
la May pteaw tt* Rofth Talk7 F 
TriiMlB rttata lU dbMtly apoa «|M I 

TbB Ifoaent «f thtargKlaa ptObR^f Woaf to ibar d 
gwloglMl i«Mi aad W7 tkucAm te dirkUd iato ftar dMMSk 

1. ChMlMlaOM. 1!hteoi«,B«TwftiMdtotttviIli7,oa0amte 
tt» garii^ loAi or OhMtar Oomfy Mclk of tb« <AMlMr Tal^f , 
md hat bMafonaad tatplMeftoM tUaltoMd ga^i. II «p* 
«Uk tht gHte, tad i» ginmVf asoanpnM hr MilM or gnfWIi. 
Pwtt Bogm' wpiiotd t^t tfato Of bilctw t to l i ntH ii 1 | ii i i d i M 
ofTriMrieNdtoaditoafw' theinttor.hofWwr.hMaotliii iMi 
to eonlinn hto Motioiis, nor to show Am pwww of BDy toon 
recent forinatioo than the gneias. 

2. Primal Ore. The hydromica slates whfob lie between ths 
Pottxtnm aandetone and the limeBtone libente, when decomposed, 
a rich llmonite ore which is largely mined in portions or the 
valley. Although in very irregular beds, a steep dip can be re- 
cognized. It is perhaps derived from the decomposition of pyritc. 
This is probably the ore mined at Edge Hill. 

3. Tertiary Ore. This ore, associated with which are the d»- 
posits of lignite, plastic clay, kaolin, Are-sand, etc., baa been 
hitherto confounded either with the Primal ore or with the Drift 
ore of the valley. In that part of the valley under discunsion 
there are three distinct lines of outcrop of this ore, having nearly 
an E. and W. trend. A ridge of limestone separates two of these 
lines. Theoreliwi, flomptimcsnt a great depth, below a re^itratifled 
decomposed hydromica xlate. This latter formation is almost 
identical in ap[>earnnce with the decomjjoued Primal slate in placa 

<Q«<ri. ofPeiuia., 1,87. 


^t the edges of the valley, and has therefore been mistaken for it. 
The discovery of lignite below it proves its re-stratification in a 
later age. In many places shafts have been sunk over 100 feet 
"without coming to the limestone. The ore, originally derived 
^thcr from the limestone or from the primal slates, appears to lie 
l)elow the lignitic strata. 

4. Drift Ore. Resting often unconformably upon these last, and 
<3apping the elevations throughout the valley, is a drift deposit of 
gravel and boulders containing a workable iron ore. The compo- 
tfsition of this drift is most interesting. Its boulders, almost with- 
out exception, are composed of a loose-grained Potsdam sand- 
stone, — a formation not now existing either on the North or South 
^''alley Hill at this place, and found only in a limited exposure at 
eastern end of the valley. The Scolithus linearis is frequently 
bund in these boulders. Moreover, notwithstanding the large 
xtent of Triassic red shale and sandstone immediately to the 
orth of the valley, and the occurrence of tliat rock resting often 
irectly upon the limestone, not a trace nor a fragment of Triassic 
ocks have been found in this drift. 

The evidence is here strong that this drift has not been caused 

y an^' flood from the north in a modern age. Additional evidence 

upon the same point is found in the fact that the Triassic 

gion north of here is absolutely free from drift of any kind. A 

areful study by the writer of much of that region has shown that 

ot a single drifted pebble is there found. The soil is formed 

jrom the rocks below it, and such clays as occur are bog clays of 

^>cal origin and recent age. That the pebbles of the valley drift 

ave not been derived by weathering from the neighboring lower 

riassic conglomerate, which holds often large pebbles, is shown 

y the fact that such pebbles are here formed entirely of gneiss 

r gneissic quartzite, and never of Potsdam, and therefore are 

uite different from those in the valley. 

The drift ore and gravel does not lie in hollows, as though 
^Dcally washed, but is found in patches upon the elevated portions 
f the valley, as though it were the remnant of a once continuous 

The facts above enumerated suggest a possible origin at an age 
hen cliffs of Potsdam sandstone, since eroded away, stood as a 
igh barrier between the limestone valley and the Triassic rocks 
'•^^orth of it. Such a barrier would effectually prevent Triassic 
T^gments from mixing with the drift of the valley, and would, 


(luring its degradation, offer tbc material for the ]iel>Y»les and 
boulderH of that drift. In Triassic time8 some such barrier may 


have formed the southern shore of the Triassic waters. It has 
been interesting to discover that most of the pebbles iK^longing to 
the sul)-Cretaceous plnstic cla^'s of the Delaware are formed of 
Potsdam sandstone, and that therefore during lower Cretaceous 
times also, some such mountain of Potsdam must have ottered 
itself to eroding agencies. Again, it is found that Tertiary gravels, 
both in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, contain an abundance of 
Potsdam pebbles. The hypothesis that the materials for the sulv 
Cretaceous plastic clan's and the Tertiary gravels were furnisluHl by 
hills now sunk beneath the Atlantic Ocean * is not sust:iine<l by 
what is known of the configuration of the sea-bottom. The throry 
now offered is sup|)orted by numerous facts concerning the |>ower 
of erosion, which geological considerations in other fields have 

In a former paper on "The Surface Geology of Philadelphia and 
vicinit}','' the writer showed that, in addition to the clays, four 
separate gravels of different ages can l)e distinguished in that 
region. These are (1) "The Kiver Gravel,'* the newest of all the 
gravels; (2) "The Philadelphia Ked Gravel,*' of Champlain aire; 
(3; ''The Fossiliferous Gravel/* recently proveil by the writer to 
1h» of upi>or Trrlinrv, ]H'rhaps Pliocene age, and now calkMl the 
•• (il.i^^lM.H) (Iravcl ;" (4 . "Thr IJrvii M:iwr (irav.l," tin- ol.K.«.t 
of tin- liiaNils, :iU() <MH':inic, and ronji'ct uitMl to In- of tipprr 
Mi«M'4ih' MLH'. Thi^ l:i->t j^ravrl, and {\\\> onh , a«'n'f> in it^ rhar- 
actriN with tin* valli'V diilt n<»\v nndi-r considtration. In tin* 
al>st iH»' <»r all Tria^^ic iVa^int'nt^. in tin- pn-si'inT <»!' l*t>t^dain 
1m>uM» r-, aii'l in tin* anmnnt <»!" erosion, t Iicm' two j^ra\ i-U an- id«ii- 
tical, an'l it "-i-cni^ |>rol»aMr that thr ** l>rilY ln»n Ort'"oftlir t»nr 
i^ onlv a v»T\ IVti iii;inous varii'tv (d* tin* "Mt. IJoUv ronL'lom- 
n at " »)(' t In- «'t luT. i'hi^ ln-inij: \\\v rn-^v, \\v has r lnTr a format ii »n 
w hi' S. not w iih-^tandinL^ it^ lioiihlrr^. sni:i:r^tiM' ot" float inir irr. :i|>- 
|>a: l'» Im' ohhr than an ocranic JMiocmi* L:r."iv»'l. Thm' i«<. j^i-r- 
haj'- n«» LLoo«l rra>-on whv a ;^laciir nji'jht not h-u*' ixi^tt-i in 
ii|.jM 'I'tiliMiN tinir^. iH.iiMn-^ lornn-«l h\ \\hi<'ii nia\ Ntill Ik- 
t"«»iiii"'. llf\\i\ti ihi^ nKi\ )»»', it a|»|M':ir-^ th.-it thrrc arr^-ti.-nij 
uro..; -U !'"i M". iiiiiin',: an njtjMi- TnliMix a-^f to thr «liiit oir aijij 
:jr:i\ «".«•!' I h«- NI. "nl::" -nirrN <'oiint\ \'alh'\, 

• • k 

Ki ! iiiiiiij. lih;ill\ . !<• thr li;:nilt' an«l a-^^^ociatrd >t rata, ^liow :i to 

l{l•^".lt Mil ( LiN Di'i.oNii.s ,.r N. J., ly:^, pp. 'jo.;n. 


be older than the formation just described, and shown by its own 
characters to bear no trace of glacial agencies, we may conjecture, 
without any reference to the plants of the lignite, a middle or lower 
Tertiary age. From the steep dip of the beds, — a fact difficult to ex- 
plain, — and from the great resemblance of the plastic clays to those in 
New Jersey, on the Delaware, the writer at first supposed them to 
be of Wealden age. Some facts in connection with a gravel found 
in Virginia and other Southern States, which, in both appearance 
and position is very similar to the Bryn Mawr gravel, were at first 
thought to indicate a Jurassic age. But after a comparison with 
the other lignite localities, and especially with that at Brandon, 
where the fossils were shown to be of Tertiary age, this view can 
hardly be sustained. The absence of shells or marine plants indi- 
cates a i>eriod of inland waters, and the plants at Brandon belong 
to a tropical climate. 

It is now suggested that the period of the lignite may corre- 
spond most closely with that called by European geologists the 
Oligocene. Since, in the present state of our knowledge, it is obvi- 
ousl}' unsafe to make the age of these lignite deposits contempora- 
neous with any exact geological epoch, and as there is a possibility 
of their belonging to some period not recognized elsewhere, it will 
probably be wiser for the present to group them together under 
the name of The Brandon Period, As more facts develop and 
wider comparisons can be made, more certain conclusions will l)e 
possible ; and it must be imderstood that the tlieories here proposed 
are brought forward onl}- as those which now appear best to ex- 
plain the facts observed. 

Postacript, — Since the presentation of the above paper, the writer 
has been in correspondence with Prof. N. A. Bibikov, of Augusta, 
Georgia, who has recently discovered lignite in that vicinity. The 
locality, calleil "Read's Brown Coal Mine/' is in Richmond County, 
two and a-Iialf miles from Berzelia, and sixteen miles from Au- 
gusta. It is described as lying back of the outcrops of gneiss and 
limestone, and is apparently in a very similar geological position 
to the Pennsylvania locality-. Iron ore, plastic clay, kaolin, and 
decomposed sandstone occur with the lignite. As in Pennsylvania, 
the lignite was found in a plastic clay beneath 25 feet of a decom- 
posed sandstone. Four strata of lignite, separated by layers of 
shale and cla}', were found at a depth of from 30 to 45 feet from 
the surface. A series of coarse and fine sands and clays under- 
laid these deposits and were penetrated to a depth of 95 feet. 


«dlSferenl ithnfUwcrt' «utik,lhG«xtr«mi!» belnnSUO Toct >[MTt, 

11 uf whiolt lignite WK* ruitnil. Th«' ntuin in irhicli thr falkiwliiK 

1 WW nuuU' U nltoiit 1511 ffft rrum nn nalorvp nt liunutunt 

£Bd iiiiarlEiU', niul :iOO fi'ct Truiu h ctPrk wlitcb Iim i09 i 

.-^"1.- MotUod cla J. 

I DecomiKiMid mndilona. 
Truat of iron wuidiiUma uul ipathio Inm. 


NodulM of vyriM. 
I LiBulte. 
J Rhala and ol>J. 
1 Ligiiitt!. 
j Hhala and cl>/. 

J Sliikk iukI ula)'. 


I Dark-inloTBil (bituinluuuH) kLole. 

■ ooane Nuid with noduloa of eUjr ima-stoo*. 

LlgbtrCt>\ot*A «l)»lo. 
I Tdlowinh ■aiiil. 



The second stratum of lignite is the best, and contains fragments 
of lignite sometimes three feet long. A number of fossil plants have 
been found in this and other layers. Some specimens were im- 
bedded in a layer of brown sandstone. The fossils appear to be 
firagments of trees, grasses and other land plants, none of which, 
however, were sufficiently perfect to be determined. No shells 
were found. 

The whole section at Berzelia is remarkably similar to those at 
Brandon, Chambersburg, Ironton and Marble Hall, and with them 
indicates the existence of a great inland fresh water Tertiary for- 
mation in Eastern America, during the Brandon Period, onoe 
fifty miles broad and nearly a thousand miles long. 


S9S raMBBsmas oi nn AOAinn ov [UM 

^n £ncIo»ur»in Quartz, — Mt. H. C. Lzwis Mhniltedft OTitalai 
qiuutt ftom HetUmer County, N. T., in wliidi, fc—giny frun ■ 
bubble vhioh moved in a cavity containing liquid, irM ft toft a 
minnie acicoUr crystals of a pare white oolor. A ndoroMOpiOid 
examination had foiled to idenoiy them with any knowa aabstukee, 
The crystals were similar to those of many organic saHa. It wai 
flODjectored that they had crystaltUed oat tnm tte liquid. Unda 
a power of 75 they looked like tnfta of white wo<dj and it wm 
saggested that if flitnre investigation fidled to reftr them to ■ 
known mineral apeoiee, it might be convenient to glTe them tti 
name SriliU (from Iptan, wool). 

In other cavities in the ae crystal there wm an mmorfbom 
yellowiah-brown wa:^ i noe of nnfcnown composition. 

Xenaccanite and 3 !)/n ryland. — Mr. Wk. W. Jg yiH 

remarked that in Hi rd Couniy Md., near the village of SnUln. 
there is a vein of gn lated i ale ik the serpentine, which hai 

been opened about t> lei |^h. It has fluniriied okavagt 

foliated specimens o^ Tout ztent. The same vein oMtalai 
Menaccanite in tabnlar vrystaLi, well crystallite. Yellow 'btfji 
has also been found there, showing all tluee Is the Bame apeoinMp. 

SujutoM in Labradorits. — Mr. Jirrntn stated that cm esutlft 
ing a specimen of Labradorite in Ids poesesaion, from tiie ooast ol 
Labrador, he fonnd that in addition to the<nsnal play of oolon 
(bine and green), by tnmiog it in another dlrecoiSn' it dunnd 
innumerable crystals of gjithite, making it a beantUtal nautoae. 
which, he believed, was an unusual thing, and whioh be had nsl 
found mentioned in the books. 

On a Probable Pseudomorphism of Oummite and UranotiU qfler 
Uraninile. — Dr. A. E. Poote remarked that among a number oi 
specimens of gummite and uraiiotile, that he had recently received 
from Mitchell Co., N. C, he noticed some which were of remark- 
ably regular form. The edgea were slightly rounded, bnt thej 
were apparently simple prisma belonging to the triclinic system. 
On breaking these open be found a aolid core of uraninite, sur- 
rounded by a layer of gummite, and this, in turn, surrounded by 
a layer of uranotile. Although crystals of uraninite have nevei 
been obser\'ed, he ventiiivd to suggest that this is plainly a case 
of pseudomorphism after uraninite. He hoped hereafter to obtain 
crystals whose angles can be accurately measured. 

He had observed at least twenty apecimens having evidently the 
aame crystalline form, Hnd all plainly paeudoraorpha after some 
pre-existing crystal. The majority of thoae were broken open 
allowed the alteration of uraninite into gummite, and of gummite 
into uranotile; though in a few the uraninite had been changed 
and the crystal ahowed simply gummite and urauotile. 


November 24, 1819. 
om a. tew fucoidal plahi fbok the tei&b, 
by henrv carvill lewis. 
e foesil described here aa Falmophycvs limaci/ofmis, sp. nov., 
m a very beautiful and well-dcflncd specimen, casts of whicli 
I out in relief upon a slab of Tria^sic sandstone. It was 
i bj the writer near Hilfonl, New Jereey, in upper Triassic 
I. Its general facies ia like tliat of some species of Palteo- 
us and Antrophifcun of the Carboniferous age, and of Balho- 
is of the Clinton group, and it belongs to the same order of 
B — that of the fucoid or marine alga?. The general, rather 
generic name of Paleeophycus, which is quite aa indefinite as 
[>f Fucoidee, is well applicable to it. 

e fh>nd is cylindrical and Jointed. The ramuli, or short 
ihes of the frond are fleshy, tubular, elongated bodies of about 
eh in length. They arc spindle-shaped, attenuate, and more 
or less curved at both ends. 
They are very frequently ag- 
gregated in bundles of three 
or more, radiating from ncom- 
mon point of growth, and are 
generally detached from the 
main frond. The form of 
tliese liodios is characteristic 
of tiie plant, being distinctly 
gnail-fihaped ; hence its spe- 
cific name, " limaciformii>.'^ 
At the locality where it 
was found tliere also occur 
s[)ecimens of ripplc-maiketl 
sandstone, also of i-ain-prinls 
and mud-crack:s. Tliese show 
the physical conditions imder 
which the plant grew — that 
of mudflats in shallow water 
frequently left ex[>08etl to 
sun and rain. The rain-prints 
have been compared with 

N>t. SIM. 
lykircM Umaei/ormli L«wl>, iiii. i 


paik-skhisus or rut ACA^EHT (tr 

[I MO. 

ruodf-m rftinprint« made id mail, an'] tb<-trgivftt •ImiUrit.v nutlvoiL 
Ohv ttpticimm of a (\icoid Toiui'l hero has apparently Vrn >a cud- 
f)iMd nnd distort^ by the t>catin)T of a heavy nilHitanii UuU it* 
structure can 8par«-Iy !«; recoffuiieil. 

Fuooids of soiiii-'WliaL similar appc&nuicp have bovo dosorilMd 
Oom moiY oucient gi-olo^lcitl huriEoiid, but not, bo fiir u tut im 
leanuKl, IVum Uie Triiui. Thu occurrence uf a |Jant which has the 
('hunu.'t<'n> of luiiriiiv aigm in a rormntioii MuppoM-d lu hare been 
dcpoMttcd by rrciih water in iutrn-Kllng. 

/Vii(»rr</^.— Sitiuc tlii? above paper wa* pnitcnt«il, a itbutograph 
of thiB foHsil has bevii Dent to Mr. Ll-o LitKqaeniux, tliv diwlin- 
gui§hcd paleobotaniHt, who, in a letter to thts writvr, Nayii: " Vitar 
plalo rvpruBcnla wliat I uonsldcr a new Hpecl<!8 of htltufAjfi-MM, 
whuav aiialo^ty La with P. (upcck-s uudot«nninvd ) Hall, Palmint. 
of N. v., vol. i, VI. 70 (Uudaou Klvcr K^up); alMi diatanU; 
rvlutoil to Fuconifm auriformi* and eaiieolally F. hrtrro/Ayllti; 
muiif niitbar, I. c, ii, i'l. 3, figx. V, 4. You may aluw Biu) a kind 
of analogy to what Hall cunwidcra and llgurra a> nxila or aUo aa 
»tam« of Bomo Dtarine plantn, ^hrk- vol., 1*1. 8, 6g». 4, fi, ami pi. 9, 
tig. 4, and also pt- 10, llge. 5, T (all Clinton planta). The type ia 
cridenlly old, rather Uevuniau. even upper Silurian. Koropesti 
authora hare nothing like thta from lh« Trias, Junaalo, CretaoeoiM^^ 
or KoceDB." ^S 


The Northern Belt of Serpentine in Radnor Township. — Mr. 
Band made the following communicatioD. 

Sometime ago, in a communication to the Academ3%(Proc. Ac. 
N. S., 1878, 402) I described a belt of serpentine in the valley of 
the Gulf Creek, Radnor Township, Delaware Co., Pa. Recently a 
trench for water pipe on the property of Judge Hare has enabled 
me to procure specimens illustrating a section across the bed and 
on both sides of it, which are presented herewith. The section is 
on a line nearly N 75° W. The belt is probably not far from N. 
70*^-73° E., or about two-thirds that of the section, but this is not 
certain. While deductions from these few specimens would not 
be safe, yet the strong resemblance between the decomposed 
gneiss of the easternmost exposure and the clearly magnesian 
rocks 40 feet distant, points more to an alteration in place than to 
a distinct bed. 

Garnet mistaken for Corundum. — Dr. J. M. Cardeza called 
attention to a garnet rock at Chelsea, Delaware Co., Pa., which is 
quarried and used as corundum. 




In tlie coursjc of an investigation of the Surface Geologj* of 
Southcasti»rn Pennsylvania, some facti) have been clevelo|>tMl in 
connection with one of the gravels, which, liearing directly u|M>n 
the Antiquity of Man in America, become of great inU»rej*t. 
Among tlie man}' scientitic problems now attracting attenti<»n, 
none i)erhaps holds a more prominent position than that of the 
Anti<[uity of Man. It is a subject which , notwithstanding the 
numerous facts gathered and the bulk of literature publishtnl, must 
be regarded as still in an undecided condition. 

As the Delaware is in many respects a typical river, and as 
therefore deductions made here will hold goo<l for the valleya of 
many other rivers of the Atlantic coast, it is thought that a nn'ord 
of the investigation will be of more than mere local interest. The 
subject will be approached from a purely geological st^nd|K>iut. 
The main dilHculty in inquiries of this kind has been the al»sence 
of exact geological data. Hasty conclusions have l>een <lniwn 
from an inspection of relics found in a gravel, which a more 
accurate knowledge of the age of that gravel would not liavt* 

Th*' uritrr ha^ >Iio\mi in former jini-erN ' that IIm* LTiavrK «»t'tli» 
l>('lauan' Nallrs KehMiLT to >-r\cral <li*«tiii(t aL:r> ; an<l if t In ii't'i.rt- 
at aiis |tl:n-(' tlie remains ot' man are slioun to o<-cur. it will \ • :ili 
imjjortant to kn<»>\ to whieli of the^e irraveis \]\v\ >lioii|ii In 

The >-mr: ee I'ormation*^ of Soiit hea^t*'rn Penn^^vlvania mM\ U- 
<ii\i»h<l intotive elav> an<l tour i^iaveN. The loliowinL: i^ li!i»\ t«| 
to Im- tlie >Huree>^>ion in whieh they oernr. K'l^innini: at th*- 
<»hh-^t ; ill .Iina^so-( 'ret:ueon> plastic elav ; (-) Tertiarx e]:i\^. 
(*• Uraii'loii INrio.l"): ;; llr\ n Mawr uraxel, ( nj»|»er Tertiar\ : 4 
Jiranclit.iNN n «ia\ ; '> ( ila*^'»l>n|-o Liravel. ( l*lio<'rne ; ( r, rinl;i. 
• lelpliia it<l LiraNel. rimmplain ; (7 IMiilailelphiii hrirk • li \ . 
( 'hani|M;iin : ' ^ i Treiilon Mi;,vel. ** M>-kimo perio*! *" ; !• i K. . . i,: 
;tjlii\iiuii. < M" ri:i\«».the ohle^t i--tiie .1 nra>>o-< 'ret ae« on> pi >-:i. 
elux «\|>..^. .1 :,f Turkex Hill, IJiirk^ Co A similar j>Ia-t ;« « !:» \ . 

" rii«- >;iira(r <ieol.>-4\ i.f IMiila. and \icinit%." Pio*-. Mm. aiui li.itl 
>v. tion. Nat. ><-. IMiila., Nov, 1*^7^, 


which, however, may be of later age, has l>cen passed through by 
artesian wells in the southern part of Philadelphia. The next 
oldest clay appears to be the potters' clay of the Montgomery Co. 
limestone valley, which, containing sometimes lignite, and overlaid 
by kaolin, decomposed hydromica slate, etc., belongs with its asso- 
ciated limonite ores, to an inland Tertiary formation, the '' Bran- 
don Period,'' possibly of Oligocene age.^ A third clay, the 
" Branchtown clay," found at high elevations in a few places in 
the gneissic region, containing occasional boulders, was made at a 
period of general submergence and appears to be of a late Tertiary 
age. The "Philadelphia brick-clay" of more recent formation, 
of large extent, and with numerous boulders, is confined to the 
river valley. This clay, deposited at the close of the Glacial period 
by the waters resulting from the melting of the great Northern 
Glacier, rests against the rocky " upland terrace " at a height of 
about 150 feet above the present river. The fifth and newest 
clay is the recent bog clay or mud in the flood-plain of the 
river, still in process of formation. 

The gravels are distinguished from one another both by their 
composition and by their relative h3T)sometrical positions. The 
" Bryn Mawr gravel " — ^the oldest gravel of consequence in this 
region — ^is readily distinguished from others by the peculiar mate- 
rials composing it, and is also known by being found at high 
elevations (400 feet), in often isolated patches, capping the gneissic 
hillB. It is characterized by absence of fossiliferous or Triassic 
pebbles and by the presence of an iron conglomerate, and is of 
oceanic origin, and probably upper Tertiary age.* A similar gravel 
occurs on the heights of Georgetown, D. C. The next oldest 
gravel, also oceanic, and which here occurs at lower elevations 
than the last, the writer called in a former paper " The Fossilifer- 
ous Gravel." It frequently contains pebbles formed of Niagara 
limestone and other fossiliferous rocks, and has been found abun- 
dantly in New Jersey as well as in Pennsylvania. It is well 
exposed in the railroad cut at Ridley Park, Del. Co. It is the 
yellow gravel which caps the watershed between the Atlantic 
and the Delaware at a height of nearly 200 feet, and is now named 
for distinction " The Glassboro gravel." Its pebbles are frequently 

» V. "The Iron Ores and Lignite of the Montgomery Co. Valley," by 
the writer. Oct., 1879. 

*F. "On the Bryn Mawr Gravel," by the writer, Mar., 1879. 



weather-worn and eaten by age, and have thus a much more anci 
appearance than the smooth, fresh-looking pebbles of later grave? 
It contains no boulders of consequence and is believed to be 
Pliocene age. 

Lying at a lower level, within the Qlassboro gravel, and form^ 
of a mixture of its pebbles with others brought down the De 
ware valley, is a third gravel — ^the " Philadelphia red gravels 
This, like its overlying brick-clay , is confined to the river vallej^-^ 
It is distinctly stratified; it contains numerous fragments 
Triassic red shale and of gneiss, and smooth boulders of SiluriaJ^^ 
rocks ; it shows flow and plunge structure and wave action on ^^ 
large scale ; and like the older gravels, it rests upon a decomposed 
gneiss, which is sometimes interstratified with its lower layers « 
There are numerous exposures near the University of Pennsyl— 
vania. The writer has identified it on the Potomac and other* 
rivers, and it appears to belong to the age of the melting glacier — 
the Champlain epoch. 

The last and newest of all the gravels is one which, at Philadel- 
phia, seemed to be of little importance. It lies close alon^ 
the river, and rising a few feet above it, extends but a short dis- 
tance back from the river bank. It covers the flat ground o^* 
Camden and the lower part of Philadelphia, and forms islands in. 
the river. It was called The River gravel and sand. It is thi» 
alluvial gravel, the latest, except the recent mud-flats, of all the 
surface formations, which is the subject of the present paper, and 
which, from its great development farther up the river, is now 
named The Trenton Gravel. It is in this gravel, and in this 
gravel only, that traces of man have been found. 

The Trenton Gravel at Philadelphia is composed principally or 
a sharp micaceous sand, which, when below water-level, becomes 
a " quicksand." Gravel lies below the sand. Unlike all the other 
ii:ravels, it contains but few pebbles of white quartz, and is of a 
(lark gray color. Its pebbles are made exclusively of the rocks 
forming the upper valley of the river. Their shape is also ver}' 
cliaractoristic. The peb))les of the older gravels are oval or egg- 
shaped, but these are for the most part flat. This flat shape is 
characteristic of all true river gravels. At several places along 
the Delaware, gold has been obtained from this gravel. The 
absence of clay in anj^ of its layers iudicates the action of swiftly- 
running water. Data Obtained from artesian wells have shown 


t^hat this formation has a depth on Delaware Avenue, Philadelphia, 
^^f about 50 feet, and that it extends up to about Third and Market 
Streets. On Smith's Island and on the bar in the river opposite 
hooper's Point, it is 100 feet deep, lying upon rock. It therefore 
rtnderlies the river, filling up its ancient channeL On Richmond 
Street soipe very large boulders are seen Ij^ng upon the sand. 

On tracing the Trenton gravel up the river, it is found to be 

^^onfined to its immediate vicinity, and that, from Philadelphia to 

titie Neshaminy Creek, its boundary is generally between the line 

4^f the Pennsylvania Railroad and the Delaware. From this point 

tJ^^ bounding terrace trends directly towards Morrisville and 

^i^^^ay from the present river. Thus, at Bristol, the gravel and its 

overlying sand extends two miles back from the river, and is 

l>ounded by a well-marked hill, upon which lie the older gravel 

and brick-clay of Champlain age. These and the Tertiary gravels 

extend nearly seven miles inland. At TuUytown the Trenton 

gravel extends two and a-half miles back, and at the canal shows 

the following succession of strata : (1) sandy loam, 1 foot ; (2) fine 

gray "moulding-sand," 2^ feet; (3) sharp *'bar sand,'' 1 foot; (4) 

clean gray river gravel of unknown depth. In other openings 

near here the gravel is so full of boulders that these are dug in 

l^rge quantities and sent to Philadelphia for ''cobble-stones." 

^ear Wheatsheaf Station, close to the railroad, an opening which 

^^^^ exposed a section of the Trenton gravel nearly half a mile in 

lengrth. exhibits well the general features of the formation. The 

Pebbles, of characteristic shape and color, are made of gray Triassic 

^^gillite, slate, red shale, sandstone, conglomerate, and various 

other rocks found farther up the valley, while large and often 

^^a.rp boulders of red shale and other materials frequently occur. 

Tlxe whole formation has a very fresh appearance when compared 

^''^th older gravels. Near Turkey Hill a large smooth boulder, 

^"^^ feet in diameter, lies upon the sand. 

At Morrisville the narrower portion of the valley begins, and 
^^'om here up, the river flows on a rocky bottom, and the gravel is 
^^allow and is confined to the immediate vicinity of the rivea*. 
^"^be older gravels of oceanic origin continue across New Jersey 
^^^d do not appear above Yardleyville. The Philadelphia red 
K^avel is no more seen, but the brick cla^^ with its boulders occa- 
sionally appears part way up the steep hills enclosing the valley, 
^^d is abundant in the side valleys formed by tributary streams. 

SOO nocmmiiQs or thb AOiDnnr ov [ItN. 

AboTe Yaidleyrille, theiefixre, we IwTe to deal wMi but mo ew* 
flioe fonnalloiiei— the boolder-beturing brick day, oftea anA 
eroded, and tbe Trentoi gravel, eoniliied to the bottoat of At 
valley and ahowfng but Utile eroein. It wOl be wril to bear li 
mind the diettnetioii between theae two fimnatioiia,— the oa» of 
glacial, the other of poatf^ial age. The writer haa traced tiMHB 
aa Ikr np aa the Water Gap, past the great temiaal moraiae iaia 
glaciated regiona. It la interesting to note that while the ModHel 
moraine material doee to the river at BdvUeie ta In aoBM polali 
simitar to the Trenton gravd, and ia the aonroe irf part of dmt flaw 
mation, tbe moraine on the Lddgh Blver at StemUm aad at elker 
inland localitiea contains pebMea and bonldera very aiadlar ta 
thoae of the Philadelpbta brklMlay. 

Thronghont tbe whole comae of the TrealOB gravel it iaobaat'isi 
that it Ilea witl|bi a channel preWooi^y eseavated 4.owa to As 
rock through the bonldertearing bviek day and Ita red gnmi, 
which, as shown in a former paper, bdong to tbe Champlaia 
The Trenton gravd is therefbre, later than the Oladal aad 
plain epocha ; and tUa Is a Ikct whldi, when coaaideied ta 
tion with the homan rdica fbond in thiagravdand Ae 
antiquity of man, it wID be most Important to rsaiember. 

Having now doetdied tbe character aad poaMoa of the 
gravel along the Delaware valley, we are prefiared to examine tiie 
formation as exposed at the locality whose name we have chosen 
to distinguish it. 

Trenton is in a position where naturally the largent amoantof a 
river gravel would be deposited, and where itn K^st exposarei^ 
would be exhibited. It is at the point where a long, narrow valley 
with precipitous banks and continuous downward slope, opens out 
into a wide alluvial plain at a lower level. It is here that tht* 
rocky floor of the river suddenly descends to ocean level and even 
sinks l)elow it, forming the limit of tidewater. Thus any drift 
material which the floodcnl river swept down its channel would 
here, upon meeting tidewater, ho in great part d«»ix)Hite<l. Larp* 
lH>ulder8 which had been rolled down the inclin«Mi floor of thr 
upper valley would here stop in their course, and all Ih» heape<l np 
with the coarser gravel by the more slowly flowing water except 
auch few as cakes of floating ice could carrv o<'eanwanl. On the 
other hand the finer gravel and i^and would Ih' de|><»sit4N) farther 
down the river. 



This is precisely what occurs at Trenton. The material, which 

at; Philadelphia is generally' fine, grows coarser as the river is 

asoended, until at Trenton we find often immense boulders im- 

l>e<ided at all angles in the gravel. Moreover, the river has here 

cut entirely through the gravel down to the rock, exposing at 

one place a cliff of gravel 50 feet high. At Philadelphia, on the 

ol;l:ier hand, as we have seen, the river still flows on the top of the 

gravel. This fact may also be accounted for. Having heaped up a 

moss of detritus in the old river channel as an obstruction 

at the mouth of the gorge, the river, so soon as its volume dimin- 

islied, would immediately begin wearing away a new channel for 

itself down to ocean level. This would be readily accomplished 

tlirough the loose material, and would be stopped only when 

rook was reached. On the other hand, that gravel wliich had 

l^een deposited at places farther down the river where its bottom 

^'^'as below ocean level, would remain un-eroded or nearly so. When 

tbo river had attained the level of the ocean there would be no 

occasion to cut a deep channel, and it would therefore flow on top 

*^^ the gravel which it had deposited. It is necessary that this 

point should be understood, as other geologists have brought for- 

'^''a.rd various theories to explain the high bank of gravel at Tren- 

^^^i^- The fact of the river having cut through the gravel at 

-*^'*eiiton, while at Philadelphia it flows upon it, is due to the con- 

■^Suration of the rock floor of the river, which at Trenton rises 

^•^^ove ocean level, and at Philadelphia lies nearly 100 feet below it. 

In addition to the exposure upon the river bank, where the 

^'^ole depth of the formation is seen, the long railroad cuts 

**^cie by the Pennsylvania R. R. at Trenton, afford excellent 

^^<5tions of the gravel. It exhibits the distinctive characteristics 

^^ «t true river deposit, and is very different from the gravels which 

^^^ found at higher levels. It contains no clay ; its pebbles are 

**^^<ie of the rocks of the river bed and are flattened, and the strati- 

**<5ation of the whole deposit is well seen in the alternations of 

^^i^d and gravel. It extends several miles back from the present 

y^'^'er, covering the low ground along the Assunpink Creek, and 

*^dicating the existence here of a former bay or arm of the Dela- 

^"^^e. This bay was shaped somewhat like a horseshoe, which had 

^^e extremity in Trenton at the hill above the canal, and which 

^'"^sbed the base of the hill north of the Assunpink Creek, and, 

^^tending about three miles back from Trenton, and sweeping 


-L. .. 


PROcCKtiiNos or TUB ACAnBMT or 


aroiiD<i the " Bear Swrnn])," hiul !u otliur rxtroiDlly near 
house of Dr. C. C. AWwtt, Mow Chainb«?ri.biir(E. Tlii« vilLmfl 
nmlor wattr. Another hav pxti-ndcd up tbo valliry of Cro«»«riel 
Crn^k. Uouldere of Champlain a^^ lie u|Kiii tb« Tertiary |cr«i 
which form the an«ient Itatik. 

From the extent of the TrenUm gnvel in tliia ricUiiiy. »ui#— ™ 
ments have been pitbltMlKHl tliat it c<>vrre<l tb(t whole «ouibem j»tW^ 
of the i^tntt', nml that itt thp time of itn (tepomtion the DeUnn^i^ 
River emptied into the ooean at Trenton. It in Fvlilfrat th»t Um^v 
distinction between the very different gravels of this n-|^nn li*«*'" 
not beeD perceived. Careful exaiuiuation will abow this Knwt «lt»- ■* 
sitnilarity Iwlween the Trenton gravel and auch fcravela aa (iceiir-« 
at Prinirelon Junction and interior New J«ner, which an- in «> 
great part of Pliocene agp, and will prove that li fa oomflned hi ^ 
the ancient river bed. 

The prc«cnoe of very large boulden on the river l«nk at Twa- — ■ 
ton has led some geolotiieta to suppose tliat the fonnatkin ws* ■ ^ 
gUoial moraine. The occasional thoDi^h very rare example* oT"^ 
flcral^ihed pehbtea and |x>lUhe<l )K>uIderM, which the flood bad evi- 
dently cnrrieil down from the moraine matt-rial north of BelrideR. 
have been brought forward iw aupporting Ihi* theory. Vel the 
absence of till and of angular ma«i«e(i of rock, and gwnrislly of 
materials foreign to the Ilclawaro Valley, when rccTiled in c<in- 
ncction with what we have shown to be the general characters of 
the formation, can not be explained upon this theory. The ebar-. 
acter of the river banks along the valley render the preaence of a 
glacier at Trenton extremely improbable. Theae show no narln 
of glacial action. We have, moreover, already shown that 
the Trenton gravel is more recent than the deposits of Chaia- 
plain age, and that, lying In a channel cut within them, H is 
the most recent of all the gravels. Clearly the Delaware Taller 
and tlie channel of the river were exGavat«d in a time prvvloas to 
the deposition of the Trenton gravel. The channel subsequently 
having been filled up by thlft gravel, the diminished river still 
later has cut a new channel either completely through it, as at 
Trenton, or partially, as at Philadelphia. It is probable that 
slight iiuilulationa of the level of the coast have aided in producing 
thetie clmngea. 

Before describing the human reiios found in the Trenton gnvel. 
there are cevend facts ht^'aring ui>on its origin and age which it 
will be well to coniiider. 



has been noticed that from Trenton to Philadelphia the creeks 
ing into the river Delaware have a steep south bank, while the 
md north of the creek is flat. The writer finds that the flat 
ind north of the creek is made of Trenton gravel, while the 
hem bank is made of older formations which have been for- 
j cut away by water action coming from the north. Thus, 
steep south bank of the Neshaminy is made of " Philadelphia 
gravel " of Champlain age, while a flat plain of Trenton gravel 
south of the creek. The same configuration of the banks of 
ks on the New Jersey shore has been noticed by Prof. Cook, 
issuming that the river at the time of the deposition of this 
el was of larger volume than now, this fact is of ready explana- 
The southern bank of the creek, often of Cretaceous or 
;iary strata, in each case formed the shore of the ancient river, 
was worn away into a steep bank by the flood from the north, 
liar in cause and effect are the present banks of the Delaware, 
ih are steep on the outside of each curve of the river, and flat 
covered with recent alluvium on the inside. 
QOther fact showing river action is the frequent occurrence of 
mures of '* flow and plunge structure '' in this gravel. In these 
layers are seen to dip up stream, as would be expected by 
award flowing water. It is interesting to find, on the other 
I, that the same structure in the Tertiary gravels, both of 
isylvania and New Jersey, shows layers dipping southeast, as 
gh deposited by incoming oceanic tides. 
ttother instance of the fluviatile character of the Trenton gravel 
und in the peculiar topography which it sometimes exhibits. 
[uently , instead of forming a flat plain, it forms higher ground 
J to the present river channel than it does near its ancient 
:. Moreover, not only does the ground thus slope downward 
^treating from the river, but the boulders become smaller and 
abundant. Both of these facts are in accordance with the 
of river deposits. In a time of flood the rapidly flowing 
r in the main channel, bearing detritus, is checked by the more 
i waters at the side of the river, and is forced to deposit its 
el and boulders as a kind of bank. 

determining the comparative age of the Trenton gravel , a guide 
be found in the amount of its erosion. In this respect a 
ced contrast exists between this and more ancient gravels. 
ke the land covered by older surface formations, that covered 



HVt pRflccK&ixos ur ml ACADBMT or IftMip 

hy Utv Tri'tilon gnirvl !• nnwriaibl}- lovrl ami Tn* Trnta billwlr* 
or rnrlticN. Thv cbangp in tu|>0)nv[>lir ai»y be «i-U m>ru in Ih*- 
nrighlfottiotKl tir Tmitiifl, uiil nui Iw Dci(iM>il alutnM nny*<bpr« 
atnng tin- tuIIav- Ttu^ fact nli)(i« wtiald iudli-ate m munt n><;Mit 
tti:r tluin that or Uie cUvs util )tmvi^lii of tli« Cliain()Uio nfocb. 
Tlilfl tllfr«!renM> Ib mueb lacire iDarked wtivn rnin|nirii)(Mi U mad*- 
wlUi thn iMtmnle grnveju. 

T1h-> wtttiKl time n«r«iMrj for the Li«Uiniiv to cut down I 
nwk tJirotigh £0 ftft of tliia f{nrel at Trcnloit {■ bv no n 
grtmU Niimvroiu fitcla lisrv been addun>d by pK>lof[{««l writer* 
nnd bv eaffinftm to sliow bow rapidly n Mnmn of WHtvr v*a w«ar 
Ihrongh toofe i^niirvl nutcrinl. Wlien it U ni>ti<fl tlut tite gravrl 
clifTnt Trrntoii hft» bcm msde, not lijr a iitmlglit difwnw»nl rat, 
lull }t} a iild<- ttMiring >««t na at n bnnk.and wlwn it u miwiw 
In-ml lltnL tbr rrcx^lrr (Mtncr of tht> [)cliiwnn> was fcirmrrly ray 
iiiiii'h grralt^r tlian It in uow, it will be noiK-ndi-d thnt ibe |in 
nflbc clilTat TrttDlou wilt not ui-cMniirll)- iiifi-rlU blifh autitiait 
from wliat la liniiMru iif Ute nctlou of rutmlD^ water ufxin gran 
It bt tbtm^ht thnt the timn DtM.-(!HKarv to prmluo- 
"ItH'rvi'd roiglit Iw rwkoncd by hiindniHl* rntlinr tlmn by tbou- 
Nand^ of yrars. WlilU* thf {rrDvttI waa of rourw formed In a 
|*n'vluuN liiD<>, tile ra|>ld octioa of tbo Hood whiob drposifd tt^v 
■hown In inaTiy pin'''*" hy th.- '-lir^rn.'t.T nf 1]\f [irnv.-I. iivll-nlMT 
that the time nweaaary for its de|iosition need not have been long. 

Having now shown that the Trenton grovel is a true river 
de[>oitit of modem age, it will be of interest to inqnire how aiich a 
flootl IIS we have proved to exist could hare originated. No flood 
within the historicnt e)H>cl) has tn-on known to at all approarh in 
magiiittide that whieh deposited the Trenton gravel. No bouldera 
of the size found In and ui>on that gravel are ever carried down 
tlie river by R-eent ice-cakes. In fact, at Trenton and below, the 
lioiildiTH of thiit grovel are ollon much larger than any in the 
Cbanipliiin gravel uf that jmrt of the valley. 

We have win that at the time of the Trenton gravel (lomi, the 
l.iwir pnrt of Pliiladelphia, the whole of Bristol and Tnilytown. and 
almost alt of Trenton suliinerKed. That the rlimate waa then 
i-iiM iwintiii-ftte*! not only by the suggest ion that (here were then proli- 
aMy very l.irgi- nuisses of Ixiulder-liearing ice floating in the nver. 
I.iu nlsu l.y the fact that, as the writer is infi>rme<l bv Pr. ('. C 
.\M"itt. Uines of -\rctic animals (walrus, reindeer, mastodon). 


often rounded by attrition, have been found in this gravel. 
Although the Trenton gravel has none of the features of a moraine, 
it is true that the cliff at the base of Riverview Cemetery, holding' 
immense boulders, has the appearance of having been deposited 
by glacial waters. At other places, the boulders resting upon the 
sand overlying the gravel suggests the grounding of large ice- 
cakes derived from some mass of ice large enough to be called a 

It is difficult to imagine an origin for such a flood as we have 
described other than the melting of a glacier. We have shown 
that the flood was not an inroad from the sea, but that it 
came down the valley. No rain-storms of modern experience 
could have supplied such an amount of water. To call the time 
of this flood a " Pluvial Epoch," will be of little assistance, since 
IK) origin for such extraordinary rains is suggested, except under 
a very difl*erent climate, or by evaporation from a melting glacier. 
Yet such a glacier cannot be the great glacier of the Glai;ial epoch. 
That was the glacier which in its melting deposited the brick-cla}' 
and red gravel which we have shown to be much older than the 
Trenton gravel. It must have been, if a glacier at all, another 
and more recent one whose melting caused the flood which formed 
this gravel. This last glacial flood flowed in a channel excavated 
through the deposits of the first glacial period. 

It appears, then, that there is evidence of a Second Glacial 
Period — a period in which was deposited the last of the gravels, 
and which has but lately passed away. From the limited extent 
of its deposits it is inferred that the second glacier was much 
smaller than the first, and that its southern extremity was con- 
fined to the valley. A second glacial period is recognized in 
Europe under the name of the Reindeer Period. 

It is thought that the hypothesis of a second and more local 
jjlacier, long subsequent in age to the first great glacier, will 
explain all the facts observed. The Trenton gravel cannot be 
assigned to the first glacial period except by assuming that there 
have been no river gravels deposited since that time ; — an assump- 
tion which can hardly be maintained. Some European archic- 
ologists have held that the Palseolithic Era^ the era of the river 
gravels, is antecedent to the Reindeer Period^ the period of tlic 
cave-men. No such distinction has been observed on the Delaware. 
Should future researches show that a separate and second glacial 

epocli cannnt U: provwl in America, the fi»M« hen obwsrveil will 
iD(licat« a much more ruccnt ilatv for the dtHppaiimiiro of the 
ifrvat glacier than 1in>> been as4igned to it. Tho period of tbr 
Trwnton (jravel flood, whether oontemporaneoiu with a |[laoi«r an 
not , in the period of the last geoloj^cal dejKialtA here known ; tbf 
n.'fTrnt mud-flalH being nUtait. excepted. 

We have now ginnceil at tha? churact«rti of llie Tnnitun gmvvl, 
and have inOicatf'd, no far nt> the Ihcln nt baiid allow, ila poallioa. 
origin, and relative agp. 

It U in this gravel that the writer's fViend, Dr. Cbarlc* 
C. AblMtt, of Trenton, baa made the inteTeatinn discovery of stiinr 
tmpletnents of humna workmnuahtp, whieh, in tlitir ahafie lud 
cltaraotera,are<iniU^(n)likcthoiieoftlieRed Indiana of the AtJantir 
coast.' He liajt found them imbedded at vanoua ileptli* lu the h^ 
parcntly tmdiiitarbcd gravel of the cliff at lUverview C«niet«ry 
and in other places near Trenton. Thoy arc of paliroliihic type. 
and dill^r nrom Indian stone implementa by being largvr, rader. 
and made fh>m a dltferent material. They are composed of i^tay 
argillitc, a rock whi<-h in found in place farther up ihc river, 
and which in a Triasaic ahalt- allvrr^I and hnnlfiuil hy tli« b<iil 
fh>m Acyacent trap dykw. Tliifv <«cur in imnitionn which rcmltr 
It cstrpmely prt>baMc that they t<elong to tbv aamu age a« that of 
Ilic rl.'j.(ihitii.iTi if the i^nvcl, fir ;»t k'n»l to an ajje wlirn it wan 
overflowed by the flooded river. There are two points which 
offer strong evidence in that direction. 

The first is the fact that modem Indian implements, "neolitha," 
are never found associated with these " palawliths " In the graveL 
Although abundant on the surface, it is stated that they never 
occur at a depth of more than a few inches in undisturbed soil, 
while the paleoliths are found oft«n ten or more feet fh>m the sur- 
face. This fact alone argues a different age for the two classes of 

The second fact is that when found below the surface of the 
ground, these pnlieolithH always occur in the Trenton gravel and 
never in older gravels. The writer, in company with I>r. Abbott, 
has gone over much of the ground where the implements ix'currwl : 
and it was very interesting to find that it wbh only within the 
limitu of the Trenton gravel, previously traced out by the writer. 

' V. Tenth and Eleventii Annual lUport* of the Pealioiljr Mnteum of 
American Archeology. 


that Dr. Abbott had found implements below the surface. Beyond , 
the terrace of older gravels the palseoliths sometimes occur with 
Implements of the modern type, but are not imbedded at any 
depth. In Pennsylvania, moreover, the writer has found similar 
palseoliths in the region covered by the Trenton gravel and in that 
region only. Here, then, is the strongest probability, even if the 
implements were found upon the surface only, that they belonged 
to and were of coeval deposition with the river gravel. 

The implements of argillite found at the lowest depth in undis- 
turbed gravel have been generally decided by archaeologists to be 
of human origin. It is, however, true that there are many sharp 
fragments of this rock in the Trenton gravel which are of natural 
origin, and that pebbles and partially rounded fragments of the 
same rock are frequent. The writer has found several fragments 
of ai^lite in the gravel exposed at the cut near Wheatsheaf 
Station, Bucks Co., Pa., which, whether they were artificial or 
natural, it was impossible to determine. 

All the evidence that has been gathered points to the conclu- 
sion that at the time of the Trenton gravel flood, man in a rude 
state lived upon the banks of the ancient Delaware. He may have 
heen in the habit of spearing fish and seals with spears pointed by 
his rough stone implements, and these having been dropped into 
the flood may have sunk into the loose and shifting gravel. The 
weathering upon the implements is so slight as to afford no evi- 
dence of their high antiquity. Many of the palfeoliths found in 
the river gravels of Europe, are of very similar type. As a rule, 
probably the implements of the Trenton gravel are somewhat more 
rude. The writer Is informed that even more primitive forms are 
now in constant use among some of our Western Indian tribes. 

It is interesting to flnd, as pointed out by archaeologists, that 
until lately the Eskimos have used stone implements quite as rude 
and similar in appearance to those found in the Trenton and other 
river gravels, and it has been suggested that that race, now living 
in a climate and under conditions perhaps similar to those once 
existing on the Delaware, may have some kinship with the pre- 
Indian people of this river. It may be that an Eskimo race, living 
here at the time of the flooded Delaware, were driven north by 
the ooming of the Red Indians. If future archaeological work 
shows this surmise to be correct, the writer suggests that the 
period of the Trenton gravel and of this palaeolithic people, — a period 

ntiKO» Off rai Ai-ADUfT or [IHfW. 

(vrflMpa (bliinring • •eoutHi glBcinl ttgv,— mi|tht ■pimipriattfly br 
uUImI Tht Etkimo Prrhd, TUIh DuniD.iliirivei] fh>iu«li)](lM:r(inlcr 
of IwiDjp tluu tint wfalcb (tare Uie duui; Rein^err Periail, U tnucL 
Biuie *mpprlivB Kud b ])r(i)«lilj' of AiUv ku wiije BppUiailidU &• 
Uw Utt«r luune. A It-nti slrvailjr In um>, tbo I'Ulm.'JiUUc Era, i* 

It luu bct-n kijd ttuu ttir oecumocp of pabpolitha at Trvnton 
i>ir<'n.>l cvidinHV of n vvrj bigli aDIJquIty of mail in Aiucrlva, and. 
IIm) (travel bvltifl coiisi'loml aa a glacial roorainv, that man'itexiM- 
cnco waa carrktl back lo Lntcrglncial aiid ci iii iin-gUvial timra. ' 
A* in> liave Hevn, ibe tteoldtpcal (nvi-aligatioiw atutig tbr iKrlaoan 
Valley, ilo*cril<eil lu ttiU ))«)h.t, tlinm )|niu.- a wm light upon this 
Miili^rvL TWy ahow tliBl tJiu iDiplrniuoI'lMiariiig gnwl is ot^KU 
glauJMl age, awl U a rivi-r ilapcisit or ouiD|anitiTL>ly ruMUt forma- 
tion I aiMl UmL neitliiT iii thi- ^niivcla cif thu Cbuni>lalu ityorh not In 
ilvjMHiito tif ally iirevluuH a^e tiavi! luiy imrea nf nuui br«u 
illwnvoml. Tlip i-vitl(^Di.-e a|i[ieari to lu'limtv the origin of 
iiuiu al a tliue nbluU, ^)ii)gluiklly L-uiiiii(L>rv>] at ln>t, i« rroent. 

Tbr B4:tual a^e of tlu- TreHU>o grarr.l, aiid tlio con»o(iiuint date to 
wbinh Div aiit)'|ully ni tuao on Uiv Drlnwarc should \» asn^v\. \* 
a (|Uc«ttuii wbivb gvological tlnta hIodc an.' iiisuiUclent to «o1v<-. 
Tbi> only cliu>. aad iltat a most niiMatis&icLory one, U atTord^d by 
.v.lnj|rill..ii- U.-.d ,i|,„ii tWi>m..ntil of <ti.»u>ii. Tt.U, likr alt (k-.I 
logical con HI derations, ib relative ratber than absolute. Tlie aamr 
reasoning that showed that the modern river channel might havr 
lieeu excavated in hundreiln rather than thousands of years, will 
iiKlicate that no great length of time ih necessarj' to pro<luce all 
the Hurfiice features of the Trenton gravel. While the writer may 
venture to cxprt^sa the opinion that there is no reason geologically 
for carrying the age of this gravel and the antiquity of man on th«- 
Helaware farther back than a very few thousand years at the moot, 
he is fully aware that any close a]>proximation can safely be 
arrivi-^l iit only by extended comparison with other river gravels and 
by II much mon- complete scries of olncrvation^ than have yet 
ii-eii possible. Ethnological cou side rat ions, which make paliro- 
lithii' man ti> luitcdate the oldest races of the mound-builders, will 
li;iie ;i Uurilig mMm this ijucstion. Meteorologists luay show thai 

' ll willberemenilKTcdtliat SirCh.-irlcBLyeH, hi hi« Princij.leKiof IJeol- 
"fty- 'lih Kii., vol. 1, ji. 'i'*6, conjocturvs the period of the great glucier l*> 
have l>ccu about '.*00,<HX) year* ago. 


a cold climate and a period of a flood far larger than any of late ex- 
perience may require a long lapse of time. These considerations 
are not within the scope of this paper. It has been the aim of the 
writer to deflne the antiquity of man in relation to geological rather 
than to historical events. If, in showing that the Eskimo period is 
the last of the geological ages, it does not necessarily follow that it 
is by any means recent, it must be remembered, on the other hand, 
that its high antiquity is not proven by the facts thus far 

The conclusions to which the facts seem to point may briefly be 
summarized as follows : — 

1. That the Trenton gravel, the only gravel in which implements 
occur, is a true river deposit of post-glacial age, and the most 
recent of all the gravels of the Delaware valle}'. 

2. That the palceoliths found in it really belong to and are a 
part of the gravel, and that they indicate the existence of man in 
a rude state at a time when the flooded river flowed on top of this 

3. That the data obtained do not necessarily prove, geologically 
considered, an extreme antiquity of man in Eastern America. 

paocEEDiNUB or tat acadkmt or 


JliVi/c on PhUailfljAilf — a ni'ic minora!. — Mr Lewis ^ve » pn- 
Utuiaiiry dcHoripliun of n 0<iw vcrmiculilv fruin iu-jkr WnyDo 
8ialii>u OB llio licrnmntown Kailruwi, wliioli In' iimj«.i»rcl lo call 
" rhila(ti;)[>bttv.*' It oofiim in platvt of n lirowii l^ol^^^ bihI taU-ow 
IiiotiT. cxiNtine a» McaiiiM in an alu-red hombluuilp rock. WIi«ii <!xf(>rinU-J> with great forco to inan}-tiRiM iu ori|nnal nxe 
mill l)«<-onicH of A coppory bronze color. It waa MaKd tlut wbila 
exfoliating, it wa« nLle to lift over 60^00 times it» own weight. It 
lull a hy^ruscopii.' power nearly as groat a» tbat of chloridv of 
nUc-iiim. It« optical characters and itacliomical composition were 

Jnalyna of /'Ai7adWpAite.— Mr. BiVnSN Haixks cootritNited 
tlic followinK asalyses of I'biladelpbite. 
Specific gravity (cletermiDed in alcohol of 9A p. c.) 3.7B-S.M. 




















MuO 1 


U.0 (tnen) 










F (tmces) 


100.98 99.31 

Per cent, of hygroscopic water in 1,3.12 p. c; in II, 3.43 p. c. 
In these analyHca the mineral was dried i^t 100° ('., the hygro- 
scopic water not being included in the dcternii nation 8. Owing to 
its very hygroscopic nature, it was found very difllcult to obtain 
its weight at 100° C. accurately. It gains rapidly in weight while 
King weighed upon the balance. Examples of it'* hygroscopic 
|iowir welt given. The analyses were made liy ditwolving the 
niiiiiTal in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Iron was estimated 
viiliimctrically an<I the alkalies by Smith's method of fuHion. 


Deoembeb 22, 1879. 



. BT F. A. OENTH, JB. 

At the November meeting of this Section, Dr. Cardeza called 
the attention of the members to a garnet rock, mined as emery- 
ore, at Chelsea, Bethel Township, Delaware Co., Pa., and subse- 
quently left it with me for analysis. 

The rock is composed almost exclusively of rounded rhombic- 
dodecahedral grains of red garnet, varying in size from a fraction 
of a millimetre to over one centimetre ; also a little quartz, biotite, 
muscovite, and magnetite. It is very friable, being easily crushed. 

Its fracture is uneven, excepting in some of the larger grains, 
which are so much intersected by mica, that, when struck by a 
hammer, they break into angular fragments, apparently showing a 
crystalline cleavage. Specific gravity = 4.028. 

An analysis of the smaller and purer grains, obtained by wash- 
ing and picking out, gave : 

SiO, = 41.11 

Fe,0, = 2.11 

Al^Os = 21.60 

FeO = 25.86 

MnO = 2.22 

CaO = 1.89 

MgO = 5.41 

which proves it to be an ordinary iron-alumina garnet. 




Slime AVir Miiirral l.orah'fie^ — Mr. JnsBPe WiLLc(tSADtK>iiDfr<l 
Ihe followbiK iit-w mlDeral l(joiUllii.'ft : 

BiirKeae, Ontariu, Caimdu, un the iiurtb nhon- nf Itlilivu l^tkc -. 
Phlogopile, Hrteu Pjriisfiii-, A|iatit«, Zircon. Xortli Elnulcj , 
ncitr Ott.v Lake, Ciumila : PblojcoiilU), In tnrite nu<l |N-rfiv!t (.-rx-*- 
lain. Bo'ilfortl, TronU-itft<^ fn., Oni., Cau.^ A|iaiil<- (m»ut.iM>llv 
fine,', BIhcIc Pjri)X«uc, Scainililf. Nuur Weirt[X)rt, Ontarii), Cmn. : 
Bliick Tniinuiliiif. RuHHt-l, Bt. LKwrvncv Co., N. V.: St(«Uu- 
(HMiHilnmortiUuiM nfter Trvitiolit« and 8oapolit«; Black Tonr- 
nixlini;, witli n)Oiiifio<l liTDiinatiutis. MacoD Co., N- ('. : Crj'*ta)> 
i)r BiutiU' ill MtiHcovitc. 

All the «boro wore toxind in fine specimen*. w(>ll (TjratttlliM 
Bperimtms ww* exhibited lo the Section. 



The mineral to which the above title has been applied was found 
by the writer four years ago, in what was then a quarry of hom- 
blendic gneiss, close to the boundary of the Twenty-second Ward, 
Philadelphia. The locality is on Gennantown Avenue, at the 
bridge crossing of the Gerinantown and Norristown Railroad, 
near Wayne Station. The quarry is now walled up, and is used 
as a coal and lime yard. 

Geologically, the locality is just at the base of the terrace of 
metamorphic rocks which bounds the drift formations underlying 
the greater part of the city. Quatemar}' clays, boulders of the 
Champlain period, and tertiary gravels appear within a hundred 
feet of the quarry, and the waters of those different epochs have 
successively eroded the hill rising above it. This hill, here called 
Xegley's or Logan's Hill, about 225 feet in height, is part of the 
same hill or " Upland Terrace,'' which, trending nearly northeast 
and southwest, lias been traced continuously from here into ^Fary- 
land, on the one side, and across New Jersey on the other, and 
which, though composed of quite different rocks in different places, 
forms throughout, the boundary of the post-jurassic formations.' 
The rock at this place is a hard black homblendic gneiss, subject 
to decomposition in its upper portions. It is well exposed in the 
cut on Wavne Street, where numerous minerals occur, and it is 
the same which is quarried at Frankford and at McKinney's 
quarry, both noted mineral localities. In its altered state it 
crumbles easily, and when heated exfoliates. In this condition, 
after being cruslied in a mill between heavy iron rollers, it is 
sometimes used as a building sand. 

The mineral here described as Philadelphile belongs to the ver- 
miculite group of hydrous silicates. It occurs both disseminated 
in scales throughout the gangue-rock, and also in seams, an inch or 
tnore in thickness and many feet long. Associated with it in the 
Bame quarry are crystals of sphene, epidote and hornblende, and 
Hpecks of chalcopyrite. It has been found in small quantities also 
lit Wayne Street, at McKinney's quarry, and in Germantowii. 

^V. Proc. Min. and Geolog. Section Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.. Nov., 1878. 


Since most of the vermiculites occur in serpentinous or chloritic 
formations, it is to l>e noted that no such rocks occur here or in 
the vicinity. The mineral is probably deriveil originally from 

Phy;fical Characters, — Hardness, 1.3; Specific gravit}*, 2.80 
. taken in alcohol and referred to water). Lustre pearly. Color, 
by reflected light, bronze ; by transmitted light, brownish reil, and 
in very thin lamina^, brownish yellow. Opaque, except in thin 
pieces. Streak brownish yellow. Laminse unelastic, readily 
flexible, tough, not brittle. Feel gi-easy. 

Crystallographic Characters. — Monoclinic. Cleavage; basal .emi- 
nent; also, occasionall}', a cleavage parallel to the diagonaU. 
Striations crossing at about 90^, causing the mineral to break 
into nearly rectangular fragments, are sometimes ol)Served, and 
these are parallel to the plane of the optic axes and to the diagonals 
of the rhomb. No triangular striations as in Jetterisite. Plates 
often contorted and wrinkled. Twin crystals frequent, observable 
• by polarized light. Optically biaxial. Double refraction strong, 
negative. Optic-axial angle, 31^20'-39^30'; generally 37 j^. 
Crystals sometimes nearly 2 inches wide and ^ inch high. The 
hyperbolas are well defined in the polarisco|xs and the angle of 
their divergence is more constant than in some of the other ver- 
niirulitcs. Twinnin<r prodnccs vnriations in tlu' aiiLrlt' J 

J^'/rifi/Hnstyr Cl"irurf,'r.<. — In ihr cln-sccl tulu' it i:iv«s otrwMtt-r aH'i 
»'\tnlial<s with irnat forcr, in a (lircction pn prn«liciilar to it*- l»a^»-. 
to l*n tiiiK"^ its oriifinal voluiiu'. I'poii rxloliat ion it Krcoinf^ <»l'a 
l»rii;lit copiMT color ant) takrs a nirtalli*' Instr*-. It al>o Ix-i.-omi'*, 
l»rittK* an«l nion* opa<pU'. Tlir f\toliatr<l niinrral ha«* a tar in«»rf 
distinct ami tViMpn*nt •*c(on<lar\ vertical <-lca\ aL^c tliiin it has IntoH- 

• \f«>liation, an«l ihc )•a•^Ml clcavairc is also easier. It sho\v> >tr«'n^ 

• loiiMc retraction in thi* jiolari<coj i-. an«l h:^'^ an optical <livi'rixciK»- 

• •{".•il'ont the •^an^c amount :i< that <»!* t he nniunite*! mineral .".n t«' 
.IT ). Tlie ll\ pel lutja^ ;,ie cxtrenielv i lUh'tl net 1 . antl ni» » xae! 
nuM-mrment 'N couhl Im- t;il\en. It i- \«llou 1>\ t iMii'-mitte.l liirhr. 
I? r<»nii-^ a tiiie nl.H'ft un<ler th«- micro^^eoj.r ]>\ rrthet^-tl li:_;lir 
Tin tiiM- rMj.prr «•'>)< •! i:;iinr<l «»n e\ I'olial it»ii i"« eli;ir:i'-tiii'»t ;«•. 'ii- 

' !ii_:iii"-liiiiL: it lV''iii the M'h'-r \ rr!iiifiilit<"^. Tin- <'tlMr i^ o|.t m.. .; 
u!ir!!iei- It i- h«.i:«'l -ii'M'!il\ in tin- llanie.or ^l(»ul\ in an :iir-^':i*:. 
*" • \ t'<tli:)t i< Ml. i p 'II 1< 'hi:-' < 'lit inur<l i-jnilinn in :i j'l:»liniini • :'i 

I l*i»tl". ('Mjkt > P.ipt 1 ».n llie \erniii iilite>%, I'loc. Anni . A» a«l , 


cible, heated without access of air, it becomes a steel-gray color, its 
iron having been reduced. Before the blowpipe it gives the violet 
flame of potash and fuses to a black magnetic globule, which does 
not intumesce when further heated. 

With the fluxes it reacts for silica and iron. It is readily dis- 
solved by -hot sulphuric acid, the pure white silica being left in the 
original shape of the mica. It is dissolved in hydrochloric acid 
upon long digestion. 

Chemical Compoaition, — In the investigation of the chemical 
composition of Philadelphite the writer has had the valuable 
advice of his friend, Prof. F. A. Genth, of the University of 
Pennsylvania. The raetliod used in the estimation of vanadium 
is entirely due to him. The writer is also indebted to his friend, 
' Mr. Reuben Haines, of Germantown, for two analyses, and for 
some interesting experiments. 

Of the four analyses given below, Numbers I and II are by Mr. 
Haines; Nos. Ill and IV by the writer. Nos. I and II were 
made upon the pulverized mineral, previously dried in an air-bath 
at 100-^ C; the hygroscopic water, amounting to over 3 p.c, not 
being included in the determinations. " In both the analyses the 
sample was dissolved in concentrated HCl, and the SiOa purified 
by digestion with HCl. The Fe and Al were precipitated together 
l)y NH«HO and tlie Fe titrated by permanganate. The ferrous 
oxide was found by dissolving the weighed mineral in sulphuric 
acid in a closed flask from which the air was expelled by boiling 
with sodic carbonate, antl titrating as before. The magnesia was 
fweighed as pyrophosphate and the alkalies were se[)arated by 
Smithes method of fusion, and were determined by platinic chloride, 
controlling the result by ignition of the platinic salt in hydrogen 
and weighing as metallic platinum. The combined H.O is an 
average of the results of experiments Nos. IV and VI (given 
below) taken at a red heat on bottom of crucible.'^ 

Analyses Nos. Ill and IV were made upon the ignited mineral, 
this being considered its most constant state. The atomic water 
was determined separately, and the analysis of the anhydrous 
mineral reduced when the percentage of water was added. The 
ignited mineral being with difficulty soluble in acid, it was decom- 
posed by fusion with sodic carbonate for analysis. After repeated 
evaporation of the silica with HCl, it was found still to contain 
titanic acid, which was extracted by evaporation with concen- 
trated HsS04 and precipitited by dilution and boiling. Addi- 

816 PBoanmirM or TBI AOAUKXT (V C^MV. 

lioiul titutio Msid WM wiMiimted upon boiling the iUtnSft from EM]^ 
after ledootion with HtS. In one vulyiis titaaio Mid irw ■e p a- 
lUed from SlOtby volatilixing the latter vtth H7, diMtflTing tte 
reaidofl In HiSOt, diiuting and boiling. Ferroiu oxide mi deteit 
mined in the sir-dried mineral aa in analyaea I and II. Irtm and 
alumina were «Btiniated by predidtation by boiling with aodle 
aoetate in a nentnd solation, diaaolring'in HCl, repreoipitating 
wia KEiHO, igniting and weighing togethor. In the flttrate 
MnO was preeipitated by bromine and ignited. 

Ttie following method waa employed fiir tlie detection of vaaa* 
dlun. 80granuneBofImpnremlneralwerenlxedirith90grBmnMa 
of aodio carbonate and 100 gnunmea of aalphor, and the vhol^ 
heated slowly in a Hessian eraolble oorered by oharooal matO 
partially ftised. It was then digeated In wann water, filtered, and 
to the filtrate dilnte HOI was added, preoii^tating a eopiooa 
heavy floconlent brown mass of the aolphides of Tanadlnm,ooppar, 
cobalt and nlekeL Tlie pre(d{dtate was washed, ignited and en^ 
orated with nitric add, when it gave a red resldne. TUa waa ftaaad 
with a mixture of Bodio carbonate and sodio nitrate,and extraotad 
with water In order to separate the oxides of copper, cobalt and 
nidteL Solid ammonlo chloride was now added to the aqaeona 
solution, when vanadate of ammonia was precipitated. Upon 
ignition it was changed to vanadic oxide, and was found to be 
pure, giving all the cliaracteristic I'eactione. 

For the estimation of vanadium the following method was em- 
ployed. 4^ grammes of the pulverized ignited mica were fased 
with a mixture of 3 parts XaCO, and 1 ijart XaXOj, the mass ex- 
tracted with H,0, filtered, and the filtrate digested with H,S. 
Traces of CuS and FeS were filtered off, and the silica eliminated 
by evaporation to dryness and addition of dilute H,SOi. H,S waa 
again added, giving a blue solution. After driving off the 1J,S by 
heat, the vanadic acid present was eBtimited vol u metrically by the 
addition of a measured portion of a standard solution of per- 
manganate of potnsh. 

Maguesia was determined as pyrophospliate, and the alkalies by 
means of Smith's method. Phosjihoric acid was precipitated as 
phospliomolj bdats of ammonia, and weighed as pyrophosphate of 

On account of the remarkable hygroscopic powers of Philadel-'itdifticulty was experienced in the estimation of the com- 
bined water. Nearly one-lialf of the water in the air-dried mineral 



is hygroscopic, and may be driven off either b}' long exposure over 
sulphuric acid in a desiccator, or by drying in an air-bath at 100° 
C. The percentage of water given in the analyses represents 
approximately the amount of water in the mineral after such 

Spec. grav. (taken in alcohol of 95 p. c.) 2.78-2.96. 

Quantivalent ratio. 

2.587 5.45 

1.622 3.42 








38.79 2 




















• • • • « 

• • • 



















• • • « « 










• • • • « 

• • • 









.474 1.— 

100.98 99.31 100.13 
Hygroscopic water in 1, 3 12 ; in II, 3.43. 

Spec. grav. (taken in alcohol of 84 p. c on the air-dried mineral) 




Quantivalent ratio. 






2.38 ) 
.05 \ ^-^^ 






. .91 ^ 







r- 1.65 












.06 ' 











ft • 





• « 











' .87 










m • 

• • 










» » 




m • 

• • 



^ trace 

• m 

• • 








99.94 100.03 100.45 
Hygroscopic water in III and IV, 3.24. 

818 PRmaniniac or nnc ACAiem op [I9M. 

Prom boUi thiiw fuUr urutftlyan we harn Ilie taUD 

K: H:Si:U -- S; 3; 5: I ami RK : Si : H— 1 : 1 : J. Tbe nUo 
of boAoH to silica U 1:1, ntid for wsquioxidM to protoxide*, 
it : R =.^ S : I. 

Plill»ilelpbit« drinl at IftO C- «|>ii«a» ui bea UDUtlicttU!. ihe 
mtpr i>ot Iwlag Ixuli!. 

Tlic fiinntilii may |M)rfui|i<« tx- written 

The gvntnl afintxil wogUI be, 


Tlw wfttm- will bo rogarded u wat«r of cryvtAUIzatioii. Pi 
Cooke hM Bbown the olo«o ofaemloal relation bctwoen flu* an hy<l n>a»' 
vennicuUtM uul biot{t«. A like ivsuU la brouglil oat hy thi? tnl- 
lowing uialyais of l(uit«d PliiUdelplilic. Tlif »iuil}-ai« In • meaii 
of the two ui&l,VM» of the atltyilruiia minimi wliirb rurno^' 
aaalyiiH No*. Ill wid IV uf Ibe mineral dried at |i}0'^ C 







.116 f 




W **.o. 














.60 ( 









Here ii : 


: Si = 1 


goiis as the 

. anhvdrou. 

niincisl i, 

QuanL ratio. 




s to biotitv in it§ formula, it ban 
bcon wliowri that |>hyHiially and o|Hi('aily the two mtneralx air 
• luitf iliHsiiiiihir. and it i;" not (iroven that tln-y liavp any iirt-eisan- 
coniioclion. It in tiy iiu iiii-aiH a hyilroim liintitc in the ntiisf thai 
niargaroditu is n hydrous niusi-ovitc, in which case the ciiarartiTH. 
ojiticnl and pliysioal, are idciitic-al. Siioh liydronw biotites iH-<wr 
in several ]>Iaceti in the vicinity of rhila<Ielphia, in a pirti^Uy 



altered micaceous gneiss, in which the muscovite has become 
margarodite, and the orthoclase become white and crumbling. 
Such mica exfoliates slightly when heated, is uniaxial, fusible 
with difficulty, and might be called Hydrohiotite for convenience. 
It frequently occurs enclosed in crj'^stals of margarodite, or in 
muscovite passing into margarodite. 

Hygroscopic Properties. — In the determination of water in its 
different states in Philadelphite, the principal difficulty was on 
account of the strong hygroscopic properties possessed by the 
mineral. After the water has been expelled by heat or desiccation, 
it is rapidly absorbed again from the air, if exposed. Upon the 
balance, the dried mineral gains so rapidly that it was found 
necessary while weighing to enclose it in corked tubes. It appears 
to absorb water with the avidity of chloride of calcium. Even 
when enclosed in watch-glasses clasped together and standing in 
the closed balance-case with dry CaCl2, it gains decidedly in weight. 
The following experiments by Mr. Haines illustrate its hygro- 
scopic properties : 


(1) Weight of undried mica, .9935 
Heated at 100° C. for 1^^ hours, .9616 
Weight after standing in balance-case with CaCl^ 

for 3 days, .9915 

Reheated for 3 hours at 100° C, .9580 

Left on balance 20 minutes. Gain in weight, .0070 

Left on balance 2 hours. Total gain in weight, .0085 

(2) Weight of undried mica, 1.1280 
Heated at 100° C. for 3 hours, 1.0965 
Lefl in balance-case with CaCl^ for 1 hour, 1.1175 
Left in balance-case with CaCL^ for \\ hours, 1.1230 
Left in balance-case with CaClj for 2^ hours, 1.1250 
Left in balance-case with CaCl, for 2 days, 1.1260 

(3) Undried mica heated at 100° C. for 6^ hours. 

Loss, 2.49 p. c. 

On standing in balance-case witli CaCl^ for 2^ 
days, regained nearly the whole of its original 
weight (all but 2 milligrammes). Again 
heated at 100° for 3 hours, loss of weight, 3.09 p. c. 

These experiments, showing that nearly the total amount of 
hygroscopic . water is regained even in the presence of such an 

S90 I'wuuiiniMw or nu academy or [ICl 

artivi- ilfHiocHtor iw c1)lorid« of calrftim, indicate » row 
lijfpro«C('|)ic force in tht- dried subsuinec ; a property not o 
ex|)lnin. It will b(> iioiloi^i that M* foiw ts «xen<li>«d much n 
I>DWi-rnilly immHlbt«Iy aftiT dt-niccBtloii ttwii It i» mAcr ft li 
time. Kxiicrlmwil No. (2) nhnw* i)ia1 Iwo-lliird* of tliv wnUt U 
nlH)orl>oil iliiring lltr fimt. lionr. It, tiBn bei-n foimil ttiat Ibr amount 
■if frntl^^ in tbt puwikTed niini>ral rarii^ti with Itic byitniractriu stsle 
of Ibp atmoKpfacrei at Ibc timci of wdgbing. It is intereatioy to 
note tbat aevcral of tbn seoUtua, arlaM iif b^droua ailUaiUa wboa* 
exfoliation by heat la very like tbat of tbu venuit'uiilea, alan h«T* 
HtTong hy^iMoplu (kiwitb, Iniilug ntnl n-^alnin|[ |iiirt nt iJwlr 
water with tsaao ' 

Water of Cry*lnllitalinn. — Ttio water in Pbiladi^Iphitv probably 
vxtalM in tbrvc tbt'on-tical condition!*, viz.;— Uyi^rcMOopic walvr, 
water of crj-stallization and water of cooaUtution. Tbc flrM U 
drircn off by dryin{[ at 100° 0. or by cx|toaurc to dry air orrr 
HiSO,i tb« acioond by ^ntl« Ignition, tuul is aooomiNutltnl by «>. 
folijitlon ; llic tfalnl by strong and prolongiMl Ijpiition. Tbc lattvr. 
whlcti |)rolMt>)y doi-M not inucb exm'iHl 1 ]kt ct-nU, am) wbicli 
Ibv aiialyMW Itavi- nhown ia not id-cmIpiI nitb tbv 1«jH<: nilii'-ale to 
vompliitt' tb« uniiuiirnte foruiiila, will t« tv}; wllb tbe water 
of oryatallizBtlou. Tbe moat latisbctury dotermlnatkina uf ttur 
water of cryatalKsatlon havo been made by sulrtrarrlu^t tb-- hyer^- 
!.Cn|iic K»U-r fnn" til.-!il wnr.T. 

The following experiments have beon made upon the amount 
and condition of the water. 

(1). The dry micu, which had been out of the quarry for mort- 
than a year, was cut into pieces about 5 mm. square, heated in a 
platinum crucible to a bright I'ed beat for 26 minutes, cooled in a 
desiccator over HiSO. for half an hour, and then quickly weighed. 
It lost 7.58 per cent., which will be regarded as tbe total amount 
of water. 

{•2). The finely powderfd mica holds more water. DiflTerent 
experiments gave:— ".84 (igiiiled 10 minutes), ".«», 7.90. 8.11 
(ignited Hb minntcH), T.50 (])on<lered juvt previonn to ignition), 
.^(ron;; i^fnition of llie [>»wdered mica probntily volatilizes some of 
the nlkidii-» in addition to the water. 

' Damnur (.\nn. <\. MincH, IV, x, 308>iiliowi 1>y aa ox)ichmrnt similar to 
Ihoae Kiven al>ovo, tiiat the wuUt lust bj- hculaiidite expwwil over UiSO, is 
all n'gaiacd io 1} duyik 


(3) The finely powdered mica was divided into two portions, 
one of which was spread out on an open watch-glass, the other 
placed in a crncible. Both were weighed, put in a desiccator over 
sulphuric acid, and let stand unopened for two months. That in 
the crucible lost 2.76 per cent, of water. That on the watch-glass 
had lost 3.87 i)er cent. On standing 3 or 4 minutes upon the 
scale-pan it gained .53 per cent, of water from the air. Upon ex- 
|K>sure over sulphuric acid in the desiccator 24 hours longer and 
then being quickly weighed, it was found to have lost 3.99 per 
cent. It was now placed in an air-bath and kept at a temperature 
of 100^ C. for 4 hours. After cooling 15 minutes in the deaiccator, 
it was found to have gained in weight about ^ per cent., indicating 
that the desiccation over sulphuric acid was more complete than 
that in the air-bath at 100° C. That in the crucible lost on igni- 
tion 5.97 per cent of its weight. 

(4). The powdered mica was placed in a watch-glass in a desic- 
cator over sulphuric acid. 

After 27 days it had lost 2.28 per cent. 
" 40 '• *' " 2.36 *' 

During weighing, it was enclosed in clasped watch-glasses. It was 
now put in a crucible and ignited. 

The dried mineral lost on 1st ignition, 5.18 per cent. 
a u 44 2d " 5.36 '' 

(5 ). The following direct determinations of water of crystal- 
lization were made from the mica, dried in a glass tube, corked 
while weighing, and then ignited in a crucible. 


Time of 


Li088 0f 

water In 
dried mineral 


100° C. in air-bath. 

24 hours. 

15 min. 

5.38 p. C. 


(( u 

3 days. 

20 min. 

5. " 


over H.SO, 

2 weeks. 

3 times. 

5.60 " 
5.32 " 

This determination is thought to be too high, including some 
hygroscopic water, since the mica in a tube cannot be perfectly- 

A mean of the three determinations of hygroscopic water ab- 
sorbed over sulphuric acid gives 3.24 per cent. , which deducted 


piCM!XBi>i?iGii or thk acadkut nr 


from tbi> tiJtal wnler, 1.!i6 per ccnL, givem for TBtorof cryat 
tlim, 4^1 |>er ireiiL Aa will lie wen lM>t(i«, ■ ftimllkr Bnioani is de- 
iluoetl fWiiu Mr. HalncM* vx|>eriiD«iU. 

The ri>lliiwlii|i pxppriiuoniA bj- Mr. IlnlneB lave Iwmi kindljr 
|iliu!i><1 at Mm.' ilUpnul (iniitt writiT. Tli«jr nujr be rdlcd upon mm 
having li«tn purfonmsl with gntil i-ai*. 

i. The powilemi ulna U |iIbc«i] In a defllccntor over c(ii»cm»- 
InVeA (uljiburie Be!«l. 

(■) Driod 1&d«ja. I«oh, a.19 per ennt. 
<b> " 10 " " S.81I » 

11. Tbv anilrivd mica U htuttetl lu dd ftlr>bath kt 100° C. 

(a) HeaUt! 3 honrt. 

LoM. 3.H 



" 3.33 


■• 3.48 


(ti) " .H " 

" S.B9 



III. Weifcbtboforc heating. 


Ilcaicdat 100', 1| bourv. 

1.06 U 


r « " 4i " 



Over HiSO. and heated 5 


at 100°. 



Heatetl 2 hours at 100 


cooled over H.SO.. 



Walffat. Total LAMfroiB Inert n.f.ol 
IDU. lOt-V. mm loul 

IV. Weight l>erore heating. .'M3b 

Hcatedat]00''C.forIhr. .8743 .0292 3-23 

■' • 100° " 2 " .8730 .0305 3 37 

" 105° " aj" .8715 .0320 .0015 .0015 3.51 

" 119° " I " .8705 .0330 .0025 .0010 3.fi5 

" fLillre<lhoftl5min..8350 .0i;85 .0380 .03.'>.^ 7..S8 
■■ over blnxt lamp 

1st limi'. .8270 M'db .04fi0 .0(l«li S.46 


hbst hnn,. 

•2i\ t 

l-^O .(I7.'.5 .045(1 


Weight. Total Loss from .Incre- p.o. of p.c. of 

loss. 100° C. ' ment total loes fr. 

of loss. loss. lOO^C 

V. Weight of undried mica .S052 

** at 100° C. .7827 .0225 2.79 

" at 125° C. cooled 

for 3 minutes. .7757 .0295 .0070 .0070 3.6(5 0.89 

" at 150° cooled for 

3 minutes. .7682 .0370 .0145 .0075 4.59 1.85 

" at 17 0°-l 75° cool- 
ed for 4 min. .7682 .0370 .0145 4.59 1.85 

" 190° cooled for 3 

minutes. .7647 .0405 .0180 .0035 5.03 2.30 

VI. Weight of undried mica. .9855 

" at 100°C, heated 

several hours. .9615 .0240 2.43 

Below faint red heat. .9445 .0410 .0170 .0170 4.16 1.77 
Heated to pale red at 

bottom of crucible. .9320 .0535 .0295 .0125 5.32 3.07 
Heated to bright red at 

bottom of crucible. .9210 .0645 .0405 .0110 6.54 4.21 
Heated to full red on 

whole crucible. .9148.0707 .0467 .0062 7.17 4.85 

VII. Total water. 

(a) Loss of weight at red heat, 7.30 per cent. 

(b) *" " on ignition, 7.50 '' 

(c) " " " 3 times, 7.86 " 

From the above experiments of Mr. Haines in connection with 
Nos. (1), (2) and (3) under '* hygroscopic properties,'^ we may 
deduce the following percentages : 

For total water, we have (IV), 7.58 p. c; (VI), 7.17 ; (VII, a, 
b, c), 7.30, 7.50, 7.86. 

Mean total water, 7.48 per cent. 

For hygroscopic water, driven off at 100°, we have 

Exp. (1) Exp. (1) Exp. (2) Exp. (3) 

Analysis I. Analysis II. Heated 1^ hrs. Reheated 3 hrs. 8 hrs. 8 hrs. 
3.12 3.43 3.21 3.57 2.79 3.09 

Exp.IIaExp.IIb Exp. lie Exp. lid Exp. III. Exp. IV. Exp.V. Exp. VI. 
8 hrs. 5^ hrs. 5 hrs. 2 hrs. several hrs. 

3.14 3.33 3.42 3.69. 2.96 3.37 2.79 2.43 



S34 nocntMnaa or tok AOAtiRHV tnr 

A mean of tbcM ll dvu-nniiuition* girm for hj*iirro4co|iio t 
$.11 pet orat. 

SnlftmcUtif thU (Wiin Ui« m^iui totnl wKt«r, 1.48 per ceat., 
Iiatc fur kkUt ufvrjiilnlltxlilioii 4.31 fvr ceni., kd ninount elo 
uKin?iii|t witli Hint dotitiuxl fixini llin writer'* ffxperimeota. Tbi 
ilvfticcaUou ovrr tiiilpliariv ncfi) in Exp. I i« for tiNi »boft k time U 
iiitupU'Utly I'xtnurt lliv hyin^wcopic waUT. 

TIu! rjuuit §tatr iiTtbc water •^nnoL vt>t be rrganlnit nicfrUinlj 
ratnlilbilu-il. Tbfn Is uit tvuiou wliv a flx^l tieai|>rnitiin- iif 1(H>- 
C. •luiul'l ilivltlu tkn byf(rowN)pii! wnti-r frum lliti vnti-s iif crj'slAl 
lixation. Tlie abovp rxpcrinK^nta •how tlint tlia loaa of naUv a« 
the tvraperalurv \» niUnI almrv that |M>inl i* « T^rj (cnf luiU o»r. 
It U dinicult to Me In wlut nuuinvr Itie wslvr drivftn off ml IWf 
in «xi>t'r{iumt V, iMScn front Ibat driven oil at 1M-. It will t>« 
iMU Iwrcaftcr Umt murb of tbe water cau b« driven olT witbont 
esfuliotiot). A^n, tltvre la no ■allldrnt rvAHun why *omf uf iIm 
wntor ab«('rl>nl tiy Kulphnric nuid in Ibi.- dr«i<!i«tor nta\ not U 
water of cryatallizatiofl. It lia* liwn Innj; known that ouliihate ul 
euppcr rither at Klfl^ V. or in a tleaicpaltir over siilpliiiriL- acid 
loMMt Diucb of ii8 water of rryftlalliuitiou. U. Uamoor ban kbowa 
tlul vliabtUElte lu-iiu nvarly lialf '>r it* wal«r in a dminsiur. It 
^rruiK pmlMbltMliat I'liiUdulpUiir, Willi utlk«r Ti-rraiciilitm, Iwdd* 

iU wair-r in a ■imilnr tniinti.T. r'r..iii t) xi-'Hiniiit- Ii.t.- •{••- 

lulled it would Bccm that we may define water of constitution to 
l>e the more cloaely eomliinetl, and hygroscopic water the leai 
closely combined water of crystallization ; and the diAtinctitni 
iK'twecn tlie three Btntes of water tlien l)ecomea a theoretical ralliei 
than a practical one. 

Temprature of Exfoliation. — The temperature at which exfo- 
IbtioD oceurs m from 160° to IGO*^ C. It haa been found that the 
exfoliation temperature is projHirtional directly to the original 
volume of the wulwtance, and inversely to the rapidity of the ap- 
gilication of heat. The larger the j)iece ex|H.-rimenttil u)K>n, the 
hijiclu'r the tcmjH'mtui-e ncecn-tary to mitke it exfoliate, and tht' 
more rapidly the heat can l« applied, the Hooner will it exfoliate : 
:is the folliming i-xpi-rinuuls will slunv. 

mi) Very >m:ill rrii^fiiKiits heated on a wnti-h^jlaKn inanairdiaih 
iK-gan K. exfoliiite at ir.ll- C. 

l'<) .\ Uirp- i>i.-i'f hi-:itci| simibrly tlid not .■xfoliate at ilil- C. 

Ic, A lueie was inuuei-M-<l in melte<l j>ai-atllne. At IdO^ C 


hubbies went off slowly, but there was no exfoliation. The tem- 
perature being raised, it made the first movement at 160°, exfoli- 
ated vigorouslj' at 175°, and at 180° rose from its support to the 
surface of the paraffine. 

(d) Another piece similarly immersed gave bubbles briskly at 
130°, and began to exfoliate at 160°. 

(e) Pieces thrown into melted parafiine whose temperature had 
previously been raised to 160° C, immediately exfoliated and rose 
to the surface. 

(/) A large piece did not exfoliate even after the temperature 
had been gradually raised to 225° C. 

(fj) Immersed in melted sulphur, it immediately exfoliated and 
strongly effervesced. 

{h) Immersed in concentrated sulphuric acid which had been 
heated to 160° C, it immediately exfoliated and became pure 
white, being completely and immediately decomposed. Immersed 
similarly at a temperature of 150° C. it exfoliated, but did not 
become immediately white. At a lower temperature no exfoliation 
occurred. A similar piece beinfc similarly immersed and the tem- 
perature raised, began to exfoliate at 130'^ C, and continued ex- 
foliating as the temperature rose, though being meanwhile decom- 
|)osed. This sudden change of form and color upon immersion in 
hot sulphuric acid recalls a somewhat similar change in the efllor- 
escence of protosulphate of iron when immersed in the same acid. 
It is seen from these experiments that no absolute determination 
of the exfoliation temperature is possible. By a very slow heat a 
large proportion of the water (about 5 per cent.) can be driven oft' 
and the mica raised to a high heat without any exfoliation of 
consequence. The following experiment illustrates this fact. 

(k) A piece of Philadelphite was cut into two equal portions. 
One piece, heated suddenly on platinum foil to a red heat, exfoliated 
to ten times its original volume. The other piece was slowly 
heated in an air-bath. At 285° C. it had exfoliated but veiy 
sslightly. It was then taken out and heated on platinum foil to a 
red heat, when it exfoliated very little more, })cconiing onl>' one- 
fourth the length of the first piece. 

A similar experiment has been made upon heulandi- e and stilbite 
from near Philadelphia. Both of these zeolites, as is well known, 
exfoliate largely when held in the flame. It has been found that 
if they are heated very slowly on platinum foil, they can be raised 



U> a white heat without exfoliation, and when afterwards held in 
tlie flame, exfoliate but slightly. Apparently the water in PUUa- 
delphite is combined precisely aa in the zeolites 

It appears that it is as dilfleidt to make a distinction between 
water of crystallization and water of constitution as it is to tnakp 
one between the former and hygroscopic water. 

AiiiounI of Eir/oliation. — Tlie amount of exfoliation is quite 
eouetaut at ten times the original volume. 





These experiments were made by heating the mica on platinum 
foil over the flame of a Bnnsen burner. The heat unst be sudden 
in order to have a large exfoliation (u. Exp't. t'. Exfoliation 
takes place in one direction only, viz., at right angles to the 
cleavage. No lateral exjiansion whatever occurs. When tlie 
flame is applied to one side of the mica, that sida exfoliates tiie 
most, and causes the exfoliating mineral to curve in the opposite 

Force of Exfoliation. — It has been found that the force exer- 
cised during the exfoliation of Philadelphite is enormous. In one 
experiment a fragment of it while exfoliating lift«d more than 
50,000 times its own weight. The force of exfoliation is governed 
bj' a law which is the inverse of that controlling the exfoliation 
temperature. It may be stated thus: The force of exfoliation 
increases directly with the rapidity of the expulsion of water, and 
inversely with the volume of the substance. The latter part ot 
the law follows as a necessary consequence of the first part, since 
tlie smaller the fragment, the more rapidly and completely can it 
be heated. Various experiments were made, and though per- 
lormed in an extremely rough manner, will give an idea of this 
force. To flpd what amount a given weight of the mica could lift 
when exfoliating, iron pound-weights were placed upon the ring of 
a retort stand and connected with the fragment of mica placed on 
a support immediately below them. A pencil of chalk or gaa 




carbon resting loosel}' in a perpendicular position between the 
mica and the centre of the weights connected them so that an}' 
expansion of the mica would lift the weights from off the ring 
on which they rested. The blowpipe flame was now directed 
from one side upon the mica. 

a, retort stand. 

b, ring. 

c, support, 
(f, weight. 

e, pencil of chalk. 
/, fragment of mica. 

In the following table of experiments, the first column repre- 
!*ent3 the weight of the fragment of mica, and the second column, 
the iron weight which was lifted by the exfoliating mica. 

Philadelphlte. Weight. 

15 grains lifted 10 lbs. avoirdupois. 




10 lbs. 





10 lbs. 





10 lbs. 





5 lbs. 





2 lbs. 





3 lbs. 





2 lbs. 





3 lbs. 





4 lbs. 




In the last experiment the four-pound weight was lifted up and 
thrown off the ring supporting it ; the weight lifted being 56,0( 
times the weight of the mica. 

A remarkable motive power is here developed. That it is 
owing solely to the escape of the combined water is shown by the 
fact that if the weights are so arranged that the mica can only 
slightly expand, and, after heating, are removed, the mica will 
.expand no more, or very slightly more, upon further application 
of heat, the water having been in great part expelled. If the mica 
is confined under a weight so heavy that it is impossible for it to 


A Potsdam Sandstone Outcrop on the S. ValUy Hill of Chester 
Valley, — Mr. H. C. Lewis remarked that an occurrence of Potsdam 
sandstone on the farm of Mr. S. Tyson, near King of Prussia, 
Montgomery Co., to which Mr. T. D. Rand had directed attention 
last May, was of considerable interest. A recent examination of 
the locality with Mr. Rand, had shown that the blocks of sand- 
stone there found were not, as had been supposed, out of place, 
but belonged to a narrow outcrop of the sandstone on the South 
Valley Hill. It had a strike, and apparently a dip, nearly iden- 
tical with that of the limestone in the valley below. In one place 
the decomposed rock is quarried for white sand. Pits for iron 
ore have been sunk in a very ferruginous variety of the same 
rock. The exposure, which can be traced by blocks upon the 
surface, suddenly comes to an end in a ravine, as though by a fault. 
A tongue of sandstone blocks extends three hundred yards or 
more down this mvine, towards the valley, in a line at right angles 
to the line of strike. On the farther side of the ravine, to the 
east, no sandstone has been found, its place being filled by the 
usual damourite slate of the South Valley Hill. The blocks of 
sandstone therefore make an *' L," the shorter arm of which 
extends down the ravine. There is here an interesting example 
of the work of erosion in carrying down these blocks to a lower 
level. Whether or not the existence of a fault can be proved, the 
occurrence of Potsdam sandstone at a new locality on the Soutli 
Valley Hill is well worth}- of study. This formation forms the 
North Valle}' Hill, but is almost totally absent on the South 
Valley Hill. It is found here only in a few isolated patches. Its 
place is supplied by a greenish damourite slate. If, as is sup- 
posed, the North and South Valley Hills are opposite sides of a 
synclinal trough which dips beneath the limestone of Chester 
Valley, it is curious that the rocks of each hill are so very dis- 
similar. It is important that each one of the rare exposures of 
sandstone on the South Valley Hill should l)e made known, and it 
is thought that a determination of their relations to the adjoining 
slates will greatly help to elucidate the geology of that region. 


rBorKKuiKu* iir tuc ^rAiiEUT ur 


JlELt ti. 

The i'rcJBdliml, Dr. RracHE-XDKitdKii, in l\*f cliair. 
Eli'veii perHonK |Hv«oiit. 

1 13. 
Thi* rndiLdonl, Dr. RvsciiKKnEiniEit, in tlie rlutir. 
Six [lunuiu proMinL 

Jilt S«. 
Tlw pRslilent, Or. [truinKNiiEitokft, in tbr uh«ir. 
Ten p«rsont prwmiU 

JULT 27. 

The Pre«i(lenl, Dr. RustrHEMBKaciK*. in Mm- dutir. 
KlewD pencniH |KV<tent. 

The JcBth of CoiiHtButlue Bering, M. D. wrn autwunevd. 
Frmh-waUir Sfiani/n">f Fafrmount ftjH-.^Mr K'lm ra|M>rto>l 

' tbllt hU bwlfouilil hi : -iniM -tr, Mil MiTtiiii ■!,. !'>. I'l-^ nf Ibo Imp 

tVnli-rmiHl Krciiiii'i ■ Urn> .Miiinct 

^(-■■■i,.sor l--n..>.li ■■■. _ , - (., 1,. ,„i- 

ilescritK-d and the others iliHer in important point« rrom the put*- 
IJHlicd descriptioDH. In anticipation of a more ilctailMl p*p'r 
ilcseribing thexe and Home other forme wliich had com<' under hi" 
notiee, he said — that one of tlieae known as the t-ommim grcvii 
tpongc of this neigliborliond, renembles the Kiiropean .S/*'>H4/t7/<i 
lai-uglria in ite general appeai'nnee and in tlie 4lta[H' of its Hkelet<>ii 
jind dermal spiciihe: tmt ditfL'rB in that tiie seed-like Inxlies -ir 
■ipherulte are entirely smooth, showing no inenistation of eiirv.-l 
■opined spicula- «» de«orihe<l in the Hiiro|)ean Hpceie*. 

The second form was firsl Meen as a thin niHt-i-olnred ineruitl;!- 
lion, nfterwanl;* liiseovereil to consist of !>plicnilte fi>nnint> » 
I'ontinuoiiH layer. Sii]iiK>siiig this tu lie new he h:i<i nnme<l ji 
proviHLiinallv S. SfDr-iimm : hut lat«>r examinaticm- ol" thi- livinu 
■^ponire l>:id eoiiviiin-d him thiit it was i.lenCieiil with lli<' >'. f'r.,.,,1-- 

Tl..- thi..l was 

'oiiiKl rrvei 

iii^ \\\>fin >iiii) aroiiii' 

\Vill..w r.>ot-*.m! 

n\\\^ Ihriii 

lo};etlier ai)il timt f 

ii-i;i.l:ir m:isse- s 

v.Tiil inch 

■■> in dianii-tiT: cnio 

,.. dark ^-nvn. i 

<'(i>rdiiiL: t 

. vxp-Hiire to the 1 

t'luUiilar, light \ 

•IK.w ui- 1 

r..wt.. Rith.T nninero 


spiculee ; covered with long birotiilate spiculae radially 
; foramen elongated into a tube flaring at its extremity 
ng into 2 — 5 tapering, slender, curling or twisted tendrils, 
o be as much as half an inch in length. The sarcode 
es early in the season and most of the skeleton spicula^ 
washed away ; but these tendrils hold the mass of 
attached to the roots etc. above mentioned, awaiting the 
rminatjon. For. this curious species he suggested the 
entasperma or tendril seeded. 

H. De Bey of Aix-la-Chapelle and Prof. Torquuto 
of Pa via were elected correspondents. 

August 3. 
he President, Dr. Ruschbnberqer, in the chair 
persons present, 
ith of James Ridings, a member, was announced. 

*n Jarosite. — Prof. George A. KiiNio communicated his 
of Jarosite at the " Iron Arrow Mine," in Chaffee Co., 

ineral occurs there in seams and cavities of silicious 

nd hematite, which iron ores crop out on the steep side 

hyry hill about 600 feet above the Arkansas River, flow- 

istance of two miles to the south. 

Qeral appears in small, but very brilliant crystals, isolated 

•oups ; also as aggregations of crystals which produce 

X is remarkably crystalline, since no compact, or crypto- 

e masses were observed. 

^stals are rhombohedrons (resembling cubes), modifit'd 

sal plane. The speaker had not observed as yet a crys- 

icient size to be accurately measured. Hardness slightly 

enite; color, from light amber-yellow to deep brown. 

transparent. Lustre of crystal faces adamantine, rosin- 

e fracture. Sp. gr. = 3.144. 

it^rial used for analysis consisted of the aggregations 

ntioned, which showed an admixture of chalcedony and 

t, black grains of thurgite ; these could not l>e separated 

illy, being too small. 

an of two analyses gave : 




— 7.13 


— 0.84 


— 28.57 


— 10.56 


— 2.40 




i'«Ioulsteil frou tbo BD&iyais : 

K,Pc*8.0„ 4- fiH<0 = ftO.58 

Pff.H.O, (Ttiai^te) = S.«T 

Kxc«-wi of wnt«r = flJ9 

CliAlndon,r (8iO,) ^ t4n 



This n>salt may be pntimated as a conftnualioD of Ridki 
HiialyBin, which gave to Jaroeite the formula of " alunite." • 
whicb it ia [»oinorpbouB. 

Thua Aluiiite = K,Al,S.O„ 4 BA.O 

Jaroftlte — K,Fe.S.O„ + 611,0 | 

Th« nlmust can> wan given to thti eatimotioii of the allnUiM, 
aalphiirii.' acid and thi- water, as the ^ucfttlon uri-onatttutUN) ■ 
lie ilepenilenl main)}- apun them. 

Auocn 10. 
Tke PrHldffoi, Dv. RowHKNBison. in thit chair. 
8ixt»-n |)e?¥OD»i prcoont. 


AparHT 17. 
Th^ I'miidi'iit. I>r. lU'St-aKUBKitoBK, io the rbatr. 
Twelve persons present. 

A paper entitled " Rbizopods in the Mosacb of the Sumiai 
Roan Mountain N. C-," by Jos. Leidy, .M. P. was presented 

AuausT 31. 
The President, Dr. RrscHENBERaiH, in the chair. 
Fourteen persons present. 
The following was ordereil to be printed : 






Trk a trip to Roan Mountain, Mitchell Co., North Carolina, in 
ztk^ early part of July, the writer was led to make some observa- 
tions on the microscopic animal life, among the mosses on the 
siuxs.KXiit of the mountain. The top of Roan Mountain, at an alti- 
t4.icj^ of 6361 feet, forms an extensive grassy prairie, suitable for 
pa.s ti m:ire. It is adorned with broad patches of the beautiful Rhodo- 
<i^r^.c^^won catawbiense^ and bordered with forests, chiefly of Firs — 
-4&i*^,^ canadensis and A. Fraseri, The floor of the forests, made 
*ip o ^ broken granitic and gneissoid rocks and fallen timbers, is 
^h^iojfejy carpeted with a luxuriant growth of mosses, conspicuously 
^leoo^r-ated at the time by the common Wood-Sorrel, Oxalis aceto- 
^fillcm.^ Chief among the mosses, each apparently attempting to 
^^^'V'^ic the others in the exuberance of its growth, were the three 
pret-t^ Hypnums — H, splendens, H. crista-castrensis^ and II. tri- 

^Xdjuds, dews, and frequent rains keep the mossy carpet more 

^^ X^sis moist or wet the greater part of the time, and it thus comes 

^ ^^>ci a favorable habitation for many of the humbler forms of 

^*ixi.xr^jjl life. The shell-covered Rhizopods abound ; and the Wheel 

inn^alcule, Rotifer vulgaris^ and the Water Bear, Macrobiotus 

landii also find a suitable home in it. When the mosses 

^<=>n[ie more or less dr}-, the animalcules they shelter become 

X^id, and then again become ac-tive on the restoration of 


T\ water squeezed from the Hypnums, besides the animals just 

Seated there were noticed a few young Anguillules, pollen 

ins of Abies, starch grains, spores of lichens and fungi, ova, 

;etal hairs, etc. Few or no living Diatomes or Desraids were 


'he Rhizopods observed were as follows : 

<EBELA FLABELLULUM. — Commou. Nearly circular in outline, 

lally slightly broader than long, and commonly with a short 

k or rim to the mouth ; colorless or with a feeble yellowish 

; composed of circular caucelli of variable size and propor- 

:(!1S pnocEBDiKus or tiie AirAHMr or 

1. LM(tIinOT3; hrM<UbA0T2tftMkU.Cfnt 1m)( ; brwMllli tf na 

2, " 13,072 ; *■ UCI7I> ; " aoO* ♦■ i " 
8. " 0.fi7H: •■ aalB; •■ U.OOIB •■ i ■' 
«. •* 0,(l«l: *• IVtfTS; •' " ; 

rihril wiih minuii alliptlMl an«aUl. 

nirrLiiuu oiiifKTaiCTA- — Rare. Oulj- » few ipcoiu 
Suull rdrtOH. with ■lu'Il of iiiiiittti< banil ([ruiiu aiw) ydlowUli dirk ■ 
Pjrrifonn riowH fnun the frotil i>r buck. 

■i. ■• 0.07X; ■■ 0.blH; bravlili at annihO.OSt. 

a. ■• QlMi •■ U,Uii; br«*.liti apiHxIi* mvu b ilU78. 

I>in>LuatA rvntroRMiH. — Kniv. Sli4-ll of dirtgUKi flnrai 
1. Unitih OOtll: brF<u|it>l).<M>t; brtnJiIi ofniok na.l aiHUihO.MI. 



DirrtCOU aiu^iila. — Karv. tilwll ypllutristi.ini-arpimlMl wlUi 
UoreorlMobTOwntNfa dirt anil wuil. Farm UcnitHithurical ; nMioth J 

I. UrviJlliO.llKt; litlfkl 0.09. 

(;e!<tb«fvxi8 achlkata. — Uafi'. Shell irpalr brnwn chiUnoid 
laembraiic incorporaitxl with morL- or li-ea dirt and Mtnd ; wtUb 
fOanwT grains uf the laUar dlong the cournv of the uiiuilj- aEs 
■•liltwft. Mouth o¥»l. with a mon- or Iphi hIiuh.h* liorder, 

silili of mouth 021. 

ulb 0.03 bj 0.021. 

Hblkopeba PKTRiroi.A. — Oeva^ionnl; shell iiiror|Miratcd witli 
more or loss dirt niid s.ind, and of a j>uri)Iit*b brown tint. 
1. LtniibO.O!) ; brtiilil>n.'>T8: breadth of luouih n.OI2. 

■2. ■■ 11.108; ■■ r.llll ; ■■ ■■ O.dW. 

KuoLVPitA AREULATA, Hhr. — Small compressed forms, without 
Mliines or other apiHJudaj'''''- Abundant- Appsrcntlv from six to 
tifleeii teeth to the nnHith of the shell. .M<)Htly empty shell-. 


Nebela collaris. — Occasional. Flask-like forms, with the 
usual variations in the condition of the cancellated structure of the 
shell ; sometimes finely punctate, but mostly with distinct circular 
cancelli, more or less uniform or greatly varying in proportionate 
size. In several specimens the cancelli of the shell appeared to be 
like minute lenses or spheres, and to present an external con- 
vexity. Individual specimens measured were as follows : 

1. Length 0.06, breadth 0.036, breadth of mouth 0.018. 





























IIyalosphenia tincta ? — One specimen only. Sarcode enc3'sted 
as a ball 0.048 diameter, containing much brownish food and 
bright yellow oil-like globules. Shell structureless, pale 3'ellowish, 
with a pair of pores piercing the body above the junction of the 
neck. The specimen looked like a Nebela flabellulum, but the j\ 
inch magnifying power showed no structure to the shell. 

Length 0.0i59. breidth 0.072. breadth of m .uth 0,024, length of neck 0.0045. 

DiPFLUOiA globulosa. — Rare. Small forms with shells of fine 
sand and dirt. From hemispherical to globular and with circular 

1. Breadth of shell 0.06, height 0.042, breilth of mouth, O.OIH. 

2. *• •* 0.06. •' 0.018. " »• 0.0l'4. 

Difflugia constricta. — Rare. Siiell of yellowish dirt and 
j*and. • * 

Length 0.072, breadth 0.072. 

Difflugia arcula. — Rare. Shell hemispherical, brownish, in- 
corporated with dirt and fine sand ; mouth trilobate. 

Brendth 0.132, height 0.09, breadth of mouth 0.048. 

Heleopeba petricola. — Occasional. Purplisli brown, with 
variable proportions of incorporated sand. 

1. Length 0.09, breadth 0.078, breadth of mouth 0.042. 

2. " 0.096, '» 0.078, •' *• 0.036. 

FHooKBHiKaa t>r tiik aoapbkt or 


. Uapb O.D24. <)riMdili aoib ; braJih of moaib 0.006. Pyrirsim. 
•■ nfii, •■ (i.01Bi " 

•• 0.0S6. " O.oaij " " 0.011 Ob*»^4. 

6. •■ t'SHI. ■■ «.(», ■• •• 0,012. PyrifiKia. 

» &Qi5. 0.m I •■ O.OtS. Onlaiaad S i«l« 

Im» (iMkrca rnim O.OOfl lo Il.OUa In d 



brMaUi at niRilh 0.012. 


• OMi 

" 0.016. Na*laiuaOIZ 


• OM; 



• 0.08a 



* (UMSi 

" 0.0W, 


• 0.0<: 

.. .. 


• 0,W3 

.. •• 


• 0.08 J 

•■ 0.01 a. 


> 0.03; 


It U wiirlliy at B|ii^i-la1 remark that amniii; tliv IUibE(>)io<U nf cIk- 
«|>luii{nnia (if lliikii Ml., thntv w«>rH nlnu-rvwl uo iniliv>diuU» of 
Uyalonphrnia papUia trnd tt. elt^nrtu, wUich »n *o conimon in t)it- 
«plia^0U8 »waui>s of the eastern plains. 


locomotive coDdition. Small forms common ; giant forms few, 
Individual specimens noted as follows : 

1. Length 0.078, breadth 0.06 ; breadth of mouth 0.018. Compressed oval ; 

2. Length 0.078, breadth 0.06 ; breadth of mouth 0.018. Oval with short 
neck. Empty shell ; oanoelli circular, variable, the largest 0.006, the smallest 

8. Length 0.078, breadth 0.06 ; breadth of mouth 0.012. Oval with short 
neck; living, active; nucleus, 0.12. 

4. Length 0.081, breadth 0.054; breadth of mouth 0.018. Empty shell, 
with sharply defined circles, large and small, together with a few rods. 

5 Length 0.084, breadth 0.042; breadth of mouth 0.018; with neck 0.018 
long. Empty shell, with minute circles on the neck, but unusually large in 
proportion to the shell on the body where they ranged from 0.006 to 0.012. 

6. Length 0.084, breadth 0.048; breadth of mouth 0.018. Flask-like empty 
shell, with minute circular cancelli 0.003 or less. 

7. Length 0.084, breadth 054; breadth of mouth 0.012. Flask-like empty 
shell minutely and uniformly cancellated. 

8. Length 0.081, breadth 0.06 ; breadth of mouth 0.015. Oval, empty. 

9. Length 0.09 , breadth 0.072; breidth of mouth 0.('2l. Flask-like. 

10. Length 0.096, breadth 0.078 ; breadth of mouth 0.024. Pyriform ; neck 
0.006 long ; cancelli circular, variable in size, a few on the fundus to 0.012. 
Sarcode an encysted ball, with yellowish oil-like food globules ; diameter of 
ball 0.048. 

Some giant forms especially noted were as follows : 

11. Length 0.18; breadth 0.09; breadth of mouth 042. Living; shell 
nearly replete with sarcode, colorless but containing a multitude of bright 
yellowish and brown globules from 0.006 to 0.012. 

12. Length 0.21; breadth 0.12; breadth of mouth 0.048. Empty shell of 
faint yellowish tint ; basis of structure faintly and uniformly punctate with 
only distinct minute circular cancelli approaching the fundus. 

18. Same site as preceding. Shell mostly of minute circular cancelli, larger 
near the fundus and there mingled with a few square ones. Shell closed by an 
operculum. Sarcode contracted into an oval mass 0.144 by 0.()72. 

14. Length 0.192; breadth 0.102; breadth of mouth 0.048. Shell with 
minutely cancellated structure. Sarcode in a ball 0.084 by 0.072. 

Nebela flabellulum. — This form comparatively rare. Shell 
nearly circular in outline, with a short neck, mostly composed of 
minute circular cancelli more or less nearly uniform or variable ; 
rarely of elliptical cancelli. 


have l)een regarded as the chief elements in proilncinp^ the resiili-*. 
That admirable hotanint and energetic collector, Dr. C. (.'. rarr\ . 
in a payer on the Rocky mountain alpine region, publiHhe<l in thr 
** Procc»cdingft of the American Association for the A<lvancement 
of Science '' for 1809, p. 249, remarks tliat the most satisfactor v ex- 
planation in that the 8o called timlx^r line marks the extreme point 
of mijiimnm temperature l)elow wiiich no exjxjsed phenogamf>n-» 
plant can exist. AH that survives alK>ve this point does so l»y 
submitting to a winter burial of snow, beneath which protectini: 
cover it is enabled to maintain its torf)id existence. 

The great objection which this purely mettnirological view pr»»- 
sented to Mr. Meehan's mind was tliat the dwarfed and gnnrlt'il 
coniferae extending so many hundred feet up the mountain sitle**, 
never produced seed, and we are reduced to the alteniative of 
l>elieving either that the seeds have been carritni up the mountain 
sides in enormous quantities and to enormous distances from tlit* 
fruitive trees below by winds, or else that there were seed U^aring 
progenitors of these scnibby pines, beneath the tall proU'Cting 
branches of which they had their earliest stages of growth. Hv 
was satisfied from subse(pient obser^'ations in the m<mntains «if 
Xorth Carolina, and in the White Mountains of New Ham|>sliir*\ 
that this hiht view is the correct one, — that large timber tret* ?* nr 
no ver^' remote period extended much further up the mountain 
sides than they do now, and that they have since disappeariHl fi»r 
reasons presently to be stated, leaving only the younger tnM*s t«> 
struggle on as Ix^st they may. 

Roan Mountain in North Carolina is about C:^00 feet abi>vf th«' 
IfVrl (»f tlu" sra. TiinluT «'\l«"!uls to il*- Nuininit nij «^(niii' i»:trt«- of 
it, Nvliilr in othrr pints it i> (K"^tilut(' ot'tiiiilM r toriij:m\ Imnh*-!-. 
• »r tVct <lowii its sidrs. 'I'lic sprcio <ni tlir ^MiiiTnit i" A'"' - 
Frti.tri, ;iii«l J/'/'S fn'jrn. ()i\k Mini ot lnr t iti'-h <'niiH^ M.-.:i>iMi,:i!i \ 
to iH*:ir tin* top :imi :it jilMUit ♦WkmI t'ri't lie iii«':i*-nml :i Mink «'Mk - 
(^ho ft "S it m fnrin , \\ini WM^ .'> Irrt ill rircMIIlf'tTflHr Mt .'J f"r» t t"l.»in 

tlh* L:roMn<i, Mini u:is ]u'iIim|in 4(M\M't liiiili. Thr plMtf*. «|«'^t <t i:!i' 

"t" t rr«'N wtTr thr ^ti-cp «l»'rli\ it irs. uliiK' tln»«^r <•]! uln«h t*i- 
t Irr*^ \\VH' [rr{iw'\l\ir w^'\^r ot' :i lllni*- h\ rl »liM I'Mrttr. i'llltln-! <l<«\\!i 

flic inouiitMin si«l<'*- the strrp inrlinr^ n><hjM Im- tlotln-il \Nith Un* ^* 
jrowlli. M"^ \s'v\\ :is tlio«^f nt" a nicrr uri'hiMl a^ci'iit. it i-^ «•!' !!,• 
^nimiiit Mills tliat tlir <lit!'« ifiHc-s in inrlinat i<»ii, pn-* nt» <! l;:!"*!* •.• 
!"«»rr>-t a-^pcfts. Uiit in tin- spiuT^ <iiar <►!' •• UaUaiii "*.<-• lu .1' « 
/•'/•// ' /■/ is pMpulaiU kiH>\\ n, an «n'<a'-i< »iial Mill' nf" '_^.M>«1 -i/i- \\..«,j;| 

^H' *^trn. In tin* rlnsr H.iJvMni \V<hmU. Iiofli oil tin- '-iMiin i^ Ml I 

loWfi down tin- nionntain '-i«l«*«-. <'rop«s <»r voniii: plMUt-- U'»m1.| • . 
lound ninh'T^ tin* niatnr** tift"^, ImU, wLat \va*« \«i\ i « i.i n k:(* .. 
tlnTf liad «'N idfiitU hern no N oiin^ 1 IT*'-- ^tart«<l till t!ii- i'i;»-;'- 
wrvv Ui'iw maturity. A lai'L'** ana with tr»«*» .".o ,.j (n ♦, , • 
liijj^li would lia\*' an nndiTLirow tli of nouiil: onr^ a l"««"f oi ^ . ;.:_* 
whilr ntluT arms of yoniij^rr tivc'^, would havr innunMiMl«'t ^i., ♦ ! 
seetUings growing among the damp nio«.^ I««inatn il.rni. mi 


EoQLTPHA 8TBIQ08A. — Compressed, hirsute forms. Occasional. 
Usually with about ten teeth to the mouth of the sljell ; scales 
distinct; finely hirsute all over except near the mouth. 

1. Length 0.102, breadth 0.072; breadth of mouth 0.02 1 : hnird 0.008 long. 

2. *• 0.108, " 0.06 ; " . " 0.021; •* 0.012 *' 

EuGLYPHA BRACHiATA — One empty shell observed, with but one 
divergent spine, and five or six teeth to the mouth. 

1. Length 0.102; breadth 0.01 ; breadth of mouth 0.012 ; length of Hpine 0.042 

Edglypha cristata. — One empty shell, with acute fundus, but 
without spines, and four teeth to the mouth. 

1. Length 0.51 ; breadth 0.012; breadth of mouth 0.009. 

EuGLYPiiA CTLiATA. — Comprcssed forms, with short spines or 
hairs along the acute lateral borders. Rare. Nucleus 0.018. 

1. Length 0.108; breidih0.06; breadth of mouth 0.021 ; hairs or spines 0.012 

long. Ten teeth to mouth of the shell. 

2. Length 0.1(»2; breadth 0.072; breadth of mouth 024; spines 0.008 long. 

Nucleus of 8arc<)de disiinctiv and uniformly granular (breaking up 
into spores?), 0.018 diameter. Ten or twelve teeth to mouth of the 

Placocista spinosa. — One specimen observed, living, but the 

ample sarcode contracted and containing a transversely oval nucleus 

with two nucleoli. 

1. Length 0.084, breadth 0.054; breadth of mouth 0.021. Lateral spinas 

short hair-like, single or in pairs, 0.009 long. Nucleus 0.021 by 0.018 ; 

nucleoli 0.003. 

Assulina seminulum. — Moderately frequent; from nearly 
colorless to dark brown, mostl}' lighter at or near the mouth. 
Living and dead specimens observed. 

1. Length 042. breadth 0.0)6, breadth of mouth 0.012. 

" »* 0.012. 

** ** 0.018. 

*' 0.024. 

" 0.024. 

" 0.024. 

TttiNEMA ENCHELYS — Frequent and of varied form and size, 
though none of the largest variety observed. Usually pyrifoim ; 
often oval ; rarely obovoid; of varied proportionate length and 
breadth, of narrowing opposite the mouth, and degree of obliquity. 
Mostl}' dead shells, though frequent living individuals observed 
Ranging from 0.024 to 0.072 in length. Specimens presented the 
following measurements. 
















0, 7. 




*M iwx-EEWiNds or xnc acadekt or [1888. 

of ihig are numerous. Tbore in now a railrowl raniiitrg rtraight 
up the mouiiluiu side fW>m tW baw lo the auiDmtt- N«»r tb* 
llmlx-r lltie. « <-tii Uad lo be made tUrooftli an atet corm-^ by 
uiatiiri' ItulKani Kint. Thb t-ol wan about 8 or 10 fppt 'lrc|i. 
riidcr the tr«e* idoim and diud n«<)U nod old flr Imrva lind madr 
Ml) earlhv »tmttt of a ftxil, fir in plnpea, more in d«|)tli. Tb^ mf>"» 
W1IA itlill ^nfn rrom the mln», melting kdmith, and fofci of thi* 
cWated ri'gion, am) MHHtnining the variuii* kindi of low vc-gt-ta- 
lion ciimnujn K) thew- alpltir ht-ight*. Voubr fin w«« spriU|nnK 
■t|> in (p-ent almndanpif . Hntnll thrlarp-r trtfcuwere denl.tbonipi 
itcro anil there might Iw wwn a hrancrb with a few llngorltt|r urevn 
JpnTcH. Thi" man" iifdrad, AtnnilinR timber ocirnpwd itc-vcnu acre*. 
Thr rrason fur th«ir dratli was evidBnt. The railrntul oat alKiwed 
Dmt the r<ire)'t stowl on u maftN of birgv hnt Uiomi gn*U» rodu. 
Ihrongh whi«h the wsteiit from the two thonsanil ftiet nf Wutt rock 
sbore riii>hi?d rh soon an the railroad cut was nuule, mrrytn^ with 
it all the i-ailhv matter on which the larger ttn-a ■iitmimod. but 
loavinit the tongb tiiriS- matter nt the aurfacc, on which nmalli-r 
lre*B of the same sort may llvu for many jeara, thtnigli thi- larjipTr 
oBM cannot lunger exist. With the dealli of the Larger irM 
there is, of eourae, nu iocreasu of light, and then thr BirrorhH 
whli otfaer graHtea and sedgtta, H|>eMlily take poMiMaion, hnl(Ii«| 
together the loose boII, and evirn (lormittiug In many nww" f 
liiereafte of the earthy layer, by holding mneb of the diaiutegntt* 
i-«>ek which may be waiiheil or blown on from ab«ivr. 4'areriiH_ 
.-Xiimiiiiiig jHiU'lii-, ..f -^oriil.l.y -|)riio'" iilmvf llie IlmbiT llli.-. it Bf" 

slick may be pushed down among the SL-riibhy flrs and apruces. 
and the earth found to l>e but a foot or ao deep over the looae 
rock below, from wbioh the earth haa been wholly washed away. 
Again, there are some places often nearly an acre in extent where 
ihe Bcnibby Are are still standing, dead, from the earth having 
iieen waehotl away from l>elow upwards, not leaving enongh fur 
Kven the moderate demands of these little buahea. 

In view of the facta detailed we may condnde that at the 
i-levation of these mountain chains, the lowland vegetation w»a 
carried np at the same time. The summits, covered by hixiiriant 
foH'Sts would present a cooler snrface to the moist clonds, ami 
there wonld l>e less condensation than on bare snn-warmed rocka, 
!ind deej) snows wonld be less fretjuent, and not sufilcient to inter- 
fere much with arlK>real (jrowth. Unt the rain would ofnccr-a-.ity 
larry down the earth and disintegrated rock to lower levels; and 
the melting snows, snch as tliere were, would make this downwani 
progress ol' the soil vontiniioiis. In some mountains where the rock 
was easily broken by in Colorado and the White Mountains, 
it wonld Iw' very <rilIlMill forthe soil to iiold its own against ihvs<- 
liiices of gravitation : Imt im more solid rock the maaa of tr*e 

\ \ , ■; \ - » N I • I . • : \ I 


V \! 


have been regarded as the chief elements in producing the results. 
That admirable botanist and energetic collector, Dr. C. C. Parry, 
in a paper on the Rocky mountain alpine region, published in the 
*' Proceedings of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science " for 1869, p. 249, remarks that the most satisfactory ex- 
planation is that the so called timber line marks the extreme point 
of minimum temperature below which no exposed phenogamous 
plant can exist. AH that survives above this point does so by 
submitting to a winter burial of snow, beneath which proteotim^ 
cover it is enabled to maintain its torpid existence. 

The great objection which this purely meteorological view pre- 
sented to Mr. Meehan's mind was that the dwarfed and gnarled 
coniferae extending so many hundred feet up the mountain sides, 
never produced seed, and we are reduced to the alternative of 
believing either that the seeds have been carried up the mountain 
sides in enormous quantities and to enormous distances from the 
fruitive trees below by winds, or else that there were seed bearing 
progenitors of these scrubby pines, beneath the tall protecting 
branches of which they had their earliest stages of growth. He 
was satisfied from subsequent observations in the mountains of 
North Carolina, and in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
that this last view is the correct one, — that large timber trees at 
uo very remote period extended much further up the mountain 
sides than they do now, and that the^^ have since disappeared for 
reasons presently to be stated, leaving onl}- the younger trees t«j 
struggle on as best they may. 

Koan Mountain in North Carolina is about 0300 feet above the 
level of the sea. Timber extends to its summit on some parts of 
it, while in other parts it is destitute of timber formally hundreds 
of feet down its sides. The species on the summit is Abt*^'.< 
Frazeri, and Ahiei^ nujra. Oak and other trees eoni^ oecasioiially 
to near the top and at about GOOO feet he measured a black oak — 
Qucrciti< linctoria, that >vas f) feet in circuni Terence at 3 feet from 
the (T^round, and was perhaps 40 feet hiirh. The places destitute 

of trees were the steep declivities, — while those on which the 
trees were ixrowinir were of a more level character. Further down 
the mountain sides the steep inclines would he clothed with forest 
ucrowth, as well as those of a more iirradual ascent. It is of the 
suniniit only that the ditferences in inclination, presented ditferent 
forest asi)e(,'ts. Hut in the space's clear of" Balsam *' as the Af'irs 
Frazrrl is |)opularly known, an occasional one of jrood size wouhl 
he seen, in the close Balsam woods, both on the sununit and 
lower down the mountain sides, cro])s of younji l)lants wouM be 
tbund under the mature trees hut, what was verv remarkable, 
there had evidentlv been no vounuj trees started till the i^arent^ 
were near maturity. A lar^ic area with trees 30 or 40 feel 
liiiih would have an undergrowth of vouuir ones a foot or so hijrh. 
while other areas of younger trees, would have innumerable small 
seedlinirs irrowino; anionic the damp moss beneath them, and it 


was further interesting to note tliat in most cases the crops of 
young plants in each area were about the same age in each case, 
as if the seeds in the several locations ha<i all started to grow 
together in some one particular year, and probably at no other time. 
On the naked places, where few or no trees were now found, the sur- 
face would be closely covered by a matted growth of a grass almost 
peculiar to that region, Danthonia conipressa^ but a close examina- 
tion of the surface showed occasional tracts of deep vegetable 
mould which had been formed by ages of decaying Hypnum or 
iSphagnum moss, and the evident remains of roots, just as we now 
find under the Balsam trees, and there is no doubt from these 
facts that these steep upper declivities were once clothed with 
trees and mosses, to which the grass previously named succeeded. 

With these facts in mind he examined the arboreal features of 
the White Mountains in New Hampshire. On Mouiit Washington, 
which is a little over 6000 feet, the timber runs up to about 4000 
feet; while Mount Webster, a mountain forming the southern 
peak of the same chain, and about 4000 feet high, has little timber 
above 3000 feet. Clearly, climatic reasons will not account for 
these peculiarities. On Mount Washington there is much of the 
same character as distinguishes the forests of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. As already noted the timber line becomes marked at about 
4000 feet. For at least another thousand feet we meet witli 
scrubby bushes of Abies Balsamea, Abies nigra^ and Abies alba^ 
with some Betula papyracea. Beyond this, and almost to the 
summit, an occasional specimen of one or another of the conifera* 
may be seen. As noted in regard to the Colorado scrubby growth, 
none of these had ever produced seed ; nor was it at all probable, 
from a careful survey of the locations, that many of the areas 
could have been seeded by the winds, however strong, bringing 
the seeds up these mountain heights. Moreover, there were many 
eases where there were intermediate areas clear of all scrubby 
spruce plants, and where seeds could be brought by winds in 
these modem times much easier than to the heights above. 
Besides this, it was evident that many of these dwarfed specimens 
were of immense age. Some that he examined were certainly 
fifty yeai*s old, though the stems at the ground wei-e no thicker 
than his wrist, and, trailing on the ground, occupied but 
16 or 20 square feet of space. There seemed to l>e but littk 
doubt that at some time in the past Mount Washington had 
forests of coniferce at much higher elevations than at i)resent, if 
not perhaps clean up to the summit ; that these scrubby plants 
now there were seedlings that had sprung up under the elder 
ones, and that in time the older ones were destroyed, leaving th«» 
small ones beneath alone to their fate. 

An examination of different parts of Mount Washington shows 
not only that this is the true explanation of the absence of good 
timber beyond what is known as the timber line, but that the 
same law is in progress to day as in centuries past. Illustrations 


magUter^ (U. S. P. R. R. Exp. k Surveys — Zoology, viii, 1857. 

Remains of other mammals are aH follow : Lynx, FelU t^na- 
deFiifvs: Wolf, Cants lupus; Gray Fox, Vulpes virginianun : 
Skunk, Mephitis mephitica ; Weasel, Pu tortus ermineus : Raccoon^ 
Frocyon lotor ; Mole, Scalops aquaiicus ; Dusky Bat, Vesf)ertiIio 
/use us ; Little Brown Bat, V.subulatus; Woodchuek, Arrtomy» 
monax ; Porcupine, Erethizon dorsatus : Bearer, Castor fiber ; 
Muskrat, /Vfter zihethicus ; Gray Squirrel, Set i/ni* canAinennis : 
Ground Sc^uirrel, Tamias striatus : Gray Rabbit, Lepun sylxHUi- 
cus : Meadow Mouse, Arvicola rifyarius ; White-footed Mouse, 
Uesperomys leucopus ; Deer, Cervus virginianus : Elk, Cervus 

Among the remains, none have been 1dentifie<l as positively 
()ertaining to our domestic animals, unless, perhaps, a pair of 
specimens are to be referred to this category. The specimens are 
the complete isolated first and second large molars of a fcvtal or 
new-bom Horse I 

The collection further contains numerous bird l>ones, chiefly of 
the Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopai^ ; some of turtles, the Box 
Turtle, Cistudo clausa^ the Snapi)er, Chelydra serpentina, etc.; 
and others of several species of snakes. 

In the same stratum were also found a number of shells of 
mollusks, chiefly Helix albolabris, IL alternata^ and H. tridentcUa, 
Also a valve of Unio vomplnnatus. 

Of vegetal remains there were a few small fragments of charcoal, 
and many 8ee<ls, consisting of those of the Dogwoo<l, Ctyrnus 
tlnrnln^ V\<l'U\\X, Cnrifn jutrrinn, and Walnut, Jmfhins ni'jrn. 

Tlir hiiiiijin rt'inaiii'^ an* <;!' an intcMrstin^ rharactt-r. Oih- i** a 
lar;::t' stone celt <>f' lianl liiown slate, obtained tV«»nithe lunie earth 
sonie <listan<e witiiin the cave. There are live lione awN. *»e\eTal 
ot* which exhihit marks of jjnawini:. S(Hne ot' thes*- wen* t*«nin«l 
in the <ave, an<l <>ther> in the out^ijle <h'l»ris. An implement «M»n- 
si>ts <>r the jnonir <»1 mii antler worke*! no a*^ to 1m* harlnMl mi one 
>i«le. an<l was |»robal»ly nse<l as a nee<lle tor makinir net*-. 

A -^mall imphnieiit ot'hone, ic-i'mldes in it** |»re*-ent conditi»»n 
a crochet nee<lle sncli as i^ now emploscil h\ la<lies in makiiii: 
wor-^ted work. It is mnch i:nawe<l awas on one >i(le. and look*- 
a> it" it mav \\\\\v been like an nr«linary neetlle with a pertoration. 
aiiil ti»i^ now ien«lere<l incomph'te from the :^nawin«^. 
An<»ther imph'ment is a ti-^h-hook worke<l ont ol' bone. 
Siicli 1m. iM- implements are amoni: the rarc-t of human relic^ in 
nlir poi ! i< .11 i »!' t lie count r\ . 

Au<'tii»r irm.-irkai'lr relir i> a «one -Nhell bore«l tliiounh tin' m\i«» 
:iv a br.i'l. 'I'hr *»hrll i-^ a marine -^pecir-s, (Jnn'is f^miif u ^ , 1<miii.1 
on th« NNr^i* rii « o:i-<t oii'mtral America. It> pi e*.en«'e anion-j r h« 
, :i\i iniKdii^. woiiM iu-licatr an e\ten«b'<l iutercoui'^i' amoni: The 
iiih:il'itaiit - «»f 'ailN t imrs. 

^\TVR«I ««ll\<l**'l I III! \l>tl rillA 


T '•• r. \ ■ •! .J it ■•fi •■! '1.1 iTi't ! I -t !./ • < 'I !• • • !■ Ill • •!' [I III i: Ti* *« • iir* •! 
M- V\''\. ' "»-J .. ■! I'l-' I '.. . \ .•/. I.. I -til i' ;.-.:'.,? .-h ..! 
■ «» • • :* • M .•- 'I >'* * • • \ • i«|i ii; \ . w 'i ■ : ' I I ' • • ;i I •• *• li'i -I 
• »r !■ ''•*.■•'. . . «r - I J- . a* • " t'l , I . .' ' . I'l . . • ■ ■ • - in.i 
ft • « . X. '• I I |» .: t.:i<. « .« • . l: k- I ' I'l 1 !.. . i\i 

»,.•!•• !■• ■»■ •!,•• '-•••.■■' fiii'i I ii''.» .- •.■ ■■! Iri.i 

• '. • « \ • ■ • ! '. • ■■• Mi. J- • M li' i" ■• ■■! ' • - • r ■:.-■•?'- 1.1 - 

■I •••■ T»- ■^■' /• ' i«i«'*i .l"^- ••■i\-'l-^-.;«i ■■..! klili<ti« 

f •• •• ••.Mr-.. Ti . i: i. 'l .1- ' ■• . • ■ i ii". •• ^* •■'..■?. •■ ' • 

]'■ * I • \\ n J.. .! ki 1 • ' 1* '!»•■.. U.i:i - .». 


I - I ■ • ■ r.ii II 

■ I 

'• ■■' 11 if* M IT. - < 1- • in 1 ' ■ ! I I 

■ I I I : i • ■ 1 1 ^• 

7- - i:. . k i;. a . / r .' . i; .. . ^w tiL III ., 

\ \ 1». . : M — — I W —-I «!. I K. -. i. . • i: - I . 

'.•.,*.••• K* • •. I'i. 1 . . • M *K • •■ V ' .. T.. \\ • — I- ' . k. 

I ■ • 1 ill. • %• ■ ■• 

I - - »* ■ ' l' ■ • . I \ I -T i' ..f. 

t.. • ■. •. • •■ • a. ••! 

^ • 1 • • • • ^ .1 . • 

I • ■ • \ . I • - - r ■ ' I •••'.. I \ • • ■ . k •••■■. 

. l; • i* • T ••..!.. '. • . •. . * ■ ,•••.•, I*- . \ ■ \ ,*... 

■ ._ ••■■■■■1. 

« •■•. *>■■ *. — 


M 1 





Mil « N 

I • 


I ■ • • 

t ■ 

• ■ ■ 


•••'■. * ■ . ' 

••t . ■ • . 1 * \* 

I. .ft M ' . \ • I 


\\ \\ 

I I 



tiftlSt:- . 

Skim I.. 
/'/>• '■ 

/A . 

Il« ■ 




The remains thns far discovered are of such interest as to 
encourage Mr. Paret to continue f\irther exploration Most of 
these collected to the present time were exhibited by Prof. Leidy, 
and consist of the following*: 

Numerous fragments and splinters of limb bones of smaller and 
large animals, many or most of which exhibit the marks of being 
gnawed, whether by rodents or small carnivores is somewhat un- 
certain. A few also show the marks of canine teeth, of mediuna 
sized carnivores. Some of the splinters pertain to such large and 
strong bones as to render it questionable whether they were pro- 
duced by even our largest carnivores, and probably are the rem- 
nants of human feasts, in which the bones were crushed to obtain 
the marrow. Numerous bones and fragments of others of the 
smaller and smallest animals. These include especially limb 
bones, and lower jaws, and less frequently skulls, fragments of 
others and vertebra;. Many of these are also gnawed, while many 
are not. 

The fragments of larger Ix)ne8 may be supposed to have been 
conveyed into the cave by small carnivores. 'A few pieces of bone 
are somewhat charred ; and a small fragment of a lower jaw, con- 
taining a molar tooth, of the Bison, also apparently exhibits 
the marks of fire. This probably is a remnant from a human 
feast, which may have l)een carried into the cave by some small 

All the bones and fragments together amount to about half a 
bushel. Most of them pertain to animals of a kind still living, 
though some of these no longer belong to the fauna of our state, 
and a few of the remains are those of extinct animals. How far 
the remains of different 8i>ecics are cotcraporary is uncertain, 
though it is most probable that they were introduced through a 
long succession of years from the time following the glacial period. 

The remains of extinct animals consist of an incisor tooth and 
lialf a dozen molars of the great rodent Gastoroides ohioensis, 
and portions of the upper and lower jaw, with teeth, of a young 
Peccary, the Dicotyles iiasutus, previously known only from a 
single fragment of an upjKJr jaw, discovered in Indiana, (Extinct 
Mammalia of North America, 385, pi, xxviii, figs. 1, 2. Jour. 
Acad. Nat. Sc, vii, 1869). 

The remains of animals no longer living in Pennsylvania are as 
follows : 

Bones and teeth of the Caribou or Woodland Reindeer, 
Rangifer caribou. 

A fragment of the lower jaw containing the last molar tooth, of 
the Bison, B, americanus. 

Many lower jaw halves, and other bones and teeth of the Wood- 
rat, Neotoma Jloridana, Most of these are of comparatively large 
size, and of the character of similar remains referred by Prof. 
Baird to. a supposed extinct species, with the name of Neotoma 


magister^ (XJ. S. P. R. R. Exp. & Surveys — Zoology, viii, 1857 ^ 

Remains of other mammals are as follow : Lynx, Felis carta — 
densis; Wolf, Cams lupus; Gray Fox, Vulpes virginianus r 
Skunk, Mephitis mephitica ; Weasel, Putorius ermineus ; Raccoon^ 
Procyon lotor ; Mole, Scalops aquaticus ; Dusky Bat, Vespertilio 
fuscus; Little Brown Bat, V, subulatus ; Woodchuck, Arctpmys 
monax ; Porcupine, Erethizon dorsatus ; Beaver, Castor fiber ; "V "^ 

M u skrat, i^ifeer zibethicus ; Gray Squirrel, Sciwrws carolinensis ; "St ^ 

Ground Squirrel, Tamias striatus ; Gray Rabbit, Lepus sylvcUi- — Ib-^ 

cus ; Meadow Mouse, Arvicola riparius ; White-footed Mouse, « ^^^ 

Hesperomys leucopus ; Deer, Gervus virginianus : Elk, Cervus 

Among the remains, none have been Identified as positively 
pertaining to our domestic animals, unless, perhaps, a pair of 
specimens are to be referred to this category. The specimens are 
the complete isolated first and second large molars of a fcetal or 
new-born Horse ! 

The collection further contains numerous bird bones, chiefly of 
the Wild Turkey, Meleagris gallopavo ; some of turtles, the Box 
Turtle, Gistudo clausa, the Snapper, Ghelydra serpentina^ etc. ; 
and others of several species of snakes. 

In the same stratum were also found a number of shells of 
moUusks, chiefly Helix albolabris^ H, alternata^ and H. tridentata. 
Also a valve of Unio complanatus. 

Of vegetal remains there were a few small fragments of charcoal, 
and many seeds, consisting of those of the Dogwood, Comus 
Horida^ Pig-nut, Gary a porcina, and Walnut, Juglans nigra. 

The human remains are of an interesting character. One is a 
large stone celt of hard brown slate, obtained from the bone earth 
some distance within the cave. There are five bone awls, several 
of which exhibit marks of ^nawino;. Some of these were found '^ ^ 

in the cave, and others in the outside debris. An implement con- ^ 

sists of the ])rong of an antler worked so as to be barbed on one 
side, and was })rol)ably used as a needle for makin^: nets. ^ 

A small imi)lement of bone, resembles in its present condition ^^ 

a crochet needle such as is now em])loved by ladies in makinjj ^ 

worsted work. It is nuich o^nawed away on one side, and looks 
as if it may have been like an ordinary needle with a perforation, 
and this now rendered inconii)lete from the gnawing. 

Another implement is a iish-hook worked out of bone. j 

Such l)one ini|)leinents are among the rarest of human relics in 
our portion of the country. ^ 

Another remarkahle relic is a cone shell bored through the axis 
as a bead. The shell is a marine spi^cies, Gomis fortiafus, found 
on the western coast of Central America. Its i)resence among the 
cave remains, would indicate an extended intercourse among the 
inhabitants of early times. 

11 «Ti HAL "■ i»^< tn III riiti AiiEi rill « 


rr in |Ki*f «i-jir« ttii-i ii'i'i '■•riii 'ur* it tlii* ii.-iiiti«i "T 

■ ill *«- ri iiH iiil^-rt I * I..1T ••• • i«ii<ii i!i\ .11 I til ! i • ■? • ••rr> * : • 

• f.ii L -■ !|it «t.i(ii (..iT' iiiMi !!"Wtr 'ii- . I jMi** r •!' 

• if I i-r •! tif • r iii.\i -I Mm •• j! 1 »•• ■ 'Th. f ■ ■ i i ) -• . i iS 

ir fli <•• r •.'•■• lit J I1 .• iiii- -ii^' ! In -■ iiii n .'• • :i» ■• ' ". i» ! 

» .•f.^r\i'l Mil! '-.r ■ .•-•iti|!!rit •!,•.••'.. •:. \ "^ri*. • 

I :•? itfi fT'!i ! ' • ri ,j- I? I w ■• . ! ■!• \ ■ !• j'li.i ;.• J • Ji 1* •- • ii 

I M..II 1 " »li? ■ J" Ik ?t • «i W..i » ■ ■ '.' ' !"T V '» 'Jl J •.'.. . 1: 

. ♦•. li.r •:.«• f.' 4.' • . .; !•• i! II. 1:1 I \ J ■? ■■ I' ■ • . .t • ! . ! 

1 li> V « « \| I I M « \ r • 'I ; Ki I ; !. 

• » .■ 

, , • •• • 

i . I • '• I- 

afi^' * ■ • •• " ■ ■ - I.- ■• rii I V • ■ • r.t -• \ *. • • ' • . ■■ • » « . ■ ■ 
%l \ 'i.i • » ■ . v 

• ' I • ■ . ' . f • ■ 1 . M : •. w 

f : ;. 

• . . *' ' ,' 

• ■ ■ 


. - . • ' • ■ ' « !Mt It 

I • f . r . . ■ ••.»«.'- I • . ■ • 

• M. I{ 

i ■ ■ 1 \ 1 • . ■• i ' . : r . .■ • ' ■ I • • 

r '. T . 

■' w • - I r ■ . ■ ■ ■ .' ' ' ' ' ' 


• ■ ■ ^ 
•i » r.. •• . - • ' • 

I . . ■ 

I ' • • 

• / 

- • ■ M 

' I 


■ 11 

• . . . • . ■ 

1 ' • 

• ■ 

l*.. • 

l« ' . . . 

I ■ 
• ■ - t 

f -s 

t ■ 






t ' 

i - • 
> ■ 

I w 

i ■ \* - i I . '. ■ k . II- 

■ 1 

aisn *! ■ \ •■.\ ' •-. ti.- •■.',••. ..-*••■ ■. 1 

IaS'i ftrM* « fjf r« l!ir |>4Ali!« »ri !• « »■ i «c ., ^ ^t • • 'i.i . %:. 1 


3&2 pRof^KEnixan nr the Ai'Ai>KMy nr [ISM. 

floiM-ri!! gfrwwine: on a HU-m, tKiUuiii^lly called n »|nkc-, from four 
to six inchen in length, t.liom U-iiig from thiny to sixty flowrr* 
together. Tlieiw come from limln in tliP axiU of tht- fint Iwivr* 
of tbe fleanou, and arc compoiwl entirely of «tamin«t« l»ul>['l 
flowers. They are very ocloroatu when in fVill bloom, and often 9o 
abuudaut hs to (five Ibe trees a white Apjtearanoe when wen at a 
diHtftiiL'e. Aa «ooD aft tliwe flowers Bide, whioti la In a few dayv. 
a dlHurticulation takvH place close Lu tlie brunch, and Ibe apike 
blla to the ground. Al)Out ten dayn lBt«r. n Mcmtd floweriDH 
laki-a placNt, thf««> apikea coming fhoni the latiT axlllar.v twnl* of 
the m«iwn, and in*t«ad of httiag all atamlnatv a* in tliv Drat in- 
Nlftnrv, at thn baM> of tfaf «|iikc will tie fonnd one, wmi-limtM twu. 
varely more. piKtilintv (femnle) fli)weiii. ThTiw b»v ffrrltlinil h\ 
the Ktainiiiste flowrin that mv in bloonum Ht tliv aamn tfmr ; iIm' 
staniinate [>!trt of thi< opiku fall* iiway ntlcT Dowrrln|{, bnt tfa>- pi*- 
tillat« jMirt remainH attiu.'hoil to the branch, and develoiH-^ intci a 
bur, containing from two to flve or nil nnlh. Wlial may b«- the 
line of tbe tlrst net of blotinomn, ha» not yet dawned upnu the 
mind of man : it would seem a great wa^te of unerijO U> pnividt? 
for Kueli nu ahundanfe without a piiri>oBi-, but Die prtHligallty nf 
uuture la vltdble iu niunuroiw otht-T InotAnceH an well. 

Thi! variety iif foniia of tb« nut waa grent4!r in the Inoaltty n^ 
r«rn'<l to tlian hit had ever aeeu bnforu. One trmi wu* |iKrti<ruUrly 
attruitive, th« ahajM* of tlio bur Iwiug t-xactly pyrifonn inMitid of 
gloliiilar; it" eheatiiut«. of coune, cvmiajwrnlini; (ornvwhat in 
ahapo, bt>ing long and alini. 

Neon' tbv Mrattwrn line of tbv tr»<'t xv:ih f.MUht <.h- tr-- , And ^ 
afterward" in anothi-riwrt a«er'>iii) tr.. 1 1. . I, i> , II r. , i i lal 

notice. Till* roriiiiT "tis ;it'mil iw.'rilv '■ ■ * I I - - lu 

diameter, while the other was at least Heventydve feet in height, 
and more than two feet in diameter at the Ihiac, n very wide 
Hpreading and thrifty looking tree. In these, the later blossoms 
referred to, instead of being part staminate and part piatillate. 
have been all pistillate, conseijucntly were succec^led by burs all 
along the ttpike, niiml)ering in tliOMe coimtcd ftom flfly to sixty 
together, and hanging from the branches like bunches of gnpea. 
Kvery branch of the tree that bore any at all, had them of this 
character, so that there were doubtless hundreds if not thousands 
of them. An important jwinl is hen' manifested. These flowers 
being all pistillate, ami ibc staniinato ones (the tiret lilosHomn re- 
ferre<l to) having fallen, there wax nothing to fertilise tbem, cod- 
Hci|nently tbey could not attain much size nor develop ohestnatit 
within the liiir, except that rarely the flrst or xecond nearest the 
luiw cuntiiiniil tlin-c or very small nnls. Thene nut", bow- 
He h«d Ix'cu luiiihle to find luiy rwonl of such an ix-eurrence in 
this eoniitry N-fun', l>iit Hr. Masters reeordw it as having ln*n 
noted in France. Thi- Hn|M-rinten<ient of the grove to whom Ite- 
hin^'s the <redit of first itrlectirig these trees, could not say 

11 «Ti RAI. «i i» %• tn ill run «1»EI l-lll % 


li»'.:^f T. jiA*' %tnr» ?'.»\ !iii •-■rin ■ «jr* ri ! 

• 'I. \\ ■,• : 

'ji«ta .. •? ' - 'I.. •• irii i.i*. I!) .• ■• .1.- '. . . 

lai '. ■•••\. 1 '}.■»!• .r.. .-•!,.•••.. - ■'■.. 

k » '^ ' i". * « i!.» ■ * • • ' .' 1. " I 

* • •• • •. ' • V r I ■ ,." . . * .: i!. ■' i 1 . 

• • • • . - • . t , t • . • ' I . , ' 

• • . • 

- ■ .•!.■- r ..r 

: -■ 

■ . ■ ■ ■ .- T 

\ • *• . • I 

1" ■ .- ■- . !1 

■| . * ■ . I . 
• f 

■ I ■« • 

• • ' \ 4 ■ , - • ■ 

t k • • •. , 

■i • • ■ ■- \ • ' ■ . 


• I - • \ 

■ 'J 




\ 1 

» »• 

• . • 

• fc • 

«. ■ 

■ .•• 




u • •• * 

« I 


• m 

• a • 

b > 

• i « 
•..rr. ■*. f 

. * * ■■ 

^•. tW *m»^ »*f !?.. r:ii.. -J k. • r. ■ - 

« .« 

. '. 1 

. . ." • 




limr nnil [ilftiiUi which ItaTV « great nlmmhinoe of feiBik flownv^ 
in<li-<il, AutniiliiiinH pUnlH nliich an- whull.v fumalc. 

Id tlio cniH- nt tlicAti I'licittiiuU h*' wt^itld nut tay it <nu ■ * 
uf tmtritluti vrtiii-)i mmlt- tbcMi mimittll.v Tault tlttwvT* hecom^ ^M 
mull!. Tlinl wiut nut tiio viow of thf t-Mm. On tlic cooU 
WOK thftt Ik-Uit mitritivr ivdvitnlAg^-o )irvv&il<il to tnduenM I 
fVmuili- ntfx, ntid tlieoir long xpiki.-* '>r vtivnttint fnitt { 
tiu^t rslht^r tUxn iitti-rpuned an uhjfctioD. It •>■)> a iiiinple i 
tuii'onlroicrtpil hrX 1h»t tliow .rotinf; clicolDaU wt-n! b»iB|[ 
OouriMbed, v(iT(< iml>ihinfi; nutrition, wlitW if t)ipy tia<l li-cn itur- 
mal inulo llowerit, t)icv would have Iwen dvnd month* ngii. 
waH pvtdciit to the hciispb tliat uiilrition was in thr i!nd Invultnl, ^ 
BD'I «<■ oulv had to consider i 
tnOueiire wan felt. The old i 
ttu«alioti of notritioD followod 1 

hia TiewH doduceil ft'om the nomerous fsi'ta he liad gtiihlialimi ti 
the i]ueni(in, were thnt Dutritlnn. in iW vnriouB jihastM. wii» it^wlf 
the law-maki-T, An to the jirettt*-r powiT bfhliHl thii, which 
di!CTeed that Ibin ahoidd be the law, mid (hni the fuw xbtmld itrt^ 
duce vuiih evru divitihinB in th<- |>r(>|iortioii of Uie •«:«■•, it WM | 
ntiuLltur (iiiest)nii. Hu only clniuu^i that hix iliMUvi-rltM J 
bruumtht u« n i>te|i Dearer to this )ir«ulf r cjiuik. 

>t uiilritiofl was in the i!nd Invultnl. 
r at what point of eari; cell life Us J 
I idea wouh) ]>mbalily* br that thtm 
d the " fiat " which naulp Mat, whfln 

nntn^mnn fai^lja hfk IiaiI itnllluillRd cflK ' 

it wMi 


0<TiinEK i'2. 
The l*ri'Hi<lenl, Dv. Kt'sciiCNKKHUER, in the chair. 

Tliirlj-five iwrsonn |>rc»eut. 

OrniBER 1ft, 
l>r. It. S. Kkniikumne in ihc rlmir. 
T«,.ii;hl jH-rsoi.s ,,n.s,-„|. 

Till' I'ldiluiitioii Vo lilU'i- ri-iKntv-l in fav.T of )>iiblishiii)T Uw 

lolloniii;: |>:<|>,'i'-. ill the .lunruiil of thf Acaitoinv : — 
•■ Thf I'ara«it.-s ..f tli.^ T.-rmit.-s." h_v Jos. L.-idy. M. U. 
- lU'iii .rk< oil lh.llM^iiatlii.1 ori. iitali*.- l-v .low. I.eidv. M. P. 


whether in past years they had borne burs in this manner or 

It will be remembered that occasionally in a field of com the 
tassel, which is the staminate (male) flower, has a number of 
grains of com intermixed. These grains come from pistillate 
(female) flowers, occurring among the staminate ones ; thus it 
may be observed that our chestnut tree is not the only instance 
of deviation from the regular laws of development. It has been 
argued that a want of nutrition will account for this and similar 
instances, but the healthy appearance and vigorous growth of 
the trees in question is not such that a lack of nutrition can well 

Mr. Thomas Meehan remarked that he believed instances of 
the changes of flowers normally of one sex to the ot'uer, were oc- 
casionally met with, though he could not refer to many without 
further thought or investigation, but it occurred to him just then 
that it was not unusual for some normally male spikes in Carex 
to have female flowei*s among them. He had himself seen well 
developed ovariums among the aments of Populus alba, and the 
case of female flowers among the male catkins of willows, was 
well known to teratologists. Reference had been made to his 
papers on sex as influenced by nutrition. His view of sex, as 
well known, was that in the earlier stages, between the cessation 
of vegetative growth and reproductive growth, a vegetable cell 
might be either male or female, and that the power of that cell to 
assimilate nutrition, involved the question of sex. If a full sup- 
ply was received, the female form resulted; if limited, the male 
was produced. In most cases this assimilative power influenced 
only the branches or cells in the immediate vicinity' of the 
flowers. There might be no diflcrence in the cells of the whole 
plant in a general way to avail themselves of a full supply of 
nutrition. He did not know that there was greater vegetative 
strength in the plant of Maize, which bore some females among 
the " tassels " or males, tlian there was in the normal plant. 
There certainly was no difference in the vegetative strength 
of plants of separate sexes in many classes of plants. But 
there were instances which proved that the whole individual 
plant was influenced by laws of nutrition when the question 
of sex was involved. The female Hemp, the female Spinage, 
the female Croton, when the plants were wholly' bi-sexual, were 
cases he could rea(lily call to mind where vegetative vigor favored 
the whole plant. 

The common Ambrosia artemisisefolia, which often grows so 
thickly over cultivated fields as to appear as a regular farm 
crop, each plant fighting for nutrition with its neighbor, pro- 
duces almost wholly male blossoms ; the few females are found 
at the base of the male spikes. But when we go to the maize or 
the potato fields, where the plants are few and well fed, we may any 


time find plants which have a great abundance of female flowers, — 
indeed, sometimes plants which are wholly female. 

In the case of these chestnuts he would not say it was a want 
of nutrition which made these normally male flowers become fe- 
male. That was not his view of the case. On the contrary, it 
was that better nutritive advantages prevailed to influence the 
female sex, and these long spikes of chestnut fruit proved the 
fact rather than interposed an objection. It was a simple and 
uncontroverted fact that these young chestnuts were being 
nourished, were imbibing nutrition, while if they had been nor- 
mal male flowers, they would have been dead months ago. It 
was evident to the senses that nutrition was in the end involved, 
and wc only had to consider at what point of early cell life its 
influence was felt. The old idea would probably be that the 
question of nutrition followed the " fiat " which made sex, while 
his views deduced from the numerous facts he had published on 
the question, were that nutrition, in its various phases, was itself 
the law-maker. As to the greater power behind this, which 
decreed that this should be the law, and that the law should pro- 
duce such even divisions in the proportion of the sexes, it was 
another question. He only claimed tlmt his discoveries had 
brought us a step nearer to this greater cause. 

Note.— I have since learned through an old resident in the vicinity, that 
the large tree has borne such burs for many years, and that it is known 
throughout the neighborhood as the **he " tree. — I. C. M. 

October 12. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenbkroer, in the chair. 
Tiiirty-five persons present. 

October 19. 
Dr. R. S. Kenderdine in the chair. 

Twenty-eight persons present. 

The Publication Committee reported in favor of publishing the 
following papers in the Journal of the Academy: — 

'* The Parasites of the Termites,'' by Jos. Leidy, M. D. 

'' Remarks on Hathygnathus orientalis,'' by Jos. Leid}', M. D« 

1880.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 855 

October 26. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenberqsr, in the chair. 
Nineteen persons present. 

The deaths of Dr. Chas. H. Budd and of Joshua Lippincott, 
members, were announced. 

Samuel R. Knight, M. D., and Rev. Wm. F. C. Morsell were 
elected members. 

November 2. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenberqer, in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

Bain Trees, Note on Yucca gloriosa — Mr. Thomas Meehan 
referred to a branch of Yucca gloriosa^ exhibited a few evenings 
ago, taken from a plant growing in his garden, and which had 
flowered during September, the usual period for blooming near 
Philadelphia. Walking through his garden with Mr. Isaac C. 
Martindale, the latter had called his attention to moisture which 
covered the whole outer surface of the flowers, and collected in 
drops at the drooping apices of each leaf of the perianth. The 
plant was within a few days of going wholly out of bloom, but 
during these few days the exhibition of moisture continued, and 
the appearance of the leaves beneath showed tliat the dropping of 
liquid liad been going on for some time, and perhaps during the 
whole flowering season. There was no perceptible sweetness in 
the liquid, but the presence of ants indicated that it might possi- 
bly have a slightly saccharine character, tliough not sensible to 
4he human tongue. It was difficult to decide whether this liquid 
was an exudation from the leaves of the perianth or was simply 
an exercise of the power of condensing moisture in the atmo- 
sphere which some plants possessed, notably the Pithecelobium 
. Soman, Benth., famous as the " Rain-tree •' of Peru, which watered 
its own roots by the moisture condensed from the atmosphere, 
thus enabling the tree to live in almost rainless regions, if the 
reports of travelers are to be fully credited. He hoped to make 
further observations on the Yucca another vear. 

November 9. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenberoer, in the chair. 

Twenty-four i>ersons present. 

The resignation of Mr. Geo. Vaux as a member of Council was 
read and accepted. 


Tlw PiwMont, Ur. KcaniiMiuaiuciL in tbe dulr. 
TUt^ DMnbpn prcMni. 

NdVkmuks 30. 
Tlio I'r««iik-Dt , Dr. Ri:acue}tBKnu£K, lu thr trtulr. 
Thlrty-4ix ptrfHonn pn-wiit- 


.ViW." oit Ikr Avrf.i;(fMf/n *>/ H'ittaria — Mr, TlloHAt MmtAX 
roniArknl lliat lutut |>i-r*<io« knvw that spFcinl temperaturvA wvn 
required |i> ioBurv iti« lEi-rmitiaUoti of rarioaa •««da. The con- 
mon cliK'kwefal gxTDiinniH at a little abov« fVpcxing |Mlnt, ■hilr 
ouc uf TO ' wtu* r>N|Uirr<1 )i,v nx^t italmt. H«at aftil moUtutv hail 
also a varyfnir inlluonoi.' on tbe o[>eDlii|> or fMvd-t cmmU, nome 
rvijulrini; more »r Icns than others. He exblMtrd mjiui- •««<]- 
veeAclx "f Il'iVanVi <rri'-n«i'a and n'i'tlaria /rulem-ent, tw illi»trM« 
■ tbe point A box, tour inchfe deep, irltb trnuiv MX-il-n-aM;!* of 
Chinese Wiitarin wa» )>lace<l on a »hclf in n (.-otil rw>a>. A Are Iwp- 
peoed to be made in the room and kejit ii[i ull ni>flil, iMil tbe nen 
morning the capaules had hiir>«l,aiid iH-attiTi-<l the m«hU aul ii[i«ii 
YMMla about the room. So arcat wo" llir run-.- m' tiir emAnoioti 
llialiiome aoeda were projected tt'ti fct rroTn ii ^ ' > . •,- 

^-■■.i-V.-»K..l bu.l I «-.-.i lifted Wr<.r.-..v.-.iir.L: ^^ ■ . rl, 

..viTlln- fi.>«-li «M.'.)r" tlir iN.x.nn.i Ir.l i ,.] 

fit l.-;,-l l«,i frvt ri«:iy IVhii. I hr lll.^ in ., i;,.- i , . .. - 

that had lieen throWn on to the Hi>or bv the explosion of their 
com]>anione did not ojH'n, owiuK to the diHVrencc in the tempera- 
ture of the floor from tliatof tbeBlu'lf. Five need- veseels of each of 
the two apccicH were then placed togellier on the slieir, where the 
tempemtnre of the Ktmonphere wan abont 45'^. After four daya 
they were examine<l. The American B[>ecieB bad all opened, but 
without expellinir the seeds, which were fttitl nttached to the car- 
|»el ; luit those of the Chinese WiHtaria Mere ntill iiiiojienetl. The 
Cbint'M- Wiotnria reipiinsi a much hiiflKT U'm|iemture to opt>n the 
capfiuleH llinn the Americ-aii, though it might lie that hygrumetri- 
cnl coiiditionM wiiidd vary the exait degree ret|uired. 

Mr. .Mitrtindnle oliiXTved Unit the Keed-veHHels of tbe CbineAe 
Wistaria wi-re miuh more iiiilurnteil and rigid than the AmcricaD 
-IMfeied, and reipiireil mure force to o|ien thi-m. He noteil 
that «uih hunl seid-vessils alwiiys exert.d a greater proj.Ttilf 
power when oji.ning. 

C. S. Turnhiill. M. D., and .1. M. Aii.lers, M. D.. wor.- ele.t.-<i 


On a former occasion he had described three species of Spong- 
ilia from a small stream near Philadelphia, one of which, then 
named S. ientasperma^ but which he now preferred to call S, 
ienospemia^ exhibited features so exceptional as almost to claim 
for it generic distinction. 

He had since found the S.fragilis of Leidy plentiftiUy in the 
Schuylkill river below the dam, ( Leidy 's original locality), and 
above the dam a lacustrine form differing from that before alluded 
to. A very slender green species creeping along stems of sphag- 
num, etc., had been received from a swamp near Absecom, N. J. 
As it appeared .to be entirely without spined spiculae of either 
class, he proposed for it the name S, aspinosa, • 

From the Adirondack lakes a beautiful species, believed to be 
identical with S. stagnalis^ Dawson, had been received through 
the kindness of Prof. H. Allen. Another lacustrine 'foi-m which 
yet is not quite S. lacuslris, was brought from the lake near Oats- 
kill Mountain House by Professors Cope and Hunt. Its status 
has not been fulh" determined. 

From the cellar of an old ruin at Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania, he 
had obtained four species, all of which appeared to be new. These 
were all thin, creeping or encrusting sponges, three of them of 
the birotulate tj'pe, briefly described as follows : 

S. argyrosperma — seed bod}' or sphaerulaj, large, silver-white, 
densely covered with radial spiculce, the shafts of which are long, 
fitout, with numerous long spines, straight or curved ; the rotulae 
at each end being replaced by 1-4 strong recurved hooks. 

fli. repens — found creeping over the stems and leaves of Pota- 
mogeton ; sphterula? also closel}- covered with spiculse, shorter and 
more slender than those of the preceding species ; their shafts 
nearly smooth, the rays of the rotulae, six, eight or more, uniformly 
incurved like the ribs of an umbrella. 

S. astrosperma — the sphterulse have the appearance of being much 
smaller than in either of the former species, which is probably due 
to the fact that the birotulate spicala; surrounding the real cap- 
sules are very short ; the length of the shaft being less than the 
diameter of the ra^'s. They are rather sparsely scattered over 
the surface of the nearl}'' transparent sphere, suggesting the name 

The remaining form is considered a variety of S. fragilis, and 
called minuta ; sphaerula^ much smaller than in the type species, 
the dermal and superincumbent spiculte terminated by sharp points, 
while in the other they are universally truncate or roimded. 

A more particular description with measureraiuts, etc., is in- 

Mr. Ezra T. Oresson was elected a member of Oouncil, to fill 
the vacancy caused by the resignation of Mr. Geo. Vaux. 


nucunmw ov Tut acammt or 

'. Morri*. who hu bM« nacii iDt«ivat«d in noting ttw 1 
of aAt«, oiMcrTHl ihis "peciM mrrytDi; the necdte-Uke Ic«t«« 
ur tlK t'"'^ i'l'o *''*><' n*"!*! lui'l theivnpon foUovMl tbeir 
lMba«U>t until Iw fouixl ii to be qujw lik« that of tb« cultinc 
uit uf Texxa. MlajWreMt. Br. McCook harlna btwn InfonnM 
of the ftboY^ dlM:ovpry, natle a Journey to laund Hrif[hu in 
the «Ki]j fmrt of Septeniber, 1 ^140. tTnrbrtniiatelj a aervrv e*ateni 
•torm aet in lH>rar« the Intin rvncltMl Tuni'a Hirer, and con- 
tinue*! duriiii^ hU oUy oilli ^iicli rigur a* utt^rlj^ l<> jmclude 
ohavH'aliui) of lliv unl-d'Hir WUatinr of ttir anU. Hdovvvt. 
by working iu tl»i- tilutin, prott-i-lt^l lit* nittlwr j^ntirnl" and a 
leiii)>i)rarj •li<>1t«r, In- Man uiAr tu Riakv ■ atiKly of the intemi 
an'hil«i.'tiir«- of a itMt. 

Thv o|H!niiig fruin tin- nurfaci- B|i(M!arDil to )w a Mngle iurn>« 
lubolar i^llcrj', X, of about two iiwihrjt in U-ng>th. which pene- 
tnln) the Krouml nl an nnelr of ntmr 45 , aini <tnl«ml a apbttriital 
clianitirr, I — n aort of rrotilnilp — abtxit 1| Jncbra in rlianwter. 
Witliiu llii* a frw anta wrn- foiinil, nothtnn; morv. 
TtiU TiiitibaU' immiitHnicitttti by a short galling-, 1', with a 
Becitiid clmiulivr or rell. C, 
havinij uein-'rally a o|iberl- 
■■al aha|ie. but laDrv trre|pi- 
lur in outlint? than tbv vim- 
tlbiilt^. It waa otuul 3 io. 
iu dlauielrr. WlUiln thU 
were Hcvi'mt (tRiall maiMrs 
uf »a wh«ti-gtBy, Bbruo* 
pulp or pBppr>- mnterial. 
c^liwly rroiniblin^ that 
fotimi'liy him in lb.- large 
I'cllii or cavi!* of thr Texaa 
rutting ant.' Thio wm 
■.■viduiitly ihf leaf-paper 
formed by tbi- manduca- 
tion of tht^pincli-avca. It 
WKN «scecH]i»gty rh^^le, 
I'vcu more "o than the 
lcaf-pa))er of the Texaa 
At ta.and could not b«> kept 
toKcthcr ill the original 
mass for examlHaiion. It 
appeared, howi>vcr, to be 
without the dei-ldvil cellti. 
lar amin)icro«-ut flrat ob- 
M^rvtnl )>v liini In tbi- Icaf- 
psiHT of' tlie Texas ant. 
inlouufof tbowof other liymenopterti, aa 

' Pior. Acaa. Nat. Rci. Pliila.. I8T», p. 37. 

1880.j natural sciences of philadelphia. 359 

December 7. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 
Twenty-three persons present. 

December 14. 

The President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 

Thirt3--two persons present. 

A paper entitled '' On some Lower Kocene Mollusca from Clarke 
Co., Alabama, with some points as to the stratigraphical position 
of the beds containing them/' by Angelo Heilprin, was pre-^ented 
for publication. 

The Phalanges of Bats. — Dr. Alles, in reviewing the manner 
after which the phalanges in m immalia are enumerated, spoke of 
the propriety of including the terminal cartilaginous tip to the 
fingers, present in many b:its, in the series of phalanges. 

Authors do not hesitate in naming the terminal cartilage to the 
second finger in Rhinopoma a phalanx, nor sliould they, Dr. Allen 
held, hesitate in so including the terminal segments in other genera. 
It is interesting to observe that in MoIoshus perotis the terminal 
joint in the second finger is bony, and anchylosed to the first 
phalanx. If this plan of numl)ering the phalanges in bats be 
accepted, from one to three joints are present in all the fingers. 
The position taken by recent writers that the Ph^'Uostomidaj are 
distinguished from other families by the presence of the third 
phalanx to the third finger cannot be sustained, since this phalanx 
can be counted in other families, the terminal joint, however, re- 
maining in them cartilaginous. 

December 21. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenberger, in the chair. 
Ten persons present. 

Note on a new Northern Gutting Ant^ Atta septenirionalis, — 
Dr. McCooK remarked that he had the pleasure of announcing 
an interesting discovery of a species of cutting ant upon the 
eastern central coast of the State of New Jersev. The dis- 
covery was made by Rev. George K. Morris at a new watering 
place called Island Heights, which is located upon a swelling 
bluff on the northern bank of Tom's River, near its mouth, 
three miles from the Atlantic Ocean, in about Lat. 40^ N. 


Ml-. Morris, who has been much interested in noting the hnbits 
of ants, observed this species carrying the needlt-like leaves 
of the pine into their nests, and thereupon followed their 
behavior nntil he found it to be quite like that of the cutting 
ant of Texas, Atta fen-em'. Dr. McCook having been informed 
of the above discovery, made a joui-ncy to Island Seights in 
the early part of September, 1x80. Unfortunately a severe eastern 
storm set in before the train reached Tom's River, and con- 
tinued during his stay with such rigor as utterly to preclude 
observation of the out-door behavior of the ants. However, 
by working in the storm, protected by rubber garments and a 
temporary shelter, he was able to make a study of the internal 
architecture of a nest. 

The oi>ening from the surface appeared to be a single narrow 
tubular gallery, X, of about two inches in length, which pene- 
trated the ground at an angle of near 45°, and entered a spherical 
chamber, V — a sort of vestibule — about 1^ inches in diameter. 
Within this a few ants were found, nothing more. 

This vestibule communicated by a short gallery, Y, with a 
seuond chamber or cell, C, 
ha ng g n rally a spben 

thau the ves- 

t b le It was about 3 n 

n A amet ^\ th n th s 

e e ai sn all masses 


h ngra 
I ape 




la ge 


Proc. Ai.arf Ni . Sci. 1 hila., 187 , j>, S.. 


^ATI %\l. AflK^rK* or rHtl.%|ir.|^lttA 


'1 t^ •mall iiiiiiitirr«, «liL:iit i-\i-!t\:iliiih% .iihI A|i|iari'titl\ *\ii)l' 

f^lk iB«i«« turiit« tif thi-ir iiortlirrn allii-* .\ii«l hi il>l ii>>l f*fT- 

^vftr thr tliiiiijhi fh-it llii'Mi' N<-«i •li*r««-\ i'«initiiuiiitii « **{ Attn 
•ey4^^f\'i* ftt^iiM^l likf till f«'«)il« ri iiiiiaiil **X :\ \i.'iiri<ii« 
W^. iir thr'i«t }•% •••fill* iiiitti«i.-ir>l •h.injt ii|i<iii iiiiI'A\ ••r:it-l« ■•itt*. 
«L:i h nti*«i «tirk tiiwar*! Mii-ir i \tiiii ti*>ii. 

hii I mil II .'*. 
T{ti Trr-ii li iiT Pr Id "i iir\iiiii<.iH, m t'i« • i..i:i 
K ^ttT\ |«r*i<r.« I'll *• lit. 
Ttj« f ■.;.!■ ii^ jn|- '• wt r. I'll -in!!' I I": | 'j*!.- a' ••!■ 


u Locuiu 

to Dr. EugoiK' A. Smitli. SUte UcologiKt ot AlnlMuna, were oh^ 
tain^ from t>vction» i-xpoaoti in tb&t Statu on Kni)iht*» IlraoA 
DDd Cavei Branch, tribiiUrits of Baehia Crevk (Darke Go.). auS 
from Wood's Bluff on ttie Tomliinbee River, near tins mouUi of 
Bashla.CrBck, ami some tweiity-vi|;ht milci' north of Sl Stephvo^ 
Tlicy ttci'ur [» protMbly Itit: DiduMt nmrinr U-rtiaiy ilrpoalu of tbe 
8uiU-, anil iic-oupj' u htirixon nvarly |>arallcl nitli that which U 
ithanuTUTixMl by the foiKils of t*pptT Marlboriitifth and PiiMvta. 
way Kivfr. Maryland, and I'amunkry River, VtrKiDla- The follow- 
tn|{ Miiipicratioii uf foBnib from the throe liiCKlitica flmt oauMKi, 
will bi!Kt illuittmU> the pHlBK)utolngi4-al relations of th« lauds 
tNiutalU)»|t them toward vnch oUu-r, anil to tti« varioua 1 
dvpOMlt* of thr Atlaiitti' and tiulfolopoH : 
Ko«aiU fh>m Kni|{lit'H Brauoh. 

Antartt itfUinoidet, Canr. i Var. A. tultnila, l^ea.) 

Cijtlierea NuttaUiopris, Heilpr. sp nov. 
* Cardila alluotta (Btandiniji), Conr. 
Corbula ruyosa, I>am. 

( v. onigiug, Conr; van, C. ijiUnta, Loa.t 
Ancillaria (An<iUo}m») DutH/loboKii, Conr. 
Xalica w/iVcji. Conr. 
Turbiiiella (Carirella) £nri(j'mi. Deshayca, sp. 

( Valuta Bati'toni. Desh.) 
l.itnhuc' ilium Uneiilum, HHIpr. »p. nov. 
n.,f:leU<tria (Cahjiilrofihonix) trinodi/era, Conr. 
Sutarium ru/iola, Heilpr. «p, nov, 
Fif'ix iiit-rnlriiilui; Heilpr. Hp. nov. 
Fu-iix K»Mr,M(M. Hvilpr. Hp. nov. 
/'ifKim iSln'/ifittiira) Hubsralariniig, Heilpr. sp. no 
Tornalrll'i ( TornaliUaa j Mta, Conr. 


and the small numbers, slight excavations and apparently slugt 
gish movements of their northern allies. And he could not for- 
bear the thought that these New Jersey' communities of Atta 
septerUrionalis seemed like the feeble remnant of a vigorous race 
left or thrust by some untoward change upon unfavorable sites^ 
which must work toward their extinction. 

December 28. 
The President, Dr. Ruschenberoer, in the chair. 
Eighty persons present. 
The following papers were presented for publication : — * 

or TVS ACA&IMT or [ISM. 

0§tm (•ifvcJM dittmnt fniia Uwt or Knii^it'* Brenoli ftod 
Cara BnmclL ) 

From an examltiAtluR ul tlie sUiro table* it wiQ b« awn thst a 
fiiir proiHirtJMu of tbv foKaOs fW>Di Kui|jtbt'« nnil C«ve BcmndM 
ATK liflil in fouiiuuu liy ((ulli dit]io<t)U, and tkervTora thnre eui he 
noKKMifuibleiloulit itiatUuty r«f)re*«at about c<|nir«lri|it borixoBS. 
L OrtbnbllherU>uiMl«acritM^roTnui('yfAi^'^*' A'vllaUinpiiifau'l Lmvi- 
' kucriRHni liftfalum appear to have been obMiBMl only at th* 
former, and Plttrntama mtmiliata at th« Utt«r locality, allboujtii 
it U higlily probaMv tbat fbnlwr Invuti^tioo will rvvwal tbeir 
nutiul preaence in both tomllllM. Tb« tlMi-rilMfil AncneaD totm» 
Uv nuloJ.r tboac oooiirrinfc at \-aTioiM lii-ight« on thv 4'Uibonir 
•xpoaure. A compariiioa oX itu^< foraio wltli IIhmc otrtAinnl by 
Tw>iucy <KIr«t Biennial llKitirt of (lie Gi-olo|{y nf AlalMma, p. 
1411) frum llift U«>lii» Cmrk MMrtiuo* near L'hortaw Cfimcr, sbuwa 
tbe two gniniM to be of n L-onlfinpciraitmfuii a|{e, Tiir flmm tied Xa. 
8 «r tbnt aeclion rmr. Tuomi*y iibtaliinl (aiii(iii|( (iltu'n) *|i««les 
lif " OtIrM. Cffltirrna, Carditit, Carvinn.., RuMeUariH, Aetmm^ 
Volufii, InfuHitthulum, uiil SiJariunt," wliicb appmr to have beoK 
iiliiatluil with tlin a)Mtci4!» obUtiiKHl by I>r. Smith from the two 
, iocttlitino aUtvi* tiM^iltnntvl.' 

' Tlie H|>eciei enumerated by Tuomef are Oilrrn fnmprefirnitra, Ctrdita 
phinUiitOi, Rutttthiria tflnia, Ai-tO-m }K,iHaini, Votuta Sayanaf Cardiam 
N%coUfti,a,nAlnfundibnluiiilrui:hiformi». The Bpecimenn appear tobaTcbem 
mbmlited to Mr. Conrad, who considered the detenninatioDB of Tnomej bb, 
atleagt in part, imperfect, >nd substituted the following specific oamea ( Jn*. 
Joarn. SfUnre, new series, xl, p. 288) ; Oilrra Caroliii*niu ispeciea ttxtax 
tbe Sautee <'anal, Soutb Carulinai, VolutiliiAfi lAlhltt,i] Tuomfjfi ide- 
•cribeil bj Conrad [i'n>c. Acad. NaL Sciences, vi, p. 44B] in 1H59 fioiB 
Baabia Creek), and Pruloenrdui Virginia na f Tbe following remark in 
pencil occurs in tbe voluniu of Tuumey'K Iteporta, contained in tbe library 
of tbe Academy : "All dnubtful except Vfiirnr.irdia I'lanicetUi. T. A. 
Cunrad," Tnoinoy's Hoittllari-i rtlnlii and Arliran jiomHiiit were in all 
probability li'-il'lluriit Iriaudiftra and Tarii-it/Ua Mia, wbicb would bett«r 
agree wilb the descriptions of obviously tbe same fofwilH as f(iven in Dale's 
reiHirt ' ('. S. Hale : The Qeology uf Soutb .Mabaiua, Am. Jouni, Si-iencv, 


FossUb from Cave Brancli. 

DetUatium micro-alria, Ueilt>r. Bp. nov. 

Natica xtites, Gonr. 

Nalica Misnsaippienins, Conr. 

Pyrula mullangulalo, Heilpr. sp. qot, 

Pyrula tricostata, Desh. 

TurrtleUa carinala. Lea. 

Solarium cupola, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

? Pleuroloma acuminata^ Sowerby. 

Heurolotna moniliala, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Caimdaria (fragment). Closely allied to G. cariTtata, Lam. 

Voluta (Athleta) Tumueyi, Conr. 

FuauH pagodiformig, Heilpr. 

t\isufi inter striatuK^ Heilpr. sp. nov. 

FuBu» sublenuin, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

FtisuB i Sir epni dura) mibxcalarinuii, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Leda protexta, Conr, 

Cardium (Prolocardia). Young of C. Nicolleli? Conr, 

Oslrea (same spedcs as from Knight's Branch). 
Fossils from Wood's BInlF. 

, Dentalium miernstria, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Natica timvla, Com. 

Pyrula multangulala. Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Turrilella carinain, Loa. 

Solarium cupola, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Solarium delphinuloideK, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Cancellaria evulna, Braiuler, sp. 
{ C. tortipHca 1 Conr.) 

Pleuroloma { Cochlespira i rristala, Conr. 

Pleuroloma, n. sp. 

Anvillaria (Ancillopgis) subglobona, Conr. 

Peeudoliaa oetuula, Conr. 

PSeudoliva icaliva, Heilpr. sp, nov. 

Voluta (Athleta) Tuomeifi, Conr. 

Pusus pagodiformin, Heilpr, 

t Fusus (Levi/uHUn) trabeatun, Cnnr. 

Fuaus inter^triatun, Heilpr. sp. nov. 

Fuaua, a. sp. 

f Cardila alticoeta (Blandingi), Coor. 

Leda protexta, Conr. 

$» nuckKDixoB iir the agapeut or [IHM. 

Sllrir W^' tv wvchuiLmI f»r (lu Hm riupi>o«iU»D Uul tbey h**« 
JliyiJ iBd«T. wbti-h wttulil W in tinmiimy wiUi wliat we know 
LUiliiililwlai. th« <li|t or tlif Itrtlo in thik n>gl<iii. Ttii* In but loc«Uy 
«r«A tiwrt. but pnttially indioatcul in 'tvotmy'9 rvport*, hut Jwl(- 
Mc Ihm tlie contour linM or llic <Tetitc«oii« foriDation on ibe 
4 »w»«l HMiM apjwndfd to the flnt ttoc) bcoowI Keportii, nnd fn>n 
)h« north and tiouth vections on tlie uinp of IMV, aa wvll m rrom 
ife* (hciii obulnt-d III MlMiHiti|ipi, It nuiftt b« In « dlnvtloa we«t of 
tte vonttifrn lint!, or in iitU«i' w»nl«. S. l^ W. Ilr. t^Rilth luta 
fituml thr loss 111- dip in n >Hmth<Tly dirrctlim on Ihv Tumliigttec 
RiT«>r ti) lnj nlmut, lU fwt to tb*- mill-, wliich ai^rord* wi*II with 
nilg&n]'>t oLHwnatiunH nii tbt> UpiierConene aud Ullgix^mr fonn»- 

tii<iiH i>r AliiiKiKHippi.' 

Fnini jittlii-oDtulatiintl tvlib-ni-t- iiIod*' Ibe thn* I'spfwan-a [■ 
>)Uc^Uou mi|:hl multl.v ^ toki-n (•> rcprviu-nt ratlicr an L'ptiwv Uwn 
a Li><*«i' Edci'ne luiri;!(>n, ftir in tublitlon In ilic ■|ir(;l«i> iy|iii-ml of 
t1)c Aint-rivon Middle Kweav. or Clatlionif grwnp pro|H.'r ( Cnlrs- 
rcouH Olailiome of tlilgard), nnd to tli« now or nnd««mlMrd fnrm», 
wr haw tlitt following whicti havt> not Iwon bltti«rlo mxi|^iK«d ■• 
heloogiug to ihp rormation. ami wliioh. on the contrary. w*r» 
ori^nally <le»crlt>e<l (at least Ibo majt^rity of tlvein) IVoni di^poiriu 
of lUlKtT dat«. 




. 13 .Dd 

41, frum th> 

' Middle E.n:c 

11. 1' 


n ^ruoitr 



rr Bu»» 




• Rnach. 

llatioa lIli*U*ippUa«U.C<. 


8, Id 

triM. i, p. 

14). orisi 



the Vifk 

.l,«ri 10 

iCownrl gru 

.,.. h.> 

■I» found 

in Ibr Jurkx 

a < l>p,r 


,1 dfpa. 


Cbt* Branch. 

Plaarauna aanm 

a>U. S«fr\., (Mlar 

*l (.on 

cbulugy. V 

1. ii. i.. 


frvia Ih* 



f Hijhn 

. (Uw.r E 


■DO'I svoloiiit.. Mirldlr 



. IDd H> 

lun cl»y ( 

Upp,r Eo«o 


>*ebad na 



-hick lu 

bal from 

■ canfyl .T 


I.,-. *n< 


flgurr. aaJ 

dwh|>(iDii< tbtrr 

»pf*.r I 


to ba iw 


Hblr It"' 

ndi fur • 

(•uriiini lb 


• Hgurrd o 

HI. III. (1 

f. IS. froia iu 


».. .11; 


• Bn...h. 



i. p. 484), 

rnIB RMb 

nil and Cnl«. 


h', Mid 

1. K.etnr 

of do 



( Branch. 

' Kiiiptrd TuuDd the di|i or the JackMii and VickiburK atntta to be frota 
t<) to Vi feet per mile S. by W., at " pohits where the great ngularity oC 
aucccHioii for a ouniiderable Uiataooe se«mod to iadicate a normal confl(- 
uration." )&. J. SciCQce, new aeriea, xlili, p. M.) 








Hard Limestone. 

4 feet 

Marl, highly fossiliferous. 

25 feet 

Blue Sand. 


Lignite and Clay. 

6 feet. 

Laminated Clay, Sand and Mud. 

Thickness undetermined. 


Thickness undetermined. 

(Tuomey : First Biennial Report, p. 145.) 

Note.— Beds 5 and 6 do not properly belong to the section, but "repre- 
sent beds seen on another part of the stream below the preceding.*' (Loc. 
cit. p. 146.) 

The fossils from Wood's Bluff, some 15 miles W. of Choctaw 
Corner, were obtained by Dr. Smitli from a bed of indurated 
green sand rising about 10-15 feet above water line, which bed may 
possibly represent the lowermost portion of bed No. 2 of the 
Bashia section. Some support is given to this view by the cir- 
cumstance that at this point — Wood's Blutt* — the basal lignite 
(which in the above named section has a thickness of C feet) ha.s 
disappeared, and more especiall}' (at least, as showing it to possess 
a distinctive character) by the general faciesof the rei)resentativi' 
molluscous fauna. Although there exists a close similarity be- 
tween the general assemblage of its fossils and those of the two 
" Branches " of Bashia Creek, yet the number of peculiar forms is 
considerably greater, and consequently the aggregate possesses a 
much more decided individuality than obtains with either of the de- 
posits in question. Moreover, I am informed by Dr. Smith that 
the fossil fauna of Knight's and (^ave Branches corresponds most 
closely with that of bed No. 4 ^ of the Wood's Bluft* section, an 
aluminous deposit about 21-26 feet above water level, and con- 
taining species of Denfaliumj Tornatella^ Solarium, Turritella^ 
and Bostellaria identical with forms from the two first named 
localities. The disappearance of the basal lignites at Wood's 

' Section as yet unpublished, but communicated by letter to the author. 


370 p«ocBEiHtia« OP THK AOAPUT or [1886. 

(SilioTOtw t'l&irbome of Hll|niTd) (bmuitloD.or wh»l bas Wtberto 
been considered hs tbv \m*f of Ihu Koei-ne fnrnuiilon In Soath 
CftTolina. Allowing w uniform Hriutlitrly <li]) of 10 fi«I to th« 
mile, those anini' hoiU inniit In' ntiotit 'iha to iHO ff«t twiow tfac 
" bed of fn:ta unnd " mrntiiiDoU li_v Ttitiinoy { Ut Bivnntal H*iwrt. 
{t. US) hh ncciirrini! at BskcrV DIufT, a ftiw mi)i^ aborf l*t. 
Stvplii-DK, <i<tati-d to bo " rlnb [u orsaolo rvinaiDS. >di-nticsl •rlth 
llip foHoflH of Clail<orue ") «Dd whif-Ii, Imiueillftti^ly kbuvit St- 
Stephena (TDoincy, roc i-i7., ^. U!l),di)ni )»<!tii!aib tbe wntJEr-llBC 
Tlit§ ai>firiixliniit« detumthuiliuu nf ptwitioo i^rvn clo^h iritb 
t)io observiitioiw mndf in tbv northrastvm |>ortion of Uw cuimiy. 
for [)r. Smith found by MCtunl baromvtric nii»uuretnvnt« tliat tbr 
"olialk hill*" (Buhrstono) ueur Lower Pench Trvc on (Ik AU- 
buiDK Kivcr, and ul n looiJit.v about T to k mlleB foutb of Choclaw 
Corner, were about ^Au feet ut)ovc Knicdt's and Caw Dnncbev, 
and tliu marl bed (Mo. S) of Tuomvy'n Uiiit)il» vvctlon. 

\Vliotb«r tliCBe otdur Kuwiiv dviKHit* iindfj-ly tlw bInIT nt Clai- 
hitmv liiu> not ,v'ot Iwon |in>vi<d, bat it in Imt fnir to pn-Aiimr titftt 
they -do. Liki-wiixi, it rvmalHt bi bt- iliown what n-Utinn tliv tatwil 
lignite on lliMhia Crei^k Ifearw to Die '' Nortbem^iU:'* i»f 

Cyttaana KntUUiopili, <i -)>. I'l. Su, Hk 1. 

Shell eu)>-ellii>tical, moderately venlriuone, ita eiirface oovere»l 
with fine c-onccntrie Htriw, which are apt to becomo roughly im- 
bricate on the basal margin ; iimbonos not very prominent, rsther 
anterior ; luiuile conlatc, deeply imprenaed at about it» middle, its 
outline clearly ]>ronounce<l by a sharply impressed line ; posterior 
extremity regularly rounded, the ant«rior somewhat produced : 
margin entire; |>allial sinus somewhat angular, pointing towanl 
the centre of the shell. 

Length. I'j inch. Knight's Branch, Clarke Co., Ala. 

This «)*cies most resembles amoii^ American species of Cy. 
thrrra the C. Xnllalli, Conr., from wbieh it may bo distinguished 
hy Ihe gnater pnHiuction forward of the anterior extremity, and 
by the me<lian depression in the lunnlc. In this last eharacler it 
iigrecs with C- Poulximi, Conr., from which, however, it v«n- 
materially ilirfers in form, and in the much lesser development of 
the uriilK>nes. 


l^t^B PottliOlli, Morton (Synopsis Org. Rem. Cr«t. Oroop, p. 59), » companion of 
0rhiUnd99 Mant'Ui, Mort. sp., ind, aeoording to Hilgard, an ettntially Vioks- 
bnrg (Oligooene) fossil. Wood's Bluff. 

€uMtll«rU tndtft, Sowerby [Bvccimum evuUuin, Brander] (Miner. Conobol., iT, p. 
84), from tbe Barton clay (Upper Eocene) of Eogland, and Grignon ("Caloairt 
grossier^) of France.* Wood's Bluff. 

FUnrotoma (CooUespira) orifUta, Conr. (J. A. N. S., 2d ser. i, p. 115), originally 
described frem tbe Viclcsburg group, but doubtful wbetber differing from the 
FUurotoma Mia, Conr., from the Upper Eocene of Texas. Wood's Bluff. 

In addition to the above, there is among the fossils from Wood's 
Bluff an immature Cardivm (Protocardia), which may possibly 
represent the young of C. Nicolleti (Jackson group), with which 
it agrees in outline and general ornamentation, or that of (7. Vir- 
giniana, Conr. (Pamunkey River), an undescribed species, but of 
which a labeled specimen is in the collections of the Academy. 
The absence of asperulations on the posterior slope of the speci- 
men in question, however, rendering it uncertain whether they 
were ever present, or whether the}- are merely abraded or water- 
worn, allows of no absolute specific determination. 

Whatever ma}' be the palseontological facies of the deposits in 
question, however, there can be no reasonable doubt as to their 
true position, since Dr. Smith, as he informs me, has traced bed 
No. 6 (or the up]>ermost bed immediately underlying the stratified 
drift) of his Wood's Bluff section to the mouth of Witch Creek, 
about 2 miles below on the Tombigbee River, where its relation to 
the overlying '^ Buhrstone " is made manifest in an exposure just 
beyond the mouth of the creek. White Bluff, about 250 to 275 
feet in height, beautifully exhibits the white siliceous clay stones 
and silicified shells so characteristic of the southern Buhrstone 
formation. These occupy the uppermost portion of the bluff, and 
make up fully 1 00 feet of its vertical height ; the intermediate 
portion extending to the water's level, is mainly composed of 
laminated lignitie clays, with occasional intercalated l)ed8 of pure 
lignite. It becomes manifest from what has just been stated that 
the fossiliferous beds of Wood's Bluff {et conseq. the ecjuivalent 
deposits on Knight's and Cave Branches and Bashia Creek) must 
lie between 150 and 200 feet below the bane of the Buhrstone 

* A very closely allied species, the Tritonium(!) paueivartcatum of Gabb, 
occurs in tbe T^jon group ( Upper Cretaceous— Eocene ?) of California, 
associated with Cardita planico$ta and other characteristic forms of Ter- 
tiary fossils. 


3U nuKOtaininM or the aoandit or [IS 

•plrc, or *Ughtly «xoeediU|t U, the cuul pntly eorrcd. modvrmU 
oontnkdvd. Uld Bom«wliat «x|i«i>ilii))[ At the cUrenUy ; ouWr lip 
IhiBi u)tl tJiowliiit iuUrnallv Iht extonwl DnuuneaUliun : Imw with 
BiuneTDiM rDTolving liiMu), wbivli altenuttr in ctMnN^na. ^ 

Lsngtli, H incb. Knigbt's Bntich ; Csra Brxncb, Clarice QflJM 

nwu IkUnUiuw, a- ff. PI. zo, «(. II. 

Sbvll fititifi>mi,i>lpndiT,romi>ose4lur about Ivnc-uutifx rolati<Nu, 
Um- llrwt tbnw ur tihich are snKiotb ; wborla ornanieatcd with both 
luof;itm)iDiil pUi-stiona sad n^volTin^ linea, tbe lut of which (kboat 
eifcbt 111 tbn uppi-r wliorUj alteritste wlUi Oiier inUrnu^UU* «trt«- ; 
thtf tnii^tiidltiKl |)lif!9tii)n* diBtilK^ <tu the c*rll)!r witorta, but 
tH;<-omlu^ luufih letm m> oh the bixly-wborl.uxl iIm' on« }>rM-«diiig : 
apt'rtiiru iilMiit tilt' U-ngth of spire : the nuinl AomvwhBt tortuoiw ; 
oat^T till tliin. dentate within. 

Lonjttb. 3 inchM. Knifcbt's Bnuii>h; Cav« Bnvorb, CUrke Gak,-w 
AlalMtua. ■ 

»ib««iiu«DRMIPUpUSr I 

Fanu iBtnUUB* f) •nieaalu, n- rp. ?i. in, a<, ''. 

8bidl liirrt'tvil, of utxnit ItMi viilutiuiis, thf Hrsl ihrcv wborls 
■mioutli iu») I'tinviTX, lliu Kinuliidur ■tmugty iiuHtMh'd, «ntl lr»- 
rofMMl by iiuinerout fitw revolting IIdm, whieh tm Uw ihhUmi 
|>ortl»ti i>r thi' h<»I>-nlii>r1 idlvmut'- with Iiitrnni-iliiit.' Hin-r -triir : 
Ixxij-whorl imprftiHiHl immediately l)olow the cnrimitiou (alioulder 
fln){iiliitioii) ; liiK'S of growth Hinnoiis, and n|i|)roximatiiig the 
chariiL'teriNtic Hiicx of tlic I'iciirotomidie ; ap«Tturc coiiaidembly 
fxci-(iliii^ the xpirc in lunglh ; coliiinotla nlightly arctiate, and 
lircHt'iiting » rndimcntary fold at alioiit itn central (Ktrtion. 

Length. 1^ inch. Wood's Blnff, Clarke Co.. Ala. 

Thin H|M'cieB rcHcniblos the /'"««« l/i/agrialu- of DeiibayeK 
iAinmtf:r «nH« W'rUhre*, Bannn d<- Pnrig, II, jd. 84, flg». 1.^ and 
Itl) fnini the TariM luiHin, bnt may W reudilv dUtin^iiixheil tVuni 
thai s|ii'eif» hy iti* more Klender form. 

Sul>Kemi« STItKPSIDURA. 8waiu«.i.. 
Fbioi iStT«p«ldaiif •abwaUriSB*. n. pp. )'l. iu, f\iL. 1. 

Shell 9oine»hat bueeinifi)rm, whorN about eight. Huh^augular. 
the tint three or four !«moolh, the remainder ornament^ with 
t".ih lonjiitiidinal lOHtie and revolving striic. tbe ialtt'r showing a 


P8EUD0LIVA, Swainson. 
PMndoUvm tealinm, n. pp. PI. 20, fig. 12. 

Shell buceiniform, of about seven volutions ; the whorls roughly 
plicated ; the folds on the body whorl appearing as shoulder no- 
dules; dentiferoiis sulcus well pronounced, followed b}- about five 
impressed revolving lines, which slightly crenulate the margin of 
the outer lip ; revolving lines on the body-whorl above the sulcus 
almost obsolete ; aperture slightly exceeding the spire in length ; 
columella callous ; suture deeply channeled. 

Length, 1^ inch. Wood's Blutf, Clarke ( -o., Ala. 

(Amer. Jour. Conchol., i, p. 21. Qemis not chaiucterized. ) 

Shell having the general form of Metula^ II. k A. Adams, but 
destitute of all traces of a posterior canal ; a|)erturc between bucei- 
niform and fusiform, about the length of the spire. This genus 
is distinct from Buccinanopn of cVOrbigny, under which the Due- 
cinum (Lseviburcinum) prorswm^ Conr., is erroneously clai^sed in 
the Prodrome de Paleontolo<jie ^ ii, p. 369. 

LflBvibaooinam lineatam, n. sf . PI. 20, fig. 5. 

Shell fusiform, of about seven convex volutions, which are 
throughout their whole extent covered by fine, but distinct, re- 
volving lines; aperture slightl}' exceeding the spire in length, 
sub-canaliculate anteriorly; columella gently arcuate; outer lip 
striate within. 

Length, 1 inch. Knight's Branch, Clarke Co., Ala. 

This species mainly difiers from the L. prorsum^ Conr., in 
having the revolving lines equally distinct over the entire surface 
of the whorls. The Murex {Fusuh H Buccinum auct,) mitrag' 
for mis of Brocchi, from the Oligocene and Miocene deposits of 
France, Austria, and Italy, is a closely related species. 

FUSUS, Lamarck. 
FntUl labtenoil, n. np. PI. 20, fig. 4. 

Shell fusiform, of about seven sub-angular volutions ; whorls 
ornamented with somewhat obscure longitudinal folds, about twelve 
on the body-whorl, which are cut by several prominent revolving 
ridges comAiencing at the shoulder angulation ; shoulder of the 
whorls more or less smooth, with an obscure median revolving line, 
and a prominent sub-sutural one ; aperture about the length of the 



niuotama mcnalMU ) fomtthj. Pi. 30, Ak. U>. 

(MinanU Coneholagj, II, p. 10'-.) 

Shell flmirurm, ii<-iiininatp, ol' about nine volutloDf ; irhari* tlst- 
tCDed, lungitit'linnlly plicBted and trsTernod by Ooe n-viihin]; llim, 
wtiloli |ii-i>oiiti- crowdeil on tlic voDCave upper [lorliiia at tbe wkotls, 
and nltcntaU' on the I>aBu] [Hirtlou of llie iKxly-wlwrl ; *ulUK bor- 
deml inreriorly by nii «lcvuled 1ine,wtiicli in •mnrwhal nnmuUtrfl 
lij' tlic sluuiiua liocit nf (irowth; »pt'rturi> \v»» than oiKshalf tl»c 
lenxth of abrlL 

Leii^li, 1 incli. Cave Branch, Clarke Co., Ala. 

Thia Ilruroloma corriNiponds nty closely wltb tlw doacriptloiia 
ud flgitrM ot P. acuminata aa glvea by Sowerby in th« " M)o«nU 
Conoholog}-,*' and by Edwards lu hlx mt>no|rn|ib of the ED|i])*ti 
BoMHe tnoUusoa { I'alwontograpliical Socivty Keporta, IH&I, |>. 
iSQ, pi. xxril, flga. Sn, b, r, d), and will probably prove, un dErvc-t 
comparlHut), to br reffniblp t<> that Mpwicn. 


(F(e»l,i. SintlMoti. ) 
TrnU BBluafttltU, n. fp- M. »>. fl«. S. 

Shell elougated, aulH<tavirorin; a)>ex ut iipln obtme, cotuMt- 
ing of thrt-e amnolh voliitloiia; whorl* alXMil anrcn, corond with 
revt'lvitiii -.triif, wliioli iin- viTv flnr on the uii|>or portion Ktkd 
shoulder of the body-whorl, but lesa so and attenuate ou the baaal 
portion; lK>dy-whorl occupying about three-fourths of the entire 
shell, marked by two prominent and one leaser csriue, and a 
single row of creuulations ou tbe shoulder angulation ; the fourth 
whorl (the Urst one bearing ornamentation) appean cancellatM) : 
coluinelln curved. 

Length. 1 inch. Cave Branch; Wood's Bluff, Clarke Co., Ala. 

PfnU triMltaU, l>t>b>jer. PI. !D, «g. 6. 

(('oquillei> FoMilCH, ii, p. !iHi, Atlu, PI. 79, fl|^. 10 and 11.) 
Although 1 haw no specimen ttT I'yruh Iricostata for direct 
comp;iri»"iii. 1 have, nevcrlholcHH, but very little hesitation in 
referrinii th>- Ahib.tmn form alH)ve flgnrcd to the sami; sjnvies, aa 
it auri'i's in :ill (■■*-.■ lit i;il ti-<|H.Tl- with thi' figures and descriplioiiH 
of th:it lonu ns ^'iv.-ii l.y Ibshiyos in the ('.-/«.//-■« fWW/r-^. 

Three iinim d -]K!iiuKii» of a J';inil(i in the Aea.iemy colU-ctioii 

from Ditx. Kniiiir.whi.-li 1 Miev.- to br ihe /'. . /,no i Oli>..>cen.-T) 
of It:i!iterol. -'inu'whal ri-.>emble the Al^diama H|>ecioR. but an> 


tendency to alternate in size; the costie are arcuate, not in a 

regular continuous series, those on the bod^-whorl extending 

considerably below the middle of the whorl ; aperture about the 

length of spire, the canal somewhat reflected ; columella covered 

"with a callous deposit, considerably twisted ; outer lip dentate 


Length, 1 inch. Knight's Branch ; Cave Branch, Clarke Co., 

This species greatly resembles the Fusiis scalarinus of Deshayes 
CCoquilles Fossiles, II, p. 574, PL LXXIII, figs. 27 and 2S), but 
iMTiay be distinguished by the lesser prominence of its cost®, and 
"fcy the presence of well defined striae over the entire surface of 
'fche whorls. In this last respect, as well as in the subangulated 
:^orm of the whorls, it also differs from the Fusus HcalariformiSy 
I^^yst (Goquilles et Polypiers Fossiha, p. 504, PI. XL, figs. 5a, 6)> 
Tom Letben, Belgium. 


Subgenus CARICELLA, r?onrad. 
nrbinella (Carioella) Bandoni, Deshujes, .«p. PI. 20, fig. Id. 

The large species of Cancella from Knight's Branch agrees so 
:=?losely with the figures of Voluta Bandoni^Desh, {Animaux sans 
ertebres^ Bassin de Paris, II, pi. 102, tigs. 13 and 14), from the 
aris basin, that I do not feel justified in considering it a distinct 
species. The American form appears to have been somewhat 
ore elevated, but this is probably no more than a varietal cir- 

Length, 4 inches. Knight's Branch, Clarke Co., Ala. 

^anrotoma moniliaU, n. sp. PI. 20, fig. 9. 

Shell fusiform, elevated, of about eight volutions, the whorls 
^)n8iderably contracted above the shoulder ; whorls ornamented 
ith a double series of nodes, the lower much the most strongly 
^veloped, which gives to the upper portion of the spire a monili- 
^CDrm appearance; surface of entire shell traversed by fine revohnng 
lies, which become more distant, very prominent, and alternate 
:ii the median portion of the body-whorl; aperture about the 
gth of spire ; the relative position of the upper and lower nodes 
^Corresponds to the sinuous lines of growth. 

Length, 1 inch. Cave Branch, Clarke Co., Ala. 


TSI nOTOfl nATKlI&nB.-IIOTtB 01 TR ABcaiTscmi A«> 

Hism or THE AMKKicui Bun-MAxiiro Arr. 

ilT iUt. IliHttT C. McCuOK, O. U. 

Aogiut SUt, tlic foutoftbtf Allc);ben]r McmmuIds, m«r 
Altauiui (BiHIwoinI. IV), 1 lUHDOVt^fHl a ui^t of t^\frrgu» tucidu», 
Mnvr, Mw Anirriran ntprcM-nUtlre of lh<t wMl-kiiown Enn>)K«]> Tlip lntU>r in thn Amnzrm "f Lcgionar; Ant ttf 
HiibtT, anil ifl u8nriBti.<(] with lliat BitUior'n iliikoonrry oriYitniHtqnd 
ADt-liUls, the fena ■ppllnl tn thoso nraU in whicli i-erUIn anU 
bAvc liHHDclitti^l vrllli tbum. iu « surt of nlAvcry, uit« of aaollirr 
•IMviiHU. IlutiiT nuulv n full Hiid luli>reiit[H({ aci-ouut iif (tie pivd- 
atory oxaurMioiiK of /*. ru/'<!<<ri>«.'iuif) iiUmt inti^twUnit Iwharior, 
whidi Fon-l' liiu rtwntly fully eoiiBnntil uti] complplcal. It U, 
howt-VLT. of intcrrnt, to rli«;ovi>r tbr cxi>t«ncr of Itir munv halriia 
in a closely &lIio(l «pe«-ies in AnK-riot, aikl thin rvronl I* Hufefon 
prpHeotod. Moroorer, Ilwre Arc Iwrc •omcdvlAiliof Architecture 
wtilcli may prove of \-rI(w (u tbcinwlvtit. 

Tilt- Df*t of liiii'Idiw nlM>ve rvfcmxl to wu AlluAtvd In tbe 
gravidity xoll of a TAllf> bel«r«n.'n tbe moiinbdnB And tiw 4 unfsiB 
IliviT, Til.' (iM'l «-i.^ »..«(! in ■■tovrr. iih.l li«.ln..l l--..n j.!..*.-.! f<.r 
several years. While passing through thv field, I obserred sevenl 
ants resembling at first sight the common mounil-mAkera, Fbrmica 
exae<toide», issuing from a hole. I stopped to note them more 
carefnlly and saw a worker of Poli/ergim htcidtu com« out and 
return to the same nest. I at onee began an exploration of the 
nest, as my time was limited, and professional duties prevented 
extended studies of the out-door Itabits of the creatures. There 
were four gates (fig. I, I'). 19), separated a few inchi's fVora each 
other. Two were simple liilmlar ojienings into the ground, about 
Ibree-fimrlhu of sn inch in dtanirtcr ; the others were two similar 
openings removed several inches from the first named, and united 
by a worn rononve road, like a hnlf tnl>e. The four were armngeiJ 
upon the are ..fa circle. The niitun- of the Hoil, which wa« lllle<! 
with coarse gravel and ntoiie;*, pn'vent*-d nie from noting (as per- 

' "Natural IliHtaryof Ants." JoIiimod'* traoilatioa. London, IH30. 
■ " Leu Kotinnis de la Puimie." 


«ATi AAi. Bi-irsi K*> i-r nut %i>i:i i*iii «. 

• II 

** m;« : ^ai| prr\i tilril tin- mil* fr<'iii iinkiirj :iii\ "rilitix nrr.uiji 
"**•■' *^ «'»lli r:i • ari'l riNiin* n -inrn « I'm' •hin'-t:* win 
' atf*- i« ri «|. |*(ai • •! iifM- .t*4i\i- till lit III r nii !■ •! ^'\ * ■•.* I'.ir .* illri .< « 
•.••!»t%»i i-Ti;*'!"*!! ^T li'i*! !Wili!\ !»■• flp *ii - ♦' • It ; '! '<■ wl.r- ♦» 

• • ' 1 m* v!i .'t • !• I irrii -I I"li'- .•■ in r il ■ f- it ■• •■ r ■• • . — Mi iv '••■ 

• ■ ■•. '\T I • "•<iiiliji\irii|>!i'> '|wi'\i .': '■' !i. *'■• *•■ 

'» < • ' • : •■ til ' '.■ . .\ I ri •! ih ■ >!-• I. .?! ' • t- ■ i i . • ■ I • ji :.• i 
.• : I' ! * . \\ ' • 'I v.. . ••'• * I I J. '.<'«.. T; • ■ . • \ .» ,, » 

1 w ■ * ' • f I II I « . \ I * -«• I I ■ I . ■• ■ . I T ■ ■ : I • . / I ' " i ' « ■ . ' 

• ■•' i ?'.r.'*' ■} »»i'- •' •'!\ ••.I'l- ! I •••■ • I r.- 

' • I 

. v I l.< J'.-l . 

• ! . '. 1 

I . • 

. I •• ■•.•.! \ . . • V I'- '•»'..' I I* "i ■ 1 ' ■ i» • * 1 

• •'i- •%»i"iT/i f?»«'»' .\'\\\\. i| II-.; ••■»>' 

»•-.-•'. -r-i. ■«." j;i. ■!•-•« ••■'.I. -i I 

I' * • I? •31- ■' '.• f,. ■ . ^ I.,-. :i* 11 • »' I •,.'*•', ' I* 

• » . • J* . •• j,. I • tfi I • \*i • !• 'i • * i! 1 t* " • ». . I . -• , ■ • ■ . .f \ 

• ■ • ' ■ • I 'i. I : ■ 'i« r- ■ if I.- 4 :,-• • • -• • ■ "I.. • • . ,r 

' , ■ ^* • ■ «. I , r . . _■ t • • • . • , ■ , ■ . ' • . ' , I _••'-.■-'.' -.'..» 

• ^' • • • • ■» • . I I • ' I »• f • . 1 T . : • 1 1 1 I • • . _• ' 1 I ,' I " ■ • ■. K ■ . \ • . • . ■ ; ; 

• I ' ir. Ti * \ ^' I • T ■. I •{• 'ii I !■ » » I' I '.• I • • ' I .' ' . • I • • 
•••«••! T;«»ri 1* •'• ii'i«rii,--? !► ■• !' - I'l,'-- *••- i-. 

• ' t ■ 'I ' *■ • flv '-^ "1 « '• • »'■ t •• lit I ■ - I - - .!t. ■ • . ' I • • 

■*"?•••'• : •• f kl i' '. * ■ • :• 

z. !V-t* f-rrii- !. 1 • . ^\ x.'i • I :**!•• • • . .|« - .• 
^ • ^ -^ . ..I 

^ ■ J ■• •' ' i •' ■ • X k* *•• I I.. -• - - . - •. ' I- I ■ ■ -■ ■ - » ■■ 

'■"rl*.'«'l'l»\:'.|-iftU-'i'''. •«-■•■■• * * • . •» ■ 

' •'••*:' •*'■'• 1- •■■ " ' - 1- 1 ' • • ' - ■ . ■• 

»» f •••_■» ^'t 1 »i •'."»' ik \ ■ ■ • ' r ■ ' • • • 

m*fi»t^"»f'» •-■.•'■■■. 


•« . A 

I kftw* r«frfr«*S *.•• t.'. • i:. 

I . \^ ■ fc ^ 

• • h' 

, :v« 


mnd altrr the o^dkI toucliiiifc uiil (.■roattiuff of knUtnun* Uw nuu- 
dihl<-« wrrr tiuhUv InlprlitnltMl <flg. &. 1*1. 10 1 ; tht- bv»A of iIh.- kUvc 
WM then nilMil. and ■ImuItMMiouiily tlie bnly uf tbr qiM«ii drawn 
tHU.'k,«tnrl>-Uf>(lf|uit4>oul iDBstnightlinv, an<ttbrn (loul>l««l umlrr. 
the ■txliiiiutti being tbrowo upwnnl apparpntly r««titi|[ agvinot the 
luMcr part o( tlie Tacc and the fon^-fwrt of the thonx <llg. 6, 1*1. 
19). ]ii thifl poalilon tti<' btrne virglu f|ueeua werv varrie'l ap th» 
perpendkoaUr fncu ur tbv ciiUiiiit for oigbii^n or I irt-.nt; inclic*, and 
iben for tht diatnnoc of itlx fevt av«r thi- gr»itml aift tlirtHigli tb« 
gnu*. Thf liniD imRHiiniiHl in thio jmimv.v ww* n r«w tMrcuDtl* tirar 
utM! miniilt'. I (K-i|n«nl.l,voh<wirrv<fltbi««arp<)ngof thp«ii(ritrt*or 
LiiLntlliH, in Lbit arliflriai r-oloniM wliicb I altcrwArdn fonii«l and 
liroaglit t(i Philailiilphla. The prore«>t waH nnlMtantially the 
oanie, although cti^u thi' master waa aimpl.v draggnl nloiig lb» 
■iirCnci*. Mtnv Ilmii oiit^e a iiUght tiiiiMialtinn wiw ma<le to thU 
tnuiluii-iit. Tbe hIuvm, or nl leant cfrlaia individual* iif thein \tor 
I ani jwrauaili'd tbat anO lmv« tbrir |M-raotial jHH'utiaritica of di»- 
poailliin nml mnotU liko Inigrr auimatii) t<roni«d at timoato luT* 
a pr^adititngaitiat tho prmctiQC of tb« Lttoiduianta above urouwl. 
M)d would uoetNtnonioiuly Be!s« then and mrry thnn below. 1 
b«v« •»«& a ntiutcr or mors properij' " mlatraH," tbua M^rrr*] 
•tveTal timea, each lime retnrnltig in a ttoftged M>rt of ivaUlanoft,^^^ 
Wi thi- win of hrr wr^Htnr. Thi-M- i-innirt muln'^wii tiMi, n|>(MU^ j^^^ 
ently know aomething of the bitterness of bondage to a capricioua 
domestic " help," 

The wonderful muscular force of tbe grip which Lucidiia take^ 
with her inandiblen was thus illustrated : One worker had fpr 
some reason fallen under the displeniture of another, who held her 
tirmlv grHS|tvd b,v the middle thorax. AiixiouH to prcaerre my 
colony from unnecessary loss, I lifted the two out on the |>oint of 
a quill toothpick, laid them in my hand, aud thrust the Rue point 
of tin' i|uill Iwtween the jaws of the aygrcsnor, and so teat>t>d her 
until shr n-leam^ her hoht of hvr fellow. The rcHCui-d ant id- 
Htantly eln-'iMK) llie palm of my hand, thrt-w her alidomen undrr. 
an<l thuH with l«(k curved u]) like an angry <'nt, saweil and tu^ied 
at tlic -.kill iinlil jui ulimsiiiii li:id Im-cii madi-. While watching 
this oiHi-ulioii tlic <>ih> r ani »ux still clinging to the ipiill. and to 
her I tii'Nt lurni'il my attention. She was holding fiiHt in ber 
matidil.l.s III.' |H.iht ..r the UM>th|.i<-k. with lnr InhIv str,-tehe.l 
stniiijhl ■'111 itiiij -iHici, hiT liiulw ntreti-hed oulwanl. excipt one 


iliaps it had prevented the ants from making) any orderly arrange- 
:x3ient of galleries and rooms in stories. But chambers were 
<:3iscovered, placed one above the other, united by tubular gallerieSy 
extending down at least twenty-two inches, the depth to which 
he excavation was carried. The general character of these may be 
hown by the following examples. Twelve inches from the sur- 
face the trowel uncovered an opening into a cavity. By gently 
iMremoving the earth, a similar opening was made just opposite 
^ifig^ 2, PI. 19). When the little bridge between the two was cut 
sFmway there was exposed an ovoid room (fig. 3, PI. 19), in which 
ere a number of ants, chiefly males and females of Lucidus. 
he room was an inch high at the middle, and an inch and a half 
cross from wall to wall ; a tubular gallery led from it into the 
beyond. Another chamber, found at ten inches below the 
urface,was a large irregular cavity, which appeared, on removing 
smooth stone, flush up against which it had been mined (fig. 4, 
1. 19). It was three inches long, one inch and a quarter high, at 
be highest point, and extended inward at the deepest point nearly 
wo inches. The line of the roof against the stone was irregular, 
falling to seven-eighths of an inch to five-eighths, rising to seven- 
eighths, and at one end terminating in a gallery-like extension of 
alf an inch. A gallery opened downward near the stone and one 
pened inward at the innermost point. This chamber was also 
cupied chiefly by males and females. This sufficiently charac- 
^rizes the internal architecture. 

Mingled with the Lucidus ants in large numbers were workers 
m three forms, major, minor, and dwarf, of the species Formica 
August 23d, the excavated nest was visited, and these ants were 
<)iuid to be busy in part upon the galleries, which they were clean- 
ing out, dragging the pellets of sand to the opening with the 
esign apparently of closing them. None of the Lucidus ants 
engaged in this work. Another portion of the slaves was 
ngaged in an extensive migration.^ A few of the slaves were 
^i^arrying their fellows, but for the most part the deportation was con- 
to the males and females of Lucidus. The manner in which 
he latter were seized and carried off* was well observed and is as 
bllows : The slave approached the winged queen (for example) 

' I have referred to this migration in '^ The Agricultural Ant of Texas, ^ 

880 piu«:BEnii(u» or thk aoammt or [18M. 

anCcnnte and opf-n iDanditilos, as thou|;li on the wnlrh fi>r [ntrail«r«, 
ami then alowlv retuni to tbp liitorlor. 

Si.'])lpmb(>r ntli, Inerit^-Mcvcn iUy« nflcr tin- iMacovrrr <if thi« 
formlciin , I vrnn ngnlii nt lirllvrnciit, nn<l ivrUitwl 1(. 7W nrw 
nc«t nc^t-im'fl to tM' tlt>«frtin) ; t1)i> (crounil nronnil lb« tcalv* MvmnI 
l<i havp liccn rm-tillv tlUlnrtipd by a rinitor. anil no a5l« wvn 
viHitilf. TliD ulJ a<<»t. honevi^r, wan abuiiitaiitly jwojilnl, and 
UDintHTa vicn Touiid two and a half r<Rft t>»toiv tlu* HurfbM<, tctai 
wMi-L I woH eiisblt>d U> gatiit-r a larftu ooUiny of nbvtM and wiirii«n 
tir LuiriduH. 1'liv wingpd fornia wttr^ |[<mif. Mr. K'l^ar Kay, «rbn 
hu) (WBisMfi me ill Ihf rxonvutinim nt tlir tlrot rtirit, and hart krpt 
an vjri* iijinti tiiu ticHt, rvimrK-d tbat n fow (lay* after mv rtt^rtaiv 
(in tl]>- latter jiart of Aa^iixt), hf Imd •'««ii one male awl <t>vvr«l 
remalei' taking flight. Ttiey jierchert npon grs-wea, elc, ami iheopr 
(lew /-asiwarrl, at a height of forty or lift v feel, to tli« tTid of the 
flelil. aome SOO (V>et rtialAni. It is [trobahte thai aft>>r thU maniNg*- 
fllplit of tlio ttexefl, itie workera r«'tur»ed lo (he olrt hume. 

AfU-r these anla were coloniEeil, I waa nblr <» otiwrTe M-Trrml 
Ihola, chiefly i-unllrnmlory urthoM reourdet) Iiy Iliilwr, KoM and 
othem. of the Humpean hJi/rrgwi. The mnnten DPTvr worki the 
ndony vra* ehanj^ed mveml times in onler lo incibt to now work 
in miiiiiifi ^lleHea and room* ; iilnnter" of LoeidiiH were [ilacni bjr 
tli.'ni-.'lvi's": !il«a.v« Ilicv rri.i»i!i.-.l i.ll.v Th. -W-r^ «,"ii-ht with 
the grcfttCBt industry and energy an long as there was any need; 
the masters would crowd into the galleries, nnd move about in an 
aimleas way, but I never could ti-ace any attempt either at direct- 
ing or aidini; in the work. So also I never xaw one attempt to 
eat. Sugar was fed freely and the slaves freely partook, antil 
they became gorged, and their abdomens grew transparent with 
the pouched supply of liquid sweets. The masters strode over 
the grains of xugnr, and even when I had supposed that I bad |>ns 
pared them with a good apjielite by previous fasting, they partook 
of noihing. Yet they are in good condition, and evidently well 
fed. They doubtless are fed by the workers who must diagorge 
the fo<Hl, as when feeding larva', callows, males, females, and even 
each other. 1 have, however, never yet ween the actual imxaing of 
nutriment from one to another, although often obsen'ing I.ueidua 
and SchauITU'*''! in the [Kistun' which is commonly assumed 
when this mode of eiinveyiug foot! is lieing practiced. 

In galleries and rooms the Lncidi haiigupon the sides or to the 


bind leg, which was a little bent upward. Thus, without any per- 
ceptible support, except that which her jaws gave her upon the 
quill pK>int, she hung outstretched for several minutes. How 
long she would have kept this position I know not, for I dropped 
her into the nest by clipping off with scissors the point of the 
uill, which, after hugging fiercely for a while, she finally abandoned 
an unresponsive and unworth}'' foe. 

In the course of the above migmtion, one queen was seen to 
-^sist carriage so vigorously that she was final!}- dropped, and, 
^fusing to give the slave a hold upon the mandibles, was seized 
the wing and dragged off. The Lucidus ants seemed to have 
o volition in nor direction of this movement. I released a num- 
r from their porters during various stages of the transit, who 
Iways wandered about with a confused, aimless and irritated 
until again seized and borne off by slaves. 
The locality to which the formicary was being thus transported 
as about six feet distant from the gates of the original nest. It 
as either an old nest or a portion of the one just disturbed. The 
'uarters at least appeared to have been formerly prepared and 
<;cupied. The gates of the nest were placed in one sloping side 
^d in the angle of a deep cross-furrow, and were quite well con- 
^aled by tall grass and clover, tufts of sheep-shaw and various 
:Knall weeds (see fig. 7). In the angle of the furrow was a cleft 
the earth nearly two inches long, one end of which was rounded 
a gate of the size and character of those first described, and 
"ti the other end into a smaller similar vertical tube. This entrance 
so well concealed by grass that I did not see it for some time 
^ fig. 8, PI. 19). Two and a half inches diagonal!}' above this was 
lateral cleft, three inches long, from a half to three-fourths of an 
cli high, and penetrating into the earth laterally at various points 
j^' galleries. The stalks of grass growing upon the side of the 
lope above sent down their roots through the roof of this cleft vesti- 
ule into the floor. On one side of the cleft, half an incli above it, 
as an entrance, with a dome-shaped vestibule. On the other side, 
ree inches above, was a fourth gate, openinjr under :i round 
tone. While some slaves were engaged in dei)orting tlieir For- 
ica fellows and Polyergus associates into the new home, others 
busy bringing out straws and sand as thoutjli proi)aring the 
^'alleries and chambers within. Occasionally a Lucid ns worker 
'^vould show herself for a moment at the gate with outreached 


ftppenr. Various experiments eslaljlished the fact thnt ncune of 
those Biave-niakers (apparently) alwajs keep on giwrd.nnd thai 
certainly some are ready to spring at once to vepel any attack. 
For example, one of the slave-making Formica nanguinea, found 
til the same neigbborhood, was dropped into the PolyergUB colony. 
The hostile presence was inntaiitly discerned and a Lucidtis 
wwrkiT sprung upon the Saugiiinca and HeiKert ht-r near the throat. 
Several wlaves ran to the flray, and took part by sefzing legs and 
antenna* of the intruder. Not wishing such an nneqiial conflict, I 
lifted the pHncijKtl combulantsont, having teased away the others, 
and set tht^m down to fight it out fairly. I.iicidus had Saiigiiinea 
grasped liy the faoe at the eye witli her mandibles when flrsl 
rotnoved, This was not satisi'aetory, for slie began cautiously 
and deftly (o release her hold, preparing hernelf meanwhile, mt 
that with a quick snap she seized her foe by the neck, tlien tiirniKl 
up the abdomen, and, as I suppose, ejected poison upon tin? fiict. 
and month of Sanguinea. I separated the two iM-fore either had 
been mortally hurt. However, Lucidiu had lost the Itagciluni 
of one antcniin. I put Iter Itack into her neat. The battlo-flcarped 
warrior htwl no sooner struok the soil which ah« bad so gallantly 
defended, thun she was violently seised by a slave, and draped 
up and down by her sound antenna, the poor jointless scape meun- 
white thrust oat and waving plteously. The late exalted niea 
and ferooiouB aspect were now gone, and the warrior cringed her 
body and drooped her limbs like — it is no mere &ncy word-paintiog 
this — a sullen criminal in the hands of a policeman. The two 
disappeared from my sight in the mouth of a gallery ; but half an 
hour afterward I saw the same warrior, whom I recognized by the 
mutilated antenna, in the clutch of one of her scarlet fellow- 
soldiers, who was moimted upon her back and holding her by the 

I am happy to record that two days thereafter I saw the 
same veteran, evidently again in "good odor," perambulating the 
surface of the formicarj'. It is probable that in the battle her 
body had been tainted by some odor peculiar to her adversary, 
which had made her obnoxious. It may he, indeed, that the lose 
of the upper part of the antenna may have impaired recc^^ttioD, 
and BO caused this hostile treatment. At all events I could Dot 
but wonder whether any thought went through the little creatare'a 
brain analogous to our meditations upon the ingratitude of Bepnb- 


lies, and the vanity of military glory ! This incident, and many 

other observations, go to establish that in the fupction of the 

warrior is the true economy of this ant. The manner in which 

her European congener Rufescens makes her raids upon the nests 

of Formica fuBca and F, cunicularia, marching in solid column, 

and conducting war with activity, intelligence and success, may 

be read in the fascinating pages of Huber and Forel. There is no 

<loubt that our American species has precisely the same habit. 

Jtfr. Joseph Jeanes, a well-known member of this Academy, has 

<iescribed to me the raids of an ant observed b}- him upon his 

oountry-place at Fox Chase, which, from his description of the 

insect, without a specimen, I should have little hesitation in identi- 

lying as our F, lucidui<. 

The slaves, however, are not deficient in the combative faculty 
They spring to repel a hostile attack as freely and fiercely as the 
snasters. They do this independently, too, just as they conduct 
"their mining operations, and their ability to wage successful war- 
:£are seems to be quite in keeping with their martial spirit. Dr. 
IDarwin has conjectured,' that the slave-making instinct may have 
originated from the unintentional rearing of pupae collected for 
rfbod, who proving themselves useful and congenial inmates of the 
:mest, suggested the collecting of pupte to be reared. Thus origin- 
ated a habit, which by natural selection was strengthened and 
:xnade permanent, and finally increased and modified, until an ant 
^^¥as formed as abjectly dependent on its slaves as P. rufescens, 
"Whatever credit we may give to this ingenious hypothesis, it 
snust be said, that in the case of our F. Schanff'ussi, natural selec- 
"^ion has not operated to degenerate the soldierly courage and 
^Maculty, and remand the duty of defense to those associates in 
"^¥hom the military faculty has been specialized. In other words, 
^f Ijucidus has become specialized as a warrior, dropping an origi- 
^Kial disposition and ability to labor, her slave has not become 
specialized as a worker, nor dropped her combative faculty, but 
SBeems to be possessed in all respects of the normal habits and 
^mature of ants erf her species. At least I could trace in her no 
effects of slavery, other than the strange association with and care 
^Df her abductor. One, therefore, who accepts Dr. Darwin's sug- 
gestion, must allow that natural selection has wrought toward 
specialization in one section of the colony, but has been suspended 

* Origin of Species, p. 26. 




in its o|)ei-atioD» upon the other suulioii. It is duiibtlXiI if the 
anomalous conditions thus i-aiaed by Dr. Darwin's explanation, 
be not more difficult to explain than the original conditions to 
which the hypothesie was applied. 

It iB important to note the wide distribution of this insect anroae 
the American Continent. Dui-ing the summer of 1ST9, wbilu 
encamped in the Garden of the gods, studying the Honey and 
Occidental Ants, a uest of Lucidus was discovered just inside my 
tent door. Its gate wan & simple opening into the ground, into 
which both Lucidus and her slaves were frequently passing. 
There was a similar opening under a small bush about three timi 
distant. The slave, or worker, was hei-e jji-ecieely the smmv, 
J-'ormica Schatiff'/msi, which is found so often in the compouDd 
nests of both F. mngairea and Lncidua in the Eastern SUtea. On 
one oocnaion [ captui'ed a slave carrying a winged queen from one 
opening lu another. 

A compansDuof a huuidus taken at Hell wood, at the foot of the 
Allegheny Mountains, Pennsylvania, with the Colorado speeimens, 
shows no difference except tiiat the Pennsylvania examj>le is 
slightly more robust and of a somewhat darker color. The pecu- 
liar uniform gloss which give^ the American ant its siwcific or 
varietal name, as distinguished from the duller color of the 
Eur(.j)eini lipi-cioH, /'. r„/r-',;'„s, niark.s i-qiijilh' th,- Kasieru and 
Western representatives. The European ant is decidedly smaller 
thau her American congener. The Colorado F. Schauffuggi is ot 
a more uniform and darker brown color than the Allegheny 
Mountain specimen. 

I have no sjiecimens of Lncidua from points intermediate of tke 
localities above named, but no doubt the species is spread over the 
whole of our Continent.' That it carries with it its characteristic 
habits, even its favorite domestic servant and associate, and that 
in these respects it exhibits the habits of its closely allied congener 
of Europe, affords another interesting point in the geographical 
distribution of our insect fauua. 

' P. rt(/cae#n( of Europe baa not yet been found in thewMm plalosof tbs 
South of that Continent. (Catalogue Bmobt-Fobrl, p. «M^ Hltth. d. 
Sohweizerlscben Entomol. Oesellschaft. ) It would be avaluabla oonbi- 
bution to our knowledge of distribution were we to know whatbar or not 
P. hicidvi is found in our Southern States. We might ventme the ■■»• 
logical prediction from the above babit of its European oonganer, tbat it is 
not found in the Oulf States. 




Systematic writers have described the temporal and masseter 
xnuscles in mammals as being distinct from one another. I hope 
"tjo show that they are, in the great majority of forms, parts of the 
same muscle. 

I have found in my dissections that the temporal muscle,^ as a 

:x'nle, has a deep and a superficial set of fibres. The deep set arises 

dtrom the floor of the temporal fossa, and makes up the greater 

;M.>&rt of the muscle. Most of the fibres unite to form a tendon, 

"^rhich is inserted upon the apex of the coronoid process of the 

lower jaw. Many of the fibres which do not so unite are inserted 

xapon the median surface of the coronoid process ; others again are 

ontinuous with the superficial fibres. The superficial set of fibres 

rise from the temporal aponeurosis. It is continuous in the main 

ith the deep fibres of the masseter, and the fibres are inserted 

'•Jipon the lateral surface of the coronoid process. A partially 

^3istinct slip arising from the median aspect of the malar bone, 

nd the ridge on the squama over the external auditory meatus, 

« an accession to the superficial fibres, but possesses a tendency 

o unite with the fibres of the deep set in the anterior portion 

f the fossa. These fibres may receive the name of the supra- 

ygomatic portion of the masseter. They are inserted at the base 

f the coronoid process, forming a thin glistening tendon within 

nd a little posterior to the anterior border of the body of the 

asseter. The supra-zygomatic slip is merged with the large 

nperficial mass in the dog. 

I believe that I have detected as part of the general plan of the 

asseter muscle, when well developed, that it is composed first 

f a tendino-muscular layer, rising tendinously from the anterior 

►art of the zygoma or the maxilla near the infra-orbital foramen, 

nd is inserted muscularly into the angle ; second, of a nearl}' 

ertical laj^er, tendinous below near the angle, muscular near the 

j-goma ; third, of a nearly vertical layer, having a disposition to 

come tendinous, both near the angle and at the malar bone ; 

urth, of a smaller layer occupying the fossa on the lateral 

mirface of the ramus, and which exhibits a glistening layer of 

^ For convenience the temporal and masseter will be held as distinct in 

^9 i>KorKRiiiN>m or trk ArADictiY or [IStO. 

mp|>enr. VKriouit flxpcrimvnbi esinliliiilivil tbi- Tnct tlut *om* oT 
Hiv*e nilmw-maiken (apparantly) alwH>-« krvji >in ft"""! ■"'■■I U**^ 
certainly tome ari> ready to spring at ont-u U* rt-pr) any attack. 
For i>xaai|i1e, one of tlie iilare-loakinif Furmiva Mingutneo, fnnnd 
in tlie aainn nelKliburhoftd, was ilropjMHl Into thi> PaXyrrgaa rokiaj. 
Ttie li(t§lll(' pri^MfDof WH> Inatantly iliacenitfd and a Lnt^iilna 
witrkisr Mprui)|i upon the Sannrniiira and •iriJtwl hrr n«ar Uif Ihniai. 
8«v«ral ■Inrcfl nui tu tbo lYny. and tr>ok )inrt by wicinji It^K* aad 
anUmnK' of tli(> Inlnidcr. Not wiahing S4icli an iin<x)Uiil t'ntillict. I 
liftml till' pHnctpal vombatanU out, having teawd away tU<r nthnra, 
and trot tlicui down to fiirht it out fairly. I.uvldrM had .Sa»puin*« 
grasped bv th« fiiw at tho oyo with Iwr nundibk* wh<in 6m 
KtDUvvd. Tblf wa«t not AatiaOvtory. for slw bcuan cnutioiMly 
and deftly to ivltiur tier bold, pr^parlnft lnTAeir meanwhile, mi 
that with n quick anap thv M-iM-d hf r fiM> by tin* ni-ck. then lumnl 
up the nbdi>tni-n, ami, ■« I nupiHiae. (•Jt-clRd puliutn upiiti thv favr 
anil mnnth of Sangtiinca. I aepan>li.M tlir two lM>run.' ttUbrr had 
hi>fR mcrtatly hurt. However, Loiciiliia had loat Iht- Ita^llnm 
(if iiDi- antfiina. 1 put ItiT liai^k Into her ne^t. Th4> liaUlr-acsrml 
warrior hud n>i aoont^r iitruub tin- ti»il whJcb ^bif bad ao ^lautly 
derended, tbuii aht' waa vtotenlly Ht;i»pd by a iilavi-. and draggMt 
HI* and dnwii by Imr Himiid antenna, the ]iuiir Jotntliwa M»|ie ■■««>• 
"^rhllc Uiraat out antl wn\-itiir pltroui'v. Tin- Inti- i-xsllnl mien 
and ffioeioiiH nH|i(H:t were now j;one, and the warrior crinf^ her 
body and drooi»ed her limbs like — it is no mere fancy wonl-paintin^ 
this — n miUen criminal in the handii of a The Iwo 
disappeare<l from my Big;ht in the month of n )^llery : but half an 
hour afterward I «aw the name warrior, whom I recoftnited by the 
mutilated antenna, in the oliiteh of one of her scarlet fellow- 
Holdiers, who wnw mounted iiiwn her Iwick and holding her by the 

I am bnppy to reconi that two daya thereafter I aaw the 
Nimie veteritn. evidently again in "good wlor," perambiilatint; the 
Hiirfnee of the tV.nnieiiry- It i» prolwible that in the battle her 
ImkIv had l-een tniiiled liy some oilor jR'culiar to her adveraary, 
wliieli liiid iimde tivr obiioKJoiH. It may l>e. indeed, that the Iomr 
of llie iipiM-r part of tlie anteiiiia may have iiiii»aired n-cotmitiun. 
and so eaiiMtl tlii* hostile tnatment. At all eventa 1 could not 
but wcmdvr whether any thought went through the little rreature* 
bniin aiKilugour< to uiir meditations upon the ingratitude of Repub- 


)f this vein lying between the masseter and temporal masses, 
)ehind the zygoma. The central tendon is thicker at the root of 
he zygoma and the bone over the external auditory meatus than 
inj other locality in the temporal fossa. 

The masseter has fine layers, closely resembling those in the 
l<^. The deepest layer, namely, that one whose fibres occupy 
he ramal fossa, has a^ much thicker aponeurosis than the other 
ayers, the anterior portion of the first alone excepted. 

In the opossum, Didelphys virginianus^ the superficial fibres of 
he temporal are everywhere thick. The aponeurosis is well de- 
veloped. The Bupra-zygomatic slip is not distinct. The deep 
portion of the muscle exhibits a white glistening tendon, which 
loes not, however, extend as far as the orbito-temporal septum. 
?he anterior portion of the muscle is made up as is usual by the 
inion of the deep and superficial portion. In addition to its 
orming the slip passing down to the front of the base of the 
oronoid, it sends a powerful bundle to the median side of the 
oronoid, a thin movable layer of muscular tissue, which passes 
n front of the coronoid, between the medio-coronold and pre- 
oronoid portions. 

The masseter is highly tendinous superficially. The tendency 
o cleavage is not pronounced, and the continuity of the deep 
bres with the superficial fibres of the temporal is very noticeable. 

In the squirrel, Sciurus hudsonicus, the superficial portion of 
he temporal is less distinct than in man, and the supra-zygomatie 
lip, while demonstrable, is not large. The superficial tendinous 
%yeT of the masseter arises from a spur on the maxilla below tlie 
afra-orbital foramen. It passes, as is usual, downward and back- 
rard toward the angle. This layer does not, as in most mammals, 
arm the entire superficies. A second layer arises from entire 
nferior border of the zygoma, which appears to be lost upon the 
aregoing about midway between the zygoma and the angle. Upon 
aming this last layer downward, the third and last layer is seen, 
rhich is continuous in the ordinary manner with the temporal 
Ibres. The arrangement of fibres on the median surface of the 
nandible was not examined. 

In the North American porcupine, Erethizon dorsatus^ the 
nasseter consists of a superficial set of fibres arising tendinously 
Trom the malar bone, and passing downward and backward to the 
ingle of the mandible. It arises from the anterior three-fourths 

M4 PRivcBnuMOH or ths aoadbit or [ISW. 

in its 0{>erations upim tb« otiii'r acotinn. It U iliwUruI If the 
uiomuloufl oondttlcin* ibus miHiHl by Dr. ])ar«riB'> PxiiUDBtioa, 
hv Dttt mure difficult lo r-x|iliUti thiui thn original coixlitloOD to 
wbioh thr hypoUicHiii wjm applitnl. 

It U importAnt to note tlio wiile Hist rib tit ion of this inwvt aeroM 
tlir Amoricaii CootiDent. Unriag the summer of IttTt, whU* 
«D(»mpoI in the tiardon or the K'^'' Htodyinfi tb« Hone; and 
UMitleiital Anta, a iu'et of LuclduH wua diM^ovurt-d Jiul innidi- my 
teDt door. Its gat« wbh a tiiinplc opening into tliu groand, iuU) 
wLiab both LiUoiduH nml b^r idtivt'it wert (Vi--iittnitly puwlnj;. 
Tlinn- WAK a aimHiir u]>«-i)ing undvr n Htnall l>u«li abont tbn-« fMit 
dixtnnt. Tin- alnvc, or Korkor, wnn berc prroiMly the cuae, 
^'irrmion Srhau^'uMxi, tvliicli in found so ottea in tb« compcNiDd 
»ir*t»of both F. Mmjuinea and Lui-idus in Lbe Eaat«ni Statca. (ht 
oni> ouciiHlun I cajitiirvil & alavc carrying a winged qimni fttMn oiw 
opeDlU]{ to another. 

A fHui[)arI»ODof a Iini-iduo takeu at the footof Um 
AUvgUnuy Mountain*. I'cnmtylvuniK, wllb the ('oinrado ■t|N.'<-iineDa. 
allow* mi dlOi'mnt^ uxticpt tlial thr rpimoylvania oianipttf U 
•llglilly iiiorv robnitt and of n ■•onicwhiit darker color. The pv-ca- 
liar uniform glow which gives the American ant ila apvoiOc or 
rarictal name, aa diatinguiahed n-ow the dalt«r color of tba 
"^EiiropeBU apoHea, P. ru/e»frnH, raarktt M)utill>- the Kaatem awl 
Wf-iti-ni ivi.ri-r..-iit;iliv,-H. Tin- l-:iir.-|« util i., il.-.-id.:.ilv •nwll.-f 
than her American congener. The Colorado F. SchauffuM ia of 
a more uiiifonu and darker brown color than the Allegheny 
Mountain ti|tecimen. 

1 have no ttjiecimcnx of Lucidus from |>oiiito intermediate of the 
loralitiett above named, but no doubt theaptrvieH Im iprvad over the 
whole of our Continent.' That it <-arn<« with it ita cliaracteriatic 
liabitH, even ittt favorite domestic servant and associate, and that 
in tliew res[Ht-tM it exhihiiH the habitu of itx clo»ely allied oongeiter 
of Kuro]H', Htl'uniK miothcr intcrcstinfi |>oint in the gfogrii|ibi«Kl 
dintrihution of our inject fauna. 

' /'. rtifrtrti.i lit Kunipo lias not yet been round id the warm plmlna ol tfae 
Siiutli of Hint Continont. (('iitalu);nu Emoht-Fuhbu l>. UO, Hitth. d. 
Scliweiz«ri>M-lien Entomnl. ileHellHcliBtt, i It would lio a valuable roatii- 
bution to our kncimledKe of diHtriliution were we to knuw whether or not 
/'. I'leidui in fnuiul in our Southern State*. We might Tenture the ano. 
liitiical prediction from thealwvc habit of itH Ei>r<i|ieAn canf[aner, that it ih 
not found in thv Oulf StalPH. 


It will be seen that the plan of the muscles is the same as in 
other mammals, but is remarkable for the muscles' subdivisions 
remaining distinct from one another. In rodents having the large 
infra-orbital foramen, the masseter muscle is described as having 
a separate portion passing there through. Mivart, in his Elements 
of Anatomy, page 309, says, in this connection : " In certain ro- 
dents, 6. g.y Lagostomus and the Agouti, the masseter divides into 
three portions, and traverses (that is, one of these portions tra- 
Terses) the singularly enlarged infra-orbital foramen/' This is a 
correct expression of the view usually taught. According to the 
plan of description followed in this paper the masseter of Ere- 
ikizon in nowise differs from the muscles of the same name in 
other mammals, except in the extent of development of the layer 
"to which the pre-foraminal fibres belong. I have had no oppor- 
"tnnity of examining Lagostomus^ but it is probable that the 
inasseters are much alike in all. The porcupine is further of 
:interest in the extent of encroachment of the muscular fibres 
"mipon the orbital space. Both masseter and temporal appropriate 
large surfaces. It is noteworthy in addition to find that the 
;j)Ost-orbital process is here purely muscular in significance. It is, 
indeed, imbedded in muscle. Notwithstanding its size, the process 
%as no septal significance in this rodent. 

In Coehgenys the temporal is thin in the temporal fossa but 
"^hick and massive on posterior wall of the orbital space. The 
superficial layer and supra-zygomatic slip are distinct. Raising 
%hese two portions of the temporal from the temporal fossa no 
smascular fibres are seen beneath. A distinct tendon becomes 
"Visible, however, underlying the junction of the superficial and 
^upra-zygomatic portions In the orbital space the superficial 
;(>ortion is exceedingly robust and extends medianly the entire 
^epth of the posterior wall. The temporal is inserted into the 
Xower jaw as follows: The superficial portion arising from the 
liemporal fossa, and the zygomatic portion are inserted through 
%he main tendon upon the apex of the coronoid process ; the orbital 
;fx>rtion upon the median side of the same tendon and the median 
^urfkee of the coronoid its entire length. 

Comparing the plan of this muscle to the others described it 
^3iay be said that the deep part of the muscle is absent, unless the 
greater bulk of the orbital portion is assigned to the deep part. 
Xt has been generally found that the deep and superficial portions 


timdon at tile origin fVom the malar bone The Ohm twncath tbte 
Kre oontlnuoufl, in most mamnmU, with the aoperiloial Uyar of 
fibres of the temporal muiclc, Indiidinif the AupnMEygotiuiliD allp, 
wbich, in some uiilmnb, la d!«U»(;t in prtfiil |utrt trom the flbr«« 
urbIni;n*omtbetein)funilapum-uruiiiit. Tbf t(iaM«t«rprv»viit*s gi-u^ 
ral reRemblniict! to the inl^rnal ptiTj'goiif miiMck, wltii-h, wberei er 
examjtb-il, IiM itliown ttifHu imjHTruct Rllrm[it« at pUiutI vJrttvag*. 

Tbix oiitliiiP being borne in niin<I, it may be well to turn bo Uw 
descriptions employvd by writers on comparative analiim}'. 

The descriptionti of the mii«cles in Meckt^l < Vi-rgloirlL Atut-t 
iv, 496) are very |;eneral. The temporal In said to be i:oven-d by 
a conspicuous apoueurosis; the muaele to !« more iir leM ba- 
slisped, KDd )(n>dualty narrowvd from above dowuwanl. Tbti tna*- 
aetcr U tiald lo be divided ordinarily into an outer, t*H))(rr, atuiitcr 
and Btniiii;hi layttr and on iuiier, shorter, weaker layer, in which 
(he tlbrKM are more or leu* obliriuely jtlaced from above downward 
and Ixtfon^ buckwanl, 

Cuvier (Le;on> d'Anat. Comp.. 2d Ed , iv, Imv I'art, <H tn/ra) 
dewribee the tem|>oral io the a|)0«, bats, InBcctivora, ro<)cnts, t«o> 
toed ant-eater, hog, rumioanta and the cony. None of tbv*e Incluilea 
Iht! nrnuigemeni of flbiva above given. It U tnie itial in Ih*.- anU 
ealfr the maaaeter and lt!m|Kiral miuielMi are untte<l, but no detail 
of Mil- fhanwliT of Iln.' iiriii.ri ii pri-«.-nled. Mivnrt (Kli-mvnia 
of Anatomy, 310) repeats this atatement. It is evident thf»t the 
union of the muscles is here tlioU};ht to be exceptional. Cuvier 
and Laurillard further describe the masst^tcr in the bats, rodenta, 
artiodactyles, anUeater and the cony as composed of two jMrtiooa, 
a zy^romatic and a maxillary. The former is present in all ; the 
Ifitter ieseen in the rodents, artiodactyles, theantn^ter and theconv. 

Mivait (I. c, p. 300) describes the masseter in Lagottomun and 
Danyprorta as follows, as of" great devi'lopment :" '*Tlie maaiieter 
iit <iividf<i into three portions, and traverses the singularly en- 
lari:<'i| iiirr:i.orlHt!d foramen sjioken of in dettcrilnng the skeleton," 
Aic'inlinsr to Ihe interpretation iistd in lliis i>a|HT, the nia»mul»*r in 
roilt'iils liu-; wen fewer sulxliviKions than in some other mammals. 
Of lli.-e, al leiisl one only lui.i^eK in such direction as to }M.'riuil 
t!i.: eN.|.r.-^i.)ii llmt it ■■triiver-'es the infia-orbit!i! furamvn ;- and 
this |i:irl is nut sej.irubjt.- from .ill llicflbR-s lying oil a plane lowir 

p:irl is 

n..t «'piral.]i-l 

r.>m .ill llieflbR's lying on a plane 

tli^il 1 

f lli.-zvf;omii. 

he .ie- 


vrnnd l.aurillard of anim-ds ] ba^ 


luty be here .■].i 

oniized : 



conspicuouB. In Artibeus the superficial fibres occupy the anterior 
half of the fossa. In Desmodua the fibres are confined to the 
Yja, 2. anterior portion of the fossa ; 

^^ they are weak and unimportant. 

The Bupra-zygomatic slip over- 
lies the tendon' of the main 
^'^ muscle above the zygoma. In 
Lonchoglossa the muscle is 
poorly developed throughout. 
The superficial fibres are re- 
^ duced to mere rudiments. The 
Bupra-zygomatic slip is present. 
The deep portion docs not 
' reach the vertex. 
iJtJi; HBMeier mnnis. Themuscles in PteropinebatB 

resemble those in the American 
leaf-nosed forms. The superficial fibres are confined to the anterior 
third or half of the temporal fossa as seen in Pteropus mediua, 
Bpomophorus and Gyonycleris amplexicaudala. The supra- 
zygomatic slip is relatively smaller than in the Phyllostomidffi. 
In Megaderma frons and Fhytlorhina bidens the parts bear a 
general resemblance to the above group. The supra-zygomatio 
slip is absent in the latter species. 

In Molossus the superficial fibres are enormously developed, they 
entirely cover the deep, and arise from a continuous osseous sur- 
face at the vertex which, being broad anteriorly, narrows gradually 
toward the occiput. The fibres arising from the vertex,crest, when 
such is present, are those belonging to the superficial set. The 
supra-zygomatic slip is present. A similar arrangement is seen 
in Noctilio, in which form the main mass of fibres possess an un- 
usually deep set central tendon, and the superficial layer extends 
bachward along the line of the vertex to the occiput. Lasionyc- 
teris, Atalapka, Vesperus and Vexperugo have an arrangement of 
the temporal fibres similar to the above but vary in the degree of 
development of the anterior slip. 

To sum up the knowledge possessed of the temporal muscle in 
the Chiroptera it may be said that the deep portion is most ex- 
posed in Pteropus and its congeners, and the family Pbyllos- 
tomididte, owing to the small development of the anterior fibres. 
In Vespertilionidffi and Molossi the deep portion of the temporal 

•tss PBocuoiNoti or thk acadkmt or 

iiiftswt«fk Bbreit. Itjoip* Uxr auiwrflclftl flbrmnn n ltn«wttfa 
■•Mrottdlrl procMB. The do'i fibre* famiiih « brilliant tMidoa, 
wbieb estenda fonnrda <|UiW to tbt orHtoi* mpora) ■vpton; 
thoa dllfiiring vtrikiDsljr tttm the uTangcmant in man. Ttir d««p 
llbrM ftra ftirthwr Men to be Imp^rfwtl; tllOtreiitlBtwl Trnm ihil 
internal pterygoid mnflole. 

the tDMuler mou'tc l> comiMMoil or tbo followlntc: — 1st- JL 
layer arising aponctirollavllj- from tbn aijt«rinr tliinl of th« KyitOki 
rniULc «roh, anil |)ualng ol»H«|wIjr doimwanl «n<l Iwekwar-l t« 
anglD. S(). A b.>or rMomhling tbn ron-goingi it aritM frotn 
sygumatjo arcb at iU middle. Tbe llhrre ar« nearly vrrtimi i 
rail tcnillD(m«ly at thi.* uiglu. M. A layer arbiinff tntdiac^ 
miiM-tilariy tr-ut tbr [loeteriur Ihlnl of titc zygomatic arch. '~~ 
aiirva an iRM-rted-Dpoa tlic upper lialf of the aaeendlng runm dfl 
the lower Jaw. Thnaelayen 
anterloriy ; tndMrO. anr tn(ti«U»- 
giiUhsblo at tlx- anterior borrlrr. 

In Itie dog Uif> Mnprrflclal flhns 
aromncb IvtUrr di^vwlojied thaa 
t-iltier tbe macacioe or mAD, u 
coror tn tbe deeper Sbna, while tb^f 
dii not torn «t uy fiat a «ti| 
xyp>m«tf(5 "Up; tli« (remral 
rangrriifint of IhiUi irmjmrnl and 
miidiiitrT mtisrli>« n* in ntlicr tnUB* 
mnl'. Tbr TnaE«et>'r •.■xhjbita ate 
ili-ii\ uiri-H, of whit'h till* laat Of 
itui'iH-»t iHTUpif* till- fiw^a oD the 
outer Miirfnce of thr ramua.mnd ii 
■lirvctly c-ontiniionAwith tht?super> 
&cM fllTof of the tfmixinJ , flir, !>. 

Ill tU- c 

. y<i. 

u.p.,..r.iinuKH«-inn=iKhin.hinJih. anperficial fibres, as in the dog, 
.■ir). ('■■u/aBiiiarii. cnmplelcly conccnl tbedeepfitim. 

Vx'^'^iH""!"'"'"'!'''"- '^^'' ""pra-r-vftomatic slip is tieanti- 

\.\.\. Su|--rnii>i1 miifw[,rie fiNn'. wps- fuJly liislincl. Itiunchfs of a «m- 
»"\ V TX miiu'hvn'iri "d" nuiw'r. out «!''<■"*""' vcnulf which Can lif m'<>n 
i™DF>rr«iv, lying njMin tlit- niipiTncinl portion 

diHapptar ahrniitly ns they appr<>:iHi the n\'\>fT bonier of ibe 
siipra-zvi;omntic t«lip. Subfoqiiently ilissci-tion detects the trunk 


tnasseter will be found to be variable. The parts in the masseter 
of the Virginian deer ( Gariacus virgimanus) presented essentially 
the same features as in the calf. The superficial layer of the tem- 
poral resembles that of the calf, but the main tendon is small and 
is without muscular fibres, as it lies behind the orbi to-temporal 
septum. The superficial portion is small. It lies behind the 
coronoid, in the posterior superior portion of the temporal fossa. 

It must be said that the human anatomist seems warranted in 
treating the masseter and temporal muscles distinct. Qnain, in- 
deed, affirms that some of the posterior temporal fibres arising 
from the temporal fascia blend with the deep fibres of the masse- 
ter, but the union of the muscles in man is a rare anomaly. 
Macalister (Muscular Anomalies in Human Anatomy. Trans, 
of the Royal Irish Academy, xxv, 1872, 18.) has met with it 
but once. I have seen it once ouly.^ No mention is anywhere 
made of the presence of the supra-zygomatic slip. It is quite 
likely that it may be occasionally seen in the cellulo-adipose tissue 
above the zygoma. Of the presence of any peculiarities in the 
anthroj^oid apes in these muscles I am uninformed. 

The arrangement of the superficial layer of the temporal muscle 
in man is very similar to that seen in the quadruped. This layer 
arises from the temporal aponeurosis, and while thin posteriorly 
is thick anteriorly, behind the orbital septum. If this layer of 
fibres be divided posteriorly and the anterior portion turned for- 
ward, a thick radiated tendon is displayed beneath. This is the 
tendon of the deep set of fibres which here as in quadrupeds 
constitute the mass of the muscle. The fibres of the superficial 
and deep sets are continuous behind the orbital septum. This 
method of displaying the temporal muscle has been for many 
years employed by Prof. Joseph Leidy in his demonstrations at 
the University of Pennsylvania. 

From the above examination I have come to the following con- 
clusions : — 

(1) While it is convenient to separate these muscles it must be 
remembered that in many mammalia the tendency is for the mas- 
seter and temporal muscles to unite — the deep part of the former 
being continuous with the superficial part of the latter. 

* In a dissection of the muscles in a mulatto child at teim, I found the 
deeper plane of masseteric fibres arising from the external surface of the 
temporal tendon. 

of Uif lower bonirr of Uic inRliir bono, tbc uiiUn lower Ixin 
(Jip tiionnouti infra-orbiUil fornmnn. lU Itm-rtion 1» not i 
uji'tQ till- sngle but tbo nicdiKD eurfBcr of tho nunus u wl>11. 
Iu*>t-uMmi-(I inscrtiou occurs a» follown: Tim mUrrior uilite of 
titiiitcle licODlucs stout and broatl n» it npproftrbi-* tlu 
Ujrdor of Iht bouc In IVoDt of tbo xngl<r. It wind* i 
tionler, n-ceivlDg aa it does eo a lari^ aocvMion trom th« Miglr, ' 
Knd a portion of the s<tJfto«nt niodUn »urftc« ftom tbe lower jaw. 
TbU portion of the mttSMitci Uca below tb« >« on thv »oft p*rta 
of thf nook. In addition ti> th« above, a lon^. alouu fnaifom ^ 
liellj' in iniitirt«d \ty fluHhy tlbn-a nt a point lialf wa>- up tbe r 
lu ffont, and ntMivo the ttppcr Itonli-r of Ihr Snaertitfu uf Um i 
tvmal pterygoid niiuii;lif. 

IVopntb tbf eiiiwrDQial Qbrva jiu>t. dr»i-rilicd, tlic auuiwirr I 
£n-ltiiion axIiilMl^ tlii> iiitiuil ti-udin»nn Otirps ariain^ t^m I 
anifle and i)aa»iDK upward aod forwant. Tlie tbin) oel ia of g 
lia|Kirtaiu-H lu thia aidmaL It nitret-'s witb tbe gniM^nU plan i 
amntfviiient io otber tnammnia t-umiliivd, l>ut la renariuible fi 
l(a i-xtonl. It arimt* from llii- Iuwit luid niMllan border of t 
r.yciinia by tvndlnouii flbrca, fmm tli« ■tdo of tlut maxlUa, at K 
iiniKnl n^gioD and Miipm-orliiUil ■iirfiu.'f of tho lAmt tmite by Su 
slipK. also lloahj' Trom tbo uppor concave bordi^ of tbe lygi 
where flbrofl form the unpra-xvKomBlic «li|>; tnidinoii« and flralq 
from the ant«nor and lower half of the inner wall of tlic orbit. 
Tilt' insertion of this set of fibreH is u\Km tlie ramus, l>etweon tbe 
angle and the sigmoid notch. The anterior part of the insertion 
is rounded and tendinous. It lies bcnesth tlie com-S|>onding 
bonier of the surperOeial |)ortion, and rt^ceivea tbe flbres ])asaing 
through the infra-orbital foramen. The remaining portionn unite 
to be inserted as already indic-ated. 

The temporal muscle itossesees a BU])erl1cial (wrtion, which 
everywhere covers in the main muscle. Its a]>o»enroHis arinea 
from the vertex, the upper Itorder of the iKtslerior half of the 
orbit and the jtoHlerior and ii))iK'r half of the inner wall of the 
same depreHsion. It thus covers in tlie post-orbilnl process of 
the frontal lione. It is inserted entirely n}K)n the main tenijim, 
and receives n') fasieubis from the mosselir. The .ieep or main 
portion extends ils H|>oneurosis forward, t'> W inserti-d stoutly 
U)>'iii the |K>Ht orliital proccns of tlie frontal Uiiu'. A tliin a|H>- 
m-urt'sifi (lasses downward, Ihenoe to tlie mandibU- Uliind the 


The following reports were read and referred to the Publication 
Committee : — 

Fob the Tbab ending Novembbb 80, 1880. 

Nothing has occurred during the year to disturb the Society in 
its usual course. It is a source of satisfaction that its financial 
condition is better now than it was at the close of last 3-ear. 
Although its current income is not yet quite equal to the sum it 
needs or desires, it still remains free from debt. 

The effort begun more than a year ago to collect subscriptions 
for the purpose of establishing a maintenance or working-fund, 
has not been as successful as was expected. The aggregate of 
subscriptions is now $2(580, of which $1550 have been paid. It 
may be hoped that at the close of 1881 the Treasurer will be able 
to report that the Mainter^ance Fund has been largely increased. 
The effort should not be abandoned in despair. 

In this connection it may be mentioned that an addition of 
$3000 to the permanent fund of the Academy has been made by 
reserving for investment, under a by-law (Chapter IX) enacted 
May, 1876, aU moneys received from members for commuting 
their semi-annual contributions, as long as they may retain their 
membership. This commutation fee is designated life-membership, 
and the fund accruing from it is conveniently called the Life- 
membership Fund. The income from it is applicable to the pay- 
ment of the ordinary expenses of the society. 

The Charlotte M. Eckfeldt Fund, formed of money received, 
June, 18T9, from the executors of the late Mrs. C. M. Eckfeldt, 
who made the Academy one of her residuary legatees, amounts to 
$2466.86. The income from it has been temporarily assigned to 
the use of the Publication Committee. 

The heirs of the late Mr. Joshua T. Jeanes, who died suddenly 
January 3d, 1880, have generously given to the Academ}- twenty 
thousand dollars, the sum which he had indicated his intention to 
bequeath to the Society in an unsigned codicil to his last will. 
The money has been invested in approved mortgages, and by 
order of the Academy constitutes the Joshua T. Jeanes Fund, the 
income from which has been duly made applicable, like that of 
the Maintenance Fund, to the general purposes of the society. 


nrr contlnnoDit aBteriurly. It is probable that while Ifacdprp 
i» Absent (Wmt tlie temporal fotiiia proper, It remains In pMltta 
tbe orl>ltnl tpaiHi at n pomt ansireriDfc to tbe post-aeptKl deprt^ 
in Animal* having n partition betwveit the orMl anil tltc t«iD|i 
Ibtaa. Bat whili- the dnep pan \* aljM.-ut fVom the proper leta\i 
ToMaa, a stont ffliHteniii^ Icuilon i« herv in the tuual po«ltii>n ol 
iTeotral tcadou, aud, as (n UrtrUiittit, it ooaeotitd tmm wiitioob- 
It tR iotnreBtfajc ti) tmle that th^ »iipra-xyp>inatiea]ip ia t4Mn)>ora)i 
it boinK doulitfUl wbellHT any of ita fibnis an eontiDDona with th* 

The mtueter baan a gemral anuifrcnient to the muacle la 
Krrthiwn. Tha anterior edge ia leaa muitealar than in tb<> tatter 
iirnua. The mandlbalo-xyitocDatio portion, whoiw on'^n (Wim the 
mantiibiilar ookIv occupicn the lower oniv-thtnl i>r thr ■urfan-, oun- 
Btitiitea the inafHlvc Iltf»hy tielly. The flhtw arv Tor the mo-l |iatt 
nearlj' horizon tal. Hl«(»>irerc(t forlheappiirbsirof itamrfare by 
the cnorrooiM nalnr bone. Th<- Klip ttom the moilinn anrfan- of the 
mandible tit nrrangivl an in ErHhiton. It lies in part tn front. anal 
In part tieneath tho internal pterygoid. \\a Jnnetloii with the 
bfHiy of the masxeter conceals the tendinoiia anterior ed^e Ibei 
and U ntntiniioaK with those Rbres ariHlnK froin the anitle and 
basal third of nieiliaii siirfiice. The deep mandllmlrv-tnaxill 
portion Ih uh Id Frrlhu-» in nil etoriil.i'il fi-uliirr*. It i- 
oiis with the superficial parts. A thin layer of orbital ' fibres 
overlies the temporal muscle in the orbit. Another layer ia 
apimrently continuoas with the bnccinator. 

In Danijproefa the general plan of anranfcemcnt seen in Ctrlo. 
gfnya is followed. The minute points of distinction therefrom not 
being noteworthy save the continuance of the main tendon within 
the orbital space, where it overlies the deep anterior vertical 

In Cuvier and Laiirillanl (PI. 24.S) the slips of the temporal 
arc n'prfHented ns parts of a bi-penifonn muscle. I find thf siipra- 
zygomatic fibres more horizontal in position, darker in color and 
more convex than the rcmsindcr of the muscle. 

In the lints the cniH'rticinl [Kirtion of the temi)orfll mav N' small 
or well dcvelo]H'd. hi the (irsl variety s good cx:imple i* hc. ii in 
Phiill'iKloma hanlaliim anr| olhor American Icaf-nosol IttHn in which 
forms the «u|wrficial jiortiiin is coiillueil to the anterior fmirth 
of the tcm|M)ral fossa. The siipm-zygomatic clip is aNo very 


this sum regularly from March, 1860, until February, 1872, when 
they transferred to the Academy — " the principals of the sums 
named '' — ^ten consolidated mortgage bonds of the Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad Compan3\ Thus Mr. Jessup's children 
generously fulfilled their promise and realized their father's inten- 
tion. They have also consented that women may enjoy the 
benefits of the student fund. 

The action and language of the Messrs. Jessup imply, without 
any doubt whatever, that their intention was to give to the 
Academy six hundred dollars per annum : one hundred and 
twenty dollars applicable only to the Publication Fund, and four 
hundred and eighty dollars to the support of students. And to 
secure this sum to the Academy annually forever, they gave to it 
in trust an investment, the par value of which is ten thousand 
dollars, an amount equal, at the rate of six per cent per annum, 
to "the principals of the sums named for the purpose of creating 
a perpetual fund,^' designed to be the impersonal successor and 
never-dying agent of the Messrs. Jessup for the payment of six 
hundred dollars annually to the Academy. 

As trustee, the Academy is bound in honor, if not in law, to 
adopt such proper measures as may be necessary from time to 
time, to preserve entire not only the principal sum, but also 
to prevent, if possible, the income from ever becoming less than 
six hundred dollars, the specified sura it has been authorized and 
directed to expend annually for the purposes named. Reduction 
of this income must be detrimental to those who may properly ask 
assistance from it, to the extent of any diminution it may suffer. 
It is designed to benefit students of the future as well as those of 
the current time. The interests of those of the cominsr centuries 
in it are entitled to present consideration and protection, if 

The instructions under which the Jessup Fund for students 
was established, describe in general terms the requisite qualifica- 
tions of those upon whom the Academy may bestow its benefits. 

An eligible candidate for aid from the Jessup Fund, is required 
by those instructions to possess the following qualifications : 

1, Evident "desire" to devote the whole of his time and ener- 
gies to the study of the natural sciences. 

2. He must be so poor as to be dependent on his own labor for 
a livelihood, and therefore, unless he can be otherwise supported, 


he cannot devote the whole of his time and energies to the Btndy 
of the natural aciences, to which he seeks to dedicate himself. 

S. He must be "deserving" of support in this connection. 
This condition means much. To deserve any support from the 
Jessup Fund, he should possess a quick natural intelligence, 
above the average; a good and sufilcient education, including, 
perhaps, a knowledge of the German and French langu^es ; in- 
dustrious and orderly ways ; integrity in every sense beyond sus- 
picion, and lastly, a manifest intention to dedicate biff lifetime 
and energies to the study of the natural sciences. 

4. He must be " young " — say under twenty-five years of age. 

Under such conditions, and with faculties suitably equipped 
and disposed, the candidate may pass through an apprenticeship 
here provided, and become a practical naturalist. 

The application of the fund is entirely at the discretion of the 
Academy. It would not violate the letter of the trust by using 
it to support approved students of the natural sciences without 
giving them instruction, or granting them the use of its library 
or museum or its hall as their workshop. Tlie trust does not re- 
quire that the Acaclemy shall be the preceptor of the beneficiaries 
of the Jessup Fund in any degree. But inasmuch as one of 
the functions which tiie society has prescribed for itself is to im- 
part and ditfiise knowledj^e, it seems peculiarly proper that it 
should diirct and f;tcilitat«' the studies of tliese iMiieficiarifS. 

The four liundrod ami ciglity dollars may U- given auniially to 
support oiH', (ir be dividi'd bctivecn tno or mure, .is may si-ein to 
Ihc Aca'li'my cxpi-liout. The tiuip during which any nno may 
lowivi- a-sistauce from th>- fiuiil,ig limittHl at the discretion of 
tlie Aca.U'i.iy. 

After line cou-iidenitiou r.f the subject at the stall, it was 
detormiueil tliitt the appmved candiilato should lie received at 
first ou piiil'atimi, for one month, and if the trial wea- satisfac- 
tory, lie mi^lit I'e n[>pointed a beueliciary for two years, aud then 
retire in l':Mur of another, unless there sli.mld be special reasons 

InasLunrli as the niemhcrs of the !-ociety ^Kiy dues for their 
right to use the librarv and museum, it is considered jtcoper to 
UHpiire the lienefic-iaries <if the .lessiip Fvtnd to give, daily, a part 
of their time and lal^or to the Academy, under tlie dir^-etion of 
the cnnitors. as compensatiim tor instruction, .and the use of the 


Academy's property. This time is employed in work incident to 
taking care of, mounting, and arranging specimens in the museum, 
such as cleaning them when necessary, labeling, etc., a kind of 
work which is pertinent to the vocation of a naturalist, and 
through which the beneficiaries become familiarized with natural 
objects, more perfectly than the}' can be in any other way. It 
should not be forgotten that the Academy has alwaj's been de- 
pendent, almost exclusivelj', upon the unpaid labor of its members 
for the care of its museum, and this circumstance, perhaps, ex- 
plains why beneficiaries of the Jessup Fund are expected to do 
an}^ kind of work in the Academ}^ that the curators and other 
members are in the habit of doing. They are, in fact, regarded 
as almost apprentices, who should be ever ready to avail them- 
selves of the opportunities afforded to leani everything pertinent 
to the career of a naturalist. 

Applications for the benefits of the Jessup Fund, are considered 
and decided by the Council of the Academy, 

Between March, 1860^ and November, 1880, thirty-four persons 
have received aid from the fund, for a longer or shorter period 
than two years. Of these, five have died, well known and much 
respected naturalists. Five of those, now living, are professors 
and eminent men. It is believed that all of this class of gentle- 
men have acquitted themselves satisfactorily, and that all grate- 
fully appreciate the benificence of the Jessup Fund, as well as 
the advantages derivable from it ; and it is hoped that none will 
ever regret any of the work he has done, or the time he has spent 
in the Academy. 

The annual reports of the curators and librarian show the ex- 
tent of increase of the musenm and library ; and those from the 
several sections of the Academy indicate that they are active and 

During the year, more than 600 pages of the Proceedings have 
been published, and the fourth part of the eighth quarto volume 
of the Journal of the Academ}' is passing through the press. 

The proceedings of the Entomological Section are printed on 
the premises by some of its members, and issued separately. 
This section has published more than 370 pages and 7 plates 
during the year. 

The second volume of a " Manual of Conchology, Structural and 
Systematic, with Illustrations of the Species," by George W. 



Trynn, Jr., published by the nuthorand issued from the Acai 
has been published during li.e year. It includes 28S pag«a ( 
text, 70 platea with 915 figuj'ta. 

Professor Leidy's admirable work on " Presh-WiiUr IUiizopodt'3 
of North America," forming Vol. XII of the final reports of t" 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Tcm>l 
tories, under the direction of Dr. F, V. Ilaydpn, is so clos^l 
connected with the Academy, that its publication during the ye*CH.I 
may be mentioned here. Dr. Leidy,ot the stated meetings of tIl«J^ 
society, gave verlial aceoimts of vi-ry many fVesh-walcr rfaizopodd 
which are described in hla work, and the Academy's library wan 
the sole source from whicli be was enabled to prepare the bibli- 
ography of tbt subject. 

Few persons devote their whole time and energies to natunl>J 
history for a living. Generally, the study is an occnpation foci 
leisure hours, and may be regarded as a secondary' pursuit amoo^ ■ 
IIS, wiiicb yields little or nothing towards a livelihood, ^tisfitctoiy 
study of natural history requires so much to aid its votaries, in the 
way of collections and books, that it is extremely rare to find anyone 
person rich enough to procure ail that is needed. For this reason 
many of like tastes associate, each contributing his quota, for the 
purpose of gathering what is necessary or desirable lo l»e a»ed m 
common for self-instruction. -^^ 

In one sense the Academy may be regarded as an association 
of this kind. 

A prominent object of the Sooiety is to afford opportnni^ to 
those who desire to undertake self-culture in any or all the de- 
partments of the natural sciences. From its beginning in 18IS, 
continuously to the present time, members have freely contributed 
specimens to its museum, and books to its library. Be«tdM 
materials of this kind they have given money liberoUy, establidwd 
permanent funds for several specific purposes, and employed what- 
ever time they could fairly take from their daily avocations fa 
working with their own hands to render the constantly increttsiag 
means of study as easily available as possible. The vahie of per- 
sonal labor gratuitously given to estabUsh and promote the growth 
of this institution cannot l>e over-estimated. A resnlt of the joint 
efforts of the members of the society since its foundation ia the 
opportunity of self-instruction here liberally afforded to those who 
may chooae to a\'&il themselves of it. 


Although the museum is deficient in many of its departments, 
it is remarkably sufficient in some, and as a whole is very exten- 
sive, and in every sense very valuable. The unequal development 
or growth of the several departments is ascribable to the depend- 
ence of the collections for increase on donations exclusively, and 
the want of money to purchase desiderata, and not to indifference 
or ignorance of those to whom the immediate care of the museum 
is confided. 

At this time the library as a whole, though not complete, is 
perhaps the best collection of works on natural history in this 
country, and the Library Fund, given by Mr. I. V. Williamson, 
provides liberally for its increase. 

The opportunity for self-culture to be found now in the museum 
and librar}^ with all their deficiencies, is a result of the generosity, 
goodwill, industry and benevolence of very many members and 
Mends of the Society. Some expert naturalists may disparage 
this opportunity of self-culture, such as it is, and take pleasure in 
pointing out its defects and deficiencies, but those just entering 
the field, as well as those not yet proficient will find it fully suf- 
ficient for their use and worthy of cordial approbation. 

Objection has been made to the regulation which restricts the 
use of specimens and books to the premises of the Academy, sug- 
gesting that study would be very much facilitated by loaning speci- 
mens and books to members, especially to those who are advanced 
students and experts. The answer is that the loan of specimens 
and books, which may be regarded as a luxury rather than as a 
necessity to students, would somewhat facilitate the work of one 
borrower, but while they were in his possession the studies of 
several persons having occasion to consult the same specimens 
and books might be much retarded or hindered. Besides, loaning 
books and specimens increases the chance of their loss and injury. 

After ample experience in the practice of loaning, and due con- 
sidetation of the whole question, the Academy adopted the exist- 
ing regulation of loaning specimens only on a recommendation of 
a majority of the curators, approved by a vote of the Academy ; 
and by prohibiting the circulation of books, has made the library 
a library of reference exclusively. It is confidently believed that 
the common interests of all concerned are best served by strict 
adherence to this practice. It promises ^^ the greatest good to 
the greatest number" of those who have occasion to examine 

3W raocKEtii.ias of thk aoaokut or 

TheThonuuB.Wildon Fond.tbe Iilliaa belli I>bylitStotl,th»I«i 
Bartdb. Bill] PiiblEiMtion Fiinils are uncliftiigcil. Owing Ui dr- 
vAtnutaacv* aver <rliii-h ttio Arsdviny tins no cotilixil, tfiv )nci>nK> 
»f tbp >'rAr (ViiiB the I. V. Witliamtion Library Fanil ha* hm 
snmpitliitt ilimlulshcd. But it in coiifitliMitir oaajecturvd tlint in 
a shuM timu it will Ih; Ibe mme llul it lin* lin-» lu Ibe |ia-<t. 

Till! Uiuiii--ii>l t!0udllli)fi nf tlie A>ra<U'ra.v will he tttwinl •l<-bii]i!<] 
(u iti« Ilf{>iirt ur th<: Tn:B*iirrr, to whom the •nciKtV ta latM^b 
ttiilrbcivl for tbt tinu-, van- an'i Inbor wliich hf bt-^tow* in llic ill*, 
cbariic nf tlie iliitir* of liU 

I'lvo young man Iibvv been receiTlnfC tke bcnrflt of Uh* Jf« 
t'liml ; I wti for two aiontfas Mch, ooe for (Itp, ont for vix. nnd q 
for ciglit months dnriii); lh« year- 

A liriff Hocount of tbi^ brigio of Diii) fiinil, uxl tb» nannvr of 
its application, may \nlejv»l thoxt) i-ftpi-«Ully wlio hnre becora* 
iiu>iabcTB of till.- Sofivty witliin thf [nut few yi^ri. 

Ur. AtigiiAUiH G. Ji>«Hnp, who bvtwtiii- & mt-niU^r of Ui« Aa 
NuvcQibvT, 1)114, und (ti<ul in Wilmington, IM., npncmWr I 
1H>'>U, gari' llie iiuttittilioii and it« pnrpoiics ii higb piacr 
MtiniKtiiin. lie hnd vxprenspd fait intention to twnttir < 
At-'wlpmy, if nrur nblt>, & sum of mont>y lo conslitntc ■ |M-qM-tiial 
UiaA for HpcriHi^d purposm. IIU children ilctiinnlnrd tliat thia 
iolentioD nf ihi-ir father Bhotilil he reali»>il, nlthonuti br left Bit 
written iiiatructtoi)!i on the swliject. 

In a letter dated March llth, 18ri0, and ad(Iro8se<l to I>r. Imac 
Lea, tht'n President of the Aca<lemy, thoy staled that, in accortl- 
ance with what tbey believed to be the intention of their father, 
they jiropoaed "to pay to tlic Academy one hundred and twenty 
dollars per annum to be applied to its Piililiciition Fund : aAl the 
further sum of four hundred and eijfhty dollars per annum, to be 
used for the support of one or more deserviiij; poor young man or 
men wlio may desire to devote the whole of his or their time and 
(■iier;;ics to the study of the natural scii'nces ; and that they 
loi.lii-d forward lo iuvcstiu-i in trust, at some not distant time. the 
]irinti|i;ils of tlie sums nami'.i, for the pur|>ose of creating a [ht- 
IR-lii;.! luiid lor the !ib<>v,..i,;u[U-d uses." 



er of 

ireall ttiein-lrui-tion-.gii 

entothe A.v 


iidmiiiistrntion of these 

twofuudH— . 

IK- to 

licalior.s ami tin- otlu-r 

lo the M.p|. 

r: ..f 

sis humlred dollar- a 

year. The_\ 



volumes of its Proceedings, they imagine that it sadly lacks the 
afflatus of pure science and does nothing to promote research. 
Their tone implies that the capabilities of the institution, the 
potentialities of its possessions might be made more useful to 
truly qualified investigators by reforming the present system and 
policy, which are too broadly in the interest of beginners and 
amateurs in science. They seem to believe that the collections 
should be placed under the control of expert specialists, with 
power to loan specimens at their discretion ; that the books of 
the library should be allowed to circulate freely, and finally, that 
the society should consist of proficients exclusively, or at least 
include a privileged class of experts. 

Whether the Academy should now permit its extensive museum 
Jind library, which have cost so much time, labor and money to 
:form, to be diverted from their present ways of usefulness to 
students generally, and appropriated by skilled investigators, is a 
question too important to be hastil}^ decided.^ 

The by-law of May, 1876, which provides for the appointment 
of professors, remains inoperative. Xo candidate has presented 
himself during the year. No report has been received from the 
Professor of Histology and Microscopic Technology, who was 
appointed April 16, 1877. 

In conclusion, it may be said that the condition of the Academy 
Xias never been better since its foundation than it is at the present 
^ime. It is independent of debt, and its income has been so far 
increased that it is hoped, under a careful administration of its 
financial atfairs, it will soon be sufltcient to meet the usual demands. 

The whole is submitted, 


* A society composed exclusively of proficients may he desirable and 
^^ven essential to the progress of original investigation in Philadelphia. 
lose who are of this opinion might possibly form such a society at once, 
in the course of time acquire all it may need ; and, without coveting 
attempting to appropriate its possessions, permit the Academy to exist 
>r the benefit of those proficients who approve of its organization as well 
of beginners and amateurs. Some of these might become qualified to 
admitted to membership of any society composed exclusively of gener- 
ally recognized masters in science. 

br ouuiot (lerqUi tfav wlioi«9 ot ht» tiiM *ad ■imiu.Im to tto d 
ot tbr lutnnl tvrrncn. lo whirh he welu to dedicate Un 

3. Ho miut be "dew-rriDg" of «gppoK U tUa C 
ThU condition nunuu mnob. To deMrrr ukj •oppoft ttom tbi 
Je«mp Fund, he tbould poMnw k quick utonl tBtetUseaee^ 
nbow tlie mtvn^; % gowl mnil ■DtnciiFnt vdnc^tloa, iaclodlag, 
fwrb^iM, n knuvlodf^! "f tbe G^rntan and Fmeh laagnBgc*: (»• 
diintrinu* nnil "rdrrly "^y"; ini'-ifrity in ^fctj «wimc bvyood «ii»- 
[linoD.iind Inatly, « mnnircnt inlvnttun Ui dtdicste bit ItfeUoM 
Utd t-ni-rgifn (o Lbv vtnd; iif tbn lutnrsl Mrieoi-es. 

4. He nuMl lie "yonnjc" — aay uniler Kw^oXj-^t* ymt* at 9ft- 
Cwler stii.-h coiMlltliins, anri wttb Gieolifea inlisMr eqalppeil 

dl«po«Ml, tlu> tianilldate tnajr |>nai Uimngfa an ap|in!tttice»hlp 

vvi'tnl, and Itcmtno a (travtioU natitratiat. 

appUcnUmi nf tti«- fund Lii vntirply at tb« diacntioa of tb« 

It w«a|d not v)<dat« tbr Irtt^r ot tb« trnai by vabif 

Tm W|^M^ fpprowd •tvdats of th« natural Mricaoea witbovt 

HI. or ipnuitinf; tben th« n«« of ita Hbiu^ 

' or nnwnm or lU hnll as their workabop. Tbe tniat doea not »• 

(join' that tbe Academy Bhall be tbe prvcvptor of tbe benefieiarka 

iif tbe jMMup Fund Id any degree. But laasmucb lu out t>f 

• the ftiiwMoM wblch tbe aoolety baa pnowribn) fur itartf is t>i Id- 

jmrl bthI ilitTll-p knowti-il^-, it «c.Tri« [ iili:irh [ini[-T llnl it 

should direct and facilitate the studies of these beneficiane«. 

Tbe four hundred and eighty dollars may bo given annually to 
aupport one, or be divided Itctween two or mure, as may seem to 
the Acn'lemy expedient. The time iluriiifr which anj' one may 
receive assistance from tiie fund, is limited at the discretion of 
the Academy, 

Alter due consideration of the suhjeet at tbe start, it waa 
determined that tbe approved candidate ithould he received at 
first on probation, for one month, and if the irial were satisfac- 
tory, he mi^jiil lie ap|M>intcd a biiieflciary for two years, and then 
n.>tin> in f:ivor of another, unless there shouUl be si>ecial reasons 

Innsuiu'li as the mi'nil«Ts of the soeiety jmy dues for (heir 
right to »■"■ Hie lilirary iiml museum, it is cuneiderdl (>rop.r to 
nHpiire tlie lunefitiaries iif the .lessuii Fund to pive. daily, n p.irt 
of their time .ind laU>r to the Acaileuiy, under the diri-ction of 
tbe curators, as comi)eus3tioii for instruction, and the use of the 



In accordance with the By-Laws of the Academy, the Corre- 
sponding Secretary presents the following Report of the business 
of his office during the year ending November 30th, 1880. 

There have been elected twenty Correspondents, as follows : 

Angelo Heilpnn,* New York City ; Dr. C. A. White,* Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Albert de Selle,* Paris, France ; Victor Raulin,* 
Sordeaux, France ; R. Hoemes,* Vienna, Austria ; Georges Rol- 
Xand, Paris, France; A. Inostranzeff,* St. Petersburg, Russia; 
X)r. Robert Schomburgh* Adelaide, Australia; Dr. Herman T. 
<3eyl€r, Frankfort a. M., Germany ; Robert Casparis, Konigsberg, 
Oermany ; Agostino Todaro, Palermo, Italy ; J. E. Bommer, 
IBrussels, Belgium; Prof. Teodoro Caruel,* Pisa, Italy; Lionel 
S. Beale,* London, England ; Prof. Richard Hertwig,* Jena, 
^Austria ; Prof. Oscar Hertwig,* Jena, Austria ; Dr. Carl Ochse- 
^»:iius,* Marburg, Prussia; Dr. M. H. De Bey, Aix-la-Chapelle, 
^russia; Prof. Adolf E. Nordenskjold,* Stockholm, Sweden; 
C. Torquato Taramelli,* Pavia, Italy ; all of whom have been 
promptly notified, and acceptances have been received from those 
"^vhose names are marked with an asterisk, *. 

The donations to the Museum have been numerous and valuable, 
^^s will be learned from the Curators' report, and prompt acknowl- 
edgments have been sent to the various donors, numbering in all 


Letters transmitting publications have been received from Cor- 
^^esponding Societies or Institutions, at home and abroad, to the 
^^"lumber of fifty-one ; from individuals, four. 

Letters or other acknowledgments of the reception of the pub- 
Xications of the Academy have been received to the number of 

In addition to the above, thirteen letters of a miscellaneous 
^Ki^ature have been received, and those requiring an answer have 
m in all cases replied to. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George H. Horn, 

Corresponding Secretary, 


Trj'on.Jr.,pulflishi'<l hy Hie r>iiUiiif bui] Ineued frmii tbp Aviiemj, 
hw twtsn pul])i>l)i^(I iluriti;: il.e ^-car, II Includes tf<IU |«Ke« of 
t«xt. id plat«H wtUi OTo <l|£iiiri. 

Troressor Lddy's iMliiiirntiln work *ni " Fre»h.W»u r RJiicopod* 
of NoKh Am«iica," forming Vol. XII of the fliul rrtwrt* nf tlw 
DnUeil Stal<« ticologica] «nd (leographicdl Surrey of the Tetti. 
lories, ondpr the (iireclion of Dr. F. V. Hgydeo, U •© eloMtly 
oonnit'tM) witli the Acadeinr, tbat its publloAtlon during tb« yen 
may im tnL-tillom-d here. Dr. Leldy.ftt the Dialed mMllnfl* of Um 
•oi*ivt.,v,gQTf M-t'lHtl accounbt of very nuiny fWiib-initer rfalzopmto 
wbicti ore de«cril)e«J iu hl« work, lUid tin; Aauluiny '• library »»• 
thu 8ole 8Diirvi> from whtcli bu inu cnabUx) to prv-pare th« UbU- 
Offrspby of tin- anhject. 

Fi!W pi-r«oiis devote ttieir wbale time and vnrrgir* to nntanl 
bUtory for n living. Ucuorally, the titndy is nu oei-HiuUnn br 
lulaure hoars, and may be re^rded as a secuudary pannit mammf 
at, which yields little or nothing towards a livelihood. 8alialkelaiT 
atudy of uatunU blntory requlrea au muoh to aid iU «iitariea. in tte 
way ofeulleetiona uid Ijooks, that it is «xtrvnie]y nn It* And any oa* 
pnr«on ri<?li enough to prtn-un- all that i» newted. For ihta reaam 
many of likv taKte» nt»toeial«, oacb contributiDc hi* <]iK)ta, for tlM 
purpose of gathering what is necv*«ary or dciitablc to ho oMtd in 
common for ■pif-instntction. 

In one sense the Academy may be regarded as an association 
of this bind. 

A prominent object of the Society is to afford opportunity to 
those who desire to undertake self^^nlture in any or all the de- 
partiuenls of tliL' natural tn'teuceH. From its beginning in IfllS, 
continuously to the present time, members have fVeelj- contribnted 
•)>ecimcas to its museum, and books to its library. Besides 
materials of this kind they have given money liberally, established 
permanent funds for several specific pur{>oses, and employed what- 
ever time ihi'v could fairly take from their daily avocations in 
working with their own hands to render the constantly increasing 
means of study as easily avatlaMo as possible. The value of i»t. 
Honal IflliorgratuiloiiBly given tocstatilisb and promote Ihejrrowih 
of thi- institution i;mnot K- ovcr-esli muted. A result of the joint 
etf.iri- of lhi> iui'mlK.-r!t of the sociely since its foundation is the 
oi>|iort unity of si-lf-instruetiiiii here Ii1>erally affordeil to those who 
may choose to avail themselves of it. 


Ornithology 34. Mammalogy 9. 

Bibliography 26. Ichthyology 4. 

Physical iScience 21. Voyages and Travels 4. 

Mineralogy 16. Herpetology 3. 

Helminthology 16. Microscopy 1. 

Agriculture 13. Miscellaueous (History, Statistics, 

Chemistry 11. Politics, etc.) 12. 

Encyclopedias 10. 

From the above statistics and the accompanving list of addi- 
tions it will be seen that, apart from exchanges received from 
societies and editors, the growth of the librar}^ has been mainly 
dependent upon the I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

It gives the Librarian pleasure to be able to report the comple- 
tion of the card catalogue of all the special departments of the 
librar}' coming within the province of the Academy. It is to be 
hoped that some of the remaining sections, at present arranged 
on the gallery, may soon be disposed of by sale or exchange, as 
they embrace books of a character rarely or never consulted in 
the Academy ; although many of them would be of importance 
and value elsewhere. The revision of the catalogue of journals 
and periodicals is progressing slowly, as time is taken after the 
completion of each geographical section to apply for all deficiencies 
noted. The answers to such applications thus fiir made have been 
80 satisfactory as to warrant the hope that important additions 
will be received from this source during the coming year. 

The collection of portraits of the Presidents and benefactors of 
the Academy has been increased by the addition of a fine oil 
painting of Isaac Lea, LL. D., by Uhle, one of Dr. Isaac Hays, 
by Waugh and a life-sized crayon portrait of Mr. Isaiah V. Wil- 
liamson. For these gifts, interesting not only as works of art, 
but also as memorials of men to whom the society is indebted for 
many and permanent benefits, the thanks of the Academy 
are due to Dr. Lea, Mrs. Dr. Isaac Ilays and Mr. Williamson. 
The Academy now possesses the portraits of eight out of its ten 
presidents, those of Dr. Thos. B. Wilson and Dr. Robert Bridges 
being yet lacking. It is to be hoped that these may be supplied, 
and that the series, which will certainl}- be of great interest here- 
after, may be kept complete. 

Fine framed photographs of Dr. Jos. Leidy and the late Prof. 
Ilenr}' have been received from Mr. F, Gutekunst,and Dr. C. W. 
De Lannoy has presented a death mask of Dr. James Aitken 

•%r . ? 


For the amouDt expended ftom the various fuuds for booka yc 
are reapectfbllj- referred to the report of the Treasurer. 

Edw. J. Nolan, 



The Carators reapeetfully report that the Museum of tb 
Academy continues in its usual good state of preservation. Th 
following report of the Curator in charge gives brief notice d 
what has been done, and the additions which have been macb 
difringtlie yesr. 

Sir: — I would respectfully report, that during the year all t4H 
oollections of the Museum have been cjirefully inspected and carMJ 
for, and that they are in good condition. The vertebrate fossill 
are in process of arrangement. 

Dr. J. Alien Kite has been engagi'd in the arrangement of UM 
collection of Bird-skeletons, and Mr. Angelo Heilprin in the a 
rangement of the Invertebrate fossils. 

The specimens received during the year have been laK-brd awl 
placed in their proper positions. 

The oontrihotiMUi is the TirioDs d^putnuntt- during the'yvar^ 
excepting tbose reported on by some of the Bpecial sections, an 
as follows ; — 

Mammals. — Zoological Society of Philadelphia : Two MacacuM 
ocreatus, Macacua maurus, Ateles ater, Gercopithecus lalandi, 
Pteropun vulgaris, Herpesles griseus, Bassaris a«fufa, Viverra 
indica, two Tragulus Javanicus, Dasyprocla acouchi, Calogenyg 
paca, Sciurus oariabilia, Hypsiprymnus ru/escens. Jacob Binder: 
A colloidal mass with nodules of osteo-dentine embedded, &x>m the 
tusk of an Elephant. Dr. U. C. Chapman ; Placenta of Asiatic Ele- 
phant, bom in Philadelphia. Dr. Oeo. H. Horn: Two Jtalapha 
lliasiurus) Ttoveboracensis, Phila. Jos, Jeanes : Two young Ele- 
phant skulls, Elephas indicus and H. africanas, Albert Koebele ; 
NycHcejuK crepuscular is, Florida. Dr. Jos. Leidy ; Hesperomyt 
(ep.). Roan Mt., N. C. ; Buffalo jaw, from a forest in the Dintah 
Mts,, portion of the great part of a skeleton observed by him ia 
the locality in which it is now extinct. Miss Miller : Horns of 
Chamois, Alps. W. S. Taux ; Young Orang-Outang, from Phila- 
delphia Zoological Gardens. 

Birds. — Philadelphia Zoological Society : Sycaliaflaveola, Bro- 
logerys xantfwptera, Brazil; Anser indicua. P. W. Alien : Di»- 


medea exulans. Hill : Otus vulgaris, Mrs. Herbert Kussell 
Walsh : Two hundred and ninety-seven (one hundred and twent}'- 
one species) Bird skins, collected and prepared by the late Robert 

Amphibians and Fishes, — Albert Koebele : Eleven species Am- 
phibians, Florida. Dr. Jos. Leidy : Two species Salamanders, 
two do. Fishes, Koan Mt., N. C. Dr. H. AUport : Erimyzon 
sucetta^ Centre Co., Pa. S. W. Ayer : Opercular bones, etc., 
Megalops thrissoides, Mr. Holbrook: Argyrieosus (Vomer) seti- 
pinnis^ Atlantic coast, Md. Dr. W. H. Jones : Nine species of 
Fishes, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. J. E. Mitchell : Amblyopsis 
spelaeus^ Mammoth Cave, Ky. National Mus., through Smiths. 
Inst. : Fifty-two species of North American Fishes. 

Articulates, — J. J. Brown : Lepas pectinata, Balanus^ etc., Flor- 
ida. Dr. H. C. Chapman : Lepidnotus, and Nymphon^ Mt. Desert, 
Me. C. Chambers : Orillotalpa longipennis, Philadelphia. John 
Ford: Libinia canaliculata, Atlantic City, N. J. Geo. Heberton: 
Libinia canaliculata, Limulus polyphemus^ Cape May, N. J. Dr. 
W. H. Jones : Thirtj^-four species Crustacea, Atlantic and Pacific 
Oceans ; Nautilograpsus minutusy taken from side of ship Aca- 
pulco. J. S. Kingsley : Six species Crustacea, in exchange. Dr. 
J. A. Kite, Wasps' nest, Morgan Co., Pa. Albert Koebele : Two 
species Crustaceans ; two species Myriopoda, from Florida. J. E. 
Mitchell : Nest of Tarantula, California. Dr. T. H. Streets ; 
Forty-two specimens Lepidoptera, Mantis (sp.), Yokohama, Japan. 
U.S. Fish Commission, through Smiths. Inst.: Thirtj^ named 
species of Crustacea, Coast of New England. 

Vermes^ Echinoderma, Ccelenterates, Bryozoans and Porifera, 
— XJ. S. Fish Commission, through Smiths. Inst. : Thirteen species 
of Annelida, Coast of New England. Dr. W. H. Jones : Four spe- 
cies of Annelida, Pacific Ocean. Dr. Jos. Leidy : Lice from the 
interior of pouch of White Pelican {Menopon perale, Leidy), 
Florida. Laura M. Towne: Filaria immiii.^y from heart of dog, 
Beaufort, S. C. J. J. Brown: Cidaris tr-ibuloidesy Haiti. John 
Ford : Euryale (sp.), Palermo, Italy. U. S. Fish Commission, 
through Smiths. Inst. : Sixteen species Echinodermata, Coast of 
New England. Dr. W. D. Hartman : Rotula (sp. ), Madagascar? 
U. S. Fish Commission, through Smiths. Inst. : Eleven species of 
Coelenterata, Coast of New England. Dr. W. U. Jones : Thirteen 
species Coelenterata, Pacific Ocean. Dr. H. C. Chapman : Hyd- 
roids, from Mt. Desert, Me. U. S. Fish Commission, through 
Smiths. Inst. : Fifteen species Bryozoans and Porifera, Coast of 
New England. 

Anna T. Jeanes : Glass models of Phyaophora magnificat 
Diphyes Sieboldij Cyanea capiUata, Oceania phosphorica,, Sagar- 
tia belliSy Palythoa auricula, Phellia picta, Corynactis clavigera^ 
Nemacula primula, Peachia hastata^ Phymactis florida, Evactis 
artemisia^ Tubularia indivisa, Gorymorpha nutans, Laomedea 
amphora, Bougainvillia fruticosa. 



Tbe Rcccirdlng Secretary reapeotfutly rrfwirU that iluriuft the 
pmrtaMag Xovemlwr SUth, IHKO, twrnly-als BU-mt<rnM)(l iwwtj 
«iwica|iuiMlvHts hurt been itlecite'l. 

RmtKnUfona of memlKnltip tinv« >x>vn rc«<>ir*><l trota P. G. 
Datbia ami J. I>. TliomM. 

R«oottI* or tl)p <l<!nt1i of twmty mcmb(>rs uid four corTcupond- 
«iw luvp h»n iitililinhcd in thp Proi'MKUDfca unditr ilie AnU* at 

Twenty-flTp pa pore hare been acceiitcrt Tor pubUcatinn a» fi>11tnr» 
n. C. L#wiB, 7 : J. 6. Kiriffsley, S ; Jf». Uidy. 3 ; IT. (?. Chap 
3: nnrrison Allim, I : R. Beriili, 1 : Aniln-w Oitrrrti, I ; A 
YofAr*, I i W. X. tockinijton. I j W. n. HnrtniJUi, I : Wm. 
iHwk, I ( Angelo Ileilprin, I : T. 1). Rand. I, Ami F. A. Keni 

ma n. 

Twi>nt5-two of tliPM' paporn hnvo beta pfibliHbi!<I in Uit^ Pnv 

Mliiitfaaudthrveitillii'JoiiniAL lnfl()(litloD,nJiM!pa[uin>pulilUhcid 
ia Ulc Proi-iH-dlDgs, togptbpr witiin>iHirtH4krn»ututier(irim[>oTt«nt 
vrrhal d<(>RiniunIciitt<nu, rnriaed tha VTt\cv«i\ittff» at Uii' Mincmh^ 
eloiil Mid Qiwloifiaal Section of Um' Aoulvmy for tbe y«»r> I8TI 
to 1819. ^ 

Tn-.i tiiiii'lr<>'l ftnd I'lehty^'iclit pngrs of tlio Procv.'-nnc>. far 
18" it and three hundred and fifly-two pasresof the volume for ISSO 
have Iwen printed during tlie year. The concluding nnntbor of 
Viiliiine VHI of the Journal will l>e issiic<l oarly in January. 

The list of those making verbal communications at the meet- 
ing" includes the names of Messrs. Leidy, Meehan. Allen. A. J. 
Parker. Wilcos, Koenig, Cope, Kelly, Ryder. Evarts Frazer. 
Percnm, Horn, McCook, Itarlx-ck, Kiiigoley. Chapman. Pott§, 
Canl-y. Foote, Coat^'s, Tasker, Mnrtindifile, Pike, Ford, Ilalde- 
mnu. ItcdIieM. Porter and Hough. 

Al tin- lu.etini; hcl<l January 13th, ISKO, Messrs. Aul.r.y H. 
Smith aiid lleo. Vaux were elected to lill vac:inoies in the C.)uneil 
.-an^r.l l.y the ahwetu'c fn.m tlic meetings tliereof for six con^-cu. 
tive ni..ntlis of Pr. t'. Newlin IViree and Pn.f. Kdw. D. r,.|«.. 
and ..n Ni.vemher 10, IHSu. Mr. E;!ra T. ('n>*-on w.ih .-Irctcl I., till 
a v:u-aiLi y e:iu-ie<l liy the resignation (if Mr. (Jeo. Vaux. 

All ..f wliicli is resiHTtfuUy suluuitled. 


UlrordiHg St^r/larg, 


Potts : Fragments of Indian skeletons, pottery, etc., bank of the 
Delaware River, below Kaighn's Point, Camden, N. J. Jos. Wil- 
cox : Fragments of pottery, from a mound, St. John's River, Fla. ; 

Stone axe, pestle and arrow-head, Mitchell Co., X. C. ? Two 

pieces Ancient Peruvian pottery. 

C. F. Parker. 
Respectfully submitted by 

Joseph Leidt, 

Chairman Curators, 



During the past year eighteen (18) meetings were held ; the 
average attendance being thirty (30) persons. 

The Annual exhibition was held on the evening of October 15th, 
at which time a large and interested company was present. 

The following is a summary of the principal subjects presented 
during the year : — 

Dec. 1st, 1879. — Filarial in the Bronchial Tubes of Cattle, by 
Dr. James McCoart. 

Dec. 15th, 1879. — Modern Microscopical Work, by Dr. J. Gib- 
bons Hunt. 

Dec. 15th, 1879. — Description of Psorosperms found in Cysts 
of Fishes, by John Ryder. 

Jan. 5tli, 1880.— Pie uro-Pneumouia of Cattle, by Dr. John 

Jan. 15th, 1880. — The Microscope as a means of Investigation, 
by Dr. Carl Seller. 

Feb. 2d, 1880. — The Preparation of Material for Microscopical 
Examination, by Dr. Seller. 

Feb. 2d, 1880. — Nuclei of the Eggs of the Common Limpet, by 
Mr. John Ryder. 

Feb. 2d, 1880. — Observations upon the Nervoi^s Sj'stcm of the 
Common Centipede, by Mr. John Ryder. 

Feb. 2d, 1880. — Observations upon a specimen of Actinoptse- 
rium, by Mr. Edward Potts. 

Feb. 16th, 1880. — The Mounting of Microscopic Objects, by Dr. 

Feb. 16th, 1880. — Description of Rhipidodendron and Ilalteria^ 
by Mr. John Ryder. 

Maroh 1st, 1880. — Injecting and Speml MoUiods of mountii 
Microscopical Objects, by Dr. Carl Seiler. 

March Ist, 1880. — Obaervatioiia upon Sponges, bj- Mr, Jol 

March lat, 1880— A Plan to show Opuque Obj*>cta with the 
Mioroscope, by Persil'or Frazer. 

March 15th, 1880 Lithological Studies with the Microsco] 

by Persifor Frazer, 

April 5th, 1880.— Histological Studies, by Dr. Seller. 

April 19th, 1880,— Lantern Exhibition, by Mr. 
Mr. Ryder. 

May 3d, 1880. — Communication upon Fresh-water Sponges,! 
Mr. E. Potts. 

May nth, 1880.— Communication upon the Eggs of the 
by Mr. E. Potts: 

Sept. 6th, 1880.- Life Forms at Athintic City, by Mr. E. Poti 

Sept. 30th, 1880. — Communication upon the Larvs of Eil 
Crabs, Tjy Mr. E. Potta. 

ki and l&th, 1880.— Anniial E.thibitiou. 

0. — Report of the Committee on Exhibits and b 
Microscopical Science at the Annual Ekhibitio 
by Dr. Hsnt 

Nov. ISth, 1880. — ComnnmioBtion npon the Derelopmcniof the 
Fyrulla, by Mr. Charles Perot. 

The following Members and Assooiates were elected daring the 

Members: — John C. Wilson, Otto Lathy, Howard Kelly. 

Associates: — Dr. Joseph Simsohn, Dr. James A. McCoart, Dr. 
Edward T. Bruen, Dr. John W. Gadsden, Dr. Monroe Bond, Dr. 
J. H. Wills. 

RoBT. J. Haan, 



The Recorder of the Conchological Section respectfully reports 
that during 1880, Dr. R. Bergh, Dr. W. D. Hartman, and Hr. 
Angelo Heilprin have presented papers upon the HoUosca, whioh 
have been accepted and published in the Academy's Proceeding*. 


The Section has again lost a valued member, Professor S. S. 
Haldeman, who died September 10th, 1880. Professor Haldeman 
manifested his^ interest by frequent contributions to our Museum, 
as well as by papers published in the American Journal of Con- 
chology. He also presented to us a number of copies of text and 
plates of his celebrated monograph upon the Fresh-water Univalve 
Mollusca of the United States. These the Section reissued , the 
work having been long out of print, and the sale resulted to its 
pecuniary advantage. 

Mr. George W. Tryon, Jr., Conservator of the Section, reports 
as follows : 

About fifty distinct donations and purchases of recent shells 
will be found recorded in the detailed list hereunto appended, 
aggregating 1216 species, represented by 4574 specimens. These 
have all been carefully determined, labeled, mounted, and placed 
in the cases. 

Mr. Charles P. Parker has, as usual, afforded valuable assistance 
in preparing these specimens for exhibition. 

Mr. John Ford continues to prepare for us sections of univalve 
shells, showing their internal form and structure. He has pre- 
sented over fifty of these during the year. We are indebted to 
Miss Anna T. Jeanes for a number of beautiful glass models of 
mollusks, and to Mr. Joseph Jeanes for a fine suite of California 
shells, and mounted linguals of Ghitonidse^ etc. 

Mr. John H. Redfield has presented his entire and very com- 
plete collection of Marginellidse. 

The U. S. Fish Commission, and Dr W. H. Jones, U. S. X., 
have presented numerous specimens, both in alcohol and dry. 

We have received from Dr. Isaac Lea, the type series of 
Claiborne (Ala.) Eocene fossils, described and figured in his 
" Contributions to Geology," numbering 228 species. 

Mr. John A. Ryder has prepared a drawing in outline of the 
gigantic Architeuthis princeps^ Yerrill ; although only j^^ of the 
natural size, this drawing is upon a canvas twelve feet in length. 
It is exhibited upon the wall of the Conchological galler\'. 

Our collection of fossil shells, the sj'stematic arrangement of 
which has been so long neglected, has at length, under the com- 
petent supervision of Mr. Angelo Heilprin, received that attention 
which its importance merits. Mr. Heilprin has criticallj^ studied 

iged the whole of thu North Ameriean Eocene Collection. 

i is now engaged upon the Miocene. These shells have all been 

labeled and mounted by Mr. Purker. A Huilable Ubel has beeii 

Wied upon the drawers containing thu " Swift Collection," and 

B have been ma<ie accessible to the public. The Cfphalopoin, 

Vwricidie, Piirpitrirfse, Fusidte, and Buccimdm of the general 

' collection have been rearranged in accordance with llie latest 

information upon these groups ; and it is proposed to eoullnne 

this work of revision upon the other families of marine sheila a» 

Ippportimity offers. 
A reurrangemeiit of the Land shells in accordance with tlw 
fiatuml groups of Dr. Louis I'feiffer's " Nomenclator Heliceorum 
Viventinm," and of the Unionidse, in accordance with the lateet 
edition ,of Dr. Lea's " Synopsis," will be commenced aa soou as 
The Museum of Recent Concbology now contains 38,C34 troy* 
and 13';,337 specimens. 
There have been' no changes made in the Dy-Lawe of the Section. 
The offlcers for 1881 are : 
Director — W. S. W. Riischunberger. 
Vice-I>irevlor — John Ford. 
Recorder — S. BaTmond Roberts. 
B&!retary — John H. Redfield. - 
Treasurer — Wm. L. Mactier. 
Conservator — Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 
Librarian — Edw. J. Nolan. 

Respectnilly submitted, 

B. Batkord Robkbti, 


The following are the additions to the Conchological CaUnet 
received during 1880 : 

R. Arango. Two linndred and seventy-four species and T»rie- 
ties of Cuban shells. 

W, G. Binney, Helix Mayrani, Algiers. Tealacella Jialioloidea. 

John Brazier. Bytkinia hyalina, from New Sonth Wales. 
Eighty-four species Land, Fresh-water, and Marine shells from 

J. J. Brown. A collection of mollusks from Florida and Haiti. 

W. W, Calkins. Unio Blandingianua and Tritonidea t-'ncta, 


Caleb Cooke. Melania acabra^ Zanzibar. 

W. II. Dougherty. Buiimus Schiedeanusy Coahuila, Mexico. 

John Foixl. Area pexata^ Say, Newport, K. 1. Five spc'cies 
of marine shells, Atlantic City, N. J. 3Ii^fihts hain(itu,s^ Say, from 
Seekonk River, Provitlence, K. I. ILdi.r fuhrrrulosa, Conrad, 
Sinaitic Desert. Xafica dupUrala and .V. hrms, with nidus, ova 
capsules of Xattaa trivittnla, Atlantic City, X. J. Fine specimen 
of (.'ai(sii< tuiM'rasa, Bahamas. Over fifty spcv'imeiis, sections of 

Andrew Garrett. PartnUi (teci/ssafd and 1\ (/a/n/mrdcs. Domi- 
nique Is., Marquesas. F, inflata^ Taiwata, Manpiesas. Partula 
(sp.), Moorea, Society Isles. Trorhua trnr/tnidrn^ Society Isles. 
Cardium (j^\).), Taumotus Is. 

E. Hall. A collection of land and fresh-water sliells from 
various localities. Twenty-six species of fresli-water sht'lls. 

Dr. W. D. Ilartmnn. Embryonic PartuL*e. 6'//<7o.s/owi^ in- 
conijitus, near Hoj^ota, S. A. Hrli.r f<i)ni/ftris, Fer., Jiq);in. Three 
8|>eeies of Partula from Manpiesas Islands. Ptirtuhi liaiafcnsi.^ 
{tyi)e) from Ilaiatea. J*nr(tda ajq}t^<u:i)nata, Kaiatea. 

Henry Hemphill. Over two hundred species and varieties of 
California shells. 

J. G. Hidalgo. Murc.r Trt/oni (type). Lesser Antilles, liii-i- 
inda nodosa, Brazil. 

Anna T. Jeanes. (ilass models of twelve species of niidibraii- 
chiate moUusks. 

Jo-ieph Jeanes. Mounted lino^iuds of thirty-seven s[)ecies of 
niollusks. Xinety-nine sp/cies and varieties ol* land, fresh-water 
and mirine shells from California. 

I>r. \V. H. Jones. Twenty-five sp,»cies of pelaufic moliusks from 
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Sri//hva jx'lof/fca. (f-r'/yf/rtts 

Henrv C. Lea. Twentv-four species of (Mailjorne Kocene fossil 
shells, types of his descri[)tions. 

Dr. Isaac Lea. Type colleirtion of ClailM)rne (Ala), Koe*ene 
shells, consistini^ of *2'2^ six-cies ; arraniicd as desciihed and ii^'-ured 
in his ''Contributions to (feolo<iy." Vohita '/////r^ivV/, Ediiinont 
Key, Fla. 

Joseph Leidy. (ioinnlmtiis j/ro.n'ma. Say, Piedmont Spriuir^, 
North Carolina 

K. T. Nelson, J^Jt/pfeurn 'ramparftfu'tt, Conr., Tampa Uay, Fla. 

T. IL Peale. Jsfnrfe rasfniwn^ Say, Sandy Hook, N. ,i. 

John H. Kediiehl. Collection of Maririnellida*, includinii- seveial 
hundred specimens of about two hundred species and varieties. 
Sptrfjrr miirroiifitns, Hamilton group. 

S. K. Roberts. Macnma halthica, Linn., Collins' r>eacli, Del. 
Heli.r linifaiwnnra. Tririn y^r/Z^/ciV/^z/n, Sandwich Isles, dilin- 
drtdla ijrarilicoUis^ 3fac7*ocrrai)ius Klnftrofufs, Bid. (ex aiict.), 
Port-au-Prince, Hay ti. 



Ir, CliftS. V. I'lirkiT in Ihu woik of poisanl 
(J arrsnghig the collection- iluriiig tli« year ami for 
licr tnitcrial assistaiico. 

.loss H. Rkpfikld, 

IHeember I'Alh, ISSO. 

TLi' oHlwrs I'U'Clcd Tor the ToHln'Oiniiig .vi'ai' «re ; 
lUmMor.—itv.yi. 8. W, Rtwcli on burger. 
Vvx-Ihrrelor. — ThomiP Median. 
Hecoriler. — F. L, Syribner. 

Got; Secrelar'j I'tatic C Mai1inil«lc. 

Vonseri'atftr^ — 3a\in H, Rfidfletd, 

'/■-rn^v/'-r.— J. 0. SchiuiiiK-l. 

Unsi»>i-t fully iiil.mlllcl, 

Thomas Mkckai), 


Donnlion* t^ Herbarium and Muieiim. — Mrs. Sarali S, I'ickvi-in^. 
L«f Cnnibvidge. Mass.: 1200 species pUuts, ooUcct<,-(l Uy iHc luli- 
KDr. Cliae. I'ickeHng, in theyeara 1844 and 1815, in Malta, Eg,vpl. 
R^rabia, >!»nzibar and Indiu, alao lot of fleo<l-vciwels, etc. (Tha>s 
py, Parlier; Leehm Nocit CsnarM Aiwtiu, Bergen Co., N. V-. 
■|or^ type); Frtujaria Wllinani, Clinton, Uetroit, Mich. 
> type) ; OuUutia oleifi^ra, P. C, African fl|)ecie8. team 
IrCaindt-n, N. J.; Lyvojiux iteniiU/oiiux, CIr., BatHto, N. J.; 
^\is Eiir->iMHf, BdllaRt, Camden, N. J. Wm. M. Canby: 
vSffi'/(ifi((,Gr.,Na8liviUe, Teiin.; 5 species pluita tVom Citli- 
fomia, iietv to the collectiou; 111 species of plants ttom Ktirope. 
Syria, S Afiica, etc., many of tbein new to the collection. Dr. 
Asa llray: llil species plimls fi'um Ciilifornia. Arizonx, Oregon, 
Wii9lniifrU.ii Terr., TiirkiaUii. ami Microuesian, mostly 
new to tlic collection. Prof. C, J. Sargent : Aster HerveyijOr., 
Tivei-toii. R. I. ; Photographs of Conifers, from Oregon. Geo, E, 
Daveuport, Boston : Cheilanthe* vixcida, Davenp., California. 
Isaac C. Martindale : Third and fourth centuries of Ellis' North 
American Fungi; Corelhroi/;/iieJila(/inifolia, Nutt, San Diego Co., 
Cal.; specimens of Caslatu-a n-eca, L., var. Americana, with ab- 
norm:il fertile spikes, from Pitman's Grove, N, J. ; Bark of Pimu 
milis,M>i.; Briclellia Vinn-iUiana, Ci-eene, new species, Xew 
Mexico ; CurriijiiAa littrralis, L., Ballast, near Philadelphia. Dr. 
C. C. Parry, Davenport, la. : Tilbonia lubeeformis, Cass., cult, at 
Davenport, from Mexican seed ; Mexican mats and rope made 
from fibre of -If/nre lietiracaiitlia : Fibre oT Agave Americana. 
A. L. Silcr, I'tali : Penlnleiiuni Sileri, Gr., nov. sp., Beav«r Dam 
Mts., Utah. Mrs. M. J. Myers, Syracuse, N. V.: Einpactia Bel- 


!*•*» ] ^ATi »%t M iKM'iLji or riiii.«i*r.i.niiA. 113 

l»rUw«rr K^i-f, '«!'>w Kaiu'tiii * I*"iiit rtiti>lt ti N .1 .!•■• \\ il 
♦■•■* ( ra^'ti«t til* •/ |««t1i r \ . fr«iiii A iiii«iiii«l. >! .|.»Nii'* Hi^-'.H.t. 

,.#<••• \ r.. . n! rtr-M!.iii |->tli:\ 

J>>«KrU I.KIIiT. 


r.M'MKT ufr TIIK \|. \\ |i MH K«im ul'h AI. 

>Vi IIiiN 

T '• \ *.!. . »i • \ :■ '•.! oil « k* l.< '. i • -Il 1 !ii t \ • r..i* J "f H !•'••• I lIi, 

1 fj« f ■. •» ;||^ !• .1 « .tlilU If V "f V.i |ir :!.t p.i! • .*.i •■• - ■ fi •* t.ti I 


• f 


' \ -' ".} \ J ! !. Ill I. f 
J.- : . !-* r.. .: . Pi.. ... ' X f * iV. . •.. !»f J-i.:. 

Ji-i 1 !':. l»*»i - T!it M.« '••* ■;- "*• ■* n;i %'j- »f \i.\t -r.^i* :i. 
' * !•• • %r\ >. .. r 

: I. :•• • -1 *.. I*rr|.i-,r -. • \l .!. • : r -r M • . j »: 

: i ; ••'• \.. 1. . . : r . \ j^* -f • .. • -ru:. • I ;..-•.* \ 

J i;^ !. r 

••-■-. I ..- . • . \ . ■ . ***••-..; • • 

. ' :• v.. : •• ' I . M r.* :..• f M • • : i r . ■• . I»r 

» r 

422 I'liOct^BiuNus (IF TiiK AfAnKMY or [19 

t'orc, piililislKtil ill the Transactions or thv Ami-rican Kntomologl- 
cai Society, 'i'liorti tuivc been eigllt papeiH pi'e§eDted and pulilislunl 
by tho lattoi society during the year, comprising S3S page« of 
printed matter iu oetnvo form, iltustnted )iy neven plates. This, 
in BuuiiiMrtion with ii pugei^ of tlie pubUslii^d ProoeediiigH of the 
Sot-tion iimki^ a totiil of 8^2 pages of entomological piiblicatiorii* 
i:*sueil sinco hut nnniial meeting. 

The eDtomological collections of the Academy liave been csr<- 
ftilly attended to through the year, by the Conservator, Mr. Goo. 
B. Cresson, aud have been premsrved from all Infection or loss. 

By the deatli of Mr. Jnmo^ Ridings, In July, the section loi 
oni! of itti most valued members, Mr. Hidings w 
Ibnndera of the American Rutomological Society, and through 1 
many valuable discoveries wae well known among the entomolo- 
gists of the United States. 

At the auuiial meeting of the Meetiou, held December l^th, Ui^ 
following gentlemen were re-elected as oflioerB for the enaalng y« 

Uirw/or.— John L. LeConte. M. D. 

Vice-X>irecttir. — Ucorgc 11. Horn, M. D. 

Treasurer. — B. T. Cre>«on. 

Hevordfr .T. H. Ridings. 

_ tWKCJTnto-.— Ueo. It. Cre9~on. 

AtMioafioffl Committee. — George H. Horn, K. D. 
Samuel Lewis, M. D. 

At the last annual meeting of the American Entomological 
Society the sum of seventy-five dollars was contributed towards 
the funds of the Academy. 

ResjR'Ctfully submitted, 

Jaubb H. RiDiNoa, 


The Director of the Mineralogical and Geological Section woidd 
respectfully ro|>ort : 

Meetings of the Section have been tiel<l monthly, except during 
July and August. The attendance has been good. A number of 
interesting papei-s were icad, and many valuable communications 
and donations made. During the year, the first volume of its pro- 
ceedings was published, containing scientific papers and commfi- 
nications to January Ist, 1880. The collection of local rockg and 


1. hi!^ 

h, Ui&_ 


mineials has outgrown the place provided for it. It is almost 
<!Oinplete as to the rocks of Philadelphia, and of Delaware, Mont- 
gomery and Bucks counties. Believing, as he does, that this 
collection will grow into one of great importance and interest, he 
is glad to state that the desire of the Section for a better location 
for it has Ikjcu granted by the Council of the Academy. 

Resnpctfully submitted, 

Theo. D. Rand, 


Philadelphia, December 27th, 1880. 
To the Director of the Mineralogical and Geological Section : 

The mineral collection of the Academy has been improved 
-during the past year by the addition of tlie usual number of dona- 
tions. These have been carefully labeled and placed in the cases 
bv Mr. Charles F. Parker, to whose industrv and care we are 
<*hiefly indebted for the satisfactory arrangement and labeling of 
^11 our specimens. I submit with this a list of the donations 
-durinir the past vear. The collection is in a satisfaetorv con- 

- -dition. 

Joseph Willcox, 


Additions to Mineralogical Cabinet during the year 1880: — 
-Jas. W. Beath : Twenty -five specimens of polished Agates, from 
Oberstein, Germany; and Paraguay ; Crocidolite, S. Africa. C. S. 
Boutcher : Proustite, Gunnison, Co., Colorado. Walter Collins : 
Asphaltum, Cretaceous Marl, Blackwoodtown, X , J. Chas. Doble : 
Millerite, Chalcopyrite and Niccoliferous P^^rrhotito, Gap Mine, 
Lancaster Co., Pa. W. II. Dougherty : Native Gold, also a fine col- 
lection of Native Silver, Silver ores. Argentiferous Galenn, Ruby 
Silver, Cassiterite, etc., Mexico; Green Sand, San Antonio River, 
Texas. John Ford : Stilbite, P'rankford, IMiilada. : Actinolite, 
Hornblende, Lafayette. Montgomery Co., Pa. Jolin Garvin: 
Native Gold in Quartz, Battle ]5ranch, Ga. K. Goldsmith : Lignite, 
containing Fichtelite, Brazil Prof. S. S. Hakleman : Stalactite, 
and six specimens of Agates, Argentine Republic. E. P. Hancock: 
Two s|K»cimens Jeti'ersonite, Sterling, Sussex Co., N.J. ; Thorite, 
Brevig, Norway. W. W. Jefleris: Quartz pseud, after Dog-tooth 
Spar; Picrolite(Slickenside,)Newlin, Chester Co., Pa ; Wavellite, 
E. Whiteland, Chester Co., Pa. Dr. (i. A. Koenig : Jarosite, 
Chatiee Co., Colorado. Dr. Isaac Lea : Amazonstone, and a fine 
si)ecimen of Sunstone, near Media, Del. Co., Pa. Dr. Jos. Leidy : 
Three specimens of Talcose Slate, Soapstone Quarry, shore of the 
Delaware River, above Easton, Pa.; Corundum, Laurens Co., S. C. ; 
Biotite, Steatite Quarry on Bushkill Creek, near Easton, Pa. H. 
C Lewis: Philadelphite, Phila. ; Hyalite, Germantown, Pliila. ; 



Halite, Wnltville, Va. Win. Lorenz: L'iiryHotile, faiiiulii. Mr* 
Loyer : Corundum, Cheater (!o.. Pa, Mba Miller: Crystals erf" 
Silvei-, Lako Superior; lU'inHLite, (lypsiim, Stalactite. Chlora»- 
trollh-, Ilalitp. etc., from vuHous localities. Dr. W.-ir Mltehdh 
SiH.ili,.,! Woij.1, Mis-i.,in-i Uiv.-r, above BiBiuarek. L. l*almCT;J 
A!liir.f.V(Mmiriilil<-.l',I.C„.. I'a. Tbco. D. Ran-I : Kainmert- rite « 
Clinniiiii'. Hiiilinif. Ilol. ('.]., I'u. ; Cryatnllixed Qimris in P&ta " 
Siiiiilsloin', Jlofil.. Co.. I'ii. ; H<^rri'iigriiii<lite, Ifprreiigriind. Hm 
giiry; OrileyiUt, Biniuali. .1. L. RvcA: A^bcstiis. Italy; Chryi 
ottle, Ontario, Canadiu T. W. Kicd : Chalfjopyrito, Mfmieoiueqj 
Co., !'a. Or. W. S. W. RusclH-nUTgcr ; Co|Ii)eT jiliitr, Csldem 
Chile, I85K. Dr. J. Richwrtf Taylor i Corargyrite. Clilor ' 
Silver, with fi-notiiretl Wiiv^lHtc urystaU, Galena with Iri-i- Siil|.hur, 
Milleiite, And nrgontirtroita Carbonate of I.cai), [.rjuhillf, CdIii. 
vado; Ore from the Ohio Mine, bearing <Jold, Silver ;in'i Cn|i[rt>r, 
lli'eakeuridgc, Col- C. M. Wheatley ; Fine epecimeu of Bys>«olilt', 
Cliesiei- Co., I'n. ; Azurite on Chaicopyrite. Tpper Salford Miut^ 
Montgomery Co., I'a.; Anrichalcite on Calrite,an<l whini Apatite 
iL.<l Milainuit.', Jones Miiw, 

Lth BytiSiiliUi; Chalcopvrite, l'\ i 
nerl(«C<>.,Pa. Dr. .las.W. WInr, ( 

Ami.uson Co., S. C; Conni'i.n I ■' 
ConiNch.m, Hog-back Mt.N.'' 

Riitile. l'hlogopite,Hraphic (Jiinii ■ ,' 
n-i(p, Slalapnjite, etc., I'roni ' 

^ I . -, Andesitp wilh 

-ihtinsof Zincite, 

' - 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 iv , Fibrolite, UaruetL 
ii'iuua hxialltles. .toftedr 

Willo-x: Aiituiiito (Cmulte), Mltoliftll Co., N. C; PyroseiM 
Biolile'/, Apatite, Kur^ejis, Ontario, Cnnfldji : Cornndni 
with Margaritf, Ii-titWU Co., N. C; n^m'.-i-'---. P,.;---.! 
renc? Co., N, Y. ; Blactc ToiiiinaltD«, A\' 
Scapolite, Pyroxi-iii', niirl four Hpeciin. 
Ontario, Canada, A, E. Foote, in exchange for diiplicato books: 
nine specimens of Apatite, Renfrew, Ontario, Canada; Chrysotile, 
fonr specimens of Titanite iSphene), Tltnnite (Lederite), two 
Veanvianite, Beryl, Triphyllito, Celestite, WoUaatonite, QiinimiteT 
Ui-anotile, Tourmaline, Octahedral Crystals of Fluorite, with 
Apatite and Calcite, from various localities. Purchased : Limon- 
itc, Superior Mine, Michigan. 

Additions to Rock CoUection. — John Ford: Hornblende, Soap- 
, stone Quarry, Lafayette Pa. ; Tourmaline and Hornblende Schist, 
Tunnel near Ginird Ave. Bridge ; Decomposing Qneiss with Mica^ 
ditto with Quartz, ditto with Manganese ?, near west end of Cal- 
lowhill St. Bridge, Philadelphia. G. H. Ivens : Qeode of Limonite, 
Kent Co., Md. W. W. Jefferis: Gneiss. John Hartman; Two 
specimens of Crystalline Slag, taken from hearth of Blast Funiaoe, 
Charlotte, N. Y. Dr. Jos. Leidy : Talcose Slate, Soapstone 
Quarry, Pot Rock, Delaware River, above Easton, Pa. ; Indurated 
Clay (Bridger Eocene), near Fort Bridgcr, Wyoming. H. C. 
Lewis : Glacler-scratclieil boulder, Belvidere, N. J. Theo. D. 
Rand : Twenty-seven specimens of Rocks, from the neighborhood 
of Philadelphia, for Local Rock collection; three speeimetM of 


slags, fix)m Puddling Furnace, Coatesville, Pa, Joseph H. Tail : 
Six specimens of Ruby Silver, near Austin, Nevada. 


Treasurer, for the year ending Nov. 30, 1880. 


To Balance from last account 81082 09 

** Initiation fees 280 00 

** Contributions (semi-annual contributions) 2244 98 

" Life Memberships 600 00 

•♦ Voluntary Contributions from Life Members 015 00 

" Admissions to Museum 4-'5r) 30 

'* Sale of Guide to Museum L2.00 

Duplicate Books 7 75 

Donation from Mineralogical and G. Section towards 

Proceedings 85 00 

** Donations towards Plates for Proceedings 10 00 

•*' Interest on Deposits 09 04 

-* Interest on Phil, and Erie Railroad Bonds 80 00 

"■* Life Member Fund. Interest on Investment 120 00 

•** Maintenance Fund. " " '* 80 00 

** Publication Committee. W. S. Vaux, Treasurer 507 04 

-* Publication Fund. Interest on Investments 280 00 

** Barton Fund. •' " •* 240 00 

'* Wilson Fund. Towards Salary Librarian 300 00 

** Freight returned 4 80 

** Pbila. and Erie Railroad Bond, Transferred to Mainte- 

tenance Fund 10(K) 00 

."?77r)8 40 



5*5alarie8, Janitors, etc .^2900 00 

freight 00 59 

inspecting Boiler 10 20 

Repairs 188 05 

X^nsurance 80 Oo 

-•^ars and Bottles 74 11 

<7oal 195 50 

C^8 177 27 

^lounting Bird 1 25 

S^tationery and Postage Stamps 130 65 

Aooks 50 

^Alcohol 87 00 

Publication Committee. W. S. Vaux, Treasurer 98 33 

Newspaper Reports 04 00 

VTater Rents 20 15 

TrajB 42 00 

:Binding 118 40 

X>rintingand Paper 1539 08 

X^latesand Printing 142 52 

^liscellaneoas 448 54 

Il,ife Memberships transferred to Life Membership Fund. 500 00 

0852 19 

Balance^ $m 21 

* During the year there was received from voluntary contributions and 
^lonations $€60, which, with a Bond for $1000, used for general purposes, 
indicates that the current expenses exceed the regular income over $1600, the 
\)alance at the close of the year being a little less than at the commencement. 



Balance per last Statement ^ $500 00 

Life Memberships Transferred to this account 500 00 

Interest 120 00 

$1120 00 
Transferred to General Account 120 00 

To Balance for Investment $1000 00 

BARTON FUND. (For Printing and Illustrating Publications.) 

Balance per last Statement ^ ^ $240 00 

Interest ^ 240 00 

$480 00 ^ 

Transferred to General Account 240 00 ^ 

Balance $240 00 

JESSUP FUND. (For Support of Studenta.) 

Balance last Statement $551 67 

Interest on Investments 560 00 

$1111 67 
Disbursed 590 00 

Balance $621 67 


Total amount received $1550 00 

Interest 80 00 

Less paid for Printing 

Invested in Bonds Phila. and Erie Railroad, 
interest Trjinsferred to General Account 



*23 r,5 

1000 00 

80 00 

$1580 00 

?.".liO 8') 

lialancc *>:VM) 'S' 

l^•nt.M ('ull«'Ct<Ml '.»7 (•<» 

<ii<»urMl irnt'i (\»llecie'l lO'.Mi Cm* 

For Hooks 

lixpenscH kSile of Prop ty for !irre;ir:\ges of Groun«l-reni... 

< ''ists, In Ml ranees, etc 

ilepiiir^ to Properties 


Water Rents 

< 'olh'ct ing 

Balance $'20'* '>b 


* ■ M« 





•» J 












1 i 




ce last SUtement $038 26 

le firom InTestments 850 00 

$688 25 

ferred to General Account 280 00 

To Balance i?408 25 


ce last Statement $141 57 

68ts on InTestments 570 00 

▼ed from W. S. Vaux for Duplicate Books 8 00 

$719 57 

for Books $300 00 

» Binding 11 55 

tneral Account towards salary of Librnrina 800 00 

$611 55 

Balance $108 02 

MRS. STOTT FUND. (For Publication.) 

re Months' Interest $112 00 

to (W. S. Vaux) Publication Committee 114 00 

JOSHUA T. JEANES FUND. (For Maintenance.) 

98t by him paid by Heirs $20,000 00 

ted in three Mortgages $7000 00 

8(X)0 00 

10,000 00 

$20,(H)0 00 

invested « $2460 86 



v^iuU""* '"rjr.^x'"- "::aT*'- ""'JTwi.- "■""* 

'1 ,„ of *' * ■ ,.,val"' ■" .,,,\ ««'■'■ ., 5 .»"""« 



December Isi, 1870— November 30th, 1880. 

Abbot, E, H. Physics and hydraulics of the Mississippi River. Dr. I. 

Minis Hays. 
Allen, J. A. U. S. Geol and Geogr. Surv. of Ter. Miscellaneous j)ublica- 
tions, No. 12. History of North American Pinnipeds, 1S80. The 
Department of the Interior. 
Allen, T. F. Characete of America. Pts. 1 and 2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
AUis, (». A. Deformity from fractures at the lower end of the humerus. The 

Alumni Association, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 16th annual report. 

The Society. 
American Angler's Guide. 8d Kd., 1841*. S S. Haldeman. 
American Museum of Natural History. 11th annual report. The Director. 
Annual record of science and industry lor 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Arango, R. Contribucion a la fauna malacologica Cubana. The Author. 
Archa3ological Section of the St. Louis Academy of Sciences. Contributions 

to the archaeology of Missouri. Part 1, Pottery. The Academy. 
Astor Library. 31 st annual report, 1880. The Trustees. 
Baillon, M. H Dictionuaire de botanique. 12me Fasc. 

Natural history of plants. Vol. 6. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Balfour, F. M. Comparative embryology. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Barber, E. A. Comparative vocabulary of Utah dialects. The Author. 
B4rcena, Mariano. Tcrremoto del 17 de Ma\ o de 1S79 

Viaje a la Caverna de Cacahuamilpa, 1874. The Author. 
Datos para el estudio de las rocas mesozoicas de Mexico, y sus fosiles 
caracteristicos. 1875. Dr. Jos. Leidy. 
Barrande, J. Brachiopodos. Vol. 6, 187U. The Author. 
Beale, L. S. -How to work with the microscope, oth Ed. I. V. Williamson 

Bentham, G. and J. D. Hooker. Genera plantarum. Vol. 3, Pt. 1. I. V 

Williamson Fund. 
Berg, Dr. C Observaciones acerca de la familiallyponomeutidiu. 
Apuntes Lepidopttrologiques. 
Hemiptera argentina, 187*<. 
La Reina de las Flores, 1880. The Author. 
Binney, W. G. North American species of Zonites. The Author. 
Board of Directors of City Trusts. lOth annual report. The Board. 
Bocage, J. V. Barboza do. Melanges ornithologiques, V. 
Liste des Antilopes d' Angola. 
Algumas observa^oes e additamentos ao artigo do 8r. A. C. Smith intitu- 

lado "A sketch of the birds of Portugal." 
Note sur une nouvelle espoce africaine du genre "Coracias." 
Aves das possesoes portuguezas d'Africa occidental, 14th and Dith List. 
Subsidies para a fauna das pos. portuguezas d'Africa occidental. 
Aves da Zambezia e do Transvaal. The Author. 
Bohnensieg, G. C W. and W. Burck. liepertorium annuum literatuno botan- 
icie periodicic. T. 6, 1879. 
Encyklopicdie der Naturwissenschaften. le Abth., H Lief., 1880. 1. V. 
Williamson Fund. 
Bolton, H. Carrington. Table showing the beiiavior of certain minerals with 

Citric Acid alone and with reagents. The Author. 
Bommer, J. E. Monographic de la classe des Fougeres, 1867. Dr. F. V. 


Itarre. A. Preudbomme tie. Espuces ile U triba des Furonides qui t« rcncon- 

trcDteo Belgique. lr« Partic. 
Kspeces dee Iribus des I'ltDBgeides, Jes Loricerides, des Licindn, il«* 

Cblitniides et des BrosciileB i|ui se renconlrenl en BelEiqne. 
De ta meilUure digpoxition u doaner aui cftiaaesct urlDQB des cotlKlionl 

d' insects 
Note snr ie Brejeria Borinansis. Tbe Author. 
Brazier, J. Sjnonymfi of, and remarks upon Port Jackson, Sew CaledoaiaD 

and other shells, wltli their distribution- 
Brief account of Ihe natives of weslera Australia, 1B79. The Author. 
Brehms Thierleben. 8Bd., 1-H Hefi, I. V. William son Fund. 
BreTi<^re, L. Catntogue des moUusques obierv^-B dans le IMpaTimeiit de la ' 

Xitvre. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hronn, H. U. MorphologiscLe Studien uber die Qestaltung-Oesetie der Xa- 

lurkrirper Uherliaupt, und der nrgnnischen insbesondere. WW. Dr. 

,Ios, Leid;. 
Thier-Reichs. Her Bd., MI. Alith., ■>-V2 Lief, Wilson Fund. 
Briibl, C, S. /ooiomie aller Thierklassen, Alias. Lief. 14 k 15, I. T. 

Williamson Fund. 
Brun, .1. Diaiomt'es dea Alpes et du Jura. I. V, WilliamBon Fund. 
Brush, Geo. J. Mineral localiij at Branchvilte. Conneoticui. 4th paper. 

The .iulhor, 
lluclianan, J. Manual of indigenous grosses of New Zealand. Wellington, 

188<l. Geological Survey of New Zesland. 
Bureau of Education, circulars of infurmalion, >'os. 2 anri H. Ileparlment of 

tbe Interior. 
Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, quarterly reports, Sept. -iO, |i*7'J- 

June 20, 1880. Tlie Depnrlmcnt 
Butler, A, Q. lUustnilions of typical specimens of Lepidoplera heterocera in 

the collection of the British Museum, Ft. 14. The British Muaeum, 
Cnlkins. W. W. American ooncliology. Catalogue of Uniones, IXRO. The 

Caineletti. .1. 11 hinomio di Newion. The Aultor. 
Catnlnpue of the- i^ieeii.-lniid C.urt, liiHTriailomil Eiiiiliitiun. Svdni-v. If*::'. 

,P. Bri/ii-i-. 


Sessiones estraordinarias de la Camara de Senadores, 1878, Nos. 1 & 2. 
Sessiones estraordinarias de la Camara de Disputados, 1878, Nos. 1 , 2 & 4. 
Estadistica Agricola 1877-78. 

Estadistlca bibliografica de la Literatura Chilena, T. 2. University of 
Church, J. A. New methods of ore concentration and gold amalgamation. 

The heat of the Comstock lode. The Author. 
Clement, Ch. Constitution Qeologique de Luxembourg. 1864. Dr. F. V. 

Cobbold, T. S. Parasites. 1879. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Cohn, Ferd. Biologie der Pflanzen. Ill, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Colbeau, J. A. J. Materiaux pour la Faune malacologique de Belique. I. The 

Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of New Zealand, 14th Annual re- 
port. 1879. 
Rdport of Geological Explorations, 1878-79. The Author. 
Commission de la Carte geologique de Belgique, Hoboken et Contich, Anvers, 
Lennick-St-Quentin, Malines, Lierre, Heyst-op-den-Berg, Putte and 
Boom, with maps. The Commission. 
Commissioner of agriculture, report, 1878. The Author. 
Commissioner of Fisheries of the State of California Report 187H and lb7'.». 

The Commissioners. 
Commissioaers of Public Charities of the State of Pennsylvania. Tenth an- 
nual report, Jan. 1880. The Board. 
Comptroller of the Currency, annual report, 1879. The Author. 
Pope, E. D. On the foramina perforating the posterior part of the squamosal 
bone of the mammalia. 
On the genera of the Creodonta. The Author. 
Cresson, E. T. and Edw. Norton. Tenthredinid«» and Uroceridiu of North 

America. The Author. 
Cuvier, G. Revolutions of the surface of the globe. 1831. Dr. I. M. Ilays. 
Dana, J. D. Manual of geology, od Ed., 1880. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 
Dawkins, W. B. Early Man in Britain and his place in the Tertiary period, 
1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
The classification of the tertiary period by means of tlie mammalia. 
Further discoveries in the Cresswell Caves, 1879. The Author. 
Dawson, Geo. M. Geological map of a portion of the southern interior of 

British Columbia; Geological Survey of Canada. 
DeCandoUe, A. and C. Monograpliiae phanerogamarum prodroini. Vol. 2, 

1870. Wilson Fund. 
Decken, C. van der. Reisen in Ost-Afrika. -lev Bd., III. Abth. I. V. Wil- 
liamson Fund. 
De Clercq, F. S. A. Ilet Maleisch der Molukken, 1876. Batavian Academy 

of Sciences. 
Department of Agriculture. Special Report, Nos. 20-27. 

Circular regarding needs of. The Department. 
Department of Mines, Nova Scotia, reports, 1862, 1864, 1865, 1867-1H79. De- 
partment of Mines, Nova Scotia. 
Same, 1864. Dr. Jos. Leidy. 
Department of Statistics and Geology of the State of Indiana, 1st annual report, 

1879. The Department. 
Deshayes, G. P. Animaux sans vertebrea decouvertes dans le bassin de Paris. 
T. 2me, texte, pp. 641, et seq. Atlas, planches 40-107. I. V. Williamson 
Dohm, A. Catalogus Hemipterorum, 1869. Dr. Jos. Leidy. 
Doremas, C. A. and R. A. Witthaus. Chemistry of the Cobb-Bishop poisoning. 

The Authors. • 

Draper, J. W. Experiments on solar light. Dr. I. Minis Hays. 


Dumcril, A. nod Bocuurt. Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans 1' Amerique 
Centrale. Recherches Z )ologiques. 8me Partie. Etudes sur les reptiles 
et lea batraciens. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Eaton, D. C. Ferns of North America. Pts. 22-27 and Title and Index to 
Vol. 2. J. H. UedfielJ. 

Ellet, (.\, Jr. The mountain top track, 1850. Dr. I. M. Hays. 

Elliott, D. r». Monograph of the Bucerotidaj. Pts. 7 and 8. 
Monograph of the FelidsB. Pt. 6. 

Encyclopedia Britaunica. 9th Ed. Voly. 10 and 11. I.V.Williamson Fund. 

Encyklopa'dia dcr Naturwi:«senschaften. 1 Abth., G-13 Lief. I. V. William- 
son Fund. 

Engelman, Geo. Kevislen of the genus Pinus and description of Pinus El- 
liottii, 1880. 
Acorns and their germination. The Author. 

Engler, A. Eutwicklungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt. I. Th. I. V. William- 
son Fund. 

Evarts, H. (.\, M. D. A now species of Ophrydium. The Author. 

Exposition Uuiverselle de 1878. Catalogue du Ministere de 1* instruct ion pub- 
lique des cultes ot des beaux-arts. Tomes 1,2, 8. Section Beige. Oatal. 
ofticiel. Minister of Public Works. 

Falsan, A , and E. Cbantre. Monographic gt^ologique des anciens glaciers et 
du terrain erratique de la partie moycnne du Bassin du Rhone. Atlas, 
187''). Society of Agriculture of Lyons. 

Farlow, W. G. Impurities of drinking-water. The Author. 

Financial reform almanac, 1H80. Cobden Club. 

Fisher, P. Subdivisions des ammonites The Author. 

Fitzgerald, K. D. Au?tralian orchids. Pts. 1-0. Colonial Secretary, New 
South Wales. 

Fol, H. Etudes sur les Appendiculaires du Dt'troit de Mcssinc, 1872. The 

Foote, A. E. Catalogue of minerals. 5th Ed. The Author. 

Friele, H. Tungebeviobningen ho.s de Norske Rhipidoglossa. The Author. 

Fritsch, A. Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalkstelne der Permformation Boh- 
mens. Bd. 1, H. 1 und 2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Frommaun, C. Structur und Bewegungserscheinungen des Protoplasma der 
Prtanzcnzellen. 1. V. Williamson Fund 

Galvani, Luijri, ])ortrait of. Academy of Sciences of Bologni. 

Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, reports, 1874, 1875, 187^1, 
1877-78. iN. H. Winchell. 

Geological explorations and surveys west of the 100th Meridian. Topographi- 
cal .\tla.s. Wheeler, 1875. Engineer Department, U. S. A. 

Geological Survey of (Canada, reports of progress, 1844, 1848-M», 1850-61, 
18.")l-.')2, l*8.')2-r)8, 18.j::J-50, 1857, 1858. 1876-76. The Sur?ey. 

Geological Survey of India Records, Vol. XII, Parts 2 and 3. Memoirs, 8to, 
Vol. 10, Pt. 1. Memoirs, 4to. Palaeontologia Indica, Ser. II., Vol.1. 
4; Ser. XIII, I. 1 ; Ser. XIV. 1, 1. The Survey. 

Geological Survey of Kentucky. A general account of the Commonwealth of 
Kentucky. Report on the timbers of Boyce and Mercer (bounties. By 
W. M. Linney. Chemical report of the toils, coal, ore, etc. By Boben 
Peter. The Survey. 

Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual report, 1870. The Author. 

Geological Survey of Sweden. Eleven geological maps. The rurvey. 

Geology of Wisconsin. Survey of 1878-71>, Vol. Ill, with folio Atlas. Annual 
report. 1871>. The Survey 

Geyler, H. T. Ueber fo.*«sile Ptlanzen au.s der Jurafurmation Japans. The 

Gibson, G -\. Sequence and duration of ]he cardiac movements. The Author. 

Gilbert, G. K. Geology of the Henry Mts.. 1877. Department of the Interior. 


Dinee and mineral Undi of Nova Bcotia, 1880. Deparlnent 
fof MlD«]t, NoTaSootia. 

The birds of Asia. Pte. 26, 29, 30 and 81. 
"riiB birlB of New Guinea, Pl8. 3-11 inc. Wilson Fund. 

.Weitung tur KenntnisB dea Pf«rdeH nach seiner auszeren Korper- 
form, 1846. Dr. Jos. Leidy. 
Mteloup. Dr. Diacoura ear lea Bciencea at lea arta, 183T. Dr. I. Minia 

^finj, aaa. Botanical con Iribul ions, V. The Author. 
Onj, A. F. Lillorina litorea, Linn, on the American ooaat. The Author. 
Gmber, W. Beobachtungen aus der menscblichen und vergleicbendeD 
Anatomic. 1 and 2 H. I. V. Williamaon Fund. 
U«ber d«n anomalcn Canalia baeilaris medianua des Oa uccipiUle beim 
Menschen. The Author. 
HkMt J. Ton. Geology of the ProTincaa of Canterbury aocl Weslland, New 

Zealand. The Author. 
HMcbel, E. Dob System der Meduaen, Icr Th.. le Halfle. Text and Atlas. 

I. V. Williamaon Fund. 
H»Ideoian, 8. 8. [IiiBjmmotrio arrow-heads and allied forms. The Author, 
Hamilton, G. Biographical sketch of Jamea Aitken Meiga, M.D. The Author. 
Hftupe, £. Enumeratio muscorum, 187!l. 1. V. WilliamBon Fund. 
Hanstein, J. t. Dai Protoplaama, 1880. 1. V. Williamsan Fund, 
Hftyden, F. V. Fire mapa of portions of Wyoming, Idaho and Utah, DsparU 
meut of Interior. 
The Great West, 1880. The Author. 
Hays, Dr. laaac, framed portrait of. Dr. I. Hinia Hays. 
Hector, Jamea. Handbook of New Zealand, 1879. J. Brniier. 
Hegar, A. Uaeful lablee for Snding speciSc graiity. The Author. 
Heineroann, F. C. Catalogues. 1881). The Author. 
Heller, A. A Kir, M. Termcaiettudomanyi TarBUlat KiinyTeinek CiLmjegy. 

>eke, 1877. Royal Hungarian Society uf Sciences. 
Relmholtz. Sensations of Tone, 18T5. I. V. Williamaon Fund. 
Heule, J. Handbuch der Eingeweidelehre dea Menscben. 
Henry, Job, A summary of reaearches in sound, 1879. Smithsonian Inst. 
Hermui, O. Ungarna Spinnen-Fauna. 3 Bd. Royal Hungarian Society of 

Uerniann, L. Handbuch der Fhysiologie. 2er Bd. 2erTh., 5 Bd. 1 Th. 1. 

V. Williamson Fund. 
Hartwig, O. & R. Die Actinien, 1879. Dr. F. V. Ilayden. 
H«B»e-M»rlegg, E. too. Nord-Amerika. 1-4 Bd, Dr. F, V. Hayden. 
Beade, R. V. Conchyliologie fluviatile de la Province de Nanking et de ta 

Chine Centrale. 6me and 6me Faac. I. V. Williamaon Fund. 
H«»itaon, Wm, C, IlluatratiDUB of Diurnal Lepidopters. Pt. 1. 1. V. ftil- 

liamson Food, 
HawitaoD. W. C. and F. Moore, Description of New Indian Lepidopteroua 

Inaccta. Rbopalocera, Heterocera. Aaiatic Society of Bengal. 
Hieks. H. On the Pre-Cambrian rocks of west and central Roaa-khire. The 

Hidalgo, J. U, MoIuscoB marinoa de Espana, Portugal j laa Balearea 

Enl. 15, 16, 
Molusco) del Tiaje al Pacifico, 1862-66. Pt. »a, Enl. 1. The Author. 
Hidtgh, K. Cbemiache analyse ungariacher Fahlerzc. Royal Hungarian 

Society of Soiencea. 
Hind, il. V. Report of the Warerly Gold Diatricl, 1869. 
Report on the Sherbrooke Gold Diatrict, 1670. 
Report on the HI. Uniacke, Oldham and Renfrew Gold Minintr Districts 



Elia, W. ADfttomie lueDsehlicher embrjancu. 1. Ten uid AUu. 1, V. Wjl- 

Ukmson Fuod. 
ilnoker, J. D. The flora of Brilish Indift. Pi. VII. Th« E. tailwn Oarw 

Hull, Gdff. aealogiti*! «ge of the raabs rormiDg tli« Souih«TD IligUlanAii at 
On the upper limit of ihs eBseniinUy m&rine beds of the (^rbanlffrom 

(Iroup of ilio British IhIcb sdjoininic coDtiaenlal dUlriaU. 
On (he geologioal relntiona of the I ocks of the South of IreUn'l tn I^om 

of North Devon BDd other British and cuDiiBental distriola, 
Od the origin of the "Seulp," 
Ob n doeji boring tor coal at Smrle, Lincolnshire, 

On tho relatianH of the Carbon iferou a, Dtitniiiaii and Tiijuir Silurian Rooks 
of the South of Ireland to those of Norlh D«Ton. The Author. 
Iliimphrejg, J. T. DiacoTerie« of miaernU in Western North Caroltnn 

Hunffllo}', P. Lilerariecbe Beriohle una Ungara. H & 4 Bd, Thr Duaguiaa 

Academy of Sciences. 
Hutlon, P. W. Manuiilof the Nen Zealand Molliiuia. Ueological t>urip;. 
Hutlej, T. H. The Crayfish. 1880. I. V. Williamnon Fund. 
Index Caialogue of ilie Library of the Surgeon -Oeneral's Offiec. f 

War UepBTtmeol, , 

Inontranieff, A. Mrtamorphosirte Qesteine im QouverncmeDt Oluon- i6j9, 

I. V. WilllitniBon Fnnd. 

Kin neuea, auseereiea Glied in iler Reihe deramorphen KohloAUaifs. 1680^ 

The Author. 

inapootoT of Miaea of the aDthraoile ooal regions of Pennsylvania, RcpoirU. 

1!4T8. .Joseph M. OuiMUi. 
IntcmalionBl Exhibition, Sydnigj', 18TS. Now Zatland Court, .ippcndii 

nfltoial Catnlogiie, 1B80. The Commissioners. 
Jeffreyi, J. Q. The deep'sea uiolliisia of tlie Bay of Biscay. Th« Anihor. 
joly, N. B. L'ne laoune i»w la »(tv> liratologique retoplie par la decouTtriv 
du genre Ilfadetptiis. 
Sur le placenta de I'Ai. 

Noufelles recherehes ttndanl A dtftblir que le priitooda CruMtioi' dverit 
par Latrellle. sous de nom de Proaopisloma, sit un Terllatilc Iniwctt in, 
la tribu dcs Epli^iuirines- 
Contrlbution & I'bisl^ire naturrile et I'anaiomje des Eph jni^rtiie«. 
Etudes aur I'embryogi^nie dea Kphfm^res. The Aulhor. 
Julien, A. A. Spoiliimene aud its alterations. The Author. 
Just. L. Roianifcber Jahraberiuhl. 5er Jahrg.. 1H7T. i!e .*hih., t;er Jang. 1 11. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Kansas State Board of Agrleullure, quarterly report, Sept. 30, 1879. Mai^ 

31,1880. The Author. 
Keller, Ferd. Lake dwellings of Switierland, 2 toIb., 1878. I. V. WilliamiOD 

Keyserling. E. Die Spinnen Amerikas. Uterigradae, 1880. 1. V. William. 

son Fund. 
Kiener, L. C. Species general el icon ographi que dee Coquill«( TiTantaa. 

Livr. 150-165. T. V, Williamson Fund. 
Kingsley, J. 9. Synopsis of the N, A. species of the genua Alphens. 

Notes on the N. A. Caridei in the Museum of the Peabody AcadeBjof 

Decapod Crustacea of the Atlantic coast, whose range embrftoca tnt 

North American Cruslaoea belonging to the eab-order Caridea. 

Development of Moina. 

Geographical distribution of Crustacea. The Author, 



Kingston, G. T. Report of the Meteorological Office of the Dominion of 

Canada, 1879. Th«> Superintendent. 
Kjernlf, Th. Die Geologie des sudlichen und mittleren Norwegen. 1880. 

The Author. 
Klaproth, M. K. Analytical Essays. 2 vols , 8vo. 1801. Dr. I. M. Hays. 
Klein, £. and £. Noble Soiith. Atlas of histology, Pts. 9-1 2. I. V. Williamson 

Klaniinger, C. B. Die Korallthiere des Rothen Meeres. 3er Th. I. V. Wil. 

liamson Fund. 
Kneass, S. H. Coal-mines of the Lykens Valley Coal Company. 1844. Dr. I. 

M. Hays. 
Kobelt, W. lUustrirtes Conchylienbuch. 8e & 9e Lief. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Koch, A. Description of the Missourium, 1841. Dr. 1. Minis Hays. 
Kiilliker, Alb. Grundriss der Entwicklungs-Geschichte des Menschen und 

der hoheren Thiere. 1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Kokscharow's Materialen zur Mineralogie Russland. Bd. VIII, sigs. 6-9. I. 

V. Williamson Fund. 
Kossmann. R. Zoologisohe Ergebniss einer im Auftrage der K. Acad, der 

Wissen. zu Berlin ausgefuhrten Reise in die KUstengebiete des rothen 

Meeres. 2e Halfte, le Lief. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
KQohenmeister, H. Die Parasiten des Menschen. 2e Aufl. 1 & 2 Lief. I. 

V. Williamson Fund. 
Kuntz, 0. Speciesbeschreibung und Rubus, 1879. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Liedy, Jos. Fresh-water Rhizopods of North America, 1819. Department of 

the Interior. 
Lente, F. D. Higher education of medical men. The Author. 
Leuckart, R. Die Parasiten des Menschen und die von ihnen herriihrenden 

Krankheiten. ler Bd., 1 Lief. 2e Auflage, 1879. I. V. Williamson 

Lewis, H. C. The Trenton gravel and its relation to the antiquity of man. 
The optical characters of some Micas. 
On Siderof.hyllite. 
On Philadelphite. 
On a fucoidal plant from the Trias. 
The surface geology of Philadelphia and vicinity. 

The iron ores and lignite of the Montgomery County Valley. The Author. 
Librarian of Congress, annual report, 1879. The Author. 
Library Co. of Phila., Bulletin, n. s. No. 5. The Library Co. 
Lieberkiihn, X. Keimbliltter der Saugethiere, 1879. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 
Light-House Board, annual report, 1879. Treasury Department. 
Lindsay, W. L. Mind in the lower animals. 2 vols. l.„V. William3on Fund. 
Linnarsson, G. Cm Faunan i Lagr^n med Paradoxides Olandicus. Geological 

Survey of Sweden. 
Lippincott, .). 8. The critics of evolution. The Author. 
List of vertebrated animals now or lately living in the Gardens of the Zoologi- 
cal Society of London. Ist Supplement. The Society. 
Lockington, W. N. Notes on Pacific coast Crustacea, 1878. The Author. 
Loewe, L. Nervensystem der Saugethiere und des Menschen, 1880. I. V. 

Williamson Fund. 
Lyman, Benj. Smith. Geological Survey of Japan. Report of progress for 

1878 and 1879. Tookei, 1879. The Survey. 
McLachlan, R. Monographic revision and synopsis of the Trichoptera of the 

European fauna. Pt. 9. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
MacLean, J. P. Mound-builders, 1879. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Malaise, C. Description des ^ites fossiliferes Dcvoniens et d'aflleurement du 
/ terrain Cretac<5. Belgian Geological Survey. 

Mallery, Garrick. Sign language among the North American Indians, 1880. 
Introduction to the study of sign language among the North American 

Indians. Smithsonian Institution. 




LIFK MHMBSBSUir tV»0. (F*r IMM««we«.) 


loleNBt „ ^„.^ 

Tnt»tnr«l tn 0«Deral Acoauni » «. 

To BkluM f..t In«Mim«ot — 

•lOIKl OP 

DABTMN PUM>. (For PrI«ilMMdIlliMMUaKPMUI«MloM.) ] 

DilMt* p«r lui illatement - »...^ 




MR 00 

B«l»no»..,.,.,.. _ 


JBSSUP FUHD, (r«rSup9onof8iii<lnta.) 

BtlauK* lui iltkltnul „ ., „,- 


ffltll fT 

Wmm-. „„.,.™~ 


P^^ TW»I mmothi wedTeJ ~. 

»1U0W ^ 
sn no 

Lc'9 pftid for PriatiDK 

lOTCRlH ill BondH PhiU. Btid Erit Rftilrood... 
Inltml Tranfferrei) lo (icDeral Arcniint 

r2H •■■ 

lUlKQCf %-V*ti Vl 


i« - pVMI •_'« 

uf l'ro|iiy for nrre«r«)[p!i nf finmml- 

H., lo 1T„p,r 


Palseontologie Frangaise, Ire Ser. An. Invert. Ter. Jurassique Livr. 42 and 46, 
2e 8er. V6g^t4iux. Ter. Jur. Livr. 29. Wilson Fund. 

Palseontological Sooiety's Publications, Vol. 34. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pastear, L. Studies on fermemtation, 1879. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Paulucoi, M. Exoursione scientifica nella Calabria, 1877-78. Fauna Mala- 
cologioa. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. Visitors' Catalogue of the Mus- 
eum. 1879. The Society. 

Pennsylvania, Geological reports, 1833 and 183G. Dr. I. M. Hays. 

Pfeiflfer, L. Nomenclator Heliceorum viventium. 5. & 6. Lief. I. V. Wil- 
liamson Fund. 

Physical Science, Agriculture, etc. 81 pamphlets on. Dr. I. M. Hays. 

Pickering, Chas. Vocabulary of the Soahili language. Mrs. Chas. Pickering. 

Porter, J. Topographical description of Plainfield, 1834. Dr. I. M. Hays. 

Prazmowski, A. Entwickelungsgeschichte und Fermentwirkung einiger Bac- 
terien-.4rten. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Public Ledger Almanac, 1880. The Publisher. 

Public Library, Milwaukee, 2d annual report. The Trustees. 

Putnam, J. D. Biological and other notes on the Coccidse, 1880. The Author. 

Quaritch, B. Letter to General Starring, Jan. 14, 1880. The Author. 

Rand, B. H. Two lectures on impure air and ventilation. The Author. 

Ratzel, Fr. Die Vereinigten Staaten von Nord-Amerika. 2er Band. I. V. 
Williamson Fund. 

Report of Commissioners appointed under resolve of 1856, Chap. 08. concern- 
ing the artificial propagation of fish. Boston, 1857. Dr. I. M. Ilays. 

Reyer, E. Vier Ausfluge in die Eruptiomassen bei Christiania. 
Zinn in Birma, Siam & Malakka. 
Zinn in Australien und Tasmanien. The Author. 

Rivi<$re, E. Qrotte de Saint-Benoit, 1878. 

Le pliocene de Castel d' Appio en Italie, 1879. 

De quelques hyperostoses de poisons trouvdes dans les grottes quarter- 

naires de Menton en Italie. 
Note sur des instruments en obsidienne trouvos en Grece, 1879. The 

Robert, P. Les oiseaux dans la nature. Livr. 2-10. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hoberts, E. P. Directions for sowiag, transplanting and raising the Mulberry 
Tree, 1889. Dr. I. M. Hays 

Roemer, F. Lethusa geognostica. I. Th. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

HosBmiissler's Iconographie der Europjiischen Land- und Siisswasser-Mollus- 
ken. VII, 1-3. Wilson Fund. 

Rothrock, J. T. Catalogue of trees and shrubs in the horticultural gardens 
adjacent to Horticultural Hall, Fairmount. 1880. The Author. 

Houcher-Deratte, C. Le9ons physiologico meteorologiques sur les constitutions 
des saisons. 1804. Dr. I. M. Hays. 

Hues, Dr. K. Die fremdliindischen Stubenvogel. Ill, 7-9. I. V. Williamson 

Rutherford, J. Coal-fields of Nova Scotia. Department of Mines, Nova Scotia. 

ilyder, J. A. Ichthydium ocellatum, 1880. 

On the occurrence of Freia producta, Wright, in the Chesapeake Bay, etc. 
The Author. 

Sadler, John. Report on temperature during the winter of 1878-79 at the 
Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. The Author. 

Saint-Lager, Dr. Reforme de la nomenclature botanique. The Author. 

St. Louis Mercantile Library Association, annual report, 1879. The Directors. 

Saunder, W. Tea-culture as a probable American industry. 1879. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

Saussure, H. de. La Grotte du See. The Author. 

Schctfler, H. Die Naturgesetze. 3ter Th, Gte, 7te und 8te Lief. The Author. 




UklBDca |i*r Imi Mnlanitnl 

Utt M«inb»r«hl|M TranNrarmI to ihti MMunI 

laltraM ^., 

iTAmhtrei (u Ovocral Av<«iint «....»..«.. ISB 00 

Tb hlMiaa fur iDvetiutm ~ ~.^ f MOD 00 

BARTON rtlNU. {Tw PrisiiBt u4 IHmtnUag PsHImIm*.) 

Ilaluov p*r lui SlHunoal —.».- RIO M 

iBIiKM ™„ - S4D 00 

HM 00 

„™ »•> M 

„ IM* M 

JESaiT PUHD. (F«r8up|Mni)f»Milnite.) 
ttatt flikiwimt ,..,.^ „ «a&l « 

Tr*Mftmd "> a«n*ntl A«oon 

bidmnol . . 


Lt'i )>iiJ f'lr I'riniinjt 

IqtcrIH ill Bunda PhiU. lind I^H« Riiilruiid... 
lalcrpil TmnnfriTeil la ficaeral Acciiinl 

;to 00 

mt DO 


r of I'ropiy for arresrsgpi' nf Onmni 

*..-,77 .-.0 

If.: as 


Strecker, H . Butterflies and moths, 1879. The Author. 

Strobel, P. Material! per una malacostatica di terra e d'acqua dolci. 

Disp. 1-4. 
Struckmann, C. Die Wealden-Bildungen der Umgegend von Hannover, 1880. 

The Author. 
Syeriges Geologiska Undersokning. Ser. A A, Nos. 68, 69, 71 and 72 ; A B 4 

and 5 : C 8vo, 31, 32, 84 and 36 ; C 4to, 29 and 33. The Survey. 
Taplin, Rev. G. Folklore, manners, customs and languages of the south 

Australian aboriginetie, 1879. R. Sehomburgh. ^ 
Tapparone-Canefri, C. Museum Pauluccianum. Etudes malacologiques. 

The Author. 
Taramelli, T. Catalogo ragionato delle Rocce del Fruili. 
Sulla formazione serpentinosa dell' Apennino Favese. 
Monografioa stratigrafia e paleontologica del Lias nelle Provincie Venete. 

The Author. 
Tate, R. Zoologica et Pltcontologica Miscellanea, chiefly relating to South 

The natural history of the country around the head of the great Austra- 
lian Bight. 
The Adelaide Philosophical Society. Anniversary address of the Presi- 
dent. The Author. 
Taylor, R. C. Coal regions in the environs of Blossburg, 1833. Dr. I. M. 

Taylor, W. B. A memoir of Joseph Henry, 2d Ed. Smithsonian Inst. 
Thomas, C. H., M. D. Researches on hearing through the medium of the 

teeth and cranial bones. The Author. 
Traill, G. W. The Algse of the Firth of Forth. The Author. 
Trautwine, J. C. Internal improvement system of the South, 1839. Dr. I. 

M. Hays. 
Tryon, G. W. Jr. Manual of Conchology, Pts. 5-8. The Author. 
Tumbull, C. S. Audiphone and Dentaphone. The Author. 
United States Coast and Geodetric Survey. Pacific Coast Pilot. Coasts and 

islands of Alaska. 2d Series, 1879. C. P. Patterson. 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Part V, Report of the Com- 
mission for 1877. The Commission. 
United States Entomological Commission. Bulletin Nos. 3, 4 and 5. Depart- 
ment of the Interior. 
United States Geographical Survey west of the 100th meridian. Reports, 

Vols. 2, 3, 4 and 5. Engineer Department, U. S. A 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. 11th 

annual report. Bulletin, Vol. V, No. 3. Department of the Interior. 
United States National Museum. Bulletin Nos. 13 and 17. Department of 

the Interior. 
University of Minnesota, report of the Regents of, 1872. The Regents. 
Vacek, Mich. Vorarlberger Kreide, 1879. The Author. 
Van Beneden and Gervais, MM. Osteographie des C^tacds vivants et fossiles. 

Text and atlas. Lief. 17 and 18. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Van der Berg, L. W. C. Verslag van eene Verzamelung Maleische, Arabische, 

Javaansche en andere Handschriftendoorde Regeering van Nederlandsch 

Indie. Batavian Academy of Sciences, 
Vanuxem, L. Experiments on anthracite, plumbago, etc., 1825. Dr. I. M. 

Hays. , 
V^lain, Ch. Etude microscopique des verres resultant de la fusion des 

cendres de gramindes. 
Mission de V He de Saint Paul. Recherches gdologiques. 4to Paris, 

1879. The Author. 
Victoria. Reports of the Mining Surveyors, 31st December, 1878, 31 st March, 

Mineral Statistics of, 1878. 

Report of Inspector of Mines, 1878. 
VogdcB, A, W, MoQogrnph of tbe gea 

CrypronymuB. Tbe Authur. 
Wftgner. Wm. Five new fosaiU of the older pliooene formation of Marjiuid 

and NoHb Carolina. The Autlior. 
WnlerhonBe, Owen. Illustration? of iho ij'pioal ipecimens of Coleopl^n 
the oollectiou of the British Museum. Ft, I, Lymilic- Tlie Br 
Watson, R. Chemical Essay b, 7th EJ. 6 vols.. IBOO. Dr. L M, llaya. 
Watson, R. B. Molluscs of H. M. S. '■Ciiallenger " Bipeditiou. I*t- 5. 

Walaon, 8. Oaologioal Survey of California. Boiany, Vol. 2. I, V, WUli 

Bon Fund. 
Weismaan, Aug. Ul>er die letiten Craaohen der TranBmutationem, |: 

Dr. Job. i*idy. 
Wei. G. V. Improvement or the Danube al Vienoa. 

Second treatise on tbe decrease of water in springB, oreaks and riTCra, 
1880. Engineer Deparlmeut. U. 8. A. 
White, C. A. Paleonlologieal Field work for (he session of 187T- 
Cretaeeoua fossila of tbe Westerg Stales and Tarritorias. 
Note on the oeourreuee of Produotus giganteus in California. 
New invertebrate fossila from the Mesoiole ami Ceno»oio rDck■^ 

^kansas, Wyondng. Colorado and Utah. 
Description of a very large fossil gasteropud from the Btal« of Pnebl 
Contributions to paleontology, Nos. 2-3. The Autlior. 
4U, F. E. Valedictory Address. Woman's Medieal Cullegv, 1880^1 
Wbiteaves, J. F. On some marine invertebrata of Qneen OhKrlolK 

The Author. 
Whitfield, R. r. Fossil criiBinceane tr.Ma the Upppr Devonian rocks o 

Tlia Aatbor. 

Whitney, J. D. The Oeologioal Snirey of CkUfbrnift. An kddnai dellTeral 
before the Legislature of California. 
Lecture on geology delivered before the Legislature of California, Feb. 
26, 1SG2. Dr. Jos. Leidy. 
Wilheim, K. Siebrobrenapparates dicotyler Pflanien. I. Y. Williamson Pnnd. 
Wilkes, Cbas. Western America. 1849. Dr. L M. Hays. 
WilBon, T. B., engraved portrait of. Ratbmel Wilson. 
Wincbell, A. Preadamites, 1880. I. V. Williamson Fand. 
Witter, F. M., Catalogue of Iowa mollusca in the oollection of. The Author. 
Wood, H. C. and H. F. Formad. Research on the effects of inoculating the 

lower animals with diphtheritic exudation. Dr. Wood. 
Woodward's Gardens, illustrated guide to. 18S0. The Author. 
Woolia, W. Plants indigenous in tbe Deighborbood of Sydney. Tbe Author. 
Vale College. Catalogue, 1880. 

Obituary records of graduates, 1880 and supplement. 
Vale College in 1880. Tbe Librarian. 
Varrow, H. C. Mortuary Customs among tbe North Americas Indians. The 

VouDg Men's Mercantile Library Association of Cincinnati. 4&th aonaal 

report, 1880. The Associaiion. 
Zeiier, R. Explication de la Carte g^ologique de la Franee. Tome 4bi«, 3* 

Parte. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 
Zescb, F. and 0. Keinecke. Coleoplera of Buffalo. 'Hie Author. 
Zoological record, Vol. 16. 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Zoological Society of London, list of vertebrated animals, Tth Bd., 1879. 

Catalogue of Library. The Society. 
Zuokerkandl, S. Morphologic des Gesicbtsscbudels. I. V. WiUiunsoD I'uBd. 






delaide. Philosophical Society. Transactions, 1878-79. The Society. 

msterdam, K. Akademievan Wettensohappen. Verslagen en Mededeelingen. 
Afd. Letterkunde, 2e Reeks, 8 Deel. ; Afd. Natuurkunde, 2e Reeks, 14 
Deel. Jaahrboek, 1878. Processen-Verbaal, Afd. Nat. Mei, 1878-Apr. 

1879. Verhandlingea, Deel 19. Alf. Nat. Deel 12. The Society. 
.ngers. Sooi^t^ Nationale d' Agriculture, Sciences et Arts. M^moires, T. 19 

and 20. The Society, 
tco Science Advocate, Vol. I, No. 1. The Editor, 
ugsburg. Naturhistorische Verein, 25er Berichte. The Society. 
Baltimore. American Chemical Journal. Vol. 1, No. 1. The Editor. 

American Journal of Mathematics, Vol. 2, Nos. 3 and 4 ; Vol. 3, No. 1. 

The Editor. 
Johns Hopkins University. Studies from the Biological Laboratory, Nos. 

1, 2 and 4. Report of the 3d year. The University. 
Peabody Institute, 12th and 13th annual reports. The Trustees, 
latavia. Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen Tijdschrift, Deel 23, 
Afl. 5 and 6 ; Deel 24, Afl. 1, 2. 3 and 6 ; Deel 25, Afl. 1 and 2 ; Notulen, 
Deel 14, Nos. 2, 8 and 4 ; Deel 16, Nos. 2, 3, 4 ; Deel 16, Nos. 1-4. 
Gedenkboek, 1778-1878. The Society. 
Natuurkundig Vereen in Nederlandsch Indie. Tijdschrift, Zevende Serie, 
Deel 8. The Society, 
lelfast. Naturalists' Field Club, annual report. Vol. 1, Pts. 5 and 6. The 
Natural History and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Sessions 1878- 
79, 1879-80. The Society, 
ierlin. Archiv fUr Naturgeschichte, 44er Jahrg., 5 H. ; 45er Jahrg., 4 and 5 
H. ; 46er Jahrg., 1, 2 and 3 H. The Editor. 
Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift, 31 Bd., 2-4 H. ; 32 Bd., 

1 H. The Society. 
Entomologische Verein. Zeitschrift, 23er