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AKTIS tCIINTIA VEKITAS 






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A K T I S SCIENTIA VEftlTAS 



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• « • • ■ 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 



With reference to the several articles contributed by eaeh. 



For "Verbal Communications see General Index. 



Cope, E. D. Notes on the Geographical Distribution of Batrachia and 

Reptilia in Western North America 10 

On a new Extinct Genus of Sirenia from South Carolina 52 

m 

On the Mutual Relations of the Bunotherian Mammalia 77 

On the Characters of the Skull in the HadrosauridsB 97 

On some Vertebrata from the Pennian of Illinois 108 

On the Fishes of the Recent and Pliocene Lakes of the Western 

Part of the Great Basin, and of the Idaho Pliocene Lake 134 

Cresson, H. T. Aztec Music 86 

Evermanu, B. W., and Seth E. Meek. A Revioy of the Species of 

Gerres found in American Watei-s 116 

Heilprin, Angelo. Note on a Collection of Fossils from the Hamilton 

( Devonian ) Group of Pike Co., Pa 213 

On the Value of the " Nearctic " as one of the Primary Zoological 

Regions. Replies to Criticisms by Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace 

and Prof. Theodore GUI 266 

Hoopes, Josiah. Pinus Koraiensis Sieb. and Zucc 114 

Jordan, David S. Notes on American Fishes preserved in the 

Museums at Berlin, London, Paris and Copenhagen 281 

Leidy, Jos. Manayunkia speciosa 204 

Lewis, Graceanna. On the Genus Hyliota 128 

McC ook, Rev. Henry C. The Occident Ant in Dakota 294 

Martindale, Isaac C. Obituary Notice of Charles F. Parker. ..*.... 260 

Mitchell, Chas. L. Staining with HsBmatoxylon 297 

Mohr, Charles. On Quercus Durandii Buckley 37 

Osborn, Henry F. Preliminary Observations upon the Brain of 

Amphiuma 177 

Parker, Andrew J. Reproduction in Amphileptus fasciola 313 f 

Hand, Theo. D. Note on the Geology of Chester Valley and Vicinity. 241 
Randolph, N. A. A Study of the Distribution of Gluten within the 

Wheat Grain 308 

Sharp, Benj. On the Anatomy of Ancylus fluviatilis O. F. Miiller and 

Ancylus lacustris Geoifroy 214 

Steams, R. E. C. Description of a new Hydrobiinoid Gasteropod from 

the Mountain Lake of the Sierra Nevada, with Remarks on 

Allied Species and the Physiographical Features of said Region. 171 
Townsend, Charles H. Notes on the Birds of Westmoreland County, 

Penna 69 

Willcox, Jos. Notes on Glacial Action in Northern New York and 

Canada 257 

Wright, Berlin H. A new Unio from Florida 58 



PROCEEDINGS 



or THB 



ACADEMYOF NATURAL SCIENCES 



or 



PHILADELPHIA. 



1883. 



January 2, 1883. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty persons present. 

The deaths of J. T. Reinhardt, of Copenhagen, a correspondent, 
and of Edmund Draper, a member, were announced. 



January 9. 

The President, Dr. Lkidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

A paper, entitled "Notes on the Geographical Distribution of 
Batrachia and Reptilia of Western North America," by Edw. D. 
Cope, was presented for publication. 



January 16. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Yice-Prcsideiit, in the chair. 

Twenty-one persons present. 

A paper, entitled "On Quercus Durandii," by S. B. Buckley, 
was presented for publication. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 

2 



10 PROCCEDINOB OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



MOTES OM THE OSOOBAPHICAL DISTBIBUTIOH OF BATRACHIA AID 
RIFTILIA Ur WE8TSBH KOBTH AMIBICA. 

BY E. D COPE. 

The following notes are based on collections made by mj-ftclf 
and my asnistants at various pointn in the Rocky Mountain and 
Pacific regions during the last ten years. They describe the range 
of various species of our terrestrial cold-blooded vertebrata, and 
contribute to the final definition of the zoological provinces and 
districts of the continent. 

1. Lake Valley, New Mexico. 

This locality is at the western border of Donana County, twenty 
miles N. E. of Fort Cummings. It is in the foot-hills of the 
Mimbres or Negretta range. The region is rather arid, springM 
not l>eing numerous ; but during July and August there are fre<iuent 
rains. Vt^getation is abundant in the form of grass and herbaceous 
plants and shrubs. 

Boapbiopnt fp. Young. 
Sana haleoiBA Kalm. 
Fhryaotoma oomntam Hurl. 
Full of eggs in June. 

Fbiyaotoma modMtnm ttinl. 

Very abundant in August; not seen during two days' vi«it in 
J une. 

C^eUpbytUt eollarit Say. AhumUnt. 
UU MbotU Baird. 

There is but one median smaUer row of dorsal seales, so thai 
the single Hi)eciraen approaches the L\ niyricauda, S|>ecimeiia of 
this genus are abun<lant. 

totloporvt 

A large s[)ecies seeu. ' 

totlopomt. 

A small H|H*cies seen. 

Holbrookia maonUU r>. nod (i. A)>t)n<lant. 

Vur. tfnrilrntfuWW'vr^ from the typioal form in having larger 
pn»ntts:il M-ale** H«>par:ited by only two tlat seales in front instead of 
four tnb«*rruUr oneA,and in having only four flat scales between the 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 11 

nostrils above instead of six tubercular ones, and in having the 
scales of the front flatter. The spots are obscure or entirely 
wanting ; when present they are more numerous than in the var. 
maculata^ there being eight between axilla and groin instead of 
six. The sides and dorso-lateral regions are thickly marked with 
small yellow spots. Two specimens. 

Cnemidophorus texlineAtus L. 
Very abundant. 

Stenottoma duloe Bd. and Gird. 

One specimen. 

Baicaniam testaoeum Say. 
SutaBnia oyrtopsis Kenn. 
SutaBnia ornata B. and G. 
Crotalut toatalatut Kenn. Not rare. 

Crotalus oonflnentiis Say, var. pulverulentat Cope. 

I propose this name for a well-marked variety of rattlesnake, 
which is abundant in the region of Lake Valle}'^, especially on the 
grassy plains. In order to determine its relations to the species 
to which I refer it, I instituted a comparison with the allied forms 
represented in my collection. These are : Two specimens from 
Fort Benton, Montana; two from Central Oregon ; two from 
Eastern California; one from Socorro, New Mexico; one from 
Fort Wingate, New Mexico; two from Lake Valley, New Mexico, 
and one from Haskell County, Texas. These represent a wide 
range in latitude, and are likely to give the greatest range of 
variation. The comparison indicates three varieties, defined as 
follows : — 

Cephalic scales larger ; four rows between superciliary plates ; 
four rows below orbit; dorsal spots and cephalic bands light- 
edged ; few posterior cross-bands ; conjiuentus. 

Cephalic scales intermediate ; six rows between superciliaries ; 
three rows below orbit (probably sometimes four) ; dorsal spots 
square, with the head-bands, not light-edged ; posterior cross-bands 
more numerous; colors dotted with brown specks; pulverulentus ^ 

Cephalic scales smallest; eight rows between superciliaries; four 
rows below orbit ; dorsal spots and head-bands light-edged or not ; 
numerous posterior cross-bands ; lucifer. 

The var. pulverulentus^ at first sight, resenlbles the Crotalus 
mitchiUi^ having much the same coloration, but the head-scales and 



12 PBOCEEDINaS OF THl AOADEMT OF [1883. 

plutcB are quite .different. It gives out a powerful musky o<lor 
when excited, which I have not noticed in the typical form of the 
species. It is (}uite probable that it is to this variety that 
the specimens from Arizona should be referred, which I have 
heretofon* placed under C. luci/er.^ Not having access to the 
specimens at this time, I cannot determine this point positively. 
Of those above enumerated, the specimens from Fort Benton, Fort 
Wingate, from Socorro, and from Texas, belong to the t^'pical 
C. conrtuentus. The others are the C. c. luci/er. 
Crotalnt molottns B. and G. 

I killed a fine specimen of this species, which I discovered in 
the act of springing through a bush. When I struck it, it was 
suspended over a branch, looking at me. It was heavy in its 
movements, except at the moment of leaping. 

2. Socorro, New Mexico. 

The collection fk'om this region was made by Prof. Frank Snow, 
of the University of Kansas, at Lawrence. I here express my 
indebtedness to Prof. Snow for the opportunity of studying it. 
Fkryaotoma modMtua ttirard. 
Fbryaotoma oorantnm II art. 
Phrynotoma dooglafti B«ll. 
CroUpbjtoi eoUarit Say. 
Holbrookia Uxana Trutcb. 
Holbrookia maoalato H. «ud (i. 
totloponu poiaMttii B. and U. 
Uta ttaatbariaaa B. and («. 
Caamidopbonu ••xllaaatai L. 
Ihadophia rtfalii IM. and Uirl. 

The first time this rare species has been found within the limits 
of the United Stales. The single s|)ecimen obtaine<i differs from 
the typical one in having eight superior labials, with the eye 
alK>ve the fourth and fifth. As the preorbital labials are very 
short, variation to seven in all may be anticipated, as is found in 
the type. This specimen is smaller than the one from Sonora 
originally deHcribtni. 
Baieaaiaa ooatlriotor L. 
laUiaia aiarelaaa B. and <i. 

Thf conimun >|>i*cieH of the Kio Gninde valley. 

' ProcMdin^ Philada. Acaaemy, \f<m, 807. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 13 

Crotalut eonfluentut Say. 

Typical variety from near the southern end of the Socorro 
Mountain, five miles from Socorro. 

Cro taint lepidut Kennicott. 

Prof. Snow was fortunate enough to obtain the first entire 
bpecimen of this species, it having been described by Kennicott 
from two heads. We are thus made acquainted with the most 
peculiar of the North American rattlesnakes. I proposed for it 
the genus Haploaspis oh account of the undivided nasal plates of 
the typical specimens. In the present specimen, that plate is 
divided below the nostril. It is therefore probable that this 
generic name should be abandoned. 

Mr. Kennicott has well described the scutellation of the head. 
It may be summarized here by saying that the top of the muzzle 
is covered by eight smooth scuta ; that the rostral plate is rather 
low, and is in contact with the prenasal ; that there are two pre- 
oculars and two loreals ; and that but two scales separate the 
orbit from the superior labial scuta. Of the latter there are 
twelve. Occipital scales smooth. Scales of body in twenty-three 
rows, the two external on each side smooth. Urostege^, 153 ; 
gastrosteges, 27. The rattle consists of seven segments and a 
button, and narrows graduall}' towards the extremity. 

The color above is a greenish gray, which is crossed by nine- 
teen jet-black rings on the bodj', which do not extend on the 
abdomen. These rings are two and a half scales wide on the 
middle line, and narrow downwards on each side so as to cover 
but one scale in width. The scales which border the annuli are 
half black and half green, the effect of which is to give the edge 
of the ring a turreted outline. The edges of the ground-color 
are paler than any other part of the scales, thus throwing the 
black into greater relief. A large black spot, shaped like two 
hearts side by side, with the apices posterior, marks the nape; 
and there is an irregular small black spot on each side of the 
occiput. Some black specks between the orbits. No other marks 
on the head. Near the middle of the gray spaces of the body, 
some of the scales of many of the rows have black tips. The 
tail is light brown above, and has a basal broad black, and two 
other narrow brown annuli. Below dirty white, with closely 
placed shades of brown. 



V 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [188?*. 

Total length, m. -555 ; to constriction of neck, '027 ; length of 
tail, 074 ; do. without rattle, -026. 

This is one of the smallest species of CrotaluSy&ud is one of the 
most handsomely colored. Its coloration is entirely unique in the 
genus. The scutellation of the muzzle places it between the two 
sections of* the genus, typified respectively by C. horridns and 
C. durissus. 

The specimen was captured on the summit of the Magdalena 
Mountains, which are northwest from Socorro twenty' miles. 

3. St. Thomas, Nevada. 

This locality is on the Virgen River, in southeastern Nevada, 
nearly in the latitude of the southern boundarj- of Utah. The 
collection now referred to was made by Dr. Edward Palmer and 
sent by him to the Smithsonian Institution. Through ProfesAor 
Baird, the distinguished Secretary, it was referred to me for 
identification. 

Bafo ItntigiiiMiii frontoim C<»pe. 

This is the toad of the (Jreat Basin, representing the B, colvm^ 
biensis of more northern regions. 

Orotaphjtui wiiUteni li. and (•. 
Cntaidophonii teiiolUtut Say. 
Ophiboltti getttltti bojli B. and <r. 

The most northern locality for this species in the Great Basin. 
It has l»een j)rovi()U8ly obtained by Palmer and Coues, near 
Prescott, Arizona. 

Fhimothyra grahAmlB It. and (}. 

A variety with the dorsal bands nearly obsolete, and separated 
b}' three rows of dorsal scales on all jiarts of the body. Two 
preocnlars on one side and three on the other. The most northern 
locality for this sjK»eies. 

4. Santa Ft, Nkw Mkxio). 

Amblystoma maTortlnm Haird. 
Not uncommon. 

0p«a luunmoodil Haird. 

Abundant in July and Ani^ust, when it de|)ositft its e<:;rs in the 
pools of rain-water. It in very noisy at such times, and the o|H»n 
lots in the city of Santa Fe resound with its cries. They are much 
like those of the Scaphiopun holbroulcii. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 15 

The range of this species is extensive. It was originally obtained 
near Redding in Northern California. My friend, James S. Lip- 
pincott, has sent it to me from the extreme south of California, 
San Diego. The Smithsonian Institution has a slightly differen- 
tiated variety from Chihuahua; and a specimen from my friend 
Dr. Duges, from Guanajuato, Mexico, though rather young, is 
apparently the same. I suspect that the Scaphiopus dugesi Brocchi 
from that locality is the same species. 

This species is much like the Scaphiopus intermontanus described 
further on. It is always smaller, and the middle pair of light dorsal 
bands is nearly always wanting. It is still more different from the 
S. variuSy which has the vomerine teeth entirely posterior to the 
nares, banded upper lip and marbled back. 

5. San Francisco Mountains, Utah. 

Lizards are very abundant in this region, especially in the Wab 
Wah Valley, on the west side of the range, 

Phrynoioma platyrhinum Gird. 
Very abundant, 

Crotaphytui wiiliieni Bd. and Gird. 

Very abundant. 

Crotaphytui oollaris Say. 
Very common. 

U'a itanibnriana Bd. and Gird. 

Abundant. 

Beclopoms imaragdiimi Cope. 
Not rare. 

Scelopomi ooniobrinui B. and G. 
Cnemidophomi sp. 

Many seen but not caught. 

6. Provo and Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Bufo lentiginoiui frontoius Cope. 
Abundant near Salt Lake City. 

SoaphiopuB intermoBtanui pp. nov. 

I took a specimen of this species within the limits of Salt Lake 
City, and subsequently obtained three or four specimens from 
Pyramid Lake, Nevada. It resembles the Spea hammondi more 
than it does any other species. The frontoparietal bones, though 



IB PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF f 1883. 

OBsilled, are not roughened as in the other si)ecies of Scaphiopvs, 
It is nearest the S, varius (from near San Antonio, Texas;. In 
that 8{)ecies the Tomerine teeth are entirely posterior to the intenial 
nares ; in this one they are between the posterior boniers of the 
same. The lips are not cross-barred as in the S, variu8 ; and the 
superior region has two pale lines on each side. In S. variua these 
lines are replaced by a coarse marbling. As compared with Spea 
hammondi^ this frog differs in its larger size, lighter colorn, and 
the presence of the superior pair of light lines. 

It represents the S, hammondi in more northern regions, nnd 
the complete cranial ossification and larger siae mark it as a more 
fUll}' developed form. 

Xaaa haUoiaa Kalw. From Provo. 
Bans pretioia B. A G. 

A variet}' without a trace of dorso-lateral folds, and of a uniform 
dusky color above and on the sides. Lip not striped. The j>o«- 
tcrior part of the abdomen and the inferior face of the thighs are 
salmon-red. Skin smooth ; diameter of membranum tympani 
three-fiflliH that of the eye. Salt Lake City. This is the most 
southern locality of this speeien "known. 

Sctlopomi contobrinoi H. A <t. Trovi*. 

7. Atlanta, Idaho. 

Atlanta is a small town situated on the headwaters of the 
South Boise River, on the southern drainage of the Sawtooth 
Mountain Range. The valley is i\\\\Xv elevated, and is shut in by 
granitic mountains; water and vegetation are abundant; and the 
snow lies on the ground late in the spring. I>uring a short visit 
there in 1882, I obtained the following s|H*eies : 

AMbljstoma opizantbum i>|*. n^v. 

Nearly related to Atufih/ttfoma marrftdnrfi/him Baird,and to W 
placed next to that spi-cies in any synopsis of the genusj Costal 
folds twrhe. No oanthus rostralis. rj>per jaw <»verlappiii|jr 
low«r. Tail strongly eouipn-ssetl, as long as hc^ad and Innly to 
groin. Head wide-<»val ; its greatest width one-fourth its tt)tal 
length to the groin. Digits all nither short; four phalauguH in 

' Proc. Acad. Hhila., 1807, p. 171. 



1883.1 NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. IT 



•_i 



fourth posterior digit. Internal nares as widely separated as 
the external. Eye-fissure one-half width between the anterior 
canthus. Median dental series presenting an angle forwards. 
Tongue large, deeply plicate. Length, m. '083 ; length to axilla, 
"017; to groin, -040; length of anterior limb, *012 ; of anterior 
foot, '004 ; of hind limb, -014 ; of posterior foot, '0065. 

Sides of body and tail, and superior surfaces of limbs, shining 
black. Dorsal region to end of tail and muzzle, gamboge yellow. 
The yellow expands on the head, and forms two cross-bands on 
the upper surfaces of each of the limbs. The black of the sides 
is occasionally interrupted by the yellow spots irregularly placed. 
Below, dilute black, dusted with minute white speckles. The 
structural differences between this and the A, macrodactylum 
are not many, but are well marked. They are : 1. The greater 
width of the head, which enters the length (without the tail) Rye 
times in the latter, and four times in the A, epixanthum ; and 
is also seen in the greater interorbital width. 2. In the short 
toes, which are very much longer in the A. macrodactylum. In 
color, this species is the more brilliant ; the coast species being 
described as brown, with gray dorsal stripes, instead of black, 
with yellow dorsal stripes. In it the limbs are not banded, and 
the belly is uniformly pale, contrary to what holds in the present 
species, which is the most handsome of the genus. I obtained 
four specimens of this salamander, under logs, in a swamp near 
the head of the South Boise River, on the south side of the 
Sawtooth Mountain Range, Idaho. 

Bttfo OolnmbMniii Bd. and Gird. 

Abundant. I also obtained it at Bellevue on the Wood River, 
about one hundred miles southeast of Atlanta. 

Baioaninin vetnttum Bd. and Qird. 
EntSBiiia lirtalis Linn. 

These are all, except the last, species characteristic of the 
northern fauna of Washington Territory. The Bufo columbiensis 
ranges to the headwaters of the Missouri. 

8. Mouth of Bruneau River, Idaho. 

This locality is on Snake River, which cuts through the ^reat 
lava outflow of southern Idaho and Oregon. The reptiles are 



18 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF |[1883. 

different from tliose of Atlanta, and are those of the great basin 

of Utah. I am indebted to Mr. J. L. Wortman for these specimens. 

PhrjAOioma platyrhinmn Gird. 

CroUphyttti ooUtrit Say. 

CroUphjtni wiilisoni H. and 0. 

Uu lUnibmiaiim 6. and (3. 

SoaloponiB imaragdiiiiu Cope. 

Pityophii oateniftr Klainr. 

BaMaaiiim Tetaitam B. and O. 

The head is a little longer than in a specimen fVom central 
Oregon, and the muzzle is less conical. The fifth superior labial 
Just reaches the inferior postorbital. 

9. From Reno to Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 

The road from Reno to the southern extremity of Surprise 
Valley, Califoniia, passes through an arid and forbidding country. 
The rocks are entirely basaltic, and frequently present a rugged 
foundation for the road. The vegetation consists of Artemiifia^ 
and where alkali abounds, of Sarcobatus, North of P^'ramid 
Lake, the dry alkaline flats onoe covered by the Alkali Lake, have 
a wide extent. During the hot weather of July, 188*2, the region 
swarmed with lizards, and rattlesnakes were numerous. The 
greatest nnmlK*r of lK>th was met with from Pyramid Lake north- 
wards for twenty miles. 

Bafo oolombiensis IM. an<I (linl. Ptr^'ii'*! Lnkf 
BoAphiopns inUrmonunns Tope 

With tlu' preceding sjwcies in a pond near the shore of Pyramid 
Lake. Like other allied species, it was very noisy, almost obscu- 
ring the voice of the less vociferous Bufo, 

PhrfnosoiDA pUtjrhinnm Ginl. 
Very abundant. 

Crouphjttti o^lUrif Sny. 
CroUphjtni wiiliioni B. iin«i <i. 

Mort* abundant than the V. collariu. 

Holbrookia *|». 

A line s|K»cies was seen north of Pyrami<l Lakt*, but it was ho 
rtwifl that I did not succeed in catching a speciuK'n. It resouiblos* 
the //. texana, and may l>e an undeseribeil sjieeies. 
tMloporns imarairdiBtti <'op<>. 

A variety with one additional row of small supraorbital i^cales, 
making six rows in all. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 19 

Cnemidophomi tessellatui Say. AbundaDt. 

Basoaninin 9p. Young. 

CrotaliiB oonflaentuB lucifar B. and G. Cope emend, fupra, p. 11. 

Two specimens from Buffalo Canyon, north of Pyramid Lake. 
In one of the specimens the dorsal spots are first darker, then 
lighter-bordered, and there are twenty-three rows of scales on the 
body. In the other there are twenty-five rows of scales, and the 
spots have neither dark nor pale borders, but have pale scales 
scattered through them, and they have a more transverse form. 

10. The Lakes of South and West Central Oregon. 

This region possesses much zoological interest from the position 
which it occupies as the border-land between the faunae of, the 
Pacific slope and that of the great interior basin. It is here that 
we find the transition between the sage-brush (Artemisia) desert 
and the forest-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains and valleys. 
Here also we have the transition between the almost fresh lakes 
near the mountains, to the intensely alkaline ones east of them. 
An especial interest attaches to the lake faunae ; since we find in 
them the means of determining the characters of the fossils found 
in the remains of pliocene and post-pliocene lakes of the Oregon 
desert. This part of the subject will be more full}' considered in 
an essay on the fishes of these lakes, now in course of preparation. 

The routes on which the species of the list below given, were 
collected, are as follows : Along the east shore of the Great 
Klamath Lake to its northern extremity'. From the eastern side 
of the lake northeastward to Silver Lake. This was part of my 
expedition of 1879. In 1882, I passed along the three southern 
Warner Lakes, and then crossed southwest to Goose Lake. Thence 
1 traveled north to Summer Lake, crossing the Chewaucan River, 
which flows into Abert's Lake. Then north to Silver Lake, con- 
necting with my route of 1879. Aft,er that, south to Goose Lake, 
passing along its entire eastern shore. 

BiLfo oolumbieniii Bd. and Gird. 

Abundant throughout the entire region. It is especially numer- 
ous at Klamath Lake, where it covers the basaltic blocks which 
lie partially in the water, concealed by the Typhee^ which grow 
from the bottom. They accumulate there in large piles, sometimes 
as large as a bushel-measure, and afford abundant food for the 
Eutaeniae, which are scarcely less abundant. One specimen of 



20 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [l^tt 

this toad was as large as the average Bufo marinus of BnudL 
and a specimen seen at Warner *s Lake was but little smaller. 

Hyla regilla B. nnd (]. 

Abundant at Silver Lake, at VVarner^s Lake, Goose Lake mod 
at Fort Bidwell, twenty miles east of Goose Lake, in Califomia, 
I found numbers of what I suppose to be a variety of this specie*. 
It is little over half as large in linear dimensions, and the skin h 
more distinctlv tubercular al)ove. Some of those from GkxMe 
Lake are more spotted ; those from Fort Bidwell are nearly 
uniform golden-yellow and green. This si)ecies lives in swamps 
and on the edge of water, representing in this region the Acrit 
and Chorophilus of the east. 

BanA pretiosa B<1. and (tird. 

This is the characteristic liatia of the northwestern interior, 
being accompanied by Bu/o col umbie nais &ni\ Bascanium vetusiuwL 
In life the iK>sterior part of the abdomen, with the inferior faces of 
the thighs, are of a bright salmon-red. I obtained it the entire 
length of the valley of the Warner Lakes, but not at Fort BidwelL 
I have found it to range as far as the eastern foot of the Rocky 
Mountains in Montana ;* and the specimens assigneti by me- to 
Buna itt'ptt'ntrinnnliti, from the Yellowstone Basin, may be the 
variety (iescrilKMl above from Salt Lake City. I do not now have 
them l^*fore me for dt'ciision. Specimens of this s|>eeies are in 
the National Musi'um, from Puget's Sound (I>r. Kennerly, No. 
r)97.') a ) and from " Camp Moryie '' (Hr. Kennerly, No. 5973). The 
tirst-named sp4"eimens are aeeompanied by tlie li. temitoraria 
(lurnra. It hal»it>* are atpiatie. 

Phrjaosoma dongUisi n<'ll. Vnr. 

On the elevat4Ml land which represents the Sierra Nevaiia llange, 
In'tween Warner's Lake and Goose Lake, in the basaltic region. 
near the fi>rmer, I found a peculiar variety of this s|>ecieM. Tlie 
horns are even more rudiinental than in the u^ual form, but are 
all represented. The prominent scalus of the Iwick are smaller 
and less prominent. In some of the specimens the head i» shorter 
rehitively to the ImmIv. The color is an ironrusi-lirowii, with 
darker lateral h|Mjts, each with a small posterior yellow lK>nler. 

' American Naturalist, IHTli. p. \X^. 

' Annual Iie|K)rt V. S. <;*h>I. Survey Terrs., ISTl. p. 4«9. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 21 

Individuals are abundant ; some of those taken are full of eggs. 
All are much smaller than the true P. douglassi, 

Uta Btanibttriana B. and G. 

Abundant on the crags of basalt on the sides of Warner's 
Yalley. It is also common at Summer Lake, which is the most 
northern locality for the species and genus. 

Soeloporai graoioius B. and G. 

This very pretty species extends as far north as Summer Lake, 
and is quite abundant^ 

Beeloponu Bmaragdinui Cope. 

Common as far north as Summer Lake. A specimen taken 
there has large torquoise-blue spots behind each brown cross-bar, 
on each side of the dorsal region. 

Charina plnmbea Bd. and Gird. 

I found a single specimen of this curious snake in the road 
along the west side of Summer Lake. Although living, its 
muscles were alternately contracted in such a way as to give it the 
appearance of a knotted root. It was very tame, allowing itself 
to be handled without offering resistance. In life the inferior 
surfaces are of a rich yellow. 

Pityophii mtxioaniii bellona B. and G. 
From Summer Lake. 

Batoaninin vetastum B. and G. 

Common in Warner's Valley, at Summer Lake and at Klamath 
Lake. 

Sntoaia piokeringii B. and G. 

Very common everywhere near water, in all parts of the Lake 
country. 

Sntsiiia airtalU lirtalis Linn. 

This species accompanies the preceding at Warner's third Lake, 
at Summer Lake and at Goose Lake, and retains its distinctive 
features. The specimens seen at Goose Lake have the bands 
brighter yellow than usual, and are very pugnacious. They 
preferred fighting to escaping, and bit furiously. 

Sntania ilrtalii eUgani B. and G. 

Abundant. In young specimens the dorsal spots are distinct. 

Sntania bUontata sp. nov. 

This is one of the best defined species of the genus. 1 have 
only two specimens, which agree in the following characters. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

They differ in the number of rows of scales, however, one haviiif 
twenty-three and the other twenty-two. All tlie tows of scales 
keeled, the median ones very strongly. Labials eight, the eye 
resting on the fourth and fifth. Two preoculars; three pott* 
oculars. The muzzle is rather short, the frontal plate exceedtog 
in length the region anterior to it, and equaling the common 
suture of the parietal scuta. Nasals rather short ; loreal as long 
as high ; inferior preocular nearly square ; superior preoi*ular not 
reaching frontal. Superior labials all truncate above and none of 
them elevated, the sixth touching the inferior postorbital. Tem- 
])orals, 1*2*3; the anterior arc rather large. Pairs of geneiali 
subequal. Gastrosteges, 15(5 ; urosteges, 79. 

Color everywhere black, except on the chin and throat, and on 
the inferior side of the tail. The former was reddish in life. 
There are very faint traces of stripes on the third and fourth, and 
on the median dorsal rows of scales. No traces of spots on the 
parietal scuta. 

Total length, m. 0'2G5 ; length to canthus of mouth (axial), 
•012; length of tail, '002. 

This species is one of the l>est characterized of the genus. Its 
leading peculiarities are : first, the two preocular scuta ; s€?cond, 
its twenty-three rows of scales. In lK)th resjHJcts it is unique in 
the genus. Its color is characteristic. Its place is nearest the 
K. radix B..and (i., with which it agrees in its rather robust 
proi>ortions, and the position of the lateral stripe. 

This sp<»cies is not uncommon in the swamp vegetation on the 
l)orders of the lake. The s|)ecimeus 1 took disphiyetl little 
activity. 

Crotalns oonflnonttts Inoifer H. an<l <t. 

This s|)ecies is abinidant at Warner's second Lake, and I t04ik 
one at Silver Lake. The s|)ecimen8 are identical with those fVom 
near Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 

11. The Willamkt Valley. Orecjon. 

The fainia of this valhy is that of western ()i*ei:on, anil niav 
he cxiHMted tc» diilrr from that of central and eastern Ort»i;<>n 
TIm- ejimate of the Will.iuiet ValKy is ver\ wet, and th€» si>il i^ 
d»ii*'»ly <MNrnMl with forests. Thi^ is a state of things :ilmo^t 
<x:i« tl\ the i«-\«isi*of what <>l»tains in centnil Oregon. Appro- 
priately we have numerous f^j'kecies of salfimanders and fe^er 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 23 

lizards than in the latter region. This collection was made by 
my friend, Professor 0. B. Johnson, at that time residing at Salem. 
The specimens were obtained at various points between that city 
and Portland, north of it. 

Amblyitoma tenebromm Bd. 

Ambljitoma maorodaotylnm Bd. 

Flethodon intermedial Bd. 

Cynopi toroim Esob. 

Bnfo halophilm B. and G. • 

Hyla regilla B. and 6. 

Enmecei ikiltonianni Bd. 

Ctorrhonotm mnltioarinatui Blv. 

Seeloporas nndulatm thajeri B. and G. 

Fhrynoioma doaglaiii Bell. 

Charina plumbea B. and G. 

Diadophii punctatui pnlohellua B. and G. 

Basoanium vetnitum B. and G. 

SataBnia leptocephala B. and G. 

Of three specimens, two exhibit only seventeen rows of scales* 
These probably represent the supposed species E. cooper i, which 
is therefore not distinct. 

EatsBnia eonciima Hallow. 

I took a specimen of this beautiful snake at Eugene City, south 
of Salem. Not only the lateral vertical bars, but the muzzle, lips 
and gular region are a brilliant red« 

12* Northern California. 

The species referred to in this list were found near the United 
States fish-hatching establishment on the McCloud River, in 
Shasta County. I desire here to express my indebtedness to 
Mr. Livingston Stone, superintendent of the hatching station, for 
the hospitality which he extended to me at the time of my visit 
there. 

AmblTitoma (1) tenebroinm B. and G. 

A large siredon from a small tribntat}' of the McCloud is probably 
this species. It has peculiarities of the branchial structure, and 
1 describe it by comparison with those found in other genera of 
American salamanders. These are mostly derived from specimens 
placed in my hands by the Smithsonian Institution, to which my 
acknowledgments are due. The coloration which appears in the 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [18 

larger larvae of the present collection, approaches nearest that 

the AmblyMoma tenebrosum. These animals were abundant in 1 

small stream I examined, and swam with fp-eat rapidity, darti 

about and hiding themselves among the fallen leaves that covei 

the bottom. 

I. Processes with two rows of rami : 

Rami with many thread-like fimbriae ; Sir 

II. Processes with one^ — an outer — row of rami; 
processes horizontal. 
A rudimental inner row of rami ; flmbrifle thread-like ; Prole 

III. No principal rami ; 
A. Processes compresstKl ; fimbrise de|)endent from 
lower edge ; 
Fimbriae threa<l-Iike, extending on both outer and inner face 
process ; Nectur 

Fimbria* flat, long, chiefly conflned to the lower margin of proc(*i 
Lar\'iv of S}yelerp€8 ruber; S, bilinecUuSy and Oi/rinophii 
jKtrphijritivua. 
Fimbria* few, subclavate ; Plethodon cinere 

A A. Processes long, narrow; l)oaring fimbria? only 
on the side next the body ; 
Fimbriiv simple, flat, 8ul>-equal ; Amblysiow 

A A A, Xo pnx-esses nor rami ; ftudiria* on the vertical 
septa. 
FMnibritc in nunierou** rows on the edge of the septa; alond^ 
unbranched ; Larva of Amhli/tttoma tenehro^H^ 

A AAA. Processes vertical septa, with rami on the 
anterior t*ilge ; 
Kami l»earing flat, thread-like fimbria*, which arise from the pi 
(M'sses posteriorly and are o(\en divided. Larva from Simia 
ifi'to, Watfhinfjton Terr. 

PUthodon it«aBttl pp. nor. 

This salamander resembles the Plethodon gluh'nogun in varioi 
res|M*cts, esjHM'ially in <M)loration. It has, however, a compressi 
tail like the J\ t/i/^r?»i»v/n/x, an<l short Sfries of vomerine teeth. 

Thr vointTine s«'rirs are straight, and do not quite meet on tl 
middle lin**. Thev are rntirelv In^hind tin* nares, and do not extoi 
exti'ri«»r to thrni. The parasphtMioid patchrs are united into on 
and ait' wfll ••«'parat('(l from the vonuTiue>. 

Form rather stout, snd the tail short, equaling (from vent) tl 



1883.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



25 



length of the body (with vent) to the gular fold. Costal folds 13. 
Head a longitudinal oval, with rather narrowed, and not truncate 
muzzle; its length (to occiput) contained three and two-third 
times in length from muzzle to groin. 

Limbs short ; when pressed along the side they are separated 
by three intercostal spaces. The digits are short, and the internal 
ones are rudimental. 

The color is black everywhere, and the superior surfaces are 
dusted over with minute light specks. 



Measurements, 

Total length, 

Length from muzzle to axilla. 
Length from muzzle to groin, 
Width of head at can thus oris, 
Length of anterior limb, 
Length of anterior foot. 
Length of posterior limb. 
Length of posterior foot. 



M. 

•053 

•0105 

•0275 

•006 

•006 

•002 

•00T5 

•0032 



This species is to be compared with the Plethodon intermedius 
of western Oregon. It is shorter and more robust in form, having 
only thirteen costal plicae instead of fifteen.^ The color is verj*^ 
different. 

This species is named from the aboriginal name leka, of the 
grand peak of northern California, Mount Shasta. From the 
same name the town of Yreka derives its name. So I am informed 
by Judge Roseborough of t^at place, to whom I am under great 
obligations for many facilities and much information. 

Cynopi toroBOf K^ch. DiemyctjiluH tuionuH Cope, Check List, Batr. Kept., X. Amer. 

Bufo halopkilni Bd. and Gird. 

Hjla regilla B. and 6. 
The typical form. 

« 

Bmna paebyderma sp. nov. 

Represented by five specimens of diflTerent ages and sizes from 



* On page 99, Proc. Phila. Academy, 1869, in my monograph of the Ple- 
thodontida the number of plicas is given at 13. This is a misprint for 15. 
On p. 209, Proceedings for 1867, the number is cori'ectly given as 15. 



3 



26 PR0GEEDINQ8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

the McCloud River, and by two specimens from Ashland mt the 
northern base of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon. 

This species belongs to the Bana temporaria group, and must 
oe compared with Bana temporaria aurora B. and G., and B. 
pretiosa B. and G. The vomerine teeth are opposite the posterior 
Iwrder of the choanal, and form two short, transverse series. 
The toes are webbed to the base of the terminal phalange of the 
fourth digit. The hind-leg extende<l reaches the extremity of 
the muzzle with the heel. There are two plantar tubercles. The 
internal is narrow, rather prominent and with obtuse extremity : 
the other is at the base of the fourth metatarsal bone, and is 
rounded. 

The muzzle is obtuse and the head rather wide. Its greatest 
width at the position of the membranum tympani, equals the 
length from the end of the muzzle to the line connecting the 
axillae in some specimens ; in others to that connecting the middle 
of the humeri. The skin is on all the superior surfaces thick and 
glandular. This condition is esi)eeially marked in the dorso- 
lateral fold of each si<le, which is so thickened in front as to 
resemble a parotoid gland. This becomes less visible in alcohol. 
The tympanic membrane is either entirely concealed, or is repn*- 
SiMited by a depression only. The skin covering it is roughened. 
A groove extends downwards and backwards from it. Between 
this and the canthus oris is a glandular thickening, and l)ehind it 
are two others, one above the other. Posterior to these on the 
sides is a succession of rounded, roughened warts, similar to those 
of the toads. Similar warts, but less ])rominent, are scattered 
over the dorsal region, and are numerous near the extremity 
of the coccyx. The skin of the suj^erior surfaces of the head. 
IkkIv and limbs is minutely but very distinctly roughened by small 
warts, each of which gives exit to a pore. Inferior surfaces smooth. 
Length of fingers In^ginning with the shortest, 2 * 1 ' 4 • 3. 

The c-olor is dark brown or nearly black, with indistinct darker 
s|K)ts on the back ; sicU-s l>rown. Axilla and groin yellow, marbled 
with black. Thighs alM>ve light or dark brown, with three darker 
crossbars. Tibia* similar, with three crossbars. Thighs l>ehind, 
blai-k»coarst'ly verniiculated with yellow, «r yellow closely spotted 
with black. Helow light VfUow, spotted with brown on the gular 
region and on front of femora. 



1883.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



21 



Measurements, m. 

Length of head and body to vent, . . . '066 

Length from muzzle to axilla (axial), . . . *030 

Length from muzzle to groin (axial), . . . '054 

Length of anterior leg, . . . . . '043 

Length of manus, '019 

Length of posterior leg, 'IIT 

Length of femur, '033 

Length of tibia, '038 

Length of tarsus, '018 

The specimens from Ashland agree with those from the Mc- 
Cloud, except that they are nearly black above and do not exhibit 
the dorsal spots. 

I compare this species with the Rana temporaria aurora from 
the Russian River near the coast of California. That species has 
but one palmar tubercle, the internal, which is of similar propor- 
tions to that of the E, pachyderma. The skin is not thickened, 
and is much less glandular everywhere. The membranum tympani 
is entirely distinct. The posterior face of the femur is not ver- 
miculated with yellow, but is covered with large black masses. 
The whole of the under surfaces are brown-spotted. There are 
four brown crossbars on the tibia : traces of the fourth sometimes 
appear in the B. pachyderma. Prom Bana pretiosa it differs in 
all these characters; besides those that belong to the latter,!, e., 
the posteriorly-placed vomerine teeth and the short hind-legs. 

Sumetei ikiltoniannB B. and G. 
Oerrhonotm mnltioarinatiiB Blv. 

The movements of this species are not nearly so active as are 
those of the Iguanidse and especially of the Lacertidse, 

Seelopomi undulatm Uuyeri B. and Q. 
IHadophii pnnotatns pulchellus B. and G. 

Different from the typical form of the subspecies in having no 
spots on the inferior surfaces. I did not admit this form as dis- 
tinct in my check list, but it had best be retained. It differs 
from the subspecies amabilis in having the inferior two rows of 
scales unicolor with the abdomen. In life this is a brilliant 
orange.^ 

' At this locality I found, under bark of logs, numerous specimens of 
Brachycybe Ucontei Wood. This beautiful myriapod was onginally described 



I 



28 prookkdinob of tml academy of [18s3. 

13. Mouth of Russian River, California. 

This locality is one hundred miles north of San Frmncisoa 
The collection was made by myself, in and on the border of the 
great redwood forest which there covers the hills and mounUiiiia 
of the coast range. 

BatTAekOMpf attenHAtOf Eioh. Abandant. 
Fltthodoa ortgontatU Gird. 

Abundant, and especially pleasing from its liquid, prominent 
eyes. Alwa3*s under the redwoods. 

Ojaop* torofui Esoh. 

Abundant. This species is entirely aquatic. 

Baaa Uaporaria avrorm B. and G. Rana draytomi B. and G. Hann fomgipm Hmllov. 

Not distinguishable as a species, in my opinion, from the Bana 
temporaria of the palaearctic realm. 

Gtrrhoaotiu BultieariaAtiii Blr. 
BmUraU tirtalii eUgaai B. and G. 

14. LoH Angeles, California. 

Two collections from this locality are iKjfore me. One of these 
waH made by Mr. DeCorse, Hospital Steward, at Drum Barracks, 
and was nent to the Smittisonian Institution. Prof. Baird sub- 
mitted it to me for deti*rmination. The second collection was 
given me b}' Mr. Horatio N. Rust, the archaeologist, who made 
it at PaB8adena,a short distance from tUe city. 

CjBopt toroina Ercb. Rupt. 
BatrMhoMp« atuanatttB K»ob. Hust. 
Phrjaoftoma blaivTillii (irajr. DeCoroe. 
Sctloponii ttBdnlatm tbajori H. and G. Runt. 
Uu lUBtbttriaiUL B. nml a. 



as from California, where it wa«8up|>o«ed to have been collected by Dr J. L. 
LecoDte. I, however, auhfiequeDtly obtained it from £a«t Tenneaaee, and 
as Dr. I^econte had collected it in Georgia, it was supposed by Dr. Wood 
that the locality California was an error. It» rediscovery on the MoClood 
River ahowa that thin Kf>ecie8 ia found on the Pacific coast, a« originally 
at.itvd hy \V(hh1, and that it nnijjes ovi»r th<» width of the continent. In 
like manntT a niyri.ijKKl which I sent Mr. Hyder from the Russian River, 
ia stated hy him to be much like Androfjnalhas C-opo, u genua heretoTorv 
known from the Alleghenies of Virginia. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29 

Specimens remarkably large, and with the postinguinal black 
spot unusually large and distinct. DeCorse. 

Oerrhonotus maltioariaatiis Blv. Rast. 
Sameoei t^dltonianas Bd. Rust, DeCorse. 
Ophibolns gotalu boylii B. and G. Rust. 
Fityophis oatenifor Blv. Rust, DeCorse. 
Bifeanimn testaeoam Say. Rast, DeCorse. 
Sntonia hammoadi Keno. DeCorse. 

Note on a Species of Xantusia. 

The species described below was found by Dr. J. G. Cooper, 
Zoologist of the State Geological Survey of California, and was 
placed in the collections of the University of California, where I 
saw it. It was kindly lent me for examination by the authorities 
of the University. The locality from which the specimen was 
derived is unknown, beyond that it is Californian. 

Xaatufia rivorsiana Cope. American Naturalist, 1879, p. 801. 

The position of this genus in the system has been discussed 
by M. Bocourt* and myself.* I associated it with the genera Lepi- 
dophyma Dum., and Cricosaura Peters, and stated that 1 was not 
able to distinguish them from the family Lacertidse, M, Bocourt 
places these genera in the family *' Trachydermi," which also 
includes Heloderma Wiegm. This family is divided b}' M. Bocourt 
into two subfamilies, the Glyphodonti for Heloderma^ and the Agly- 
phc4onti for the three genera named, together with Xenoaaurus 
Pet. Previously to this^ I had examined and compared the 
osteology of Heloderma and Xenosaurus, On* account of the 
differences in the form of the mesosternum, and in some other 
points, I regarded Xenosaurus as the type of a peculiar family to 
be placed with the Helodermidae in the tribe Diplogiossa. Xantusia^ 
Lepidophyma and Cricosaura are, on the other hand, not Diplo- 
giossa, but are Leptoglossa, They are allied to the Lacertidse, and 
especially to the Asiatic Ophiops, which is, like them, without eye- 
lids. The character of the tongue is like that of the Ecpleopidse^ 
nniformly squamous, and has no resemblance to that of the 
Diploglossan The characters of the scapular arch are those of the 
Leptoglossa, The clavicle is loop-shaped proximally, and the 



* Mision Scientifique de Mexique, Herpetology, p. 808, 1878. 
' Proceedings of the Academy of Philadelphia, 1864, p. 239. 
'Loo. cit. 1866, p. 322. 



30 PROCEEPTNGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

mesostcmum is cruciform in Lepidophyrna and Xanlima. I have 
not l)een able to examine Criconaura as to these points. In my 
paper first mentioned, I stated that these genera have diBtinct 
parietal bones. I think that they should, on this account, be 
distinguished from the Lacertidee, where they arc codsaified. 
Whether they are distinct or united in the Ecpleopidae, I do not 
know, but the absence of eyelids will separate the group from 
that family. I use for it the name first given by Baird/ JCaniv- 
Ki J/r, and characterize the three genera as follows : — 

I. A large interfrontonasal plate ; frontoparietals 

meeting on the middle line. 

Superciliary scales none ; pupil round ; Lepidophytna. 

Sn|x»rciliary scales present ; pupil vertical ; Xaniuma. 

II. Two intorfrontonasals ; frontoparietals He])arated 

bv interparietal. 
Superciliary scales; Crico^aura. 

All of these genera have femoral pores, and an exposed mem- 
branum t\*mpani. 

The species which has given occasion for the above discussion 
is the second one of the genus. It is several times as large as 
the type X vigilia Baird, and has a different coloration. The 
digits are shorter. 

The scales of the dorsal and lateral regions are rather coarselv 
and uniformly granular. The abdominal scales are qua<lrate, and 
are in sixteen loi^gitudinal and thirty-two transverse rows. The 
preanal scales are in three transverse rows, the anterior two of 
four scales, with the median pair in both much enlarged, and the 
jWRterior row of six s<»ales. Scales of the guhir region flat ant! 
hexagonal, one row on the gular fold a little larger, and equal to 
the anterior gulars. Scales of the anterior aspects of the fore-lM 
and femur larger than the others ; those of the tibia small, and 
those of the posterior face of the femur still smaller. Scales 
of the tail in whorls of equal width. The scales of equal size 
and all convex in cross-section but not keeled. None of the 
scales of the IkxIv or limbs keeled. 

The nostril is situated in a small scute at the junction of the 
Huturt'S which separate the internasal, rostral, first labial, and first 

' PmceediiiKTit Academy IMiiladelphia, 1858, I>t5C«inl>er. 



1883] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 31 

loreal scuta. Three loreals, increasing in size po8teriorl3\ A 
circle of scales surrounds the eye, of which the superior or super- 
ciliary are the largest. The latter are separated by one row of 
scales from the parietal, supraorbital and frontal on each side. The 
interfrontonasal is nearly square. The frontonasals are consider- 
ably in contact. The frontal is hexagonal, and is broader than 
long. The interparietal is as large as each parietal. It is longer 
than wide, and notches the contact of the frontoparietals. The 
occipitals are large and quadrate. A single large temporal bounds 
the parietals and occipital, and it is followed by two small scuta 
which are in contact with the occipital. There are eight scales on 
the upper lip. Of these the fifth is the largest, and is part of an 
annulus which begins with two small scales at the posterior 
loreal, and terminates at the seventh scale, opposite the middle 
of the pupil posteriorly. The posterior labials are small, and are 
separated by nine rows of still smaller scales from the large 
temporal. No large auricular scales. The eye is rather large 
and its diameter is contained in the length of muzzle in front of it 
1*76 times. The vertical diameter of the auricular meatus is a 
little less. 

The first digits of both extremities are very short. The second 
of the pes is very little longer than the fifth. All the ungues are 
acute and are moderately curved. The hind-legs are remarkably 
short, not exceeding the fore-legs. Extended forwards the ex- 
tremity of the fourth digit reaches the elbow of the appressed 
fore-leg. Femoral pores twelve on each side ; no tinal pores. The 
taiF is not long, and its form is compressed with a flat inferior 
surface. The section is a triangle, higher than wide, with the 
apex narrowly truncate. 

The color is light brown, with dark umber-brown spots on the 
superior surface. These spots form, in general, one median and 
two lateral rows, but as their forms are very irregular this order 
is obscure. The median dorsal are the largest, and they send 
branches laterally and anteroposteriorly, so that the result is rather 
confused. Dark brown bands cross the muzzle on the frontonasal 
plates and on the frontal, and form a wide XJ from the fronto- 
parietals passing around the posterior edge of the occipitals. 
Sides of head with rather large brown spots. Inferior surfaces 
with minute brown spots which are least numerous on the middle 
line. Tail with irregular pale spots. 



32 



PROOEKDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF 



r 1 883. 



Meaattrements. 

Total length, 

Length to posterior edge of occipital plates, 

Length to axilla, 

Length to groin, 

Length to vent, 

Width between orbits above, 

Width at temples, 

Length of fore-limb, 

Length of manus, 

Length of hind-limb, 

Length of pes, 

Jjength of tibia, 



•118 

•0163 

•029 

•055 

•060 

•007 

•0115 

•017 

•008 

•023 

•Oil 

•007 



15. 8an Diego, California. 

My friend, James S. Lippincott, made a collection of reptiles 
and batrachians at this locality, which throws considerable light 
on some points of geographical distribution. A catalogue of the 
species is here given : — 

Info oolmnbUntU Bd. and Gird. 

A single specimen with smoother skin than the more northern 
forms. (Hand on tlie surface of the tibia very distinct. 

•pMI hABflHOadl B. and U. 

Set* anlea^ page 14. Four specimens. 
BnmtMS tkiltoniaBat Baird. 

A Kpt'cimen with the scales of the dark bands pale centered, 
and with a very thick tail. 
▼ortlMrU hyptrjthra Cope. 
CMsldophoms ttssellmtat ti^is B. and a. 
AaUUm palohra <trftT. 
0«rrh«motat maltioArlBatiiB BIr. 
Uu tuafbariaaa B. and a. 
CretaphytoB wisUMsi Bd. and Gird. 
Pkrjaotoma blainTillei Gr»j. 
Shiaoehiliu iMonUl B. mmHi. 
Hyptif Uaa ookiorhyaohoj Co|>«*. 
BftMaalam ttsUMam 



'H> . 



iiENKRAL Observations. 



The results to zoological geography obtained by the preceding 
identifications areas follows: — Collection No 1. The extension 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 33 

northwards of the ranges of Crotalus molossus and Stenostoma 
dulce. No. 2. The extension northwards of the ranges of Diado- 
phis regalis^ Crotalus lepidus and Holhrookia texana. No. 4. The 
extension to the Rocky Mountains of the range of Spea hammondi. 
No. 6. The discovery of a new Scaphiopus in the Great Basin 
district ; and of the southern extension of Bana pretiosa into the 
same. No. T. The discovery that the Northern Pacific fauna 
extends east to the Rocky Mountains. This fauna is especially 
represented by Bascanium vetustum, Bana pretiosa and Bufo 
columbiensis. No. 8. The fact that the Great Basin district of the 
Sonoran fauna extends north to the southern slope of the Rocky 
Mountains in Idaho, where are found several of its species. These 
are Phrynosoma platyrhinum^ Crotaphytus vrislizeni, and Uta 
stanshuriana. No. 9. The discovery that the same fauna extends 
north along the eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada to the begin- 
ning of Surprise Yalley, California. No. 10. The determination 
that the Northern Pacific fauna extends from Surprise Valley, 
eastern California, northwards as far as my explorations have 
extended, viz., to Silver Lake and Klamath Lakes. No. 16. The 
determination of a wide southern range for Spea hammondi and 
Bufo columbiensis, and northern range for Verticaria hyperythra. 

These results indicate that the Pacific region has a much greater 
extension eastward than it has been supposed to have, but which 
was foreshadowed in my paper on the Zoology of Montana, 
published in 1879.^ They also indicate that it must be divided 
into three districts. These I call the Idaho, the Willamet, and 
the South Californian districts. The first is characterized by the 
absence of Oerrhonotus and Cynops and of certain species of 
Amblystoma, The South Californian is characterized, by the 
presence of Hypsiglena and Bhinochilus, and absence of Amblys- 
toma, It is allied to the Sonoran region, to which it is adjacent. 

As regards the relation which the Sonoran region as a whole 
bears to the Nearctic and Neotropical realms, some remarks may 
be in place here. It is a question with some naturalists to which 
of the two it should be referred , and some would exclude it from 
the Nearctic without fully determining its relations to the Neo- 
tropical realm. 

There can, however, be no doubt that it lacks all the peculiar 



^ American Naturalist, p. 485. 



34 



PR0CKEDIN08 OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1883. 



featares of the Neotropical realm, and if it lacks some of tbose 
of the Nearctic also, its types are mostly representative of the 
latter rather of the former. I content myself here with confirming 
this general principle by reference to the principal families and 
genera of coUl-blooded vertebrata. 



K. NearvticA, 

Halmonidn*. 
('yprinida». 
CatOHtomidie. 

Ilanida'. 
Scaphiopidii*. 

AmblyHtomidii' 



Sceloporiift. 
EumeccH. 



Basoaniuiu. 

TropidonotiiH. 

Kiitii'nia. 

Pityoplii**. 
DiadophiH. 

OphibohiM. 



R. SoDori&iui. 

Pisces. 
Salmonidee. 
Cyprinida». 
CatoHtomida*. 

Batrachia. 
Uanida*. 
8caphiopida\ 

Amblystomidff. 

Reptilia. 

Larertilia. 

Sceloporus. 
Eiimeces. 

Ophidin. 

BaHcnnium. 

Tropidonotus. 

Kiitn^nia. 

Pityophis. 

DiadophiH. 

C>phil)oliis. 



R. Neotroploftlla. 



Characinidae. 



Cystignathidffi. 



Liocephalus. 
Mabuia. 

Bothrops. 

Dryraobius. 

Ih»lirop8. 



Hhadiniea. 

Coniophanes, 

Krythrolampriis. 

IMiocereiis. 

Oxyrrhopus. 

SilK)n. 

Leptognathiisi. 

Boa. 

Xiphosomn. 

Stonostoma. 



Stonostonia. 

Tht*re an* a j;<hm1 many ^<»nera which are found in the Sonoran 
dintrict, which do n<»t occur in other parln of the Nearctic realm. 
Thene jfeiieni are frequently conflue«l to it, but when they are not. 



1883. J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



35 



they are to be looked for in the Mexican region of the Neotropical 
realm. I give a list of these genera, with a corresponding one 
of the Mexican region, to illustrate the extent of the similarity 
between the two regions. 



B. Sonoriaiuk 



PlagopterinsB. 



Pisces. 

Reptilia. 
Lacertilia, 



R. Mexioana. 



Heloderma. 

Crotaphytus. 

Uta. 

Uma. 

Callisaurus. 

Gyalopiiim. 
Phimothyra. 
Trimorphodon. 
Hypsiglena. 



Heloderma. 



Ophidia, 



Ficiraia. 
Phimothyra. 
Trimorphodon. 
Hypsiglena. 



It seems then that the Neotropical relationships of the Sonoran 
region are not great. In this consideration I have omitted the 
genera which are common to the Mexican region and the Nearctic 
realm in general. Such are Banidae, Cnemidophorus, Sceloporus^ 
Bascanium^ Tropidonotus^ Eutsenia^ Fityophis, Spilotes, Ophiholiis 
and Flaps, These forms serve to indicate the affinity between 
the Nearctic realm and the Mexican region. The line between 
the two is, however, not yet exactly drawn. The former extends 
on the west coast at least as far south as Gua3'mas, and on the 
plateau as far as Guanajuato. On the east coast the Neotropical 
fauna reaches near to the Rio Grande. See On the Zoological 
Position of Texas, by the writer,in Bulletin U. S. National Museum, 
No. 20, August, 1880; and Eleventh Contribution to the Her- 
petology of Tropical America, by E. D. Cope, Proceedings Amer. 
Philosoph. Society, 18T9, p. 26T. 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP (]188:t 



January 23. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-six persons present. 

Ovipositing of Argynnis cybele. — Mr. H. Skinneb remarked 
that he had noticed a female of Argynnis cybele acting as though 
it were ovipositing, and seeing that it behaveil in a pecaliar 
manner, he was led to watch its procee<lings carefully. Instead of 
attaching or cementing its eggs to the plant on which the young 
or larvfc are destined to feed, which is the usual habit of batterflieA 
and moths, it hovered al)out a foot in height over a bed of violets, 
and at intervals would remain stationary and drop an egg from 
this distance to the food plant below. This seemed a remarkable 
procedure, inasmuch as it differed from the method which haA 
been found to be so constant in this order. It remains to be seen 
whether this species always drops it eggs from a height, or only 
l)ehaves in the peculiar manner occasionally while ovipositing. 
Also whether the other species of the genus Argynnis lay their 
eggs in a like manner. He thought it quite likely that A, myrina 
and A. Mlona do so occasionally, as they differ from the other 
butterflies in the readiness with which they lay their eggs. He 
had known them to oviposit in chip boxes or. other receptacles in 
which they were confined. lie knew of no other species which 
behave thus. It had been stated that the species of the genut 
feed only on violets, which was probably not the case. 

The following, received through the Botanical Section, 
onlere<l to be printed : — 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PUILADELPUTA. 37 



ON QUEBCUS DUBANDII Buckley. 
BY CHARLES MOHR. 

The rediscovery of this fine tree in Alabama adds now definitely 
another one to the number of oaks known to inhabit the forests 
east of the Mississippi River. First discovered by Prof Buckley 
in 1841 in Wilcox County, Alabama, it was described from spec- 
imens collected near Austin, Texas, twent}'^ years afterwards. I 
had occasion to study the tree in several localities in its western 
home during my investigations of the forest growth of south- 
western Texas, in December, 1880; subsequently I directed my 
attention to its rediscovery in the eastern Gulf region, and par- 
ticularly in Alabama. After a fruitless search through three 
seasons, I was finally rewarded at the close of the one just passed, 
in finding this oak in the woods covering the limestone ridges 
]>ordering the Little Cahabe River in Bibb County, Alabama. 

The largest of the trees observed measured 2 feet in diameter 
by an estimated height of about 70 feet. The trunk divides at a 
height from 30 to 35 feet above the ground ; the heavy primary 
limbs are erect, tall, and the head of the tree is of an oblong 
shape ; it resembles in the habit of growth greatly the white oak ; 
the bark is close, more so than in the Texan tree, where it is found 
inclined to be somewhat flaky, of a bright, almost pure white 
color, by which it is at once distinguished from the latter. There 
is scarcely a tree which shows greater variation in the size and 
shape of its leaves, which were at the date of its rediscovery, 11th 
November, for the greatest part shed. Only on some late, vig- 
orous shoots, was the foliage yet fresh and green found to persist. 
The leaves are short petioled, from 2 to 3| inches in length, and 
from i to 2^ inches at their greatest width, always attenuated at 
the base. They are either roundish, ovate or obovate towards 
the apex, largely dilated, irregularly and obtusely, more or less 
deeph' three-lobed, or narrowed to lanceolate with shallow, distant 
lobes, a mere wavy or entire margin. Of a firm texture, the leaves 
are pubescent along the veins beneath when older, with a fine, 
close, pale tomentum. 

The fruit is of annual maturation and (at least during this 
season) produced in abundance, short peduncled to sessile, single, 
in pairs or in clusters of three and four; small, from three-eighths 



40 PROCEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [IdSI. 

On a supposed Human Implement from the O ravel at Fhila- 
delphia. — Professor H. Carvill Lewis stated that through tii« 
kindness of Mr. John Sartatn^ the well-known engraver of tbu 
citj'.a supposed stone implement had come into bis hands, which. 
from the circumstances in which it was found, becomes of grest 
interest. In digging a pit l)elow the cellar of the bouse No. li^ 
Sansom Street, Philadelphia, after passing through regularlj 
stratified layers of gravel and sand, a loose, clean '* water grarel" 
was reached at a depth of 24 feet from the surface of the street 
The grade of the street is here about 35 feet alK)ve the mean lerel 
of the I)elaw;ire River, and the depth of the drift deposits, as 
shown by an artesian-well boring at the Continental Hotel, a few 
hundred feet distant, is 45 feet, gneiss rogk being reached at that 
depth. The drift deposits consist of the usual alternations of 
sand and gravel with occasional streaks of clay, the whole hein? 
horizontallv stratified. 

The sj>ecimen was found at a depth of 24 feet in a loose gravel. 
where water flowed freelv, and lay l)eneath a scries of horizontallv 
stratified layers of gravel and day, which were entirely undi*^ 
turlHKl, and were as originally deposited. Mr. Sartain saw the 
specimen taken out and testifies as to the accuracy of the above 
statement. 

The supposed implement is an oblong rectangle in shape, 1^ 
inches in length, nearly 4 inches in width, and in thickness varying 
from i inch at the edge to li inches at the centre. It is gronnd 
to a smooth cutting-iHlgeat the two extremities. It is rectangular 
in section, the si<les forming right-angles with the faces. The 
sides art* parallel with each other, hut the faces are undulating 
surfaces, on one of which is a prominent longitudinal ridge, an 
inch and a half in width. 

Kacli end of the implement appears to have been smoothly 
ground to form a scpiare, even cuttinij-iMlge, an equal amount 
of grinding having Ikmmi done on either side. Both extremities 
are ^«imilar. The implement is as unusual in shape as it is in sixt*. 
It is <louble th(> lenuth of ordinary celts, and was possibly a 
lapstone of some kind. 

The late Professor Haldem.Mn, who examined the spei*lmt*n. 
expressed great interest in it. and pronounce<l it unclouhtedly of 
human workmanship.' 



part of tli« 



iini'It'inctit liu.H Imm-ii artitirially |>4Mk(M), iiiid tlif etuiK liuvv tH»eii i^nmiHi 
<lov\ii )»y alu.iHion, ;ih may cli>tiiH-tly )>r seen. Thi' eliaiaeter and Uii« of the 
ini}>l«-ni('tit aie not iii(li< at(*i| liy iu>ha}*i'. but theix- is no doubt at all 
\\h artiliiial %\(»rkmanhhii>.** 



a» to 



\' 



42 • PROCEKDTNQS OF THE ACADEMY Of [1883. 

fresli-wator shells of Qnatornarv ape, a bone of Cants, and ft 
sp<»ciinen of lijrnite. lay at a depth of twenty feet in the g^nivel. 
an<l at an elevation of 50 feet above the river. Mr. FonI !«tate«» 
that '* the wall n^ferred to presented in every part a solid front. 
without tissure or crevice, everywhere hanl and im{>enetrAMe 
except by i)ick or crowbar, and yet twenty feet under the 8urfiice« 
within this strontj matrix deposited by watt»r thousands of y«irH 
ajjo, laid the eviclence of the presence of the man of the |»enod. ft 
stone axe artistically made, and doubtless used for the piir|K>«^ 
of buttle/* The implement thus found bv Mr. Ford is more fineh 
finished than that fnmi the Philadelphia gravel. It is inatle of 
hard syenite. 

The imi)lements said to occur in the auriferous gravels of Cali- 
fornia, described by Professor Whitney and others, and those 
from the hK?ss of the Missouri Valley in Nebraska, ditw;overe<l In 
Professor Aughey, are also of neolithic type, the (^aliforuia 
implements lH*ing as |»crle<'t as anything now ma<le. 

it nmy b<*, therefore, that in Aujeric^a rudeness «>f workinaiK 
shi|» is not necessarily associated with great anticpiity. 

()p|)ortunity i*< here tak«*n to refer to a recent pa|>er by Professor 
II W. Ha\nes,' entitled "Some indications of an earlv race of 
men in New Kngland,'' in which the author descriU's some rough 
fragments of granite and tpiartzite found in various lo<*aliti«>s in 
Massachusetts. Vermont, an<l New Hampshire, which he consitlen* 
to Ih' rude f(»rms of im)>lements, more )U'imitive than those «>f the 
l>ela\\:ire trravrl>, and which are thereftire to Ik* reganhMl as relii'^ 
of primival man. 

The-e obie<*t- are of various shaju'^i. sometimes |x>inted, some- 
times with sharp I'dges ;dl around, an<l frequently sharp on one 
side and inegnlar <»n the other. These latter were re^anl«Hl as 
im)»lements adapt^nl t*or lH>ing lu'ld in the hand for use in ohofw 
|»i!ii: or tutting. All these forms ;in» of ruder ty|K* and eoarntT 
fabrie than the implement^ of the Trenton trnivel. Thev wer** 
found at localitien where none of the ordinary traces of Indian 
tK'ciipation could U' diseovered. and the author infers from them 
the toiiner exist I'lice in New Kiiirland of a rac<' of men «litfert*nt 
from an<l h*^"^ advanced than the Indians. 

With charact<'risti<- courtesy. Prolessor lljiynes invited thr 
f;|N>:iker t<» mak<' a |K>r8onal examination of his full collec^tion of 
these interesting objfi't'^. 

A »an*rul »*tu<lN of i a<h Np*eimen coii\incr<l Professor l^»wift 
that iIm* angularitv of thrse nxk iVauuH-nts. while otten resemlilins; 
that of artitieial 1*01111^. Ik in rralitN due to natural causes rather 
thrtu to anv human \\«n kman-hip. (Mravage and frost -fracturv 
and wivithriini: plan*-* apprai to h:iv.' Iktu tin* sole agents in the 
production oftlit' greatrr |>art of thrst- i'(i>rm>. Tiwin most of the 
siMciuiru- examine'l. Prtd'esxM Le>\is was :iliU» to detect traces of 

» Pruc. ikwl. Soc. Nat. Hist., xxi, p. 3^2, Feb. 1, 1882. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 41 

Professor Lewis was not prepared to express such a positive 
opinion as to its artificial origin. The straight, parallel sides of 
the specimen, resemble tiie form of natural cleavap^e fragments of 
some sandstones and flagstones. Such cleavage fragments are 
frequently harder in the centre than along the edges, this being 
the result of a concretionary force, and if the specimen has been 
shaped by subsequent water action, the harder central portion 
would resist action and form the ridge already described. The 
regular bevelling at each extremity would, however, be a very 
unusual form to be produced by natural erosive forces. 

The implement, if such it be, would be the first that has been 
discovered in the Philadelphia gravel, and would become of great 
interest in its bearing upon the antiquity of man on the Delaware. 
The implements found by Dr. Abbott in the gravel at Trenton are 
of a much more rude type, being closely allied in shape with the 
palaeolithic implements of the river drift of several European 
localities. They are never ground down to an edge like the speci- 
men now described, but are rudely chipped. The Trenton imple- 
ments, moreover, are made from Triassic argillite, while this one 
is made from a compact yellowish-brown sandstone. 

As the speaker had endeavored to show in a former communi- 
cation,* the Trenton gravel is a post-glacial deposit made at the time 
of the final disappearance of glaciers from the headwaters of the 
Delaware, while the Philadelphia red gravel is somewhat older, 
having been formed during the glacial epoch at a time when this 
i*egion was depressed 150-180 feet lower than its present level. 
Both gravels are true river gravels. 

Prom the geographical position of the locality where the imple- 
ment was found, it is probable that it belongs to the older of the 
two gravels. As, however. Professor Lewis had not seen the gravel 
at this place, judgment was reserved upon this point. 

It would, indeed, be a curious fact if it were proved that an 
implement of neolithic type belonged to a gravel older than that 
which contained only palaeolithic implements. 

Should the specimen under consideration really belong to the 
gravel, and be proved to be artificial, it will carry back the antiquity 
of man to glacial times — an antiquity already assigned by numerous 
discoveries elsewhere. Unlike as this is to the pahvolithic imple- 
nients of Trenton, it is by no means the first neolithic implement 
reported from a river gravel. 

Mr. John Ford* has discovered a polished stone axe in the 
gravel forming the outer bluff of the Mississippi River, near 
AltoUt 111., which is of great interest. This axe, now in the 
archaeological collection of the Academy % was taken by Mr. Ford 
from a perpendicular face of gravel freshly cut and exposed by a 
road cutting ; and, accompanied by a number of fossil land and 



» Proc Aoad. Nat. Sc. (Min. and Geol. Section), Nov. 24, 1879. 
* Proc. Acad. Nat. 8c. Phila., 1877, p. 305. 
4 



44 PR0CEEDIN08 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1^83. 

18 of rare occurrence in any form of axes or hamnaers belongiof 
to our American Indians, except in the case of ceremonial wemponft. 
The length of the haft-hole in this mall is four and a half inches: 
but its width of one inch, which in the drilling from either end 
toward the centre, narrows to half an inch, does not Heem to be 
sufficient in comparison with its size to warrant the insertion of 
a handle ; for this reason the speaker was inclined to believe that 
it was in an untinishe<l condition. Malls have been found in thtr 
ancient c<i[)fM*r mines at Keeweenaw Point and Isle Royal in Lake 
Hu[M'rior without grpoves for hafting, and occasionally with double 
gHK/ves. There are malls in use at present among the Sioux 
IndiauH for breaking bones and [)ounding ])emmican, but the«e are 
lirmlv encased in raw hide, except that portion of the head used 
in striking. The occurrence of thi(9 kind of hafl-bole, excepting 
as b<'f<ire stated in the ceremonial weapons, is not oAen fveen, 
resembling in this respect some of the neolithic malls an<l hammert 
of the eantern continent. 



February 13. 
The President, 1>R. Lkidy, in the chair. 
Thirty -three persons present. 

The following pa|)ers were |)resentcd for publication : — 

**A new Tnio from Florida/' by Berlin II. Wright. 

'* Notes on the Binls of Westmoreland Co., Penna.." h\ Chas. 
II. Townsend. 

The Pu!»lieatioii Conmiittee rejiorted in fav(»r of publishinf^ thi* 
following papers in the Jonrn.nl of the Academy : — 

*' rriiat4*lla gracilis,*' by .los. Leidv, M. D. 

*' On the Kxlinet PeecMries of North America/' by Jos. I.#eidv, 
.M. 1>. 

"The Terrestrial Molhisca inhabitiiiir the Society Islandu,*' hy 
.Vndrew (iarrett. 

i'hnmi*' (ff (jidnr in n K'itf/*/ift. — Prot'essor LkwI8 ri^conled a 
(iirioiiH instance of ino<1ifb*atioii in color in the case of a katvdiil. 
where the normal liirht gneii tint lia»l Ummi rejjlaced by a bViirht 
m*arlet. tin* conipleTneiitarv color. The ins<M't, which was found at 
point IMi'asant, N..I., ditlers in no way lV(»ni tin* <*ommon katydid, 
('t/rtnf»hi/lhiin tnnrtirn m :>:\\\ exrept in the nnn<>nal color. 

Un thr /!f*i>rnjtnfi^'ii ami /'a msift's nf\\ftO(innffi fluviatiit'^, 

Prof. LkiI'V tlirerted attention t«» a ba-^ki'tfiil of living frenli-water 

nni'^Rels, Am>iltmtti tlnrintilis. Hliicll were obtained for lllUl throUffb 

the kindness of Kev. .lesM* Y. Burke, and are now placetl at the 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 43 

the original cleavage or weathering planes parallel to certain sides 
of the fragment, which clearly indicated their mode of formation. 
Similar fragments occur in almost every portion of the country, 
their shape varying with the material of which they are formed. 
Professor Haynes himself states in the paper referred to", 
" Wherever it has been in my power to make the long and labor- 
ious search that is required, I have succeeded in finding them," 
etc. It is readil}'^ understood how a skilled archaeologist, accus- 
tomed to find a use for every rude implement, would naturally 
find design also in the close imitations made by Nature. 

Among these objects of natural origin there were also a very 
few which bore traces of human handiwork, some of these being 
apparently " skin-scrapers.'' These latter often occur with the most 
highly finished Indian arrow-heads, and offer, therefore, no evi- 
dence of high antiquity. The cases where the same Indian tribe 
has manufactured implements of the finest workmanship at the 
same time with those of rudest make, each being intended for 
different uses, are so numerous as to need only to be mentioned.^ 

Returning finally to the supposed implement from the Phila- 
delphia gravel, now brought before the attention of the Academy, 
Professor Lewis stated that he did not desire to urge any one 
interpretation of it, but merely to offer some particulars which 
might not otherwise see the light, and to show their meaning if 
verified hereafTber. Whatever value might be attached to the cir- 
cumstances of the discovery of this specimen or to its apparent 
artificial origin, it would at least serve to stimulate a further 
search for evidences of man in the gravels underlying the city. 

An implement found in a thickly populated district, more 
especially as it occurred in a shifting water gravel, would always 
be open to suspicion, and at all events a single specimen is not 
sufficient upon which to base the broad conclusions which would 
otherwise be warranted. 

Note on a Drilled Mall in the Haldeman Collection of 
Antiquities, — Mr. H. T. Cresson called attejjtion to a large drilled 
mall or hammer-head of stone, from the Haldeman collection of 
antiquities. It was found at Peach Bottom, Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1866, and weighs eight and three-quarter pounds. 
Most pre-historic hammer-heads or stone malls, consist of oval 
pebbles, small boulders of quartzite, granite, or other hard mate- 
rials, which show modification by the hand of man, and have 
generally undergone more or less of pecking and polishing to bring 
them into a required shape. The mall exhibited did not possess 
any groove, but had a drilled hole for the insertion of a haft, which 



* At a meeting of the Academy held a week ago, Mr. Aubrey H. 8mith 
presented two Indian implements picked up by himself on the shores of 
the Loyalsock Cieek, Lycoming Co., Pa., where they lay side by side. One 
was a rudely chipped implement like those of the Trenton gravel, while 
the other was a delicately formed arrow-point. 



46 PBOCECDINGS OF THV ACADKMT OF f 1883. 

dumb-bell eye>sp4>ts. Limbs gray, translucent, with the chitiooos 
investment bluish black, hirsute, ending in pairs of double fklcate 
ungues. Terminal joint of the palps ending in three miaote 
uncinate denticles. Anal plates of the females usuallj with iiboiit 
18 to 22 acetabula to each. Length of body r375 to 1*7^ mm.. 
breadth 11 25 to 1*5 mm. Inhabits the branchia* and mantle of 
Anodonta ^mnatiiis. 

The C4)lors de|>end mainly on the contents shining throu|^ the 
transpart^nt 4-hitinous investment, which under reflectfKl light 
exhibit'^ a bluish-Mack tint. Commonly the black color is intense : 
and in alci>holic s|ieiMmens the whole lio«ly is black. In neveral 
individuals the black |>assetl into a chocolate hue. I^r. Ronz 
describes the Kunipt^an mitt* as black, with the median dortal 
mark pale yellow ; Pfeiffer as re<i-brown with a citron-yellow 
mark, ami BencNlen savs it shows a Y in white, from which it wa« 
named. 

Th«' numlter of acetabula to the anal plates is variable : in oiW' 
mite he found 2:i to each plate, in a stH'ond 22 to each« in a third 
22 to one and IT io the other, and in a fourth \H to one and 17 to 
the other. CI:ii>artHle irives fn>m 15 tn 2U as the numlier to each 
plate in the Huro|iean mite. 

The variations of our mite, fn>m the characters given of the 
Kuro|K'an mite, an* sue li as 4MH.Mir anions; individuals of either, and 
he therefore saw notliiu&; distinirui^^hini; ours asaditferent speciesL 
Chipjin^ili* tlrncrilte^ anothfr mite whieh infe-ts the Curo|ieaii 
TnioN. whirh h«Mlistinirui^hes iin«b'r th»* name of Atax ffonzi. Tbt 
sp<'ak«'r had aUo obscrvi^l a dirferi'nt mit«*. infesting the commoo 
mu*»s»*l, rmti rtnnfdnnittus^ttf iUv Pelawan* Ui\er; of this mite bi» 
«'xliiliittHl a dr:iv«in«; mailt* in No\eiii)>er. l'«5l. He suspect «n1 it 
to U» the Atnj' li**n:t ; luit tli** •jii«-sti»in «-au only lie more p«»sitiveU 
an^wvivtl after th«' rxriniination ot'r«'rt:iin details, which he ho|ie«1 
*MMkii t<» li:iv«' the «»p|>«»rtiiint\ of uiakin«£. 

ir«»nr twu |«:irHsiiii- mites an- i>l*>nti<*al with th«»s4» of KiiriMtean 
nm*»>«*N. it not i»nly uiak«'^ it apiwar pnditible that th«fv are of 
«*«itiiiiii»(i origin, hut rrn<liT^ it tht- iiiore pr«>liahlt- that this i» like- 
WIT the r:iM' with tluir h»»«»t'». t\»'n it* tln*-^ are not r^*inirti«*<l of 
the *»ainr s|MM-ii"». 

Troft-HHor Lr.ii*^ :k\^** »'\liifiit«*'l a eolhi'tion of lat.>«I%*4i<*«. 
IVili,„his *'• stnn* *>'» . t*n»iii Jew-. i»t" 0«li-s>:i. Ivus*«ia. preAente«| h\ 
IV. A. <f. StnittoN. The\ i:u»::f in *i/.»- iVoin l*2.'» to ri-875 mm. in 
l*'ti::tti. aii'i ap(>*ar in ii<* rf^{.»ft t'* •l.tft-r tVi»m those f«>und oo 
nati\*"4 ••!' onr <»wii ii»iii»Tr\ . 

'/7i» /. »• ..r* '},. tt'.nt.ii I'' r,--^f.-~VTy.»ft'^^**r llBiLpaiM. referrini: 
t«» the ^Jil.jn't ••!" jl.n .;i' -t:. ^ta't-l th.Mt in lii** opinion the va.*s 
^ln I't •»!' it»* wli;«!i !- j» !t» mM\ -i;j.|i-i<, .1 !•» have ei»veret| 4luria£ 
tin- i:n':i* i- ♦• aj«* :i •'.•h^i'l«raM» |H«rii"ii ••I tiie northern reffion^i^ 
th«' Kur- (M-aii aii>l North Ameriean t-itntint-ht*>, <-ouhl not ha%-e **^* 
It-* oriL'iij.a- i- ntaiiitain*'d by iii«>st ge«»lo:^i^i^. in a p«>lar '• ice^<mm*' 



1883.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 45 

disposal of members who wish to have them. They are fine robust 
specimens, the larger ones measuring 6 inches in length by 3 inches 
in height and almost 2^ inches in thickness. They were obtained 
from a little pond occupying an old marl pit, near Clarksboro, 
Gloucester Co., N. J. 

These mussels appear to be exceedingly prolific. The pregnant 
females have the branchial uteri, as they have been appropriately 
named by Dr. Isaac Lea, enormously distended with perfected 
embryos. These appear with a cinnamon-brown shell, having a 
conspicuous spinous tooth or hook to each valve, and are furnished 
with long byssal threads. Wishing to ascertain the proportionate 
amount of embryos, the following plan was adopted : — In an indi- 
vidual 6 inches long the soft parts were weighed and found to be 
135*44 grammes. The branchial uteri weighed 64 grammes and 
the inner gills 7 '34 grammes. Supposing the latter to be of the 
same weight as the outer gills, free from embryos, this weight 
subtracted would leave 56*66 grammes as that of the embryos, and 
78*78 grammes as the weight of the rest of the animal. In another 
specimen in which the weight of the soft parts was 113*75 grammes, 
the branchial uteri weighed 45*5 grammes, and the inner gills 5*2 
grammes. Subtracting the weight of these would leave. 40*3 
grammes as the weight of the embryos, and 73*45 grammes for the 
rest of the animal. In another specimen by weight, and counting, 
the embryos in a milligramme were estimated to be 1,280,000. 

The mussels are infested with many water mites creeping about 
among the gills. The young of the same, in various stages, were 
observed imbedded in the mantle. The mite appears to be iden- 
tical with the species Atax ypsilophorus, which is a parasite of the 
common mussel, Anodonta cygnea, of Europe. It was discovered 
and described just 100 years ago, under the name Acarus ypsilo- 
pharus^ by Dr. Christophori Gottlieb Bonz (Nova Acta Phys. Med. 
Acad. C. L, C. Nat. Cur., Nuremberg, 1783, 52, Tab. I, figs. 1-4). 
It is described and figured by Pfeiffer, with the name of Limno- 
chares Anodontse (Naturg. deutscher land und siiss-wasser Mol- 
lusken, 1821, Taf. I, fig. 12); by Dr. Karl Ernst v. Baer, under 
the name of Hydrachne concharum (Nova Acta, Bonn, 1826, 590, 
Taf. XXIX, fig. 19) ; by P. J. van Beneden (Mem. de TAcad. R. 
des Sciences de Belgique, XXIV, 1850), and by Ed. Claparede 
(Zeits. f. wiss. Zoologie, 1868, 445). 

Dr. Bonz's description, referring chiefly to the form, color and 
marking of the mite, applies to ours ; and further he thought the 
description of the details, of Claparede, applies sufliciently well 
to the same. 

The characters of our mite are briefly as follows : — 

Body ovoid, black, with a sulphur-yellow median line, often 
more or less interrupted, forked in front, and ending in an angular 
spot behind. The yellow marking divides the black into a pair 
of lateral reniform spots and an anterior irregular lozenge spot. 
Sides brown, from the eggs shining through. Head gray, with 



48 PRO0£CDINO8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

ment of the ice. The thickness of the glacier increased northward, 
the rate of increase diminishing as its source is approached. This 
latter point has not heretofore ))een appreciated, although observed 
some time ago by I>r. Hayes in the ease of the Qreenland glacier. 

Recent observations by the speaker in Pennsylvania had shown 
the glacier to )>e 800 feet thick at a point five miles north of its 
extreme southern edge, and 2000 feet thick at a point eight miles 
from its e<lge, while it was only about 3100 feet thick one hiindre«1 
miles farther northeast, and about 5000 feet thick three hundred 
miles back from its edge. The amount of erosion caused by it upon 
rock surfaoi'H was in some degree a measure of its thickness, being 
far greater in Canada, even upon the hanl Laurentisn granites of 
that region, than in Pennsylvania, where even soft and friable 
rocks were but slightly enKled. 

The present tliioknesH of the gla(*ier in central (ilreenland was 
considered, and the magnitude of certain icebergs detach«»d from 
it was given. A friend (»f the speaker had, within a few months, 
seen a floating icclHTg near the coast of Newfoundland, which 
stoo<l 800 feet al)ove the water bv measurement, and may have 
l)een therefore nearly a mile in depth. Dr. Hayes saw an ic'cherg 
aground in water nearly half a mile deep. 

That the gn»at glacier flowed up steep inclines was abundantly 
proven ]»y n»<M*nt observations of the s|>eaker in Pennsylvania. He 
insUinccfl the stria* covering the north flank of the Kittatinny 
Mountain, and a boulder of limestone )>erched on the summit 
whici), witiiin a distan(*e (»r three miles, had Imm^u carried up 800 
feet viTticallv. 

Keterring to a paper recently published by Mr. W. J. McCvee, 
who foimd ditllculties similar to those of Professor Heilprin in 
tlh* aNNiunption of a |M»lar ice-<*ap of great thickness, and who 
imajrined the glai'ier to increase by additions to its outer rim, the 
H{)eak4*r held that the single fact of the transportation by the glat'ier 
of far-traveled lM)ulders to its t4*rniinal moraine, was a fatal objec- 
tion t^> any such livpothesis. 

Nor di«l he iH'liev** that the hypothesis adopted by Professor 
Ihma and others, of a great elevation of land in the North, was a 
probable one The facts now in the |M)Ssession of geologistn do 
not indicate Huv.h a great and hM'al upheaval as refpiinnl by that 
hy|H)thesis. 

.Vn explanation, therefore, must >till Im» sought for the southwanl 
flow of a continuous iei*-sheet - a flow in some r4'gions ni>-htll. The 
action of irravity was certainly not sntlicient. Kven in the c^ase 
of the downward flow of the st<M*ply inclin«*<l Swiss glaciers, it had 
U'en shown that i:r:i\ ity was more than connterbalanceil by friction 
of the sides and bottom, and that tlu^se crlaciers movt^l by reanon 
of an inherent moving {Hiwcr of tin* moiecuU's of the ice. It was 
probable that •similar action <H*ciirred in tlu* great continental 
glacier. 

lie NnggeHl4'd, then'fore, a hy|H>tliesis which, while preserving 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 47 

since it may reasonably be doubted whether there could ever have 
been formed in the extreme North an accumulation of snow and 
ice of a magnitude sufficient to propel southward a glacier, with 
an estimated thickness of several thousands of feet, to a distance 
of hundreds of miles, and up mountain slopes to heights equaling 
five or six thousand feet. The magnitude (as to height) to wiiich 
such a snow accumulation may attain, will be dependent upon two 
conditions — (I), the quantity of aqueous (snow ) precipitation, and 
(2), the upper limit in the atmosphere reached by clouds. It is 
well known that clouds, as a rule, rise highest in the regions of 
highest temperature — the equatorial — where the vapor,absorption 
by the atmosphere is greatest, and where the planes of aqueous 
condensation are most distantly removed from the earth's suriace ; 
and, likewise, they rise higher in summer than in winter. The 
minimum rise will necessarily be in the extreme North (or South), 
and during the period of greatest cold, or winter. High (discharge) 
clouds are a rarity in the polar regions, and consequently precipi- 
tation will be mainly restricted to a comparatively low atmospheric 
zone. Above this zone, which will mark the upper limit of the 
" ice-cap,'' there can be but little snow accumulation. As a matter 
of fact, the officers of various Arctic expeditions have repeatedly 
noted that the high mountain-crests and elevations in the far North 
were frequently devoid of a snow covering, and that there was but 
very little precipitation, even over the low lands, during the winter, 
heavy precipitations setting in only with the spring months. The 
highest snow-clad elevation in the region of greatest cold (the West), 
in Greenland, appears to be Washington Land, with an estimated 
height of six thousand feet, which gives rise to the great Humboldt 
Glacier. Although this peak is completely buried under a mantle 
of snow (of undetermined thickness, however), it may yet safely 
be doubted whether snow of any great thickness (unless under a 
much warmer climate), could accumulate on a summit of much 
greater elevation. If not, this elevation, in the opinion of the 
speaker, was entirely inadequate to account for the southward 
propulsion of a glacier to the extent required by geologists. 

Professor Lewis remarked that notwithstanding the difficulties 
in a theoretical explanation, the fact of a great continuous glacier 
at the time of maximum glaciation seemed clearly indicated, at 
least in America, by the numerous observations recently made, 
^e described the extent of the glacier in America, as indicated 
by its terminal moraine, and stated that the close similarity of its 
phenomena at distant portions of its southern edge indicated a 
continuous ice-sheet. The continuous motion of its upper portion 
is shown by the uniform direction of glacial striae upon elevated 
points. Thus the S. W. direction of the striae upon the mountain 
tops of N. E. Penna.,was identical with that upon the Overlook 
Mountain of the Catskills, and of that upon the summits of the 
Laurentians of Canada. The striae at lower elevations conformed 
more or less to the valleys, and did not indicate the general move- 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMT OF [1883. 

during the summer and were repotted in tlie fall and replaced in 
a warm greenhouse. The hi-anohes commented on had jrrown 
since that time, and might be termed tlic^ second growth of the 
same season. When tlie plants were being potted, having more 
than were needed, one was thrown carelessly under the gr«H;nhou:se 
stage, where it shriveled considerably, but retained some vital 
power, enough in fact to s».nd down a few fibrous roots int»i the 
earth. It had shriveled so as to Ik' reduced to alxiut half its 
normal ^'eight. Its behavior under these conditions h:i(l not 
l)een observed till a few days since this date, when an i^xamination 
showe<l that the greater portion of the axillary buds ha<l cU* veloped 
into minute flowers, as in the case of the accessory buds under 
the normal condition. Some of these, judging by their dry remains. 
had grown to nearly one-fourth tlie usual size of the normal flowers, 
though most of them were much smaller. In these cases no 
lateral accessory buds ha<l lK»en produced. A pt»rfect flow€*r from 
a healthy pot-plant was exhibited, but not more than twcMhinN 
the size of those produce<l in the growth of the first imrt of thi- 
season when the plant was in the o|M*n air. Numl>er8 had Imh^h 
produced during the winter from tlie accessory buds at the liaaw* 
of the .secondary growths. One of these had l>orne a line .><»tH|. 
vessel, which was also exhiltited. No seed-vessels had foUowtil 
the numerous stronger flowers produceil by the plants in the open 
air during the sunnner. 

In commenting on these facts, Mr. Meehan pointed out their 
harmony with otli«*rs In^aring on the relation between nutrition 
and the various phases of the vegetative and n'productivt* ion 
ditions of vegetation. Mnrpliologitally eviTV dev«'lopin4»nt fruni 
the bud to the fVuit is primarily the >ame. We imagiiu* all tlu*s<* 
developments t«» be found«Mi on :i primary leaf or leav«\*<. .lu^^t 
when and how the various stages of development aro bnuii^lit 
alM»nt it is for physiology to determine. The student of fruit .*ind 
forest trees knows that a rapid-growing young tree does not fh>wt»r, 
and ot\4'n when it commenced to flow«'r, no fruit followiMl. li^ 
v«»gelativ4' vigor luul tt> 1)4* somewhat che<*ked Ix-fore the rt'prt^ 
<lurtive forc«*s iinluced flowers. The gardener brings alwiut ihi^ 
condition b\ root-pruning or ringint:. tliat is, taking ofl* a |M>rtion 
of th4' Iwirk of the vigonuis \rvv. Transplanting oft4Mi uiak«*!s a 
barren tnM* tVuitful. Wh:it would have Imm-u leaves, Im^couii' |M'taU 
and parts of truetifleation in tlu' traii^plantrd tree. Il«* had liim- 
si'lf pl»c4*<l on HMord many illustrations of this. The IVisint't.i 
and othfr rlinibini; plants niij^ht flow it. but rart'ly produce fruit 
when growiuij viirorouNly <»v«-r trrrs 4»r trellises, but as hooii a«» 
branche*^ w«*rf thrown off which couhl not attach tlu'niMdves to 
HUp|>orts, tln'M- lo-^t thfir vigor. an«l tlh* flow»*rs productMl st^^iK. 
Hut e\4*n whni ^rtds n'>nlted t*n>ni the floW4*rs of tlu' ll't>/<jri<i. 
tlH\\ wrri* rart'ly fn»m tin* uut^l vigorous :it tin* comnu'ueeiutMit 
«»f th«* ni«*«'m«*, but onl\ .afl4*r th«' W4'ak«'r flow4*rs luul lMH»n rfu<di«il 
\\\ a careful count, in many liumhvd castas li«* had found tliat in 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 49 

the unity of the glacier, as indicated by observed facts, neither 
assumed an unreasonable land elevation in polar regions, nor 
required a thickness of ice so great as to be open to the objections 
of the last speaker. 

He suggested that the ice-cap flowed south simply because it 
flowed toward a source of heat. Such flow does not depend upon 
gravity, but would occur in a nearly flat field of ice, and he thought 
that the ice need not to have been more than a few times its 
present thickness in Greenland to account for all existing phe- 
nomena upon the hypothesis now suggested. 

Professor Heilprin maintained that we were unacquainted with 
any laws of glacial action which would account for the indis- 
criminate progression of an ice-sheet toward a source of heat. 
The molecular-expansion theory as applied to the glacial phe- 
nomena of the Alps, took no cognizance of the position of the hea't 
power, but merely of that of least resistance (the direction of 
slope). As to the magnitude of icebergs, the height above water 
gave no positive indication as to the development (in depth) 
beneath the surface, since this would largelj^ depend upon the 
form assumed by the berg. As a matter of fact, however, the 
highest bergs observed by Hayes and Nares in the northern 
regions, rose only about 300 ft. out of the water, a height some- 
what exceeding the highest Antarctic bergs encountered by the 
"Challenger." We had, therefore, no indications of any extra- 
ordinary development of ice in Greenland. 

Chalcedony containing Liquid, — Professor H. Carvill Lewis 
called attention to a geode of chalcedony from the Salto River, 
Uraguay, presented by Mr. S. R Colbroun, of the United States 
Navy. The specimen contained an unusual quantity of liquid — 
from two to three drachms ; it was derived from an extensive 
^saltic formation of amygdaloid and black melaphyr, and was 
coated with a substance resembling asbestos. He described the 
niethod of formation of such hollow masses of mammillary chalce- 
dony as being endogenous and referred to an interesting paper 
recently published by I. Anson and Parkhurst upon the artificial 
Manufacture of chalcedony. 

On the Flowering of the Stapelia. — At the meeting of the 
Botanical Section, February 12th, Mr. Thomas Meehan exhibited 
specimens of Stapelia bufonia in various stages of growth, inflor- 
escence and fruit, and pointed out that though there were axillary 
huds of more or less prominence at the base of what we had to 
^^11 leaves, yet the flowers rarely proceeded from these, but from 
lateral accessory buds. When the axillary buds developed, they 
PJ'oduced branches and not flowers. The lateral accessory buds 
usually developed into minute abortive flowers, with a membranous 
scale or bract in the place of the primary leaf. These observations 
Were made on plants which had been planted in the open ground 



62 PROCSSDTNGS O? THE ACADEBfT OF [1888. 



01 A VKW KXTIVCT OEIHTS OF 8IB1VIA, FBOM SOUTH CAMOUMA. 

BY E. D. rOPE. 

Mr. Qabricl Manigault,the accomplished dircH^torof the Miifveum 
of the Univernity of South Carolina, at CharleRton, lias placed id 
my handn for determinati(m an interesting fosftil of that rt*gion. 
It is the greater part of the right premaxillary l>one of a large 
Hirenian mammal, containing the large incisor tooth or tusk char- 
acteristic of the genus Halitherium, It, however, exhibits the 
peculiarity of ix>ssessing, exterior to this tusk, a second large 
tooth, which is probably also an incisor. This character distin- 
guishes the form gcnericrally from other meml)ers of the onler. 
In ProratttomuH Owen, there are an inferior incisor and a canine 
not of sirenian type, but prolmbly no suiH?rior incisors, or if 
present, they are minute and conic. I propose that the geniin he 
named Dioplotherium. The only form with which it is necessary 
to compare it is Heminnthuhni Cope,* the number of whost* incisior 
teetli is unknown. The one from which the genus is known, han 
a dense 4*xternal sheath of cementum, which is wanting from th*- 
present genus. 

Thf color of the s|H»ciinen iiulicates that it belongs to th«* blue- 
gray marl of th<' Carolinian (ll(*ilprin) mioceiu* of our Atlantit* 
region. It has, however, iK'cn exposed to the action of the water 
of a later sea, as it curries the bases (»f several lialani. 

The premaxillary bon«» dilfers from that of the Halitherium 
minor Cuv. ( //. srrrfsi (ierv.) and //. rajHframfi Lart., in the 
much sh<»rter symphysis. The nareal lM>rder is also Hhorter, 
judging from the position of the maxillary suture, which is 
further ant«*rior tiian in the species luimtMl. The nareal bonier is 
rouiKh'd and thickened, so as to overhang its latend f:jc<» at the 
nuixillary suture. The alviMilus of the second incisor is large, and 
is in close proximity to that of the tir^t. Its posterior wall i» 
lost. Its fundus reaclM's to the niaxiliopreinaxillary suture, but 
as its anterior wall is «*ntirely premaxillary, the tooth is prol>ablv 
an incisor, and not a eanine. 

The anterior inci«*or is a tusk of t!att«'hed form, with a Hli^hl. 
ta{K'r from ba*«e t<» ap4'X, and a narrow diahiond-sha|>ed M4>ction. 

• Pruce«HliiigH Amcr. Philos. 8<>c., 184(1), p. 190. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 51 

racemes of the Wistaria which had produced seed-vessels, some 
forty or fifty flowers, on the average, faded before one produced 
seed. 

These observations on Stapelia were of a similar character. 
The axillary buds, in the normal condition of the plant, resulted 
in branches only, the flowers proceeding only from the weaker 
lateral accessory ones. But when the vegetative powers of the 
plant are weakened, the axillary buds become flowering ones. 
The rarity with which seed-vessels are produced by the Stapelia 
under cultivation, he thought, might possibly be traced to some 
cause relating to nutrition, rather than to matters connected with 
pollination. 

The observations were made solely on these winter-growing 
plants, as illustrated by the specimens exhibited ; how far they 
might be paralleled by open air growth during the summer, the 
speaker could not say. 

The following paper was ordered to be printed : — 



54 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

specimen was found in or on the Wando River, northeast of the 
city of Charleston. 

This genus furnishen a first step in tracing backwards the phy- 
logeny of the Sirefiia, These animals doubtless present the same 
phenomenon as that witnessed in the series of the Khinoceroses, 
Ruminants, and some others, viz., a gradual reduction in number, 
and final extinction of the superior incisor teeth. In Rhytina 
the extinction is complete ; in lialicore one remains. Diopio- 
therium with two, forms the passage to the primitive types, not 
yet known, which possessed three. They are considerably 
si>ecialized in the present genus, and a reduction of size is to be 
looked for in the first ancestral genera of the Sircnia. 

From the proi)ortion8 of the parts preserved, the LHoploiherium 
manigauUi was rather larger than a dugong. 

A |K>rtion of a Sin^nian |)elvis said to have been procured from 
the same locality, Wando River, was given me by Mr. Jacob 
Geismar. It resembles considerably that of HalUherium. A 
|M>rtion of tlie ischium an<] i)e]vis is l>roken away, so that it i» 
not easy to determine posit ivel3' whether there is an obturator 
foramen or not. Their bases are, however, united for a considerable 
distance In^yond the ucetabulum, and form a wide plate. The 
ilium is a stout rod, expanding a little towards the crest, whiirh is 
brok«'U away. The sacral articular surface is in two planes, one 
the inn«'r side, the other the posterior e<lge of the l)one, and are 
strongly imprcs»*e<l. The section of the shaft is subtriangular. 
The ucetabidum is small, has raised edges, an<l an irregular fa^tna 
litjmnenti t*ris notching its superior lM>rder. 

Mt'amirt'mrnfH, 

I A'Ugth from acetabulum to sacral face, exclusive, . '052 

Width acetabulum,. '027 

. ^ .,. I anteroposterior, -018 

Diameter shaft ilium, -s\ „ ^.^ 

(transverse, . '015 



1883.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



58 



Two end-sides of the diamond which present anteriorly, are shorter 
and more divergent than the posterior two. The latter encloses 
a wedge-shaped space, with an obtuse apex. Thus the posterior 
edge of the tooth is narrow and rounded. Of the anterior lateral 
angles the external is the more prominent. The tusk is gently 
curved outwards, and the posterior lateral face is also concave in 
anteroposterior section. The pulp cavity enters the crown for 
two-fifths of its length. The latter is composed of uniform dentine, 
and there are no traces of cementum or enamel. There are trans- 
verse bands of several delicate rugji? each, separated by considerable 
spaces. I count eleven from apex to base. The tooth is also 
obsoletely longitudinally striate, but cannot be called sulcate on 
the external face. On the internal face the longitudinal concave 
face is divided into a narrower and wider portion by a longitudinal 
ridge which marks the middle of the shaft. The triturating surface 
is narrow, and presents obliquely backwards. The proje<jtion of 
the crown beyond the alveolar border is not more than one-fourth 
the total length of the tooth. 

The second incisor tooth is lost. Its alveolus shows that its 
form was less compressed than that of the first. While its size is 
considerable, it is evidenth' less developed than the first. Its 
anterior border slightly overlaps the posterior narrow edge of the 
anterior tooth. 

Measurements, m. 

Vertical depth of premaxillary at septum between 

I. 1, and I. 2, . 
Length of ditto at middle of side, . 
Length of symphysis, 
Length of first incisor, . 

r anteroposterior, 

Diameters do. at base < ( anteriorlv 

{ transverse - , •^ ' 



( posteriorly. 

Diameters do. at 02 5 *°**''*'^'*'*'''!!.''' ^ori .' ' 
m. from apex, / transverse \ 3 ? • 

^ ( posteriorly, 

Projection of do. beyond alveolus (about), . 

Transverse diameter of alveolus of I. 2, anteriorly, 



•128 
•118 
•126 

•'ne 

•050 
•027 
•Oil 
•03T 
•020 
•OOT 
•053 
•025 



This species may bq called Dioplotherium manigaidti, in honor 
of Mr. Manigault, to whom the University of South Carolina 
owes the present admirable condition of its Museum. The typical 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AGABESCT OF [1883. 

the desired pieces were detached. It may, therefore, Ik? proliaMe 
from the fact, that the melting |K>int of copper isalK)Ut 1000 - C to 
1398°, tliere was sutficient heat generatcHi by fires, used in aljove- 
mentioned method, to smelt the small points of eop|>er attached 
to the larger masses, and that these people possessing the inteUi- 
gence and quick {xerception of the Indian nices, were letl to notice 
and utilize it in smelting copper and casting their work. The 
artistic forms and finish of their copper implements, whether cast 
or hammered, cannot fail to impress the olwerver that a race of 
men existed in the early history of our continent, whose orif^n i» 
envelope<] iii mystery, and whose skill rivals man of historic times^. 
assisted by all the inventi<ms of this mighty age of Iron. 

The Trit niter cular Tijih' nf SuiH^.rwr Molar Tftoth, — Prof. Cotz 
made some observations on the tritul)erculat4> type of siiiH^rior 
molar tooth among the maunnalia. He remarked that it ia now 
apimrent that the ty|M' of superior molar toothwhich pn*<lominate<l 
during the Puerco epoch was triangular; that is, with two oxtemaK 
and one internal tubercles. Thus of forty-one species of Mammalia 
of which the supi'rior molars are known, nil but four have three 
tul)ercles of the crown, though of these thirty-seven trian^lar 
ones, those of three species of PrriptifchnH have a small supple- 
mentary lol>e on each si<le of the meclian principal inner tubercle. 

This faet is im|>ortant ;is indicating the mode of development 
oC the various tyjH^s of su|K'rior molar teeth, on which we have 
not heretofore ii:i<l clear light. In tiic first place, this t3*|>e of 
molar cxi«<ts to-<lay oidy in the insectivorous and carnivorouii 
Marsupialia ; in the Insectivora, an<l the tuliercular molars of fiuch 
Caruivora as possess them (excepting the plantigrades). In the 
I'ngulates the only later forms of it in the Eocene are to be 
found in the iu(»lars of the ('nrijphiuhtntidfr of the Wasatch, and 
t)ii\iH'*rntn of tiie Hridger Kocenes. In later e|)<M*hs it is cliiefl\ 
seen only in the last su|H*rior molar. 

It is also eviflent that th<* (piadritulK'nMilar molar is derivetl 
from the tritulK'i'cular by the addition of a IoIh' of the inner pari 
of a eingidum of the |M»«iterior bast' of the <'rown. Tranaitional 
states are seen in some of tlu' /VTi/»/yc/*i<//» {AnimmchHn) antl in 
tln' sect<»rials of the I*nH'ffonitl» . 

77i»' Sjnnal f'hnnl of BatnirJiia and RtptiUa. — Dr. Harhisox 
Ai.LKN called attention to the charactiTs furnished by the spinal 
I'hord in the s\st4*niatic siudy of l»atrachians and reptiles. Id 
making a resume of the researches of Stieda Liideritz. 8. If. Gage 
and J.. I. Mason Ik* had formulated the following structural ftuitur^*!^ 
which may be added to tlios»» clianict4'rH already emplove<l hv 
Hyst«Muatists. In batra<'hi:ins. jm illustrated in Rnna^ .Vf^Mt*. 
jttimn and Sirm the coiin«*ctive is sr«»ii about tin* central canal 
to Im' of uiHi«>nal developiiH'iit. and in Sirfn to embrace the enttrv 
chonl in a conspicuous corti(*Ml layer. In addition to the^^ 
features, <-onnecti vet issue (*orpusch's are sparsely diatributed 



1883.] natural sciences op philadelphia. 55 

February 20. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Forty-nine persons present. 

The death of B. Howard Rand, M. D., a member, was announced. 

Notes on PrehUloric Copper Implements, — Mr. H. T. Cresson 
made some remarks upon a hammer of native copper found in the 
Bohemian Mine, at Greenland, Michigan, in 1866, by Mr. S. F. 
Peek, and now in the Academy's collection. It exhibits a distinct 
laminar surface, caused by hammering pieces of native copper 
together while in a cold state, a process in which our aborigines 
living in districts north of Mexico, seemed to have acquired great 
proficienc}'. This is shown by the numerous wedges, chisels, 
hammers, and other articles found in the ancient mining-pits at 
Keewenaw Point, Lake Superior, and at Isle Royal, together with 
axes, spear- and arrow-points, ornaments, etc., in Ohio, and 
throughout those sections of our country which at one time were 
inhabited by the mound-builders, a ra(;e of people whose remains 
indicate a state of advancement in the arts and manufactures 
superior to the savage nations who succeeded them. It is a very 
interesting fact, that recent discoveries have shown upon various 
forms of copper implements, deposited in their burial places by the 
mound-builders — markings similar to those left by moulds in the 
process of casting. It may, therefore, ]>e supposed that these 
people were acquainted with the art of smelting, besides that of 
.hammering copper. Professor Foster in his " Prehistoric Races 
of the United States,'' mentions the fact, that in a collection made 
by Mr. Perkins, he saw copper implements of mound origin, that 
l>ear well-defined traces of the mould. . . . ** It is impossible,'' 
he adds, " to infer after a careful examination of these specimens, 
that the ridges have been left in the process of hammering or 
oxidation." • . . *' The more I examine their arts and manu- 
factures the stronger becomes my conviction that they were 
something more than a race of barbarian people." From these 
observations of Professor Foster, a skilful and cautious observer, 
it would appear that two processes were used, not only of ham- 
mering, but that of smelting, which latter process was in all 
probability suggested by their supposed method of extracting the 
masses of copper from their pits— remains of which may still be 
seen in the Lake Superior copper regions before mentioned. Some 
of these pits have been explored by Colonel Whittlesey, an account 
of which was published in the " Smithsonian Contributions to 
Knowledge for 1863." They were found to contain, in all cases, 
among the debris, fragments of charcoal and ashes, with traces of 
fires against the sides thereof, indicating the use of heat in the 
process of extracting their ores, thereby aiding the wedges and 
copper chisels which were driven in by means of stone mauls until 



58 PROC££I)INU8 OF THE ACw\DEMY OF [181^ 



A VIW XnilO FROM FLORIDA. 
BY HBRLIN II. WRIUIIT. 

Vnif Cnaiiiiighavii. Plat* I, flgx. i-4. 

Shell ovate, ventricone and very inequilateral, smooth* inter 
ruptod by niiincroim irregular, undulating lines of growth, cmusing 
a 8caly np]x*arancc near the margins, and very highly polished 
above; sulmtance of shell very thick, constricted posteriorly, 
angular behind and truncated before ; ligament margin moderately 
arcuate and angular at the terminus (tip) ; posterior marfrin 
wedge-shaped and slightly acuminate ; ligamental area elon^ratelj 
cordiform and wide, nearly forming a plane in old individuals: 
uml>onal slope subangular from l)eak to margin ; anterior margin 
angular al>ove and somewhat abruptly rounded lieneath ; basal 
margin emarginate pOHtoriorly in the males and uniformly curved 
in the females ; epidermis usually dark chestnut or reddish brown, 
inters])ersed with marginal bands of light horn-color; occasionally 
the entire sliell is of uniform light horn-color, wrinkled and entirely 
destitute of rays ; greatest diameter near the middle of the nmlios ; 
lH.'akH erodetl and obtuse ; uml)0 broa<l and flattened ; nacre usually 
a delicate pink : occasionally white ; cardinal and lateral teeth l»oth 
single in the right and double in the loft valve, lateral tooth short, 
Mlightly and uniformly curved and separated from the cnrtlinal 
teeth by a space etpuil to one-half of their own length ; cavity of 
the shell and lN*ak lioth shallow ; dorsal cicatrices five and situate<l 
above the centre of the cavity of the l>eak ; distinct antert<»r and 
(*onfluent |M)sterior eirat rices ; ventral cicatrix usually present ami 
placed anterior to the centre of the cavity of the shell. 

/{nhitat. — Lakes of Suint4*r Countv, Florida. 

This U'autiful shell tn^lougs near r. liuckleiji Lea, from which 
it differs in lH»ing strictly niyless in all stages of its growth, ^i:reatcr 
dianieter.morean^nhir jint4'riorlyMl>oveand more abrupt l\'rounde«l 
lieneath, broader and tla'ter uiiilwisand more abrupt posterior sloiir. 
The «*ardinal teeth are much heavier :ind not as obli(|ue as in 
/.'. Ihirllrtfi. A large suite of the shells was ^ent to me by Mr. 
T. L. Cunningham, of Valaha, Sumti'r County, Floritla, in who?^ 
honor we nanu* it. 

Pl.4ti* 1, fi>:. I, f'ui'f i'nnniiiffhiimi, old iiiiih- ; *J, run-;;iuH-|| fcuiali- : 
:;, old iii;«le : 4. \hmiii;: m;ilf. 



1883.] NATURAL 8GIEN0SS OF PHILADELPHIA. 57 

through the chord when studied in transverse sections. The poste- 
rior columns are projected above the plane of the lateral columns 
and exhibit distinct differences in the arrangement of nerve-fibres. 
In lacertilians and crocodilians the commissures are perforated 
longitudinally by a pair of columns of nerve-fibres. In ophidians 
the posterior nerve-roots are seen to be rudimentary or absent and 
when present to tend to arise from the cervix cornu of the poste- 
rior horn of gray matter. In chelonians the motor-cells are few 
in number; the anterior median fissure is of great width, the com- 
missure of relatively great size, and the reticular fibres lying to the 
lateral aspect of the gray columns are unusually well developed. 



February 2T. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-seven persons present. 
Walter Rogers Fumess was elected a member. 

On Dinodipsas and Causus. — Prof. Cope drew attention to a 
recent important discovery made by Prof. Peters, of Berlin, of 
the new genus of venomous snakes, Binodipsas, He stated that 
he regarded the genus as pertaining to the Gausidse^ a. family he 
had proposed as a subfamily in his first paper read before the 
Academy in 1859. As the only genus heretofore known, Gaiisus^ 
is African, the statement of Peters that Dinodipsas is South 
American, adds an important fact to geographical zoology. Prof. 
Cope then corrected a statement made by Peters in his Herpetology 
of the Reise nach Mozambique (1882), that he (Prof. Cope) had 
referred Causus to the Vipers, In 1859 he had divided the 
venomous snakes with vertical and hinged maxillary bone, into 
the subdivisions of the rattlesnakes, the vipers, the Atractos- 
pidines and the Causines. He then designated the entire group 
Viperidae after Bonaparte, and had not until later used Dum^ril 
and Bibron's term Solenoglypha for that division. But this did 
not justify Peters in stating that he had referred the genus Causus 
to the Vipers, and that he, Peters, was the author of the separate 
family to receive that genus and Dinodipsas^ the " Vipernattem." 

He also corrected some other references to himself by Prof. 
Peters in the Reise nach Mozambique, In one of these, Peters 
bad supposed him to refer to a combination of the genera Brem- 
ceps and Chelydohatrachus by Peters, when he had really separated 
them. Prof. Cope said that his language referred to their union 
in the same family by Peters, which he did not approve. 

Prof. Peters also states that the peculiarities of the tong In 
the genus Hemisus, described by Steindachner and Prof. 0< 
are due to mutilation. Pr9f. Cope could not coincide with 
view, and regards the structures described as normal. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 
5 



60 paocEEDntos or thk academy or [18S3. 

TURDIDS. 

1. Tvrdmf ■igTAtorittt. Robio. 

A common and familiar bird. Stragglers are occasionmllT seen 
in winter. Breeds abundantly. 

2. Tvrdmf mtiuliamf. Wood Thrnfb. 

Common in dense woods. An excellent songster, bat not equal 
to the Brown Thrush. 

3. Tvrdmf fBMMMBt. WiUon't Thrutb. 

Xot very common. 

4. Tvrdmf ■■■ItMW Baaat. Hermit Tbrntb. 

An inhabitant of retired woods. 

&. Mimmf car>H— aiii. C*t-btnL 

An abundant summer resident ; breeds. 

6. Sarporhjaekmf mfat. Brown Tbrntb. 
Common ; nests in thickets and brush-heaps. 

8AXICOUDJB. 

7. tialU tiaUl. Bine-bird. 

Common summer resident ; nests freely in artificial bird-boxes 

near houses. 

8YLVIIDJB. 

8. Iftfvlmf ealtadala. Rubj crowned Kinglet. 

This and the next species are frequent in spring and fall. 

9. Btfalmf tatrapa. OoMencreited Kinglet. 

10. Folioptila eoral^a. Blue-gmv Onatcatcber. 

Have taken but one specimen. 

PABIDiE. 

11. Lophophaatt bieolor. Tuf ed Titmoupe. 

Common ; noticed oftener in winter than in summer. 

13. Famt atrieapillat. Black -capped Cbickadee. 

Associates with the last. 

SITTIDiE. 

l.'t. MtU earoUa^aiit. WbitebelliM Nut-hatrb. 

Resident, quite common. The Nut-hatches and smaller Wood- 
jK^ckers are indifferently known as " sap-suckers " in this rm^a 

14. Sitta eaarndtasil. Ke<lbellie<l Nut-batch. 

Seen occa^-^ioiially in spring. 

CERTHIDJE. 
\s. C^rtbia (amiliarii. Hn.wn rn-4'p<*r. 
A shv inhabiUint of the woo<U. 



-^.J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 5^ 



VOTES OH THE BIBDS OF WESTHORELARD COUNTY, PENNA. 

BY CHAS. H. TOWNSEND. 

Local lists have added so much to our knowledge of the range 
and distribution of birds, that the following notes are submitted 
as a^contribution to the general fund of information. The species 
enumerated represent perhaps not more than two-thirds of the 
actual bird fauna of Westmoreland County. Many more might 
probably be added, but 1 wish to restrict this list to those birds 
identified with certainty, and. have given only such as have come 
under my personal notice, not having enjoyed the advantage of 
<;omparing notes with a fellow-naturalist. 

No special effort was made to find new birds, and this catalogue, 
^nerelj' the result of observations jotted down from time to time 
in my notebook, is very incomplete. It is hoped that its present 
publication will call forth additional information, so that a supple- 
xnental paper may appear in the future. 

Not having been a constant resident of the county since com- 
xnencing to note the birds, I could not alwa^^s collect at the most 
Iruitful seasons, consequently a large number of migratory birds 
liave escaped notice. The district being wooded and hilly, there 
»re no very extensive marshes to harbor rail, snipe and other 
swamp-loving birds. I feel confident that the number of water- 
"birds in general will hereafter be largely increased. 

My rambles were mainly in the central portions of the county, 
along the Loyalhanna Creek, and in the vicinity of Latrobe, on 
the line of the Penna. R. R. The Chestnut Ridge, a range of the 
AUeghenies, extending through the S. E. part of Westmoreland, 
is covered with heavy forests, and furrowed by deep wild ravines. 
Many rare wood-birds doubtless lurk in these secluded spots, and 
remain to be discovered by any one diligent enough t<» make the 
search. 

I may add that I have seldom taken a tramp through the forests 
of Chestnut Ridge without seeing or shooting one or more birds 
new to the region. 

The species are arranged according to the second edition of 
Ir. Coues' Check List. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEBfT OF [188-1 

HIRUNDINIDJB. 

'V'i. Himndo erythrogattra horreomm. Barn Swallow. 

('ommon. 
'i4. PetreihelidoB lanlfiroBS. Cliff or Kave Swallow. 

Breeds abundantly. 

.'{A. SuUidopUrjx MrripeoBis. RouKh-wioged Swallow. 

Have a single s|>eciincn, which I shot near Youn^town. 
•^0. Progae snbii. Puq>le Martin. 

Very common ; breeds freely in bird-houses in the villages. 

AMPELIDJB. 

."•7. Ampt lis Otdrorum. Cciur Waxwlng: Cherry-bird. 

Quite common, especially when cherry-trees are in fruit. 

VIREONIDJB. 

.">H. Yireo olWaoaas. R(m1 eyed (JrecDlur. 
Common in orchards and groves. 

•'itt. Virao SOUtar as. Hluc-hoidc*! (Jrecnlet. 

Apparently migratory. 

LANIIDJE. 

40. Laaias boraalis. (ft. Noribcrn Shrike: Butcher-bird. 

Very rare ; I have seen it near Ijatrol)e. 

FRINQILLIDJE. 

41. Palter domeitioui. ll<Mif>o sparrow; Kuropean Sparrow. 

This irrepressible foreigner has established himself in oar town« 
and villages, to tin* total exclusion of native songsters. 

42. Carpodaoui purpareui. PurpU* Finch. 

Not common ; li:ive seen but few individuals, and those in 
spring. Probably only migratory here. 

4:.. Aitragaliaai triitii. Am. (iuldflnch : Th'Mtlc-binl. 

Summer resident ; abundant ; breeds. 
44. Pleoi rophaaai aWalli. Snow Hunting. 

One of my friends des<rilKMi to me a flock of hirds which be 
saw fl\ing alK)ut ttie fiehls during very severe weather in Jan.. 
IHSl. wliieh, from his de.scriptiou. must have l)een Snow BuntiofK 

46. PoocaUi gramiaeu*. (iran^ FIimH. 
Common : breeds. 

4A. MelOipiia palastri*. Swamp SpurroMr. 

Common. 

47. Haloipiia fisciata. S^n^' Sparrow. 
Common : breeds. 



1883.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 61 

TBOGLODYTIDJE. 

16. Troglodytes domesticiis. HooBe Wren. 

Apparently not common. A pair nested on a beam in our 
cellar, in 1880, and remained with their brood until the latter part 
of July. 

17. Anorthnra troglodytes hiemaUs. Winter Wren. 

Resident ; frequently seen in winter in ravines and thickets. 

18. Telmatodytei palustris. Long-billed Marsh Wren. 

Seldom seen ; inhabits reedy swamps. 

SYLVICOLIDiB. 

19. XniotUta Taria. Blaok-and-wbite Creeper. 

Occasionally seen in summer. 

20. DendroMS asstlTa. Summer Warbler. 

Common in spring and summer. 

21. Dendrosoa virens. Blaok-throated Green Warbler. 
Migratory. 

22. DendrcBca ocBmlesoens. Blaok-throated Blue Warbler. 
Migratory. 

23. Bendrosoa coronata. Tellow-rumped Warbler. 
Migratory; common, 

24. SendroBoa blaokbnmsB. Blackburn's Warbler. 

Coinmon during spring migrations. 

25. DendrcDca striata. Blaok-poII Warbler. 
Migratory. 

26. Dendrodoa oastanea. Bay-breasted Warbler. 

Saw several in the spring of 1881. 

27. Binrus aaricapilltis. Golden-orowned Tbrush. 

Rather common in damp woods ; remarkable for its oven-shaped 
nest on the ground. 

28. Sinnis motaoilla. Large-billed Water Thrusb. 

Have seen it twice in a rocky ravine in Chestnut Ridge. 

29. Oeothlypis triclias. Maryland Tellow-tbroat. 

Summer resident ; common in briar patches and dense thickets. 

30. Myiodiootes canadensis. Canadian Flyoatohing Warbler. 

Migratory ; taken but once. 

31. Setophaga mticiUa. RedstarL 

Not common. 

TANAGBIDiES. 

32. Pyranga mbra. Scarlet Tanager. 

Summer resident ; common. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

HIRUNDINIDiES. 

liii. Himndo erythrogastra horreomm. Barn Swallow. 
CommoD. 

34. Petroohelidon InnlfroBS. Glifif or Eave Swallow. 

Breeds abundantly. 

35. SuUidopteryx lerripeDiiii. Rough-winged Swallow. 

Have a single specimen, which I shot near Youngs town. 

36. Progne snbii. Purple Martin. 

Very common ; breeds freely in bird-houses in the villages. 

AMPELIDJE. 

37. Ampelis oedromm. Ce'ar Wax wing; Cherry-bird. 

Quite common, especially when cherry-trees are in fruit. 

VIREONIDJE. 

38. Yireo oliy*o«a8. Red-eyed Grcenlef. 

Common in orchards and groves. 

39. Yireo solitar ns. Blue-he tded Grecnlet. 

Apparently migratory. 

LANIIDJE. 

40. LaniuB borealis. Gt. Northern Shrike ; Butcher-bird. 

Very rare ; I have seen it near Latrobe. 

FRINQILLIDiE. 

41. Paster domeeticae. House Sparrow ; European Sparrow. 

This irrepressible foreigner has established himself in our towns 
and villages, to the total exclusion of native songsters. 

42. Carpodacae purpareue. Purple Finob. 

Not common ; have seen but few individuals, and those in 
spring. Probably only migratory here. 

43. AetragaUnae triitii. Am. Goldfinch; Thistle-bird. 

Summer resident ; abundant ; breeds. 

44. Plectxoplianei nivalii. Snow Bunting. 

One of my friends described to me a flock of birds which he 
saw flying about the fields during very severe weather in Jan., 
1881, which, from his description, must have been Snow Buntings. 

45. PocBoetee gramineu*. Grass Finch. 

Common; breeds. 

46. Meloepisapalaetrif. Swamp Sparrow. 

Common. 

47. Meloipisaffticiata. So og Sparrow. 

Common; breeds. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA 63 

48. JuBOO hiemalifl. Snow-bird. 

Common in winter. 

49. SpizelU montiooU. Tree Sparrow. 

Common in winter. 

50. SpiielU domeitioa. Chipping Sparrow ; Chippy. 

Summer resident ; very common, nesting in garden bushes. 

51. Spiiella agrestis Field Sparrow. ' 

Common in summer. 

52. ZonotriollU albiooUis. White-throated Sparrow. 

Not common. 

53. Zonotriohia lauoophrys. White-crowned Sparrow. 

Not common. 

54. PatiereUa ili%oa. Fox Sparrow. 

Rather rare ; occasionally seen late in autumn. 

55. Zamelodia ludovioiana. Rose-breasted Grosbeak. 

Uncommon ; have taken occasional specimens in midsummer in 
the forests of Chestnut Ridge. 

56. Patieriaa oyanea. Indigo-bird. 
Common summer resident. 

57. Cardinalis yirg^niana. Cardinal Grosbeak ,- Red-bird. 

Frequent both in summer and winter ; have seen numbers of 
them in Chestnut Ridge, where they probably breed, as I have seen 
quite young birds there. One which I crippled by a shot in the 
wing, lived in a cage for more than a year and became an accom- 
plished whistler. 

58. Pipilo erytliroplitlialmnB. Chewink ; Ground Robin. 

Common everywhere, in bushes and hedges. 

ICTEBIDJE. 

59. Dolichonyx orysiyoms. Bobolink. 

Summer resident ; gregarious in the fall migrations. 

60. Molothmi attr. Cow-bird. 

Very common in summer ; I have seen its eggs in nests of the 
Indigo-bird and Chipping Sparrow. 

61. AgelMUf phoBnioeuB. Red- winged Blackbird. 

Breeds plentifully. 

62. Stamella magna. Meadow Lark. 

Abundant ; breeds regularly, gregarious in the fall. Have seen 
stragglers in midwinter. 

63. lotarus tpuritui. Orchard Oriole. 

Not common. 



64 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

64. loterut galbula. Baltimore Oriole; Hang-nest. 

A familiar bird in summer. A pair nested regularly for several 
seasons in the same tree near our door. 

65. SooleoophaguB ferrugineaB. Rusty Oraokle. 
Common. 

66. QaisoaluB porpnreiit. Crow Blackbird. 

Common everywhere. 

COBVIDiE. 

67. Corvut oorax. Raveo. 

Old residents report a "crow'' of very large size, as once com- 
mon. It was doubtless the Raven. 

68. CorvuB frugivoniB. Common Crow. 

Breeds regularly. 

69. Cyanooilta oristata. Blue Jay. 

Resident throughout the year ; common. 

TYRANNIDiE. 

70. TyranniiB oarolintnBlB. King-bird : '' Bee-bird." 

Summer resident ; common ; much persecuted by bee-keepers, 
who imagine it is destructive to bees. 

71. Hyiarohns orinitus. Gt. Crested Flycatcher. 

Not as common as the last. 

72. Sayiornifl fuioa. Pewee. 

Very common ; has nested under the eaves of our porch fre- 
quently. 

73. CoBtopns virens. Wood Pewee. 

Quite common in woodlands. 

CAFRIMULGIDJE. 

74. AntrostomuB vooiferaB. Whip-poor-will. 

Common in summer; a bird often heard after nightfall, but 
seldom seen. 

75. Ghordediles popetue. Night-hawk. 

Very common in summer ; confounded with the last by many 
persons; but, unlike it, the Night-hawk soars high in the air ; both 
species nest on the ground. 

CYFSELIDiE. 

76. ChaBtura pelasgioa. Chimney Swift. 

Common ; have seen numbers of them circling about tall chim- 
neys, where they had nests. 



1883.] NATURAL SOnSNGES OF PHILABELPHIA. '65 

TBOCHILIDiE. 

77. Troohilus oolnbris. Raby-throated Humming-bird. 

Quite common ; I once found a nest containing eggs, near Beatty 
Station, P. R. R. 

ALCEDINIDJE. 

78. Geryle aloyon. Belted Kingfisber. 

Common ; breeds regularly ; have seen stragglers as late as 
Dec. 20, when all streams were frozen. 

CUCUUDJE. 

79. CoooygUB erythropbthalmuB. Blaok-billed Cuckoo. 

Common; breeds. 
so. CocoyguB amerioanus. Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

More common than the last; usually called Rain-bird by 

schoolboys. 

FICIDiE. 

^1. Hylotomut pileatnt. Pileated Woodpecker. 

Occasionally seen in heavy-timbered localities. 

^2. PionB villofiiB. Hairy Woodpecker. 

Resident; common. 

C3. Pious pnbetoeiiB. Downy Woodpecker. 

Resident ; quite common. 

^4. SpbyropioiiB variut. Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. 

Apparently not common. 

55. Centnnit oaroUnm. Red-bellied Woodpecker. 

Rather common. 

56. Melanerpes erythrooephalua. Red headed Woodpecker. 
Abundant. 

57. Colaptas auratna. Flicker; Golden-winged Woodpecker. 

Very common summer resident. 

STBIGIDiE. 

88. Bubo Tirg^niaBiii. Gt. Homed Owl. 

A common resident. 

89. Beopt atio. Soreecb Owl. 

Resident, very common. 

90. Strix nobuloaa. Barred Owl. 

Resident, common. 

91. Vyotaa aoandiaoa. Snowy Owl. 
Very rare. 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [188Su 

FALCONIDiES. 

92. Aooipiter fasons. Sharp-shinned Hawk ; Pigeon Hawk. 

Not as common as the next species. 

93. Aooipiter ooopori. Cooper'^ Hawk. 
Common ; have taken its nest. 

94. Faloo oparvorinf. Sparrow Hawk. 

Very common ; breeds. 

95. Buteo boroalii. Red-tailed RusKard ; Chicken Hawk. 

Common ; breeds. 

96. Buteo lineatnt. Red-shouldered Buzzard. 

Rather common. 

97. Arohibuteo lagopue lanoti-johannif . Am. Rough-legged Buzzard ; Black Hawk. 

Very rare. A specimen was shot near Latrobe, in the spring of 
1879, by Mr. Edgar Chambers. If I remember rightly, the bird 
was perfectly black. 

98. Pandi'>nhaliaeta8. Fish Hawk ; Ooprey. 

Rare ; I saw a specimen which was shot in the Loyalhanna 
Creek, near Latrobe, in 1879. Have seen specimens shot on the 
Allegheny River, at the N. W. boundary of Westmoreland Co. 

99. Haliaetui leuoooeplialiLB. Bald Eagle. 

Occasional specimens have been taken. Fragments of one are 

in my possession. 

CATHARTIDiE. 

100. Cathar et aura. Turkey Buzzard. 

Very rare ; formerly common, according to the statements of 
old residents. Have seen several in an adjoining county, 

COLUMBIDJE. 

101. Eotopittei migratoriuB. Wild Pigeon. 

Migratory ; appears in immense flocks in some seasons, 

102. Zenaidura oarolineniie. Carolina Dove; ''Turtle Dove." 

Breeds regularly ; abundant. 

MELEAGBIDiE. 

103. Heleagrie gallipavo amerioana. Wild Turkey. 

Resident ; no longer common ; a few are killed }n tl^e mountains 

every year. 

TETRAONIDJE. 

104. Bonata nmbella. Ruffled Gmuse; " Pheasant." 

A well-known game-bird ; resident, common. 

105. Ortyx virg^nianuB. Quail ; " Bob-white." 

Resident, common ; neither this nor the last species as abundant 
as in former years. 



'W83.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. M 

CHARADRIIDiE. 

106. JBg^alitei vocifenu. KiUdeer Plover. 

Summer resident ; abundant. 

SCOLOPACIDJE. 

107. PhiloheU minor. Woodoook. 

Common ; have seen it as early as March 13. 

108. OaUinagowilBoni. Snipe. 
Summer resident. 

109. Tringoldet maonlariiiB. Spotted Sandpiper. 
Common in summer ; breeds. 

ARDEIDJE. 

110. Ardea herodiat. Gt. Blue Heron. 

Migratory, occasional ; have two specimens in my collection, 
shot on the Loyalhanna Creek. 

111. Herodiat egrr^tta. Gt. White Egret. 
Migratory ; irregular. 

112. Bntoridetviresoent. Green Heron. 
Quite common in summer ; breeds. 

113. Botaams mng^taxiB. Bittern. 

Not common ; have one specimen shot by Mr. J. C. Head, of 

Latrobe. 

BALLIDiES. 

114. BaUiiB virginianiis. Virginia Rai\ * 

Summer visitant. 

115. Porsana Carolina. Carolina Rail: Sora. 

Mr. G. N. Beckwith, of Latrobe, reports it common. Mr. G. 
H. Adams, agent of the P. K. R., gave me the only specimen I 
have seen in Westmoreland. It was found in a freight-car at 
Beatty Station. 

116. Fnlioa amerioana. Coot; <' Mud Hen." 

Rather common. 

ANATIDiE. 

117. Cygnut oolambianut. Am. Swan. 
Occasionally shot on the Loyalhanna Creek. 

118. Bemiola oanadenfis. Wild Goose. 
Migratory ; rather common. 

119. Anas boieat Mallard Duck. 

Mr. G. N. Beckwith assures me of the occurrence of this and 
the next two species. 

120. Anas obsenra. Black Duck ; Dusky Duck. 



70 PR(K'KKI>lNr,S OF THE ACADEMY OP ^l**'. 

saiiu' rt'j^ion lo lit' ;it. a m*noral rli'VJitioii of 8-0800 ft-et, af^^* 
wliieli storms were of only exceptional occuriviKM*, :in<l thr alni"^ 
])ii('r** usually rU*ar and st'ioiu*. These ()l»servatif>iis as to ft-r'«> 
preeipitation wore further (*onfirnie(l by Hollfiiss, wlifi fuiiri<l iLj: 
on the Theodule Pass (IO,S(io iWx) the total preripitatirm for t:,- 
six winter months amounted to «mly lh feet of snow. On thi- St 
(rothard, on the other iiand, at nii elevation almost exnrtiy 4i('*" 
feet lower, nearly the same (piiintity fell in a Muiyrlc* «1:iy. Ai::'ir 
on the (rrimsol (tiir)0 feet) A«r:is>«iz found the winter snow-THl! ?•• 
amount to iul feet. \V Idle, therefore, the highest Alpine ••iimmi:- 
^enerally appear to he huried in an almo*ot unfnthomaKile thii*kiif«* 
of sn<»w. there ean he hut little douht that in actual fact llii> thick- 
ness \> hut very mo<ierat4'. This is proved hv tho cirfinns^trtr.-f 
lliat uuiliT exeeptional eimditious tlie snow covering may :ilni«*»i 
ecunpletely disapiM'ar a** a result of a siuirle season V nielli np. Thi> 
in Septend>er, IH4"J,the EwijrsehTU'ehorn wasoomplftcdy di!<nian!lr^'. 
of its <'ap, and in Isri(»-lsr,2 a wh<ile series of the usually sno«- 
elad peaks showed <»nly patches of snow. l)urin^ tho same |i«>n«'-i 
the StrahM'h (11,000) te<*t <*ould he crossed without the travi>U-r 
cn<'ounterin«r a sin«rlc patch of either iiard or M»ft snow ( Hfolu^ 
With these facts U'toie us, wc have jro<»d grounds fiir « Ion lit in;: 
whether any rxtraonlinary accumulation of snow, unless with ^ 
mu<'h warmer clim:ttr. rould take phu'c in the iv^ion of the f:i: 
north (with a desccnilin<; cloud line) on elevati«»nH of v€>rv ^n's* 
inaLrnitudr. tirantiuir, lujwcvcr, the jjossihility of a hui^e j"»la- 
Lrl:i<'irr t«'udiuir southwanl. sonu' singular facts are hron^lit on; }\ 
i\ ralcidat ii'U til' it^ rat** i»f |>r<it:re«»*iou. Alh»win^ an avfriij^ 
r:«ii' «>f «»iji' fool prr ilay. which is ahout that <)f the averajr** Alpin* 
i:i;iiirr, it wouhl mer^^jiatr fur a ;:lacit'r >t:irtin^ from alniut th- 
^ixiv-iil'th pMralhl <»r latitutlcM period of no h'ss than 2.'>jiiiO year* 
for it to liax r n-Mchrd tin* linr of it*« terminal extension, the terniin.i! 
u)oi:iiiic. I^ut with ^\u-\\ an intiniie<iimal >lopc as sn<-|i a i;Ia>-i> r 
mu^t urrr-^arilx havr iiMil. it may he (|uestione<l whether its riTi 
iif pMii:ri-''«i«>n wmild have iteen more than one-tilt li or even tiUf- 
ti nth mI" th:it whitli lui-* hem hen- iiiven it. At the av<>ra^e ra!-' 
ot' twii :iii<l «»iM-li:ilt' ih(-|i«'*« daily, 1J.'»,(HI0 year> would liavi* Uvt: 
rt jiiirril I'm! it-» >Muilieil\ proi^re^-iou, a period tii.'tt would nearlv 
tjd«- <i\ri thf iiiti i\:ii lirtweeii the periods i»f jTieatest Ofeen! ricitx 
iiidii-ati-il h\ M^t li»liomri>>. 

|*r..t'i-«'*Mi Lkw i<« ii-marke'l that ariruineut^ drawn fruni nKM^siri- 
Im-ji' mI riiMilit ioii'^ m>> tlie\ u«i\\ i \i^t will not in all i as(*s ap|i|\ :. 
iMli^i'h I ilii: t 111- i:1;h'i:i1 e)io«li. The ili**! I i)»Ut ion of hind and Writf : 
\\:i^ •*<• iliiti-ii-iiT in Ldai'ial time*« ticit nieti-i»roIo^icaI o<»ridilt<>i « 
iiiii-«t :iU'> )i:i\i' fiiin •lill< lent, lie iM>t.'inee<l fact*^ whieli \w h i f 
.i'.-.i\ii| in t!:i' \:iHi\ "if ilii- Pi'lawaii- Mill eUiwIuTe, indieatiii.* 

:t d» pl« -^-It'll '*"iltli «'! till' '_:i:ni:iJ«il :ili:t. \\ hleli proiliu>rfl a i;i-^':il, : 
\\;i^i I -m 1:11 I- ili t In- ■jl;i«i;il i p«M-|i. :iieM Ik Ti-t'iili' different mi*tt'iir>* 
li>ji« :ii I iiifhT i'lre*. Iji 1 1 iii.ii Ui>i :iN<i that it \\m> unsafe to ftiun-: 
4i^Miii< tit^ iip>'ii :iii\ « Iti>t :in:iliij\ hi Iwrt ii tin eonditic»n«» of |im :«! 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 69 



March 6. 
Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 
Twenty-six persons present. 

Permian Fishes and Reptiles, — Prof. Cope exhibited some 
specimens of fishes and reptiles from the Permian formation of 
Texas. One of these was a new species of Crossopterygian fish 
which he named Ectosteorhachis ciceronius^ which exhibited some 
important characters of the posterior cranial region. He stated 
that the base of the skull consists of ossified parachordals, and 
these embrace the chordadorsalis posteriorly, and are continued 
for a short distance posteriorly as a tube. Anteriorly the chordal 
groove is open. Trabeculae not ossified. He considered the 
cranial structure to be an excellent illustration of a permanent 
embryonic type. 

The most interesting reptile was a new genus which occupies a 
place between the Felycosauria with molar teeth, and those with 
raptorial teeth, but with more resemblance to the former, or Dia- 
dectidse. The teeth are placed transversely in the jaws, but the 
crowns terminate in an incurved apex, without ledge. He named 
the genus Chilonyx, and referred it provisionally to the Bolo- 
sauridse. The typical species is the Bolosaurus rapidens (Cope, 
1878), an animal with a skull as large as that of a hog, and with 
robust limbs. The surface of the skull is divided by grooves 
into numerous swollen areas, and some of these are, on the lateral 
occipital region, developed into tuberosities like the rudimental 
horns of the Phrynosoma douglassi, 

« 

Phenomena of Olaciation, — Professor Heilprin, referring to 
his former communication on the phenomena of glaciation, stated 
that if the principles laid down by him as to the limitation (in 
height) of a polar ice-cap be correct, then the same principles must 
likewise hold good for all portions of the earth's surface. In other 
words, given an elevation of sufl3cient magnitude, then the upper 
portion of the same, by virtue of its rising above the cloud-line, 
must be either bare of snow or covered only with a comparatively 
feeble thickness of the same. This view, which the speaker 
believed was first enunciated by Humboldt, receives confirmation 
from observations made on the Alps and on other high mountain 
peaks. Thus, according to Tschudi, only a comparatively very 
feeble thickness of snow falls on the Alpine summits above an 
altitude of about 10,800 feet, the heavy precipitation being princi- 
pally confined to a zone comprised between 7000 and 9000 feet. 
The brothers Schlagintweit determined the cumulus line in the 



72 PROC^EDINOS OF THE ACADSBCT OW [1881 

A pa{)er entitled ^^ On the matiial relations of the Bunothehin 
Mammalia," by Edw. D. Coikj, was presented for publication. 

Crijstnllizf'd Serpentine from Delaware, — Professor H. Cabviu 
Lewis remarked tliat a sliort time ago, his venerable frien*i, Ih- 
Isaac Lea, had handed him for examination a s|>eciincn of DeweyhT« 
from Way's feldsj>ar quarry, near Wilmington, Delawan^ up»-* 
which were some crystals of an unknown micaeeoiis substance. 

The white, wax}' deweylite, weathering to a pale \'ellow color f»2 
the surface, contains numerous an^^ular fragments of transparrn: 
(piaitz, which vary in size from microscopic dimensions to frag- 
ments two inches long by one-half inch wide. In all cases thr^ 
fragments are |)erfectiy sharp and are generally rhoinboi<Ul in 
shape. These rhombic cleavage fragments are just such as woaid 
Ikj produced by throwing a heated crystal of quartz into coM 
waU»r. Under the microscope, the quartz is shown to conuit 
hair-like microlites and minute oval cavities, the major axes of 
which are usually place<l in one direction.^ 

The deweylite also contains irregular masses of felils|>ar alhite 
which are more or Irss altered into deweylite. Unlike the fn^- 
mi*nts of quartz, these feldspar nodules are almost invariahlt 
rounded in outline, as though partially dissolved awav Tbt 
fehlspar has lost both its lustre an<l its hardness. It has a w^xv 
apjwa ranee, and its hardness is re<luced to 4*5. In some *prtn- 
uiens one end is more altered tiian the other, and it is evi<U*nt thit 
the dewevlite is the result of the alteration of alhite. 

The third mineral in the deweylite is in the form of pinte^or 
ervstaUofa micaceous substance of a j)ale smoky pearl color witt 
a taint gn*enisli tinge. Thi* plates nuiy be several incites in diam- 
«'ter. and are traviTsed by numerous joints or cracks fiUetl with 
deweylite. which are generally inclined to one another at an^k« 
<»t*r.o and 120 '. TIh* <-iv^taIs ap)>ear to Ik; sections of anorthiv 
rhombic <'ryHtal. luninded by six prismatic planes, whose angle ^f 
int(>rsecti<>n is 1J0 . In the polariscope, the mineral is sc*en to >r 
doubly refracting, and is biaxial with n small optic-axial (livenrt-nrr 
(probably iM'twem lu and 20 ), the hyperboles iKMn^; inflistinrt- 

It has a »-trong pearly lust.*', an «'niinent basal cleavage, almo^^: 
niira('«>ous. and is brittle. It has a hanlness <»f 2'5, and s|iec:frr 
gravity ot' *2"41. It is translu<ent, and by transroitteil light :« 
i:ravish or trrecniHJi vellow. 

In till' clo«*i'd tnl>e it i:ivc»* oft' \vat«M* and decrepitates >lii;htU. 
iKMMiuiini: blatki**li lmmv or dark sttcl-<'olore<l. In tht» bliiw.pii*- 
t1am«- it lilMckm-*. then turn*^ white, ^'Xloliates slight ly and fu*r» 
uitli biijlini: at ^'•'> to a white In'ad. In the salt of phcwphoni* 
Ih'miI it di^'^^ilxr** rininih-til\ \^^ a clear Ljlass which lHK*onies niiik 
whitr in :i foM sMtniat»d iH-ad. With toballic nitrate f>n chart*<« 

' r, Kuttliri iiittiHoii iiK iu^iniis in ;:i-iii.s I.s,i;u' I^«':i, Proc, Acad \ai S* 
Phila.. >Uv, IsTrt. 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 71 

glaciers or isolated peaks and the great ice sheet of the glacial 
epoch. While analogies might be drawn from the glacier of 
interior Greenland or from the Antarctic ice-cap, he thought that 
errors often arose from a too close comparison with more local 
centres of glaciation. 

Referring to the subject of glacial motion, Professor Lewis said 
that while there were not yet sufficient facts at hand to determine 
its rate, its general direction and continuity were clearl}'^ shown 
in the strise on elevated summits. He spoke of the importance of 
distinguishing these high-level stria* from those occurring in valleys, 
remarking that erroneous conclusions had frequently been drawn 
from an examination of maps of striae, where the relative elevation 
of the individual striae was not noted. While the striae upon 
mountain summits indicate the general direction of the top of the 
ice, and are uniform over large areas, those in valleys show merely 
the local movement of the lower strata, and, conforming more or 
less to the direction of the valley in which they occur, vary in 
each locality and are therefore of minor importance. A s an instance 
be described some striae near White Haven, Luzerne Co., Pa. 
Those in the valley of the Lehigh near the town bore S. 35° E. or 
approximately down the valley, while on the other hand, upon the 
summit of Penobscot Knob, 1100 feet higher than the valley 
(2250 feet above the sea), the striae bore S. 10° W., this being the 
general direction of ice-flow across northeastern Pennsylvania. 
In all cases the striae are at right-angles to the terminal moraine, 
and they therefore point S. E. in western Pennsylvania. He 
gave other facts which he had observed in Pennsylvania and else- 
^here,all pointing to the continuity of action and consequent great 
size of the glacier. He spoke of the probable analogy betv^een 
the Antarctic ice-cap, some 2500 miles in diameter, and the Polar 
ice-cap of glacial times, and mentioned Oroll's estimate that the 
former is twelve miles thick at its centre. In speaking of a Polar 
ice-cap, he did not mean to imply, however, that the ice was 
necessaril}'^ thickest on the Pole. As in Europe the mountains of 
Scandinavia and Scotland were probable centres of glaciation, the 
glaciers from which joined to form the great mer-de-glace, so in 
America either Greenland, Labrador, the Hudson Bay region, or 
elsewhere, may have been centres from which glaciers grew finally 
to coalesce into one mass of ice,^the top strata of which flowed 
southward to the great terminal moraine. 



March 13. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-nine members present. 
The death of Henry Seybert, a member, was announced. 



74 PROCEEDINQS Of THE ACADEMY OF [ISC 

fcldspathic rocks, there might rosult 8uch a change as is here sfaovi 
to have occurred. Certain facts which the speaker had olMerved :3 
tlie serpentine depoRitN of Chester County, Penna., notablv in 
BrintonV quarry, indicate that a change from a granitic dyke inio 
Hcrpentine is not an uncommon o<*currence. 

The two points of interest otfcre<l h}' the specimens herv de^criM 
are, 1. The crystallization of serpentine, as shown by its opti<^ 
character; 2. The direct alteration of the feldspar and mica '^f 
graphic granite into the magnesign minerals, deweylite anil trr- 
pentine, while the quartz has been fractured. 

(Umlravhtm of Vnwtable TtHHuen Under Frottf. — At the U.*i 
meeting of the Botanical Section, Mr. Mbbiian refernftl to s 
(irevalent opinion that the liquid in vegetable tissues congeal* d i* 
ordinary li(piid does, and, expanding, oflen caused trees to biir«: 
with an explosive sound. Mr. Meehan made experinient<^ «ita 
young and vigorous trees, varying from one foot to three fe*-i js 
circumference. They were carefully measured in early winter «bt a 
the thermometer was about 40 ~, an<l again atler they had l^frr 
exposed for many days to a temperature below freezing pfdnt.&fri. 
at the time of measurement, to 10 alH>ve zero. 

In no ease was there the slightest evidence of expansioa, wh W 
in the case of a large u\u\\\v (Acer dant/rarpum)^ tyV 3 feel P.^ 
ineh(*s round, there ap|M*ared to be a contrnction of j|- inch. Th> 
wa*^ the largest tree t'Xperiinented with. In dead-wcxMl >o.'iki"! 
with water, there w:is an evident expansion; and the eleuvaue vtt 
explosion. nnte<l in the ease of i'orest trees in hi^h imrthiTr 
regions, may result from the free/.ing of liqui<l in tht* centri •? 
Ie>s vital parts of the trunks of trees. 

In ''onie hardy sneeulents, however, instead of ex|>ansion uiHi« 
frost, there w:is a marked eoiitra4tion. The joints or Sft'tiiiH'- - - 
stem ill Of,iintni /!nfinrs'fni an<l (K J/w</»/r/>wHi>, shrink remark 
ablv witii the lowerini: of the temiK'rature. As soon an the Kh<r 
mometer passes the free/.ing |»oint, the shrinkage is so ^reat tluc 
the \\liol«> siirt'ae<> has th(> wrinkled apfiearance present4^l hv tt» 
Wwi- 4»f >it\\\r very aued person. A pie<-e of Opuntia lia ri t9rjs*fui. 
whieli in NoveinlMT measured 4 inches in lenirth, is IniI Jii ni*«. 
and is not half the thickness it was in the autumn. In the wiiiwr 
when thr thermometer was down to In alH»ve zero, the |ien-knit'' 
]H-netrat<'d the tissue Just as easily as in summer, an<i no tracr 
eould U> dis't'ovt-riil of etuiuelation in the juices of the (»laiil 
Other Hm*i ulents exhibited mori* or less signs of shrinkage under 
I xtii'Uie • ol-l l//r;;////i///'/ Xnffnlhi. and .1/. '•i'*i/inr/i. witt. 

Kth}nin ii'iii.'-^ >fwft.'inni ^ :i nniu)illf>se form, drew tlie niamnur 
U]>uaids. an<l iiad thetn H)>pres>ed as elosel\ as the spiii«fj« wouliS 
allitw ami ■*onir sp«M-ies of S*'in/**'rrii-Nm did the same. TUi;- 
e<»uld iini\ bi- a<'eon)plislied bv thr rontnction of the main ax> 
Imni tin a\h\ ilownwatds >#//'/;/« ilt.'-fHitnt nm, which ha?^ m^t t 
<-U' I ult-nt R\if^. ( i'intr;iet> 1t^ ba\« ;. into 1iin;:itudinal wrinkle^, pr%- 



1883.] NATUBAL 8OIEN0S8 07 PHILADELPHIA. t3 

it turns pink. It is decomposed by hydrochloric or sulphuric 
acid without gelatinization. 

At the request of Professor Lewis, Mr. Reuben Haines had 
made an analysis of the mineral with the following results : — 

"SiO, 43-63 



MgO 
PeO 
AlA 
H,0 



39-n 
0-78 
2-23 

13-20 



99-56 

Mr. Haines determined the specific gravity in a s|)ecific gravity 
bottle containing a thermometer, the weighing being done at 60° F. 

From the composition as well as from its physical characters 
the mineral appears to be a true serpentine. Its optical characters 
show that it is crystallized, and not a mere pseudomorph. If so, 
the crystallization of serpentine is micaceous, as already surmised 
by Professor Dana.* 

As the deweylite is the result of the alteration of i^ld^par, so 
the serpentine has been altered from mica (muscovite). The rela- 
tive amount of muscovite in the adjoining graphic granite is about 
the same as tliat of the micaceous serpentine in the deweylite. 
Moreover in certain specimens of feldspathic deweylite, where the 
feldspar is not completely altered, there occur crystals of hydro- 
niuscovite (margarodite) in place of the micaceous serpentine. 

Thus it is evident that the serpentine is changed from mica. 
Were it not for the ready cleavage and the special optical charac- 
ters of the serpentine, it should be regarded merely as a pseudo- 
morph. The occasional markings at angles of 120°, though scarce 
and imperfect, are in harmony with the same character belonging 
to several other micaceous species among the magnesian hydrous 
silicates, and indicate a close relationship between the serpentine 
group and the Vermiculite group of minerals. 

It is interesting to find in the quartz, deweylite and serpentine, 
just described, such complete evidence that they have been derived 
from the direct alteration of graphic granite ( pegmatite). While 
the albite and muscovite have changed into deweylite and serpentine 
respectively, the quartz has been broken up into cleavage frag- 
ments, and scattered through the deweylite. This fracturing of 
the quartz may, perhaps, give a clue to the method of alteration. 
As Hunt' has suggested, in an early period of geological history, 
when the earth's crust was hotter than now, and when a high tem- 
perature existed even at slight depths, thermal waters would abound 
and chemical changes would be rapid. Should such waters, highly 
charged with magnesian salts, come in contact with the heated 



* SyBtem of 'Mineralogy, p. 465. 
' Chem. and Geol. Esftays, p. d06. 

6 



76 PR0CEEDIN08 OF THE AGADEMT OW ' [1883. 

color. The purple obtained from 250 cub. cent, of the solotioo 
contained 

Aa,0^ =r 00583 gram. 

PeA . = 00340 '* 

Gold (Au) . = 0-0188 *' 

CaSO^ . = 0-0060 •* 

The only Kold-purple heretofore known was the Purple of Caastn*. 
obtained by adding a mixture of stannic and stannous ehloridet 
to a dilute gold solution. Authors are divided in their oplniont 
as to whether the gold is contained thereift in the metallic state 
and only mechanically admixed as a red allotropic modificatioD. 
or chemically combined as gold dioxide. The spcmker ha* 
inclined hitherto to the first view, and finds in this ferric ar$eniaie 
gold^urple^ physically so very analagous to the stannic iroM- 
purple, a strong support to the mechanical h3'pothe8i8. Dilute 
hydrochloric acid decom|>oscs this purple at once into brown 
gold, and arHCuico-ferric solution. 

A Flint Nodule from the Oreennand of New Jersey. — ProC 
Leidy directed attention to a fiint nodule, presented this evening. 
obtained from the greensand of Peniberton, N. J. It is discoid. 
alK)ut the size of a dollar, pitted and smooth, homog^eneous msA 
bluish black, an<l exhibits no trace of organic remains. He 
remarke<l that an flint nodules, regarded to be of org^anic origin, 
were so cxceeiUngly abundant in the chalk formations of Eun>pe. 
ho had wonderi'd that sinular no<lu!es were not of more freqm-nt 
occurrence in the greensand deposits, of contem|>orary afje, in 
our country. The nodule presented was the only one of the kiml 
he had ever si'en from the New »lersey marl. 



March 27. 
Mr. (iE(». W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 

Forty-live |)er8ons present. 



April 3. 
Rev. Dr. Henry C. McCook, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirty-eight persons present. 

A paper entithni '* Azt4»c Music/' by II. T. 
presentt*d for publication. 

The following was ordered to Ik* printed : — 






^^^.] HATURAL g OMCJa OF PHII^DSLPHIA. "5 

s^ii^iig the appeannoe of being withered or demd. They expand 
^g^ in a few days of tempeiatare above the freezing point. 
Specimens of this Sedtim^ and of Opuntta Mis&ourienfis^ preserved 
jnst above freezing point under glass, did not shrivel — and a plant 
of Echinocachi* Simpmmi. taken onder cover, after the mamnue 
hsA been appiessed by frost, expanded them to its sommer con> 
ditiA in a short tune afterwards. 

Assomiiig firom these facts that the liquids in plants which are 
known to endure finost without injury, did not congeal, it might be 
a qoestion as to what power they owed this successful resistance. 
It was probably a vitjJ power, for the sap of plants, after it was 
drawn from the tree, congealed easily. In the laige maple tree 
already referred to, the juice not solidified in the tree^ exudes 
firom the wounded portions of branches and then freezes, hanging 
as icicles often six inches long from the trees. 



Ma&ch 20. 
The President, Dr. Lkidt, in the chair. 
Twenty-eight persons present. 

Note on a New Gold-purple, — ^Dr. George A. Konio stated that 
while experimenting with a solution containing 



Ca,H^s,0^ , 




— 5-242 


CaSO* . 




=* 2-983 


CaCl, . 




— 4-890 


MgCl, . . 




— 2-T36 


AuCl, . 




— 0112 


HaAsO* 




— 10-290 



26-1 63 grains per liter, 
he observed that upon adding to it very slowly a solution of 
one part of crystallized ferrous sulphate in ten parts of wator« 
stirring vigorously after each drop, at first a white turbidity 
formed which gradually assumed a very rich purple color. The 
flocculent precipitate settles completely in twenty-four hours, but 
may be collected on a filter at once. Sometimes the purple color 
develops gradually, requiring several hours, the precipitate being 
white for some time. This result obtains, when lesd ferrous salt 
is added than required. One cub. cent., containing y}^ milligr. of 
gold, of the above solution with -^ cub. cent, of ferrous solution, 
developed a very fine precipitate. Sometimes the purple doi^s 
not develop at all ; the precipitate turns bluish gray and 
remains so. 

This purple substance can be dried at 100° C. without change of 
color. Heated to red heat the pieces assume a glazed appeamnce 
and turn black ; but the fine powder again shows a blue-purple 



78 PR0GEEDINQ8 OF THS AOADSMT OF [IM. 

of characters whose significance must be reexamined. Thus it » 
iin|>08sible to characterize the Creodonta as lacking a trochktf 
groove of the astragalus, in view of the form of that elemeal ii 
Mesonyx and Miocletnus^ where the groove is more or less d» 
tinct. It is impossible to distinguish the Insectivora from tie 
Creodonta by the deficiency of canine and large developmcal oT 
incisor teeth. In Rhynchocyon the canines are large, and tW 
superior incisors wanting, while in Centetes the arrangemeDt of 
these teeth is precisely as in the Creodonta. As to the Urp 
Achwnodon and other Arctocyonidae^ I find no characters whateTfr 
to distinguish them from the generally small Mesodonta. 

In view of thcHC inconsistencies, I have reexamined the sol]j«cl 
and find the following definitions to be mor^ nearly* coincidcit 
with the natural boundaries of the divisions of this large onlfr. 
The imi)ortance of the character of the tritubercular superior 
molar has recently impressed me (see Proceedings of tbf 
Academy, 188:i, p. 50), as it had previously doue Prof. OiQ. 
This zoologist has already distinguished two divisions of tbe 
Insectivora (without the Oaleopithecidae)^ by the forms of tW 
suf)erior molar teeth. The first possesses quadri tubercular molan 
above, the secon<l tritubercular. That these types repretest 
important stages in the development of the molar dentition I hatir 
no doubt. These characters far outweigh in importance tboi« 
expressing the forms of the skuU, matters of proportion oolj, 
with which a few systematists unnecessarily overload their diag- 
noses. Such characters are of little more than specific value^asd 
serve to oliscure the miu<l of the inquirer for a true analv«i«- 
TIh'V may )»e use<l empirically, it is true, to determine relatioo- 
ships when thcMliat^nostic parts are wanting. 

I pro|)<)se to transfer the Insi'ctivora with tritulK*rcular superior 
molars to tlie C^nMxIonta, in spite of the fact that some of thra 
(Mythomyn, H*tlen(Mion^ Chrymchluri^) have but weakly developed 
canine teeth, and ChrymHhlorin has large incisors. As an eztrest 
form, EMhonyx will follow, st4in<ling next the Tillodonta. It will 
then Xw necessary to transfer the Arctocyonidse and all the 
Meso<ionta to the Insectivora, where they will find affinity with the 
Tupmdtr. These havn well-<levelo|HMl canines and small inciaon. 
as in the extinct groups named. The Chiromyidm must be dif* 
tinguishe<i from all of the other suborders, on account of iu 
rodent-like incisors, combine<l with its lemur-like feet. 



1883.] NATURAL S0IfeNCE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. W 



Off THE mutital relations of the bunotherian mammalia. 

BY B. D. CX)PE. 

The name Bunotheria was proposed by me for a series of 
Mammalia which resemble in most technical characters the Eden- 
tata and the Rodentia. That is, they agree with these orders in 
having small, nearly smooth cerebral hemispheres, which leave 
the olfactory lobes and cerebellum entirely exposed, and in some 
instances the hemispheres do not cover the me^encephalum also. 
Prom the two orders in question, however, they are easily distin- 
guished. Their enamel-covered teeth separate them from the 
Edentata, while the articulation of the lower jaw is different from 
that found in the Rodentia. It is a transverse ginglymus, with 
a postglenoid process in the Bunotheria^ as distinguished from 
the longitudinal groove, permitting anteroposterior motion, of the 
Rodentia. 

Such a group as is thus characterized will include two existing 

groups recognized as orders — the Prosimiae and the Insectivora. 

The latter group has always been a crux to systematists, and 

when we consider the skeleton alone, as from the standpoint of the 

pal£eontologist, the difficulty is not diminished. Various extinct 

types discovered in latter years, chiefly in the Eocene formations, 

have been additions to this intermediate series of forms, giving 

even closer relations with the orders already adjacent; i. e., the 

Edentata, the Rodentia, the Prosimise, and the Camivora. As is 

known, the groups corresponding to these orders have been 

named respectively the Taeniodonta, Tillodonta, Mesodonta, and 

Creodonta. With great apparent diversity, these suborders show 

unmistakable gradations into each other and the two recent orders 

already mentioned. As such, I may mention Psittacotherium, 

which relates, the Taeniodonta and Tillodonta ; Usthonyx, which 

relates the Tillodonta with nearly all the other suborders ; 

Achaenodon^ which connects Creodonta and Mesodonta, and 

Cynodontomya^ wliich may be Mesodont or Prosimian. Then 

the existing Chiromys most certainly connects Tillodonta and 

Prosimiae. 

My original definitions of the suborders of the Mesodonta, given 
in vol. ii of the U. S. Geological Survey under Capt. G. M. 
Wheeler, p. 85, omitted the Prosimiae, and embraced a number 



80 PR0CESDINO8 OF THX ACADSMT OF [188S. 

The families included iu these suborders will be the folloviif - 

Tjsniodonta. Calamodontidat ; Ectoganidm, 

TiLLODONTA. TUlotherUdse, 

I)ai:bentonioidba. Chiromyidse. 

PROSiMiiE. Tarsiida' ; (?) Anaptomorphidse ; (?) Mixodectidm : 
Lemuridae, 

Insbctivora. SoricidfK ; Erinaceidee ; Macroscelidsc : Tupaeidm: 
A dapidae ; * A rctocyon idfr, 

Creodonta. Talpidap : Chrysochlorididx ; Eisihonyvhidm ; Cen^ 
teiidm {^= Leptictidn' u\\m)\ Oxij»nidm ; Miacidm ; Ambl^- 
tonidfe ; Mesonychidft. 

I at one time callc<l thJH order by the name In8ectivora,a conne 
which Home zoologists may prefer. But a name should as Dcsrij 
as poHHible adhere to a group to which it was first applied, and 
whose definition has become currently associated with it. Sorh 
an appli<'ati(m is c<»rrect in fact, ami is a material aid to tbe 
memory. There art* various pn»ce<lent8 for the adoption ol a new 
general term for a group compoHe<l of subordinate divlsioiiA which 
have tht^mnelves alrea<ly received nau)es. 

In order to dcteruiine the number of internal tuberelea in ^>iDf 
of the Insect irorn, S4> :is to ascertain the attinities of some que*- 
tionabli- ircnera, it is lirst necessary to examine the homoloin^ 
of tlie cunps of the niohir teeth. The opossums are eharacteriied 
by the presence of three longitudinal series of tubc^rcles on ib^ 
superior molar. The homologies of these cusps are rendered 
clear by the character presented by the fourth su|)erior premolar. 
where tlie anterior interme<liate is wanting. The external cunpiL 
are really such, and are not dev<'ioped from a cingulum external 
to the true extenial <Misps,as ap|MMrs at first sight to Ih» the cm^ 
with •»uch animals as thr Talpidn. Tlie intermediate cusps are 
n^ally such, although the |><jsterior looks like the apex of a V- 
sha|M'd external <*iisp. In Prrntht'num the external cuHps nir 
smaUer than in IHdrlphya. and tlie interiuedinte V^s so much 

' Two KiK'iifH of IMyrotlttn nniM l»o rem«»vod fi-oin thin genus and famOj, 
ami W plar«^l in th«» • rtMHlonia with Miorhfunf. They are the P. p^Uidtiu 
and /* iinirifutuM, whirh havt* tho jK»Hterior inuiT tuliert'.lc of the suprrkv 
iiinliiih. ;i ni«Te }>r<>jc(-tion of tlio rin^^ulum. I phico them in a new g«na4 
which ilit)(M?» tioni Miofhrttua in tlir |MisM'Hsion of an internal cusp of tbt 
fuuith mfeiior premolar, under the name of Chriacui ; type C7. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 79 

The characters of the six suborders will then be as follows : 

I. Incisor teeth growing from persistent pulps : 
Canines also growing from less persistent pulps, agreeing with 
external incisors in having molariform crowns ; i. Tseniodonta. 
Canines rudimental or wanting; hallux not opposable; 

II. Tillodonta. 
Canines none ; hallux opposable ; iii. Daubentonioidea, 

II. Incisor teeth not growing from persistent pulps : 
Superior true molars quadrituberculate ; hallux opposable ; 

IV. Prosimim, 
Superior true molars quadrituberculate ; hallux not opposable ; 

V. Insectivora. 

Superior true molars trituberculate or bituberculate ; * hallux not 

opposable: vi. Creodonta. 

While the above scheme defines the groups exactly, and, so far 
as can now be ascertained, naturally, I do not doubt but that 
future research among the extinct forms will add much necessary 
information which we do not now possess. It is possible that the 
group I called Mesodonta may yet be distinguished from the 
Insectivora by characters yet unknown. But I cannot admit any 
affinity between this group and any form of ** Pachyderms," as 
suggested by Filhol, or of Suillines, as believed by Lyddeker.* 
Such suppositions are in direct opposition to what we know of 
the phylogeny of the Mammalia. These views are apparently 
Suggested by the Bunodont ty[>e of teeth found in various 
Itf esodonta, but that character gives little ground for systematic 
ctetermination among Eocene Mammalia, and has deceived palae- 
ontologists from the da3'S of Cuvier to the present time. The 
Only connecting point where there may be doubt as to the ungulate 
Or unguiculate type of a mammal is the family Periptychidm^ of 
t;lie suborder Condylarthra, The suborder Hyracoidea may fur- 
i>ish another index of convergence. 



^ The internal tubercle is wanting in the last two superior molars in 
SEyvBnodan. This genus, of which the osteology remains largely unknown, 
^ais been stated by G^rvais to possess a brain of higher type than the 
Cl^reodonta. Prof. Scott, of Princeton, is, however, of the opinion that this 
c^etermi nation is erroneous, and that Byomodon is a true Creodont in this 
other respects. If so, the genus will perhaps enter the Amblyctonida. 

2 Memoirs G^logical Survey India, Ser. x, 1888, p. 145. 




/ 



82 PB0CEEDIN08 OF TIIS AOADSMT OF [1893. 

addition, the latter genus presents a rudiment of the posterior 
inner tubercle, as is seen in Deltatherium, An explanation similar 
to this is admitted by Mr. Mivart to apply to the easps of the 
inferior molar of CerUetes. It remains to ascertain whether tlie 
cusp in this genus, ChrytsochloriSy eic.^ represents an intermediate 
or not. 

Secondly, as regards the Talpidtr and Soricidtt^ where tbc 
external V's are well marked. If we examine the external caspt 
in the genus Didelphys^ we find that the posterior one become* 
gradually more anterior in its position, until on the second tnit* 
molar it stands largely above the interspace between the rootn, in- 
stead of over the i>osterior root. It will also be seen that the 
anterior intermediate tubercle is distinct, and of insi^ificaot 
pro|>ortions, while the posterior interme<liate is lar^e and it 
related to the |>osterior external, as is the apex of a V to it* 
anterior Imse. In this arrangement I conceive that we have aa 
explanation of tlte V*s of the Talpidae and S^^ricidm. The fim 
true molar of Scalops is a good deal like that of Di'felpkyu^ but 
the anterior cusp is larger and there is no anterior interme<liate 
cusp, while the posterior external is of reduced size. The poste- 
rior V is better developed than in Didelphys^ but is composed io 
the same way, of a posterior intermediate cusp, and a posterior 
external with a ]>osterior heel. These are united by stronger 
ridges in Scalops, Condylura and Blarina^ than in Didelpky*. 
On the st^cond true m<»Iar in Scalops^ a V represents the anterior 
external cusp of the tirst true molar. Whether this V has a am- 
stitution like the |K)8terior one, t. r., is composed of external antl 
interme<liate cusps joiniKl, isditHcult to detcTmine ; but it is proK 
ably so conHtitnttMl. It scorns to Ik' pretty clearly the cam* in 
lUarinn^ where tlie fourth premolar and first true molar mav W 
com|mre<K witli a resulting demonstration of the correctness of 
this view. In Condijlura^ the V s have liecome more develop««l 
and the external cusps redu(*ed, so that the analysis is mort 
ditticult. 

This interpretation applied to Crotrichus and Oaie€>p%iher%i 
gives them quadritubercuiate molars, not tritul)erculate, as deCrr> 
mine<l bv Mivart. Mustomys is tri tubercular. The intermetiiat« 
tubercles are present, but are imperfectly connected with the ei- 
temal, so that V*s are not developed (vide figures of Mivart and 
AUman ). This genus otfers as mucli confirmation of the homoloft 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPBIA. 81 

better developed, that the type is much like that of the Taljddee^ 
in whose' neighborhood I originally referred it. 

This leads to a consideration of the question of the homologies 
of the cusps in the genera of the old order of Insectivora proper, 
and of the Creodonta. Mr. St. George Mivart ha^ briefly discussed 
the question, so far as relates to the former group.^ He com- 
mences with the primitive quadrituberculate type presented by 
Oymnura and Erinaceus, and believes that the external cusps 
occupy a successively more and more internal position till they 
come to be represented by the apices of well developed Y's, as in 
the ungulate types. The Vs are well developed in several 
families, and in Chrysochloris the two Vs are supposed to be 
united and to constitute almost the entire apex of the crown, 
while in Centetes the same kind of a Y forms a still larger part 
of the crown. 

I believe thnt these conclusions must be modified, in the light 
of the characters of various extinct genera, and of the genus 
Didelphys, In the first place there is an inherent improbability 
in the supposition that the external Y's of the superior molars of 
the Insectivora have had the same origin as those of the Ungulata, 
The movements of the jAws in the two groups are different, the 
one being vertical, the other partially lateral. In the one, acute 
apices are demanded ; in the other, grinding faces and edges. We 
have corresponding Y's in the inferior dental series, and we 
regard those as produced by the connection of alternating cusps 
by oblique ridges. In homotogizing the superior cusps, we have 
as elements, two external, two intermediate, and two internal 
cusps. The first are opposite the external roots, and the anterior 
internal is opposite the internal root. 

First, as regards Centetes and Chrysochloris. Besides the 
strained character of the h} pothesis that supposes the Y-shaped 
summit of the crown to represent two Y's fused together, there is 
good evidence obtainable in support of the belief tliat the triangle 
in question is the usual one presented by the Creodonta. 

This clearly consists of the two external and the anterior 
internal cusps united by angular ridges. The form is quite the 
same as in Leptictis and Ictops^ and nearly that of Deliatherium, 
where the external cusps are present. Centetes and Chrysochloris 
only differ from these in that the external cusps are wanting. In 



' Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, ii, 188, figures. 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF f 1883. 



Apkil 10. 

Kev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Tice-President, in the chair. 

Thirty-two persons present. 

Notes on Echinocactua, — Mr. Thomas Meehan announced, tt 
the nie<'ting of the Botanical Section, the discovery of senaitit-e 
stamens in Erhinocactus Whipplei, This pecaliarity had been 
long known in Opuntia Rafinesqui and allied species, as well as in 
Fortulaca, whieii, though its natural order was regarded as verr 
distinct in systems of classification, had much in commoti with 
Cactaceee. The motion of the stamens when touched in thb 
species of Evhinocactus was not instantaneous, several seconds 
sometimes elapsing Itefore the motion responded to the tooch. 
The flowers of this siK'cies are unable to expand to any grcal 
extent, on account of their short tube, surrounded by long sad 
stitf spines. If the flowers could expand as in Opuntia^ ami tht 
stamens lie flat, as in that genus. Mr. Meehan suggested that the 
motion might be equal to that ol>served in Opuntia. The motios 
in Opuntia was n(»t always up towards the pistil, but might be 
horizontal, to the right or to the left -there seemed to be no rule. 
Tluit seemed to be the case also in the Erhinocactus. The bending 
was from tlie l)ase, as the filament retained a perfectly straight 
line during the movement. 

Mr. Meehan further remarked that in descriptions of cactactroos 
plants, the relative length of the pistil to |)eta1s or stamens wb# 
often given. He had observed tJiat iu many species, about the 
jH'riod of the ejection of the pollen from the anther-cells, the 
Htanivns and style were of about equal length, the 8tc>llat€^ stigma 
iKMUg just above. the mas^ of anthers; but the style continued to 
grow after the maturity of the anthers, and, in Echinocactu» 
Whtj)pln\ wouhl finally reaeh to near half an inch above. Hr 
had not been able to get any genera of Cactaceee to fk*uit under 
eultnre exeept (/jiunfin, unless they wen* artifieially pollinixe<l. 
Uy the applieation <»f the flower's own |>ollen to the stigma, the\ 
sometime.*^ |K'rfeete<l fruit. 

Mr. .Meehan also remarked that in botanical descriptions. 
ErhitiiH-artuK ]\'hipplei and EchinoiuictuH jtolyanci9fru» werv 
de>erilHM| as having gremish or yellow flowers. His plants had 
bri/ht pnrpir flowers, an<l lie had no doubt were eorrec ly referretl 
tn the sjKH'ies name<l. They were from southern Utah. 

Keferriug to Erhtnn* tutus unrinatnit, he renuirked that S|»eci- 
men** eollected in New Mexi<o by (Jeorge Vasey, and bloomioff 
undtT enltuiT, had the central spin** double the length of thr 
others, whereas in thr figure in Tfeitfer they are all represented 
as uniform, and there were no green-edged sepals or bracts at the 



Iam- **f thr flovrr a« ill that fl|{itr« . warrAntiOK thr t»r NViyfc/ii 

Kr.|; 

ttMctiii^; ^ *-*'«* l^<t*ni* ml >^*tti»fi •>n \\tf%\ 9. Mr Tn*>ii 4« If ICNa^ 
fwU r*r \ t.. hi« |k>«t • «ianiiittir«|ifin« v* thr Arft«lrin% . •h<i»tti|C that 
tri m- (. f^ ."ii« |«t»tit« frtttal* fii'*9rtm «**iiM rrtiiftin ftt rr«t tinilrr 
A trrii{«'r'mt'}rv «t»irli «•• •iiftl<'irtit l*» rxrxXr Ihr inalr (1fi«rr« to 
A« t ^« Irvrliif^mrtit llf-tK^ A frv r«ifii|*«rmti « rU v»rtii <la^a in 
« inter tir «ari% •|>r*n|j[ •••ul«l Kruif thr mal# fltiwrr* t<» taslunt«. 
vhitr *hr frmaJr (|ii»rr« r« maii«r<l to ail«aiK>i «*nl% uixirr a higbrr 
an«| m- rr * fiatarit trtii|vrat>irr |ti thi* matifM r thr r\|»|affM||f>Q 
mm* ffTrfr*! mit\ ••i«h Xtw^m mrtT •*Orii Y^rrrft Thr fnalr (loVrr* 
<li«a|»(«art«t Ivfofv thr fmialr* i>|« n«<i atxt hrn«r th« laltrr mrtf 
taafrft:! fr*l llr f^frrfr.| ff^|«^iail% ti« ••»«»r Krafftrh*-* ''f #''»ry/*» 
|t<...mf tSr I airliAh ha#ri nut. aht«h hr r%hilMt«^l Ivftrrr tiM* 
t <*N .%«t •!•? tt^' in «h^«h tU* tiiair tl«i«rr« iralkinsi «rrr fiaat 

kt';r-t% !l.r «ti*f««r« ha«in^ ijanr*! af»*l <!««• ^ar^'r*! flH>ir |»*llrn, 
mn*\ t^< • tttkiti* • rnm>4iti|; imlrr % li^ht t«*«i« ii (miI tlirri- «fl rr t>M 
ap|««r fttx « « 'f »*tt«*fi III thr ft mal* 0uairf tuMla Titrrr arrr nn 
fftiit* • f 1^t• tniv ia«* «ra«>'t* TIm |>rr«rfit a^-m****! *•• «*«ir i«f ua 
uvualU {•*« l« «t|« rat'irr Th« rr (.»it ii<>l )v« n •|*%ftm*«|i« wariiith 
tr»«<ti^t< t«« ^riag fitfvanl thr |akr1i< tjlafi% riiitt^^r ti»«|»)t tr«« 
l44MMi«M Tt»r hat'laut ha*! ti*»% tl»rrrf<<r« . h*.! it* tnaU- U<>* 
•«»ni« )»f«>4ig;fit |irwMtiirTU f<>rvar«t llr rihit*itrv| •!«<« iffnra« 
fri*» thr «anM- tr«<« •• la*t •ravapfi. th***!!!!* t)*r r«tk'n» in a \«*«in|( 
ff«ji»i|itMia «.if '!• «r'>«|in»rnt **^l\ half the H^fwrra •h^iviait thr«r 
aMWr». vhilr the fraiaW S^ivrr (hhU ka<l t)»rtr | r«tt% |»iir|ilr 
•t«f«ia« fif^Kn^liA^* tt\mi Arafi> tit '^f tl»cni 

If? Ilrvt^ti r«oiarkr«| ttiat hi* it^aM-r^ at *'•<«• thr |m»t fra M-^ttaitia 
hail *wt) *•> rarvfuIU taa«l* that l»r hart!% rv|far«ir«l <H*ttAriaat»<itt 
ttftw^mty >^t U !ir«ri| thr furlhrr rthtlati*»ft **( tbr«r •fwriMcMi 
■Hit^t at Ur^0% wrvc U» tlrav r«firar«t aUr*Un« t<i f.i* fnf «rr cifM* 



Ar«ii IT. 
IU« Ham r ll<l\«a. h I» VKM^Praaidaat .a the rha^t 

Tbr f.*iM>«.a^ «aa 4»Airr*«l U> Kr pniitr»1 — 



86 PBOCBKDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



AZTEC MVUC. 

BY R. T. CRE880N. 

Primitive music seems to have been limited to a few soundf, 
produced either by percussion or by means of rude instramenU: 
these sounds or notes in most cases, as musical authorities aniu 
in asserting, represented five tones of the diatonic scale^ vis., the 
tonic or prime note, second, third, fifth and sixth. This would 
indicate that most barbarous nations were ignorant of the fourth 
and seventh tones of the scales as known to us. Among the 
Aztecs, whose remains show superior advancement in the srts, a 
more thorough appreciation of music evidently existed. To spcsk 
first of their percussive music, the huehuetl or large (Irum of the 
great temple, at the ancient pueblo of Tenochtitlan, was covered 
by the skins of serix^nts, and when beaten could be heard mt a 
distance of several miles. The}* had clay balls or rattles pbMicd 
inside of their grotesque clay images, also within the handkt 
attached to their earthenware vessels, which are generally hollow. 
and contain pebbles or small pellets of clay. 

Tlie Poinsett collection possesses several objects among iti 
intcrt^Hting and valuable specimens of ancient Mexican art« whioh. 
iiiifoitunately, are much injured or almost destroyed ; these are is 
til ' form of a serpent V head, with protruding forked tongue, and 
have a ball of clay placed within the mouth. The first-named 
portion is attached to a handle of terra-cotta, to which, after aa 
examination of several s|)ecimens, I am inclined to think, wen 
j()ine<l large hollow cylinders of the same material. A portion of 
these Htill remain unitcnl to the handle, suggesting tliat they miMt 
have U*en concave. When shaken to and fro, the hall within the 
hea<l of this terra-cotta ser|K'nt rebounds from aide to side, thof 
producing a clear sound resembling that given by our Americsa 
rattlesnake {Crotalus horridnH) when irritated. A series of thetr 
instruments may have been used in their religious ceremonies sn^i 
were no doubt piace<l upon cylinders of large size, balanced to at 
to regain the p<*rpcndi('ulnr when set in motion, and in swavtnc 
from si<le to si<li* produced n rattling sound, >^uggesting that of 
tin* Her|>ent above named, which wan e8tiM>nied a sacred animal bt 
thfso |>coph'. 



1883.] NATURAL SdENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 85 

base of the flower, as in that figure, warranting the var. Wrighiii 
Eng. 

On the Relations of Heat to the Sexes of Flowers, — At the 
meeting of the Botanical Section on April 9, Mr. Thomas Meehan 
referred to his past communications to the Academy, showing that 
in monoecious plants female flowers would remain at rest under 
a temperature which was sufficient to excite the male flowers to 
active development. Hence a few comparatively warm days in 
winter or early spring would bring the male flowers to maturity, 
while the female flowers remained to advance only under a higher 
and more constant temperature. In this manner the explanation 
was offered why such trees were often barren. The male flowers 
disappeared before the females opened, and hence the latter were 
unfertilized. He referred especially to some branches of Gorylus 
Avellana^ the English hazel-nut, which he exhibited before the 
Section last spring, in which the male flowers (catkins) were past 
maturity, the anthers having opened and discharged their pollen, 
and the catkins crumbling under a light touch, but there were no 
appearances of action in the female flower-buds. There were no 
nuts on this tree last season. The present season was one' of un- 
usually low temperature. There had not been spasmodic warmth 
enough to bring forward the particularly excitable maple-tree 
blossoms. The hazel-nut had not, therefore, had its male blos- 
soms brought prematurely forward. He exiiibited specimens 
from the same tree as last season, showing the catkins in a young 
condition of development, only half the flowers showing their 
anthers^ while the female flower-buds had their pretty purple 
stigmas protruding from nearly all of them. - 

Mr. Meehan remarked that his observations the past few seasons 
had been so carefblly made that he hardly regarded conflrmation 
necessary, but believed the further exhibition of these specimens 
mig^t at least serve to draw renewed attention to his former com- 
munications. 



April 17. 
Bev. Henrt 0. MoCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Twttity*two persons present. 

The following was ordered to be printed :— - 




88 roOCSBDIIfQS OF THS ACADEMT OF [1881 

half-tone lower than that produ(*ed bv leaving open the holes, can 
be obtained. The discovery of the musical powers of this Tite 
is interesting, and I shnll re|)eat the account of it g^ven to ae 
by Professor Leidy : " Having been attracted by its artistic fom 
and decoration, I bought the vase, and some time afterward pro- 
ceedod to clean the slits or elongated holes in the rim and ejet 
of the masks, these being filled with earth ; in applying mj lips 
Uy the slits, so as to blow out particles of dirt which remsiiicd 
therein, I found to my surprise that they emitted musical sounds.*' 
Mr. E. A. Barber, in a valuable article u|>on ^* Indian Music." 
contributed to the American Naturalist of March, 1883, fmgf 
270, mentions a curious wind instrument of turtle-like form, which 
was procuretl on the island of Ometepec, by the late Dr. Ber^ndt 
(during his recent excavations among the ruins and mounds of 
Central America), which, by certain manipulations, can be made 

to produce a numl)er of airs " This unique relic is the 

first of the kind found among the remains of the old Nahumtl 
races which evinces any particular advancement in the art of 



music/' 



1 must l>eg leave to difi^er from Mr. Barlter in thin Uist assertioo, 
from the fact that in the Poinsett collection there exist Aztec 
flMgeoicts capable of pro<lucing not only the fourth and seventh of 
the diatonic scale, but also the entire chromatic scale. A des(.*rip* 
tion of one of thesi* flageolets will first l)e necessary, befor« 
explaining how the al)ove-mentioned scales may be obtained. It 
mcasuros nine inches in length, and the thickest portion is about 
thr«'e-<iuarters of an inch in wi<lth — l)eing generally in the centre 
of tht' flageolet. The ne<.*k is considerably flattened, and measures 

H('ven-4Mghthsofaninch in width, gra<liiallycontractingst the mouth- 
h<»le, and growing; more cylindrical in form as it approaches the 
<'entn* of the instrument. Viewed in profile a graceful cur\'e from 
above downward joins the neck to the l)ody. At the Junction of 
these two parts may be seen protniding the portion which I have 
denominati'd the clay rerd (Plate 111, A); through this the car- 
n*nt of air pas»*<»R fmm thi' liingn of the jK^rformer into the bodv 
of thf instrument , whi<-h i** pierctMl ]»y four finger-holes. ' The 

' Aftrr a careful M>arrli 1 am unahh* to find in the Poiiiaett cotW- 
tinn of Mexican .inrii|uiti«'<s any Aztfc tlag«oU>t8 posMMin^ Qtb rtifltr 
hol«-«s «* ibUtf^ by Mr. IWh^r in Che Am4rt^^i^ VntHM^i^f of 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 87 

The desire to make imitations of objects by which they were 
surrounded emit musical tones, was no doubt suggested by the 
songs of birds and various sounds produced by animals. Qurney, 
in his admirable work entitled the '' Power of Sound," page 143, 
states that the third note of the scale has had a natural charm for 
man as for the cuckoo ; thus this well-known musical authority i 
recognizes the fact that certain musical sounds or tones were 
agreeable to the ears of man ; and hereafter, in a series of whistles 
or pitch-pipes, exhumed from the sepulchres of these Aztec people, 
I will endeavor to show that one of them is pitched almost 
precisely in the tones given by the Mexican Hyladse. That 
musical sounds attract the attention of barbarians and savages, 
is Well authenticated by travelers and those who have lived 
among them ; it may therefore be supposed that these children 
of nature noticed aiid strove to reproduce sounds, which, how- 
ever harsh and unmusical to us, to them were pleasing, because 
they recalled familiar objects. ' I am of the opinion that the chat- 
tering of macaws and parrots can be imitated upon several instru- 
ments I have denominated bird-calls, belonging to the Poinsett 
collection, in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; by 
short, quick blowing, they emit soCinds very similar to those given 
by a flock of the above-mentioned birds. 

Wind instruments were known to the Aztecs, as above indicated, 
by the bird-calls ; they also possessed flutes, whistles made of sea- 
shells and flageolets of baked clay or terra-cotta. 

There is a vase of this last-named material in the W. S. Vaux 
collection, now in the museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, upon which musical sounds may be produced, by 
applying the lips to certain parts. This unique specimen of a wind 
instrument was formerly in the. possession of my friend Professor 
Leidy, and afterward came into that of the late W. S. Vaux, Esq. 
It is somewhat Roman in form, of a dark color, and ornamented 
by four grotesque masks, placed around the exterior edge or upper 
rim of the base, between which, and the interior of the vessel, 
there is a broad plane some two inches in width, that is perforated 
at intervals by small slits at each side, exactly opposite the masks. 
When covered by the lips and blown into, these slits emit certain 
musical sounds ; by closing one of the eyes in the masks, which 
are hollow and connect by means of air-passages with the interior 
of the vase and slits upon the plane surface, some approach to a 




90 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

inRtruments under consideration to produce them* In answer to 
thiB, I will simply state that such an objection woald be agminst 
the evidence of historical and musical authorities, who hatt 
demonstrated that musical instruments of all nations, even of the 
most savape, have been constructetl with a thorough knowledfpe 
of their full value and ability in the production of miisica,! tont** 
This is shown, even in our day, by the savage tribcrs of Africa. 
and those of almost inaccessible regions in Asia, who thorougblr 
understand the instruments in use among them ; and fVom thc«e. 
we, with all our knowledge and musical comprehension, product 
no other tones than can the natives themselves. 

The flageolets, having been tested and compared with the flat* 
and organ, were found to l^e pitched in the following keys : two of 
similar color and 8ha|)e stand in the key of C natural, and one of 
like color in B natural ; another, smaller in size, stands in F sharp, 
and the most piTfect Aounds emitted came from the flageolet oft 
dark brown color, which was pitched in the key of B flat ; upon tb» 
instrument most of the experiments were conducted. It was fouol 
that by covering all four holes of the flageolet with the fingirr. 
C natural was pnKluced with the l>ell open ( Plate II), and by clomt 
this last-nanuHl portion with the little flnger, B flat could be oN 
taine<K thus lowering the instrument a tone and a half in aoofrl 
This action 1 have denominated finger-stopping, and it is a ctirii>o» 
fact « that this same method has )>een practiced by musician^t of 
our day with the han<l upon the French honi. The fact havioj 
Um'u demonstratiMl.that the (*avity in the cu|>-shaped depres«iionh»i 
lH»en us*'d for this pur|N)se, it was neressary to find whether lb* 
finger-stopping t-ould lK»st Ik* accomplished by the fourth fin^vr 
of the right lian<l, or the little finger then^of AAer repeated trial*. 
th«' little flnger was f:)und Ih'sI adapted to that ]>ur]K>8e, whick 
obliges the musician to hold the flageolet in the following^ manoer 
thf Ixxly of the instrument rests l>etw('en the ball of the tbuB^ 
and the flrst or index finger of the left hand, covering I P 
< riate II), thus sup|>orting the instrument. Hole No. 3 C i* 
rovere«l by the st'cond finger of the same hand. No. 2 B l*< 
the index finder <>f the ri^lit hand, and 1 A by the aecond AniEvr 
the little finger i*^ uh^mI as stated —for the finger-atoppiDg. Tbe 
iii-*trun)ent Umui: lieM as atM»viMleserilH>ti, the fourth of the !*c*r 
or K flat ean U* obtained by lialt*-('l<»ing the second hole or Wiur 
2 H ( riate II ).:^ r^uid 4 D remaining doN4*<l. The 9evenih^w\u>i 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 89 

terminal portion, or bell, is slightly concave exteriorly, of circular 
form, and decorated with designs of unique patterns, which have 
been stamped thereon while in a moist condition, by means of 
forms or dies ; some of these, evidently used for a similar purpose, 
and made of baked clay, are to be seen in the Academy. The 
internal portion of this bell is hollow, becoming convex as it 
approaches the edges, and contracting at the point of connection 
with the tube or barrel, to a thickness of half an inch. Around 
this is formed a small cup-like cavity, which bears a most important 
part in performing upon the instrument. A careful examination 
and analysis of the construction of these instruments was made 
from a large number of fragments, some of which were splintered 
and broken in such a manner that the internal structure was clearly 
shown. It appeared that they must have been formed in four 
parts, the neck, clay-reed, body and foot or bell, which were 
afterwards united together while in a moist condition. Traces of 
the sutures, although in most cases concealed by the modeling, 
can be detected in many of the instruments. 

It has been asserted in the beginning of this article, that the 
fourth and seventh tones of the diatonic scales could be produced 
upon these four-holed instruments (Plate III, fig. 1), and as this 
assertion is somewhat contradictory to most authorities who have 
hitherto written upon the subject, my method of proceeding shall 
be given in detail, with the result obtained. I propose to show — 

I. That the fourth, seventh and octave tones of the diatonic 
scale as known to us exist in the Aztec instruments. 

II. That the additional sounds or semi-tones, which constitute 
the chromatic scale, are likewise present. 

That the fourth and seventh tones do exist in the scale of the 
ancient Mexicans or Aztecs, and can be produced upon their clay 
flageolets, will be hereinafter shown. 

The objection may be raised, however, that although we, with 
our knowledge of music, which has only been gained by the 
experience and wisdom of centuries, can obtain all these tones, 
yet the Aztecs may have been ignorant of the ability of the 

1883, page 270 ; although the ancient Peruvians seem to have possessed 
flutes of this description, one of which is now in the cabinet of tl\e 
American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, and is mentioned by 
Mr. H. 8. Phillips, Jr., their Corresponding Secretary, in his interesting 
report for 1882, p.*15. 



\ 



92 PROCEED! NQS OIT THE ACADEMY OF [1863. 

F sharp, 1 A open, 2 B closed (see Plate), 3 C open and 4 D closed : 
G natural, 1 A open, 2 B half-elosed, 3 C open, and 4 D closed: 
A flat or G sharp, 1 A, 2 B, 3 C open, and 4 D closed. A nmtanl. 
the seventh of the scale, 1 A open, 2 B closed, 3 C and 4 D open. 
B flat, octave y is obtaineil by leaving all the holes and the bell 
o|)en.^ It becomes apparent by the above scales obtained apoo 
these four-fingered clay flageolets, representing the keys of B tUt. 
B natural, C natural and F sharp, that many interesting combi- 
nations could he obtained by their simultaneous use, such as coo- 
certed pieces, each flageolet sustaining a part. 

Professor J. S. Cox says : " I cannot imagine what object they 
had in view for pitching their flageolets in different tones, unleM 
each instniment was intended to perform a separate part, which 
when played together produced harmonious sounds ; this metbc^l 
is used in our day by some of the fife and drum corps, there beinc 
three ditferent kinds of fifes used in concert Thev 

• 

are too truthful in their various pitches (such as B natural. 
C natural, B flat, F sharp) for these to 1)6 accidental/^ These 
opinions of Professor Cox, whose reputation as a soloist upos 
the Boehm-flute is well known in America, cannot fail to inipm§ 
the cautious observer that something more than mere accidenl 
is represented by these instruments standing in different keys. 

The Aztec whistles, or pitch-pi jR's, in the collection of anti«|ui- 
ties already mentioned, were ascertained to stand in the kev o( 
K flat, and together yield a full octave, so that four }>crsonA couM 
play simple melodies upon them.- The fact tliat diiplicatt^ exi!4 
in several of the alMive-mentioned whistles and fla^^eolcts adiK 
much prolmbility to the theory already advanced, that these an? 
not tones which happen to stand in the keys enumerated, but that 



I It haM l>een fiu^^'eKtc<l that it waH iM>R8iMe to produce the entire 
(without rloMiii^ the )m*11) hy meaiiH of careful flngcr-maoipulaticNi npuB 
any re«Ml-fonne<l inKtruineiit willi four holes. Six notes can be ohtained 
by eareful tiii^ehn^ : an approach, to the seventh (though very imperfect 
and flat in Monnd.) run Ih« pnKhiced 1»y leaving all the holes open, aaJ 
M(»win^ htron^ly. After re)M'ate(l trials, I am of the opinion that there i» 
no wiiy of pHHlurin^ the octave uiH»n these four-holed Aztec instrumeiiti^ 
except by means of tiu^jer-sloppin^. 

' I have nunil>ered these piiH>s fn>m one to ci^ht (tonic to octave 
They, with their exihtin^^ duphcates, may t»e seen in the museum at the 
Academy of N;ilural Sciences of IMiiladolphia. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 91 

is A natural, is obtaiDed by closing 2 B,and leaving the other holes 
open. If these notes thus obtained be compared by a competent 
musician with any wind instrument of concert pitch, such as the 
flute, the truth of this assertion will be evident. 

Musical authorities seem to have arrived at the somewhat hasty 
conclusion, that the Aztec people were onl}' possessed of a knowl- 
edge of the so-called Pentatonic scale, but with all due deference 
to theix opinion, I must beg leave to differ upon this point, as it 
is not probable that intervals which are so easily obtained, were 
unknown to artisans capable of manufacturing these flageolets of 
terra-cotta, pitched in different keys, and of determining the exact 
distance apart of the finger-holes. This superior knowledge of 
their artisans is still further shown by the ingenious and scientific 
arrangement of the finger-perforations made in their whistles, or 
pitch-pipes, described hereafter, which, when covered, reduce the 
tone exactly a fourth ; equaling'the dominant of the scale. 

The more I study the musical instruments of these people, the 
firmer becomes my conviction that they must have possessed a 
full knowledge of the diatonic and chromatic scales ; which can 
be produced upon the four-holed clay flageolets by any one capable 
of manipulating our modem flutes. 

The instrument which stands in B flat, can be made to produce 
that note by closing all the holes and the bell (full finger-stop). 
B natural is more difficult to obtain, and is produced by a slight 
movement, with much care and precision, of the little finger out- 
ward from the centre of the cup-like cavity ; from which fact, and 
the skill required to produce C sharp, E fiat and G natural, I am 
inclined to believe that the Aztecs, like the ancient Peruvians, 
possessed musicians trained from early youth, who no doubt 
assisted in their religious ceremonies and festivals. C natural 
is produced with the four holes closed, and the cup-like cavity 
open.^ G sharp, 1 A half open, 2 B, 3 G, 4 D closed ; D natural, 
1 A entirely open, 2 B, 3 G and 4 D closed. E fiat, or the 
fourth of the scale, is produced by leaving 1 A open, 2 B half- 
closed, 3 G and 4 D closed; E natural, 2 B open, 1 A, 3 G and 
4 D closed ; F natural, 1 A and 2 B open, 3 G and 4 D closed ; 



' It may be seen in the Plate, that where it is necessary to close the cup- 
like cavity in these flageolets, S is used to indicate entirely closed, half 8 
for half-dofced, or half finger-stop, and O for open bell. 



\ 



92 PROCEEDINQS 0¥ THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

F sharp, 1 A open, 2 B closed (see Plate), 3 C open and 4 D closed ; 
G natural, 1 A open, 2 B half-closed, 3 C open, and 4 D closed ; 
A flat or G sharp, 1 A, 2 B, 3 C open, and 4 D closed. A natural, 
the seventh of the scale, 1 A open, 2 B closed, 3 C and 4 D open. 
B fiat, octave, is obtained by leaving all the holes and the bell 
open.^ It becomes apparent by the above scales obtained upon 
these four-fingered clay fiageolets, representing the keys of B flat, 
B natural, G natural and F sharp, that many interesting combi- 
nations could be obtained by their simultaneous use, such as con- 
certed pieces, each flageolet sustaining a part. 

Professor J. S. Cox says : " I cannot imagine what object they 
had in view for pitching their flageolets in different tones, unless 
each instrument was intended to perform a separate part, which 
when played together produced harmonious sounds ; this method 
is used in our day by some of the fife and drum corps, there being 

three different kinds of fifes used in concert They 

are too truthful in their various pitches (such as B natural, 
C natural, B flat, F sharp) for these to be accidental.'' These 
opinions of Professor Cox, whose reputation as a soloist upon 
the Boehm-flute is well known in America, cannot fail to impress 
the cautious observer that something more than mere accident 
is represented by these instruments standing in difierent keys. 

The Aztec whistles, or pitch-pipes, in the collection of antiqui- 
ties already mentioned, were ascertained to stand in the key of 
E flat, and together yield a full octave, so that four persons could 
play simple melodies upon them.^ The fact that duplicates exist 
in several of the above-mentioned whistles and flageolets adds 
much probability to the theory already advanced, that these are 
not tones which happen to stand in the keys enumerated, but that 



^ It has been suggested that it was possible to produoe the entire scale 
(witliout closing the bell) by means of careful finger-manipulation upon 
any reod-formed instrument with four holes. Six notes can be obtained 
by carefiil fingering ; an approach .to the seventh (though very imperfect 
and fiat in sound) can be produced by leaving all the holes open, and 
blowing strongly. After repeated tnals, I am of the opinion that there is 
no way of producing the octave upon these four-holed Aztec instruments, 
except by means of finger-stopping. 

'^ 1 have numbered these pipes from one to eight (tonic to octave). 
They, with their existing duplicates, may be seen in the muaeom of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 93 

they were made by artisans who thoroughly understood the prin- 
ciples of the scales as known to us ; moreover, upon these whistles 
a ninth, eleventh and twelfth can be obtained (the tenth or 
G natural is missing), which gives, with this exception, an octave 
and a fourth. 

Certain grotesque decorations upon these instruments may 
have some signification ; the one which produces E flat, or the 
tonic of the scale, possessing no ornamentation, is an exception 
to most all the others, which are enveloped b}' frog-like appen- 
dages or legs, with feet attached. The bodies are tipped with an 
ornament resembling the tails of young sparrows, and the under- 
neath portion thereof is furnished with an appendage or button, 
pierced by a hole, through which a cord was passed b}' which it 
was probabl}' attached to the body of the performer. (Plate III, 
fig. 3.) 

The ingenious way in which the Aztec whistles are modeled is 
well worthy of description, and must have occupied a great deal 
of time to accomplish it. They have no doubt been made in four 
parts, like the flageolets, and also possess a day reed, which is 
enveloped by the neck, to which is attached the body, furnished 
with a vent-hole. This body is a circular form, something like 
the bulb of a retort (such as used in our laboratories), and was 
no doubt fashioned upon a ball-shaped or circular form, and then cut 
into two portions ; one of these was joined to the neck, and the 
other piece fastened to it by careful modeling. An example of this 
can be seen in the double whistle (Plate III, fig. 4), where these two 
parts are shown somewhat separated ; no doubt the effect of the 
action of the heat while in the kiln. tThe object of thus forming 
the body in two portions can readily be seen by an examination 
of these instruments, which are, with few exceptions, very care- 
fully made, and the interior portion of the bodj' quite smooth and 
regular within, as any imperfection would interfere with the regu- 
larity and fulness of the sound. A smooth round form of some mate- 
rial was chosen upon which to model or shape the body portion, 
which it would be necessary to divide in two, so as to release it there- 
from, thus explaining the division of the above-named parts. The 
bodies of these whistles are each pierced by a stop-hole, which, if 
left unclosed when the instrument is blown, gives a clear piercing 
sound ; by covering the same, a note one-fourth below that given 
while open, is produced. This hole is generally placed to the 




94 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADElfT OF [1883. 

right side of a line drawn around the body from the centre of the 
vent. In playing the scale of E flat, all of the holes in these pipes 
are left open with the exception of that of pitch-pipe No. 2, which 
is closed, so as to produce F natural. 

To recapitulate, it would appear : I. That upon the four-holed 
clay flageolets the chromatic and diatonic scales can be produced 
with a AiU octave. II. That the clay whistles or pitch-pipes, 
which may be manipulated in quartette, will produce an octave 
and a fourth. III. From the facts above shown, the Aztecs must 
have possessed a knowledge of the scales as known to us, which 
has l)ecn fiilly tested by comparison with the flute and organ. 

These superior attainments in the science of music suggest that 
musicians of our day have arrived at a somewhat hasty decision 
in regard to the music of these ancient people having been con- 
flned within the narrow limits of a so-called pentatonic scale, as 
it is highly probable that they may have had melodies containing all 
the tones of the chromatic scale. Their ingenuity and skill in the 
production of these instruments may well claim the admiration of 
modorn musicians and artisans. It is earnestly hoped that a mnch- 
nogltH'ted branch of American ethnology — the study of native 
Ameriean music — will hei*ea(ler receive the proper investigation 
tluo so important a subject. No doubt the researches liow in 
pn^grtMiis, under the auspices of the Bureau of Ethnology at 
Washington, will develop many interesting (acts in this con- 
mvtion. 



1883.] natural sciences op philadelphia. 95 

April 24. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-nine members present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : 
" On the Structure of the Skull of the Hadrosauridae," by 
Edward D. Cope. 

"On some Vertebrate Forms from the Permian of Illinois,'' by 
Edward D. Cope. 

A Social Heliozoan, — Prof. Leidy exhibited drawings and made 
some remarks on a singular Heliozoan recently observed by him. 
His attention had been directed to it b}' Mr. Edward Potts, who 
discovered it, contained in considerable numbers in water, with 
vegetal debris, from Lake Hopatcong, N. J., where it had been 
obtained last autumn. The animal occurred mostly in groups 
composed of numerous individuals. One of these groups, of 
irregular, cylindroid shape, 0*84 mm. long by 0*36 mm. broad, was 
estimated to contain upwards of a hundred individuals. They 
reminded one of a mass of tangled burs. They remained nearly 
stationary even for twenty-four hours, and exhibited so little 
activity , that without careful scrutiny they might readily be taken 
for some inanimate structure. The individuals composing the 
groups appeared to be connected together only by mutual attach- 
ment of their innumerable rays, and none were observed to be 
associated b}'^ cords of protoplasm extending between the bodies 
of the animals, as seen in Raphidiophrys elegans. The individuals 
associated together were of two kinds : those which were active, 
and a smaller proportion which were in an encj'^sted, quiescent 
condition. 

The active individuals resembled the common sun-animalcule. 
The body was usually spherical or oval, but variable from con- 
traction, colorless, granular and vesicular, with a large central 
nucleus more or less obscurely visible and variably granular, with 
three or four or more peripheral contractile vesicles. The body 
had a thick envelope of delicate protoplasm, with innumerable 
and immeasurably fine, straight spicules. The envelope with the 
spicules extended in numerous conical rays, from which pro- 
ceeded numerous immeasurably fine granular rays. The encysted 
individuals presented the same essential constitution, except that 
the body was regularly' spherical, enclosed by a structureless 
envelope or membrane, contained no contractile vesicles, and the 
enveloping protoplasm was devoid of granular rays. The body 
of the active individuals measured from 0*024 to 0*036 mm. in 
diameter; in the encysted individuals, usually about 0*02 mm. 
An active individual, with the body 0*033 mm. in diameter, with 
its envelope was 0*055 mm. in diameter. An encysted individual, 
with the body 0*02, with its envelope was 0*036 mm. 

The active individuals were ob.^erved to feed on two species of 



96 PR0CBBDTNQ8 OF TUB ACADBMT OP [1881 

minute monads, which were swallowed in the same manner a§ 
in Actinophrys. After some hours, a few individuals appear to 
have separated from the surface of one of the groufie, but tbej 
were as stationary and sluggisli as when in association with others 
The 8i)ecies is apparently distinct from others which have been 
previousl}' noticed, and may be named Raphidiophrys socially 

Daniel E. Hughes, M. D., and Edwin S. Balcli were elected 
momlKjrs. 

May 1. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty persons present. 

May 8. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-five persons present. 

Canadian Notes. — Mr. Jos. Willcox remarked that a noticeable 
feature in tlie Canadian landscape is the scarcity of springs of 
water and running streams. The latter, when they exist, siv 
alnA)st exclusively the outlets of lakes, which are very numerous 
in that country. The abundance of lakes there is a fortunate 
occurrence, as they store a large amount of water for use in sap- 
plying |K)wer to mills and drink for live stock during the drv 
summor and early autumn. Hy the action of the ancient glacier* 
a large portion of the soil of Canada has l)een carried away, the 
underlying rocks UHng usually near the surfa(*e, and in mssr 
cosrs visible a)K>ve the ground. It is reasonable to conclude tbat 
the absence of springs of water is due to the prevailing scareitr 
of deep soil, tht* material necessary to soak up a large amount of 
rain and melting snow, from which springs are supplied, heinic 
detlcient. His observations were confined to the country which 
lies north of Kingston and Brockvillo, in the Province of Ontario. 
In .Ivtrrrson an<i St. Lawrence Counties, in New York, small 
isolated areas of Potsdam sandstone (H'cur, overlying tbe 
Laurentian granite and limestone. Sometimes the}' cover a %Tmct 
of only a few stpiare yards. North of the St. Lawrence River, for 
a distance of more than one hundred miles, the Laurentian rock» 
are frequently covered with disconnected patches of calciferouA 
sandstone and Trenton limestone. These remnants undoubtedlv 
indicate the former existence of those rocks of great extent. 
overlying the Laurentian granitt*and limestone, the former havini; 
]H*en subHtvpiently n*move<i by erosion. The ancient glacien 
have probably |MTformed a large share of this work, as their 
erosive action, which has torn and worn away the granite rock« 
to a coiisi<U*rable extent, would operate more rapidly on the softer 
limestones and sandstones. 

The following were ordered to W printed: — 



t 



OS T«l Cf 4B4CTBat Of TSt tSf U IS TSt BAOMOAf ElOA 

If. f^« «iar l«ll |*rffr*«a>r < >«rli •li*|.li|*iii*firil lltr /»• iiffci^r iJ 
fr-.tii • tlM-r rT|'liit« «• an •»r«lrr i l»ir»' Irnfrtl }*\ %Ur •triii lurr of 
tl.« •». riitii.lLr litiil«. aImI tiM ftftif lUttiilt* i>f tli«- n^"* «iUi thr 
^•r*<'*ji T^* 1« f.iiiT i<>ii of ;ii« i.r (• r r« matiM^I ■iIImmiI •<• f-« 

• ixfi >,*. i.l iti |«Tu rr»>f ||u%l« « ' •!• Irrruint •! t\»r rliaf» lrr« nf 
tt.f {• li .• Tl« • itn|«ift.«rkt ••Mil'i'tt t«i our kll>>«lr«i|^ |*U<^«I Ibr 
ii'ilr' ot A firiii* r >«•!« \.t lit flit. llii|i» mrr* \r( •!• ri«r«| \*% 
«J*.^tr «i<tt* 'f rr**tu Vtr aWull ••• that tltr r«-lalit-ti*li-|i« ••! tlir 
/«• » : ri I ttiH rrtliftir.fl i>*««iirr |n l*»'l |*rt*fr«»iif Ovrii <lr 
fti r ^m-\ )«rt «'f tilt •Wtili iif a«|««i««i*f ^ • .'it^ ••&!'> rw« fr/»tii |lir 
I •.^. tf I »• (III t^is iiii|«rfi«'. t«*i« I %fliiturT<l in l«7u'ti» 

• h!«rni -f «tMll*«r tfir /'i*vt«4^ia arr ii>t»hii»«»«|\ lit-«'.r t>r 

• *.'«,* •*.«!. >*.« «i. I I a-1 l««l t>* llir iltAiitixn 'T tiH «*rltr, 

%\\% \*\ i^tt Irrnt* . ati*l \»U t ' ' tv^-^iiiailfattirii *kr'. u i«t»|t<«l « i!h 
.!• • .•!■ ft* f.ini (l •'itiifr tltif* I ■^»' 'lift til**' r«|'tiiri» lU t'lc 
iij>«; lu '•'. \ .• itr •« rif • Tl«i* ( harfti tf r. tf f«Hin«| t'l (^ ^ • ii« ml 
1* I • . I* r. «<ull •! •titi^ii:»ti it «••! fr^iti lit* / i> • r 1,1. 1 ai.il 
i;«' %i* :>t>-7 a!?.it.t « to tl*r ( »-. , ..^i i i 

I » ■ rlf f • ti<* »»'«• a mm. '- r if faiii...« ■ I at « vm- &.»c |>r • 
i- »• . * r* ft r *..'.• ui tf t^rr«- aw'^'rlvr*.* ami lluuU^ i «*fi* |i#<tr«| 
*. V •* * *• k •:. .. ! '« \T'mt,^* \ .1. t« • • .% r^t* r« * |*r«*f« v^iir W ar*h. 
%t\' r •'. .•.fk|; * .»! 4.rw ..f 11,1 tt.r«-« «<'tlcf* ■ >v«i| A^y ••!« ■•• 
• •*. ' •'■• i -1. • .»r»4 ta ^« V r r<>ti«>-ij*i t Bt,r.|ar«| !■• it* t^|« l>1t 

|f«»- ••••.••• J»f'-j--*i"|'.'-|.* »• t.» /*i«.|ri>l -.!(•« ••«rtl 
».• .«'• Ilr.mitff r«^'Br'|i«lt«i/*t«>i-»i4a«a*i.*«ii*«ft^<l 
«l * '. ! t u\** '..%* f'tr*. •.:,# '. jfil. ..f •!.■!# .• i< n.|«-M^t of 
t* f.« •.'•r«ttr« I t«r iLara4!«r* >.w*l '« \|ar«ti t-> Itfiit* t^l• 

• ; -,••«■«) stj** >•••, ■!•* 1*' -t i ff* ' f'' m If. ••* |>fi ^ ■■'*•.» •!• «« '"t*«l 
a* t • > « < •!• -l. < %• « I * bif tj.at a ttntt.'!* r an ibtr< alt^* «•! « '.*• h 

r .-• ' »-• %-M' \Mitf I!* v-.... -. :•? t !•?: |, rv 

T »!•.»' •:• \m'*f «•- I'^.-ik -, . .ft. ■»•• all t I. : •^y 1^ T9 

\ «^ J •. f s. \tia. ■**:, » •■ 



98 PE0CEEDIN08 OF TIIE ACADEMT OF [1885- 

cannot l)e used to distinguinh a subclass, or in some instanoes aa 
order. In like manner, the definitions of his orders and suborder* 
embrace many characters which are not usually regarded mm 
defining groups higlier than families. Such, e, g.^ are the nomben 
of roes; relative sizes of fore- and hind-limbs; solidity or nos- 
solidity of bones ; presence or absence of dermal armor. Mock 
light was, however, thrown on the subject by Professor Marsk. br 
the numerous characters he brought to light, and the number of 
formH he defiued. 

The constitution of the pefvis is shown by Marsh to diHer 
materially in the different members of the Dinogauria, As thift 
region presents characters diagnostic of the order IHnamiuriM 
itself, its moiiiflcatiouH within the order become of importance. 
The ungulate or unguiculate character of the feet must also noc 
l)e neglected, although of less importance than in the mammalia 
If the order is sunceptible of division into suborders, it must be 
by means of the following deHriitions, which I select trom Marsh*t 
diagnoses : 
Feet ungulate ; pubes projecting and connected in fkx>nt ; no 

poHtpubes ; OpuUhocctU. 

Feet ungulate ; puln's projecting free in front ; postpubcs present: 

Orihf>podA. 
Feet unguiculate; pubes projecting downwards and co&ssifled di*- 

tally ; calcaneuni not pro<lueed ; Ooniopodd. 

Feet unguiculate; calcuueum much produced backwards ; ? pelfit: 

MallitpadM. 

I have used for these orders the oldest names when the defist- 
tiouH first given were not erroneous, although they were inadequstr. 
Thus I think the name OpiMhtH-wla (Owen') must take procedeocf 
of Sfiurof)4Mia Marsh. I combine Marsh's two divisions, Sir^ 
Haurifi an<l Ornithnj^Kin^ into one, and use the name I gave is 
istw; and redetimMl iu 18r»9,2 for the division thus remodeled. 
The name Gonut/HHla^ given at the same time, I desig;ned to 
eiiibnice the carnivorous />i/joxrn/riVi, but included in mv defisi- 
tion some charaeters whieh are of less significance than I tbeii 
attached to them. 

Frof. Huxley recognizeil three families: the Scelidosauridw M»i 



' Pala>oiil<)U»j;y. \^\ p. '2T2. 

' TranHiu'tiouh American Phihw*. Sik\, xiv, p. 90. See American XataraliM, 
1***<V\ Manli. 






1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 9? 



OV THE CHABACTBBS OF THB SKULL IK THE HADB08AUBIDJE. 

BY B. D. COPE. 

In the year 1841, Professor Owen* distinguished the DinosauHa 
from other reptiles, as an order characterized by the structure of 
the sacrum, the limbs, and the articulations of the ribs with the 
vertebrae. The definition of the order remained without acces- 
sion, until, in 1870, Prof. Huxley ^ determined the characters of 
the pelvis. This important addition to our knowledge placed the 
order on a firmer basis. No definitions were yet derived by 
either author from the skull, so that the relationships of the 
Dinosauria still remained obscure. In 18B1 Professor Owen de- 
scribed part of the skull of a species of Scelidosaurus fr6m the 
Engli8h Lias. On this imperfect basis I ventured in 18?0*to 
determine whether the Dinosattria are monimostylicate or 
streptostylicate ; and I added to the definition of tne order, 
"attached quadrate ; " and later* " os-quadratum articulated with 
its suspensorium b}*^ suture,'^ thus placing these reptiles in the 
monimostylicate series. This character, if found to be general 
in the order, would distinguish it well from the Lacerlilia, and 
give a point of affinity to the Grocodilia, 

This order embraces a number of families. I at one time pro- 
posed to refer them to three suborders,* and Huxley concluded 
that they should be arranged in two suborders.* Professor Marsh, 
after showing that one of my three orders (Symphypoda) was 
established on characters erroneously ascribed to its type by 
previous writers, proposed to divide the Dinosauria into seven 
suborders. He later ^ regarded the Dinosauria as a subclass, and 
divided it into five orders, the fourth of which is composed of 
three suborders, The characters used by Marsh to define this 
supposed subclass, do not differ from those previously developed 
as above cited, excepting that a number are introduced which 

^ British Fossil Reptiles, 

' Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, p. 33. 

'American Naturalist, 1871, p. 508. 

* Proceedings Amer, Assoc. Adv. Science, 1870 (1871), p. 233. 

^ Transactions American Philosophical Society, xiv, 1869, 90-99. 

• Quai-terly Jour. Geolog. Soc., London, 1870. 
' Amer. Jour, Soi. Arts, 1882, p. 83. 



■^ rf V , << •< 



100 PR0CEEDIN08 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883- 

duced calcaneum, which supports the extremity of the fibaU. 
There are four digits of the anterior foot, and three of the pos- 
terior. The fore-limb is much shorter than the hind-limb, so thai 
tlic attitude of the animal was kangaroo-like, as in Hadrom»uru$ 
and Laelapa, In this it differed from Monoclonius^^ where the 
anterior limbs are as long as the posterior. 

Ordinal Characters, — The quadrate bone is immovably articii- 
lated to the skull by three elements ; the parietal, the quadrmUv 
Jugal, and the jugal. The interealare occupies a position on the 
external edge of the exoccipital, and nearly approaches tlie 
proximal end of the quadrate at its posterior side. The post- 
frontals and prefontals are well developed, and the parietak« 
frontals, nasals and premaxillaries form the middle line of the 
skull above, as in other reptiles. The elements of the lower jaw 
belonging to reptiles are all present. 

Subordinal and Family Characlem, — The parietal Is, as to it* 
su|)erior face, a T-shaped bone, of which the transverse portlos 
rcHlA on the Hupraoccipital bone, without interspace. The extenud 
extremities of the transverse branches are excavated below to 
receive the proximal end of the quadrate. These extensions of 
the parietal are stout, and represent the parietosqiiamosal arrb 
of the Lncertilin. Resting as they do on the occipital, they pre<»rtt 
a character exactly intermediate between those presented by tie 
CriK'Oililia and Lavertilia, 

The ziftjomatic arrh is complete, having the usual flexure ob^wnrt^ 
in reptili'H, and bnmching to a postorbital arch by the intermi- 
tion of :i postorbital hone. The postorbital part of the zygomatic 
arch forms the external lM)rcler of the HU|>erior aspect of the skull, 
and en('loH<>s a crotaphite foramen. The portions of the frootal 
and parietal l>ones which separate the crotaphite foramina^ fons 
a narrow isthmuK. The postorbital part of the zygcima consi«U 
cliictly (»f the H<|uainos:il. This element is rodlikc, and does n*^ 
reach or take part in the articulation with the quadrate. In thi« 
rcj*|K»ct this genus differs matiTially from Scelido9aHruMt^ wherv. 
accordin«r to Owen, the s<iuaniosal is more extended posteriorir. 
and Hiticulates with the su|>erior part of the (|uadrate by a fisni 
urtic'ulation. The external portions of the parietal are thos, li 
Srt lidoMdurtiit^ correspondingly reduced. 

The mahir or jtujnl Imiuc is of large size, while the quanlrss*^ 

' PriHvedinvcv IMiila. Ar^lemy, l^Trt, October. 



«• *• • • • -•, • 

• •• • . • 

• . • • • 

• . • • . . • 

. • • • • 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 99 

Iguanodontidse, which belong to the Orthopoda^ and the Megalo- 
sauridse^ which pertains to the Ooniopoda. To the former, I 
added the family Hadrosauridae in 1869, and in 18t7 I defined 
the Camarasauridx, of the suborder Opisthocoela,^ To this family 
Marsh gave, in 1882, the mime of Atlantosauridae,^ At the same 
time he proposed a number of families, some of which will be 
retained, while others are not sufficiently defined. 

The Hadrosauridae are, so fer as known, confined to the upper 
cretaceous beds of North America, and continued, with their 
accompanying carnivorous genera, later in geological time than 
any other Dinosauria, Besides the genus Hadrosaurus^ I have 
added the genera Diclonius and Cionodon, and it is possible that 
the genera Monoclonius^ Dysganus and Agathaumas also belong 
to it. These types are all found in the Laramie formation, 
excepting Hadrosaurus, which is as yet only known from the 
older Fox Hills or Msestrichtian, and Pierre epochs. From the 
latter formations, came also Hypsibema, possibly a member of the 
same family. 

As the latest in time, the Dinosavria of the Laramie possess an 
especial interest. Having recently obtained a specimen of a species 
of the genus Diclonius Cope, I am in a position to give not only the 
characters of the family and suborder more definitely than here- 
tofore, but also to furnish some cranial characters of the order, 
which have been hitherto little known or unknown. The species 
on which these observations are made is the Diclonius mirabilis^ 
of Leidy. It is represented by a nearly complete skeleton, in- 
cluding the skull, which was discovered by Messrs. Wortman and 
Hill in the Laramie beds of Dakota. At present, I only describe 
the general characters, and those chiefly cranial, leaving the com- 
plete description and iconography for my forthcoming volume on 
the Laramie vertebrate fauna. 

The character which distinguishes this genus from Hadrosaurus 
is the attenuation of the astragalocalcaneum, and its coossifioation 
with the tibia. Ornithotarsus differs from Diclonius in the pro- 

^ Proceedings American Philosophical Soc., 1877, p, 243. 

" Amer. Jour. Sci. Ai-ts, 1882, p. 83. 

' This species is part of the one called by Leidy Traehodon mirabilis, 
who included in it a species of Dysganus, He did not characterize the 
genus Traehodon, and afterwards abandoned it. (Proceedings Academy, 
Phila., 1868, p. 199.) 



• •••••• 

: • •:• 



V: 




100 PROCEEDINGS OP THE AGADEMT OF [1883. 

duced calcaneum, which supports the extremity of the fibula. 
There are four digits of the anterior foot, and three of the pos- 
terior. The fore-limb is much shorter than the hind-limb, so that 
the attitude of the animal was kangaroo-like, as in Hadrosaurus 
and Lselaps. In this it differed from Monoclonius,^ where the 
anterior limbs are as long as the posterior. 

Ordinal Characters, — The quadrate bone is immovably articu- 
lated to the skull by three elements ; the parietal, the quadrato- 
jngal, and the jugal. The intercalare occupies a position on the 
external edge of the exoecipital, and nearly approaches the 
proximal 'end of the quadrate at its posterior side. The post- 
frontals and prefontals are well developed, and the parietals, 
frontals, nasals and premaxillaries form the middle line of the 
skull above, as in other reptiles. The elements of the lower jaw 
belonging to reptiles are all present. 

Subordinal and Family Characters, — The parietal is, as to its 
superior face, a T-shaped bone, of which the transverse portion 
rests on the supraoccipital bone, without interspace. The external 
extremities of the transverse branches are excavated below to 
receive the proximal end of the quadrate. These extensions of 
the parietal are stout, and represent the parietosquamosal arch 
of the Lacertilia. Resting as they do on the occipital, they present 
a character exactly' intermediate between those presented by the 
Crocodilia and Lacertilia, 

The zygomatic arch is complete, having the usual flexure obsei'ved 
in reptiles, and branching to a postorbital arch by the interven- 
tion of a postorbital bone. The postorbital part of the zygomatic 
arch forms the external border of the superior aspect of the skull, 
and encloses a crotaphite foramen. The portions of the frontal 
and parietal bones which separate the crotaphite foramina, form 
a narrow isthmus. The postorbital part of the zygoma consists 
chiefly of the squamosal This element is rod like, and does not 
reach or take part in the articulation with the quadrate: In this 
respect this genus differs materially from Scelidosaurus^ where, 
according to Owen, the squamosal is more extended posteriorly, 
and articulates with the superior part of the quadrate by a fixed 
articulation. The external portions of the parietal are thus, in 
Scelidosaurus^ correspondingly reduced. 

The malar or jugal bone is of large size, while the quadrato- 






•••••• • 

•• • • • 

: ••• \ 



^ Proceeding's Phila. Academy, 1876, October. 



1883.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 101 

jugal is rather small. Its articulation with the quadrate is 
squamosal. The maxillary is convex on its outer face, presenting 
the teeth inwards. The nasals are distinct, and much narrowed 
forwards to their junction with the spines of the premaxillaries. 
The latter bones are distinct. They form, when viewed from 
above, an anchor-shaped bodv, with the curved flanges extending 
outwards and backwards. These enclose, with the anterior apex 
of the maxlllaries, the huge external nareal orifices, which were 
probably roofed over by membrane, as in the birds. 

The pterygoids extend well posteriorly as broad plates, and are 
in close contact with the inferior part of the quadrates. They are 
separated for a short distance on the middle line posteriorly by a 
fissure, which, with the narrow space between the pterygoids and 
the presphenoids, gives exit to the transversely narrowed posterior 
narcs. The occipital condyle looks downwards. The sphenoid is 
posteriorly horizontal, and overlaps the basioccipital with only a 
trace of lateral tuberosities ; but in front it is curved abruptly 
downwards. At this point, an elongate, flattened, truncate process 
extends posteriorly, forming the median pai*t of the roof of the 
fissure of the posterior nares. In front of this fissure the pter}^- 
goids are in contact, and extend a considerable distance ante- 
riorly ; at least to opposite to the border of the large anterior 
palatomaxillary foramen. 

The maxillary bone is produced far posteriorly, so as to define 
the zygomatic foramen on the inner side. The palatine bone 
extends posteriorly between it and the pterygoid for a considerable 
distance, when the expanding pterygoid cuts it off, and extends 
to the posterior extremity of the maxillary, closing the space 
occupied in the Lacertilia by the posterior palatomaxillary foramen. 
I cannot distinguish whether the portion which extends to the 
maxillary bone is distinguished as an ectopterygoid. The posterior 
edge of this part of the pterygoid projects below the posterior part 
of the bone, which is nearly horizontal until it reaches the quad- 
rate. It then ascends, forming a lamina on the inner side of that 
bone, i*eaching the process from the inner side of the condyle. 

The vomer is a narrowed, horizontal lamina between the anterioi' 
parts of the maxillary bones, anterior to which point it does not 
appear to extend. It soon becomes a vertical lamina, spreading 
at the base, where it is in contact with the middle line of contact 
of the pterygoid bones (and perhaps of the palatines, but these 



104 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OP [ISSl 

series Rueeeed each other in columns of from five to eight te<ih. 
each, following an arc of a circle. The fiuperior arc is convti 
externally ; the inferior arc is convex internally, or towanls tbr 
position of the tongue. It results that the opposed grinding Mr- 
faces of the two dental series are vertical. The cemcntum-pUteof 
the tooth is, in both sets, on the convex side of tiie tooth, hence 
external and inferior in the sui)erior teeth, and internal and supe> 
rior in the inferior teeth. The teeth replace each other differently 
in the two jaws, or rather the replacement of the teeth does d<< 
partake of the general reversal of r^elations which the opposite Aerir^ 
present in all other resi)ects. The successional teeth rise in hi>tti 
jaws on the inner sides of the older teeth. From this it follov«. 
that in the su)X3rior series the replacement is on the noD-functionil 
sideof the tooth, or from the side which does not hear the cementum- 
phite. In the lower jaw, the successional teeth follow on tlie shU 
that Itears the ceuieutum-plate, ho that one tootli must lie wont 
away Ik? fore the aj>ex of its successor can come into use. The 
arrangement of the superior series permits the successional v>^ 
overlap the functional tooth far beyond the l>a8e of the eDam^ 
plate, which in point of fact they do in the Diclonius mirabilu, 
though not to the same extent as in the Cionodon arctatuti. Tbe 
su|MTi<>r teeth are smaller ainl narrower in form than the inferior. 
and both have a keel on the median line of their cement um-fiuv. 
There are no teeth on the anterior i)arts of the surangular l<»ikr 
nor on tlie dentary or premaxillary l)ones. The extremity of the 
nni/./.h' is a thittrned spatnhite !K»ak. 

Dermal or corneous stru<'tur(^^ have left distinct traces in tht 
sntl matrix about tlir rnd of the )»eak-like muzzle. Lamioie t*r 
brown rimnants of organic structures were exposed in removing 
th«* matrix. One of these extends as a broad vertical Imnd roui>: 
the sides, indicating a vertical rim to the lower Jaw, like thi: 
which surrounds "^oinetea tray^^and which probably representj^ lh< 
toniia t>f the horn\ sheath of a bird's lK»ak. At the front of ibc 
niuz/lr its face is sharply undulat*', presenting the appearance*'^ 
vertical cnlnuuis with tooth-like apices. Correapontlini; tooth- 
like |.roress«s, «it* mucli smaller size, alternate with them fnm 
the upper jaw. These probably an* the remains of a serratioo *^f 
thr (Xtn inital part of tlie horny toinia, such as exist on the lateni 
porti«»iis in tin- lanulliro^tml birds. 

>>f.^f* tmifir //»'>'///.-. — Tin- HtructuR' of the skull of this speii^^ 
:»dds s«un* • ontirm.uion ti» th» hyjvithfr'sis of the avian affiniKi^ 



1883.] NATURAL SGIliNCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 103 

.Lacertilia, and no perforations either external or internal, in agree- 
ment with the same type. The coronoid process is very large and 
elevated, and its base, which is crescentic in section, is embraced 
by the surangular, and is reached posteriorly by tlie anterior pro- 
longation of the articular. Its posterior face is concave, and its 
apex is curved anteriorly, reaching the superior edge of the jugal 
bone at the inferior border of the orbit. The angular bone forms 
the internal border of the dental fossa, and extends to the 
posterior edge of the splenial above. Below, it sends a prolonga- 
tion forwards. The greater part of the external and inferior faces 
of the ramus are formed by the surangular bone, which has an 
enormous extent, far exceeding in size that of any known reptile. 
It extends posteriorly to below the quadrate cot3'^lus. Anteriorly 
it spreads laterally, and unites with its fellow of the opposite side, 
forming a short symph^'^sis, and simulating a dentary. At the 
base of the internal side of the ramus, it is separated from the 
anterior prolongation of the angular by an open Meckelian groove, 
which shallows out near the middle of its length. In correspond- 
ence with this extent of the surangular, the splenial is enormously 
developed, and contains the great magazine of teeth which I have 
described as characteristic of this type.^ Its inteinal wall is very 
thin, and adhei*es closely to the faces of the teeth, in the fossil, in 
its present condition. This development and dentition of the 
splenial bone distinguishes the Hadrosauridas widely from the 
Iguanodontidse. The dentary bone is a fiat semicircular plate 
attached by suture to the extremities of the surangulars. There 
is no trace of symphysial suture, and the posterior border sends a 
median prolongation backwards, which is embraced b}' the suran- 
gulars. The edge of the dentary is fiat, thin, and edentulous, and 
closes within the edge of the premaxillary. 

The dentition is remarkable for its complexity, and for the dif- 
ference in character presented by the superior and inferior series. 
Leidy pointed out the character of the latter ^ in the Hadrosaurus 
foulkei^ and I have described the character of the superior denti- 
tion in the genera Cionodon * and Diclonius,* The teeth of both 

» Bulletin U. 8. Geol. Survey Territories, F. V. Hayden ; iii, p. 594-7. 
May, 1877. 

* Cretaceous Reptiles North America, 1864, p. 88. 

' Yertebrata of Cretaceous foimations of the West, 1875, p. 59. 

* Proceedings Philadelphia Academy, 1876, p. 250. 



106 PROOEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [IS83. 

The extremital teeth of both series are smaller than the great 
majority, which are of equal size and similar foi-m. Thone of the 
suj)erior series are rod-like, narrowed at the extremities, and flat- 
tened on one side. Tlie edges of the cement um-plate are not 
serraU*, and the other faces of the tooth are finely rugose with 
cement urn -granules. In the inferior series, the cement um-iaces 
are diamond-shaped, and the tooth may thus be distinguished into 
crown and root. The concealed surfaces are finely rugose ; the 
edges of the cementum-plate are not serrate, and its surface is 
smooth. As compared with the Hadrosaurus foulkei^ the dental 
magazine is much deeper, and contains a greater number of teeth 
in a vertical column, and probably a larger number in the aggre- 
gate. I find in each maxillary bone of the Dicloniua mirabiliM 
six hundred and thirty teeth, and in each splenial bone four hao- 
dred and six teeth. The total number is then two thousand and 
seventv-two. 

According to Mr. Wortman, who, with Mr. Hill, dug the skeleton 
out, its total length is thirty -eight feet. The length of the skull 
is 1*180 meters. 

Bestoration. — This animal in life presented the kangaroo-like 
proportions ascribed by Leidy to the Iladronaurus foulkei^ The 
anterior limbs an* small, and were doubtless used occaHionsiIv for 
support, and rarely for prehension. This is to l>e 8uppose<l from 
the fact that the ungual phalanges of the manus are hoof-like, 
an<l not daw-like, though less ungulate in their character 
than tho^^e of the posterior foot. The inferior presentation of th^ 
occipital condyle shows that the head was borne on the summit of 
a vertical neck, and at right-angles to it, in the manner of a bini 
The head would 1k» poised at right-j»ngles to the neck when the 
animal rested on the anterior feet, by the aid of aU-like flexure of 
the cervical vertebra*. The general apjiearance of the head Bust 
have lH*en much like that of a bird. 

The nature <»f the lH*ak and the <lentition indicate, for this 
strange animal, a diet of soft vegetable matter. It could not hare 
eaten the branehe** of trees, since any pressure sufficient for their 
coinnnniition would have proliably broken the slightly attacbrd 
teeth ot" the lower jaw iVoin their places, and have sc^attered 
them on the fioor of the mouth. It is ditticult to understand alw 
how such a w(>ak spatulate Iveak, could have collected or hafv 
broken otf boughs of trees. By the aid of its dentate homj cd|t 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 105 

•of the Dinosauria^ which I first announced, as indicated by the hind- 
limbs, and which Professor Huxley soon after observed in the char- 
acters of the limbs and pelvis. The confirmation is, however, 
empirical rather than essential, and is confined to a few points. 
One of these is the form and position of the vomer, which much 
resembles that seen in lamellirostral birds. The large development 
of the' premaxillary bone has a similar significance. So has the 
toothless character of that bone and the dentary. 

Among reptiles, this skull combines, in an interesting way, the 
characters of the two orders Crocodilia and Lacertilia, The 
presence of the ethmoid above the maxillary and overlapping the 
lachrymal, is unique among vertebrata, so far as I am aware. The 
free exoccipito-intercalare hook is scarcely less remarkable. 

Of mammalian affinity there is no trace to be found. 

Specific Characters, — The general form and appearance of the 
skull, as seen in profile, is a good deal like that of a goose. From 
above it has more the form of a rather short-billed spoonbill 
{Platalea\ For a reptile, the head is unusually elevated poste- 
riorly, and remarkably contracted at the anterior part of the 
maxillaries. The fiat, transverse expansion of the premaxillaries 
is absolutely unique. The posterior edges of the occipital bones 
are produced far backwards, forming a thin roof over the anterior 
part of the vertebral column. This roof is supported by two 
strong buttresses, one from each side of the foramen magnum. 
The latter is a vertical oval. The exoccipital (carrying the inter- 
calare) descends on each side, forming a free hook-like process 
behind the superior half of the quadrate. The recurved process 
of the lateral branches of the parietal underruns the squamosal 
two-thirds the length of the latter. The quadrate is separated 
by a rather narrow, obliquely vertical fossa, from the postorbital 
arch, owing to the posterior position of the latter. 

The orbit is posterior in position, and is a horizontal oblong in 
form. The superior (superciliary) border is flat, with slight 
rugosities at the positions of the pre- and postfrontal sutures. 
The frontal region is a little concave, and there is a convexity of 
the superior face of the prefrontal bone in front of the line of the 
orbit. The peculiar position of the teeth gives the side of the 
face, when the mandible is closed, a horizontally extended con- 
cavity. There are four and a half tooth-like colums on each aide 
of the middle line of the end of the muzzle. 
8 



106 PB0CEEDINQ8 OF THE ACADCMT OF [1883. 

• 

The extremital teeth of both series are smaller than the great 
majority, which are of equal size and similar foi-m. Those of the 
8ui>erior series are rod-like, narrowed at the extremities, and flat- 
tened on one side. The edges of the cemen turn-plate are not 
serraU*, and the other faces of the tooth are finely rugose with 
cement uni -granules. In the inferior series, the cementum-faces 
are diamond-shaped, and the tooth may thus l)e distinguished into 
crown and root. The concealed surfacres are finely rugose ; the 
edges of the cementum-plate are not serrate, and its surface is 
smooth. As compared with the Hadrosaurtis foulkei^ the dental 
magazine is much deeper, and contains a greater number of teeth 
in a vertical column, and probably a larger number in the aggre- 
gate. I find in each maxillary bone of the Diclonius mirabilia 
six liundre<l and thirty teeth, and in each splenial bone four hun- 
dred and six teeth. The total number is then two thousand and 
seventv-two. 

According to Mr. Wortman, who, with Mr. Hill, dug the skeleton 
out, its total length is thirty-eight feet. The length of the skull 
is 1-180 meters. 

Restoration, — This animal in life presented the kangaroo-like 
pro[w>rtionK ascrilKMl bv Leidy to the Iladrosaurun foulkeu The 
anterior limbs arc small, and were doubtless used (H'caHionailv for 
support, and rarely for prehonsion. This is to Ihj sup]K>se<l from 
the fact that the ungual [)ha1nngeK of the man us are hoof-like« 
and not claw-like, though less ungulate in their character 
than those of the posterior foot. The inferior presentation of the 
o<'cipital condyle shows that the hea<l was borne on the summit of 
a vertical xnH^/i, and at right-angles to it, in the manner of a bird. 
The hea<l would U* |K)iH<Mi at right-{»nglc8 to the neck when the 
animal reste<l on the anterior fe<»t, by the aid of a U-like flexure of 
the cervical vertebrip. The general ap]>earance of the head must 
have lH*en much like that of a binl. 

The nature of the lH*ak and the dentition indicate, for this 
strange animal, a diet of soft vegetable matter. It could not have 
eaten the bninches of trees. sin<*e any pressure sufllcient for their 
comniiniition would have probably broken the slightly attachtnl 
teeth of the biwer jaw from their places, and have s<-attenMl 
them on the floor of the mouth. It i^ ditllcult to understand also 
how such a weak sfrntulate l^^ak, could have collectiKl or have 
broken ofl* boughs of trees. By the aid of its dentate homy edge 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 107 

it may have scraped leaves from the ends of branches,. but the 
appearances indicate softer and less tenacious food. Could we 
suppose that the waters of the great Laramie lakes had supplied 
abundant aquatic plants^ without woody tissue, we would have the 
condition appropriate to this curious structure. Nymphaeas, 
Nuphars, Potamogetons, Anacharis^ Myriophyllum and similar 
growths could have been easily gathered by this double-spoon- 
like bill, and have been tossed, by bird-like jerks of the head 
and neck, back to the mill of small and delicate teeth. In 
order to submit the fopd to the action of these vertical shears, the 
jaws must have been opened widely enough to permit their edges 
to clear each other, and a good deal of wide gaping must, there- 
fore, have accompanied the act of mastication. This would be 
easy, as the mouth opens, as in reptiles and birds generally, to a 
point behind the line of the position of the eye. The eye was 
evidently of large size. On the other hand the indications are 
that the external ear was of very small size. There is a large 
tract that might have been devoted to the sense of smell, but 
whether it was so or not is not easily ascertained. 

We can suppose that the huge hind-legs of this genus and of 
Hadrosaurits were especially useful in wading in the water that 
produced their food. When the bottom was not too soft, they 
could wade to a dfepth of ten or more feet, and, if necessary, 
drag aquatic plants from their hold below. Fishes might have 
been available as food when not too large, and not covered with 
bony scales. Most of the fishes of the Laramie period, are, how- 
ever, of the latter kind (genus Clastes), The occurrence of several 
beds of lignite in the foimation shows that vegetation was 
abundant. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATES. 

(All the figures are one-seventh of the natural size.) 

Plate IV. Side view of skull of Dielonius mirabUis. 
Plate V. The same viewed from above. 
Plate VI. Inferior view of the same. 

Plate VII. Fig. 1, View of occipital region of the same. Fig. 2, View of 
the extremity of the muzzle from the front. 

The complete iconography of this species will appear in the third volume 
of the Report of the United States Geological Survey of the TerritorieSi 
under F. V. Hayden and J. W. Powell, now in course of preparation.. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



OV 80X1 TIBTnEATA ROM THI PUMXAV 07 IIXIVOIS. 

BY E. D. COPE.. 

The first notice of the existence of the Permian formation in 
Illinois was published in these Proceedings for 1876, p. 404, ei 
Beq, I then described the genera Cricotus and ClepsydropSj and 
a species of fish allied to Ctenodus. In the Proceedings of the 
American Philosophical Society for 1877 (commencing at p. 52), 
I added descriptions of other species, and in a second paper in 
the same volume, p. 182, 1 showed that the entire number known to 
that date was seventeen. Since then Mr. William Gurlej', of 
Dansville, 111., has sent me some additional specimens, which 
increase our knowledge of this interesting fauna. 

A tooth in the collection is an incisor of a species of the Diadeo- 
HdKy a family not hitherto recognized in Illinois, although I have 
recorded it from Texas and New Mexico. It is more slender than 
the corresponding teeth of any of the species known to me. I do 
not know the incisors of the Chilonyx rapidens. I note here that 
the genus PhanerosaurusYonMeyer^from the Permian of Germany, 
probably belongs to the Diadeciidae or the Bolosauridat. The 
vertebrae are a good deal like those ot Empediaa,^ but ap|>arently 
lack the hy[>osphen. 

Didjmodm (!) OOmprMSm Newbeirj. DipMut (?) atmpreMMt Ncwh. Cope, Prt>. 
eredf. Amer. Philos. Soc., 1H77, 53. 

The name Diplodus was used by Rafinesque for a valid genus 
of fishcH before it wan employed by Agassiz for the present genus. 
I therefore propose to substitute for it the name Didymodua, 

Tkorseodm tmydinns ic«n. et ^p. nov. 

Char, gen, — The form of the* tooth or Jaw on which this genus 
is proposiKi, reminds one of that of a Diodon^ and also of one-half of 
that of a c/anassa. It appears to be the half of a bilateral plate, which 
is divided on the middle line by suture. lU form is somewhat 
tliat of the anterior part of an episternal lM>ne of a tortoise. It 
consists CHsentially of a smooth border, separated from the 
remainder of the tooth by a transverse groove. The interior 

' Mittheilungen a. d. Koeniglich. Mineral., Geolog. a. praehistor.- 
Maieum, Dresden ; V, Nacbtrage xur Dyat ; Oeinits uad DeiohmQller, 
1882, p. 10. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHUiABELPHIA. 109 

portion is, on the superior face (if the piece belong to the inferior 
jaw, and vice versa) j transversely ridged and grooved, after the 
manner of the genus Janassa. 

Char, specif. — The smooth border is wide above and below. 
Its edge is produced into a median projection, which is decurved. 
On the inferior surface it is marked bj'^ shallow grooves, which 
radiate from the groove which bounds it posteriorly, extending 
nearly to the free edge. Posterior to the bounding groove, the 
surface is smooth. The posterior surface above has its grooves 
concentric with the curved free margin. The ridges are narrow, 
and step-like in position, presenting their free edges backwards. 
There are no grooves other than these steps. They have an 
angular curve opposite to the angle of the free margin, and at 
the angle .the groove which separates them is narrowed, while it 
widens at other points. Free edge of border thickened ; surface 
everywhere smooth. 

Measurements. m. 

Length of fragment transversely, . . • '014 

Length of fragment anteroposteriorly, . . 'Oil 

Width of border area at median suture, . . '006 

Seven cross ridges, '005 

Thickness at suture at cross-ridges, . . *002 

Cttnodni httarolophui sp. nov. 

This species is represented by a single broken tooth, which 
presents remarkable characters. It had apparently, when perfect, 
but three crests, which differ greatly in length, diminishing very 
rapidly from the first or marginal crest. 

The crest just mentioned is not only longer, but much more 
elevated than the others, except at the base, whefe the second 
crest is the highest. But while the first rapidly rises, the second 
retains its elevation, and then descends, forming a convex edge, 
of which the distal part is obtusely serrate. The proximal part 
of the first crest is worn by friction with the opposing edge of 
the opposite jaw into a sharp edge, below which its base is 
covered by a thin layer of the shining cementum which invests 
the teeth and sides of the second crest. The amount of this 
shining layer is thus more extensive than in any other species of 
Ctenodus known to me. The third crest, judging by its base of 
continuity with the second, is very small. 



110 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Measurements, M. 

Elevation of first crest at middle, . . '0096 

Elevation of second crest at middle, . . '0065 
Length of a tooth of second crest, . . *0020 

The peculiarities of this tooth suggest that the genus Onathor* 
hiza Cope (Proceedings Amer. Philos. Soc, 1882, p. 629) is 
Dipnonn, and allie«i to Gtenodus. 

Cttaodm vabftMnsii pp. dot. 

This fine species is represented by an almost perfect tooth. 
It is allie<l to the C fossatus Cope, but is wider, and the cretta 
do not radiate so equally, but are chiefly directed in one direction 
as in most species of the genus. The C. gurleianus and C. 
punlluH are at once distinguished by the small number of ciefts, 
while the C. periprion and C. dialaphus have a larger number of 
crests, and are otherwise different. C. porrecius differs less fh>m 
it, but has only five \ crests, while the C, vabasenids haa six |. 
The \ represents the small posterior (?) crest, which is double. 
This, with the next one, is directed slightly posteriorly; the 
fifth is at right-angles to the long axis, and the anterior four 
exten<l more or less forwards. They are serrate nearly to their 
bases, but the teeth are olysolete on their basal halves. The 
straight part of the internal edge extends as far forwards as the 
fourth crest, and is continued i>osteriorly as a short process. No 
fossae at ends of crests. Superior face of tooth wide, and slightly 
concave. The anterior parts of the first and second crests are 
broken away, so that it is im|K>8sible to say whether they are 
produced as in C porrectus. 

Measurements. u. 

Length to marginal base of second crest, . '024 



Width at marginal base of second crest. 
Width at fourth crest, inclusive of apex. 
Width of jwsterior side, 
Thicknestf at Imse of fifth crest. 



•009 
015 
010 
•005 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. Ill 



May 15. 

The President, Dr. L^idy, in the chair. 
Twenty-five persons present. 

The following were presented for publication : — 
" Pinus Koraiensis," by Josiah Hoopes. 

" On the Fishes of the Lakes of the Western Part of the Great 
Basin," by Edw. D. Cope. 

Observations on Forsythia, — Mr. Thomas Meehan, at the meeting 

of the Botanical Section, May 14, referred to his communication 

to the Academy (December 29, 1868), in which he suggested that 

notwithstanding the strong specific differences between Forsythia 

viridissima and F, suspensa, he believed they must have had a 

common origin. F. suspensa has short styles and long stamens, 

broad lobes to the corolla, broadly-ovate, thin, glaucous, sometimes 

trifoliate, deeply serrate leaves, and makes a shrub of some ten feet 

high, with numerous slender, pendulous branches. F, viridissima 

is a stiflT, erect bush, but of not half the height, with narrowly 

lanceolate, thick, bright green, lightly serrate leaves ; fiowers with 

narrow lobes, and the style long and the stamens short. F. suspensa^ 

in cultivation, often produces abortive capsules ; F. viridissima 

Tarely, if ever. In the paper cited above, an account is given of the 

production of seed-vessels on F, viridissima^ by using the pollen of 

F. suspensa. Though the seeds were not wholly perfect, a winged 

seed of one species was produced among the wingless ones of the 

other. The resultant impression from those observations was that 

in spite of what would be regarded as good specific differences, 

^hey are but dimorphic forms, referable to sexual peculiarities. 

Three years ago, the usually seedless capsules of F, suspensa 
produced a number of good seeds, which were sown. This season 
thirty-four flowered. The leaves and general habit of these 
plants present every shade of gradation between F. suspensa and 
jP. viridissima; some of the leaves of the latter being even much 
:inore slender than those of the original species. The flowers also 
present in the larorer number of cases the slender lobes of the 
jP. viridissima; some with the lobes recurved laterally to such 
«n extent as to seem much narrower than they are. 

The most interesting fact in connection with this is the sexual 

characteristics. Of the thirty-four plants, raised from a parent 

liaving a short style and long stamens, only four have retained 

Xh\s parental character, but have assumed that belonging to the 

form viridissima. 

Some interesting questions are suggested by these observations : 



112 PBO0CEDING8 OF THB AOADEMT OF [188S. 

The fact that F. suspensa makes abortive capsulea freely, and 
F. viridxBsima rarely, though it has the best developed pistil, 
indicates that fertility is dependent on the potency of the pollen ; 
and this is confirmed by the production of capsules on F, viridissima 
when the pollen of F. suspensa was applied : 

The fact that the speaker has had both forms growing on bis 

f rounds for many years, without any seed-vessel appearing on 
\ viridissima^ except in the case cited, shows that it is not likely 
to be cross-fertilized through insect agency. 

In the fully fertile case of F, suspenaa, the plants of F. viridtMsima 
were fully four hundred feet away; and the suggestion of inter- 
crossing between these forms, considered in connection with the 
points previously made, seems to place hybridization out of the 
question. 

We may conclude, therefore, that these two supposed species are 
but sexually dimorphic forms of one ; and we have also the curious 
fact that, in this case, notwithstanding the presumable influence of 
the law of heredity, the strongly masculine tendency of the parent, 
as indicated by the highly developed stamens, the potency of its 
pollen on the F inridissima, the power to almost perfect seeds in 
partially developed seed-vessels generally, and the actual perfection 
in one year, notwithstanding the imperfectly developed pistil, 
should have had to give way to the female tendency in the offspring 
to such a great degree as to leave only four out of thirty-four ti» 
represent the parent. 

Influence of Circumatances on Heredity. — Mr. Thomas Mekhah 
referred to the fact that seed of the purple-leaved variety of Ber- 
beris vulgariSy collected from plants growing near Philadelphia, 
reproduced the purple-leaved jK^culiarity to an extent which it 
could not do more perfectly if the variety were a true species. 
In a bed of seedlings, containing on an estimate one thousand 
plants, there were only two reversfions to the original green-leaved 
condition. Two years ago, he had been given, by Prof. C. S. 
Sargent, some seeds of ligneous plants, sent to him from some 
European Botanical Garden, and of thirty seedlings planted only 
two are dark purple as in the parent. 



Mat 22. 
Rev. Dr. H. C. McCook, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Forty persons present. 

A paper entitled ** A Revision of the Species of Gerres found 
in American Waters,'* by B. W. Evermann and Seth E. Meek, 
presented for publication. 



1883.] NATURAL B0IENCE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 113 



May 29. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Forty persons present. 

N. A. Randolph, M. D., J. Reed Conrad, M. D., and Spencer 
Trotter, M. D., were elected members. 

Amould Locard, of Lyons, Fred. W. Button, of Christchurch, 
N. Z., and C. E. Beddome, of Hobart Town, Tasmania, were elected 
correspondents. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



114 PB0CEEDINQ8 OF TU ACADEMY OF [1883. 



PIVTJ8 XOSAIBVBIB Sieb. k Zaec. 
BY J08IAH HOOPE& 

Through the kindness of Chief Eng. G. W. Melville, U. S- X.. 
I have enjoyed an op|>ortunity of studying some excellent speci- 
mens of this interesting species of pine, collected by him daring 
the late voyage of the unfortunate " Jeannette " to the Arctic 
regions. These specimens consist of a branch clothed with foliagi*, 
two immature cones, and a few mature seeds, and were co11et*ted 
in the District of Tuknansk, in Eastern Siberia. It was seen 
along the banks of the Lena, Yenisei and Obi Rivers, forming a 
tree about thirty feet in height, with a trunk about ten inches in 
diameter at base. The collector further states that it fruits 
abundantly, an<l *' the edible seeds are used by the nativ4>s a^ 
food, and by travelers as nuts.'' It is interesting to note that 
this heretofore comparatively rare species has a wider habitat, 
and is more numerous than has generally l)een supposed, although 
reported as having l>een found up to the A moor River, wliioh 
takes its rise in the mountain range dividing the Lena from the 
A moor ; hence it was reasonable to suppose it was more generally 
distributed throughout SilKTia and adjacent islands. SielK)lii 
found it in Kanitschatka ; and various authors have descrilKHl it 
in the list of Japanese Conifera*, but only in the latter as an 
introduced sjH'cies, where it is said to Ik» quite nire. 

/Vn»/x Koraiennia is placed by Dr. Engelmann, in his recent 
revision of the genun /V/mm, in the subse<*tion Cembrie, of his 
first section, Strobus. It is distinguishable from the section 
Eustrobi by reason of the jiarenchymatous ducts, and with leave* 
sparingly serrulate, scar(*ely denticulate at tip. This nut-bearing 
pine is well marked throughout, and especially so in its cones and 
seedn. the latter l)eing wingless, suluingulat<% flatly compresscHl, 
leaving on both sides of the scale when removed , remarkably deep 
impressions. The c«mes are very distinctive, with long reflexed 
scales, terminating in an abrupt mucro-like a|>ex. The leaf- 
characters in the sjH'cimens iK'fore me coincide with the publishcMl 
description given by Dr. Eng«'lm:inn, in relation to the alisence 
(or nearly s<») of hyixwlerm or strengthening-cells, as well as in 
other peculiar features of the Cembran group. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 115 

Murray, in his " Pines and Firs of Japan," records its height 
from ten to twelve feet, yet Parlatore, on the authority of Pcrfetti, 
gives it at " sometimes thirty to thirty-three feet.*' The latter is 
corroborated by Chief Eng. Melville, thus showing conclusively 
that it is a true northern species, attaining only its greatest size 
near the extreme limits of arboreal vegetation ; and yet, like all 
other species of nut-pines, it never forms a large-sized tree. 

This species will no doubt make a valuable addition to our list 
of ornamental Conifers, as its hardiness is unquestioned, and the 
foliage is as attractive as any other of the White Pine group, 
unless we except the P. excelsa. In England it has proven reliable, 
and with us the small plants show evidences of success. 



116 PROOCSDINOS or TU AOADBMT OF [1883. 



A IITIIW 07 THl BPBOnS 07 GKSBB8 TOUVB Dl AHUICAV WAIOa. 

BT B. W. BVEBMANN AND 8ETH B. MBKK. 

Upon attempting to identify various specimens of Oerres ftt>m 
different points on our coast^and from Mexico and Central America, 
we were led to the thought that the species of this genus have been 
unduly multiplied. 

Through the kindness of Prof. D. S. Jordan, to whom we here desire 
to acknowledge our indebtedness for the use of specimens and hit 
library, and for many valuable suggestions, we had placed at our 
disposal his entire collection of specimens of Oerres^ thus affording 
us a considerable amount of material for purposes of comparison. 

In Jordan and Gilbert's Synopsis of Fishes of North America* 
six species of Oerres are given as found on the United States 
Coast ; of these, O. homonymus appears to us to be identical with 
O. gula C. and Y. ; and G, harengulua Ooode and Bean, with 
Eucinosiomus pseudogula of Poey, and with Diapterus gracili* 
described from Cape San Lucas by Dr. Gill. 

In tKe present paper it is desired to set forth the conclusions 
reached from a study of the material in hand. These conclusions^ 
are all to be considered as provisional, [>erhaps to be modified by 
the study of a greater number of specimens. 

The synonymy given, however, appears to be fully Justified by 
the evidence before us. 

We have been kindly permitted to copy the synonymy of the 
Pacific Coast species from Profs. Jonlan and Gilbert's MSS. 

The different species of Gerres noticed in this paper may be 
readily separated by the following analysis : — 

a. Preopercle and preorbital entire ; body elongate, depth 2^ to 4 
in length. 
6. Premaxillary groove naked. 

r. Anal rays 1 1-8; IkkIv very elongate, depth less than one- 
fourth its length. lefro}fi. I. 
ec. Anal ravs 1 1 1-7. 

d. Premaxillary groove linear. 

t\ Eye small, altoiit 3| in head ; depth nearly 3 in 
length. graciHii, 2. 

ff. Eye large, less than 3 in head ;^ depth about 2{ m 
length. dotrt. 3 



1883.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 117 

dd, Premaxillary groove not linear. 

c. Body slender, depth 3 to 3^ in length, jonesi. 4. 
ee. Body somewhat elevated, depth about 2^ in length. 
f. Caudal fin moderate, shorter than head ; second 
anal spine not very strong, shorter than 
third, i to ^ length of head ; ventrals short, 
little more than half length of head, not 
reaching vent. Color bright silvery, darker 
above ; snout and upper edge of caudal 
peduncle somewhat dusky ; dark punctula- 
tions on body few or none; no trace of 
vertical bars ; upper part of spinous dorsal 
becoming gradually blackish, other fins 
nearly plain ; axil faintly dusky. 

cali/orniensis. 6. 
ff. Caudal fin about as long as head ; second anal 
spine very strong, longer than third, one- 
third or more length of head ; ventrals long, 
two-thirds length of head, reaching vent. 
Color in life, clear silvery, bluish above, 
sides with obsolete longitudinal streaks; 
back and sides with 8 or 9 bluish vertical 
bars, about as broad as the pupil ; a dark 
blotch on upper edge of eye. cinerev^. 6. 
bb, Premaxillary groove scaled in front, forming a naked pit 
behind ; depth about 2g in length. gula, 7. 

aa. Preopercle serrate ; premaxillary groove broad. 
6. Preorbital entire. 

c. Premaxillary groove naked. 

d. Body ovate, the outline somewhat regularly elliptical, 

depth a little less than half length; spines rather 

slender and short, second dorsal spine half length 

of head, second anal spine less than half length 

of head. aureol'us. 8. 

dd. Body rhomboid, short and deep, with angular outlines, 

the depth usually more than half length ; spines 

long and strong. 

e. Anal rays III-8; second dorsal spine three-fourths 

or more length of head ; second anal spine more 

than half length of head. peruvianus. 9. 



118 PB0CEEDINQ8 OF THI AOADEMT OF £IBSSL 

€€. Anal ray8 II-9; second dorsal spine not Demrty so 

long as bead, and not half longer than second 

anal. rhambeujt. 10. 

cc. Premaxillary groove broad, rounded behind, with a me^iian 

linear depression, its surface scaled ; anal rays 1 1 IS; 

second dorsal spine about as long as head ; pectonUs 

nearly as long as head, reaching front of anal ; teeth 

long, slender, and brush-like ; depth 2 in length. 

olisthoHtoma. 11. 

bh, Preorbital serrate ; body with distinct dark stripes along the 

rows of scales ; body rhomboidal, with angular outline: 

spines very strong. 

c. Ventrals blackish. fatao. IS. 

cc Ventrals pale. 

d. Second dorsal npine § to } length of head, an<l | depth 

of boiiy, which is 2 to 2f in its length. 

e. Pectorals long, reaching about to front of anal; caudal 

longer than head ; lateral stripes numerous ; 

depth nearly 2 in length. lineaius.^ 13. 

er. Pectorals short, barely reaching vent; caudal 

shorter than head ; lateral stripes few; depth 

nl)out 2 if in length. brerimanutt. 14. 

f/r/. Second dorsal spine as long as head, and longer than 

longest anal spine; pectorals narrow, reachinic 

past tips of ventrals to anal ; lateral stripes about 

12; depth 2 to 2| in length. plumieri. K. 

1. O«iT0i Ufroji <<]oode) tninthcr. 

DiapUrut le^royi <T<Kxle, Am. Jour. Sci. & Aits, 128, 1874. 
Kunno$ton,un UfroyHtooi\c, Bull. V. S. Nat. Mus., Na 5, SO, 1876. 
Kucinoitomun produetui Poey, Ann. Lye, xi, 59, 1870. 
(ierrtM Itfroyi (tiinther, Voya^fc of Challenger. Fishes, i, IC, ISHO. 
(Name only.) 
Habitat. — Herinuda Islands. 

3 0«rrtt frtoilil !<tilii .Inrlnn A (tiltx^rt. 

IHitptenitt grncili* iV\\\, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 24«, 1862. (tape 

San \a\c9M.) 
(it rrttt apriou (iiinther, iv, 'J.m, I'^O'J. (San Domingo; Jamaica; Haliia. > 

' The »hort deKiTiption of (it rrt» hranUanMtV. an<l V., vi, 458, cootaina do 
characteriHtich by which wc are ahle to diKtinj^uiKh it from either (r. Xintatu^ 
or Q, hrttimanuu^ hence we do not include it in tlie Key. 



1883.] NATUBAL SaSNOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 119 

Eueinoitomus pseudogula Poey, Anal. Soo. Esp., iv, 124 & 125, 1875. 

(Cuba.) 
Eueinoitomus harengulus Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., 1879, 

1 32. ( Western Florida. ) 
Dtapteru^ harengulu$ Gk>ode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 339. 

(Clear Water Harbor, Florida.) 
Oerres gracilis Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1881, 274 

(Guaymas) ; and Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1881, 329 (Guaymas ; 

Mazatlan ; Panama) ; ibid., 1882, 108 (Mazatlan ; Panama). 
Oerres harengulus Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 584, 1883. 

(Pensacola, Florida.) 

Body elliptical, compressed, tapering regularly each way from 
the spinous dorsal ; anterior profile almost straight and not steep ; 
angle at front of breast little marked. Mouth small, maxillary 
reaching vertically from front of orbit or slightly past it. Teeth 
rather strong, in broad patches. Exposed portion of maxillary 
ovate, about twice as broad as long. Preorbital entire, very 
naiTOw, its narrowest part about half width of maxillary. Eye 
not very large, its diameter about equal to length of snout, or the 
interorbital space, and is about 3^ in head. Furrow for the base 
of the premaxillaries a narrow naked groove, its Jength ^lbout 
three-fifths of the eye, and more than three times its own breadth, 
measured from the anterior limit of the scales along its sides. 
Preopercle entire. Dorsal spines weak and flexible, the last two 
or three proportionally stronger than the others. Longest dorsal 
spine about twice in head, more than two-flfths greatest depth of 
body, and nearly twice length of second anal spine. Anal spines 
short, the second somewhat stronger than the third, but shorter, 
its length 3| to 4j in head. Third spine shorter than soft rays. 
Ventrals short, three-fifths length of head, reaching about half-way 
to anal, but not nearly to vent. Pectorals slender, about as long 
as bead, reaching about to vent. Caudal not very long, the inner 
margins of the lobes convex, the middle rays about one-fourth 
length of outer ones, which are a little shorter than head. Scaly 
sheath at base of fins moderate, the last rays of the anal hidden 
by it. Ventrals and caudal mostly covered with small scales ; 
other fins naked. 

Color in life, silvery, greenish above. Snout and upper part of 
caudal peduncle dusky. Spinous dorsal, in a male specimen, 
dusky, punctate at base, abruptly black at tip, the dark areas 
separated by a transparent, horizontal bar; in a female specimen, 
the dorsal grows gradually darker at tip. Soft dorsal punctate. 



120 PR0CKKDINQ8 OF THI ACADIMT OF [188S. 

Caudal with a faint dusky margin. Ventrals very alightlj doakj 
on the middle in the male, plain in the female. 

Head 3f\j ; depth 2^,^ ; D. IX-10 ; A. III-7 ; lat. line 5-45-9. 

It seems probable that the habitat of the rarions species of 
Oerres will be found to be much more extended than hms hitlierto 
been supposed. Si)eeimens of the present species hare been 
obtained in the West Indies, on the coast of Florida, and at 
several points on the Pacific coasts of Central America and 
Mexico. Prof. Chas. H. Gilbert reports it as abundant at Mazatlan, 
where it is found in shallow waters near the shore. It reaches a 
length of six inches or more, and is known to the flshennen as 
Mojarra cantilena, 

.r Gtrrtt dowi (Oill) Gttntber. 

DiapUrui d&wi Gill, Proo. Ac Nat. 8ci. Phila., 162, 1868. (Panama.) 
Oerres dowi Giinther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 448» 1866 (Description takes 

from Gill); Steindachner, Ichtb. Beitrage, iy, 18, 1875 (Nodcw^p- 

tion). (Callao, Peru ; Galapagos ItlandB). 
Oerres dowi Jordan & Gilbert, BulL U. 8. Fish Comm., 1881, 9» 

(Panama); ibid., 1882, 111 (Panama); Jordan A Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. 

Nat. Mus., 1882, 377 (Panama). 
Oerres aprion Giinther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 891, 1866. (Name onlj.) 

(Panama.) 

Habitat, — Panama to Peru Very abundant on the coasts of 
the Galapagos Islands. (Stein<lachner.) 

4. Otrrti Joaeti GUnther. 

Oerres Jonesi Gimther, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, 1879, iii, 150, 889; 
Voya^^e Cballenf^er, Fisheft, i, 10, 1880 (Bermuda). 

Habitat. — Borniuda Islands. 

b. Otrrti ealifomUniii Mfill) .Ionian A (liihrrt. 

I>i4ipttrus enliforniensis Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. 8oi. Phila., 1863, tAS, 

(C.'ai>e San Lucas.) 
Ofrrei caUfornimsis Jonlan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mua., 1881, 274 

(Guayinas); Jordan iS: (iilliert, Hull. U. S. Fiiih C!amm., lt<81, 819 

((iuaymaK; Mazatlan): ihid., 1H82, 1(>8 (Mazatlan). 
fOemn gula St4'ind.ic1incr, Ichth. Bi'ithigc, iii, 00, 1875. i Name only; 

nee Cuv. <fc Val.) (Ma^dalena Bay.) 

Habitat, — Pacific coast of Mexico. (Maziitlan; (^uaymas; CtLfte 
San Lucas.) 

6. OtrrM oilMrtUI 'Walbauini Jurdan A, Gilbert. 

Turdus cinereu» peltatus Catesby, pi. ii, fig. 2, 1750. 

Muffil cinsreus Walbaum, Arte di Piscium, 228, 1792. (AfUr Cataaby.) 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 121 

Oerres aprion Cuv. & Yal., vi, 461, 1830 (Martiniqae; San Domingo; 
Montevideo; East Coast of Mexico). (Not of Qiinther — ^t^in0«- 
Umiu* pseudogula Poey); Poey, Rep. Fis. Cuba, i, 316, 1865. 

Diaptereus aprion Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 321, 1868. (Cuba.) 

0&rre$ zebra Muller & Troschel, Schomburgk Hist. Barbadoes, 668, 
1848 (Barbadoes); Gunther, i, 843, 1859, and iv, 254, 1862 (Copied); 
Steindachner, Ichthyol. Notizen, iv, 11, 1867 (Surinam); Stein- 
dachner, Zur Fisch-Fauna des Magdelenen-Stromes, 9, 1878 (Rio 
Magdalena, identified with G. aqtiamipinnis); Jordan & Gilbert, 
Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1881, 329 (Mazatlan). 

Oerres Bquamipinnis Gunther, i, 349, 1859, and iv, 254, 1862 (Jamaica; 
Gautemala); Gunther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 391, 1869 (No description) 
(Jamaica; Chiapam; Panama); Steindachner, Ichthyol. Notizen, 
iv, 12, 1867 (Surinam) . 

Oerres dneretu Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Comm., 1882, 108 
(Mazatlan); and Syn. Fish. N. A., 935, 1883. 

Habitat. — Both coasts of Tropical America (Mazatlan ; Chiapam ; 
Panama; Bahamas; Barbadoes). 

7. Oerrei gala Cuvier A, Valenciqpne?. 

Oerres gula Cuv. & Yal., vi, 464, 1830 (Martinique ; Brazil); Jenyns, 
Zool. Beagle, Fishes, 58, 1842; Gunther, i, 346, 1859, and iv, 255, 
1862 (Atlantic Coasts of Tropical America); Poey, Rep. Fis. Cuba, 
i, 316, 1865. 

Bucinostomus argenteus Baird & Girard, Ninth Smith. Report, 345, 
1855; Baird & Girard, Mex. Bd. Survey, 17, pi. 9, figs. 9-12, 1859. 

f Oerres argenteus Gunther, iv, 256, 1862. (Atlantic Coasts of N.A.) 

Bucinostomus gulula Poey, Anal. Soc. Esp., iv, 128, pi. vi, 1875. 

Diapterus homonymus Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 
340. (Clear Water Harbor, Fla.) 

Oerres gula Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 934, 1883. (West 
Indies, north to Cape Cod.) 

Body elliptical, compressed, dorsal profile tapering regularly 
each way from beginning of spinous dorsal ; anterior profile nearly 
straight, posterior slightly more convex. Line from angle at 
front of breast to vent nearly straight. Mouth small, slightly 
oblique (when not protruded), maxillary reaching just beyond 
vertical at front of eye, exposed part triangular, about twice as 
long as broad. Premaxillaries very protractile; premaxillary 
groove longer than broad, scaled in front, with a naked pit behind; 
these scales, however, are not very distinct in young specimens, 
and are apt to be rubbed off in poorly preserved ones. 

Yilliform teeth on both jaws ; no canines, incisors, or molars ; 
no teeth on vomer or palatines. Preopercle entire; gill-vakers 

9 



182 PROCEEBINQS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1883. 

short, about seven below angle. Eye large, 3 in head, itA diameter 
a little greater than its distance fVom snout, and about equal to 
the interorbital space. 

Scales moderate, as in other species. Lateral line follows carre 
of back, being most arched beneath fifth and sixth spines. 

Spinous dorsal as long as soil, second dorsal spine nearly 1 ] io 
second anal spine, which is stronger than the third, but equab it 
in length ; posterior ends of anal and dorsal fins opposite, soft 
parts of these two fins depressible into a scaly sheath. PectoraU 
nearly as long as head, reaching to vent. Ventrals short, not* 
reaching quite to vent. Caudal deeply forked. 

Color, in alcohol, silvery, palest below, no lines or bars except 
sometimes in young, but the scales are minutely punctate with 
dark, thickest on dorsal region. A black spot at top of siiinooi 
dorsal. 

Head 3^ in length ; depth, 2^. D. IX-10 ; A. III-7 or 8 ; Lat. 
line about 5-45-9. ^ 

We append averages of the measurements of thirteen specimens, 
viz. : — I f^om Bermuda ; 2 Arom Beaufort, N. C. ; 2 fVom Charleston, 
S. 0. ; 7 from PeUdacola, Fia. ; 1 from Aspinwall. 

From a comparison of these specimens and of some seven 
others which we have examined, we are convinced that the 
synonymy of this species should stand as given above. 

TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS. 

Number of specimenB measured 1 2 



I • 

S|>eclinvnB fW>m 4 jr 

1 ^ 

' P I 2 



CO 



ft 



e 
a 

4 



Oreatent depth in length 2.T7 2.81 2.672.61 2.67 2.«« 

Heailin length 3.81 8. 18 8.83 8.288.08 ». 23 

DiKUnoefnmiMiouttoHpinouMdorHal in length 2.71 2.502.51 2.422.393.46 

Second anal npine in second donial Kpine 1 .76 2.(X) 1 .70 1 .72 1 .74 

Kyeiuheatl 3. 05 3. 02 3. 00 3. 00 8. 0I> 3. 01 

Depth of deepest Hi.ecimen in length 2 . 77 2 . 77 2 . 68 2 M 2 . 67 

IVpth of moMt Hlender specimen in length 2.772.862.702.862.67 

Hhorteitt 2d anal in 2d donuil spine 1.76 2.001.70 2.09 

Longest 2d anal in 2d dorsal spine 1 . 76 jl .70 1 .54 



^ $83.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 123 

^- Oemt anreoliu Jordan A Gilbert. 

Oerrei aureolta Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1881, 828 
(Panama) ; %lnd,y 1882, 111 (Panama). 

Habitat — Bay of Panama. 

9. Oen et pervTiannt Cuvier k Valenciennes. Moharra, China, 

Oerres psruvianus Cuv. & Yal., Hist. Nat Poiss., vi, 467, 1880 (Payta, 
Northern Peru) ; Lesson, Voyage Coquille, Poiss., 180, 1828 ; Jordan 
& Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm.. 1881, 380 (Mazatlan ; Panama) ; 
%bid,y 1882, HI, 108, 112 (Panama; Mazatlan; Punta Arenas); 
Jordan & Gilbert, Proc U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 332 (Panama). 

Oerres rhombeui Giinther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 391, 1866 (Name only ; 
nee Guv. & Yal.) (Chiapam); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. 
Mus., 1881, 232 (Salina Cruz). 

Habitat, — West Coast of Tropical Amenoa (Mazatlan; Salina 
Cruz; Panama; Chiapam; Peru). 

10. Otrrei rhombeas Cuvier k Valenciennes. 

Oerres rhombeus C\\y, & Yal., ifi, 459, 1830 (Martinique and San 
Domingo) ; Gunther, iv, 258, 1862 (In part ; apparently confounded 
with O, oliethostoma Goode & Bean) (Cuba; Jamaica; Puerto Cabello); 
Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. N^t. Mus., 1882, 382 (Aspmwall). 

Habitat. — West Indies. 

11. O^rret Olilthoitoma Goode A, Bean. Iritth Pompano ; Hog Fiah. 

Oerree rhomheu$ Poey, 8yn. Pise Cuba, 32, 1858 (Not Q, rhombeus of 
Cuv. & Yal , yi, 459) ; Poey, Rep. Fis. Cuba, i, 316, 1865. 

Ifojarra rhombea Poey, Anal. 8oc. Esp., Hist. Nat., x, 327, 1881. 

Oerres olisihostama Goode & Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 428 
(Indian River, Florida) ; Jordan & Gilbert, 8yn. Fish. N. A., 984, 
1883 (West Indies, north to 8outhem Florida). 

Habitat, — West Indies, north to Southern Florida. 

12. Oerrei patao Poey. 

Qerres patao Poey, Mem. Cub,, ii, 192, 1860; ibid,t 8yn. Pise. Cub., 
320, 1868; Gunther, iv, 253, 1862 (Cuba). 

Habitat. — West Indies, 

13 Oerrei lineatvi (Hannboldt) Cuvier A Valenciennes. 

Smaris lineatus Humboldt, Observ. Zodl.,. li, 185, pi. 46, 1807-1884. 
(Aoapulco ) 

Oerres lineatus Cuv. & Yal., Hist. Nat. Poiss., vi, 470, 1830 (Descrip- 
tion from Humboldt); Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. Fish Comm., 
1881, 330 (Mazatlan; 8an Bias); ibid,, 1882, 108 (Mazatlan); Jordan 
& Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 377 (Fresh-water lake at 
Acapulco). 



124 PROCEEDINQS Of THI ACADEMT OF [1883. 

OtrreM axUlarU Oanther, Proc. Zool. 800. Lond., 102, 18M; Ouatber, 
Fish. Centr. Amer., 448, IBM (Chiapam); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc 
U. 8. Nat Mus., 1881, 233 (Name only). (San Bias.) 

Habitat. — West Coast of Mexico. 

14. OtrrM brtTimanut <2Unther. 

(Ierre$ brevimanui Giinther. Proo. Zool. 800. Lond., 152, 1$64; 
Gunther, Fish. Centr. Amer., 448, 1869 (Chiapam). 

^a^i/o/.— Pacific Coast of Central Amerioa. 

16. Osrrti brasiliaans Cuvier A Valtooiennes. 

Oerru branlianui Cuv. and Val., yi, 458, 1890 (BraiU); Poey, \ltp. 
Fis. Cuba, i, 815, 1865. 

Habitat, — West Indies, south to ooast of South Ameriom. 

10. OtrrtS plumitri Cuvier Jt Valeneiennes. 

OerrM plumieri Cuv. & Val., vi, 452, 1880 (Antilles); Gantber, i?, 
25a, 1862 (Atlantic Coasto o( Tropical America); Jordan A Gilbert, 
8yn. Fish. N. A., 583, 1883 (West Indies, north to Eastern Florida ; 
Poey, Rep. Fis. Cuba, i, 815, 1865. 

Habitat, — West Indies ; Aspinwall ; Indian River, Fla, 
Profs. Jordan A Gilbert's collection contains speoinnena from 
each of th^ two places last namcil. 



1883.] NATURAL BOI&NOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 125 



June 5. 

The Rev. H. C. McCook, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-five persons present. 

A paper entitled " On the Genus HjOiota," by Graceanna Lewis, 
was presented for publication. 

The death of Dr. W. Lehman Wells, a inemter, was a&nounoed. 

Observations on Actinospheerium eichornii. — A communication 
from Miss S. G. Foulke on Actinospheerium eichomii was read 
by Prof. H. Carvill Lewis, 

It was stated that while observing Actinosphaeria, four indi- 
viduals were seen to become fused, as it were, into one mass. 

At the end of an hour, this mass had separated into three 
Actinosphseria, two of the original four remaining fused into one. 

This double one then became constricted, a little to one side of 
the middle, apparently being about to separate* In a few minutes 
the Actinosphserium began to eject, at the point of constriction, 
a thin protoplasmic substance containing transparent granulated 
globules and free granules. By a waving motion of the rays, the 
masses of ejected matter were broken up, and the globules set 
free in the water. 

These globules developed from one side an extremely long ray 
of finely granular protoplasm, slightly elongating at the same 
time, thus taking an oval shape. No trace of the axial threads 
peculiar to the rays of adult Actinospheeria could be discovered. 
The average length of these globules, including the ray, was 
•1422 mm. ; without the ray, '0127 mm* 

The next act of the globules was the sending out another ray 
from a i>oint opposite to the first. Minute vacuoles appeared and 
ranged themselves close to the surface of the globule. Other 
rays were developed at various intervals of time. The appearance 
of the young Actinospheeria gradually became more perfect in 
resemblance to the parent. The growth was very slow, the perfect 
form not being attained for a period varying from one to two 
weeks, and the size was even then small. 

The external la3er of vacuoles of the Actinosphserium from 
which the globules had been ejected, contained numbers of 
granules in active motion. In the different vacuoles the number 
varied from ten to about one hundred, as nearly as could be 
counted. They were usually congregated at one point and seemed 
to be trying to force a way out. 

Sometimes a globular mass of protoplasm was seen to run 
out upon a ray, and then, instead of returning to the body as 
usual, drop off into the water, and develop into a perfect Actinc- 



1S6 PB0CEEDIM08 OF THE "ACADEMT OF 1883.] 

sfphjrrium, in the same manner as those ejected in a mass from 
the body. 

Several free cells, having rays, were observed, upon toaching a 
ra}' of the Actinosffhmrium^ to glide down it in the manner asoal 
to capturvd prey, and be re-absorbed into the body. 

One globule of protoplasm, running out towards the point 
of a ray. stopped, and while motionless sent out a long raj 
at right-angles to that supporting the globule. Another smaller 
globule ran out on this secondary* ray and, in its turn, sent out a 
third ray at right-ingles to the secondary ray, but parallel to 
the primary ray. It has been statetl that the rays of the Acfino- 
^pKstrtum never branched, but the observer thought that the above 
phenomenon could be trul}- called branching, as all the proto- 
plasm returned to the main ray, and thence to the body. 

To ascertain whether any globules of protoplasm artificially 
freed (Vom the lK>dy of the Actinw^phxHum would develop in the 
same manner as those above described, an Acimatphttrium was 
crushed in the livebox sti violently as to completely disintegratr 
it. The vacuoles were broken up, and the internal mass of proto- 
plasm* mixed with the water, only two or three small masses 
of the external vacuoles remaining intact. On removing the 
pn*ssure, all the fluid protoplasm was seen to gather itself up into 
glolmlrs, of sizes varying from *0507 mm. to *253 mm. 

These globules contained vacuoles, the size and number of the 
vacuoles varying with the size of the globules. The water became 
free fn>ni protoplasm, though a large numlier of the granules, 
which had l>een containcii in tlie external vacuoles previous U> 
the crushing of the Actinoitphx'rium ^remainei} swimming actively 
alH)ut in every direction. 

The ^rlobules remaiuiHl quiet for some minutes, and then liegan 
to extend psi^idopoilial rays. The vacuoles increased in numU*r 
and arrange^! themselves close to the exterior of the globules, 
those of the largest size pushing out the thin protoplasmic 
covering, so as to pnxiuce a strong resemblance to the perfect 
Actinottphtrrium. The resemblance of each globule to the original 
ActinoifphBrrium became more and more |)erfect. The few masses 
of the original vai'uoles also protrude<I rays, thus conclusively 
showing that the rays of Actinospha^ria are not necessarily 
de|K*ndent upon the central mass of protoplasm. The vacuole 
masses develo|KMl into |K>rrei*t Actinosphieria much more quickly 
than the globules t'(»rnuHl of the central protophism, an hour or 
two being sullleient to |H»rrti-t the development. The rays of all 
tlie ininiaturo Actinospha^ria wm> irregular and flattened and in 
many cases lacktMl the Hxial thread. 

The ActinoHphicrin niovtMl their p8endo|>odial rays freely in all 
direetionn, the niv U'ing U*nt close to the peripheral la^'er of 
VHcuoles. 

Fri>m an itrigiiial mlony o\' v\*i\\{ individuals, a small bottleful 



1883.] NATURAL SOISNOSS OF PHILADELPHIA. 12f 

was manufactured in the manner above described, the time 
needed for development being in proportion to the size of the 
fragments into which the Actinosphseria were divided. The 
above experiments were tried on many individuals, the only dif» 
ference of result, in the various instances, being in the degree 
of completeness with which the protoplasm separated itself from 
the watev. It was argued from the above facts, that the power of 
any part of an Actinosphxrium to develop into a perfect individual 
was inherent, and not dependent upon any peculiar condition of 
the animalcule. 

Fig. 8, PL XLI of Leidy's Rhisopods of North America, which 
he doubtfully refers to the Actinosphsel^ia, exactl}' resembles a 
medium stage in the development of the globules ejected from 
the body of the Actinosphserium, 

The observer stated that the rays of ActifioBphasriumj when 
irritated by being compressed^ would be retracted completely 
on all sides, and would again appear on the cessation of the 
disturbance. 

The length of time needed for the development of the Actino* 
sphseria, in the reproduction by natuiral means^ Was from seven to 
fourteen days ; that needed fot the development, in the reproduc- 
tion by artificial means, was from one to two daysi 

In the latter case this length of time was needed only in cases 
when the crushing Was carried to ejctreilies, jsis, When the Actino* 
sphaerium was simply divided into small pieCes, a feW hours were 
all that was needed to complete the developmeht of the fragments. 



June 12. 
Mr. John H. Redfield in the bh&if. 
Twenty-three persons present. 

Cutaneous Nerves in Afammale, — Dr. Habribon Allen , in con* 
tinuation of his remarks on the trophic value of the cutaneous 
nerves spoke of the distHbution of the larger setae-bearing hair- 
follicles in mammals as exposed after depilation. He described 
the oral, the mental, the supra-orbital and the proximo-carpal 
groups as well as those placed on the lateral aspects of the limbs. 
He had succeeded in tracing nerve-filaments to the follicles in all 
instances and held that they bore close analogies to the pteryls of 
the birds. In specimens in which the follicles were rudimentary 
he had observed failure of the nerve also, and he was thus induced 
to believe that a close relation existed between the setae-bearing 
follicles and the nerves themselves. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMT OF [1883. 

OV THI OEVUS HTLIOTA. 
BT ORACEANNA LEWIS. 

By a letter of iiniuiry from Prof. O. Hartlaiib, M.D., of Bremeo, 
Germany, concerning 8ome rare African binis of the genus Hylioia, 
attention has lKK;n drawn to the 8|K*cimen8 now in this Academy, 
of which there are three, all of them being male birds. 

The <|iierttion at iHSiie is whether there are two distinct species 
or only one ; and as tlistinguished authorities differ on this [>oint, 
it seems proper to offer to ornithologists the testimony which 
these sptK^imejis afford. 

The genuH was first characterized by Swainson, who describi*d 
the speci(*s H, flavigastra. The bird was at first supposed to 
belong to India, but was subsequently found to inhabit N. E. 
Africa and Senegambia« and was for a long time the only known 
species of the genus. Our spmmen agrees mo<lerately well with 
SwainsonV description, but is, no doubt, an immature male, the 
wings an' brownisli and are not e<lgiMl with glossy purple, but 
instead with a <]ull grayish white. The two external pairs of tail 
feathers an» e<lged more or less with white, as in the female. The 
liand of white on the wing is formed largely by the middle and 
greater roverts,an<i U'ginning nearly at the ()Ut4'r e<lge of the wing, 
<*ontinu('s obliipiely across the roots of the primaries, secondaries 
and tertials, meeting on the back with the white of the rump so 
as to form a dc»ep curve over the foldtHl wings and back. The 
white on the wing is even more extensive than is ap|Kirent. On 
lifting the overlying dark plumage this color is seen to involve 
nearly all of the up|>er |K)rtion of the wing, the internal surface of 
which as well as the axillaries are white. The outer greater 
coverts are white at the Imse but are black glossed with green on 
their margins ; on the external feather, the black is so reduced 
as to leave only a iMinier on a white ground. The whole upper 
plumage of the head and inick as far as the rump is of deep blue- 
black with glossy Hteel-blue n»fleetions. 

In 1H51. .1. and V\, Verreaux deserilHMl in the Rev. et Mag. de 
Z<H»1.. p. 'M^^^ a serond s|K»eies, Muaricnjm (f) vioiacea. In the 
same vear, II. K. Strickland brought home from the River ttal>oon 
a H|H'cimen whirh he <le>criUMl in .lanlii.e's (Contributions to 
()rnitholoi;\ . I*<.M. p. i:{2, under the name of Hyliota violat^ra, 
after having had the o|>port unity of eoimnlting the manuscript of 
Verreaux, to which he refers. lie remarks as follows: " Thi?» 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 129 

bird is interesting as affording a seconpl speciies of a genus of 
which one specimen only, the H, fiavigastra^ Swains., of Senegal, 
was hitherto known. It much resembles H, fiavigastra^ but differs 
in its broader beak, and the less extent of white on the wing. 
Whole upper parts black with a steel-blue gloss, of a rather more 
purple hue than in flavigastra. Three or four of the greater 
wing coverts next the body arc white (in fiavigastra the whole of 
the middle, and the basal half of the greater coverts are white). 
Lower parts pale cream-color. 

Total length 5 ; beak to front 5 ; to gape 7 ; broad 2^; wing 
3 ; medial retrices 1 and 9 ; external 2 ; tarsus 7." 

Of Hyliota violacea, as above described, the Academy possesses 
two specimens. One is the identical bird on which the species 
was founded by Verreanx, and its characters agree with the 
description of that author, as well as with that of Strickland, and 
also with that to be found in Hartlaub's Ornithologie Westafricas, 
Bremen, 1857, p. 98. 

The second specimen in possession of the Academy, belongs to 
the Du Chaillu 1st Coll., and is also from the River Gaboon. 
This bird is mentioned in Cassin's Catalogue, Proc. Acad, of Nat. 
Sciences, 1869, p. 51, but no description is given. Essentially its 
characters are the same as the type specimen of Verreaux. 

In this species, the only white to be seen on the whole wing is 
on one single feather belonging to the inner portion of the greater 
coverts. There are really about five feathers belonging to the 
series of ornamental coverts, but they overlie each other, and are 
so disposed that in the closed wing only one of them is visible. 

The rump in both species is covered with long, loose, silky 
feathers, of a white or grayish white color, from the base to near 
the tip, when the feather suddenly becomes dark and at the same 
time pennaceous in structure. The only difference between the 
two species appears to be in the depth of the dark margin, or its 
entire absence in mature specimens of fiavigastra. In Swainson's 
description of the type, the, rump is given as pure white, but it is 
not so in our specimen. The pennaceous dark border is nearly as 
deep as in violacea, so that this character cannot be relied upon 
as a distinction between the two species. 

In his Omitholog}' of Angola, p. 190, Prof. Barboza du Bocage 
acknowledges the receipt from M. Anchieta, of one specimen of 
H. violacea. The description is that of a bird with a large amount 
of white on the wing. This description does not resemble the 



130 . PB0C££DirfQ8 OF THE ACADEMT OF [1883. 

type specimen of Verreaux, but is much more nearly like ^flavi* 
gastra Swains. 

Depending on this description, R. Bowdler Sharpe gives it in 
his Catalogue of the Birds in the Collection of the British Muaenm. 
instead of that of Verreaux, and, in consequence, considers H. 
violacea as a doubtfiil species. 

With the privilege of examination of the type, and of comparing 
this with the DuChaillu specimen, and the descriptions of Verreaax, 
Strickland and Hartlaub, it seems impossible to suppose that the 
specimen sent by M. Anchieta to Prof. Bocage, was that of a true 
violacea^ but was either H. Jlavigaatra^ or a form intermediate 
between the two. 

The striking differences between the two species, are the hlucv 
black plumage in the upper parts in Jiamgastra^ and the violet- 
black of violacea ; the broad bands of white on the wing of the 
former, and the concentrated spot on that of the latter; the darker 
shade of the under parts \r\ Jiavigastra ; and the white thighs of 
the one and the black of the other, together with the larger size 
of violacea. They also inhabit different regions, flavigatira 
belonging to the N. E. of Afiica and Senegambia, while violacea 
is found southward from the Gaboon to Benguela in West Africa. 

Swainson points out the general resemblance of Hylioia to the 
African toclies of the genus Platyntira^ and to the Old World fly- 
catchers of Muifcicapaj with a bill so much lengthened and com- 
pressed on the sides that at first sight it might be mistaken for a 
Syli'ia. 

It also agrees with Muscicapa and Cryptolopha in having the 
l)ase of the bill broad and depressed as far as the nostrils, and 
then compreH8e<l to the extremity, the bill 1)eing so much length- 
ened in Hyliota that it l^ecomes the tenui rostral form of the g^up 
to which it lielongs. 

The glossy blue-black plumage, white wings and buff throat are 
in unison with related fly-cat <*hers. By the rump feathers Swainson 
detcH^tA an analogy with the caterpillar-catchers of the Ceblep^'rinie. 

In Hyliota the si^xes differ n*niarkably in color, as they do also 
in PlatyAtira, such difference not lK*ing the rule in the family of 
the MuHricajtids'. Ilyliotn agrees with the fly -catchers in general 
by its small and wrak f«><-t and its syndactyle toes, the outer Iteing 
rotintM'teil with the iiiiddU* li^ far as the first joints. The wing^ 
and tail arc those of Mm^rwaiHi^ in which group Hylioia is placeil 
by ornithologistt*. 



NATURAL BC1£NC£B OF FHILASELPOIA. 



June 19. 
The Rev. H. G. MgCook, Vice-President, in the cliair. 
Twenty-nine persons present. 
The death of J. B. Qassiea, a correspondent, was announced. 

Note on the Intelligenve of the American Turret Spider. — The 
Rev. Dr. H. C. McCoOK exhibited nests of Tarentula arenicola 
Scudder, a species of ground-spider, of the family Lycosidte, 
popularly known as the Turret Spider. These nests, in natural 
site, are surmounted by structures which quite closely resemble 
miniAture old-fashioned chimneys, composed of mud sad crossed 




NcM or Tnmt Spider, lined 



Sticks, as seen in the \oft cabins of pioneer settlers. From half 
an inch to one inch of the tube projects above ground, while it 
extends straight downwards twelve or more inches into the earth. 
The projecting portion or turret is in the form of a pentagon, 
uioreorleB8regular,andisbuiltupof bits of grass, stalks of straw, 
small twigs, etc., laid across each other at the corners. The upper 
and projecting parts have a thin lining of silk. Taking its position 
Just inside the watch-tower, the spider leaps out and captures such 
insects as may come in its way. The speaker has found nests of 
the species at the base of the AlleghenyMoui|,tains near Altoona, 
and in New Jersey on tlie seashore. In the latter location the 
anioial had availed itself of the building material at hand, by 



132 PROCEBDINOS OV THE ACADEMY Of [1883. 

forming:: the foundation of its watch-tower of little quarts pebbles, 
sometimes pro<liu*ing a structure of considerable b^uty. In this 
sandy site, the tube is preserved intact by a delicate secretion ot 
silk, to which the particles of sand adhere. This secretion scmrcely 
presents the character of a web-lining, but has sufficient con^is- 
tenc}' to liold uloft a frail cylinder of sand and silk, when the sand 
is carefully 8coo|>ed away from the site of the nest. 

A nest recently obtained from Vineland, N. J., furnished an 
interesting illustration of the power of these araneads to intelli- 
gently adapt themselves to varying surroundings and to take 
advantage of circumstances with which they certainly could not 
have l>een previously familiar. In onler to preserve the nest« with 
a view to study the life-history of its occupant, the sod containing 
the tul)e had bi*en can>fully dug up and the upper and lower 
openings plugged with cotton. Upon the arrival of the nest in 
Phila<lelphia, the plug guarding the entrance had been remoTed« 
but the other had l>een forgotten and allowed to remain. The 
spider, which still inhabite<1 the tube, immediately began removing 
the cott<m at the lower portion, and cast some of it out. But 
guided apparently by its sense of touch to the knowledge that 
the soft fibres of the cotton would be an excellent material with 
whirh to line its tube, she speedily began putting it to that nse, 
and had soon spread a soft, smooth layer over the inner surface 
and around the opening. The nest, in this condition, was exhib- 
ited and showed the interior to be padded for about four inches 
from the summit of the tower. Dr. McCook pointed out the ver}* 
nmnifcst inference that the spider must for the first time hare 
<H>me in contact with such a material as cotton, and had inime- 
dintely utilized its new exix'rience by sut>stituting the sotl fibre 
for the oidinary silken lining; or, rather, adding it thereto. This 
nest with the cotton wn<lding is figured on p. 131. 



Jl'NE 26. 

Dr. W. S. W. Ri'sciiENBEROER, in the chair. 

Twenty-three |)ersons pR'sent. 

The Finfien nf the Bnt»to Itiver^ N, J, — Frof. CoPE gave an 
acc<»unt of the n'sults of fishing in the confine<l waters of a broken 
dam on the Batsto River, New Jersey. The species obtaim*ti 
were the following. Percida* : J*a'cilirhfhyH eroi'hrou» Cope; En- 
iienranthiiH ttimiiifins Co\ye \ ^fei<(HJotnHt^Uf* rh/9to<!on Baird; Apho- 
dcHlcri<ln* : Ajthotfoilrrus smjarniH (till.; Umbri<lR»; rmhra limi 
Kirtl. ; Ksocida* : Knffx nmhroHtis Kirt.; AV>x rf»/icM/a/Mi« IjOS* ; 
Cyprinida*; Ch'ola rhahjh»n ('o|h» ; Catostomida*: Krimyion 
tKuretta Lac; Siluriibe : Amkris PBosTiiihTii's Cope, sp. nov. ; 
An^ruillida* : Afi'juiUfi mstnita Les. Pr<»f. ('o|)e remarkeil that 
thcM* tithes repivsent the fish fauna of the Carolinian district of 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 133 

the Nearctic realm, only three of the above, Esox reticulatus^ 
Erimyzon sucetta and Anguilla rostrata, extending into the 
AUeghanian district. Of the remaining eight species, four are 
restricted to New Jersey, and in the case of two of them, Foeci- 
lichthys erochrous and Mesogonistius chaetodon, the corresponding 
parts of Delaware ; the other two species being Cliola chalybsea 
and Amiurua prosthislius. Poecilichthys erochrous is the only 
Etheostomine perch which inhabits inuddy waters, though it is 
not confined to such bottom, living as well in the gravelly but 
dark brown-stained streams of the New Jersey pines. The 
Amiurus is new to science, which is quite unexpected in the case 
of so large a fish. Its characters are as follows : — 

Caudal fin rounded when expanded, not straight or slightly 
concave, the marginal rays being shortened. Anal fin long, one 
specimen with 27 rays, two with 25, and one with 24 rays. An- 
terior dorsal fin a good deal nearer the end of the muzzle than to 
the adipose fin. Length of head 2*66 times in length without 
caudal fin ; depth at first anal ray 4*25 times in same. Greatest 
width of head just equal to depth of body at first anal ray. Eyes 
small, the space between them five times their long diameter. 
Pectoral spines a little larger than dorsal spines, with posterior 
points only, which are stronger than those of the dorsal. Maxil- 
lary barbel to near the middle of pectoral spine ; humeral process 
little roughened, extending a little beyond middle of spine. Radii 
D. I. 6 ; C. -f- 18 -h ; V. 8 ; P. I. 8. Color generally black ; the 
under surface of the head silvery white, fading on the belly to 
dull white and posteriorly pink, as far as base of anal fin. Fins 
black, pectorals and ventrals pale at base. Total length m. 0*208 ; 
from end of muzzle to base of dorsal spine, 042 ; to posterior 
base of adipose fin '149; to base of caudal fin (end of heemapo- 
physis) 'ITO. Depth at first anal ray *039. Total length of a 
larger specimen *233. 

When first seen the specimens of this species were supposed 
to be unusually dark-colored examples of the coranron Ami- 
uru8 nebulosus, A critical examination soon showed that they 
differ in the important characters of the considerably more anterior 
position of the dorsal fin, 4 to T more anal radii, and more rounded 
outline of the caudal fin. He had compared it with the A. nebu- 
losus from Lake George, N. Y., and from the Hudson and Dela- 
ware Rivers. In fact its characters ally it to the western A, 
ncUaliSj from which it differs by its more slender form and more 
rounded caudal fin. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



131 PROCEEDINQS OF THI ACADEMY Of [1983. 



OV THB riBHIi or THB ElOm AHB FUOOnri LAKH Of THB 

PAST OF THI ORIAT BASUT, AHB 07 THI IDAHO PUOOIHI LAKH 

bt e. d. oope. 

Prelimlnart Observations. 

The numerous lakes of the northwestern part of the Great 
Basin present many t)oints of interest to the geologist and biol- 
ogist. The region whioh they occupy is one of comparattTelj 
recent geological disturbance, so that their topographical features 
may be regarded as of relatively modern origin. Their fonner 
greater extent and intercommunication in groups has been dearly 
pointed out by the geologists of the IT. S. Survey of the Fortieth 
Parallel ; and the species of fishes found in the pliocene and post- 
pliocene deposits of the adjacent regions have been shown by 
myself* to l)e nearly allied to those now living in the present lakes. 

The geologists of the fortieth {mrallel have shown that a large 
part of the present Territory of Utah was, during late tertiary- 
time, occupied by a large Ixxly of water, of which Salt Lake, 
Utah Lake and Sevier Lake are the present representativea. To 
thiH ancient sea thoy have ^iven the name of Lake Bonneville 
They have also shown that the existing lakes of the western 
region of Nevada were formerly united into an extensive body of 
water, to which they have ^ivon the name of Lake Lahontan. It 
included the existing WalkerV, Carson, Humboldt, Pyramid and 
Winnemucca Lakes. It is exceedingly probable that it will be 
shown that a third lake existed in Oregon, north of the 8uppose<l 
northern l)oundary of Lake Lahontan, which is now represented 
bv the Warner Lakes, Al)ert'H Lake, Summer Lake and Silver 
Lake, and probably by Harney's and Malheur Lakes on the eastern 
side of the Oregon desert. As will \ye shown later, the larger 
s|K*cieH of tiHhes found in such of these lakes as contain them, are 
identical, and different from those of the lakes of the Bonneville 
series. One R|>ecies, the Catostomus tahoenHiity is common to thia 
area and that of th«' true Lahontan Lakes (Tahoe and Pyramid), 
and this Oregon lake may have l)ei*n continuous with that of 
Nevada, at a |K>int s(»me distance east of tlie mountains. Goose 
Lake, the Klamath Lakes, and dou))tless Hhett and Clear Lakes(, 

• Proceedings Anioriean I'hilosophical Society. Nov. 1870 and Dec, 1877. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENC|:S OF PHILADELPHIA. 135 

form another series, characterized by several points of resem];>lance 
in their fish faunpR. Whether they were connected, forming a 
single body, at an earlier geological period, is not yet known. 
Some of them are connected by rivers and creeks at the present 
time, and the Klamath River discharges the contents of the lakes 
of the same name into the Pacific Ocean. 

Still another late tertiary lake existed in Eastern Oregon and 
Western and Southern Idaho. No body of water represents it at 
the present time, and the remains of fishes found in its sediments 
belong to species different from those of the Oregon basin, both 
recent and extinct. It is to be supposed that this lake was 
separate from all of the others, and of earlier age, although one 
of the pliocene series. It may be called Lake Idaho, and its 
sediment, the Idaho formatiou. A list of its species will be 
giv^n after the consideration of the characters of the faunse 
of the Lahontan and Klamath Lakes. 

The cause of the desiccation of the Great Basin and other 
interior regions of our continent, has not been satisfactorily 
explained. It is usually ascribed to the intervention of the Sierra 
Nevada and Rocky Mountain ranges, which precipitate the clouds 
from the Pacific Ocean, and thus deprive the regions eastward of 
rain. This would at first appear to be a sufficient explanation, 
but the facts of geological history contradict it. The existence 
of extensive lakes throughout the now dry region, in pliocene 
and postpliocenc time, has been already referred to. But the 
Sierra Nevada was no less elevated then than now. Furthermore, 
great lakes or seas occupied' the centre of the continent during 
miocene time, when the ranges were still higher. Vast forests of 
vegetation, and a rich population of animal life, point to a humid 
climate during the entire period that has elapsed since the great 
elevation of the Rocky Mountains in the beginning of the eocene 
epoch, to within comparatively recent times. Yet the mountains 
have been steadily diminishing by erosion throughout that period. 

Of course the comparatively low elevation of the Great Basin 
would accelerate its desiccation, other conditions being equal. 
Mr. J. D. Clayton,^ of Salt Lake City, discovered immense faults 
along the western slope of the Wasatch Mountains, and proposed 
the hypothesis that the entire area of the Great Basin had de- 



^ Pablished, I believe, in a number of the Salt Lake Herald, which I 
cannot at present lay my hands on. 



13G PROCEEDINQB OF TUB ACADBMT Of [168S. 

sccncled several thousand feet during tertiary times. Mr. C. King' 
states that tlie fault along the eastern edge of the bAsin amoonU 
to 30,000 feet, and that along the western border, from 3000 to 
10,000 feet. The elevation of Pyramid Lake above the aem level 
is now, according to King,' 3890 feet. That of the Oreat Salt 
Lake is, according to Emmons, 4200 feet.^ The depression, 
according to King, took place on tlie eastern side during early 
eocene times, and may have been nearly simultaneous on the 
western border. As a consequence of it, the Manti and Amy son 
beds were deposited, representing the eocene period west of the 
Wasatch Mountains. 

I. The Lahontan and Klamath Lakes. 

The lakes of the Great Hasin in Nevada and Oregon diminish in 
alkalinity as we approach the Sierra Nevada Mountains. While 
desiccation has conoentratc<l the salts in all of them, those near 
the mountains have been maintained in a more or less fresh con- 
dition by the constant influx of the pure water of the mountain 
streams. The lakes most remote from the mountains are not 
habitable by fishes, their only animal population being Crustacea 
and the larva* of insects. Such are Summer and Christmas 
Lakes of Oregon; and the Malheur and Harney Lakes are naid 
to have the same olmracter. That of Pyramid Lake, although 
re(*eiving the fresh watera of the Truckee River, is too alkaline 
to lie potable. The f< allowing analysis is given in Mr. Kings 
II Vol. of the Survey of the 40th Parallel (p. 824>, as made by 
Prof. O. I). Allen, of Yale College: 

Magnesia, 01292 

So<iiuni, 0-8999 

S<Kia 0-4234 

Chlorine, 1'8870 

Sulphuric Acid, 01400 

CarlK)nate of Lime 0*0178 

Car»K)nic Acid, 0*2392 



3-2365 

in 1000 parts of the water. 



» Sur>ey of the 40th Parallel, i, i>. 744. 
• Iax\ cit., ill, p. 8*22. 
' Loc. cit., ii, p. 46»J. 



1883.] NATURAL SGIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 137 

The water of the Upper Klamath Lake is slightly alkaline to 
t;he taste, and less so than that of Pyramid Lake. The waters of 
Ooose and Silver Lakes are similar to it, while that of Warner's 
Xake is rather more alkaline. All of these lakes abound in fishes. 
•Summer Lake, Christmas Lake, and others, are intensely alka- 
line to the taste. 

The locality which has furnished the greatest number of fossil 

xemains of the pliocene or postpliocene ages, is known as Fossil 

Xake. It is twenty miles east of Silver Lake, in the western part 

of the Oregon Desert. It is a shallow depression of perhaps a 

liuiidred acres in extent, where drinkable watec may be obtained 

^y digging. The soil is a mixture of sand and clay, which supports 

^k more or less luxuriant growth of Artemisia. Bones of extinct 

sind recent species of vertebrata, thoroughly fossilized, mixed 

"with worked flints,^ and shells of Carinifex newberryi bleached 

snow-white, lie in profusion in this light material. Within a short 

distance of this locality the soil becomes sandy, and a few miles 

'xiortheastward the surface of the country consists of sand-dunes, 

^which rise to a height of one hundred feet. The sand is con- 

^itantly. moving to the northeast under the influence of* the 

;X>revailing southwest wind, creeping up the long southwest slope 

^)f the dunes, and falling in a fine shower over the apex of the 

"vertical northeast face. This tract is perhaps twenty miles in 

'^iameter.^ A smaller tract of a similar character lies at the 

:siorthem end of Summer Lake, where the sand is piled up 

against the basaltic hills that bound its valley on the east. I have 

^iven lists of the vertebrate fossils of this region, as cited in the 

^ELCCompanying foot-notes. 

As described by Emmons,' Pyramid Lake is thirty miles long, 
'fcy twelve wide. It is surrounded by mountains of eruptive 
^i^ranite, trachyte and basalt. According to King, the level of this 
e rose, between 186T and 18T1, nine feet, while that of the 
onnected lake, Winnemucca, rose twenty-two feet. This lake is 
ceedingly rich in life, as will be pointed out by and by. Messrs. 
^^ordan and Bean ^ have catalogued several species of fishes as 

^ See American NaturalUi^ 1878, p. 1^. 

* See Bulletin of the U. 8. Geol. Survey of the Tenitories, F. V. 
^ayden, iv, p. 389 ; v, p. 48. 

* Survey of the 40th Parallel, i, p. 506. 

« Bept. of the Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. Expl. and-Surv. W. of 100th 
"Mer., G. M. Wheeler, 8yo, 1878, p. 187. 
10 



138 noGBn>DiG8 or thb acambit ov [1881 

found in it, and I enamente iseTenl •dditjonal ones in tlie prMcnt 
article. 

The Mud Lakes in the neighborhood sooth of Fort Bidwdl lie 
in a monoclinal ralley of moderately incUned beds of a plotoak 
outflow. • The strau dip towards the Sierra NeTsdas, westwmrdi^ 
A high divide on the north separates these lake basins from that 
of the Warner Lakes. As already remarked, it is possible that 
they may hare been connected by water, which oocopiad lover 
lands to the eastward, hot this point remains as yet nnsolTed. 

The four Warner Lakes occupy a long Talley, which ticnds 
north and south. * They are connected by a stream which flows 
through a suc*cession of swamps of I)fp^ laH/olia. They abound 
in fishes and fishing-birds. The valley is apparently a fracUned 
anticlinal, the strata dipping away from the lake on both the easl 
and the west sides. The rocks are a dark-colored basalt. At the 
first and i^econd lakes the western bluff is the higher, reaching, to 
judge by the eye, nearly a thousand feet elevation at the lower 
part of the third lake. At the northern part of the latter, at 
Wilson B Ranch, the eastern bluff is the higher, reaching the 
graiM pro|K>rtions of two thousand feet, estimated measaranent. 

Summer Lake is eighteen miles long and six or seTen miles 
wide. The hills and bluffs of the western side probably reach a 
thousanrl feet in elevation. Those of the eastern side are moeh 
less elevate<l, an<l are separated from the water by a wide slope 
of sand an«l alkaline earth and mud. The western range is 
basaltic. At one point where the escarpment is especially s t ee p , 
the brown liasalt is overlaid by a deposit of white pumiee or 
silie(*ourt dust, which is worn into a picturesque sculpture by the 
weather. 

I did not get a near view of Abert Lake, but it lies between 
high l)asaltic bluffs, of which the eastern is the more eleratcd, 
rising to a ^reat height above the water. It is supplied with water 
by the (*hewaucan River, which is a large creek with a fine flow of 
pure water. It abounds in fishes, especiall}^ the trout, Soiaio 
ffurffUratuM. 

Silver I>ake also lies in a vallev with eastern and western walls 
of ba<<alt. The strata of which the walls are composed, dip away 
from each oth«'r here, as at Warner's I^ke, producing the impres- 
sion that the lake occupieH a fracture in an anticlinal. A range of 
hilU, terminating at its eastern extremity in a bluff, extends along 



1888.] NATURAL 8CISN0S8 OF PHILADELPHIA 139 

the north side of the lake. The rock of which it is composed 
differs from those of the principal ranges, in being a finely bedded 
volcanic conglomerate mud. The same material forms bluffs 
forty-five miles eastward in the desert. During the season of 
1882 the waters of Silver Lake rose higher than had been pre- 
viously known. It is probable that these lakes are rising, as is 
Uie case with Pyramid Lake. A comparatively small elevation 
would connect the waters of Silver Lake with Summer Lake, 
eighteen miles distant, and those of Summer Lake with the 
Chewaucan River, seven miles distant. This would convert the 
Chewaucan Swamp into a lake, and connect the Abert Lake with 
the series. 

Oooae Lake is thirty miles in length and about ten miles in 
width. It is bounded on the east and west by eruptive moun- 
tains of no great elevation near the lake, but which rise gradually 
to a considerable height, especially to the eastward. To the 
north and south the valley of the lake continues for several miles. 
It is cut off to the north by the watershed of the Chewaucan, and 
to the south by that of Pitt River. The scenery of its banks is 
tame as compared with that of some of the other lakes, but 
presents nevertheless many elements of beauty. It is shallow 
for a long distance from its northern and eastern shores. It 
abounds in fishes and water-birds. I fished for a day with hook 
and line without success, but procured a good collection of fishes 
by another method. I found numerous specimens both fresh and 
dry, which had been dropped by fishing-birds on or near the shore. 

The great or Upper Klamath Lake is thirty-two miles long, and 
of irregular width, and is said to be twelve miles across its 
widest part. Its western shore is the base of the Cascade Moun- 
tains, and its eastern shore is bordered by a low range of eruptive 
hills. Both shores are wooded ; and the scenery, though it lacks 
the ragged grandeur of that of Warner's and Abert's Lakes, is 
highly picturesque. The symmetrical proportions of Mount 
Pitt are ever visible on its eastern shore, while the more central 
peaks of the Cascades are in view from its northern extremity. 
It is fed by several streams, the most important of which is the 
Williamson^s River, which enters it from the east. This has a 
considerable flow of water. The Link River, which connects the 
Upper and Lower Klamath Lakes with the Klamath River, is a 
wide and rapid stream containing much water. 




140 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE AGADBMT Of [18SS. 

The Upper Klamath Lake is more prolific id animal life thaa 
any body of water known to me. The proportion of alkali whi^ 
it contains appears most favorable to the deyelopment of life. 
Its waters are full of vegetable impurities, living and dead, and 
mollusca and Crustacea abound ever^-where. These aoBtain a 
great population of fishes, which, thoagh not numerous in species, 
is so in individuals. Swarms of fishing-birds employ themselves 
in catching them living from the lake. The most abundant mol- 
lusca are the Flanorbis ( Carini/ex) netoberryi Lea, and a LymruM. 
A probably hydroid polyp is found attached to the bitrk of 
submerged trees in large numbers. Its creeping yellowish stems 
are imbedded in sarcode, forming a continuous mass. Eaeh 
zooid is of an eldhgate oval form, sessile, and with six rajs of 
equal size, each one-half as long as the body. These zo5ids are 
translucent, but with two oval bodies in the lower half of the 
body-cavity, of a yellow color. The masses are as large as the fist 
The length of eaeh zooid is one millimetre. They did not extend 
themselves beyond this length, neither did the rays elongate to 
beyond half the same, so long as I observed them. They retracted 
themselves on being irritated. They do not possess any fringes 
like the arms of the Pol^^zoa. As the possession of a coracecinm 
distinguishes this genus from all the fresh-water hydroids, I pro- 
pose to characterize this remarkable form as the type of a new 
genus, with the name of Rhizohydra^ and the species, by the name 
of flavitxncta^ 

The following mollusca which I obtained were identified hj 
Mr. Try on, to whom mj' acknowledgments are due : — 

Ancylun newherryi Lea. 
Limntta stagnalis Lea. 
Physa gyrina Say. 
Pompholyx ejfusa Lea. 
IHanorbis corpulentus Say. 
Carini/ex neicberryi Lea. 
Anodonta tcahlamatensis Lea. 

In my explorations of these lakes, I was greatly aided bj CoL 
Whi(>()le, in command at Fort Klamath, and CoL Bamaid, in 
command at Fort Bidwell, and Dr. George Kober, surgeon at the 



* My attempt* to preserve some of the manat of this animal in alcohol 
were not succead'ul. 



1883.] NATURAL fiCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 141 

latter post. To these gentlemen I wish to express my thanks. 
My especial thanks are also due to Geneittl W. T. Sherman, 
commander-in-chief of the army, from whom I have received 
many fkvors, on this and other occasions. 

Stnofbis of thb Fishes. 

ISOSPONDYLI. 

Salmo purporatus Pallas. 

Pyramid Lake ; Chewaucan River ; Silver Creek (tributary of 
Silver Lake) ; Klamath Lake, and Williamson's River. 

As Jordan remarks, this fish varies as to its color-shades, and 
is hence imagined by fishermen to include several species. A 
specimen from Link River (the part of Klamath River connecting 
the Klamath Lakes) is nearly silver-white. Specimens from Wil- 
liamson's River are of darker color. I examined a large number 
of individuals from that stream, and found the following varia- 
tions in some of them. One specimen Br. XI ; Anal 10^ ; one, Br. 

XII, A. 9j; six, Br. XII, A. 10| ; three, Br. XIII, A. 10|^; one, Br. 

XIII, A. 11| ; one, Br. XIII, A. 12f 

An important food fish, sometimes reaching ten ponnds in 
Klamath Lake. 

Salvalinu malma Walb. 

Seven-mile Creek, which enters Lake Klamath from the north- 
west. 

PLECTOSPONDYLI. 

APOCOPE Cope. 
Apoeope vantriooia Cope. Jordan, 1. c, p. 211. 

Abundant in the small streams near Fort Bidwell, N. E. Cali- 
fornia. 

Apocope TvlBorata Cope. Jordan, I. c, p. 210. 

Abundant in streams near Fort Bidwell, and in those tiibutary 
to Wamer^s Lake and Abert's Lake. 

A008IA Gird. 

This genus is stated by Jordan to agree with Apocope^ excepting 
in the possession of a complete lateral line. 

Agosia noYomraduta Cope, 8p. nov. 

Scales 11-60-11; radii, dorsal I. 9; anal I. t. The head is 
rather elongate, especially the muzzle, which projects a little 
beyond the mouth. Eye 4'5 times in length of head ; 1*5 times in 



142 



PR0GIIDTMQ8 OF THB AOADSMT Of 



LlMl 



•101 

•010 
•044 
•04T 
•OM 
•085 
•013 
•018 
•016 
•009 



length of muzzle, and in interorbital width. Head four tiiiMM ia 
length without caudal fin ; depth at yeDtral fin, five times in tlH 
same. Dorsal fin originating behind line of last ventrml njr; 
radii always I. 9. Caudal peduncle rather deep. 

Measurements. M. 

Total length (with caudal fin), 
Length to edge of operculum, 
Length to first ventral ray (outside), 
Length to first dorsal ray (outside), 
Length to first anal ray (outside). 
Length to base of caudal fin, 
Depth at occipital region. 
Depth at first dorsal ray. 
Depth at first anal ray, . 
Depth of caudal peduncle, 

Color silvery, dusted with smoky, to below the lateral line, and 
marked on the sides and back with several rows of dusky spots. 
Bases of inferior fins and upper lip red. 

This species diflers from the species of Apocope^ which it 
generally resembles, in having a perfect lateral line. It agrees 
with the A, henshaui in having nine dorsal rays, but has a longer 
muzzle and larger scales. The latter has the following scale 
formula, 16-67-12. It is possible that some of the specimens 
referred by Jordan to the A, henshavi belong here. Abundant in 
WebtT River at Echo, Utah, 

CLIOLA (Hrd. 
Hyhopti* '*A|CASs." Cope aod othert. 
OUoIa AAfnitSTM Co|>e. Proceed*. Amer. Philor. Sooietj, 1877, p. 130. 

Well (listinguishe<l from the allied fossil species by its narrower 
pharyngeal bones, and its teeth 4-4. Fossil La)ce, Oregon. 

XTLOLKVCUS Cope. 

AddusI Report U. 8. Oeol. Surrey Terrf., 1871, p. 475. Jordao, SyBopvU Fiaktt 
North America, 1 88a, p. 887. 

This genus differs from Leucus Heck, in its dental formula, 5-4 
instead of 5-5. It in characteristic of the streams and lakes of the 
Gn^at Basin, an<l of those waters of Oregon and California which 
lie nearest to them. Most of the lakes of southwestern Oregon 
contain them, and their variations are such as to render their 



1888.] NATURAL 80ISNCE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 143 

specific characters somewhat difficult to unravel. Teeth of species 
of this ^nus occur in the pliocene lake deposits of the Great 
Basin. 

Myleleuoill gibbaroui Cope. Albumops gibbareu$ Cope, Proceeds. Amer. Philns. 
Society, 1877, p. 230. Anehyhop»i» brevinreut Cope. 1. c, p. 229. 

The presence of four teeth on the right pharyngeal bone of 
specimens referred to Alburnopa, as above, is not established ; and 
the other characters point to the specific identity of the indi- 
viduals included under the two names cited. It was abundant in 
a fossil state at Fossil Lake, Oregon, whence I have obtained 
about twenty pharyngeal bones of both sides. First discovered 
by Chas. M. Sternberg. 

The recent species may be distinguished as follows : — 

Scales 11-12 — 51-5 — 6-t; anal rays I. 8; head 3-5; depth 3*5 to 
4 times in length. if. formosus. 

Scales 10 — 47-50 — 5 ; anal rays I. 8 ; head 3*5 ; depth 4 times in 
length. M. parovanus. 

Scales 9-46-4 ; anal rays I. 9 ; head 3*75 ; depth 4*5 times in 
length* M, thallaasinua. 

Myloleuem formoiui GIrard. Jordan, Synopsis Fishes N.A., p. xxi. Leucu» formo-tu 
Jordan, Report Capt. G. M. Wheeler, Expl. W. 100th Mer., Svo, 1878, p. 193. 

Specimens of this fish from Silver Lake represent a form of 
the species allied to the M. obesus, in the greater depth of tlie 
body than those found in the Chewaucan River and the Warner 
Lakes. In the first named, the depth enters the length 3'5 times ; 
in the last two, four times. The Silver Lake specimens diverge 
from the types in having the scales a little larger. They are 
thus counted in the three sets of specimens : — 

Silver Lake 11 — 51-3—8; Chewaucan 11-55-7; Warner Lake 
12 — 54.5 — 7. The largest specimen is from Warner's Lake and 
measures 8^ inches ^in length. 

Xyiotomeili pftroyanm Cope. Zoology Wheeler's Ezpl. Surv. W. lOO.h Mer., p. 669. 

This species was originally described by me from the Beaver 
River of Utah. It now appears that is the most abundant 
cyprinoid of Goose and Klamath Lakes. It reaches a length of 
10 to 12 inches, and forms a large part of the food of the great 
flocks of various species of fishing-birds which live at those lakes. 
Its specific characters are constant in a large number of indi- 
viduals. Prof. Jordan identified this species with the M. bicolor 




144 



PR0CKEDIN08 OF THB ACADBIfT OT 



[1881 



of Oirard, but be gives tbe scale formula of that speciea ■• 
8-50-5, and tbe anal rays as T — cbaracters quite inconsistent wiU 
tbe M. parovanus. 

MyloUnoiit thmlftstiau »p. nor. 

Tbis species rests on a single specimen which I obtained at 
Goose Lake, Oregon. It is a more slender fish than the M, p&r^ 
vanus^ and its color when fresh is light, translucent green^ qoite 
difforent from tbe more or less heavy olivaceous color of the 
latter. Its proportions are expressed in the key above given, as 
well as the smaller number of longitudinal rows of scmles, and 
the additional rav of the anal fin. 



Measurements, 

Total length (with caudal fin), 

Length to edge of opercle, 

Length to base of dorsal on lateral line, 

Length to base of ventral on lateral line, 

length to base of anal on lateral line, 

Length to base of caudal on lateral line, 

Depth at first dorsal ray, . 

Depth at first anal ray. 

Depth of caudal peduncle, 

Width of interorbital region, 

Width of orbit, 



*143 

*081 

-059 

•081 

•0805 

-114 

•028 

-028 

-014 

•010 

•007 



Fitcbr Srh^n*. 1M.1, p. i^, Aiwkyhvpna Cop«, Prooead. AflMr. Philo*. Soeicly, ISTf. 
p. 64.:. 

I foun<l recent specien of this genus in Pyramid Lake, Nevada, 
only. Some extinct species occur in the pliocene beds of Oregon 
and MahoJ The two species from Pj-ramid Lake differ as follows : 

Scales 13-14—5^9—7-8; anal rays I. 8; head 8*66 in length; depth 
4 (3*75;; eye in head 5 times. L. olivactus* 

Soalefl 14-15 — 63-6-^; anal rays 1.8; head 4 times in length; 
depth 4*5 times ; eye 3*5 in bead. L. dimidiaius. 



' Lfurua Utua; Anchybop$i$ latui Cope, Prooeeda. Ajner. Philos. Boe., 
1. Cm Idaho: aize large. Leucus altarcus; Aneh^fbopsii atUrcus Cops, loe. 
cit., 1^77, p. 229. From Oregon; ■mall. 



1883.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILABELPHIA. 



145 



Leneiu oUymsui sp. nov. 

The largest cyprinoid of the Pyramid Lake, and very abundant. 
The shape is a regularly compressed fusiform. The head narrows 
to the muzzle, and the mouth opens obliqulely forwards and 
upwards. The end of the maxillary bone, when the mouth is 
closed, is concealed in a sheath, and extends a little beyond the 
anterior margin of the eye. The latter enters the length of the 
muzzle (without the chin) 1*33 times ; and the interorbital space 
1*60 times. Middle of front a flat longitudinal surface, bounded 
on each side by an angle, from which the surface slopes to the 
superciliary border. In the Myloleucus parovanus^ a fish of 
similar size, the frontal is fiat roof-shaped, there being a median 
longitudinal angle. In specimens from Klamath Lake, however, 
the lateral angles are more distinct than in those from Goose 
Lake. This fish is everywhere a dusky olive, except on the belly, 
which is silvery. No lateral band. Fins dusky. 



Measurements. 

Total length, with caudal fin, . 

Length to edge of opercle, . 

Length to base of dorsal, on lateral line, 

Length to base of ventral, on lateral line, 

Length to base of anal, on lateral line. 

Length to base of caudal, on lateral line. 

Depth at first dorsal ray, . 

Depth at first anal ray. 

Depth at caudal peduncle, . 

Width of interorbital region. 

Width of orbit, . 



M. 

•283 
•064 
•122 
131 
•lt3 
•236 
•060 
•043 
•027 
•020 
•0126 



This and the smaller L. dimidiatus swim in schools in the lake, 
and may be seen from the elevated road along the rocky shores, 
rippling the surface like a gust of wind. At this signal, the 
pelicans, gulls and terns quickly congregate, and are soon actively 
employed in fishing. 

LtiMfLt dimidiatai Cope, ap. nor. 

This very abundant fish is much smaller than the adult L. 
olivaceiiSj and has a more slender form, smaller scales, and a 
different coloration. The eye nearly equals the interorbital width 



146 PlOdlDniQS OF THB ACADBfT OT [1881 

and a little exceeds the length of the mozxle. The mouth slop« 
upwards, and the extremity of the maxQlarj bone reaebes to the 
anterior edge of the orbit. The ventral fin originates behind the 
point below the first dorsal ray bj the width of a raj. The fins 
are all rather smalL except the caodaL The sidea and belly arc 
a pure silrer^white up to the eighth row of scales below the dorsal 
fin. Above that line the sides and back are a light teowa, 
becoming lead-colored along the border of the white. In some 
specimens this lead-color forms an obscore band. 

MeoMurtwuntM. M. 

Total length with caudal fin *104 

Length to edge of operde *Oil 

Length to first dorsal ray on lateral line, "<M2 

Length to first ventral ray on lateral line, *04S 

Length to first anal ray on lateral line^ . -060 

Length to caudal fin on lateral line, . -084 

Depth at first dorsal ray *019 

Depth at first anal ray * *0148 

Depth at first caudal pedimde, 009 

Width of iuterorbital space, .... i)01 

Width of orbit -006 

This s)>ecies exists in immense numbers in Pyramid Lake, where 
it doubtle;^ fbrnishes much food for the trout, Saimo purpuraius. 



is::. |.. jrv. 

Extinct : from Fossil Lake, Oregon, only. Represented by 

pharyn^^al U>iu^ sod teeth. 



C*>f*€W 

Oen. S'n\ Char. — Pharyngeal teeth 5-5, with well deTeloped 
grinding surfaces. Ventral fins beneath the anterior part of the 
dorul. I4iierftl line very imperfectly developed. 

This p^nus is I.eucu^. with undevclo|^ lateral line. The only 
s|^e\*ies d^^e** not n^^mblc anv of the others here described. 

Sl^aAtslM Tittatma »;• r- « 

S^-alt^ 11-;^^ o : naii D. 1. S ; A. I. $. Head 4 Umes in length 
without cauilAl fin : depth of U^ly 4\> times in the same. Eye 
one-third of U n^h of lieail. jind a ver\ little less than interorbital 



1888.] 



NATXTRAIi B(5lSN0ES Of PHILADSLPHIA. 



147 



width. Mouth opening obliquely upwards, the maxillary not quite 
reaching the anterior edge of the eye. 



MeasuremerUs, 

Total length with caudal fin, 

Length to edge of operculum, 

Length to line of dorsal fin on lateral line, 

Length to line of ventral fin on lateral line, 

Length to line of anal fin on lateral line, 

Length to base of caudal on lateral line. 

Depth at first dorsal ray, 

Depth at first anal ray. 

Depth of caudal peduncle, 

Diameter of interorbital space, 

Diameter of eye, .... 



M. 

•077 

'016 

'0323 

-0328 

•045 

•061 

.0133 

•0105 

•0068 

•045 

•0445 



Belly and sides silvery ; a straight lead-colored lateral band ; 
above this, pale reddish (in spirits). The leaden band is inter- 
rupted at the base of the caudal fin by a vertical band of straw- 
yellow, which has a dark posterior edge. 

In the species of LeucuH from the same locality (Pyramid Lake), 
there are 23 or 24 longitudinal rows of scales ; in this one there are 
only 17. 

SQUALIUS Bonap. 
Jordan, S^ nopsis Fishes N. America, p. 230. 

The species of this genus, as defined by Jordan, that I have 
observed in the Oregon Lakes, are two, which difier as follows : 
Scales 13-63-7 ; dorsal rays I. 9 ; head 3*75 to 4 times in length ; 
depth in do. 4 times ; eyes in head 4^25 times ; teeth 2^5-5^2. 

S. cceruleu8. 
Scales 12-60-5 ; dorsal rays I, 8 ; head 4 times in length ; 
depth in do. 4^25 times ; eye in head 3 times ; teeth 1 •4-5*1. 

8. galtise. 

SqwUini ocnitleni Girard. Jordan, 1. o., p. 241. 

Abundant in Klamath Lake. The specimens difier among 
themselves somewhat ; thus, the depth enters the length 3*60 times 
in some ; 4 times in others. The dorsal fin originates above the 
ventral in some ; a little behind in others. The teeth all have the 
grinding surface distinct, and the dorsal fin always has I. 9 rays. 
Length of the longest specimen, 5^ inches. 



148 paocsKDiNOs or thx aoadkmt or [1881 

Iqnalini galtia ip. nor. 

This species belongs to the group Clinosiomua, where the domi 
fin originates a little behind the line of the front of the Tentrda, 
and the teeth have no grinding sur&ce. The lateral line is, oa 
the other hand, but little decurved, and there are bat eight aDal 
rays (in one specimen nine). The muzzle is short and the moiitb 
oblique, without prominent chin, and with the eztremitj of Ulc 
maxillary bone extending a little beyond the line of the anterior 
rim of the orbit. The interorbital region is gently and regolarly 
convex, and is as wide as the diameter of the orbit. 

The color is olive above, as far laterally as a plumbeous band 
which extends from the superior angle of the operculum to the 
middle of the base of the caudal fin. Below this line, the aides 
and belly are silver, except a broad band of crimson, which extends 
from the branchial fissure, to the line of the first anal raj. Side 
of head with a dusky band. This is the only species I hare seen 
in this region which displays brilliant colors. 

MeasuremenU. n. 

Total length with caudal fin, . *067 

Length to edge of opercle, *014 

Length to first dorsal ray on side, . . *0298 

Length to first ventral ray on side, . *0888 

Length to first anal ra}' on side, • *0385 

Length to base of caudal fin, .... *056 

Depth at first dorsal ray, *014 

Depth at first anal ray, *0103 

Depth of caudal peduncle, *006 

Interorbital width, 1)048 

This pretty species is quite abundant in Pyramid Lake. 

C HASMISTXS JordM. 

This curious genus is confined to the lakes of the Qreat Basin. 
One species, the C. liorus J. and G., is very abundant in the 
Utah Lake, while the others occur on the western side of the 
same zoological area. Two of them I discovered in Lake Klamath 
in 1879, and I now add a fourth from Pyramid Lake. These 
fishes are the largest that inhabit the waters of the Great Basin. 
They are essentially Catostomi in which the fleshy lips are wanting, 
the mouth having the characters of the minority of the Cypri* 
nide. 



1883.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 149 

Chaimiitef oi^iif sp. nor. 

I procured but one specimen of this fish from Pyramid Lake, 
where it is difficult to obtain. The size is large ; the specimen I 
procured measured eighteen inches in length. The head is wide and 
flat, the width of the interorbltal space being more than half the 
length. The upper lip is very thin ; the lower lip is represented 
by folds on each side, which do not connect round the symphysis. 
Scales 13-65-11. Dorsal rays 12 ; anal I. 8. The eye enters the 
length of the head 8*5 times, and the interorbital width 4*5 times. 
The swim-bladder has but two cells. The colors are pale olive. 

The pharyngeal teeth of this species are much like those of the 
(7. liorus in their triangular section ; they are, nevertheless, of 
delicate construction. The head of this species is relatively 
larger and wider than in any of the others, which gives it a heavy 
and clumsy appearance. 

This fish is «aid by the fishermen to inhabit the deepest water, 
and to be seen in numbers only at the time of breeding. Its 
habits in this respect agree with what is said of the C. luxatus of 
the Klamath Lake. The Indian name of the Ghasmistes cujiLS 
is "Couia." 

Chaimittef breviroitrii Cope. American Na^uroliaty 1879, p. 785. Jordan, Fishei 
N. Amer., p. 132, 1883. 

This fish does not exceed 14 to 16 inches in length, and has a 
differently formed head and muzzle from the C. luxatua. They are 
shorter, especially the muzzle, and the latter is without the hump 
produced by the protuberant prcmaxillary spines. Parietal fon- 
tanelle small. The lower lip-fold is only present at the sides of 
the mandible. Both lips are smooth. Eye round, its diameter 
entering the length of the head six and two-thirds times, of which 
three times enters the muzzle. Interorbital region flat, its width 
entering the length of the head two and one-eighth times. Body 
nearly cylindric. Scales 12-74-11; radii D. 11, A. 9. Color 
dusky above, silvery below ; flns colorless. This flsh is abundant 
in Klamath Lake, but I was informed by a Klamath chief, that it 
does not ascend Williamson's River in spring with the C. luxatua 
and Catostomua labiatua. Klamath name, '' XoSptu." 

duamlttei luxatiu Cope, American Naturalist, 1879, p. 785. Jordan, 1. o., p. 132. 

Form elongate ; head long, flat above, and with a large fontanelle. 
Mouth terminal, the spines of the prcmaxillary bones projecting 
so as to form a hump on the top of the snout. Lower lip a very 



150 PB0CKKDING8 Of TEE ACAOKICT OT [IttL 

thin dennal fold, extending entirely around the chiiL Both vpper 
and lower lips deltcatelj' tobercolar. Eje oval, the axis loiigi- 
tudinal, and contained seven times in the length of the head, of 
which three and a*hair times are contained in the mussle. Inter* 
orbital region flat, one-third as wide as the head is k»g. Seahs 
12-80-9 ; radii D. 1 1, A. 9. Color clouded above with Mack poao- 
tulations ; below paler, with red shades in some speeimeaa ; fliM 
uncolored. It attains a length of nearly three feet. It maeeods 
the streams tributary to Lake Klamath in thousands in the spring, 
and is taken and dried in great numbers by the Klimath and 
Modoc Indians. The former call it ^* Tswam." 

The character of the lips, the oval eye, and the less interorbitai 
width distinguish this species from the 0. breviro$iris^ as well as 
the longer muzzle and superior size adduced in my original 
description. 

On this species and the C. brevirosiris I proposed the genos 
Lipomyzon^ on the supposition that the pharyngeal bones and 
teeth of C, lioru8 were like tho^e of the genus CaiottomuSj ttom 
which those of these species diflfer in their greater attenoation. 
During the summer of 1882, 1 obtained a number of specimens of 
C liorus^ and find that while its pharyngeal bones are leas atten- 
uated than those of G, luxatuSj tliey are more so than in some 
species of Catostomus^ so that I cannot distinguish, generically, 
the Hi)ecieH of Klamath Lake. The pharyngeals of C. hrevirotUris 
are not more attenuated than those of C /torus. 

CATOSTOMUS U«. 
Catottoant labistni AjrrM. Cop«, AmerioMi Kataralint, 1879, p. 7ftS. 

This Rpecies abounds in Klamath and Ooose Lakes, but I did 
not observe it in any of the lakes to the eastward of these. The 
formulae are : — 

Klamath Lake: scales, 10-74-11 ; radii D. L 11 ; V.IO; head 4*6 
times in length ; eye 5*5 times in head. 

Ooose Lake: scales. 12-13—75 — 11 ; radii; D. I. 11 ; V. 10; eye 
6 ; head 4*5 times in length. 

The largest specimens measure twelve inches in length. 
Remains of species of this family are abundant in the pliocene 
sandn of Oregon, but do not re[)resent many species. Pharyngeal 
bones and teeth indicate that the species are true CatoatomL 

Crania and other bones of one of the species have been found 
abundant 1}' at Fossil Lake. In some of the specimens the 



1883.] 



NATURAL 8GIEN0B3 OF PHILADSLPHIA. 



151 



pharyngeal bones and teeth are preserved. I cannot distinguish 
the specimens ft*om corresponding parts of the common sucker of 
Lake Klamath, named by Ayres as above. They, however, present 
considerable variations among themselves. These may be stated 
as follows : 

I. Ethmoid and front convex transversely, 
a. Parietal fontanelle small. . Two specimens. 
€ta. Parietal fontanelle large. Three specimens ; two of them 
lent me by Prof. Thos. Condon, of Eugene, Or. 
II. Ethmoid and front a little convex ; fontanelle large ; in both 
points resembling the typical specimens from Lake 
EUamath. One specimen. 
III. Ethmoid and front plane, the latter a little concave in 
profile. Fontanelle large. One specimen. 

There are numerous other skulls in my collection, but they are 
not yet sufficiently cleared of matrix to display their characters. 

Catottomiif batraehopi sp. nor. 

This sucker is characterized by the short, wide and depressed 
form of the cranium. The ethmoid bone is considerably more 
than twice as wide as long (minus the spine), while in G. labiatus 
it is only half as long as wide. The interorbital width is equal to 
the length of the skull, minus the ethmoid bone and epiotic spine ; 
in (7. lahiatus this width is a good deal less than the dimension 
mentioned. The ethmoid and frontal bones are less convex than 
is the case in the more common fossil variety of (7. labiatus. 
Although the bridge separating the temporal and pterotic fossse 
is wide in C, labiatus, it is wider in the (7. batrachopsj and has a 
concave superior surface, which is not separated by ridge or 
angle from that of the superior plate of the parietal bone. There 
is no frontal keel, and the fontanelle is well developed. 

Measurements, m. 

Length from epiotic spine to ethmoid spine, inclus., *084 

Length of ethmoid, minus spine, .... *018 

Length of frontal bone (median), .... '032 

Length of parietal bone (median), . . . '015 

Interorbital width, . . . . . . -056 

Width at pterotics, about '062 

Width between apices of epiotics, . . '032 

Width of ethmoid, '042 



152 PB0CSEDING8 OF THB ACADIMT OF [1881 

This species appears to have been about eighteen inches io 
length. The only skull which represents it was foond by Cbmries 
H. Sternberg, near Silver Lake, Oregon. 

CatottOBU takMBflif <«ili nn 1 Jordaa. Sj-nopaU FisbM N. Ammr^ 117. 

This is the common species of the lakes which represent the 
Lahontan Basin. I found it in Pyramid Lake and the third 
Warner Lake. The formulae are as follows : 

Pyramid Lake: scales 14->89-U; radii D. L 11 ; T. 9; bead 
4'5 times in length. 

Warner Lake: scales 16-83-15 ; radii D. I. 11 ; V. 9; head 4 

times in length. 

PEBCOMOBPHI. 

VEAVIDIA Dekay. 
Vraaidta aiaata PalUi. Jordan Sjoopiit, p. 698. 

Abundant in Klamath Lake ; not seen elsewhere. 

Qb.nebal Remarks. 

The species noticed in the preceding pages may be eDnmermtcd 
with reference to their geographical distribution, in the following 

lists : — 

I. Ptramid Laul 

Salmo purpuratus henshavi Siphatelen linecUvB Cope. 

Jord. Squalius galtim Cope. 

Leucus olivaceua Cope. Chasmisles cujus Cope. 

Lfucus dimidiatus Cope. Catosiomus lahoensiM O. A J. 

II. Fort Bi dwell. 

Apocope vulneraia Cope. Apocope ventrico9a Cope. 

III. Warrbr*s Lakr. 

Apocope vulneraia Cope. Catostomus tahoenMi$ Q. A J. 

Myloleucun formosuB Gird. 

IV. QoosE Lake. 

MyMeucuB parovanus Cope. Gatoatomus labiaiuB Ayres. 
Myloleucui Ihalassinua Cope. 

V. Klamath Larr. 
Salmo purpuralua Pall. Chaamustes breviroairiB Cope. 

Salrelinun malma Walb. Chasmiates luxatuB Cope. 

Myloleucus parovanus Cope. Catosiomua labiatuB Ay 
SqualiuB cirruleua Gird. Uranxdea mxnuta PalL 

Squalius bico'.or Gird. 



1883.] NATURAL SOIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 153 

VI. SiLYKB Lake. 
Salmo purpuratus Pall. Myloleucus formosus Gird. 

VII. Abert'b Lake. 

Salmo purpuratus Pall. Myloleucus formosus Gird. 

Apocope vulnerata Cope. 

VIII. Weber River, Utah. 

Bhinichthys transmontanus Cope, Squalius montanus Cope. 
Agosia novemradiata Cope. Pantosteus platyrhynchus Cope. 

IX. Fossil Lake, Oregon. (Fossil.) 

Leucus altarcus Cope. Gatostomus labiatus Ayres. 

Myloleucus gibbarcus Cope. Gatostomus batrachops Cope. 

Cliola angustarca Cope. 

Examination of the preceding lists discloses the following 
facts : (1). The species of Leucus replace in Pyramid Lake the 
Myloleucus of the other lakes. (2). All the species of Pyramid 
Lake are* peculiar to it, excepting the Gatostomus tahoensis, which 
is found in the third (and probably other) Warner Lakes, one 
hundred and fifty miles north of it. (3 ). The Myloleucus formosus 
inhabits the eastern line of lakes — Warner's, Abert's and Silver 
Lakes ; while the M, parovanus is confined to the more western 
lakes, the Goose and Klamath. (4). The distribution of the 
Catostomi is similar; the G, tahoensis being the eastern, in 
Pyramid and Warner's Lakes, and the G. labiatus in the Goose 
and Klamath Lakes. 

The distribution of the other species is not sufficiently known 
to enable us to draw any conclusions regarding them. 

II. The Fauna of the Idaho Lake. 

BAIID^. 

Baia pentagona Leidy. Oncobati* pentagonus Leidj, Proceeds. Phila. Academy, 
1870, p. 70. 

A species said to have been found in the beds of this deposit. 

It is referred to a new genus by Leidy, who, however, does not 

characterize it. 

CYPRINIDiE. 

This family predominates over all others in the number of 
species and individuals. Typical carnivorous forms {Squalius) 
were not rare, but the greater number of genera are carnivorous 
with the teeth less {Leucus^ Myloleucus) or more (Mylocyprinus) 

11 



154 PB0CEEDI5G8 OF THB ACADK3CT OF [1881 

ailajitecl for cruAhiDg hard sabstances. The footX of such species 
wan probably moUasca. There were but few herbivoroaft forat, 
and thcf^ {Diattichus sp.) not typical, but related to the adjaceot 
carnivorous genera. E8|)ecial interest attaches to the present 
distribution of some of the genera. Dia^ichwt is the only one 
which is extinct, ho far as known^ though its cliaracters approach 
tlioHc of existing genera so nearly, that it may be found at any 
timer in the recent fauna. MyUtcyprinuH has a living species in 
China. Leucua is found in Europe and Asia. Myioleucus i» 
American, and is confined to the lakes of the Great Basin and 
Cnlifoniia; two species occurring in UUih and two in Oregon. 
Cliola is found in Norih America east of the Sierra Nevada. 
Stpjalius is generally North American and Kuro|)ean. 

KYLOCTPRIVUS, Leidy. 

ProcMdinxi Acftdemj Phil*,, 1870, 70. Cop^, Prooeedp. Amer. Phtlot. SoeicCy, ISTf, 
64.'). Mtflnphnryngodon Pet«rf, MoDftUberiehto Berlin Aeadenj, 1SS0» 9S&. 

I am acquainted with three species of this genus; two extinct 
from Idaiio, and one, the Mylocyprxnus tethiopa Basllewskj, 
{Mylopharytujodon Peters) recent, in China. The pharyngeal 
lK)nes of these spi*cies may be distinguished as follows. I know 
those of the M. xlhiops from a figure given by Prof. Peters, 

I. Teeth commencing near the symphysis; curvature of pha- 
ryngeal very abrupt; apex shorter than tooth-row; 

If. inflejrvi, 

II. Teetli commencing at a distiince from sym[>hysi8, leaving a 

Ktyle ; cursature gradual. 

Style and iijiex each shorter than tOoth-row; If. rohu9tu$. 

Style and a|K*x each longer than tooth-row; M, mthiap*, 

M jlMjpriant lafltzni Copf, rp. dot. 

Kstablinlied on two pharyngeal l)ones of the left side, one of 
which indicates a fish of perhaps two pounds weight, and the other 
one of half the size. Its form is peculiar in the ver}' abrupt curve 
of the external border, the great abbreviation of the style, and 
the shortness of the tooth series. The proximal and distal ex- 
tremities of tin* Inine are connected across theconcavitv bv a thin 
exfKinsion <»f the inner border, not seen in 31. rohustus. The first 
tooth is small, but larger than the corri'S|K>nding one sometimes 
^een in M. n»hnfffi,t, so that I wouM 1h» inclined to think it a per- 
manent character, wore it not wanting from the smaller specimen. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 155 

The second tooth is broadly molar. Two foramina perhaps indi- 
cate the position of two teeth of an internal row. The toothless 
apex of the bone is longer and flatter than in M. rohuatus. The 
entire bone is flatter than in that species. The first tooth stands 
on the edge of the symphysis. 

Measurements* m. 

Total length on tooth row, '025 

Length of base of tooth row, . . . . '018 

Length of apex, '016 

Width at middle, . -018 

Near Sinker's Creek, Idaho. J. L. Wortman, 

Xjloojprinnt robutof Leidy. Loo. cit. Report U. S. Geol. Survey Terrs., i, p 
262, PI. XVII, figs, 11-17. 

This is the most abundant fish of the Idaho beds, and is repre- 
sented by a great many pharyngeal bones with teeth, in my col- 
lection. These present a great many variations, and I have 
proposed in a former paper to recognize three species : M, kingiy 
M. robustus and if. longidens. Study of my material shows that 
these forms intergrade, and that if they represent distinct species, 
two others must be admitted. I incline to look upon the difier- 
ences as due in part to age, and in part as subspecific variations. 
I tabulate them as follows : 

I. Small; style more slender, five teeth in outer row, the 
upper very small and subprehensile ; the lower small, 
conic. 
II. Like the last, but the style stouter. 

III. Like I, but only four teeth ; the inferior tooth wanting. 

IV. Like I, but four teeth ; the superior larger and obtuse ; 

M. longidens. 

Y. Larger; four teeth, the last obtuse but much smaller than 

the others ; style stout; M, robustus. 

VI. Larger ; style stout ; four teeth, the superior nearly as 

large as the others, which are equal ; M. kingi. 

The slendemess or stoutness of style is not coincident with the 
other characters, but the latter condition is always found in large 
specimens. In these the convex border is also much thickened. 
The small, partly hooked form of the superior tooth is only found 
in small fishes, and is probably a character of youth. It indicates 
that the genus is descended from more purely carnivorous types. 




156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

The minute first tooth is generally found in small specimens, but 
not always. It lingers in some to middle size. This species has 
not been found in the Oregon basin. The settlers call the 
pharyngeal bones " baby-jaws." 

LEUCU8 Heckel. 

Fieohe Syriens, 1843, p. 48. AnchyhopaxB Cope, Proceed. Amer. Philos. See., 1870, 
p. 643. 

Leuoas latui Cope. Anchyhopaia latua Cope, 1. o. 

Much the largest species of the genus, as yet only represented 
by two pharyngeal bones of opposite sides. Southern Idaho. 

Leuoui oondonianut Cope, sp. nov. 

This fish is represented by four pharyngeal bones, two of each 
side, which have the dental formula 2*5-5'2 ; the presence of the 
tw-o inner teeth being doubtful on one of those of the right side. 
They indicate a smaller fish than the L. altarcuSy and one about 
the size of 'the Geratichthys biguttatus. The teeth display but little 
grinding surface, and have swollen subconic crowns, which are 
less expanded transversely than those of the L. altarcua. The 
stj'le is moderately long and not much recurved. The external 
aliform border is rather full, and expands gradually from the 
style, not abruptly, as in Z. altar cus. It is especially full oppo- 
site the superior extremity of the tooth series, where it is con- 
tracted in L. latus. 

Measurements of Medium Size. M. 

Length on tooth line, '014 

Length of tooth line, . , * . . . . 'OOt 

Length of apex from tooth line, .... '005 

Width at middle, -005 

Dedicated to Professor Thos. Condon, of Eugene, Oregon, who 
first discovered and explored in part, the fossiliferous formations 
of the Oregon and Idaho basins. 

SQUALIUS Bonap. 

Jordan emend. Piychochilua Agaas. Cltnoatomua Girard. Oligobtlua Cope, Proceeds. 
Amer. Philosoph. Soc, 1870, p. 540. 

The American species generally differ from the type in the 
reduced number of teeth in the right pharyngeal series. The 
dental formula is 2-5-4*2, in our extinct and recent species. In 
the pliocene species here noticed, the teeth have acute, slightly 
incurved, apices. They differ from each other as follows : 




1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 157 

I. Inner fece just above superior tooth much narrower than 
anterior or posterior faces. 

a. An external marginal expansion. 

Width at fourth tooth equal length of bases of superior three 

teeth ; an external bevel below first tooth ; large ; S. posticus. 

Width at fourth tooth considerably less than length of bases of 

superior three teeth ; a bevel below base of first tooth causing 

ala to be more distinct ; large ; S. laminatus, 

Ala not projecting ; width less than length of bases of superior 

three teeth ; no bevel below first tooth ; smaller ; S. reddingi. 

aa. No external ala. 
Bone very narrow ; teeth spaced ; larger ; S, bairdi. 

II. Inner face just above superior tooth deep, equaling anterior 
and posterior faces. 
No external ala ; bone narrow ; S. arciferus. 

Bqnalini pottioui Cope. Semotiltu posticus Cope, Proceeds. Amer. Philos. Society, 
1870, p. 541. 

The original specimen is from Idaho. Only a fragment of two 
others are known. 

Bqnaliiii laminatni Cope. Oligobelut lamtnntus Cope, loc, cit., 1870, p. 541. 

Originally founded on a single fragmentary phar3'ngeal bone. 
A complete right-hand bone with all the teeth, found by Mr. 
Wortman, shows that this is as large a species as the O. postica, 
but of more slender proportions. 

BqiuUiiii redding Cope, ip. nov. 

This species is founded on pharyngeal bones of individuals of 
smaller size than those which represent the others mentioned in 
this list. They represent a fish of the average dimensions of the 
Pogonichthys inmquilohus of California. The five teeth occupy 
as much length as the style, and the apex is as long as the bases 
of four teeth and an interspace. The apex is flat, and its inner 
face is convex, and as deep at the base as one-half the width. The 
external alax expansion is slight but distinct, and originates 
opposite the third tooth from below. The st3'le is not recurved. 

Measurements, M. 

Length on tooth series, '026 

Length of tooth series, '012 

Length of apex from teeth, . . . . 'Oil 

Width of bone at middle, '005 



158 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

One right and two left pharyngeal bones of this species were 
found by Mr. Wortman in Southern Idaho. It is named for m}' 
friend, the late Mr. B. B. Redding of San Francisco, Vice-President 
of the California Academy of Sciences. 

SqualiuB bairdi Cope. Semotilus bairdi Cope, loo. oit., p. 542. 

This species was established on a right pharyngeal bone which 
supported four teeth in the principal row. My original reference 
of it to the genus Semotilus, was based on supposition that the 
left pharyngeal bone would be found to support five teeth in the 
principal row. This is shown to be the case by such a bone 
discovered by Mr. Wortman. It belonged to a smaller individual 
than the typical one, and shows the very narrow basis of a 
probably shorter style than those seen in the other species here 
mentioned. 
Bqualiai aroifenit Cope. OUyohelua arci/enu Cope, loe. oit., p. 541. 

The most robust species, represented by parts of two pharyn- 
geal bones. 

BIASTICHUS Cope. 

Pro'^edings Amer. Philos. Society, 1870, p. 539. 

An entire pharyngeal bone of the typical species of this genus 
has five teeth in a single series. The opposite bone of another 
species presents also five teeth, so that the formula is probably 
5-5. The teeth are compressed and short, and somewhat expanded 
transversely to the direction of the bone. They display an 
oblique grinding surface on use. The}' might then be referred to 
the genus Leucus, but the apical branch of the bone is much 
more elongate and is truncate at the extremity. This character 
is best seen in D. macrodon, where there appears to have been a 
superior as well as an inferior symphysis. The direction of the 
tooth series is at right-angles to this apical portion, as in other 
genera. 
Biaitiohai xoaorodon Cope. Loc. cit., p. 539. 

A specimen of pharyngeal bone, found by M. Wortman, is not 
more than half the linear dimensions of those obtained by Mr. 
King from the same part of Idaho. 

Biaitiohui parvideni Cope. Loc. oit., p. 540. 

No additional material. 
Biaitiohnt ttrane^latat sp. nov. 

Represented by two pharyngeal bones from Southern Idaho. 




iTi. - 



1883.] NATURAL 8CIENCB8 OP PHILADELPHIA. 169 

One of these lacks the style, and the other the apical portion. 
The species differs from the D, macrodon in the flatter apical ramus, 
which is devoid of the marginal tuberosity and distal recurvature, 
seen in that species. It is straight and forms an acute angle with 
the axis of the tooth series. The style is short, stout, and some- 
what recurved. The marginal ala is rather abruptly given oflT oppo- 
site the second tooth from below. The necks of the pharyngeal 
teeth are contracted, so that the internal and external outlines of 
the crown are convex. The grinding surface is quite oblique. 

Measurements, m. 

Length of tooth line, '014 

Length of apical ramus, '013 . 

Width of bone at middle, '010 

Width of crown. of tooth, '005 

This species was about the size of the gold-fish. From Southern 
Idaho, J. L. Wortman. 

CATOSTOMIDiE. 
Catoitomai thoihoneiiiit sp. nov. 

Of this fish I have two crania from the Idaho basin, one 
obtained by Mr. Wortman and the other by Mr. Clarence King. 
Two other crania, collected by the same gentlemen, represent a 
variety, or possibly another species. 

The bones of the skull are relatively more elongate than those 
of the C. labiatus. The width of the superior surface of the 
parietal bones between the lateral angles is equal to two-thirds 
the length of the superior surface of the ethmoid bone posterior 
to the base of its anterior spine. The two measurements are 
equal in the C, labiatus. The ethmoid has three median longi- 
tudinal concavities and raised borders in the G. shoshonenHiSj but 
is regularly convex in the G. labiatus. The temporal fossa is 
separated b}' a narrow raised band from the pterotic fossa in the 
former, but by a very wide band in the latter. The supratemporal 
crests are not raised and sink gradually to the level opposite the 
posterior part of the supraorbital border. There is a slight 
median frontal keel which extends forwards from the same point. 
The frontoparietal fontanelle is well defined, elongate, and rather 
narrow. It commences at the base of the supraoccipital spine 
and extends to opposite the anterior foramen of the postfrontal 
bone. The bones of the skull are smooth. 




160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Measurements, H. 

Length from apex of epiotic to end of ethmoid 

spine, inclusive, '075 

Length of ethmoid without spine (median), . . '018 
Length of frontal bone (median), .... '030 
Length of parietal (median), . . . • . '0105 

Interorbital width, '028 

Width at pterotics, '040 

Width between apices of epiotics, .... '0246 
Width of parasphenoid at middle of orbits, . . 'GOTO 
Diameter (long) of hyomandibular cotylus of 

pterotic, '0070. 

The above measurements equal those of the largest size of the 
Catostomus teres of our waters. It will be desirable to compare 
its skull with that of C. macrochilus Gird., which comes from the 
Columbia River. Girard says that it is of more elongate propor- 
tions than that of the (7. labiatus. 

Catottomut oriitatnt sp. nov. 

This species is known to me from a skull, of which only the 
cranium posterior to the anterior orbital region remains. It 
belongs to the same elongate type as the C. reddingij and differs 
from that species as follows : — 

The lateral casts of the frontal bone are more elevated, and are 
carried farther forwards. Instead of gradually disappearing 
anteriorly, they descend abruptly to their termination, enclosing 
a groove with the supraorbital plate of the frontal. The fonta- 
nelle is wide, and extends farther into the frontal bone. The low 
median frontal ridge commences at its anterior border. The bridge 
between the temporal and pterotic fossae is narrow. There is a 
transverse ridge on each half of the supraoccipital bone ; in (7. 
reddingi this ridge is oblique, descending towards the middle line. 

Measurements. M. 

Length of parietal bone (median), . . . '014 



Length of frontoparietal fontanelle. 

Width at pterotics, 

Width between frontal crests at anterior extremi 

ties, 

Width between apices of epiotics, 
Diameter (long) of h3'omandibular cotylus, . 



•023 
046 

-014 
024 
•008 



Found by J. L. Wortman in S. W. Idaho. One specimen only. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 161 

COBITID^. 

A species of this family left remains in the Idaho Lake basin. 
I have reached this conclusion by the discovery, among the speci- 
mens submitted to me by the Smithsonian Institution, of the 
inferior element of the three modified anterior vertebrae,* which 
are so characteristic of certain families of the Physostomous 
fishes. This portion, moreover, is that which occupies the posi- 
tion among the Cobitidae only. Among them, it consists of a 
longitudinal plate terminating posteriorly in a bladder-like chamber 
on each side, each of which is closed below by a transverse pro- 
cess of the inferior plate ; an angular fissure extends around the 
ends of these, and at the angle sends a short continuation 
upwards. This is quite similar to what is observed in Cobitis. 

This occurrence of Cobitidas is, perhaps, the most interesting 
fact brought to light by the examination of these extinct fishes. 
All of the numerous existing species of this family are found in 
the Eastern Hemisphere, and the great majority in tropical Asia, 
a few only occurring in Europe and South Africa. Extinct 
species are found in the miocene of Oeningen. We have then, in 
this form, another example of the occurrence of Asiatic types in 
North America prior to the glacial epoch ; and a^ in a fresh-water 
fish, more strongly demonstrative of continuity of territory of 
the two continents, than can be with any other type of animal. 

SALMONIDiE. 

BHABBOFABIO Cope. 

Proceeds. Amer, Philosopb. Society, Nov., 1870. 

A genus represented by skulls, in which the maxillary bone is 
cylindrical and rod-like, thus differing from Salmo. 
Bhabdofario laoottrii Cope, 1. o. 

A species with a head as large as that of the Salmo solar ^ which 

was not uncommon in the Idaho Lake. In addition to the type 

obtained by Mr. King, Mr. Wortman found parts of sevei*al 

individuals. 

SILUBIDiE. 

AMIUSUB Raf. 
1 Amianu sp. 

Represented by pectoral spines. These do not differ from those 
of some recent species, but differ from those of the species of 

^ The pharyngeal boDes referred to this family by me as above cited, 
belong to the Cyprinidss in the restricted sense. See genus DiasHchus, 



162 PROGEEDINQS OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1883. 

Rhineastes fVoni our eocene beds, except perhaps the R, arcuatus^ 
in the possession of but one row of teeth. The surface is delicately 
striate. The anterior edge is smooth and acute, and the posterior 
edge has two rows of serrae separated by the usual groove. 

COTTIDJB. 
COTTITS L. 

I refer to this genus four species from the Idaho l)ed8. They 
may belong to Uravidea, but as I can only identify them as yet 
by the preopercula, I cannot determine this point. The parts in 
question are not rare, showing that this type was well represented 
in this region. 

The preopercular bones are furnished with three or four acute 
spines of no great length. In this they differ from the living 
American species of Uranidea, which have only one or two spines, 
excepting the U, spilotaj which has {fide Jordan) four spines, 
three of which are inferior. The four species of the present col- 
lection differ in their prominent features, as follows : — 

a. Foramina on inner side of preoperculum. 

Four spines ; angular spine directed backwards ; inferior ones 

forwards ; smaller ; C. divaricatus. 

Angular spine directed backwards ; posterior inferior downwards; 

inner side with two faces separated by an angle ; larger ; 

0. pontifex. 
aa. Foramina on the posterior edge of preopercle. 
Angular spine directed backwards; two strong similar inferior 
spines turned forwards ; larger ; C. crypMremus. 

aaa. No foramina. 
Angular spine directed downwards ; inferior spines forwards; the 
anterior inferior flattened ; large ; (7. hypoceras. 

Cottui divarioatus sp. nov. 

Represented by two preopercula. These indicate the smallest 
of the four species, and one about equal to the (7. richardwni^ 
Ag. The preoperculum is flatter and thinner than in the other 
species, and the foramina are all on the inner side of the branches. 
These are : one large one above base of superior spine, one %maA\ 
one between bases of superior and angular spines, one do. between 
bases of angular and posterior inferior, and one at anterior base 
of posterior inferior. The two inferior spines are smaller than 
the others, and are incurved. The superior posterior is the largest 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 168 

and is curved upwards, and compressed at the base. Both ex- 
ternal and internal faces are flat. 

Measurements. m. 

Length from base of superior to base of exterior 

inferior spines, inclusive, '008 

Length of superior spine above, .... '003 

From Willow Creek, Oregon. J, L. Wortman. 

Cottiii pontifex ap. nov. 

The preopercular bone of this species is robust, especially in 
the transverse diameter. Instead of being flat as in (7. divaricatus, 
it presents two faces on the side which is perforated by foramina, 
which are separated by a vertical angle. The anteroexterior face 
is flat, while the posteroexternal is somewhat irregular. The 
foramina which pierce it are larger than in any other species, 
especially the one between the second and third spines. The 
foramina communicate below the surface, the canal thus formed 
being spanned by a narrow bridge from the base of each spine. 
The opposite side of the preoperculum is a little concave, and 
plane at the base of the spines. The bases of the superior and 
the angular spines are closer together than in any other species, 
being absolutely in contact. 

Measurements. m. 

Length of three upper spines on bases, incl., . *008 
Length of joined bases of two upper spines, . *005 

It is not possible to be certain whether there is any anterior 
inferior spine. One specimen was obtained by Mr. Wortman, 
probably from Willow Creek, Oregon. 

Cottiu eryptotremui sp. nor. 

A larger species, very diflTefent from the last, and nearer the C. 
divaricatus. Three preopercula are in my collection. In all the 
specimens the superior limb is broken off, so that it is impossible 
to state the character of the superior spine. The angular spine 
has a round section and is directed backwards, and in line with 
the inferior border. The two inferior spines are at a little dis- 
tance from its base, and are well developed, acute, and of equal 
size. They are directed forwards and inwards. The external 
face of the inferior limb is divided by a prominent obtuse angle 
on its entire length. There is a small foramen at the posterior 



164 PROCEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

base of each inferior spine, and a large one at the anterior ex- 
tremity of the inferior branch, looking partially outwards. 

Measurements. m. 

Length of base of three inferior spines, incL, . '0085 

Length of inferior spines, inclusive, . . . '0055 

Length of anterior inferior spines, . . . *0045 

Length of inferior branch of bone, . . . -0140 

Discovered by Mr. J. L. Wortman, Castle Creek, Idaho. 
Cottoi hypooerai sp. nov. 

The preoperculum of this species differs widely from those of 
the three already described. Although it has four spines, they 
are distributed differently, three being inferior and one posterior, 
instead of two posterior and two inferior. The base of the pos- 
terior spine is less compressed than in the others, and looks as 
though the apex is directed posteriorly instead of superiorly as in 
C. divaricatuSy and (7. ponti/ex. It is opposite the inferior branch 
instead of above it as in the species named. The angular spine is 
round at the base ; the first inferior is compressed at the base, and 
the anterior is compressed to the rounded apex, its superior edge 
being acute, the inferior rounded. This spine therefore differs 
from that of any of the other species. 

The exteinal face is gently rounded, and is smooth. The 

internal face has the usual excavation with bordering rim, and is 

roughened. There are no foramina except two above the base of 

the anterior inferior spine. In size this species is about like the 

C. ponti/ex. 

Measurements, ' M. 

Length of base of four spines, inclusive, in a 

straight line, 'Oil 

Length of bases of anterior two inferior spines 

inclusive, 'OOt 

Length of angular spine, *004 

Elevation of vertical limb of preoperculum, . . '012 

One specimen ; obtained by Mr. J. L. Wortman, probably at 
Willow Creek, Oregon. 

PEBCIDJS. 

The spines of the dorsal fin of a species of this &mily are not 
rare in the formation, but I have not yet been able to fix them 
generically or specifically. 



1 

1883.] natural sciences of philadelphia. 165 

General Observations. 

In the preceding pages there are described from the Idaho plio- 
cene formation the following species : — 

Percidfle, 1 species. 

Cottidfle, 4 " 

Salmonidfle, 1 " 

Cyprinidse, 11 " 

Catostomidae, 2 " 

Cobitidse . .1 » 

Siluridffi, 1 " 

Raiidae, • • 1 " 

Total, 22 species. 

Of the above, all differ from existing species so far as known, 
but three of the species which represent the Percidse^ the Cobi- 
tidse and the Siluridse respectiveljr, have not been exactly deter- 
mined. All the species differ from those of the Oregon Lake (or 
Lake Lahontan as it may prove to be). Of the families, all are 
existing and all are represented on the North American Continent 
excepting the Gohitidse^ which are now confined to Eur- Asia. But 
of these eight families four are not now found in the American 
waters which empty into the Pacific Ocean, viz., the Percidse^ 
Siluridse^ Ccibitidse^ and Maiidae^ excepting that there is one 
species of the Percidse in California. Five of the seven families 
have not yet been found in the Oregon fossil lake basin, but as 
two of them {Salmonidse^ CoUidae), are found in the existing 
• lakes of that region, they will probably be found in that deposit. 

The above evidence is sufficient to prove that the Idaho pliocene 
formation is distinct from any formation previously known. It 
is older than the Oregon lake deposit. 

In addition to the fishes, three species of craw-fishes were dis- 
covered in this formation by Capt. Clarence King. These I 
named Astacua subgrundialis^ A. chenoderma^ and A, bremfor- 
ceps} The mollusks of this formation have been described by F. 
B. Meek, and they, like the fishes, determined it to be lacustrine 
and fresh, as already stated by Prof. Newberry. The species are 
stated by Meek' to be distinct specifically, and in some cases 

* Proceedings Amer. Philos. Society, 1870, p. 605. Loc. cit,, Nov. 1870. 
' Proceedings Acad. Nat. Bci., Phila., 1870, 56. 



IGO PROCXKDINQS OF THB ACADIMT OF [188S. 

gencrically, from all others hitherto described fVom the West. 
Leidy observes/ that mammalian remains received from CapC 
King's exi)edition include portions of Mastodon and Equus 
excelaus, Mr. Wortman obtained teeth and bones of the latter, 
and a cannon-bone of an undetermined ruminant of the aixe of 
the Cervus elaphus. The ungual phalange of an edentate allied 
to Megalonyx was obtained from the same horizon and locality. 
The map of the adjacent parts of Oregon, Nevada and California, 
showing the lakes, is copied from the map issued by the War 
Dcpartij.ent of the United St:ites, Brig. Oen. A. A. Hamphreys, 
Chief of Engineers. 



' L. c, 1870, 67. On Cretaceous and Tertiary Rcptilia and Fiaheii by 
Prof. E. D. Cope, November, 1870. 






i 



168 PROGEEDINOS OF THE ACADE3IT OF TlSSS. 



July 3. 

Prof. Edw. D. Cope in the chair. 

Seventeen persons present. 

A i>aper entitled "Description of a New H3'drobiinoid Ga«tero- 
po<l from the mountain hikes of the Sierra Nevada, with reniArka 
on allied H|)ecies and the physiographical features of said region.** 
b}' R. E. C. Stearns, was presented for publication. 

The death of Isaac T. Goates, a member, was announced. 

On some Fosttila of the J^iierco Formation, — Prof. Copb stat««I 
that he liad recently receive<l from the Puerco beds of New Mexico 
remains of a number of individuals of the extinct mammal he 
had named reripti/chuH ditngonus^ Besides jaws and teeth with 
l)ermanent and temporary dentition in ^ood preservation, the 
ixdvis. femur and tibia are included in the si)ecimen9. These 
show that the species must 1h? referred to the genus ConoryHr^ 
Coi>e, and render it ver}* probable that the genus belongs to the 
family of the Periptychidie. Tiie absence of ungual i>halan;;efl 
prevents abs<»lute certainty. Tiie genus is near Perii>tychui^ but 
dillers in the one root and simple conic crown of the seeond true 
molar in ]»<>lh jaws, an<l tiie presence of cingnlar cusp«4 of ibt* 
superior molars, exterior to the external tulwrcles. ConoriiHrA 
ditrcftniftit has the molars of both jaws larjjer than those of ihe 
('. mmma^ixud there is lessdillerence in size Ixitwecn the i>OAterior 
and anterior teeth than iu that species. 

The following new s|H'ries accotnimnieil the above: 
PEiiiiTYcnrs niAKCTATi s. Tiiis species represented by teeth 
of the lowi-r jaw, vi/.: one incisor, thn»e pn^molars, and two 
molars, two of tiu* latter imperfect. The chanicters of the »|HKries 
are well iiiarke«l iti the premolar and molar teeth. The former 
lack the anterior an«l internal le<lges of the /*. raHnitiemi and /*. 
rhafnhnhni, having only a prominent ledge-sha|>ed heel, iMrsiile^ 
the principal coni(*al cusp. The true molars lack the nmall 
tulH*rcle which in )>etween the pair of threes which com|>OAe the 
crown. Tlie ailja«ent cusps of the thriN's are connect(*d by low 
loii'^itiidiiial ridges inst<-a<l of (»blique ones. The cus|>s themni^lves 
are closer together than in the other s|K'cies, es|>ccially th«>iK* of 
the anterior three, wliicli are ch»sely approximati^d. The anierior 
one i<H snnill and low. The enamel is grooved as in the other 

SjM'cie«i. 

Piameters of erown <>f fourth premolar: anteroi»osterior, '01 lo ; 
tnins\er-e. Oll.'i ; eU'\ation ^ worn ). -UliL Diameters of crown 



PnK\ Anioritan I'hilim. Sm-it-ty, \^'i^ p. 465. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 169 

of second true molar: anteroposterior, 'Oil; transverse, '009. 
From the Lower Puerco beds. D. Baldwin. 

Pantolambda cavibictus sp. nov. Represented by a nearly 
entire mandibular ramus with all the teeth represented excepting 
the crowns of the incisors. The characters are seen, first in the 
large size, the teeth having twice the linear dimensions of those 
of the P, bathmodon; and second, in the lateral prominence of 
the inferior edge of the ramus, which produces a concavity of the 
side of the jaw posterior to the canine teeth. It is the largest 
mammal known from the Puerco formation. 

The inferior canines are strongly curved, so that the crown is 
directed upwards and a little backwards. Both root and crown 
have a round section, but the apex of the crown cannot be de- 
scribed, as it is greatly worn by use in the specimen. The 
incisive border is regularly convex, and the three incisors are not 
of large size, the first being least, and the third largest. The pre- 
molars and molars have the form of those of the P. bathmodon. The 
latter present two V's, the anterior narrower and more elevated. 
In the former the posterior Y is represented by a short crest. 
The last molar is produced into a heel, which supports the pos- 
terior branch of the posterior Y, and no cusp. The first premolar 
is one-rooted, and is separated from the second premolar by a 
moderate diastema. The symphysis is not long, is regularly 
curved upwards, and has a flat inferoanterior face. The canine 
alveoli create a marked prominence on each side. 

Measurements. — Depth of ramus at diastema, m. '045 ; do. at 
third premolar, "056 ; width of ramus below third premolar, -021 ; 
length of bases of three incisors, *023 ; diameters of canine at 
base: anteroposterior, -018; transverse, '018; diameters third 
premolar: anteroposterior, •012; transverse, 'Oil ; diameters first 
true molar: anteroposterior, '077; transverse, '014; diameters 
third true molar: anteroposterior, -022 ; transverse, '014. 

The jaw of this species is about the length of that of a large 
tapir, but is deeper and more robust. The flare of the inferior 
edge in front is suggestive of the structure seen in the Dinocerata, 
and of the probability that the Taligrada (to which Pantolambda 
belongs) are the ancestors of that suborder as well as of the Pan- 
todonta. The flare is related to the flange of Uinta?herium, 
exactly as the similar ridge in Nimravus is to the flange in Ma- 
chasrodus, 

Zetodon gracilis, gen. et sp. nov. Char. Oen. — This genus 
and species are founded on a broken lower jaw which contains the 
second and part of the first true molars, and the foui*th premolar. 
The teeth are of very peculiar character. True molars consisting 
of narrow crescents in two pairs, which are b<jth concave towards 
each other, embracing a fossa. The posterior crescents soon 
unite on attrition, closing the fossa, while the anterior are well sep- 
arated, and only unite by their anterior apices. Each molar has a 

12 



no PR0C££D1NGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

small columnar heel. Fourth premolar with the posterior pair of 
crescents only, which soon unite. The anterior pair is reprc^ 
sen ted by a part of the external one, which forms a narrow lohe. 
The heel is larger than in the true molar. 

The position of this genus it is impossible to detennme from 
the specimens in my possession. It may 1)6 MarsupiAl or Coo- 
dylarthrous, and if the latter, one of the Menincotheriidm ; l^t if 
not of these groups, its position is not likely to be in anj known 
order of the tertiary periods. 

Char, Specif. — Crowns compressed, deeply grooved at the points 
of junction of the crescents. This is effected by a narrow 
lamina from the anterior inner to the posterior outer; the 
anterior outer being free posteriorly, excepting after considerabl« 
wear. A groove on the external side of the crown distingaiahe^ 
the heel, which sinks into the crown below. It is larger on the 
first than on the second molar. The heel of the fourth premolar 
is elevated on its posterior edge. No cingula except a weak one 
at the exterior base of the posterior lobe of the true molars, and 
at the anterior base of the anterior lobe of the foturth premolar. 
Ramus compressed ; but little of it preserved. Diameters of p. 
111. iv. : anteroposterior, '0055; transverse, *0020; of second true 
molar : anteroposterior, '0045 ; transverse, -002. From the lower 
red bed of the Upper Puerco epoch. D. Baldwin discoverer. 



July 10. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Twenty -eight persons present. 

A pajKT entitled '* Preliminary Observations on the Brain of 
AnipiiUuna," by Henry F. Osborn, was presented for publication 



July 17. 
Rov. Henry C. McC«)ok, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Sixty-two iHjrsons present. 



July 24. 
Mr. Jou-N H. Repfieli) in the chair. 
Foiirti'oii |»ersons present. 



JlLY 31. 

Mr. J. H. Redkield in the chair. 
Eleven |K-r>ons present. 
The following were ordered to l»e printe<l : 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. ITl 



DESCBIFTION OF A NEW HTDBOBIIKOID OA6TEB0P0D FBOM THE MOUN- 
TAnr LAKES OF THE 8ISBBA HEVADA, WITH BEXABKS ON ALLIED 
SPECIES AND THE PHT8I00BAPHICAL FEATTTBES OF SAID BEOION. 

6T ROBERT E. C. STEARNS. 

The interesting form herein described was first brought to my 
notice through the kindness of Mr. Xenos Clark, son of the 
lamented Prof. Henry James Clark, in 1879. Owing to ill-health 
and other causes, it has remained undescribed until this time. 
Recently I have been stimulated to inquire into its characters and 
relationship, by the reception of a letter and further specimens 
from Prof. R. Ellsworth Call, who, while believing it to be unde- 
scribed, thought possibly it had been made known by some of our 
West Coast naturalists, and wrote to me for information. 

While it appears to have certain analogies with Lioplax of the 
ViviparidaB on the one side (see 7>. aubcarinata Say), and with 
the StrepomatidflB (see the carinated Goniobases like O. torulosa * 
Anthony), on the other, 3-et the sum of its characters, inclusive 
of faunal and geographical relationship, seems to me to point 
rather in the direction cf the fresh-water Rissoids. The late Dr. 
Stimpson's genus Tryonia applies only to shells with a " surface 
longitudinally ribbed or plicated,*' as distinct from the usual 
smooth-surfaced shells of the various groups embraced in liis 
*' Researches, etc."* He includes, however, the little group 
Pyrgula of Cristoforo and Jan, and arranges it directly preceding 
Tryonia^ which my judgment confirms as being its proper place. 

Woodward ' included this genus {Pyrgula) in his synonymy of 
Melania; he also placed Amnicola as a subgenus of the foregoing. 
H. and A. Adams * place Pyrgula with the Melanians, but Amni- 
cola is grouped by them with the Rissoid^. They further include 



» L. and P. W. Shells of N. A. Part IV, p. 229, 8. T. Miss. Coll., 253. 
See also Meek and Hayden*s Tertiaiy Goniobasis tenuicarinata^ Proc. 
Phila. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1857, p. 124, and G, nebrascensis, id., 1856, p. 124. 
Also Wheeler's Report. PalaBontology, vol. iv, and Hayden's Inv. Palseon- 
tology, vol. ix. 

' Researches upon the Hydrobiinae and allied forms. Smiths'n 3Iisc. 
Coll., 201. 

3 Recent and Fossil Shells, 2d ed., pp. 24G, 247. 
♦ Adams' Genera, pp. 806-808, vol. i. 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THX ACADEMY OP [1SS3. 

the genus Tricnlo of Beu^on with the Melaniida;, an arraDgemect 
whicli Las Ijeen followe<l hv Chenu.* 

Ben<>oir!^ Tricula is based upon a small tluviatile form which 
the Adams sav " somewhat resembles /\i/ii€foFfiu«; • • • • 
the only s|M:cit:s kuowu is au inhabitant of the River y^^f^^**n ia 
India." The s[jecific name moniana implies a station similar to 
thrxo inhabiteil Ia* the various si)€cies of Fyrgula herein quoted. 
The figure of Tricula as given by the Adams and Chenn, together 
with the totalitv of testimony furnished by said authors, leads me 
to Hus|>ect that the Indian species should be remoTed fh>m the 
Melaniidse to the Hydrobiina? and near to Fyrgula, 

It is not without some little hesitation that I place the Sierra 
Nevada shell in the genus Fyrgula. Its principal characteristics. 
however, indicate said group as well as the environmental featnres. 
StimpHon^s generic description of Tryonia applies only to shells 
longitudinally sculptured (*• ribbed or plicated "), a too restricted 
limitation for a generic standard in this case, because if literally 
applied it would exclude ninety-five per cent of the indiridoaU 
whirh form the mass of which Stimpson*s^ 8i)ecies is bot a rare 
varietal aspect. Uix>n this iK)int he wrote : '* In companj with 
the Tryonia*. Mr. Blake found a small cancellateil shell, which has 
lf«-«n de>cril»ed as M^Iania exigua by Conrad, and as ^Imyiico/a 
/y/•'/^vi by Gould. In view of the character of the surface, I think 
it scaicely i>ossible that this species can belong to the H3'drobiina'. 
It will, perhaps. Ik? found to )>e allied to Bittium, The occurrence 
of this marine or brackish-water genus in the Desert would not 
l>e Mirprising. since Giutthodon was found in the same basin at a 
point somewhat nearer the Gulf.** It is quite evident to mj miml 
that »StimpHon could not have had a very large number of specimens 
a>* tiny are u«»ually found; if so. they would have included not 
only his T. rUuhratn, a-* well as Conrad's and Gould's types, but 
intt-rnitMlinte and connecting varieties^ sufficient to have caused 
him to expand \i\^ geuiMio diagnosis, and either to have made him 
hesitate U'fore investing the variety Ijefore him with specific 
diirnity, or else to have inolude<l Conrad*s and Gould's forms as 
^piMic«% of Tr>r>nia, He was not aware of the countless millions 
of thr^e tiny shelN, that are .scattered over a vast area, or of the 
depth of the fresh-w.itir sedimentary deposit throughout which 



' 3Ianuel de Couch} liulo^ie, etc., p. 304, vol. L 
' Kehearclie% etc., etc., i(/., p. 48, €t ttq. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. HS 

they are distributed. At Walter's Station, on the Southern Pacific 
Railroad, the perpendicular section exhibited by the digging of a 
well to the depth of fortj'-seven feet, contained these shells frora 
the surface of the desert to the bottom of the well.^ Again, in 
suggesting relations between Conrad's and Gould's forms with 
Bittium, a genus belonging to the brackish-water division or sul>- 
family (Potamidinae) of the Cerithiidse, he seems to have overlooked 
the fact that the longitudinally plicated sculpture of his species is 
a character common also to the brackish-water genus Gerifhidea, 
which belongs as well as Bittium to the Potamidinae.^ 

Had Stimpson's generic definition of Tryonia been more ample 
I should have been tempted to have given the shell herein dis- 
cussed a place in said group rather than Fyrgula, which latter, as 
figured by the Adams and Chenu, shows an angular termination 
to the aperture at the base of the columella, indicative of a more 
pronounced feature in the soft parts (siphonal) at this point than 
the rounded aperture of Tryonia and Tricula (as figured), and 
the form before me presents. This, however, is a somewhat vari- 
able feature as between individuals of the same species, and still 
more so between forms of one species as compared with forms of 
another. 

With the concurrence of Prof. Call, I have described the shells 
received from him and Mr. Clark as follows : 

Genus PYBGULA Cristoforo and Jan. 
Pyrgnla NevBdeiuii, n. s. 

Shell small, elongated, ovate-conic, turreted ; number of whorls 

five to six (5-6), with a conspicuous keel following 

spirally the periphery of each and terminating near 

the middle of the outer edge of the continuous peri- 

treme, which is -otherwise simple, ovate and slightly 

effiisc, and appressed (to the whorl) above ; in some 

specimens somewhat produced on its inner side and 

suggesting a faint umbilicus. Shell white or nearly 

so ; smooth and glossy, with a slight epidermis on 
^^^^ ■' 

> For farther information on this point, see my remarks on the '* Fossil 
Shells from the Colorado Desert," in Am. Naturalist, March, 1879. 

' The connection of the marine Cerithiidse with the fresh-water Melaniidae 
through the brackish-water Potamidinae, seems natural and logical. In this 
connection the remarks of SwaiHson in his "Treatise on Malacology,'' are 
well worth pemsing. 




174 PROCEEDINGS OF TIU5 ACADEMY OF [ISS3. 

some specimens. Dimensions as follows, being the measurement 
of ten (10) 8i)ecimeus, all adult : 

Longitude *14, Latitude •OS inch. 



»• 



ik 



ik 



•15, 


kk 


•08 




•16, 


i» 


•09 




•n, 


4* 


•09 




•n, 


ii 


•09 




•18, 


(k 


•10 




•18, 


ki 


•10 




•22, 


ik 


•10 




•22, 


4( 


•11 





•21, '* 12 '' 

Tiic mean of the above measurements is eightecn-hundredtht of 
an inch in length by ninet3'-6ix-thousaDdths of an inch in breadth. 
or very nearly two to one. The largest specimen measured "23 
by *13 inch. Aperture about one-third the length of the shell. 
being aH forty -one to one hundred and twenty (iV^f)« Of the 
sixteen si>ecimens examined * nine are from Pyramid Lake (Clark), 
:in<i iferen from Walker's Lake (Call). 

The Pyramid Lake lot, from Mr. Clark, were accompanied by 
specimens of the flat-spired form of Pompholyx effusa^ to which 
Dr. DiUl has given the name of " var. aolida,*^^ 

Tiic several s|H>cimens of Fyrgula Nevadensis exhibit similar 
tiit^rentiation as Tnjonia in size of mouth, variability in coil. 
rohuHtness or attenuation; and many of the specimens flnom the 
alkaline deposit of the lake bottom are discolored, varying fh>m 
liirlit a?*lien slate to dark slate, approaching black. 

In connection with the above, I have to thank Professor Call 
for the following notes : 

•' I have it as collected by the U. S. Geological Survey the past 



' SuUse<iuently thirty-two ipecimens, adolesoent and mstore^ firom the 
drtMigiog **(l) " Pyramid Lake ; and about the same number, joang aDd 
adult, fiviu •*(2)*' N«»rth Shore, Tyramid Lake, were reoeiTsd fkom Prof. 
Call aad examined with care. 

- Aunal* of Lyceum of Nat. History of N. Y., March, 1870, p. 8W. 
Tho locality jiere ^iveu, through some misapprehension, it *' Clear Lake,** 
which ii in California: it should read ** White Pine, Esiism Nevada. * 
Hull, ill Scunn, vol. i, No. 7, page 20i (March 88, 188S), letes to the 
occurreoce of I\>mpholyi ejfuia in a calcareous depodt in Pyramid Lake, 
ami remarks on its variatiou». 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. lib 

summer. Where known, I give the name of the collector as 
authority for localit3% (1) From dredgings of Pyramid Lake 
bottom; Russell (I. C); August 30, 1882. (2) North side of 
Pyramid Lake, Nevada; Russell (I. C). (3) In tufa, shore of 
Walker's Lake, Nevada ; Russell (I. C), and also loose. This is 
the locality represented by the shells sent to you. 

" Pyramid Lake,^ although it receives the fresh water of the 
Truckee River, the outlet of that gem of lakes, Tahoe, is very 
strongly alkaline, and the water is not good for human use, 
although it can be used for a short period without much incon- 
venience." 

The elevation of Pyramid Lake is 4890 feet, as stated in 
Oannett's' List, etc., and Walker's Lake, according to the same 
authority, has an altitude of 3840 feet. The water of this lake 
is probably similar to that of Pyramid ; it is brackish, as I have 
been informed by Prof. Joseph LeConte. 

These lakes are the remnants of the great tertiary lake which 
covered this general region, and are the pockets or deeper 
depressions in the floor of the ancient lake; the bitterness of 
their waters being the result of the accumulated alkaline and 
saline sediments, or dregs, of centuries. 

Assuming that I have placed the above form in its proper 
position, much greater interest attaches to it than that of the 
addition of a new species to the fauna of the general region 
within which it is found, or that of adding a peculiar tj^pe to the 
living molluscan fauna of the North American continent. 

The species of Pyrgula heretofore described,* are the type, P. 
helvetica, from Switzerland ; P. hicarinata, France ; P. pyrenaica, 
from the Pyrenees ; and P. andicola, from the Andes of Bolivia. 

Its distribution hitherto, it will be seen, is Europe and South 
America; inhabiting, as Stimpson observed, " fresh waters in 
mountainous regions," and as he further remarked, " It is inter- 
esting to notice that all the species of the genus as yet described 
are severally reported to. occur in mountainous districts; an 
instance of correlation of form to external conditions." 



^ Lieut. Symons, in Lieut. Wheeler's Report Geog. Survey, etc., 1878, 
p. 114. 

*U. 8. Qeol. Survey. Hayden, Misc. Pub., No. 1. Fourth Ed. 
' Vide Stimpfton, ibid. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 1S83.J 

These facts tend to give this new species^ its chief importADce, 
and point to further interesting discoveries. 

Specimens of J^rgula yevadensis have been distributed to the 
Museum of the Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. ; the U. S. Natioiud 
Museum, Washington ; the Museums of the University of CaIi- 
fornia and California Acad, of Sciences; and are contained in the 
cabinets of Professor A. E. Call and my own. 

* Mr. John Wolf lias described Pyryula icalar(formi$ firom the poit- 
plioceuo of Tazewell, Illinois River. Vidi Tryon, in Proo. Acad. Nat. 

Sti. Phila., May 1, 1873. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 17T 



PBEUMIHABT 0B8EBVATI0N8 UPON THE BRAIN OF AMPHIVMA. 

BT HENBT F. OSBORN, SC. D. 

The North American Urodela, embracing a wide variety of forms 
which can readily be obtained, offer an attractive field fopthe 
comparative study of the amphibian brain. The work upon the 
subject hitherto has been chiefly in Germany, but many members 
of this large group have barely been touched upon, so that a sys- 
tematic research into the whole subject would form a valuable 
contribution to Comparative Morphology. 

In the hope of extending my study later I have recently been 
investigating the brain of Amphtuma,^ having procured a quantity 
of live specimens from New Orleans. This paper contains a pre- 
liminary account of this investigation. 

Among the more important studies upon the amphibian brain 
are those of Wyman,' Fischer,' Stieda* and Wilder.* Stieda^s 
work is principally upon the microscopic structure of the brains 
of the Frog and Axolotl ; Wilder, in his study of the Frog and 
Menobranchus, has directed attention largely to parts of the br.in 
which have been less studied hitherto, namely to the cavities and 
the thinner portions of the brain parietes surrounding them, as 
well as to the brain membranes. I am indebted to the writings 
of both of these authors for light uix)n this subject, although I 
have not as yet so fUlly consulted either as I would like to do. 

In the general description the usual terminology of different 
portions of the brain is employed, but in referring to the various 
segments of the brain tube and to the ventricles they enclose I 
largely employ the terms partly adopted and partly introduced by 
Wilder. His system of nomenclature, which is chiefly founded 
upon the embryonic divisions of the brain, is admirably clear and 

' I employ this title as it is the family name (AmphiumidcB)^ and is more 
generally known, although AfuranopsiSf the three-toed genus, is the one 
which I studied. 

' Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge, WashingtoD, 1853. 

' Amphibiorom Nudonun Neuroglia ; also, Anat. Abhandlungen fiber 
die Perennibranohiaten and Derotremen. 

* Zeitschrift far wlss. Zoologie, Band xx, xxv. 

^ Anatomical Technology, Wilder and Gage, 1883. 



178 PROGBXDINaS OF TUl ACADIMT Of [1883. 

consistent, although objections ma}^ be raised to the author 't 
means of indicating position and direction.^ 

My method of study was: (1) A careful eannnlnation of the 
external features of the brain. (S) A series of very thin trmosTcrse 
and longitudinal sections of the brain, the sections after staining 
being carefully mounted in serial order. These series naturally 
supplement each other and give a ver}* accurate idea of the groes 
and minute structure. 

The technical process of preparing the brains was as follows : 
The}' were hardened, after removal fW>m the skull, in a aatorated 
solution of bichromate of potash, the acid being subsequently 
removed with alcohol of different densities. The brains were tbeo 
embedded in an egg-mass prepared by shaking the white and yolk 
of egg together, with three drops of gl3*cerine to each egg. This 
mass was first stiffened around the brain by placing in a vapor of 
alcohol, then hardened in absolute alcohol until ready for cutting. 
Its advantages are that it closely embraces the brain, holding all 
the parts together and becoming transparent in oil of cloves. 
The section cutting was done with one of the large instromeots 
manufactured by Jung, of Heidelberg, which is far superior to 
any other instrument of its kind now in use. 

External Structure. The brain of Amphiuma (Plate YIII, fig«. 
A and B) resembles that of Menopoma (figs. C and D) more 
closely than that of any of the remaining Urodela. Its most 
striking feature is that the component parts are, in the main, little 
differentiated fW)m each other, giving the exterior ver}* moch the 
simple character of an embryonic brain. This is especially true 
of the Di-, Mes- and Epencephala. The vertical longitudinal 
section (fig. H) shows that the construction of the interior is 
equally simple. The brain fiexure is apparently slight. The 
brain is also extremel}* small in proportion to the body, and has 
a narrow, elongated form ; a remarkable feature is the diminutive 

* The following are some of the terms employed and their sjaoojms: 
Rhinenctphalony olfactory lol>es ; Pro$enctphalon^ iiududing the ee iebta l 
hemispheres and their csTities (procctlia)\ DienctpKdUm^ ineluding the 
thalami optici, the infundibulum, the pineal gland, etc, and the diO' 
CdUa or third Tentricle ; Mftnctphalony including the opHe tobes^ the 
crura cerebri and me$ocalia or iter ; the ralmla^ or valve of Vfawswna ; 
Ki»fhuphaloh or cerebellum : MtUnctphalon,, medulla obloDgal% and roof 
of fourth ventricle. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 179 

size of the cerebellum. This general simplicity corresponds to 
the partial blindness and to the degenerate structure and habits 
of Amphiuma, 

The Metencephalon is very broad and shallow, with its upper 
surface divided longitudinally by a central and two slight lateral 
furrows, and with its borders turning bluntly inwards anteriorly, 
apparently to enter the cerebellum. On its lower surface the 
medulla is divided by the central fhrrow, a continuation of the 
anterior fissure of the spinal cord. As in other Amphibia, the 
medulla passes without clear demarkation into the crura cerebri. 

The EpencepJialon, The cerebellum is a narrow, band-like 
structure, arching across the wide medulla. It is unusually small, 
and was actually overhung by the optic lobe in my specimens, 
so as not to be seen in the median line, although this point may 
require confirmation. The valvula is therefore out of sight, in the 
dorsal aspect of the brain, but may be seen in the longitudinal 
sections. 

The Mesencephalon. The optic lobe has no longitudinal 
furrow, but forms a single, narrow, unpaired body, passing 
forward into the roof of the Diencephalon without demarkation. 
These divisions of the brain cannot be distinguished upon the 
dorsal surface, but can be seen in side view by noting the position 
of the infundibulum below. The Crura (pars peduncularis) form 
a broad base for the posterior half of the Mesencephalon, which, 
by an oversight, is not represented in the drawings. As they 
pass forward, however, they cannot be distinguished from the 
optic lobe nor from each other, so that this division of the brain 
forms a cylindrical tube, the component parts of which can only 
be detected in the microscopic structure. 

The Diencephalon. The roof of this portion of the brain ter- 
minates anteriorly in the large pineal gland ; its median surface is 
marked, in Meniopoma^ by two circular thickenings which were 
not noticed in Amphiuma, These may correspond to several 
structures in the brain roof, which are apparent in the sections. 
The sides of the Diencephalon form the thalami, but the promi- 
nent feature of this portion of the brain is the production of the 
floor into the long, backward-directed infundibulum, which is best 
seen in side view. At the base of this process is the large pitui- 
tary body. At the sides of the infundibulum are two thickenings 
which converge to enter the thalami ; their relations are clearly 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

shown in the sections. In front of the infandibaUr region the 
Diencephalon as a whole becomes higher and narrower. There it 
quite a space between the infiindibulum and optic chiasma ; the 
latter has no clear decussation of fibres as in the frog ; on the other 
hand, the nerves are given off as two slender fibres on either side 
of a slightly raised whitish plate. 

The Prosencephalon, The cerebral hemispheres are very long, 
flattened-oval bodies, narrowing forwards; they are in close 
contact, but there is no structural union, except for a short 
distance in front of the lamina terminalis. The Bhinencephala 
arise from the outer anterior thini of the hemispheres and give oiT 
on the lower surface of the brain, the large olfactory nerves. 

Internal and Microscopic Structure. 

The internal structure of the brain, so far as studied, has many 
interesting features, which may here be considered in connection 
with the various divisions of the brain tube, concluding with 
some obser^^ations upon the general distribution of the gray and 
white matter. It must here be said that the minute histology has 
not been so carefully studied as to afford conclusive data« 

Fig. II represents a longitudinal vertical section of the brain 
of Amphiuma^ magnified four diameters, the shaded portions 
showing the gray or cellular matter. The vertical lines indicate^ 
approximately, the ]>osition of twelve of the thirteen transverse 
sections which are figured. Fig. 9 passes through the anterior 
commissure and the forward )>ortion of the diac<elia, not quite 
agreeing with an}* vertical line that could be drawn through fig. H. 
Much enhirged longitudinal and transverse views of the cere- 
Ix'Uum are given in E and F. Fig. O gives an imperfect idea 
of some of the cells found in the crura. 

The £}>€ncephaIon is the only division of the brain which has 
a complete investment of gray matter; this statement needs the 
reservation that the cells surrounding the cerebellum tnay be of 
epithelial origin, although this doubt is apparently disproved by 
the close similarity and continuity of their structure with those of 
the optic lobe. If this \h* admitted, the cerebellum is composed 
of three parts: (1) A continuous band of fibres arching fVom 
side to side of the medulla. (2) A fine layer of fibres which 
have an antt*ro-i)06terior direction. (3) An investing laj'er of 
cells one or two rows doep. These parts are represented in 
f'g. K, ft, a and '•; also in fig. F, /> and r. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 181 

(1) The transverse band of fibres (fig. 1) form the greater 
part of the cerebellum; they appear to arise from columns of 
fibres in the lateral portions of the medulla, so that they 
correspond partially to the inferior peduncles of the mammalian 
cerebellum arising from the restiform bodies. (2) The fine layer 
of fibres have a direction at right-angles to these, and are three 
or four deep, seeming to terminate in the lateral portions of the 
cerebellum, in some cells lying between the cerebellum and the 
optic lobe. This layer, owing to the peculiar position of the 
cerebellum beneath the optic lobe, is dorsal to the main transverse 
band ; if the cerebellum were turned backwards, this layer would 
be ventral to it. (3) The cells composing the cortex of the 
cerebellum are of an elongated-oval shape, usually- one row, in 
some places two rows deep. Their greatest diameter is arranged 
parallel to the main band of transverse fibres. Here, as in other 
portions of the brain, it was diflBcult to ascertain whether or no 
these cells were continued into fibre processes. No such processes 
were discovered. 

The above account differs widely from that given by Stieda^ of 
the frog's cerebellum ; although the latter is somewhat diflScult to 
understand owing to the lack of figures. 

The Mesencephalon, Posteriorly, the mesocoelia is broad and 
low, and the brain tube has a subpyramidal section ; anteriorly, 
it becomes more circular and is surrounded by a shield-shaped 
mass of cells (figs. 2 and 3), surrounded in turn by the mass of 
longitudinal fibres, the whole constituting the optic lobe and 
crura. According to Stieda,* the brain of axolotl has a similar 
structure in this region. 

The Diencephalon is the most interesting division of the brain ; 
its deep but narrow cavity (diacoelia) is filled with the large 
choroid plexus ; it has a very thin roof and floor, but broad lower 
sides. The infundibulum is formed by the thrusting downward 
of the posterior portion of the floor. Its walls are much convo- 
luted; they are composed chiefly of white matter, with here and 
there a scattering of nerve-cells, which in some places form a 
continuous layer. The base of the infundibulum is closely 
reflected over the pituitary body as a thin lamina. Tl^ pituitary 
body has therefore no communication with the brain caiilt^'i as has 

' Zeitschrifb fiir wiss. Zcologie, Band 
' Same Journal, Band xxv. 



182 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMT Of [18S3. 

1>een observed in some animals. It is composed of a solid 
mass of granular cells, traversed by namerous blood-ressels, and 
resembles in structure, although more compact| one of the ordi- 
nary lymphatic glands. 

The lumen of the inftmdibulam becomes narrower before it 
communicates with the diaccelia, and the lateral walls become 
thickened into two solid oval masses, largely composed of nerre^ 
cells. These bodies resemble the /oW in/eriores of the Teleosts. 
and, according to Stieda,' correspond in position with the tober 
cinereum of the mammalia ; anteriorly they gradually conrerge 
(flgs. 4 and 5), finally entering the thalamL At this point the 
diacci'lia has a cruciform shape, the lateral cavities separating the 
tut>er cinereum from the walls of the Diencephalon abore, lo 
front of this is the thickening of the optic chiasma, and around 
the up|>or portion of the ventricle is a row of compact cells which 
resemble columnar epithelium. Anteriorly the latter flatten oat« 
covering a lateral expansion of the ventricle. AboTc this is a 
small hollow sphere formed of a single layer of cells (fig. 7, x); 
the meaning of this structure is not known, and no mention of it 
has been found by the writer elsewhere. It corresponds in 
position with the external markings noticed upon the dorsal 
surface of the Menopoma brain at this point (see fig. C, Dt. /.}. 
Immediately below thi8 point is a transverse band of nenre-fibres 
which probably belong to the optic chiasma. 

The roof of tlic Diencephalon is of irregular thickness; forward 
it in carried as a very thin lamina over the pineal gland. The 
structure of this body is nothing more than a rich plexus of blood- 
vesseN jiroduciKi from the choroid ; in the apex are numerous fine 
nuclei, resembling those of connective tissue, certainly not of 
nerve-tissue. There is no evidence that the latter is present. 

It will thus be seen that the pineal body is a simple rascnlar 
structure, properly speaking, in communication with the brain 
eavity, since it is api>arently surroundeil by the brain pariete*. 
The pituitary Inxly, on the other hand, is a compact glandular 
:^truetnre. not in a]>)Uirent communication with the brain cavity. 
exc^ept hy an improl>able process of osmosis through the attached 
ivlls. 



* Stud. uNt d. centralo NeneDfTstt^m d. KDOchenilscber. Zsita. fir 



1888.] NATURAL SaENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 183 

The sections are imperfect in the forward portion of the root 
of the Diencephalon (diatela) ; they do not show the poatcommis- 
surGj described by Stieda and Wilder. The praecomviissura^ has 
its usual shape and position. 

The relations of the Diencephalon to the Prosencephalon are 
shown in figs. 7, 8 and 9. The procoelise extend back into the 
posterior sections of the hemispheres. Anterior to this the hemi- 
spheres fuse with the thalami below, receiving from the upper 
portion of the Diencephalon a conspicuous band of fibres (fig. 8, a). 
The relations of the dia- to the procoelise are best obtained by 
means of horizontal longitudinal sections ; these have not been 
made as yet, so that the nature of these cavities is somewhat 
doubtful. It appears that the proccelise communicate with each 
other some distance anterior to the lamina terminalis. 

The hemispheres have a great lateral extent, containing exten- 
sive cavities. Their posterior halves are partly fused together ; 
anteriorly, however, they are quite separate and distinct, becoming 
more cylindrical in section in the region of the Rhinencephalon. 
A peculiar feature of each procoelia is the formation of a short 
superior median cornu (fig. 11, a) ; corresponding to this is an 
extension of the gray matter lining the coelia to the cortex of the 
hemisphere. Forwards the coelise have a vertical and more in- 
ternal position. The Ehinencephala arise in masses of gray cells 
in the anterior third of the lateral portions of the hemispheres ; 
they do not contain any cavity, but are continued forward into the 
solid olfactory nerve. 

The structure and distribution of the nerve-fibres and cells 
have not been closely studied ; the following are some preliminary 
notes : 

The cavities of the brain are throughout lined with masses of 
nerve-cells of varying thickness. Nerve-cells are also found 
scattered among the fibres, but these are somewhat rare. The 
gray substance lining the hemispheres corresponds to the central 
gray J the Hohlengrau of Meynert. At a few paints it is found 
upon the brain cortex; these are : (1) the lateral bodies of the 
infundibulum (fig. 3) ; (2) the upper surface of the central portion 
of the hemispheres (fig. 11) ; (3) and the inner sides and front of 
the foremost portion of the same (fig. 12) ; (4) the cerebellum. 

^ ADterior and posterior commissures. 



184 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [18S3. 

None of these cortical exposures of the central Rray cmn be 
considered to correspond to the cortical gray (Rindengraa) of 
the mammalian brain. The gray substance is, therefore, chieUr 
central. 

The scattered nerve-cells above referred to are prinoipallj found 
in the substance of the hemispheres above the cavities, internal 
to fig. 11, a. Here they are numerous. 

The nerve-cells are chiefly small, oval and nucleated bodies. 
very compactly placed ; among tliese at some points, as in the 
crura, much larger cells enveloped in loose capsules were discor* 
ered. No processes were found leading out of these cells, in fact 
no unmistakably branched cells were found at any point; this 
may have been the fault of the preparation methods, for Stieda 
has found that the branched nerve-cells are very numerous in the 
fW>g, while Wyman, employing simpler histological methods, (kiled 
to find them. 

This is as far as the sections have been studied, although tbey 
offer very tempting opportunities for making out the nenre-tracts. 

The following is a resum^ of the results thus far obtained : 

In external characters, Amphiuma differs widely fh>m the ttog 
type in the simpler differentiation of its parts, the mid-region of 
the brain Ix^ing a rounded tul)e with no separation of its optic 
lobes and thalami indicated above. The cavities of the brain are 
equally simple, the meta-, meso- and diacwlife forming a uniform 
cavity, forking into the proca'lite in front. The infundibulum has 
the large size which is so characteristic of it in the fishes, and its 
lateral bodies recall the lohi in/eriores in the Teleosts, although 
imssing forwanls they form the tuber cinereum. The pineal and 
pituitary lK)dies arc constructe<l upon clearly different principles, 
one being within, the other without the brain walls, the former a 
vascular plexus, the latter a gland. In the roof of the Dien- 
cephalon is a small spherical bo<ly whose meaning is not known« 
but which may prove to be of some morphological significance. 
The ceri'bellum has a cellular investment and consists of two sets 
of fibres with a transverse and fore and aft direction. The gray 
matter of the brain lines the cavities throughout, as the ^ central 
gray ; *' continuations of it extend in some places to the*cortex, 
but the "cortical gray," if present at all, is very limited in 
distribution. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILAD£Lt»HIA. 186 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE Vm. 

Illustbatino the Brains of Amfhiuma and Mekopoma. 

Lettering and Abbreviations, 

Jih. — Rhinencephalon ; Pr, and Pro, c, — Prosencephalon and Procoelia ; Dt., 
Di. t, and Di, e, — Diencephalon, Diatela (roof of Diencephalon), and 
DiacGdlia ; Me, and Me. e. —Mesencephalon and Mesocoelia ; Ep, and 
Ep, e. — Epencephalon and Epicoelia; Met, — Metencephalon. 

Tc. — Tuber cinereum ; cA.— optic chiasma ; pt, — pituitary body ; pn, — pineal 
gland; ifi.— infundibulum ; cA^.— choroid plexus; cr. —crura cerebri ; 
p, cm.— prsBCommissura (anterior commissure); t^.— optic thalamus. 

L — Optic; XL— Olfactory ; III. — Oculo-Motor ; V.— Trigeminis ; VI.— 
Abducens; VIL— Facial; VIIL -Auditory ; IX, X, XI.— Vagus 
Group. N. R — The identification of the nerves was by noting tjieir 
origin ; the distribution of the nerves has not been worked out. 

Special References in Figures, 

Figures A-D, twice natural size. Figs. U and 1-18, eight times natural 
size. 

Figure A. Dorsal view of the brain of Amphiuma. 

Figure B. Ventral view of the same. 

Figure G. Dorsal view of the brain of Menopoma. 

Figure D. Lateral view of the same. Dit. corresponds to vertical line 
7, fig. H. 

Figure £. Enlarged view (about 30 diameters) of a longitudinal section 
of the cerebellum and a portion of the optic lobe, taken at one side 
of the median line. The valvula, Vj is broader in the median line ; 
d, white, e, gray portion of Mesencephalon ; a, fine longitudinal fibres ; 
bt transverse band of fibres ; c, cortical layer of cells. 

Figure F. Transverse section of the cerebellum, lettering as in fig. E. 

Figure G. o, large, b, small cells found in crura cerebri (80 diameters). 

Figure H. Longitudinal section of the brain of Amphiumaf taken to the 
left of the median line. Vertical lines, 1 to 13, correspond to trans- 
verse sections represented by figs. 1 to 13. Black line represents the 
pia mater ; the roof of the metacoelia (fourth ventricle) is omitted in 
the drawing. 

Figure 1. Vertical transverse section through cerebellum, showing it as 
a transverse band passing beneath Mesencephalon, 

Figure 2. Ditto through pituitary body and infundibulum, showing 
crura cerebri and optic lobe unpaired. 

Figure 3. Showing sides of infundibulum thickening into tuber cinereum. 

Figure 4. Through posterior portion of the Diencephalon. 

Figure 5. Through the median portion of the Diencephalon. 

Figure 6. Slightly anterior to fig. 5. y^ a coi^striotion of the upper por- 
tion of the diaccdlia. 

IS 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Figure 7. Forwanl portion of Diencephalon. y oorrMponds to jr in fie* 

6 ; X, see x in ^^, H. 
Figure 8. Forward portion of Diencephalon. a, bands of fibres 

downwards into the hemispheres. 
Figure 0. Forward lower portion of Diencephalon {DL e.\ 

prsecommissura and procolia. 
Figure 10. Through the hemispheres slightly anterior to the lamina 

tcrminalis. 
Figure 11. Median portion of hemispheres ; a, gray matter extending to 

cortex. 
Figure 12. Anterior third of hemispheres ; showing the beiniuiing of the 

Rhinencephalon. 
Figure 18. Section near the tips of the hemispheres. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 187 



August T. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Six persons present. 



August 14. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Nine persons present. 



August 21. 
Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 
Six persons present. 



August 28. 

Mr. Thos. Mebhan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Fifteen persons present. 

Some Evidences of Great UlEodern Geological Changes in 
Alaska. — Mr. Thomas Meehan exhibited a piece of wood taken 
from a prostrate tree, in what appeared to have been a sunken 
forest in Alaska. It was in Hood's Bay, as marked on some 
charts, on a peninsula formed by the junction of Glaoier Bay and 
Lynn Channel, and facing Cross Sound, in lat. 68° 30'. The 
arboreal vejjetation generally prevailing in this section consists 
of Abies Sitkensis {A, Menziesii of many botanists); Abies Mer^ 
tensiana^ the western hemlock spruce; and Thuja gigantea^ 
called here "cedar" and ** white cedar.'* Thujopsis borealis is 
said to " abound " in these districts by some authors, but Mr. 
Meehan remarked that though looking for it through many hun- 
dred miles along the shores of the inland seas in southeastern 
Alaska, he did not see one specimen. The trees in the forest are 
of all ages, from young seedlings to aged decaying and dead ones. 
But in sailing into Hood's Bay he noted that the forests all had 
a comparatively young look — few of the trees appearing over 
fifty years old. Tlie shores were high — at the point where he 
landed not less than fifty feet above tide-water — and the sc»il was 
sand, or of glacial production. Across from here to L3'nn Channel 
the distance might be about twelve miles, and, so far as could be 
Judged, the soil and trees across were of the same character; and 



186 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADESfT OF [ISSS. 

FiouRB 7. Forward portioD of Diencephalon. jr oorrespoods to jr in fie. 

6 : jr. Me x in fi^. H. 
Figure ^. Forward portion of Diencephaloo. a^ bands of fibre* paisBi^ 

downwards into the hemispheres. 
FiocsE 9. Forward lower portion of Dienoephalon {DL e.% abowin|r 

pnecommiMNura and proccelia. 
FiocRB 10. Through the hemispheres slightly anterior to the lamina 

terminalis. 
Figure 11. Median portion of hemispheres ; a, gray matter extending to 

cortex. 
Figure 12. Anterior third of hemispheres ; showing the befniuiiiig of the 

Kb i nencephalon. 
Figure 13. Section near the tips of the berolspherea. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 189 

In connection with the subject of the comparative recentness 
of great geological changes as indicated by botanical evidence, 
Ml*. Meehan referred to an exposure of the remains of a large 
forest near the Muir glacier, one of five huge ones which form the 
head of Glacier Bay, between lat. 69° and 60°. This glacier is 
at least two miles wide at the mouth, and has an average depth of 
ice at this spot of perhaps five hundred feet. At the present time 
there is not a vestige of arboreal vegetation to be seen anywhere, 
except some willows on the hillsides, some miles from huge hills 
of drift piled up everywhere around. The river which flows under 
the glacier, and which has a volume equal to the Schuylkill at 
Philadelphia, does not flow into the bay from under the ice at the 
face, but rushes out in a mighty torrent on the northwest side, a 
few miles above the mouth, and has cut its way through mountains 
of drift, the gorge being many hundred feet in width, and the 
sides from two hundred to five hundred feet high. The torrent 
through the bed is now comparatively level, carr^nng with it an 
immense quantity of heavy stones, some of which must have 
comprised masses of six or eight cubic feet. Along the sides of 
this gorge were the exposed trunks, all standing perfectly erect, 
and cut off at about the same level. Some were but a few feet 
high, and others as much as fifteen — the difference arising from 
the slope of the ground on which the trees grew. These trunks 
were of mature trees in the main, and were evidently of Abies 
Sitkensis^ with a few of either Thuja gigantea or Juniperus, 
perhaps Occidentalism the uncertainty arising from the imperfec- 
tion of the bark — what there was of this indicating the former, 
while an eccentricity of outline of the wood, not uncommon in 
Juniperus, favoring the latter view. These trees must have been 
filled in tightly by drift to the height of fifteen feet before being 
cut off, or the trunks now standing would have been split down 
on the side opposite to that which received the blow, and the 
grinding off could not have been many years after, or the dead 
trees would have lost their bark, as they always do when under 
varying conditions of heat and moisture. The facts seemed to 
him to indicate that the many feet of drift which had burted part 
of the trees in the first instance was the work of a single season, 
and that the subsequent total destruction of every vestige of these 
great forests was the work of another one soon following. As 
in the case of the facts noted in Hood's Bay, Mr. Meehan believed 
that the conclusion was justified that the total destruction of the 
forests here, the covering of their site by hundreds of feet of 
drift, and the subsequent exposal to view of their remains^ were 
all the work of but a very few hundred j^ears. 

Mr. Charles Peabody was elected a member. 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY Of [18S3. 



September 4. 

Mr. Toos. Meeiian, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Sixteen persons present. 

The death of John C. Dawson, a member, was announeed. 

Exudation from Flowers in Relation to Honey-dew, — Mr. Tho«. 
Meehan remarked that our standard literature yet con tinned to 
teach that the sweet varnish-like ooverinji: often found over every 
leaf on large trees, as well as on comparatively small bushes, w«« 
the work of insects, notably Aphides. So far as he knew. Dr. 
Hoffman, of Giessen, who in 1876 published a pa|)er on the snbject, 
is the only scientific man of note who takes gronnd against this 
view. He met with a camelia without blossoms, and wholly free 
from insects, and 3'et the leaves were coated with " honey-dew,*' 
as it is generally known. He found this substance to consist of a 
sticky colorless liquid, having a sweetish taste, and principally guiD. 
Mr. Median said he had often met with cases where no insects 
could be found, as well as others where insects were numerous, 
and where in the latter case, the attending circumstances were 
strongly in favor of the conclusion that the liquid covering was 
the work of insects. 

He said he l)t»lieved that few scientific men had any knowledge 
of the enormous amount of liquid exuded by flowers at the time 
of opening, and he had seen cases where the leaves were as i*om- 
pletely covered l)y the li(|uid from the flowers, as if it had exuded 
from the leaves, as he believed Dr. Hotfmnn had goo<l grounds for 
l>elieving is often the case. He had already* brought to the atten- 
tion of the Academy cases where large quantities of liquid had 
drof)|)e<l from the flowers to the leaves Ijelow, of which Yvcca^ 
Mahnnia snd some others hnd lK»en recorded in the Proceedings 
of the Academv. Akebia had lH»en noted bv Mr. Wm. M. Canbv to 
drop fn»m the leaves at certain times, and Sach notes in his Text- 
boi>k the moisture which Alls the small flowers of Thuja. In 
coinieetion with the last cane, the exudation fVom Coniferap, be 
met with a remarkable case during his recent Journey through the 
northwest coast. While collecting plants along the east shore of 
the Columbia River he noticed a plant of AlnuH Orrgana^ coveretl 
with honey -<lew. The woolly Aphis, so well known for its pref- 
erence for alder, also abounded. Little drojm of liquid were in 
many esses attached to the apex of the abdomen, and the conclu- 
sion was reached that in this onse at least, the prolmbilities favored 
the insect origin of the liquid on the leaves. Proceeding a few 
ft^t further. towanlH the trunk of a large spreading Sitka spnuv 
(Ahtttt SiflenHiJt), and then on the other side, a bush of /*yr#M 
rirularifi was ul)ser>ed aUo covered, but not a sign of an iusect 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 191 

anywhere about it. This caused a reexamination of the whole 
case, when it was noticed that stones under the spruce tree, 
forming the shore of the river, and many feet outside of the circle 
formed by the branches of the Pyrus and Alder, were quite black 
with a gummy coat, which most probably had fallen from the 
spruce, the branches of which overshadowed the two bushes already 
named, as well as the stones. The branches of the spruce hanging 
towards the river were covered with young cones of probably 
one-half their full size, and the scales were found to be filled with 
sweet liquid. Taking the cone as it hung on the tree and stripping 
it down as one would milk a cow, a drop as large as a pea gathered 
in the hand from a single cone. There could be no doubt but that 
the viscid covering on the leaves of the two shrubs below, as well 
as on the unprotected stones, came from the cones of the spruce 
tree. He had seen, two years ago, the glossy covering over the 
leaves of the Liriodendron at flowering tinje, and found the 
opening flowers with a large quantity of liquid at the base, and 
had intended especially to give the matter minute attention the 
past summer and then report to the Academy ; bdt his long 
journey had diverted him. Recently the subject had been again 
brought to his attention during some experiments in relation to 
pollinization and cross-fertilization in Platycodon grandifiora not 
yet concluded. Cutting open very carefully a corolla just about 
to expand, the whole inner surface was found to be coated with 
minute drops of moisture, which, as they gathered in size, streamed 
down toward the base of the pistil. This liquid was not sweet, 
but had the taste of lettuce. In the case of the moisture which 
exuded from the divisions of the perianth in Yucca gloriosa and 
Yucca angusti/olia before reported, the taste was rather bitter 
than sweet. He said there was reason for the belief that much 
of the moisture found at the base of flowers was not the product 
of "nectariferous glands," which were sometimes guessed at rather 
than always detected, but was rather the collection from exudation 
from the petals ; and if so it was a confirmation of Dr. Hoff'man's 
idea of the origin of honey-<lew through the surface of the leaf, 
as we might reasonably suppose a modified leaf like the petal of a 
flower to have some functions in common with the primary leaves 
from which they sprung. 

What is the object of this abundant exudation of sweet liquid 
and liquid of other character from leaves and flowers? The 
speaker said we were so accustomed to read of nectar and nec- 
taries in connection with the cross-fertilization of flowers, that 
there might seem to be no room for any other suggestion. But 
plants like the Thuja and Abien were anemophilous, and having 
their pollen carried freely by the wind, had no need of these 
*extraordinarv exudations from any point of view connected with 
the visits of insects to flowers. In the case of Thuja, Sach had 
suggested another use : " The pollen-grains which happen to fall on 
the micropyle of the ovules are retained by an exuding drop of fluid, 



192 PftOGEEDINQS OF THS AOADEBCT OF [1883. 

which about this time fills the canal of the mieropjle, bat mfter- 
wanls dries up, and thus draws the captured pollen-grains to th^ 
nucleus, where they immediately emit their pollen-tubes into tbe 
8|)onjjy tissue. In Cupreasineae, Taxinem and Podocarpett thi* 
contrivance is sulllcient, since the mycropyles project outwmrdly; 
in the Ahietinepr^ where they are more concealed among the dcsles 
and bracts, these themselves form, at the time of pollination, 
canals and channels for this purpose, through which the poHen- 
graiuH arrive at the micropyles filled with fluid " (STRASBsaaKa).' 
Mr. Mochan said that in his former observations on liquid exu«ia- 
tions in Thuja and other plants he was inclined to adopt thr 
suggestion of Sach as to the purpose of the liquid snpplv ; bat a* 
it was here in Abies so long after fertilization most have taken 
place, and as it was held up in the deep recesses of the scales of 
the pendent cone, where it could hardly be possible the wind coold 
draw up the pollen: and as, moreover, the extract shows that these 
eminent botanists* believe Abietinest does not need the niot»tare 
they did not know exist eil in this abundance, we must look for 
other rt'asojis, which, however, do not yet seem to be appaivnu 



September 11. 
Mr. Meehan. T ice-President, in the chair. 

Sixteen j^ersons present. 

The death of the Curator-in-charge, Charles F. Parker, on the 

7th in*t., was announced. 

Irntabihtij in the Flotn^rs of Centaurtaf and ThifiU*. — Mr. 
Thomas Meehan calltni attention to some flowers of Tarioos com- 
|H>sitje on the table, sent by Miss Mary E. Powcl, of Newport, 
Khi>«ie Island, who has ol^sened a singular motion in the fl^^npts 
of Centi*»nra Am^rtcxiua. This motion had long been knova 
to ift'rman Knanists. and a rt-ference to some features of it 
mav be found in Sach's Text-Nx^k of Bolanv. and there wa* an 
illustntini i^i^r by Ci>hn in Zei:*chri/t fur irw. Z^>4'.^i^, toL 
xii, showin^: the mechanism of the contraction of the actberk 
As, however, the m«^tion had failed to attract the atlest«oa of 
.American oNs^^n* r?, or at least he knew of no reference to it ia any 
Aravnoan work al !r.s ci^mmjinl. he Nfliere^l it might do c».d 
*4er>i\v to place on TVxv^ri an miependt^nl stateotent of tW p6e- 
noraen^i a> exh;b;:eii ' y :ht^ speoiaien* before a*. 

Be'-'Uit^s the motion :z (.V'Ti-'^i .■|wi<'n--«mtf,oh««rred ^j Mi** 
Powel, Mr. Met bar. ^:i ::.a: Le :<>ucd a similar soooa -^ ihi 
follow ;r.i: \ lar.is ;:-»'W r.^ :: i.- jar*: en . «V^'u*ri?a juJ«i. CVwct^^-a 






1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 193 

nigra, C. ochroleuca, C. rutifolia^ Cirsium serrulatum, C. dis- 
color, and C. lanceolatum. The motion seems most active when 
the anthers are ready to shed their pollen, and, as pollen-gathering 
insects anticipate the observer, it is best to cut the flowers and 
place them in water in a room. Endeavoring to observe the motion 
of Cirsium discolor in the growing plant almost failed from this 
cause, but on drawing a light substance over the whole head, some 
of the florets were found to move. 

In the Centaurea flowers on the table, the best period for 
observing the motion is when the anthers which cover the apex 
of the pistil seem about to allow the pistil to protrude. If then 
touched, the pollen is seen to issue from the mouth of the united 
stamens, and the whole crown of anthers to decline. Cohn, above 
cited, gives the exact measurement of this contraction, and 
explains the mechanism by which the contraction is accomplished. 
At the same time, if the motive power be very active, the whole 
upper portion of the floret, moves in some direction, apparently 
without order or system. Sometimes it is in a lateral direction, 
at other times upwards or downwards, and sometimes describing 
a circle round its own axis. In some cases the motion is commu- 
nicated to other florets — two and sometimes three moving to the 
touch of a single one. In ten minutes after the exhibition of 
irritation, it is ready for another fit, and goes through the motions, 
though less actively than before. Mr. Meehan had failed to get 
any motion three times from the same floret, and not always two. 
Touching the pistil had no effect unless the force was sufficient to 
press one side against the anther. The irritation seemed to be 
confined to the stamens, and through these probably down by their 
nervous connections through the achenium, and in this way com- 
municating with the nerves which run up through neighboring 
achenes to the stamens which they support. 

Since the above communication was made to the Academy, 
Mr. J. H. Redfield believes that the neutral ray florets in Cen- 
taurea Americana, which have neither stamens nor pistil, also 
possess the power of motion, and Miss Powell, without knowledge 
of Mr. Redfield's observation, notes a similar experience. 



September 18. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirty-one persons present. 

The death of John C. Trautwine, a member, was announced. 

Notes on the Sequoia gigantea, — Mr. IJiIeehan remarked that so 
much had been written about the mammoth trees, that there seemed 
little room for more ; but to one of the fullest accounts given, 
namely, that by Mr. Muir in the Proceedings of the Meeting of 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

the American Association for the Advancement of Science, at 
Buffalo, 1870, he l>elieve<1 he might add a few additional facts* 
drawn from or sug^restcd by a visit made to a few of the prove* 
during the past summer. He could confirm the statement of Mr. 
Muir tliat there were eom|)anitively few young plants growing 
among tlie old ones in the Calaveras or Mariposa groves. In the 
latter spot a few might l>e found in awamp^' places. Many of the 
large trees were also growing in swampy ground, while some were 
found where the ground would l)e pronouneed quite dry. Mr. 
Muir gave 5000 feet as about the elevation of the trees in these — 
the northern ])art of the belt occupied by them. On the aontheni 
part of the bilt Mr. Muir found them at al)Out 8000 feet, and there 
numerous young trees formed the great mass of the underjjrowlh, 
and furnished an abundance for a i>erfect succession of forest 
trees. Here Mr. Muir found them in ground not swampy, as well 
as in situations as swampy as possible, and he concludes ttiat tbe 
Sequoia (ji(janten is a tree which has the power of growing in 
dryer and wetter soil than most other spi>cies. He adds : '• It is 
constantly asserted in a vague way, that the Sierra (in past times 
was vastly wetter than now, and that the increasing droath will 
of itself extinguish Sequoia, leaving its ground to other tree« 
supposed c:ipable of tlourishing in a dryer climate. But that 
St'i/uoia can an<l does grow on as dry ground as any of its present 
rivals, is manifest in a thousand places. * Why, then,' it will be 
asked, * is Srquoia always found in greatest abundance in well- 
watered phices where streams nre exceptionally abundant?' Simply 
lK*cause a growth of seijuoins always cn»ates these streams. • • • 
Drain the water, if possible, an<l the trees will remain ; but cut off 
the trees, and the streams will vanish.*^ He has seen a fallen 
trunk make a d:)m of 200 feet long, and similar lH>g^ made by 
ri»ots and fallen trunks damming the earth, are familiar features in 
the more luxuriant setpioia forests. On this luire suggestion .Mr. 
Mnir builds as if it were a demonstnition, and proceeiU to say: 
**Sin(M'tlie 4xtra moisture found in connection with the «len*^r 
growth^ if an effect of their presence, instead of a cause of their 
pn*>ei ee, then notions, ♦ » ♦ based U|>on its sup|>ose«i 
de|K*ndence on greater moisture, are shown to lie ermneous.*' 

In the light of these views, Mr. Meehan paid he had carefully 
examined the trees in the groups scalteretl from the Fresno to 
Calaveras, and could say that in these localities the se<pioias p(k»- 
hesH4'd no more |N>wer of making the ground swampy than any 
oth< r tiee %%tiich might form the leading forests in heavy woofltni 
di*<lricls. The Uwiiv H\nH'\u\vu^ iA* Pnnitt Lamfn^rtiana^Pinutt fMjndrr- 
o.^a.and the lliuk groves of Lifntft'drun — huge, th<»ugh averaging at 
be*^t but twn.t birds the diameter of ttu* mammoth HequoiaH—4lid not 
m:ike the t:rnniit| fuain; y in the slightest degree. Mr. Muir*?* 
supposit.on — foi it surely <*annot be rt'izarded as such a demtm- 
'•ttalion as science re«piires — would give us small swani|m, at 
least, for the smaller trees. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 195 

Experience of forest growths in the eastern states gave abun- 
dance of facts, which were quite sufficient to explain the existing 
state of things, on grounds very different from those assumed by 
Mr. Muir. Oljservers knew that there were trees which loved 
moisture, and trees which preferred dry ground. Swamp-lovers 
would grow in dry places almost as well as in wet ones, but the 
drj-lovers would not grow in wet places. The swamp magnolia, 
swamp willow, swamp azalea, the bald cypress, the swamp maple, 
the sweet gum — every swamp tree that can be named — do just as 
well, and in many cases better, in dry ground. This is so well 
known to every intelligent cultivator of trees, that its correctness 
is beyond dispute. Here in the east, the largest red maples, 
willows, cj'presses, and other swamp trees, are the occasional 
specimens which by accident find themselves on dry ground. On 
the other hand, the dry -land species of pine, oak, maple, and other 
trees, can under no circumstances be made to grow in wet places; 
and, therefore, if Mr. Muir's suggestion that the Sequoia was once 
a dry-land plant, and made the land swampy through its own 
growth, should by any possibility be found correct, it would 
probably be an exceptional case in the vegetable kingdom. It had 
been shown by himself, the speaker said, in past communications 
to the Academ}*, printed in its Proceedings, that trees only grow 
in swamps from a provision of nature that their seeds shall only 
germinate in wet places. It seems like a determination of nature 
that some trees shall grow in swamps, whether they prefer it or 
not. Though these trees grow better and fruit freely in dry 
ground, the trees cannot spread, because there is not the moisture 
required for the seed to grow. 

Mr. Muir mistakes the argument. It is not that sequoias will 
not grow in dry ground, but that the seed will not germinate to 
any extent except under highly humid conditions. Ground need 
not be absolutely wet. The cultivator raises swamp ferns on 
bricks, and the swamp rhododendron is often found on rocky 
ledges, but this is onl}- where a humid atmosphere keeps the seed 
from drying till it grows. The atmospheric humidity at 8000 feet 
would be more likely to help Sequoia at 8000 feet than at 5000. 
In concluding this branch of the topic he said the facts spoke for 
themselves. The seed did not grow now — there were no seed- 
lings — though seeds were abundant. They grew in former times 
or the trees would not exist. There must be some change in the 
conditions necessary to make seeds grow since the forest was 
started. We know from outside observations that seed of swamp- 
loving trees will not grow under arid conditions. We see that 
the Sequoia is a swamp-lover. Is not this getting to as close an 
explanation as science rarely reaches? May we not say that 
Sequoia does not spread because the humid conditions are not as 
they once were when the forests were founded? This was cer- 
tainly his conclusion from the facts as they presented themselves 
to his' observation. 



19f) PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [18S3. 

If this he incontrovertible, it opens up an interesting qaestion 
as to tlie cause of the desiccation in the vicinitj of tbe bif? tree*. 
The ratio of disintegration in a mountain peak, by the frost* rmin*. 
and elements generally, and the descent of the loose mass to tlie 
lower lands by the simple law of gravity alone, would depend 00 
tlie width of the peak, as well as the nature of the materisL Id 
the process of ages, peaks covered with snow would be lowered 
till they were no longer snowcapped in summer, and thus lower 
regions in the vicinity, covered perchance with Sequoia^ would be 
under dryer atmospheric conditions. To a greater or less extent 
this must be the case in all mountain changes, but whether thu 
could have been going on to any appreciable extent in tbe few 
thousand years during which these trees have occupied life spoi« 
is a question for geologists to determine. However, Mr. Muir 
himself gives good reasons for the l)elief that these trees followed 
from the west, eastward ly, in the close wake of retreating glaciers, 
and when the atmos[>heric moisture, as well as that of tbe emrth 
contiguous, must have been more moist than now. 

In regard to the age of the trees, Mr. Meehan said donbts lisd 
been expressed whether the Sequoia might not make more than 
one annuHl cirele of woo<i a year, and thus render the count bj 
these annual circles unsafe. He had given close attention to this 
point on the ground, by measuring the height of thrifty young 
trees, and estimating by the growth per year the proliable age. 
A tree of say thirty, forty or filtv feet, would be aeen to be about 
that many years old. The diameter of the trunk would tben be 
taken and found to correspond with the one annual ring per rear 
in the sections of the larger trees, as per actual count. There 
wouM be no question but the larger trees were over 2000 years oM. 

He found that when about three or four hundred years old, the 
trees ceantMl to increase in height to any appreciable degree, the 
ellV»rt of the tree lM*ing more in a lateral direction, and the nuth- 
tient matter necessary to the buihling up of the trunk was mainly 
the work of the 8i<le branches. The height of one called '* Haver- 
ford/* alter our sister college, he found, by a rough trtangulation, 
to Ik? al)out 249 feel. 



September 25. 

Key. Dr. H. ('. McCooK, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirty-seven persons present. 

The death of A lexis- T. Coi>e, a meml)er, was announced. 

/{t'tifornfinn nf Limhtt in Tarantula, — Rev. Dr. McCoOK re- 
markcil that the tarantula exhibited had l)een kept in conOnemeot 
iirarlv a year, fed during winter on raw l>eef and in summer on 
;;ias->lioppers. In the spring it east its skin, by a laborious 



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198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

where there may have iKjen a reversal of the strata themselre*. 
WJI8 tliere evidence of a reversed |)Osition. Cor res pond in|^ atraU. 
as indicated by the conUiined fossils, had therefore been «(uppcMicd 
to belon^: to the same a^o, althous^h occurring in widely sepaniMd 
repons. This view, for a lon^ time maintained undisturbed hr 
tlie earlier ^eol-.-irists and palaeontologists, had, however, beea 
disHenterl from by Kdwanl Forl)es, Huxley, and other advocatei 
of the doctrine of faiinal dispersion from localized aremit or centres 
of distribution (op|)oiients of indei>endent creation), on the obrioos 
<;round, that faunas starting from a given point of origination 
could only spread by migration, and that such migration must 
consume time, proportional to the distance traveled and the pby^^ 
ical and physiographieal facilities afforded for traveling. Hence 
it was argued that wi<lely separated formations showing an 
equivalent faunal faeies, as, for example, the Silurian of America 
and the Silurian of Europe or ea*«tern Asia, or the Cretaceous of 
£uroi>e and South America, could not be of identical age, and. 
with a fair show of probability, not even approximately so. In 
sup|K)rt of this position it has been urged that dnring the present 
age of the world the faunas of the several continents are wideir 
distinct, and could, under geological conditions, be considered at 
imlicating different zoological geologieal) eras. In conrorroity 
with this view. Professor Huxley had proi)Osed (Anniversary 
Address, (Jeol. Soc, l8r»2. Q. J. Oeol. Soc., xviii, p. xlvi) the term 
^* homouxis," imlicating similarity of arrangement, in place of 
Kvnchronv, to descril>e the relati(ms of distant areas of the same 
formation. 

Pushing his conelusion to what app(*arod to be its Hirthest legit- 
imate point. Professor Huxley dcduce<l therefrom two im|K>rtant 
considerations : 

I. That formations exhibiting the same faunal facics may belong 
to two or more very distinet periods of the geological scale as 
nr>w reeo^r|ii/4Ml :and ronversely, format ions whose faunal elements 
are cpiite distinct, may In? absolutely contem|)oraneous ; f. g.: 
•* Kor anvlhing that geology or paheontology is able to show to 
the contnirx , a Pevonian fauna and flora in the British Islan it 
m:iy have b(M>n contemporaneous with Silurian life in North Amer- 
iea. and with a Carboniferous fauna and flora in Africa '* (/or. eii,\. 

II. Tb.Mt, granting this disparity of age betm*een closely relate*! 
fa'iiia<4, nil evidi-nee as to the unifonnity of physical conditions 
<»ver the surface of the earth during the same geological perioil 
(/. «\, tin* peri^wN of tlu' ireologieal scale), as would ap|K*nr to hp 
indinitfd b\ the similarity of the t*ossil remains Indonging to that 
IM-riod, f:dN tn the trround. ** (Jeographieal province's and zon*^ 
ma\ liMVf iH'eii a«« tli^^iinctly m:irked in the Paheozoic e|HX*h as si 
present, and tlio^r •<*-tMiiin;:l\ sudden apiM»arances of new genera 
and ^pft-it's. uliieh we ascrii»e to new creation, may be simple 
results uf miunition.** 

These views, enunciated by Prof. Huxley, were still largely 



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200 PRCK'EEDINGB OF THE ACADEMY OF [18d-T 

groups of a formation are almost as definitely marked ofT in the 
same order, the world over, as arc tlie formations tbemaelfes. 
After breaks in formations tlieap[)earanreof cliaracterlBtic foMil* 
is larjjel y tlu» same ; whereas, on the theory of synchrontsni of 
distinct faunas, sueh a succession of forms would certainly not be 
constant. After deducing further evidence from the litlioltigii-al 
characters of the rock-masses of the various geological fcnnation§« 
the speaker maintained that the views entertained on the ftulijvct 
by the older geologists wore more probably the correct oue^, 
namelv : that formations characterized bv the aame or ver^- 
nearly related faunas in widely separateil regions belonged, in 
very moderate limits, to approximately the same actual age. and 
were, to all intents and purposes, synchronous or contem- 
l)oraneous. 

Longevity of Trees.— At the meeting of the Botanical Section, 
October 8, Mr. Thomas Meeiian remarked that there was nothing 
phenomenal in the grt>at age of tlie mammoth sequoias, as other 
trees on the Pacilic coast exhibited great age. In ordor toai-cer- 
tain whether more than one annual circle of wood is formed in 
each year, he tested the matter in various ways. For instance, a 
pine or spruce would be found to make an average growth of s 
foot a year up to fifteen years old ; from that to about thirty 
years, nine inches; IVom that on, si^x inches; after that a stage 
was r4*ached where the erect growth ceased to an}* considerate 
extent, and the growth force seemed turne<l toward the lateral 
bniuclies. In the pine f«)rests of the Pacific coast, there was no 
danger of error in fixing the age of the average tree of sixty feet 
hiirh, at about fiftv vears. Wherever such a tree was cut down, 
and an opportunity allorded to count the circles, the}' would l* 
f<iuud to <Mirres]H>ii<l so nearly with the calculated age. as to 
prove tliat it was ipiite safe to assume a single circle for a single 
year. Then then* was a remarkable degree of uniformity in the 
<lianu*t4'r of these annual growths in most trees, so that when 
once w«* had the numU'r of the circular lines to an inch, and the 
diameter of the tree, we could tell its age near enough for general 
purpo**fS. In some pine trees growing on very rich soil, he hail 
found as fow a^ alH>ut four circles to an inch. For instance, a section 
(»f a I'lniiti LtimhtTtiann (in MariiM>sa^ four feet across, had but 
|Hl» rinles: but here the in<*reased size of the trees corres|M>nds 
with the larger annual circles. TrtH»s of this species of pine here 
wfH* not un<*oinm(»n. measuring thirty, and a few thirty-three feet 
around. No matter, howrver. how vigonius nmy be the growth of 
tn*e*» uu'ler fiftv or on»* hundreii y^'ars, they decrease with age«and 
wr niav "^iifrly allow ••jx i iiiijs to an iru»h in these ohler sugar pine*, 
Hhirh \^tnild inakr tin* thirtv-three feet tree 1590 vears old. The 
out«*r LTowf hs of M iiiioia were vi*r\ narn>w. He countetl as manv 
an ri'jhtt-i n to the inch, while the rings in the interior of cros»- 
M-ctiuns i\ould show al>out six to the inch. Allowing twelve as 



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202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADIMT OF [I8S3. 

wholly destroy plants in some instances, roust have an cnervatiofir 
influence where it does not wholly destroy, and this woold 
naturally be exhibited in shortening the life of the tree. 

The climate of Alaska had the same favoring infliiencea ve 
found in Great Britain. The warm sea of Japan flowe<l againft 
its southeastern face, along which the trees referred to were found. 
The atmosphere was always moist, and severe weather almost 
unknown. At Sitka, in lat 57^, as much aa 100 inches of ratn 
had fallen in a single year. The harlK)r was rarely ftt>zen ; boat* 
came in and went out at all times of the year. There were »oaM 
winters when no ice of any consequence was seen. These were 
circumstances favorable to longevit}' in trees. 

Mr. Meehan concluded by remarking that Dr. Lindley had taid 
somewhere that his researches had failed to show that there waii 
any period of duration of life set for any tree, and that if circum- 
stances favored there seemed no reason why trees might not lire 
for an indeflnite i>eriod, and, therefore, arguments otfereil in 
connection with the ^^ wearing out of varieties,^' based on what Is 
called the " natural life of a tree/- had little force. Mr. Me«>han 
believed his observations on the longevity of trees on the Pacifk 
contirmed Dr. Lindley *s views. At any rate, there seemed nothing 
phenomenal in the age of the Sequoia gigantea^ as other species 
partook of similar longevity to a great extent. 

Prof. Angelo Heilprin was elected Curator, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of Charles F. Parker. 



October 9. 

The President, Dr. Leidt, in the chair. 

Thirty -two jx^rsons present. 

The Council reported the appointment of Prof. Angelo Heilprin 
as Actuary to the Curators, or Curator-in-charge. 

Minvralofjiral Xotrn. — Dr. Leidv exhibited a large crj-stal of 
topaz, from Mursinsk, SiU^ria. It in pale blue, with perfe<*l 
termination, and weighs three {younds three ounces. He also 
exhibited large cut H|H*cimen8 of white topaz and rich gi^e<*D 
beryl, which had met with a curious accident. The two, in 
unlocking, ha<l lK*en violently struck together, and the former 
had been broken through the middle so as to exhibit a |)erftH?t 
cleavage. 

()(TonKR ir». 
Mr. Tiios. Mkehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirty-seven persons pn sent. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 203 



October 23. 

Mr. Charles Morris in the chair. 

Six persons present. 

The deaths of Joachim Barrande, Oswald Heer and W. Kowa- 
lewsky, correspondents, were announced. 



October 30. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Forty-five persons present. 

The following were presented for publication : 

^^ Proceedings of the Mineralogical and Geological Section of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, from January 
23, 1882, to November 26, 1883.'^ 

"On the Anatomy of Ancylus lacustris and Ancylus fluviatiiis," 
by Dr. Benj. Sharp. 

"Note on a Collection of Fossils from the Hamilton (Devo- 
nian) Group, of Pike Co., Pa.," by Prof. Angelo Heilprin. 

" Manayunkia speciosa," by Prof. Jos. Leidy. 

"On the Evidences of Glacial Action in Northern New York 
and Canada," by Jos. Willcox. 

"Obituary Notice of Charles F. Parker," by Isaac C. Martindale. 

The death of J. Lawrence Smith, a correspondent, was announced. 
Francis A. Cunningham and S. Mason McCoUin, M. D., were 
elected members. 

Eugene A. Rau, of Bethlehem, Pa., was elected a correspondent, 
Tl^e following were ordered to be published : 



204 PB0CEED1NQ8 OF TIIS AOADEMT OF [1883. 



MAKAYUKKIA tPECIOSA. 
BY PROF. JOS. LK1DT. 

At the time of the <H8COvery of the pretty polyzoan, Umairffa 
ffrnriliH, of wliich a description is now in courHe of piiblicftt ion in 
the Journal of tlie Aca<h>niy, I found an equally interesting little 
anne1ide« of which I gave a brief notice in 1858, published in the 
Proceedings for that year, page 90, under the name of Jiana- 
yinik'in i^perwita. The two were foun<l in company together. 
attache<l to the same 8tonefl,in the Schuylkill River, at Fairnioant, 
Philndelphia. They seem fitting associates, for while UrnaieUa i<« 
nearly relati^i! with the marine PediceUinay Manayunkia is cloitelj 
ri'Iattnl with the marine annelide Fahricia. Manayunhia has 
proviMl to l>c less fK»quent than UrnaieUa^ nor have I foaml it 
elsewhere than in the locality named. Recently, several specimem 
were submitte<l to my examination by our fellow-member, Mr. 
Edward Potts, who found them attached to a fragment of pine> 
Imrk, in Kvrg Harl)or River, New Jersey. Inde|iendent of the 
interest of finding the worm in a new locality, the specimens have 
enabled me to complete an investigation of the animal so far asi to 
preimre the following description, though I have to regret that 
the material has been insuMicient to allow me to clear up several 
imiMirtant |M)ints. I jiave had the opportunity of comparing 
Mnnnijiiukin with a species of Fahricia living on our coast, and 
have found tlie two to Ih» so nearly alike, that I am prepared to 
hear it questioned whether the former should be regarded as 
geiHTieally tlistiuct from the latter. 

Mmutijutdia forms a tuW of mud, which it occupies. The tuW 
is ('om|x>MMl of the finest |>articles,agluttnated by a mucoid secnr> 
tion of tilt* worm. It is cylindrical, straight or lient, mostly even 
or nlit^litlv uneven on the outside, and sometimes ft*eblv annulatt-tl. 
It i*» attaelied |k:irtly along its length to fixe<l objects, with the 
i!n':iter part free, directed downward and pendsnC Most spec»- 
meiij* nbstTxi'd wi'H* ^ingle, but st'veral were found in which two 
nr tiller luU"i wiTt* (M>i)j(»incd. and in t>ne in>tance five tulics with 
iriinin^ of ntluTs i^cri* given off, in a candelabra-like manmr. 
tYoin H foniiiioii strumas npresenled in fig. 2, Plate IX. Frt^m 
tie «*!•« n month of the tuln*. the worm protrudes its hea«1 an^l 
^pu:i<N it?* erown of cilinted tent:icles, in the same manner a« in 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 205 

most tiibicolous annelides. The simple tubes range from two to 
four lines in length by the one-fifth to the one-fourth of a line in 
width. 

Manayunkia is very sensitive, and on disturbance withdraws 
deeply into its tube, so that half the length of the latter may be 
removed before reaching the worm. The little creature clings 
tightly to the inside of its habitation, apparently mainly by 
means of the minute podal hooks of the posterior segments of 
the body. 

The mature worm (fig. 1) is from three to four millimetres in 
length by about one-fourth of a millimetre in breadth, and is 
divided into twelve segments, including the head. The color is 
translucent olive-green, with the cephalic tentacles of a slightly 
brownish hue. As the worm shortens, the segments become more 
bulging laterally and the constrictions deeper ; in elongation, the 
segments become more cylindrical and the constrictions less 
marked. When the worm is elongated, it is of nearly uniform 
width for about three-fourths of the length, and then slightl}'' 
tapers to the end, or is a little widened again in the two segments 
before the last. The head is about as broad as it is long, and is 
surmounted by a pair of lateral lophophores supporting the ten- 
tacles. Its border above projects dorsally into a short rounded 
process. The succeeding four segments of the body are about 
as broad as they are long, and nearly of uniform size ; the next 
one is somewhat longer than those in advance. The seventh 
segment, in all the mature worms observed, greatly exceeded any 
of the others. It was usually twice the length, and differed from 
them in having an abrupt expansion at the fore-pa? t, which sug- 
gested the production of a head prior to division of the worm ; 
a process, however, if it occurs in Manayunkia, I had not the 
opportunity of observing. The succeeding segments, smaller 
than the anterior ones, differ little in size, except the last two. 
The terminal segment abruptly tapers from above its middle in an 
obtusely rounded extremit3\ When the worm protrudes from its 
tube, the lophophores are reflected from the head, and they 
exhibit a double row of tentacles extending forward. The num- 
ber of tentacles varies with the age of the worm, but at maturity 
there are usually eighteen for each lophophore. They are of 
moderate length, and of uniform extent, and measure about half 
a millimetre. Two of them internally, one for each lophophore, 



' ■ • . . ,- .-...-./*. J- I •- ,:o»i##* • :*T JDK. lit*^' 

• , • >' ' * : * ' *■ ^^-^ ••;. ► •'■tfr*-* tiiif?i.ia. ant 3 

■ ,y » * ' • '/' u. ^ -.1/ • - »?# 'f J if.f 111 ' :]!£■ iiM iMtiiiL v.nt<i'7TG*:9 



I* .',»'/* ^-;.'; ;/•'//*- ^ */•.-••. » /ty*. k- »u*»-ii i.<«;5#»^f« with tbe 
,< */ .. ;••/./• V '/f v V/f.v^f. T'^r fci» fr<f^*<T«i directly 
«•,#;'/*.'.•'..'*'*/ /•«*/,'*« f <: t%*'r ffjr^%rl or >«c-kwmr>1. an-l 
. ^- </«'< r« 'f /f < ./ '>f/«' i/t*titt*'f :%ri^i f/y * h« ^ziKr aiTBn^reTDcnt of 
^1. . #1' .»- .ri '/M.* f ' »».#'*//(r'yl<» Tii'- riiim^^r of fjodml *ftif i§ 
If, in i','»t %*, I* It ,n t .o \, f:i«/ ' 1<'. In iM-%*enil matare individtMU 
II.' i,ttiiti,t t* III •!«« '\iih r* iti n*iruit'tiin wer*' UH follows: 8 to lu 
..< I . ,1, III* hixt lo till nittli **!•;( ifi«'rit ; |/i 7 in the three aqc- 
I . t hi.i/ '.!•« • I "I ', ill I III- ti'fiMi, firifl :i or 4 in the la^t segment. 

I Im i I.I , liifn :i. I, iif (III* rinlrrior Hi^^tnonU are longest, and 
I in,.« Im.im Mhiiiii Ifi In vf.'i iiiiii. in lon^tli. They consist of a 
I .11,1 ii><i|ilii iimI. Hilh II lliirnr-liiiit'coliiU) blade tapering into a 

I iil.iiiMhl I'lir mmI \niirH littlr in h*n^th in the ditferent 

..til I. Ill I 111 lilmlr uiii("« (MMi*«i«l«'riilily in thin reMpeet. The 
i.l.nl. I.I iiiMii Ml Unn U-iii I'l Oil! \\\v rcxl, and in longest in the 
I III. 1 1 '»% I ii 

I ««.|ii iln tiinl >iii«l \Uv \\t^\ i«<«ti>:on)nH («ogment», the others 
.«., I i..\( I..I MM t (I li ti«lr ^\itli ?i t'iiHrirU' of |N)daI hookr«« which 
.«.« .Miii% I \«uu »M> U liiti.l tlio U^ttoin of the }H)dal setie. Th^ 
I, K lit I Ml > lit . I l» 1 %i. tr!r in tlio M'ti»:vrvHi* !ie$nnent» fir^m 

»' I I • ts*- »>..■'■»« •»». 'm%!\o, rtiid »rv MTV different fn>ai 

. x\ X 1 I.. ^Vstt'^'tii-* r 'c ^H.»'l*l hvK»k*, fig. 5* of ta* 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 20T 

anterior segments, are about 0*05 to 0*06 mm. long, and consist of 
a long curved handle, ending in a small recurved hook. 

The podal hooks of the posterior three setigerous segments 
form close transverse rows, fig. 6, of variable number, from 9 to 
24 in each row. The hooks are minute, and measure from 0*025 
0*03 mm. long. They consist of a broad handle, ending in a lateral 
comb-like extremity, as represented in figure 7. 

The number of podal setae and podal hooks is more or less 
variable in the corresponding segments of different individuals, 
and frequently also on the two sides of the segments of the same 
individual. The difference is due sometimes to the accidental 
loss of some of the appendages ; sometimes probably to circum- 
stances interfering with their development. In several specimens 
the following differences were observed : 

Specimen 1. 

First segment, 6 and 8 setse. 

Second to fourth segment, inclusive, 8 to 10 setse and 4 to 5 hooks. 

Fifth to eighth segment, inclusive, 6 to 8 setae and 4 to 5 hooks. 

Ninth segment, 6 setse and 9 and 22 hooks. 

Tenth segment, 4 setse and 12 and 18 hooks. 

Eleventh segment, 3 and 4 setae and 12 hooks on each side. 

Specimen 2. 

First segment, 8 setse on each side. 

Second to sixth segment, inclusive, 8 setae and 4 hooks on each 

side. 
Seventh and eighth segments, 6 or 7 setae and 4 hooks, except on 

pne side of the eighth segment, in which another fascicle of 6 

setae substituted the usual fascicle of hooks. 
Ninth segment, 6 setae on each side and 9 and 20 hooks. 
Tenth segment, 4 and 5 setae and 13 and 16 hooks. 
Eleventh segment, 3 and 4 setae and 12 hooks on each side. 

Specimen 3. 

First segment, 8 setae each side. 

Seven succeeding segments, 6 to 10 setae and 3 to 4 hooks each 

side. 
Ninth segment, 7 setae and 24 hooks each side. 
Tenth segment, 3 setae and 18 hooks, but on one side the latter 

were all imperfect, mostly with the comb undeveloped. 
Eleventh segment, 2 setae and 14 hooks each side. 



208 PBOGESDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

In the last specimen the rows of 24 hooks in the ninth segment 
measured 0*08 mm. wide*, the rows of 18 hooks of the tenth seg- 
ment 0*072 mm. wide ; and the rows of 14 hooks of the last segment 
006 mm. wide. The height of the rows corresponding with the 
length of the hooks was 0*025 mm. 

The intestinal canal of Manayunkia is of extreme simplicity, 
consisting of a median tube alternately dilated within the segments 
and contracted in the intervals of the latter, without anv other 
conspicuous division into more distinct portions. The widest 
expansions are within the fourth to the seventh segment, inclusive, 
but are also variable in these. Afterwards the intestine becomes 
narrower to the anus, which opens ventrally in the last segment. 
The mouth is funnel-like, capacious, and without armature of any 
kind. Along the intermediate two-thirds of the canal the walls 
are of a yellowish brown hue. Within the intestine in the seventh 
segment, and within the terminal portion, active ciliary motion was 
observed. The intestine, as usual in other annelidcs, is connected 
by thin diaphragms to the wall of the body-cavit}' in the intervals 
of the segments. The intervals are occupied with liquid with 
multitudes of floating corpuscles. 

The ovaries, with ova in different stages, occupy the fourth to 
the sixth segment inclusive. Within the lower part of the head, 
extending thence into the third segment on each side, there is a 
large elliptical organ, which I have suspected to be the testicle, 
though I did not examine its structure. 

I was greatly puzzled in the attempt to ascertain the arrange- 
ment of the vascular system of Manayunkia^ and am in doubt as 
to the following explanation I give of it. The blood is of a bright 
green color, and in many positions serves clearly to define the 
course of the larger vessels. As represented in figure 1, the 
chief blood-vessels appear to be a large one on each side of the 
intestinal canal, closely following the course of this so as to seem 
to form a green coat to it. In each segment of the body the vessel 
gives off a pair of lateral branches apparently uniting in a loop. 
In the head the two main vessels leave the sides of the intestine, 
and after forming a close fiexure or a sinus at the base of each 
lophophore, proceed onward through the interior of the larger pair 
of tentacles. In viewing the worm in any direction, the two main 
v^essek so constantly appeared at the sides of the intestine, that 
I at first took them for the walls of the latter itself. The eondi- 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 209 

tion I did not comprehend until 1 found an explanation in the 
following paragraph in Claparede's Recherches sur la structure 
des Annelides Sedentaires, Geneva, 1813, page 76 : " M. de Quatre- 
fages has discovered that in certain Serpuliens," to which family 
Fabricia and Manayunkia belong, " thie intestinal canal is enclosed 
in a lacuna or rather a veritable sheath taking the place of a 
dorsal vessel." Claparede adds from his own observations the 
statement " that a number of the sedentary annelides present the 
same peculiarity of having the intestine included in a vascular 
sheath playing the part of a dorsal vessel." In this view the two 
chief vessels, in figure 1, at the sides of the intestine, are to be 
regarded as sections of the vascular sheath enclosing the latter. 
The principal movement observed in the vessels of Manayunkia^ 
consisted in an incessant pumping of blood into those of the two 
larger tentacles alternating with contraction and partial expulsion 
of blood from the same. 

The nervous system of Manayunkia I did not attempt to inves- 
tigate. A well-developed eye occupied the head at the side of the 
gullet. It exhibited a clear vitreous humor in a choroid cup. No 
trace of eyes was to be detected in the terminal segment of the 
body, such as exist in Fabricia, 

In several instances in which I have extracted Manayunkia 
from its tube, a number of young ones, about half a dozen, have 
been liberated, from which it appears that the eggs are laid within 
the tube, there hatched, and the young then retained under the 
care of the parent until sufficiently developed to be able to care 
for themselves. 

Figures 8-13, PI. IX, represent an ovum and a series of 3^oung 
in different stages of development, which were obtained together 
with others in the same condition from three tubes. 

The ovum, fig. 8, about 0*2 mm. long, obtained with several 
similar ones from a tube, exhibits a central mass of large 3'olk- 
cells enclosed by a layer of smaller ones. Fig. 9 represents an 
embryo, which accompanied the former. It was motionless and 
devoid of cilia. The yolk-cells appear to have been resolved 
into a stomachal cavity. The embryo was about the same size 
as the ovum. Fig. 10 represents a more advanced embryo, from 
the same tube. It measured 0*265 mm. in length. The intestine 
indicates a division into eight segments. Fig. 11 is a more 
advanced stage of development of the worm from another tube. 



210 PBOGEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

It measured one-third of a millimetre in length. The bodj'-wall 
and intestine are quite distinct, the latter exhibiting eight seg- 
ments. The tentacular lobes have commenced development. Fig. 
12 represents an individual further developed, from the same tube 
as the former. It measured half a millimetre long. The body is 
distinctly divided into nine segments, of which eight bear a pair 
of setae on each side. The tentacular lobes exhibit each the rudi- 
ments of four tentacles. Eyes also have made their appearance. 
Fig. 13 represents a young worm, from another tube, the only one 
accompanying its parent. It measured 072 mm. long. The body 
is divided into the same number of segments as in the former. 
The tentacular lobes have developed each four tentacles with the 
rudiment of a fifth. Podal hooks could be detected in none of the 
segments except the last, in which there were three comb-hooks on 
each side. Another young individual observed, from another 
tube, about the same size of the preceding, had five tentacles on 
each side, but was otherwise exactly similar. Another individual 
three-fourths of a millimetre long, with five tentacles on each side, 
had one more setigerous segment than in the others. 

The feix'cies of Fahricia to which I referred in the beginning of 
the present communication, and which I examined with particular 
interest on account of the near relationship of Manayunkia to it, 
is the same as that described by Prof. Verrill, as being common 
from New Haven tQ Vineyard Sound and at Gasco Bay (see Report 
on the Sea Fisheries of New England, Washington, 1873, p. 619). 
I first noticed the worm at Newport, Rhode Island, in 1858, and 
found it abundantly at Bass Rocks, Gloucester, Mass., in 1882. 
It occurred on rocks between tides, under a luxuriant growth of 
Fucus ve8iculo8U8, with its tubes projecting from among the mud 
and sand firmly fixed together with multitudes of little mussels 
about the roots of the sea- weed. 

The worm is three or four millimetres long and of a yellowish 
or yellowish brown hue, with more or less reddish. The body is 
compressed cylindrical and slightly tapering behind, and is 
divided into twelve segments, including the head. This is pro- 
longed dorsally in a half elliptical process or upper lip. The 
vertex supports on each side a trifurcate lophophore, each fork 
of which is provided with a double row of narrow cylindrical 
tentacles invested with cilia. 



Jl^ 



1883.] NATURAL 80ISNCE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 211 

The segments succeeding the head are furnished with lateral 
fascicles of podal setae, and, except the first one, are provided 
with fascicles of podal hooks, all of which have the same general 
arrangement. and form as those described in Manayunkia. The 
fascicles of podal setae, from the first to the eighth segments, usu- 
ally contain six or seven setie ; those of the ninth and tenth 
segments, three or four setae ; and those of the eleventh segment 
two or thi*ee setae. The longer setae, figs. 14, 15, resemble those 
of Manayunkia^ consisting of a straight rod with a feather-like 
vane ending in a long point and bent at an obtuse angle from the 
rod. The stouter setae, fig. 16, have the same form, but differ 
in the variably much shorter proportion of the vane. The setae 
range from 0*12 to 0*25 mm. long. 

The first setigerous segment possesses no podal hooks, as in the 
case of Manayunkia, The fascicles in the succeeding segments 
to the fourth contain each eight or nine hooks, and those following 
to the eighth, inclusive, six or seven hooks. The hooks of the 
remaining three segments, as in Manayunkia^ are very different 
from those of the anterior segments, and are arranged in close 
transverse semicircular rows of from 20 to 28 in each row. 

The anterior podal hooks consist of a curved handle ending in 
a short robust hook, like those of Manayunkia^ but differing in 
the hook being furcate, or even divided three or four times on 
the dorsum, as represented in figs. 17, 18. These podal hooks 
usually measure about 0*08 mm. long. 

The posterior podal hooks resemble the corresponding ones of 
Manayunkia as represented in fig. 19. They measure from 0035 
to 0*04 mm. long. 

The intestinal canal of Fabricia has the same simple character 
as that described in Manayunkia. The mouth has a pair of palp- 
like appendages, situated between the lophophores. The vascular 
system appears to exhibit the same arrangement as in Manayunkia^ 
but the blood is of a red color. 

Fabricia is remarkable for being furnished with a pair of eyes 
to the terminal segment of the body as well as to the head. The 
eyes are of simple character, but equally well developed at both 
extremities of the body. They consist of a black pigment cup, 
including a spheroidal vitreous body. In several instances I 
observed a curious variation of the eyes in different individuals 
and t)n the different sides of the same individual. Fig. 20 repre- 



212 PROCEEDINGS or THE ACADEMY OF ''I 



k. 



wnt* tlio n«iial form f»flhe ctrphalic eye. Fi^. 21 and 22 reprr^eiit 
tht' two i've^ of tht' same iD«iividiiAl. the right eye apfiaiivntJT 
<louMe. Yin. 2''i reiires^enU another lioiihle eye, but with tlie leaf 
ilin^cttMl baekwari. Fig. 24 rej»re«ent8 a caudal eye,. 

The IuIk' nf Fahri'ua is com]K>s«><l of exceediogly fine particles 
of quartzost' sand and indefinite particles of mud. 

I obncrvi'd no <i|»ecimt.'ns of this genus, exhibiting the repro- 
ductive organs in the condition usual in mature ones of Jfana- 
yunl'ia. 

In several in«»tances I ol>serve<l a few free eg;rs aod young worms 
of 0*12 mm. in len^'h within tiil»es in company with the pareDt. 
but did not have the op[>ort unity of investigating them. 

Mduniriiikiri mainly differs trom Fabricia in having a |:«ir of 
simple or undivided tentacular lophophores instead of ha%'iii^ 
them trilobate: in the posses'iion of an inner pair of larger ten- 
tacles whi<'h n-ceive a c(»ntinuation of the main trunks of the 
vaM iilar system ; and in having no eyes to the terminal segment 
of the IkxIv. 

EXPLANATION OF THE FIGURES OP PLATE IX. 

Fio. 1. Manatcnkia BPScrosA. Maguilled about 50 diametenL The 

wonn iu the onliiiary conditioD of exteDsioOf with its tentacles 

hprvad. 
Fig. *2. A Htock of tive tubeA. Maj^nified about 4 diametarm. 
Kiu. 3. One uf the longer ixMlal »eUi) from the second setiger^ins legmeot 

oi the body. <U)0 diaioeters. 
Fiu. 4. < Hw of the shorter |Kxlal i^eta*, from the same. 606 dianieters. 
Fi(i. r». A ]Mxlal hook, from the same. 660 diameters. 
Fio. *». A row of ]mm1:i1 b<M>ks, from the last segment of the body. 290 

(liameterH. 
Fio. 7. A i»odal hook from the same row. <MK) diameteia. 
Kiu. H-i:t. Kj;;; and ditTeieut degreeH of dovelopmeut of the youug of 

yfauiiyuukii. 100 diameters. 
Fin. 1 4-1*1. PiKhil setif of /''i^riViW Ltidyii, Verrill. 500 diameters. 
Kio. 17, H. INMlal h(H)kH of anterior MegnuMits. 500 diameters. 
Kiu. 11^ INxlal ho<*k of iHtHtertor se«;ment. 6<M) diameters. 
Kio. 20-'i4. Eyes of Fabriciti. 250 diameteis. 
Fio. 20. A rephalic eye of the usual form. 

Kio. 21. 2'J. Kijht and left cephalic eyes of the same iudiWdual. 
Kio. 2;<. A <iouhle cephalic eye. 
Kio. 24. A i-audal eye. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 



HOTS 09 A COLLECTION OF FOSSILS FBOM THE HA1CILT09 (DEVOHIAH) 

OEOUP OF PIKE CO., PA. 

BY PROP. ANOELO HEILPRIN. 

Among a small collection of invertebrate fossils obtained from 
the Hamilton rocks of the vicinity of Dingman's Ferry, Pike Co., 
by Drs. E. C. Hine and J. Holt of this city, and now in their 
possession, 1 have been able to identify the following species 
and genera. Most of these are probably not new to the State, 
but inasmuch as the paloeontology of Pennsylvania has been but 
very imperfectly (indeed, one might say, not at all) worked up, 
and the fossils there occurring, although known in some part to 
amateur collectors, but very sparingly recorded, it has appeared 
to the writer that the publication of the present list, as well as of 
others of a similar character to follow, may not prove entirely use- 
less, tending toward a more complete knowledge of the extinct 
fauna of the State. 

ACTINOZOA. 

Heliophyllum Haiti. 

MOLLUSCA. 

Fenestella^ sp. indet. Aviculopecten duplicatusf or 
Crania Hamiltonix. A, scabridus f 

Spiri/er mucronatus, Limoptera macroptera, 

Spirifer granuli/erua. Paracyclas lirata. 

Spiri/er viedialiaf Grammysia bisulcata. 

StreptorhynchuH Chemungensis, Orthoceras (impression). 

Orthis, sp. indet. Nautilus or Ooniaiites (septal 
Chonetes, sp. seiigera f lines too imperfectly preserved 

for generic determination). 

Crustacea. 

Phacops bufoj a complete specimen and several tail-pieces. 
Homalonotua Dekayi^ several well-preserved fragments unqucE- 
tionabl}' belouging to this species. 

Crinoid stems or impressions belonging to several distinct 
species are common in the rock-masses. It may be noted that 
Prof. I. C. White, during his survey of Pike and Monroe counties, 
was unable to discover any traces of trilobites in the rocks of this 
series. '* Not a single specimen of a Trilobite was observed in all 
this thickness of rock at the many localities where it is exposed 
for observation within the district" (Second Geological Survey of 
Pennsylvania, Report of Progress, G 6, p. 112, 1881). 



1:4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADBMT OT [1^91 



09 THE AHATOHT OF AHCTLU8 PLITYIATILIS O. P. M&IIm- AR 

AHCTLU8 LACUSTEIf Geoffroy. 

BY BENJAMIN SHARP, M. D., PH. D. 

This pai>er first was written in German, and served a« 

Iniuijiiiral dissertation for the Philosophical (acaltr at tbe Tni- 

YtTHity of Wiirzburg, in Bavaria. In rewriting it I hare inerrir 

omitted a few unimportant details, and made one or two »lifkt 

rhnnges. 

Introduction. 

The position of these little animals in the system of cimasifiea- 
tion was long a subject of dispute. At first they were placed by 
Llnna'U«^^ in the genus PateUa, but in the same year (1T<T» 
Ocoffroy* formi*d an es|>ec'ial genus for them, which he called 
Anr yluf, on account of the resemblance of the shell to a PhrjreaD 
cap ^ '^ '' '.•^•). 

The s|H-cimi'ns o{ fluviatiUs^ which I had for examinatioii. wrre 
o'r^tA'.ntrii in the Main near Wiirzburg, and in a branch of the siiae 
!:,*-ir Grmundon — the only place in which the other species coold 
t.«k Lh : wa> in a small {>ond near Aschatfenburg. 

Tr.r wurk was carrietl on in the laboratory of Prof. C. Semper, 
k: Wurr-'Urg. and 1 here take the op|K>rtunity of expre««iD|f my 
!> ij.'kTk thanks to him for his kindlv advice and assistance. 

I\ruf'i:»c plac^-d this genus, in IS3T, among the Polmonata, to 
wL •. oritT it undoubto\lly l^longs. 

M .*. ^::'-Taii*lon - b^-lieveii that AnryluM was amphibiaD in its 
:;L*> > 1 !•.• no: U-lii-vt- that the animal under nataral aad hralthT 
■ ■: 2.: -I.* evrr aj-pn^aches tht* surfai-e of the water. Hr say«: 
• I* ••r '.I- aLinia! ^rx^lt!le frw air or that air distf^Tcd in water** 
1 rr..^>2i. * >aM («>sit:vrly that the animal was comprikd to c<>me 
V. tr •. •urfi -r t'» brra:!.e. L. Airassix.* Depay, and others, were 
'jf : • ^^zijK y \ .n • r.. T» jruve lh:<. Mc^^uin-Tandoii* 
f • .. w : z rx:-tr:mt-nts : — 



:-.:^iji-K >?<. Na:-. :>".:. 

X •, . r^TiLL-i -n. ilcvhrr A^:AU•3:.>>•-J«t.J>4^i. Far I 
>*r-.M.k.:. :►• : c A-* : H.<- N*:.. T.oe ■., !«*. 



l**"' «ATia4L » IKV U iM9 niliA08MTA. il5 



! 7 t.at n> -1 A'i f!.f ariitii«l« fi<tin<J tb# iicc«l nf i «fai:ti^ to tbr 

• urf»r« V- ^rrathr. au t that mahi ftlAttvl at tbr Uitttiui itf tb« 

J T:.«! f!.« iH«*l 'f » r 'li I ti* t •«« m %rr\ •trinik?. a* tin % ramr 

I' \*. •rrtairi vuA \, lual* rnuaiiw**! in t(i« iip|«r I** rti**ti of 
tl«< f I 1 

4 T' \l nian\ «rti! fti\\ |.artialU i»iit f»f llir «atrr 

l!.»i ••!{■• r« '.. f^. *. '.i m%irr riiiir»i\. ('lit rrniairi«i| in th«* 
t«i ^•' *- f ♦*■•. \ ..f ji 

T ..t •« fti.'t *'\U*t f« t« •*.••« tttat thri lirv^atlic a;r ati*l arr nut 

■ 

«A!a r Ml lilt!* I >.r1f.« r • r. f.t m%\ • 

I ^•%ri. fttiiTi.ftU »irt I !*.•-! n t«!l • li«ni|«t;T»r-yIfttt«« «. «btcb 
«t ri * i.i -1 « th ■»!• r .ti !^ fl- ri.i 1 lit- ttf thr i;U»« ■ \* \ 'h«««l a 
|*«r* ! t; fttt t'>it !)i« Bt;.tua!« ••Mill not roQtr t«t tbr •i.rf**'* . fbr 

«»*■- ^•■»r«• r. « •• .! I frt«-:\ • r< ^ilalr. Tlic animal* ',.\f\ tUrvr 

lift I • s*. « *. f't( ! ri.r t^• 1 *r f* t»ki n iMit 

•' T:.ri« ifi l.« tti;a.« ««rv |<jatn| in !*■ ril mm **( ««!! «alrr, 

• r t *. * • •• ! n • I • It! \ t .,;(it l.i>\ir« 

> \ I •- , I •• f« |'.*i'««l ft XKtw^ Amy in "£'* .■• »?.«! *»0 
f -. i:.n; ■ f r.vir «»t«r a«l r^ ri.» ii«<l Ii%in|* af»il ••^mr Iri-i^itrtl 

■ • * ■ 

T • lk«t ffi|«r.n.rri^ ^cm* !•• }■? %r ttiat tbr% ar« n H Atn|>hib> 
:■ ■■• 

t ■..»'• ••ft«ut;^i!^ '.!«r «an»r t t^vTtnirOta «ltb tbr •«»»€ rr«ult«, 
a; I '.r*:.ir fn'.b 1 t.*.a! « S« ti tt.« I*. « i «rf« plami m • |uafta, 
T. • . ! !.t rr « «• ft. fit. :.^ m «*• r t£«« \ n« irf camr t-< tin surfacr . 

.' • . 1 * '. *..< « i*« r • «• r». ! f'« •?., tl.c* winiM ini kr:a* i^ • ••»• 
:■!•.. ..ff..* f •.:.« •»•.■• 1 '.:. rA. tbffrfitrr. t;^: *> r A| i^nnt 
kn;j . »■. lift .*.• »rr 1 .« t-» XL* f %« t t£*at tbr vat«r «a* r.<>'. «ufB- 

• « ;.' I %'fftla'l r?' '•&'}« t!.c t %.f^ *'t AiK-b ni|ifl vl'-a'h ;i) the* 
ita ' «. *.« ** tu'.* \- %\ "rM ( !»cr«l m tbr «rtl watrr «^» tW 

J f« »• • * • f • & tniAi (» fv^ bta|^ i»f air 

1 « . ' r*t '. \kf ^ !^c *!;»*.' tilt •■f t«>tb •|«nr« :n i^rnffil. ami 

!»♦. • * v.r I •*€ r* ' • • 'wt^t^ti tbrm aa<l tbrn c-'r.^ilcr Xhrn 

J I -Ttit n . f I*.* f» 1 . » 

i < I'-w f 1 a! . -t.» •■» tf c i>«Mi<u« atatrm 

5 Tt»c aftat-*m% of tbr cutfvtorT Mffymft. 



21 c, proceed] n08 of the acade3ft of [1883. 

General Anatomy. 

In the following description I will flrat consider the mnatomj of 
A, fturiatiliA as a Imsis, for the anatomy of this is toleral»lv well 
known from tin* papers of Carl Vogtj ' and Moquin-Tandon.' The 
Hrnt p»|Hr in Hhort and incomplete, containing at the same time 
many niiHtakes, while the latter, unfortunately, is without pbtca. 
On A. hiciistriM no pajM»r has aw yet np|)eared, as far as I know. 

The nhfU of A. flnviatilxH is much larger than that of A. lams- 
trU. Ill both Hpccies the form is that of a depressed cone and of 
a dirtv hrown color. In A. fiuinatiliH it is said ^ that the shell t« 
woun«l to the left. I have never as vet seen a shell of A, fiuria- 
tUin which whh in the least unsymmetrical, for the apex of all the 
HiM*rinu*nH that I have examined lay in the median line, only rolled 
a litth' bMckwnrdrt. 

In A. Inrustris^ however, the apex of the shell is wound slightly 
to tht> ri^ht, and this character has l)een considereil sufllcienl to 
place this form in a separate genus, that of Acroloxun i Beck, 
IHIH), or VrUitia (Gray, 1840), which, however, is not generally 
accepted. 

The opening of the shell {ajyertura) is oval in both species; id 
A. incustris, however, it is a much longer oval than in A.^Huna- 

The shrll contains such a quantity of conchyolin, that if it be 
thro\^n intft an acid and led there until ail the carbonate of lime 
Ik» dissolvcil away, tlie organic fnimework of conchyolin remains 
perfect and the form unchanged. 

If a piece of this U» placed umler the microscope a large number 
of the *iilicetuis cases of diatomes are seen. This la ca#ilr 
explMinetl : tlie iliatomcs art* found in large quantities on the 
t>l»ieet*i on which the Annjli are founil, and as they arc so small, 
thev can easilv pnss N'twcen the mantle and the shell and then 
N»eome cox ered by a layer of mother-of-j>earl or nacre which i» 
sei*retetl bv the external surface of the mantle and by which the 
shell ♦^niW'* in thickness. This pnH*ess of imbiilding diatomes in 
natun i** "•iinilar to that etfectetl artificially by the Chinese, when 
thev place their little leaden iiuajies l>elween the mantle an^i the 



' li«'!noTku »!>:<*» »il>or den U.*u \\ct A'trj/lus ittjrittQis. ArchiT (hr 

' Kr**!M*i an At. j»h\!«^.ol. ji, TAncxle, etc. 

• V , i lAUN iir\;ii«ii i^:*' d. ZiK»K»^if?, Mai burg, 1^80-82, 



1 in: « 



« t • 



:• . % 



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r •: 



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. ■ » J. i- • ■ ' fc i .. • ^^ !•'... ' » 4 
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k •■ . •■ \- . -4 I c • *,■ • h- '* .' ' * ■• 

■•• •. '• „• I.f ■ •••I f 

• • • •■ ' • *?■■■ !•••• ♦• * ''•■■.•», 

t f .-■^•j»i«*r. ' ' \ ••:• • ••• *:■ • 

1 - . • ' • • . * k ■ k . ■ . ' \ '■ • 

• • I ••« ,"'•?'':•.*•• ■«- 



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i;J> fk'xxti'iisot or th« acaicmt ow ':«£ 



'J 'J •••'.»• v'vM-rv* .; Mo'j'- L,-Tt lid •-»!»* «Jit€r§ that b<- ii»'T tt^^*^ 

* 

o'.iM-Mf-i !!.♦; u!. Hit! '•r*-*-;.' !.-^' or ♦'Wiu-Uiiug on tlnr eurfkr* '/ Ui? 

'I i.« ^^« '! * ♦" 'if tv r-jh! > fij^tA-ij*^ u> the bodv l*r m mu^-'if 
i*h.'f;. ••- ii!r«vi K- •*. j»8i^«<»-»' j«^rj*erj'JiculArlv from ibt- *L«-L i»- 

lli< f'vt ♦'.« fc.''.«'j' :,f,'j f!'..'yr of tJj*r viw^rml caiitr r€*f** t Tr'j 
itj ♦;.« f;;/'if«- ' r; X. f^::. 1; i««r Li%e a <:ro*^-*e''tion of tbr- ai^iBi.' 
a^>-/^t t'ji f.' ''JIi. 'ifsinrj i« tL a camerm luci'la. JUii to wL.^h I 
li.'iN* :i'i'i« 'j tJi* lifi«'>» f. whi'h r»-i;r4r->*rfit a cn>»»-«ectJon of lb*- *bfil 
'I hi- I«'p* r*- m ' r. j/r« Ki fjt th*' lutj-^^nhw cochlearis. which roTrn 
tli«' tiA^n I A llj»' fool : 7 m :ir<- tij«- tran-vfrwe fibre*. Tbt- I'^ofv 
tii'l.i,ail |jhr<u ar<- not r«'pn."MrijU-«l. a- thev are transver'^lT cat 

Ih ilj« fii«j»''ijlijh /.r^/'hU-uri** of tlie l«fft side in *-i. fluHatiU^ and 
oil 111* ii;.'lii «/f A. Iff uftrif n raviiy i>* found in which the h^mrt 
ift fci»ij;ai'J. Tlii- walU of thJH cavity form the pericardiiim. 

7'A' [fill. Ill ih«- Hj,ar-«f Uftwifii the frxH and the mantle in A. 
Jim tttlilii> nil \\\i* \i'U Hirh* is found a tiroad, leaf-iik4» fold of tb< 
ihh f/iinH lit. ih«' ^'ill. ThiH fohl or jrill rearhoJ* down ah far a* the 
h/Hi I ImipIii <;f thi- iiianlU*. In thr fij^urv (PL X, fl^. 1) the jrill 
(/ ir» r«|iri>< nil d on tfifrii^ht nidt* of the nection, although n-allj 
on the hr't lidi- of the anitnnl, and we miiAt imagine that we are 
looUiii^' Ml th«- animal from tin* front. The gill is oni.»-thinJ af 
loll/ an the wholi* animal and Mrs in the middle third of tb« 
liodv. In IIh' lixin^ animal it in of a ligliUT color than the sar- 
i«»un*lin)/ ti^*«n«H and tlic snrfacr of it is smooth. Althoii;;h tbe 
^ill of ,1. ItnuhfriH is mi tin- ri^ht side of the animal, it?* relaii^f 
|iM^iHi»n \H tlir'Nanu* as in A. jluriatilis. The 8|)ace l»etween the 
foot an<l tlir mantir, into which thr j^ill hangs, ma\' be calleti the 
liiaiithial < hamlnT. 

I l>ihr\r that the or;;an xxhich M(M|nin-Tandon ' 8|>eak9 of a» 
the lolir aniitornir in what 1 |)ivfer to call ttie gill. It i^ phy«:o> 
lou'h .»ll\ onr. an \\r will hri'^riitlN see. 

Tin- whoU- "•nrfarr of thr ^ill i^ ooxered with ciliated epithohum. 
Mhd tilt' uiti'inal pait i^ fornnd of cutis, eonsisting of ]*>**** 
I onni\ti\r ti^Nju' tilMr«» whieh rnn in all directions and l»ctwe*D 

■ M.inii.il »•! >lulU, vx\. II. 1H40. 
U.^Imi .mat plixNjo!. V r.Vnoylf, etc., p. SV 
lu'clu'i auak \ li>su«l. tk. TAncyle, etc., p. 12. 



1883.] • NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 219 

which the blood-spaces (lacunae) are found. A long continuous 
one runs the whole length of the inferior border of the gill, and is 
in connection with the mantle-vein. The nuclei of the connective- 
tissue fibres are very distinct ; the rectum passes perpendicularly 
through the tissues of the middle of the gill, and opens at the 
-anus, situated on the external surface. 

Several organs open into the branchial chamber ; in the middle 
of the external surface of the gill, as said, opens the anus. In 
A. la custris, when the gill is on the right side the rectum and anus 
also are oiji that side. Close behind the base of the left tentacle in 
A.Jluviatilis,\8 found the male genital pore or opening, and close 
behind this the female ; as with the anus, these openings are on 
the right side of A, lacustris; in A. fiuviatilis^ on the internal 
surface of the left mantle, is found the minute opening of the 
excretory organ, the kidney, which lies embedded in the tissues of 
the mantle ; in A, lacustris the kidney is on the right side ; thus 
we see that four organs open into the branchial chamber, the $ 
and 9 genital openings, the anus, and the kidney. 

The alimentary canal, — The mouth, which opens on the inferior 
surface of the body, is surrounded by three lips ; the two anterior 
lips are placed together so that they form an inverted V (A); the 
open part of the V is closed by the under lip, which is the extreme 
anterior end of the sole of the foot. 

The mouth leads into a small tube, which passes perpendicularly 
upwards, opening on the floor of the buccal mass ( Plate X, fig. 2 wi). 
About half-wa}' between the mouth and the buccal mass is situated 
the horseshoe-shaped jaw, which is placed in the anterior wall of 
the tube. The jaw consists of a single membrane of conchyolin, 
upon which are situated numerous little teeth or denticles. 
Moquin-Tandon says, however, that ^^ Ancylus possesses three 
jaws, disposed as those in Limnaeus — a transverse one above, and 
two vertical ones on the sides, * * * the borders of which 
are formed of a series of little denticles."* I do not find this to 
be exactly the case, but agree with Keferstein, who says : *• In 
Ancylus we see, instead of the simple jaw, a large number of long 
pieces, which are tolerably symmetrically arranged, and encircle 



' L*Ancyle possede trois machoires, disposees comme celles des Limnees, 
une transversale, en haut et deux verlicle, 8ur le cotes * * * celles des 
bords forment comme une serie de petites denticules : Reche. auat. 
physiol. 8. 1'Ancyle, etc., p. 16. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

the upper (anterior) side of the cavity of the mouth."* These 
long pieces are the denticles. 

The buccal mass, which is of a spheroidal form, lies in the head, 
between the two tentacles. Immediately over the mouth is found 
the opening of the oesophagus, and in the middle between these 
two openings projects the tongue, which is covered by the radula. 
The odontophore is in Ancylus exceptionally long, and reaches 
from the buccal mass to the middle of the body. The opening of 
the odontophore lies in the superior part of the buccal mass : the 
first part of the odontophore itself lies sunken in a groove of the 
buccal mass, so that seen from the side it appears to spring from 
the posterior wall. 

The diagramatic figure (PI. X, fig. 2) represents a longitudinal 
section of the odontophore (od), which opens into the spheroidaL 
buccal mass. In the figure the odontophore is relatively much. -^ 
shorter than it is in realit}'. 

After the odontophore leaves the buccal mass it passes back — 'z 
wards, lying directly under the oesophagus and parallel with it;^ • 
then it passes in A. Jluviatilis to the right, and in A. lacustris too^^ 
the left side. The esophagus and odontophore are at the positioners 
of insertion in the buccal mass, separated from one another by^< 
the commissure of the buccal ganglia. Soon after leaving this^x. 
commissure the odontophore passes to the side and then upwardas fz 
and over the oesophagus, so that in the latter part of its course its'! 
lies above it. 

The alimentary' canal has in both species nearly the same form, JXi 
except that the windings are different. The (esophagus arises intxl 
the middle of the superior and anterior angle of the buccal mass^^' 
directl}' over the position where the mouth enters from below (Pl-1^ 
X, fig. 2 06). 

The salivary glands cpen by a very short duct into the oesoph — rf 
agus, immediately behind the position of its exit from the buccal !-» 
mass. These glands arc two in number, and lie on the side of the ^^ 
oesophagus. 

The stomach is of a good size and spheroidal in form, the walls ^ 
are thick and muscular. It is embedded in the liver, which lies ^ 



' Bei Ancylvs sehcn wir an die Stclle der einfachen Eiefera ein grosse 
Menge kleiiier liinglicher Stiicke treten, welche ziemlich Bymmetrisch 
angeordiiet, die Oberseite der Mundhohle umgurteD. Broun*8 Klass. u. 
Old. d. Thierreichs, Bd. iii, 2 Abth., 186^-1866, p. IIW. 




1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 221 

beneath, behind &iid,m A, Jluviatilis^ on the right side; the left 
side being covered by the albuminous gland. In A, lacustris the 
relation is onl^^ reversed, so that the liver lies on the left side of 
the stomach and the albuminous gland on the right. 

The intestine passes from the stomach at about the middle of 
its superior wall and then passes into the liver, forming a loop, 
which is clearly visible when the shell is removed in A.fiuviatilis^ 
but difficult to be seen in A. lacustris. After a few turns it passes 
to the left side of A. Jiumatilis and to the right in A, lucustris, 
and proceeds downwards, entering the gill and opening on the 
external surface of the same. 

I will here call attention to a peculiar ring of long cylindrical 
epithelial cells which lies in the walls of the rectum in A.Jluviatili.s. 
It is in the middle of that part of the re( turn which lies in the gill. 
These cells are ciliated, as are indeed the epithelial cells of the 
whole intestine. 

The physiological significance of the cells forming the ring I 
have in no way been able to determine. 

In both specites the liver is large and fills up the greater part of 
the body-cavity. It consists of a number of follicles ; each follicle 
is formed of an external tunica propria and an internal layer of 
large cells. These cells secrete the bile, which is led into the 
intestine, close behind its exit from the stomach, by means of 
three ciliated ducts. 

The vascular system, — As the vascular system of Ancylus 
differs so little from that of mollusca in general, it is not neces- 
sary to go into details. The heart, which is an arterial one, is 
formed of two parts, an auricle and a ventricle. In A, fiuviatilis 
it lies on the left side of the body above the gill and in advance 
of the rectum. The auricle, the smaller of the two parts, is 
divided from the ventricle by a contraction, and at this point a 
valve is found opening into the ventricle. From the end of the 
ventricle arises the aorta, which soon divides into two branches ; 
one of these passes to the head {Arteria cephalica) and the other 
supplies the viscera. These two branches divide into smaller ones, 
and finally open into the body-cavity, where the}'- pour out their 
blood. The blood, which can freely circulate in this cavity, is 
collected into the lacunae of the foot which open in the floor of 
the body-cavity. One of these lacunae, which can almost receive 
the name of vein, passes from the foot into the mantle and becomes 




222 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

connected with another large lacuna, the mantle-vein, which lies 
above the tubular part of the kidne3^ It then sends a branch 
downwards into the gill, and after passing through this, again 
becomes joined to the mantle-vein, so that both pass into the 
auricle together. 

The heart lies in a closed sack, the pericardium, on the external 
walls of which it is fastened (PI. X, fig. 3 Ht). The external wall 
of the pericardium is only separated from the shell by the mantle, 
while the other parts lie in contact with the musculus cochlearis. 
The wall of the pericardium consists of a tunica of connective 
tissue, in which, here and there, the nuclei can be distinctly seen. 
The lobe auriforme of Moquin-Tandon ^ is intimately' connected 
with the vascular sj'stem, and seems to aerate the blood, and 
physiologically is a gill. 

The generative organs. — Ancylus, as is well-known, is her- 
maphroditic. The hermaphroditic gland or ovitestis, in which 
sperma as well as ova are formed, lies in the superior and posterior 
part of tlie body, immediately below the apex of the shell. In 
A, fluviatilis it lies in the median line, while in A. lacustris^ where 
the apex of the shell is wound to the right, the ovitestis also is 
on the right side of the median. 

When the shell is removed from the animal, the ovitestis is 
easily seen by its having a much lighter color than the sur- 
rounding parts. 

The larger part of the genitals in A. jftuviaiilis is on the left 
side of the body, and in A. lacustris on the right side. Stephanoff^ 
believes that albumen is secreted by the epithelial cells of the ovi- 
testis. I cannot indorse this belief, as I never observed albumen 
in the ovitestis, and, further, there is a well-developed albumen- 
secreting gland present which opens into the oviduct. This 
albuminous gland has been described by C. Yogt * and Moquin- 
Tandon.* 

I do not consider it necessary to enter into a detailed account 
of the genitals, as they have been completely described by 



^ Recher. anat. physiol. s. PAncyle, etc., p. 12. 

*^ Ueber d. Geschlechtsorgane u. Entwickl. v. Ancylus fluviatilis. Mem. 
de TAcad. d. Science d. St. Petersbourg, Tome X, No. 8, 1866, p. 2, 
^ Bemerk. ii. d. Bau d. Ancylus fluv., etc. 
* Recher. anat. physiol. s. TAncyle, etc., p. 540^ 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 223 

Moquin-Tandon ^ ; suffice to say that Stephanoff,' in his descrip- 
tion of these organs, made many blunders, and at the same time 
did not seem to have known of the existence of Moquin-Tandon 's 
work. 

I. — The Formation of the Radula. 

The radula is formed in the odontophore. This consists of four 
parts, which can be best understood by a reference to the figures. 
Fig. 4o (PI. X) represents a horizontal section through the 
posterior portion of the odontophore. Fig. 4 b (PL X) is a trans- 
verse section of the same. Both figures serve to illustrate the 
four parts making up the odontophore. 

First, we have to distinguish the tongue-papilla (PI. X, fig. 
iac), which fills up the interior of the odontophore; this is 
surrounded, as is seen in the drawing, by the radula (r). Ex- 
ternal to the radula is the epithelium of the radula. If we make 
a transverse section through the odontophore (fig. 4 6), we find 
that the radula (r) has the form of the letter TJ, and consequently 
does not entirely surround the papilla, while the epithelium of 
the radula (s) encircles its external surface. At the open part of 
the letter U, where the radula is wanting, the epithelium passes 
gradually into the papilla. 

The line x in the transverse section (fig. 4 6, PI. X) represents 
the position of the horizontal section (fig. 4 a). 

The only part not mentioned now is the fourth and most impor- 
tant of all. I propose to describe it in Helix aperta^ as the parts 
in this form arc larger and more distinct than in Ancylus, 

Fig. 5 (PI. X) represents the posterior part of the odontophore, 
drawn by a camera lucida. It represents that part of the odon- 
tophore which is enclosed by the bracket (a) in fig. 4 a. 

In the drawing we see at that point where the tongue-papilla 
coalesces with the epithelium of the radula, five large, sharply 
defined cells (i, 2^ 3, 4 ^^^^ ^)i which I propose calling the matrix 
of the radula — thus differing from other writers on the subject, 
who have not seen these cells, and who call the matrix that part 
to which I have given the name of tongue-papilla. 

Before I pass to the formation of the radula I will first take up 
the histology of the separate parts of the odontophore in Helix 
aperta. 



* Recher. anat. physiol. s. PAncyle, etc., p. 337. 
' U. d. Geschlectsorg. u. d. Entwick. von Anc, etc. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1^*1 

As has already Wen de»criJ>ed l»y Semper,' the toDg-ue-fMif-iHi 
eorisiKts of two layers. The internal layer is fortne«l of I«.<rte 
coimec'tive tissue, the fibres of which run in ever^' <]irei:li«»n. ao-i 
in which can Ix* clistinctl}' seen the large fusiform nuclei; iDO*t aX 
these nuclei are bipolar, although here and there a tri|»ohir ooe 
can he seen. 

The external layer of the tongue-papilla is made up of cellf 
which )>ossess a huge nucleus, and the cell-wall, if s«.*en at alL 
is very faintly evident ; this layer st^ems more to be a h'^'CD'*- 
geneous uia^^s of protoplasm, in which are eml)e<lded larjje infnil«rn 
of nuclei ; here and there fine lines may be seen, which may I* 
regarded as the cell-walls (IM. X, fig. 5m). This layer corner in 
close contact with the radula and its teeth. The axes of thes^'^^val 
nuclei seen) to Wave a definite direction. In the posterior {•art 
tlu'V are all directed to the point where the radula begins, whil< 
those further forward l>econie perpendicular to the radula \\M\t ■ 

When the object is well stained the difference between the* 
two parts of the tongue-papilla is distinctly seen ; the 1«k>*< 
internal part l>eing of a light color, while the external f^ait, rich 
in nuclei, takes a very dark shade. 

In AnrijluM the demarkation between these two |iarti» is not so 
pronounce<l as in Helix. The peripheral part of the tongue-[vapilli« 
rich in nuclei, passes gradually into the loose, pale, internal part 
(PI. X,fig. ba). 

The epithelium of the radula, « (IM. X, fig. f)), is compose«l of i 
single layer of long <ylin<lrical epithelial cells, with well-Jefine*! 
nuclei an<l distinct cell-walls. These cells are much longer at the 
posterior part of this layer, i. e., at the ix)int where tliey lie in 
contact w ith the matrix of the radula, than those nearer the month. 
The larger <ells rest obli(juely on the tunica and i>ara!lel ti» the 
large c»*ll8 of the matrix ; as they lK?come shorter they InHrome 
more and more perpendicular, as is seen in the figure (PL X,t\g.o iti. 
The nu«lei are small, although with a high i>ower they can bi' dis- 
tinctly seen. When thus examined they have the same ^enenl 
apjMarance of nuclei, and are placed in that i)art of t!ie ivll 
nearest to the tunica. 

Hitween thcM* long cylin<lrical cells of the epithelium of the 
radula and tiie |)osterior part of the odontophore are seen tire 

/•iin ffiueni Hau der M(»lluKken-Zunge. Zeitachr. f. wisa. Zool., Rd. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PFnLADELPHIA. 226 

very large cylindrical celh (PL X, fig. 5, 1^ 2^ 5, 4 and 5), to 
which I have given the name of matrix. iWhen a horizontal 
section is examined these cells are very striking and easily dis- 
tinguished by their having a much lighter color than the sur- 
rounding parts ; each one of these five cells has a peculiar and 
characteristic form. The cell marked 1 stands obliquely to the 
tunica, and that end farthest from the tunica is rounded or dome- 
shaped ; all the other of these five cells, with the exception of 4» 
are pointed at the corresponding extremity, and also placed 
obliquely to the tunica. In 4. this condition is reversed, the 
pointed extremity being nearest to, but not touching, the tunica. 
The blunt end of this cell is in contact with the radula, and the 
point is inserted between cells S and 5. 

The protoplasm of these five cells of the matrix is quite clear, 
taking only a slight reddish tinge with borax (Grenadier's) car- 
mine. There is not the slightest trace of a granulated structure 
to be found. The nuclei of these cells are very large and oval in 
form ; their size is about twice that of the nuclei that are found 
in the neighboring tongue-papilla (PI. X, fig. 5 m). The structure 
of these nuclei differs somewhat among themselves ; some contain 
only one nucleolus, in others it is more or less broken up, and 
others still have a granular appearance. 

The cells i, 2 and 3 form the basal membrane (PI. X, B. M,) 
and cell 4 the bases of the teeth. The convex end of cell 1 
secretes a mass of conchy olin, which is the beginning of the basal 
membrane. The posterior part of this membrane, namely, that 
part which lies against cell 1 in the figure (fig. 5), has the appear- 
ance of a hook, the point of which lies between cells 1 and 5, just 
overlapping the tip of the point of 2, These three cells are those 
which take part in the formation of the basal membrane of the 
radula, the cell 3 forming the upper, and cell 1 the lower face of 
this so-called hook, and cell 2 probably adds a little to the point. 
This hook-like appearance is only present in longitudinal sections. 
In reality, naturally, this part of the basal membrane is not a 
hook, but a sharp edge, which is curled over and fits into a groove 
formed by two rows of cells ; cells like cell 1 (fig. 5) forming the 
anterior, and cells like cell 2 forming the posterior wall. 

The formation of the teeth is carried on by the cell marked 4. 
This is triangular in shape with the base abutting the posterior 
lace of the tooth, d (PI. X, fig. 5). I believe that this cell 4 is 



226 PROCEEDINOS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

formed by division from cell J, and dies when the tooth is fuUj 
formed, and the remains of this cell are carried forward between 
the teeth as the radiila advances. This can be the only way, for 
if the cell remained living and continued to secrete conch3'olin 
instead of a series of teeth, we would have simply a solid layer 
foimed on the top of the basal membrane. By a continuous 
secretion of the cells 1 and 5, the basal membrane moves or is 
pushed forward, and thus carries the tooth {d) along with it ; after 
this has proceeded for a short distance (viz., the distance of the 
space between the teeth), a new cell, which has been formed from 
cell 5, is ready to commence secreting again, and a new tooth or 
transverse row of teeth begins to form, and thus the process con- 
tinues. 

The caps of the teeth are shaded darkly in the figure (PI. X, 
fig. 5), and are formed after the base of this is completed 
by cell i. The caps are formed by the cells that make up the 
external la3'er of the tongue-papilla. If the preparation has been 
colore<l with picro- or borax-carmine the basal membrane and 
bases of the teeth do not color, or only take a slight tinge, while 
the caps of the teeth are colored darkly. This shows, I should 
think, that the basal membrane with the bases of the teeth and 
the caps are of two different formations. 

The covering of the odontophore, which may be called the 
sheath, consists of two layers. The internal, c' (PI. X, fig. 5), 
which is made up of a simple laj^er of connective-tissue cells, 
passes directly into the internal or loose part of the tongue- 
papilla (/?), and it seems that this layer is merely a continuation 
of this part of the papilla. The external layer of the oheath, 
which covers the whole of the odontophore and is continuous 
witii that which covers the buccal mass, consists of a more com- 
pact layer of connective-tissue fibres, in which, as in the internal 
layer, distinct nuclei may be seen. 

In the odontophore the teeth of the radula are directed back- 
ward. The radula passes from the posterior part of the odonto- 
phore and extends to the opening in the buccal mass, over the 
tongue, where it makes a bend and returns on the under surface of 
the tongue ; the teeth are placed reverse to those on the upper 
surface, which are directed backwards, while those on the under 
surface are directed forwards. In fig. 2 (PI. X), I have given a 
diagramatical longitudinal section of the buccal mass and the 




1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 227 

odontophore, in order to show the direction of the teeth on the 
radula (r). The arrow (c) in the same diagram shows the direction 
in which the radula moves when the animal is rasping the food. 

As regards the disappearance of the worn-out and useless teeth, 
Semper says : " There are only two ways possible, since the view 
that each tooth continually grows is not to be considered at all. 
Once we thought, as did Troschel, Clapar^de and others, that the 
radula gradually moved forward, and that the forward teeth that 
were worn out were thus gradually replaced ; or there must be a 
periodical shedding of the radula. This latter view seems to me 
the most natural."* 

Above it was shown that the epithelium of the radula had no 
connection whatever with the formation of the radula. On the 
other hand it was observed that the radula as well as the teeth, o, 
b, c, d, etc. (PL X, fig. 5), with the exception of the caps, grew 
from behind, that is, from the cells of the matrix 1-5 (PI. X, 
fig. 5). 

From this we see that the radula grows at the posterior end of 
the odontophore and must gradually be shoved forward, and that 
the teeth that are used up at the mouth are gradually being replaced 
from behind. The view of a renewal of the radula by a periodical 
shedding, as Semper thought most probable, is consequently 
excluded. In many sagittal sections it is easy to see the anterior 
part of the radula breaking away at the point, x (PI. X, fig. 2). 
At this point separate teeth and parts of the radula could be seen, 
and tiiey would have been cast out at the mouth. 

Trinchese ' gives in his paper on Spurilla Neapolitana a short 
notice on the development of the radula in this species. He 
speaks of from five to seven cells which go to form the teeth, and 
also the cells forming the layer which I have called the epithe- 



^ *'Hier sind nur zwei Fallu nioglich, da die Annahme, dass jeder Zahn 
fortwahrenil waclise, nicht weiter zu beriicksichtigcn ist. Eiumal konDte 
man nun annehmen, dass, wie es auch TroscLel, Claparede u. A. thuD, 
die Reibmembran allmahlig vorrucke und dadurcb sowohl die vordein 
unta.uglichen ZoLhne ersetzt wiirdeD, als auch eine Orossenzuuahme der 
Zahne eimoglicht sei, oder man miisste eine von Zeit zu Zcit stattfindende 
Hautung annehmen ; die letzten Annahme scheint mir die natiirlichste." 
Zum fein. Bau d. Molluskenzuugo. p. 277. 

' Anat. e fisiol. della Spurilla Neapolitana, Estrat. d. Serie III, Tomo 
IX, d. Mem. dell' Acad, delle Scienze dell' lustituto di Bologna, 2 Febbriao 
1878. 



Ik. 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEJCT OF [ISSS. 



liiirri of tlie rarltila. Tliefte cells do not fomn the basal nieni>*i 
(WrccUy. It iH formH from the many-layered epithelium of the 
radiiln. It is not formed, jih one would suppose, by a ciiticalar 
»e^-n'tion of the cells, hut at the cost of the cells thenifiielvt^. The 
upjM'r JMyeiK of the e)>ithelium of the radula coalesce, nnd thus 
form tin* hasnl mt*mbrane. In this manner the epithelium gmdo- 
ally clecnasiH in thickness as it passes forward. Trinche<»e ^ayt, 
re^anlin;^ the formation of the radula, that : "The 8U|K'rior part 
of the hody of each shell is divided into many small rods, which 
are wry small at first an<l which gra<lually lengthen as tbey pro- 
ceed downwanls. These small ro<ls are the denticles. The inferior 
part of the cell, which takes no part in the formation of the t^^ioth, 
forms with the Kimil.ir part of the neighboring cell, the tooth-mast 
or the true Inxly of the tooth. Finally the boundar}* lietween the 
different <ells disa|)|)ears. The nuclei of the tooth-forminff cells 
whi(!h remain undtT the tooth undergo clivision and give origin to 
a wry coin|):ict layer of nuclei, which Iwcome more and more 
p<iiiit('d as the tooth is shoved forward, are gra^lually formed 
in the matrix. When the teeth are so far protruded from the 
sheath (o<lontophore), the inferior part of the tooth forms, by 
means of the layer of nuclei, a very resisting cuticle. This cuticle 
thickt'us as the tooth advances, while the nuclei or cell-la ver 
gradually <limiuiHh in thickness.** * 

Tin* little ro<ls that he spraks of are not to l)e found in Ilelir 
njirrtd. As the form of the tongue and the radula is as different 
in I/rhs, and further as the tongue-papilla, in the true sense of 



' " La parte Mi|K'ri(in* del cor|M» di o^iii cellular si divide in taiiti piccoli 
h»Ntoiu*clli, i i|uuli, nioltti etisti in prinoipio, si allungano man mano nianxaii- 
dtwi \riN<* i) nurleo il tpiali viiMie spinto in has80 : qucftti bantoncelli 9000 
I (hMitini. I.a iMMT.iuno inferiore ddhi cclhila die non prende parti alia 
ri>rnia/i<»no t\v[ tlcntini, roncorrc colla lorzioue omolo^a delle cellule Tictne 
A fdinian* il c(ir]Mi del dento. In thie il limit«> dellc divenie cellule ncoiii^ 
paiiM't* «'d 11 dentt) e c<»^'I forniuto. 1 nuclei delle cellule «*doatO|petM 
liniHKti M>tt<) il dento, si Ke^mentano dnnno originead uno atratodi nuclei 
niolt«i K)H>*^Mi, il quale ^i va aNM>tti^lian<l() a Kcciindachc ildente vicne »pinio 
in a\anti da^li altii rhi M I'onnans via via nella matrice. Quaiid€> i denti 
fuino |K'r UM-iie ilalla ^uain:i, in comineia a formami sotte di i^%u |ter 
r atturt:i <1«>11«» Miattt nurleaie, una enticola niolto rpftittente, la «|uale U 
tlHMimtlMlainontc ^ul mar^^ine ilella mtolla. Quenta cuticola,a necooda cbe 
il dente m npin^e in avanti, diriMie semprv piii s| H;wa , roentre lo rtrmto 
iM>tt«Mante m ttMK>ttif;lia e ni esauriiv. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 229 

the term, is wanting in Spurilla, it is hardly to be supposed that 
the formation of the radula is exactly the same. 

The cells of the matrix lie, in his figure (Tab. YIII, fig. 2 6), 
behind one another, and only the most anterior one comes in 
contact with the tooth and takes part in its formation. As is 
easily seen, these relations are very different from the state of 
affairs in Helix. 

Riicker,^ who does not seem to have known of the paper by 
Trinchese, calls these teeth the ontoginous teeth. He shows five 
cells to be present, but not arranged in ffelix pomaiia as I have 
found to be the case with H, aperta. His cell a takes the place 
of my 4 and J. Over his cell d is formed thefuture tooth. Then 
"the part of the cell that lies on cell d, the future hook, is raised- 
from its bed, and the tooth passes through the arc of a quadrant 
in order to assume the normal position." ^ 

How or by what means the tooth is raised he does not say. I 
believe, however, that, as I have shown, the death of cell 4 (PI* 
X, fig, 5), after the tooth is formed, is a much more plausible 
explanation. 

II. — Observations on the Nervous System. 

The nervous system of Ancylus Jiuviatilis was first described 
by C. Vogt, in 1841, while that of A, lacustris^ as far as I know, 
has never yet been especially described. It is, however, formed 
on the same plan as that of the former species ; the difference in 
the two being merely one of position. Vogt described the oesoph- 
ageal ring in the following manner : The oesophageal ring con- 
sists of two superior, two lateral, and one inferior ganglia.^ This 
description is not correct. The part was better described by 
Moquin-Tandon ^ in the 3'ear 1852. 

Moquin-Tandon * found that the oesophageal ring consisted of 
seven ganglia: two superior, which he called the cerebral ganglia 

^ Ueber die Bildung. der Radula bei Helix pomatia. Besond. Abdruck 
au8 d. xxii. Bericht d. Oberh. Ges. f. Natur- und Heilkunde, 1883. 

' Dann ** bebt sich der Zelle d aufliegende Theil der Zahner, der 
zukunftige Hakeu desselben von seiner Uiiterlage ab, der Zahn beginnt 
eine vierteldielunf?, um allmahlig aus der iibergekippten in die nomaler 
StelluDg iiberzugebeu.'' Ueb. d. Bildung d. Radula, etc., p. 217. 

' **Der &)chluDdriDg besteht aus zwei obem, zwei seitlichen und einem 
antem Knoten." Bemerk. u. d. Bau d. Ancylus, etc., p. 29. 

* Recher. anat. pbysiol. s. TAncyle, etc., p. 129, et seq. 




230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [18S3- 

(g, ct'rebroideH)^ and five inferior (g, sous-cesophagiens). Of these 
lattiT, two lie laterally {g, siijyerieurff), and two lie below the 
a'sophagus (g. antcro-inferieurs.) The fifth is an odd one, iind is 
placed between the lateral and the inferior ganglion of the left 
siJe, and was called the supplementary ganglion {g. nuppUmen- 
taire). 

The lateral ganglia are now generally known as the pleural or 
visceral ganglia, and the inferior the pedal ganglia. In A, iacus^ 
tn's the supplementary ganglion lies between the visceral and 
pedal ganglion of the right side. The reason of this difference of 
position of the supplementary ganglion is probably that in A. 
Jltiviatilis the genitals, which are in i)art supplied by this gan- 
glion, lie on the left side ; while in the other form, where the 
genitals are on the riglit side, the supplementary ganglion is also 
on that side. 

Further, Moquin-Tandon ' speaks of two small gani^lia, which 
are joined by counecfivrs^ with the cerebral ganglia, and which 
he ci\lls the buccal ganglia. 

According to Moquin-Tandon, then, the nervous system of 
Anrtjlus consists of nine ganglia. There exist, however, o'her 
ganglia, whith Mocpiin-Tandon did not find. Two of these lie in 
the tissue of thr left mantle of A. Jiiiriatilix and in the right of 
A. larustris. The other two form a pair, and lie in the cephalic 
l)ortion, at the base of the teutiicles, near the |>osition of the eye*. 

First we will con>ider the two ganglia that are situateil in the 
substance of the rnantlo. Tlu'y lie in the upper part of the same 
U'tweiu onv (jf the windings of the kidney and the rausculos 
coehharis. Thesr two ganglia are best seen in a horizontal sectioti, 
TIh'V are very small, so that it would be hardly possible to 
drinonstrate their existence by dissection. They are connected 
bv a bundle of nerve-tibri's ; besides this, there comes a bundle of 
nerve-fibrt's fri)m the Ixxly to the posterior of these two ganglia. 
Although I was unable to demonstrate the connection of this 

' Uecher. anat. ph\>iol. s. rAncyle, etc., p. 120, et teq, 
' I UM_' the expression '' confi^rfirt/' employed by Lacase-Duthierv (Da 
S\st«-iiH' Nerveiix d. Mollus. gastrop. pulmoii. a4)uat. etc. Arehi%'. d. 
i^Mtlo^ic K\p. et (nil.. Tome i, 1><72', for thoHC bundles of Derve>Abrrft 
wlnrli join ^an;;lia of the same side, in op(M>ftitiou to the term ** commit 
0>/rf," >%hicli is only employed todenote tKoftc nerve -flbrefi that join gan^UA 
uf oppo^ite »ides. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 231 

posterior ganglion with the oesophageal ring, I have no doubt of 
the existence of such a connection. 

We will first consider the anterior and largest of these two 
ganglia. From the form, position and structure I conclude that 
this is the so-called ganglion olfactorium. The existence of this 
ganglion was first pointed out by Lacaze-Duthiers ^ in the Pulmo- 
nata, but he did not suspect it to be the organ of smell. He sup- 
posed it to be the ganglion that provided for respiration, and at 
the same time regulated the large quantity of mucus which is 
secreted in the region of the respiratory orifice, the moment the 
animal is irritated at this point. Spengel,^ in his researches on 
this organ in the Prosobranchia, believed it to be the seat of smell, 
and gave it the name of the ganglion olfactorium. 

In Ancylus this ganglion lies on that side of the mantle which 
forms the external wall of the branchial chamber, and almost at 
the highest point of the chamber, namely, where the gill and 
mantle join. 

The ganglion consists of cells with larger nuclei which are so 
large that they almost fill out the whole cell. The^e nuclei take 
a dark color when stained in picro-carmine, and are filled with a 
large number of fine granules. No nucleolus was to be seen. The 
whole ganglion is enveloped in a fine tunica, made up of connec- 
tive tissue, which is continuous with the tunica that covers the 
bundle of nerve-fibres connecting the two ganglia. 

The form of this ganglion olfactorium is in general spherical. At 
that point where it comes in contact with the internal surface of 
the mantle we find an invagination (PI. X, t%. 6 inf.)^ so that 
the whole ganglion has a cup-like form. This invagination I call 
the infundibulum, because it has the form of a funnel. The 
walls of the infundibulum are lined with cylindrical, cilated 
epithelium, which seems to be identical to that which covers the 
inner surface of the mantle, save that the cells and cilia of the 
infundibulum seem to be a little longer than those of the mantle. 

The cells stand perpendicular to the internal surface of the 
infundibulum, and are separated from the cells of the ganglia by 
an almost imperceptible tunica of very fine connective tissue. I 
was unable to determine positively whether there was direct nervous 



* Du Syst. New d. Moll, gast., etc. 

''' Die Geruchsorgane und das Nervensystem der MoUusken. Zeitschr. 
f. wiss. Zoologie, Bd. xxxv, 1881. 



232 PROCEEDINGS OF TUE ACADEMY OF [lr?5. 

coinu'ctinn lu'tweon the cells of thi» iiiruiulibulum and the gangViou 
cells, altli<)ii;;li one undoubtedly ext^tH. 

TIm- nervt' whifh connects tliese two pmglia consists of imndleJ 
fibres which an* connected with the poles of the ganglion c*.*!!*. It 
takis little or no color with picro-i^armine, and is quite pale when 
compand with the surroundin<; tissues. 

Thr posterior and smaller of these two ganglia I am inclintil to 
belie\f i** the supra-intestinal ganglion, which, acroriling to 
Spen^i'i,' iirs in connection with the ganglion olfac tori urn. Jt i# 
about onr-half the size of this latter ganglion, and lies in tb* 
sanir plane with it, so that a horizontal section through one takM 
in thr oth»'r. On one side it lies in contiict with the anterior wall 
of tlu* pnicardiuin ; on the other it touches the internal |x>rtionof 
the same part of the kidney which touches the internal |K>rtioD of 
the gMuplion olfactoriuni. 

This jianjxlion receives a branch from the Ixnly, which is the one 
probabl\ connrrting it with the u'sophageal ring. It sends alM a 
branch posteriorly. 

The form and structure of this ganglion are similar to that of 
the iranclinn olfai torium, save that there is no funnel-like invagina- 
tion. This i:an*:lion has all the points that characterize the supra- 
intestinal «:ani;lion : fir>t, a branch which connects it with the 
pKnral «>r \isceial ganjjlion : secondly, a branch that connectA it 
with the aUlominal ganj^lion, ami thinlly, a connection with the 
gauijlion oltarttuium. 

7'.' .'f ..'i' utiir 'jit'njiHi. — Besitles the ganglia already de-criheil 
a> Ulonii.ni: to the centred nerxous system, together with tb* 
gan;:lii»n «»iraeti^rium. there is a i»air of ganglia which d»> n*A 
)»«b«ni: t" the t antral nervous system pn>j>er. and may l^e oon- 
sidi reii a-* !m lontriui: to the jHTipheral nervous system. The*« 
^.Hni:i.;i l.:t\e alnatlv been j><»inted out by P. H. Sarasin.' as 
« xi'^t 11;: ;:\ the tVe**h-water Tulmonata. Sarasin agrtnr* wiih 
Lae;i/i lMi:hi« r>.^ thai this pair of gaujilia are homologous to 
thi'M found \u tlie end ^4 the tenli^eles «»f Hth'x. They an* mIo- 
.nt<si ! 1 : .:,.l \\iK ]»>»iti<>n of the »\e. and in close contact with the 



•p « 'i ... l.'».»'i: .-. li NciA«'n*\*.i A Mo!!.. <to. 
l> I . ** . :M-^.-;v;t. I ..:<.. ,::i- Kiiv's:: .m- e;iiij:€r («Af4r }aoden. JkrWxt 

.».,»' .n V .' '■ ." ^ •* •::. 1:.«':.; ;.. A .iwl-.-.rj:. P>ii. m, l^Sit- 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPmA. 233 

epidermis. When the eyes are retracted (for the^' can be retracted 
in these animals) they lie close to this pair of ganglia. 

In A, Jluviaiilis the eyes and ganglia are seen in the same trans- 
verse sections (PI. X, fig. 8). This is not the ease in A. lacustris^ 
as the ganglia lie a little posterior to the retracted eyes. Each 
ganglion of this pair lies at the base of a tentacle, and each is ovoid 
in shape, the longer axis being antero-posteriorly situated. They 
are covered with a fine tunica of connective tissue. The nerve 
that supplies them comes from the cerebral ganglia and enters this 
ganglion on its inner surface. The nerve-cells which make up the 
ganglia are in every respect similar to those already described for 
other ganglia. 

The tissue of the ganglia is pierced by a bundle of muscular 
fibres (PL X, fig. 7 rm), which comes from the buccal mass, 
pierces each ganglion and is inserted in that p:»rt of the epidermis 
which is covered by the ganglion. This muscle was not observed 
by Sarasin.* When this muscle contracts, the epidermis, together 
with the ganglion, is drawn inward. 

The figures 7 and 8 (PI. X) represent two transverse sections 
through the ganglion of the left side of J. jiumatilis. In fig. 7 
we see this most anterior of the two sections representing the 
retractor muscle. Fig. 8 shows tlie relation of the ganglion to 
the eye. In these two sections we see that the ganglion has a 
deep groove on its external surface, so that in fig. 7 we have a 
figure somewhat resembling that of the ganglion olfaetorium (PI. 
X, fig. 6 Qo). 

This groove, /(PI. X, fig. 7), is caused by the contraction of 
the retractor muscle. This groove was always present in sections. 

In the figure 7, the nerve (n) which comes from the cerebral 
ganglion is seen entering the ganglion in question. At that i)oint 
where the ganglion comes in contact with the cells of the epider- 
mis (p), they seem to be somewhat longer than those surrounding 
this part. When the surface of tliis part is viewed from the exterior 
a pale patch is seen, which is made up of these lengthened epi- 
dermal cells. The external surface of these cells is covered with 
cilia which are a trifle longer than those found on the adjoining 
epithelium. Sarasin^ considers this pair of ganglia as a special 
organ of sense ; I am inclined to believe that we have here an 



* Drei Sinnesorgane, etc. 

* Ueber drei Sinnesorgane, etc. 
16 



234 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMT OF [IS^ 

organ similar to tlio si<]e liiir. or side organ, tlmt has been found 
in the annolidoH hy Kisig * and M<»yer.^ The ganglioD olfaetorinm 
may Ik* one of a pair whicli w(»uld represent another segment, tb« 
mate of wliieli has Iteen lost by the distnrlianre of tht* bilateral 
symmetry. This so-ealled ganglion olfaetoiinm is paired in tb« 
lowest (iastropoda, as VatvUn, I/iiliotiH, ete., when the bilateral »»> ni- 
metry is not as distnrlKMl as in the hiirher forms of GoHtrofMHU. 

The onjati o/* (nurh, — Moipi n-Tandon makes the follt»winj 
olistTvation : *' Ancyhm does not possess an es|>eeial organ of t«»iich. 
Tht* foot, which is large, flexible and ca]iAble of >K*iiig exacth 
applied U^ solid iNMlirs. and embraces tlirm in part, it in tnie. 
ri'reivrs :ind transmits tr.iet le impressions, but the animal rari'ly 
uses it for this purpose. 

'* Uiainville ha^^ )>ro\ed that the tentaeles of the QastropOila 
never servt* as organs of touch, in spite of their itvnsibility; lie 
has mcrdv confirmed the opinion (»f many earlier naturalist!*. 

f 

** This is not th4> case wit!i the anterior part of the heaii. vith 
wliicii the mollusk at times touches different txvUes with the 
ap]iearrince of smelling them. 1 have si*en two imlivitliiaU. which 
were about to copulate, which had the air of feeling ami caressing 
themselves with the mouth.'*" 

Mo«|ui n-Tandon was wrong when he said that no es|)ecial organ 
of toucii wa*^ ])rcHent in Atniflim^ for 1 have fonnd one with<»ut 
any ilillicuby. It is probable that Moipiin-Tambm was unable t4> 
tind it.asli(>did not mnkeany sections of the animal. Ais wonbl W 
xuppoHiMl from tiie citation, tlie organ lies in the anterior |)art of 

^ I)ie Si>itenor^:it e iind UTherruiiiii^e Orgaoo dvr Capitellideu. Mit 
thril. :i.<I. Z«hi1. Strit. zu \oain*!, n<l. i, 1S7S». 

- Yswr An;itoiiiie ntid llistolotrio voii l**tlf/opthtilmu$ pirtu$. (lap., Arrliit 
t\ Miro.Mop. AiKit., Mil. x\i. is*^i. 

•* I/Aii' \\v lie |iosm'm1o pas (rnr^amt s)i<Vial i>«ur lo toufher actire. ?ua 
Iiicil, i|iii vM lai^e. Muiple ct KUM-eptihle do H*a|>]»H<|UCM exactcment c«mtrv 
lo-* « «ii I s Mil ills iiH-iiie i\v les t'iidiras>ei- en pnrtie i»tfut, il ent vrai, recc^tnr 
vi ti.iii>tiirttie <Ie iin|>it's>ioii.s ti:irtih's mixin raiiimal remploie nnvmenl • 

*' H);iiiivi11e -i |iioii\t' quo \vs tcDtaclesdi^s^^nsti-op den lie nonraient jamai* 
■i rt'\i>li»iatioii <hi tart, iiiali:!/ li'ur MMi.sitiilitt'* ; il n*a fait «|iie cHmAnprr 
1 ••|iiMii»ii il«> ]i1iiHtfurs ntii'h'n'« iiatnralistfH. II iront iia» «1e menie da 
I li.il-4i>iii «'i till in>>iitlt>. liwr ]f>4|iii'] Ir M*»nuiM|M«* touelie «|ueli|iiefiH» let 
ilivMo *'*\\'- tt M-rnli'i- ii'^ il.uxrr j'.ii oii d<iUX indiviiluii dl»|aijir • 
« .t« • •tii|'.i ), i|iii a\.ih-iii i'.oi lit' M* |i.il|iri ct de M* rarn*iwer avec la buucbe." 
- Ki • 111 I . aiiat. }'li\>ii*l. >. 1' An('\l(% 1 1«* , )>. I'lt . 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 235 

the upper lip, exactly in that part which, according to Moquin- 
Tandon, was used for feeling. 

The position and presence of this organ can best be demon- 
strated in longitudinal sections of A. lacustris (PL X, fig. 9), as 
in this species it is better developed than in A, fiuviatilis. 

This organ is made up of a certain number of specialized 
epithelial cells, which are connected with the cerebral ganglion by 
fine nerves ; there are two organs which make a pair, and form a 
patch on each side of the median line of the upper lip, and each 
is connected with the cerebral ganglion of its own side. 

The cells which make up this organ differ principally from the 
surrounding epidermal cells in their great size (PI. X, fig. 9 6-c). 
These specialized cells are not all ot the same size, those in the 
centre of the patch being the longer ; and as we approach the 
periphery, they grow smaller and smaller, until they pass imper- 
ceptibly into the surrounding epidermis. This can be seen in the 
drawing (PI. X, fig. 9), which represents a longitudinal section 
through the upper lip of A. lacustris. 

The external or free surface of these cells is covered with long 
cilia, which thus differ from the cilia of the surrounding epithe- 
lium. The nuclei of these C3'lindrical cells differ from those 
found in the neighboring epithelium in form as well as in size. 
When the object is colored in picro-carmine, the nuclei take a deep 
color, and stand out sharply from the rest of the cell. Although 
these nuclei are somewhat different among themselves, they are, in 
general, fusiform. In this respect they differ from the regular, 
oval-shaped nuclei of the epidermis. Some of these nuclei appear 
bent, while others are straight. In fig. 9 (PI. X) we see that 
some of the nuclei are pointed onl}' at one end, and others at the 
other, while only one is pointed at both. In reality, all the nuclei 
are pointed at both ends, and the reason that they are not so in 
the drawing is that the nuclei have been cut in two, the knife not 
happening to pass from one point to the other, but to have taken 
an oblique course. In consequence of this, some represent the 
one half, and others the other half, of the nucleus. The bending of 
the nuclei is due, I believe, to action of the re-agents used in 
preparing the specimen. 

The substance of the nuclei is granular, as the other epidermal 
nuclei, and I could not find the existence of a nucleolus. 
The nerve-endings, which enter the cells of this organ, are the 



236 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1*% 

terminal branches of that nerve which arises in the cerebri 
ganglia, and are distributed to this region of the head. Tbej 
enter, as near as I could determine, the posterior end of tlie cell. 
and become joined to the posterior end of the niurleiw. TV 
opposite point of the nucleus approaches the free surface of the 
cell, and probably is connected in some way with the cilia (PI. X. 
fig. 9 a). In this figure, the muscular and connectivc-tisftue fibre* 
are intentionally omitted, as it would be difHcult to distingui^ik 
the nerve-fibres, were they drawn in. 

The other organs of special sense in -^nry/w« are 80 little different 
from those in other Pulmonata, that I do not consider it necejiaarr 
to give a descrii)tion of them here. 

III. — The Anatomy ok the Excretory Oroan. 

As yet, no one has com[)letely descrilKjd the excretory or^^n of 
j7}Cijhtit. This organ has only been known in part, and tIcscribetJ 
under various names. (\ Vogt,' in the year 1841, 8|K)ke of an 
organ inibedtled in the mantle which he called th<> " 8ulphtir.\ellow 
body " (Schwefelgelber Ko*ri)er), and supposed that the so-called 
reticulated |K)rtion was the lung. 

Mo(|uin-T:indon also considered this organ an organ of renpin- 
tion, jiihI said : *' The breathing organ of Ancylun is neither a tiihr 
nor an external gill, it is an internal pouch. I am coiivin<*ed of 
this, after numerous dissections. This pouch is small, oblon£. 
straight and situated in th(> left side of the mollusk, towanl tbe 
lK)rder of the mantle. an<l in advance of the ret»tum."* 

Hiainville^ is of tin' same opinion, and considers that the orific* 
of this res[)iratory organ is closed by an opercular appends^ 
(a{»pen<liee opereulaire). This a]>i>endage is what 1 have shows 
to be the gill. 

Mo(|uiii-Tandon adds that the orifice is very small. He further 
siM'aks of a glan<l that surrounds the heart, concerning which 
ho »»ays: " Th*' |M'rieardial gland surrounds the heart and Xht 
breathinir <»rLran,aH is the <ase with most (last rop<Hla ; it occupie* 

' H«n»«*ik. 11. d. liau d. Aiicylus, et<*., p. 2H. 

• //"r'j.un ri nj'u-iifnirt i\v V AncyU n'i'Ht, ni un tul)e traoliviform, ni not 
luainliu- e\t«-itu' ; e'rs. in e jMMlie interieutv ; je ni'rn suiii aivttrr, tL^frt 
<!*• i»«>iiiliif utes di>s««'tioMs, tt'tt«' jMH^lu' est iwlit, oblongue, etrutt, ei »itort 
a la p.iitic (:an«-he du M4>llus<|uo vcrH 1e l><>rd du inanteau, en avaot da 
riTtuin. UecluT. anat. physiol. s. IWiicyh*, etc, p. 123. 

Manurl (1(* muhu-ologie et de eoiuliylogie. Pariii 1825, p. SOi. 



1883.] NATUBAL SGIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 237 

the left and posterior part of the pulmobranehial pouch, and 
extends transversely and expands behind the auricle and the 
ventricle. Its color is yellowish, and opens without doubt at the 
Bide of the respiratory orifice."^ He says further on : " The peri- 
cardial gland produces a very large amount of mucus, I have 
never found calcareous granules in it ; these I have only found in 
the thick part of the mantle, principally near the margin ; they 
were very large, a little irregular and transparent."* Although I 
have diligentlj'^ searched for the reticulated part described by C. 
Yogt, I have been unable to find it. It appears to me that he 
had reference to what I have called the sacular part of the kidney, 
later to be considered, which lies close to the pericardium, the 
walls of which have not a reticulated appearance, but are thrown 
into longitudinal folds. C. Vogt regarded this part of the organ 
as the lung, while Moquin-Tandon, on the other hand, called it the 
pericardial gland. 

When the animal is laid upon its back, and the mantle and foot 
separated, an S-shaped yellow body is seen through the thin walls 
of the mantle. 

In A. Jlumatilia this organ lies in the left, and in A. lacustris 
in the right lobe of the mantle ; this is the organ of excretion, or 
the kidney. Were this organ to be dissected out and measured, 
it would be found to be about twice the length of the animal to 
which it belonged ; thus in an animal measuring 7*4 mm., the 
kidney was found to measure 14*4 mm. 

In fig. 10 (PL X) I have endeavored to give a diagramatical 
drawing of the course of the kidney. To the largest part I have 
given the name of the sacular portion ; it lies in contact with the 

^ L' orifice respiratoire est tres petit et perce dans un epaississement de la 
I>eu, un pen plus pale que la reste du tissue * • *. La glande pericar- 
diale est accol^e conime dans la plupart des Gnstropodes, au coeur et a 
Vorgane de la i*espiration ; elle cccupe les parties glauches ct posterieures 
de la poclie pulmobranche, et s*e(end transversalement, en se renfient, 
derriere Poreillette et lo ventricle. Sa coleur est jaunatre, s'ouvre sans 
doute, a cdt^ de I'orifice respiratoire. Recher. anat. pbysiol. s. I'Ancyle, 
etc., p. 128. 

' La glande pericardiale produit une assez grande quantite de mucus. 
Je n'y ai jamais trouv^ de grains calcaires. J'en ai observe seulment 
dans I'epalsseur du manieau particulierment vero sa marge ; ils etaient 
assez gros, un peu irreguliers et transparent s. Recher. anat. physiol. s. 
I'Ancyle, etc., p. 138. 



238 PR0CEEDINQ8 OF THE ACADEMY Of [13^ 

posterior wall of the poricnrdiiim. The folds that I hrivc rffirrpe"! 
to above aw not represent e<l here, as they do not ntTect llio ^cnerml 
form of the orpin. At the point b' the sacular portion jKisse* iaUf 
the tubular portion. Os represents the opening of the onriii 
into the branchial chamber. The arrow is given to b\upw th« 
position of the animal as regards the kidney, the arrow |w>intin^ 
toward the hea<l. The kidney is drawn as If the observer werr 
viewing it through the external wall of the branchial chain^wr. 
The little canal (/) which is seen in the anterior [)art of i^aciiUr 
portion is the communication between the ki<lney ami the peri- 
cardium. The diagram (PI. X, fig. 10 n) is drawn from a complete 
series of transverse sections, by first drawing each ftection and 
then projecting it b}- meaKurement to surveyor^ {niper. 

The organ may be divide<l into two parts, which are in form 
entirely different from one another. The first part — that is. iliat 
part which lies next to the pericardium — I call the |)encanlial or 
sacuhir portion ( IM. X, fig. 10a < ; it is the largi^st and most active 
portion of the kidney; it is flattened from the side, so that tbr 
gHMitest diameter is periiendicular to the animal. The walU, a# 
above stated, are thrown into longitudinal folds, which are much 
dee]K*r at the |K'ricardial end than at the end where this |iart juiut 
the others; at this point, in fact, it may he said not to exi^t.a* 
thry gradually grow fainter until they disappear altogether. The 
anterior en<l <»f this portion is very broad, and covers nearly the 
wIidIc ]H)sterior wall of the iK*rieardium. This part, which run^ 
obliquely backwards and downwanis, has an oval fi»rni on trans- 
versa section which gradually U'comes more circuhir as the foliJ» 
di-«:i)i)>ear and we approach the tubular portion. The length of 
this \\T^X )>ortion, in an average sized animal, is about :2*8 una. :' 
the ^rt-atfst dianictrr. 1*0 mm.; and breadth, 0*3 mm. 

In the pii-^terior wall of the |HTicarilium is seen a small funnel- 
sha)M'd «i|i<-niiig ( 1*1. X, tig. li (/)/'), whirh is limd with long cilia; 
thi** ppniiug lea<ls int<» a tine tuU' ; this tul»e lies in contact with 
the iiitirtial wall (»f thr sacular porti<»n (»f the kidney fur a short 
tlistanrc. and then opens into it. Here we have, without ihiulil, 
a ilirr'-t <'MiMiiiiiiii<:itinn bi't\\rfii the |H*ricanHum anil the kiilnev- 

TUX'S '^iiiall tube may be divided into two parts. histologiraJlr 
• lilltrciit finiu nnr an«)th«T.aiid the point where this division take« 

- All 111* .i>»tiiriiifiit> ail' taki'ii fntin an aninitil of average size, which 

na-.iMi[i-«l 7't mm. in liMi^th. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 239 

place is where the rectum, which is on its way perpendicularly 
through this part of the animal to the gill, comes in contact with 
the tube. The anterior part of this canal I call the praerectal, 
and the posterior portion the post rectal. 

This little canal has nearly the same calibre throughout ; the walls 
of the praerectal part are composed of cylindrical epithelial cells, 
which lie on a fine tunica propria, and on the free ends of which 
are found cilia. The cilia are longest at the pericardial opening 
of this tube. The lumen of the postrectal part is nearly the same 
as that of the prterectal part ; the walls of the former, however, 
are somewhat thicker. 

The inteiiial surface of the excretory organ is also ciliated, and 
consists of a layer of cylinder epithelium. In the walls are 
found those concretions so characteristic of the gastropod kid- 
ney. These concretions are not found in the walls all over the 
kidney, but seem confined to a certain part. It is my opinion 
that the concretions are identical to those small granulations 
referred to by Moquin-Tandon (see p. 237) in the mucus of this 
region. 

The sacular portion of the kidney does not pass gradually into 
the tubular portion, but at a sharp angle, as is seen in the diagram 
(PI. X, fig. 10), where a little blind sac is formed (PI. X, fig. 
10 z). The diameter of this part of the . sacular portion is 
0*2 mm. 

The second part of the kidney, or the tubular portion, is 
much longer than the pericardial or sacular portion, but has a 
much smaller diameter than the latter, and is convoluted. At 
the beginning it runs parallel with the inferior border of the 
mantle, and bending at r (PL X, fig. 10) it returns on its course; 
at c' (fig. 10), it makes another bend and passes for a short distance 
forward again ; then forming a slight curve it passes to its most 
inferior position, and then running parallel with the lower border 
of the mantle it opens at os, at a position about opposite the pos- 
terior part of the gill. In the diagram (fig. 10) I have represented 
the convolutions as if they were all in one plane; this is, however, 
not the case, as in a horizontal section we often see two convo- 
lutions. 

In A. lacustris the kidney has essentially the same form, lying 
in the right mantle, save that the folds of the sacular portion are 
not so marked. 



240 PROCEflDlNQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [ISSi 

As to tlic disposition of the concretion, I can any that they an? 
found in the postrectal and sacular portions, thickl^-'embe^ldtHi in 
the walls ; the tubular portion, which may be looked u|h>d aA 
the duct to the glandular or sacular portion, also has theiD in tbe 
first part of its course, as far as o (PI. X, ftg. 10) ; they then become 
scattered and rarer until we get to c, when they have entirely 
disappeared. The whole interior portion of the organ is ciliatctL 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE X. 

Fio. 1. TraLbveiKO section, about the middle of A. fluviatilis ; t, ftbell . 

7/i, mantle ; jne^ musculus cochlearis ; F, foot ; gtm, traoftTcne 

muscular tibres ; Z, liver ; mg, stomach ; E, albuniiiious glaod : 

Z), intestinal canal ; A", gill ; exo^ oxciotory organ or kidoej. 
Fio. 2. Diagram of buccal mass and odontophore ; m, mouth ; &, currcd 

arrow showing direction the food takes to (o«i oBsophagus ; «. 

anterior wall ; Cy arrow allowing directioo oC moreiDeot of 

radula when licking ifor x, see text) ; Ody odoutophore ; r. 

radula. 
Fig. 3. Part of horizontal section of A. fiutiatilU ; Inf^ infundibulum ; / 

and cty tulM) connecting kidney (a) to pericardium \ P \ IK 

heart ; h$, bl<K>d-Hpace ; m, mantle ; R^ rectum ; me^ musculm 

cochleaiis ; alh^ albuminous gland ; Qo. parts of gvniul 

or^rans. 
Flo. A a. Horizontal section of odimtophore of A, flutiat%l%%, 
Fkj. 4 h. Transverse section of same. 
Fin. ."). I\>stcrior part of a longitudinal section of odontophore of Bdix 

aperta. 
For explanation of the letters of the last three fl^uren, eee text. 
All the li^uroK, with the exception of tig. 2 and fig. 10 luiTe bees 

drawn by means of a camera lucida 
Fii}. <). Transvei-si' section of the ganglion olfactorium iOo) ; Inf^ iufiui- 

dibulum ; m, mantle ; d, kidney ; Brc^ branchial chamber. 
Flo. 7 and s. Two transverM* sections of the tentacular gaogUoa of left 

side of A. jturiatHif ; /<, nerve ; ^, epidermis ; g^ gaogUoo ; f. 

enlarged epi<Iermal cells; /, groove; c, cutia ; rm, reiractcr 

nniMMe ; <iu, eye. 
Fio. i». Longitudinal Miction of up]>er lip of *4. lacusiri^ For d, 

text. 
Fio. 10. Diiigiani of kidney of .1. JlucitttUis. For letten, aee text. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 241 

The following, received through the Mineralogical and Geo- 
logical Sectio'n, was also ordered to be printed : — 

NOTES Off THE OEGLOaT OF CHESTFE VALLEY AND VICINITY. 

BY THEO. D. RAND. 

In a recent reply to criticisms by Dr. Frazer of statements in 
regard to the serpentine ou' crops, etc., described in Vol. C 6 of 
the Second Geol. Surve}' of Pennsylvania, I stated that I would 
exhibit before the Academy specimens from the outcrops in 
question. Dr. Frazer stated (Am. Nat., Sept., 1883, p. 525) : "At 
the same time it must not be forgotten that what one observer 
would regard as evidence of a serpentine outcrop, another would 
not. * * * It would seem to be only thus that such wide 
divergencies as are here noted are explicable. '^ 

I have here specimens from the serpentine outcrops which I 
had stated were overlooked in C 6, and specimens from two out- 
crops represented in C 6 to be serpentine, which I questioned. I 
think they speak for themselves, but if any member has any doubt 
or question, I trust the matter may be so discussed as to elicit 
the truth. 

I desire also to call attention to certain statements in the survey 
of Chester Co., C 4, recently published, statements with which 
my observations do not agree. 

1. The non-existence of Potsdam sandstone, or a sandstone very 
closely resembling Potsdam, south of Chester Valle}'. 

C 4 says, pp. 34, 124 : ", The quartzite failed altogether on the 

southern side of the valley.'' " No Potsdam sandstone has been 

detected anywhere along the southern edge of the limestone 

area.'' 

I have here specimens from Samuel Tyson's, on north flank of 

South Valley Hill, near King of Prussia station, Chester Valley, 
and from three localities in Cream Valley (between the South 
Valley Hill and the Radnor syenitic gneiss range), one, on the 
Brooks farm, about 100 yards west of the line dividing Delaware 
county from Montgomery and 300 yards northeast of the south- 
west corner of Upper Merion township ; another, one-half mile 
west of this, near and south of the limestone on Stacker's place, 
and the third the Pennsylvania Railroad cut northwest of Wayne 
station, just north of the trap, in which cut Dr. Frazer, p. 283, 



242 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

speaks of finding sandy gneiss* with a hard serpentine-like mineraL 
I have also the eurite of Barren Hill for comparison. 

It will be seen that the correspondence is exact — the micaceous 
partings, the rhomboidal cleavage, the minute tourmalines — all 
agree. 

I have also a specimen of the trap of the Conshohocken dyke 
which crosses this cut about 100 feet southeast of the eurite. I 
could find no serpentine-like rock there, nor any other hard rock ; 
the rocks are much decomposed, but the gneiss of Rogers' altered 
primal is there unmistakably'. 

2. I have also specimens (loose in the soil) from immediately 
south of the eastern end of the serpentine, stated, on p. 87, to be 
bounded both south and north b}^ talcose slate. The rock is 
Rogers' altered primal. 

3. On page 87 it is stated : " It is evident that even a synclinal 
belt of serpentine 2000 feet wide, or even 400 feet wide, can mean 
nothing else than a great thickness of the talc mica schist forma- 
tion, metamorphosed more or less completely into serpentine, and 
a good cause for such alteration is present in an extensive oat- 
burst of trap close bej^ond." 

"Everybody familiar with the surface of Delaware and Chester 
counties knows how almost invariably its trap and serpentine 
appear together." 

If this is true, how can it be explained that a few miles further 
east, what seems to be admitted (p. 282 / to be the same serpentine 
belt is wholly within the gneisses of C 6 (Rogers' altered primal), 
over 1000 feet south of the trap, with gneiss, hornblende schist, 
steatite and limestone intervening, and that the trap passes east- 
ward for some five or six miles, at least, from Wayne station, 
P. R. R., to a point far east of Conshohocken, through the hydro- 
mica schists of the South Valley Hill to Bethel Hill without a 
trace of serpentine. 

At what locality in Delaware county, among its numerous ser- 
pentine outcrops, does trap, properl}' so-called, occur? 

It does not appear at Lenni, Media, Blue Hill, Marple, New- 
town, nor at any of the numerous outcrops of the La&yette belt, 
nor of that of the steatite belt on the south, nor of the Radnor 
belt in Radnor. In Easttown they do appear together, but can 



' This quotation is erroneous ; iu place of ''sandy gneiss" it should be 
'*a decomposed friable white gneissoid rock." 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 243 

this possibly be construed to be more than that converging lines 
must meet ? 

4. P. 84 : " The southern edge of the South Valley Hill belt of talc 
mica slates is defined upon the map by a chain of dots and stripes 
of two colors, representing outcrops of serpentine, and outcrops 
of crystalline limestone. Were tliese outcrops ranged in more 
than one line, the task of explaining their appearance would be 
far easier. * * * It looks as if the serpentine might be a 
subsequent modification of the limestone. No case is recorded 
of the serpentine and cr3'stalline limestone of our line being seen 
in contact." I do not dispute the last sentence, but the speci- 
mens show a variety of rocks in Radnor between the serpentine 
and limestone, which there occupy, as shown on my map, approxi- 
matively parallel positions a thousand feet and more apart — con- 
clusive evidence that in that part of the line at least they have no 
possible connection. 

The map in C 4 shows, as clearly as possible on so small a scale, 
that the line of limestone outcrops is north of the line of serpen* 
tine outcrops; all the limestone outcrops shown are west of the 
west end of the serpentine outcrops 

There is pome evidence that this serpentine belt is an altered 
enstatite. 

I show a specimen from near Devon Inn, Easttown township, 
which seems almosu certainly altered enstatite ; and specimens of 
undoubted enstatite from the Lafayette belt, the serpentine of 
which so strongly resembles that of the Radnor belt, both in 
structure and accompanying minerals. 

5. The statement, p. 282 : ** The east end of this (the Easttown 
and WiUiamstown serpentine belt) continues much further into 
Montgomer}' county." 

This is certainly an error, caused, perhaps, b}- confusing this 
belt with that north of it, as was done in C 6. This belt ceases 
abruptly on the land of Hon. D. J. Morell, in Radnor township, 
Delaware county, where the contour suggests the possibility of a 
fault. The lithological difference of the belts may be seen by the 
specimens produced. The northerly belt begins on the land of 
Brooke, about one-fourth mile northwest of the easterly end of the 
Radnor outcrop, east of Radnor station. 

5. On p. 138, a Mr. Morely is quoted, without comment, as 
stating that the Conshohocken trap follows the summit of Bethel 



244 PBOCEEDINOS OF THE ACADESffT OF '1*^ 

Hill into r>#*lawarr; count v. terminating near the TO^d l«sdiC£ 
from tli«- L.inc:ist**r turnpike to the Kinj^ of Prussia- 

In fnrt, it in nowhere ne:ir the flummit, but on the south (Unk, 
or at ihf. fr>ot. ami so far from emling at the rond mentioned, it 
ext^-n'U ^«*v«Tal miles to tht* westward, its outcro|>s almost coo- 
tin uoui. 

7. r. no: -Near Mr. Ilitner's house. Marble Hail. th*re 
fH'Mur^ a thin U;(l of very |)onclerous rock, rei*embling tloseU % 
white crystalline limestone. It contains, however, but a moilenle 
pro|»ortion f»f carbonate of lime, and consists chiefly of the car- 
lK>nate ofstrontia." Whence there is deduceil a liond of connec- 
tion lH'tw«-cn the valley limestone and the No. 11 limestone of the 
valleys of middle I'cnnsvlvania. 

Was carlK>nate of strontia ever found there ? Is it not Xht 
well-known sulphate of baryta from that locality miHtaken for 
carbonate of strontia? 

8 r. 2H2: **An old quarry close by the Spread Ea^le hotel. 
which is now filled with fraj^ments of trap and rubbish, showi 
serpentine idon^ with the schistose matter, with a dip abunt 
S, Hi) K., and seemin<rly almut S^y^^ etc.'' 

** This qu.irrv is over the line, in Delaware county." 

Thin \h :in interest in*: contact. 1 rcj ret that I have been unable 
to find it : the only nuarrv in that vicinity that I can find is alout 
200 feel west of the Spread Ka^le, on the north »ide of the Lao- 
eaHl«T turnpike, nearly opjiosite Pujrh's store; but it contnius no 
serpentine, an<l is in Ko^ers' altered primal ijuarrieil thence for 
the turnpike. It was niiich filled up with trap and rubbish. Uit 
has licrii re<M'titly opetu'd ai;ain. Old residents assure me that it 
is the niily qurirrv ill Oelaware county in that vicinity. 

!♦. P. 2^2: "As sikui as one passes the creek north of Radnor 
station ^ * * the measures assume an unctuous, schistose. 
partly fliloritie charaet*'!*." 

I» .}^^ . .» FraLr!n«'nts <>f chloritic mica schist.*' 

r. 2*<7 : " Willistown, broad eonchoidal mica schist, containing 
iiiiirh rhlnntr and milk «piartz/* 

Yet Prof. Frazer eonteiuls riiihtlv ( Jm. Nat,^ OctoU^r, 1*4S3. 
p. lojl that this reL'ion (M>ntains fnfiln>-mira schists onlv: that 
tin- « \pr« ---ion '• tale iniea " is erroneous, as the rocks contain no 
talr . »|.» thf\ riintain <*hlorite ? 

Pi Ira/, r ^a\s ( Am. A-<i/., May, ISS.i, p. 524) : " The ob^rrvi. 
tiMii 111' the iiiterseetion of the serpentine belt by the trap, which 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 245 

has a more northerly trend in Easttown, is interesting, but not neiy." 
M}- words were : " A mile southeast of Berwyn, the latter can 
be seen almost, if not quite, in contact with the serpentine, the 
trap, however, being on the south of the serpentine. The same 
is true south of Paoli, except that the trap appears to be on the 
north side." Prof. Rogers (p. 168) speaks of this trap as 
''occurriug along and outside the northern edge of the serpentine, 
in a succession of narrow, elongated dj^kes, ranging more north- 
east and southwest than the serpentine. These I have not 
examined, but such structuie agrees precisely with what I have 
observed of the serpentine further east." 

This interesting occurrence is not upon the map in C 4 ; no 
trap whatever is shown north of the large serpentine outcrop 
south of Paoli.* 

Dr. Frazer («/. Frank, 7n,s^; October 1883) kindly compares my 
criticism with those of the good old gentlemen who, during the 
war, criticized the army officers, from a safe distance at their 
comfortable breakfast tables. This is not fair ; every observation 
I have made has been made on the spot and on foot, and in proof 
of this Dr. Frazer has not pointed out a single error of fact. Had 
all the observations in C 6 and C 4 been similarly made, many 
blunders like those of serpentine in the Bryn Mawr cut, in the 
cut northwest of Wayne, and on the Gulf road north of Matsons' 
Ford road, would not have appeared. 

** But it is not a fact that Rogers' altered primal is a well- 
defined rock; on the contrary, a more heterogeneous collection of 
gneiss, mica schists, hydro-mica schists, chlorites, feldspar por- 
phyries, clays nnd quartz slates than are found in the regions 
which he colored as altered primal it would be difficult to collect 
from the two hemispheres.'' — Dr. Frazer, J. F. I., October, 1883. 
I referred to the rock described by Rogers. Is it not possible 
that Dr. Frazer has included, in the above, adjacent rocks which 
Rogers had no intention of including, as the scale of the map 
precludes the possibility of accurate majiping; and the rocks men- 
tioned by Dr. Frazer do lie adjacent; but the peculiar rock here 
shown and so well described by Rogers, is, at least through Lower 
Merion, Radnor and Easttown, very well defined indeed. Its 
breadth nowhere exceeds 800 feet, I think, and this on Rogers' 



* In my leview, J. F. I., September, 1883, 1 inadvei-tently located this in 
Easttown. It is really in Willistown. 



246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF ^1^54 

mai» woiiM lio ^^\ of an inch; its outcrops are almost continMOO*. 
an<l lK*twt«-n. it** existence in the fields is constant. 

I)r. Frazer attempts a joke fonniied u|K>n hi** imprc^ion «»f the 
alnriicr of. Mil jilliiHion to the serpL*ntine in Ka<1nor nn*\ Ka*tt'>«n 
in niv eriticMMii of C 4. It would have been well for hira l*» lia« 
read \\n' |»aiMT a^ain. lie will find on page 33 a«» ** aU«'*i'»o " t«. 
the Hrrp«*ii- iiM» in Kadnor; on pajre 34 a map of the oiitfn»[»* in 
Radnor and *<onie of tlio>e in ^^lsttown. 

I did not de-icri)M; the echelon stnu-ture of the serfientine oat- 
cropi .'iH ji theory, as Dr. ^'razer sa^'s, hut, as a fact, the under- 
ground **triictnn» I do not attempt to demonstrato. That oar 
ohservalio.is a^rrre within limits that do notntfect llie <jne>t:on.i* 
Hhown in the tal»Ie uiven l)elow. 

The lin«s of r.triki* are in part deduceil from the <Hp-» j?iveu hv 
Dr. Frazt-r. hut it may he well to tpiote from C 4, p. 218: " Tbr 
terpentine * ♦ * where expo^^ed, it ifl so fracture*! ami hnArn 
as to niake the determination of its dip very ditlicult or altoirellier 
impossihh'. I>ut its strike cannot unfrequcnlly l>e piirsueil in 
almost straijiht lines for miles." 

F'or this ri-a^^on, in recordinir mv observation"*, I preferred to 
j;iv«' the dip and strike separately — for the tUp varies* greatly, ibi- 
strike dor-* not. 



ffrlMW 



Sink.' Strlkf. ,^.. - ,,„ ij,,, 

o.it*r.|,-. ..II map. Fr.i/.rr..I. K.I. «» »[«'" i«P- Strike, RmkI. iHlt 

1. 'v »»»>h' H. Nearly N. 70 toHo E. Nearly O t4» 3f> 

nrU.uiii.u- K. and \V. E. aud \\\ 

NtatiiMi. 

a. • , miU« N. ' N. 70 E. N. 00 E. 10 

W. ot , N. 6U \V. 1-20 ,»rl 

K:uhi.ir ^?N. (50 E. ?j 
hlati«»ii. ' 

♦J. S. W. of N. 71) K. N. :»0K. N.40E. 10- 

<M.i K.irlr 

St.ltliill. 

:. N. W. of N.50to6uE. 

.UkI III. 11 
I)«'\ .Ml 
lllll. 

•». hiHt.i. ^. N. :•; K. N. to K. N. i) K. N. 40 E. ^^ 

ot Im'I \% \ II. 

A lin" i»mifu' tin- .lUtrropN »» and '.» on map (' 4 is N. 8 J E. 
( tiif joiiiiii;: tho Kadnor out'Tups on map hy Hopkins, N. 40 £. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 247 

Outcrop 3 runs for nearly 1500 feet parallel, or nearly so. to a 
lane. The bearinjr of this lane, by surveys recited in the deeds, 
is N. 62° 40' E. 

Now if the lines of strike given by Dr. Frazer be plotted on the 
map, it will readily be seen that while a line about N. 83 E. will cross 
all of them, the strike of all will cross this line at angles from 23° 
to 43°, except the first. The strike of the outcrops, as given on 
the map, is wrong, as shown by Dr. Frazer's own figures; but in 
spite of this the echelon structure is delineated in the two out- 
crops south and southwest of Old Eagle station, the error — making 
them two parallel outcrops — being due to the fact that the westerly 
one is not over 400 feet long, the easterly not over 200, while on 
the map each is made over 1000 feet long. 

Mr. Hall remarks {Am. Nat., June, 1883, p. 647) that I do not 
accoimt for the absence of slates on the north side of the valley. 
From the specimens exhibited it will be seen that there are in the 
North Valley Hill slaty rocks with segregated quartz closely 
resembling those of the South Valley Hill, though it is true that 
as a whole the hills are not alike. 

I have here specimens to illustrate the succession of rocks north 
and south of the Radnor gneiss belt. 

I would particularly call attention to the rocks immediately 
south of the Radnor gneiss belt. Their resemblance to those on 
the north is striking, and it seems worthy of further investigation 
whether the belt of fine grained gneiss breaking into rhomboidal 
fragments and connected with a white feldspathic rock, ma}' not 
be identical with the eurite and adjacent rocks on the north. 

I have also two more specimens of the quartzite with supposed 
fucoidal markings, one of which, from the Old Gulf road east of 
Bryn Mawr, contains them unusually well defined. 



248 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 



November 6. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Forty-four persons present. 

A paper, entitled " On the Value of the ' Nearctic'^s one of the 
Primary Zoological Regions. Replies to Criticisms by Mr. Alfred 
Russel Wallace and Prof. Theodore Gill,'' by Professor Angelo 
Heilprin, was presented for publication. 

On Visual Organs in Solen, — Dr. Benjamin Sharp called 
attention to a remarkably primitive form of visual organ that he 
had discovered in the siphon of Solen ensis and S. vagina (the 
common " razor-shell ''). 

His attention was directed to the probable possession of visual 
organs by observing a number of these animals which were 
exposed in large basins for sale at Naples. A shadow cast by 
his hand caused the extended siphons of the specimens on which 
the shadow fell, instantl}' to retract, while those not in the shadow 
remained extended. Repeating: this exj erin»ent at the Zoological 
Station at Naples, and being fully convinced that the reti'action 
was due to the shadow and not to a slight jar which rr.ight have 
been the cause; he was led to examine the siphon more closely, 
and he also made a series of vertical sections for the purpose 
of very minute study. 

When tbe siphon of a large Solen is cut open and examined, a 
number of fine blackish brown lines or fine grooves are seen. 
These are situated l)etween and at the bnse of the short tentacular 
processes of the external edge of the siphon. As many as fifty 
of these little grooves were found to be present in some speci- 
mens, and some of them were from 1 to 1*5 mm. in length. 

When a vertical section is examined these pigmenteid grooves 
are distinctly' seen, and the cells of which they are composed are 
very different from the ordinary epithelial cells which cover the 
more pigmented parts. These latter cells are ordinary columnar 
epithelial cells with a large nucleus which is situated near the 
tunica on which it rests. The pigmented cells are from one-third 
to one-half longer than those just described, and consist of three 
distinct parts. The upper part, or that part farthest from the 
tunica, appears perfectly transparent and takes up about one-ninth 
or one-tenth of the total lengtli of the cell ; this part is not at all 
affected with the coloring matter which was used in coloring the 
whole. The second part of the cell is deeply pigmented and con- 
sequently opaque ; it is filled with a dark brown or almost black 
granulated pigment; this takes up about one-half of the length of 
the cell. Below this is the third part of this cell, coQsisting of 




d 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 249 

a clear mass, which takes a slight tinge wlien colored; this is prob- 
ably the most active part of the cell ; in this is imbedded the large 
oval nucleus. This nucleus is sharply demarcated and is filled 
with a granulated matter which takes a dark color in borax car- 
mine, as do, indeed, the nuclei of all the epidermal cells. 

These retinal cells, if the}^ may be so called, are similar to 
those described by P. Fraisse in 1881 (Zeitschr. f. wiss. ZooL, 
Bd. xxv), in the very primitive eye of Patella coerulea^ the 
principal difference being that in Patella the transparent part at 
the top of the cell seems to be a little more extensive. This eye 
of Patella is open, being merely an invai^inated part of the epider- 
mis, and has no lense. In Haliotis tuberculata we find an open 
eye also, but with the addition of a very primitive lense. The 
next higher grade of eye seems to be that of Fissurella roaea, in 
which the eye is closed and possesses also a lense ; now in these 
two lat'er forms, where w^e find a lense present, the retinal cells do 
not possess the transparent ends as we find in Patella and Solen, 
but the pigment fills the upper part of the cell quite to the top. 
This would indicate, he thinks, that the transparent part took the 
place of a lense. 

No special nerve-fibres could be detected passing to these pig- 
mented grooves. Nerves passing to the eye of Patella were also 
wanting, while, on the other hand, distinct veins were found 
passing to the eye of Haliotia and Fissurella. 

He further stated that this power of distinguishing a shadow 
would be of great use to the animal in the struggle for existence. 
The Solen lies buried perpendicularly in the sand and allows the 
siphon to project a little above the surface. This projecting part 
would, probably, frequently be bitten off by fishes, were it not for 
the fact that the shadow of the enetoy "would give warning, so 
that the siphon could be withdrawn in time to save it from 
destruction. 

Notes on Glaciers in Alaska, — Mr. Thomas Meehan remarked 
that on his recent visit to Alaska he noted that the numerous 
icebergs coursing down Glacier Bay, always pursued their swift 
downward course towards the Pacific Ocean quite independently 
of the rising or falling of the tide. On refiection it was evident 
that this might be due to the greater density of the cold glacier 
water pressing on towards the lighter water in tiie Japan Sea, 
which set its force against the Alaskan shores. It was, indeed, 
incorrect to speak of a warm current flowing northwards in an}' 
active sense. Warm water never flowed or circulated because it 
was warm, but it flowed under the simple laws of gravitation — 
the heavier body pushing the lighter out of its place, and the 
lighter thtn being drawn backwards to the vacuum caused by the 
movement of the weightier volume. The flow of a warm current 
in the atmosphere or in the water must, therefore, be taken in a 
passive and not in an active sense; and it was, therefore, to the 

17 




250 PBOGEEDINQS OF THE AGADEMf OF [1883. 

immense ice-fields of Alaska themselves that we have to look for 
the singularly moderate climate of southeastern Alaska, rather 
than to the mere action of heated water alone. They furnish the 
heavy power which draws the warm current to its shores. With 
the disappearance of these huge glaciers, or the diversion of the 
immense volume of cold water to another channel, the cold of this 
portion of Alaska would probably be as intense as that experienced 
along its northern coast. The distinction was one of vast import- 
ance, and he ventured an opinion that much of the disappointment 
often experienced in Arctic navigation arose from overlooking 
it, and in regarding the warm current as the active agent in circu- 
lation. 

In examining the Davidson, the Muir, and other glaciers, it also 
occurred to him that there were active agencies at work, over- 
looked by those who had made specialties of glacial study. 
Beneath the Muir glacier, which was said by various authorities 
to be about four hundred miles long, a large volume of water was 
flowing in a rapid torrent — this volume, on a carefully considered 
guess, being about one hundred feet wide with an average depth 
of four feet. According to information from a white man who had 
long lived with the Indians of this section, this subglacial river 
was flowing in about the same volume, summer and winter. The 
mouth of this glacier hung over into the sea, and formed icebergs 
in three different modes. Sometimes the edge of the glacier would, 
in its thinner sections, float over and be lifted oflT by the rise and 
fall of the tide; at other times huge masses would break off by 
their own weight; and at other times the upper edges, which, by 
the action of running surf ice water, would be worn into all sorts 
of rough forms, would topple over, rubbing their faces against the 
more solid ice, and making a sound which reverberated through 
the ranges of hills like peals of artillery, and which could be 
heard many miles away. There were thousands of smaller ice- 
bergs floating down Glacier Bay, the most of these evidently 
formed by the latter mode. It was not safe for the vessel on 
which he made the visit to approach nearer than a quarter of a 
mile to the face of this glacier, where it anchored for a day in 
or ler to make the examination ; l3ut it was near enough, especially 
with the ai<l of the ship's boats and good field-glasses, to make 
excellent observations. So far as could be ascertained through 
occasional deep fissures, no water came out from under the face of 
the glacier to the ocean. The mass of ice was apparently lying 
flat on a bed of rock, the ice occupying a width of something less 
than two miles, and estimated to be about 300 feet thick on an 
average of its whole width. This would, of course, obstruct the 
run of water directly to the ocean, and thus we had the later&l 
flow which diverged from the glacier's bed about four miles from 
its mouth. The Davidson glacier, in P3'ramid Harbor, had retreated 
from the ocean, and by comparing facts observed in tracing a 
portion of its bed with what was seen in connection with this 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 251 

torrent from the Muir glacier, it was evident that during a glacier's 
existence the underflowing river might often become dammed, and 
the torrent diverted, carrying glacial deposits to sections of country 
long distances away from the track of the glacier, and through 
portions of country over which glaciers had never flowed. And 
there might be immense glacial deposits left by a glacier constantly 
retreating, and after many subsequent years, by the diversion of 
tiie glacial river, a new channel and new remains may be deposited 
through the mass, even by another distant and distinct glacier. 
This was actually the case in this instance. This stream had 
torn its way through immense hills of glacial deposits, many 
hundreds of feet deep, exposing to view the trunks, still standing 
erect, of a buried forest, though not a stick of forest-growth, 
except a few alders and willows, could be seen anywhere in the 
vicinity, as far as the eye could reach, and suggesting that the 
original deposit was not made by the existing glacier, the waters 
of which now tore their way through the huge hills. 

The question would now arise as to the source of the water 
supplying the subglacial river-bed. It would be well to carry 
some ascertained facts alonor with us in this examination. An 
iceberg of more than usual dimensions had got aground in 
Glacier Ba}^ and, having one good, fair face, it was found by 
careful soundings that the vessel could be placed close alongside. 
At seven and a half fathoms, we were able to hitch on to the great 
block, the sides of which projected tar above our deck. The 
surface of this berg exhibited, in a small way, all the features of 
a tract of land: lakes, rapids, waterfalls, hills and valleys; in 
some places, earth and stones. To-day the course of a water- 
channel might be in one direction, till a falling piece of ice or earth 
would block it up, when a source would be opened for a new direc- 
tion, and the little streams, once started, would form in a short 
space of time wide and d« ep chasms. A piece of rock, by its 
dark color attracting the sun^s raj^s, would sink deep into the 
berg, while earth, porous .and non-conducting, would prevent 
melting; and thus we would have mounds on the berg where the 
surroundings, clear of earth, would be melted away. The action 
of the sun on melting portions of the berg was interesting. The 
thermometer was but 42° ; yet on any side where the sun fell, 
even at this low temperature, the little streams and rivulets were 
coursing their way to the great ocean around. But on the 
northern slopes, there were barely any streams, except such as 
originated on the sunnier sides. In fact, it was demonstrated 
that wherever the sun struck on ice, even at a low temperature, 
the deposition of water occurred. What he had carefully noted 
on this iceberg he had before noted on high mountain peaks : 
there would be always some melting from the face of a snow- 
bank, no matter how low the temperature, where the sun shone 
fairly on it, and the water would sink to the bottom of this mass. 
On this iceberg there were clefts and rifts and wells furrowed by 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

tbe gathering together of melted water into small pools or lakes, 
or over where dark stones had sunk by the agency of the sun's 
warmth ; but in no ease had the holes or cavities penetrated 
wholly through the iceberg, except on its thinnest outer edges. 
The temperature necessary for melting was reduced with the 
depth, till at length there was not heat enough to melt further. 
Tlie facts all tended to show that very little water would 
pass through a glacier by wa^^ of its surface. Some may pass 
over to the sides, and get beneath in that way, but the outer 
ledges of ice seemed to rest very firmly on the ground, as it neces- 
sarily must from its arch-like form, owing to the river beneath 
and the immense weight pressing on the edges of this arch ; only 
occasionally can water be admitted that way, and scarcely could 
anywhere the volume so acquired be described as flowing from the 
side of the main glacier. What becomes of the melting snow on 
the snow-cap of the glacier, the continual and almost imper- 
ceptible meltings under the sun's influence at these heights? A 
prevailing impression is that glacier-ice is but snow which has 
become ice by the enormous pressure of so thick a bod3\ If this 
be so, water thawed out from the snow by the sun's rays could 
not percolate far below the surface of the snow, and there seems 
no way left to account for the river beneath. If this be not so, 
then the way would be clear. With no ice below the snow, with 
the thermometer at the ground above the freezing-point, through 
the natural warmth of the earth protected by the snow-cap from 
escaping, the percolating water would descend to the surface of 
the mountain-top, part entering to furnish fountain-heads for 
springs and underground streams, running often hundreds of miles 
away, and the balance running down under the ice-channel formed 
b}' the glacier. 

It seems such a fair assumption that this may be so, that it is 
worth while to consider the evidence offered for the belief that 
glacier-ice is snow under the pressure of its own weight. Snow 
has been artifically brought under pressure to ice, but such ice is 
not translucent, as is ordinary crystallized ice. The ice of the 
Alaska glaciers is remarkably clear, and, when in the proper 
position against the atmosphere, presents the most lovely cerulean 
tints imaginable. One of the speaker's pleasantest experiences 
was a wandering among the wrecks of icebergs strewn all along 
the shore, in Hoona or Bartlett Bay.^ 

No crystal could possibly be clearer than the fragments strewn 
everywhere along the beach. The only difference observed 
between this and the ordinary ice of every-day experience was 
that, melting in the mouth, it would divide into pieces of the size 
of peas befbre wholly uncongealed. Again, from the vessel 

* At page 187, Proceedings of the Academy, 1888, Hood's Bay was 
inadvertently used for Hoona Bay. Hood^s Bay is some hundred miles 
south of this point. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 253 

anchored a quarter of a mile from the face of the Muir glacier 
the portion to the southeast for a distance of perhaps a thousand 
feet, as examined by the field-glass, was of a different character to 
the rest of the face in having a milky white, marble-like look. 
The line of demarkation betw^een this opaque and the transparent 
ice was exactly defined. It was not possible to get nearer for a 
more satisfactory examination, but the conclusion of all was that 
this portion 'was compressed snow. At this point the ice-sea had 
to draw in, through passing an intruding bluff of rocks, and the 
lateral pressure must have been enormous between the bluff and 
the solid ice. It would be the best possible opportunity for a 
mass of snow, carried down from the mountain side, and floated 
along on the margin of a wide glacier, to become ice if pressure 
would ever do it. It cannot, of course, be positively stated that 
this opaque section was compressed snow, in the absence of 
actual handling, but there is little room for doubt that it was. It 
was, at any rate, an opaque section, and wholl}*^ diffeient from the 
glacier-ice as generally seen. Again, from the amount of air- 
cavilies in snow, and the resistance these must offer to the self- 
pressure of snow, and also from actual experience of deep snow- 
drifts in ordinary mountain ranges, there is nothing to warrant a 
belief, outside of an actual demonstration, that the i)ressure of any 
depth of snow !s of itself suflficicnt to turn it into glacier-ice. 

If now we admit that above the glacial snow-line and under the 
great snow-cap there may not be solid ice formed by compression, 
but there may be a huge lake of water held back by the icy 
breast- work at the snow's edge, we may conceive of a method of 
forming the glacial sea quite different from any already proposed. 
The water must and will flow out from the edge of the snow-line 
when the temperature is far below freezing-point, and form a 
fringe of ice all along the line. How this is done can be readily 
seen passing under the snow-sheds of a mountain railroad. 

On the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, passing over Marshall's 
Pass, 14,000 f6et altitude, as the speaker did in May of tjie present 
year, the melted snow passed as water through the mass to the 
bottom, then passed down the mountain-side under the snow to the 
snow-shed, where it formed real glaciers down the railroad — cutting 
under the sheds to the railway track. The law must of necessity 
be the same on a mountain-top in Alaska as on a mountain-top in 
the Rocky Mountain region. Snow occurring after this icy deposit 
was formed, would extend down the mountain over the ice, and 
new layers of ice would be continually forming over the old layers, 
or on their edges with the occasional retrocession of the snow. 
A portion of the water at the snow-head will naturally course 
under the ice, and form a channel beneath. This will increase in 
width and depth with time. In the torrent which sprung out 
from above the mouth of the Muir glacier myriads of stones, 
some of them of many cubic feet in size, were borne along by the 
muddy waters. The force of the water, as well as the added 



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1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 255 

thermometer indicated 42° ; but a quarter of a mile from the 
immense body forming the mouth of the Muir glacier, the tem- 
perature was 60°. These warm currents, however, vary with the 
drafts through the mountains. Within comparatively short dis- 
tances, the temperature would vary from between 40° and 60° at 
the time referred to. In the winter season the difference would 
be the more remarkable, and hence a mountain or glacier torrent, 
cutting out for itself a new channel, and making a deep rift in a 
mountain, would originate a new current — warmer or colder, as the 
case might be — which must have an influence on the progress or 
decrease of the glacier itself. The operations of these changes in 
the atmospheric currents were very evident in the vicinity of the 
Davidson glacier. Sometimes through chasms in the mountains 
near, the whole mass of timber on either side would be quite dead 
after having made a successful stand for from twenty-five to fifty 
years, by the work of some severe cold current, which, bj'^ some 
local change, had found its wa}'^ along the course. Near by, on 
land no better, quite as steep, and in no way more favorable to the 
growth of vegetation, the timber would be perfectly healthy, the 
only difference being in the freedom from the atmospheric current 
that had destroyed the others. In short, the age of the trees on 
the successive terraces left by the waters along the line of the 
glacier's retreat, showed how much had been done within a com- 
paratively' recent period, and other attending facts showed that 
local causes, induced by the glacier itself, may rapidly retard or 
accelerate its development at various periods in its existence. 

In the retreat of the glaciers, in this part of Alaska, an alder, 
AlnuH viridis, was apparently the first arborescent plant to. 
establish itself. Large tracts of the drift would be wholly 
covered by a dense, bushy growth. In time, however, many of 
these would advance to the dimensions of large timber-trees, 
surprising to those who might have only seen them as eight- or 
ten-feet bushes in other parts of the United States In the woods 
bordering on the Davidson glacier, the speaker saw Indians at 
work making canoes (dug-outs) from the trunks of this alder. 

Favorable Influence of Climate on Vegetation in Alaska, — In his 
remarks on glaciers in Alaska, Mr. Thomas Meehan observed that 
on the tops of what are known as " totem-poles " in some of the 
Indian villages, trees of very large size would often be seen 
growing. These poles are thick logs of hemlock or spruce, set 
up before the doors of Indian lodges, carved all over with queer 
characters representing living creatures of every description, and 
which are supposed to be genealogies, or to tell of some famous 
event in the family history'. They are not erected by Indians 
now, and it is difficult to get any connected accounts of what 
they really tell. At the old village of Kaigan there are numbers 
of poles erected, with no carving at all on them, among many 
which are wholly covered, and these all had one or more 



FR"!* KKDIMiS OF THE -U'ADEMY OF I***" 

-. « '' - >ttl*'//yiM ;^n»wiii'j oil thi-m. One tr<*»' inn^r :. !•- 

.: :*»*utv v«:irs oM, uinl wa** hnl!* a-* tall :i«* tli* t- - 

r wa-* 1^M^\^in;r. Tlir poh* inny liaVf l»f»'fi tw»'iit\ '•: 

^- . [',*«» till* i^roiirMl.rrniii wliicli tin* laiiriT In-f** n«»w •!- r \--l 

-, i;»-ijl. Ill oiH" ••a»'«*. tli«' r«»<»t had irmwii so Irtiiff a- t*« •» *. 

■A {■••If on nri«' ^\i}v from {\iv JMittoin to th«* t<»|». :iii«l Mji- r- : 

■ . 'LaloML; tin* ^ Ih»1«' Ifii'jtli t«» tho ;^r nn<1. aUtiit tw«»iii';'"» 
* .li th«' out*'!' cin'iiniti-niirc' •»!* tin* pol**, Ihilv in an uTti, ■*• 

». • '•iin.-liar;;*-!! wiili nioi^tinv ronld a st*-«l -prout mi tlio I' |- ' 
. ■■ .c, twriit \ IVft froiii tlu* 'jronii'l. aii<l continiH* for vi-;ir» •• 

■ A thnost or qnitv m> w«-1I as if it wrn? in the i:roijn«l. 

\> o niav :ilso nndcr-^taiMl l>v iin-itlints likr th«*M* liow tr-»-! ''■ 
n.i :!»'«! so vrr\ hui^iii tliin part of Aiaskn, and wliv PK'kv :•«•« ..\- 
I v<, i»n whi< h no v»ir«tation at all couM exi^t in theilrv riini ■.••■' 
■ t t-a^trrn Statr-^,\Vfu* li«i«' clotliiMl with a luxnriant \t%-<\\ jp «::.. 
xt» thick tliat it \v:is almost inipo>«»il»h' for <>no to niakt* :i j«njr.'\ 
i:i:oiii;h it. Indians jia<l very fi*\v trails; most of th«*ir jnurn*!' 
wi*r»' l>v <ano<s. At tliis villairr lir also saw a hiisU of /.'.■. i --: 
,Nr«//»/r/v//f/, which was <»f iniiiM'n-*!' size, as (*onipari'd with uluit f.- 
Ijad ***'«n in Colorado and othiT placrs. This was at tin* l».n'n f 
Mil Iinlian lodiit' and alonir>ii||. (,f n nathwav, cut ai:aiii«»t !> 
hdl-«^idr. Thf plant w.is ^rowinj; on the liank and t:ri n ..i 
soinr ten or t\vriv«* f«'«'t. when* it iKiit ovc»r, npparenMy *>( i> 
own a<rind. and i»"^tt'd on \\iv roof of tlu* lodj^o. its nuni4-r« .- 
In'.-inchcs niakitii: a di'ii-^i' arlxir ntnlcr wliich tlio load pi^«« ! 
TIm' '^ti-niH nrar t he l: round wt-n-. >oni<* of thrni, as thii-k a* i • 
HMn.MiKl tin- wIh»1i' phint wa^ «'<>vfri'<i l»v very lari»e Mack U-ir:»* 
Stoppini: in admirMtion t<> |o<»k at and examine the *»|M-ein:*r. 
lu'Minht nninlers of liiilians to >vv wliat was the sul»ji«-t. » li' 
Miiih i] pha-^antly on l»«in;r niade to nndeistand that oiilv the <*i.' : 
of :i hu;^e hu>h li.id attiactrd the traveler. Snhsenuontly afft.*- r 
•^piMJiiun was nntid in the woods <in a jilaiit of tlu» natixe h :;- 
1"» U. Af'i's Mrrti ii^t'inii. In the wojmIs the plant is <«onieM'^: 
-:ii nn'iitMe«M»ns. |i eonhl not eliinh a hemlock without ii-^^i-^^t. ■ 
Tlii"* «'ld hcnd«»<'k wn** hcn'tt of hraiiches to aUmt lwtnt\ t--: 
liijh, l-nt the I.t>!nr,rn wjs alM»ve the lower hnuiches, atel l,.i : 
j<»nriM\cil aloii'^' tlu-in \k\ tin* extninities, iH'yond uhi«li it k»j- 
ht :iiitilullv in Iniit. It rould '"nlv liave been there hy un^win:: 
fi! h :'m- h»inln<U wluh that t h'c wa«^ vonii^r, and %va«* pn^l-a* l^ ' 
fl' iiT t III- ^runt :i"ji-, TIm- lii<li.in villai;*' of Kalj^an is not pr«»;*''^ 
\'.\ A^ii-ki. 'lit ju^t oyer tin- Uu'der in British CohunlMa. ar -l- 
* . i-*«iii point «'f Ala^kii. I nt the climatic ctMniiiii^L-' r- 
H- i' '!■• -Mine. 



! uir.j WM- .'idi-ml ti» I'l- printed: — 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 25T 



NOTES ON GLACIAL ACTION IN NOBTHEBN NEW TOBK AND CANADA. 

BY JOSEPH WILLCOX. 

In a former communication I have noted some results from 
glacial action in northern New York and Canada. I have recently 
observed some other matters connected with the same action, in 
that region, viz., in Lewis, Jefferson and St. Lawrence Counties 
in New York, and in Canada, for a distance of one hundred and 
twenty-five miles north of the St. Lawrence River. 

In this territory all the original soil appears to have been 
removed b}' glacial action, and that which now remains there has 
been deposited by the receding glacier. It is thinly distributed, 
seldom being many feet in depth ; while, in many ca;ses, the rocks 
have no soil upon them. All the rocks are extensively eroded, 
and those which are durable still remain smooth — both above the 
ground and underneath — wherever I have seen the soil removed. 

In the country south of the great terminal moraine, which 
extends across our continent, the soil is usually deep, especially 
in our Southern States. The top of the rocks, under this deep 
soil, is ordinarily in a state of disintegration ; and the different 
stages of transition from hard rock to soil may easily be observed. 
Loose stones, on top of and in the soil, are more or less decom- 
posed on their surface, relinquishing their substance slowly, as 
new virgin soil, for the needs of vegetation. Where the country 
has been extensively glaciated, this condition of the rocks and 
stones does not exist, the soft portion of them having been 
removed by attrition, and, since the glacial times, little disinte- 
gration of the surface of the granite and Pottsdam sandstone has 
occurred. 

If the'gieat ice sheet should have receded north speedily, by 
rapid melting, less material would, of course, be deposited on the 
ground, than in the case of a slow retrogression. In the former 
case little would be deposited, in any locality, except what was 
already on the ground, in the process of transportation. 

Taking the country north of Philadelphia as illustrating prob- 
ably the conditions prevailing elsewhere within the glaciated area, 
I have observed that north of the great terminal moraine a large 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADE3CT OF [l*W. 

amount of silt has l^en deposited, a.s moraine materijil, by the 
recediiifr jr|a<;ier,aft far north a<« Trenton Falls, in New York, bet 
not miicli farther. On the north side of the Mohawk Vall^r. 
from rtiea to Schenectady, vast defwsits of glacial drift may he 
seen. North of Trenton Falls the de{K>8its apfiear to 4limiDl«b 
rai)idly in quantity, so that I observed no large aecumiiUtioiH 
near the St. Lawrence Kiver or north of it. The Ikrther north I 
proceeded the smaller the deposits api)eared to be, including the 
ordinjirv surface soil. 

From the alnjve facts I consider there are reasonable grr>un4f 
fr)r suspecting that the glacier receded slowly from Pennsyhanim 
until its southern limit was not far north of the Mohawk Ri%er. 
and then it was withdrawn more rapidly, with increasing speeil, 
as it i»roceeile<l north. 

Some geologists consider that there was not a great amount of 
glacial erosion accom])lished U|)on the rocks in Pennsylvania. I 
lK*lieve that the erosion proceeded with much greater effect in 
Can.'ula than in this State. While progressing from the north 
the glacier would oiM*rate on the rocky surface of Canada duriofc 
a long time iM'fore it would reach the latitude of Pennsylvania. 
Also during its decline it would still continue its abrasion ia 
Canada long after it had retreated from our State. 

1 have observed, in northern New York and Canada, that where 
the <M>uutrv is level it is often covered with Silurian limestones or 
sandst<»nes, but where it is hilly the Laurentian rocks u»uallj 
I»revaii. In the latter case the Silurian rocks may have formerly 
exisi4Ml jind iK'en removed, as they were more effectually exposed 
to the glacial erosion. 

Many sharp, angular stones are scattered over the ground in 
Canada among the rounded l>oul<ler8. These evidently have mA 
Ix'en transported far from the parent rock, but they are suggei^tive 
of the fact that, even near the close of the glacier^s career, r<>ek» 
were still being torn into fragments. These frag^menta were 
chierty broken loose from the southwestern portions of the ruokj. 

As a shallow s<»il prevails in the district referred to, the trve* 
do not obtain a deep, substantial hold upon the ground; con^^ 
quently they are easily bbiwn down by the storms, and the forv«t« 
are rille<l with prostrate trees, which make travel a ditficuU oper- 
ation there. When the fi>rests are cleared otf, the ground is in % 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 259 

very rough condition. A bole in the ground indicates the place 
where a tree formerly stood, while a pile of earth alongside 
denotes the place where the roots of the prostrated tree trans- 
ported and deposited the soil that was in the hole. Large fields 
may be seen, the surfaces of which are almost wholly broken up 
into holes and piles of earth, by the prostration of trees. 



260 PROCEEDINGS OF TBE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



November 13. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

The following was ordered to be published : — 



OBITUABT NOTICE OF CHABLES F. FABKER. 
BY ISAAC C. MARTI NDALE. 

When a man has given to the service of the public good the 
best years of his life, and that life perhaps shortened in conse- 
quence of his. devotion and faithfulness to known duties, it 
should rest with some survivor to so place upon the historic 
page this record, that perchance some disconsolate and weary 
follower, ready to faint by the way, " seeing may take heart 
again." For such a life is a conspicuous mark on the highway 
of honest endeavor, and a beacon light ever before the devoted 
inquirer after truth. 

Hence I have assumed to place herein a notice of the life and 
services of Charles F. Parker, late Curator-in-charge of this 
Academy. 

His parents resided in Philadelphia, where he was born on the 
9th day of November, 1820. His mother dying when he was but 
an infant, he was deprived of a mother's love to stimulate and 
encourage him in his undertakings. 

His father, being in humble circumstances, was able to give 
him but a limited education. Charles, as soon as he was old 
enough to be of any service, was apprenticed to bookbinding ; 
his father having long been engaged in that business. 

He remained in Philadelphia until about the age of 22 years, 
when he went to Boston and engaged in the same business. 
After residing there about two years he married Martha Kellom, ' 
and in 1851 left Boston and moved to Leominster, where he 
opened a book-store, and carried on bookbinding on his own 
account. This business enterprise, not being so successful as he 
had hoped, was abandoned in 1853, and he removed to Camden, 
New Jersey, where he resided during the remainder of his life. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 261 

About two years after the death of his mother, his father 
married again, and when the father died in 1835, his widow con- 
tinued to carr}' on the bookbinding, and Charles became a partner 
and assumed the management of the business, subsequently 
conducting the woik on his own account, ^ 

As a business man he was extremely conscientious in having 
his work performed at the exact time that had been agreed upon ; 
and he attained an enviable reputation as a neat workman — to 
such an extent, that services in his business which required the 
utmost care and nicety were sure to be sent to him to be per- 
formed, and he would not undertake any kind of work that was 
expected to be done in a cheap or hurried manner. Having the 
oversight and employment of others for many years, his just 
treatment of them always gave him the choice of the best work- 
men, and those who were satisfactory remained year after year 
in his employ. 

During the earlier part of his life he did not manifest any 
especial interest in natural history ; yet for a long time he was a 
companion of C. S. llafinesque, the well-known naturalist, who 
boarded in the same house. This was during the latter part of 
the life of Rafinesque, when he was engaged in the manufacture 
of medicines, which he contended were for the relief of '' all the 
ills that flesh is heir to." The writer has repeatedly heard 
narrated some of the incidents in the life of this naturalist which 
occurred during those years, and which seemed to have made a 
lasting impression on the mind of our friend C. F. Parker; so 
much so that I am led to believe the love for natural science, 
which developed in the later years of his life, was from some of 
the seed then sown. One of these 4ncidents, so characteristic of 
the eccentric Rafinesque, may be mentioned here : Charles was 
quite fond of remaining in bed at a later hour in the morning 
than usual when he was not expected to be at his place of busi- 
ness, and often entertained himself by singing some favorite 
tune; on one such occasion Rafinesque heard the usual melodious 
sounds, and went to the room door, which he quickly opened, 

exclaiming, 

** He who sings in bed instead of sleeping, 

And whistles at the table instead of eating, 

Is either crazy or soon will be." 

Having thus relieved his mind, he went away to his own quiet 



262 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

musings, which he did not seek to brighten by such displays of 
levity or cheer. 

Very soon after making Camden his home, Charles became 
interested in conchology, althouj^h he had never seen a collection 
of shells, nor known anything of their scientific arrangement or 
method of stud}^ ; neither was he acquainted with an}' one at 
work in that department of natural history. His attention also 
became directed towards insects, especially butterflies and beetles, 
and learning that a society had been formed for their study, he 
applied for membership in the Entomological Society of Phila- 
delphia, and was elected November 11, 1861. 

This brought him in contact with men of science, and gave 
him an opportunity to examine books and specimens that he had 
never known of before, opening a new life and infusing a zeal 
which increased with advancing years. 

The study of conchology and entomolog}'^ opened the way for 
other branches of natural history ; and having become a frequent 
visitor at this Academy, he was brought into intimate relations 
with several of its members who were pursuing the study of 
botany and making collections of plants in the immediate neigh- 
borhood of Philadelphia. He soon became interested with them 
in their pursuits, and took up the same study with especial 
zeal. Withal, he never neglected his business, nor failed to keep 
his appointments and engagements therein. He was elected to 
membership in the Academy on the 29th of August, 1865, and 
forthwith entered heartil}' into work, for it will be remembered 
that at this time the collections were not well arranged, owing 
to the limited space occupied, and the want of means to secure 
the services of competent workmen; so that almost all of the 
labor performed was voluntary and gratuitous. 

His earliest labors in the Academy were directed to the con- 
chological collection, and for seven years he devoted a large 
portion of the time that could be spared from his business to its 
systematic arrangement, preparing and mounting during that 
period about one hundred thousand specimens, in a style which, 
for neatness and adaptability for scientific study, has not been 
excelled. This labor, perhaps the greatest volunteer work ever 
done in the Academy, was only finished a short time before it 
became necessary to pack the Academy's museum for removal to 
the present building; he immediately engaged in this labor, and 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 263 

had already devoted much time to it, when it became apparent to 
his fellow-members that the Academy would be greatly benefited 
by employing him permanently for a compensation. In 1874 he 
was elected one of the Curators, and on solicitation was induced 
to partially give up his business as a bookbinder and accept the 
meagre amount which the Society could afford to pay him, 
giving in return the greater part of his time to its work. The 
entire museum was removed under his direction and arranged in 
cases in this building in a very short period — the actual removal 
being accomplished in about a month, the unpacking and display 
in the cases in about five months. He has been annually re-elected 
one of the Curators of the Academy at successive elections, 
invariably receiving the full number of votes cast, however many 
candidates were in nomination, thus showing the value and appre- 
ciation of his services. 

Although he continued his interest in the study of conchology 
and entomology, and made quite extensive collections in both of 
these departments, he seemed to have taken an especial fondness 
for the study of botany, which he never afterward allowed to 
falter. He was one of the first to discover that the ballast 
deposits in and around Philadelphia and Camden were prolific in 
introduced plants, and his knowledge of conchology sometimes 
enabled him to determine the part of the world from which those 
deposits came, as occasionally fragments of shells were found 
therein. 

In one of his journeyings to the swamps of Cape May County 
he met CoeF. Austin, the noted cryptogramic botanist, who died 
at Closter, N. J., a few j^ears ago, and who at that time was 
engaged in the study of the flora of New Jersey. There at once 
spnmg up a real friendship between them, which increased as 
time advanced, terminating only when Austin died. The interest, 
however, which had been created to endeavor to complete a list 
of the plants of New Jersey was not allowed to abate ; and for 
several years past, in connection with other botanists, the work 
has been approaching completion to such an extent that a 
preliminary catalogue has been compiled by N. L. Britten^ d 
printed under the auspices of the Geological Survey of w 
Jersey, in which the name of C. P. Parker fn 
Probably no botanist has made more freqi b i 
barrens and swamps of that State, nor co 



204 PROCKEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

of her florn, as he did ; the same ready tact displayed in the wr»rk 
of liis hands everywhere has lK»en especially noticeable in the pre|»- 
aration of his herbarium sj)eciinens; they are at once character- 
istic and jr<><Hl,so much so that exchanges were desired from him 
by the noted botanists of the country, and to-<lay his s|M*cimens 
enrich many private collections and herbariums of institutions of 
the United States and Europe. The collection of New Ji»rsev 
plants which he has left is one of the Hnest and most jH'rfiTt that 
exists, and of itself is a monument of patience and skill of wlii<*h 
any one might feel proud. 

The annual reports of the ofHcers of the Academy, of hite 
years, show somewhat of the service he has rendered. The 
mounting i>f specimens presented, and their arrangement, ban 
been one of great lalM)r, requiring skill, patience and care. The 
neatness displayed, so characteristic of the man, has made the 
collections of the Academy of inestimable value to the scientific 
world and an ornament to the institution itself. Since occui>vin<^ 
its present building, l>etween thirty and forty thousand ailditional 
specimens of shells have been receivetl, all of which have U^en 
mounted by him, and nearly all outside of the hours in which he 
was employed by the Aca<lemy, and without compensation. He 
wa»* one of the founders of the (/onchological Section and of the 
Botanical Section, and was active in their procetM lings. 

It has well lH»en sai<l he was a Inirn naturalist ; he had a quick 
eye and good judgment in perceiving and estimating s|H*cific 
chanicters, antl an excellent memory. His knowledge of cnn- 
chology was probably almost as extensive as his acipiirements in 
boUiny, although he was, perhaps, more widely known in the 
latter department. What he knew he was always ready to impart 
to others, and the many naturalists who have consulttMl the col- 
lections of the Academy during hiseuratorship invariably receivetl 
from him valuable and generous aid. 

The service which he gave to this Academy, the self-sacriflcintr 
devotion to its interests ever manifestx»d by him, provetl at bi'^t 
to l>e the weapon of his own destruction. In the early part of 
the present year his health rapidly gave way, so that he wa«* 
obliged to refrain from continuous work. The Council of the 
Academy, mimlful of his eminent services, unanimously graule<l 
him leave of absence for the summer months, in order that rej»t 
might, if |>ossible, restore his wasted energies antl give l»!ick 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 265 

to the Academy his invaluable services ; but too late ! The 
disease gradually assumed a more serious character, and at last 
paralysis of the brain set in, which terminated his life on the 
seventh day of September, 1883, in the sixty-third year of his age. 
My acquaintance with him, extending back nearly a quarter of 
a century, has given me full opportunity to know his character 
and judge of his worth. Had he been favored with good oppor- 
tunities for school education in early years, he doubtless would 
have ranked among the eminent scientists of the day ; 3'^et the 
record which he has left of overcoming the many obstacles of 
life, of his rigid adherence to right, his extremely conscientious 
desire to be found faithful in all his undertakings, and the work 
of his hands in all the departments in which he found engage- 
ment, have given him a record and a name which must ever 
remain ; whilst the memory of his many social qualities well 
known to me serves to make up the triplicate of naturalist, 
companion, and friend. 



November 20. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 
The following were presented for publication : — 
*' Notes on American Fishes preserved in the Museums at 
Berlin, London, Paris and Copenhagen," by David S. Jordan. 
" The Occident Ant in Dakota," by Rev. H. C. McCook. 
" Staining with Haematox^^on," by Chas. L. Mitchell, M. D. 
The death of John L. LeConte, M. D., a member, was announced. 
The following was ordered to be printed : — 



18 



2f)B PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY Of [1883. 



OH THE VALUE 07 THE *• HEARCTIC *' A8 OHE 07 THE PBIMAET ZOOU>«- 
ICAL REGIONS. REPLIES TO CRITICISMS BT MR. ALf RED RUttXL 
WALLACE AHD PROP. THEODORE GILL. 

BV PR0FEi<80R ANGEI.O HEILPRIN. 

The subjoined criticism hy Mr. Alfred Russel Wallace on my 
piiper eiititleil ** On the Value of the ^ Nearctic ' aa one of the 
rrimary Zoological Jlegions/^ publiBhed in the Proceeilinga of 
the Academy for December, 1882, and my repl}* thereto, appear 
in Nature under dates of March 22 and April 26 of this year : — 

*' In the Proveedingn of the Academt/ of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia (Decemlwr, 1882), Prof. Angelo Ueilprin has an 
itrticle under the above title in which he seeks to show that the 
Nciirctic and Pahearetic sliould form one region, for which he 
proposes the somewhat awkward name * Triarctic Region,' or* the 
region of the three northern continents. The reasons for this 
pro|H>sal are, that in the chief vertebrate classes the proportion 
of |>eculiar forms is less in both the Nearctic and Pala'arctic than 
in any of the other regions; while if these two n*gions are eom- 
bincnl, they will, together, have an amount of peculiarity greater 
than some of the tro|>ieal regions. 

** This may Ik? quite true without leading to the conclusion 
argued for. The best division of the earth into Z(K)logical regioun 
is a question not to Ik* settled by looking at it from one point of 
view alone ; and Prof. Heilprin entirely omits two consideration?* 
— |)eculiarity due to the alwenee <»f widespread groups, aui! 
geogmphieal individuality. The absence of the families of hetlge- 
hogs, swine and dormice, and of the genera Mtlett^ £tfuui(^ iio^t, 
(iuzt'lla, J/i/^, Cricftuii, Mfrionea^ Ihjnis and Ihj»tnx^ among 
mammals; and of the important families of tly-catchers and 
Hiarlings, the extreme rarity of larks, the scarcity of warblers, 
and the absence t»f sueh widespread genera as Avroteyhatut^, 
J/yitolai.<, Jiutit'illa, Sasu^da, Arvenior^ GttrruluH, Friiujilla^ 
J-Jmln^rtza, Mt»ta*'i la, Yuux^ Cuvulutt^ CaprimuUjun^ Perdis, 
C'o/Mi*Mi>,and all the true pheasants, among birds, many i»f whieli 
groups may alnuist be said to eharacterize the Old \Vi>rld an 
coropare<l with the Ni-w. must surely l>e allowed to have great 
weight in determining this (question. 

" The geographical individuality of the two regions is of no 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 267 

less importance, and if we once quit these well-marked and most 
natural primary divisions we shall, I believe, open up questions 
as regards the remaining regions which it will not be easy to set 
at rest. There runs through Prof. Heilprin's paper a tacit assump- 
tion that there should be an equivalence, if not an absolute 
equalitj', in the zoological characteristics and peculiarities of all 
the regions. But even after these two are united, there will 
remain discrepancies of almost equal amount among the rest, 
since in some groups the Neotropical, in others the Australian, 
far exceed all other regions in their specialty. The temperate 
and cold parts of the globe are necessarily less marked by iiighly 
peculiar groups than Jhe tropical areas, because they have been 
recently subjected to great extremes of climate, and have thus 
not been able to preserve so many ancient and specialized form 4 
as the more uniformly warm areas. But, taking this fact into 
account, it seems to me that the individuality of the Nearctic 
and Palaearctic regions is very well marked, and much greater 
than could have been anticipated; anrl I do not think that natur- 
alists in general will be induced to give them up by any hucIi 
arguments as are here brought forward. 

"Alfred R. Wallack." 

Reply to the preceding : — 

" Permit me to make a few remarks relative to Mr. Wallace '» 
criticism (Nature, vol. xxvii, p. 482) of my paper on * The Vajiii* 
of the Nearctic as one of the Primary Zoological Regirms.* 
Briefly stated, it is maintained in the early portion of 1\i\h pa|x;r 
(1) that the Nearctic* and Palafarctic faunas taken individtialljr 
exhibit, in comparison with the other rt'gional faunas Cat U'tmi 
the Neotropical, Ethiopian and Au-^tralian), a marked abnerKjif 
of ]X)8i(iv€ distinguishing charact^^rrs. a deft^'iency which in lh#e 
mammalia extends to families. yLcucnx^ and H\Hu*Utn^ and ottit 
which, in the cane of the Nearctic reifion. aU'/ equally ^or m^rly 
so) distingaishes the reptilian and amphibian fatiusm; (t) 
this deficiency is principally due to the circum«itan/^ that 
groups of animaU which would fA\n^rw'm4'. }^ [/^;/;uliar to, or ri ' 
characteristic of. one or other of th<5 rf/j^\*ttm. nrn prifvi?rit4;d tfi 



' In the paper aiider er^k«i#ieniti//r«, [ \txyf, y^Mft^t wUnl uppmw Ut 
factory reacoiM f*jr de^aciiin^r <*-t.«jfi {X/rti^/fA ^/f U** ^yft$*hwi | 

StaUfft fruiD the Neatrti't ^mj T/i*'ctic , ini4 f$u$Unx m$ % 
Neotropical regain. 



268 PBOCEEDINQ8 OF THI ACADEMY OF [1883. 

being such by reason of their biung held in common by the two 
regions; and (3) that the Nearctic and Pala*arctie faunas taken 
collectively are more clearly defined from any or all of the other 
faunas than either the Nearctic or Pala^arctic taken individually. 
*' In reference to these points, Mr. Wallace, while not denying 
the facts, remarks : * The best division of the earth into zoo- 
logical regions is a question not to be settled by looking at it 
from one point of view alone ; and Prof. Ileilprin entirely omits 
two considerations — |)eculiarity due to the absence of widespread 
groups, and geographical individuality.* Numerous families and 
genera from the classes of mammals and birds are then cited as 
lieing entirely wanting in the western hemisphere, and which — 
in many cases almost sufficient to ' characterize the Old World 
as compared with the New ' — * must surely be allowed to have 
great weight in determining this question.' No one can tleny 
that the absence from a given region of certain widespread 
groups of animals is a factor of very considerable importance in 
determining the zoological relationship of that region, and one 
that is not likely to be overlooked by any fair-minded investi- 
gator of the subject. But the value of this negative character 
atforded by the absence of certain animal groups as distinguish- 
ing a^iven fauna, is in great measure proportional to the extent 
of the positive character — that furnished by tlK» presence of 
peculiar groups- and indeed may be said to In* entirely dei)en- 
dent t)n it. No region can be said to be satisfactorily distin- 
guished from another without its |K>ssessing both i>ositive and 
negative distinguishing characters. Mr. Wallace has in his 
several publications laid considerable stress ufmn the negative 
features of the Nearctic fauna as separating it from the Pahe 
arctic or from any other, but he has not, it appears to me, sutti- 
ciently emphasizeti the great lack, when i^omjyared to other 
faunas, of the |)ositive element, the consideration of which is the 
|>oint aime<i at in the first portion of my pai>er, and which has 
le<l to the conclusions already stated — that only by uniting the 
Nearctic and Pahvarctic regions do we produce a collei*tive 
fauna which is broailly tlistinguinhed by Itoth |K»sitive and negn- 
tive <*hnracters from thnt of any other region. If, as .Mr. 
Wallace seems to argue, the absence from North America of 
the * families of hedgehogs, swine antl dormice, and of the 
genera 3A7f*«, A'r/»Mn«, Hott, Gazella^ iVt/«, CriretuH, ^fer^ont'tl, 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 269 

Dipus and Hystrix,^ be sufficient, as far as the mammalian fauna 
is concerned, to separate tliat region from tlie Palsearctic, could 
not on nearly equally strong grounds a separation be effected in 
the Palaearctic region itself? Thus, if we were to consider the 
western division of the Pala^arctic region, or what corresponds 
to the continent of Europe of geographers, as constituting an 
independent region of its own, it would be distinguished from 
the remainder of what now belongs to the Palsearctic region by 
negative characters probably full}' as important as those indicated 
by Mr. Wallace as separating the Xearctic from the Palffiarctic 
region. The European mammalian fauna would be wholly 
deficient, or nearly so, in the genera Equus^ Moschus^ Camelus, 
Poephagus, Gazella, Oryx, Addox, Saiga, Ovis, Lagomys, Tamias, 
in several of the larger Felidas, as the tiger and leopard, and in 
a host of other forms. A similar selection could be made from 
the class of birds (among the most striking of these the Phasi- 
anidas and Struthionidae), but it is scarcely necessary in this place 
to enter upon an enumeration of characteristic forms. Divisions 
of this kind, to be characterized principally or largely bj'' nega- 
tive faunal features, could be effected in all the regions, and in 
some instances with probably more reason than in the case under 
discussion. 

" But the question suggests itself, what amount of characters, 
whether positive or negative, or both, is sufficient to distinguish 
one regional fauna from another? Mr. Wallace states: * There 
runs through Prof. Heilprin's paper a tacit assumption that there 
should be an equivalence, if not an absolute equality, in the 
zoological characteristics and peculiarities of all the regions.' 
Is it to be inferred from this quotation that Mr. Wallace recog- 
nizes no such general equivalence ? Is a region holding in its 
fauna, say from 15 to 20 per cent, of peculiar or highly charac- 
teristic forms, to be considered equivalent in value to one where 
the faunal peculiarity amounts to 60 to 80 per cent. ? If there 
be no equivalence of any kind required, why not give to many of 
the subregions, as now recognized, the full value of region? 

" Surely, on this method of looking at the question, a province 
could readily be raised to the rank of a full region. In the 
matter of geographical individuality little need be said, as the 
circumstance, whether it be or be not so, that the * temperate 
and cold parts of the globe are necessarily less marked by highly 



S70 P10CXI3>1!C08 OF THE ACADKMT OF [1883. 

peculiar groups than the tropical areas, l>ecau8e they have been 
recently subjected to great extremes of climate/ does not atfect 
the present issue, seeing that the peculiarity is greatly increased 
by uniting the two regions in question; nor does it directly atTect 
the question of the Nearctic-I*aliearctic relationship. 

'' The secv>nd |^rt of my paper deals with the examination of 
the reptilian and amphibian fauna«%, and the general conclusion 
arrived at is : * That bv the communitv of its mammalian, 
luitrnchian and reptilian characters, the Nearctic fauna (exclu> 
iltng therefrom the loi*al faunas of the Sonoran and Lower Cali- 
forniau subregions. which are Neotropical' is shown to W of a 
distinctively Old World type, and to be indissolubly linked to 
the Pala»arctic (of which it forms only a lateral extension).* 
Townnls this conclusion, which, it is claimed, is also borne out 
by the land and fresh-water mollusca and the butterflies among 
insects, 1 am now happy to add the further testimony of Mr. 
Wallace (overlooked when preparing my article) respecting the 
Colvoptera (* Distribution/ * Encycl. Britann./ 9th ed., vii, 
p. 274 . 

**As regards the name * Triarctic,' by which I intende<l to 
flesignate the combined Nearctic and Pala^irctic regions, and 
which may or may not l»e ' somewhat awkward,' I beg to state 
that, at the suggestion of Prof, i^lfred Newton (who, as he 
informs me, has arrived from a study of the bird faunas at con- 
clusions approximately identical with my own), it has been 
replaied by *Holarctic.* In conclusion, 1 would say that, while 
tlie views enunciated in my paper may not meet with general 
acc<'ptance at the hands of naturalists, it is to be hoped that they 
will not l>e rejected because they may * open up questions as 
regards the remaining regions which it will not be easy to set at 
rest.* '^Anuelo Heilprin. 

**Aendem}f of Natural Seiencfn^ Pktladelpkia^ Aptil 6." 

Ip the issue of Nature for June 7, Prof. Theodore Gill, in an 
iirticli*entitleil"The Northern Zoogeo;;raphical Regions,'* submits 
the following criticisms on my paper supplementary to those of 
Mr. Wallace : — 

** The factb of zoogeography are so involved, and often ap|>ar- 
ently contradictory, that a skilful dialectician with the requisite 
knowledge can make a plausible argument for antithetical postu- 



1 883.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



271 



lates. Prof. Heilprin being a skilful dialectician and well 
informed, has submitted a pretty argument in favor of the union 
of the North American or * Nearctic ' and Eurasiatic or * Palje- 
arctic ' regions {Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil.^ 1882, pp. 316-334, 
nnd Nature^ vol. xxvii, p. 606), but Mr. Wallace has, with perfect 
justness it seems to me, objected to his proposition (Nature, yo\. 
xxyii, pp. 482. 483). As Prof. Heilprin's arguments have not . 
been entirely met, however, permit me to submit some further 
objections to his views. 

" Prof. Heilprin has contended * (1) that by family, generic, 
and specific characters, as far as the mammalia are concerned, 
the Nearctic and Palsearctic faunas taken collectively are more 
clearly defined from any or all of the other regions than either 
the Nearctic or Palaearctic taken individually ; and (2) that by 
the community of family, generic and specific characters the 
Nearctic region is indisputably united to the Palaearctic, of which 
it forms a lateral extension.' 

'' Prof. Heilprin has formulated these conclusions after a sum- 
mary of the families and genera common and peculiar to the 
regions in question. 

"As to families Prof. Heilprin has presented the following 
figures : — 

Nearctic, 

Palflearctic, 

Oriental, 

Australian, 

Ethiopian, 

Neotropical, 

" The proportions of peculiar genera to the entire mammalian 
faunas of the several regions are stated to be as follows : — 



Nearctic, 
Palaearctic, . 
Oriental, 
Australian, . 
Ethiopian, . 
Neotropical, 

" The question may naturally recur, whj' the line which sep- 



All. 


Peculiar. 


. 26 


1 


. 36 





. 36 


3 


. 22 


8 


. 44 


9 


. 31 


8 



All. 


Peculiar. F 


'ercenti 


. 74 


26 


35 


. 100 


35 


35 


. 118 


54 


46 


. 70 


45 


64 


. 142 


90 


63 


. 131 


103 


78 



272 PR0UJCEDIN08 OF TUK ACADEMY OF [1883. 

arates * regions * from ' subregions ' should be drawn Wtwoen 35 
and 46 per cent, rather than between 46 and 63 or 64 per cent., 
or even between 64 and 78 per cent Prof. Ileilprin has not told 
lis why, and I am unable to appreciate the reason therefor. 
Surely it is not sutlicient to answer by simply asking the question 
put in Nature (p. 606). 

*' But an analysis of more (but only approximately) correct 
figures and a more logical classification of mammals than that 
adopted by Prof. Ileilprin reveal factors materially contravening 
the tabular statements of that gentleman. 

*^ First we must exclude the marine mammals, because their 
distribution and limitation are determined by other factors tlian 
those which regulate the terrestrial ones. A consideration tlu'n 
of the terrestrial forms leads to the following results : — 

*' The Arctamerican or Nearctic region has twenty-seven 
families, of which eleven are not shared with Eurasia and four 
are peculiar ; it has sixty-eight genera, of which forty-flve <lo 
not enter into Eurasia. 

** The Eurasiatic or pHliearctic region has thirty-two' families, 
of which seventeen are excluded from North America, and it 
. possesses eighty -nine * genera, of which sixty have failed to Wcorae 
developed in America. 

*' Such contrasts will nK)re than compare generally with thono 
existing between Eurasia and India, and even between the * Tri- 
arctic ' or * llolarctic ' an<l Indian * regions,* and the same <le- 
atriictive process by which the northern regions are abrogated 
would entail the absorption of the Indian as well into a hetero- 
geneous whole. The three can in fact l>e well united (as Ca^noga'a), 
and contrasted with a group (Koga»a) consisting of the African, 
South American, and Australian regions, as I hmg ago urged 
(Ann, and ^fag. Sat. Hint. [4], xv, 251 -255, 1875), but the claims 
of eaeh to be considered as * regions ' or realms are not thert»by 
afrecti»<l. '' TiiKo. (i lu*. 

*' SmithMoniiin lH^titHti0n,Wa$hiHtjtony May 12.** 

The alKive criticisms of Prof. (Jill fall into two distinrt <\Hte- 
gorie.H, which in.ny Ik* conveniently forniulatetl as follows: — 

' Tlicw are tli«» groiipH admitted by Pwf. Ileilprin, excluMve of ilio 
l*iiiii|K*<lh. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 273 

1. Accepting the data as given, are the conclusions drawn from 
them necessarily correct ? 

2. Are the data themselves correct ? 

The first of the questions is answered by a negative in interro- 
gation, if so it may be termed. Prof. Gill objects to my (?) method 
of distinguishing between the larger and smaller zoogeographical 
divisions, and pointingly submits that " The question may natur- 
ally recur, wh}*^ the line which separates * regions' from * sub- 
regions ' should be drawn between 35 and 46 per cent, rather than 
between 46 ^nd 63 or 64 per cent., or even between 64 and 78 per 
cent. Prof. Heilprin has not told us why, and I am unable to appre- 
ciate the reason therefor. Surely it is not sufficient to answer by 
simply asking the question put in Nature (p. 606)." The problem 
here stated is certainly one that does not admit of a ready logical 
solution, and one which the writer has never attempted to solve ; 
nor, as far as he is aware, has its solution ever been effected by 
any other writer on zoogeography. 78 is indisputably as near to 
64 as this last is to 46, and but little less near than 46 is to 35 ; 
and if one or two more terms be added to the series, it may still 
be contended with equal justice that 46 holds approximately the 
same relation (in this sense) to 35 as 35 does to 25, and 25 to 15 
as 15 to 5, and so to either end. So far, well and good. But the 
fact still remains, nevertheless, that a region whose fauna is char- 
acterized by 90 or 78 per cent, of peculiarities is eminently well 
defined from any and all other regions ; that one whose peculiar- 
ities amount to 64 or 46 per cent, is considerably Zf?S6* well-defined ; 
and that another, where the peculiaritj' amounts to only 15 or 10 
per cent., is still less well-defined, and, in fact, scarcely defined at 
all. If a line of division or separation is to be drawn at all it 
must be drawn somewhere, and this somewhere must be dictated 
in great part by common sense. 

As regards the second question (2), Prof. Gill is much more 
emphatic in his (negative) reply. In the first place, it is pleaded 
that the marine mammals ought to have been excluded from any 
analysis bearing upon the subject of zoogeography, "because 
their distribution and limitation are determined by other factors 
than those which regulate the terrestrial ones." But surely if 
these forms are to be excluded, we might for almost identical 
reasons exclude the birds, since in the distribution of this class 
of animals factors are involved which are in no way operative in 



274 PROCEEDINGS or THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

the dispersal of several other claj»ses of land animals, such as the 
maminaU. reptiles, raollnsk*. etc. And yet it is largely, in<lee<l it 
miglit Ik? said almost wholly, iifK>n the distribution of birds that 
the principles of zoo^reoirraphy. with its existing classification, 
were originally 8ketche<l out. Granting, however, for the sake of 
argument, the justice of plea made, are the results in any way 
materially affected or altere<l ? Most emphatically not, as will 
l>e ma<le manifest by an examination of the accompanying tables, 
where the original and new (or reiluced) data are placed immedi- 
ately under each other: — 

Of 26 Nearctic families (land and marine) 19 are also Palawirctic 

= 74 |H*r cent. 
Of 23 Nearctic families (land onlv • 16 are also Palfemrctic = 

70 |)er cent. 
Of 74 Nearctic genera (land and marine) 35 are also Paliearetic 

= 47 i>er cent. 
Of 62 Nearctic genei*a (land only) 26 are also Palaearctic = 

42 per cent. 
Of 74 Nearctic genera (land and marine) 26 are peculiar = 

35 jK»r cent. 
Of 62 Nearctic geneni (land only) 23 are peculiar = 3T percent. 

The 26 i)eculiHr Nearctic genera (land and marine) comprise 
60 species, or 21 per cent, of the entire number (279) of s|»ecit^ 

The 23 peculiar Nearctic genera (lan<l only ) comprise 57 specie*, 
or 21 per cent, of the entire number (267) of land species. 

It will thus be seen that the greatest variation in any place i* 
only five j>er cent. If, as has l>een done in my paper, we unite 
the Nearctic auil Pahearctic regions, we will then have, a» 
claime<l : — 

86 peculiar geueni (land and marine) out of a total of 139 —- ^2 

jH'r cent.; or, deducting the marine forms — 
74 |H»culiar genera out of a total of 1-7 land forms = 5S pe- 

cent. 

An<l if we consider the si>ecific forms represented by the«^ 
|M*culiar genera, wc have — 

2H4 out of a total f>f 67.'> (land and marine) = 42 per cent.: or. 

dcductiii;: the iiiariiic forms — 
264 out of a total of 6;)5 land forms = 40 per cent. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 275 

Here ogain, therefore, the variation is reduced to an insignifi- 
cant amount — to 4 and 2 per cent. 

It has been further objected, that " a more logical classification 
of mammals " than that >vhich has been followed in my paper, 
would reveal facts materially contravening my tabular statements, 
but Prof. Gill fails to inform us what this " more logical classi- 
fication " may be, and it therefore becomes impossible to theorize 
on his premises.^ The distinguished naturalist of Washington is, 
however, certainly in error when he maintains that the Arctamer- 
ican fauna has 4 (instead of 2 — Haploodontidae and Zapodidse — 
or at the utmost, including the not generally recognized Antilo- 
eapridae, 3) peculiar families; nor can we understand from his 
data how, if 29 Eurasiatic genera are represented in Arctamerica, 
only 23 Arctamerican genera are developed in Eurasia. 

From what has already been said it will be seen that there is 
nothing in either Mr. Wallace's or Prof. Gill's arguments which 
might tend towards altering my views on the question at issue ; 
and I must therefore still maintain, in the face of the evidence 
before us, that, in my judgment, there is not even the shadow of 
a peg upon which to hang the Nearctic (as distinct from the 
Palaearctic) region of zoogeographers. 

^ There can be no doubt that certain emendations to the classification 
followed might have been advantageously made ; as, for example, by the 
iDtroduction of the genus Cariacvs; but the very few alterations that 
could have been suggested through the works of the most recent, and, as 
usually recognized, most competent authorities on the subject of the 
mammalia, would produce no really appreciable difference in the result. 



276 PROCEEDINQS OF TFIE ACADEMY OF [1833. 



November 27. 

The President, Dr. Leidy. in the chair. 
Forty-two persons present. 

Note on Two New California Spiders and their Nenin. — Rev. 
Dr. McCooK presented a small collection of spiders received from 
Mr. W. (i. Wriglit, San Bernardino, Cal., mailed Novemlnir 18. 
One of these came within a nest, and is a Saltigrade spider, 
probably an Attus. The nest is a rare one, and was so happily 
placed, by the builder, on a branch of sagebrush (Ephedra 
antiHf/philliti('a\ that it was preserved intact. It is the only one 
which Mr. Wright had seen in site. Another nest, which he 
had no doubt was the same, he had observed torn from its place 
by some bird, a^ material for the con^triiction of a bird's-nest. 

Nests somewhat similar are habitually made by Pennsylvania 
Saltiiirades upon or among leaves which shrink up as they die 
and tear the spinning work so as to destroy the specimen. The 
one exhibited was in |>erfect condition. It is the tent anci egg-nest 
of the species which was alive within it, and the 8f)eaker thought 
to be new. It is a large example, five-eighths inch in body-length, 
stout, the legs of moderate thickness, the whole animal covered 
closely with grayish white hairs, the skin l>eneath being black. 
Dr. McCook named the species, provisionally, Attus opi/ex, with 
a double reference to the discoverer Mr. Wright ) and the admir- 
able house Wright (lualities of the aranead herself. The nent is 
externally an egg.shape<l mass of white spinning-work, three 
inches long by two and one-half inches wide. The outer part con- 
sists of a mass of fine silken lines crossing in all directions and 
lashe<l to the twigs within which it is enclosed. This maze sur- 
rounds a sac or cell of thicklv-woven sheeted silk, irregularlv 
oval in sha|)e,two inrhes long by one inch wide, and also attache<l 
to the surrounding twigs. At the bottom this cell or tent is 
pierced by a circular opening which serves the spider as the door 
of her domicile. It is the habit of her genus to live and hibernate 
within such a silken nest. Against one side of the tent within 
is spun a lenticular cocoon (double convex) of thick white silk, 
within which the eggs were placed. The young spiders when 
received ha<l eHca|H*d from the cocoon, and occupie<l the package- 
box. They are about one-4Mirhth inch long, resembling the mother, 
but less hi'avily coated with gray. 

This collection aNo (contained three S|>ecimen8 (9) of the 
genus Puft'tia, as defiu'id by ThorelL* This genus belong** to 



' See ''On Euro|>ean Spiders, Nov» Acta lle^. Soci. Sci. UpsaleiMiA,** 
vol. vii, ser. Sd, p. 196. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA, 277 

the family Oxyopoidee of the Citigrade spiders, to which it is 
doubtless properly relegated in spite of certain analogies with 
the AttoidfE (Saltigrades) on the one hand, and the Philodrominae 
(Laterigrades) on the other. Mr. Wright calls them "jumping 
spiders." Hentz, who describes several species of Oxyopes, says 
that O. salticus leaps with more force and vivacity than an 
Atius.^ Of 0. viridajiH he thinks it possible that the mother 
carries its young like Lycosa, This family of spiders is arboreal 
in habit, is found on plants, with their legs extended, thus dis- 
guising themselves after the manner known as " mimicry," and 
springing upon their prey. The cocoon is usually conical, sur- 
rounded with points, placed in a tent made between leaves drawn 
together and lashed, and is sometimes of a pale greenish color. 
0. viridans will make a cocoon suspended mid-air by threads 
attached to the external prominences, which she will watch 
constantly from a neighboring site. Dr. McCook believed the 
species presented to be new ; the body-length is fourteen milli- 
metres ; legs long, tapering, many long spines. The body is 
yellow and pale yellow; the cephalothorax striped longitudinally 
with bright red streaks; the abdomen marked above with red 
bell-shaped and angular patterns, and beneath by red streaks ; 
the sternum red, the legs yellow with red rings at the joints. The 
species was named Pucetia aurora^ because of the bright red 
streaks upon the yellow background, suggesting " the daughter 
of the dawn." 

According to some field-notes forwarded by Mr. Wright since 
the above was in print, Pucetia aurora is rather abundant in a 
limited locality. The nests are uniformly upon bushes of Erio- 
gonum corymbosum^ and several specimens of them were sent. 
The nest is hung from three to four feet from the ground, and, 
being upon the topmost twigs, is easily seen from a distance. 
The cocoon is a straw-colored sphere or ovoid, five-eighths of an 
inch in diameter. It is covered externall^'^ with various pointed 
rugosities, from which numerous lines extend to the adjoining 
foliage, and into the maze of right lines which extends below the 
corymb of the plant upon which all the specimens sent are 
attached. This retitelarian snare doubtless serves as a tem- 
porary home for the young spiders. The cocoon has no suture, 
the spiderliugs escaping by cutting the case, which is thick and 
closely woven. No floss padding was found inside of the case. 

Upon approaching the nest, the mother is usually seen 
hovering over the young spiders, or guarding a new sack of 
eggs. She lays two, and sometimes three broods on one twig. 
Sometimes the .young ones will be still in the old nest, while the 
mother is guarding a new bundle of eggs immediately adjoining 
the old one. In no case were any 3^oung ones seen on the 
mother's back. The mother stays close by her nest. If the 

» "Spiders of the United States/' p. 48. 



278 PR0C££DING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

8pidciiing8 l)e hatched, she will, pcrhnps, drop down n foot or so. 
if H first effort to capture her \ye not successful ; but will not drop 
to the jjround, unless forced to do so. If guarding her eggs, she 
must Ik? ft>rcibly separated from the cocoon. The young ones 
take alarm sooner than their mother; they drop down a few 
inchei< — or, at times, two feet — every one on its tiny thread, 
forming a pretty, swaying fringe. In a few moments, if all is 
still, they climb up again; but if frightened, will drop to the 
ground, and run. The little ones in such case do not Jump. 

It is a further interesting fact in so-called ** mimicry '' that of 
several examples of I*, aurora seen by Mr. Wright, one found on 
a green bush was in color almost wholly green, with scarcely a 
trace of red ; while two found on a hoary-white bush had simu- 
lated the white color of their habitat. The si)ecimens, as described 
above by Dr. McCook, approach in coloration the prevailing 
hue of the Eriogonum on which they were nested, and he was 
inclined to think that this is the normal color of the adult, which 
is taken on as the animal matures; indeed, as the green and 
whitish s|>ecimens were not sent to him, he would be inclincKi to 
think (awaiting further evidence) that those colors may have 
l)een due to immature age. At least, the tendency to such colors 
is strong in young spiders. However, the fact of mimicry is not 
improliable, as Dr. McCook had observed it in our native 
Laterigrades. 

From the same gentleman «nd locality. Dr. McCook had 
received a 9 specimen of ylrf/io/^r /<i*<rifl/a, which is thus locate<l 
upon the Pacific Coast, giving this beautiful and interesting 
hpider a continental distribution. 

A Wef>-Sjii fining Neurnpferoun In^evt. — Dr. Henry C. McCook 
announced that a small neuropterous insect, Pnocut^ nea'punrtatutt^ 
had l>een recently foun<l on the Wissahickon Creek, Fairmount 
Park, Philadelphia, by Mr. S. F. Aaron, of this Academy. This 
is the first time, so far as the speaker was aware, that this insect 
has been found in the United States, or indeed North America. 
Mr. Aaron took the insects home in the paper boxes in which he 
had C(>llected them, and thus observed the fact which has hereto- 
fore iK'cn noted of the Kurojean sjwcies, that they ttpin wrhn. 
McLachlaii ' expresses the belief that both sexes possess the 
|)ower of spinning a web, which, he atllrms, is not distinguish- 
able from that made by spiders. If a number of living speci- 
mens l>e enclosed in a pill-box, it will l>e found that at the 
eml of a few hours the interior is traversed in all directions bv 

• 

numerous lines (»f web. Mr. McLachlnn further states that the 
eggs, which are laitl in clusterj*, are also protecte<l with a web by 
the female. These insects are very common in England, where 

' >lom>giii|»h of (he Brit. pMH-idas Kntcnn. Monthly Magz., vol. iii, 
H?60-«7, p. 22». 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 279 

they are found more or less in societies, on tree-trunks, palings, 
amongst the herbage of trees, and even in houses. Mr. Aaron dis- 
covered them in similar habitat here, that is to say on the trunks 
of trees. A congener of the above species, Psocus purusWsAsh, 
which is also found in the vicinity, makes a tubular or tent-like 
web in the furrows of bark and crevices of trees, in texture some- 
thing like that spun by certain tube-weaving (Tubitelariae) spiders 
and other species ; or, perhaps more nearly like the covering 
woven over themselves by certain Lepidopterous larvae. The 
insect lives under this tent precisely as do the spiders referred to. 
One who would capture them must push them out by pressing 
upon the tent. 

It is a matter of such rare interest to find a true insect in the 

imago state spinning a web, and apparently for its protection, 

that Dr. McCook thought the discovery in our locality of such 

an insect worthy of this record. The spinning function among 

true insects, he believed, with the single exception of the Psocidie, 

is confined to the larval state ; spiders (it is scarcely necessary to 

state) not being true insects, but belonging to the Arachnida. 

The speaker further thought that this larval characteristic of 

web-spinning might be correlated with the rank which zoologists 

usually assign the Neuroptera as lowest among the orders of the 

insects, its larva-like body being one indication of its low position 

in its class. However, it is a striking example of the diverging and 

independent lines along which life-torms have sprung up in nature, 

that a function which belongs to the larval stage of insects, and 

which appears in the imago state only in the lowest type of the 

same, should appear as the most permanent and characteristic 

function of the spider — an animal which, although it is now 

commonly given a lower place in the same subkingdom with the 

insects (Arthropoda), is certainly ver^^ diflerent'y and little less 

highly organized. It would be a difficult task, Dr. McCook 

thought, to trace or even imagine any evolutionary connection, 

whether of progression or retrogression, between the web-spinning 

epider, the web-spinning insect-larva, and the web-spinning neu- 

ropter6us imago Fsocus sexpunctatus. There is, indeed, this 

common factor, the spinning function, but the physiologist fails 

to perceive anj" use or combination of the same which can unite 

the organisms in which it inheres. 

Art. VI, Chap. X, of the By-Laws was amended by striking out 
from the first line the word " only," and from the second and 
third lines the words ** obtain permission to," so that the article 
now reads: *' Members and Correspondents of the Academy shall 
have free access to the library. Other persons may consult it at 
any time through the introduction of a member, or upon applica 
tion to the librarian, while such member or librarian is present, 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

but miiK)r8 under sixteen years of age shall not be permitted to 
examine any work, except under the immediate supervision of 
the librarian or of a member.'' 

Art. VII, Chap. XI, was amended by striking out all alter the 
word ^* public," in the second line, and inserting in lieu thereof, 
** daily, except Sunday, and at least one day in the week without 
charge on such conditions and under such regulations as the Council 
shall establish from time to time,'' so that the article now reads : 
** The Museum of the Academy shall be open to the public daily, 
except Sunda}', and at least one day in the week without charge, 
on such conditions and under such regulations as the Council 
shall from time to time establish." 

The following were elected members : George L. Knowles, 
Ferdinand McCann, Lewis E. Levy, J. Alexander Savage, and 
Mrs. \Vm. E. Ellicott. 

The following were elected correspondents : E. Marie, of Pari;*, 
Marchese di Monterosato, of Palermo, and H. J. Carter, of 
Budleigh'Satterton, Devonshire, England. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1883; J NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 281 



NOIES ON AMEBICAN FISHES PBESEBVED IN THE MUSEUMS AT BEBLIN, 

LOlfBON, PABIS AND COPENHAGEN. 

BY DAVID S. JORDAN. 

In a recent visit to Europe, the writer had the privilege of 
examining numerous typical specimens of American fishes, 
preserved in the British Museum, in the Museum d'Histoire 
Naturelle in Paris, and in the Museums of the Universities of 
Berlin and Copenhagen. In the present paper are given selec- 
tions from the notes taken on these specimens, which have a 
bearing on the nomenclature of our fishes. 

I have to express my personal obligations to Dr. G. A. Boulenger, 
of the British Museum ; to Dr. Bocourt and M. Thominot, of the 
Museum at Paris; to Dr. F.Hilgendorf,of the University of Berlin, 
and to Dr. Christian F. Liitken, of the University of Copenhagen, 
for many favors in connection with our studies of these spec- 
imens. 

I. Arias asBimilis GUnthcr. 

(Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v, 146.) 

Type, Lake Yzabal, Atlantic slope, Central America. 

Area between the eyes smooth, extending backward in the 
form of a rather narrow triangle which is moderately obtuse 
behind. Fontanelle narrow and short, ending far in front of the 
occipital process, not extending backward as a groove behind the 
smooth area of the top of the head ; posterior end of fontanelle 
midway between tip of snout and middle of ante-dorsal shield. 
Occipital process broad, its edges not straight. Band of palatine 
teeth large, bu.t not produced backward on the inner margin. 

The character of the fontanelle in this species is not described 
by Dr. Giinther. We have elsewhere identified with A. asaimilis 
(Bull. U. S, Fish. Comm., 1882, 47), a number of specimens from 
Mazatlan (28161, 28189, 28210, 28213, 28221, 28232, 28276 and 
28304, U. S. Nat. Mus.), belonging to a species very ditferent 
from the true A. assimilis, although agreeing fairly with Dr. 
Giinther's description. 

There is no evidence of the occurrence of the true A, astnmilis 
in Pacific waters. 

19 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 1883.] 

Z. AtIui oflBmleiceni GUnther. 

(Cat Fish. Brit. Mus., v, 149.) 

T^'pes from Huamuehal, Pacific slope. 

Head more depressed than in A. assimilis. Fontanelle very 
short, ending abruptly behind and not produced in a groove 
behind the smooth area of the top of the head, the boundary of 
the smooth area being rather broadly convex. Occipital process 
broader than long, its edges nearl}^ straight. Bands of palatine 
teeth small, not produced backward on the inner margin. Paired 
fins black at base above. This species is allied to A. guatemal- 
ensis^ but is apparently distinct. It is well separated from A, 
assimilis. 

3. Arini leemanni GUnther. 

(Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., v, 147.) 

{? Arius assimilis, Jor. & Gilb., Bull. U. 8. Fish Com., 1882, 47.) 

Type from Central America, the exact locality unknown. 

Fontanelle extending backward in a deep and narrow groove, 
which reaches the occipital process. Middle of top of head 
smooth, much as in A. pJatypogon. 

It is probable that this specimen belongs to the siycies hereto- 
fore erroneously called b}' us Arius assimilis. We have had some 
hesitation in making this identification, because in none of our 
Mazatlan specimens does the fontanelle reach the occipital pro- 
cess, and it is not certain that the type of A. seemanni came 
from the Pacific coast. Still, the i)robability is so strongly in 
favor of identity that, in absence of further evidence, we shall 
consider them the same. 

4. Myrophii panctatns LU ken. 

(Vidensk. Meddel. Nat. Foren., Kjob, 1^51, 1.) 

Type, West Indies; Suenson Coll. 

Beginning of dorsal midway- between gill-opening and vent. 
Head 2§ in trunk. Cleft of mouth about 3^ in head. This is 
apparently identical with M. microsligmius Poey (Rep. Fis. Nat., 
ii, 50). The description of M. punctatus Gthr. (viii, 51) is taken 
from the Panama species, M. vafer Jor. & Gilb. It is barel\- 
possible that M. luvibricus Jor. & Gilb. will prove to be the 
young of M. punctatus. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 283 

5. ExocoBtui rnfipinnis Cuvior & ValoDcieones. 
(Hist Nat, Poiss., xix, 99.) 

T\'pe from Payta, Poru; an adult specimen, in good condition. 

Head 4i in length to base of caudal ; depth 5§ ; lower lobe of 
caudal 3J ; eye 3 J in head. Yentrals 3 J in body. D. 11 ; A. 
1, 11. Insertion of anal scared}' behind that of dorsal, its base 
but little shorter ; both fins low, the longest ray of dorsal little 
more than half the base of the fin. Pectorals reaching base of 
caudal; ventrals to just behind last ray of anal. Third ray of 
pectoral branched, the fourth longest. Pectorals and ventrals 
centrally dusky, without distinct markings. 

This species is probably identical with E, dowi Gill (Proc. 
Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 167), from Panama, a species not now 
represented in the National Museum. 

6. Tyloinmi hiani (Cuv. k Val ) Jor. A ^^ilb. 

{Belone hians Cuv. & Val., xviii, 432.) 
In the t3*pe of this species the insertion of the ventrals is 
about midway between the base of the caudal and the middle of 

ft/ 

the arch of the base of the upper jaw, or slightly nearer tip of 
pectoral than front of anal. According to Valenciennes, '* elle 
est attache un pen avant le milieu de la longueur totale." This 
statement is not quite correct. On account of this discropanry. 
Poey has described the Cuban fish as distinct, under the nanu* of 
Belone maculata (Mem. Cuba, ii, 290), the ventral fin l)eing 
inserted. 6e^/a*/i</ the middle of the length of the body. It is not 
likel}' that any real diflference exists. The specimens found along 
our Atlantic coast agree very well with Poeys description. 

7. Qaerimana harengas (OUnthcr) Jor. k Gilb. 

[Myxus harengus Giuitlier, iii, 467.) 

The types of J/«/j:«/tS harengua have but two anal spines, instoad 
of three, as stated in the original description. Specimens of this 
species from Zorritas, Peru, are in the museum of Yale College. 
In the National Museum are specimens from Panama, Mazatlnn, 
and Charleston, S. C. 

S. Qaerimana ciliilabis (Cuv. k Val.) Jor. 
(Mugil ciliilabis, C. & V. xi, 151.) 
The tyi>es of Mugil ciliilabis, from Lima, belong also to the 
genus Qaerimana. The species is very close to Q, harengua, 
dilfering in rather stronger dentition, stifiened cilia, or teeth being 
present in both jaws, rather strongest in the upper. Head 3f in 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

length, depth 4^ ; no adipose e3did ; preorbital serrate; anal 
spines 2; first soft ray of anal simple, but evidently articulate. 

9. Btromatcni medini Pettrt. 

(Berliner Monatsber., 1809, 707.) 

Type, No. 7073, Berlin Museum, from Mazatlan. In the orij? 
inal description of this species the lateral line is said to Ik? 
"keeled'' on the caudal peduncle. This **keel" is simply the 
ordinary tubing of the lateral line, which is precisely as in the 
oiilinary species of Siromateus. 

Uead 3 J in length, depth li^^; pectoral 2|{ in body; dorsal 
lobe 4J ; caudal 2f. Dorsal with 42 developed rays; anal with 
32. Length 7i inches, fins distinctly puuctulate. 

10. Caranx Itaoomi (ittutte-. 

(Proc. Zool. Soc. LonH., 1864, 24.) 

Types, two young examples. lu our Review of the Carangina* 
(Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1883, 194)' we have placed this si)ecie!» 
in the grouj) called Vraajns^ among the species with broad 
nmxillaries. It should be removed to the group called Hemi- 
caranx, among the species with narrow maxillaries, its relations 
l)eing with C atrimanuA and C, amhlyrhynvhas, 

Maxillary qiiite narrow, its length 2? in head, reaching pupil ; 
eye not large. Dorsal and anal fins unusually high, but the 
anterior ravs not exserte<l bevond the rest; middle ravs of dorsal 
\ to 2 length of hea«l (probably shorter in the adult) ; sheath at 
base of dorsal little developt»d ; caudal tin not deeply forke<l ; 
pectoral short, IJ in head (young); curve of lateral line 1} in 
straight part, its length 3.1 times its depth. Teeth slender, rather 
long, uniserial alK>ve and nearly so 1k»Iow. 



' 111 the paper alK>ve quoted (p. 194) we havn p)ac«<] Caranx ruber in the 
group with the anterior rays of »oft dorsal and anal not falcate. In speci- 
menH fnHii (tiiianu exaiiiinufl by us, tl>c»e rajs, although rery low, are still. 
proiierlyHpeakiii^, f.ilrute, the longest lieiiig abcmt 2^ in hea<l. The specie* 
shouUl therefore Im* removeil fi-om tlie subgenus Ura$pU to that of Caranx, 

On page ItC in the Kaiiic pa|)ei% Caraitj faiciatui^ Cuv. & Val. (ix, p. 
7U), tleMrribe«l fi*om a fb awing made in 3Iexico, may be added as an 
exliemcly duubtful synonym of Varaur riuftui, 

C'lninx cnbennin (!\>.«y» sliould doubtlesM be reco^ized an a distinct 
specie A. 

(>u pages 20fi and 2^" the name Cklnro$comhniM stirttrvB occora. This ia 
a hip^ut fur Chlt'r. or*/ttftu, the former having been a MSS. name for which 
tlie latter was i»ubht ituted before the publication of the original deacriptioo. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 285 

Bod}' everywhere finel}' piinctulate, with rather sharply defined 
dark bars. Caudal fin pale. 

11. Eplaephelni galens (MUIler & Tro.ichel) Jordan. 

{Serranus galeus Miill. & Trosch., Schomb. Reise, Brit. Guiana, 
621.) 

The types of Serranus galeus belong apparently to the species 
described as Serranus itaiara Cnv. k, Val. and Yailhint k, 
Bocourt, and as Serranus quinque/asciatus Bocourt. According 
to Yaillant & Bocourt (Miss. Sci. au Mexicpie^ the species found 
on the Pacific Coast of Mexico (quinque/asciatus) is identical 
with the Brazilian species {itaiara C. & Y.). The original 
Serranus itaiara of Lichtenstein is, however, apparently a very 
different species, having the anal rays III, 11. Assuming the 
identity of the Atlantic and Pacific species, which I have, at 
present, no reason to doubt, the oldest tenable specific name for 
this species seems to be galeus. 

12. Latjanni argentiventris (Peters) Jordan & (lilbcrt. 

(Mesoprion argentinentris Peters, Berliner Monatsber., 1809, 707.) 

Type, No. 7070, Berl. Mus., from Mazatlan. This specimen 
belongs to the species diagnosed by us under the name of 
^^ Lutjanus argentivWatus'''' (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881), the 
Pacific representative of Lutjanus caxis. The name '* argen- 
tivittatus^^ is a slip of the pen on our part for '^ argentiventris/'' 

13. Latjanni inermis (Pcr^r ) Jordan it (riHert. 

(Afesoprion inermis Peters, Berliner Monatsber., 18»^9.) 

Type, 70G9, Berlin Mus., said to have been brought from Ma- 
zatlan ; 8^ inches in length, in good condition. 

This specimen belongs to a species allied to L. chrysurus^ and 
distinct from all those yet known from the Pacific Coast of 
Tropical America. The following is a detailed description : — 

Head 3 in length; depth 8^. Lateral line with 50 tubes; 
scales 53. Dorsal X-13; A. III-ll. 

Bod}" slender and fusiform, not strongly compressed, the back 
not elevated. Sno\it very pointed ; mouth unusually small, 
the maxillary 2i in head, reaching to front of pupil. E^e very- 
large, about 4 in head. Band of vomerine teeth slightly pro- 
duced backward on tiie median line. Teeth on tongue well 
developed ; canine teeth unusually small and slender, 2 in upper 
jaw and 3 or 4 on each side of lower. Nostrils well separated, 



286 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY Or [1883. 

Hubccjual, the posterior oblong, the anterior round. Preorbitnl 
j depth of eye. Preopercle not serrate, scarcely notched l>ehind. 
Teini)oral region with a band of large scales, on each side of 
which are small scales. Scales above lateral line arranged in 
very <>bli(|ue series which are not parallel with the lateral line. 

Pectoral fins very short, reaching little past tips of ventrals, 
IJ in head. Dorsal spines very slender. Second anal spine 
longer than third, very small, 7 in head. Soft dorsal and anal 
low, hcaly. Caudal tin rather deeply forked, the middle rays not 
half the length of the outer, whicii are 1^ in head. 

Color in spirits, dusky al)ove, pale below, with distinct dark 
stripes, those Iwlow parallel with the lateral line, those aUive 
very oblique; these stripes extend along the edges of the rows 
of scales, the middle of each scale being whitish, its bane du«*ky. 

According to Peters, the color was *' violet-brown ; middle of 
each scale with a silvery shining spot ; belly silvery.*' 

14. Lntjanai TWanill (Cuvier A Valcnciennm) Jordan 4 Gilbert. 
(Misoprion riranus Cuv. & Val., ii, 454 ) 

Types, young specimens in good condition, collected by Plee 
at Martiniipie. 

This species is briefly and unrecognizably described by Cuvier 
iV VaUnciennes. The following is an outline of its character!*, 
from which its close resemblance to the young of the common 

* lied Snapper'' of Florida (Lutjanus hlackfordi Goode k 
lUan A. rnmpechianus Poey) is evident. 

Hrad ^11 in length; depth 3^. 1). X-14; A. 111-8. Lateral 
line with .^0 pores. 

Maxillary 2J in head; teeth rather strong; vomerine teeth in 
an arrow-sha|H'd patch, InMiig prolonged considerably backward 
on the median line. Posterior nostrils oval; eye 4 in head; 
Nuchal scales in a bantl, scarcely separate<l from the scales of the 
body : **cales above lateral line arranged inoblicjue series; second 
anal spine long, 2^ in head ; caudal concave, the inner lol)e 1^ in 
the outer. 

Color re<ldish, faintly streaked with olive; traces of a blackish 
blotch uinler soft dcirsal ; tips of middle ravs of caudal duskv. 

16. Pomadatyt modett^i iT^rhii<lii .loriUn. 

( ff>rmuht4 modtntum Tw'hiidi, Fauna Peniana, Ichthyol., ii.) 
' l*r%*tipoma notatum I't'ters, Berliner Moti.'itsbcr., 1861).) 
Tin* tv|>e of PrintijHniia ntftntum Peters (Xo. 7001, Berl. Mus.: 

• t:ek:uilt, angeblich von Mazatlan *') is identical with specimenn 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 28T 

in the same museum, which have been identified, apparently 
correctly, as Haemulon modestum Tschudi. This identity has 
been already noticed by Dr. Hilgendorf (MSS.). Tschudi's 
original type is said to be in the museum at Neufchatel. 

It is doubtful whether the specimen examined by Prof. Peters 
really came from Mazatlan. 

Tbe following is a redescription of the type of Prislipoma 
notatiim : 

Head 3^ in length to base of caudal; depth 2|. D. XII-15 (not 
XYIII, as stated by Peters' ; A. III-12 ; 51 or 52 scales in a longi- 
tudinal series ; 10 rows between front of dorsal and lateral line. 

An ally of Pomadasys caesius. Body ovate ; anterior profile 
regularly convex ; mouth small; outer teeth in both jaws enlarged ; 
maxillary 3} in head ; lips thick ; eye 3| in head ; preorbital 1§ 
in eye ; preopercle coarsely serrate ; scales above lateral line unu- 
suall}' small, arranged in oblique series, not parallel with the 
lateral line. 

Pectoral fin as long as head ; second anal spine much stronger 
than third, and somewhat longer, both much shorter than the 
soft rays; second anal spine 1§ in head ; dorsal spines low and not 
strong, the fin deeply notched ; fourth dorsal spine 2^ in head ; 
soft dorsal scaly at base ; upper lobe of caudal longest. 

Color bluish gray, silvery below ; edge of opercle black ; a con- 
spicuous jet-black spot at base of last rays of anal and dorsal ; 
entire axil of pectoral, and a large roundish blotch before it, jet- 
black ; ventrals blackish. 

16. Diabasis lexfasoiatni (Gill) Jor. & Gilb. 

As already supposed by us, the type of Haemulon maculosum 
Peters is identical with Haemulon sexfasciatum Gill. 

U. Paralonohnras petersi Bocoart. 

Type, La Union, San Salvador. 

Only the original type of this species is yet known. It is 
apparently closely related to the genus Lonchurus, differing exter- 
nally in the presence of several barbels instead of two. 

Body long and low, formed as in Menticirrus. Head slender, 
low, with protuberant snout, flattish and somewhat spongy to 
the touch above. Preopercle with dermal serrations ; mouth 
horizontal, overlapped by the snout ; teeth in villiform bands ; 
upper jaw with a conspicuous outer row of larger teeth ; gill-rakers 



288 PB00IEDINO8 or THB AOADSMT OF [1883. 

very small, short and slender, not numerous ; chin with five pores; 
rami of mandible each with a row of slender, inconspieuouH 
barbels along the inner edge ; nostrils round. 

Scales rather large, smooth to the touch, apparently truly 
cycloid. 

Head 3^ in lengtii ; depth 4 ; eye very small, 8j in head ; inter- 
orbital space 3^ ; maxillary 2§ : dorsal rays XI-30; dorsal fin 
low, the soft dorsal highest posteriorly and scaled at base only ; 
anal small, ending under middle of soft dorsal, its second sj»ine 
as long as snout, 3§ in head ; pectoral very long, 2 J in Ixxly ; 
caudal lanceolate, unequal, its length 3J in Ixxiy. 

Color in spirits, light olive, with faint streaks along the rows 
of scales ; no cross-baiuls ; pectorals dusky ; other fins plain. 

J8. PolyoirrhQi dumorili Boeoart. 

Type, La Union. 

This si>ecies seems to l)e identical with Genyanemus fascial us 
Steindachner (Ich^i. Beitr., ii, 31, 1875). The name given by 
Bocourt has precedence. The genus Polycirrhus is perha|>s 
worthy of distinction from Otniyanemus,\\tL\\ng the dorsal spines 
in normal yuml>er • 10 instead of 14), the mouth subinferior instea<l 
of terminal, the caudal double truncate instead of emarginate, and 
the gill-rakc»rft very small. Ufnyanemun peruanun Sicind, (1. c.,29) 
and (i. braHilianuif Steind. (I. c, 34 = Micropogon ornatus Gthr.) 
apparently lK?long to Polycirrhus, 

IV. MtOtioirnit •AX%tilil (Hlooh k Srhnculrr) .Tordnn 

iJohniui BaxntiliM Bloch A Schneider, Syst. Ichth , 1801, p. 75.) 
I ikiitnn nebulomi Mitch., Traiui. Lit. and Phil. Soc., 1815, 40H.) 

The type of Jofniius mj-atilia Bloch k Schneider, from Xew 
York, is still preserved in the museum at Berlin. It is appar- 
ently identical with the c^>mmon king-fish, MentxcirruA nrfmloHits 
(Mitchill) (till, which s|H?eies should therefore stand as 3/ew/i- 
ftrrwx unraiiliti. The common names of this species, of the 
weak fish an<l the strijKHl bass, have evidently been confuse<l by 
Schneider. 

J(phniun rarutta, the sjieeies taken by Professor (till as the ty|>e 
of tin* fenus Jnhuitis, has tht* prtN»percle entire, ami the mouth 
inferior. Johmus is apparently not distinguishable from the sul>- 
genns Corrinn, as defined by Jordan & (iilWrt (Synopsis Fish. 
N. A., 18S3, p. 032). 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 289 

20. Mentioirmi nains (GUnther) Jor. & Gill. 

( Umbrina nasus Giinther, Fishes Centr. Am^., 1869, 426.) 

Type, about a foot in length, adult. 

D. X-I, 22 ; eye proportionately very large, 4| in head ; max- 
illary reaching to below posterior edge of pupil ; snout 3| in 
head; longest dorsal spine 1| in head, reaching to third ra}- of 
second dorsal ; pectoral 1^ in head ; ventrals short. 

Gill-rakers very short, almost obsolete ; posterior nostril large, 
oval; anterior round; interorbital width 41 in head; scales of 
breast large. 

Color pale, the pectoral dusky. 

21. Isopisthns brevipinnis (Cuv. & Yal.) Gill. 

(Ancylodon brevipinnis C. & V., v, 84. ) 

The type of this species (Cayenne, Poiteau ; in bad. condition) 
has the pectoral fin If in head, as in /. affinis Steindachner (Neue 
und seltene Fische aus den K. K. Zool. Museum zu Wien, etc., 
43), differing in that respect from the Panama species, Isopisihus 
remifer. There is not much doubt of the identity of /. affinis 
with /. brevipinnis, 

22. Gerres peravianiis Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

(Cuvier & Valenciennes, vi, 467.) 

The type of this species is apparently identical with the 
common West Coast species called by this name by Jordan & 
Gilbert (Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1881, 330), and later by Evermann 
& Meek (Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883, 123). The types of 
Gerres gula C. & Y. also correspond with the species so named 
by the above writers. One of them (Brazil, Delalande) has the 
head 3 in length, the depth 2§ ; longest dorsal spine ]| in head ; 
second anal spine 3^ ; eye 2f ; tip of spinous dorsal dusky. The 
types of Gerres aprion C. & Y. seem to correspond with the 
species called by us Gerres cinereus (Walbaum) {^^ Gerres zebra 
and Gerres squamipinnis Gthr.). They are, however, in bad 
condition, the color faded and the scales mostly rubbed off. 

23. Gerres brasiliaiias Cuvier & Valenciennes. 

(Cuvier & Yalenciennes, vi, 45^. ) 

The type of this species is in very bad condition, unfit for 
detailed description. Sides apparently with dark stripes along 
the rows of scales. Preorbital and preopercle serrate. Frontal 
groove broad, naked. Longest dorsal spine 5. in body. Second 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

anal spine 5]. Annl spines 3 in nnmlwr. Candjil fin lon^. 
This species is allied to O. plumieri. but the back is less elevated 
and the spines smaller than in the latter. Gerres rhombeu:* 
C. k V. is a ver}' different species, closely allied to GfrreM 
peruvianusy but with two anal spines only. It occurs on !x>tli 
sides of the Isthmus of Panama. 

24. Gorrot breTim&Bai QUntber. 

(Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., Ib64, 152.) 

This species is distinct from G. lineatus (Humboldt), although 
closel}' allied to it. Only the original type is yet known. On 
this I have the following notes : — 

Head 3] in length ; depth 2^ ; eye 3J in head. Coloration of 
Gerrea lineatus. Back much lower than in the latter, and i>ectoraI 
fins very much shorter; their lengtli 1| in head ; their tips not 
reaching nearly to tips of ventrals, which are 1] in head; caudal 
3 in body. Preorbital very little serrate, almost entire. Preo- 
jK^rcle weakly serrate. Second dorsal spine If in head; second 
anal spine Ifj. Teeth small and short. No black on base of 
iwctoral,or on lower fins. Spinous dorsal dusky above. Frontal 
groove broad and naked, as in G. lineatus. 



2j 



a. Opiathojnatbat punoUta Peters. 

(Peters, Berl. Monabtber., 1809.) 

Type, 7004, Berl. Mus. ; about one foot long, from Mazatlan. 

Heatl everywhere finely speckled with black, the bo<ly more 
coarsely and irregularly spotted. Pectoral finely and closely 
s|>eckled. its edge plain. Ventral fin dusky, similarly marked. 
Dorsal without large black blotch, finel}* spotted, the spots 
l»ehind gnidually forming the boundaries of white ocelli, the base 
of the finn having rings of white around black spots, the upper 
part with dark rings around pale spots. Caudal with pale s|>ots, 
its edg<', like that of the dorsal, somewhat dusky, not black. 
Anal with a bro:»d, blackish edge, and with dark spots, those near 
the basr <»f the fin largest. Lining membrane of maxillary with 
the UHiial bands of white and inkv black. 

Scales vi»ry small, about 12') in lat<Tal line. Dorsal spines 
continuous with the soft ravs. D. 28; A. 18. No vomerine 
teeth. Maxillary v<'ry long, extending slightly lK.yond head. 

Only the type of this 8i>ecies is yet known. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 291 

26. Poriohthyi porosissimni (Cuv. & Val.) Gthr. 

{? Batrachua porosissimus Cuv. & Val., xii, 501 ) 
{PoricIitJiys plectrodon Jor. & Gilb., Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
291.) 

The two specimens from South America referred, by Dr. 
Giinther (Cat. Fishes, iii, 176) to Porichthys porosissimys,hs\.Ye 
the enlarged palatine teeth characteristic of P. plectrodon Jor. & 
Gilb. The specimen from Vancouver Island mentioned by Dr. 
Giinther, has small palatine teeth as have all Pacific specimens 
examined by us. A young specimen from Panama also belongs 
to P. margaritatus. It is probable that the types of Batrachus 
porosissimus C. & V., from Guiana and Brazil, really have the 
palatine teeth enlarged, although Cuvier & Valenciennes say 
that " chaque palatin en a une rangie de petites, pointues et 
inegales." In that case, the Atlantic species would stand as 
Porichthys porosissimus (C. & V.) Gthr., and the Pacific species, 
unquestionably distinct, although closely related, as P. margari- 
tatus (Rich.) Jor. & Gilb. 

27. Sebastodei matznbarsB (Hilgendorf) Jordan. 

The types of Perca variabilis Pallas (Zoogr. Rosso- Asiat., iii, 
211 = Epinephelus ciliatus Tilesius), two in number, obtained in 
the Aleutian Islands, are preserved in the Berlin Museum. 

The smaller of these specimens (6494) belongs to the species 
for which we have retained the name of Sebastodes ciliatus 
(Jordan & Gilbert, Synopsis Fish. N. A., 658). For this species 
the name Sebastes variabilis has been retained in MSS. b}'^ Dr. 
Hilgendorf. 

The larger specimen (8145) is a flat skin of large red species, 
apparently identical with the Japanese species described by 
Hilgendorf under the name of Sebastes matzubarse. This- view 
is also held by Hilgendorf. 

As Sebastodes matzubarse has not been hitherto recognized as 
a North American species, we give the following outline of its 
characters : — 

Allied to Sebastodes miniatus. Spines of head low, developed 
about as in S, miniatus and S. pinniger, Preocular, supraocular, 
postocular, tympanic, occipital and nuchal spines distinct ; a pair 
of small coronal spines present, as also a small spine before and 
one just below eye. Maxillary reaching to posterior border of 
eye, 1| in head. Both jaws covered with rough, ctenoid scales. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Interorbital ftpace flattish, scaled, its breadth a little less than 
that of eye. Preopercular spines short, simple. Preorbital 
spines simple. Lower jaw scarcely projecting. Second anal 
spine scarcely longer than third. Longest dorsal spine 2 J in 
head, a little less than the longest short rays. Pectoral 4 J in 
body. 

Color dusky brown, apparently dark red in life; three dark 
shades across cheeks. 

28. BoorpsBiia hiitrio Jcnynr. 

(Chinchas Islands; Schmaltz; Brit. Miis.) 

This species is very closely allied to Scorpstna braniiieriKiA C. 
Si V. It lacks the black spots which are usually distinct in the 
latter. In S. brasiliensiH the suborbital stay is more broken, and 
the dorsal spines arc perhaps a little lower. 

The following is a diagnosis of Sc. histrio : — 

Head '2^\, depth 8i. D. XII-10. Pectoral Sy'^, in bo<ly. Max- 
illary 2 in head. Eye 4 J in head. Longest dorsal spine 3 in 
head. Second anal spine 3. Lateral line with 30 scales. 

Head rough above. Nuchal pit quailrate, much broader than 
long. Scales present on posterior part of cheek and on front ami 
flap of o|M^rcle. Scales on body large, not ctenoid, edged with 
dermal flaps. Eye large. Mouth large, the lower jaw includtHl. 
Suborbital stay conspicuous, not armed with spines. Second 
anal spine stronger and rather longer than third. 

Color gray or red, with broad tlarker shades, four in numltor, 
irregular an<l variable ; fins similarly colored ; pectorals barrel : 
dermal flaps white. 

29. Prionotnt borrtni Richanlfon. 

I Voyage Sulphur, Ichthyol., 79.) 

Types, (lulf of Fonseca ; young. Allied to Prionotns trihu- 
liitt C. iV v., but the spines on the head still longer and moit' 
knife-sha|H»d. First spine on edge of snout broad an<l serrate; 
lK'hin<l this three similar ones progressively larger. Then two 
large spines on prcopcrclc, the posterior larger. Two smaller 
spines on o|K*rele, and one very large on the scapula. Two sharp 
spines over ea<'h eye. one U'liind ; two on top of head an<l two 
on cM'ciput. No trroov*' behind eye. Belt of palatine teeth nar- 
row. Mouth large; maxillary reat'hiug to below front of ey«\ 
2 J in head, (i ill-rakers long and slender, 5 in number. Scales 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 293 

small. Pectorals short, 3 in body, reaching somewhat past front 
of second dorsal. 

Pectorals and tip of caudal dusky. 

30. A|^onai d«ca|^oims B oeb. 

This species has the gill membranes attached to the isthmus, 
forming a narrow fold across it, much as in ^. cataphractus^ but 
narrower. It is therefore erroneously referred by us to the genus 
Brachyopais (Syn. Fish. N. A., 955 \ and the generic name Lej)ta- 
gonus Gill, based on A, decagonus^ cannot be used instead of 
Brachyopsis, A, decagonus is intermediate between Agonua 
proper and Fodothecus, being referable to the latter, if the two 
genera are kept separate. According to Dr. Liitken, neither 
Agonus cataphractus nor Cottvs bitbalis have yet been actually 
found in Greenland. They should, therefore, be omitted from 
American faunal lists. 

31. Ophidium omostigma Jurdni & (jilbcrt. 

{6enypterv8 omostigma Jor. & Gilb., Pvoc. U. S. Nat. Mus , 1882, 
301.) 

An Ophidioid fish has been referred by us to the genus Genyp- 
terus, which genus we have regarded as distinguished from 
Ophidium chiefly by the presence of a sharp spine on the opercle. 
In the type of the genus Genypterus {G. chilensis Guich^not), 
this spine is obsolete. G. omiatigma is therefore not a Genypterus^ 
and it may probably be referred to Ophidium^ from which Genyp- 
terus is separated by Dr. Giinther on the variable and perhaps 
unimportant character of the enlarged palatine teeth. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF ^1883. 



THE OCCIDKRT AKT IH DAKOTA. 
By Rev. U. C. McCook, D. D. 

I have recently received from Prof. J. E. Todi! (Professor ot 
Natural Sciences at Tabor College, Iowa, and an Assistant on the 
IT. 8. (ieolo<rical Survey), some valuable facts conceminjj the 
distribution of PfKjonomyrmex ocridentalis. While on a visit to 
Dakota (1882-, Prof. Todd had observed a nural>cr of ant-hilU 
which awakened his interest, and upon which he ma<lc various 
observations. The facts noted, together with sjxciinens of the 
insects and scrapings from the mounds, were sent to me, an<l 
justify the following record : — 

1. Distribution and Site. — The ants were seen (A. D. 1882 and 
1883) on the Missouri River, south of Bismarck, opposite the 
mouth of the Cannon Ball River, and at a point seventy-fi^o 
miles southward. Upon the extensive plain forming the bottom 
of the Bois Cache Creek vaney,nnd near the sand hills aiul grove 
which give the name to the valley, the mounds are numerous. 
Prof. Toild thinks with some confidence that they are not locatrtl 
in the vallev of the James River, nor in Dakota, anv considerable 
distance east from the Missouri River. He has traveled with a 
team over 2500 miles in Dakota, east of the Missouri River and 
south of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and has not noticed 
the ant-hills elsewhere than the localities mentioned. In mv 
book on *' The Honey and Occident Ants,"* I have located this 
ant in southern Dakota, upon conjecture, but the al)Ove, wiih 
specimens, now give scientific confirmation. 

1 wish to call attention to the additional facts thus con- 
tributed in the precise line of the striking feature formerly 
p(»inted out by uie in the geographical distribution of Orri- 
drntnlis. According to Prof. Todd, the : nt is confined to the 
bottom lauds along the Missouri, and han not pu»hed eastirnrd 
throuLih tiie Territory. This corresponds remarkably with my 
conelusiou. lM)lh from uiy own observations and those made under 
my direction by I)r. n<>race (Jritlith, of Marengo, Iowa. This 
conclu»»ion is that t>' ciiimtfilis doin not dwell east of the Missouri 

' Tho Honey AiJtK ai.d thcOdickiit Auls j.. I'.M r,. J. B. Lippiucott iV 
Co., Thila. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 295 

River, in Missouri, Iowa and Minnesota; that it avoids eastern, 
while abounding in western Nebraska, and is not found ill Kansas 
further east than Brookville, longitude 22° W. from Washington, 
about 97° W. Greenwich, which is nearly that of the sites reported 
by Prof. Todd. As Prof. Packard has reported the insect in 
southern Montana, we msiy now conclude that the entire western 
part of the great valley of the Missouri (west of the river and 
the above meridian) is inhabited by this ant and its closely allied 
congener, P. barbatus^ the Agricultural Ant. 

It is worthy of note that all the authentic reports which we 
have of the latter insect also limit its eastern distribution to about 
the same meridian. We have no account of it as inhabiting 
southern Missouri, Arkansas and Louisiana, except a note of 
Nuttall's in 1819, which appears to refer to one of these species. 
Entomologists and naturalists generally in these States might do 
good service by some attention to this point. It is a question of 
profound interest, what natural cause has operated to establish this 
eastern limit of distribution? The writer confesses his inability 
to discover any relation between the structure and economy of the 
ant, and the phj-sical condition of the countr}^, that could throw 
any light upon the question. 

The two species verj' closely resemble each other, the worker 
forms scarcely ditfering except in body-size; the worker-major of 
Occidentalis corresponds almost exactly with the minor of bar- 
hatus. The chief differences in the sexual forms are of size and 
color, but also a slight difference in venation. There are, however, 
some marked differences in nidification and habit. The Agricul- 
tural Ant occupies the southern section of the above marked 
geographical district, and it seems scarcely possible to resist the 
inference that it is a modified form of Occidentalis (or vice versa) 
who inhabits the northern section. The local site of the nests in 
Dakota is generally a sand}^ flat or bottom. 

2. Nidification. — From the observations of Prof. Todd, it 
further appears that the Dakota ants agree with those of Colorado 
in the position of the gate, at one-half to one-third the distance 
from the base ; in the general appearance of the mounds, which 
are uniformlv in the centre of a circular cleared area three or four 
feet in diameter. In size they are smaller, being about six inches 
high and about two feet in diameter. They are roofed in some 
sites with small gravel stones of quartz, but in others, as at the 



296 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

mouth of the Cannon Ball River, have no such covering. Prof. 
Todd is inclined to think that the gravel roofing is selected from 
the nest vicinage and placed upon the mound ; but I believe the 
stones to have been excavated from the underground galleries, 
granaries and rooms, and brought up therefrom. However, I 
think the construction of a roof by selection to be quite within 
the ability of tiie Occidents, as I have observed them carrying 
pebbles up, down and around the mound in all directions after 
issuing from the gate. 

3. Harvesting habiL — Among the pebbles sent to me are a 
number of Imsks, etc., of various seeds which appear to have been 
taken from the kitchen-middens or refuse-heaps of the formicary. 
These indicate that the Dakota emmets, like the more southern 
examples, are harvesting ants. Mr. Thomas Meehan, to whom 
was referred a small quantity of the debris collected from 
the margin of a nest by Prof. Todd, reports that there are no 
seeds among the pebbles, but that there are a number of calices 
and undeveloped capsules of a leguminous plant, Dalea alopecur- 
oldes, which is common on the American plains. I was puzzled 
to explain why such intelligent creatures should be detected in 
harvesting immature seeds, until, upon inquiry, I found that 
leguminous plants have a succession of flowers, so that there may 
be mature seeds and flowers on a plant at the same time. Mr. 
Meehan actually found upon a specimen of the above plant in the 
Academy's Herbarium, both the flower and the fully developed 
seed ; indeed, the two appear to occur upon the same spike. It 
is thus evident that the ants were not harvesting out of season, 
but were occasionally deceived, and cast out to the refuse-heaps 
the calices that contained no edible seed. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 29t 



8TAIHIH0 WITH HJEMATOXTLON. 
BY CHARLES L. MITCHELL, PH. D., M. D. 

Heematoxj'lon or logwood was first recommended by Boehmer 
for the staining of tissues and sections, for microscopic examina- 
tions. Its rapid action, clearness of differentiation and beautiful 
tint soon made it a favorite staining agent with microscopists. 
Possessing even a greater selective power than carmine in sepa- 
rating and staining the bioplasm of animal and vegetable tissues, 
it was also superior to this coloring agent in the fact that the 
violet tint of the logwood was not nearly so fatiguing to the eye 
in prolonged examinations with the microscope. The deeper hue 
of the logwood-coloring was also an advantage in the fact that the 
contrasts of colored and uncolored tissue afforded by its use pro- 
duced a much more perfect definition and clearness of outline 
than could be produced by a brighter color. Nucleus, nucleolus 
and cell-wall, when stained hy this agent, all stand out clearly 
and with perfect distinctness and sharpness of outline — a result 
not to be attained by the use of any other coloring material. 

The use of logwood as a staining agent, however, was soon 
found to be attended with strong: and serious disadvantao:es. The 
staining fluid soon became thick, cloudy and filled with a grumous 
sediment, at the same time changing its color; sections and 
tissues, stained with it, were of a dirty brown color and soon 
faded, and, unless the solution was freshly prepared, the results 
obtained from it could not be depended upon. The numerous 
formulae, published hy Kleinenberg, Boehmer, Miller, Klein and 
many others, some of which formulae are exceedingly complicated, 
are suflSicient proof that the task they undertook was not an easy 
one; and, judging by the results, a simple, satisfactory formula 
for preparing this desirable coloring agent has yet to be published. 
It is my purpose this evening to call the attention of the members 
of the Section to a new and simple method of preparing a log- 
wood staining fluid, by which a permanent, reliable and satisfactory 
preparation can be easilj'^ made. This method, I think, will place 
within the reach of every microscopist a staining fluid which is 
stable in composition, comparatively easy of preparation and 
unequaled in the delicacy and clearness of differentiation of its 
20 



298 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

coloring. I have previousl}^ at several different meetings of the 
Section, alluded to my experiments with this agent, and have also 
shown at different times some* specimens of tissues stained with 
it ; but I did not feel willing to place my results definitely before 
3'ou, until sufficient time had elapsed to fully test the permanence 
of the preparation and of the stainings produced by its use. I 
have placed before 3'ou this evening, however, under the different 
microscopes on the table, a series of preparations, single and 
double stainings, which will, I think, speak for themselves, and 
also a sample of the staining fluid. Both fluid and si>ecimens 
were prepared nearly a year ago. 

In considering the method of preparation of this fluid, it will 
be well to review briefly the chemistry of logwood. Logwood is 
the heart-wood of Hsematoxylon Campeachianum^ a large tree 
found in Carapeachy, Honduras and other parts of tropical 
Ani,eri<ita, and is used extensively in the textile arts for dyeing 
fabrics of a purple, blue or black color. Among its chemical 
constituents are resinous matter, a peculiar tannin, free acetic 
acid, various salts and nitrogenous principles, and a peculiar 
principle called h^matin, or haematoxylon, on which the coloring 
properties of the wood depend. This hematin is, when pure, 
perfectly colorless, but affords beautiful red, blue and purple colors 
when in union with an alkaline base and the oxygen of the air. 
It also combines with the alums to form lakes, that peculiar class 
of coloring substances of which carmine is so remarkable an 
example. Now, this lake of logwood is the principle which acts 
as the dj^e ; and, in order to obtain the color in all its delicacy 
and purity, all other contaminating impurities must l)c removed. 
The various formulae for the preparation of a logwood staining fluid 
have nearly all directed the use of the commercial extract of 
logwood, which, aside from the numerous impurities necessarily 
found in so crude an article, is totally unfit for the purpose, for 
reasons which I will presentlj- point out. 

As already mentioned, logwood contains, besides its coloring 
principle, considerable quantities of tannin — so much, in fact, as 
to give it a position in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia as an astringent. 
It is well known that vegetable infusions containing tannin are 
quickly influenced by the action of both light and air, and when 
these are assisted bj' heat, changes take place very rapidly. 
Under these circumstanceSj the infusions change color, become 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 299 

cloudy and deposit large quantities of an insoluble sediment. It 
therefore can be readily understood that an extract of logwood, 
prepared by the evaporation of an infusion of the drug, must be to 
some extert changed by the process of manufacture, and that any 
preparation made from it would (the jjrocess of decomposition 
having already been started) become much more liable to change. 
And just such a result takes place in staining fluids prepared from 
extract of logwood. The partially oxidized tannin in the liquid 
gradually absorbs more ox3'gen from the air, and ciianges to other 
complex organic compounds ; the coloring matter is also affected 
by the decomposition, and graduall}^ becomes converted into 
other substances, and the liquid finally becomes of a dirty, muddy 
color, and is half filled with a lump}' sediment. This change will 
be found to take place in all ordinary' logwood staining fluids, 
whether prepared from the extract or from the drug itself, although 
from the nature of the case those made from the extract would be 
the most quickly affected. The idea, therefore, occurred to my 
mind, that»if the tannin could be removed, and the lake of log- 
wood isolated in a state of comparative purity, a staining fluid 
could be prepared which might possibly be both permanent and 
satisfactory. After numerous and lengthy experiments, the 
desired object was obtained, and the formula which I now present 
to your notice is the result of my investigation on the subject. 
As a means of distinguishing this preparation from the other and 
generally worthless logwood fluids, I have thought it best to call it 

'' Mitchell's H6matin Staining Fluid." 
B 

Finely ground logwood, ...... S ij. 

Sulph. aluminum and potash (potash alum), . . . o Ix. 

Glycerine, . . . . . . . . /. 5 iv. 

DistiUed water, .... a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the ground logwood with sufficient cold water to slightlj" 
dampen it, place it in a funnel or percolator, packing it loosely, 
and then percolate sufficient water through the drug until the 
liquid coming from the percolator is but slightly colored. Allow 
the drug to drain thoroughl}-, and then remove it from the perco- 
lator, and spread out on a paper or board to dry. Dissolve the alum 
in eight fluid-ounces of water, moisten the drj^ drug with a suffi- 
cient quantity of the fluid, and again pack in the percolator, this 
time rather tightl3% and pour on the remainder of the alum solu- 



300 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

tion. A8 soon as the liquid percolates through and commences to 
drop from the end of the percolator, close the aperture with a 
tightly fittmg cork, and allow the drug to macerate for forty-eight 
hours. Remove the cork at the expiration of that time, allow the 
liquid to drain off, and then pour sufficient water upon the drug 
to percolate through twelve fluid-ounces altogether. Mix this with 
the glycerine, filter and place in a clo>=e-s topped bottle. 

In this process nearly all the tannin is removed by percolating 
the drug with cold water, a menstruum in which the coloring 
principle is not very soluble, and the subsequent maceration and 
percolation with the alum solution removes the logwood lake in a 
state of comparative purity. The glycerine is added simplj^ for 
its preservative qualities, and this may be still increased by the 
addition of a few drachms of alcohol to the solution. 

The hdmatin staining fluid thus prepared is a clear, heavy fluid 
of a deep purplish red color. It will keep its color for a length of 
time, and deposits no sediment. The sample exhibited to the 
meeting this evening has been on my working table for nearly a 
year, frequently exposed to a strong light and open to the air, 
and, as you may see, it is as yet unchanged. As a staining fluid, 
used either strong or diluted, I consider it far superior to any 
other stain I know of. Permanent and beautiful in its color, 
which is of a delicate violet hue, clear and sharp in its. definition 
of the different tissues under examination, it will bear use with 
the very highest powers of the microscope, and, I hope, enable 
observers to distinguish minute diflferences of tissue which have 
hitherto escaped notice. 

A few words in conclusion as regards the method of using this 
fluid. It yields good results, when used undiluted, as a quick 
stain ; but the most excellent results, to my mind, are obtained by 
placing the tissues in a weak solution (ten drops to two fluid- 
drachms), with warm distilled water, for about twelve hours. This 
method leaves nothing to be desired, and produces results of 
surpassing delicacy and beauty. I had inWWded, in conclusion, 
to refer to the beautiful double-staining produced by this agent 
in connection with a new preparation of indigo-sulphuric acid, 
and have several specimens on exhibition this evening; but I 
think it will be best to devote a separate paper to the consid- 
eration of this subject, which I trust to be able to present at a 
future meeting of this Section. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 301 



December 4. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-six persons present. 

A paper entitled *'A Study of the Distribution of Gluten 
within the Starch Grain," by N. A. Randolph, M. D., was pre- 
sented. 

Gold from North Carolina. — Prof. H. Carvill Lewis exhibited 
some remarkable gold nuir gets, found in Montgomery county, North 
Carolina, forty miles east of Charlotte and two miles from Yadkin 
River. Some of the nuiigets were of great size. One of them 
weighed over four pounds, and contained nearly $1000 worth of 
gold, being finer than any specimens in the collection at the Mint. 
It was probably one of the largest nuggets ever found in eastern 
America. Many of the nuggets exhibited were nearly pure gold. 
The gold had a crystalline structure, and wasof fine yellow color. 
It was stated that in the district of North Carolina whence 
these nuggets were taken, gold was very abundant. The larger 
specimens were found in the gulleys, where they had been washed 
out of the decomposed rock, and it had been stated that a shovelful 
of dirt dug out of the hillsides anjwhere in this vicinity would 
pan out traces of gold. Some years ago one man took out of a 
hole sixteen feet square $30,000 worth of gold. The quartzite 
containing the gold occurs in a white clay or decomposed schist. 



December 11. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-three persons present. 

On Extinct Rhinoceri from the Southwest, — Professor Cope 
exhibited the skull of a young rhinoceros, probably of the species 
Aphelops fossiger Cope, ft-om the Loup Fork Bed of the valley 
of the San Francisco River, New Mexico. He also exhibited 
photographs of a mandibular ramus of a young rhinoceros, sent 
him by Dr. Mariano Barcena, of the Citj- of Mexico. The ramus 
had been exhumed in the State of Mexico, and apparently belonged 
to a young individual of the Aphe'ops fosaiger^ but is of relatively 
small dimensions. Prof. Cope regarded the discovery as proving 
the existence of the Loup Fork formation at that locality'. 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

A FunfjHs infeMmj Flies. — Prof. Leidy directed attention to 
A vial tilled with dies adherent to fragments of leaves. He stated 
that on the first of August, the last summer, he had notice<l tliat 
from the swarm of flies that were attracti'd by the ripe fruit of a 
black mulberrry. Morns nigra, many settled on the under side of 
the leaves, and there became fixed and died from the invasion of 
a fungus, in the same manner as the house-fly oflen becomes 
attached to walU and window-panes, in the autumn, through the 
agency of the fungus known as the Sporendomnna. The infested 
flies on the mulberry -tree were so numerous, that perhaps a fourth 
of the foliage ot ihe lower boughs had from one to half a <losen of 
the flies adiierent to each leaf. The fly, though a familiar one, is 
unknown by name to him. It resembles the house-fly, but is larger 
and has a black abdomen with lateral whitish s|>ots. The fnngus, 
of a fuscous hue, is esj>eeially evi<lent in the extended intervals of 
the segments of the abdomen, along the sides of the thorax and 
at the neck. Though extending to and attaching the flies to the 
leaves, the specimens do not exhibit the aone of spores on the 
leaf as commonly seen in those of infesti'd house-flies. Micro- 
scopic examination exhibited a similar structun^ of the fnngus to 
that of the Sfyorendonema or Empusa mnxear. It mainly cansists 
of translucent cylindrical, straight or somewhat tortuous rods or 
tubes of variable length with rounded ends, and containing homo- 
geneous liquid with rows of oil-like globules. Mingle<l with the 
tul>es are numerous oval, ovoid, and pyriform spore-like Ixxlies, 
usually each with two oil like globules. The e|)ore-like Inxlies 
measure 0028 to 003B mm. long, by 0*016 mm. thick. The 
longer tubes measure usually up to 0*1<) mm. long, by 0*012 mm. 
thick. 

On Mnnat/unkia. — Prof. Leidy made some remarks on a s|>eci- 
men of ManaijunkHa, of which he exhibited a drawing, and which 
bad lH»en recently obtained by Mr. Edwanl Potts, from the mill- 
pond of Absecom Creek, at Absecom, N. J. It was of esfiet^ial 
interest as apparently conlirmingthe fresh-water habit of a cepha- 
lobranch annelide. The worm was containeil in a tulie attached 
to the midrib of a d(^('ave(i leaf, to which there were attacheil 
wvend similar but empty tubes alK>ut one line long. The worm, 
r.') nun. long, ap|H>ars to Ik' an immature form of ManayunJcia 
sfH'ciitsa. The l>ody consists of ten eetigerous segments succeetling 
the head. The bitter snp|>orts two lophophoi^s, each with ti*u 
tentacles, of which none are conspicuously larger than the others. 
A i>air ot'eyes orcupy thr head, but no pigment s])Ots exist along 
tlif ba'^e of tin* tentacles. The podal seta* are from two to four, 
but mostly thn*e, on earh side of the segments. The podal hooks, 
but oHf nn each sid«* of the setigerous segments, except the first 
ot* tin* laU«r. which has none; and the last two, which have row?* of 
six cninb-like hooks on each side. The worm is translucent white, 
and the blooil very pale green. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 303 

Ordinaril}', Abs^ecom pond is purely fresh water, and contains 
in abundance the usual plants and animals characteristic of fresh 
waters. Mr. Stuart Wood stated that in occasional extreme high 
tide of Abseeom Creek, the pond hud been subjected to the over- 
flow of salt water. 

How a Carpenter Ant Queen founds a Formicary. — Rev. Dr. 
McCooK presented three specimens of fertile queens of the Penn- 
sylvania carpenter ant, Gamponofus pennsylvanicus. These had 
been given him by Dr. Joseph Leidy, who had taken them during 
the last summer at Wallingford, Delaware Co., Pa. Tlie circum- 
stances under which they were captured afforded a good demon- 
stration of the manner in which a new colony of this and other 
species is begun, confirming the speaker's own observations and 
published statements. One specimen was taken, August 9, in a 
chestnut log; the others, August 14, in the stump of a chestnut- 
tree. Thev were enclosed within small cavities about an inch in 
diameter, and, curiously, the queens had sealed themselves within 
their nests by closing up the original opening by which they had 
entered, and from which, as a nucleus, they must have cut out 
their resident-room and nursery. If, therefore, they sallied forth 
to obtain food, as they may have done (for Dr. McCook had at 
various times observed queens wandering solitary), they must 
have removed the plug or'"door," and ixjstored it to place again 
upon re-entrance. However, he l)elieved it to be quite within the 
bounds of probability that a well-fed queen could live without 
additional food for several weeks — a period long enough to rear 
a small brood, and also feed the larvae from the contents of her 
crop, which might serve as a storehouse of food, as was explained 
by illustrations of the anatomy of the alimentary canal. 

In the same receptacle witii the queens were found (1) the 
white, oval or cylindrical eggs of the species ; ( 2) larvae of various 
sizes, from those just escaped out of the egg (2-3 mm. long) to 
full-grown (about 10 mm.); (3) the cocoons, or enclosed pupae; 
and in one case (4) a callow antling, which had evidently just 
escaped from its case. This antling was, as indeed all the larvae 
and cocoons appeared to be, of the dwarf caste. There are three 
castes in a formicary of CamponotuHi the worker-major, the 
worker-minor and the minim, or dwarf. We may infer that the 
latter caste is the one which is first produced in rearing a family. 

In response to a remark and suggestion made that the imperfect 
nurture given to the larvae, under the peculiar circumstances, might 
account for the appearance of small workers first in order, Dr. 
McCook stated that, whatever one might conjecture to have been 
the fact in the remote origin of these castes among ants, it is certain 
that when the formicary lias been fhlly peopled with worker8,and the 
food-supply is unlimited, the *< to appear. 

Minims, minors and msjoi mature 

insects, but are foi These 



304 PEOCEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OP Pi 883. 

distinctions are a permanent feature of the ant economy ; and 
while it is perhaps not permitted one to sa3' that they are not caused 
by differences in amount or character of the nurture given in the 
larval state, yet this did not seem at all probable to the speaker. 
The fact that, in some genera, the workers have also remark- 
able differences in structure (as of the head, for example, in 
Bheidole and Pogonomyrmex crudelis) goes to show that differen- 
tiation into castes is regulated by something other than the food- 
supply. 

The above observations are valuable as proving that the 
females of Gamponotus^ when fertilized, go solitary, and after 
dispossessing themselves of their wings, begin the work of 
founding a new family. This work the}' carry on until enough 
workers are reared to attend to the active duties of the formicary, 
as tending and feeding the young, enlarging the domicile, etc. 
After that, the queens generally limit their duty to the laying of 
eggs, and, as the speaker had elsewhere fully described,^ are 
continually guarded and restricted in their movements by a 
circle of attendant workers, or **court." 

The above facts are further illustrated and enlarged by a series 
of observations made by Mr. Edward Potts, in accordance with 
the speaker's suggestions and directions. On or about June 16, 
Mr. Potts captured a queen of C, pennsylvan^cus running across his 
parlor floor, late at night. He placed it in a bottle, but forgot to 
examine it until five days later (21st and 22d June), when he was 
surprised to find that the ant was alive, and had laid six or eight 
eggs in the otherwise empty bottle ; which eggs, in their various 
stages of development, she continued to attend for about fifty 
days. He fed the ant by dropping into her bottle a pinch of 
white sugar, which he moistened every evening with a drop or two 
of water; at which times she quit her otherwise unremitting 
watch over the eggs and the larvae, to press her labium for a 
moment into the sweet fluid, her labial and maxillary palps 
meanwhile rapidly vibrating with pleasure. The egg-laying was, 
from the first, very deliberate ; one or two eggs were added to the 
original stock from time to time, until about the 15th August, 
making the highest number counted, of all ages, nineteen. 

He did not observe the date of the first hatching, but these 
larvae, at first no larger than the eggs, and only distinguishable 
upon close observation by the slight grooves between the body 
segments and the ill-defined head, gradually at fii-st, and after- 
wards more rapidly, reached finally a length of about one-quarter 
inch and began to spin their cocoons. On the morning of July 
20, the first was surrounded by a single layer of web, but could 
still be seen working inside it. By evening the cocoon was too 
opaque to be seen through. On the morning of the 21st the 

» Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1879, p. 140 ; "Agricultural Ants of Texas," 
p. 144 ; "Honey and Occident Ants," p. 41. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 305 

second larva was covered in like manner, and the third by the 
evening of the 22d. For some days he was able to detect the dark 
form of the young ant in one of these cocoons, and on the evening 
of Aug. 11a worker was running about the bottle and already 
essa3'ing its ministrations upon the undeveloped eggs and the 
next scries of larvse, quite as big and much heavier than itself. 
We have, then, the period from, say June 20 to July 20 (thirty 
days), occupied in the development of the first eggs and the ful- 
filment of the larval stage; from July 20 to August 11, say 
twenty-two days, were spent in the pupa state. 

The manner of the young worker was very nervous and far from 
soothing, especiall3^ to the well grown larvie, who evidently much 
prefer a mother's care to that of an elder sister. He did not 
observe this antling feeding from the sugar, but upon one or two 
occasions saw osculatory advances towards its mother which 
seemed to indicate that it was not above receiving its nutriment 
from the maternal fount to which it became accustomed during its 
wriggling youth. It constantly climbed over the eggs and larvae, 
apparently nipping them with its mandibles, but not moving them 
to any purpose. He saw no well-defined attempt at feeding them 
on its part ; though, after patient observation, upon several occa- 
sions, he observed this act performed by the parent ant. She wouhl 
caress the larva by simdry pats with her antennae upon each side 
of th^ face, when, if hungry, it would lift up its head under her 
mandibles, placing its labium against hers, at which time a flow of 
liquid down the larval throat was seen. 

As the queen's labors increased, she was less given ,to moving 
her charges from place to place, though they were not allowed to 
remain long quiescent. While nervously anxious about them, Mr. 
Potts thought that she showed little evidence of tenderness in 
her treatment, trampling on them with her feet or dragging them 
around under her heavy abdomen, as if they were really the putty 
they looked like. 

The moisture necessary for the cleansing and growth of the 
larvflft was apparently supplied from the tongue of the caretaker, 
who examined them one after another, moistening the dry places 
and keeping the egg and larval skins flexible. The queen was 
very careful of the eggs, standing nearly all the time with her 
head over the little heap, occasionally picking them up to move 
them a quarter of an inch or more to one side. She was thrown 
into a great excitement of solicitude when a fly, attracted by the 
crumbs, intruded Within her domicile. She sprang fiercely at the 
fly and raged around her narrow compartment, seizing a group 
of eggs as if to escape with them from a threatened danger, then 
replacing them as though recognizingtheimpossibility of getting 
away. Her demeanor on this occasion indicated strong maternal 
solicitude. 

Mr. Potts made some attempt to follow the embryonic changes, 
and made a few drawings of the different phases. When first 



H06 FBOciKDixQd or ths academy or [1883. 

ji^vu th^ eiTg is full of fluid, aniform in appearance throughout. 
WU^u u^xc obs^enri^i !$«»tri]ientatiofli bad taken place and advanced 
U» tlitf m*>rui;* *ta:£*^. *howiaar everywhere small^granular cells of 
uuttl»rtu *i*e. Jlfterwanl a hjaliue *pot appears at one end of the 
e^vWliicii there -Hiem* empty or iSUe^l «ith a homogeneous fluid; 
next tu w'lich ire hanpi «n»li». containiDg smaller ones of various 
^^ces. LAter 'xjrii t*nii» beei>iiie tr^o:»parent, the large cells 
lHruudin&£ Uii* -iniaAl-ovtlefl 'itHlT-eaviCT :uid forming the well-known 
:»si4r*u:i ^'♦»uditn)n. Se wa* nut *%4e to trace the formation of 
ttie vanous* nttfrruii >r exrenun omn?* The c\elo6is or pulsa- 
tu>u H ttie lar^-ai leart wa* ^Njunted in two instances at 45 and 6U 
'^r 'ttiituce. 

fie nakUiitT »i* jvtposrttinir <Aii:rti^t 13 tbe nineteenth egg 

>*tiu's ieMTfTtH^i Wit-n tip*t <>t>;*erveil the qoeem stooft up high 

•H>Mit ul tn^^ aii'^ »i' le*r*. the aUlomeii thrown f«>rward between 

*tK'«ti MHi tiv ivtd Hi*nt Imck almost to meet i:. The egg was 

tKu ii'Mut i;ti! inUnnled. Consjih-mble mu<<^:lar action was 

xtx^i'iv tM^'uc'i^'Ut tile rilnlomen, ainl when pre<^ntlj Cbe egg was 

h.>.^Um ^k -trHj*£hleued herself out with a visible air of relief, but 

o.V*** ^*^ *iK;ut the t'trg. which was lei t lying under her for ?*everal 

u.iiuit«. ^tule s.he attended to other matters, until at la.«t, acci- 

tv*i«.,H.l> ouriiui^i it with one antenna, she picked it up and carried 

; v» iK* fHiitilv apartments, where, presently, the worker found it 

^,».i i'iHvv^l »t in the group of the older eggs. An eriilent intent 

vi tux>ji\ tiij; the egtjH and laivjp was remarked, these ( within the 

♦,4s«%»^ hmitiitions of the chosen space) having been kept to a 

^oxkI ilvwiiiH* Hv|>arate. 

Vu>;uHt U, another worker was released from its cocoon Mr. 
l*oU'* Uul iu»t teethe act, but believed that the female assistetl.as 
mile Ha* Mien standing over the neophyte who si^med to lie weak, 
\\n hiiioiu U'lit forwanl, the tarsi and tibift» still nearly reaching 
the end of the alMlomen, indicating the manner in which the leg;* 
v%* If I'oldeil in the cocoon. Immediately after release the mother 
^nM* Mm* >oung imago nourishment in the manner alio vedescril>eil. 
.\ I till* date there were in the formicary, Iwsidc the mature ants, 
l**M full KKiwn larvie, very fat, two al^ont half-grown, and several 
•milhr oiH'H, with the eggs in different stages of development. 
Till' fwo oldi-Mt were then evidently about ready to spin, but what 
I liHfii.r !he\ coiihl have, with the mature ants continually tramping; 
t,\tr tiKfti, standing them up on end or hauling them (»lf to a 
»li«(.t>«ri-, Mr. r<»tts was at a loss to imagine. From the mouthof 
oiM Im' ol.nirved a strand of silk protruding, but the workers 
r.iifi# apimnntly tr\ing to grasp it, and left him in doubt whether 
»h' if '#i;)«il was to help or hinder the weaving process. 

A'»/'««»l 14, one of the two full-gn)wn larvie was found wrap|)ed 
.». .»< wifidifig Mheet. The web was very thin and the motit)n of 
M,# j.i fv.r nadily neeii through it. The other larva st»eme<l almost 
f/#*Mily <|MHH4M-nt, biit carcful examination with a CoddiUgton 
l^i»4 j'lio«%i'd Home muscular action in the posterior segnienta of 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 307 

the body. Their state of comparative torpor was thought to imme- 
diately precede the act of spinning. At this date the workers 
had become less nervous in their motions, and the female seemed 
to have resigned most of her labors to them, resting much of the 
time quietly in one place. 

August 16, the third worker had emerged and was found quite 
at home in attending to its duties. The second grown larva was 
then still uncovered and quiescent. Very close observation was 
required to show that it still breathed, and it made no other 
visible motion. 

These observations of Mr. Potts establish or confirm the fol- 
lowing points : (1) The manner of depositing the eggs, which, as 
well as the larvsB. are cared for by the queen until workers are 
matured; (2) the stages in the development of the egg and larvae 
are partially noted ; (3) the time requiied for the change from 
larval to pupal state is about thirty days ; (4) about the same 
period is spent in the pupa state, the entire period of transforma- 
tion being about sixty days ; (5) the work of rearing the first 
broods of Camponotus begins the latter part of June or early in 
July; (6) about twenty-four hours are spent by larvae in spinning 
up into cocoon; (7) the ant queen probably assists the callow 
antling to emerge from its case ; (8) not onl}- the larvae, but 
occasionally also the antlings, are fed by the queen ; (9) the 
young workers, shortly after emerging, begin the duty of nurses, 
caring for the eggs and tending the larvae. Some of these points 
thus abstracted and formulated by him Dr. McCook was subse- 
quently able to confirm from observations upon the same queen. 
His thanks were due Mr. Potts for the intelligent and successful 
manner in which his suggestions had been carried out. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



A tlVDT OF THE DISTmiBUTIOV OF OLVISV WITHIW THI WHIAT 

6RAIV. 

BY ». A. RANDOLPH, M. D. 

The object of the present pai>er is to briefly describe several 
methoils for the demonstration of gluten in the central portion of 
the wheat grain, and the results of their application. 

For many years the great majority of observers and of writers 
upon gluten have stated that this highly important nitrogenous 
element of fooii is found almost, if not quite exclusively, in the 
fourth layer (Parkes) of the grain, immediately below and adhe- 
rent to the thinl or inner coat of the true bran ; this fourth layer 
iscom|>oseii of closely |>acked yellowish granular cells of ovate or 
culK)id form, each of which is provided with a dense, laminated 
cellulose wall and contains a large proportion of fVee fat. Imme- 
diatoh within this layer of 80-t*alled'*gluten-cells," and connituting 
the gn^ttter jKirtion of the grain, is an aggregation of much larger, 
usually elongated, cylindrical cells, whose contents are apparently 
inado up exclusively of starch granules which exhibit great 
diversity in size. 

So n\o«l and widespread has the belief become that the gluten 
\%rtlH^ wheat resides in siK^ific cortical cells of the grain, that not 
vM^l^v ^\o many most intelligent persons habitually rasp their 
vlu;^*tive surfaces with branny foo<l8, but attempts to determine, 
^\ inU'n>«copical examination, the nutritive values of various pre- 
^ty-^i T^hmU have l)een made, in winch the proportion of ^ gluten- 
ovIU " fiMiiid in a given food formed the criterion of its value.* 
HiciH- a«nuniptions have called forth merited criticism from 
Vuti Uichardson,of this city, and from Prof. Leeds, of Hoboken, 
Uiih 'd whom enipliasized the fact, singularly ignored by Cutter, 
.Ui obi aid their followers, that ordinary white wheat-flour contains 
I vai ^ iii^ but always notable quantity of gluten. 

Hi. lilt »i* the writer is informed, however, there has not been 
f*««»i.h'4l liny <H'ulrtr demonstration of the gluten of the wheat 
^^♦.♦.M. i/i ititii an<l entirely indo|H»ndent of the '* gluten-cells." 
.•*iM h *% demonstration may be conclusively made by either of the 
li»ll<iwini( methods : 

I, If wholf wlirat grains U» macerated in water to which a few 



i K. Cutter, M. O., (}alliard*s Med. Jour., Jan., 1883. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 309 

drops of-ether have been added to prevent germination, they will, 
in a few days, become thoroughly softened, and the contents of 
such a grain may then be squeezed out as a white tenacious mass. 
Examination of the remaining bran shows the " gluten-cells " 
undisturbed, closely adhering to the cortical protective layers. 
By now carefully washing the white extruded mass, the major 
part of its starch may be removed ; and upon the addition of a 
drop of iodine solution, microscopic examination shows numer- 
ous networks of fine yellow fibrils, still holding entangled in their 
meshes many starch granules colored blue by the iodine. In 
carefully washed specimens, these sponge-like networks are seen 
to retain the outline of the central starch-filled cells, and evidentlj' 
constitute the protoplasmic matrix in which the starch granules 
lay. Upon gently teasing such a specimen under a moderate 
amplification the fibrils will be seen to become longer and thinner 
in a manner possible only to viscid and tenacious substances — a 
class represented in wheat by gluten alone. 

An eminently satisfactory proof of the proteid nature of these 
central networks may be obtained by heating the specimen in the 
solution of acid nitrate of mercury (Millon's reagent), when the 
fibrils will assume the bright pink tint characteristic of albumen- 
oids under this treatment. The results of the application of the 
xanthoproteic and biuret reactions are equally conclusive, but more 
care is required in the use of these proteid tests, and the resultant 
differentiation is not so clear. Reticuli similar to those above 
described, but much broken and smaller,* may be seen, upon close 
examination, scattered throughout fine white flour, without the 
addition of any reagent. 

By general consent, the albumenoids of the wheat grain are 
grouped together as gluten, which is, however, further separable 
into gluten-fibrin, gliadin and mucedin, proteid bodies practically 
equal in nutritive value, but differing in certain physical proper- 
ties, notably that of solubility. It must, therefore, be borne in 
mind that in this, as in all other methods of separating gluten 
from the other constituents of the giain, its relatively small soluble* 
portion is removed with the starch, and that any estimate of the 
quantitj' of gluten based upon such methods will probably be 
rather under than over the actual amount. 

2. In even the thinnest sections of the wheat grain, the gluten 
of the central portion is always masked by large numbers of starch 



310 pBocceDi!«08 or thk acadext or [1883. 

grannies. Thene mA\% to a large extent, be removed by imraersing 
the flection for a short time in liquor i>otas8ie, with subsequent 
careful waf^hinp:. The alkali afft'Cts the hydration and {M&rtial 
solution of the starch; but if its npf)1ication be too long continued, 
the gluten will also lie dis«^olved. This treatment is well adapted 
to show the rather <leiise gluten networks usually found in bran, 
im media telv lielow the fourth laver. 

3. The most satisfactory method of studying the distribution of 
gluten in sections of wheat is that of artificial tsalivary difjeHfion. 
If the section be gently boiled for a moment to hydrate the starch, 
then transferred when cool to filtered saliva, and maintained for 
from half nn hour to an hour at a temperature of about 98-^ Fahr., 
all the starch will 1k» digested away, while the insoluble proteid 
and other constituents will remain entirely unaltered. A section 
of i^heat grain thus treated will exhibit, throughout its entire 
central iK)rtion, dosc-meslud gluten networks, which become 
slightly denser toward the cortex of the grain. The proteid 
character of these reticuli is here, as in the first method, sus- 
ceptible of uiicro-chemical demonstration by MillonV reagent or 
the biuret reaction. A relativelv very faint coloration, indicating 
the presence of albumenoids, is noticeable in the ** gluten-cells,'' 
while the gradual condensation of the gluten of the endosperm as 
the <'ortex is approached, is evidenced by a quite vivid coloration 
of the fibrils. 

Sehenk • has applie<l Millon's n*agent to sections of wheat with 
a resultant assumption by the endosperm of a pink tint and ^* no 
coloration of the ct>rtiral gluten-cells.'* The starch was not removed 
and the metlio<l of distribution of gluten was not determined. By 
artificial gastric <ligestion of wheat sections, the same ol»server 
iiotiMi that the starch of the section Wcame readily detache<l, and 
dedured from this the Just proposition that the gluten lay iK'tween 
the starch granules. 

ObjeetiouM are not infrequent! v offered bv the chemist to the 
microscopic'il <letermination of organic com|>ounds, es[KH*ially 
where any attempt at a (piantitative estimation is made. All that 
in rlainuHl for the methods alK)ve described is the demonstration 
of gluten in very considerable ()nantity in the inner layers of the 
wheat grain. It is luit ju»<t to state, however, that by thes^ 
nietlKHls a eoneoption may Ik? obtaine<l of the quantity of proteid* 



' Anat.-IMiyMul. riit«»n*.» p. 3'i. Wien., 1872. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 311 

within the grain fully as accurate as that given by the usual 
chemical method of estimating the albumenoids of a given body, 
namely, from the entire amount of nitrogen contained in it. 
Especially is this true in the case of vegetable tissues. In a close 
analysis of the potato, Schultze and Barbieri found that only56"2 
per cent, of all its nitrogen existed in alburaenoid combination, 
while in the fodder-beet only 20 per cent, of the nitrogen went to 
the formation of albumenous compounds; the remainder in each 
case entering into the composition of non-nutritious bodies, as 
amides, nitrates, ammonia and as| avagin. 

The fact that the gluten networks become denser toward the 
periphery of the endosperm, together with the presence of non- 
albumenoid nitrogenous compounds in the perisperm, explains 
the notable percentage of nitrogen found in bran as ordinarily 
roughly removed. 

The color tests mentioned above indicate that the amount of 
proteids contained in the cells of the fourth layer is relatively 
very slight ; but admitting for the moment that these cells contain 
gluten, the question naturally' arises whether, in view of their 
dense cellulose walls, they are cnpable of serving as a food-stuff 
for man. In artificial digestions the writer has found these 
elements, even when thoroughly cooked, to be unaffected by the 
digestive juices ; that is, well-boiled bran with its adherent "gluten- 
cells,*' will sustain prolonged maceration at the temperature of 
the human digestive tract in artificial gastric and pancreatic juice 
(in which, under the same conditions, fibrin is readily digested) 
without exhibiting any change. These cells were further found 
to be unaffected by maceration for thirty days in liquor potassce, 
except for a slight swelling of the cell and the occasional coales- 
cence of some of its contained oil-globules. They were also 
practically unchanged by a few days' immersion in strong nitric 
acid. In order to obtain conclusive and unassailable results as to 
the nutritive value of the " gluten-cells " as far as man is con- 
cerned, the writer has at present under observation a number of 
healthy adults, who daily receive, in addition to their regular diet, 
a small fixed amount of boiled bran. Their alvine dejections 
(containing all the undigested elements of food after the normal 
act'on of all the digestive juices) will be submitted to close micro- 
scopical examination, with a view to ascertaining the extent to 
which.the "gluten-cells*' have been digested, and a report will 
be made upon the results in the near future. 



312 PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



December 18. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Sixty-two persons present. 

A paper entitled " Reproduction in Ainphileptns fasciola/* by 
Andrew J. Parker, M. D., was presented for publication. 

Miss Adele M. Fielde made a communication on the language, 
literature and foik-iore of China. 



December 25. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Fifty persons present. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 313 



BEPRODUCTION IN AHPHILEPTTJS FASCIOLA. 
BY ANDREW S. PARKER, M. D., PH. D. 

Several years ago, while examining some infusoria, I noticed a 
specimen of Amphileptus fasciola undergoing some curious 
changes, the nature cf which, at that time, I did not fully appre- 
ciate, supposing them to be due to the dissolution of the animal. 
Recently I observed the same series of phenomena occurring in 
another individual, and on tracing them out more fully I found 
that they were due, not to the death of the infusorian, but to what 
I believe is a method of reproduction not hitherto observed, or at 
least not described, in this group. My attention, in both instances, 
was attracted by a peculiar oscillating movement, the Amphileptus 
rocking from side to side, the animal remaining stationary, 
although its cilia were in active motion. In other respects the 
animal appeared normal, no changes being observed in its nucleus, 
protoplasmic contents or contractile vesicle. Shortly after I had 
noticed this peculiar rocking movement I found that the elongated 
extremity was breaking up into small masses of protoplasm ; 
these gradually separated from the parent body, and each of them 
exhibited distinct amaboid movements. Althousrh the cilia 
seemed to break off with the small masses, I could not detect 
any signs of their presence after separation. For about five 
minutes small protoplasmic masses, exhibiting distinct and inde- 
pendent amoeboid movements, continued to be shed. 

The rocking movement still continued, but now commenced to 
show signs of being converted into a movement of rotation. 
Finally a rotary motion was established, and the animal com- 
menced to change its position. At the same time I noticed a 
distinct elongation occurring at the end where the changes 
described above had taken place, a rounded projection appearing, 
which gradually elongated, until finally, in the course of about 
two hours, the individual had assumed its original shape and 
activity, although apparently somewhat diminished in bulk. 
Cilia covered the new growth, but they did not seem to be a new 
formation, but were produced by a simple elongation of the 
ectosarc, this being carried foi*ward by the growing endosarc. As 
regards the protoplasmic masses that were shed or disc . I 

observed them for about four hours, at which time'tl 
21 



.316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1S83. 

several societies from which we have not received anything for 
more tlian five 3'ears having been dropi)ed, while a number hereto- 
fore omitted have l>een added. It has always l)een the practice of 
the society to send its publications to a number of im[>ortaiit 
foreign Universities and town libraries, sitnate<l in places not 
otiierwise in receipt of the Proceedings and Journal, so that 
students everywhere ma}' be able to inform tliemselves of the 
Academy's contributions to science. These intellectual centres 
have been supplied with the current numbers of the Proceedings 
as usual. 

A circular distributed to corresponding societi< s in July, asking 
them to send their publications to the Academy by post, in 
exchange for a like prompt transmission on our part, has not 
been productive of as much result as was hoped for. An early 
distribution of the Proceedings is, however, of so much import- 
ance, both to the contributors and to the society at large, that 
each numl»er will Ihj mailed, hereafter, to exchanges as well as to 
subscril)ers,iis soon as possible after its issue from the prt»ss. 

The average attendnnce at the meetings during the year has 
been thirty-one. Verbal communications have been made by 
twenty-six memlnTs and two guests. Much the greater number 
of thoe have Ucn prepared by the authors for publication in the 
Proi-cedings, and form not the least important part of the annual 
volume, while abstracts were made for the public press of those 
which could at all be regarded as of popular interest. 

Art. r*, Chai). X. of the By-Laws was amended on XovemlH»r 27 
]»y striking out from the tirst line the wonl " onl}*,*' and from the 
second and third lines the words ** obtain permission to." Art. 
0, Chap. XI, was amended at the same meeting by striking out all 
after the word ** public '* in the second line, and inserting in lieu 
thereof •* daily, except Sunday, and at least one day in the week 
without <diarge on such conditions and un<ler such regulations as 
the Council shall establish from time to time.'* 

Or. UuschenlH'rger having been elected a Curator at the annual 
election in l^sj, thereby became ex-otllcio a member of the 
Cuunril ; Mr. Charles Morris was elected to fdl the vacancy thun 
cnated in the latter body. At the meeting of the Council held 
February 17. the Curat(»r in-chnrge, Mr. Chas. F. Parker, was 
grriiited a month'"* leave of absence in conseciuence of an in<lispo- 
hition. which it was then hoped was but temporary. It was found 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 317 

necessary, however, to renew the leave of absence from time to 
time until his death on the 7th of September. Eamest testimony 
to his worth as a man and to the value of his services to the 
Academy has been already borne by his associates, and the general 
feeling of the society has been well expressed in the able bio- 
graphical notice b}' his friend and fellow-member, Isaac C.Martin- 
dale, published in the Proceedings of November 13. 

At the meeting of the Academy held October 2, Prof. Angelo 
Heilprin was elected Curator, to fill the vacancy caused by the 
death of Mr. Parker ; and at the meeting of the Council held on the 
5th of October he was appointed Curator-in-charge, or Actuary 
to the Curators. 

An inquiry from the New Century Club, as to the desirability 
of endowing a professorship in the Academy, to be held exclu- 
sivelj^ by women, having been referred for consideration to the 
Council, it was resolved that, inasmuch as the professorships are 
open to women, as well as men, it is inexpedient to restrict any 
professorship to either sex. This action of the Council was 
endorsed by the Academy and transmitted to the New Century 
Club, with the suggestion that if a proposition were made to endow 
a scholarship for women instead of a professorship, the subject 
might receive further consideration. 

A committee, consisting of Messrs. Valentine, Covlies, Ruschen- 
berger, Frazer and Whelen, was appointed January 2, to petition 
the Legislature of Pennsylvania to aid the Academy in the exten- 
sion and furnishing of its building. The efforts of this committee 
have been so far unproductive of result, although by action of 
the Legislature the collections of the Second Geological Survey 
of Pennsylvania are now stored in boxes in the cellar of the 
Academy. Their value to the student would be, of course, greatly 
enhanced if they were properly displayed. The Academy is, 
however, entirely unable at present to furnish the space necessary 
for such exhibition, and the request to the Legislature for aid in 
the construction of an addition to the Academy, in which these 
collections would be properly placed, cannot be deemed unreason- 
able. 

The most important additions to the Academy's possessions 
made during the year have been the Wm. S. Yaux collections of 
minerals and antiquities. After mature consideration by the 
Council and the Academy, the conditions proposed by the executor 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

for the government of the bequest were finally adopted at the 
met'ting held February 20. A special appropriation was made 
for the alteration of the entresol rooms at tno east end of the 
hall, for the accommodation of these collections, and therein they 
have been arranged by Mr. Jacob Binder, the special curator 
a)>pointcd by the Council in conformity with the articles of 
agreement. Mr. Binder's report, which follows that of the 
Professor of Mineralogy, indicates the character and extent, as 
well as the mode of armugement, of the collections under his 
charge. 

At the meeting held April 24, the following was adoptinl : — 
Jiesolved^ That the title to certain lands in Western Virginia, 
belonging to the Academy, and heretofore held in trust therefor 
by the late Wm. S. Vaux, Ik? vested in Messrs. T. D. Iland, Jacob 
Binder and S. Fisher Corlies, as trustees for the Academy, and 
that the title to a burial h)t, owned by the Academy in the ceme- 
tery adjoining the Academy's premises on Race Street, be trans- 
ferred to the Trustees of the Building Fund, in accordance with 
the recommendation of the Council, March 26, 1883. 

The American Association for the Advancement of Science has 
accepte<l the invitation tenderid by the Academy, in conjunction 
with other eilucational establishments, the otTicers of the niunici|>al 
government and prominent citizens, to meet in Philadelphia in 
1884. It is ho|>e<l that the meeting may be attended by the 
British Association which meets in Montreal next August, or at 
least )>y an ini|>ortant representation thereof. The International 
Electrical Exhibition, which it is profxmed to hohl at the same 
time un<ler the patronage of the Fnmklin Institute, cannot fail to 
add iarijelv to the interest of the occasion and to the numlK*r of 
those in attendance. The result will probably Ix? one of the 
largest scientific meetings ever held, and one which canni)t fail to 
exert a lieneficial infiuence on the Academv in common with the 
other scientific institutions of the city. We have, therefore, 
abundant reason to hojKj that the prosperity of the society at 
the end of next vear will Ik? at least as great as that so clearlv 
set f<irth in the accompanying annual rej)orts of otllcers and 
sections. 

All of which is ies|)e(tfiilly submitted, 

Ei>w. J. Nolan, 

according Secretary, 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 319 

REPORT OF THE CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

The Corresponding Secretary reports that the business of his 
ofl3ee presents but little variation from that of preceding yeai-s. 

There have been man}" favorable replies received from corre- 
sponding societies to our request for an interchange of publications 
by.mail, the result of which will be an earlier acquaintance with 
the doings of other societies, greatly to the advantage of working 
naturalists. 

The Museum has received many additions during the year, a 
detailed account of which will appear in the Curator's report. 
These have been promptly acknowledged, to the number of 119. 

There have been seven Correspondents elected during the year, 
and acknowledgment has been received from but one who was 
elected during the present year. 

Our corresponding societies generally acknowledge the recep- 
tion of our publications by letter, and accompany their own 
publications with letters of transmission. 

Letters of acknowledgment have been received num- 
bering, 67 

Letters transmitting publications have been received 

numbering, 42 

Letters concerning postal interchange numbering, . 19 

Ackowledgments from Corresponding Members, . 1 
Miscellaneous correspondence, . . . .21 

In the latter number are many asking for deficiencies in their 
series of our publications. These have been favorably responded 
to whenever possible. There has been a considerable accession 
to our exchange list during the current year. 

Respectfully submitted, 

George H. Horn, M. D., 

Corresponding Secretary, 

REPORT OF THE LIBRARIAN. 

During the twelve months ending November 30, 1883, 3003 
additions have been made to the library, an increase of 208 over 
the growth of 1882. These additions have consisted of 360 
volumes, 2615 pamphlets and separate parts of periodicals, and 
28 maps, sheets, photographs, etc. 



320 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1883. 



The above increase has been derived from the following 
sources : — 



8«cietu?ii» 

EilitorH, 

I. V. WniianiMiii Fund, 

Auth«»rs 

Jotieph J(*aii(*K, 
ThoniaH H. WiImui Fuiul, 
UnivfP»ity c»f Wurzhiirj^, 
Depart iiu'iit of the Interior, 
(}eol(»^ieal Sur\'ey of Sweilen, 
BinithHonian Institution, . 
De|>artnient of A^jricultun», 
Dr. Fninres W. Wetnion*, 
Ge<)U)gi«-al Sur\'ey of Portugal 
F. v. llayden, .... 
(Jeoloifieal Sur\'ey of India, 
War nei*artinent, . . . 
Geol. Sur\'ey of Pennsylvania, 
liejjentK of the University of 

New York 

J. H. Kedfiehi 

Minihter of Public Workn, 

France, 

Tri*aMiry Depart nient, . . . 
Knj(inet*r Depart., T. S. A., . 
Norwegian (tovenunent, . . 

Hritinli Muneuin, 

(}c€»logieal Hur\'ey of New 

Zealand, 



1113 

su; 
8:^ 

49 

27 
oo 

20 
19 
16 
13 
11 
10 
9 
8 

7 


5 
5 
5 
5 
3 



Geol. Survey of Wifictmsin, 
Stephen G. Worth, .... 
Navy Dei>artnient, .... 
(teolo^ical Sur\'ey of Belgium, 

J. S. Newberry, 

De|>artment of Mines, Nova 

Seotia, 

Geological Survey of New- 

f(»undland, 

East Indian Goveniment, . . 

S. F. CN»rlieK, 

Thomas Meehan, 

Tnistees of the Indian Mua., . 
Trustees of the 8. African Mus., 

Kev. H. C. McCook 

David L. Jame», 

TobdenClub 

Geological Survey of Illinois, . 

(). A. Derbv, 

Tnistees of the Boston City 

llotipital 

F. V. Sfueller 

r. S. Coast Survey 

Surgeon Generars Office, . . 
U. S. Commission of Fish and 

Fisheries 

Exetnitor of the late Wm. S. 

Vaux, 



3 



*1 



The Hcveral lots have been presented on the Tuesday evening 
following their reception, and distributed to the departments of 
the library as follows, each title being immediately added to the 
card catalogue : — 



Journals, 2225 

(Myology 2«ri 

Conrhology, K5 

General Natural IIist4»ry, . . 82 

Botany 60 

?^ntonu»h>gv, 4rt 

Bibliography 33 

Voyages and Travels, . . . 25 

Mammal<»gy, 25 

.\gricultun» 20 

Anat4m)y an<l Physiology, . 18 

llelminthology, 18 



Mineralogy, 17 

Ornithology, 17 

AnthnnM>logy, 12 

Ichthyology 10 

Kncyclo|Me<lias, 10 

Chenjistry 10 

Physical St'lence, 9 

Education, 9 

HerjH'tology, 2 

Me<licine, 2 

Misi'ellaneous, G6 



154 volumes have Iteen bound, and an additional 135 are still 
in the hands of the binder. 

Assistance furnished nuMluring the summer months has enabled 
ne to have the books and i>am[>hlets on Conchology, Physical 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 321 

Science, CLemistrj^ Geography and Medicine, together with the 
Italian journals, added to the card catalogue. The Department 
of Conchology had not been before included in the card entries, 
because a complete hand catalogue had been prepared just before 
the card system was adopted, and a similar arrangement of the 
other departments mentioned has not heretofore been possible for 
lack of time. I regret to say that, for the same reason, the 
American and Italian journals only have as yet been completely 
catalogued, although the hand index to the shelf arrangement, in 
use for several years back, has been kept roughly up to date, and 
serves its purpose reasonably well. Every effort will be made 
during the coming year to complete the catalogue of this 
department. 

A circular which was sent to all our corresponding societies, 
proposing an exchange of publications by mail, has been answered 
favorably by a few societies, but the greater number seem to 
prefer sending but once a year, as heretofore, through the Inter- 
national Exchange Bureau. This is to be regretted, as early 
access to the current scientific literature is of the utmost impor- 
tance to the student. Of course, the many journals for which the 
Academy subscribes, and which are all credited in the accom- 
panying list to the I. Y. Williamson Fund, are received promptly 
bj' mail as issued. 

It will be observed that we are indebted to the liberality of 
Mr. Joseph Jeanes for 83 of the current additions, and to the 
fund which the Academy has received from Mr. Isaiah Y. 
Williamson for 437 volumes and continuations of periodicals. 
These additions are of special value and importance, as they have 
been ordered at the request of the working members, and supply 
for the most part the material required for actual investigation. 

A fine portrait in oil of Dr. Joseph Leidy, by Uhle, has been 
placed on permanent deposit by the Biological Club of Phila- 
delphia. The amount required for the portrait of Dr. Robert 
Bridges having been secured, the order was given to Mr. Uhle 
early in the year. I regret to say the artist's engagements have 
not enabled him to complete the work, which will, however, be 
placed in the library at an early date. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Edward J. Nolan, 

Librarian, 



322 PaOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



REPORT OF THE CURATORS. 

The Curators present the following statement of the Curator-in- 
e!iarge, Prof. Angelo Heilprin, as their report for the year ending 
November 30 : — 

The condition of the Academy's collections, although it cannot 
be stated to be absolutely satisfactory, is yet fairly good when 
conii)ared to the condition of similar collections in this country, 
or even of those pertaining to foreign institutions. Much, how- 
ever, remains to be done before either the interests of science or 
of general education will have been thoroughly satisfied, and until 
more efficient aid is added to the working power of the Academy, 
progress towards the obtaining of this satisfied condition must be 
necessarily slow. The great obstacle in the way of the systematic 
arrangement of the collections has thus far been, and still remains, 
want of space, a weighty obstacle which must ever remain as such 
until greater expansion will have been afforde<l in the construction 
of an extension to the present building. 

The removal, at a very moderate expense, of the large central 
platform on the floor of the museum has permitted of a much 
more satisfactory arrangement of the extensive series of geolog- 
ical and paheontological specimens than has heretofore been pos- 
sible, and has at the same time afforded room for the gathering 
together and proj)er exhibition of a special collection — namely, a 
collection illustrative of the natural ))roduct8 of Pennsylvania and 
New Jersey. In this " local museum," as it may be termed, it is 
intenthd to illustrate by actual specimens (as far as is practicable) 
the entire domains of zoology, palaeontology, geology and min- 
endc^gy, in so far as these departments are directly connectcil with 
the States above nuntioned, and therebv verv materiallv facilitate 

tew ■> 

the means for self-instruction in natural history, and for making 
such inunediate examinations and comparisons as may be variously 
demanded. Work in the arnuigement of this collection han lKH»n 
progressing favorably, and it is ho|>od that the entire exhibition 
will Ik? satisfactorily displayed in the early part of the coming 
vear. 

The n)ost imiM>rtanl a<ldition ninde during the past year to the 
Acadeinv*?^ nuiseum is the Vaux collection of minerals and archa*- 
ological implements, to which reference is made in the rejK>rt of 



J883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 823 

the special Curator appointed for those collections, Mr. J. Binder, 
by whom the specimens have been carefully arranged and clas- 
sified. The other additions to the museum are recorded in the 
list of donations herewith appended, or are incorporated in the 
reports of the different sections. 

The Academy has during the year benefited through the 
services of three Jessup Fund beneficiaries, Messrs. J. Wortman, 
A. F. Gentry, and S. F. Aaron, respectively in the departments of 
vertebrate palaeontology, ornithology, and entomology, the first 
of whom has latterly resigned on receiving the appointment of 
assistant to the Curat or-in-cliarge. An application for the filling 
of the present existing vacancy in the Jessup Fund is now in the 

hands of the Curators. 

Joseph Leidy, 

Chairman of the Board of Curators. 



SUMMARY OF THE REPORT OF THE TREASURER, 

For THE Year ending Nov. 30, 1883. 

De. 

To Balance from last account $ 991 :-l 

*' Initiation fees 170 00 

** Cotftributions (semi-annual contributions) 2000 58 

** Life Memberships 600 00 

<' Admissions to Museum. 467 17 

" Sale of Guide to Museum 40 00 

•* t^ale of duplicate books 8 63 

** Sale of Proceedings. Journals, etc 430 91 

** Fees, Lectures on Palaeontology 136 CO 

*' Fees, Lectures on Mineralogy 189 00 

" Wilson Fund. Toward Salary of Librarian 300 00 

** Interest on Money awaiting investment T2L 17 

** Interest un Deposits in Trust Companies 8 94 

** Interest from Mortgage Investment, Joshua T. Jeanes' 

Legacy 1000 CO 

** Publication Fund. Interest on Investments 265 39 

" Barton Fund. " ** " 240 00 

" Life Membership Fund. ** " ** 132 50 

** Maintenance Fund. " " «* 102 50 

** Eckfeldt Fund. ** " " 66 86 

" Museum Fund. " '• ** 26 00 

** Stott Legacy Fund. • ** " " 67 60 

$7849 36 



324 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

Ch. 

Salaries, Janitors, etc $3358 21 

Printing Proceedings §601 161 -oj ., 

Binding '« 123 25; 

Repairs 698 17 

Printing and Stationery 85 61 

Binding 58 75 

Freight 31 13 

Plates and GngraviDgs 109 50 

Water Rents for 1883 26 15 

Postage 127 55 

Coal 616 70 

Gas 120 67 

Miscellaneous 457 06 

Newspaper Reports 86 00 

Insurance 30 00 

Ice 7 44 

Trays 18 10 

Alcohol 23 50 

Cases 23 CO 

A. Heilprin, Lectures on PalsBontology 136 (0 

H.C.Lewis " " Mineralogy 189 00 

Guides to Museum ......* 23 00 

Books 164 57 

Vials 8 25 

Life Memberships translerred to Life Membership Fund.. 500 00 

$7622 77 

Balance, General Account $226 59 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND. (For Maintenance ) 

Balance per last Statement $1300 00 

Life Memberships transferred to this account 500 (K) 

Interest on Investments 132 50 

$1932 50 

Transferred to General Account $ 132 60 

Investment in Bond and Mortgage at 5 per cent. Interest.. 1300 00 

$1432 50 

To Balance for Investment $500 00 

BARTON FUND. (For Printing and Illustrating Publications.) 

Interest on Investment $240 00 

Transferred to General Account 240 CO 

JESSUP FUND. (For Support of Students.) 

Balance, lust Statement $711 67 

Interest on Investments 660 00 

$1271 67 
Disbursed 676 66 

Balance $595 01 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 325 

MAINTENANCE FUND. 

Balance per last Statement $2108 14 

Interest on Inyestments 102 50 

$2210 64 

Transferred to General Account.. $ 102 50 

Investment in Bond and Mortgage at 5 per cent. Interest.. 2100 00 

2202 50 

To Balance for Investment $8 14 

PUBLICATION FUND. 

Balance, last Statement $1214 70 

Income from Invesimente 350 69 

$1565 89 

Transferred to General Account $265 39 

Investment in Bond and Mortgage at 5 per cent. luterest... 1300 00 

$1665 39 

MRS. STOTT FUND. (For Publications.) 

Balance, last Statement $13C0 00 

Interest from Investments 67 50 

$1367 50 

Transferred to General Account $ 67 50 

Investment in Bond and Mortgage at 5 per cent. Interest.. 1300 00 

$1367 50 

I. V. WILLIAMSON LIBRARY FUND. 

Balance, last Statement $433 48 

RenU collected 835 27 

Ground-rents collected 1026 28 

$2295 03 

For Books $814 60 

Binding ^ 76 25 

Repairs to Properties 229 68 

Taxes and Water Rents 241 97 

Transfer of Property to Academy 69 05 

Collecting 93 07 

$1524 62 

Balance $770 41 

THOMAS B. WILSON LIBRARY FUND. 

Balance overdrawn per last Statement $232 89 

Dulaa&Co., London 51 88 

B. Weatermann & Co., Books 162 78 

Transferred to General Account 300 00 

$747 56 
Income from Investments 625 00 

Balance overdrawn 222 66 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

ECKFELDT FUND. 

Balance, last Statement ;. $9G6 86 

Interest from Invest ments 100 00 

$1066 86 

Transferred to General Account $ 66 86 

Investment in Bond f>nd Mortgage ai 5 per cent. Interest... 1000 00 

$1066 86 

BOOK ACCOUNT. (Donations from Jos Jeanes, Esq.) 

Balance, last Statement $1.39 83 

Lrss cash paid for Books 302 70 

Balance $37 13 

BINDING ACCOUNT. (Donations from Jos. Jeanes, Esq.) 

Balance, last Statement $277 85 

Less cash paid for Binding 277 85 

INSTRUCTION FUND. 

Balance, last Statement $60 00 

Less cash paid forCards 4 0<f 

Balance $56 00 

MUSEUVI FUND. 

Balance, last Statement $1000 00 

Interest from Investments 25 00 

$1025 00 

Transferred to General Account $ 25 00 

Investment in BoTid and Mortgage at 6 per cent. Interest.. 1000 00 

. — $1025 00 

WILLIAM 8, VAUX COLLECTION FUND. 

Cash received from Estate of Wm. S. Vaux, deceased $1001 CO 

Interest from Investments lOOO 00 

George Vaux, for Mineral Case 50 00 

Cash received from tiale of Five Cases 250 00 

$2300 00 

Cash paid for Caees $1469 60 

Cash paid for Miscellaneous Expenses 401 66 

1871 16 

Balance $428 81 

Also received the l-gacj of William S. Vaux, deceased, which v^as paid in 
ten bonds for on^ thousand dollars each (totM, ten thousand dollars), of the 
seven per cent. Registered Mortgage Bonds of <' The Philadelphia and Reading 
Coal and Iron Company." The interest of these Bonds to be applied to the 
use of the " William S. Vaux Collection Fund." 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 327 



REPORT OF THE BIOLOGICAL AND MICROSCOPICAL 

SECTION. 

During the year eighteen meetings were held, with an average 
attendance of about fifteen persons. 

The annual exhibition was held April 5, and was a success as 
to the number of visitors and in regard to the improvement noticed 
in general microscopical manipulation. 

The following gentlemen became contributors to the Section 
during the year : — Dr. L. Brewer Hall, Dr. Henry Beates,Dr. Max 
Bochroch, Dr. Charles L. Mitchell, Dr. M. B. Hartzell, Dr. Aithur 
Wilson, Dr. William R. Hoch, Mr. John F. Lewis. 

The following resignations were accepted : — Dr. Charles Turn- 
bull, Dr. S. H. Guilford. 

The meetings have been well supplied with material for discus- 
sion, and an increased interest has been manifested during the 
year. 

The following are some of the more important subjects brought 
to the notice of the Section : — 

Dr. J. G. Hunt. — Communication upon Diatomes, Desmids, 
Sponges, Carnivorous Plants, Mosses and on the Preparation 
of Animal and Vegetable Tissues. 

Dr. Charles Mitchell. — A New Freezing Microtome. Also a 
paper upon Hajmatoxylon Staining. 

Dr. L. B. Hall. — Communication upon Spirogyra. 

Dr. G. A. Rex. — Upon the Trichias, with two rare forms not 
found before in North America. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Robert J. Hess, M. D., 

Recorder, 



REPORT OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The Recorder of the Conchological Section respectfully reports 
that of the various papers upon the subject of the MoUusca, accepted 
for publication by the Academy during the past year, the most 
important was one by Mr. Andrew J. Garrett, of Tahiti, upon 
" The Land Shells of the Society Islands,'' which is now in press 
and will soon appear as a part of the Journal. 



328 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

It is with sincere regret tliat we record the death of our valued 
member, Mr. Charles F. Parker, which occurred September 7, 
1883. Mr. Parker was one of the founders of the Section, and a 
very large portion of the leisure time at his command was devoted 
to its interests. In his death the Academy and Section have lost 
a faithful and efficient officer, and the members a worthy associate. 

Out Conservator, Mr. Geo. W. Tr\'on, Jr., repoits forty-seven 
donations of shells from twentv-ninc different sources, all of which 
have been labeled and arranged in the museum. " These aggre- 
gate 1097 trays and labels, containing 4150 specimens, being a 
larger accession than for several previous years." Including them, 
the Conchological collection embraces 41,32*2 trays and tablets, 
with 145,791 specimens. 

It may be stated as an illustration of the rapid growth of our 
museum that about one-third of these specimens have been received 
since the removal of the Academy to its present building in 1876. 
Among the donations may be particularized as important, the large 
collections of New Caledonian, French and Eastern European 
shells, generously given by Messrs. E. Marie, A. Locard, A. Mon- 
tandon, and S. Clessin ; also the fine collection from Mauritius and 
Madagascar, purchased from Mr. V. Robillard. Several other 
purchases of good shells were made, partly with the income of the 
Museum Fund, partly by money received from the sale of our publi- 
cations. To obtain all purchasable novelties and desiderata would 
require a fund yielding an income of not less than five hundred 
dollars per annum ; some rare opportunities were declined during 
the past year for want of means. 

Inadequate as our resources are, our progress has been such as 
to receive recently the commendation of the distinguished editor 
of the '* Journal de Conchyliologie,'^ who writes of the " immense 
bibliographical and conchological collections of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, scientific treasures to which 
each year adds considerably, and which constitute working 
facilities of the first order.'' The re-arrangement of the museum, 
in connection with the publication of the monographs of the 
genera in the " Manual of Conchology,'' steadily progresses. The 
Columhellidse and Conidse have been carefully studied and largely 
re-labeled dnring the year; Wiq Pleurotomidee are now undergoing 
revision. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 329 

The officers of the Section are : — 



Director^ . 
Vice-Director^ 
Secretary^ . 
Recorder^ . 
Conservator^ 
Librarian^ . 
Treasurer^ . 



W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 
Jolm Ford. 
John H. Red field. 
S. Raymond Roberts. 
Geo. W. Tryon, Jr. 
Edw. J. Nolan. 
Wm. L. Mactier. 



On behalf of the Section^ 

S. Raymond Roberts, 

Recorder, 



REPORT OF THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

During the year past the Entomological Section has held ten 
meetings, at which the attendance has averaged six members, 
exclusive of visitors. 

During the year one member has resigned, and one died. No 
new members have been elected, and the Section at present 
numbers twenty-one members. 

The Section has experienced an irreparable loss in the decease 
of its late Director, Dr. John L. LeConte. His long services in 
the advancement of entomology in this countr3'^ are too well 
known to require any rehearsal here. At the annual meeting of 
the American Entomological Society, it was ordered that a memo- 
rial of Dr. LeConte be prepared, and published in the Society's 
Transactions. 

The Transactions of the American Entomological Society, vol. 
X, containing 344 pages and 9 plates, has been published. The 
Proceedings of the Entomological Section continue to be pub- 
lished and issued in connection with the Transactions, and 
contain the communications made at the monthly meetings. 
Members and others are thus enabled to place upon record such 
advanced descriptions as they may desire. 

Eleven written communications^ have been presented for publi- 
cation, and, having been favorably acted upon, will be duly 
published. 



22 



330 



PROCEEDnfGS OF THX ACADEMY OF 



[1883. 



11 


ii 


10 


24 


(( 


10 


36 


(i 


22 


55 


ti 


30 


32 


it 


20 


663 


li 


95 


40 


ti 


12 


79 


i4 


20 


87 


11 


28 


9 


u 


1 


84 


4i 


63 



ii 



ti 



u 



ii 



i4 



ii 



ii 



ii 



ii 



ii 



Tbe Curator reports the following additions to the cabinets 

From Dr. W. L. Abbott. 

Diurnal Lepidoptera, . . 237 specimens, 40 species. 

Nocturnal Lepidoptera, 

Odonata, 

S. F. Aaron. 

Orthoptera, . 
Diptera, 
Hemiptera, . 
Pseudoneuroptera, 
Neuroptera, 

E. M. Aaron. 

Neuroptera, 

Pseudoneuroptem, 

Odonata, 

Diurnal Lepidoptera, 

G. B. Creshon. 
Diptera, 

E. T. CRE880N. 

H^'menoptcra, 

species not determined. 

Additions were also made at vaiious times by Dr. H. Skinner, 
who has given no list of the same. 

Through the attention bestoweil upon it by Mr. E. T. Cresson, 
the collection of Ilymenoptera is in a speciall}' good condition, 
and is beyond doubt the best in America. 

The cabinets have been examined and disinfected, so that they 
now present a thoroughly good appearance. This is a part of the 
Conservator's labors in connection with entomological collections 
that always requires much care and time. Great assistance has 
l>een rendered to the Conservator by Mr. S. F. Aaron, who has 
devoted much care to the specimens. The same gentleman has 
also hel]KMl greatly in the arrangement of the Entomological 
librarv. 

By resolution passed November 9, the Section expressed its 
hearty accord with tlii* Curator of the Academy in the formation 



200 



11,677 



ti 



15 



it 



ti 



number of 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 831 

of a local museum, and directed the Conservatar to render such 
assistance as laid in his power. 

At the meeting held. December 10, the following oflScers were 
elected for the ensuing year : — 

Director^ .... George H. Horn, M. D. 
Vice-Director^ . . . Rev. H. C. McCook, D. D. 
Recorder^ .... James H. Ridings. 
Conservator^ . . . Eugene M. Aaron. 
Publication Committee^ . J. Frank Knight, 

H. Skinner. 

Respectfully submitted, 

James H. Ridings, 

Recorder. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The Vice-Director of the Botanical Section has pleasure in 
reporting to the Academy that the activity and prosperity of the 
Section heretofore noted, still continue. TJie growth of the 
Herbarium is fully detailed in the report of the Conservator sub- 
mitted herewith. Meetings have been held regularl3'' every month, 
except during the summer recess, and much interesting matter 
communicated and papers presented, some of the more important 
of which have appeared in the general Proceedings of the Academy. 
The Section is wholly free of debt, and has a surplus in its treasury, 
and has at present thirty-two members on the roll. 

The officers elected to serve during 1884 are: — 

Director^ . . . Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 
Vice-Director^ . . Thomas Meehan. 
Recording Secretary^ . F. Lamson Scribner. 

Cor. Secretary S) ^ ^ ^, . , , 

m f . . Isaac C. Martmdale. 

Treasurer^ ) 

Conservator^ . . John H. Redfield. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Meehan, 

Vice-Director, . 

Conservator'' s Report, — The Conservator reports that during the 
year 1883, now closing, the donations of plants to the Academy's 
Herbarium have been 2868 species. It is estimated that over 900 



832 PROCVKDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

of these are new to the collection, adding 72 genera not before 
represented. The North American and Mexican species received 
were 1438 ; froni the West Indies and South America were rei*eived 
233 ; and from the Old World 1197. Referring to the appended 
list of donations fur details, we ma}' here call attention to the 
large and valuable additions contributed by Dr. Gray, of the 
Cambridge Herbarium, representing the floras of every quarter of 
the globe ; a small collection from Australia, presented by Btiron 
von Miiller, through Mr. Meehan — nearly all of its species new to 
us; a collection of alnnit 70 species of interesting Patagonian 
plants, made by Mr. William Bell, of the Transit of Venus exi»e- 
dition, and presented by him through Mr. Charles E. Smith; 
upwards of 400 8i)ecie3 of plants from various regions, presenter! 
by Mr. Canby ; and 51 species of Scandinavian Lichens, montly 
new to the collection, presented by Dr. J, H. Eckfeldt. 

These have all been poisoned, catalogued, placed in papers and 
distributed in their projwr places in the Herbarium. This neces- 
sary work has lelt little time to devote to the improvement of the 
condition of the Herbarium generally, yet some progress has l)cen 
made in that respect. Provis^ional lists of species have been con- 
tinued as far as the order Borraginaceie in the general Herl)arium. 
The Endogens have been re-arranged to conform to the onler 
adopted by Bent ham and Hooker in the concluding part of their 
'* Genera Plantarum," that vast monument of careful, patient, 
analytic work. And some small progress has been made in the 
mueh needed task of mounting the S|)ecimens of the North 
American Herbarium. 

Heretofore the Academ\''s collection of plants has receive<1 the 
Wneflt of a large amount of faithful and intelligent lalmr from its 
late Curator-in-charge, Mr. Charles P. Parker, but his disability 
during the early part of the year, followed by his death on the 
7th Septeml)er, 1883, has deprived us of his services; and now the 
Conservator realizes, more than ever before, how much we liavi 
owfd to Mr. Parker's diligent zeal and skilful hands. In hi 
abni'iice we have l>een indebted to the aid of Messrs. Bnrk, Meehat 
S< ribner and Brinton, who have each rendered efllcient servit 
Mr. Scribner, though absent several months on exj»lorations 
Montana for the Northern Trnnscontinental Survey, has continii 
his critical work upon the grasses of our collection, and has mt 
some progress in the work of mounting them. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 333 

It is very desirable that tlie Herbarium of the Academy should 

be in such condition as will make it most accessible and useful to 

botanists who may visit it during the meeting in this city next year 

of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and 

of the British Association; and though it will be impossible to do 

all that should be done in the brief intervening period, it is hoped 

that much may be accomplished towards this end, and that good 

progress may be made in the mounting of at least the North 

American plants. 

John H. Redfield, 

December 10, 1883. Conservator, 



REPORT OF THE MIXERALOGICAL AND GEO- 
LOGICAL SECTION. 

Meetings of the Section have been held regularly during the 
year, the attendance averaging from eight to ten. Tlie discus- 
sions have been more upon geological questions than upon 
mineralogical, owing to the interest excited by the Geological 
Survey of the State. The most important event to the Academy 
in connection with mineralogy has been the accession of the Yaux 
collection, and its arrangement, by Mr. Jacob Binder, whose ser- 
vices in that matter have been of exceeding value. 

The officers of the Section are : — 

Director^ .... Theodore D. Rand. 

Vice-Director^ . . . W. W. Jefferis, Esq. 

Recorder and Secretary^ . Dr. A. E. Foote. 

Conservator^ .... Prof. H. Carvill Lewis. 

Treasurer^ .... John Ford. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Theodore D. Rand, 

Director. 



ZZi rwncEtmmm or m acxocxt or [ISS^l 

REPORT OF TFIE PROFESSOR OF INVERTEBRATE 

PALAEONTOLOGY. 

The Vrof^m^iOT of InTertebntte Pftljeontologj re«p«ctfallj begs 
iff fffKirt thAt daring the jia.%t year he has deliTered %. coarse 
of iw(*nt\'^ix Ifrctnrf^ on phy«>iogniphic geology and paheon- 
UflfMUiy. whirh corine, extending through the months of Jannarr. 
February and March, a^ in previous years, was attended in prin- 
ctfial part by teachers ^lelonging to the various institutions of 
learning of the city. 

He further rejKirts that the collections under his immediate 
snperviAion have U*en mat<*rially improved through identifications 
and re-^letermi nations incident to study, and this more particularly 
in the sf>ef'ial fields of Tertiary and Cretaceous palaeontology ; 
in the latter d«'fmrtment the institution is largely indebted to 
Prof. K. P. Wliitfielil, of New York city, for numerous determi- 
natton«i of the fosnilH belonging to the State of New Jersey. 
The Addition«i to the palfl*ontological department of the Academy's 
mtiseum, which are recorded elsewhere, have been inconsiderable, 
but it ifi hoped that local exchanges will shortly be inHtituted, 
where!»y valuable accesnions to an alread}' very extensive collec- 
tion will be iuHured. 

A couTMo of lectures, beginning with about the middle week of 
January, and embracing a discussion of the physical history and 
paheontology of the States of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, has 
JM'en iiriangt'd for the coming year. 

Very resiKJctfully, 

Anoelo IlEILPRm, 
Professor of Invertebrate PalaBontology. 



UKPOKT OF TIIK PROFESSOR OF MINERALOGY. 

Tho Profd'HHor of Mineralogy respectfully rejwrts tliat during 
thi' piiHt y**ar a rourse of lectures, u|>on the mineralogy, lithology 
autl gfology of Pliihub'lphia and vicinity, has IxHjn delivenMl, 
iiltoruatelv in the le<»tun* niom of the Academy and in the field. 
Till' couiHc ire.'itod of uiinonilogy in its relation to lithology and 
geoli»L;\ ,and of geology, botli structural and historical, with special 
r..r.Mvnro to the formations in the vicinity of the citv. The 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 835 

field lectures were given at various points, where the strata, with 
their enclosed minerals or fossils, could be studied in place. 
Owing to the exceptional geological position of the city, excur- 
sions could be made to all the principal geological formations, 
from the Laurentian to the Quaternary, inclusive. Among the 
places visited were the mineral localities of Philadelphia, Bucks 
and Delaware counties, the iron-mines and marble-quarries of Mont- 
gomery county, the metalliferous veins and the Triassic rocks of the 
Perkiomen Creek and elsewhere, the marl-pits of New J-ersey, the 
Palaeozoic strata along the Lehigh, and the coal regions of Mauch 
Chunk. The attendance averaged about forty, about half of whom 
were ladies. Reports of these lectures, as published in a city 
newspaper, are herewith deposited in the library of the Academy. 

The mineralogical collection has increased steadily, as sliown 
by the annexed list of donations. The magnificent collection of 
the late William S. Vaux, Esq., referred to in last year's report, 
and more particularly described in the report of its Curator, 
has been deposited as a special collection, under certain conditions, 
in a room fitted up for the purpose, and is a most valuable and 
noteworthy addition to the collections of the Academy. 

A local collection of Pennsylvania minerals is now being 
formed on the lower floor of the museum, in connection with a 
systematic display of the natural history of the State, and the 
aid of collectors is hereby asked to make this collection as com- 
plete as possible. The arrangement adopted for it is that of M. 
Adam, of Paris (as followed by Descloiseaux, Pisani, etc.), since 
it serves better the purpose of public instruction than the classi- 
fication of Prof. Dana, according to which the general collection 
is arranged. 

In the hope that the generous friends of the Academy will 
assist in supplying a much-felt want, attention is again drawn to 
the urgent need of scientific instruments (goniometer, lithological 
apparatus, etc.), both for instruction and for original investigation 
in this department. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. Carvill Lewis, 

Professor of Mineralogy. 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



REPORT OF THE CURATOR OF THE WM. S. VAUX 

COLLECTIONS. 

The Curator of the Wm. S. Vaux Collections res|)ectfull j reports 
to the Council of the Academy of Natural Sciences that the sys- 
tematic arningement of the collections has been completed. A 
catalogue has yet to be made and a portion of the labeling finished. 
The entire collection is now in a condition to be opened for inspec- 
tion and study. 

It may be hereafter found desirable to rearrange some of the 
specimenn, so that thoae from the same locality be brought into 
closer proximity ; but this can be attended to hereafter. 

On the 15th of August the arrangement and classification were 
commenced. The Council of the Academy having made an 
appropriation to defray necessary expenses, Mr. Q. Howard Parker, 
to whom acknowledgment is due for valuable services, was engaged 
as an assistant, and acted in that capacity until the 15th of Sep- 
tern Ik* r. 

For the exiHJuses of arrangement, reference is made to the report 
of the Treasurer of the Aca<lcmv. 

The collection has been arranged in seven upright cases, marketl 
from A to G, and thirty-nine horizontal cases, numbered from 1 
to 31). They are nm<le of Honduras mahogany, each having four 
drawers, securely fastened with Yale locks. They are as nearly 
dust-proof as p<.>8sible,and the workmanship is entirely satisfactory. 

The archieoloirical |>art of the collection occupies five of the 
upright cases, marked from A to E, and five of the horizontal, 
marked from 1 to 5. The specimens number (counting arrow- 
hendn and small implements by tniys as one piece) two thousand 
four hundred and forty-five (2445), arrangeil in groups according 
to locality. They consist of stone axes, hatchets, celts, hammers, 
|K»stles, 1ml Is, shovels, hoes, arrow-, si)ear- and lance-heads, dis- 
(^>idal or Chunkee stones, ceremonial implements, cop|)er and 
bnmze axes, mound pottery ; Indian, Mexican, Peruvian, Costa 
Hican, Roman and Carthagenian antiiputies. 

The hn'alities represented are : Italy, Switzerland, Germany, 
France, Sweden, Denmark and Ireland, an<l America, from Maine 
to Florida and from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast, with Mexico, 
Peru an«l Costa Kica ; with a few implements of the Esquimaux and 
the South Sea Islan«lers. They include s|K'cimens of the |>:ilteo- 



1883.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 331 

lithie and neolithic periods, of the work of the cave and lake 
dwellers, the mound builders, ancient Mexicans, Peruvians and 
Indians of America, and from the kitchen-middens of Denmark. 
The mineralogical part of the collection has been arranged and 
classified under the system of J. D. Dana, 5th edition, 1869. It 
embraces 5302 specimens, representing 466 species or groups, all 
mounted in trays and labeled. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Jacob Binder, 

Curalor. 



The election of Officers for 1884 was held, with the following 
results : — 

President, . . . Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Vice-Presidents, . . Thomas Meehan, 

Eev. Henry C. McCook, D. D. 

Recording Secretary, . Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 

Corresponding Secretary, George H. Horn, M. D. 

Treasurer^ . . . William C. Henszey. 

Librarian, . . . Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 

Curators, . . . Joseph Leidy, M. D., 

Jacob Binder, 

W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M. D., 
Angelo Heilprin. 

Councillors to serve three George Y. Shoemaker, 
years, .... Aubrey H. Smith, 

William L. Mactier, 
George A. Koenig, Ph. D. 

Finance Committee, . Isaac C. Martindale, 

Clarence S. Bement, 
Aubrey H. Smith, 
S. Fisher Corlies, 
George Y. Shoemaker. 



338 PB0CEEDIN08 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 



ELECTIONS DURING 1883. 

MEMBERS. 

January 30. — John B. Deaver, M. D., G. Howard Parker, 
Clarence R. Claghom, F. A. Genth, Jr., Jacob Wortman, 11. T. 
Cresson, William L. Springs, Emily G. Hunt. 

February 27. — Walter Rogers Furness. 

April 24. — Daniel E. Hughes, M. D., Edwin S. Balch. 

May 29, — N. Archer Randolph, M. D., J. Reed Conrad, M. D., 
Spencer Trotter, M. D. 

August 28. — Charles Peabody. 

September 25. — Henry F. Claghorn, Emanuele Fronani. 

October SO. — S Mason McCoUin, Francis A. Cunningham. 

November 27. — Mrs. William M. EUicott, George L. Knowles, 
Ferdinand McCann, Lewis E. Levy, J. Alexander Savage. 

CORRESPONDE.NTS. 

May 29. — A mould Locard, of Lyons ; Frederick W. Hutton, of 
Chrifttchurch, N. Z. ; C. E. Beddome, of Hobart Town, Tasmania. 

October SO. — Eugene A. Rau, of Bethlehem, Pa. 

November 27. — Marchese di Monterosato, of Palermo; E. Marie, 
of Paris ; H. J. Carter, of Burleigh-Salterton, England. 



1383.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 339 



ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

December i, 1€82^ to December i, 1888. 

Abch^ologt, Antiquitibs, Ihplemkmts, stc. — H. Skinner. Fragment of 

terra- cot ta head from Mexico. 
H. C. LewiB. Palseolithic implements from the glacial gravels at Trenton, 

N. J., collected by C. C. Abbott. 
W. S. Jones. Two Indian carved images from Alaska. 
T. D. Rand. Spanish water-jar from Barcelona; 2 Peruvian water-jugs; 

Catawba Indian pottery (1 piece); fragments of pottery from Lancaster 

County, Pa 
T. R. Peale. Breeoh-clout, Oahu, Sandwich Islands. 
J. M. Willcox. Two Indian implements from Brevard County, Florida. 
Specimen of Wedgewood ware, designed by J. Flaxman, of London. 

Mammalia (recent and fossil.)— J. Leidy. Molar tooth of Equus major (?), 

found near Keenville, N. Y. 
J. Swartzle. Jaw fragments of Platygonus vetus Leidy, type of species from 

Mifflin County, Pa. 
Mr. Magee. Felis concolor, from Colorado. 
J. Jeanes. Two skulls, and the greater portion of the skeleton of Platygonus 

comprfssui, from northern New York. 
J. Wortman. Mus decumanus (disarticulated skeleton). 
J. C. Willson. Mus mutculus (skeleton). 
Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Capra hircus (incomplete skeleton) ; Vulpes 

littoralis ; FelU pardalis (skull); Eumatopius Stelleri [%\\i\\), 

BiBDS.— T. C. Craig. Cape pigeon (Daption Capensis), from Cape Horn, S. A. 
A. F. Gentry. Skeleton of parrot [Chrysotis albifrons)^ from Cuba, W. I. 
Zoological Society of Philadelphia. Vulturine Guinea fowl [Numida vulturina)^ 
Africa ; Buteo borealis (skeleton). 

Reptilbs and Amphibians (recent and fossil). — 0. C. Marsh. Cast of Ptero- 
dactyl (Ramphorkynchua phyllurus), from Eichst'adt, Bavaria. 
M. Smiley. Tooth of Crocodilus fastigiaius, from the Eocene of Virginia. 
J. L. Wortman. Ilyla versicolor^ Tropidonotus leberis. 
H. C. McCook. Horned frog (Phrynosoma coronata), from California. 

Fishes (recent and fossil). *-E. Zeitler. Box fish [Diodon sp). 
8. Trotter. Skull of Prionotus, 

A. Wenrich. Fossil fish (Diplomysfus analis), from Wyoming Territory. 
M. S Quay. Tarpum {Megalops thrissoides), from Florida. 
N. Spang. Pharyngeal bone and teeth of Mylocyprinus robustus, from the Post- 
pliocene of Idaho. 

Abticulatbs (prustaceans, insects, arachnids, and myriapods, recent and 
fossil). — J. Jeanes. Cambarus primsevus, from the Eocene of Wyoming 
Territory; shrimp (/Eger spinipes); b Libelluix and 2 Hemiptera^ from the 
lithographic slate of Solenhofen, Bavaria. 

J. Harley. Belostoma grandis, hemipterous insect. 

J. Ford. Crab (Gelasimvs pugilator)^ 3 specimens, from Atlantic City, N. J. 

T. Meehan. Goose barnacle (Lepas anatifa), on sea-weed, from Rillinos 
Island, Alaska. 

T. L. Casey. 187 specimens of unidentified Coleoptera, from Wellington and 
Cape Town, S. Africa. 

MoLLUscA (recent). — John Ford. Bulimus Patasensis (Patas, Peru) ; Chjprsea 
helvola (no locality) ; Turbinella scolymus (locality ?) ; two species of marine 
shells; Crepidula glauca (Cape May, N. J.). 



340 P&OCEEDUIQB OF TOE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Mttf^ttM of Co«ipArmtiT« Zoology, Cambridge. AehatineUa timulariM (Waimea), 

$^ n<"«»tB. 'A> 9p«ci«s of land shell?, from Eastern Europe. 

A S Ki»h. I T species of marine and fresh- water shells, from California. 

W. D. HM^man. H^itz Mozitmfuceiuu (^near Lake Njassa, Africa) ; 1 species 

stf taad «heIT. 
A. Hottt'tndoB. ^ I <if>eciee of land and fresh-water shells, from the Carpathiaa 

MouatAuis *f U«u«la«m. and from Bucharest. Wnllachia. 
A L^*iird. U'J5 ^p«tftea of land and fresh-water shells « 1600 specimens), fVom 

W ^«. S<uiK»ra. i «pe<ei«s of marine shells, f^'OB Martinique. 

W W i*aikitt». • "jNiM :emutmmtinu*^ from the West Indies. 

C. H. « >rcutt. : «fMHne9 of marin* shells. fh>m California, and Lewer California : 

lU s'^Mtiw >t iit«r«ne »h«ils. ftrom San Diego, ( al ; 4 s p e ci es af marine shells. 
W. Uvtt. .'^•v ('•'« trutf**. r .Tu^pM, r. (Jepfrtianus, and /Vrtc% speeies, from 

Saiiia ^>«tt Hiv«r. P'Utgonia. 
<|. it. l*%r^t*r to <ip«eteii of marine shells, from near G^l mt om, Texas; 6 

«|HMie» ui uaartne sheUs« frx>m near Galreston, Texas ; 2 spacies of marine 

Mi^ \ K. Uu»h. //iitx. from San Pedro, Cal. : 13 speeies of marine shells. 
K K. Ui4tcii(ord. 'i species of fresh-water shells, from Ottawa, Caa. 
K. W lluuuu. •< :»p«cies of marine shells, from New Zealand 

V. Uan«it. S4 spfoies of land shells, from the Soeief j Islands. 
\. V iliiikU.v. (Vhvi cam/)/o</on, Washioicton Co., 111. 

K. K i' Htu^tfUA. t speeies of marine shells, from the Gulf of California and 
.tik|»(4u . J ttpecies of fresh-water shells. 

VI. I« Utttkuh U species of land »nd fresh-water shells. 
i Hli%u<l U spvcies of land and marine shells. 

I' K I'wkle. I species of marine shell. 

u H I'lyuii, .Ir. H species of marine shells. 

I llill«t«>%. i\ species of fresh- wster shells. 

r Hs<«dly (} rpeoies of land and fresh- water shells. 

H 11 Wilght. 1 species of fresh-water shell. 

I, M Ml mug. I species of fresh-water shell. 

id %Uf is. Ml species of marine, land, and fresh.water shells, from New Cale- 
'l.iiU, 'JH spsoies of land, msrine, and fre^h-water shells, from New 
I •Uloaia: \fi\ species of land, marine, and fresh-water shells, from New 
I «U>l'ff»l«. and the Islands .Majotte, Anjouan, and Nossi-B^. 

M I. Unm^U. 6 species of land and fresh-water shells, from Michigan. 

I* I tttf-kmr. 4 species of marine shells, from Texas. 

H <h^f$> H«m p« r i an preparations of /.imd/- rii^^oni^^ and CV^e«/om« e/^«s«. 

I ',H*^h'»\i0g\r.m\ Mection, A. N. S. 2 species of Tnquftra (8antarem, Brasil); 63 
«|.4^^,«« hf land, marine, and fresh.water shells, new to the eoUection ; H9 
g^hAimm fit Und and fresh- water shells from the islands of Nossi-B^ and 
i|«/',fi«. rollectrd hj E.Marie; 102 species of land, marine, and fresh- 
0i^imf flifflls. 2\o species of land, marine, and fresh-water shells, from 
t4m**0ttiif, fS'illecU**! by M. V, Robillard. 

lil'tMf «/ 4 foMil.)— W. Bell. Oftrea Patagottica^ TurrittUa PaU^amira^ Ctrdif 

/'#/'#//'''t*/'i, 7'flliitoiJei ohlonga, Venua tneridtonalit, DoMtnia sp., Luetma sp..— 

$^*ut¥^tAf Koceue of Patagonia (Santa Crui Rirer). 
/ i.A. \j ththt.rrraa sp. From the Carboniferous of FayetteTille, Arkansas. 
/ it ' *u\my A'm^u/«i /^in^'i//f, frotn the Hamilton group of Madison 1*0., N. T. 
t t flo*Urt,ik. Miocene ('<><|uin% (with Perten Sfadnoniut, P. JejfertomuM, 

f ,»f.t,h,U. tt'ilitnut, etc.), from Jamestown Island, James River, Va., and 

fi .^ M.* isfiirs KiTer. S of Point of Shoals Lighthouse. 
p t |i#«iii»r Two fpecies of probablj Post-pliocene shells, from GaUeston 

IN/, l«ia« 



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l*tft M l:«<if« i • %%•*< 9% f ft<i • «* «<^rl .« W«*t«r« *tfti*« •»! T«'* * 
r.«« *^ I'r'.ftf e !'»* ^i ll» •• I r«ti Wfv« tc \ •{« •« | ftfta t- . cvi*^ 

t« ft « k««» |r-«.fci«« f %l« t ; . ftA 1 vft fkt Ivtftft l-»f4«f <^w Tftft;^ •»! 

Bi» IW- 'k'v^f^ I k.ft» #« f <»-p 'k •• •#!♦*♦# |'%ii<« ff-im !^ft«*ft ('r%t r. . 

^•••^■•••. f . *ir\* I -• Tfft»» • ' \»ft-« Itl*'*: *.% 

fi fi II (» ftif i««*^ lr«i-'K« 4r ' %l9t»4 « 

4? t»<«*« '. fMi'ik ■ f IVft t *» •• • •!«< «• ftftLt (V :r<«« S tft iftflr*»««. ^j J 

Nft«*. •> m* } •»« • ti« M««*«4riftB 
J|» vt H •r- «\ Tt •»« t|» •<• t f t ft fvrr. ft» |'tA«t ft*« t« *i« ilv*44ftv ••. 

Tv## l^'ftt^i .' N I « •!#«> ftft 1 •♦♦It ' * tj** «♦ iif«» l»j. kft 1^ ft»i« 

!•«*# |lt»»4 •'• •!■♦<.♦• «f I •*, f -•*'!. •♦'f f ftft'ft p- ♦• f fr T«. »^. *•• f*-<ft»i. 

I'l.ft ftjfti /!•••• i%.t f-t t** ■■ t \ ••» *• »*ft|«llftf 

( )ti%* M •« Avift'. '"'«•#« %fit«ftft ff..- ffti 4\»ft ft %l«tr-ft 

!•♦•!• 1i ll«»^^%Wrf«t • . -4 .♦ •.!♦ T ♦. ft - '•- n • . n « 

|«»»tf 4 ll*r*l»Aft^« H . t t !'*k « ««'vrf fN %»^n(ftft I i.«|ft h« t>t *^^m 

0rtt; ft »•• ftf^*!** friai %r^tj«ft f «m -f ik* tt«ftt «f • •iii« ^trtk 

|>m»f4if UMft twt U»l«. m*f9%r4» r9u%%'im$ la** ••• 



24S PBOGEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [I8S3. 

Amwr. Phil. Society. Specimens of Selaginflla Iqfidophylla^ from Mexico. 
Frof. Joa. P. Leslej. Grains of wheat and barlej, found germinating in a 

block of ice 
J. A. MoNiel, of Binghampton, N. V. Capsule of Sand-box tree (ffura erepitamt), 

from Panama, S. A. 
Dr. John W. Eckfeldt. 51 species of Scandinavian Lichens, named—most of 

them new to the Academy's collection, 
Tbos. Meeban and John H. Redfield. 148 species plants collected in Ariiona 

bj II. H. Ruflbj. in 1883. 
Frof. H. Carvill Lewis. Radical leaves of Argyroxipkium Sandvitenae, etc, 

from Sandwich Islands. 
i> Q. Lemmon, Oakland, California. Tagetet Lemmoni Or., a new specie* fron 

Ariiona. 
Col. Robert W. Furnas, BrowuTille, Neb. Wood of Madura aurantiaea, taken 

fW>m far below the surface of the ground, supposed to have been buried 200 

years, and estimated from its annual rings to be from a tree 300 jemrt old. 

Also, wood of Saliz cordata, Tar. vettita. 

BoTAMT (fossil). — J. Jeanes. Popultu latior^ var. rotundata, P, latior, var. eordt- 
folia, Aetr trUohitum^ Cinnamomum Scheuchzeri^ Salix tenera, Podogomimm 
LtffiiianurHf P. Knoriij and Carpolithua pruni/ormitf from the Molaate of 
Oeningen. 

W. B^ll Silicifled wood, from the Eocene (7) of Patagonia (Los Missioncs). 

MmiBALi. — Joseph Leidy. Axinite, Bethlehem, Pa. ; Argentiferous WaTellite, 
LeadTille, Col. : Limonite, pseudomorph after Oryphea, Mullica Hill, N. J.; 
I^pidoliie, Auburn. Me. ; Quarti with Pjrophjrllite, Hot Springs, Ark. ; 
C^okeite with Rubellite and Quarti, Mt. Mica, Me. ; Muscovite, Chester Co., 
Pa.; Muscovite with Biatite crystals, Macon Co., N. C. ; Tourmaline in 
Muscovite, Mt. Mica, Me. ; Green-black Toarmaline in Museovite, Mt. 
Mica, Me. ; Serpentine with crjstals of Chrysotile, Easton, Pa. ; Green 
Tourmaline with nodule of Achroite, Paris, Me. ; Rose Tourmaline, Mt. 
Mica. Me. ; Rubellite, Mt. .Mica, Me. ; Heliotrope, India ; Green Tourmaline 
with Lepidolite, Auburn, Me. ; Rhodophjllite, Texas, Pa. ; Kaolinite, Summit 
Hill. Pa. ; Muscovite, showing 30 rajs, Canada; Muscovite with hexagooal 
markings. Georgia ; Homogeneous anthracite, and anthracite presenting a 
ttf€<i appearance, found in association with quarti crystals, in cavities of 
the calciferous Sandstone, Herkimer Co., N. Y. ; Rubellite, and Rubellite 
pasting into Indicolite, Mt. Mica, Me ; Green Tourmaline passing in*o 
flbrous Rubellite, Hebron, Me. ; Allophane, Polk Co., Tenn. 

W. II. Jones. Garnets, from Stikine River, Alaska. 

The«<Jore D. Rand. Quartiite with (organic?) markings, Radnor, Pa.; 
Asbestos and Serpentine, Radnor Station, Pa. ; ChrysoUle, Radnor Station, 
Pa. 

H. T. Creeson. Feldspar crystal, Leiperville, Pa. 

C. H Bement. Cinnabar, New Almad^n, Chi. ; Cinnabar and Metacinna- 
barite. Lake Co., Cal.; Pyrites, I. Elba and Freiberg, Saxony ; Hematite, 
Elba and Mt. Vesuvius; Bournonite, Pnibram, Bohemia; Spinel, Orange 
ijo , N. V. ; Quarti, p«eudomorph after Barite, Roxbury, Conn.; Green 
Pyroien^. St. Lawrence Co., N. V.; Beryl, Quarti, Albite, and Orthoclase, 
Itiba : ^iarnets in gnei»sose granite. Avondale, Pa. ; Orthoclase, St. Lawrence 
(a,.. S. v.; Orthoclase with Quarti, Ural Mts. ; Orthoclase with Quarti, 
ly/mniit. Silesia; Tourmaline. McComb Co., N. Y. ; Sphene, St. Lawrence 
(At.. *C. V. ; Wsvellite, Hot Springs, Ark. ; Apatite, Renfrew, Ontario ; 
Klagi'^oite. Wolfiiberg, Han Mts.; Crocidolite, Griqoa Terr., S. Africa; 
<>tterioit«. Litchfield, Coon.; Barite, Felsob&nya, Hungary; Anglesite, 
>^rdiiiia; Stroatiaaite, Hamm, Westphalia. 

A. E- F'^/t« Heulandite on Zoisite, Chabaiite with Leidyite, Chabaxiie, from 
Leif^r s Quarry, Del. Co., Pa. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 343 

H. Skinner. Natiye Tellurium, Boulder Co., Col. ; Massive Menaccanite, Fair- 
mount Park, Phila. ; Water-worn rock simulating Indian implement, Athens, 
Pa.; Natiye Tellurium, Boulder Co., Col ; Columbite, Greenland. 

Joseph Jeanes. Pyrite (twin crjc^tal), with Hematite, from Elba; Hematite 
crystals, Caoradi, Tayetsch Thai, Switzerland ; Stibnite, Japan ; Celestine, 
from Egypt, Girgenti, and Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie. 

H. Burgin. Arge;itiferous Arsenopyrite, Continental Diyide, Col. ; Schirmerite, 
Summit Co., Col. ; Pyrargyrite, Argentiferous Tetrahedrite, Kelso Mt., Col. ; 
Fluorite, iridescent Quartz, White Beryl, Garnet in Albite, Microlite in Albite, 
AUanite in Albite, Microcline, Muscoyite, Pink Muscoyite in Albite, Albite, 
Orthoclase, Eaolinite, Columbite in Albite, and Mon&zite in Albite, all from 
Amelia Co , Va. ; Vanadiferous Wulfenite, Phoenixyille, Pa. ; Ankerite, 
Chester Co., Pa. 

M. E. Newbold. Amber, from the greensand of Vincentown, N. J. 

W. H. H. Bates. Hornblende, from South Windsor, Me. 

S. R. Calhoun. Chalcedony geode, containing water, from the Rio Salto, 
Uruguay. 

J. M. Hartman. Octahedral crystal of Cuprite, France. 

W. P. Miller. Wulfenite, from Arizona. 

J. Binder. Chalcopyrite, Mt. Desert I., Me. 

C. R. Gaul. Mesolite and Calcine, from Fritz's Island, near Reading, Pa, 

F. V. Hayden. Viandite, Yellowstone National Park. 

Purchased. Corundum, Iredell Co., N. C. ; Variolite, Tyrol ; Variolite pebble, 
Durance, France ; Margerite and Emery, Chester, Mass. 

In Exchange. Phosphorescent Limestone, Utah. 



344 rROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883 



ADDITIONS TO LIBRARY. 

1883. 

Abich, RermAnn. Oeologische Fonchuogen in den KAakftsischen LiiDdem. I 
and U Tb. aud atlas. Jos. Jeanes. 

Albrecht, Paul Sur les 4 os intermaxillaires le B«c-de-LieTre. 
Das OS intermedium tarsi der Siiugetbiere. 
Sur le crane remarquable d'une idiot de 21 ans. 

Sur la Ta^eur morphologique de I'artioulaiion mandibolaire da eartila|r«de 
Meckel. The Aaiiior. 

Ancey, F. C. ObserTatioBs sur quelques Macularia. 

Catalogue des mollusques marins du Cap Pinbde pres de Marseille. 

Sur la fauue concbyliologique terrestre du pajsdes Somalis. The Aathor. 

Anderson, John. Catalogue of Mammalia in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

Pi. 1. 

Catalogue and hand-book of the aroheeological oollections in the Indian 

Museum. Part 1, 1883. The Traslees. 

Arcbiv. der naturw. Landesdurchforschung Ton Bohmen. IV, 4, 6: V, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fond. 
Ashburner, Chas. A. The anthracite coal beds of PennsjlTania. U. C. Lewis. 
Astor Librnry, 34th annusl report. 1882. The Trustees. 

Baillon, M. II. L>ictionnaire botanique, 15e faso. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Barrois, Ch. Recherches sur les terrains anoiens desAsturies et de la Qalice. 
Text and plates. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Bart ram's Garden, three photographs of scenes in. J. H. Redfield. 

Beales-Rissley Collection, W. Klliot Woodward's 60th sale. Ancient imple- 
ments and ornaments, October 31, 18A3. 
Bellardi, L. Molluschi dei Terreni terziari del Piementee delta Liguria. Pt. 
2, 188 J. I. V. WiUiamson Fnnd. 

Bentham G. et J. D. Hooker. Genera plantarum. Ill and III, 2. 

I. V. HillUmsun Fund. 
Berg, Carlos. Doce beteromeros nueros de la fauna Argentina. 
Miscellanea Icpidopterologica. Butnos Aires, 1883. 

Analecta lepidopterologica, 1882. The Aathor. 

Berkeley. Rev. M. J. Description of new species of fungi, collected in the 

vicinity of Cincinnati by Tbo^. G Lea. David L. James. 

Blackwall, John. Researches in xoology. 2d Ed., 1878. Jos. Jcaaes. 

Bland, T. Description of two new species of lonites from Tennessee. 

The Author. 
Board of Agriculture, State of North Carolina. Report of the Session, 188). 

S. G. Worth. 

Bocagc, .1. V. Barbosa du. Orniihologie d* Angola. 2me Partie. Lisbonoe, 

18M The Aathor. 

Boisster. Kd. Flora Orientalis. V, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Borre, A. Preudbomme de. Sur un travail recent de M. 8. H. Scudder con- 

cernant les myriopodes du terrain houiller. 

Anslyse et r^^sunie dun nierooire de .M. le Dr. G. H. Horn on the genera of 

Carabidti' wiib special reference to the fauna of boreal America. 
Sur deux varieie^ de Carabiques observ(3e8 en Belgique. The Author. 

Bouleiiger, d. A. Catalogue of the batrachta gradientia, S. caudata and 
btiiracbia apoda in the collection of the British Museum. 2d. Ed 

The Trustees. 



1883.] NATURAL SGIENOES OF PHILADMtPHIA. 345 

Bourgoignot, J. R. Lettres malaoologique a MM. Brusina d*Agram et Eobelt 
de Francfort. The Author. 

Description du nouveau genre Gallandia, 1880. 
Recensement des Vivipara du syst^me Europ^en, 1880. 
Description de direrses esp^ces de Coelestele et de Paladilhia decouYortes 
en Espagne par le Dr. G. Serrain, 1 880. Jos. Jeanes. 

Brauer, F. Offenes Schreiben als Antwort auf Herrn Baron Osten-Sacken*8 
" Critical Review " meiner Arbeit iiber die Notacanthen, 1883. 

The Author. 
Brefeld, 0. Botanische Untersuchungen iiber Hefenpilze. V H. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Brinton, Daniel G. Recent European contributions to the study of American 
ArchsBology. The Author. 

British Museum. Catalogue of the birds in the. Vols. 7 and 8, 1883. 

The Trustees. 

Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs. ler Bd., Protozoa, neue 

Bearbeitet Ton Dr. 0. Butschli, 1-19 Lief. ; 6er Bd., II Abth., 9-11 Lief.; 

6er Bd., Ill Abth., 35-40 Lief. ; V Abth., 26 Lief. Wilson Fund. 

Brongniart, Chas. Les Gregariniens. 

Notices scientifiques. Conferences faites devant la ** &oc\4i6 scientifique de 

lajeunesse." F. V. Hayden. 

B^ooklyn Library. 25th annual report of the Board of Directors, March 29, 

1883, and Bulletin No. 17. The Directors. 

Briihl, C. B. Zootomie aller Thierklassen. Atlas, Lief. 26, 27. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Buckton, Geo. B. Monograph of the British Aphides. Vol. IV. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Buoquoy, E., Ph. Dautzenberg and G. Dollfuss. Les moUusques marins du 
Roussillon. Fasc. 8 and 4. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Bureau of Education. Circulars of Information. No. 2, 1882-1883. 
National pedagogic congress of Spain. 
Natural science in secondary sshools. 

Instruction in moral and ciril government. Department of the Interior. 

Bureau of Ethnology. First annual report. 1881. Smithsonian Institution. 

Bureau of Statistics. Treasury Department. Quarterly report. June 80, 

and Sept. 30, 1883. The Department. 

Cabral, F. A. de V. Pereira. Estudo de depositos superficaes da Bacia do 

Douro. 
Caligny, Anatole de. Recherches th^oriques et experimentales sur les oscil- 
lations de Teau. le et 2e partie. The Author. 
Cardim, Fernao. Do principio e origem dos indios do Brazil e de sens costumes, 
adoracao e ceremonias. 1881. 0. A. Derby. 
Carr, Lucien. The mounds of the Mississippi Valley, historically considered. 
Cams, J. V. Ueber die Leptocephaliden. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Caspari, H. Beitrage zur Kenntniss des Hautgewebes der Cacteen. 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Catalogue of the officers and students of Yale College. 1882-1883. 

The Corporation. 
Cheesman, L. M. Ueber den Einfluss der mechanisohen Hiirte auf die mag- 
netischen Eigenschaften des Stahles und des Eisens. 1882. 

University of WUrzburg. 
Chief of Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department. Quarterly report, March 
31, 1883. Treasury Department. 

Chief of Engineers, U. S. A. Annual report. Parts I, II, III, 1882. 

Engineer Department, U. S. A. 
Chief of Ordnance. Report of. 1882. War Department. 

Chief Signal Officer. Annual reports of the. For 1880-1881. War Department. 

23 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Choffat. Paul. Etude strati graphique et pal^ontologique des terrains juras- 
siques du Portugal. Ire Livr., 1880. Qeological Surrey of Portugal. 
City Hospital, Boston. 19th report of the trustees of 1882-88. The Authors. 
Clessin, S. Zwei neue siideurop'aische Species. 
Die tertiaren Binnenconchylien Ton Undorf. 
Was ist Art, was Varietat? 

Bemerkungen iiber die deutschen Arten des Genus Planorbis Guett. 
Les Pisidiums de la faune profonde des lacs Suisse. 
Studien iiber die Helix-Gruppe Fruticicola Hid. 

Helix arbustorum und ihre Varietiiten. The Author. 

Cole, A. C. Studies in microscopical science. Vol. I, 1883. 

The biological and Microscopical Section. 
Colonial Museum and Geological Surrey Department. Report of geological 
explorations during 1881. Geological Surrey of New Zealand. 

Commissioner of Agriculture. Report for the year 1882. 

Department of Agriculture. 

Commission zur wissenschafilichen Untersuchung der deutschen Meere. 

VII— XI Jahrg., 1 Abth., 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Comstock, C. B. Professional papers of the Corps of Eogineers, U. S. A. 

No. 24. 

Report upon the primary triangulation of the U. S. Lake Surrey. 

Engineer Department, U. S. A. 
Cooper, £. Forest culture and Eucalyptus trees. 1876. F. von Mueller. 

Cope, £. D. The genus Phenacodus. 
Paleontological Bulletin, No. 86. 

On the mutual relation of the Bunotherian mammalia. 
The structure and appearance of the Laramie Dinosaurian. 
On the characters of the skull in Hadrosaurus and on some yertobrata from 

the Permian of Illinois. 
On the extinct dogs of North America. The Author. 

Coppi, Francesco. OsservHzioni malacologiche circa la Nassa semistriata e N. 
costulata del Brocchi. The Author. 

Costa, F. A. Pereira da. Monumentos prehistorisos. Descripcao de algunas 
dolmins ou autras de Portugal 1868. 
Commissao geologico de Portugal. Molluscos fosseis Gasteropodes dos 
depositos terciarios de Portugal, lo & 2o Cademo, 1867. The Author. 
Do existencia do homem em <^ochas remotas no Valle do Tejo. Premeiro 
opuscule. Geological Survey of Portugul. 

Coues, £. Cheek list of North American birds. 1882. Jos. Jeanes. 

Cox, J. C. On the edible oysters found on the Australian and neighboring 
coasts. The Author. 

Dames, W., and £. Kayser. Palseontologische Abhandlungen. I, 1, 2. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Davaine, C. Traits des entozoaires et des maladies vermineuses. 1877. 

Jos. Jeanes. 

De Candolle, A. Origine des plantes cultiv^s. 1883. I. V Williamson Fun<). 

De Candolle, A. and C. Monographic phanerogamarum. IV. Wilson Fund. 

Delgado, J. F. Nery. Communica9oes da Seccao dos trabalhos geologicos. I. 

Considera9oes &cerca dos estudos geologicos em Portugal. 

Contributions a la flore fossile du Portugal. 1881. 

Relatorio e outros document os relativos & Commissao scientifica desem* 

penhada em differentes cidades da Italia, Allemanha e Fran9a. 1882. 
Terrenes paleozoicos de Portugal. Sobre a exi^tencia de terrene siluriano 
no Baixo Alemtejo. Geological Surrey of Portugal. 

Department of Agriculture. Special report. Nos. 52-57, 51M>5. 
Chemical Division, Bulletin No 1. Div. of Statistics, 2. 
Diribion of Entomology, Bulletin Nos. 1 and 2. 1883. 
Division of Statistics, n. s., report No. 1. 1883. The Department. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 347 

Department of Mines, Nova Sootia. Report for the year 1862. 

Department of Mines. 
Deschanel, A. Priyat. Elementary treatise on natural philosophy. 6th Ed. 

1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Director of the Mint. Annual report of the. 1880, 1881, 1882. 

Horatio C Burchard. 
Dollo, M. L. Troisi^me note sur les Dinosaunens de Bernissart. The Author. 
Domeyko, Ignacio. Mineralojia. 3a Ed., 1879. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Drasche, R. t. Fragmente zu einer Geologie der Insel Luzon. 1878. 

Jos. Jeanes, 
Drouet. H. UnionidsB de la Russie d' Europe. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Dum^ril, Aug. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Two vols, in three and plates. 

1 and 2 Livr. Jos. Jeanes. 

Dupont, E. Terrain devonien de TEntre-Sambre-et-Meuse. Les lies Coral- 

liennes de Roly et de PhilippeTille. The Author. 

£. Dupont and M. Mourlon. Musde royale d'histoire naturelle de Belgique. 

SerTice de la carte geologique du Royaume explication de la feuille de 

Ciney. Geological Survey of Belgium. 

Dutton, Clarence. United States Geological Survey. Tertiary history of the 

Grasd CaQon District, with Atlas. Department of the Interior. 

Elliot, D. G. A monograph of the Bucerotidae or Family of the Hornbills. 

Part lU. *Vil8on Fund. 

Elsas, A. Ueber erzwungene Schwingungen weicher F'aden, 1881. 

University of Wiirzburg. 
Encyclopedia Britannica. XV. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Encyklopedie der Naturwissenschaften. ler Abth., 31, 82 and 34 Lief. ; 2e 

Abth.. 8-16 and 33 Lief. 
Erichson. Naturgeschiobte der Insekten Deutschlands. ler Abth. Coleoptera, 

VI, 2e Lief., Bg., 13-23, 1882. Wilson Fund. 

Ernst, A Resumen del curso de zoologica. I, 1882. The Author. 

Etheridge, Robert. A catalogue of Australian fossils, 1878. Jos. Jeanes. 

Eudes-Deslongchamps. Le Jura Normand. 2d Livr. Menog. IV, fls. 6-8. 

Pis. 3, 7, 15; Monog. VI, fls. 6-10. Pis. II, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 1878. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Expedition zur physikalisoh-chemischen und biologischen Untersuchungen der 

Nordsee im Sommer 1872. Berlin, 1875. Jos. Jeanes. 

Eyferth, B. Die einfachsten Lebenformen systematisohe Naturgeschichte der 

mikroskopischen SUsswasserbewohner, 1878. Jos. Jeanes. 

Eyton, T. C. A history of the oyster and the oyster fisheries. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel. V-VII, 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Falb, R. GrundzUge zu einer Theorie der Erdleben und Vulkanausbriiche. 2e 

Ausg., 1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Felix, J. Sammlung palaeontologischer Abhandlungen. I, 1. Die fossilen 

Holzer westindiens, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Fernandez, L. Coleccion de documentos para la historia de Costa Rica. 

The Author. 
Ficalho, Conde de. Flora dos Lusiados, 1880. Academy of Science of Lisbon. 
Financial reform almanack for 1883. lobden Club. 

Fischer, Paul. Manuel de Conohyliologie. Fasc. 5 and atlas. The Author. 
Forestry Bulletin, No. 28~25. Department of the Interior. 

Fouqu^, F. et Michel Levy. Synthase des mindraux et des roches. 1882. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Frazer, Persifor. Cleopatra's Needle ; mineralogical and chemical examina- 
tion of the rock of the Obelisk. 
The iron ores of the middle James River in Amherst and Nelson Counties, 
» Virginia. The Author. 



Z4H n/jCKKbT^OS Of THE ACADIXT Of [1*^*3, 

ffM PoMi4 lAf^rmry. Mantua AStf Walker Art GsIIny of tkc CItj '>f Ump a^ l . 

l^fh AAAtti^ r«^rt. Tk« Trojcecs. 

frUi4\xn4^, K. mi'I ?mia. Bih{iACli€<« hi4C4rieo-ftAtar«Ii« <t KAtkcaMfic*. 

l^f#r-<j*fA;^*^,. I^^-'^ Tb€ Pttblitberf. 

frimU. H D*ii N-,r*k# 5oHh»T.Exp«d.tio«. l^Tr^-I^T^. Till Zoolofi«. 

Moila*^. I. Rac^rimd*'. l-J-'J. The Author. 

0*IU, A. N. M/>fi'>fr»ft* fnlU ealtare ort«sji dtHs SieiliA, l^M. 

AfriealmrmI SodcCj of 9idlj. 
0#4l^k«l .**ofT«7 of I!lift<>it AH. Wortbea, Director. Vol. 7. Geolofj a»i 

f*I»'>nr/>lof7. Oeolofj. bj A. H. Wortiiem. Palsootology, by A. H. 

Wortb^n. f/r«4C#ii He. Joho and 8. A. Miller, witb an ftddesdm bj Cb*c. 

Wft^bamofb and W. H. B«mf. .>Uj, l^'?^}. Tbe Sanrey. 

Oootofi^ Murvej of lo/li*. Mtmotnr. F«ljeoQtolofi« Indicm. Ser. X, Vol. 

2. ft*. 1. A 3 •©'I r, ; HtT. XIV, Vol. 1, 1*1. 8. Mcmoira. 8bo. XIX, 1 ; 

xxn. 

Kp.rftrrln, XV. 1. 2 and 3. Tbe Surrey. 

OtAtff^'ifM] DtirTey of Newfoundland. Re|>ort of ProgrMa. 1881. Tbo Sarrey. 
OeoloKieal Hurrey of New Jersey. Annual Report, 18^2. Tbe Surrey. 

Oe^ilogy of Wiii«on»in. Hur?ejr of 187S-1871^». VoU. 1-4 and folio atlaii. 

Tbe Surrey. 
Otman Hoepital of tbe Tity of Pbiladelpbia. 23d annual report. Tbe Trustee*. 
Ooppert, H. R. I'e^fer dai gefriereu Erfrieren der Pflanzen nnd Scbutimtttel 
daKefcen. 1HH8. ]. V. WilUamnon Fund. 

Ooinea, B A Vegrtaes foKaeifl. Primeiro opuseolo. Flora foasil do teireno 
oarl>onifero, Ihi'mi. Geological Surrey of Portu|caL 

Ormaf, W, de. Hur la construction des organea genitaux dea Pbalangienf. 18h2. 

Jo«. Jeanea. 
CIray, A«a. rontrihutionii to North American botany, 1888. Tbe Author, 

(ireeley, A. W. I'rofratlonal papers of tbe bignal Senrice, No. 2. 

Uotbermal Linen of the United States. War Department. 

Oregorio, Ant. <>e. Moderne nomenclature des Coquillea. 1883. Tbe Author. 
OroMS. V. Ut>n I'rotoheWMfM. 18H;i. I. V. Williamaon Fund. 

(Irliber, Weniel. Beohachtungen aus der menioblioben und tergleiebenden 
Anatomic. «t llefte. I. V. Williamaon Fnod. 

OUother, A. V. L. G. An introduction to tbe study of fishes. 

I. V. WilliameoB Fond. 
Uuimaraes. A. R. P. Description d'un nouTeau poitaon derinterienrd' Angola. 

The Author. 

Oulhrie. Malcolm. On Mr. Spencer's unification of knowledge. Th<t Author. 

Uuyot. Arnold. Phynical geography. New York. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hiogra|diical memoir of Louis Agassis. The Author. 

tluppy, K. J. L. Tbe Trinidad ofticial and oommeroiftl register Mid almanack 

for 1HH2 and 188:^ The Author. 

Ilaeckel. Hrnnt. Anthropogenie :ie Aufl., 1877. Joe. Jeanea. 

Hale. P. M. Tbe woo<ls and timbers of North Carolina. S. Q. Worth. 

Mall. James. Geological SurTey of New York. Palsdontologj, VI, 1. Lamel- 

lihrancbiaia. 

Rryoioann of tbe I'pper HeMerherg and Hamilton Groups. The Author. 

HalKick. Wm. I'eber gtlvaniitcbe Polarisation und das Smee'sche Elemest. 

1 S8J. UniTeraity of Wurtbarg. 

Handbook of the Stale of North (^rolina. Raleigh, 1HH8. 8. G. Worth. 

HariioAtiii. H. I>teriion<Mrheii;ihnlichen Affen und ihre organisation im Vericletch 

lur Mrn«chhch«*n. 1»»n:. I. V. Williamaon Fund. 

Harknr«>«. H W. Footprint** found at the Tarson State priaon. The .Author. 

Haurr. Kmiii R ▼. Die ite«*logie und ibre .\nwendung auf iie Kenntniaa die 

U.>%i(-U!4i hatltiiheii der t^esterr.-l'ngar. .Monarcbie. ;ie Aufl.. 187H 

I. V. WUUamsoa Fusd 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 349 

Hayden, F. V. 12th annual report of the United States Geological and 
Geographical Suryey of the Territories. Parts 1, *2 and maps, 1883. 

Department of the Interior. 
Hayden, F. V., and A. R. C. Selwyn. Stanford's compendium of geography 
and travel. North America. 1883. F. V. Hayden. 

Hawaii. Sixteen photographs of the recent flow from Monna-Loa, a Toloano 
of the Island of. Dr. Francis W. Wetmore. 

Hubert, M. Observations sur la position stratigraphique des couches 4 Tere> 
bratula janitor, Am. transitorius, etc., d'aprSs des travaux r^cents. 
Sur le groupement des couches les plus anoiennes de la s^rie strati- 
graphique, k Toccasion du projet de carte geologique Internationale de 
r Europe. 
Gisement des^ouches marines de Sinceny (Aisne). 
Sur le position des sables de Sinceny. 
Surle groupe nummulitique du Midi de la France. 

Le terrain cr^tac6 des Pyr^n^es. * The Author. 

Heckmann, J. Ueber die Einwirkung von Dinitrobenzol auf Natracetessi- 

gester. 1882. University of Wiirzburg. 

Heer, Oswald. Flora fossilis arctica. VI, 2, VII, 2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hermann, L. Handbuoh der Physiologie. V, 2er Th., 2 L. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hertwig, Richard. Der Organismus der Radiolarien. 1879. Jos. Jeanes. 

Hicks, Menry. On the metamorphic and overlying rocks in parts of Ross and 
Inverness Shires. The Author. 

Hidalgo, J. G. Moluscos marinos de EspaSa, Portugal y las Baleares. Ent. 
17. Nov., 1882. The Author. 

Higgins, Henry H. Notes by a field-naturalist in the western tropics. 1877. 

Jos. Jeanes. 

Hildebrandsson, H. Hildebrand. Samling af bemarkelsedager, tecken, m'arken, 

ordspr'ak och skrock rorande vaderleken. The Author. 

Hill, Franklin C. On the antenna of Meloe. The Author. 

Hincks, Thos. A history of the British marine polyzoa. 2 vols. 1880. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Hinde, G. J. On annelid remains from the Silurian strata of the Isle of 
Gotland. 1882. The Author. 

Hoemes, R. Die Erdbeben-Theorie Rudolf Falb's. 1881. . Jos. Jeanes. 

Hoffer, Eduard. Die Hummeln Steiermarks. 1 & 2 H. Jos. Jeanes. 

Hooker, J. D. The flora of British India. Parts IX and X. 
Hooker, Wm. Jackson. Botanical miscellany. 3 vols , 1831. John H. Redfield. 
Hopley, Catherine 0. Snakes: Curiosities and wonders of serpent life. 1882. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hovey, Horace C. Celebrated American caverns. 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Humboldt, A. v. Views of nature. London, 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hungarian Government. Fourteen statistical pamphlets. 

Hungarian Academy of Sciences. 
Hutton, F. W. Note on the structure of Struthiolaria papulosa. The Author. 
Catalogues of the New Zealand diptera, orthoptera, hymenoptera. 1881. 

Geological Survey of New Zealand. 
Ignatius, K. E. F. Exposition Universelle de 1878 k Paris. 

he Grand-Duch^ de Finlande. Notice Statistique, 1878. The Author. 

Index-Catalogue of the library of the Surgeon-General's office, U. S. A. 

Authors and subjects. Vol. IV. 1883. War Department. 

Inspector der Fischereien, Finnland. An die Ackerbau-Expedition im k. Senat 

fiir Finnland d. 20 Jan. 1883 abgegebene Gutachten, in wiefern es 

geeignet ware in Finnland kUnstliche Fischzucht einzufiihren. 

A. J. Malmgren. 
Issel, Arturo. Istruzione pratiche per Tostricultura e la mitilicultura. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
James, Jos. P. A revision of the genus Clematis of the United States. The Author. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

Jan, G. Iconographie generale des Ophidiens. Vol. 2, Index, etc. 

Wilson Fund. 
Jeffreys. J. Gwyn. On the mollusca procured during the cruise of H. M. S. 
"Triton," between the Hebrides and Faroes in 1882. 
On the mollusca procured during the "Lightning'' and "Porcupine" 

expeditions, 1868-70. 
Black Sea mollusca. The Author. 

Jolis, A«|g. le. Note sur le Mjosotis sparsiflora de la flore de la Normandie. 

The Author. 
Jones, Jos. Investigations, chemical and physiological, relative to certain 
American vertebrata. The Author. 

Judd, John W. Volcanoes : What they are and what they teach. 

I. Vt Williamson Fund. 

Just, L. Botanischer Jahresbericht. 6er Jahrg., 2te Abth., 4 und 5 H. ; 

7er Jahrg., 2te Abth., 2 und 3 H. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Eemeny, G&bor and Geza Howarth. Jelentes^az orsz&gos Phylloxera-kis^rleti 

Allom&s, 1881-ik ^vi Mukod4s6rol, 1 Evfolyam, 1881. 

Hungarian Acad, of Sciences. 
Kennel, J. Ueber Ctenodailus pardalis, 1882. The Author. 

Kent, W. Saville. A manual of the Infusoria. 2 vols, text and one of atlas. 
1881-82. Jos. Jeanes. 

Einahan, G. H. Manual of geology of Ireland. 1878. Jos. Jeanes. 

Rleinenberg, N. Hydra. 1872. Jos. Jeanes. 

Eobell, F. V. Geschichte der Mineralogie, von 1850-1860. Miinchen, 1864. 

Jos. Jeanes. 

Kobelt, W. Iconographie der schalentragenden europaischen Meerescon- 

chylien. H. 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Catalog der im europaischen Faunengebiet lebenden Binnenconchylien. 

2te Aufl. 1881. Jos. Jeanes. 

KoUiker, A. Zur Entwicklung des Auges und Geruchsorganes menschlicher 

Embryonen. 1883. The University of Zurich. 

Koninck, L. G. De. Notice sur la famille des Bellerophontidss. The Author. 

Krazer, A. Theorie der zweifach unendlichen Thetareihem auf grund der 

Riemann'schen Thetaformel. 1. Th., 1881. University of Wiirxburg. 

Kunz, Geo. F. American gems and precious stones. 1888. The Author. 

Lacoe, R. D.* List of palaeozoic fossil insects of the U. States. The Author. 

Lang, Heinr. Otto. Grundriss der Gesteinskunde. 1877. Jos. Jeanes. 

Lanessan, J. L., Dr. Manuel d'histoire naturelle m^dicale. 8 vols., 1882. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Lapparent, A. de. Traite de Geologic, VII, VIII. Jos. Jeanes. 

Lasaulx, A. v. Elemente der Petrogrnphie. 1875. Jos. Jeanes. 

Latchford, F. R. Notes on Ottawa Unionidse. The Author. 

Lawes, Sir J. B. Memorandum of the origin, plan and results of the field and 
other experiments conducted on the farm and in the laboratory of Sir 
John Bennet Lawes. 1883. The Author, 

ence, Geo. N. Description of a new species of Swift of the genus 

Chaetura. 
Descriptions of two new species of birds from Yucatan of the families 

Columbidse and FormicariidaB. 
Description of a new species of bird of the family Cypselidae. 
Description of a new species of bird of the family Turdidse. 
Description of a new species of Icterus from the West Indies. 
Description of a new sub-species of Loxigilla from the island of St. Chris- 
topher. West Indies. The Author. 
Le Conte, John L., and Geo. H. Horn. Classification of the Coleoptera of 
North America. 188 ^ The Author. 
Lee, John G. Homicide and suicide in Philadelphia during 1871 to 1881 
incl. The Author. 




1883.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 351 

Lewis, H. Carvill. Mineralogical notes, 1882. 

A summary of progress in Mineralogy in 1882. 

On some enclosures in MuscoYite, 1882. 

The great ice age in Pennsylvania. 

The great terminal moraine across PennsyWania. 

Map of the terminal moraine. 

The geology of Philadelphia. January 12, 1882. The Author. 

Library Company of Philadelphia. Bulletin, January, 1883. The Trustees. 
Librarian of Congres5^. Annual report, 1882. The Author. 

Liversidge, Archibald. The minerals of New South Wales. 2d Ed. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 
Locard, A. Contributions 4 la faune malacologique Fraacaise, I-VI, 1881-1882. 

Catalogue des mollusques vivants terrestres et aquatiqu<^s du Department 
deTAin, 1881. 

Prodrome de Malacologie Francaise. Catalogue g^n^ral des mollusques 

, Tivants de France, 1882. 

Etudes sur les variations malacologique d'aprbs la faune vivante et fossile 
de la partie centrale du Bassin du Rhone. 2 vols., 1881. 

Recherches pal^oDtologiques sur les depots tertiaires a Milne -Ed wardsia 
et Vivipara du Pliocbne inf6rieur du Department de I'Ain, 188i. 

Malacologie des Lacs de Tiberiade d'Antioche et d'Homs, 1883. 

Description d'une espfeoe nouvelle de moUusque appartenant au genre 
Paulia. The Author. 

Lowne, B. Thompson. Descriptive catalogue of the teratological series in the 
museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. Jos. Jeanes. 
Lyman, Theo. Report of the scientific results of the voyage of H. M. S. Chal- 
lenger. Zoology, V, 14. Report on the Ophiuroidea. The Author. 
M' Alpine, D. The botanical atlas, 1883, 2 vols. Jos. Jeanes. 
McCook, H. C. The mode of recognition among ants, 1878. 

Toilet habits of ants, 1878. 

The Basilica spider and her snare, 1878. 

Mound-making ants of the AUeghenics, 1878. 

Supplementary note on the aeronautic flight of spiders, 1878. 

Cutting or Parasol ant, Atta fervens Say, 1879. 

Note on the adoption of an ant-queen, 1879. Mode of depositing ant- 

eggs- 
Note on the marriage- flights of Lasius flavus and Myrmica lobricornis, 

1879. 

Pairing of spiders, Linyphia marginata, 1879. Note on mound-making 

ants, 1879. 

Combats and nidifieation of the Pavement ant, 1879. 

On the mandibles of ants and nests of Tarantula, 1879. 

The snare of ray-spider, 1881. 

The honey ants of the Garden of the Gods, 1881. 

Note on the intelligence of the American Turret spider. 

Snare of orb-weaving spiders, 1882. The Author. 

Marion, A. F. Observations sur le Dracaena goldieana, 1882. 

Applications du sulphure de carbone au traitement des vignes phyllox^r^es, 

1882. 

Draguages au large de Marseille. B, 1879. The Author. 

Marrat, F. P. The naturalization of the estuary of the Mersey. The Author. 

Martens, E. v. Description of two species of land-shells from Porto Rico, 

W. I. T. Bland 

Conch ologische Mittheilungen. II, 3 and 4. 

Die Weich-und-Schaltiere gemeinfasslich dargestellt, 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Martini und Chemnitz. Systematisches Conchylien Cabinet. 818e-324e Lief. 

Wilson Fund. 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Masters, Maxwell T. On the Passiflorese collected by M. Edouard Andr6 in 

Ecuador and New Granada, The Author. 

Maje, GustaT. Die europaischen Arten der gallenbewohnenden Cynipiden, 

1882. Jos. Jeanes. 
Medical and Surgical Bistory of the War of the Rebellion. Part 8, Vol. 2; 

Surgical History, 2d issue. War Department. 

Meehan, Thomas. Variations in Nature, 1883. The Author. 

Mercantile Library Association of the City of New York. 62d annual report, 

1888. The Director. 

Mercantile Library Company of Philadelphia. 60th annual report, January, 

1888. The Directors. 

Mercantile Library Association of San Francisco. 80th annual report. 

• The Association. 
Metzges, G. Ueber die Einwirknng von Schwefeleiiure auf Methyl- und iEthyl- 

Alkohol, 1881. University of Wiirzburg. 

Miller, A. S. The American palaeozoic fossils. 2d Ed., 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Milne, Edwards. Rapport sur les travaux de la Commission charg4e par M. 

le Ministre de 1' Instruction publique d'^tudier la faune sous-marine dans 

les grandes profondeurs de la Mediterran^e et de Toc^an Atlantique. 

A. F. Marion. 
Mission scientifique au Mexique et dans^rAmeriqueCentrale. Recherches 

zoologiques. 8me partie, 2e section Etudes sur les batraciens par M. 

Brocchi, Livr. 2 and 3. Etudes sur les reptiles et les batraciens, par 

MM. Auguste Dum^ril et Bocourt, Livr., 8. 
Moebius, K., F. Riohter und £. von Martens. Beitriige zur Meeresfauna der 

Insel Mauritius und der Seychellen, 1880. Jos. Jeanes. 

Moeller. Jos. Anatomic der Baumrinden, 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Mohn, H. Den Norske Nordhavs-Expedition, 1876-1878. X. Meteorologi, 

1883. Norwegian Government. 
Molescott, Jac. Untersuchungen zur Naturlehre des Menschen und der Thiere. 

XIII, 2 and 8. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Morris, G. H. Beitrag zur Geschichte der Destillations-producte des Colopho- 
niums, 1882. University of Wurzburg. 

Mortillet, Gabriel de. Le prehistorique antiquity de Thomme, 1888. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Mott, F. T. The iVuits of all countries, 1888. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Miiller, Ferd. v. Lecture on the flora of Australia, 1882. 

Fragmenta phytographise AustralisB. XI and XII, pp. 1-26. 
Eucalyptographia, 2d, 6th and 6th Decade, 1879-80. 
Index perfectus ad Caroli Linnsei species Plantarum, nempe earum primam 
editionem (Anno 1763), 1880. The Author. 

Muller, H. The fertilization of flowers, 1888. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Nares, Capt. G. S. Narrative of a voyage to the polar sea during 1876-6, in 
H. M. Ships "Alert** and "Discovery." 2 Vols., 4th Ed., 1878. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Natural Bridge, Virginia. Two photographs of the. Mr. S. F. Corlies. 

Naturw. Landesdurchforschung von Bohmen. Archiv der. V, 2. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Nanmann, Carl Fiedr. Blemente der Mineralogie. lie Aufl. von Dr. Ferd. 
Zirkel. Jos. Jeanes. 

Netto, L. Aper9U sur la th<^orie de revolution, 1883. The Author. 

Newberry, J. S. Geological Survey of Ohio. Report, Vols. 3 and 4. The Author. 
New South Wales. Australian Museum. Report of Trustees for 1882. 

The Director. 
New South Wales. Department of mines. Annual report of. 1880. 

Royal Society of N. 8. W. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 353 

NewtoD, Alf. A hieKory of British birds. 4th Ed., Pi. 15. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Newton, John. The fortifications of to-day. 1883. Engineer Dept., U. S. A 
New York State Library. 62d, 63d and 64th annual reports. 

Regents of the Unirersity. 
New York State Museum of Natural History. 31st annual report. 1878. 

Regents of the University. 
New Zealand. Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of. 17th annual 
report. 1882. The Directors. 

Nordenskiold, A. £. Vega-Expeditionens Vetenskapliga lakttagelser bear- 
betade af Deltagare i Resan och Andra Forskare utgifna af A. £. 
Nordenskiold. Forsta Bd., 1882. 
Vegas Fard Kring Asien och Europa. I and II. Jos. Jeanes. 

Nomer, C. Die Kr'atzmilbe der Hilhner. 
Syringophilus bipectinatus. 

Beitrag zur Behandlung mikroskopischer Pr'aparate. 
Analges minor eine neue Milbe im Innern der Federspulen der Hilhner. 
Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Milbenfamilie der Dermaleichiden. 1883. 

The Author. 
Norske Nordhavs-Expedition. 1876-78, VI— IX. 1882. 

The Norwegian Qovemment. 
Norwegische Commission der europdiRchen Gradmessung, Publication der. 
Geodatische Arbeiten, H. 1-3. Vandstandsobservationer, H. 1. 

The Commission. 
Ochsenius, Earl. Die Region der Schott's in Nordafrika und das Sahara- 
Meer. I— VII. 
Die Bildung von Steinsalzflotzen. The Author. 

Opening ceremonies of the New York and Brooklyn Bridge, May 24, 1883. 
Packard A. S. On the classification of the Linnean Order of Orthoptera and 
Neuroptera. 
A revision of the Lysiopetalidse, a family of Chilognath Myriapoda, with 

a notice of the genus Cambala. 
Repugnatorial pores in the Lysiopetalidse. 

A new species of Polydtsmus with eyes. The Author. 

Paetel, Fr. Catalogue der Conchylien-Sammlung. 1883. The Author. 

Pagenstecher, H. Alex. Allgemeine Zoologie oder Grundgesetze des thierischen 

Baus und Lebens. ler-4er Th. 1875-81. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Paget, James. Descriptive catalogue of the pathological specimens contained 

in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons of England. 2d Ed., 

by Sir James Paget,'with the assistance of James Frederic Goodhart, 

M. D., and Alban H. G. Doran. Vol. 2, 1883. The Council of the College. 

Paldontologie Fran9aise. Ire Ser. An. Invert. Terrain Jurassique. Livr. 32, 

64-64. Terrain Cr^tace. L. 29. Wilson Fund. 

PalsBontograpica. 29er Bd., 2e-6e Lief. Suppl. II, 4te Abth., Text und Atlas. 

Suppl III, L. 10-11. Wilson Fund. 

Parrish, S. B., and W. F. Supplementary list of the plants of Southern 

California. The Author. 

Pauluoci, M. Nuova stazione della Clausilia lucensis. 1877. 

Etude critique sur quelques Hyalina de Sardaigne et description d'une 
Bouvelle espbce. 1879. 

Molluschi fluviatili Italiani inviati come saggio alia Esposizione inter- 
na zionale della Pesca in Berlino. 1880. 

Osservazioni critiche sopra le specie del genere Struthiolaria Lamarck. 
1877. Ancora del genere Struthiolaria Lam. 2° Articolo. 1877. 

Description d'une Murex fossile du terrain tertiaire subapennin de la 
Valine de I'Elsa. 

Fauna Italiana. Communicazioni malacologiche. Art. 1-7, 1877-1880. 

Materiaux pour servir a T^tude de la faune malacologique terrestre et 
fluviatile de Tltalie et de ses lies. 1878. The Author. 



354 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1883. 

Peale, Chas. Wilson. Manuscript lectures on natural history. 1797. Frobablj 

the first oz. the subject delivered in the U. States. Titian R. Peale. 

Penecke, K. Alphonse. Beitr'age zur Kenntniss der Fauna der slavonifchen 

Paludinenschichten. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

P^res de la Compagnie. M^moires concernant I'histoire naturelle de T Empire 

Chinois. ler & 2er Cah. Jos. Jeanes. 

Perrier, Ed. Anatomie et phjsiologie animales. 1882. I. V. Williamson Fnud. 

Peschel, Oscar. Physische Erdkunde, nach den hinterlassenen Manuscripten 

Oscar Pescel's, eelbststandig bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Qustav 

Leipoldt. ler und 2er Bd 1879-80. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Phillips, Henry, Jr. A brief account of the more important public collections 

of American Archaeology in the United States. The Author. 

Plateau, F^lix. Recherches exp^rimentales eur les movements respiratoire 

des insectes. The Author. 

Poole, Wm. Fred'k An index to periodical literature. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Potoni4, H. Floristische Beobachtungen aus der Priegnitz, 

Deber den Ersatz erfrohrener Friihlingstriebe durch acoessorische und 

andere Sprosse. 
Das Skelet der Pflanzen. 1882. 

Ueber die Zusammensetzung der LeitbUndel bei den Gefasskryptogameo. 
Ueber die Beziehung zwischen dem Spaltoffnungssystem und dem Stereom 

bei den Blattstielen der Filicineen. 
Ueber das Verhaltniss der Morphologic zur Physiologie. 
Der k. botanische Garten und das k. botanische Museum in Berlin. 

The Author. 
Pouchet, G. Des terminaisons vasculaires dans la rate des S^laciens. 

Sur revolution des Peridin^ens et les particularit^s d'organisation que 
les rapprochent des noctiluques. The Author. 

Poulsen, C. M. Bornholms Land-og Ferskvands-Bloddyr. 1874. The Author. 
Powell, J. W. Second annual report of the U. S, Geological Survey. 1882. 

Department of the Interior. 
First annual report of the Bureau of Ethnology to the Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, 1879^80. Smithsonian Institution. 

Provancber, L. Petite faune entomologique du Canada. II, 1883. 

The Author. 
Purgold, A- Die Meteoriten des k. mineraloglschen Museum in Dresden. 

The Author. 
Purves, J. C. Sur leg depots fluvio-marins d'Age S^nonier. The Author. 

Putnam, F. W. Notes on copper implements from Mexico. 

Iron from the Ohio mounds The Author. 

Quenstedt, F. A. Die Ammoniten des schw'abischen Jura. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Die Schopfung der Erde und ihre Bewohner. 1882. Jos. Jeanes. 

Ramos, D. Jos6, Historia del Uredo cocivoro. 1882. The Author. 

Ramsay, A. G. The physical geology and geography of Great Britain. 5th 

ed. 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Regel, £. bescriptiones plantarum novarum et minus cognitarum. Fasc. 8 

and Suppl. 1883. The Author. 

Regents of the University of the State of New York. 92d, 93d and 94th 

annual reports. The Authors. 

Reichenbach, U. G. Xenia Orchidacea. 111,3. Wilson Fund. 

Reinsch, P. F. Ueber parasitische Algen tihnliche Pflanzen in der Russischen 

Blatterkohle und uber die Natur der Pflanzen welche diese Kohle zusam- 

mensetzen. 

Notiz Uber die neuerdings in dem Polarkreise entdeckten Steinkohlenflotze. 

Ein neuer algoider Typus in der Stigmarienkohle von Kurakino (Russland). 

The Author. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 355 

RemeM, Adolf. Untersuchungen iiher die TersieineruDgsfuhrenden Diluvial- 
gesohichte des norddeutscher Flachlands mit besonderer Derticksich- 
tigung der Mark Brandenburg. I Stiick, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Renault, M. B. Cours de botanique fossile. lre-3me An., 1881-83. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Considerations sur les rapports des lepidodendrons, des sigillaires et des 
stigmaria, 1883. The Author. 

Report upon the practice in Europe with the hearj Armstrong, Woolwich and 
Krupp Rifled Guns. Submitted by the Board of Engineers for Fortifi- 
cations, 1883. War Department. 
Report upon the statistics of production of the precious metals ia the United 
States, 1881. Horatio C. Burchard. 
ReuBch, H. H. Die fossilen fUhrenden krystallinischen Schiefer von Bergen 
in Norwegen, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Revoil, G. Fauna et Acre des Pays Comalis, 1882. Jos. Jeanes. 
Bhees, William J. Catalogue of publications of the Smithsonian Institution 
(1846-1882), with an alphabetical index of articles, 1882. 

The Institution. 
Ribeiro, Carlos. Estudos geologioos. Descrip^ao de Solo quaternario das 
Bacias hydrographicas de Tejo e Sado. 
Noticia de algumas estagoes e monumentos prehistoricos. 2 parts. 
Descrip9ao de algunas silex a quart zites Lascado;*. 

Relatorio acerca de sexta reuniao do Congresso de Anthropolo)cia e de 

archeologia prehistorico yerificada na Cidade de Bruxelles no mez de 

Agosto de 1872. The Author. 

Richardn. Thos. New South Wales in 1881. Royal Society of N. S. W. 

Reiohtofen, F. Freiherrn v. China. 4er Bd. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Rirero. E. de and Juan Tschudi. Diego de Antiquedades Peruanas. Atlas, 

1851. Executor of Wm. S. Vaux. 

Royal Geological Society of Cornwall. Catalogue of the Library, 1882. 

The Society. 

Rooa, Gen. D. Julio A. Informe official de la Comision Cientifica agregada al 

Est ado Mayor General de la Expedicion al Rio Negro (Patagonia) 

realizada en los messes de April, Mayo y Junio de 1879. Ent. Ill, 

Geologia, 1882. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Roemer, Ferd. Lethsea geognostica. 1 Th. Lethaea palaeozoioa. Textband, 

2e Lief,, 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Romanes, Geo. J. The scientific evidences of organic evolution. 1882. 

Animal intelligence. 2d Ed., 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Roscoe, Henry E. Lessons in elementary chemistry. Inorganic and organic, 

1881. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Rossmassler's Iconographie der europ'aischen land* und siisswasser-MoUusken. 

N. f. I, 1 and 2. Wilson Fund. 

Royal Society. Catalogue of the scientific books in the library of the. 1883. 

The Society. 
Runkel, F. Ueber Alpha-iEthylidenvalerolacton, 1882. 

University of Wiirzburg. 
Rutot, A. Les alluvions modernes dans la moyenne Belgique. 

Les phenom^nes de la sedimentation marine. The Author. 

Ryder, J. A. On the mode of fixation of the fry of the oyster. 

Summary of recent progress in our knowledge of the culture, growth and 

anatomy of the oyster. The Author. 

Saccardo, P. A. Sylioge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum. I and II. 

I. v. Williamson Fund. 
Salomon, C. Nomenclator der Gefasskryptogamen. 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Sampson, F. A. Notes on the distribution of shells. Art. III. The Author. 



356 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Schomburgh, R. South Australia. Report on the progress and conditions of 
the Botanic Garden and GoTernment Plantation during the year 1882. 

The Author. 
Schibbye, GustaT. Zur Geschichte der Dehydracetsaure, 1882. 

UniTcrsity of Wiirzburg. 
Schiodte, J. C. Zoologia Daoica, 3die Uefte. 

Schneider, Anton. Zoologische Beitrage. I, 1, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Schoebel, C. L'ame humaine au point de vue de la science ethnographique. 

2d Ed., 1879. The Author. 

Schwartz, K. Ebbeund Fluth, 1881. Jos Jeanes. 

Scott, D. H. Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der gegliederten Milchrohren der 

Pflanzen, 1881. Unirersity of Wiirzburg. 

Scudder, Samuel H The tertiary lake>basin at Florissant,Colorado. The Author. 

The pine moth of Nantucket, Retin<i frustrana. The Author. 

Secard, H. Elements de zoologie, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Second Geological Surrey of PennsyWania, reports, A' ; C* ; ۥ ; D*, Vol. 1 ; 

Atlas to D«, Vols. 1 and 2 ; D* ; I* ; T'. The Commissioners. 

Progress of the survey of the anthracite coal fields. 

Memorandum for the information of the legislature. 

Report of the Board of Commissioners to the Legislature, January 1, 1883. 

H. C. Lewis. 
Seebohm, H. A history of British birds. Parts 1 and 2. 

J. V. Williamson Fund. 

Selenka, E. Studien iiber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. les H., 

1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Semper, C. Reisen im Archipel der Philippien, 2er Th., 3erBd.; 6 H., 4er 

Bd. ; le Abth,, le Htilfte. Wilson Fund. 

Serrain, George. Histoire malacologique du Lac Balaton en Hongrie, 1881. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Shaler, N. S., and W. M. Davis. Illustrations of the earth's surface. GlacierR. 

1881. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

• 

Shepard, Charles Upham. On Aerolites. Catalogue of meteoric collection. 

The Author. 

Sheridan, P. H. Report of an exploration of parts of Wyoming, Idaho and 

Montana, in August and September, 1882. The Author. 

Shufeldt, R. W. Contributions to the anatomy of birds. The Author. 

Smithsonian Institution. List of foreign correspondents, corrected to January, 

1882. Additions and corrections to same to January, 1883. 
Annual report of the Board of Regents for the year 1881. 
Miscellaneous collections. Vols. 22-27. The Institution. 

Soler, Sebastian Vidal y. Inspeccion general de Montes. Comission de la 

Flora forestal. ReseQa de la flora del Archipelago Filipino. The Author. 

Soret, J. L., et £. Sarasin. Sur la polarisation rotatoire du quartz. 1882. 

I. V, Williamson Fund. 
South African Museum, report of the Trustees, 1882. The Curator. 

Sowerby, G. B. Thesaurus conchyliorum, Pts. 39 and 40. Wilson Fund. 

State Librarian of Iowa, biennial report, July 1, 1883. The Author. 

State School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, catalogue of the, 1882-83. 

The Trustees. 
Statistische Mittheilungen Uber den Civilstand der Stadt Frankfurt a. M. im 

Jahre 1882. 
Stearns, R. E. C. On the history and distribution of fresh.water mussels. 

Verification of the habitat of Conrad's Mytilus bifurcatus. The Author. 
Stearns, W. A., and E. Coues. New England bird life. Parts I and II. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Stewart, Balfour. Lesson in elementary physics, 1878. I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Stevenson, W. C, Jr. Ellis North American Fungi. Alphabetical Index. 

Centuries I~X. The Author. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 35T 

Suess, £. Das AntlUz der Erde. le. Abth. 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Surgeon General of the Navy, sanitary and statistical report of the, for the 

years 1880 and 1881. Navy Department. 

Svenonius, F. V. Bidragtill Norrbottens Geologi. Geological Survey of Sweden. 
Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning. Ser. Aa, No's 70, 80, 81, 82, 83, 85, 86 ; 

Ser. Bb. 1, 2; Ser. C. 45-62 Sjunde Haftet. Bladen 19, 20 and 21. 

Ramnas, " Wargarda" och »'Ulricehamn." 7 sheets. 

Geological Survey of Sweden. 
Thomson, C. 0. The modem polytechnic school, 1883. The Author. 

Tischner, Aug. The sun changes its position in space, therefore it cannot be 

regarded as being "in a condition of rest." The Author. 

Tonks, Edmund. General index to Latin names and synonyms of the plants 

depicted in the first hundred and seven volumes of Curtis's Botanical 

Magazine, 1883. Thos. Meehan, through the Botanical Section. 

Trouessart, E. L. Catalogue systematique, synonymique et geographique des 

mammif^res vivants et fossils. 3 Nos. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Tschermak, G. Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. 1 and 2 Lief., 1881. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Tryon, Geo. W., Jr. Manual of conchology. Pts. 17-20. 

structural and systematic conchology. I, II, 1883. The Author. 

United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, report of the superintendent of the, 

showing the progress of the work during the fiscal years ending with 

June, 1880 and 1881. Treasury Department. 

United States Fish Commiesion. Bulletin of the, Vol. II, 1882. 

The Commission. 
United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 1878. 

2 vols, and atlas, 1883. Department of the Interior. 

University of Kiel. Fifteen theses, 1881-82. The University. 

University of Louvain. Thirteen theses, 1881-82. The University. 

University of Pennsylvania, annual reports of the Provost and Treasurer, 

Oct. 1, 1883. The Trustees. 

University of Wiirzburg. Fifteen theses. The University. 

Veth, P. J. Midden-Sumatra, 1877-1879. Four vols, in seven, and atlas, folio. 

Jos. Jeanes. 
Vogt, C. Le9ons sur les animaux utiles, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Vogt und Specht. Die Saugetiere in Wort und Bild. Lief. 1-20 Jos. Jeanes. 
Vogt, C, und Emil Yong. Trait^ d'anatomie compar^e pratique. Ire and 2e. 

L. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Wachsmuth, Chas. On a new genus and species of Blastoids. Descriptions 

of some new Blastoids from the Hamilton Group. The Author. 

Wachsmuth, Chas., and F. Springer. Remarks on Glyptocrinus and Reteo- 

crinus, two genera of Silurian Crinoids. The Authors. 

Wainwright, Samuel. Scientific sophisms, 1883. Rev. H. C. McCook. 

War Department Library, alphabetical catalogue, 1882. The Department. 

Warren, Charles. Answer to inquiries about the United States Bureau of 

Education, 1883. Department of the Interior. 

Warren, Ma j .-Gen. G. K. Findings of the Court of Inquiry in the case of. 

The War Department. 
Watson, Rev. R. Boog MoUusca of H. M. S. "Challenger" Expedition. 

Pts. 15 and 16. The Author. 

Watson, Sereno. Contributions to American botany, XI, 1883. The Author. 
Weismann, Aug. Die Entstellung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen. 

Text and atlas. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Westerlund, Carl Agardh. Monographia Clausiliarum in regione pala}oarctica 

viventium. 1878. Jos. Jeanes. 

Westwood and Satchell. Biblotheca piscatoria. 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Wesleyan University. Eleventh annual report of the curator of the museum. 

1882. The Author. 



358 PROGEEDINQS OF THE ACADEBiT OF [1883. 

White, Chas. A. Review of the noo-marine fossil mollusoa of North America. 

1883. The Author. 

White, F. Buchanan. Some thoughts on the distribution of British Butterflies. 

Observations sur Tarmure g^nitale de plusieurs esp^ces fran9ai8e8 de 

ZygaenidsB. 
List of Hemiptera collected in the Amazons by Prof. J. W. H. Trail, M. A.» 

in the years 1873-1875, with descriptions of the new species. 
Descriptions of New Hemiptera. I. 

The mountain Lepidoptera of Britain, their distribution and its causes. 
Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. 8. Challenger. Part XIX. Report on 

the Pelagic Hemiptera. 

On the male genital armature of European Rhopalocera. 

On the botany of the *■ Jardin" of Mont Blanc. Notice of two mosses 

new to science. The Authors. 

White, Rev. W. P. Ants and their ways. London, n. d. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Whitehouse, F. Cope. Is Fingal's Cave artificial ? The Author. 

Williams, Alb., Jr. Department of the Interior. U. S. Geological Survey. 

Mineral Resources of the United States. Department of the Interior. 

Windeyer, Justice. Commemorative address on the celebration of the 50th 

anniversary of the Sidney Mechanics' School of Arts, March 22, 1883. 

The Author. 
WoUaston, T. Vernon. Testacea Atlantica. 1878. Jos. Jeanes. 

Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. 34th annual announcement. 

The College. 

Yarrel, Wm. A history of British birds. 4th Ed., by Alfred Newton. Parts 

16 and i7. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Yellowstone National Park. 1883. F. V. Hayden. 

Zincken, C. F. Die geologischen Horizonte der fossilen Eohlen. 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Zittel. Handbuch der Palee ^ntologie. I, 2 Abth., 2 Lief. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Zoological Record. XVIII. 1881. Wilson Fund. 



Journals and PeriodicaiiS. 

Amsterdam. K. Akademie van Wettenschappen. Verslagen en Mededeelingen, 
Afd. Letterkunde, 2e Keeks, 11 Deel, Naamen-en Zaakregister, I-XII. 
Afd Naturkunde, 2e Reeks, 17 Deel. 
Jaarboek, 1881. 

Processen-Verbal, Afd. Nat. Mei 1881— Apr. 1882. 

Verhandlungen. Afd. Nat. Deel 22. Afd Letterk., Deel 15. The Society. 

Angers. Soci^t6 d'6tudes scientitiques. lime and 12me Annies. The Society. 

Auxerre. Soci^t^ des Science historiques et naturelles de I'Yonne. Bulletin, 

Vol. 36me. Tables analytiques, 1867-78. The Society. 

Baltimore. American Chemical Journal, IV, 5 — V, 5. The Editor. 

American Journal of Mathematics, pure and applied, V, 1 — VI. 2. 

The Editor. 

Johns Hopkins University. Report, 7th year. The President. 

Peabody Institute. 16th annual report. The Trustees. 

Basel. Schweizerische pal'aontologische Qesellschafb, IX. The Society. 

Batavia. Natuurkuodig Vereen in Nederlandsth Indie. Natuurkundig 

Tijdschrift. 8e Ser. Deel 2. The Society. 

Belfast. Naturalists' Field Club. Annual report, Ser. 2, Vol. II. Part 2. 

The Society. 
Natural History and Philosophical Society . Proceedings, 1881-82, 1882-88. 

The Society. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 359 

Berlin. ArohW filr Naturgeschichte, 47er Jahr., 6'; 48er Jahrg., 4 — 49er 
Jahr., 4. The Editor. 

Botanischer Jahresberioht (Just), 7er Jahr., le Abth., 2 H. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Deutsche botanische Gesellschaft, Statuteii und Reglement, 1883. 

The Society. 
Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift, XXXIV, 2— XXXV, 1 . 

The Soviety. 
Entomologische Verein. Deutscher entomologische Zeitschrift. 27er 
Jahr., 1, 2. The Society. 

Entomologischer Verein in Berlin. Berliner entomologische Zeitschrift. 
27er Bd., 1, 2. The Society. 

Garten-Zeitung (Wittmack), 1882, 1-12. The Editor. 

Gesellschaft Naturforschende Freunde. Sitzungs-Berichte, 1882. 

The Society. 
Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik (Pringsheim), XIV, 2. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
K. Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen, mathe- 
matische, 1882 ; physikalische, 1882. 

Monatsbericht, 1835, 1854, 1855, 1856 and December, 1877. 
Sitzungsbcrichte, 1882, XXXIX-LIV— 1883, I-XXXVII. The Society. 
Der Naturforscher, XV, 27-XVI, 39. The Editor. 

Natu!» No^itates, 1882, No. 21—1883, No. 19. The Publishers. 

Zeitschrift fUr die gesammten Naturwissenschaften, LV, LVI, 1, 2. 

The Editor. 
Bern. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, 1030-1063. The Society. 
Be8an9on. Academic des Sciences, belles-letti es et arts, 1882. The Society. 
Beziers. Social ^ d'^tude des sciences naturelles. Bulletin, 5e ann^e. 

The Society. 
Bistritz. Gewerbeschule. Jahresberioht, 8er. The Director. 

Bonn. Arohiv fiir mikroskopische Anatomic, XXII, 1-XXIII, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Naturhistorische Verein. Verhandlungen, Supplement, 89er Jahrg. 2es H. 

The Society. 

Bordeaux. Acad^mie nationale des sciences, belles-lettres et arts. Actes, 3e 

Ser., 42e An. The Society. 

Soci4t4 des sciences physique et naturelles. M^moires, 2e Ser. IV, 3 — 

V, 2. The Society. 

Boston. American Academy of arts and sciences. Proceedings, XVIII. 

The Society. 

American monthly microscopical journal. Ill, 12 — IV, 11. The Editor. 

Scientific and literary gossip, I, 2. The Editor. 

Science record, II, 1. The Editor. 

Society of natural history. Proceedings, XXI, p. 433 — XXII, p. 224; 

also, XXI, Part 4 and XXII, Part 1. The Society. 

Zoolcgical Society. Quarterly journal, I, 3 — II, 4. The Society. 

Braunschweig. Arobiv fiir Anthropologic, XIV, 3, 4. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Bremen. Naturwissenschaftliche Verein. Abhandlungen, VIII, 1. The Society. 

Briinn. NaturforschcLden Verein. Verhandlungen, XX. 

Bericht der Meteorologischen Commission, 1881. The Society. 

Bruxelles. Academic royale des sciences, des lettres et des beaux-arts de 
Belgique. Bulletin, anni^e, VI, 7 and 8. The Society. 

Soci^t^ Beige de microscopic. Bulletin, 25 Nov., 1883 — Vol. IX, II. 

The Society. 
Society entomologique de Belgique. Compte-Rendu, Ser. Ill, No. 29, 37. 

The Society. 

Soci^uS malacologique. Annales XIV, XVI. Proccs-Verbaux, 5 Feb. — 

2 Juil, 1882. The Society. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1883. 

Buda-Pest. Gazette de Hoofi^rie. II, m — IV, 28. Hangmrian National Muneua. 
M.T.Akademia. III. (Isgt&ljr&nak Kiilun Kiad Tanya, 1881, 1. 2: \SX2.H. 
Ungarische Kerue, 1H82. H. 7-10. The SUieieiy. 

Ungarischen National-Museum. Naturbistorischa Heft. Bd. I-VI. 

The Director. 
Buenoi Aires. Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. Anales XV, 1-6 — XVI« 1-t. 

The Socie'y. 
Caen. Academic Nationale des sciences, arts et belles-lettres. M^moiren, 1882. 

The SocictT. 
Soci^t^ Linn<^enna de Normandie. Bulletin, 3a Ser., Vols. 5 and 6. 

The Soctetj. 
CaloutU. Asiatic Society of Bengal. Proceedings. 1802, No. 1 : 18H.'), No. *(. 
Journal. Vol. .'h), extra number to Part 1 ; Vol. 61, Pt. 2, Nos. 2-4; 
Vol. 52, Pt. 1, Nos. 1. 2. The Society. 

Another copy. Isaac Lc*. 

Stray Feathers, X. 4. 5. I. V. Williamson Fund 

Cambridge. Appalachian Mountain Club. Appalachia, III, 2. The Oub. 

Kntomological Club. Annual reports, 1882. The Club. 

Harrard Unirerstty. Library Bulletin, Nos. 24-26. The Tmsteea. 

Mupeum of Comparatire Zoology. Memoirs, VIII, 2; IX, 1. 
Report. 18M-^1; 1881-^2. 

Bulletin. VII. 9. 1(»: X. 2-»; : XI. 1. 2. The Director 

Nuttall Ornithological Club. Bulletin. VIII, 1^1. The Oub. 

Peabody Mu»eura of American ArchaBology and Ethnology. Annual 

report, l'»th. The Director. 

Science. Nos. 1-42 I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Oa«sel. Malakoioolttgiscbe Blatter. VI, 1-5. I. V. Williamson Fand. 

Vereio fiir Naturkunde. Bericht, 2t)er, SOer. The Society. 

Catania. Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Natural!. Atti, 8a Ser., T. 16. 

The Society. 
Cherbourg. Society nationale des sciences naturelles. Memoires, T. 23. 

The Society. 
Chicago. .American Antiquarian. V, 1-3. The Editor. 

.American Chemical Rerieir, III. 2. The Editor. 

ihri»tiania. Archir for .Mathematik og Naturridenskab, VII, 2 — VIII, 2. 

The Editor. 
Cincinnati. Ohio Mechanics* Institute. Scientific Proceedings, I, 4 — II, 2. 

The Institute. 

The Paleontologist. No. 7. The Editor. 

SuoieiY of Natural History. Journal VI, 1-8. The Society. 

/.ooli*Kioal Siiciety. 9ih annual report. The Society. 

CoBgrY^ imernationai desi Ch'ientalistes. Compte-rendu. T. 8me. 

Smithsonian Inst, 
rui'vithagen. K. L>. Videnskabemes Selskab. Orersigt, 1882, No. 2; 1HK$, 
N,. I 

Sktitur. '^me Ser . I. ♦*»; II. 3. The Society. 

N.tiui(n««uTi>We Fcreniog. Videnskabelige Meddelelser, 1882, I. 

The Society. 

H.HI. 10 Uoviktt* des Antiquaires du Nord. Mdmoires, n. s., 1H82-H3-H4. 

li!U.-ir. l****l The Society. 

I ,H*t I ImIU' IU»tfinioil t;."*iette. VII, 12— VIII, 11. The Editor. 

!• «i.M,i N »MM f.T^ohonoe iJoselljichaft. Schriften. n. f., V. 4. The Society. 

I-., ..,.,. .11 \i».li»ni\ of Sciences. Proceedings, III, 3. The Society. 

|i,, ... \. .»•!. iiiit* «lo!^ SoifMices, Arts el Belles-lettres. Memoires. An. 

|... I • The Society. 

|i.r|«i s.iMi J"r*iln'r ^Je'*»»ll^^•llaft. Stt/ungsbcrichte, VI. 2. 

A, i.»* (Ml 'ho Naiurkundc LiT.-I^lhst-und Kurlands, le Ser., IX, 1.2. 
',. *'.u, , \ III. I. The Society 



1883.] NATURAL S0IEN0E8 OV PHILADELPHIA. 361 

DresdeD. K. Leop. Carol..Deutschen Aoademie der Naiurforsoher. Noya 
AcU, Vols. 42 and 43. 

Leopoldina. H. 17. The Socieij. 

K. Mmeralogisoh-geologisohe und pnehistorische Museum. Mitthie- 
lungen. 5 H. The Director. 

Naturwisaensohaftliohe Gesellschaft Isis, 1882, Juli; 1883, Juni. 

The Society. 
Dublin. Royal Irish Academy. Proceeding!, Science, III, 9, 10; Polite 
Literature, II, 4. 

Transactions, Science, XXVIII, 11-18 ; Polite Literature, XXVII, 6. 

The Society. 
Edinburgh. Botanical Society. Transactions and Proceedings, XIV, 8. 

The Society. 
Geological Society, Transactions, IV, 2. The Society. 

Physical Society, Proceedings. 1881-82. The Society. 

Scottish Naturalist, n. s. Nos. 1 and 2. 
Florence. Nuoto Giornale fiotanico Italiano. Caruel, XIV, 1 — XV, 4. 

The Editor. 
R. Aooademia Petrarca di Scieoze, Lettere ed Arti in Arezzo. Adunanza 
solenne in onore di Guido Monaco; di Andrea Caasalpino; Studi di 
Guido Monaco ; a Guido Monaco Aretino ; Musica e Givilta Tosi. 

The Society. 
Frankfurt a. M. Aerztliche Verein. Jahresbericht, XXVI. 

Dentschen Malakozoologisohe Gesellschaft. Jahrbucher, X, 1-4 

Nachrichtsblatt, 1882, No. 11 ; 1883, Nos. 1. 2, 8, 4, 7, 8. The Society. 
Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, XIII. 
1 and 2, 

Bericht, 1881-82* The Society. 

Gand. Archiyes de Biologic. Van Beneden und Van Bambeke. Ill, 8 — IV, 

I. I. y. Williamson Fund. 
Genoa. Society di Letture e GonTersazioni Scientifiche, Giornale VI, 9 — VII, 

II. The Society. 
Qiessen. Jahresbericht Uber die Fortschritte der Chemie. Fittica. 1881. 

Nos. 1-4. The Editor. 

Oberhessische Gesellschaft fur Natur* and Heilkunde. 22er Bericht. 

Glasgow. Geological Society. Transactions, VII, 1. The Society. 

Natural History Society. Proceedings, V, 1. The Society. 

Philosophical Society. Proceedings, XIII, 2. ' The Society. 

Gottingen. K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Nachrichten, 1882. 

The Society. 

Gotha. Dr. A. Petermann's Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes' geographischer 

Anstalt, 1869-1876; 1876,1-6; 1877,7-12; 1878-1882; 1883,1-10. 

Erganzungsheft, 52-73. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gras. Verein der Aerzte in Steiermark. Mittheilungen, 1882. The Society. 

Naturwissenschaftliche Verein fur Steiermark. Mittheilungen, 1882. 

The Society. 
Halifax. Nova Scotian Institute of Natural Sciences. Proceedings and Trans- 
actions, IV, 4. The Society. 
Halle. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, XVI, 1. 

Bericht, 1882. The Society. 

Hamburg. Naturwissenschaftliche Verein. Abhandlungen, VII, 2. 

Verhandlungen, n. f.. VI. The Society. 

HannoTtr. Naturhistorische Gesellschaft. Jahresbericht 31 & 32. The Society. 
Harlem. Mue^e Teyler. Archives, 2e Ser., 3e Partie. The Director. 

Booi6U Hollandaise des Sciences. Archives, XVII, 3 — XVIII, 1. 

The Society. 
Heidelberg. Naturhistorisch-medioinische Verein. Verhandlungen, n. f., 

III. 2. The Society. 

24 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1883. 

Helsingfors. Finska VetenskapB-Societeten. Ofversigt, XXIV. 
Bidrag, 87, 38. 

Acta, XII. The Society. 

Hermannstadt. SiebeDburgische Verein fur Naturwissensohaften. Verhand- 

lungen und MittbeilangeD, XXXII. * The Society. 

Jena. Medicinisch-naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift XVI, n. 

f., 1-3. 

Sitzungsberichte, 1882. The Society. 

Kansas City. Kansas City Review, VI, 8— VII, 7. The Editor. 

Kiel. Universifat. Sohriften, Bd 28er. The University. 

Klagenfurt. Landesmuseum. Carinthia, 1883, 1-7. The Director. 

Konigsberg. Physikalisch-okonomiscbe Gesellschaft. Schriften, XXIII, 1,2. 

The Society. 
Lausanne. Soci^t^ Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, No. 88. 

The Society. 
Leeds. Philosophical and Literary Society. Annual Report, 1882-83. 

The Society. 

Leiden. Nederlandische Dierkundige Vereeniging. Tijdschrift, Deel VI, 1 ; 

Supplement, Deel I, 1. The Society. 

Leipzig. Archiv fiir Anatomic und Physiologic. Anatomische Abtheilungen, 

1882, 4-6 H. ; 1883, 1-3 H. Physiologische Abtheilungen, 18fe2, 5 & 6 

H. ; 1883, 1-3 H. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Botanischer Jahrbiicher. Engler. Ill, 5--IV, 5. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Furstlich Jablonowski'schen Gesellschaft. Jahresbericht, 1882. 

The Society. 
Jahresberichte iiber die Fortschritte der Anatomic und Physiologic. 
Hoflfmann und Schwalbe. X, 2 Abth. ; XI, 1 & 2 Abth., 1 H. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Jahrbiicher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik, XIII, 4; XIV, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journal fur Omithologie, XXX, 4— XXXI, 8. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

K. Sachsischen GeseUschaft der Wissenschafteo. Abhandlungen, XII, 

7&8. 

Bericht iiber die Verhandlungen, 1881. The Society. 

Morphologische Jahrbuch, VIII, 3 — IX, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Sitzungsberichte, 1882. The Society. 

Zeitschrift fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogie. Groth. VII, 4— VIII, 

3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zeitschrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zoologie. XXXVII, 4— XXXIX, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Zoologischer Anzeiger. Nos 125-152. The Editor. 

Zoologische Station zn Neapel. Mittheilungen, IV, 1-3. 
Zoologischer Jahresbericht, I — IV. The Director. 

Lisbon. Aoademia Real das Sciencias. Journal de Sciencias mathematicas 
phys. e nat V, 24-32 
Sessao publica, 1880. 

Memorias. Classe des Sciencias mathemat. phys. et nat. n. s. V, 2; 

VI, 1. The Society. 

Associacao dos Engenheiros Civis Portuguezas. Revista de Obras publicas 

e minas, Nos. 154-164. The Society. 

London. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1882, No. 61 — 1883, 

No. 71. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Astronomical Register, Nos. 240-251. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report, 52d meeting. 

The Association. 
Chemical Society. Journal, Nos. 241-252. The Society. 

Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Nos. 1149-1161. I. V.Williamson Fund. 

The Electrician. X, 1— Xli, 1. The Editor. 

Entomological Society. Transactions. 1883, I, II, III. The Society. 



1883.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 363 

The Gardener's Chronicle, Nos. 464-516. The Editor. 

Geological Magazine, Nos. 222-238. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Geological Society. Quarterly Journal, Nos. 152-155 and Lists. 

The Society. 
Hardwioke's Science Gossip. Nos. 216-227. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Ibis. 5th ser., 1-4, and Supplement. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. XVII, 2--XVIII, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. Nos. 240-251. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Journal of Conchology. Ill, 10— IV, 8. The Editor. 

Journal of Physiology. Michael Foster. IV, 1-3, and Supplement. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journal of Science. 8d Ser., No. 108-119. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Knowledge. Nos. 53-104. The Editor. 

Linnean Society, Journal, Botany, Nos. 122-129; Zoology, Nos. 95-100. 

Transactions, 2d ser. Zoology, II, 6-8 ; Botany, II, 2-5. 

Lists, 1881 and 1882. 

Proceedings, March, 1883. The Society. 

London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosphical Magazine. 1882, No. 90— 
1883, No. 101. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Mineralogical 
Magazine and Journal, Nos. 23 and 24. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Nature. Nos. 682-733. The Editor. 

Notes and Queries. No. 89. The Editor. 

Quarterly Journal Microscopical Science, n. s.. No. 89 — 5th ser. No. 92. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal, XIV, 4 — 

XV, 3. The Society. 

Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings, IV, 10 — V, 10. The Society. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain. Proceedings, IX, 4 — X, 1, and 

Lists. The Society. 

Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, 2d ser., II, 6— III, 6. The Society. 

Same, I, 3; II, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Royal Society. Proceedings, Nos. 221-226. 

Philosophical Transactions, Vol. 173, Nos. 2-4; Vol. 174, No. 1. 
Catalogue of Library, II. The Society. 

Scientific Roll, Nos. 10, 11. The Editor. 

Society of Arts. Journal, Vol. 30. The Society. 

Society for Physical Research. Proceedings, I, 2, 3. The Society. 

Triibner's American and Oriental Literary Record, Nos. 177-190. 

The Publishers. 
Zoological Society. Proceedings, 1881, No. 4; 1882, Nos. 3,4; 1883, 
Nos. 1 and 2. 
Transactions, Vol. X, 2; XI, 7 and 8. 

List of Fellows, 1883. The Society, 

The Zoologist. Nos. 72-83. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

London. Can. The Canadian Entomologist. XIV, 10— XV, 9. The Editor. 

Louisville. Polytechnic Society of Kentucky. Reports and Proceedings, 

April 16, 1883. The Society. 

LouTain. University Catholique. Annuaire, 47e Ann^e. 

Fourteen Theses. The University. 

Lund. University. Acta, XV, XVI. 

Accessions- Ratal og, 1879-1881. The University. 

Lyon. Acad^mie des Sciences, Belles- Let tres et Arts. M^moires, Classe des 

Sciences. XXV. Classe des Lettres, XX. The Society. 

Soci^t^ d' Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts utiles. Annales, 5me 

ser. Ill, IV. The Society. 

Soci^t^ Linn^enne. Annales, n. i. XXVIII, XXIX. The Society. 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEBIY OF [1883. 

Mftdison. Wisoonsin Academy of Soienoes, Arts and Letters. Transactions, 

V. The Society. 

Madrid. Memorial of Engineers. An. 37, No. 22 — An. 88, No. 23. 

Melbourne. Royal Society of Victoria. Transactions and Proceedings, II — 

XVIII. The Society. 

Mets. Academie. M4moires, 1879-80. The Society. 

Soci4t6 d'histoire naturelle. Bulletin, 6me Cahier, 2e Partie. The Society. 

Mexico. Ministerio de Fomento. Anales, VI. The Ministry. 

Museo nacional. Anales, III, 1-4. The Director. 

Revista Cientifica Mexicana, Nos. 23-25. The Editor. 

Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural. La Naturaleza, VI, 4-16. 

The Society. 
Milan. R. Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettere. Rendiconti. Ser. II, Vols. 
13 and 14. 
Memorie, XIV, 3. 

Programma, 1882. The Society. 

Regio Istituto teobnico superiore. Programma 18G9-.70, 1872-78, 1875-76, 

1882-83, 1883-84. The Institute. 

Montreal. The Canadian Naturalist, n. s., IV, 2 ; X, 7 and 8. The Editor. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society, Canadian Antiquarian, XI, 2. 

The Society. 

Moscow. Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes. Bulletin, 1881, No. 8 — 1888, 

No. 1. Tables Oenerale 1829-1881. 

Nouveaux M^moires, XIV, 2. The Society. 

Miinchen. Gesellschaft fiir Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte. 

Beitrage zur Anthropologie und Urgeschichte Bayerns. V, 1, 2. 

The Society. 
K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sitzungsberiohte, 1882, Nos. 2-5 

The Society. 

K. Stern wart. Beobachtungen, 1882. The Director. 

Nancy. Soci^t^ des Sciences. Bulletin, ser. 2, III, 18, 14. The Society. 

Naples. R. Accademia delle Scienze Fisische e Mathematiohe, Atti, VII — 

IX. 

Rendiconti, Anni XV— XXI. The Society. 

L'Esplorazione, I, 1 The Editor, 

R. Istituto d' Incoraggiamento alle Scienze Natural!, economiohe • techno- 

logiche. Atti, 2a Ser., I, III, V— VIII ; 8e Ser., I. 

Relazione, 1872, 1873, 1880. The Society. 

Neubrandenburg. Verein der Freunde der Naturgesehichte in Mecklenburg. 

ArchiT, 85er und 36er Jahrg. The Society. 

New Haven. The American Journal of Science. 1882, No. 144 — 1888, No. 

155. The Editor. 

New York. Academy of Sciences. Transactions, I, 5 — II, 2. The Society. 

American Bookseller, XIV, 5. The Publisher. 

American Geographical Society. Bulletin, 1882, No. 2 — 1888, No. 2. 

The Society. 
American Journal of Microscopy, VI, 10-12. The Editor. 

American Monthly Microscopical Journal, IV, 1-2. The Editor. 

American Museum of Natural History. 14th Annual report, Bulletin 
No. 4. The Director. 

Forest and Stream. XIX, No. 18— XXI, No. 17. The Editor. 

Journal of the Telegraph, XV, 853, 354. The Editor. 

Library Journal, Vll, 11— VIII, 8. I. V. WiUiamson Fund. 

Linnean Society. Transactions, I. The Society. 

New York Medical Journal, XXXVL No. 6. Weekly Isfue, XXXVII, 
1-21. The Editor. 

Popular Science Monthly, Jan. — Dec, 1888. The Editor. 

Torrey Botanical Club. Bulletin, IX, 12— X, 9. The Society. 



1$^ ] WAtt'EAL 9nw!$c9m or rniLADKLriiiA. 345 



Mi H%km Xt^tm fur SmiufknmU 'r:mt mm^i lUt iWrtebi 

lU«i4f# 4 4frt««!iuf# fiei«ttr#«. Il«nf^.t.«itr«« H Art* M^w^rM. 
> ••r . XXIII. -V 4 n» Hxt#<j. 

n ^%i«r4>i««« f»irr.i%*«. II. r.* \\\ -: !%• r. i tot 

it 4^!<»4t.'>i*« vl Afri4r«!(urft ift *i.ri!iA Oi<»r«*> •*! %tti XXII. 
l-XXII - 
1fr»vrt» |Lri*ftftftr« |r#ait%lft f^t r-^A'* r»^ Iftl itmgfmmmu A fr»r t a a^t 

KvM Att»U#« 4m Wi»««. »•• ter I. I III. •* Tftbl* \m \|ftii«r«« 4« I* 
VIU tim* \libtttrr of I'uMir Vnrkt 

Att»ft)«« -Am He !••<«• <»^.;^< i<i»« \1\ . 1 Tk« Kilter 

A»tt«i«« 4c« *C>t«»r«« \ftftjr»:>« / . : (•.# «4 rftl«oftfnloifi« XIV I ^ 
XV I IUt»ai|««. XI\ I Wl . I V Hi i««»*ott rM«4 

1 V. Wi !••»• tt riitt4. 

< «aif4«». |U>tt f«i 4#« •Wtt»<«« :•'* fittitli* -ttitn l»«t.t««io« 

J»«f%«: 4# r*»rkjii^«ioft« \MI Will .' ^%9%A^\of 

J««r%%: 4* %lirr<*frftf>kt«. ?»• Kn \ - \ : : * Tk« Mil *r 

llfiM««i 4 Hi«(i.ir# NftiwrtlU >v«ut« > %rrkiv»« "H P*r \ 1 

iu««« 4 rjtkft'fT%^ki« 11. ) I I V ii.ni%»*.tt r«*i 

ft««i»« «*#<^rft| k !««• ttt<«r«ftt: -ttftl* N « '.' •'> !%• |i«l i*f 

E«««« lttt#rftftt».<«%l« 4«« V>*««r#« !•*.' \.» M - l**^'. N> * 7 fc» I. I »..r 
|l#«»« "WiffftUi 4 4* 4« U frft*c« •! i« ! lL.tr«af«r W 9mt ,•*•%• N • .' 

|l»: 0Xf. \\\ . !*■•» *".' TV# "^^t^y 

ii»%ir« f«tttftitt^#« Tk* inm; «<t 

^•<-^'4 I fttM»ii4i^t^v« 4t fr%a<^ %•«».»• • •« H«r I »»4 II 

Aft»«Mr« I**' «»«ii(liw«iMi |»tttt%.i «<• 

%*^ 4f i*0ml^ iu0 U rr^m • Bi:>'.ft VllI * X. ^ «' XI LJ '. 

ft«r «(* Wtft«r»' r -*' « !• rrft»r« Hm' •«-:• \'. * -Vl ' !%• *sm cif 

'« «<M«t«i^.* W 'ft l#«»r»M 7 II 1%' r \ li»f !•« 

'4 t)H»U«i.v« lU •« • t in :• %« '^<« Wr* • •# %« > ft«4 

«« ^« .%• .« %*i 4« *• Aft .« «« :« -• *f ft*i •« •« %» :• w 

TV* **»^»«ty 
ift«:f4kA 4r%«wt ' ^ftti»r% «»^r •• «^ rm«««»l.ftf« :*>•.' Ill ^^^ I 
A«ift-'»^r^^br%. mI*'* T%«l-f i«># 

7W %«^*' *>.^. I : ?!• It • * 

Mm-** •ftJ-'.**.*. M\»r<»ftf l*t* .••, \.f >•! 7li«liir 

Alh«t>iift* l*1kftrm«Hi<rs*t,r« %**<^i^i.«« t'r<««>l.sf^ **«i tAft^i^ »«««.ftf 

Tt« ^t< «4J 



366 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE AOADE&IT OF [1883. 

College of Pharmacy. Alumni Assooiation, 19tli annual report. 

The Society. 

The Dental Cosmos, XXIV, 12— XXV, 11. The Editor. 

Engineers' Club. Proceedings, III, 8, 4; List of Members. The Club. 

Franklin Institute. Journal, Nos. 685-696. The Society. 

The Gardener's Monthly, Dec, 1882— Nov., 1883. The Editor. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Magazine of History 

and Biography, VI, 3— VII, 3. The Society. 

Library Company of Philadelphia. Bulletin, July. The Directors. 

Literary Era, I, 1-11. The Publishers. 

Medical News and Abstract, No. 468. The Editor. 

Medical Register, I, 11 : II, 1, 3-5. Ihe Editor. 

Mercantile Library Bulletin, I, 2-4. The Directors. 

Naturalists' Leisure Hour, Nov., 1882— July, 1883. The Publisher. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science. Announcement, 1888. The Institute. 

Zoological Society, 11th annual report. The Society. 

Pisa Society Malacologica Italiana. Bullettino, V-VIII. The Society. 

Societll Toscana di Scienze Naturali. Atti, Adunanza del Nov. 2, 1882. 

Memorie, V, 2. The Society. 

Port of Spain. Scientific Association of Trinidad. Proceedings, Part 12. 

The Society. 
Poughkeepsie. Vassar Brothers' Institute. Transactions, I. The Institute. 
Prag, K. B. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Sitzungsberichte, 1881. 
Jahresbericht, 1881. 1882. 

Abhandlungen, 6e Folge, XI. The Society. 

Princeton. £. M. Museum of Geology and Archaaology of the College of New 
Jersey. Bulletin, No. 3. 

First annual report, 1882. The Curator. 

Quebec. Literary and Historical Society. Sessions of 1882—88. The Society. 
Regensburg. K. B. Botanische Gesellschaft. Flora, n. r.,.40er Jahrg. 

The Society. 
Zoologisch-mineralogische Verein. Correspondenz-Blatt, 36er Jahrg. 

The Society. 

Riga. Naturforscher-Verein. Correspondenzblatt, 25er Jahrg. The Society. 

Rio de Janeiro. Museo Nacional. Archives, IV and V. The Director. 

Observatorie Imp^riale. Bulletin astronomique et m^t^orologique, 1882, 

No. 10—1883, No. 7. 

Annales, I. The Observatory. 

Rochester. Ward's Natural Science Bulletin, II, 1. The P'ublisher. 

Rome. R. Accademia dei Lincei. Atti, VII 1-14. The Society. 

Society degli Spettroscopisti Italian!. Memorie XII, 8-11. The Society. 

Saint John. Natural History Society of New Brunswick. Bulletin, No. 2. 

The Society. 
St. Louis. Missouri Historical Society, No. 7. The Society. 

St. Petersburg. K. Akademie der Wissenschaften. M4moires XXX, 2-11; 
XXXI, 1 and 2. 

Bulletin, XXVIII, 1, 8. The Society. 

Horti Petropolitani. Acta VIII, 1. The Society. 

Physikalische Central Observatorium. Annalen, 1881, No. 2. The Director. 

Societas Entomologica. Horse XV, XVI. The Society. 

Springfield. Illinois Industrial University, 11th report, 1882. The Trustees. 

Staunton. The Virginias, III, 11— IV, 11. The Editor. 

Stockholm, Acta Mathematica, I, 1 The Editor. 

Entomologisk Tidskrift, III, 4. The Editor. 

K. Vetenskaps Akademiens. Bihang VII, 1, 2. The Society. 

Stuttgart. Humboldt, I, 1— II, 12. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Kosmos, VI, 8— VII, 6. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Neues Jahrbuoh fur Mineralogie, Geologic und Palsdontologie, 1882, II, 3, 

Beilage Bd. 2; 1883, I, 1-3, Beilage Bd. 3 ; II, 1, 2. The Editor. 



PROC. A. N, S. PHIUL. 1883. 



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Co 



C/> 



G 



O 



^ & "^ k. 






o 



CRESSON ON AZTEC MUSIC. 



PL II. 








s" 




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PBGC. », N. s, mix. 




CRESSON ON AZTEC MUSIC. 



810 PROCUDDtOS OP THS AOADUR 07 [1&83. 

csTMx ~ 284 CjgDiit - er 

Cudinklis „ 68 Cjti"daau>nj» - 77 

Ckrikcui 275 CfDopa 23, 25, 28, "' 

Ca>ln)t«x lit:, 14« Cjnophjllui 

Ouvodkona 

OUhutM 

Cktaiitainn*. .194, 1M, 152, loS, ] 



DafiU. 
OBt^JTrt .■■1V..'.'V''.".V.V" l-i-J l'.ll.tbcr,uii. 

c»dwim.... 81. 83 i:T"r' . 

Ctn.um.. rj. '"•'*•'' 



. Dl)»iiehu.v 



...99, IH 



IHndopM*. I'J, 23, 2T. U. 3< 

Cari hides 173 }?*P"^ 

Ccrlhift no 

S^::::::;:::::::::::::::;::::::::::::: 'S "JVPP"- 

a^ :;;:::::::::::;:;iv; S j;-r'=" ■ f. 

Ciaumium H8. 1521^^1°;''"" .?! 

Cfavl^d ob*m«hDt. . . 
iliilmji 

aKoBbi;;;',!:! 2«4 1^"!''"";"''' 2 

SS,«:::::;::::;::::=::::::^i; i-Pi^:.:!..:::::;::;.:::::::::;;:: U 

Chrim«u( ~ »»l. »S 

Chrjinchlorii 78, 81. 83 i tebinocMio* 74. 76. S4 

Clonodoa !«>. 104 B«"op'«« M 

Clrriun IBS KBio»Mn>tli»ohis 69 

CUagula Ba;"'*!*-- « 

Cluwi 107 I Bmbmli* 2S« 

a*pn4roi» !■« EmpedlM 10- 

t liodtiomuB H« Empii" - 302 

Cliola 1R2. 1S8. 142, IM SBOMcmlhiM 182 

CnsmidophoTui 11, 12, 14, Ifi. Kj-hmln... 278 

I'J 82 85 Kptiicphclua 28S, 291 

Coccrru* ! 60 Kquu« 186. 2I>6. 268 

Col»p<OT 65 Enmjion. liI2. I« 

foljinbiiB 68 EHfttBMU SI, 8S 

Coniljlun 82 ErtwBOonoi,. .. 277 

CoDiuphitnd 31 Kri«m»lutm... M 

Conorjcif- 188 W "'•>'»«» pu*—. S4 

(■oni,,,,,i f.t E«» -laj, ISi 

^■..„[l.n. 2M BMhooyi 7T t^ 8> 

Cor>u« 64 KuDlnoalsain*.... - IK 

Corvlii. es EumeoM 23,27.29,32. S4 

r»tiu« 162 293 BmKiiU...._ll,12, 17,21.23.2)1, 

(•o.urnix ! 2'i6 29. 84, » 

Cr«niii 213 Kio«Bla» 381 

Criceiii. 26fi. 2*!8 



INDEX TO GENERA. 



1883. 



Abies 187, 191, 201, 256 

AcaruB 45 

AcceAtor 266 

Accipiter 66 

Acer ^ 74 

Achsenodon 77 

AtrooephaloB - 266 

Aerolozus 216 

AotinosphsBriom 125 

Addox. 269 

Aegialites 67 

Agaihaamas 99 

Agelsdaa 63 

Agonus 2^8 

Agosia 141, 153 

Aix 68 

Akebia 190 

Albumops > 148 

Alnus 190 

Amblystoma 14, 16, 28, 24, 83 

AmpMuma 177, 178 

Amiurus 182, 133, 161 

Amnioola 171 

Ampelis 62 

Amphileptus 318 

Anaoharia ^ 107 

Anas 67 

Ancbybopsis 144 

Ancylodon 289 

Ancylas 140, 214 

Andrognaihus 28 

Anguilla 182, 183 

Aniella 82 

Anisonohus 56 

AnodonU « 44, 140 

Anorthura 61 

AotrostomuB 64 

ApbelopB r 301 

Aphododerus 182 

Apocope 141, 142, 152, 158 



Archibuteo 66 

Ardea 67 

Argiope. 278 

Argynnis 86 

Arius 281 

Artimisia 19 

Astacus 165 

Astragalinus 62 

Ataz 45, 46 

Attus 276 

ATiculopecten 218 

Bascanium..ll, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 

28, 29, 82, 88, 84, 85 

Batrachoseps 28 

BatraohuB 291 

Belone 288 

Berberis 112 

Bemicla 67 

Bittium 172 

Blarina 82 

Boa 84 

BolosauruB 69 

Bonasa 66 

Bos 266, 268 

Botaurus 67 

Bothrops 84 

Brachycybe 27 

Bracbyopsis 298 

Brevioeps.... 57 

Bubo « 65 

Bufo^l4, 15, 17, 18, 19, 28, 25, 32, 88 

Buteo 66 

Butorides 67 

Callisaurus 85 

Camelus 269 

Camponotus 808 

Canis 88 

Caprimulgus 266 



(869) 



372 PR0CEKDINQ8 OF THS ACADDCT OF [1883. 

MjTiopbyllum « 107 PUnorbU 140 

Myropbis « 282 PUtanus 201 

Myitomys 82 Platjrcodon ~ 191 

Mjrtbomji 78 PUtjsttrm - 130 

Mjrxus 288 Plectropbanes «2 

Plctbodon , 28. 24, 28 

Nautilui 213 Pliocercus S4 

NectaruB 24 Podioipes ~ 68 

NimraTui ^ 169 Podilyrobuj - *» 

Njrctea 65! Podothecus 293 

Pocecetes 62 

Opbibolns 14.29.84, 86 Pascilicbtbyi 182, 13« 

Opbidium - 298 i Pcepbagiis - 2b9 

Opiitbognatbus ■ 290 Pogonomjrmex 294, 804 

OpuntU 74, 84 PolioptiU 60 

OrnitboUnus 99 Polycirrhus ~ 288 

Orthii 213 Pomadaayi 286, 287 

Ortboceras 213 Polyoptbalmus 284 

OHyx 66 Pompbolyz 140, 174 

Ottx - 269 Poricbtbys 291 

OTii 269 Portulaca - 84 

Ozynoa 88 Ponana 67 

Ozyopts 277 Prionotus - 292 

Ozyrrbopus 84 Pristipoma 286 

Progoe ^ 62 

Paludomus 1 72 Prorastomus 62 

PandioD 66 Proteus . 24 

PantoUmda ^ 109 Psittacotberium 77 

Paotodteus 163 Ptocus 278 

Paracyolaa 213 Pucetia 276 

ParaloDcburus 287 Pyrmoga 61 

Parus 60 ' Pyrgula ^ 171, 178 

Passer 62 Pyrus 190 

Passerella....: 63 

Passerina 63 Quercus 87, 201 

Patella 234. 249 Querimana 283 

PedicelHoa 2(U Querquedula 68 

Pedioulus 46 Quiscalus • 64 

Pelycodus 80 

Pelycosturia 69 Raia 168 

Peraiberium 80 Rallus 67 

Peryptychus 6#;. 108 Rana 10, 16, 20. 26, 28. 88, 66 

Ptrca 291 , Rapbidiopbrys 96 

Perdix 26<> Regulus 60 

Petrocbelidon ^. 62 Rbabdofario 161 

Pbacops 213 Rbadinna « 34 

PbaDerostunis 108 Rbineastes 162 

PbeiJole 304 Rhinicbtbys 158 

Pbilobela 67 Rbinocbilus 82, 33 

Pbimotbjra II, 35 Rhiiohydra « 140 

Pbrynoioma 10, IJ, 15, IH, 20. Rhjnchocyon 78 

23, 28, 32, .{3, 09 Uhyiina 54 

PhyM 140 Ruticilla 266 

Picus 05 

Pinus - 111. I't4, 2<K) Saiga 2»>9 

Pipilo 63 Salmo 188, 141. 162, 163. 161 

Piiyopbis 18. 21, 2«.». lU. 35 SaWelinus 141, 162 



1883.] 



NATURi^ SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



371 



Galeopithecus - 82 

Gallinago 67 

Oarrulus 266 

Gaxella 266, 268, 269 

Genyanemas 288 

Genypterus 298 

Geothlypis 61 

Gerres 116, 289 

Gcrrhonotus 28, 27, 28, 29, 32, 38 

Goniobasis 171 

Goniatites 213 

Grammysia 213 

Gyalopium 35 

Gymnura ^ 8i, 83 

Gyrinopbilus 24 



HadrosauTus 99, 103, 106 

Hfiemulon 286, 287 

Haliaetus 66 

Halioore 54 

Haliotis 234, 249 

Halitherium 52 

Haploaspis 13 

Harelda 68 

Harporhynchus 60 

Helicops 34 

Heliophyllum 2i3 

Helix 228 

Helminth ophaga 39 

Heloderma.... 29, 86 

Hemioaranx 284 

HemicaulodoD 52 

Hemisus 57 

Herodias 67 

Hiruodo 62 

Holbrookia 10, 12, 18, 83 

Honialonotus 213 

HyeBoodon 79 

Hydrachne 45 

Hyliota 128 

Hylotomus 65 

HypolaiF 266 

Hypsibema 9d 

Hypsiglena 32, 33, 35 

Hyla 20, 23, 25 

Hystrix 266, 269 

Icterus 63 

Ictops 81 

Isopisthus 289 

Janassa . 108 

Johnius 288 

Junco 63 

Juniperus 189 



Lwlaps 100 

Lagomys '. 269 

Lanius 62 



Lams 68 

Laurooerasus 201 

Laurus 201 

Lepidophyma 29, 30 

Leptagonus 293 

Leptictis 81, 88 

Leptognathus 34 

Leucus 142, 144, 152, 163, 166 

Libooedrus 194 

I Limnseus 217 

LimnochareR 45 

Limopiera 2 8 

Liocephalus 84 

Lioplax 171 

LiriodeDdron 191 

Lo^churus 287 

Lonicera 266 

Lophophanes 60 

Lutjanus 285 

Lycosa 277 

Lymnsea 140 



Mabuia 84 

Machserodus 169 

Mahonia 190 

Mamillaria 74 

Manayunkia 204, 212, 802 

Mastodon 166 

Megalonyx 166 

Melanerpes 65 

Melania 171 

Meleagris 6t) 

Meles 266, 268 

Melospiza 62 

Menopoma 178 

Menticirrus 287, 288 

Mergus 68 

Meriones 266, 268 

Mesogonistius 182, 133 

Mesonyx 78, 88 

Mesoprion 285 

Miacis 83 

Mimus 60 

MioclaBnus 78, 80, 83 

Minotilta 61 

Molotnrus 63 

Monoclonius 99 

Morus 302 

Moschus 269 

Motaoilla 266 

Mugil 283 

MuraBDopsis 177 

Mus 266, 268 

Muscicapa 128 

Myiarchus 6* 

Myiodioctes 61 

Mylocyprinus 164 

Myloleucus 142, 152, 153 

MylopharyDgodon 154 



374 



PK0CKEDINQ8 OF THS AOADSMT OF 



[isas. 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Additions to Librmry, 844. 

Additions to Museum, 3:^9. 

Allen, Harrison. The Spinal Chord of 
Batrachia aud Reptilia, 56 ; Cuta- 
neous Nerreff in Mammal!*, 127. 

Barrande, Joachim. Announcement of 
death of, 203. 

Binder, Jacob. Report of the Curator 
of the Wm. 8. Vaux Collections, 886. 

BioloKioil and Mioropcopical Section, 
report of. 827. 

Botanical Section, report of, 881. 

Bj-Laws, amendment to, 279. 

Conchological Section, report of. 827. | 

Cope, Alexis T. Announcement of ' 
death of. VM\. , 

Cope. Edw. y. Notes on the Geograph- 
ical Dintribution of Batrachia and 
Reptilia of Wentern North America, , 
9, 10: A New Extinct GenuH of Si- ' 
renia, 89, 62; The Tritubercular 
Tjrpe of Superior Molar Tooth, 56; 
On Dinodipsas and <?ao8U}(, 67 ; I'er- 1 
mian Fishes and Reptiles, 69; On 
the Mutual Relatione of the Buno- 
therian Mammalia, 72, 77 ; On the 
Structure of the Skull of the Hadro- ' 
saaridfp, 95, 97 ; On some Vertebrate 
FormN from the Permian of Illinois, 
95, lOK; On the Fishes of the Ukes 
of the We!«tern Part of the Cireat 
Basin and of the Idaho Pliocene Lake, i 
111, 184; The Fishes of the Bat.Mo 
RiTer, N. J., 1-12; On nome Fossils 
from the Ptierco Formation, 16K; 
On extinct Uhinoceri from the South- 
weM. Hnl. 

Correspond in j5 Secretary, rvi)ort of, 
31'«. 

Crew »n, H. T. Note on a drilled Mall 
in the HalderoAn Collection of Anti- 
quitieii, 4''\ ; Nnte-* on Prehi-^toric 
t o|»)»er Implements, 55 ; Aiiec Mu»ic, 
76. 86. 



Curaters, report of, 822. 

Curator of the Wm. S. Vaax Collec- 
tions, report of, 886. 

Dawson, John C. Annuaneemeni ef 
death of, 190. 

Draper, Edmund. Annoaneement of 
death of^ 9. 

Elections during 1888, 388. 

Entomologieal Section, report of, 829. 

ETcrmann. B. W., and Seth E. Meek. 
A ReTision of the Species of 0«rres 
found in American Waters, 112, 116. 

Fielde, Adele M. Commanieatioa on 
China, 312. 

Fouike, 8. 0. Obserrationa on Actino- 
sphssriom eiohomii, 125. 

Oarrett, Andrew. The Terrcatrial 

• Mollusoa inhabiting the Societjr Is* 
lands, 89, 44. 

Heer, Oswald. Annoiineeaii«Bt of 
death of, 208. 

Ileilprin, Angelo. The Ice of the Gla- 
cial Period, 46,49; Pheaomeaa of 
Glaciation. 69 ; The SjnehroBttni of 
Geological Formations, 197; Election 
as Curator and appointment as Cor- 
ator-in-charge, 202 ; Note on a Col- 
lection of Foesils from the Hamilton 
(DcTonian) Group of Pike Co.. Pa., 
20:^, 213 ; On the Value of the Nearc. 
tic as one of the Primarjr S^ologteal 
Regions. Replies to Criticisms bj 
Mr. Alfred Russell Wallace and Prof. 
Theodore Gill. 248, 266 ; Report of 
Professor of InTcrtebrate Palsson- 
tologj. 884. 

Ue9s, R. J. Report of Biological and 
.Microscopical Section, 827. 

Hoopes, Josiah. Pinus Koraiensis, 

111, 114. 
Horn. Geo. H. Report of Correspond- 
ing Secretary, 819. 

Index to Genera, 369. 



IMX] KATt-mAL vntsH-ia or rfiiLAnci^iitA. 375 



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876 



PBOOEEDINQS OF THS ▲OADEMT. 



[1883. 



Report of the Professor of IiiTertebrate 

Pftlnontology, 334. 
Report of the Professor of Mineralogy, 

834. 
Report of the Curator of the Wm. 8. 

Vaaz Collections, 336. 
Ridings, James U. Report of Ento- 
mological Section, 329. 
Roberts, 8. R. Report of the Coneho- 

logical Section, 827. 
Sejbert, Uenrj. Annoancement of 

death of, 71. 
Sharp, Beigamin. On the Anatomjr of 

Anojlus lacustris and Anojlas fluTia- 

Ulis, 203, 214; On the Visual Organs 

of Solen, 248. 
Skinner, H. OTipositing of Argjnnis 

ejbele, 86. 
Smith, J. Lawrence. Announcement 

of death of, 208. 
Steams, R. E. C. Description of a 



New Hydrobiinoid Gasteropod from 
the Mountain Lakes of the Sierra 
Nevada, with remarks on allied 
species and the phjrsiographieai 
features of said region, 168, 171. 

Townsend, Chas. Hjbrid Birds, 39; 
Notes on the Birds of Westmoreland 
Co., Penna., 44, 59. 

Trautwine, John C. Annonnoement of 
death of, 198. 

Treasurer, report of, 823. 

Wells, W. Lehmao. Annoancement of 
death of, 125. 

Willoox, Jos. Canadian Notes, 96; 
On the ETidences of Glacial Action 
in Northern New York and Canada, 
203, ^67. 

Wister, John. Anneunoement of death 
of, 39. 

Wright, Berlin H. A new Uaio tnm 
Florida, 44, 58. 






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CRESSON ON IklTtC UVSSi^^ 



Pror: A N S Pliila 1833 




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PROC. OF ACAD. OF NAT. SCI. 1883. 





D1CI.0NIUS MIRABILIS i