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1 



AS 


3t 


• A ^"3/ 


Uji.-i. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THI 

American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR 

PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 

VOLUME LVI 
1917 



PHILADELPHIA 
THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 



PRESS OP 

TMC NEW ERA PRINTING COMPANY 
LANCASTIR. PA. 



i.-^' 






/ 






i 



"-7 



CONTENTS 



/ 



Paos. 

On the Art of Entering Another's Body: A Hindu Fiction 

Motif. By Maurice Bloomfield i 

Naming American Hybrid Oaks. By William Trelease 44 

Interrelations of the Fossil Fuels. II. By John J. Stevenson. 53 
The Names Troyan and Boyan in Old Russian. By J. Dyneley 

Prince 152 

Symposium on Aeronautics. 

I. Dynamical Aspects. By Arthur Gordon Webster 161 
II. Physical Aspects. By George O. Squier 168 

III. Mechanical Aspects. By W. F. Durand 170 

IV. Aerology. By William R. Blair 189 

V. Theory of an Aeroplane Encountering Gusts, 

By Edwin Bidwell Wilson 212 

VI. Engineering Aspects. By Jerome C. Hunsaker. , 249 
VII. Remarks on the Compass in Aeronautics. By Louis 

A. Bauer 255 

Spectral Structure of the Phosphorescence of Certain Sulphides. 

By Edward L. Nichols 258 

A New Babylonian! Account of the Creation of Man. By George 

A. Barton 275 

The South American Indian in his Relation to Geographic En- 
vironment. By William Curtis Farabee 281 

Growth and Imbibition. By D. T. MacDougal and H. A. 

Spoehr 289 

Spontaneous Generation of Heat in Recently Hardened Steel. 

By Charles F. Brush 353 

The Effects of Race Intermingling. By Charles B. Daven- 
port 364 

Mediaeval Sermon-books and Stories and Their Study Since 

1883. By T. F. Crane 369 

Nebulae. By V. M. Slipher, Ph.D 403 






iv CONTENTS. 

The Trial of Animals and Insects. By Hampton L. Carson. . 410 
The Sex Ratio in the Domestic Fowl. By Raymond Pearl . . 416 
Mechanism of Overgrowth in Plants. By Erwin F. Smith. . . 437 
Recurrent Tetrahedral Deformations and Intercontinental Tor- 
sions. By B, K. Emerson 445 

Early Man in America, By Edwin Swift Balch 473 

A Description of a New Photograi^ic Transit Instrimient. By 

Frank Schlesinger 484 

Studies of Inheritance in Pisum, By Orland E, White .... 487 
Ecoli^y and Physiology of the Red Mangrove. By H. H. M, 

Bowman ., 589 

w Species of Fishes from Northwestern South 

By Carl H. Eigenmakn 673 

3f Sixteen New Species of Pygidiidse. By Carl 

jann 690 

ices of Members Deceased: 

am Ramsay, K.C.B iii 

1 Abbe ix 



PROCEEDINGS 



American Philosophical Socie 

-HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 



1917. ^ 



\ 

) 



CONTENTS 

On tlie Art of Entering Another's Body: A Hindu Fiction Motif. B; 

Mauricb Blcxjmfibld 

Xaming American Hybrid Oaks. By William Trglease , . . 

Obituary Notices of Members Deceased 

Minutes 



PHILADELPHIA 
TKE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 South Fifth Street 
19 17 



American Philosophical Society 

General Meeting— April 12-14, 1917 

* 

The Annual General Meeting of The American Philo- 
sophical Society will be held on April 12th, 13 th, and 
14th, 1917, beginning at 2 P. M. on Thursday, April 12th. 

Members are requested to send to the Secretaries, at 
as early a date as practicable and before March i, 1917, 
the titles of papers which they intend to present so that 
they may be announced in the preliminary programme 
which will be issued immediately after that date and 
which will give in detail the arrangements for the Meet- 
ing. It is understood that papers offered are original con- 
tributions which have not been theretofore presented. 

The Publication Committee, under the rules of the 
Society, will arrange for the immediate publication of 
* the papers, presented in either the Proceedings or the 
Transactions, as may be designated. 

I. MINIS HAYS 
ARTHUR W. GOODSPEED 
AMOS P. BROWN 
HARRY F. KELLER 

Secretaries 



Members who have not as yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor by so doing; cabinet size preferred. 



It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To THE Secretaries of the 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104, South Fifth Street 

Philadelphia, U S. A. 



\ 

\ 






PROCEEDINGS 

OP THE 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 
FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 



ON THE ART OF ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY : A 

HINDU FICTION MOTIF 

By MAURICE BLOOMFIELD. 
(Read April is, 1916.) 

The Yoga philosophy teaches, on the way to ultimate salvation, 
many ascetic practices which confer supernormal powers. Thus 
the third book of the prime authority on this philosophy, the " Yoga- 
Sutras " of Patanjali, gives an account of these vibhutis, or powers.^ 
They cover a large part of all imaginable magic arts, or tricks, as 
we should call them: knowledge of the -past and the future; knowl- 
edge of the cries of all living beings (animal language) ; knowledge 
of previous births (jatismara, Pali jatissara) ; mind-reading; indis- 
cernibility of the Yogin's body; knowledge of the time of one's 
death ; knowledge of the subtle and the concealed and the obscure ; 
knowledge of the cosmic spaces ; the arrangements and movements 
of the stars; cessation of hunger and thirst; motionlessness ; the 
sight of the supernatural Siddhas^ roving in the spaces between the 
gv^ sky and the earth; discernment of all; knowledge of one's own 
r*j mind mind-stuff and of self ; supernormal sense of hearing, feeling, 
sight, taste, and smell ; penetration of one's mind-stuff into the body 
of another; non-adherence of water, mud, thorns, etc.; levitation 
(floating in the air) ; subjugation of the elements ; perfection of the 
* body ; subjugation of the organs ; authority over all states of exist- 

\ 1 Also named bhuti, siddhi, aigvarya, yogegvarata, and the like. 

^ Perfected beings that have become quasi-divine. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., LVI, A, PRINTED APRIL 3, I917. 



>.^' 



2 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

cnce ; omniscience ; and, finally, as a result of passionlessness or dis- 
regard of all these perfections, the isolation or concentration that 
leads up to final emancipation or salvation. 

In later Yoga scriptures the supernormal powers are systematized 
as the 8 mahasiddhi (great powers): (i) to render one's self in- 
finitely small or invisible; (2, 3) assumption of levitation and 
gravitation ; (4) power to extend one's self, so as, e, g,, to be able 
to touch the moon with one's finger tip; (5) irresistible fulfilment 
of wishes; (6) complete control over the body and the organs; 
(7) power to alter the course of nature; (8) power of transfer at 
will. And, in addition to these, other, even more wonderful facul- 
ties are described, such as citing and conversing with the dead ; the 
assumption of many bodies at one and the same time; trance and 
burial alive,' and finally even the power of creation. There are 
also other systematizations, such as that of the commentator to 
Vacaspatimigra's " Samkhya-tattva-kaumudi," mentioned by Garbe 
in his translation of that work, in the Transactions of the Royal 
Bavarian Academy, Vol. XIX., p. 586. 

From its own point of view Yoga does not overestimate these 
powers; they are all considered ephemeral or unimportant or even 
contemptible. They are merely a progressive course towards the 
final goal of emancipation. Buddhist writings state repeatedly that 
they do not lead to perfection. The great Jain Divine, Hemacandra, 
once engaged in a Yoga tournament with another Jain Doctor, Deva- 
bodhi. Hemacandra made appear all the ancestors of King Kumara- 
pala, together with the entire Olympus of the Jainas,* he himself 
in the meanwhile floating in the air. He thus beat Devabodhi, but 
in the end declared that all his stunts as well as Devabodhi's were 
mere hallucinations.* 

But was there ever such an enhancement of the vulgar practice 
of magic? Philosophy, in dealing with such matters at all, enters 
infto partnership with fairy-tale; it sanctions, promotes, and legal- 
izes, so to speak, every fancy, however misty and however ex- 

' See for this matter Ernst Kuhn's statement in Garbe, " Samkhya und 
Yoga" (Encyclopaedia of Indo-Aryan Research), p. 47. 
*Cf. Mahabh., 15. 31. i. 
* See Biihler, " Uber das Leben des Jaina Monchcs Hemacandra," p. 83. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 3 

travagant. It is easy to foresee that both folk-lore and sophisticated 
narrative would simply jump at such tenets and build on their 
foundation fantastic structures. Nothing is impossible where the 
canons of time and space and number, and of every sobering em- 
pirical experience have been undermined by such a travesty on 
scientific thought. The fiction texts are fully aware of the support 
they have in Yoga, as when, e, g., Kathas. 45. 79, states distinctly 
that magic art is founded on Samkhya and Yoga, and calls it " the 
supernatural power, and the independence of knowledge, the do- 
minion over matter that is characterized by lightness and other 
mystic properties." 

What is perhaps more important, though in a different way, no 
narrative of events, even historical events, is immune to this com- 
plete obliteration of the boundary line between fact and fancy. We 
can understand better why all professed Hindu historical texts 
(Caritas or Caritras) deal with alternately on the same plane, and 
present alternately as equally credible, things that may have happened 
and things that may not happen. They have been taught to believe 
all that by a schematic philosophy. 

All narrative texts from the Mahabharata on are full of Yoga 
technique,® and there is scarcely a single item of the Yogin's fictitious 
powers that has not taken service with fiction. To begin with the 
Yogin, or some undefined ascetic who is, to all intents and purposes, 
omnipotent, is met at every turn of fiction. Asceticism is practised 
for the avowed purpose of obtaining magic power.^ The Yoga's 
most extravagant claim,® namely that it enables its adepts to act as 
the almighty Creator, is supported in epic narrative by the statement 
that the Yogin possesses the power of srsti, i. e., the ability to create 
things like Prajapati.® Division of personality (kaya-vyuha) is 
practised not only by the gods (Surya in Mahabh. 3. 306. 8; or 
Skanda, ibid., 9. 44. 37), but even by mortals. In Kathas. 45. 342 ff., 
King Suryaprabha, having accumulated at one and the same time 
an unusually large stock of wives, divides his body by his magic 

See Hopkins, JAOS. XXII. 333 ff. 



7 E. g., Kathas. 107. 81. 

8 Garbe, " Samkhya," p. 187. 

9 See Hopkins, 1. c, p. 355. 



4 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

science, and lives with all those ladies, but with his real body he 
lived principally with his best beloved MahalHka, the daughter of 
the Asura Prahlada. Disappearance; making one's self small ("so 
small as to creep into a lotus-stalk "y^; floating in or flying through 
the air^^, with or without a chariot ; remembrance of former births" ; 
doing as one wills are commonplaces of fiction to the point of tire- 
some cliche. They are used to cut the Gordian knot, or as sub- 
stitutes for the deus ex machina, when convenience calls for them 
in the least degree. 

No doubt many or most of these fairy-tales were known to 
folk-lore before Yoga philosophy systematized them, and many more 
are current in fiction which the Yoga does not take note of at all. 
The gods could always do as they pleased, to b^in with, Yoga or 
no Yoga. There is an especial class of semi-divine persons, the 
so-called Vidyadharas, or "Holders of Magic Science," who need 
no instruction in Yoga and yet possess every imaginable power. 
They are magicians congenitally, habitually fly in the air, and are 
therefore also known by the name of "Air-goers" (khecara, or 
vihaga). In a vaguer way almost any one at all may own magic 
science in fiction. The fairy-tale is interested more in the indi- 
vidual items of magic as self-existent real properties of its technique 
than in their causes or their motivation. But the influence of the 
Yoga appears in this way: as a rule, each magic trick is dignified 
by the name of vidya, "science" or "art" ("stunt," as we might 
say). These vidyas are in the first place the property by divine 
right of the above-mentioned Vidyadharas, but they may also be 
acquired, or called into service by mortals. 

Quite frequently the vidyas are personified and cited like famil- 
iar spirits, or good fairies.^' They appear in profusion with 
pedantic descriptive names. Thus there is the Vidya called Pra- 

i<> Mahabh. 12. 343. 42. 

"Kathas. 18. 184; 20. 105, 141; 25. 262; 38. 153; 59. 106; Pargvanatha 
Caritra 2. 556; Kathakoga, pp. 49, 58; Prabandhacintamani, pp. 137, 150, 195 
(in Tawney's Translation). 

12 Mahabh. 13. 29. 11 ; 18. 4. 23-37, and on every other page of fiction. 

18 In Vikrama-Carita the eight siddhis (above, p. 2) are personified as 
virgins ; see Weber, Indische Studien, XV. 388. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 5 

jfiapti, "Prescience," or "Foreknowledge,"" Kathas. 51. 45; iii. 
52; Par^anatha Caritra, 6. 879, 1141 ; or Prakrit Janavani (San- 
skrit, Jnapani), "Knowledge."^* In Kathas. iii. 52, a king, 
suspecting that some calamity might have befallen his father, 
thought upon the " Science " named Prajnapti, who thereupon pre- 
sented herself, and he addressed her: "Tell me how has my father 
fared ? " The Science that had presented herself in a bodily form 
said to him : " Hear what has befallen your father, the king of 
Vatsa." Similarly, in Kathas. 30. 6 ff ., Madanavega, a Vidyadhara, 
is worried because he is in love with the mortal maiden Kalingasena. 
He calls to mind the Science named Prajnapti, which informs him 
that Kalingasena is an Apsaras, or heavenly nymph, d^;raded in 
consequence of a curse. Similarly, ibid., 42. 32, Ratnaprabha calls 
up a supernatural Science, called Mayavati, " Witching," which tells 
her tidings of her husband. 

The "Science" called Caksusi, "Seeing," is bestowed by the 
Gandharvas upon Arjuna, Mahabh. i. 171. 6; the "Science" called 
Pratismrti, " Memory," is taught by his brother to Arjuna, ibid., 
3. 36. 30. In Bambhadatta, p. 8, 1. 19, there is a " Science," called 
Samkari (Skt. Camkari), " Safety-bestower"; if this is merely 
remembered it surrounds one with friends and servants that do 
one's bidding (see also ibid., p. 15, 1. 2). In Kathas. 46. no. King 
Candradatta possesses the Science called Mohani, "Bewildering," 
and for that reason is hard to conquer ; similarly, in Kathakoga, p. 
144, there is the Science called "Invincible" (presumably Apara- 
jita) ; and in Parganatha Caritra, 3. 938, the Science called Vigva- 
vaglkara, "All-subjecting," presents herself in person (avirbhavati 
svayam). 

The last-mentioned text, in 8. 60, 158, has the Science called 
KhagaminI, " Flying in the air." The same Science is called Akaqa- 
gamini in Parqvanatha i. 577, and in Prabhavaka Carita, p. 11, 
<;loka 151 ; Vyomagamini or Gaganagamini in Prabhavaka Carita, 
p. 7, gloka 109, and p. 19, gloka 148; not very different is the 
Science called Adhisthayini, "Floating in the air," Pargvanatha i. 

^* See also Kathako(;a, pp. 22, 32. A preceptor of these sciences is called 
Prajnapti-Kau^ika in Kathas. 25, 284. 

15 "Story of Bambhadatta" (Jacobi, "Mahara§tn Tales," p. 8, 1. 26). 



6 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

599. This is, of course, the prime quality of the Vidyadharas 
(khecara) themselves. Frequent mention is made of the Science 
called "Resuscitation": Sam ji vim, Pargvanatha 6. 706; or Jlvanl, 
Mahabh. i. 67. 58; or Mrtajivini, Skandapurana, Kaqikhanda, 
16. 81. P&rgvanatha, 2. 201, has the Science called Dhuvana- 
ksobhini, "Earthquake"; and Pargvanatha 8. 158, and Pari<;istapar- 
van 2. 173, have the Science called Talodghatini, "Opening of 
locks." It will be observed that texts of the Jaina religionists 
figure frequently in this matter, this, because of the importance 
which the Jainas attach to ascetic practices. These practices and 
the beliefs connected with them have, in their turn, stimulated the 
Jainas' great love of fiction. It is rather characteristic that the 
Parqvanatha Caritra i. 576 ff., mentions no less than five of these 
Sciences in one place, to wit : Adrgyikarana, " Invisibility ; " Akrsti, 
"Compelling the presence of a person;" Rupantarakrti, "Chang- 
ing one's shape;" Parakayapravega, "Entering another's body;" 
and Akagagamini, " Traveling in the air." 

Conspicuous among these magic "Arts," as we may now call 
them, is the "Art of entering another's body."" In the Yoga- 
Sutras iii, 38 it is called para-<;arira-aveQa ; in other Yoga writings, 
and in Merutunga's Prabandhacintamani, p. 12, para-pura-pra- 
veqa;^^ in Kathas. 45. 78, 79, dehantara-avega, or anya-deha- 
pravegako yogah; in the Jainist Pargvanatha Caritra i. 576; 3. 
119; in the Metrical Version of the Vikrama Carita, story 21, lines 
109-110; in the Buhler manuscript of the Paficatantra, and in 
Meghavijaya's version of the same text, para-kaya-pravega (see 
WZKM. XIX, p. 64; ZDMG. LII, p. 649). The same designa- 
tion is used in the Vikrama story in a manuscript of the Vetalapaii- 
cavihgati, edited by Uhle in ZDMG. XXIII, pp. 443 ff. The Vi- 
krama Carita defines this Art (with others) as ancillary to the eight 
mahasiddhis, to wit, parakayapraveqadya yag ca katy api siddhayah, 
etadastamahasiddhipada pankajasevikah, "the Arts Entering an- 

1^ In Hemacandra's Yogagastra this is preceded by the " Art of sepa- 
rating one's self from one's body," called vedhavidhi ; see Buhler, " Uebcr das 
Leben des Jaina Monches Hemacandra," p. 251. 

i^£. g,, Aniruddha to Samkhyas. p. 129. The Sanskrit Lexicons either 
omit or misunderstood this word; see Bohtlingk, VII, p. 356, col. i. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY, 7 

other's body and some others are subservient to the foot-lotuses of 
the these mahasiddhis (the great Arts)." For all that the parakaya- 
prave<ga is an art destined (to make a brilliant career in fiction. It 
is applied in two rather distinctive ways, one more philosophical, 
the other plainly folk-lore. In its philosophical aspect " the mind- 
stuflF penetrates into the body of another." Patanjali's Commen- 
tator (Yoga-Bhasya of Veda-Vyasa) remarks that the Yogin, as 
the result of concentration reduces his karma, becomes conscious 
of the procedure of his mind-stuff, and then is able to withdraw 
the mind-stuff from his own body and to deposit it in another body. 
The organs also fly after the mind-stuff thus deposited.*® In its 
folk-lore aspect the art consists of abandoning one's body and enter- 
ing another body, dead or in some other way bereft of its soul. The 
second form is naturally more popular in fiction. 

There is but one elaborate instance of the art of pervading 
another's body with one's mind-stuff, Mahabharata, 13. 40 ff. A 
noble sage, named Devaqarman, had a wife, Ruci by name, the like 
of whom there was not upon the earth. Gods, Gandharvas, and 
Demons were intoxicated by her charms, but none so much so as 
the God Indra, the slayer of Vrtra, the punisher of Paka. Indra 
is of old a good deal of a viveur and man about town. In remote 
antiquity he established for himself his dubious reputation by 
violating Ahalya, the beautiful wife of the great Sage Gautama; 
therefore he is known ever after as the '* Paramour of Ahalya " 
(ahalyayai jarah).** Now Devaqarman, the great Sage, under- 
stood the nature of women, therefore guarded that wife with every 
device and endeavor. Also, he was aware that Indra, seeker of 
intrigues with the wives of others, was the most likely, source of 
danger: hence he yet more strenuously guarded his wife. Being 
minded to perform a sacrifice he pondered the means of protecting 
his spouse during his absence. He called to him his disciple Vipula, 
and said : " I am going to perform a sacrifice ; since Indra constantly 

"Wood, The Yoga-System of Pataiijali, HOS. Vol. XVII. p. 266. Cf. 
the kamavasayitsra of the commentator to Vacaspatimigra's " SSmkhya-tattva- 
Icaumadr/' 1. c. 

!• From Catapatba Brahmana, 3. 3. 4. 18, on to Kathasaritsagara 17. 137 ff. ; 
see my Vedic Concordance under ahalyayai. 



8 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

lusts after Ruci, do thou guard her with all thy might. Unceasingly 
must thou be on thy guard against him, for he puts on many dis- 
guises ! " Then Vipula, ascetic and chaste, clean like the sheen of 
fire's flame, knowing the moral law and truthful, consented to take 
charge. 

As the Master was about to start Vipula asked him : " What are 
the shapes that Indra contrives, when he comes? What sort of 
beauty and majesty does he assume, pray tell me that, O Sage?" 
Then the Master recounted to him Indra's wiles in detail : " He ap- 
pears with a diadem, carrying his war-bolt, with jewels in his ears ; 
the next moment like a Paria in appearance; as an ascetic with a 
tuft on his head, clothed in rags ; of body great, or of body small. 
He changes his complexion from red to pale, and again to black; 
his form from stalwart youth to decrepit old age. He appears in the 
guise of Brahman, Ksatriya, Vaiqya, Cudra, indifferently of high 
or low caste; may show himself beautiful in white robe; disguised 
as swan or koil-bird ; as lion, tiger, or elephant ; in the guise of god, 
or demon, or king ; fat or lean ; as a bird, or stupid animal of many 
a form, even as a gnat or fly. He may vanish, so as to be visible 
only to the eye of knowledge ; turn to thin air." 

The Sage in due time starts on his journey, leaving his fiduciary 
pupil in charge of the wife. Indra, as forecast, appears upon the 
scene, and Vipula finds that Ruci is wayward. Then, by his Yoga, 
he invades her mind (cittasya paragariravegah) and restrains her. 
He abides in her "limb by limb," like a shadow, like a person 
stopping in an empty house which he finds on his way, soiling her 
as little as a drop of water soils a lotus-leaf, standing in her like a 
reflection in a mirror. 

Ruci is unconscious of the influence, but the operator's eye is 
fixed, for his spirit is far away. When Indra enters she wishes to 
say politely to the guest, "Who are thou?" but, stiffened and re- 
strained by the magic presence in her soul, she is unable to move. 
Indra says: "Compelled by the bodiless God of Love I come for 
thy sake, O sweetly smiling woman," but she is still unable to rise 
and speak, because the virtuous pupil restrains her by the bonds of 
Yoga. Vipula finally returns to his own body, and Indra, shamed 
by his reproaches, slinks off. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 9 

Twice more in the Mahabharata the motif takes the form of 
pervading another with one's self. In 12. 290. 12 the Sage Uganas, 
perfect in Yoga, projects himself into Kubera, the god of wealth, 
and controls him so as to be able to take his wealth and decamp. 
In 15. 26. 26-29 the ascetic Vidura, as he dies, rests his body against 
a tree, and enters the body of Yudhisthira who is thus dowered with 
Vidura's many virtues. The Sage, having left with Yudhisthira 
his powers, obtains the Samtanika's worlds. But, as a rule, the art 
is to enter the empty body of a dead person, or of a person who has 
himself decamped from his own body. That is the permanent type. 
Thus, in Kathakoga, p. 38 ff.. Prince Amaracandra enters another's 
body in order to feign death, and thus test the faith of his wife 
Jayaqri who had but just married him by svayamvara. When she 
is about to join him on the funeral pyre he recovers his body by 
his magic. 

The intricate story of Yogananda, or the Brahman disciple Indra- 
datta, who became king Nanda by entering his dead body by Yoga, 
is told, Kathas. 4. 92 ff.; and in the fifth chapter of Merutunga's 
Prabandhacintamani, p. 271. In the version of the Kathasaritsa- 
gara the celebrated Hindu Grammarian Vararuci, together with his 
two pupils Vyadi and Indradatta, wishes to learn from Varsa a new 
grammar that had been revealed to him by the god Karttikeya. 
Now Varsa asks a million gold pieces for the lesson. The price is 
rather stiff, and they know no way except to rely on the liberality 
of king Nanda of Oudh. When they arrive in Oudh Nanda has 
just died. They devise that Indradatta shall enter for a short time 
Nanda's body, and that he shall again withdraw therefrom as soon 
as he has granted the million. Indradatta then enters Nanda's 
body ; Vyadi watches over Indradatta's empty shell ; Vararuci makes 
the request for the money. But the wise minister of the defunct 
king, Cakatala by name, reflects that Nanda's son is still a boy, that 
the kingdom is surrounded by enemies, and decides to retain the 
magic Nanda (Yogananda) upon the throne. He therefore orders 
all corpses to be burned,^® including Indradatta's, and the latter's 
soul, to its horror, is thus compelled to reside in the body of Nanda, 
a Cudra, whereas it is, in truth, that of a Brahman. 

*® For this feature, namely, the burning of temporarily abandoned bodies, 
see Benf ey, Pancatantra, I. 253 ; II. 147. 



10 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

In the Prabandhacintamani king Nanda of Patalipura dies, 
and a certain Brahman enters his body. A second Brahman by 
connivance comes to the renovated king's door, recites the Veda, 
and obtains as reward a crore of gold-pieces. The prime minister^^ 
considered that formerly Nanda was parsimonious, whereas he now 
displayed generosity. So he arrested that Brahman, and made 
search everywhere for a foreigner that knew the art of entering 
another body. Hearing, moreover, that a corpse was being guarded 
somewhere by a certain person he reduced the corpse to ashes, by 
placing it on the funeral pyre, and so contrived to carry on Nanda 
as monarch in his mighty kingdom as before. Benfey, Das 
Pancatantra, I. 123, quotes Tumour, Mahavanso, Introduction, p. 
XLII, to the effect that Buddhist sources report of Candragupta, 
the founder of the Maurya dynasty, the same story. Candragupta's 
body was occupied after his death by a Yaksa, named Devagarbha. 

In the Vampire-story in Civadasa's recension of the Vetala- 
paiicavihgati, 23 ; Kathasaritsagara, 97 ; Oesterley's " Baital PachisI," 
22; "Vedala Cadai," 22,^^ ^^e Vampire relates how an old and 
decrepit Paqupata ascetic abandons his own shriveled body and 
enters that of a young Brahman who has just died, and later on 
throws his own body into a ravine. In the Hindi version of the 
Vampire stories ("Baital Pachisi," 24), but not in the classical ver- 
sions, there occurs an unimportant variant of the same story. 

In Kathas. 45. 47, 113, the Asura Maya tells Candraprabha that 
he was, in a former birth, a Danava, Sunitha by name, and that 
his body, after death in a battle between the Devas and the Asuras, 
had been preserved by embalming. The Asura Maya proposes to 
teach Candraprabha a charm by which he may return to his own 
former body, and so become superior in spirit and strength. 

In the Hindustani " Bhaktimal "** there is a merry story about 
Caihkaracarya, who has entered into a learned disputation with a 
Doctor named Mandan Misr. The latter's wife had crowned the 

21 QIakatala (or (^aka^ala) is his name in the same text, p. 306, and in 
another Jain text, Parigi§taparvan 8. 50. 

^'Babington in "Miscellaneous Translations from Oriental Languages," 
Vol. I. Part IV, p. 84. 

28 See Garvin de Tassy, " Histoire de la Literature Hindoui et Hindou- 
stani," n. 44. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 11 

heads of the two disputants with wreaths ; Mandan Misr's wreath 
faded first, and Cariikara declares that he has conquered, and that 
Mandan Misr must become his disciple. But the wife remonstrates, 
on the plea that her husband is only half, she herself being the other 
half : he must conquer her also. She enters into a disputation with 
him particularly on the Art of Love (Ras-Schaster), in which he, 
a Brahmacarin, is quite inexperienced. In order not to have an 
undue advantage she gives him a month's time for preparation. 
Camkara enters the body of a king who has just died, committing 
his body to the care of his disciples. In the time of a single month 
Camkara gathers a fund of experience in the art sufficient to down 
the woman in her own domain. 

A Buddhist novice kills a serpent in order to enter its body, ac- 
cording to Bumouf, "Introduction a Thistoire du Buddhisme," I. 
331, and Stan. lulien, "Memoires," I. 48; see Benfey, Das Paii- 
catantra, I. 124. 

F. W. Bain, " A Digit of the Moon," pp. 84 ff ., tells the follow- 
ing, prestmiably spurious, story, based upon sundry echoes from 
Hindu fiction: A king's domestic chaplain (purohita) is smitten with 
an evil passion for another man's wife. He gets the husband 
interested in the art of entering another's body, takes him one 
night to the cemetery, and there each by the power of Yoga aban- 
dons his body. The Purohita enters the body of the husband, who 
in turn is obliged to put up with the Purohita's body that is left. 
By chance he returns not to his own home, but to the house of the 
Purohita. 

His wife's illicit love for the Purohita has in the meantime 
driven her to his house, and as a result, she now showers unac- 
customed endearments upon her own husband in the guise of the 
Purohita. The Purohita, in the meantime, has gone to the house 
of this dissolute woman, where he passes the night, cursing his 
fate because of her absence. In the morning the Purohita leaves 
the house before the woman's return, and arrives at his own house 
where he finds the husband asleep in his own bed. After mutual 
recriminations they return to the cemetery and change back their 
bodies. Then the husband realizeis the import of what has hap- 
pened and brings both the Purohita and his own wife before the 



12 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

king's officers. But the Purohita says : " I have not touched your 
wife." And the wife says : " Was it not yourself that I embraced ? " 
And the situation, in the manner of the Vampire-stories, remains a 
puzzle. 

The most important aspect of our theme is that which tells how 
a certain king, either Mukunda or Vikrama, was tricked out of his 
body by a wily companion. In both versions figure a parrot, and a 
devoted and observant queen; and in both stories the king finally 
regains his own body. Nevertheless, the two types of story show 
very individual physiognomies. The Vikrama story, in an essen- 
tially Hindu form, has been accessible since a very early date (1817) 
in "M. le Baron Lescallier," Le Trone Enchante, New- York, de 
rimprimerie de J. Desnoues, No. 7, Murray-Street, 1817. This, as 
the translator explicitly states, is a translation from the Persian 
" Senguehassen Batissi," which in its turn is a version of the Hindu 
cycle of stories best known (though not exclusively so) under the 
names of ** Sirihasanadvatringika," or, "The 32 Stories of the 
Throne Statues"; or "Vikrama Carita, the History of King Vik- 
rama."^* Benfey traces the Vikrama version, or echoes from it, 
through five Western story collections, all of which are certainly 
based upon Hindu models, because they contain the feature of the 
parrot, or, in the case of the Bahar Danush, of the sharok bird (the 
maina, Skt. Qarika^*^). But, as far as Hindu literature is concerned, 
Benfey knew only a Greek rendering of the Mukunda story in 
Galanos' translation of the Hitopadega. 

The Mukunda version was made accessible to Europeans con- 
siderably later than Lescallier's Vikrama version. Galanos, ''XtTo- 
wa^curau rj Uavraa Tavrpa,'* pp. 2off., rendered it into Greek in 185 1 
(see Benfey, 1. c, p. 4), and Benfey translated it from Galanos in 
Paiicatantra, Vol. H., pp. 124 ff. Since then Hertel found the 
original of Galanos in the Biihler manuscript of the Paiicatantra; 

2* Sec A. Loisseleur Deslongchamps, " Essai sur ks Fables Indicnncs," p. 
175, note 5 (who draws attention to " looi Nights," LVII-LIX) ; Benfey, 
Das Fancatantra, p. 123. The Hindu classical versions of the Sinhasana do 
not, as far as I have been able to find out, contain the story; see especially 
their summary, as made by Weber, " Indische Studien," XV, pp. 447 ff. 

26 See my paper, " On Talking-Birds in Hindu Fiction," Festschrift an 
Ernst Windisch, pp. 349 ff . 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 13 

see WZKM. XIX. 63 ff. He also brought to light two briefer 
versions of the same story, one in Meghavijaya's recension of the 
Paficatantra, ZDMG. LII, pp. 649 ff.; the other in the Southern 
textus simplicior of the Paficatantra, ZDMG. LXI, p. 27. The 
story pivots about a proverbial (niti) stanza, to wit: 






That which belongs to six ears is betrayed." 
Not if the hunchback is present." 
" The hunchback became a king, 
The king a beggar and vagabond."** 

King Mukunda of Lilavati, returning from a pleasure grove to 
his city, saw a hunchback clown performing his tricks before a 
crowd. He took him with him in order to make merry over him, 
and constantly kept him by his side. The king's Minister desiring 
to consult with the king, saw the hunchback and recited part of the 
metrical adage: 

" That which belongs (is known to) to six ears is betrayed." 

But the king continued the stanza : 

" Not if the hunchback is present." 

On a certain day a Yogin turned up; the king received him 
under four eyes, and learned from him the art of entering into a 
dead body. The king kept rehearsing to himself the charm in the 
presence of the hunchback who, in this way, learned it also. It 
happened that the king and the hunchback went out to hunt; the 
king discovered in a thicket a Brahman who had died of thirst. 
Eager to test his power, he muttered the charm he had learned and 
transported his soul into the body of the Brahman. The hunch- 
back immediately entered the body of the king, mounted his horse, 

2« The original of tliis verse as given by Hertel, WZKM. XIX. 64, is : 
$atkarno bhidyate mantrah kubjake naiva bhidyate, kubjako jayate raja raja 
bhavati bhik§ukah. Very similar is the verse quoted from Subha§itarnava, 
150, by Bohtlingk, *' Indische Spriiche," 6601 : §atkarno bhidyate mantrag 
catu$karno na bhidyate, kubjako jayate raja raja bhavati bhik^ukah. Hertel 
cites yet another version from the southern textus simplicior of the Pafica- 
tantra, ZDMG. LXI, p. 27, note 2, to wit: §atkarnam bhidyate mantram 
tava karyam ca bhidyate, kubjo bhavati rajendro raja bhavati bhik§ukah. Cf. 
also Bohtlingk's "Spriiche," 6602 and 6603 (from various sources) ; they do 
not mention the kubjaka, " hunchback." 



14 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

and said to the king : " Now shall I exercise royalty ; do you go 
wherever on earth it pleases you." And the king, realizing his help- 
lessness, turned away from his city. 

Because the trick king spoke irrelevantly in the presence of the 
queen, she suspected him and consulted the aged Minister. He 
began to distribute food among needy strangers, and, as he himself 
washed their feet, he recited : 

"That which belongs to six ears is betrayed." 
"Not if the hunchback is present," 

and asked each mendicant to recite the other half of the stanza.^' 
The true king heard of this ; recognized in it the action of the queen, 
returned as a mendicant, and, when the Minister recited as above, 
he finished the stanza: 

"The hunchback became a king. 
The king b^gar and vagabond." 

The minister was satisfied with this evidence, and returned to the 
queen whom he found wailing over a dead pet-parrot. He advised 
her to call the false king and to say : " Is there in this city a magi- 
cian who can make this parrot utter even a single word?" The 
fake king, proud of his newly won art, abandoned the royal body, 
entered that of the parrot, and the true king recovered his own. 
Then the Minister killed the parrot which had been reanimated by 
the htmchback. 

Meghavijaya's version (ZDMG. LH. 649) is a straight ab- 
breviation of this story. Yet briefer and somewhat tangled is the 
version reported by Hertel from the South-Indian textus simplicior 
of the Paficatantra ; see ZDMG. LXI. 27 if. This version is 
clearly secondary to that of Galanos; the names are all changed, 
and the hunchback figures as an attendant of the king, being called 

2^ On divided stanzas as a means of recognition see the story of Bambha- 
datta, p. 18, lines 30 ff. (Jacobi, "Ausgewahlte Erzahlungen in Mahara§tri"), 
and cf. my essay on Muladeva, Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, LII. (1913), 644. On the completion of fragmentary stanzas see 
Tawney's translation of Prabandhacintamani, pp. 6, 60; Hertel in ZDMG. LXI, 
p. 22 ; and, in general, Zachariae in " Gurupujakaumudi," pp. 38 ff. ; Charpentier, 
" Paccekabuddhageschichten/' p. 35. Cloka as deus ex machina in Par^a- 
natha Caritra 2. 660 ff. 



£NTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 15 

Kubja, '* Hunchback ; " i. e., the word has become a proper name 
without relevance of any sort. The story is, moreover, dashqd 
with motifs that had nothing to do with it originally: The king 
learns the art from a sorcerer. Kubja overhears the charm. The 
king sees a female hansa-bird in distress, because her mate has been 
shot by a hunter. The king, out of pity, enters the male hansa's 
body f^ Kubja enters the king's body, usurps the kingdom, but is 
flouted by the queen. The king abandons the body of the hahsa, 
enters that of a beggar, and consults with the sorcerer. The latter 
tells the story to the king's minister. The minister advises the 
queen to kill her parrot, and to tell the fake king that she will 
receive him, if he reanimates the parrot. The false king enters into 
the parrot and is slain. 

All versions of the story with King Vikrama in the center are 
clearly marked off from the Mukunda story. They supplant the 
hunchback by a magician (Yogin) and do not pivot about the 
stanza, " That which belongs to six ears is betrayed." As far as I 
know there are four versions of this story, to wit: Lescallier's, 
alluded to above; a version which appears in a manuscript of the 
Vetalapaficavihgati, edited and translated by Uhle in ZDMG. 
XXIII. 443 ff- J ^ very brief summary in Merutuiiga's Prabandha- 
cintamani, p. 12; and a full and brilliant version in Pargvanatha 
Caritra, 3. io5-324.^® Moreover this tale has great vogue in Hindu 
folk-lore, where it is usually blended with other parrot stories 
and with other Vikrama stories: see Frere, "Old Deccan Days," 
pp. 102 if. (Vicram Maharajah Parrot) ; J. H. Knowles, " Dictionary 
of Kashmiri Proverbs," p. 98 (§§4 and 5) ; Anaryan (pseudonym 
of F. Arbuthnot) in "Early Ideas, Hindoo Stories," pp. 131 ff., 
where the story is ascribed to the Prakrit poet Hurridas (Hari- 
dasa) ;*® Butterworth, " Zig-Zag Journeys in India," p. 167 : " The 
parrot with the soul of a Rajah." 

28 For this trait of the story see Ramayana i. 2. 9 ff. 

*• Deslongchamps, 1. c, states that the story occurs, " avec d'autres details, 
dans le recueil Sanscrit qui a pour titre Vrhat-Katha" (voyez le Quarterly 
Oriental Magazine de Calcutta, mars 1824). Vrhat-Katha is doubtless in- 
tended for " Kathasaritsagara," but the story is not there. The Quarterly 
Oriental Magazine is not accessible. 

*<* That the story did exist in some Prakrit version seems to be likely, 



.t 



16 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

Lescallier's version of the story, a little uncertain as to its make- 
up, differs not only from the Mukunda story, but also from the 
three remaining versions of which we have the Sanskrit text. Since 
the book is very rare, the following digest may be acceptable: A 
Yogin (Djogui) named Jehabel (Jabala or Jabali?) starts out with 
the avowed purpose of tricking Vikramaditya (Bekermadjiet) out 
of his body, so that he may rule in his stead. He takes with him a 
dead parrot. He obtains an audience with the king, and after 
effusively praising him, says that he has heard that Vikrama pos- 
sesses fourteen arts (vidyas), one of which is the capacity to 
transplant his soul into a dead body, and thus to revive it. He 
begs for an ocular demonstration of this art: Vikrama is to pass 
his soul for a moment into the body of the dead parrot. After 
some remonstrance Vikrama consents, and they go to a room whose 
every opening the Yogin carefully shuts, on the plea that complete 
secrecy is desirable. Vikrama enters the body of the parrot which 
immediately shows every sign of life; the Yogin occupies Vikrama's 
body. Then he attempts to seize the parrot in order to slay him. 
Vikrama, unable to escape from the closed room, resorts to the 
supreme being, making what the Buddhists call the saccakiriya, or 
"truth-act," or satya-gravana, or "truth-declaration":*^ "O al- 
mighty God, as king I have done good to all men, I have treated 
generously and benevolently all who have resorted to me, I have 
solaced the unfortunate, and none, not even animals, have suffered 
exactions or injustice at my hands. Being without reproach, I do 
not comprehend for what fault I am thus punished ! " No sooner 
has he uttered this prayer than a violent gust of wind throws open 
every aperture of the room. The parrot escapes, and settles upon 
a Samboul (Calmali) tree in the great garden of Noulkeha,'* where 
he becomes king of the parrots. 

because a stanza which occurs at the end of several manuscripts of the 
Vikrama Carita states that formerly the Vikrama collection existed in the 
Mahara§tri language ; see Weber, Indische Studien, XV, pp. 187 ff. 

81 Pargvanatha Caritra, 3. 267. This motif of Hindu fiction, best known 
by its Buddhist name of saccakiriya, is one of the most constant Many illus- 
trations of it are in my hands (including the trick-saccakiriya) , but the theme 
is in the competent hands of Dr. E. W. Burlingame, who hopes soon to pub- 
lish an essay on the subject. 

82 Also printed Noutkeha. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 17 

The Yogin embalms his own body, buries it secretly, and then 
proceeds to impersonate Vikrama. One day the parrot reconnoitres 
the palace, and flutters about the head of the trick king, who is 
afraid that he will peck out his eyes. He therefore issues a procla- 
mation to the hunters of his domains that he will pay a gold mohur 
each for parrots, in the hope that he will in this way get rid of the 
parrot inhabited by Vikrama. As many as are brought to him he 
promptly orders to be roasted. Now a certain hunter, Kalia by 
name, spreads a net under the tree inhabited by the. royal parrot. 
The latter deliberately flies into the net, and is followed by all his 
tribe of parrots. Then he asks Kalia to release them all, on the 
plea that he will manage to obtain a thousand mohurs as his own 
price. The hunter is impressed with the royal parrot's accomplish- 
ments, and enters upon his scheme. 

In the meantime the queens of the palace show repugnance to 
the usurper, and refuse him the proper marital attentions, so that 
he is led to cast his eyes upon the daughter of his treasurer Ounian, 
who is, of course, flattered by this distinction, and promises him his 
daughter in marriage. One day the maiden with her attendants 
goes to bathe in a certain bathing tank, passing and repassing on 
the way the house of the hunter Kaliah. The parrot, hanging in 
his cage outside, enchants her by his sayings and songs, so that she 
finally buys him at the exorbitant price of a thousand mohurs — ^the 
price which the parrot had set upon himself. When she takes him 
to her own apartments he notices there the signs of festal doings. 
He asks her what is the occasion, and she tells him that she is to be 
married to the king in four days. The parrot breaks out into 
hilarious laughter, believing that he sees a way to revenge himself 
on the Yogin. When the treasurer's daughter asks him to explain 
his hilarity, he tells her that she is making a mistake in marrying 
the king, since as his wife she would share his affection with a thou- 
sand others. She asks what she is to do, and he tells her as 
follows: "Buy a young deer, small and weakly. On the marriage 
day, when you are conducted to the palace, take him with you and 
tie him to the foot of your bed. When the king comes, tell him that 
you love the deer as a brother, and that marital intimacies must 
therefore not take place in his presence. The king, angry because 

PROC AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, B, APRIL 3, I917. 



18 BLOOMFIELD—ON THE ART OF 

you repel his advances, will kick the deer and kill him. You will 
then break out in lamentations over the death of the deer, your 
brother, and insist that you cannot endure caresses unless your eyes 
behold the deer alive, if only for a moment." 

In due time all happens as prearranged. The amorous trick 
king, to please his new queen, enters the body of the dead deer, 
and immediately the parrot, who manages to be present, reoccupies 
his own body. Vikrama then mercifully enables the wicked Yogin 
to reenter his own body. Shamed and contrite he is allowed to go 
his way. 

The story in this form is unquestionably less well motivated 
than that of the Vetalapancavinqati, or Parqvanatha Caritra, below. 
Especially, the manner in which, in the latter account, the Yogin is 
tempted by circumstances to enter upon his perfidious career is 
important and primary ; the relation of the parrot king to his own 
queen is worked out much more artistically than in the Persian 
version.** 

The remaining three versions are strikingly unitarian as to plot, 
but differ each from the other in some details, in style, and in extent. 
Merutunga's version is little more than a table of contents of the 
little Epic as told in Pargvanatha Caritra (both are Jain texts), 
although the wording differs a good deal. Merutunga (Bombay, 
1880) is presumably not very accessible ; I give here the brief text of 
the original : 

atha kasminq cid avasare parapurapraveqavidyaya nirakrtah 
sarva api viphala kala iti nigamya tadadhigamaya qriparvate bhaira- 
vanandayoginah samipe qrivikramas tarn ciram araradha, tat purva- 
prasevakena kenapi dvijatina rajno 'gre iti kathitam, yat tvaya mam 
vihaya parapurapraveqavidya guror nadeya, ity uparuddho nrpo 
vidyadanodyatam gurufh vijnapayamasa, yat prathamam asmai dvi- 
jaya vidyam dehi paqcan mahyam, he rajan ayam vidyayah sar- 
vathanarha iti gurunodite bhuyo-bhuyas tava pagcat tapo bhavis- 
yatity upadiqya nrpoparodhat tena vipraya vidya pradatta, tatah 

■' A story similar to that of Lescallicr, but differing in many particulars, 
is told in "Lcs Mille et Un Jours" (Petis de la Crois), Vol. I., p. 281 
(jour 57). 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 19 

pratyavrtau dvav apy ujjayinim prapya pattahastivipattivisannam 
rajalokam avalokya parapurapravegavidyanubhavanimittam ca raja 
nijagajagarira atmanath nyavegayat, tad yatha, 

bhupah praharike dvije nijagajasyange 'vigad vidyaya, 
vipro bhupavapur vivega nrpatih kridaguko *bhut tatah. 
palligatranivegitatmanam nrpe vyamrgya devya mrtim, 
viprah kiram ajivayan nijatanurh gri(vi) kramo labdhavan. 
ittham vikramarkasya parapurapravegavidya siddha. 

Tawney's translation, "The Prabandhacintamani, or Wishing- 
stone of Narratives," pp. 9, 10, reads: Then, having heard on a 
certain occasion, that all accomplishments are useless in comparison 
with the art of entering the bodies of other creatures,'* King Vik- 
rama repaired to the Yogin Bhairavananda, and propitiated him 
for a long time on the mountain of Cri. But a former servant of 
his, a certain Brahman, said to the king, " You ought not to receive 
from the teacher the art of entering other bodies, unless it is given 
to me at the same time." Having been thus entreated, the king 
made this request to the teacher, when he was desirous of bestow- 
ing on him the science, " First bestow the science on this Brahman, 
then on me." The teacher said, " King, this man is altogether un- 
worthy of the science." Then he gave him this warning, "You 
will again and again repent of this request." After the teacher had 
given this warning, at the earnest entreaty of the king, he bestowed 
the science on the Brahman. Then both returned to Ujjayini. 
When the king reached it, seeing that his courtiers were depressed 
on account of the death of the state elephant, and also in order 
to test the science of entering another body, he transferred his soul 
into the body of his own elephant. 

The occurrence is thus described: 

The king, while the Brahman kept guard, entered by his science 
the body of his elephant ; 

The Brahman entered the body of the king ; then the king became 
a pet parrot ; 

The king transferred himself into the body of a lizard ; then con- 
sidering that the queen was likely to die, 

«* For the tradition that Vikrama became an adept in all sorts of magic, 
see Julg, " Mongolische Marchen/' p. 217. 



20 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

The Brahman restored to life the parrot, and the great Vikrama 
recovered his own body. 

In this way Vikramaditya acquired the art of entering another 
body. 

It requires no sharp attention to note that this brief account reads 
like a digest of some such story as either of the following two. 
Especially the unmotivated passage of the king from parrot to 
lizard, and the still less clear mention of " the queen, likely to die " 
point to a fuller narrative. As against this the change in some 
proper nouns is of no significance, since it is a constant factor in the 
repetition of stories. One verse of the final summary, a sort of 
versus memorialis of the main points of the story, is repeated 
almost verbatim at the end of the Vetalapancavingati version, to wit : 

vipre praharake nrpo nijagajasyange 'vigad vidyaya, 
vipro bhupovapur vigesa^** nrpatih kridaguko 'bhut tatah. 

Uhle's prose version, edited and translated excellently from a 
single manuscript in ZDMG. XXIII. 443 ff., is again, a drier hand- 
ling of some such version as that of the Pargvanatha. The events 
of the two stories are alike step by step, but they are narrated 
here succinctly and with avoidance of all rhetoric. Though the 
Pargvanatha introduces episodes, secondary moralizing, and much 
ornamentation, it represents a closer approach to the prime form 
than Uhle's version which, again, is not very much more than 
a table of contents. Inasmuch as Uhle's version is reflected step 
by step that of Pargvanatha it need not be summarized, especially 
as the publication is readily accessible. In one or two points 
Uhle's version is readily improved in the light of Pargvanatha's. 
Thus the passage, p. 446, 1. 15, avameva asmai datavya, which Uhle 
very doubtingly renders, "Give him only the lowest (Science)!" 
must mean, "Give him (namely the Brahman) the (Science) first!" 
In the immediate sequel the Science is, in fact, bestowed upon the 
Brahman first : tada igvarena brdhtnandya rajne ca parakaya-pravega- 
vidya datta; cf. Pargvanatha 3. 140, 141. Read in Uhle's text 

3* Uhle's manuscript has the word in this form; he makes out of it and 
the next word the compound vige§a-nrpatih. Merutunga's vipro bhupavapur 
vivcga is the true reading. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 21 

prathamaiva for avameva. — Read in Uhle's text, p. 448, 1. 10, with 
the manuscript, ayarii mamopari catisyati, "he will hang down on 
the top of me;" in Par^vanatha 3. 183, the same idea is expressed, 
ma mamastu tadarohe papasyopari culika, "he shall not mount 
as a tuft upon wretched me!" — On p. 448, 1. 4, read manavati 
for 'manavati. This contrasts the word with amanavatinam in 1. i : 
All the women of the seraglio are without pride, hence consort with 
the king ; Queen Surasundari alone is manavati " self-respecting " 
(cf. pativrata in 1. 18). — On p. 450, 1. 18 the word mrnmayam is 
brachylogy for mrnmayam iva: the false king, seeing the distress 
of Surasundari, realizes that he can never really enjoy his royalty ; 
his royal body, therefore, seems to him no better than clay. Note 
the phrase niskamalam rajyam in the parallel passage, Pargvanatha 
3- 300.^« 

The most important version of the Vikrama story, as indeed of 
all stories that deal with our theme as a whole, is that told in 
Parqvanatha Caritra (3. 105-324), edited by Shravak Pandit Har- 
govindas and Shravak Pandit Bechardas (gravakapandita-hara- 
govindadasa-becaradasabhyam samgodhitam). Benares, " Virasam- 
vat," 2348 (A. D. 1912.) 

The Pargvanatha's account of Vikrama's adventures as a parrot 
is one of the best specimens of gloka-fiction. It is in modern Kavya 
style and a worthy, if not the best link of the Vikrama epopee. It 
does not seem to have belonged to the " Vikrama-Carita " (Sin- 
hasana), as it does not occur in any recension of that work. The 
Persian version which we know from Lescallier'^ " Le Trone En- 
chante" (above), may be a loan from the Vikrama tradition at 
large. The story is likely to have been very popular among the 
Jains : one wonders whether it occurs in the Trisastigalakapurusa 
Carita. I should, in any case, hardly think that it is original here.^^ 

3« Uhle prints several times paraArSyflpravega for parafca^'dpravega, follow- 
ing, I presume, his manuscript. 

37 The blatant Prakritisra vidhyayati, Sanskrit back-formation from 
vijjhayati, "become extinguished/' in 3. 297, is hardly sufficient to suggest a 
Prakrit original. The Pargvanatha familiarly employs forms of this verb: i. 
489; 3. 297, 361, 893; 6. 609, 858, 1322; 8. 243, 385. See Johanssen, IF. III. 
220, note ; Zachariae, KZ. XXXIII. 446 ff. In 8. 243, correct vidhyayapati to 
vidhyapayati. 



22 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

In Pargvanatha it is, rather curiously, not made to illustrate audarya, 
the standard moral quality of Vikrama, but rather his vinaya, or 
tactful conduct, which furnishes part of the text of a very long 
preachment (with excellent stories) in behalf of the four "worldly" 
virtues (laukika gunah) : vinaya, "tact;" viveka, "discretion;"" 
susamga, "keeping good company-;" and susattvata, "noble endur- 
ance," from 3. 97 to the end of the chapter. 
The following is a translation in full of this version of 

Vikrama's Adventures in the Body of a Parrot. 

Vikrama and His Queen Kamaldvatl {105-108). 

There is in India, in the land of Avanti, a city named Avanti, 
resplendent with men and jewels gathered there from sundry strange 
lands. In that city there governed Vikrama, a ruler of the earth, 
of noble form, and he, though his own power was unrivaled (ad- 
vaitavikrama),'® kept extoling the accomplishments of Visnu (Trivi- 
krama). That king, though lavish with his wealth, was free from 
haughtiness ; though endowed with might, was tolerant ; and, though 
he himself was instrumental in exalting noble men, yet he was 
sincerely modest before them that deserved honor.*® His was a 
beloved Queen, Kamalavati*^ by name, fashioned, as it were, by a 
skilful poet. She had many noble qualities: strength (of char- 
acter), graciousness, sweetness, loveliness, and more. 

Vikrama Extols the Glories of His Kingdom, and is Acclaimed by 

a Visitor {iop-ii8). 

One day that monarch, beholding his court that was like the 
palace of Indra, rejoiced exceedingly and asked those who were 

88 Vinaya, together with viveka, often, e. g., Qalibhadra Carita i. 21. A 
person having such virtues is called mahapuru$a, according to a pair of ^lokas 
cited in a foot-note to the same text, 2. 2: udaras tattvavit sattvasaihpannah 
sukftagayah, sarvasattvahitah satyagali vigadasadgunah, vi^vopakari sampur- 
nacandranistandravfttabhuh, vinltatma viveki yah sa mahapuru§ah smftah. 

*• Advaita, " unrivaled,' is punningly the name of Vi§nu. The second 
meaning is : " And he, having power equal to Vi§nu*s, nevertheless kept prais- 
ing Vi§niL" The passage puns also thrice on the name of Vikrama. 

40 Note the play upon aunnatyam and vinatah. 

" " Like a lotus." 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 23 

present in his hall of audience: "Ah, tell me! Is there anywhere 
any accomplishment, science, wealth, or intelligence so marvelous 
as not to be found in my kingdom ? "*' 

Then a certain visitor, skilled in polite accomplishments, his face 
blossoming out with joy, saw his opportunity, and declaimed aloud: 
"Long have I roamed the treasure-laden earth, but I have not 
beheld a union of the rivers of glory and knowledge like unto thee. 
In Patala (Hades) rules Vasuki,** O king; in heaven Cakra (Indra). 
Both these, invisible as they are, are realized by the mind through 
thy majesty, O Ruler of the Earth! Wise men say, O Lord, that 
heaven is the goal of noble men. But even there is but one moon ; 
in thy kingdom they are counted by the thousand !** No wealth is 
that wealth, worthless is that accomplishment,*' ignorance is that 
understanding which does not inhere in thee! Fragrant with the 
fulness of thy worth, controlling by thy might the surface of the 
earth,*® thou doest now stand at the head of kings, as does the sylla- 
ble ofn at the head of the syllables. Thou art wise with the mind 
of Vacaspati;*^ at thy behest the people enjoy life; gladly to thee 
bow the chief rulers of the circles of the earth. The warriors of 
thy enemies cannot endure thy scent any more than that of an 
elephant in rut. This thy host of dear wives is lovely with their 
bodies bent with the burden of the God of Love."*' 

♦« For this sort of boastful inquiry cf ., e. g., Jacobi, " Ausgewahlte 
Erzahlungen aus d^m Mahara§tri" p. 39; Leumann, "Die Avagyaka- 
Erzahlungcn," II., 8. 3 (p. 15). • 

*» The beautiful king of the serpents. 

** The pun of the original cannot be reproduced perfectly : kalavan, 
•* moon," literally " having phases/' means also " having accomplishments " ; 
the implied plural kalavantas means "having accomplishments/' and at the 
same time punningly " moons." Sanskrit poets rarely neglect the opportunity 
of this double entente; see, e. g., Kathas. 34. 163; 35. 114; the present text, 
1. 373; Calibhadra Carita, i. 100. 

*5 Sanskrit pun: ni§kala, lit. "without accomplishment" (kala). 

*« Sanskrit pun : vikramakrantabhutalah, " with Vikrama astride over the 
surface of the earth." 

*^ The Lord of Speech or Wisdom. 

*• I suspect that anaiigabhara, " carrying the God of Love," is a kenning 
for " breasts," to wit, " with their bodies bent by the weight of their breasts." 



24 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

The Visitor Points Out Vikrama's Single Shortcoming, Namely, 

Lack of the ''Art of Entering Another^ s Body/' and 

Vikrama Starts Out to Obtain It (iip-124). 

" You have here, my lord, that which exceeds magic,*® wonderful 
in its mystery. Only one art, namely the * Art of entering another's 
body,' IS not found here." The king eagerly said : " Where is this 
found? tell me quickly!" And he replied: "On the mountain of 
Cri, your Majesty, in the keep of a man, Siddhegvara."^® The king 
dismissed the assembly, put his minister in charge of the affairs of 
the kingdom, and, eager to obtain this science, went out from the 
city by night. Putting aside such pleasures of royalty as were his ; 
not recking the hardships of the road ; thirsting after new experi- 
ence ; courage his sole companion, he went rejoicing. For low men 
strive for gratification of the body ; average persons for increase of 
wealth. Superior men, on the other hand, strive for some wonder- 
ful end." 

And as he thus steadily proceeded on his way, as if drawn by 
the reins of his persevering spirit, the mountain of Cri soon hove in 
sight." 

Vikrama Finds the Master of the Art, Obtains His Favor, and 

Meets a Rival {125-133). 

There, in a certain place, the king perceived the Master of 
magic, of tranquil countenance, Siddhegvara by name. Joyfully he 
made. obeisance, and then spake: "Through the mere sight of thy 
person I have attained my purpose, O Lord of Sages! The moon 
unasked is sure without stint to delight the world. Therefore I 
shall worship thy two lotus feet, union with which was difficult to 
obtain. Permit it!" And when he was not forbidden he did as 
he had said. 

Now a certain Brahman had been on the spot a long time ahead 

^•The rather despised indrajala. 

5® Lord of Magic. 

*^The same text, i. 421, with a different turn: tundas3ra bharane nicas 
tti^t^h svlyasya madhyamah, uttama bhuvanasyapi satam svaparata na hi. 
Similarly also 7. 121. 

•2 In the third pada read perhaps tasya for yasya. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 25 

of him in order to acquire the Science, but the very devotion he 
showed became a plague because of his constant importunity. As 
seed sown in a clear field comes up quite by itself, thus^* also other 
good deeds prosper; covetousness alone results in misery. The 
Master was delighted with the king's pleasing and disinterested" 
services, such as preparing his couch, or washing his feet. Even 
stone idols, to whom devotion is paid with intent mind, straightway 
show delight.*** How much more so do sentient beings! So the 
Master said : " Noble Sir ! From your tactful conduct I know you 
to be some ornament of men, interested in foreign lands. I am 
delighted with your good breeding, so accept from me the * Art of 
entering another's body,' in order that I may feel that I have dis- 
charged my debt for your devotion." 

Vikrama Induces the Master Against the Lattter's Inclination to 
Bestow the Art upon the Brahman, after That Receives 

it Himself (134-144). 

Upon hearing this Vikrama, indifferent to his own interests, per- 
ceiving the disappointment of the Brahman who had come long 
before him, reflected with rising compassion : " How can I go away, 
carrying with me the Art, as long as this Brahman Guru who has 
been here a long time is, poor man, without hope? Hence I will 
make the teacher bestow the Art on him." And he said : " Reverend 
Sir, show me thy favor by bestowing the Art upon him who has 
long served thee zealously." Sadly the Guru replied : " Do not give 
a serpent milk to drink. He is unworthy, and with an unworthy 
person the art works great mischief. Think how, once upon a 
time, a Master of magic, seeing the bones of a lion, made the body 
of the lion whole and undertook to give him life; how, warned by 
his people, he nevertheless in his madness gave him life ; then the lion 
slew him."'* In spite of this reminder the king, intent upon an- 
other's interest, fervently embraced the Master's feet, and prevailed 
upon him to bestow the art upon that Brahman. Out of respect for 

** Read tatha for yatha. 

•* Yancarahitaih, literally " free from importunities." 
•*Thus in 7. 642, a stone idol of a Yak§a, when implored, gives sweet- 
meats to a hungry boy. 

5«This refers to a familiar fable: see Benfey, Pancatantra, I. 489; II. 332. 



26 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

the command of the master the king himself also accepted the art, 
and the Magician expounded to him plainly the rules for its ap- 
plication. 

The Brahman, though he had not been dismissed by the Master, 
was anxious to depart. Not so the king, even though he was given 
permission, because he was burdened with his aflFection for the 
Master. For noble men, after they have been laden with a pack*^ 
of accomplishments, do not turn their backs upon their benefactor, 
like peacocks upon a pool. But the Master dismissed the king, 
reluctant though he was, saying : " You have your aflFairs to regard, 
whereas I must devote myself to pondering on the Law (dharma)." 

Vikrama and the Brahman Return Together to Avantl {145-149). 

The king, having prepared himself for the execution of the 
Magic Art, and having taught the Brahman to do the same, arrived, 
perfect in the art, at his own city, accompanied by the Brahman. 
Out of friendly feeling he told the Brahman his own history : the 
ocean, though deep, because it is clear, displays its jewels. He 
passed the day in hiding, but at night, leaving the Brahman outside, 
he entered the city alone, in order to observe the state of his king- 
dom. Delightedly he noted that the people of the city everywhere 
were engaged in their usual pleasing occupations, such as celebrating 
in the temples of the gods, with song, festival, and drama, and if 
anyone happened to be worried by evil omens, such as sneezing*® or 
stumbling, he propitiated the omen by exclaiming, "Long live 
Vikrama ! " 

Vikrama Enters the Body of the State Elephant that Has Just Died, 
and the Brahman Basely Usurps His Body and 

Kingdom (130-160). 

Then the king observed that the people within the palace were 
upset because the state elephant had died. He returned to where 

*^ It is not possible to reproduce the double meaning of kalapa, which 
means both "bundle" and "peacock's tail"; noble men do not turn the knowl- 
edge which has been given them so as to show it as a tail to their benefactor ; 
peacocks do turn their tails towards the pool which has refreshed them. It 
is rhetorical vakrokti. 

*• On various aspects of the sneeze as an omen see Henry C. Warren's 
paper in PAOS. XIII, pp. xvii flF. ; and Tawney, " Translation of Kathako^a," 
pp. XX, xxii, and 75. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 27 

the Brahman was, and said to him : " Friend, look here, I have a 
mind to disport myself by means of my Art : I shall enter into the 
elephant so as to see something of what is going on within the 
palace. Do you here act as guardian beside my body, so that, with 
your help, I shall dearly recognize it." Thus he spoke, there left 
his own body, and entered into the carcass of the elephant. Then 
the prince of elephants as formerly disported himself blithely. Not 
only was his own elephant thus revived by the king, but also the 
entire royal court which had collapsed at its death was given life 
anew. Many jubilant festivals were set afoot for the prince of 
elephants, and these performances gave pleasure to the king even 
though he was occupying a strange body. 

Then that base-souled man who had been set to watch the king's 
body, violator of faith, betrayer of friend, reflected : " Of what use 
to me is my own wretched body, plagued by racking poverty : I will 
enter Vikrama's body and serenely rule the kingdom!" Thus he 
did. The false king entered the palace quivering like an animal 
of the forest, because he did not know where to go. Holding on to 
the arm of the minister who met him in a flurry, he sat down on 
the throne in the assembly hall; the king's retinue bowed before 
him. The assembled multitude cried : " Fate has restored to life the 
king of elephants, and the king of men has returned again. This is 
indeed sugar falling into milk."*® 

The False King's Bahavior and First Encounter with the 

Queen {161-173). 

But the false king did nothing for those who craved his custom- 
ary conversation and favors, because he did not know their names, 
business, or other circumstances. The Queen's favorites came on 
rejoicing, but they did not find him, conditioned as he was, in the 
mood for sport, dalliance, or coquetry. The minister who had 
conserved the mighty kingdom obtained no audience ; neither did the 
chief vassals, nor yet the citizens receive their meed of honor. 
WTicn they saw the king in this condition they wondered: "Has 
some god or demon in the guise of the king taken possession of 

^•The same figure of speech, ^arkaradugdhasamyogah, in Par^vanatha 
6. 1349. 



28 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

the vacant throne? Yet this does not tally, because his feet touch 
the ground and his eyes wink.*® The king's mind must be wander- 
ing for some reason." The minister then concluded that, if the 
king's mind, inflamed by separation, was to be assuaged, that task 
could only be accomplished by the nectar of Kamala's speech, and 
ordered a female attendant to conduct him thence. The false king 
then reflected : " Ah, what pleasant lot is mine, that has brought me 
to this station, hard to attain even in imagination ! " 

The Queen arose in confusion, and along with other ministra- 
tions, prepared for him the throne. But when she looked at the 
king again she fell to the ground as if in a faint. Her attendants 
raised her and asked : " What does this mean, your Majesty, tell 
us?" And the king also said: "How is it, your Majesty, that you 
are struck in a faint at my arrival ? " On hearing his voice she was 
greatly pained and thought : " He looks like my beloved, yet afflicts 
me as an enemy!" Artfully she answered: "Your Majesty! At 
the time when you started upon your journey I uttered a fond prayer 
to Candi for your happy return: 'O Goddess, only after paying 
honor to thee, shall I look with my eye upon my beloved ! ' Now, 
having failed to do so before seeing you, Candi felled me to the 
ground. Therefore I shall let you know myself, O king, the time 
suitable for paying devotion to the goddess." Then the king, thus 
answered by the queen, went out of the palace. 

Vikrama in the Body of the Elephant Escapes from Avantl 

{174-187). 

At this time the Minister was adorning the state elephant*^ for 
the royal entry ,®2 so that the people should see their sovereign at 
length returned. Also, that the king, seeing his city full of jubilant 
citizens, should become himself again, and commune with all as of 
old. Now the menials who were painting the ornamental marks on 

«o Similar personal characteristics of the god are frequently alluded to ; 
they belong to the regular apparatus of fiction. See Nala 5- 23 = Kathas. 
56. 272; also Kathas. 32. 31 ; 33- 178. See Tawney's " Translation of Kathasa- 
ritsagara," Vol. I, p. 561, note. 

•* Now inhabited by Vikrama. 

«2So we must translate raja-patyai: the word is not quoted in the 
Lexicons. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 29 

the elephant kept saying one to the other : " Too bad, our Lord has 
become as one distracted by his journey to a strange land ! " Then 
that prince of the elephants, hearing this, reflected in great perturba- 
tion: "Alas! What is this, woe me! The Brahman is certainly 
disporting himself as king in my body. Because, though warned 
by the Master, I yet induced him to bestow the Art upon this vilest 
of Brahmans, therefore this consummation has speedily come about. 
Because I forgot the precept taught me from childhood on, not to 
be too confiding, I nevertheless reposed trust in this man, therefore 
some trick of fate has surely taken place. The lowly may be raised 
up by fate ; the lofty may be made insignificant — this very experi- 
ence has brought him fortune, and robbed me of the same. All 
possessions on earth, elephants, dependents and the like, follow the 
body : since my body is gone all that is mine has come to belong to 
another. Just as eye-witnesses observe in this world even so it 
goes with a man in the next world. Therefore wise men arrange 
for goad deeds to go with them as their true companion karma. In 
any case I shall now watch for an opportunity to make my escape : 
he shall not mount as a tuft upon wretched me ! " 

Having arrived at this decision the elephant raised up his ears, 
curved his trunk, and began to run swiftly, so that a great tumult 
arose. He was pursued by foot-soldiers, horsemen, and others by 
the thousand, but, as he ran more and more swiftly, they gave up 
the chase in disgust. Tired out he reached a distant forest and 
reflected dejectedly : " Compare now my former state of royal rule 
by a mere contraction of my eyebrow with this flight of mine ! How- 
ever, this plight is not a bit too sore for a fool who has taken up 
with a rogue ! " Engaged in such reflections the king was assailed 
by the pangs of hunger, thirst, and the ocean of his regrets. 

Vikrama Meets a Parrot-hunter, Enters the Body of a Dead Parrot, 

and Induces the Hunter to Take Him to Avantl to Be 

Sold as a Parrot of Price {188-195), 

He reached the shade of a banyan-tree, which appeared to him 
like an only friend, and, when in time he had become composed, he 
saw a man standing there among the trunks of the banyan tree, 



30 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

engaged in killing parrots with a sling-shot.** The king, worried by 
his great body, hard to sate and unwieldy, considered : " What use 
is this body to me? Surely scope of action is more advantageous 
to success! Therefore I shall enter into the body of a parrot!" 
And thus he did. 

Then the parrot said to the hunter : " Friend, what do you want 
to be killing so many parrots for? Take me to Avanti, and you 
surely will get a thousand tanka-coins for me ; you must, however, 
give me assurance of personal safety." The hunter on hearing this 
gladly promised the parrot security and then took him in his hand. 
Next he fed him on meal** and water, put him at his ease, and 
then went to Avanti, where he took stand on the king's highway. 
When the people asked the parrot's price, the hunter said it was a 
thousand; he recites whatever Castras people ask for. Then they 
offered even more than the price asked, but the hunter, at the 
bidding of the parrot, refused to accept. Finally he demanded an 
exorbitant price. 

Queen Kamaldvatl Buys the Parrot, Engages Him in Brilliant Con- 
versation, and Makes Dispositions for His Comfort 

{196-209). 

At this juncture some attendant maids belonging to Queen 
Kamalavati arrived. The parrot who knew well their dispositions, 
when accosted by one of them, recited in a sweet voice : " Pierced 
by the arrow of thine eyes, O graceful lady, one deems one's self 
happy and lives ; not pierced one dies : here is a marvelous Science 
of Archery! Now do thou in turn recite something, that I may 
repeat it after thee in the manner of a pupil." But she retorted : 
"Thou art thyself a veritable Guru. Of whom shouldst thou be 
the pupil?" 

Then the maid, delighted, went and reported to the Queen : " O 
Mistress! never before have I seen or heard a parrot so highly 
cultivated." The queen, enchanted by her report, concluded that 
Fate had furnished the parrot as a means by which she might divert 

" Dhanurgolika : the word recurs in the same text, i. 317. in the form 
dhanurgulika. This compound is not in the Lexicons. 
«*Curni for curna; so also this text, i. 386; 7. 351. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 31 

herself with the art of poetry. Eagerly she addressed her: 
"Woman, go with speedy feet, pay the man his price, and bring 
hither the parrot prince ! " Thus the servant did, and the hunter, 
contented, went to his home. She put the parrot into the lotus of 
her hand, and brought him into the presence of the queen. 

When he saw Kamalavati joyfully coming to meet him the 
parrot extended his right wing, and chanted sweetly: "O Queen, 
in order to uphold thy weight, as thou restest on his left arm, 
Vikrama holds the earth as a counter-balance on his right arm.'**' 
The queen replied smiling: "O parrot! what you say amounts to 
this, that one cannot, unless he rules the earth, drag the load of 
a woman. Very pointedly have you stated that we impose a great 
biu-den : what wise person would not be pleased with a statement of 
the truth?" When she had thus out of modesty deprecated the 
parrot's flattery in description of herself, she put him in a golden 
cage furnished with agreeable resting places. She herself kept his 
abode sweet by washing and fumigating, and fed him on choice rose- 
apples, pomegranate seeds, and myrobalans. And whatever other 
things he desired to eat or drink she brought to him, and she con- 
stantly r^;aled herself with the nectar flow of his conversation. 

Kamaldvatl and the Parrot Engage in a Contest of Riddles and 

Charades {210-227). 

1, A Charade on the Mystic Formula otn namah siddham utta- 
ram. — ^The queen bid him recite some riddles, and without further 
ado the parrot, for mental diversion, recited : " On what do ascetics 
in contemplation ponder, and what is ever performed for a Teacher ? 
What manner of thing do lofty men obtain, and what do pupils first 
recite ? " 

When the queen, thus asked, puzzled long, and did not know, 
the parrot gave the answer : — om namah siddham uttaram.** 

2, Riddle on the Rounding of the Lips in Pronouncing Labials, — 

•^His right wing symbolizes Vikrama's right arm in the following passage. 
It is a common conceit that the king bears the burden of the earth; e. g,, 
Prabandhacint§mani (Tawne)r's Translation), p. 107. 

••The formula is, of course, treated analytically: in the fourth question 
the adjective uttaram which in the formula qualifies siddham is taken as a 
noun in the sense of "answer." The other three are: (i) The sacred sylla- 
ble om ; (2) namah, " obeisance " ; (3) mystic perfection. 



32 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

The parrot next propounded the following riddle: "It does not 
inhere (lag) in naga and nariiiga ; on the other hand it does inhere 
in nimba and tumba.^^ When one says, * inhere ' (laga) it does not 
inhere; when one says, 'do not, do not inhere' (ma ma, sc. laga) 
it inheres mightily.*® What then is the answer ? " When the queen 
had thus been questioned by the parrot, she reflected a moment and 
said : " Ah, I know ; it is the rounding of the lips (in the pronuncia- 
tion of labials)." 

5. Riddle of the Painter's Brush, — " By it** serpents are rendered 
poisonless, gods are bereft of might, lions are rendered motionless ; 
yet children carry it in their hand — what is it?" asked the queen. 
The parrot at once knew and answered : " Hear, your Majesty, I 
know it : — ^A painter's brush." 

4, Riddle of the Fly and the Spider. — "A hero that slays ele- 
phants,^® mounts lions, plagues soldiers, him, your Majesty, I have 
beheld bound in the house of a weaver."^^ When she had heard 
this riddle, propounded by the parrot, she guessed and laughingly 
exclaimed : " I have it, this hero is plainly the fly ! " 

5. A gUdhacaturthaka, or Trick of Supplying the Fourth Verse 
of a StanzaJ^. — " A host of serpents to look like lotus-roots ; black 

•^ It is quite impossible to reproduce the ingenious trickery of this state- 
ment: na laged naga-naringe has two distinct values: the first as above; the 
second meaning is " the sound na inheres in naga and nariiiga." When taken 
in that sense the second pada becomes yet more tricky : " again it inheres in 
nimba and tumba," which is precisely the reverse of the truth, because na does 
not inhere in these two words. That is part of the catch : the labials mb is 
what inheres in the two words. 

•• The rounding of the lips in pronouncing m in the word ma. 

•" The text reads yatha, which must be corrected to yaya. 

'® Alluding perhaps to the familiar fable in which a fly helps slay an ele- 
phant, Benfey, Pancatantra I. 241 ; II. 95. 

^1 Text, kolikagrhe = kaulikagrha. Cf . kolikagardabha in Divyavadana, 
12. The weaver here is, of course, the spider. 

^2 The text prints this and the next charade as follows : 

mfnalabham ahivyuham anjanam k^irasannibham | 
nabhah karpurasamkaQam rajiiya giidhacaturthake ||2I9|| 
iti pr^tc gukah praha karoti yagasa mahan | 
do§o 'pi gunatam yati vi§am apy amftayate 1 1 220 1 1 
["mitrani gatravo *pi S3aih" iti gukena gu<}hacaturthakc pf^tc rJjfil 
caturthapadam praha — ^anukule vidhau nfnam"] 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 33 

coUyrium to resemble milk ;^* a cloud to look like camphor " — ^when 
the parrot was asked by the queen to supply the missing fourth 
verse, he answered — "a great man through his influence contrives 
to make." 

6. Another gudhacaturthaka. — " Even sin assumes the nature of 
virtue; even poison acts as nectar; even enemies may become 
friends" — ^when the parrot thus asked the queen to supply the 
missing fourth verse she answerd — "when destiny is favorable to 
men."^* 

7. Riddle on the letter 5. — " Even a beggar (krpana) is fit to be 
honored by a king (by lengthening the interior a of krpana to d so 
as to make it krpana, 'sword') ; even the noble (udara) is beset 
with greed (by shortening the 5 of udara to a, so as to make it 
udara, 'belly') ; by whose presence or absence even he who is ad- 
dressed by name (akhyata) is not known (akhyata)." When the 
parrot was thus questioned he answered: — ^"The letter a (akarah)." 

8. Riddle on the Syllable dhi(k), or dhikkOra, Treated as dhi- 
kkdra. — "With (the prefixed syllable) a it expresses sorrow (adhi) ; 

It should be printed as follows: 
mrnalabhaxn ahivyuham anjanam k$irasannibham | 
nabhah karpurasathkagam — rajnya gu<Jhacaturthake 
iti pr§te gukah praha — ^karoti yagasa mahan 1 1 219 1 1 
do§o 'pi gunataih ySti vi§am apy amftayate | 
mitrani ^atravo 'pi syub — 

iti ^kena gu^h^caturthake pr$te rajnl caturthapadam praha — 

anukule vidhau nfnatn 1 1 220 1 1 

For this kind of entertainment see Zachariae in " Gurupujakaumudl," 
pp. 38 ff. 

T3 See Bohtlingk's "Indische Spriiche," 7568: nafijanam guklatatn yati, 
and cf. ibid., 2146. 

^^"When destiny is favorable to men " = anukule vidhau nfnam. The 
sentiment of this speech is expressed from the opposite point of view in 
Pargvanatha, 2. 792-3 : 

pratikule vidhau kimva sudhapi hi vi§ayate, 
rajjuh sarpTbhaved akhubilaih patalatam vrajet 
tamayate prakago 'pi go§padam sagarayate, 
satyam kutayate mitram Qatrutvena nivartate. 

"When fate is adverse nectar turns to poison, a rope turns serpent, a 
mole-hole leads to inferno. Light turns darkness, a puddle in the footstep 
of a cow turns ocean; truth becomes guile, and friendship vanishes in hos- 
tility." Cf . Bohtlingk, '* Indische Spriiche," nr. 4226. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL LVI, C, MAY 21, I917. 



34 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

with (the prefixed syllable) vi it is pondered by pious men (vidhi, 
'religion') ; with (the prefixed syllable) ni it is desired by people 
(nidhi, 'treasure') ; by itself it makes no sense (dhi, which is no 
word)."^* When the queen was thus asked by the parrot she an- 
swered:— "The syllable dhik (dhikkarah)."^« 

p. Riddle on the Syllable na, — " That which is at the beginning 
of night (first syllable of naktam, 'night'), at the end of day (last 
syllable of dina, 'day'), and different from evening;" though it is 
in the interior of the mind (manasa, which has the syllable na in the 
middle) it is somehow not^® perceived." When the parrot had 
been thus questioned by the queen he answered : — " The syllable na 
(nakarah)." 

10. Riddle on the Compound ihdlamkdrasafkgatam, " a Combinor- 
tion of Effort and Rhetoric." — The next needs to be before the eye, 
to wit : 

laksmi-kheda-nisedhartha-brahma-cakranga-garmanam, 
ke Qabdah vacakah khantam bruhi kith nantam ichasi. 
arthinam ka sada citte^® ka dagdha kapina pura, 
iksuyasteh kim ichanti kith ca hatisasya sundaram. 
sukavlnath vacah kldrg guketia visame kite, 
iti praqne yada rajni navadad mudhamanasa. 
ekadvisarvavarnanarii paripatikramena sah, 
guka evottaram cakre ihalathkarasaihgatam. 

The trick of this riddle is (i) To divide Ihalaihkarasamgatam 
into single syllables each of which furnishes a word, disregarding 
vocalic fusion; (2) to divide it into pairs of syllables, each pair 
being a word; (3) to allude to the word as a whole: (i) "What 

^5 The last passage, kevalas tu nirarthakah, seems to hold 'a second 
meaning, to wit: "by itself it has an unmeaning letter ka." 

7* Merututiga's Prabandhacintamani, p. 156, has a similar charade, in 
which the prepositions a, vi, and sam are prefixed to the word hara. 

^^ The trick here appears to be as follows : prado$o, " evening," does not 
contain the syllable na ; therefore it is different from na. Yet evening should 
be at the beginning of night and end of day. Hence the catch : " That which 
is at the beginning of night, the end of day, and yet something else than 
evening." 

^* Again a catch : lak§yate na kathamcana, with second meaning, " na is 
somehow perceived." 

^^Text, erroneously, cite. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 35 

words express the goddess Laksmi (i) ; distress (ha) ; forbidding 
(alam) ; Brahma (ka) ; part of a wagon (ara, 'spoke') ; protection 
(sam) ; next tell the letter which follows the letter kha (in the 
kavarga of the Hindu alphabet, namely ga) ; do you wish also the 
letter which follows the letter na (in the ta-varga of the Hindu 
alphabet, namely ta) . All this makes up the theme i + ha + alam + 
ka + ara + sam + ga + tam. = ihalaihkarasamgatam." (2) " What 
is ever in the mind of those who desire?" (Answer: iha "effort") ; 
what city was burned by the monkey? (Answer: Lanka, in Ceylon) ; 
what do people desire of sugar-cane? (Answer: rasam 'juice') J 
and w^hat is beautiful in the hansa-bird? (Answer: gatam, "its 
gait ") .*" This again makes up the theme : iha + lamka + rasam + 
gatam. (3) " What sort of a word of skilled poets is this?" Thus 
the parrot had put this tangled riddle, and when the Queen, her 
mind bewildered, did not answer, the parrot with successive arrange- 
ment of the word into single syllables, two syllables, and all its 
syllables gave the answer: ihalamkarasamgatam ("a compound of 
effort and rhetoric"). 

Salutary Instruction (Hitopadega) by the Parrot (228-233), 

Then the queen asked the parrot: "Recite some well-spoken 
words devoted to salutary instruction !" The parrot, thus requested 
by the queen, then replied : " Listen ! A deed that is done after care- 
ful deliberation; speech that is well-weighed; passions completely 
under control never work mischief. Thought charged with recti- 
tude; speech adorned with sweetness; and a body inclined with 
courtesy do not belong to ignoble men. Wrath of noble men en- 
dures but one moment ; their vow for as long as it is set. But their 
responsibilities in the world last as long as life itself. Self-praise 
and abuse of others ; envy of the good qualities of noble men ; and 
inconsequent chatter drag one down low. Speech without malice 
towards others ; serene dignity of countenance ; and a mind discreet 
about what it has heard, these qualities lead a man aloft." 

«<>The gait of the hahsa is considered beautiful. A graceful woman is 
hahsagamini, Manu, 3. 10. In 7. 603 of the present text five animals are said 
to be conspicuous for their graceful gait: hahsa, elephant, bull, kraunca-bird, 
and crane. Cf . Bohtlingk, " Indische Spruche," 7360. 



36 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

Discretion Illustrated by the Simile of the Three Skulls 

{234-238) ^"^ 

"Thus a certain king of yore caused his wise men to make 
the test of three skulls®* that had been brought by a stranger from 
another land. On that occasion a thread put into the ear of one 
of the skulls came out of its mouth : the price of that skull was a 
farthing (kaparda), because it would blab what it had heard. 
Again, a thread put into the ear of the second skull came out at the 
other ear : the price of that skull was a lakh, because it forgot what 
it had heard. But the thread inserted into the ear of the third skull 
went straight down the throat: that skull was priceless, because 
what it heard remained in its heart. Conforming with this, O 
Queen, who that has ears and hears reference to another's guilt 
does not become discreet in mind ? " 

KamalSvatl, the Parrot Protesting, Adopts Him as Her Husband 

{239-245), 

Now Kamala's soul was so delighted by this discourse of the 
parrot, that she made the following promise : " I shall certainly live 
and die together with thee, O parrot!" But the wise parrot an- 
swered her: "Say not so, beloved wife of a king! Of what ac- 
count am I, a wee animal, beside thee, beloved of Lprd Vikrama? 
Moreover, O Queen, thy husband, out of love for thee will come 
and go ; how canst thou avoid fond intercourse with him ? " Upon 
hearing this Kamala, sighing deeply, exclaimed: "O paragon of 
parrots, my eye tells me that my beloved has returned from abroad, 
but my mind says not. Disturbed by this, I shall devise some 
answer and dismiss the king. But you, as a husband, shall afford 
me delight, that do I here declare!" Then the king-parrot, filled 
with a great joy, reflected : " The Art called Entering another's body 
has been of profit to me, for how else could I have tested the heart 

" Cf. R. S. Mukharji, Indian Folklore, p. 36; S. Devi, The Oriental Pearls, 
p. 115; E. J. Robinson, Tales and Poems of South India, p. 328. A mere allu- 
sion to the test of the three skulls, which is not entirely explained in the story, 
may be found in the Kathaprakaga ; see Eggeling in " Gurupujakaumudi," p. 
120 ff. Cf. also the Prakrit verse quoted from the Vikrama Carita (126) by 
Weber, Ind. Stud. xv. 345. 

*2 Trikapaliparlk§anam ; not in the Lexicons. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 37 

of the queen? Moreover, judging from this show of feeling other 
delights shall be mine. ! " 

The Parrot at Kamala^atVs Request Preaches the Law {246-252). 

The queen again addressed the parrot: "I am vastly pleased 
with thy nectar-sprinkling speech ; do thou then tell something of the 
Essence of the Law." Then the parrot said : " Listen, O Queen, 
I have heard from the mouth of the Master that it is meritorious to 
benefit others, sinful to oppress others. No moral obligation com- 
pares with abstention from doing injury, no vow with content. 
Nothing makes for purity as does truth; no ornament is there the 
like of virtue. And it has been well said : Truth is purity ; ascetic 
practice is purity ; control of the senses is purity ; pity of all living 
things is purity. Purification by water holds but the fifth place. 
To cast away filth of mind, that is a bath indeed ; to bestow security 
from injury, that is a gift indeed ; to know truth's essence, that is 
knowledge indeed; to extricate the mind from the senses, that is 
contemplation indeed. Even the householder*' who constantly eats 
food in faith may through purity of mind attain to the law ; without 
it, even ascetic practice is in vain. For it has been said : The mind 
of man alone is the instrument of bondage or release ;®* in bondage 
it clings to the senses, but in release it casts them away." 

Episode, Illustrating the Superiority of Soul-purification over 

Meritorious Deeds {253-286), 

"Thus once upon a time a wise king heard that his brother, 
a Sage, had arrived at a part outside of the city; then he went 
there followed by his retainers. The king, adorned with the 
bloom of his hair that bristled from joyous emotion,®' paid his 
respects to the Sage, listened to the law from his mouth, then 
returned to his palace. The chief queen, longing in turn to greet , 
her brother-in-law, the Sage, took leave of the king in the even- 
ing, and made the following vow: 'I must in the morning, sur- 

®3 In Jain religion the lay householder (grhin, gfha-vasin, gravaka, etc.) is 
distinguished from the professional ascetic (yati). The religious obligations 
of the former class are less stringent than those of the latter. 

** Bondage in saihsara ; release in nirvana. 

®® Horripilation with the Hindus is a symptom of joy as well as of fear. 
In literature it is almost always connected with joy. 



38 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

rounded by my retinue, salute this Sage, Soma by name, and not 
take food before he has been feasted/ Now on the road between 
the city and the park there was a river. When she arrived there by 
night the river was flooded, and flowed too deep for crossing. At 
that the queen was perplexed in her mind, and in the morning asked 
her husband how then she might obtain her heart's desire. The 
king replied : * Queen, let not such a thing worry you, because it is 
easily managed. Go cheerfully with your retinue ! On the hither 
bank of the river remember first to call upon the River Goddess, join 
your hands in supplication, and with pure mind recite : " O Goddess 
River, if my husband has practised chastity since the day on which 
he paid his devotions to my brother-in-law, then promptly give me 
passage ! " '*• Upon hearing this the queen reflected in surprise : 
' Why now does the king, fifth Protector of the World, say such an 
absurd thing? Since the day of his devotion to his brother I have 
become pregnant by him with a son ; that wifely state of mine he 
knows full well. But why be in doubt when the test is at hand, 
particularly since devoted wives should entertain no doubt about a 
husband's statement. Because a good wife that doubts the instruc- 
tion of her spouse, a soldier that of his king, a pupil that of his 
teacher, a son that of his father break their vow.' Thus the queen 
reflected, and went with her equipment and train to the bank of the 
river, where the face of the earth was crowded with the assembled 
people. There she called upon the River Goddess, paid honor to her 
with a pure mind, and openly made the truth-declaration,®^ as told 
her by her husband. At once the river banked its waters to the right 
and to the left, became shallow, gave passage, and the queen crossed 
to the other side. 

" She thought herself favored, and then paid proper respect to the 
Sage. And when she had received his blessing the Sage asked the 
devoted wife in what manner she had crossed the river. She told 
the whole story, and then asked the Lord of Sages how her husband's 
inconceivable chastity was valid. He then said : ' Hear Lady I 
When I took vow, from that time on the king also, intently eager for 
holiness, became in his soul indifferent to earthly matters. But as 

8<* The notion that rivers may be induced by prayer to furnish passage is 
a very old one in India ; see Rig- Veda 3. 33- 9 J 4- i9- 6. 

®^ Satyagravana = the Buddhist saccakiriya ; see above, p. 16, note. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 39 

there was no one available to bear the burden of royalty, he kept per- 
forming his royal acts in deed but not in thought. Thus it has been 
said : A woman devoted to another man follows her husband f^ thus 
also an ascetic devoted to the truth follows the samsara.'*® There- 
fore, though he is in this wise leading the life of a householder, the 
king's chastity is valid, because his mind is unspotted, even as a lotus 
that stands in the mud.* 

" The queen then paid reverence to the Sage, and having attained 
to supreme joy went to some spot in the forest and pitched her camp. 
She had a rasavati-pudding®® prepared for herself and train, ordered 
the Sage to be supplied with the same, and thus fulfilling her vow, 
ate of it herself. She then went to bid adieu ito the Sage, and asked 
him how now she was to recross the river. The Sage replied with 
tranquil voice : ' You must say to the River Goddess : " If that Sage 
since taking his vow has steadily lived in fast, then make passage for 
me ! " ' The queen in renewed surprise went to the bank of the 
river, recited the words of the Sage, crossed the river, and arrived 
home. She narrated everything to the king, and asked : ' How could 
the Sage be in fast, since I myself entertained him with food ? ' The 
king replied : * You are simple, O Queen, you do not grasp the spirit 
of the law: the lofty-minded Sage is indifferent to both eating or 
non-eating. Even though the Sage in the interest of the law eats 
pure food that he did not prepare or order to be prepared, neverthe- 
less that is said to bear the fuit of an unbroken fast. Mind is the 
root, speech the crown, deed the branch-expansion of the tree of the 
law : from the firm root of that tree everything springs forth.' 

" When the queen had comprehended this lofty-mindedness of 
her husband and brother-in-law, in full sympathy®^ she purified her 
own mind also." The parrot then said: "This essence of the law 
which I, the parrot, have proclaimed to you illustrating it by story, 
that verily is illimiination®^ by light. The mind even of noble 

®® See the story in Benf ey, Paiicatantra, II. 258, in which this idea is em- 
ployed to trick a confiding husband ; cf. ibid., I. 371. 

8* These rather loose parallels are intended to illustrate the paradoxical 
contrast between the king's action and state of soul. , 

®^ According to Bohtlingk's Lexicon rasavati is curdled milk with sugar 
and spices; see Tawne/s Translation of Prabandhacintamani, pp. 156, 157, 196. 

®i Anumodana, fem., not in the Lexicons. 

•2 Dhavalana, abstract noun from dhavalaya, not in the Lexicons. 



40 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

women, as long as it derives knowledge from natural disposition 
alone, is quite sure to go astray like a conceited Pandit." 

Kamddvatl Divines that the Parrot is Vikrama, Whereupon the 
Latter Abandons His Body and Enters into the Body of a 

House-lizard {287-299), 

When the queen had heard this clear and substantial speech®' of 
the parrot, she thought that there was no one quite like him in 
fulness of knowledge: " My faltering mind was under delusion: this 
is the king, here speaks his voice ! '* While the queen was thus 
rejoicing sleep descended upon her. Then the king in the guise of 
a parrot, noticing there a dead house-lizard,®* entered into it, that 
he might test whether the queen would virtuously keep her word. 
Soon the queen, waking of herself, and seeing the parrot-prince lie 
soundless, began to rouse him with hundreds of tender endearments : 
" Speak, O parrot ! why dost thou not to-day pour nectar into my 
ears ? Thou who hast awakened** me, shall I in turn awaken thee ? 
Abandon sleep, arise, recite the morning prayer! Wherefore this 
darkness of sleep on the part of noble beings that make shine the 
torch of their knowledge ? Why dost thou to-day not give answer, 
how didst thou wax wroth with me? Since thou preservest thine 
own form shall I not forsooth suspect deception even in thy sleep?" 

When the parrot, urged by such and other words did not wake 
up she arose in distress, and touched him with her hand. Even so 
he did not breathe ; then the queen fell in a faint. Soon coming to 
herself she wailed and exclaimed : " Woe me, O parrot, why has this 
wretched fate®' overtaken thee? *0 evil destiny, tell me why he, who 
is like a sandal-tree,®^ has been consumed by thy fire? Even a 

®*The original here contains an untranslatable metaphor: suviv^rain 
sagarbham ca vacah. Her utterance is compared to a womb wide open 
(suvivara) and containing an embryo (sagarbha) ; cf. sagarbhavacana in 
this text, 7. 294. 

•* Grhagodhaka, not in the Lexicons. 

®5 The double meaning of the original, which means both " awaken '* and 
" enlight," must be left to the guess of the reader of a translation. 

®® Daivakam. 

®7 Sandal-wood is the emblem and quintessence of coolness ; its consump- 
tion by fire marks an extreme. See Kathas. 31. 23; " Indische Spruchc," 340, 
663, 1763, 2215, 5278, 7360. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 41 

forest-fire is quenched*® by constant streams of water, but thou wert 
not deterred by the hundredfold flow of the nectar of the parrot's 
speech. Ah me! O king of birds, slain am I, to whom the stream of 
thy words had given life! Alas! I spoke falsely for a moment in 
order to delay thy death."*® Thus speaking she, with resolution 
caused by the parrot's death, bathed and anointed his body, and 
endeavored to perform the other duties suitable to the occasion. 

The False King, Stricken with Remorse at KamalavatVs Despair, 
Enters the Body of the Parrot, Whereupon Vikrama Returns 

to His Own Body (300-303). 

The false king, upon learning all this from the queen's attendants, 
exclaimed in consternation : " Alas, alas, this entire kingdom, without 
Kamala,^®^ will be profitless to me: I must go and restore her to 
life ! " He did as decided, but when she would not at all be restored, 
he once more asked: "O Queen, if I assure you that the parrot is 
alive, will you then also live?" And when she had assented he 
thought his desire fulfilled : he determined to endow the parrot with 
life, carry him to some other place, release him, and, thus having 
kept his promise to the queen, reenter his own body. After decid- 
ing upon his course he abandoned his body in a retired spot, entered 
the parrot and disported himself. The king, in turn left the body of 
the house-lizaTd, and entered his own body. And when he had taken 
on his body, resplendent like a mighty mass of cloud, Vikrama, the 
king, quickly went into the presence of the queen. 

KamalavatJ Excuses Her Failure to Fully Recognise Vikrama in the 

Parrot {306-313)- 
At sight of him Kamalavati grew radiant as a garland of 
lotuses,*®^ and was adorned with loveliness. And the completely 

®8 Vidh3rayati, Sanskrit back-formation from Prakrit vij jhayati ; see p. 
21, note, 

•® She blames herself for speaking to the parrot as though he were alive 
at a time when she had no good reason to doubt his death, and to act accord- 
ingly, as she now proceeds to do. 

100 Ni^kamalam : pun upon Kamala, the pet (hypocoristic) name of the 
queen, and some meaning of kamala; either "without lotus," or "without 
wealth." The play of words cannot be reproduced in a translation. 

i<>^ The original for " garland of lotuses," kamalamala, puns on the name 
of the queen. 



42 BLOOMFIELD— ON THE ART OF 

faithful wife was embodied in the queen who had been distracted 
by the arrival of a strange man, but promptly became herself again 
at the arrival of her own husband. When she perceived that his 
speech, his gait, his habit, and his r^;ard were just as before, she 
fell crying at his feet and then quickly rose and clung to him. Then 
she exclaimed : " Life, my Lord, became one grief when you were 
absent in a strange land, and yet another grief when you appeared 
in a delusive form. Wretched woman that I am, how I was de- 
ceived by a false story, and what sort of test could I apply through 
my knowledge of strange countries ?^°* What, under such circum- 
stances, I did accomplish, being a mere woman, is wholly due to your 
favor, bom of the graciousness of your feet. Now do you, first of 
all, explain to me without omission each of the shapes you assumed." 
The king replied : " Your dearly beloved parrot yonder shall narrate 
to you." The queen then said: "Your majesty! what purpose is 
there in an affair that death has taken in charge ? The parrot whom 
I have just now looked upon has become violently repulsive to me." 

Vikrama Generously Forgives the Treacherous Brahman, and is 
Reunited with Kamalavatt {313-^24), 

The king took the parrot in his hand and said : " What have we 
here, O Brahman ? " The parrot replied : " That which befits them 
that deceive their teacher, their king, and their friend. My king 
art thou, because thou rulest men ; my teacher, because thou hadst 
the Science bestowed on me ; my friend, because thou didst put confi- 
dence in me : all that has been cut off by me as if by excision.^^* The 
king answered : " Look here, Brahman, why do you speak thus beside 
the mark? Your conpanionship^^* has enabled me to pass the 
troublous experience of the Science." The Brahman replied : " Full 
well thou knowest, O King, what sort of companionship was mine. • 

^^2 She means to say that she had no means of quizzing the fake king 
about his experiences during his absence. 

losLuptam lopavad maya, seemingly a grammatical pun: "has been 
elided by me as if by elision." 

i®*Lalitanga forgives the injuries done him by the wicked Sajjana for 
the same reason, namely, former companionship, Pargvanatha, i. 293. See 
the same trait in the story of Miiladeva, Proceedings of this Society, Vol. 
LIL, p. 643. 



ENTERING ANOTHER'S BODY. 43 

O thou great ocean of propriety and virtue! Me that has strayed 
from my own house and body, the tricker of friend, sovereign, and 
teacher, it does not, O Protector, befit thee to see and to touch! 
There is no noble wife like unto Kamala, no great man like unto 
thee, and no base-souled creature like unto myself. Do thou then 
rule thy kingdom a long time ; as for me, seize me by the left foot 
and cast me somewhere that I may devote myself to a better life.^**' 
All this shall serve thee as a lesson in the wickedness of men ! " 

The king heard him, his heart was softened by pity, he forgot 
the evil deed, and said : " See here, ours is the same Science ; how 
then can I seize you by the foot? Go whither you desire, enjoy 
wealth somewhere while doing good to others in deep devotion to the 
law ! " After he had thus dismissed him, Vikrama ruled his kingdom 
in Kamala's society, happy in heart, devoted to the performance of 
the law. Thus the Science obtained by him through tactful conduct 
led to a happy issue, but the very same Science imposed great misery 
upon the Brahman who was wanting in that same virtue. 

lo^Karma seve. 



NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 

By WILLIAM TRELEASE. 

Plates I-III. 

(Read April 13, 1917.) 

Two methods of designating hybrids are sanctioned by the In- 
ternational Botanical Congresses of Vienna and Brussels^-employ- 
ment of a compound trivial name composed of the names of the two 
parent species, separated by the conventional X sign, or use of a 
new trivial name in a binomial preceded by the same conventional 
symbol. Taking a now well-known oak hybrid as illustration, the 
first method would cause it to be referred to as either Quercus alba 
X Prinus or Q. Prinus X olba, and the second as X 0- Saulii. 

Various qualifications of the first procedure have been proposed 
or put in practice now and then to show which is the male and which 
is the female parent species, or to indicate by use of the symbol > 
or < which parent is more closely resembled by the hybrid. The 
first of these is possible only when hybridization has been effected 
artificially or when the mother plant is known, so that uniformity 
in its use and therefore general comparability is impossible. As a 
fact no effort has been made to indicate the resemblance to either 
parent in the majority of cases; nor is it likely that different ob- 
servers would reach identical conclusions in this respect for many 
specimens of hybrids because, among other things, no agreement 
exists as to which of several non-concordant characters is to form 
the basis of judgment. Amplification of this composite name 
method permits the similar designation of secondary and tertiary or 
higher hybrids, but in an increasingly cumbersome way, so that the 
polynomial indication of such forms becomes very quickly a con- 
fused symbolically abbreviated description rather than a name. 
Even in the simple case of such a first cross as has been taken for 
illustration, every rectification of error in the names applied to 

44 



TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 45 

either parent species entails a change in each of the hybrid designa- 
tions. For instance, if Professor Sargent's conclusion is to be ac- 
cepted^ that the specific name Prinus must be applied to the cow 
oak, and not to the rock chestnut oak, so that the name montana 
is to be restored for the latter, the permissible designations of this 
hybrid at once change to Q, alba X montana and Q, montana X 
alba. This sort of double correction must be applied every time 
that the name of either parent is dragged into the lamentable whirl- 
pool of nomenclatorial debate, which in this particular branch can 
be made hopelessly confused and voluminous by even a fraction of 
the permutations that are likely to be made. 

Binomial designation of each hybrid — simple, secondary or of a 
higher order — offers escape from some of the difficulties attending 
the multiple-name method. A binomial applied to a hybrid at once 
falls under the procedure customary with ordinary specific bi- 
nomials, and no matter what changes the trivial names of the parent 
species may undergo its own applicability rests solely on the basis 
of priority. In case of a change of generic names it is merely 
dragged about with the species it is derived from, and in the rare 
instances of what are or may come to be considered bigeneric 
hybrids it does not itself suffer change in the new connection and 
may cease to be dragged about, even, so soon as such hybrid genera 
are given uniformly definite names of their own, such, for instance, 
as Lcelio-Cattleya, aj^lied to the hybrid between the orchid genera 
Lcplia and Cattleya, Its position is even more stable than that of 
varietal or subspecific trivial names, the treatment of which pre- 
scribed by international conventions is not followed uniformly in 
different countries or by different writers. 

One inherent defect in such binomial designation of hybrids re- 
quires serious consideration. The scientific name of a species or 
variety stands for an assemblage of individuals no two of which 
may be alike but which possess characters of agreement by which 
they differ from other assemblages of individuals to which they 
are related in the genus they represent as species or in the species 
they represent as varieties: it stands clearly for a morphological 
concept. In contrast with this, the binomial applied to a hybrid ap- 

' Rhodora. 17 : 40, 191 5. 



46 TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 

pears to be an expression of parentage, which may be supported by 
morphological characters when its individual representatives meet 
this test of mutual resemblance and difference from other named 
assemblages, but which falls to the ground when they differ so 
much among themselves as to make a diagnostic description impos- 
sible. This is the case frequently, and the now commonly known 
Mendelian laws of segregation prepare one for the expectation that 
in some cases, at least, purely dominant and recessive seedlings of a 
known hybrid will be no longer other than reversions to one or 
other parent form if raised from self-fertilized seeds. 

Obviously the application of binomials to hybrids is in a different 
cat^ory from the use of such names for species or varieties: it is 
not a matter of taxonomy, the stability of which is generally recog- 
nized as dependent upon a morphological basis: but a phase of 
nomenclature, a means to the end of convenient reference to the 
various kinds of things. There is so much to be said in its favor 
that botanists are coming to employ it generally. A special diffi- 
ctdty and source of confusion inherent in the designation of hybrids 
under any method lies in the fact that their parentage is more com- 
monly assumed from their characters or inferred from circum- 
stantial evidence than actually known. Whatever the method, 
synonymy must grow with every mistake made in this respect : but 
the remedy for this lies with those who are responsible for report- 
ing the parentage of supposed hybrids, as, elsewhere, it lies with 
those who are responsible for segregating species or other formal 
groups. 

Such a case as that of Bartram's oak, X Quercus heterophylla, 
presents an interesting aspect of the question. This was named by 
Michaux as though it were an ordinary species. Subsequent 
botanists have regarded it as a cross between Q, Phellos and Q. 
velutina. The behavior of seedlings from trees taken to be repre- 
sentative of heterophylla has led to the conclusion that these were a 
cross between Q, Phellos and Q. rubra. On this evidence, they 
have been given by Schneider the binomial X Q- Hollickii. If the 
purpose were to name the idea of a possible cross, this would obvi- 
ously be necessary, since the idea of the cross between Q, Phellos 
and Q, velutina would have been called X Q- heterophylla. As a 



TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 47 

matter of fact, the name was given to a definite plant form, and 
follows that form whatever changes of theory or knowledge its 
parentage may undergo. For this reason, X Q- HolUckii passes 
into synonymy as a mere equivalent of the earlier name X Q- 
heterophylla; and the latter does not in any way affect the naming, 
on its own merits, of a hybrid between Phellos and velutina when- 
ever that is brought to light. Such a plant is believed to be that 
which is here called X Q- dubia, though some doubt attaches to its 
parentage. If an error has been made, X Q- dubia in its turn will 
still stand for this form if it can be identified, which is less certain 
than for heterophylla; and a real hybrid between Phellos and 
velutina, if ever found, will finally be given a definite name quite 
irrespective of these efforts. A somewhat comparable case is 
afforded by X Q. runcinata. 

In my study of the American oaks, briefly summarized recently,' 
I have had to account for a considerable number of hybrids, some 
of which have been described or even figured, occasionally as species 
in the ordinary use of the term, and some of which have been made 
known by reference to specimens more or less generally distributed 
by their collectors. No collective treatment of these forms has ever 
been made : they are not to be found severally assembled in any 
herbarium that I have seen, being inserted sometimes under one 
parent, sometimes under the other — ^now under one name, now 
under another for the parental species — ^and exceptionally under 
binomials of their own. The following table accounts for every- 
thing of this description that I have encountered either in herbaria 
or in publications on Quercus; it is published partly to call atten- 
tion to the general desirability, as I see it, of designating hybrids by 
binomials, and partly to facilitate a workable assemblage of oak 
materials in herbaria. 

Lest misapprehension arise, it should be stated that what is here 
called Q. rubra is the common red oak of the eastern United States ; 
though, following Professor Sargent's suggestion of a current mis- 
identification, Mr. Ashe proposes replacing this name by Q. maxima, 
and using rubra for what is here called Q. cuneata — the digitata or 
falcata of many writers. 

2 Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 2 : 626. 1916. 



48 TRELEASE— NAMIN9 AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 

Quercus alba X bicolor = X Q. Jackiana 

X fnacrocarpa=' X Q. Bebbiana 
X fnontana= X Q. Saulii 
X Muehlenbergii= X Q. Deami 
X prinoides = X Q. Faxoni 
X Prinus= X Q. Beadlei 
X stellata= X Q. Fernowl 
Q. arizonica X grisea = X Q. organensis 
X Q. Ashei n. nom. (Q. Catesbcpi X cinerea) 
X Q. Beadlei n. nom. (Q. o/fta X Prinus) 
X Q. Bebbiana Schneider (Q. alba X macrocarpa) 
X Q. Benderi Baenitz^ (Q. coccinea X rubra) 
Q, bicolor X alba= X Q. Jackiana 

X fnacrocarpa=z X Q. Schuettei 
X Q. bluff tonensis n. nom. (Q. Catesbcei X cuneata) 
X Q. Brittoni Davis ( Q. ilicifolia X marilandica) 
X Q» caduca n. nom. (Q. cinerea X nigra) 
X Q. carollnensis n. nom. (Q. cinerea X marilandica) 
Q. Catesbcei X cinerea = X Q- Ashei 

X cuneata =i X Q. bluff tonensis 
X wflrra* = X Q. Walteriana 
Q. cinerea X CatesbcBi= X Q. Ashei 

X cuneata= X Q- subintegra 
X laurifolia= X Q- sublaurifolia 
X marilandica = X Q. carolinensis 
X nigra = X Q. caduca 
X .^ velutina = X Q. podophylla 
Q. coccinea X ilicifolia = X Q. Robbinsii 

X paIustris = Q. ellipsoidalis f., — not a hybrid. 
X rubra= X Q- Benderi 

« Resemblance to either parent is here indicated by use of the trinomials 
X Q' Benderi coccinoides and Q, Benderi rubroides, and one of the many 
forms possible of the former is indicated in the name X Q- Benderi coc- 
cinoides f. volvato-annulata. 

* Q, sinuata Walter, usually taken to have designated this hybrid, is held 
to apply properly to what Small has called Q. austrina. — Ashe, Proc. Soc. 
Amer. Foresters, ii : 89. 1916. 



TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 49 

Q. cuneata X Catesb(pi= X Q. blufftonensis 

X cinerea=^ X Q. subinteg^a 

X Phellos= X Q. subfalcata 

X velutina = X Q. Sudworthi 
X Q. Beami n. nom. (Q. alba X Muehlenbergii) 
Q, Douglasii X Garry ana 

What has been taken for, possibly, this cross scarcely appears to be 
more than Q. Douglasii. 

X Q. DUBiA Ashe (Q. Phellos X f velutina) 

Q. dumosa X Engelmanni 

Specimens distributed for this hybrid scarcely appear to be more than 
Q. dumosa. 

Q, ellipsoidalis X velutina = X Q. palaeolithicola 
Q. Etnoryi X grisea 
X pungens 
Neither of these appears to show evidence of Q. Emoryi as a parent. 
Q. Engelmanni X dumosa (See Q, dumosa) 
X Q- exacta n. nom. {Q, imbricaria X palustris) 
X Q- Faxoni n. nom. (Q. alba X prinoides) 
X Q- Femowi n. nom. (Q. alba X stellata) 
Q. Garryana X Douglasii 

See note under Q. Douglasii. 
Q. georgiana X marilandica = X Q. Smallii 
X Q. Giffordi n. nom. (Q. ilicifolia X Phellos) 
Q. grisea X arizonica= X Q. organensis 

X Emoryi (see note under Q, Emoryi) 
X Q. HETEROPHYLLA Michaux (Q. Phellos X rubra) 
X Q- Hillii n. nom. (Q. macrocarpa X Muehlenbergii) 
X Q. HoLLiCKii Schneider =i X Q- heterophylla 
Q. ilicifolia X coc€inea=z X Q. Robbinsii 

X marilandica = X Q. Brittoni 
X Phellos = X Q. Giffordi 
X velutina = X Q- Rehderi 
Q. imbricaria X marilandica= X Q. tridentata 

X palustris =i X Q. exacta 
X rubra= X Q. runcinata 
X velutina= X Q- Leana 



50 TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 

Q, Kelloggii X Wislizem =i X Q. moreha 

X Q. Jackiana Schneider {Q. alba X hicolor) 

Q. laurifolia X Catesbcei = X Q. Mellichampi 

X cinerea= X Q. sublaurifolia 
X Q. Lean A Nuttall (Q. imbrkaria X velutind) 
X Q. LUDOViciANA Sargent (Q. Pagoda X Phellos) 
Q. macrocarpa X alba=x X Q. Bebbiana 

X bicolor=i X Q. Schuettei 

X Muehlenbergii= X Q. HilHi 
Q. marilandica X cinerea=i X Q. carolinensis 

X georgiana = X Q. Smallii 

X Uicifolia= X Q. Brittoni 

X ifnbricaria= X Q- tridentata 

X nigra =i X Q. sterilis 

X Phellos = X Q. Rudkini 

X Q. Mellichampi n. nom. (Q. Catesbcei X laurifolia) 

Q, montana^ X o/&fl = X Q. SauHi 

X Q. MOREHA Kellogg^ (Q. Kelloggii X Wislizeni) 

Q. Muehlenbergii X alba= X Q- Deami 

X macrocarpa =r X Q. HiUii 

Q. «^ra X Catesb(Bi=^ X Q- Walteriana 

X cinerea == X Q. caduca 

X fnarilanclica= X Q. sterilis 

X Q. organensis n. nom. (Q. arisonica X grisea) 

Q. Pagoda'^ X Phellos = X Q. ludoviciana 

X Q. palflBolithicola n. hybr. (Q. ellipsoidalis X velutina) 

A form in foliage resembling Q. coccinea, or the foccinea-like W/i^ 
soidalis, with fruit of the larger ellipsoidalis or coccinea type, but buds large 
and hairy as in velutina. — The type from Winnebago County Illinois (Bebb). 

Q. palustris X coccinea = Q, ellipsoidalis f., — not a hybrid. 

X imbricaria= X Q. exacta 

X rubra = X Q. Richteri 

5 The rock chestnut oak, commonly called Q. Prinus, 

« Commonly written Q, Morehus, but evidently an adjective name based 
on Moreh — the Scriptural " land of Moriah," and consequently to be brought 
into agreement of gender with the feminine tree name Quercus. 

T Though pagodcefoUa, applied by Ashe to this species, has priority in 
varietal use, it gives way under the international rules to Rafinesque's spe- 
cific name Pagoda, 



TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 51 

Q. Phellos X cuneata=i X Q. subfalcata 
X ilicifolia= X Q. Giffordi 
X marilandica=^ X Q. Rudkini 
X Pagoda = X Q. ludoviciana 
X rubra= X Q. heterophylla 
X f veluHna= X Q. dubia 
X Q. podophylla n. nom. (Q. cinerea X f velutina) 

This is Q. petiolaris Ashe, a preoccupied name. 
X Q. Porteri n. nom. (Q, rubra f X velutina) 
Q. prinoides X alba = X Q. Faxoni 
Q. Prinu^ X a/fta = X Q. Beadlei 
Q. pungens X Emoryi (See note under Q. Emoryi) 
X Q. Rehderi n. nom. (Q. Uicifolia X velutina) 
X Q. RiCHTERi Baenitz (Q. pdustris X rubra) 
X Q. Robbinsii n. nom. (Q. coccinea X Uicifolia) 
Q. rubra X coccinea= X Q- Benderi 

X ifnbri€aria=^ X Q. runcinata 
X pdustris = X Q. Richteri 
X Phellos = X Q. heterophylla 
X .^ velutina = X Q. Porteri 
X Q. Rudkini Britton (Q. marUandica X Phellos) 
X Q. RUNCINATA Engelmann (Q. imbricaria X rubra) 

The current idea that this is a cross of Q. cunija/a with Q. rw^ra seems 
less probable than the parentage here indicated; and cuneata does not occur 
where the type material was collected. 

X Q. Saulii Schneider (Q. dba X montana) 

X Q. Schuettei n. hybr. (Q. bicolor X macrocarpa) 

A form with twigs of Q. macrocarpa and sometimes corky-winged, foliage 
variously intermediate but prevailingly suggestive of bicolor, and subsessile 
small fruit of the bicolor type but with the cups sometimes short-fringed and 
then resembling small-fruited forms of macrocarpa, — Cf. Proc. Amer. Philos. 
Soc. 54. pL I. — The type from Fort Howard, Wisconsin (Schuette, September 
28, 1893). 

X Q- Smallii n. nom. (Q. georgiana X tnarilandica) 

Q. stellata X dba= X Q. Femowi 

X Q. sterilis n. nom. (Q. marUandica X nigra) 

* The cow oak, commonly known as Q. Michauxii, 



52 TRELEASE— NAMING AMERICAN HYBRID OAKS. 

X Q. subfalcata n. nom. (Q. cuneata X Phellos) 

This is Q. fcUcata Ashe, a preoccupied name. 
X Q. subintegra n. nom. {Q. cinerea X cuneata) 
X Q. sublaurifolia n. nom. (Q. cinerea X laurifolia) 
X Q. Sudworthi n. nom. (Q. cuneata X velutina) 
X Q. TRiDENTATA Engclmann (Q. imbricaria X marilandica) 
Q. velutina X cinerea= X Q. podophylla 

X rttn^afa=3 X Q- Sudworthi 

X ellipsoidalis=^ X Q. palaeolithicola 

X Uicifolia = X Q. Rehderi 

X imbricaria = X Q. Leana 

XP/tW/o^=XQ.dubia 

X rubra = X Q- Porteri 
X Q. Walteriana Ashe (Q. Catesbcei X w^ra) 
0. Wisliseni X Kelloggii^=^ X Q. moreha 

From the foregoing list, I have omitted Q, hemispluBrica Will- 
denow and Q, hybrida Small, as I am frankly in doubt as to their 
status. The latter (Q. laurifolia hybrida Michaux), supposedly a 
cross between laurifolia and nigra, seems rather to be a toothed form 
of Q. laurifolia. The former, comprising a great array of inter- 
mediates between Phellos and nigra as well as other forms not other-, 
wise placeable, and in its extremes not distinguishable from these 
species, though I do not recall that it has been held for a hybrid 
seems more likely to include some hybrids in its complex than is 
true of Q, hybrida. 

The University of Illinois, 
March i, 1917. 

Explanation of Plates. 

Plate I. X Quercus pal<rolithicola. Type material in the Field Museum. 
The upper figure about one third natural size ; the lower of natural size. 

Plate II. X Quercus Schuettei, about one third natural size. The upper 
sheet, in the United States National Herbarium, with foliage approaching 
that of Q. bicolor; the lower, in the Field Museum, with foliage and fruit 
more as in Q. macrocarpa. 

Plate III. X Quercus Schuettei. The upper figure a representation of 
the type sheet, in the Field Museum, about one third natural size; the lower 
a fragment of this specimen, of natural size. 



PROCEEDINQS Am. PhiloS. SOC. > 



^ 



^ 



i 



Proceedings Am. Philos. Soc. Vol. LVI. 




Proceedings Aw. Philos. Soc. Vol. LVI. 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 



SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY, K.C.B. 

(Read May 4, 19 17.) 

In the untimely death of Sir William Ramsay the American 
Philosophical Society has lost one of its most distinguished mem- 
bers, the world of science a leader of rare insight and initiative, 
England one of her most brilliant men, and his intimates a much 
prized friend. He possessed a personality of unusual charm, 
charged with wide interests, keen human affections, and vivid 
enthusiasms. 

The only son of William Ramsay, a well-known civil engineer, 
and Catherine Robertson Ramsay, the child destined later to 
develop into a great chemist was born at Glasgow on the 2d of 
October, 1852. He early turned his attention toward science, and 
believed his talent in this direction to have been inherited from his 
grandparents on both his father's and his mother's side — for he 
came of families of physicians and naturalists. After preliminary 
education at the Glasgow Academy, he entered the University of 
Glasgow when only fourteen years old, taking at first a general 
course, and later turning his attention especially toward chemistry. 
In 1870, at the age of eighteen, his chemical studies had progressed 
so far that he was anxious to seek further light in Germany, and in 
the autumn of that year was able, in spite of the Franco-Prussian 
war, to go to Heidelberg in order to study under Bunsen. Shortly 
afterwards he turned toward Tiibingen, where he worked for nearly 
two years under Fittig, and gained his doctor's degree by virtue 
of a dissertation upon ortho- and meta-toluic acid. 

In the autumn of 1872 the young doctor of philosophy of twenty 
summers returned, full of enthusiasm, to his native city, and became 
assistant in the "Young" laboratory of technical chemistry there. 
Two years later he was made tutorial assistant in the University 
of Glasgow. In spite of his charge of the elementary class of 
200 students he found time to undertake investigations concerning 

« • • 

ni 



iv OBITUARY NOTICES. 

many diverse fields of chemistry; for his interest was wide, and 
only as the years advanced did he put most of his energy into the 
swiftly growing branch of physical chemistry, which finally came 
to claim most of his attention. 

His studies on picolin and quinine were partly ready for publica- 
tion in 1876, and in 1879, while still at Glasgow, he published an 
important investigation concerning molecular volumes of liquids at 
their boiling points, a research for which he devised peculiarly in- 
genious apparatus. His interesting preliminary study of the chem- 
istry of the sense of smell dates from about the same time, and, 
taken together with the others, shows the breadth and scope of his 
interest. 

In the next year Ramsay was called to the professorship of 
chemistry in the University of Bristol, where he remained seven 
years, and where he foimd Sydney Young, an able collaborator, 
with whom he published many papers between 1882 and 1889. 
These papers especially concerned vapor pressure, and dealt not 
only with the vapor pressure of solid and liquid substances, but 
also with the dissociation of ammonia and nitrogen trioxide, as well 
as with the critical point. During the last six of his years at the 
University College, Bristol, Ramsay was principal as well as pro- 
fessor of chemistry. 

In 1887 he resigned both positions in order to accept the chair 
of chemistry in University College on Gower Street in London, this 
chair having been left vacant by the death of Williamson. Ramsay 
was one of the first to see the far-reaching importance of the new 
theory of solutions brought forward by van't HofF and Arrhenius, 
as was shown by the fact that he published in the Philosophical 
Magazine an English translation of van't Hoff's epoch-making 
paper. Not only in this way, but also by his own researches 
Ramsay advanced the new doctrines, and his investigations on the 
diminution of the vapor pressure of mercury by the presence of dis- 
solved metals, as well as his interesting and important work on 
surface tension, bore witness to his faith in the new point of view. 

At University College, where he remained until 1913, he carried 
out also the series pf brilliant researches which constitute his chief 
title to fame, namely, those concerning the inert gases of the 



SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY. V 

atmosphere. Lord Rayleigh, in a research which is a model of 
experimental acumen and conscientious execution, was the first to 
suspect the existence of such gases ; his careful study of the density 
of nitrogen from different sources had proved chemical nitrogen 
(prepared from nitric acid and ammonia) to be distinctly less in 
density than the residue of the atmosphere from which oxygen and 
carbon dioxide had been separated. Lord Rayleigh had shown that 
the difference was not due to any impurity of hydrogen in the 
chemically prepared nitrogen, and that hence it must probably be 
due to an unknown impurity in the atmospheric nitrogen. He had 
begun on the task of burning this rather incombustible gas with the 
help of the electric spark, in order to discover the nature of the 
residue, a task which Cavendish long before had crudely attempted, 
and which is now executed on a huge scale commercially. Ramsay, 
stimulated by Lord Rayleigh's experiments and by the latter's 
request for air from chemists, suggested another method of fixing 
atmospheric nitrogen by conducting the gas over heated magnesium. 
The two investigators worked in harmony, and in 1894 succeded in 
showing that the residues left after the nitrogen was combined by 
these two different methods were identical; and that this common 
residue consisted primarily of a hitherto unsuspected gas, which 
they named argon, existing to the extent of about i per cent, in the 
atmosphere. Sir William once told me that on hearing of Lord 
Rayleigh's first experiments and turning to the original description 
of Cavendish's experiments in his own library, he found the pencilled 
annotation, " Look into this matter," placed opposite the line where 
Cavendish states that a small bubble, not over i per cent, of the 
whole, remained unconsumed by the sparking with oxygen. If 
Ramsay had followed this early suggestion of his own, he. instead 
of Lord Rayleigh, might have been the first to point out that the 
small bubble remaining in Cavendish's experiment, was probably 
a hitherto unknown gas. As it was, Ramsay's greatest credit lay 
especially in his later work in this field. Remembering a discovery 
of Hillebrand's that an inert gas had been found to exist included in 
a certain ore of uranium, Ramsay secured a specimen of this ore in 
order to discover if this gas might not be argon. To his amaze- 
ment he found that the gas possessed a different spectrum, the chief 



vi OBITUARY NOTICES. 

yellow line in which was identical with that in the spectrum of the 
sun ascribed to an element, unknown on earth, called helium. 
Before Ramsay's discovery this substance had indeed been suspected 
in the spectrum of volcanic ejections from Vesuvius, but no one 
had any idea of its nature. The excitement of the discovery was so 
great that Ramsay was obliged to voyage to Iceland for a long rest. 
The existence of two inert gases with atomic weights respectively 
about 4 and 40 suggested to Ramsay the possibility that there might 
also be others fitting in to other corresponding places in the periodic 
system of the elements; and after an eager search, in a brilliant 
investigation, Ramsay announced the discovery of the whole series, 
including neon, crypton and xenon, obtained by fractional distillation 
at very low temperatures of the residues from large amounts of 
liquid air or liquid argon. This work was carried out with the 
help of Travers, using the methods for the liquefaction of the so- 
called permanent gases which had only recently been developed by 
others. It was about this time, between 1895 ^^^ 1898. that I 
remember Sir William's having said to me : " Nothing in this world 
is too strange to be true if properly substantiated by adequate ex- 
periments." This feeling animated Ramsay in all his researches, 
and was a good preparation for the yet more astounding things 
which were to come. For during these years the extraordinary 
properties of radium and the revolutionary phenomena of radio- 
activity began to become known to mankind, and Ramsay, with 
eager interest in anything capable of throwing new light upon the 
processes of nature, welcomed to his laboratory Frederick Soddy, 
who had just come from Montreal, where he had helped Ruther- 
ford in his epoch-making studies concerning this subject. It was 
Ramsay's admirable technique in dealing with small quantities of 
gases that enabled him, in collaboration with Soddy in 1903, to 
give the first experimental evidence that helium is formed from 
radium — a phenomenon suspected by Rutherford, but not experi- 
mentally proved by him. Soon afterwards, in 1908, with the help 
of Cameron, Ramsay showed that the emanation from radium, 
which had been proved by Ramsay's earlier work with Gray to be 
a heavy but unstable gas, had, in spite of its instability, a spectrtun 
of its own. 



SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY. vii 

It is not surprising that an enthusiast confronted with the de- 
composition of so many substances, which in so many respects ap- 
peared to be classed among the elements, should push the idea too 
far and fall into an almost alchemical state of mind. Ramsay's 
later experiments, in conjunction with Cameron and Usher, in which 
they thought that radium emanation could decompose copper into 
lithium and thorium into carbon, have not been verified by other 
experimenters. Perhaps it is premature to judge the outcome ; but 
if the conclusion was an error, it must be remembered that the 
person who has never made a mistake is one who has never at- 
tempted any serious work. 

More fortunate, as it appears at present, was Ramsay's later 
research with Gray on the density of the radium emanation, called 
by him "niton." This important investigation, carried out with 
extraordinarily small quantities of material, proved the transitory 
*' niton " to be the heaviest member of the argon series, and showed 
that it fits satisfactorily into its appointed place in the periodic 
system, as well as into the expected niche in the Soddy-Fajans 
disintegration series. 

The work indicating the true nature of niton appropriately 
crowned Ramsay's work upon the series of inert gases, the discovery 
of which was so largely due to his insight, enthusiasm and 
perseverance. 

In addition to all his brilliant researches Ramsay found time to 
publish a number of books, the chief of which were : " A System of 
Chemistry" (1891); "The Gases of the Atmosphere" (1896); 
"Modem Chemistry" (1901); "Essays, Biographical and Chem- 
ical" (1908) ; and (as editor) a series of very valuable textbooks 
upon the different subdivisions of physical chemistry. In 191 1 he 
was president of the British Association for the Advancement oi 
Science, and his address, which began with a review of the amazing 
discoveries of recent years, ended with an impressive warning as to 
the imp>ending failure of the world's coal supply, especially that of 
Britain, with its direful consequences; but this warning has fallen 
largely upon deaf ears, and the world continues to squander the 
stored energy of the ages with reckless prodigality. 

As would be expected, honors were showered upon this rare 



viii OBITUARY NOTICES. 

intellect from all sides. He was created K.C.B. in 1902 arid re- 
ceived the Nobel prize in chemistry in 19C4, besides having had 
various orders and medals conferred upon him, and having been 
made an honorary member of nearly all the learned academies and 
chemical societies of the world. Many of these distinctions came 
from Germany, where he formerly had warm friends; but on the 
outbreak of the war his patriotism and his sense of justice and honor 
made him a firm and outspoken upholder of the cause of the 
Entente Allies, and even during his lingering and painful illness he 
did all in his power to help his country in her time of need. In 1881 
he married Miss Margaret Buchanan, who survives him, with one 
son, one daughter, and three grandchildren. He died, all too soon, 
on the 23d of July, 1916, in his sixty-fourth year, at his country 
estate at Haslemere in Bucks, England. 

Ramsay, in his own brief autobiographical sketch, has acknowl- 
edged freely the debt which he sometimes owed to others for ideas 
and suggestions, proclaiming his belief that scientific men should 
help one another and seek help whenever they could, and adding 
that he always endeavored to acknowledge specific cases of indebted- 
ness to others whenever possible. Nevertheless, he was full of 
initiative and originality himself. The study of his work shows 
that the following were among the attributes of his genius: an 
intense curiosity and enthusiasm with regard to everything new, 
an excellent experimental technique in dealing with gases, a great 
fertility of fruitful ideas, a daring scientific imagination, and de- 
voted persistence in any promising line of work. The happy aggre- 
gation of these and other qualifications led Ramsay to successes 
significant enough to put his name high on the roll of the leaders of 
chemistry for all time. To him science owes a priceless debt for 
investigations which, in the short space of a score of years, made 
an unparalleled contribution, in that they revealed to the world a 
whole group of hitherto unknown elements possessing properties 
both unexpected and unique. 

Theodore W. Richards. 



CLEVELAND ABBE, 1838-1916. 

(Read May 4, iqtt) 

Qeveland Abbe, astronomer, meteorologist, philosopher, for forty- 
six years an active member of the American Philosophical Society, 
esteemed and honored by his colleagues in science for his achieve- 
ments in the fields of meteorology, and the application of that science 
to the welfare of man, is beloved and mourned by all his friends 
for the gentle kindliness of his spirit and the unfailing aid, en- 
couragement and inspiration flowing from his inexhaustible stores 
of information, suggestion and boundless enthusiasm. 

More than thirty years ago it was my pleasure to enter upon my 
official life in Washington as a civil service probationer under the 
immediate instruction and supervision of Professor Abbe, who was 
at that time in charge of the so-called Study Room of the Office of 
the Chief Signal Officer. Although independently, I have nevertheless 
worked literally side by side in close association with him through- 
out all the years that have followed our first acquaintance, and to 
my feelings of esteem and respect for the scholar and devotee have 
been added my affection, for the man of gentle and generous ways 
and a spirit refined and purified by his unselfish promotion of the 
pleasure and welfare of all around him. Embracing the Christian 
faith at the age of fifteen, the true spirit of Christ moulded and 
guided his conduct ever thereafter and, although brought up in the 
Baptist church, in his later years he enjoyed with his second wife 
the comfort and inspiration of the beautiful ritual of the Episcopal 
Church. 

Cleveland Abbe was bom in the city of New York at the home 
of his parents in Madison Street, December 3, 1838, and died 
October 28, 191 6, at his home in Chevy Chase, Md., after a some- 
what protracted affliction of partial paralysis, which though limiting 
his bodily activity, left his spirit and mental faculties wholly unim- 
paired to the last. He was the eldest of a family of seven children, 

ix 



X OBITUARY NOTICES. 

five sons and two daughters, bom to George Waldo and Charlotte 
Colgate Abbe. Three of his brothers and his two sisters still survive 
him. His ancestry on both sides was of pure English stock of 
liberty-loving English and Huguenot emigration. His Colonial an- 
cestor, John Abbe, was bom in England about 1613 and settled in 
Salem, Mass., about 1635. Professor Abbe's father was prominent 
in the mercantile and charitable affairs of New York at a time when 
public schools were rare and the city was primitive enough for Abbe 
and his boyhood companions to gather shells on Battery beach. 
His early education was gained in private schools, later in the David 
B. Scott Grammar School, No. 40, on 20th Street. From this he 
entered the New York Free Academy, now the College of the City 
of New York, in 1851. After making an honorable record in mathe- 
matics and the sciences he graduated in 1857, taking, as he says, 
" the year 1853 over again to my great advantage as a student." 

Inspired by his parents with a love of nature, his predilections 
for scientific pursuits followed naturally, and after graduation his 
progress toward his life work was rapid and consistent. While 
teaching mathematics in Trinity Latin School and later in Ann 
Arbor, Mich., he further perfected his own education in astronomy, 
spending four years at Cambridge, Mass., in association with Dr. B. 
A. Gould and assisting in the telegraphic longitude work of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey. The two years, 1865 
and 1866, were spent delightfully at the great Russian observatory 
at Pulkova, then under the illustrious Otto Struve. Here, under 
new laws of the autocratic Russian Empire, a few young men of 
civilian rank, while at liberty to devote their whole time to their 
own studies, were nevertheless permitted to participate if they so 
desired in some of the regular work of the observatory, for which 
a small compensation was allowed. The years of his happy asso- 
ciations and congenial work at this great institution remained there* 
after a delightful and vivid memory to him, to which he always re- 
ferred with sympathy and feeling. 

A little incident serves to show the warmth of the hospitality 
which greeted him and also goes far to explain the mystic charm 
seeming to surround these impressionable years of his early life. It 
seems his arrival at Pulkova occurred at about Christmas time. 



CLEVELAND ABBE. xi 

Imagine his astonishment when he was shown his name on a hand- 
some samovar standing among the gifts beside the Christmas tree. 
To further prepare him for the astronomical work in which he would 
be engaged during the long and rigorous winters of northern Russia, 
arrangements had been made for his advantageous purchase of a 
splendid great coat lined with native fur. It is easy to understand 
the deep impression incidents and associations of this kind would 
make upon the gentle and sympathetic nature of Abbe. Unfortu- 
nately the samovar was early stolen from him, but the great coat is 
still serviceable and among his effects. During the winter of 1909- 
1910 he resided at the Weather Bureau station at Mount Weather, 
Va., where the severe atmospheric conditions gave frequent occa- 
sions for the use of the great fur coat. The writer, himself, was 
snow-bound at Mt. Weather on one of these occasions and after the 
storm, during a nine mile drive through the snow drifts to the rail- 
way station, he enjoyed the warmth and protection of the great fur 
coat, which was even then, after the lapse of about thirty-four years, 
in perfect preservation, a tribute to the perfected art of tanning furs 
in Russia. 

Returning to the United States Abbe entered upon work at the 
Naval Observatory at Washington, D. C, in 1867. As early as 
February in 1868, however, he had accepted the position of director 
of the Cincinnati Observatory, to which place he removed in June 
of the same year. A member of Abbe's family relates to me an 
interesting incident not generally known, concerning his election to 
the directorship of the Cincinnati Observatory and that well illus- 
trates Abbe's gentle temperament and kindly solicitude for others. 
During the transatlantic passage on his return from Russia he made 
the casual acquaintance of an elderly woman of culture and refine- 
ment. Ocean travel at that time lacked many of the comforts we 
are now accustomed to enjoy and during the prolonged passage 
Abbe foimd pleasure in telling his sympathetic acquaintance of his 
hopes and ambitions, and his devotion to astronomy. We can well 
imagine the frequent opportunities embraced by Abbe to extend his 
kindly courtesies and contribute to the comfort and welfare of his 
older companion. The journey ended with the customary partings 
and exchange of sentiments and sympathies incident to travel and 



xii OBITUARY NOTICES. 

nothing more was expected to occur. When, however, a year or 
more thereafter Abbe had moved to Cincinnati, he learned with 
pleasure and surprise that his selection for the observatory had been 
suggested and promoted by the flattering representations of his ac- 
quaintance of the transatlantic trip. Abbe, it seems, has recited this 
story chiefly to his own sons, with the admonition, that thus they 
may see the benefits resulting from kindness and courtesies shown 
to the elderly. 

Professor Abbe's wedded life b^^n May lo, 1870, in his mar- 
riage to Frances Martha Neal, daughter of David Neal, a resident 
of Cincinnati. The children of this union were three sons, all bom 
in Washington, D. C, namely : Qeveland Abbe, Jr., bom March 25, 
1872, married Frieda Dauer ; Tmman Abbe, bom November i, 1873, 
married Ethel W. Brown; William Abbe, bom June 27, 1877, 
married Louisa Hart Howson. The mother was a woman of 
strong character and personality with simple home-loving tastes, 
opposed to shams, frivolities and ostentations, always hungry for 
knowledge and intensely proud of her home and children, to whose 
rearing and education she gave her love and assiduous attention. 
In this she enjoyed the complete and earnest support of her devoted 
husband. 

At an early period of his life. in Washington he purchased 
an old and historic residence with great rooms and lofty ceilings, 
located at 2017 I Street, N. W. Here for many years with simple 
but sincere and hearty hospitality he entertained visiting scientists 
and others of his acquaintance, always availing himself of such 
opportunities to increase, if possible, his stores of knowledge by 
questions and discussions of scientific topics. A frequent visitor to 
the house in the earlier days when the boys were at home writes in 
a recent letter : ** I have always had a most delightful impression of 
Prof. Abbe as the head of a family. He was always full of fun and 
delighted in the pleasure of his children and their friends, or of any 
guest who came into his house. I never saw him in any mood 
except one of kindness and cheerfulness. All that I can say is to 
confirm what all his friends already know — ^that no man of such 
learning and such great scientific activities has shown a gentler dis- 
position and kindlier heart than Professor Qeveland Abbe." 



CLEVELAND ABBE. xiii 

The extent of his charities can doubtless never be fully known 
but the cases of record testify to his disposition to single out deserv- 
ing and meritorious instances where the bestowal of aid, necessarily 
limited by his own simple resources, would bear the best fruit. 
Each of these doubtless meant a definite personal sacrifice, signif- 
icant of the sincerity and unselfishness of his motives. 

The long years of his official life under the government inevitably 
brought a number of vicissitudes which Abbe's boundless devotion 
to his beloved science enabled him to bear with patience and tolera- 
tion ; whereas they brought a deeper sadness and resentment to the 
declining years of his devoted wife. In the early part of 1900 her 
health began visibly to fail, ending in death in Canton, N. Y., July 
24, 1908. 

At this date his sons were each married and already established 
in a home of his own. The father doubtless perceived and felt 
the loneliness of his situation, in spite of the solicitude and hospital- 
ity extended by his sons. Consequently, although then at the age 
of seventy, it was not surprising to those acquainted with the 
affectionate and sympathetic spirit of Abbe to learn of his second 
marriage in Philadelphia, Pa., April 12, 1909, to Miss Margaret 
Augusta Percival of Basseterre, St. Kitts, British West Indies. In 
renewed health, after a severe illness following his constant and 
patient attention to the needs of his first wife in her last illness, 
Abbe entered upon his new happiness with much of the spirit and 
romance of youth but, yet, with the sincerity and seriousness of 
maturity. Each found in the other the great need of all humanity, 
sacred love, completely satisfied, moulding their separate lives into 
unselfish reciprocal devotion. There was thus fittingly provided in 
the tender care and solicitude of this capable wife of a stronger 
vigor of life than he, both the affection and the attention that were 
needful when his own bodily strength, which he had so lavishly be- 
stowed in the interests of science and humanity, failed longer to 
fully sustain him. 

The horrors of the European war were a great mental distress 
to Professor Abbe in his last days and added to the pains his bodily 
illness brought upon him. His mind, however, was singularly clear 



XIV OBITUARY NOTICES. 

and cheerful even at the last moments, as I am told by those around 
him. 

I have thus dwelt at some length upon events of Abbe's early 
career and his family life and last days, as heretofore these have 
been known only to the family and intimate friends, whereas many 
of his labors in the field of meteorology and his achievements in the 
•interests of the public welfare have frequently been recorded and 
published. The more notable of these events will now be mentioned 
briefly in review. 

His life and work Up to the time he assumed charge of the 
Cincinnati Observatory must be looked upon as a period of educa- 
tion and preparation. The subsequent years were years of produc- 
tion and harvest. His inaugural address June 30, 1868, at the 
Cincinnati Observatory presents an outline and program of work 
in astronomy, meteorology, terrestrial magnetism, surveying and 
engineering, all characterized by a regard for public welfare that 
could be accomplished in full only with prolonged labor and re- 
sources far beyond those of the observatory itself. This very com- 
prehensiveness, this all inclusiveness of treatment was characteristic 
of Abbe's view of matters and his method of handling problems he 
attacked. Among the suggestions in his address was his proposal 
for the creation of a system of storm warnings and forecasts by 
means of weather reports collected by electric telegraph. More .than 
a^year elapsed before Abbe was able to make a practical demonstra- 
tion of his plans for forecasting the weather. How well he suc- 
ceeded in this undertaking is best shown by his own words quoted 
from his annual report to the Board of Control of the Cincinnati 
Observatory, June, 1870: 

"This subject having been brought, by myself, to the attention of the 
Chamber of Commerce of this city, that body, in June last (1869), authorized 
me to organize a system of daily weather reports and storm predictions. Ex- 
perienced observers at distant points offered their gratuitous cooperation. 
The Western Union Telegraph Company offered the use of their line at a 
nominal price. The Bulletin began to be issued September i, in manuscript 
form, for the special use of the Chamber of Commerce, and began to be 
printed a week later as an independent publication. 

" This Bulletin was supported for three months, as at first agreed on, by 
the Chamber of Commerce; its conduct then passed entirely into the hands 
of the Observatory, and has thus continued until the past month. The inde- 



CLEVELAND ABBE. xv 

pendent publication of the Bulletin was, however, discontinued, and it has, 
since December i, only appeared in the morning papers. The daily compila- 
tion of this Bulletin for the newspapers was undertaken two weeks ago by 
the Cincinnati Office of the Western Union Telegraph Company, and will so 
continue, thus relieving the Observatory of all further responsibility. 

" In February the manager of the Cincinnati office undertook the publi- 
cation of a daily weather chart, and the favor that this has met with insures 
its continuation in the future. The Daily Weather Bulletin and Chart are, 
therefore, now supported solely by the Western Union Telegraph Company, 
and must be considered as a very important contribution to meteorology. It 
would have been highly to the credit of the Observatory could these publica- 
tions have been maintained in its own name; but this was impossible owing 
to the want of funds and assistants." 

Writing of this matter to his father in New York, he said 
prophetically " I have started that which the country will not 
willingly let die." 

Other forces and influences were also at work to perpetuate and 
nurture this embryo Weather Bureau for the benefit of the nation. 
The Executive Documents and the Congressional Globe of the 41st 
Congress, 2d session, show that on December 14, 1869, Hon. Hal- 
bert E. Paine, Member of Congress from Wisconsin, introduced 
a bill to create a weather warning service under the Secretary of 
War. The Document accompanying this bill consisted of a Me- 
morial of Prof. Increase A. Lapham of Milwaukee, Wis., entitled 
"Disasters on the Lakes," and comprised a record of the marine 
disasters on the Lakes for 1869. The legislation finally enacted was 
the passage of a Joint Resolution, also introduced by Mr. Paine, 
which passed the House of Representatives February 2, 1870; the 
Senate on February 4, 1870; and was signed and approved by the 
President February 9, 1870. We may therefore conclude that the 
passage of the legislation establishing meteorological observations 
and reports in the United States was accomplished chiefly by the 
Hon. Halbert E. Paine upon the representations of Prof. I. A. 
Lapham. 

No one has been more scrupulously careful than Abbe himself, 
as can be shown by documentary evidence, to give Professor Lapham 
the fullest measure of credit for the work done by him which prac- 
tically ended with the enactment of the law which imposed upon the 
Secretary of War the task of organizing meteorological observa- 



xvi OBITUARY NOTICES. 

tions throughout the United States and the giving of notice on the 
northern Lakes and sea-board of the approach of storms. 

When the Secretary of War sought to put these provisions of 
law into operation he endeavored to enlist the services and council 
of Lapham, Abbe, and others. Lapham declined but Abbe, whose 
work b^an with his Cincinnati Weather Bulletin, responded heartily 
and was appointed the assistant or meteorologist of General Albert 
J. Myer, chief signal officer of the Army, in charge of this work. 

The following quotations from the Popular Science Monthly 
for January, 1888, cite important features of Abbe's subsequent 
service while the Weather Bureau was under the War Department : 

" In this position, Professor Abbe, during 1871, organized the methods 
and work of the so-called 'probability' or study-room, in making weather 
maps, drawing isobars, ordering storm signals, etc., and dictated the published 
official tri-daily synopses and 'probabilities' of the weather. In the same 
year he began and urged the collection of lines of leveling, and in 1872, by 
laborious analysis, deduced the altitudes of the Signal-Service barometers 
above sea level He instituted in 1872, and reorganized in 1874, the work of 
publishing a monthly weather review, with its maps and studies of storms. 
He urged the extension of simultaneous observations throughout the world, 
as the only proper method of studying the weather; and, as General Myer 
distinctly avowed, the success of the negotiations of the Vienna Congress of 
1874 was due to following his advice. And he organized, in 1875, the work 
of preparing the material and publishing the ' Daily Bulletin of Simultaneous 
International Meteorological Observations.' Especially is the organization of 
the numerous state weather services of the country due to his advocacy, and 
to the letters sent by his advice by General Hazen to the governors of the 
states." 

"As chairman of the standard time committee of the American Metro- 
logical Society, and later delegate of the United States to the International 
Meridian and Time Conference, which met at Washington in October, 1884, 
Abbe took an active part in all those conferences, discussions and studies, 
which culminated in the adoption by the railroads of the United States of 
the present system of standard times. 

" Professor Abbe's unselfish devotion to the pursuit of science for its 
advancement and not for his own has prevented his name from appearing as 
prominently in connection with the work of the Weather Bureau as it 
deserved to do ; but there is a general concurrence of testimony that he has 
been its guiding spirit. . . . He kept well read up on all meteorological mat- 
ters, and had a very high appreciation of much that he read; and, when this 
was the case, he was always very desirous of bringing the matter and the 
author into notice by means of translations and republications. In fact, he 
seemed to me to be more desirous of bringing the works and the claims of 
others into notice than his own. His notes on meteorological subjects, pub- 



CLEVELAND ABBE. xvii 

lished in the Smithsonian Reports, sprung from his extensive reading and 
desire to communicate to the public whatever he found of value in the course 
of his reading. . . . When General Hazen was put at the head of the service 
and a more liberal policy toward civilians, and in the encouragement of scien- 
tific work, was adopted, he seemed to wish that all the leading meteorologists 
of the country could have a part in what he considered the great work of 
the country, and he especially interested himself in endeavoring to give a 
chance to promising young men of the country to have a part in this work. 
In pursuance of this idea he secured the appointment of the eminent physi- 
cist. Professor T. C. Mendenhall, and certain steps were taken toward the 
organization of an experimental laboratory in atmospherics. The beginning 
was necessarily a very modest one, although the plan of a great experimental 
laboratory was one that Professor Abbe cherished for many years and let no 
opportunity escape of urging it upon federal officials and university faculties. 
At that date (1885-86) the attitude of departmental officials, not to mention 
members of Congressional committees, was perhaps lukewarm, if not antago- 
nistic to what seemed to be investigations in pure science, and it is not 
surprising that in this unfavorable atmosphere the project of a physical labo- 
tory flourished only very feebly, and in fact terminated with Professor Men- 
denhall's election to the presidency of Rose Polytechnic Institute, Terre 
Haute, Ind. 

" For the good work done by the United States Weather Service, and 
for the high estimation in which it has been held by Europeans generally, the 
country is indebted to Professor Abbe more than to any other one man. . . . On 
all important questions touching the scientific work of the service, his advice 
has been sought by the chief signal officer; most plans for its improvement 
and extension have originated with him, and he has done much to stimulate 
the study of meteorology outside of the service as well as within it. 

• •••••■•••••• 

" We are informed by Mrs. Hazen, widow of the late chief of the Signal 
Office, that Professor Abbe was always held in high esteem by her husband, 
'and relied on not only as a very scientific man but as a loyal friend.' This 
sentence brings out another salient trait in his character — his loyalty to his 
chief. Readers of the Monthly will recollect the tribute which he improved 
the first opportunity after General's Hazen's death to pay to his character 
and the worth of his work for science; but they do not know, for that is 
matter of personal confidence, that he was extremely anxious that General 
Hazen should receive full credit for all that he did, all that he helped to do, 
and all that he was in any way the means of having done for science; and 
particularly that he should be vindicated from the unfriendly criticisms which 
the newspapers had cast against him — all of which Professor Abbe believed 
to be unjust and unfounded." 

General A. W. Greely, chief signal officer in command of the 
signal corps at the time the civilian duties thereof comprising the 
Weather Bureau were segregated and transferred to the Depart- 



xviii OBITUARY NOTICES. 

ment of Agriculture, published in Science (Nov. 17, 1916) a fitting 
tribute to Professor Abbe from which we may quote as follows : 

" During twenty years of his service I was intimately associated with 
Abbe as his subordinate and pupil, as a co-worker, and as his administrative 
chief. During this term of years there inevitably developed situations which 
were complex, annoying and embarrassing to the scientific force. Yet in all 
such conditions I never knew him to display bad temper, to unduly prolong 
discussions, to advance personal interests, nor to abate his most strenuous 
efforts to carry out such policies as were judged needful for the good of the 
service— €ven though they had not originally met with his approval" 

• 

In August, 1893, Professor Abbe was made the responsible 
editor of the Monthly Weather Review, a work he found most con- 
genial. Editorial comments, annotations and original articles there- 
in contribute much of value to the publication and constitute a last- 
ing monument to his fame. 

It is quite impossible, in this brief memoir, even to indicate the 
number, scope and character of his literary works. The list is a 
very long one and includes a wide range of scientific subjects. His 
enthusiasm led him to undertake many tasks which the inevitable 
lack of strength and opportunity prevented him from bringing to 
completion. Notably among these must be mentioned a study of 
clouds and atmospheric motions observed by him with a special 
marine nephoscope of his own invention while on a trip to the west 
coast of Africa to witness the solar eclipse of 1889. Similarly the 
scientific papers presented at the International Meteorological Con- 
gress, held in Chicago in August, 1893, were only partly published 
for lack of funds, to Abbe's lasting regret, and he never ceased to 
urge the fulfillment of the obligation upon American meteorologists 
to complete this work. 

However the genealogy of the Abbe family, the preparation of 
which received his most feeling and sympathetic attention for many 
years, and which was so dear to his heart, fortunately was submitted 
to the publishers in the very last months of his long life. 

The scientific societies in which he held membership would also 
make up another long list. During the active portion of his life he 
accumulated a very large library dealing with meteorology and re- 
lated sciences, the care of which in the later years of his life became 
so great a responsibility that with commendable foresight for the 



CLEVELAND ABBE. xix 

preservation of such an invaluable collection he arranged to make it 
an integral part of the library of Johns Hopkins University under 
the designation of " The Abbe Meteorological Library." 

The eminence he never sought for himself has been bountifully 
bestowed upon him by others. The University of Michigan, in 
1886, conferred upon him the degree of LL.D., and in 1896 he re- 
ceived the same degree from the University of Glasgow, the pres- 
entation being made by Lord Kelvin, by whose wish Lady Kelvin 
herself made the Doctor's hood bestowed on that occasion. Natu- 
rally his modest nature was profoundly touched by this tribute, and 
this symbol of his achievements was worn to his grave. He was 
awarded the medal of the Royal Meteorological Society of England • 
in 1912 and in the spring of 1916 the National Academy of Sciences, 
of which he was long an active member, awarded him the Marcellus 
Hartly Medal " for eminence in the application of science to the 
public welfare." Coming, as this award did, from those he counted 
as his most intimate friends and associates in scientific endeavor and 
at a time when he recognized that his strength and force were almost 
spent, it bore the welcome message: "Well done thou good and 
faithful servant," and within the year he entered into the joy of his 
Master's presence. 

Charles Frederick Marvin. 

Washington, D. C, 
March 24, 1917. 



MINUTES. 



MINUTES. 
Stated Meeting, January 5, 1917. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Prof. Douglas W. Johnson, of New York, read a paper on 
*' The Strategic Geology of the Balkan Campaign." 

The Judges of the Annual Election held on this day between the 
hours of 2 and 5 in the afternoon, reported that the following named 
members were elected, according to the laws, regulations and ordi- 
nances of the Society, to be the officers for the ensuing year : 

President. 
William W. Keen. 

Vice-PresidetUs, 

William B. Scott, 
Albert A. Michelson, 
George Ellery Hale. 

Secretaries, 

I. Minis Hays, 
Arthur W. Goodspeed, 
Amos P. Brown, 
Harry F. Keller. 

Curators. 

Charles L. Doolittle, 
William P. Wilson, 
Leslie W. Miller. 

Treasurer. 
Henry La Barre Jayne. 

• ■ • 

111 



iv MINUTES. 

Councillors. 

(To serve for three years.) 

Henry Fairfield Osbom, 
Elihu Thomson, 
Samuel M. Vauclain, 
Henry B. Fine. 

4 

Stated Meeting, February 2, ipiy. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease was announced of Prof. Paul Leroy-Beaulieu in 
December, 1916. 

The following papers were read : 
"On Some Aspects of Costa Rica and its Natural History," 
by Professor Philip Calvert. (Introduced by Prof. Henry 
Kraemer.) 
" The Geology of Sergipe and Northeastern Bahia, Brail/' by 
Mr. Ralph H. Soper. (Communicated by Prof. John C. 
Branner.) 

Stated Meeting, March 2, 1917. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

A communication was received from the Societe Imperiale Russe 
de Mineralogie, announcing the centenary of its foundation. 

Dr. Francis G. Benedict read a paper on " Human Energy and 
Food Requirements." 

Stated General Meeting, April 12, 13 and 14, 1917. 

Thursday, April 12. 

Opening Session — 2 o'clock. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The decease of the following members was announced : 
Prof. Jean Gaston Darboux, at Paris, in February, 1917, set. 74. 
Ambrose E. Lehman, at Philadelphia, on April 5, 1917, set. 65. 
Hon. Richard Olney, at Boston, on April 8, 1917, aet. 82. 



MINUTES. V 

The following papers were read: 

" The Trial of Animals — A Little Known Chapter of Medieval 
Jurisprudence," by Hampton L. Carson, LL.D., of Phila- 
delphia. 

"Medieval Sermon-Books and Stories and their Study since 
1883," by Thomas Frederick Crane, Ph.D., Litt.D., Professor 
Emeritus of the Romance Languages and Literature, Cornell 
University. 

" Some Recent Acquisitions to the Yale Collection," by Albert 
T. Clay, LL.D., Professor of Assyriology and Babylonian 
Literature, Yale University. 

" Vision as a Physical Process," by Herbert E. Ives, of Phila- 
delphia. (Introduced by Dr. A. W. Goodspeed.) 

"The Diagnostic Method of Training Intelligence: an Educa- 
tion for the Fortunate Few (With a Demonstration)," by 
Lightner Witmer, Ph.D., Director of the Laboratory of 
Psychology, University of Pennsylvania. 

" Historical Notes on * The Armament of Igor,' " by J. Dyheley 
Prince, Ph.D., Professor of Slavonic Languages, Columbia 
University. 

"A New Translation of the Hebrew Bible," by Cyrus Adler, 
Ph.D., President of Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cerate 
Learning, Philadelphia. 

Friday, April 13, 

Executive Session — p.jo o'clock. 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Erwin Frink Smith, of Washington, and Dr. Edward Murray 
East, of Forest Hills, Mass., subscribed the Laws and were admitted 
into the Society. 

The Proceedings of the Officers and Council were submitted. 

The following nominees for membership were recommended for 
election this year. 

Residents of the United States, 

William Frederick Durand, Ph.D., Stanford University, Cal. 
Pierre Samuel duPont, Mendenhall, Pa. 



vi MINUTES. 

Carl H. Eigenmann, Ph.D., Bloomington, Ind. 

Charles Hohnes Herty, Ph.D., New York. 

Herbert E. Ives, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Waldemar Lindgren, M.E., Ph.D., Sc.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Walton Brooks McDaniel, A.B., Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Winthrop J. V. Osterhout, A.M., Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Harold Pender, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Frederick Hanley Seares, B.S., Pasadena, Cal. 

George Owen Squier, Ph.D., Washington, D. C. 

Charles P. Steinmetz, Ph.D., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Oscar S. Straus, A.M., Litt.D., LL.D., New York City 

Alonzo Englebert Taylor, M.D., Philadelphia. 

Edwin Bidwell Wilson, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Foreign Residents, 

Archibald Byron Macallum, M.B., Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Toronto. 

Sir David Prain, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Kew. 

Morning Session — p.3^ o'clock. 

George Ellery Hale, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, 

in the Chair. 

The following papers were read : 

"Lighting in its Relation to the Eye," by Qarence E. Ferree, 
Ph.D., Professor of Psychology, Bryn Mawr College. (In- 
troduced by Pr. W. W. Keen.) 

" Factors Influencing the Sex Ratio in the Domestic Fowl," by 
Raymond Pearl, Ph.D., Biologist, Maine Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station, Orono, Maine. 

" Significant Results of Scientific Investigations Applied to 
Fishery Problems," by Hugh M. Smith, M.D., LL.D., Com- 
missioner of Fisheries, Washington, D. C. (Introduced by 
Dr. Qarence E. McQung.) 

"A Description of a New Photographic Transit Instrument," 
by Frank Schlesinger, Ph.D., Director of the Allegheny 
Observatory, University of Pittsburgh. 



f< 



« 



it 



« 



MINUTES. vii 

Probable Masses of Comets," by Henry Norris Russell, Ph.D., 
Professor of Astronomy, Princeton University. 
The Relationship of Stellar Motions to Absolute Magni- 
tudes," by Walter S. Adams, A.M., Sc.D., Assistant Director 
of Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory, Pasadena, Cal., and G. 
Stromberg. 

Nebulae," by V. M. Slipher, Ph.D., Director of the Lowell 
Observatory, FlagstaflF, Arizona. (Introduced by Prof. C. 
L. Doolittle.) 

Early Man in America," by Edwin Swift Balch, A.B., of 
Philadelphia. 

The Influence of the Admixture of Present Immigrant Races 
Upon the More Original Stock," by Charles B. Davenport, 
S.B., Ph.D., Director, Station for Experimental Evolution, 
Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island. 
"A New Babylonian Account of the Creation of Man," by 
George A. Barton, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Biblical 
Literature, Bryn Mawr College. 

Afternoon Session — 2 o'clock, 

Albert A. Michelson, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Vice-President, 

in the Chair. 

Mr. Percy W. Bridgman, of Cambridge, Mass., a recently elected 
member, subscribed the Laws and was admitted into the Society. 
The following papers were read : 
" Crushing of Crystals," by Percy W. Bridgman, Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Physics, Harvard University. 
"Structure of the Spectra of the Phosphorescent Sulphides 
(Describing Measurements by Drs. H. E. Howe, H. L. 
Howes and Percy Hodge)," by Edward L. Nichols, Ph.D., 
D.Sc, LL.D., Professor of Physics, Cornell University. 
The Corbino Effect in Liquid Mercury," by Edwin Plimpton 
Adams, Ph.D., Professor of Physics, Princeton University. 
' Spontaneous Generation of Heat in Recently Hardened Steel," 
by Charles Francis Brush, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., of Cleveland. 
I. " Condensation and Evaporation of Metal Films." 



« 



viii MINUTES. 

II. "The Minimum Potential for Excitation of the *D' Lines 
of Sodium," by Robert Williams Wood, A.B., LL.D., Pro- 
fessor of Experimental Physics, Johns Hopkins University. 

" Growth and Imbibition," by D. T. MacDougal, Ph.D., LL.D.. 
Director of Department of Botanical Research, Carnegie In- 
stitution of Washington, and H. A. Spoehr. 

" The Mechanism of Overgrowth in Plants," by Erwin F. Smith, 
B.S., Sc.D., of Bureau of Plant Industry, Dept. of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. 

"The Behavior of Self-Sterile Plants," by Edward M. East, 
Ph.D., Professor of Experimental Plant Morphology, Har- 
vard University. 

"Twin Hybrids from CEnothera lamarckiana and franciscana 
when crossed with CEnothera Pycnocarpa" by George F. 
Atkinson, Head of the Department of Botany, Cornell Uni- 
versity. 

" Naming American Hybrid Oaks," by William Trelease, Sc.D., 
LL.D., Professor of Botany, University of Illinois, Urbana. 

"The Wild Relatives of our Cultivated Plants and their Pos- 
sible Utilization," by W. T. Swingle, Ph.D., of U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture. (Introduced by Dr. William P. 
Wilson.) 

" An Annotated Translation of de Schweinitz's Two Papers on 
the Rusts of North America," by Joseph C. Arthur, Pro- 
fessor Emeritus of Botany, Purdue University, Lafayette, 
Indiana, and G. R. Bisby. (Introduced by Prof. John M. 
Coulter.) 

"Ecology and Physiology of the Red Mangrove," by H. H. 
Bowman, Fellow in Botany, University of Pennsylvania. 
(Introduced by Prof. Harshberger.) 

Evening Session — 8 o'clock, 

George Ellery Hale, Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the 
Solar Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, at 
Mt. Wilson, California, gave an illustrated lecture on "The Work 
of the Mt. Wilson Observatory." 



MINUTES. ix 

Saturday, April 14. 

Executive Session — p.jo o'clock. 
William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

Dr. William Diller Matthew, of New York, Prof. Edwin Plimp- 
ton Adams, of Princeton, and Prof. William Morton Wheeler, oi, 
Forest Hills, Mass., recently elected members, subscribed the Laws 
and were admitted into the Society. 

Pending nominations for membership were read. Secretary 
Keller and Dr. L. A. Bauer were appointed Tellers of Election and 
the Society proceeded to ballot for members. 

The Tellers reported that the following nominees had been 
elected to membership : 

Residents of the United States. 

William Frederick Durand, Ph.D., Stanford University, Cal. 

Pierre Samuel duPont, Mendenhall, Pa. 

Carl H. Eigenmann, Ph.D., Bloomington, Ind. 

Charles Holmes Herty, Ph.D., New York. 

Herbert E. Ives, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Waldemar Lindgren, M.E., Ph.D., Sc.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Walton Brooks McDaniel, A.B., Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Winthrop J. V. Osterhout, A.M., Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Harold Pender, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 

Frederick Hanley Scares, B.S., Pasadena, Cal. 

George Owen Squier, Ph.D., Washington, D. C. 

Charles P. Steinmetz, Ph.D., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Oscar S. Straus, A.M., Litt.D., LL.D., New York City. 

Alonzo Englebert Taylor, M.D., Philadelphia. 

Edwin Bidwell Wilson, Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 

Foreign Residents. 

Archibald Byron Macallum, M.B., Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S.. 
Toronto. 

Sir David Prain, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., Kew. 



Morning Session — 10 o'clock. 
William B. Scott, ScD., LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair, 
Dr. W. F, Durand, of Leland Stanford University, California, 
and Mr. Herbert E. Ives, of Philadelphia, newly elected members, 
subscribed the Laws and were admitted into the Society. 
The following papers were read : 

" Biochemical Studies of the Pitcher Liquid of Nepenthes," by 
Joseph S. Hepburn, M.S., PhX). (Introduced by Prof. 
Harry F. Keller.) 

" The National Research Council and Its Opportunities in the 
Field of Chemistry," by Marston T. Bogert, Ph.B., LL.D., 
Professor of Organic Chemistry, Columbia University. 

"The South American Indian in His Relation to Geographic 
Environment," by William Curtis Farabee, A.M., Ph.D., 
Curator of American Section of Museum, University of 
Pennsylvania. (Introduced by Mr. Henry G. Bryant.) 

" Inter-relations of the Fossil Fuels," by J. J. Stevenson, Ph.D., 
LL.D., Emeritus Professor of Geology, New York Uni- 
versity. 

" The Distribution of Land and Water on the Earth," by Harry 
Fielding Reid, Ph.D., Professor of Dynamic Geology and 
Gec^raphy, Johns Hopkins University. 

"Uplifted and Dissected Atolls in Fiji" (Illustrated), by 
William Morris Davis, Ph.D., Emeritus Professor of Geol- 
ogy, Harvard University. 

"The Slides on the Panama Canal," by Geoi^e W. Goethals, 
LL.D., Maj.-Gen. U. S. A., Late Chief Engineer, Panama 
Canal. 

"Application of Polarized Light to Study of Ores and Metals," 
by Frederick E. Wright, Ph.D., of Geophysical Laboratory 
of Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

" Astrapotheria," by William B. Scott, Sc.D., LL.D., Professor 
>f Geology, Princeton University. 

)iatryma, a Gigantic Eocene Bird," by William Diller 
Matthew, A.M., Ph.D., Curator of Vertebrate Paleontology, 
'Vmerican Museum of Natural History, New York. (Intro- 



MINUTES. xi 

duced by Prof. W. B. Scott.) 
" The Waters of Death," by Paul Haupt, Professor of Semitic 
Philology, Johns Hopkins University. 

Executive Session — 1:4^ o'clock, 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

The Clerk of the Council certified that the Officers and Council, 
by unanimous vote, had nominated for membership the Rt. Hon. 
Arthur Balfour, LL.D., D.C.L., of London, England, and it was 
ordered, in accordance with the unanimous recommendation of the 
Officers and Council, that a special election for a foreign member 
be held at the next Stated Meeting. 

Afternoon Session — 2 o'clock, 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 

A portrait of L Minis Hays, M.D., Dean of the Wistar Associa- 
tion, was presented by J. G. Rosengarten, LL.D., on behalf of the 
Wistar Association, and in the twenty-first year of Dr. Hays's Sec- 
retaryship of the Society. 

President Keen, on behalf of the Society, accepted the portrait 
with thanks. 

The following papers were read : 
Symposium on Aeronautics : 

Dynamical Aspects," by Arthur Gordon Webster, Ph.D., 
D.Sc, LL.D., Member of Naval Consulting Board. 
Physical Aspects," by Brigadier General George O. 
Squier, Ph.D., Chief of Signal Corps, U. S. Army. (In- 
troduced by Dr. Keen.) 
"Mechanical Aspects," by William Frederick Durand, 
Ph.D., Chairman of National Advisory Committee for 
Aeronautics. (Introduced by Dr. Walcott.) 
" Aerology in Aid of Aeronautics," by W. R. Blair, Ph.D., 
assistant, U. S. Weather Bureau. 
Discussion : 

" Mathematical Aspects," by Edwin Bidwell Wilson, Ph.D., 
Professor of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology. (Introduced by Dr. E. W. Brown.) 
"Engineering Aspects," by Jerome C. Hunsaker, Eng.D.. 



ti 



ti 



«ll MINUTES. 

Assistant Naval Constructor, U. S. Navy. (Introduced 
by Dr. Bauer.) 

Stated Meeting, May 4, 1917, 

William W. Keen, M.D., LL.D., President, in the Chair. 
Messrs. Walton Brooks McDaniel and Harold Pender, newly 
elected members, subscribed the Laws and were admitted into the 
Society. 

Letters accepting membership were received from 
William Frederick Durand, Ph.D., Stanford University, Cal. 
Pierre Samuel duPont, Wilmington, Del. 
Carl H. Eigenmann, Ph.D., Bloomington, Ind. 
Charles Holmes Herty, Ph.D., New York. 
Herbert E. Ives, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 
Walton Brooks McDaniel, A.B.. Ph.D., Philadelphia. 
Winthrop J. V. Osterhout, A.M., Ph.D., Cambridge, Mass. 
Harold Pender, Ph.D., Philadelphia. 
Frederick Hanley Scares, B.S., Pasadena, Cal. 
George Owen Squier, Ph.D., Washington, D.C. 
Charles P. Steinmetz, Ph.D., Schenectady, N. Y. 
Oscar S. Straus, A.M., Litt.D., LL.D., New York City. 
Alonzo Engelbert Taylor, M.D., Philadelphia. 
Archibald Byron Macallum, M.B., Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S., 
Toronto. 
The decease was announced of Caspar Rene Gr^ory, Ph.D., 
D.D., LL.D., at Leipzig, on April 9, 1917, set. 70. 

Obituary notices of members deceased were read as follows : 
Sir William Ramsay, K.C.B., Sc.D., LL.D., by Prof. Theodore 

William Richards. £ ^.^ 

Cleveland Abbe, Ph.D., LL.D., by Prof. Charles F. Marvin. 
The following paper was read : 
" The Study of Inheritance in Pisum," by Orland E. White, of 

Brooklyn (communicated by Prof. E. M. East.) 
Pending nomination for membership No. 105 1 was read and, in 
accordance with a resolution unanimously adopted at the Executive 
Session held on April 14 last, the Society proceeded to an election 
The tellers reported that the Right Hon. Arthur James Balfour, 
LL.D., D.C.L., was elected to membership by unanimous vote. 



PROCEEDINGS, 



American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 



1917. No. 2. 



CONTENTS 



Interrelations of the Fossil Fuels. II. By John J. Stevenson . . 53 
The Names Troyan and Boyan in Old Russian. ByJ.DYNELEY Prince 152 



PHILADELPHIA 
THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 Sooth Fifth Street 
1917 



American Philosophical Society 

General Meeting— April 12-14, 1917 

The Annual General Meeting of The American Philo- 
sophical Society will be held on April I2th, 13 th, ^nd 
14th, 1917; beginning at 2 P. M. on Thursday, April 12th. 

Members are requested to send to the Secretaries, at 
as early a date as practicable and before March i, 1917, 
the titles of papers which they intend to present so that 
they may be announced in the preliminary programme 
which will be issued immediately after that date and 
which will give in detail the arrangements for the Meet- 
ing. It is understood that papers offered are original con- 
tributions which have not been theretofore presented. 

The Publication Committee, under the rules of the 
Society, will arrange for the immediate publication of 
the papers presented in either the Proceedings, or the 
Transactions, as may be designated. 

I. MINIS HAYS 
ARTHUR W. GOODSPEED 
AMOS P. BROWN 
HARRY F. KELLER 

Secretaries 



Members who have not as _yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor hy so doing; cabinet size preferred. 



It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To THE Secretaries of the 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 South Fifth Street 

Philadelphia, U S. A. 



INTERRELATIONS OF THE FOSSIL FUELS * 

IL 

By JOHN J. STEVENSON. 

(Read April 14, J917.) 
THE CRETACEOUS COALS. 

Coal of Cretaceous age occurs more or less abundantly in many 
countries. The original areas in which it was formed vary from 
mere patches to thousands, even hundreds of thousands of square 
hiiles; but these greater areas have been broken by erosion into 
isolated basins, or better into isolated fields, sometimes widely sepa- 
rated. The coal seams are not confined to a single horizon but are 
present throughout the Cretaceous at localities where proper condi- 
tions existed. The several regions have so many features in common 
as well as so many in contrast that a detailed description of some 
typical areas, though tedious, is necessary for proper understanding 
of the relations. 

Europe, 

In western Europe, coal is confined almost wholly to the Wealden 
but .in central Europe the Upper Cretaceous contains deposits of 
more than local importance. 

Coal in thin seams has been observed at some places in England 
but the quantity is significant. The Wealden of the Dorsetshire 
coast and of the Isle of Wight has no coal. MantelU states that, 
at Brook Point on the Dorset coast, a sandstone ledge in Lower 
Wealden encloses trunks and large branches of trees, mostly petri- 
fied. Webster, at an earlier date, had seen these stems, of which 
some had been converted into a jetlike substance. Mantell, observ- 

♦ Part I. appeared in these Proceedings, Vol. LV., pp. 21-203. 
1 G. A. Mantell, " Geological Excursions round the Isle of Wight," 3d 
cd., London, 1854, PP. 203-206, 2^, 239, 242. 

PROG. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, E, MAY 23, I917. 



54 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

ing that all the stems are prostrate, thought them a fossil raft, re- 
mains of an ancient pine forest, transported by a river and buried in 
the delta sands and muds, as is the case with rafts of the Mis- 
sissippi River. But the description of conditions leads one to hesi- 
tate before accepting the reference to rafts. The Mississippi rafts, 
as described in European works of Mantell's day, were not the rafts 
as they were. It is not probable that the rafts of the Atchafalaya 
and Red River would produce deposits such as those under con- 
sideration. The features* are more like those observed along the 
Athabasca and some other North American rivers, where great 
masses of driftwood occur, the interstices being filled with silt and 
sand. Mantell emphasizes the presence of ripple markings in the 
Wealden ; slabs of sandstone, clay and limestone on the Isle of Wight 
are often covered with them. Imprints of annelid and moUuscan 
trails, of crustacean claws, of pectoral fins of fish as well as of feet 
of reptiles have been obtained. The formation is of essentially 
fresh-water origin. Lyell,' in describing the Lower Wealden or 
Hastings sand, remarks that one finds at different heights in the 
section strongly rippled slabs of sandstone. Some of the clay beds 
had been exposed, for sun cracks are abundant. A red sandstone, 
near Horsham, contains innumerable traces of a plant, apparently 
Sphenopteris, with stems and branches disposed as if they are stand- 
ing erect on the place of growth, the sand having been deposited 
gently around them. Similar conditions have been observed else- 
where in this formation. 

Some coal has been found in the Wealden of France, but it is 
of little importance. The lignites of Simerols* suffice as illustra- 
tion. The area is small, with radius of about 25 kilometers. The 
section at one locality shows (i) clay, 0.90; (2) lignite, 2.50, at 
times without partings, but at others divided into two or three 
benches; (3) shale, 0.70; (4) lignite, friable, not mined, 1.50; (S) 
carbonaceous shale, 0.80; (6) lignite, compact, i to 1.50; total, 7.90 
meters. This deposit, at times only 4.60 meters thick, underlies 

2 See " Formation of Coal Beds, II.," Proc. Amer. Phil Soc, Vol L., 

19", pp. 548-551. 

» C. Lyell, " Elements of Geology," 6th ed.. New York, 1866, pp. 350, 351. 

*Amauld, "Des argiks lignitiferes des S^ltX^A^as" BM. Soc, Geol. France, 
II., Vol. 23, 1866, pp. 59-63 ; Meugy, the same, pp. 85^^. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 55 

marine Cretaceous, but is of fresh-water origin, the animal remains 
being indeterminate bones with shells of fresh-water moUusks. 
Plant remains and silicified stems are in the clays. The lignite is 
described as compact, blackish brown and lusterless. 

The Wealden of Hanover, that portion equivalent to the Hast- 
ings sand of England, has coal seams, which in many places have 
economical importance. The region* has been studied by several 
geologists, each having in view the study of some special features. 
The area has extreme length from east to west of about i6o miles 
and an extreme width of about 120 miles from north to south. 
Exposures are not continuous, for erosion has removed the Wealden 
from extensive spaces, while in others the surface rocks belong to 
later formations. According to Credner, it reaches from the Harz 
Mountains westward to the Holland border, where it passes under a 
thick cover of diluvium. The exposed areas are isolated and at 
times are so widely separated that sections have little resemblance. 
The Wealden consists of clays, marls, sandstones and coal beds ; the 
colors are from white to gray, with rare bands colored by oxide of 
iron. Dimker states that the coal usually resembles the older black 
coals, the plant materials have undergone much greater change than 
in brown coal, and distinct woody structure is rarely recognizable. 
Some mines yield a coal comparable to the best in England ; a sample, 
analyzed by Regnault, gave carbon, 89.50; hydrogen, 4.83; oxygen 
and nitrogen, 4.67 ; ash, i. This type is dense, brilliant, with uneven 
to conchoidal fracture and in appearance resembles anthracite. It 
is closely jointed and usually has a blackish brown streak. But 
there is lignite in the Wealden, with woody structure and reddish 
brown streak. A sample from Helmstadt, analyzed by Varrentrapp, 
yielded carbon, 68.57; hydrogen, 4.84; oxygen and nitrogen, 19.87; 
[ash, 6.72]. Dunker thinks this brown coal derived from conifers, 
cycads, lycopods and ferns. 

In the Osterwalde, a very different type, the Blatterkohle, is 

5 W. Dunker, " Monographic der Norddcutschen Wealdenbildung," Braun- 
schweig, 1846, pp. xi-xxviii, 2, 21; Heinrich Credner, "Ueber die Gliederung 
der oberen Juraformation und der Wealden-Bildung im nordwestlichen 
Deutschland," Prag, 1863, pp. ix, 47-54 132, 138. I33, 138-141 ; C. Struckmann, 
" Die Wealden-Bildungen der Umgegend von Hannover," Hannover, 1880, pp. 
14-28, 30-36. 



56 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

found in the same section with other coals, some of them belonging 
to the "black coal" type. This Blatterkohle consists chiefly of 
Abies linki and Pterophyllum lyellianum, whose densely packed 
leaves and twigs, mostly brown and transparent, become flexible, 
when soaked in water ; coalification is extremely imperfect. Dunker 
thinks that lycopods and ferns are the chief constituents of the black 
coals, as no remains of other plants have been discovered. It may 
be noted in passing that the Blatterkohle bears great resemblance 
to the conifer peat of the Fichtelgebirge,® as described by Reinsch, 
and to the "coarse" coal of the Carboniferous; in the latter the 
conversion is complete. It must not be forgotten that David dis- 
covered equally flexible remains of plants in the Permo-carbonif- 
erous of New South Wales. 

The coals vary in quality; partings thicken and at times the 
whole seam becomes carbonaceous shale; occasionally masses of 
silicious matter, limestone or pyrite become so abundant as to render 
the deposit worthless. In some mines, a waxy substance, clear or 
dark yellow, occurs, which Dunker thinks may be hatchettin. 

Near Biickeburg and Schaumburg; the Wealden sandstone is 
I20 to 150 feet thick and contains 4 coal seams, of which two are 
workable. On the Osterwalde, the thickness is not far from 450 
feet and 18 seams were seen, mostly thin or too poor in quality to 
justify mining, the greatest total thickness of coal being 9 feet. 
Well-marked coal seams, in nearly every case, have a black clay 
roof and floor, the latter occasionally passing into Brandschiefer or 
cannel shale. The roof clay, at times, contains abundance of plant 
impressions and even becomes coaly — a true faux-toit. In the upper 
part of the section there are two seams consisting mostly of the 
black coal, but this, in part, is continuous with brown coal, contain- 
ing pieces of wood-like anthracite. 

The plants enumerated by Dunker include 2 species of Equi- 
setum, 26 of ferns, 10 of cycads, 5 of conifers and one palm, Endo- 
gamites, now taken to be Sedgwickia, One species of Equisetum 
occurs abundantly in a sandstone, where the stems are more or less 
nearly vertical. Stems of trees were observed at many localities ; 

• See " Interrelations of the Fossil Fuels, I.," Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, Vol. 
LV., 1916, p. 54. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 67 

those replaced with sandstone or oxide of iron show no trace of 
structure, but those from the coal resemble Pintis, He believes that 
much of the coal is derived from conifers. 

Credner reports that the sandstone is 540 to 550 feet thick on the 
south slope of the Diester range, 8 to 12 miles south from Hannover, 
where it consists of alternating clay shales, marly shales, sandstones 
and stone coal; the chief mass is a yellow, fine-grained sandstone 
with little cementing material. The section shows 16 coal seams, 
of which II are less than 10 inches thick and have "bad coal." 
Three beds, 2 feet, i foot 6 inches and i foot respectively, are of 
"workable" thickness and yield good coal. Clearly, the periods 
when coal accumulation was possible, were of brief duration and the 
general conditions were not such as to encourage formation of good 
coal; the total thickness is little more than 15 feet, of which less 
than one third is good. The fauna is fresh-water, Unio, Paludina, 
Cypris, Lepidotus and Sphcerodus being the prevailing forms; 
Cyrena is not rare. The flora consists of ferns, cycads, conifers 
and palms. 

The Osterwalde area is farther west; its resources had been de- 
veloped after Bunker's examinations were made. The Wealden 
sandstone is approximately 500 feet, but the conditions are not the 
same as in the Diester area. The " workable " coal seam, one foot 
thick and 28 feet above the base at Diester, is here in the same posi- 
tion, but only 8 inches thick. Within 72 feet above it are 3 seams, 
the thickest being 6 feet 9 inches, all absent from the Diester section. 
Near Minden, 7 miles farther west, the coal is thicker. Meanwhile 
the character o£ sediments has been changing, for the sandstone, 
predominating at Diester, is insignificant here. The change con- 
tinues westward : at Bentheim and Ochtrup, on the Holland border, 
one finds only clays and limestones about 800 feet thick ; the lime- 
stones yield Melania and Cyrena, According to Credner's descrip- 
tions, it is evident that the coal decreases in the direction of finer 
sediments. The thick coals of Minden are associated with the one 
noteworthy sandstone of that area. Both Dunker and Credner note 
abundance of sphaerosiderite in the rocks associated with coal seams. 

Studies by Dunker and Credner were mostly in the region west 
from Hannover; Struckmann gave information respecting other 



58 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

areas and added to that respecting the western. The coal-bearing 
deposits equivalent to the Hastings sand are his Middle Wealden; 
his Lower Wealden is equivalent to the Purbeck beds of England, 
now placed in the Jurassic. The whole Wealden of Struckmann is 
only 15 meters thick under the city of Hannover; the Hastings sand 
is thin but contains an unimportant seam of coal. At Neustadt, 10 
miles farther northwest, the sand is still present, though very thin, 
and holds thin coal, which has been utilized. At 24 miles west- 
northwest, the sand is insignificant, almost wholly replaced by a 
thick, often bituminous clay and marly shale, shale, rich in pyrite, 
but holding some coal. 

The Hastings sand increases southwardly. At 10 miles west 
from Hannover, thick beds of sandstone appear; on the Diester, 
south from that city, as well as on the Siintel ridge at the southwest, 
sandstone prevails ; but at Osterwalde, sandy and clayey shales are 
abundant, though there are prominent beds of sandstone. Struck- 
mann compares several sections, I., on the Diester by Credner ; XL, 
farther west by himself; III., on Osterwalde by Credner; IV., at 
Rehburg, northwest from Hannover, by himself : 



Sandstone 

Clays, marls, sandy shale, soft sandstone 

Coal, worthless 

Coal, workable 



Total, meters 



I 


II. 


III. 


118.63 

40.00 

2.06 

I.3I 


124.33 
37.62 

0.87 
0.84 


47.00 

110.00 

3.00 
2.50 


162.00 


163.66 


162.50 



IV. 



6 to 7 


114.00 


0.00 


0.23 



120.00 



In L, there are 12 worthless seams and three workable; in H., 3 
worthless and one workable; in HL, 6 worthless and 5 workable; 
in IV., one workable.^ In III., sandy shales or very slightly con- 
solidated sandstones, but in IV. clays and marls make the greater 
part. These observations by Struckmann show that the source of 
sediment was south from Hannover and that the sand flats de- 
creased toward the west and north, giving place to less coarse 
materials. The coal seams are irregular and it is evident that many 
of them are of insignificant lateral extent. Sphaerosiderite is abim- 

' It would appear that in these calculations any seam yielding good coal 
and more than ten inches thick is thick enough to be mined. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 59 

dant. The fauna is fresh-water. The flora at Osterwalde consists 
of ferns, cycads and conifers, but two forms, an Anomozamites 
and a Spirangium, are wanting there, though they are extraordinarily 
abundant on the Diester. 

Hosius® discovered plant remains and fragments of coal in the 
Wealden sandstone near Vreden in Westphalia about 35 miles west- 
northwest from Munster. 

The Upper Cretaceous is almost wholly marine in England, 
France and western Germany, so that coal occurs rarely and in small 
quantity; but farther east, in Saxony, Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, 
the limestones and marls are replaced with sandstones at several 
horizons and coal deposits are present, which in some areas have 
much economic importance. 

The Lowenberg basin in southern Silesia is at about 25 miles 
from the border of Saxony and Bohemia. According to Scupin,® 
the coal of this basin has been regarded as either stone or Pech coal ; 
it is deep black, lustrous and has conchoidal fracture, but gives a 
very dark color to solution of caustic potash. It is of merely local 
importance, as the greatest thickness is little more than a half meter, 
yet at one time the annual output was 60,000 Centner. Near Klitts- 
dorf, a sandy brown coal contains remains of wood; near Lowen- 
berg, coal, 6 inches thick, is exposed and lower down in the section 
is a mass of coal and sand, containing 6 inches of good coal, but in 
greatest part is mixture of coal and sand in about equal proportion ; 
at another exposure the composition is clay and fragmentary coal. 
Scupin thinks that this confused mass must be allochthonous and 
suggests that it may represent a washed out swamp. Two lower 
beds, 10 and 3 inches thick, were pierced in a boring and a notable 
quantity of sphaerosiderite was found in the intervening rocks. 

The Cenomanian coal of Bohemia is usually unimportant. Nau- 
mann says that the Lower Quadersandstein occasionally contains 
layers of clay shale rich in conifer and dicotyledonous remains, with 
nests and layers of mostly unworkable coal. v. Andrian gives the 
section obtained near Chrudim, about 60 miles east-southeast from 
Prag: (i) Coarse sandstone, with fossils, 24 feet; (2) dark clay 

■ Hosius, Zeitsch. d. d, Geol. GeselL, Vol. 12, i860, p. 61. 
»H. Scupin, "Die Entstehung der Niederschlesischer Senon-Kohlcn," 
Zeitsch. /. pr. Geologic, 1910, pp. 254-257. 



60 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

shale, with plant remains and coaled stems, 4 to S feet; (3) moder- 
ately coarse sandstone, 2 to 3 feet; (4) coarse conglomerate, 2 to 
4 feet. The dark shale of this region section contains near Skutsch, 
12 miles farther west, a bed of ivorthless Pechkohle, which is rich 
in Bernstein. Reuss, in a letter to Beyrich, stated that a mass of 
Bernstein, several inches long and of brownish yellow color had been 
obtained as Skutsch, which is very near the Moravian border.^* 

In Moravia, according to Reuss,^^ the coaly substance, to which 
the Lower Quader beds owe their color, is sometimes collected into 
nests or even into beds of workable thickness. At a mine, west 
from Mahrens-Trubau and about 50 miles southwest from Chrudim, 
he saw a seam of thinly laminated Moorkohle [a peat-like brown 
coal] 4 feet thick, brownish-black and containing laminae of bright 
black Pechkohle. It slacks readily on exposure and is high in ash. 
Grains of honey-yellow Bernstein, some as large as a pea, are scat- 
tered through it. The roof and floor are blackish-gray shale. In 
older mines near Utigsdorf, farther south, Reuss saw two coal 
seams, i foot 6 inches and 3 to 4 feet thick. Coal of the upper bed 
is brown-black, with shaly structure, rather bright fracture and 
contains much resin. The coal of the lower bed is black, rather 
crumbling, contains numerous layers of Faserkohle as well as many 
lumps and half-inch layers of Pechkohle. Bernstein is less abun- 
dant than in the upper bed. Roof and floor of both beds are dark, 
more or less sandy. 

Coal has been mined for many years in Lower Austria, near 
Griinbach, at a score of miles south from Vienna and near the border 
of Hungary. The deposits are in the Gosau formation, which is 
taken to be of Turonian or Senonian age. Czjzek^* states that the 
seams are all thin south from Griinbach, but become thicker north 
from that city. The Alois tunnel, 1,200 feet long, intersects 21 
seams of which only 3 are workable, the others being from 2 to 10 
inches thick. The workable beds, all within vertical distance of 

*o Reuss, Zeitsch. d. d. Geol. GeselL, Band III., 1851, p. 13 ; F. v. Andrian, 
Jahrb, k, k, Geol. Reichsanst., Vol. XIII., 1863, p. 207. 

11 A. E. Reuss, " Beitrage zur geognostichen Kenntniss Mahrens," Jahrb. 
k, k, Geol, Reichsanst, Vol. V, 1851, pp. 727-731. 

*2 J. Czjzek, "Die Kohle in den Kreideablagerungen bei Grunhzch" Jahrb, 
k. k, Geol, Reichsanst,, Vol. II., Pt i, p. 144, Pt. 2, pp. 107 et seq. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FU.ELS. 61 

60 feet, are the Caroli, 2 to 3 feet, very irregular in thickness, but 
its coal is much prized, as it is low in ash and clean, the bed being 
without a parting. Jodahofer, 3 to 4 feet, is usually quite regular, 
but at times the intervening rocks disappear and this unites with the 
Caroli, the thickness increasing greatly and occasionally reaching 10 
feet. Antoni, 2 to 2 feet 6 inches, is in 3 benches with clay partings, 
each 2 inches. The coal is soft in top and bottom, but in the middle 
bench it is hard. The roof is black slate, i foot, which burns well. 
As described by Czjzek, it is a cannel-shale, a mud very rich in 
organic matter. 

The coal is pitch-black, with bright luster and black-brown 
streak. No woody structure is visible to the unaided eye. Occa- 
sionally one finds pieces which retain the form of branches, but all 
trace of fiber has disappeared. Analyzed by Schrotter, the composi- 
tion is: Carbon, 74.84; hydrogen, 4.60; oxygen [and nitrogen], 
20.56; water at 100° C, 6.57; ash, 6.92. Reasoning from this 
analysis, Czjzek concludes that the character of a coal has some rela- 
tion to its age. The Tertiary coal at Brennberg has only 60 to 70 
per cent, of carbon, while that from the Lias at Funfkirchen has 85 
to 86 of carbon and only 8 to 9 per cent, of oxygen. 

Passing over into Hungary, one finds, according to Hantken,^' 
important development of Cretaceous coals in the province of 
Bakony and in the western mountains. The areas are insignificant 
in comparison with those of the Lias, but the beds are little dis- 
turbed, mining is simple and the output is large. The important 
mines are near Ajka in Bakony, where the Cretaceous consists of 
two marine formations separated by a fresh-water formation with 
coal seams. The faima contains some brackish-water forms but 
fresh-water types predominate. There are at least 25 seams of coal, 
of which one near the top and another near the bottom are work- 
able. The upper or Bernstein Flotz is always divided into several 
benches and the coal is inferior. In one part of a mine this bed is 
2.93 meters thick with 4 benches of coal aggregating 1.70 of coal, 
while in another part it is 2.43 meters thick and in 6 benches, but 
the thickness of coal is practically the same, 1.72 meters. The lower 

** M. Hantken, "Die Kohlenflotze und der Kohlenbergbau in der Landern 
der ungarischen Krone," Budapest, 1878, pp. 174, 176-179, 197, 198. 



62 STEVENSON—INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

bed averages about 2 meters. Sometimes it is without partings but 
at others it is broken by two, 20 to 50 centimeters thick. Occasion- 
ally, one of the other beds is thick enough for mining, but in all 
cases the thickness shows much variation. The coal is of very fair 
quality ; in the Barod area, moisture is from 8.2 to 10.4 per cent, and 
the ash is from 7.1 to 15.7 per cent. 

In the Lower as well as in the Upper Cretaceous, coal seams 
accumulated on border areas, where the sediments show proximity 
to laud. The character of the deposits, the lens-shaped coal seams 
and the fresh- water fatma associated with them seem to justify the 
suggestion that the coal was formed in swamps on great irregular 
river plains. For the most part, these had a comparatively brief 
existence and were subject to frequent floods carrying muddy water. 

Australasia. 

Molengraaff^* reports that he saw thin seams of coal at various 
horizons in the Cretaceous along several rivers in central Borneo. 
These are without economic importance. The associated sandstones 
frequently contain grains of coal. 

Coal is present in the Cretaceous of eastern Australia, though 
very rarely in economic quantity. As the conditions appear to be 
much the same throughout, it suffices to consider the phenomena in 
Queensland as described by Jack.^* Cretaceous deposits cover a 
great part of that province, where they are divided into the Upper 
or Desert Sandstone and the Lower or Rolling Downs formation. 

The Desert Sandstone formation, now remaining in barely one 
twentieth of its original area, consists mostly of thin flags, whose 
surfaces are covered with a network of raised lines, crossing each 
other at all angles, which clearly represent filled sun cracks. The 
same sands show tracks and burrows as well as indeterminate re- 
mains of plants. Cross-bedding is quite characteristic of the thicker 
layers. Pebbly deposits occur occasionally and, at one locality, 
Gibb saw an angular quartzose grit which passed into brecciated 

i*G. A. F. MolengraaflF, "Geological Explorations in Central Borneo," 
Eng. ed., Leyden, 1902, pp. 202, 217, 241, 250, 277, 318. 

**R. L. Jack and R. E. Etheridge, Jr., "Geology and Palaontology of 
Queensland," Brisbane, 1892, pp. 397-403» 5i 1-536, 55i» 558- 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 63 

conglomerate. Silicified steins of trees and of bamboo-like plants 
were observed in many beds. On top of a small table-land in 
western Queensland, H. Y. L. Brown discovered a grove of fossil 
stumps standing erect. Thirteen are large, the greatest diameter 
being 4 feet and the usual height is 4 feet 6 inches. Many of the 
stumps are hollow and fragments lie in all directions. " The matrix 
having been denuded, they stand as evidence of how trees have 
d^enerated in size in this part of the country since Cretaceous 
times." 

The features of this formation throughout are those of a vast 
flood plain, subject to frequent overflow and to frequent changes 
in direction of drainage. As one should expect, the coal deposits 
of the Desert Sandstone are lenses of moderate extent and com- 
mercially imimportant. Within the Cooktown region, seams were 
seen 6 and 15 inches thick; the bottom of the latter is crowded with 
quartz granules. The coal is worthless; four samples from the 
Cooktown region gave 9.65, 19.02, 30.20 and 36.53 per cent, of 
ash. The coals vary from semi-bituminous to high-grade bitumi- 
nous, though in the description of this region, no reason for this dif- 
ference appears. Pellets of coal were seen frequently in rocks 
associated with the coal. 

The Rolling Downs formation is mostly marine, with inter- 
calated deposits, which may be of fresh-water origin. The higher 
rocks on the Upper Flinders River contain bands of ferruginous 
sandstone with markings which are suggestive of reptilian foot- 
prints. Farther up the river are thick-bedded sandstones, with grits, 
pebbly grits and conglomerates. These hold coal seams, one of 
which is in five benches with 22 inches of coal and a total thickness 
of 4 fe^t 9 inches. Other but thinner seams were seen in this 
neighborhood. The coal is very good and cakes. Near Winton, 
borings have passed through some seams of coal, but all are thin, 
none exceeding 2 feet, and the coal in the several seams varies, the 
ash being from 4.58 to 20.34 per cent. Some seams, 3 feet thick, 
have been observed elsewhere in Queensland, but they are merely 
lenses, marking sites of swamps occupying depressions in sandy 
river plains. 

Identifiable remains of plants are rare in the Queensland Cre- 



64 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

taceous, only two forms having been recognized. One of them be- 
longs to Glossopteris and was found in the Desert Sandstone. Ethe- 
ridge cannot distinguish it from G, browmana and G. ampla, which 
abotmd in the Permo-carboniferous of Queensland and New South 
Wales. The important coal deposits of New Zealand, in the lower 
part of the Cretaceo-Tertiary, occupy some extensive areas in the 
South Island and a less important area in the North Jsland. The 
South Island was studied in detail long ago by Hector^* and his 
associates. Hector examined Nelson district, the northern part of 
the island. The coal-bearing rocks at the CoUingwood mine, in the 
extreme north, rest on 105 feet of conglomerate and are 250 feet 
thick. They are mostly thick-bedded clayey sandstones with inter- 
bedded carbonaceous shales, which have 6 coal seams, from i to 4 
feet thick. But the coal is broken badly by partings. On the 
Ngakawau River there is a seam, 16 feet thick and yielding good 
caking coal, which burns freely with a sooty flame. In the lower 
canyon of BuUer River, he saw a bed of compact brown coal, at 
least 16 feet thick, underlying brown micaceous sandstone and over- 
lying a conglomerate or breccia of great thickness, which has a few 
thin seams of coal. The thick seam, which has much fossil resin, 
varies in composition ; samples from different parts of the bed have 
from 33.4s to 46.85 per cent, of volatile combustible matter in the 
pure coal. The ash in raw coal is about 7 per cent. A seam, 20 
feet thick, is mined on a branch of Buller River ; its ash is remark- 
ably low, varying from 0.98 to 1.19 per cent. The coal in some 
parts of the seam is compact, with bright luster and splintery frac- 
ture, but in others it is dull, with fracture like that of brown coal, 
and resembles jet. 

In the Grey River area, the southwest comer of the district, the 
basal rocks are conglomerate and breccia, succeeded by 200 to 800 
feet of sandstones, grits and shales with beds of anhydrous caking 
coal. Above these is a non-persistent conglomerate. Where this 
last is absent, the sandstones pass gradually into sandy clays with 
marine fossils and nodular clay iron-stone. Immediately below 
these marine beds and resting on the conglomerate or, in its absence, 

i«J. Hector, "Geological Survey of New Zealand," 1872, pp. 129-141, 
15&-165. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 65 

on the sandstones, is a seam of inferior coal, the " upper bed," which 
is a pitch coal, containing much resin and little constitutional water. 
The thick bed on Grey River, i6'feet, contains 64 to 68 per cent, of 
fixed carbon, while another seam, on the coast, has but 38.55 per 
cent. Hector described the latter as a very superior pitch coal, but 
its chemical composition suggests cannel; and it was recognized as 
such by Campbell," who notes its variations in thickness. Within 
its small area, he saw it 4, 6, 16, 4, and 2 feet. At the border, it 
thins away to nothing. Cannel is the prevailing type in this bed. 
Another bed, resembling splint, contains pebbles of sandstone. 

A more detailed study of the BuUer Coal Field was made by 
Cox and Denniston.^® At Coalbrookdale in Waimangawa Basin, 
Cox saw two coal seams, 5 and 18 feet thick, separated by 34 feet of 
sandstone; but at a short distance away they become 6 inches and 
II feet 6 inches. The upper bed quickly disappears but the lower 
one thickens northwardly until it becomes 40 feet, beyond which it 
decreases. Still farther north, beginning at Motmt Frederick in the 
Ngakawau Basin, this lower seam is 5, 25, 37, 40 and, at center of 
the basin, 53 feet; thence it thins away in all directions, the last 
measurement being 6 inches. Other beds show similar variations. 
Southwardly from the Waimangawa Basin, the conditions are the 
same. Descending a stream from Mount Williams, Cox saw an 
outcrop of shale; at a little distance beyond, this became a coal 
seam, 3 feet thick, but worthless because of numerous shale bands. 
Followed southwestwardly, this, the lower coal seam of other basins, 
became 3, 8, 20, 40, 20, 20, and 25 feet. But southward from the 
last measurement the seam thinned away until no trace of it could 
be found. 

Denniston's descriptions and his numerous sections show the lens 
form of the coal seams, thickest at center and thinning away to dis- 
appearance toward the margins of the basins. He notes that coal 
of the lower seam is not the same throughout a basin. In one area 
the upper portion is tender but the lower is hard; in another, the 
prevailing type is splint or cannel, hard, compact, jetlike, burning 

IT W. D. Campbell, New Zealand Geo!. Survey, Reps, for 1876-7, pp. 31^0. 
"S. H. Cox, N. Z. Geol. Survey, Reps, for 1874-6, pp. 17-29, 106-119; 
R. Denniston, the same, pp. 121-171. 



66 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

with a candlelike flame and showing little tendency to cake. The 
descriptions by Cox and Denniston make clear that the basins were 
contemporaneous but not connected. 

The district of Canterbury, embracing the middle eastern part 
of the island, was examined by Haast.^® The Malvern Hills area, 
about 30 miles west from Christchurch and embracing not far from 
180 square miles, exhibits his Great Brown Coal Formation, which, 
in the Table of Formations of 1879, ^s placed at base of the Cre- 
taceo-Tertiary. The coal seams are numerous, usually thin and 
always variable. Occasionally, nodules of retinite are numerous. 
The intervening rocks show great irr^^larity in structure. Sand- 
stones have abundance of tree trunks, whose thick bark has been 
replaced with clay ironstone, while the interior tissue has been re- 
placed with " woodstone " or filled with black shaly material. 

The extensive district of Otago, embracing the southern part of 
the island, was examined by Haast, McKay and Hutton.^* In 
Haast's area the lower part of the column has near the base a mass 
composed of subangular fragments of schists and containing irregu- 
lar seams of coal, 6 to 15 inches thick. Higher up, the rock be- 
comes a conglomerate with well-rounded pebbles of quartz. The 
thin-bedded sandstones and shales following this conglomerate have 
only thin seams, but in the upper part of the column there are beds 
of conglomerate separated by thinner shales and sandstones, which 
hold important coal seams. 

Coals are mined on Green Island. Near one of the shafts, 
McKay saw a bed of fossilized roots "sticking in an old soil, just 
as they grew." At another locality, a workable coal seam under- 
lies beds containing Belentnitella, 

According to Hutton, the area of Cretaceous coals is small in 
Otago. The most important field is near Shag River, where there 
are at least 6 workable seams, yielding the best of brown coal. The 
seams are thin in the Mount Hamilton field, rarely exceeding 10 
inches, but the coal is bituminous. The highest sandstone there con- 
tains at base an angular block of sandstone, 8 by 3 feet, resting on 

19 J. Haast, N. Z. Geo!. Reps, for 1871-2, pp. 1-88. 

20 J. Haast, Reps, for 1871-2, pp. 148-153; A. McKay, Reps, for 1873-4, 
pp. 59, 60; F. Hutton, "Geology of Otago," Dunedin, 1875, pp. 44, 100-103. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 67 

a thin seam of coal. He conceived that it had been floated in, 
attached to the roots of a tree, " wherefore the coal beds are formed 
partly from driftwood." 

The coals of New Zealand for the most part are lignitic or sub- 
bituminous, but no woody structure is mentioned by any observer. 

Greenland. 

The existence of coal in the Cretaceous of western Greenland 
was made certain by the work of White and Schuchert^^ during 
1897. Their observations were made chiefly on the Nugsuak Penin- 
sula. The Kome or lower division, as exposed near Kook, con- 
sists of shaly or laminated sandstones with thin beds of dark shale 
containing much carbonaceous matter, so abundant at times as to 
make the shale combustible, but not enough to justify one in calling 
it coal or lignite. The whole succession is so irregular that sections 
are not comparable. The plants are conifers, cycads and ferns with 
some indeterminate leaves of dicotyledons. Near Ugarartorsuak, 
all divisions of the Cretaceous were examined. The Kome, in a 
section of 270 feet, has 20 feet of "thin coals with shaly partings 
and 2 bands of carbonaceous shale." Another section of about 305 
feet, belonging to the Atane or middle division, has several beds of 
coaly shale, a coal seam, i foot 6 inches and a mass of " thin sand- 
stones and coals," 10 feet. The flora differs from that of the Kome 
as, besides cycads, conifers and ferns, it has 8 species of dicotyle- 
dons. A third flora, in still higher beds, is related to the second 
and both seem to be related to the Upper Cretaceous. Dark beds 
with huge ferruginous concretions, have fossils of types character- 
izing the Montana of western United States. 

A dark shale, 75 feet thick, seen near Ata on the southerly shore 
of the peninsula, has leaves and large fragments of tree trunks with 
an invertebrate fauna, which Stanton takes to be the same with 
that of the highest beds on the north shore and equivalent to Ceno- 
manian. The highest division of the Cretaceous, Patoot of Heer, 
is exposed near Patoot, where the lowest beds are at 470 feet above 
the sea. The fossils are of Senonian age and some of the plants are 

21 D. White and C. Schuchert, " Cretaceous Series of the West Coast of 
Greenland," Bull. Geol. Soc, Amer,, Vol. 9, 1898, pp. 343-368. 



68 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

allied to Laramie forms. The authors suggest that, at least in part, 
the.Patoot may be a transition formation; no unconformity was ob- 
served between Cretaceous and Tertiary ; all conditions indicate that 
sedimentation was continuous. Near Patoot, at 1,170 feet above the 
base of this division, there are occasional bands, ferruginous, con- 
taining ferns, conifers, and dicotyledons, with erect stumps and 
abundance of silicified wood. 

North America. 

Cretaceous deposits are present on the Atlantic and the northern 
Gulf coasts of the United States, but they contain no coal and the 
occurrences of lignite have interest only for the paleobotanist. The 
important area is in the west-central region, where the deposits 
originally extended from the 95th meridian westward for not far 
from 1,000 miles, and from Lat. 25° in Mexico northward for not 
less than 2,100 miles, in all not less than 2,000,000 square miles. 
These figures are merely approximations and the area of greatest 
extent may have been considerably larger. The continuity of these 
deposits was destroyed by post-Cretaceous erosion, following the 
Rocky-Mountain revolution. 

Belief that Cretaceous deposits were practically continuous 
throughout this vast area is of comparatively recent data. The 
prevalent conception until within little more than 20 years, was that 
the Rocky Mountains had existed during Cretaceous time. There 
seems to be little room for doubting the general accuracy of conclu- 
sions that those mountains mark lines of successive foldings but proof 
of their existence as elevated areas is wanting. Willis^^ thought that 
the earliest Cretaceous deposits of his district were laid down on a 
surface of Carboniferous and Algonkian rocks, which was a plane, 
primarily a peneplain and afterwards a surface of marine planation. 
The first period of compression may not have begun until after 
close of the Cretaceous. Incidental reference to the conditions 
indicates similar conception on the part of some later observers; 
but the first clear analysis of the evidence, known to the writer, is 
that by Lee,^^ who has discussed the phenomena observed by him- 

22 B. Willis, " Stratigraphy and Structure, Lewis and Livingston Ranges, 
Montana," Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 13, 1902, pp. 338, 339. 

28 W. T. Lee, U. S. Geol. Survey, Prof. Paper, 95-C, I9i5» PP. 5^58. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 69 

self and others in New Mexico and Colorado. He recognizes pene- 
planation in the southern Rocky-Mountain region prior to the begin- 
ning of the Upper Cretaceous. The evidence all indicates that the 
interior continental sea extended from Utah and Arizona eastward 
over the present site of the Rocky Mountains. 

The source of sediments was at the south and west, as appears 
from discussions by Lee, Stone and Calvert and Stebinger,^* as 
well as from sections by many other observers. The coarser ma- 
terials are in the southern and western parts of the area, while, 
toward the east, land and border-land conditions disappear, so that 
the rocks become shales with more or less of limestone. But toward 
the close of the Cretaceous, land and shore deposits extended far 
east, indicating perhaps a long period of comparative stability prior 
to the great mountain-making period of the Tertiary. The vast 
area, reaching in some places almost to the Mississippi, was apH 
parently at first almost a peneplain, over which the early Cretaceous 
sea advanced to the western border. 

During and after the Rocky-Mountain revolution, erosion was 
so energetic that, in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah and Colorado, the 
Cretaceous was broken into isolated " fields " or " basins," separated 
in many cases by ranges showing Archean rocks at thousands of 
feet above the general altitude of the region. But this greatly dis- 
turbed area becomes narrower toward the north, so that, in much of 
Wyoming, the continuity is broken only by comparatively short 
ridges around which the Cretaceous rocks outcrop. Still farther 
north, the undulations in by far the greater part of the area are 
gentle and sedimentation appears to have been continuous into the 
Tertiary ; the greatly disturbed region on the western side trends 
toward the northwest and becomes very narrow. During the Cre- 
taceous, deposition was practically continuous, there being only local 
unconformities, so small vertically and horizontally as to be sur- 
prising, in view of the vast area under consideration. There are, 
however, great variations in thickness which seem to be due to differ- 
ential subsidence. The conditions favoring accumulation of coal 
were repeated many times in the region of coarser sediments and 

2* W. T. Lee, Prof. Paper, 95-C ; R. W. Stone and W. R. Calvert, Econ, 
Geol, VoL v., 1910; E. Stebinger, Prof. Paper, go-G, 1914. 

PROG. AMER. PHIL. SOC, VOL. LVI, F, MAY 23, I917. 



70 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

the formation of offshore deposits was marked by an assemblage of 
fossils which survived the changing conditions and reappeared at 
several horizons. 

It was to be expected that during the period of reconnaissance 
surveys, coal groups belonging near the base of the Upper Cre- 
taceous should be correlated with others elsewhere, which are in 
highest formations of the series. One familiar with the facts, as 
now understood, is not astonished by the contradictions, when he 
considers the conditions under which the earlier work was done. 
During recent years, detailed studies by geologists of the National 
surveys of the United States and Canada have done so much toward 
removal of uncertainties, that it is possible to present a comparative 
table of formations, which, as a generalization, is near enough to the 
truth for purposes of this study.** 

The first systematic classification of the western Cretaceous 
was presented by Hall and Meek.** Hall had financed an expedi- 
tion to make collections between the Missouri River and the Mau- 
vaises Terres, Meek being in charge. The succession, based chiefly 
on Meek's observations, is 

Eocene, Tertiary Formation, clays and sandstone, etc., containing 

remains of mammalia, 250 feet. 
Cretaceous Formation, 

5. Arenaceous clay, passing into argillaceous sandstone, 80 feet 
4. Plastic clay, with calcareous concretions containing ntmierous 
fossils. This is the principal fossiliferous bed of the Cre- 
taceous on the upper Missouri, 250 to 300 feet. 
3. Calcareous marl, containing Ostrea congesta, scales of fish, 
etc., 100 to 150 feet. 

25 The writer would not neglect acknowledgment of his great indebted- 
ness to the writings of W. T. Lee, T. W. Stanton, N. H. Darton, F. H. Knowl- 
ton, E. Stebinger, R. W. Stone and W. R. Calvert, of the United States 
Geological Survey and to those by D. B. Dowling, of the Geological Survey 
of Canada. Several of these students have been unreserved in communi- 
cating unpublished material; but they must not be held responsible for con- 
clusions offered by the writer, some of which may appear to them far from 
correct. 

*• James Hall and F. B. Meek, " Descriptions of New Species of Fossils, 
from the Cretaceous Formation of Nebraska," Mem, Amer. Acad. Arts and 
Sci., 1856, p. 405. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 71 

2. Qay containing few fossils, 80 feet. 
I. Sandstone and clay, 90 feet. 

The thicknesses were purely tentative, as the party, owing to 
unexpected complications, were compelled to make a remarkably 
rapid reconnaissance. Several years later, Meek and Hayden pub- 
lished an amplified section, based on examinations and collections 
made by Hayden while associated with the Raynolds expedition.*^ 
In this memoir, geographical names were applied to the several 
formations. Fox Hills beds. No. 5 ; Fort Pierre group. No. 4 ; Nio- 
brara division, No. 3; Fort Benton group. No. 2; Dakota group, 
No. I. 

The Fort Union or Great Lignite Group, which overlies the Fox 
Hills, was placed in the Tertiary. This grouping was based on the 
fossil remains, not on the lithological features and it was applicable 
apparently throughout the eastern part of the Cretaceous r^on. 
In the early 70's discussion arose respecting the relations of some 
coal deposits which had been referred to the Fort Union ; the term 
"Laramie" was introduced for the deposits in dispute, to be em- 
ployed without committing the writer to either Tertiary or Cre- 
taceous age. Studies in more recent years made necessary a change 
at the base of the column. Barton's examination of the Black Hills 
in northeastern Wyoming showed that the Dakota is complex, that 
the middle and lower portions carry Lower Cretaceous forms, while 
the upper portion belongs to the Upper Cretaceous. Some years 
afterward, the same author, and later Lee and Stanton, discovered 
fossils with similar relation in the same beds within New Mexico. 
These lower beds were correlated with the Kootenai of Canada. 

When, however, an attempt was made to apply the Missouri 
River section to the country west from the io6th meridian, serious 
difficulty was encountered. The character of the deposits was 
wholly diflFerent. The matter was complicated by the fact that the 
earlier explorers did not recognize that the great erosion was due to 
post-Cretaceous elevation of the mountains and by the other fact 
that they did not know that a grouping of fossils, resembling that 
of the Fox Hills, occurs in that region low down in the column. In 

27 F. B. Meek and F. V. Hayden, Proc, Acad, Nat. Set., Philadelphia, 1861, 
citations from pp. 419, 432. 



72 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

the later work, exigencies made necessary the study of economically 
important districts and the temporary ignoring of intervening dis- 
tricts. The column was divided for descriptive purposes, largely 
on the basis of lithology and local names were introduced, which 
were utilized in other districts, but not always in the same sense. 
At an early date, the difficulty in determining boimdaries of forma- 
tions at the west was recognized ; the Fox Hills and the Pierre were 
combined as the Montana and the Niobrara and Fort Benton as the 
Colorado. In this study, the Meek and Hayden classification is 
employed as it is based on palaeontological ground and enables one 
to recognize changes in physical geography. As modified by later 
studies it is 

Laramie 



Montana , _. 

\ Pierre 



r Fox Hills 



f Niobrara 



Colorado , -, , 

[ Benton 

Dakota 

Kootenai. 

Each of the several formations is coal-bearing in areas of greater 
or less extent, but barren or nearly so in others of greater extent. 
They will be described in the order of age. Literature dealing with 
the coals of the western Cretaceous is voluminous, but it consists 
largely of preliminary studies with land classification as the object. 
Much of the region is very sparsely settled, as it is agriculturally 
arid, and systematic mining is confined to narrow strips along the 
railways. For the most part, explorers must depend on natural 
exposures, which are indefinite. At the same time, one cannot re- 
frain from grateful acknowledgment of the skill exhibited by not a 
few of the observers, for the mass of information is so great as to 
prove an embarrassment in preparation of this review. 

The Laramie, Lance, Edmonton. 

The post-Cretaceous erosion spared only scattered areas of 
Laramie in the southern districts, but farther north, where the region 
of orogenic disturbance was restricted more and more to the far 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 73 

western border and deposition was apparently continuous in the 
plains, Laramie covers or underlies great spaces. 

In the present state of knowledge, one may not assert or deny 
the existence of Laramie beds in the important Trinidad-Raton field 
of Colorado and New Mexico. Lee's discovery of an unconformity 
by erosion in the mass, formerly regarded as Laramie, has made 
the relations of the Raton formation, that above the unconformity, 
somewhat uncertain. The plant remains appear to have Tertiary 
affinities. The report by Lee and Knowlton on this field is still 
unpublished. It would appear that the Laramie is present in the 
isolated coal field on the Arkansas River, near Canyon City, Colorado. 
Stevenson^® in his first report referred all the coals of this field to 
the Laramie ; but at a later date, he restricted that formation to the 
upper part, 880 feet, which is in accord with the later measurement 
by Washbume. This later observer obtained plant remains which 
show that the rocks are equivalent to a part, at least, of the Laramie 
as recognized farther north in the Denver Basin. The coal seams 
are irregular in occurrence and appear to be mere lenses. The sand- 
stones and shales are so variable that vertical sections, less than 100 
yards apart, are wholly dissimilar. 

The Denver Basin extends along the eastern foot of the Front 
Ranges almost to the northern boundary of Colorado. The Mesozoic 
deposits were studied by Eldridge.^* The Laramie, 600 to 1,200 
feet thick, consists mostly of sandstones in the lower, but of clays in 
the upper part. Coal seams in the higher beds are thinner and 
much more irregular than those in the lower division, which is about 
200 feet thick. Ostrea glabra, according to Eldridge, occurs in the 
lower division, so that in the writer's opinion this sandstone is closely 
allied to the Fox Hills, to which it is lithologically similar. Sections 
throughout show great variation in the rocks as well as in the coal 
seams, so that in any district, strict correlation of coals in diflFerent 
mines is possible only where the workings are continuous. The coal 
seams of the lower division are from 3 to 14 feet thick. A seam, 

2« J. J. Stevenson, U. S. Expl. W. of looth Mer., Vol. III., 1875, PP- 393- 
397; Proc, Amer, Phil. Soc, Vol. XIX., 1881, pp. 505-521; C W. Washburne, 
U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 381, 1910, pp. 341-378. 

2» S. F. Emmons, W. Cross, G. H. Eldridge, U. S. Geol. Survey, Monog. 
27. 1896, pp. 51-74. 323-369. 



74 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

mined in the Lafayette district, is 14 feet thick at the outcrop ; but 
within 500 feet a parting appears, which increases northwardly to 
10 and at length to 25 feet. The splits remain good in this direc- 
tion, but southwardly, as the parting increases, the lower split is 
broken more and more by slates until it becomes worthless. The 
coal in some seams is not the same throughout; one bench may be 
hard, another soft. In one bed, the upper bench yields softer coal 
than the lower, which is complex, consisting of: Bright coal with 
conchoidal fracture, 6 inches ; crushed coal, 6 inches ; fibrous coal, 
36 inches. The coal of the Denver Basin often has woody struc- 
ture and contains silicified tree trunks, knots and branches. It is 
resinous at many places. 

D. White^® states that, while the coals of this Basin are relatively 
persistent, they vary greatly in thickness. The topography of the 
floor reveals shallow "swales" or ponds, occasionally extending a 
mile or "more, in which the coal is thicker. The floor at Lafayette is 
a bluish sandy imderclay, containing numerous roots in place, prob- 
ably an old swamp soil ; resting on this is a bed, 8 to 30 inches thick, 
of dark carbonaceous clay, or lignitic mud, filled with flattened stems, 
lying in all directions, some of them very large and many are much 
compressed. The roof is sandstone with no transition from the 
coal. 

In general, the coal is essentially xyloid, there being apparently 
more wood than in the lignite of Hoyt and Rockdale in Texas, 
though less than in that of Wilton and Lehigh in South Dakota — 
all of them Eocene. The quantity of jetified wood is large but the 
branches and limbs are compressed to thin lenses. Mineral charcoal 
is abundant, often in large fragments. A log was seen, 14 by 5 
inches in section, jetified in the interior, while the outer portion had 
become mineral charcoal ; but another specimen was hollow, contain- 
ing mineral charcoal in the interior, while the outer portion was 
jetified. Irregular lumps of yellow resin are numerous and at times 
this material has been squeezed into the joints. 

The coal at Marshall, 10 miles from Lafayette, is at the same 
horizon, being regarded as one of the splits of the main Lafayette 
seam. Silicified wood is abundant and well-preserved, showing 

«o D. White, "The Origin of Coal," Bur. of Mines, Bull. 38, 1913, pp. 20-23. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 75 

grain and rings distinctly. The lower part of the bed is more con- 
choidal, less xyloid and has higher percentage of fixed carbon than 
the upper, suggesting^ as White says, that it represents a more ma- 
tured peat. He could obtain no data respecting the floor of this bed, 
but roots were found under two coal seams in a railway cut, the 
sandy floor of one being undoubtedly an old soil. 

Thiessen's'^ microscopic study of the Lafayette and Marshall 
coals proved that, generally speaking, the type of vegetation and the 
conditions during accumulation must have been very similar to those 
during the Eocene in Montana and Dakota, though the proportion 
of woody materials is somewhat less and the compression is greater. 
The resin is darker than that of the Dakota lignite. The debris con- 
tains the reticulated bodies observed in the pith of certain fossil wood 
and present in all Tertiary and Cretaceous coals which Thiessen has 
examined. Fungal hyphae and spores are abundant, the former 
especially in material of herbaceous origin. Spores and pollen 
exines compose not more than 5 to 10 per cent, of the mass. 

A notable area of Laramie has escaped erosion in the northern 
part of the San Juan Basin within New Mexico and Colorado. On 
the eastern outcrop, according to Gardner,** coal seams are very 
thin or are wanting; but on the western outcrop, Shaler saw along 
the Rio Chaco several coal seams which occasionally become work- 
able, with a maximum thickness of 3 to 6 feet. Farther north, on 
the San Juan and Plata Rivers, he saw the Carbonero seam with 
maximum thickness of 50 feet ; but it is variable, for at one locality 
it is little more than 6 feet and is broken by three partings. Beyond 
the Colorado line, near Carbon Junction, the thickness increases to 
about 100 feet ; the partings are very numerous, but there are some 
bands of clean coal, 4 to 5 feet thick. The bed divides toward the 
west ; at 3 miles southeast from Durango, Shaler saw three seams, 
7, 30 and 15 feet, in a vertical space of less than 200 feet, which he 
believes to be splits of the Carbonero. 

Apparently no part of the Laramie has escaped erosion in the 
great Uinta Basin of northwestern Colorado; or, at least, if any 
still remain, its rocks are so similar to those of the Pierre that no 

81 R. Thiessen, Bur. of Mines, Bull. 38, 1913, pp. 241-243. 
»2J. H. Gardner, Bull. 341, 1909, p. 388; M. K. Shaler, Bull. 316, Ft. 2, 
1907. pp. 385, 386, 395. 396, 400, 404. 



76 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

separation can be made. The coal deposits of this r^ion were re- 
ferred to the Laramie by the earlier observers; the later observers 
have proved that they in the Pierre. 

Laramie coals are important in the Green River Basin of south- 
western Wyoming. The Cretaceous section in the outlying coal field 
of Coalville in northeastern Utah has on top 2,500 feet of mostly 
sandy beds, with leaves and fresh-water shells, but no coal. This 
rests on 1,650 feet of sandy beds with marine fossils.^* At about 
30 miles northeast, one reaches the Laramie area of Uinta County, 
Wyoming, where the Laramie, according to Knight and Veatch,'* is 
more than 5,000 feet thick in the southern part of the county. 
There, as in the Coalville field, one is near the western border of 
deposition and the formations are thick. Schultz found only 2,800 
feet remaining in the northern part of the coimty. The lower por- 
tion of the column for several himdred feet contains marine fossils 
and it must be referred to the Fox Hills; but Laramie leaves are 
abundant in the higher deposits. The Tertiary coals of Evanston 
overlie the Laramie uncomformably. Coal seams are numerous in 
the Laramie and at times they are workable, but the thicker seams 
of the Tertiary render them unimportant. 

The Rock Springs coal field in Sweetwater County is about 50 
miles farther east, only Tertiary deposits being at the surface in 
the intervening space. Schultz^*^ gives the thickness of Laramie as 
3,900 to 1,500 feet, the variation being due to extent of erosion. 
The lower part of the section is clearly Fox Hills ; the Laramie beds 
are sands and clays with little coal. The marine sandy beds persist 
eastwardly and the Laramie rocks retain their features, finer in 
grain, more argillaceous and without important coal beds. In 
southern Carbon County, Ball and Stebinger'® find an extreme thick- 
ness of 4,000 feet, but the formation thins away southward. The 
lower part of the column for about 400 feet must be assigned to the 

w C. H. Wegemann, Bull. 58i-£, 1915, p. 161. 

8* W. C. Knight, " Southern Uinta County, Wyoming," Bull, Geol Soc, 
Anter., Vol. 13, 1902, pp. 542-544; A. C. Veatch, Bull. 285, 1906, p. 333; A. R. 
Schultz, Bull. 316, 1907, p. 217. 

«5 A. R. Schultz, Bull. 341, 1909, p. 259; Bull. 381, 1910, pp. 223, 227. 

««M. W. Ball and E. Stebinger, Bull. 341, 246, 253; Bull 381, pp. 190, 
193, 204. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 77 

Fox Hills. The coal seams are irregular except in the northern part 
of the district, where beds were seen, 8, 6 and 4 feet thick. Whether 
these belong to Fox Hills or to Laramie cannot be determined from 
the sections. In the southern portion of the basin, within Colorado, 
the Laramie is 900 feet thick according to Fenneman^^ and Gale, 
consisting of alternating sandstones and shales, with indications of 
20 lignite seams distributed irregularly in the upper two thirds. 
The writer regards the lower third as belonging to Fox Hills and 
thinks that the thick coal seam near Craig, 8 feet, is in that formation. 
Northward from the Green River Basin, area? of Laramie are 
comparatively unimportant. On the west side of the Bighorn 
basin, lenticular coal beds were seen by Woodruff at many places 
in the lower part of the formation. Washburne found 150 to 
700 feet between the Eocene and the Pierre formation, massive 
sandstones and shales ; in this, taken to be Laramie, there are thin 
and variable coal beds. The only workable seam is near Garland 
where 4 feet of clean coal had been worked ; but the seam quickly 
breaks up in all directions and becomes worthless. The Buffalo 
coal field, east from Bighorn Mountains, shows great irregularity 
in deposition during the Laramie, but the coal seams, though vary- 
ing in thickness and quality, can be traced for considerable distances. 
In the Sussex coal field, 30 miles farther south, Wegemann found 
the Lance formation, 3,200 feet thick and resting on the Fox Hills. 
The coals are unimportant except in two localities, where seams oc- 
casionally become workable. Wegemann's descriptions seem to 
make clear that the coals are mere lenses and the better coal is in the 
middle portion of the lens. Winchester measured about 2,450 feet 
of Lance beds in the Lost Spring coal field, which is on the western 
border of the great Tertiary lignite area. There are traces of the 
coals seen farther west, but only carbonaceous shale was found. 
The Fox Hills, Lance and Fort Union appear to be conformable 
in this region. The highest rocks in the Blade Hills area of north- 
eastern Wyoming are sandstones, shales and lignites, in all about 
2,500 feet, as determined by Darton. That student hesitated to 
identify these beds as Laramie, because it was not possible to deter- 
mine whether or not they are conformable to the underlying Fox 

»^ N. M. Fenneman and H. S. Gale, Bull. 285, 1906, p. 288. 



78 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

Hills. The relations of the Lance formation have been subject for 
much discussion ; the testimony of plant and animal remains is con- 
tradictory. In no inconsiderable area, the Lance is conformable to 
the Fox Hills. Winchester in a recent note, summarizing results 
obtained by himself and his assistants, in eastern Wyoming, states 
that Lance overlies Fox Hills. It is subdivided into three members ; 
a lower undifferentiated portion, 425 feet thick; a middle, lignite- 
bearing portion, the Ludlow, at least 350 feet ; and an upper marine 
member, the Cannonball, 225 feet. The marine fauna of the Can- 
nonball is very similar to but not identical with that of the Fox Hills, 
while flora of the Ludlow cannot be differentiated from that of the 
Tertiary Fort Union.^® 

The eastern half of Montana is a rolling plain covered with Ter- 
tiary and later deposits, the mountains of states at the south having 
disappeared. Anticlinals have brought up the highest members of 
the Cretaceous. The Lance, taken by the writer as the eastern ex- 
tension of the Laramie, has at base the Colgate sandstone, which is 
90 to 17s feet thick and contains no coal except at one locality, 
where Hance saw a lens only a few hundred yards long. The 
upper part of the Lance, about 500 feet, has variable seams of lig- 
nitic coal, but all are lenticular. Some observers note great irregu- 
larity in the deposits, which appear to be fresh-water throughout.'^ 

West from the 109th meridian, one approaches the mountain re- 
gion and finds the whole Cretaceous exposed. In northern Fergus 
County, the Lance appears to be present, but the relations of the 
beds are not altogether clear. Near the Crazy Mountains in 
Meagher County, Stone found 1,200 to 2,800 feet of shales and 
sandstones, which he places in the Laramie; but the Lennep sand- 
stone, at the base, 200 to 400 feet thick, is known now to be Fox 
Hills. Lenses of coal, a few inches thick and of insignificant hori- 
zontal extent, are present in the Laramie. Not far westward from 
this district shore conditions prevail and a continuous formation, 

"E. G. Woodruff, Bull. 341, 1909, pp. 202, 205; Bull. 381, p. 173; C. W. 
Washburne, Bull. 341, pp. 167, 169, 181 ; C. H. Wegemann, Bull. 471-F, 1912, 
pp. 26, 30; D. E. Winchester, Bull. 471-F, p. 58; Joum, Wash. Acad. Set., Vol. 
VIL, 1917, p. 36; N. H. Darton, Prof. Paper 65, 1909, p. 58. 

80 W. R. Calvert, C. F. Bowen, F. A. Herald, J. H. Hance, Bull. 471-A 
1912, pp. 13, 21, 48, 49» 91. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 79 

the Livingston, occupies the whole interval from near the base of 
the Pierre to the lower portion of the Fort Union.*® 

In Teton County, on the Canadian border and near the western 
boundary of the Cretaceous, Stebinger saw 980 feet of clay, clay 
shales soft gray to greenish gray cross-bedded and rippled sand- 
stones with coal seams and some lenticular limestones. Apparently, 
the succession from Lower Cretaceous to the top of the Eocene is 
conformable throughout. This mass, placed by Stebinger at top of 
the Cretaceous column, is shown by tracing to be the St. Mary for- 
mation of Dawson in Alberta. Its sandstones contain fossil wood. 
Coal seams occur at top and near the bottom, but they are too thin 
and uncertain to be of economic importance. The persistence of a 
coal horizon near the base proved, as Stebinger observes, the exist- 
ence of widespread though transient coal-forming conditions soon 
after deposition of the great Horsethief (Fox Hills) sandstone. 
The coal seams improve near the Canadian border.** 

Passing over into Canada, Dawson in southeastern Alberta 
placed a great mass of deposits in the Laramie, but later studies have 
made evident that only the lower division should be referred to that 
formation. This, the St. Mary beds, is, at least in part, the same 
with the Edmonton of Dowling and with the Lance in Wyoming 
and Montana. The formation, about 2,800 feet thick, is of fresh- 
water origin except at the base and in its upper portion has sand- 
stones which are cross-bedded, rippled and with worm borings.*^ 
Dowling*' measured about 3,000 feet on Oldman River, mostly 
sandstone with sandy shales and some thin coals at the base. In 
the Sheep River district, two seams were seen near the Foothills, 
but farther east on Sheep River there is only one. Tyrrell** studied 
a large area in eastern Alberta between the Red Deer and North 
Saskatchewan Rivers. At the south near Red Deer River, he saw 
two important coal seams near the top of the formation, each about 

*«R. W. Stone, Bull. 341, pp. 82, 84; R. W. Stone and W. R. Calvert, 
Econ. Geoi, Vol. V., 1910, pp. 55i-557i 652-669, 741-764. 

*i E. Stebinger, Bull. 62i'K, 1916, pp. 124, 127, 128, 145. 

*2 G. M. Dawson, Gtol. Survey of Canada, Reps. Prog. 1882-83-84, Part 
C, pp. 36-72. 

** D. B. Dowling, Summ. Reps, for 1903, pp. 142-149 ; the same, for 
1914, p. 47. 

** J. B. Tyrrell, Rep. Prog, for 1886, Part E, pp. 56, 60-63, 132. 



80 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

10 feet thick; but he did not find them persistent. In the North 
Saskatchewan portion of the area, the important coal is also near 
the top of the formation. The chief seam was seen first near Win- 
tering Hills as a bed of carbonaceous shale; but farther north it 
becomes coal and increases steadily until it becomes 25 feet thick. 
Several seams were seen in the lower portion of the formation, but 
the most persistent horizon is about 160 feet above the Pierre. 
Cross-bedded sandstone was observed at many localities. 

About twenty-five years later, when the region had been opened 
up, Dowling*^ reported upon the Edmonton District, a portion of the 
area studied by Tyrrell. There he found about 700 feet of Laramie 
(Edmonton, St. Mary), a succession of shales and sands, too often 
merely clays and sands, a brackish-water formation between the 
marine Pierre and the fresh-water Pashkapoo of the Tertiary. It 
is rich in coal seams, which increase from south to north. The im- 
portant coal horizon is near the top of the formation and it has been 
followed from the Red Deer to the Pembina River, becoming thicker 
toward the north and northwest. Three seams were seen on the 
Pembina, of which the highest is 26 feet thick ; on the north Sas- 
katchewan, a seam, belonging to the same coal group in the upper 
part of the formation, is 25 feet. Below the middle of the forma- 
tion, Dowling saw another coal group ; some of its seams are lenses 
of moderate extent, while others have been traced by borings under 
a considerable area ; but they vary greatly in thickness and may be 
lenses. Dowling is evidently far from certain that the main seam 
of the region is persistent. 

McConnell** states that the Laramie in northern Alberta has nu- 
merous seams of inferior lignite and ironstone. Rose reporting on 
the Lance of southwestern Saskatchewan, refers to the formation 
as a transition from the marine Fox Hills to the fresh-water Fort 
Union. The rocks are slightly consolidated and the seams of lignite 
are unimportant. 

*5 D. B. Dowling, Memoir 8-£, 1910, pp. 13, 16, 18, 27, 28. 
*« R. G. McConnell, Ann. Reps., Vol. VI.-D, 1893, p. 53 ; B. Rose, Summ. 
Reps, for 1914, pp. 64-67. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 81 

The Fox Hills, Lennep Sandstone, Horsethief Sandstone. 

In this study the transition beds from the marine Pierre to the 
fresh-water Laramie are taken to be the Fox Hills. At very many 
localities, where the higher members of the Cretaceous have escaped 
erosion, this transition formation is a shore or offshore deposit of 
more or less coarse materials, with fossils, mostly marine but ac- 
companied at times by brackish-water forms. Within some basins, 
coal seams of great economic importance are present, while in others, 
coal is wanting or in such small quantity as to possess only geological 
interest. 

Reports on the San Juan Basin to which the writer has access, 
give no details sufficing to determine whether or not the Fox Hills 
is present in any considerable part of the Basin ; but a section by 
J. H. Gardner, cited and discussed by Lee,*^ shows that it exists in 
the northern part. The Pictured Cliffs sandstone, 394 feet thick, 
mostly gray sandstone, contains marine fossils to the top. It uii- 
derlies 79 feet of brackish to fresh-water beds, in which coal seams, 
4 and 12 feet thick were seen at 4 and 57 feet from the base. Lee 
includes these in the " Laramie," as there appears to be uncertainty 
respecting the relations of some parts of the column. No coal has 
been reported from the Pictured Cliffs sandstone. 

The existence of Fox Hills is equally uncertain in the Uinta 
Basin of western Colorado. Fox Hills conditions recurred at vari- 
ous horizons in the Pierre of this basin, as they did in central New 
Mexico, so that the earlier observers recognized both Fox Hills and 
Laramie in the Pierre beds. But there is no room for doubt that 
the formation exists in the southeast prong of the Colorado portion 
of the Green River Basin ; for there Gale*® found the basal sand- 
stone of the " Laramie," resting on the Pierre, with a marine fauna. 
The thick coal bed at Craig apparently belongs in the Fox Hills. 
About 50 feet of this formation has escaped erosion in North Park, 
Colorado, where it rests on the great mass of Pierre shale. There 
Beekly obtained marine shells and the fucoid Halymenites major 
from this sandstone; but no coal is present.**^ 

*^ W. T. Lee, Bull Geol, Soc, Amer,, Vol. 23, 1912, pp. 587-591. 
*« H. S. Gale, Bull 341, PP. 287, 295. 
*» A. L Beekly, Bull. 596, 1915, p. 46. 



82 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

The relations are sufficiently clear in the main portion of the 
Green River Basin with Wyoming. In Uinta County, the basal 
200 feet of " Laramie " with alternating marine and land deposits 
includes among others the great Adaville-Lazeart coal seam, lo to 
84 feet thick ; Veatch'^ brief summary of the coals gives no details 
respecting the accompanying rocks. Schultz found in the Rock 
Springs field of Sweetwater County a yellowish white sandstone at 
base of the " Laramie," overlain by sandstones, clays and coal beds ; 
in some places fossils abound. The basal sandstone rests on the 
upper member of the Pierre. The coal of this Fox Hills is in- 
ferior and is no longer mined. Smith reports that in northeastern 
Carbon County, marine fossils are present up to 500 feet from the 
base of the "Laramie," which, he says, is a common condition in 
southern Wyoming and northern Colorado. Here as in other parts 
of the basin, a great sandstone is at the base. Coal is present in 
the Fox Hills, but the beds are unimportant, the thickest being only 
18 inches. Veatch'® separates the beds with marine fossils in east 
central Carbon from the Laramie and places the great white sand- 
stone with its overlying beds in the Pierre. No occurrence of coal 
is noted. Ball and Stebinger in southern Carbon place the sand- 
stone and the overlying beds in the Laramie, but state that marine 
fossils have been up to 400 feet above the sandstone. They give 
no details respecting the character of the beds and apparently they 
saw no coal. 

The Raton-Trinidad coal field of New Mexico and Colorado is 
at the eastern foot of the Front Ranges. The earlier students re- 
garded the coal-bearing rocks as conformable throughout and placed 
them in the Laramie. The numerous unconformities observed were 
thought to be merely local variations, characterizing deposits on 
the rudely level strand area. Lee, however, has proved that the 
irregularities are far greater than imagined by his predecessors and 
that a great unconformity by erosion separates the column into the 
Raton and Vermejo formations, the former most probably of Ter- 
tiary age. The Vermejo, resting on the Trinidad sandstone, is 
taken by the writer to be Fox Hills but Lee is inclined to regard it 

50 A. C. Veatch, Bull. 285, 1906, p. 333; Bull. 316, 1907, pp. 246, 248; E. E, 
Smith, Bull. 341, pp. 225, 228, 229; M. W. Ball and E. Stebinger, Bull. 341, pp. 
246, 247; Bull. 381, 1910, p. 193. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 



83 



as somewhat older. At the same time, in view of conditions farther 
north along the eastern foot of the Front Ranges, the writer feels 
compelled to abide by his opinion expressed 35 years ago, that in 
large part, at least, the rocks belong to the Fox Hills. The basal 
sandstone known now as the Trinidad sandstone (Halymenites sand- 
stone of Stevenson), contains some marine fossils with great abun- 
dance of the fucoid, Halymenites major; the overlying beds, with 
extreme thickness of about 500 feet, are prevailingly sandstone with 
interbedded shales and coal seams. The rocks have fossil leaves, 
which are older than Laramie and a few marine fossils have been 
seen. The coal seams are numerous but are indefinite, varying so 
greatly in thickness and relative position that correlation, especially 
of the higher ones, is not possible. All are excessively variable in 
the New Mexico portion of the field, but some of them attain im- 
portance in modest areas and are mined extensively. In the 
northern or Colorado part of the field there are from one to 8 seams 
in the 250 feet above the Trinidad sandstone. This group is per- 
sistent and consists of lenses, which frequently are workable. Near 
Sopris, the seams " thicken and thin out characteristically," they are 
broken by partings and the coal is dirty. Near Trinidad, the coal 
is sometimes without a parting. The accompanying rocks are as 
variable as the coals. Near Pictou, 3 seams are mined. At the out- 
crop, the intervals are 15 and 30 feet ; but at 2,500 feet in the mine, 
the upper and middle beds have uni-ted and the interval to the lower 
one is but 20 feet. The coal seams are not persistent and resin is 
foimd in the northern part of the field. 





I. 


II. 


III. 


IV. 


V. 


Coal 

Bone or shale. 

Coal 

Parting 

Coal 

Clay or shale . 
Coal 


4 ft. in. 
oft. Jin. 
3 ft. 4 in. 

thin 
2 ft. I in. 
I ft. 4 in. 
ft. 10 in. 


ft. 8 in. 
7 ft. in. 

1 ft. 8 in. 
ft. 2 in. 
5 ft. in. 
ft. 4 in. 

2 ft. in. 


ft. 10 in. 
21 ft. 10 in. 

3 ft. in. 

14 ft. in. 

6 ft. in. 

8 ft. in. 

1 ft. in. 


4 ft. in. 
24 ft. in. 

5 ft. in. 
13 ft. in. 

9 ft. in. 

12 ft. in. 

I ft. in. 


4 ft. in. 

7 ft. in. 

ft. 8 in. 
25 ft. in. 

ft. 3 in. 
22 ft. 5 in. 

blossom 


Total 

Total of coal 


II ft. 7 in. 
10 ft. in. 


16 ft. 10 in. 
9 ft. 4 in. 


54 ft. 8 in. 
10 ft. 10 in. 


68 ft. in. 
19 ft. in. 


58 ft. II in. 
4 ft. II in. 



On the northern side of the Raton plateau, a sandstone at 70 feet 
above the Trinidad coal bed, contains many weather-beaten tree 



84 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

trunks along with worm borings and impression-like Halymenites. 
The extreme instability of conditions on the sandy flats, where coal 
accumulated, is shown by variations in the Trinidad coal bed, mined 
at Engle and Starkville. Stevenson's measurements are given in 
the preceding table. 

These measurements are all within 3 miles from the first and the 
position to the Trinidad sandstone precludes all probability of error 
in correlation. The Trinidad sandstone is practically without coal.'^ 

Fox Hills conditions are distinct farther north on the Arkansas 
River in the Canyon City coal field. Stevenson visited this field in 
1873, t^ut the movements of the party, to which he was attached, 
were so rapid as to give opportunity only for errors. He visited it 
again in 1881 and Washburne examined it in detail during 1908. 
These observers recognized the Trinidad sandstone, from which 
Stevenson, in both visits, obtained Halytnenites. The Vermejo for- 
mation is about 500 feet thick, including the basal sandstone and 
its uppermost member is a massive sandstone, 145 feet, containing 
abundant Halymenites, According to Washburne, this member, 
nearer the mountains, loses its marine fossils, is less massive, is 
cross-bedded and has all the characteristics of a fluviatile deposit. 

The coal seams are numerous and some are important. One, 
resting on the Trinidad sandstone, is 3 ft. 4 inches thick with at 
times shale, at others, sandstone as the roof, the less thickness be- 
ing under the sandstone. The shale is o to 7 feet thick, showing 
that the erosion followed deposition of the shale. Sandstone 
" rolls " were seen by Washburne in a bed about 275 feet above the 
Trinidad sandstone. These extend for long distances and the sand- 
stone passes through the roof clay, often through the coal to the 
floor. These "rolls" have rounded bottom, curved sides and the 
trend is toward northeast throughout the mine. The current bed- 
ding in the "rolls" indicates a northeast flow for the streams. 
Resin occurs in the lowest coal seam. 

Fox Hills has been recognized in the Denver Basin by Eldridge 

^1 J. J. Stevenson, U. S. Geog. Expl. W. of looth Mer., Vol. III., sppl, 
1881, pp..i02flF.; G. B. Richardson, Bull. 381, 1910, pp. 385, 386, 395, 411 ; W. T. 
Lee, Bull GeoL Soc, Amer., Vol. 23, 1912, p. 611. It is unfortunate that Lee's 
elaborate report on the Raton coalfield is still unpublished. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 85 

and by Fenneman,'^^ who assign to it a thickness of 800 to 1,200 
feet. These observers recognized no coal in the Fox Hills, as they 
took the important coal seams of the basin to be Laramie. But 
Stevenson^^ saw coal in rocks of Fox Hills age at 5 miles southeast 
from Evans, about 40 miles north from Denver. From a sand- 
stone overlying coal he obtained Ammonites lobatus, Cardium 
spectosum, Mactra alta, Mactra warreniana, Lunatia m^reauensis 
and Anchura. The Halymenites is abundant. 

The deposits in western Wyoming, which earlier observers 
termed Fox Hills, are known now to belong to the Pierre, but the 
formation is present in some areas. The " Laramie " in the north- 
eastern part of the Bighorn Basin, 150 to 700 feet thick, is appar- 
ently Fox Hills. It is mostly a massive sandstone but contains 
some seams of coal, occasionally workable though of quality in- , 
ferior to that from older formations. East from Bighorn Moui^- 
tains, the Fox Hills was recognized in the Lost Spring field by 
Winchester, in the Sussex field by Wegemann and in the Black 
Hills by Darton, but no coal is reported from any locality, except 
one, where Wegemann saw a deposit of "unusual variability in 
thickness and quality.""* 

The Fox Hills is known in northwestern Montana as the Horse- 
thief sandstone described by Stebinger, as the Lennep sandstone of 
Stone and Calvert in the central part of the state. Stebinger traced 
the Horsethief sandstone across the Canadian boundary and proved 
its continuity with the Fox Hills of Dawson. He describes the 
sandstone as 360 feet thick, buff, coarse, massive and much crpss- 
bedded in the upper half, but becoming slabby and more or less 
shaly toward the base. Usually the fauna is brackish, Ostrea, Cor- 
bicula, Corbida, and Anomia, but at some horizons it is marine of the 
litoral type, Tancredia, Cardium and Mactra. In his paper of 1914, 
he shows that the Horsethief sandstone was at one time continuous 
from the Teton district at eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains to 

52 G. H. Eldridge, Mon. 27, 1896, pp. 69, 72, 73 ; N. H. Fenneman, Bull. 

265, 1905, p. 33. 

53 J. J. Stevenson, Amer, Joum. Sci., Vol. XVII., 1879, PP- 36^372. 
"C. W. Washburne, Bull. 341, p. 169; D. E. Winchester, Bull. 471-F, 

1912, p. 58; C. H. Wegemann, the same, pp. 25, 32; N. H. Darton, Prof. Paper 

65, 1909, P- 57. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL, SOC., VOL. LVI, G, MAY 23, I9I7. 



86 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

the Black Hills on the Wyoming border. No coal, aside from some 
insignificant lenses, has been seen in this northern extension of the 
Fox Hills ; and the conditions are the same in Alberta."" 

The Pierre Formation. 

Thus far the tracing has 'been comparatively simple. The Lara- 
mie and Fox Hills mark the closing portion of the Cretaceous and 
conditions appear to have been much the same in each throughout 
the whole region. But during the Pierre, conditions near the source 
of sediments were wholly different from those in the great area 
beyond. On the eastern side, the rocks are almost wholly shale and 
without coal, while on the western and southern sides there are 
great deposits of sandstone and sandy shale with, in some areas, 
important coal seams at several horizons. At the east, the fossils 
are marine but at the west and south there are marine and brackish 
as well as fresh-water horizons. The offshore and strand conditions, 
marking strife between advancing land and the sea, are evident from 
the recurrence of a fauna allied to that of the Fox Hills as well as of 
sections showing a succession like that of Fox Hills and Laramie, 
a gradual transition from marine to continental deposits. In the 
description of widely separated areas, local terms based on litholog- 
ical features became necessary, but the resulting confusion has been 
removed by the labors of tthe students listed on an earlier page and 
the relations are now -well understood, though in some areas there 
still remains uncertainty as to the planes of separation. 

In Alberta, Montana and northern Wyoming the Pierre is di- 
vided into Lewis or Bearpaw shale, Judith River formation, Clag- 
gett shale and Eagle sandstone: the last, overlying shale. This 
order, descending, is distinct from the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming 
northward into Alberta, but, at a short distance westward, where one 
approaches the western limit of Cretaceous deposition, some modifi- 
cations in nomenclature and grouping become necessary. Farther 
soulth in Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico, the succession is 
given as Lewis shale, Mesaverde formation and Mancos shale. The 
term, Mesaverde, is indefinite; it is the sandstone mermber of the 
Pierre and is more or less coal-bearing. In some extensive areas it 

6« E. Stebinger, Bull. ^i-K, 1916, p. 125 ; Prof. Paper go-C, p. 62. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 87 

embraces practically the whole of the Pierre, while in others it but 
the middle portion. Mancos is another lithological term, designat- 
ing the mass of shale underlying the Mesaverde, so that in many 
districts it includes the Lower Pierre as well as the Niobrara and 
Benton. The significance of the several terms will appear in de- 
scription of the districts. 

The Pierre in the Parks of Colorado and east from the meridian 
of the Front Ranges of Colorado consists mostly of shales, becom- 
ing sandy toward the top, with irregular lenses of limestone and, in 
the upper portion, huge calcareous and ferruginous concretions. 
Sandstone is wholly unimportant except in the Boulder district of 
the Denver Basin, where Fenneman saw,*^' at one third way from 
the base, the Hygiene sandstone, which is several hundred feet thick 
west from Berthoud, but only 250 feet at the north end of the dis- 
trict. The thickness of Pierre in this region is not fully determined ; 
Eldridge gives 7,700 to 7,900 feet in the Denver Basin, but Fenne- 
man gives only 5,000 in the Boulder district of that basin. Near 
Canyon City on the Arkansas River, oil-borings found 4,500 feet, 
while farther south on the eastern border of the Raton-Trinidad 
coal field, the thickness appears to be considerably less. 

But the change is startling between the southern termination of 
the Raton field and Cerillos, a distance of about 100 miles in west 
of south direction. At Cerillos, one is on the same meridian with 
the Paric area of Colorado, where the Pierre is almost wholly shale, 
whereas here it is largely sandstone. Some small isolated coal 
fields remain farther south. The Engle, unimportant from the 
economic standpoint, has coal-bearing rocks, which as Lee'^ has 
shown, rest on deposits of Benton age. Wegemann found similar 
conditions in the Sierra Blanca field about 80 miles west-northwest 
from the last. Both authors are inclined to refer the coals and asso- 
ciated rocks to ithe Mesaverde, because the general conditions re- 
semble those observed farther north in the Cerillos field. In the 
absence of conclusive information, the writer is inclined to suggest 
that the coals may be of Benton age. The Sierra Blanca area is 
not far from 120 miles south from the Cerillos field and by so much 

w N. M. Fenneman, Bull. 265, 1905, pp. 31, 32. 

«' W. T. Lee, Bull. 285, 1905, p. 240; C H. Wegemann, Bull. 541-/, p. 10.: 



88 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

nearer the source of sediment. One should expect to find in that 
direction the same conditions as appear on the western border, where 
important coals occur in the Benton. 

The Cerillos coal field, a few miles south from Santa Fe, New 
Mexico, has been examined by several geologists whose conclusions 
are not in agreement.*^' Stevenson thought that the coal-bearing 
group belongs to the Laramie ; Johnson referred it to the Fox Hills ; 
but Lee recognized the true relations and determined that it is 
Mesaverde, the Middle Pierre in this field. The coal group is 
about 1,200 feet thick and rests on Mancos shale, of which the top 
150 feet carries Pierre fossils. The basal rock of the coal group 
is a sandstone, 300 feet thick and without coal. It has an assem- 
blage of fossils which suggests Fox Hills conditions. The coal 
seams are numerous but variable. The sections of one bed at four 
openings, as given by Stevenson, are 

Coal I ft. 2 in. Thin Streaks Absent 

Clay I ft. 3 in. 6 ft. o in. 12 f t o in. 8-10 ft. 

Coal 2 ft. 3 in. 2 ft. 5 in. 4 ft 7 in. 3 ft. 10 in. 

Coaly shale 3 ft. 5 in. Absent Absent i ft. 

In one mine the coal has been replaced with sandstone in a space 
75 feet wide and several hundred feet long, a case of contemporane- 
ous erosion. Gardner** saw an apparently similar replacement in 
the Omera field, east from Cerillos. At 500 feet from the outcrop 
in a mine, the roof descended and cut out the coal. In 1879, 
Stevenson noted a ripple-marked sandstone and an underclay with 
roots. 

The only information available for present purposes, respecting 
coal fields between Cerillos and the great San Juan Basin at the 
west, is contained in Lee's publications.®^ The Hagan field directly 
west from the Cerillos differs notably from the latter. The most 
striking difference is due to increase of Mesaverde at expense of the 

58 J. J. Stevenson, U. S. Geog. Expl. W. of looth Mer., Vol. III., Suppl, 
pp. 147 ff. ; N. Y. Acad. Set., Vol. XV., 1896, pp. 105 ff. ; D. W. Johnson, Sch. 
Mines Quart., Vols. XXIV., XXV., 1903; W. T. Lee, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., 
Vol. 23, pp. 642, 658; Bull. 531-A 1913; Prof. Paper 95-C, 1915, p. 41. 

59 J. H. Gardner, Bull. 381, 1910, p. 448. 

«oW. T. Lee, Bull. 389, 1909, pp. 5-40; Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 23, 
pp. 622-642. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 89 

underlying Mancos. The lower portion of Mesaverde in Cerillos 
is the great sandstone, 300 feet thick ; but in Hagan it is about 900 
feet, mostly sandstone, without coal and with Pierre fossils at sev- 
eral horizons. The coal group immediately overlying it is 180 feet 
thick with 5 coal seams, of which one has local importance. This 
averages about 3 feet in a small area and underlies a massive coarse 
sandstone, cross-bedded and containing petrified wood. Thin 
streaks of coal were seen in higher parts of the column. The whole 
thickness is about 1,850 feet and the upper half has no marine fos- 
sils. The Tijeras coal field, at 25 miles southwest, gives clearer 
evidence of land conditions. The lower portion of the Mesaverde 
is only 700 feet thick, but it contains 3 coal beds, 2 inches to 3 
feet thick, proof that the broad sand flats were free from sea-inva- 
sion long enough to permit accumulation of peat in the hollows of 
their irregular surface. The lithology changes above the upper- 
most marine sandstone. Exposures are such as to make measure- 
ments indefinite, buit the presence of what the writer takes to be the 
Cerillos coal group is distinct, for two coal seams, 3 feet and i foot 
6 inches, were seen. This upper portion contains no marine forms. 
The basal deposit is a massive sandstone, 115 feet thick. 

The Rio Puerco field, beyond the Rio Grande, is about 25 miles 
west from Hagan and Tijeras. Lee gives 1,700 feet as the thick- 
ness of Mesaverde, but thinks that the upper paxt has been removed 
by erosion. The Mancos (Colorado) shales are but 1,113 feet, 
whereas they are 2,350 feet at Cerillos. The Mesaverde has many 
horizons of marine fossils even to the top; but, at about 300 feet 
from the top as here exposed, it has a coal group, 185 feet, with 16 
coal seams, all very thin ; and another, about 100 feet thick, with 
one of the beds 6 feet thick, at 450 lower. Some of the sandstones 
contain fossil leaves in abundance. At the base is a massive marine 
sandstone, the Purita de la Mesa sandstone of Herrick and John- 
son,*^ which is yy feet thick. The former existence of another coal- 
bearing group is shown at the top of the column, where Lee found 
at some localities a shale with thin coal. At the same time it seems 
probable that the upper coal group represents that at Cerillos. Lee's 
suggestion that the 300 feet of marine sandstone and sandy shale at 

«i C. L. Herrick and D. W. Johnson, Bull Univ. New Mex., Vol. II., p. 6. 



90 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

the top of the section may represent the Lewis shale is very far 
from improbable: there appears to be good reason for believing 
that the Mesaverde of Rio Puerco includes the whole of the Pierre, 
whereas at Cerillos, Mesaverde is Middle Pierre. 

Pierre deposits are exposed on the borders of the great San 
Juan Basin. Information is lacking for the southern prong of this 
basin but is fairly abundant for the main part, northward from 
Lat. 35° 30', though comparatively few details have been published. 
Gilbert,**^ during the reconnaissance in 1873, measured a long sec- 
tion of Cretaceous at Stinking Spring, 12 miles west from Fort 
Wingate in New Mexico. This shows about 700 feet of yellow 
shales, yellow sandstones with coal beds, resting on 1,050 feet of 
sandstones and mostly sandy shales. Of the 7 coal seams, 3 reach 
workable thickness ; one of them is triple, the benches being 4, 5 and 
2 feet, separaited by 5 feet and one foot of shale. There is no coal 
in the basal 200 feet. The Cretaceous in this region is one litho- 
logically; "characterized by sands, by coal, by rapid alternations, 
by ripplemarks and by oysters, it is evidently an off-shore deposit." 
But fossils offer basis for subdivision ; they are abundant in the 
lower 850 feet, which may be taken here as representing the shore 
facies of Colorado or lower portion of the Mancos, as that appears 
in the type locality. 

Thirty years later, Schrader*' made a reconnaissance of the 
eastern side of the basin, from Gallup, near Fort Wingate, to the 
northern border in Colorado. The section is longer than at Stinking 
Spring and during the 30 years interval the coal bed had become 
important. He found shales and sandstones, 2,000 to 3,000 feet 
thick, with the Upper Coal Group in the lower part; shales and 
sandstones, 500 to 800 feet, with the Middle Coal Group near the 
top; and 500 to 1,000 feet of Colorado shale, with the Lower Coal 
Group near the top. The Upper Coal Group is about 100 feet thick 
and contains 6 workable coal seams, 5 of which have fireclay floors. 
The Middle Coal Group appears to be the same with that of Gil- 
bert's section. The coal seams throughout appear to be irregular. 

«2 G. K Gilbert, U. S. Geog. Explor. W. of looth Men, Vol. III., 1875, Pp. 

544, 549, 550. 

•» F. C. Schrader, Bull. 285, 1906, pp. 242, 254, 255. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 91 

Gardner^ afterwards examined this line more in detail. Here 
he r^arded the upper and middle groups of Schrader as Mesaverde 
(here evidently in part Lower Pierre), to which he assigns a thick- 
ness of about i,ooo feet east from Gallup. The coal seams are 
numerous but variable ; " within a few miles, thin beds undoubtedly 
thicken to valuable properties and thicker beds thin to mere traces." 

Farther north between San Mateo and Cuba, the Mesaverde, 
1,200 feet thick, is coal-^bearing throughout. Near the top is the 
first appearance of the Lewis shale, which contains much sandstone 
and sandy shale. There, one is little more than 40 miles north- 
west from the Rio Puerco locality, where Lee found marine fossils 
at top of the Mesaverde and thought that the deposits might be the 
equivalent of Lewis shale. No trace of that shale is reported from 
any locality farther south in the San Juan Basin. Along this por- 
tion of the outcrop, the Mesaverde coal seams are in two groups, 
separated by 300 feet of barren measures ; the -seams are all lenticu- 
lar and in several instances have bony coal at top or bottom or both. 
Gardner's observations north and west from Cuba are important. 
At a little north from Gallina, 14 miles north from Cuba, the Lewis 
is 2,000 feet while westward it becomes only 250 near Raton Spring. 
Gardner thinks this westward change due to replacement with sand- 
stone, which has been regarded as Mesaverde. The condition south- 
east from Cuba confirms the suggestion, for there the Mesaverde is 
but 719 feet, with no coal in the basal 300 feet and only coaly shale 
or thin coals at widely separated horizons in the upper part. The 
thinning is more notable beyond Gallina, where the Mesaverde is 
but 214 feet and contains 14 coal seams, of which only one is of 
workable thickness. The coal is subbituminous, occasionally resin- 
ous and the seams are variable to the last degree. The Mesaverde 
is limited, top and bottom, by massive sandstones which persist 
although the section is decreased. Lee'*^ states that Gardner's col- 
lections from Lewis shale and from Mesaverde south and southeast 
from Cuba, are marine. He saw great numbers of petrified stumps 
and logs in the lower part of the Mesaverde near Cabezon, where 
the upper part of the Mancos has Pierre fossils. 

•* J. H. Gardner, Bull. 341, I909» PP. 339, 343, 345, 366, 372, 377; Bull. 381, 
1910, pp. 463, 470. 

•» W. T. Lee, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 23, pp. 619-621. 



92 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

It would appear from the observations by Lee and Gardner that, 
in this portion of the basin, the Mesaverde is again Middle Pierre. 
The sea area extended as a gulf southward as far as Cabezon's 
latitude and the sandy member of the Pierre must have disappeared 
at only a little way east from Gallina. 

Shaler^® examined the western outcrop in the San Juan Basin. 
He reports that Lewis shale, only 250 feet thick where first recog- 
nized at the south, becomes 2,000 feet farther north but diminishes 
to 1,600 feet at the northern outcrop. The Mesaverde, massive 
sandstone and thin interbedded shales and sandstones with coal 
seams at the south, shows the triple succession at the north, where 
the thickness is from 750 to 1,450 feet. He observed "horsebacks " 
and " rolls " in a Mesaverde seam near Gallup. Along the northern 
outcrop in Colorado, Cross and Spencer®^ found the highest member 
of the Pierre, named by them the Lewis shale, well defined. The 
Mesaverde, named by W. H. Holmes, is triple, the two great escarp- 
ment sandstones with between them a coal group of sandstones, 
marls and coal seams. The whole thickness in the La Plata quad- 
rangle is barely 1,000 feet, that of the coal group being 600. The 
coal seams are variable and the authors look upon them as a series 
of lenses. The Mancos shale named by Cross, has Pierre fossils 
in the upper "several hundred feet," so that here also, one has the 
condition observed on the opposite side of the area, at Cerillos, where 
Mesaverde is the Middle Pierre. In the southern part of the San 
Juan Basin, it would appear that Mesaverde and Pierre are prac- 
tically synonymous terms. Gardner's^® observations are of interest 
in this connection. He traced the Mesaverde around the northern 
border from Durango, Colorado, to Monero, New Mexico. It is 
about 1,000 feet thick near Durango but decreases eastwardly, so 
that it is only 400 feet at the Piedra River, 60 miles from Durango. 
This is in accord with Schrader's observations and with those of 
Gardner in the Gallina area. One seems to be justified in suggest- 
ing that the Mesaverde disappears at a short distance east from the 
San Juan basin, giving place to the shales, which are present in 

^^ M. K Shaler, Bull. 316, Part 2, 1907, pp. 378, 414. 
•^ W. Cross, " Telluride Folio, No. 57," 1899 ; W. Cross and A. C. Spencer, 
" La Plata Folio, No. 60," 1899. 

«8J. H. Gardner, Bull. 341, p. 353. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 93 

Colorado on both sides of the Front Ranges. Near Durango, three 
workable coal seams are present within a vertical distance of no 
feet, midway in the Mesaverde; these become insignificant toward 
the east and no workable seam was seen along the outcrop for more 
than 60 miles. But at Monero in New Mexico, three seams of 
workable thickness are present in a vertical distance of 100 feet 
above the basal sandstone. 

The Uinta Basin extends from the westerly foot of the Wasatch 
Mountains in Utah into northwestern Colorado and has an area of 
not far from 10,000 square miles, being a little larger than the San 
Juan Basin. The Utah prong, known as Castle Valley, was ex- 
amined by Taff and by Lupton, while Gilbert has given the section 
in the Henry Mountains about 50 miles southeast.®® The highest 
Cretaceous beds in the Henry Mountains are the Masuk sandstone 
and Masuk shale of Gilbert, the former containing coal seams ; it is 
thought by Lupton to be most probably Mesaverde. Lupton made 
no detailed study of the Mesaverde in Castle Valley, but estimated 
the thickness as not far from 1,200 feet and notes that it contains 
several important coal beds in a section of 500 feet, beginning at 
200 to 300 feet from the base. Taff notes the triple structure of the 
Mesaverde, the two sandstones separated by the coal group. The 
coals are numerous but are important only in the lower 250 feet of 
the group. The coal is massive, bright, clean, bituminous and con- 
tains much resin. Partings are usually insignificant, but Taff saw 
one in a thick coal seam, which increased from nothing to 16 feet 
within 2,000 feet. The roof and floor of the coal seams are often 
sandstone. 

Richardson examined the southern side of the basin between 
Sunnyside, Utah, and Grand River, Colorado, known as the Book 
Qiffs coal field.^® The thickness of the Mesaverde is given as 1,200 
to 2,200 feet, the variation being due to erosion. The underlying 
Mancos shale contains Pierre fossils in the upper 250 feet and is 
nonfossiliferous for a great thickness below ; so that the Mesaverde 
is not lower than Middle Pierre. The sandstones of the formation 

•»G. K. Gilbert, "Geology of the Henry Mountains," U. S. Geog. and 
Gcol. Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, 1877, pp. 4-10; J. A. Taff, Bull. 
285, 1906, pp. 292-294, 298; C. T. Lupton, Bull. 628, 1916, p. 34. 

'0 G. B. Richardson, Bull. 371, 1909, pp. 7-39. 



94 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

are lenses and are the marked features of the Book Cliffs; the lower 
members contain Hdymenites major and brackish-water forms are 
present at many horizons. The coal seams of economic importance 
are confined to the lower 700 feet but Richardson's section makes 
clear that the importance in each case is confined to a small area 
and that the seams must be lenses. Near Thompson, Utah, at the 
southern point of the field, there are 5 seams, beginning at 490 feet 
from the base ; near Price canyon farther north, are 7 beds, begin- 
ning at 340 feet, while near the Colorado line 6 seams were seen in 
the basal 275 feet, the lowest being only 95 feet from the bottom. 
On the Grand River the section shows 10 seams in the lower 519 
feet. No coal seam has been traced for more than a few miles ; one, 
21 feet 6 inches thick, where mined, proved to be a mere lens, which 
disapeared quickly toward the west. Seams important at the east 
disappear toward the west. There are coal horizons, not continuous 
beds. 

The Grand Mesa coal field and smaller fields farther east have 
been discussed by Lee,^^ who has made the relations clear for the 
region east from Grand River. The Upper Mancos is rich in Pierre 
fossils and the Mesaverde is 600 to 2,500 feet thick, the variation 
being due to erosion preceding deposition of newer formations. The 
upper part or undifferentiated Mesaverde, about 2,000 feet thick, is 
of fresh-water origin, mostly sandstone and contains little coal. It 
rests on the Paonia shale, closely allied to it lithologically, and about 
400 feet thick. This has plant remains, fresh-water moUusks and 
important coal beds. Underlying this and separated from it in a 
considerable area by an unconformity, are the Bowie shales, o to 425 
feet thick, with important coal seams and brackish-water as well as 
marine invertebrates. The basal deposit is the Rollins sandstone, 
usually about 100 feet thick, white, massive, with Hdymenites major 
and marine invertebrates — evidently the basal white sandstone ob- 
served by Richardson in the Book Cliffs field. 

Lee recognized a distinct unconformity below the Paonia ; ordi- 
narily, that formation rests on the Bowie, but for a considerable 
space in one portion of the region it overlies the Rollins. This leads 

Ti W. T. Lee, Bull. 510, 1912, pp. 19, 37, 45, 81, 82, 86, 92, 95, 98, 106-109, 
182, 188. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 96 

him to suspect that the unconformity may indicate a time interval 
and that possibly the Paonia and overlying rocks may not be older 
than Laramie. The unconformity is distinct, for the Bowie de- 
creases from 425 feet on Grand River to nothing in the Rollins 
district ; and it seems to be suggested on Grand River by the irregular 
contact between Paonia and Bowie at Palisades. It may be in- 
judicious, it may savor of temerity for one who has not visited the 
localities to controvert the opinion of one who has examined the 
area in detail, especially when the latter is a model of accuracy in 
observation and caution in conclusion, but the writer feels compelled 
to believe another explanation not improbable. The vast area of 
Cretaceous deposition was subsiding until certainly toward the close 
of the Cretaceous as was the Appalachian Basin during Coal 
Measures time : but there were local crumplings as there were in the 
Appalachian. In the latter, these have left their records in deep 
stream valleys, filled with later deposits. Similar conditions have 
been observed in the British coal fields. It would be strange if evi- 
dences of local elevations or depressions were wanting in the vast 
subsiding Cretaceous r^on. The irregular contact on Grand River 
seems to indicate change in direction of drainage on the broad plain. 
A serious argument in favor of assigning Laramie age to the 
Paonia and overlying deposits is the presence of a flora, which is 
described as containing Montana Laramie and even Post-Laramie 
forms, the Montana forms being few. The origin of a flora is a 
perplexing problem, but there seems to be no reason to suppose that 
it sprang into existence full-formed and without local forerunners, 
probably at many places. But, be that as it may, the Bowie and the 
Paonia appear to be continuous in the eastern part of the region 
described by Lee and no plane of separation has been determined. 
Farther north, just beyond the existing limits of the Uinta Basin, 
the Lewis shale has been recognized. It seems not unreasonable to 
suggest that in the southern part of this basin as in the southern part 
of the San Juan Basin, fresh-water sandstones may hold the place 
of the Lewis. The doubts must be dispelled by stratigraphy. The 
" Fox Hills " and " Laramie " of the earlier students have been placed 
in the Pierre, in spite of the remarkable resemblance to the later 



96 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

formations. If the deposits under consideration underlie the Lewis, 
they belong to the Pierre. 

The undifferentiated Mesaverde on the western border of Lee's 
area consists chiefly of massive cliff-making sandstones, about 1,500 
feet thick, containing deciduous and conifer leaves as well as 
Sphaerium, Physa and Goniobasis, Within 22 miles eastward, of 
about 1,000 feet exposed, 700 feet are shales; it may be described 
as shale wil;h thick partings of sandstone, while near Bowie in the 
Somerset district the shale feature becomes much more marked; 
but in Crested Butte district, the southeastern part of the basin, it 
consists of sandstones separated by layers of shale. The coal seams 
throughout are thin. 

The Paonia shales, at several horizons, are rich in fossil leaves 
and fresh-water moUusks. The lowest coal seam. Cameo of 
Richardson, is at 4 to 10 feet above the great sandstone at top of 
the Bowie ; in the western part of the area studied by Lee, this coal 
horizon seems to persist throughout the whole r^ion. This coal is 
double at Rollins, 3 and 1 1 feet with parting of 2 feet. Thin seams 
are at 80,123 and 219 feet higher at Cameo on Grand River; but in 
the Rollins district 3 workable seams were seen in 108 feet above 
the base. Similar irregularity was observed in the easterly districts, 
so that one must look upon the coal seams as lenses. The quality is 
as variable as the quantity of coal. In one mine on the lowest seam, 
irregular masses of white sandstone descend from the roof and 
occasionally extend across the bed. Cross-bedded sandstone was 
seen midway in the section at several localities. 

The Bowie shale, 420 feet thick on Grand River, has a sandstone, 
100 feet, on top, cross-bedded, with worm tubes and Halymenites. 
Only one coal seam is there, about 430 feet below the Cameo bed ; 
this is unimportant and thins away toward the south. There is no 
Bowie in the Rollins district, but it reappears farther east in the 
Somerset district, where, near Bowie, it is 405 feet and has the 
great top sandstone. The coal seams are numerous and at least 7 of 
them are " relatively thick," aggregating 38 to 43 feet in this district. 
The thickness of other seams has not been determined. The coals 
are exceedingly variable and they may be only extensive lenses ; 
but some of them attain notable thickness. The Juanita bed is 12 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 97 

feet in one mine near Bowie but 21 in another and 22 near Somerset ; 
while at another locality, no trace of it could be found. At the 
Johnson prospect, on Minnesota creek, east from Paonia, 9 coal 
seams, 2 to 8 feet thick and with total thickness of 43 feet, were 
seen in the lower 300 feet of the Bowie. At the Simonton prospect, 
about 4 miles toward the south, the exposure shows this section, 
beginning at 37 feet above the Rollins sandstone: coal, 2 feet, 10 
inches ; shale, 10 inches ; coal, i foot, 2 inches ; shale, 5 inches ; coal, 
13 feet, I inch; shale, 6 feet; coal, 16 feet; bony coal, 2 feet; coal, 
7 feet, 2 inches ; in all 49 feet, 6 inches. 

The presence of this great mass is perplexing. One cannot trace 
the section from the Johnson prospect and Lee concludes that the 
Simonton seam is due to the coalescence of 7 seams of the Johnson 
section, or that it is a merely local deposit. The Bowie becomes 
irregular in districts farther east, sometimes present, sometimes 
absent, and the coak are extremely variable in thickness and quality. 

Lee's notes show that mineral charcoal is present in most of the 
coals. Toward the Elk Mountains, the region is greatly disturbed 
by plication and by eruptive rocks ; the coal is from subbituminous 
to hard dry anthracite. The seams are thicker on anticlines than in 
synclines. In some localities, the stream channels, due to con- 
temporaneous erosion, have been filled with white sandstone. 

On the northwestern side of the Uinta Basin, there is a mass of 
deposits, o to 3,300 feet thick, which Lupton^* places in the Mesa- 
verde — ^the variation in thickness being due to erosion prior to dep- 
osition of the Wasatch beds. The lower half in this Blacktail 
Mountain coal field is marine, without coal and is mostly sandstone 
with sandy shale and some limestones. The upper half, apparently 
fresh-water, has coal with sandstones, thin-bedded and cross-bedded, 
as well as much sandy shale. This upper division has 21 coal seams 
in 1,500 feet, 7 inches to 15 feet thick. One seam has a maximum 
thickness of 21 feet with only a single parting, 2 inches. The coal 
is resinous at some places. 

Gale^' has given some notes respecting the northern outcrop. 
He reports the Lewis shale as about 1,000 feet thick and without 

72 C. T.' Lupton, Bull. 471-/, 1912, pp. 27, 32, 33, 39, 41. 

7» H. S. Gale, Bull. 341, 1909, pp. 287, 289, 290, 299; Bull. 316, 1907, p. 273. 



98 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

sandstone. The Mesaverde, S,ooo feet at the east, where erosion 
was less energetic, has three coal groups. The lowest is in the 
basal part of the formation and underlies a conspicuous white sand- 
stone, which contains marine fossils. Gale's description suggests 
that this sandstone may be equivalent to the Rollins of Lee and that 
the lowest coal group may be in the Lower Pierre, included farther 
south in the Mancos shale. The coal seams are usually thin and 
where thick are worthless. The middle coal group, above the white 
sandstone, is unimportant west from the Utah line, but the seams 
become thicker toward the east, though they are irregular and at 
times are broken badly by partings of shale or bone. They become 
important in the eastern part of the basin ; at Newcastle, there are 
10$ to io8 feet of coal in 7 seams, the thicknesses being 5, 8, 20, 5, 
45-48, 18 and 4 feet respectively. One seam at Newcastle has a 
parting of soft coal at 4 to 6 feet from the floor and is troubled by 
" sandstone dikes." A seam at 40 miles south from Glenwood 
Springs has 7 to 10 feet of coking coal as the upper bench, but the 
lower bench is non-coking. The upper coal group is near the top of 
the Mesaverde ; its coals are unimportant. 

The Green River Basin, north from the Uinta Mountains, is 
mostly in Wyoming but the southeastern prong extends into Colorado 
and an outlier remains in Utah at the west. 

The relations of the upper part of the long section in the Coal- 
ville coal field in Utah appear somewhat uncertain. The area was 
studied by Taff and later by Wegemann, the paleontological deter- 
minations being made by Stanton.^* The boundaries of the several 
formations are still indefinite, but it is sufficiently clear that the 
region was near the source of sediment, for sandstone and sandy 
shale predominate in the upper 7,000 feet of the section. The upper 
2,500 feet, prevailingly sandy, has yielded leaves and fresh-water 
shells. The succeeding 1,650 feet contains marine shells and rests 
on a white sandstone, 200 feet ; below that is a coal seam. This, at 
4,450 feet below the top of the Cretaceous, is irregular in occur- 
rence as well as in its relations to the thick sandstones above and 
below it. It is double or triple at many localities, while at others 

7* T. W. Stanton, Bull. 106, 1893 ; J- A. Taff, Bull. 285, 1906, pp. 285-288 ; 
C. H. Wegemann, Bull. 58i-£, 1915, PP- 163, 182. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 99 

it could not be found. At one locality, a seam belonging at or near 
to this Dry Hollow horizon underlies a bed of oyster shells, 20 feet 
thick. The quality of the Dry Hollow coal is good, but the bed 
is too variable, so that no mines of any importance were in opera- 
tion at the time of Wegemann's examinations. 

No coal of economic importance has been reported from the 
Pierre of Uinta County in Wyoming, but in southern Sweetwater 
County, where Gale^^ recognized Lewis, Mesaverde and Mancos, he 
saw in one exposure two seams, 8 and 10 feet thick, separated by 
only 25 feet. The coal is not persistent and, within a short distance, 
it becomes black shale with coaly streaks. The lower seam is sepa- 
rated by one foot of bone from a thick white sandstone. Farther 
north in the same county is the Rock Springs coal field, intersected 
by the Union Pacific Railroad. There Schultz^* recognized the 
Lewis shale, without coal, and the Mesaverde, consisting very largely 
of sandstone with important coal seams. The "Laramie" of 
Schultz is not everywhere conformable to the underlying Pierre. 
The unconformity is especially marked on the south and west sides 
of the Rock Springs Dome, where the " Laramie " rests on the Rock 
Springs coal group, a hiatus of fully 2,500 feet ; but the succession 
is complete and conformable throughout on the west side of the 
Dome. Elsewhere there appears to be no unconformity. 

The important coal seams are in the Almond and Rock Springs 
groups, separated by 800 to 1,000 feet of mostly massive sandstone, 
more or less conglomerate in the upper third with pebbles of gray 
and black quartz. The Almond coal group, 700 to 900 feet thick, 
contains many seams of coal and of carbonaceous shale. The seams 
are variable, though less so than are those in the Rock Springs 
group, but the coal is comparatively poor and no works were in 
operation at the time of Schultz's examination. 

The coals of the lower or Rock Springs group are black, with 
distinct bedding planes and do not slack on exposure. The coal- 
bearing portion is about 1,275 feet with 37 seams containing in all 
somewhat more than no feet of coal. Five seams have been opened 

" H. S. Gale, Bull. 341, pp. 310-314. 

^« A. R. Schultz, Bull 34i» PP. 256-382; Bull. 381, pp. 214-281. 



100 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

near Rock Springs, but most of the coal has been taken from 
numbers i and 7, at 481 and 743 feet from the top of the group. 

Number i has many "rock-slips" or "horsebacks," long, slim 
wedges of white sandstone, protruding usually from the floor. 
They are smooth on one side, rough on the other and the coal is 
unchanged even at the contact. The roof and floor are brownish to 
white sandstone. The coal, at times, is 10 feet thick, but changes 
are abrupt. Partings thicken and the coal becomes worthless. In 
one mine the coal is 11 feet thick and clean, but in another, ad- 
joining, the coal suddenly became worthless and, at a little distance 
beyond, it pinched out. Seam 3 shows similar complications. A 
band of shale appeared in one mine at 2 feet from the floor ; within 
a short distance it thickened upward until the top bench became too 
thin for .working; but within 200 feet the foreign matter almost 
disappeared and the upper bench was again more than 5 feet thick. 
Schultz's description shows that here is a channel originating during 
growth of the swamp and filled up before the growth ceased, so that 
the swamp covered it. Seam 7 is less inconstant than the others 
but it is far from free from troubles. The roof and floor are 
shale, the former black. One important mine was abandoned be- 
cause the good coal was replaced with worthless stuff in an area of 
evidently great extent. The Rock Springs coal seams become unim- 
portant southwardly and none has been discovered in the extreme 
southern portion of the field. 

Tertiary deposits conceal the Cretaceous from the Rock Springs 
field to near Rawlins in Carbon County, where Smith^^ recognized 
the Lewis, Mesaverde and the shales of Lower Pierre. The Mesa- 
verde, consisting of sandstones, shales and coal seams, is still dis- 
tinct but is much thinner than in fields farther west. It consists of 
two massive sandstones separated by a mass of soft brown sand- 
stones and white to gray shale. The Almond and Rock Springs 
coal groups have become insignificant. The coal seams in this area 
are on top and at base of the upper sandstone and just above the 
lower sandstone : four or more seams were seen in the upper zone, 
few were observed in the middle and 4 to 6 in the lower zone. The 

" E. E. Smith, Bull. 341, pp. 220-242. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 101 

coal throughout is inferior and the seams, for the most part, are too 
thin to be mined. 

Beyond Rawlins and still north from the Union Pacific Railroad, 
Veatch^® studied the coal field of east-central Carbon County, where 
the Pierre consists of Lewis, Mesaverde and Lower Pierre, with a 
total thickness of almost 8,000 feet, not far from that given by 
Smith ; but in both districts the thickness decreases greatly toward 
the north. According to Veatch, some important coaJ seams are 
present in the lower part of the Lewis, evidently those belonging to 
the highest zone of Smith. Seams in the middle zone of the Mesa- 
verde occasionally become thick enough for mining, but they are 
irr^^ular and not persistent. The southern part of Carbon County, 
where the subdivisions of the Pierre are as in the northern part of 
the county, was studied by Ball and Stebinger.^" The thickness of 
Lewis and Mesaverde decreases eastwardly, becoming 1,600 and 
2,000 feet. The Lewis has no coal. The Mesaverde still has the 
two limiting sandstones with the middle shale and sandstone mem- 
ber. The basal sandstone is white gray and brown, cross-bedded 
and, in the eastern part of the district, contains a limestone, 25 feet 
thick. The top sandstone is less distinctly cross-bedded and the 
layers are thinner. No workable coal seams were seen in the sand- 
stone members, at the north, but the number and thickness of those 
in the upper sandstone increase toward the south. Some important 
seams are in the middle member near Rawlins, but they disappear 
toward the northeast. The coal is hard and bituminous. The sand- 
stones of this member are irregular and the coal seams appear to be 
overlapping lenses. 

The Yampa coal field, in Routt County of Colorado, is the ex- 
treme southeast part of the basin. One can recogpize in the sec- 
tion by Fennemann and Gale,®^ Lewis, Mesaverde and the lower 
shales, Mesaverde being Middle Pierre; the relations are more 
allied to those of the western than to those of the northern part of 
the basin. There are three coal groups, which in some portions of 
the field are in a vertical space of 2,000 feet, the lowest being about 

^» A. C Veatch, Bull. 316, 1907, pp. 244-366. 

'»M. W. Ball and E. Stebinger, Bull. 341, pp. 243-355; BulL 381, pp. 
186-213. 

*<» N. M. Fenneman and H. S. Gale, Bull. 285, 1906, pp. 226-239. 

PROC AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, H, MAY 23, I917. 



102 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

1, 200 feet from the base. Each coal group has 2 to 3 workable 
coal seams, but the nimiber and thickness of the seams vary from 
place to place. At the time when this field was examined, the popu- 
lation was sparse and none but insignificant mines had been opened. 
In the eastern part, coal seams, 4 to 10 feet thick, were exposed 
in both the middle and the lower group; but the upper group is ill- 
exposed. Farther west, seams of greater thickness were seen, one 
near Lay being 20 feet, with a parting of 15 inches midway. There, 
the three coal groups are in a vertical space of not more than 800 
feet. Many seams have shale roof and floor and one is clearly be- 
tween sandstones. A faux-toit was seen in many openings and 
either bone or dirty coal is the usual parting. A faux-mur is re- 
corded in but one instance. 

The irregularity in thickness of the Mesaverde in the Yampa 
field may be due to the eastward disappearance of shore conditions. 
At 25 miles east from the boundary of the Yamipa field, Beekly's*^ 
sections on the west side of North Park show no evidence of Mesa- 
verde, while at 25 miles farther east in the same Park, the Pierre 
is represented by about 4,500 feet of shale, wholly like that beyond 
the Front Ranges in Colorado and New Mexico. It is sandy on 
top and passes into a marine sandstone, shown on east side of the 
Park — apparently the Fox Hills. Some thin sandstones were seen 
in the lower part of the formation but no trace of coal is reported by 
Beekly. 

Northward in Wyoming and east from the Medicine Bow Moun- 
tains about 60 miles east of north from the exposures in North 
Park, the section by C. E. Siebenthal, cited by Darton,®^ shows 
about 5,500 feet of Montana rocks, divided at about 1,300 feet from 
the top by the Pine Ridge sandstone, 60 to 80 feet thick. The mass is 
practically shale throughout, there being in all only 127 feet of sand- 
stone in the upper 1,332 feet and 35 feet in the underlying 4,150 
feet. The formation contains marine fossils at many horizons, the 
highest being within 140 feet from the top. It is difficult to deter- 
mine a positive plane of separation between Pierre and Fox Hills 
in this region so that authors frequently employ "Montana" or 

81 A. L. Beekly, Bull. 596, 191 5» PP- 20, 43, 45- 

82 N. H. Darton, Bull. Geol. Soc, Amer,, Vol. 19, 1908, 459, 460. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 103 

"Pierre-Fox Hills" to designate the whole mass. Just at^ove the 
one persistent sandstone, Pine Ridge of Siebenthal, is a coal bed and 
others, unimportant, are in the succeeding 560 feet of black shale; 
but in the overlying beds no coal was found. It may be that the 
upper part of the section, including the Pine Ridge sandstone, is 
equivalent to Mesaverde, Lewis and Fox Hills, the coal being in the 
Mesaverde. 

Farther west in Fremont County, north from Sweetwater, the 
lower shales are 2,250 to 3,000 feet, increasing eastwardly, while 
the upper division, of which erosion has spared 550 feet, has at base 
a sandstone, 200 to 250 feet thick. Overlying this is a bed of car- 
bonaceous shale, which occasionally contains a seam of coal. Here 
the Mesaverde conditions are distinct for the overlying mass con- 
sists of " sandstones, with intercalated gray shales, sandy shales and 
coal beds." The lowest coal is 8 feet thick at 10 miles east from 
Lander. 

The Pierre is without coaP* in the Black Hills and is wholly 
shale. The Sussex field at 100 miles southwest from the Black 
Hills has, according to Wegemann, 4,650 feet of Montana rocks, of 
which he refers the upper 700 feet to the Fox Hills. The Pierre 
has a sandstone, 175 feet thick, at about 1,000 feet from the base 
and, at 2,300 feet, another sandstone, the Parkman of Barton's Big- 
horn section, 350 feet. This sandstone contains masses of petri- 
fied wood with shells of turtles and bones of Trachodon. In the 
shaly portions near the base, it has thin seams of low-grade bitumi- 
nous coal, high in ash. Thin seams are associated in the southern 
part of the field with another sandstone, about 300 feet above the 
Parkman. The Pierre rocks are predominatingly shale. The fauna 
of the Parkman sandstone, according to T. W. Stanton, is similar to 
that of the Mesaverde in Colorado and of the Claggett in Montana. 

The Bighorn Basin of north central Wyoming lies west from 
the Bighorn Mountains, occupying parts of several counties and ex- 
tending into Montana. It was examined by Washburne and Wood- 
ruff and in part by Darton.®* The indefinite relations of the upper 

^ N. H. Darton, Folios 127, 128, 1905. 

«*N. H. Darton, Prof. Paper 51, 1906, pp. 13, 58, 59; E. G. Woodruff, 
BuIL 341, pp. 204, 208-210, 215; Bull. 381, pp. 173-175, 178; C. W. Washburne, 
Bull 341, pp. 168, 172-179, 187, 195. 



104 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

part of the column near Bighorn Mountains are shown by the fact 
that Darton embraces the whole above his Parkman sandstone in a 
single formation, the Piney. Woodruff in the southeastern part 
of the basin found indefiniteness throughout, but the succession is 
suggestive of the section as recognized in Montana and northward, 
there being at base shales with Pierre fossils succeeded by two sand- 
stone and shale members which he referred provisionally to the 
Eagle sandstone and Claggett shale of Montana, while he terms the 
higher beds merely Undifferentiated Montana. All become more 
shaly toward the east. Coal seams were seen in the upper division, 
but they are lenticular and unimportant : the quantity decreases to- 
ward the north. In the western portion, Woodruff recognized the 
Eagle sandstone of the Montana section, but none of the higher 
divisions could be identified. Coal seams in the Eagle are lenticular, 
but occasionally they are important. One near Gebo is ii feet 
thick ; in Grass Valley, a seam, 7 to 8 feet, is mined, but within a 
fourth of a mile toward the west it is too thin to be worked, while, 
at an equal distance toward the south, it becomes much thinner and 
so broken by partings as to be worthless. Similar variations in the 
Eagle coals were observed elsewhere within this portion of the field. 
Farther south in the Buffalo Basin no coal has been found in the 
Eagle. The Undifferentiated Montana has some coal seams but 
they are wholly unimportant. 

In the northeastern part of the basin, extending into Montana, 
Washburne was able to recognize all members of the Pierre as they 
had been determined in Montana — ^Bearpaw shale, Judith River For- 
mation, Claggett shale, Eagle River sandstone, the last resting on 
Colorado shale. The Bearpaw, evidently the Lewis of localities 
farther south, is marine, 150 feet thick and without -coal ; the Judith 
River variegated clays and sandstone, 300 to 400 feet, has abundance 
of leaves and bones but seems to be without coal ; the Claggett, 400 
to 500 feet, consists of massive gray to yellow sandstone with inter- 
bedded shales and has marine fossils in many portions ; the Eagle, 
150 to 225 feet, has two or three massive sandstones. The upper 
part of the Colorado shale, for 1,000 feet, is without fossils, but it 
differs lithologically from the shales below and it may be taken as, 
at least in part, representing the lower shales of the Pierre as in the 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 105 

southern portion of the Bighorn Basin. Coal is present in the Clag- 
gett and the Eagle. The Claggett seams are very thin, nowhere ex- 
ceeding 21 inches, and in all cases the coal is so dirty as to be worth- 
less. The Eagle seams are of capricious distribution. There are 
workable beds in the southeastern corner of the basin, but they dis- 
appear northwardly before Bighorn County is reached and "^re re- 
placed with yellow sandy shales. Blacl^ shales appear north from 
the city of Basin and these near Garland contain very thin seams of 
coal. Elsewhere in that neighborhood, these coal horizons are 
marked only by black shale with coaly streaks. An anticline near 
Silvertop, close to the Wyoming-Montana line, brings up the Eagle. 
There is but one workable seam in that formation on the Wyoming 
side, but there are two beyond the line in Montana. The Bridger 
coal field is west from the anticline and extends along the Chicago, 
Burlington and Quincy railroad to beyond Bridger in Montana. 
Some important coal deposits are in the Montana portion, but none 
in Wyoming, and all trace of coal disappears at a short distance 
west from the railroad. The Eagle coals are all well-jointed and 
show no woody structure. They illustrate well the irregularity of 
coal deposits in an extended area. 

The eastern part of Montana is a rolling plain, the mountains of 
Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico having become insignificant, 
as the disturbed area is confined to the western border ; but moun- 
tain-making was energetic there, west from the 109th meridian, and 
the whole section of Cretaceous is shown at many localities. In this 
disturbed area, one is west from the Bighorn Basin, as well as the 
western boundary of Colorado and New Mexico, so that conditions 
should bear resemblance to those observed in Arizona, Utah and 
western Wyoming. 

The most southerly coal field is that near Electric, in Park 
County, about 100 miles west from Bridger. There as well as in 
some petty areas at the north, Calvert*** was unable to recognize the 
subdivisions of the Pierre and grouped the section, about 1,000 feet, 
as Montana. The upper portion, about 330 feet, consists of sand- 
stone and shales with some carbonaceous shale but no coal; the 
middle portion, about 230 feet, is largely sandstone and sandy shale 

w W. ft. Calvert, Bull. 471-^, 1912, pp. 28-66. 



106 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

with several beds of dark shale and some seams of coal ; the lower 
portion, about 370 feet, and without coal, is sandstone except 78 feet 
of sandy shale at the top. Four coal seams were seen in one sec- 
tion, three of them thick enough to be mined ; but the coal is very 
dirty ; that from the best contains 20 to 24 per cent, of ash and the 
washed coal, utilized in making coke, retains 21.71 per cent. This 
Montana of Calvert rests on a mass of shale and sandstone con- 
taining Colorado fossils throughout; which makes probable that 
basal member of the section may be equivalent to the shales of the 
Lower Pierre and that the coal-bearing member may be at the Eagle 
or Mesaverde horizon, there being Mesaverde fossils throughout. 
The " Montana " beds underlie conformably the Livingston forma- 
tion, a mass of andesitic material. Calvert found similar conditions 
in the Livingston coal field farther north in the same county, except 
that his Montana beds are thinner. There are not less than 3 seams 
of coal, 2 to 20 feet thick ; but they vary rather abruptly in thickness 
and the coal is of uncertain quality. Two samples from one mine 
gave 8.77 and 17.5 per cent, of ash; analyses of samples from other 
mines yielded 8.44, 10.92, 10.99, i4-9> 27.53 and 31.51 per cent, in 
air-dried coal. Cross-bedded sandstones were noted by Calvert in 
both fields. 

Newberry®* noticed that coal near Bozeman, in the Livingston 
field, contains a large quantity of yellow, translucent, almost amber- 
like resin. Weed®^ examined the same fields at an earlier date and 
called especial attention to the uneven floor of the coal seams. This 
as well as the occasional disappearance of the coal led him to believe 
that the coal seams had been formed in depressions of the surface. 
He found Unio in beds associated with the coal seams of the Electric 
coal field. 

In Meagher County, north from Park, Stone recognized the 
four formations. The Bearpaw shale, marine throughout, has no 
coal ; the Judith River, brackish and fresh water, has some lenses 
of coal, usually very thin and of short lateral extent ; when of work- 
able thickness, their coal is apt to be dirty. The Claggett, marine 
and brackish, appears to be without coal. The Eagle has coal, but 

8« J. S. Newberry, Ann. N. Y, Acad. Sci„ Vol. 3, 1884, p. 245. 
«T W. H. Weed, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 2, 1891, pp. 349-364. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 107 

it is uncertain both as to quantity and quality ; when a seam becomes 
thick it has much foreign matter and is in great part worthless. 
Stone could not determine whether or not the Eagle coals are 
lenses; but the quality is inferior with from 17 to 37 per cent, of 
ash. Here, as in districts farther south, the rocks are mostly sand- 
stone and sandy shale. 

The Lewistown coal field in Fergus County is about 60 miles 
north-northeast from the Meagher area and its western limit is near 
the iioth meridian. Calvert®* found no rocks newer than the Clag- 
gett, which like the underlying Eagle, consists of sandstone and 
sandy shale; cross-bedded sandstones are characteristic. The only 
coal seam is in the Eagle, at 10 feet from the base. It is merely 
a coaly layer. Bowen*' examined the Cleveland field, about 80 
miles east of north, and the Big Sandy field at an equal distance 
west of north from Lewistown. In both fields the Judith River 
and the Eagle are characterized by irregularity of the deposits and 
the sandstones are often cross-bedded, occasionally ripple-marked. 
The Eagle becomes shaly in the eastern field. Thin seams of im- 
pure coal were seen in the Judith River within both fields; the 
Eagle has similar streaks in the southern part of Big Sandy but no 
coal was seen in the northern part of that field nor in the Cleveland 
field. The Eagle coal is usually bony. 

The Milk River coal field is north from the Cleveland and ex- 
tends to the Saskatchewan line. Pepperberg®® states that the Judith 
River coals, all near top of the formation, are lenses, which become 
thinner and poorer toward the east. The variation in thickness is 
abrupt; a lens, 9 feet thick, decreased to a fraction of an inch 
within a short distance along the outcrop. The quantity of bone 
is a serious drawback in many mines, so that the product is inferior, 
because of high ash. The coal is subbituminous and contains min- 
eral charcoal as well as resins. All deposits in the Judith River 
are lenticular and the sandstones are locally cross-bedded. Some 
streaks of coal were seen in the upper part of the Eagle, but they 
are insignificant. The sandstones of both formations have be- 
come much less prominent. 

88 W. R. Calvert, Bull. 341, p. no; Bull. 390, pp. 32, 34. 
8» C. F. Bowen, Bull. 54i-^, 1914 PP. 45-47, 60-65, 77-^- 
»o L. J. Pepperberg, Bull. 381, pp. 85, 86, 94. 



108 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

Teton County is very near the western boundary of Cretaceous 
deposition in Montana. It reaches the border of Alberta and the 
coal-bearing area is between meridians 112° 30' and 113°. Steb- 
inger's®* report on this area and his general discussion of the Mon- 
tana Cretaceous have done much to solve serious problems in cor- 
relation. The succession in the Teton coal field is St. Mary River 
formation, correlated with the Laramie ; Horsethief sandstone, 225 
to 275 feet, which Stebinger has shown to be same as the Lennep 
sandstone and the Fox Hills; Bearpaw shale, with characteristic 
features of the formation, 490 feet; Two-Medicine formation, 1,950 
feet, gray to greenish gray and whitish clay shales, with some sand- 
stones, which are important in the basal 250 feet; Judith River 
leaves, mollusks and bones of reptiles are present ; it is apparently 
continental in origin, there being evidence of only one marine inva- 
sion, and that is at about 200 feet from the base. The formatfon 
includes Judith River, Claggett and the upper or coal-bearing por- 
tion of the Eagle. The marine deposit near the base contains the 
Claggett-Fox Hills fauna, indicating deposition in a retreating sea. 
Within the disturbed region on the western side of the county, one 
finds it difficult to distinguish this formation from the St. Mary; 
the conditions during deposition must have been very similar in 
both. Virgelle sandstone, 220 feet, the basal sandstone of the 
Eagle, is gray to buff, coarse, cross-bedded sandstone, becoming 
slabby to shaly in the lower half. 

Two-Medicine and Virgelle, traced northward into Alberta, prove 
to be the Belly River formation, described by G. M. Dawson. The 
Two-Medicine is characterized by extreme irregularity of the beds ; 
sections only a few hundred feet apart are wholly dissimilar. Fos- 
sil wood is distributed throughout the formation, knots and entire 
sections of compressed trunks of trees are of common occurrence. 
The continental deposits, except the Fox Hills, become thinner to- 
ward the east, so that in the Black Hills of northeastern Wyoming 
the Pierre is represented only by marine shales. 

No coal aside from petty lenses was seen in the Virgelle; the 
Two-Medicine has three coal zones, one at the base, another at 250 

»i E. Stebinger, Bull. 621 -iC, 1916, pp. 126, 127, 131, 140, 144; Prof. Paper 
90-G, 1914, pp. 61-68. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 109 

feet higher and a third at the top, but coaly material is present in 
other portions as carbonaceous shale. The highest coal is found in 
the northern part of the county, but it disappears south from Valier, 
about 50 miles from the International Boundary and no trace of it 
has been found farther south in a distance of not less than 50 miles. 
It is thin in Teton County but increases toward the north beyond 
the boundary and is 6 feet thick at Lethbridge, where the coal is 
good. The seams of the middle zone are thin and yield only im- 
pure coal, while the lower zone has two seams which are persistent 
in the Valier district on the easterly side of the county. The upper 
one is 2 feet 6 inches, with 2 feet of coal, while the lower one, with 
extreme thickness of 5 feet 8 inches, contains only 8 inches of clean 
coal. These seams vary much in thickness, but the upper one is 
mined. Samples of clean coal gave 14.07, 13.9, 14.5 and 28.6 per 
cent, of ash. 

Dowling,** in his synopsis of conditions in the western states of 
Canada, says that the depressions, in which Mesozoic rocks were 
deposited, appeared in the Rocky Mountain area, where Triassic 
and Jurassic beds are found. The Jurassic sea invaded a narrow 
depression, now elevated as the Rocky Mountains and the Foothills. 
Land conditions prevailed during part of the Lower Cretaceous, 
but occasional submergences extended to a short distance toward 
the east, whereas in the United States they extended as far east as 
the Black Hills of Wyoming. More general submergence east- 
wardly came in the Upper Cretaceous, while on the western side 
there is evidence of shallowing during the earlier periods. Marked 
proof of shallowing on that side is evident during the Montana, for 
land conditions are shown by the coal seams and by the type of 
sediments, but marine conditions prevailed at the east. Submerg- 
ence followed and the sands at the west were covered with marine 
shale. The closing part of Cretaceous time was characterized by 
emergence, with brief periods of submergence, as shown by land 
and shallow water conditions, giving an abundant flora and a 
brackish-water fauna : this closing stage is the Edmonton-St. Mary 
formation. The vast accumulations unsettled the equilibrium of 
the area whence they had been derived and, toward the close of the 

»2 D. B. Dowling, Geol. Survey of Canada, Mem. 53, 191 4, pp. 32, 33. 



110 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

Eocene, crustal movements followed, which formed the Rocky 
Mountains. But the energy was expended in a narrow area so 
that at the east, even in the Foothills, one finds nothing exposed 
below the Middle Cretaceous. 

The conditions noted by Dowling are very distinct in southern 
Alberta. McEvoy, in the mountain portion of the Crowsnest coal 
field, found the Upper Cretaceous merely a mass of sandstone and 
conglomerate, 7,000 to 8,000 feet thick and without coal. In another 
part of the Rocky Mountain area, near the International Boundary, 
McConnell saw no coal in the upper part of the section, which con- 
tains great beds of conglomerate, some of them 150 feet thick. It 
seems to be impossible to diflferentiate the formations in this area ; 
but McLeam, at a short distance eastward in the Foothills, recog- 
nized the Beari>aw and the Belly River, the latter being the equiva- 
lent of Judith River, Claggett and Eagle.®* The sea-invasion during 
Claggett did not reach much of southern Alberta and did not extend 
so far westward as did that during the Bearpaw. No coal was seen 
in the basal sandstone of the Belly River formation, but 4 thin seams 
were seen in the overlying 50 feet of clay and shale. The higher 
deposits are sandstones and shales, alternations of "sand bottoms 
and clay bottoms " with Unto and gastropods in the sands and gastro- 
pods in the clays. The faunules are fresh-water. Mackenzie** 
saw no coal in the Allison (Belly River) formation on Oldman 
River, where it is 2,000 feet thick and consists chiefly of sandstones, 
massive to shaly and often cross-bedded. 

Dawson®*^ examined an extensive area within southeastern 
Alberta, mainly along the Bow and Belly Rivers, but reaching into 
the Milk River region near the International Boundary. He offered 
tentative names for the formations. The Pierre shales, 750 feet 
thick, contain intercalated beds of sandstone, which increase toward 
the mountains. A coal zone was seen at the top on Bow River and 
another at the base on Belly River ; the latter was seen also at several 

»» J. McEvoy, Ann. Reps. Geol. Survey Canada, Vol. XIII., 1900, Part A, 
pp. 84-i38; R. G. McConnell, the same, 1886, Part D, pp. 16, 17; F. H. McLeam, 
Summary Report, 1914, pp. 62, 63. 

»♦ J. D. Mackenzie, Summary Report for 1912, pp. 235-246. 

•*G. M. Dawson, Geol. Survey of Canada, Reps. Prog, for 1882-83-84, 
Part C, pp. 36, 52, 62, 69, 71. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. Ill 

places on St. Mary River. At the mouth of the latter river, in a 
section by R. G. McConnell the lower zone has 3 coal seams in a 
vertical distance of 132 feet, the thickest being from 3 feet to 3 feet 
6 inches. This zone is persistent and its coal is mined on Belly River. 
The Belly River formation has few thick coal seams ; its sandstones 
are gray to yellow, hard and the surfaces often show ripple marks 
and worm trails. In one case, the ripples indicate movement toward 
S. 36'' W. The "Lower Dark Shales" of Dawson were seen on 
Rocky Ridge in the Milk River region. Dowling®® has shown that 
the Pierre shale is the Bearpaw, the Belly River of southeastern 
Alberta is the Judith River and the lower dark shales of Rocky 
Ridge are the Claggett. Evidently he places the coal of Dawson's 
Pierre in the upper or fresh-water part of the Belly River. The 
area within Alberta, in which the Belly River with its important 
coal seams is exposed, is not less than 24,000 square miles ; its pres- 
ence has been proved by borings in a great area, where it is deeply 
buried under later formations. In a report on the Sheep River Oil 
and Gas field, Dowling has emphasized the increasing thickness of 
Bearpaw toward the east; in the Foothills, it is 650 feet, on Red 
Deer River, east from Calgary, 750, on the Cypress Hills, 900 and 
on Sheep River, about 1,200 feet.* 

The coal seams of the Pierre formations become unimportant 
north from the latitude of Edmonton. They are few and thin, some- 
times wholly wanting, as appears from observations by G. M. Daw- 
son,®^ Dowling, Tyrrell and McConnell. Dawson found no seam 
thicker than 6 inches on Pine River. The associated rocks are sand- 
stone and sandy shale, the former cross-bedded and ripple-marked. 
On Smoky River he saw a soft massive sandstone, with abundant 
fragments of plants, which in one place are " distinctly representing 
the base and roots of a tree, and evidencing a terrestrial surface. 
Overlying this is a thin carbonaceous film which, at a short distance 
up the river, becomes a seam of lignitic coal, two and a half inches 
in thickness." The Dunvegan sandstone of Peace River, regarded 
as the Belly River formation, has no coal.®^ It disappears toward 
the east and is not present on Athabasca River. 

»« D. B. Dowling, Mem. 53, 1914, pp. 28-31, 51, 53. 

»T G. M. Dawson, Rep. for 1879-80, Part B, pp. 117, 118. 

M R. G. McConnell, Reps., Vol. VI-Z>, 1893, p. 53. 



112 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

The Colorado Group. 

The Niobrara and Benton are sufficiently distinct in the region 
of the Front Ranges and eastward as far north as Wyoming. The 
Niobrara consists of black shales and limestones weathering to chalky 
whiteness; while Benton is mostly shale, but with bands of sand- 
stone and more or less persistent limestones. Farther west, how- 
ever, the deposits answering to the Niobrara-Benton time interval 
lose the limestones and the mass becomes practically continuous as 
shale, though varying much at different horizons. The term Colo- 
rado Shales finds application in those areas, where Niobrara cannot 
be recognized and where Benton conditions, as shown at some places 
by the continuing fauna, remained comparatively unchanged. The 
term Mancos was introduced in southwestern Colorado, to designate 
the shale mass between the Mesaverde (Middle Pierre) and the 
Dakota. It is a lithological term for use in the field and includes 
Lower Pierre as well as Niobrara and Benton. 

The Colorado interval is represented by marine deposits in by 
far the greater part of the Cretaceous area, but in New Mexico the 
isolated coal fields give abundant evidence that the mainland was 
not far distant, as coarse deposits make their appearance, while 
farther west in the same state as well as in Arizona and Utah one 
finds conditions such as characterized the Middle Pierre, marking 
the strife between land and sea, sandstones and coal beds being the 
especial features. 

The relations of deposits in the southernmost fields of New 
Mexico are somewhat obscure, the areas being very small and 
isoliated. But there is little room for doubt farther north in the 
Cerillos and other fields southeast from the San Juan Basin. Lee*® 
obtained a detailed section of the Mancos in the Cerillos field. The 
upper portion is distinctly Pierre and the lower portion, about 2,200 
feet, is certainly Colorado in the lower 1,200 feet. One finds here 
the several subdivisions of the Benton, as recognized east from the 
Front Ranges, but the limestones of the Niobrara interval have dis- 
appeared. A sandstone, Tres Hermanos of Herrick and Johnson,^®® 

»»W. T. Lee, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 23, 1912, pp. 623, 631, 658, 

651-654- 

100 C. L. Herrick and D. W. Johnson, Bull, Univ. New Mex., Vol. IL, p. 13. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 113 

20 feet thick and about 82 feet from the base, is hard, quartzose, 
cross-bedded and in thin irregular layers, which have rippled surfaces 
with worm borings and indefinite markings. Of especial interest 
are impressions very similar to Halymenites major, associated with 
an offshore fauna. At the base of the Benton are conglomerate, 5 
feet and carbonaceous shale, 5 feet, with a few inches of coal at the 
top. 

The Tres Hermanos sandstone is 90 feet above the base and only 
5 feet thick in the Hagan field, west from Cerillos ; though so much 
thinner, it has the same features. The thin coal bed and its over- 
lying conglomerate, seen in Cerillos, appear to be wanting. A 
Benton fauna is present in the lower 670 feet of the section. Con- 
ditions are practically the same in the Tijeras field. In the Puerco 
field no coal was seen at base of the Benton, but a conglomerate, 5 
feet thick, with pebbles of quartz and chert, recalls that overlying 
the coal in Cerillos. 

In the southwest comer of the San Juan Basin, as Gilbert^®^ has 
shown, the Colorado is represented by mostly sandstones for 180 
feet at the base, containing 3 coal seams about midway, while above 
are 380 feet of carbonaceous and clay shale underlying sandstones 
and sandy shales. The whole thickness is not far from 850 feet. 
The coals are not persistent and they were seen in only one section. 
Elsewhere they are replaced with carbonaceous shale. Winchester*®^ 
says that in the Zuni Mountain region, a few miles south from the 
locality of Gilbert's section, the Mancos is 60 per cent, sandstone. 
This sandstone decreases northwardly as do also the coal seams, 
which disappear in the northern part of the area examined by him. 

The Mancos shale is thin in the main portion of the San Juan 
Basin, the whole thickness, according to Gardner,*®* being not more 
than 800 feet. Coal seams occur in the upper 500 feet, where the 
rocks are sandy ; there are no coals in the lower part, where clayey 
beds prevail. The coal seams are usually thin, though occasionally 
reaching 3 feet, are double or triple and often contain much bone. 
One seam at times becomes workable, with 3 to 5 feet of sub-' 

^^^ G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geog. Explorations, etc., Vol. III., 1875, pp. 550, 551. 
102 D. E. Winchester, Journ. Wash. Acad. Set., Vol. IV., 1914, p. 300. 
io» J. H. Gardner, Bull. 341, pp. 366, 369, 373, 375 ; Bull. No. 381, p. 462. 



114 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

bituminous coal which contains much resin. E^stwardly along this 
southern border no workable seams occur, while farther north along 
the eastern outcrop only traces of coal were seen. The sandstone 
decreases in that direction. Lee appears to have found no coal in 
the Colorado beds along the northeastern border of the basin, but he 
was able to recognize the Tres Hermanos sandstone. 

In Arizona the near approach to the source of sediments is mani- 
fest. The most southerly fragment of Cretaceous is the Deer Creek 
coal field,^^ about 150 miles southwest from the southern termina- 
tion of the San Juan Basin, near the junction Qf the Gila and San 
Pedro Rivers. In the lower or southern part of the field, according 
to Campbell, 400 to 500 feet of coarse greenish gray sandstone with 
some shale rest on the Carboniferous limestone. The fossils are 
imperfect and suffice only to prove Cretaceous age. Three coal 
seams, much broken and thin, were found in a shaft within the 
basal 60 feet. The coal is poor ; the best has 34.78 per cent, of ash. 
The Pinedale coal field is about 100 miles north from the Deer 
Creek area. There Veatch^*^^ found about 500 feet of deposits con- 
taining Benton fossils as determined by T. W. Stanton. The two 
coal seams are near the base, 10 to 15 feet apart, and are only 25 
feet above rocks of Pennsylvanian or Permian age. The seams are 
12 and 3 feet thick, but coal from the upper one is very bad, having 
54 per cent, of ash. The lower one has some good coal with only 
10 per cent. A much more extensive field is that of the Black 
Mesa^**® in the northeastern corner of the state. The Cretaceous is 
about 700 feet thick and coal seams were found near the base as 
well as above the middle. The lower group is within the basal 55 
feet and its seams are 7 and 15 feet thick. The upper bed yields a 
fairly good coal, bituminous and with about 14 per cent, of ash. 
The lower seam is a worthless mass of shale and coal. The higher 
beds show numerous seams 2 to 12 feet thick; the coal is evidently 
inferior, but in default of better material it is used as fuel. 

Benton def>osits are present in isolated areas within Utah as far 
west as the 113th meridian along the Arizona border. Almost 45 

10* M. R. Campbell, Bull. 225, 1904, pp. 241-258. 

105 A. C. Veatch, Bull. 431, 1911, pp. 239-241. 

106 M. R. Campbell and H. E. Gregory, Bull. 431, PP- 22^238. 



STEVENSON—INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 116 

years ago, Gilbert discovered in Washington County a mass of shale 
about 635 feet thick, including at base a coal group, somewhat more 
than 130 feet thick, with 5 seams, 4 inches to 4 feet thick. Howell, 
in Park County, next east, found two coal groups, separated by 
500 feet of barren measures, containing Benton fossils. The lower 
coal group is capped by an oyster bed i to 5 feet thick. Thirty- 
five years later, Richardson examined some small fields in Washing- 
ton, Kane and Iron Counties.^**^ The coal seams are from 50 to 500 
feet above the assumed base of the Cretaceous and they are lenses. 
Ordinarily only one workable bed appears in a section but in some 
cases there are as many as six. In the Harmony field, only 600 
feet of Cretaceous remain, containing 6 seams of coal and shale, 7, 
II, 6, II, 17 and 6 feet respectively, with 4, 5, 4, 7 and 4 feet of 
coal. At best this coal is very poor, two air-dried samples having 
22.89 ^^d 33.96 per cent, of ash. The seams are similarly lenticular 
in the Colob field. In this field on the North Fork of Virgin River, 
Richardson saw, at about 100 feet above the basal conglomerate, a 
coal seam with this structure: carbonaceous shale with fossils; 
bituminous coal, 2 feet S inches ; cannel, 5 feet 6 inches. This seam 
disappeared quickly toward the north, east and southeast; but a 
similar seam was found at 10 or 12 miles toward the southeast. The 
cannel at these localities is brownish black with dull greasy luster. 
The violatile is very high and the hydrogen in dried coal is prac- 
tically twice as much as that in the ordinary coals. D. White ex- 
amined it under the microscope and ascertained that its structure 
and composition are essentially those of high-grade cannel. The 
Colob coals are better than those of the Harmony field and have 
from 10 to 15 per cent, of ash. They vary from low grade bitumi- 
nous to subbituminous. In many cases a coal seam overlies or 
underlies fossiliferous limestone. 

Lee examined a small field in Iron County, north from Washing- 
ton, where he measured a section of 1,200 feet in which sandstone 
predominates. The coal seams are in a group of shales and thin 
limestones, about 150 feet thick, beginning at nearly 800 feet from 
the basal conglomerate. The fossils are of Benton age. One coal 

107 G. K. Gilbert, U. S. Geog. Explor., etc., Vol. III., pp. 158, 159; E- E- 
Howell, the same, p. 271 ; G. B. Richardson, Bull. 341, pp. 379-400. 



116 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

bed is divided by bands of limestone containing brackish-water 
mollusks. Another has marine limestone roof and floor, with marine 
fossils, but one of its partings has Physa, Planorbis and other fresh- 
water forms, related to those of ponds and streams. Several of the 
sandstones are cross-bedded.^*'® 

Lupton examined the Emory coal field in in the southern part of 
Castle Valley, about 40 miles' northwest from the Henry Mountains, 
which had been studied by Gilbert.^^* At approximately 600 feet 
from the base is the Perron sandstone, regarded by Lupton as equiva- 
lent to Gilbert's Blue Gate sandstone. It is 800. feet thick at the 
southwest but becomes thinner toward the northeast until at north 
end of the valley it is but 75 feet. This sandstone holds all the 
Benton coal seams, but these are confined to the southern part of 
the valley, disappearing toward the north as the sandstone de- 
creases in thickness. Local unconformities which one must accept 
as evidence of contemporaneous erosion, occur within this sand- 
stone. The coal-bearing area is a narrow strip about 33 miles long. 
Fourteen coal horizons were recognized but the deposits are lentic- 
ular and correlations are uncertain. The variations are abrupt; in 
one case, from one to 20 feet within a very short distance. Many 
of the seams are injured seriously by partings. The coal is low 
grade bituminous of very fair quality, with color and streak black, 
and contains resin. In portions it is thinly laminated, but at times 
the dull layers are several inches thick and resemble cannel. 

The most easterly locality in the southern part of the Uinta 
Basin,^^** at which the Benton coals have been recognized, seems to 
be that on the Gunnison River about 60 miles east from the Utah- 
Colorado line. There Lee found at base of the Benton a succession 
of sandstone and shale with maximum thickness of about 80 feet. 
The lenses of coal, a few inches to 3 feet thick, occur in the shales. 
Near the junction of Gunnison and Grand Rivers, 5 deposits of coal, 
one to 3 feet thick, were seen, but these lenses are too indefinite in 
extent and contain too much carbonaceous shale to justify mining. 
The ash in air-dried coal varies from 6 to 34.5 per cent. The sand- 

108 w. T. Lee, Bull. 316, 1907, citations from pp. 361-373- 
io»G. K. Gilbert, "Geology of the Henry Mountains/' 1877, PP. 4-io; 
C. T. Lupton, Bull. 628, pp. 30, 3i» 47-74, 78. 
no w. T. Lee, Bull. 510, 1912, pp. 24, 25, 68. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 117 

stones are more or less flinty, are cross-bedded, ripple-marked and 
locally conglomerate. These coals have been placed in the Dakota 
by several students, but the presence of fossils confirms Lee's refer- 
ence to the Benton. The Ferron sandstone cannot be recognized 
in this part of the basin and the coals of Castle Valley are wanting. 

No observer has noted the existence of Benton coals on the 
northern side of the Uinta Basin within Colorado, but they have 
been recognized in two outlying fields along the northwestern border 
in Utah, which have been described by Lupton.^^^ The western or 
Blacktail Mountain coal field is almost due north from the Emery 
field. The Mancos formation is about 2,650 feet thick. The upper 
part, 1,450, consists of shale ; the middle, about 250 feet, is chiefly 
sandstone and has cdal seams ; the lower part is sandstone and shale. 
The shales increase and the sandstone decreases toward the east: 
the upper shale is but 800 feet thick in the western part of this field. 
Four coal seams were seen, 3 to 11 feet thick, but extremely vari- 
able. The coal is very similar to that from the Mesaverde, though 
3,500 feet lower in the column; some of it is very good, with but 
3 per cent, of ash and 10 per cent, of water in the air-dried coal. 
In the Vernal coal field, 30 miles farther east, the Mancos is not far 
from 2,500 feet thick, but the upper or shale division is 2,100 feet 
and the lower or sandy division is about 400 feet, with some coals 
near the top. It is quite possible, as suggested by Lee, that these 
coals are at same horizon with those of the Ferron sandstone. They 
are irregular but in some cases yield a good coal. 

The Coalville coal field, about 30 miles northeast from Salt Lake 
City, Utah, was examined by Wegemann.^^* There, at somewhat 
more than 1,600 feet from the base of the Cretaceous section at 
Coalville, is the important coal seam known as the Wasatch. The 
roof is sandstone, locally conglomeratic, with sometimes a thin 
shale intervening. It appears to be quite regular. The floor is 
shale or sandstone and is irregular, there being " rolls " which oc- 
casionally cut out as much as 5 feet of the coal. The coal seam is 
from 5 to 14 feet thick but as a rule, the variations are not abrupt. 
The coal as mined at Coalville is of excellent quality. It is stated 

1" C. T. Lupton, Bull. 471-A 1912, pp. 13, 35, 44. 
"2 C. H. Wegcmann, Bull. 58i-£, 1915, pp. 161-184. 

PROC. AMRR. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, I, MAY 24, I917. 



118 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

that work was abandoned in one mine because the bed thinned ab- 
ruptly, the coal being cut out by a " sand roll " or deposit of coarse 
sand and gravel jn the roof of /the bed. At about 850 feet below 
the Wasatch seam, thin coals were seen, which are known as the 
Spring Canyon beds. The coal is impure and worthless ; it is pos- 
sible that these belong at a Bear River horizon. 

The Coalville field is an outlier of the Green River Basin, which 
is reached in Uinta County of Wyoming near the iiith meridian 
or nearly 100 miles west from the Utah-Colorado line and probably 
25 miles east from the meridian passing through Emory in Castle 
Valley field of Utah. The relations of the lower part of the sec- 
tion were a source of much perplexity, as the fresh-water fauna had 
led to the belief that it belonged to the Laramie or possibly even to 
the Tertiary. Its place in the column was determined by Stanton*^' 
who showed that it intervened between coarse sandstones and con- 
glomerates below and well-defined Colorado above. Knight^^* rec- 
ognized an important coal-bearing formation in the southern part 
of the county, which he named the Frontier. It consists of thick 
sandstones with coal beds and it may be practically equivalent to 
the deposits containing the Wasatch seam at Coalville. At a later 
date Veatch reported upon the southern and Schultz^^'^ upon the 
northern part of the county. The thickness of deposits in this 
area is enormous; Veatch assigns not less than 2,000 feet to the 
Niobrara, 4,200 to the Benton and o to 2,400 to the Bear River. 
The Frontier sandstone formation, the upper part of the Benton, 
is about 2,400 feet thick, consists of alternating sandstones and 
clays, with numerous coal seams. The important coals are the Kem- 
merer group near the top, consisting of 3 seams within a vertical 
distance of 90 feet ; the highest bed has an extreme thickness of 5 
feet, the main Kemmerer is from 5 to 20 feet thick in the mines, 
but along the outcrop, the variability is much greater, for at some 
localities between the mines it is very thin^ at times absent. At 550 
feet below the main Kemmerer is the Wilson bed which is not 

118 T. ^, Stanton, " The Stratigraphic Position of the Bear River Forma- 
tion," Amer. Joum. Set., Vol. XLIIL, 1892, pp. 98-115. 

"*W. C. Knight, "Coalfields of Southern Uinta County, Utah," Bull 
Geol. Soc. Amer,, Vol. 13, 1902, pp. 542-544. 

"« A. C. Veatch, Bull. 285, pp. 333, 337, 340; A. R. Schultz, Bull. 316, p. 215. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 119 

present in the southern part of the field, but is 5 feet 8 inches at 
Kemmerer, where it yields a coking coal. The Carter bed is 1,300 
feet below the Kemmerer and the Spring Valley, 1,475. The last, 
5 to 6 feet thick, is apt to be dirty. 

The Bear River coals are occasionally thick, as much as 6 feet, 
but the coal is so dirty as to be worthless. This formation, 2,400 
feet on the western side of the county, is only 100 feet at the east 
side. The Frontier coals are bituminous, of high grade, with low 
ash and water content ; the Coalville coal is subbituminous. 

The Frontier sandstone does not outcrop in the Rock Springs 
field; in northern Carbon County Smith saw it with all the litho- 
logical features observed in Uinta County, but without coal. It is 
900 feet thick in the southern part but only 500 in the northern part 
of his district ; showing a great decrease toward the east. * The Bear 
River is only 30 feet thick, but this has some thin and worthless 
streaks of coal. Veatch^^*^ in the eastern part of the same county 
found 400 to 800 feet of Frontier, but no coal, while the coaly 
streaks in shales overlying the Dakota are thin and worthless. 
WoodruflF saw thin streaks of coal, 6 to 8 inches, below the middle 
of the Colorado, in Park County of Wyoming, almost due north 
from the Rock Springs coal field. No observer has reported the 
occurrence of coal at the Frontier horizons at any locality in Mon- 
tana or in Alberta or anywhere east from the 109th meridian in 
Wyoming or the io8th in Colorado, but the lowest coal horizon, that 
resting on the Dakota, reaches to the 105th in Carbon County of 
Wyoming and, in northern New Mexico, along the southern bor- 
der, it is present occasionally to near the same meridian. In New 
Mexi(x> it extends northwardly for only a short distance. 

The Dakota. 

The Dakota or basal member of the Upper Cretaceous is a sand- 
stone, more or less massive and locally conglomerate in the eastern 
or Rocky Mountain region. It is often cross-'bedded and some- 
times ripjple-marked. At some localities farther west it contains 
much conglomerate. The thickness rarely exceeds 200 feet. Land 

"•E. E. Smith, Bull. 341, p. 226; A. C. Veatch, Bull. 316, p. 247; E. G. 
Woodruff, Bull. 341, p. 203. 



120 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

conditions existed at few localities and in by far the greatest part 
of the region no coal occurs. The thin lenses, referred by some 
writers to this formation, belong rather to the Benton. 

The Kootenai. 

The Dakota, as described by the earlier students in the Front 
Range region of Colorado and New Mexico, consists of two sand- 
stones separated by shale of variable thickness. Barton's collections 
in the Black Hills of northeastern Wyoming proved that the Da- 
kota of that region is complex, that only the upper sandstone is 
Upper Cretaceous, the other deposits belonging to the Lower Cre- 
taceous. He was convinced that a new name was necessary and 
offered Cloverly formation as substitute for Dakota. At a some- 
what later time Darton, Lee and Stanton discovered somewhat simi- 
lar conditions in Colorado and New Mexico. In Montana, this for- 
mation proved to be practically equivalent to the Kootenai forma- 
tion of G. M. Dawson, which is important in the Rocky Mountains 
region within Alberta and British Coltunbia. This earlier name 
has been accepted throughout ; but in some localities it appears to 
include the upper sandstone or Dakota. The Kootenai has not been 
recognized in Colorado and New Mexico west from the Front 
Ranges except in the Park area of Colorado, where it was seen by 
Beekly. Elsewhere the "Dakota" sandstone rests on a mass of 
clays containing some sandstones, the Morrison formation, of which 
the relations are not wholly clear, though in recent years the pale- 
ontologists have shown increasing inclination to regard it as Lower 
Cretaceous. It has no coal. 

The Kootenai is recorded as coal bearing nowhere south from 
the Black Hills, where Darton gives the succession, as Dakota sand- 
stone, lo to lOO feet; Fuson shale, lo to loo feet; Lakota sand- 
stone, 25 to 300 feet ; forming the Cloverly formation of his earlier 
publications.^^^ The Lakota, mainly sandstone, contains the coal. 
The sandstones are mostly hard, massive, coarse and cross^dded ; 
but in many places they are slabby, ripple-marked and locally they 
are conglomeratic. Lenses of coal occur near the base and at times 

117 N. H. Darton, Folios 127, 128, 1905 ; Prof. Paper 51, 1906, pp. 50-53 ; 
Bull. 260, 1904, pp. 429-433 ; Prof. Paper 65, 1909, pp. 12, 40-48. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 121 

attain commercial importance. Two are near Aladdin, one of them, 
2 feet to 3 feet 6 inches, the other, lo feet above, being thinner. 
The extreme thickness is at a little way north from Aladdin where 
the lower lens becomes 8 to 9 feet ; but both thin away, being re- 
placed with impure coal, before disappearance. The coal at Aladdin 
is soft and bituminous, as it is also at Stmdance. In the Cambria 
district, on southwest side of the region, there is an oval space of 
about 10 square miles, in which the coal averages S feet, but, in the 
surrounding area, the thickness decreases, the coal becomes impure 
and carbonaceous shale replaces it. On the southern slope of the 
Black Hills, a coal bed, 5 feet thick near Edgemont, is distinctly 
local; it quickly disappears toward the southeast, giving place to 
sandstone; while toward the northwest, it becomes merely a coaly 
shale. There is little coal on the easterly side of the Black Hills, 
only thin lenses of coal and coaly shale were seen, and these are con- 
fined to the northerly portion. The thick bed near Aladdin has a 
bone parting somewhat more than one foot thick, which, in appear- 
ance, closely resembles cannel; it has 38.69 per cent, of ash. The 
upper part of the Lakota holds much petrified wood ; cycad stems 
are numerous at several localities. 

Darton recognized his Cloverly formation on both sides of the 
Bighorn Mountains in north central Wyoming, where, in much of 
the r^on, the Dakota sandstone appears to be wanting. Streaks 
of coal were seen occasionally in the Lakota, but they offer no 
promise of economical importance. Fisher^" saw Lakota coal in 
the drainage area of No Wood creek at the westerly base of Big- 
horn Mountain. It is less than 50 feet above the Morrison forma- 
tion and is found within a considerable area. One opening was 
in a bed divided by a parting of 2 inches into benches, each 4 feet ; 
but the coal is a lens and thins away rapidly on all sides. The 
coal is dark with dull earthy luster, conchoidal fracture and re- 
sembles carbonaceous shale ; but it is bituminous coal with not more 
than II per cent, of ash. Fisher suggested that the formation might 
be Dawson's Kootenai. No coal was seen by Woodruff within the 
southwestern part of the Bighorn Basin and the formation appears, 
according to Darton, to be barren in central western Wyoming, but 

118 C. A. Fisher, Bull. 225, 1904 pp. 355, 362. 



122 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

coal, too thin to be worked, was found by Washburne in the north- 
east part of the Bighorn Basin near the Montana line.^" 

Calvert reports that, in the Electric coal field. Park County, 
Montana, the Kootenai is 577 feet thick and with same general 
structure as that of the Cloverly. The Fuson, 230 feet, consists of 
variegated shales, Hmestones and thin sandstones ; the Lakota, 249 
feet, has a coal bed, one foot thick and underlying a conglomerate 
sandstone ; but it seems to be local. In the Livingston coal field of 
the same county, the Kootenai is 540 feet thick and apparently has 
no coal. In the Crazy Mountains coal field of Meagher County, 
north from Park, Stone found the Kootenai only 235 feet thick with 
variegated sandstones in the upper half and variegated shales in the 
lower half. The lowest of the sandstones is coarse and has layers 
of conglomerate ; it overlies one foot of black shale ; no coal is re- 
ported.^*^ 

Calvert"^ found 512 feet of Kootenai in the Lewistown coal 
field of Fergus County, where the upper part is variegated shale 
with two massive, cross-bedded sandstones, 8 and 25 feet thick; 
the lower part, 147 feet, is coarse sandstone, locally conglomerate, 
with sandy shale. The workable coals of the Kootenai in this field 
are in the lower portion at 60 to 90 feet above the base and under- 
lie a massive cross-bedded sandstone. In some districts only one 
seam is present but in others there are several. The seams are 
distinctly lenses, separated by tmproductive spaces. The thickness 
seldom exceeds 5 feet and ordinarily the coal is divided into benches 
by partings of shale or bone. The roof is shale or sandstone and 
the floor is shale or clay ; in many cases a bench-bone is at top or 
bottom of the coal. A dull, lusterless coal, resembling cannel, was 
seen at several places but especially in the Mace mine, where it 
occurs as lenses within the coal, the largest being 200 feet long. 
The coal is accepted as bituminous, but the percentage of ash varies 
greatly. 

The Great Falls coal field in northern Cascade County, west 

ii»E. G. Woodruff, Bull. 341, p. 203; C. W. Washburne, the same, p. 170; 
N. H. Darton, Bull. Geol. Soc. Atner., Vol. 19, pp. 447-449. 

"0 W. R. Calvert, Bull. 47i-£, PP. 34, 53, 58; R. W. Stone, Bull. 341, p. 80. 

121 W. R. Calvert, Bull. 341, pp. no, 113, 117, 119; Bull. 390, pp. 56, 61, 
72,74- 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 123 

from Fergus and north from Meagher, was examined by Weed and 
afterward by Fisher.^^* The Kootenai, 400 to 500 feet, according 
to Fisher but about 750 according to Weed, was formerly regarded 
as Dakota ; but J. S. Newberry in 1887, cited by Weed, determined 
that it is Kootenai. The Dakota was not recognized. The indi- 
vidual deposits are inconstant, sandstones and shales alike being 
lenses. The coal horizon is about 60 feet from the base and the 
seams are clearly lenses. Weed has described the coals in detail. 
The great coal seam, with extreme thickness of 12 feet in Sand 
Coulee district, splits toward the west into two beds, which, where 
last seen, were separated by 25 feet of shale. The seams are usually 
divided and the benches often differ in quality of the coal, coking 
and non-coking being found within the same bed. Picked samples 
from one bed had barely 10 i>er cent, of ash, but one from the 
middle part of the bed had 27 per cent. Official samples, collected 
by Fisher, give from 16 to 23 per cent, of ash. As in sampling of 
the coal, nothing is taken which ought to be removed in mining, it is 
certain that this fuel, as it reaches the consumer, must be decidedly 
inferior in quality. 

Stebinger^^* gives about 2,000 feet as the thickness of Kootenai 
in the Teton coal field, which, like the Great Falls field, is near the 
western boundary of Cretaceous deposition in Montana. The for- 
mation is practically without coal, there being only some black shale 
with 6 or 8 inches of coal. 

The Kootenai shows great variation in thickness within Alberta. 
Bowling,*^ summarizing observations made by himself and others 
in various parts of the province, states that the maximum deposition 
was near the axis of the Rocky Mountains, where the base is a 
great bed of sandstone, succeeded by sandstones and shales with 
many seams of coal. In the Elk River escarpment, it is 3,600 feet, 
but at Blairmore, toward the east, it is but 750; northward, near 
Banff, it is 3,900 feet, but in Moose Mountain, east from the main 
range, it is only 375 feet. Farther east, the formation is unim- 

i"W. H. Weed, Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 3, 1892, pp. 302, 303, 313- 
321 ; C. A Fisher, Bull. 356, 1909, Pp. 22, 50, 51, 52, 77, 78. 
128 E. Stebinger, Bull. 621-Ar, 1916, p. 124, 
12* D. B. Dowling, Geol. Survey Memoir, 53, 1914, p. 27. 



124 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

portant owing to thinning of the beds ; it has not been recognized in 
Manitoba. 

In Alberta, the Kootenai is fully exposed only in the more dis- 
turbed portion of the Rocky Mountains area and the more im- 
portant coal deposits, for the most part, are west from the Moun- 
tains in British Columbia. Mackenzie^*' measured about 700 feet of 
Kootenai on Oldman river in southern Alberta, in the Foothills 
region. The rocks mostly arenaceous. An overlying sandstone 
formation was assigned to the Dakota. A Coal Measures group, 
about 200 feet thick, is in the upper part of the Kootenai, where the 
sandstones increase in coarseness. Near Blairmore, five coal seams 
were examined ; the total is about 40 feet, but two of the beds are 
poor and shaly ; elsewhere the quantity of coal is less. 

The Crowsnest coal field^** is farther west, in and beyond the 
Mountains, and the greater part is in British Columbia. In Crows- 
nest pass, within Alberta, McEvoy gives a section of 4,736 feet, 
which he regarded as wholly Kootenai. The coal bearing portion 
begins at 1,170 feet from the base and is 1,847 f^^t. The coal is 
198 feet, somewhat less than in the main field farther west. Mc- 
Learn"^ states that the lower part of the Kootenai in this region 
contains abundant remains of plants and erect stems of trees. 

Dowling^** examined a small area of Kootenai on the North Sas- 
katchewan river, about the SSth degree and near the iiSth meridian. 
There, behind the Brazeau Hills, he saw 5 coal seams within a ver- 
tical distance of 631 feet. The lowest and highest, with somewhat 
more than 12 feet thickness, yield worthless coal, but the second 
and third, with about 23 feet of coal, are good, though the ash is 
rather high, being from 12 to 15 per cent: the grade is semi- 
bittuninous. 

Malloch^^ reported upon an extensive district farther west, on 
the headwaters of the Saskatchewan, Bighorn and Brazeau Rivers, 
and within the outlying ridges of the Rocky Mountains. The thick- 
ness of Kootenai is 3,658 feet, which is unexpectedly great, as 

1" J. D. Mackenzie, Summ. Rep. Geol. Survey, Canada, pp. 239, 243, 244. 
"« J. McEvoy, Ann. Rep., Vol. XIII.. 1900, Pt. A, pp. 84-88. 
12TF. H. McLearn, Summ. Rep., 1915, p. iii. 

128 D. B. Dowling, Summ. Rep. for 1913, pp. 150, 151. 

129 G. S. Malloch, Memoir 9-2, 191 1, pp. 25, 31-33, S^, 53, 59, 60. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 126 

farther south in the foothills the formation is thin. In the basal 
700 feet, there is a ripple-marked sandstone as well as shales and 
sandstones with impressions of rain drops. Sandstones and shales 
are irregular throughout and clear evidence of contemporaneous 
erosion was observed at several localities. Some thin beds of con- 
glomerate were seen but they are indefinite and are clearly local. 

Twenty-one coal seams were seen in a section of 2,760 feet, from 
2 inches to 9 feet thick ; in another section of about 1,100 feet in the 
upper part of the formation, 7 seams were seen, with total thick- 
ness of about 26 feet, while in a third of nearly 1,300 feet, there 
are 8 seams with total thickness of more than 52 feet, besides other 
seams less than 3 feet thick. Comparison of the sections make clear 
that the seams are lenticular. The coal throughout is bituminous 
and, with rare exceptions, is coking. The quality is excellent, ash 
and sulphur being low. 

Malloch thinks that the shales, sandstones and conglomerates 
are of fluviatile origin. Absence of roots in the floor of coal seams 
leads him to suggest that these may have developed in bogs within 
choked oxbows or on coastal plains. The quantity of coal decreases 
rapidly eastward from the mountains. 

Some Chemical Features of Cretaceous Coals. 

No substance resembling the pyropissite of Sachsen has been 
mentioned by any observer, the only allied material being that seen 
by Dunker in the Hannover region, which he thought might be 
hatchettin. Resin of one sort or another occurs commonly; it is 
termed Bernstein, retinite, walchovite or simply resin by various 
authors. It is in grains or in lumps several inches long in the Lower 
Quader coals of Bohemia and Moravia ; at one locality in Hungary 
it is so abundant as to give the local name to ix coal seam ; there is 
much in New Zealand ; in North America, resins are characteristic 
features of coals in the Laramie, the Fox Hills and the Pierre as 
well as in those of the Benton. The color is from, honey yellow 
to dark yellow and according to Thiessen is rather darker in the 
Fox Hills coals of northern Colorado than in the Eocene coals of 
the Dakotas. Resins appear to be wanting in bituminous coals of 



126 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

high g^ade; at least, no note is made anywhere respecting their 
existence in such coals. 

Cannel has been reported from numerous places. Often it evi- 
dently is little more than highly carbonaceous mud, forming a faux- 
toit, faux-mur, or a thick parting, which may be regarded as roof 
and floor to the benches which it separates ; but typical cannel is by 
no means rare. A great cannel lens was seen by Hector and by 
Campbell in one portion of the BuUer coal field in New Zealand and 
Denniston has referred to what are clearly localized cannel deposits 
in coal beds. Hector has given the proximate analysis of the lens as 
water, 6.20; ash, 3.60; volatile matter, 61.41; fixed carbon, 38.58. 
Within the United States and western Canada, cannel has been de- 
scribed from Laramie, Benton and Kootenai horizons. 

Cannel was discovered in the Benton of the Colob field, Utah, 
by Richardson, whose description shows that it is the lower bench 
of at least two lenses occurring at the same horizon. The material 
was studied microscopically by D. White, who recognized it as a 
typical cannel. At a later date it was studied in detail by Thies- 
sen,^*® who reported that it has the api>earance and characteristics 
of cannel. Under medium enlargement, the coal is a dark, homo- 
geneous mass, in which are embedded resinous particles, dark and 
light, with some large spore exines and cuticles, this embedded ma- 
terial comprising about one half of the whole. Under higher power, 
the enclosing material is shown to be like the "groundmass" of 
other coals, being in largest part a mass of closely packed very thin 
flattened particles, most of which are spore and pollen exines, with 
small fragments of cuticles. In great proportion, these are frag- 
mentary and many are so macerated that they are unrecognizable ; 
but even in this condition, the color and optical action are the same 
as in the recognized cuticles and exines. As all intergradations are 
present, he thinks it reasonable to conclude that the origin is the 
same. With this is the amorphous substance or binding material 
as in the debris of lignite. The darker resinous substances are 
the more abundant and, in color as well as in appearance, they re- 
semble those of lignite. Many are cylindrical, having retained the 
shape of resin cells in the wood. Smaller particles enter into the 

180 R, Thiessen, " Origin of Coal," 1914, pp. 244, 245. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 127 



groundmass. The darker resins are deep brown in color and in 
general are opaquely glassy. The lighter resins are in striking con- 
trast and tend to be more irregular in form. Besides charred cell 
fragments, few other bodies are present and none of them is in rec- 
ognizable condition. In variety of constituents, this coal is very 
simple and thus approaches Paleozoic cannel very closely. It is so 
brittle that proper sections cannot be prepared. The analysis 
showed 67.61 of volatile matter and 32.39 per cent, of fixed carbon 
in the pure coal. The cannel is overlain by a thin bituminous bench, 
which has 60 i>er cent, of volatile to 40 of fixed carbon, making 
probable that the upper bench contains much spore material. 

Cannel is said to be present in the Lakota sandstone of the 
Black Hills, at a Kootenai horizon, where it is in two benches, each 
about a foot and a half thick and overlain by bituminous coal. 
The proximate analysis suggests that this is more probably a bony 
coal, as the volatile is but 38.64 and the fixed carbon 61.46 per cent, 
in the pure coal ; the ash is 24.16. Cannel is present in the Kootenai 
of the Elk River district of Alberta, the composition being 65.55 ^^ 
volatile and 34.45 of fixed carbon ; the ash is only 9.86 per cent.^*^ 

That coals of very different types may occur in the same vertical 
section is evident from conditions ' in the Wealden of Hannover. 
Dunker^'* states that in many localities the coal resembles the older 
black coals, there being no trace of woody structure and the streak 
is blackish brown. This type of coal was analyzed by Regnault ; 
but lignite is present also, which preserves the woody structure 
and has reddish brown streak. A sample from Helmstadt was 
analyzed by Varrentrapp. The results are : 





c. 


H. 


OandN. 


I 


89.50 

73.50 


4.83 
5.18 


4.67 
21.30 


11..... 



Beside these there is the Blatterkohle, composed of leaves and twigs 
of conifers and cycads, which is so little changed that the leaves 
become flexible when soaked in water. This type occurs in the same 

i"U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 22, 1913, p. 194; D. B. Dowling, Geol. 
Survey of Canada, Memoir 53, 1914 p. 74, 

182 y^^ Dunker, " Monographie," etc., p. xiii. 



128 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

vertical section with other coals, some of which are of the " black " 
type. No analysis of the Blatterkohle is given. Dunker conceives 
that the black coal was formed from lycopods and ferns, as no re- 
mains of other plants have been found in it; the lignite, however, 
seems to him to be composed of conifers, cycads, lycopods and ferns. 
The ash of the Wealden coals in Hannover, according to analyses 
made by Saurwein and published by Zincken,"' appears to average 
high, for in most cases the percentage exceeds 13. 

Czjzek^** has described the black coal with black brown streak 
mined near Griinbach in Lower Austria, which occasionally contains 
fragments of branches, retaining their form but showing no trace of 
fiber. This, belonging to the Upper Cretaceous, is a lignitic coal, 
for, as analyzed by Schrotter, it has carbon, 74.84 ; hydrogen, 4.60 ; 
oxygen, 20.56. The water and ash are very low. The important 
coals of Hungarian Cretaceous are in the middle or fresh-water 
formation consisting of marls and coal beds. Hantken presents no 
detailed analyses ; the water and ash, for the most part, are less than 
10 per cent. 

The Cretaceous coals of Queensland are rarely thick enough to 
be workable ; they occur as lenses scattered over a great area. The 
analyses reported by Jack^*^ are all proximate ; reduced to pure coal 
for fixed carbon and volatile they show : 





Water. 


Ash. 


Volatile. 


Fixed Carbon. 


I 


7.16 
8.25 

0.33 
2.32 

8.30 


36.53 
19.02 

30.20 

9.6s 
2.80 


37.22 
41.82 

43.37 
17.26 
42.26 


62.77 

58.17 
56.62 

82.7^ 


II 


Ill 


IV 


V 


57.73 







The coal of No. V., belonging in the Lower Cretaceous, cokes well. 
The stratigraphic relations give no explanation for the low volatile 
of No. IV. There is no relation between ash and volatile, for the 
ash of III. is almost ten times that of V., but the volatile is almost 
the same in both coals. 

138 C. Zincken, "Erganzungen zu der Physiographic dcr Braunkohle," 
Halle, 1871, pp. 4, 5. 

i8*/a/fr6. k. k. Reichsanst., Vol. II., Part i, p. 144. 

135 R. L. Jack, " Geology of Queensland," pp. 398, 532, 537. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 129 



The analyses of New Zealand coals are proximate. Hector has 
published those of samples taken from different parts of two im- 
portant seams: 





Water. 


A»b. 


Volatile. 


Fixed Carbon. 


I 


1393 
16.46 

4.98 
10.38 


7.16 
7.20 
1. 19 
0.98 


46.85 

33.45 
41.89 
38.36 


53.15 
66.54 

58.10 

61.63 


II 


Ill 


IV 







The difference in volatile of I. and XL, from the same bed, is un- 
usually great. Cox has given the results of numerous analyses of 
coals from the BuUer field; the coal is bituminous and that from 
some mines is caking. The water content is very *low, seldom ex- 
ceeding 7 per cent. The ash is amazingly small, there being less 
than one per cent, in 9 of the 14 samples and only 4 exceed two per 
cent. Analyses of coals from Otago, as reported by Hutton, have in 
most cases very little ash. One cannot resist the suggestion that the 
samples may have been selected " average " lumps.^** 

Many thousands of analyses of coals have been made by the 
United States Bureau of Mines and a great number have been made 
for the Geological Survey of Canada. The samples consist of cuts 
across the whole bed, omitting such partings or benches as should be 
removed before shipment of fuel from the mine. For the most 
part, the samples have been taken from mines in successful opera- 
tion or, if the region be undeveloped, from such seams as gave 
promise. The purpose of the sampling is to determine the com- 
mercial value of the property and the method is beyond doubt the 
best yet devised. But the student of geological relations should read 
the descriptive portion of Bulletin 22 in order to learn how far the 
analyses concern matters occupying his attention. 

The Laramie coals. The Laramie formation, as defined in pre- 
ceding pages, contains at most localities only thin seams of coal; 
but in the northern part of the San Juan Basin of New Mexico 
and Colorado as well as in the Edmonton region of Alberta, the 

i«« J. Hector, New Zealand Reps, for 1871-2, pp. 132, 134 ; J. H. Cox, the 
same, for 1874-6, p. 25; F. W. Hutton, "Geology of Otago," 1875, pp. loi, 
105, no. 



130 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

seams become thick and of economic importance. Two analyses of 
the g^eat Carbonero seam have been published, I. near Fniitland, 
where the seam consists of bone, shale and coal, 12 feet, and at base 
5 feet of coal, which was sampled; II. near Pendleton, where the 
thickness is 48 feet, but only 7 feet were included in the sample. 





Water. 


Ash. 


Volatile. 


Fixed Carbon. 


Sulpbur. 


I 


9.89 
8.30 


ZO.19 
8.25 


48.10 
42.61 


51.90 
57.39 


80 


II 


0.80 







The Edmonton coals are subbituminous and break up on exposure ; 
but this disintegration is much less rapid if the fuel be stored imder 
cover. Dowling has reported the results of numerous analyses, 
which show no serious variation in composition of the pure coal ; it 
suffices to cite three from the upper group, which includes the great 
seam on Pembina River, and one from the Clover Bar group several 
hundred feet lower in the section. 





Water. 


Ash. 


Volatile. 


Tuced Carbon. 


I 


12.93 
13-78 
11.78 
17.28 


10.00 

6.86 

3.31 
7.30 


41.46 

40.33 
45.58 
47-30 


58.52 
59-66 

54-42 
52.70 


II 


Ill 


IV 





Coals of the Clover Bar group appear to be less advanced in con- 
version than those of the higher group ; three samples from different 
mines yielded 43, 45 and 47 per cent, of volatile. The ash rarely 
exceeds 8 per cent."^ 

The Fox Hills coals. The coals taken by the writer to be of 
Fox Hills age are irregular but they are better than those of the 
Laramie, within the United States ; and in some extensive areas they 
are of great economic importance. Along the eastern base of the 
Front ranges, these coals are mined on large scale in several fields 
from New Mexico almost to the Colorado-Wyoming line ; in much 
of the region the seams are broken more or less by bony partings, but 
these are separated readily and they have not been included in the 
samples taken for analysis. Of the analyses, Numbers I. to V. are 

187 U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 22, p. 141 ; D. B. Dowling, Memoir 53, 
pp. II, 18, 21, 47. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 131 



from the Raton-Trinidad field; VI. and VII. are from the Canyon 
City field ; VIII. and IX. from the Boulder District ; and X. is from 
Platteville, about 40 miles north from Denver. 





! Water. 


Ash. 
14.57 


VoUUle. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 


s. 


c. 


H. 


0. 


N. 


I. 3294..- 


; 2.72 


38.51 


61.49 


0.83 


84.58 


5.54 


7.64 


I.41 


II. 3295.. 


345 


16.67 


40.14 


59-86 


0.91 


83.62 


5.77 


9.06 


1.55 


in. 6595... 


1 2.45 


17.40 


34.36 


65.64 


0.96 


8532 


5.67 


6.93 


1. 12 


IV. 115D.. 


a.25 


20.44 


38.15 


61.85 


0.82 


84.08 


5.61 


8.02 


1.47 


V. 7196... 


3.88 


13.73 


33.18 


66.82 


0.57 


84.56 


5.34 


7.97 


1.56 


VI. 6254. . . 


9.89 


6.21 


42.05 


57.95 


0.52 


76.30 


4.77 


17.33 


1.08 


VII. 6376... 


5-44 


12.10 


46.12 


52.88 


0.87 


77.67 


5.96 


14.18 


1.32 


VIII. 1523. . 


18.68 


5.99 


46.30 


53.70 


0.73 


76.28 


5.30 


16.16 


1.53 


IX. 6836 . . . 


17.32 


4.64 


41.06 


58.94 


0.39 


74.97 


S.18 


18.00 


1.46 


X. 6408 . . . 


28.90 


5.02 


43.63 


56.37 


0.70 


73.19 


5.19 


19.51 


I.4I 



The ash is high at the south, but the seams in the lower part of the 
Vermejo group yield a fuel so good for steaming purposes that the 
high ash becomes imimportant ; the ash decreases northwardly and 
in the Boulder District it is about that of an ordinary good coal. 
But in the same direction the type of coal changes; in the Raton- 
Trinidad field, one finds usually a high-grade bituminous coal, that 
from some extensive mines yielding a strong coke ; in the Canyon 
City field, the coal is still bituminous, but it does not cake and the 
oxygen is about double that in the Trinidad coals; in the Boulder 
District, the coal is distinctly subbituminous, is xyloid in appearance 
and disint^rates on exposure. There are no such violent con- 
trasts between proximate and ultimate composition, such as have 
been recognized in some of the newer coals. 

The Fox Hills as a coal-bearing formation is important in south- 
western Wyoming; the Adaville seam of Uinta County has maxi- 
mum thickness of 84 feet; at least a part of the Black Buttes coal 
group in Sweetwater County belongs here ; the coal assigned to the 
Lewis in Carbon County is taken by the writer to be at a Fox Hills 
horizon. The seams become thin and unimportant eastwardly. The 
Adaville seam yields coal of almost the same composition at two 
widely separated mines, which differs little from that of the Boulder 
District in Colorado. The volatile in the coals of Uinta and Sweet- 
water Coimties varies from 38 to almost 49 per cent., though in the 
coals compared the carbon is almost the same throughout The 



132 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

lowest percentage of carbon in either county is barely 73 ; usually it 
is somewhat more than 76 per cent. These coals are high in water 
but not in ash. They are classed as subbituminous and are not held 
in high esteem as better fuel from the Pierre is readily accessible.^** 
The Pierre coals. These attain g^eat importance in the San 
Juan, Uinta and Green River Basins as well as in portions of 
Alberta in Canada. There are few localities whence coal, positively 
recognized as Lower Pierre, has been taken for official analysis. 
Probably the Hagan coal of Sandoval County in New Mexico be- 
longs here, but the only available analysis is proximate. The Upper 
Pierre or the Lewis and the Bearpaw shales have no 'coal deserving 
consideration. The Middle Pierre or Mesaverde, as originally de- 
fined, is the productive formation. Its coals are mined in the Cerillos 
coal field, where all grades from bitimiinous to anthracite are ob- 
tained ; and in various parts of the San Juan Basin. Of the analyses 
given here, I. and II. are from the Cerillos field, III. and IV. are 
from the southern part of the San Juan Basin, V., VI. and VII. are 
from the northern part. 



I. 6153. 

II. 6x54. 

III. 1307. 

IV. 1278. 

V. 5761 . 

VI. 2121. 

VII. S37D 



Water. 


Ash. 


VoUlile. 


Fixed 
Cftrbon. 


s. 


C. 


H. 


0. 


5.70 


599 


2.47 


97-53 


0.78 


93.84 


1.99 


1.96 


3.76 


4.89 


37.07 


62.83 


0.62 


82.49 


5.78 


9.86 


10.79 


18.66 


47-94 


52.06 


1.79 


78.06 


570 


13.10 


12.29 


6.99 


42.84 


57.16 


0.78 


78.43 


5.51 


Z4.00 


I.71 


6.92 


39.68 


60.32 


0.71 


82.50 


5.50 


9-58 


3.04 


9.66 


44-70 


55-30 


4.03 


81.01 


5-99 


7.27 


1.24 


16.12 


38.30 


61.70 


0.66 


84.64 


5-56 


7.49 



N. 



1.34 
1.95 
1. 35 
1.28 

1.71 
X.70 
1.65 



The sample III. consisted of slack and VII. represented the run-of- 
mine. II. and VII. yield a high grade coke. The anthracite of 
Cerillos is believed' to be due to a sheet of andesite overlying the 
seam. 

The Mesaverde coals of the Uinta Basin are in two groups, sepa- 
rated by a thick sandstone. The upper g^oup, the Paonia shales, 
has many coal beds of which one or more may be workable at a given 
locality; the lower group, Bowie shale, contains important seams. 
In the southeastern part of this basin, the Paonia and Bowie cannot 

i«» Bull. 22, pp. 137, 138^ 69, 58, 59, 54. 55, 82 for Colorado-New Mexico ; 
pp. 310, 319 for Wyoming. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 133 

« 

be distinguished ; yet in the western part the coals differ altogether. 
The Paonia coals are subbituminous, with 15 to about 20 per cent, 
of water, almost 17 of oxygen and less than 76 of carbon ; whereas 
the Bowie coals have less than 4 per cent, of water, 9 to 12 per cent, 
of oxygen and from 79 to 83 per cent, of carbon. The Paonia coals 
are at times rather high in ash, but the coal mined from the Bowie 
is uniformly clean, the ash rarely exceeding 6 per cent. 

The Mesaverde coals are important in Sweetwater County of 
Wyoming, within the Green River Basin. There, as in the Grand 
Mesa area within the Uinta Basin, the coals are in two groups, 
Almond and Rock Springs, which are separated by a greater interval 
than the Paonia and the Bowie. The Almond coals are lower in 
water than are those of the Paonia, but the oxygen is higher while 
the carbon is from 72 to 76 per cent. The Rock Springs coals have 
about 5 per cent, less of oxygen and the carbon varies little from 
79 per cent. Farther north in Wyoming, within the Bighorn Basin, 
a coal is mined near Cody which has 21 per cent, of oxygen and only 
71 of carbon."® 

In Montana, the coal seams are more irregular than in southern 
areas, the lenses, for the most, are of less extent and the coal is apt to 
be dirty. The Judith River seams, or approximately the Upper 
Mesaverde, are of subbituminous coal with water from 10 to 25 
per cent., 16 to 20 per cent, of oxygen and 72, 73 to 76 per cent, of 
carbon. But the coals of the Eagle sandstone are bitimiinous with 
12 to 16 of oxygen and 76 to 80 per cent, of carbon. The ash 
usually is high, 13 to more than 16 per cent. 

Dowling has published many analyses of Belly Rivers coals from 
Alberta. They are proximate but they represent a great niunber of 
localities The water rarely exceeds 5 per cent, in the Foothills 
region but in the Lethbridge-Medicine Hat region it increases east- 
wardly and, near Medicine Hat, it is about 20 per cent. The ash in 
beds of workable thickness is low, seldom exceeding 8 per cent. Ac- 
cording to two analyses of Lethbridge coal, published by Steb- 
inger,**^ that fuel is on the borderland between subbituminous and 

i»»U. S. Bureau of Mines, Bull. 22, pp. (fj, 140, 141 for San Juan Basin; 
PP- S5» 56 for Uinta Basin ; pp. 313, 315, 316 for Green River Basin. 
"0 E. Stebinger, Bull. 621-/C, 1914, p. 138. 

PROC. AMSR. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, J, MAY 24, IQI?- 



134 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 



bituminous, but it is of better quality in respect of ash than the 
Montana coals at the same horizon. 

The Benton Coals. — The published reports contain no reference 
to occurrence of coal in deposits representing the Niobrara time 
interval ; the coal seams are associated with rocks containing Benton 
fossils. These coals are confined to the western part of the Cre- 
taceous area within Arizona and Utah, though extending eastwardly 
for a short distance into New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. The 
coal in Arizona and New Mexico is rather high in ash, about 14 to 
16 per cent., and the sulphur seems to be not far from 2 per cent., 
so that it is an inferior fuel. Analyses I., II. and III. are from 
Iron County, Utah, where the coal seams are often closely associated 
with marine limestones ; IV. is from Emery County, where the coal 
is mined extensively; V. and VI. are from Uinta County, on the 
northwest side of the Uinta Basin. 





Water. 


Ash. 


VolaUle. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 


S. 


C. 


H. 


0. 


N. 


I. 5494.... 


4-93 


13.04 


45.40 


54.60 


8.19 


76.82 


5.56 


8.29 


1. 14 


II. 5304 — 


10.35 


9.82 


45.39 


54.61 


7.27 


76.52 


4.97 


10.05 


1. 19 


IIL 5305 


14.19 


9.92 


44.00 


56.00 


7.10 


72.83 


4.77 


14.18 


1. 12 


IV. 12627 


4.00 


5.93 


45-4 


54.6 


0.44 


81.01 


5.64 


11.52 


1.39 


V. ssio.... 


8.82 


6.25 


43.10 


56.90 


1.95 


76.67 


5.58 


14.52 


1. 19 


VI. SS13.... 


8.21 


11.70 


42.87 


.«>7.i3 


2.20 


76.28 


S.60 


14.70 


1.22 



The carbon is highest at the west in Iron Coimty, being more than 
83 per cent, in the pure coal of I. ; it is 78 in the pure coal of III., 
81 in that of II. and 81 in the best coal from the Emery coal field. 
The sulphur in Iron County is so abimdant as to suggest contribu- 
tion by animals. V. and VI. are the upper and lower benches of a 
single bed and show improved conditions during formation of the 
upper bench. Lee has given analyses of the upper and lower benches 
of a bed in Delta County of Colorado; the upper bench has 6 per 
cent, and the lower bench 22 per cent, of ash. There, as in the 
Uinta County seam, the lower bench, though richer in ash, is poorer 
in volatile. The Frontier coals in Uinta County of Wyoming, in 
the Green River Basin, have excellent fuel in several of the seams. 
They are bituminous, low in ash and sulphur and have from 77 to 
almost 81 per cent, of carbon.^*^ 

1*1 Bureau of Mines, Bull. 22, pp. 47, 139 ; for Utah, pp. 80, 193, 194 ; C. 
T. Lupton, Bull. 628, p. 80; W. T. Lee, Bull. 510, p. 201. 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 135 

The coals of Dakota age are insignificant. The only ultimate 
analysis shows that in one case, at least, the coal is high-grade 
bituminous but with notable percentage of ash. 

The Kootenai is without coal south from the northern border of 
Wyoming and there as well as in Montana the coal is not of high 
grade. In the Black Hills of Wyoming one finds extensive mines 
at or near Aladdin. In one of those the water is from 14 to 18, the 
ash from about 5 to 16 and the sulphur from 5 to 7 per cent., all in 
freshly mined coal. Within Montana, the Kootenai coals become 
important locally and are mined at many places in Cascade and 
Fergus Coimties. In the former county, the water is but 3.5 to 7.5 
per cent, but the ash is from 14 to 21. Sulphur is less than 3 per 
cent. The coal is bituminous, the carbon in pure coal being about 
80 and the oxygen, barely 15 per cent. In Fergus County, the ash 
within several districts is from 10 to 17 per cent, of the air-dried 
coal; but only 3 out of 10 samples gave more than 10; the sulphur, 
however, is much greater than in Cascade, being 5 per cent, and up- 
ward. The percentage of carbon in pure coal is from 80 to 85 and 
that of oxygen 9 to 15. But one analysis shows only 75 of carbon 
with 19 of oxygen.^*^ 

The analyses published by Dowling^** show regional variation in 
the coals of Alberta. The ash is highest in areas near the moun- 
tains, where three districts have 13 to 22, 10 to 20 and 8 to 17 per 
cent. In all other areas, it rarely exceeds 8 and is usually about 5. 
The water is about 3 per cent. Sulphur is in small quantity, there 
being one extensive region with barely a half per cent. The coal is 
bitiuninous and often is caking. Anthracite is obtained in disturbed 
districts. 

In reading the results of analysis as given above, one is in danger 
of concluding that "clean" coal is the rule and "dirty" coal the 
exception. Emphasis must be laid on the fact that samples for 
analysis have been cut, for the most part, from mines in successful 
operation or from promising exposures. Lenses yield the best coal 
in the central portions ; toward the borders, their coal becomes dirty 
and usually passes into carbonaceous shale. In many vertical sec- 

"2 Bull. 22, pp. 305, 126, 127, 130-133. 
1*8 D. B. Dowling, Memoir 53, pp. 74-79- 



136 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

tions, one observes that a large proportion of the seams are " dirty," 
and in reading descriptive notes of seams from which samples were 
taken, he finds that only in rare instances is a seam, upwards of 
3 feet thick, clean throughout, while of thicker seams, a half or more 
must be rejected in sampling. Even in thinner seams, selection of 
samples requires no little skill. The testimony of observers, cited 
in preceding pages, proves that a very great part of the Cretaceous 
coal was formed amid conditions unfavorable to accumulation of 
clean coal. Generally speaking, foreign materials are in partings, 
but occasionally the mineral matter is distributed throughout so that 
it cannot be removed by washing. 

SUMMARY. 

The facts recorded in preceding pages may be grouped to make 
clear their bearing upon the matters at issue. 

I. The Distribution of Coal, — One who reads reports covering 
an extensive area is liable to believe that caprice has determined 
the distribution of coal. The presence of coal at one locality gives 
no assurance that it will be found at the same horizon in others, for 
great barren spaces exist between productive areas, so that indi- 
vidual seams appear to have small areal extent ; apparently, the total 
area on which coal was accumulating at any time was a compara- 
tively insignificant part of the whole. There is, however, an evi- 
dent relation between occurrence of coal seams and the prevailing 
character of the sediments, which would justify the assertion that 
in one locality coal may be present, and that in another it is almost 
certain to be absent. The descriptions seem to prove that coal 
seams accumulate only under conditions such as mark great river 
or coastal plains, where intervals of relatively rapid subsidence were 
.followed by others, during which subsidence was slow; finer ma- 
terials were deposited upon the coarser and coal accumulation be- 
gan. But where the deposits are fine, such as those laid down at 
a notable distance from the source of materials and under a prac- 
tically constant cover of water, coal is not present. 

The relations are sufficiently clear in the Upper Cretaceous of 
Europe. Coal is of rare occurrence in England, France and west- 
ern Germany, where the deposits, almost without exception, are 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 137 

marine and largely calcareous ; but in a part of France, the closing 
stages are characterized by thick fresh-water deposits and thin 
seams of lignitic coal have been observed. Land deposits abound 
in eastern Germany and there coals are found, which at times attain 
economic*** importance. The Hastings Sand of England, at base 
of the Wealden, is thought to be a delta deposit ; if so, the areas re- 
maining may mark, in greatest part, the submerged portions, as 
they contain no coal and the sand holds much driftwood. This 
formation has been recognized in France, where within small areas, 
some coal seams exist which have been mined. The Wealden is 
exposed within a large space in Hannover, reaching westward from 
the Harz Mountains to the Holland border, where it underruns 
newer formations. At this western limit, the deposits are fine 
clays or marls with important limestones, but no coal. Coarse de- 
posits are reached farther east and with them the coal. The seams 
are usually thin and irregular, but occasionally one is more than 5 
feet thick. In a section, toward the west, where shale, more or less 
argillaceous, predominates, a workable seam occurs, but it is asso- 
ciated with the principal sandstone of the section. Th€ coals of 
New Zealand and Queensland either rest on sandstone or are sep- 
arated from it by thin clay or shale. 

The immense area of Cretaceous in the United States and Can- 
ada affords ample opportunity for comparisons. Each formation, 
with possible exception of the Niobrara, is coal-bearing. The 
chief source of detritus was at the west, though important contribu- 
tions were received from the southern border, which probably lay 
in northern Mexico, not far from the international boundary. 

The Laramie marks the closing stages of the Cretaceous and, 
where the succession is complete, deposition appears to have been 
continuous into the Eocene. Except in a portion of Alberta, where 
a brackish- water fauna is found, the rodks are of continental type ; 
leaves abound in many beds and the animal remains are of river or 
pond forms. The conditions recall those observed on the great 

1** It should be noted that this term, " economic importance," has not the 
same signification everywhere: in the United States, a coal seam, less than 
thirty inches thick, is not thought to be workable, except in localities without 
railway communication. On the continent of Europe seams very much thinner 
have been worked. 



138 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

plains of China. The drainage appears to have been irregular and 
shifting, the deposits are variable in form and composition, and 
except in a few localities, widely separated, the coal seams are thin. 
The periods, during which coal accumulation was possible in any 
locality, were usually brief ; but in the northern part of the San Juan 
Basin, one seam attains the thickness of lOO feet and in the Edmon- 
ton district of Alberta the seams are not only thick but, unlike the 
seam in the San Juan, they yield coal of excellent quality. 

The Fox Hills, underlying the fresh-water Laramie, is recogniz- 
able as a persistent sandstone with intercalated shales and coal 
seams. It resembles a low-lying strand of vast extent, frequently 
invaded for considerable periods by the sea, so that it has an off- 
shore fauna, which is of strangely persistent type. This is passage 
from the continental conditions of the Laramie to the marine con- 
ditions of the Pierre. The coal seams, yielding better fuel than that 
from the Laramie seams, are thin and variable at most localities, 
but at times in considerable areas, some of them become thick and 
of great economic importance. Merely insignificant seams occur in 
the San Juan Basin except at the north, where two, 4 and 12 feet 
thick, are present in the shales immediately overlying the Pictured 
Cliffs sandstone. In the Green River Basin, the Adaville seam has 
a maximum thickness of 84 feet, but the seams become thin east- 
wardly and there are great spaces in which the formation seems to 
be barren. In central and eastern Wyoming as well as in Montana 
and Alberta, only occasional exposures of coal have been reported 
and those are unimportant. In the basins along the eastern foot of 
the Front Ranges in New Mexico, the seams are numerous and 
some horizons are extremely productive along this line of more 
than 300 miles ; but the individual seams are variable to the last de- 
gree in thickness and quality, there being many spaces where the 
coal is either wanting or worthless. 

The Pierre at the west and southwest is, for the most part, a 
mass of sandstone and sandy shale; toward the east, it becomes 
shale at top and bottom, while Middle Pierre or Mesaverde persists 
as a wedge of sandstone and shale thinning eastwardly until it be- 
comes replaced wholly with fine shales and irregular limestones. 
This wedge thins away unbroken in Colorado and New Mexico but 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 139 

in Montana it is divided by shales into subordinate wedges, and 
these "fingers" disappear toward the east, giving place to marine 
shales. Coal seams are confined to the areas of sandstone and 
shale, there being none in the fine-grained marine shales, which 
extend from the longitude of central Colorado to the eastern border 
of the Cretaceous, except in the sandy strip along the southern 
border in New Mexico. In the sandstone wedges, land and marine 
conditions alternated, the former continuing for long periods at 
many localities, long enough to permit accumulation of thick coal 
seams. At the same time, the distribution of coal is indefinite. 
In the southern basin within New Mexico, the coal seams are im- 
portant locally, but they are irregular and there are broad spaces, 
which are altogether barren. The story is similar in the Uinta 
Basin; coal seams are very numerous in the Mesaverde, but they are 
not persistent ; portions of the column showing workable seams in one 
district are apparently without trace of coal in others. The fea- 
tures are the same in the Green River Basin ; an extensive coal field 
in Sweetwater County of Wyoming has many lenses yielding coal 
of excellent quality, but at the same horizons in other counties there 
is either no coal or the seams are mere streaks. Farther east, the 
sandstones thin away and all traces of coal disappear. Elsewhere 
in Wyoming the distribution of coal is certainly capricious; here 
and there one finds a seam thick enough td be digged for local 
supply, but such exposures are separated by intervals of many 
miles. In Montana, coal occurs only in scattered spots, while the 
intervening spaces seem to be barren. Seams of workable coal are 
more numerous in Alberta and the lenses are larger; conditions 
favorable to coal acciunulation existed in a large area. But there, 
as in the United States, the sandy coal-bearing formation thinned 
away toward the east and was replaced with shale, in which no coal 
is known. 

The sandy deposits, containing Benton coals, reach only to the 
109th meridian, aside from an isolated deposit in Colorado near the 
io8th. The most westerly localities at which coal has been found 
are in southwestern Utah, where the conditions are not in accord 
with the assertion that coal is present only in association with pre- 
vailingly coarse materials. In those fragmentary fields, the rocks 



140 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

are, in very large part, clays, clay shales and limestones, the last 
serving occasionally as roof or floor to coal seams. The area must 
have embraced not less than 2,000 square miles and its surface must 
have been a broad mud flat during formation of the coal seams. It 
was little above the sea-level. At 50 miles farther east, the condi- 
tions are wholly different, for there the coals are associated with 
sandy deposits, as they are farther north. The relations appear to 
give support to Gilbert's suggestion, offered more than 40 years ago, 
that the Wasatch Mountains were the source whence the sediments 
were derived. In that case, the conditions would be normal, for 
the sluggish streams, carrying only fine materials, would build up 
merely a mud flood plain, such as one sees at localities along the 
Atlantic coast, on which peat deposits are accumulating. The de- 
posits are largely sandstone in northeastern Arizona, where they 
contain 3 coal seams near the base. Benton rocks in the southern 
part of the San Juan Basin have about 66 per cent, of sandstone 
and have 3 coal seams ; but the sandstone decreases northwardly and 
the coal disappears. The condition is similar in the northern or 
main portion of the basin. 

The Perron sandstone of Castle Valley, Utah, at eastern base of 
the Wasatch Mountains, contains many and irregular coal seams, of 
which some are locally important; but these are confined to the 
southern part of the valley, where the sandstone is several hundred 
feet thick ; no trace of them remains in the northern portion, where 
the sandstone has become thin. The Frontier sandstone contains 
several seams, yielding excellent coal, in Uinta County of Wyo- 
ming, but farther east the sandstone becomes thin and the coal disap- 
pears. The Bear River formation, of fresh-water origin, has nu- 
merous coal seams but it thins away rapidly toward the east. 

The Kootenai has no coal in the southern portions, the first ap- 
pearance being in the Black Hills region of northeastern Wyoming; 
there and in the Bighorn Basin of the same state the rocks are 
chiefly sandstone and contain patches of coal, which are sources 
for local supply ; but they are far apart in Wyoming as well as in 
Montana, there being coal in only an insignificant part of the ex- 
posed area. In Alberta and the adjacent portion of British Colum- 
bia, the individual seams cover greater areas than in any part of the 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 141 

United States and the quantity of coal in some fields is enormous, 
there being 198 feet in the Alberta section of the Crowsnest field. 
But the formation thins eastwardly and it has not been recognized 
in Manitoba. 

The distribution of coal in the several formations of the Cretace- 
ous is wholly similar to that of peat deposits on coastal plains. 

2. Structure and Other Characteristics of the Accompanying 
Rocks, — ^Information respecting these topics is lacking for many 
districts but details given by observers in many others are all in ac- 
cord and are sufficient. 

The Wealden sandstones of England contain driftwood and 
often have rippled surfaces ; the shales have sun cracks, while lime- 
stone slabs, in many cases, are rippled and are marked by trails. 
Stems of trees, replaced with silica or oxide of iron, abound in the 
rocks between coal seams. Grains of coal are in Wealden sand- 
stones of Westphalia. The Upper Cretaceous of Borneo and 
Queensland has grains of coal in the sandstones. In Queensland, 
Sim cracks, worm burrows and trails are notable features of the 
sandstones, which are cross-bedded at many places. Fragments of 
tree stems, usually silicified, characterize the sandstones of Queens- 
land, New Zealand and Greenland. 

Many observers report that the Laramie deposits in Colorado 
and Wyoming are extremely irregular, sandstones and shales being 
lenses. In Montana, the sandstones assigned to this formation are 
often cross-bedded, rippled and contain fossil wood. The Fox Hills 
sandstones are much cross-bedded in parts of Colorado and Mon- 
tana. Fossil wood is reported from one locality in southern Colo- 
rado, where cross-bedding is not uncommon. 

The Pierre sandstones show cross-bedded layers in the Cerillos 
field, where some of the beds are locally conglomeratic. Cross- 
bedded and rippled sandstones are in the southwestern part of the 
San Juan Basin, and petrified stumps and logs abound at at least 
one locality on the eastern border of the basin. In the* Grand Mesa 
portion of the Uinta Basin, the sandstones and shales are so irreg- 
ular in distribution that many times sections, separated by only a 
short interval, are unlike ; cross^bedding in sandstones was observed 
frequently. Within Montana, the sandstones of Electric and Liv- 



142 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

ingston fields are much cross-bedded, while 'm Qeveland and Big 
Sandy fields, rippled surfaces were observed and the shales atid 
sandstones are in rude lenses. So also in the Milk River field 
where all deposits are lens-like and the sandstones are cross-bedded. 
In Teton County, the Two-Medicine formation is characterized by 
great irregularity of the deposits and fossil wood abounds ; the Vir- 
gelle (Lower Eagle) sandstone is coarse and cross-bedded. The 
conditions in Alberta are similar ; the Belly River sandstones have 
been described as cross-bedded, rippled and marked by trails ; the 
same features were observed farther north on Pine River. 

The Benton in New Mexico, has, near the base, the Tres Her- 
manos sandstone, cross-bedded, rippled and locally conglomeratic, 
which persists to the northeastern corner of the San Juan Basin. 
Similar features are recorded in the southwestern part of that basin 
as well as from localities in the Uinta Basin. The Dakota is usually 

« 

more or less cross-bedded and holds local conglomerates. The 
Kootenai of New Mexico is cross-bedded and locally conglomeratic ; 
it is rippled,, cross-bedded, locally conglomeratic in the Black Hills, 
where petrified wood, chiefly cycads, is abundant. The conditions 
are similar in Montana, while in Alberta the same features were 
observed at many localities. 

These features, characterizing the rocks of the several forma- 
tions, indicate deposition in, at most, shallow water, as well as sub- 
sequent exposure to subaerial conditions. The rippling and cross- 
bedding were due to water movements in probably most cases, but 
it is possible that there has been too great readiness to accept this 
mode of origin as almost universally applicable. The writer has 
observed the ripple marks in rocks of several formations and has 
compared them with wind ripples seen by him in the sandy areas in 
the western states and in Russia and Prussia, as well as on broad 
river benches. The resemblance to fossil ripples, seen in many beds, 
is so great that the mode of origin must be the same for both. It 
may be also that some of the "cross-bedding" was due to wind 
action. The complex structure shown in many diagrams is precisely 
that of the aeolian limestone of Bermuda and observable more or 
less distinctly in many dunes ; the " current bedding " is clearly due 
to stream action. The presence of tree stumps and logs is evidence 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 143 

of shallow water and suggests the action of floods, which dropped 
their load on the broad surface, which was exposed during the in- 
tervals between floods. 

3. The Form of Coal Deposits. — Cretaceous coal seams are 
lenses. No statement to this effect occurs in any of the older works, 
as nearly all students, prior to less than 25 years ago, held in a some- 
what hazy way, that coal seams are continuous deposits. Compari- 
son of sections in all fields proves that this conception was errone- 
ous. The Wealden coals of Hannover are local, present in one sec- 
tion, absent in others, and in all cases they have small areal extent. 
There is a rather persistent coal horizon at the base, which seems to 
be made up of overlapping lenses. The Lower Quader has only 
nests of coal, which occasionally become workable; the Hungarian 
coals are well-defined lenses as are those of Queensland; and the 
detailed studies in New Zealand have proved lens form in the great 
seams. 

The condition in North America is so marked that it has been 
noted by the great majority of observers during later years. Occa- 
sionally, a seam has an area so extensive that the describer is un- 
willing to commit himself as to the form. But it must be remem- 
bered that, even though the lenses have an area of hundreds or thou- 
sands of square miles, the general features are the same with those 
of smaller lenses, united by transgression to form the large one. 

The Laramie coals are in lenses, usually small and thin within 
the United States; the great bed of the Saskatchewan in Alberta 
becomes only a thin deposit of carbonaceous shale in its southern 
extension. The Fox Hills seams are lenses, usually thin or impure, 
but locally important and workable in considerable areas. This 
feature is noteworthy in all districts along the eastern base of the 
Front Ranges in New Mexico, as well as the southern tier of coun- 
ties of Wyoming. The Middle Pierre (Mesaverde) is probably the 
most productive formation with usually one or more workable 
seams ; but its seams are like those of the newer formations. They 
are variable and uncertain in New Mexico ; in the Uinta Basin, west 
from Grand River, portions of the section, containing workable 
coals in one district, are wholly barren in others; east from that 
river the coals are local, important here, unimportant or absent else- 



144 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

where; the Mesaverde coals of Green River Basin attain commer- 
cial importance in only one county; in Montana the lenses arc 
usually small and thin ; in Alberta, the coals are present in a great 
area, and often workable, but kvailable details merely suggest, they 
do not prove that the seams are lenses. 

Benton coals are present in only a small part of the Cretaceous 
area, but, wherever they have been studied^ the lens form is charac- 
teristic. In southwestern Utah, in Castle Valley of that state, in 
Gunnison Valley of Colorado and in Uinta County of Wyoming, 
they are distinctly lenticular. The Dakota coals are merely insig- 
nificant lenses. The Kootenai is without coal south from northern 
Wyoming. There, within the Black Hills districts, coal lenses of 
typical form are present but they are all small, nowhere embracing 
more than a score of square miles. An occasional lens has been 
found in the Bighorn Basin. The lenses are few and unimportant 
in southwestern Montana ; they become ntunerous and some attain 
workable' thickness in Lewistown and Great Falls fields; but in 
Teton County, on the northern border, there are only insignificant 
nests. In Alberta, on the contrary, as well as in the adjacent part 
of British Columbia, the seams are numerous and the quantity pf 
coal is enormous. Comparison of sections leaves no room for doubt 
respecting the lenticular form of the seams. 

The lenses ordinarily show increase of foreign matters toward 
the borders, the coal is broken by fine partings and very often it be- 
comes at last merely carbonaceous shale with laminae of coal. Some- 
times the lenses are connected by a stretch of black shale, but com- 
monly no such bond exists and a barren space intervenes. These 
lenses, great and small, are similar to peat deposits on broad river 
plains and even more strikingly to those on coastal plains ; at times, 
these are separated by broad spaces, forested; at others they are 
tmited by carbonaceous muds, while at still others, the peat of sev- 
eral lenses has become continuous by transgression. 

4. Contemporaneous Erosion. — ^The effects of contemporaneous 
erosion are conspicuous. The curious intermingling of coal and 
debris, observed at one locality in the Loewenberg area of Silesia, 
seems to be explicable only by the supposition that it represents a 
washed out swamp. The presence of coal grains in sandstone may 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 145 

signify that a coal seam in process of formation was exposed. Local 
conglomerates in many sandstones occupy the channelways of rapid 
streams ; local unconformities between sandstone and shale suggest 
changes in direction of drainage. The coal seams themselves ap- 
pear to have been subjected to subaerial erosion and to have been 
traversed by streams as in modern swamps. "Horsebacks" or 
"rolls" of the roof have been found wherever extensive mining 
operations have been carried on. They mark channel ways of 
varying width and depth, now filled with material like that of an 
overlying deposit; sometimes the material is the same with that 
forming the immediate roof, in which case the stream was probably 
contemporaneous with the bog; but not infrequently the channel- 
way was excavated after the roof had been deposited. The condi- 
tions are commonplaces in modern deposits. 

5. Soils of Vegeta4ion, — Reports on areas of Cretaceous coal m 
North America give few instances where soils of vegetation have 
been observed in the rocks between coal seams. One must not for- 
get, in this connection, that, generally speaking, observers have been 
compelled to depend on natural exposures, which are imperfect, and 
that the work has been done at cost of much personal discomfort. 
But the few illustrations available show that the condition is less 
rare than the record shows. A dense growth of Sphenopteris, in 
place, has been reported from the Wealden of England and a similar 
growth of Equiseium from that of Hannover. A grove of large 
trees exists in the Upper Cretaceous of Queensland, clearly in place 
of growth, where they were buried by drifting sand; an ancient 
soil in New Zealand contains roots in place. The Upper Cretaceous 
of Greenland has bands with ferns, conifers, dicotyledons, erect 
stumps and silicified wood. An old soil was seen on Pine River 
of Alberta in the Lower Kootenai, which contains erect stems, evi- 
dently in the place of growth. 

6. The Roof of Coal Beds, — Coal seams may have shale, clay, 
sandstone ^or limestone as the roof. In parts of some mines one 
finds shale as roof in one part, but sandstone in others ; the varia- 
tion being due/ apparently, to local removal of the shale during or 
prior to deposition of the sandstone. It may be marine limestone or 
a detrital deposit containing marine fossils. Occasionally, a parting 



146 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

of marine limestone serves as roof to one bench and as floor to the 
other. These limestones are thin but they are proof of submerg- 
ence, due perhaps to change in course of drainage or to the breaking 
away of a barrier, which protected the swamp from sea-invasion, a 
by no means rare phenomenon on the New England coast. The 
roof is apt to be irregular. 

7. The Coal Seams, — ^Where succession is undisturbed and depo- 
sition appears to have been continuous, the roof material ordinarily 
becomes more, and more carbonaceous at the base and passes gradu- 
ally into bone or into impure coal, with normal structure, a faux- 
toit. But the transition is abrupt in many cases where no evidence 
of disturbance by erosion is apparent; a condition which leads to 
the suggestion that a suddenly increased influx of mud or fine sand 
ended the bog's existence. In such cases the contact between coal 
and roof is irregular, defining the bog surface. 

Accumulation of vegetable material was rarely continuous during 
long periods, though there are seams several feet thick, which are 
said to be unbroken by partings of any sort. Commonly, however, 
coal seams are divided into benches by partings of mineral charcoal, 
clay, sand or limestone, which indicate longer or shorter periods of 
interruption. In many cases, this interruption was not complete and 
the parting consists of bone or bony coal, at times closely resembling 
cannel; but when the parting consists of inorganic matter, it is 
proof of at least local cessation. The thickness of partings usually 
varies within narrow limits, but in some cases it is so great as to 
attract the attention of even a casual observer. Czjzek notes the 
thinning away of a considerable interval and the consequent union 
of two important seams, with increased thickness of coal. In the 
Denver Basin, one parting increases from a mere film to 25 feet 
within a few miles ; the partings in the Carbonero seam of the San 
Juan Basin thicken in one direction, so that the great bed, 100 feet 
thick, becomes three, with thicknesses of 7, 30 and 15 feet respec- 
tively, in a vertical space of 200 feet. Taff describes a parting, which 
increases from zero to 16 feet within 2,000 feet, the exposures being 
complete in one mine. The Trinidad seam, 11 feet thick near 
Trinidad, Colorado, becomes 58 feet within 3 miles by thickening 
of the partings. Lee has given details making almost certain that 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 147 

7 coal seams, wholly distinct and separated by thick intervals, unite 
within 4 miles into one, 42 feet thick. Partings contain fossils; 
in southwestern Utah, Lee saw a limestone parting with brackish- 
water forms; at another locality a seam with marine limestone as 
roof and floor has a parting with fresh-water fossils. Clay partings 
frequently have remains of plants. 

Benches of coal beds seams often differ so much as to make cer- 
tain that conditions were not the same during the several periods of 
accumulation. One bench may yield caking, and another may con- 
sist of non-caking coal; in one, the ash may be unimportant while 
another may be so dirty as to be worthless ; one may thin away to 
disappearance while others overlap it. Details respecting the 
benches are g^ven only for districts where mining operations are 
on large scale, but enough is known to justify the old method of 
regarding benches as separate coal seams. 

In a general way, Cretaceous coals vary from massive to lami- 
nated, the latter with alternating bright and dull laminae — and these 
types are found throughout the whole section. Ordinarily, woody 
structure is not apparent to the naked eye, but it is distinct in many 
places. The Upper Cretaceous coal of Silesia is xyloid ; a seam of 
Moorkohle is near Mahrens-Trubau ; the coal of the Boulder District 
is almost as xyloid as the Eocene coals of the Dakotas ; it contains 

» 

logs, carbonized, jetified or silicified. Most of the Wealden coal in 
Hannover is black and apparently without woody structure, but in 
the same section with the black coal one finds lignitic brown coal and 
even Blatterkohle, the latter being an accumulation of leaves and not 
related to the Blatterkohle of the lower Rhine region. 

Few notes are available respecting microscopic structure of Cre- 
taceous coals. V. Gumbel^**^ studied only jet from Raschwitz in 
Silesia and coal from the Wealden of Hannover. Woody structure 
is well-preserved in the former; the latter contains numerous 
remains of leaves with clumps of wood cells and bark parenchyma, 
all easily recognized. Thiessen^** examined coal from the Denver 
Basin, probably Fox Hills. So close is the resemblance to that 

"» C. W. V. Giimbel, Sitzb. bay, Akad, Wiss,, 1883, Math.-Phys. KI. L, 
pp. 157, 160. 

i*« R. Thiessen, " The Origin of Coal," pp. 241-245. 



148 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

from the Eocene of Montana and Dakota that he believes the general 
conditions during accumulation were similar. Woody parts are 
more compressed in the older coal, but the canals of wood fibers are 
well shown and appear to be filled with resin. Resins form a large 
part of the mass, while spores and pollen exines compose not more 
than 5 to lo per cent. ; the ** fundamental matrix " or binding ma- 
terial is derived, as in lignite, from cellulosic substances ; all grada- 
tions are present from fibers to a homogeneous mass. The fibers 
are mostly xylum elements of plants, but whether of trees, shrubs or 
herbs is not always determinable. 

8. The Floor of Coal Seams, — ^The floor may be clay, sandy or 
clayey shale, sandstone or limestone. Occasionally the transition 
from coal to floor seems to be abrupt, but in most cases there is a 
faux-mur. Even where this seems to be wanting, the basal part of 
the coal is, in most cases, higher in ash than that above ; frequently 
the faux-mur is bone and occasionally it resembles the " coarse coal " 
of the Carboniferous. Limestone floors have been reported only 
from southwestern Utah, where they contain marine fossils. Bulg- 
ing floors have been reported from many localities. They are due 
in some instances to irregularity of the surface on which the coal 
accumulated; in the Boulder District, petty swales were numerous, 
in which accumulation began and afterward crossed the low divides — 
after the manner so familiar in recent peat deposits. But " rolls *' 
in the floor often mark the courses of streams crossing the swamp 
in its earlier stages. 

American reports contain few references to the presence of roots 
in the floor ; two notes have been g^ven for the Trinidad-Raton area 
and D. White recognized characteristic underclays with roots in the 
Boulder District. But the scantiness of references in detailed 
reports indicates merely that the reporter did not look for the roots ; 
Lesquereux,^*^ long ago, asserted that most of the underclays are 
full of roots or rootlets. He visited exposures in the Raton Moun- 
tains, Canyon City, Golden, Marshall in Colorado and Black Buttes 
in Wyoming ; at most localities, he found the shale containing such 
abundance of roots that these seemed to be a compact mass. 

i*TL. Lesquereux, "On Formation of the Lignite Beds of the Rocky 
Mountains/' Amer. Joum. Set., Vol. VII., 1874, p. 30. 



STEVENSON—INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. U9 

The presence of roots in the floor is apparently the ordinary 
condition in much of Europe. Rzehak^*® says that the Wealden 
coals of Hannover are distinctly autochthonous, there being root- 
stocks in most of the tmderclays. Grand' Eury^*® states that he 
had found roots in the floor of Cretaceous coal at many places. At 
la Liguisse and les Gardies in the Gausses there are many roots in 
place under the seam mined there. The Middle Cretaceous at St. 
Paulet shows roots in the marly mur of some coal seams ; these he 
says are in place for some of them cross leaves of dicotyledons lying 
flat in the rock. In his later paper, he reports that, at Sarladais, 
roots in the mur give rise to stems. Similar conditions were seen 
in the Upper Cretaceous at Valdonne. 

9. The Fauna. — Fresh-water forms predominate in the Laramie, 
the Judith River, the Bear River and occur occasionally in other 
formations ; but for the most part the Cretaceous fauna is marine. 
Discussion of the faunas as such has no place here, but reference 
to some features is necessary. 

The Lower Colorado f aima is characteristic throughout the whole 
r^on from western Utah to the eastern border ; it is present in the 
limestone roof and floor of coal seams as well as in the occompany- 
ing shales and in the coal-bearing sandstones of Utah. The Pierre 
fauna abounds in the fine shales and occasional limestones, but it 
abounds equally in the Middle Pierre (Mesaverde) sandstones of 
New Mexico, where it is found in profusion at several horizons. 
The fauna is practically the same, be the rock sandstone or shale. 
The depth of water in western Utah was not great, for coal beds arc 
numerous, one of them having a parting with fresh-water moUusks, 
though the roof and floor are marine limestone. The character of 
the rock and the numerous coal seams make the condition equally 
clear for the Mesaverde of New Mexico. The marine faunas give 
no support to the opinion that deep-sea conditions existed anywhere, 
but they make probable that the body of water, covering at times 
the greatest part of the Cretaceous area, was a very shallow sea. 
Fineness of sediments, in general, may be taken as indicating dis- 
tance from the source of supply. 

*♦• A. Rzehak, Zeitsck, f. pr, Geologie, Vol. XXIL, 1914, p. 8. 
"•C. Grand' Eury, Autun, 1902, p. 127; C. R„ t CXXXVIII., 1904. 
669, 741. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC. VOL. LVI, K, MAY 29, IQI?. 



150 STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 

10. The Flora, — ^The Cretaceous coals are usually so far ad- 
vanced in conversion as to g^ve little information respecting the 
plants by which they were formed. Knowledge of the flora of the 
period is derived from fragmentary material found in the rocks; 
that has been transported, it represents mostly the upland vegeta- 
tion and tells nothing about the swamp plants. In the United States 
and Canada, the coals are often rich in resins, indicating that coni- 
fers entered largely into their composition ; such wood as has been 
recognized seems to confirm this conclusion. Cycads were abundant 
locally during the Kootenai but conifers and dicotyledons were pre- 
dominant during the Upper Cretaceous, when ferns and lycopods 
appear to have been subordinate. Memoirs on European coals, 
consulted by the writer, usually contain little information upon the 
subject. Wood, fully recognizable, is present in the Upper Cre- 
taceous coal of the Loewenberg region, but in the Griinbach coal, no 
structure is shown, though the stems and branches retain their form. 
The Wealden of Hannover contains abundance of conifers, cycads, 
lycopods and ferns ; the plant remains in coal must be distinct there. 
Dunker thinks that the " black coal " of that region was derived from 
lycopods and ferns, because they are the only forms found in it ; the 
lignitic brown coal is largely of conifer origin, as the stems occur- 
ring in it resemble Pinus. 

11. Chemical Relations. — Discussion of the chemical relations 
of Cretaceous coals must be deferred until the older coals have been 
studied ; but it may be well to call attention to some matters. 

Like the Tertiary coals and some peats, these coals are resinous 
in many districts. Cannel is present at several horizons, with all 
features which mark the sapropels or Lebcrtorf s of later times. The 
carbon content is higher than that of Tertiary coals, but progressive 
enrichment with increasing age is less marked. In the Fox Hills 
the extremes of carbon are 73 and 84; in the Pierre, 71 and 84; in 
the Benton, yy and 83, and in the Kootenai, 75 and 85. No note 
has been taken here of metamorphosed coals ; anthracite is present 
at several horizons. No ultimate analyses of the Laramie coal arc 
available and there are very few of the Kootenai. The variations 
are small compared with those in the Tertiary. In the Cretaceous 
as in the Tertiary, not all accumulations of vegetable materials had 



STEVENSON— INTERRELATIONS OF FOSSIL FUELS. 151 

attained the same degree of enrichment before burial; the minimum 
of the Pierre rarely falls below 75, but there are seams with only 
71 or 72. The condition is well marked in Hannover, where the 
" black coal " has 89 per cent, of carbon, the brown coal, 73, while the 
Blatterkohle is almost imchanged — the several types occurring in 
the same vertical section. 



THE NAMES TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 



By J. DYNELEY PRINCE. 
(Read April 14, 1917.) 



The famous old Russian epic " The Tale of the Armament of Igor *' 
(1185 A. D.), relating in striking form the exploits of the hosts of the 
ancient Russian Prince Igor Svyatoslavic, has been ably edited and 
translated by Leonard A. Magnus, LL.B. (Oxford University Press, 
1915). The majority of the allusions in this poem are more or less 
clear historically, but the obscure references to Troyan and Boyan 
have been a matter of scientific discussion for over a century. The 
following brief exposition of this question may perhaps throw 
some additional light on the problem. 

There are four references in the Igor-text to Troyan (cited by 
Magnus, p. xlix) : 

I. In the invocation to Boyan (lines 59 if.), stating how Boyan 
might have sung on the subject treated by the author of the 
Igor epic : 

O BSyane soloviju starogo vremeni^ O Boyan, nightingale of ancient times, 

aby ty sia polki tddekotal 

skaca slaviyu po myslenu drevu 

letaya umom pod oblaki 

svivaya slavy oba 

poly sego vremeni 

rUca V tropu Troyanyu 

cres pola nd gory 



had'st thou but warbled these hosts, 
leaping, O nightingale, through the 

tree of thought, 
flying in mind beneath the clouds, 
interweaving the glories of both 
halves of this time, 
rushing on the path of Troyan 
through the plains to the hills 1 



2. A reference to past events in connection with Troyan, lines 
209 if.: 



Byli veci (or sect) TrSyani 
minula letd Yardslavlya 
byli polci 01' govy 



There have been the ages (or bat- 
tles) of Troyan; 
past are the years of Yaroslav; 
there have been the armies of Oleg. 

iThe system of transliteration herein adopted is based on the Croatian 
method, save that the Old Russian hard sign is indicated by •, and the soft 
sign by '. 

152 



PRINCE— TROYAN AND. BOY AN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 153 

3. Reference to the land of Troyan, lines 288 ff. : 

V*2stala obida Arose scandal 

V silach Daa"boga vnuka in the forces of Dazbog*s offspring ; 

vstupila devoyu stepped like a maiden 

na simlyu Trdyanyu on the land of Troyan. 

4. Allusion to the period of Troyan, lines 569 if. : 

Na sed'mdm vice Trdyani In the seventh age of Troyan, 

vr^se Vsesldv zrebti Vseslav cast lot 

devicyu sehi lyubu for a maiden dear to him. 

It seems clear from the above four allusions that "Troyan" 
was used as the name of a country, thus: (i) the path of T..=the 
historical course of T.; (2 — 4) the "ages," probably not "battles" 
of T. ; (3) land of T. ; which settles the geographical sense. It is 
impossible to imagine that Troyan was a person from the above 
allusions.* 

That the author of the Igor-Slovo* meant his own country 
"Russia" by "Troyan" seems quite evident, and this view has 
been advanced by many authorities, among them Magnus himself 
(op. cit., p. xlix), who notes, in connection with allusion No. 4 (see 
above), that there were just seven generations between the Scan- 
dinavian Rurik (Hrorekr), the founder of the first Russian dy- 
nasty, and the prince Vseslav herein mentioned. Such a deduc- 
tion IS comparatively easy, so far as the historical application of 
the term " Troyan " is concerned, but the problem as to the actual 
meaning of the term, apart from its application in the Slovo, is much 
more involved. Magnus (op. cit., pp. 1-liii) cites five of the most 
generally held views, viz., (i) Troyan indicates some district out- 
side of Russia; a view held only by few scholars; (2) Weltmann's 
opinion that "Troyan" should be read Krayan "borderland;" 
(3) " Troyan " is derived from the Roman emperor's name Trajan ; 

2 The idea that Troyan was a divine person seems to have prevailed only 
in some of the later Slavonic m3rths (Louis Leger, " M3rthologfie Slave," p. 
125), but this is probably an association with the Emperor Trajan, and not 
with the evidently geographical Troyan of the Slovo. 

*Thc full title is: Slovo pHku Igorevi, Igorya SvyaMavlica vnuka, 
"Narrative of the Expedition of Igor, of Igor son of Svyatoslav," grandson 
of Oleg. 



154 PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 

(4) Troyan=> Trojan, embodying the Russian tradition of Homer; 
and (5) Troyan was the transferred name of an ancient Slavonic 
pagan deity.* 

Discussing these theories briefly, it sfhould be noted that there is 
no evidence that the Troyan of our Slovo was other than a poetical 
name for Russia in its application by the poet. The fact that there 
is to-day a place called Troyan in Bulgaria and a Troyan near 
Smolensk, etc., is no proof that these localities are named from the 
same stem as the Troyan of the Slovo, which distinctly includes all 
the Russia of that day. Furthermore, the change of text, sug- 
gested by Weltmann, may be summarily dismissed as being too arbi- 
trary (thus, also Magnus, p. 1). 

It is highly likely that we have in the name "Troyan" a mix- 
ture of philological traditions, i. e,, that it is a combination-reproduc- 
tion of the Roman "Trajan" and the Greek "Trojan," both which 
opinions are indicated above. In this supposed compound tradi- 
tion, the Greek element must be regarded as predominating. Mag- 
nus cites (p. 1, from Sederholm) a bylina* of the reign of Cath- 
erine II., in which there is a direct allusion to the road of the em- 
peror Trajan (na dordge na TraydnovoV) , containing the a vowel 
(cf. also Magnus, loc. cit. on the miracle of Pope Clement), but the 
forms Troyan tsar" Yermalanskti (=rimlyanskn "Roman") occur 
in south Russian documents, and, moreover, there are other evi- 
dences of the Trajan tradition in northern and eastern Slavonic 
lore. This fact, in itself, is not sufficient, however, to account for 
the evident use of "Troyan," to indicate ancient Russia. Magnus 
holds (p. 1) that "Troyan" is derived from the numeral three 
(trdye), referring to the three Scandinavian brothers Rurik, Sineus 
and Truvor,*^ who founded Russia (Nestor 6370). Such an idea 
seems rather far-fetched, as Troyan is often used as a nickname for 
the third son, similarly to Latin Tertius, Decimus, etc. But there is 

< The term hylina indicates the Russian folk-tale, of which thousands arc 
still in existence, usually in rude meter. These productions are nearly always 
intoned in chant-form (Rimsky-Korsakov, " Chants Nationaux Russes," Part 
I, 1876). 

^ The names Rurik and Truvor are Slavonianisms, respectively, from Old 
Norse Hrorekr and Thorvardr (guardian of the gate). Many Old Russian 
names are pure Scandinavian (cf. Magnus, p. viii). 



PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOVAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 155 

no historical evidence that Rurik was the third brother of the triad. 
In fact, in the legend, he always occupies the first place.' 

It is much more probable that we have in the " Troyan " of the 
Slovo no distinctive Slavonic legend at all, but rather, as already in- 
dicated, the mixed tradition of the Roman " Trajan " and the Hel- 
lenic Homer. To this Magnus objects that the "landlocked state 
of mediaeval Russia " could hardly have imported very much of this 
(Greek) tradition, as the road to Constantinople was blocked by 
Polovtsi and Bulgars, and the Catholic powers of the northwest 
were all hostile. Magnus forgets, however, that the inherent tradi- 
tion of the early Russian church was essentially Greek. Early 
metropolitans of Kiev, down to the period of the Mongol invasion, 
were usually Greeks who had been consecrated at Constantinople. 
The first important Russian metropolitan, who established the es- 
sentially Russian character of the church and nations, was St. Peter 
(1308-1328) of Vladimir. It is highly interesting in this connec- 
tion to note that, in the first half of the twelfth century, a Russian 
writer excused himself before his sovereign for not having studied 
Homer, when he was young! The Chronicler of Volhynia (1232) 
cites a verse attributed to Homer, which has not been retained in 
our current version. Literate Russians of this period were evi- 
dently familiar with the tale of the Trojan war through the works of 
Tryphiodore, Kolouthos, etc. (Rambaud, "La Russie fipique," p. 
408). 

It is well known from Russian records that the father of Mono- 
makh, Vsevolod, who had never been in foreign lands, knew no less 
than five languages. In the Slovo itself (lines 353-4) we read: tu 
greet i mordva poyut slavu Svyatdslawlyu "here the Greeks and 
Moravians sing the glory of Svyatoslav," showing that the author 
knew something about the Greeks. 

In connection with the work of the Columbia University Slavonic 
Department, Dr. Clarence A. Manning has collected a number of 
possible Homeric and other Greek parallels with the Slovo, which 
show a very decided Hellenic influence on the formation of this poem ; 

• Note that in the year 862, Rurik as leader of the Variags (Varangians) 
was invited to defend the northern Russian princes. 



156 PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 

they are incorporated herewith together with Dr. Manning's com- 
ments, as throwing an interesting light on the problem. 

Slovo, II : "as a gray wolf " = II., x, 334: xoXt^s X6icos. Slovo 
12: "as a dusky eagle" = 11., xxi, 252: aUTov-nkkavos. 

Manning compares also the passage already cited above of the 
invocation of the pofet Boyan, with Euripides, Helena, 1107 flF. : 
" thee who hast a tuneful seat in the leafy halls, thee I invoke, thee, 
most musical bird, mournful nightingale, come, O associate of my 
laments, trilling through thy tawny throat," etc. The resemblance 
between this passage and the Igor-lines is very striking, although, 
as Manning points out, it is doubtful whether Euripides was actually 
invoking Homer. 

Slovo, 74: "offspring of Veles" (the ancient Slavonic cattle 
god) ; Theocritus, xxiv, 105, states that Linus, a mythical poet, was 
the son of Apollo. Slovo, 84: "swift horses" = 11., viii, 88; eoal 

Slovo, 175: "the winds, scions of Stribog " = Odyss., x, i ff. : 
" the winds, the sons of iEolus." 

Slovo, 186-189: "the mad children blocked the fields with their 
shouting, but the brave Russians barred them with their crimsoned 
shields." With this, cf. Slovo, 435: "for these without shields 
with hunting-knives conquer the hosts by their shouting," and con- 
trast II., iii, 2-9: "The Trojans went with a shout and cry like 
birds, like the cry of cranes against the sky." 

Slovo, 224: "To the Judgment Seat" (na sud) ; probably of 
Christian origin. 

Slovo, 238: " (Russia) the scion of Dazbog"^ seems to point to 
the !^ussians being a chosen people; an idea probably of Biblical 
origin, through the Biblical Greek. 

Slovo, 374: "in my golden-roofed hall;" clearly a translation 
of the Byzantine xPV<^OKkpafxoS' 

Slovo, 479 : " On thy gold forged throne ; " cf . Euripides, Phoen., 
220: xpvo'^T'cu/cros. 

^ Dazbog, the rain or storm god, was probably die Russian equivalent of 
the Scandinavian Thor, who was the patron of the warlike Scandinavian 
founders of Russia (see above, note 5). 

8 The meaning of these lines is very obscure. 



PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 157 

Slovo, 546-548: "the birds, O Prince, have been covering thy 
host with their wings and the wild beasts have been licking at their 
blood ; " cf . IL, I., 4-5 : " they made them a spoil for the dogs, a 
feast for the birds of prey." 

In the Greek legend, Achilles was early associated with the 
Euxine and especially with the island of Leuke at the mouth of the 
Danube. Here he lived after death with Helen as his consort, 
along with other heroes. Leonymos of Croton was the first to sail 
thither to be cured of his wound by Ajax, and Helen told him to 
go to Stesichoros and say that she was angry at him for making 
her, in his poetry, elope with Paris (Pausanias, HI., 19, 11-13) ; cf. 
Eurip. Andr., 1260 ff. Further east at the mouth of the Borysthenes 
(Dniepr), there was another island sacred to Achilles (AxtXXiJtos 
8p6fios) mentioned by Herod, iv, 53; Strabo, vii, 307. Achilles 
also had a temple at Olbia (Dio. Chrys., xxxvi, 439 ff.). Further- 
more, in the Crimea, there was a temple in which Iphigenia, daugh- 
ter of Agamemnon, was placed by Artemis as priestess with the 
duty of sacrificing strangers (Her., iv, 103; Pausanias, I., 43, i). 
This may have been connected with the account of the Scythian 
snake goddess (Her., iv, 9). We should note also that the maiden 
was one of the most important deities in the Chersonese (Minus, 
Greeks and Scythians, p. 543). She is probably identical with the 
Devica, Slovo, 571. Helen is the symbol of discord also in the 
systems of St. Irenaeus and the Gnostics (Rambaud, op. cit., p. 413). 

There is every probability that Obida "discord" and Devica 
"the maiden" of the Slovo represent the legend of Helen, child 
of the swan. Such legends could easily have been carried in a 
Byzantine form to the Russians by the ecclesiastics, in spite of their 
" landlocked " state in this early period, for the church was already 
there, as amply demonstrated in the Slovo. The objection that 
some aspects of this legend may have been inherent among the 
Slavonic tribes on the north shore of the Black Sea, and that the 
Greeks themselves may have borrowed some of their material, does 
not carry much weight, as the Slovo indications are too markedly 
Hellenic to admit of such a view. 

The question remains to be solved, as to why the early Russians 



158 PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 



applied the term "Trojan " = "Troyan" to their own country and 
people. This use must have been suggested by the similarly sound- 
ing name Boyan, the legendary Slavonic poet, whose name appears 
only in the Igor-Slovo and there only six times (cf . Magnus, op. cit., 
xlvi). The allusions are as follows: 



(i) Line 6: 
po zamysleniyu Bdyanyu 

(2) Lines 8 ff. : 
Boyan ho vescii asce komu 



it 



according to the invention of 
Boyan." 



chotyase pesn* tvoriti, etc. 

Boyan, the seer, when for anyone 

he wished to make a song, etc. 



(3) Lines 59-^: See above under the allusions to Troyan (i), where 
Boyan is described as " rushing on the path of Troyan." 



(4) Line 74: 

Vescet Boyane VSlesov vnuce 

(5) Lines 6o'5-6ii : 
Totnu vescet (Boyane) 
i pervoe pripevku 
smysleny rece: 

ni pticyu ni guh'cyu^ 
ni pticyu ni gub'cyu^ 
suda Bosiya ne minuti 

(6) Lines 745-747: 
Rece Boyan i chody 
Svyat^slavy na Kogana: 
pesnoivor"c as starago vremeni 



O Wizard Boyan, scion of Veles! 



To him, O seer Boyan, 
the first refrain 

with thought thou didst speak: 
neither the crafty one, nor the ex- 
perienced, 
nor a bird, nor a minstrel (?) 
can escape God's judgment. 

Bo5^n has told of the raids 

of Svyatoslav against the Kogan: 

the songmaker am I of olden time. 



Magnus (pp. xlvi ff.) gives the chief opinions regarding Boyan; 
viz., ( I ) that Boyan is a common Bulgarian name, citing the quota- 
tion by Paucker of tales of a Tsarevich Boyan Simenovich. That 
our Boyan is connected with this legendary being is extremely un- 
likely, as there is no evidence that this Bulgarian Boyan was a 
noted poet. In fact, the Bulgarian name is probably an echo of our 
Boyan. (2) Boyan has been found in some of the later lists of 
pagan Slavonic deities. This use of Boyan is probably a mere 
deification of the poet mentioned in the Slovo. (3) Dubenski 
mentions a hymn of Boyan of Bus, in which the instructor of Boyan 
gives his name as a descendant of the Slovenes, the son of Zlogor, 



PRINCE— TROYAN AND BQYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 159 

the long-lived minstrel of ancient tales. This hymn, as Dubenski 
points out, is of untrustworthy character, but in my opinion it em- 
bodies the tradition of the poet Boyan of the Slovo. (4) Magnus 
follows Weltmann's view, that Boyan is a contraction of some such 
phrase as rece bo Yan " then Yan spake," referring to the Yan men- 
tioned by Nestor, as an aged man of ninety years, from whom the 
chronicler learned many legends. It is highly unlikely that so per- 
sistent a name as Boyan could be the result of such a contraction, 
as the nature of the particle bo was perfectly well known to chron- 
iclers and copyists and it is improbable that it could have appeared in 
a fortuitous contraction without the knowledge even of an unintelli- 
gent copyist or recorder. Magnus seeks to show that the Yan al- 
luded to by Nestor was born in the reign of Vladimir I. (1015 A. D.) 
and that he was a writer and took an active part in all the events of 
his day. In this way, he thinks, this Yan might well be described 
as " rushing on the path of Troyan " = " Russia." But surely no 
person, even in a life-time, no matter how long, could earn the 
right to be mentioned as covering the entire history of a nation. 
And yet this is how our Boyan of the Slovo is treated. Further- 
more, there is no evidence that this Yan, although he was a writer, 
was a bard of such distinction as our Boyan is claimed to be in the 
above allusions to him in the Slovo, whose writer evidently regards 
Boyan as the one great poet of the world. 

The most characteristic point about Boyan is the statement that 
he was a seer and, above all, a poet-singer, which naturally suggests 
the derivation of the name from bayat' " speak, relate " (from which 
we also have basn' fable). This is the opinion of Vyazemski and, 
I believe, the most reasonable theory in view of the apparent im- 
possibility of other derivations of the name. Boyan has been vari- 
ously derived from boiti=vesti box "fight; carry on a fight"; and 
boyat'sya " to fear," neither of which roots seem to agree with the 
character of Boyan. It is highly probable that the name Boyan 
was a term deliberately applied to the function of this legendary 
person rather than a proper name of arbitrary meaning which hap- 
pened to be the name of a poet. We may assume this to be the case, 
owing to the undoubted Hellenic influence seen in the Slovo and 



160 PRINCE— TROYAN AND BOYAN IN OLD RUSSIAN. 

discussed above under Troy an. The ancient Slavonic world 
abounded in singers similar to the Celtic bards and the Scandinavian 
skalds, and, granted a word Boyan-Bayan = " singer, poet, sayer," 
already existing in the popular language, the author of the Slovo 
probably introduced the Troyan-epithet, to indicate Russia by as- 
sonance with Boyan. Boyan was for the author of the Slovo the 
poet par excellence, who had given the ancient norm of Russian 
song, the traditions regarding whom are unknown to the modern 
world. It is highly likely, therefore, that Troyan — having in itself 

• 

a basis of "Trojan" with a possible superimposition of the later 
" Trajan " influence — was used for the country, of which the then 
known Boyan sang, i, e,, of Russia. Even if it be supposed that 
Boyan was Magnus's somewhat dubious Yan, the principle of asso- 
ciation remains the same ; viz., it was necessary to have behind the 
Slavonianized Hellenic influence of the S\p\Q poem some poet- 
name — and a name in assonance with Troyan would naturally 
suggest itself — so that, in a sense, our Boyan is really jin echo of 
Homer himself, although perhaps not consciously Homer in the 
mind of the author of the Slovo. Vyazemski held that Boyan was 
unequivocally Homer, but it is not necessary to imagine that the 
ancient author of the Slovo had so direct a tradition, in order to 
account for the divine Boyan, who is especially made the descendant 
of the essentially Slavonic Veles, the god of cattle. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 
Vol. LVI. 1917. No. 3. 

CONTENTS 



Symposium OD A5roD»ulics. 

I. Dynamical AspecU. By Arthur Gorikin Weusier 161 

.11. Physical Aspects, By George O, SqUIEb 168 

itt. MechsDical Aspects. By W. F. Durand 170 

IV. Aerology, Bjr Wii.i.rAsi R. Blair . 189 

V. Theory of an Aeroplane Encounteriag Gusli, IT. By Euwis Bidwei.l WiijiON 212 

VI. Engineering Aspects, By JEROME C. HuNSAKER 249 

VII. Remarks on the Compass in Aeraaaulks. By Lours A. Bauer 255 

Spectral Structure of the Fhospborf&ceDce of Certain Sulphides. By Edwaru I., NliHOli . 258 

A New Babylonian Account of the Creation of Man. By George A. Barton 275 

The South American Indian in his Relation (oGei^raphic Environment. By William Cur lis 



PHILADELPHIA 
THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 South Fifth Stbhet 



American Philosophical Society 

General Meeting— April 12-14, 1917 

The Annual General Meeting of The American Philo- 
sophical Society will be held on April 12th, 13th, and 
14th, 1917, beginning at 2 P. M. on Thursday, April 12th. 

Members are requested to send to the Secretaries, at 
as early a date as practicable and before March i, 191 7, 
the titles of papers which they intend to present so that 
they may be announced in the preliminary programme 
which will be issued immediately after that date and 
which will give in detail the arrangements for the Meet- 
ing. It is understood that papers offered are original con- 
tributions which have not been theretofore presented. 

The Publication Committee, under the rules of the 
Society, will arrange for the immediate publication of 
the papers presented in either the Proceedings or the 
Transactions, as may be designated. 

I. MINI^ HAYS 
ARTHUR W. GOODSPEED 
AMOS P. BROWN 
HARRY F. KELLER 

Secretaries 



Members who have not as yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor by so doing ; cabinet size preferred. 



i^ 



It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To THE Secretaries of the 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
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Philadelphia, U S. A. 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

(Read April 14, 1917^) 



DYNAMICAL ASPECTS 
By ARTHUR GORDON WEBSTER. 

In opening this symposium I can undertake to do no more 
than explain, in a most elementary way, the dynamical principles 
upon which artificial flight depends. It is difficult to do this with- 
out the use of differential equations, which would be out of place 
in a popular discussion, so that my treatment must confine itself 
to the merest outline., We must distinguish at the outset between 
aeronautics properly so-called, in which we have to do with airships, 
that is apparatus possessing natural sustentation through the buoy- 
ancy of the air displaced, which is at least as heavy as the airship, 
and aviation^ which is the operation of apparatus that has no nat- 
ural sustentation or buoyancy, being heavier than the displaced air, 
and, like a bird, possessing sustentation only when in motion. Un- 
fortunately we have no generic term for the latter apparatus, cor- 
responding to the recently coined French worcf " avion," and we are 
obliged to make use of the word aeroplane, although the term plane 
is not always accurate. While the principle of Archimedes, namely 
that a body is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the 
displaced flirid, this force acting at a point coincident with the center 
of mass of the fluid displaced, is sufficient for the study of the equi- 
librium of the airship, totally different principles are involved in 
connection with the aeroplane. 

The first principle that we shall use is that of relative motion 
of the aeroplane and the air. It will be admitted that the forces 
involved are the same whether, as in the case of the kite, the ob- 
ject is at rest and the air in motion, or as in the case of the aero- 

PROC. AMBR. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI. L. JUNE 1 5. I917. 



162 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

plane the air is at rest and the object in motion in the direction 
opposite to that of the preceding case. We also notice that in both 
cases three forces are involved, first,theweightof the object, second, 
the action of the wind on the plane, and third, the pull of the kite- 
string or the thrust of the propeller. I may also say that it makes 
no difference whether the propeller pushes from behind, as in the 
first aeroplanes, or pulls from in front, as is now usually the case. 
Since the time of Newton it has been known that the force of 
the wind on the plane is proportional to the square of the relative 
velocity, since it is proportional to the momentum destroyed in a 
given time, and this is proportional, for a given mass, to its velocity, 
while the mass arriving is again proportional to the velocity, so 
that the square is accounted for. Finally the influence of the angle 
made by the wind with the surface of the plane, the so-called angle 
of attack, must be known. We may assume that wind blowing 
tangent to a surface will slide along without exerting any force on 
it, although the action of the wind in supporting a flag shows that 
this is not so. But the wing of an aeroplane is made so smooth that 
for practical purposes we may neglect the tangential drag, and as- 
sume that the force is at right angles or normal to the plane. Ac- 
cording to Newton, who treated the air like a stream of particles 
impinging on the plane, the force would have been proportional to 




the square of the sine of the angle of attack, but we now know 
through the many series of experiments that have been made by 
Langley and others, that this law is not correct, and that it is much 
more nearly proportional to the first power of the sine. The dif- 
ference is made apparent in Fig. i, in which the vertical height of 
a pcrint denotes the force, the horizontal distance the angle of at- 
tack of the plane, for both laws. We see that for small angles the 



WEBSTER— DYNAMICAL ASPECTS. 



163 



sine law gives a much more rapid increase of force than the sine- 
square, which is a very important point in practice. 

Beside the force at right angles to the plane the current tends 
to turn the plane about a certain axis, as we see if we drop a card 
vnth its long dimension horizontal. In falling it turns over and 
over even if started with its surface horizontal. This turning 
effect may be explained if we draw the stream-lines, which show 
at each point the direction of flow of the air. It is a proposition 
due to Bernoulli, that where the flow is fast the pressure is small, 
and where it is slow the pressure is great. In Fig. 2 where the 




Fig. 2. 

stream lines are far apart the flow is slower than where they are 
near together, just as a river flows most slowly where it is widest, 
so that the pressure is large in such points as A, A, and small at 
B, Bj where the flow is rapid. Thus there is a tendency to turn the 
body in the direction of the arrow. We may express this turning 
property by saying that the effect of the air current on the plane is 
represented by a single force R applied at a point P called the center 
of pressure, not at the center of the plane, the position of P vary- 
ing according to the angle of attack. 

Much mathematical skill has been expended to determine the 
law of variation of the force with the angle, and the position of 
the center of pressure. Curiously enough if the air acts like a per- 
fect fluid, and does not form vortices, it can be shown that there 
would be no force on an obstacle, but merely a turning moment. 
But if there are surfaces where the motion is discontinuous, on 
crossing which we pass from fluid that is moving to fluid that is at 
rest or moving less rapidly, the forces can be accounted for. Kirch- 
hoff many years ago treated such motions, and Sir George Green- 



^ 164 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



hill has followed him in working out a great number of cases with 
great skill. In Fig. 3 we see the flow past a cambered wing, with 
stream-lines continuous in Fig. a, causing no pressure, and in Fig. b 
with the stream splitting along the dotted line, part going up and 




Fig. 3a. 

part down, with discontinuity along the lines AB, CD, between 
which the fluid is comparatively at rest. From this assumption of 
the flow it is possible to calculate the thru-st and the turning. But 
even this assumption about the flow is not true in practice, but 
the air forms vortices, which cause a calculation to be still more 




Fig. 3b. 

difficult. Accordingly it becomes necessary to determine the laws 
of pressure by actual experiments on small scale models in wind 
tunnels, such as those of M. Eiffel in Paris, Professor Prandtl in 
Gottingen, Professor Joukowsky in Moscow, or that at the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology used by Mr. Hunsaker in his ex- 
periments. In all these cases a steady stream of air is caused to 
flow through the tunnel by means of a blower, and the model is 
hung in the wind upon balances which enable the forces, their 
points of application and direction to be carefully measured for all 
angles of attack. We may expect in the next few years to see many 
such wind-tunnels constructed in this country, and large increases 
made in our experimental knowledge. 



WEBSTER— DYNAMICAL ASPECTS. 



165 



Suppose we now know the law of the force exerted by the air 
current on the plane, and the position of the center of pressure. 
We have now to apply an elementary principle of equilibrium of 
rigid bodies. If a body is submitted to the action of three forces 
the lines of action of these forces must pass through a common 
point. Thus if we consider a single plane supporting a machine, 
with the resultant pressure R, Fig. 4, with weight IV concentrated 
at the center of gravity of the whole machine G, the thrust of the 
propeller D, which is nearly horizontal, must pass through the in- 
tersection of R and W, The second principle is that if we draw 
lines representing by their length and direction the three forces in 





Fig. 4. 

question, these lines must form a closed triangle. Fig. 5. Thus 
knowing the weight W, we may find D, the thrust required from 
the motor, as well as R, the force required, and a the angle of 
attack. 

I shall illustrate the preceding principles by a very simple ex- 
periment, which I think well shows all the leading ideas involved 
in the dynamics of the aeroplane. I have here a heavy card fastened 
by a hook at the middle of one side to this rubber cord. I now need 
a very brave assistant, whom I request to hold the end of the rub- 
ber cord at the height of his shoulder. I strongly stretch the 
cord, holding the card in my hand, both card and string being hori- 
zontal. We are thus in a position to perform the Wilhelm Tell 
experiment, with the apparent probability that, since there are ab- 
solutely no upward forces present, the card will cut Walther's head 
off. On releasing the card you see that no such thing happens, 
but the card soars several feet above my assistant's head, although 
the cord is actually pulling down all the time. The reason is that 



166 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



on release the card immediately tips downward behind, and as it 
goes ahead with great velocity receives more than enough upthrust 
for its own sustentation, and is actually able to rise, although pulled 
down by the string. 

I come now to perhaps the most important dynamical aspect of 
aviation, that is the question of stability of flight. Stability of equi- 
librium is a familiar notion, and exists when a system, if displaced, 
tends to return to its former position, generally performing small 
oscillations about it which die away, leaving it in its equilibrium 
position. Thus a pea at the bottom of a bowl is in stable equi- 
librium, but on top of a sphere, though in equilibrium, is unstable, 




Wfyr 




Fig. 6. 

because if slightly displaced it will not return, but will roll off. 
Stability of motion may be similarly defined. If an aeroplane is in 
flight, and is s-Hghtly displaced in position or direction, will it tend 
to resume its position or will it tend to leave it more and more? 
Consider what happens when it tips forward and downward. If 
the center of pressure moves forward when the angle of attack is 
less it will tend to turn the plane backward, so as to resume its 
former position. So far then the motion is stable. As it tips 
forward the angle of attack becomes smaller, the sustaining force 
becomes less, and the aeroplane sinks, but when tipped back again 
it rises once more. Thus the path oscillates about a horizontal line. 
But a rigid body has six ways of moving: forward and back, side- 
wise right and left, and vertically up and down, making three, to- 
gether with three ways* of turning, rolling about an axis fore and 
aft, pitching about a transverse axis, and yawing, or turning about 
the vertical. If any of thege six motions are disturbed, how will 
the motion be affected? It is easily shown that a change in any of 



WEBSTER— DYNAMICAL ASPECTS. 167 

these six motions affects all the others, as already shown for pitch- 
ing and rising. In treating this problem we use differential equa- 
tions invented by Euler for problems in which we have to do with 
rotating axes of coordinates, and we are thus able to find the mutual 
connection of the different sorts of motion. Now if the disturb- 
ances are small, we are able to use the method introduced by La- 
grange in his famous " Mecanique Analytique " for the treatment of 
small oscillations, which leads to the introduction of an algebraic 
equation of degree twice as great as the number of degrees of free- 
dom of the system, in our case six, so that the equation would be 
of the twelfth degree. On account of symmetry, however, our 
equation reduces to degree eight, and falls apart into two equations 
of degree four. It is useless to undertake the general solution of 
these, but when we have the constants of a given apparatus, as 
determined by experiment, it is possible to solve the equations arith- 
metically with any desired degree of approximation. This is what 
has been done by various investigators, like Bryan and Bairstow 
in England, and Professor E. B. Wilson here. In fact when this 
work has proceeded to a certain extent, it is no longer necessary to 
have recourse to learned mathematicians, but it may be farmed out 




Fig. 7. 

to computers, so as to be greatly expedited, and thus the design of 
machines may be greatly improved. I may say that machines gen- 
erally gain more stability with greater speed, and that too great 
stability is not desirable, as it would lead to difficulty in steering or 
rising. At any rate the theory has now arrived at such a stage that 
we may hope to avoid such accidents as formerly occurred in great 
numbers owing to improper design. 

I will conclude with a simple experiment showing the intrinsic 
stability possessed by a very simple aeroplane such as I learned to 
make when a schoolboy, which I am able to fold from a piece of 
paper before your eyes and to throw with a good deal of accuracy. 



II 

PHYSICAL ASPECTS. 

t 

The Air. 
By GEORGE O. SQUIER. 

Everyone knows of course that if there were no atmosphere 
there could be no life, but probably very few fully realize its immense 
importance in almost every thing we do. In one condition it is 
invigorating and gives us a zest for hard work whether mental or 
physical, in another it leaves us depressed and incapacitated for effi- 
cient labor of any kind. Numerous manufacturing processes are 
radically affected by the amount of moisture in the air, and many 
others by its temperature. Power is transmitted by it; we com- 
municate our thoughts one to another by vibrations of the air; and 
by its aid we have recently acquired our swiftest mode of travel. 
Obviously then a knowledge of the composition and physical proper- 
ties of the air is of such vital importance as to justify most pains- 
taking study and investigation. 

In the past few years, for instance, several elements, helium, 
argon, neon, krypton, xenon, have been found in the atmosphere 
that previously were unknown and even unsuspected, for they were 
not required by the Mendeleeff table of the elements as then under- 
stood. One of these, argon, amounts to nearly one part in a hun- 
dred of the whole atmosphere, and yet through decade after decade 
of chemical investigations involving countless thousands of air 
analyses, it, and all its family of gases, remained undiscovered! 

Recently, too, means have been found for drawing directly on 
the atmosphere for an inexhaustible supply of nitrogen compounds 
used in the production of powerful explosives, fertilizers and many 
other things of great value. 

Not long ago even the most profound scientists believed that with 

168 



SQUIER— PHYSICAL ASPECTS. 169 

increase of elevation the temperature of the air decreased more or 
less uniformly from whatever it was at the surface of the earth to 
absolute zero at an elevation of perhaps 30 to 40 kilometers. Now 
we know that this is not true, that at an elevation of only 10 to 12 
kilometers at this latitude the temperature becomes substantially 
constant with respect to increase of altitude, and, what is of even 
greater intellectual interest, we can explain why it must be so. Only 
a little while ago no one could say why the clouds never rose higher 
than certain levels that were far below the known heights of the 
atmosphere. Now we do know why this is true, as we also know 
why clouds are more abundant at certain levels and less abundant 
at others. 

We recently have learned how the velocity of the wind generally 
increases with altitude, and why it so increases. At last, and that 
quite recently, we have found a logical and experimentally supported 
theory of the electrification that gives the lightning flash, and with 
it we have acquired a clearer understanding of the mechanism of 
the thunderstorm. 

These are only some of the comparatively recent discoveries in 
connection with the phenomena of the atmosphere, and opportunity 
lies near and inviting for many more. 

The genesis of the ordinary cyclonic storm still needs much study 
and discussion. The relation of topography, nature of the surface, 
sunshine, etc., to air movements, both horizontal and vertical, need 
to be intensively studied because of their importance to the art of 
aviation, especially aviation as a means of commercial travel and 
as a sport. Through this investigation we may reasonably hope to 
acquire the art of soaring, and thereby realize the gentlest of all 
modes of travel. 

The immediate problems of the atmosphere calling for solution 

are numerous, but I shall mention only one more. On the whole the 

earth is negatively charged. What then is the origin of this negative 

charge and how is it perpetually Aiaintained ? 

War Depabtment. 

Office of the Chief Signal Officer, 
Washington, April, 1917. 



Ill 

MECHANICAL ASPECTS OF AERONAUTICS. 

By W. F. DURAND, Ph.D. 

Scope of Paper. 

The present paper deals with heavier-than-air machines only. 
No attempt will be made to describe the present situation in compre- 
hensive detail. The achievements of the past and the present condi- 
tion of the art of aeroplane design, construction and operation must, 
for the most part, be assumed. The purpose of the paper will be 
rather to point out the more important problems pressing for solu- 
tion, the elements in the broad problem of aeronautics which we may 
reasonably hope to improve, and so far as the author is able, to indi- 
cate the directions in which improvement may be sought. 

The subject will be considered under the following general 
heads : 

Structure of Aeroplane. 

Power Plant. 

Propulsion. 

Structure of Aeroplane. 

As a problem in engineering design the aeroplane presents the 
following features. 

Required a structure coherent as a whole, provided with large 
flat or gently curved surfaces for realizing the necessary support, 
with suitable accommodation for the personnel, and with suitable 
structures for supporting a prime mover and for receiving the thrust 
of a propeller, fitted also with suitable auxiliary guiding surfaces for 
control in the air, and with suitable strength in all its parts to resist 
with a reasonable margin of safety the stresses to which it will be 
subject in the accidents of aerial navigation. 

170 



DURAND— MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 171 

In its essence, however, the aeroplane is a wing or a combination 
of wings fitted with one or more engines and propellers. 

• The chief structural problems are therefore concerned with 

( 1 ) The design and construction of the wing. 

(2) The design and construction of the members necessary and 
sufficient to join the wings together into a coherent structure suited 
to the purposes in view. 

The wing again presents two problems. The surface and the 
fratnework necessary to give form and strength to the whole. 

The amount of surface to be provided is dependent, according 
to well known laws, on the weight to be supported and on the speed 
at which support is to be realized. In the outlook ahead the insistent 
demand will be for the largest practicable size. We may there- 
fore put the question bluntly, what is the largest attainable size, 
what elements tend to limit size and how may we hope to remove, 
in some measure, the effect of these limitations. 

If we consider a series or family of aeroplane structures, homol- 
ogous in all dimensions and differing only in size, we shall evi- 
dently find a ratio of surface to weight decreasing with increasing 
dimensions. The weights will increase as the cube of the linear 
dimension, the surfaces as the square, and hence the ratio of surface 
to weight will vary as ^he inverse ratio of increasing dimension. It 
follows that for such a series of structures the weight of the struc- 
ture itself will tend to absorb an increasing part of the total weight 
which the surface should sustain at any given speed, and with cor- 
responding reduction in the surplus lifting capacity available for 
power plant, crew, armament, express freight, etc. 

Let X denote any linear dimension of the plane. 
A the area. 
IV^ the weight of the plane and auxiliary structures. 

Then for a family of structures such as are here considered we 
shall have 

A =Bx\ 

W, = Cx\ 

where B and C are two coefficients connecting respectively area 
with the square of x and weight with the cube. 



172 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

At any given speed let the relation of total lifting capacity to area 
be expressed by the ratio w. Then if PF = total lifting capacity 
we have 

W = mA=:fnBxK 

Denote the net lifting capacity by y. Then we shall have 





y 


= W-W: 


[ — mBx^ — 


C^. 








dy 
dx 


= 2inBx — 


3Cx^ = 0, 






I 


and 


X 


2mB 










* 




y» = 


4 m«5« 
27 (7 • 






2 


For such a 


series 


of structures therefore the 


maximum 


net lift- 



ing capacity will be given by a size determined by the value of x in 
equation (i) and the actual maximum net weight will be as in 
equation (2). For larger sizes of structure the weight required 
in the structure itself .will increase more rapidly than the carrying 
capacity depending on area, and hence the net lifting power will 
decrease. It results furthermore that for such a family of structures 
there will be some size for which, all at a given uniform speed, the 
net carrying capacity will be zero, a size for which the total lifting 
capacity at the stated speed will be only just able to carry the weight 
of the structure itself. 

We may now ask two important questions. 

(i) What measures must be taken, in such a series of struc- 
tures, to increase the maximum net carrying capacity? 

(2) To what extent do these conclusions apply to a series af 
actual aeroplanes of continuously increasing wing surface? 

Regarding question ( i ) the form of the expression for y», shows 
that it varies directly with m^, directly with B^ and inversely with 
C*. We must therefore seek to increase m and B and decrease C 
We cannot hope to affect the value of B, the relation of area to 
linear dimension. We may, however, increase m by increasing the 
speed and decrease C by improved design or by developing ma- 
terials stronger for a given weight than those now employed. 



DURAND— MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 173 

Regarding question (2) we may state the problem thus. For a 
series of aeroplanes of increasing area, how closely will the increase 
in weight vary with the % power of the rate of area increase ? 

Broadly speaking the relation seems to hold within a significant 
degVee of approximation. The weight of skin covering itself will 
increase as the surface. All structures subjected to cross breaking 
and in general all elements which tend to constitute the structure as 
a whole into a truss or girder will, except as the character of the de- 
sign may change increase in their own linear dimension nearly with 
the overall increase in linear dimension, and hence in weight 
nearly as the cube of the linear dimension or with the % power of 
the surface. Time does not permit any detailed analysis of this im- 
portant problem, but broadly speaking we may expect that in a 
series of aeroplanes of the increasing area the weight will increase 
somewhat more rapidly than the area but somewhat less rapidly than 
the % power of the area. 

The practical question is this. To what degree of approximation 
in a series of aeroplane structures will the structural weight vary 
with the % power of the area of wing ? We know that for a given 
speed, wing area and g^oss weight vary nearly in direct linear ratio. 
Hence if the structural weight increases more rapidly than the area 
but somewhat more slowly than with the % power, it is obvious that 
for any given speed there will be some area which will insure the 
maximum net lifting capacity and beyond this area the next lifting 
capacity will decrease. 

Actual experience seems to indicate an increase in weight re- 
lated to wing area according to an index lying between i and % and 
varying somewhat irregularly according to the changing type of 
construction with increasing size. Hence we may conclude that for 
a given speed continued increase in size of wing alone will not insure 
indefinite increase in the net carrying capacity, but that instead 
there will be some area for which the net carrying capacity may be 
expected to reach a maximum, after which further increase in size 
at the same speed will involve a loss in carrying capacity. 

It follows again that in order to increase carrying capacity the 
following steps are indicated. 



174 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

1. Improvement in the elements of design and in the materials 
of construction. 

2. The selection of such a size of wing as shall insure for the 
type of design and for such wing as an element in the structure as a 
whole, the maximum net carrying capacity. 

3. Increase in speed to the upper limit practically attainable. 

4. Increase in number of planes. 

Recent experimental work with three, four and five planes seems 
to point to the multiple plane as perhaps the most immediate means 
of increasing carrying capacity. Or in other words, given the limita- 
tions imposed by structural materials and the upper limit of speed 
considered practicable and expedient, multiple planes seem to be 
the immediately remaining recourse for further advance in net car- 
rying capacity. 

Passing now briefly to the actual materials available, we may 
make a classification as follows. 
Surface material (cotton or linen duck fabric). 
Wing skeleton or structure — wood (spruce and mahogany), steel. 
Struts and braces connecting wings in multiple — wood (spruce and 

mahogany), steel or special alloys. 
Body or boat material: Framing: wood or steel. Covering: wood 

veneer or sheet metal. 
Ties for serving as tension members in connecting wings to body or 

in multiple : steel wire, single or laid up in cable. 
Fastenings: drop forgings, sheet steel, bronze. 

The two fundamental problems are: 

1. The development of materials furnishing more strength for 
the same weight. 

2. The better disposition of the materials which we now have. 
Passing the above classes of materials briefly in review, we may 

note as follows. There does not seem to be anything immediately in 
sight better than the materials now used for surfaces. With suit- 
able treatment (usually coatings of celluloid dissolved in acetone 
with varnish finish) the material stretches tight, takes a smooth 
surface and has sufficient strength to support itself between the 
supporting ribs. 



DURAND—MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 175 

The surface does not form a large fraction of the total weight 
and saving here is not relatively as important as in the framework. . 

The substitution of metal for wood in the framing has long 
since attracted the serious attention of aeronautic engineers, and in 
certain recent designs the problem has been worked out with ap- 
parently a high degree of success. These results indicate the prob- 
ability of an increasing use of steel for parts which have hitherto 
usually been made of wood. The peculiar qualities of stiffness and 
resilience combined with readiness of shaping and forming have 
combined to make wood broadly speaking the standard material for 
the skeleton or framing of the wings and body. It seems, however, 
a foregone conclusion that some parts now made of wood might 
with advantage be made of the best modem alloys combining strength 
with light weight. The extent to which this can be wisely done can 
only be determined by trial, but it seems probable that perhaps im- 
portant savings in weight may be made by a judicious substitution 
of metal in certain elements of the structure. 

The outlook for the future calls for new and improved metal 
alloys with certain of the physical characteristics of wood, as nearly 
as may be realized, and with proper form and proportion securing 
the development of the same strength with saving in weight. 

The use of steel wire and cable for ties is standard and prac- 
tically universal. These elements form a relatively small part of 
the total structural weight. It seems hard to imagine material 
superior to the best modem alloy steel wire, but there seems no 
reason for assuming that such material represents the last word in 
the wire-makers' art and if we may anticipate new and improved 
steel or bronze alloys, such material will provide the necessary 
tension elements with some slight saving in weight. 

Fastenings have been made the subject of much study, experi- 
mental and otherwise, and the field is still open for further im- 
provement. Here again the total weight is relatively small, but 
there may well be a chance to save something in weight and at the 
same time add to the security and integrity of the design as a whole. 

Broadly speaking, there seems small ground for anticipating any 
profound change in the near future in the schedule of materials 
best available for the designer of aeroplane structures. Gradual 



176 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

advance there will be, and with it the designer of such structures 
must be quick to seize such advantage as he may. 

Regarding a better disposition of the materials we now have, it 
may be assumed that there is a more promising field. It is pecu- 
liarly a field which must be worked in an experimental way, and 
while much has already been accomplished there is still room for 
further saving in weight through a better disposition of the elements 
of structure employed. 

The problem is broadly ; given an aeroplane structure exposed to 
the hazards of flight and involving baffling head winds, gusts, forced 
severe banking, diving, quick turning about various axes of motion 
and all in various combination, required a structure which shall 
present a substantially uniform factor of safety relative to the 
extreme stress, in any and all directions, to which it may be sub- 
jected. 

This is obviously not a problem to be solved by theoretical 
methods or over the drawing board alone or even chiefly. It is 
distinctively a problem to be worked out primarily by experience 
supplemented by experiment, which is, after all, only experience 
realized under control conditions. 

One of the future developments which should not be lost sight 
of lies this way and should comprise comprehensive studies of the 
combinations of structural elements available, always with the view 
of realizing more efficient results ; that is, a more equable distribu- 
tion of the strength realized with a corresponding saving in weight. 

The problem of weight economy is vital in the science and art 
of aeronautics, and the possibilities of advance through a well- 
ordered program of experimental investigation on full sized forms 
should not be lost sight of. 

Power Plant. 

We pass next to the subject of the aeroplane power plant. We 
here meet the following principal problems. 

1. The problem of fuel. 

2. The problem of carburetion or preparation for combustion. 

3. The thermodynamic problem of the transformation of the heai 

energy into mechanical work. 



DURAND—MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 177 

4. The problem of auxiliaries. 

5. The problem of construction. 

Gasoline stands preeminent as the standard fuel for aeroplane 
service. The chief objection is its high price. This will operate to 
produce a serious limitation in the economic application of the 
aeroplane and one of the most important problems with special 
reference to an extension of economic use is the development of 
prime movers capable of using cheaper grades of fuel. It will not 
be without interest, at this point, to note the fuel cost per ton mile 
for aeroplane service as compared with the same item for railroad 
and for marine transport. If we take an aeroplane with say 130 
h.p. carrying 300 pounds of cargo at a speed of 60 m.h. we shall 
find with gasoline at 20 cents per gallon a fuel cost of about 30 cents 
per ton mile. This will compare with about %o cent in the case of 
a heavy freight train and with about ^0 cent in the case of say a 
10,000 ton steamer. The fuel cost for merely carrying dead weight 
may therefore readily be from 300 to 1200 times as great as for 
railroad or marine carriage. This unfavorable relation between the 
economics of the fuel cost for aerial and for iparine transport 
arises from certain relations which develop in the two cases between 
net cargo weight and gross weight, and between horsepower and 
gross weight. 

Thus for the ship the net cargo weight may be, for moderate 
speeds, as high as 50 per cent, of the gross weight, while for the 
aeroplane as noted, it would be about 12 per cent. Again the ship 
requires for a speed of say 15 miles per hour, a horsepower of 5,000 
or less, or not exceeding i h.p. for 4,500 pounds gross weight while 
the aeroplane requires something of the order of i h.p. for 15 to 
20 lbs. gross weight. Again the fuel for the aeroplane engine 
costs from 5 to 8 times as much per horsepower hour developed as 
for the ship prime mover. 

While \ht fuel represents by no means the whole cost it is an 
important item and it is clear that so long as the aeronautic engineer 
is limited to gasoline fuel the economic uses of the aeroplane must be 
seriously handicapped. 

There are other fuels cheaper in character and developed to a 
point where they are satisfactorily employed in certain grades of 

PROC. AMRR. PHIL. SOC, VOL. LVI, M, JUNE 20, I917. 



178 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

internal combustion service, notably kerosene and distillate, and 
cheapest of all, crude oil which is used in engines of the Diesel 
type. The demands of aeronautic service are, however, insistent in 
regard to the holding of engine and machinery weights to the 
minimum and any attempt to use fuels other than gasoline must 
reckon with the possibility of increased weight. This limitation 
will apparently, at least under existing design conditions, rule out 
the Diesel engine from consideration. 

With existing conditions of design and operation there seems 
to be nothing in sight as an immediate substitute for gasoline, and 
we cannot well see in what direction to turn for the ultimate solu- 
tion of this problem. It is, however, none the less real and the eco- 
nomic extension of the aeroplane will depend in large measure upon 
th^ success or failure of efforts directed toward the development of 
a cheaper fuel. 

Passing now to the problem of the carburetor only the briefest 
reference can be made to the principal details of this problem. 

The primary function of the carburetor may be defined as the 
mixing of the gasoline in a finely divided state with the air necessary 
for combustion. Following this, on its way to the cylinder and on 
entering the cylinder, the liquid fuel becomes rapidly vaporized and 
ready for compression and ignition. The fundamental require- 
ments are the following: 

1. Fine subdivision of the liquid fuel. 

2. A uniform or nearly uniform mixture by proportion of gasoline 

to air at varying motor speeds. 

For aeroplane service, there should be, in addition, some adjust- 
ment, either automatic or manual, with reference to altitude and the 
consequent varying density of the air. 

The function of the carburetor may be viewed under two heads. 

1. Reliability. 

2. Economy. 

For aeroplane service a carburetor giving a nearly uniform 
mixture over a wide range of operating conditions is of special 
importance from the standpoint of reliability. When the life of the 
aeronaut may well depend on the degree of reliability with which the 
carburetor furnishes a nearly uniform mixture suited for ready igni- 



DURAND—MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 179 

tion, the importance of this phase of the problem is apparent with- 
out further emphasis. 

The best of present carburetors realize these conditions in high 
degree. The principal points still open for improvement are perhaps 
the following: 

1. Improved means for atomizing the liquid fuel, looking espe- 
cially toward the finest attainable degree of subdivision. This will 
aid both economy and reliability. 

2. Improved means for covering a wide range of atmospheric 
conditions as regards density, temperature and humidity, and with 
a wide range of power developed under any combination of these 
conditions. 

3. Improved means for atomizing the gasoline with the minimum 
drop in pressure through the carburetor. This will aid in decreas- 
ing the back pressure and will increase the net power developed per 
cycle. 

Improvement in the carburetor is primarily dependant on experi- 
ence. The interaction of the various controlling factors is so com- 
plex in character that cut and try methods based on the intelligent 
application of imderlying principles seem to promise the most 
fruitful results in the improvement of this element of the internal 
combustion prime mover. The field is open and we may look con- 
fidently to the future to provide a standard form of carburetor 
which will secure the highest practicable results over the widest 
range of operating conditions. 

We turn next to the thermodynamic aspect of the problem. 

Under this head I shall only refer briefly to the character of 
thermodynamic cycle employed. As well known, the cycle at present 
universally employed is that based on the constant volume — adia- 
batic ideal. There remain open the constant pressure-adiabatic 
cycle and the constant temperature-adiabatic or Carnot cycle, or 
some combination of these. 

The Diesel engine uses a cycle more or less intermediate between 
the latter two. 

The constant pressure-adiabatic cycle has long been the ideal 
of engineers with special reference to sustained crank eflFort and 
the elimination of the explosive shock characteristic of the constant 



180 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

volume-adiabatic cycle. Thus far, however, structural and opera- 
tive difficulties in various details of the process have prevented the 
wide use of this cycle. It is, however, just now the subject of 
special investigation at the hands of engineers of insight and re- 
source and it may well be that the near future will open up to the 
aeronautic engineer this cycle for practical use in engines for aero- 
plane service. If engines operating on this cycle can be made a 
success in the operative sense while at the same time keeping the 
weights down to the limits reached with the type now employed, we 
may anticipate a wide field of usefulness for this cycle. 

Under the head of auxiliaries the chief functions are ignition, 
cooling and lubrication. To these we may perhaps add, as rapidly 
approaching the status of common acceptance, some form of start- 
ing motor or device with wireless outfit, especially for military pur- 
poses. 

Under ignition the insistent requirement is reliability, commonly 
assured, so far as auxiliary equipment is concerned, by magneto 
installation in duplicate. 

Cooling is normally by water, except in the rotating type of 
engine, where air cooling prevails. The principal problems here 
relate to methods of circulating and cooling the water, security of 
joints and connections, minimizing loss of water by boiling and 
assurance of adequate supply for long life in air without going to 
needless excess weight in water carried. 

The principal problems presented by lubrication are reliability 
and simplicity of means employed, usually some form of pressure 
or positive supply system. 

Further references to problems presented by auxiliary equip- 
ment are more conveniently made under the next following head. 

Under the general head of construction, time will only permit of 
brief reference to the following topics : 

Materials. 
Design. 
Fabrication. 

The materials employed are chiefly cast and wrought steel, cast 
iron for some few parts, aluminum and bronze. In order to reduce 
weights to a minimum forged steel is used for the cylinders or 



DURAND— MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 181 

cylinder liners and generally for all parts receiving or carrying the 
direct load. Further progress here will wait on the skill of the 
metallurgist in furnishing steels of higher physical properties than 
those now available. Broadly speaking, the present aeronautic 
engine, in the most refined designs, exhibits a very near approach 
to the practicable limit with the materials at present available and 
further saving in weight must depend chiefly on the work of the 
metallurgist in developing new and improved materials for use. 

The chief outstanding problems in the design of aeronautic 
engines are those dealing with the most effective disposition of the 
available materials of construction, and with the forms, proportions, 
arrangements and assemblage of the elements in such manner as 
shall secure the highest practicable degree of reliability of operation. 

In the disposition of the materials with reference to the strength 
and stiffness required, the fundamental and insistent demand is the 
saving of weight. This problem is-one to be studied partly by the 
application of mechanics and general engineering principles, and 
partly by experience. In any given engine there is no question but 
that there is a certain amount of redundant weight. The problem 
is to locate it. While, as already noted, the best of modem designs 
represent apparently a close approach to the ultimate attainable 
with existing materials, nevertheless the field of design with refer- 
ence to further refinement is still open and will doubtless well repay 
further study. This road marks clearly one of the ways whereby 
future progress and improvement must come. 

The principal problems dealing with improved reliability and 
with length of operative life may be enumerated as follows : 

1. Oiling system and lubrication generally. 

2. Means for securing all pipes and conduits, whether for oil, water 

or electric wiring, in such manner that jar and vibration 
cannot cause their rupture or separation at joints. 

3. The reduction of vibration to a minimum by the careful balanc- 

ing of rotating and reciprocating parts so far as practicable. 

4. Adequate bearing surfaces especially for all principal parts, so 

that with a reasonable supply of lubricant there need never 
be danger of cutting or abrasion. 

5. Adequate crank shaft size and adequate crank shaft bearings, 



182 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS 

both in surface and in number, so that the shaft may be 
shielded from alternating flexure, a condition certain to result 
in early rupture. 

6. Simplicity and directness of operation the valve gear. 

7. Simplicity and directness of drive for all auxiliary machinery 

such as magneto, water and oil pumps. 

In connection with the general problem of lubrication, one of 
the great problems, perhaps the one most important problem in 
connection with the aeroplane prime mover, relates to the possibility 
of developing metals of such physical properties or relations that 
they will operate in sliding relation without serious abrasion and 
without the need of constant lubrication, at least in terms of the 
practice found necessary with the materials now employed. 
Whether any such metals in pairs can be developed or whether the 
surfaces of metals will admit of treatment in any way which will 
reduce in marked degree the amount of lubrication required, is of 
course an open question ; but the march of scientific and engineering 
progress is marked with many discoveries and developments seem- 
ingly far more remote from possibility than is this. In any event 
it is a field well worthy the most careful investigation, not alone for 
its importance in connection with aeronautic prime movers but also 
for the far-reaching influence which it would have throughout the 
whole field of engineering design. It represents moreover a serious 
need in the case of the aeronautic prime mover with reference to in- 
creased safety, simplicity and decreased cost of operation. 

These problems, and others allied, all offer inviting fields for the 
research engineer, the designer and the inventor. It is, further- 
more, difficult to overestimate their importance. Thus the rupture 
of a small oil pipe, perhaps % inch diameter, due to vibration result- 
ing in a crystallization of the metal at a point of attachment, might 
result in the failure of lubricant to reach some important element 
of the engine, as a consequence of which the bearing heats, abrades, 
perhaps seizes, the engine stops and possibly disaster comes swiftly 
as a consequence. When safety of life may depend on continuous 
operation of the engine, no item or element bearing on reliability is 
too small to receive the most serious and earnest efforts on the part 



DURAND— MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 183 

of those responsible for the design and construction of the prime 
mover. 

It seems appropriate to note at this point, that until the margin 
of uncertainty or of imreliability is reduced far below where it now 
stands, the navigation of the air will be closed to the great mass of 
people who will prefer the safer if somewhat less thrilling mode by 
way of the solid earth or the water-borne boat. 

Propulsion. 

The screw propeller has been universally adopted as the means 
for transforming the work developed by the prime mover into 
propulsive work. 

In spite of its simple form the operation of the propeller depends 
on an astonishingly large number of variables, interrelated in com- 
plex and baffling ways, and thus far transcending all etfort to bring 
them into practicable expression through the application of aero- 
dynamic theory. The chief variables or conditions thus entering 
into the operation of a propeller may be listed as follows : 
(a) Characteristics of the propeller as a geometrical body. 

( 1 ) The diameter or general determining dimension. 

(2) The pitch of the helicoidal surface employed for the driv- 

ing face. This may have two different modes of 

specification, viz.: 
(a) The single value of the pitch if uniform, or the mean 

value if variable. 
(6) The distribution of values if variable. 

(3) The form of the contour bounding the blade or helicoidal 

surface employed. 

(4) The area of the blade on the driving face. 

(5) The cross section or thickness of the blade. This may 

have two mode of specification, viz. : 
(a) Areas of cross sections and their distribution radially. 
(6) Forms of cross sections. 

(6) The character and finish of the blade surfaces. 

(7) The form and dimensions of the hub or central body 

carrying the blades. 



184 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

(6) The characteristics of the adjacent structures such as parts of 
the aeroplane. These will influence the flow of air to and 
from the propeller and will thus affect the force reactions 
resulting from its operation under any stated set of condi- 
tions. These may be primarily specified by 
(i) Dimension and form. 
(2) Location with regard to propeller, 
(r) The characteristics of the meditmi. 
(i) Density. 

(2) Viscosity. 

(3) Qiaracter and extent of turbulence or departure from 

homogeneous conditions, 
(d) The characteristics of operation. 

( 1 ) Speed of translation or speed of advance. 

(2) Speed of rotation. 

We have thus, without going too far into detail, some 14 vari- 
ables or conditions, any one of which may exercise an important 
influence on the results realized from the propeller. 

For many purposes and by way of approximate working 
formulae, the operation of the propeller is related through empirical 
coefficients to the three most important of the above listed set of 
conditions; namely, diameter, pitch and the slip, which is directly 
expressible in terms of the relation between the speed of advance 
and the speed of rotation. 

Aside from such approximate formulae, in which the values of 
the coefficients drawn from experience must be so selected as to care 
for all variables other than the four directly represented, there 
seems to be no recourse save either in direct full size experimental 
investigation, or in model investigation. The limitations of full size 
experimental investigation are evident, and aeronautic engineers, 
following the lead of the naval architect, have turned to model ex- 
periments as furnishing the most hopeful means of dealing with the 
problem of the screw propeller. 

The use of models presupposes the application of a law or prin- 
ciple of kinematic similitude, and regarding which it is unnecessary 
to speak in detail on this occasion. It will aid, however, in clarify- 
ing our present view to state the underlying assumption as follows. 



DURAND—MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 185 

The existence of a law of kinematic similitude assumes that for 
any given set of operating conditions for the full-sized body there 
will correspond a determinable set of conditions for the model and 
that the results realized for the model may be transformed into 
the results to be anticipated from the full-sized body by the applica- 
tion of determinable ratios which will be some known function of 
the relation between the two sets of conditions. 

It should be noted further that this relation assumes that all of 
the conditions which may affect the result in question admit of 
definite expression in terms of mechanics and of definite numerical 
measurement in specific cases. This is not always possible espe- 
cially with such factors as surface roughness or degree of turbulence. 

Again the special conditions which are required for the model 
may be inconvenient or even impracticable as regards experimental 
realization. 

These various conditions prevail in the case of air propellers. It 
is well known that we are only able to realize a practicable applica- 
tion of the law by neglecting the influence of the viscosity of the 
medium. This of itself, with the air propeller working in an in- 
definite medium and under loads and speeds which would permit the 
neglect of the influence due to the compressibility of the air and of 
the distortion due to thrust and centrifugal force, would make all 
speeds corresponding. This is equivalent to a reduction of the 
equation for the thrust of a propeller to the form 

Hence with such a relation the model may be run at any speed 
with the same percentage slip as for the full-sized propeller, and 
from the observed value of the thrust we may derive the factor K, 
The constant thus determined should then serve for any diameter so 
long as the shape and slip remain the same as for the experimental 
conditions. 

If, however, allowance is to be made for compressibility and for 
distortion due to force loading, theory indicates, as is well known, 
that the tip speeds of both model and full-sized propeller should be 
the same. 

The form of corresponding speed relation usually adopted for air 



. ' 



186 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

propellers is in accordance with these indications. There remains, 
however, a margin of uncertainty r^^rding the influence due to the 
neglected viscosity and also a query as to the amount of error which 
would be introduced by using lower tip speeds for the model than 
for the full-sized propellers. 

These two queries therefore stand out, representing two problems 
which press for solution and which lie at the foundation of the 
investigation of air propeller operation through the use of reduced 
size models. 

We must therefore admit that the application of the law of 
kinematic similitude, in the form commonly employed, to experi- 
mental research on air propellers by means of reduced models, lacks 
full authority in rational theory, and as a result the real justification 
must come from experience. This means that the tests on models 
and their interpretation in terms of full-sized propellers must rest 
ultimately on carefully determined results given by the corespond- 
ing full-sized propeller. This does not imply, however, that all 
model measurements need to be checked by corresponding experi- 
ments on full-sized propellers, for if so there would be no object in 
the model experiments; but rather, that a selected number of 
experiments should be carried out, here and there over the field of 
propeller forms and proportions, thus establishing the presumptive 
degree of accuracy in model experimental work. With such margin 
of error known, model experiments could be used freely, with suit- 
able corrections if necessary, and the results would then have all the 
accuracy which can attach to model experimental work corrected 
by reference to direct experiment on full-sized forms. 

So much for the propeller itself. It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that the propeller is but the connecting link between the prime 
mover and the aeroplane, and that no matter how excellent the pro- 
peller in itself, it must be adapted to the prime mover and to the 
aeroplane in order to secure a harmonious and efficient combination, 
or rather all three must be adapted each to the other, and it is in this 
lack of adaptation that much of the trouble with and inefficiency of 
the screw propeller in actual use arises. Thus no matter how effi- 
cient the propeller itself at a suitable value of the slip, if it is too 
small for the aeroplane, the slip will become excessive with corre- 



DURAND— MECHANICAL ASPECTS. 187 

spending loss in efficiency. Again if too large or if the relation 
between speed of advance, slip and torque are unsuitable, the pro- 
peller will perhaps hold down the motor to a rotative speed entirely 
too low and thus render impossible the development of the desired 
power. These and other relations are of course well known and 
are only mentioned here in order to emphasize the importance of the 
most careful inter-adaptation between the aeroplane, the motor and 
the propeller. 

In this field there is still important work to be done in a more 
complete study of the characteristics of the aeroplane and propeller 
separately and when combined in their normal relation, all with a 
view of insuring a more perfect adaptation of the one to the other 
and of the prime mover to both. 

The air propeller has thus far been normally made of wood and 
of the two-bladed form. Outstanding problems which are awaiting 
investigation relate to the best modes mechanically of making three 
and four blade propellers with the consequent saving of diameter 
for the same thrust, revolutions and slip; also to the practicability 
of propellers of light metal alloys instead of wood. Some work has 
been done along these lines and some hopeful indications have 
appeared. 

A further problem, structually, relates to the thickness neces- 
sary for strength under the complex stress due to centrifugal force 
and air pressure, and also the distortion of the blade under these 
loads and the extent to which such distortion may modify the geo- 
metrical characteristics of the propeller itself. 

Concluding we may in resume sum up for the aeroplane as a 
whole, the insistent demands on the realization of which future 
progress must depend. These are: 

I. Minimum weight of structure in relation to area of support- 
ing surfaces and of power plant per unit of power developed. This 
will secure increased carrying capacity for fuel and supplies and for 
useful weight such as passengers, mail, etc., and this will serve as a 
factor in either long life in the air or heavy carrying capacity for 
short distance. On the other hand such extra weight carrying 
capacity may be put into additional power plant, engine and fuel, 
for correspondingly increased speed over shorter distances. 



188 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

2. Maximum economy of prime mover and in applying its power 
for propulsive purposes. This will insure minimum consumption 
of fuel and supplies per unit of time or distance, and hence will 
serve as a factor in long life in the air or in large weight carrying 
capSicity, or in added capacity of prime mover with corresponding 
increase of speed for shorter distances. 

3. Reliability of operation. This embodies improved methods 
of control and navigation, and greater reliability in each of the many 
individual elements on which overall reliability in operation de- 
pends. These improvements are of special significance in the 
problem of lengthening the effective life in the air and broadly in 
the extension of the usefulness of the aeroplane especially in the 
arts of peace. 



AEROLOGY. 

Bv WILLIAM R. BLAIR. 

The treatment of this subject in one paper must necessarily be 
general. An attempt will therefore be made to cover the ground 
and indicate points of contact between aerological observation and 
aeronautics, leaving argument and details of methods to a fuller 
treatment of the subject which, it is hoped, may appear in the near 
future. 



Means of observations already reduced and compiled will be 
used in the discussion, not with the idea that these means will fully 
serve the aeronauts' purpose, but that they indicate standard condi- 
tions which to some extent show what may be expected at any time 
and place and should be in mind for comparison with the individual 

PKOC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVl, K, JUNE l8, 1917. 



190 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

observations in the region navigated. These observations on the 
spot are of fundamental importance and in practice cannot be safely 
set aside for forecasts or the indications of means as to the upper 
air conditions. 



Fic. 2. Mean velocity of winds from each of eight directions for the year 
at selected stations. 

Charts of means are in a sense the aeronauts' charts of the 
medium he navigates, but it must be kept in mind that these charts, 
in which resuhs of observations are usually shown with reference 
to surface pressure distribution, are to be used with the current 
weather map. 

Observations are made by means of kites, captive balloons and 
free balloons. Kites and captive balloons carry automatically re- 
cording instruments which record continuously temperature, pres- 
sure, humidity and speed of movement of the air. The free balloons 
used are of two sorts, sounding balloons and pilot balloons. The 
former carry an instrument which automatically records tempera- 
ture, prHsure and humidity of the air. Observations of air move- 
ment are obtained by means of continuous theodolite observations 
upon the balloons. In the case of sounding balloons, heights may be 
computed from the pressure record, and observations with one theo- 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



191 



dolite used with these heights to determine horizontal distance from 
the starting point. When pilot balloons are used, the rate of ascent 
can be fairly well determined by means of one of several formulae, 
based upon the weight of the balloon, its resistance to the air and 
its ascensional force. It any case the position of a free balloon can 




Fig. 3. Meridional section of the atmosphere. 

be determined independently of the barometric pressure or of the 
ascensional rate of the balloon if a pair of theodolites, one at either 
end of a measured base line, is used. By means of any of these 
methods the observer is able to plot a horizontal projection of the 
balloon's path. From this plot may be read the wind speed and 
direction at any time during the ascension. 

One of the first cares of the aeronaut is to put down suitable 
stations at which aircraft may be housed and repaired. It is im- 



192 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

portatit that these stations and their buildings be easily accessible 
to aircraft. A knowledge of the prevaiHng meteorological condi- 
tions is therefore of prime importance tn the location of any station 
and in the orientation of its buildings. Among the climatic condi- 



FiG. 4, Mean of Wind Observations in "Highs" at 526 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912. 

tions that need consideration in this connection are cloudiness, rain, 
(including thunderstorm frequency), fog, humidity, temperature, 
pressure and wind. Of all these wind is the most important. It is 
an advantage to a station if the wind has a decidedly prevailing 
direction. Buildings housing aircraft can then be so oriented as to 
be easily accessible most of the time. 

The Weather Bureau records can supply such information as 
that shown in Figs, i and 2 for many other stations than are here 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 193 

included. In addition to surface conditions it is well if a knowle<^e 
of free air conditions to heights well above neighboring trees, build- 
ings, hills or mountains can be known before deciding on the location 
of a station. 



Fic. 5- Mean of Wind Observations in "Lows" at 526 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912. 

The course to be pursued by a pilot flying between two stations 
should be governed by the structure of the atmosphere at the time 
and places in question. A knowledge of the relations that have been 
found to exist between surface and upper air conditions will be of 
value to the pilot, but cannot in general take the place of direct ob- 
servations. By means of the observations, results of which could 
be available at the starting point of the course within half an hour 
after the observations were started, it would be decided whether 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



Fio. 6. Mean of Wind Observations in " Highs " at looo Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-19 12. 

a direct course at the usual height or some deviation, lateral or 
vertical, from such a course should be made. Data sufficient for 
"laying" the course and determining beforehand the time required 
to travel it would be furnished by the observations. The pilot would 
to a great extent, if not altogether, be independent of having to see 
the earth's surface in order to know his direction and position at 
any time. 

The different convective systems or circulatory systems of the 
atmosphere, together with the temperature distribution character- 
izing each, are of especial interest to aeronauts. 

Fig. 3 shows a meridional section of the atmosphere, so far as it 
can be determined from observations now at hand. For the purpose 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



Fic. 7. Mean of Wind Observation in "Lows" at 1000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912. 

of this illustration the depth of the atmosphere shown is greatly 
exaggerated. The units of this general or planetary circulatory 
system in which the arrows point south are east winds having in 
the average a north component. Those units in which arrows point 
north are in general west winds having in the average a south 
component. 

Especial attention is called to the fact that the air in west winds 
exerts a greater downward pressure than does the air in east 
winds. Aside from the fact that a gram mass moving from west to 
east exerts a greater downward pressure than does a gram mass 
moving from east to west, it is found that the air in west winds is 
in general dense for the level it occupies, while the air in east winds 



196 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

is light for its level. That air is heavy or light for the level it 
occupies depends upon its humidity and its temperature and on the 
fact that descending air heats at the adiabatic rate while condensa- 
tion of the moisture in ascending air offsets to a greater or less 
degree the adiabatic cooling that accompanies the ascent. It is also 
true that, compared with moist air, dry air absorhs but little radiated 



Fig. 8. Mean of Wind Observations in " Highs " at 2000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1 907- 191 2. 

heat. This difference in adiabatic rates of cooling and heating 
effectively prevents the mixing of the airs in question. The west 
winds in general follow the irregularities of the bottoms, solid earth, 
water, or aerial, over which they flow and are in consequence gusty 
winds. East winds are not likely to be thrown into gusts by irregu- 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 197 

larities of surfaces below them. They are in general less gusty than 
are west winds. 

Oosely related to this arrangement of light and heavy airs is the 
fact that the two regions of traveling storms, the tropical hurricanes 
and the high and low pressure areas of middle latitudes, are found 
where air relatively dense for the level it occupies is flowing over 



Fic. 9. Mean of Wind Observations in " Lows " at 2000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1 907- 1 912. 

moister and, for its level, relatively light air. These storms are 
surface stratum phenomena, forming on the boundaries of warm, 
moist and cold, dry air masses and have approximately the speed and 
direction of the wind in the stratum immediately above them. The 
tropical hurricanes have the speed and direction of the antitrade 



198 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

winds where the latter flow over the trades, while cyclones and 
anticyclones have the speed and direction of the upper westerlies. 
The data seem to show that cyclonic disturbances form on the left 
side of oppositely directed, passing currents of air in the surface 
stratum, while anticyclonic disturbances form on the right side. The 
airs in these two sorts of currents are differently tempered and of 
different moisture content, the extent of these differences having 
to do with the intensity of the disturbances. These irr'^ularities 
in pressure distribution behave toward the upper westerly wind, or, 
in the case of tropical hurricanes, toward the antitrades, as varia- 
tions in the level of the surface over which they flow. The dis- 
turbances are thus communicated directly to the upper winds which 



Fig. 10. Mean of Wind Observations in " Highs " at 3000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1 907-1 91 2. 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 199 

thus become gusty, just as do winds flowing over irregularities in 
the earth's surface. These gusts are accompanied by appropriate 
changes in pressure and temperature, and progress in the direction 
and with the speed of the wind in which they occur. They carry 
with them the self-sustaining disturbances of the lower or surface 
stratum which would otherwise be practically stationary phenomena. 
Figs. 4 to 15 inclusive show the direction of the winds about 
centers of high and low pressure at the earth's surface and at 
levels above these centers. All winds, whatever their direction at 
the earth's surface, change direction with altitude in such a way as 
to become westerly by the time the four kilometer level has been 
reached. This tendency is shown by a comparison of surface winds 



Mean of Wind Observations in "Lows" at 3000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1 907-1 91 2. 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



of Wind Observations in " Highs " at 4000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912, 



TABLE I. 

TtJBHIKG OP WlKD WITH HeIOHT. 



IHKeiloii u Euth'i Surf.ce. 


No. of 


feSS 


C«.n.er-clock. 


,2s,. 




31 
SO 

46 
109 

337 


4S 
76 

76 
51 
41 
39 


35 
.18 


»o 
















37 






31 


NNW 



with those at the one kilometer level. By the time the three kilo- 
meter level has been reached, it is probable that isobars are no longer 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



Fig. 13. Mean of Wind Observations in " Lows " at 4000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-19 1 2, 

closed. The change in direction of the wind with height may be 
shown in a general way by Table I., based upon data obtained at 
the Mount Weather Observatory. 

Tables II. and III. show frequency and speed, respectively, of 
winds at different levels above Mount Weather. Table 11. indicates 
the decided increase in frequency of west and westerly winds with 
height. The increase in wind speed with height is rapid for the 
first 500 to 700 meters above the earth's surface, less rapid at 
higher levels. 

In the study of any convective system the temperature distribu- 
tion in the system is of prime consideration. The vertical distribu- 
tion of temperature is of interest to the aeronaut, not only in connec- 



202 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

tion with the filling and ascensional rates to be expected of balloons 
hut also as the best available index of the condition of the atmos- 
phere with respect to stability. 



Fig. 14. Mean of Wind Observations in " Highs " at 5000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912, 

Fig. 16 shows the temperature distribution throughout the year 
up to the five-kilometer level. It is based on 5 years of observation 
at Mount Weather. The isotherms are farther apart vertically in 
the winter than in the summer months, indicating less stable atmos- 
pheric conditions in the summer months. The decrease in the am- 
plitude of the annual variation of temperature with height is ap- 
parent ; also, the difference in rates of rise and fall of temperature 
before and after the annual maximum. 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 203 

Fig, 17 shows the vertical distribution of temperature to be ex- 
pected in the different quadrants of the high-pressure area, based 
on five years of observation at Mount Weather, while Fig. 18 con- 



FiG. 15. Mean of Wind Observations in "Lows" at 5000 Meters above Sea 
Level, 1907-1912. 

tains similar information for low-pressure areas. The temperature- 
altitude relation for a condition of neutral equilibrium in the atmos- 
phere would be represented on one of these charts by a line drawn 
at an angle of 45° to the axes. Such a gradient is more nearly ap- 
proached by average conditions in the high-pressure areas of the 
summer months than elsewhere, but the height to which it extends 
does not often exceed 1,500 meters in these latitudes. 

Other convective systems than the planetary are in independent 



204 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



TABLE II. 

Relative Frequency (Per Cent.) of Winds from the Different 

Directions Observed at Each Level. 



Wind Direction. 



N .... 
NNE , 
NE... 
ENE . 

E 

ESE .. 
SE.... 
SSE .. 

S 

SSW. 
SW... 
WSW. 
W ... 
WNW 
NW .. 



0.2 

« • • 

0.4 
0.4 

3.5 
2.6 

14. 1 
9.6 

7.5 
0.7 

2.1 

3.5 
8.9 

26.4 

17.0 

NNW 3.3 



526. 



Altitude of Each Level (Meters). 



750. I x.ooo. 



2.5 



0.2 
1.6 
2.0 
3.2 

10.6 
12.4 
6.5 
3.4 
3.4 
7.4 
20.1 

19.4 
7.2 



2.2 
I.I 
0.4 
0.2 

0.9 
2.2 
2.4 
6.2 
12.4 
7.6 
5.6 

4.9 
7.6 

19.5 

19.3 

7.6 



1.350. 


1,500. 


1.7 


2.0 


1.2 


1.8 


0.4 


0.2 


0.4 


• • • 


0.8 


0.8 


I.O 


0.8 


2.1 


0.8 


3.7 


2.0 


9.0 


6.4 


"5 


10.4 


8.0 


lO.O 


5.6 


6.8 


8.7 


10.2 


18.8 


19.0 


19.5 


19.2 


7.5 


9.4 



1,500.1 a.ooo. 3.500.1 3.000.1 3.500.1 4>ooo.< 4.500. 



2.8 
1.6 



0.5 



0.2 
0.9 
2.5 

8.8 

12.5 

7.6 

18.1 

19.7 
17.8 

6.9 



2.2 
2.2 



0.3 



0.8 
7.8 
I4.I 
7.2 
23.0 
18.8 
18.3 

5.3 



1.9 
1.9 



0.7 
5.6 
130 
13.0 
22.7 
21.3 

14.5 
5.6 



1.8 
1.2 



3.6 

13.6 

15.4 
21.9 

25.4 

13.6 

3.6 



1.9 



1.0 

9.4 

16.0 

28.3 

31. 1 

8.5 

3.8 



1.7 



6.9 

8.6 

36.2 

29.3 
12. 1 

5.2 



5,000 



12.S 

4.1 

50.0 

12.S 

8.3 

12.S 



operation. They are set up locally because of peculiarity of topog- 
raphy of the earth's surface or in its nature so far as ability to ab- 
sorb and radiate heat is concerned. The variation in the intensity 
of insolation during the twenty-four-hour period also gives rise to 
a convective system which is of especial interest to the aeronaut. 
Figs. 19 and 20 show the temperature distribution up to the three- 
kilometer level accompanying the diurnal convective system, as it 
has been observed at Mount Weather on clear days. Fig. 19 is 
based on data for the summer half of the year and Fig. 20 for the 
winter half. The horizontal circulation that obtains in this convec- 
tive system is not often in direct evidence. It usually manifests 
itself as a modification in the direction and speed of the wind pre- 
vailing at the time and need not now be further considered. The 
height to which turbulence in the air, caused by the heating of the 
earth's surface during the day, extends and the time of greatest ac- 
tivity in this stratum are shown to be, on the average, between 1.5 
and 2 kilometers above sea level in the summer months, between 
I and 1.5 kilometers in the winter months. The height of the ob- 
serving station on the Blue Ridge was 526 meters above sea level. 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



205 



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»-• MM roO ^ f*5 N -^ O O TT 

M M 


• 


•S'd'm 
'Xjpop^ aeaf^ 


• 




tOt«»rft>00»0 >OOnO O m t* 
oooot^OsOWMOOCiror' 


> <> 
5 d 

M 

o 
<* 

00 

o 

Ik M 


*taot)VAja« 
-qO jo-iaqranfj 


M 




M 0» M 00 0> 0>0 Ov Os •-• M oo 

M M lOO CO M M ^ M o 

M W 


5*6 
(Surface). 


•s'doi 
•XjtDopA a»»W 


00 

m 


O t^"0 »00 l^tot^OiO O t^O 
COTfiOOOO t^»o »O»OO00 O O 

M M 


'suof)«Ajas 
-qO JO aaquin^ 


M 


MCiOiOMtoro^c^OMC^oo 

C«M00tO^ MMIOIOC 

M 




• 

1 

Q 

•o 

a 


z 


2 


2 


w 
2 

u 


cii 




C/3 




t/3 


h 


1 
& 


& 


z 


^ 

2 


2 



PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, O, JUNE 20, I917. 



206 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 




Fig. i6. Mean free air temperatures above Motxnt Weather, Va. 

the station being 300 meters higher than the floors of the valleys 
on either side of the Ridge. Aerial navigation in this turbulent 
region is considerably more difficult than it would be outside the 
limits of the region. 






^ 


V 




1 1 1 

.TianMTim Bonn 






p=3 






\ 




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\ 


ntOMM 


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s» 


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Fig. 17. Temperature distribution in highs observed at Mount Weather. 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



^^\ -f- '' -u 




\S \ 


..j^v^^^^ : ^v ^ 


''!3^\ ^ ^ ^ t ' 


-esis^^SBs- : - t»^i^a- 




-^ \_-^ \ 


vS\^^ : ^ \ ^ 


\ V^ ^ "^ V v^ 


\^ \\ s^ :^ s; ■ 


^as:i^=E^»K^ : ifijriS^-i^ 



Fic. 18. Temperature distribution in lows observed at Mount Weather. 

The gustiness of the wind is also a source of some difficulty to 
the aeronaut. This is especially true of surface winds because here 
the gusts follow each other at shorter and less regular intervals than 
do those occurring in winds at the higher levels. Each gust con- 



"T" 



"T" 



VELOCITY MILES PER HOUR 



it|: 



m 



\i 



I,, ''I' I 



Fic. 22. Record of wind speed and force by pressure tube anemometer. 



208 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



A« M. P« W. 1 


12 1 


2 I 


1 4 


( 9 i 


i 1 


f 1 


1 9 10 It 12 1 





t 3 4 9 C 7 a 9 10 II 12 ] 


TEMP 

•c 




30 


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C 

4 
t 
2 




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16 




61 


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29 


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U 






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(TB. 



Fig. 19. Diurnal distribution of temperature for the summer half of the 

year at different levels above Mount Weather. 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 



209 



A. IVI, r. M. 1 


12 


; 


t 3 i 


1 S • 7 < 


1 


» 10 11 12 1 \ 


E 3 4 5 « ' 


7 y 


1 \ 


1 10 11 It 1 


TEMP. 

•c 














1— 




































TEMP. 

•c 

3 




3 


XX 


> M 


/ 






\ 








































-^ 


X 










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7 








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41 


50 


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-2 






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JL 


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/ 


T^ 


— 


N 


N 


V 


n 


\ 


> 


y 


— 


— 













— 




— 






— 




-4 
-5 


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20 


x> 


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\ 


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^ 


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~ 


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=■ 


I 


7 


^. 


/. 


y 


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-2 


















— 


s 


^s 


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y 


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-1 



-1 
























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4 


19 


DO 


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N 


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k 


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^ 


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81 


RF 
26 


AC 

M. 


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k 


s; 


^ 


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^ 








/ 


f 
































A 






































































































O'B, 



Fig. 20. Diurnal distribution of temperature for the winter half of the year 

at different levels above Mount Weather. 



210 



SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



^b.sa.m. Pressure 9 a.m. 

3 



1033.8 

1033.6 
1033.4 



1033.2 
.1033.0 



Vel. 
m.p.s. 

3 



1 




Dynes 
cm .2 
66 



N 

S 



Direction 



!••■• 



• ••• 

'• •••••••••• 



* ••••••« « 



• ••••• 



'••••• ••••••• 



*•••«•••••» 



E 
W 



B 



Fig. 21. Relation between speed, force, pressure and direction in wind gusts. 

sidered separately is a complete convective unit in which occur ap- 
propriate changes in air pressure, temperature and in speed and di- 
rection of movement. Fig. 21 illustrates a series of changes in wind 
speed with accompanying changes in wind direction and air pressure. 
Fig. 22 (see page 207) is a part of a record made by a pressure 
tube anemometer showing frequency and amplitude of gusts as they 
occur in the average westerly wind. The acceleration in the hori- 



BLAIR— AEROLOGY. 211 

zontal component of the wind speed shown is about 7.5 centimeters 
per second. It would require a horizontal acceleration of 17 to 20 
times this amount to sustain a bird or a well-constructed glider in 
soaring flight, but together with the changes in direction in the 
horizonal plane recorded by our instruments, vertical changes in 
direction occur in these gusts which are really only a series of ex- 
pansions and contractions in the moving air. 

When the air expands and contracts with sufficient rapidity, the 
vibrations become audible. The use of fhese vibrations and pos- 
sibly of aerial vibrations of still higher frequency in detecting the 
presence of aircraft or as a means of communication between air- 
craft or to receiving stations is outside the scope of this paper. 

The subject of atmospheric electricity and possibly closely con- 
nected with it the loading of aircraft with liquid or solid HjO are 
also matters of interest to the aeronaut. So far not much has been 
done toward the solution of the problems arising from these atmos- 
pheric conditions. It is likely that the solid formations, both crys- 
talline and amorphous, occur more readily, if not altogether, on 
electrically charged surfaces. 

U. S. Weather Bureau, 
Washington, D. C 



THEORY OF AN AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING 

GUSTS, II. 

By EDWIN BIDWELL WILSON. 

1. This discussion is an immediate continuation of my previous 
treatment of the subject published in the First Annual Report of 
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, 
1915, pp. 52-75 (Senate Document, 268, 64th Congress, ist Session, 
reference to which will be by pages). The notations of that work 
will be continued without change except as hereafter noted. 

Periodic Longitudinal Gusts. 

2. That there is a certain degree of periodicity in gusts is obvious 
from casual observation, from the records of scientific observatories 
like Blue Hill, and from the familiar fact that all such phenomena 
in nature reveal a general tendency toward periodicity. Needless to 
say the periodicity is not mathematically exact in its regularity nor 
indefinite in continuance. 

The object, however, of an investigation of the eflfect of periodic 
gusts on an aeroplane can for practical purposes be no other than 
to reveal any exceptional eflFects that periodic, as compared with 
single, gusts may have upon the flight of the machine; and these 
exceptional eflFects will probably be indicated with sufficient practical 
completeness by an analysis built on the assumption of strict 
periodicity, long continued in operation — ^the phenomenon most to be 
feared being resonance. 

3. The longitudinal gusts are in, i**, head-on velocity u^; 2®, 
vertical velocity w^ ; 3°, rotary velocity q^. Very little is known as 
to the nature of rotary gusts (p. 65) and hence 3"* may be left aside. 
It is not easy to see how vertical gusts can have any pronotmced 
periodicity; the disturbance of the aeroplane's motion by vertical 

212 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 213 

gusts is (p. 64), except for very sharp gusts, essentially a convection 
of the machine with and by the gust ; for both these reasons 2** may 
be discarded. This leaves only i** — periodicity in the head-on 
gustiness — ^as likely to be of interest. 
The gust may be assumed in the form 

u^=J sin pt or Ui=Je^PK (i) 

The differential equations are (p. 59) 

f(D)u =— (o.i28D» + i.i6oZ>» + 3.3850 + o.9i7)ttx, 

/(D)z«;= — D»(o.557Z) + 2.458)tt„ (2) 

/(Z?) tf=— 0.0285 iZ)Wi, 

with f(D) =D* + 8.49D^ + 24.5^' + 3385^ + 0.917 

= (D^ + 8.359^ + 23.37) (D^ + 0.1308Z? + 0.03924). 

4. In the previous investigation it was found that the short- 
period heavily damped oscillation was not of much significance 
except in the case of a sharp up-gust (pp. 62-69), and that its 
significance in that case was not revealed in the major motion of the 
machine but in the initial acceleration (or stress) upon it. It may 
therefore be expected that for periodic head-on gusts the short- 
period motion will be negligible in its effects. It is consequently 
desirable to carry out the numerical analysis in such a way as to 
separate, so far as may be, the short and long natural periods of 
the machine. 

Let us separate into partial fractions the operator 

_i I 

/(P) " {D^ + S.359D + 23.37) (I>2 + o.i3o8I> + 0.03924) ' 
or 

I o.oi6Z> -f 0.089 — 0.01601P + 0.04263 , . 

+ T.. . or. . ^ Z' (3) 



f(D) D^ + 8.359Z> + 23.37 ' Z>2 + o.i3o8I> -}- 0.03924 ' 

The first fraction has to do with the short, the second with the long 
oscillation. The two operators are to be applied to certain ex- 
pressions derived from (i) by substitution in (2). 

5. If D = ip, the numerators of (3) have the respective magni- 
tudes 

(0.0892 -f. o.oi62/)2)i/2 and (0.0426^ -f o.oi6^p^yiK 



214 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

For p = o, the second is about half the first; for p=oo, the two 
are equal ; the numerators therefore do not differ greatly in magni- 
tude for any value of p. 

The ratio of the denominators is 

^ ^ r (.03924 -/>')^+»i308y T^' 
L (23.37 - P"? + 8.329^/>» J ' 

and is very small when p is less than i. For larger values of p, we 
have approximately 

Hence the short oscillations may be neglected when P < i without 
introducing much error; but as p increases beyond the value i, the 
importance of the short oscillation grows rapidly. 

6. Consider first the case /^ < i, neglecting the short oscillation. 
The particular solutions for u, w, and tf, that is, lu, Iw, I$% are ob- 
tained from the imaginary parts of 

u — .01601/H + .04263 , « o. . , « ^ .* 

J -/>2 + .i308/>i + .03924^ ^ ^ ^ ooDir 

- .9i7)e*'S 

To estimate the value of p corresponding to the maximum dis- 
ttu°bance we may examine the amplitude of 6/ J, which is 

'<' .,o„J (-04263)^ + (•oi6j>)^ T" ,. 

amp. ;^ = . 028514 (^3^^^^), ^(^3^3^), J • (5) 

The calculation gives />*= 0.0394 or /» =0.1985. The value of the 
amplitude is then about 0.0095/ radians or 0.54/ degrees. If / 
should be 20 ft./sec, the forced oscillation would have an amplitude 
of about 10**. 

7. As the use of /» = 0.1985 in calculating is somewhat more 
complicated than the use of p = o.2, and as the change from 0.1985 
to 0.2 does not materially alter the amplitude of the forced oscilla- 
tion (and probably does not exceed the error of observations), we 



WILSON— A£:R0PLANE encountering gusts. . 215 

may use p=o.2 in calculating the effect of a periodic gust of 
maximum resonance on the aeroplane. We shall first note that 
for ^ = 0.2 the ratio of the amplitudes of the two fractions in (3) 
is of the order 400 to i, and the first fraction is therefore entirely 
n^ligible in determining the particular integrals. 
For the second fraction we have the complex value 

4.263 - .32* (4.275» - 4.3°) 



A-275 ^, «\ 
^[^JTy^ -95.9 j, 



2.6i6i — .076 (2.617, 91.6°) 
where the parentheses contain the polar coordinates of the complex 
numbers. The expressions into which this is multiplied to determine 
the coefficients of e*^* are for u/J, w/J, 6/ J respectively 

— 0.922 — 0.676*= (i. 144, 216.24**), 
0.0983 + 0.00456*= (.0984, 2.67**), 

— 0.00571= (.0057, —90^). 
Hence the values of u/J, w/J, 0/J are 

w//= ( — .965 + 1.650 (cos at + i sin .2t), 
w/J= ( — .00918 — .164O (cos. .2t + i sin .2O, 
B/J = ( — .00948 + .000981) (cos ,2t + i sin .2t) , 
and /i, = /(i.65 cos ,2t — .965 sin .2t), 
I^=J(^ — .164 cos 2t — .0092 sin .2t). 
/^=/(. 00098 cos .2t — .00948 sin .2O, 
I '=J( — .0019 cos ,2t — .0002 sin .2O, 

7.0=1.65/, /«o = — .164/, 7^0 = -00098/, /%o=— .0019/. 

8. On substituting these values to find the constants of integra- 
tion (p. 61), it is found that A and C, corresponding to the short 
oscillation in u, are negligible. Also 5== — 1.65/, Z) = .726/. 
Hence 

« = /^-0654t(_i.65 COS .187^+. 726 sin .187O 

+7(1.65 cos .2t — .965 sin .2t). 

In like manner (p. 62), A' and C are small and B' = .i76/, D' 
= — .051/. 



216 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

zt;=/^-«"«(.i76 COS .187^ — .051 sin .187O 

— /(.164 cos .2f + .oo9 sin .2t) — .012/^*"* cos 243^. 

(The last term is added as a check on the initial condition w=o.) 
Finally (p. 62), A" = ,00007/, S" = . 00104/, D" = .oio9/, and 

^=/^-065«(_ 00104 cos .187^ + .0109 sin .187O 

+ /(. 00098 cos .2t — .00948 sin .2t) +.00007/^*"* cos 2.43^ 

9. Now to find the rise of the machine when the gust strikes it 
(p. 64). 

w+ 115.50= Je-'^''^^* {,056 cos .187^+1.208 sin .187^) 

— /(.osi cos .2^+1.064 sin ,2t). 

The cosine terms may be omitted. The integration then gives 

^=5.32/ cos .2t + o.44J — /^-•®«"*(2 sin .187^ + 5.76 cos .187O. 

A table of values of xr may be computed as : 

^=0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 

xr// = o, o, — .15, — .54, — 1. 16, — 1.90, — 2.60, — 2.97. 

This shows the rise or drop, according as / is negative or posi- 
tive, during the first quarter minute. The values of 2 now fall off, 
pass through o, and only become large as t nears 35. The natural 
oscillation is then becoming less effective relative to the forced 
oscillation which has a double amplitude of about 10.6/, or 202 ft. 
if /=:20 ft/sec. 

As the existence of a regular periodic gust for any long time is 
almost unbelievable, the only real interest in the calculation is in 
showing that during the first 15 seconds the effect of resonance fails 
to become so far established that the motion differs appreciably from 
that due to the simple head-on gust previously studied (p. 74). 

10. In the case of the machine constrained to remain horizontal 
during flight (by some automatic steering device), the corresponding 
equations (p. 69) are for u^=Je^^* 

u^_ .128^ + .598 

J .598 - P' + 4.078pi ' 

!?= -557^^ ,,, 

J .598 - P' + 4.078pi • 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 217 

As the natural motion is no longer periodic, there can hardly be 
any such thing as resonance, in the usual acceptation of that term. 
We can, however, ask what value of p will make w/J a maximum 
and hence induce the maximum oscillation in the vertical motion. 
To maximize 

_ £ I 

(.598 - p^)^ + 4.078^^' "^^ 4.0782 +(/,- .598//>)2 
take p*^ 0.598 or /> = 0.774. The value of w/J is then 

w/J = — o. 1 36^*P^ 

and the amplitude of w is 0.136/. The amplitude of the oscillation 
corresponding to the particular solution /«, is 0.175/. 

Thus again it is seen that the steering device makes the motion 
far easier than when the machine is free (p. 70). There seems to 
be no need of carrying out the details of the int^ration. 

Note on Resonance. 

II. In defining, by implication, a state of resonance in the calcula- 
tions above, I have assumed that it was the angle which was to be 
maximized by the proper choice of the frequency p of the applied 
periodic force. It may be well to take up the theory of resonance in 
a little greater detail, for there are complications in the kind of 
system we have here to consider. 

A. G. Webster, in his "Dynamics of Particles, etc.," Teubner, 
1904, p. 175, gives general formulas for resonance and shows that 
if the damping coefficients are small and if the frequency of the im- 
pressed force nearly coincides with that of the natural oscillation, 
the amplitude of the forced vibration will be relatively large. 

This is not enough. For in the first place, the damping coeffi- 
cients in the case of the aeroplane can hardly be regarded as small 
(they sometimes exceed the frequencies) ; in the second place, we are 
not even certain that the motion of the system is wholly oscillatory 
(some of the roots may be real, and even positive if the machine has 
a certain amount of dynamical instability) ; and in the third place, 
under such conditions, the amplitude of the forced oscillation may be 
considerably greater when the frequency of the applied force is 



218 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

materially different from that of the system (supposed oscillatory) 
than when the system and the force are nearly synchronous. 

12. The ordinary theory of simple resonance depends on the 
equation 

(Z?» + kD + n)x=J sin pt. 

The particular solution 

is the imaginary part of the expression 



X = 



n-i^ + kpi' 

The amplitude of /« is the same as the modulus of the complex 
value X. The modulus of e*^* is i ; that of x is 

, / 

amp. i, - j^^ _ ^y ^ jfe2^]i/2 • 

13. To make the denominator a minimum we have merely to 
minimize 

(n — qy + k% q = p^>o. 

We find q = n — ik^, necessitating n>ife*. If, then, n>&*, the 
maximum amplitude of /» is 

max. amp. i, = - 



where the positive or negative sign must be taken according as k is 
positive or negative. If » < ^k^, the maximum amplitude for /* 
occurs when p=o and is J/n, 

The amplitude is large when k or (n — ik^y is small; it is very 
large when both conditions are satisfied. The largest possible value 
occurs when n=ik^ and is y/2j/k^. In this case the applied force 
has an indefinitely small frequency where the natural oscillation has 
the frequency ife/V^. The theory of the system here considered is 
given by Webster (op. cit., p. 155). 

14. The case which corresponds to that in which we are in- 
terested is where the system starts from rest at the position of 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 219 

equilibrium. The motion is then defined by the equation 



J<n-W 



X = I^^rrTwT (^"**' COS Vw - \kH - cos Vw - \kH) 

+ -7 tiTn ( - 7- -v" e-**< sin Vn^-Jp/ - sin Vw - ^jfe^/ ) . 

Under normal conditions this quantity remains tolerably small 
until the natural motion is nearly damped out or until that motion 
has time to increase greatly (fe>o). Even if n^=\k^ -^t^k^, the 
equation becomes 

2jt 2 J 

X = -p- (e""**' cos ^kt — cos ekt) + t^ (ce"**' sin ^kt — sin cJfe/), 

and the conclusion still holds. 

For the simple system ordinarily treated for resonance the state- 
ment that the motion must be only slightly damped and the frequen- 
cies of the natural and forced vibrations must be reasonably near 
together, is therefore amply justified. The result holds even when 
« < i*^> in which case the maximum amplitude for Ix (resonance) 
occurs when p = o and is J/n, 

15. The next simplest case is like that which arises in treating 
the constrained longitudinal motion (^=0) of the aeroplane (p. 69) : 

{D + a)u-\-bw=^ — awi — bw^, a = .i28, 6= — .162, 

cu + {D+ d)w=—cui — dw^, c = .557, d = 3-95- 

The natural motion is given by 

A' = I>2 +(a + d)D + {ad — be) =0, 

and in this case by D^ + 4.078Z? + .598 = o. Here the roots are 
both real, viz., — 3.93 and — 0.15. So far as the equation in D is 
concerned we have the case where k is large and n is small. The 
equations for the forced motion are 

A'm= — {aD + n)u^ — bDw^, 

A'z«;= — {dD -\-n)w^ — cu^. 

The question now arises : What is it that is to be a maximum ? 



220 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

For some purposes it might be the variables w or w — for example, 
the whole theory of gusts here given depends on the gust being 
small and producing small effects, and if by an applied force, the 
values of M or w should become too large, the theory would become 
worthless. Again, if the question had to do with the strain on the 
machine, the derivatives du/dt and dw/dt would be the essential 
objects of interest, and should be maximized. Finally it might be 
the values x==ifudt and z=^[wdt — ^the actual displacements of the 
machine — ^which we desired to examine. Let us therefore consider 
several problems seriatim. 

i6. Case i. — To maximize u with a head-on gust Wi^^****. 

^ __ aip + n .^^ ^ __ A2Sip+,59S .^^ 
" A' ^ .598 - ^ + 4.098i/> ^ ' 

The maximum value of 

.i282/)2 + .5982 .i282(/>2 + 21.83) 



(.598 - t^y + ^'OgS'P" P' + i5'59P' + .3576 

occurs when p^ is o, that is, "resonance" occurs for p = o, the 
amplitude of the force and the oscillation being the same. 

Case 2, — To maximize w with a head gust. 

This was treated above (§ 10). The ratio .136 was found; the 
required value of p was .776. 

Case J. — To maximize u with an up-gust Wj. 

.i62pi 

u = P*P^ 

.598 - />* + 4-098/>* ■ 
The condition is /> => .776 as is Case 2 ; the ratio is .04. 
Case 4. — To maximize w with an up-gust. 

^ Z-9 ?,pi + -598 jp, 

•598 - />* + 4-098/>t *^ • 

The maximum value of 

3 95'^' + -598' ^ 3-95'(/>' + -0228) _ 
(.598 - p'Y + 4.0982/>2 p* + 15.59^2 + .3576 

occurs when />* = .022 and />=.i5, and the amplitude ratio is 
about I. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 221 

We note the very different values of p thus found, namely, o, 0.15, 
0.776, according to the choice of case. If in Case i, we had taken 
p^'iS, the amplitude ratio would have been about .7 instead of i ; 
if p = -776 had been assumed, the ratio would have been .37 instead 
of I. 

Case 5. — If we desired to maximize s we should have had to 
treat 

« I 3>95^' + .598//> 

i .598 -p^ + 4.098^ ' 

which would have given an infinite amplitude ratio for ^ = o. 

17. Now if we turn to the free machine and try to maximize 
fOdt instead of ^, we have to maximize 

.042632 + ,oi6^p^ 



(.03924' - P")' + .i3o82/>2 

instead of (5, §6). The value of p^ is about .0307 and of p about 
.17s instead of .2 as before. The amplitude ratio is then only 
slightly in excess (about 4 per cent.) of that previously found — ^in 
other words the numerical values are such that resonance for and 
for fOdt, which is the preponderating term in the expression for 2, 
occurs for considerably different values of p, but the effect is about 
the same. This may be regarded as validating our procedure (§6) 
in maximizing instead of fSdt, 

18. To sum up this discussion of resonance as applied to the 
aeroplane we may say that the frequencies which produce "reso- 
nance " depend largely upon the quantity in which the effect of reso- 
nance is to be sought and that the frequency which makes for a 
strong resonant effect in one quantity may make on another an effect 
much weaker than the maximum — or it may not. 

19. There remains to discuss the question whether the effect of 
resonance is practically serious, 1. e,, whether as in the case of the 
motion of the machine, above treated, the effect fails to make itself 
felt until after so long a time that the pilot would be entirely able to 
deal with it or the wind would really have in all probability ceased 
to be periodic with the period required. 

Now in order to insure that resonance is effective both of itself 



222 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

and as against the natural motion, we should reasonably expect to 
require, i**, that the resonant frequency p be large (for if it be small 
the pilot will have ample time to take care of it), and that, 2**, it be 
reasonably diflferent from any natural frequency which is only 
slightly damped (for in the latter case the initial conditions will 
probably be such as to cause the natural and forced effects to clash 
for a considerable interval of time). 

This problem in its generality is so complicated that I have as yet 
been unable to determine whether there may be practically serious 
effects due to resonance, but from the cases I have here treated, from 
the general considerations which I have advanced, with due regard 
to the restrictions on p which appear to be reasonable, and from cases 
which I have examined without mentioning them here, I should 
judge that resonance is not a practically serious matter in longi- 
tudinal motion, and that we may safely confine our attention to gusts 
of the form /(i — e-''*). 

20. One type of resonance which deserves consideration is that 
of the damped harmonic gust Je~^* sin pt. It would be conjectured 
that if — n±: pi were nearly equal to a pair of roots of A = o, there 
might arise a considerable disturbance. It is not likely that a gust 
of this type would exist in reality, but the commencement of any 
gust might resemble very closely the commencement of such a gust 
and if the effect of this type were very marked as compared to that 
of the types already considered, it would be necessary, for the sake 
of foreseeing the worst that could happen, to discuss this type. 

I have not time to take the matter up here. Moreover, I imagine 
that it would be found that the constants of integration turned out 
to have such values that the gust, though tuned in damping and in 
frequency to the natural motion of the machine, did not have very 
large effects except in cases where n and p were small enough to 
allow the pilot easily to correct for the disturbance. 

The damped periodic gust has been treated by Brodetsky,^ who 
finds the amplitude of the particular solution is a maximum (for the 
machine I am dealing with) when ^= i6 sec. and is then a tolerably 
large quantity, — ^but the pilot has a quarter of a minute in which to 
react to his environment. It is, however, by no means certain that 

* Aeronautical Journal, London, ao, 1916, p. 154. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 223 

the pilot would have to react so quickly — the constants of integra- 
tion might turn out, as I have just suggested, such that the motion 
during the first quarter minute was not far different from that in 
the case of the simple gust. This was what was found to 'happen in 
the case of the periodic gust above treated (§9). The amplitude of 
the vertical motion so far as the particular solution was concerned 
turned out to be about 5.3/, but the constants of integration were 
such as to postpone the major effect of the particular solution until 
30 or 40 seconds had elapsed. If we have a damped harmonic gust 
and such a postponement were operative, the damping would become 
effective and the gust might turn out to have at no time an effect 

much in excess of the maximum effect of a single gust of the form 
/(i_e-rt). . 

Infinitely Sharp Gusts. 

21. In my previous paper I discussed gusts /(i — e^^*) rising 
from zero to / with various degrees of sharpness depending on the 
value of r — the larger r, the sharper the gust. An infinitely sharp 
gust would be one for which r was indefinitely large. Such a gust 
would represent an absolute discontinuity in the velocity of the wind. 
This is impossible, though it represents a state of aerial motion 
which may be nearly approached. Moreover, the infinitely sharp 
gust could not strike the machine all over at once, and hence the 
theoretical effect of such a gust on the assumption that the machine 
is instantaneously immersed must differ from the actual effect upon 
a machine running into a discontinuity in the wind velocity. 

For this reason one may well limit his considerations to finite 
gusts with a value of r not greater than 5, say, as I did. Neverthe- 
less if the calculation of the effect of an infinitely sharp gust is 
simpler than for a finite gust and if the limiting motion derived for 
such a gust is not appreciably different from that for a sharp gust 
of reasonable sharpness, the discussion of the limiting case will be 
justified. 

22. Consider first the longitudinal motion and a head-on gust 
«i=/(i — ^^0> ^ enormously large. According to the symbolic 
method D= — r must be substituted to find the particular solution 
for e^K As, however, A is of the fourth degree in D and all the 



224 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

polynomials upon the right hand are of degree 3 or less, the result 
of the substitution is easy to find. 

For example, when Wj=/(i — e^*), 

7«//=— I — ^'•^(.128/r), Iuo=—J, 

/«,//=— ^'•'(.557/0, /»o = o, 

I,/J =^ — ^^(,02851/1^) =0, /,o = o, 

r,/J = e'r* {.02851 /r') =0, /'^=o. 
The equations of motion are 

ti// = ^-*"'(.ooo9 cos 2.43^+ .0032 sin 2.43O 

+ e-^®^**(.999i cos .187^ — .3577 sin .iSyt) — i — e'''^(,i28/r), 

w/J = e'*^^*(.io66 cos 2.43^ — .0435 sin 2.43O 

+ e-^«"'(— .1066 cos .i87f + .03S2 sin .187O— ^''*(.5S7A), 

iootf//=ir*"'( — .0402 cos 2.43^ — .0278 sin 2.43O 

_j. ^.0654* (0402 cos .187^— .6683 sin .187O. 

The calculation of the constants of integration is much simplified. 
The terms c^'^/r are retained because the stresses (forces) due to 
the gust are calculated from du/dt and dw/dt to which these terms 
make an initial contribution — there is an instantaneous initial stress. 
When f=o, 

du/dt =: (.128 — .004 — .008 — .085 — .067)/= — ,oi6J, 

dw/dt = (.557 — .446 — .106 + .007 + .006)/=: .018/. 

These are the initial accelerations and should vanish because the 
gust though infinitely sharp begins at zero. That they do not 
vanish is due to an accumulation of errors. 

23. Immediately after the initial instant, however, the first terms, 
viz., .128 and .557, being multiplied by e'''* vanish. The other terms, 
however, being multiplied by comparatively slow changing func- 
tions are not altered. Hence immediately after the first instant 
there are accelerations — .128/ and — -557/ along the x and s axes 
respectively. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 225 

To put it another way, there is a discontinuity in the stress at the 
initial instant — as might be expected. The amounts of the discon- 
tinuities are also just what might be expected, viz., X«/ and Z«/. 
In like manner for an up-gust the initial discontinuities in accelera- 
tion are XyoJ and Z«,/ along the x and z axes. These results could 
have been foreseen from the differential equations themselves as 
well as from " common sense." The path in space is not materially 
diflferent for an infinitely sharp gust from what it is for a reason- 
ably sharp gust. 

It may therefore be said that a tolerably good idea of what 
happens for sharp gusts may be had from the consideration of 
infinitely sharp gusts. 

24. It has just been stated that the conclusions concerning the 
initial accelerations may be foreseen from the differential equations. 
This may be proved as follows : We have 

{D — Xu)u— Xviv — Xqq — gO=^ XuU^ + X^w^ + Xqq^, 

— ZuU +{D — Z^)w— (Zq + U)q = ZuU^ + Z^w^ + Z^g^, 

(6) 

De—q==o, 

where the equations have been reduced to four involving only the 
first derivatives of the four variables u, w, q, 6, with the initial condi- 
tions u = w=q=^6=^o, by the device of choosing q = D9 as an 
independent variable so as to eliminate the second derivatives. 

These equations determine the first derivatives at the initial 
instant or at any instant in terms of the values of the variables at 
that instant, namely, 

Du = XuU + Xu>w + Xqq + gO + XuU^ -f Xy^w^ + Xqq^ 

Dw = Z^u -f Z^w + Zqq -}- [/^ -j- ZtiWi -\- Z^w^ -f Zqq^, 

(7) 

k^Dq = MuU -\- MufW -f Mqq + MuU^^ + M^Wj^ -f Af ^1, 
De=q. 
At the initial instant u, w, q, vanish. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, P, JUNE 21, I917. 



226 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

Wijth an infinitely sharp gust Mj, w^, q^ may be considered as not 
vanishing but as starting at finite values, Ju, Jw, Jq- The derivatives 
are then at the initial instant 

DW = Zulu "f" ZuJv) ~t~ ZqJq^ 

(8) 

*B*^9 = ^^^^ +MvJw + Mqjq, 
D6=0, 

The first two equations give the X and Z accelerations of the ma- 
chine which determine the stresses as the accelerations times the 
mass. 

We have, for numerical values, 

Z)w= — .i28/« + .i62/«, + o/<„ if Xq=Q, 

/?w=— .S57/„ — 3.9S/«, + o/<„ if Zq=o, 

34Dq =noJu + i .7AJ^ — i S^^. if Mu = o. 

The last equation determines the couple tending to break the ma- 
chine, by bending in the jr-r-plane, on multiplication by the mass m. 

25. That which I have called an infinitely sharp gust is not an 
impulsive gust. The implusive gust is both infinitely sharp and 
infinitely intense, but endures for only an infinitesimal time. The 
effect of an impulsive gust is to produce instantaneous changes in 
u, w, q. Such an impulse, like the impulses of ordinary mechanics, 
puts an infinite strain on the machine for an infinitesimal time, and 
the only way to tell whether the machine will stand the strain is to 
take the yielding of the framework into account — it is a problem 
in elasticity. For the purpose of calculating the stresses produced 
by gusts on the machine I therefore prefer the sharp gust to the 
impulsive gust. 

For the purpose of treating the motion of the machine after the 
gust strikes it — the gust being now a sudden fierce squall in other- 
wise still air — we have merely to determine the constants of integra- 
tion from the initial condition Uq, Wq, q^, and ^=0, where u^, Wq, q^ 
are the impulsively generated velocities. These equations are 
(p. 61): 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 227 

u^ = A + B, 

Wo =— 4.04^ + 34.5C— .1058/? + .002587/?, 

(9) 

0= — .132^ — .0946C + .002478B + .005799Z?, 

^0 = .703^ + .20SC — .OOI246Z) + .OOOO84Z). 

Analytically the effect of the impulsive gust upon the equations 
for determining the constants of integration is merely to replace the 
initial values of the particular solutions luo, Iwo, I$o» I'$o» obtained 
on the hypothesis of finite gusts, by the respective values — Uq, 
— Wq, o, — ^0- The effect of the disturbance may therefore be 
calculated at once from my equations (23), (24), (25), (26), as 
soon as the values u^, Wq, Qo have been determined. 

26. In the calculation of Uq, Wq, q^ the same doubt arises as in 
the theory of any very sharp gust, namely, the effect of the partial 
immersion of the machine. Is the effect of a blow traveling along a 
mechanism the same as that of the blow applied instantaneously at 
all points of the mechanism? The possibility of a difference be- 
tween the instantaneous immersion and the immersion distributed in 
time would arise only if, i**, the machine had time enough to change 
its orientation appreciably or, 2**, the acquired velocities were suffi- 
cient to change the relative wind and thus affect considerably the 
impulsive pressure. 

Even if we assume that no material difference in effect is to be 
expected, it is difficult to make the proper assumptions to lead to 
reasonably satisfactory values for Uq, Wq, q^ for any actual machine 
whose characteristics are expressed in terms of the mechanical 
coefficients m, kg^, U, and the aerodynamical coefficients Xu, X^, Xq, 
Zu, Zw, Zq, Mu, Mu), Mq, It is by no means certain that for a con- 
siderable aerial disturbance the finite instantaneous changes in u, w, 
q can be calculated from the equations (8) by replacing D by the 
sign A for the increment and taking Ju, Jw, Jq as the intensities of 
the impulsive gusts ; for the nine coefficients Xu, etc., vary with the 
intensity of the relative wind. 

It is for this reason that I have used finite gusts of various 
degrees of sharpness instead of impulsive gusts. Moreover, it is 



228 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

not certain but the finite gust represents more nearly actual condi- 
tions in the air when flying is at all possible. 

An article by Brodetsky, with an introduction by Bryan, has re- 
cently reached this country ,2 in which impulsive gusts are considered, 
relative to Bryan's skeleton aeroplane consisting of a forward main 
plane and rear tail plane. The discussion is both interesting and 
important as is everything to which Bryan, the great pioneer in this 
subject, sets his name, but it does not seem to help me, so far as I 
have yet been able to examine it, in r^ard to the effect of an im- 
pulsive gust upon a machine whose properties are actually de- 
termined in the wind tunnel. I have therefore decided to let stand 
the brief general considerations above. 

The Action of the Air Screw. 

27. In the work to this point, I have made for the discussion of 
gusts the same assumption concerning the action of the propeller 
that Htmsaker, Bairstow, and others have made for discussions of 
stability, namely, that under varying conditions the motor speeds up 
or slows down so as to deliver a constant thrust along the ^-axis. 

It would be equally reasonable, from some points of view more 
reasonable, to assume that under changing conditions of relative air 
velocity a motor speeds up or slows down so as to deliver the same 
effective horsepower. We should then have the power P equal to 
the thrust H (taken positive) multiplied by the velocity — U : 

UdH + uH^o, 

dH=-ff^= -P^. (10) 

This is an additional force which is directed along the X-axis if 
the propeller shaft is horizontal for the velocity of flight — C7. If 
in the standard condition the shaft is not horizontal there would be 
components 

u u 

— Pjj^cosa, +Pjj^s\na 

^Aeronautical Journal, London, 20, 1916, 139-156. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 229 

along the x and z axes, a being the angle from the horizontal up to 
the direction of the shaft. Furthermore if the shaft did not pass 
through the center of gravity there would be a pitching moment 
— Phu/U^ if h is the distance of the line of the shaft above the 
center of gravity. 

28. The equations for the natural longitudinal motion would 
then be 

yo - X, + -^ jtt - X^w - {X,D + g)e = o, (11) 

the other two equations remaining unchanged, if we assume for 
simplicity that a=A==o. The effect of the varying thrust is to 
change X« to Xu—Pg/mU^. We have the value Xu= — .128 for 
this machine. If the effective propeller horsepower were 87 for 
f/= — 1 15.5, the value Pg/mU^ is 

Pg 87X550X32 .^ 

= .063. 



mlP 1800X13350 

The modification of the equations of motion on replacing Xu 
= — .128 by Xti= — .191 would make an appreciable, though not 
very serious change. 

The determinant A would become 

34Z?* + 290.8Z?« + 85o.9Z>* + i65.iZ> + 31.18 

= 34(Z?* + 8.553^' + 25.03/?^ + 4.856Z? + .917) 
as compared with 

34(Z?* + Sa9oD^ + 24.50/)^ + 3.385^ + .917). 
The rapidly damped oscillation would, as a first approximation, be 

— 4.276 d= 2.596* instead of — 4.245 it 2.545*. 

The first approximation for the small root would be 

— .097 ± .177* instead of — .069 d= .i8ii. 

The damping would be more pronounced and the oscillation a trifle 
faster. 

29. It may be concluded that whether the screw is supposed to 



230 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

deliver a constant thrust or a constant power is not very important 
to the theory either of stability or of gusts. It is not unlikely that 
the actual behavior of the screw lies within the limits set by these 
two assumptions or sufficiently near to one of the limits to validate 
the use of either hypothesis. 

The Aeronautical Journal, London, 20, 1916, p. 142, quotes 
Bairstow and Fage as giving the formula 

rf//= — ,oiiHdV, V in miles per hour, 

which is rf//= — xxfj^fldV, V in feet per second. 

With [/= 115.5 numerically we would have for constant power 

rf//= — .oo866//dF, V in feet per second; 

and, if I understand correctly the use of the signs + and — in the 
quotation, the results are in as good agreement as could be expected 
in view of the fact that I have no knowledge of the value of t/ 
for which the data quoted are given. (If the motor and screw were 
exactly designed to give a maximum efficiency at a standard speed 
IJ, we could not expect the efficiency to be the same at relative air 
speeds either higher or lower, and this would slightly influence the 
result.) 

Equations for Lateral Motion. 

« 

30. The differential equations for the lateral motion of a machine 
in a gust may be written as (p. 54) : 

rfv/* + 5<^+ I/r— Krv— Kp^— Krr=K«Vi + Kp^+ Krfi, 

A/m. dp/dt — LvV — LpP — Lrr = LvV^ + LpP^ + Lrr^, (12) 

C/m, dr/dt — NvV — Npp — Nrr=NvV^ + Npp^ + Nrr^, 

where the terms involving the small unknown product of inertia E 
have been neglected and gusts of the type Vi, ^1, r^ have been 
allowed. 

The gust v^ corresponds to a side wind. A change in the direc- 
tion of the wind by a small angle would produce such a gust even 
in absence of any change in the wind velocity. The gust Pi is a 
totary gust tending to produce a bank ; as a disturbance in the air 
it would correspond to a horizontal roller run into end-on (axially). 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 



231 



The gust fi corresponds to a column of air rotating about a vertical 
line. 

This last is a common type of aerial disturbance, easily observed 
on a warm day, often of very small diameter compared with the 
spread of the wings of an aeroplane, and accompanied by a strong 
rising current of air. Such a vertical vortex, if small, might strike 
one wing of the machine alone, and, due to the rising current, heel 
it over suddenly. It is, however, not this small local disturbance 
which we can consider by our methods here, but the larger and more 
gentle rotation in the air which might immerse the whole machine 
many times over and which produces a yawing motion in the 
machine rather than (primarily) a roll or bank. 

31. Fhice D = d/dt. Then the equations are 

{D-Y,)v+ig-Y,J)).l>+iU-Yr)r=Y,v,+Y,p,+Yrr^. 

—L,v+ik/D—L,)Di>—Lrr=LvV^+Lfp^+Lrr^, (13) 

—NvV—NfD<trJr (kc*D—Nr)r=NvV^+N,p,+Nrr„ 

where kj*=A/m and \t^ = C/m. "The determinant whose vanish- 
ing determines the natural motion is 

D-Y, g-Y^ 
A = -L, k^^D* - LpD 
-N, - N,J) 

Let the cofactors of A be 



U- Y. 

-Lr 



«ii = 



ill = 



«!• = 



«M = 



«a = 



$a=r 



kJD* -LpD -Lr 
- NpD kc^D - Nr 

-Lr -L, 

kc*D-Nr -N, 

- L„ k^D^ - LpD 

-N, - NfD 

- NJD kc*D - Nr 
g-Y,D U-Yr 

D-Y, U-Yr 

- JV. kc*D - Nr 

-N, - NpD 
D-Y, g-YpD 



- 2592D* + 23140Z)* + 8478I>, 



= - 59-55^ - 26.55, 



= - 32.842?* - 280.71?, 



= - 2270D - 868.8, 



= 70.62?* + 44.52? + 109.9, 



= 28.76, 



232 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 



5ai = 



^82 = 



5|8 = 



= 4243D2 + 36270/) - 1776, 



= 55.2D + iii-.2, 



= 36.7J9» + 323.1/)* + 77.882) +27.i5» 



U-Yr D^Y, 

D^Y, g-Y^ 
- L. kJD^ - LpD 

where the numerical values are those arising from the data de- 
termined for the Curtiss Tractor (which is the machine under in- 
vestigation) by Dr. J. C. Hunsaker as given on page 78 of his paper, 
"Dynamical Stability of Aeroplanes," Smithsonian Misc. Collect., 
Washington, Vol. 62, No. 5, pp. 1-78, 1916, namely, 

Yv= — 0.248, Yp = o, Yr=o, 

Lt,=-f 0.844, Lp=— 314, Lr = -f 55.2, 

Nv= — 0.894, iVp=o, Nr= — 27.0, 

*a' = 36.7+, *^*=70.6-^, t7=— 115.5, flr=32.i7. 

The value of A is then (i?— K«)8u +^812 + Ui^ or 

A = 2592Z?* + 23780/?^ + i8oooZ?^ -f 34610Z? — 854. 

This result checks with Hunsaker's (loc. cit., p. 78) as well as prob- 
able. The equation A=o may be written as 

Z?* -f 9.i72Z?» + 6.943Z)* + 13.35^ — 0.3295=0. 

32. From the last two terms, one root is indicated as D 
=3 0.02468 ; and the correction can readily be found, giving 

D = 0.02436. 

There is another root near /?= — 8.5, the exact value being 

Z?=— 8.542. 

The other factor of the biquadratic equation is 

^' + 0.6537/?+ 1.583=0, 

of which the roots are 

D= — 0.3268 db 1.215*. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 233 

The complementary functions for v, <l>, and r are therefore bf the 
form 

V = Cn^0248ei^C^^^8.5W^^.82e8*(C^^ COS I.2I5f 

+ Ci4 sin i.2isO» 

^=:C2i^.0248ei^ (7^^^8.642* ^^.82e8*(C^^ COS I.2I5f 

+ C24 sin I.2IS0, 
r=C,i^-«2*"* + CB2r*'^"* + ^""'*(C38 COS i.2isf 

+ Cj4 sin 1.215O. 

The particular integrals for any gust may be represented as Iv, 
I^, Ir, and their initial values as Ivof I^o* ^rc the derivative of /^ being 
/'^ with the corresponding initial values /'^o- 

33. If as before (p. 59) we restrict the possible gusts to those of 
which the functional form is different from any of the four func- 
tions entering into the complementary functions, the particular solu- 
tions must, on substitution, annihilate the right-hand members of 
the differential equations, and the relations between the constants 
Cij of integration may be determined from the two equations 

(Z? + 0.248)2; + 32. i7<^ — II 5.Sr=o, 

0.8942/ + 0^+ (70.6Z? + 27.0) r=o. 



Hence 



and 



Further 



and 



Finally 



.2724C11 + 32.17C21 — 1 15-5^81 = o, 
.894^x1 + 0C21 + 28.72C81 = o, 

Ctt = — 8.326C21, Cgi = .2591 C21. 

— 8.294C12 + 32.17^22—115.5^82=0, 
.894C12 + 0C22 — 575.8C22=o, 

Ci2= 3.797C22, C22 = .005897C22. 

— .0788C1, -f 1.215C1, + 32.17C23— 1155^88=0, 

— 1.215C18 — .0788C,, + 32.17C24— 1 15-5^84 = o. 



24> 



234 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

•894^18 + 3.92C„ + 85.74C34 = o, 

« 

.894C14 — 85.74C»s + 3.92C84 = o, 
and 

Ci3 = 1041 Q, + 564.8C,4, C„ = — 6.371C2, + 10.56CJ 

Ci4=— 564.8C23 + 1041C2,, C84=— io.56C,3— 6.371C24. 

The solutions therefore, so far as concerns the complementary 
ftmction, are 

^=C2i^.0248e* ^^^^^8.542*^ ^.8268* (Q^ COS 1.215^ 

+ C24 sin 1.215O, 
z/=— 8.326C2i^-«""« + 3.797C2j^«"« 

+ ^-»2e8t[(io4iC,3 + 564.8C2j cos 1.215/ 

+ (— 564.8C28 + 1041C2 J sin 1.215/], 
r= 0.2571 Cji^-^^^^M* -f o.oo5897C22r^»«* 

+ ^""'*[(— 6.37iC28 + io.56CaJ cos 1.215/ 

— ( 10. S6C23 + 6.371) sin 1.215/]. 

34. These equations determine the relative magnitudes of the 
various sorts of natural motion. 

The first term is the slowly amplifying divergence, this machine 
being slightly unstable laterally. If a side gust is such as to induce 
a lateral velocity of — 8.326C21, it induces a bank of Cji, an eighth 
as much in radians or seven times as much in degrees. It is 
therefore clear that only very small values of C21 are admissible for 
safety. The second term, corresponding to the rapidly damped 
motion, shows such rapid damping that it can hardly be of impor- 
tance, except for possible strains on the mechanism, unless Cjj is 
so large that the whole work is inapplicable because of the failure 
of the motions to be small. 

The trigonometric terms show that the oscillation in v will be of 
great amplitude compared with that in <f>, the factor being about 
1200 when <l> is in radians or 20 when <f> is in d^^rees; even the 
oscillation in r will be over 12 times as great as in ^. In other 
words, the machine may have a large oscillatory side-slip or angular 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 236 

velocity of yaw without much bank, but for the divergent motion the 
bank is a serious matter for even moderate side-slip. 

35. The initial conditions ^=^ = z;=r=30 give 

O — '^ 21 "r ^ 22 "T ^ 28 "r •• ^o> 

0= .02436C21 — 8.542C22 — .3268C,3 + 1.215C2, + I\o 

0= — 8.326C21 + 3797C22 + I04lC„ + 564.8C2, + /,;o, 

0= .2571 C21 + .oos897C2a— 6.371C23 + 10.56C24 + /ro. 
These equations must be solved for the f oiu- constants C. 

C21 =— .9839^*0 — .1 i48/'^o + .ooo74o/t;o — .02797/ro, 
C22=— .000149/^0 + .ii7o/'4,o— •0000342/va — .01163/ro, 
C2S = — .01 595^^0 — .0021 53/ '^0 — .ooo7o6/«o + .0396/ro, 
C24 = .01468/^0 + .ooi466/'^o— .0004537/^0 — .07201/ro. 

36. The equations from which the particular solutions are ob- 
tained are (since Yp=Np=iYr = o) : 

A^=i)8i2Vi -f LpSaa^i + {LrS^2 + NrS^2)rt, (14) 

Ar = DS^,v, + Lj»^,p, + (Lri^^ + iVr8„)ri, 
or 

Av = (— 640i?» — 9522D2 — 34610Z? + 854)^1 + (7134O 

+ 2732)/^!— (ii256oi?»-|- ii047ooZ?)ri, 

^= (— 5955^— 26.5s)i?z;i + (— 221 50/?* — 13970/? 

— 34510)^ -I- (3895^' + 970i? + 3o62)ri, 

Ar= (— 32.84Z? — 28o,7)i?2vi -f (—9030)/^! 

-f (— 992i?» — 8724/?^ — 2103Z? + 8S4)ri, 

with 

A = 2592D* + 23780/?' + i8ooo/?« -f 34610/? — 854. 

Motion in Lateral Gusts. 

37. We shall take as before the type /(i — e-^*) for that of a 
single gust. 



236 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

Case I. — Side-gust — sharp. z/i=/(i — er^^). 

Iv=^J(— I + .oi473e-«), /i;o=— .98527/, 
I^ = J( — .001028)^**, 1^0= — .001028/, 

/'^=/(.oo5i4)e-« /'^o= .00514/, 

Ir = J{ .002706) e-»*, /ro => .002706/, 

^21 = — .000384/, C22 = .0005364/, 

C28 = .000809/, ^24 = .0002445/. 

The equations of motion are 

iooO(^//=— .384^<>"»«* + .536^-«"«— i.028r« 

+ ^*^"®*(.8o9 cos i.2i5f + .2445 sin 1.215O. 

This is all negligibly small. For the same reason certain terms may 
be neglected in v and r. 

v//=.003^®**"* + .oo2e-«"«*— I + .01473^** 

_j_^-.82e8«(g8 cQs i.2isf — .2022 sin 1.2150, 
ioor//=— .oi^®2*"* + .27i^-»* — ^-»2«8<(.2S7 cos 1.215^ 

+ 1.009 sin 1.215O. 

The effect of the sharp side-gust is to carry the machine side- 
ways with it, but not very powerfully at first — ^much of the air blows 
through the machine — ^the dominating term at first being 

v= — .2/^-"*®* sin 1.215^; 

after a few seconds the dominating term is v= — /, with the very 
slowly growing divergent term effective only after a considerable 
time. There is a slight yawing oscillation, but the extreme angle 
of yaw is only about 0.01/ radians or J/2 d^^rees — ^the angle being 
computed as 

100^// = j loor/J'dt = .4(1 - 6-^*^0 + .054(1-6-^0 -.8316 

^^-.82681(8215 cos 1.215/ -h .0122 sin 1.215/). 

The actual sidewise velocity is compounded of v and the amount 
— 115.5^ due to the yaw. Hence 



y = J (v- ii5.5rP)dL 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 237 

For this calculation v and ^ may be simplified to 

v= — / + -^^'"*®*(cos i.2i5f — .2 sin 1.2150, 
ioo^=_.378/ — .4/^-^248c*^/^-.82e8t(822 cos 1.215O ; 
and 

y =_ .56/f + i8.5/(^«"»«« — I ) — .146/ 

+ /e- ««»«(. 146 cos 1.215^ + .066 sin 1.215O. 

From this it will be seen that the oscillatory motion is, so far as 
concerns the lateral displacement, of very small amplitude. The 
first two terms which are progressive, are the ones which count. 
Moreover, the displacement is of the same sign as / although the 
side-slip v is of the opposite sign. This apparent contradiction is 
due to the change in orientation ^ — the machine moves away from 
the gust owing to the lateral excess wind-pressure, but turns into the 
gust owing to the moment of the pressures, and by virtue of the 
great forward velocity, this turning more than makes up, in the dis- 
placement, for the side-slipping. • 

38. Case 2. — Side-gust — ^mild. Vy^=^J{\ — ^"•*')- 

/t» = / (— I + 1 .0205^-2* ) , /^ = .0205/, 

I^ =/(.0004O43^^*)i /^o=. 0004043/, 

I\=^J{ — .0000809^ *0> ^'^0=' — .0000809/, 

/r = /(— .OOl5I4^-20i /ro = — .001514/, 

C21 = — .00033 1 /, C22 = .00000738/, C28 = — .0000807/, 

C24 = . 0001055/. 

It is again seen that there is practically no rolling motion pro- 
duced by the side-gust. For v and r, 

z;//=.0027e-®*"®* — I + i.o205^--2* 

_j_^.s268«( — Q244 cos I.2i5f-f.i554 sin 1.215O, 
ioor//=— .oo85e-^"»«« — .1514^-'* 

-f-^-"®"(.i628 cos i.2i5f-j-.o672 sin 1.215O. 

(The check v=o, r=o, when f=o, shows that the accuracy has 
been reduced so that the third place is not sure.) The effects of 



238 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

the gust are qualitatively as before. The oscillatory motion is not 
pronounced; the ultimate side-slip velocity is — /; the ultimate dis- 
placement has the same sign as / because the divergent term in 
V — 115.5^ is positive. 

39. Case J. — Side-gust — oscillatory. When one examines the 
records made or making at such an observatory as Blue Hill for 
gustiness in the air, no phenomenon is perhaps more striking than 
the reasonably periodic side-switching of a reasonably steady wind. 
A south wind, for example, may whip back and forth between 
S.S.E. and S.S.W. for hours at a stretch, as Prof. Alexander 
McAdie has been kind enough to show me on some of his records. 
In the absence of rotary motion, concerning which I am unable to 
find satisfactory data, the simplest way to figure this change in direc- 
tion is as a periodic side-gust. A machine going south in such a 
wind would experience an alternating side-gust. (The oscillations 
in the head-on velocity of the wind would be relatively very small 
except for actual changes in head-on velocity superimposed upon the 
changes in direction.) It is therefore especially interesting to dis- 
cuss a periodic side-gust — ^this being the only periodic gust of which 
we can reasonably be said to know anything at all definite. 

Let v^ = Je*^^, We may assume, from our work above that the 
rolling motion will be small and that the side-slip velocity v will not 
be of as much importance in determining the path as the angle ^ 
coupled with the large forward velocity. The complex value of r is 

(280.7 - 32.84/n)/>^Jg'P< 

^ ~~ 2592/)* - i8ooo/)2 - 854 + i(346io/) - 23780/?') * 

If at any one place the period of the complete oscillation is 2'ir/n 
with the wind velocity F, the distance traveled by the wind during 
the time of an oscillation in direction is 2irV/n, and this is the dis- 
tance between the nodes of the motion. The time required for this 
machine (t/=' — 115. S) to pass 9ver the distance 2TrV/n is 
2TrV/ii$,$n, The periodicity of the gust as it appears to the 
operator of the machine will therefore correspond to the value p 
= iiS.5n/F. For instance, if F=20 and the time of an oscilla- 
tion at one spot were 10 sees, so that n=o.63, the value of p would 
be about ^ = 3.6, and the oscillations would appear to the pilot as 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 239 

taking place about every ij seconds. A slower oscillation, i. e., a 
longer periodic time, would diminish n and p, — an oscillation at one 
spot every half minute corresponds to a value p=i.2 on the basis 
of the assumptions made above. 

In considering the values of p which make the amplitude of r 
large, the only hope is to make the term 34610^ — 23780/^* tolerably 
small. This means p^ must be about 1.5. For this value, the 
modulus of r is about .03/ and the modulus of the yawing oscillation 
corresponding will be about .025/. If a wind of 20 ft. /sec. is 
whipping through an angle of 45°, the side-gust will be only of 
about 7 ft./sec. semi-amplitude and the angle of yaw will be in the 
neighborhood of .175 radians or 10**. There is nothing to indicate 
that this would be fatal, though it would surely be a nuisance. 

Owing to the fact that the coefficients of i in both numerator and 
denominator are relatively small, the angular velocity Ir would be 
about in phase with the gust v^, and hence the angle /^ would be 
about quartered in phase. If there were periodically an angle of 
lo"* or 12"* between the direction of flight and the relative wind, we 
should find that we were getting into a region where considerable 
rolling and pitching might be induced — for as Hunsaker has shown 
(loc. cit., p. 62) the lateral and longitudinal motions are not strictly 
independent; but as the machine makes the major part of the rela- 
tive wind, the directions of flight and of the relative wind never 
differ greatly — only some three degrees at most in the case under 
consideration. 

It seems hardly necessary at this time to go into the calculation 
of the actual motion; enough has perhaps been accomplished in 
showing that the oscillation of the direction of the wind induces at 
most a moderate yawing of the machine. The semi-amplitude of 
115.5^ would be, if 7=7 ft./sec, about 20 ft. ; the center of gravity 
of the machine would sway back and forth across the line of flight 
with a total amplitude of 40 ft., until the divergent term became 
effective. 

40. Case 4. — Rolling gust. p^=ij(i — e'^^). If there were no 
interaction between v, p, r, the effect on rolling of a rolling gust 
would be figured from the equation 



-8.0UI 



240 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

Z6.7Dp + 3i4/> = - 314A1 - «~"), 
PU = - 8.055«-»<*" J c»«»'(i - er^*)dt, 

B.055 - r 8.055 - r 

This means that for any ordinary sharp gust p rapidly acquires the 
value — /, and <^ the value — Jt (radians). It must therefore be 
expected that unless / is very small indeed, the motion will be much 
disturbed. There will be developed a component of the weight in- 
ducing side-slipping, and yawing will rapidly develop — ^the machine 
apparently goes off on a spiral dive. 

We may make the calculations in detail when r = i. Here 
V/=— 3.14— -IM^S /ro=— 3-25^ 

Ir/J = 10.58— .234^*, Iro = 10.35/. 

C2i=— 39.1/, C22 = '0027J, C23=— .219/, C24 = — .163/. 

The equations of motion become 
<^//=— 39.ir*^"*«* + .oo3^-»"" + 40.4— I. le-* 

_|_^.82C8«( — 219 COS 1.215^ — .163 sin 1.215O1 
z;//=324^-®2**«* + .0103^®'"* — 3.14 — .ii4r* 

_j_^.82e8«( — 220 cos 1.215^ + 49.2 sin 1.2150, 
r/J=— ior^2**« + 10.58 — .234^* 

^^..8268t(_ 33 cos 1.215^ + 3.35 sin 1.215O. 
In the equation for <f> the effective terms are 

<^//=— 39(^-^^*»«*— i) =—f (nearly), 

and there is a steady divergence in <f> to the approximate amount 
— Jt as foreseen. The side- ways velocity v develops more slowly, 
perhaps, but after one second amounts to something like 300/. It 
is clear that / must be very small or the motion becomes disastrous. 
It would be of especial interest to know what sorts of magnitudes 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 241 

for / are likely to arise in flight under normal conditions. In so far 
as experience shows that machines are not liable to roll and side- 
slip, it is pretty good evidence that aerial rotary motion with axis 
parallel to the earth is rare and small. 

41. Case 5, — Yawing gust. ri=/(i — c*). 

U/J = 25.67r *, U = 25.67/, 

IJJ=— .0792 + .154^*, /^o= .075/, 

/'*//=— .154^*, • /'^o=— .154/. 

/r// = — I— .1235^^ /ro = — .1.12/, 

C2i= — .006/, C2a= — .006/, C28= — .0634/, C24 = .0702/. 
In this case the motion is 
<^//= — .oo6^-^"»«* — .oo6^-«"" — .0792 + .154^* 

_j_^.s2e8*( — q524 cos i.2i5f-f .0701 sin i.2i5f), 
v/J = + .05^^**"* — .023^»"** + 25.67^* 

_j_^.»268«( — 26.35 c^s 1.215^+108.9 sin 1.2150, 
r// = — I — .i235r* + ^-*^*®*(i.i45 cos i.2i5^ + .222 sin 1.215O. 

For moderate values of /, there is nothing serious indicated. The 
coefficients of the divergent terms are small. There cannot be much 
roll. The most noteworthy phenomenon is the large amount of 
side-slip which is fairly rapidly damped out. 

42. This leaves the rolling gust as the only dangerous type of 
lateral gust. 

The infinitely sharp side-gust would produce an initial accelera- 
tion Kv/. 

Constrained Aeroplanes. 

43. Suppose now that by some automatic steering device the aero- 
plane were constrained to remain pointing in the same direction, 
I. e,, so that r = o identically. The equations of motion become 

(Z? — F.)z^+ (^— FpZ))c^=y,T;, + yp^, + y^r,, 

— Uv-\- (k/D^Lp)D<l> = L,v, + Lpp, + Lrr,, (15) 

— NvV— NpDit> = NvV,^ + Npp^ + NrT^ -f F, 

where Fm is the moment necessary to maintain the constraint. The 
last equation may be regarded as determining F. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, Q, JUNE 20, I917. 



242 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

The natural motion of the constrained machine is found from the 
determinant 

^' = 88« = 36.7^* + 323.1^' + 77.88^ + 27.15 = 0. 

This is a cubic equation which has no positive root. 

The negative root is — 8.54. The quadratic factor remaining 
after division by i? + 8-54 is 

36.7D2 + 8.746/? + 3- 18=0, 

of which the roots are 

D= — 0.119 ±. 0.269*. 

The real part is negative and hence the motion is dynamically stable. 
The introduction of the automatic device has removed the in- 
stability in the lateral motion. As compared with the complex roots 
in the free motion, these roots indicate a much slower period and a 
considerably smaller damping. 

44. On the other hand suppose that the constraint had been such 
as to keep the machine level, i, e,, <f> = o identically. The equations 
would have been 

(D—Y,)v+iU—Yr)r=Y,v, + YpP, + Yrr,, 

— Lf,v—Lrr=Lf,Vi + Lppy + Lrr^ + F, (16) 

— N,v+ {k^W—Nr)r=N,v, + NpP, + Nrr,, 
The natural motion would have been determined by 

A" = 822 = 7o,6D^ + 44.5D + 109.9 = o. 

The roots are 

D=—o,3i5dto,237u 

The machine is again stable. 

45. It follows that at high speed this Curtiss Tractor, which is 
laterally unstable when free, becomes quite stable when constrained 
either to remain on its course or to fly on even keel. 

If stabilizers against rolling and turning were provided, the 
motion would reduce to 

(D - Y.)v=^ Y,v, + Ypp, + YrT,, (17) 

and would be stable, Z)= Fv=t — 0.248. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 243 

46. It would be a relatively easy matter to discuss the effect of 
gusts of various types on the aeroplane constrained in various ways ; 
two equations are much easier to handle than three. Until some 
definite problem is proposed as important, until some particular con- 
straining device is indicated as likely to be adopted, it may be as well 
not to go into the calculations, which are quite straightforward. 

That a constraint against rolling might be worth while, and 
would indeed be very valuable if rolling gusts were a common thing, 
is suggested by the work done on the free machine (§42) where 
gustiness was seen not to be very serious except for the rolling gust. 

Discussion of Method. 

47. I pointed out in my earlier paper that there were several 
outs about my method of treating gusts. First the gusts must be 
small. If they are not tolerably small, flying would be too difficult — 
so that assumption is not wholly unjustifiable. Second, the calcula- 
tions for determining the individual equations of motion and for 
determining formulas for the constants of integration are very 
tedious. Third, the numbers are of such various magnitudes that 
the arithmetical operations which must be carried out cut down the 
accuracy of the work a good deal and indeed, unless great care is 
taken, will lead to illusory or incorrect results. This does not ap- 
pear to be due to any very rapid variation of the true results cal- 
culated from varying data, but to the mode of computing. 

To offset these inconveniences we have the satisfactory result 
that once the preliminary calculations are made, many and varied 
types of gusts may easily be treated, and the further valuable result 
that the actual motion for each case is known so that not only the 
initial motion is determined, but the whole extent of the motion. 
This last is necessary for any just appreciation of the effects of 
periodic gusts and resonance, as has been shown. 

48. For another method of treating gusts reference may be made 
to a recent paper by Brodetsky and Bryan, " The Longitudinal Initial 
Motion and Forced Oscillations of a Disturbed Aeroplane," Aero- 
nautical Journal, London, 20, 1916, 139-156, which has already 
been cited in the text. 



1244 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

Much may be said for their method of expansion in series — for 
some problems the work is decidedly simpler than with my method. 
It has been my experience, however, that the application of series 
to the motion of any aeroplane has its own difficulties and com- 
plicated calculations when the motion is to be followed for any 
reasonable length of time and especially if the machine is defined, 
as I have always preferred to regard it as defined, by the actual 
coefficients determined by wind timnel experiments rather, than as 
Bryan's skeleton plane consisting of a main front plane plus tail 
plane,— even though the results obtained from such a skeleton may 
be extended to more complicated machines by Bryan's invariant 
method (see his "Stability in Aviation," Chap. VI.). 

49. The question therefore arises whether there may not be 
some way of abridging the calculations leading to the actual motion 
of the machine. Since finishing my work above, I have received the 
Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 15, 191 7, Pt. 6, 
in which. there is an article on "Normal Coordinates in Dynamical 
Systems," by T. J. PA. Bromwich in which he develops a method 
of treating the motions of dynamical systems by means of the theory 
of functions of a complex variable. I wish, in closing, to describe 
the application of Bromwich's work to the problem in hand. 

We have to solve for the longitudinal motion equations of the 
type 

{D — Xu)u — X^w—{XJ) + g)e = P^e^\ 

ZuU + {D — Z^)w— {Z^+U)De = P^e^t (ig) 

— M«M — Mt.w+(* W^ — MgD)e=^P^e''^, 

B 

where fi is a real or complex number, the values we have used being 
o, — r, ±.pi. We substitute 

27ri Jo 

«; = — : I e^VX, (19) 



2in Jo 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 245 

where the int^rals are loop int^^rals in the complex plane and 
(, ff, i are any functions of A. The results are 

^ J [(X - Xu)i - X^v - (X,\ + g)j;V'd\ = Pie^\ 



2iri^o 



^ J [- Z^{ + (X - ZJi? - (Z, + C/)Xr]e^yX = Pae**'. (20) 



2iri^o 



^ J[- jif.{ - jif^i, + (*A' - Jif«x)r]e^yx = p,e'*^ 



2Ti^o 



We next set • 

(X - x.)i - x„i, ^ (x,x + g)r = Pi/(x - m), 
- Zu{ + (X - z«)i? - (z, + c/)xr = p,i{\ - m), (21) 

- Mui - Jlf«i7 + (ifea^x^ - Ji/«x)r = P,/(X - m), 

and solve for f , iy, {, finding 



{ = 



A(X - n) 



Pi^u + -P2522 + Pz^ii , V 

"^ W^) — • ^"^ 

^~ A(X-m) 

A = 34(A* + 8.49X' + 24.5A* + 3.385A + .917) . 

Bromwich shows that, if with these values of ^, 17, { we take the 
loop integrals (19) around a very large circle, the results for «, w, 
will be the solutions for the motion disturbed from rest at the 
position of equilibrium by the impressed forces P. As he points 
out, this integration is equivalent to the sum of the integrals around 
infinitesimal circles about A = /ji and about each of the roots A of 
A=3 0, that is, the integral is equal to the sum of the residues of 
ie^^, yfi^ ^ tc^ *. There is no need to calculate any constants of in- 
tegration. Moreover any of the quantities u, w, $ can be obtained 
without the others. The numerators in $, 17, { are already calculated 
in (20 a, b, c) of p. 59. 



246 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

We have, for example, for a head gust Wi, 

.I28X« + i.i6X^ + 3. 3 85X + .917 . 

^ (X - /i)(X + 4.18 =t 243i)(X + .0654 =t .i87i) ^'' ^^^^ 

where the double sign stands for two factors, and «j = /(i — e'*), 
to take a particular case. The residues at each point are merely 
the values of the fraction when one of the factors, the one which 
vanishes at that point, is thrown out of the denominator. In the 
first case for 1 = ^^* we have as residue oi $e^* = $: 
at k=fA=o, 

:?i7 — = 1. 

(+ 4.18 do 2.43i)(.o654 db .i87i) 

at X== — 4.18 — 2.43f, 

.I28X« + 1.16X2 + 3»385X + .9I7 

(— 4.18 + 2.43i)(— 4.86i)(— 4.12 — 2.431 do .187*) ' 

at X= — 4.18 + 2.43*, the conjugate imaginary expression. And 
so on. To treat c* we should have : 
at X=/Ji= — I, 

- .128 + 1. 16 - 3.385 + .917 

(3.18 it 2.43i)(.9346 do .187*) ' 
and so on. 

As the calculation with imaginaries involving squares, cubes, 
products, and quotients is by no means simple, it is clear that to get 
the solution for u will be reasonably hard work — much harder than 
to find the particular solutions which for the simple gust involved 
only real numbers. It may be admitted that to work any one gust 
the labor will probably be much less than by my method of determin- 
ing formulas for the constants of integration in terms of the initial 
values of the particular integrals. But as far as I can see, Brom- 
wich's method is of no particular advantage if we desire to calculate 
the effects of a large number of gusts /(i — c^^) of various degrees 
of sharpness both head-on, up, and rotary. When we came to cal- 
culate a periodic gust we found that we were involved in powers and 
products and quotients of complex numbers, and it is probable that 
the work we did in finding the particular integrals was comparable 
with that required for the present analysis. 



WILSON— AEROPLANE ENCOUNTERING GUSTS. 247 

Summary. 

In continuation of my previous work in gusts as affecting the 
Curtiss Tractor JN2y I have discussed : 

1. Periodic Longitudinal Gusts. — It was found that, even in the 
case of best resonance with the slow natural oscillation, the motion 
was not much different from that produced by a simple head-on 
gust until after a considerable time (over 14 sec.) had elapsed. The 
amplitude of the forced oscillation (in up and down motion) which 
ultimately became effective was about 5 times the amplitude of the 
gust. This was not regarded as serious because true periodicity can 
rarely be maintained in a head gust and because no pilot would 
wait to let its effect reach such a magnitude. Periodic up gusts and 
rotary gusts were considered as not likely to arise. 

2. General Theory of Resonance, — It was shown that for aero- 
plane problems resonance meant different things for different prob- 
lems. It was inferred that resonance was unlikely to be particularly 
serious because in all probability its effect would either be small 
or would take so long to become established that the pilot would 
check it. 

3. Infinitely Sharp Gusts. — It was seen that the shock to a ma- 
chine was mXuJ and mZuJ for a head gust, and mX^J and mZyoJ 
for an up gust. The serious case is mZtoJ, the vertical shock in an 
up gust which was about 4J/g times the weight, more than twice that 
found for the sharpest gust previously treated. It would be still 
more serious in a machine where Zu> was greater than in the JN2. 
The Moral: Keep Z«, small, clashes with Hunsaker's conclusion* 
that lateral stability is incompatible with high wing loading — ^but 
such an antithesis is common.* Reference was made to impulsive 
gusts. 

4. The Effect of the Propeller. — The assumption that a constant 
power instead of a constant thrust was delivered did not very ma- 
terially alter conditions of flight. 

5. Lateral Gusts. — ^The general equations were set up and 
int^rated. 

s " Dynamical Stability of Aeroplanes/' Washington, Smithsonian Misc. 
Collect. 6a, 1916, p. 77. 

*"The production of a laterally stable aeroplane is attentant with many 
compromises," Hunsaker, p. 74. 



248 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

(a) Single side-gusts were shown to produce modem side- 
slipping, insignificant roll, and moderate yaw. It was seen that the 
yaw was into the relative wind so that the displacement of the ma- 
chine in space was toward the gust despite the side-slipping. 

(fe) Oscillatory side-gusts were shown to be a common condi- 
tion of flight, to produce moderate side-slipping and yawing, but 
insignificant rolling. The path of the center of gravity proved 
to be sinusoidal, so far as the forced oscillation was concerned, and 
of amplitude about 2 or 3 times the amplitude of the gust. 

(c) Yawing gusts were found to induce a good deal of side- 
slipping, but did not appear to be serious. The roll was very small. 

(d) Rolling gusts were seen to put the machine into a spiral 
dive, and thus to cause a real danger unless the motion were checked 
promptly by the pilot. 

6. Constrained Machines. — ^A device to keep the aeroplane on its 
course or to prevent rolling made the previously unstable machine 
stable. Such a device might be important to reduce the liability 
to the spiral dive in rolling gusts provided such gusts were common 
phenomena in flying weather. 

7. Other Methods of Treatment. — ^The Bryan-Bordetsky method 
of initial motions and Bromwich's new method of finding the solu- 
tion for a disturbed state without calculating the constants of integra- 
tion were briefly compared with my system of analysis. 

Massachusetts Institute op Technology, 
Cambridge, Mass. 



VI 

ENGINEERING ASPECTS. 
By JEROME C HUNSAKER, EncD. 

1. It is of especial significance that the American Philosophical 
Society devotes an afternoon to aeronautics and of especial signifi- 
cance to the Navy that the problems of aeronautics have been so 
clearly stated to you here today. For these problems are unfortu- 
nately not only perplexing but pressing, and engineering progress 
cannot wait for a satisfactory solution. Just now we are forced to 
adopt rather daring assumptions and to extrapolate to a truly alarm- 
ing extent our experimental data. 

2. I was sorry to arrive too late to hear Professor Webster's 
treatment of the dynamical aspects of the subject, but I shall have, 
of course, the opportunity for a more leisurely study of his paper 
when it appears in printed form. 

3. Professor Durand's estimate of the economical size of aero- 
planes is especially timely as we are building all sizes now in search 
of the most useful, and it is indeed encouraging to have Professor 
Durand as authority for making haste slowing in expanding the 
dimensions of the existing types. If I understand him correctly, 
the weight of the structure of aeroplane wings may be assumed to 
increase more rapidly than their carrying power so that there must be 
a limiting size for any given system of construction beyond which 
it is uneconomical to go. I believe this conclusion to be entirely true 
provided, as Professor Durand carefully states, the same system of 
construction be used for a family of similar structures. However, 
I would consider that it would not be good engineering to use the 
same material or even the same system of distributing material, for 
large and for small structures. For example, it is not economical to 
apply the materials and methods of construction used in small boats 
to large ships. Where we would use solid spruce beams for small 
wings, larger wings would have hollow spruce beams, and perhaps 

249 



250 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

still larger wings, beams of aluminum alloy or steel. In the great 
aeroplanes of the future, we may have an opportunity to use a lattice 
construction combining a great moment of inertia with a minimum 
of material. The smaller the structure the less favorably can wc 
employ the material. In many cases to give sufficient security against 
local injury and deterioration we make parts several times stronger 
than would be indicated by a strength calculation alone. For ex- 
ample, no matter how small the aeroplane, we would use no less than 
a certain minimum rib thickness and cover with a fabric of sufficient 
weight and strength to stand exposure. Consequently, in the small 
aeroplanes, we build relatively heavier than necessary. 

4. The exploration of the upper air has now become of pressing 
concern to those who expect to navigate in it and, in a gene*-al way, 
to designers of aircraft. Dr. Blair's soundings are most illuminating 
and it is especially gratifying to note the progress which our own 
Weather Bureau is making in this work. For the airship and 
balloon, especially, a knowledge of the pressure, temperature, and 
wind at different altitudes is of first importance and it is to be hoped 
that forecasts can be supplied the aeronant before his ascent, which 
will acquaint him with the probable conditions he will encounter 
aloft. Dr. Blair's data, I assume, show typical conditions or rather 
average conditions. It would be valuable if his explorations of the 
upper air could be extended to show in addition the possible and 
typical deviations from average values. The aviator is less con- 
cerned with the average velocity of the wind than with its internal 
structure ; the frequency and intensity of its gusts and their nature. 

5. The importance of a study of gusts is clearly brought out by 
Professor Wilson's analysis of the effect of lateral gusts on an 
aeroplane in flight. Professor Wilson has assumed gusts of given 
intensity and direction and computed the effect upon a typical aero- 
plane. There is abundant testimony of a qualitative nature as to the 
violence of these effects in practice. Aviators speak of " air holes " 
in explanation of uncontrolled diving and turning experienced. It 
is of course evident that there are no holes in the air, and Professor 
Wilson shows that gusts produce effects of the sort observed. Now 
it is possible in the design of aeroplanes to so arrange surfaces that 
the effect of particular kinds of gusts is minimized. What we need 



HUNS AKER— ENGINEERING ASPECTS. 261 

to know now is what kinds of gusts are to be expected. For 
example, if sudden horizontal shifts in the direction of the wind 
are the usual state of affairs, we should not put a great preponderance 
of vertical fin surface on the tails of our aeroplanes. An excessive 
" weather-cock " propensity will make a machine head into the rela- 
tive wind and if the wind direction shifts constantly it will be diffi- 
cult to maintain a straight course. The "weather-cock" stability 
is of course pr6vided to make steering easier. 

6. Also Professor Wilson shows that a roller in the air is cer- 
tain to bring disaster to an aeroplane. We have evidence of rotation 
in the eddy formed in the lee of a hill or other obstruction, but there 
is little information as to the extent and intensity of the disturbance. 
What aviators call " bad air " may be eddies in the wind. 

7. I would appreciate the opportunity to outline in a general way 
some of the problems of lighter-than-air craft, airships and balloons, 
in order to make the symposium more complete. 

8. In the design of airships we are confronted with indeterminate 
structural features, mysteries of the upper air, atmospheric elec- 
trical phenomena, and in addition to these difficulties we must work 
with fabrics and membranes of unfamiliar and indefinite physical 
properties. 

9. The theory of hydrogen-filled balloons was developed in a 
very elaborate and complete form by the pioneers of the French 
Army Engineering Corps. Their theoretical considerations are of 
the greatest practical utility but depend upon an assumed stable con- 
dition of the atmosphere. Unfortunately a balloon and to a less 
d^ree a dirigible or airship is extremely sensitive to changes of 
equilibrium. For example, a balloon floating at its zone of equi- 
librium has exactly the weight of the air displaced. A wet cloud 
may condense a little water on its surface, the balloon will sink into 
r^ons of more dense air which will compress its volume and cause 
continued descent until ballast is released or the groimd reached. 

10. An airship is also handicapped by changes of weight in the 
air due to picking up loads of condensed water, snow, or sleet. The 
balloon fabric should be proofed in some manner to prevent such 
accumulations. 

11. At the same time, though weight may not change, tempera- 



252 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

ture variations cause expansion and contraction of gas and con- 
sequent changes in buoyancy. We may expect the air to grow at 
least 0,5^ colder for each 100 meters rise, but this is rather an average 
than a normal condition. 

12. Only at night is the gas at the same temperature as the air, 
for the sun's heat on the balloon keeps the gas inside 10 to 20 d^rees 
warmer. A cloud which cuts off this radiation will cause a con- 
traction of the gas enough to cause a descent. It is of great im- 
portance to check temperature changes in the gas. Airships have 
been given metallic flake paints, and light colors in an effort to re- 
duce heating. The most effective means would appear to be a double 
wall with air space as in the Zeppelin type. Aluminum paint was 
found to reflect fourteen times as much radiant heat as unprotected 
rubber. 

13. Rubberized fabric has been the envelope material for nearly 
all dirigibles except Zeppelins. Such fabric can be obtained in 
quantity and of uniform quality. Unfortunately the chemical action 
of light causes the rubber to deteriorate. Protective coatings of 
chrome yellow have been used with fair success. More recently 
carbon black has been found to protect the rubber better. But a 
dark envelope exaggerates the disturbances of equilibrium due to 
heating. 

14. The hydrogen leakage through good rubberized fabric should 
be about 9 liters per square meter per day. Goldbeater's skin, which 
is animal intestine, tanned, shows a leakage of but a quarter of a 
liter. Such a membrane is immensely superior as a hydrogen con- 
tainer and does not oxidize. However, gold-beater's skin rots if 
wet, is difficult to work and to obtain in quantity. It is to be hoped 
that a hydrogen-tight material can be developed equal to gold- 
beater's skin but without these disadvantages. 

15. The envelope of a dirigible is a nonconductor of electricity, 
but presumably picks up the electro-static potential of the air. Ex- 
periments with kites have shown a potential difference of 20,000 
volts at 1,000 meters. It is likely that an airship takes up the 
potential of the air in less than a second and cannot reach the groimd* 
even after a rapid descent with any very considerable charge. The 
potential gradient may be 50 volts per meter and a dirigible of 20 



HUNSAKER— ENGINEERING ASPECTS. 263 

meters height may have different charges above and below which 
may cause sparks and consequent explosion of the leaking hydrogen. 
There have been explosions for which no explanation is adequate. 
Should high metal parts such as valves have a wire to the car as a 
groimd, or should we use a valve cord of non-conducting material ? 

i6. The addition of radio on an airship for signaling introduces 
another complication. The radio uses the car as a counterpoise and 
has a trailing wire as antenna. It is possible that sparking between 
car and envelope may be induced when sending unless precautions 
are taken. The nature of the necessary precautions is at present not 
clearly understood. 

17. The structural strength of the envelope of a nonrigid dirigible 
is not yet a definite engineering problem. As you know a torpedo- 
shaped elongated envelope inflated with hydrogen carries by means 
of a set of cables a car containing passengers and power plant. 
The buoyancy of the envelope is distributed from end to end of the 
envelope, but the weight is largely concentrated in the short car. 
Hence there are serious bending moments impressed on the envelope 
which is held stiff only by its pressure of inflation. The well-known 
theory of an elastic membrane can be used to compute the stress in 
the envelope at any point due to the inflation pressure. However, 
the stresses due to these bending moments must also be considered, 
and at a high velocity the suction of the stream line motion of the 
external air tends to augment the effective inflation pressure at points 
near the maximum cross section. 

18. In addition to stresses due to inflation pressure, bending 
moments and external pressures and suctions, we have our problem 
confused from an engineer's point of view by having to deal with 
balloon fabric of indefinite elasticity and strength. 

19. The strength of the fabric in warp and filler may be 
measured, but when we use a doubled fabric in which the threads 
cross at 45 ** the strength becomes more difficult to estimate. 
Furthermore, the envelope under load deforms and parts severely 
stressed may shirk their load. The exact calculation of the stress 
in an envelope is not attempted. 

20. There is, however, a simple experimental method of study- 
ing the problem. A model of the envelope filled with water is 



264 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

suspended below a model of the car by a suspension of cords. The 
ratio of densities of hydrogen and water in air is about 900 and it 
can be shown that if the scale of a model be Ho and that if the model 
is made of the same material, the stresses at corresponding points 
are equal and the model as it deforms under load remains similar to 
the full size envelope as it would deform under corresponding 
loads. 

21. Finally we have to consider the dynamical problem of driv- 
ing the dirigible through the air at high speeds. As is well known 
to students of hydrodynamics, an elongated body tends to place itself 
broadside to the stream. Dirigibles of good form are essentially 
unstable and it is necessary to fit fins at the tail end. It is not prac- 
ticable or necessary to fit very large horizontal fins since the center 
of gravity is usually below the center of buoyancy and hence 
affords a statical righting couple against pitching. This statical 
righting moment is supposed to overcome the tendency of the en- 
velope to deviate from the trajectory. However, as speed is in- 
creased the upsetting moment increases as the square of the speed, 
while the statical righting moment of weight remains constant. Con- 
sequently, there is some critical speed at which the dirigible becomes 
unstable or even unmanageable. 



VII 

REMARKS ON THE COMPASS IN AERONAUTICS. 

By LOUIS A. BAUER. 

The few remarks which I am able to contribute to the discussion 
of the papers we have just had the pleasure of listening to, relate to 
the use of the compass in aerial navigation. 

The recent great progress in aeronautical art and in the construc- 
tion of ships to navigate the air, have called renewed attention to 
the importance of perfecting the magnetic compass used in steering 
the craft, and to the need of studying the "vagaries of the fickle 
needle." Just as in ocean navigation, it has become necessary in 
aerial navigation, though not yet to the same degree of refinement 
as in ocean work, to determine the effects on the compass of the 
magnetic materials used in the construction and in the equipment of 
the aircraft. The airship-compass must, accordingly, be compen- 
sated, and allowance for any outstanding errors must be made in 
steering a course with it. 

The satisfactory solutions of the various problems are especially 
difficult for the heavier-than-air type of airship. One of the chief 
points of difference between the aeroplane-compass and the ocean- 
ship-compass consists in the form of damping device (horse-hair 
packing, for example) which must be used to overcome, as well as 
possible, the very excessive vibration caused by the engine driving 
the aeroplane. 

Besides the so-called "magnetic-deviation errors" of the com- 
pass, arising from the magnetic materials in the vicinity of the com- 
pass, there are other errors which make themselves seriously felt 
only, however, while the aeroplane is turning. The latter are called 
" dynamic-deviation errors *' ; their magnitude depends upon the tilt 
of the aeroplane, the magnetic dip, and the heading or course of 
the airship. 

When the aeroplane is turning, it is tilted towards the center of 

255 



256 SYMPOSIUM ON AERONAUTICS. 

the circle described by it, the tilt becoming greater, of course, with 
the speed of turning or with the decrease of radius of the circle. 
Everything movable which was at rest in the aeroplane during 
straight-line uniform flight under the action of gravity alone is still 
at rest relative to the aeroplane as it tilts on the turn, but now, 
everything is at rest under the action of the resultant of gravity 
and centrifugal accelerations. The compass card, which was hori- 
zontal during rectilinear flight, is now tilted with the aeroplane and, 
consequently, partly turned in the terrestrial magnetic field. The 
vertical component of the earth's magnetic field, which was normal 
to the card in its level position in rectilinear flight and which, con- 
sequently, had then no directive effect, now has a component in the 
plane of the card and normal to the magnetic axis which tends to 
produce the " dynamic deviation." The horizontal component of 
the earth's magnetic field also plays a part in this kind of deviation. 

According to some recent investigations in England by S. G. 
Starling,* when the angle of tilt of the aeroplane approaches the 
complement of the magnetic dip, which for Philadelphia would mean 
a tilt of about ig**, the dynamic deviations of the compass, if, for 
example, the course steered be an easterly one, may increase to 
nearly 90**. And if the tilt of the aeroplane exceeded 19*' the direc- 
tion of the compass on the course stated would even be reversed. 

While the dynamic deviations may be large during turns of the 
aeroplane, yet they disappear, practically, when straight flight is re- 
sumed. We, therefore, question the desirability of adopting the 
movable compensating devices, suggested by Starling, which while 
effective during aeroplane-turns, might introduce magnetic devia- 
tions of a more permanent character during the more usual straight 
flights. If his devices are used, they will require careful control. 

In connection with the use of the compass in aerial navigation, 
an interesting scientific question comes up as to the change of the 
earth's magnetic field, or of the magnetic elements with altitude 
above the surface. Magnetic experiments of this nature were made 
in balloons by Gay Lussac and Biot in 1804 which were repeated, 
with more success, a half century later by Glaisher. The available 

1 " The Equilibrium of the Magnetic Compass in Aeroplanes," Phil. Mag., 
London, Vol. 32, November, 1916 (461-476). 



BAUER— THE COMPASS IN AERONAUTICS. 257 

observations to date do not possess, however, the requisite refine- 
ment, and it is hoped that some day a non-magnetic airship and the 
necessary instrumental appliances will be available for conducting 
a magnetic survey of the aerial regions in the same manner as that 
employed in the ocean-magnetic survey of the non-magnetic ship, 
the Carnegie. 

Referring to the possible scientific work for airships, it will be of 
interest to recall that the first scientific aerological observations in a 
balloon were made in 1784 by an American physician, Dr. John 
Jeflfries, a graduate of Harvard College, residing at the time in 
London. Dr. Jeffries presented a printed copy of the extremely in- 
teresting narrative on his two aerial voyages* to Benjamin Franklin, 
as also a manuscript copy; both are now in the possession of the 
American Philosophical Society. Other aeronautical papers and 
letters of historical interest will be found among the magnificent col- 
lection of " Frankliniana," belonging to the Society. 

2 In the second of these voyages, made on January 7, 1785, the English 
Channel was successfully crossed for the first time by aerial flight. 



PROC. AMBR. PHIL. SOC, VOL. LVI, R, JUNE 21, I917. 



SPECTRAL STRUCTURE OF THE PHOSPHORESCENCE 

OF CERTAIN SULPHIDES.^ 

Discussing Measurements by Drs. H. E. Howe, H. L. Howes 

AND Percy Hodge. 

By EDWARD L. NICHOLS. 
(Read April 13, 1917.) 

Ph. Lenard, to whom we owe extended studies of the class of 
highly phosphorescent substances known as the Lenard and Klatt* 
sulphides, describes* the spectrum of the emitted light as consisting 
of a single broad band in the visible spectrum. This band which 
appears single, in most cases, as viewed with the spectroscope does 
not however conform to the recognized criteria. The marked dif- 
ference between the color of fluorescence and that of phosphores- 
cence and the changes of color during decay, suggest overlapping 
bands. E. Becquerel* in 1861 showed in his pioneer work on jAos- 
phorescence, that the color of the emitted light varies with the wave- 
length of the exciting light. His observations apply, it is true, to 
sulphides of barium, calcium and strontium not identical in make-up 
with the sulphides of Lenard and Klatt but obviously belonging to 
the same class. In a recent paper' the present writer gave more 
direct evidence of the existence of more than one band in the spectra 
of these substances. In that investigation which dealt primarily 
with the phenomena of color as seen in the phosphorescence, it was 
shown that with the aid of a special form of phosphoroscope* which 
permitted of the observation of phosphorescence during the first few 

^ An investigation carried out in part with apparatus purchased by aid 
of a grant from the Carnegie Institution of Washington. 

2 Lenard and Klatt, Ann, der Physik., XV., p. 225, 1804. 

8 Lenard, Ann, der Physik,, XXXI., p. 641, 1910. 

* E. Becquerel, La Lumiere, Vol. I., 1861. 

5 Nichols, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, 55, p. 494, 1916. 

« Nichols, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sc, II., p. 328, 1916; also Nichols and Howes, 
Science, N. S., XLIII., p. 937, 1916. 

258 



NICHOLS-PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



259 



thousandths of a second after the cessation of excitation as well as 
later, various marked changes of color during decay not previously 
noted could be detected. These changes were readily explained by 
the assumption of overlapping bands, one of which decays with 
g^eat rapidity and vanishes in a few thousandths of a second, while 
the other persists. The actual existence of these two components 
was readily verified : 

1. By observing the spectrum of the light as viewed through the 
openings of the phosphoroscope. One end of the band could be 
seen to collapse immediately after the cessation of excitation, i. e., 
the end towards the violet in the case of the luminous barium 
sulphides and the end towards the red when the sulphides of calcium 
or strontium were under observation. 

2. By exciting the substance at the temperature of liquid air. 
Under these conditions the persistent band was completely destroyed 
leaving only the band of short duration visible in the phosphoro- 
scope ; with consequent change of color. 




Fig. I. 



It should be noted in this connection that in their original paper'^ 
Lenard and Klatt depicted these spectra as complex, while in his 
latest paper, already cited, Lenard prefers to regard them as single. 
This later view may be most briefly and conveniently indicated by 
the upper part of Fig. i, which is a typical diagram reproduced from 
Lenard's plate. Here the shaded area represents the location of the 
band of emission, indicated as a single broad band and the two 

^Lenard and Klatt, Ann. der Physik, (4), XV., p. 225, 1904. 



260 NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 

enclosed areas BB in the ultra-violet show the regions capable of 
exciting phosphorescence. These two crests or so-called bands of 
excitation (Erregungsbande) have fixed positions as to wave-length, 
for each sulphide. 

Significance of the Bands of Excitation. 

It seemed to the writer probable that these r^ions of maximum 
excitation, the positions and appearance of which had long since 
been beautifully depicted by Becquerel in the work already cited, 
were due to the presence of absorption bands. Dr. H. E. Howe 
who was employed during the past summer in the study of the ultra- 
violet absorption spectra of certain fluorescent solutions, was kind 
enough to test this hypothesis. Following the method developed by 
Stokes and by Becquerel and subsequently used by Lenard and 
Klatt, the phosphorescent substance was exposed to the dispersed 
rays of a large quartz spectrograph. The source of light was the 
powerful submerged aluminum spark described by Henrfi and sub- 
sequently employed by Howe® in his study of absorption spectra. 
This affords a continuous spectrum of great intensity extending to 
about .2 ft. A considerable portion of the ultra-violet spectrum was 
foimd capable of exciting fluorescence. In the case of a barium 
sulphide with lead with a flux of sodium sulphate this broad band* 
of excitation, corresponding to Lenard's " Momentanband," extended 
from .42 /Lt to about .23/11. It is indicated by the dotted line in the 
lower diagram in Fig. i. Upon this were gradually developed two 
narrow crests or maxima which glowed for sometime after the close 
of excitation, the " Dauerbande " of Lenard. The wave-lengths of 
these crests were estimated as .380 /a and .335 ft, Lenard gives for a 
sulphide of similar composition .377 ft and .332 ft respectively, as 
shown in the upper diagram. 

To obtain the absorption spectrum of these sulphides by trans- 
mission is impracticable on account of their great opacity, but the 
following procedure was in some instances successful. A thin layer 
of the substance was pressed between quartz plates, and mounted in 
front of the slit in such a position that rays from the spark would 

8 V. Henri, Physikalische Zeitschrift, 14, p. 516, 1913. 
» H. E. Howe, Physical Review, 2, VIII., December, 1916. 



NICHOLS-PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 261 

be diffusely reflected into the collimator of the spectrograph. Photo- 
graphs which exhibited the selective absorption of the substance were 
thus obtained. The barium sulphide under investigation showed two 
narrow absorption bands, indicated below the base line in Fig. i, and 
a region of general absorption beyond .3 ft. The two narrow bands 
whose crests as determined from the photographs were at -375/* 
and .332/1 obviously correspond with the bands of excitation and 
sufficiently explain the existence of the latter. 

Similar coincidences between selective absorption and selective 
excitation were established in the case of the compound SrPbNaF 
at .355 /A (Lenard's band .358/1) and of SrZuF at .360 /i and .297 /x 
(Lenard's bands .360/1 and .297/1). The relation is therefore prob- 
ably a general one, corresponding to that already demonstrated in 
the case of the selective action of infra-red rays upon phosphores- 
cence of zinc sulphide, where the maximum effect was found in 
regions of maximimi absorption.^*^ 

Spectrophotometric Measurements. 

A detailed spectrophotometric study reveals widely varying de- 
grees of complexity in th^ spectra of the different sulphides. Dr. 
H. L. Howes kindly made for the writer very careful measurements 
of three characteristic compounds, which may be regarded as pre- 
liminary to a more extended investigation. 

His method, briefly stated, was as follows: The substance was 
mounted behind the disk of the synchrono-phosphoroscope and was 
illuminated by means of the radiation of the zinc spark; the disk 
being adjusted so as to afford observation of the phosphorescence in 
its earliest stages, i, e,, after a few ten thousandths of a second from 
the close of excitation. In place of the photometer used in taking 
curves of decay a spectrophotometer with two collimators, Lummer- 
Brodhun cube (L) and constant deviation prism was mounted as 
shown in Fig. 2. One collimator was directed towards the phos- 
phorescent surface P, the other towards the comparison light A, 
The latter consisted of an acetylene flame properly screened. The 
two slits S, S of the spectrophotometer were of equal width and 

10 Nichols and Merritt, "Studies in Luminescence," Publications of the 
Carnegie Institution, No. 152, p. 84. 



262 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



measurements were made by moving the flame along a photometer 
bar B, B in the prolonged axis of the collimator. Settings were 
made at intervals of 50 Angstrom units throughout the spectrum. 
On account of the very great range of intensities within the phos- 
phorescence spectnun it was necessary to increase the effective range 
of the photometer bar by the interposition of screens for which the 
reduction factors had been carefully determined. 




Fig. 2. 



The l^rst substance studied in this manner was a strontium sul- 
phide, with bismuth as the active metal, designated as L. and K. No. 
13. The spectrum curve obtained by Dr. Howes, using the method 
described above, is shown in Fig. 3. The complexity of the band 
is very obvious, there being subordinate crests on either side of the 
principal maximum. 

The curve suggests at once a g^oup of overlapping bands, so 
nearly merged that to the eye it would appear as a single simple 
band. There is moreover a distinct suggestion of a systematic 
relation. 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



263 



Taking the relative frequencies, L e,, reciprocals of the approxi- 
mate wave-lengths (i/a*X io*), of the crests as estimated from the 
curve, it is found that the intervals are either very nearly 58 or 
twice that number. If a series having 58 as its constant interval 
be formed with one member located at the principal crest (A =4800) 



I 


L.SK. im.is. 


Wk» M* IIA<|Su^ • 


-so 


A 






j 


\ 




-60 




\ 




-40 


l\ 




-20 r 


\ 


\ 


1 


1 


r*' 

• 



AyU^ 



V^ 



.0^ 



Fig. 3. 



other members of this series will coincide with the subordinate crests 
of the curve. The short vertical lines in Fig. 3 indicate the posi- 
tions of those members of such a series as coincide with the crests 
and of two further members which fall on a slight and not very 
well defined maxima at .5562 /a and .5921 p,. 



264 NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 

The agreement is sufficiently good throughout to warrant the 

* 

statement that: 

The band consi^s of a complex the overlapping components of 
which, so far as visible, are members of a series having a constant 
interval. 

The following table gives the appproximate frequencies and 
wave-lengths. 

TABLE L 

Approximate Frequencies and Wave-Lengths of Visible Crests in Spec- 
trum OF THE Phosphorescent Sulphide L. and K. No. 13 (Sr. Bi, Na,SO«). 



Visible Crests. 


Series. 




#* 


i/m X io» 


Intervals. 


.4430 


2257 


S8 


.4547 


2199 


S8 


.4670 


214I 


S8 


.4801 


2083 


S8 


4938 


2025 






1967 


2XS8 


.5238 


1909 . 






185I 


2X58 


.5562 


1793 






1735 


2XS8 


.5921 


1677 





The three members of the above series not designated in the table 
as corresponding to visible crests have wave-lengths at .5084^1, 
.5402 ft and .5764 ft and these fall upon less definite maxima on the 
curve than those which have been called visible crests. 

Another substance investigated with the spectroscope was a cal- 
cium sulphide with bismuth as the active metal (L. and K. No. 3) 
which is notable for its intense blue phosphorescence. 

The spectrum, as will be seen from Fig. 4, appears as a single 
crested band with a well-defined maximum of unusual brightness 
at about .447 yi. It is of the well-known typical form, steeper 
towards the violet and shows no visible evidence of complexity ; but 
the phosphorescent light extends throughout the visible spectrum 
although of relatively very small intensity in the longer wave- 
lengths. Plotted to this scale no details of this weaker region can 
be seen but if the ordinates be increased one hundred fold, as in 
curve BB, various maxima and minima appear ; indicating a second 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



265 



complex band, or overlapping group of bands which merge into the 
brilliant blue band at their more refrangible end. 

This is in agreement with the fact recorded in a recent paper^* 
that when this substance is excited to phosphorescence at the temper- 



-40 



L.ftK. IIO.J. /CA.»I.IU^SO^. 




WMAf 



Fig. 4. 



ature of liquid air its color is blue-green instead of blue-violet on 
account of the suppression of the band of shorter wave-length which 
is dominant at ordinary temperatures. 

The crests shown in the curve BB also belong to a series of con- 

*i Nichols, Proc. of the American Philos. Society, Vol. LV., p. 496, 1916. 



266 NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 

stant frequency interval, the approximate interval being 39. The 
location of the members of this series which coincide with maxima 
are indicated by vertical lines. Frequencies (1//1 X lo*) and wave- 
lengths are given in Table II. 

TABLE IL 

Series of Visible Crests in the Spectrum of L. and K Sulphide No. 3 

(CaB/). 

Visible Crettt. Series. Interval 

fi. z/fi X so* from Series. 

.5300 1887 39 

.5411 1848 39 

.5528 1809 39 

.5650 1770 39 

-5781 1731 39 

.5910 1692 39 

.6049 1653 39 

.6200 1614 

Here every member of the series is represented by a recognizable, 
although in some cases somewhat indefinite maximum in the curve, 
as far as .5300 fu If we extend the series further towards the violet 
we find that the ninth member beyond .5300 /* lies at .4468/* (fre- 
quency 2238) and this coincides with the main crest well within the 
errors of observation. There are other barely discernible indications 
of submerged crests on either side of the principal crest. 

The most striking example investigated in this preliminary study 
is that presented by L. and K. No. 33, a barium sulphide with copper. 

Here we have obviously two overlapping complexes of bands 
(see Fig. 5), at least 14 crests of which are indicated more or less 
definitely by the irregularities in the spectrum curve. 

In this case the bands fall into two groups. From wave-length 
.5 ft towards the violet the frequency intervals between neighboring 
crests are all multiples of 70. Towards the red the interval is 26.6 

» 

for all but one band. This band at .5376/11 falls however into the 
series having the constant interval of 70. 

To indicate the closeness of the agreement vertical lines have 
been drawn on the diagram in Fig. 5, as in the previous cases, at 
wave-lengths corresponding to those members of the two series of 
constant interval which coincide with observable crests. Solid lines 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



267 



belong to the group with an interval 70, dotted lines to the 26.6 
interval. Wave-lengths, reciprocals and intervals are given in 
Table IIL 

The designation of these series as of constant interval, upon the 
basis of the curves in Figs. 3, 4 and 5, can be tentative and approxi- 



I 


L.SK. 


NO. 33. 


BA.CU.i 

ft 


-15 




/ 


\ 


-10 




/ 


\, 




,/ 


J 


V 


- / 


/ 






[ 




1 





d4ytt. 



•Syc^ 



.0 



Fig. 5. 



mate only ; but no systematic departure large enough to be detected 
appears to exist. The wave-lengths given in the tables are those of 
the vertical lines and therefore of the members of the constant inter- 
val series which coincide with the various crests. No independent 



268 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



estimates of the wave-lengths would seem to be significant. The 
curves however were plotted directly from the spectrophotometric 
readings without reference to any possibly symmetrical arrangement 
of the crests. 



TABLE in. 

Approximate Frequencies and Wave-Lengths of Visible Crests in the 
Spectrum of the Phosphorescent Sulphide L. and K. No. 33. 



Wave-Leogths. 

4255 
4386 

4673 
4831 
5000 

5376 



Visible crests with intenml = 70. 

Frequencies z/A X zo*. 

2350 
2280 

2140 
2070 
2000 

i860 



Intervals. 
70 

70X2 

70 

70 

70X2 



Visible crests with interval =z 26.6. 



re- Lengths. 


Frequencies. 


Intervals. 


5000 A* 


2000.0 


26.6X2 


5136 


1946.8 


26.6X2 


5283 


1892.6 


26.6X7 


5861 


1706.4 


26.6X2 


6049 


1653.2 


26.6X2 


6250 


1600.0 


26.6X2 


6465 


1546.8 




6578 


1520.2 


26.6 

• 


6695 


1493.6 


26.6 



Whether the spectra under consideration are to be regarded as 
consisting of a single band or of more than one band is not a ques- 
tion of complexity of structure. Any system, however complex, 
which behaves as a unit under varying conditions of temperature, 
mode of excitation, etc., all the components being affected in like 
manner, may be considered as a single band in the sense in which 
that term has been used by Lenard. We have a striking example 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 269 

indeed of such bands or systems of great complexity of structure in 
the case of the uranyl salts. 

The evidence that, in general, the spectra of the phosphorescent 
sulphides contain more than one band or complex has already been 
mentioned, e, g,, the marked changes of the color of phosphorescence 
with temperature and during the process of decay, the change of 
color with the mode of excitatipn as described by Becquerel, etc. 

In the three sulphides the spectra of which have just been dis- 
cussed it was thought probable that in spite of the overlapping of 
the components something might be learned by observing the decay 
of phosphorescence of different regions of the spectra separately 
and for this purpose Drs. Howes and Hodge made the following 
determinations. 

The Decay of Phosphorescence in Different Portions of 

THE Spectrum. 

To obtain the curve of decay for a restricted region of the 
spectrum the spectrophotometer was used in combination with the 
synchrono-phosphoroscope and photometer bar as described in a pre- 
vious paragraph (see Fig. 2). The collimator slits which, to secure 
the greatest possible detail in the spectrophotometric measurements 
had been very narrow, were opened to a width of 2.0 mm. so that 
the brightness of the contrast field would be sufficient to allow the 
observer to follow the rapidly fading phosphorescence even in the 
weaker portions of the spectrum. 

The spectrophotometer was set for a selected region and the 
curve of decay was obtained in the usual manner by observing the 
position of the comparison lamp upon the photometer bar which 
gave equality in the contrast field for increasing times after the close 
of excitation. The range of the readings was from .001 sec. to .03 
sec. according to the position of the sectored disk upon the shaft of 
the phosphoroscope. 

In this way a set of curves corresponding to several nearly equi- 
distant regions within the phosphorescence spectrum was obtained 
for each of the three sulphides under consideration. 



270 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



Three such curves for the Ca, Bi sulphide No. 3, plotted with 
/■^ as ordinates, are shown in Fig. 6; four for the Sr, Pb sulphide 
No. 13 in Fig. 7 and three for the Ba, Cu sulphide No. 33 in Fig. 8. 
A notable feature of all these curves is the existence of two so-called 
linear processes the first of steeper slope and therefore indicative of 
a more rapid decay of phosphorescence than the second. This form 




Fig. 6. 

of curve, as is well known, is characteristic of phosphorescent sub- 
stances in general, the only well established exceptions being those 
occurring in the case of the uranyl sjilts.^* As regards the relation 
of the two processes recorded in these diagrams to what appear as 
the first and second processes in the usual study of the long time 
phosphorescence of such sulphides, it is clear that the second process 

12 Nichols, Proc, Nat Academy of Sciences, II., p. 328, 1916. 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



271 



in our curves is not identical with the first process as observed by 
the usual long time methods. 

Assuming the second process to continue; the intensity after i 
second would be about i/i,ooo of that at .01 sec. or roughly 
1/20,000 of its initial brightness; whereas as is well known these 
substances retain an easily visible phosphorescence after many 
seconds. 




This can only be accounted for by supposing that one or more 
later processes of successively slower decay follow one another; 
making up a more complicated curve of decay than has generally 
been assumed. Carl Zeller,^* the only previous investigator to 
determine the earlier stage of this type of phosphorescence, has 

i»ZeIler, Physical Review, (i), 31, p. 367; also Carnegie Publications, 
No. 152, p. 124. 



272 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 



published a diagram which overlaps the range of the present experi- 
ments. Three of his curves are for a Sr, Bi; Ca, Bi and Ba, Cu 
sulphide respectively; corresponding to and possibly identical with 
our 13, 3 and 33. These show a linear process which he regards 
as the first process in the decay and which, as he points out, has. 




in each case, a much steeper slope than the first process, so called, 
obtained by observations covering the range from a second or more 
onwards. The slope of his lines considering the range from .oi* to 
.03" and remembering that Zeller did not determine the decay for 
various regions of the spectrum separately are fairly comparable 
with the second process (beyond the knee) in Figs. 6 and 7 if we 
select the regions including the principal crest. We may therefore 
regard Zeller's process which extends as far as .06 second as the 
same as our second process. 



NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 273 

The change of slope between this process and the first process 
so called in the curves of decay for these sulphides as observed dur- 
ing the interval from two seconds onward is very great. In a rep- 
resentative curve obtained by Mr. Carleton E. Power" for example 
his first process extends for nearly 50 seconds. The slope if com- 
puted for a time scale such as that used in our measurements where 
i/ioo sec. may be taken as a convenient unit, is scarcely perceptible. 
The increase in the ordinate (/"^) in passing from time .01 sec. to 
.02 sec. in our second process or in Zeller's process is of the order 

r -1/2 
-^02 _ 

r -1/2 — I«2; 
■*01 

Power's first process would give a ratio of the order of 1.008. 

In other words during the first few hundredths of a second 
after the close of excitation the intensity of phosphorescence falls 
in each i/ioo of a second from unity to about .70 while after sev- 
eral seconds, it falls in i/ioo second only from unity to .99. 

It seems probable, assuming continuity in the progress of the 
decay, that if we had a complete curve of decay for one of these 
sulphides, the knee between our second process and the first process 
of the long-time curves would be found to lie somewhere between 
o.io second and i.o second. If it occurs much earlier than o.io 
second, Zeller would have discovered it; if much beyond i.o second 
it should appear in the long-time measurements. In fact many 
curves for the decay of phosphorescence by the latter process do 
show a downward trend and Lenard, among others, has disputed the 
linear character of the curve as we approach the origin of time. 
The existence of at least four linear processes each of longer dura- 
tion and lesser slope than the preceding may well account for the 
difference of opinion. An observer determining the law of decay 
as a whole by a method not taking cognizance of time intervals of 
less than say i/io second, would describe as a curve what under 
much more detailed study might be revealed as a succession of linear 
processes. 

Owing to the overlapping of the components in the spectra under 
consideration it is difficult to determine whether the group of equi- 
distant bands are to be regarded as a unit, as in the case of the 

^* Power, C. E., Manuscript Thesis in the Library of Cornell University. 

?ROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, S, JUNE 21, I917. 



274 NICHOLS— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SULPHIDES. 

• 

uranyl salts, or indeed whether they constitute the whole of the 
phosphorescence spectrum. To that end some method permitting 
of more complete resolution must be devised. The pronounced 
changes in the color of the phosphorescent light would make it seem 
probable that we have to do in these observations chiefly with com- 
ponents of the phosphorescence that are of rapid decay and which, 
after a few hundredths of a second, disappear leaving behind other 
components which constitute the phosphorescence of long duration. 
These, which are probably of relatively insignificant initial bright- 
ness, doubtless overlap the phosphorescence of short duration but 
occupy, as a whole, a somewhat diflferent portion of the spectrum. 
In that case since one has to do with a different group of bands 
in observing the initial and the later phases of phosphorescence there 
would be an actual discontinuity between the processes discussed 
above and the great change of slope is readily explained. 

Summary. 

1. The regions of selective excitation (the bands of excitation 
for the Lenard and Klatt sulphides, are shown to coincide in position 
and extent with absorption bands in the transmission spectrum. 

2. The spectrum of the phosphorescent light, during the first few 
thousandths of a second after the close of excitation, contains one or 
more groups of overlapping bands, the crests of each group forming 
a spectral series having a constant frequency interval. 

3. The decay of phosphorescence during the first three hun- 
dredths of a second after the close of excitation may be described 
as consisting of two processes each showing a linear relation between 
/"^ and time. The first and more rapid process lasts for less than 
.01 second for the three sulphides studied under the intensity of 
excitation employed. The second process probably persists for .06 
second or more. 

4. The phosphorescence of long duration of the sulphides under 
consideration is probably due to another group of bands of com- 
paratively feeble initial brightness which come under observation 
only after the phosphorescence of short duration has vanished. 

Cornell University, 

Department of Physics, 
March, 1917. 



A NEW BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT OF THE CREATION 

OF MAN. 

By GEORGE A. BARTON. 

The Babylonians were particularly fond of stories of the crea- 
tion, of the world and the beginnings of civilization. The best 
known of these is the " Epic of Creation " in seven tablets or cantos, 
parts of which were discovered by George Smith in the British 
Museum more than forty years ago. Still another was found in 
1882 at Abu Habba by Rassam and brought to the British Museum. 
It was later published by Dr. Pinches. The same museum contains 
fragments of a third story of the creation which was written in As- 
syria. 

The University Museum in Philadelphia is particularly rich in 
texts of this kind. In 1914 Dr. Poebel publis-hed one which com- 
bined accounts of the creation and the flood,^ in 191 5 Dr. Langdon 
published one which contains a most interesting account of the be- 
ginnings of agriculture,^ and to these the writer is now able to add 
another that he came upon among some uncatalogued tablets some 
months ago.' This last text was excavated at Nippur and is one 
of the many tablets that lay unpacked for years in the basement of 
the Museum. As the subjoined translation will show, the text deals 
with the creation of man, the origin of Babylonian pastoral life and 
the exigencies which led to the construction of cities. Some of its 
phrases remind us of expressions in the early chapters of the Book 
of Genesis. The text is as follows : 

1. The mountain of heaven and earth 

2. The assembly of heaven, the great gods, entered. Afterwards 

3. Because Ashnan^ had not come forth, they conversed together. 

1 A. Poebel, " Historical Texts," Philadelphia, 1914, 9 flP., also G. A. Bar- 
ton, " Archaeology and the Bible," Philadelphia, 1916, 278-282. 

* S. Langdon, " Sumerian Epic of Paradise, the Flood, and the Fall of 
Man," Philadelphia, 1915 ; also Barton, op. cit, 263-289. 

* The tablet has since been catalogued as No. 14005. 

275 



276 BARTON— NEW BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT 

4. The land Tikku^ had not created; 

5. For Tikku a temple platform had not been filled in ; 

6. A lofty dwelling had not been built 

7. The arable land was without any seed ; 

8. A well or a canal (?) had not been dug; 

9. Horses and cattle had not been brought forth, 

10. So that Ashnan could shepherd a corral; 

11. The Anunua, the great gods, had made no plan; 

12. There was no i^j-grain of thirty fold; 

13. There was no i^j-grain of fifty fold ; 

14. Small grain, mountain grain, and great ofaZ-grain there was not; 

15. A possession and house there was not; 

16. Tikku had neither entered a gate nor gone out; 

17. Together with Nintu, — the lord had not brought forth men. 

18. The god Ug as leader came ; as leader he came forth to plan ; 

19. Mankind he planned ; many men were brought forth. 

20. Food and sleep he planned for them ; 

21. Clothing and dwellings he did not plan for them. 

22. The people with rushes and rope came, 

23. By making a dwelling a kindred was formed. 

24. To the gardens . . . they brought irrigation ; 

25. On that day their [gardens sprouted (?)]. 

26. Trees . . . mountain and country. . . . 

1. gar'sag-an-ki-hi'da^ge 

2. erim-an-ni dingir-dingir a-nun-na int'tur-ne-es a-ba 

3. mu ^esinu nu-in-da-ma^da uh-se-da-an-dug-ga 

4. kalam-mu ^tik-ku nu-in-da-an-ditip-fna'as 

5. ^tik-ku-ra temen nu-mu-na^sig-ga'as 

6. tuS'Up'pi-a ra^-ub'Iar-ra 

7. ttr-nu'tne-a'am numun sar-ra 

8. pu-e-x"^ -a-hi nu-in-tu-ud 

9. anse-ra^ bir-es-bi nu-in-tu-ud 

10. mu ^esinu utul-umuna-bi apin 

11. ^a-nun-na dingir gal-gal e-ne nu-mu-un-su-ta-am 

12. se-ses erim-usu-am nu-gdl-la-am 

13. se-ses erim-eninnu-am nu-gdl'la-am 

14. se-tur-tur se-kur-ra se-d-sal-gal-la nu-g&l-la-am 

15. su-gar tus-tul-bi nu-gdl-la-am 

16. ^tik'ku nu'se-tur ka nu-il 

* A god of vegetation ; Brunnow's " List," 7484, 

» Tikku is a river-bank personified. 

« ra = la, " not " ; cf . " Origin of Babylonian Writing," 287. It is often 
employed in the Stele of Vultures in this sense; see, e. g,, Col. XXL, 2, 3, 
na-ru-a-bi ba^ra-ad-du, " this stele one shall not break." 

^ The sign x is 606 in the " Origin of Babylonian Writing." Its values 
are undetermined. 

^ anse-ra, for anse-kur-ra, kur was omitted by the scribe. 



OF THE CREATION OF MAN. 277 

17. en *nin-/ii en kal-kal nu-in-tu-ud 

18. *ug^ mai tum^ma mas dti-da e 

19. natn^lu un^su erim-nun-a ga^e^ne 

20. gar-kH-id-bi mu-un'SU'-'Ui'am 

21. tug-gi-tui'tul-bi nti-fntf-fin-rt«-«i-am 

22. uku gii gi^'na-dur-bi mu-4 

23. tul^gim^ka ba-ni-in-ib uJbar 

24. a-iar-iar'^a . . . im-gii'gii'ne 

25. ud'ba-ki dar- . . . r]a'e'n[e . . . 

26. giJ'bi dul . . . bi'kur-gar ... 

27. ^ii6f . . . dulf . . . W . . . 
^ fttt 

Reverse. 

X. Father Enlil(?) 

2. standing grain (?) 

3. for mankind 

4. creation of Entu 

5. Father Enlil 

6. Duazagga, the way of the gods 

7. Duazagga, the brilliant, for my god I guard (?) .... 
8w Entu and Enlil to Duazagga 

9. A dwelling for Ashnan from out of Duazagga I will [make(?) for thee]. 

10. Two thirds of the fold perished( ?) ; 

11. His plants for food he created for them; 

12. Ashnan rained on the field for them ; 

13. The moist (?) wind and the fiery storm-cloud he created for them. 

14. Two thirds of the fold stood; 

15. For the shepherd of the fold joy was disturbed. 

16. The house of rushes did not stand ; 

17. From Duazagga joy departed. 

18. From his dwelling, a lofty height, his boat 

19. Descended ; from heaven he came 

20. To the dwelling of Ashnan ; the scepter he brought forth to them ; 

21. His brilliant city he raised up, he appointed for them ; 

22. The reed-country he planted ; he appointed for them ; 

23. The falling rain the hollows caught for them ; 

24. A dwelling-place was their land ; food made men multiply ; 

25. Prosperity entered the land ; it caused them to become a multitude. 

26. He brought to the hand of man the scepter of command. 

27. The lord caused them to be and they came into existence. 

28. Companions calling them, with a man his wife he made them dwell. 

29. At night^^ as fitting companions they are together. 

30. (Sixty lines). 

I. CHI ^en-UL 

2 nd'Si-a 



*In Semitic, Shamash, the sun-god. 



278 BARTON— NEW BABYLONIAN ACCOUNT 

3. nam-Hk-ge 

4. ba eu'tU'Qe 

5. a-a ^en-lil 

6. duHuag'ga sid-da dingir, 

7. du-azag'ga lag-ga-a dingir-ma-da^a ab-ulru 

8. ^en-tu ^en-Hl-bi du-asag-ga^ra ne 

9. du ^esinu'hi du-asag-ta im-ma'da'rla'ru. . . . 

10. sanahi-e amai-a im-ma^b-gab' 

11. U'bi e-gar-ra-ra mU'Un-a-ba-e'ne 

12. ^esinu gan-e mU'Un-imi'am'ne 

13. lil^ap in uras-lag-bi mu-un^-ba-e-ne 

14. iandbi amai-a-na gub'ba-ni 

15. sib-amas-a J1-/1 dii-du-a 

16. gi-li-ei nam-na'gub'ba-ni 

17. dU'eV.'Ozag'ga^^ gi4i-il sub-am 

18. ga^ni'ta sag-gi-il md-ni 

19. ib-gdl an-na^ta tum'tum-orni 

20. da ^ezinU'bi gat-tu si'Se'e-e} 

21. uru-asag-na ib^gdl mU'da-an-gdl'li-ei 

22. kalatn'tna^gi'iag^^'gdl mu-gub an-gdl-U-ei 

23. seq-ei e-ka^sig im-sd-sd'e-ne 

24. gisgal'tna kalatn'ma^ne gar mU'ni-ab'rug'rug kaUme 

25. jri2 kalant'tna ne-gig mu-un-ne-gdl mei 

26. ab-a-tum-ra dohki us^r a-gat-me 

27. U'tnU'Un mu-ne-eS^b-gdl mU'da-an-gdl'li-es 

28. man-na gu-ne sa^^-ki dam-ne ne-ba^n-gub-es-a 

29. gig-bi-ir^^ bar-a-gar dag-me-e} 

30. Ix iU'Su Ix. 

The tablet on which this text is written is five inches long and 
2 and y^ inches wide. The script is of the mixed cursive variety that 
was often employed in the time of the first dynasty of Babylon 
(2210-1924 B. C.) and the Cassite dynasty (1775-1 150 B.C.). It is 
impossible from the palaeography to date the tablet definitely. It is 
certainly older than 1200 B. C. and may have been written before 
the year 2000 B. C. 

i<^ du-eUasag-ga is doubtless a variant spelling of du-asag-ga. The sign 
el introduces an additional word for brightness, thus emphasizing asag. 

*i kalam-ma-gi'sag-gal, literally, " the land reeds are in the midst," a very 
appropriate name for Babylonia. 

i*The sign transcribed x is 241 in the "Origin of Babylonian Writing." 
It has the meaning " favor." I have rendered it somewhat freely " prosperity." 

^^ 2a = amelu/* Origin of Babylonian Writing," 523 and Delitzsch, Sutnef" 
isches Glossar, p. 218. 

^* gig-bi-ir, literally " in their night." 



OF THE CREATION OF MAN. 279 

The tablet is rather carelessly written. The scribe made a num- 
ber of mistakes which he was compelled to correct by erasures. One 
would infer that the writing was^ that of a scrrbal apprentice rather 
than that of a skilled scribe. 

The god Ashnan of this text is a god of vegetation. His name is 
written with the sign for grain plus the sign for forest. The prom- 
inent role which Ashnan plays in the text is proof that the agri- 
cultural interest was uppermost in the minds of the writers of the 
myth. The god Tikku is a personified river-bank. The statement . 
made near the beginning, that he had not created the land, takes the 
reader back to the beginning of Babylonian civilization before the 
overflow of the rivers had been circumscribed by dykes. 

The myth moves in the same circle of ideas as a portion of the 
text discovered by Dr. Langdon. According to my understanding of 
that text, irrigation of the earth was made possible by a marital union 
of the sun-god with the goddess Nintu.^** The tablet now discov- 
ered represents men generated by the lord and Nintu after they 
had been planned by Ug, the sun-god. This text presupposes the 
natural generation of men from a union of gods, as the other text 
does the natural generation of irrigation. 

Our new text recognizes that food and sleep are provided by 
god but clothing and houses men had to invent. The description of 
the construction of a reed hut in line 22 of the obverse is true to the 
form of reed huts that may still be seen in the Babylonian marshes. 

The lines on the reverse of the tablet are at the bginning broken. 
Apparently some god was addressing Enlil, because all had not gone 
well with men. Duazagga was the celestial abyss, the great abyss 
of the sky-vault. Here it is described as "the way of the gods," 
perhaps an allusion to the milky way, along which the gods were 
supposed to dwell. That men might have more direct help, a dwell- 
ing for Ashnan was made on the earth. Thereupon Ashnan created 
plants for food, and sent over the earth the various kinds of rain- 
clouds. This mitigated human misfortune only in part. Two thirds 
of the fold had perished before, but one third still perished. A god, 
possibly Eulil, accordingly came down and founded cities. These 
led to the formation of clans or kindreds ; misfortune vanished, and 

*» See the writer's " Archaeology and the Bible," Philadelphia, 1916, p. 284. 



280 BARTON— ACCOUNT OF CREATION OF MAN. 

men multiplied. This secure life led to dominion on the part of 
man, and to settled marriage. 

The text discovered by Dr. Langdon described, according to 
my understanding of it, the beginnings of irrigation, agriculture, 
and the knowledge of medicinal plants ; the new text has to do with 
the origin of man, the beginnings of agriculture, of city life, and 
of settled marriage. 

Some of the statements in this text remind us, sometimes by 
their form, sometimes by their substance, of passages in the early 
chapters of Genesis. Thus : " The lord caused them to be and they 
came into existence" recalls Gen. 1:3: "And God said. Let there be 
light and there was light." The statement: "He brought to the 
hand of man the scepter of command," reminds the reader of the 
way in Gen. i : 28 God is said to have given man dominion over all 
other forms of animate life. "Companions calling them, a man 
with his wife he made them dwell," brings to mind the statement of 
Gen. 2 : 18 that it is not good for man to be alone, and of Gen. 2 : 24 : 
" Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother and shall 
cleave unto his wife." The last line of the new tablet : " At night 
as fitting companions they are together " is the Babylonian equiva- 
lent of the last clause of Gen. 2:24: "And they shall be one flesh/* 

The text will be published with full grammatical commentary in 
a volume that the writer is preparing for the University Museum, 
which will be entitled " Miscellaneous Religious Texts." 

Bryn Mawr, Pa., 
April, 1917. 



THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN IN HIS RELATION 
TO GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT. 

By WILLIAM CURTIS FARABEE. 
(Read April 14, 1917,) 

Man, of whatever race, as we know him to-day is to such an 
extent a product of his environment that we can have very little 
idea of what he was in his primitive state. We sometimes speak of 
primitive men but -we mean men in a low stage of culture without 
any reference whatever to time or age. There are no primitive 
men, neither is there primitive culture. Both have been so modified 
by their environment that they give us very little idea of what the 
first men and their culture were like. From the beginning both have 
developed in complete agreement with their environment. 

It is said that man differs from the other animals in that he is 
able to overcome his natural environment. Man has been able to 
profit by his knowledge of nature's laws, but he has not overcome 
them. He must depend upon natural products for sustenance and 
hence is limited in migration and habitat. In the cold climates 
of high altitudes and high latitudes he is limited by his food supply 
to the line fixed by nature for the growth of plants and animals. 
In the hot, moist climate of the tropics he is deprived of energy 
and ambition and degenerates. He has not yet overcome nature 
but he has succeeded better than his fellows in adapting himself to 
nature's requirements. His individual handicap at the beginning 
of life makes for the greater development of his race. His pro- 
longed period of growth allows the persistent forces of environ- 
ment to act upon his developing body and fit it for its habitat. If 
his migrations do not take place too rapidly or do not extend over 
too wide a range of geographic conditions these body changes 
become habitual and the race survives. The new characters 
developed are retained. There is some question as to whether or 
not the characters acquired by the ancestors are inherited, but it is 

281 



282 FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 

certain that the habitat with all the geographic factors which have 
produced those characters is inherited. If the effect of environ- 
ment is upon the individual and does not become permanently fixed 
in the race and if it acts only as an inhibitor in the development of 
characteristics it has the force of an inheritance because it never 
ceases to operate. Hence the race develops true to the environ- 
ment. Primitive man must have originated in a tropical but not a 
jungle country where the environment made little demand upon his 
growing intellect. The search for food probably took him tem- 
porarily outside of his first habitat. After a time the pressure of 
numbers would prevent his return. His customs and habits would 
change to meet the new conditions. So, no doubt, he has slowly 
moved through the long period of his history, from one stage to 
another, from one environment to another, and from one develop- 
ment to another. These developments were not necessfirily from a 
lower to a higher plane. He had little choice; the quest for food 
or the pressure from numbers either called or drove him onward 
from the old to newer fields. He followed the animals and may 
have learned from them to build his shelter and to store his food 
against a future need. Necessity developed forethought and made 
him an inventor. The forces of nature were first feared and then 
followed. He became as mobile as the wind and the water by whose 
aid he traveled. After he had thus occupied the habitable globe 
each section continued to develop a culture, peculiar to its own 
environment. Every geographical factor had its influence in this 
development. Sea and bay, lake and river, mountain and valley, 
forest and desert, temperature and humidity, wind and rain, sun- 
shine and clouc}, each and all had their effect in isolating or uniting, 
separating or deflecting, expanding or confining, the migrating 
peoples and in determining their physical development, their forms 
of culture, their economic and political organization. Man has fol- 
lowed no plan, has had no standards. Whatever advancement he 
has made has been by chance rather than by choice, by accident 
rather than by conscious direction. 

In the migration of man from his original home probably in 
southern Asia, by way of Behring Strait and North America to the 
tropics again he completed the cycle of climatic conditions. His 



FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 283 

long and varied experience had made him wise. Yet he was con- 
tinually on the march. Crowded into the neck of the Isthmus of 
Panama he pushed on through and found another continent which, 
like the one he was leaving, lent itself to a north-south migration 
with the routes well marked. The Orinoco, the great branches of 
the Amazon and the La Plata together with the Andes and the coast 
all offered direct lines of travel, but they all led to hard conditions. 
The mountains were too high, the forests too dense, the south too 
cold and the tropics too hot to make a strong appeal. But there 
was no possibility of retreat until the farthest corner had been 
reached and turned. By the time of the Discovery he had overrun 
the whole continent and a return migration was in progress across 
the isthmus and through the West Indies. 

When the first migration entered the continent the people were 
deflected by the mountains to the two coasts. Those who continued 
down the west coast, forced to compete with the rank jungle growth 
for supremacy in a humid debilitating climate, were unable to estab- 
lish themselves and develop a high culture. So they moved on to 
the interior plateaus where they found more congenial conditions 
and where they left evidence of an advanced culture. 

Those who made their way to the coast south of the equator 
must have been surprised to step out of the jungle into an immense 
desert country, the most arid in the world, stretching away for 
nearly 2,000 miles as a narrow fringe along the sea. Here they 
found fertile valleys, watered by the innumerable small rivers and 
streams which, fed by the melting of the perpetual snows of the 
mountain tops, made their way to the sea or lost themselves in the 
desert. These valleys separated by trackless sands offered both 
food and security. The sea made no call. There were few pro- 
tected harbors along the great stretch of coast ; no outlying islands 
to be inhabited and no timber for canoes. They became an agri- 
cultural people living in villages and using the rivers for irrigating 
purposes. Irrigation guaranteed regular crops and hence a constant 
food supply. It also developed inventiveness and cooperation. 
Their common dependence upon the same water supply developed 
social organization and a strong government. As these different 
valleys had the same products there was very little commerce 



284 FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 

between them and each was allowed to develop its own culture. 
The archaeological remains show the results of this development 
from independent centers. 

Near the southern end of the continent climatic and topographic 
conditions are reversed. The coast and western slopes of the 
mountains are forested, while the interior is a semi-desert. The 
deeply embayed coast has a chain of outlying islands. The steep 
mountains come down to the sea leaving little arable land. The 
forests furnish an abundance of suitable timber for canoes. All 
these elements of environment unite to force the unfortunate tribes 
who have been pushed along into this region to become a maritime 
people. The inhospitable snowclad mountains prevent contact with 
the interior tribes. They were shut off also from the people of the 
northern coast by rough seas and steep harborless shores. They 
were thus limited to the islands and the channels between. Their 
isolation and their hard conditions of life with an tmcertain food 
supply has prevented them from developing a high culture. They 
have had no leisure. All their energies have been taxed to the utter- 
most to secure their daily bread. 

The nearest neighbors of these canoe people are living under 
worse conditions even because they were an interior people who 
have been forced down across the straits into the last point of land 
on the continent, from which there is no possible escape. With hard 
conditions and scant food supply they lead a precarious life. They 
must live in small separate groups in order to make the most of 
their wild foods. These small units have developed a rugged inde- 
pendence which will permit of no control. There is no necessity nor 
opportunity for community effort and hence there are no chiefs and 
no organized government. Left behind and held at bay in a most 
rigorous climate they have done well to maintain themselves even 
in their present culture. Their simple life reveals their origin. The 
absence of the canoe proves them to belong to the mainland east 
of the mountains where there are no navigable rivers and a harbor- 
less cliff coast for a thousand miles. The inhabitants of this plain 
have always been hunters and not fishermen. 

Farther north on the same coast the narrow fringe of lowland 
is fertile and contains a number of deep bays. Here the people 



FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 285 

became agriculturists but added to their food supply shellfish from 
the sea. Many large refuse heaps mark the centers of occupation. 
The steep coast range of mountains prevented them from passing 
into the interior where other cultures are found. 

Along the north coast from the Amazon to the isthmus repre- 
sentatives of the same people occupy the savannahs and the forested 
interior. Here the savannah coast tribes with their broader view 
and easy communication in every instance have developed the higher 
culture. 

While the coast peoples have had every variety of climatic condi- 
tion due to the change of latitude from the equator to the most 
southern inhabited point in the world those of the mountains have 
had much the same variety due to change in elevation from a 
tropical sea level to the highest habitat of man. The mountains on 
accoimt of their great height, hard conditions and lack of arable land 
served at first only as a barrier to deflect and to separate the migrat- 
ing peoples. After a time the pressure of the populations in the 
lowland valleys on the west forced the people up the slopes and into 
the high valleys and plateaus between the Cordilleras. Here they 
fotmd the Quinua, the oca, and the potato, the hardiest and most 
useful food plants for cold climates. On the high plateaus they 
fotmd among other animals the Llama, one of the most useful 
animals known to man. It offered its flesh for food, its coat for 
clothing, its hide for harness, and its back for burdens. The high 
valley dwellers became agriculturists and traders while their neigh- 
bors were first hunters, then herdsmen. The cold, raw winds sweep- 
ing across the broad open plateaus drove the people to the leeward 
of the mountains for protection where they formed small communi- 
ties, each herdsman having his separate corral. These people while 
living in these remote places were in trade relations with the agri- 
culturists in the valleys. They had a constant food supply in their 
herds and while conditions of life were somewhat severe they were 
secure, contented and happy. The broad horizon and invigorating 
climate stimulated thought. Their occupations gave them leisure for 
contemplation. So here among the shepherds music and myth 
reached their highest development. 

In the center of this high plateau area is located a very large 



286 FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 

lake with no outlet to the sea. The valleys all led to the lake. 
There was no passageway to a more congenial climate. There were 
no forests whose timber could be used for buildings and canoes but 
there was abundance of stone in the mountains and turf in the 
fields for houses and reeds in the swamps about the lake for balsas 
or rafts. Great towns developed on the shores of the lake which 
could be reached either by water or by land. The lake exerted a 
tmifying influence for either commerce or war. Magic gave place 
to a highly developed form of sun worship with a priestly class 
headed by a great chief who assumed autocratic power. There was 
soon a desire to extend the functions of this centralized government. 
Following the command of the spirit they moved their center of 
dominion northward across the divide to the head of a fertile valley 
and established a city. With the advantage of organization and 
location they easily overcame one group after another of the valley 
peoples who were unable to unite for common defence on account 
of their natural boundaries. Thus the city became the center of a 
great empire with a stable government and a state religion. The 
arts and industries were encouraged, schools and churches estab- 
lished and a high state of civilization secured. 

The large number of tribes inhabiting the interior of the conti- 
nent have had a very different history. The great plains of the 
southeast have few natural boundaries to confine the people, so 
from the beginning they have dissipated their energies in spreading 
far and wide over the whole area without developing one single 
great center. They have exhausted themselves in the rtmning and 
have left nothing of importance behind. 

In the eastern highlands of Brazil away from all migration 
routes and cut off from the coast are found a number of tribes 
belonging to the same stock. As a whole they are the most backward 
people of the continent. They may be a remnant of the first tribes 
to inhabit the plateau region who have been pushed aside into the 
out-of-the-way corners by stronger more advanced tribes who came 
to the plateau in later times. They occupy the only mountains east 
of the Andes which are high enough to form a barrier or undesir- 
able enough to serve as place of retreat. 

The rivers and valleys north and south and the low divide on the 



FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 287 

west all lead to the savannah plateau west of these highlands. This 
became a meeting place for the migrations from all these directions 
and also a place of dispersion. The routes of forward or backward 
migration of three great stocks may be traced to this center, by tribes 
scattered along the way. Representatives of one stock apparently 
descended the La Plata River to the sea and passed along the coast 
three thousand miles into the Amazon valley; another followed 
down the southeastern branches of the Amazon, down the main 
river and around the coast to the West Indies ; while a third occu- 
pied the higher branches of the Amazon and crossed the watershed 
to the north coast. 

The Amazon Valley, an area nearly as large as the United 
States, was occupied by hundreds of tribes belonging to several 
different linguistic stocks and all in very much the same stage of 
cultural development. The whole area is well within the tropics 
and shut off from the high cultures of the west by impassable moun- 
tains. It is a humid tropical forest jungle with a most monotonous 
debilitating climate. Nature here is overpowering, because she 
makes life so easy there is no necessity for effort. There is no 
struggle of intelligence against the forces of nature, because she 
provides the necessities of life ready made. The bounties of nature 
gratify the enfeebled ambition without labor. The daily needs have 
daily satisfactions. The climate is so mild that little or no clothing 
is required nor any habitations except the simplest shelters which 
may be built in a few hours when needed. There is no necessity 
for exercise of forethought, invention, or ingenuity. There is 
leisure but no energy. The law of social gravitation does not 
operate because there is no necessity for cooperation. The people 
live in small isolated groups because they require space for hunting 
and fishing. Hence there can be no central government. The 
sluggish rivers offered easy transportation. As there were no 
natural boundaries to confine the people and no central authority 
the different groups moved about at will coming into contact with 
other groups of different stocks and mingling cultures. There was 
no commerce because there was no variety of natural products in 
any one area not common to every other. There is little relief of 
land, change of climate, or variety of soil. The culture is as uni- 



288 FARABEE— THE SOUTH AMERICAN INDIAN. 

form as the environment. A characterless country is producing a 
characterless people. The Amazon Valley was the last great region 
to be occupied by man. There is no evidence of great antiquity 
either in archaeological remains or in present cultures. The lan- 
guages spoken show a close relationship with outside groups. The 
cultures, always first to reveal the effects of a change of environ- 
ment, show certain similarities, but are decadent in form. 

All the evidence at hand tends to show that the culture of the 
South American Indian has developed in perfect harmony with his 
geographic environment. 

University of Pennsylvania, 
April 14, 191 7. 



-^ 



PROCEEDINGS 



American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 
Vol. L.VI. 1917. No. 4. 

CONTENTS 



Growth and Imbibition. By D. T. MacDougal and H. A. SpoEHR . 289 

Spontaneous Generation of Heat in Recently Hardened Steel. By 

Charles F. Brush 353 

The Effects of Race Intermingling. By Ch.\rles B. Davenport . . 364 



PHILADELPHIA 
THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 Sooth Fifth Street 
1917 



Members who have not ; s yet sent their photographs to the Society will 
confer a favor by so doing; cabinet size preferred. 



It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To THE Secretaries of the 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 South Fifth Street 

Philadelphia, U S. A. 



GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 
By D. T. MACDOUGAL, Ph.D., LL.D., and H. A. SPOEHR, Ph.D. 

(Read April 13, 1917.) 

General Considerations. 

The chief purpose of the studies described in the present paper 
has been to correlate some of the more striking features of growth 
in plants with the action of contributory factors, and to resolve this 
complex process into its constituent reactions so far as might be 
possible. 

New viewpoints have been sought by the reduction and analyses 
of continuous series of measurements of the entire course of 
enlargement of single organs or members. Experimental species 
were chosen concerning which much was known as to their respira- 
tion, transpiration, imbibition capacity and chemical composition. 
The daily, seasonal and developmental variations in such matters as* 
carbohydrate content, acidity and swelling capacity of some of the 
plants had already been the subject of various investigations at the 
Desert Laboratory, and additional determinations were made in the 
course of the work. The final or actual increase which is measur- 
able as growth, by weight or dimensions is predominantly a hydra- 
tion or imbibition process as the increment to any growing cell or 
embryonic region is at least 99 per cent, water. There is immediate 
necessity therefore for a study of factors influencing imbibition. 
Whatever theory of colloidal structure may be adopted, there is no 
reason for supposing that the interpolation or absorption of water in 
a complex mixture of such substances is different in the plant cell 
from what it might be in similar material in the laboratory. The 
protoplast and its envelopes are undoubtedly a complicated mixture 
of colloids in a state of more or less constant change. 

A successful search was instituted for mixtures which would 
show the same general imbibition phenomena as the living plant. 

PROC. AMBR. PHIL. SOC.. VOL. LVI, T, JULY 30. I917. 

289 



290 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

Gelatine alone has been found to furnish valuable analogies in the 
study of the action of animal tissues. It is not adequate for the 
v^etable protoplast however. Mixtures consisting largely of the 
amorphous condensed carbohydrates such as agar to which is added 
a small proportion of albumen or amino-acid are found to respond 
to the action of acids, alkalies and salts in a manner similar to that 
of the plant. 

Some new conceptions of the general nature of respiration and 
its correlation with growth have been made possible. The origin 
and fate of the sugars, particularly the pentosans, have been made 
the object of extended experimentation, and the results obtained are 
not the least important of those presented herewith. Most of the 
attempts which have been made to ascertain the essential nature of 
growth have been made on the assumption that it is a single, simple 
or unified process. Thus for example, much attention has been 
concentrated upon fixing the lower and upper limits of growth with 
regard to temperature, and recently much has been written concern- 
ing the temperature coefficient. A number of authors concur in the 
assertion that within a certain range, generally between iS** C. and 
30° C, the rate of acceleration is one which follows the van't Hof 
law of doubling or tripling for every rise of 10° C, it being agreed 
that no such conformity is shown in the extreme upper and lower 
ranges of temperature. This partial or accidental agreement of 
smoothed curves of growth with those depicting the course of simple 
reactions has diverted attention more than once from the funda- 
mental fact that growth depends primarily on respiration, imbibition 
and osmosis. Respiration is essentially a complicated swirl of sugar 
disintegration processes which may be influenced in any one of its 
parts by the oxidation potential, by the dearth of material or over- 
accumulation of products in any part of the complex. The con- 
centration of the various reaction products may exert their own 
direct effect on imbibition and consequent enlargement. In addi- 
tion to, and partly dependent upon the imbibition phenomena, 
elongation may be modified by such factors as water-loss. Thus 
for instance, growth upon a rising temperature may reach a point 
where, as a result of temperature, the water-loss would temporarily 
be greater than the supply, with the result that a cessation, slacken- 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 291 

ing or shortening would ensue until an adequate supply reached the 
expanding region. 

The proposal of Rahn* to explain the relation of growth to tem- 
perature upon the basis of a direct integration of enzymatic action 
and enzyme destruction does not seem adequate. It is true that 
among the reactions upon which the growth of plants depends are 
syntheses or renewals of thermo-labile material, and upon metab- 
olism possibly including oxidation of carbohydrates. Each of the 
separate processes or reactions, enzymatic or otherwise, goes on at 
a rate determined by the temperature, and by the concentration of 
its products, and to an extent limited by the amount of material 
brought into its reactions. The extent to which, for example, the 
sugars are oxidized determines the degree of acidity or alkalinity of 
the cell thus aflFecting its water relations in a very serious manner. 
Also as will be shown later, the swelling of colloids, and presum- 
ably the growth capacity of a cell, may be modified by proteins, 
while its volume or measurable variation in volume is at all times 
a function of the balance between water-accession and water-loss. 

The cell itself may be considered as a mass of colloidal material 
variously altered from the globular by pressure and contacts. The 
outermost layer being of greater density or compactness is usually 
designated as a membrane, and much has been written during the 
past few years concerning the permeability and the modifiable semi- 
permeability of such structures. The meristematic or embryonic cell 
with the action of which we are chiefly concerned in growth, is in 
its earlier stages dense and shows none of the cavities or clear 
spaces which form such a large part of the volume of a mature cell, 
while the relatively large nucleus shows even greater density. 

The enlargement of this mass consists to an extent as great as 
98 or 99 per cent, in swelling by the imbibition of water. The rate„ 
extent and total amount of such swelling will be determined by the 
character of the colloidal mixture, by salts, acidity or alkalinity 
of the solutions present, and only to a very slight extent by osmosis: 
as this process takes place in colloids. Hence turgidity may play a 
very minor part in the earlier stages. 

^Rahn, O., "Der Einfluss der Temperatur und dcr Gifte auf Enzym- 
wirkung, Garung, und Wachstum," Biochem. Ztschrft, 27: 351, 1916. 



292 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

With increase in size vacuoles begin to appear. The active cell 
is usually conceived as a sac with irregular strands of cytoplasm 
extending from the peripheral layers of protoplasm, the nucleus 
being variously placed in this irregular mass. The vacuoles or 
spaces appearing colorless in living cells and clear in preparations 
are taken to be sacs containing electrolytes or other dissolved mate- 
rial. The capacity of these dissolved substances to absorb water 
osmotically tends to increase their volume and cause distension 
resulting in turgidity or swelling of the cell and in rigidity of the 
organ when whole tracts or layers act in this manner. Turgidity has 
hitherto been held to account for the entire expansion of growth as 
noted above. It is now apparent, however, that we are in a posi- 
tion to draw a slightly different picture of the mechanical features 
of the cell in what may be termed the second stage. In addition to 
the denser colloids of the wall, the lining layer of protoplasm, and 
the nuclear structures, it is known that even in the clear regions of 
the cell there are emulsions and that the entire cell is a mass of gels 
of different composition and varying degrees of dispersion. The 
cell may take water into the vacuoles by the osmotic action of the 
electrolytes, but the entire mass tends to swell as would a mixture 
of protein, cellulose, agar, gum arabic, starch and other substances, 
jand such masses may be modified by transpiration or direct loss 
of water. 

The first recognition of the differential action of acidity and 

alkalinity appears to have been expressed by Spoehr and Estill 

who say :^ 

It has become evident that the total swelling of plants like Opuntia 
blakeana and O. discata in dilute solutions of acids, alkalis, and salts repre- 
sents the summation of independent reactions of various material to these 
reagents. Thus, solutions of acids, alkalies and salts influence the swelling 
and growth of these plants by affecting: (i) the hydratation of the proto- 
plasts ; (2) the material that goes to make up the cell-wall and fibro-vascular 
system ; (3) the permeability and osmotic properties of the plasma-membrane. 
It has been found that these three factors can act independently and even in 
opposite directions. Great differences were found in these respects in dif- 
ferent portions of the same cactus joint and between young and mature ones; 
the colloidal material of the former showed much greater swelling than the 
latter in all solutions, and the excess of swelling in acid media above that in 

2 Report Dept Bot. Res. Carnegie Inst, of Wash, for 1915, p. 66: 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 293 

alkaline media or distilled water was much greater in the young joints. Of 
interest is the dbservation that the colloidal material from mature joints 
which have been freed as much as possible from the fibro-vascular strands 
showed a diminution in volume in weak alkaline solution. 

Mr. E. R. Long also working at the Desert Laboratory made 
some tests of this matter and foimd that the swelling capacity of 
sections of Opuntia disc at a as determined by weighing, was less in 
acidified than in neutral solutions and that the swelling was some- 
times less in alkaline solutions than in distilled water.* These results 
suggested that it would not longer be profitable to consider the 
plant as a protein gel and that some comprehensive tests would 
be necessary to establish the general colloidal character of growing 
parts. 

This mistake had been made by Borowikow* who assumed that 
plant cells would grow in an acid condition like a mass of gelatine, 
showing the greatest imbibition of water in acids. 

The action of plant tissues having been determined, it was 
attempted to make up mixtures of colloids similar to those occur- 
ring in the plant which might show parallel reactions. The tech- 
nique and results of measurements of the swelling of plant tissues 
and of plates of colloidal mixtures will be given in a separate section 
of this paper. It may be said in this place that some highly profit- 
able comparisons are made possible by the data obtained. 

The effort to compound colloidal mixtures which might simulate 
living material was extended to include additions of other proteins 
beside gelatine, such as egg-albumin, bean-albumin and of amino- 
acids, together with complex condensed carbohydrates as agar. 
This was rewarded by results which show that small proportions of 
soluble proteins or albumens added to gelatine-agar mixtures 
decrease the water-absorbing capacity of these physical analogues 
of the protoplasts in the presence of electrolytes, and suggest the 
highly interesting possibility that the growth-enlargement of the 
cell might be definitely checked or terminated by the passage of such 
albiMninous emulsions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. The 

8 "Growth and Colloid Hydratation in Cacti" Botan. Gazette, 59: 491, 

19x4. 

*Biochem. Ztschrft., 48: 230-246 and 50: 1 19-128, 19x3. 



294 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

actual quantities necessary to produce the action described in a later 
section of this paper would be small and in some cases lie beyond 
detection by ordinary microchemical or cytological methods. 

Some of the earlier results obtained by a study of the growth 
of opuntias have already been described by the senior author.* 

The comparison of the action of Opuntia with that of roots and 
stems of peas, beans, wheat, corn and oats, etc, led to the inference 
that many of the accepted conclusions concerning growth rested 
upon data obtained from material representing a specialized or 
narrow range of physiological action. An inspection of the records 
of measurement shows that no distinction is usually made as to 
whether the elongation is due to the action of one embryonic tract 
as in the case of roots or hypocotyls, or of many as in the case 
of stems and leaves. It is also to be noted that even in the simpli- 
fied action of roots the elongation is a different expression from 
that of such an organ as a sporangiophore. Measurements of 
growth of the tip of a root include the imbibitional swelling of 
younger cells, the combined swelling and turgidity effects of older 
protoplasts, with all of the modifications due to salinity, acidity, 
alkalinity, character of the respiration, permeability of the mem- 
branes and albumen condition. 

The elongation of a stem may include the total action of several 
internodes representing various stages of the grand period of 
growth, while it may be assumed that in some cases the records of 
leaves represent the variations in length of these organs and of 
one or more internodes. 

The experimental material used in the investigation described 
in the present paper included the conventional subjects, Zea and 
Triticum, which were tested for purposes of orientation. Chief 
attention however was given to succulents which have long been 
known to present a type of respiration different from that of the 
leafy and slender-bodied plants. Futhermore, the massive bodies 
of the succulents presented characteristic body-temperature condi- 
tions which could be readily measured. 

The flattened shoots of Opuntia present a single growing region 

^See MacDougal, "Mechanism and Conditions of Growth," Mem. N. Ym 
Bot. Garden, 6 : 5-26, 1916. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 295 

of great volume which is active through a long period. Such plants 
are amenable to diemical analyses, and have mechanical qualities 
which make it possible to place the apex in bearing upon an auxo- 
graph lever and secure a continuous record of its activity during 
the entire period of enlargement, as well as of the subsequent varia- 
tions in length. Detailed studies of the course of transpiration and 
respiration of these plants have 'been made at the Desert Labora- 
tory, and the available information on these subjects was of great 
usefulness in interpreting growth and other changes in volume. A 
cylindropuntia was also tested in order to ascertain possible differ- 
ences due to mechanical form. Both kinds have a type of respiration 
in which a notable accumulation of acids occur at temperatures in 
the lower part of the tonic range and in darkness. The leaves of 
Mesembryanthemum presented different morphological features, 
but a similar type of respiration. The massive globose and cylin- 
drical stems of Echinocacttis and Camegiea were also used as their 
metabolism is of a character which does not result in any notable 
accumulation of residual acids in any part of the respiratory mesh. 
The meristem region in both is entirely terminal, and some detailed 
studies of the fate of the carbohydrates and of the non-auxetic 
variations in thickness and length as well as of transpiration had 
been previously made. 

Growth of Opuntia. 

These preliminary studies brought out the fact that the flattened 
joints of the opuntias undergo most rapid growth during the day- 
light period, coincident with decreasing acidity and lessened trans- 
piration, and that actual shrinkage occurs in maturing joints as the 
result of reactions which are masked during the period of most 
active growth; The entire development of about forty flattened 
joints has been followed from bud to maturity, and the changes in 
volume of members in an adult condition have been noted for long 
periods under varying conditions. The swelling of hundreds of 
specimens from growing and mature joints were measured, and an 
extended series of records of the action of gelatine, agar, albumen 
and cactus mucilage in acids, alkalies and salt solutions made. 

Unless otherwise stated, all of the growth records included in 



296 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

the present paper were made by an improved form of the auxograph 
described by the senior author in 1916. The changes in the instru- 
ment were for the purpose of securing greater delicacy and accu- 
racy. Twelve of these instruments as described on page 330 of the 
present paper were available. 

The joints of Opuntia occupy the better part of a month in 
developing from a length of 15 mm. with a volume of a few cu. cm. 
to a length of 200 mm. with a volume of perhaps 150-200 cu. cm. 
The entire mass of this member remains in an embryonic or elon- 
gating condition until nearly mature, the development of woody or 
permanent tissue being very light during the first 20-25 days. It 
may be conceived therefore as a thick plate of protoplasts in all 
stages of development from the earliest when enlargement Is a result 
of imbibition alone» to a state approaching maturity where the 
osmotic action of the electrolytes in the vacuoles maintains a turgid- 
ity indicated by the fact that expressed juice shows a possible pressure 
of 5 to 8 atmospheres. Temperatures were established or taken by 
thermometers with thin bulbs thrust into similar members in close 
proximity, and as has been mentioned elsewhere in this paper, the 
temperatures cited are those of the plant instead of the air as is the 
case in many of the papers dealing with growth (Fig. i). 

A feature prominently emphasized by our studies is the interde- 
pendence of effects. The influence of any one environic agency is of 
course affected by the intensity of action of other agencies influenc- 
ing the plant. This is well illustrated by the behavior of O. discata 
No. 14, with respect to temperature. A young joint in the form of 
a flattened naked bud of this plant was followed from Feb. 28, 1916, 
to maturity, about April 30, 1916, and then its further alterations 
in Volume until June 7, 1916, at which time disks were taken and the 
swelling capacity of the tissues determined. Measurements of 
growth for every moment of 62 days, of reversible alterations 38 
days and of final hydration capacity are available together with body 
and air-temperatures. 

The plant stood on a cement bench near the glass of the southern 
end of a greenhouse and exposed to normal illumination as modified 
by the glass. It was kept in bearing with a precision auxograph 
in such manner as to reduce errors to a minimum. The following 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 297 



entries are dted from the notes accompanyii^; the auxc^^raphic 
tracings : 

Elongating at 12° C. and below on March 2, with the air at about 




Fig. I. Joints of Opuntia Sp. The youngest stage at which growth 
measurements were begun is illustrated by the small figure at the bottom. 
Succcsuve stages are denoted by size. The largest; figure is that of a mature 
jointbearingflowerbuds. Longitudinal section of joint on the right Growth 
throughout the entire joint during its development is denoted by the increas- 
ing distances between the nodes denoted by the clusters of spines. About 
one third actual sice. 

the same temperature: Elongation began on March 23, after a 
night of shortening, at a temperature of 18° C, and under similar 
conditions, but with air temperature falling to 9° C. growth began 



298 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 



at 14° or IS** C. on the 24th. Growth began at 14° C. on March 
25 and at some point between 15.5** C. and 17.5° C. on the 26th. 
Growth began at 17** C. after a night of shortening, at 19° C. on 
the 31st after a night of shortening, at 15° C. on April i, at 18° C. 
on the 2d and 3d, at 14'' C. on the 4th and 5th, at 18** C. on the 
6th, 16** C. on the 7th, at 18° C. on the 9th, 19** C. on the nth, 
18** C. on the 12th, at 13** C. on the 13th, at 17"* C. on the 14th, 
22"" C. on the i8th, 17** C. on the 19th, above 20** C. on the 19th, 
and 21'' C. on the 20th. 

Similar experiences with many other growing joints are in our 
records. Thus we have the entry that on March 31 all growing 
joints under observation b^an elongation at temperatures ranging 
from 15® to 19® C. This single growing member began elongation 
in temperatures rising from 9° to 10'' C. early in its development 
to 12® to 22® C. in its more advanced stages. Another joints No. 
2, began its daily growth at temperatures as follows : 

.M 2i.5*»C 



March 24, 


xo:oo A.] 


28, 


8:30 " 


29. 


8:40 " 


31. 


9:40 " 


April I, 


8:40 " 


2, 


9:00 " 


3> 


8:40 " 


4. 


8:30 " 


5> 


8:40 " 


6. 


8:3s " 


7. 


8:30 " 


9> 


8:40 " 


10, 


8:30 " 


". 


8:50 " 


12, 


8:00 " 


13, 


11:30 " 


14. 


10:30 " 



,22 



23 



c 
c. 

19* c. 
20- C. 
21.S** c 

20» C. 

21.5** C. 
22.5* C. 
23*» C. 
23* C. 
24.S*'C. 
25*' C. 
17* C. 
19* C 
16* C. 
16.S** C. 



The temperatures of the body at which growth ceased likewise 
showed g^eat variation as illustrated by the behavior of No. 14. 
Thus on March 28, 1916, elongation ceased abruptly when it reached 
40° C, and the temperature of the air was 26° C. Growth stopped 
at 35** C. at 1 130 P.M. on the 25th ; at 28° C. at 2 130 P.M. on March 
30, the temperature having been above that point since 10 A.M. ; at 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 299 

39** C at I P.M. March 29; at 35** C. at 1:30 P.M. April 4; at 
32'' C. at 3 P.M. April 5; at 36'' C. at 1 130 P.M April 6; 37*^ C. 
at 2 P.M. April 7. The upper temperature limit is given in other 
records included in the present paper, the extreme highest recorded 
being Si-S'' C. 

A second series of cultures for observation of growth and 
temperature were arranged at the Coastal Laboratory, Carmel, Cali- 
fornia, in the summer of 1916. Preparations consisting of an old 
joint with roots were placed in a dark chamber in which tempera- 
ture could be controlled. The basal joints from which the buds 
arose held a supply of reserve material quite adequate for the de- 
velopment of the etiolated shoots. Some of the latter were grow- 
ing vigorously six months after the close of the tests described. 

These tests were made under conditions different from those en- 
countered by the plants in the open in two important essentials, viz. : 
the temperature did not rise to a daily maximum and fall to a 
nightly minimum, but was maintained at fixed levels or varied as 
described and the action of light was excluded except for brief 
intervals when observations were being made. The effect of such 
conditions would be to exclude the disintegrating action of light* on 
the acids resulting from respiration, and also to make photosynthesis 
impossible. Both of these features contribute to the daily variation 
in growth of plants in the open. Growth of shoots in darkness 
may be taken to be normal otherwise, so far as respiration and im- 
bibition are concerned. 

An etiolated shoot of Opuntia discata which had arisen in the 
dark chamber in which it had been placed in May, 1916, having a 
length of 05 mm. and a width of 15 mm., was chosen for the first 
test, which was duplicated by later ones. The container in which 
the plant stood was fastened firmly in place and an auxograph was 
brought into contact with it adjusted to record alterations in length 
magnified twenty times. A small thermometer with thin bulb of 
the "clinical " type was inserted in the old joint near the base of the 
young shoot and its readings taken to be those of the growing organ. 
The difference between the two could be only very slight. The 
amount of growth displayed by the shoot on five successive days 
was 1.2, I, .1, I and i.i mm. at temperatures of i7*'-i8*' C, July 



300 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

21-25, 1916. Current was now turned on an electric heater, July 
25, 10 A.M., and the Opuntia reached 25** C. about 6 P.M. 

July 2j, ipi6: 4:30 P.M. — A growth of nearly 3 mm. had oc- 
curred in the previous 24 hours at a temperature of 24° C. and 
25^ C. 

28, II :oo A.M. Growth during the previous 18.5 hours was at 
rate of 3.6 mm. per day, 25° C. 3 :oo P.M. Growth for previous 
4 hours was at rate of 3.9 mm. per day, 25° C. 

Current off and plant cooled to 18** C. at midnight — in 9 hours. 

2p, 8 :oo A.M. Growth during previous 8 hours was at rate of 
3.3 mm. per day at 18** C. 10:00 A.M. Growth of .2 mm. in 2 
hours was at rate of 2.4 mm. per day, 18-17** C., which was double 
the rate displayed at the same temperature before being heated. 
4 :oo P.M. Growth at rate of 2 mm. daily during previous 6 hours 
at 19** C. 

50, 7:00 A.M. Growth during previous ten hours was at rate 
of 2.4 mm. daily at 19® C. 

5 J, 7:00 A.M. Growth of 2.4 mm. during previous 24 hours at 
18** C. 

Aug, I, 6:30 A.M. Growth in previous 19 hours was at rate 
of 2.6 mm. daily, at 18-19** C. 

The plant failing to return to the initial rate of about i mm. 
daily, the heater was again put in action and the plant had a 
temperature of 28° C. at 11 A.M. Growth during this rise of 
9° C. in 4.5 hours was i mm. or at rate of about 5.4 mm. daily. 

The temperature was held constant to within a d^ree but the 
rate was 6 mm. daily during the first 6 hours, then 7.2 mm. per day 
during the next 3.5 hours. 

2, 8 :oo A.M. Growth at rate of 8.04 mm. per day during previ- 
ous 1 1.5 hours at 28** C. 2 :oo P.M. Rate during previous 5 hours 
10.8 mm. daily at 27-28® C. 4:00 P.M. Rate during previous 2 
hours 12 mm. daily at 28'' C. 9:00 P.M. Rate 9 mm. daily during 
previous 5 hours. 

Heat was now cut off and the temperature fell to 16** C. in 4 
hours. 

3, 8 :oo A.M. Rate of 2.9 mm. daily during previous 7 hours at 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 301 

16** C 2:00 P.M. Rate 2.4 mm. daily during previous 6 hours 
at iS-ie** C. 

Heat was again turned on, and the control set at 25** C. This 
point was reached in 2 hours. The rate during this time was 4.8 
mm. daily. 9 :oo P.M. Rate 2,y mm. daily during previous 3 hours 
at 25** C. 

4, 8:00 A.M. Rate 6.6. mm. daily during previous 9 hours at 
25.5° C. II :oo A.M. Rate 5.6 mm. daily during previous 3 hours 
at 25° C. 

Control reset and temperatures of 32® C. were reached by 3 P.M., 
the rate during this period of 4 hours being 6 mm. daily. The 
temperature rose from 32° C. to 36° C. during the next 3 hours. 

5, 12 Noon. Rate 9.6 mm. daily during previous 4.5 hours at 
34-35** C. 3:15 P.M. Rate 9.9 mm. during previous 3.25 hours. 

Current was now cut to reduce temperature as follows : 3 :4s P.M. 
Temperature 26** C. 5:30 P.M. Rate .5 mm. in 1.25 hours at 
29** C. at rate of 9.5 mm. daily. 8:00 P.M. Rate 8.1 mm, daily 
during previous 2.5 hours at 27° C. 

d, 8 :oo A.M. Rate T,2 mm. per day during previous 12 hours at 
24** C. 

Earthquake disarranged record. Current cut off. 7:15 P.M. 
Temperature 19° C. 

7, 8:00 A.M. Rate of 3.2 mm. per day in previous 12 hours at 
18** C, which fell to 2.8 mm. per day during following 2 hours at 
18** C. 

The shoot was now 12.2 cm. in length. Record was discon- 
tinued until August 14, during which time the plant stood at 16- 
18® C. and gained 18 mm. in length, or about 3 mm. per day. 

17. Current on heater at 2 P.M. resulted in a temperature of 
23** C. at 9:15 P.M. 

j5, 8:00 A.M. Rate of 2.1 mm. during previous 10 hours at 
23^ C. 

ig, 8:00 A.M. Rate of 3.3 mm. daily during previous 15.5 hours 
at 25** C. 

^j, 8 :oo A.M. Plant had stood at 25° C. for 4 days. Rate dur- 
ing previous 16 hours was 5.7 mm, per day at 25® C. 12 Noon. 
Rate 7.8 mm. per day during previous 4 hours at 25° C. 



302 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

Watered and record disturbed for 2 hours. 5:00 P.M. Rate 
7.8 mm. per day at 25® C. 

24^ 8:00 A.M. Rate 5.7 mm. per day for previous 15 hours at 

25^ C. 

^5, 8:00 A.M. Rate 6 mm. daily, 25° C. 

Control reset and as temperature of the body rose the rate cal- 
culated in 2 hour intervals increased from 8.4 mm. at 27° C. to 
9.6 mm. at 29** C. and 10.8 mm. at 29.5** C. 

26^ 10:00 A.M. Rate was substantially maintained at 29** C, 
being 9.6 mm. for the forenoon. 2:00 P.M. Rate 114 mm. daily, 
31.5** C. 4:00 P.M. Rate 11.4 mm. daily, 32** C. 

27, 8:00 A.M, Rate 3.9 mm. daily at 17** C. 11:00 A.M. 
Rate 5.8 mm. daily at 18** C. 10:00 P.M. Rate 3.8 mm. daily at 
18** C. 

28, 8:00 A.M. Current on for higher temperature. 9:15 A.M. 
Temperature of 32** C. was reached and 39** C. at 11 :30 A.M. One 
hour later at 12:30 midday, the rate was y,2 mm. per day at 39° C. 
1 :30 P.M. Rate 4.8 mm. per day at 40** C. 2 :30 P.M. Rate 3.6 
mm. per day at 40** C. 3 :30 P.M. Rate 4.8 mm. per day at 40** C. 
5:30 P.M. Rate 1.8 mm. per day at 41.5'' C. 7:30 P.M. No 
growth had taken place in the previous 2 hours. 9:30 P.M. Rate 
of 3.6 mm. daily, the temperature having fallen to 36** C. 

Another shoot of the plant used in making the preceding record 
being available, an auxograph was put in bearing with it when a 
length of about 150 mm. had been reached on August 29, 191 6. 
The rate varied from about 15.6 mm. to 20.4 mm. daily at 35** C. 
to 37° C. The temperature was raised from 36** C. to 47° C. in an 
hour and a half on the third day, elongation stopping when this 
point was reached. During the second hour and a half the tempera- 
ture was allowed to fall to 43° C, growth being resumed above 43® 
C. and continued at a rate varying from 10.8 mm. daily in the first 
hour, 6.6 mm. daily during the following four hours, to 84 mm. 
daily during the sixth hour. The temperature being raised to 46® 
C. in twenty minutes, growth stopped at that point. Shortening 
took place during the following hour and a half at temperatures of 
46** C. to 48.5® C, but ceased as the temperature was brought back 
to 44® C. at some point above that temperature. The shoot ap- 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 803 

peared to be slightly limp, suggesting that elongation and shorten- 
ing might be a matter of the balance between water accession and 
loss. 

The shoot was now subjected to a temperature above 43® C. con- 
tinuously for two days, the maximtun being 52° C. Its body 




Fig. 2. Auxographic tracing of variations in length of shoots of Opuntta 
at high temperatures in dark room at Carmel, September i, 1916. The sheet 
is ruled into two-hour periods by arcs and the 10 mm. horizontal lines of the 
millimeter sheets are reproduced. The variation in length is magnified 26 
times, (a) Downward movement of pen 7 : 30 A.M. to 9 : 40 A.M. denoting 
growth at temperatures of the stem of 45* to 49* C. (b) Growth checked 
for 20 minutes at 49* C. (c) Growth resumed at temperature of 49* C. (d) 
Shortening at 48.5® to 52® C. (e) Stationary at 50.5® C. (/) Growing at 
temperatures of 48® to 49** C. (g) Shortening at 49® C. (h) Growing at 38® 
to 41"* C. (t) Shortening at 49"* C. 



304 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

temperature was then brought down to 25° C. and after twelve hours 
at this point it showed rates of 5.4 mm., 6.6 mm., 6.6 mm. and 5.4 
mm. daily for two days as measured at two hour intervals. The 
temperature was now raised to 35° G. at which the rate was 16.4 
mm. to 16.8 mm. daily for an entire day. This rate was fairly 
duplicated on a second day, but with a somewhat wider variation, 
the rate ranging from 15.6 mm. daily to 22.2 mm. daily (Fig, 2). 
The etiolated shoot of a second Opuntia elongated as follows : 

Rate of I mm. daily at 19^ C. 
Rate of 1.3 mm. daily at 19^ C. 
Rate of .7 mm. daily at 15** C. 
Rate of .93 mm. daily at is-iS"* C. 
Rate of 1.08 mm. daily at 17-18'' C. 
Rate of 1.44 mm. daily at 18-19.5** C. 

Rates of i, 2, 1.2, 1.15, .85 and i mm. per day at 16-18° C. 
The preparation was moved into control chamber and the follow- 
ing results were obtained : 

Rates of 2.9, 3, 3, and 3 mm. daily at 26* C. 

Rates of 3.2 and 344 mm. daily at 2&* C. 

Rate of 4.2 mm. daily at 29"* C. 

Rates of 3.6, 6.7 and 9.6 mm. daily at 30** C 

Rates of 1x4, 11.4, 8.4, 9.2, and 1x4 mm. daily at 3X.5-32* C. 

The heat was now cut oflF and rates of 4 mm. daily at 17® C. were 

displayed. 
Rate of 5.7 mm. daily at 18.5" C. 
Rate of 5.3 mm. daily at 19** C. 

The temperature being raised again from 18° C. at 8 A.M. to 
39** C. at 12 :30 midday, a rate of 8.4 mm. daily was displayed during 
the first hour. 

The continuation of similar temperatures during two days was 
attended by sustained rate of 18.6 to 19.2 mm. daily (37-38** C). 
After three days at this temperature it was raised from 37° C. to 
45** C. in 1.5 hours during which time the elongation was at the rate 
of 13.2 mm. daily, and growth stopped entirely at 45** C Some 
shortening now ensued, but at the end of an hour and a half elonga- 
tion began again at 46** C, and was maintained at the rate of 25 
mm. per day for an hour, and the total for the four succeeding hours 
at 46® C. was a rate of about 20 mm. daily, which was not exceeded 
by any rate at lower temperatures. The rate during the sixth hour 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 305 

rose to 204 mm. daily at 45° C. The temperature being raised to 
49° C. during the next hour, elongation ensued at the rate of 18.7 mm. 
daily until it was checked at 48.5® C. The period of checking was 
not measured accurately, but after an hour with the temperature still 
between 48° C to 46® C. the rate was 19.2 mm. daily. It is thus 
to be seen that the maximum is maintained up to very near the point 
of actual cessation of growth, an experience duplicated scores of 
times with green plants in the glass house at Tucson. It was noted 
that the air temperature was 40^ C. and 41^ C. when the plant was 
at its maximum of 48** C. and 49® C. Similar differences have 
probably gone tmnoted in the observations made by many workers. 

After the experiences described above the plant remained at 
45® C. and 46° C. over night without calibration. Measurements 
b^^un at 7 130 A.M. at 45° C. Elongation during the hour and a 
half in which the temperature rose a degree and a half (to 47.5° C.) 
amounted to .95 mm. at a rate of about 15 mm. daily. Continued 
rise of temperature was accompanied by lessened growth which 
did not cease altogether until 49^ C. was reached. Elongation was 
resumed at this temperature however after 20 minutes, but was 
checked again. The temperature was now raised to 52® C. for a 
half hour with an air temperature of 43° C. Reducing the tempera- 
ture to 49° C. with an air temperature of 41® C. resulted in a growth 
of .4 mm. at a rate of 9.6 mm. daily. Similar changes resulted in 
starting and checking growth in much the same manner. At the end 
of the day the chamber was allowed to cool to give the plant a con- 
stant temperature of 25° C. and after standing at this temperature 
for 12 hours measurements were made to determine the rate at this 
point. 

The rate at 25® C. on the following day varied from 9.6 mm. 
daily in the morning to 12.6 mm. at 26.5® C, then to 8.8 mm. daily 
at the close of the day at 26** C. No measurements were made at 
night but during the two hours beginning at 8 A.M. the rate was 13.2 
mm. daily at 25® C, after which the temperature was raised to get 
values for the next ten degree interval. A rate of 17.9 mm. daily 
was found between 5 P.M. and 10:30 P.M. at temperatures of 

34-37° C. 

The plant now stood over night at 34-37° C, at a rate of 27 mm. 

PROC AMSR. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, U, JtJLY 30, I917. 



306 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

daily, which decreased to 21.6 mm. daily at a temperature kept 
within a narrow range at 35° C. This now being gradually raised 
to 40° C. in a six hour interval the rate at first fell to 19.2 mm. daily, 
then rose to 29 mm. daily, the maximum when measured at two 
hour intervals. Almost any rise in temperature up to about 46® C. 
seemed to be followed by a temporary acceleration in rate. 

Two younger shoots had arisen from the second OpunHa during 
these tests and had attained a length of about 30 mm. during the 
previous ten days. These were designated as " A " and " B." 

The temperature of these young shoots was between 25-45** C. 
during most of this time, and for a few hours rose to 52® C. as 
described in connection with the tests with other shoots. Separate 
auxog^aphs were put in bearing with the two shoots and ther- 
mometers were arranged to take the temperattire of the basal joint 
from which they arose and of one of the other growing shoots 
near by. 

The interest attached to the detail of the growth of these two 
shoots warrants the transcription of the complete record. 

Sept 5, 1916, continued: As soon as the instruments were adjusted, the tem- 
peratures which were standing at 30° C. were raised by 
the use of an additional heater giving the following records : 

A B 

8: 00 A.M. Both growing. 30** C. 

9:00 " Both growing. 32 

10 : 00 " Both growing. 37-40 

10:30 " Both growing. 41-42 

11:00 " Both growing. 43 

12 : 30 P.M. Both growing. 4^7 

Growth stopped in both. 

12:45 " Growth starting. 43 

1 : 30 " Both growing. 46.5 

2 : 00 " Both growing. 47 

2:15 " Both growing. -50 

4 : 00 " Stopped. 

4 : 35 " A little growth in both. 465 

5:15 " Some growth. 49 + 

6 : 30 " Some growth. 49 + 

7 : 30 " Some growth. 49 + 

9:30 " Stationary. 48 + 

6, 7 : 30 A.M. Shortening but had grown until four hours 

before. 5'* C 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 307 





8:00 AM. 


Stationary. 




48 




8:30 " 


Stationary. 




45-46 




9:00 " 


Just beginning to grow. 


46.5-47 




10:00 " 


Shortening. 




46-48 




11:00 " 


Stationary. 




45-46.S 




12:00 M. 


Stationary. 




47 




1:00 P.M. 


Stationary. 




48 




1:30 " 


Stationary. 




47.5 




5:00 " 


Shortening. 




49-50 




6:00 " 


Shortening. 




48.5-49 




7:30 " 


Shortening. 




49 




7, 7:30 AM. 


Plants had shortened until pen was above 








sheet and the 


temperature now stood 




» 


8:00 " 


at 51** C. 




45-47 C. 




8:45 " 


No action. 




43-44 




9:00 " 


No action. 


* 


42-43 




9:20 " 


No action. 




41 .5-42.5 




9:50 " 


No action. 




42 




10 : 30 " 


No action. 




42 




11:00 " 


No action. 




40.5-41.5 




12:30 P.M. 


No action. 




42-43 




2:00 " 


No action. 




39 




2:30 " 


No action. 




38 




3:00 " 


No action. 




37.5 




3:50 " 


Growth beginning. 




37 




5:00 " 


Growth checked. 




38 




8» 7 : 30 A.M. 


5.8 mm. daily. 


6.8 mm. daily. 


31 




10:00 " 


3.8 mm. daily. 


3.3 mm. daily. 


31.5 


■ 


10:30 " 


Shortening. 


32 




4:00 P.M. 


2.4 mm. daily. 


5.2 mm. daily. 


32 




9:00 " 


3.0 mm. daily. 


3.6 mm. daily. 


31 




9, 7:30 A.M. 


4.3 mm. daily. 


5.0 mm. daily. 


30 




10 : 00 " 


1.9 mm. daily. 
Reset 


5.3 mm. daily. 


30 




1:30 P.M. 


1.9 mm. daily. 


2.9 mm. daily. 


30 






24 mm. daily. 


4.8 mm. daily. 


31 




9:30 " 


1.9 mm. daily. 


4.0 mm. daily. 


31 




10, 8:00 A.M. 


1.7 mm. daily. 
(For lo.S hours.) 


4.8 mm. daily. 
(For 10.5 hours.) 


29 






Temperature raised to 39* at noon. 






12:15 P.M. 


Checking. 


6.0 mm. daily. 


39 




5:00 " 


Stopped. 


8.0 mm. daily. 


39 




9:1s " 


Stopped. 


7.9 mm. daily. 


39 




II, 7:30 A.M. 


Stopped. 


84 mm. 


39-37 






(During entire night) 






10 : 00 " 


Stopped. 


T:2 mm. daily. 


36 




11:00 " 


Stopped. 


12.0 mm. daily. 


37 



308 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

2 : 00 P.M. Stopped. io.8 mm. daily. 41 

3 : 30 " Stopped. 8.0 mm. daily. 38 

7:30 " Stopped. 8.1 mm. daily. 37 

12, 8 : 00 A.M. Stopped. 8.6 mm. 37 

(All night.) 

11:00 " Stopped. 13.6 mm. daily. 36.5 

1 : 30 P.M. Stopped. 12.3 mm. daily. 37 

3 : 30 " Stopped. 9.0 mm. daily. 39 

5 : 00 " Stopped. 12.8 mm. daily. 38 

6 : 00 " Stopped. 10.8 mm. daily. 38 

7:30 " Stopped. 13.6 mm. daily. 38 

9 : 30 " Stopped. 15.0 mm. daily. 38 

The behavior of green opuntias in daylight was tested in March, 
1917, at Tucson. Preparations consisting of a rooted joint from 
which a flower bud was arising were placed in the south end of a 
glass house in an equatorial position. The temperature of the body 
rose to 40° C. and 43** C. by the heat of the sun after i P.M. Addi- 
tional heat was supplied by tungsten incandescent lights so that 
the temperature was raised to 49° C. in an hour at which point 
elongation ceased. The temperature following same rising curve 
reached 51.5^ C. a half hour later at which elongation was resumed, 
and was maintained at temperatures of 51** C. to 51.5® C. for an 
hour and a half when it ceased. This behavior is in accordance 
with that of etiolated shoots illustrated in Fig. 2. On the follow- 
iilg day the temperature near midday, which was above 40® C. by 
the sun's heat, was raised to 48° C. and 49** C. for a half hour 
by additional heat from a tungsten incandescent light bulb. Growth 
continued at a rate near the maximum. In an additional prepara- 
tion a bulb for heating not regulated properly raised the tempera- 
ture of a portion of the joint 75° C. for a few minutes, resulting 
in the death of a sector within the next two days. The young shoot 
arising from the margin of the injured area probably reached a 
temperature of 65° C. or 70° C. as some of the outer leaves were 
blackened. Growth was checked at once but was resumed eighteen 
hours later and continued for two days with the customary mid- 
afternoon shortening. 

The gas interchange and variation in the concentration of the 
residual acids has been worked out in detail in Opuntia versicolor. 
Some available data show that the platyopuntia used so extensively 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 309 

in this work present an identical type of respiration. That the 
course of growth was similar in its general features was evidenced 
by the records of the two plants which were under observation for 
some time. Elongation begins with full daylight and assumes its 
highest rate near midday and then checks abruptly about i P.M. 
Shrinkage continues from this time until daylight of the following 
morning. The end of the growing period is marked by a decrease 
of the midday elongation and by increased shrinkage which equal- 




FiG. 3. Auxographic records of growth of joint of Opuntia versicolor, 

A. Record April 10 to April 15, 1916, rapid midday elongation of joint 
near the maximum of its grand period. The first occurrence of shorten* 
ing at S. 

B, Record from April 18 to April 22, 1916. Slight diminution of daily 
growth and accentuated contraction at night The temperature record applies 
to this period. 

C Record from April 25 to April 29, 1916. Increasing reversible varia- 
tion in length with cessation of growth. 

ize each other while allowing a great total variation in length (see 

Fig. 3). 

The general facts as to alterations in volume of Opuntia by 

growth and other changes, including shrinkage, are in accordance 
with those previously described.® Elongation takes place chiefly in 
the first half of the day both in mature and growing joints. Shrink- 
age, slackening or stoppage of growth ensues after midday and 
continues for a varying period which may extend until the follow- 
ing morning. The type of respiration of these plants is one im 

• MacDougal, D. T., " Mechanism and Conditions of Growth," Mem. N.. 
Y. Bot. Garden, 6 : 5-26, 1916. 



310 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

which residual acids accumulate at low temperatures and in dark- 
ness. Acidosis decreases imbibition. Growth beginning with sun- 
rise shows an acceleration parallel to the disintegration of the clogging 
acids and the rising capacity for imbibition, till midday only. The 
retardation after this may not be ascribed to lessened power of imbi- 
bition or to increased transpiration as water-loss is not greater during 
this time and the capacity of the plant continues to increase until 
near the end of the daylight period. The cause of the retardation 
cannot be identified with the direct action of light, nor does it seem 
warranted to assume that the " supply of building material " becomes 
exhausted, as was previously suggested by the senior author. The 

I 

nature of the stoppage suggests the inhibiting action of respiratory 
products or the destruction of an enzyme. Respiration in Opuntia 
is profoundly affected by light as has been shown by its effect on 
acid-accumulation and destruction. Yet no immediate effects were 
secured by exposure of growing members to the action of mercury 
vapor quartz lamps with an intensity equivalent to normal sunlight 
at 2 meters distance, for periods of one to three hours. It is note- 
worthy that the characteristic retardation or stoppage does not take 
place in the first few days of the development of the bud, and that 
the leaves of Mesembryanthemum exhibit a similar behavior. The 
young shoots of Opuntia in this stage are not more than 8 to 12 mm. 
in length, i to 2 mm. in thickness and are all but hidden by the 
slender conical leaves. The joint as well as the leaves are in a state 
of extreme imbibition. The character of the respiration under such 
conditions is in all probability such that acids do not accumulate and 
other by-products are modified with the result that the daily decrease 
in imbibition capacity is not experienced. A similar behavior attends 
the development of the flower buds. That retardation and stoppage 
as observed in hundreds of instances could not be ascribed primarily 
to temperature seemed to be established by the great variation in the 
point at which growth might begin or cease. 

Growth began on rising temperatures at 9° C. to 25° C. in the 
same green plants on different days at Tucson and was noted at 
50® C. in flower buds. The continued rise of the temperature 
resulted in a stoppage of elongation at temperatures between 26** C. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 311 

and 43** C, in the plant which has been cited, with a final limit of 
temperatures of the body of 51.5** C. in some other extreme cases. 

Growth of etiolated shoots of a nearly related species in a dark 
room was i mm. or less per day in members at body temperatures 
of 15° C or 16° C Rates of 2 to 2.6 mm. daily at 16** C to 18° C. 
were followed by 8 to 12 mm. daily at 27® C. and 28° C. yielding 
values of 3 to 4 mm. for a rise of 10° C. Rates of 5.6 to 7.8 mm. 
daily at 24° C. and 25° C. being compared with 8.4 to 10.2 mm. daily 
at 29° C. to 32° C. show a similar coefficient at 29° C. to 31.5** C. 
The meager records at 35** C. and 36° C. yield rates of 10.2 to 13.2 
mm. daily. Observed rates at temperatures above 32® C. or 33** C. 
in the shoot showing such rates were not readily to be integrated 
with these results, and growth ceased at 41.5° C. in the shoot yield- 
ing them. 

The second shoot of the same plant showed rates of .85 to 1.2 
mm. daily at 16** C. to 18** C; 2.9 to 3.4 mm. at 26"* C, and 13.2 
mm. daily at 35® C; 20.4 mm. daily at 46° C, and 18.5 mm. daily 
at 48.5** C. 

The highest observed rates, both in green plants and in etiolated 
shoots, were those immediately preceding cessation of growth; a 
daily occurrence in plants exposed to normal sunlight. 

Accepted conclusions as to growth include an optimum at which 
growth proceeds continuously at a high rate, and above which the 
rate is higher for a brief period then falls off. Some of the records 
are conformable to such ideas and others are not. The two shoots 
of the same plant subjected to the same treatment did not agree in 
this matter, as may be seen in the preceding pages. It is conceded 
that our experiments were not arranged to bear critically on this 
point. It is to be noted that growing shoots in the open may cease 
to elongate at temperatures as low as 26® C. which would be below 
any optimum hitherto suggested. Hundreds of observations of 
such cessations under external conditions supposedly favorable to 
continuous growth are available. The facts in question seem to 
lessen the importance and the usefulness of the term optimum tem- 
perature. 

The results of measurements of growth of the apical part of the 



312 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

globular Echinocactus and of the cylindrical Camegiea afford some 
interesting comparisons, since both are massive succulents, but pre- 
sent a type of respiration something different from that of OpuntiaJ 

The spines of Echinocactus arise from special meristem tracts 
lateral to the grbwing point, and as the growth is wholly basal the 
rigid tips afford an excellent bearing for an auxograph arm. A 
preparation was kept under observation at a point some distance 
from the walls of a greenhouse late in April, 1916. Temperatures 
of the body near the surface were taken by a thermometer with a 
thin bulb left in place during the course of the observation. Growth 
began at 22** C to 24 ** C, about 8 A.M., continuing during the warm 
daylight period and until nearly 8 P.M. Nothing higher than 37° C. 
was shown by the body. The daily rate varied from zero to .05 mm. 
per hour and no retractions were discernible. The length remained 
fairly constant when growth ceased. The temperature of the body 
of this plant did not fall below about 14** C. during any part of the 
period. 

The same plant was available for experimental purposes in 




Fig. 4. Auxographic record of variations in length of spine of Echino- 
cactus, March 13 to March 17, 1917. Shortening from 8 P.M. to 8 A.M. due 
to low temperature. X 10. 



March, 1916. The cluster of spines, the tips of which had emerged 
for a length of 4 to 6 mm. in 1916, began to show freshly colored 
sections at their bases indicative of elongation and one of these was 
brought into bearing in the cup-shaped end of the vertical arm of 

^ MacDougal, " The End-results of Desiccation and Starvation of Succu- 
lent Plants," Physiological Researches, Vol. i. No. 7, 1915. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 313 

• 

an auxograph. The preparation was placed near the south end of 
an unheated glass house with the result that the temperature of the 
body fell as low as 4® C. at 7 A.M., and reached a point at which 
growth ceased at about 8 P.M. The steadily decreasing temperature 
was accompanied by a shrinkage — due in all probability to lessened 
imbibition capacity as a result of low temperature. Resumption of 
growth took place in the forenoon at temperatures about identical 
with those of the previous year. The total daily growth amounted 
to as much as 1.25 mm. to 1.5 mm. daily all of which was made 
between 9 A.M. and 8 P.M. (Fig. 4). 

The record of growth of Camegiea included measurements of 
the variations in the length of the spine as well as of coincident 
readings of the swelling of the apical region of the stem near the 
base of the spine. 

Elongation of the spine on daily rising temperatures began at tem- 
peratures of 24*^ C, iS*' C, 18'' C, IS*' C, 13° C. and 13** C. on sepa- 





FiG. 5. Auxographic record of elongation of spine of Camegiea April 
3 to April 10, 1916, showing nocturnal cessation of growth. Dotted line shows 
maxima, minima and course of air temperature (upper half of cut). Record 
of growth of spine of Camegiea, April 12 to April 16, 1916. Continuous 
growth with only slight variation in rate. Dotted line shows maxima, minima 
and course of air temperature (lower half of cut). 



314 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

rate days and was very active at 32'' C. A period of continuous 
elongation of the spine was comprised between April 10 to 17, 
1916, during which time the air temperature ranged between 14® C. 
and 28'' C. The temperature of the body coincided with the lower 
night temperature of the air and did not rise above 32** C. (Fig. 5). 

The maximum enlargement of the spine was at rate of .075 mm. 
per hour, while that of the neighboring apical tract was not more 
than a third of this rate. After the spine had reached nearly mature 
length the apical tissue accelerated showing a rate as .088 mm. per 
hour. Growth began on rising temperatures of 1$^ C. and above 
and was observed at 40° C. of the body. The main part of the 
growth took place in the daytime and no action directly attributable 
to light effects could be detected. 

Echinocactus and Carnegiea are active during the period in 
which the temperature is within the tonic range, as taken from 
thermometers inserted in the tissues. This implies that such plants 
grow during the daylight period in the open and as far into the 
night as the temperature permits, the maximum rate being attained 
during midday. Numerous tests show but little variation in the 
acidity of Echinocactus and Carnegiea, and it is to be inferred that 
the respiration of the sugars is of a kind in which the disintegration 
is carried through to its final limits. 

A number of records of growth of the succulent leaves of 
Mesembryanthemum inequUaterale were obtained for comparison 
with Opuntia, Carnegiea and Echinocactus, Determinations of the 
acidity of the sap show that while the total range is not as great as 
that found in Opuntia versicolor by Richards,* yet the daily course 
of variation is marked, as may be seen from the following measure- 
ments of Mesembryanthemum. 

Acidity in Cubic Centimeters of N/ioo NaOH. 

December 7. December 8. 

Pure Juice Total Acidity Total Addity p^^ x^i^c Total Ad^ty Total Acidity 
n#»r r rm P*"^ Gm. Dry per Gm. Fresh „._ C cm P**" Gm. Dry per Gm. Fresh 
per G.cm. f ^^^^^^ ^ Material. ^^"^ ^•*'°*- Material. Material. . 

8:00 A.M 0280 1.584 .0356 .0273 1.072 .029 

12:00 M 0279 1.509 .0351 .0225 1.091 .0241 

4:30 P.M .0232 1. 191 .0264 .0205 1.056 .0275 

* " Acidity and Gas Interchange in Cacti," Publ. No. 209, Carnegie Inst, 
of Washington, 191 5. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 315 

The leaves are triangular in cross section and as the pairs emerge 
from the sheathing bases of the antecedent pair the inner or upper 
faces are appressed. The upright position implied is held until a 
half or a third of their length is attained. The tips of a pair were 
harnessed together and 'being turgfid and firm were arranged to press 
upward on the bearing lever of the auxograph. 

The general features of the daily behavior of this plant were 
quite similar to those of Opuntia in that elongation accelerated in 
mid-forenoon, about 9 to ii A.M., and continued until i to 3 P.M., 
when it was checked and a shrinkage ensued which generally ended 
at 5 or 6 P.M. or sunset. After this time temperature being favor- 
able a low rate of growth continued through the night and until the 
daily acceleration occurred a few hours after sunrise. 

The daily course of transpiration has not been determined, but 
it is allowable to assume that the imbibition capacity of the growing 
regions is lessened by acidity as it is in Opuntia, 

Growth of Wheat (Triticum) and Corn (Zea). 

A great amount of data obtained by the measurement of the 
elongation of Triticum is available. The figures have been obtained 
chiefly by the measurement of numbers of organs for a brief period. 
The so-called critical temperature points have been obtained by 
taking averages of the performance of several plants. The facts 
of importance in connection with the present paper are those which 
have been obtained by analyses of the march of growth from day to 
day. Similar methods were used with corn (Zea), 

Varieties of these two plants cultivated in the region of the 
Desert Laboratory were selected, and grains were germinated in an 
unheated glass house. The temperatures given were obtained by 
shaded mercurial thermometers and are Fahrenheit scale. 

The bases of the plantlets were fixed in place by layers of plaster 
poured on the surface of the soil. The tips of leaves which had 
emerged to a length of 10 to 15 mm. were brought into the field of 
a horizontal microscope and the variation in length measured at 
half hour intervals so far as it was possible to do so. The leaves 
were maintained in a vertical position by a requisite number of 
horizontal glass rods with a minimum of shading effect. 



316 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

The increments measured are of course inclusive of the elonga- 
tion of the base of the leaf and of the internode from which it 
arises, as well as of any residual action of internodes below, con- 
sequently a figure illustrative of the grand period of gfrowth of a 
single member could not be plotted from the data given. (Meas- 
urements showing a beginning of decreasing rate are given in bold- 
faced type.) 

Vabiations in Length of Leaf of " Altab Corn" (Zea), 
1914 



Date. 

April 8 


Hour. 
11:30 A.M. 


Scale 
Reading. 




Air 
Temperature. 

85^ F. 


Rate 
Per Hour. 

mm. 




12:30 


P.M. 


z6 


87 


z6 




1:00 




3.7 


90 


J.J 




1:30 




4.9 


90 


24 




2:00 




6.1 


91 


2.4 




2:30 




7-2 


91 


J.J 




3:00 




8.1 


92 


1.8 




3:30 




9.0 


90 


1.8 




4:00 




9.8 


90 


Z.6 




4:30 




10.5 


89 


M 




5:30 




10.7 


85 


1.2 


April 9 












(18 hours) 


11:30 


A.M. 


43.3 


86.5 


1.8 




12:00 


Noon 


44.9 


88 


3.2 




12:30 


P.M. 


46.5 


88 


3.2 


% 


1:00 




48.1 


90 


3^ 




1:30 




49.3 


90 


2.4 




2:00 




50.8 


89 


3.0 




2:30 




52.3 


87 


3.0 




3:00 




534 


86 


J.J 




3:30 




54.7 


85 


2.6 




4:00 




557 


83 


J.O 




5:00 




57.2 


83 


X.5 




5:30 




58.1 


82 


1.8 




6:00 




59.4 


80 


z6 




6:30 




60.6 


78 


2.4 






Reset at 


2.8 




0.0 




7:00 




4.0 


77 


2.4 




7:30 


• 


4.9 


76 


1.8 




8:00 




5.9 


75 


2.0 


April ID 












(13 hours) 


9:00 


A.M. 




74 


1.9 




9:30 




32.8 


76 


2.4 




10:00 




34.2 


79 


2.8 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 317 



Vasiations in 


Length i 


OF Leaf of 


"Altar Corn" (Zea), -Continued 








Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date, 


Hoar. 


Reading. 


Temperature. 


Per Hour. 




10 : 30 




35.6 


80 


2.8 




11:00 




37.1 


82 


30 




11:30 




38.6 


83 


3.0 




12:00 


Noon 


40.3 


85 


34 




12:30 


P.M. 


41.8 


87 


3.0 




1:00 




434 


87 


3.2 




1:30 




44.8 


88 


3.8 




2:00 




46.2 


89 


2.8 




2:30 




47.5 


89 


2.6 




3:00 




48.8 


88 


2.6 




3:30 




50.1 


88 


2.6 




4:30 




52.5 


87 


a.4 




5:00 




53.4 


85 


1.8 




5:30 




54.9 


84 


3.0 


April II 


11:30 


A.M. 












Reset at 


0.2 


84 


»— 




12:00 


Noon 


2.3 


84 


4.2 




12:30 


P.M. 




4.3 


86 


4.0 




1:00 




6.3 


86 


4.0 




1:30 




7.9 


86 


3.2 




2:00 




9.6 


87.5 


34 




4:00 




164 


88 


3.2 




4:30 




17.7 


87 


2.6 




5:00 




18.9 


85 


2.4 


April 12 






- 






(15 hours) 


8:00 


A.M. 
Reset at 


53.2 
0.2 


63 


2.3 




9:00 




1.8 


74 


1.6 




10:30 




6.0 


83 


34 




11:00 




8.0 


85 


4.0 




2:30 


P.M. 


18.5 


90 


3*5 




3:30 




21.0 


90 


3.5 




5:30 




25.3 


91.5 


a.j 




8.10 




32.0 


80.0 


2.7 


April 13 












Ci3-5 hours) 


9 : .>o 


A.M. 


56.0 


78.0 


1.8 






Reset at 


0.8 


78 


— 




10:00 




1.7 


81 


1.8 


. 


10:30 




2.8 


84 


2.2 




11:00 




3.7 


86 


1.8 




11:30 


(watered) 


4.9 


88 


2.4 




12:00 


Noon 


7.3 


90 


4.8 




12:30 


P.M. 


10.8 


92 


7.0 




1:00 




13.5 


92 


5.4 




1:30 




16.2 


93 


54 



318 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 



Variations in Length 


OF Leaf of 


"Altab Corn" (Zed), -Continued, 








Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Temperature. 


PerHouc 




2:00 




18.4 


94 


44 




2:30 




20.4 


95 


4.0 




3:00 




22.2 


95 


3^6 




3:30 




23.7 


94 


3-0 




4:00 




25.5 


945 


3.6 




4:30 




26.9 


93.5 


3.8 




5.00 




28.2 


92 


2.6 




5:30 




29.7 


91 


3.0 


April 14 












(16 hours) 


9:30 


A.M. 


74.0 


81 


3.8 






Reset at 


0.0 


81 


— 




10:00 




3.7 


83 


34 




10:30 




5.3 


fe.5 


3.a 




11:00 




74 


88 


4.2 




11:30 




9.6 


90 


44 


• 


12:00 


Noon 


"5 


91 


3.8 




12:30 


P.M. 


13.6 


93 


4.2 




1:00 




15.5 


95.5 


3.8 




1:30 




17.3 


97 


3.6 




2:00 




19. 1 


98 


3.6 




2:30 






98 


3-0 




3:00 




21.9 


98.5 


2.6 




3:30 




23.6 


97 


34 




4:00 




24.7 


97 


a.j 


April 15 












(17.5 hours) 


9:30 


A.M. 


63.0 


83 


2.2 






Reset at 


1.4 


83 


^ 




10:00 




3.2 


86 


3.6 




10:30 




4.9 


89.5 


3-4 




11:00 




6.7 


92 


3.6 




11:30 




8.5 


94 


3.6 




12:00 


Noon 


104 


955 


3.8 




12:30 


P.M. 


12.0 


97 


3.2 




1:00 




13.3 


98 


3.6 




1:30 




144 


99 


3.3 




2:00 




15.6 


99.5 


24 




3:00 




17.8 


99 


3.3 




3:30 




18.7 


97 


1.8 






Reset 


0.6 


97 


— 


April 16 












(19 hours) 


10:30 


A.M. 


37.8 


86 


1-5 




11:00 




39.2 


88 


2.8 




11:30 




40.4 


89 


a.4 




12:00 


Noon 


41.4 


90 


3.0 




12:30 


P.M. 


42.5 


91.5 


2.2 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 319 



Variations in 


Length 


OP Leaf of 


"Altar Corn" (Zea).-^ 


Continued. 








Scale 


Ait 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Temperature. 


Per Hour. 




1:00 




43.5 


93 


2.0 




1:30 




44.4 


93 


1.8 




2:00 




45.1 


93 


1.4 




3:00 




46.8 


93 


1.7 




4:00 




48.1 


92 


1.3 




5:00 


' 


49.1 


90 


I.O 




6:00 




50.7 


89 


1.6 






Reset 


154 


76 


— 


April 17 














9:00 


A.M. 


30.4 


72 


I.O 




10:00 




31.4 


76 


1.0 




11:00 




324 


79S 


I.O 




(watered) 










1:00 


P.M. 


34.6 


84 


I.I 




2:15 




36.0 


85 


I.I 




3:15 




38.8 


85 


2.0 




4:30 




37.6 


82 


— 




5:30 




384 


80 


.8 






Reset 


23.1 


^ 


— 


April 18 












(16 hours) 


9:30 


A.M. 


30.3 


78 


45 




10:30 




30.9 


81 


.6 




11:30 




31.6 


84.5 


.7 




12:30 


P.M. 


32.5 


89 


.9 




1:30 




32.9 


91^5 


•4 




2:30 




334 


92 


4 




3:30 




34.0 


91 


.5 




4:30 




34.4 


90 


4 




5:30 




34.9 


85 


•S 


April 19 












(16.5 hours) 


10:00 


A.M. 


41.9 


83 


4 




11:00 




42.3 


88 


4 




12:00 


Noon 


42.8 


90 


4 




3:30 


P.M. 


434 


95 


.a 




4:45 




43.7 


95 


•J 


April 20 


9:30 


A.M. 


48.0 


81.5 


^5 




11:00 




48.0 


90 


.00 




2:00 


P.M. 


48.0 


98 


.00 




5:30 




48.0 


93 


.00 


April 21 












(16 hours) 


9:30 


AM. 


52.6 


77 


.3 — 




2:00 


P.M. 


54.1 


78 


.3 + 


April 22 












(19.25 hours) 


ii:i5 


A.M. 


58.8 


74 


.24 


April 23 


1:00 


P.M. 


69.2 


83 


4 



820 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 



Growth 


OF "Turkey Red" 


Wheat (Triticutn), March, 


1914. 








Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Temperatore. 


Per Hour. 


March 19 


11:00 


A.M. 


0.0 


70'F. 


— mm. 




11:30 




.8 


70 


1.6 




12:00 


Noon 


1.3 


66 


I.O 




12:30 


P.M. 


1.5 


65 


4 




1:00 




1.8 


64 


.6 




1:30 




2.1 


63 


.6 




2:30 




2.4 


63 


•3 




3:00 




2.5 


62 


.a 




3:30 




2.6 


62 


.2 




4:30 




2.6 


62 


.0 




5:30 




2.6 


60 


.0 






Reset at 


0.0 


— 


— 


March 20 


9:00 


A.M. 


9.1 


54 


1.6 


(5.5 hours) 


9:30 




9.6 


56.5 


1.0 




10:00 




10.6 


59 


2.0 




10:30 




1 1.4 


61 


1.6 




11:00 




I2.I 


63 


1.4 




11:30 




12.8 


64 


14 




12:00 


Noon 


13.6 


65 


1.6 




12:30 


P.M. 


14.5 


65 


1.8 




1:00 




15.4 


65.5 


1.8 




1:30 




I6.I 


69.5 


1.4 




2:00 




17.2 


70 


2.2 




2:30 




18.2 


69 


2.0 




3:00 




18.9 


70 


1.4 




3:30 




20.0 


70 


2.2 




4:00 


> 


2I.I 


70.5 


2.2 




4:30 




22.1 


69.5 


2.0 




5:00 




23.0 


68.5 


1.8 




5:30 




239 


68.5 


1.8 


March 21 


9:00 


A.M. 


42.7 


62 


1.2 


(13.5 hours) 




(Total length of leaf-blade 49 mm.) 






9:30 




43.3 


65 


1.2 




10:00 




44.1 


68 


1.6 




10:30 




454 


71 


2.6 




11:00 




A6.6 


73.5 


a.4 




11:30 




48.3 


76.5 


34 




12:00 


Noon 


49.6 


78 


2.6 


• 


12:30 


P.M. 


51.0 


80 


2.8 




1:00 




524 


82 


2.8 




1:30 




53.7 


82 


2.6 




2:00 




54.6 


81.5 


1.8 




2:30 




55.7 


82 


2.2 




3:00 




56.9 


82.5 


2.4 




3:30 




58.2 


82 


2.6 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 321 



Growth 


OF "Turkey Red" 


Wheat I 


{Triticutn).~^oni 


Hnued, 








Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Ttmperatore. 


Per Hoar. 




4:00 




59.3 


82 


a.a 




4:30 




60.4 


80 


2.2 




5:00 




70.2 


78 


1.6 






Reset at 


0.0 


— 


— 


March 22 


9:15 


A.M. 


23.2 


68 


1.4 


(16.25 hours) 




(Total lengtli 915 1 


mm.) 






9:45 




24.5 


70 


2.6 




10:15 




26.2 


72 


34 




10:45 




27.5 


75 


J.6 




11: 15 




28.6 


76.S 


J.J 




11:45 




29.7 


79 


2.2 




12: 15 


P.M. 


31.2 


81 


3.0 




12:45 




32.8 


82 


3.2 




12:45 


Reset 


35.4 


82 


— 




1:15 




36.8 


84 


J.8 




1:45 




38.4 


84.5 


3.2 




2:15 




39.9 


84 


3.0 




2:45 




42.2 


84 


4.6 




3:15 




43.5 


84 


J.6 




3:45 




45.1 


84 


3.2 




4:15 




46.2 


82 


J.J 




4:45 




47.2 


82 


J.O 




5:15 




48.3 


81 


2.2 


March 23 


9:30 


A.M. 


70.0 


72 


1.3 


(16.25 hours) 




(Total length 147 1 


mm.) 








Reset 


0.0 


72 


— 




10:00 




2.2 


74 


3.2 




10:30 




3.9 


76 


3.4 




II :oo 




5.2 


78 


J.6 




11:30 




6.3 


81 


J.J 




12:00 


Noon 


7.8 


82 


3.0 




12:30 


P.M. 


9.3 


83.5 


3.0 




1:00 




10.6 


86 


J.6 




1:30 




12.0 


86.5 


2.8 




2:00 




13.5 


87 


3.0 




2:30 




14.6 


83.5 


J.J 




3:00 




15.8 


84 


2.4 


# 


3:30 




17.2 


84 


2.8 




4:00 




18.6 


81.5 


2.8 


March 24 


9:30 


A.M. 


7.0 


70 


— 


(17 hours) 




(Total length 194.5 


mm.) 






10:00 




7.8 


72 


1.6 




10:30 




9.4 


74 


3.2 




II : 00 




10.6 


75 


a.4 




11:30 




12.2 


81 


3-2 


PROC. AMER. 


PHIL. SOC, VOL. LVI, V 


, JULY 30, 


1917. 





822 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 



Growth of 


"Turkey Red" 


Wheat ( Triticum ) . — Continued, 


• 






Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Temperature. 


Per Hour 


^ 


12:00 


Noon 


13.5 


82 


a.6 




12:30 


P.M. 


15.0 


80 


3.0 




1:00 




164 


81.5 


J.8 




1:30 




18.0 


83 


3-2 




2:00 




19.2 


84 


2.4 




2:30 




20.8 


83 


3-2 




3:00 




22.2 


83 


2.S 




. 3:30 




23.4 


83 


a.4 


t 


4:00 




24.7 


82 


2.6 




4:30 




26.0 


82 


2.6 




8:00 




344 


77 


2.4 


March 25 


9:30 


A.M. 


0.3 


72.S 


— 






(Total length 244.S 


mm.) 






10:00 




1.4 


74 


j.a 




10:30 




2.9 


76 


3.0 




11:00 




44 


77 


J.8 




11:30 




5.6 


78 


a.4 


^ 


12:00 


Noon 


7'Z 


81 


3.4 




12 : 30 


P.M. 


8.6 


83 


2.6 




i:OQ 




10.0 


85 


2.8 




1:30 




11.3 


85 


2.6 




2:00 




12.6 


85 


2.6 




3:00 




16.6 


86 


4.0 




4:00 




17.9 


85 


1.3 




4:30 




194 


84 


30 




5:00 




20.7 


83 


2.6 




5:30 




21.9 


81 


2.4 


March 26 


9:30 


A.M. 


404 


74 


I.I 


(16 hours) 




(Total length 295.5 


mm.) 






10:00 




41.5 


75 


2.2 




10:30 




42.7 


72 


24 




11:00 




44.0 


7Z 


2.6 




11:30 




454 


7S 


2.8 




12:00 


Noon 


46.7 


75 


2.6 




12:30 


P.M. 


48.8 


76 


2.2 




1:00 




49.1 


77 


.6 




1:30 




50.7 


78.5 


3.2 




2:00 




51.8 


80 


2.2 




2:30 




53.3 


82 


3.0 




3:00 




544 


82 


2.2 




3:30 




55.7 


82 


2.6 




4:00 




57.1 


80 


2.8 




4:30 




58.1 


80 


2.0 


March 27 


9:00 


A.M. 


0.7 


64 




(16 hours) 




(Total length 334-5 


mm.) 





MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 323 



Growth of "Turkey Red" Wheat (Triticum). — Continued. 











Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


TeBBperature. 


Per Hour 




9:'30 




1.6 


64 


1.8 




10:00 




2.2 


67 


I.J 




3:30 


P.M. 


13.2 


88.5 


2.0 




4:00 




14.2 


87 


2.0 




4:30 




15^ 


81 


2.0 




5:00 




16.0 


80 


1.6 




5:30 




16.9 


79 


1.8 


March 28 


9:00 


A.M. 


35.2 


67 


1.3 


(13.5 hours) 




(Total length 369 


mm.) 






9: 


30 




36.1 


69 


1.8 




10: 


100 




37.2 


68.5 


2.2 




10 


:30 




38.2 


6a5 


j.a 




II 


:oo 




39.1 


72 


1.8 




II 


.30 




40.3 


74 


2.4 




12 


:oo 


Noon 


41.6 


74 


2.6 




12 


:30 


P.M. 


42.7 


74 


a.a 




i: 


30 




44.7 


70 


4.0 




2 


:oo 




46.0 


71 


J.6 




2 


:30 




47.1 


69 


J.J 




3 


:30 


• 


48.7 


65 


1.6 




5: 


00 




50.9 


65 


1.5 




5 


:30 




51.6 


64.5 


.7 




6: 


00 




52.3 


63^ 


.7 




6 


:30 




52.9 


61 


.6 




7: 


;oo 




53.5 


60 . 


.6 




7: 


:30 




53.9 


59 


.4 




9: 


00 




55.5 


56 


1.0 


March 29 


6 


.30 


A.M. 


0.4 


53 


_ 


(9.5 hours) 




(Total length 400 


mm.) 






7 


:oo 




0.7 


53 


•3 




7: 


30 




i.o 


53 


.3 




8 


:oo 




1.8 


54 


.8 




8: 


:30 




2.5 


55 


.7 




9 


:oo 




3.2 


56 


.7 




9: 


130 




3.9 


59 


.7 




10: 


00 




4.7 


62 


.8 




3 


:oo 


P.M. 


14.4 


66 


1.9 




3 


30 




15.2 


68 


.a 




4: 


;oo 




16. 1 


70.5 


'9^ 




4: 


,30 




17.1 


70 


I. a 




5 


:oo 




177 


69.5 


.6 




5: 


30 




18.6 


69.5 


.i— 


March 30 


9 


:30 


A.M. 


37.9 


65 


1.2 


(16 hours) 


10: 


00 




38.9 


65 


2.0 




10: 


30 




39.5 


64 


Z.X 



824 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 
Growth of "Turkey Red" Wheat (Triticum), -Concluded. 







Scale 


Air 


Rate 


Date. 


Hour. 


Reading. 


Temperature. 


Per Hour 




11:00 


40.2 


67.S 


14 




11:30 


41.5 


71 


2.6 




12 : 00 Noon 


424 


71 


1.8 




12:30 P.M. 


43.5 


72.5 


2.2 




1:00 


444 


72 


1.8 




1:30 


45.5 


72.5 


2.2 




2:00 


47.4 


76 


1.8 




2:30 


474 


75 


2.0 




3:00 


48.3 


73 


1.8 




3:30 


48.9 


75 


i.a 




4:00 


49.9 


76 


2.0 




4:30 


50.8 


76 


1.8 




5:00 


51.6 


75 


1.6 




5:30 


52.4 


75 


1.6 


March 31 


9:45 A.M. 


12.6 


70 


— 


(16.25 hours) 


(Total length 467 mm 


.) 






10: 15 


13.0 


72 


.8 




10 : 45 


13.5 


74 


1.0 




11: 15 


13.9 


75.5 


.8 




11:45 


14.3 


77 


.8 




12: 15 P.M. 


14.6 


80 


.6 




1:00 


15.3 


81.5 


.9 




2:00 


15.7 


84 


•4 


* ^ 


4:00 


16.3 


83 


•3 




6:00 


16.5 


75 


.1 



April I 9:30 A.M. (15.5 hours — growth .1 mm.; stopped). 

Total length 470 mm. 

Retardation of growth of Zea and Triticum occurs at more than 
one place in the temperature scale and at different times of the day, 
as may be seen from the inspection of the bold-faced figures on the 
preceding pages. An uneven rate of elongation was particularly 
noticeable in Triticum, although displayed by Zea as well. It was 
thought that the irregularity might be due to a sagging of the leaf 
blade which would cause its tip to move with a varying rate across 
the field. Similar leaves attached to the 'bearing arm of an auxo- 
graph under a stretching tension traced an undulating line indicative 
of similar irregularities (Fig. 6). Cessation of growth, especially 
in some of the instances in Zea, may be reasonably attributed to a 
direct temperature effect, especially in the cases in which the ther- 
mometer stood at 30° C. to 35° C. for extended periods. In the 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 326 



greater number of instances particularly in Triticum, no such ex- 
planation could be deemed adequate, and the matter is referred to 
varying imbibition capacity coincident with alternations of acidity, 
alkalinity and neutralization (see page 309). 

The highest rate that was maintained for some time by Zea was 
found to lie between 27° C. and 30° C. The elongation of the leaf 




Fig. 6. Auxographic record of growth of leaf of wheat (Triticum) for 
six hours showing sudden alterations in rate of elongation. The pen moves 
downward with elongation. Actual variation in length. X IS- 

of Triticum was erratic and retardations were numerous and occur- 
ring at all temperatures between 15° C. and 30° C. It is not pos- 
sible to fix upon any limits of temperature within which growth 
might be continuous in this plant. It is obvious that " secondary " 
maxima might readily be derived from data of this character. 

No retardations occurred except after 11 A.M. in either Zea or 
Triticum and while Zea showed an acceleration late in the day after 
retardation at high temperatures, Triticum did not. The tonic range 
of the two plants is of course not identical. Wheat grows at a 
lower range than corn and probably reaches its upper limit near 
the figures given. 

There are but three allowable causes in the present state of our 
knowledge, to which might be attributed the slackening or inhibition 
of growth or actual shrinkage of growing joints after midday and 
continuing until the following morning. The retardations in ques- 
tion are relatively least in the earlier stages of development when 
the joints are not more than one fourth or one fifth adult size and 



326 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

have the effect of a flattening of the curve that is of slowing down 
growth. The action becomes more pronounced until a stage is 
reached when more and more of the elongation of the forenoon is 
retracted in the afternoon (see Fig. 3). 

Such negative action might be due to the reduction of an enzyme 
concerned in the renewal of the constructive material below the 
effective amount, or to the clogging action of accumulated products, 
or as has been previously suggested, to transpiration counterbalanc- 
ing imbibition and accretion of suspended material. Cessation of 
growth at 26° C to 30** C. would be difficult to reconcile with the 
assumption that it might be due to a destruction of an enzyme, since 
all known bodies of this kind do not begin to show a rapid rate of 
disintegration until a much higher temperature is reached. An 
accumulation of the products in some part of the chain of reactions 
might well take place, however. Similar retardations in photo- 
synthesis are known to occur when translocation of the carbohy- 
drates is prevented. 

As to the third suggestion it is to be said that the stoppage or 
slackened growth of green plants in the open in the hours imme- 
diately preceding daylight coincides with a condition of lessened 
imbibition capacity due to high acidity and accompanied by the most 
rapid transpiration displayed by the plant. The low temperatures 
at this time might also cause a decreased absorption. The rate of 
absorption of green plants would be greatest in the afternoon, and 
as water-loss at this time has been found to be actually less than in 
early morning, it is to be seen that the decreased growth character- 
istic of this part of the day may not be attributed to excessive trans- 
piration. Acidity is near the minimum at this time and the imbibi- 
tion capacity of the growing joint is greatest. That transpiration 
may actually check or neutralize growth has been demonstrated in 
Eriogonum by Lloyd:' 

The daily march of growth is as follows : During the early daylight hours 
until about 8, there is usually a slight rise in growth rate. After that hour 
the rate falls to a low value, or, much more frequently there ensues an actual 
shrinkage. This is the period during which the loss of water by transpiration 
is rapidly increasing, reaching its maximum at about noon. Coincidentally 
with the checking of transpiration, the growth rates rapidly increase in value. 

•Report Dcpt. Bot. Research, Carnegie Inst, of Washington for 1916. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 327 

the maximum rate being attained by i or 2 P.M. and thereafter maintained, 
with fluctuations, until 6 P.M., when the rates again fall to the night values. 
The afternoon rates are great enough to more than make up for the negative 
behavior of the morning, except, as above stated, under unusual conditions. 

That light cannot be held to account for the retardation of growth during 
the morning hours as above indicated has been shown to be an untenable view, 
since it was found possible experimentally to alter the rates both positively 
and negatively quite independently of the constancy, increase or decrease of 
illumination, even when this has been increased with respect to the growing 
part by insolation from three directions. There seems indeed to be no maxi- 
mum insolation normally occurring in the field at this locality which can cause 
any cessation or inhibition of growth when conditions which insure water 
supply to the growing part obtain. Thus, when a cessation of growth is 
apparent, it can be checked, and high rates instituted, by the removal of leaves 
(which divert the water supply), by increasing the vapor tension in the 
vicinity of the growing part, or by merely increasing the temperature when 
the volume of the growing part is small (as when the intemode und^r obser- 
vation is young). These positive changes may occur coinddentally with in- 
crease of illumination from the blue or red portions of the spectrum to full 
insolation. 

A similar action may occur in the inactivity of green opuntias 
in the open, but certainly does not apply to the daylight retardation. 
On the other hand the checking of growth or shrinkage of etiolated 
members in darkness and of green shoots at high temperatures may 
well be due to transpiration or modification of imbibition capacity. 

Water-Absorbing Capacity of Plant Tissues. 

Growth is essentially the irreversible enlargement of embryonic 
cells, by the appropriation of material of which 98 or 99 per cent, is 
water. The process depends upon the availability of the building 
material which enters into the structure of the protoplast, its inclu- 
sions and its envelopes, and upon the continuance of reactions, such 
as enzymosis and respiration, which maintain an unsatisfied absorp- 
tive capacity. 

The incorporation of the solutions in the colloids of the proto- 
plast is essentially a hydration process which is usually designated 
as inhibition. A stable colloid takes up a fixed solution at a rate 
expressible by a regular curve. The protoplast is a complex mixture 
of both emulsoids and suspensoids in which there is almost unceas- 
ing change. Its structure may be modified by the uneven action of 
the metabolic plexus which may also result in the accumulation of 



328 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

products such as acids, the presence of which may cause accelera- 
tion, retardation or cessation of growth by modifying imbifbition or 
capacity for absorption .of water. 

It is obvious that a determination of the water-absorbing capac- 
ity or swelling coefficient of a growing organ would be an index of 
its capacity for enlargement at that moment, and by the use of dif- 
ferential solutions the influence of acidity or alkalinity on the process 
may also be ascertained. The catabolic and synthetic processes 
which accompany growth are in the main continued in mature 
organs, especially if these contain tracts of open meristem as do the 
joints of Opuntia. It was thought highly important therefore to 
make extensive tests of the swelling capacity of Opuntia with 
analyses of the carbohydrate content of the joints. These tests 
yield some data of great interest when considered in connection with 
the growth records given in the preceding section of this paper. 

The flattened joints of Opuntia sp, which formed the prin- 
cipal experimental material are elongated oval in outline, the basal 
part being usually about 20-24 mm. in thickness and the apical 
part half or less than half of this diameter. After some extensive 
comparisons of sections from all parts of the joint it was found that 
the apical third of the member furnished the best material for com- 
parative purposes. Sections or disks about 12 to 14 mm. across 
were cut from this region with a cork borer, avoiding the inclusion 
of nodes bearing the spines and spicules. Such sections consisted of 
the indurated epidermal layers between which was a cylindrical 
mass of parenchymatous cells, the outer ones being chlorophyllous 
and some of the inner ones being mucilaginous. An anastomosed 
network of thin fibrovascular strands was included in the paren- 
chymatous mass and this mechanical tissue probaWy checked expan- 
sion in some cases, especially those in which disks were taken too 
close to the nodes. More care was exercised in this matter in 19 17 
than in the preceding tests, a fact that may be taken to explain in 
part at least the decreasing number of anomalies as the work pro- 
gressed. Three of such disks about 12 mm. across the epidermal 
surfaces and from 6 to 1 1 mm. in thickness were arranged in a tri- 
angle in the bottom of a stender dish and a triangle of thin sheet 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 329 

glass arranged to rest its apices on the three disks. The vertical 
swinging arm of an auxograph was now adjusted to a shallow socket 
in the center of the glass triangle while the pen was set at zero 0|i 
the recording sheet. Water or a solution being poured into the dish, 
the course of the swelling was traced, the record showing the aver- 
aged result of the action of the trio of specimens (see Fig. 7). That 
the amount of imbibition depended upon the presence of certain 
recognizable substances was demonstrated by the fact that dried 




Fig. 7. Auxograph arranged for recording changes in thickness of trio 
of cylindrical sections of Opuntia, The vertical arm, which is set in position 
on horizontal arm to give a magnification of twenty, rests on a triangle of 
glass laid on top of the sections. The dish containing the sections rests on 
an iron cylinder to secure stabiKty and a weight is placed on the T base of 
the instrument The record sheet is ruled to millimeters (not shown) with 
heavier horizontal lines i cm. apart. The heavy curved lines shown repre- 
sent four hour intervals. The space is ruled to fifteen minute intervals (not 
shown). Height of clock and lever supports adjustable. 

and dead disks gave proportionate differences equivalent to those 
shown by freshly cut and living material. 



I 



330 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

The auxograph used in making the measurements represents an 
modified form of an apparatus originally designed by the senior 
author in 1901. The improved instrument consists of a compound 
lever, the components ot which are suspended in adjustable bearings 
held in the arms of a metal support of " Y" form with the arms of 
unequal length. One free arm of the bearing lever is forked, the 
upper segment carrying a counterpoise which may be moved to give 
any desired pressure on the bearing contact with an object the 
swelling of which is to be measured. The lower segment of the 
free part of the bearing lever has a sleeve with a short socket 
hinged to its lower side. A thin glass rod set in this socket extends 
downward to a length of a few centimeters and rests in a concavity 
in the center of a glass plate laid on the trio of sections in a suitable 
small glass dish. The sleeve may be moved along the lever to give 
a magnification between ten and fifty to a pen carried by the other 
free lever arm. The two small levers are connected by a short 
length of jewelers' chain in such manner as to minimize friction and 
other sources of error. The pen is arranged to bear on a slip of 
paper 8 cm. wide ruled to millimeters and it is carried by a cylin- 
drical clock which gives it a movement of 28 cm. in 24 hours. The 
compound lever was supported by a rack and pinion column which 
made it adjustable through a range of 12 cm. in height. 

The clock may be moved vertically on its support and fastened 
at any height by a set screw. The delicacy of this apparatus was 
such that it could not be operated on a wooden tatle in an ordinary 
room. Cement, stone or brick piers with a slab of slate, wood or 
stone furnished the necessary steadiness. The dishes in which the 
sections were immersed in swelling solutions were placed on top 
of iron cylinders 15 cm. high and about 8 cm. in thickness and the 
dishes were held in place by clay luting. A weight of about 4 or 5 
kg. placed on the " T " base of the instrument completed an arrange- 
ment by which it was possible to secure undisturbed records of 
swelling of sections of cactus, of plates of colloids, and also of 
growth of joints of this and other plants. 

The following measurements of the swelling capacity of sec- 
tions from the terminal joints were secured in 1916 and 1917. One 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 831 

set was made from joints which had been formed during the pre- 
vious year. Their development as buds began in March and April 
and was nearly complete by June ist. Some enlargement may 
ensue later in the season, or in the following season, as has already 
been described.*® 

SwELUNG — Opuntia Sp. 

Mature Joints, 

(See Fig. 8.) 

(Joints of 1915.) 

Water HCl N/ioo NaOUN/io* 

Percenuge. Percentage. Percentage. 

May 19, 1916 50.0 43.3 70.0 

" 26, " 40.0 36.6 52.1 

June 3, " 72.2 35.3 72.6 

" 13, " 23.9 53.6 55.1 

" 10, " 51.7 35.7 57.6 

Nov. 25, " 65.0 62.0 54,1 

(Measured) 47.6 50.0 35.5 

Jan. 28-30, 1917 37.6 34.3 36.0 

Feb. 20-21, " 12.3 9.1 ia3 

" 23-24, " 14.7 19.9 19.1 

Mar. 27-28, " ii.o 10.9 ii.o 

Swelling of Other Joints Three Years Old. 

Water. HCl N/ioo. NaOH N/ioo. 

Per Lent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 

May 23, 1916 54.4 40.4 58.5 

Dried disks of percentage of original diam. ... 41.3 31.6 42.4 

The swelling capacity of sections appears to increase with 
development and rising temperatures to June at which high values 
were shown by both young and mature joints. A decrease during 
midsummer is followed by a maximum reached in November. 

The average swelling of young joints was 31.2 per cent, in water, 
28.9 per cent, in acid and 29.5 per cent in alkali for the season. 

The variations in swelling capacity during the second year are 
indefinite but an average of the available records (seven tests) 
shows 50.5 per cent, in distilled water, 45.2 per cent, in hundredth 
normal hydrochloric acid and 56.7 per cent, in hundredth normal 

loMacDougal, "Mechanism and Conditions of Growth," Mem. AT. F. 
Bot. Garden, 6 : 5, 1916. 



it ^ u 

fov. 2! " 

tt _ u 

u . u 

4» 

5» 

" 6, " 

" 6, " 



332 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

Swelling of Joints Formed in 1916, 
(See Fig. 8.) 

Water. HCl N/100. NaOH N/xoo. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent. 

May 18, 1916 24.3 30.0 40.0 

June 2, " 23.6 16.4 22.9 

" 13, " 70.1 41.5 49.1 

Aug. 3, " (swelled at Carmel) 16.6 14.0 14.3 

3» " (grown and swelled at Carmel) . 18.2 9.3 15.7 

Nov. 2, " 20.5 21.0 22.2 

3, " 14.6 21.3 19.5 

4, " 28.0 28.0 28.3 

5, " 27.9 26.0 24.7 

6, " 20.8 18.4 17.1 

6, " 27.9 26.0 24.7 

23, " 44.0 53*5 46.0 

" 23, " 34.4 34.9 35.3 

" 23, " 49.3 47.9 470 

" 2Z, " 48.0 45.4 35.3 

Jan. 24-25, 1917 (12 sections) 25.7 27.9 25.0 

Feb. 20-21, " (6 " ) 10.7 11.7 ia8 

Mar. 23-24, " (6 " ) 9.4 12.0 10.9 

April 24 21.8 20.4 13.9 

20.4 21.8 33.8 

sodium hydrate. Inspection of the data obtained by the chemical 
analyses fails to bring to light any connection between the amount 
of imbibition and the proportion of any carbohydrate or salt present. 
The diverging variations suggest combinations of substances to 
which the swelling may be due. It is to be noted that the propor- 
tionate swelling of the sections would be lowered by the thickness 
of the sections which are fifty to seventy times the diameter of the 
colloid sections used in other experiments. Furthermore, the amount 
of swelling is in all probability lessened by the presence of mechan- 
ically resistant fibrovascular tissue. 

Imbibition and Carbohydrate Metabolism. 

In the foregoing pages special attention has been directed to the 
conditions aflfecting imbibition and the water-absorbing capacity of 
the growing plant cell. It is evident that the metabolic activity of 
the cell itself affects imbibition very greatly; an accumulation of the 
intermediate or end products of respiration may thus cause an in- 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GI^OWTH AND IMBIBITION. 333 





Fig. 8. Auxographic tracings of swelling of cylindrical sections of 
Opuntia Sp. — ^joints formed in 1915. A compound lever set to magnify 
swelling 20 times carries a pen downward from the zero line on a sheet 80 
millimeters in width, carried past the pen in 24 hours. The right hand or 
upper line a was traced by a trio of sections of an average diameter of 13 mm. 
which showed a sweHing of 50/20 = 2.5 mm. in hundredth-normal sodium 
hydrate, which was 19.2 per cent, of the original The lower line c was traced 
by a trio of sections of an average diameter of 13.8 mm. in hundredth-normal 
hydrochloric acid which showed a swelling of 2.55 mm. or 18.5 per cent. The 
middle line was traced by a trio of sections of an average diameter of 12 mm. 
which swelling 2.55 mm. or 21.3 per cent Feb. 22, 1917. (Upper half of 
figure.) Reduced H- 

Auxographic tracings of old joint of Opuntia hlakeana. The upper right 
hand line a was traced by swelling of trio of sections of an average diameter 
of 10 mm. in hundredth-normal sodium hydrate. The increase was 3.6 mm. 
or 36 per cent The middle line h was traced by the swelling of a trio of 
sections of an average diameter of 11 mm. in distilled water. The swelling 
was 3.6 mm. or 32 per cent The lower line c was traced by the swelling of a 
trio of sections with an average diameter of 10 mm. in distilled water. The 
swelling was 3.5 mm. or 35 per cent of the original. A notable difference 
between the rates of swelling in the three solutions is exhibited in contrast 
with those of the series of joints of 1915. (Lower half of figure.) Reduced J4. 



crease or decrease in the water-absorbing capacity of the colloidal 
substratum of the cell. At the same time the degree of imbibition 
and of swelling plays an exceedingly important part in metabolism 
and hence in the formation of plastic material necessary for growth 



384 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

and in the liberation of energy. Although these two activities, 
imbibition and metabolism, are so closely interrelated in the growth 
processes they are nevertheless of such a widely different nature that 
it cannot be assumed, as will be shown, that they are equally in- 
fluenced by external conditions, as for instance, temperature; the 
conditions under which one affects the other depending, in turn, 
upon several other factors. 

In general, chemical inversion, or the transformation of the 
highly condensed to the simpler molecules capable of oxidation and 
translocation, takes place only under conditions of ample water 
supply. However, these reversible enzymatic reactions never run 
entirely in one direction. Only differences between the two are 
observable. We are dealing with a delicate compound dynamic 
equilibrium, involving probably dozens of steps and many more 
substances. The very interesting investigations of Lobry de Bruyn 
and Van Ekenstein^^ and of Nef on the rearrangements of the 
hexose molecule demonstrate the extreme complexity of such equi- 
libria. Thus Nef" has shown that when the relatively simple 
hexose sugar, dextrose, is dissolved in a weak alkaline solution there 
are formed no less than 93 different substances which constitute a 
system in dynamic equilibrium. Any number of these can react 
selectively and shift the equilibrium, by oxidation, condensation 
or the like, the course of the reaction depending upon the condition 
of solution as to concentration, temperature, etc. How much more 
complex must the condition be in the living cell with the numerous 
delicate enzymatic equilibria each with its own temperature and con- 
centration coefficient? 

The following results (which are a portion of an extensive in- 
vestigation of the carbohydrate economy of cacti now in progress) 
throw some light on the relation of carbohydrate metabolism to 
growth. 

The carbohydrates predominate in the general food economy of 
the cacti. There is no reason for believing that the metabolic 
processes concerned in the growth of such plants conlsist chiefly of 

11 Lobry de Bruyn and Van Ekenstein, Rec. trav, chint. de Pays-Bos, 14, 
158, 203; 15. 92; 16, 2^, 

12 Nef, J. U., Annalen der Chemie, Liehig, 403, 204-383, 1913. • 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 335 

protein synthesis and catabolism as is probably the case in animals. 
In fact these plants behave largely like masses of gel of carbohydrate 
nature. 

Roughly the fresh material of the growing and mature joints is 
composed of about : 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Water 95 75 

Crude protein 0.5 i.o 

Carbohydrates hydrolyzable with i.o per cent. HCI 5.0 lo.d 

Cellulose 1.0 3.0 

Crude fat 0.25 0.5 

Ash 1.0 3.5 

The total carbohydrate content artd of food supply in general 
is of little significance or value in studying the various functions of 
an organism such as the cactus. It is rather the nature of the 
sugars, or the degree of general chemical inversion, that determines 
the supply of building material necessary for growth. The records 
show many instances of large food supply, and all known external 
conditions favorable for growth, and still no such action taking 
place. The question of rest period undoubtedly is largely one of 
adjustment of chemical inversion and reversion, and in general the 
conditions favoring the awakening of buds are those in which in- 
version has attained a lead over reversion, permitting a sufficient 
accumulation of plastic material; while on the other hand, an ac- 
cumulation in the protoplasmic medium of the products of rever- 
sion affects the inhibiting of growth. It seems therefore that in 
order for growth to occur there must be a sufficient supply of the 
simpler sugars necessary for respiration as well as for the synthesis 
of new substances, that synthesis can overbalance the break-down 
with the accumulation of new material, the latter being the product 
of an irreversible reaction. In the study of the relation of carbo- 
hydrates to growth it is therefore a question of the carbohydrate 
balance, the ratio of the simple to the condensed sugars that is of 
prime importance. 

The problem of determining the different sugars in a growing 
organism is one of great difficulty because, as has been indicated, of 
the large number of sugars belonging to the same group and of the 
similarity of their chemical properties. It must therefore suffice to 



336 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

determine together groups of sugars of the same general physio- 
logical significance. It has been found preferable for the present to 
make a large number of analyses with as great accuracy as possible, 
rather than attempt to isolate and determine each of the sugars in 
a few cases, especially as individual cases show considerable varia- 
tion. For the present purpose a discussion of the methods of 
analysis" employed does not seem essential. 

The following experiment will illustrate the effect of water on 
the carbohydrate balance of Opuntia discata, A number of joints 
of the same age were taken from one plant and divided into three 
lots each of six joints. The first (i) was analyzed immediately, 
the second (2) was suspended in battery jars without water, and 
the third (3) was placed in the same manner in battery jars so that 
the base of the joints were immersed as in a water-culture. (2) 
and (3) were kept in a dark constant temperature room at 28° for 
thirty days, when they were analyzed. The joints in water had 
developed roots 5 to 10 cm. in length. 



Water 

Total sugars 

Total polysaccharides 

Hexose-polysaccharides . . . 
Disaccharides and hexoses. 

Disaccharides 

Hexoses 

Pentosan 



Immediate (x). 


Dry (2). 


Water (3). 


Fresh. 


Dry. 


Fresh. 


Dry. 


Fresh. 


Dry. 


80.34 




77.20 




82.30 




430 


20.49 


4.29 


18.84 


3 60 


18.58 


350 


17.80 


3.60 


18.01 


2.80 


17.54 


1.65 


8.40 


I.81 


8.83 


125 


7.85 


O.IO 


0.49 


0.13 


0.56 


0.14 


0.83 


0.04 


0.20 


0.07 


0.30 


0.06 


0.38 


0.06 


0.29 


0.06 


0.26 


0.08 


0.45 


1.74 


8.86 


1.78 


9.18 


I.2S 


7.85 



The joints without water (2) lost 3.14 per cent, in water con- 
tent, while those in water (3) gained 1.96 per cent. In total poly- 
saccharides and hexose-poly saccharides (3) is considerably lower 
than (2), while in hexoses (3) shows a gain over (i) and (2). 

The difference in the carbohydrate balance between plants grow- 
ing in the desert and in Carmel, California, is illustrated in the 
following analyses of Opuntia sp. during September. The values 
are per cent, of fresh weight : 

13 Full particulars thereof will appear in a later publication on the " Car- 
bohydrate Economy of Cacti." 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 337 

CarmeL Tucson. 

Water 91.15 80.34 

Total sugars 2.61 4.30 

Total polysaccharides 1.94 3.50 

Hexose polysaccharides 09 1.65 

Disaccharides 07 0.04 

Hexoses 52 0.06 

Pentoses 14 ao5 

Pentosan 1.70 1.74 

Under natural condition similar relations exist. The following 
table gives typical results of a large number of analyses of Opuntia 
sp. made during each month : 



Date. 



March 



Dry weight iiS-^S 

Total sugars 3.49 

Polysaccharides 2.80 

Monosaccharides I 0.69 



April 


April 


May 


June 


July 


July 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


3. 


z8. 


5. 


9- 


3- 


3x- 


90. 
19.66 


96. 


15- 


18.20 


18.90 


21.30 


26.74 


30.32 


16.4s 


20.3 


23.05 


4.II 


5.58 


4.81 


6.52 


5.07 


2.42 


4.30 


4.24 


4.80 


3.13 


4.70 


4.5s 


6.31 


4.92 


2.26 


4.24 


4.06 


4.40 


0.98 


0.88 


0.26 


0.21 


o.is 


0.16 


O.II 


0.18 


0.40 



Dec. 



30.1 
5.70 
5.25 
0.45 



Naturally conditions are somewhat more complicated than those 
in the tests described on p. 336. At the time the new shoots begin 
to grow, during the end of March and early April, after the winter 
rains, the parent joints have a high monosaccharide content. As the 
dry summer advances the amount of these sugars diminishes, 
although the total sugars increase. With the advent of the summer 
rains, at the end of July, the decrease in monosaccharides is checked 
though the high temperatures and resulting high rate of respiration 
does not permit an accumulation. Another factor entering here is 
the effect of the temperature on the enzymatic equilibrium. Sepa- 
rate experiments have shown that at the temperatures which prevail 
in the cacti at this time (during the day as high as 55** C.) there is 
a distinct shifting in favor of the polysaccharides. During the dry 
months of September and October the monosaccharides drop to a 
minimum, in spite of the temperature being considerably lower. 
With the winter rains there is again an accumulation which is main- 
tained during the winter until spring, when the favorable tempera- 
tures again permit growth. The formation of new shoots does not 
take place in spring when an accumulation of monosaccharides has 



PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, W, JULY 30, I917. 



838 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

been prevented, for instance, by means of keeping the joints at a 
raised temperature in the light during the winter time. However, 
it need hardly be emphasized that the supply of simple sugars 
can not be r^arded as a single determining factor for growth or 
the awakening of buds. Such material is essential for the con- 
struction of new cells, but as yet no definite conclusions can be 
drawn as to the exact physiological role of the various hexoses and 
pentoses. When the joints are subjected to starvation, f. e,, are 
placed in the dark for periods of from one to nine months, these 
simple sugars are used up more rapidly than they are formed from 
the relatively large store of polysaccharides. With the decrease of 
the supply of monosaccharides the accumulated organic acids, in- 
termediate products of the normal respiration, are drawn into the 
process and the total acidity of the organism is thus reduced. Re- 
duced acidity is accompanied by an increased imbibition of the 
cactus in water. It is also highly probable that other intermediate 
and end products of metabolism that accumulate in the colloidal 
substratum of the cell, and affect imbibition as will be shown in 
the next chapter of this paper, are also removed, resulting in the 
same effect on the water-absorbing capacity as the removal of the 
organic acids. Thus cactus joints with a swelling capacity of 20 
per cent, in water after being starved four months were neutral to 
litmus indicator and showed a swelling of 100 per cent. During 
this period the dry weight of the cactus remained the same. 

It is as yet impossible to determine definitely the carbohydrates 
which make up the colloidal substratum of the cactus cells. Theo- 
retical considerations would require that these be substances of rela- 
tively slight physiological reactivity, i, e,, substances which are not 
utilized in the course of metabolism as sources of energy, and are 
little susceptible to enzymatic disintegration. Of special importance 
in this connection are the unfermentable sugars which have been 
found to be present in relatively large amounts, mostly in the con- 
densed form as pentosans. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 339 

The Behavior of Carbohydrates and Proteins in Gels Useful 
IN the Interpretation of the Action of Plants. 

The amorphous carbohydrates constitute a very important part 
of the colloids of the protoplast, the remainder of which consists 
largely of nitrogenous material, in the form of albumen or albumen 
derivatives with an unknown amount of lipin. The search for 
material which might simulate the imbibitional behavior of growing 
tracts in plants b^^n by the senior author resulted in finding that 
mixtures of agar with gelatine in which the last-named substance 
was present in the smaller proportion showed an enhanced capacity 
for imbibition in distilled water and a reduced swelling in weak acid 
and alkali as measured in very thin plates by the auxograph.^* 

The swelling of gelatine in percentages of the original thickness 
of thin dried layers or plates (.i to .3 mm. in thickness) in water, 
hydrochloric acid and sodium hydrate, may be illustrated by the 
following data which represent averages of measurement at the 




Fig. 9. Auxographic tracing of swelling of agar sections .2 mm. in thick- 
ness in NaOH AT/ioo, A = 400 per cent., in HCl AT/ioo, B = 650 per cent., 
and in distilled water, C = 775 per cent. X 10. 

end of sixteen hours (see p. 343 for further discussion of swelling 
determinations by use of thin plates). 

Water. HCl N/xoo. NaO N/xoo. 

471.5 per cent. 1012.3 per cent. 587.5 per cent. 

Similar plates of agar gave swellings as follows (Fig. 9) : 

Water. HCl N/ioo. NaO N/zoo. 

462.5 per cent. 725 per cent. 937.5 per cent. 

^^ MacDougal, " Imbibitional Swelling of Plants and Colloidal Mixtures," 
Science, N. S., Vol. 44, No. 1136, pp. 502-505, October 6, 1916. See also Ann. 
Report, Dept Bot. Res., Carnegie Institution of Washington for 1916, pp. 61-64. 



340 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

As the plant did not show water relations which might be in- 
terpreted as a direct combination of the separate action of gelatine 
or agar, it was next proposed to test the reactions of a mixture in 
which these substances would be blended, which was done in July, 
1916. The first test mass was one consisting of about equal parts 
of agar and gelatine, though the quantities were not weighed. Both 
were soaked and melted separately and the gelatine was poured into 
the hot agar which was kept at a temperature of about 90** C. for a 
half hour. The mass was then poured onto a glass slab for cooling. 
Two days later it was stripped off as a fairly clear and transparent 
sheet slightly clouded, the average thickness of which was 0.2 mm. 
Strips about S X 7 mm. were placed under the apices of sheet glass 
triangles in glass dishes after the manner in which plant sections 
had been tested, and auxographs were arranged to record the action 
of acids, alkalies, and distilled water. This mixture gave swellings 
as follows: 

Water. HCI N/ioo. NaO N/xoo. 

762.5 per cent. 687.5 per cent. 800 per cent. 

The mixture of these two substances having been found to 
swell more in water and in alkaline solutions than in acid, a series 
of varying proportions of the two constituents were made up. The 
mixtures were poured into moulds on glass plates and dried sheets 
from .1 mm. to .6 mm. in thickness were obtained. The measure- 
ments given below include the averages of tests under varied condi- 
tions not only of thickness of the samples, but also of temperature, 
length of period of swelling, tension of instruments, etc. The prin- 
cipal results obtained were as follows: 







Gelatine 100 — Agar i. 




Water. 




HCI N/xoo. 


NaOH N/xoo. 


750 per 


cent. 


uoo per cent. 
Gelatine 100 — Agar 5. 


520 per cent 


329 




850 
Gelatine 80 — Agar 20, 


685.5 


431.6 




789.3 
Gelatine 50 — Agar 50. 


760.7 


799.0 




366.6 


580.9 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 341 

Water. 
378.0 

"44.5 
lOOO.O 



HCl N/ioo. 


N«(jH n/ioo 


Gelatine ^S—Agar 75. 




427.3 


510.7 


Gelatine 20— Agar 80. 




572.1 


526.0 


Gelatine 10 — Agar 90. 




401.0 


300.0 


Gelatine i — Agar pp. 




475.0 


425.0 



1825.0 

The data indicate that as the proportion of agar in the mixture 
is increased, the relative amplitude of swelling in water may be 
increased, and the relative amount of imbibition in acid is decreased. 
This superior imbibition capacity in water as compared to effects 
of acid and alkali is a fair parallel to the behavior of sections of 
young, mature and old parts of Opuntia, 

The second parallel of importance is the one in which the 
swelling in alkaline solutions is in some cases less and in others 
greater than in acidified solutions in mixtures containing as much as 
a third or more of agar. 

The mucilaginous material which may be obtained by macerating 
joints of cacti in distilled water is fairly similar to agar. Some of 
this was used in mixtures in place of agar. The averages of a series 
of swellings of a mixture of 90 parts of gelatine and 10 parts of 
such mucilage, reckoned by dry weight, were as follows : 

Water. HCl N/xoo. NaOH N/xoo. 

428.1 per cent. 770.4 per cent. 557.8 per cent. 

These data are of interest when compared with the swellings of 
mixtures of 100 parts gelatine to 5 parts agar, and of mixtures of 
80 parts of gelatine to 20 parts of agar (see p. 340). The mucilage 
from joints of Opuntia affects the swelling of gelatine in much the 
same manner as does agar in equivalent proportions. The water)r 
extract of course contains the soluble salines of the plant, and some 
of the effect might be attributed to their presence. 

A few simple tests were arranged to show the effects of a salt 
on the colloids used, the results of which are as follows : 



342 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 



Gelatine. 
Swelling, 

Water. HCl N/ioo. 



HCI+N«C! 



N/aoo 

450.0 per cent 1200.0 per cent. 1 116.7 per cent. 
516.7 1066.7 1400.0 



1250.0 



Averages: 4834 1 133-4 1255.6 

Gelatine. 

Water. HO N/ioo. HC! N/xoo+N«CI N/ioo. 

616.7 per cent 1016.7 per cent 833.3 PC cent. 
466.7 1083.3 1083.3 
1 133.3 883.3 



866.7 

8333 

Averages: 483.3 1077.8 899.9 

The superior swelling of gelatine in acidified solutions is illus- 
trated and a lower average of swelling in hundredth normal hydro- 
chloric acid in the presence of a salt solution of the same concen- 
tration was demonstrated. The admixture of hundredth normal 
acid and of hundredth normal salt solution gives a solution of two 
liundrcdths normal concentration. Gelatine shows a lesser swelling 
3n this weaker acid, and furthermore the presence of the salt appears 
to increase imbibition. 

Sugars are an important constituent of living tissues and it is 
highly probable that in addition to pentose, sucrose and dextrose 
are also in the colloidal suspensions of the protoplast. It was im- 
portant to determine whether or not they exerted any direct effect 
in the concentrations in which they might occur in the cell. A series 
of tests of the effects of these substances was carried out by Mr. E. 
E. Free at the Coastal Laboratory in September, 1916. Gelatine 
and agar were mixed in various proportions, dried to thin sheets 
and then swelled at temperatures of 16 to 21 ** C. 

Sugar solutions of a concentration less than 25 per cent, did not 
differ appreciably in its effects from distilled water. Sucrose con- 
centrations of a 50 per cent, concentration produced a markedly 
lessened concentration of all gels. Dextrose of the same strength 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 343 

had a similar effect on the mixtures low in gelatine in which it was 
tried. Its effect on mixtures containing a large proportion of gela- 
tine was not determined. The appreciable effects are probably due 
to the tying up of molecules of water analogous to the osmotic action 
of such solutions. 

Sugar solutions of a concentration of 25 per cent, or higher are 
not characteristic of growing regions and probably occur only in 
storage tracts, seeds or cotyledons. While the effect would be to 
lessen imbibition by the colloidal mass of the protoplast it is to be 
recalled that a vacuolar fluid of such concentrations would have 
high osmotic properties and the expansion by turgidity might mask 
or exceed that due to imbibitional swelling. If sugars contribute 
directly to the growth expansion of the cell it would therefore be in 
the later stages of development and by osmotic action. 

A duplicate series of tests of the behavior of an admixture of 
starch with agar gave the following results : 





SWEUJNG. 






Agar go — Starch 10. 




Water. 


Ha N/ioo. 


NaOH N/zoo. 


1275 per cent. 


541.6 per cent. 


496.6 per cent 



The complication of the carbohydrate gel by the addition of starch 
made no essential departure from the behavior of agar alone in 
water, acidified and alkaline solutions. 

The combination of agar and gelatine gave a gel in which two 
of the three main groups of constituents of living matter were 
represented. 

It is not certain, however, that the combination of amino-acids 
in gelatine is duplicated in the plant and it was deemed important 
to test the effects of simpler amino-acid compounds and of the 
more complex albumens on the swelling of agar, as representing the 
basically important carbohydrates. Solutions of the various mix- 
tures were poured on glass plates in layers about a centimeter thick 
and 3 by 5 cm. in area. Desiccation resulted in a reduction of the 
length and width to about half of the original. The thickness how- 
ever was reduced to one-tenth or even as much as to one-thirtieth of 
the original, and having a thickness of .1 mm. to .3 mm. in most 



344 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

cases. The principal axis of deposition of material was in the ver- 
tical and the swelling in this direction would of course be corre- 
spondingly in excess of that in the plane of the sections. It is 
extremely unlikely that any of the colloidal masses of the cell are 
iso-radial as to deposition or structure and the use of thin plates 
seemed a feature which might increase the similarity of behavior 
with that of the plant. The strands, sheets or masses of material 
in the cell are of course mostly thinner than the plates used in the 
experiments, which however would affect speed of imbibition more 
than final proportion. 

Trios of sections of sheets of the dried colloids 2 to 4 mm. by 
3 to 6 mm. were placed in the bottom of stender dishes or of heavy 
watch glasses securely seated on iron cylinders. Triangles of glass 
were placed on the sections, and the vertical arms of auxographs 
were rested in a socket in the center of the triangles. Any change 
in thickness of the sections would be registered immediately. The 
use of six instruments gave duplicate results of the effects of water, 
acid and alkali, and each record was an integration or average of 
the swelling of three sections. 

The only albumen available when this plan was put into opera- 
tion was a commercial egg-albumen, and this was first tested in 
mixtures with large proportions of gelatine. The results of the 
swellings are as follows: 

Water. HCI N/ioo. NaOH N/ioo. 

Gelatine. 
(Average of 3 tests.) 
313.8 per cent. 825.5 per cent. S58.3 per cent 

Gelatine 100 — Albumen 5. 
(Average of 5 tests.) 
283.4 6H.7 482.2 

Gelatine 85 — Albumen 15. 
(Average of 5 tests.) 
408.6 827.8 673.0 

Gelatine 75 — Albumen 25, 
(Average of 3 tests.) 
378.3 569.7 508.7 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 345 

The albumen did not exert any important influence on the swell- 
ing of the mixture until it was present in proportions as great as 25 
per cent. The action is not marked even in this high proportion. 
Neither this nor any other combination in which gelatine formed the 
greater part displayed water relations at all similar to those of 
the plant. 

Next egg-albumen was added to agar and agar-gelatine mixtures 
with results as below, a further illustrative test being made of agar- 
gelatine : 

Water. HO N/ioo. NaOH N/xoo. 

Agar 75 — Gelatine 25. 
(Average of 4 tests.) 
378.5 per cent. 427.3 per cent. 515.7 per cent 

Agar 90 — Albumen Jo. 
(Average of 3 tests.) 
1516.6 270.0 333.3 

(Average of 6 test's.) 
1477.1 309.8 297.9 

Agar 70 — Gelatine 20 — Albumen 10, 
595.0 216.6 298.6 

The addition of ten per cent, of albumen to agar notably reduced 
the capacity of agar for swelling in acid and alkali, and appeared to 
increase the amplitude of swelling in distilled water, although the 
last matter is not entirely clear. The albumen reduced the swelling 
of a mixture containing twenty-five per cent, of gelatine slightly 
in acid and in, alkali, but the swelling in water was not markedly 
greater. This preliminary test yielded results which made their 
extension highly desirable. Chemical analyses of the egg-albumen 
were not available, and as nothing was known as to the salts or other 
substances which might be included, it was desirable to secure 
material of known origin and composition. Arrangements were 
made with Dr. Isaac F. Harris, of Squibb and Sons Laboratory, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, to prepare some albumen from beans 
(Phaseolus) and from oats (Avena) to be used in the mixtures. 
The preparations from Phaseolus were available in February, 191 7, 
and the first tests were made with the " protein " extract which con- 
tained the water soluble salts of the bean and the proteins which 
were soluble in water containing these salts. 



346 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

Agar and gelatine were dissolved in the usual way and the tem- 
perature of the suspension allowed to fall to a point below 40** C. 
before the protein was stirred into it. In the course of the cooling 
and drying, cloudy masses became visible which were taken to be 
the globulin component of the protein. The dried sheets came down 
to a thickness of .3 to .4 mm. Calibrated samples were tested in trios 
under the auxograph in the usual manner. Two complete series of 





a 




Nn 


4 


e 


MT 


-*-j 


M 


^A 


III 


-/- 


\ 


t^ 


-<L 


1 i — ^ — 7 ■ 


y 


"*^ 


-I— I f 


/ 


T*"^^ I ' 


f 1 


^'^"■"--.J_^^_ 














• 








1 J 









Fig. 10. Auxographic record of swelling of agar 90 — protein 10, sections 
.25 mm. in thickness, in NaOH N/ioo, A = 220 per cent, in HCl N/ioo, 
B = 360 per cent, and in distilled water, C = 800 per cent X 10. 



all mixtures were made and an additional measurement of the action 
of water and alkali was obtained. The swellings were as follows 
(Fig. 10) : 

Water. HCl N/xoo. NaOH N/ioo. 

Gelatine go — Protein jo (Phaseolus), 
585.7 per cent 1401.0 per cent. 942.8 per cent 





486.0 


1200.0 704.3 




386.0 
485.9 


800.0 


Averages : 


1300.5 817.7 






Gelatine TS—Protein 25 {Phaseolus) , 




696.9 


818. 1 621.2 




500.0 


1060.6 848.4 


Averages : 


598.5 


939.4 734.8 
Agar go— Protein jo (Phaseolus). 




800.0 


Sao 150.0 




800.0 


75-0 150.0 


Averages : 


800.0 


62.5 150.0 
Agar gg— Protein i (Phaseolus). 




1080.0 


300.0 220.0 




800.0 


36ao 240.0 


Averages : 


940.0 


330.0 230.0 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 347 



The protein extract from the bean was thus shown to exert an 
influence on the swelling of agar similar to that of egg-albumen in 
reducing the amount of swelling in acid and alkali, and increasing 
it in distilled water. 

The next step of importance was to ascertain the effect of some 
of the simpler amino-acids which might be derived from the albumens 
in the plant. Tyrosin and cystin were available. As an example 
of the method the first preparation of tyrosin was one in which one 
part of this substance in solution was stirred to a liquefied mass of 
ten parts of agar at a temperature of 32° C. This was poured on 
a glass slab, and as desiccation was carried out the tyrosin began to 
collect as a flour-like efflorescence on the surface, and apparently a 
large part of the substance came out in this way, so that the actual 




Fig. II. Auxographic record of swelling of sections of agar 90— -tyrosin 
ID, .15 mm. in thickness, in NaOH N/ioo, A = 133 per cent, in HCl AT/ioo, 
B = 233 per cent, and in distilled water, C = 1600 per cent X 6. 

proportion of the amino-acid in the dried plate was probably not 
more than a fourth of the amount originally used. 

The dried plate of material came down to a thickness of .15 mm. 
and gave the following results (Fig. 11) : 

Swelling. 
Agar go — Tyrosin 10 {less by efflorescence). 

Water. HCI N/ioo. NaOH N/xoo. 

1600.0 per cent 133.3 per cent 133.3 per cent 

1200.0 233.3 1 00.0 



Averages : 1400.0 



183.3 



1 16.6 



A similar preparation of agar and cystin gave the following as 
an average of three tests : 



Water. 

2333.3 per cent. 



Agar 90 — Cystin 10. 

HCl N/100. 

583.1 per cent 



NaOH N/xoo. 

328.6 per cent 



348 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

A similar mixture of agar and urea (agar 90 parts, urea 10 
parts) gave the following: 

SWELUNG. 
Water. HO N/ioo. NaOH N/xoo. 

2173.0 per cent. 716.6 per cent 560.3 per cent. 

Urea, the amino-acids, gelatine, albumen, and the saline soluble 
proteins of the bean dissolved with agar and dried into thin plates 
produced a greatly enhanced imbibition in water, an imbibition in 
hundredth normal hydrochloric acid not more than a third of that in 
water, while it was invariably less in alkaline than in acidified solu- 
tions. The interest in swelling which begins with a neutral 
desiccated section is however much less than that which attaches to 
the behavior of such material under changing conditions of alkalinity 
and acidity which are taken to occur in the living plant. 

Dried plates of agar-protein, agar-tyrosin and agar-cystin .12 
to .25 mm. in thickness and 3 by 4 or 5 mm., were placed in trios 
on the bottoms of stender dishes. Triangular pieces of glass were 
placed to cover the sections of colloid in each dish and an auxograph 
was Arranged to give a bearing contact of the swinging arm on a 
socket in the center of the triangular plate. So long as the prepara- 
tion remained in this condition the pen of the instrument traced a 
horizontal line on the sheet carried by the drum. Dried sections 
of the colloids have a very limited capacity for imbibition of acid 
and alkaline solutions, and hence it was desirable to start swelling 
or "growth" by an initial immersion of an hour in distilled water, 
which was poured in the dishes. After enlargement had begun 
hundredth-normal acid or alkaline solutions were used in alternation 
at intervals of one to three hours, as many as four changes being 
made in some cases before the total swelling capacity was reached. 
The results met all expectations based on theoretical considerations 
and the auxographic tracings might easily be mistaken for records 
of the variations of the length of a joint of Opuntia, for example. 

Sections of plates 90 parts agar to " 10 " of tyrosin gave a tracing 
traversing 12 mm. vertically on the record paper during the first 
hour immersed in distilled water, remained stationary making a 
horizontal line during the second hour, the water having been 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 349 

replaced with hundredth-normal hydrochloric acid, traversed 1 1 mm. 
of the scale in the third hour during which it was immersed in 
hundredth-normal sodium hydrate, then shrank 5 mm. in an hour 
in acid, then enlarged 9 mm. in three and a half hours in alkali, 
after which it shrank 3 mm. between 8:30 P.M. and 7 A.M. in 
acid. A change to alkali gave an enlargement of 6 mm. in two hours 
(Fig. 12). The auxograph was set to multiply so that the actual 





Fig. 12. Auxographic record of changes in section of agar 90 — tyrosin 
10, .14 mm. in thickness. Immersed in water at A, alkali at B, acid at C, 
alkali at D, acid at E, alkali at F, and acid at G, (Upper half of figure.) X 10. 

Auxographic record of changes in section of agar 90 — tyrosin 10, .14 mm. 
in thickness. A in distilled water, B acid, C alkali, D acid, E alkali, F acid, 
and G alkali. (Lower half of figure.) X 10. 



enlargement in the periods noted was one twentieth of the distance 
traversed by the pen. The change from acidity to alkalinity is fol- 
lowed by the most marked effects when the colloid has taken up a 
fourth or a third of the possible total amount of water. Perhaps 
the most striking feature is the response of the colloid to acidifica- 
tion under the alternating conditions. Desiccated sections give a 
greater total swelling in acid than in alkali, but when a certain 
amount of swelling has already taken place under neutral or alkaline 
conditions no further increase in acid solutions and actual shrink- 
age ensues. A change to alkalinity is always followed by increased 
imbibition. Sections of plates containing 90 parts agar and 10 
parts of gelatine gave results similar to those of the tyrosin mix- 
ture. No determinations of the minimum proportion of nitrog- 



350 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

* 

enous matter necessary to cause an agar mixture to behave in this 
manner were made. Ordinary agar contains some nitrogen and 
salts/® and it is possible that the varying amounts might cause some 
disagreement of results obtained by the use of different lots of this 
substance. 

The series of experimental trials with colloids which might dis- 
play some of the fundamental physical properties of protoplasm of 
plants has resulted in finding that a mixture of substances of two 
of the three more important groups of constituents, carbohydrates 
and proteins, shows the imbibitional behavior of tissues and tracts 
of protoplasts of the plant. The differential action of such colloidal 
masses in distilled water, acid and alkaline solutions yields many 
striking parallels with growth. The changes from acidity to alka- 
linity have, so far as this type of experiment has been repeated, been 
made abruptly to avoid instrumental errors. Some acid or some 
alkali remained in the dishes when the change was made, and a cer- 
tain amount of acid or alkali fixed or absorbed in the colloidal scc- 




FiG. 13. Auxographic tracing of changes in length of shoot of Opuntia 
showing elongation and shortening (for comparison with Fig. 12). 



tion, and neutralization, acidification or the reverse took place slowly 
with some formation of salts as might likewise occur in the plant 
(see Fig. 13). 

It is through the relations indicated that metabolism or respira- 
tion may affect growth by the modification of imbibition capacity. 
Thus the accumulating surplus of acid in Opuntia begins to lessen 
by disintegration at daybreak and the decrease continues until about 

i« See Noyes, H. A., " Agar for Bacteriological Use," Science, Vol. 44, 
No. 1 144, p. 797, 196. 



MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 361 

4 P.M. Whether complete neutralization or alkaline conditions 
ever occur naturally in this plant is doubtful. 

The notable augmentation of imbibition which accompanies 
complete destruction of the balance of acid in the shoot of Opuntia 
under experimental conditions has already been described on p. 295. 
It has also been found that the mid-afternoon checking of growth 
characteristic of shoots of Opuntia which have accomplished a 
fourth or a third of their development, did not appear in the single 
bud, the development of which from a starved joint has been fol- 
lowed since the section of this paper dealing with growth was 
written. 

The almost rhythmic undulations of the auxographic tracing of 
the elongation of a wheat leaf corroborated by measurements with 
the horizontal microscope suggest that growth in this organ may be 
accompanied by metabolic processes by which the balance of acidity 
and alkalinity falls now on this and then on that side, there being 
of course periods in which the growing protoplasts or some of them 
were in a neutralized state. During this time of course imbibition 
might be four to eight times as great as in either acid or alkaline 
conditions. 

The change from any one of these conditions is of course accom- 
panied by variations in imbibition. The character of the change is 
readily recognizable in the swelling of colloids, and it is believed 
that similar interpretations of the auxographic record of growing 
organs will be possible. The colloidal sections used for experimenta- 
tion have a general identity with cell-masses except as to the lipin 
constituents. The part which these substances might play in the 
mechanics of growth can not as yet be made the subject of profitable 
conjecture. The analogies as to the action of the salts to be found 
in plants are also yet to be determined, and probably involve some 
of the phenomena studied as " antagonisms.'* 

The striking similarities in behavior between the pseudo-proto- 
plastic material and cell-masses makes possible some new correla- 
tions in metabolism, imbibition and growth. It is hardly necessary 
to add in conclusion that whatever measure be given the contribu- 
tions embodied in the present paper, the results presented do not 



862 MACDOUGAL AND SPOEHR— GROWTH AND IMBIBITION. 

lead to any simplification of the major processes under discussion. 
The advance is in a diametrically opposite direction. Newly 
determined features of carbohydrate metabolism included in respi- 
ration and necessary for growth and functionation have been found 
to be extremely complex. Imbibition in the plant is not that of a 
single colloid, and swelling is not the simple resultant of the action 
of two or more substances. The interaction between two emulsoids 
presents many possibilities. The proteins viewed physiologically 
appear to act as " sensitizers " to the carbohydrate gels which make 
up the greater part of the bulk of the protoplast, and to produce in 
them highly specialized effects with acids, alkalies and neutral solu- 
tions. The general character of respiration, and the nature and 
amount of its by-products acting upon a " sensitized " protoplastic 
gel may be taken to determine the general aspect, rate, course and 
amount of growth in plants. 



SPONTANEOUS GENERATION OF HEAT IN RECENTLY 

HARDENED STEEL. III. 

By CHARLES F. BRUSH. 
(Read April 13, 1917.) 

The present paper is the third of a series under this title. In the 
first paper^ it was shown that a specimen of carbon tool steel, and 
also a specimen of "high-speed" tungsten-chromium steel after 
hardening by water quenching at a high temperature, spontaneously 
generated heat in appreciable quantity for at least several weeks, 
the rate of generation steadily diminishing. It was also shown that 
the carbon steel, after hardening, shrank progressively when tem- 
pered to " straw " color, to " light blue " and finally annealed. It was 
further shown that another specimen of high-carbon steel, after 
hardening, spontaneously shrank in measurable amount for many 
days, the rate of shrinking steadily diminishing. The plotted curve 
of spontaneous shrinkage was strikingly similar to a curve (not 
plotted) of total heat spontaneously generated in the other speci- 
men of carbon steel, showing an apparent relationship between the 
two phenomena. But it was pointed out that spontaneous shrinking 
could not possibly be the prime cause of the spontaneous generation 
of heat observed because it was wholly inadequate in amount. This 
conclusion was afterward confirmed (second paper) in the cases of 
two specimens of nickel-chromium steel which, after quenching 
just above the temperature of decalescence, spontaneously generated 
heat freely but did not shrink at all. 

The second paper,^ after reviewing the first, treated principally 
of two specimens of nickel-chromium steel furnished for this investi- 
gation by Sir Robert Hadfield. Each specimen consisted of twelve 

1 Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, Vol. LIV., No. 217, May-July, 1915. 
* Physical Review, N. S., Vol. IX., No. 3, March, 191 7. Proc. Royal Soc, 
Series A, Vol. 93, No. A649, April 2, 1917. Joint paper with Sir R. A. Hadfield. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, X, JULY 3 1, I917. 

353 



354 BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 

half-inch round bars five inches long, like in size and nuntber those 
of each of the steels of the first paper, so that results obtained were 
quantitatively comparable with the earlier ones. Each specimen was 
first hardened by quenching at a temperature just above that of 
decalescence as indicated by almost complete loss of magnetic sus- 
ceptibility. 

For observing the magnetic behavior of the steel while being 
heated or cooled in the gas furnace employed, the bundle of bars 
was surrounded by a single turn of asbestos-insulated platinum 
wire, the ends of which were connected with a ballistic galvanometer 
having the usual mirror and scale. The furnace was surrounded 
by a large coil of heavy copper wire through which a direct electric 
current could be established and broken at will by means of a 
switch and storage battery. Before the steel bars were placed within 
the platinum loop inside the furnace, closure of the outer copper 
coil circuit caused a brief electric pulse in the loop and a " kick " in 
the galvanometer, giving a definite minimum deflection easily 
observed with considerable precision. With the steel bars inside the 
platinum loop the galvanometer deflectioji was, of course, many 
times greater until, with rising temperature, the decalescent point 
was approached; then the deflection fell rapidly to the minimum 
value as above, or very near it. This simple induction apparatus 
was found entirely reliable and satisfactory. 

Each of the nickel-chromium steels exhibited good generation of 
heat after hardening as above. 

They were again heated, to a temperature considerably above 
decalescence, and quenched as before. This second hardening 
induced a greater generation of heat than the first hardening, 
especially in the case of specimen B. 

Specimen B was slowly heated a third time, somewhat above the 
temperature of complete loss of magnetic susceptibility, and allowed 
to cool very slowly in the furnace until complete recovery of mag- 
netic susceptibility was attained ; then it was immediately quenched. 
A very fair generation of heat followed this treatment. This was 
quite unexpected because it was thought that true hardening of the 
steel could not have taken place. In the absence of suitable appa- 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 366 

• 

ratus no test of hardness was at that time made. The twelve bars 
(specimen B) were next annealed by slowly heating to full decales- 
cence and then allowing to cool very slowly in the furnace. As 
expected, no trace of heat generation followed this treatment which 
was made for checking purposes. 

Before commencing the experiments with specimens A and B, a 
test bar of each lot was prepared for accurate length measurements 
which followed each treatment. The very interesting results of 
these measurements, differing materially in the two specimens, were 
tabulated and compared. 

The present (third) paper deals with some later experiments 
prompted by the anomalous behavior of specimen B of the Hadfield 
nickel-chromium steel after its third quenching described above. 

In conducting these experiments an electric furnace was em- 
ployed for heating, instead of the less convenient gas furnace for- 
merly used, and the latest form of " sclerescope " for testing hard- 
ness was installed; also, a most modern industrial thermo-electric 
pyrometer. The latter was used as it came from the maker, without 
further calibration; hence the temperatures recorded in this paper 
may be several degrees in error, though they are thought to be rela- 
tively consistent. 

The apparatus employed in detecting, measuring and following 
the progress of heat generation in the steels under treatment was 
fully described and illustrated in each of the former papers, and it is 
thought best to omit another description here. 

It will be recalled that '* specimen B " was left in the annealed 
condition. In this condition it was subsequently found to have a 
scleroscope hardness of 31. This is the mean of many consistent 
measurements. Each scleroscope hardness cited in this paper is the 
mean of at least ten consistent measurements, each measurement 
made on a fresh spot of surface carefully made smooth and flat. 

In order to ascertain the critical temperatures of decal^scence 
and recalescence of "specimen B," three of the twelve bars were 
very gradually heated until almost complete loss of magnetic 
susceptibility was reached. This occurred rather abruptly at about 



356 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 



777^ C. One of the bars was quenched at this temperature, and its 
scleroscope hardness was found to be 74. This may be taken as the 
hardness of " specimen B " after the first quenching described in 
connection with the second paper. 

The remaining two bars were allowed to cool very slowly in the 
furnace until complete recovery of magnetic susceptibility took place 
at about 660**. Recovery was abrupt in temperature. One of these 
bars was quenched at this temperature, and its hardness was found 
to be only 37, which is not much above annealed hardness (31). 
This seems to me conclusive evidence that true hardening did not 
take place in " specimen B " on its third quenching already described 




20 30 40 



50 TO 70 
Hours After Hardening 

Fig. I. 



above, although good spontaneous generation of heat followed the 
quenching. 

The three bars were again heated to complete decalescence and 
annealed in the furnace so as to leave all twelve bars of " specimen 
B " in annealed condition. 

Fig. I is the curve sheet of *' specimen B." " Galvanometer de- 
flection" measures temperature difference, indicated thermo- 
electrically, between the steel under examination and a thermally 
equivalent quantity of water, contained separately in silvered Dewar 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 357 

vacuum jars. Both the steel and the water were usually brought 
to the same room temperature before being placed in the calorimeter. 
Fifty-five scale divisions indicate a temperature difference of i** C. 

The curve of normal cooling runs out of the figure at the upper 
left hand comer, and is easily distinguished from the others. This 
curve was obtained from a quantity of untreated steel equal in 
weight to "specimen B," and warmed a few degrees above room 
temperature before being placed in the calorimeter. It shows the 
normal loss of heat due to imperfect thermal insulation afone, and 
is the basis of comparison for all the other curves. Obviously this 
curve may be plotted further to the right or left without impairing 
its validity ; and it may be plotted to intersect any of the other curves 
at any desired point, to facilitate study of the other curve at and 
near the intersection. For my own convenience I have constructed 
a metal template of the normal cooling curve, and find it most use- 
ful. Of course it is necessary that the base of the template be always 
kept coincident with the base line of the curve sheet. 

The curve of "first hardening" shows the spontaneous genera- 
tion of heat which followed the first quenching at about 777"* y the 
temperature of complete loss of magnetic susceptibility, after which 
the scleroscope hardness must have been about 74. 

The curve of second hardening, indicated by "2A," shows con- 
siderably greater generation of heat. Quenching temperature and 
hardness were not observed; but it is known that the quenching 
temperature was much higher than 777^ . 

The three curves thus far discussed were shown in the " second 
paper" already referred to, and the other curves here shown were 
subsequently plotted on the original curve sheet. 

The third curve showing spontaneous generation of heat is indi- 
cated by " 3g," meaning third quenching (not hardening). To make 
it clear that heat was generated in this case I have drawn the curve 
of normal cooling in a position for easy comparison (the upper 
dotted line). The "3^" curve was described in the second paper, 
but not plotted. The quenching temperature in this case must have 
been slightly below 660**, and hardness only about 37. 

"Specimen B," left in the annealed condition at the close of 



368 BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 

former experiments, with a hardness of 31, was next gradually 
heated to 554**, allowed to cool slowly to 532** and quenched. It 
was then purposely brought to a temperature slightly above room 
temperature and placed in the calorimeter. The progress of cooling 
is plotted in the curve "49" (fourth quenching). For easy com- 
parison the normal cooling curve is drawn as a dotted line through 
the first station of the 4q curve. Beyond this point the 4q curve lies 
everywhere below the normal cooling curve, showing conclusively 
that the steel cooled abnormally fast. In other words, there was 
spontaneous disappearance or absorption of heat in the steel, most 
notable during the first few hours after quenching. Hardness was 

35.5. 

The result of this experiment is remarkable, and was quite un- 

looked for. I had expected to find a small generation of heat, if 

anything. 

The steel was next heated to 562** and quenched. The result of 
this treatment is shown in the curve " 5^," with its own dotted normal 
cooling curve. Absorption of heat is again indicated, even greater 
than in 4q but somewhat diflFerently distributed. Hardness was 
now 34.5. 

Again the steel was heated, this time to 594**, and quenched. 
Again there was marked absorption of heat. The curve, 6q, was 
almost identical with 4q, and is not plotted, to avoid confusion of 
lines. Hardness was again 34.5. 

The seventh heating was carried to 667** for quenching. This 
was a much larger temperature advance than in either of the pre- 
ceding experiments, and was above the temperature of the third 
quenching, which was followed by very considerable generation of 
heat. But now there was very considerable absorption of heat, as 
shown in curve " 7^." Hardness was now 34. 

It should be noted that the quenchings which were followed by 
absorption of heat were made at rising temperatures which had not 
been exceeded (except slightly in the case of 4^) since the steel was 
annealed. But in the case of third quenching the quenching tem- 
perature was a falling one, reached by cooling from the much higher 
temperature of decalescence. I can think of no other cause than 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 



359 



this for the radically different results of the third and seventh 
quenchings, which were made at substantially the same temperature. 
The temperature difference between complete loss and complete re- 
covery of magnetic susceptibility, 117**, wa6 unusually large; but 
while this temperature drop brought about almost annealed softness, 
and full restoration of magnetic qualities, it did not very greatly 
affect that quality of the steel, whatever it is, which is responsible 
for the spontaneous generation of heat. Seemingly, one or more 
of the several unstable compounds or mixtures of the constituents 
of the steel which were formed at the upper critical temperature did 
not have time to wholly revert to normal annealed condition while 
the metal was cooling to and passing through recalescence. The 
time of this cooling was about half an hour. 

To confirm the curious result of the third quenching, i. e,, gen- 
eration of heat without hardening, the bars were quenched the eighth 
time as follows: Slowly heated (nearly two hours) to 819**, slowly 
cooled (nearly one hour) to 680** and quenched. During the heat- 
ing complete loss of magnetic susceptibility occurred at 779**, which 
was an excellent confirmation of the former finding {777°). But 
in cooling, full recovery of magnetic susceptibility came at 680**, 
which is 20° higher than before. The five intermediate treatments 



RisuMi OF Specimen B. 

Temperature of complete loss of magnetic susceptibility, 777^ C. 
Temperature of complete recovery of magnetic susceptibility, 660/680. 





Quenching Temp. 


Hardness. 


Remarks. 


First hardening 


About 777* C. 


74 


Good generation of heat 


Second " 


Much higher temp. 


— 


Much larger generation of heat 


Third quenching . . . 


About 78o**/66o*> 


37 


Fairly good 


Afin^alinsr 




"Kl 




Fourth quenching. . 


S54*/532* 


35.5 


Good absorption of heat 


Fifth 


562 


34.5 


•« «i «« «« 


Sixth 


594 


34.5 


«« «t «( «( 


Seventh 


667 


34 


i« (« «« «« 


Eighth 


8i9«/68o« 


47 


" generaUon " " 



may, perhaps, account for this. And this higher quenching tem- 
perature may account for the somewhat greater hardness produced, 
which was later found to be 47, as against 37 for the third quench- 
ing (74 for true hardening above decalescent temperature). 



360 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 



Following the eighth quenching there was good generation of 
heat, better than after third quenching, but differently distributed in 
time — ^not so rapid at first, but much better sustained (curve not 
plotted). This appears to confirm the third experiment. 

I cannot, thus far, offer any promising explanation of the absorp- 
tion of heat in the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh experiments. 

It may be seen that absorption was rapid during the first few 
hours, and nearly (not quite) ceased at the end of 50 or 60 hours; 
while generation was well marked up to 150 hours. In earlier ex- 
periments generation of heat was easily detected at the end of a 
month. 

As it seemed desirable to learn whether plain carbon steel would 
show, like the nickel-chromium steel, generation of heat without 
hardening, or absorption of heat when quenched at rising tempera- 




30 40 



50 60 70 80^ 
Hcxirs After Haidening 

Fig. 2. 



tures below the lower critical temperature, after annealing, the fol- 
lowing experiments were made with the carbon steel used for the 
first experiment described in the first paper of the series. The 
normal cooling curve and upper curve of heat generation shown in 
Fig. 2 are taken from that paper. 

Following is a resume of the early and recent experiments with 
the carbon steel : 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 361 

First (Original) Hardening, — Quenched at very high tempera- 
ture. Temperature and hardness not then observed. Large gen- 
eration of heat, as shown in upper curve of Fig. 2. Scleroscope 
hardness, recently observed, 79. 

Second (Recent) Hardening. — Quenched at 802**, considerably 
above decalescence, but much lower than in first hardening. Com- 
plete loss of magnetic susceptibility occurred at 7<55°. Good gen- 
eration of heat, but very much less than in first, as shown by the 
lower curve of Fig. 2. For convenient comparison with this curve 
the normal cooling curve is shown as a dotted line appropriately 
located. Hardness was now 73. 

Third Quenching, — Heated to 815**, somewhat above preceding 
quenching temperature, allowed to cool slowly to 720** and quenched. 
This was a little below the temperature of complete recovery of 
magnetic susceptibility, which had occurred at 7^**. Hardness was 
now only 28.5, and there was no generation of heat, (The nickel- 
chromium steel had shown good generation of heat under similar 
circumstances.) Note the small temperature difference, 36**, be- 
tween complete loss and complete recovery of magnetic susceptibility. 
Annealed by heating to 822**, to obliterate previous quenching 
effects, and cooling slowly in furnace. Hardness was now 25.5. 

Fourth Quenching, — Heated slowly, from annealed condition, to 
633° (considerably below the lower critical temperature) and 
quenched. Hardness was again 28.5, and there was no trace of 
absorption of heat, (The nickel-chromium steel had shown good 
absorption of heat under similar circumstances.) 

Fifth Quenching, — Heated slowly to 732°, just above the tem- 
perature of complete recovery of magnetic susceptibility, and 
quenched. No generation or absorption of heat, nor change in 
hardness (28.5). 

Qearly, the carbon steel showed none of the excentricities of the 
nickel-chromium steel when quenched below the hardening tempera- 
ture. But when quenched a little above, as well as far beyond this 
temperature, they behaved very much alike. 

While considering plain carbon steel, I thought it worth while to 
observe heat generation in some steel (or white cast iron) very 
high in combined carbon, and very pure otherwise, which I happened 



862 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 



to have in my laboratory. Fig. 3 shows the composition of this 
metal, which is hard and very brittle. The carbon is all combined, 
and remains so after heating and quenching. 

An induction experiment with a large lump of the metal showed : 
Temperature of complete loss of magnetic su^eptibility 757**. 




40 60 80 

Hours After Hardening 

Fig. 3. 



Temperature of complete recovery of magnetic susceptibility 

704". 

Slowly heated many fragments, aggregating in weight that of the 

usual twelve bars of steel, to 906** and quenched. 

Very moderate generation of heat followed the quenching, as 
shown in Fig. 3, and it was much less persistent than usual, as indi- 
cated by its small value at the end of 150 hours. Hardness was 76. 

The behavior of this specimen of steel, or white cast iron, was not 
thought sufficiently encouraging to warrant further experiments 
with it. 

For a general check on the performance of the apparatus, twelve 
half inch round bars of Swedish charcoal iron, of the aggregate 
weight of the steel usually employed, were slowly heated to 960** 
and quenched. Complete loss of magnetic susceptibility had oc- 
curred at 801°. The bars were warmed about three degrees just 
before being placed in the calorimeter. 

There was no trace of heat generation following the quenching. 
Indeed, the curve of cooling followed the normal cooling curve with 
such fidelity that nowhere did they differ as much as the width of 



BRUSH— GENERATION OF HEAT IN STEEL. 363 

the curve line. This was very gratifying in view of the fact that 
observations for the normal cooling curve were made more than 
two years ago, and checked only once since that time. 

Hardness was 18.5. 

Again heated above decalescence and annealed by cooling in 
the furnace. 

Hardness remained 18.5, showing that the previous heating and 
quenching had no effect whatever on the hardness of this, pre- 
sumably, very pure iron. 

Spontaneous generation and absorption of heat in recently 
quenched nickel-chromium steel, would be a better descriptive title 
for the present paper; but the subject matter is so intimately related 
to that of the former papers, that it is thought best to retain the 
former title for the sake of continuity. 

In conclusion, I can only express the, hope that contemplated ex- 
periments, on somewhat different lines, may throw more light on 
these interesting phenomena. 

Cleveland, O., 
April, 1917. 



THE EFFECTS OF RACE INTERMINGLING. 

By C. B. davenport. 
(Read April 13, 19 17.) 

The problem of the effects of race intermingling may well inter- 
est us of America, when a single state, like New York, of 
9,000,000 inhabitants contains 840,000 Russians and Finns, 720,000 
Italians, 1,000,000 Germans, 880,000 Irish, 470,000 Austro-Hun- 
garians, 310,000 of Great Britain, 125,000 Canadians (largely 
French), and 90,000 Scandinavians. All figures include those born 
abroad or 'born of two foreign-born parents. Nearly two thirds 
of the population of New York State is foreign-bom or of foreign 
or mixed parentage. Even in a state like Connecticut it is doubtful 
if 2 per cent, of the population are of pure Anglo-Saxon stocky for 
six generations of ancestors in all lines. Clearly a mixture of 
European races is going on in America on a colossal scale. 

Before proceeding further let us inquire into the meaning of 
" race." The modern geneticists* definition differs from that of the 
systematist or old fashioned breeder. A race is a more or less pure 
bred "group" of individuals that differs from other groups by at 
least one character, or, strictly, a genetically connected group whose 
germ plasm is characterized by a difference, in one or more genes, 
from other groups. Thus a blue-eyed Scotchman belongs to a dif- 
ferent race from some of the' dark Scotch. Strictly, as the term is 
employed by geneticists they may be said to t>elong to different 
elementary species. 

Defining race in this sense of elementary species we have to con- 
sider our problem: What are the results of race intermingling, or 
miscegenation? To this question no general answer can be given. 
A specific answer can, however, be given to questions involving 
specific characters. For example, if the question be framed: what 
are the results of hybridization between a blue-eyed race (say 

364 



DAVENPORT— EFFECTS OF RACE INTERMINGLING. 365 

Swede) and a brown-eyed race (say South Italian)? The answer 
IS that, since brown eye is dominant over blue eye, all the children 
will have brown eyes; and if two such children inter-marry brown 
and blue eyes will appear among their children in the ratio of 3 to i. 

Again, if one parent be white and the other a full-blooded negro 
then the skin color of the children will be about half as dark as that 
of the darker parent; and the progeny of two such mulattoes will be 
white, J4> J4, ^ and full black in the ratio of 1:4:6:4:1. 

Again, if one parent belong to a tall race-— like the Scotch or some 
Irish — and the other to a short race, like the South Italians, then all 
the progeny will tend to be intermediate in stature. If two such 
intermediates intermarry then very short, short, medium, tall and 
very tall offspring may result in proportions that can not be pre- 
cisely given, but about which one can say that the mediums are the 
commonest and the more extreme classes are less frequented, the 
more they depart from mediocrity. In this case of stature we do 
not have to do with merely one factor as in eye color, or two as in 
negro skin color, but probably many. That is why all statures seem 
to form a continuous curve of frequency with only one modal point, 
that of the median class. 

What is true of physical traits is no less true of mental. The 
offspring of an intellectually well developed man of good stock 
and a mentally somewhat inferior woman will tend to show a fair 
to good mentality; but the progeny of the intermarriage of two 
such will be normal and feeble-minded in the proportion of about 
3 to I. If one parent be of a strain that is highly excitable and liable 
to outbursts of temper while the other is calm then probably all the 
children will be excitable, or half of them, if the excitable parent is 
not of pure excitable stock. Thus, in the intellectual and emotional 
spheres the traits are no less " inherited *' than in the physical sphere. 

But I am aware that I have not yet considered the main problem 
of the consequence of race intermixture, considering races as dif- 
fering by a number of characters. First, I have to say that this 
subject has not been sufficiently investigated; but we may, by infer- 
ence from studies that have been made, draw certain conclusions. 
Any well-established abundant race is probably well adjusted to its 
conditions and its parts and functions are harmoniously adjusted. 



366 DAVENPORT— EFFECTS OF RACE INTERMINGLING. 

Take the case of the Leghorn hen. Its function is to lay ^gs all 
the year through and never to waste time in becoming broody. The 
brooding instinct is, indeed, absent ; and for egg farms and those in 
which incubators are used such birds are the best type. The Brahma 
fowl, on the other hand, is only a fair layer ; it becomes broody two 
or three times a year and makes an excellent mother. It is well 
adapted for farms which have no incubators or artificial brooders. 
Now I have crossed these two races ; the progeny were intermediate 
in size. The hens laid fairly well for a time and then became 
broody and in time hatched some chicks. For a day or two they 
mothered the chicks, and then began to roost at night in the trees 
and in a few days began to lay again, while the chicks perished at 
night of cold and neglect. The hybrid was a failure both as egg 
layer and as a brooder of chicks. The instincts and functions of the 
hybrids were not harmoniously adjusted to each other. 

Turning to man, we have races of large tall men, like the Scotch, 
which are long-lived and whose internal organs are well adapted to 
care for the large frames. In the South Italians, on the other hand, 
we have small short bodies, but these, too, have well adjusted 
viscera. But the hybrids of these or similar two races may be 
expected to yield, in the second generation, besides the parental types 
also children with large frame and inadequate viscera — children of 
whom it is said every inch over 5' 10" is an inch of danger; chil- 
dren of insufficient circulation. On the other hand, there may 
appear children of short stature with too large circulatory appa- 
ratus. Despite the great capacity that the body has for self adjust- 
ment it fails to overcome the bad hereditary combinations. 

Again it seems probable, as dentists with whcwn I have spoken on 
the subject agree, that many cases of overcrowding or wide separa- 
tion of teeth are due to a lack of harmony between size of jaw and 
size of teeth — ^probably due to a union of a large-jawed, large- 
toothed race and a small- jawed, small-toothed race. Nothing is 
more striking than the regular dental arcades commonly seen in the 
skulls of inbred native races and the irregular dentations of many 
children of the tremendously hybridized American. 

Not only physical but also mental and temperamental incompati- 
bilities may be a consequence of hybridization. For example, one 



DAVENPORT— EFFECTS OF RACE INTERMINGLING. 367 

often sees in mulattoes an ambition and push combined with intel- 
lectual inadequacy which makes the unhappy hybrid dissatisfied 
with his lot and a nuisance to others. 

To sum up, then, miscegenation commonly spells disharmony — 
disharmony of physical, mental and temperamental qualities and 
this means also disharmony with environment. A hybridized people 
are a badly put together people and a dissatisfied, restless, ineffective 
people. One wonders how much of the exceptionally high death rate 
in middle life in this country is due to such bodily maladjustments; 
and how much of our crime and insanity is due to mental and tem- 
peramental friction. 

This country is in for hybridization on the greatest scale that the 
world has ever seen. 

May we predict its consequences? At least we may hazard a 
prediction and suggest a way of diminishing the evil. Professor 
Flinders-Petrie in his essay on " Revolutions of Civilization " sug- 
gests that the rise and fall of nations is to be accounted for in this 
fashion. He observes that the countries that developed the highest 
type of civilization occur on peninsulas — Egypt 3urrounded on two 
sides by water and on two sides by the desert and by tropical heat, 
Greece, and Rome on the Italian peninsula. It is conceded that such 
peninsulas are centers of inbreeding. Flinders-Petrie concluded 
that a period of prolonged inbreeding leads to social stratification. 
In such a period a social harmony is developed, the arts and sciences 
flourish but certain consequences of inbreeding follow, particularly, 
the spread of feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, melancholia and sterility. 
These weaken the nation, which then succumbs to the pressure of 
stronger, but less civilized, neighbors. Foreign hordes sweep in; 
miscegenation takes place, disharmonies appear, the arts and sci- 
ences languish, physical and mental vigor are increased in one part 
of the population and diminished in another part and finally after 
selection has done its beneficent work a hardier, more vigorous 
people results. In them social stratification in time follows and a 
high culture reappears ; and so on in cycles. The suggestion is an 
interesting one and there is no evident biological objection to it. 
Indeed the result of hybridization after two or three generations is 
great variability. This means that some new combinations will be 



IT— EFFECTS OF RACE INTERMINGl 

;tter than the old ones ; also others tha 
lation is permitted to do its beneficent 
tions will tend to die off early. If no\ 
and eugenical mating ensues, conscic 
ially in the presence of inbreeding, 
rior to any that existed in the unhybri 
tope for our country; if immigration i 
tion is permitted, if the principle of tt 
ins be accepted and if eugenical ideal 
ins with new and better combinatioi 
ir nation take front rank tn culture 
and modem times. 
«BOR. N. Y.. 



PROCEEDINGS 



American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 
V<j; LVI. 1917. No. S. 

CONTENTS 



MeditEval Sermon-books and Stories and Their Study Since 1883, By 

T. F. Crane 369 

Nebutie- By V. M. Slipher, Ph.D 403 

The Trial of Animals and Insects. By Hampton L. Cabson . . . 410 
The Sex Ratio in the Domestic Fowl. By Raymond Pearl . . . 416 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

104 South Fifth Street 

1917 



f 

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Members who have not as yet sent their photographs to the Societj will 
confer a favor by so doing; cabinet size preferred. 



It is requested that all correspondence be addressed 
To THs Secrbtaries of the 

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 
104 South Fifth Street 

Philadelphia, U S. A. 



MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES AND 
THEIR STUDY SINCE 1883. 

Bv T. F. CRANE 
(Read April iz, 1917-) 

Just thirty-four years ago (March 16, 1883) I had the honor of 
presenting to the American Philosophical Society a paper on 
" Mediaeval Sermon-Books and Stories." The hospitable reception 
of this paper determined the subsequent scholarly career of the 
writer, and opened up a new field of investigation to the student of 
mediaeval culture. It has seemed to me not inappropriate at this 
time to express to the Society my grateful appreciation of its en- 
couragement, and to trace as briefly as possible the progress of 
studies in this field since the presentation of the paper in question. 
That the influence of this paper was so much greater in Europe 
than in this country may be explained by the difficulty of obtaining 
materials for such studies in American libraries. The incunabula 
used by me in the preparation of my paper were collected in an 
unusually short time, and I did not make use of European libraries 
until after 1883.' 

'The paper was reviewed at length in the following scientific journals: 
Lilerarisehei Centralblatt, 1883, No. 13 (E. Stengel) ; Zettsehrift fur deuttcket 
AUerthum, N. F. (1884}, XVI., 266 (P. Strauch) ; Giornalt storico delta 
lilteralura ilaliana, IV. (1884), p. 269; Romania, XII. (18S3), p. 416; 
Milutine, II. (1885), No. 23 (H, Gaidoz). I mentioned my predecessors 
in the field, Thomas Wright and Karl Goedeke, and should have given greater 
credit to Hermann Oesterley, who in his editions of Pauli's " Schimpf und 
Emst," 1866, Kirchhof's " Wendunmuth," 1869, and " Gesta Romanorum," 
1873, showed himself a master of this field of study. But, unfortunately, hts 
erudition is confined to the comparative notes and not displayed in any gen- 
eral work. His innumerable references to mediaeval sermon-books and stories 
were of great use to me in all my studies. The impetus to my work was 
given by Goedeke's article, " Asinus vulgi " in Benfey's " Orient und Occi- 
dent," 1861, and Thomas Wright's mention of the subject in the introduction 
to " A Selection of Latin Stories," Percy Society, Vol. VIII., 1842. I do not 
know how I overlooked this writer's essay " On the History and Transmission 

PROC AMU. rniL. soc., vol. lvi, y, july 13, 1917. 



370 CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

The history of the study of this field is an interesting one and 
goes back a little over a century. In 1812, Jacob and Wilhelm 
Grimm, then obscure officials of the royal library at Cassel, pub- 
lished the first volume of their immortal "Kinder- und Haus- 
marchen," which was completed three years later. Fairy tales had 
been collected much earlier in Italy and France, but the Grimms' 
collection was the first one made by scholars for a scientific pur- 
pose. The editors were especially interested in finding that their 
stories contained features in common with the Northern mythology. 
As their investigations broadened, however, they discovered that 

of Popular Stories" in the second volume, pp. 51-81, of "Essays on Subjects 
connected with the Literature, Popular Superstitions, and History of England 
in the Middle Ages," London, 1846. The use of illustrative stones in ser- 
mons, and collections of these stories for the use of preachers, are mentioned 
at some length. The " Promptuarium Exemplorum," and John of Bromyard 
are named among others. It was not until recently that my attention was 
called to what is probably the earliest mention of Jacques de Vitry and the 
use of exempla. It occurs in F. W. V. Schmidt's edition of the " Disciplina 
clericalis," Berlin, 1827. In speaking of the story of Aristotle and Alexander's 
wife, Schmidt says, p. 106, "Zuerst aber brachte ihn Jacobus de Vitriaco zu 
Anfange des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts aus dem Morgenlande. Als Bischof 
von Ptolemais war er besonders geeignet zum Vermittler des Orients und 
Occidents, indem er seine letzten Tage in Rome verlebte." The story in ques- 
tion Schmidt quotes from Discipulus(Herolt)," Promptuarium Exemplorum," 
" ut dicit magister Jacobus de Vitriaco." This story is not in the " Sermoncs 
vulgares," but is in the " Sermones communes " recently edited by Frenken 
and Greven. Schmidt cites the '' Speculum Exemplorum " several times and 
frequently mentions Herolt, saying of his " Promptuarium," " Eine uner- 
schopfliche Schatzkammer von geistlichen und moralischen Historien und 
Marchen. Wahrscheinlich bestimmt als Anweisung fiir Kindererzieher zu 
einer belehrenden Unterhaltung." After Wright and Goedeke there was no 
general reference to the subject until the histories of French and German 
preaching by Lecoy de la Marche, 1868, and Cruel (1879). The latter was 
especially useful on account of its detailed description of the materials em- 
ployed by German preachers. No conspectus of the entire field appeared 
until 1890, when the writer's "Jacques de Vitry" was published at London 
for the Folk-Lore Society. The introduction to this work may be considered 
an enlargement of the paper presented to the American Philosophical Society. 
My own library had grown extensively in the seven years which had elapsed 
between 1883 and 1890, and I had been able to consult European libraries on 
several occasions. Subsequent works in this field have modified slightly 
some of my statements in the introduction to "Jacques de Vitry," but I am 
not aware that I overlooked any important materials accessible before 1890, 
with the exception of a few works which I shall examine in the course of this 
supplementary paper. 



CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 371 

these features were contained in the popular tales of the other na- 
tions of Europe. The Grimms were essentially philologists and ap- 
plied to their mdrchen the methods of comparative philology which 
had grown out of the revival of Sanscrit studies by Sir William 
Jones, Franz Bopp and Theodor Benfey. 

The theory that the popular tales of Europe were related as 
were the languages in which they were narrated, both going back 
to a period in which the Aryan peoples were supposed to have had 
a common language and mythology, broke down, so far as the popu- 
lar tales were concerned, when they were found to be essentially the 
same as those of non-Aryan peoples, and the favorite theory of dif- 
fusion from India in historic times was weakened by the discovery 
of popular tales in the tombs of ancient Egypt. 

The question of the origin of popular tales has from the first 
been connected with that of mythology, and the further question of 
their diffusion has depended largely upon the view of their origin. 
If the popular tales were part of the mythology of the Aryan na- 
tions, then their diffusion could be explained by the dispersion of 
those nations into the different parts of Europe. 

If, on the other hand, popular tales were merely a branch of 
entertaining literature, largely of Oriental origin, then in order to 
explain their extraordinary diffusion in Europe and elsewhere, it 
was necessary to discover the channels of transmission, literary or 
oral, which conveyed these tales over such an amazing expanse of 
territory. 

The theory of the origin of popular tales in India and their trans- 
mission, largely through literary works, in historic times, has always 
been a favorite one in Germany, owing chiefly to the epoch-making 
translation of the " Pantschatantra " by Theodor Benfey, the intro- 
duction to which connected the tales of India with those of Europe. 

In England, at a later date, the theory of the origin of popular 
tales has been connected with the anthropological studies of Tylor, 
Frazer and Lang, and again become a part of the mythology of 
primitive races. Before, however, this latter explanation came into 
vogue, the interest in the subject was almost wholly confined to the 
question of the means of transmission. These means, it was 
claimed, were largely literary and consisted of collections of Indian 



372 CRANE— MEDIiCVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

stories translated into the various languages of Europe where they 
enjoyed extraordinary popularity during the middle ages. It was 
admitted that these tales were also introduced into Europe by oral 
transmission on the part of travellers, and later by those engaged in 
the Crusades. 

The earliest mention of a peculiar means of oral transmission, 
that of preachers in their sermons, was made by Thomas Wright 
(1810-1877), the distinguished English antiquarian, in the introduc- 
tion to his " Selection of Latin Stories from Manuscripts of the Thir- 
teenth and Fourteenth Centuries," Percy Society, Vol. VIIL, London, 
1842. The collection contains 149 tales from various MSS. in the 
British Museum. Of these the editor says in his Introduction, p. vi, 
"No manuscripts are of more frequent occurrence than collections of 
tales like those printed in the present volume; and we owe their 
preservation in this form to a custom which drew upon the monks 
the ridicule of the early reformers. The preachers of the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries attempted to illustrate their texts, 
and to inculcate their docrines, by fables and stories, which they 
moralized generally by attaching to them mystical significations. 
These illustrations they collected from every source which presented 
itself, the more popular the better, because they more easily attracted 
the attention of people accustomed to hear them. Sometimes they 
moralized the jests and satirical anecdotes current among the people 
— sometimes they adopted the fabliaux and metrical pieces of the 
jongleurs, or minstrels — and not infrequently they abridged the 
plots of more extensive romances. Each preacher made collections 
for his own use — he set down in Latin the stories which he gath- 
ered from the mouths of his acquaintance, selected from the collec- 
tions which had already been made by others, or turned into Latin, 
tales which he found in a different dress. ... I am inclined to 
think that the period at which these collections began to be made 
was the earlier part of the thirteenth century, and that to that cen- 
tury we owe the compilation in Latin of most of these tales, though 
the greater number of manuscripts may be ascribed to the four- 
teenth." 

Wright mentions John of Bromyard and the " Promptuarium 
Exemplorum " and dwells on the importance of these tales for the 



CRANE— MEDIiCVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 373 

light they throw on the private life and domestic manners of " our 
forefathers." Thirty-six of Wright's stories are from the Harley 
MS. 463 (fourteenth century), the source of which is not indicated, 
but which really is an extensive collection of the exempla of Jacques 
de Vitry. Wright was unaware of the. source of these stories and 
mentions the name of the famous preacher but once, in a note to 
story Ixxxiii, " Promptuarium Exemplorum (quoted from Jacobus 
de Vitriaco)." 

A few years later Wright returned to the subject in an essay 
"On the History and Transmission of Popular Stories" in "Essays 
on Subjects Connected with the Literature, Popular Superstitions, 
and History of England in the Middle Ages," London, 1846, Vol. 
n., pp. 51-81, Essay xii. The writer dwells on the introduction 
into Europe of eastern stories by the jongleurs (citing as illustra- 
tions the stories of the "Hunchback," "Weeping Dog," etc.). He 
mentions the great Oriental story-books and says, p. 61, "Their 
popularity was increased by another circumstance which has tended, 
more than anything else, to preserve a class of the mediaeval stories, 
which were less popular as fabliaux, down to the present time. In 
the twelfth century there arose in the churdh a school of theologians, 
who discovered in everything a meaning symbolical of the moral 
duties of man, or of the deeper mysteries of religion. ... In the 
thirteenth century these stories with moralizations were already 
used extensively by the monks in their sermons, and each preacher 
made collections in writing for his own private use. .• . . The mass 
of these stories are of the kind we have described above, and are 
evidently of Eastern origin ; but there are also some which are mere 
mediaeval applications of classic stories and abridged romances, while 
others are anecdotes taken from history, and stories founded on the 
superstitions and manners of the people of western Europe. Not 
only werie these private collections of tales with moralizations, as 
we have just observed, very common in the fourteenth century, but 
several industrious writers undertook to compile and publish larger 
and more carefully arranged works for the use of preachers, who 
might not be so capable of making selections for themselves. 
Among these the most remarkable are the ' Promptuarium Exem- 



374 CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. . 

plorum/ the *Summa Predecantium ' of John of Bromyard, the 
* Repertorium Morale ' of Peter Berchorius, and some others." 

The subject received no further attention until 1861, when an 
important article by Karl Goedeke (1814-1887), the famous his- 
torian of German literature, was published in Benfey's periodical, 
Orient und Occident, Vol. I. (Gottingen, 1861), pp. 531-560. The 
article in question, "Asinus vulgi," is a study of the origin and 
diffusion of the well-known fable of the father and son who ride 
their ass alternately without satisfying the critical public (La Fon- 
taine, III. I, "Le meunier, son fils et Tane"). This fable is found 
in the "Scala Celi" of Johannes Junior (Gobius), Ulm, 1480, fol. 
I35» where it is introduced by the words: "Refert Jacobus de 
Vitriaco." It is a curious fact that this particular fable, which led 
Goedeke to speak of Jacques de Vitry, is not found in the two col- 
lections of sermons belonging to that prelate, but is one of the many 
stories in circulation attributed to him on what authority we do not 
know. In the article in question Goedeke emphasizes the impor- 
tance of Bromyard's work: "Kaum irgend ein andres Werk des 
Mittelalters ist so reich an Fabeln und Geschichten als das seinige, 
und kaum ein anderes von dieser Bedeutung so wenig gekannt." A 
little later he says : " Die Exempla, auf die sich Bromyard beruft, 
sind kein auf s geratewohl gebrauchter Ausdruck, sondern ein wirk- 
lich vorhandenes f iir die Verbreitung der orientalischen Fabeln und 
Geschichten ins Abendland sehr wichtiges Werk, das Speculum 
Exemplorum des Jacobus de Vitriaco." He calls Jacques de Vitry : 
"einen der Hauptcanale, durch welche orientalische Sageti nach 
Europa kamen." Goedeke then gives some twenty-five exempla 
from the Harley MS. 463, used by Wright in his " Latin Stories," 
which by comparison with the stories in the " Scala Celi " is shown 
to contain many exempla by Jacques de Vitry. He thus shows the 
importance of the mysterious " Speculum Exemplorum " of Jacques 
de Vitry, a veritable " Verlorene Handschrift," for which he had 
sought in vain. It is strange that it did not occur to Goedeke to 
examine the sermons of Jacques de Vitry, the existence of which at 
Paris and elsewhere he knew. 

In his later book, " Every-Man, Homulus und Hekastus," Hann- 
over, 1865, he returns to the subject and says: "Einen der Haupt- 



CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 375 

kanale, durch welche die Sagen des Orients nach Europa flossen, hat 
die Forschung bisher fast unbeachtet gelassen. Es sind die kirch- 
lichen Schriftsteller des Mittelalters, zum Theil auch die alteren 
Patres, die fur die Kirchen- und Dogmengeschichte nicht vorzugs- 
weise von Wichtigkeit erschienen." He does not have occasion to 
mention Jacques de Vitry, but cites a large number of mediaeval 
writers containing exempla, and displays a wide knowledge of indi- 
vidual authors, but nowhere gives any general view of the subject. 

In 1868 appeared A. Lecoy de la Marchess " La dhaire f ran^aise 
au moyen age" (second edition corrected and enlarged, Paris, 
1886), in which was given for the first time an adequate account of 
the use of exempla in French sermons of the thirteenth century, 
and of the importance of Jacques de Vitry's " Sermones vulgares " 
for this field of study. A similar work dealing with the twelfth 
century, " La chaire f ran^aise au Xlle siecle d'apres les manuscrits," 
was published by the Abbe L. Bourgoin in 1879. This period is not 
so interesting for the study of exempla as the succeeding century, 
when the systematic use of exempla in sermons began to prevail. 
In the same year appeared R. Cruel's "Geschichte der deutschen 
Predigt im Mittelalter," Detmold, 1879. This admirable work, to 
which I was greatly indebted in my paper on " Mediaeval Sermon- 
Books and Stories," is especially full in its treatment of homiletic 
treatises.^ 

Although the use of illustrative stories in sermons was treated 
at some length in the three works just mentioned, the first collection 
of such stories to be published was not taken from sermons, but 
from a homiletic treatise for the use of preachers, the "Tractatus 
de diversis materiis predicabilibus ordinatis et distinctis in septem 
partes, secundum septem dona Spiritus sancti," by fitienne de Bour- 
bon, a Dominican who died at Lyons about 1261." The extracts 

* A few years earlier than Cruel's work appeared Wilhelm Wackemagel's 
** Altdeutsche Predigten und Gebete aus Handschriftcn," Basel, 1876. He 
mentions Honorius of Autun's " Speculum Ecclesiae," but not the exempla 
contained in it. He alludes also to symbolism and '* Predigtmarlein," although 
very briefly, and names Herolt and Bromyard alone in their class of writings. 
Another German work in this field appeared in the same year as my paper: 
" Kulturgeschichtliches aus deutschen Predigten des Mittelalters," by Dr. H. 
Rinn, Hamburg, 1883. He mentions " Predigtmarlein " very briefly. 

* This statement that Lecoy de la Marchess edition of £tienne de Bourbon 



376 CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

from this work published by A. Lecoy de la Marche in 1877 for the 
Societe de THistoire de France under the title: "Anecdotes his- 
toriques, legendes et apologues, tires du recueil inedit d'fitienne de 
Bourbon, dominicain du Xllle siecle," gave a great in:q)ulse to the 
study of exempla. The connection of the author with Jacques de 
Vitry, many of whose exempla he has preserved in his treatise, and 
the interesting character of the stories themselves, combined to 
make the book attractive and to increase the interest in the subject.* 

The only other collection of exempla published before 1890 was 
the "RecuU de eximplis. Biblioteca catalana," Barcelona, 1881-88. 
I was able to use the first volume only for my paper on " Mediaeval 
Sermon-Books and Stories," but in my introduction to Jacques de 
Vitry I had the second volume also and was fortunate enough to 
discover the original of the collection, which was the " Alphabetum 
narrationum," formerly ascribed to fetienne de Besangon, but prob- 
ably by Arnold of Liege.* 

Such was the condition of studies in this field when my edition 
of the exempla of Jacques de Vitry was published for the Folk- 
Lore Society at London in 1890. It is the purpose of this paper to 

is the first collection of exempla to be published in modem times should be 
modified somewhat in view of Thomas Wright's " Latin Stories/' 1842, which 
were taken from "Jacques de Vitry" (although Wright did not know this), 
and from the homiletic treatises and collections of Bromyard, Herolt, etc 
The collection of " Predigtmarlein," by PfeiflFer, published in 1858 in the 
Germanta, III., 407-436, and the extracts, one hundred in number, from 
the German " Seelentrost," published by K. Frommann in " Die deutschen 
Mundarten," Nurnberg, 1854, and, finally, the complete Old-Swedish transla- 
tion of this work, edited by G. E. Klemming, Stockholm, 1871-73, are all 
anterior to Lecoy de la Marche's " fitienne de Bourbon." These works, how- 
ever, with the exception of Wright's were little kn6wn, and were overlooked 
by me in my paper of 1883, and even in my later introduction to "Jacques 
de Vitry." 

* In 1889 Lecoy de la Marche published a popular work, " L'Esprit de nos 
aieux. Anecdotes et bons mots tires des manuscrits du XIII* siecle," con- 
taining one hundred and fifty stories translated from the exempla of '' Jacques 
de Vitry" (41), " fitienne de Bourbon" (73), and others. 

^ See Herbert, "Catalogue of Romances," p. 423, and an article by the 
same writer, "The Authorship of the Alphabetum Narrationum" in The 
Library, N. S., VI. (1905), pp. 94-101. An early English translation of this 
famous collection was published by Mrs. M. M. Banks for the Early English 
Text Society, Original Series, 126-7, 1904-5, "An Alphabet of Tales." The 
third volume of notes, etc., has not yet appeared. 



CRANE— MEDIiCVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 377 

consider briefly the works produced since that date and to estimate 
the results of study in this field.* I shall divide my materials into 
treatises on exempla in particular localities, collections of exempla, 
and works containing selections of exempla (anthologies). All 
these I shall consider so far as possible in chronological order.^ 

The unity of the Church and its official language produced 
throughout the Middle Ages a cosmopolitanism which has never pre- 
vailed again since the Reformation. The preachers in all the coun- 
tries of Europe used the same homiletic treatises and drew their 
illustrative stories from the same sources. It is true that the sys- 
tematic use of exempla arose in France and that the influence of 
Jacques de Vitry and fitienne de Bourbon was very great; but 

* I have already indicated some of the material which I overlooked in my 
paper of 1883 and my introduction to "Jacques de Vitr/s" exempla, 1890. 
It may be well to recapitulate here these omissions and to correct some errors. 
Of collections of exempla accessible before 1883, I overlooked the German 
" Selentrost " (in ** Die deutschen Mundarten," 1854, and GeflFcken's " Bilder- 
catechismus des funfzehntenjahrhunderts/' 1855), as well as the Old-Swedish 
version edited by G. E. Klemming and printed at Stockholm, 1871-73. I was 
wrong in supposing that the work of Amoldus cited by Herolt referred to 
the "Gnotosolitos sive Speculum conscientiae " by Arnoldus Geilhoven of 
Rotterdam. Mr. Herbert in his " Catalogue of Romances/' p. 437, points out 
my mistake and shows that the work in question was a treatise on canon law, 
and that the Amoldus cited by Herolt was probably the author of the " Alpha- 
betum narrationum/' long ascribed to £tienne de Besangon. 

Frenken in his "Jacques de Vitry," to be mentioned further on, mentions 
my omission of two famous German preachers, Geiler von Kaisersberg and 
Abraham a Sancta Clara, who by their extensive use of exempla contributed 
greatly to the diffusion of these stories. Some of the statement's in my intro- 
duction require modification in view of materials discovered and printed sub- 
sequently, and I shall consider these in the course of this paper. 

^As I must necessarily be brief in this paper, I would refer for more 
lengthy reviews of certain of the works about to be mentioned to articles by 
me in the following journals : Modem Philology, Vol. IX., No. 2, 191 1, pp. 225- 
237, " Mediaeval Story-Books," review of Herbert's "Catalogue of Romances," 
ibid., Vol. X., No. 3, 1913, pp. 301-316, " New Analogues of Old Tales," review 
of J. Klapper's " Exempla aus Handschriften des Mittelalters," Romanic 
Review, Vol. VI., No. 2, 191 5, pp. 219-236, " Recent Collections of Exempla," 
review of A. Hilka's " Neue Beitrage zur Erzahlungsliteratur des Mittelal- 
ters," J. Th. Welter's " Speculum Laicorum," and J. Greven's and G. Frenken's 
"Die Exempla des Jakob von Vitry"; and Vol. XXXII., No. i, 1917, PP. 
26-40, review of J. Klapper's "Erzahlungen des Mittelalters," ibid.. Modem 
Language Notes, Vol. XXVII., No. 7, 1912, pp. 213-216, " The Exemplum in 
England," review of J. A. Mosher's book. 



378 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

Caesarius of Heisterbach belongs to Germany and Odo of Cheriton 
was an Englislmian. The use of exempla by French and German 
preachers has been fully treated by Lecoy de la Marche and R. Cruel 
in the works mentioned above. The history of exempla in the Neth- 
erlands during the Middle Ages is the subject of a book by Dr. C. 
G. N. De Vooys : " Middelnederlandsche Legenden en Exempelen. 
Bijdrage tot de Kennis van de Prozalitteratoor en het Volksgeloof 
der Middeleeuwen," S-Gravenhage, 1900, 8vo, pp. xi, 362. The 
plan of Dr. De Vooys's book is as follows : The first chapter is de- 
voted to the principal sources of exempla: the " Vitae Patrum," Gr^- 
ory's " Dialogues/' the " Exordiuum magnum ordinis Cisterciensis," 
Caesarius's " Dialogus miraculorum," Thomas Cantimpratensis's 
" Bonum universale de apibus," Vincent of Beauvais's " Speculum 
historiale," and Voragine's " Legenda aurea." The second chapter 
treats of the rise, development and spread of exempla, and discusses 
briefly the use of exempla in sermons and their collection in homi- 
letic treatises. The following nine chapters treat of exempla classi- 
fied according to personages, etc. : the Virgin, Jesus, the Devil, the 
Jews, the Sacrament, Prayer and Confession, and the "Quotuor 
novissima" (Death, the Judgment, Hell, and Heaven). The last 
three chapters are devoted to the allegorical element in exempla, 
the influence of mysticism in exempla, and moralizing exempla. 

Dr. De Vooys's book is a convenient resume of the whole sub- 
ject, indeed, almost the only one thus far, and he cites a lar^e number 
of Dutch works, printed and manuscript. The most important of 
these are certain fifteenth-century treatises containing exempla 
sporadically. They are interesting only as showing the persistence 
of the genre and its wide diffusion. 

To trace the history of "The Exemplum in the Early Religious 
and Didactic Literature of England" (New York: The Columbia 
University Press, 191 1, 8vo, pp. xi, 150) is the task which Mr. J. H. 
Mosher has undertaken. The exemplum began its course in Eng- 
land in the early translations of Gregory's " Dialogues " and the in- 
fluence of his " Homilies." Later, some of the most important col- 
lections of exempla were made by Englishmen, such as Odo of 
Cheriton, Holkot, Bromyard, the uncertain author of the " Speculum 
Laicorum," etc. The other classes of exempla literature are equally 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 379 

well represented, and Nicole de Bozon's " Contes moralizes," William 
of Wadington's " Manuel des Pechiez " and its translation by Robert 
of Brunne, " Handlyng Synne," are among the most important works 
of their kind. Two of the works treated rather inadequately by Mr. 
Mosher have been published since my " Jacques de Vitry," and I may 
consider them here very briefly out of their chronological order. 
They are: "Jacob's Well" (ed. Brandeis, Early English Text So- 
ciety, No. IIS, 1900) and John Mirk's "Festial" (ed. Erbe, E. E. 
T. Soc. Extra Series, No. 96, 1905). The latter, which is earlier in 
date, was written by a member of the Augustinian canonry of 
Lilleshul in Shropshire before 1415.® The work consists of seventy- 
four sermons for the festivals of the ecclesiastical year, with copious 
use of illustrative stories, many of which (26) are, as would be 
expected, from the "Legenda Aurea," three only are from the 
" Vitae Patrum," usually more freely drawn upon. " The sermons," 
as Professor Wells says, op. cit., p. 302, " are all intended to provide 
material for delivery by ill-equipped priests, of whom, says the 
Praefatio, * mony excuson ham by def aute of bokus and sympulnys 
of lettrure.' . . . But especially notable is the extensive use of nar- 
rative, not merely in the main line of the discourse, but in the hun- 
dred or more illustrative narrationes. Clearly, unlike Wycliffe and 
his followers. Mirk approved heartily of employment of tales in 
preaching, indeed, he directly defends the practice. But he shows 
control and judgment in use of them. The narrcUiones, sometimes, 
as many as five in a sermon, are always closely connected with the 
theme; they are introduced with the declared purpose of enforcing 
the issue through conviction or stimulation; and, the story ended, 
the hearers are usually brought back to the point illustrated. The 
tales vary much in kind ; some are over-marvelous, some have local 
flavor. It is not at all wonderful that these simple pieces of prose 
full of narrative, caught the popular taste, and that, when the other 
native collections and cycles were on the wane, these were copied 
into many MSS., and (unlike any of the other groups), as soon as 
the press was available, were printed in edition after edition." 

• See G. H. Gerould's " Saints' Legends," Boston and New York, 1916, 
pp. 184, 363, and J. E. Wells's " A Manual of the Writings in Middle English, 
1050-1400," New Haven, 1916, pp. 301, 807. 



380 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

The other work mentioned above, " Jacob's Well," written by an 
unknown author in the first quarter of the fifteenth century, accord- 
ing to the editor, belongs to the class of allegorical treatises, although 
it is really a collection of sermons, which seem to have been de- 
livered day by day within the. short space of " }^is hool tweyne 
monythys and more," as the author says in the beginning of his 
last chapter. Mr. Mosher thus describes the work: "A Biblical 
figure (John iv, 6, Erat autem ibi fons Jacob) is expanded into a 
truly marvellous allegory of the elaborate penitential scheme. A 
pit of oozy water and mire, representing man's body beset with sins, 
is to be made into a wholesome well wherein may flow the clear 
water of Divine Grace. The dirty water, or Great Curse, must first 
be removed; then the mire, i. e,, the seven deadly sins. Next the 
five water gates, the five senses, must be stopped up. After this the 
digging must continue until the seven pure springs, the gifts of the 
Holy Ghost, are reached. Then follows the walling process in which 
stones, sand, mortar, even the windlass, rope and bucket, are, need- 
less to say, the customary virtues. 

" At regular and frequent intervals ' Jacob's Well ' has a pair of 
exempla taken mainly from the ' Vitae Patrum,' * Jacques de Vitry,' 
* Caesarius,' ' Legenda Aurea,' and legends of the Virgin. The tales 
are therefore hackneyed, but they are frequently forged into a new 
glow by the striking diction of the zealous redactor. ... Of course 
the stories are uneven ; some vivid, others dull ; some brief, others 
elaborate. Though not so numerous, they are generally slightly 
longer than those in Mirk's * Festial' . . . With * Jacob's Well ' 
the exemplum appears to have reached its maximum employment 
in the religious treatise, just as it did in sermon literature with the 
contemporary * Festial ' of Mirk."* 

• Of the eighty-two stories in the fifty chapters published twenty-two arc 
from " Caesarius " four from the " Legenda aurea," five from " fitienne de 
Bourbon," ten from the " Vitae Patrum," and twelve from " Jacques de Vitry." 
The statement on p. 138, "Local color then became occasionally noticeable, 
though distinctive English characteristics were here, as elsewhere among the 
floating body of universal tales, sparse," would have been modified if the 
author had been able to consult the collections analyzed in Herbert's " Cata- 
logue," which will be mentioned in a moment. He would have seen that there 
are many specifically English stories in the " Speculum Laicorum," etc A 
certain number are in the " Liber Exemplorum," edited by Little (sec later in 
this paper), with which Mr. Mosher was acquainted. 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 381 

One of the most important, certainly the most useful, of the 
works published in the field of mediaeval tales since 1883 is Mr. J, A. 
Herbert's "Catalogue of Romances in the Department of Manu- 
scripts in the British Museum," Vol. III., London, 1910, crown 8vo, 
pp. xii, 720.^® How extensive the field is with which this volume 
deals may be judged by the fact that it contains an analysis of one 
hundred and nine manuscripts and refers to over eight thousand 
stories, many of which are, of course, frequently repeated. Too 
much praise cannot be given to the analyses in this and the preced- 
ing volumes of the " Catalogue." " In general," as I have said in 
my review of Mr. Herbert's work in Modem Philology, " the stories 
are without literary form, often they seem mere memoranda for the 
preacher to expand as he wishes. The scholar who is comparing 
collections or tracing a particular exemplum wishes to know the sub- 
stance of the story in a concise form, if possible, with references to 
other manuscripts or printed works. The analyses by the late Mr. 
Ward and Mr. Herbert are beyond all praise. Especially in the 
volume before us Mr. Herbert has shown himself profoundly ac- 
quainted with the vast and intricate subject of mediaeval tales. His 
references are exact and copious and will save the student an 
enormous amount of labor." A considerable number of the manu- 
scripts described in this volume have already been printed, wholly 
or in part (one of the most important, to be mentioned presently, 
since the "Catalogue" was issued), and are thus fairly well known 
and accessible to students. A great number of collections, how- 
ever, were quite unknown, and their contents are now for the first 
time revealed to scholars, and have widely extended the already 

10 The first and second volumes, edited by the late H. L. D. Ward, were 
published in 1883 and 1893, and deal. Vol. I., with Classical Romances (Cycle 
of Troy, Cycle of Alexander, etc) ; British and English Traditions (Cycle 
of Arthur, etc.) ; French Traditions (Cycle of Charlemagne, etc) ; Miscel- 
laneous Romances, and Allegorical and Didactic Romances; Vol. II., with 
Northern Legends and Talcs; Eastern Legends and Tales; -^sopic Fables; 
Reynard the Fox; Visions of Heaven and Hell; Les Trois Pelerinages; and 
Miracles of the Virgin. The last division, filling pp. 586-691, is of particular 
value for the study of exempla and is intimately associated with the subjects 
treated by Mr. Herbert in Vol. III. The same may be said to a lesser degree 
in regard to the class of Visions of Heaven and Hell, some of which, the 
Theophilus legend, for instance, recur so constantly in collections of exempla. 



382 CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

enormous field. I shall have occasion to refer frequently to this in- 
valuable work in the remainder of this paper. 

The use of exempla or illustrative stories is as old as religious 
instruction itself ; but the systematic use of such stories in sermons 
(to which their great vogue is due) is of comparatively recent date. 
The influence of Gregory the Great was profound in this direction. 
In his homilies (before 604), and especially in his dialogues, he em- 
ployed a large number of l^ends, and the popularity of the latter 
work, translated into the various languages of Europe, exercised a 
powerful influence on later collectors of legends. It was not, how- 
ever, until the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth 
century that the use of exempla in sermons became common, owing 
to the rise of the preaching orders. In my paper of 1883 and in my 
introduction to " Jacques de Vitry " I ascribed to that distinguished 
prelate the first systematic use of exempla in sermons. I should 
have modified somewhat this statement if I had seen some works 
which appeared after my articles, still, even in the light of recent 
researches I was not far from the truth.^^ In giving the priority to 

11 My statement, p. xix of my introduction to " Jacques de Vitry," that it 
was not until the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century 
that the practice of using exempla became common, owing to the rise of the 
preaching orders, was questioned by the late Anton Schonbach in his " Studien 
zur Erzahlungsliteratur des Mittelalters," Erster Theil, p. 2. He contents 
himself by stating that my conclusion so far as French preaching in the 
twelfth century is concerned is in contradiction with the facts, and refers to 
Bourgain's "La chaire frangaise au XII* siecle," pp. 258 et seq. Bourgain 
nowhere mentions the systematic use of exempla; indeed, he never, I believe, 
uses the word in its technical meaning. He does cite Guibert de Nogent, 
without place, as to the use of illustrative material. I said in my introduc- 
tion, p. xix, note, that I could find no reference to exempla in Guibert de 
Nogent's " Liber quo ordine sermo fieri debeat " ; here is the passage quoted 
by Bourgain; and another I may add. The first is Migne, CLVL, col. 25: 
" Placere etiam nonnullis comperimus simplices historias, et veterum gesta 
sermoni inducere, et his omnibus quasi ex diversis picturam coloribus ador- 
nare." The second passage is in col. 29: "et per considerationem naturae 
illius rei de qua agitur, aliquid allegorise vel moralitati conveniens invenitur, 
sicut de lapidibus gemmariis, de avibus, de bestiis, de quibus quidquid figurate 
dicitur, non nisi propter significantiam profertur." 

Schonbach also cites Honorius of Autun, Werner von Ellerbach, and the 
collections of German sermons edited by himself and Hoffmann. In Schon- 
bach's collection, Graz, 1886-1891, there are sixteen stories in the first volume, 
most of them from the "Vitae Patrum" and Gregory's "Homilies"; in the 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 383 

Jacques de Vitry I did not take into consideration, however, two 
other contemporary writers with whose works I subsequently became 
acquainted. I refer to the sermons of Odo of Cheriton and the 
homilies of Caesarius of Heisterbach. 

The fables of the former had long been known, but the author to 
whom they were attributed was, until recently, a mysterious person- 
age, confused with another Kentish ecclesiastical writer, Odo of 
Canterbury. It is now definitely settled that the Odo of the fables 
and sermons with which I am now concerned was from Cheriton 
and died in 1247, seven years after Jacques de Vitry. Some of 
Odo's fables were published as early as 1834 by Jacob Grimm in 
his edition of " Reinhart Fuchs," and thirteen were printed by Mone 
in the following year, while Wright used seventeen in his "Latin 
Stories." Other German scholars published a considerable number, 
but the fables were first adequately edited by L. Hervieux in the 
first edition (1884) of his monumental work, " Les fabulistes latins." 
In the second edition (1896), both fables and parabola from the 
sermons (of which there is only one edition printed at Paris in 1520) 
were published in a separate, fourth, volume, with an exhaustive 
examination of the birthplace and life of the author. I am in- 
terested at present only in the exempla contained in the sermons.^* 

second volume there is one story from Gregory's " Dialogues/' and in the 
third volume there are no stories. In Hoffmann's " Fundgruben," Vol. I., 
there are only half a dozen stories. In Werner's "Libri Deflorationum," 
Migne, Vol. CLVII., I do not find exempla of any kind, unless the occasional 
references to animals, birds, fishes and plants moralized in the usual way 
may be considered exempla. On the other hand there are many exempla in 
the "Speculum Ecclesiae" of Honorius of Autun (who died, it is supposed, 
shortly after 1152), and I should not have overlooked Cruel's reference on 
p. 137 of his "Geschichte der deutschen Predigt": "Ausserdem treten die 
nach Gregor's Beispiel einzeln auch in deutschen Predigten vorkommenden 
Exempel bei Honorius massenhaft als stehender Schlusstheil auf." Still it 
is evident that Honorius was an exception ; and the statement that the use of 
exempla systematically in sermons was not common until the end of the 
twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century is, I still think, correct 
There are, of course, many exempla to be found sporadically in homiletic 
treatises and similar works of the second half of the twelfth century, such as 
Petrus Cantor's " Verbum abbreviatum" (Migne, CCV.), etc. 

i^Hervieux's edition, printed from MS. 16506 of the National Library 
of Paris, contains 195 exempla; the manuscript (Arundel 231) analyzed by 
Herbert in his " Catalogue," pp. 58-78, contains 201, of which 43 are not in 



384 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

Their sources are infrequently mentioned: "Vitae Patrum," four 
times, Gregory's "Dialogue" three, the "Book of Kings" and 
" Saint Bernard " once each. As a matter of fact, however, a very 
large number of the exempla are taken from the "Vitae Patrum." 
The name of Jacques de Vitry is not mentioned ; but many of Odo's 
parabolce occur in the sermons of the former, and Frenken is in- 
clined to think that Odo borrowed them directly or indirectly from 
him. The value of Odo's parabolcB consists largely in the fact that 
they are a popular channel through which many stories have entered 
into circulation, for although there is only one printed edition of the 
sermons and that of the sixteenth century, there are many manu- 
scripts left to attest their popularity. 

In my introduction to " Jacques de Vitry " I did not include among 
the preachers using exempla Caesarius of Heisterbach, the most 
delightful perhaps of all the mediaeval story-tellers. I was not at 
that time acquainted with his homilies, of which there is only one 
edition, a very rare book, by J. A. Coppenstein, printed at Cologne 
in 1615.'' As the "Homilies" were composed between 1222 and 

Hcrvicux. In the sermon for Sexagesima Odo defines the word he uses as 
follows : ** Parabola dicitur a para, quod est juxta, et bole, quod est sententia, 
quasi juxta sententiam. Parabola enim est similitudo quae ponitur ad sen- 
tentiam rei comprobandam." Hervieux, p. in, endeavors to establish a dif- 
ference between apologues, paraboles and exemples; he says: "En effet, il 
ne faut pas dans les sermons d'Eudes confondre les apologues ou paraboles 
avec les exemples; ou, si Ton veut qualifier d'exemples les paraboles, il faut 
admettre deux sortes d'exemples : ceux qui, contenant le r^cit d'un fait imagi- 
naire, offrent les caracteres de la fable et sont appeles paraboles, et ceux qui 
se boment, sans application k aucun cas special, k faire mention des habitudes 
d'une categorie d'etres quelconques." He finally ends, p. 112, by confessing 
that it is safer to consider the exemples as true paraboles and print them all. 
Frenken in his edition of the exempla in the "Sermones communes" of 
" Jacques de Vitry," to be mentioned later at length, has a chapter on " Die 
Geschichte des Begriffes 'exemplum,'" in which he connects the word with 
its use in classical rhetoric, and remarks, p. 14, " Dass man zunachst nach 
anderen Ausdriicken wie parabola, narratio, historia, suchte, lag wohl nur 
daran, dass man nicht recht wusste, dass das, was man so in der Predigt 
erzahlte, auch das war, was die Gramma tiker exemplum nannten. Die kurzen 
Erklarungen der Tropen in den Grammatiken wurden mit denselben Bei- 
spielen Jahrhunderte lang auswendig gelemt, aber man dachte sich nicht viel 
dabei." 

i« I still know this work only through A. Schonbach's masterly " Studien 
zur Erzahlungsliteratur des Mittelalters," V., VII., VIII., Vienna, 1902, 1908, 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 385 

1225, as Schonbach thinks, and Jacques de Vitry's sermons after his 
residence in Palestine until his death, that is 1227 to 1240, Caesarius 
is contemporaneous with Odo of Qieriton and a little earlier than 
Jacques de Vitry. 

I used the " Dialogus Miraculorum •' of Caesarius frequently in 
my notes, but I did not give any space to this interesting personage 
in my Introduction, although I might have considered the "Dia- 
logus" as a homiletic treatise, so constantly are they quoted in 
subsequent sermons and collections of exempla made for the use of 
preachers. The author was bom probably a few years before 1180 
and educated at St. Andrew's School at Cologne. He entered the 
Cistercian abbey of Heisterbach, where he became master of the 
novices and prior, dying about 1240.^* Besides the "Homilies" 
mentioned above, Caesarius was the author of many theological 
works, some of which have perished and all have been forgotten 
except the " Dialogus Miraculorum." This popular and interesting 
work was composed about 1222 (Schonbach dates it 1 223-1 224, 
Herbert says it was completed in or very soon after 1222). It is 
fortunately accessible in a good modem edition by J. Strange, two 
volumes, Cologne, 185 1, and consists of twelve books or distinc- 

1909, originally published in the Sitzungsherichte der kais. Akad, der Wissen- 
schaften in Wicn, Philosophisch-historisch Classe, Bd. CXLIV., CLIX., 
CLXIII. Of the 746 stories in the "Dialogus Miraculorum" 84 are found 
in the "Homilies," and there are 58 in the "Homilies" not found in the 
"Dialogus," see Schonbach, I., pp. 69-92; III., pp. 4 et seq. Consequently 
there are now 142 stories contained in the " Homilies " accessible to students. 
Caesarius says in regard to his use of exempla (Schonbach, I., p. 20) : 
"Quxdam (exempla) inserui aliquantulum subtilius ad exercitium legentium, 
quaedam de Vitis Patrum propter utilitatem simplicium. Nonnulla etiam, 
quae nostris temporibus sunt gesta et a viris religiosis mihi recitata. Hoc 
pene in omnibus homiliis observare studui, et, quod probare poteram ex 
divinae scripturae sententiis, hoc etiam firmarem exemplis." This use of 
exempla displeased some even at that early date and he omitted them in his 
later homilies, saying (Schonbach, op. cit, p. 33) : " Secrete quidam ea scripsi 
et secrete legi volui, ipsam expositionem ita ordinans, ut conversis, quibus 
singulis diebus dominicis aliquid de divinis scripturis, et maxime de evangeliis, 
exponi solet, congrueret. Ilia enim necessitas occasio praecipua fuit scribendl 
Propter quod miracula et visiones ipsis expositionibus inserere studui. Et 
quia hoc quibusdam minus placuit, in homiliis de solemnitatibus sanctorum 
hoc ipsum cavi." 

1* See Schonbach, op. cit. ; A. Kaufmann, " Caesarius von Heisterbach," 
Cologne, 1862 ; and Herbert, " Catalogue," p. 348. 

PROC. AMBR. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI. 2, JULY 13. I917. 



386 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

Hones, the subjects of which are : Conversion, Contrition, Confession, 
Temptation, Demons, Simple-mindedness, the Virgin Mary, the 
Body of Christ, Divers Visions, Miracles, the Dying, and Rewards 
of the Dead. The large number of stories, 746, purport to have 
been told, and probably were, by the master ("monachus") to the 
novice. The stories are connected by a thread of dialogue between 
the master and pupil. The name of the author is not mentioned, 
but the reader is told it can be learned from the first letters of the 
distinctiones ("Cesarii Munus")- "Many things," he says, "have 
I introduced which happened outside of the order, because they were 
edifying and told me, like the rest, by religious men (i. e,, members 
of an order). God is my witness that I have not invented (finxisse) 
a single chapter in this Dialogue. If perchance things have happened 
differently from what I have written, this should be imputed to those 
who related them to me." 

As Herbert remarks, p. 349, " Caesarius professes to have learnt 
most of the miracles at first or second hand, and a large proportion 
of them are connected with Heisterbach, Himmerode, and Cologne, 
and places in the neighborhood. But in many cases he has merely 
drawn on the common stock ; e. g,, in Dist. VIII., Cap. 21 he tells 
the story of the merciful knight to whom the crucifix bowed, as a 
miracle which occurred "temporibus nostris in provincia nostra, 
sicut audivi " ; but it has been pointed out in this " Catalogue" (Vol. 
II., p. 665) that the story occurs, as early as the eleventh century, 
in the Life of the Italian St. John Gualbertus."^' 

15 The sources of the stories in the "Dialogus" have never been sys- 
tematically investigated, but a brief enumeration of the principal ones may 
be found in Meister's work, to be mentioned presently. "We know," he 
says, p. xxxii, " that he was acquainted with the * Life of Bernard of Clair- 
vaux,' Bernard's * Life of St. Malachiae,' the * Book of Visions of St. Aczelina,* 
Herbert's 'Exordium miraculorum' and 'Liber miraculorum,' and that he 
used the * Life of St. David ' — all these writings of the Cistercian order. He 
also drew on the 'Historia Damiatina' and 'Historia regum terra sanctse' 
of Oliver Scholasticus, the * Dialogues * of Gregory the Great were his model 
and the 'Vitiae Patrum' were known to him. Most of his stories, however, 
he owed to oral communication, but all are not new on that accotmt ; an old 
germ lies oftener at bottom. Many of his stones have wandered far before 
they reached the half hidden cloister of Heisterbach. On this long journey 
they have worn out their garments and must be clothed anew, so that in their 
changed exterior it is hard to recognize their weather-beaten figure. Some- 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 387 

The popularity of the "Dialogus miraculorum," as I have re- 
marked above, was enormous. Its stories were used with or with- 
out credit in all subsequent treatises and collections. In the "Al- 
phabet of Tales," which I shall mention again presently, 151 of the 
801 stories are from Qesarius, and some of his tales have found 
curious enough resting places, one (VIII., 59, see also X., 2) has 
been shown by P. Rajna in Romania, VI., 359, to be the probable 
source of Boccaccio's fine story of Messer Torello and Saladin 
("Decameron," X., 9). 

In the list of his writings made by Caesarius himself (Schon- 
bach, I., pp. 4-69; Meister, pp. xx-xxviii), he mentions under No. 
27, "Item scripsi volumen diversarum visionum seu miraculorum 
libros 8." This work was supposed to have been lost until Pro- 
fessor Marx published in 1856 a fragment of the work containing 
twenty-three miracles, afterwards reprinted by A. Kaufmann in an 
appendix to his book on Caesarius. Later Dr. Aloys Meister dis- 
covered two other fragments and published all three under the title 
"Die Fragmente der Libri VIII Miraculorum des Caesarius von 
Heisterbach" (in Romische Quartdschrift fur christliche Alter- 
thums-Kwnde und fur Kirchen-Geschichte, Dreizehntes Supple- 
mentheft, Rom, 1901). The fragments contain 191 miracles or 
stories relating to the Sacrament and to the Virgin. They are of 

time the paths that Caesarius's stories have trodden will have to be pointed 
out Of course one will not go so far as to confine the substance of a story 
in the straight-jacket of a genealogy and try to trace the exact pedigree of 
derivation and relation. A story grows and changes mostly through oral 
tradition, the fixed written forms are often only chance resting stages in the 
development; many connecting links of oral transformation have frequently 
been lost between one fixed form and another. For these changes are not 
logically necessary, but depend upon chances, it may be, that a locality or a 
half forgotten historical fact caused assimilation, it may be, that a particular 
object was connected with the transformation or merely the poetic impulse 
to remolding brought about the change." This is also the conclusion of 
Schonbach in his paper, " Die Legende vom Engel und Waldbrud^r " in 
SitzungsheHchte der kais. Akad., CXLIIL, p. 62. The same writer in his 
" Studien zur Erzahlungsliteratur, Achter Theil, l)ber Caesarius von Heister- 
bach," III., undertakes an interesting investigation of the changes which 
stories undergo in passing from one author to another. He compares the 
stories which are similar in Caesarius's " Dialogus " and " Homilies " and 
the stories common to " Jacques de Vitry " and " fitienne de Bourbon," and 
endeavors to formulate some general principles of transmission. 



388 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

the same nature as those already published in the " Dialogus," a few 
are found in both works. There is the same tendency to localize 
well-known stories, and the same absence of mention of literary 
sources. The " Vitae Patrum, Historia ecclesiastica," etc., are oc- 
casionally cited, generally the name of the narrator is carefully 
stated and the locality is exactly described. 

Of all the mediaeval story-tellers Caesarius is perhaps the most 
interesting, partly from his gift of narration, and partly from the 
diversified character of his stories. In most of the great exempla- 
collections which I shall soon examine, the stories are told in a dry, 
condensed form, and seem more like memoranda to be expanded at 
the preacher's will than like independent tales. Caesarius is a happy 
exception and his book is one of the most valuable sources for the 
history of mediaeval culture. 

While engaged in the study of Jacques de Vitry I learned of the 
existence in Belgian libraries of a collection of sertnones communes 
vel quotidtani by him, but made no effort to trace these, for the 
author had said in the prooemium to the sermones domimcales (Ant- 
werp, 1575) that his work was to consist of six divisions, the first 
four being represented by the serm^mes dominicales, the fifth by 
the sermones de Sanctis, and the sixth by the sermones vtdgares. 
As it was supposed that all the existing collections of sermons by 
Jacques de Vitry were written late in life, I did not think that after 
the sermones vulgares which, in his own words, were to complete 
his work, he would have added anything. It now seems that I was 
mistaken and that the sermones communes vel quotidtani also con- 
tain a considerable number of exempla, two editions of which, by a 
strange coincidence, appeared simultaneously three years agp.^* 

*® Greven, Joseph, " Die Exempla aus den Sermones f eriales et communes 
des Jakob von Vitry," Heidelberg, 1914, 8vo, pp. xviii, 68 (Sammlung mittel- 
lateinischer Texte herausgegeben," von Alfons Hilka, 9) ; Frenken, Goswin, 
"Die Exempla des Jakob von Vitry," Munich, 1914, Lex. 8vo, pp. iv, 152 
(" Quellen und Untersuchungen zur mittellateinischen Philologie des Mittelal- 
ters," V. i). As I have reviewed these two editions recently at length in 
the Romanic Review, Vol. VI. (1915), pp. 223 et seq., I shall not enter into 
details here. I may, however, remark that Greven's edition is part of HiUca's 
" Sammlung " and is, like the other texts in that collection, edited in the most 
concise form, with brief introduction, and briefer annotation. Frenken's edi- 
tion, on the other hand, contains not only a biography of " Jacques de Vitry," 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 389 

The new exempla (three only are found in the sermones vulgar es, 
Crane, Nos. 30, 31, 160) are 107 in number (Frenken has 104, clas- 
sifying two as anecdotes, and omitting one as not properly an 
exemplum). Three are from the "Vitae Patrum" and two from 
Petrus Alfonsus. The great majority are apparently original with 
Jacques de Vitry, and did not subsequently enter into wide circu- 
lation. The new collection is, therefore, of little interest for the 
question of the diffusion of popular tales, and its value depends on 
the light it throws on the manners and customs of the times. 
Among the exempla which are found in subsequent collections are 
some of the most famous of mediaeval stories, e. g., Frenken, No. 15, 
" Ari^otle and Alexander's wife ; " No. 195, " Monk in Paradise ; " 
No. 68, man unhappily married wants shoot of tree on which an- 
other man's two wives have hanged themselves; No. 99, ape on 
shipboard throws into the sea the ill-gotten gains of a passenger who 
had cheated pilgrims with false measures and frothy wine ; etc. A 
certain number of stories are taken from natural history, and a few 
are fables, the best known of the latter being the one of the treaty 
between the wolf and the sheep, by which the sheep give up their 
dogs as hostages (also in the sermones vulgar es, Crane, No. 45). 

Of the 'Stories peculiar to Jacques de Vitry some are connected 
with his experiences in the East, as Frenken, No. 71, a certain Count 
Josselin married the daughter of an Armenian on condition of let- 
ting liis beard grow in accordance with the custom of the country. 
The Count contracts debts which he does not know how to pay. At 
last he tells his father-in-law that he has pledged his beard for a 
thousand marks, and if the debt is not paid his beard will have to 
be cut off. His father-in-law gives him the money rather than have 
the Count incur the shame of losing his beard ; No. 72, Jacques de 
Vitry knew a certain knight in Acre that had offended a minstrel, 
who took his revenge by passing off on the knight an ointment 
which removes the beard instead of preserving the face in good con- 
dition ; No. 75, Jacques de Vitry "heard that a certain Saracen, over 
sixty years of age, had never been outside of Damascus. The Sul- 

but most valuable dissertations on the history of exempla, the sources of 
"Jacques de Vitry's" exempla, and their penetration into later secular litera- 
ture. I cannot praise too highly Frenken's admirable editorial work. 



390 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

tan summoned him and commanded him to remain in the city in the 
future. As soon as he was forbidden to leave it he longed to go, 
and gave the Sultan money to permit him to do so ; No. 96, a woman 
of Acre knew excellent remedies for the eyes, so that even Saracens 
came to her. One day she was in a hurry to hear mass and left the 
case of a Saracen to her maid, telling her to put such and such 
medicine in his eyes. The Christian maid determined to blind the 
Saracen, so she put quicklime in his eye and told him not to open it 
in three days. A week later, after great pain and copious tears, 
he was cured, and returned with fee and gifts, greatly to the maid's 
wonder. 

There is another group of stories, the scene of which is laid in 
Paris in the time of Jacques de Vitry. Some of the most interest- 
ing are these : Frenken, No. 80, while Jacques de Vitry was at Paris 
three youths from Flanders came there and on their way told their 
purposes: one wanted to be a Parisian theologian (magister), the 
second a Cistercian, the third an "organizator, hystrio et joculator." 
J. de V. saw later with his own eyes the realization of their desires ; 
No. 82, I remember, he says, while at Paris that a certain scholar, 
religious and abstinent, went on a Friday to visit friends near Paris 
and ate wherever he stopped. His famulus at last whispers to him 
that it is Friday and that he has eaten twice already. His master 
replies that he had forgotten it. J. de V. remarks that some eat so 
much that they cannot forget it, but have to say : " Ventrem meum 
doleo." There are several stories of an ignorant Parisian priest 
named Maugrinus. In one, Frenken, No. loi, he is called to hear 
the confession of a certain scholar who speaks in Latin. Maugrinus 
does not understand him, and calls the servants and tells them that 
their master is in a frenzy and must be bound. When the scholar 
recovers he complains to the bishop, who pretends to be ill and sends 
for Maugrinus to confess him. He, too, speaks Latin, and at every 
word he utters Maugrinus says, " May the Lord forgive you." At 
last the bishop cannot restrain his laughter and says, " May the Lord 
never forgive me, nor will I forgive you," and made him pay a hun- 
dred livres or lose his parish. In another story, No. 103, Mau- 
grinus's bishop is in pecuniary straits and feigning to have sore 
eyes, asks Maugrinus to read certain letters. Maugrinus, who can- 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 391 

not read, opens the letters and looking them over says that they con- 
tain news that the bishop is in need and that Maugrinus will lend 
him ten marks. 

Among the usual monastic diatribes on the other sex is the fol- 
lowing story, Frenken, No. 6i : J. de V. once passed through a cer- 
tain city in France, where a ham was hung up in the public square 
to be given to the one who swore that after a year of married life he 
did not repent of his bargain. The ham had hung there unclaimed 
for ten years. 

It is now time to pass to the collections of exempla which have 
been published since 1883. Before that date the only collections of 
exempla accessible in modem editions were, as we have seen above, 
the selections from fitienne de Bourbon made by Lecoy de la 
Marche, and the Catalan translation of the "Alphabetum narra- 
tionum." It was not until ten years later, in 1893, that there ap- 
peared a collection of Latin stories composed in Bologna in 1326, 
and contained in a manuscript in the library of Wolfenbiittel.*^ 
The sixty-nine stories are accompanied in some cases by moraliza- 
tions, and contain many classical anecdotes. In these two respects 
the collection resembles the " Gesta Romanorum," and Oesterley in 
his edition of that work, p. 257, was inclined to regard the " Trac- 
tatus " as a peculiar version of the " Gesta," or at least as an off- 
shoot. This opinion is hardly correct in view of the great differ- 
ences between the "Tractatus" and the many versions of the 
"Gesta." It is likely that the former is an independent collection 
made in Italy in the fourteenth century, and sbows the growing 
fondness for secular elements in works of this kind. Valerius 
Maximus is the source most frequently cited, but other historians 
of classical and Christian times are also quoted, as well as Seneca, 
Augustine, " Vitae Patrum," Petrus Alf onsus, etc. The compilation 
has no independent value, and but little interest for the question of 
the diffusion of popular tales. 

I must now, in conclusion, consider as briefly as possible the 

17 " Xractatus de diversis historiis romanorum et quibusdam aliis. Ver- 
fasst in Bologna i. J. 1326. Nach einer Handschrift in Wolfenbiittel," heraus- 
gegeben von Salomon Herzstein. Erlangen, 1893. In "Erlanger Beitrage 
2ur Englischen Philologie und vergleichcnden Litteraturgeschichte," heraus- 
gegeben von Hermann Varnhagen. XIV. Heft 



392 CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

recent editions of collections of exempla, beginning with A. G. 
Little's "Liber Exemplorum ad usum Praedicantium," Aberdeen, 
1908 {British Society of Franciscan Studies, Vol. L). The manu- 
script, in the Library of Durham Cathedral, contains two hundred 
and thirteen chapters or stories, and belongs to the class of treatises 
for the use of preachers. It is divided into two parts: the first 
treats " of things above," and the subjects are arranged in the order 
of precedence — Christ, the Blessed Virgin, Angels and St. James. 
The second part treats "of things below," and here the subjects 
are in alphabetical order : De accidia, de advocatis, de wuaritia, and 
so on to de mortis memoria, where the MS. breaks off. The author 
does not mention his name in the part of the MS. which has been 
preserved, although he gives us considerable information about him- 
self, from which we infer that he was an Englishman by birth, prob- 
ably of Warwickshire ; he probably entered the order of the Friars 
Minor, and, after study in Paris, spent many years of his life in 
Ireland. Mr. Little, whom I follow in these details, concludes 
that the work was written probably between 1275 and 1279. The 
compiler, who nearly always mentions his sources, draws largely 
from Giraldus Cambrensis, " Gemma Ecclesiastica " (29 times) ; 
" Vitae Patrum" (38) ; Gregory's "Dialogues" (15) ; "Miracles of 
the Virgin" (4) ; Peraldus, " Summa Virtutum ac Vitiorum " (10) ; 
" Life of Johannes Eleemosynarius " (9) ; " Barlaam and Josaphat " 
(2) ; etc. Many of the stories are familiar to us from other collec- 
tions. " Some are," as the editor says, " of a more individual char- 
acter and are the result of the writer's experience in Ireland." 
Among these (I use the editor's analyses) are: No. 95, the story 
of the bailiff of Turvey, who while going along a lonely road one 
night saw a horrible beast coming towards him. Knowing that it 
was the devil, he made with his axe a circle of crosses, and at once 
hastened to confess his sins to God. Forthwith there began to rise 
aroimd him a wall which grew with every sin confessed. Against 
this wall the devil threw himself in vain, and could only terrify the 
poor sinner by showing his face over the top. 

The duty of paying tithes is enforced by the story (No. 105) of 
the woman of Balrothery, " in our times," who had twenty lambs. 
To avoid giving two to the Church, she hid ten under a covering 



CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 393 

and gave the Church only one. " But behold the delightful (iucun- 
dissimum) judgment of Him who seeth all things ! " On removing 
the covering the woman found nine of the lambs dead and only the 
Church's tenth still alive. Another story (No. i66) shows the 
efficacy of indulgences. A man follows two friars on a preaching 
tour in Ukter and buys all the indulgences he can afford. He after- 
wards sells these to the host with whom he has passed the night, for 
what be paid and a pot of beer in addition. The purchaser applies 
the indulgences to the relief of his dead son, who appears in a vision 
to his father and tells him that he has freed him from punishment. 
The foolish seller hearing of this tries in vain to get back his effica- 
cious indulgences by refunding the money he had received for them. 
A very interesting story (No. 142) of superstition in times of epi- 
demics is told by the Bishop of Clonmacnois. "When I was a 
preacher in the order (O. M.), I once came on a preaching tour to 
Connaugbt, and found a dreadful pestilence raging in the bishopric 
of Clonfort. For when men went ploughing or otherwise in the 
fields, or walking in the woods, they used to see armies of devils 
passing by, and sometimes fighting among themselves. All who saw 
these devils fell sick and most of them died. So I got together a 
great meeting, and said to the people : * Do you know why these devils 
have this power over you? Simply 'because you are afraid of them. 
If you had faith in God and were convinced that He would protect 
you, they would have no power over you at all. You know that we 
— ^we friars — do more against the devik, and say more things about 
them than any one else in the world. Here am I standing here 
and abusing them as much as I know how. Do they harm me? 
Let the devils come, let them all come! Where are they? Why 
don't they come ? ' From that hour the devils disappeared and the 
pestilence with them." 

Two other stories from this collection must receive brief notice. 
One (No. 112) tells the story of a rich widow with many suitors. 
She preferred a certain one but tells him frankly that his pov- 
erty stands in the way of his acceptance. He goes out into the 
highway and robs and murders a rich merchant. When he again 
claims the lady's hand she demands an account of his wealth, 
and after hearing his confession of its source, commands him to 



394 CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

pass a night at the spot where the murdered man lies. There he 
beholds the dead man stretch his hands to heaven and implore jus- 
tice. A voice declares that he shall be revenged in thirty years. 
The lady thinking that the murderer will certainly repent before 
that time marries him. He and his family flourish and penance is 
postponed. The fated day comes at last and a great feast is given 
to which are invited all whom he has no cause to fear. A minstrel 
is admitted, but a wag rubs the strings of his fiddle with grease 
and the minstrel withdraws in confusion. When he has gone some 
distance he finds that he has left his glove. He returns and dis- 
covers that the castle has disappeared, and where it once stood is a 
fountain and near it his glove. This story was told by Friar Hugo 
de Succone in a sermon preached in foreign parts. He said he 
told it as he had heard it, without vouching for it. One of his 
hearers said : " Brother, you can tell this story with assurance, for 
I know the place where it happened." Mr. Little cites two curious 
Welsh parallels in Rhys, " Celtic Folklore," pp. 73, and 403. 

The second story (No. 192) occurs in the chapter "De ludis in- 
ordinatis," and refers to a curious custom in Dacia, related by a cer- 
tain friar Peter, who was from that country. When women are in 
childbed their neighbors come to assist them with dancing and sing- 
ing. Sometimes in carrying out their jokes they make a straw man 
and put on it a hood and girdle, calling it " bovi " and dragging it 
between two women. At times they cry out to it, "gestu lascivo," 
"Canta bovi, canta bovi, quid facereit?" (sic, 1. facis? or taces?). 
Once the devil answered from the image with such a terrible voice, 
" I shall sing," that some of the women fell down dead. Mr. Little 
remarks that " there is no reason to doubt the English friar's report. 
The story agrees with the * Konebarsel * or * Kvindegilde * custom : 
a party of women gathering in a 'house after a birth. The women 
drink themselves merry, then they dance, then they go in a rout and 
break into houses and revel along the street, and make every man 
dance with them, and take the breeches off him, or in more recent 
times more frequently the hat." The various elements of our story 
are well known in Danish folklore, but the straw man at the lying- 
in-revels is elsewhere unknown. 

In many respects the most important of recent publications of 



CRANE— MEDIAEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 395 

^jr^tn/>/a-collections is another work also of English origin, which I 
shall mention slightly out of its chronological order because, like 
the one just described above, it is a treatise for the use of preachers, 
arranged in an alphabetical order. In 1886 while collecting ma- 
terial for the history of the use of exempla in mediaeval sermons 
which serves as an introduction to my " Jacques de Vitry," Mr. Ward 
of the British Museum called my attention to MS. Additional 11284, 
formerly in the possession of the well-known antiquary Mr. W. J. 
Thoms, containing an extensive collection of stories arranged al- 
phabetically according to topics. I later ( " Jacques de Vitry ," p. Ixxii ) 
called attention to the importance of this collection in the hope that 
it might soon find an editor. It was not, however, until the publi- 
cation in 1910 of the third volume of the "Catalogue of Romances 
in the Department of Manuscripts in the British Museum," by Mr. 
Herbert, that the rich contents of the MS. were made adequately 
known to students of mediaeval literature, and/ it was reserved for a 
French scholar, Mr. J. Th. Welter, to publish the MS. in extenso}^ 
The attribution of the " Speculum Laicorum " to John of 
Hoveden, the chaplain of Queen Eleanor and the author of " Philo- 
mela," first made by Bale in his "Catalogus," 1548, rests on no 
adequate ground, while the denial of his authorship, because the 
work contains mention of the reign of Henry IV. (Hoveden having 

i®It is true that in my edition of "Jacques de Vitry" I cited several 
MSS. in the British Museum containing the " Speculum Laicorum " without 
suspecting its true title. My excuse must be that the principal MS. (Addi- 
tional 1 1284}, which formerly belonged to Mr. Thoms, contains no indication 
of the true title (nor does it appear in the official catalogue), and the same 
is true of the other MSS. which I used. Neither Mr. Thoms nor Mr. Thomas 
Wright, who printed stories from this MS., was aware of the true title of the 
collection from which they were taken. The title of Mr. Welter's edition is: 
"Thesaurus Exemplorum. Fascicule V: Le Speculum Laicorum. Edition 
d'une collection d'exempla composee en Angleterre i la fin du XIII* siecle," 
Paris, 1914. The first four fascicules have not yet appeared, but the author 
has informed me that they are composed as follows: Fasc I., Inventory of 
the three thousand anecdotes of "fitienne de Bourbon" from the MS. Lat 
15970 of the Bib. Nat, with indication of sources (Complement to A. Lecoy 
de la Marche, " Anecdotes historiques, legendes et apologues, tir^s du recueil 
in^dit d'fitienne de Bourbon," Paris, 1877) ; Fasc. II., Inventory of the " Liber 
de -dono timoris " of Humbert de Romans, and of the " Promptuarium exem- 
plorum" of Martinus Polonus; Fasc. III., "Liber exemplorum secundum 
ordinem Alphabeti " ; Fasc IV., MS. Royal 7 D. if of the British Museum. 



396 CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

died in 1272 or 1275), is based on the mistake of a scribe who 
wrote Henry IV. for Henry III. Mr. Welter sfhows conclusively 
that the work must have been written between 1279 and 1292. 
The author purposely conceals his identity, "nomina siquidem 
nostra subticere me compulit malorum ipsa mater invidia," a state- 
ment that would hardly apply to so well-known a writer as John of 
Hoveden. From the character of his compilation the anonymous 
author may with reason be supposed to have been a member of the 
Mendicant Orders, probably an English Franciscan. 

The " Speculum Laicorum " is, in reality, a theological treatise 
for the use of preachers, arranged alphaJbetically according to topics 
and containing a great number of illustrative stories. In Welter's 
edition there are ninety topics or chapters, and five hundred and 
seventy-nine stories, besides thirty others found in various MSS. 
of the work in the British Museum and elsewhere. The composi- 
tion of the collection does not differ from that of the host of similar 
works, both manuscript and printed, found in European libraries. Two 
hundred and fifteen stories are taken from: Gregory's "Dialogues" 
(25), " Vita Patrum " (loi), " Cassiodorus," " Hist. Tripart." (24), 
Bede (6), Petrus Alfonsus (5), William of Malmsbury (5), Petrus 
Quniacensis (11), Caesarius Heisterf>acensis (5), " Physiologus " 
(8), "Miracles de N. D." (24), while the various tales are found 
seven hundred and fifty-eight times in: Jacques de Vitry (47), Odo 
of Cheriton (75), Arundel MS. 3244 (59), fitienne de Bourbon 
(273), " Liber de Dono Timoris " (72), " Liber Exemplorum secun- 
dum ordinem Alphabeti" (42), MS. Royal 7 D. i (85), and "Le- 
genda Aurea" (58). In addition to these a great number of lives 
of the saints have been used, as well as many mediaeval works of 
an historical character. 

If the collection contained merely stories taken from well-known 
popular sources, it would be interesting as affording evidence of the 
extensive diffusion of stories through the medium of preachers ; but 
the collector has added, as he says in the Prologue, "temporumque 
preteritorum ac modernorum quibusdam eventis." It is true, as the 
editor remarks, that the compiler, contrary to the custom of Jacques 
de Vitry or fitienne de Bourbon, has drawn few stories from his 
personal experience. He introduces the exemplum, sometimes by 



CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 397 

" fertur " or " legitur," sometimes without any preamble, localizing 
it in time and space, i, e,, in the thirteenth century and in the east 
of England, exceptionally in a foreign , land. Still, as the editor 
says, the compiler has transmitted to us certain new features relating 
to great personages and others, and permits us to form a condensed 
sketch of the manners of the day, "qui se refletent plus ou moins 
fidelement dans ce miroir des laics." 

The enormous extent of ^jrem/>/a-literature may be estimated 
from the hundred and nine manuscript collections in the British 
Museum alone (so admirably analyzed by Mr. Herbert in his " Cata- 
logue"), which contain something like eight thousand stories. A 
few bf the typical collections, as, for example, the "Alphabetum 
Narrationum," were frequently copied, and are found in many of 
the continental libraries. But, in the main, no two collections are 
alike, and each represents the individual fancy of the compiler. 
Very few of these collections have been published, but some have 
long attracted the attention of scholars. Among these the most 
interesting is a collection contained in a MS. in the Library of Tours, 
of which an incomplete version is in the University Library of Bonn. 
Both MSS. are of the fifteenth century, but the collection itself goes- 
back to the second half of the thirteenth century, and was probably 
made by a Dominican monk well acquainted with the French 
provinces of Touraine, Maine and Anjou. Dr. Hilka, the able editor 
of the " Sammlung mittellateinischer Texte," communicated a con- 
siderable number of the exempla in the Tours MS. to the Schlesische 
Gesellschaft fur vaterlandische Cultur, in whose ninetieth annual 
report they were printed (1912). The exempla collections are in 
a comparatively few instances arranged alphabetically; sometimes 
they assume the character of treatises of theology and are disposed 
according to subjects. In the Tours MS. alone, I believe, the stories 
are arranged in nine groups, under the heads of classes and pro- 
fessions. The number of exempla is very large; there are four 
hundred and ten in the eighth group, which deals with secular and 
civil society. The exempla themselves are of great value for the 
question of the diffusion of popular tales as they contain a large 
number of stories which belong to the most widely circulated class. 
The stories are sometimes told at great length, contrary to the usual 



398 CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

abbreviated form of the exemplum, and some deal with themes not 
hitherto represented in sermon-book literature; one, No. XL, p. 13, 
belongs to the cycle of the "Maiden with her hands cut oflf," of 
which a version is found in the " Scala Celi," f ol. 2y vo., " Castitas," 
and another has been published by Klapper in a work to be men- 
tioned presently; another, No. XII., a.b., pp. 14, 15, contains ver- 
sions of the theme of the "False Bride"; in the first version the 
wife substitutes in her place a maiden, whose finger the faithless 
bailiff cuts off; in the second, the wife kills the seneschal to whose 
care she has been entrusted, substitutes for herself a maidservant 
whom she subsequently kills, and is miraculously saved from the 
denunciation of wicked confessor. 

The last collections of exempla recently published which I shall 
mention are two works containing extensive selections from manu- 
scripts in German libraries, more particularly those in the Royal and 
University Library of Breslau. Both are edited by Dr. Joseph 
Klapper of the city just mentioned, and were published, the first in 
Hilka's "Sammlung mittellateinischer Texte," No. 2 ("Exempla 
aus Handschriften des Mittelalters"), Heidelberg, 191 1 ; the second 
in ''Wort und Branch, Volkskundliche Arbeiten namens der 
Schlesischen Gesellschaft fiir Volkskunde," in zwanglosen Heften 
herausgegeben von Prof. Dr. Theodor Siebs und Prof. Dr. Max 
Hippe, 12 Heft ("Erzahlungen des Mittelalters in deutscher t)ber- 
setzung und lateinischen Urtext"), Breslau, 1914. 

These works contain respectively 115 and 211 exempla, in all 
326 stories, the largest contribution to the subject yet made by 
any one editor, and one of the most interesting. The many manu- 
scripts from which the editor has drawn range from the end of 
the twelfth to the end of the fifteenth century. The editor thus 
states the principle of selection in his first work : " Only those stories 
were admitted which are found in the manuscripts without any men- 
tion of their sources, or the sources of which are no longer known 
to us." There are exceptions, however, as p. 76, No. 76, " Legitur 
exemplum in libro de dono timoris." The editor concedes that the 
investigator can easily discover the sources of some of the exempla, 
and analogues for others. He gives a few himself, but in general 
limits his remarks to the age and origin of the MSS. in which the 



CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 399 

exempla are contained. Finally, he admits that certain stories, 
properly speaking, are not exempla, as they are taken from chron- 
icles, but claims that they belong to this selection since they contain 
materials encountered in exempla, e, g.. No. 7, " Amicus et Amelius." 

Dr. Klapper's second collection is taken largely (164 stories) 
from a single manuscript and may be dated about the end of the 
thirteenth century. The group of stories just mentioned was evi- 
dently made for the use of preachers, but are not arranged in any 
systematic manner, alphabetical or topical. The editor thinks that 
traces of the use of such systematic collections may be found in the 
manuscript from which the majority of stories are taken. There 
are small groups of stories devoted to the miracles of the Virgin, 
penance, confession, temptation, liberality, justice, avarice, and 
drunkenness. What collections were used it is impossible to say, 
but the miracles of the Virgin resemble closely those in a MS. of the 
British Museum, Additional 18929 (Ward's " Catalogue," Vol. II., 
p. 656), which came from the monastery of St. Peter at Erfurt. Dr. 
Klapper thinks we must assume the existence at that spot, at the end 
of the thirteenth century, of a collection of miracles of the Virgin 
used by Middle German Dominicans and probably put together 
by them, from which the London collection and most of the miracles 
in the collection before us are derived. 

As I have already said the literary form of the exemplum differs 
considerably in the various collections. Sometimes the story is an 
independent tale of some length, sometimes it is (notably in the 
systematic treatises for the use of preachers) the merest sketch, to 
be expanded and adorned at the will of the preacher. Both of 
Klapper's collections (although the exempla were undoubtedly in- 
tended originally for use in sermons) contain almost exclusively 
stories of the former class. It is only necessary to compare these 
exempla with those in the " Speculum Laicorum " to see the great 
difference between the two classes. Dr. Klapper's first collection as 
we have just seen contained only such stories as were quoted without 
specification of source, or the source of which is no longer known 
to us at the present time. The second collection, now under con- 
sideration, is taken, as has been said, largely from one manuscript, 
and the stories are given just as they occur in it. Curiously 



400 CRANE— MEDIiEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

enough, they are generally without indication of source. About 
twenty-seven stories contain mention of source, not always cor- 
rectly. The " Vita Patrum " is cited seven times (once incorrectly), 
but in fact twenty-two exempla are from that famous work. There 
are fifty-one stories or miracles of the Virgin, with one citation of 
source: "Legitur in miraculis beate Marie." St. Gregory's "Dia- 
logues" are mentioned once, and a few "chronicles" and "his- 
tories" have been used. It is easy to find sources and analogues 
for many of the stories, and I have done so in my review of the 
work in Modern Language Notes, January, 191 7. I need not re- 
peat here what I have said at length there, but I cannot refrain 
from again calling attention to the unusually interesting character 
of this collection. It contains many of the best-known mediaeval 
tales, such as : Longfellow's " King Robert of Sicily," " Beatrice the 
Nun who saw the World," " Theophilus," " The Angel and Hermit," 
" Amis and Amiles," " Fridolin," Chaucer's " Pardoner's Tale," etc. 
Among the stories rarely found in exempla literature is a version 
of the "Don Juan" legend, in which a drunkard passing through 
a cemetery invites a skull to sup with him. It comes with its body 
in terrible shape, and in turn invites the host to sup with him in 
a week in the place where he was found. The guest goes there 
and is carried by a whirlwind to a deserted castle, and given a seat 
in a gloomy comer at a wretchedly served table. The host tells his 
story, how he was a judge neglectful of his office and bibulous. He 
urges his guest to return home and do good works. One of the most 
beautiful of the stories is that of the daughter of a heathen king 
who saw a fair flower in the garden and began to reflect how much 
more beautiful must be the creator of all flowers. She is betrothed 
to a youth and on her wedding day asks permission to go into the 
garden and worship the god of flowers. An angel appears to her and 
carries her away to a convent in a Christian land, where she spends 
the rest of her life as a nun. I do not know of any parallel among 
mediaeval exempla, although the theme " Marienbrautigam " is widely 
spread and was used by Merimee in his story "La Venus d'lUe." 
The story was early known in Germany, and a Voljislied on the 
subject was in circulation as early as 1658. 

I have kept for the conclusion of my paper two works of popu- 



CRANE— MEDLEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 401 

larization. The first is by the late Dr. Jacob IHrich, professor in 
the university of Zurich, "Proben der lateinischen Novellistik des 
Mittelalters/' Leipzig, 1906. The editor's object is to give the 
student a selection from mediaeval fiction, embracing fables, transla- 
tions of the Oriental story-books, and a considerable number of 
exempla from the " Gesta Romanorum," Jacques de Vitry, fitienne 
de Bourbon and the collection of Tours as cited by Lecoy de la 
Marche in his " fitienne de Bourbon." Ulrich has given brief refer- 
ences to the individual stories, and furnished a work of value to the 
student banning his researches in this fascinating field. I am 
surprised that the book is not better known. 

The second work to which I have referred is by Albert Wesselski, 
" Monchslatein, Erzahlungen aus geistUchen Schriften des XIII. 
Jahrhimderts," Leipzig, 1909. The unfortunate title gives no idea 
of the contents of this handsome volume. It really contains a Ger- 
man translation of one hundred and fifty-four exempla, of which 
ten are from Wright's "Latin Stories," eight from Bromyard's 
" Summa Praedicantium," twenty-six from Caesarius, eighteen from 
fitienne de Bourbon, seven from the ** Gesta Romanorum," six from 
Herolt's "Sermones" and " Promptuarium," thirty-six from 
"Jacques de Vitry," twenty-two from the "Mensa Philosophica," 
and the rest from Odo of Cheriton, Vincent of Beauvais, Nicolaus 
Pergamenus, Thomas Cantipratensis, etc. There is an introduc- 
tion of no original value, and the individual exempla are accom- 
panied by extensive notes, which constitute the most important 
feature of the work. The contents are more varied than is the case 
with Klapper's second collection, and greater stress is laid on anec- 
dotes and jests. 

I have not space to refer in detail to the extensive use of 
exempla during the last thirty-four years in tracing the diffusion of 
popular tales. The articles in which exempla are so employed must 
be sought in the periodicals devoted to popular literature or in the 
collected writings of Benfey, Kohler, W. Hertz, and others. 

It is perhaps too soon to be able to speak with authority upon 
the value of exempla for " Kulturgeschichte " (history, superstitions, 
etc.), and comparative storyology. Much yet remains to be edited, 
and what is accessible has not yet been closely examined from the 

PROC. AMBR. PHIL. SOC, VOL. LVI. AA, JULY I?. IQI?- 



402 CRANE— MEDIEVAL SERMON-BOOKS AND STORIES. 

t 

above points of view. Many important questions have not yet been 
settled, such as, why references to fairy tales are so infrequent, etc. 
Enough has been said, however, to show the general interest and 
importance of the subject, and it is to be hoped that American 
scholars may find in it an additional field for their labor.^* 

Ithaca, N. Y., 
March, 1917. 

1® A good illustration of the value of the Sermon-Books for general med- 
iaeval history may be found in the admirable article by Professor Charles H. 
Haskins of Harvard University on " The University of Paris in the Sermons 
of the Thirteenth Century" in The American Historical Review, vol. X 
(1905), pp. 1-27. In the course of his paper Professor Haskins calls atten- 
tion to the interesting fact that Harvard University Library possesses a 
manuscript of Jacques de Vitry*s Sermones vulgar es which was once the 
property of the monastery of St. Jacques at Liege (MS. Riant 35). 



NEBUL.E. 

r 

By V. M. SLIPHER, Ph.D. 
(Read April 13, 1917.) 

In addition to the planets and comets of our solar system and 
the countless stars of our stellar system there appear on the sky 
many cloud-like masses — the nebulae. These for a long time have 
been generally regarded as presenting an early stage in the evolu- 
tion of the stars and of our solar system, and they have been care- 
fully studied and something like 10,000 of them catalogued. 

Keeler's classical investigation of the nebulae with the Crossley 
reflector by photographic means revealed unknown nebulae in g^eat 
numbers. He estimated that such plates as his if they were made 
to cover the whole sky would contain at least 120,000 nebulae, an: 
estimate which later observations show to be considerably too small. 
He made also the surprising discovery that more than half of all 
nebulae are spiral in form; and he expressed the opinion that the 
spiral nebulae might prove to be of particular interest in questions 
concerning cosmogony. 

I wish to give at this time a brief account of a spectrographic 
investigation of the spiral nebulae which I have been conducting at 
the Lowell Observatory since 191 2. Observations had been previ- 
ously made, notably by Fath at the Lick and Mount Wilson Observ- 
atories, which yielded valuable information on the character of 
the spectra of the spiral nebulae. These objects have since been 
found to be possessed of extraordinary motions and it is the obser- 
vation of these that will be discussed here. 

In their general features nebular spectra may for convenience 
be placed under two types characterized as (I.) bright-line and 
(11.) dark-line. The gaseous nebulae, which include the planetary 
and some of the irregular nebulae, are of the first type; while the 
much more numerous family of spiral nebulae are, in the main, of 
the second type. But the two are not mutually exclusive and in the 

403 



404 SLIPHER— NEBULiE. 

spirals are sometimes found both types of spectra. This is true of 
the nebulae numbered 598, 1068 and 5236 of the "New General 
Catalogue" of nebulae. 

Some of the gaseous nebulae are relatively bright and their 
spectra are especially so since their light is all concentrated in a 
few bright spectral lines. These have been successfully observed 
for a long time. Keeler in his well-known determination of the 
velocities of thirteen gaseous nebulae was able to employ visually 
more than twenty times the dispersion usable on the spiral nebulae. 

Spiral nebulae are intrinsically very faint. The amount of their 
light admitted by the narrow slit of the spectrograph is only a small 
fraction of the whole and when it is dispersed by the prism it 
forms a continuous spectrum of extreme weakness. The faintness 
of these spectra has discouraged their investigation until recent 
years. It will be only emphasizing the fact that their faintness still 
imposes a very serious obstacle to their spectrographic study when 
it is pointed out, for example, that an excellent spectrogram of the 
Virgo spiral N.G.C. 4594 secured with the great Mount Wilson re- 
flector by Pease was exposed eighty hours. 

A large telescope has some advantages in this work, but un- 
fortunately no choice of telescope either of aperture or focal-length 
will increase the brightness of the nebular surface. It is chiefly 
influenced by the spectrograph whose camera alone practically de- 
termines the efficiency of the whole equipment. The camera of the 
Lowell spectrograph has a lens working at a speed ratio of about 
1 : 2.5. The dispersion piece of the spectrograph has generally been 
a 64® prism of dense glass, but for two of the nebulae a dispersion 
of two 64® prisms was used. The spectrograph was attached to 
the 24-inch refractor. 

With this equipment I have secured between forty and fifty 
spectrograms of 25 spiral nebulae. The exposures are long — ^gen- 
erally from twenty to forty hours. It is usual to continue the ex- 
posure through several nights but occasionally it may run into weeks 
owing to unfavorable weather or the telescope's use in other work. 
Besides the exposures cannot be continued in the presence of bright 
moonlight and this seriously retards the accumulation of observa- 
tions. 



SLIPHER— NEBULiE. 



405 



The iron-vanadium spark comparison spectrum is exposed a 
number of times during the nebular exposure in order to insure that 
the comparison lines are subjected to the same influences as the 
nebular lines. The spectrograph is electrically maintained at a con- 
stant temperature which avoids the ill effects of the usual fall of 
the night temperature. 

The equivalent slit-width is usually about .06 mm. 
The linear dispersion of the spectra is about 140 tenth-meters 
per millimeter in the violet of the spectrum which is sufficient to 
detect and measure the velocities of the spiral nebulae. As the 
objects yet to be observed are fainter than those already observed 
the prospects of increasing the accuracy by employing greater 
dispersion are not now promising. 

The plates are measured under the Hartmann spectrocomparator 
in which one optically superposes the nebular plate of unknown 
velocity upon one of a like dark-line spectrum of known velocity, 
used as standard. A micrometer screw, which shifts one plate 
relatively to the other, is read when the dark lines of the nebula and 
the standard spectrum coincide; and again when the comparison 
lines of the two plates coincide. The difference of the two screw 
readings with the known dispersion of the spectrum gives the veloc- 
ity of the nebula. By this method weak lines and groups of lines 
can be utilized that otherwise would not be available because of 
faintness or uncertainty of wave-length. 



TABLE I. 
Radial VELOcmES of Twenty-five Spiral Nebuue. 



Nebula. 


Vd. 


Nebula. 


Vel 


N.G.C. 221 


— 300 km. 


N.G.C. 4526 


+ 580 km. 


224 


— 300 


4565 


4-II00 


598 


— 260 


4594 


-f IIOO 


1023 


+ 300 


4649 


4-1090 


1068 


+ 1100 


4736 


+ 290 


2683 


+ 400 


4826 


+ ISO 


3031 


— 30 


5005 


+ 900 


3115 


+ 600 


5055 


+ 450 


3379 


+ 780 


5194 


+ 270 


3521 


+ 730 


5236 


+ 500 


3623 


4- 800 


5866 


+ 650 


3627 


+ 6so 


7331 


+ 500 


4258 


+ 500 







406 



SLIPHER— NEBULiE. 



In Table I. are given the velocities for the twenty-five spiral 
nebulae thus far observed. In the first column is the New General 
Catalogue number of the nebula and in the second the velocity. 
The plus sign denotes the nebula is receding, the minus sign that it 
is approaching. 

Generally the value of the velocity depends upon a single plate 
which, in many instances, was underexposed and some of the values 
for these reasons may be in error by as much as lOO kilometers. 
This however is not so discreditable as at first it might seem to be. 
The arithmetic mean of the velocities is 570 km. and 100 km. is 
hence scarcely 20 per cent, of the quantity observed. With stars 
the. average velocity is about 20 km. and two observers with dif- 
ferent instruments and a single observation each of an average star 
might differ in its velocity by 20 per cent, of the quantity meas- 
ured. Thus owing to the very high magnitude of the velocity of 
the spiral nebulae the percentage error in its observation is compar- 
able with that of star velocity measures. 

Since the earlier publication of my preliminary velocities for a 
part of this list of spiral nebulae, observations have been made 
elsewhere of four objects with results in fair agreement with mine, 
as shown in Table II. 

TABLE II. 
VELoariEs OF Nebul« by Different Observers. 



Nebulae. 


Velocity. 


Obsenren. 


N.G.C 224 


— 300 km. 


Slipher, mean from several plates. 


Great Andromeda 


— 304 


Wright, Lick Observatory, one plate. 


Nebula. 


— 329 


Pease, Mt Wilson Observatory, one 




— 300 to 400 km. 


plate. 
Wolf, Heidelberg, one plate approx. 


N.G.C. 598 


— 278 


Pease, Mt. Wilson, from bright lines. 


Great Spiral of 


- 263 


Slipher, from* bright lines. 


Triangulum. 






N.G.C. 1068 


+ 1100 


Slipher, from dark and bright lines. 




+ 765 


Pease, from two bright lines. 




+ 910 


Moore, Lick Observatory, from three 
bright lines. 


N.G.C. 4594 


+ 1100 


Slipher. 




+ ii8okm. 


Pease, Mt Wilson Observatory. 



SLIPHER— NEBUL.E. 



407 



Referring to the table of velocities again: the average velocity 
570 km. is about thirty times the average velocity of the stars. And 
it is so much greater than that known of any other class of celestial 
bodies as to set the spiral nebulae aside in a class to themselves. 
Their distribution over the sky likewise shows them to be unique — 
they shun the Milky Way and cluster about its poles. 

The mean of the velocities with regard to sign is positive, imply- 
ing the nebulae are receding with a velocity of nearly 500 km. 
This might suggest that the spiral nebulae are scattering but their 
distribution on the sky is not in accord with this since they are in- 
clined to cluster. A little later a tentative explanation of the 
preponderance of positive velocities will be suggested. 

Grouping the nebulae as in Table III., there appears to be some 
evidence that spiral nd)ulae move edge forward. 



TABLE III. 
Velocities of Spiral Nebula Grouped. 



Face View Spirals. 


Inclined Spirals. 


Edge View Spirals. 


N.G.C. 


Vel. 


N.G.C. 


Vel. 


N.G.C. 


Vel. 


598 


— 260 km. 


224 


— 300 km. 


2683 


+ 400 km. 


4736 


+ 290 


3623 


+ 800 


3115 


+ 600 


5194 


+ 270 


3627 


+ 650 


4565 


+ HOC 


5236 


+ 500 


4826 


+ 300 


4594 


+ HOC 






5005 


+ 920 


5866 


+ 600 






5055 


+ 450 










7331 


+ 500 






Mean 


330 km. 




560 km. 




760 km. 



The form of the spiral nebulae strongly suggests rotational mo- 
tion. In the spring of 191 3 I obtained spectrograms of the spiral 
nebulae N.G.C. 4594 the lines of which were inclined after the 
manner of those in the spectrum of Jupiter, and, later, spectro- 
grams which showed rotation or internal motion in the Great Andro- 
meda Nebula and in the two in Leo N.G.C. 3623 and 3627 and in 
nebulae N.G.C. 5005 and 2683 — less well in the last three. The mo- 
tion in the Andromeda nebula and in 3623 is possibly more like 
that in the system of Saturn. It is greatest in nebula N.G.C. 4594. 
The rotation in this nebula has been verified at the Mt. Wilson 
Observatory. 



408 SLIPHER— NEBULiE. 

Because of its bearing on the evolution of spiral nebulae it is de- 
sirable to know the direction of rotation relative to the arms of the 
spirals. But this requires us to know which edge of the nebula is 
the nearer us, and we have not as yet by direct means succeeded in 
determining even the distance of the spiral nebulae. However, in- 
direct means, I believe, may here help us. It is well known that 
spiral nebulae presenting their edge to us are commonly crossed by 
a dark band. This coincides with the equatorial plane and must 
belong to the nebula itself. It doubtless has its origin in dark or 
deficiently illuminated matter on our edge of the nebula, which ab- 
sorbs (or occults) the light of the more brightly illumined inner 
part of the nebula. If now we imagine we view such a nebula 
from a point somewhat outside its plane the dark band would shift 
to the side and render the nebula unsymmetrical — the deficient edge 
being of course the one nearer us. This appears to be borne out by 
the nebulae themselves for the inclined ones commonly show this 
typical dissymmetry. Thus we may infer their deficient side to be 
the one toward us. 

When the result of this reasoning was applied to the above cases 
of rotation it turned out that the direction of rotation relative to 
the spiral arms was the same for all. (The nebula N.G.C. 4594 
is unfortunately not useful in this as it is not inclined enough to 
show clearly the arms.) The central part — which is all of the nebulae 
the spectrograms record — turns into the spiral arms as a spring turns 
in winding up. This agreement in direction of rotation furnishes a 
favorable check on the conclusion as to the nearer edge of the 
nebulae, for of course we should expect that dynamically all spiral 
nebulae rotate in the same direction with reference to the spiral arms. 
The character and rapidity of the rotation of the Virgo nebula 
N.G.C. 4594 suggests the possibility that it is expanding instead of 
contracting under the influence of gravitation, as we have been 
wont to think. 

As noted before the majority of the nebulae here discussed have 
positive velocities, and they are located in the region of sky near 
right ascension twelve hours which is rich in spiral nebulae. In the 
opposite point of the sky some of the spiral nebulae have negative 
velocities, *. e,, are approaching us; and it is to be expected that 



SLIPHER— NEBULiE. 409 

when more are observed there, still others will be fotind to have 
approaching motion. It is tinfortunate that the twenty-five ob- 
served objects are not more uniformly distributed over the sky as 
then the case could be better dealt with. It calls to mind the 
radial velocities of the stars which, in the sky about Orion, are 
receding and in the opposite part of the sky are approaching. This 
arrangement of the star velocities is due to the motion of the solar 
system relative to the stars. Professor Campbell at the Lick Ob- 
servatory has accumulated a vast store of star velocities and has 
determined the motion of our sun with reference to those stars. 

We may in like manner determine our motion relative to the 
spiral nebulae, when sufficient material becomes available. A pre- 
liminary solution of the material at present available indicates that 
we are moving in the direction of right-ascension 22 hours and 
declination — 22** with a velocity of about 700 km. While the 
number of nebulae is small and their distribution poor this result 
may still be considered as indicating that we have some such 
drift through space. For us to have such motion and the stars 
not show it means that our whole stellar system nwves and 
carries us with it. It has for a long time been suggested that the 
spiral nebulae are stellar systems seen at great distances. This is the 
so-called "island universe" theory, which regards our stellar sys- 
tem and the Milky Way as a great spiral nebula which we see from 
within. This theory, it seems to me, gains favor in the present 
observations. 

It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss the different 
theories of the spiral nebulae in the face of these and other observed 
facts. However, it seems that, if our solar system evolved from a 
nebula as we have long believed, that nebula was probably not one 
of the class of spirals here dealt with. 

Our lamented Dr. Lowell was deeply interested in this investi- 
gation as he was in all matters touching upon the evolution of our 
solar system and I am indebted to him for his constant encourage- 
ment. 

Lowell Observatory, 
April, 1917. 



THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 

A Little Known Chapter of Mediaeval Jurisprudence. 

By HAMPTON L. CARSON. 
(Read April J2, 1917.) 

In the open square of the old Norman city of Falaise, in the 
year 1386, a vast and motley crowd had gathered to witness the 
execution of a criminal convicted of the crime of murder. Noble- 
men in armour, proud dames in velvet and feathers, priests in 
cassock and cowl, falconers with hawks upon their wrists, huntsmen 
with hounds in leash, aged men with their staves, withered hags with 
their baskets or reticules, children of all ages and even babes in 
arms were among the spectators. The prisoner was dressed in a 
new suit of man's clothes, and was attended by armed men on horse- 
back, while the hangman before mounting the scaffold had provided 
himself with new gloves and a new rope. As the prisoner had 
caused the death of a child by mutilating the face and arms to 
such an extent as to cause a fatal hemorrhage, the town tribunal, or 
local court, had decreed that the head and legs of the prisoner 
should be mangled with a knife before the hanging. This was a 
mediaeval application of the lex talionis, or " an eye for an eye and 
a tooth for a tooth." To impress a recollection of the scene upon 
the memories of the bystanders an artist was employed to paint a 
frescoe on the west wall of the transept of the Church of the Holy 
Trinity in Falaise, and for more than four hundred years that 
picture could be seen and studied until destroyed in 1820 by the 
carelessness of a white washer. The criminal was not a human 
being, but a sow, which had indulged in the evil propensity of eating 
infants on the street. 

Within the first ten years of the sixteenth century, Bartholomew 

410 



CARSON— THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 411 

Chassenee, then a young French avocat, who became a distinguished 
jurist, and president of the Parlement de Provence, a position cor- 
responding to chief justice, won his spurs at the bar by his ingenuity 
in defending the Rats of the province of Autun, who were charged 
with the crime of having eaten the barley crop. He urged that his 
clients, like other defendants, were entitled to notice before con- 
demnation. When they failed to appear in court in obedience to the 
proclamation published from the pulpits of all the parishes, he 
argued that their non appearance was due to the vigilance of their 
mortal enemies, the cats, and that if a person be cited to appear at a 
place to which he could not come in safety the law would excuse 
his apparent contumacy. Years later, at the height of his fame, in 
1540, he insisted upon the same principle, in defending the persecuted 
Waldenses who were prosecuted for heresy, contending that as it 
had been established in the Rat case that even animals should not 
be adjudged and sentenced without a hearing, all of the saf^^ards 
of justice should be thrown around the accused. 

I have cited these cases of the Sow and the Rats, not as isolated 
and extraordinary instances of mediaeval trials, such as the cele- 
brated Cock at Basel in 1474, but as fair examples of what was 
common to Continental jurisprudence from the ninth to the eight- 
eenth century. Indeed as late as 1864 in Pletemica in Slavonia, a 
pig was tried atid executed f qr having maliciously bitten off the ears 
of an infant one year old, and we are told by Professor Karl von 
Amira, who reports the case, that while the flesh of the animal was 
thrown to the dogs, the owner of the pig was put under a bond to 
provide a dowry for the mutilated girl, so that the loss of her ears 
might not prove an obstacle to her marriage.^ Of the extent to 
which the Trial of Animals formed a substantial part of Mediaeval 
Jurisprudence, the most convincing proof is found in the Report and 
Researches of Barriat-Saint-Prix,^ who gives numerous extracts 
from the original records of such proceedings, and also a list of the 
kinds of animals tried and condemned. He gives ninety-three 
cases from the beginning of the twelfth to the middle of the eigh- 

1 " Thierstrafen and Thierprocesse," p. 578, Innsbruck, 1891. 
^Memoires of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of France (Paris, 1829, 
Tome VIII., pp. 403-50). 



412 CARSON— THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 

teenth century. Carlo D'Addosio,' a Neapolitan writer of recent 
times, enlarges the list to one hundred and forty-four prosecutions, 
resulting in the execution or excommunication of the accused, and 
extends the time from the year 824 to 1845; while our fellow 
countryman, Mr. E. P. Evans, in an exhaustive " Chronological List 
of the Prosecution of Animals from the Ninth to the Twentieth 
Century," begins with the case of moles in the valley of Aosta in 
824, and closes with that of a fierce dog who aided murderers in 
their crime in Switzerland and was tried as an accomplice as late 
as 1906.* 

An analysis of Mr. Evans' list gives these results. Out of one 
hundred and ninety-six cases he assigns, 3 to the ninth, 3 to the 
twelfth, 2 to the thirteenth, 12 to the fourteenth, 36 to the fifteenth, 
57 to the sixteenth, 56 to the seventeenth, 12 to the eighteenth, 9 to 
the nineteenth and i to the twentieth centuries. The scenes wer^ 
laid in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Rus- 
sia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, England, Scotland, Canada and 
Connecticut, the last named being in the days of Cotton Mather. 
This wide distribution of time and territory shows how persistent 
and prevalent the practice was, and corrects any notion of its being 
due to local passion or territorial superstition. The most numerous 
cases were in France, but this is due to a more careful study of an- 
cient records by French antiquarians than by those of other nations. 
The two English cases were those of a dog and a cock, the Scotch 
case, that of a dog, the Canadian case, that of turtle-doves, and the 
Connecticut cases those of a cow, two heifers, three sheep and two 
sows. 

As early as i486, in a curious book, printed by Anthony Neyret, 
there is a classification of beasts or animals into those which are 
sweet beasts (bestes doulces) such as the hart and hind, and stenchy 
beasts (bestes puantes) such as pigs, foxes, wolves and goats, to 
which in time were added of domestic animals, such as asses, bulls, 
cows, dogs, horses and sheep, those of a ferocious and vicious dis- 
position. These all fell under the jurisdiction of the civil and crim- 

« " Bestie Delinquent!," Napoli, 1892. 

*"The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals," N. 
Y., 1906. 



CARSON— THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 413 

inal courts, and after trial and condemnation were executed either 
by hanging, or burning at the stake. Vermin such as field mice, ' 
rats, moles and weasels and pestiferous creatures, such as bugs, 
beetles, blooksuckers, caterpillars, cockchafers, eels, leeches, flies, 
grasshoppers, frogs, locusts; serpents, slugs, snails, termites, weevils 
and worms were disciplined by the ecclesiastical tribunals and in due 
time excommunicated. 

This sharp distinction between the jurisdiction of the secular 
and ecclesiastical tribunals is explained by Professor von Amira, 
who says that animals, such as pigs, cows, horses and dogs, which 
were in the service of man and who committed crimes against man- 
kind, could be arrested, tried, convicted and executed like any other 
members of his household, but rodents and insects were not the sub- 
ject of hirnian control, and could not be seized and imprisoned by 
the civil authorities. Hence, it was necessary to appeal to the inter- 
vention of the Church, and implore her to exercise her super- 
natural functions for the purpose of compelling them to desist from 
devastation of those fields and places devoted to the production of 
human food. 

The explanation of the mental and moral attitude of the tribunals 
in those days in relation to the subject is to be traced to the belief 
of the ancient Greeks, who held that a murder, whether committed 
by a man, a beast, or an inanimate object, such as a deadly weapon, 
a spear, a knife, or a hammer, unless properly expiated, would 
arouse the furies and bring pestilence upon the land. The mediaeval 
Church taught the same doctrine, but substituted the demons of 
Christian theology for the furies of classical mythology. Eminent 
authorities, as Mr. Evans has shown, maintained that all beasts and 
birds, as well as creeping things were devils in disguise, and that 
homicide committed by them, if it were permitted to go unpunished, 
would furnish an opportunity for the intervention of devils to take 
possession of persons and places. The cock at Basel, suspected 
of laying an egg in violation of his sex, was feared as an abnormal, 
inauspicious and therefore diabolic creature: the fatal cockatrice 
might thus be hatched. While as to swine, they were peculiarly 
attractive to devils, and hence peculiarly liable to diabolical posses- 



414 CARSON— THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 

sion as proved by the legend by which devils left the lunatic and 
entered the herd of swine which pitched itself into the sea. Beel- 
zebub was incarnate in all night beasts, especially if they happened 
to be black. If Pythagoras was right in teaching, "that souls of 
animals infuse themselves into the trunks of men," what wonder 
was it that Gratiano exclaimed to Shylock : 

" Thy currish spirit 
Govem'd a wolf, who, hanged for human slaughter, 
Even from the gallows did his fell soul fleet, 
And, whilst thou lay'st in thy unhallowed dam. 
Infused itself in thee; for thy desires 
Are wolfish, bloody, sterved and ravenous." 

In explanation of the judicial proceedings so solemnly resorted 
to in the trial, conviction and punishment of animals, a Swiss jurist, 
Edward Osenbriiggen, in 1868, advanced and maintained the thesis, 
that they can only be understood on the theory of the personifica- 
tion of animals : that as only a human being can commit crime and 
thus render himself liable to punishment, it is only by an act of 
personification that the brute can be placed in the same category as 
man and become subject to the same penalties; and he regarded 
the Basel cock as a personified heretic, and therefore properly 
burned at the stake. 

Mr. Evans regards this as purely fanciful, and concludes that 
"the judicial prosecution of animals, resulting in their excommuni- 
cation by the Church or their execution by the hangman, had its 
origin in the common superstition of the age, which has left such a 
tragical record of itself in the incredibly absurd and atrocious an- 
nals of witchcraft. The same ancient code that condemned a homi- 
cidal ox to be stoned, declared that a witch should not be suffered to 
live, and although the Jewish law giver may have regarded the for- 
mer enactment chiefly as a police regulation designed to protect per- 
sons against unruly cattle, it was, like the decree of death against 
witches, genetically connected with the Hebrew cult and had there- 
fore an essentially religious character. It was these two paragraphs 
of the Mosaic law that Christian tribunals in the Middle Ages were 



CARSON— THE TRIAL OF ANIMALS AND INSECTS. 415 

wont to advance as their authority for prosecuting and punishing 
both classes of delinquents." 

In conclusion, may we not exclaim, in the words of the poet 
Rogers in his Ode to Superstition, 



« 



Hence to the realms of Night 
Dire Demon hence! 
Thy chain of adamant can bind 
That little world, the human mind, 
And sink its noblest powers 
To impotence." 



THE SEX RATIO IN THE DOMESTIC FOWL.^ 

By RAYMOND PEARL. 
(Read April 13, igi?-) 

I. Introduction. 

One of the most notable biological discoveries of recent years is 
that which has demonstrated the cytological mechanism of sex de- 
termination. As a result of the work of McClung, Wilson, Stevens, 
Montgomery, Morgan, and many other investigators, we have a 
tolerably clear understanding of the cellular mechanism by which it 
is determined, in a wide variety of forms, that particular individuals 
are males while others are females. At first sight it would appear 
that the discoveries referred to had made superfluous further studies 
of sex ratios. The whole history of the statistical investigation of 
sex ratios, viewed from the standpoint of present knowledge of the 
mechanism of sex determination, seems a rather futile and blind 
groping after something which very successfully eluded that form 
of pursuit. 

But there are still reasons, as it seems to the writer, why it is 
desirable to carry on certain sorts of statistical investigations of sex 
ratios. The most important of these is that there is a considerable 
body of evidence in the literature, which would seem to show, if 

^ Papers from the Biological Laboratory of the Maine Agricultural Ex- 
periment Station. No. 119. This paper constitutes No. VIII. of a series 
of " Sex Studies " by the present writer. 

It was originally intended that this should be a much more extended 
paper than it now. is. When it was presented before the Society a number of 
matters were discussed which do not appear here at all. This condition of 
affairs arises from the fact that in the midst of the preparation of the final 
manuscript for the printer the writer was called to war work which made 
impossible the completion of the paper in the form originally contemplated. 
In view of the impossibility of foretelling when the writing could be com- 
pleted it seemed desirable to publish the portion already done rather than to 
leave the whole till the somewhat uncertain time of the end of the war. 

416 



PEARL— SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 417 

taken at its face value, that sex ratios may, in some cases at least, 
be experimentally modified and in some degree controlled. The 
critical value of all of this evidence is not equal. In some instances 
it appears certain, and in more cases probable, that the data pre- 
sented do not warrant the conclusion that the sex ratio has been 
either modified or controlled. There is, of course, no theoretical 
impossibility in modifying the sex ratio in an organism where the 
chromosomal mechanism of sex determination is a definite and con- 
stant one. We know of no hereditary character which may not, 
upon occasion, be modified; and in the case of sex the brilliant re- 
searches of Goldschmidt^ make it clear that not only the somatic 
manifestation of the chromosomal sex mechanism may vary and 
be experimentally modified, but presumably also the mechanism it- 
self. But just because of the usual and normal stability of ger- 
minal mechanisms it becomes the more important to be sure, on the 
one hand, that evidence alleged to demonstrate that sex ratios may 
be modified or controlled is sound and adequate when subjected to 
the scrutiny of modern statistical science, and, on the other hand, 
to learn more than we now know about the normal variability of 
sex ratios. As a contribution in this direction it seems important 
where possible to present and critically analyze statistical data, of 
adequate amount, regarding the normal sex ratio of forms frequently 
used in experimental work. 

It is the purpose of this paper to present and analyze such data 
for the domestic fowl. The statistics here used cover eight years in 
point of time, and represent over 22,000 individual chicks. 

The specific topics which will be discussed are these: 

1. The normal, average sex ratio in the domestic fowl. 

2. The variation in the sex ratio. 

3. The influence of prenatal mortality on the sex ratio. 

II. Material and Methods. 

Before undertaking the presentation and discussion of the sta- 
tistics it is desirable to say a word in regard to their collection and 
analysis. The data are those which have arisen in the writer's ex- 

2 Goldschmidt, R., Amer, Nat,, 1916, and other papers. 

PROC. AMER. PHIL. SOC., VOL. LVI, BB, JULY 1 7, 19x7. 



418 PEARL— SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 

perimental breeding operations with poultry at the Maine Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station during the breeding seasons of 1908 
to 19x5 inclusive. The 1916 matings are not included except for 
the discussion of certain special problems because the original 
record-taking on that year's birds is not completed at the time of 
writing. During the period covered by the statistics the sex of 
every chick which hatched was determined if it was physically 
possible to make such determination. Failure to determine the sex 
in individual cases resulted from one or another of the following 
kinds of causes: (a) The loss of the bird from predaceous enemies, 
thieves, or straying; (6) the bird's total destruction by fire; (c) the 
loss of its identifying leg band, which rendered its assignment to 
the proper mating impossible. In the case of birds which died be- 
fore reaching an age where the development of secondary sex char- 
acters made it possible to distinguish the sexes externally, dissec- 
tion and examination of the gonads was resorted to for the deter^ 
mination. 

The number of cases of birds not sexed at all, for the reasons 
above stated, was not proportionately large. I have elsewhere' given 
detailed figures on the point for one year. Other years presented 
much the same sort of facts. The important feature is that these 
irremediable losses, so far as all the evidence indicates, have been 
random samples of the population in respect of sex. Further on 
in the paper detailed evidence in support of this statement will be 
presented. 

In the statistical treatment of the data the mating or family has 
been made the unit, wherever such treatment is possible. While 
not novel, this method of dealing with sex ratio statistics is unusual. 
It has certain marked advantages, from a methodological viewpoint, 
over the more usual procedure of considering a whole population 
as the unit in studying the sex ratio. These advantages will be ap- 
parent as we proceed. 

Throughout this paper the sex ratio is presented as the percentage 
of the males in the total of the group or population. Or, in other 
words, we express the sex ratio as 

8 Pearl, R., Amer. Nat., Vol. XLV., pp. 107-117. 191 1. 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 419 



lOOcfc? 



&& + cfc? 



for any mating, group or population. To convert any such sex 

ratio into the form where the proportion of the sexes is expressed 

as number of males per loo females one has only to divide the 

given R by loo — R , and the answer, multiplied by lOO, will be 
the result sought. 

III. The Normal Sex Ratio in the Fowl. 

In dealing with sex ratios with the single mating or family as 
the unit it is evident that the absolute size of the family from each 
mating is a factor which must be considered. In a family of 2 the 
only possible values for R ^ are o, 50, and 100 per cent. Again, a 
single family of 2 is a very small sample of the gametic population 
of the parents. The larger the family, obviously, the better the 
sampling. Now in the usual method of dealing statistically with 
sex ratios, where one simply counts all the males and all the females 
in the population, no account whatever is taken nor can be, of the 
badness of the gametic sampling in case of very small families. A 
male in a family of i counts as significantly toward the final result 
as a male in a family of 30. Yet it is quite sure that if we deter- 
mined the sex ratio of the population on the basis of families of i 
only, the result would be less worthy of confidence (t. e,, of a larger 
" probable " error) than if it were based on large families only. 

Tables I. to III. inclusive give the distribution to the sex ratios 
for all fertile matings of the domestic fowl made by the writer in 
the eight years from 1908 to 191 5 inclusive. Sterile matings are, 
of course, not included. The data are divided between the three 
tables on the basis of size of family. Table I. includes only families 
in which 10 or more chicks were produced. Table II. includes fami- 
lies of from 4 to 9 chicks, and Table III. covers the very small fami- 
lies of I, 2, or 3 chicks only. In order that there may be no mis- 
understanding it will be well to state clearly just the significance 
of these tables. To take an example : The entry 2 in the first row 
of Table I. means that in the year 1908 there were produced 2 fami- 
lies, each containing 10 or more chicks, in each of which families 



PEARL-SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 

TABLE I. 

Frequency Distribution of the Sex Ratio in the Fowu Various Breeds. 

Families of io and Over. 





Sex Ratio J?^. 


Year. 


0-V.9. 


20.0- 

19.9. 


ao.o- 
39.9. 


30-0- 

39-9- 


40.0- 
49.9- 


50.0- 
599- 


60.0- 
69.9. 


70.0- 
79.9. 


80.0- 
89-9. 


90.0- 
X00.0. 


1908 

1909 

I910 

I911 

1913 

1913 

I914 

I915 






I 






3 

4 
3 
3 
3 

I 

3 
I 


10 

9 

14 

13 

6 
6 

3 
4 


33 

17 
17 

34 

19 
16 

17 
16 


33 
38 
36 

43 
36 

23 
35 

37 


18 
46 
52 
37 
41 
33 
48 
19 


II 
39 

24 
18 

33 

17 
37 

13 


7 

3 
II 
II 
8 
6 
I 
I 

47 





3 

3 
3 





I 

I 
I 






Totals. . 


I 


19 


60 


158 


360 


394 


160 


7 


3 



TABLE II. 

Frequency Distribution of the Sex Ratio in the Fowl. Various Breeds. 

Families of 4 to 9 Inclusive. 





Sex Ratio. R^. 


Year. 


0-9.9. 


lO.O- 

19.9. 


ao.o- 
89.9. 


30.0- 
39-9- 


40.0- 
49.9- 


50.0- 
59.9. 


60.0- 
69.9. 


70.0- 
79-9- 


80.0- 
89.9. 


90.0- 
100.0. 


1908 

1909 

1910 

191 1 

1913 

1913 

I914 

I9IS 


5 


3 
9 
I 


3 
3 


4 

2 

3 
I 
I 
3 

I 


13 
9 

7 

3 

3 

4 
6 

3 


7 
6 

3 
8 
5 
3 
6 
3 


9 
3 

I 

5 

5 
6 

3 

7 


17 

14 
6 

13 

8 
12 

5 
13 


13 

7 

4 
8 

5 
10 

4 
5 


6 

3 
3 

5 
8 

5 
3 
4 


I 

3 

3 
3 

I 

4 
3 


3 

3 

7 

4 

• 3 

3 
2 
I 


Totals. . 


23 


13 


46 


39 


39 


87 


56 


35 


17 1 23 



TABLE III. 

Frequency Distribution of the Sex Ratio in the Fowl. Various Breeds. 

Families of i to 3 Inclusive. 





Sex Ratio. R^, 


Year. 


0-9.9. 


xo.o- 

X9.9. 


•0.0- 
29.9 


30.0- 

39.9. 


40.0- 
49.9. 


Sao- 
59-9- 


60. <^ 
69.9. 


70.0- 
79.9. 


80.0- 
89.9. 


90.0- 
100.0. 


1908 

1909 

191O 

19II 

I913 

I913 

1914 

IOI5 


8 
6 

5 
10 

3 

3 

6 

4 












OOOOOOOO 


I 

2 



3 
3 
I 

3 













6 
3 

3 

6 

5 
6 

3 

3 


4 

4 

3 

I 
3 

4 


I 























II 

4 

3 

II 
8 

9 
9 
3 


Totals. . 


43 1 


II 


32 1 18 








57 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



421 



the percentage of c?c? to total number of chicks was somewhere be- 
tween ID per cent, and 19.9 per cent. Other entries are to be cor- 
respondingly read. 

The first thing which strikes one's attention in examining these 
tables is that extreme values of the sex ratio (below 20 and above 
80 say) occur relatively frequently only in small families. If the 
families are very small (Table III.) extreme values of the sex ratio 
become actually more frequent than medium values. The greater 
frequency of extreme sex ratios in small families is obviously what 
would be expected on merely arithmetic grounds. Thus to take the 
data of Table III. We find from the original records that there 
were 54 families of i, 53 of 2, and 54 of 3 each contributing to this 
table. Suppose males and females were equally likely to occur (L 
e., R^=^^o); then according to the laws of chance, the totals of 
Table III. would be expected to be as shown in Table IV. These 
are compared with the actually observed totals. 

TABLE IV. 

Comparing Totals of Table III., with Chance Distribution of Same 
Number of Families, on the Assumption that R-^^so, 





Sex Ratio. 


DiBtribution. 


0-9.9. 


lO.O- 

19.9. 


ao.o- 
99.9. 


30.©- 
39-9- 


40.0- 
49.9. 


50.0- 
59-9- 


60.0- 
69.9. 


70.0- 
79-9. 


80.0- 
89.9. 


90.0- 

IOO.O. 


Actual .... 
Chance. . . . 


43 
47 










II 
20.25 






32 

26.50 


18 
20.25 










57 
47 



While this is by no means a perfect fit of the observations by 
the chance distribution, the latter is close enough to the former to 
indicate clearly the essentially chance determined character of the 
observed distribution. The resemblance would be still closer if we 
took a value oi R^ for the computation more nearly in accord with 
the actual fact than is 50, the value actually used. 

There is no need to pursue this point further, as it will be evi- 
dent to anyone who will examine Tables I., II. and III., in the light 
of the points just made, that we cannot draw any conclusions of 
critical value regarding the normal variation of the sex ratio in the 
fowl, at least, except on the basis of families containing at least 10 
individuals each. 



422 



PEARL-SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



We may next consider the mean sex ratio, dealing separately 
with each of the three groups. In calculating these means, and the 
other variation constants, it was not assumed^ as is ordinarily done, 
that each class centered at the mid-point of the strip of base on 
which its frequency stands. To have done so would have involved 
a considerable error. Instead the actual centering point for each 
class was determined from the individual records. The results are 
shown in Table V., and from this table one can see how large the 
error involved in the usual statistical assumption would have been. 
The reason for the error is, of course, purely arithmetical, and 
arises from the fact that in small groups, such as the families here 
dealt with, only certain percentage values are possible. 

Using the values of Table V., we get, by ordinary methods, the 



TABLE V. 

Showing the Actual Centering Points of the Several Classes in Tables 

i., ii., and iii. 



« 


Centering Point. 


Class. 


Families 
xo and Over. 


Families 
4-9 Inclusive. 


Families 
x-3 Inclusive. 


— 0.0 



15.46 
24.87 
35.01 
43.97 
53.57 
63.65 
73.09 
84.64 
100.00 



15.68 

24.15 
33.70 

41.73 
51.76 

63.51 

74.58 
81.92 

100.00 





** y.y •••••»••••••♦•..•.. 

lo.o- 19.9 




20.0— 20.0 




"^O.O— "^0.0 


33.33 


4,0.0— 40.0 


f^.^* •fy.y *• «... 

W.O— SO.O 


50.00 
66.67 


60.0— 60.0 


«^'v>^# ^'y.y •.♦••.••••••••••••• 

70.0— 70.0 


z^." #y.y 

80.0— 89.9 




90.0-100.0 


100.00 



mean sex ratios exhibited in Table VI. We shall deal at this point 
only with the total distribution of Tables I., II., and IIL 

TABLE VI. 
Mean Sex Ratio of the Domestic. Fowl. Various Breeds. 

cf cf per 
Group. R ^, x,ooo cTcf 

Families of 10 and over (Total Table I.) 48.57 ±0.28 944 

Families of 4 to 9 inclusive (Total Table II.) 49.39 i .84 976 

Families of i to 3 inclusive (Total Table III.) 55.07 ±2.n 1226 

Families of 4 and over (Tables I. and II. combined) 48.80 ± .33 953 

Families of all sizes (Tables!., II., and III. combined) 49.45 978 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



423 



These figures show that if we take all of the 22,791 chicks, on 
which this table is based, into account together we get a mean sex 
ratio of 49.45, or approximately one half of one per cent, fewer 
males than females. This, however, cannot be regarded as the 
normal sex jatio for the strains of poultry and the environmental 
complex here dealt with, because (a) the table shows an obvious 
influence of size of family on the sex ratio, a point to which we 
shall return for detailed discussion later in the paper, and (6) fami- 
lies under 10 cannot be considered as representative of the normal 
fertility of the domestic fowl. The value for families of 10 and 
over, namely 7?^ =48.58 db .28 (944), is certainly to be regarded as 
much nearer the true biological norm for the sex ratio of this group 
of poultry under the environmental conditions prevailing at the 

Maine Station. 

Taking this value as the normal one, how does it compare with 

other values for other strains of poultry, and for other birds do- 
mestic and wild? Unfortunately there are very few data available 
for comparison. Curiously enough, this lack is most pronounced 
^here it would be least expected, — namely in the case of poultry. 
Table VII. contains all the data, involving numbers large enough 
to be statistically of any significance, with which the writer is ac- 



TABLE VII. 
Sex Ratio Statistics for Various Birds. 



Bird. 

Pigeon 

Pigeon . . . . 
Canary . . . 
Canary . . . 

Fowl 

Fowl 

Fowl 



Total No. 


R^. 


136 


53.68 


1.648 


51.27 


200 


43.52 


68 


77.94 


1. 001 


48.64 


2.10S 


44.63 


20,037 


48.57 



d'cf P«" «.oc» 99. 



I.I59 
1.052 

770 

3.533 
947 
806 

944 



Authority. 



Cu4not* 

Cole and Kirkpatrick * 
Heape* 
Heape* 
Darwin' 
Field • 

Pearl, this paper. Families 
of 10 and over. 



*Cuenot, L., Bulletin Set, France et Belg., T. 32 (5th Ser., T. i), pp. 

462-535, 1899. 

5 Cole, L. J., and Kirkpatrick, W. F., Rhode Island Agric, Expt, Stat, 
Bulletin, 162, pp. 463-512. 1915. '' 

« Heape, W., Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, Vol. XIV., pp. 201-205, 1907. 

^ Darwin, C, " The Descent of Man," Vol. I. 

« Field, G. W., Biol, Bulletin, Vol. II., pp. 360-361, 1901. 



424 PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 

quainted. If, as may well be the case, he has overlooked some ex- 
tensive tabulations of sex ratios in birds, he will be very grateful for 
the pertinent references. 

It is evident enough from these figures that the sex ratio varies 
in domestic birds quite as extensively as it does among domestic 
mammals. In general there would appear to be a tendency toward 
the production of a slight excess of males among two of the sorts of 
birds here dealt with. This seems certainly true for pigeons. The 
canary results are not very clear either way. Heape gives data on 
the sexes from two canary breeders. The results are widely dif- 
ferent. This difference in sex ratios Heape attributes to differences 
in the mode of managing the breeding birds. Here it suffices 
merely to point out that in any case, the numbers on which the 
canary ratios are based are statistically very small. It may well be 
doubted whether the deviations exhibited in Heape's material are in 
reality significant. 

In the fowl the case appears to be different, all available statistics 
agreeing in showing a normal excess of females. It is, however, the 
opinion of many poultrymen of long experience, that the usual condi- 
tion is practical equality of the sexes, with a small but steady pre- 
ponderance of males — a sort of sex ratio similar to that which man 
exhibits. The practical equality of the production of the sexes in 
poultry has been noted by various writers." 

But all of the actual statistics which I have been able to find 
show the slight preponderance to be of females and not of males. 
The agreement between Darwin's figures and those of the present 
investigation is nearly perfect. General experience of poultrymen 
would indicate that the very low sex ratio got by Field could not be 
considered as normally representative of fowls in general. The 
close agreement of my figures with Darwin's, collected rather more 
than a decade later than Field's, would seem definitely to negative 
the suggestion of the latter that the normal proportion of the sexes 
in poultry has actually changed since Darwin's time " as a result of 
the breeders' desire to produce a larger proportion of females." 

» E. g., Beeck, A., " Die Federviehzucht/' Bd. I., Berlin, 1908^ p. 563. 
Lewis, H. R., " Productive Poultry Husbandry," Philadelphia, 1913, p. 250. 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 425 

It is to be regretted that more of those who have used poultry as 
experimental material have not kept and published accurate and 
complete figures of sex production. 

In any case the immediate problem before us is clearly to at- 
tempt by analysis of the figures to learn what influence various 
factors may have in the production of the excess of females plainly 
shown in the extensive statistics of the present paper. The chromo- 
somal mechanism of sex determination in the individual case would 
lead us to expect an equality of the sexes in statistically large num- 
bers. But it is plain that, even with very large numbers, no such 
equality is attained. There must be reasons, scientifically ascertain- 
able, for this deviation. It is our problem to find what these reasons 
are. 

In undertaking such analysis let us first see whether the excess 
production of females is a secularly regular phenomenon in this 
stock and under our conditions. 

The mean sex ratios for each year for families of io*and over 
are set forth in Table VIII. 

TABLE VIII. 

Showing the Yearly Changes in Mean Sex Ratio. Families of id and 

Over. 

Year. Mean ^^. 

1908 46.16 ± 1.07 

1909 48.33 ± .69 

1910 49.96 ± .78 

1911 47.08 ± .79 

1912 49.59 ± 17 

1913 49.999 ± .81 

1914 49.83 ± .62 

1915 46.46 ± .86 

The data of this table are shown graphically in Fig. i. 

From the table and diagram it is evident that the excess of fe- 
males is not a sporadic, but rather a regular phenomenon in our 
stock and conditions. While at times the ratio comes very close 
to 50 (^. g,, in 1913) it never quite reaches that value. The fluctua- 
tions of the ratio in successive years appear to be entirely random. 



426 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



O 

H 



X 

CO 



50 




40 



30 



20 



10 



*08 



'09 '10 



^ 



'11 



'12 



'13 



'14 



'15 



YEAR 

Fig. I. Showing the mean <? sex ratio in consecutive years. 

III. The Normal Variation of the Sex Ratio. . 

So far we have considered only mean values. Let us now exam- 
ine the dispersion or variation constants. From the totals of Tables 
I., II., and III. we deduce the standard deviations set forth in Table 
IX, by the ordinary method. 

TABLE IX. 

Standard Deviation of the Sex Ratio of the Domestic Fowu Various 

Breeds. 

Group. '^(j*' 

Families of lo and over 13.37 ± .20 

Families of 4 to 9 inclusive 24.18 ± .59 

Families of i to 3 inclusive 3972 ± 1.49 

Families of 4 and over 18.30 ± .2$ 



. PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 427 

The striking fact which this table brings out is the great reduc- 
tion in the variation of the sex ratio from mating to mating as the 
progeny from the individual mating becomes more numerous. 

Even with the large families, however, the amount of variation 
in the sex ratio is large, absolutely and relatively. Taking families 
of ID the percentage of the standard deviation in the mean is 

27.53. 

This is of roughly the same order of magnitude as the coeffi- 
cients of variation of such physiological characters as fecundity,"'® 
etc. Thiere can be no question that the sex ratio is relatively a much 
more variable character than stature, skull form, and most other 
morphological characters of animals. In view of this fact, there 
would seem to be need of vastly more caution than is commonly 
exercised by writers oa the sex ratio in drawing far-reaching con- 
clusions from very small numbers. 

The values for the standard deviation of the sex-ratio here ob- 
tained for poultry are of the same general order of magnitude as 
those of Heron^^ for man and horse, and of Weldon^* for mice. 

The form of the normal sex-ratio variation curve is of interest. 
In order to deal with this adequately, we must resort to the ana- 
lytical methods of Pearson.^* 

The case presents some difficulties from the standpoint of graph- 
ical representation, because of the fact pointed out above, that we 
have dealt with the actual centers of gravity of each piece of area 
standing over a unit on the abscissal axis, and have not assumed as 
is usually done, that the center of gravity of each strip was at its 
mid-point. The conventional histogram does not give any repre- 
sentation of this distorted concentration, and hence the correct fitted 
curve does not seem to give so true a representation of the facts as 
an incorrect one, as will presently appear. 

1® Cf . Pearl, R., Science, Vol. 37, p. 228, 1913. 

11 Heron, D., Biometrika, Vol. V., pp. 79-85, 1906. 

12 " On Heredity in Mice from the Records of the Late W. F. R. Weldon. 
Part I. On the Inheritance of the Sex-ratio and of the Size of Litter," Bio- 
metrika, Vol. v., pp. 437-449» 1907. 

18 Pearson, K., Phil, Trans,, Vol. 86 A, pp. 343-414, 10 pls.„ 1895, ibid.. 
Vol. 197 A, pp. 443-459, 1901. 



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430 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



In Table X. are given the true analytical constants of the curve, 
and, in another column, the analytical constants on the assumption 
of concentration of the frequencies at the mid-points of the classes. 



TABLE X. • 

Analytical Constants for Variation in the Sex Rate in Poultry, 

Various Breeds. Families of id and Over. 

Frequencies Supposed Concen- Frequencies Supposed Concen- 
trated at Centers of Gravity trated at Mid-points <^ 
Constant. <^ Class Areas. Class Areas. 

N 1009 1009 

Mean 48.574 49549 

AS 1.7887 1.8197 

fh —0093 — .2622 

/*4 11.0082 10.2718 

ft 000015 .0114 

ft 3.4407 3.1019 

»f, +.8814 +.1696 

K, +.000013 +0506 

Type VII. IV. 

Mode 48.574 50.231 

Skewness — .0015 ± .0264 — .0506 ±.0027 

y. 315.25 42.740 

The equations to these curves are as follows : 
True curve: 

(^2 \ -9.8072 

Mid-point curve: 

--17.0718 tan-» («/l 1.2271) 

y = 42.740 7 —2 yTmi • 

V"*" 126.0478/ 

The fitted curves and the histograms are shown in Figs, fi and 3. 
From the data and the diagrams, the following points are to be 
noted : 

1. The distribution of the sex ratio about the mean value is ap- 
proximately symmetrical, and, if sufficiently large families are used, 
leads to high contact of the curves at both ends of the range. 

2. The distribution is apparently more skew than it actually is 
because of the fact that this graphical representation makes no ac- 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 451 

count of the concentration of the frequency at other than the mid- 
points of the class areas. 

3. The fitted curve makes it possible to make some rather definite 
.statements as to the probability of the occurrence, as a result of 
chance merely, of distinctly aberrant sex ratios. Poultry papers 
very frequently, and scientific journals rather more often than would 
seem compatible with any clear grasp of the theory of chance, con- 
tain statements about marvelous deviations from the normal sex 
ratio in particular families or small groups of families. Usually 
such widely divergent sex ratios are most uncritically taken to 
prove either the inheritance of a special sex tendency in a particular 
line of breeding, or the influence of some external environmental 
agent upon sex determination. If, for example, a poultry breeder 
finds that out of twenty chickens from one pair of parents, fifteen 
are pullets, he is distinctly apt to regard this as a wonderful phe- 
nomenon, worthy of his best exegetic powers. But bur present sta- 
tistics show that, if we deal with families of twenty chickens for 
example, it is to be expected on the basis of chance alone, the fol- 
lowing relations will hold. 

15 or more chicks will be pullets in 56 out of every 1,000 families of 20 

16 or more chicks will be pullets in 26 out of every 1,000 families of 20 

17 or more chicks will be pullets in 12 out of every 1,000 families of 20 

18 or more chicks will be pullets in 5 out of every 1,000 families of 20 

19 or more chicks will be pullets in 2 out of every 1,000 families of 20 

20 or more chicks will be pullets in i out of every 1,000 families of 20 

It needs no particular emphasis on these figures to indicate that 
before aberrant sex ratios can be considered indicative either of 
environmental or hereditary effects, it will be necessary to show 
that they occur with such frequency as to exceed considerably that 
expected on the basis of chance alone. 

IV. Prenatal Mortality and the Sex JIatio. 

The first suggestion which comes into one's mind in attempting 
any analysis of the causes of a deviation of the sex ratio from equal- 
ity, is that the prenatal mortality has been differential in respect to 
sex. It is commonly held by statistical writers that this is true of 



432 PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 

some portion, at least, of the prenatal mortality in man. In still 
births there is a greater excess of males over females than in living 
births. The reviews which prevail among statistical writers regarding 
this matter are well put by Nichols^* (p. 269) in the following 
passage : 

" Obviously the main cause of the great preponderance of male stillbirths 
resolves itself into the question of the comparative mortality or death rate of 
the male and female sexes during the intrauterine period of existence. Vital 
statistics have shown clearly that there are material differences in the mor- 
tality of the two sexes, the death rates among males being, in general, higher 
than among females throughout nearly the entire period of life, and the aver- 
age duration of life of females being greater than of males. During the 
adult and later periods of life this difference is largely or partly explainable 
on the ground of the greater stress and strain and liability to injury imposed 
by the greater responsibilities, more laborious occupations, and greater expo- 
sure of men, and their greater indulgence in vicious and morbific habits ; these 
factors scarcely being offset by the perils incurred by women during the child- 
bearing period. But the same greater mortality of males occurs, and in the 
most marked degree, even in the intrauterine period of existence and in the 
early years of life before the factors mentioned begin to be operative; it is 
therefore obvious that the male constitution is intrinsically weaker, less hardy, 
and more susceptible to morbific and mortific influences, and has less vitality 
and resisting power against disease, than the female. The cause of this innate 
disparity of vitality between the two sexes we do not know ; but the fact it 
exists, that the antenatal mortality and death rate of males much exceeds that 
of female fetuses, accounts for the great excess of male over female still- 
births." 

The demographic objects, in the study of sex ratios, are some- 
what different than the purely biological. In the present instance, 
and generally in purely biological studies on the proportion of the 
sexes, what we really wish to know is the true proportions in which 
zygotes of the two sexes are initially produced. This can not be di- 
rectly observed in higher vertebrates, owing to the occurrence of pre- 
natal mortality at all stages between the fertilization of the egg and 
the birth of the young. The earliest easily observable datum plane 
which one has upon which to base a conclusion as to the sex pro- 
portions in the zygotes at the moment of their production, is the sex 
ratio at birth. Obviously the prenatal mortality may have influenced 

1* Nichols, J. B., Mem, Amer, AnthropoL Assoc, Vol. I., Part 4, pp. 249- 
300, 1907. 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 433 

this ratio, and caused a deviation from the initial zygotic ratio. 
But it is equally obvious that the post-natal mortality, whether dif- 
ferential in respect of sex or not, can give us no direct aid in esti- 
mating the initial zygotic ratio from the observed ratio at birth. 
Hence the post-natal mortality has no special interest in connection 
with sex studies to the biologist, though it does have to the demog- 
rapher, who is concerned, among other things, with the sex distri- 
bution of populations throughout life. 

In poultry, the hatched chicks show a certain fairly definite 
ratio of males to females as we have seen. Does this observed 
ratio at birth differ from the initial zygotic sex ratio? To answer 
this question, it is only necessary to determine whether the sex ratio 
of the zygotes which die before hatching is, or is not, different from 
the sex ratio of those which hatch. Theoretically this should be 
simple. Practically it is not wholly so. The difficulty is that the 
sex of the zygote is not distinguishable by any practical means until 
the embryo reaches a certain more or less advanced stage of develop- 
ment. If zygotes die before that stage of development is reached, 
as some do, then it becomes impossible practically to determine 
whether that particular moiety of the mortality was or was not dif- 
ferential in respect to sex. Theoretically, of course, one should be 
able to sex every zygote by means of a cytological examination of 
its chromosomes. Practically, however, this is not to be seriously 
considered. 

The result is that in the chick it is practically impossible to say 
absolutely whether the mortality between the fertilization of the egg 
and about the tenth day of development of the embryo is or is not 
differential. We can, however, determine, with great precision, the 
facts regarding the mortality from the tenth day to the end of in- 
cubation. This has been done by the writer, during the past two 
years. Every egg in which the embryo developed to the tenth day 
or beyond, and died before hatching, has been opened, the embryo 
removed and dissected, and its sex and certain other characteristics 
recorded. This is distinctly tedious and unpleasant work, but there 
appears to be no alternative method of getting certain sorts of in- 
formation very essential in the analysis of many problems. 



434 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 



The figures for the sex ratio of the dead embryos for the years 
1916 and 1917, the only ones for which complete records are at 
hand, are given in Table XI. 



TABLE XL 

Se;c Ratio of Embryos Dying Between the Tenth Day of Incubation 

AND Hatching. Various Breeds. 



Year. 


d'd'. 


9 9. 


R^. 


igi6 


325 
602 


343 

651 


48.7 =*= 1.30 
48.0 =*= .95 


1917 


Totals 


927 


994 


48.3=*= .77 





These numbers are large enough so that the results are clearly 
reliable. And it is equally clear that this portion of the prenatal 
mortality is not differential in respect to sex. For the season of 
1916 the sex ratio of the living chicks at* hatching was 

^ d- = 48.3 ± 0.89, 

a value not significantly different from that for the prenatal mor- 
tality given in Table XL The sex-ratio figures for the living 
hatched in 1917 are not available at the time of writing, but it is 
evident enough, if we compare the figures of Table XI. with those 
of Table VI. (p. 422), that there is no differentiation in respect of 
sex of the mortality of the last eleven days of the prenatal life of 
the zygote. 

Cole and Kirkpatrick's* data for pigeons appear to indicate that 
probably the prenatal mortality in that form is not differential. It 
must be said, however, that they take account of only a small amount 
of the total prenatal mortality, those dying at the very end of incu- 
bation, then group this with the post-nsLisl mortality of the first five 
days after hatching. The general impression given by this data, 
however, is that the prenatal mortality is probably not differential 
in the pigeon. 

It is evident from the data of Table XL, that the explanation 
for the preponderance of females in poultry is not to be found in 
the greater frequency of deaths of males during the last eleven 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 435 

days of incubation. But there remains a certain mortality during 
the first ten days. We are in position to say, on the basis of evi- 
dence already given, that in the Maine Station flock male and female 
zygotes are present in the proportion indicated by i?^^ =48.5 at the 
time when the zygotes are 10 days old. Were they initially present 
in equal numbers and did enough more males than females die dur- 
ing the period to the tenth day of incubation to produce the R^ = 
48.5 status? Here we would call attention only to two points. 
The first is that in the flocks which have furnished the statistics here 
dealt with, the rate of prenatal mortality before the tenth day of in- 
cubation has always been low — so low that if differential mortality 
within this period is to be adduced as the explanation of the ob- 
served sex ratio, it would be necessary to assume that practically 
every embryo which died within these first ten days was male. A 
theory can only be regarded as highly improbable which demands 
that during any period of life all naturally occurring deaths are 
of individuals of the same sex, when it is known to be the fact 
that in all other periods of life the individuals of the two sexes die 
in numbers roughly proportional to the numbers living of each sex. 

In the second place, it is in the highest degree improbable that 
there is an abrupt change in the mode of incidence of the mortality 
with respect to sex at exactly the tenth day of incubation. Yet 
such an abrupt change would be demanded by any theory which 
makes differential mortality the explanation of the observed sex 
ratio in the fowl. From the time when the embryo has developed 
sufficiently to make it possible certainly to distinguish the sexes in 
poultry by macroscopic examination of the gonods, we know that 
the mortality is either not differential at all with respect to sex (pre- 
natal mortality), or is at most only slightly so (possibly so in post- 
natal mortality though the point has not been fully investigated yet) . 
In the absence of any evidence favorable to such a view, it could 
only be regarded as a highly improbable speculation to say that in 
the very earliest stages of embryonic development all deaths are 
males. 

We are justified, I think, in concluding that in the flocks of 
poultry here dealt with, and probably in the fowl generally, that 



PEARI^SEX RATIO IN DOMESTIC FOWL. 

HOrtality is not differential in respect to sex, and that in 
'ce the obscn'ed sex ratio at birth is substantially the same 
ial zygotic sex ratio. 

V. Conclusion. 
jrpose of this paper is to present data regarding the normal 
in the domestic fowl. The data involves something over 
cks. The normal variability in sex ratio is discussed. It 
in a later paper to present a further analysis of the sub- 
ig with the influence of various internal and external fac- 
the sex ratio. It was expected to include such discus- 
e present paper but for reasons explained at the beginning 
>er this is not now possible. 



V 

■'5- 

PROCEEDINGS 



American Philosophical Society 

HELD AT PHILADELPHIA 

FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 
Vol. LVI. 1917. No. 6. 

CONTENTS 



Mechanism of Overgrowth in Plants. By Erwin F. Smith .... 437 
Recurrent Tetrahedral Deformations and Intercontinental Torsions. 

By B. K. Emerson 445 

Early Man in America. By Edwin Swift Balch 473 



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THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY 

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1917 



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438 SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 

which stimulus, it is very likely, is not only very minute in quantity 
but also used up during the growth of the tumor cells, that is, 
converted into something quite diflferent and entirely inoffensive. 
For this reason analyses of tumor tissue should give only about the 
same kind and quantity of products as normal tissues in which 
there is an equally rapid movement of food-stufifs, and in which 
there is an equally rapid growth, and this is about what tumor 
analyses thus far have shown. In flask cultures, on the contrary, 
the products of parasitic growth accumulate and can be locked up 
for future study. 

What I have done, in addition to speculating, is to grow 
various strains of Bacterium tumefaciens, the crown-gall organism, 
in pure culture in quantity in cotton-plugged Jena glass flasks for 
chemical examination. Being a member of the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture, the greatest cooperative research institu- 
tion in the world, it has been easy to come into touch with expert 
organic chemists and through them to have determined for me the 
yarious substances produced by the crown-gall organism out of 
river water, peptone and grape sugar, i, e,, substances correspond- 
ing to or approximating those which occur naturally in the cells 
of the plant. These flasks were inoculated with great care and 
watched as to their behavior. Before turning them over to the 
chemist, Petri-dish agar plates were poured from each one to de- 
termine whether they were still pure cultures. The analyses were 
then made pari passu with inoculations into susceptible plants to 
determine whether the cultures were still pathogenic. In this way 
various flasks were tested and worked up separately, with, in the 
main, concordant results. The inoculated flasks behaved properly, 
the agar-poured plates yielded uniform normal-looking colonies, and 
subcultures from colonies derived from each flask were subsequently 
inoculated into plants with the production of crown galls in every 
case except that of the isolation from poplar, which was known to 
be no longer pathogenic when the experiment was begun. All of 
the flasks had remained pure cultures and were in good condition 
for the chemist, who worked them over quickly. These cultures 
originated from single colonies selected from agar-poured plates 
made from tumors on hop, Paris daisy, rose and poplar, and repre- 
sent at least two strains of the crown-gall organism. 



SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 439 

II. Chemical Findings. 

Slide No. i (Table I.) shows the chemical findings. On this 
slide I have starred the substances with which I have now pro- 
duced overgrowths in plants and have italicized those which Dr. 
Jacques had previously found in his experiments on animal ^gs to 
be most effective in causing unfertilized eggs to b^n to grow.'^ 
That there should be so many of these egg-starting substances ex- 
creted by a tumor-producing parasite is not only astonishing but 
extremely suggestive. All of them are substances which pass read- 
ily through protoplasmic membranes. 

TABLE I. 
Showing Products of Bacterium tumefaciens. 

♦ Ammonia Acetone 

* Amines * Acetic Acid 
♦Aldehyd * Formic Acid 

Alcohol Carbonic Acid (?) 

I have added carbonic acid of my own accord, since I did not 
ask the chemists to search for it: (i) because the crown-gall 
schizomycete must be very unlike other organisms if it does not 
produce some carbonic acid as the result of its growth, although 
certainly not enough is developed to appear in fermentation tubes 
as the gas COj; (2) because the excess of leaf -green (chlorophyll 
bodies, which assimilate COj) in the deeper tissue of galls on Paris 
daisy suggests presence of carbonic acid in excess of these tissues; 
and (3) because carbonic acid also is one of those substances found 
by Loeb to stimulate the development of unfertilized eggs. My 
experiments are still under way, none of them are really completed, 
and today I will only call your attention to a few of my results, some 
of which have already been published,* while others are here men- 
tioned for the first time. I would call attention especially to the 
substances the names of which I have starred as compounds with 
which to experiment singly and combined, and in a great variety 
of dilutions. With each one of these substances, in the absence of 
bacteria, I have obtained on suitable plants decided overgrowths, 

1 Loeb, " Artificial Parthenogenesis and Fertilization/' 1913. 
^Jour. Agric. Research, January 29, 1917. 



440 SMITH—MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 

growths which I think I am warranted in designating as incipient 
crown galls. The overgrowths I have obtained are small, as was 
to be expected from the application of a single slight stimulus. 
They do not continue to grow because they are the response to an 
abnormal outside influence of very limited duration, or to put it in 
another way, because there is no parasitic organism back of the 
growth, as in the case of the natural crown gall, to continually 
stimulate it by means of its excretions. In this particular, that is 
in the continuous slow introduction of these substances into the 
tissues after the manner of the parasite, I have not yet found it 
possible to imitate nature, but in view of the overgrowths I have 
obtained by a single slight stimulus it can no longer be doubted that 
even in the absence of the bacteria the slow continual oozing into 
growing tissues of the dilute acids, alkalies and other substances 
named would produce a crown gall of any size desired. So long 
as the stimulus is applied, and in nature it will be applied as long 
as the bacteria are present in the tissues and continue to grow, so 
long the growing tissues must respond. 

Before passing I wish once more to call attention to the italicized 
names, and to urge all students of overgrowths to read Dr. Loeb's 
book, since these tumor-producing substances, as I have said, are 
those Dr. Loeb has found most active in starting the development 
of animals out of unfertilized eggs. 

We will now pass to slides showing results obtained with 
ammonia, dimethylamine, formaldehyde, acetic acid, and formic 
acid (slides exhibited). 

III. The Mechanism of Overgrowths. 

We now come to the inquiry embodied in the title of this paper 
— what is the mechanism of these overgrowths? Is it a chemical 
or physical action? It is plain that the response is due to soluble 
substances poured out, as a result of their metabolism, by parasites 
present in the tissues, but given off in such small quantities that 
thfey act not as a poison but as a growth-stimulus. That many 
poisons when applied in minute doses do act as stimulants of one 
kind or another is already well known, both in medicine and in 
agriculture. That suspension colloids would be precipitated, pro- 



SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 441 

teins split, and very marked osmotic disturbances set up within 
the mechanism of the delicately balanced colloids of the cell upon 
introduction of these dilute, non-plasmolyzing bacterial acids, alkalis 
and other products, must be apparent to anyone who is at all familiar 
with the colloidal chemistry of the cell ; and later, by means of phys- 
ical chemistry, we ought to be able to determine at least some of the 
physical-chemical steps in the process of the abnormal cell division 

* brought about by these disturbing substances. 

For the present I interpret the growth in crown gall as due 
primarily to a physical cause, viz., to an increase in the osmotic 
pressure due to the heaping up locally of various soluble substances 
excreted by the bacteria as a result of their metabolism. This 
would lead to a movement of equalization. Water containing dis- 
solved food stuflFs would move toward the tumor and the stimulating 
acids and alkalies would move outward so that theoretically the 
strongest tendency to overgrowth should occur in the periphery of 
the tumor where, as a matter of fact, it does occur. Also in malig- 
nant human tumors the growth is peripheral. Why is it peripheral f 
If this hypothesis is correct we ought to be able to detect at least 
a slight difference between the concentration of salts in fluids on the 
periphery of a tumor and in the normal tissues just beyond it. This, 
I believe, could be determined best electrically, although, if the 
difference is considerable, the coarser method of extraction of 
the juice of tumors and of adjacent sound tissues and determina- 
tion whether there is any depression of the freezing point in the 
former might yield interesting results. One test made for me by 
Mr. Rodney B. Harvey indicated that there is a concentration of 
substances in the juice of daisy tumors, i. e,, there was a lowering of 
the freezing point, but no thorough study has been made. This I 

* contemplate taking up in conjunction with physicists of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

The reason I have for thinking the phenomena of plant over- 
growth is primarily physical is the fact that it can be obtained by a 
great variety of substances not the products of parasites, anything 
in fact, which disturbs tissue equilibriums without destroying cells, 
seems to be capable of causing overgrowths, which cease, of course, 



442 SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 

as soon as the stimulus is exhausted. (See Mechanism of Tumor 
Growth in Crown Gall, in Jour. Agric. Research, Jan. 29, 1917.) 

I have been asked in what way these overgrowths differ from the 
ordinary healing of wounds. The growth while excessive is prob- 
ably not fundamentally different from a wound reaction, but then, 
for that matter, we may r^ard all tumors as so many efforts at 
healing which come to naught because they are continually modified 
and frustrated by the presence of a parasite, or in animal cancers, 
let us say, since we do not know their cause, by an abnormal and 
oft repeated stimulus of some sort, most easily explained in the 
absence of exact data by the hypothesis of a parasite, especially 
since the same phenomenon in plants can now be referred to a 
definite microorganism. 

IV. The Kind of Tumor Depends on the Type of Cells 

Stimulated. 

T^he first crown galls I studied seemed to me to be overgrowths 
of the conjunctive tissues and most of our many inoculations up 
to the end of 1915 produced that type of tumor which corresponds, 
I believe, to overgrowths of the connective tissue of animals and 
which I have called plant sarcomas. 

We had found indeed, as early as 1908-9, and had produced 
by bacterial inoculation, plant tumors bearing roots, but the full 
meaning of this discovery, as related to cancer, did not occur to me 
until early in 1916, when I found crown-gall tumors bearing leafy 
shoots on some of our inoculated hothouse geraniums. Beginning 
with this discovery I made numerous inoculations in the leaf axils 
of various plants which resulted in the production of leafy tumors, 
and subsequently I produced them freely on leaves and on cut 
internodes where no buds occur normally. Tumors bearing roots 
have also been produced by us on the top of plants, and in one cut 
intemode of tobacco I succeeded in producing a tumor which bore 
flower buds. These perishable root-bearing and shoot-bearing 
tumors I regard as plant embryomas and have so described them.* 

These experiments render it probable that every growing organ 

^Joum. Cancer Research, April, 1916, p. 241. 



SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 443 

normally contains multipotent or totipotent cells which usiially 
remain dormant, but which under a strong stimulus are capable of 
developing into either the whole organism or into some considerable 
part of it, what is developed out of them depending on the degree 
of differentiation of the cells at* the time they are stimulated. We 
may regard these leafy shoots (produced sometimes in great num- 
bers where no buds occur normally) either as going to show that 
potentially there is no difference between germ-cells and young 
somatic cells, or else that dormant "germ-cells" are widely and 
abundantly distributed among the somatic cells, ready to develop 
into the whole or a considerable part of the organism whenever a 
sufficient stimulus is applied. Those who wish further details re- 
specting these recently produced and peculiar crown galls contain- 
ing fragments of the embryo plant are referred to a special paper 
on the subject in the " Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital " for 
September, 191 7. 

V. Bearings of These Discoveries. 

That these discoveries have many interesting bearings goes with- 
out argument. Some of these bearings may be mentioned : 

(a) On the origin of insect, nematode and fungous galls; 

(&) On the formation of thy loses in vessels; 

(c) On the origin, through absorbed poisons, of certain plant 
diseases whose etiology is very obscure, such as peach yellows, 
peach rosette, and the various mosaic diseases ; 

(rf) On the origin, in the same way, of various plant and animal 
monstrosities ; 

(e) On various problems of modification by slight changes in 
environment ; 

(/) On possibility of normal wide distribution of dormant 
germ-cells among somatic cells; 

(g) And, finally, on the etiology of various human and animal 
tumors. 

VI. Earlier Work and Reasons Why it Remained Sterile. 

I must here refer to some earlier work which remained sterile 
so far as any influence on tumor etiology is concerned (a) because 



444 SMITH— MECHANISM OF OVERGROWTH IN PLANTS. 

done under the idea that tumors are due to the existence of specific 
overgrowth stimuli; (&) because done with substances which could 
by no possibility be conceived to be the product of parasites; and 
still more (c) because the experiments fell on stony ground, that 
is into the unreceptive minds of a generation of pathologists pre- 
occupied with quite other ideas and generalizations respecting tumor 
growth. 

I refer more particularly to Dr. Hermann von Schrenk's papers 
(1903 and 1905) on intumescences in cauliflower plants due to 
copper salts,* and to Dr. Bemhard Fischer's paper on overgrowths 
of epithelium due to the injection of scarlet red and indophenol into 
rabbit's ears." 

Fischer's paper in particular pointed the way clearly toward 
the solution of the cancer problem, but it was received very coldly 
and he became discouraged, and no one else took up the suggested 
clue. 

What Fischer obtained was downgrowths of epithelium into 
the connective tissue, strikingly suggestive of epithelioma, but, be- 
cause t