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No 

Boston 

Medical Library 

Association, 

19 BOYLSTON PLACE. 



r 




t 



\ 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



TBE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 



VOB THB 



A.IDVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE. 



TWENTT-SECOND MEETING, 



HELD AT 



PORTLAND, MAINE, 



AUGUBT, 1878. 




PUBLISHED B;r THE FEKMANENT 8ECBETART. 

1874. 



ICDITED BT 

F. W. PUTNAM, 

Fermanent Secretary. 




FBIKTBD AT 

THE SALEM PRESS, 

SALBtf, MASS. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

QflBeen of the Portland Meeting, ix 

Officers of the Sections, Portland Meeting, x 

Local Committee of Portland Meeting, zi 

Special Committees of the Association, zii 

Offioen of the Hartford Meeting ziv 

Local Committee of Hartford Meeting, xv 

Meetings of the Association, xri 

Constitotion of the Association, xvii 

Beeohitions of a Permanent and Prospective Cluuraoter, xxiii 

List of Members, xxy 

Persons elected at Portland bat who have not jet accepted member^p, . xli 

Deceased Members^ xUi 



ADDBES8 OP THE BBTIBINQ PBESIDENT, j/LAWBENCE SMITH, 



COMMUNICATIONS. 
A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

« 

I. MATHEMATICS. 

Kote on William Watson's Coordinates in a Plane. By Thomas Hill, 27 

ANewCnrve. By Thomas Hnx, . . ^ 80 

Poor Equations Partially Discossed. By Thomas Hill, 81 

On the Introduction of the Metric System into Medicine and the Unlfloation of 

Doses. By Habyet W. Wilbt, 94 

A Chord of Spheral Mnsio. By Pukt Eablb Chasb, 105 

An Attachment to the WhhrUng Table for Projecting Liss^joa's dures. By A. 

t 

(Ill) 



106 



IT GOinrENTS. 

n. ASTBONOMY. 

On the Relation of Internal Fluidity to the precession of the Equinoxes. By 

J. O. Barnard. 85 

Determination of Transatlantio Longitudes. By J. E. Hilqabd, .... 144 

The Solar Photosphere. By S. P. I«aiiqlbt, 161 

ni. PHYSICS. 

Musical Flow of Water. By H. F. Waluvo, 45 

The Relation of the Dissipation of Sneigy to Cosmloal Evolution. By H. F. 

Waluno, 46 

On the ConyertibUity of Sound into Electricity. By A. E. Dolbbas, ... 110 

IV. PHYSICS OF THE GLOBE. 

Dtarection of Wind in Local Thunder Storms. By Hibam A. Curmro, . . 60 

Cyclonism and Anticydonism. By PLnrr Earlb Chasb, 108 

A Stroke of Lightning, with Hints as to Immuhity. By Jaicbs Htatt, • 106 

TheToniadoesof niinois. By M. L. Comstogx, 112 

New Theory of Geyser-action as Illustrated by an Artillcial Geyser. By Edmumd 

Andrews 115 

The Arctic Regions. By Wiluam W. Whed:jx>n IIB 

V. CHEIIISTRY. 

On the Silt Analysis of Soils and Clays. By Euo. W. Hiloabd, .... 54 

Silt Analysis of Mississippi Soils and Subsoils. By EuQ. W. Hiloabd, . 71 
On the Distribution of Soil Ingredients among the Sediments obtained in Snt 

Analysis. By B. H. Louohbidob, 80 

On the Influence of Strength of Acid and Time of Digestion in the Extraction of 

Soils. By R. H. LouGHBiDaB, 88 

Remarks on Glass-maUng. By Lbwis Fbuchtwakobb, 88 

The Chemical Composition of a Copper Matte. By T. Stebrt Hunt, ... 148 

YI. MECHANICS. 

Description of a Printing Thermometer. By G. W. Houoh, 90 

Description of an Automatic Registering and Printing Eraporator and Rain 

Gauge. By G.W. Hough '. . . 83 

A Modiflcation of the Vacuum or Filter Pump, that can be used with teom three 

to Are fbet fiUl of water and does not easily get out of repair. By A. E. 

FOOTB, 141 

Apparatus for ninstrating the Yariatfon of Wave Lengths by the Motion of its 

Origin. ByE. S. M0B8B, 150 

TITLES 
Of Papers read but not printed, 175 



COliTBNTS. 



B. NATUBAL mSTOBT. 

I. GEOLOGY. 

On Staorollte Crystals and Gieen Mountain Gneisses of the Silnrlan Age. By J. 

D.Dana, %S 

Tbe Slates of tlie Taeonic Mountains of the Age of the Hudson River or Cincin- 
nati Group. ByJ.D. Daka, 27 

The Qnartzite of Williamstown and Vicinity, and the Stmoture of the Graylock 

Bange. By Sanbobn Tenket, 87 

On the Cause of the Transient Fluctnations of Level hi Lake Superior. By 

CHAS. WHITTLE8ET, 49 

Descent of Bivers in the Mississippi Valley. Area of Drainage 1,000,000 Square 

Miles. By Chab. Whittlbset, 47 

On the Origin of Mountain Chains. By ChA8. Whittlbsbt, .... 51 

The Devonian Lhnestones hi Ohio. By N. H. Wikchell, 100 

Origin and Properties of the Diamond. ^yA. C. Hamuk, ... .104 
Notes on the Geology and Economic Mineralogy of the Southeastern Appalach- 
ians. By T. Stebkt Httrt, IIB 

The Metamorphlsm of Bocks. By T. Stebbt Hunt, 115 

Geology ofSonthem New Brunswick. By T. Sterbt Hunt, .... 116 

Breaks in the American Palsozoic Series. By T. Sterbt Hunt, ... 117 

Geological History of Winnipiseogee Lake. By C. H. Hnx:!HCO0K, . . * 120 

Note upon the Cretaceous Strata of Long Island. By C. H. Hitchcock, • 131 

On the Geological Halations of the Iron Ores of Nova Scotia. By J. W. Dawson, 188 
Tbe Proximate Future of Niagara, in Beview of Prof. Tyndall's Lecture thereon. 

By Gboboe W. Hollbt, 147 

On some Expansions, Movements, and Fractures of Bocks, observed atMonson, 

Mass. ByW. H.NILB8, 156 

The Geology of PortUnd. By C. H. Hitchoogk, 168 

Circles of Deposition in American Sedimentary Bocks. By J. S. Newbebbt, . 186 
Bemarks on Prof. Newberry's Paper on " Circles of Deposition,'' etc. By T. 

StbbbtHunt, 1396 

Geology of the Northwest Part of Maine. By C. H. Hitchoock, and J. H. 

Huntinoton, « . . 206 

On the Belations of the Niagara and Lower Helderberg Formations, and their 
Geographical Distribution in the United States and Canada. By Jaicbs 

Haix, 821 

n. PALEONTOLOGY. 

Note on a New Sigillaria Showing Scars of Fructification. By J. W. Dawson, . 75 
On Some Extinct Types of Homed Perissodactyles. By Edwabd D. Cope, . 108 
The Largest Fossil Elephant Tooth yet described. By Edmund O. Hovet, 112 



Ti CONTENTS. 

in. BOTANY. 

OnHoTementintheStigmaHoLobesofCatalpa. By Thomas Meehan, 73 
On Hermaphroditiflm in Bhas Cotinas (the Mist Tree) and in Bbua Glab^ (Com- 
mon Somac). By Thomas Mebhan, 78 

IV. ZOOLOGY. 

Note on Bnfo Americanns. By Thomas Hill, 28 

Farther Observations on tlie Embryology of Llmnlna with Notes on its Afllnl* 

ties. By A. S. Packabd, Jr., 80 

On a Bemarkable Wasp's Nest Fonnd in a Stump in Maryland. By Pi B. Uhlbr, SS 
On Becent Additions to the Fish Fanna of Massachusetts. By Thboimbb Gill, 84 
On the Species of the Genus Micropterus (Lao.) or Grystes ( Aoet.) By Theo- 
dore Gill, • . . 65 

On the Origin of Insects and Bemarks on the Antennal Charaoter in the Butter- 
flies and Moths. By Aug. B. Gbotb, 110 

On the Question*' Do Snakes Swallow their young?'' By G. Bbown Goode, . 179 

On the Effects of Certain Poisons on MoUusks. By William Nobtb Biob, . 901 
The Outer Cerebral Fissures of Mammalia (especially the Camiyora) and the 

Limits of their Homology. By B. G. WIldeb, 2U 

Cerebral Variation in Domestic Dogs, and its Bearing upon Scientific Phrenol- 
ogy. By B. G. WiLDEB, 284 

Lateral Asymmetry In the Brains of a Double Human Monster. By B. G. 

Wilder, 280 

The Papillary BepresentatiTe of Two Arms of a Double Human Monster, with a 

Note on a Mummied Double Monster Arom Peru. By B. G. Wildeb, . . 251 . 
The Habits and Parasites of Epeira Biparia, with a Note on the Moulting of 

Nephila Plumipes. By B. G. Wildeb, 257 

The Nets of Epeira, Nephila and Hyptiotes (Mithras). By Bubt G. WIldbb, . 264 

The Need of a Uniibnoii Position for Anatomical Figures. By B. G. WIldeb, • 274 
Lateral Position of the Vent in Amphioxus and in the Larva of Bana Piplens. 

By B.G. Wildeb 276 

On the Composition of the Carpus in Dogs. By B. G. WIldbb, .... 801 
Variation in the Condition of the External Sense Organs In Foetal Pigs of the 

same litter. By B. G. WIldeb, 809 

Present Aspect of the Question of Intermembral Homologies. By B. G. WIldbb, SOS 

The Pectoral Muscles of Mammalia. By B. G. WIldeb, 806 

Variation in the Pectoral Muscles of Domestic Dogs. By B. G. Wildeb, . • 808 

On the Embryology of Terebratnlina. By Edw. S. Mobse, . . . . . 806 

On the Genitalia of Brachiopoda. By E. S. Mobse, 810 

Notes on Liparis, Cyclopterus and their Allies. By F. W. Putnam, . .885 

Explorations of Casco Bay by the U. S. Fish Commission, in 1978. By A. B. 

Vebbill, 840 

On the Origin of Species. By 6. C Swallow, 899 



CONTENTS. Vll 

V. ANTHBOPOLOGY. 

On an Ancient Bnrial-gromid in Swanton, Yt. By Gsosac H. PXBKnvSy . 76 

Artificial Shell-heaps of Fresh-water HollaBks. ByC. A»Whitb, ... 138 

On the Bate of Increaae of the Human Race. By Chas. Whtttlbsxt, 811 
Calvert's Supposed Belies of Man in the Miocene of the Dardanelles. By 

GborgeWabhbubn (CkmmmnioaUd bp C. ff, SUtheoek.) . , . . 908 

YI. PRACTICAL SCIENCE. 

On the Duty of Goyemments in the Preserration of Forests. By Fsamklin B. 

HOUQH, 1 

Hints Ibr the Promotion of Economic Entomology. By John L. LsContBi 10 
Somestion for Facilitation of Museum Administration. By Thbodobb Gnx, 37 
The American Museum of Natural History in Central Park, New York. By 

A£BBBT 8. BiGKMOBS, 196 

TITLES 
or Papers Bead but not printed, 406 



EXECUTIVE PROCEEDINGS. 

HISTORY OF THE MEETING. 

Address by President LOTEBINO, 412 

Notices of Deceased Members, 414 

Beeeptioii by the Citizois of Portland, - . «. 414 

Address of Welcome by Honorable BssjAWOf Einobbdbt, Jr., . . * . 414 

Beplyl>y President LOYXRINO, 417 

BoBation by Mrs. Thompson, 422 

Letter from Ex President Smith, 423 

Sections and Subsections, 428 

Petition of the Entomologists, 424 

Entertainments and Excursions, . • . • 426 

Inyltation to Hartford, 427 

Officers elected, 427 

Closing Bemarks of the President, 427 

Resolutions adopted, 428 

Votes of Thanks, 480 

Beport of the Betiring Permanent Secretary, 432 

Cash Account of Permanent Secretary, 434 

Stock Account of Permanent Secretary, . . 436 

Appendix to History of the Meeting, by W. W. Whebldon, 437 

Index, . .'...., 445 



OFFIOEES 



ov 



THE PORTLAND MEETING. 



FBBSIDiiLN'i'. 

Joseph Loybrino, of Cambridge. 

V ICJil-FBBSID JiLN T. 
A. H. WORTHiEN,* of Springfield, Dl. 

TEBMAJSnSSNT 8X0BJDTAB7. ^ 

F. W. Putnam, of Salem. 

GSNlBBAIi SE0BXTAB7. 

C. A. White, of Brunswick, Me. 

W. S. Vaux, of Philadelphia. 
STANDING GOMMrmni. 

EX-OFFICIO. 
JOBKPH IiOVBRINa, A. H. WORTHBN,* P. W. PUTNAM, 

C. A. Whttb, W. S. Vaux, 

J. Lawrence Smith,* Alexander Winchell,* E. S. Morse, 

AS CHAIRMEN OF THE SECTIONAL COMMTITEES. 

Alexis Caswell, . John L. LeContb. 

vrom the association at large. 



8. JF. Baibd, Of Washington, 

James Hall, of Albany, 

J« B. HiLOABD, of Washington, 



Thomas Hill, of Portland, 
T. Sterrt Hunt, of Boston, 
C. A. ToxTNG, of Hanover. 



* Not present. 



X OFFICERS OF POBTLAKD MEETING. 

OTFIOEBS OF THB BEOTIONB. 

SECTION A. 

Alexis Caswell, of Proyidence, and Thos. Hill, of Portland, Cfhairmen.* 

G. W. Hough, of Albany, Secretary. 

SBOnONAL COMMITTBE. 

C. A. TouNG, of Hanoyer, N. H., E. B. Eluott, of Washington, 

W. W. Wheildon, of Concord, Mass. 

SUB-SECTION OF SECTION A. 

Oilganized on the 6th day. 

H. F. Walung, of Boston, Chairman. 

B. B. Warder, of Cleyes, Ohio, Secretary. 

SECTION B. 

John L. LbConte,. of Philadelphia, Chairman. 
Samuel H. Scudder, of Cambridge, Secretary. 

SECTIONAL COMMITTEE. 

F. B. Hough, of Lowyille*, N. Y. A. E. Vsrrill, of New Hayen. 

Theodore Gill, of Washington. 

SUB-SECTION 1 OF SECTION B. 

Organised on the 4th day. 

J. G. Morris, of Baltimore, Chairman. 

A. R. Grote, of BufllsLlo, Secretary. 

SUB-SECnON 2 OF SECTION B. 

Organized on the 4th day. 

T. Sterrt Hunt, of Boston, Chairman. 

W. H. Nhjbs, of Cambridge, Secretary. 

• Prof. Caswell was chairman until Saturday, and Dr. Hill held the ofloe for the rest 
of the meeting. 



LOCAL COiaOTTEB OF POBTLAIIB MEETING. XL 



iiOOAii ooioomai. 

Chairman :—Uom Benjamin EmasBXTRTy Jr. 

Treasurer: — Geo. E. B. Jackson, Esq. 

Secretary :~-ReY. Cables W. Hates. 



local sub-oommittees. 

On Beeeption :— The' ChBirman and Secretary of the Local Committee 
ex officio; Gko. T. Davis, Nathan Cleayes, Geo. F. Emery, William Deer- 
ing, I. Washbomy Jr., Francis Fessenden, Wm. L. Putnam, H. N. Jose, 
Bev. W. B. Hayden, Geo. E. B. Jackson, Geo. F. Shepley, Qyms H. 
Farley, Bt Bey. H. A. Neely. 

On Booms and Microscopists :—A. H. Waite, Nathan Webb, Dr. Wm. 
Wood, J. P. Thompson, C. B. Foller, J. M. Gould, W N. Gould, Dr. Fred 
H. Gerilsh. 

On Finance :— Geo. E. B. Jackson, Treasurer of Local Committee ex 
officio; T. C. Hersey, Chairman; J. B. Brown, A. E. Shurtleff, BuAis E. 
Wood. 

On Subscriptions:— "S. N. Dow, Chairman; S. E. Spring, James H. 
Smith, Thos. A. Boberts, John M. Gould, H. H. Burgess, W. F. Milliken, 
Francis E. Swan, W. S. Jordan, Geo. S. Hunt, Frank Noyes, M. N. Blch, 
Charles B. Jose, J. S. Marrett, WiUiam Senter, Wm. W. Thomas, Jr., 
Franklin Fox, John Marshall Brown, William Alien. 

On Excursions :—ll. F. Furbish, Lewis B. Smith, James E. Carter, 
William A. Winship, Prentiss Lpring, William B. Wood, Charles H. Has- 
kell, Wm. E. Wood, W. S. Dana, Prof. Hitchcock. 

On Printing :SecretaTy of the Local Committee, ex officio;- A, P. 
Stone, Geo. F. Talbot, James E. Prindle. 

On BaUroad and Steamboat FaciliHes :—BtLmael J. Anderson, Francis * 
Chase, Payson Tucker, John Porteous, T. C. Hersey, Geo. P. Wescott, 
J. B. Coyle, John Lynch, Josiah H. Drummond, J. S. Winslow, W. W. 
Harris. 

On Mail and Telegraph :'-C. W. Goddard, Stephen Beny, J. S. Bedlow, 
and the Secretary of the Local Committee, ex officio. 



LOCAL committee OF SUPERVISION. 

CAalrnMrn:— Hon. Gbobge P. Wescott, Mayor of Portland. 

Vice Chairman ;— Hon. Benjamin KiNOSBiaRT, Jr. 

Treasurer: — Geo. E. B. Jackson, Esq. 

Secretary :—lReY. Chas. W. Hates. 

Members :— The Chairmeki of the several sub-committees. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEES. 

A. COMMITTEES CONTINUED FROM TOBMER MEETINOS. 

1. Ckmmittee to Beport in BelaUon to Uniform Standards in Weights^ 

Measures and Coinage. 



F. A. P. Babnabd, of New York, 
Walcott Gibbs, 
B. A. GouiiD, of Cambridge, 
Joseph Henry, of Washington, 
J. E. HiLGABD, of Washington, 



John LeContb, 

H. A. Newton, of New Haven, 

Benjamin Peircb, of Cambridge, 

W. B. Rogers, of Boston, 

J. Lawrence Smith, LoniSTille. 



E. B. Elliott, of Washington. 

2. CommiUee to Memorialize the Legislature of New York for a New Survey 

of Niagara Falls, 



F. A. P. Barnard, of New York, 
Charles P. Dalt, 



James Hall, of Albany, 
William E. Logan, of Montreal, 



G. W. HOLLET, of Niagara Falls. 



8. CimmiUee to B^^oH on the Best Methods of Organizing and Conducting 

State Geological Surveys. 



G. C. Swallow, of Colnmbia, Mo., 

James Hall, of Albany, 

J. S. Newberry, of aeveland. 



Alexander Winchell, Syracuse, 
T. Sterry Hunt, of Boston, 
Benjamin Peirce, of Cambridge. 



4. Committee to Memorialize Congress in relation to a Geological Map 

of the United States. 

This committee consists of such of <lie State Geologists as will Join In the memoxial. 
Alex. Winchell, of Syracuse, Chairman. 
C. H. Hitchcock, of Hanover, Secretary. 

B. NEW COBiMTTTEES. 

1. Committee to act with the Standing Committee in Nomination of 

Officers for the Meeting of 1874. 

SBOnOH A. BBCnOH B. 



W. A. Rogers, of Cambridge, 
J. G. Barnard, of New York, 
G. W. Hough, of Albany, 
H. P. Walling, of Boston, 
(xU) 



A. C. Hamun, of Bangor, 
S. H. ScxTDDER^ of Boston, 
N. S.TowNSHEND,of Colnmbos. 
G. C. Swallow, of Columbia. 



SPECIAL COMMITTEBS. XIU 



2. CommUUe on the EHzaheth Thompson Donation. 



Asa Grat, of Cambridge, 

J. L. LbCoittb, of Philadelphia, 

P. H. Van i>kb Wbyde, of N. Y., 



Thomas Hill, of Portland, 

James Hall, of Albany, 

T. Sterby Hunt, of Boston, 



F. W. Putnam, of Salem, 



8. CommUUe to BepoH on the Principles of Nomenclature. 



J. L. LeContb, of Philadelphia, 
JiMiffl Hall, of Albany, 



J. S. NswBERBT, of Cleveland, 
Alexander Agassiz, Cambridge, 



Theodore Qnx, of Washington. 

4. Committee to Beport on tJie most desirable methods of Studying 

Science in the Common Schools. 

J. W. Dawson, of Montreal, S. W. JoHNSONf of New Haven, 

J. P. Lbblet, of Philadelphia. 

5. Committee to Memorialize Congress and State Legislatures regarding 

the CtdtivaHon of THniber, and t?ie Preservation of Forests. 



F. B. HouoH, of Lowville, 
Asa Grat, of Cambridge, 

G. B. Emerson, of Boston, 

J. D. Whttney, of San Francisco, 



J. S. Newbekry, of Cleveland, 
L. H. Morgan, of Rochester, 
Chas. Whtttlesby, of Cleveland, 
W. H. Brewer, of New Haven, 



E. W. HiLGARD, of Ann Arbor. 



6. Committee to B^port on the Constitution of the Association. 



J. L. LbConte, of Philadelphia, 
C. S. Lyman, of New Haven, 
J. £. HHiOARD, of Washington, 



G. C. Swallow, of Columbia, 
Joseph Lovbring, of Cambridge, 
F. W. Putnam, of Salem. 



7. Committee to obtain an Act of Incorporation of the Association. 



George S. Boutwell, 

F. A. P. Barnard, of New York, 

Joseph Lovbring, of Cambridge, 



Asa Gray, of Cambridge, 

J. S. Newberry, of Cleveland, 

F. W. Putnam, of Salem, 



W. W. Whbildon, of Concord. 

S. CoTiimittee to Audit the Accounts of the Permanent Secretary and 

Treasurer. 

H. L. EuBm, of Cambridge, Henry Wheatland, of Salem. 



OFFICERS OF THE ASSOCIATION 



Ain> 



LOCAL COMMITTEE ELECTED 



FOR 

THE HARTFOBD MEETING. 



John L. LbContb, of Philadelphia. 

V lOJO-FHBSiDBNT. 
C. S. Lyman, of New Haven. 



FEBMANIBNT BSOBETABT. 
F. W. Putnam, of Salem. 



>.' 



QUJOnfiBAIi ODGBIBTABT. 
A. C. Hamlin, of Bangor. 



W. S. Vaux, of Philadelphia. 



STAJIDINO OOMMITTJOJU. 



J. L. LbContb, 

C. S. Ltman, 

P. W. Putnam, 

A. C. Hamun, 
(xlY) 



-ovnao. 



W. S. Vaux, 

JOSIEFH LOTERING, 
A. H. WORTHBN, 
C. A. Wbitb. 



LOCAL COMHITTEE 'OF HABTFOBD MEETIKQ. 



IiOCAIi OOMMTFTSD. 

Hon. H. C. RoBiysoN, Chairman. 

Prof. John Bbocklksbt, 
J. M. Allbn. 

Rev. W. L. Gage, Secretary. 

Geo. p. Bissell, Treasurer. 



Vice-cJiairmen. 



TnoiHT ir. AlXTN, 

jamed a. Atxes, 

HESBT BABH ASD, 
F-F.BASROW0, 

Gso. M. Bastboix>]iew, 

J. 6. BATTEB80N, 

Chixlu M. Beach, 
H. B. Beach, 

Caia. Mp BiruNOSt 
B. T, Blakbslbb, 
.JoB3r W. Buss, 

LSTESETT BRADTARD, 

Chablbs H. Bbaivabd, 
GxoBGB BsmusT, 
J. H. Bbockubsbt, 
Isaac H. Bbomlkt, 
Charles H. Buncb, 
Jo3rATHAir B. BuircE, 

AlVBED E. BURR, 

Ber. Dr. Horace Bush- 

XBLL,, 

Hon. Eubha Carpekter, 

FRAXK W. CBESCET, 

Samuel L. CifHEsrs, 
Charles J. Cole, 
Rev. Dr. C. B. Crabe, 
Hon. Caltin DAT, . 
Acsnir DnvHAX, 

AUSnSC C. DUIVHAM, 

Hon. W. W. Satov, 
Dr. W. Edgboomb, 
Tbeodokb G. Ellis, 

BiCHABD S. KLT, 



BeT. Mr. Eherson, 
Gbo. a. Fairfield, 
Gen. W. B. FRANKLnr, 
B. J. Gatuno, 
Hon. Francis Gilletib, 
. F. L. Gleason, 
W. H. Goodrich, 
BcT. Francis Goodwin, 
James Goodwin, 
Jacob L. Greens, 
Ezra Hall, 
Joseph Hall, 
Wm. J. Hamerslet, 
Bev. Prof. Samuel Habt, 
Wm. a. Healy, 
Charles J. Hoodlt, 
Prof. Geo. O. Holbrooke 
J. L. Howard, 
Hon. B. D. Hubbard, 
W. M. Hudson, M. D., 
E. K. Hunt, M. D., 
Bev. President A. Jack* 

SON, 

B. W. H. Jartis, 

Punt Jewell, 

Hon. Marshall Jewbll, 

Henrt.Kenet, 

Bev. C. F. Knight, 

James Laurie, 

Horace Lord, 

Bt. Bev. F. P. McFab- 

LAND, 

Thomas McManus, 
L. W. Meecr, 



BeT.Dr.M. Meier-Smith, 
Edward J. Murpht, 
C. H. Northam, 
Samuel Nott, 
Hon. D. W. Pardee, 
Bey. E. P. Parker, 
John C. Parsons, 
J. B. Pierce, 
Albert P. Pitkin, 
Hon..C. M. Pond, 
Bev. Prof. T. B. Ptnchok, 
Charles E. Bichards, 
Bev. Prof. M. B. Biddlb, 
Frederick W. Bussbix, 
g. w. bussell, m. d., 

Hon.NATHANIELSHIFMAN, 

Hon. Gborqb G. Sill, 
W. E. Sdionds, 
Bev. C. A. Skinner, 
H. T. Sperrt, 
J. H. Sfraoue, * 

J. W. Stancuft, 
Henrt p. Stearns, M. D. 
B. S. Storrs, 
Bev. Prof. C. E. Slows, 
Hon. G. G. Sumner, 
Hon. J. H. Trumbull, 
Bev. W. W. Turner, 
Edwin S. Tyler, 
J. C. Walklet, 
Charles D. Warner, 
Henrt Wilson, 
J. G. Woodward, 



And tb^ following from Mlddletown, 

Bev. Prof. F. Oabdiner, Bev. Prof. W. N. BiCB, Prof. J. M. Van Ylecx. 
A. ▲. A. 8. VOL. XZn. B 



XVI 



MEETINGS. 



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CONSTITUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



OBJECTS. 

The Association shall be called The American Association 
Foa THE Abvancement of Science. 

The objects of the Association are, by periodical and migratory 
meetings, to promote intercourse between those who are culti- 
vating science in different parts of the United States ; to give 
a stronger and more general impulse and a more systematic 
direction to scientific research in our country ; and to procure for 
the labors of scientific men increased facilities and a wider use- 
fulness. 

■ 

members. 

Rule 1. Any person may become a member of the Association 
upon recommendation in writing by two members, n^omination 
by the Standing Committee, and election by a majority of the 
members present. 

OFFICERS. 

Rule 2. The ofiScer^ of the Association shall be a President, 
Vice President, General Secretary, Permanent Secretary, and 
Treasurer. The President, Vice-President, General Secretary, and 
Treasurer shall be elected at each meeting for the following one ; 
— the three first named ofi^cers not to be reeligible for the next 
two meetings, and the Treasurer to be reeligible as long as the 
Association may desire. The Permanent Secretary shall be elected 
at each second meeting, and also be reeligible as long as the Asso- 
ciation may desire. 

* Adopted Aiigaat25, 1856, and ordered to go into effect at the opening of the Mon- 
treal Meeting. Amended at Burlington, August, 1867, and at Chicago, August, 1868. 



XVlll CONSTITUTION 



MEETINGS. 



Rule 3. The Association shall meet, at such intervals as it may 
determine, for one week, or longer ; and the arrangements for it 
shall be intrusted to the officers and the Local Committee. The 
Standing Committee shall have power to determine the time 
and place of each meeting, and shall give due notice of it to the 
Association. 

STANDING committee. 

Rule 4. There shall be a Standing Committee, to consist of 
the President, Vice President, Secretaries, and Treasurer of the 
Association, the officers of the preceding year, the Permanent 
Chairmen of the Sectional Committees, after these shall have been 
organized, and six members, present from the Association at large, 
who shall have attended any of the previous meetings, to be 
elected upon open nomination by ballot on the first assembling of 
the Association. A majority of the whole number of votes cast, 
to elect. The General Secretary shall be Secretary of the Stand- 
ing Committee. 

The duties of the Standing Committed shall be, — 

1 . To assign papers to the respective Sections. 

2. To arrange the scientific business of the general meetings, 
to suggest topics, and arrange the programmes for the evening 
meetings. 

3. To suggest to the Association the place and time of the next 
meeting. 

4. To examine, and, if necessary, to exclude papers. 

5. To suggest to the Association subjects for scientific reports 
and researches. 

6. To appoint the Local Committee. 

7. To have the general direction of publications. 

8. To manage any other general business of the Association 
during the session, and during the interval between it and the next 
meeting. 

9. Li conjunction with four from each Section, to be elected 
by the Sections for the purpose, to make nominations of officers of 
the Association for the following meeting. 

10. To nominate persons for admission to membership. 

11. Before adjourning, to decide which papers, discussions, or 
other proceedings shall be published. 



OF THE ASSOCIATION. XIX 



SECTIONS. 

Rule 5. The Association shall be divided into two Sections, 
and as many sub-sections as may be necessary for the scientific 
business. When not otherwise ordered the sub-sections shall be 
as follows: Section A. — (1) Mathematics and Astronomy; (2) 
Physics and Chemistry; (3) Microscopy. Section B. — (1) Zo- 
ology and Botany ; (2) Geology and PalsBontology ; (8) Ethnology 
and Archffiology. The two sections may meet as one. 

SECTIONAL OFFIOEBS AND COMMITTEES. 

Rule 6. On. the first assembling of the Section, the members 
shall elect upon open nomination a permanent Chairman and Sec- 
retary, also three other members, to constitute, with these ofi^cers, 
a Sectional Committee. 

ifThe SeStion shall appoint, from day to day, a Chairman to pre- 
side oyer its meetings. 

Rule 7. It shall be the duty of the Sectional Committee of 
each Section to arrange and direct the proceedings in their Sec- 
tion ; to ascertain what communications are offered ; to assign the 
order in which these communications shall appear, and the amount 
of time which each shall occupy. 

The Sectional Committees may likewise recommend subjects 
for systematic investigation by -members willing to undertake the 
researches, and to present their results at the next meeting. 

Tlie Sectional Committee may likewise recommend reports on 
particular topics and departments of science, to be drawn up as 
occasion permits, by competent persons, and presented at subse- 
quent meetings. 

BEPORTS OF PROCEEBINGS. 

Rule 8. Whenever practicable, the proceedings shall be reported 
by professional reporters, or stenographers, whose reports are to 
be revised by the Secretaries before they appear in print. 

PAPERS AND COMMUNICATIONS. 

Rule 9. No paper shall be placed in the programme, unless 
admitted by the Sectional Committee; nor shall any be read, 
unless an abstract of it has been previously presented to the Secre- 
tary of the Section, who shall furnish to the Chairman the titles of 
papers, of which abstracts have been received. 



CONSTITUTION 

Rule 10. The author of any paper or communication shall 
be at liberty to retain his right of property therein^ provided he 
declare such to be his wish before presenting it to the Associa- 
tion. 

Rule 11. Copies of all communications, made either to the 
General Association or to the Sections, must be furnished by the 
authors; otherwise, only the titles,' or abstracts, shall appear in 
the published proceedings. 

Rule 12. All papers, either at the general or in the sectional 
meetings, shall be read, as far as practicable, in the order in which 
they are entered upon the books of the Association ; except that 
those which may be entered by a member of the Standing Com- 
mittee of the Association shall be liable to postponement by the 
proper Sectional Committee. 

Rule 13. If any communication be not ready at the assigned 
time, it shall be dropped to the bottom of the list,* and slmll 
not be entitled to take precedence of any subsequent commu- 
nication. 

Rule 14. No exchanges shall be made between members with- 
out authority of the respective Sectional Committees. 

general and evening meetings. 

Rule 15. The Standing Committee shall appoint any general 
meeting which the objects and interests of the Association may 

m 

call for, and the evenings shall, as a rule, be reserved for general 
meetings of the Association. 

These general meetings may, when convened for that purpose, 
give their attention to any topics of science which would other- 
wise come before Sections. 

It shall be a part of the business of these general meetings 
to receive the Address of the President of the last meeting ; to 
hear such reports on scientific subjects as, from their general im- 
portance and interest, the Standing Committee shall select ; also 
to receive from the Chairmen of the Sections abstracts of the pro- 
ceedings of their respective Sections ; and to listen to communi- 
cations and lectures explanatory of new and important discoveries 
and researches in science, and new inventions and processes in the 
arts. 



OF THE ASSOCIATION. XXI 



ORDER OF PROCEEDINGS IK ORGANIZING A MEETING. 

Rule 16. The Association shall be called to order by the 
President of the preceding meeting ; and this officer having re- 
signed the chair to the President elect, the General Secretary 
shall then report the number of papers relating to each depart- 
ment which have been regis tei^ed, and the Association consider the 
most eligible distribution into Sections, when it shall proceed to 
the election of the additional members of the Standing Committee 
in the manner before described ; the meeting shall then adjourn, 
and the Standing Committee, having divided the Association into 
Sections as directed, shall allot to each its place of meeting for 
the Session. The Sections shall then organize by electing their 
officers and their representatives in the Nominating Committee, 
and shall proceed to business. 

PERMANENT SECRETARY. 

Rule 17. It shall be the duty of the Permanent Secretary 
to notify members who are in arrears, to provide the necessary 
stationery and suitable books for the list of members and titles of 
papers, minutes of the general and sectional meetings, and for 
other purposes indicated in the rules, and to execute such other 
duties as may be directed by the Standing Committee or by the 
Association. 

The Permanent Secretary shall make a report, annilally, to the 
Standing Committee, at its first meeting, to be laid before the 
Association, of the business of which he has had charge since its 
last meeting. 

« 

All members are particularly desired to forward to the Perma- 
nent Secretary, so as to be received before the day appointed for 
the Association to convene, complete titles of all the papers which 
they expect to present during its meeting, with an estimate of the 
time requir^ for reading eacli, and such abstracts of their contents 
as may give a general idea of their nature. 

Whenever the Permanent Secretary notices any error of fact 
or unnecessary repetition, or any other important defect in the 
papers communicated for publication in the *^ Proceedings" of the 
Association, he is authorized to commit the same to the author, 
or to the proper sub-committee' of the Standing Committee for 
correction. 



XXU CONSTTTUnOK OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



LOCAL COliHITTEE. 

Rule 18. The Local Committee shall be appointed from among 
members residing at, or near, the place of meeting for the ensuing 
year ; and it shall be the duty of the Local Committee, assisted by 
the officers, to make arrangements and the necessary announce- * 
ments for the meeting. 

The Secretary of the Local Committee shall issue a circular in 
regard to the time and place of meetings, and other particulars, at 
least one month before each meeting. 

SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Bulb 19. The amount of the subscription, at each meeting, of 
each member of the Association, shall be two dollars, and one 
dollar in addition shall entitle him to a copy of the *' Proceedings" 
of the annual meeting. These subscriptions shall be received by 
the Permanent Secretary, who shall pay them over, after the meet- 
ing, to the Treasurer. 

The admission fee of new members shall be five dollars*, in 
addition to the annual subscription ; and no person shall be con- 
sidered a member of the Association until this admission fee and 
the subscription for the meeting at which he is elected have been 
paid. 

Rule 20. The names of all persons two years in arrears for 
annual dues shall be erased from the list of members ; provided 
that two notices of indebtedness, at an interval of at least three 
months, shall have been previ<^sly given. 

ACCOUNTS. 

Rule 21. The accounts of the Association shall be audited, 
annually, by auditors appointed at each meeting. 

ALTERATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

Rule 22. No article of this Constitution shall be altered, or 
amended, or set aside, without the concurrence of three-fourths of 
the members present, and unless notice of the proposed change 
shall have been given at the preceding annual meeting. 



RESOLUTIONS 



OF A PERMANENT AND PROSPECTIVE CHARACTER, ADOPTED 

AUGUST 19, 1857. 



1. No appointment may be made in behalf of the Association, 
and no invitation given or accepted, except by vote of the Asso- 
ciation or its Standing Committee. 

2. The General Secretary shall transmit to the Permanent 
Secretary for the files, within two weeks after the adjournment of 
every meeting, a record of the proceedings of the Association and 
the votes of the Standing Committee. He shall also, daily,* during 
the meetings, provide the Chairman of the two Sectional Com- 
mittees with lists of the papers assigned to their Sections by the 
Standing Committee. 

8. All printing for the Association shall be superintended by 
the Permanent Secretary, who is authorized to employ a clerk for 
-that especial purpose. 

4. The Permanent Secretary is authorized to put the " Proceed- 
ings*' of the meeting to press one month after the adjournment of 
the Association. Papers which have not been received at that 
time may be published only by title. No notice of articles not 
approved shall be taken in the published '^ Proceedings.'' 

5. The Permanent Chairmen of the Sections are to be con- 
sidered their organs of communication with the Standing com- 
mittee. 

6. It shall be the duty of the Secretaries of the two Sections to 
receive copies of the papers read in their Sections, all sub-sections 
included, und to furnish them to the Permanent Secretar}' at the 
close of the meeting. 

7. The Sectional Committees shall meet not later than nine, a.m., 
daily, during the meetings of the Association, to arrange the pro- 
grammes of their respective Sections, including all sub-sections, 

(xxlU) 



Xxiy FEBUAKENT BESOLUTIOKS. 

for the following day. No paper shall be placed upon these pro- 
grammes which shall not have been assigned to the Section by 
the Standing Committee. The programmes are to be flimished 
to the Permanent Secretary not later than eleven, a.m. 

8. During the meetings of the Association, the Standing Com- 
mittee shall meet daily, Sunday excepted, at nine, a.m., and the 
Sections be called to order at ten, a.m., unless otherwise ordered. 
The Standing Committee shall also meet on the evening preceding 
the first assembling of the Association at each annual meeting, to 
arrange for the business of the first day ; and on this occasion three 
shall form a quorum. 

9. Associate members may be admitted for one, two, or three 
years, as they shall choose at the time of admission, — to be elected 
in the same way as permanent members, and to pay the same dues. 
They shall have all the social and scientific privileges of members, 
without taking part in the business. 

10. No member may take part in the organization and business 
arrangement of both the Sections. 



MEMBERS 



OT THE 



AMERICAN ASSOCIATION 



FOB THE 



ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE/ 



A. 

Abbe, Prof. Cleveland, Cincinnati, Ohio (16). 

Abbot, Miss Elizabeth O., No. 10 Thomas St., Providence, R. I. (20). 

Adams, Samuel, Jacksonville, 111. (18). 

Adcock, Prof. Robert J., Monmouth, Warren Co., HI. (21). 

Addams, Miss S. Alice, CedarviUe, 111. (21). 

Agassiz, Alexander, Cnrator Mas. Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. (18). 

Aiken, Prof. W. B. A., Baltimore, Md. (12). 

Ainsworth, Frank B., Sapt. Ind. House of lleflige, Plainfleld, Ind. (20). 

Albert, Augustus J., Baltimore, Md. (12). 

Alexander, John S., 1935 Arch St., Philadelphia, Penn. (20). 

Alexander, Prof. Stephen, Princeton, N. J. (1). 

Allen, Joel A., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. (18). 

Allen, J. M., Hartford, Conn. (22). 

Allen, Zachariah, Providence, R. I. (1). 

Allyn, Mrs. Clarence, Nyack on the Hudson, N. T. (22). 

Alvord, Benjamin, U.S.A., Paymaster Gen. Office, Washington, D. C. (17). 

Andrews, Prof. £. B., Lancaster, Ohio (7). 

Andrews, Dr. Edmund, Chicago, 111. (22). 

Appleton, Prof. John H., Brown University, Providence, B. I. (22). 

Arthur, J. C, Charles City, lowtl (21). 

Atkinson, Prof. Wm. K., 41 East Ninth St., New York (22). 

Atwater, Samuel T., 166 Washington St., Chicago, III. (17). 

Atwater, Mrs. Samuel T., 166 Washington St., Chicago, 111. <17). 

Austin, E. P., Box 484, North Cambridge, Mass. (18). 

•Avery, Alida C, Poughkeepsle, N. Y. (20). 

*The niunbers in parentheses indicate the meeting at which the member was elected. 
When no address is given, It signifies that the Hartford Circular has been returned' 
through the mall as uncalled for, haying been addressed by the list given in the pre- 
eedhig rolume. 

(xw) 



XXYl MEMBEBS OF 



B. 

Babcock, George, Sup't Rensselaer Iron Works, Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Babcock, Henry H., Principal Clilcago Acad. 11 ISth St., Chicago, 111. (17;. 

Bacon, Dr. John, jr., Boston, Mass. (1). 

Bailey, Prof. Loring W., University of Frederickton, N. B. (18). 

Balrd, Lyman, 90 La Salle St., Chicago, III. (17). 

Baird, Prof. S. F., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (1). 

Baker, Prof. T. R., Mlllersyille, Penn. (22). 

Balch, David M., Salem, Mass. (22). 

Bannister, Henry M., Washington, D. C. (17). 

Bardwell, Prof. F. W., University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. (13). 

Barker, Prof. G. F., 408 South 41st St., Philadelphia, Pa. (13). 

Barnard, F. A. P., President Columbia College, New York (7). 

Barnard, Gen. J. G., U.S.A., Army Building, New York (14). 

Barrett, Moses, Milwaukee, Wis. ^21). 

Bartlett, Frank L., Hanover, Me. (22). 

Basnett, Thomas, Ottawa, III. (8). 

Bass, George F., 336 North Noble St., Indianapolis, Ind. (21). 

Bassett, George W., Yandalia, III. (20). 

Batchelder, Dr. J. H., Salem, Mass. (18). 

Batchelder, John M., No. 16 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. (8). 

Beach, Myron H., Dubuque, Iowa (21). 

Beach, W. H., Dubuque, Iowa (21). 

Bebb, Michael G., Fountalndale, Iowa (21). 

Becker, Dr. Alexander R., Providence, R. I. (22). 

Bell, James D., Office of Dally Graphic, New York (20). 

Bell, John J., Exeter, N. U. (22). 

Bell, Samuel N., Manchester, N. H. (7). 

Beijamin, E. B., 10 Barclay St., New York (17). 

Bessey, Prof. C. E., Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa (21). 

Bethune, Rev. Charles J. S., Port Hope, Canada (18). 

Bickmore, Prof. Albert S., Arsenal Building, 6 Central Park, N. Y. (17). 

Blcknell, Edwin, Cambridge, Mass. (18). 

Bill, Charles, Springfield, Mass. (17). 

Blake, Ell W., New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Blake, Prof. Ell W., jr., Providence, R. \. (16). 

Blatchford, Ellphalet W., Chicago, HI. (17). 

Blodgett, James H., Rockford, 111. (21). 

Boadle, John, Haddonfleld, N. J. (20). 

BoUes, Rev. E. C, Salem, Mass. (17). 

Bolton, Dr. H. C, 49 West 61st St., New York (17). 

Bontecon, Dr. R. B., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Bouv6, Thomas T., Preset Boston Soc. Nat. History, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Bowdltch, Dr. Henry I., 113 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (2). 

Bowen, Silas T., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 



THB ASSOCIATION. ZZVii 

Boynton, Miss Sasan P., Box 150, Lynn, Mass. (19). 

Brackett, Prof. C. F., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (19). 

Bradley, L., 9 Exchange Place, Jersey City, N. J. (15). 

Breneman, A. A., Agricultural College, Lancaster, Penn. (20). 

Brevoort, J. Carson, Brooklyn, N. Y. (1). 

Brewer, Prof. W. H., New Haven, Conn. (20). 

Briggs, Albert D., Springfield, Mass. (13). 

Briggs, S. A., Box 545, Chicago, 111. (17). 

Brigham, Charles H., Ann Arbor, Mich. (17). 

Bross, William, Chicago, 111. (7). 

Brown, Robert, jr., Office Cincinnati Gas Light Co., Cincinnati, Ohio (11), 

Brown, Mrs. Robert, jr., Cincinnati, Ohio (17). 

Brnsh, Prof. George J., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (11). 

Bryan, Oliver N., Accokeek P. O., Prince George's Co., Md. (18). 

Bryant, Wm. M., Snp't City Schools, Burlington, Iowa (21). 

Bnckhout, W. A. (20). 

Burbank, L. S., Wobnrn, Mass. (18). 

Burgess, Miss Abbie L., Western Female Sem., Oxford, Ohio (20). 

Burgess, Edward, Sec'y Nat. Hist. Society, Boston, Mass. (22). 

Burton, H. J., jr., Boston, Mass. (22). 

Bush, Rev. Alva, Cedar Valley Sem., Osage, Iowa (21). 

Bush, Stephen, Waterford, N. Y. (19). 

Bushee, Prof. James, Worcester, Mass. (9). 

C. 

Campbell, Mrs. Mary, Crawfordsville, Ind. (22). 

Carmichael, Prof. Henry, Bowdoln College, Brunswick, Me. (21). 

Carpenter, Prof. G. C, Simpson Centenary College, Indlanola, Iowa (22). 

Carrier, Joseph C, Notre Dame, Ind. (20). 

Carrington, Henry B., Crawfordsville, Ind. (20). 

Case, Leonard, Cleveland, Ohio (15). 

Caswell, Prof. Alexis, Providence, R. I. (2). 

Cattell, William C, President Lafayette College, Easton, Penn. (15). 

Cbadbourne, Prof. P. A., Pres't Williams Coll., Wllliamstown, Mass. (10). 

Cbadeayne, Miss E., Jersey City, N. J. (22). 

Chamberlain, T. C, Whitewater, Wis. (21). 

Chandler, WUliam H. (19). 

Chanute, O., Chief Engineer Erie Railway Co., New York (17), 

Cbapman, F. M., 90 La Salle St., Chicago, 111. (17). 

Chase, Prof. Pliny E., Haverford College, Haverford, Penn, (18). 

Chase, R. Stnart, 16 Merrimack St., Haverhill, Mass. (18). 

Chesbrongh, £. S., Chicago, 111. (2). 

Chickerlng, Prof. J. W., jr.. Deaf Mute College, Washington, D. C. (22). 

Clark, John E., 45 Clark St., New Haven, Conn. (17). 

Clarke, Prof. F. W., Howard University, Washington, D. C. (18). 

Coffin, Prof. John H. C, U.S.N., Washington, D. C. (1). 



XXViii HEHBSBS OF / 

Cofflo, Prof. Selden J., Lafayette College, Easton, Fenn. (22). 

Cofflnberry, W. L., Grand Rapids, Mich. (20). 

Cogswell, Dr. George, Bradford, Mass. (18). 

Colbert, E., Chicago, 111. (17). 

CoUett, Hon. John, Newport, Ind. (17). 

Collins, Pfof. Alonzo, Cornell College, Mount Vernon, Iowa (21). 

Colton, G. Wool worth, (22). 

Corns tock. Prof. M. L., GalQsburg, in. (21). 

Conser, Prof. £. P., Sand Spring, Iowa (21). 

Cook, Prof. George H., Lock Box 5, New Brunswick, N. J. (18). 

Cooke, Caleb, Peabodj Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. (18). 

Cooley, Prof. Le Roy C, N. Y. State Normal School, Albany, N. Y. (19). 

Cope, Prof. Edward D., Haddonfield, N. J. (17). 

Copes, Dr. Joseph S., care Copes & Ogden, New Orleans, La. (11). 

Cornwall, Prof. Henry B., College of New Jersey, Princeton, N. J. (22). 

Cox, Prof. Edward T., Indianapolis, Ind. (19). 

Cramp, Dr. J. M., Wolfville, N. S. (11). 

Crawford, Dr. John S., Galena, 111. (21). 

Crocker, Charles F., Lawrence, Mass. (22). 

Crocker, Mrs. Charles F., Lawrence, Mass. (21). 

Cummings, John, Woburn, Mass. (18). 

Cummings, Rev. Dr. Joseph, Pres't Wesleyan Univ., Mlddletown, Ct. (18). 

Curtis, Dr. Joslah, Ebbitt House, Washington, D. C. (18). 

Curtis, Rev. Dr. W. S., Rockford, 111. (21). 

Cutting, Dr. Hiram A., Lunenburgh, Yt. (17). 

D, 

Dall, Mrs. Caroline H., 141 Warren Ave., Boston, Mass. (18). 

Dall, William H., Box 1869, San Francisco, Cal. (18). 

Dalrymple, Rev. Dr. E. A., Baltimore, Md. (1*). 

Dana, I*rof. James D., New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Danforth, Edward, Department of Public Instruction, Albany, N. Y. (11). 

Darby, Prof. John, Wesleyan University, Mlllersburg, Ky. (21). 

Davenport, Mrs. M. G., Oskaloosa, Iowa (21). 

Davis, James, 117 State, corner of Broad St., Boston, Mass. (1). 

Dawson, Dr. J. W., Principal McGlll College, Montreal, Can. (10). 

Day, Dr. F. H., Wauwatosa, Wis. (20). 

Dean, George W., Fall River, Mass. (15). 

DeCamp, Dr. WUliam H., Grand Rapids, Mich. (21). 

Delano, Joseph C, New Bedford, Mass. (5). 

DeLaskl, Dr. John, Carver's Harbor, Me. (18). 

Devereux, J. H., Mich. Southern Railway, Cleveland, Ohio (18). 

Dimmock, George, Springfield, Mass. (22). 

Dinwiddle, Robert, 118 Water St., New York (1). 

Dlxwell, Epes S., Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Dodd, C. M., Wllllamstown, Mass. (19). 



THE ASSOCIATION. XSIX 

Dodge, Charles B., Washin^on, D. C. (22). 

Doggett, Wm. E., Chicago, III. (17). 

Boggett, Mrs. Wm. E., Chicago, III. (17). 

Bolbear, A. Emerson, Bethany, West Va. (20). 

Doughty, John W., Newburgh, N. Y. (19). 

Downer, Henry £., Detroit, Mich. (21). 

Drowne, Charles, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y. (6). 

Dmmmond, Josiah H., Portland, Me. (22l. 

Doncan, Dr. T. C, 287 West Randolph St., Chicago, 111. (17). 

Dyer, Clarence, Lawrence, Mass. (22). 

Dyer, Ellsha, 87 Westminster St., Providence, R. I. (9). 

E. 

Eaton, Prof. D. G., Packer Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y, (19). 

Eaton, Prof. James H., Beloit College, Beloit, Wis. (17). 

Edgar, George M., Pres't Franklin Female College, Franklin, Ey. (20). 

Edwards, Dr. A. M., 241 Broad St., Newark, N. J. (18). 

Edwards, Thomas C, Yineland, N. J. (21). 

Eimbeck, Wm., P. O. Box 1600, San Francisco, Cal. (17). 

Elliott, Ezekiel B., Statistical Bureau, Washington, D. C. (10). 

Eiwyn, Alft-edL., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Emerson, Prof. Bei^jamin K., Amherst, Mass. (19). 

Emerson, Prof. Charles F., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (22). 

Emerson, George B., LL.D., 8 Pemberton Sq., Boston, Mass. (1). 

Emerton, James H., Salem, Mass. (18). 

Endlech, Frederic N., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (22). 

Engelmann, Dr. George, St. Louis, Mo. (1). 

Engstrom, A. B., Burlington, N. J. (1). 

Ennis, Jacob, Principal Scientific Inst., Philadelphia, Penn. (19). 

Eustis, Prof. Henry L., Cambridge, Mass. (2). 

Erans, Asher B., Principal Union School, Lockport, N. Y. (19). 

Everett, Dr. Oliver, Dixo^, 111. (21). 

Everts, Miss M. M. (22). 

F. 

Fairbanks, Henry, St. Johnsbnry, Vt. (14). 

Faries, R. J., Wanwatosa, Wis. (21), 

Farmer, Moses G., Salem, Mass. (9). 

Famham, Thomas, Buifalo, N. Y. (15). 

Fellowes, R. S., New Haven, Conn. (18). 

Fenton, William, Milwaukee, Wis. (18). 

Femald, Prof. Charles H., State Agricultural College, Orono, Me. (22). 

Femald, Prof. M. C, State Agricultural College, Orono, Me. (22). 

Ferrell, William, Cambridge, Mass. (11). 

Feuchtwanger, Dr. Lewis, 180 Fulton St., New York (11). 

Ficklin, Prof. Joseph, University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. (20). 

Fishback, W. P., St. Louis, Mo. (20). 



TXX 1CEUBBB8 OF 

Fisher, Prof. Davenport, ttom Jane 1 to Oct. 1, 642 Marshall St., Milwau- 
kee, Wis. ; rest of the year, Annapolifl, Md. (17). 
Fisk, Rev. Dr. Richmond, jr., Grand Rapids, Mich. (19). 
Fitch, Edward H., Ashtabula, Ohio (11). 
Fitch, O. H., Ashtabula, Ohio (7). 

Fletcher, Ingram, care Fletcher & Sharpe, Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 
Fletcher, Dr. Wm. B., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 
Fluegel, Maurice (21). 

Foote, Dr. A. E., Agricultaral College, Ames, Iowa (21). 
Ford, Silas W., 24 7th St., Troy, N. Y. (19). 
Forshey, Col. C. G., New Orleans, La. (21). 
Foster, Henry, Clifton, N. Y. (17). 
Freeman, H. C, La Salle, III. (17). 
French, Dr. Geo. F., Portland, Me. (22). 
Frothingham, Rer. Frederick, Buffalo, N. Y. (11). 
Fuller, Charles B., Portland, Me. (22). 
Fulton, Prof. Robert B., University of Miss., Oxford, Miss. (21). 

G. 

Garbett, Wm. A., 22 Guild Row, Boston Highlands, Mass. (22). 

Garmann, S. W., Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. (20). 

Garrett, Ell wood, Wilmington, Newcastle County, Del. (22). 

Gaskill, Joshua, Lockport, N. Y. (22). 

Gavlt, John E., 142 Broadway, N. Y. (1). 

Gill, Prof. Theodore, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (17). 

Oilman, Prof. Daniel C, Pres*t University of California, Oakland, Cal. (10). 

Glazier, Sarah M., Chelsea, Mass. (19). 

Goessman, Prof. C. A., State Agricultural College, Amherst, Mass. (18). 

Gold, Theodore S., West Cornwall, Conn. (4), 

Goodale, Prof. G. L., Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, Mass. ( ). 

Goode, Prof. George Brown, Middletown, Conn. (22). 

Goodell, Abner C, Jr., Salem, Mass. (18). 

Goold, W. N., Sec'y Portland Society Natural History, Portland, Me. (22). 

Gould, Prof. B. A., Cambridge, Mass. (2). 

Gould, Sylvester C, Manchester, N. H. (22). 

Graves, G. A., Ackley, Iowa (21). 

Gray, Prof. Asa, Botanical Gardens, Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Green, Dr. Samuel E., Blalrsville, Penn. (22). 

Green, Dr. Traill, Easton, Penn. (1). 

Greene, Dascom, Troy, N. Y. (17). 

Greene, David M., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Greene, Francis C, Easthampton, Mass. (11). 

Greer, James, Dayton, Ohio (20). 

Gregory, Prof. J. J. H., Marblehead, Mass. (18). 

Griffith, Miss E. A., Mt. Pleasant, Iowa (21). 

Grimes, J. Stanley, Evanston, III. (17). . 

Grinnan, A. G., Orange Court House, Va. (7). 

Grote, Aug. R., Sec'y Buffalo Soc. Nat. History, Buflklo, N. T. (22). 



THB ASSOCIATION. ZZZi 

Gonnlng, William D., Waltham, Mass. (^2). 
Gnyot, Prof. Arnold, Princeton, N. J. (1). 

H. 

Hadley, George, Buflklo, N. Y. (6). 

Hagen, Dr. Hermann A., Mus. Comp. ZooL, Cambridge Mass. (17). 

Haldeman, Prof. S. S., Colombia, Penn. (1). 

Hale, Dr. William H., Albany, N. Y. (19). 

HaU, Benjamin H., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Hall, George E., Cleveland, Ohio (19). 

Hall, Prof. James, Albany, N. Y. (1). 

Hall, L. B., Windsor, Vt. (18), 

Hall, Hon.'Nathan K. (7). 

Hambly, J. B., Portsmouth, B. I. (18). 

Hamel, Thomas E., Qaebec, Canada (18). 

Hamlin, Dr. A. C, Bangor, Me. (10). 

Hanaman, C. E., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Hance, Ebenezer, Fallslngton P. O., Bucks County, Penn. (7). 

Harrington, Prof. Mark W., Ann Arbor, Mich. (22). 

Harrison, Dr. B. F. Walllngford, Conn. (11). 

Hart, Bey. Samuel, Hartford, Conn. (22). 

Hartshome, Prof. Henry, Haverford College, Montgomery Co., Penn. (12). 

Harvey, Charles W-, Sup't Public Schools, Greensburg, Ind. (20). 

Harvey, Dr. Leon F., Buffalo, N. Y. (22). 

Harwood, Miss Grace, CouncU Hill, HI. (21). 

Hawkins, Dr. B. W., 9 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. (17). 

Hayes, George E., BuilUo, N. Y. (15). 

Hedrick, B. S., Washington, D. C. (19). 

Henderson, Geoige L., LeBoy, Minn. (21). 

Henry, Prof. Joseph, Sec'y Smithsonian Institation, Washington, D.C. (1). 

Hervey, Kev. A. B., 10 North 2d St, Troy, N. Y. (22). 

Hilgard, Prof. Eugene W., Ann Arbor, Mich. (1). 

Hilgard, Prot Julius E., U. S. Coast Survey, Washington, D. C. (4). 

Hilgard, Dr. Theodore C, care Dr. Tyndale, 121 Bivington St, N. Y. (17). 

Hill, 8. W., Hancock, Lake Superior (6). 

Hill, Rev. Dr. Thomas, 58 State St., Portland, Me. (8). 

Hinrichs, Prof. Gustavus, State University, Iowa City, Iowa (17). 

Hitchcock, Prof. Charles H., Hanover, N. H. (1). 

Hoadley, £. S., Springfield, Mass. (18). 

HoUey, Miss B. P., Niagara Falls, N. Y. (20). 

Honey, George W., Niagara Falls, N. Y. (19). 

Holmes, Thomas, Merom, Ind. (20). 

Homes, Henry A., Librarian State Library, Albany, N. Y. (11). 

Horr, Dr. Asa, Dubuque, Iowa (21). 

Horribin, WUliam T., Cohoes, N. Y. (19). 

Horsford, Prof. E. N., Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Hosford, Charles St, Terre Haute, Ind. (20). 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XZn. C. 



XZXU MEMBERS OF 

Hoagh, Franklin B., Lowville, N. Y. (4). 

Hough, G. W., Albany, N. Y. (16). 

Honk, Mrs. George W., Dayton, Ohio (22). 

House, John C, Union Gas Works, Waterford, N. Y. (19). 

Hovey, Prof. Edmand O., Wabash College, CrawfordsYllle, Ind. (20). 

Hovey, Mrs. Edmiyid 0., Crawfordsville, Ind. (21). 

Hovey, Miss Mary F., Crfiwrordsville, Ind. (20). 

Howe, E. C, Yonkers, N. Y. (19). 

Hoy, Dr. Phllo R., Racine^ Wis. (17). 

Hubbard, Prof. Oliver P., New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Hubbard, Mrs. Sara A., No. 81 Thirty-third St., Chicago, HI. (17). 

Humphrey, D., Lawrence, Mass. (18). 

Humphreys, A. W., Box, 1384, N. Y. (20). 

Hunt, George; Providence, R. I. (9). 

Hunt, Miss Sarah £., Salem, Mass. (20). 

Hunt, Dr. T. Sterry, St. James Hotel, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Huntington, Prof. J. H., Hanover, N. H. (19). 

Hyatt, Prof. Alpheus, Natural History Society, Boston, Mass. (18). 

Hyatt, James, Stanfordville, Dutchess Co., N. Y. (10). 

Hyatt, Jonathan S., Morrisiana, N. Y. (19). 

I. 

Irish, Thomas M., Box 2127, Dubuque, Iowa (21). 

J. 

Jackson, Prof. C. L., care P. T. Jackson, Boston, Mass. (20). 

Jackson, Lewis McL., Middletown, Conn. (22). 

James, Thomas Potts, Cambridge, Mass. (22). 

Jasper, Gustavus A., 12 Central St., Boston, Mass. (18). 

Jenks, Ellsha T., Middleboro, Mass. (22). 

Jenks, Prof. J. W. P., Middleboro, Mass. (2). 

JiUson, Dr. B. C, Pittsburgh, Penn. (14). 

Johnson, Prof. Hosmer A., Academy of Sciences, Chicago, HI. (22). 

Johnson, Prof. S. W., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (22). 

Johnston, Prof. John, Middletown, Conn. (1). 

Jones, William P., Ravens wood. 111. (21). 

Joy, Prof. C. A., Columbia College, New York (8). 

Joyce, Rev. J. J., jr., 83 North 17th St., PhUadelphia, Penn. (22). 

K. 

Keely, Prof. G. W., WaterviUe, Me. (1). 

Kellogg, Justin, 269 River St., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Kennedy, Mrs. Mary R., St. Louis, Gratiot Co., Mich. (19). 

Kerr, Prof. W. C, Raleigh, N. C. (10). 

Kimball, Dr. Frank B., Reading, Mass. (22). 

Kimball, Dr. J. P., New York (16). 

Kinder, Miss Sarah, 27 Lockerbie St., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 



THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIU 

King, MiS8 Mary B. A., Rochester, N. T. (15). 

King, Robert, Kalamazoo, Mich. (21). 

King, V. O., New Orleans, La. (21). 

King, William F., President Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, Iowa (21). 

Khmer, Dr. Hago, 1517 South Seventh St., St. Louis, Mo. (21). 

Kirkpatrick, James A., 19 South Fifth St. Philadelphia, Penn. (7). 

Kirkwood, Daniel, Bloomington, Ind. (7). 

Klippart, John H., Cor. Sec^ State Board of Agriculture, Box 1453, 

Columbus, Ohio (17). 
Knapp, Frederick N., Plymouth, Mass. (19). 
Knapp, Dr. Herman, 26 West Twenty-fourth St., N. Y. (22). 
Kneeland, Dr. Samuel, Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. (20). 
Knepper, C. O., Waverly, Iowa (21). 

Knight, J. B., No. 80 North Fifth St., Philadelphia, Penn. (21). 
Knox, Otho S., Waterloo, Iowa (21). 

L. 

Lambert, Thomas R., Charlestown, Mass. (18). 

Lambert, T. S., New York (21). 

Langley, S. P., Director Observatory, Allegheny, Penn. (18). 

Lapham, Dr. Increase A., Chief of Geological Corps, Milwaukee, Wis. (3). 

Lattimore, Prof. S. A., University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y.(16). 

Lawrence, Hon. £dw., Pres*t Bunker Hill N. Bk., Charlestown, Mass. (18). 

Lawrence, George N., 172 Pearl St., New York (7). 

Lea, Dr. Isaac, 1622 Locust St., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Leakin, Rev. George^ A., Baltimore, Md. (17). 

Leboorveau, Alonzo, Watertown, Wis. (22). 

Leckie, Robert G., Actonvale, Quebec, Canada (19). 

LeCo'nte, Dr. John L., 1625 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Lennon, W. H., Normal School, Brockport, N. Y. (19). 

Leonard, N. R., State University, Iowa City, Iowa (21). 

Lesley, Joseph, Jr., 233 South Fourth St., Philadelphia, Penn. (8). 

Lesley, Prof. J. P., Philadelphia, Pa. (2). 

Lindsley, Dr. J. B., Nashville, Tenn. (1). 

Lintner, J. A., Albany, N. Y. (22). 

Little, Prof. George, Oxford, Miss. (15). 

Little, W. C, Albany, N. Y. (22). 

Locke, Brie (20). 

Lockwood, Rev. Samuel, Freehold, N. J. (18). 

Logan, Sir William E., 15 St. Lambert St., Montreal, Canada (1). 

LoomiSy Prof. Ellas, New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Loughridge, Albert, Sup't Public Schools, Newton, Iowa (21). 

Loughridge, Prof. R. H., Oxford, Miss. (21). 

Lovering, Prof. Joseph, Cambridge, Mass. (2). 

Lupton, Prof. N. T., University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala. (17). 

Lyford, Prof. Moses, Watervllle, Me. (22). 

Lyman, B. S., care of Smith, Archer & Co., Yokohama, Japan (15). 



XXZiy MEMBERS OF 

Lyman, Prof. Chester S., New Haven, Conn. (14). 

Lyon, Dr. Henry, 34 Monament Sq., Charlestown, Mass. (18), 

M. 

MacArthur, Charles L., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Maclntire, Thomas, Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Mack, Dr. William, Salem, Mass. (21). 

Malone, David R., Edlnbarg, Ind. (20). 

Mann, B. Flckman, Cambridge, Mass. (22). 

Marcy, Prof. Oliver, Evanston, 111. (10). 

Marden, George H., 7 Parker St., Charlestown, Mass. (18). 

Mark, Edward L., Fredonia, N. Y. (21). 

Mauran, Dr. J., 68 West 19th St., New York (2). 

Mayer, Prof. Albert M., Stevens Inst. Technology, Hoboken, N. J. (19). 

McClintock, Frank, West Union, Iowa (22). 

McColIister, Bev. S. H., Pres't Bucktel College, Akron, Ohio (22). 

McCreery, J. L., Dabnqne, Iowa (21). 

Mclsaac, P., Waterloo, Iowa (21). 

McMurtrie, Horace, Boston, Mass. (17). 

McMurtrie, William, Dep't Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (22). 

McRae, Hamilton S., Muncie, Ind. (20.) 

McRae, John, Camden, S. C. (8). . 

McWhorter, Tyler, Aledo, 111. (20). 

Means, Kev. A., Oxford, Ga. (5). 

Meehan, Thomas, Germantown, Penn. (17). 

Meek, F. B., Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. (6). 

Meigs, Dr. James Aitken, 423 South Broad St., Philadelphia, Penn. (12). 

Mendenhall, Prof. T. C, Agri. and Mechanical Coll., Columbus, Ohio (20). 

Merrill, Prof. George C, Washburn College, Topeka, Kansas (22). 

Merritt, George, Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Metcalf, Caleb B., Worcester, Mass. (20). ^ 

Miller, John A., Paducah, Ey. (22). 

Milner, James W., Waukegan, U\, (22). 

Mtnifle, William, 114 Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md. (12). 

Mitchell, AClss Maria, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (4). 

Moore, Prof. James W., Easton, Penn. (22). 

Moore, Joseph, Pres't Earlham Coll., Richmond, Ind. (20). 

Morgan, Hon. L. H., Rochester, N. Y. (11). 

Morison, Dr. N. H., Provost of ^eabody Institute, "Baltimore, Md. (17). 

Morley, Edward W., Hudson, Ohio (18). 

Morris, Rev. John O., Baltimore, Md. (12). 

Morris, Oran W., 242 West Twenty-sixth St., New York (19). 

Morse, Prof. Edward S., Salem, Mass. (18). 

Morton, Henry, Hoboken, N. J. (18). 

Munroe, Charles £., Cambridge, Mass. (22). 

Munroe, John C, Lexington, Mass. (22). 

Munroe, William, 106 Boylston St., Boston, Mass. (18). 



THB A8S0CIATIQN. XXXY 



N. 



Nason, Almond F., 15 State St., Boston, Mass. (22). 

Nason, Prof. Henry B., Troy, N. Y. (18). 

Newberry, Prof. J. S., Cleveland, Ohio, and Colambia Coll., New York (6). 

Newcomb, Prof. Simon, U. S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D. C. (13). 

Newman, John S., 48 East Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Newman, Mrs. John S., 48 East Washington St., Indianapolis, Ind. (21). 

Newton, Hnbert A., New Haven, Conn. '(6). 

Newton, Be v. John, Mary Esther, West Fla. (7). 

Nichols, Charles A., Providence, B. I. (17). 

Nichols, Prof. W. B., Mass. Inst. Technology, Boston, Mass. (18). 

Nicholson, Dr. /Thomas, 490 Magazine St., New Orleans, La. (21). 

Nickel, George D., ConnellsvUle, Penn. (19). 

Niles, Prof. W. H., Cambridge, Mass. (16). 

Norton, Miss Mary E. B., Bockford Seminary, Bockford, 111. (21). 

Norton, Prof. W. A., New Haven, Conn. (6). 

Nntt, Cyras, Bloomington, Ind. (20). 

O. 

Ogden, Mahlon D., Chicago, HI. (17). 

Ogden,llobert W., 44 Carondelet St., New Orleans, La. (21). 

Ogden, W. B., High Bridge, Westchester County, N. Y. (17). 

Oliver, Prof. James E., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (7). 

Olmstead, F. L., Commissioner of Pnblic Parks, New York (22). 

Ordway, John M., Boston, Mass. (9). 

Orton, Prof. Edward, President Ohio'Agricoltural and Mechanical College, 

Colombns, Ohio (19). 
Osborne, Amos O., Waterville, N. Y. (19), 
Osborne, John W., Washington, D. C. (22). 
Ostrander, L. A., Dubnqne, Iowa (21). 
Owen, Dr. Bichard, Ind. State University, Bloomington, Ind. (20). 

P. 

Packard, Dr. A. S., jr., Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. (16). 

Page, Peter, Chicago, 111. (17). 

Paine, Charles, 163 Prospect St., Cleveland, Ohio (22). 

Paine, Cyms F., Bochester, N. Y. (12). 

Paine, Nathaniel, Worcester, Mass. (18). 

Painter, Minshall, Lima, Penn. (7). 

Palfrey, Hon. C. W., Salem, Mass. (21). 

Palmer, Dr. A. B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (21). 

Palmer, Mrs. A. B., Ann Arbor, Mich. (21). 

Palmer, Bev. BenJ. M., Box 1762, New Orleans, La. (21). 

Palmer, Dr. Edward, care Smithsonian Inst., Washington, D. C. (22). 

Palmer, Bev. James M., Portland, Me. (22). 

Parker, J. B., Grand Bapids, Mich. (21). 



XXXVi MElfBERS OF 

Parry, Dr. Charles C, Davenport, Iowa (6). 

Parvin, Theodore S., Iowa City, Iowa (7). 

Patton, WUlIam W., Chicago, 111. (18). 

Peck, W. A., care Peck and Hillman, Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Peckham, 8. P., Bnchtel College, Akron, Ohio (18). 

Pedrick, Wm. R., Lawrence, Mass. (22). 

Peirce, Prof. Bei^amin, Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Pelrce, B. O., Beverly, Mass. (18). 

Percival, Rev. Chester S., Rector of Emmanuel Church, Rockford, 111. (21). 

Perkins, Prof. George H., Burlington, Vt. (17). 

Perkins, Prof. George R., Utlca, N. Y. (7). 

Perkins, Maurice, Schenectady, N. Y. (16). 

Perkins, S. E., jr., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Perkins, T. Lyman, Salem, Mass. (22). 

Phelps, Gen. Charles E., Baltimore, Md. (13). 

Phelps, Mrs. Lincoln, Baltimore, Md. (18). 

Phlppen, George D., Salem, Mass. (18)'. 

Pickering, Prof. Edward C, Boston, Mass. (18). 

Pierce, Henry D., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Pond, Erasmus A., Rutland, Yt. (22). 

Porteous, John, Agent Grand Trunk Railway, Portland, Me. (22). 

Pourtales, L. F., Keeper Museum Comp. Zoology, Cambridge, Majss. (l). 

Pratt, William H., Davenport, Iowa (17). 

Prince, Gen. Henry, Paymaster General of Coast Survey, New York (22). 

Preston, W. C, Iowa City, Iowa (21). 

Pruyn, John V. L., Chancellor University of N. Y., 13 Elk St., Albany, 

N. Y. (1). 
Pulsifer, Sidney, Peoria, 111. (21). 

Pumpelly, Prof. Raphael, Newburgh, Orange County, N. Y. (17). 
Putnam, F. W., Director Peabody Academy Science, Salem, Mass. (10). 
Putnam, Mrs. F. W., Salem, Mass. (19). 

Qulmby, Prof. E. T., Hanover, N. H. (22). 

Qulnche, Prof. A. J., Oxford, Miss. (20). 

Qulncy, Edmund, jr., 3 Mt. Vernon St., Boston, Mass. (11). 

R. 

Ranch, Dr. J. H., Chicago, 111. (11). 

Raymond, R. W., Box 4404, New York, N. Y. (16). 

Read, Ezra, Terre Haute, Ind. (20). 

Redfleld, John H., care of- A. Whitney & Sons, Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Remsen, Prof. Ira, Williams College, Willlamstown, Mass. (22). 

Rice, Prof. William N., Mlddletown, Conn. (18). 

Richards, Prof. Robert H., Mass. Inst, of Technology, Boston, Mass. (22). 

Richardson, F. C. A., Corner Garrison and Wash. Av., St. Louis, Mo. (20). 

Riley, Prof. Charles V., St. Louis, Mo. (17). 



• • 



THE ASSOCIATION. XXXVU 

• 

'Ritchie, E. S., Boston, Mass. (10). 

Bobertson, Col. Robert S., Fort Wayne, Ind. (20). 

Bobertson, Thomas D., Rockford, 111. (10). 

Rockwell, Altred P., Office Board Fire Commissioners, Boston, Mass. (10). 

Rockwell, Joseph P., Burlington, Iowa (17). 

Rockwood, Prof. Charles 6., jr., Brunswick, Me. (20). 

Rogers, Fairman, 202 West Ritteuhouse Sq., Philadelphia, Penn. (II). 

Rogers, Prof. Robert E., Philadelphia, Penn. (18). 

Rogers, W. A., Cambridge, Mass. (15). 

Rogers, Prof. William B., Hotel Berkeley, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Rominger, Br. Carl, Ajin Arbor, Mich. (21). 

Rood, Prof. O. N., New York (U). 

Roosevelt, Clinton, No. 15 Centre St., New York (11). 

Ross, Dr. Alexander M., Toronto, Canada (21). 

Ross, Angus, Morris Street School, Halifax, Canada (22). 

Rosseter, 6. R., Marietta, Ohio (18). 

Ramsey, Bronson C, Buflklo, N. Y. (15). 

Rankle, Prof. J. D., Pres. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. (2). 

Russell, L. W., Providence, R. I. (20). 

Rutherford, Louis M., New York (18). 

S. 
Sadtler, Prof. Samuel D., Gettysburg, Penn. (22). 
SafTord, James M.» Nashville, Tenn. (6). 
SalTord, Dr. Mary J., 4 Boylston Place, Boston, Mass. (21). 
Sanders, Benjamin D., Wellsburg, Brooke County, W. V. (19). 
Saunders, William, London, Canada (17). 

Saonderson, Robert, Sup't of Public Schools, Burlington, Iowa (21). 
Saville, Dr John J., Sioux City, Iowa (22). 
Scammon, J. Young, Chicago, 111. (17). 

Schanck, Prof. J. Stillwell, Princeton College, Princeton, N. J. (4). 
Schott, Charles A., Coast Survey Office, Washington, D. C. (8). 
Scndder, Samuel H., Cambridge, Mass. (IS)! 
Seaman, Ezra C, Ann Arbor, Mich. (20). 
Seely, Charles A., 26 Pine St., New York (18). 
Senter, Harvey S., Aledo, Mercer Co., III. (20). 
Seymour, Prof. William P., 105 Third St., Troy, N. Y. (19). 
Shaler, Prof. N. S., Newport, Ky., and Cambridge, Mass. (19). 
Sheafer, P. W., Pottsville, Penn. (4). 
Sheldon, Edwin H., Chicago, HI. (17). 
Slas, Solomon, Charlottesville, Schoharie Co., N. Y. (10). 
Sin, Hon. Elisha N., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio (6). 
SiUiman, Prof. Benjamin, New Haven, Conn. (1). 
Sniiman, Prof. Justus M., Easton, Penn. (19). 
Sloan, Dr. John, New Albany, Ind. (20). 

Smith, Prof. Eugene A., University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Ala. (20). 
Smith, Prof. J. L., Louisville, Ky. (14). 



XXZVlll MEMBEBS OV 

i 

Smith, Dr. J. W., Charles City, Iowa (21). 

Smith, James Y., 66 Westminster St., Proyidence, B. I. (9). 

Smith, S. I., New Haven, Conn. (18). 

Snell, Prof. Ebenezer S., Amherst, Mass. (2). 

Spencer, John W., Paxton, Ind. (20). 

Squier, Hon. B. G., 4 West Twenty-seventh St., New York (18). 

Stanard, Benjamin A., Cleveland, Ohio (6). 

Starr, William, Blpon, Wis. (21). 

Steams, B. £. C, San Francisco, Cal. (18). 

Steiner, Dr. Lewis H., Frederick City, Md. (7). 

Stephens, W. Hudson, Lowville, N. Y. (18). 

Stevens, Jalius, Humboldt, Iowa (21). 

Stevens, B. P., 26 Pine St., New York (18). 

Stevens, Dr. Thaddeus M., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). 

Steward, A., 631 York St., Chicago, Hi. (21). 

Stimpson, Thomas M., Peabody, Mass. (18). 

Stockwell, John N., 679 Case Av., Cleveland, Ohio (18). 

Stone, Mrs. Lander, Chicago, 111. (22). 

Stone, Col. Samuel, Box 203, Chicago, 111. (17). 

Storer, Dr. D. H., Boston, Mass. (1). 

Storer, Dr. Frank H., Boston, Mass. (13). 

Storke, Helen L., Auburn, N. Y. (19). 

Storrs, Henry £., Jacksonville, 111. (20). 

Stowell, John, 48 Main Street, Charlestown, Mass. (21). 

Stuart, Prof. A. P. S., III. Industrial University, Champaign, 111. (21). 

Sutton, George, Aurora, Ind. (20). 

Swain, James, Fort Dodge, Iowa (21). 

Swain, Mrs. James, Fort Dodge, Iowa (21). 

Swallow, Prof. G. C, Columbia, Mo. (10). 

Swan, Prof. Blchard W., Iowa College, Grlnnell, Iowa (21). 

Swan, S. £., Brooklyn, N. Y. (22). 

Swasey, Oscar F., Beverly, Mass. (17). 

T. 

Taft, Prof. S. H., President Humboldt College, Humboldt, Iowa (21). 

Taft, Mrs. S. H., Humboldt, Iowa (21). 

Talbot, Hon. George F., Portland, Me. (22). 

Tappan, Eli T., Pres't of Kenyon College, Gambler, Ohio (20). 

Taylor, Edward B., Cleveland, Ohio (20). 

Tenney, Prof. Sanborn, Willlamstown, Mass. (17). 

Tewksbury, Samuel H., Portland, Me. (22). 

Thompson, Aaron B.*, 36 Pine St., New York (1). 

Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth, 46 West Tenth St., New York (22). 

Thompson, Harvey M., Box 149, Chicago, 111. (17). 

Thompson, Joseph P., Portland, Me. (22). 

Thompson, Bobert H., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Thomson, A., Iowa City, Iowa (21). 



THE ASSOCIATION. XXXIX 

Thrasher, William M., Indianapolis, Ind. (21). 

Thurber, Miss EUzabeth, Plymonth, Mass. (22). 

Tillman, Prof. 8. D., Jersey City, N. J. (15). 

Tillman, Mrs. S. D., Jersey City, N. J. (20). 

Todd, Prof. James E., Tabor, Fremont Co., Iowa (22). 

Tolles, Bobert B., 40 Hanover St., Boston, Mass. (16). 

Tomlinson, Dr. J. M., 28 East Ohio St., Indianapolis, Ind. (20). ^ 

Townsend, Hon. Franklin, Albany, N. Y. (4). 

Townshend, Prof. N. S., Columbus, Ohio (17). 

Tracy, 0. M., Lynn, Mass. (19). 

Trembly, Dr. J. B., San Jose, Santa Clara Co., Cal. (17). 

Trowbridge, Mrs*. L. H., 158 Jefferson Ave., Detroit, Mich. (21). 

Trowbridge, Prof. W. P., New Haven, Conn. (10). 

Tumbull, Dr. Lawrence, 1208 Spruce St., Philadelphia, Penn. (10). 

Turner, Dr. Bobert S., box 7121, Minneapolis, Minn. (18). 

TuUle. Prof Albert H., Columbus, Ohio (17). 

Twining, A. C, New Haven, Conn. (18). 

Tyson, Prof. Philip T., Baltimore, Md. (12). 

U. 

Uhler, Philip B., Baltimore, Md. (19). 

Upham, Dr. J. Baxter, 81 Chestnut St., Boston, Mass. (14). 

V. 

Vail, Prof Hugh D., 1927 Mt. Vernon St., Philadelphia, Penn. (18). 

Van der Weyde, Dr. P. H., New York (17). 

Vasey, George, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. (20). 

Vaux, William S., 1702 Arch St., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Verrill, Prof A. E., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (16). 

Vose, Prof George L., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. (15). 

W. 

Waddel, John N., Oxford, Miss. (17). 

Walker, Charles A., 42 Court St., Boston, Mass. (18). 

Walker, George C, 274 Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. (17). 

Walker, Prof Joseph B., care Bank of Kentucky, Louisville, Ey. (20). 

Walker, Prof. J. B., Napoleon Ave., comer Coliseum St., New Orleans, 

Walker, N. B., Arlington, Mass. (20). [La. (19). 

Walling, H. F., 102 Chauncy St., Boston, Mass. (16). 

Wanzer, Ira, Lanesville, Litchfield Co., Conn. (18). 

Ward, Prof Henry A., Bochester, N. Y. (13). 

Ward, Dr. R. H., No. 63 Fourth St., Troy, N. Y. (17). 

Warder, Bobert B., Cleves, Hamilton Co., Ohio (19). 

Wardwell, George J., Butland, Vt. (20). 

Warner, H. C, Clermont, Iowa (21). 

Warner, James D., 4 Hanover St., New York (18). 

Warner, Mrs. J. D., 4 Hanover St., New York (21). 

Warren, Gen. G. K., U.S.A., Engineer's Office, Newport, B. I. (12). 



Zl MEMBEBS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Warren, G. W., 42 Court St., Boston, Mass. (18). 

Warren, 8. Edward, Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. (17). 

Watson, Sereno, Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, Mass. (22). 

Waugh, J. W., Lucknow, India (21). 

Webb, Benjamin, Salem, Mass. (18). 

Webster, Prof. Nathan B., Prin. of Webster Institute, Norfolk, Va. (7). 

Welch, Mrs. G. O., Lynn, Mass. (21). 

Wells, Daniel H., New Haven, Conn. (18). 

Wells, George A., Troy, N. Y. (19). 

Westcott, 0. S., High School, Chicago, 111. (21). 

Wheatland, Dr. Henry, President Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. (1). 

Wheatley, Charles M., Phoenixyille, Penn. (1). 

Wheeler, C. G., Chicago, El. (18). 

Wheeler, Dr. T. B., Box 88i, Montreal, Canada (11). 

Wheelock, G. A., Keene, N. H. (22). 

Wheildon, W. W., Concord, Mass. (18). 

White, Prof. C. A., Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. (17). 

Whitfield, R. P., Albany, N. Y. (18). 

Whitney, Asa, care of A. Whitney & Sons, Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Whitney, Prof. J. D., Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Whitney, Maiy W., Waltham, Mass. (19). 

Whitney, Solon F., Watertown, Mass. (20). 

Whittlesey, Col. Charles, Cleveland, Ohio. (1). 

Wilber, G. M., Pine Plains, N. Y. (19). 

Wilder, Dr. Burt G., Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. (22). 

Wiley, Dr. Harvey W., Indianapolis, Ind. (21). 

Williams, Charles H., 15 Arlington St., Boston, Mass. (22). 

Williams, Mrs. B. B., Strawberry Point, Iowa (21). 

Williams, H. S., Williams Brothers, Phenix Iron Works, Ithaca, N. Y. (18). 

Williams, Prof. Henry W., Boston, Mass. (11). 

Winchell, Prof. Alexander, Syracuse, N. Y. (8). 

Winchell, Prof. N. H., St. Anthony, Minn. (19). 

Witter, F. M., Muscatine, Iowa (21). 

Woodman, H. T., Dubuque, Iowa (20). 

Woodworth, Dr. John M., U. S. Marine Hospital Service, Washington, 

Wormley, Thomas G., Columbus, Ohio (20). [D. C. (17). 

Worster, Joseph, 115 East Thirtieth St., New York (22). 

Worthen, A. H., Springfield, 111. (6). 

Wright, Prof. A. W., Yale College, New Haven, Conn. (14). 

Wurtele, Rev. Louis C, Acton Vale, Province of Quebec, Canada East (11) . 

Wurtz, Henry, 12 Hudson Terrace, Hoboken, N. J. (10). 

Wyckoff. William C, Tribune Office, New York (20). 

Wylle, Prof. Theophilus A., Ind. State University, Bloomlngton, Ind. (20)* 

Y. 

Youmans, Prof. B. L., New York (6). 

Young, Prof. Charles A., Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. (18). 

Young, William H., 8 and 9 First St., Troy, N. Y. (19). 



MEMBEES ELECTED 



AT 



PORTLAND MEETING. 



One hundred and ten members were elected at the Portland meeting. 
Of. these ninety-seven have paid the admission fee and assessment for the 
meeting and their names have been incorporated Into the List of Members. 
One has declined, and the following have not yet replied to the notifica- 
tions sent to them. 

Barton, Charles H., Superintendent Schools, Plymouth, Mass. 

Chace, Arnold B., Valley Falls, R. I. 

Bayis, William T., Plymouth, Mass. 

Hayes, Bey. Charles W., Portland, Me. 

Kingsbury, Hon. Benjamin; Jr., Portland, Me. 

Muir, John, Yosemite, Cal. 

JSeeljf Rt. Rev. Henry A., Portland, Me. 

Schwarz, Rev. Loais B., Boston, Mass. 

Smith, Louis B., Portland, Me. 

Snyder, Dr. John F., Virginia, Cass Co., HI. 

Whitaker, Nelson Bowen, Providence, R. I. 

Wildes, Rev. Dr. George D., New York, N. Y. 

(xli) 



! 



DECEASED MEMBERS. 



Adams, C. B., Amherst, Mass. (1). 
Adams, Edwin F., CharlestowD, Mass. (18). 
Agasslz, LoQls, Cambridge, Mass. (1). 
Ames, M. P., Springfield, Mass. (1). 
Appleton, Nathan, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Bache, Alexander D., Washington, D. C. (1). 
Bailey, J. W., West Point, N. Y. (1). 
Beck, C. F., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 
Beck, Lewis C, New Brunswick, N. J. (1). 
Beck, T. Romeyn, Albany, N. Y. (1). 
Blnney, Amos, Boston, Mass. (1). 
Binney, John, Boston, Mass. (8). 
Blanding, William, R. I. (1). 
Blatchley, Miss S. L., New Haven, Conn. (19). 
Bomford, George, Washington, D. C. (1). 
Bumap, G. W., Baltimore, Md. (12). 
Burnett, Waldo I., Boston, Mass. (1). 
Butler, Thomas B., Norwalk, Conn. (10). 

Carpenter, Thornton, Camden, 8. C. (7). 
Carpenter, William M., New Orleans, La. (1). 
Case, William, Cleveland, Ohio (6). 
Chapman, N., Philadelphia, Pa. (1). 
Chase, S., Dartmouth, N. H. (2). 
Chauvenet, William, St. Louis, Mo. (1). 
Clapp, Asahel, New Albany, Ind. (1). 
Clark, Joseph, Cincinnati, Ohio (5). 
Cleveland, A. B., Cambridge, Mass. (2). 
CoiBn, Prof. James H., Easton, Penn. (1). 
Cole, Thomas, Salem, Mass. (1). 
Coleman, Henry, Boston, Mass. (1). 
Coming, Erastus, Albany, N. Y. (6). 
Crosby, Thomas R., Hanover, N. H. (18). 

Dean, Amos, Albany, N. Y. (6). 

Dearborn, George H. A. S., Rozbury, Mass. (1). 

Dekay, James £., New York (1). 

Dewey, Chester, Rochester, N. Y. (1). 

(xlU) 



DECEASED HEMBEBS. xllii 



Dexter, G. M., Boston, Mass. (11). 
Docatel, J. T., Baltimore, Md. (1). 
Damont, A. H., Newport, «. I. (lA^. 
Duncan, Lucius C, New Orleans, La. (10). 
Dunn, B. P., Providence, B. L (14). 

Everett, Edward, Boston, Mass. (2). 
Ewing, Hon. Thomas, Lancaster, Ohio (5). 

Ferris, Bev. Dr. Isaac, New York (6). 

Fisher, Mark, Trenton, N. J. (10). 

Fitch, Alexander, Hartford, Conn. (1). 

Forbnsh, £. B., BofEUo, N. T. (16). 

Foster, Col. J. W., Hyde Park, Chicago, HI. (1). 

Foucon, Felix, Madison, Wis. (18). 

Fox, Charles, Grosse He, Mich. (7). 

Gay, Martin, Boston, Mass. (1). 
Gibbon, J. H., Charlotte, N. C. (3). 
Gillespie, W. M., Schenectady, N. T. (10). 
Gilmor, Robert, Baltimore, Md. (1). 
GoQld, Augustus A., Boston, Mass. (11). 
Gould, B. A., Boston, Mass. (2). 
Graham» James D., Washington, D. C. (1). 
Gray, James H. Springfield, Mass. (6). 
Greene,* Benjamin D., Boston, Mass. (1). 
Griffith, Robert £., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Hackley, Charles W., New York (4). 

Hale, Enoch, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Hare, Robert, Philadelphia, Penn. (11). 

Harlan, Joseph G., Haverford, Penn. (8). 

Harlan, Richard, Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Harris, Thaddeus W., Cambridge, Mass. (1). 

Hart, Simeon, Farmington, Conn. (1). 

Hayden, H. H., Baltimore, Md. (1). 

Hayward, James, Boston, Mass. (1). 

Hitchcock, Edward, Amherst, Mass. (1). 

Holbrook, J. £., Charleston, S. C. (1). • 

Hopkins, Albert, Williams town, Mass. (19). 

Horton, WUliam, Craigville, Orange Co., N. T. (1). 

Houghton, Douglas, Detroit, Mich. (1). 

Rowland, Theodore,. Buffalo, N. T. (15). 

Hubbert, James, Richmond, Province of Quebec (16). 

Hunt, E. B., Washington, D. C. (2). 

Hunt, Freeman, New York (11). 

Ives, Thomas P., Providence, R. I, (10). 



ZliV DECEASED HEMBEBS. 

Johnsoii, W. R., Washington, D. C. (!)• 
Jones, Catesby A. B., Washington, D. C. (8). 

Lasel, Edward, Williamstown, Mass. (1). 
Lederer Baron von, Washington, D. C. (!)• 
Lleber, Oscar M., Columbia, S. C. (8). 
Lincklaen, Ledjard, Cazenovia, N. Y. (1). 
Linsley, James H., Stafford, Conn. (1). 
Loosey, Charles F., New York (12). 
Lothrop, Joshua B., Buffalo, N. Y. (16). 
Lyon, Sidney S., Jefferson vLUe, Ind. (20). 

Maack, G. A., Cambridge, Mass. (18). 
M'Conlhe, Isaac, Troy, N. Y. (4). 
Marsh, Dexter, Greenfield, Mass. (1). 
Mather, William W., Columbus, Ohio (1). 
Meade, George G., Philadelphia, Pa. (16). 
Morton, S. G., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Newton, E. H., Cambridge, N. Y. (1). 
Nlcollett, J. N., Washington, D. C. (1). 
Norton, J. P., New Haven, Conn. (1). 
Noyes, J. O., New Orleans, La. (21). 

Oakes, William, Ipswich, "Mass. (1). 
Olmsted, Alexander F., New Haven, Conn. (4). 
Olmsted, Denlson, New Haven, Conn. (1). 
Olmsted, Denlson, Jr., New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Parkman, Samuel, Boston, Mass. (1). 
Perkins, Henry C, Newburyport, Mass. (18). 
Perry, John B., Cambridge, Mass. (16). 
Perry, M. C, New York (10). 
Plumb, Ovid, Salisbury, Conn. (9). 
Pope, Charles A., St. Louis, Mo. (12). 
Porter, John A., New Haven, Conn. (14). 
Pugh, Evan, Centre Co., Penn. (14). 

Bedfleld, William C, New Yo'rk (1). 
Bockwell, John A., Norwich, Conn. (10). 
Bogers, James B., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 

Seward, William H., Auburn, N. Y. (1). 
Sllllman, Bei^'amln, New Ha^en, Conn. (1). 
Smith, J. v., Cincinnati, Ohio (6). 
Smith, Lyndon A., Newark, N. J. (9). 
Sparks, Jared, Cambridge, Mass. (2). 



DECEASED MEMBEBS. xlv 



Stimpson, Dr. Wllllam» Chicago, HI. (12). 
SaUiyant, Prof. W. S., Colnmbos, Ohio (7). 

Tallmadge, James, New York (1). 
Taylor, Richard C, Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 
Teschemacher, J. £., Boston, Mass. (1). 
Thompson, Z., Burlington, Yt. (1). 
Thurber, Isaac, Providence, R. I. (9). 
Torrey, John, New York (1). 
Totten, J. G., Washington, D. C. (1). 
Townsend, John E., Philadelphia, Penn. (1). 
Troost, Gerard, Nashville, Tenn. (1). 
Tnomey, M., Tuscaloosa, Ala. (1). 
Tyler, Edward R., New Haven, Conn. (1). 

Vancleve, John W., Dayton, Ohio (1). 
Yanuxem, Lardner, Bristol, Penn. (1). 

Wadsworth, James S.,. Genesee, N. Y. (2). 
Wagner, Tobias, Philadelphia, Penn. (9). 
Walker, Joseph, Oxford, N. Y. (10). 
Walker, Sears C, Washington, D. C. (1). 
Walker, Timothy, Cincinnati, Ohio (4). 
Warren, John C, Boston, Mass. (1). 
Webster, H. B., Albany, N. Y. (1). 
Webster, J. W., Cambridge, Mass. (1). 
Webster, M. H., Albany, N. Y. (1). 
Wheatland, Richard H., Salem, Mass. (13). 
Willard, Emma, Troy, N. Y. (15). 
Woodbury, L., Portsmouth, N. H. (1). 
Wright, John, Troy, N. Y. (1). 

Young, Ira, Hanover, N. H. (7). 







ADDRESS 



ov 



DR. J. LAWRENCE SMITH, 



THE BBTIRING PRESIDENT OF THE ASSOCIATION. 



Fellow Associates: — We meet again, at a point far distant 
from the one where we gathered last year, to interchange social 
greetings and scientifie thoughts, and to form plans for fature 
labor and usefulness. Fifteen hundred miles divide Dubuque from 
Portland, as the bird flies, and yet that extent of country and 
much more are all our own. Its living and its dead treasures, with 
its rocks and its soil, Aimish our men of science abundant study 
from which to draw rich stores of knowledge, and to direct the 
capital of the country to new sources of wealth. 

As the members of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science hold their session for a few days only, and 
occupj a portion of their time in interchange of social greetings 
among themselves and with the inhabitants of the city where they 
meet, that critical examination of papers communicated to the 
Association cannot be entered upon that otherwise would be, nor 
can the length of the communications and discussions be easily 
limited. In fact, while it would be desirable to supervise these 
matters more fully, such supervision is surrounded with so many 
difficulties that those whose business it is are forced to content 
themselves with an imperfect discharge of their duty. 

A. A. A. S., VOL. XXU. I • 



2 president's addbbss. 

This too often gives rise to unjast criticisms on the part of the 
press, whose reporters attend the meetings with the same views as 
those with which they woald enter a learned body of scientific 
men, who meet at stated periods, with short intervals, and where 
both time and sound criticism are bestowed upon such investiga- 
tions as are communicated. 

The meeting of this Association is, in some sense, to be regarded 
as an annual scientific fete^ where the interchange of ideas outside 
the audience-room suggests as much, if not more, stem matter 
for refiection as the communications which may be read ; minds 
that have been on the stretch during the year are relaxed, and 
iVesh pabulum and new vigor are furnished for the coming year. 

It sometimes happens that many persons who attend our meetings 
gather from them erroneous impressions as to what the scientific 

« 

men of the country are doing, and go away questioning themselves 
whether or not scientific societies and associations have, after all, 
done much for science ; and conclude that while the men forming 
them have made many important investigations, and published them 
for the benefit of succeeding ages, it is to practical and obscure per- 
sons that the world is indebted for its great discoveries. 

I allude to this here, as it is but recently that I have seen this 
assertion made in an article calculated to attract the attention of 
the masses, and the author of that article illustrates the fact by 
citing Clarke, Fulton and Morse. Now, while all honor is due to 
those men of skill and genius, I would ask — What gave them the 
ftilcrums on which they placed their levers, by which they have 
wrought so much in practical science and the arts of life? It was 
pure science. Without its aid Clarke's practical skill would have 
failed him in constructing his huge astronomical lenses ; it is to 
the experiments on latent heat in the laboratory of Black that we 
owe the present steam-engine, and without which Fulton would 
never have ruffled the water of our rivers nor stemmed the, winds 
, of the ocean ; and without the scientific thought and the grand, 
though inconspicuous, experiments of Galvani, Volta, Oersted, 
Faraday, Henry and others, no one would have ever dreamed of 
making a swift messenger of the lightning. 

My thoughts on this subject have led me to refiect much upon 
scientific training in this country, for those wishing to pursue 
science as a profession as well as for those desiring it only for 
general education. 



pbesident's address. 8 

There are, no doubt, serious errors in the scientific training 
that students undergo at our various universities and schools, 
which are too much in the habit of making short cuts in going 
over the fields of science. We are in fact a fast people, as it is 
commonly expressed, and are not content to devote patient and 
laborious study to pursuits that can be mastered only in that way. 
A short time ago a physician writing on this same error in rela- 
tion to his profession justly said that, while we have shortened 
distance by the railroad and the telegraph, the road to learning is 
the same as it was in the days of Socrates and Plato. 

The student is restless to become instructor, the lecture-room 
enticing him from his studies before they are half mastered ; con- 
sequently his instruction to others is both meagre and imperfect. 

Our vast material interests draw the students from their labora^ 
tones to undertake the conducting of mines and other important 
works. The consequence is, bad economy reigns in most of 
them ; and if it were not for the patient submission of the people 
of this country to high prices, many an enterprise would have to 
suspend operations. 

But it is at the door of the educational institutions themselves 
that the greatest blame is to be placed.* First of all, our univer- 
sities (or rather our so-called universities) are too numerous. 
Nowadays every college must have a scientific school attached, 
else it is not thought complete; and the number of professors 
competent to fill the scientific chairs in all these institutions could 
not be easily supplied in this country. Were it possible, it would 
be far better to have fewer scientific schools ; to establish them 
on the broadest basis, with most liberal endowments, so that in- 
struction could be imparted at some mere nominal cost' to the 
student; to make their examinations of such a standard that 
the indorsement of these several schools would be a passport to 
the bearer of it wherever he might seek for employment in pure 
science or in its applications ; and, fbrthermore, by a system of 
well-endowed scholarships, to retain those specially gifted with 
taste and talent for pure science to devote their first years to 
labor in that direction. Owing to these defects in our system of 
scientific education, American science is frequently reproached as 
being very deficient in pure and patient research. 

Now, while admitting that our scientists have fallen short qf 

m 

what might have been expected of them, no one can deny that a 



4 fbesident's address. • 

■ 

vast amount of scientific labor has been accomplished in this 
country from the time of Franklin to the present day ; and in the 
application of science to the arts we are not far behind the most 
advanced nation of our own time. 

I know that American scientists are looked upon by their Eu- 
ropean colleagues as in some sense piratical in their nature, sim- 
ply capturing the hard-earned labors of others, applying the great 
truths and discoveries in science that others have brought to light, 
and not evolving them by hard and laborious study and experi. 
ment. This is to some extent true, for the labors required of our 
professors, who have educated and trained minds, in the countless 
colleges that dot the land, are so onerous that no time is given 
them for the exercise of original thought and investigation. 

What can a physicist, a chemist or a naturalist, do who has three 
or four classes to teach, usually in the most elementary part of 
their studies? This very labor unfits him for that fVee exercise of 
the mind which leads to new ideas and discoveries. He becomes an 
educational, drudge instead of an intellectual scientist ; and what- 
ever his intrinsic merits may be, he is in most cases sustained, 
pecuniarily, no better than those engaged in the commonest pur- 
suits of life, being at the*same time restricted in intellectual re- 
sources — such as books, scientific transactions, apparatus, etc. 

I will, however. Just here make one other plea for our men of 
science against any unjust comparison with those across the At- 
lantic. It is this. Our country is a new one, of most peculiar and 
wonderful features of surface, of soil and of climate, and of un- 
told and fabulous wealth within its bowels ; it beckons every man 
'to fortune ; and with such ease are wealth and honors snatched 
from its overflowing lap that even men who love and honor 
science are drawn oflT their direct paths into by-ways and other 
pursuits, and too often leave behind them the scientific toga, which 
is never again assumed. In Europe it is otherwise ; no tempta- 
tions of this kind beset the scientist,' and he delves into scientific 
lore, acquiring great ideas and telling them to the world, exciting 
their wonder ; and even then the honors they acquire only bind 
them faster to their closets, for they are not tempted as we are. 

In later years the liberality of wealthy patrons of learning and 
science has done much to advance pure science in this country by 
enabling the young and enthusiastic pursuers after natui*e's secrets 
to give full scope to their tastes, and thus has opened to them new 



president's address. 5 

fields of research so enticing that their entire lives may J[)ecome 
absorbed in them. This is increasing every day in our country, 
and before very long there will be such inducements offered to 
her greater minds to devote their lives to pure science that 
America will become as prolific as Europe in new scientific ideas 
and discoveries. 

Let us ever bear in mind that it is abstract scientific ideas which 
underlie^ in these modem days^ aU discoveries conducive to man's 
progress^ from the making of a pen to the construction of a tele- 
scope ; or, as Herbert Spencer well expresses it, '^ each machine 
is a theory before it becomes a concrete fact." The man of pure 
science paves the way, erects the mile-stones, and puts up the 
guide-post for the practical man. The worlA, long dormant to 
this great truth, is fast waking up to its acknowledgment; as 
those words Qui bono? (the touch-stone used by the so-call^ 
practical men) are only heard now in faint whispers, where they 
were formerly sounded most clamorously whenever any scientific 
discovery was announced. 

This does not arise firom any change in men ; they are the same 
now as they were in the days of Galvani, who was doubtless re- 
garded as a frivolous fellow, engaged in his daily experiments over 
the convulsions of the muscles in a frog's leg when brought in con- 
tact with two metals ; but, while mankind has not changed. Gal- 
vani's experiment has, and instead of a frog, it is now a world 
that is convulsed by the electric force then discovered, as this 
same electricity fiashes through those nerves of metal that stretch 
across land and river and bury themselves deep beneath the oceans 
of our globe ; battles are fought, victories announced, commerce 
controlled, and, I am sorry to ssy, tyranny abetted, by that won- 
derful agent whose phenomena in their incipiency invited the ridi- 
cule of the ordinary observer. 

Science at the present day commands the respect of the world ; 
nations, looking up to it, seek its advice at all times, and move 
in no material enterprises without consulting its oracles ; yellow- 
covered literature is beginning to find a rival io well-conducted 
popular scientific journals and popular treatises on the various 
branches of science. 

As an association of American scientists, we are looked upon 
as men representing science in all its bearings upon the physical 
and mental world, and some even go so far as to suppose that we 



6 fbebidsnt's address. 

woald arrogate to represent its bearings equally upon the spiritual 
world. This being the case, it behooves us to guard well our 
thoughts, words and acts, lest thej do science and ourselves injus- 
tice, and misrepresent both nature and natui*e's God. 

We are all searchers after truth : but let us be careAil that we 
do not mistake what truth is, and be beguiled into following some 
fatal error which has simply borrowed the garb of truth, and com- 
pletely enveloped itself in it, so as to hide its own deformity. 
Error has pften glimmer enough to dazzle the sickly eye of the 
enthusiast ; truth itself shines with sufficient brightness to be seen 
by the most jealous among scientists. 

While it would not be out of place to review the activity of 
American science ibr the benefit of the general public, yet it 
would occupy too much time, and I will merely refer to it to shoi^ 
that our Government is ftiUy alive to the value of well-directed 
scientific labors. The Government never hesitates to encourage 
the most thorough investigations by scientific men into all matters 
that are likely to benefit the people or advance those great scientific 
investigations which are of a more abstract character. Witness 
the care and liberality with which it encourages that corps of scien- 
tists engaged in the gigantic enterprise of the coast survey in all 
its various departments ; its liberal appropriation of money and 
means for the observation of those great astronomical phenom- 
ena, such as solar eclipses, the transit of Venus, etc., which, while 
they may not be attended with any immediate material advantage 
to the Government, yet serve to instruct our people in those 
higher and nobler aspirations after great natural truths which 
must inevitably result in unfolding to us the riches of our land, 
teeming with every diversified beauty of mountain, valley, and 
plain, seas, lakes, and rivers, and, beneath her surface, with all the 
variety of wealth that nature se.ems to have been able to produce. 
While the older portions of the world are making serious calcula- 
tions, and even looking forward with gloomy forebodings to the 
time when their soil and rocks will cease to give wealth to toil, our 
soil and our rocks are but- just being turned up to reveal wealth 
tenfold greater than the world ever knew before. But in the midst 
of all this abundance let us feel assured of one thing ; it is so placed 
that no sluggard can stretch forth his hand and partake of it. 

The wealth of America means toil. And perhaps in this we 
are even more blessed than we sometimes are disposed to think ; 



prbbidsmt's address. 7 

for from the rich soil which covers such a vast proportion of oar 
country, some of the states of which, like Illinois, with 55,000 
square miles of surface, have hardly a barren acre, yet we can 
pluck nothing ;. it is not like the tropical forest, from which the 
indolent natives may gather their food, and live a life of inertia 
almost akin to that of the l)easts that wander through its rich 
foliage. In this country the arm must be stretched forth, the 
forest felled, the ground ploughed, provision made against the 
inclemency of varying seasons, but when this is done what a 
glorious return! — rich and luxuriant crops, abundant harvests. 
Then, by the numerous navigable streams and favorable surface 
for roads, a ready market is afforded for the farmer's surplus. And 
when we go beneath the soil and mine the rock it is not only 
the uncertain gold and silver, but the sure coal and iron that 
reward toil, and from the very nature of the labor improve those 
engaged in it. 

As followers and patrons of science we must keep in view the 
wants and wishes of the people. Sometimes the people them- 
selves, as well as their representatives, are slow to appreciate 
our labors ; but experience has proved that they give way at last 
to the patient and judicious perseverance of men of science, who 
in some way or other show that they are not mere abstractionists, 
bat that what they do has practical bearings, and therefore renders 
the people more powerfril both at home and abroad. Science fur- 
nishes, so to speak, the raw material out of which all the progress 
of modem nations is constructed. To use the words of one of our 
Nestors of science : '^ It is only in recent times that the value of 
scientific research began to be felt ; and I hope to live, old as I 
am, long enough to see the community, the enlightened commu- 
•nity which has become my second fatherland, appreciate what 
science is doing for the general prosperity, and then contribute to 
the necessities of science with that generous liberality which char- 
acterizes the acts of American people." 

Thus much has been said in reference to science in America, 
acknowledging our shortcomings and attempting to correct cer- 
tain erroneous impressions, both in America and abroad, in regard 
to the labor of scientists in this country. It may appear an at- 
tempt on my part to urge undue excuses ; such certainly is far 
from my intention, which is to do simple justice to those prose- 
cuting science under more or less disadvantageous circumstances. 



8 fbesident's addbess. 

I now pass to the second part of my discourse — the methods 
of modern science — the caution to be observed in pursuing it, 
if we do not wish to pervert its end by too confident assertions 
and deductions. 

It is a very common attempt nowadays for scientists to tran- 
scend the limits of their legitimate studies ; and in doing this they 
ran into speculations apparently the most unphilosophical, wild 
and absurd ; quitting the true basis of inductive philosophy, and 
building up the most curious theories on little else than assertion ; 
speculating upon the merest analogy ; adopting the curious views 
of some metaphysicians, like Edward Von Hartmann ; striving to 
work out speculative results by the inductive method of natural 
science. To me this appears a perversion of Bacon's philosophy, 
and we cannot wonder that one adopting such views, whatever his 
claim to genius may be, soon cuts loose from all physical reason- 
ing and becomes involved in the most transcendental and to all 
appearances absurd opinions, which, however clear to the author, 
are strange and unintelligible to others ; and if at any one time 
we believe we have caught the conception of the author, this 
impression is only momentary, and we give up in despair, realiz- 
ing that- we cannot follow his intellectual ecstasies ; for, in the 
language of Tyndall, they are even *' unthinkable. " Those en- 
gaged in such . speculations are very commonly found in bitter 
conflict with each other, forcing on us the belief of the saying of 
D'Alembert, that ^^when absurd opinions become inveterate it 
sometimes becomes necessary to replace them by other errors, if 
nothing better can be done." 

This extreme metaphysical philosophy is referred to for the rea- 
son that many scientists, ranking as sober, earnest laborers after 
truth, are caught dealing in such philosophy in their method of» 
investigation, and sometimes, quite unconsciously to themselves, 
forgetting that '' science is only an accurate record of the proc- 
esses of nature; that its laws are only generalizations of its 
observations, and not a declaration of an inherent necessity; 
and that one of its observations is the uniformity of natural 
sequence." 

I am one of those who believe that everything must give way 
to the laws of nature ; but then we must master these laws, and be 
sure that we have done this before either interpreting phenomena 
by them or venturing into the realm of speculation. 



PBESIDEKT's ADDBES8. 9 

As has been already remarked, men are to-day Jast what they 
have ever been. As bright intellects and as great philosophers 
lived two or three thousand years ago as do now ; their minds 
sought oat the same great truths that we are searching for in 
these days, and they sought for them by the lights with which 
they were surrounded. In those earlier ages poetry, sculpture, 
architecture, and even some facts belonging to natural history 
(things that belonged either to the imagination or to the eye) 
arrived at as high a degree of perfection as perhaps they ever 
will ; for the two senses which appreciate the ideal and the real 
were as perfect then as now. 

But when man was called upon to labor in fields where the im- 
agination and the eye aided him but little or not at all« then the 
discoveries in these fields and their interpretations called for other 
means for arriving at results. In modern days we attempt to be 
guided by the clear light of inductive reasoning which we may 
think we are employing, when too often it is the very smoky torch 
of analogy that is being used ; and this fact serves to explain why 
it is that some of the most brilliant philosophers of compara- 
tively modem days are only remembered by their names — as, for 
example the great French philosopher Descartes, whom Dugald 
Stewart says ^' is much better known to the learned of our day by 
the boldness of his exploded errors than by the profound and im- 
portant truths contained in his works." 

And such an example as this is of great value to the refiective 
mind, teaching caution, and demonstrating the fact that, while the 
rules by which we are guided in scientific research are far in ad- 
vance of those of ancient days, we must not conclude that they 
are perfect by any means. In our modem method of investigation 
how many conspicuous examples of deception we have had in pur- 
suing even the best method of investigation I Take, for instance, 
the science of geology from the time of Werner to the present 
day. While we always thought we had the true interpretation of 
the stractural phenomena of the globe as we progressed from year 
to year, yet how vastly different are our interpretations of the 
present day fh>m what they were in the time of Werner! In 
chemistry the same thing is true. How clearly were all things 
explained to the chemist of the last century by the doctrine of 
Phlogiston which in the present century receives no credence, while 
chemical phenomena are now viewed in an entirely different light ! 



10 president's ADDBES8. 

Lavoisier, in the latter part of the last century, elucidated the 
phenomenon of respiration and the production of animaU heat by 
one of the most beautiful of theories, based, to all appearances, 
upon well observed facts ; yet at the present day more delicate 
observations, and the discovery of the want of balance between 
the inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbonic acid subverted that 
beautiftil theory, and we aoe left entirely without one. It is true 
we have collated a number of facts in regard to respiration, molec- 
ular changes in the tissues, etc., all of which are recognized as 
having something to do with animal heat ; still it is acknowledged 
that we ar^ incapable of giving any concrete expression to the 
phenomenon of respiration and animal heat as Lavoisier did 
eighty or, ninety years ago. 

Electricity is the same now as it has ever been, yet it was once 
spoken of as a fluid, then as a force, now as an energy readily 
convertible into caloric or mechanical energy ; and in what light 
it will be considered fifty years hence no one can predict. 

Now what I desire to enforce here is that, amid all these changes 
and revolutions of theories, so called, it is simply man, the inter- 
preter, that has erred, and not nature ; her laws are the same ; we 
simply have not been able to read them correctly, and perhaps 
never shall be. 

What, it may be asked, are we to do then ? Must we cease the- 
orizing? Not at all. The lesson to be learned from this is, to be 
more modest in our generalizations ; to generalize as far as our 
carefhlly made out facts will permit us, and no farther ; to check 
the imagination and not to let it run riot and shipwreck us upon 
some metaphysical quicksand. 

The fact is, it becomes a question whether there is such a thing 
as a pure theory in science. No true scientific theory deserves 
the name that is not based on verified hypotheses ; in fact, it is 
but a concise interpretation of the deductions of scientific facts. 
Dumas has well said that theories are like crutches, the strength 
of them to be tested by attempting to walk with them. And I 
might farther add that very often scientists, who f,re without sure- 
footed facts to carry them along, take to these crutches. 

It is conunon to speak of the theory of gravitation, when there 
is nothing purely hypothetical in connection with the manner in 
which it is studied ; in it we only see a clear generalization of ob- 
served laws which govern the mutual attraction of bodies. If at 



president's address. .11 

any time Newton did assume an hypothesis, it was only for the 
purpose Qf facilitating his calculations. '^ Newton's passage from 
the falliiig of an apple to the falling of a moon was at the outset a 
leap of the imagination ; " but it was this hypothesis, verified by 
mathematics, which gave to the so-called theory of gravitation its 
present status. 

In regard to light, we are in the habit of connecting with it a 
pure hypothesis ; viz., the impressions of light being produced by 
emission from luminous bodies, or by the undulation of an all- 
pervading attenuated medium; and these hypotheses are to be 
regarded as probable so long as the phenomena of. light are 
explained by them, and no longer. The failure to explain one 
single well-observed fact is sufficient to cast doubt upon or subvert 
any pure hypothesis, as has been the case with the emission theory 
of light, and may be the fate of the undulatory theory, which, 
however, up to the present time serves in all cases. 

A theory or scientific speculation, to possess any great weight, 
must receive universal assent by those minds capable of investi- 
gating the subject. Thus the undulatory theory of light is univer- 
sally accepted as representing the true nature of the operation of 
light, so far as we are now able to interpret its phenomena. 

Zoologists equally learned will agree perfectly as regards the 
physical structure of an ape and a man, and thus far their results 
are entitled to universal acceptance ; but some of the same zoolo- 
gists, by the exercise of the imagination and ingenious analogical 
reasoning, deduce the man from the ape, while the others cannot 
see nor recognize any such transformation. In this way both 
classes present themselves to the curious world, and gather around 
them supporters ; and, like too many cases in our courts of law, 
the greatest number are convinced not so much by the law or jus- 
tice of the case, as by the ingenuity and special pleading of the 
legal advocates. 

It is not my object to criticise the speculations of any one or 
more of the modem scientists who have carried their investiga- 
tions into the world of the imagination ; in fact, it could not be 
done in a discourse so limited in time as this, and only intended 
as a prologue to our present meeting. But in order to illustrate 
this subject of method more frilly I will refer to Darwin, whose 
name has become synonymous with progressive development and 



12 president's address. 

natural selection, which, as we had thought, died out with Lamarck 
fifty years ago. 

In Darwin we have one of those philosophers whose great 
knowledge of animal and vegetable life is transcended only by 
his imagination. In fact, he is to be regarded more as a metaphy- 
sician with a highly-wrought imagination than as a scientist, al- 
though a man having a most wonderAil knowledge of the facts of 
natural history. 

In England and America we find scientific men of the profound- 
est intellects differing completely in regard to his logic, analogies 
and deductions ; in Germany and France the same thing — in the 
former of these countries some speculators saying that ^' his theo- 
ry is our starting-point" and in France many of her best scientific 
men not ranking the labors of Darwin with those of pure science. 

Darwin takes up the law of life and runs it into progressive 
development. In doing this he seems to me to increase the embar- 
rassment which surrounds us on looking into the mysteries of cre- 
ation. He is not satisfied to leave the laws of life where he finds 
them, or to pursue their study by logical and inductive reasoning. 
His method of reasoning will not allow him to remain at rest ; he 
must be moving onward in his unification of the universe. He 
started with the lower orders of animals, and brought them through 
their various stages of progressive development until he supposed 
he had touched the confines of man ; he then seems to have re- 
coiled, and hesitated to pass the boundary which separated man 
fW>m the lower orders of animals ; but he saw that all hi^ previous 
logic was bad if he stopped there, so man was made from the 
ape (with which no one can find fault, if the descent be legiti- 
mate). This stubborn logic pushes him still farther, and he must 
find some connecting link with that most remarkable property 
of the human face called expression ; so his ingenuity has given 
us a very curious and readable treatise on that subject. Yet still 
another step must be taken in this linking together man and the 
lower orders of animals ; it is in connection with language ^ and 
before long it is not unreasonable to expect another production 
ttom that most wonderfhl and ingenious intellect on the connec- 
tion between the language of man and the brute creation. 

Let us see for a moment to what this reasoning from anal- 
ogy would lead us, if applied to chemical science, which investi- 



pbesident's address. 13 

gates a great variety of componnds exhibitiog most carious an- 
alogies in all their properties. Take for instance soda and 
potash — how identical in almost all their properties, their com- 
pounds also arraying themselves in identically the same form, de- 
fying almost all the senses to detect their difference : if they be 
brought into relation with other elements, they associate them- 
selves with these elements in identically the same way. The 
same is true in relation to baryta and strontia, or chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine ; the last three elements even show most carious 
numerical relations in regard to their combining proportions. 
And then when we pass to the mineral kingdom, what a wonder- 
ful property is that isomorphism in the chemistry of nature's 
operations ! 

The chemist, with all these facts before him, has as much right 
to revel in the imaginary formation of sodium f^om potassium, or 
iodine and bromine from chlorine, by a process of development, 
and call it science, as the natm*alist has to revel in many of his 
wild speculations, or the physicist who studies the stellar space 
to imagine it permeated by mind as well as light — mind such as 
has formed the poet, the statesman, or the philosopher. 

Yet any chemist who would quit his method of investigation, of 
marking every foot of his advance by some indelible imprint, and 
go back to the speculations of Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, 
and other alchemists of former ages, would soon be dropped from 
the list of chemists and ranked with dreamers and speculators. 

To prove the truth of my assertion, that this is the legitimate 
result of this school of philosophy, I will quote from one of its 
disciples, F. W. Clarke. He says : ^^ When one is fairly started 
on a line of thought it is hard to come to an end. If we assume 
an hypothesis to be true, a hundred others rush in upon the mind 
and demand consideration. We do not know but that the evolu- 
tion of one element from another may be possible. The demon- 
strated unity of force leads us by analogy to expect a similar 
unity of matter. Those elements which seem to-day so diverse in 
character may be after all one in essence ; at present it can 
neither be discarded as false nor accepted as true." 

What is most remarkable m connection with the above opinion 
is that the author of it is commenting on matter, in connection 
with the spectroscope, an instrument whose very triumphs are 
based on the grand distinguishing lines in the elements of matter. 



14 president's addbess. 

whether in the earth, sun, stars, or nebulse, all telling the same 
dissimilarity and no coalescence. 

Is this to be one of the methods of modem science, I would 
ask? .While in our ignorance and short-sightedness we should be 
careful in pronouncing any assumption as possible or impossible^ 
still there is no reason why these terms should have much or any 
weight in the study of science ; for in the abstract all things in 
nature are possible, not fh>m any demonstration, but simply 
because no one can assert an impossibility. What a mass of con- 
fhsion science would become if we studied its possibilities ! for 
then every conceivable possibility would be entitled to equal con- 
sideration. And we are not therefore surprised that the author 
last quoted should say, ^^ So then we may proceed to theorize in 
the most barefaced manner, without quitting the legitimate do- 
main of science." 

Are we to introduce into science a kind of purgatory in which 
to place undemonstrable speculations, and keep them there in a 
state of probation, and say that science cannot discard a theory 
as false when it cannot be accepted as true? Science, which is 
preeminently the pursuit of truth, has but one course to pursue : 
it must either accept or reject what may be thrust upon it. 

What I have said is, in my humble opinion, warranted by the 
departure Darwin and others have made from true science in their 
purely speculative studies ; and neither he nor any other searcher 
after truth expects to hazard great and startling opinions without 
at the same time courting and desiring criticism ; yet dissension 
from his views in no way proves him wrong — it only shows how 
his ideas impress the minds of other men. And just here let me 
contrast the daring of Darwin with the position assumed by one 
of the great French naturalists of the present day, Professor 
Quatrefages, in a recent discourse on the physical character of 
the human race. In referring to the question of the first origin 
of man he says distinctly that in his opinion it is one that belongs 
not to science; these questions are treated by theologians and 
philosophers : ^' Neither here nor at the Museum am I, nor do I 
wish to be, either a theologian or a philosopher. I am simply a 
man of science ; and it is in the name of comparative physiology, 
of botanical and zoological geography, of geology and palaeontol- 
ogy, in the name of the laws which govern man as well as animals 
and plants, that I have always spoken." And studying man as a 



PRESIDEirr'S ADDRESS. 15' 

scientist, he goes on to say : ''It is established that man has two 
grand faculties of which we find not even a trace among animals. 
He (done has the moral sentiment of good and evil; he alone 
belieTes in a Ibtare existence aacceeding this actual life; he 
olone believes in beings superior to himself, that he has never 
seen, and that are capable of influencing his life for good or evil ; 
in other words., man alone is endowed with morality and religion" 

And it may be added that Hartmann, a philosopher of another 
school, says, selection explains the progress in perfection of an 
already existing type within its own degrees of organization, but 
it cannot explain the passage from an inferior degree of organiza- 
tion to a superior one. 

If Prof. Quatrefages be right in regard to the moral sentiment 
in man, then Darwin must be wrong in asserting the development 
of man out* of that in which not a trace exists of what most 
preeminently constitutes man ; or he must satisfy himself with 
evolving the physical part of man out of the lower order of 
animals, and then by some creative force implanting within him 
these principles. 

Oar own distinguished naturalist and associate. Prof. Agassiz, 
reverts to this theory of evolution in the same positive manner, 
and with such earnestness and warmth as to call forth severe 
editorial criticisms, by speaking of it as a '' mere mine of asser. 
tion," and of ''the danger of stretching inferences from a few 
observations to a wide field," and he is called upon to collect 
"real observations to disprove the evolution hypothesis." I 
would here remark, in defence of my distinguished friend, that 
scientific investigation will assume a curious phase when its vota- 
ries are required to occupy time in looking up facts, and seriously 
attempting to disprove any and every hypothesis based upon 
proof, some of it not even rising to the dignity of circumstantial 
evidence. 

I have dwelt longer on this one point than I had intended ; bi}t 
the very popular manner in which in recent years it has been pre- 
sented to the public mind of all classes of society, and to persons 
of all ages, warranted a full notice in speaking of the importance 
of avoiding, as far as possible, undue speculation in connection 
^th our method of scientific investigation. 
' Let me not be understood to underrate the brilliant ideas and 

great learning of those most distinguished men of the nineteenth 



16 fresibent's address. 

century, Darwin, Huxley and others. I am too great a respecter 
of both science and the pursuit of science ever to encourage by 
my example anything like dogmatism among scientific men. 
While arraying methods of study in other branches of science to 
combat those employed by the followers of the evolution hypothe- 
sis, I most willingly indorse what Tyndall says concerning it, viz : 
''I do not think the evolution hypothesis is to b^- -flouted away 
contemptuously ; I do not think it is to be denounced as wicked. 
Fear not the evolution hypothesis I it does not solve, it does not 
profess to solve, the ultimate mystery of the universe. It leaves 
in fact that mystery untouched." If it be grounded on truth, it 
will survive all attempts to overthrow it ; if based on error, it will 
disappear, as many so-called scientific facts have done before. 
Science is a progressive study. It does not dogmatically pro- 
nounce itself as infallible ; it is at all times ready to admit what 
has been once rejected, if it return clothed with truthful demon- 
stration which science properly calls for as a passport to admission 
into its domain. 

I would also caution my associates to avoid carefully what may 
be called the pride of modem science ; for so rapid have been the 
discoveries of science during the last century, crowding upon us 
especially during the past twenty-five years, that we are apt to 
become bewildered and dazzled, and cry out in unbounded enthur 
siasm: Great is the god Science! it revealeth all things to us, 
and we will consecrate our talent and our time to its worship. The 
marvellous discoveries in chemistry, geology, electricity, light, 
etc., have lifted the veil that concealed from us so many of 
nature's secrets that we are almost baffled in our attempt to 
systematize them. The wonderful organic compounds ; the disin- 
terring of curious records of past ages; the obedient and sub- 
missive lightning that carries our messages ; that wonderfUl light, 
BO quiet in its operations, yet so powerful to reveal the chemistry 
of the universe ; and the conservation offeree — all these, I say, 
bewilder the mind so that we revel in building bright air-castles, 
almost losing our mental equilibrium. Of all scientists of the 
present day the chemists perhaps have kept a more stable equilib- 
rium than any other class, starting out with a fixed law to govern 
them in regard to what are considered elements, never in any in** 
stance tolerating the development or transmutation of one element 
out of another, however remarkable the analogy they may exhibit 



president's address. 17 

in the material constitation of all known sabstances, and recog- 
nizing them as the same whether in the earth or in the sun. 

I would, therefore, caution against too great enthusiasm, for we 
are far more ignorant than we sometimes suppose. In fact, true 
philosophy dictates to its followers humility, and that it is the 
province of ignorance to believe that it knows everything, while 
the philosopher is aware that he knows little or nothing. . 

While we are prying into space, and studying the matter, size 
and movements of the heavenly bodies far beyond our own uni- 
verse, we leave behind us a vast number of things that have baffled 
our scrutiny and defied both science and metaphysics. When we 
look at our bodies, without reference to the consciousness that is 
within, but merely studying what relates to our physical parts, 
how many things concerning it we have not discovered ! 

While occupied, the early part of this year, in reflecting upon the 
conservation of force and certain meteoric phenomena connected 
with the sun, my attention was frequently drawn to the small- 
pox that was then in the form of a \iolcnt epidemic around me. 
Seeing persons being vaccinated who had in their childhood 
been subjected to the same operation, and observing in the vast 
majority of cases the failure of the production of any effect, I 
asked myself the question : How are we to rank that mysterious 
agent which, when brought to bear upon the system, in however 
minute a quantitj^, not only permeates every fibre and cell in every 
part of the body, but is never lost? for when through years every 
particle of the body (with perhaps the exception of the teeth and 
a part of the bones) has been renewed over and over again, yet, 
as each particle gave place to a new one, this vaccine energy (if I 
may so call it) was imparted to the new matter, and so on through 
life. Here then was the conservation of a force as mysterious in 
its course and operation, and as hard to be understood, as that of 
motion, light, or any other of the recognized forms of the energies 
of matter. 

Yes ! after we have studied the heavens and all contained 
therein that the aided eye can reach, we shall yet have to de- 
scend to earth and study the every-day physical phenomena that 
are in and around men, finding even greater mysteries to unravel 
that meet our unaided senses every moment of our existence. 

I come now to the last point to which I wish to call the atten- 
tion of the members of the Association in the pursuit of their ija- 

A. A. A. S., VOL. XXU. 2 



18 president's address. 

yestigations, and the speculations to which these give rise in their 
minds. 

Reference has already been made to the tendency of quitting 
the physical to revel in the metaph3'sical, which, however, is not 
peculiar to this age, for it belonged as well to the times of Plato 
and Aristotle as it does to ours. More special reference will be 
made here to the proclivity of the present epoch among philoso- 
phers and theologians to parade science and religion side by 
side ; talking of reconciling science and religion, as if they had 
ever been unreconciled. Scientists and theologians may have 
quarrelled, but never science and religion. At dinners they are 
toasted in the same breath, and calls made on clergymen to re- 
spond, who, for fear of giving offence, or lacking the fire arid firm- 
ness of St. Paul, utter a vast amount of platitudes about the 
beauty of science and the truth of religion, trembling in their 
shoes all the time, fearing that science, falsely so called, may take 
away their professional calling, instead of uttering in voice of 
thunder, like the Boanerges of the gospel, that " the world by wis- 
dom knew not God." And it never will. Our religion is made so 
plain by the light of faith that the wayfaring man, though a fool, 
cannot err therein. 

No, gentlemen ; I firmly believe that there is less connection be- 
tween science and religion than there is between jurisprudence and 
astronomy, and the sooner this is understood the better it will be 
for both. 

Religion is based upon revelation as given to us in a book, the 
contents of which are never changed, and of which there have 
been no revised or corrected editions since it was first given, ex- 
cept so far as man has interpolated ; a book more or less perfectly 
understood by mankind, but clear and unequivocal in all essen- 
tial points concerning the relation of man to his Creator ; a book 
that affords practical directions, but no theory ; a book of facts, 
and not of arguments ; a book that has been damaged more by 
theologians than by all the pantheists and atheists that have ever 
lived and turned their invectives against it — and no one source of 
mischief on the part of theologians is greater than that of admit- 
ting the profound mystery of many parts of it, and almost in the 
next breath attempting some sort of explanation of these myste- 
ries. The book is just what Richard Whately says it is, viz. : 
'( Not the philosophy of the human mind, nor yet the philosophy of 



president's address. 19 

the divine nature in itself, but (that which is properly religion) the 
rdation and connection of the two beings — what God is to us, 
what he has done and will do for us, and what' we are to be in re- 
gard to him. " 

Now science on her part has her records : they are the discov- 
ered truths in the relation that man bears to the animate and in- 
animate kingdoms around him, so far as they are made out by him 
from time to time ; but as he has to proceed in his labors with im- 
perfect instruments and often equally imperfect senses, he has to 
correct himself over and over again ; and his observations and 
theories, especially the latter, ma^e frequent shifts, though each 
time he supposes that the truth has been reached. I will exem- 
plify this in a marked manner b}'^ an extract from a recent dis- 
course by Prof. Ferdinand Cohn, delivered before the Silesian 
Society for Natural Culture. In speaking of Humboldt and his 
Cosmos (which he styles the ''Divina Commedia" of Science, 
embracing the whole universe in its two spheres, heaven and 
earth) he says : '^ But we cannot conceal from ourselves that the 
Cosmos, published twenty-Jive years ago^ is in many of its parts 
now antiquated. Any one who to-day would attempt to recast 
the Cosmos must proceed like the Italian architect who took the 
pillars and blocks of the broken temples of antiquity, added new 
ones, and rebuilt the whole after a new plan." And I would 
simply ask : When is this new structure to be torn down to form 
material for another? Surely the most enthusiastic admirer of 
the development of the last twenty-five years does not think that 
we have arrived at the end of all things ! 

I will take yet another example. For the last fifty years or 
more the unity of the human race has been a most prolific subject 
of investigation and discussion, until it was generally conceded 
that there must have been more than one origin for the different 
races. In fact, theologians had already entered on that mis- 
chievous work called reconciling science and religion, and saying 
^hat after all there was some little mistake in the biblical record 
on that subject, and, if the Author would only permit, it would be 
well to make a correction just there ; but this could not be done, 
and there it stood — that all men were of one flesh. But science, 
^tless, changeful, moved on ; and to-day the unity of the human 
^*«e is insisted on by nearly all the leading naturalists, who teach 
what Prof. De Quatrefages teaches, as uttered in a recent lecture 



I 



20 president's address. 

of his. He says : " In this examination of the physical man 
everything leads to the conclusion which we had already reached 
in our earlier lecture, and we can repeat loiih redoubled certainty 
that the difTerences among human groups are characters of race, 
and not of species. There exists only one human species, and 
consequently all men are brothers ; all ought to be treated as 
such, whatever the origin, the blood, the color, the race ;" and in 
conclusion he further says : " I shall not regret either my time or 
my pains, if I am able, in the name of science^ and that alone^ to 
render a little more clear and precise for you the great and sacred 
notion of the brotherhood of mj^." 

One other example under this head, and I have done. The 
book of science teaches that the sun is the source of all light and 
heat ; yet in that post-prophetic chapter of the book of our relig- 
ion it is said that the creation of the first day was light, and not 
until afterward was the sun created ; and this was again a stum- 
bling-block to theologians, and many wished that Moses had been 
a little more particular. But science in its onward march, as it 
grouped together the matter floating in space to form in . the be- 
ginning of time this earth (our circling globe), tells us that if we 
can imagine one to have been placed on our globe before it had 
consolidated, he would have seen vast seas of vapor floating 
around and far above it, shutting out the very light of heaven so 
that darkness brooded over the waters ; that the first benign 
influence that smiled upon the earth was the gentle rays of light 
struggling through the dark mist ; and the prophetic eye, either 
on the plain, in the valley, or on the highest mountain peak, 
would not behold whence it came, and might exclaim in sublime 
poetic ecstasy: "God said. Let there be light; and there was 
light." Not until ages, perhaps, after that did the bright 
orb of the sun reveal itself to the prophet as the source of this 
light. 

So I say, let our book of religion stand as it is ; if it be not 
of God it will come to naught ; and let science search for truth, 
and if it mistake its results it is certain to correct them in time, 
for the causes of its perturbations are as surely discovered as 
Leverrier and Adams discovered those of Uranus. 

Science and religion are both travelling towards the same great 
point — the Author of all truth — yet by two very difl[erent 
roads ; and if they l)e induced every now and then to turn off their 



presidext's address. 21 

routes to compare notes, they will very much retard each other's 
progress and waste much time in discussing the peculiar merits 
of their particular road, and get into a quarrel about them. The 
roads they travel are paved with certain principles and forces, 
but of very different natures. 

Science treads on certain mathematical axioms and principles^ 
recognizing matter and certain forces or modifications of an en- 
ergy innate in matter, as heat, light, electricity, etc. Religion is 
guided by its axioms and principles, faith, love and hope, and 
with these it is expected to work out its great end in the present 
and future of mankind. Science is nature revealed ; religion is 
nature's God revealed ; and neither the one nor the other can be 
without its axioms, incapable of demonstration. 

Some may mock at faith and say " Faith is bankrupt, and 
her accounts are under strict examination, to determine what 
assets remain to be distributed among the impoverished souls 
that are her creditors ;" still it is an axiom made manifest to 
our consciousness, as much as the axiom that a mathematical 
point is something without length, breadth or thickness, or that 
a line has length without breadth or thickness. 

This faith is as much an energy of the immortal, as heat is one 
of the energies of matter. We know heat by its phenomena 
alone, and we know faith fd the same way, its phenomena proving 
its existence as well to the child as to the man, to the learned and 
the unlearned. It led Socrates and Plato, even with their im- 
perfect light, to the great God, the Creator of the heavens and the 
earth, and to a belief in the immortality of the soul. 

What God is in his essence we know not, nor how it is that he 
can exist. A Being not made by himself nor any one else ; with- 
out beginning of days or end of years ; existing, through infinite 
ages ; filling immensity without being in any place ; everywhere 
present without displacing a single one of his myriad creatures ; 
pervading all things yet without motion ; being all eye, all ear, 
all enei^, and yet not interfering in the least with the thoughts 
and actions of man; — this has been well styled "the greatest 
mystery of the universe, enveloped at once in a flood of light 
and an abyss of darkness — inexplicable itself, explaining every- 
thing else, and, after displacing every other diflBculty, itself re- 
maining in inapproachable, insurmountable, incomprehensible 



22 president's address. 

grandeur, so that the Psalmist exclaims: 'Clouds and dark- 
ness are round about him ; righteousness and judgment are the ' 
habitation of his throne.'? 

This is the God whose existence reason cannot prove, while it 
cannot disprove, and for whom the religionists and scientists 
are looking : that they will one day see him as he is, is my firm 
belief, and, as I before stated, they will see him the sooner by 
keeping separate roads. 

That many a scientist will be swallowed up in pantheism from 
want of patience is to be expected, and, I regret to acknowledge, 
will with Hartmann ^'maintain that creation is a cause, existence 
a misfortune, life a deepening disappointment, and that the ex- 
tinction of personal consciousness is the only salvation ; " but 
many more will enjoy the double felicity of arriving at the great 
end sustained both by science and by religion, and will agree with 
what Socrates wrote nearly two thousand years ago, without the 
revealed word of God to enlighten him — or to mystify him, as 
some would sa}'. Listen to that philosopher of ancient days as he 
says: "This great God, who has formed the universe and sup- 
ported the stupendous work whose every part is finished with the 
utmost goodness and harmony — he who preserves them perpetually 
in immortal vigor, and causes them to obey him with a never-fail- 
ing punctuality and a rapidity not to be followed by the imagina- 
tion — this God makes himself sufllciently visible by the endless 
wonders of which he is the author, but continues always invisible 
in himself. Let us not then refuse to believe even what we do not 
see, and let us supply the defects of our corporeal eyes by using 
those of the soul ; but let us learn to render the just homage of re- 
spect and veneration to the divinity whose will it seems to be that 
we should have no other perception of him than by his benefits 
vouchsafed to us." 

I cannot close this part of my subject without reverting to the 
tendency of certain men of science to make ph^'sical experiment 
the test of all truth; even prayer and divine providence influ- 
encing affairs in this world must become subjects for experiment ; 
and if the results be not in accordance with the experiments, 
then suspicion is to be cast on faith. This has been truly ex- 
plained as coming ftom the spirit of an age which strives to make 
natural science the all in all of wisdom, and begins with nature in- 



president's address. 23 

stead of beginning with Go^, and ends with burying man and 
even God within physical conditions, and assigning to the supreme 
Spirit the impersonality that is usually ascribed to material na- 
ture ; and all this in spite of the fact that profound philosophers 
and earnest devotees have believed in the existence of a con- 
sciousness subject to influence above their sense. 

K we look at nature as science has thus far penetrated into her 
mysteries, we discover in the innermost parts of the earth matter 
in a constantly restless state ; in the ocean or the air we behold the 
ever moving, never resting ; above are the sun and stars speed- 
ing on through boundless space, and they in their own 9)asses 
are like huge boiling caldrons casting their vapors hundreds of 
thousands of miles into space. And so the toiler in science 
goes penetrating nearer and nearer, as he thinks, to the great 
cause of all things. In the same way he thinks he has discovered 
the cause of all motion upto this planet, both in the animate and 
inanimate, and he hastily concludes that the energy resident in 
the sun is fixed and invariable ; yet while he reasons as if he had 
arrived at the prime cause, he admits that there is something 
yet un'known on which the sun depends as much as the eaith does 
upon the sun. 

While I admit most freely that the smallest event in the 
physical world is but the sequence of secondary causes (if I 
may use the expression) and effects, obedient to what' appear 
to us fixed and invariable laws, yet it is illogical for any mind to 
assert that they cannot be altered by the operation of some 
energy that may reach beyond any cause yet discovered by the 
light of science. 

While the energy of the sun travels in swift motion and in rapid 
undulations through the ethereal space that divides the earth from 
the sun, and in turn science by the spectroscope travels back from 
the earth to the sun over the same waves, and has revealed to her, 
in writing as it were, on the beautiful pages of the spectrum, the 
composition of that incandescent globe and the mighty power of 
its internal forces, so does the energy of that great cause that 
formed the sun reveal itself to the internal consciousness, reaching 
the eye of faith, by undulations more rapid than light ; and as 
faith travels back, looking through its spectroscope (the revealed 
word of God), it beholds the constitution of that great cause as 
composed of infinite love and mercy, truth and justice. 



24 pbesident's address. 

As light has revealed the sun to. us by penetrating an organ 
specially formed for its impressions, the physical eye, so is Grod 
revealed by faith, tlie souVs eye. As well might we say that we 
are acquainted with all phenomena of the rays of the sun as 
to arrogate to ourselves the power of limiting the operations of 
faith. 

In these things science is both vain and modest, logical and 
illogical ; as, for example, here is what Dr. Cohn says, in a dis- 
course of his previously referred to : '' The deeper natural science 
penetrates from outward phenomena to universal laws, the more 
she lays aside her former fear to test the latest fundamental laws 
of being and becoming, of space and time, of life and spirit :" and 
in the next breath he says : "It is not to be hoped that during the 
next twenty-five years all the questions of science which are at 
present being agitated will be solved. As one veil after another 
is lifted we find ourselves behind a stilV thicker one^ which conceals 
from our longing eyes the mysterious goddess of whom we are 
in search." 

How Dr. Cohn expects to justify his first statement by his last 
assertion of the increasing thickness of the impenetrable veil is 
more than my logic can divine. 

But in this matter of subjecting faith to physical test by what 
is now commonly called the " prayer-gauge," philosophers of the 
most advanced school difier very widely in tbeir opinion ; and 
that remarkable pantheist (or pessimist), Edward Von Hartmann 
(probably the most remarkable man of that school since the days 
of Spinosa, who believing only in nature, yet ranks with the old 
patriarchs in his idea of the power of faith, or something next 
akin to it) calls all mankind to " combine together ia one grand 
act of self-abdication, and to resign the very faculty of will by a 
mighty concert, not of prayer, but of self-renunciation — by the 
help of such means as art and science may apply, and by such 
perfection of the magnetic telegraph as shall enable them all at 
once to will not to will any more, and so to bring all conscious 
personal life to an end by an absorption in the almighty and un- 
conscious spirit." Not the most ascetic religious devotee could 
exhibit more unbounded confidence in the power of faith subvert- 
ing not only the laws of nature, but nature herself, than is ex- 
pressed in those views. 

In fine then, gentlemen, let us stick to science — pure, unadulter- 






president's address. 25 

ated scieDce — and leave to religion things which pertain to it ; for 
science and religion are like two mighty rivers flowing toward the 
same ocean, and before reaching it they will meet and mingle 
their pare streams, and flow together into that vast ocean of truth 
which encircles the throne of the great Author of all truth, whether 
pertaining to science or religion. 

I will here, in defence of science, assert that there is a greater 
proportion of its votaries who revere and honor religion in its 
broadest sense, as understood by the Christian world, than in 
any other of the learned secular pursuits. 

In this address I may be accused of more or less dogmatism : 
but I can assure the Association that whatever there may be of 
apparent dogmatism arises entirely from my reluctance to con- 
sume more time in making explanations and reasoning fully on 
the topics discussed. I have moreover departed from the usual 
character of discourses delivered by the retiring presidents of this 
Association, and have not presented a topic that might have been 
of more interest to you, viz., some special scientific subject com- 
ing more immediately within the province of my research: for 
this departure I claim your indulgence, as well as for omitting 
all allusion to scientific progress during the past year. 

But before concluding I cannot refrain from rcfemng to one 
great event in the history of American science during the past 
year, as it will doubtless mark an epoch in the development of 
science in this country. I refer to the noble gift of a noble for- 
eigner to encourage the poor but worthy student of pure science 
in this country. 

It is needless for me to insist on the estimation in which Prof. 
John Tyndall is held amongst us. We know him to be a man 
whose heart is as large as his head, both contributing to the cause 
of science. We regard him as one of the ablest physicists of the 
time, and one of the most level-headed philosophers that England 
has ever produced — a man whose intellect is as symmetrical as 
the circle, with its every point equidistant from the centre. 

We have been the recipients of former endowments from that 
land which, we thank God, is our mother country, from which 
we have drawn our language, our liberty, our laws, our literature, 
our science, and our energy, and without whose wealth our mate- 
rial development would not be what it is at the present day. 
Count Rumford, the founder of the Royal Society of London, in 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXII. 2* 



26 president's address. 

earlier years endowed a scientific chair in one of our larger uni- 
versities, and Smithson transferred his fortune to our shores to 
promote the diffusion of science. 

Now, while these are noble gifts, yet Count Rumford was giving 
to his own countrymen — for he was an American — and both his 
and Smithson's were posthumous gifts firom men of large fortune. 

But the one to which I now refer was from a man who ranks 
not with the wealthy, and he laid his offering upon the altar of 
science in this country with his own hands ; and it has been both 
consecrated and blest by noble words from his own lips ; all of 
which makes the gift a rich treasure to American science ; and I 
think we can assure him that as the same Anglo Saxon blood 
flows in our 'Veins as does in his (tempered, it is true, with the 
Celtic, Teutonic, Latin, etc.), he may expect much fVom the 
American student in pure science as the offspring of his gift and 
his example. 

With this feeble tribute to our distinguished scientific collabo- 
rator I bid you adieu, and, returning to the Association my most 
heartfelt thanks for the honor that has been conferred on me, 
surrender the mantle of my office to one most worthy to wear 
it — Professor Lovering, of Cambridge. 



PAPERS READ 



AT THE 



PORTLAND MEETING 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



Note on Dr. William Watson's Coordinates in a Plane. 
By Thomas Hill, of Portland, Maine. 

At the meeting of this Association in August, 1859, Dr. William 
Watson proposed to take, as coordinates in a plane, g, the length 
of a perpendicular let fall from the origin upon the normal, and v 
the angle which this perpendicular makes with a fixed axis. He 
showed that from this system, we readily pass to Peirce's coordi- 
nates, by the formula 

p = D^q +M' 

Thus the equation qz=:A cos a v gives p =i (^^) A sin a )^ -j- c ; 

*bich is evidently, when cz=o^ the equation of an epicycloid, A 
^ing the radius of the stationary, and A {~ ) that of the rolling 
circle. The epicycloid becomes a point before transformation into 
* ^ypoc3'cloid as the value of a is made to pass through ± 1. 
Thus any point in the plane, or any circle about that point, can be 
f^presented by the equation 

The values + « and — a give identical forms to the curve, but a 
Querent genesis, by the familiar laws of these curves. 

^ propose a slight modification of Dr. Watson's system, by 
^^'^p, the length of the perpendicular let fall from the origin 
^Pon the tangent, and using v to express the angle made by this 

(27) 



28 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

perpendicular with a fixed axis. Assuming then jj=:/(v) we have 
q = Dyp =zp' (that is p of the evolute), and p=zp-\- L^p (radius of 

curvature), r=\^p^ + {^KpY (radius vector). 

If we wish to transform to a new origin at the distance b and 
direction 6^, it is evident that 

p:^p — bco8{0 — v) 
b 

and if WB wish then to rotate the axis through the angle a we must 

substitute 

The cui've can be constructed by points, either by setting off p 
in the direction v and erecting D^p perpendicular to it, or by the 

equations for transforming to the Cartesian system, 

xz=p cos V — Dp 8inv 
y=p sin u-^ Dp cosv. 

Either mode can be checked by calculating r. 
Problem I. To investigate the equation. 

(1) p^ziA (sin a v)*. 
By the formula already given we obtain 

(2) p = A ((a'(n"--n))(*in a v)«-2+(l— a' n*)(sin a >.)•*). 
When n=:ly or p=: A sin a v, this reduces to 

(3) /o = (1 — a^) Asin a V = (1 — a^) p^ which is an epicycloid. 

For ?i = - equation (2) reduces to 

(4) p=z(a — l)A(sinav) « 

This gives for a = |, p=^ (sin ^ »/)', p = iA^A cii'cle. And for 
a = j^, p = A (sin ^ v)®, pz=^A sin^v which is an epicycloid, the 
cardioid, refen*edto its cusp. as origin, while by (3) it is referred 
to the centre of the stationar}' circle. 

For the case of (3), pz=.A sin a v, we have 

(5) r—A (a«-f (1— a^X^n a v)«)i. 

When in this case a= I, we get /o=0, r=±^, which is a point at 
the distance A fi*om the origin, the direction being shown by the 
formula for transformation to be ^= (n-^i)n. 

For the case n= - as in (4), we have 

(6) r=zA (sin av) « 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 29 

which again reduces to p = Afor az=il and to rz= A sin ^v for the 
first case under (4), showing that the axis is a diameter of that 
circle, and that the origin is at the right-hand intersection with the 
circumference. 
If in equation (2) we put n= — 1 and a=:l we obtain 

(7) p=i2 A (coaec v)* 

which shows that p=A cosec v is the equation of a parabola, 
while the radius vector becomes r=.A (cosec v)*, showing that p 
has other remarkable properties than those which I pointed out in 
''Gould's Astron. Journal," vol. ii, p. 10, 11, since it bisects the 
angle between the radius vector and the axis. It Vill also be ob- 
served that a perpendicular raised firom the focus of a parabola 
upon the radius vector bisects the radius of curvature, by (7). 

When we make a=:l and n=:2, equation (2) gives for p=. 
A {sin v)?, /> = — 3 A {sin v)^ which is one of the involutes of a hy- 
pocycloid of four cusps. 

Problem II. To find the equation of a cycloid, and reduce it to 
its simplest form. 

When in equation (3) representing an epicycloid we attempt to 
make the stationary circle infinite we find the equation rendered 

worthless ; a= »:f^, becomes unity, but A=zR-^2r becomes in- 
finite. We therefore, directly from the geometry of the cycloid, 
taking our origin at the middle of the chord joining two cusps, find 

p = / (2 sin »'+(jr — 2 v) cos v). 

Taking a new origin at the vertex of the arch gives 

p=z7^ (r — 2v) cos V. 

Rotating the axis through a right angle reduces this to 

p=2r^ V sintf, 

which is the simplest form of the equation of a cycloid, / being the 
radius of the generating circle and v the angle made by p with a 
normal at the vertex. 

Problem III. To transform the case of equation (4) to polar 
coordinates ; the case when na=zl. 

The equation of the curve being written p=^ (^^'w^)" we find 

r=zA («n^)*^^* But (since in every curve, p=r sin e) this 

shows that e is here equal to ^ • And since in every curve the 



30 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

polar angle, ^, must be the sum of v in its present sense, plus the 
complement of c, we have in this curve 

which by reduction gives 

n 1— n ' 

Rotating now the polar axis through a right angle, and thus 
eliminating ^?r from the second member, we get by substitution 

as the polar equation of the curve, which may evidently be written 
in the form 

in the same form as />, and the value of p in terms of ^ becomes, 

p = A (sint^r+'- 

Problem IV. The logarithmic spiral 7; = -4" apparently pre- 
sents no difficulties. 

Problem V. The equation, p=zAv^^ n being a positive integer, 
gives the involutes of a circle. 

Problem VI. The equation p-=.A\>* sin v, gives for the radius 
of curvature 

P=i2 A {sin v-f-2 cos v). 

This cui-ve evidently enjoys the property of repeating itself in 
its evolutes ; its arches are all tangent to a straight line through 
the origin, perpendicular to the axis, at its cusps the tangent of 
v=L — 2, and the cusps are all situated on a parabola with its 
axis lying in the same direcl^ion. 



A New Curve. By Thomas Hill, of Portland, Me. 

The equation p=:Ay represents a curve, that in outward appear- 
ance resembles that case of the elastic curve in which it does not 
cross the axis. By integration we obtain 

/>=e ^*»» »'+*; or log p=:A smv-f-B 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 31 

In this equation, B only affects the scale of magnitude. A change 
of sign in A simply throws the curve below the axis. 

For -4=0 the curve becomes a circle infinitely removed from 
the axis. For A=:co the curve is a straight line, falling perpen- 
dicularly on the axis but not crossing it. If however this case be 
drawn on an infinite scale by making B also oo, the value sin v=z 
— 1 may make p finite ; that is, we see only the bottom of the loop 
. tangent to the axis. But draw it on an infinitesimal scale by 
making B=. — oo, and the value sinv=zl may make p finite, show- 
ing us the top of an arch coinciding with the axis. 

The value of the ordinate at the top of the arch is 2^i i= J e ^ and 
for the bottom of a loop is y^ = — — 



Ae 



A 

1 



Four Equations partially discussed. By Thomas Hill, of 
Portland, Me. 

1. In the "Proceedings" of this Association, vols, xi, p. 42 ; 

4 

xii, pp. 1-6 ; and xiii, p. 158, will be found preliminary discussions 
of some systems of coordinates, in which the present equations 
are further examples. 

2. Let the radius of curvature be proportionate to some power 
of the ordinate, i. 6., 

p = Aj/^. 

The geometry of the differentials gives, if r, the angle of the 
curve with the axis, is taken as the variable, 

pdT=Ay^ dT=zdy cos T, 
8. Whence by integration 



1 



! y=((n—l)(^ cos T—B)) 

m 

P=A({'nr^l)(A cos T—B)y^' 



l—n 
n 



4. These equations show that p=iAy^ represents, when 
n= — 1, the elastic curve, 
n=^, the cycloid and its involutes, 
n=|, an oval involute to a 4-cusped hypocycloid. 



32 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

w = 1 , a curve presented \n a separate paper at this meeting, 
n:= J, a curve which for -8=0 becomes a parabola, 
n = 2, a curve which for J3=:0 becomes the catenary. 

5. The ratio of p to y may be written 

P_« A 

y (nr-lj{AcoaT—B) 

which for the special case .8=0 gives 

y=z(n — 1) p cos T =(n — 1) p sin r 



n n 



p = (A^ 0^— 1)) ^-""isinr) i-« 

I had discussed this last equation, and its caustics, (Gould's Ast. 
Jour., ii, 84), before perceiving that it includes that case of the 
elastic curve in which it crosses the axis at right angles. 

6. Let the radius of curvature be proportional to the nth 
power of the radius vector. This gives us 

p = Ar^ p=fr] 
p=B — 



(n — 2) Ar »— * 
And for all cases in which B is put = 

e=:(l—n) <P+C; T=:(2— w) (P+C. 

7. If, in §6, n= — 1, we find that for negative values of B the 
curve is a series of loops, no one of which encloses the origin ; for 
positive values of -B, less than J\/-4, a series of loops, each en- 
closing the origin ; and for J5=0, four loops meeting in the origin. 
In the last case, the curve may be transformed, with a loss of the 
alternate loops, into the forms : 



r=A,/3 Asin2 <P :=za/S A sine; tz=lS ^. 
For the value of B^i^a^A this curve is a circle, with the ra- 
dius \/A. 

8. When n is put = 1, and J5=0, we obtain 



logr=(pA,/A^—l 

which is the equation of a logarithmic spiral. Inasmuch as in 
every curve the radius of the evolute may be written 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 83 

and its radius vector 



we easily show that, in the case of this article, we have 

pz=.Ar' 

which is a new demonstration of a familiar property of the spira 
mirabilis. 

9. For n= 1, when B is negative, the curve, examined by the 
lemma 

will be found to be a double spiraloid, enclosing the origin in a 



^TTl 



CORRIGENDA. 

The reader is requested to mako the following corrections with a pen; Vol. xix, p. 
21. the last line sliould be written, 

n ! n I 

and the close of the first line on p. 22 should be written, 

/i„z=ReMz=eS„=Reef. 






12. Making n = J, we have for J5 = 
which are evident equations of a parabola. 



A. A. A. 8. VOL. XXn. 8 



34 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AXD CHEMISTRY. 

13. Making n = 2, we have for 5 = 

e= — ^; Tz=C; p= — oo 

so that the curve has become a straight line at an infinite distance, 
parallel to the axis. 

14. Making n= 3, we obtain £= — 2^;tz= — ^ showing the 
curve to be an equilateral hyperbola. 

15. Thus a rapid preliminary survey of the equation p=:Ar^ 
shows it to contain circles, log. spirals, involutes of circles, and 
of epicycloids, parabolas, hyperbolas, and many interesting new 
curves. 

16. Let us now suppose the radius of curvature to be propor- 
tional to the nth power of the length of a perpendicular let fall 
from the origin upon the tangent ; p =z Ap^- 

17. In this case we readily obtain 



n 

__ ((H-l) (rM-^ )) ••"*"^ 

18. This equation shows that by putting n'= -^^ we shall ob- 

tain, for 5=0, p=A7^'; so that the equation p=iAp» includes 
the curves of pz=Ar^ 

19. For the case n = 1 we have Tz=fp . . for values of 

A> I this gives us 

1 



T = -=- log ^Ar*^B-fc 

and this runs when 5:^0 into a logarithmic spiral. 



1 [-1] . /T-rs 



20. Butwhen^<l, t=: ■-= cos \^-b^'P 



whence p= ^^-^zij ^^ ^^ — ^ ' ^ ^^^ch is an epicycloid. 

21. And when ^ = 1, n being = 1, we have p = \/^-f--B, so 
that g = \/ — 5, which gives us when B is negative, the involute 
of a circle with a radius of \/ — B. 






A. MATHEHATI08, FHTSICS AND CHEMI8TRT. 35 

22. When n = 3, the curve reduces for JB = to a parabola 
and for B= — -1, to p=aJA' Cot — . 

23. When nzn — 3, and J5=0, we have r= — ~, and the 
curve is the equilateral hyperbola. 

24. Let us now consider the radius of curvature as proportional 
to the nth power of the length of the arc. This is readily in- 
tegrated, and gives 

1 w 

p-=,A^-^ ((1 — n)v/) i-»' 

When —— is a positive integer this is manifestly some involute 

of a circle; also for n=:l, we have the spira mirabilis, and 
n=0, of course gives the circle. When n= — 1 the curve starts 
from the origin in opposite directions and coils itself around 
two poles on a line passing through the origin at 45° with the axis. 

The distance of the poles from the origin is d=-4\/2;r. 



On the Relation of Internal Fluidity to the Precession op 
THE Equinoxes. By J. G. Barnard, U. S. Army. 

Since the investigations by Sir Wm. Thomson concerning the 
relations between rigidity of the earth's substance and precession 
(see "Rigidity of the Earth," Phil. Trans., 1863), ^nd his enunci- 
ation that " if the earth had no greater rigidity than steel or iron, 
it would yield about two-fifths as much to tide-producing influences 
&8 if it had no rigidity, more than three-fourths as much as if its 
rigidity did not exceed that of glass," and, as a consequence of 
the centrifugal force of diurnal rotation o^ these solid tidal pro- 
tuberances, the precession-producing couple will be diminished in 
the ratio of their height to that of the tide of a wholly fluid sphe- 
roid ; the question of internal fluidity has, in its relations to pre- 
cession, lost much of its importance. For though, in another place, 
(Treatise on Nat. Philos., §848) he states that "it is interesting 
to remark that the popular geological hypothesis of a thin shell 
of solid material, having a hollow space within it filled with liquid, 
involves two effects of deviation from perfect rigidity which would 



36 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

influence in opposite ways the amount of precession. The com- 
paratively easy yielding of the shell must render the effective 
moving couple due to sun and moon much smaller than it would 
be if the whole interior were solid, and, on this account, must tend 
to diminish the amount of precession and nutation :" and he thinks 
that the *' effective moment of inertia of a thin solid shell contain- 
ing fluid in its interior would be much less than that of the whole 
mass if solid throughout," and hence there would be a " compensor 
tory effect." But, on the other hand, he considera the probability 
ver}^ small that this compensation should chance to be so perfect as 
the actual observed precession would require it to be ; and I, for 
my own part, believe he is in error in his notion that there is any 
such compensation whatever. (See note to p. 48, Smithsonian 
Contributions 240, "Problems of Rotary Motion.") 

Nevertheless, the effect of Internal Fluidity has been made 
the subject of one of the most famous investigations, concerning 
the physics of the earth, by the late Prof. W. Hopkins* (Phil. 
Trans., 1839-40-42) and his results have been considered so far 
authoritative as to be at least referred to by most writers since. 
So recently as 1868 the eminent French astronomer, the late 
M. Delaunay, believed them entitled to a formal refutation at his 
hands, and another prominent writer on the ''Figure of the Earth," 
the late Archdeacon Pratt, in his fourth edition of 1870, has 
attempted a "vindication of Mr. Hopkins' method" against the 
strictures of the French astronomer. Although neither the " refu- 
tation" nor the "vindication" is, in my opinion, either one or 
the other {vide notes pp. 39 and 49, Smithsonian Contributions, 
240), the fact that, at so recent dates, they have been made, shows 
that the question has not wholly lost its interest ; that the over- 
shadowing influence of the question of "Rigidity" is not appre- 
ciated ; or finally, perhaps I might add, that there is a large class 
of minds, whose opinions deservedly command respect, who will 
not give full credit to the results of purely mathematical investi- 
gations on such subjects. 

To the latter class, the mathematician can only present his view 
of the case, and while admitting, where data are so recondite and 
his instrument of so feeble a grasp upon the complicated oper- 

•Even Sir Wm. Thoinpon has quiteVecently ("Nature," Feb. 1, 1872) given an elabo- 
rate refutation of M. Delaunay'a views of '*vi8C08ity'* as an agent to nullify Prof. 
Hopkins' rexults. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AlTD CHEMISTRT. 37 

ation of nature's' forces, that his exposition may not comprehend 
the whole matter, claim that his results be arrayed against the 
conclosions* of other investigators according to their probable 
weigJU. 

In a paper on the "Precession of the Equinoxes in Relation to 
the Earth's Internal Structure," which has been read before the 
Academy of Sciences, and printed as ^' Smithsonian Contributions 
to Knowledge, No. 240," I have endeavored to show that the need 
of high rigidity (as first announced bj' Sir Wm. Thomson), to great 
depths, is unquestionable ; that to such depths, at least, it puts out 
of court (if I may use the expression) the plea for internal fluidity ; 
that the supposed compensation in loss of "effective moment of 
inertia" which even Sir Wm. Thomson would concede to fluidity 
has no basis of reality. If the terrestrial spheroid were wholly of 
fluid and (of* course) wholly destitute of rigidity, the tidal protu- 
berances developed by solar or lunar attraction can be mathe- 
matically expressed with almost perfect accuracy; and I have 
anal3rtically demonstrated that the centrifugal force (due to the 
diurnal rotation) of the matter constituting these tidal protuber- 
ances exactly neutralizes the precession-producing couple devel- 
oped by the foreign attraction, and that, in such a spheroid, there 
will be no precession. On the other hand, supposing the spheroid 
to be solid throughout, Sir Wm. Thomson has determined the 
degree of rigidity which its substance must possess in order that 
the observed precession should coincide so nearly with that which 
theory assigns to a perfectly rigid spheroid of its shape and laws 
of internal density, with this result, viz : "that the actual rigidity 
should be several times as great as the actual rigidity of iron 
throughout two thousand or more miles thickness of crust.'* 

If such a degree of rigidity be needed to a crust " two thousand 
or more miles" thick, it is plain enough that the thin crust of the 
geologists (i. €., a crust of thirty or forty -miles thickness) would 
demand a rigidity not onlj^ surpassing imraensurably anything 
actually belonging to cognizable portions of the earth's external 
substance (and if we conceive volcanic lavas to come from the 
internal fluid, our cognizance extends through the solid crust) 
but surpassing anything we can reasonably attribute to solid 
terrestrial matter. 

Very strangely, however, the idea of the precession-neutralizing 
effect of elastic yielding of the earth's substance does not appear 



38 A. MATHEHATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

to have entered into the minds of physicists until it was announced 
by Prof. Thomson ; or rather, I should say, it was taken for granted 
that the solid earth, or even a tbin crust of solid earth, was rigid 
enough to be regarded, in the treatment of the problem, as per- 
fectly rigid. So Prof. Hopkins, in his famous investigations, treats 
the problem, and he has endeavored to find in the precession of 
the equinoxes a test of the existence of internal fluidity, under this 
point of view. His result is probably well known to those who 
have given attention to this particular subject. It is, that, consti- 
tuted internally in accordance with the most probable laws of 
density and of ellipticity of strata of equal density, there must be 
a solid crust of at least eight hundred or one thousand miles of 
thickness. But this determination is based upon a supposed 
discrepancy of one-eighth of the calculated precession between 
that which is observed and that due to a homogeneous spheroid 
having the earth's figure ; a discrepancy mainly depending upon 
the assumption of yV ^^^. ^^^ moon's mass. The moon's mass 
is now believed to be much less, and (see Thompson and Tait, 
Nat. Phil., §828) tlie discrepancy is really, if not inappreciable, 
certainly small, and at any rate so indeterminate as to afford no 
datum for such a determination. Did such a discrepancy exist 
and if it were with certainty determinable, it would prove (as the 
subject is now understood) not a determinate minimum thickness 
of crust, but^ that, bj- elastic yielding of the earth's substance, a 
part of the precession was lost. 

It is a matter of scientific curiosity, if nothing more, to 
know the actual efl'ect of internal fluidity when this yielding is 
excluded and the crust treated as perfectly rigid (for the results 
will have an applicability to a certain extent in the case in which 
the shell is supposed to yield partially to foreign attraction). In 
Prof. Hopkins' investigation, while there is an elegance of treat- 
ment and a mastery of higher analysis, combined with skill in its 
application to physical problems, which claim admiration, there is, 
ut the same time, I think, a fallacy in his application to the hete- 
rogeneous spheroid, which, considering the notoriety of the inves- 
tigation and the acceptance it has met with, renders it one of the 
"curiosities" of modern mathematics. 

In the "Addendum" to the Smithsonian publication already al- 
luded to, I have pointed out what I believe to be the underlying 
errors of Prof. Hopkins* analj'sis, and have endeavored to show 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSIC8 AND CHEMISTRT. 89 

that, attributing perfect rigidity to the shelly and identity, in the 
two cases, in the law of internal density, the effect of fluidity of 
nucleus is almost absolutely nil; or, in other words, that the pre- 
cession will be, with inappreciable difference, the same for the two 
cases. I shall endeavor to make this result intelligible and the 
effects of fluidity understood without resort to other symbolism 
than that of ordinary language. 

In the first place, stability of the "Figure of the Earth" de- 
mands that if there be an internal fluid, it shall be possessed of 
the earth's diurnal rotation about an axis coincident (on the whole) 
with that of the shell. Hence, by some means, the fluid as a mass 
must be possessed of the same precessional motion as its shell. 
And again, supposing the earth to have been once wholly fluid, 
the solidification of the shell must have been governed by the law 
of density combined with that of temperature, and hence in speak- 
ing of a shell or crust, we speak of one having an inner surface 
concentric and co-axial with the outer, but with an ellipticity which 
may slightly vary. The questions then present themselves : " Will 
such an internal fluid spheroid take up a common precession with 
the shell?" And if so, " Will that common precession be the same, 
or not the same, as that which would belong to the entire mass 
solidified?" 

The flrst question Prof. Hopkins answers aflarmativel}'' ; the sec- 
ond he answers thus : — "The same, if the shell and Jluid he Iwmo- 
geneous and of same external ellipticities ; not the same, if both 
the shell and fluid be heterogeneous, the fluid strata of equal den- 
sity being disposed in accordance with the requirements of equi- 
librium of figure. 

I answer the latter question, " The same in both cases." 

To make myself understood, I must attempt to explain the 
internal actions and reactions of the fluid. 

First : suppose the fluid homogeneous. Let the following flgure 
(an ellipse of sm^l ellipticity s) be a meridional section of the inner 
surface of the shell (for it matters not how far removed the con- 
centric external surface be). Let it be supposed, however, that 
the axis of the shell has been displaced, by rotation around an 
equatorial axis through O, normal to the plane of the figure, 
through a minute angle P' O P = /5 from a position P P of coinci- 
dence with that of the fluid ; now through whatever causes (not 
acting on the fluid) the shell has undergone this displacement, it is 






40 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEHISTBT. 




evident that the fluid will not have been at once moved bodily with 
the shell, but will have undergone the least possible change con- 

P^ ^r .^..M sistent with the change 

•^— M ^^ position of its en- 
velope. The fluid vxis 
^'~ • ' ^ revolving in planes nor- 

mal to PP ; and by the 
changed position of the 
shell, portions of the 
fluid contiguous to the 
poles PP must change 
their planes of rotation 
which were perpendic- 
ular to PP, through the minute angle, a, to parallelism to a plane 
tangent at P to the displaced shell, which angle is of the same 
order of magnitude with respect to p (or POP') as the ellipticity, 
e, supposed small, is to ordinary magnitude (calculation gives 
a = 2 e) /S ; and hence a minute quantity of the second order. The 
least change possible in the fluid is that all its planes, mm^ mnij 
mm^ etc., come into parallelism with the tangent plane PM. In 
this position the rotary planes of the fluid are skew to their own 
axis ; and the pressure upon the shell arising from its centrifugal 
forces is unsymmetrically distributed on the inner shell surface, 
giving rise to a ''couple" acting to turn the shell back from its 
displaced to its original position ; or on the other hand, by reaction, 
tending to turn the fluid niass in the reverse direction to a position 
of axial coincidence with the displaced shell. Since the displace- 
ment, a, of the plane of rotation is minute compared to the a^ial 
divergence POP', this latter movement will be nearly equivalent to 
a rotation of the fluid as a mass about the equatorial axis through 
O ; that is to say, that the forces acting on each particle to turn 
the fluid mass to axial coincidence with the shell, will be propor- 
tional to its distance from the axis through O. 

This is very elegantly demonstrated by Prof. Hopkins, by refer- 
ence to the conditional equations for fluid equilibrium for an en- 
veloped fluid, by which he computes the intensity of effort for each 
particle. The correctness of this rationale, and the accuracy of 
his computation find (as 1 have elsewhere demonstrated) a very 
interesting confirmation in the analytical theory of the tides. The 
analytical expression for the tidal distortion of a revolving sphe- 



A. ICATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEHISTRT. 41 

roid, entirely fluid, indicates a simple displacement of the external 
configuration, like that of the diagram, the axis of the figure being 
displaced from P to P'. No attempt has been heretofore made 
to show Jiow the fluid mass, presuming its rotary velocity aud axis 
unchanged, adapts itself to this change ; but I have shown (note, 
p. 43, Smithsonian Contributions, 240) that Prof. Hopkins' com- 
puted reaction, due to the minute change of rotary planes, is 
exactly equivalent to the foreign attraction-couple which would 
produce it ; and hence we may regard tidal distortion as a minute 
angular displacement of the planes of rotation. 

Now, in the theory of precession, as it is usually set forth, and 
as the fact is visibly exhibited by the gyroscope, rotating bodies 
subjected to the action of a couple, take a gyratory movement, the 
axis of rotation moving at right angles to the plane of the couple. 
Thus, by the interaction I have described between shell and fluid, 
their masses will be subjected to gyratory motion, in opposite 
directions, the degree of which will evidently be in inverse pro- 
V portion to their respective moments of inertia (taking that of the 

fluid as if solid) and their gyration cannot produce greater diver- 
gence of the axis than the original disturbance, but are simply 
relative oscillations.* 

Let us now take another view of the subject and suppose the 
shell and fluid both revolving with common angular velocity about 
their common axis of figure, to be subjected to a foreign attraction 
from some point {e. g,, the solar or lunar centres) situated at a 
finite distance and not in the plane of the equator. Owing to 
inequality of distances the resultant of this attraction, were the 
whole mass rigid, would develop a couple tending to turn (or tilt) 
it; and hence, as is well known, arise the phenomena of preces- 
sion. But the internal fluid spheroid of our hypothesis is desti- 
tute of rigidity, and the shell alone will be directly subjected to 
the tilting efffect and resulting precessional motion. But by the 
unequal action of the attraction upon the particles of the fluid, 
pressure will be developed upon the inner surface of the shell. If 
the fluid be homogeneons the analytical expression for this pres- 
sure can be directly deduced from that for the tides of a wholly 
fluid spheroid, as 1 have obtained them (Smithsonian Contribu- 

* The foregoing rationale has reference to Prof. Hopkins' treatment. A more simple 
ooe U to regard the tiltmg of each fluid rolutional plane, mm, as producing a tendency 
^ gyraiion: which tendency can only be yielded to, considtently with uncUbturbed 
rotation of the flaid mass, by a lodUy gyration of that mass. 
A. A. A. S. VOL. XXII. 8* 



42 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

tions, 240, note to p. 44) ; or they can be directly computed from an 
integiation of the elementary attractions and couples, as Prof. 
Hopkins has done. In either way the result will be that the 
pressure-couple upon the shell is identical with that which tvould 
be exerted on the fluid mass if solidified. And hence upon the 
shell is exerted the entire precession-prochicing couple due to the 
entire mass. Hence the shell would initially have the precession 
due to this total couple acting upon its partial mass and moment 
of inertia. We may regard it, therefore, as at the first moment 
taking up this accelerated precession independently of the fluid. 
Biit this cannot continue for a finite time (however minute) with- 
out producing the relative displacement of shell and fluid, exhibited 
in the diagram, by which gyration, and, consequently, preces- 
sional motion, is impressed upon the fluid. In consequence, the 
fluid and shell take up a common precession, subject to the minute 
(relatively to each other) oscillations of their axes. In reacting 
against the shell we have seen that the fluid opposes the moment 
of inertia due to its mass, and thus, Anally, the actual precession 
becomes that due to the total attraction-couple, combined with the 
total moment of inertia. Hence the resulting precession is the 
same as if the whole mass were solidified into rigid continuity ; 
in other words, the existence of a fluid nucleus does not affect 
precession, if the fluid be homogeneous. This is Prof. Hopkins' 
result, as it is mine, though it is deduced by him from a minute 
analysis, which introduces into the differential equations for rotary 
motion (for shell and fluid separately) all the various elementary 
forces acting on each. 

If we now take the case of heterogeneity of the fluid, we must, 
in the first place, assume that the strata of equal density are 
disposed according to the laws of equilibrium, having reference 
to the Figure of the Earth. That is to say, the strata will be 
concentric spheroidal surfaces of ellipticity differing slightly from 
that of the exterior by diminishing inwards with increasing den- 
sities. This will not, however, affect the reasoning which has 
been applied to relative displacement, as illustrated by the dia- 
gram, in the case of homogeneity. If the shell suffers a slight 
displacement relatively to the contained fluid, there will arise 
an interaction of which the rationale is identically the same as 
for the case of homogeneousness. The only question then, is, 
"Will the pressure-couple upon the shell developed in the fluid. 



1 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 43 

through the action of a foreign attraction, be identical with that 
which the attraction would produce upon the fluid if solidified?" 
I would answer by the affirmation : "Given a heterogeneous fluid 
wholly enveloped by a rigid boundary surface and subjected to a 
foreign attraction, and a condition of static equilibrium assumed, 
the pressure-couple exerted by the fluid on the shell cannot difler 
from that which the attraction would exert on the solidified fluid."* 
The assumed state of static equilibrium implies not only reference 
to the mutual attractions of the parts, but to the foreign attrac- 
tion. Now, in the case of the heterogeneous earth, the conditions 
for this static equilibrium are very complicated, and though the 
distortion of stratification, which a heterogeneous earth-spheroid, 
wholly fluid, would undergo by the attraction, can be determined 
by use of transcendental analysis (the use of Laplace's coeffi- 
cients, now more commonly called spherical harmonics)^ I know no 
attempt to determine either the distortion of strata of an enveloped 
fluid (when, as in the case of the earth, the mutual attraction of 
the constituents of shell and fluid is to be taken into account) 
or the resulting pressures upon the envelopes. Prof. Hopkins has 
cut this Gordian knot by the simple process of integrating from 
centre to surface the foreign attraction, as a free force acting oh 
the fluid particles ; and it is not at all surprising that, obtained in 
this way, the resulting pressure-couple is not identical with that 
which would be developed by the attraction on the solidified fluid. 
On this fallacy, and this alone, depends his flnal and celebrated 
result. There are (besides the self-evident erroneousness of the 
• process) two tests of its error. Applying the same process to 
determining the pressure-couple exerted on the shell by the agency 
of the centrifugal forces of diurnal rotation in the fluid particles, 
he gets, for the auction and reliction of shell and fluid, in the case 
illustrated in the diagram, couples not identical. Again, his final 
formula for the precession of the earth, supposing it to consist of 
an iuterior heterogeneous spheroidal shell, gives (as I show, note 
to page 47, Smithsonian Contributions, 240) with decreasing in- 
ternal ellipticities leas precession (instead of greater, as he sup- 
poses) than would belong to entire solidity. Hence, increasing 

*A denial of this, carried to its legitimate conKeqaences, woald inyolve^ I think, a 

violation of law of thd "conservation of energy." The alight motion of change of 

coDflgnration which, in diarnal rotation, the strata must undergo to accommodate 

ttaflnselves to this conditiou of static equilibrium, is investigated hy Prof. Hopkins, 

tad found insigniiicant. 



44 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSIC8 AlO) CHEMIfiTRT. 

the thickness of the crust increases (if we accept his formula as a 
true exponent) instead of diminishing precession ; and the actual 
deduction from it should be, that even entire solidification would 
not result in the diminished precession sought for. I further 
remark that the necessary identity of the interacting couples 
(upon shell and fluid), due to contriftigal forces in the fluid, indi- 
cates a correction for the pressure-couple exerted on the shell 
from that cause which, if likewise applied to the analogous 
computation for the pressure-couple developed by foreign at- 
traction (the sources of the error of computation in both these 
cases, as before indicated, being the same), renders Prof. Hopkins' 
formula an exponent of the truth of my thesis, viz. : that preces- 
sion is not affected by the hypothesis of internal fluidity, whether 
the crust and fluid be homogeneous or heterogeneous. 

I shall conclude this paper, intended merely to give an easily 
comprehensible notion of the relation of internal fluidity to the 
precession of the earth, with the remarks appended to my discus- 
sion of Prof. Hopkins' analysis, in the Smithsonian Contributions 
already referred to. 

1st. The analysis of Prof. Hopkins, in its application to a ho- 
mogeneous fluid and shell, seems to establish (and the result i» 
confirmed by its harmony with tidal phenomena, as already men- 
tioned) that the rotation imparts to the fluid a practiced rigidity 
by which it reacts upon the shell as if it were a solid mass, while 
its pressure imparts to the shell the requisite couple to preserve 
the precession unchanged. 

2d. The same practical rigidity is, with entire reason, attributed 
to the heterogeneous fluid by which (leaving out of view minute 
relative oscillations which do not affect the mean resultant in other 
natural phenomena and should not in this) the shell and fluid take 
a common precession, 

3d. The two masses retaining their configurations, mutual rela- 
tions and rotary velocities, essentially unaltered by the hypothesis 
of internal fluidity, it would be a violation of fundamental mechan- 
ical principles were the resulting precession not identical with that 
due to the entire mass considered as solid. 

4th. The common and identical precession of fluid and shell 
resulting fi*om the analysis is indispensable to any conception of 
precession for the earth as composed of thin shell and fluid ; for 
otherwise internal equilibrium would be destroyed and the "Figure 



A. MATHSKATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 45 

of the £arth*' cease to have any assignable expression. The 
entire mass, fluid and solid, must (without invoking the aid of 
"viscosity") be "carried along in the precessional motion of the 
earth.'' Prof. Hopkins' analysis demonstrates the possibility, and 
exhibits the rationale^ of such a community of precession, but fails 
in the attempt to exhibit a test of the existence or absence of in- 
ternal fluidity. 

5th. The powerful pressures that would be exerted upon a thin 
and rigid shell would probably produce in it noticeable nutational 
movements ;* while if the shell be not of a rigidity far surpassing 
that of the constituents of the cognizable crust, the "precessional 
motion of the earth" would, owing to the neutralizing effect of 
tidal protuberances, scarcely be observable. 



Musical Flow of Water. By H. F. Walling, of Boston, Mass. 

Mr. Walling called the attention of the sub-section to a strong 
musical tone emitted by the faucet of one of the wash basins in 
the toilet room of the City Hall building, where the meetings were 
held. This tone could be made to vary about an octave, by 
slightly opening and closing the faucet. It only sounded when 
the flow of water was very small. The pressure of the water be- 
ing modified by its motion, sudden closings, or partial closings of 
the valve took place, by which shocks like those of the water ram 
were produced. The pitch of the tone depended of course upon 
the rapidity with which the shocks succeeded each other. The 
range was from lower to middle C of the scale, corresponding to 
the production of from 256 to 512 shocks per second. 

Mr. A. A. Breneman of Lancaster, Pa., alluded to the analogy 
between this action and that of musical flames, and said he 
was accustomed, when performing the experiments before bis 
classes, to illustrate the cause of the latter by comparing the out- 
rushing molecules to a flock of sheep running through a gate, 
when successive blockings up would occur, alternately followed by 
rushes. 

^Without reference to eonrentional^Nutatlon,'' which is but a form of precesBion 
due to the non-coiocidence of the plane of the moon's orbit and ecliptic. The " Nuta- 
4mu» referred to are explained in *• Smithsonian Contributions/' 240. 



46 a. mathematics, fhtsigs and chemistbt. • 

The Relation op the Dissipation of Energy to Cosmical 
Evolution. By H. F. Walling, of Boston, Mass. 

The dissipation of energy is a continuous process, quite familiar 
to mankind in its main features and results, since tlie days of the 
ancient philosophers. It was recognized by them that all mechan- 
ical motions, being dissipated by friction, gradually diminish, and 
must finally cease unless maintained by external power. In the 
language of modern science the motion which thus disappears is 
converted from molar into molecular motion. 

It may be added that molecular energy, existing mainly in the 
form called heat, tends to equalization or dynamic equilibrium, 
after the attainment of which it is powerless to produce molar or 
mechanical motion, a reconversion from the condition of equilib- 
rium being impossible. 

Accordingly the power to produce mechanical motion, exerted 
by the heat of the sun, which is being lavished with such prodigious 
prodigality, can only last while the sun continues to be hotter than 
other bodies in space. At present it is well understood that all ter- 
restrial motive power is derived from this source with the single 
unimportant exception of that obtained from the tides, at the ex- 
pense of the earth's energy of rotation. Among the more obvious 
processes of conversion of the sun's molecular into terrestrial 
molar motion, are the expansion and contraction of the atmos- 
phere, the evaporation and condensation of water and the less 
direct method by restoration of potential chemical energy accom- 
plished in vegetation, whence are produced food and fUel. 

But it is supposed that the &un will finally grow cold, and that 
the resistance of the etherial medium, the evidence of whose ex- 
istence is found in the demonstration of the undulatory theory of 
light, will cause satellites to fall into planets, planets into suns 
and suns into one common centre, after which, unless by special 
interposition of divine power, darkness, silence and death will for- 
ever prevail. 

This gloomy prediction is of course inconsistent with the theory 
of continuous evolution, which obviously excludes from cosmical 
economy, catastrophes or extensive destnictive effects. 

A careful consideration, however, of the circumstances which 
will be likely to accompany the falling of a satellite into its planet 
may lead to the conclusion that this occurrence will not necessarily 



JL. ICATHEMATICS, PHT8ICS AND CHBMISTBT. 47 

be catastrophic. The process must certainly be an exceedingly 
siow one, no progress in it having been detected throughout all the 
recorded observations of the moon's motion extending over thou- 
sands of years. The only practical evidence which has been ad- 
duced to prove the resistance of a medium, namely, a very slight 
diminution in the period of that nearly .evanescent body, Encke's 
comet, is very far from being definite and satisfactory. The mass 
of the moon being enormously greater, it is probable that many 
millions of years will pass before a diminution of her orbital period 
from this cause will be perceptible. The immense periods of time 
attributed to the past processes of geological evolution, and to 
the supposed metamorphoses of organic life, are therefore very 
brief when compared with those required for the returns of sat- 
ellites to their parent orbs, admitting, as theoretical consideralions 
eeem to require, that such returns are ultimately inevitable. 

The eccentricity being diminished by the Resistance of a medium, 
the moon's orbit would eventually become, and afterwards continue, 
circular, so that final contact would be unaccompanied by violent 
collision. But before the time of actual contact, changes of form 
would be induced both in planet and satellite by mutual attrac- 
tions, exemplified in the production of daily terrestrial tides. The 
investigations of Hopkins, Thomson, and recently of Barnard,* in 
regard to tidal and precessional influences, indicate that, even at 
the present distance of the moon, they must cause elongations and 
contractions of the solid materials of the earth, which are quite 
appreciable. A considerable diminution of the distance between 
the earth and moon would give rise to changes in the form of the 
earth, and hence to bendings to and fro of its external shell even 
if the earth were solid throughout. This would be accompanied 
by earthquakes and kindred disturbances far exceeding in magni- 
tude and destructiveness anything of the kind now known to man. 
The frequency of these occurrences would be the same as that 
of the moon*s meridian passage. 

Resistances to this tidal action, however, would be developed, 
in consequence of which the molar motion of rotation would be 
converted into molecular motion, so long as the angular motion of 
rotation in either body was different from that of the moon's revo- 
lution, until the rotations became synchronous with the revolution, 
a condition already arrived at in the case of the moon. Syn- 

* See this volume, Sec. A. p. 36. 



48 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSIC8 AND CHEMISTRT. 

chronism once attained would be permanent, acceleration both of 
revolution and rotation occurring as the distance diminished, and 
both at the expense of the potential energy of gravity between the 
two bodies. Each body presenting the same face to the other, no 
meridian passage could take place and hence no tidal action. 

But there yet remains to be considered a continually increasing 
tendency to distortion of form consequent upon approach. This 
effect would be produced very gradually, being spread over such 
enormous durations of time. . The curious and complicated fold- 
ings of • the rocks, in the Appalachian regions, indicate that the 
solid materials of the earth are sufficiently plastic to allow it to 
take on any form towards which forces of sufficient magnitude 
direct it, provided the times be very greatly extended. Hence, 
considering the extreme slowness of the process, it may be reason- 
able to conclude that the forms ultimately developed would be 
identical with those which would be assumed by liquid masses 
having the same relative positions and velocities. 

The determination of these forms is a problem for the mathema- 
ticians. In the absence of analysis, no reason is manifest for 
supposing that the forms of equilibrium would be materially dif- 
ferent just before and just after c*ontact. May it not be that the 
order of change would be a partial reversal of certain supposed 
processes of the nebular hypothesis? Thus the moon may be 
gradually elongated into a closed ring which will slowly' contract 
upon the earth as the energy of angular velocity is gradually 
dissipated by the friction of the medium. In any event there 
seems to be no good reason to suppose that there will be such 
a sudden leap in the final osculation or embrace as would result 
in a catastrophe. 

The same considerations apply to the gravitational relations 
between planets and suns. Other very important relations between 
these bodies, however, with which organic life is more especially 
concerned, require attention. One fundamental requisite to all 
known terrestrial organic life is the conversion, within living 
bodies, of molecular energy, either into molar motions, or into po- 
tential energy which may afterwards be thus converted. All living 
animals and plants, therefore, depend for their existence upon the 
passage through their bodies, of heat, light and other molecular 
forces originating in •fiie sun, in the movement towards distribu- 
tion and equalization. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 49 

The integrity of cosmical evolution in relation to organic life, 
according!}', seems to require the maintenance of great central 
laboratories where molecular disturbances of sufficient intensity 
and quantity can be continually generated, and their effects distrib- 
uted throughout the universe. Notwithstanding the enormous ex- 
penditure of heat by the sun its temperature is supposed to have 
been maintained about the same as at present for ' a very long 
period of time in the past, and no reason is manifest why this fixed 
temperature will not continue for a very long time in the future. 
Doubtless, operations are going on in the sun which it would be 
impossible to imitate in terrestrial laboratories. May it not be 
that the conditions of materials and the circumstances of pressure, 
chemical affinit}', etc., are such, that substances more elementary 
than our so-called chemical elements are uniting with an energy 
far exceeding that of any chemical combination we can eiiect, and 
80 prodigious as to maintain, at comparatively small expenditure 
of material, the sun's temperature at that enormous degree which 
marks the dissociation point of the tremendously energetic com- 
bination? The duration of the combination or combustion would 
thus be prolonged to an enormously remote period. At last when 
• all the potential energy due to this particular reaction became ex- 
hausted by the combination of all the Special materials required 
for it, new materials whose dissociation point had a lower temper- 
ature and which had consequently been prevented from combining 
previously, would commence upon a similar process of combustion. 
And so we may suppose combination to follow combination until 
finally, perhaps at a time when the planets, freighted with their 
living inhabitants, have begun to arrive at the sun's surface, long 
after the fires of the last combustion have expired, it has itself 
become a habitable globe, lighted and heated or served by other 
molecular forces from distant orbs, where new conditions cause 
new chemical combinations and conversions of newly developed 
potential energies. 

Finally, giving play to the imagination, why may we not sup- 
pose farther, that in a liniverse extended throughout infinite space, 
processes of concentration, similar to those supposed in the nebular 
hypothesis and supplemented, by processes like those here indi- 
cated, will go on forever, evolving worlds of continually increasing 
magnificence, perhaps inhabited by living occupants of inconceiv- 
ably transcendent and ever expanding facultfes ? 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXU. . 4 



60 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

fl 

Direction of Wind in Local Thunder Storms. By Hiram A. 
Cutting, of Lunenburgh, Vermont. 

In July, 1850, at Franconia, N. H., I was exposed in a buggy to 
the fury of one of those local showers that pour rain in torrents, 
accompanied by some hail and much thunder and lightning. . 

As I was riding leisurely along I observed a small black oloud 
almost directly overhead. It increased with great rapidity, and 
in ten minutes the torrent came down. The wind was in gusts 
from all pK>ints of the compass, demolishing my umbrella in a twink- 
ling, leaAdng me to the mercy of the elements. I was drenched 
in a moment and in an incredibly short space of time the body of 
the buggy was full- and overflowing, though nearly four inches in 
height. 

The roads were like ijy ef s and --^rery thing was flooded. In 
driving north thre^K^J^d^^aff ^[idle^^ passed entu*ely out of 
the limit of the st^mOof h aih ew id ra in, i3frtUhe wind for two miles 
farther had been/ vftlentltfrofWihgr^utlC prostrating com and 
some trees and blowing down o ne bam. Tlie next morning I re- 
passed the grouni^Mj^ound '{hat ttie^f^u^ern limit of the storm 
was about six mile^tep Jlf^rt^d^^^idnt, and that at that part 
the wind was strong fromTt it iJusii ttfTaoing some damage. 

In the atternoon, I visited the iron ore hill in Lisbon, which lies 
west of ;the centre of the shower, and found the wind there had 
been strong from the east. Upon my return I examined carefully 
by the plants and trees, and by inquiry, into the direction of the 
wind and found it upon the westerly side, in every instance direct 
from the stortn and all described it as cool, though the forenoon of 
the day of the shower was very hot and sultry with so little wind 
that I was unable to learn its direction. 

As the eastern limit of the storm was towards the White Moun- 
tain range and a wilderness, I could get no information of its extent 
or severity, except by the rise of the streams fed by it, which was 
very great on all little streams, within or running through the 
limit of a circle six miles in diameter. 

Upon my return home to Concord, Vt., I resolved to investigate 
fully the next storm of similar import. I soon removed to Lunen- 
burgh, where I now reside, but saw nothing of similar storms 
until June 30, 1856.* The morning was sultry, the forenoon hot, 
with thermometer at 98°. The wind was unsteady, but from south- 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRTi 51 

erly points. At about noon a dark low cumulus cloud appeared 
in the west, which rapidly increased in size, until it hung with 
inky blackness over the east part of Concord about five miles 
awa}'. At noon, there was a strong breeze from the east, setting 
directly towards this cloud and quite steady. At one o'clock 
p. M., there was a hard gusty wind blowing directly from the 
shower, feeling quite chilly after the forenoon heat and causing 
the thermometer to fall in a few minutes to seventy degrees. 

The cloud hung' over the same place for half an hour longer, 
when it became lighter and was soon broken up in fragments and 
dissipated. During the afternoon, small showers came up round 
about and at three it rained slightl}' at Lunenburgh. 

The next morning, hearing reports from the hail storm, I went 
to the field of disaster. I found the storm of great severity but of 
limited extent, being all within the radius of one-half mile. When 
within a mile of the storm there were indications of a strong wind 
from the west (I was approaching from the east) sufficiently so 
to blow down many trees beyond the limit of the hail and rain. 
I found, upon examination, some trees blowp down upon every 
side of the storm, yet the wind invariably?from the storm cloud. 
Upon inquiry, I found the wind', as fSr as noticed before its com- 
mencement, blew directly towards it ftrom all quarters. The storm, 
though so limited, was of unusual violence, in fact almost without 
precedent in this section. The lightning was terrific, striking 
• trees, etc. The testimon}' showed the thunder the heaviest ever 
known and almost incessant. t 

The cloud, to the parties living there, seemed, as it appeared to 
me five miles distapt, to form directly overhead ; the atmosphere* 
seemed very sultry while it was forming, with hardly a breath of 
air. I could not learn that there was any special direction of the 
wind and think there was not enough to note. The cloud formed 
8o rapidly, that the farmers in their fields did not leave their work 
until an almost total darkness settled down upon them, yet with 
the opportunity of seeing a band of clear sky in all directions, at 
the horizon. There was a strange feeling of oppressiveness in 
the atmosphere. When the storm commenced at one o'clock p. m., 
a complete deluge of water first came down, followed almost 
immediately by hailstones and chunks of ice several inches in di- 
ameter which seemed pressed to earth, with a violent wind crushing 
branches down from the trees with fearful violence. The duration 



52 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

of the storm was no more than thirty minutes, yet in a circle one 
mile in diametei; no green thing was left. The leaves, branches 
and even the bark, were stripped from the orchards and shade trees. 
A sugar orchard standing in the storm was destro5'ed in the same 
manner. The shingles from the roofs and some boards were bat- 
tered from the buildings and broken in pieces by the ice. The 
glass and sashes were all broken. The grass crop was entirely 
destroyed so that the grass fields looked like ploughed ground and 
it was next to impossible to find straws more than two inches, long. 
What became of the heavy crop of grass, ready for the harvest, I 
cannot say. 

Potatoes well hilled up by twice hoeing were destroyed and the 
ground levelled as though it had been done with a roller, and no 
stalks of potatoes or corn could be found upon all the ground. 
The hailstones and masses of ice were piled up like snow drifts 
in winter ; and twenty-four hours after the storm, in one drift by 
actual measurement there were over twenty-five cords. Upon the 
outer edge of the storm where the outward wind was strong there 
was only rain, and a mile fV'om the centre there was only wind, 
which extended at least from five to eight miles away ; how much 
farther I cannot say. The section, over which the hail fell, was 
left without a particle of verdure. No green leaves could be 
found. It presented a state of devastation, as though the trees 
had all been stripped >and the earth ploughed, and then pounded 
down. 

During the ensuing week, th^re were several storms similar in 
their formation, and all accompanied with vivid lightning, heavy 
thunder, hail and rain, but of much less severity than the one de- 
scribed. 

After this peculiar series of storms, there were no marked in- 
stances of storms of this character until 1872. August 14th, of 
that year, the town of SheflSeld, Vt., was visited by a local storm of 
great severity. From the oppressive heat and calm of the morning, 
clouds rapidly formed, and hanging stationary overhead the storm 
between nine and ten a. m. burst upon the place. 

This storm was of much greater extent, covering a section of 
country five or six miles in diameter. These clouds continued to 
send down their deluge of rain and hail for .three hours. Small 
brooks were changed to streams ten or twelve feet deep. The 
bridges were all swept away. The lightning struck several times 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 53 

and several farms had fields of acres in extent washed awa}', and 
other land was covered by the debris to the depth of six or eight 
feet. . • 

In the central part of the storm the wind blew in gusts from all 
points of the compass, and outside of the storm the wind first set 
towards the cloud from all points ; then from it, as before described, 
seeming very cool. During the afternoon, showers spread about 
the country in all directions, but in usual form and not of unusual 
severity. 

8ep^. 8th, a similar storm came directly under my observation 
in the northern part of Lunenburgh. Though of great violence 
one mile north of my place, I was enjoj'ing sunshine. As in other 
cases, it seemed to form overhead and remain stationary. The 
weather as before described. No perceptible wind, but vane point- 
ing southwest. At the first .formation of the cloud, the wind set 
towards it in a steady breeze ; then froqa it, cool and gusty. In 
the area of the storm the rain and hail fell in torrents and the 
darkness was almost like that of night. 

Having been led, by former observations, to know what I might 
expect, I was on the ground almost as soon as the rain ceased. I 
found, fifty rods within the storm, the roads washed out so as to be 
impassable, and leaving my horse, I' walked where water would 
permit. The apples and most of the leaves were knocked off" the 
apple trees by the hail though the hailstones were not large. 
Grain not harvested was spoiled. Lightning struck but once 
within the area of the storm, though the flashes were described as 
incessant. Everything showed a great waterfall, though it was 
nowbere measured ; around the skirts of the storm the wind was 
cool and outward, blowing quite a gale for several miles. A por- 
tion of the storm cloud passed off to the southwest, showering 
moderately. 

These of course are marked instances, yet many have noticed a 
tendency to first an inward and then an outward wind in hard 
showers, while those passing rapidly over, the countrj^ as the 
saying is, pass against the wind. It however shifts a few minutes 
before the rain falls. After a shower has passed^ it frequently 
leaves a delightful cool breeze blowing from it. At the sides 
of those showers, however, the wind is fitful and gusty, seldom 
blowing directly to or from them. 
I respectfully present these fjicts for consideration, hoping that 



54 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

others may observe them until the theory of hail storms and local 
shof^ers of great severitj' is better understood. 

I give no theory but let the facts stand out for consideration as 
to whether they may not lead to a better understanding of the 
formation of such storms. 



On THE Silt Analysis op Soils and Clays. By Eug. W. 
HiLGARD, of Oxford, Mississippi. 

Among the objections raised against the utility of soil analyses 
as mostly made and stated heretofore, not the least serious one is 
that they do not indicate with any reasonable degree of accuracy, 
or in a generally intelligible manner, those important points in the 
physical condition of soils which are practically designate.d as 
" lightness," '^ heaviness," " openness," etc. Indeed, the very idea 
of what constitutes a sandy soil or a clay soil is exceedingly 
indeQnite; necessarily so, so long as the constituent ideas of 
"clay" and "sand," respectively, remain so ill-defined. 

It makes a material difference whether the grains of sand con- 
tained in the soil or clay are prevalently half a millimeter in 
diameter, or the tenth or twentieth part of that amount. Sand 
(or more properly silt) of the latter size is by no means impal- 
pable ; and yet a soil containing 50 per cent, of this substance 
might be exceedingly^ " heavy," while it would be " light" if the 
sdnd grains approached 0*5*"™ diameter. And it would make an 
equally material difference whether or not the impalpable matter 
usually classed as "clay" were really, in the main, hydrous 
silicate of alumina, or simply silex, or other mineral powder. 

Equally important are, of course, the corresponding differences 
in the properties of clays intended for use in the arts. 

In the prosecution of ray researches on the soils of the state of 
Mississippi, I found myself confronted by these difficulties, and 
by the necessity of providing for some mode of operation, and 
means of designating the several physical constituents of soils, 
which should not only insure more accurate results, but should 
also render these capable of ready comparison all the world over. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHT8ICS AND CHEMISTRT. 55 

I need not recapitulate the often discussed objections to Nobel's 
apparatus, with its four vessels of ever-varying capacity and slope 
of sides, and variable head of pressure. Not one of the five sedi- 
ments obtainable by its use is ever of a character apprbaching 
oniformity ; and, even in one and the same instrument, successive 
analyses of. one and the same material differ widely in their 
results. 

Scbultze's elutriating apparatus, as modified and used by Fre- 
senius in his investigations of the clays of Nassau — a tall, conical 
champagne glass, with an adjustable stream of water descending 
through a tube in the axis — answers a better purpose ; but offers 
the inconvenience of the accumulation of heavy sediments around 
the mouth of the tube, whereby not only the velocity of the stream 
IB changed, but its failure, at low velocities, to agitate the whole 
mass of substance under treatment, allows portions of the latter 
to escape the elutriating action altogether. And since in soil 
analysis special importance attaches to these finer sediments, 
which are carried off at low velocities, this objection is a capital 
one. 

Intending to carry out in a convenient form the idea (already 
urged by Turrschmidt, Notizblatt, v, 180) of substituting for the 
accidental and indefinite products usually appearing in the state- 
ments of silt-analyses, sediments of known, and definite " hydraulic 
value," I adopted in place of a variable head of water, a constant 
one (a Mariotte's-bottle arrangementj adapted to ten-gallon car- 
boys), modifiable by means of a stopcock with a long lever moving 
on a graduated arc, on which the positions corresponding to given 
velocities in vessels of known cross-section of mouth are marked 
off according to empirical determinations. 

In order to obviate the inconvenience arising from the accumu- 
lation of sediment around the orifice of the tube delivering the 
current, I introduced an intermediate conical relay reservoir (R, 
fig. 2 ; a test glass, cut short) at the point of the elutriator (in- 
verted) cone. The smallness of the lower orifice of the latter 
renders the current there sufficiently rapid to prevent any portion 
of the sediment concerned at a given velocity from falling into the 
relay ; and whatever sediment does accumulate there can at any 
time be stirred and brought back into the elutriating vessel, by 
increasing the velocity for a few seconds of time. 
Following up with the microscope the character of the sediments 



56 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 



SO obtained with the apparatus, fig. 2, 1 soon found that they were 
throughout of a very mixed nature ; and searching for the cause, 
I found one in .the abruptly conical termination of the elatriator, 
at C, where the efflux tube was at first attached. For, in that case, 
the ascending current does not decrease regularly its velocity as 
the cone expands, but is broken up into a complicated system of ' 
eddies, whose general tendency is to ascend in the axis of the 
instrument, and descend at its sides. So far, therefore, from cor- 
responding to the calculated velocity belonging to the cross section 





Plain Elatriator, 

with Conical Tube and 

Hydraulic Stirring. 



Chum Elatriator, 

with Cylindrical Tube and 

Rotary Stirrer. 



at C, the sediment carried off represents the variable effects of 
these eddies. 

The obvious remedy was to adapt to the wide (upper) end of 
the elutriator tube a cylindrical portion, as shown in the diagram, 
above C. When the length of this cylinder is made not less than 
•125""", no perceptible eddies reach the efflux tube ; and the sedi- 
ments exhibited a pretty satisfactory uniformity of grain, save in so 
far as the coarser ones still contained a good deal of fine material. 

However, in subjecting the workings of the instrument to. the 
test of the balance, I found the results still quite unsatisfactory, 



A. IIATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 57 

and apparently inconsistent, especially as regards the finer sedi- 
ments. 

The cause of these anomalies became apparent upon attempting 
to work over, the second time, a quantity of sediment originally 
obtained at the velocity of 1""" per second. It should all, of 
course, again have passed over at the same velocity ; but to my 
surprise, barely one-half of it did so, while a heavy coarse sedi- 
ment collected in the lower portion of the elutriating tube, and 
even settled into the rel^-y resei-voir R ; as roughly shown in fig. 
2. On returning, the portion that had passed over to the elutri- 
ating vessel, the same phenomenon recurred ; and by repeated 
" cohobation," I finally succeeded in getting about four-fifths of 
the whole quantity of sediment settled into the relay reservoir ! 

On examination I found this coarse sediment to consist of floc- 
culent aggregates of from a few to as many as thirty fine particles 
of siliceous silt. When violently shaken, they part company and 
become diffused, singly, through the liquid, which then presents 
simply a general turbidity ; the particles then settling down slowly 
and singly, at the rate corrQ^ponding to their individual size or 
hydraulic value. 

The process of formation of these aggregates may be observed 
by means of a lens, in aU its stages ; it being the effect of the 
downward currents always existing on the sides of the conical 
vessel, as heretofore mentioned. The aggregation progresses 
slowly at first ; but when once five or g^x particles have thus coa- 
lesced, they begin to descend with increased rapidity, and, grow-, 
ing, avalanche fashion, as the}' roll down, finally drop through the 
narrow lower orifice, despite the rapid current existing there, into 
the relay reservoir R. 

I have vainly attempted to obviate this trouble in various ways. 
Even when a central core is introduced in the axis of the conical 
tube, so as to force up the current close to the sides, return cur- 
rents will form, and with them these miniature avalanches. 

It w obvious that this circumstance completely vitiates all deter- 
mijiations heretofore made in conical vessels; whether those of 
Nobel's apparatus, or those of Schultze and Fresenius ; or even 
the later ones of Miiller, and of Schone ; * in all of which the 
agitation produced by the current is alone employed for stirring. 

* I regret taaTing been unable to obtain, for reference, tbe original papers of the 
last two antliors; the most thorongh, piobably, heretofore pnblished on this aabjoct. 



58 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

The tendency to coalescence diminishes, of course, as the size 
of the grains increases ; but does not altogether cease until their 
diameter, exceeds 0-2"**, or about 16"^ hydraulic value. For the 
elutriation of coarser sediments, hydraulic stirring may be suc- 
cessfully employed. For finer sediments, however, the nse of 
cylindrical vessels, and of rapid agitation by oiUside power^ seems 
indispensable. 

Fig. 1 of the diagram shows, on a somewhat enlarged scale, the 
instrument I have devised, with this end in view. The cylindrical 
elutriating tube T, of 34'8"" inside diameter at its mouth, and 
290"" high, has attached to its base a rotary churn P, consisting 
of a porcelain beaker triply perforated, viz : at the bottom, for 
connection with the relay reservoir R ; and at the sides, for the 
passage of a horizontal axis A, bearing four grated wings. This 
axis, of course, passes through stuffing boxes, firmly cemented to 
the roughened outside of the beaker, and provided with good, 
thick leather washers, saturated with tallow. These washers, if 
the axis run true, will bear a million or more of revolutions with- 
out material leakage. From five to, six hundred revolutions per 
minute is a proper velocity, which may be imparted by clock-work, 
or a turbine. 

As the whirling agitation caused by the rotation of the dasher 
would gradually communicate itself to the whole column of water, 
and cause irregularities, a (preferably concave) wire screen of 
0-8"" aperture is cemented to the lower end of the cylinder. No 
.irregular currents are then observed beyond about 75"" above the 
screen, whose meshes are yet sufficiently wide to allow any heavy 
particles or aggregates to sink down freely. Any grains too 
coarse to pass must, however, be previously sifted out. 

Thus arranged, the instrument works quite satisfactorily ; and 
by its aid, soils and clays may readily be separated into sediments 
of any hydraulic value desired. But in order to insure correct 
and concordant* results, it is necessary to observe some precau- 
tions, to wit : 

1 . The tube of the instrument must be as nearly cylindrical as 
possible, and must be placed and maintained in a truly vertical 
position. A very slight deviation from the vertical at once causes 
the formation of return currents, and hence of molecular aggre- 
gates, on the lower side. 

^UBoallj within 6 per cent, of tbe quantities foand. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 59 

■ 

2. Sunshine, or the proximity of any other source of heat, must 
be carefully excluded. The currents formed when the instrument 
is exposed to sunshine will completely vitiate the results. 

3. The Mariotte's bottle should be frequently cleansed, and 
the water used be as free from foreign matters as possible. For 
ordinary purposes, it is scarcely necessary to use distilled water ; 
the quantities used are so large as to render it difficult to maintain 
an adequate supply ; and the errors resulting from the use of any 
water fit for drinking purposes are too slight to be perceptible, so 
long as no considerable development of the animal and vegetable 
germs is allowed. Water containing the slimy fibrils of fungoid 
and moss prothallia, vorticellse, etc., will not only cause errors by 
obstructing the stopcock at low velocities ; but these organisms 
will cause a coalescence of sediments that defies any ordinary 
churning, and completely vitiates the operation. 

4. The amount of sediment discharged at any one time must 
not exceed that producing a moderate turbidity. Whenever the 
discharge becomes so copious as to render the moving column 
opaque, the sediments assume a mixed character ; coarse grains 
being, apparently, ppborne by the multitude of light ones whose 
hydraulic value lies considerably below the velocity used ; while 
the churner also fails to resolve the molecular aggregates which 
must be perpetually re-forming, where contact is so close and 
frequent. 

This difficulty is especially apt to occur wheij too large a quan- 
tity of material has been used for analysis, or when one sediment 
^constitutes an unusually large portion of it. In either case, a 
portion of the substance may be allowed to settle into the relay 
resenoir, until the part afloat in the chum and tube is partly ex- 
hausted ; after which, the rest can be gradually brought up and 
worked off. Or, the sediments shown by the microscope to be 
much mixed, may be worked over a second time. Either mode, 
however, involves so grievous a loss of time, as to render it by far 
preferable to so regulate the amount employed, that even the most 
copious sediments can be worked off at once. Within certain 
limits, the smaller the quantity emplo3'ed, the more concordant are 
the results. Between ten and fifteen grams is the proper amount 
for an instrument of the dimensions given above. 

I have found that, practically, 0*25"^ per second is about the 
lowest velocity available within reasonable limits of time ; and 



60 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND jCHEMISTBT. 

that by successively doubling the velocities, up to 64"", a desirable 
ascending series of sediments is obtained ; provided always, that 
a proper previous preparation had been given to the soil or clay. 

Preliminary Preparation. — As regards this point, which is of 
capital importance, I premise that I find the usual precept of boil- , 
ing from tfiirty to sixty minutes, almost absurdly Inadequate to 
perform that loosening of the adherence of particles, which is the 
fundamental condition of success in any process of mechanical 
separation. In no case have I found less than six hours' incessant 
and lively boiling even approximately sufficient ; and, even with 
double that time, so much of the disintegration is often left to 
be done by the churner of the instrument, as to protract indefi- 
nitely the exhaustion of the finer sediments, which are then con- 
tinually being set free from the coarser portions. Thus, in average 
cases the sediment of 0*25"" h. v. may be "run ofl"" in the course 
of thirty to thirty-five hours. But in one case, after twelve hours' 
boiling, the 0*25 sediment gave no sign of disappearance after 
thirty-six hours, and continued to come off for fifty-four hours 
more, with the coarser sediments. 

It is therefore a material saving of time, and essentially promo- 
tive of accurac}', to effect the mechanical disintegration in the 
most thorough manner, beforehand. *This can rarely be done 
without long protracted boiling, anxl the subsequent use of me- 
chanical means (kneading) on the finest sediments. But I cannot 
see the propriety of using chemical solvents for disintegration, 
unless the investigation is to extend beyond the physical prop- 
erties of the substance treated. The miniature Loess puppets,, 
consisting of sand-grains cemented b}' carbonate of lime ; the 
grains of bog ore, or alumino-siliceous aggregates found in Rome 
soils, fulfil, physically, the same office as solid sand-grains of cor- 
responding size ; and should appear as such in the analytical 
statement. 

The presence of clay in the instrument would materially inter- 
fere with the proper separation of sediments. In consequence of 
its property of indefinitely fine difiusion in water, clay — i. e., the 
hydrous silicate of alumina — prpduces the same efifect as would 
the dissolution of a salt, viz : increases the buoyant efiect, and 
therefore the hydraulic efficacy of water, to such an extent as to 
enable it to carry off, e, gr., sediment pertaining to the velocity of 
1"" in pure water, when the actual velocity is but 0*25' 



Lnun 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 61 

In view of thes^ facts, I have adopted the following course of 
preliminary treatment : 

1. Boiling briskly, fpr twenty-four to thirty hours, fifteen' to 
twenty grams of weighed " fine earth." 

This is best done in a thin, long-necked flask of about one litre 
capacity, filled four-fifths full of distilled water, and laid on a 
stand at an angle of 40-45°. It is provided with a cork and con- 
densing tube of 8ufl3cient length (five to six feet) to condense all 
or most of the steam formed when lively ebullition is kept up by 
means of a gas fiame. For the first few hours, the boiling gener- 
ally proceeds quietly ; but as the disintegration progresses, violent 
bainping sets in, which sometimes endangers the fiask, but is of 
material assistance for the attainment of the object in view. In 
extreme cases, some of the heavier sediment (generally clean 
sand) may be removed from the fiask ; but this is undesirable. It 
is frequently the case that when the boiled contents are left to 
settle, the liquid appears perfectly clear within an hour ; although 
BO soon as they are largely diluted, the clay becomes diffused as 
asual, and will not settle in weeks. Probably this is owing to the 
extraction from the soil of soluble salts, which «xert the same 
ioflaence as does lime or common salt, even in very dilute solutions. 

2. The boiled fluid and sediment is transferred to a beaker, and 
diluted 80 as to form from one to one and one-half litres in bulk ; 
and being stirred up, is allowed to settle for such a length of time 
as (taking into account the height of the column) will allow all 
sediment of 0*25"*™ hydraulic value to subside ; the process being 
repeated with smaller quantities of fresh water, until no sensible 
tnrbidity remains after allowing due time for subsidence. 

It must be remembered that this time is considerabl}^ longer 
than that- for pure water, so long as any considerable amount of 
clay remains in the liquid, rendering it specifically heavier. And 
as the precise amount of allowance to be made cannot in general 
be foreseen, some sediment of, and exceeding, 0*25™*'* h. v. will 
almost inevitably be decanted with the successive clay waters, 
until the buoyant effect of the clay becomes insensible. The 
united clay waters (of which there will be from four to eight litres) 
mast therefore be again stirred up, and the proper time allowed 
for the sediments of O^p™", and over, to subside. The dilution 
being very great, a pretty' accurate separation is thus accom- 
plished ; the sediments being then ready for the elutriator. 



62 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMIStlRT. 

Treatment of the ^^Clay Water'' — I have based ou the well- 
knowu property of clay, of remaining suspended in pure water for 
weeks and even months, an olbivious method of separation from at 
least the greater portion of silts finer than 0*25"" hydraulic value 
(<0-25). 

The clay water is placed for subsidence in a cylindrical vessel 
(in which it may conveniently occupy 200°*" in height), and is 
there allowed to settle for at least twent3'^-four hours. This inter- 
val of time was at first chosen arbitrarily ; but I subsequently 
found it to be about the average time required by the finest sili- 
ceous silt usually present in soils, to sink through 200""" of pure 
water. So long as any sensible amount of clay is present, the 
time of course is longer, say from forty to sixty hours, or even 
more, if the clay be abundant and the liquid not very dilute. The 
sharp line of separation between the dark silt-cloud below and the 
translucent clay water above is readily observed, and the time of 
subsidence regulated accordingly. At times, several such lines of 
division may be seen simultaneously in the column, indicating silt 
of successive sizes, with a break between. No such appearance 
is presented wh6n, after weeks of quiet, the clay itself gradually 
settles. The liquid, which may be alpiost clear at the surface, 
then shades off downward very gradually, until, near the bottom 
of the vessel, it becomes entirely opaque. 

After decantation of the clay water, the remaining liquid is 
poured off temporarily, leaving .the sediment as dry as possible. 
It is then rubbed or kneaded in the decanting vessel itself, with 
long handled rubber pestle (conveniently cut out of a car spring). 

Water is again poured on (agitating as much as possible, to 
break up th£ molecular aggregates) to the proper height, and 
another twenty-four hours subsidence allowed. This operation is 
repeated (six to nine times), until either the water remains almost 
clear after the last subsidence, or the decanted turbid 'water fails 
to be precipitated by salt water. 

It thus seems possible, by a large number of successive decan- 
tations, to separate pretty sharply the clay proper from the fine 
silts. But the amount of time and care required in the process of 
complete separatipn is so great, and the difference of percentage 
resulting from a neglect of the subsidence beyond twenty-four 
hours is in most cases so slight, that in the analyses made thus 
far, I have throughout adhered to the twenty-four hours interval ; 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 63 

the "clay" thus obtained being, of course, more or less contami- 
nated with some of the finest silt ; which is precipitated with it by 
Bait, provided the relative amount of clay is not too small. Other- 
wise a slight turbidity may remain for several days in the decanted 
liquid, which cannot then be cleared by the further addition of 
8alt. 

5Qccm ^f ^ saturated brine (e. e., 1*5 per cent, of salt) is ordina- 
rily sufficient to precipitate one litre of clay water ; the precipita- 
tion is much favored bj" warming. Half the quantity, or even less, 
will do the same, but more time is required, and the precipitate id 
more voluminous. 

As it cannot ordinarily be washed with pure water, it must be 
collected on a weighed filter, washed with weak brine, dried at 
lOO*' and weighed. It is then again placed in a funnel and washed 
with a weak solntiou of sal ammoniac, until all the chloride of 
sodium is removed. The filtrate is evaporated, the residue ignited 
and weighed : its weight, plus that of the filter, deducted from the 
total weight, gives that of the clay itself. 

In some cases, especially of clays and subsoils deeply tinged 
with iron, the clay, after drying at 100°, will not readily diffuse in 
water, and can be washed with pure water until free from salt ; it 
can then of course be weighed directly. 

Properties of Pure Clay. — The " clay " so obtained is quite a 
different substance from what usually comes under our observation 
as such ; since its percentage seems rarely to reach 75 in the purest 
natural clays, 40 to 47 in the heaviest of clay soils, and 10 to 20 
in ordinary loams. Thin crusts of it are occasionally found in 
river bottoms, where clay water has, after an overfiow, gradually 
evaporated in undisturbed pools. When freshly precipitated by 
salt it is gelatinous, resembling a mixed precipitate of ferric oxid 
and alumina. On drying, it contracts almost as extravagantly as 
the. latter, crimping up the filter, to which it tenaciously clings ; 
and from which it can be separated only by moistening on the out- 
side, when it may mostl}', with care, be peeled off*. 

After drying, it constitutes a hard, often horny mass, difficult 
to break, and at times somewhat resonant. Since the ferric oxid 
with which the soil or clay may h^ve been colored is mainly ac- 
comulated in this portion, it usually possesses a correspondingly 
dark brown or chocolate tint. When a large amount of iron is 
present, water acts rather slowly on the dried mass, which grad- 



64 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

ually swells, like glue, the fragments retaining theii* shape. Not 
so when the substance is comparatively free from iron. It then 
swells up instantly on contact with water ; even the horny scales 
adhering to the upper portion of the filter quickly lose their shape, 
bulge like a piece of lime in process of slaking, and tumble down 
into the middle of the filter. 

There is a marked ditference, however, in the behavior with 
water of clays equally free from ferric oxid ; some exhibiting the 
phenomena just described in a much more energetic manner than 
6thers. On the whole, those freest from iron appear to imbibe 
the water, and crumble, most readily. Inasmuch as this property 
. possesses highly important bearings, both on the agricultural and 
ceramic qualities of clays, I propose to investigate it more minutely 
hereafter. 

The pure clay, when dry, adheres to the tongue so tenaciously 
as to render its separation painful. When moistened and worked 
into the plastic condition, it is exceedingly tenacious and " sticky," 
adhering to everything it touches. 

' Under a magnifying power of 350 diameters, no definite parti- 
cles can be discovered in the opalescent cla}*^ water remaining after 
several weeks' subsidence. The precipitate formed by saline eola- 
tions then appears as an indefinite cloud (mostly of a 3'^ellowish 
tint), for which one vainly seeks a better focus. In stronger clay 
water one. can discern a great number of indefinite punctiform 
bodies, very uniformly diffused throughout the liquid, and appar- 
ently opaque ; the precipitate then formed by brine also shows a 
faintly dotted structure of its clouds. 

Doubtless the fine silt obtained in the twenty-four hours' subsi- 
dence, the diameter of whose quartz particles varies from 0*001 to 
0*02 of a millimeter, is not entirely free from adherent clay ; as is 
indicated by its deeper tint, compared with that of the coarser 
sediments. The extent to which this contamination exists, the 
possible means of further separation, and the distribution of the 
important soil ingredients among the several sediments, I reserve 
for future discussion. 

Separation of the Coarser Sediments, — The mixed sediments 
remaining after the separation of the clay, and silts of less than 
Q.25mm iiydi^aulic value (< 0*25), hy decantation, are transferred to 
the elutriator, after separating by means of a sieve, such as, being 
of more than 0-8"° diameter, would fail to pass thi'ough the wire 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 65 

screen, and thus interfere with the operation. The water should 
previously have been let on, so far as to stand above the screen ; 
otherwise some sediment may be forced back into the rubber con- 
necting tube. 

The Fine Sediments. — The operation is best begun b}^ running 
up the column rapidly nearly to the cork, allowing a few seconds' 
subsidence, and then setting the index to the proper velocity, of 
0*25'"" per second at the beginning. At first the sediment passes 
off rapidly, and the column remains obviousl}- and evenly turbid, 
from the point where the agitation caused by the churner ceases, 
to the top. But this obvious turbidity generally exhausts itself 
in the course of a few hours, and it then requires some attention 
to determine the progress of the operation. I have never known 
the 0*25"™ sediment to become exhausted in less than fifteen hours, 
and in one case it has required ninety. The more rigorously the 
process of preliminary disintegration, above described, has been 
carried out, the shorter the time required for runnitig off the fine 
sediments, which otherwise tax the operator's patience severely. 
In matter of fact, they never do give out entirely ; doubtless for 
the reason that the stirrer continues to disintegrate compound 
particles which had resisted the boiling process. Besides, down- 
ward currents on the sides of the vessel will form, despite all 
precautions ; so that the interior surface of the cylinder becomes 
coated with pendent flakes of coalesced sediment. These must 
from time to time be removed by means of a feather, so as to bring 
them again under the. influence of the stirrer; but it is, of course, 
almost mathematically impossible that, under these circumstances, 
any of the sediments subject to coalescence should ever become 
completely exhausted. Practically, the degree of accuracy at- 
tainable at best, renders it unnecessar}'- to continue the operation 
beyond the point when only a fraction of a milligram of sedi- 
ment comes over with each litre of water. It is admissible, and 
even desirable, to run off rapidly the upper third of the column 
at intervals of fifteen to twenty minutes ; whereby not only time 
is gained, but also the sediment in the reservoir is stirred and 
brought under the influence of the churner, for more complete dis- 
integration. 

It is noticeabie that recent sediments — river alluvium, etc. — are 
much more easily worked than more ancient ones ; as might be 
expected. 

1. A. A. S. VOL. XXII. 5 



66 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

Up to 4"™ hydraulic value, the use of the rotary stirrer is indis- 
pensable, on account of the tendency to the formation of compound 
particles. Beyond, this tendency measurably disappears, so that 
for the 

Coarse Sediments of 8 to 64™°*, hydraulic stirring may be 
employed, and an elutriating tube of smaller diameter may ad- 
vantageously be substituted, in order to dimiuish the otherwise 
somewhat extravagant expenditure of water. The entire amount 
required for one analysis is from 25 to 30 gallons; provided a 
thorough previous disintegration has been secured. The average 
times required, are as follows : 

Sediment ...... 0-25»~ 30 to 40** 

" O-S"" 15 to 25'* 

" 1-0"" 5 to 10** 

" ... - . 2 to 64™ 6 to 10^ 

Total, 56 to 85** 

With proper arrangements, much of this can be done automati- 
cally, at night ; completing an analysis (except the clay and finest 
silt determinations) in the course of three or four days. 

As the soils are most conveniently weighed " dried at 100®/'* 
I have alwa3^s weighed the sediments in the same condition. Great 
care is necessary to obtain the correct weight of the (extremely 
hygroscopic) clay ; the same is true, more or less, of the < 0*25 
sediment, which, moreover, is so' diffusible in water that it cannot 

■ 

readily be collected on a filter. I find it best, after letting it sub- 
side into as small a compass as possible, to evaporate the last 
25-50'=*°* in the platinum dish in which it is to be weighed. 

From the other sediments, the water may be decanted so closely 
as to render their determination easy. 

The loss in the analysis of clays and subsoils, containing but 
little organic or other soluble matter, is usually ftom 1*5 to 2-0 
per cent., resulting partially, no doubt, from the loss of. thS fine 
silt which comes off more or less throughout the process, and is 
decanted with the voluminous liquid. When t|ie turbidity is 
marked, it indicates imperfect preliminary disintegration ; it may 
be removed, and the silt collected, by adding a weighed quantity 

*A somewhat clayey soU wUl continne to lose weight at 100*, for 6—^ days. But 
after the first 6 hours the loss becomes insigniflcaiit for the purpose in qnestion. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 67 

of alum (about 25 milligrams per litre is sufficient) precipitating 
with carbonate of ammonia, and deducting from the weight of the 
(flocculent) precipitate the calculated amount of alumina. 

The analysis of soils rich in vegetable matter involves some 
modifications in the preliminary treatment and final weighings, 
which I shall not now discuss. Ignition of the soil previous to 
elatriation, as proposed by some, is obviously inadmissible, as it 
would render impossible the separation of the clay from the finer 
sediments. 

As I have heretofore stated,* I consider that, ordinarily, the 
investigation of the stibsoih is better calculated to furnish reliable 
indications of the agricultural peculiarities of extended regions, 
than that of the surface soils, which are much more liable to local 
'* freaks and accidents," and usually differ from the corresponding 
subsoils in about the same general points. For practical purposes, 
therefore, the difficulties incident to the treatment of soils rich in 
humus, may in most cases be avoided. 

CJtaracter of the Sediments, — As regards the size of the particles 
constituting the successive sediments, the most convenient, because 
almost universally present, material for reference is quartz sand. 
I give below a table of measurements, concerning which I remark 
that the values given refer to the largest and most nearly round 
quartz grains to be found in each sediment, and to scale divisions 
of y4tj millimeter each. 

As a matter of course, all sizes between that given and the one 
next below, are to be found in each sediment. A few grains of the 
finer sediments are also invariably present, owing both to the pro- 
gressive disintegration of conglomerated particles by the stirrer, 
and to the inevitable formation of the avalanche-like aggregates 
of the finer sediments. 

While the measurement of the quartz grains, which are rarely 
wanting in a soil or clay, affords sufficient landmarks to the scien- 
tific observer, it seems desirable to attach to them, besides, gener- 
ally intelligible designations, which shall approximately, at least, 
indicate the nature of the sediment. This I have attempted in the 
table, which is in this respect, of course, open to criticism ; since 
it is not easy to indicate in popular language, distinctions not pop- 
ularly made. 

* Am. Jour. Sci., Dec, 1872; Proc. Am. Assoc. AdT. Sci., 1872, p. 71. 



68 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 



Table of Diameters and Hydraulic Values of Sediments. 



No. 


Designation of 
materials. 


Diameter of Velocity pr. sec, or 
quartz grains. hydraulic value. 


1. 


Coarse Grits, 


.... 1—3 


mm p 




2. 


Fine 


• 


. . . .0-5—1 


• 


• 


3. 


Coarse Sand, '. 


. . 80-90 (^i^) 


64 


mm 


4. 


Medium 


• 


... 50 55 


32 




5. 


Fine 


• 


... 25 30 


16 




6. 


Finest 


• 


. . . 20—22 


" 8 




7. 


Dust 


• 


. . . 12—14 


" 4 




8. 


Coarsest Silt, . 


.... 8—9 


" 2 




9. 


Coarse 




.... 6 7 


" 1 




10. 


Medium 




.... 4—5 


" 0-5 




11. 


Fine 




... 2-5 3-0 


0-25 




12. 


Finest 




... 0-1 20 


» <0-25 




13. 


Clay 




9 

• • • • 


< 00023 





I remark that the absolute diameter of the elutriator tube eyerts 
a sensible influence on, the character of the sediments, in conse- 
quence of the comparatively greater friction against the sides in a 
tube of small diameter. Strictly speaking, none of the sediments 
actually correspond to the velocity calculated from the cross sec- 
tion of the tube and the water delivered in a given time, but to 
higher ones, whose maximum is in the axis of the tube, and w^hich 
gradually decrease toward the sides, according to a law which may 
be demonstrated to the eye by slightly diminishing the velocity 
while a sediment is being copiously discharged, so that the turbid 
column remains stationary, while clear water is running off. The 
surface then assumes a paraboloid form, which is sensibly more 
convex in a tube of small diameter than in a wide one ; the results 
obtained in the latter being, of course, nearest the truth. 

Still, the accompanying samples of sediments from Mississippi 
soils and subsoils show at once, even to the naked eye, that the 
assorting process has been quite successful, and that the prominent 
characteristics of soils in these respects may thus be determined 
and exhibited to the eye, with a very satisfactory degree of ac- 
curacy. 

I reserve for future communications the detailed discussion of 
the services which this method of analysis is capable of rendering 
to the theory and practice of both agriculture and the ceramic art. 
But I feel confident that the comparative neglect of the subject of 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBY. 69 

soil analysis during the past decennium, was the result of hasty 
jadgment, and that, by properly combining the examination of the 
physical and chemical properties of soils and clays, we shall be 
able to fulfil, in a great measure, the high expectations entertained 
in the early days of agricultural chemistry. 

The important bearing of the phenomena of "molecular coa- 
lescence" upon the formation of natural sediments, is too obvious 
to require discussion. It explains at once why we so rarely find 
a deposit composed of particles of uniform hydraulic value, how- 
ever favorable to such a result may have been, apparently, the 
circumstances attending its formation. And it warns us to be 
careful in our estimate of the nature and velocity of depositing 
currents, as deduced from the character of the sediments. 

In previous papers on the Quaternary formations of the lower 
Mississippi Valley, I have called attentibn to the somewhat singu- 
lar composition of the material characterizing the Bluff or Loess 
group, which fails to show any marks of assorting or stratification 
of materials, even in profiles of seventy feet ; although it consists 
of all grades of silt and sand from xisVir"" upward. The uniform 
intermingling of these ingredients ceases to be surprising, when we 
consider that, under the influence of the slow eddying motion of 
shallow and uniformly slow-flowing water, the finest particles may 
assume the hydraulic value of very coarse ones, and be deposited 
with them. "We thus, a posteriori, arrive at the same conclusion 
concerning the circumstances under which this deposit was formed, 
as had been previously deduced from geological data alone. 

As might be expected, the temperature of water exerts a strong 
influence on the coalescence of particles. It is sensibly less in 
hot water, so long as the water is either strongly agitated, or per- 
fectly quiescent. But the circulating motion set up in hot water 
exposed to cooling influences very soon eflTects coalescence, and 
consequent clearing of a turbid fluid. The habitual stirring-up of 
precipitates by chemists, to favor subsidence, need but be men- 
tioned in this connection ; as also the fact that troublesome pow- 
dery precipitates, such as oxalate of lime or molybdo-phosphate 
of ammonia, become flocculent when allowed to deposit on a slop- 
ing surface. 

The presence of dissolved mineral matter greatly favors the 
coalescence of particles, and especially the precipitation of clay. 
Foremost among the active substances are lime and common salt ; 



70 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

the action of the latter being exemplified on the large scale, at 
the mouths of rivers, where the fine mud, whose molecular proper- 
ties with pure water would have kept it in suspension for many 
days, is suddenly thrown down in the shape of mud shoals, in 
consequence of the admixture of sea water.* 

The "settling" effect of alum, however, appears to.be mainly 
due to the precipitation of alumina by the carbonates of lime and 
magnesia, present in almost all sediments. 

The remarkable action of lime^ in preventing diffusion and di- 
minishing the plasticity of clay, will form the subject of a future 
communication. 

Note. — The subjoined comparative analyses of one and the 
same material, after boiling 6** and 30^, respectively, exhibit the 
effect of thorough preliminary preparation, and the gross errors 
which may result from its neglect. It will be seen that while 
agreeing as closely as could be expected as regards the coarse 
materials, the differences in the percentages of the fine ones are so 
great as to render the first one absolutely nugatory, and calculated 
to lead to an utterly false estimate of the soil's qualities. 

No. 173. Under-subsoil of Cretaceous prairie, Monroe Co., 
Miss. (See Miss. Bep., 1860, p. 262). 

Time of boiling .... 6h. 80h. 

> 64"°» h. V. (bog ore) . . . 2-10 2-07 

8-64 " " (siliceous sand) . 0-62 0-65 

8 " '' 0-20 0-21 

4" " 1-26 1-21 

2" " 518 2-92 

1 " " 6-30 7-36 

0-5™™ " . 13-19 8-81 

0-25™™" 27-93 7-85 

< 0-25 " " 27-02 35-22 

. Clay, 14-82 33- 16 

98-42 99-36 

* Thia action of salt in clearing wat«r has lately, it seems, been claimed as a new 
discovery by Mr. D. Robertson, in a communication to the British Geological Society. 
But the clearing of muddy water by salt, as well as by alum, has been a popular recipe 
for ages ; and the action at the mouths of rivers is pointedly referred to by Mr. SideU, ia 
Rep. Pbys. and Hydr. of Miss. River, App. A, p. xi. 



a. mathematics, physics and chemistry. 71 

Silt Analyses of Mississippi Soils and Subsoils. By Eugene 
W. HiLGARD, of Oxford, Mississippi. 

The results here communicated are the first-fruits of an investi- 
gation on the physical constituents of soils and clays, undertaken 
with the aid of the "churn elutriator" for silt analysis, described 
in another paper. While far from being as complete or satisfac- 
tory as I could desire, there is much that is suggestive of the 
direction to be pursued in the farther prosecution of the research, 
and of the importance of the results to be attained. The neces- 
sary interruption of the work on my part, for some time to come, 
may serve as an additional apology for an otherwise somewhat 
premature publication. 

The materials of which the silt analyses are here given were 
chosei) as. typical representatives of the more important varieties 
of soils in the State of Mississippi. For reasons repeatedly ex- 
plained, I have, in most cases, preferred to deal with the subsoil 
instead of the soil itself, whose organic ingredients materially in- 
terfere with the operations of analysis, as well as with the interpre- 
tation of the results. The general differences between the soil 
and subsoil, in ordinary cases, are well understood ; and for general 
research and comparison, the latter is much more available. I 
have nevertheless, in one case, analyzed the soil and subsoil (206 
and 209 of the table) for comparison ; the differences falling, as 
will be seen, just where they would be expected. The deficiency 
in the summing up of the "50i7" arises mainly, of course, from the 
dissolution and loss of vegetable matter. 

As a standard for comparison and reference, I place first in the 
table a very pure, highly plastic pipe-clay ; probably as free from 
foreign admixtures as a sedimentary clay can well be, the sedi- 
ments being exclusively white quartz grains, sharp and angular. 
It resembles kaolin, and is probably directly derived from the 
carboniferous fire-clays.* 

* Miss. Bep., 1860, p. 34 and ff. 



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A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



73 



Of the "Upland" soils in the foregoing table, Nos. 248, 206, 
209, 397, 219 and 173, are properly of the "Yellow Loam" age, 
i. 6., of the end of the Drift period ;» while 165 is one of the two 
chief varieties of soils occurring in the " Flat Woods," a level 
area bordering on the Cretaceous, and mostly characterized by the 
occurrence of the lower tertiary clays near the surface. The light 
soil (165) occurs in irregular strips and patches; it is very easily 
tilled at all times ; all rain water is promptly absorbed ; but it is 
too " open," droughty, and does not hold manure at all. 

No. 248 forms a stratum 3 feet thick, on the ridges east of Talla- 
homa creek, Jasper county. Miss. By its disintegration, it forms 
a deep and extremely sandy soil, which is injured by high winds 
carrying away its finer parts. It has, however, yielded good crops 
of corn and cotton for fifteen years without manure, though liable 
to injury' from drought. — Nos. 206 and 209 are typical of the 
" Pine Hill " .region of South Mississippi, the home of the long- 
leaved pine. The soil is very "light" and easily tilled, but not 
nearly as "open" as the preceding two. It is materially improved 
by the admixture of the subsoil. No. 209 ; which enables it to hold 
manure, being what would be termed a " sandy loam." 

Nos.' 397 and 219 are typical of the cotton uplands of western 
Mississippi and Tennessee ; 219 being of the first quality; 397 a 
second-rate soil. Their prominent characteristic is an excessive 
and most distressing proneness to denudation or " washing," in 
coDsequence of a want of perviousness, together with the property 
of promptly swelling up, on contact with water, into a loosely gelat- 
inous condition, in which they readily diffuse in water. From the 
same cause, the frequent alternations of freezes and thaws in the 
winters of their latitude of occurrence, are even more disastrous, 
and cause a frequent freezing out of winter grain, that at first 
sight seems very surprising. The effects of denudation on these 
soils are but too obvious even to the passer-by, are difficult to 
check, and are fast assuming the proportions of a public calamity. 

These soils are easily tilled when in the proper condition, but if 
ploughed too wet are severely injured, hard clods remaining 
throughout the season. There readily forms on their surface a 
very hard crust (they " bake"), so that the surface requires stirring 
after every rain. 

No. 173 is the subsoil of the cretaceous prairies of northeastern 

* Mi8B. Rep., 1860, p. 197. 



74 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

Mississippi, formiDg a stratum 3 to 7 feet thick, overlyiDg the cre- 
taceous rock. Although, in the wet condition, it is accounted a 
"heavy clay" soil, it possesses the peculiarity of "slaking" on 
drying, instead of forming a hard crust — unless, indeed, the dry- 
ing process be exceedingly slow. It is not, therefore, as difficult to 
cultivate as would be supposed from the sum of its fine ingredients. 
Nor is it nearly as much subject to denudation as the two preced- 
ing soils, the mass formed by its contact with water being too 
tough and coherent to be readily moved by flowing water. But 
being very little pervious, it is liable to injury in wet seasons ; 
while in dry ones, the cracks formed by the contraction of the 
subsoil prove disastrous. 

No. 230 is the soil prevalent in the Flatwoods (see above), and 
is the direct result of the disintegration of the old tertiary clays. 
It is a very heavy, intractable soil, yielding good crops only in very 
favorable years, as it is exceedingly liable to injury both from wet 
and dry seasons, and can be tilled only within a very limited range 
of condition as to moisture. Water will stagnate on it for weeks, 
and a late, wet spring will, sometimes, altogether prevent the 
pitching of crops. But it is not at all liable to denudation. 

No. 246 is likewise the direct result of the disintegration of 
(highly ferruginous) tertiary clays. Notwithstanding its high per- 
centage of "clay," it is more easily tilled than the preceding one, 
although acquiring a stony hardness when dried slowly. The 
fact that among its 4025 per cent, of "clay" there are 10*6 of fer- 
ric oxid, and that it contains *8 per cent, of lime, explains both its 
easier tillage, and greater thrifbiness, as compared with the pre- 
ceding. It is a pretty "safe" soil, and quite productive ; not at 
all subject to denudation. 

No. 196 is the extreme of a clay soil, so as to be almost unfit 
for tillage, and directly available for the potter's lathe. It bears, 
nevertheless, a pretty good growth of timber, chiefly pine. Its 
popular name is derived from the peculiar aspect assumed by its 
surface, when after a drought which has caused fissures (as much as 
an inch wide) to be formed, a rain causes the edges first to crumble 
off into the open cracks, and then swell ; which, with the subse- 
quent swelling of the mass itself, compels it to bulge up. The 
result is a hillocky surface, which is popularly likened to "h<^ 
wallows." The soil is, at present, practically worthless. 

The next, .No. 390, is very similar in its (ostensible) physical 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AKD CHEMISTRY. 75 

composition to the preceding. Yet while the "hog-wallow" soil 
is among the most worthless of the soils of Mississippi : — this, 
the celebrated " buckshot" soil of the Mississippi bottom, is among 
the mo^ valuable. True, the chemical composition of the buck- 
shot soil is greatly superior to that of the other ; yet it could not 
rank as high as it does, as a cotton soil especially, but for the fact 
that (in common with the prairie soil, 173, above described) it 
possesses the property of crumbling or "slaking" by rapid dry- 
ing ; so that, even when it has been ploughed too wet, on drying, 
each clod resolves itself into a pile of loose crumbs, which have 
given rise to the popular name of " buckshot." Notwithstanding 
its clayeyness, it is therefore a very "safe" soil, and highly es- 
teemed for its thriftiness. 

Alongside of this soil, which represents the cypress swamp 
deposits of the "Port Hudson" epoch of the Champlain period of 
depression, I give the composition of the "Loess" of the Lower 
Mississippi ; a deposit evidently formed in a shallow, broad, fresh- 
water estuary possessing a slight flow, during the time of more 
rapid depression of this portion of the continent. It forms a soil 
very easily tilled, somewhat too open and droughty, but fairly pro- 
ductive, and practically exempt from denudation.* 

It is interesting to compare this ancient (deposit with those now 
formed under somewhat analogous circumstances, by the sluggish 
**bayou8" traversing the bottom of the great river. Compare No. 
237 with 377, a"Frontland" soil from a plantation ouLidian Bayou 
in Sunflower county, and we find the physical constituents almost 
identical. No. 395 is from a point near the main river, on Gov. 
Alcorn's plantation in Coahoma county ; it has evidently been de- 
posited by a more rapid current, as it contains more of the coarser 
ingredients, to which there adhered a suflSciency of clay to render 
the soil retentive, though so porous that water will not stand on 
it for a moment. It is very easily tilled, and from its great depth 
is very productive. 

I subjoin for farther comparison, the analysis of a specimen of 
river deposit taken in the shallow water of the Southwest Pass of 
the Mississippi river, three miles below the Head of the Passes, at 
extreme low water. Here, again, the sediments of 1, 2, 4™" form 
the prominent landmarks, as in the two other river deposit soils, in 
which the clay and finest silts seem to be the chief variables. 

* MisB. Bep.| 1800, p. 814. 



76 A. MATHEMATICS, PUTSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

Having thus established, presumably, the normal composition 
of the river alluvium proper, I add, for farther comparison, the 
analysis of material from a stratified mudlump cone, which greatly 
resembles in aspect the river deposit. The point to be determined 
is whether this cone represents an upheaved mass of river deposit, 
or the mud ejected from a mudlump crater* — an eruption cone. 
The result seems to point to the latter as the more probable origin 
of the mass, as it presents but little similarity to the recognized 
river deposits, in the proportions of its sediments. 

In discussing the results of these analyses, I first recall to mind 
the practical object primarily intended to be subserved by them, 
viz., to convey to any intelligent mind, anywhere in the world, a 
definite idea of the physical qualities of the soil ; of its tillability, 
so to speak ; of its behavior in wet and dry seasons ; its liability 
to washing, etc. If the data given in the table do not at present 
convey such definite knowledge to the minds of this audience, it is 
because the molecular properties of the several sediments are not 
yet fully known, nor generally understood. But there can be 
little difficulty in the empirical determination of these factors, 
once for all, so far as they refer to the pulverulent minerals, 
whose physical properties are sensibly dependent upon the size 
of the particles alone ; the diflferences of specific gravity, etc., 
being ordinarily too slight to infiucnce materially their modifying 
infiuence upon the clay, or upon each other. To this rule mica and 
bog ore form, probably, the only practically important exceptions. 

As regards the modifying effect upon the extreme plastic prop- 
erties of the clay, the pulverulent ingredients obviously divide into 
two chief classes, viz. — 

1. The coarse portion, which increases the "lightness" and 
porosity of.the soil, sensibly in proportion to its percentage. 

2. The fine portion, which, while modifying the plastic prop- 
erties of the clay, yet renders the soil heavier in tillage than 
would be the case if it were absent, and the clay adherent to the 
coarse particles alone. 

Soils consisting mainly of very fine siliceous silt, with only a 
small percentage of clay, are among the very heaviest, working 
"like putty," clogging the plough when in the least degree too 
wet, and in drying, caking into clods of " hardpan." 

* See my paper on the Geology of the Delta, and the Mudlumps of the PasBes of the 
Mississippi, Am. Jour. Sc\.| April, May and June, 1871. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 77 

Such being the case, it would seem that between the coarse 
part which lightens soils, and the fine silts which, like clay, render 
them heavier, there must be a neutral point — a degree of fineness 
which will not sensiblj' influence either the porosity or the com- 
pactness of the soil. Odd as this conclusion appears, it seems 
nevertheless to be borne out by experience. 

In lingering the coarser silts, it at once becomes obvious that 
nothing above 1™" hydr. value can tend to render a soil heavier ; 
while it is equally manifest that the impalpable particles belonging 
to the velocity of 0*25™™ cannot teijd to lighten. In searching 
tentatively', by the summation of groups of physical ingredients, 
for numbers that would satisfactorily express the estimated rela- 
tive resistances to tillage of the soil analyzed, I found that such 
numbers would result from a summation of the three items lowest 
in the column, viz., the silts of 0*25, <0-25, and clay. These are 
given under the head of "Compactness" or "Resistance to 
Tillage." 

Similarly, numbers satisfactorily expressing the relative *' Open- 
ness" result from the summation of the coarser ingredients, down 
to I"'" inclusive. These numbers are given opposite to the head- 
ing " Porosity." 

But either series becomes quite unsatisfactory, so soon as the 
silt corresponding toO'S""* is added either way ; except, of course, 
where its percentage is too small to influence either sum very 
seriously. 

Of course these can only be approximations, it being especially 
obvious that sand of 64 and 32™™ must exert a much greater in- 
fluence towards rendering a soil " open," than silts of 1 or 2™" ; 
which are, nevertheless, accounted for as equal in effect, in the 
above summation. Yet even here, there are counterbalancing con- 
siderations, which in a measure explain the comparatively close 
approximation to the result of experience. Chief amongst these 
is, doubtless, the circumstance that the finer materials, when damp 
and stirred up (as they are in the cultivated soil), will occupy a 
much greater bulk than equal weights of coarse sand ; being in 
what is tecfinically termed a "woolly" condition of looseness. It 
is therefore quite intelligible that, within certain limits, "coarse 
silt" should exert a "lightening" influence equal to that of 
"coarse sand," which is apt to pack quite closely. 

It may be asked, What would be the character of a soil consist- 



78 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMI8TRT. 

ing exclusively of the silt of 0-5™", claimed to be sensibly neu- 
tral in its effect on the compactness and porosity of soils ? I reply 
that, judging frDm the small quantities of material at my command, 
such soil would offer an extremely slight resistance to tillage, and 
that such resistance would be increased by the addition of either 
clay or sand, in proportion to the amounts added. • 

The case, however, can hardly occur in nature. The difficulties 
encountered in separating the several materials in accordance 
with their hydraulic values, even by the aid of apparatus espe- 
cially constructed for the purpose, forcibly suggest that it is 
scarcely possible that such conditions should ever be realized in 
nature: the tendency to coalescence of particles necessarily 
causing .all sedimentary deposits to consist of molecular aggre- 
gates (at least so far as the finer portions are concerned), instead 
of simple granules. These aggregates will rarely, if ever, consist 
of particles of equal h3'draulic value, the natural tendency being 
for small particles to fill up the interstices left between larger 
ones, which cannot attain close contact between themselves alone.* 
Moreover, in view of this inevitable formation of aggregates, the 
molecular properties of a clay or subsoil will never correspond 
exactly to the mean resulting from a mere consideration of the 
molecular coefficients of each one, multiplied into its percentage. 
How far this difference extends, is a question involving a previous 
investigation of those coefficients. 

Among the latter, that of absorption of aqueous vapor is of no 
mean importance, since it determines, in a great measure, the 
resistance of the soil to drought. As heretofore stated,t I find* 
that at temperatures between +7 and +21®, the amount of aque- 
ous vapor absorbed by a thin layer of a clay, or soil not unusually 
rich in humuSj in a saturated atmosphere, is sensibly constant; 
the variations being within the limits of errors of observation, and 
indiscriminately either way. A glance at the data given in the 
table, opposite the heading " hygroscopic moisture," shows that 
while in general, as is well known, clay soils are more absorbent 
than sandy ones, yet there exists no direct numerical relation be- 
tween the amount of clay present, and the absorbing power. Not 
. 

* There is a sensible difference, in this i expect, between materials much ronnded 
and water-worn, and those whose grains are Btill *' sharp." Tlie latter are mnch more 
difficult to separate in the chum elutriator, and re-coalesce most pertinacioasly. 

t Proc. A. A. A. S., Dubuque meeting, 1872; p. 78. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBY. 79 

only is that of the typical white pipe-clay (No. 238) scarcely 
greater than that of an ordinary loam subsoil (Nos. 397 and 219), 
but it is not half as great as that of the clay soil 246 (with 40 per 
cent, of ''clay*') which in its turn has a higher absorptive coeffi- 
cient than 196 (with 47 per cent, of clay). Finally, 230, with 25-5 
per cent, of clay, is more than equal in hygroscopic power to the 
pipe-clay with 75 per cent. 

Evidentl}^ the hygroscopic coefficient is largely controlled by 
the presence, with the clay, of the powdery ingredients which de- 
termine its looseness of texture, so to speak ; moreover, the finer 
silts tliemselves possess a considerable absorbing power. Again, 
the presence of hydrated ferric oxid materially influences this 
power ; so much so that no general conclusion concerjiiug the 
hygroscopic eflfect of "clay" can be reached, tinless the amount of 
iron present be taken into account. I am unable, as yet, to furnish 
this datum for all the soils on the table, save as regards, for most 
of them, the percentage in the original substance. That the 
hydro-ferric oxid accumulates mainly in the "clay" obtained in 
silt analysis, I have already stated ; and hence the percentages 
given at the bottom of the table may measurably serve to form an 
estimate of its influence on the hygroscopic properties. In some 
cases, however, the ferric oxid obtained in analysis was almost 
altogether present in the shape of bog-ore grains ; these are 
placed in parentheses, it being obvious that the "white" soils, to 
which these determinations belong, do not contain more than 0*5 
per cent, of the oxid in the finely divided, hygroscopically effec- 
tive condition. In the coarse sandy soil 248, the iron mainly 
incnists the sand grains ; and in Nos. 165, 206 and 390, the pres- 
ence of humus, in sensible quantities, influences the coefficient. 
In the rest, the amount of humus is insignificant, and the influ- 
ence of the finely divided hj^dro-ferric oxid is especially notice- 
able when we compare Nos. 209 and 397 with each other; and 
also Nos. 230 and 196 with 246. The clay obtained in the silt an- 
alysis of No. 219 contains, according to Mr. Loughridge's determi- 
nation,* 18-76 per cent, of ferric oxid, as compared with 5*60 in 
the original substance ; its absorptive coefficient was 20- 0, as com- 
pared with 7*21 in the original. How much of thii^ increase of 
hygroscopic power was due to the concentration of the clay alone, 
we can at present but conjecture ; but if we may judge by the 

* See the sncceeding paper. 



80 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

absorptive power of the pipe-clay 23B, the increase must be 
largely attributed to the hydro-ferric oxid. * 

The influence of ''humus" on the hygroscopic power is known 
to be very great ; so also is that on the soil's porosity and resis- 
tance to tillage. Unfortunately, the very indefinite character of 
that substance renders it extremely difficult to determine quan- 
titatively its action, and take it into account. 

The questions remaining to be determined in connection with 
this whole subject arc so numerous, and so little explored as yet, 
that their full elucidation might well form the work of a lifetime. 



Os THE Distribution op Soil Ingredients among the Sediments 
Obtained in Silt Analysis. By R. H. Loughridge, of 
Oxford, Miss. 

In connection with the separation of soils into sediments of 
definite h3'^draulic value, as accomplished by Dr. Hilgard's churn 
elutriator, an interesting question arises as to the chemical com- 
position of the sediments obtained. 

It is evident from his results that, in the soils treated, all of the 
important soil ingredients are contained in the finer sediments, 
there being visibly nothing but quartz sand of diflferent diameters 
remaining in the coarser ones. 

Does then the "Clay" contain them all, or are they more or less 
distributed among the several proximate sediments? 

In the investigation of this question, use was made of the same 
yellow loam upland subsoil, from Benton Co., Miss., that formed 
the subject of my experiments on "Strength of Acid and Time of 
Digestion." Great care was taken to obtain a complete and pure 
sedimentation, distilled water being used ; and the anah^scs were 
made, according to our usual method, after five days* digestion in 
acid of strength 1-115. 

In the following table of . results the percentages are given, first 
with reference to the absolute amount of each sediment itself; 
then with reference to the entire amount of soil taken for elutri- 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



81 



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It appears from these analyses that the "clay" is by far the 
richest in mineral ingredients, the amount being more than twice 
tliat of the others combined. Its insoluble residue is very small 
while the soluble portion consists largely of free silica derived 
from hydrous silicates of the bases. 

Its volatile matter (which includes hygroscopic moisture left 
after drying at 100"* C, and water of hydration) is of course the 
largest ; as are also the remaining ingredients, except lime. The 



A. A. A. 8. VOL. XXn. 



6 



82 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

large amoant of soda, however, is due to the chloride used in the 
precipitation of the diffhsed clay. 

In the other sediments, the soluble ingredients, except soda and 
lime, decrease in almost a geometrical ratio ; there being also a 
corresponding increase of sand. 

There are several interesting points in connection with this 
ratio of decrease which may be summed up as follows. 

1. The iron and alumina exist in almost identical relative pro- 
portions in each sediment ; making it probable that they are in 
some way definitely correlated. 

2« Potash and magnesia also exist in almost the same quan- 
tities, and their ratio to each other in all the sediments being al- 
most constant seems to indicate that they occui* combined, perhaps 
in some zeolitic silicate, which may be a source of supply to 
plants. 

8. Manganese exists only in the clay, a mere trace being found 
in the next sediment. 

4. The lime appears to be '* nowhere," having probably been 
largely dissolved, in the shape of carbonate, by the large quantity 
of water used in elutriation. Its increase in the coarser portions 
may be owing to its existence in the crystallized form, not so 
readily soluble. 

In a general summation of the ingredients in the several sed- 
iments and comparison with the analysis of the soil per se, there is 
a loss in potash, magnesia and lime ; which may reasonably be 
supposed to have been dissolved by the water of elutriation. 

Some of the soluble silica clearly remains undetermined in the 
coarser sediments. 

The differences in ferric oxid and alumina, shown throughout 
the analyses of this soil, may partly be accounted for by the une- 
qual distribution of the particles of iron ore existing in the soil. 

Of course the law of distribution of soil ingredients may differ 
in other soils ; but the great distance from the point of derivation 
of the materials, and the wide distribution of the soils of which 
this is a type, probably render the above results of more than local 
applicability. 



a. matqematics, physics and chemistry. 83 

On the Influence of Strength of Acid and Time of Digestion 
IN THE Extraction of Soils. By R. H. Loughridge, of 
Oxford, Miss. 

The following investigation was undertaken with a view of de- 
termining the extent to which the variations likely to occur in the 
extraction of soils by hydrochloric acid, for the purpose of 
analysis, can influence the ultimate results ; the special object 
being to ascertain the comparability of the analyses made in 
connection with the Agricultural Survey of Mississippi, both 
amongst themselves, and with those made by similar methods, 
by Dr. Peter, of soils collected by the Surveys of Kentuckj'^ and 
Arkansas. 

In beginning the analyses of Mississippi soils in 1858, Dr. 
Hilgard adopted the following method, which has also been adhered 
to by his successors in this work, in over two hundred analyses 
made. 

The soil {%. e. " fine earth ") is pulverized with a wooden pestle 
and thoroughly mixed. The hygroscopic moisture is determined, 
after exposing it in a space saturated with vapor, in a laj^er not 
exceeding 1"" in thickness, for twelve hours, by drying at 200® C. 
in a parafflne baih. Of this dried substance from two to three 
grams are usually used in the general analysis, the methods em- 
ployed being in general those adopted by Dr. Peter.* In another 
portion, after ignition, the phosphoric acid is determined by diges- 
tion for five days with nitric acid at lOO"* C, evaporation, pre- 
cipitation by ammonium molybdate, digestion at 100,° solution in 
ammonia and precipitation by magnesium sulphate. 

For general analysis the soil is digested in hydrochloric acid 
of strength 1*115 (as a rule) at 100.° It is then evaporated to 
complete dryness, this adding another day to the digestion. 

In the insoluble residue the soluble silica is determined by 
boiling with sodic carbonate. The alumina and ferric oxid are 
precipitated according to Rose's method of boiling, for the com- 
plete separation of manganese, magnesium and calcium. The 
mixed precipitate is treated with potassic hydrate. 

After precipitation of the lime by ammonic oxalate, the am- 
moniacal salts are destroyed by Lawrence Smith's method, with 
aqua regia ; and the residue converted into nitrates, from which 

*Ky. Beport, vol. Ui. 



84 A. MATHEMATICS, PHT6ICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

sulphuric acid is precipitated by barium nitrate. The alkalies 
are then separated by treatment with oxalic acid, ignition and 
washing, hi the residue, barium, manganese and magnesia are 
separated as usual. 

With the aid of a Bunsen's filtering apparatus we can, by this 
method, complete an analysis in five days exclusive of digestion ; 
and three analyses may be in progress at the same time. 

The substance experimented upon was a subsoil, a typical rep- 
resentative of the best yellow loam uplands of Mississippi, from 
the table lands of Benton Co., Miss. ; No. 219 of the Survey 
Collection.* 

To determine the question as to whether such variations in the 
strength of the acid, as might possibly have occurred in the use 
of the steam-distilled {i. e, from a retort surrounded by steam) 
product, without previously ascertaining its concentration, portions 
of the subsoil wene digested five days with hydrochloric acid of the 
strength, severally, of 1*100, 1*115 (the normal concentration) 
and 1*160. 

As to the time during which the soil must be digested in hy- 
drochloric acid that the (sensible) limit of its solvent action upon 
the important soil ingredients may be reached. Dr. Peter's prac- 
tice has been to digest for about ten days, in his 800 analyses of 
Kentucky and Arkansas soils ; while for reasons of convenience, 
half that time has been adopted in the analyses of the Mississippi 
Survey. The question whether under these circumstances, the 
two series can be deemed comparable, was approached by diges- 
tions for periods of one, three, four, five and ten days, of the same 
soil with the same large excess of acid of 1*115 ; all precautions 
being taken to accomplish each analysis as nearly as possible 
under the same circumstances. 

For the digestions, use was made of porcelain beakers (the use 
of glass being objectionable because of its solubility) ; the same 
amounts (40'^'^°*) of acid were used, and steam kept up about 
twelve hours each day. 

The hour of "putting down" was carefullj' noted, and at the 
end of the allotted time the solution was poured off from the in- 
soluble residue, and each evaporated to dryness separately and 
reunited in solution, to prevent any further action of the acid. 

* The AnalysU of the subsoil of a neighboring tract is giyen In Hilgard's Report, 
1860, p. 282. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 



85 



The results of the investigation as to strength of acid are as 

follows : — 



INGREDIENTS. 



Insoluble Residue 
Soluble Silica . . 

Potash 

Soda 

Lime 

Ma^esia .... 
Br. Ox. Manganese 
Ferric Oxid . . . 
Alumina .... 
Snlphoric Acid 
YolatUe Matter . 



Amt. of Soluble Matter 
Amt. of Soluble Baaes . 



8F. O. OF AXJ 


1.10 


1.115 


71.88 


70.53 


11.38 


12.30 


.60 


.63 


.13 


.00 


.27 


.27 


.45 


.45 


.06 


.06 


5.15 


5.11 


6.84 


8.09 


.02 


.02 


3.14 


8.14 


100.02' 


100.69 


24.00 


27.02 


13.50 


14.70 



1.160 



74.15 

9.42 

.48 

.35 

.«J 

.45 

.06 

5.04 

6.22 

.02 

3.14 



99.29 
22.27 
12.83 



^t thus appears that in the strongest acid the amount of iusol- 
^We residue is far greater than in either of the others, and that 
*be difference lies chiefly in the soluble silica and alumina {i. e, 
clay), together with potash and lime. The other ingredients seem 
to be indifferent as to the strength of the acid. 

Betv¥een the acids of strength 1-10 and 1'115 the difference is 
not so great, but the advantage is clearly with the latter, the 
amounts of silica, potash and alumina being greater, while the 
lime remains the same in both. 

This result points to the conclusion, that while lime and mag- 
nesia (being readil}' dissolved) are probably present chiefly as 
carbonates or hj'drocarbonates : potash as well as alumina, and 
to some extent lime, are present as silicates, and for that reason 
are not as fully extracted by acid of low strength as b}" that of 
1-115 ; although the former acts more powerfully than that of 
1-160. 
The latter fact (the coincident result of two analyses) , though 



86. A. MATHEliATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMI8TBT. 

unlocked for, is not without analogies, although its precise cause, 
in this case, still requires elucidation. Whether the maximum of 
action is exerted by acid of 1*115 is another question of some 
interest, to be determined hereafter. 

As for the comparability of the analyses as aflfected by the prob- 
able variations of strength of acid, I remark that the acid used 
for distillation by Dr. Peter, as Dr. Hilgard informs me, was the 
"C. P." of commerce, whose strength rarely much exceeds or 
falls below that of 1'115 ; while that used by us was usually the 
crude, diluted nearly to the same strength. The first and last 
portions coming over were habitually, I believe, rejected in either 
laboratory. Under these circumstances, it is very improbable 
that either of the .extremes of sp. gr., above discussed, ever 
actually occurred ; especially as regards the stronger acid, which 
being in small quantity, would always be mixed with the succeed- 
ing weaker distillates. 

It is therefore not probable that the percentage of potash, or 
other important ingredients, could have been so far underestimated 
in either of the series of analyses, as seriously to influence their 
comparability, either within themselves, or with each other. 



The experiments on the influence of the time of digestion, made 
with acid of 1*115, resulted as shown in the table opposite. 

It appears that the amount of dissolved ingredients increases 
up to the fifth day, the increase becoming, however, very slow as 
that limit is approached. It is also found that the ingredients of- 
fering the greatest resistance to this action are the same as those 
whose amounts were sensibly affected by the strength of acid, 
viz., silica, potash and alumina.* 

In regard to lime and magnesia, one day's digestion not being 
suflScient for full extraction, it is evident that they do not exist in 
the soil as carbonates or hydric oxides only, as has been supposed ; 
but also as silicates. 

A comparison of the results of the five and ten day digestions 
shows that the solvent action of the acid has substantially ceased, 
there being no farther increase of the amount of dissolved matter. 

* There is an apparent loss of alumina in Uie 4 days* digestion, owing to the lack of a 
second separation from iron, whose quaatitj is correspondlnglj increased. 



▲. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMI8TBT. 



87 



So far, therefore, as the time of digestion is concerned, the anal- 
yses of the Mississippi Survey are strictly comparable with those 
of Arkansas and Kentucky soils, made by Dr. Peter. 



INGREDIBNTS. 


1 


No. OF DATS Dig 
8 4 


ESTED. 
5 


10 


Insoluble Besidae . . . 


76.97 


72.66 


71.86 


70.53 


71.79 


Soluble Silica . . . . 


8.80 


11.18 


11.64 


12.30 


10.96 


Potaah 


.35 


.44 


.67 


.63 


.62 


Soda 


.06 


.06 


.03 


.09 


.28 


Lime 


.26 


.29 


.28 


.27 


.27 


Magnesia 


.42 


.44 


.47 


.45 


.44 


Br. Ox. Manganese . . 


.04 


.06 


.06 


06 


.06 


Ferric Oxid 


4.77 


5.01 


6.43 


5.11 


4.85 


Alumina 


5.15 


7.38 


7.07 


7.88 


7.16 


Phosphoric Acid . . . 








.21 


.21 


Snlpharic Add . . . . 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


.02 


Volatile Matter . . . . 


3.14 


8.14 


• 8.14 


3.14 


3.14 


TOTAL 


99.68 


100.68 


100.55 


100.69 


99.80 


Amount of Soluble Matter 


10.67 


24.88 


25.57 


27.02 


24.87 


" " " Bases. 


11.06 


13.68 


13.91 

• 


14.49 


13.68 



88 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



Remarks on Glass-making. By Lewis Feuchtwanger, of New 
York, N. Y. 

Considering the incalculable benefits which the discovery of 
glass has rendered to mankind, not alone for purposes of daily life 
as an article of domestic use but, I may say, for more important 
and higher objects, as by the knowledge of glass and its applica- 
tions the most accurate observations and experiments in astronomy, 
natural philosophy, chemistry and physiology have been performed, 
we have nevertheless been very slow in keeping pace with the dis- 
coveries and improvements in other kindred arts and sciences. 
"While Pliny and Strabo gave at an earl}' period very accurate 
accounts of the glass manufacture in Alexandria and even the 
Portland vase, which w^s the most beautiful specimen of colored 
antique glass and was found in a marble sarcophagus, within the 
tomb of Alexander Severus, who died in the year 285 ; we have 
only the full description of the art of glass-making fh)m Agricola 
in 1550, and have the information of the first glass-house in Eng- . 
land in the year 1557 and that in Sweden in 1641 ; still very few 
improvements have been brought to light ; the same furnaces, the 
same tools, the same materials and the same glory-hole have 
been to this day retained these 320 years ; if we except the applica- 
tion of Siemen's Furnaces, which are intended to save the heat of 
the gas, which is not taken up in the reduction of the glass mate- 
rials, while the chamber under each end of the furnace is so arranged 
that the outer one receives the air and the middle one mixes and 
ignites air and gas, whereby the heat is saved at a very great per- 
centage so as to calculate one pound of glass from one pound of 
coal. 

The discovery of LeBlanc in 1792, which is the conversion of 
common salt into carbonate of soda, is another improvement of 
the eighteenth century. The application of glass for optical pur- 
poses such as microscopes, telescopes, cameras, etc., has for fifty 
years past occupied the unceasing attention of the greatest phil- 
osophers of the nineteenth century without fully overcoming the 
many obstacles ; it arises from the power which glass possesses of 
refracting light or turning it aside from its original direction ; the 
property of decomposing white light and giving rise to colors ; for 
an instrument constructed with lead glass lenses will produce an 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AMD CHEMISTRT. 



89 



image of the heavenly bodies or of microscopic objects with a colored 
margin, which will preclude the possibility of accurate observation. 
The experiments of Faraday, Frauenhofer, Utzschneider, Guinand 
and Bontemps have been met with many diflSculties in producing 
an achromatic lens, for the simple reason that the refractory power 
depends upon the different density of materials, and a want of uni- 
formity in the refractive power of the glass in different parts of 
the mass, and whenever a denser layer of glass comes in contact , 
with one of less dense matter a streak is produced which will oc- 
casion distorted images. 

In 1827, while a student in Jena, I assisted my teacher, Koerner, 
in numerous experiments of glass-making, principally for obtaining 
achromatic glass of uniform density, by the use of caustic baryta, 
borax, and silex, all materials very carefully prepared for the fur- 
nace, keeping the mixture in fusion for six days and allowing it to 
cool slowly for six days more before removing the pot, and then to 
break the same so as to use the lowest part of the mass for cutting 
up into lenses ; we succeeded but partially. Faraday's report in 
1830 speaks of his borosilicate of lead which yielded him a heavy 
glass of 5-4 specific gravity with a low dispersive power ; still it 
did not prove useful for optical purposes and was altogether unfit 
for the desired object. 

In order to obtain an achromatic glass of a fair standard, the 
mandfacturers have of late years resorted to the expedient of com- 
bining one kind of glass, which is called crown glass, and composed 
of silex, potash and lime, with another glass called fiint glass, 
which contains an addition of sixty per cent, of oxide of lead, 
a combination which would be satisfactory as regards the refracting 
power, but the difference of specific gravity through the whole 
mass has again produced the obstacle ; this had to be overcome by 
uniting numerous and small selected masses of glass of well ascer- 
tained gravity which must be quite uniform, into one large mass, 
while still plastic by pressure. It is clearly shown that flint glass 
decomposes light more distinctly, as regards the refracting power, 
than crown glass, which contains no lead ; and by employing a con- 
cave lens of lead glass and a convex lens of crown glass, when 
combined their respective effects upon light will compensate each 
other in consequence of the forces of the compound lens. 

Now all these remarks prove how deficient the art of glass-making 
is to this day, both in the production of achromatic glass as well as 



1 



90 ▲. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHBMISTBT. 

in that of a proper and uniform composition. The glass-maker has 
not yet appreciated the atomic theory, which would teach him that 
certain equivalents are necessary for the production of uniform 
mass ; he is behind the art of steel manufacture, for which the spec- 
trum gives him the sign when his ingredients are chemically com- 
bined. 



Description op a Printing Thermometer. By G. W. Hough, of 
Albany, New York. 

During the past quarter of a century numerous mechanisms 
have been constructed for recording automatically the fluctuations 
of temperature. The machines heretofore used for this purpose 
may be divided into three classes : — 

First, — Records made by a metallic thermometer by using either 
a single wire or a combination of rods. 

Second, — ^The application of photography, by means of which 
the height of the mercury in the thermometer tube is photographed 
in the form of a continuous curve. 

Third, — Records made at definite intervals from a mercury ther- 
mometer by the use of electro-magnetism. 

The first method is capable of giving approximate results. 
There are, however, serious objections to its use, the most impor- 
tant of which is the impossibility of making a piece of metal sub- 
jected to any work maintain its zero of length. To illustrate : — if 
a rod of brass or steel be made to support a weight, viz., ten 
pounds and at the same time be subjected to heat and cold, for a 
short time, the length of the bar at a given temperature will not 
be the same as previous to the experiment, consequently metallic 
thermometers will not maintain a fixed zero ; a fact observed by 
many meteorologists. 

Another objection to the method of mechanical registration is 
that when a machine is made to do work, its indications are not 
always the same. The force required to make a legible mark se- 
riously interferes with the accuracy of its results. 

Of the second method, by means of photography, it may only 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. dl 

be necessary to state that the amount of attention required in the 
preparation of the paper, the developing of the photographs and 
the measuring up of the records, precludes the possibility of its 
general use by meteorologists. The records also are often indis- 
tinct, and the curve is never sharp, showing that all minute fluc- 
tuations are lost. 

Of the third form of instruments, when the record is made at 
definite intervals by means of electro-magnetism, the zero of the 
thermometer, if of mercury, will remain fixed and the records will 
be correct within certain determinate limits. The only objection 
is, that changes occurring between the intervals of recording are 
^ot shown ; with this exception, the method may be regarded for * 
general use as superior to those before mentioned. A thermom- 
eter constructed on this plan has been in operation at the Dudley 
Observatory for the past three years. But the labor required for 
converting the curve into numerical results was so great, that it 
was decided to construct a machine that would give the height of 
the thermometer hourly, printed with tj'pe. 

The thermometer which we have adopted, consists of a glass tube 
bent in the form of a siphon, the closed leg of which is filled with 
alcohol and the open one with, mercury. On the surface of the 
mercury in the open end, there rests an ivory float suspended from 
a delicate balance, having platinum wires attached to each end of 
the lever ; when the column of mercury in the thermometer tube 
rises or falls from the effect of temperature, the platinum wires dip 
in small mercury cups placed underneath them, thereby causing a 
current of electricity to pass through one of two electro-magnets 
operating mechanism for giving motion to a fine micrometer screw. 
The motion of this screw elevates or lowers the carriage supporting 
the balance, thereby breaking the circuit. 

Whenever a change of temperature equal to one-tenth of a de- 
gree Fahrenheit occurs, the magnetic circuit is completed and the 
screw is moved a space equivalent to the change in the height of 
the mercury in the thermometer. By this method, which is the 
same in principle as our printing barometer described in 1866, no 
work is required to be done by the thermometer, with the excep- 
tion of supporting one-half the weight of the float. The force 
required to establish a magnetic current does not exceed two 
grains, and when once established even this pressure on the mer- 
coiy oolunm is removed. 



92 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

When the temperature rises or falls the screw follows its motioD, 
at the same time the clock-work moves the type wheels, indi- 
cating the temperature, which is printed at the end of each hour 
on a slip of paper moving in front of them. A pencil held 
against a revolving drum also records a continuous curve, ex- 
hibiting at a glance the height of the thermometer. 

The machine gives the temperature to tenths of degrees ; the 
probable error of an impression being about two-tenths of a degree 
Fahrenheit. The clock-work and printing mechanism are placed 
Inside the building ; the thermometer and can-iage only being out- 
side. The connection between them is made by a fine wire running 
over two pulleys and attached to the micrometer screw and balance. 



Description op an Automatic Registering and Printing Evap- 
orator AND Rain Gauge. By G. W. Hough, of Albany, 
New York. 

One of the most important elements in the study of meteoro- 
logical phenomena has heretofore been too much neglected. We 
refer to the evaporation continually taking place on the earth's 
surface. 

But comparatively few observations have been made to determine 
the atnount of water evaporated at different places and for differ- 
ent conditions of the surface. Engineers, in estimating the water 
supply for cities, have, until perhaps quite recently, based their 
estimates entirely on the amount of rainfall, a very fallacious 
method, since it will be apparent to any one, on reficction, that 
for two localities of equal area and similar surface, the one covered 
with forest and the other exposing the ground uncovered, the 
amount of water which can be utilized will be much greater in the 
former case than in the latter. What ought to be ascertained, 
therefore, with the greatest precision possible, is the amount of 
the evaporation in forests and in the open country, as well as for 
different conditions of the soil. 

Although the rainfall has not sensibly changed in amount since 
the first settlement of this continent, yet it is well known that the 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 93 

volume of water in the brooks and small streams has greatly di- 
minished. One need only make a Journey through the older states 
and notice the ruins of former mills to be forcibly reminded of the 
fact. We recall to mind a number of instances of brooks, which 
in our boyhood were considerable streams for the whole season, 
and are now entirely dry during the greater part of the year. 

The anaount of water annually reaching the ocean through our 
great rivers may not have sensibly diminished, yet owing to the 
gradual removal of the forests they become more and more subject 
to excessive fluctuations in volume, owing to the ease with which 
the rain-water, falling on an uncovered surface, reaches their chan- 
nels. 

The agricultural condition of the country, too, depends largely 
on the amount of evaporation. A record of the rainfall alone is 
not sufficient to determine whether the conditions for agriculture 
were favorable or otherwise. It is onl}'^ when the two elements, 
rainfall and evaporation, are considered together, that correct con- 
clusions can be reached. 

The importance of the subject led us to devise a mechanism for 
recording continuously, in the form of a curve, the amount of 
rainfall and evaporation, and for printing hourly, to the one five- 
hundredth of an inch, the same quantities. 

The discussion of such records would enable us to determine 
the diurnal variation of these elements, heretofore but approxi- 
mately known. 

In order to record the fall of snow, and the evaporation from 
snow or ice in the winter season, without changing the apparatus 
or mode of registration, it was decided to record by weight instead 
of volume, as is usually the practice. 

The apparatus consists of a vessel two feet square and one foot 
deep, suspended by means of one or more levers, and held in equi- 
librium by a small spring balance. The amount of change in 
weight of the mass, either that due to the precipitation or evapo- 
ration, will then be indicated on the balance. 

It is obvious therefore, that were a pencil connected with the end 
of the weighing lever, it would trace, on a suitable revolving drum, 
the changes of weight. But such a crude device would not give 
results sufficiently accurate for ascertaining the hourly evaporation. 
If, however, in place of making the apparatus do mechanical work 
directly, the lever is made to vibrate between two platinum points, 



94 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

whenever a change equivalent to the weight of one five-hundredth 
of an inch of water takes place, it will touch one of the points, 
thereby establishing a circuit through one of two electro-magnets, 
operating a micrometer screw ; since the force required to complete 
an electrical circuit between two plates of platinum amounts to 
only a few grains, it is seen that no sensible amount of work is 
required of the apparatus. 

This mechanism is now in process of construction ; when com- 
pleted, the vessel for holding the water will be placed on the roof 
of the Physical Observatory with the recording apparatus inside ; 
the connection between the two being secured by means of a small 
wire cord. It will be exposed directly to the sun and wind, and 
will give results from which may be determined the coefficients of 
temperature, wind, moisture, etc. , affecting the rate of evaporation. 

The amount of evaporation from soil can be ascertained by 
filling a suitable vessel with soil saturated with water, and record- 
ing the weight either continuously or at definite intervals. 



On the Introduction of the Metric Sistem into Medicinb and 
THE Unification of Doses. By Harvey W. Wilet, of 
Indianapolis, Jndiana. 

In Chemistry, the basis of pharmacy, the work of introducing the 
Metric System is accomplished. The first step, therefore, is already 
taken, affording a stronger reason for the completion of the work. 

There is certainly no great propriety in buying a kilogram of 
potassic bromide, and then dealing it out to our patients in grains 
and drachms. But because our physicians and druggists are used 
to grains and minims, drachms and fluid ounces, these values 
must be used as aids to something better* 

For practical purposes we may take the gram as eqnal to 
15-5 grains. It is easy thus to change grain or multiple grain 
doses into the Metric scale. 

Thus '1 gram is equal to a grain and a half, so that those med- 
icines which are now given in from 1 to 2 grain doses might read- 
ily be prescribed in doses of •! gram. 



▲. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 95 



CJontinuing the comparison, we find : — 

3 grains =i- '2 gram. 



4-5 " = -3 

6 " = -4 

7-5 '' = -5 

9 " = -6 

10-5 " = -7 

12 " = -8 






13-5 " = -9 
15 '' =1 " nearly. 
Of course these are only given as approximate values^ and they 
will aid us in estimating how many grams, or what part of a gram 
of any medicine, should be administered, by a knowledge of the 
number of grains which we have been in the habit of exhibiting. 
After we have become familiar with the gram quantities, we need 
^0 longer think of the grains ; Just as one who has a thorough 
^owledge of a foreign language does not translate it into his ver- 
llACuIar when reading. 

In regard 1p those medicines which are administered in a liquid 
form, we can make similar comparisons, subject to^ similar expla- 
nations. Thus 16*2318 minims=l cubic centimetre, or 1 milli- 
litre. 
Practically therefore : — 

4 Minims =» "25 Centimetre* 
8 " « -5 
12 " — -75 






15 " =-1 " 



(( 
(( 

(( 



drachm nearly — 60 drops. 



20 «' — 1-25 

24 " — 1-5 

■ 

28 " ■= 1-75 

32 " — 2 " = half a teaspoonM. 

36 " — 2-25 

40 " — 2-5 

44 » — 2-75 

48 " — 3 

52 « — 3-25 

56 « = 3-5 

60 " — 3-75 

64 << — 4 " — teaspoonftil — fluid 






96 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

Let it be remembered, however, that the drop is as variable as 
the old system of measures, for while about 60 drops of dilute 
sulphuric acid are equal to 4cm^, it requires 120 of laudanum and 
150 of ether to make the same amount. But the size of the drop 
depends also upon the shape and size of the orifice through which 
it comes. 

These tables of comparisons might be continued to exhibit 
larger or smaller quantities ; but, just as they are, they apply to the 
greater number of medicines administered. 

If it be objected that druggists would not know how to fill a 
prescription in which grams and cm^s were employed, it is sufficient 
to say that they could easily learn ; and any intelligent physician 
or apothecary in half an hour could thoroughly master the Metric 
System and begin to write and fill prescriptions in its symbols to 
his almost unlimited advantage. 

I have, however, as the principal object of this paper and the 
especial purpose for which its preparation was attempted, to sub- 
mit a further suggestion to the profession touching the intro- 
duction of the Metric System in medicine. It is a plan for the 
Unification of Doses. 

Every practising physician is painfully aware of the fact that 
mistakes are daily made in the compounding and division of med- 
icines which frequently end in most disastrous results, and, unless 
the physician himself has an extraordinary memory, it is most 
difficult for him to keep in mind the proper amount, of any but 
common remedies, which ought to be administered. 

Especially is this true of young physicians where the memory 
is not fortified by long experience. The young physician may eji- 
sily make out his diagnosis and recall the remedy which is most 
appropriate, but among the thousand different quantities which 
constitute a dose, he cannot recall that one which belongs to the 
remedy he wishes to use. He, therefore, either has to postpone 
its exhibition or guess at the quantity to be given ; in either case 
at a great risk. Moreover, every medical student knows that by 
far the most difficult part of the Materia Medica is that which re- 
lates to quantity. He can remember the source of the drug, the 
method of its preparation, its therapeutic action, its compatibles 
and incompatibles ; but, when he comes to the proper amount for a 
dose, his memory fails him at the very point where practically he 
needs it most. It therefore seems evident, that if any system can 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 97 

be devised by wbieb tbe great majority of remedies in common use 
could be miade to bave a common quantity for a dose, tbe physician, 
the apothecary and tbe patient would all be benefited. 

In order that this happy pharmaceutical millennium may be 
brought about, it is necessary in the first place to establish at 
least two standard doses, one for solids and one for liquids. 
This being done, in the second place it will be necessary to have 
all Sblid substances so prepared that the standard dose will be 
the average dose of that solid for the adult patient. 

In like manner the liquid medicine should be prepared, so that 
the standard dose would as before be the average for the adult pa- 
tient. 

Let us now fix these standaixl doses as follows. (This is only a 
suggestion in regard to the standard doses ; it could be fixed at 
any other value if found more convenient. It, however, fully illus- 
trates the principle.) For a solid let the standard be '2 gram. 
This is about 3 grains. Let quinine be taken as the typical solid. 
It is a normal solid. By this is meant thai the standard dose, *2 
gram, is the average dose for the adult patient. 

A prescription for quinine would therefore read 
R Quinise sulphatis, grams ij (N). 
Sig. one every two hours till cinchonism is produced. 

(N) signifies that the solid is normal^ i, e., the dose is -2 gram or 
three grains. This signifies that the apothecary is to put the two 
grams up in *2 gram powders. Therefore it is not necessary to 
rewrite it on, the prescription. Suppose however the physician 
should desire to prescribe powdered opium. In this case of 
course tbe standard dose would be too large. It would be rather 
unsafe practice to exhibit '2 gram opium to a patient unaccus- 
tomed to its use. In order to meet this, and similar difilculties in 
solids and liquids, all manufacturing chemists should be required 
by law to make only standard mixtures and solutions or some 
mnltiple of the standard. Thus powdered opium thoroughly 
nibbed up with three times its weight of milk sugar, chalk or some 
other comparatively inert substance would become a normal mix- 
ture and should be put up in a bottle labelled (N). The physician 
would therefore write 

ft Opii pulveris gram j (N). 
Sig. one at night before bedtime (etc.). 

Morphia on the other hand should be most thoroughly tritu- 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XXn. 7 



98 A. MATHEMATICS, FHT8ICS AND CHBMISTBT. 

rated with seventeen times its weight of equal parts of milk sngar 
and chalk, in order to form a normal mixture ; we could then 
write 

R Morphise sulphatis, gram, ij (N). 
Sig. one every two hours till hypnotic effects are secured. 

In such cases as these the salt perhaps would be better made into 
a normal pill weighing *2 gram. All pills can thus be readily 
reduced to the standard by proportionate variations in their in- 
gredients. 

In like manner it would be exceedingly easy in the decimal sys- 
tem to make all mixtures of solids in such proportions as would 
give the leading ingredients the average dose in the standard 
dose. The case of the compound cathartic pills will illustrate the 
whole series. 

Thus these pills made according to the following recipe contain 
precisely the same proportion of compound extract of colocynth, 
calomel, jalap and gamboge, as the pill formed according to the 
formula given in the "U. S. Dispensatory," but each pill will of 
course be standard, t. e., contain '2 gram which is a very little less 
than the ordinary pill. 

R Comp. ext. colocynth, grams xij. 
Ext. jalap. 

Calomel, aa. grams jx. 
Gamboge, grams ij. 
Mix, make 160 pills. 

This would give pills of the standard weight, and one of these 
would be an ordinary dose for a mild laxative. Thus we see 
that by means of the metric system all prescriptions for solids 
may easily be made to conform to the standard dose; a thing 
which would be almost impossible under the present system of 
weights. Again, all substances which are given without mixture 
may be made normcUy in fact can easily be made so. In case, 
however, the substance is of such a nature that the standard 
dose is not sufficient to produce the required effect, it shordd 
be so mixed that two, or three, or four, times the st-andard dose 
would be the average dose for the adult patient. It should then 
be labelled (J N) (J N) (^ N) 'etc., signifjring that the dose is 
twice, three times, four times, etc., etc., the standard. 

On the other hand, should it be inconvenient to dilute the very 
active solids, such as morphia, to the normal, let the dilation be in 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND OHEMISTRT. 99 

some multiple of the nonnal and labelled (2 N) (3 N) (4 N) etc., 
signifying in each case that the dose is one-half, one-third, one- 
fourth the standard. 

But tbis is, I hope, sufficient to present at least the outlines of 
the proposed plan of unification as far as it applies to solids. 

Let us now consider the same problem in liquid medicines. 
It would be well to refer here to the table of comparison between 
minims and cubic centimetres. From this it appears that the 
most convenient standard dose of a liquid is 4cm.^ equivalent to 
64 minims nearly, or one fluid drachm, or a teaspoonful. Let us 
take this then as a standard dose. The bottles in which medicines 
are given out could be furnished with glass stoppers hollowed out 
with a cup-shaped cavity measured to hold 4cm.^ Teaspoons are so 
variable in size that they are not always to be depended on to 
measure a dose. Of course as in the case of solids the manufac- 
turing chemist should be required by law to put up only standard 
solutions or some multiple of that standard. 

Nothing would be more easy than this and it is but right that 
the profession should be protected fVom the cupidity of manufac- 
turers which leads them often to dilute officinal preparations. 
The government should appoint an inspector who should see that 
every liquid medicine exposed for sale is normal, i. e., that a dose 
of 4cm.^ contains the average dose of the active principle in the 
liquid for the adult patient. Li the case of laudanum, for instance, 
it is well known that when the crude opium is high the tincture is 
weak so that the physician is safe in prescribing twice as many 
drops when opium is twenty dollars per pound as he does when 
it is ten. Let us suppose, however, that we have some laudanum 
of ordinary strength of which 16 minims contains 1 grain of 
opium. 

How now are we to standardize this solution in order to apply 
the principle pf unification? The standard dose which we have 
assumed is 4cm.^ or about 64 minims. Hence if we dilute the 
laudanum with 4 times its bulk of water or mint water the solu- 
tion becomes normal and then we may write 

R Tine, opii 1 decilitre (100cm.«) (N). 
Sig. 4cm.' (a teaspoonful) before bedtime or until soporific eflTects 
are produced. 

Here 4cm.' represents 1 grain of the crude opium or nearly so. 
Again, the common officinal aromatic dilute sulphuric acid, diluted 



100 ▲. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

with six times its bulk of water or mint water becomes normal 
and we write 

R Sulph. acid dil. aromat. decilitre j (N). 
Sig. dose every three hours. 

(N) signifies always that 4cm.' is the dose for the adult patient. 
Should it be desirable to administer quinine with the above acid 
the prescription can be varied thus, 

R Aromat. sulph. acid, decilitre j (N), 
Quinife sulphatis, grams v, 
*Mix. Sig. dose every two hours until cinchonism is produoed. 

Since the five grains of quinine dissolved in the acid would not in- 
crease its bulk appreciably, this increase is practically neglected 
(1 decilitre is 3^ fluid ounces nearly). Again, the ordinary dilute 
phosphoric acid by the addition of one-half its bulk of water or 
mint water becomes normal and, as before, we write 

ft Phos. acid, dil. decilitre j.(N). 
Sig. every four hours. 

Or if it be desirable to give strychnia in the phosphoric acid, 

R Phos. acid, dil. decilitre j (N), 
Strychnia, '04 grm.. 
Mix. Sig. every four hours. 

We thus administer about ^ gr. strychnine at each dose, etc. 
It is not worth while to multiply examples. I hope that I have 
made my idea clear ; that at least this paper may direct the mind 
of the profession to the merits of the metric system which is certain 
sooner or later to reform the nomenclature of remedial quantities. 
If it be urged in objection to the foregoing suggestions that there 
would be great difficulty in making and keeping these normal so- 
lutions, it will be sufficient in reply to call attention to the fact of 
their very general introduction into the science of quantitative chem- 
ical analysis within the last few years. The analyst has found his 
work greatly lessened and calculations simplified by their use. I 
can safely affirm that every^ practical analyst who has ever made 
use of these normal solutions will cheerfully bear witness to the 
beauty and simplicity of the modes of analysis into which tbey 
enter. With a burette, a pipette and litre flask it is possible to 
make analyses which would require by the gravimetric method 
extensive and costly apparatus. I can easily see how in like 
degree the physician and apothecary would be benefited by the 
of normal remedies, and the consequent unification of doses. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 101 

Another objection, which it is well to anticipate, will be urged 
against the normal remedies when it is desirable that several of 
them be exhibited together. As each one of the constituents of 
the mixture requires a dose of 4cm^, or '2 gram, it may be said that 
foar or five of them together would inflict upon the patient a dose 
of enormous proportions ; but in the case of mixtures it does not 
follow at all that each ingredient of the compound must furnish 
its standard dose to the general dose. On the contrary, it is quite 
possible that a standard dose of the compound containing one- 
half, 6ne-third, or one-fourth, etc., the standard of each ingredient, 
according to the whole number entering into the mixture, would 
be the proper amount to be given at once. To the thoughtful and 
competent practitioner it will not seem extravagant to say that a 
prescription containing half a dozen or more ingredients serves 
oftener to show the egotism and pedantry of the doctor and to 
bother the druggist than to benefit the patient. 

When however it becomes necessary, as is often the case, that 
remedies be exhibited together, they may easily be prepared from 
the standard mixture and normal solutions, and the dose regulated 
accordingly. 

If, for instance, it were desirable to administer balsam of tolu, 
laudanum and syrup of squills together, the prescription could be 
made as follows — 

R Balsam Tolu (N), 

Laudanum ^^ 

Syrup of Squills " aa ^ decilitre. 
Sig. every four hours. 

The same reasoning will apply in the case of solids, so that the 
whole subject of mixtures becomes a simple problem of ratios, 
which can be altered at pleasure. In the above mixture the pro- 
portion of either ingredient could be changed, taking care only 
that the whole should amount to a decilitre. 

Bat finally it may be said that the druggist should keep not 
only the normal drugs, but also keep them in their ordinary 
forms. The physician could then have his mixtures made by the 
apothecary as in the case of strychnine and morphine already 
given, only taking care that the medicines when finally ready 
should be of such a constitution as to be given in the standard 
dose. In the case of children or very weak patients where the 
standard dose is too large, it will only be necessary to write after 



102 ▲. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

the (N) at the end of the prescription a fraction denoting what 
part of the standard dose is to be given. Thas, R Laadanum 
(N)tV or i\y(N) would show that only one-tenth of the standard 
dose was to be given. In the case of solids J(N) would direct the 
druggist to put up in *1 gram doses, etc. With the proposed 
changes unifying the doses of medicine it would be almost im- 
possible for forgetful or careless nurses to disregard the directions 
of the physicians. By the present system where often three or 
four different remedies are administered from different bottles 
during a single day, it is not at all strange that the nurse should 
become confused and do everything wrong. Every one can see 
how the possibility of such mistakes would be removed by the 
Unification of Doses. 



Ctclonism and Antictclonism. By Pliny Eable Chase, of 
Philadelphia, Penn. 

By cyclonism, I mean that the current of air at the point of 
observation is cyclonic, or curves towards the left ; by anticyclo- 
nism, that it curves towards the right. By a cyclonic or anti« 
cyclonic storm, I mean a region of precipitation where cyclonism 
or anticyclonism, as here defined, exists. 

Of course in a typical Espy-storm, modified by the earth's rota- 
tion, there is cyclonism toward the centre, and anticyclonism 
toward the circumference. But such a storm can never occur 
until there has been precipitation enough to produce a local, par- 
tial vacuum, and consequent indraught. It is desirable, in weather 
forecasts, to anticipate, if possible, the formation of the storm cen- 
tres on the probable lines of prospective precipitation. 

Such lines, which are more common than simple centres, may be. 
' straight, cyclonic, anticyclonic, or mixed, according as the origi- 
nating pressure is direct, or modified by rotation in flowing toward 
a centre, from a centre, or in the areas of conflicting vortices ; the 
vortices being either both cyclonic, both anticyclonic, or one cy- 
clonic and the other anticyclonic. 



▲. ICAXHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND GHEMISTBT. 



103 



The weather maps of the Signal Service Bureau show that a 
large proportion of the American rainfalls and snow-storms move 
80 nearly in straight lines, that it is difficult to classify them as 
either cyclonic or anticyclonic. 

One of the best illustrations I have seen of synchronous cy- 
clonic and anticyclonic storms is afforded by the following obser- 
Tations, taken from the morning map for March 22, 1872 : — 

Stations. 

Nashville. 

Cairo. 

St. Louis. 

Keokuk. 

Davenport. 

Milwaukee. 

Escanaba. 

Marquette. 

Duluth. 

Memphis. 

Shreveport. 

Vicksburg. 

The storm was therefore anticyclonic at Nashville, Cairo, St. 
Louis, Keokuk, Davenport, with two cyclonic branches ; one pass- 
ing through Milwaukee, Escanaba, Marquette and Duluth, the 
other, through Memphis, Shreveport and Vicksburg. A slight 
new centre of pressure was formed by the meeting of vortices 
near Davenport. 

The frequency of anticyclonism appears to be 



Wind. 


Weather. 


Barometer. 


E. 


Snow. 


30-32 


S.E. 


(( 


30-22 


(( 


(( 


30-11 


S. 


(( 


30-05 


(( 


(( 


30-14 


s.w. 


Cloud. 


30-10 


0. 


Snow. 


30-09 


S.E. 


(( 


No report. 


N.E. 


(( 


29-76 


E. 


(( 


30-19 


N.W. 


Bain. 


30-04 


E. 


(( 


30-01 



Greatest in fair weather. 
" winter. 
" snow-storms, 
near highlands, 
in upper currents. 



(4 



({ 



(( 



44 



Least in storms. 
*' summer. 
" showers. 
" near water. 

in lower currents. 
" cities. 



(4 



44 



4( 



" " the country. " 

Greatest near anticyc. streams. Least near cyclonic streams. 

From a careful examination of thirty-eight thousand, five hun- 
dred and eighty-two observations, extending over a period of two 
years, from July 16, 1871 , to July 15, 1873, both inclusive, I have 
deduced the following comparative tables of cyclonism (C), doubt 
(D) and anticyclonism (A), in each season of the year : — 



104 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 





Fair. 


Cloud. 


Rain. 


Snow. 




C. 


._ _ . ^ 
D. A. 


C. D. 


A. 


T 

c. 


D. 


A. 


C. 


D. 


— ■» 
A. 


Spring . . . 


1194 


2371 2298 


1017 1416 


851 


273 


234 


98 


124 


144 


51 


Summer . . 


1447 


2679 2406 


909 975 


607 


177 


160 


48 


, 






Autumn . . 


lOlS 


2433 2009 


966 1221 


794 


228 


215 


97 


57 


50 


19 


Winter . . 


846 


2893 1597 


1185 1765 


1108 


155 


178 


74 


257 


277 


158 


Tear . . . 


4S29 


9876 8310 


^1067 6876 


8300 


833 


782 


317 


438 


471 


223 



The percentages of cyclonism and anticyclonism are given in 
the following table : — 



spring , 
Summer 
Autumn 
Winter 
Year . 



Fair. 


Cloud. 


Bain. 


Snow. 


C. A. 


C. A. 


C. A. 


C. A. 


84 66 


54 46 


74 26 


71 29 


88 62 


60 40 


79 21 




34 66 


55 45 


70 30 


75 25 


35 65 


52 48 


68 32 


63 8r 


85 65 


55 45 


72 28 


66 34 



Total. 




. The uniformity of the total ratios and their accordance with the 
general prevalence of anticyclonism, which was shown by Coffin's 
'^ Results of Meteorological Observations," seem to indicate the 
approximate accuracy of the detailed estimates. The amounts of 
cyclonism in fair weather, and of anticyclonism in cloudy and 
stormy weather, appear to be much greater than meteorologists 
have generally supposed. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. . 105 

A Chord op " Spheral Music." By Pliny Earle Chase, of 
Philadelphia, Penn. 

In various communications to the American Philosophical Soci- 
ety, I have pointed out simple harmonic relations between planet- 
ary distances, which seem to indicate a tendency to cosmical 
aggregation at harmonic nodes, in a vibrating elastic medium. 

In a paper, read on the second of May last, I introduced the har- 
monic series, J, -^^ /j, /^, ^4, of which the unit is the earth's 
mean radius vector. Finding representatives for the other terms, 
I stated that the term ^ represents '^ a possible unknown planet, 
planetoid group, or other seat of solar and planetary perturbation." 
By Kepler's law the cyclical period of such a perturbation would be 
about 51 days. I also suggested that Wolfs sun-spot period of 
27 days "might be readily explained by the perturbations and 
transits of a planetoid or meteoric group, at a distance which 
would complete the terrestrial harmonic series." 

Professor Winlock kindly allowed me to examine the measure- 
ments of the sun's spotted area, at the observatory of Harvard 
University. They indicated such a periodicity as I was looking 
for, but as the observations covered a period of less than five 
months, I did not regard them as conclusive. 

I subsequently found in "Nature," of July 17th, an abstract of 
a communication to the Royal Society on June 19th by Messrs. De 
La Rue, Stewart and Loewy, who find evidences of a tendency in 
son-spots "to change alternately from the north, or positive, to 
the south, or negative, hemisphere and vice versa" and ^Hhat the 
tvoo outbreaks are at opposite ends of the same solar diameter" 
Their inferences are drawn from observations taken in three 
different years and covering an aggregate period of 407 days. 
Their lowest approximate estimate of the mean interval be- 
tween two maxima in the same solar hemisphere is 22*25 days ; 
the highest, 28 days; "the most probable mean value, 25*2 
days." The interval between two maxima of the same sign and 
originating at the same axial extremity would, of course, be twice 
as great. 

Herschel (following Bianchi and Laugier), Sporer, Carrington 
and Faye, give estimates of the sun's sidereal rotations varying 
between 24*62 and 25*33 days. The evidence, therefore, seems 
conclusive, both of a cycle due to solar rotation, and of another, 



106 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

dae to some disturbing influence which revolves around the sun in 
a period approximately equivalent to two rotations. 

The half-periods, being all m^de sidereal, and the corresponding 
mean distances, compare as follows : — 





Days. 


Distance. 


Sporer, 


24-62 


•263 


Carrington, . . . . 


24-97 


-265 


Faye, 


25-07 


•266 


Wolf, 


25-14 


•267 


De La Rue, Stewart and Loewy, 


25-20 


•267 


Herschel, Bianchi and Laugier, . 


25-32 


•268 


Harmonic prediction, . 


25-51 


•269 



A Stroke of Lightning, with Hints as to Immunity. By James 
Hyatt, of Stanfordville, N. Y. 

The house of Mrs. Hallock, in Dutchess County, N. Y., was last 
summer ^'struck" by lightning, notwithstanding that each of some 
half dozen chimneys (all there were) had a branch rod attached, 
connecting with rods along the ridge and descending by three 
separate mains into the ground. Fortunately but little damage 
was done, some short bits of clapboard were cast off and a few 
splinters; but there was a vast amount of fright, and some of 
the inmates narrowly escaped with their lives. 

Under the house is a well, connected by a large lead pipe with 
the pump in the kitchen. About five feet from this pump was the 
kitchen stove, with the usual iron funnel leading into a chimney, 
on which was one of the branching rods. 

The son, then at home, an intelligent young man, was standing 
a foot or two only, aside from a direct line between the stove and 
the pump aforesaid, and a '^farm hand" was near by. At the 
instant of the electric coup^ this son was overthrown by the mere 
physical force of the discharge, though entirely untouched by the 
electricity. He describes the sensual impression as similar to 
that of the discharge of a piece of light ordnance, with the appear- 
ance before his eyes, as he expressed it, of a *4arge ball of fire." 



▲. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 107 

The tin leaders, which descended perpendicularly, at several of 
the corners of the house, reached to within, perhaps, a foot of the 
ground. This ground, on which the house stands, is a dry, grav- 
elly knoll of slight elevation, say about six or eight feet above 
the average level of the adjacent land. The three lightning rods 
descended into this dry gravel a few feet only, being practically 
insulated from the general body of water in the earth. At the 
lower termination of those perpendicular tin leaders, there was 
some slight splintering of the adjoining wood-work. At one place, 
where the course of the electricity was across a space of a foot or 
more between two of these leaders, some small nails were thrown 
out from the wood-work, in which they were embedded, as was 
shown by the hole which they left, which was also slightly splin- 
tered. 

Having been consulted with by Mr. Hallock, the father, for some 
years now deceased, in reference to the protection of his house by 
lightning, I advised him, by all means, to connect his rods all well 
together, and to extend them, with sufficient size of metal, to the 
bottom of the well. This had been neglected ; although Mr. H. 
had informed his family, before his death, apparently with some 
misgivings as to his failure to comply, that I had so advised him. 

It was quite evident, that the main force of the electric dischai^e 
had, in this case, taken its course away from the lightning rods, 
across the kitchen, from the stove to the pump, and so on to the 
well, as I had anticipated. 

In common jf ith all students of the electric force, I consider that 
no safety is to be had from the effects of lightning, but in the 
perfect connection of the rods altogether, and the extension of the 
conductors, for m^ny feet into the general mass of water which lies 
at or below the surface of the earth. 

While I do not imagine that any such extensive metallic con- 
nection with the water is necessary', as one hundred square feet, 
which has been spoken of as required, still it is well to err, if at 
all, on the side of safety. With a protection, in addition, of every 
projecting portion of the house, by means of a branch rod, I have 
no doubt that a building may be about as safe from electric dis- 
charges, as it is from floods, when placed on an immovable founda- 
tion, above any possible rise of water. 

Subsequent to the occurrence, here narrated, I personally and 
carefully examined the premises. The case may be instructive. 



108 



A. UATHEUATICS, PHTBICS AMD CBBUISTBT. 



An Attachment to the WniBLiNo Table fob fbojectino Libba- 
joc's Curves. By A. E. Dolbbar, of Bethany, W. Va. 

The costliness of the usual apparatus for the projection of 
Lissajou's Curves baa led me to devise a method for accomplishing 
the same resalts in a comparatively inexpensive way, which proves 
in other ways to be superior to the method with vibrating forks. 

It consists of the following attachment to the Whirling Table. 

Two posts p and p' are made fast to the ^ame upon the oppo- 
site sides of the inertia plate a. A small wooden pulley *, about 



an inch in diameter is made to tarn upon an axis that is made fast 
in the postp, and with such adjustment that the pulley rests upon 
the plate a and turns by friction on that plate. It Is best to have 
a thin India rubber ring upon the friction 
pulley to insure it tVom slipping. Above the 
pulley the mirror m is so mounted as to swing 
in azimuth and is made to do this by a wire 
fastened to it at its hinge and bent into a 
I loop t at its lower end, which is opposite the 
face of the pulley a. Another twist in the 
wire at o will be needed, for a pin which is 
fast iu the post p; this will make a lever of 
the wire I, with the fhlcrum at o, and if it is properly fastened 
to the hinge of the mirror will cause it to vibrate in a horizontal 
plane when the plate a revolves. 




A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 109 

A somewhat similar arrangement is made for the other side, 
save that the friction pulley s' has its bearing made fast in a sep- 
arate piece c, which is so fastened to the end of a long screw d that 
the whole fixture can be moved to or from the centre of the plate 
a. The piece c is furnished with two guides which keep it steady 
in any place where it is put. The mirror m/ is made to tiit in a 
perpendicular plane by an arrangement quite similar to the former 
one, save that the wire connection has its lower end bent into a hori- 
zontal loop through which a pin in the face of the pulley s' is 
thrust. This is practically an exccntric and, being directly fastened 
to the hinge of the miiTor m', gives to it an^angular motion pro- 
portional to the distance of the pulley face pin from the centred 
The mirrors should be not less than two inches square. If then 
the pin is an eighth of an inch from the centre of the friction pul- 
leys, they will have ample angular motion ; much larger than can 
ever be got from forks. 
Experiments. 

It is evident that if the two friction pulleys have equal diameters 
and they are at equal distances from the centre of the plate a, they 
will vibrate in unison in their respective planes. Now let a beam 
of light r, from the porte lumiere^ fall upon the mirror m at such 
an angle as to be reflected first upon the mirror m\ thence to the 
screen. If the plate a is now revolved the beam of light will de- 
scribe a circle, an ellipse or a straight line, either of which can be 
made at will by simply adjusting the crank of one of the mirrors 
to the required angle. Thus, suppose the mirror m' is tipped back 
its farthest by bringing the pulley pin at the top, as indicated in 
the drawing, at the same time that the mirror m is at its maximum 
angular deviation. The beam of light will describe a circle. 

If it moves slowly the path and direction of the moving beam 
can be nicely observed. These two advantages are not to be 
had with forks ; for, first, it is accidental if one gets a circle or 
any other desired resultant figures from forks in unison, for the 
obvious reason that the phases cannot be regulated, and second, 
the vibrations of the forks are so rapid that the analysis of the 
motion can only be made in a mechanico-mathematical way. 

By moving the fixtures on the left side toward the centre of the 
plate o, the pulley s' will not revolve so fast. If moved half-way 
it will make one revolution while the other makes two, and the 
vibrations stand in the ratio 1 : 2 represented by forks in octave. 



110 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

Such ratio is shown upon the screen by a form very much like the 
figure 8, and known as the lemniscate. 

Between these two places, every musical ratio in the octave can 
be got and the resultant motions projected in their proper curves. 
More than that, while the mirrors are both vibrating^ any of the 
ratios desired can be moved to at once by merely turning the 
thumb screw d, which is- wholly impossible with any forks which 
require stoppage and adjustment of lugs for each different curve. 

Again, if the fixture c is moved still farther toward the centre 
than half-way, the curves projected will be those belonging to the 
second octave, until the pulley reaches three-fourths of the way, 
when the ratio will be 1 : 4 and the resultant figure will be like a 
much flattened double eight. 

If one would show the phenomenon of beats it will be necessary 
to have the mirror m and its attachment so adjusted as to have it 
vibrate in a perpendicular plane like m'. This can be done by fix- 
ing its hinge at right angles and the rest the same as for mirror 
m'. The refiected beam from the second mirror may be received 
upon a large mirror held in the hands and thence reflected upon 
the wall or screen. All the phenomena of vibrations that can be 
shown by forks can be reproduced on a scale that is not approached 
by means of them, by any one possessing a turning table, and at 
less than the fifth of their cost. 



On the Convertibility op Sound into Electbicitt. By A. E. 
DoLBEAB, of Bethany, W. Va. 

I HAVE found by experiment that if a vibrating tuning fork 
have its stem applied to the face of a thermo-electric pile, which 
is in circuit with a delicate galvanometer, the needle will be de- 
flected, showing that electricity has been developed in the pile. 
The question is ast to its immediate origin. It may be asserted 
that the vibrations of the fork are competent to develop heat, 
which, in its turn, is converted into electricity, so that its appear- 
ance is a secondary phenomenon. To this explanation counte- 
nance is given by the experiment of Professor Henry, who found 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSXCS AKD CHEMISTRT. Ill 

that the deadening effect of a rubber cushion, when the stem of a 
vibrating fork was put upon it, was due to the fact that the vibra- 
tions were converted into heat. But the vibrations are not no- 
ticeably deadened in the former case, and the junction of the 
metals is subject to definite and measurable vibrations. 

The antecedent to the production of electricity is the contact, 
either mediate or immediate, of substances, which differ in compo- 
sition or in condition, and if electricity is a mode of motion it 
ought to appear whenever a motion may be set up kt such point 
of contact as mutually to disturb the molecules of the differently 
constituted matter. That the vibrations of the fork are compe- 
tent to do this without necessarily giving rise to the phenomenon 
of heat may fairly be inferred, I think ; so that, a priori j one should 
look for electric phenomena firom such. a combination of favorable 
conditions. At any rate it will hardly be asserted by any one, 
that becatise the electricity is generated in the thermo-pile its im- 
mediate cause must be heat. I do not know that it has ever been 
proved that heat motion was the only kind of motion that was 
capable of direct conversion into electricity in the so-called ther- 
mo-pair. It is probable that the more general statement is true, 
namely, that molecular disturbance at the junction of dissimilar 
metals will give rise to electricity. 

We know that the molecular disturbance called heat will give 
rise to it, and it is not improbable that the disturbance, caused by 
a regularly vibrating tuning fork, may do the same thing directly. 
My experiment does not prove, that such is the case, but it hints 
at it, and I offer these considerations to meet the objections of 
some who take it for granted that it cannot be true that sound 
vibrations are really conveiled into eliectricity, except in an in- 
direct way. This is capable of verification I do not doubt, but 
I have not had time to apply the eoDperimentum cruets^ as the idea 
did not occur to me until a day or two ago, and I bring it to the 
Association as an interesting experiment, whatever its rcuiondle 
maybe. 



112 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

The "Tornadoes" op Illinois. By M, L. Comstock, of Gales- 
burg, 111. 

Tub "tornadoes" which occur in different parts of the United 
States are so remarkable in their sudden rise, and in their de- 
structive effects, as well to deserve the most careful observation 
and study ; not, perhaps, with any well founded hope of averting 
them, but that their occurrence may bo foreseen a few hours, and 
places of safety secured by persons in danger. 

Very severe, if not the most remarkable of their class, are the 
" tornadoes" that visit Illinois. I do not propose to theorize very 
much in this paper, but I shall, in a simple manner, state such facts 
as have fallen under my own observation. My notes will refer to 
two storms which occurred May 3, 1868, and May 22, 1873. 

The first of these visited a village called Shanghai situated 14 
miles northwest of Galesburg. The length of the track in which 
serious damage was done fell short of five miles, with a width of 
half a mile. Shanghai occupied the middle of this line, and the 
centre of the storm passed within the limits of the village. A few 
days after the storm, I visited the locality, and examined care- 
fully a tract of land one and a half miles long and half a mile in . 
width. I found everything levelled to the ground — churches, 
dwellings, fences, trees — though as the place was upon a prairie 
there were no forest trees, except a few transplanted ones of dimin- 
utive size. The course of the storm through the village was N. 
70° E. ; before reaching it, N. 80° E. ; after leaving it, N. 60° E. 

South of the central track, buildings were moved north ; some 
of them N. 20° W., or even N. 25° W., appearing in many cases to 
have been carried perpendicularly to the central line of the storm. 
Trees near this line had been thrown toward the northeast and 
fences had been carried in the same direction. A new board fence 
with green white oak posts stood directly across the line of the tor- 
nado. 'This was left standing, except a few rods near the central 
line. Straw and dirt were blown only against the west side of 
this fence and the rubbish was packed into the angle between the 
post and boards as if driven violently from the southwest. North 
of the central line, buildings were moved south and east of soath. 
The trees of an orchard were thrown down to the south almost 
exactly ; and upon carefully examining the fence before mentioned 
the rubbish was found to be packed in the angles from the north- 
west. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 113 

There was no evidence of a whirl anywhere. It seemed as if 
there had been a travelling point, toward which the air rushed with 
great velocity from various directions, but especially from the 
sides. Objects were thus swept toward the central track, then up- 
wai'd by ascending currents, then forward by the moving body of 
the storm. The disturbance did not extend far from the centre, 
and the rate at which it was propagated did not diifer much from 
the progressive motion of the storm ; hence the disturbance in 
front of the storm was slight until it burst with its full force. 
South of the central track X found nothing blown south of the 
point from which it started, and north of the same line nothing 
north of its starting point. 

Such results would hardly have been possible if there had been 
a whirlwind, especially if the whirl had occupied several rods in 
width ; for the front of the storm would carry objects in one di- 
rection, and the rear in exactl}'^ the opposite direction. Trees' 
partly uprooted would be twisted around and thrown out by the 
roots, aud in some cases certainly must have left signs of these 
different movements. I made this the special object of my search, 
for persons who were in the ''tornado'* had affirmed that there was 
a whirlwind, but I could not find the least evidence of any such 
action. Again, if the whirl had occupied only a point, or a very 
small space upon the surface of the earth, objects along the line 
of its travel would, no doubt, have been twisted, but there was no 
appearance of the kind. True, I found evidence of a change in 
the direction of the wind in some places, and more evidently near 
the central track. One church was moved from its foundation N. 
10'* W., but tlie ruins were carried N. 45° E. This church was 
south of and near the central track. Twenty-five rods farther 
sooth another church was blown down, the sills moving seven feet 
north, and two feet east, while the debris was carried northeast. 
At equal distances north and south of the central track, the lines 
of direction of the wind made equal angles with that track, and 
changed so as to become more nearly parallel with it as the storm 
advanced. 

As to general facts ; the morning of the day had been showery, 
becoming very warm. The latter part of the day was sultry, the 
atmosphere being near the dew-point. The clouds formed and 
moved rapidly. The thunder and lightning were not remarkable 
for this country. 

A. ▲. A. s. VOL. xxn. 8 



114 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

The storm of May 22, 1873, passed through Warren and Fulton 
jounties, twenty miles south of Galesburg. There had been a 
Heavy rain in the morning in this part of the country ; the day 
was sultry ; the atmosphere near the dew-point. But the move- 
ment of the storm was not as rapid as that of 1868, and it was 
much more extensive in its sweep. The exhibition of electricity 
was not remarkable. After striking the surface of the earth, in 
going east six miles it went south half a mile ; then east four 
miles, south three-fourths of a mile ; then east four miles, south 
one-fourth ; then east three, south one ; then east one, south one ; 
it then appeared to rise, passing over a body of' woods and the 
valley of Spoon River, striking the earth again and pursuing the 
same general direction. The cloud accompanying this storm was 
quite extensive (another ^^ tornado" having burst from it near 
Washington, Iowa, seventy-five miles northwest), but its destruc- 
tive effects were apparent upon a strip not more than half a mile 
wide. Every house near the central track was destroyed or nearly 
so. One frame house was unroofed, and ever3rthing movable car- 
ried out of the upper story ; the second floor was sprung upward 
and curtains from below drawn through the openings made between 
the ceiling and side walls. Here there seemed to be a strong up- 
ward current, though the effects named may have been produced 
by a horizontal current across the open top of the house. Apple 
trees a foot in diameter were carried from an adjoining orchard 
three-fourths of a mile. The roof of the house, the barn and 
other buildings were carried north toward the central track, which 
was about ten rods distant. So on the north side of the track, 
buildings and trees were thrown in a southerly direction. Thus 
the general lines of direction were toward the central track ; and 
on the central track, as nearly as I could determine, objects were 
carried in the direction in which the storm travelled. One neigh- 
borhood exhibited singular results. On the north side of the 
central track, just where the storm began to move one mile south 
in three miles east, a dwelling standing on high ground was de- 
molished, the timbers, furniture, etc., being literally broken to 
pieces and carried N. 80° W., while the large trees of an orchard 
standing northwest of the house, and prostrated after it, as shown 
by the relative position of scattered objects, were uniformly thrown 
S. 80"* W. Other buildings not far distant, but all on the north 
side of the central track, were thrown toward the west. This is 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSIC8 AND CHEMISTRT. 115 

the only place at which I could find the least evidence of a whirl- 
wind ; and it may be that this was but the first meeting of the 
storm with a body of cold air flowing from the woods of Spoon 
River, which finally diverted the tornado from its direct course 
and caused it to rise from the surface of the earth. South of the 
central track and opposite this last mentioned dwelling the cur- 
rents of wind seemed to bear the same general relation to the 
central track as was observed commonly. 

I present these, then, as two specimens of Illinois storms, hoping 
that the facts may add somewhat to the data by the aid of which 
some philosopher will yet explain all the secret workings of these 
wonderful phenomena. 



New Theory op Gbtseb-action as illustrated by an Artificial 
Geyser. By Edmund Andrews, of Chicago., 111. 

BuNSEN suggested the following theory of the action of geysers 
which, in default of any better, has been generally adopted, viz : — 

The volcanic rocks of regions where geysers exist must nec- 
essarily contain caverns and passages capacious enough to hold 
and transmit the fluids which they eject at intervals from their ori- 
fices. Now the deep vertical well, from which the jet issues, must 
be subjected to constant heat from the surrounding rocks. The 
water in this pit will boil at a higher temperature in its lower, than 
in its upper portions, because of the greater pressure in the deep 
parts. Now, when the whole column has by the heat of the rocks 
been brought nearly to the boiling point, if a jet or belch of steam 
from some superheated cavern rush into the lower part of the pit, 
and lift the whole column of water a few feet, the upper portion 
will flow off and the whole column be made shorter by the exact 
amount of the uplift. All portions of the column being nearly at 
the boiling point before, they will, on this relief from pressure, break 
into sudden ebullition. The upmsh of so large a volume of steam, 
intimately mingled with the water, would carry up a mass of foam 
and spray, which might for a few moments mount high into the 
air, thus causing an eruption. 



116 A. HATHEUATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEUI3TRT. 

Prof. Tyndall illustrated Bunsen'a idea by the use of a vertical 
iron tube six feet in length and supplied with water. A fire, ap- 
plied around the central portion of this tube, caused it to eject its 
mingled steam and water at regular intervnls. 

This explanation is interesting, and probably the force referred 
to in it acts to some extent in modifying geyser-phenomena, but, 
ttom the description given by eye-witnesses of the eruption of the 
great geysers of the Yellowstone River, the main principle must 
be something diSerent. 

On Bunsen's tlieory the eruption ought not to consist of clear 
water, but of an intimate mixture of steam and water ; in other 
words, of foam and spray. But Maj. Barlow of the Corps of 
Engineers of the U. S. Army, who was sent to examine the gey- 
sere of the Yellowstone, asserts that they throw a great stream of 



FIk.I. Matarsl GefBcr; S, Su]ip[f channel; 11,11, Reslon or lieiiUdrocbB; C,Ov. 
en; O, Outlet; G, Geyser; r, Folatco whlchtbe WRterialfae BiipplycliuiDCllsnirced 
down diirlDg erui>tiOD. 

clear water, which, in some springs, maintains itself steadily withoat 
mixture of foam for nearly half an hoar at each eruption, while the 
steam escapes at the close as if released from a cavity. Further- 
more, on Bunsen's theory the eruption ought to be very brief, for 
the steam formed by the ebullition in the pit would escape in a 
very few moments, and the heat consumed by its formation would 
as speedily reduce Uie remaining. water to a temperature where the 
boiling would cease. 



A. MATHEMATICS, FHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



117 



It would seem that the following explanation would much bet- 
ter account for the phenomena as observed by Maj. Barlow, and I 
find that an artificial apparatus reproduces them with great fidelity. 

As the cooler waters of the surrounding countiy make their way 
into and through the caverns of the region of heated rocks, it 
will sometimes happen that the channel of supply will enter a 
cavern at a point higher than that where the channel of exit leaves 
it. If now this channel of supply has, like many other subterra- 
neous watercourses, some portion -of its course much lower than the 
point of its entry into the cavern, we have all the main conditions 
necessary for a geyser. Let Fig. 1, p. 116, represent these con- 
ditions. 




Fig. 2. Artificial Geyser seen in Section. R, Beseryoir; S, Supply pipe; C, Boiler 
representing cavern ; L, Spirit lump or other supply of heat; O, Discharge pipe. 

Suppose now that the whole of the caveras and passages are ftiU 
of water. The heat of the rocks II, H, in which the cavern is 
situated, aided perhaps by superheated water and steam forced up 
through crevices from deeper volcanic sources, will soon cause the 
water in the cavern C to boil. The pressure of the steam accu- 
mulating in the top of the cavity will resist the further infiux of 
cool water from the supply channel S and perhaps force it back 



118 A. MATHEMATICS, FHTSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

down the channel to a point P where the hydrostatic pressure of 
the column S resists further progress of the stream in that direc- 
tion. Meantime the steam accumulates more and more in the top 
of the cavern and by its rapidly increasing pressure forces out the 
water through the channel of exit O, producing the jet G in the ex- 
ternal air. As long as the level of the water in the cavern is above 
the orifice of exit, the jet will consist only of clear water, but when 
the cavern is emptied down to the level of the outlet pipe, the 
steam escapes with violence and relieves the cavern of its pressure. 
The cool water of the supply channel, no longer meeting any re- 
sistance, rushes in, cools the chamber and fills it, afl/er which 
another eruption will occur as soon as the water is heated to the 
boiling point. 

I have constructed several artificial geysers on this principle and 
find that they are perfectly automatic and produce their eruptions 
with great regularity. Fig. 2 illustrates the plan of their con- 
struction. 

These artificial geysers are very satisfactory in the fact tliat they 
throw a stream of clear water, which, like that of the natural ones, 
is sustained for a considerable period and is followed by a gush of 
steam at the close. It would seem probable therefore that they 
illustrate the mechanism of the great geysers of the Yellowstone 
^ Park better than the form suggested by Bunsen. 



The Arctic Regions ; — The Arctic Basin ; The Arctic Ocean ; 
Its Outlets and Inlets ; Its Currents and the Gulf 
Stream; Fog and Ice-blink; Climate op the ARcnric 
Regions, The Story op Spinks and other Evidence, 
considered with Reference to the Atmospheric Theory 
op an Open Sea and an Ameliorated Climate. By 
William W. Wheildon, of Concord, Mass. 

No portion of the globe is of so much present interest to phys- 
ical geography, and to science generally, as the Arctic Regions ; 
and it is remarkable how continually, from a very early period in 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 119 

the history of navigation and discovery, attention has been di- 
rected to, and an interest maintained in, these remote regions ; 
the most uncongenial in themselves, the most repelling to human 
pursuit and yet so attractive that men of rank and position have 
heen unable to resist the desire of making themselves more "nota- 
ble" by some fortunate discovery or success in them. In no other 
part of the earth has so much hazardous enterprise, indomitable 
perseverance and enduring labor been brought out, prompted and 
inspired as these have been by the prospects of trade, the pursuits 
of science and the promptings of humanity. This is so true that 
at the present time, when science is ardent and earnest in its de- 
sire of arriving at knowledge and truth in regard to these regions, 
there is in the community a seeming unwillingness to encourage 
further exploration and exposure of life in those cold and icy des- 
olations. Every proposition for further effort seems to send a 
chill through the sensitive blood of the civilized world and the 
question is often asked of what use is a further exposure and waste 
of human life in this perilous pursuit.* 

Yet the demands of science on one hand, and that longing curi- 
osity among the unscientific, who have of late ye&Ts read and 
heard so much to excite their attention concerning these occult re- 
gions, on the other, seem to justify each new effort to reach the 
impenetralia of the Arctic circle. So much has been said in this 
behalf by scientific men and others that, in this place at least, no 
word need to be added and no justification of past or present ef- 
forts is required. It is no new thing for scientific men to assume 
great risks when there is an object to be gained, nor yet to permit 
apprehension or fear to defeat a high purpose. All that we know 

*Theactaal loss of Iffe in' the Arctic regions, among explorern, is known to have 
been relatively very sniaJl. the deaths less than in the same number of persons at home. 
Mr. Siromonds says, * Out of ten searching vessels in tliree years, including Americans, 
bat one man died, nor did any casualty occur to the ships or tlieir sledging parties; 
iodeerl not more than twenty deaths in the pi-esent century out of fiAcen hundred men 
employed and not half of the twenty attributed to climate or perils encountered." In 
a perilous voyage of four years, tiic Investigator lost one officer and five men out of a 
frtwof sixty-flve. There were one hundred and thirty-eight officers and men lost in 
the Franlclin expedition— a much smaller number of lives than have been lost in 
some or the disasters on the Atlantic ocean. 

Since the above lines were written. In view of the recent Polaris expedition and its 
reeuU^.a new interest has been excited in the public mind; a feeling of competition 
sceras to have arisen between the United States and England as to which of the two 
peoples shall accomplish the desired object of reaching the central poitions of the 
Arctic ocean. In both countries new expeditions are (suggested and urged upon the 
respective governments. 



120 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

is the reward of labor and more or less of danger. In medicine 
and surgery, in chemistry and engineering, ardent men have put 
their lives in hazard for science or for humanity, and in mining 
and the ordinary navigation of the sea, risks are assumed mainly 
for pecuniar}' benefits which it sometimes seems not easy to justify. 

In the various and continued attempts to explore the interior 
of Africa we see the indomitable spirit and enterprise of man, 
prompted by a worthy ambition to become a discoverer in geogra- 
phy, history or science, sometimes rewarded by a drear and lonely 
grave, hardly less fearful than that which terminated the efforts of 
Sir Jolm Franklin and his brave companions. There is nothing 
that can. be suggested in the way of adventure or exploration, 
which promises a pecuniary reward, that will not find individuals 
ready to undertake it ; and there are those devoted to scientific 
pursuits, as ardently disposed, as daring and it may be as uncom- 
promising in their undertakings. 

The early attempts to reach tlie Arctic regions were made in 
the very infancy of navigation, and have been continued to the 
present time almost without inteiTuption by the difiereiit maritime 
nations, keeping pace with the progress of naval architecture, 
navigation and science ; and it is almost true to say, success has 
been in proportion to the means employed. 

Arctic Basin : — The late Prof. Ilenr}- D. Rogers, in his Phys- 
ical Atlas published in Edinburgh, includes in the Arctic basin 
("equivalent to the Arctic Regions") all those wide circumjacent 
lands which empty their drainage into the great polar sea, and 
describes the region as follows : 

"The Siberian division of this enormous region of converging 
and rotating waters includes the great rivers Obi, Yenessi and 
Lena, and extends southward to latitude oO°, taking in all northern 
Asia from the Urals to the sea of Okhotsk, while the North Amer- 
ican portion embraces the vast basins of the Mackenzie, Sas- 
katchewan and Hudson's Ray, and reaches quite as far southward. 
Viewing Greenland and the countries bordering Behring Strait as 
portions of the Arctic regions, it will be seen to include all the 
lands, excepting northern Europe, which lie between the pole and 
the circle of 50° north latitude. The broad zone of land thus 
bounded and draining into the polar sea has an area of about 
five million square miles. The river systems of the Obi, Yenessi 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 121 

Lena and Kolyma, in Asia, with those of the Mackenzie and 
Saskatchewan, in America, alone cover a surface of more than 
3,200,000 square miles or equal to that of all Europe." 

Another writer speaks of the Arctic basin as including six mil- 
lions of square miles, surrounded by an ice barrier and receiving 
the waters of more than 3,500,000 square miles of land. The 
polar sea, Prof. Rogers says, has an approximately circular line 
coinciding roughly with the parallel of 73° north latitude. This 
would give to tho sea a diameter of more than two thousand miles : 
four hundred miles wider than the Atlantic ocean between New- 
foundland and the coast of Ireland. Capt. Barrow considers the 
polar sea as a circle, on the latitude of 70®, of two thousand four 
hundred geographical miles in diameter and seven thousand two 
hundred miles in circumference ; and regards the talk, at one time 
common, about its being exhausted by southerly currents, as abso- 
lute nonsense : since that time some theorists have poured both 
oceans into the Arctic ocean, without much reason for either. 

The Arctic Ocean. — The gi'eat mystery of the Arctic regions 
is still in the Arctic ocean, the interior of which is yet to be 
reached ; and so long as it remains unknown it will be the sub- 
ject of speculation and assertion, based it may be to some ex- 
tent upon what we know of its approaches and its borders. It is 
taken for granted that it must be peculiar and different from the 
other oceans, and the opinion has heretofore prevailed that it is 
completel}^ frozen over for the whole or at least a portion of the 
year, — which can hardly be the case if subject to a tidal wave, 
even if the winds and storms do not keep it from freezing — to say 
nothing of an ameliorated climate or other external influences. 
But aside from these it seems improbable, as we have heretofore 
shown, that so large a body of water can be frozen over. Lake 
Superior (fresh water) is never wholly frozen over, nor is the well- 
known "north water" of the whalers, in Baffin's Bay ;* and it is 
said by a distinguished astronomer, that " were the ocean covered 
by a substance of moderate thickness, say of ice, the reaction 
of the water, caused by pressure from being drawn up into a tem- 
porary heap by the attraction of the moon passing over it, would 

•Hayes.— "The little sea at the head of Baflfin^s Bay. the north water of the whalers, 
Althongh bat eighty thousand square miles in superficial area, is never entirely frozen 
OTer, even daring tho seyerest weather.'' 



122 A. HATHEMATIGS, FHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

be SO powerful as to break it up into innumerable pieces."* What- 
ever else may be said of the Arctic ocean, it will hardly do here- 
after, to speak of it otherwise than as an open sea. 

This vast ocean is spoken of in the quotation which we have 
given, as "an enormous region of converging and rotating waters," 
terms which are not applied to any other ocean and intended, no 
doubt, by the writer to be descriptive of this according to his in- 
formation on the subject. The region of the polar sea within 
which is included the theoretic axis of the earth, owing to the flat- 
tening of the surface and the slower diurnal motion, is peculiar in 
these respects, and is subject of course to the severity of the cli- 
mate by reason of the absence of the sun. So far as the waters 
of the great rivers which have been mentioned, or waters from 
either of the great oceans, flow into it, they may be said to be 
"converging;" but that its waters are "rotating" in a peculiar 
manner, so as absolutely to form a rotating ocean in itself, irre- 
spective of and independent of the rotation of the earth, seems 
to be an assumption not authorized by anything that we know, and 
in fact essentially opposed to all accepted information on the sub- 
ject. It seems to be supposed that because this ocean surrounds, 
so to speak, or includes the position of the theoretic pole, it must 
therefore revolve around that object^ as it has come to be regarded : 
an American writer recently suggested that Capt. Hall would be 
able "to set his foot upon the pole itself," and Capt. Barrow once 
said that on "his plan a month would enable the explorer to put 
his foot on the point or pivot of the axis on which the globe of the 
earth turns." [Simmonds, p. 105.] Nevertheless it is to be pre- 
sumed that the Arctic ocean has its tides ahd currents, both of 
which have been observed, as other oceans have, and possibly re- 
sembles them in other respects. 

Its Outlets and Inlets : — "This sea," continues Prof. Rogers, 
"has really but two outlets into the general ocean of the globe, 
one of which, Behring Strait, is less than thirty miles wide, and, 
what is of more consequence, is very shallow, having less than 
twenty-flve fathoms of water in its deepest channel. As an open- 
ing, therefore, it is almost null ; so that the polar sea, on this side, 
is virtually land-locked. The other much wider, deeper outlet is 

*Bolp h Falb, editor of 'SiriuB," published at Gratz in Styria. 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 



123 



partially blocked by an immense belt of cliff-lined islands, from 
Iceland to the Parry Group, the largest being Greenland." 

The Professor, proceeding with the subject of " Configuration," 
adds : — 

"The sole practicable inlet to the polar sea is the wide channel 
between Spitzbergen or Iceland and the northwest coast of Europe. 
This is the broad highway for the northeast branch of the Gulf 
Stream." 

Behring Strait Prof. Rogers first includes as one of the "really 
bnt two outlets," then rejects it as an " opening almost null," and 
finally in the same paper speaks of it as the inlet of " a sort of 
second gulf stream • ♦ • prolonged from the Japanese current," 
and assisting in the rotating process already considered.* 

"Thus enforced," Prof. Rogers continues, "it [the Gulf Stream] 
washes the Arctic coast of America, where it preserves a lane of 
open water between the ice-pack and the shore, the greater part of 
the way from this inlet [Behring Strait] to the Parry Islands ; 
there it streams through the great channels of this archipelago and 
clogs them with its vast drift of ice, until it finally works its way 
oat into the Atlantic through Baffin's Bay and northward round 
Greenland, chilling as it flows southwestward all the northern part 
of America with ice-cold and ice-laden waters." 

We do not know that the whole or any part of this statement, 
excepting for the favor it may receive from the public, demands 
any consideration beyond what we have given it upon the general 
subject of the Gulf Stream. By it an enormous work is put upon 
the assumed northeast prolongation of that stream, pouring its 
heated waters around Nova Zembla, sweeping around the Arctic 
ocean, "softening the boreal climates of Norway and Siberia," 
and with the aid of the Japanese current making its way into 
Baflftn's Bay, etc., all of which needs confirmation. To say the 
very least of it that can be said, there is no satisfactory Evidence 
of the prolongation of the Gulf Stream around Nova Zembla ; 
none of its ameliorating the climates of Norway or Siberia ; none 
that it is enforced by the Behring Strait current ; and in fact 
no evidence whatever that any portion of its waters, in this direo- 

*Pror. Davidson, of the U. S. Coast Survey, does not think much of the Japanese 
ctnrent for clearing a way to the pole, Behring Strait being only twenty-five miles 
^de, with an average depth of only twenty-flve fhthoms, and the rate of the cnrrent 
flowing through it being from a half to three knots per hoar. [Amer. £d. Monthly* 
^ebmary, 1873.] 



124 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

tion or any other, reaches the Arctic ocean. And if this last, 
which has been so frequently asserted and still repeated, could be 
shown, there are no reasonable grounds of belief that its waters 
would retain force enough and heat enough for the purposes re- 
quired. As to the velocity of the current or drift there is but little 
evidence of any kind : what there is gives it a trifle over three miles 
per hour, at a point more than fifteen hundred miles from the pole. 
As to the heat of the water, Lieut. Maury's statement is that " a 
cubic foot of water which leaves the Straits of Florida at a tem- 
perature of 85®, on arriving at the frozen regions through the Gulf 
Stream, does no longer measure a cubic foot. It will have wasted 
away [ ?] by the way of contraction caused by a change in the 
temperature of some fifty or sixty degrees." So that the Gulf 
Stream water reduced to 25' (below the freezing point of salt 
water) would hardly answer Capt. Bent's purposes of assaulting 
the ice-girdle if it could reach it, whatever it might do for the other 
parties. 

Besides all this the parties who advocate the Gulf Stream theoiy 
do not agree upon any plan ; one or two of them pour the heated 
waters around Nova Zembla, without showing how they reach the 
enclosed polar sea ; one or two of them sink the warm waters in 
the Spitzbergen sea and pass the current under the ice-barrier, and 
another party, represented by Capt. Bent, uses the heated waters 
to assault the ice-belt and open a gatewa}'' for themselves.* It is 
in vain, we presume, to expect these authorities to agree upon any 
theory as to the prolongation of the Gulf Stream ; nor do any of 
them show that there is any necessitj'^ for the waters of the Gulf 
Stream in the Arctic ocean or for such a use of them. So far as 
yet appears, the Spitzbergen sea, from Nova Zembla to Greenland, 
is an outlet of the Arctic ocean and not an inlet as Prof. Rogers 
states. Failing in this particular, the whole theory, so fully set 
forth by him, fails also ; and it remains only to be said, respecting 

*Since this writing ono of the leading newspapers of this country which has always 
fbyorcd the Gulf Stream theory, in one of its forms, published the following para- 
graph in its editorial columns : 

" So far no researches have explained the absence of the Gulf Stream influence in the 
Bcene of Mr. Leigh Smith's recent voyage [in the neighborhood of Spitzbergen], and 
U U hard to explmn it. The body of warm water drifted [ ?] into the polar basin by 
this Atlantic current mast be many times as large as the Bchring Strait current. What 
becomes of the former? Is it lost in the mid Arctic ocean, or is it diverted, as Dr. 
Fetermann and others contend, over toward the Siberian seas ?" [N. Y. Herald edlto> 
rial| Oct. 20, 1873 1 . The error is in the postulate which is assumed. 



A. MATHEUATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 125 

oatlets and inlets of the Arctic ocean, that all of them are meas- 
arably if not entirely outlets ; and are absolutely required as such 
by the conditions of the ocean, its rivers, its rainfall and its vast 
water-sheds. 

Its Currents : — It will be observed that upon the statement of 
Prof. Rogers the general movement of the waters of the Arctic 
ocean is to the eastward. It seems to us that the whole amount of 
evidence is against this statement. Dr. Kane has very truly said 
that '* currents in the ice-flows is a complicated problem." One 
writer and advocate of the Gulf Stream under-current theory, in 
speaking of Scoresby*s discovery of warm water below the surface, 
says, '• Be this as it may, the current of the Siberian coast is west- 
ward and a continuation of this flow is formed in the great polar 
drift of tJie Greenland and Spitzbergen seas" 

The polar current, always running westerly and southerly, is 
well known to all navigators of the north Atlantic and Spitzber- 
gen seas, if not to those of Baffin's Bay, and is variously described 
as follows : — 

"The polar current coming down through the Spitzbergen sea, 
along the eastern coast of Greenland, laden with its heavy freight 
of ice, and bringing from the rivers of Siberia a meagre supply of 
drift wood to the Greenlanders, sweeps around Cape Farewell and 
flows northward as far as Cape York, where it is deflected to the 
westward," and joins the current from Smith's Strait. [A little 
assumption, in this case, similar to that of Prof. Rogers, would 
authorize a statenaent directly opposite to his, viz : that the Arctic 
ocean is a "converging and rotating sea," flowing to the westward^ 
from Behring Strait along the coast of Siberia, across the Spitz* 
bergen sea, and around the southern, or it may be northern coast 
of Greenland. There is, we believe, as much authority for this 
statement as there is for that of which we have spoken.] 

Another writer says, "The north polar current, after passing 
around the north cape of Europe, crosses the upper part of the 
Atlantic, running to the southwest till it reaches the coast of Green- 
land." Capt. Buchan, in 1818, oflT the north coast of Spitzbergen, 
was drifted to the westward. In the following month, July, while 
secared to a field of " ice, we had the mortitication of finding our- 
selves drifting fast to the southward." [Beechey, pages 83 to 109.] 
Another explorer suggests that as the current through Behring 



126 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

Strait runs to the north, and that between Spitzbergen and Green- 
land to the south, it may be that the former current extends across 
the pole ; and this suggestion is at least partially sustained by 
Capt. Parry's experience. In speaking of the current which drifted 
Capt. Parry down towards Spitzbergen from latitude 82° 45', 
Capt. Beechey says, " What may be the cause of this current can, 
at the best, be but conjecture ; and we must at present remain sat- 
isfied with the knowledge of the simple fact." This drift was only 
about four miles a day, while Capt. Ross (according to Lt. 
Mauiy) reports the current through Behring Strait at from sev- 
enty to one hundred miles per day. 

There can be no doubt, we apprehend, about the direction of this 
well known polar current, from the Siberian coast or Nova Zembla, 
across the Spitzbergen sea towards Spitsbergen and Greenland, 
which, it will be seen, must absolutely cross the dssumed prolongation 
of the Ghilf Stream ! The latest intelligence from this region is 
that furnished by Dr. Peter mann of Got ha, who has given special 
attention to the Spitzbergen sea and regards this as the proper 
region of approach to the pole. • In one of his recent circulars, he 
reports the progress of the Norwegian and Austrian expeditions, 
(October, 1872), and says: — 

" Capt. Nils Johnson sailed on May 8, in the sailing yacht Lyd- 
iona, of twenty-six tons burden, with a crew of ninety men, from 
Fromscoe, Norway. He directed his course in June towards the 
western half of the open sea, and, in the second half of this month 
(June), when the Austrian exploring steamship TegcthoflT had just 
left the German coast, was already some fifty miles east-southeast 
of the island of east Spitzbergen, in the middle of the usual posi- 
tion of the polar stream, which generally carries an enormous mass 
of ice towards Spitzbergen and the Bear Islands. In July and 
August of this summer [1872] the ice current held a more easterly 
course, toward Nova Zembla, and left the western half of the sea 
free from ice, as the reports already received from Capt. Altmann 
[of Hammerfest] at the end of August had announced." 

Capt. Johnson visited those almost unknown islands lying east 
of Spitzbergen^ in latitude 76° to 78°, supposed to be what has 
heretofore been known as Wiche Land, and the most important 
discovery which he made there was the immense quantities of drift 
wood, sometimes piled twenty feet above the highest tidal mark 
along the eastern coast, from the Siberian rivers, brought down by 



A. ICATHEMATICS, FHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 127 

the polar current from the northeast, of course directly across the 
Spitzbergen sea. 

In view of what has been said, it may be considered as certain 
that the waters of the Arctic ocean do not rotate around the pole 
eastwardly, as Prof. Rogers asserts, and that the direction of the 
polar current is westward and southwestward. The currents of 
Smith's Strait, Lancaster Sound and Baffin's Bay are all outward 
into the Atlantic ocean, and it only remains to speak of the 
current through Behring Strait. The reports regarding the 
movement of the waters in these straits are various and contra- 
dictory. Most of the navigators and writers declare that the 
current runs through the straits into the Arctic ocean, and others 
assert that the water runs out of that sea into the Pacific ocean. 
We have been told that it runs in on one shore and out on the 
other, but Kotzebue, who thought ^^as a constant current descends 
into Hudson's Bay on the eastern side of the continent, an equal 
flow of water must enter Behring Strait from the Pacific on the 
western side," says " the current from the south was equally strong 
on both sides of the channel." 

The statement of Capt. Kerhallet* is quite different from the 
foregoing, and is as follows : — 

"The current of the coast of Kamtschatka is a branch of the 
Japan current running toward the northeast and the north-north- 
east along the coast of Asia as far as Behring Strait. 

" It separates from the Japan current on the meridian of 152° 
east longitude and on the parallel of 38° north latitude. Its eastern 
limit passes to the west of the Aleutian Islands, of St. Matthew's 
Island, and of St. Lawrence Island. There it passes through 
Behring Strait and spreads over the northern ocean, running 
northwest on the coast of Asia, northeast on the coast of America, 
and north in the middle of the strait. 

"Behring's current appears to be formed by the excess of waters 
carried to the strait of this name by the current of Kamtschatka, 
which do not find a sufiScient discharge through this strait. It per- 
haps owes its origin to some entirely different cause ; but we have 
not observations enough to show whether this current is cold or 
warm. 

Behring's current descends from the strait of this name gen- 



ii 



*"Gdneral Exploration of tho Pacific Ocean," by Capt. Cliarles Pliillipe EerhaUet, 
trmnsbited by Commander Chas. Henry Dayia, U.S.N. Blunt, N. Y., 1861. 



128 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

erally in a soath-south west direction. As it goes south it spreads 
considerably in such a manner that at its most southern part it 
runs through the whole chain of the Aleutian Islands, and is very 
strong in the channels termed by the islands." 

The temperature of the two currents here described, so far as 
reported, ranges from 4 7° to 52°. The velocity of the Kamtschatka 
current is given at seven to ten miles north per day, and that of 
tiie Behring*s current at five to nineteen miles south per day. 

There is nothing in these authoritative statements that can be 
construed in favor of a rotating ocean, or afford an}^ aid to the Gulf 
SStreadi theory. If any further evidence is needed on the first 
point, reference may be had to the surveys of Commodore (now 
Rear Admiral) Rogers, in 1855. These show that on the westerly 
side of Behring Strait, the current is almost invariably to the 
westward, and its force is stated at from one-half knot to one knot 
per hour. As regards the prolongation of the Gulf Stream, we sup- 
pose it will hardly be contended that it crosses the polar current ; 
and it seems to us that this matter is effectually disposed of. 

Fog or Ice-blink : — One of the most frequent and prevailing 
phenomena of the Arctic regions, reported by all explorers, is 
the fogs or ice-blink, which are as common over the surface of the 
sea as are clouds in the sky, and are the evidence of water and air 
of different temperatures. Ice- blink has been supposed by navi- 
gators as always to indicate the presence of open water and this 
no doubt is generally the case at all points reached by them. Capt. 
Beechey, in his experience in 1818, gives a very striking account of 
ice-blink, as he calls it, off the northwest coast of Spitzbergen, 
where there is often to be fuund considerable spaces of open water 
in the drifting ice-fields. A storm was raging at sea, but it did 
not reach his position and it was perfectly calm where his ships 
were lying. He says : — 

'' Over the ice the sky was perfectly cloudless, whilst the sea was 
overcast with storm clouds, which passed along until the line of 
the packed ice was reached. Here at the line of demarcation of 
the two atmospheres it was curious to mark the rapid motion of the 
clouds to the right and left, and how immediately they became con- 
densed or were dispersed on arriving at it. The contrast between 
the two atmospheres is sometimes called ice-blink." [Beechey, 
p. 86.] 



A« ICATHEKATlCSy PHT8IC8 AND CHBHISTBT. 129 

Dr. Kane's experience of ice-bUnk in Wellington Channel, Octo- 
ber, 1850, is also peculiar : 

'^ The brig and the ice. around her are covered by a strange black 
obacnrity, not a mist nor a haze, but a peculiar waving, palpable, 
unnatural darkness ; it is the frost-smoke of Arctic winters. Its 
range is very low : climbing to tiie yard arm, some thirty feet above 
deck, I looked over a great horizon of black smoke and above we 
saw the heavens without a blemish/'* [Kane's first voyage, p. 
220.] 

Capt. McQintock, February 2, 1859, records ^^ a lovely, calm, 
bright day, except over the water space in Belloit Strait, where 
'rests a densely black mist, very strongly resembling the West 
India rain squall as it looms upon the distant horizon." p. 20. 
Belloit Strait is in about lat. 72^, north of Boothia Felix, and 
wholly beyond the reach of the Gulf Stream. In similar cases 
the record is, almost constant fog excepting in very boisterous 
weather and heavy gales. 

In speaking of the fogs, Capt. Hall found all his experience in 
the Arctic Regions or elsewhere at fault. He says — 

** Before coming to the north, I thought I was prepared to give 
a fair statement of the true theory of fogs. I am satisfied that 
no man can give a satisfactory reason for the appearance and the 
sudden disappearance, their reappearance and final dispersion, as 
I have witnessed them during the last few days." [Hall's Arctic 
Expedition. Harper's edition, 1865.] 

Capt. Hall's difficulty is only what others have experienced 
before him ; it is the same as that which compelled Dr. Hayes to 
declare that '* facts made mischief with his theories," dnd required 
Mr. Schott to account for the warm* winds experieneed by Dr. 
Kane by declaring that they '* must have originated or blown over 
a water area partially open [?] of the temperature of 29^." The 
fogs, as Capt. Hall saw them, and as other explorers have seen 
them '^ throughout the year ;" the thawing and tropic showers of 
Dr. Hayes, and the warm winds of Dr. Kane and others, are 

• Something like this oocnrred In Boston harbor in Jan., 1806, and la described as 
foUows:— 

** The vapor is rising in donds ftom the snrfoee of the water in the harbor, and hides 
tnm, sight the islands, and the shipping riding at anchor in the stream. The atmos- 
plieric mirage at early dawn was wonderful. The ice is forming rapidly in the 
harbor." [Boston, Jan. 8, 1866.] 

Probably the same thing has often ooonrxed at Boston. Ice smoke has been tt^ 
qnently obserred by the writer on Charles riyer, driyen oyer the surfhce of the ice 
with the wind. 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XJJL 9 



180 A* MATHEMATICS, PHT8IC8 Ain> CHEMI8TBT. 

certainly not to be explained on the theory of the Gulf Stream 
waters. Of coarse no *' area of water partially open" can origi- 
nate a wind which will make the '' upper deck sloppy '' and raise 
the temperature of the lower deck to 75^, as in the case of Capt. 
McClintock. The Gulf Stream itself removed bodily, so to speak, 
into the Arctic regions, could not produce such a temperature 
under the circumstances stated. The whole Arctic basin, if it 
were true that its waters are " never chilled to within several de- 
grees of the freezing point" (29^), as asserted by an explorer while 
standing upon the icy border of the supposed open sea, *^ old ice" 
at that, could not produce such an atmosphere. In the tropical 
aerial currents only, it would seem, is to be found an adequate 
cause for these phenomena, and although the natural warmth of 
the sea and the low temperature of the atmosphere, may often 
produce ice-blink over considerable spaces, no such openings as 
reported can originate a wiarm wind or account for other known 
phenomena. Fogs and clouds are produced by atmospheres of 
different conditions, as regards temperature and humidity,* and 
the surplus humidity in the mass falls in the form of rain or snow. 
A tropical current, moving in the higher regions of the air toward 
the poles of the earth, as described by various writers, following 
approximately the lines of longitude, provides these atmospheres 
with heat and moisture, and answers all the conditions required, 
and makes possible, in fact inevitable, the remarkable phenomena 
of the Arctic regions. Nothing less than this, it seems to us, 
is adequate to account for these phenomena, so common and so 
constant " throughout the year." 

We may add to what has been said, in confirmation of the views 
expressed, the experience of Dr. Hayes, in the North Fiord of 
Disco, lat. 70"", in August, 1860 : 

*' In all my former experience in this region of startling novel- 
ties, I had never seen anything to equal what I witnessed that 
night. The air was warm, almost as a summer's night at home, 
and yet there were the icebergs and the bleak mountains. * ♦ • 
The sky was bright and soft and strangely inspiring, as the skies of 
Italy. The bergs had wholly lost their chilly aspect," etc. p. 25. 

"I awoke after a few hours, shivering with the cold. The ball's 

• « The conditions nnd«r wliich Uie yapor of water becomes risible depend npon 
the temperature and the degree of saturation.'' [Flammarion, p. 417.] 

** Fogs are clouds which float on the surface of the earth; and clouds are fog* in 
the higher regions of the atmosphere.'' [Dick., Atmos., p. 47.3 



A. HATHEHATICS, PHT8ICS AND CHEMISTBT. 181 

eye above my head was open, and a chilly fog was ponring in upon 
me. Harrying on deck, I found the whole scene changed. A 
dense gray mist had settled aver the waJtere and icebergs and moun- 
tains, blending them all in chaotic gloom.*' p. 26. 

CuMATB OF THE Abctio Reoions : — The evidence of a modified 
climate and that in favor of an open polar sea — ^like the other 
oceans of the globe — at the present time appear to be conclusive ; 
and these two points admitted, our preconceived notions of the 
general climate of the unknown region are at fault and no longer 
to be accepted. One of the earliest and strongest suggestions in 
this matter is that which resulted from the expedition of Sir 
Edward Parry in 1827, when he found himself surprised by the 
growing weakness of the ice, and annoyed by the frequent rains 
and the repeated changes firom snow to rain which occurred during 
his sledge excursion. It may be said if this remarkable attempt 
to reach the region of the pole by sledges proved anything besides 
that of a drift to the south, it proved a modification of the climate 
as he progressed, and an ameliorated state of the atmosphere 
beyond the point reached. The weather and the temperature 
which he met and found, had they prevailed farther south, would 
have made an impression upon the great ice barrier ; and it now 
seems have done so in subsequent years. But even prior to Capt. 
Parry's experience, the circumstance reported by Capt. Beechey, 
in 1818, of enveloping a vessel, sails and rigging, in ice during a 
snow storm off the north coast of Spitzbergen which changed to 
rain, was thought to be very suggestive, inasmuch as the air above 
must have been very much warmer than the air at the surface of 
the sea. Morton says, '* After travelling due north over a solid 
area choked with bergs and frozen fields [just as Capt, Parry had 
done], I was startled by the growing weakness of the ice: its 
surface became rotten and the snow wet and pulpy." As he con- 
tinued his journey ^^land ice and snow ceased altogether." Dr. 
Hayes had the same experience. 

Capt. Parry found ponds of fresh water on the ice in lat. 82^ 17' 
W which had been there a long time. Capt. Inglefield, in 1852, 
reached lat 78^ 28' 21", in Smith's Sound and found an open sea. 
From appearances he inferred that he had reached a more genial 
climate than at BaflSn's Bay. Instead of eternal snows which he 
had left behind him the rocks appeared in their natural color. In 



132 A. MATHIMATICS, PHTfllCS AND CHXXI8TBT. 

Parry's voyage, having passed the winter at Winter Island, in 
1822-d, he says, *' Now we know that a winter in the ice jnay be 
passed not only in safety but in health and comfort/' Capt. Hail 
in his last despatch to the Secretary of the Navy, Oct., 1871, lat 
82"* 8', long, ei"* 10' west, in Kennedy channel, says '' We find this 
a much warmer coontry than we expected. From Cape Alexander 
the moantains on either side of the Kennedy channel and Robeson 
Strait were found entirely bare of snow and ice, with the excep- 
tion of a glacier that we saw commencing in about lat. 80^ W 
north, on the east side of the Strait, and extending in an east- 
northeast direction as far as can be seen from the mountains by 
Polaris Bay. We have found that the country abounds with live 
seals, game, geese, ducks, musk oxen, rabbits, wolves, foxes, bears, 
partridges, lemmings," etc. Capt. Tyson, in the same vessel, de- 
scribes the climate as being ^* distinctly milder than it is several 
degrees flEurther south," and gives other evidences of an ameliorated 
climate. The shore was free from snow and covered with herbage. 
Musk-oxen live in this region through the winter. • ^< After passing 
the ice-'barrier, which extends from the 70th to the 80th degree," re- 
ports a correspondent of the "London Times" of the Polaris 
voyage, " the climate became sensibly modified. Drift-wood from 
the northward was picked up, much decayed. Besides musk-oxen, 
rabbits and lemmings were abundant ; one or two bears were seen, 
numerous birds from the south in summer, and wild flowers were 
brilliant." There was a marked difilsrence between the two 
shores, the eastern being more favored in climate and vegetation 
as is the case throughout the Arctic regions. 

There are many well established facts which appear to autho- 
rize the conclusion that there is beyond the well known ice-barrier, 
which encircles the polar sea, a region possessing a climate less 
severe than that directly south of it. The idea that the farther 
north we penetrate, and the nearer we approach the pole, the colder 
it becomes, natural enough in itself, is not true in point of fact. 
The poles of cold are within the range of the ice-belt, and they 
indicate the prevailing temperature of the region at the surface. 
Among the evidences of an ameliorated climate are those which 
relate to animal life in the highest points reached, not in the 
summer months alone but especially in the winter months. The 
accounts of the migration of birds to the north from various points 
are numerous and undisputed, and make certain the presence of 



A. - MATHBMATICSy PHT8IC8 A3XJ> OHUOSTBT. 188 

open waters of considerable extent. The appearance of animals 
in Greenland, Jan Mayen and Spitzbergen, in the winter months 
and early in the spring, famishes irrefragable evidence that they 
remain in the higher parts of those countries during the year and 
live upon the products of the soil. In the attempts made to es- 
tablish settlements at Jan Mayen in lat. 71^, bears appeared during 
the winter and were killed in February and March. 

On the 10th of November the bears, *^ as appears to be their 
custom," says the record, became extremely numerous : the gulls 
did not quit the island during the winter, but had their nests in 
the mountains, to which they returned in the night '' The winter, 
tiiough checkered with thaws and rains even in the coldest months, 
was occasionally very severe ; and there was suck an abundance 
of snow that it was often up to their arm pits, and sometimes 
wholly prevented their moving out of their house." [Beechey, p. 
175.] 

Capt. McClintock says ^'Peterson tells me that the Esquimaux 
of Upemavik are unable to account for the occasional disappear- 
ance and reappearance of immense herds of deer, except by assum- 
ing that they emigrate at intervals to feeding grounds beyond the 
glacier." Capt. Phipps, in July, 1778, speaking of the Seven 
Islands on the north coast of Spitzbergen, says the valleys were 
filled with snow, while reindeer were feeding on moss and scurvy- 
grass in the middle of the island, and birds were abundant. 
Capt. McClure, in his celebrated passage on the ice around the 
North American continent, says, ^' the hares and ptarmigan de- 
scended from the high ground to the sea ridges, so that a supply of 
game was kept up during the winter," by which fresh meats were 
had twice a week, besides the Christmas festival. 

The mountains of Spitzbergen are reported to be bare or com- 
paratively bare of snow. Capt. Beechey first speaks of them, on 
approaching the island, when '< the dark pointed summits of the 
mountains, which characterize the island, rose majestically a^)<>ve 
beds of snow" Some of the mountains^ he says, ''have smooth 
rounded surfaces; upon several of which the snow remains 
throughout the year." Vegetation is '' found to a considerable 
height, so that we have frequently seen the reindeer browsing at 
an elevation of 1500 feet. This elevation, it will occur to many 
of my readers, must be above the region of perpetual snow," which 
De la Beche (Geology, p. 24) places at 450 feet. Again Capt. 



134 A. MATHEMATICS, PHT8ICS AKD CHEMI8TBT. 

Beechey says '* we find mountains divested of their snowy oorer- 
ing at elevations far above the line at which perpetual frost may 
otherwise be presumed to exist; ♦ * ♦ * extensive tracts are 
sometimes seen perfectly bare at the height of 3000 feet.** Morton 
also reported Mount Parry bare of snow, and it is almost certain 
that the mountains of Greenland, in the interior, are comparatiTely 
free of snow and the resort of immense herds of reindeer during 
the winter. The islands around Spitzbergen are reported to be 
high and precipitous, but covered with lichens and other rich pas- 
turage for reindeer. 

The Stobt of Spinks : — One of the most fearfUl and ullimatdy 
ludicrous incidents to a single individual in the Arctic regions 
happened to one of Capt. Buchan's sailors at Spitzbergen. It 
appears that Spinks had obtained permission, with a number of 
other seamen, to hunt deer upon the mountains near the coast, 
where they were feeding. Late in the afternoon a signal was 
made from the ship for all hands to return on board. Spinks was 
determined to be at the landing a little ahead of his companions, 
as was his custom on all occasions ; and his promptitude and reli- 
ability made him a general favorite with his officers. Spinks 
started to go down the mountain, a slow and difficult process in 
the usual manner, and soon came to the upper edge of the snow. 
He here seated himself and prepared to slide down over the frozen 
surface, holding on by the heels of his boots, by which means he 
expected to check his speed in making the descent. But he soon 
found the crust too thick and firm for his boots to penetrate, and 
lost all control of his progress, going down the slope of two 
thousand feet with increasing velocity, and making the fine snow 
fly so as completely to envelop himself as in a cloud. In this 
condition he was seen from the ship and by the men on the 
beach, flying down the mountain with the speed of the wind, di- 
rectly towards the perpendicular face of a glacier, two or three 
hundred feet high, fronting on the sea. To those who witnessed 
his descent his fate seemed inevitable; but by some means, 
unknown to any of the observers, his direction became slightly 
changed, and the fearfhl precipice of the glacier was escaped. 
He dashed over the brink of the mountain and was instantly 
buried many feet under the snow. As soon as possible he was 
dug out by his comrades, and when placed upon his feet started 



A. MATHEMATICS, FHT8I08 AND CHBMI8TRT. 135 

on a run for the beach, having, aa Sir Edward Beechey soberly 
declares, ^'wom through two pairs of trousers and something 
more,'' in his fearftil descent. It may be iiiteresting to know that 
after his return to England, Spinks was promoted to the office of 
gunner in His Mi^esty's service, and died some years later at 
Gibraltar — ^where he was buried with special honors by his officers 
and shipmates— -one of the few sailors in the English navy whose 
name ever meets the public eye in print, much less finds a record 
on the pages of history. 

Rainfall: — ^There can be no doubt that frequent rains, like 
those already mentioned, fall upon the mountains, and probably 
throughout the vast water-shed, during the whole year ; and that 
these in the valleys, as well as on the mountains, do more than the 
presence of the sun in dissolving the snow. It is equally certain 
that the melting processes throughout the Arctic regions, and more 
especially in their most northerly sections and mountainous 
countries, are not limited to what is called the summer season, or 
daring the presence of the sun. In the summer the* process is 
doubtless going on, partially at least, as described by Gapt. 
Beechey, while in Magdalena Bay, Spitzbergen, in 1818 : 

^' There is the most marked difference between the sides of the 
Bay, both in point of climate and general appearance : for while, 
on the oney perpetual frost is converting into ice the streams of 
water occasioned by the thawing snow upon the upper parts of the 
mountains which are exposed to the sun's rays, the other side is 
relieving itself of its superficial winter crust and refreshing a vig- 
orous vegetation with its moisture." p. 48. 

This process is very much aided, and likewise carried on in the 
absence of the sun and wherever the sun's influence may not reach, 
by the abundant rains. Scoresby mentions the fact that it rains 
nearly every month in the year. Hall mentions rain in Frobisher 
Bay, Dec. 22, 1860. Dr. Hartwig reports rain in Spitzbei^en in 
January, and there are numerous similar statements.* In speak- 
ing of the melting ice, Prof. Tyndall says — 

'*Ice requires a great deal of heat before it melts. A layer of 
ice often becomes a protection against the cold. * * • • The 

* In the Antarctic regions, Cordova, In 1774, says the eummer months are seldom clear; 
no daj passed withont some rain falling and the most nsnal state of the weather was 
that of constant rain. 



186 A. UATHEUATICS, FHT8ICS ARD 0HXMI8TBT. 

Blowness with which ice melts is well known. During the winter 
of 1740, the Czar built, at St. Petersburg, a magnificent palace of 
ice, which lasted several years. Since then cannons have been 
made of ice, and have been loaded with balls and fired. They 
were fired ten times without bursting. It is, consequently, indis- 
putable that ice melts slowly and may be turned to good account 
in the polar regions. In Siberia the window panes are made of 
ice." It has already been remarked that rain had a greater effect 
upon the ice than the presence of the sun, a statement which will 
not be controverted. 

Wash Wikds, etc. : — ^The climate of the Arctic regions, so £v 
as our knowledge extends, is one of great variableness in respect 
of temperature, winds, storms and calms.* Beyond the ice- 
barrier, however, there is reason to believe it is one of more equa- 
nimity, resembling perhaps in this respect the temperate zone; 
but of course still subject to sudden changes. One of the strong* 
est evidences of a warmer climate beyond the ice-barrier, if not 
in fact conclusive, is the warm winds which are reported all around 
the Arctic circle as blowing from the true north ; which are in 
fact, what may be called the extension of the warmer northern cli- 
mate to the south, sometimes it would seem to a very annoying ex- 
tent. 

Of course the southern limit of this modified climate cannot be 
defined. It may be different in different directions as well as at 
different times. The reported observations of Mr. Scoresby, Jr., 
are illustrative, although we do not regard them as authorizing the 
conclusion which he reached. From the observations of many 
years he found the temperature in latitude 78^ as follows: May, 
June and July, average, 22^,81^ and 87^ respectively ; and for the 
whole year, 17°. He inferred from these that the average temper- 
ature at the pole must be 10^ and therefore that such a thing as an 
open oircumpolar sea was ^^ chimerical." Since the time of Mr. 
Scoresby (1808 to 1818), we have gained more information and 
reached very different conclusions in regard to the temperature of 
the Arctic r^ons beyond the 78th parallel. From 1820 to 1873, 
we have been in the receipt of evidence, year by year, of a modified 
climate in the neighborhood of the pole, shown by almost every 

^ Sir Edwiird Belcher sajs : — 

'* Climate and winds dlfllBr here so widely within a space of ten miles, that it la quite 
impossible to calculate on the weather they may experience.'' p. 246, yol. L 



A. KATHSHATI08, FHT6IC8 AND CHBKISTRT« 137 

Bpedes of^testimony connected with physics, meteorology and nat- 
ural history. This climate no doabt told upon his statistics, which 
indicate a remarkable eqaanimity daring the whole year, the aver- 
age of the year differing from that of the warmest month only 
twenty degrees. Of this region, it may be said, and has been said 
of Siberia, ^* as nnder the tropics there are only spring and sum- 
mer, so in the north th^re are only summer and winter." 

We annex some farther evidence upon this subject and the con- 
clusion of the whole matter seems to be inevitable that there is an 
open sea in the region of the theoretic pole and that it is approach- 
able and can be reached ; and the argument goes far to confirm 
lAe r^[>orU of the Dutch navigators that they have several times 
reached and sailed around the positian of tJie pole^ in latitude 88^ 
and 89''. 

EviBENCB OF AN AxELiORATEB Clukate : — August 18, 1821. 
^^Nothing could exceed the fineness of the weather about this time ; 
the climate was indeed altogether so different fh>m that to which 
we had before been accustomed in the icy seas, as to be a matter 
of instant remark.'' [Parry's 2nd voyage, p. 203.] *'The days 
were temperate and clear and the nights not cold," though thin 
ice formed in sheltered places. 

Oct. 24. ^^ The wind veering to the S. E. on 24th and 25th, the 
thermometer gradually rose to -|-23^. I may possibly incur the 
charge of affectation in stating that this temperature was much too 
high to be agreeable to us ; but it is, nevertheless, the fact that 
everybody felt and complained of the change." ''From -40^ up 
to zero is welcome, but from zero to 32^ is rather an inconvenience." 
[Parry, p. 239.] 

Oct. 10 to 21, 1850. A rise of temperature from -2^ to +20'' 
with wind northeast. This sudden change was for from pleasant 
to the crew and the old hands warned the novices against ''being 
fools enough to pull off their clothes on account of such a bit of 
sunshine, for perhaps in an hour's time zero would be about again.'' 
[McCIure in Sargent, p. 363.] 

"The sky of Baffin's Bay, though but 800 miles from the polar 
limit of all northness, is as warm as the bay of Naples after a 
June rain. What artist, then, could give this mysterious union of 
warm atmosphere and cold landscape?" [Kane i, p. 149.] 

1853. Dec. "Our anticipations of decrease of temperature 



188 A. HATHB1CA.TIC8, PHYSICS AKD CHEXI6TBT. 

were in this instance groundless, as with the increase of wind it 
rose rapidly to + 25*', Aloft it evidently blew a heavy gale, of 
which we were merely entertained with the whistling and rattling 
of onr loose gear atop." [Belcher, " Last of the Arctic Voyages," 

p. 85.] 

"At Bear Island, beyond Icy Cape, in latitude 74** 80', great 
mildness of climate was experiended by some seamen who passed 
the winter of 1828-4, in this locality ; they encountered no severe 
cold nor saw either packed or floating ice." [Ann. 8c. Dis. 1853, 

p. 898.] 

Capt. Richard Wells, of steamship Arctic of Dundee, in a letter 
to Mr. GrinneU, 1867, says he continued to the ''north until he 
opened out Smith Sound, Humboldt glacier being in sight through 
the glass from the mast-head." There was no indication of ice to 
the northward ; sky blue and watery and only a few small streams 
of light ice to be seen ; then in about 79** as he judged. He adds, 
" I believe that had we not been on a whaling voyage, we should 
have met with no difficulty in attaining to ahnost any extreme 
northern latitude." 

" Within the Arctic circle there are countries inhabited as high 
nearly as we have discovered ; and if we may confide in the rela- 
tions of those who have been nearest the pole, the heat there is 
very considerable, in respect to which our own navigators and the 
Dutch perfectly agree." [Barrington's Miscellanies, London, 1581, 
p. 65-6. 

Pbecipitation : — It seems hardly necessary, after what has been 
said, to refer ta Prof. Rogers' statement on this subject from the 
work already quoted, and we should omit to do so but for the fear 
that the statement may be accepted as true. In speaking of the 
great water-sheds of Asia and America, Prof. Rogers says : 
. <' But through a large portion of the year the precipitation does 
not flow off, but remains frozen on the surface until the sadden 
arrival of summer sets the whole mass free ; then, augmented by 
the summer rains, the entire annual accumulation pours off, dur- 
ing a few weeks, into the polar sea." 

Prof. Rogers could hardly have seen, it seems to us, the Aill 
meaning of this statement. Such a condition of things, we ven- 
ture to say, under the circumstances, is impossible, and is at vari- 
ance with all we now know of the Arctic climate, summer or 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHT8ICS AlTD CHZMISTBT. 139 

winter. The idea that the accumulatioiis of a large part of the 
year coold flow off in a few weeks is not to be credited. What- 
ever the accnmulations of snow and ice may be, the outflow of 
the ocean is never checked, and drift ice is always to be met with. 
The rainfall is very great, as we have already shown, and it is 
reported as melting the ice more rapidly than the heat of the sun, 
even in summer, and rain is reported in every month in the year 
in Spitzbei^n, Greenland and Jan Mayen, and occurs, no doubt, 
in all the glacial regions. So that while the rains melt the ice at 
and near the surface, they also melt the snow that falls upon the 
tops of the mountains and contribute largely to the formation of 
glaciers ; and in this way a vast amount of the rainfall and accu- 
mulations of ice pass out of the Arctic Regions in the form of 
icebergs, which are dissolved in the ocean. 

RscEirr Intelligenge. — ^The most recent intelligence fh>m the 
Arctic regions, — that received by the party from the Polaris, of 
Capt. Hall's expedition, is of very interesting character, and while 
it throws into the shade some of the results of former expeditions, 
confirms the most important features of them and adds consider- 
ably to our reliable knowledge of the character and geography of 
those regions. Capt. Hall, it is generally admitted, was- able to 
reach with his vessel up Kennedy Channel, a higher latitude than 
was attained by Dr. Kane or his successor. Dr. Hayes, by sledges, 
or any other navigator in the same direction, namely, 82^ 16^ He 
went beyond the open sea of Morton and the '' iceless ocean " of 
Dr. Hayes, and ascertained that what they saw is merely an ex- 
pansion of Kennedy Channel, with Washington Land and Grinnell 
Land on either side of it, still extending to the north free of ice. 
On the eastern side of the channel Capt. Hall found a bay or inlet 
twenty miles wide, which it was thought might prove to be the 
northern coast line of Greenland. The precise latitude of this 
inlet is not given, and it is very probable that it is the same strait 
discovered by Capt. Inglefleld, in the steamer Isabel in 1852, and 
named by him Murchison Strait. He places it in latitude 77^ 80' 
and likewise supposed it to form the northern limit of Greenland. 
Capt. Inglefleld saw the open sea stretching, as he supposed, at 
least to latitude 80^, but was prevented by a heavy gale from sail- 
ing farther into it. North of this inlet in latitude SV 88', Capt. 
Hall locates Polaris Bay, in which he passed the winter of 1871, 



140 A. 1IATHBMATI08, PHT8I08 AND 0HBMI8TBT. 

beyond the highest point reached by his predecessors. The land 
on the eastern shore of the channel trends to the northeast as 
far as Bepalse Harbor, latitude 82^ 9', the highest point reached 
by land, and that on the west shore appeared to terminate in a 
head-land in latitude 84^. These evidences of the extension of the 
land towards the north, it will be seen, essentially reduce the size 
of the open sea and leave ns in the dilemma of a recent writer, 
who, almost on the same page, declares that there is no assignable 
reason for the supposition that Greenland extends to the pole, and 
none to conjecture that EUesmere Land does not so project. 

CoNCLUSioK. — In concluding this discussion we may congratu- 
late the Association that, after more than three hundred years of 
exploration and effort, we have reached, it is to be hoped, an ap- 
proximation to the truth in regard to these interesting regions ; 
and although we cannot claim for our country that it was among 
the early laborers in this field, we* may point to our efforts, our 
achievements and the results attained, with pride and satisfaction. 
It belongs to England to say that her brave and courageous navi- 
gators have circumscribed, if not circumnavigated, the North 
American continent ; and to her also, as yet, the Airther honor 
of having made (in modem times) the nearest approach to the 
pole in the person of her noble son. Sir William Edward Parry. 
Nevertheless, the labors of Kane and Morton, Hayes and HaU, 
have added much to our knowledge of the Arctic regions ; and 
it would seem, by their discoveries and explorations more clearly 
than ever before, have opened the way to that mysterious polar 
sea which has been so long the object of such laborious and peril- 
ous effort, and of such absorbing interest. 

CoBBEcnoN. — ^In the Dubuque paper on this subject, vol. xxi 
of the Proceedings, the reader is requested to strike out the word 
*^ thousand" on p. 112, 2l8t line, probably an accidental interpo- 
lation of the compositor (as it is not in the manuscript), unfortu- 
nately not detected by the proof reader, and, as it stands, a most 
egregious error of statement. 



A. XATHEICATIGS, PBTSIGS AKD CHEUISTBT. 141 

A MoDmcATioN or ths Vagxtum ob Filter Pump, that can 

BS USXD WITH FBOM THBXB TO FIYB FEET FALL OF WATEB AND 
DOBS NOT EASILT OBT OUT OF BBPAEB. Bj A. £. FOOTB, Of 

Ames, Iowa. 

The introdaction of the Sprengel vacuam or filter pump, so 
widely known by the commendation that it received from Prof. 
Hansen, was limited by the fact that most laboratories did not 
possess the necessary fall of water. 

The discovery by Jogno, in 1872, of the vibrating tube and valve 
will not only widely extend the use of the filter pump, but also 
afford a substitute for the cumbersome original form. In attempt- 
ing to introduce Jogno's apparatus, I, together with many others, 
found that there were several defects to be overcome. Among 
these the worst was that the valve became stiff after a short period 
of use, getting out of order and working imperfectly if at all. 
To obviate this difficulty Prof. T. E. Thorpe devised a new form 
of valve, a description of which was read before the British Asso- 
ciation last fall. An abstract of this paper may be found in the 
^* American Journal of Science and Arts" for April, 1878. 
Thorpe's valve is difficult of construction, works very badly un- 
less perfect and soon wears out. The device that I present for 
your consideration is exceedingly simple and easily constructed, 
since it can be made of common materials by any plumber or 
worker in iron. It has been in use in our laboratory for some 
time and we easUy produce by it a vacuum of twenty-six inches 
of mercury. 

The following is a description of the apparatus as modified by 
myself. A A is a tube three feet or more in length and from three- 
eighths to one inch in diameter ; to the side of this, by means of a 
T, an arm B is affixed. This arm is from four to eight inches in 
length and may have a manometer tube attached. C is a caoutchouc 
vibrating tube which conducts the water to A. The upper end of 
A, over which it is thrust, is cut off at an angle of about 40^. The 
vibrations are regulated by an arm D. To B, is attached a rubber 
tube £ which leads to the vacuum bell Jar or bottle. Within B 
and at or near its connection with A, is fixed by cement the valve 
represented in Fig. 2. This is constructed as follows : the end of 
a metal plug is filed off as represented in Fig. 2, leaving a tongue 
of metal in the centre, which is driven down upon a flat of thin 



142 X. KATHZIUTICS, PHT8IC9 iXD CHEWSTBT. 

sheet caoutchouc, holding thU upon the holes, Trhtch penetrate the 
plug aad communicate with a channel Sled on the lower side of 
the plug as repreaented. The holes, in order to be perfectly closed 
bj the flap, must be at least one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter. 
A clamp placed upon £ and used to retain the vacuum maj also 



be made to regulate the rapidity of filtration or evaporation ; this 
may be done more economically by means of a stopcock F, inserted 
in C to regulate the flow of water. 

I have been led thus fully to detail this piece of apparatus fh>m 
the belief that, as soon as known, Its simplicity, compactness) effi- 
cient working and cheapness of construction will cause its general 
IntroducUon in laboratories even where a fall of thirty feet of 
water can be obtained without dtfllculty. Its value, not only for 



A. MATHBICATIGS, PHYSICS AJSTD CHSMISTBT. 148 

rapid and difficult filtrations, but also for evaporations where the 
application of heat is objectionable, cannot be oyerestimated. 

I take pleasure in acknowledging my indebtedness to Prof. 
Alexander Thomson for much aid, especially for the mechanical 
execution of the work and the drawings that accompany this 
article. 

In this connection a simple piece of apparatus, devised by one 
of our students, deserves mention on account of its simplicity, 
convenience and efficiency. It is ample for all ffitrations where 
but a slight vacuum is needed. To the top of the shelving above 
the table and sink, fastena tube (rubber). Connect one end of 
this with the water supply pipe, the other with the bulb of a 
thistle tube by means of a glass tube inserted in a rubber cork ; 
through another hole in the rubber cork carry a tube which is 
connected with a large vacuum bottle. The vacuum produced will 
be proportional to the column of water supported in the thistle 
tabe and its connections. The waste water is, of course, allowed 
to flow into the sink. 



The Chemicai. Composition op a Copper Matte. By T. Stbbbt 
Hunt, of Boston, Mass. 

ABSTBAOT. 

The name of matte or regulus is given to a product obtained in 
smelting partially roasted sulphuretted copper ores, and consisting 
in great part of sulphur and copper ; it is the result of a process 
of concentration. A specimen of this, holding forty-five per cent, 
of copper, beside iron and sulphur, was found to give up the greater 
part of its iron to dilute acids, with the escape of f^ee hydrogen 
and sulphuretted hydrogen gases. It precipitated metallic copper 
and metallic lead abundantly from their neutral solutions, and 
contained apparently the greater part of its iron in a metallic 
state. When oxidized by nitric acid or by bromine, it left a res- 
idue of more than ten per cent, of grains of pure magnetic oxide 



Hi A. 1LLTHV1LLTI08, FHTSIOS XSD GHBinSTBT. 

of iron, and the dissolved portion contained about thirteen eqaiv- 
alents each of copper and sulphur, besides eight of iron and a 
little zinc. It was, as might be expected, strongly magnetic. 

The author insisted upon the apparent anomalj exhibited in the 
association in a furnace-product of a stable oxide of iron with a 
Bulphuret, the affinities being curiously balanced in the fhsed mass. 
The presence of metallic iron at the same time he explained as the 
result of a partial dissociation of a double sulphuret of copper and 
iron on cooling. His inquiries in this matter are not yet finished, 
but throw an unexpected light on some fkmace-reactions, as the 
treatment of iron in the Bessemer process, and also on the produc- 
tion in nature of many igneous and volcanic rocks. 



Detehminatiok of Tbaksatlantio Lokgftudes. By J. £. Hil- 
GABD, of Washington, D. C. 

[Commanlcated by permiBBion of Prof. Benjamin Peirce* Snpt. U. S. Coast Surrey.] 

The exact determination of the longitude of some point in the 
triangulation of the Coast Survey, fh>m the principal observatories 
of £urope, forms one of the most important problems of that 
work, and all the various means known to science have been suc- 
cessively brought to bear on its solution. The Ck>ast Survey 
Reports from 1848 to 1866 show that the methods of moon-culmi- 
nations, of chronometer transportation and of lunar occultations, 
have each in turn received a large share of attention. The latter 
method has not yet yielded the fhll results that may be expected 
of it, in consequence of the infrequency with which corresponding 
observations are obtained in Europe and America, owing to the 
parallactic displacement of the moon ; it cannot be doubted, how- 
ever, that with a suitably organized system of observation, this 
method will, in time, give results of great exactness. 

Upon the successful completion of the Atlantic telegraph from 
Ireland to Newfoundland, measures were at once taken to make 
use of that means for the determination of the longitude between 
the two continents. The results of these operations, conducted 



▲. KATHEMATICS, PHYSICS Ain> CHEIOSTBT. 145 

by Dr. B. A. Goald, have been given at length in the Report for 
1867. Although far more certain than the previous results, the 
value thus obtained still lefb a larger margin of doubt as to its 
precision, than is desirable in so ftindamental a determination. 
This uncertainty, which probably does not exceed one quarter 
second of time, is owing in part to the fact that, though we can 
measure the total time of transmission of signals through the 
cable and back again, we are unable to separate the duration in 
opposite directions and are obliged to assume it equal, an 
assumption which may not be exact within a sensible fraction of 
a second. 

When the laying of the French cable, from Brest in France to 
Duxbury in Massachusetts, afforded an independent means of ver- 
ifying the former result by observations under entirely different 
conditions, the opportunity was promptly seized, and the longitude 
between Brest and Duxbury determined by G. W. Dean, Assist- 
ant in the Coast Survey, as set forth in the Report for 1870. 

At this time, no cable was yet in operation between Brest and 
England, so that Mr. Dean was unable to carry his determination 
direct to the Observatory at Greenwich. Such a cable having 
smce been laid, the wanting link in the chain of longitudes was 
supplied, during the past summer, by J. E. Hilgard, Assistant in 
the Coast Survey, who temporarily gave up the charge of the 
Coast Survey Office, in order to bring this much desired operation 
to a satisfactory conclusion. While reoccupying Brest for that 
purpose, it appeared in every way desirable that the experiments 
through the French cable should be repeated ; this time with an 
intennediate station at St. Pierre, where the long cable makes a 
landing. That part of the operations which connected St. Pierre 
with Cambridge was under the immediate direction of G. W. 
Dean. 

The general plan of operations was to unite at Brest, signals 
from St. Pierre, from Greenwich and from Paris, sent nearly at 
the same time and compared by means of the Brest chronograph ; 
and to determine the personal equations of the several observers 
through one of them, who should observe successively with all 
the rest. This was done by Sub-assistant F. Blake, Jr., who 
ably assisted Mr. Hilgard throughout the work. Through the 
kindness and assistance of Sir George B. Airy, the Astronomer 
A.A.A.S. VOL. xxn. 10 



146 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRT. 

Royal of England, and of Mr. Delaunay, the distinguished Direo-* 
tor of the Paris Observatory, whose lamented death occurred 
while the operations were in progress, and through the generous 
courtesy of the French Atlantic Telegraph Company, and of the 
Submarine Telegraph Company, the work was brought to a suc- 
cessful conclusion in the month of September, 1872. 

In the course of these operations the longitude between Paris 
and Greenwich has been incidentally determined in two different 
ways; first, in July, via Brest, and afterwards, in September, 
between Greenwich and Paris direct, through the " Submarine" 
cable via Calais. These two determinations are not entirely inde- 
pendent of each other, since the personal equation between Blake 
and the Paris observer enters into both, but the near satisfaction 
of the equation (Brest — Paris + Paris — Greenwich -[-Greenwich 
— Brest) :=0, or the closing of that longitude triangle, must enti- 
tle the results obtained to great confidence. 

We now proceed to give some account of the instruments and 
methods, before reciting the principal results. 

Bbest — Greenwich — Paris. 

The station at Brest was chosen on the place d'armes in fh)nt 
of the Transatlantic Telegraph Company's Office, with which it 
was connected by wires. It was found to be 8*46" south and 
0*44' east of the tower of St. Louis church, a point in the trigo- 
nometrical survey of France. 

The instruments used were a transit instrument by Sinmis, of 
45 inches focal length, and 25 inches transit axis, with a diaphragm 
of 15 lines ; a circuit-breaking chronometer by Bond, and a Bond 
chronograph. 

The plan adopted for determining the clock corrections pro- 
vides for observations in both right and left position of the tran- 
sit telescope, a set in each position comprising five time stars and 
two circumpolars, one above and one below the pole. By this 
system it is practicable to deduce the azimuthal deviation of the 
instrument independently for either position, and even to arrive at 
a fair value of the coUimation, when observations have been ob- 
tained in but one position. 

A careful determination of the inequality of pivots was made 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 147 

by a series of levelings, and the corrections found to be due were 
applied in the reduction of the observations. 

The chronometer is fitted with a circuit-breaking attachment by 
which the current is interrupted for an instant every two seconds 
and likewise at the fifty-ninth second, to mark the minute. In 
order to avoid the Inconvenience arising f^om the deflagi*ation 
of contact surfaces, by the spark developed at the break, a branch 
circuit, including a resistahce-coil, was introduced according to 
the device of Mr. Hilgard, bridging the break, and permitting the 
ready passage of the secondary current, while the resistance is 
too great to affect sensibly the recording magnet. 

It will be observed that the rate«of this chronometer was not 
only determined by the observations made at Brest, but was also 
checked by daily comparisons with the clocks at Paris and Green- 
wich. Its performance was very satisfactory. 

The observations of star transits and the time scale were re- 
corded on the chronograph with the same pen, whereby any cor- 
rection for relative position of the pens or styles is avoided, and 
the reading much facilitated. 

At the Paris Observatory the general arrangements for the 
work were committed to Mr. Loewy, who lent a most cordial co- 
operation to our work. The chronographic method of recording 
time observations, not then in ordinary use at the Observatory, 
was adopted for the present occasion, and the assistant astron- 
omer, Mr. L. F. Folain, who made all the coiTcsponding observa- 
tions, devoted a fortnight to preliminary practice with the new 
method, so as to obtain a settled habit of observing. The large 
transit instrument (lunette meridienne) was employed for the work, 
which was prosecuted with the greatest assiduity. The instrument 
was reversed twice on each night, and two complete sets of ob- 
servations were made, each comprising eight stars in each posi- 
tion of the instrument, beside clrcumpolars and micrometer 
readings on the meridian mark. 

After completing the observations at Brest, Mr. Blake trans- 
ported his instruments to Paris and mounted his transit on a pier 
that had been provided for the purpose, a short distance to the 
south of the observatory transit, very nearly in its meridian, in 
the garden. Each ob^rver now determined the time with his own 
instruments and after his own method, and compared the time- 



148 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

keepers in the same way as had been done between Brest and 
Paris ; the personal equation thus obtained including all peculiari- 
ties that may arise from instrumental causes. 

At Greenwich the regular routine of observing was followed, 
as described in the Greenwich observations, the observers changing 
in a certain rotation, two observers generally determining the 
clock corrections on each day and their observations being referred 
to a common standard by the personal equations derived from the 
comparisons thus obtained. 

When Mr. Blake, after completing the work at Paris, went to 
Greenwich for the purpose of comparing his personal equation 
with that of the Greenwich observers, his transit was mounted on 
a pier erected for the purpose by order of the Astronomer Royal, 
and again observed in his accustomed way, comparing his time- 
keeper telegraphically with the Greenwich clock and likewise with 
that at Paris, where Mr. Folain was still keeping up his corre- 
sponding observations. The Coast Survey party are specially 
indebted to Mr. William Ellis, who, under the direction of .the 
Astronomer Royal, aided them in every way in the prosecution 
of the work. 

The place of the pier, which has since been marked by a slab of 
marble bearing the inscription ^^Hilgard" is 0*160* west and 1*74:" 
south of the Greenwich transit circle. 

The method of exchanging signals was by means of arbitrary 
signals sent over the line and recorded on the chronograph at each 
station. These signals were sent for five minutes at approximate 
intervals of five seconds, but the intervals were purposely varied 
so as to give different fractional readings. At eleven, P. M., 
Greenwich began sending to Brest, then Brest sent to Greenwich, 
next Brest to Paris and finally Paris to Brest. Between Green- 
wich and Brest but one series of signals was exchanged on each 
night, as the free use of the cable could not be granted for more 
than ten minutes. Between Brest and Paris, however, a wire was 
placed at the disposal of the party from eight, P. M., for the night 
and, in general, two series of exchanges were obtained. 

The observations of Mr. Blake have been reduced in the fol- 
lowing manner. The chronograph sheets having been indepen- 
dently read by two persons and readings collated, each evening's 
work was reduced by Mr. Blake, on the plan of deriving the colli- 



A. MATHEICATICS, PHTSICS AXD CHEMI8TRT. 149 

mation and the azimuthal deviation of the instrument from all 
the observed stars by means of the usual normal equations, giving 
equal weight to all the stai's-— the clock correction being finally 
determined from stars within 60** declination, omitting the cir- 
cumpolars, by applying the instrumental corrections previously 
obtained. In a more elaborate second computation made by R. 
Keith, each conditional equation was affected by a weight depend- 
ing upon the star's declination according to a law derived from 
the observations themselves, and moreover separate values for the 
azimuthal deviation, before and after reversal, were deduced. 
The resulting clock corrections, obtained by the two methods of 
reduction, show a very good agreement, the average difference 
being only 0-017' ; the sum of the residuals for each star is less in 
the second than in the first in the ratio of twenty-six to thirty-one ; 
but it should be observed that in consequence of the introduction 
of four instead of three variables in the equation, the observations 
should be better represented in something near that ratio, and 
only a small improvement can be ascribed to the use of weights. 
This matter will be found more fully discussed in the Coast Sur- 
vey Keport for 1872, when the observations of the American party 
will be given in full. Those made at Paris and Greenwich will 
be found in the regular publications of those observatories. 

The right ascensions used in these reductions are a mean of 
those of the Washington Observatory from 1862 to 1867, and of 
the Harvard College Observatory from June to November, 1872. 
They do not agree precisely with either the Greenwich or the 
Paris right ascensions, but the differences are small. It would 
certainly have been desirable to use the same data in the reduc- 
tion of the observations at all stations, but as Greenwich and 
Paris do not agree in their standard places, it was thought best to 
use the list adopted for the Coast Survey work and let the acci- 
dental variations be merged in the errors of observation, while 
any systematic difference in the places would form part of the 
personal equation. The longitudes cannot, in any sensible degree, 
be affected by the differences adverted to. 

We will now give a table of chronometer corrections, as de- 
duced by the second method of reduction, to show the perform- 
ance of the timekeeper, followed by a specimen of one night's 
work, and finally a tabular statement of the results for longitude. 



150 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS Ain> CHEMISTBT. 



Corrections of chronometer Bond, No. 880, at 18h., S. T.,from 
observations by F. Blake, Jr. 



Place. 


Date. 


CorrectioD. 


Hourly rate. 


Brest. 


July 


B 


s 




1 




-3-741 


— 018 




8 




-a-760 


•019 




4 


+3-370 


•018 




6 


H 


hl-953 


•018 




9 


+0-049 


•020 




11 


— 0^933 


•024 




12 


—1-651 


•029 




14 


—2139 


•010 




17 


—2-803 


•009 




18 


—3054 


•010 




19 


—3010 


•002 




20 


—3-261 


•003 




21 


—3-391 


•009 




22 


—3-702 


•012 




23 


—4-053 


•015 


Paris. 


AugVLBt 








—1-470 


+•006 




17 


—1322 


—•001 




18 


—1-848 


•003 




19 


—1-382 


•006 




20 


-1-530 


•006 


Greenwich. 


August 








28 




-1-725 


+ 004 




80 




-1^895 


■018 




81 




-2 205 


•007 




8 




-^•706 


•017 




4 




-4-109 


•015 


• 


6 




-4-469 


•021 




6 




-4-945 


•023 




7 




-5-508 


•030 




9 




-6-885 


•080 




10 


1-7 030 


•031 



Brest, July 5, 1872. Observer F. Blake, Jr. 



star. 


L. 


ObBerved time 
of transit. 


Corrections. 




Level. 


Azim. 


Coll. 


ui Bootis ••••••• 


£ 
W 

W 


15 19 39M05 
29 15-65 
48 43-61 

16 15 53-70 
22 16-42 
28 15-92 
41 16-85 
51 36-58 
66 53-03 

17 8 48-68 
37 4402 


— 14 

— 11 
—•87 
—•08 
—•13 

— 19 
+ 07 

— 03 
—•02 
+ 00 
+ 00 


+-01 
+ 01 

— 06 
+•00 

— 01 

— 02 
—•30 

— 09 
—•04 
—•08 
+•13 


ft. 
+ 06 

+ 05 

+•22 

+•07 

+ 10 

+ 1S 
+ 18 
— 07 
— *oa 


a Cor. Bor 


i Ursa Minor 

T Herculis.... ....... 


« Dracon is.......... 


A Draconis.......... 


9 Camelop. L. C 

K Oobiuchi.......... 


d Herculis 


a' Herculis 


—•OR 


ft Draconia 


— '40 











▲• KATHEMATIOS, PHYSICS AND CHSHISTBT. 



151 



Star. 


L. 


Time of Merid- 
ian Transit. 


Ttight 
Ascension. 


Clock 
Corrections. 


ji'BootU 


£ 
£ 

w 


15 19 88-97 
29 15*60 
48 43-40 

16 15 68*09 
22 16*88 
28 15*84 
41 16*80 
51 86*89 
56 52-88 

17 08 48*42 
87 43*96 


b. m. a. 

15 19 40-92 
29 17-65 

15 4& 45*43 

16 15 56-67 
22 18-83 
28 17*82 
41 18-60 
51 88-88 
56 54*80 

17 06 50-52 
87 45-68 


+1-95 
2-06 
2*08 
1*98 


a Cor. Bor. 


^Ursa Minor 

T Hercnlis 


i| Draconls 

A Draconifl. 


1*96 
1-98 


9 Camelop. L. C... 
« Ophiachi 


1*80 
1*99 


d Rffrr-qlfif T r t ..*.... . 


1*92 


a'HerciJIis 


2-10 


M Draconis 


1*78 



h. 1. 

Clock correction at 16*4. Sid. T. +1*982. 

CoIIim. = —056. Aximuth for Lp. E. +-026 ; for Lp. W. —•182. 

The first reduction, without weights, had given clock correction +1986, collimation 

—'010, azimuth — *077. 

The " observed time of transit " is the mean of fifteen threads. 



TELBOBAFH 8IONAL8 BETWEEN BBE8T A2n> GREENWICH. 

Oreenwich to Brest. Brest to Greenwich, 

July 5, 1872. 

m. *. m. ■. 

Difltoence, mean of 80 signals, +17 11*101 Difference, mean of 80 signals, +17 11*134 
Correction of Brest clock, — 1*950 Correction of Brest clock, — 1*948 



Correction of Greenwich clock, + 47*900 

Longitude— Signal time, +17 57*051 

Mean, +17 57068 



Correction of Greenwich clock, + 47*000 

Longitude + Signal time, +17 57*086 

Signal thne, 0018 



TELEGRAPH SIGNALS BETWEEN BREST AND PARIS. 

Paris to Brest. Brest to Paris. 

July 5, 1872, 1st Exchange. 



Difllerenee, mean of 30 signals, +27 40*813 

Correction of Paris Clock, — 20*570 

Correction of Brest Clock, — 1-996 

Longitude — Signal time, +27 18*278 

Mean, +37 18*323 



Difference, mean of 30 signals, 
Correction of Paris clock, 
Correction of Brest clock. 

Longitude + Signal time, 
Signal time. 



July 5, 1872, 2nd Exchange. 

Difference, mean of 30 signals, +27 40*833 
Correction of Paris clock, — 20-601 

Correction of Brest clock, — 1*958 

Longitude— Signal time, +27 18*274 

Mean, +27 18-332 



Difference, mean of 30 signals, 
Correction of Paris clock, 
Correction of Brest clock. 

Longitude + Signal time. 
Signal time. 



4^40-968 


— 20-574 


— • 1990 


+27 18*369 


0-046 


m. ■. 


+27 40-949 


— 20602 


— 1*967 


+37 18-390 


0-068 



I 



152 



▲• MATHBMATXOS, FHTSICS AND CHBMISTBT. 



BBSULT8 OF OBSEBYAHONB FOB PERSONAL BQUATXOK. 


ParU, 




Blake, west of Folain, August 16, 

17, 
18, 
19, 
20, 


-0-136 
+0-075 
+0-198 ' 
+0076 
+0-054 


Blake, west of Folain, mean, 


+0'(»8 +0-087 



Oreenwkh. 
Coast Surrey Station reduced to Transit circle. 

Beductlon, —0*16 



Date. 


Blake east of obserrer. 


Reduction to standard 
observer. 


Blake east of sten 
dard obserrer. 


August 28 

SO 

81 

September 8 

5 
6 
7 
9 


J. C. +0-070 
L. +0-427 
E. — 0124 

H. C. —0001 
L. +0-866 
J. -O025 

J. C. —0-050 

Std. +0-005 

E.-0117 


+(foio 

-0-240 
+0-230 

0-000 
—0-240 
+0-060 
+0-010 

0-000 
+0-280 


+0-(«0 
- -0-187 
+0-106 
-0001 
+0-125 
--O035 
—0-040 
-M)-005 
+0-118 



Blake east of Greenwich standard obserrer, mean 



+0-068JlOH)16 



LONOITUDBS. 

Brest— QrtenuHdi, 



17 57-149 



Julyl, 

8, 67-124 

4, 67-190 

6, 57-068 

11, 17 67-096 

Mean, 17 57-097 jl 0-016 

Personal Equation, « +0-0682^0016 

Difference of Longitude, 17 57*165 3! 0-029 

Brttt— Parts. 

B. fL 

Jidy 1, 27 18-232 

8, 18.268 

4, 18192 

6 18-328 

0, 18-369 

19, 18186 

20, 18-331 

21, 18-207 

22 27 18*166 

Mean, 27 18252 + 0-o'i6 

Personal Equation, —0-063 j]| 0-037 

Difference of Longitude 27 18-199^0-039 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 158 

Greemeieh — Parit. 



t. 



Angnetas, 9 21020 

81, 21000 

Sept. 7, 21062 

9 20-9U 

10, 21006 

Mean, 9 21000 + 0016 

Personal Equation, —0063 j^ 0037 

Bedaction to Greenwich transit, +0*160 

Difference of Longitude 9 21-107^0*039 

The results of the first computation were as follows : 

m, a, 

Brest— Greenwich .^ 17 67124 

Brest— Paris 27 18176 

Greenwich — Paris ...... 9 21*116 

difTering but very little from the preceding values. 

The sum of the values Brest — Greenwich + Greenwich — Paris 
exceeds the direct determination Brest — Paris by 0-073% which 
is within the limits of the assigned probable errors. If we now 
distribute this residual among the three values, without regard to 
weights, and omit the thousandths of seconds, we shall find as the 
resulting longitudes : 

m. s. 

Brest — Greenwich 17 57'14 

Greenwich — Paris 9 21*08 • 

Brest— Paris 27 18-22 

It appears that the uncertainty of any of the above values does 
not probably exceed 0-03'. If we compare them with other deter- 
minations heretofore made, we find that Brest — Paris was deter- 
mined telegraphically in 1863, under the direction of Mr. Le 
Verrier, when the longitude of the ^^tour de St. Louis" from the 
^^ meridienne de France" (the centre of the Paris observatorj*) was 
found to be 27"* 18*49' (Annales de I'Observatoire de Paris, viii, 
1866, p. 279). In order to reduce our own result to the same 
point of reference, we must deduct 0-12 at Paris and add 0-44' at 
Brest, whence we obtain 27" 18*54', differing but 0-05' from that 
fouDd by the French operations, which were very elaborate and are 
published in full ; or if we compare with our direct determination, 
the difference is only 0'03*. 



154 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHT8ICS AND CHEMISTBT. 



The loDgitude between the observatories of Greenwich and Paris 
was determined in 1854 at the instance of Mr. Le Verrier. The 
result then obtained, 9" 20'63% which is nearly half a second less 
than that resulting from our recent work, has ever since been ac- 
cepted, but the Paris observations, upon which it depends, have 
never been published. Partly owing to this fact, and partly 
because in those operations the chronographic method was not 
used, the Central European Geodesic Association had, at its ses- 
sion at Vienna, in the autumn of 1871, expressed the wish that it 
should be redetermined. In pursuance of this expression, Mr. 
Delaunay had already entered into correspondence with Mr. Airy 
when the American party came into the field and, desiring to refer 
their longitude to each observatory independently, obtained leave 
to determine the difference between the same as an incidental 
part of their operations. It is to be presumed that another deter- 
mination will be made before long to verify this important datum. 

Another combination of the results may be made in Ihe follow- 
ing manner. Remarking that on four occasions observations were 
had at Greenwich, Brest and Paris on the same evenings, we may 
deduce the longitude Greenwich — Paris directly, without using 
the observations at Brest, when we oblain 



Greenwich— Paris, July 1 

l( 41 II 2 

U (I l( 2 

11 11 11 ^ 



Mean 

Personal equation 



Longitude 



9 21*083 
•142 

•SGO 

9 21138 
— 121 

9 21018 



The personal equation here applied is that between Folain and 
the Greenwich Standard Observer as derived through Blake, viz. : 
•053 -|- '068, as previously given in detail. Combining the result 
of these four nights with that of the five when Blake observed at 
Greenwich, viz. : 9"» 2M07', we get Greenwich— Paris 9" 21-07'. 

Combining farther the two determinations Brest — Paris (1872), 
27"» 18-20, Brest— Paris (1863), 27" 18-17' and Brest— Greenwich 
(1872), 17" 57-16' with the foregoing, we shall obtain, as the most 
probable values that can be assigned, 

tn. 8. 

Brest — Greenwich 17 57*14 

Greenwich — Paris 9 21 '06 

Brest — Paris 27 18*20 



a. mathematics, physics anp chemistry. 155 

Brest — St. Pierre — Cambridge. 

It was intended that the observations at and exchanges of sig- 
nals between the American stations should be as nearly simulta- 
neous with those in Europe as the weather might allow, in order 
that the intermediate stations at Brest and St. Pierre should sen- 
sibly disappear from the determination of the longitude of Cam- 
bridge from Greenwich and Paris. Such simultaneous operations 
proved, however, to be impracticable in consequence of the condi- 
tion of the cables. The long cable between Brest and St. Pierre 
was working badly, and required to be repaired before it was fit 
for our use. When this was accomplished it proved to have a 
better insulation than ever before, and transmitted the signals 
with great sharpness. Meantime the cable between St. Pierre and 
Duxbury had been broken and could not be repaired during the 
summer, in consequence of which otir arrangements required to be 
changed. Mr. Dean, who had charge of the American part of the 
operations, at once proceeded to make arrangements for exchang- 
ing signals between St. Pierre and Cambridge over the Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick telegraph lines, connected with St. 
Pierre by a short cable, and working with ordinary Morse registers, 
so that this part of the work offers no unusual features, the signals 
being registered automatically on the chronograph. The signals 
sent through the Brest -St. Pierre cable, on the contrary, were 
observed by means of the Thomson galvanometer, as heretofore 
described in the account of the 1867 longitude operations by Dr. 
Goul^. The cable was working so well that no special battery or 
signal arrangements were required, a single current at intervals of 
five seconds giving a very sharp movement of the index, which 
returned to its zero before the next signal was sent. The personal 
equation of each observer, in perceiving and recording these sig- 
nals upon his chronograph by tapping a key, was frequently deter- 
mined by means of a short circuit, and was found to be very 
constant for each observer as well as nearly equal for both. For 
Blake at Brest it was 0-24% and for Goodfellow at St. Pierre 0-28*. 
The station at St. Pierre was in charge of Mr. Edward Good- 
fellow, Assistant in the Coast Survey, who had taken part in the 
two previous determinations of transatlantic longitude by cable. 
All the observations were made by himself. The observer at 
Cambridge was Mr, Edwin Smith, of the Coast Survey. The 



i 



156 A. MATHEKATICS, PHTSICS AKD CHEMI8TRT. 

instrament was mounted on a pier, one hundred and eight feet to 
the west of the observatory dome, to which our longitudes are 
usually referred, requiring a reduction of 0-096*. Three piers were 
built in this temporary observatory, permitting the three transit 
instruments used in the expedition to be mounted in the same 
meridian at one time. This was done after the return of the 
observers from Europe and St. Pierre, for the purpose of deter- 
mining their personal equations and some instrumental constants. 
The instruments were alike in construction, having forty-five inches 
focal length, twenty-five inches transit axis, mounted on a heavy 
cast iron stand and provided with a reversing apparatus. They 
differed, however, in the arrangement of the diaphragm lines, Mr. 
Goodfellow having preferred the usual spider lines, Mr. Blake a 
system of double lines ruled on glass, and Mr. Smith single lines 
ruled on glass. The personal equations were compared by each 
observer determining the time with his own instrument in the cus- 
tomary manner, using the same stars, as well as by observing at 
the same instrument the transit of the same stars over alternate 
tallies of lines. The results by the two methods were found not 
to differ sensibly. 
The personal equations found are * 

Blake places himself East of Smith . . 0*-07 

" " " West of Goodfellow . 0'-04 

Goodfellow places himself East of Smith . 0"*11 

The first datum only enters into the longitude Cambridge — 
Brest, since Goodfellow occupied an intermediate position. 

Advantage was taken of the opportunity of placing the three 
transit instruments in the same meridian, for the purpose of test- 
ing them as to flexure of the transit axis, by comparing in each the 
line of collimation as indicated by reversals, right and left, with 
that resulting from revolving it about the axis, using the two 
other instruments as collimators, each being in turn placed in the 
middle. The collimation resulting from the observation of cir- 
cumpolar stars in the direct and reversed positions was likewise 
compared with that from reversal in the horizontal direction of the 
telescope, using the adjoining one as a mark. The results fully 
confirmed that there are no sensible inequalities of flexure in these 
instruments. 

At the request of the Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Obser- 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRT. . 157 

vatory in Washington, signals were also exchanged between St. 
Pierre and Washington daring the progress of the work, and sub- 
sequently the several observers compared personal equations. Of 
this portion of the work no results have yet been reported. The 
second and more elaborate computations of the longitudes St. 
Pierre — -Brest and Cambridge — St. Pierre are also still in prog- 
ress while this report is going to press, and the final results cannot 
therefore be given at this time. But they cannot differ materially 
from those of the preliminary computations, given below, which 
were made by the observers in the field. 

The difference in the time between Brest and St. Pierre, as 
derived from eastern and western signals, including the personal 
eqaatioDS of the operators and the time of transmission forward 
and back through the cable, was on the average 1*19", varying 
five-hundredths from the mean. Deducting from this the sum of the 
personal equations 0*47', we find for twice the time of transmis- 
sion through the cable, 0-72% or 0'36* for a distance of twenty-two 
hundred nautical miles. The signal time between St. Pierre and 
Cambridge was 0*14*. 

The following are the results for longitude : 

St. Pierre — Brest, mean of seren nights 3 26 45-20 ^ 0*05 

Cambridge — Brest, mean of eight nights 69 48*78 j^ 0*03 

Correction for personal equation, S.— B —0*07 j[ 0*03 

Beduction to Harvard Observatory dome -0*09 

Harvard— Brest 4 20 83-82J30.06 

Brest— Greenwich (as above) 17 67'14J[0'03 

Harvard— Greenwich 4 44 30*96^30*07 

The' term Harvard is here used to denote the centre of dome of 
the Harvard College Observatory at Cambridge, U. S. 

Comparing now this result with those formerly obtained, we 
have for the operations of 1870 : 

Cambridge transit— Bnxbnry 1 60*23 "^0*02 

Bednction transit to dome —0*04 

Dnzbaiy— Brest, station of 1870 4 24 42*873^0*05 

Bednction station 1870tol872 +0*79 

Brest, 1872- Greenwich 17 57'14~^0*08 



Haryard— Greenwich 4 44 80*99~^o* 



06 



158 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AKD CHEMISTRY. 

The figures for Cambridge — Duxbury and Duxbury — Brest are 
taken from No. xvi, Memoirs of the American Academy, Cam- 
bridge, 1873, by Prof. J. Lovering, who had charge of the compu- 
tations. By reference to that publication it will seem that in 
those operations the ends of the two cables were joined at St. 
Pierre, by bringing their several condensers into contact, and in 
this way the signals were exchanged directly between Brest and 
Duxbury. The method of transmission was thus quite different 
in the two campaigns, and the close agreement of results can only 
be held as dissipating all doubt as to the sensible equality of the 
rate of transmission in opposite directions. 

We will finally compare the preceding results with those ob- 
tained in 1866 through the Ireland-Newfoundland cables by the 
operations conducted by Dr. B. A. Gould, a full account of which 
is published in the Coast Survey Report for 1867, and also in 
volume xvi of the Smithsonian Contributions. The results there 
given lack one link in order to be complete, that being the per- 
sonal equation between Mosman, the observer at Foilhommerura, 
and the standard observer at Greenwich. This defect we have 
endeavored to supply, as far as is practicable after the lapse of 
some years, through the personal Equations between Mosman, 
Blake and the Greenwich observers in the followingjnanner. The 
well ascertained equation between Blake and Mosman is that 
Blake places himself 0-09' to the west of Mosman. He is, more- 
over, 0-07' to the east of the present Greenwich standard observer 
(Criswick), who again is -ll' to the east of the standard ob- 
server of 1867 (Dunkin). Hence we deduce that Mosman placed 
himself 0-05* more east than Dunkin, and the former difference of 
longitude between Greenwich and Foilhommerum must be in- 
creased by that amount. 

The figures given in the publications above referred to require 
some other correction^ in consequence of the personal equations 
having been applied with the wrong sign. We therefore recite 
the several links of the combination as follows : 

li. m. t. 

1866. Greenwich to Foilhommernm 41 S3*S4 

1866. FoUhommcnmi to Hearts Content 2 61 56'32 

1866. Hearts Content to Calais 55 87-97 

1857. C^als to Bangor 6 OOSl 

1851. Bangor to Harvard Obserratory 9 23*06 

Greenwicb to Harvard Observatory 4 44 81-00 

Considering the number of separate determinations entering 



A. liATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEHISTBT. 159 

into this result, we cannot well ascribe to it a probable error less 
than ± 0-10% even when dismissing all further question of the 
inequality of transmission time in opposite directions. .The close 
agreement of the three independent determinations made in dif- 
ferent years is therefore no less surprising than it is satisfactory. 
We have : 

LOKGITUDE OF HABVABD OBSEBYATOBT FBOM QBEENWICH. 

ta. a. ■. ■■ 

1806 4 a 81-00J[^0*10 

1870 8009 j^ 0-06 

1873 80-96 + 0-07 

Mean 4 44 80-08 + 0*05 

To deduce finally the longitude of the dome of the U. S. Naval 
Observatory in Washington City we add 23™ 41 '11', the value de- 
duced from the elaborate determinations in 1867, published in the 
Coast Survey for 1870 (Appendix, No. 13), and find 

Washington— Greenwich . . . 5** 08™ 12-09", 
and further, using the value Greenwich — Paris = 9™ 21*06 above 
obtained, we have 

Washington— Paris . . . . 5^ 17" 33-15'. 



Apparatus for Illustrating the variation of Wave Lengths 
BT THE Motion of its Origin. By E. S. Morse, of Salem, 
Mass. 

ABSTRACT. 

The interesting discoveries of Huggins and others, in deteimin- 
ing the direction of movements of bodies in remote star depths, 
from displacement of lines in the spectrum, were first alhided 
to. It is well known that when a star is approaching the ob- 
server the luminiferous waves emitted by it are crowded to- 
gether, and on the contrary are separated when the star is receding. 
To illustrate this change in the wave lengths, so that it may be 



160 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS A3n> CHEMI8TRT. 



fairly comprehended by students and the public at large, variooB 
comparisons have been made, among the best of which is that of 
Proctor, often quoted by Tyndall, which embraced the conception 
of a person dropping periodically a series of corks into a stream. 
If the person dropping the corks stands in one place, they will be, 
fof instance, three feet apart ; if he moves with the stream at a 
given rate, they will be say two feet apart ; if he moves up the 
stream, dropping them at the same rate, they will be four feet 
apart. Another comparison is taken from the sound of the whistle 
of an approaching locomotive, which increases in sharpness be- 
cause the vibrations are more rapid ; or, receding, diminishes in 
pitch. But the latter comparison fails in correctness, because the 
waves of light and sound are, strictly speaking, incomparable— 
those of sound moving in pulsations, those of the luminiferoos 
ether in undulations. 



F!g. 1. 




iTiA- a. 




lifT. 8. 




MACHINE TO SHOW VARIATION OP WAVE LENGTHS. 

Fig. 1. Appearance of waves when the source fVom which they start is at rest. 
Fig. 2. Stiortened waves, when the machine producing them moves in the directton 
of their motion ; e. g.^ in the case of a star approaching the observer. 
Fig. 3. Lengthened waves, when their source is moving in a contrary direction. 

A plan of an instrument was given by which this phenomenon 
in the case of light may be easily and plainly illustrated 
before a large audience. The instrument consists of a tank 
filled with water and set on wheels. On top of this is a compart- 
ment containing compressed air. From one end of the tank a 
pipe protrudes, which is moved up and down at a fixed rate by 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMI8TBT. 161 

simple clockwork. When the cock is opened, allowing the water 
to escape from the pipe, the stream assumes a sinuous line, which 
may be shown, if brilliantly lighted, across a large audience hall. 
This undulatory stream, when the tank is at rest, illustrates a 
Inminiferous wave from a stationary source. To exhibit the short- 
eniDg or lengthening of the waves of light by the approach or 
recession of the luminiferous body, it is only necessary to move 
the apparatus rapidly back and forth on the table. As the appa- 
ratus moves with the direction of the stream its undulations are 
crowded together, and the waves arc consequently shortened. On 
the other hand, when the motion of the apparatus is in an oppo- 
site direction, the waves are proportionably lengthened. The 
advantage of this illustration is that it exhibits precisely what 
takes place in the luminiferous waves approaching or receding 
from the observer of celestial bodies, producing the displacement 
of spectrum lines. 



The Solar Photosphere. By S. P. Lakglet, of Allegheny, 
Pennsylvania. 

Having been engaged, more or less, for the past three years on 
the study of the Solar Photosphere, I desire to give, on the part 
of the Allegheny Observatory, some brief account of the nature 
of this portion of its work in advance of a more complete pub- 
lication. The labors of Schwabe, Carrington and others abroad, 
and of Peters in this country, have been directed to the deter- 
mination of the laws of the motions of spots upon the solar 
surface f^om drawings and measurements, and these (supplemented 
by photography since for the same purpose, at Kew and else- 
where) have left little for others to add in that branch of the 
subject. The field of solar research, however, is unlimited, and 
the interesting questions, raised by the discussion of recent the- 
ories as to the nature of cyclonic action, led me to commence a 
series of drawings in which the attempt was made accurately to 
delineate upon the largest practicable scale some one spot or 

▲. ▲. ▲. 8. VOL. XXII. 11 



162 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AKD OHSMISTBT. 

group, from the time of its first appearance at the eastern limb, 
daily, until it passed fVom view, for the specific purpose of deter- 
mining the extent of any gyratory movement of the spot upon 
its own axis, or any motions of its parts among themselves, and 
not with the aim of ascertaining the laws of its movement of 
translation. While the heliocentric coordinates were therefore 
determined only with a precision sufiScient to indicate the spof s 
approximate place, the drawing itself was rather a map than a 
picture, being intended to embody the results of micrometrical 
measurements throughout. I have in accumulating many data 
of this kind, which are still awaiting reduction, been led inci- 
dentally to a study of the minuter details of the surface, and to 
an impression that the interest of recent spectroscopic discoveries 
has rather unduly diverted attention from what remains to be done 
by the older methods. Although considerable labor has been de- 
voted at Allegheny to the class of observations to which I refer, 
as well as to a revision of the early researches of Henry with the 
thermopile, and the subsequent ones of Secchi, I wish here to give 
only some brief account of researches carried on with the tele- 
scope alone, and which seem to me to offer some suggestions 
which may be of interest in reference to physical theories of the 
solar circulation, since they are obtained by a method independent 
of the spectroscopic researches upon which these theories have 
of late been chiefly based. 

I may presume that every student of the subject is acquainted 
with the controversy which arose some ten years since out of Mr. 
Nasmyth's supposed discovery that the solar photosphere was 
composed of bodies shaped like willow .leaves, very definite in 
outline and about 0-4" in width by 2-00" in length. Since that 
discussion, which left our knowledge of the minute structure of 
the photosphere still in an unsatisfactory state, very little indeed 
has been done in this direction, and what observations have since 
been' added have been often so apparently contradictory, that I 
think it would be diflScult to point to an account of any consid- 
erable detail which has not been controverted or left in doubt by 
some other observer. 

The cause of this lies chiefly in the extreme diflaculty of such 
observation, yet not wholly. The nomenclature of the subject is 
iB a regrettable confusion, scarcely any two observers using their 
descriptive terms in the same sense. To fix my own meaning 



▲. MATHEMATICS, PHT8IC8 AKD CHBMISTBT. 168 

let me premise that by the *'iinclei" of a spot, I refer to certain 
dark shades discernible by special caution within the nmbra, in 
some cases, and that while not using the word with the exact sig- 
nificance that Mr. Dawes seems to have attached to it, I agree 
with him in employing it in this restricted sense, where others 
have made it a synonyme for the umbras themselves. By *' pores" 
I mean relatively dark portions of the photosphere, where the 
withdrawal of the aggregations of luminous matter for a little 
space exposes a relatively gray medium, in which these incan- 
descent aggregations appear elsewhere to float. The word ^^rice- 
grains" I use provisionally in the sense apparently attached to it 
by Mr. Stone. As it will appear from all I have said that there 
is a peculiar liability to misconception here, I aid the explanation 
of my meaning as I go on, by these colored drawings,* and will 
first briefly describe the appearance of the photosphere in tele- 
scopes of moderate power and in good photographs, in order to 
prevent any confusion of what is thus seen, with that of the 
minute structure hereafter described as visible in the most pow- 
erful telescopes only under favorable circumstances. 

When with a telescope of moderate power, we project the image 
of the sun upon a white surface, we see a disc of nearly uniform 
brightness, but which is yet perceptibly grayer at the pircumference 
' than near the centre. Elongated and very irregular patches of 
white are seen near the edges (very commonly surrounding a spot 
there), in relief against this gi'a}', and these (which are the well 
known /acu^ce) and the spots themselves are all that at first sight 
appear to break the uniformity of the disc. Let us discard them 
from mind atid confine our attention to the nearly uniform white 
snrface of the central part of the sun. With proper care, and 
while still using a moderate aperture, this surface is seen to be 
mottled with small .cloud-like forms, which are of no definable 
shape, and which elude any attempt to delineate their outline. 
They may be observed in some superior photographs of the -sun, 
notably in those obtained by Mr. Rutherford, and in those taken 
at Cambridge by the refiecting mirror and long horizontal tele- 
scope as used by Professor Winlock. They are only well seen, 
however, in a comparatively small number of photographs, and 
appear to be missed when the atmosphere is not in a very favor- 
able state. Still they are visible, as I say, in the projected 

* Three drawings in color were exhibited at tlie time the paper waa read. 



164 A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

image obtained from a telescope of moderate power. Their gen- 
eral appearance may be not inaptly compared to that of flocks of 
wool strewn on a white cloth, from which their color is just dis- 
tinguishable, and I mention this fleecy structure, seen in ordinary 
telescopes and good photographs, only to request that it may in 
no way be confounded with its far more minute components I am 
about to describe. 

We shall shortly have occasion to look in the white photo- 
spheric surface for bodies which are nearly its own color, and 
whose probable diameter is less than 0'^'' of an arc, and as these 
lie close together, it is evident that however bright the light, we 
cannot avoid the indefiniteness caused by diffraction without the 
use of apertures, at least as large as those requisite for the closest 
double stars. We must of course then use for this research, tele- 
scopes such as are seldom found in private hands, and this, with 
the intrinsic interest of the study, points it out as a fit subject 
for the employment of the large equatorials of our regular obser- 
vatories. That of the Allegheny Observatory, employed in the 
present case, has thirteen inches of aperture. 

When we use a large telescope upon the sun, we find two great 
difiiculties; one the excessive light and heat, the other the dis- 
turbance produced in our own atmosphere, and which is greater 
by day than by night. For the first difficulty we employ special 
optical aids such as the Dawes eye-piece or, far better, the polar- 
izing eye-piece, which gives an image <of the sun sensibly devoid 
of color, and of any brightness desired. For the second there is 
no remedy but assiduity and patience. 

In this kind of investigation, drawings are very necessary, but 
rather such as emulate the fidelity of the topographical draughts- 
man, than such aslaim primarily at pictorial efiiact. I am accus- 
tomed to try to secure accuracy in the numerous details which 
the photograph cannot yet reach, by reducing everything to mi- 
crometrical measurement, where it is possible. A very useful help, 
where we have a large equatorial provided with clock-work, is to 
attach to the instrument a light frame, which holds a sheet of 
paper at any convenient distance fi'om the eye-piece, and perpen- 
dicular to the optical axis. The Position Filar Micrometer being 
in its place, when the instrument is turned on the sun, an en- 
larged image of the spot is projected upon the pi^er, and the 
wires of the micrometer along with it. Then the projection of the 



▲• MATHEliATICS, PHTSI08 AND CHEHISTBT. 165 

spot may be made to run along the projection of the wire, just as 
a star is made to run along the wire itself, and measurements may 
be made both of position and magnitude, as accurately as in any 
ordinary use of the instrument, and with a rapidity otherwise 
unattainable; — a rapidity indispensable in an object which so 
incessantly changes its form. In practice it is usually even yet 
better to draw an accurate scale upon the paper itself, to ascertain 
its value in arc by the transit of the solar limb over it, and then 
to trace the outlines of the spot directly on the paper, on which it 
remains fixed while the sheet is carried along by the clock-work« 
This projection it will be understood is merely a skeleton to be 
enlarged and filled in by subsequent direct study with the polar- 
izing eye-pieccj to which the ordinary micrometer is not well 
adapted. For the stiH enhanced accuracy of work with this (the 
polarizing eye-piece), Professor Rogers, now of the Harvard Col- 
lege Observatory, has had the goodness to rule for me two of his 
very beautiful glass reticules, which may also be employed in the 
focus with a fhll aperture where the common web would be burned. 
I have not yet, however, had an opportunity of using these reti- 
cules to their full advantage, and have temporarily employed 
coarser graduations on mica, as a special micrometer for use with 
the polarizing eye-piece. With an instrument I designed some 
years since, and in which the ray is polarized with three successive 
reflections, the eye may be placed in the actual solar focus of the 
lens of thirteen inches aperture without the intervention of any 
colored medium and without inconvenience. 

When with such improved optical and other aids, we now return 
to the study of the photosphere, we are enabled to see that the 
fleecy or cloud-like surface, first mentioned, is a singularly complex 
structure. Isolate, as far as we can, any one of these scarcely 
distinguishable fleeces on the solar surface, its surface in turn is 
found to be covered with small patches of gray, united by whiter 
lines of most irregular form, and which it is hard to distinguish 
clearly from the background, which they so much resemble in 
color. The size of these -gray patches, which have received the 
name of Pores, is very various, and they appear to be caubed by 
the absence of the clusters of whiter nodules, which as it will, be 
seen, make up the photosphere. The great variety in their sizes 
and shapes makes any direct estimate of their magnitude unreli- 
able, but we may say in a roughly approximative way, that the 



166 A. ICATHBl^ATICS} PHT8XCS AND CHBMISTRT« 

average linear diameter of the more conspicuous pores is from 2" 
to Z" of arc. The photospheric surface is filled with small, in- 
tensely bright, masses, chiefly oval or elongated, half defined by 
a faint gray background from which they are just distinguishable, 
which blend into each other, and in looking at which the eye is 
tantalized by the fitfUl appearance of a still more minute subdi- 
vision, which is rather suspected than seen. The fleecy appear- 
ance seen in good photographs, and which has been before de* 
scribed, is due then to the aggregation of these* forms, which I 
understand to be designated by the term ^'Rice-grains." Finally, 
in moments of the very rarest definition, with large apertures and 
very considerable magnifying powers, these '^ Rice-grains" or 
^'Granules" I have in turn resolved into unequally brilliant minute 
nodules, circular or very slightly elongated, each usually separate 
and distinct (as although numbers of them may be in juxtaposi- 
tion their lines of demarcation are yet visible), and whose average 
diameter is probably much within one-half of a second pf arc. 
The ultimate structure then, of the photosphere, is found ta con- 
sist of these seemingly discrete bodies, which float, as it were, in 
an ocean of comparatively gray fluid. These bodies are visibly 
the principal source of the solar light, their remarkable individu- 
ality being perhaps on the whole their most notable feature. The 
aggregation of these excessively minute nodules forms the ^' Rice- 
grains ;" themselves seen in large telescopes only under more than 
ordinarily favorable circumstances ; and the aggregation of '' Rice- 
grains" and ''Fores" combines with confused definition to present 
the fleecy appearance which is generally easily recognized, and which 
bears some resemblance to our clouds, while for the priroaiy 
components I know of no analogy in our terrestrial atmosphere. 
Considering that Mr. Nasmyth's "willow-leaves" are something 
like two entire seconds of arc in length, and that the photosphere 
has been resolved by Secchi, and perhaps by others beside the 
writer, into discrete bodies of less than one-fourth this size, it is 
allowable to say with confidence, that if such willow-leaved shapes 
always exist, they would have been seen. Still I think from Mr. 
Nasmyth's drawings, that he was the first or among the first to get 
an idea (though a partially incorrect one) of the ultimate stmct- 
ure of the photosphere ; and those only who know, from their own 
experience, that sometimes three months of daily observation 
will not in our climate yield in the aggregate fifteen minutes of 



▲. ICATHSKATICS, PHTSICS AKD QHBICISTBT. 167 

sach study seeing that these *' Bice-grains " even can be clearly dis- 
tinguished f^om each other, with the best optical means, will under- 
stand how easy it is for conscientious and able observera to differ 
among themselves as widely as Nasmyth, Dawes, Secchi and 
others did at first, in their accounts of this singularly interesting, 
but singularly difficult, observation. Let us now study these 
bodies in the vicinity of a sunspot, and in the spot itself, of which 
they constitute under a modified form the most important feature. 
Let us view them in some small isolated spot before we examine 
them in larger and more complex ones. 

As we approach the spot, we see them elongated and protruding 
upon the gray boundary of the penumbra. This penumbral edge 
is always, I think, far more irregular than ordinaiily drawn, and 
its irregularities are resolved in the best seeing into these 
minute ultimate constituents of the solar surface. The outer 
border of the penumbra, it is readily observed, is darker than its 
interior edge ; but it is a fact of interest I have not seen remarked 
upon, that this outer penumbral shade is nothing else than the 
gray interstitial matter, which covers the whole solar surface, and 
in which the ^^Bice-grains" appear elsewhere as suspended. The 
impression is vividly conveyed in good seeing that these ^' Bice- 
grains" are really filaments of considcFable length, whose extrem* 
ities only are seen on the surface (a fact first discovered I think, 
by Mr. Dawes), and that there is a break in their continuity 
around the spot. They are dimly seen occasionally through this 
gray penumbral edge, and reappear as the well-known 'Hhatch- 
straws" of Dawes, over all the inner part of the penumbra, and 
especially where they are seen projected on the darker umbral 
shade. It will be understood that I find both rice-grains and 
thatch-straws are in turn resolvable, and that I consider the ' 'Bice- 
grain" and '' Thatch-straw," one and the same thing under dif- 
ferent aspects, and that both consist of a union of more minute 
filaments. I will, however, continue to use the term (filament) 
here, in the sense in which it is employed by others, though it 
should perhaps be reserved to indicate this minutest and scarcely 
recognized subdivision. 

We can derive most essential aid, in the study of currents within 
the spots, from these filaments, the spectroscope telling us partly 
of the direction of the motion, but nothing definite as to the loca- 
tion and inclination of the currents whose interaction is so well 



168 A. ICATHXMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

worth study. Their disposition enables ns to see, I think, that the 
theory of the sun-spot so ably developed by Faye, and which is bo 
fertile in explanation of the most diverse phenomena, is yet to be 
extended or modified in some details. There appears for instance 
to be a less marked cyclonic action in the small and unsegmented 
spots. So far as my observation has gone, these filaments are not, 
in such cases, to be ordinarily seen bent by any single whirlwind 
so that they have a common spiral tendency. Not unfrequently the 
filaments, or rather the thatch-straws, are short, nearly straight, 
and lying in quite different directions like a heap of jackstraws. It 
is, it is true, the rule and not the exception to find them carved, 
but it is ordinarily by what seems to be the action of small and 
independent local whirlwinds. A gyratory movement of the spot 
as a whole, about a motionless axis, may exi^t, but it is not plainly 
marked on the filaments, which are such sensitive indices of other 
local action. Nearly associated with these small local whirlwinds 
are the evidences apparently of both an upward and a downward 
current, in the umbra of the same spot, and sometimes of several 
such. The polarizing eye-piece shows that the nuclei or darker 
shades of the umbra occupy no certain position near the centre, 
such as Mr. Dawes was disposed to assign them, and that the um- 
bra itself is a very complex structure, crossed not only by the 
well known bridges or bright ropes of filaments which invade and 
lie along it, like tangled white threads upon an ink spot, but that 
it (the umbra) is made up largely of these same filaments, which 
are dimly seen, as it were, beneath its surface, and often of a red- 
dish brown on the violet purple of the umbra, which is also some- 
times studded Avith minute points of light, formed apparently by 
the tips of the filaments which are occasionally presented to us 
here in the same foreshortened position, as on the general surface. 
In Secchi's work umbral colors are occasionally depicted of as 
vivid a crimson as that of incandescent hydrogen seen on a bright 
background. This intensely vivid crimson I have not observed, 
though a brick-red tint is not uncommon. If the downward cur- 
rent were at the centre of the spot, and the compensating uprush 
at the edge of the umbra. We might expect to find the ends of the 
filaments which overhang the umbra, brighter than elsewhere, and 
this is ordinarily the case, but it is a rule not without exceptions. 
I have seen these bright threads of light, bending down and grow- 
ing darker as though further and further immersed in some dark 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHTSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 169 

fluid ; like rushes overhaoging a turbid stream, in which their 
points are dipped and in which th^ eye can follow them below the 
Borface. I have seen again these thatch-straws presenting an ap- 
pearance analogous to that to which geologists give the name of a 
" fault ;" as if broken with a continuous line of fracture running 
transversely to their length, over nearly one-third the circumfer-^ 
ence of a spot, and the lower portion partly overflowed, if I may 
use the term, by the umbral shade. 

It appears, then, that even in small spots there are sometimes 
several centres of action, and this view is somewhat strengthened 
by the fact that a cyclonic action extending uniformly over the 
whole spot is so rare. The filaments, though very generally bent, 
are bent in different directions, and as though by many small and 
independent whirlwinds, moving in concert as we may see them in 
a dusty street. I have also frequently observed in these filaments 
evidence of superposed currents, nearly as definite as that we ob- 
tain when we look up to our sky to see one set of clouds moving 
over and in an opposite direction to another. 

I cannot convey without drawings made with more graphic 
skill than I possess, an adequate idea of the extraordinary forms 
these filaments assume, but I would insist on the fact that they 
under almost all circumstances, preserve the appearance of individ- 
ual bodies. Whether seen on the general photosphere, or in the pe- 
numbra, or projected on the umbra, they rarely or never seem to 
merge into one another ; however they may be massed together 
and twisted by the solar whirlwinds, they remain distinct like the 
strands of a rope. Even in the bridges of light over the umbra, 
which appear at first to be composed of a fusion of them, a fine, 
scarcely visible dark line may be traced in good seeing, along the 
bridge, which testifies to the unsurrendered individuality of the 
component parts. It is very difficult to conceive of matter in any 
form that we know it, which would behave just as this docs. 
They (the filaments) are seen at times bending into graceAil flame- 
like curves as though perfectly pliable ; at other times they may 
be found (appareiitly) broken abruptly. They are collected at 
times in the large spots into forms of the most tantalizing com- 
plexity, strangely suggesting something that is both foliate and 
crystalline in structure, and I have seen such which could be com- 
pared to the most complex and beautiful forms ever traced by the 
frost on a window pane. In some large spots, the centres of 



I 



170 ▲. XATHBMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTBT. 

violent disturbances, I have seen in those very rare moments when 
the highest power of a great telescope may be used, forms of which 
I should almost hesitate to present an uncorroborated delineation, 
were I able, so unlike are they to those commonly depicted in 
sun-spot drawings, and so curiously do these exceptional forms 
simulate those of vegetation. Even the generally excellent draw- 
ings of Secchi completely fail here, as indeed anything but the 
photograph must fail, and our subject is unhappily far beyond the 
reach of anything solar photography has done yet. 

As to the size of these rice-grains or filaments, it will be remem- 
bered that estimates of the most varied kind have been made by 
skilled observers. Chacornac, in a communication to the ^^ Comp- 
tes Bendus" of the Institute, states that he finds the average 
diameter of the rice-grains to be one hundred and sixty leagues, 
which is almost precisely V* of arc. Nasmyth makes their length 
something like twice as great, and Secchi gives a value very much 
less than either. I have made one set of measurements with the 
mica scale, the value of whose division was approximately 15", by 
counting the number of umbral threads to each division. The 
mean of three such measurements gave 1*14" as the distance of 
the observed threads from centre to centre. The measurements 
were made with the polarizing eye-piece, but were varied on one 
occasion when the atmosphere was so exceptionally tranquil, that 
the solar image could be projected upon a graduated screen with 
such definition that the individual filaments were counted on the 
paper, and their number to a division estimated. This quite inde- 
pendent determination gave 1.08'' ; these measurements including, 
with the filaments, the considerable space which separates each 
fh>m each.* I have never as yet been able to obtain sufiSciently 
precise vision for micrometrical work upon these bodies on the 
general photosphere. There is an admitted assumption therefore, 
in taking this measurement to be the same which might have been 
found at the other extremity of the filaments where they appear 

* Subsequent meitsnreinentSy under reiy fiivorable cIrcumstanceB, gave where taken 
on a group of filaments Ijing In unusuaUj cloee Juxtaposition, a mean of rather leas than 
aix-tenths of a second for the sum of the width of the filament and that of the space 
separating It fh>m its neighbor. In the case of both rice-grains and filaments irradia- 
tion masics the true figure, while enhancing the apparent sise; of this intervming 
space of 00", then, the share that is to be assigned to the filaments must be partly 
conjectural. If we assume the filaments as equal in absolute diameter to the interral 
which separates them (which I can hardlj think thej are), we obtain 0*8" as the ap- 
proximate size. Note added March, 1874. 



▲• MATHBXATICS, PHYSICS AND CHBIOSTBT. 171 

at the Burface ; I feel coBfident, however, from repeated scratiny, 
that the difference, if it e^^st, is inconsiderable. I believe we 
have no data yet from any source which will enable us to speak 
positively as to the absolute size of the filaments, as we cannot 
yet allow for the effect of irradiation ; still if we assume the width 
of these bodies to equal only the average space between them, we 

m 

shall find it not more than half of a second of arc, at the most ; 
but it may for anything we can yet tell, be much less. All that 
we can now do is to assign an upper limit to their diameter, 
and this I think cannot, ordinarily exceed one-half of a second 
of arc. It is well to repeat that it may be almost anything less, 
irradiation here masking the real magnitude as it does in the case 
of a star. It is very desirable that more measurements be ob- 
tained, and it is not through negligence that I have failed to 
multiply them as I should have been glad to do, till their probable 
error could be determined, but it will be remembered that a year 
may pass by without bringing more than a few hours of conseCi- 
utive seeing, good enough for this very difficult work, in which 
only large apertures and high powers can be used, for we can 
employ high powers probably ten times at night on a star, where 

« 

we can once with advantage upon the sun, owing to the greater 
atmospheric tremor by day and the distortion of the image by 
the unequal heating of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the 
object-glass.* 

In this connection, I will, while repeating that the whole of 
the umbra appears to be frequently composed of forms not unlike 
the penumbral ones, add that the color as well as the light of the 
isolated umbra is usually decided. I have, with some care, made 
an esi>eriment which is very simple in conception, and which, 
though not easy in practice, I am surprised to find no record of 
elsewhere. It consists in completely cutting off all extraneous 
light emitted by the penumbra and umbra, so that none can be 
received by the eye, unfess it be from the apparently perfectly 
tkuk ''nucleus" or core of the umbra. The eye being so placed 
that it can receive light from that alone, this intensely ''black" 

*Sine« reading this paper, I hare had several opportunities for extendioff these 
measnrements. The detailed results of later researches would not be in place here, 
hot I may saj that I should now rather reduce than enlarge the estimates of the size of 
the illaments here giren, and that it seems probable that with the opportunity of ap< 
plying higher powers, the resolution of these filaments or of the components of the 
rloe-grains, Into stiU minuter aggregations, is likely to go on indefinitely. Kote ad- 
ded Much; 11174. 



I 



172 A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 

« 

nucleus is seen to shine with a dazzling light, ordinarily of a vio- 
let tint. I have also received the umbral light upon a screen so 
arranged as to be Illuminated only by it, and by diffused daylight, 
and then with brush and color made a large number of imitations 
of its tint directly upon the paper beside it, until one was found, 
which, in the independent judgment of two persons, most nearly 
represented it. It was nearly matched by the purple technically 
called "violet-carmine" (coloi-ed sheet exhibited). 

One objection against the gaseous theory of the sun, urged, I 
believe, by Mr. Herbert Spencer, as well as by professional astron- 
omers, has been that the laws of gaseous radiation oblige us to 
believe that the body of the sun (if purely gaseous and dark) 
would be transparent ; that we should hence be enabled to see the 
photosphere upon the other side quite through the whole body, 
(thus looking through the sunspot as through a window to light 
beyond), and that a necessary result of a purely gaseous sun with 
a non-luminous interior would hence be that sun-spots would not 
be visible at all. This reasoning, in itself theoretically justifi- 
able, evidently here rests on an assumption as to the /act of the 
blackness of the nucleus, an assumption which must have ap- 
peared, at the time it was made, quite justifiable, it being founded 
probably on the language of Mr. Dawes ; an excellent and usually 
most cautious observer, but who in this case in speaking of the 
" perfectly black" nucleus used too unqualified terms. 

To restate in a few words the substance of what has been 
said : — 

The surface of the whole sun is covered with filiform bodies 
which are of an average diameter of not greater than one-half of 
a second of arc, and whose length is undetermined, but very con- 
siderable. The aggregation of these upon the surface has given 
rise to forms which, seen under ordinary definition, might possi- 
bly be mistaken for a " willow-leaf "-like structure, but no such 
spindle-shaped or willow-leaved bodies (in the sense in which Mr. 
Nasymth first described them) exist. The study of these bodies 
where seen in the penumbra, though difficult, forms at present, 
perhaps, our best means of learning the direction of solar currents, 
the most prominent results being that the dominant type is that 
of forms evidently due to cyclonic action, and that cloud strata 
superposed in a complex manner, and drifting over one another 
in difTerent directions are also common. While the existence of 



A. MATHEMATICS, PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY. 173 

some such appearances as the minute photosphcric forms present 
when aggregated upon the surface, and when segregated and 
drawn out in the penumbrse, may be recognized under the respec- 
tive terms of "rice-grains" and "thatch-straws," such phrases, 
unqualified, are calculated to mislead, and should be replaced by 
more'accurate ones representing the results of a critical study of 
bodies, which whatever be their nature, are the immediate sources 
of the solar light, and which are in every way deserving of far 
more attention than they have received. 

The best photographs are as yet far from being able to repre- 
sent these forms, and careful drawings based directly upon micro- 
metrical measurements, and in which pictorial effect is considered 
only as it is incidental to minute fidelity, afibrd at present our 
best means of studying them, and (by comparison) of correcting 
the efiects of subjective peculiarities of the observer. 

The great utility of a very elevated station for observation, 
which has been brought into renewed notice by recent spectro- 
scopic acquisitions, would seem however to promise every gain 
for sach researches as these. 

What has just been said will not be understood to be meant 
to depreciate the great advantages which photography can rea- 
der now, in researches as to the motion of the spots, and it may 
be hoped is destined to render, as to the minute details of their 
structure. No one can be more conscious than I am, of the inev- 
itable defects of such drawings of the minute structure as this, 
or more desirous to see photography take their place, which, how- 
ever, the time has not yet come for it to do. Aware of the little 
r have been able to attain certitude on, 1 deem it best to confine 
myself at present to a simple description of what appear to be 
facts of observation, without on this occasion offering any hypoth- 
esis as to the nature or function of thQ things described. 



BBFEBEKCE TO PLATE. 



I hare been enabled by the kindnesB of the Association to add to this paper 
a photogrraphic redaction of one of the drawings exhibited at the Portland Meeting, 
which I have slightly modified slnce^ that it might embody results more iwsently 
attained. It might be called a typical sun-spot, as it is rather a collection of typical 
forms taken directly flrom studies made and compared at the telescope, and then 
brought together in their proper physical connection, than an attempt to delineate ex- 
actly any particular spot at a given moment. This method of procedure is in fact una- 
Toidable, as spots change so rapidly that drawings ot any accuracy of detail must 
present features which would not have been simultaneously seen. No attempt is made 
to give any speoifio photospheric forms away Trom the spot or anything else than th« 
general appearance of the photosphere. In ihe spot, however, everything is (as for as 
my ability to represent what I saw goes) a minutely literal transcript of so much of 
what presented itself In good definition at various times as was nnqueatlonably seen. 
(174) 



TITLES OF COMMUNICATIONS. 



The following titles of papers read in Section A include those 
accepted by the committee for publication in full, but of which 
the authors have failed to send copy, as well as those which the 
committee decided should be printed by title only : 

On a New Fobii of Breakcibcuit and the Electric Control 
OF Chronographs. By C. A. Young, of Hanover, N. H. 

The Solar Envelope. By C. A. Young, of Hanover, N. H. 

Meridional Arcs measured in the Progress of the Coast 
Survey. By J. E. Hilgard, of Washington, D. C. 

On Solar Disturbances of the Magnetic Needle. By J. E. 
Hilgard, of Washington, D. C. 

On Methods op Determining the Ratio of Volume and Weight 
OF Water. By J. E. Hilgard, of Washington, D. C. 

The Coefficient of Safett in NAviaAxiON. By William A. 
BoGERS, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Notice of some Experiments in Etching on Glass. By Wm. A. 
Rogers, of Cambridge, Mass. 

On the Periodic Error of the Right Ascensions of the Nau- 
tical Almanac, and its Effect on the Longitudes which 
DEPEND on them. By Wm. a. Rogers, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Notice of a Machine for Ruling Microscopical Lines. By 
Wm. a. Rogers, of Cambridge, Mass. 

On the SuBSTrruTiON op Double for Single Threads in Transit 
Instruments, and of Diagonal Threads for Micrometers 
IN Zenith Telescopes. By Wm. A. Rogers, of Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Thb Atmospheric Electricity of the Earth, of the Sun and 
OF the Comets ; and the Physical Constitution op the Sun 
AND of thb Comets. By Jacob Ennis, of Philadelphia, Penn. 

(176) 



176 a. mathematics, phtsics and chemi8tbt. 

The Telescope and the Means op Improving it, and also tot 
Utilization of Solar Heat. By George W. Hollet of 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

Note on the Rotation of the Planets as a Result of the Neb- 
ular Theory. By Benjamin Peirce, of Cambi*idge, Mass. 

Facts and Suggestions in Proof of the Theory of the Grad- 
ual AND Continual Diminution of the Quantity of Watee 
UPON the Earth, and its Conversion into Solid Forms of 
Matter. By Mrs. George W. Houk, of Dayton, Ohio. 

Cold Water Condensers. By Joseph B. Walker, of Louisville, 

Ky. 

On the Inconceivable Elasticity op the Het^ric or Commok 
English Alphabet. By Wm. Boyd and H. G. Allen, of 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Methods for Regulating the Motion of Chronograph. By 
G. W. Hough, of Albany, N. Y. 

Relation of Frequency of Auroras to Changes in the Length 
OF THE Earth's Radius Vector. By E. B. Elliott, of 
Washington, D. C. 

The Cohesion of Liquids. By George J. Wardwell, of Rut- 
land, Vt. 

Investigation into the True Cause of a Peculiar Form of 
Mirage. By P. H. Van der Weyde, of New York, N. Y. 

Periodicity of Rates of Interest in the New York Market. 
By E. B. Elliott, of Washington, D. C. 

Irregularities in the Returns of the Population op the U. S. 
Census of 1870, at Earlier Ages, with Methods and Re- 
sults OF Correction and Adjustment. By E. B. Elliott, of 
Washington, D. C. 

Life Table, Table op Mean Future Duration of Life, and 
Table of Life Annuity, on the Basis of the U. S. Census 
of 1870, with Method of Construction. By E. B. Eluott, 
of Washington, D. C. . 

International Coinage — its Progress. By E. B. Eluott, of 
Washington, D. C. 



a. mathematics, physics and chemistbt. 177 

Method of Habmonizikg Apothecabebs' and the Metric System 
OF Weights. By E. B. Elliott, of Washington, D. C. 

Metric and Radial Systems of Measures of Length. By 
E. B. Elliott, of Washington, D. C. 

On the Credit of the U. S. Government, as indicated by the 
Daily Market Quotations of Prices of its Securities. By 
E. B. Elliott, of Washington, D. C. 

On the Dissociation of Water by Heat as a Cause of Steam 
Boiler Explosions. By L. Bradley, of Jersey City, N. J. 

An Automatic Filtering Apparatus at Work, Described ik 
May Number of American Journal of Science. By H. W. 
Wiley, of Indianapolis, Ind. 

The Unreliability of Life Statistics as Usually Compiled. 
By T. 8. Lambert, of New York, N. Y. 

Exhibition of a Microscope of Novel Construction, with New 
Style of Micrometer and Remarks on the Method of En- 
larging THE Field. By P. H. Van der Weyde, of New 
York, N. Y. 

fiSMARKS ON A PROJECTED GiGANTIC TELESCOPE. By P. H. VaN 

DER Weyde, of New York, N. Y. 

Remarks on the Angular Aperture of Immersion OBjEcnvES 
FOR the Microscope. By R. H. Ward, of Troy, N. Y. 

Ok Heating Iron by Hammering. By F. W. Clarke, of Wash- 
in^n, D. C. 

Some Remarks on the Equilibrium and Dynamic Theories of 
THE Tides. By J. G. Barnard, of New York, N. Y. 

Rkmahks upon the Last Circular of Dr. Petermann, from the 
Swedish and Norwegian Arctic Exploring Expeditions. 
By William W. Wheildon, of Concord, Mass. 

A. A. A. 8. yOL. XXH. 12 



PART II. 



SECTION B, 

NATUKAL HISTORY. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



On the Duty op Governments in the Pbeservation of Forests. 
By Franklin B. Hough, of Lowville, N. Y. 

The presence of stately ruins in solitary deserts, is conclusive 
proof that great climatic changes have taken place within the 
period of human history in many eastern countries, once highly 
cultivated and densely peopled, but now arid wastes. 

Although the records of geology teach that great vicissitudes 
of climate, from the torrid and humid conditions of the coal 
period, to those of extreme cold which produced the glaciers of 
the drift, may have in turn occurred in the same region, we have no 
reason to believe that any material changes have been brought 
about, by astronomical or other natural causes, within the historic 
period. We cannot account for the changes that have occurred 
since these sunburnt and sterile plains, where these traces of man's 
first civilization are found, were clothed with a luxuriant vegetation, 
except by ascribing them to the improvident acts of man, in de- 
stroying the trees and plants which once clothed the surface, and 
sheltered it from the sun and the windj^. As this shelter was 
removed the desert approached, gaining new power as its area 
increased, until it crept over vast regions once populous and 
fertile, and left only the ruins of former magnificence. 

In more temperate climates the effect is less striking, yet it is 
sufficiently apparent everywhere and throughout our whole country, 
bot especially in the hilly and once wooded regions of the eastern 
and northern states. In these portions of our union the failure of 
springs and wells, the drying up of brooks which once supplied 
ample hydraulic power through the summer, and the increasing 
difficulties of procuring water to supply canals for navigation, and 
wholesome water for cities, are becoming every day something 
more than a subject of casual remark. It is destined to become 
a theme of careful scientific and practical inquiry, to ascertain 
how these growing evils may be checked, and whether the lost 

A.I.A. 8. VOL. XXII. B. (1) 



Z B. KATUBiX HISTOBT. 

advantages may be regained. We regard the ocean itself as the 
source whence the moisture, precipitated in rains, is mainly de- 
rived. Its area changes not ; the . exposure to solar heat is uni- 
form (unless, as some suppose, the spots on the sun's disk may have 
an appreciable influence) ; and, except as varied within fixed limits 
by the inclination of the earth's axis in its revolution around the 
sun, there are no astronomical or other causes that should sensi- 
bly change the annual amount of genei'al evaporation from the 
surface of the ocean fVom year to year or from age to age. The 
vapors raised from the sea are disftributed by the winds over the 
land, and descend as rains where mountain ranges, forests and 
other causes favor condensation, it 4« probable that the Gulf of 
Mexico furnishes more vapor for rain within the United States 
than the Atlantic Ocean, its influence ibeing felt thronghout and 
beyond the great basifi of thie Mississippi and its tributaries. 

In a work which I recently prepared for the Regents of the Uni- 
versity af 4;he state of New York, I was able to collect, from all 
sources and for various periods, in some stations for almost half 
a century, about two thousand years of rainfall records within 
the state <9f New York ; and in a volume published within the last 
year by the Smithsonian Institution, there is a much more ex- 
tended series ifor the whole country. These extensive series are 
not enough to determine, with any claim to accuracy, the secular 
changes, if any, iihat may be going on, in the amount of precipita- 
tion of rain and snow. Although they reveal grest irregularities 
in a series of ^^ars at any given locality, they do mot Justify us in 
supposing that, in the general average of perioda, 'the amount is 
sensibly increasing or diminishing, although they do show, in 
some cases, greater tendencies to drought for a series of years to- 
gether, and often a more unequal 'distribution of isain throughout 
the 5'ear. 

• 

This growing tendency to 'floods and droughts can be directly 
ascribed to the clearing up of woodlands, by >whieh the rains 
quickly find their way into the streams, •oft^n swelling theai into 
destructive floods, instead of sinking into the earth to reappear as 
springs. Aside from the direct effee^ rof shelter and shade 
afforded by trees, the evaporation of raindrops tthat fall upon the 
leaves, and the chemical action of the leaves themselves, have a 
marked influence upon the humidity and temperature of the air 
beneath and around them. The contrast in a very dry season, 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 8 

between an open and sunbarnt pasture, and one interspersed with 
clumps of trees, must have been noticed by every careful observer, 
and the actual relative profits of farms entirely without trees, and 
those liberally shaded (everything else being equal), will show, at 
least in grazing districts, the advantage of the latter in the value 
of their annual products. The fact that furniture, in houses too 
much shaded, will mould, is a familiar and suggestive instance of 
the humid influence of trees, and the aggregate results of wood- 
land shade may well explain the fulness of streams and springs 
in the forest, which dry up and disappear when it is removed. 

The economical value of timber, and our absolute dependence 
upon it for innumerable uses in manufactures and the arts, the 
rapidly increasing demand for it in railroad construction and the 
positive necessity for its use in the affairs of common life, even 
were its use as fuel largely supplanted by the introduction of 
mineral coal, are too obvious for suggestion. It is this necessit}'^, 
rather than considerations of climate or of water supply, that has 
led in several countries of Europe to systems of management 
and regulation of national forests, as a measure of governmental 
policy and public economy. Such systems have been devised to 
a greater or less extent, in Russia, Turkey, Austria, Germany, 
Italy, France, Denmark and Sweden ; and more recently in British 
India. The extent of state forests in France, is about 3,180,000 
acres ; to which may be added 5,385,000 acres belonging to com- 
munes, corporations, hospitals, and other public establishments, 
making the whole extent of forest under the management of the 
forest administration, 8,465,000 acres, or about 18,226 square 
miles. They are distributed widely over the country, a large pro- 
portion being in the departments of the east. Legislation in 
France having in view the preservation of forests, chiefly dates from 
the ordinance of 1669, which fixed a certain time for the cutting of 
forests belonging to the state. A clause was inserted by the 
statesman Colbert, '^ that in all the forests of the state, oaks 
should not be felled unless ripe, that is, unable to prosper another 
thirty years." The present French Forest Code was established 
in 1827. It intrusts the care of public forests to the Ministry 
of Finance, under a Director General, assisted by two administra- 
tions ; one chained with the management of forests, and the sale 
of their products, and the other with the police of the forests, and 
the enforcement of forest laws. In the departments there are 



4 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

thirty-two Conservators, each in charge of one or more departments, 
according to the extent of forests in each. The immediate 
supervision is intrusted to Inspectors, who are assisted hy sub-m- 
spectors and Gardes Generaux^ who live near, and personally 
superintend the work of the forest guards. The latter live in the 
forests, and act as police over a certain range. They personally 
observe the operations, and report all infractions of the laws. No 
timber is cut till marked, and most of the saw-mills are owned by 
the government, and rented to the wood-merchants. The system 
has been extended to Algeria, where several rainy days have been 
added to July and August, by forest culture. 

These details might be extended, but they would not have prac- 
tical application with us, because our states,' ^ a general rule, own 
no large forests, and we have no strong central organizations or 
means of enforcing the stringent regulations which make their 
system a success. The title to the lands in our older states (where 
the evils resulting from the loss of forests are liable to be first and 
most severely felt) has already passed into the hands of Individ* 
uals, and from the theory of our system of government, the 
power that must regulate and remedy these evils must begin with 
the people, and not emanate from a central source. With us, there 
are no great estates, entailed upon future generations, to keep to- 
gether, and promising a reasonable hope of reward to the family 
for a heavy investment in their improvement. Nor is there even 
a reasonable prospect that the landed estate of a wealthy citizen 
will pass unimpaired and undivided beyond one generation of his 
descendants* It should also be remembered that, fi*om the pecu- 
liar nature of forest culture, one generation must plant for another 
to ^^reap," as the age of a fulUgrown tree in some species much 
exceeds that of a human life* The investment for land, planting 
and protection, must be carried with interest into another century » 
and for the benefit of a generation unborn. 

These considerations present a problem difficult, it may be, of 
solution, but I have confidence in the ability of our American 
people to work out a practical sj^stem, adapted to our social organ* 
ization, and our general theory of laws. We must begin at the 
centre of power, and that centre is tha eireumference. We must 
make the people themselves familiar with the facts and the neces- 
sities of the case. It must come to be understood that a tree or 
a forest, planted, is an investment of capital, increasing annually 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. O 

in value as it grows, like money at interest, and worth at any time 
what it has cost — including the expense of planting, and the 
interest which this money would have earned at the given date. 
The great masses of our rural population and land owners should 
be inspired with correct ideas as to the importance of planting 
and preserving trees, and taught the profits that may be derived 
from planting waste spots with timber, where nothing else would 
grow to advantage. They should learn the increased value of 
farms which have the roadsides lined with avenues of trees, and 
should understand the worth of the shelter which belts of timber 
afford to fields, and the general increase of wealth and beauty 
which the country would realize from the united and well-directed 
efforts of the owners of land in thus enriching and beautifying 
their estates. 

In this great work of popular education, agincultural societies 
and kindred associations may do much, by promoting a spirit of 
emulation, and offering premiums for the most effectual results. 
In a recent premium list of the Highland and Agricultural Society 
of Scotland, I notice fourteen prizes ofifered, amounting to one 
hundred sovereigns, in medals and coin, for approved reports upon 
the subject of tree culture in its various relations. They have 
also established a ■ system of examinations, by competent pro- 
fessors of their universities, at which young men may appear 
and receive certificates of attainment, according to degree, which 
can scarcely fail to find for them profitable employment by the 
owners of forest estates. They afford a strong incentive to high 
ambition, and a conspicuous opportunity for those who seek dis- 
tinction in a lucrative and honorable employment. 

The necessities of European governments have led to the estab- 
lishment of Schools of Forestry for instruction in the sciences 
that find application in the growth, preservation and removal of 
timber, in which an eminently practical system of education is 
adopted, and the precepts of the class-room directly applied in the 
operations of the forest. About a dozen such schools exist in 
Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany and Switzerland. The 
necessity for special education in this department is sure to arise 
in our own country, in which perhaps fewer persons will find a 
special profession in forestry, but a greater number will feel the 
want of practical instruction in the principles upon which success 
depends. 






O B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

Our educators would act wisely in taking this into considera- 
tion, in devising plans for new institutions, or revising plans of ex- 
isting ones, and perhaps some far seeing and enlightened benefac- 
tor, of sufficient means, may find in this direction the opportunity 
of rendering his name familiar in the annals of fame, by establish- 
ing a school of forestry, in its most comprehensive sense, for the 
systematic training of educators and practical engineers, in this 
inviting field of enterprise, and fully adapted to our American 
wants and ideas upon this subject. 

However much the public may favor, there will still arise the 
need of laws to regulate, pix>mote and protect the growth of wood ; 
as we find laws necessary in the management of roads and 
bridges, or of any other great object of public utility. Let U8 
consider some of the measures which a state might adopt for the 
promotion of this end, without interfering with personal rights, or 
stepping beyond the line which limits its duty in protecting the 
rights of its citizens. 

1. By withholding from sale such wild and broken lands as 
might be returned from time to time for non-payment of taxes, 
when found chiefiy or only valuable from the growth of timber, 
and by establishing laws for its protection, and for realizing to 
the state or to the county, whatever profits there might arise from 
the thinning out of timber, so as to preserve the tract as a forest. 
In this connection I would remark, that a more efi'ectnal vigilance 
would probably be secured, if the benefits belonged to the local 
administration of the place, as party jealousies and private in- 
terests would tend to keep ofiScials under close surveillance, 
where a state officer, residing at a distance, and not personally 
known in the locality, would often find his authority ignored, 
and the public interests in his charge invaded. There should, 
however, be required an annual report to a state officer, clothed 
with ample power to enforce a rigid compliance with the laws upon 
the subject of forests. 

2. By exempting from taxation for a limited time, and by of- 
fering bounties for, lands planted and enclosed for the growth of 
forest trees. 

3. By offering bounties to counties, towns and individuals, for 
the greatest number of trees planted in a year, and made to Uvo 
through the second season. 

4. By requiring railroad, turnpike and other road companies, 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 7 

where valid reasons to the contrary do not exist, to plant the sides 
of their roads with trees, or empowering town authorities, in case 
of neglect, to do this at their expense. 

5. By imposing a tree-tax, payable in the planting of trees, or 
a fixed sum for each tree, to be expended only in planting trees. 
In cities and villages this commutation might be applied under 
local officers to the improvement of parks or other objects of pub- 
lic utility and ornament. 

6. By protecting trees on the way-side, and in public places, as 
well as on private grounds, from wanton destruction, by adequate 
penalties, sufficient to restore the loss and pay the injury. 

7. By requiring the elements of science applicable to forest cul- 
ture to be taught in the public schools, and by encouraging it in 
academies and colleges. This, in the higher grades of schools, 
would embrace the most approved methods of cultivation, the influ- 
ences of soil and climate, and the various mathematical, mechan- 
ical, ph3'siological and chemical principles involved in the subject. 
Special schools under national or state patronage might ultimatel}' 
be founded. 

Congress has recently taken action tending to encourage the 
planting of forests in the territories, where most needed,* but 
might do much more in promoting this great measure of public 
utility. A few of the states have also done something intended 
to advance the same object, but without uniformity, and as yet 
with but very limited result. 

With respect to the failure of water supply for hydraulic power, 
navigation* or city use, until woodland shade can be restored to 
the sources, we must depend upon reservoirs, to retain the surplus 
floods of winter for summer wants. There are few streams or 
rivers in the country, where these might not be made to advan- 
tage, and in some cases greatly to the improvement of the natural 
capacity of these streams as they were first known. In the con- 
Btmction and maintenance of these reservoirs for navigable canals 
or for cities, they should obviously be under the same control as 
these works themselves, of which they are the essential part. But 
where needed for hydraulic power only, they could best be in- 
tmsted to the management of those who have an interest in them, 
and government should only provide, by general laws, for the or- 
ganization and regulation of companies with the corporate powers 
necessary for their object. As in other cases where pecuniary 



/ 



8 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

values are involved, the vote or power of each owner should be in 
just proportion to his interest, with the right of appointing a 
proxy to represent it when desired. Under suitable regulations of 
law, such associations could scarcely be perverted from their 
proper object. 

There may be cases in which a state would be justified in 
making reservoirs to improve the hydraulic power of rivers, thus 
securing solidity of construction, and amplitude of size ; and often 
such improvements might be made before any capital had been in- 
vested along the line, or where its amount was too feeble to war- 
rant the expenditure ; but the expense should ultimately be taxed 
upon the interests ' concerned, and the management should be 
given up to these interests, as soon as it can safely be done. 

In the state of New York, measures have been begun for the 
preser>'ation of forests, which I may briefly notice. An extensive 
region north of the Mohawk river and west of Lake Champlain, 
embracing over two million of acres of land, the Adirondack 
Mountains, and the sources of the Hudson and other rivers, lies 
an unbroken wilderness. More than a hundred years have passed 
since settlements were formed on its southern and eastern border, 
and more than seventy since it has been entirely surrounded by a 
belt of improvement embracing some of the best farming lands of 
the state. Although a scheme of speculation was far advanced 
before the close of the colonial period, for the settlement of this 
region, and great sums have since been wasted by capitalists in 
attempting to develop its agricultural resources, these efforts have 
uniforml3^ resulted in failure ; and, excepting in a few favored 
spots, the region is still as wild and picturesque as when it was 
known only as the hunting ground of the native Indian. This 
uniform failure may be justly ascribed to the scanty sterile soil 
which covers the surface where the surface is not the naked rock, 
and to the cold and forbidding character of the climate, due to 
great elevation and the influences of mountain ranges. Com and 
the cultivated fruits would seldom ripen, from the frosts that 
may happen at any time in the summer, and only hay, oats and 
potatoes can be grown to advantage where the soil and exposure 
favor. Yet it is for the most part covered with timber, often of 
the finest quality, and it is supposed to abound in magnetic iron 
ores, of which mines are wrought with great profit near the east- 
em border. 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. V 

Some twenty years ago, some railroad speculators secured from 
the state, a grant of a quarter of a million of acres, at five cents 
an acre, yet failed to build the road, or to confer the advantages 
promised ; and since this period almost the whole of the lands in 
this region have passed into the hands of lumbermen and tanners, 
leaving at present only about forty thousand acres in the seven 
counties wholly or partly included in the wilderness. Most of 
these lands have been repeatedly returned and sold for the non- 
payment of taxes, and if no more tax skies are held, a lai^e por- 
tion will doubtless in a very few years again revert to the state. 
Through this wilderness lines of navigation extend through lakes 
.and along rivers with slight portages, entirely across, from the 
Moose and Beaver rivers on the west, to the Saranac and Racket 
rivers of the northeast. For many years it has been the favor- 
ite haunt of parties of sportsmen and those seeking relaxation 
from the cares of business, by a few weeks' residence in summer, 
among the wild picturesque scenery and healthful climate of this 
region. Hotels for summer residence have been built upon the 
banks of lakes in various places in the inteiior, and many guides 
find emplo^nnent in conducting parties along these rivers and lakes, 
and in furnishing the supplies and assistance they may need. 
Boads and telegraphs have been constructed to navigable points 
in the interior, and every year adds to the number of visitors to 
this great solitude of woods and waters. 

In 1872, the Legislature of New York passed an act creating 
a Commission of State Parks, and appointing certain persons 
therein named to examine and report upon the expediency of vest- 
ing in the state, the title to the wild and timbered regions lying 
within Lewis, Essex, Clinton, Franklin, St. Lawrence, Herkimer 
and Hamilton counties, and to recommend such measures as might 
be deemed proper, relative thereto. The Commission was to 
continue two years, and there is a probability that it will be 
made permanent. Already, at its suggestion, the sale of lands for 
non-payment of taxes has been ordered to be discontinued, and 
thus the first step taken towards the accomplishment of its object. 
The commission will recommend no enclosed grounds, no sala- 
ried keepers, and no attempt whatever at ornamentation. There 
should be stringent laws and adequate penalties against spoliation 
of timber, or destruction from careless fires ; and means of access 
from various places on lines of thoroughfare should be provided 



10 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

and maintained. In some cases short canals, with locks for pass- 
ing boats, might save the labor of a difficult portage, but beyond 
these there is scarcely more needed for the present.. 

There are, however, important questions involving the supply 
of water for the state canals ; the preservation or restoration of 
hydraulic power on the rivers ; and possibly the future supply of 
New York City, and the cities and towns along the Hudson with 
pure water, by an ample aqueduct, from the crystal fountains of 
the Hudson, which may be properly considered ; and a fit oppor- 
tunity is given for presenting in its strongest light, the importance 
of protecting forests, and of promoting the growth of trees, on 
account of their influence upon climate, and upon the general wel- 
fare of the state. 

These questions are not limited to a particular state, but in- 
terest the Nation generally ; and I would venture to suggest that 
this Association might properly take measures for bringing to the 
notice of our several State Governments, and Congress with res- 
pect to the territories, the subject of protection to forests, and their 
cultivation, regulation and encouragement ; and that it appoint a 
special committee to memorialize these several legislative bodies 
upon this subject, and to urge its importance. 

A measure of public utility thus commended to their notice by 
this Association, would doubtless receive respectful attention. Its 
reasons would be brought up for discussion, and the probabilities 
of the future, drawn from the history of the past, might be pre- 
sented before the public in their true light. Such a memorial 
should embrace the draft of a bill, as the form of a law, which 
should be careAiUy considered in its various aspects of public 
interests and private rights, and as best adapted to secure the 
benefits desired. 



Hints for the Promotion of Economic Entomology. By John 
L. LeConte, M.D., of Philadelphia. 

It is indeed a most gratifying evidence of the increasing in- 
terest in the department of zoology which we cultivate, t^at the 
entomologists, now in connection with the ^'American Association 
for the Advancement of Science," are sufficiently numerous to 



B. NATUBAL BISTORT. 11 

form a separate sub- section, and enough in earnest to make the 
meetings of the section of value to attract our widely scattered 
students. 

I hail with Joy the opportunity of being present at this meet- 
ing, and the more so, because absence from the country' has pre- 
vented me from being with you on previous occasions, when you 
assembled to deliberate on the means necessary for the promotion 
of our favorite science ; to communicate to each other that which 
you have done of best during the year, and call on your col- 
leagues to rejoice with you over the gems of truth which Nature 
bonntifblly bestows on you and on all who visit with pure heart 
and humble mind her exhaustless treasury. 

Believing, as I do, that the few days thus spent in closer com- 
munion, by those who are in sympathy in their main intellectual 
pursuits, should be devoted rather to mutual instruction and 
comparison of general views derived from our studies, than to 
the reading of essays on special or descriptive subjects, which 
sooner or later will appear in suitable places in scientific journals, 
I have thought it not inappropriate to give briefly some ideas 
suggested by a long course of investigation both in the field and 
in the museum, regarding the requisites for a more rapid advance 
of American entomology, and a more speedy development of the 
practical benefits which the science promises. 

Before endeavoring, so to speak, to forecast the fViture, or to in- 
dicate those paths of research from which the most useful results 
may be expected, it would be well to glance at the past history 
of oiu- science ; so that by rapidly reviewing the steps by which 
progress has been made, we may be better prepared to estimate 
the comparative value of the agencies by which our present po- 
sition has been attained. 

The beginning of the American school of entomology may be 
considered as made in 1817 by Thomas Say, in those days the 
most generally instructed zoologist in the United States. Though 
his contributions to the literature of other departments of natu- 
ral history were quite copious, yet entomology seems to have 
been his favorite science, and on his studies of the various orders 
of insects his scientific reputation must mainly rest. 

At that time the text-books in entomology were mainly Fa- 
bricias, Herbst and Latreille, and the efforts of American nat- 
uralists in every branch were confined to adopting, without 



12 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

independent criticism, the classifications and generic determina- 
tions of their European correspondents. Biology did not exist 
either in name or in idea. Careful observations of a few noxious 
species by Prof. Peck and Dr. T. W. Hairis were the slight foun- 
dation upon which the whole structure of economic entomology 
was to be erected. 

It will be readily seen then, that the entomologists of that 
early period were essentially species men, namers and describers 
of the unknown objects with which they were surrounded:— a 
work which was done so well that of the many hundreds of 
species described by Say, and the smaller number by his collabo- 
rators, scarcely any remain doubtful, and but few unknown. 

Preeminent among the early naturalists of the United States, 
and far beyond any of them, both as an industrious collector, 
a careful observer in the field, and an intelligent investigator in 
the museum, was Dr. T. W. Harris, of Massachusetts. A man 
of singular modesty and diffidence, appreciated neither by him- 
self nor by others, but whose memory will be cherished by all 
who knew him, and whose merits will be more and more recog- 
nized as time brings him with his limited opportunities more 
strongly in contrast with the other students of his day. Had be 
published, as he wrote, the independent investigations on classifi- 
cation which he made, or had the proper facilities been afibrded 
him and the requisite stimulus given, our science in this country 
would have anticipated many of the schemes of arrangement de- 
veloped later by the best European students. 

Among the entomologists of that time, properly pertaining to 
our country, must be named Dr. C. Zimmermann, a German by 
birth, and trained to science before he made this continent his 
home. The monographs of Zabrus and Amara, published before 
leaving Europe, still remain thoroughly careful and classical 
studies of those genera, to which nothing has been or can be 
added except the descriptions of species since collected. It was a 
misfortune for our science that Zimmermann too, though a pro- 
found and laborious student, would never publish the results of his 
investigations. As a systematist in the science, he was of the 
very highest order, and I here cheerfully acknowledge my obliga- 
tions to him for some of the hints which, afterwards more fully 
developed, have gained for several of my memoirs the generous 
approval of foreign entomologists. His manuscripts, submitted to 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 13 

me in 1867 by his widow, contained a large part of a systematic 
work on Coleoptera, with descriptions of many hundred new 
species of the Southern States, which, however, had been ren- 
dered of no avail by recent publications, posterior to the manu- 
scripts in question. 

After the founders of the science in this country came a period 
of apathy, during which nothing was done. The work of <ie- 
scription was then resumed by Melsheimer, Ziegler and myself, 
without, however, an3' attempt at independent study of classifica- 
tion or particular observation of life histories of the objects de- 
scribed. 

The first serious monographic study made was that of the 

HisteridcBy published in 1845 by my father in the Boston Journal 

of Natural Historj', modelled on the Monographia Histeroidum 

of Paykull, and, like it. Illustrated with outline figures of all the 

-species.* 

The second period in the history of American entomology 
now begins, in the decade from 1840-50 ; a most important 
epoch in the intellectual history of our country. An indepen- 
dent school of science had commenced in zoology by the inves- 
tigations of James D. Dana on the polypes and Crustacea collected 
while attached to the Exploring Expedition of Captain (now 
Admiral) Wilkes; in geology by James Hall of the New York 
Geological Survey, and by the brothers Rogers of the Pennsyl- 
vania and Vii^nia Surveys. Prof. Agassiz also came to us, 
introducing methods of systematic instruction, which previously 
each student, after many trials, had to invent by himself, and for 
himself alone ; and with his unequalled ability as a lecturer to 
excite enthusiasm in his hearers, he added a powerful stimulus. to 
the cultivation of natural history, the eifects of which can 
hardly be exaggerated. With few exceptions, the zoological 
stuilents who have since become prominent in the United States 
have been instructed for a longer or shorter period by him ; and 
it hR8 been a frequent caiise of regret to me, that my early efiforts 

*I have purposely excluded fV*om thU sketch of American entomology the illus- 
trated work of Boisdaval and LeConte on the Lepidoptera of North America. Al- 
thoagb the task of collecting material and making notes on the habits of larvaa with 
many drawings occupied my father, Major John LeConte. for several years, the text 
of the work and the systematic arrangement, snch as it was, were prepared abroad, 
not at all under -his control ; and the work was stopped before the completion of the 
first TOlume. All the notes and drawings which were to have been used in the study 
of the Ueterocera were retained by his ooeditor, and still remain in Europe. 



14 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

in science had not been directed by one who could so thoroughly 
combine kindness in instruction with firmness in criticism ; who 
could so well temper the natural impatience for rapid publication 
of the young and inexperienced observer, to that calmuess of 
Judgment which permits nothing to be published until it ex* 
presses the best results which the author can at that time pro- 
duce. 

Another most valuable auxiliary to science in the United States, 
belonging to the same decade, was the establishment of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, on a secure basis, and nearly in the form do* 
vised by its learned secretary, Prof. Joseph Henry ; whereby the 
funds were employed chiefly in the assistance of investigators and 
explorers, and in the publication of scientific memoirs. 

It has long been the privilege of those who labor to extend 
the boundaries of human knowledge to work hard and (in ordi- 
nary phraseology) to find themselves: and, until the organization- 
of the Smithsonian Institution, it was their further privilege, in 
this country, to publish at their own individual expense all me- 
moirs, which from bulk or cost of illustration were beyond the 
limited means of local scientific societies. 

Under the fostering influence of this, among the most noble 
of the intellectual chanties of the age, many valuable works on 
abstract science have been published ; which, though produced in 
less than one-third of a century, by a small number of investiga- 
tors, thinly dispersed over a large extent of territory, would do 
honor to older communities, in which students of science and their 
labors are not unfrequently oared for by the protecting influ- 
ence of government. 

It has thus come to pass that manuals and catalogues of several 
orders of insects have been prepared by the students best qualified 
to give, in a condensed form, compilations of the latest results of 
investigation, or entitled to put forth their own views of classificar 
tion, as worthy of acceptance ; and in the preparation of this 
series of works, valuable assistance ha^ been rendered in orders 
which had not received attention from our native students, by 
some of the best European authorities on those subjects, among 
whom are specially to be remembered with gratitude Hagen, Loew, 
Osten-Sacken and De Saussure. 

The excellence of the memoirs thus published by the Smithso- 
nian Institution results fVom two facts ; the persons invited to pre- 



B. KATURAL HISTOBT. 15 

pare the works are those who are recognized by scientific men as 
most competent for the labor ; and the memoirs when prepared are 
submitted to committees capable of judging of their value. Neg- 
lect of these precftutions will probably ensure greater or less failure 
in attempts to procure works for either primary or advanced sci- 
entific instruction ; and I am the more confirmed in this opinion 
by the miserable result attending the munificent expenditure of 
the st^te of New York, on the volume illustrative of insects in- 
jarious to agriculture. Compiled by a person ignorant of the 
science, and illustrated by a draughtsman untrained in natural 
history drawing, it remains a permanent example of misplaced 
confidence and liberality ; an equal disgrace to the legislation, the 
science and the art, of the great state in which it was published. 

The possibility of acquiring some knowledge of our insects, 
without the possession of large costly libraries which up to this pe- 
riod were indispensable, soon made the science more popular ; and 
the names of the species beginning to be known, many persons 
were attracted to form collections, and others to the equally fas- 
cinating study of the life history of individual objects. 

Thus arose the present condition of economic entomology ; and 
the biological studies commenced years before by Dr. Harris were 
worthily continued by Dr. A. Fitch of New York, and the state. en- 
tomologists afterwards appointed in several of the Western States. 

Most prominent among those to whom we are indebted for the 
development of practical entomolog}*^ was the lamented B. D. 
Walsh, of Rock Island, Illinois ; an Englishman by birth, bringing 
to this country a mind well trained in classical and scientific in- 
struction by a thorough University course, and animated by an 
enthusiastic love not only for science but for truth and consistency 
in life. 

The ^' Practical Entomologist," a monthly magazine, published 
(1665 to 1867) by a committee of the entomological society of 
Philadelphia, was edited chiefiy by him. Its successors, the 
*' American Entomologist" and '^American Entomologist and Bot- 
anist,'* of Saint Louis, were edited by Mr. Walsh, and Mr. C. V. 
Riley, the accomplished state entomologist of Missouri. These 
volumes will be often referred to, not only for the meritorious es- 
says on injurious insects and for the excellent suggestions towards 
controlling these pests, but still more for the fearless and caustic 
manner in which the editors exposed many quack contrivances for 



16 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

exterminating our insect enemies ; thus endeavoring to protect oar 
too credulous farmers against the pretensions of ignorant invent- 
ors and shameless empirics. 

Last to he mentioned, hecause the most recent, of the aids for 
the cultivation of entomology, and for popularizing the science, 
is the "Guide to the Study of Insects," by Dr. A. S. Packaiti, Jr. ; 
a most judicious and excellent compilation from the best works on 
the various orders, adapted to the North American fauna, and il- 
lustrated with copious and well drawn original figures, combined 
with no insignificant portion of the author's own investigations, 
chiefiy in embryology. 

Having now shown, by a hasty survey of the past, the gradual 
progress of our science, let us consult in regard to what is to be 
done to perfect the structure, the foundations of which are thus 
securely laid, and above all, what is necessary to popularize and 
utilize the great mass of information which has been obtained by 
so much labor. 

Of all the branches of zoology, there is none more intimately 
connected with the great agricultural interests than entomology ;* 
and yet from the vast number of objects involved in the study, 
many of which, on account of their small size, are with difl9culty 
recognized by the untrained observer, and also from the compli- 
cation of metamorphosis and habits such as are seen in no other 
department of the animal kingdom, there is no branch of natural 
history which requires for its elucidation greater industry, or 
higher powers of scientific analysis. For the same reasons, none 
of the inferior animals are so well fitted to elude and resist human 
control. We may therefore expect the practical application of the 
abstract truths and facts contained in the science to be a task of 
more than ordinaiy difiSculty, requiring the assistance of the most 
learned students and the most ingenious investigators. 

I may, perhaps, be accused of uttering a very vapid tniiam, 
when I assert that before any science is capable of rational prac- 
tical application, the science must be well advanced, or at least 
its general principles and methods of investigation firmly eetab- 

*"The entire sum expended by Conjrress, or bj our Tarions State Legislatures for 
this purpose (flrom 177S-l»{e) cannot exceed $90,000 to 100,000, or about $1,000 n year. Tet 
the annual damage done by injects within the limits of the United States cannot be less 
than ($:i00,000.000) three hundred millions of dollars. Am. Bntom. and Bot. ii, loe. 

" Napoleon, at the summit of his prosperity, never inflicted more dama^ on a nation 
than the Uliputian insect army inflicts on the United States.'* Ibid., il, 367. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 17 

lished ; and further that the application must be made by those 
who are fully informed as regards the science. Yet, by neglect of 
this apparent axiom, we have seen that the great state of New 
York expended a sum of mone}", almost sufficient to print all the 
useful books on entomology since published in the United States, 
upon one quarto volume, which is a monument only of presump- 
tion and ignorance. 

I may be excused, then, if I mention first those things which 
in my opinion will contribute to a more rapid advance in the de- 
scriptive and systematic portions of our science^ and. conclude with 
t-hose relating to its future usefulness. 

First, then, will come the completion gf the series of works, pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution, on the classification of the 
several orders. For this students must be found, who will devote 
themselves to the study of those orders which have been here- 
tofore neglected. This series must be supplemented by synony- 
mical and bibliographical catalogues, and finally by synopses of 
species in each order, to which supplements must from time to time 
be made, to diminish as far as possible the necessity of reference 
to other works, and thus place the accurate results of science 
within reach of persons who can ill afford the costly libraries now 
necessary for reference. 

Second, and equally important, will be the formation of type 
collections for the identification of species. The number of 
species is so vast, the differences so small, and the multitude 
of new forms, not yet represented in collections, so great, that 
the best descriptions that can be written do not obviate the ne- 
cessity of referring at times to the original types for comparison, 
and the amount of time, labor and expense saved to students, by 
having the whole of the information within reach at one place for 
each order of insects, can scarcely be estimated. 

These type collections should be in the possession of the stu- 
dent who can make best use of them for the present interests of 
science, and on his death, or retirement from intellectual pursuits, 
should not be exposed for sale^ or to any other vicissitudes of for- 
tune, but should be given to his successor in science, or placed in 
some public institution where they will be most careftUly presei'ved 
and vsed only for reference. 

The liberality of friends, both at home and abroad, has already 
made my collection of coleoptera such a type collection, and with 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XXII. B. (2) 



18 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

the exception of a moderate number of species described in Euroiie, 
of which no duplicates can be obtained, and a very small number 
which I have described from other collections, at the solicitation of 
their -owners, it contains types of nearly all the described cole* 
optera of America north of Mexico. From the saving of time 
both to students who visit my collection, and to m3'se1f in naming 
series for correspondents, I cannot too strongly recommend the 
formation of similar collections in other orders of insects.* 

The last portion of our subject yet remains to be discussed; 
the practical application of the great mass of scientific truth 
which has been thus far gathered in relation to the structure, 
classification, habits and life history of insects. 

Of the immense number of insects which are found in any given 
portion of the earth's surface, couiparatively few are capable of 
becoming so numerous as to affect plants injuriously. But from 
time to time, the interference of man in the progress of civiliza- 
tion destroys the balance which previously existed, and insects, 
before unimportant by reason of their comparatively small 
numbers, finding the checks to their increase removed, suddenly 
become very destructive to one or another of our agricultural 
products. In this case what is to be done? Obviously there are 
but two courses ; the first to abandon the crop, until the insect 
enemy is reduced by starvation to its former insignificance ; the 
other is to establish, by human intelligence, a system of checks 
to take the place of the divine machinery which has been inter- 
fered with by the same human intelligence. The second is the 
course that is, and probably will continue to be, generally adopted. 

This new system of checks, according to the habits of the insect 
to be suppressed, may be divided into (1) those requiring per- 
sonal labor and diligence alone ; (2) personal labor assisted by 
contrivances ; (3) automatic contrivances, not requiring personal 
attention (including the use of -poisons) ; (4) the production of 
diseases; (5) the introduction of parasites and other enemies. 

Under the 1st head may be mentioned the destruction of larvae 

♦ As a proof of the earne>tnesR of this recommendaUon, as weU aa a duty I owe to 
thoee interested in the progress of the siiicnoe, M'ho have cooperated wiMi me in plac- 
ing their types in my collection, I hereby pledge myself that my collection shall neTcr 
be sold or divided, but that it shall be placed permanently whei*e it can be best cared 
for, and made accessible for the authentication of specimens. And I inviie those who 
are willing to sacrifice rarities, or even uniqnes in their collections for such a puriiose, 
to send them to me, with the ftall confluence that they are thus rendering them of mor« 
general use than they can be in local coUectiona. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 19 

of borers by wires, etc. ; 2nd, the collecting of plum weevils, 
potato chrysomelflB, etc., by large nets, and their subsequent de- 
struction ; 3rd, sugaring with poisoned food, specially applicable 
to nocturnal lepidoptera, and the use of fires, or lanterns with 
a vessel of poison, to attract nocturnal species ; 4:th, the commun- 
ication of fungoid disease (like pebrine, which affects the silk- 
worm) to other lepidopterous larv^se ; * 5th, introduction and 
preservation of insectivorous mammals, birds, reptiles and insects 
according to the particular indication of the case ; and the trans- 
portation of parasites known to affect the pest in other localities.f 

In the last annual report of Mr. C. V. Riley, Missouri state en- 
tomologist, there is a very effective comparison of the ravages 
made by the gregarious insect pests with the destruction caused by 
an invading army. The same simile has been frequently used by 
me in conversation, and has doubtless often occurred to many of 
you. The application of it made by Mr. Riley is that, if an en- 
emy were to cause a small fraction of the injury which results each 
year from the depredations of even one of several of our insect 
enemies, the whole country would resound with, a clamor for the 
suppression of the invaders. The memory of a colossal conflict 
is, alas ! still fresh in our minds, and I desire not to awaken the 
painful recollections which rest in the bosoms of us all ; but 
leaving out reference to the distressing scenes which we have all 
witnessed, there was much of the ludicrous, from which we may 
on this occasion derive profit, or at least the material for carrying 
oar simile somewhat farther. 

Putting out of view for the moment the noble patriotism of the 
nncorrupted and incorruptible masses of our nation, prominent 
among whom were the great agricultural class, whose interests it 
is the object of the present inquiry to protect, we all remember 
vividly the eager struggle of small politicians for staff appoint- 
ments, of greater politicians, innocent of martial training, for 
higher commands ; the zeal of contractors to furnish supplies for 
the soldiers in the field (sometimes, as in the case of shaving soled 

* I am extremely faopefkil of the resnlt of nslng this method. I have learned of an 
instance In ^hlch fVom the communication of the dinease by some silkworms, the whole 
of the caterpillars in a nine-acre piece of woods were destroyed. 

fl learn from the 8rd annual report of Dr. W. LeBaron, Illinois state entomologist, 
that in accordance with ideas first published by Mr. B. D. Walsh, a Chalcideous par^ 
asite of a coccus which attacks the apple tree, has probably been successfully intro- 
duced into the northern part of the state, where it was previously unknown. (Op. eU, 
p. MO). 



20 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

shoes, and shoddy garments, rather aggravating than relieving their 
sufferings) ; the general hurry and scurry, and bustle and turmoil, 
to do everything hastily and with the greatest pecuniary profit. 

Why was all this ? Was the great glory to be obtained in mili- 
tary service, when man fights man, the stimulus? Is there not 
equal glory in the more laborious, albeit peaceful combats of sci- 
ence, when man subdues the inorganic or the organic powers which 
resist his will, and makes them subject to his control ? Or is it, 
perhaps, to use a common phrase of the period, because there 
was money in it? 

If the latter be a part of the cause of the agitation to which we 
allude, let us see if the same idea cannot be utilized for our pres- 
ent purpose. There is money, aye, much mone}^ in any well de- 
vised scheme for the practical application of entomology to the 
protection of agricultural interests. First, there is the saving of 
untold millions in the productions of the country, now destroyed 
by insect pests. Second, there is the necessity for the expansion 
and reorganization of the Department of Agriculture, so that it 
will represent and protect the farmers, to the same extent that the 
Coast Survey' protects the commercial interests of the nation. 

In this expansion and reorganization of the Department of Agri- 
culture the controlling power should be the highest scientific ability 
that can be procured for the place, and the ofi9ce should cease to be 
as it has been since its establishment, a semi-sinecure for persons 
of small or local political influence. New places would have to be 
created, but with a moderate sprinkling of good working scientific 
men, many of these might be regarded like other ofiSces, as the 
spoils of the dominant political party, and the interests of the 
farmer still be protected. Better would it be, though, if the latter 
class should demand that the government give them a thoroughly 
organized, compact, industrious body of the best trained scientific 
men, to teach them what should be done to control the destroyers 
of their labor. 

There is now lying idle in Washingtori a great mass of notes on 
habits of injurious insects, collected by the untiring exertion of 
Mr. T. Glover, the industrious entomologist of the Department of 
Agriculture. This material, in its present imperfect form, if ar- 
ranged under proper scientific supervision, and illustrated by 
figures submitted to judicious criticism, and then published in the 
same careful manner as the explorations of the Engineers, the 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 21 

Coast Survey, and other scientific departments of the government, 
would be of great utility in preparing the condensed reports, which 
should finally be accessible to every intelligent agriculturist. 

One more illustration, and we will dismiss this already some- 
what prolix simile of the invading army. 

As in all such cases of aggression, it is competent with the 
higher military authorities to take private property for the benefit 
of the nation ; so, too, a power similar in its results, though less 
despotic in its exercise, is necessary in our contests with the 
organic ''powers of the air," which attack our fields. How this 
authority is to be localized and manifested admits of much dis- 
cussion, to enter upon which would tax your patience, and prolong 
this discourse far beyond the limits to which I intend to confine it. 
For the moment, the following may be suggested, with some mod- 
ificatious, as probably feasible in the extreme cases, fortunately 
few in number, which may be exemplified by such destructive at- 
tacks as the army or boll-worm upon cotton ; the Hessian fly upon 
wheat ; Scolytidae (bark borers) upon pine forests ; and the cur- 
culio upon plums and allied fruits. 

The establishment of a fund, by the assistance of the federal 
government, state, or county authorities, or by private combina- 
tions, from which are to be paid owners of infected crops, which 
are destroyed in order to prevent the spread of the infection. This 
must of course be done under the advice of intelligent and care- 
fully chosen agents of the authority by which the fund is to be 
dispensed. The rate of compensation could be easily determined 
at the end of the season by the average value or jield of similar 
crops in the vicinity, and should be such a liberal fraction of the 
full value, as would stimulate the owner of the property to be de- 
stroyed to declare the infection at the earliest possible moment, 
but at the same time not so large as to prevent due diligence on 
his part to confine the infection within the smallest limits. 

Besides these two measures, which I consider of primary im- 
portance, there are* several others, more easily under present con- 
trol, by the adoption of which our accurate knowledge of the 
really formidable insect pests can be greatly increased, and the 
means for their suppression intelligently and efQcientl}"^ applied. 
With a condehsed statement of them, I shall conclude my dis- 
course, thanking you for the kind attention with which you have 
favored me. 



22 B. NATURAL HISTOBT. . 

1. Reorganization of the Department of Agriculture, on a sci- 
entific basis, for the proper protection and advancement of agri- 
cultural interests. 

2. Preparation of lists of the most destructive insect pests, 
with condensed notes of what is now known concerning them, that 
attention may be directed specially to those investigations neces- 
sary to complete our knowledge. 

3. Coordination and cooperation of state entomologists with 
the chief of the Department of Agriculture, that they may work 
harmoniously and intelligently in concert, and thus avoid the waste 
of labor now resulting from duplicate observations and repetitions 
in publication : collateral to this, the publication each year of a brief 
report containing such important advances made in the science, 
both at home and abroad as should be made known to the farmers. 

4. Accurate calendars to be prepared of the appearance, disap- 
pearance and other phenomena of the history of the most injurious 
insects in different parts of the country. 

5. Contrivance of apparatus on a large scale, by which, with 
the least expenditure of material and labor, the nocturnal species 
may be attracted by light, and dropped into a vessel containing 

« 

cyanide of potassium or other poisonous substance. 

6. Experiments on the effects of poisons upon those species 
whose habits permit the wholesale application of such means of 
destruction : especially adapted to nocturnal lepidoptera by the 
process known as sugaring for moths. 

7. Careful study of epidemic diseases of insects, especially 
those of a fungoid nature : and experiments on the most effective 
means of introducing and communicating such diseases at pleasure. 

8. The preparation b}'^ our best instructed entomologists work- 
ing in concert, of one or more elementaiy books suitable for use 
in schools, giving in a compendious form the general principles of 
the science, and indications for applying the knowledge to prac- 
tical results. 

9. The appointment in agricultural colleges of competent pro- 
fessors of entomology, who have been trained in a scientific school, 
to fit them for the duty of instruction. 

1 0. The establishment of the means of compensation for com- 
pulsory or voluntary destruction of crops infected by formidable 
pests, as above mentioned. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 23 

Note ok Bufo Americanus. By Thomas Hill, of Portland, Me. 

This note is intended as a contribution toward the p83xhology 
of the American toad ;. simply presenting some evidences of in- 
telligence and of capacity for learning to which I have been 
witness. 

In the summers of 1843-5, an old toad used tasit under the 
door of a beehive every fine evening, and dextrously pick up those 
bees which, overladen or tired, missed the doorstep and fell to the 
ground. He lost, by some accident, one eye, and it was observed 
by several members of the family, as well as myself, that he had 
with it lost his ability to pick iip a bee at the first trial ; his 
tongue struck the ground on one side the bee : but after several 
weeks' practice with one eye he regained his old certainty of aim. 

I have never seen our toad use his hands to crowd his food into 
his mouth as the European toad is said to do ; although he uses 
them freely to wipe out of his mouth any inedible or disagreeable 
substance. When our toad gets into his mouth part of an insect 
too large for his tongue to thrust down his throat (and I have 
known of their attempting full grown larvie of Sphinx quinquemaO' 
ulattLs^ and even a wounded hummingbird) he resorts to the 
nearest stone or clod and presses the protruding part of his 
mouthful against it and thus crowds it down his throat. This 
can be observed at any time by entangling a locust's hind legs to- 
gether and throwing it before a small toad. 

On one occasion I gave a "yellow-striped" locust to a little 
toad in its second summer, when he was in the middle of a very 
wide gravel walk. In a moment he had the locust's head down 
his throat, its hinder parts protruding ; and looked around for a 
stone or clod, but finding none at hand, in either direction, he 
bowed his head, and crept along, pushing the locust against the 
ground. But the angle with the ground was too small and my 
walk too well rolled. To increase the angle he straightened his 
hind legs up, but in vain. At length he threw up his hind 
quarters, and actually stood on his head, or rather on the locust 
sticking out of his mouth, and after repeating this once or twice 
succeeded in "getting himself outside of his dinner." 

But these instances of ingenious adaptation to the circum- 
stances were exceeded by a toad about four years old at Antioch 
college. I was tossing him earthworms while digging, and pres- 



24 B. NATCRAL HISTORY. 

ently threw him so large a specimen that he was obliged to attack 
one end only. That end was instantly transferred to his stomach, 
the other end writhed free in air, and coiled about the toad's head. 
He waited till its wri things gave him a chance, swallowed half an 
inch, then taking a nip with his jaws, waited for a chance to draw 
in another half-inch. But there were so many half-inches to dis^ 
pose of that at length his jaws grew tired, lost their firmness of 
grip, and the worm crawled out five-eighths of an inch, between 
each half-inch swallowing. The toad, perceiving this, brought his 
right hind foot to aid his jaws, grasping his abdomen with his foot, 
and, by a little efibrt, getting hold of the worm in his stomach 
from the outside ; he thus by his foot held fast to what he gained 
by each swallow, and presently succeeded in getting the .worm 
entirely down. 

A garter-snake was observed this summer in North CJonway 
pushing a toad down his throat by running it against clods and 
stones ; just as the toad crowds down a locust. 

The amount which a toad can eat is surprising. One Tuesday 
morning I threw a Coreus tHstis to a young toad, he snapped it up, 
but immediately rejected it, wiped his mouth with gceat energy, 
and then hopped away with extraordinary rapidity. I was so 
much amused that I gathered some more of the same bug and 
carried them to a favorite old toad at the northeast comer of my 
house. He ate them all without making any wry faces. I gath- 
ered all that I could find on my vines, and he ate them all, to the 
number of twenty-three. I then brought him some larvae of Py- 
gcera ministra, three-quarters grown, and succeeded in enticing 
him to put ninety-four of them on top of his squash bugs. Find- 
ing that his virtue was not proof against the caterpillars when I 
put them on the end of a straw and tickled his nose with them, 
he at length turned and crept under the piazza, where be re- 
mained until Friday afternoon, digesting his feast. 

A gentleman having read this paper told me he had seen the 
toad tuck in the last inch of an earthworm with his hand, Euro- 
pean fashion. I then remembered that I have several times seen 
our toad put the last quarter-inch of earthworms in with his hand ; 
but never saw him take his hand to a locust. 




V 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 25 

^^ "^ALS AND Green Mountain Gneisses op 

<^ ^' Py J* ^* Dana, of New Haven, Conn. 

^ V ''American Journal of Science" in 

^ ^noticed by Percival, that crystals 

^ ^alisbiirj', Connecticut, in mica schist 

y ^K^ ^ die Stockbridge or Canaan limestone. 

^ '%^ ,iul in southern Canaan, at a locality in Falls 

iie Housatonic River (to which I was directed 



K\ 



cir t^ .1 Reed of Pittsfield), crystals of this mineral in a 

4L I , well-characterized mica schist ; but in this case, the 

ycerliea the limestone and is, therefore, the newer rock.* 

^ $taurolitic mica schist contains also small garnets. The 

order of superposition is free from all doubt, for the Canaan 

limestone outcrops at the bottom of the same hill, from beneath 

the schist, and the dip is not over fifteen degrees. 

The age of the Stockbridge limestone is admitted by all recent 
writers on the subject to l}e Lower Silurian. Logan referred it to 
the Quebec group or the formation next below the Chazy. But 
since then Billings has described fossils from the same limestone 
at West Rutland, which he has identified as Chazv. And the 
Crinoids and other species, mentioned in the "Vermont Geological 
Report" as found in the limestone at other Vermont localities 
appear to show, as long since suggested by Professor James Hall, 
that the Trenton limestone is also present in the formations. The 
Chazy and Trenton limestones (Black River included) follow one 
another in New York, and the west and south. That the Canaan 
limestone is the same identical stratum that occurs at Stockbridge 
in Massachusetts, and farther north at Pittsfield, I know from a 
personal tracing of the rock throughout this region ; and examina- 
tions still farther north in Massachusetts and Connecticut lead me 
to believe in the conclusion of the geologists of the Vermont 
survey, that all is one formation — the Stockbridge limestone, or 
the Eolian as Hitchcock named it. 

The fossils found in Vermont lead to the conclusion that the 
limestone represents the Trenton era as well as the Chazy. The 
overlying mica schist and other associated rocks have a thickness 
of at least three thousand feet ; and, if the limestone is Trenton 

^From fiftcts I hare obserred elsewhere, I think it probable the SaliBbury Bchiet if 
•bo an i^ver^filng rock. 



26 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

in part, they belong to an era later : either to a closing part of 
the Trenton period, or to the period of the Hudson River or 
Cincinnati group. 

In any case there is no reason to doubt that the staurolites 
occur in rocks of the later part of the Lower Silurian age, and 
strong reason for the conclusion that these schists are in age veri- 
table Hudson River rocks. 

On this view, the Hudson River or Cincinnati group, in the 
Green Mountains — alike in Connecticut, Massachusetts and 
Vermont, — includes beds of quartzite, mica schist, chloritic mica 
slate, hydro-mica slate (the talcose slate of the earlier geolo- 
gists), well-characterized gneiss of various kinds, some of it much 
contorted, and granitoid gneiss. 

At a locality at South Canaan village, in Cobble Hill, the lowest 
rock over the limestone is quartzite ; next follows mica schist 
passing into gneiss ; apd above this there is a light-colored grani- 
toid gneiss, breaking into huge blocks with very little of a schist- 
ose structure. 

Near the boundary of the towns of Tyringham and Great Bar- 
rington, four miles east of the latter village, a locality long since 
studied by Mr. R. P. Stevens of New York, and by him pointed 
out to me, there are, over the limestone, alternating beds of 
quartzite gneiss and limestone dipping at a small angle to the 
eastward. Commencing below, the succession is 

1. Granular limestone, that of the valley. 

2. Mica schist, a thin bed. 

3. Hard Jointed quartzite, 30 feet. 

4. VThite granular limestone, 00 feet. 

5. Hard Jointed quartzite', iO feet. 

6. GneisBoId mica schist, 30 feet. 

7. Bluish granular limestone, 40 feet. 

8. Mica schist, 6 to 8 feet. 

9. Quartzite, partly laminated, lao feet, forming a high blolT,— the site of Devanj'f 

hearthstone quarry ; and then 
10. Gneiss, forming the top of the bluff, and having great thickness in a ridge to the 
northeast, bat in its upper portions becoming very silicious or in part qaaxtzlte. 

The fact that quartzite, limestone and gneiss or mica schist 
here alternate with one another is beyond question ; and, if I 
am right in the age of the deposits above suggested, the alter- 
nations occur at the junction of the Trenton and Hudson River 
formations. 

The above section occurs on the east side of a small open valley. 
On the west side of the same valley the foot of the bare front of 



B. NATUBAL HISTORY, 27 

the hill consists of quartzite, dipping slightly to the north-west- 
ward, as if one side of a very gentle anticlinal of which the rock 
of the Devany quarry is the opposite. The quartzite, although 
hard and generally pure, contains a layer of mica schist ten inches 
thick which becomes pure quartzite a hundred feet to the east- 
ward. Above the quartzite follows gneiss, which continues west- 
ward three miles, in a shallow synclinal, to Great Barrington, and 
there this gneiss is overlaid by a second thick stratum (100 feet 
or so) of quartzite. Here, then, there are two strata of quartzite 
separated by two or three hundred feet of gneiss, the whole over- 
lying the Stockbridge limestone. The gneiss is a very firm rock, 
covering the slopes in some places with blocks like houses in size, 
where, upturned through the growth of trees. I had suspected 
that it was one of the older gneisses of New England, until I 
found that it was overlaid by quartzite, and, on tracing further the 
stratification, proved that it belongs unquestionably to the series 
of rocks newer than the limestone. 

From the facts which have been presented it follows that all 
old-looking Green Mountain gneisses are not prae-silurian, and, 
further, that the presence of staurolite is no evidence of a prae- 
silurian age. 



The Slates of the Taconic Mountains op the Age op the 
Hudson River or Cincinnati Group. By J. D. Dana, of 
New Haven, Conn. 

In my study of the Stockbridge limestone and the associated 
rocks in Berkshire county, Massachusetts, I have found that the 
ridges are often, if not always, synclinals. They consist of the 
slates or schists (and sometimes quartzite) overlying the lime- 
stone i and in the downward flexnres of the limestone, during the 
period of disturbance and metamorphism which made the moun- 
tains, the overlying beds or part of them were folded together into 
a compact mass which has withstood degrading agents, while the 
same beds in the anticlinals or upward flexures were extensively 
broken and have disappeared. The slate ridges are then nothing 
bat squeezes of the slate formation between the sides of a lime- 
stone synclinal. • 



$8 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

The Taconic mountains lie on the western border of the Berk- 
shire limestone region ; and, in general, the dip of the limestone, 
as well as of the Taconic slates is to the eastward, and hence the 
slates being underneath are seemingly the older. They are actu- 
ally so, unless the Taconic ridges are also synclinals, with an east- 
wardly inclined axis, like some of the Berkshire mountains. Un- 
til recently I had regarded the apparent order of superposition as 
the true order of succession, that is, I had 8U{5posed that the lime- 
stones were newer than the Taconic slates. The conclusion 
seemed to be confirmed by finding at different places the slates 
and limestone with the same high easterly dip, the slates under- 
most. 

But a few weeks since, on an examination of the eastern base 
of Mt. Washington, the highest part of the Taconic range in south- 
western Massachusetts, along the road just east of the highest 
summit, called Mt. Everett, 2,634 feet in height above the sea, 
the limestone of the SheflSeld plain was found to have, in- 
stead of the usual easterly dip, a westerly dip, and this continued 
up the slopes of the mountain as far as the limestone extended, 
about 120 feet above the plain and there the limestone was seen to 
pass directly beneath the slates of the mountain, these having the 
same dip and strike, the dip 20** to 25.** Thus the limestone was 
seen to descend under Mt. Washington and the slates to be the 
superior rock. Following along the base of the mountain north- 
ward, this dip of the Stockbridge limestone under the mountain 
was found to continue for nearly four miles, that is, along the 
whole eastern front. 

These facts seem to prove that the limestone of Berkshire goes 
under Mt. Washington and comes up in the great limestone of 
Copake on the west side of the Taconic range. 

I might show that there are probably two close-pressed syn- 
clinals in the Mt. Washington plateau (which is four to five 
miles broad), with steep easterly inclined axes, and that these 
synclinals are synclinals of slate riding over a single broken syncli- 
nal of limestone ; that, to the north of the mountain, where the 
mountain descends to the limestone plains of Egremont, these S3^n- 
cllnals become separated and include an anticlinal of limestone, 
the limestone of the anticlinal appearing in the intermediate 
valley while the ridges (synclinals) are slate ; and that the two 
synclinals have an eastwardly inclined axis, the dip being very 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 29 

steep to the eastward. But to explain fully would require 
diagrams, and I leave the details for another place. 

Gray lock in northwestern Massachusetts, to the east of the line 
of the Taconic, and 3500 feet in height, whose rocks are much like 
those of Mt. Washington, is described by Emmons as a synclinal ; 
and, after a survey of the facts on the ground, observing the 
westerly dip of the limestones. of the eastern slopes near South 
Adams, and the easterly dip on the western slopes near the en- 
trance to the "Hopper," as the great central vaTley is called, I am 
satisfied that he was right. The dip at the summit and most other 
parts is very steep to the eastward. It appears then to be a result, 
like many other Berkshire Mountains, of a squeeze of the slates 
in a synclinal ; and like Mt. Washington it is probably not a sim- 
ple synclinal. It may be a double one, with the Hopper corre- 
sponding to the intermediate anticlinal, the beds of the whole 
having a high dip to the eastward owing to the eastward inclination 
of the axis of the folds. At North Adams, in the ridge of slate 
just west of the village, the limestone and slate both dip eastward, 
there being here the north end of one of the inclined synclinals.' 

The making of the highest summits of the Taconic region ap- 
pears thence to have depended on this doubling of the folds. It 
becomes exceedingly difficult in such cases to ascertain the true 
thickness of the slate formation. 

In view, then, of the facts stated in my former article vrith regard 
to the age of the limestone and its overlying rocks, it is not easy 
to avoid the conclusion that the Taconic slates are Hudson river 
slates^ as long since held by the Professors Rogers; and, also, 
that the rocks, on which Prof. Emmons, in his New York Geologi- 
cal Report, first based his Taconic system, or out of which he de- 
vised it, are after all nothing but the Hudson river and Trenton 
groups, with the underlying Chazy. The Trenton limestone and 
Hudson River or Cincinnati groups, which properly constitute one 
series in American Geological History, are then the true Taconic 
system. 



30 b. natural history. 

Farther Observations on the Embryolo(jy of Limulus, with 
Notes on its Affinities. By A. S. Packard, Jr., of 
Salem, Mass. 

In a recent paper on the Development of Limulus, published in 
tJie " Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History," I stated 
that the blastodermic skin, just before being moulted, consisted of 
nucleated cells, and also traced Its homology with the so-called 
amnion of insects. I have this summer, by making transverse 
sections of the egg, been able to study in a still more satisfactory 
manner these blastodermic ceils and to observe their nuclei before 
they become effaced during and after the blastodermic moult. 

On June 17th (the egg having been laid May 27th) the periph- 
eral blastodermic cells began to harden, and the outer layer, that 
destined to form the -'amnion," to peel off from the primitive band 
beneath.. The moult is accomplished by the flatteneil cells of the 
blastodermic skin hardening and peeling off from those beneath. 

During this process the cells in this outer layer lose their nu- 
clei, and, as it were, dry up, contracting and hardening during 
the process. This blastodermic moult is comparable with that of 
Apus, as I have already observed, the cells of the blasto<iermic 
skin in that animal being nucleated. 

This blastodermic skin in its mode of development may also 
safely be compared with the "amnion" of the scorpion as de- 
scribed and figured by Metznikoff, and we now feel justified in un- 
hesitatingly homologizing it with the " amnion " of insects, in which 
at first the blastodermic cells are nucleated, and appear like those 
of Limulus. Moreover the lajcr of germinal matter, from which 
the blastodermic skin moults off, may be compared with the prim- 
itive band of insects. On June 19th, in other eggs, the cells 
of the blastodermic skin were observed to be empty, and the nu- 
clei had lost their fine granules, and were beginning to disappear. 
The walls of the cells had become ragged through contraction, 
and in vertical section short peripheral vertical radiating lines 
could be perceived. 

At this time an interesting phenomenon was observed. In cer- 
tain portions of the blastodermic skin, or amnion, the cells had 
become effaced, and transitions from the rudiments of cells to 
those fully formed could be seen. From this we should suppose 
that the retention of these cells in the amnion of Limulus is due 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 81 

to the siugular function this skin is destined to pcrfonn, i.e., to act 
as a vicarious chorion, the chorion itself splitting apart and falling 
off in consequence of the increase in size of the embr3'o. In in- 
sects these cells disappear, and after the skin is moulted it appears 
structureless. 

From studies afterwards carried on in the laboratory of the 
Anderson School of Natural History, on the anatomy of the adult 
Limulus, I have been able fully to confirm the important discovery 
of Prof. Owen (Lectures), 1852, and more recently confirmed and 
greatly extended by M. Alphonse Milne-Edwards,* relative to the 
sheathing of the nervous cord and its branches by a system of 
arteries, and I would here bear testimony to the accuracy of 
Edwards' drawings and descriptions. Moreover I have been able 
by a stud}' of living Limuli, beautifully injected by Mr. Bicknell 
by the kind permission of Prof. Agassiz, the director of the Ander- 
son School, to extend still farther the anatomical researches of 
Milne-Edwards. With Mr. Bickneirs aid I have ascertained the 
existence of still smaller arterial twigs, on the peripheral sub- 
cutaneous portion of the body, than indicated b}*^ Milne-Edwards, 
and have made out the existence of an extensive series of vessels 
in the respiratory abdominal feet. For this I was prepared by a 
study of the respiratory lamellae, which, in the arrangement of 
their chitinous septa, may be closely homologized with the gills 
of Amphipod Crustacea, as observed in living specimens without 
injection. 

With the new information afforded us by A. Milne-Edwards, re- 
garding the relations of the nervous cord with the ventral system 
of arteries, and the remarkably perfect circulatory system, so much 
more highly developed than that of any other Arthropod, I should 
no longer feel warranted in associating Limulus and the Merosto- 
mata generally with the Branchiopoda, but regard them, with the 
Trilobites, as forming perhaps a distinct subclass of Crustacea. 

Certainly if we consider the relations of the anatomical systems 
to the walls of the body, the disposition of the segments forming 
those body walls, and the nature of the appendages, Limulus 
is bailt on the crustacean type. Because its nervous cord resem- 
bles that of the scorpion, and its circulatory system is more 
perfect than that of any Arthropod we know, this is no reason for 
assuming that it is not a Crustacean. On the same ground Cera- 

• IZeehercbeB ear PAnatomie des Limules. AonnleB del So. Nat., 1873. 



32 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

todus is not a fish because it has the lungs of a reptile, nor is 
Ornithorhynchus a Saurian because it has the shoulder girdle of & 
Saurian. * I have, moreover, shown that some important features 
in the embryology of Limulus are like those of the scorpion and 
the hexapodous insects, the ^^ amnion" of Limulus apparently 
being homologous with that of the insects. ' 

In fact Limulus seems to me to be a sj'nthetic or comprehensive 
type, bearing the same relations to the Crustacea that Ceratodus 
does among the fishes, or Archseopteryx among the birds ; and be- 
cause Limulus has strong analogies to the Arachnida, we should 
not overlook its true afiSnities with the Branchiopodous Crustacea. 

Limulus may, then, be regarded as a Crustacean with the cara- 
pace of Apus, bearing simple and compound eyes as in that Phjl- 
lopod, with the antennoe foot-like as in many Entomostraca, and 
the abdominal appendages truly crustaccous in their structure, 
while the circulatory system is not fundamentally unlike that of 
other Crustacea, but only more perfect, and the digestive system is 
throughout comparable with that of the normal Crustacea ; finally, 
its nervous system closely resembles that of certain Arachnida.* 



On a Remarkable Wasp's Nest Found in a Stump, in Mart- 
land. By P. R. Uhler, of Baltimore, Md. 

The insects of the genus Polistes have not hitherto been reported 
to make nests of clay. All the North American species have 
been considered paper-nest-builders. Many species are known 
from the United States, Canada and the West Indies, and these 
are generally of a brown or yellow color, having spots or bands 
either lighter or darker. 

In the present instance we have a dark brown species with nar- 
row yellow bands across the abdomen, and with yellow feet, which 
builds a nest of clay in the form of a cylinder. In the stump of 
a decayed Liriodendron, found by O. N. Bryan, Esq., in Charles 
county, Maryland, a number of these insects had aggregated their 
cylinders. The stump was about two feet in diameter and the 

•I have been reminded by Professor Wyman of this pecuUarity in Omithorliyncbiu 
as stated by Meckel. 



B. NATT7BAL HISTORY. 83 

central cavity (which had been formed by the borings of large 
beetles) was five inches wide. In this, attached to the sides, some- 
times lying flat in the grooves left by the beetles, or standing off 
at a considerable angle, and attached by their bases, were thirty- 
three of these peculiar structures. They were of a yellow clay, 
generally about half an inch in diameter, and varj'^ing in length 
from two to five inches. Sixteen of these were attached in one 
group projecting from the side of the cavity, and towards their 
outer ends were bent into a blunt curve, resembling a colony of 
the tubes of Serpula. 

The nest, or, more properly, receptacle for the egg and young, 
is constructed in this manner. The adult Polistes flies to an adja- 
cent place where there is suitable wet clay, works this substance 
into an oval pellet and flies to the place where the building is to 
be made. The pellet is then laid obliquely and pressed down by 
the fore feet and head of the insect so as to cause it to adhere 
firmly to the surface on which it is building. This operation is 
repeated until it has formed a cylinder about one inch in length. 

As it proceeds, it smooths the inside of the cylinder by working 
with its jaws and pushing the* front of its flat head against the 
plastic clay. The first section being thus finished to its satisfac- 
tion it flies off to secure small spiders. It seizes a spider with its 
fore feet, stings it in just such a way as to paralyze, without de- 
stroying its life, and then deposits it in the bottom of the cj'linder. 

An egg is then laid beside the spider, and the wasp flies off to 
secure other spiders. This is continued until the cavity, which 
generally holds from twelve to fifteen of the smaller kinds, is full. 

The wasp then proceeds to cover the open end with a cap of the 
same material as before, after which it adds other sections to the 
number of three or four, filling each with spiders, and depositing 
one egg in each. The young larva feeds on these paralyzed spi- 
ders, ahd, as it seems, requires from twelve to fifteen of them to 
nourish it until it is ready to become a pupa. 

Unlike the species of Pelopseus, which also make clay nests, it 
does not nurse its young, but they are securely sealed up in the 
sections to feed themselves. When ready to come forth, the wasp 
gnaws a round hole in the wall of its cell, and flies forth as a per- 
fect insect. 

A similar, if not identical, species was very troublesome in Bal- 
timore during the early part of last summer. 

A. A. A. 8. VOL. XXU. B. (8) 



84 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

On the front walls of the Peabody Institute these wasps as- 
sembled in considerable numbers ; and constructed their cells in 
the grooves of the joints of the marble. Their clay cylinders 
were so numerous as greatly to disfigure the marble and render it 
necessary to have the front of the Institute cleaned. 



On Recent Additions to the Fish Fauna of Massachuskxts. 
By Theodore Gill, of Washington, D.C. 

In the first trustworthy enumeration of the fishes of Massachu- 
setts, the report of Dr. D. H. Storer, published in 1839, only one 
hundred and seven nominal species were specified, ninety-one of 
which were salt or brackish water, and this number included sev- 
eral doubtful or "bad" species. Subsequently Dr. Storer, from 
time to time, made known additional forms, and in his "History 
of the Fishes of Massachusetts," completed in 1867, one hundred 
and thirty-four species were described and illustrated ; of these, 
one hundred and sixteen are salt or brackish water forms, and 
eighteen fresh water. In an appendix to this work, however, 
twenty-one additional species were catalogued by Mr. Frederick 
W. Putnam, among which are included seven species made known 
from collections in the Smithsonian Institution, due chiefly to Prof. 
Baird. Since that time. Prof. Baird, as United States Ck)mmi8- 
sioner of Fish and Fisheries, while stationed at Wood's Hole, has 
been instrumental in bringing together twenty-three additional 
species, all of which are represented now in the collections of the 
Smithsonian Institution. These species belong to the following 
groups : 

DiODONTOiDS, or porcupine fishes ; one species, viz. : ChUo- 
mycterus geometricus. 

EcHENEiDOiDS, or " suckcrs ;" two species, viz.: (1) Lepteche- 
neia naucraieSy and (2) Rhomhochirus osteochir. 

CoTTOiDS, or sculpins ; one species, viz. : CoUus MUchUli. 

LoBOTOiDs ; one species, viz. : Lobotea Surinamensis. 

Elacatoids ; one species, viz. : Elacate CanadfUy said some- 
times to be called crab-eater. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 85 

XiPHioiDS, or sword-fishes ; two species, viz : (1) Tetrapturus 
albidus and (2) Histiophorus gladius. These are of peculiar in- 
terest, as neither had been previously signalized as inhabitants of 
oar waters, but both, if we may rely on the fishermen, are regular 
denizens along the coast, at least in summer, and have received 
the name of bill-fish. The former is readily distinguished from the 
common sword-fish by the long dorsal fin and ventrals, and the 
latter by the very high dorsal fin, as well as by the ventrals. 
Tliree specimens of . the Tetrapturus^ have been obtained for the 
Smithsonian Institution, and several others have been procured 
by other persons. Only one of the Hiatiophorus has been ob- 
tained, the animal being caught with difficulty ; but it is distin- 
guished by the fishermen on account of its elevated dorsal. 

Scombroids ; two species, viz. : (1) Cybium regale^ and (2) Or- 
eynus alliteratua. The first is known as the cero or kingfish, and is 
closely related to the famed Spanish mackerel, but attains a larger 
size and is spotted with black instead of yellowish ; it is inferior 
as food to the Spanish mackerel. The second is a small tunny, 
and was never before known to visit any portion of our coast ; but 
in 1871 large numbers came in, making their appearance about 
the middle of August, when they were first caught in small num- 
bers, bat afterward by hundreds ; they were quite uniform in size, 
averaging about fourteen potmds; their flesh is dark and very 
poor. 

Caranooids ; with five species, viz. : (1) Decapterua punctaiua^ 
(2) D. macarellus^ (3) Trachuropa crumenophihalmus^ (4) Caran- 
gns hippos and (5) BlepharicMhys crinitus. These are all small 
fishes, and interesting chiefly to the ichthyologist on account of 
their northerp range. The latter, however, is remarkable for the 
greatly prolonged and flexible rays of the dorsal and anal flns, 
and six or seven sent to the Smithsonian Institution were so inex. 
tricably intertangled by their rays that an assistant was obliged to 
spend two hours in disentangling them. The pampano ( Trachy* 
notus Carolinus)^ although previously found by Prof. Baird in its 
young stiage, was for the first time obtained so far north in its 
adult condition. 

ExoccBToms, or flying flshes ; one species, viz. : Exocoetus me- 
lanurus. 

CoNORHTNCHOiDS ; One species, viz. : Conorhynchus macrocephr 
altis, the lady fish. 



36 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

Elopoids ; one species, viz. : Elops saurtis. 

AciPENSEROiDS ; One species, viz. : Acipenser brevirostriSj the 
blunt-nosed sturgeon. 

Mtliobatoids ; one species, viz. : Mhinoptera qtuidriloba, the 
cow-nosed ray. 

Trygonoids ; one species, viz. : PteropkUea madura^ the butter- 
fly ray. 

Galeorhinoids ; two species, viz. : (1) Eulamia MUberti^ the 
common shark of the New York waters ; and (2) CkUeocerdo tigri- 
nu«, the tiger shark. The latter, although previously known as an 
inhabitant of the southern coast, had not been known to occur 
as far northward. 

It is only necessary to add that all these species are inhabitants 
of tropical or warm waters, and the presence of a number of them 
so far northward was entirely unexpected ; indeed, only a few can 
be regarded as regular summer inhabitants of the Massachusetts 
seas, and perhaps the majority of them must be looked upon as 
accidental or occasional visitors. The number of species found at 
Wood's Hole alone was one hundred and twenty, and the number 
of Massachusetts fishes, including fresh-water forms, is now in- 
creased to one hundred and seventy-nine. A striking contrast as 
to the extent of the fish fauna is exhibited between Wood's Hole 
and the present locality of the Fish Commission (Portland), at 
the latter only sixty-two species having yet been obtained, and 
among them there is not a single warm-water non-pelagic form. I 
am happy, however, to be able to announce the discovery of a 
number of specimens of the Platessa glabra of Storer, hitherto 
known (so far as can be ascertained) from a single specimen ; that 
species proves to be a true Pleuronectesy the description and figure 
of Storer being erroneous. 



B. KATURAL HISTORY. 37 

SOGGESTION FOR FACILITATION OF MdSEUM ADMINISTRATION. By 

Theodore Gill, of Washington, D. C. 

ABSTRACT. 

This paper detailed a system introdaced into the Smithsonian 
Institution, in concert with Prof. Baird, for facilitating the arrange- 
ment of the collections. Catalogues of the families and subfamilies 
of the different classes, with numbers attached to the former and 
letters to the latter, were in the first place prepared, and these 
numbers and letters (for example 87 B, — 87 indicating the number 
of the family and B the subfamily of that family) were attached 
to the bottles or specimens ; these numbers and letters being fixed, 
and indicating exactly the groups, the most ignorant subordinates 
can be made use of for finding any specimens by simply giving 
the number and letter of those desired. The collection can also 
be revised by a subordinate unacquainted with science, and who 
is only required to see that all numbered and lettered alike are to- 
gether. Other advantages were claimed. Catalogues with this 
object in view had already been published by the Smithsonian In- 
stitution for the classes of Mammals and Fishes, and those of 
MoUusks and others were being prepared. 



The QuARTzriE of Williamstown and Vicinitt, and the 
Structure of the Graylock Range. By Sanborn Tennet, 
of Williamstown, Mass. 

The quartzite of western Massachusetts, and the geological 
structure generally of the Graylock range and of the adjacent 
ranges of mountains, have long engaged the attention of some of 
the best geologists of the country. But I believe there is not yet 
a universal agreement as to the nature of the geological facts ex- 
hibited in this region, nor a universal agreement as to the signifi- 
cance of the facts observed. Therefore I feel that every new fact, 
tiiat can be brought forward in regard to the geology of the region 
nnder consideration, is of interest and importance. 

Living near the Graylock range and numerous outcrops of the 



38 B. NATURAL HIBTOBT. 

well known quartzite of the vicinity, I determined sonae time ago 
to examine careftilly all this part of Massachusetts, and to make 
myself acquainted with all accessible geological facts revealed in 
this interesting region. 

I have already carefully examined a considerable part of the most 
important portion of the ground, and some of the points of especial 
interest and importance I have examined several times. My ex- 
aminations, however, are far from being completed, and therefore 
what I have to present now is merely a brief report of progress. 
But I beg to be permitted to say that my examinations have already 
been carried far enough to convince me that the quartzite of this 
part of the state of Massachusetts, and the structure of the Gray- 
lock range and of the adjacent mountains, are worthy of still 
further attention from our ablest geologists. 

It has long been well known that the Taconic range is composed 
mainly of a finely laminated mica slate resembling a talcose slate ; 
that Stone Hill, between the Taconic range and the Graylock 
range, is quartzite and black slates ; and that between the Taconic 
range and Stone Hill there is a belt of limestone. It has also been 
long known that the Graylock range is composed of mica slate and 
limestone, the former making up the principal part of the entire 
range ; and that between Stone Hill and the Graylock range, or 
rather on the eastern' flank of Stone Hill, there is also a belt of 
limestone. 

All of these rocks, as they occur in the region under consider- 
ation, have a northeasterly strike, and a steep easterly dip, the 
strike being north 10** — 20° or more east, and the dip 20"*— 60** 
easterly. 

It may also be stated here, as a fact which I am not aware has 
been stated before, that somewhat north of the latitude of Stone 
Hill, there is an additional outcrop of limestone half-way up the 
slope of the Taconic range, 

In the relations of the slates of the Taconic range to the great 
limestone belt at its eastern base I find that there is no reasonable 
doubt that the slates dip under the limestone, although the ab- 
solute contact of the two kinds of rocks has not yet been found, 
owing to the loose materials which overlie them along their whole 
line of junction, as far as I have yet observed. 

In examining the relations of the last named limestone belt to the 
quartzite of Stone Hill, I find evidence, which is almost conclusive, 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 89 

that the limestone dips under the quartzite^ instead of there being 
a fault between the limestone and the quartzite, as was held by 
the lamented Emmons, and as has been accepted by others. The 
evidence that the limestone on the west of Stone Hill dips under 
the quartzite of Stone Hill, is found mainly in the very close 
proximity of the two belts, and in the identity of their strike and 
dip. At the western base of Stone Hill, near a place well known 
as ^^ Cold Spring," there is a large outcrop of the limestone which 
is distant from the quartzite but little more than the width of the 
public road and the stream that runs beside it ; at one point about 
forty rods, more or less, northerly from Cold Spring the limestone 
appears nearer the quartzite by the whole width of the road 
and the stream, so that, although the line of Junction cannot be 
seen, there is scarcely room for doubt that the limestone dips un- 
der the quartzite. Now going less than a quarter of a mile farther 
south, and ascending Stone Hill from the public highway on which 
Cold Spring is situated, we pass over a belt of limestone, the eastern 
portion of the belt just mentioned, and as we approach the crest of 
the hill we find the limestone and the quartzite in such relations 
that here again there can be no reasonable doubt that the former 
rock dips under the latter. It is true I have not found the line of 
junction of the two rocks^ for no such line appears at the surface 
here. But the limestone outcrop and the heavy bedded quartzite 
have both the same strike and dip, and the strata in the two 
cases are scarcely a rod apart. I may add here, that at an early 
day I intend to cross-cut the rocks at this place, so that afterwards 
there never can be any question as to the relations which these 
two kinds of rocks sustain to each other at this locality. 

Passing eastward from the outcrop of limestone just men- 
tioned I find in the first place quartzite, then black slates, then 
quartzite again, these two kinds of rocks making up the main bulk 
of Stone Hill, as long ago pointed out by Emmons and others. 

On the eastern slope of Stone Hill we find limestone again, 
and this we follow down nearly to Green River, a small stream 
which occupies the bottom of the valley between Stone Hill and 
the Graylock range. From this stream eastward to what would be 
popularly considered the eastern base of Graylock, that is, the im- 
mediate eastern base of the main portion of the mountain, though 
not the real base, all the rocks have a steep easterly dip, and they are 
all mica slate excepting a belt of limestone on the western slope 



40 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

of Prospect, which, as may be inferred from the statement just 
made, dips under that mountain. But passing eastward from the 
immediate eastern base of Graylock, that is from the base imme- 
diately adjacent the main mass of the mountain, we soon find, 
after crossing a narrow belt covered with soil, grass and bushes, 
the mica slate dipping westward, that is towards or under the 
Graylock range ; and passing eastward still, we soon find a broad 
belt of limestone also dipping westerly ; and following this lime- 
stone still easterly we soon find it dipping easterly, and following 
it still farther toward the east, we find, before reaching the Pitts- 
field and North Adams railroad, that it dips westerly again. These 
facts point to the conclusion, long ago reached by Emmons, that 
the Graylock range is a synclinal, but not just such a synclinal as 
he has figured, since the main bulk of the whole range in the lati- 
tude of which I am speaking exhibits only steep easterly dips: 
so that the whole range has the appearance of a vast monoclinal. 
I may add here that I hope at an early day to publish a diagram 
showing the position of all these rocks as well as the position of 
the rocks from the Taconic range to the Hoosac range inclusive. 

But one of the things which has specially attracted my attention 
in the study of the geology of this region is the relation of the 
quartzite to the limestone, when followed along the line of their 
strike. In studying the strata on the southerly slope of Stone 
Hill, within a hundred rods of the road leading from Williams- 
town to South Williamstown, I find the quartzite and limestone 
so closely associated with each other, as to indicate that the 
quartzite of Stone Hill gradually merges into limestone, and that 
therefore there is here really no distinct formation of quartzite, 
but a series of beds which are quartzite at Stone Hill and lime- 
stone .to the southward, and probably to the northward also. And 
I am the more inclined to take this view from other similar facts 
which I will now present as I found them on the east side of the 
Graylock range, and which, so far as I am aware, are here brought 
forward for the first time. On the east side of the Graylock 
range, and near the "Notch" road, or "Bellows-pipe" road 
leading from the "Notch" to South Adams, and near the quarry 
where the limestone blocks were obtained for building bridges on 
the Troy and Boston railroad, I find the limestone on the west 
side of the road with a strike of north 20° — 25'' east, by the 
needle, and with a dip of 40° westerly. On the opposite or east 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 41 

side of the road the same kind of limestone has a very steep 
easterly dip. Now following southward on the belt of limestone 
dipping easterly, I find the limestone suddenly replaced by quartz- 
ite as well defined as that at Stone Hill on the west of the Gray- 
lock range ; and going still farther south a short distance, I find 
the quartzite and limestone very closely associated with each other, 
interstratified and passing into each other in many cases by easy 
gradations ; but also in some cases th^ change occurs abruptly ; 
in all cases, however, the two kinds of rocks maintain their con- 
formability. The evidence here seems to be conclusive that the 
same series of beds are limestone at one place and quartzite at 
another, and this is perhaps the case with all the quartzite beds in 
this part of Massachusetts. 

As regards the conclusion respecting the relation of the quartzite 
and limestone, so far as the passage of the one into the other 
along the line of their strike is concerned, I believe I am antici- 
pated by Dana, in observations made in other places ; but my 
conclusions are drawn from the data which I have now pfesented. 

If the observations enumerated above are to be relied upon, they 
show that the limestone and quartzite are conformable at Stone 
Hill, and that the former dips under the latter ; that the quartzite 
and limestone at Stone Hill, and at a locality near the eastern 
base of the Gray lock range, pass into each other along the line of 
their strike; and that the Graylock range is a synclinal, as long 
ago shown by Emmons, but not exactly such a synclinal as he has 
figured, no westerly dips presenting themselves in the main mass 
of the mountain range, the synclinal being indicated only by west- 
erly dips of the mica slate and limestone as exhibited between 
the main mass of the range and the Pittsfield and North Adams 
railroad. I repeat, the main mass of the whole range appears like 
one vast monodinal. 

I hope to present additional facts in regard to this range of 
mountains, and in regard to the Hoosac Mountain at an early day. 



42 b. natural bistort. 

On the Cause of the Transient Fluctuations op Level ik 
Lake Superior. By Chas. Whittlesey, of Cleveland, Ohio. 

In this paper I shall confine myself to that class of fluctuations 
which are not only transient^ but where there is a wave-like regu- 
larity of occurrence, and the height of the undulation is small. 
The secular fluctuations^ extending through a series of years, no 
longer need discussion, as to their origin. It may be considered 
as settled that they are due to meteorological causes, extending 
through many years, giving rise to differences in the rainfall, and 
evaporation. 

The annual fluctuation is subordinate to the secular, having the 
same origin, T)ut the period is less, covering only the term of the 
seasons within each year. Neither do I mean to treat of those 
striking irregular oscillations, swashes or seiches, consisting of a 
bold crest moving rapidly along, often in quiet seas, which have 
been observed, from the time the Jesuit fathers made their first 
journeys along the shores of the Upper Lakes ; nor to discuss the 
minute lunar tides, recently discovered through the observations 
of the United States Lake Survey ; nor the long swells produced 
by distant storms. They are common to all lakes and seas, and 
the cause is shown, by the reports of the' Lake Survey, to be 
variation of atmospheric pressure, and it is also universal. A fitful 
agitation of the waters, which I purpose noticing, will be found 
in all latitudes and climates, but it is more marked in the 
temperate and the frigid zones, because there, atmospheric changes 
are more frequent and more extreme. 

The cause of the low pendulum4ike pulsations, which Professor 
Mather observed at Copper Harbor, in July, 1847, and on which 
I made observations at Eagle River, in 1854 and 1856, reported 
in the Smithsonian Contributions for 1859 , has not, so far as I 
know, been demonstrated. 

These are no doubt common to all waters, but they are so slight 
that they are not generally noticed, and are more prominent on 
Lake Superior than on the Lower Lakes, for reasons that will 
appear to be good, provided my conclusions in regard to their 
origin are sound. My endeavor will be to bring them into the 
same category as the other fluctuations, although barometrical 
readings, as far as we have them, do not tally with such a conclu- 
sion. The period of the oscillation is too short, to produce an 






B. NATURAL BISTORT. 43 

appreciable change in the mercurial column. It requires some delicate 
mechanical contrivance to magnify the effect of slight barometrical 
movements, before the question can be settled by observation. 

The readings of Professor Mather extended only through a part 
of a day, during which there was a storm in the vicinity. While 
the flux and reflux of the water was incessant, the movement of 
the mercury was regular, and such as was due to the storm. It 
indicated no atnjospheric oscillations. 

At Eagle River, twenty miles west of Copper Harbor, on the 
same coa^t, from the 25th to the 29th of June, 1854, the oscilla- 
tions were continuous. Of six readings of my water gauge on the 
29th, the average time between one rise and the next was (11) 
eleven minutes ^ the average height of the wave (3) three inches and 
(7-10) seven-tenths. No storm occurred in that vicinity during 
these days. 

The readings which were made were intended to represent the 
aver<ige of the oscillations, which extended through a fortnight, not 
continuously, but without long interruptions. 

On the 11th of October, my attention was arrested by the occur- 
rence of a very regular series of oscillations, in calm water, with 
a stiff breeze off shore, that is, from the southeast. 

The average of (8) eight readings, extended from 7.43 to 8.58 
A.M., made at a dock in the open lake, in three feet of water, 
was for time from flood to flood (9) nine minutes and (4-10) four- 
tenths; for vertical range of flood (10) ten inches and (1-10) one- 
tenth. The undulations came in parallel with the shore and broke 
with a regular, but low ripple on the beach. They continued during 
the day, which was cloudy and rainy, without wind. In 1855 
these movements were not noticed until the 20th of June, with 
calm and clear weather. They recurred on the 26th of June and 
on the 13th of July, continuing with little interruption for a week ; 
weather cloudy, rainy and frequent thunder storms. 

From the 24th to the 31st of July they occurred every day, 
the weather being quite the reverse of that in the middle of 
the month — warm, foggy and calm. In the month of August the 
oscillations were frequent, but with interruptions. On the morning 
of the 2d of August the average period was (12) twelve minutes j 
and in the evening of the 3d, it was (9) nine and (1-2) one-half min-^ 
utes. During the 2d, the weather was calm, cloudy and sultry. 
On the 3d a thunder storm with wind. 



44 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



In October, 1856, 1 was for the first time enabled to read the 
barometer and the pulsations at the same time. During one hour 
on the afternoon of the 2l8t they were very rapid, the mean of 
elapsed time being (3) three minutes and (1-10) one-ten^A, with a 
northeasterly wind, a swell on the lake, and a driving rain. The 
barometer rose steadily from 29-440 to 29-520. During the suc- 
ceeding four hours, or until 9 p. m., there was no cessation of the 
waves, and the barometer reached 29603. 

From 6.45 a. m. of the next day, until 9 p. m., there was only 
an occasional intermission, with very variable weather ; barometer 
ranging from 29-485 to 29-600. On the third day, Oct. 23d, the 
movements were slight and irregular, barometer rising all day 
from 29-640 to 29-860, and light northerly winds. Average period 
of pulsations for one hour (7) seven and (4-10) four-tenths minutes. 
The mean elevation of Lake Superior, above tide, is about six 
hundred and five feet. From the few barometrical readings hitherto 
made in reference to this class of movements, little can be inferred 
beyond the fact that the oscillations are more marked when tfie 
pressure is large. 

Any agitation having its origin far out in the lake would ap- 
proach the shore in waves nearly or quite parallel to it. 

I have never seen an instance of perfect quiescence, on the 
waters of the North American lakes. On a shelving sandy beach 
there is always a slight wave-like ripple, even when the atmosphere 
appears to be perfectly tranquil, but there never can be a thor- 
oughly quiet atmosphere, over a large area of water. 

Until a better theory is found, I adopt that of atmospheric 
movement, as the cause of the undulations under consideration. 
There is a source of perpetual motion in the atmosphere, in the 
perpetual presence of unequally heated areaSy to which I will soon 
make reference. Water is so sensitive to aerial currents that 
they cannot take place without producing an effect upon the 
equilibrium of its surface. I shall first show that all movements 
of flowing water are in a wave-like or undulatory form, and en- 
deavor to deduce by analogy, that movements of the atmosphere 
take the same form, producing pulsations in the waters over which 
they move. 

Pulsations in the Flow of Liquids.— Where a sheet of water 
flows over a dam, or a natural fall with a regular edge, it is inces- 
santly changing. Its vibrations are sufllcient to produce a mo- 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 45 

notonous sound, that has in it something of musical harmony. 
Beneath the falling sheet, there is a constant fiux and reflux of 
air, which, in large waterfalls like Niagara, gives rise to powerful 
gusts of wind. This is due to a constant variation of pressure 
within and without the sheet of falling water. 

Jets and fountains, sustained by distant and quiet reservoirs, 
present a continual change, in the height of the discharge. The 
intervals between the lengthening and shortening of the columns 
vary with the size and form of the discharge pipe, and the head 
of the fountain. 

One of the series of jets at Cleveland is a mile from the reser- 
voir. In the centre is an upright pipe, throwing a jet about fif- 
teen feet in height ; with an orifice of about half an inch. It is 
surrounded by fifteen shorter ones, not quite half as long, which 
are curved outward ; the orifice about one-fourth of an inch. In 
perfectly calm weather, all these discharges pulsate in perfect 
unison as to time ; but not in the amount of rise and fal] of the 
jets. Their period is from thirty-seven to forty in a minute. 

When water is allowed to flow through a flexible tube, like a fire- 
man's hose, or the ordinary rubber pipe, it is discharged, not with 
a steady stream, but in spirts that have regular intervals. 

The molten material, coming from stack furnaces and cupolas, 
has the same undulatory or wave-like fiow. 

There is something analogous in the discharge of volcanoes and 
geysers. In flumes and in the narrow channels of rivers, as soon 
as the running water acquires velocity, the surface takes on the 
form of undulations lying across the current. 

In the atmosphere, the effect of concussion is to produce con- 
secutive waves, which spread from the point of agitation in a 
circular figure, and, by reaching the ear, produce sound. 

The size, form and extent of this undulatory wave, depends upon 
the chai'acter of the agitation, or concussion. Those arising from 
lightning, or the discharge of fire-arms and artillery, have their 
pulsations sharp and violent. Musical instruments, such as trum- 
pets, are made to produce an infinite variety of notes, b}' a slight 
variation of form in the instrument, which changes the form of the 
atmospheric wave, on its way to the drum of the ear. The human 
throat which is a fiexible trumpet, closed at the orifice, is capable 
of more and finer modulations, than artificial ones, because it can 
produce undnlations of infinitesimal dimensions. Stringed instru- 



46 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

ments produce their various notes in the same way; and these 
waves of concussion have such relations to each other, that the 
tones they produce are musical haimonies. Light and heat are 
transmitted in the form of undulations. It is therefore reasonable 
to infer that movements of the atmosphere in general fall into the 
same category ; and that this is a law in the motion of gases as 
well as fluids. 

In the case of the atmosphere there is always present a canse or 
power which is too much overlooked, but which is perpetaal 
and produces prodigious results, in the natural world. It is so 
simple ' and so quiet that it passes unnoticed. Wherever there 
are bodies irregularly heated in different parts, if they are fluid, 
there mu8t he motion. In the waters of the ocean it gives rise to 
wide-spread currents, whose size, velocity and distance, are deter- 
mined by the unequal distribution of heat over the earth. Aerial 
cun-ents, both local and general, from the gentlest zephyr, through 
all grades of breezes, winds and storms, until a tornado is formed, 
are due to an unequally heated atmosphere. 

Electrical action, and with it chemical action and magnetism, 
are brought into play in the same way. Germination and the 
growth of plants, the changes of the seasons and the annual 
progress of storms, are in the control of the same agent. 

It is the foundation of the general circulation, which character- 
izes all departments of nature, and allows stagnation nowhere. 
The sun, in its daily action upon the earth, heats the soil, the 
waters and the air, irregularly. In its annual movement of dec- 
lination, there is a change every day, in the effect of its rays upon 
the earth in every parallel of latitude. 

On all shores there is a daily land and water breeze, arising 
Arom the unequal effect of solar heat for that day, upon the land 
and the water. As these movements are almost incessant, and the 
cause is ever present, if it is granted that they follow the general 
law of undulations, I think we have in them an explanation of 
those low but regular pulsations, which take place in the waters of 
all seas and lakes. 



b. natural bistort. 47 

Descent of Biyers in the Mississippi Yallet, Area of Drain- 
age 1,000,000 Square Miles. By Chas. Wuittleset, of 
Cleyeland, Ohio. 

Of that part of North America east of the Rocky Mountains 
four-fifths lies below an elevation of 1,000 feet. Humboldt calcu- 
lated the mean height of North America to be 748 feet, by which 
he meant, if a plane, or rather a spheroidal surface parallel with 
the earth's surface, should be passed at that height above the ocean, 
the parts above it, would fill up the spaces below. 

Probably he would modify his estimate if he were now living and 
had access to the inter-oceanic railway sections, and would fix the 
plane of equalization somewhat higher. This would come, not so 
much by increasing the mass of the Rocky Mountains, as of the 
large elevated plateaus along their bases. 

The proper establishment of such planes is a work beyond the 
resources of individuals. It requires the finances of governments, 
and the prolonged labor of their agents. 

Profiles of surveys for railways present the same discrepancies 
as barometrical profiles, only in a less degree. The Coast Survey or 
the United States engineers, are the parties to establish such planes, 
in a manner to give confidence in the results. 

Those which are here given provisionally are intended to illus. 
trate some of the most striking topographical features of the United 
States. One of these is the large areas of low country. A plane at 
the elevation of 2,000 feet would have above it the mere caps of 
the Alleghanies, including the mountains of New York and New 
England. It would scarcely touch the Laurentian hills north of the 
St. Lawrence towards Hudson's bay, and would pass over that im- 
mense tract east of the Rocky Mountains, northward to the Arctic 
Ocean. This desolate region of rocks, scoured by the ancient con- 
tinental glaciers, of drift gravel and bowlders and of countless 
lakes, filling cavities excavated during the ice era, is nearly equal 
to the United States in extent. Lake Winnipeg in Manitoba, which 
is as large as Lake Erie, lies only 820 feet above the ocean, Lake 
of the Woods 987 and Rainy Lake 1035. The low water-shed be- 
tween the waters of Hudson's Bay, and those of the Atlantic where 
0O many great rivers have their sources, will be noticed below. 

For only a few of the streams in this valley, has the elevation 
of the channel or low water been taken. Such observations are 



48 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

highly important for topographical purposes, because where there 
are no falls, chutes, or important rapids, the descent of the channel 
is approximately uniform. Between points only one or two hundred 
miles apart, it is nearly proportional to »the distance, and the ele- 
vation of the adjacent country may be obtained with a barometer 
or by means of short side levels ; using low water as a base. For 
instance, the Mississippi, at the mouth of the Ohio, is 324 feet 
above the Gulf. Midway it cannot be far from half that eleva- 
tion, or 162 feet. 



Mississippi Riveb. 

Feet. 
Month of the Ohio, (Low water above gulf) 324 

it it tt j^eyre River, Galena, 111. > " ** " ** ^ 

«« " •« Des Moines, rapids 28 ft. ) •* " *' ** 

(I (( (I Wisconsin, Prairie des Chlens, 618 

" ** *' Black River 694 

Lake Pepin, 630 

Mouth of the St. Croix River, 645 

" *' " St. Peter's ** Mendota, .692 

Head of Falls of St. Anthony, . 777 

Mouth of the Crow Wing River (chutes and falls below at St. Cloud), II30 

" ** ** Sandy Lake Outlet, 1253 

Tokegema Falls, at base, fall 1 Oil ft., 1340 

Cass or Red Cedar Lake, 1400 

Itasca Lake (Schoolcraft's source), 1532 

Turtle Lake (Beltrami's " ), 1413 

Leech Lake (greatest flow of water), 1S80 



Missouri Rivbr. 

The elevations along this river are not always distinguishable from 
those of the towns on the bluff's : — - 

Fort Leavenworth (a<yacent hills 912) river, 750 

Omaha (river bloflis), 1217 

Fort Pierce, 1609 

Red Cedar Islands, latitude 48<» N. (bluflb), 2083 

Fort Clarke, 1827 

" Berthold, 1873 

** Union, mouth of Yellowstone River, 1879 

Mouth of Milk River (water level) 2010 

Fort Benton, 2663 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 49 



Oflio River. 

Feet. 

Moath at Cairo (low water), * 824 

Cincinnati (falls at Louisville 27 ft.), 429 

Portsmouth, Ohio, 469 

Marietta (three ft, below Lake Erie), 662 

Pittsburgh, Pa., 704 

Mouth of French Creek, Franklin, Pa., 908 

Olean, N. York, 1280 

Chautaaque Lake, N. T., ^1291 

Watkrs of the Tennessee River. 

Tuscumbla, Alabama, 600 

Chattanooga, Tennessee, 675 

London ** 737 

Knoxville ** (railroad depot 898) river level, . . 816 

Sources near Bristol, state line of Virginia, 1678 

Little Tennessee, state line, at a gap in the Unlkoi Mountains, 

high water, 1114 

Tellico River at old ftirnace, 1149 

Plane op One Thousand Feet Elevation. 

The intersecting line of a plane, one thousand feet above tide, 
comnaences at the southwest on the Rio Grande near Ceralvo ( 1066) , 
proceeds in a curve along the base of the rolling or hill country, 
turning up the Colorado, thence to the neighborhood of Fort Worth 
on the Trinity (1100) and by another curvature to the south and 
east around into the valley of the Red River. It extends up this 
stream, into the Indian country a distance not 3'et determined ; 
doubling back on the north side, over the high land, to the valley 
of the Arkansas. This river comes out of the country of hill 
and mountain, in the neighborhood of Little Rock, whence the 
plane of one thousand feet cuts the surface along the foot of the 
Ozarks, in. a northeasterly direction to the heads of the St. Francis. 
Bending abruptly to the west, across southwestern Missouri, the 
line is quite irregular and impossible of determination in the pres- 
ent state of information, but strikes the Kansas River near the 
mouth of the Kaw. From thence it will cross the Missouri River, 
not far below Omaha, turning back into northwestern Missouri 
and leaving most of Iowa beneath it, and will take a course nearly 
north to Lac qui Parle, and Big Stone Lake in Minnesota. Here it 

A.A. a. S. VOL. XXTI. B. (4) 



50 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

sweeps away to the northwest, down the west side of Red River 
to the waters of Mouse River, and the Saskatchewan in Canada. 

On the eastern side of the Mississippi it can be better defined. 
Beginning in the hill coantry at the terminus of the Blue Ridge, 
in Georgia, and of the Cumberland in Alabama, the plane leaves 
below it nearly all of the valley of the Chattahoochee and its 
branches, sometimes passing up these valleys beyond the Chatta- 
nooga and Atlanta railway. Coming around the buttresses of the 
Cumberlands near Tuscumbia, a narrow tongue is thrust up the 
Tennessee valley, beyond Knoxville and also up the Sequatchie 
valley. Passing thence westward around the most westerly flank 
of the Cumberlands, between Bridgeport and Huntsville, it turns 
sharp to the north in the valley of Elk Creek, following the base 
of the mountains northeasterly to the Cumberland River, above 
Monticello in Kentucky. It cuts near the tops of the hills around 
Lexington, Frankfort, Covington and the Highlands in Ohio. In 
Indiana and Illinois, probably, there is no point rising to an ele- 
vation of one thousand feet. 

In West Virginia, there are many knolls, which are below the base 
of the mountains, but rise above the level of one thousand feet. 
It passes about three hundred feet up the side of Cotton mountain 
at the Falls of Kanawha, and the same on the hills around Pitts- 
burgh. 

Up the Alleghany, it ititersects the river hills at the mouth of 
French Creek one hundred feet above low water. The passes or 
lowest water crests in Ohio lie nearly in it, all of them showing 
the abrasion of the ice period. There are very few summits in 
this state that rise two hundred feet above and very few that lie 
below it. As already stated, the water gap between the St. Mary's 
and the Great Miami is nine hundred and forty-two ; Tymochtee 
summit level eight hundred and ninety-eight ; Black River, Medina 
Co., nine hundred and one ; Portage summit nine hundred and 
fifty- eight ; Mi^oning and Grand Rivers, Trumbull Co., nine hun- 
dred and eight, above sea level. 

It passes four hundred and thirty-five feet above the surface of 
Lake Erie, intersecting the slopes of its south shore, near their 
tops, leaving below it a large space in New York and on the north 
of the lakes in Canada. 

The lowest water gaps between the Interior lakes of New York 
and the waters of the Susquehanna are close under this plane. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 51 

In the lower peninsula of Michigan there are very few points 
that reach up to it, the highest pinnacle of Mackinaw Island being 
two hundred feet below. In the upper peninsula a large part of 
the country lies above the line of one thousand feet, though it 
seldom rises to that of two thousand. 

The sand dunes east of Grand Island and the surface of the 
country east of the Chocolate River lie in this imaginary pliane, 
which crosses the Menominee River, near the Twin Falls into Wis- 
consiOf and thence westerly across the Wolf River, near Lake 
Poteau and the Wisconsin near Stevens Point, to the Bluffs of the 
Mississippi at Lake Pepin. Here it deflects north up the vallej^ of 
the St. Croix, to the heads of its northern branches and those of 
the Brule. From the Brale portage the line passes west through 
Fortuna to St. Cloud, and to the portage of Lac qui Parle, whera 
it comes in contact with the one already described, coming up on 
the west side of the Mississippi valley. 

North of this it separates, bending northeasterly down Red 
River valley and across to a point on Rainy Lake River, between 
Lake of the Woods and Rainy Lake. From here its course around 
the Basin of Hudson's Bay, through that rough but low region of 
bare rocks and pure water, cannot as yet be defined. 



On the Origin op Mountain Chains. By Chas. WniTTLESEr, of 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

The first result of the act of creation, as applicable to matter, 
must have been the production of simple substances^ such as met- 
als, the non-metallic solids like carbpn, phosphorus and sulphur ; 
and of gases, such as oxygen, chlorine, hydrogen and nitrogen. 

To them should be added the imponderables ; light, heat, elec- 
tricity and magnetism. 

As Ibe imponderables produce chemical action in material sub- 
stances, and motion, which produces momentum, they must be re- 
garded as material. We are unable to conceive of a thing which is 
neither matter, nor spirit. It is too much for the human mind to 
decide, certainly in the present state qf knowledge, the order in 



52 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

which the creation of material substances took place ; but there 
must have been a succession, and there must have been in some 
cases, long intervals between the acts of creation. Until oxygen 
was present there could be no oxides, or water. Sulphides and 
chlorides are not possible, until there is sulphur and chlorine. 

According to the theory of La Place, which has received the 
general assent of philosophers, the solar system must have been 
at some period of its existence in a nebulous condition, analo- 
gous to vapor ; occupying a spherical space whose radius was equal 
to that of the orbit of the farthest planet, and having a motion of 
revolution. 

Such a condition is incompatible with the existence of binary 
compounds, such as oxides, earths, alkalies, water, the atmosphere 
and acids. It might occur with pure metals, or with metals and 
hydrogen, or such gases as have no chemical affinity for metals. 

The consequences that follow from this affinity are no part of 
creation, but the results of qualities impressed upon matter ; which 
go by the name of " secondary causes," or natural laws. They 
had much to do, however, with the structure of our globe ; but 
must not be confounded with the creative acts. 

Hydrogen and nitrogen might be introduced into this mass of 
metals in a state of vapor, with comparatively small results, but 
those which must follow the appearance of oxygen were prodig- 
ious. 

Between 30 and 40 per cent, of the crust of the earth, including 
water, is oxygen in a state of chemical union. The igneous 
rocks are molten oxides. The sedimentary strata are oxides that 
have been in suspension, or salts that have been in solution, in 
which oxygen is the leading component. 

Imagine all the metals in a state of vapor, which requires a high 
degree of heat, the whole in a shape of a rolling sphere, sur- 
rounded by an atmosphere of oxygen. Potassium and sodium, 
iron and calcium, would combine with it so rapidly that most in- 
tense heat would result ; and there would be a general combustion. 
Other metals combine less rapidly, but in time a large part of the 
free oxygen present must assume a solid state. 

Chemical action, which includes combustion, is probably due to 
electrical action, which is always excited in bodies that are ime- 
quaHy heated. The process of general oxidation might produce 
the requisite electrical conditions to form water, which must have 



B. NATUBAL HISTOBT. 53 

preceded the deposition of the sedimentary rocks, and the pres- 
ence of vegetable or animal life. 

A world of inanimate matter might fill its place in the solar 
system, but could fill no place in a moral or intellectual system, 
of which personal sentience and happiness form a leading part. 

The presence of oxygen brought into play the acid forming 
affinities, giving rise to the ubiquitous carbonic, sulphuric hydro- 
chloric and nitric acfds ; which in turn seized upon the oxides, al- 
kalies and earth, forming a multitude of quaternary compounds. 

As nitrogen is lacking in affinity for metals, most of it remained 
free and mingled with the surplus oxj^gen, constituting the atmos- 
phere. All these processes are secondary, and the result of 
causes that are natural and not beyond our comprehension ; but 
all of them must have occurred before there were rocky strata or 
mountains. 

Mountain chains conld not be elevated until the solid crust of 
the earth was formed. 

Nearly all great mountain ranges are composed of sedimentary 
strata carrying marine fossils, which proves that they were once 
beneath the ocean. These rocks are quite different from the molt- 
en material, of which the interior of the earth is composed. 

This fluid mass, arranging itself around the centre of gravity in 
a spheroidal form, should be in a quiescent, and not an aggi*essive 
state. There is nothing in a liquid body of this character calcu- 
lated to produce a rupture of the solid crust which rests upon it. 

How then are mountain chains raised many thousand feet above 
the mean surface of the earth, on long lines of fracture? Volca- 
noes, or the forces that produce volcanoes, and earthquakes, are 
not adequate to such results. These have been observed during 
the historical period, and are not known to have acted along fis- 
sures to elevate chains of mountains, but only at points, to build up 
cones with mud, scoria, and lava, thrown out of a circular vent. 

These self-constituted escape pipes have been well compared to 
safety valves. Volcanic discharges are local, and are due to the 
pressure of confined gases, and of steam, acting on the fluid mass 
beneath. There are about three hundred of them, active and latent, 
most of which are located in the sea, producing islands of various 
sizes. Earthquakes are connected with these eruptions, and with 
the local rise and sinking of the land, but not with long fissures 
and nplifls. 



54 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

The rise of mountain ranges was generally gradual, and not 
spasmodic ; and must be due to some cause that has pervaded this 
planet, operating more energetically, however, while the sedimen- 
tary rocks were being deposited. Very few were uplifted prior to 
the era of the lower Silurian formations. 

Those of the laurentian age, like the Adirondacks of New York, 
are not numerous nor prominent. The Cumberlands and most of 
the Alleghany range roso since the deposit of the coal. A large 
part of the Rocky Mountains, and the other Pacific ranges, are 
cretaceous and tertiary. 

The most "satisfactory theory of elevation is that of lateral com- 
pression, due to the contraction of the solid surface of the globe, 
by radiation of its heat. Such a contraction would produce wrin- 
kles and corrugations along long lines, nearly straight, which could 
not be done by an explosive force. 

Mountain knots, like the Adirondacks, which are as a group 
nearly circular, might be produced by such forces acting in succes- 
sion ; consequently the pre-silurian mountains partake more of this 
character, than those of subsequent date. 

The brothers Rodgers while engaged upon the sur\^eys of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia, and Prof. Leslie, since their day, have given 
special attention to strata folded on each other throughout the 
Appalachians. In places they are tilted over so as to be reversed 
in their geological order. The tops of the ridges are nearly 
straight, overlooking narrow valleys, also straight, like Laurel Hill 
in Pennsylvania and Waldroun's ridge in Tennessee, the folds being 
numerous, and of nearly equal height. By pushing any flexible 
plane together from the edges < under a weight, precisely such 
parallel wrinkles will be produced. To treat of the condition of the 
earth during the sedimentary era, which gave rise to such a com- 
pressing force, is not a part of my present programme, which is 
simply to call attention to the inadequacy of earthquake action to 
form mountain ranges. 



B. NATUB1.L HISTOBT. 55 

> 

On thb Species op the Genus Microptebus (Lac.) or Grtstes 
(Acer.)- By Theodore Gill, of Washington, D. C. 

Thk best excuse for the presentation of so technical an article 
to the Association will be found in the popular interest in the spe- 
cies of this genus, celebrated in different parts of the United States 
under the name of black bass, but also called, in the southern 
states, trout, salmon, chub, etc. The nomenclature of the species 
has become involved in much doubt, and, if we may judge from 
the literature and the distinctions insisted on by Prof. Agassiz 
and others,* at least four or five species are supposed to exist in 
oar waters ; but it is evident from a perusal of the descriptions 
that the distinctions hitherto made are of very doubtful value. 

Having been requested by the United States Commissioner of 
Fish and Fisheries (Prof. S. F. Baird) to determine the number of 
species represented in the fresh waters of the United States, and 
the earliest names respectively assigned to them, all the specimens 
in the collections of the Smithsonian Institution were examined, 

*Iii the nominal (1) '^ Orystes faeeiatua Agass.," it is said, "the tealea are a little smaller, 
hot of the same form as in (2) G, Mnlmoides; the radiating strisB are perhaps less marked. 
Thevcover the opercular apparatus and the cheektj but at this latter place their [the fcalee*} 
tmaUertizeU quite remarkable ; this latter character is very striking when we compare 
both species." — Agass., Lake Superior, p. 2ti6.— The italicized portion (not italicized in 
original) indicates that the G. talmoides Agass. was a large-mouthed form. (3) **Huro ni- 
grieant Cur. is another species of the lower Canadian lakes, which occurs also in Lake 

Champlain .... I shall therefore call it in future Gryetet nigricans Dr. DeEaj 

describes it as Centrarchus fiiseiatuB, although he copies also Cuvier's description and 
£gure of Huro nigricans, but without perceiving their identity." Agass., Lake Superior, 
p. 287. — Huro nigricans Cuv. and Val. and Centrarchus fusciatus DeEay are unques- 
tionably distinct, the former being the large-mouthed species, and the latter the small- 
moutheil one. It is probable, however (thus giving him the benefit of the doubt), that Prof. 
Agaasiz based his idea of the Fpccies on the large-mouthed form. 

**Tbe species of this group [Grystes Cuv.] are indeed very dilOcult to characterize. 
Tbey differ chiefly in the relative size of their scales, the presence or absence of teeth 
on the tongue, .... etc. There are besides marked differences between the young and 
adults. These circumstances render it imposf^ible to characterize any one species 
without comparative descriptions and figures. (4) The species from Huntsvillo [Ala.] 
. . . differs equally from [G. fasc^xtw A;fa98.>ind G. ^'salmoneus*^ Agass.]. I call this 
species provisionally Orystes nobilis Agass." Am. Jour. 8ci. and Arts (2), xvii, p. 
S97. 29H, 1854. 

Prof. Agassiz thus recognized four species (besides indeterminate ones), viz :— 

1. G. fasdatus Agass. = 3f. salmaides. 

i, G. talmoides Agass. (not Cuv. and Val. nor G. salmoneus Agass., 1854) = M. ni' 
grieanM. 

S. a. nigrioins Agass./ = 3f. nigricans! 

4. O. nobilis Agass. = M. nigricans. 

Judging by the comparisons. Prof. Agassiz had in view, in 1854, in the "G. salmoneus,** 
the true Jf. salmoides. 

Baird and Girard added to these species, also in 1854, (5) their O, nuecensis as (M. 
migricanB'^. 



56 B. NATXJBAL HISTORY. 

as well as a large series ft'om many other localities kindly trans- 
mitted for that purpose by the Museum of Comparative Zoology 
(Prof. Agassiz, Director). Study and comparison of those speci- 
mens clearly demonstrated that two perfectly distinct types of the 
genus were represented in most of the waters of the cismontane 
(east of the Rocky Mountain) slope of the United States, except 
those of the New England states and the Atlantic seaboard of the 
middle states. In limitation of this general statement it need 
only at present be remarked that but one of those types, the 
small-mouthed, appears to have been an original inhabitant of 
the hydrographic basin of the Ohio River. 

In order to obtain as clear and unprejudiced' ideas as possible 
respecting the species, the specimens from all the localities were 
in the first place examined without reference to their names but 
only with the view to ascertain their relations to each other. This 
examination confirmed the previous experience of the author for a 
more limited range, and led to the combination of all into the two 
groups just referred to : between these many differences existed, 
but none were discovered which permitted further definite subdi- 
vision. The differences thus ascertained may be tabulated as 
follows : 

Contrasted Differential Characteristics. 

Small-mouthed. Large-mouthed. 

Scales of trunk 

Small (e.g. lat. line, 72-76; be- Moderate (e. g. lot. line^ 65-70; 

tween lateral line, and back, II between lateral line and back, 7} or 
rows). 8 rows). 

Scales on nape and breast 

Much smaller than those of sides. Scarcely (on nape), or not mach 

(on breast) smaller than those of 
sides. 

Scales of cheeks 

Minute (e. g., between orbit and Moderately small (e, g., between 

preoperculum, about 17 rows In an orbit and preopercnlum, about 10 

obliqae line and about 9 in a hori- rows in an oblique line and about 

zontal one). 5-6 in a horizontal one). 

Scales of interoperculum uniserial 

CoveriDg only about half the Covering the entire width of th« 
width of the bone. bone. 



B. NATURAL HI8TOBT. 57 

Scales of preopercular limb 

None. Developed in an imperfect row 

(c. g., 8-5 in number). 

Scales on dorsal 

Developed as a deep sheath (in- Developed as a low (obsolete) 

volving last spine) of small scales shallow sheath, and with series as- 

differentiated from those on the cending comparatively little on 

back, and with series advancing high membrane behind the rays (none 

op the membrane behind each ray behind last five or six), 
(except last two or three). 

Scales on anal 
Ascending high behind each ray. None (or very few). 

Mouth 
Moderate. Large. 

Supramaxillary 

finding considerably in front of Extending considerably behind 
hinder margin of orbit (about nn- • the posterior margin of orbit, 
der hinder border of pupil). 

Bays 

Dorsal, articulated, 18. Dorsal, articulated, 12 (I. 11). 

Anal III, 10-11. Anal III, 10. 

Pectoral, llG-117. Pectoral, 114 (118). 

Dorsal fln in front of soft portion 

Little depressed, the ninth spine Much depressed, the ninth spine 

being dnly abont a half shorter being only about a fbarth as long 

than the longest (8, 4, 5) and a as the longest and half as long as 

fonrth shorter than the tenth. the tenth. 

Thus naroerous and well marked are the differences between 
the two groups ; within the limits of neither of these groups were 
found diflferenccs in the slightest degree comparable with them or 
that suggested the differentiation of the forms into distinctly 
marked subordinate types: in other ^ords, no differences were 
found of specific value, and, although a renewed examination may 
possibly result in the discovery of some, their value must be very 
alight in comparison with those distinguishing the two groups 
indicated : these groups may therefore be considered as specific. 
The question now arises, What are the names to which they are 
respectively entitled? In order to ascertain this, it is advisable to 
enter quite fully into the very complicated history of the genus. 



58 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Bearing strictly in mind the differential features of the two species, 
Yfe may now proceed to an analysis of the successive descriptioDS 
of forms of the genus and endeavor to refer them to their respec- 
tive types. 

The first scientific allusions to any species of the genus are found 
in the great work on fishes by Comte de Lacepede.* 

In 1800, in the third volume (pp. 716, 717), Lacepede intro- 
duced into his sj^stem, under the name Lahnis sahnoides, a species 
based on a description and figure sent him by Bosc from Soath 
Carolina, which, according to Cuvier and Valenciennes, relate to 
the small-mouthed type. 

In 1801, in the fourth volume (p. 325), Lacepede described, as a 
new generic type, named Micropterus Dolomieu^-^ a fish concerning 
which no particulars were given as to habitat or station and which 
could not have been positively identified from the description : the 
original specimen having been preserved, however, Cuvier and Val- 
enciennes ascertained that it belonged to the genus Grystes and 
was in fact identical with the species described by Lacepede from 
the notes and figures of Bosc as Lahrus salmoides. 

In 1817, C. S. RafinesqueJ described a form of the same 
genus under the name Bodianus achigan which evidently belonged 
to the small-mouthed type : while most of the characters noted 
are common to all the species (or erroneous), the number of 
rays (D. IX I, 14§ ; A. Ill, 11 1|) and the absence of scales on the 
preoperculum (gill covers **all scalj' except the second") indicate 
the pertinence of the species to the group in question : the number 

•Lacepi^de (Bernard Germain £tienne de la Ville-Biir-nion, Comte de). Hietoire 
Natarelle dee Poissons, .... Paris. .... [1796 — 1803, 4to5 vj. 

t"121e genre. Les Micropt^res. 
"Unou pinpieurs algnUlons. et point de deutelure anx opercules ; nn barbfllon.on 
point de barbillon aux m&choires; deux nageoires dor&ales; la aeconde tr^batae, 
tr^s-coiirte, el comprenaut au plus cinq rayous. 

**E3pfece. Le Miuropt^re Dolomien. 
" CaracUres. Dix rayons aiguillonn^s et sept rayons articul^s k la premiere nageoire 
du doj*; qantre rayons k la seconde; deux rayons aigniUonn^s et onze rayons arlicnl^ 
k la nageoire de Taniis ; la caudale eu croissant ; un ou deux aiguilloDS k la seconde pitea 
de chaque operoule." [Br. 5; p. 16; v. i, 6; c. 17]. 

t Rafinesque-Schm ALTZ (ConstanUne Samuel). Museum of Natural Sciences. By C. 
8. Raflne-«que, Esq. First Decade of New North American Fishes. <The American 
Monthly Magazine and Critical Review. Vol. ii, New York, . . . 1817 (pp. ISO, 181). 

5 "The dorsal depressed In the middle and with twenty-five rays, whereofTten are spl- 
nescent " It is assumed that the last or double branched ray is counted as two. 

II " Anal fill with flaeen rays whereof three are spinescent and short." The laat rmy 
was also in this case probably counted as two. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 59 

of rays (15) attributed to the pectoral does. not confirm this iden- 
tification, but the number (admitting even the accuracy — very 
doubtful — in the case of the very careless observer) is within the 
range of variation of the type. The exact locality from which 
RaHnesque derived his t3'pes was not specified, but they were prob- 
ably observed by him at Lake Champlain, where he had shortly 
before collected (See Am. Month. Mag. |ind Crit. Rev., ii, p. 202, 
Jan., 1818). 

In 1820, the same naturalist described, in his way, various 
specimens which appear, almost w^ithout doubt, to be referrible to 
the same type. These descriptions appeared originally in the 
"Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine," published at 
Lexington, Kentucky, and were reprinted (from the same types) 
for the "Ichthyologia Ohiensis-."* No less than six generic and 
subgeneric names appear to have been based primarily on a species 
of this type and as many as seven nominal species, viz : — 

Genera and Subgenera. 

1. CaUlums (n. g.). 

2. Lepomis (n. g.). 

Aplites (u. s. g.). 
Nemocampsis (n. s. g. prov.). 
Dioplitcs (d. 8. g.)* 

3. [Etheostoma]. 

AplesioD (n. s. g.). 

Species. 

1. CalHurus punctulatus. 

2. Lepomis pallida (s. g. AplitCH)*. 

3. Lepomis trifasciata (s. g. Aplites). 

4. Lepomis flexuolaris (s. g. Aplites, or n. s. g. Nemocampsis). 

5. Lepomis salmooea (s. g. Dioplites). 

6. Lepomis notata (s. g. Dioplites). 

7. Etheostoma calliara (s. g. Aplesion). 

Of these, it need here only be in general remarked that the differ- 
ential characters employed result (1) partly from erroneous pbserva- 
tionand (2) partly from erroneous assumptions : — that is, because 
the author had not signalized certain characters in specimens pre- 
vionsly examined, but which were noticed in others examined 

*rebthyolog!a OhieneiB, or Natural History of the Fishes inhabiting the River Ohio and 
its tributary streams, . . .Lexington, Kentucky; printed for the author by W. G. Hunt. 
{Price one dollar). 1820. (pp. 28—88). Reprinted (with separate pagination and aOJust- 
ineat for form) from the Western Review and Miscellaneous Magazine, Lexington, Ky 
Tola, iy U, and ill (Dec. 1819 to Nov. 1820). 



60 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

later, he assumed that they did not exist in the former and there- 
fore the two differed. Inasmuch, however, (1) as all the descrip- 
tions cited, best (and decidedly so) agree with species of the genus 
Micropterus, and (2) as, in those respects in which they differ, 
they equally deviate from all known forms in the waters from which 
they were obtained, and (3) as it is in the highest degree im- 
probable that forms better agreeing with them have been over- 
looked, the names in question arc all relegated to the synonymy 
of Micropterus. Within that genus in almost ever\' case some spe- 
cification (chiefly as to the number of rays) indicates that the sev- 
eral descriptions were based on individuals of the small-mouthed 
type. This probability is greath' enhanced by the fact that (so far 
as known or recorded) the small-mouthed species was the only one 
known from the localities where Rafinesque observed. 

The description of CalUurus punctulatus^ however, 'it has been 
thought by Prof. Agassiz, was based on a form of, the sunfish type 
with large mouth. But such could not have been the case as is quite 
evident from the armature of the operculum (*' opercule with an ctctUe 
and membranaceous appendage, before which stands a flat jtpt'ne"), 
the contour of the dorsal Q^ depressed in the middle"), and above 
all the number of the rays of that fin ('-dorsal fin yellow with 
twentj/'four rays, of which ten are spiny") ; in all these respects 
(as well as others), the description is inapplicable to a Pomotid 
and only applicable to a Microptei'us, 

A couple of years later (in 1822), a much more reliable natural- 
ist* published descriptions of five. supposed new species of the 
genus Cichla of Bloch (as supposed to have been adopted by 
Cuvier). All except one (0. cenea =: AmbloplUes rupestns) really 
belong to the genus Micropterus^ and all the northern forms {Cfas- 
ciata^ 0. ohiensis^ C. minima)^ as is evident from the allusions to the 
number of rays, squamation, or size of mouth, belong to the small- 
mouthed type, while the description of the Floridian species (C 
floridana) is as applicable to the same as to the large-mouthed 
type. The descriptions are not suflaciently contrasted and are too 
general and therefore vague ; nor, on comparison with specimens, are 
the differences suggested by the mention of characters in one case 
and their neglect in another apparent. As no reference was made 

*Le SuRiTR (Charles A. . . .)• Descriptions of the [«ic] five new species of tliegenns 
Cichla of Cuvier. By C. A. Le Sueur. ReadJune 11, 1022. <Joumal of the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Vol. ii, Parti. PhUadelphia. . . . ISil. Lpp 214— 
221]. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. * 61 

to the forms of the same type previously described, although the 
author was doubtless acquainted with Eafinesque's memoir, it is 
presumable that the neglect was intentional' (and doubtless pro- 
voked by the character of that author's work) and not without 
etroDg suspicion that the species named had already, perhaps, 
received designations, but with unrecognizable descriptions. 

In the great ^'Hisloire Naturelle des Poissons,'** Cuvier and 
Valenciennes described the two species of the genus, but, deceived 
by the state of their specimens — in one case at least {Huro nigri- 
cans)^ completely failed to recognize the relations of the two. (1) 
In 1828 (tome second, pp. 124-126) they described the large 
mouthed species as a new generic type (under the name Euro ni- 
gricans)^ but, misled by an injur}'^ to the spinous portion of the 
rlorsal fin (and apparently tlie loss of the seventh spine), they 
ranked it in their group of Percoids with two dorsal fins, atlrib- 
utlng to it a first dorsal with six spines, and a second \\ith two 
spines in front ^instead of ten dorsal spines). (2) In the fol- 
lowing year (1829) and volume (tome troisieme, pp. 64 — 58), they 
described the small-mouthed species, identifying it with the Labrus 
salmoides of Lacepede, and forming for it (and at the pame time 
associating with it an Australian fish) the genus Grystes : this 
was referred to the section of Percoids with a single dorsal fin 
and placed after Centropristes and ' before Rhypticxis. The de- 
scriptions of both species (after making allowance for the error 
induced by the state of the dorsal in Huro) were quite good, 
and, especially in the case of Grystes salmoides, much better than 
any subsequently published, and they can consequently be iden- 
tified without difi9culty. 

Subsequently, Dr. DeKay, in his "Zoology of New York,**t re- 
produced the figures and (in a modified form) the descriptions of the 
two species from Cuvier and Valenciennes* work, but, failing to 
identify them, redescribed and refigured one of them (Grystes sal- 
moides) under two names {Centrarchus fasciatus=: Cichla fasciata 

* Cuvier (Georges Chretien Leopold Dagobert 6aron) and AchUle Valenciennes. 
HiBtoire Naturelle des Poissons, .... Paris, .... 1828—1849. [t. il, 1828, pp. 124—128; 
tm, 1829, pp. 54— 58]. 

IDeKay (James E...). Zoology of New York, or the New York Fauna; oomprising 
detaUed descriptions of all the animals hitherto observed ifithin the State of New 
York, with brief notices of those occasionally found near its borders, and accompanied 
by appropriate illustrations. By James E. DeKay. Part IV. Fishes. — Albany; 
printed by W. A A. White A J. Visscher. 1842. [4to, xIt [1, errata], 416 pp. ; atlas, 1 p. 
]..71Bp. 1]. 



62 • B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Les. and Centrarchus obscurus DeKay, n. sp.). Of course all were 
adopted by Dr. Storer in ^his " Synopsis of the Fishes of North 
America."* In those works, therefore, the species stand under three 
generic and four specific names. 

In 1850, Prof. Agassiz, in his "Lake Superior,"t decidedly 
advanced beyond his predecessors, (1) recognizing, for the first 
time, the generic identity of the forms described by LeSueur^ Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, and DeKay, (2) retaining for the genus thus 
enlarged the name Grystes, and (3) recognizing two species as 
inhabitants of the north ; he was, however, less fortunate in his 
appreciation of their specific relations, (1) his Grystes fasdaba 
being the small-mouthed form, (2) his " Orystes scUmoneu^* (as is 
evident from the contrasted characters noticed in his comparisoQ 
of G, fasciatiis with it) being the large-mouthed southern form, 
and (3) his Grystes nigricans being differentiated without state- 
ment of reasons and the Centrarchus fasciatus of DeKay iden- 
tified with it. 

At a later period (1854), Prof. Agassiz distinguished specimens of 
the genus obtained from Huntsville,{ Alabama, as Grystes nobilii^ 
which evidently belongs to the large-mouthed type ; the brief 
notice is only comparative, contrasted with the small-mouthed 
type, and contains no specific peculiarities. 

In the same year and month (March, 1854), Messrs. Baird and 
Girard§ described specimens of the same type from the "Rio Frio 
and Rio Nueces, Texas," under the name Grystes nuecensis. This 
form was subsequently described in greater detail and illustrated 
by Dr. Charles Girard, in the Report on the Mexican Boundary 
Survey. 

•Storer (David Humphreys). A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. . . . 
<\Ieraoir8 of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. New seriea. Vol. H 
(CamV)ridge, 1846), pp. 253—550. 

A Synopsis of the Fishes of North America. . . . Cambridge: Metcalf and Com- 
pany, printers to the university. 1846. [4to, 1 p. 1. (= title), 298 pp.] 

t Agassiz (Louis). Lake Superior; its Physical Character, Vegetation, and Animals* 
compared vrith those of other and similar regions. . . . Boston ; . . . 1850. (p. 995). 

X Agassiz (Louis). Notice of a collection of Fishes fW)m the southern bend of the 
TenneHsee river, Alabama. . . <The American Journal of Science and Arts, second 
series. Vol. xvli 1854. [pp. 297--308; 353— 365=tiry8te8, pp. 297, 898.] 

S Baird (Spencer Fullerton) and Charles Girard. Descriptions of new species of 
Fishes collected in Texas, New Mexico and Sonora, by Mr. John H. Clark* on tbe U. S. 
and Mexican Boundary Survey, and in Texas by Capt. Stewart Van Vliet, U. S. A... 
< Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of PhUadelphia. Vol. yu, 1854, 
1855. [pp. 21—20; Grystes, p. 25J. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 63 

In 1857, Dr. Theodatus Garlick* of Cleveland, Ohio, in a 
treatise on the propagation of fish, described and published rough 
woodcut figures of the two forms of the genus: (1) the small- 
mouthed species under the name ^''Grystea nigricans; or black 
bass ;" (2) the other, as a new species designated '' Grystes me- 
gastoma; or, large-mouth black bass.^J The species are quite 
well distinguished by the size of the mouth and the comparative 
size of the scales : his Grystes nigricans is, however, not the true 
Grystes nigricans {Huro nigricans Cuv. & Val.), as that name 
really belongs to his Grystes megastoma. 

In 1859, Dr. Giinthert described specimens of the small-mouthed 
species under the name Giystes salmoides^ and first restricted the 
genus to that species (having removed the Australian species as 
the type of a new germs —Oligorus) . Having overlooked the 
rectifications by Prof. Agassiz, he continued the errors of his 
predecessors, admitting as nominal species (1) Huro nigricans^ 
(2) Centrarchus fasciatiis^ and (3) Centrarchus obscurus^ and also 
the same species as doubtful forms (in foot-notes) of Grystes^ 
i. e. O, nuecevMs and G. fa8ciatus,\ 

For the present, the notices and descriptions of the several 
forms of the genus by other authors may be passed over in silence, 
as they do not involve any questions of nomenclature. It may be 
added, however, (1) that the author had long recognized the exist- 
ence and differences of the two species of the genus, one under 
the name Micropterus achigan: the other as Micropterus nigri- 
cans^ and (2) th^t Prof. Cope, under the names Micropterus fas- 
cia^us (which he attributed to the present author through some 
misapprehension) and Micropterus nigricans has signalized the 
same species from widelj' distant regions (e. g,^ Michigan, Virginia, 
North Carolina), and has evidentlj'' understood their relations. 
Analysis of all the published descriptions and comparison with 
the fishes themselves led to the following conclusions : 

*Gabuck (Theodatus). A Treatise on the Artificial Propagation of certain kinds of 
Fiflh with the descriptions of such Icinds as are tiio most suitable for pisciculture, . . . 
Cleveland, Tho. Brown, publisher, Ohio Fanner office, 1857. [12mo, 142 pp. Grystes, pp. 
1(»— 110.J 

t**Th]s llsh has been identified with the common black bass (Oryttes faiciatiu), 
but is b7 DO means the same fish, ditfering in many respects, both in its habits and 
physical structure, and has not been described in any work on American fishes, so far as 1 
can learn" (op. cU. p. 108). 

XGCsTHBft (Albert). Catalogue of the Acanthopterygian Fishes in Ihe Collection of 
the BritiBh Hnseum, . . . Vol. i, . . , London ; . . . , 1859 [pp. S52— 266]. 



64 b. natural bistort. 

Section 1. — Morphological. 

After an examination and comparison with each other of speci- 
mens from the great lakes (Champlain to Michigan), the states of 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Iowa, Kentncky, 
Missouri, Tennessee, Alabama, Texas, Wisconsin, West Vii^nia, 
Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia, no differences 
could be found much if any greater than such as could be detected 
among numerous individuals from any given locality. There are 
differences resulting from age and condition ; the fins may be 
(slightly) more or less developed, and the colors may be more or 
less intense, but no deviations have been found, from the ordinary 
standard, of such a character as at all to compare, for example, 
with the differences between the large-mouthed and small-mouthed 
forms, or to indicate that there are any specific differences among 
the small-mouthed or large-mouthed forms. The natural coarse, 
then, appears to be to recognize only the two forms whose differ- 
ences are so obvious as species, and — at least till differences may 
be detected of which none have yet been found — to consider all 
the other forms, and from all localities, however distant they may 
be, as representatives or varieties of those species. 

Section 2. — Nomenclature. 

A critical analysis of the numerous notices and descriptions of 
the forms of the genus indicates that the differences between the 
respective species have been very imperfectly apprehended, and 
mostly confined to the size of the mouth and in vague terms to the 
size (comparatively large or small) of the scales: most of the 
other differences signalized are either non-existent or individaal 
and dependent on the condition of the specimens. The charge of 
vagueness and insufficiency of diagnosis is especially applicable to 
the first descriptions of species of the genus ; guided, however, 
by a knowledge of the geographical distribution of the genus and 
hints furnished by the radial formulas, etc., it ma}' be safely con- 
cluded, (1) that most of the names referred to in the historical 
introduction may be relegated to the synonymy of the small- 
mouthed species ; (2) that the first name applied to that species 
was Labrus salmoides; (3) that only the names Huro nigricans^ 
(and most of its derivatives), Orystes megastoma, Grystes nobilior^ 
and Dioplites niiecensis belong to the large-mouthed species ; (4) 



/ 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 65 

that the name nigricans is therefore the first specific term applic- 
able to it ; (5) that the name Micropterus was tiie first applied to 
the genus ; and (6) that therefore, if we only take into considera- 
tion the priority of the names (irrespective of the applicability or 
erroneousness of the description), and combine the first specific 
names applied to the respective species with the first generic name 
given to a representative of the genus, the two species should be 
designated as (a) Micropterus salmoides^ the small-mouthed black 
bass, and (6) Micropterus nigricans^ the large-mouthed black 
bass. 

The descriptions of the genus and its two species follow next in 
order. 

MICROPTERUS Lac. emend, 

SYSOimffT. 

Micropterus Lac. Hist. Nat. des PuUs., iv, p. 325, 1800? C=Gryste8, ;ft?e 

Cut). & VaU^ Hist. Nat. des Polss., v, p. v, 1830). 
Calliarus Raf.y Journ. de Physique, W. R. & M. Mag., i,p. 374, Jan., 1820; 

Ich. O., p. 26, 1820 (not Ag.). 
Lepomis Baf.y Journ. de Physique, W. R. & M. Mag., il^ p. hOj Feb., 1820? 

Ich. O., p. SO, 1820. 
(Lepomis) Aplites, n s. g. Baf., W. R. & M. Mag., il, p. 50, Feb., 1820? 

Ich. O., p. 31, 1820. 
(Lepomis) Nemocampsis, n. s. g. Raf,, W, R. & M. Mag., ii, p. 51, Feb., 

1820?; Ich. O., p. 32, 1820. 
(Lepomis) Dioplites, n. s. g. Baf.y W. R. & M. Mag., ii, p. 52, Feb., 1820? 

Ich. O., p. 32, 1820. 
(Etheostoma) Apleslon, n. s. g. Baf,, W. R. & M. Mag., ii, p. 56, Feb., 

180? Ich. O., p. 86, 1820. 
Huro Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat des Poisd, ii, p. 124, 1828. 
Grystes Cuv. & Vol., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., iii, p. 54, 1829. 
Gryste» Ag<i8s., Lalce Superior, 295, 1850. 
Dioplites Girard, U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl. and Surveys, x. Fishes, p. 4, 

1858. 
Micropterus QUI, Ann. Rep. Dep. Agric, 1866. 
Labrus sp., Lac. 
Bodianus sp., B(tf. 
Cichla sp., Les. 
Centrarchus sp., Kirtland, DeKay, Stortr, etc. 

Body ovate-fusiform, compressed, deepest behind the ventrals, 
vrith the caudal peduncle elongated, scarcely contracted towards 
the base of the fin. 

Scales small or moderate, quadrate, rather higher than long ; 
with the exposed portion densely muricated, rounded behind and 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXII. B. (5) 



1 



66 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

about twice as high as long; with the fan with few (4-9) folds; 
extending to the nape and throat. 

Lateral line regularly parallel with the back, in scales nearly 
like but smaller than the adjoining ones. 

Head compressed and oblong conic, with the lower jaw promi- 
nent and the profile rectilinear ; with scales (more or less smaller 
than those of the trunk) on the cheeks, operculum, suboperculnm 
and interoperculum.((l) none or (2) few on the preoperculum) ; 
operculum ending in a flattened point (spine) and with the border 
above it emarginated ; suboperculnm with a pointed membrane 
extending beyond (behind and above) the opercular spine ; pre- 
operculum entire. Eyes moderate, about equidistant fVom the 
snout and preoperculum ; nostrils normal ; anterior with a poste- 
rior lid ; posterior patulous. 

Mouth, with the cleft moderately oblique, large (the supramax- 
illary (1) nearly to or (2) beyond the vertical of the posterior bor- 
der of the eye). Supramaxillary with the accessory ossicle well 
developed. Lips ; upper, little developed ; lower, moderate on the 
sides,- but separated by a very wide isthmus. 

Tongue moderate and free. 

Teeth on the jaws in a broad band, acute, curved backwards, 
and increasing in size towards inner rows ; on the vomer, palatines 
and pterygoids, viUiform. 

Branchiostegal rays six (exceptionally seven) on each side. 

Dorsat with its origin behind the axil of the ventral; (1) its 
spinous portion longer but mucl\ lower than the soft portion, with 
ten spines more or less graduated before as well as behind and the 
ninth much shorter than the tenth ; (2) the soft portion well devel- 
oped. 

Anal with its base shorter than the soft portion of. the dorsal, 
nearly coterrainal with it, with three spines, of which the third 
is much the longest. 

Caudal emarrginated and with obtuse lobes. 

Pectorals and ventrals normal. 

This enumeration of the characters common to the known forms 
of the genus has been drawn up with a view to exhibit the features 
differentiating the genus from the other representatives of the 
family Pomotidse. The difference indicated by the general ex- 
pression is coordinated with the greater distance of the eye 
from the preoperculum, the armature of the operculum, the pecul- 



B. NATURAL HI8TOBT. 67 

iar form of the dorsal and the relatively small size of the anal fin. 
The elucidation of the anatomical characters of the genus and 
comparison thereof with those of other genera are reserved for a 
future occasion when the distinctive features can be illustrated. 



MICROPTERUS 8ALM0IDES (Lac) Gill. 

THB SICALL-MOUTHKD BLACK BASS. 
BTNONTMT. 

(1) 

Labrus salmoldes Lac., Hist. Nat. des Poiss., ill, pp. 716, 717, pL 5, f. 3, 

1800? 
Grystes salmoldes Cuv. and VaL, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., ill, p. 54, pi. 46, 

1829. 
Grystes salmoldes Jardine^ Nat. Lib., Perches, p. 168, pi. 29, 1885 

(copied). 
Giystes salmoldes DeKay, Nat. Hist. N. T., iv (Fishes), p. 26, pi. 69, f.. 

223, 1842 (copied). 
Grystes salmoldes Storer, Mein. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., n. s., ii, p. 288; 

ib.y Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 36, 1846 (copied). 
Grystes salmoldes Val. (Cuv., Regne Animal, ed. par disc, de Cuv.), 

Polssons, Atlas, pi. 9a, f. 2, p. 18. 
Grystes salmoldes Herbert, F. F. Fish and Fishing U. 8., p. 197 (copied). 
Grystes salmoldes Othr., Cat. Fishes B. M., 1, p. 252, 1859 (Lake Erie). 

C2) 
MicTopterus Dolomleu, Lac.y Hist. Nat. des Poiss., iv, p. 825, 1800? 
(Grystes salmoldes, Jld^ Cuv. and VaL, Hist. Nat. des Poiss., v, p. 
6, 1830). 

(3) 
Bodlanus achigan Bc^., Am. Month. Mag. and Crit. Rev., 11, p. 120, 

•Dec, 1817. 
Lepomis achigan QUI, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, p. 20. 
Micropterus achigan Gill, Rep. Comm. Agric, for 1866, 407, 1867. 

Calliurus punctnlatns Bctf.y W. R. and M. Mag., i, p. 874, Jan., 1820; »'&., 
Ich. O., p. 26 (not Ag.). 

(6) 
Lepomis [Aplites] pallida Baf., W. R. and M. Mag., ii, p. 50, Feb., 

1820 (?); <6., Ich. O., p. 30. 

(6) 

Lepomis [Aplites] trifasciata Baf,, W. R. and M. Mag., ii, p. 51, Feb. 

1820 (?) ; ib.j Ich. O., p. 31. 

(7) . 
Lepomis [Aplites or Nemocampsls] flexuolaris Baf., W. R. and M. 
Hag., ii, p. 51, Feb., 1820 (?) ; ib., Ich. O., p. 81. 



68 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

(8) 
Lepomls [DlopUtes] salmonea Raf,, W. R. and M. Mag., il, p. 52, Feb., 

1820 (?) ; i6., Icht 0., p. 32. 

(9) 
Lepomis [Dioplites] notata ^a/., W. R. and M. Mag., ii, p. 52, Feb., 

1820 (?); Ich. 0., p. 82. 

(10) 

Etbeostoma [Aplesion] calliura ^a/., W. R. and M. Mag., ii, p. 56, Feb., 

1820 (?); Ich. O., p. 86. 

(10 
Gichla fasciata jLe«., Jonr. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, p. 216, 1822. 

Cichla fasciata Kirtland (Rep. Zool. Ohio) ; 2d Ann. Rep. Geol. Snr^. 

Ohio, p. 191, 1888. 
Centrarchus fasciatos Kirtland, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist., v, p. 28, pi. 9, f. 

1, 1842(?). 
Centrarchus fasciatus DeKay, Zool. N. Y., iv, Fishes, p. 28, pi. 11, f. 8, 

1842. 
Centrarchus fasciatus Storevj Mem. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., n. s., Ii, 

p. 290; ib., Syn. Fishes, N. Am., p. 38, 1846. 
Black Bass Brown, Am. Anglers* Guide, pp. 189, 298, 1850 (Figure copied 

from DeKay's C. fasciatus). 
Grystes fasciatus Agass., Lake Superior, 295, 1850. 
Centrarchus fasciatus Thompson, Civ. and Nat. Hist. Vermont, p. 131 

(with fig.), 1863. 
Centrarchus fasciatus Gthr., Cat. Fishes B. M., i, p. 258, 1859 (copied). 
Grystes fasciatus Eoff., Smith's Rep. for 1854, p. 289, 1855. 
Grystes fasciatus Putnam (Storer*s- Hist. Fishes Mass., p. 278), Mem. 

Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., ix, 1867 (Mass.). 
Micropterus fasciatus Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 83 

(Michigan). 
Micropterus fasciatus Cope, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 2d ser., vi, 

p. 216, 1868 (West. Va., etc.). 
Micropterus fasciatus Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, xi (?), p. 460,* 1870 

(N. Car.). 

(12) 
Gristes nigricans Herbert, F. F. Fish and Fishing U. S., p. 196 (26, 197), 

with fig. (Not Huro nigricans Cuv and VaL). 
Grystes nigricans Garlick, Treat. Art. Propag. Fish, p. 106 (with flg.), 

1857. 
Grystes nigricans Norris, Am. Anglers* Book, p. 103, 1864. 

(18) 
Cichla ohiensls Les., Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 218, 1822. 

(H) 
7Cichla minima Les,, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., il, p. 220, 1822. 

Cichla minima Kirtland (Rep. Zool. Ohlo<), 2d Ann. Rep. Geol. Surv. 

Ohio, p. 191, 1838. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 69 

(16) 
Centrarchns obscarns DeKay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., iv, Fishes, p. 30, pi. 7, 

f. 37 (really 48). 
Centrarclins obscnras Storer^ Mem. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., n. s., ii, p. 292 ; 

ib., Syn. Fishes N. A., p. 40, 1846. 
Centrarchus obscurus Qihr-^ Cat. Fishes B. M., i, p. 258, 1859 (copied). 

Scales small, in about seventy to eighty oblique rows between 
the head and caudal, and eleven longitudinal ones between the 
back and lateral line, decreasing very much towards the nape and 
(especially) the breast ; forming a sheath encroaching considerably 
upwards upon the soft portion and last spine of the dorsal. Head 
transversely (slightly) convex between the orbits, with (1) scales 
on the operculum larger than those of the nape, (2) on the sub- 
operculum (in front) in two rows, (3) on the interoperculum nar- 
row, mostly invested in the membrane (in one row), (4) on the 
cheeks very small (in about seventeen to twenty rows), and (5) 
on the preoperculum none. Mouth moderate, the gape from the 
symphysis to the angle being little more than one-third (1 : 2^) of 
the head's length. Supramaxillary ending in advance of vertical 
from the hinder margin of the orbit (about under the posterior 
border of the pupil). 

Dorsal fin with its anterior spines rapidly graduated (1=1 ; II 
= 1-5; 111=1-90; IV=2-05 ; V=2-30) to the fifth; fifth, sixth 
and seventh longest and about equal to the space between the 
back and lateral line ; the succeeding ones very gradually dimin- 
ishing to the ninth which is shortest (three-fourths — 1 : 1*25 — of 
fifth) the tenth being about as long as the eighth and about a 
third shorter than the longest, t.e. fifth. 

Dorsal fin with scales differentiated from those of the sheath and 
advancing high up on the membrane behind each soft ray (except 
the last two or three). 

Anal fin with scales ascending high on the membrane behind the 
several rays. 

Color, in young and adolescent, bronzed grayish, w^ith (1) irreg- 
ular darker spots tending to arrangement in three series alter- 
nating with each other above the lateral line and (2) indistinctly 
maculated with darker and yellow below ; head dark above, gray 
on sides, with three oblique or horizontal bands, viz : — (1) from 
margin of upper jaw to below angle of preoperculum, (2) from 
lower angle of orbit to margin of preoperculum, (3) from hinder 



70 B. KATUBAL HISTOBT. 

border of orbit to angle of operculum, and with a crescentiform 
band (curved forwards) in front of the forehead between the eyes : 
spinous dorsal simply punctulated with dark ; the soft with a series 
of bronzed spots between the respective rays ; anal greenish with 
a marginal band of grayish-white: in adults the markings aie 
more or less obliterated and the color a uniform dead grec;;!. 

MICR0PTERU8 NIGRICANS (Cuv.) Qnx. 

THE LAROE-MOUTHED BLACK BASS. 
BTN017TMT. 

(1) 

Haro nigricans Cuv. and Fa^,Nat. Hist, des Poiss., 11, p. 124, pi. 17, 182d. 

Haro nigricans Bich, Fauna Boreal., Amer., Hi, p. 4, 1836. « 

Huro nigricans Jardine, Nat. Lib., i. Perches, p. 108, pi. 6, 1835. 

Haro nigricans DeKay, Zool. N. T., part Iv, Fishes, p. 15, pi. 224, 1842. 

Hnro nigricans ^torer, Mem. Am. Acad*. Arts and Sci., ii, p. 277, 1846; 

ib., Syn. Fishes, N. Am., p. 25, 1846. 
Hnro nigricans Gthr,, Cat. Fishes B. M., 1, p. 255, 1859 (copied). 
Grystes nigricans Agass,, Lake Superior, p. 297, 1850 (excl. syn. part). 
Micropterus nigricans €Hll, Rep. Comm. Agric. for 1866, p. 407, 1867. 
Micropterus nigricans Copet Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1865, p. 88 

(Mich.). 
Micropterus nigricans Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, xl, p. 451, 1870 (N. Car.). 

(2) 
Grystes noblllor Agass., Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts (2), xvli, p. 298, 1854. 

Grystes noblllor Putnam, Bull. Mas. Comp.Zool., 1, p. 6, 1863 (name only). 

(3) 
Grystes nuecensls Baird and Oirard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phlla.,yll, p. 

25, 1854. 
Grystes nuecensls Gthr., Cat. Fishes B. M., i, p. 252, 1859 (doubtfttl sp. 

— name only). 
Dioplites nuecensls Oirard, U. S. Pac. R. R. Expl. and Surveys, x, Fishes, 

p. 4, 1858. 
Dioplites nuecensls Oirard, U. S. Mex. Bound. Sunrey, 11, Ichthyology, 

p. 3, pi. 1, 1859. 

Grystes salmoldes Holhrook, Ich. S. Car., p. 25, pi. 4, f. 2, 1855; i&., 2d 
ed., p. 28, pi. 4, f. 2, 1860(?) (not Cuv. and Val.). 

Grystes salmoldes Norris, Am. ' Anglers* Book, p. 99, 1864 (fig. and 
desc. copied fl*om Holbrook) ; observations partly referring to Jf. 
salmoides, 

(6) 
Grystes megastoma Garliek, Treat. Art. Prop, of Fish, p. 108, 1867. 



B. NATUBAL HI8T0BT. 71 

(6) 

Oswego Bass Browrii Am. Anglers* Guide, p. 189, 1850. 
Oswego Bass Norris, Am. Anglers' Book, p. 110, 1864. 

Scales moderate, in about sixty-five oblique rows between the 
head and caudal, and eight (or seven and a half) longitudinal ones 
between the back and lateral line, decreasing little towards the 
nape but more towards the throat ; with the sheath enveloping the 
base of the soft portion of the dorsal very low and developed 
towards the end of the fin. Head flat between the orbits, with (1) 
scales on the operculum about the size of those of the nape, (2) 
on the suboperculum broad and in one row, (3) on the interoper- 
calum broad, conspicuous and regularly imbricated, in one row, (4) 
on the cheeks moderate (in about ten rows in an oblique line, and 
five or six in a horizontal one), and (5) on the preoperculum 
(two to five) in an incomplete row'. Mouth large, the gape from 
the symphysis to the angle of supramaxillary equalling nearly a 
half of the head's length. Supramaxillary not continued back- 
wards decidedly beyond the vertical from the hinder border of the 
orbit. 

Dorsal fin with the anterior spines slowly graduated (the first 
being comparatively^ long) to the third (I:=l ; 11=1 '30; UI= 
1'50) ; fourth longest (but little more so than the third) and 
equal to or exceeding the interval between tiie back and lateral 
line I succeeding ones successively and in increased ratio abbrevi- 
ated to the ninth, which is very short (two-sevenths — 1 : 3*5 — of 
fourth), the tenth being longer than the eighth (shorter than the 
seventh) and about two-thirds as long as the longest (i.e., fourth). 

Dorsal fin with scales ascending comparatively little behind on 
the membrane behind the soft rays (none behind last five or six). 

Anal fin with no (or very few) scales. 

Color, in young and adolescent, greenish-black, verging to yel- 
lowish-white on lower sides and abdomen, with (1) a series of 
large blotches arranged in a regular line, from' shoulder to caudal, 
on the middle of sides, the posterior third of which becomes a 
continuous stripe and (2) below this middle series, rather irregular, 
small blotches, with tendency to become a continuous stripe on 
posterior third of body. Head dark above, white from lower half 
of maxillary bone, and suboperculum to chin and throat, and with 
three oblique and horizontal bands upon cheek, viz. : (1) one from 
angle of upper jaw to margin of preoperculum, (2) one from 



72 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

lower edge of orbit to angle of operculum, and (3) one radiating 
slightly upward from posterior margin of orbit to operculum. 
Apex of operculum with large dark spot, upper fins dusky, lower 
yellowish-white. 

The stripes on the body frequently continue until the fish is well 
grown, though gradually becoming obsolete ; black spots upon the 
scales remain more or less permanently, giving the appearance, io 
old fish, of fine lines or stripes. (Color fide J. W. Milker, Mss.) 



On Movement in the Stigmatic Lobes of Catalpa. By Thomas 
Meehan, of Germantown, Penn. 

It has long been known that the expanded lobes of the pistil in 
some species of Mimulus close when touched. In communica- 
tions to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, I have 
shown that this power extends to other genera of scrophularia- 
ceous plants, and even extends to Bignonia in an allied order. 

I have not suggested any service to the plant by this motion ; 
but recently a correspondent of the London "Journal of Botany," 
referring to the Mimulus moschatus^ expressed his belief that it is 
one of the arrangements, recently discovered, whereby plants 
avoid self-fertilization and seek aid from insect agency. He says, 
in efiTect, that when a pollen-covered insect touches the stigma on 
entering, the cloven stigma at once closes, and thus avoids its own 
pollen which is taken out by the insect on its exit, and carried to 
another. 

As it was but last winter that I observed the motion in Tecoma 
jasminoides, I have* only now been led to look for it in Catalpa 
bignonoidesj of the same natural order. 1 find it to have the same 
m6tion, but in a very slow degree. It takes about one minute for 
the fully expanded lobes to close wholly. It would thus appear 
that in this case the motion can hardly have relation to insect fer- 
tilization, as an insect would be very unlikely to remain so long 
in one flower. On withdrawal it would introduce the flower's own 
pollen to the stigma long before the lobes closed. On reading the 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



73 



suggestion referred to, I was prepared to accept the explanation 
from knowing how much the Bignonia radicans is frequented by the 
hummingbird, which I supposed might prove its fertilizing agent ; 
but I find that no insect but a few honey bees frequent the Catalpa 
here, unless there be some nocturnse which have escaped my obser- 
vation. But these honey bees do not affect the stigma. The lobes 
remain open after their visit, and as they close on being touched 
afterward, it is clear the insect avoids them. Yet the trees pro- 
duce seed in great abundance. Fertilization is probably effected 
here by wind. 

It may be that, though the stigmatic motion may have no refer- 
ence to insect fertilization in this case, it may have in the Mimu- 
lu8 and other cases ; for there is evidence to show that in plants, 
as in animals, there are inherited tendencies which, valuable to one 
race or variety, are of no use to another springing from it, and 
which will gradually die away in time. Still this suggestion, so 
far as it relates to Catalpa^ is met by one from an opposite point, 
namely : that plants which require the aid of insects in their fer- 
tilization are later creations in the order of time than those which 
are fertilized by wind. If, therefore, other allied plants require 
insect aid, the Catalpa ought to be acquiring a power rather than 
losing one. But these speculations are merely to indicate the 
direction of popular inquiries ; the main object of the paper is to 
note the stigmatic motion in Catalpa^ and the difficulty it presents 
to the acceptance of the insect fertilization explanation of it. 



On Hermaphroditism in Rhus cotinus (the Mist Tree) and in 
Rhus glabra (Common Sumac). By Thomas Meehan, of 
Germantown, Penn. 

I believe Rhus cotinua is generally regarded as hermaphroditic. 
Describers, referring to it, usually say it is so, or merely say, 
"flowers sometimes abortive." A friend informs me that, in a 
collection of plants from the south of Europe, he once saw both 
male and female specimens ; and from experience with a large 



74 B. NATUKAL HISTORY. 

number of plants on my grounds, I can say that here they are 
truly diodcious. It is probable that the error arose from the fact 
of our chief acquaintance with it being through cultivated speci- 
mens. But in late years nurserymen depended on layers for 
propagating it, and as the female form is the most desirable, that 
one has thus been rendered the best known. In all probability one 
original plant furnished most of those in cultivation. Somewhat 
recently, seed, probably f^om wild plants, has been extensively 
distributed by German seedsmen, and it is to these seedlings that 
the facts of this paper relate. The plants of the past — layered 
plants — "mostly abortive," as the books say, usually perfect their 
carpels ; but these contain no seeds, so far as I have been able to 
find. In the male the gynodcium is almost wanting, while the 
stamens are fUlly developed, and the flower is nearly double the 
size of the female flowers. These are smaller, and have the merest 
rudiments of pistils. 

This knowledge has more than usual importance from the fact 
that the " mist," as the hairy pedicels are popularly called, is only 
produced to any great extent by the female plant. The male 
flowers, not having the viability of tUe female, according to the 
laws already developed in my former papers on sex, die away soon 
after developing — pedicels, general axis and all. Sometimes the 
misty hair will become developed a few lines in length, before the 
inflorescence loses its vitality; and in three cases out of many 
hundreds vitality continued long enough to develop fair "misty" 
heads. The general rule, however, is for the male inflorescence to 
die entirely away soon after the anthers burst. 

Another matter of interest is that in some vigorous develop- 
ments (deemed vigorous from the great number and length of 
pedicels in one panicle) two carpels, and occasionally three, will 
be developed from a single flower, in the latter case forming a tri- 
angular capsule. This might be expected from the trifid pistil, 
but I believe the actual development has not been placed on record 
before. 

It is worthy of remark that in most plants which have a her- 
maphroditic appearance, but are practically dioecious, the relative 
length of the stamens and pistils varies in the dimorphic conditions. 
In the one case, the truly female, the pistil is longer than the sta- 
mens, and the stamens are the longer in the male. In Rhus glabra 
there is a form considered hermaphroditic, in which the pistils 



B. NATUKAL HISTORY. 75 

seem highly developed in the midst of perfect stamens, quite as 
mach so as in the purely pistillate plant ; but so far as my obser- 
vations go, no pollen-bearing flowers ever produce seed. The 
pistillate plants of Mhus glabra also are several days later in 
coming into bloom. 



Note on a New Sigillaria showing Soars of Fructification. 
By J. W. Dawson, of Montreal, Canada. 

ABSTRACT. 

This new species is closely allied to the S. Lalayana of Schim- 
per, and has been named S, Lorwayana from the Lorway coal 
mine in Cape Breton where it was found. Its description is as 
follows : — 

Leaf-bases about 8"™ broad and 5°™ high, in trunks of moderate 
size, hexagonal with rounded angles, or approaching to oblong, 
sometimes a slight indentation below causes them to appeal* reni- 
form. They are contiguous, or nearly so, in vertical rows, being 
separated from each other only by a slight ridge. The rows 
are separated by spaces of wrinkled bark nearly half as wide as 
the leaf-bases. Vascular scars near the top of the leaf-base, each 
having two minute and often confluent points and two larger and« 
Innate lateral punctures. 

Fruit-scars arranged in transverse rows forming a girdle, each 
member of the girdle consisting of from two to seven contiguous, 
vertical scars placed in the spaces between the leaf-scai*s in the 
vicinity of an articulation, where the rows of leaf-scars are not 
continuous, as if there had been an interruption of growth. These 
articulations are from two inches to a foot apart vertically. The 
scars are depressed or sunk into the stem, rounded or angular by 
pressure, having in the centre a small sunken ring and dot. 

The bark appears to have been thin. Flattened specimens are 
sometimes a foot in diameter. 

When the epidermis is removed, the inner surface appears ru« 
goae longitudinally, and there are transverse leaf-scars, each with 



76 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

m 

two vascular points, the whole presenting the appearance of the 
type Leioderma, 

The author contended that the fruit-scars are evidently modi- 
fied leaf-scars passing into these. They have thus no affinity, 
either in form or relation, with the large, round, cone-bearing scare 
of Lepidofloios^ and they must either have borne single ovules or 
modified leaves with marginal fruit. The fruit may have been 
either Trigonocarpa or Cardiocarpa, and these may have been 
borne in racemes of the nature of Anthoolitea, This view does 
not accord with that of Goldenberg and Schimper, but is in har- 
mony with that stated by the author in ^^ Acadian Geology," pp» 
437, 438, 459. 



On an Ancient Burial-ground in Swanton, Vt. By George 
H. Perkins, of Burlington, Vt. 

About two miles north of the village of Swanton in north- 
western Vermont is a* sandy ridge, which was formerly covered 
by a dense growth of Norway pines; the thickly-set, straight 
trees resembling somewhat a huge growth of hemp. The place 
was at one time called " the old hemp yard," a name which still 
clings to it. Rather more than twelve years ago it was discovered 
that beneath this forest stone implements were buried, and further 
investigation has shown that the spot that was so covered with 
large trees and stumps, when the first white men came int4> the 
region, had been, ages before, used as a burial place by some 
people, whose only records are the various objects which the af- 
fectionate care of the living placed in the graves of the dead. 
From directly beneath the largest trees or half decayed stumps, 
some of these relics were taken, so that we may feel sure that 
before the great pines, which for many years, perhaps centuries, 
grew, fiourished and decayed, had germinated, these graves were 
dug, and with unknown ceremonies the bodies of the dead were 
placed in them, together with those articles that had been used 
during life, or were supposed to be needed in a future existence. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 77 

We cannot know how many successive growths. of trees may have 
followed each other since the forest began to usurp the place set 
apart for sepulture. 

In the early days preceding the settlement of the country by 
the whites, two great nations, the Algonquins and Iroquois, occu- 
pied the region bordering the northern part of Lake Champlain. 
A branch of the Algonquins, the St. Francis tribe, as they were 
latterly called, were living on the banks of the Missisquoi River, 
near Swanton, when the place was settled by white men. These 
Indians had a village near the river, which had been occupied by 
them from ancient times. Near this village was a second and 
more recent cemetery, about four or five miles from that first 
named. Though this was evidently less ancient than that beneath 
the pine forest, and had been used up to comparatively modern 
times, it yet bore evidence of considerable antiquity. A brief 
account of both of these places was given by the late Professor 
J. B. Perry, at a meeting of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory in December, 1868, which was printed in volume xii of the 
Proceedings of that Society, pp. 219-221. Professor Perry's 
account was evidently intended merely to call attention to the 
case and was probably given from memory without recent exami- 
nation of the objects which he describes, as in many details his 
statements are inaccurate. 

While, of course, the survivors of the St. Francis tribe, a few 
of whom lived near Swanton not many years ago, were acquainted 
with the burial place of their own tribe, they had no knowledge, 
as Professor Perry states, of the more ancient cemetery, not even 
a tradition that hinted of its existence. That it belonged to a 
difi^erent people is shown by the character of the articles found, as 
they differ in many respects from those taken from the graves of 
the St. Francis tribe, being of finer material for the most part, of 
different shape, more elaborately wrought and altogether giving 
evidence of a higher degi'ee of culture than that to which the 
Iroquois or Algonquins attained. 

For many facts concerning this more ancient burial place I am 
indebted to Mr. H. H. Dean of Swanton, who has opened more of 
the graves than any one else and who has been careful to ascer- 
tain the exact truth in regard to all the excavations. His state- 
ments are corroborated by others and by my own investigations. 

That the pine forest of the old hemp yard covered the remains 



78 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

of some of the ancient inhabitants of the country was not sus- 
pected until discovered by accident, there being nothing on the 
surface to indicate anything of the sort, not even mounds of any 
kind, though small ones may have originally existed and been 
obliterated during subsequent changes. Twenty-five graves at 
least have been opened at this place and, though at present no 
more can be examined, it is probable that more, perhaps many 
more, yet remain untouched, and others still have very likeljt been 
uncovered by the wind, and their contents scattered, for the light 
sand, in which the graves were dug, has been for quite a long 
time blowing off. Those graves that were earliest opened were 
at least six feet below the surface, as Deacon E. Frink, who 
opened them, states, but those that have since been discovered 
have none of them been as deep, some less than two feet ; in all 
cases since, perhaps, the first one or two graves were opened, the 
surface material had blown off, or been disturbed so much that 
it is not possible to determine the precise depth of the graves, 
when the bodies were placed in them. 

The sand in which the graves were dug is of a very light 
color, but that immediately around and beneath the body was, 
with two exceptions, colored a dark red or reddish-brown ; in the 
exceptional cases it was black. 'This red sand was from four to 
six inches in depth and its color was undoubtedly due to the 
presence of red iron oxide, or red hematite, small pieces of a 
compact, deep red variety of that mineral having been found in 
several of the graves. These bits of ore, while pretty easily 
giving color to water when powdered, are not soft enough to have 
caused the coloring of the sand by staining such water as might 
have trickled through it, so that the oxide must have been pow- 
dered and mixed with water, or, less probably, with the blood of 
some animal, and poured into the graves as a part of the funeral 
rites. As nearly all of the objects taken from the graves are 
stained, as well as the sand, it is probable that the coloring ma- 
terial was poured over the body and such objects as were depos- 
ited with it after they were placed in the grave. The black color 
mentioned was due probably to the decomposition of organic 
matter, no coloring liquid having been poured into those graves. 

The skeletons found in the gi*aves were much decomposed, only 
two bones, a femur and a radius, being entire, though several 
others are nearly whole, among the rest nearly half of a skull ; 



B. NATUBAL HISTORY. 79 

bat most of the bones crumbled more or less on exposure to the 
air. The skull I have not been able to examine with care. As to 
the position of the body in the grave I am unable to assert any- 
thing positive with reference to most of the graves, though it is 
probable that most were buried in a sitting posture facing the 
east. In a few cases I am sure of this. Deacon Elliott Frink, 
upon whose land the graves were found, states that he dug open 
several of the graves that were first examined, and that he found 
one body, that of an adult person, buried in a perpendicular posi- 
tion with the head downwards, and that in* this grave no imple- 
ments were found except a few arrowheads. If the body really 
was buried in this singular position it is a fact of great interest, 
and suggests the disgrace and punishment of some great criminal, 
inflicted not only during life, but carried even into his dishonor- 
able burial. But we cannot be so sure of the fact of this unheard- 
of burial as we should like to be. While we have entire confidence 
in the honesty and truthfulness of the person who observed the 
apparent fact, we must bear in mind the ease with which one unused 
to such investigations might be deceived. My friend, Mr. F. W. 
Putnam of Salem, an excellent authority in archaeological matters, 
states that it not very infrequently happens that, after the decom- 
position of a body buried in a sitting posture, the head drops down 
between the legs or feet, and it is possible certainly that by a 
sinking of the soil and by such displacement of the ground as 
might easily enough be caused in digging open the grave, if the 
digger were not sure of the position of the body, or carefdl not to 
displace an^'thing, such a change of position in the skeleton might 
be caused as to make it appear to have been originally deposited 
in a position quite different from that in which it really was. I do 
not intend to assert that it is not possible that the body mentioned 
was buried *head downwards, but only that it is much more prob- 
able that it was not. 

Through the kindness of Dr. G. M. Hall and Mr. H, H. Dean, 
of Swanton, and Dr. Hiram Cutting, Curator of the State Cabinet, 
I have been able to examine a full series of implements taken 
from the graves. In all, I have studied not far from a hundred 
articles, and, so far as I can discover by diligent inquiry in and 
about Swanton, this series includes at least two-thirds of all that 
have been ft)und. 

As the result of a careful comparison of the various implements 



80 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

found in the Swanton graves with those from mounds in the west, 
I am convinced that in the Swanton relics we have evidence that 
at some time a branch of the mound-building race wandered east- 
ward, perhaps following the St. Lawrence, and found their way to 
the region on the Missisquoi River near Lake Chaiuplain, where we 
now find their remains. From the comparatively small number . 
of graves, and from the fact that we have graves but no attempt 
at the formation of any mound, I am inclined to infer that the 
people who thus strayed from the main body were few in number, 
and perhaps their residence in Vermont was not of long duration.* 
For proofs of the relationship of the people of the Vermont 
graves to those of the mounds of the Mississippi valley, the 
reider is referred to some of the articles described farther on, 
some of them being, as will be noticed in connection with them, 
identical, except in some unimportant details, with some of those 
figured and described by Squier in the first volume of the Smith- 
sonian Contributions. 

Moreover we have evidence elsewhere in Vermont of the pres- 
ence of the mound-builders. A copper spear point, found not far 
from Burlington, is almost exactly like one figured in Dr. Foster's 
late work on " Prehistoric Races of the United States," page 255, 
fig. 53e, which he regarded as an implement of the mound- 
builders. The Vermont specimen differs only in being narrower, 
and the edges of the shank are not bent over so far, being more 
as in fig. 55, p. 258, of the same work. Quite a number of stone 
implements have been found in diflerent parts of Vermont which 
closely resemble others from the Mississippi' valley, yet it may 
properly be stated that the relics from the Swanton graves form a 
collection unique in itself and quite difierent from collections of 
similar objects from the state at large. No pottery of which I am 
aware has been found in any of the graves, though 'several fine 
examples have been dug up not very far from Swanton. 

Besides implements of definite form and use several objects have 
been obtained in the Swanton graves, which, though apparently of 
little use, may have been preserved as objects of curiosity. Among 
these is a mass of gnarled spruce or pine, having somewhat the 

* The absence of moands where the graves are found does not necessarily prove that 
none ever existed, for the soil is so light and easily moved by the strong winds to which 
it is often exposed that, as soon as the grass or otlier vegetation that may be growing 
ill the sand is removed, exten-ive excavation soon rollows. Hence "mounds of some 
size might bare been made and yet no trace of them now exist. 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 81 

appearance of a sphere bearing upon its surface quite irregularly 
conical protuberances. It is wrought only a little and was prob- 
ably formed in the roots of a tree where very Uke\y several roots 
started from the main stem at neighboring points. It is about 
twice as large as one's doubled fist and would attract the atten- 
tion of any one seeing it, as being much like a rude carving. A 
smooth water-worn pebble of white quartz, weighing just a pound, 
was found in one grave ; it is about four inches long, three wide 
and one thick and of oval shape. One side was deeply stained 
with the so-called paint, and it may have been used for grinding 
the iron oxide that was to form the basis of the coloring material 
to be poured into the graves of the dead or used as paint for the 
bodies of the living. In another grave was a piece of black shale 
resembling the Lorraine shales of New York. It is about six inches 
long, three or four wide and a fourth of an inch thick. It does 
not seem to have been wrought in any way, but it bears distinct 
cavities, the matrices of fossils that had dissolved out, thickly 
scattered over it, and these undoubtedly made it attractive. From 
another grave came a much larger piece of the dark red Potsdam 
sandstone, found at Highgate, just north of Swanton. This is 
covered over a part of its surface with casts of Obolella, Cono- 
cephalites and other characteristic fossils. One end is broken off, 
the remaining sides are all rudely squared and smoothed, so that 
the general form of the stone is that of a brick. As the fossils 
in this stone are very inconspicuous and the stone itself unat- 
tractive, it is difficult to see what there was in it especially inter- 
esting. Only a very small proportion of the objects taken from 
the graves can be classed among those just mentioned, b}' far the 
larger number having evidently been made for some definite use ; 
these are formed of copper, of shell and of stone. 

Impleraents of copper are not at all common, not more than 

eight or ten in all having been found. The largest of these, that 

shown in fig. 1, is somewhat chisel-shaped or long triangular ; the 

surfaces are slightly convex and the corners are bevelled along the 

sides Tery regularly. The broad surfaces are tolerably smooth, 

bat are dented as if struck from end to end with some tool having 

a blunt edge. Neither end of this instrument is brought to an 

edge, bat the broadest end is thinnest. Along each side runs a 

regular and rather deep groove. When first taken from the 

ground by Mr. Dean it had fragments of wood adhering to it, and 

A. A. A- 8. VOL. XXII. B. (6) 



82 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

it still bears impressions upon its corroded surface of woody fibre. 
It was probably a point projecting from a war club, the broader 
and thinner end being inserted in the wood, the dents, just men- 
tioned, serving to hold it in place and the more nearly square 
pointed end projecting. Its surface is badly corroded and the 
wood found with it speedily crumbled on exposure to the air. 
It is 5-9 inches long, 1-2 inches broad at one end and '4 inch at 
the other, '15 inch thick at broad end, -45 inch near the middle 
and *25 inch at the narrow end, and its weight is 6*25 ounces, 
Troy. It is in the collection of Mr. Dean. Fig. 1 shows this 
implement, one-half natural size. Like all the other articles of 
copper it is of the pure native copper of Lake Superior. Fig. 2 
represents a chisel also reduced one-half. This implement is 
smoother than the other and seems rather more carefully formed ; 
it is also thinner ; the corners are not bevelled, but left sharp, 
and the ends are more nearly equal in breadth. It is, as the 
drawing shows, smaller, being 4'4 inches long, *6 inch and 1*2 
inches wide at the ends and *2 inch thick near the middle. 
Figs. 3 and 4 are reduced drawings of bars of nearly the same 
length and weight, though fig. 3 is rather larger. This was found 
held in the teeth of a skull. Its corners are bevelled so that a 
cross section is octagonal, but, as the surfaces made by this 
bevelling of the corners are quite narrow, the other four are 
much wider and two of these are grooved, each by a rather shallow 
furrow, much like that on each edge of fig. 1. The ends taper to 
very blunt and rather irregular points. The entire length is 4-7 
inches, greatest breadth '35 inch, greatest thickness -3 inch. 
Fig. 4 differs from this in being cylindrical and having its ends 
more regularly tapered. Its length is nearly the same as that 
of fig. 3, but its diameter is less, being nowhere more than -27 
inch. 

Besides the larger articles quite a number of tubes have been 
found which are quite like those taken from some of the mounds of 
the west. They are so much corroded and broken that it is not 
possible to determine their original length, but as they now are 
this varies from *5 inch to 2 inches. The diameter does not vary 
much, it being from -2 inch to '3 inch. These tub& are made firom 
sheets of beaten copper rolled together, and, as the inner edge 
remained flat for a short distance, the surface of the tube above 
this is flat, as ofben occurs when any stiff material is rolled. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 83 

sides being corroded the surfaces of the bits of tubing are dented 
and battered as if they had been subjected to rough usage. 

Objects made from shell are more numerous, though all of the 
same general form — that of beads, as may be seen in figs. 5, 6 and 
7. In all, thirty of these shell ornaments have been found. They 
were formed from the columellse of large shells, such as Fascia- 
laria and Strombus. 

Where the surface of the shell was smooth it was left as it was 
found, while the irregular ends and sides, where the fragment 
that was to be used was broken from the rest of the shell, were 
rubbed smooth and the whole made more or less regular in shape, 
and perforated, as will soon be described. In size these beads 
vary greatly, the largest being over two inches long and an inch 
in diameter and the smallest not more than half an inch long and 
a quarter of an inch in diameter. The longer and more slender 
specimens, such as fig. 7, are more common than those that are 
shorter and thicker, such as fig. 5 ; the more common size perhaps 
is from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long and one- 
fourth of an inch, or a little more, in diameter. They are all 
perforateil, though not exactly in the same manner. In some, as 
fig. 5, the hole runs directly from end to end, in others, as fig. 6, 
a hole is bored for a short distance into each end, until it meets a 
second aperture caused by boring from one side down upon the 
former, and so meeting it at right angles, or, as in fig. 7, there 
is a hole running from end to end, which is met by a single trans- 
verse opening. Besides the fragments of the columellae of large 
shells, one or two entire specimens of the small Marginella conoid- 
alls J so common on the Florida coast, were found. These were 
drilled longitudinally through the spire. Thus, while the articles 
of copper show that the ancient people, whose works we are study- 
ing, had intercourse, direbtly or indirectly, with tribes living near 
the Lake Superior copper region, so these shell beads show a sim- 
ilar communication with the southern portion of the country. 

As would naturally be expected, the greater number of articles 
obtained from the graves are of stone. Perhaps most interesting 
among these, are certain tubes, shown in figs. 8 to 1 0. They are of 
a light drab col<5r, except where stained by the iron oxide already 
mentioned. They are all probably of stone ; some seem undoubt- 
edly of this material, while a few look verj^ much as if made of 
baked clay, bat experienced potters to whom I have shown them 



B. MATDBAI. BISTORT. 



ngl. 1, S| S, 1. COPPBB IXrUSMEHTS. 

ngi. 1 wod 3 about I taU e\ie; S uid i abont | fnll tl 
11(1. S, S, T. Soau. BUDB; fall ilie. 



B. NATURAL HlffTOBT. 




• 



^mm^im^gamm. 



Tubes of Sion. 

F<K. S. 1 size; e Had 10. ) size. 

rigi. So. and ei, repreasnt the ends of Dg. S, of abont ) b1i«. 

Fig. II rcpreaonu tbe engrailDg on ttg. 10. of ^11 size. 

I'^K- la repre«nU ■ alooe plug tbund In tbe amall ond or one of the tnbei. 



86 B. NATDRAX BISTORT. 

pronounce them all of stone. The tubes are none of them of 
uniform size throughout their length, but are always largest at one 
end, and often both ends are larger than the middle. There are 
three somewhat diverse forms found ; one is shown in fig. 8 ; this, 
like all the rest, begins to contract rapidly at the end, but, after 
about an inch, it changes and enlarges very gradually till within 
about two inches of the opposite end, when it again contracts, 
the whole shape being a good deal like that of an ordinary ball 
club. The length of the tube, shown in fig. 8, is 13 inches ; its 
greatest diameter is 1*35 inches. Another form is seen in fig- 
9, in which the greatest diameter is at one end, from which 
the tube contracts, at first rapidly, but soon slowly to the other 
end. The tubes of the first-named form are largest, those of that 
just described smallest, while an intermediate fonu and size is that 
given in fig. 10. In these, the tube contracts rapidly from one end 
for an inch or so and then enlarges gi-adually to the opposite end. 
Both ends of the tubes are cut oflT squarely. AH are perforated in 
the same general manner, the hole running directly from end to 
end, and being about twice as large at one end as at the other, 
€,g.^ in the largest tube found, that shown in fig. 8, the bore is 
•95 inch in diameter at one end and '52 inch at the other; in 
fig. 10 it is '9 inch at one end and *4. at the other, and so on. 
The larger end of the bore seems to have been scraped out, after 
the main portion of the hole was made, by some thin edged instru- 
ment, as the circular striae which are very numerous elsewhere are 
here replaced by longitudinal. This larger end of the aperture is 
always nearly as large as the tube, only a thin shell of the material 
being left, while at the opposite end, and indeed thi'oughout most 
of the length, the walls are thick ; the relative appearance of these 
is shown in figs. 8a and 86, reduced one-half. As seen in ^g, 8a, 
so in the other tubes, the smaller end of the bore is not in the 
middle but always one side of it. Into this smaller end of the 
bore was inserted a stone plug, like fig. 12 ; these plugs were not 
all carefully made and did not often entirely fill the aperture ; in 
one or two cases a small quartz pebble with little or no working 
was used, though most are of sandstone. They are from '75 
inch long and '5 inch in diameter to not more than '5 inch 
long and -4 inch in diameter at the larger end. The tubes are 
rarely perfect cylinders, but are more or less oval in section. 
All the tubes show considerable care in their formation ; the 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 87 

materials differ somewhat, some being hard, others quite soft, 
though the hardest are easily scratched by a knife, and all appear 
to be made of a sort of argillaceous sandstone, the sand predomi- 
nating in the harder and the clay in the softer. The surface of 
most is very smooth and shows but few marks of the tools by 
which they were wrought. 

One of the tubes, that shown in fig. 10, is especially interesting 
on account of certain markings upon it ; these are, so far as I am 
aware, the only marks that have been discovered upon any article 
taken from the graves. They are near one end of the tube and con- 
sist of the outline drawing of some bird, below which are three 
characters. These objects are engraved or rather scratched on 
the tube — the scratches being somewhat irregular and neither very 
deep nor wide, and some are very fine ; they are shown of full size 
in fig. 11, while their position on the tube is shown in fig. 10, 
which is reduced to one-third size. The bird, which somewhat 
resembles more recent delineations of the fish-hawk, and may 
have been intended for it, is 1-4 inches long and '65 inch broad 
across the wings. The three characters below the bird are, as 
may be seen, made up of straight lines and dots, and are about 
a quarter of an inch high and a little less broad. 

In the notice of these graves before mentioned, Prof. Perry re- 
marks that these, "curious hieroglyphics of undoubted antiquity" 
to his mind "give almost unmistakable evidence, if not of Asiatic 
origin, at leasf of a people closely allied in their sentiments and 
habits to the nations of the East." "Reference is now made to 
tubes, etc., etc., ornamented with hieroglyphics of a moral or re- 
ligious character." " These symbols as far as I can make them 
out are closely akin to those employed as well in the Eleusinian 
rites, as in the old Cyribaic mysteries of Samothrace."* As the 
only hieroglyphics that have been found in the Swanton graves are 
those given in fig. 11, the reader is referred to that and can use his 
own judgment as to the moral or religious bearing thereof. I can 
hardly think that he will be very deeply impressed by either, and 
as to the proof of Asiatic origin afforded by these few scratches, 
it is scarcely conclusive to every one. 

Those who are seeking constantly to find evidences of Israelitic 
origin in the former inhabitants of this country may indeed be 
struck by the resemblance of these three characters to Hebrew 

* Proceedings Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. xii, p. 220. 



88 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

letters, but most of us will hardly be williDg to place any soch 
value upon them. That they are curious and interesting we are 
not disposed to deny and even that the last two characters migbt 
be read as Hebrew letters rather rudely formed, is unquestionably 
true, but yet this proves very little because it proves too much, 
as it proves too advanced a civilization. Had we evidence in the 
implements, ornaments, modes of burial and similar records that 
have come to light, of any such civilization as would admit of the 
use of a written language by the mound-builders, to whom, as 
already stated, I believe these people to have belonged, we then 
might seek for some significant meaning in these characters, but 
we have no proof that anything of the sort existed. It must not 
be forgotten that the possession of a phonetic alphabet implies 
a high degree of culture — a culture and a civilization that has 
passed far beyond pictorial writing and reached the last and 
highest stage in the development of language. As we have no 
reason to believe that the mound-builders had reached this ad- 
vanced stage and as we have abundant reasons to convince us 
that they had not, we may set aside all idea that the few scat- 
tered symbols that so resemble phonetic characters have anything 
in common with such characters, beyond the mere resemblance ; 
therefore I do not regard those characters given in fig. 11 as 
anything more than accidental — as probably having no more 
meaning than the various combinations of lines which a child 
makes on its first slate. I have written more at length upon this 
point than perhaps the case demanded, but, as quite a number of 
persons to whom I have shown ray drawings, who were not experi- 
enced in archaeological matters, have appeared deeply impressed 
by the resemblance of these characters to those of oriental alpha- 
bets, as Prof. Perry evidently was, I have thought that some dis- 
cussion of the question would not be useless. Few indeed are they 
who will see in them anything suggestive of the mysterious relig- 
ious ceremonies of Samothrace, or the worship of Ceres at Eleusis. 
One, and onlj' one, of the tubes shows any signs of having been 
near the fire, but this one, which is in the state collection at Montr 
pelier, is blackened and badly cracked as if for some length of 
time ex[)osed to severe heat. In all about a dozen of these tubes 
have been found in the graves at Swanton, while, so far as I can 
learn, nothing of the sort has ever been found elsewhere in the 
state. The largest is thirteen inches long and holds a little more 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



89 



than a fifth of a pint. Measurements of others giving extreme 
as well as intermediate sizes are given below. 



Length . 

Diameter of ends marked a. in flg. 

of bore in end a. " 
(( t< it ^^ t( 



K 



tt 



No. 1. 
Fig. 9. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 
Fig. 10. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 
Fig. 8. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


7.1 


8. 


9.5 


10. 


13. 


1.35 


1.35 


1.2 


1.3 


1.35 


1. 


1. 


1.15 


1.1 


1.2 


.45 


.45 


.4 


.5 


.52 


.8 


.8 


.9 


.8 


.95 



I do not find that tubes very nearly resembling these have been 
found anywhere else, though a few that have a general similarity 
have been taken from western mounds. ■ 

Schoolcraft, in plates 32 and 33 of the first part of his exten- 
sive work on Indian tribes of the United States, figures several 
that he says were made of steatite. These seem to be of a reg- 
ular, cylindrical form. He also figures several formed of bone 
from Canada, but these bear very little resemblance to our Swan- 
ton tubes. 

Squier also in vol. i of the " Smithsonian Contributions," pp. 
224-227, jBgs. 122-125, describes and figures six tubes, all diflerent 
from each other, and from our Swanton specimens. These are 
all from the Mississippi valley. In size they agree pretty well 
with the Vermont tubes and it is quite likely that their uses may 
have been the same, but what those uses were it is not easy to 
decide. Some have regarded them as musical instruments, but 
it is not by any means plain how they could have served such a 
purpose. Squier remarks in regard to the tubes he had seen, " that 
the skill of the present succeeds in producing very indiflerent 
music from them. Either the art of playing upon them has sadly 
deteriorated, or the musical taste of the makers was not regulated 
by existing standards" (S. I. Contr., vol. i, p. 226). To the 
tabes we have described, these remarks apply with double force, 
when we consider that all of them were stopped at one end. It 
is possible that, connected with some parts now lost, these tubes 
may have served as musical instruments, and then a savage yell 



90 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

sent through one of them may have been sweeter to savage ears 
than the music of our finest instruments. 

Mr. Schoolcraft's notion, that the tubes he studied might have 
been used as telescopes, would hardly do for the Swanton tubes, 
for the' quartz or sandstone plugs could scarcely have taken the 
place of lenses. Others have supposed that they might have 
served as tubes for smoking, but no evidence of such use remains. 
Most, if not all, of those in the west are of ornamental stone, 
while the lack of ornament, either in material or form, in the 
Swanton tubes seems to indicate that they were for use rather 
than for ornament. A small piece of an oval dish of the same, 
or similar, material as that of the softer tubes was found with 
them, and other dishes, very nicely made, have been found in dif- 
ferent parts of the town, which not improbably were made by the 
same persons as these who formed implements taken from the 
graves, as the skill shown in their manufacture indicates a greater 
proficiency in such arts than any shown by the Algonquins. 

Quite a number of flat plates of stone occurred in the graves, 
which may be arranged in a series, from those quite rudel}' fin- 
ished to such as are very carefully formed and smoothed ; those 
which are most carefully finished are of hardest and most com- 
pact stone. Perhaps the simplest is of diamond shape the sides 
being slightly unequal. It is not entirely flat but somewhat undu- 
lating over its surfaces, as they are left just as the cleavage of 
the stone formed them. The material is of greenish-^ay mica 
schist with transverse dark veins. It is 3*5 inches long, 2*3 inches 
broad and about '48 inch thick. It is in the state collection. In 
Mr. Dean's collection is another plate of rectangular form, larger 
and rather more finely finished than the preceding, the longer sides 
are nearly parallel though not quite straight ; its ' upper end is 
straight while the lower is regularly, though not strongly, curved. 
The surfaces are smooth, one is fiat, the other somewhat irregularly 
bevelled in several directions. It is composed of a dark greenish 
slate, obliquely veined with a darker shade so that it is quite attrac- 
tive in its appearance. Its length is 4*15 inches, breadth 1*9 inches, 
and average thickness about '4 inch, but this is very variable. 
In the state collection is a yet more nicely finished plate of com- 
pact, purple slate, like that first described ; it is rectangular, the 
surfaces smooth, flat and sloping graduall}*^ towards the edges, so 
that these are thinner than the general surface. The comers are 



B. NATUBAL BISTORT. 



91 



slightly rounded and the sides not perfectly straight. It is 4*35 
inches long, 2-2 inches broad and from •! to "2 inch thick. It is 
not certain, I think, whether these plates had in themselves a defi- 
nite use, such as to smooth skins or rub seams sewed in them, 
or some other such domestic use, or were simply unfinished articles 
like those about to be described. The least carefully wrought of 
these is much more regular and better finished than any of the 
simple plates. All of this second class are perforated with two 
holes. In one of them the form is rectangular, with one surface 
flat, the other convex. It is made of dark veined slate, much 
like that of which one of those just described was made. The 
sides are straight and the edges sharp and clearly cut ; one end is 
a little narrower than the other, as is often the case with the rec- 
tangular plates. It is 4-25 inches long and at the broadest end 
1*35 inches wide, average thickness '25 inch. This is in the state 
collection. 

Another in Dr. Hall's collection is quite as nicely made. The 
sides are not exactly parallel, as one end is broader than the other ; 
all its outlines are, however, very straight and sharply cut. Its 
form is rectangular, the length being 3*75 inches, breadth 2-1 inches 
atone end and 1*85 inches at the other ; thickness, which is quite 
uniform, except just at the ends, which are somewhat thinner, 
•25 inch. It is made of a fine, compact, dark purple slate very 
much like that of which one of the imperforate plates was made. 
The holes are bevelled from each side though not equally. By 
far the finest of these two hole stones is one in Mr. Dean's col- 
lection ; it is of oval form with the ends cut squarely off, and is 
wrought with admirable skill, the curvature of the sides being 
very regular and that of both exactly the same; the ends are 
straight and* true and the fiat sides regularly convex. This reg- 
ularity is more remarkable as the plate is not flat, but twisted 
slightly, so that its surfaces are spiral, only slightly indeed, but 
yet very distinctly. It is formed of a very hard, compact clay- 
ironstone and the twist just mentioned may be due to the cleav- 
age of the mass from which the plate was struck off, but even if 
this were the case it would, apparently, have been easier to have 
rubbed the plate flat than to have followed the spiral cleavage, 
and it is not at all impossible that the twist was intentional on 
the part of the workman. Its regularity on each side would indi- 
cate this, for the stone is not one that would have been found in 



92 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

thin layers and this p\ate must have been split from a mass of 
irregular cleavage, so that its form is by no means certainly due 
to this. The color of the stone is of a dark reddish-brown and 
the surface appears to have been originally coated with some 
black pigment, patches of which still remain, forming spots of 
smooth, glossy enamel. It is 3-5 inches long, '5 inch thick near 
the middle, -2 Incl; thick at the ends and 2-5 inches broad in the 
middle. The holes are bevelled from one side onlv and are 
nearly twice as large on that side as on the other, being where 
largest '45 inch across. 

A large number of perforated plates of stone have been found 
in the mounds of the west and considerable discussion has arisen 
concerning them. Schoolcraft figures two which, he regards as 
instruments for twisting sinews or bark into twine, but, as 
Squier remarks, had this been their use we should expect to find 
the holes worn by the friction of the twine, whereas no traces of 
wear are usually visible, the strise caused by the drill being as 
distinct as ever. Squier says that he has examined a hundred 
of different sorts, and in all, the absence of all marks of use was 
noticeable; he also notices in his "Memoir on Mounds of Miss- 
issippi Valley," that in quite a number of stones the holes were 
almost exactly four-§fbhs of an inch distant from each other, and 
on measuring those that I have seen from S wanton, I find that in 
one case the holes are almost exactly four-fifths of an inch apart 
and in the other two they vary but slightly from that distance, 
though, as the holes are not exactly perpendicular to the plane 
of the stone in all cases, it makes a little difference on which side 
the measurement is made. This coincidence is remarkable, as the 
stones described by Squier were from the west, none being from 
farther east than Ohio. This would indicate that the makers of 
these objects were particular as to the distance of the holes and 
that the law they followed was widely known and this is the more 
interesting on account of the great diversity in the form of the 
stones. All are thin and flat, but scarcely any two of them agree 
in outline or size, though not always differing very widely. 

Adair mentions a custom existing among some tribes of having 
high religious dignitaries wear a plate of shell pierced with two 
boles by which it hung to an otter-skin strap. From this it 
would seem not improbable that these stones were used as a part 
of the religious paraphernalia of the ancient people to whom 



B. NATURAL flISTORT. 93 

they belonged, and the absence of marks of wear would seem to 
Indicate that they were worn, not constantly, but only upon 
special occasions. 

A rather rude, but quite unique article is in the state collection. 
Its general form is that of a long, narrow trapezoid. The ends 
are rounded and of somewhat unequal breadth. It is made of 
dark gray mica-schist, thickly studded with small garnets. On 
ODe side it is flat and smooth, while on the other it is flat along 
the central portion, and from this the surface is strongly bev- 
elled to the edges, which are rather thin. The narrower end is 
thicker than the other. The length of the article is 5*5 inches, 
breadth at one end 1*3 inches, at the other 1*85 inches, the thick- 
ness is, in the centre, from *5 inch to *75 inch. As to its use I 
am unable to conjecture unless for rubbing flesh and fat from 
skins, or rubbing sinews or bark for twine. 

Three articles of somewhat similar form and apparently for the 
same use were found in different graves. The general form of 
these is boat-like, one side being flat or nearly so, while the oppo- 
site is convex. One of these is of a dark red slate, the base (or 
top?) is flat, but curved slightly from end to end, while the opposite 
side is bevelled from the middle where it is thickest to the sides 
and ends. In the centre of the flat side is a slight groove running 
nearly from end to end. On each side of* the central portion 
of the object is a hole drilled obliquely from side to side and 
bevelled from each end. It is pretty well made but less carefully 
than either of the others. It is 5*3 inches long ; '65 inch high ; '8 
inch broad, and the holes are 2*1 inches distant from each other. 
Of similar material, but of different color, is the second of these 
objects. It is larger and much more finely finished than the 
preceding. It is of drab slate with black veins, though much 
of it is so colored by the red coloring matter already mentioned 
as to appear reddish-brown ; its surface is very smooth and its 
form regular. The base, or flat side, is rectangular, long and 
narrow, nearly flat, with but a slightly excavated groove running 
from near one end to a short distance beyond the middle. The 
upper surface slopes from the rounded apex to the sides and ends, 
the side surfaces being slightly convex while the others are flat. 
Its length is 7*25 inches ; breadth in the middle 1 inch, at one end 
•85 inch, at the other '65 inch ; height '75 inch in the middle and 
'15 inch at the ends. The holes are bevelled from the flat side and 



94 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

taper very regularly. The third of thepe singular objects is equally 
well wrought ; it apparently served the same use, though differing 
in form from the other two, being much shorter and higher in out- 
line and the slight groove in the others is here represented by a very 
deep cavity. It is of a delicate green steatite, of very regular form 
and the surface smooth ; this is, however, in some places decom- 
posed and so roughened, the ends are both broken and, it is probable, 
originally ta;pered to more or less sharp points. The sides are 
regularly and quite strongly convex, while the surfaces that go 
from the apex to the ends are nearly flat. The base is slightly con- 
cave over its entire surface, and, as already mentioned, the centre 
is deeply excavated. This excavation, which is of similar form 
as the outside of the object, is 2-25 inches long, '95 inch broad in 
the middle and -8 inch deep in the deepest part. From this deep- 
est portion the holes are drilled through to the other side, tapering 
as they go upwards from -4 inch to "25 inch in diameter. From 
patches here and there of polished surface it would seem that the . 
entire surface was originally well polished, but the material waa 
not sufficiently compact to resist exposure. On one side of the 
apex is what appears to be the beginning of a third hole. The 
holes that extend through the stone are I'l inch distant from each 
other on the upper side. 

Two carvings, which may be regarded as representations of 
animals, have been taken from the graves ; one of these, shown 
of full size in tig. 13, is of dark red slate, hard and compact. 
The surface is very smooth and the curves finely formed. The base, 
as shown in fig. 13a, is flat, oval and pretty regularly cut ; it is 
3' 7 inches long and 1*1 inches broad. Through the base are bored 
two holes, one at each end ; these taper from below upward, from 
•4 inch to '2 in diameter. Continuous with the upper side of the 
base are the neck and head directed strongly forward ; the head is 
somewhat bird-like in appearance, the eyes are large and very 
prominent, as shown in fig. 13&, which represents the object viewed 
obliquely, being '3 inch in diameter at the end and projecting '2 
inch beyond the side of the head, which is straight below, arched 
strongly above and quite thin, with the end of the beak blunt 
and rounded ; the height of the figure, from the base to the top of 
the head, is 2*2 inches ; length along back, 4-5 inches ; length of 
head 1*4 inch, height 1 inch and thickness -4 inch. This head was 
found with the second of the long boat-like objects described above. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



95 



Fig. 13ft. 




Fig. 13. 




Fig. 13a. 




Cartinq of Dakk Red-blatb. 
mg. 13, profile; 13a, base: flill size. 
Fig. VSbf yiewed obliquely f^om above; about i sise. 



96 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Another of these interesting carvings is in the state collection. 
This is of pure white marble, finely carved and smoothed, and 
probably it was originall}' polished as there is still a slight polish 
on some portions. Its soft material has suffered more from expos- 
ure than the harder rock of which the other head is composed, yet 
it is in very good preservation. The upper two-thirds are colored 
a deep reddish-brown while the lower portion is stained bright 
green ; this latter color is probably due to contact with the copper 
in the graves, but the red color seems to have been applied inten- 
tionally. As in the head just described, so in this the eyes are large 
and prominent, about -3 inch in diameter at the top and -17 inch 
high above the sides of the head. The general outlines of this 
second head are more angular than those of the preceding, it 
is broader at the base and the neck is not so long nor so oblique ; 
the end of the nose is, in this, cut off squarely instead of being 
rounded as in fig. 13, and the sides of the head are nearly straight 
above and below, while the base is extended somewhat beyond the 
rest of the figure. The neck is thicker and less regular than that 
in fig. 13, and on one side are carved grooves which seem as if 
designed to represent a crest or mane. The base is oval, but much 
more convex on one side than on the other and it is w^ider in pro- 
portion to the length than that of the preceding ; is not perforated 
as is the other, and its edge is quite undulating. The height of the 
image is 2*65 inches ; length of head 1*5 inches ; height of head 
•95 inch ; height at end of nose -4 inch ; length of base 3*15 inch- 
es ; breadth of base 1-3 inches in the middle ; breadth of neck 
near the base 2 inches ; with this was found the steatite boat-like 
object described above. 

A single example of the discoidal stones which are sometimes 
found in the west has been found at Swan ton and is now in the state 
collection. Its form is beautifully regular and its surface very 
nicely finished. The fiat sides of the disk are hollowed so as to form 
shallow cup-like depressions while the edge rounds outwards above 
and below, but is fiat around the middle of the disk. The material 
of which this discoid stone is made is a compact white quartz, btit 
it is coated over the outside with dark coloring matter, by which 
its appearance is changed. Its diameter is very nearly three 
inches, thickness at the edge M5 inches ; circumference 9-5 inches. 
The excavated portion does not extend to the extreme edge of the 
stone, but falls so far short as to leave a naiTow rim around the 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 97 

edge. This rim is rounded very nicely. Tlie diameter of the de- 
pressed portion is precisely the same on each side, viz : 2*3 inches, 
but the depth is '2 inch on one side and '15 inch on the other. 
Squier figures several of these discoid stones, one of which (fig. 121, 
No. 2) is much like that just described. In Foster's ** Prehistoric 
Races of U. S.," fig. 26 (page 218) is much like this but is perfor- 
ated through the centre. Squier says that they have been found 
from the valley of the Ohio River, through Central America to Peru 
and Chili, and that they have also been found in Denmark. Old 
writers, such as Adair, mention them as in use for playing certain 
games at the time they visited the Indians. The writer just named 
says that they were " made by rubbing them on rocks with prodi- 
gious labor," and that they belonged not to individuals but to the 
tribe, were "kept with religious care" and handed from genera- 
tion to generation ; and were, by law, exempted from the burial with 
the dead so commonly practised with other implements.. This 
being the case, we may suppose that the presence of one in a 
grave is indicative of high rank or distinguished service on the 
part of the person with whose remains it was deposited. 

Arrow and spear heads and stone axes are more abundant than 
other implements in most collections of stone objects, but this is 
not so much the case with the Swantou collections as usual. 
Quite a nnmber of these articles have indeed been taken from the 
graves, but they do not much outnumber other kinds of imple- 
ments. Arrowpoints are abundantly found on or near the surface 
all about the town, but the graves have not afiforded a large num- 
ber. It is quite possible that many of those found away from the 
graves were formed by the same people as those in the graves. 
The axes are still less numerous for I have seen but Gyq in all. 
Two of these bore slight notches on each side for the attachment 
of a handle while the rest were of the sort known as hand axes ; 
all are quite small and well formed, though some are much more 
neatly finished than others. In none was there any sign of a 
groove extending around, or on the sides, but only the notches, 
and these not very deep, on the front and rear edges, so that all 
may have been easily held in the hand. The three without notches 
are of the same general form, the lower side, or edge, rounded 
more or less, the upper straight and thick and the sides straight 
and inclining towards each other as the}' approach the top.* The 
form of these is, in general, the same as those figured on page 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXU. B. (7) 



98 B. KATUBAL BISTORT. 

210 of Dr. Foster's work already mentioned, or figs. 110, page 
217, and 112, Nos. 3 and 4, p. 218, of Squier's "Ancient Monu- 
ments of Mississippi Valley" (Smithsonian Contributions). One 
of those from 8 wanton is quite like Squier's fig. 112, No. 4, both 
in form and inateriicl, and also like a figure in Lubbock's '^Prehis- 
toric Times," fig. 164, p. 188, of an axe from Switzerland. The 
specimen from Swanton is 3'65 inches long, 1*75 inches across the 
edge, 1 inch across the top, -and in greatest thickness *7o inch. 
It is most neatly finished of all. The other two straight-sided 
axes are less regular, the sides are more nearly parallel and they 
are of larger size, one of them, which is of trap rock, being larger 
than any other found in the graves ; this is 5*75 inches long ; 2*2 
inches broad at the edge and *55 inch thick near the middle. The 
other is of smaller size, being 4*7 inches long and 2*4 inches 
across the edge. It is of dark colored mica-schist. The two re- 
maining axes, those with notched sides, are both carefully made. 
The smaller of the two is of trap ; the edge is unusually sharp 
and well shaped and, suitably attached to a handle, it would be re- 
garded, even now, as a by no means useless article. It is 4-2 
inches long, 2*65 inches across the edge, 1*23 inches in greatest 
thickness. The other is nearly as well formed and finished. It 
is made of a compact purple sandstone and is a little more than 
five inches long and 2*5 inches across the edge. 

The arrow and spear points from the Swanton graves differ 
somewhat from any others that I have seen, with the exception of 
one or two. They are thinner than most of those from other 
localities and are nearly all very regular in form and handsomely 
finished. The most common forms are the "triangular" and a 
form which approaches the "leaf-shaped," as nearly as.any of the 
forms under which these articles are grouped, and the "indented." 
One quite common form is nearly straight across the base, which 
is thin, the sides curve regularly and gradually towards the point, 
the base being a little narrower than near the middle. These aie 
not exactly like any that I have seen from other localities. The 
edges are very sharp and the flakes chipped off in the manufactore 
of the article were small, so that the surface is quite smooth. They 
are made of a dark flint and are of different sizes, from 1 inch 
to 2*5 inches long and from -75 inch to 1*25 inches broad. A j 
peculiar bluish-white, semi-transparent quartz was used in the 
manufacture of quite a number of this class of implements. One 



1 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 99 

of these is much like fig. 103, No. 5, p. 212 of Squier's Memoir 
and another like No. 9 of tlic same figure, though broader at the 
base and indented. Each of these is about 2*25. inches long. 
Two very long objects for lances, or knives it may be, are of the 
same material. One of these is much like NV>. 3, fig. 99, p. 211 of 
Squier's Memoir. It is 7-25 inches long, 1*8 inches broad in the 
middle and '6 inch in average thickness. It is rather bluntly 
pointed at each end. The other is pointed at only one end and 
there only very bluntly. It is 9*65 inches long, 1*9 inches broad 
and in some places nearly one inch in thickness. As may be no- 
ticed these last mentioned flints are exceptions to the general rule 
that the Swanton spear and arrow points are very light and thin. 
Another object, which may have been used as a lance, or for some 
other and quite different purpose, is of a similar material. Its 
form is quite regularly oval, pointed at each end. It is 5*8 inches 
long and three inches broad in the middle and is quite thin and 
flat over its sides. Several other large spear or lance heads of 
good quality, some very finely finished, are in the various collec- 
tions from the graves we have been considering. These are mostly 
of dark, greenish flint and are from four to six inches in length. 
Only two among all that I have seen from this locality are barbed. 
One of these probably had a stem when first made, but it is now 
broken off. Its form is broadly triangular, the edges sharp, as is 
the point, and the short barbs are directed outwards. It is of 
olive-green flint 1*4 inches long and 1'25 inches broad. The otiier 
• barbed specimen appears to have been made for a knife, as it is 
very inequilateral, one side being nearly straight and ending below 
in a short barb, while the opposite is strongly curved. There is 
evidence in this, as in the preceding, of a stem. The point is 
very sharp and the whole very finely made. It is of dark grieen 
flint and is little more than two inches long and one inch broad 
at the broadest part. One of the arrowheads is of the form called 
by Foster "lozenge-shaped." 

So far as I know these forms include all of this class of imple- 
ments that have been found. Of course all the articles found 
in the graves are not herein described, but all that are in any way 
typical that have come to m}'^ notice are mentioned so that a tol- 
erably complete exhibit of the contents of the graves is here af- 
forded. My views as to the people who placed the bodies and 
implements in the graves have already been given. 



I 



100 B. NATURAL III8T0RT. 

It is not impossible that more graves will be hereafter discov- 
ered and their contents studied, as the locality is probably not 
exhausted, but at present further examinations cannot be carried 
on and we can have no further evidence in regard to the character 
of this ancient people than that afforded bj the objects I hare 
attempted to describe. I may add that since the foregoing pages 
were in type, a fragment of a tube identical in form and material 
with those described has been found near Burlington, and with it 
quite a number of arrow and spear points of the same pecaliar 
bluish quartz, of which most of this class of articles from the 
graves were made. 



The Devonian Limestones in Ohio. By N. H. Wincheix, of 
St. Anthony, Minnesota. 

In Delaware county, in central Ohio, the valleys of the Scioto 
and Olentangy rivers are excavated mainly in the Devonian. The 
latter begins in the black slate and the former in the water lime. 
Thus a connected section of the Devonian limestones may be 
made out along their banks in the area of a single county. 

In the summer of 1872 the writer examined this county with* 
others, for the Geological Survey of Ohio, and found these lime- 
stones to consist of the following parts : 

1. A hard, fine-grained siliceous limestone, in beds generally of 
eight to twelve inches, non-fossiliferous or nearly so ; of a blue or 
black-blue color and apt to hold much pyrites. Thickness four to 
nine feet. 

2. A blue and argillaceous limestone in beds usually not exceed- 
ing six inches, but sometimes reaching fifteen. This is the princi- 
pal building stone of Delaware and Erie counties and is extensively 
wrought at Sandusky and Delaware. The calcareous beds are hard 
and crystalline, but -are apt to be interstratified with thin shaly 
laminations, injuring their durability. It is quite fossiliferous, 
holding generally at every quarry Spirifer mucronatus, Oyrtis 
HamUtonenais and Cyrtoceras undulatum. It also holds at Dela- 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 101 

ware a species of Discina and at Sandusky a TentacuUtes. It 
contains numerous fish remains that have been extensively studied 
by Dr. Newberry. Its thickness is thirty-five to forty feet. 

3. A saccharoidal or often a crinoidal limestone, in beds that 
weather out three to five inches thick, but in deep quarrying appear 
a foot or two-thick. This is of a light color and differs constantly 
in that respect from the last. It is rarely used for any purpose 
except for quicklime. Its most common fossils are brachiopods, 
the most conspicuous of which are species of Strophomena. It 
also holds one or two species of Cyathophylloids. Cyrtoceras mh- 
dulatum is also common. 

The lower ten feet of this limestone are sometimes quite bitumi- 
nous, especially when charged with corals, as they not unfrequently 
are. In the central part of the county of Delaware this belt is 
chiefly fossiliferous in the lower three or four feet, the remainder 
being rather hard but of a blue color. The southern part of the 
same county, however, seems to be without this bluish and highly 
coralline member, the Delhi beds coming immediately down on to 
No. 4. This bituminous matter is sometimes in the form of scales 
and films or irregular patches or pockets, or it is disseminated evenly 
through the bedding, mingling closely with the sedimentation. In 
the former case the corals are well preserved. In the latter very 
few fossils are to be seen, the color of the stone becoming bluish. 
The thickness of the Delhi beds, including this coralline member, 
is thirty-eight feet. The corals here found are different species of 
' Favosites^ Cceyiostroyjia, StromcUopora and Cyathophylloids. 

4. A light-colored, even-bedded, nearly non-fossiliferous, vesic- 
ular or compact, magnesian limestone, that is often popularly 
mistaken for a sandstone. Its upper part, sometimes amounting 
to ten feet, is in beds of four to six inches and the rest in beds of 
ten to thirty-six inches. It is even-grained and makes a good cut 
Btone, being considerablj' wrought for building in several places in 
northwestern Ohio, as well as for quicklime. Toward the bottom 
it becomes arenaceous. Its thickness is about twenty-seven feet. 

5. An arenaceous limestone like the last, which sometimes is a 
pure quartzose sandstone and sometimes an arenaceous limestone 

. conglomerate. The water-worn limestone pebbles in this conglom- 
erate are evidently from the underlying limestone (Waterlime) 
and arc occasionally five or six inches in diameter. No fossils 
have been seen in this member. Thickness two to ten feet. 



102 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Notes on the foregoing limestones. 

With the exception of the last, these have all been united by 
Dr. Newberry under the term Corniferous.* The last is regarded 
by him as the equivalent of the Oriskany of New York and the 
base of the Devonian. Nos. I and 2 constitute together a verv 
important and conspicuous member of the Ohio Devonian, which 
can everywhere be easily distinguislied at a glance from the lower 
members, chiefly by their color, but also by their bedding and by 
their fossil contents. The uppermost member (No. 1) has not 
heretofore been distinguished as overlying No. 2. It occurs in the 
Olentangy River near Waldo in Marion county, and near Norton 
in Delaware county. It may also be seen in the bed of the same 
river at Delaware, where it is overlain by the blue shale that has 
been regarded as the representative of the Hamilton.* It also is 
seen in the Auglaize River south of Defiance, in. Defiance county, 
and in the Maumee near the line separating Henry from Defiance 
county, where it is immediately overlain by the black slate, the 
'* blue shale" being entirely wanting. A bivalve impression, two 
inches in diameter, resembling Aviculopecten^ was seen in it at Del- 
aware. This limestone is believed to be the equivalent of the 
Tully Limestone of New York. No. 2 is the limestone that has 
been described as Hamilton in the state of Michigan, or perhaps 
more correctly it is the upper portion of that limestone. It has 
there not been separated from the Corniferous. Hamilton fossils 
prevail over those having a distinctive Corniferous character, both 
in Michiganf and in Ohio throughout this blue limestone, and in 
Michigan seem to extend downward into the Corniferous. The 
shales, however, which accompany this limestone in Michigan are 
wanting in Ohio. There is a fossiliferous black shale in northern 
Michigan which, however, may be the equivalent of the Marcellus. 
The writer, in deference to Dr. Newberry's nomenclature, has dis- 
tinguished No. 2, in reporting on several counties in Ohio, as 
Upper Corniferous. It is believed to be the equivalent of the 
Hamilton of New York. It is colored on the Ohio county maps 
as " Corniferous," that color also covering, as already remarked 
of the word, Nos. 3 and 4, the narrow blue belt representing the 
shale overl^'ing No. 1, which the writer has distinguished as 
Olentangy Shale. 

• See Report of Progress on the Ohio Survey for 1869. 

tSee Report on the Grand Truverse Region, by A. WincheU. 



B. NATURAL HI8T0RT. 103 

No. 3 seems in fossil contents, as well as in thickness and geo- 
logical position, to be the exact equivalent of the Corniferous 
Limestone of New York. The writer, to distinguish it from other 
portiens of the great Corniferous Group of Dr. Newberry, has 
designated it Delhi Limestone, from the village of that name in 
Delaware county where it is extensively burned for quicklime. 

No. 4 in like manner represents the Onondaga Limestone of 
New York, and in a similar manner furnishes a good building stone. 
It is the lower portion of this member that has been referred to as 
representing the Ohio corniferous, quarried at Charloe, Paulding 
county. It may be seen in the banks of the Scioto near Belle- 
point, in Delaware county, and is burned for lime at Bellevue in 
Sandusky county. Its manner of union with No. 5 is not constant. 
Sometimes it is not at all sandy near the bottom, and at other 
times it contains one or two very sandy layers, before the sandy 
character of No. 5 is fully set in. 

That the shale which overlies the foregoing No. 1, and which is 
well exposed in the Olentangy River at Delaware, is not the Ham- 
ilton of New York, is evident from the following considerations : 

1st. At every point examined it is found to be closely interstrat- 
ified with the black slate, even to the base ; and in Defiance county 
it is entirely wanting, the black slate lying on No. 1. This indi- 
cates that its associations are with the black slate rather than 
with the Hamilton. 

2d. If it be the Hamilton, in Defiance county, the Hamilton 
is wanting ; yet there are Hamilton fossils in the blue limestone 
lying below (No. 2). 

3d. It has not yet afforded to the writer a single fossil form. 
The fossils at Front's Station cannot come from the same shale, 
although the writer has not examined that locality. A very close 
inspection of this shale in Delaware county, where it affords con- 
tinuous bluffs, sometimes for half a mile, has not disclosed a 
single fossil. 

4th. It does not graduate into the underlying blue limestone 
(Nos. 1 and 2) but the transition is abrupt, from soft, argillaceo- 
bituminous shale in thin beds, to a hard siliceous limestone in heavy 
beds. 

5th. While it contains no fossils proving its Hamilton age, 
there are fossils in No. 2 that are confessedly of Hamilton age, and 
those fossils are formed through the whole thickness of No. 2. 



104 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

6th. In New York the Hamilton is shaly and calcareous ; all 
other formations in passing west into Ohio change from coarse sed- 
iment to fine. Coarse sandstones become shales. Shales become 
limestones and limestones lose much of their thickness. In accord- 
ance with this well-known law it is more likely that a calcareo- 
argillaceous formation should become calcareous like No. 2 than 
entirely argillaceous or bitumino-argillaceous, like the Olentang}* 
Shale. 

If the foregoing parallelizations are correct it does not seem 
that the Hamilton runs out in passing through Ohio, but maintains 
a full development as a calcareous member of the Devonian. 



Origin and Properties of the Diamond. By A. C. Hamun, of 
Bangor, Me. 

The formation of the diamond is the same, with slight excep- 
tions, all over the world, and the true matrix of the gem is in the 
gravel beds of the Tertiary period. 

This peculiar formation in which the diamond is always found 
unless the strata has been disturbed by currents of water, is a fer- 
ruginous conglomerate, and known as cascalho-mellan or hard-pan. 
It is forming even at the present day, and examples may be seen 
in the " AUios" of France, the conglomerates of Cape de Verde, 
or the coasts of Cornwall^ and in many other places. The diamond 
placers are situated at the bottoms of ancient shallow lagoons or 
lakes, and the deposits may be traced oftentimes with perfect reg- 
ularity from the shallows of the shore of the lake along its depths 
to the opposite side. The gems found here have unbroken edges, 
and show no signs of aqueous action, while those obtained from the 
beds of rivers which have traversed the diamond placers, plainly 
indicate abrasion occasioned by the force of falling water. 

The keen eye of Buffon early detected the formation of the true 
gem strata, and believing that the gems were produced in these 
peculiar beds by the solar forces, he boldly asserted that the}' were 
formed in the superficial strata from debris of older formations 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 105 

mineral, animal and vegetable. There are many evidences to sus- 
tain the view of diamonds having been deposited where they are 
found, such as the tints of the diamond corresponding to the color 
of the surrounding earth, the impression of clay or grains of sand 
on the sides of the crystals, etc. 

It has been admitted by eminent mineralogists, that the dia- 
mond proceeded from the slow decomposition of vegetable material 
and even animal matter, as the requisite carbon could be obtained 
from either source. But they have also maintained that the gem 
was found under the same condition of heat as produced the met- 
amorphism of argillaceous and arenaceous schists : these being 
'supposed to have once been altered from shales impregnated with 
carbonaceous substances of organic origin. To this theory, how- 
ever, the microscope offers decided objections, for it reveals within 
the diamond, vegetable fibres and germs of higher organization, 
which fact forbids the idea of the development of any considerable 
degree of caloric. The quantity of vegetable remains often found 
in the diamond is considerable, and the stone is admitted by mi- 
croscopists to be the foulest of gems, cavities having been found 
in the mineral which have yielded impurities like rotten weeds. 

Admitting the h3'pothesis that the diamond is found in its 
matrix at the bottoms of these ancient lagoons, and that it is com- 
posed of carbon, we have abundant material for the formation of 
the gem in the vegetable and animal matter, which is collected by 
the impervious conglomerates forming the beds of stagnant pools. 
Carbonic acid is readily produced from the decomposition of 
this organic debris^ and is, moreover, constantly evolved from the 
earth itself. It has the property of decomposing many of the 
hardest rocks and is the cause of that mysterious decay which 
Dolomieu called ^^ la 7)ialadie du granite,** 

It is not at all improbable that the diamond contains hydrogen 
as some sau^mts have suspected from the energ}'^ of its refractive 
powers. In carburetted hydrogen we have the united force of two 
of the most active substances known as organogens or generators 
of orgunic bodies ; and the ease with which their combinations 
may be decomposed by electricity, also the extraordinary display 
of electric force, along the true gem fields, are to be considered in 
the study of this subject. The production of a drop of water, by 
the action of electricity upon a mixture of hydrogen and atmos- 
pheric oxygen, suggests the manner in which the diamond might 



106 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

be formed from carburetted hydrogen. It is true this experiment 
in the laboratory has failed to produce the transparent and crys- 
talline form of carbon, although it has thrown down the elemcDt 
in an amorphous state. This failure is by no means decisive^ for 
m&,ny of the simple acts of nature are beyond the imitative power 
of man. 

The charm of the diamond consists no't only in the extraordinary 
brilliancy of the stone, but especially in the display of prismatic 
color. The cause of these two properties has been a theme of 
earnest study among experimentalists, and many ingenious the- 
ories have been offered. The brilliancy appears to be due to the 
nature of the substance, and not especially to its hardness or its 
density. The soft minerals crocoite, greenockite and octahedrite, 
which exceed the diamond in refractive power, indicate thathani- 
ness has nothing to do with brilliancy. And if this property is in 
any way connected with the density of a mineral, the zircon, the 
sapphire and the spinel, ought to exceed the diamond in their re- 
fractions, but in fact they are far inferior. 

The topaz, which has the same specific gravity as the^ diamond, 
has a refractive index of but little over one-half that of the dia- 
mond. Concerning the charming prismatic display many plausible 
theories have been oflTered, and none, perhaps, so probable as that 
lately advanced by an English philosopher. This savant adopted 
the view that this property was due to the relation of the low dis- 
persive to the high refractive power of the gem, and hence the 
Spinelle does not exhibit the rainbow hue because it possesses a 
very high refractive. As the diamond stands quite alone among the 
gems in this relationship, it has been extremely difficult to find 
transparent minerals to test the correctness of the theory. The 
white garnet would furnish a fine example if we could find a trans- 
parent specimen, as it possesses a refractive of 1*81 and a low 
dispersive of '033. But unfqrtunately gems of this variety are 
quite unknown. However, Mt. Mica, with its white tourmalines 
has furnished us with a perfect test for the hypothesis. This gem 
affords the same relationship as the diamond, having a refractive 
of 1*66 with the remarkably low dispersive of '028 while the dia- 
mond has a refractive of 2*24: with a dispersive of '038. There- 
fore if the theory is correct the white tourmaline should exhibit 
the colored reflections as well as the diamond ; but on cutting sev- 
eral of these stones into fine and perfect brilliants we fail to wit- 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 107 

ness any prismatic display. Therefore we are reluctantly com- 
pelled to regard the ingenious calculation as incorrect. 

The diamond is not the most ancient of gems, and it was not 
until the art of man polished its 'surface and revealed its hidden 
splendors, that it became a favorite stone with man. The proc- 
ess of polishing is not of very ancient date, but it extends many 
centuries beyond the discoveries of Louis de Berquem. 

In early times diamonds were so rare that only princes pos- 
sessed them, and the smallness of the size of those that have de- 
scended to us from those periods indicates that the paragons were 
unknown before the fifteenth century. History sustains this view, 
and the celebrated traveller, Tavernier, boldly asserts that all of 
the famous diamonds have been discovered since the above men- 
tioned date. The gem was but little known in Pliny's time, and 
it does not appear in the decorations of the. fetes of Alexander, 
and the early conquests. 

The color suite of the diamond is far more extensive than has 
been generally admitted. Of the yellow tint it affords the most 
beautiful examples, and far surpasses in variety all the other 
gems. To the yellow topaz it is decidedly superior in its range 
of shades, and in some of its chrome-like tints it is without an 
equal among the gems. Fine green are sometimes seen, but the 
ruby red is exceedingly rare. Those of a peach blossom hue are 
not uncommon and there are recorded a number of diamonds ex- 
hibiting a beautiful shade of blue. The nodular or globular forms 
which are apparently water- worn are really natural crystals, 
the crystallization radiating from the centre. As they are defi- 
cient in cleavage planes it is quite impossible to polish them, 
which fact is sufl3cient to distinguish them from the water- worn 
pebbles. They recall to mind the singular concretionary and 
radiated masses of the animal remains found in the Old Red Sand- 
stone. 

The diamond is widely distributed over the earth. The gem 
fields of Asia and Brazil are very extensive, and the placers of 
Africa are not only exceedingly rich but they are of enormous ex- 
tent, and will probablj' supply the wants of commerce for ages to 
come. Its geological age is certainly very recent if we admit its 
matrix to be the secondary gravel beds of the Tertiary period. 

Furthermore, if we accept the observations of Humboldt, Mur- 
chison and Verneuil, concerning the deposition of the bones of the 



108 • B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

rhinoceros and the mammoth, in. strata twenty feet below that in 
which the diamond is found in the Adelfskoi district of Siberia, we 
must reasonably conclude that the mineral was deposited since the 
introduction of animal life, and that it is also the last gem placed 
upon the earth. 



On some ExTiNCt Types op Horned Perissodacttles. By 
Edward D. Cope, -of Philadelphia, Penn. 

It is well known that the type of Mammalia of the present pe- 
riod, which is preeminently characterized by the presence of osse- 
ous horns, is that of the Artiodactyla ruminayitia. At the meet- 
ing of the Association of last year, held at Dubuque, I announced 
that the horned mammals of our Eocene period were most nearly 
allied to the Proboscidians. I now wish to record the fact, as I 
believe for the first time, that the Perissodactyles of the interme- 
diate formation of the Miocene embraced several genera and spe- 
cies of homed giants not very unlike the Eobasileus and Uinta- 
therium in their armature. 

While exploring in connection with the United States Geological 
Survey of the Territories, I discovered a deposit of the remains 
of numerous individuals of the above character, which included 
among other portions crania in a good state of preservation. 
Most of these skulls are nearly or quite three feet in length, and 
mostly deprived of their mandibular portions ; these are quite abun- 
dant in a separated condition. The crania represent at least 
six species, while the mandible represents a condition distinct 
from that of Titanotherium or any allied genus, viz. : I., ; C, 1 ; 
P. M., 3 ; M., 3. The teeth diminish rapidly in size anteriorly, and 
there is no diastema behind the canines, whose conic crowns do 
not exceed those of the premolars in length. To the genus and 
species thus characterized I have elsewhere given the name of 
Symborodon torvus. 

One of the crania, referred to under the name of Miobasileus 
ophryas, is character izecl by its strong and convex nasal bones 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 109 

aud concave superior outline posteriorly, and by the presence of a 
massive horn-core on each side of the front, whose outer face is 
continuous with the inner wall of the orbit, as in the Loxolophodon 
cornutus. It stood above tlie eye in life, and diverged from its 
fellow so as to ^overhang it. In the specimen, which was fully 
adult, they were worn obtuse by use — length, about eight inches ; 
thickness, three inches. The molar teeth differ from those of Ti- 
tanotheriutn Proutii in having cross crests extending inward from 
the apices of the outer chevrons, each of which dilates into a T- 
shape near the cones. 

The third species is referred to the new genus Symhorodon under 
the name of 6\ acer. It has overhanging eyebrows and the vertex 
little concave ; but the nasal bones are greatly strengthened, 
and support on each side near the apex a large curved horn-core 
of ten inches in length with sharply compressed apex. These 
horns diverge with an outward and backward curve, and when 
covered with their sheaths must have considerably exceeded a foot 
in length. This was a truly formidable monster, considerably ex- 
ceeding the Indian rhinoceros in size. 

The fourth species is allied to the last, and has well developed 
superciliary crests without horns. The latter are situated well an- 
teriorly, and are short tubercles not more than three inches in 
height. They are directed outward and have a truncate extremity. 
The type individual is of rather lai'ger size than those of the other 
species. There are several crania referrible to the three now named. 
The present one has been named Symhorodon helocerus. 

Other species based upon crania without mandibles, were referred 
to the genus iSymhorodon, 

These animals show true eharacters of the Perissodactyla in their 
deeply excavated palate, solid odontoid process, third trochanter 
of femur, which has also a pit for the round ligament, in the di- 
vided superior ginglymus of the astragalus, etc. 



110 b. natural history. 

On the Origin of Insects and Remarks on the Antennal Char- 
acters IN THE Butterflies and Moths. By Aug. R. Grote, 
of Buffalo, N. Y. 

We understand metamorphosis in insects as correlated with 
development, and as a growth period characterizing the gradaal 
escape from a lower and more embryonic physical conditiou. We 
may consider it as a reminiscent action marking the successive 
developmental halts in the kingdom of Articulata. And, in rea- 
soning upon the facts brought to light by the embryological stud- 
ies of Haeckel, Fritz Miiller, Packard and Dohrn, we must accept 
the conclusion that the common origin of Tracheata is to be 
sought in the biregional Crustacean. The fact of the abortion of 
the tracheal system in the thorax presents a parallel to the 
fact of the remains of the swimming bladder in man. In con- 
sidering the general progression of Hexapoda, the Devonian and 
earliest forms known seem to be Neuropterous, nor is there yet 
sufficient evidence to prove that the common origin of Hexapoda 
is to be carried back through suborders exclusively fossil. Yet 
that the position of the Neuroptera suggests such a third, less dis- 
tinctively marked series, which is now no longer living, and which 
has given rise to the Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera, and 
again to the Diptera, Lepidoptera and Hymenoptera, cannot be 
denied. And that the Lepidoptera are the more recent, paloeonto- 
logical evidence seems to confirm, while we should not expect the 
Butterflies among the flowerless forests of the Carboniferous pe- 
riod. As yet the fossil butterflies discovered, such as those ror 
cently described by Mr. Scudder, belong to the Miocene Tertiary. 
As matters now stand there can be no objection to the conclusion 
that the Butterflies and Bees are contemporary with man. Thus 
hitherto recorded observations suggest to us very plainly the direc- 
tion from which the hexapodous type has proceeded. The land 
was probably visited at first irregularly and then at a stated life- 
period, while the hexapodous type affords an ascending series of 
grade in terrestrial adaptation. The consideration of the general 
longer period of larval life shows a connection with this effort, 
while the greater equalization in duration of the periods of growth, 
or the curtailment of the younger stage to the benefit of the 
adult, marks a permanent advance in type in Hexapoda. 

The antennal structure in the Butterflies and Moths has been 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. Ill 

made the basis for classification, at different times, by two French 
entomologists, MM. Duin6ril and Boisduval. While the terms 
employed by the former have priority, those of Ehopalocera (club- 
horned) and Heterocera (diversely-horned), used by the latter, have 
come into general use, chiefly through the bibliographical impor- 
tance of the work, the first volume of the uncompleted Species 
Greneral (the completion of which is now no longer a necessity), in 
which they were announced. The increase in our knowledge of 
the Lepidoptera has brought with it a different conception of the 
antennal structure and abundant physical proof of the absence of 
any such an absolute difference. The divisional values intended 
are unequal. The terms are inapposite and should be rejected 
from scientific use and literature. On reflective observation the 
difference between the antcnufle in the Butterflies and Moths does 
not seem to me to lie in the characters of their different termina- 
tions but in the upward direction, comparative rigidity and uni- 
formity in length of the antennal stem in the Butterflies. The 
flexibility and diversity of the appendages to the joints of the an- 
tennal stem in the Moths point to a more active use, while the 
more lateral and forward direction is a lower character in grade. 
From the stout, rayed and short antennae of Attacus^ to the thread- 
like neuropteriform and lengthy antennae of Adela^ there is a 
wide diversity indicative of utilitarian change. When we remem- 
ber the general habit of the Moths, the necessity for a develop- 
ment of their perceptive faculties, independent of vision, seems 
obvious ; their more sensitive antennae may protect them from 
.many enemies to which their habit exposes them. On the other hand 
the Butterflies are more protected by vision ; and the rigidity, 
together with the greater uniformity in length of the antennae, . 
seems to be the result of desuetude. In the Ilenperidfje^ a group 
occupying an intermediate station in rank and, I believe, in time, 
there is a greater comparative diversity in the length of the an- 
tennae as compared with the true Butterflies. In Castnia and 
the higher Moths the antenna is, as we naturally expect it, but- 
terfly-like in structure. 

This change in the antennal structure in the Lepidoptera ac- 
companies the change in the position of the wings, signalized by 
Agassiz in 1849, the discovery of which, on the whole, may be 
considered as our most important accession to an understanding 
of rank within the Lepidoptera. Agassiz^s observations are con- 



112 B. NATURAL HISTOBY. 

fined to a comparison of the quiescent positions of the wings. In 
the act of assuming flight a single muscular action seems neces-' 
sary to the Butterfly. The Moth throws the deflexed wings first 
forward, unfolding the secondary in a horizontal direction (notun- 
plaiting it as in the lower suborders) ; under the same circum- 
stances the Hesperian first elevates the horizontally extended hind 
wing. 

I notice, in conclusion, Dr. Clemens* experiment with the moth 
Platysamia cecropia. Concomitant with the gradual excision of 
the antennae, Dr. Clemens found a corresponding indisposition to 
flight presented by the mutilated insect. At last '* the power of 
hovering was completely lost," and Dr. Clemens drew the extraor- 
dinary conclusion, that " the antennae are instruments of atmos- 
pheric palpation." The power of hovering, on the contrary, was 
not lost by antennal mutilation, but became suspended through the 
consequent loss of the perceptive faculties of direction, and the 
nightflying moth naturally refused to proceed. The use and con- 
trol over the wings, through* the thoracic muscles, could not have 
been impaired by the loss of the antennae. 



The largest Fossil Elephant Tooth tet described. By EoMTifD 
O. Hovey, of Crawfordsville, Indiana. 

ABSTRACT. 

This tooth was found in Alameda Co., Califoniia, and is now 
in the Cabinet of Wabash College, Indiana. 

Its vertical depth is thirteen (13) inches, transverse measure- 
ment is fifteen (15) inches, length of triturating surface nine (9) 
inches, and the weight of the tooth is twenty-one and a half pounds 
avoirdupois. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 113 

NOTBS OK THE GsOLOOT AND ECONOMIC MiNERALOGT OF THE 
SOUTHEASTEKN APPALACHIANS. By T. StERRY HuNT, Of 

Boston, Mass. 

ABSTRACT. 

The author began by a brief sketch of the physical geography 
and topography of the mountain region which borders, on the 
southeast side, the great Appalachian valley in its extension 
from southwestern Virginia to northern Georgia, and referred to 
the published accounts of Henry Darwin Rogers and Professor 
Guyot, who are our best authorities on this region. He described 
the bifurcation of the mountain chain of crystalline rocks to the 
southwest of Lynchburg, the eastern branch of which retains the 
name of the Blue Ridge, and the western is known as the Iron 
Mountain, Smoky Mountain, or Unaka range ; the two ridges in- 
closing an elevated valley, in the northern part of which the New 
River takes its rise. The prevalence over large portions of this 
region of gneisses and mica-schists like those of the White Moun- 
tains was noticed, and the character presented by their superficial 
decay described. The drift-phenomena of the North are here 
unknown, and the rocks, decomposed to great depths, still retain 
their original positions. The inclined beds are to be seen in the 
cuttings through soft clays, which were ouce nearly vertical strata 
of hard feldspathic and homblendic rocks. This change was 
chemical, and not mechanical, and was due to the action of water 
holding in solution carbonic acid and oxygen, which had re* 
moved alkalies and lime, and peroxidized the iron. The exis- 
tence of similar phenomena in Brazil and other countries was 
noticed, and it was shown that it appears only in regions beyond 
the limits of glacial action. The question was then asked why 
do the similar rocks in New England offer no evidences of such a 
decay, and it was suggested that it was the result of a process 
which took place at a very remote period, and before the glacial 
erosion, which has, in the regions to the northeast, removed all 
traces of these softened and disintegrated rocks. The author, 
while maintaining this view, desired to call especial attention to 
this curious and important geological phenomenon, which he con- 
nects with climatic and atmospheric conditions unlike those of the 
present period. 

The concretionary veins of these gncissic and micaceous rocks 

A. A. A. S. VOL. Xl^II. B. (8) 



114 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

were next noticed. Some of them are made up of coarsely crys- 
talline orthoclase with quartz, tourmaline and great plates of 
mica, while in others examined by the speaker, calcareous spar 
and calcareo-magnesian silicates such as hornblende aud pyrox- 
ene, with zoisite and garnet, are met with. These minerals are 
oilen associated with sulphurets such as pyrite, pyrrhotine, chal- 
copyrite, and more rarely with galena, blende and molybdenite. 
The character of some great deposits of iron and copper sul- 
phurets, met with under similar conditions from Virginia to Ten- 
nessee, was described ; some of them are clearly transverse veins, 
but others, which seem intercalated in the stratification, exhibit 
in the banded arrangement of their materials, and in the grouping 
of their crystalline minerals, evidences that they are, not less than 
the transverse veins, the result of concretionary deposition in rifts 
in the strata. Some phenomena of infiltration in the laminae of 
the adjacent schists were described ; but it was contended that 
these are but local and accidental phenomena, and are not to be 
confounded with the deposits of sulphurets which in the Huronian 
rocks of the Green Mountains and elsewhere seem to have consti- 
tuted from the first a portion of the formation. 

The economic value of these great metalliferous lodes of the 
southeastern Appalachians was alluded to. The copper mines of 
Ducktown, in Polk County, Tennessee, and of the Ore Knob, in 
Ashe County, North Carolina, were noticed, and the value of these 
and of similar deposits in Virginia, as sources both of copper and 
of sulphur, was pointed out. While England brings from South 
Carolina our phosphates for the manufacture of fertilizers, she 
imports from Spain the sulphuret of iron to furnish the acid nec- 
essary for their treatment. We, on the contrary, bring the native 
sulphur from Sicily for the same purpose, while the mountains of 
the Blue Ridge coutain deposits of sulphur-ore as abundant as 
those of Spain, which will one day be made available for the treat- 
ment of the South Carolina phosphates, and their conversion into 
the fertilizers so necessaiy for southern agriculture. 

Prof. C. A. White, in support of these views, described the evi- 
dences of a similar profound disintegration of the crystalline 
rocks in the northwest, and stated that from such a decom- 
posed material a great part of the soils of the region was formed. 
He was of the opinion that it had taken place previous to the 
Cretaceous period, since the strata of that time in the region in 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 115 

question were formed from the results of this decay of the felds- 
pathic and hornblendic rocks of the vicinity. 



The Metamorphism of Rocks. By T. Sterrt Hunt, of Boston, 

Mass. 

abstract. 

The various changes which rocks undergo under the influence 
of water, air and various gases, and their changes in molecular 
structure, were briefly noticed, and the use of the name of meta- 
morphic rocks, as now generally applied to crystalline strata, 
considered. While some geologists have considered that many of 
these, such as gneisses, diorites, serpentines, talcose and chloritic 
rocks were igneous products, more or less modified by subsequent 
chemical processes, others maintained that they were formed by 
aqueous sedimentation, and subsequently crystallized. This was 
taught by Hutton ; and when, earl}' in this century, the crystalline 
rocks of the Alps were shown to rest upon uncrystalline fossilifer- 
ous strata, it was suggested that the overlying crystallines were 
newer rocks, which had undergone a metamorphism from which 
those directly beneath had been exempted. This notion spread 
until the great crystalline centre of the Alps was considered to 
be in part of secondary and even of tertiary age. The history of 
the extension of this notion to Germany, to the British Islands, 
and to New England was then sketched, and it was shown that 
similar crystalline rocks from supposed stratigraphical evidence 
came to be referred to formations of very diflTerent ages in palaeo- 
zoic or more recent geologic times. 

The author then detailed the course of study b}' which he had 
been led to question this notion ; he showed that there was, ac- 
cording to Favre, no longer any evidence in the Alps in support 
of the view above noticed ; that Sedgwick in England, and NicoU 
in Scotland, had rejected the notion of the palaeozoic age of the 
crystalline schists in these countries, regarded by Murchison as 
Cambrian and Silurian ; and finally gave the observations by which 
he (the speaker) had satisfied himself that the cr3'stalline rocks of 



116 B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 

tbe Green Mountains and the White Mountains, and their repie- 
sentatives alike in Quebec, New Brunswick and in the Blue Bidge 
were more ancient than the oldest Cambrian or primordial fossillf- 
erous strata. He showed how folding, inversion and faults had 
alike in the Alps and in Scotland led to the notion that these 
crystalline rocks were in many cases newer than the adjacent fos- 
siliferous strata, and mentioned that the subject would be Airther 
illustrated by a paper on the geology of New Brunswick. 

Note.— In a paper on the geology of the White Mountains in the Proceedings of the 
A. A. A. S. for 187S, Prof. C. H. Hitchcock (p. 146) refers to mj address before the Aiso- 
ciatlon in 1871. in which I have discussed tlie crystalline rocks of New BngUnd, and 
speaks of " the position assigned by Dr. Hunt to the whole White Mountain series in 
his * * * address.'' According to him I have referred " the age of the series to tbe 
Cambrian J not for firom the period of the Potsdam sandstone." This is howerer com* 
pletely at variance with the statements of my address, and with my whole arguisent 
extending over several pages. I have there stated with regard to certain crystaUiDS 
schists of Europe, my conviction that they *' belong to a period tnUerior to the depori- 
tion of the Cambrian aedimente, and will correspond with the newer gneittic win 
of our Appalachian region^** that is the White Mountain series (p. 32). Again (p. 16) 
I consider the view Which I formerly shared with most other geologists of the pslieoiolc 
age of the " crystalline rocke of th/e Oreen Mountain and White Mountain eeriee^^ and 
declare that " I And on a careAil examination of the evidence no satisfkctory proof of 

' such tin age and origin, but an array of facts which appear to me incompatible witli 
the hitherto received view and lead me to conclude that the whale cf omr orytteUiitf 
echitte of eaatefrn North America are not only pre-Silurian but pre'Cambrian in age? 
This view is, I believe, adopted by Prof. Hitchcock. He in his paper fhrther states Mb 
opinion that the lower part of the White Mountain series is Laurentian, but as my dfsi* 
nition of the White Mountain series in the address above quoted is primarily lithoiogi- 
cal and expressly excludes the rocks of the Laurentian series, the statement of Prof« 
H. amounts only to an assertion that the White Mountain series ^ certain parts of New 
Hampshire rests directly upon Laurentian rocks, which is by no means improbable* 
I pointed out in 1870 and 1871 reasons for supposing the existence of areas of Lsoren- 

. tian strata both in eastern and western Massachusetts. 



Geology op Southern New Brunswick. By T. Sterrt Humt, 
of Boston, Mass. 

ABSTRACT. 

The recent labors under the Geological Sui*vey of Canada by 
Messrs. Bailey, Matthew and the author were sketched. They 
show south and west of the New Brunswick coal-basin variooB 
uncrystalline formations, all resting upon ancient crystalline rocks. 
These latter are by the author regarded as for the most part the 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 117 

equivalents of the Green Mountain and the White Mountain 
series, or what he calls Huronian and Montalban. These are pen- 
etrated by granites, and associated In one part with Norian rocks, 
bot the presence of Laarentian in the region is somewhat doubtful. 
While the author recognizes thus, at least, four distinct series of 
pre-Cambrian crystalline rocks in eastern North America, he does 
not question the possible existence of yet other series in this re- 
gion. The analogies offered by the more recent rocks of this 
region are very suggestive. We have within twenty miles of St. 
John, New Brunswick, larger or smaller areas of not less than five 
palaeozoic formations, the Menevian of Lower Cambrian age, the 
fauna of which has been so well studied by Hartt ; true Silurian, 
probably of Lower Helderberg age ; Devonian, yielding the fossil 
flora made known to us by Dawson ; Lower Carboniferous, and 
triie Coal Measures, besides sandstones of Mesozoic age. Each 
one of these is found resting on the older crystallines, and except 
the last they are highly inclined and even vertical. As the result of 
contortions and overturn-dips, the older crystalline strata are 
found to overlie in some cases the newer ones ; besides which the 
latter are occasionally formed in great part of the ruins of the 
crystalline strata, and so consolidated that they have been con- 
founded with them, decomposed rocks made up of the debris 
of pre-Cambrian felsites and orthophyres are found alike in the 
Lower Carboniferous and the Silurian series, and the beds of the 
latter are made up in other localities of comminuted Huronian 
diorites and argillites. A conglomerate of similar origin occurs 
at the base of Menevian or Lower Cambrian, and other parts 
of this series abound in the ruins of the White Mountain mica- 
schists. 



Breaks in thb American Paljsozoig Series. By T. Sterrt 
Hunt, of Boston, Mass. 

ABSTRACT. 

The author began by considerations on the value and signifi- 
cance of breaks in the succession of strata and of organic re- 
mains. He then referred to the classification of the palaeozoic 
rocks of the New York series, and showed that Hall, in 1842, and 



118 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

again in 1847, pointed out the existence therein of a fauna older 
than what was then called Silurian by Murchison, or was known 
in Great Britain ; Hall maintaining that our comparison with 
British rocks must commence with the Trenton limestone, the 
equivalent of the Upper Cambrian of Sedgwick (Llandeilo or 
Lower Silurian of Murchison). The rocks below this horizon in 
America are the equivalents of the Lower and Middle Cambrian 
of Sedgwick, which, when they were found to be fossiliferous, 
were wrongly claimed by Murchison as part of the Silurian. 

He sketched the history of the introduction of the nomenela- 
turf of Murchison into our American geology, and then proceeded 
to show the e^cistence of a break both stratigraphical and palseon- 
tological at the base of the Trenton. The contact between the 
Calciferous sandrock and the unconformably overlying Trenton is 
seen in Herkimer County, N. Y., according to Hall. The so-called 
fossiliferous Quebec group of Logan, the Primal and Aiu-oral of 
Rogers, which extends along the great Appalachian valley from 
the Lower St. Lawrence to Georgia, corresponds to the Lower and 
Middle Cambrian ; and the Potsdam, Calciferous and Chazy for- 
mations are its equivalents in the valleys of the Ottawa and Lake 
Champlain, much reduced in thickness. These are overlaid by 
the rocks of the Trenton and Hudson-River groups (Upper Cam- 
brian), which in various localities to the north overlap the older 
fossiliferous rocks, and in the absence of the latter, repose directly 
upon the crystallines, indicating a considerable continental move- 
ment corresponding to the break in palseontological succession. 

The relation between these is explained by Logan as resulting 
from a movement posterior to the deposition of the Hudson-River 
group, which produced a great uplift of several thousand feet, ex- 
tending for more than one thousand miles. While showing that 
there have been movements in parts of the region since that period, 
the author rejects the above explanation, and shows that the rela- 
tion between the two is due to the fact that the Trenton and the 
Hudson-River rocks overlie unconformably the disturbed Quebec 
group. These two great discordant series correspond to the 
rocks of the first and second faunas of Barrande. 

The second great break is at the summit of the Hudson-River 
group, and is marked by the Oneida conglomerate in New York, 
and a similar one in Ohio described by Newberry. The rocks 
above, to the base of the Corniferous limestone in the New York 



, B. NATURAL BISTORT. 119 

series, are the Upper Silurian of Murchison, or Silurian proper, 
and bold what is called by Barrande the third fauna. As long 
since shown by Hall, they are, however, to be divided on palseon- 
tological grounds into two groups, the lower including the Me- 
dina, Clinton and Niagara formations, and the upper what was 
named the Lower Helderberg group. These are separated in 
New York and Ontario by the great non-fossiliferous Onondaga 
group, holding salt and gypsum, and deposited from a great salt 
lake. 

The close of the Onondaga was marked by another period of 
disturbance, which, like that preceding the deposition of the 
Trenton, changed the levels, and caused the ocean-waters to 
spread alike over the Onondaga formation and the adjacent rocks 
which had formed the ancient sea-barrier. Then was deposited 
the Lower Helderberg limestone, followed by the Oriskany sand- 
stone, together constituting a fourth natural division of our palae- 
ozoic rocks. This limestone was deposited unconformably over 
the Trenton and Hudson-River rocks in the St. Lawrence valley, 
and upon the older crystallines in various localities among the 
Appalachian hills in New England and the British Provinces. 
Over this whole region there are no known representatives of the 
second, and, except to the far eastward, none of the third or 
Medina-Niagara fauna. The fourth or highest Silurian fauna 
corresponds to the Ludlow rocks of Britain, or the Upper Silurian 
of the Canada Survey ; while to the third fauna this survey has 
applied the name of Middle Silurian. The necessity for such a 
division, in accordance with the views of Hall, is admitted, but the 
name is to be rejected, since the rocks immediately below it are 
properly not Lower Silurian but Upper Cambrian. 

Evidences of a fourth break between the Oriskany and the 
Cornlferous were mentioned in the erosion of the former in New 
York and Ontario, although to the eastward, in Gasp6, they form 
a continuous series. The author closed by a tribute to the 
memory of the venerable Sedgwick, the Nestor of British geolo- 
gists, who died last winter ; and to the labors of Prof. James 
Hall, who, in his vast work on our palseozoic geology, has reared 
for himself an imperishable monument. 

Note.— An unpublished geological map of northeastern America, extending from 
Labrador to the Mississippi and to Virginia, prepared bj the author so as to show by 
aa many different colors the geographical distribution of the roclcs of the four palaeozoic 
faunas recognized in the above paper, was exhibited by him to the geological memben 
of the Association. 



120 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

Geological History op Winnipiseogeb Lake. By C. H. 
Hitchcock, of Hanover, N. H. 

The hydrographic basin of Winnipiseogee Lake comprises about 
three hundred and fifty square miles. Its waters flow into the 
Merrimae, though the general level of the country would seem to 
ally it with the waters of the Saco or Cocheco valley. 

The lake is quite irregular in form. Its general course is from 
S. 25°-30** E., with several long bays or arms. On the south is 
Alton Bay, eight or ten miles long, which resembles a fiord more 
than any of the other arms. On the southeast is Wolfsboro Bay 
in close connection with Smith's Pond. On the northeast are two 
branches into Moultonboro. On the northwest is the expanse 
known as Meredith Bay. The western shore is comparatively 
straight from Meredith village to Alton Bay village. The hills 
about the lake are steeper than the average in other parts of the 
state. 

The length of the lake proper is nineteen miles. The breadth 
at the widest part is eight and one-fourth miles. The area of the 
water is sixty-nine square miles, five hundred and thirty-one acres 
and 3'03 square rods. If Long Bay, which is properly an expan- 
sion of the outlet, be added, the area becomes seventy-one square 
miles, five hundred and fifty-nine acres .and 43*56 square rods. 

The lake abounds in islands. Their number, large and small 
together, is two hundred and seventy-four. The height above 
mean tide-water is given by the best authorities at five hundred 
and one feet. The water is remarkably pure but shallow. No 
soundings have been made, but no part is likely to be over two 
^hundred feet deep. 

Commencing at the outlet, passing northerly around the hydro- 
graphic basin, the following may represent the altitudes of the 
rim above the lake. "We quickly reach a hill about two hundred 
and seventy-five feet, then descend a hundred feet and, with other 
irregularities, reach Wadleigh Hill, three hundred and sixty feet. 
At the north foot of "Wadleigh Hill lies Meredith village, which is 
also at the end of the northwest arm of the lake. The lowland con- 
tinues six or eight miles to the summit on B. C. and M. R. R. 
towards Ashland, one hundred fifty-three feet, passing over a body 
of water called formerly Measly Pond and latterly Waukewan 



B. KATURAL HI8T0BT. 121 

Lake. The hills on the west side of Wankewan rise four hundred 
feet or more above the main lake. 

Passing to Sandwich through Centre Harbor, the rim lies be- 
tween Lake Sqoam and the tributaries of Winnipiseogee. The 
lowest point in Centre Harbor is one hand red and sixty feet, in a 
depression about the centre of the township. Between Long Pond 
and Squam, the height cannot be more than about forty feet. The 
lowest point in the rim of the basin is here. Squam Lake is 
about one-third the size of Winnipiseogee, and flows into Little 
Squam Lake, and thence about three miles, through a narrow tort- 
uous valley with steep sides, to the Pemigewasset River at Ashland. 
Between Squam Lake and Ossipee Mountains the country is low, 
with a few small ponds lying in hollows of the drift. The lowest 
point I can find is in Sandwich, two hundred and nineteen feet, and 
scarcely any hill in the low country to the east, towards Saco 
River, will rise to four hundred feet above the lake. 

Passing south the Ossipee Mountains succeed, attaining an al- 
titude of at least fifteen hundred feet. To the south the two low- 
est points are at the crossing of the divide by the Wolfsboro branch 
railroad, say two hundred and fifty feet, and the ridge leading to 
Merrymeeting Lake, which is about the same. The steep hill east 
of Alton Bay is four hundred and forty-seven feet above the lake. 

The height of the divide between Alton Bay and the waters of the 
Cocheco River is only sef enty-two feet ; the west side of the Alton 
Bay valley is from seven hundred to eight hundred feet above the 
lake or six hundred and twenty-seven at the lowest point. Pass- 
ing northerly succeed the mountains of the Belknap range, the 
highest attaining an altitude of one thousand nine hundred and 
sixty-nine feet. About two miles south of the present outlet the 
divide must be only eighty feet above the lake. The highest point 
north of this valley before coming to the outlet is one hundred and 
twenty-one feet. 

I 

The prominent lowest points in the rim are therefore the fol- 
lowing : — 

Feet. 

Ashland ridge, 158 

Centre Harbor ridge to Sqnam, 160 

Squam Lake by Long Fond, 40 

Ridge to Saco waters, 219 

Ridge to Cocheco River, ....... 72 

Old outlet In Gilford, SO 



122 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

Hence a rise of the Winnipiseogee Lake forty feet would cause a 
flow into Squam Lake ; a rise of eighty feet would allow water to 
flow both into the Cocheco and what appears to be an old outlet 
through Gilford, towards Lake Village. A rise of one hundred 
and fifty-three feet would be required to make a direct connection 
with the Pemigewasset valley, the route via Squam Lake being 
very tortuous. 

The existing outlet is an interesting stream. It expands imme- 
diately after leaving the lake into Long Pond, being navigable for 
steam tugs, through the passage way. The dam of the Lake Com- 
pany at Lake Village prevents farther navigation, but in a mile or 
two it expands and sends off two bays, called Winnisquam Lake 
and Round Bay. There are two more expansions in Belmont, Til- 
ton and Northfield, called Sanbornton and Little Bays. The water 
then descends rapidly to the Pemigewasset at Franklin, the twg 
streams combined becoming the Merrimac. The total descent 
of the outlet for its fourteen miles' course is one hundred and 
seventy-three feet. It flows almost entirely over the hard pan or 
glacier drift deposits, and seems to have made no terraces above 
fifteen or twenty feet in altitude. No others exist above the west 
corner of Belmont, and those seem to have been formed in con- 
nection with the Pemigewasset. 

The striking feature of this lake border is the absence of ter- 
races. The banks are chiefly of glacial drift. The few terraces 
that may be seen are of limited rise. The following are the prin- 
cipal ones : — 



At Alton Bay two, 
West Alton two places, 
Several places in Gilford, 
Plain of Laconla, perhaps 
Meredith Village, 
Moultonboro, 
Wolfsboro, 
Centre Harbor Village, 



55 and 75 feet. 

75 and 100 feet. 

10, 81, 47 and 80 feet. 

10 to 12 feet. 

5, 15, 23 and 30 feet. 

75 feet. 

25 feet and more. 

8 to 10 feet. 



Periods in the History. We can trace no less than ten periods 
in the history of this lake basin. 

1. Period of the deposition of the Porphyritic Gneiss or Oran- 
ite. This is the oldest formation in the state. A range of it 
starts southerly from Waterville and proceeds southeasterly to 
Mt. Prospect in Holderness. Thence it courses more southerly, 



B. NATURA.L HISTORT. 123 

proceeding to New Hampton Centre Village. In this vicinity it is 
developed more perfectly than in any other part of the state. At 
this village it makes a sharp turn eastward to Meredith Village 
thence northeasterly nearly to Squam Lake in the extreme north- 
east part of Centre Harbor. It then makes another sharp turn 
down both sides of Meredith or Northwest Cove and appears also 
on the islands off Weirs, and the north part of Gilford. It now 
rapidly diminishes in width and is covered up, tliough appearing 
again in West Alton, and is last seen in the south part of Alton. 

2. Winnipiseogee Lake Gneiss Formation. This is a granitic 
gneiss filled with segregated veins and has not yet been observed 
away from the vicinity of the lake. It does not appear upon any 
mountains, nor in bluffs ; and has everywhere been greatly de- 
npded so that its ledges are inconspicuous. It joins the first 
named rock everywhere on the east and covers it in Alton. The 
strata are highly inclined and sometimes inverted. 

3. White Mountain Series, This rock is often characterized by 
the presence of andalusite. It crops out in Gilford and Alton and 
bounds the lake gneiss on the east where the junction is not ob- 
scured by overlying formations. 

4. The next great period may represent the time of the Eleva- 
tion and perhaps Metamorphosis of the three groups already enu- 
merated. We possess no decided evidence to show that these^ 
three groups are unconformable with one another. The presump- 
tion is that these groups belong to the Laurentian system ; they 
are certainly Eozolc. 

5. Eruption of the Granites of the Ossipee Mountains, In a 
paper presented last year, a description was given of the rocks 
among the White Mountains ; where it was stated that the upturned 
edges of the White Mountain series were covered first by a layer 
of coarse granite and then by a spotted granite. Both these vari- 
eties are found in the Ossipee Mountains, and in a similar strati- 
graphical position. 

6. Deposition of Felsites or Compact Feldspars. Enormous 
thicknesses of variously colored felsites cover the spotted granite 



124 



B. VATURAX HI6T0BT. 



of Osslpee and form the summits of the pile of mountains. None 
of the Ossipyte, a compound of labradorite and chrysolite, has yet 
been seen. These granites and felsites together constitute a great 
system of formations which I suppose are the equivalents of the 
Labrador system of Logan. He has not given the limits of his 
system, but I retain the name suggested by him, for the system of 
granites and compact feldspars developed so finely in New Hamp- 
shire. There is an extensive mass of granite in Wolfsboro and 
New Durham which may be connected with the Labrador system, 
but its relations have not yet been made out with certainty. 

7. Eruption of Sienite. The Belknap Mountains, certain peaks 
in Alton, Diamond Island and probably Rattlesnake Island in 
Winnipiseogee Lake, and Red Hill in Moultonboro and Sandwich, 
are composed of sienite of various textures, which seems to have 
been erupted after the deposition of the felsites. Its age is shown 
by the fact that it cuts the ossipyte in Waterville. 

8. Deposition of Mica schist. This formation is enormously 
developed in Strafford and Rockingham counties, touching the lake 
only at Alton Bay. It evidently covers all the formations thus far 
specified. 

This is the last of the solid rocks in this area. There succeeds 
an ejiormous interval of time of which we have no record in New 
Hampshire. The country must have been elevated so that no de- 
posits could be formed. The interval embraces the principal por- 
tion of the fossiliferous rocks. 



9. Olacier Period. The phenomena of this age about the lake 
are striae, embossed ledges, pot holes, beds of clay, bowlder drift, 
etc. 

The courses of the strise usually agree with the course of the 
valley; or from S. 25°-30° E. The following are compass courses 
of a number that I have measured. 



Ashland Village, 

Centre Hilrbor, commonly, 

Holderness, top Prospect Mt., 

New Hampton Village, 

New Hampton Centre, 

New Hampton, N. E. part, above clay bed, 

New Hampton, Harper's HiU, . 



S. S0« E. 
S. 80O E. 
S. 26<> B. 
S. 40<' £. 
S. 80*> E. 
S. 25* E. 
S. 40* E. 



B. NATUKAL HI9T0BT. 



125 



Line between N. Hampton and Meredith, 


8. 250 E. 


Hill N. W . from Meredith Village, . . . . 


S. 80<» B. 


<< (« li below sammit, ..... 


8. 26° E. 


East of Long Fond, N. Hampton, 


8. 260 E. 


Meredith Centre, 


S. 15*> E. 


Highest hill, Meredith Neck, 


8. 80° E. 


Advent church, M. Neck, 


8. 80° B. 


Line between Meredith and Centre Harbor, 


8. 28° E. 


Gilford, hill N.E. from Lake Village, 


8. 28° E. 


Gilford, north part, on lake, .... 


8. 26° E. 


*• N. E. part, 


8. 80° E. 


Alton Bay, ridge west, 


8. 80° E. 


Alton, east town line, 


8. 80° E. 


" farther west, . . . 


8. 26° E. 


New Durham, commonly, 


8. 80° E. 



The strise at the north and south ends of the hydrographic 
basin differ from those juatr enumerated. 

Down the valley of Baker*s River, Arom Warren through Wentworth to 
W. Kumney, south nearly. 

Rumney, varying slightly with valley, . . . 8. 40° E. 



Plymouth Village, 
Holderness, Shepard's Hill, 
Holdemess, 8quam Mountain, 
Sandwich, west part. 
Near Tuftonboro Comer, . 



8. 60° E. 

8. 60° E. 

8. 60° E. 

East. 

N. 80° E. 



These observations indicate that ioe moved down the valley of 
Baker's River in a southerly dii*ection, but when the course of the 
valley changed the ice went with it, and passed southeast, and 
finally easterly over Plymoutli, Squam Lake and to the north of 
Ossipee Mountains. After the ice had commenced moving east, 
erly it continued in that direction, passing out of the Pemigewas- 
set valley, and that even though it climbed the Squam Mountains. 
Facts are wanting to show whether the ice continued to move east- 
erly after passing the Ossipee Mountains. Unless these easterly 
courses were made in the decline of the ice period, a portion of it 
must have been deflected by the Ossipee Mountains so as to exca- 
vate the S. 30° £. groovings along the lake valley. 

We had supposed the ice continued in its southerly course after 
passing the lake basin, but a recent observation in Tuftonboro 
indicates that it turned again to the east passing up the water-shed 
between the lake and Ossipee River. It is possible this easterly 
course was induced by the blocking up of the direct path by the 



126 B. KATUBAL BISTORT. 

low summits of Cropplecrown, Moose Mountain, etc., about Mid- 
dleton. In that case part of the ice may have moved more east- 
erly and part more westerly, so as to correspond with the common 
diieclion of the strise in southern New Hampshire. 

Pot Hole. On Beach Hill, New Hampton, there is a pothole 
worn out of the rock,* about four feet deep and two feet in diam- 
eter, at an elevation of four hundred feet above the lake. It is 
not in the line of any river course. People in the neighborhood 
ascribe it to the handiwork of Indians. It seems to belong to that 
class of pot holes in New England, which were made by torrents 
of water, falling through crevasses in the ice of the glacier. Mj 
father ascribed them to the action of ancient river courses, poste- 
rior to the drift period, and therefore inferred an immense erosion 
of rock, sufficient to have removed the rims of the ancient valleys.* 
It seems to me much better to assume a different theory for their 
excavation, and then we can avoid the difficult conclusion involved 
in the other supposition. 

Clay Beds. The discovery of two beds of clay situated in the 
glacier drift in New Hampton and Lacouia presents a phase of 
glacial action never before mentioned, so far as I am informed. 
It is not the bowlder clay, but a finely stratified deposit without 
stones and covered over by earth containing striated bowlders. 
The first is at Weirs, a steamboat pier connecting with the Bos- 
ton, Concord and Montreal Railroad. It is about one hundred 
feet thick, with the base nearly at the level of the lake. It is 
stratified throughout, and no bowlders can be found in it, save 
what may have fallen from above. It is extensively excavated for 
the manufacture of bricks. Perhaps its area is oval in shape, 
forty rods in diameter. The bed in New Hampton is smaller, but 
more elevated, being five hundred and fifty-five feet above the lake 
or ten hundred and fifty-six above the ocean. It is four hundred 
feet above the ridge between Ashland and Meredith, and its 
drainage goes into the Pemigewasset. We pass four hundred and 
thirty-three feet below the base of the clay towards the river be- 
fore reaching any stratified sand, the area between being occupied 
by the unmodified glacial drift. The clay in New Hampton falls 
quickly into small angular pieces, when dug into, as if it had been 

•Geology of Vermont, vol. i, p. 218. 



B. NATUBAL HISTOBT. 127 

compressed laterally by ice. The strata slope five or six degrees 
toward the valley. The second area shows over one or two acres 
only, and the material is, as before, utilized for the manufacture 
of bricks. 

Were the first the only instance, it could be easily explained by 
supposing the outlet of the lake had been dammed up to the 
height of a hundred feet, and in the still water resulting clay had 
been deposited. Essentially this explanation, however, must be 
resorted to for both cases. The existence of ponds of water must 
be assumed in order to explain the deposition of clay. No natu- 
ral barriers now exist to form the pond on the New Hampton hill. 
The ice must have constituted the barrier, while still in slow mo- 
tion southeasterly. Either a deficiency in the material or a partial 
thawing of the ice may have left a hole which became filled with 
water. In both cases the hill rises considerably back of the clay. 
This would allow streams of water to flow down into the ponds, 
carrying fine particles, which settle to the bottom, and thus j^ro- 
duce clay. These clays are therefore accidental modified drift 
deposits, produced during the glacial period. Had the country 
been covered by icebergs during the glacial era, such beds ought 
to be common among our hills. 

10. The Terrace Period. There are no evidences to show a 
submergence of the lake area by the ocean, unless it be derived 
from the existence of fresh-water smelts, apparently of the same 
species with their compeers of the salt water. No attempt has 
yet been made to find any marine animals in this large body of 
water by dredging. The terraces seem to indicate several former 
levels of the lake. Assuming this to be true, we can believe that 
Lake Winnipiseogee stood successively 100, 80, 55, 30, 20, 15 and 
12 feet above its present level, but never any higher, or at least not 
long enough to allow sand to collect around the shores. Some 
of these terraces may be higher back among the jSelknap Moun- 
tains, but it is only the height of this river terrace at its junc- 
tion with the lake that indicates the former altitude of the water 
level. 

With the elevation of the water one hundred feet the river at 
the Alton outlet must have been eighteen feet higher than now so 
as to prevent the egress of water. The present outlet may 
have been entirely closed. This we can easily appreciate, since 



128 B. NATUBAL HISTOBT. 

the drift ridge has evidently been excavated by running water 
more than this amount, as is indicated by the steepness of the 
present banks. There may also have been a barrier in Gilford to 
the south of the present outlet. Granting the existence of barriers 
in those directions, the outlet must have been through SquamLake. 
Possibly there may have been a barrier across the Squam River 
also, where the valley is narrow, though all loose material is 
now removed f^om it. If so the outlet probably ran through 
Gilford. 

There is nothing to indicate the nature of these barriers other 
than has been specified. Considering the character of the period, 
it is likely that there was earth in Alton and ice in the Gilford and 
Squam rivers. When the barriers had sunk twenty feet more, 
egress would have been checked only in Gilford. We may sup- 
pose at this epoch that the principal outlet lay to the south to the 
Cocheco River. As the lake sank more and more there might 
have been terraces formed locally at various levels, as our figures 
seem to indicate. But the level must have sunk to less than forty 
feet before Squam Lake could have existed separate f^om Winni* 
piseogee, and the outlet ran through its present channel. If the 
drift ridge at the Weirs gradually sunk by erosion, we can under- 
stand how the several local terraces mentioned above have been 
formed. Shoald there be another falling of the level a new set of 
terraces would appear, just beneath the present shore line. 

The theory formerly prevalent respecting the origin of terraces 
supposes that the ocean was present to allow the gradual accumu- 
lation of sand and gravel beneath its retiring waves. The onlj 
objection to this view, proper to be mentioned at this stage of our 
paper, is that if terraces were made all the way up to one hundred 
feet there is no reason why others should not exist at twice and 
thrice that elevation. It is the absence of these higher terraces that 
led me to examine the surface geology of this region and to specu- 
late whether this fact would not lead to the abandonment of the 

oceanic theorv. 

%■' 

The true theory seems to be developed by studying the condition 
of the neighboring valley of the Pemigewasset and its connection 
with Winnipiseogee ; for we have already seen that forty feet 
rise in the latter would carry its waters into the former valley, no 
Squam Lake and River. 

The Pemigewasset and Merrimac rivers make an inclined plane 



B. KATURAL HI8T0KT. 129 

from the height of about five hundred feet (the same with the lake) 
at Plymouth to the ocean. The highest banks of sand of appar* 
ently fluviatile origin connected with the stream are the following. 
In most cases the measurements have been made with an aneroid 
barometer and may be regarded as approximations only to the 
truth. 

HEIGHTS OF TBHRACES ABOTB 



, " — ^ 



SIYBR. LAKE W. OCUAK. 

Plymonth 184 121 e23 

Ashland ? 154 121 622 

Hew Hampton ? 860 811 812 

N.SanborntOD 400 892 761 

FrBDl:lij) 140 30 below 470 

Concord 125 50 below 460 

Manchester 60 to 110 (f&lls) 250 below ^50 

Lawrence ' 80 

Connected with tbese are a few others of interest. 

Holdemess (tributary) 134 822 888 

Principal terrace east of Plymouth 134 61 563 

Height of rim between Squam and Winni- ) ^f. ... 

, piseogee ( *" °*^ 

Water-shed in Ashland ? 186 158 654' 

^Terraces in Belmont 170 150 650 

Perhaps the following generalizations may be drawn from these 
figures : 

1. The highest level of sand or terrace descends rapidly from 
Plymouth to the ocean and more rapidly than the river itself. 

2. The terraces near the ocean are not so much elevated above 
the river a» those higher up the stream. 

3. There is higher sand in New Hampton than in Plymouth and 
Holderness, farther north ; nevertheless a tributary in Holderness 
holds about the same height, but this of itself does not necessarily 
prove the presence of the Pemigewasset water at this level. The 
sand is also greater in amount as well as height. It will be also 
noticed that the New Hampton sand is one hundred and fifty-eight 
feet higher than the Ashland water-shed leading to the lake, while 
the Ashland sand is thirty-two feet lo.wer than this ridge. Why 
then should the sand have accumulated in New Hampton higher 
than this water-shed ? We should naturally expect the stream to 
have gone over to the lake and carried the sand with it. 

It seems clear that water must have gone to the lake through 
this Ashland-Meredith valley, for that is the direct course of 
the stream from north to south, and it may be that it carried sand 
also, since the terrace does not rise so high at Ashland as below. 
There is no detritus upon the lower side of the water-shed. The 
valley is entirely devoid of all loose materials. 

▲.A. A. 8. VOL. XXn. B. (9) 



130 B. NATURi.L HISTORY. 

Water at the height of eight hundred and twelve feet woold 
also flow into Winnipiseogee through Squam, but would cany no 
material with it, as the course is tortuous and northeasterly. 

Inspection of a map will show a great bend in the Pemigewasset 
just below Ashland. This may explain the unusual accumalstlon 
of sand in New Hampton ; for when a river passes around a bend 
there is always a deposition of sediment held in suspension. With 
a powerful stream filling the valley, coming down from the north, 
there would be an immense amount of sand which would be checked 
by this point of land and deposited. The most noticeable mass 
of sand in New Hampton is arranged much like a terminal moraine 
just as might be expected upon this view. 

4. The terraces upon Winnipiseogee River are quite different 
from an}' upon the Pemigewasset. Above Belmont they do not 
exceed fifteen feet in height. On the Mill Stream in the west cor- 
ner of Belmont the terraces are six hundred and fifty feet above the 
ocean and one hundred and seventy above the river and they are 
continuous hence on either side to the Merrimac valley, while 
the river almost uniformly flows over hard pan. 

These facts afford the inference that these high terraces in Bel- 
mont, Northfield and Sanborn ton, are made by the Pemigewasset 
back water and not by the Winnipiseogee. It would result •from 
this view that the outlet of the lake lay in some other direction 
at the time of the formation of these higher terraces and that a 
barrier kept back the river water from commingling with the lake. 
The terraces agree nearly in height with the Ashland-Meredith 
water-shed. If we suppose the waters of the Pemigewasset poured 
freely into the Winnipiseogee basin through the Squam, Ashland 
and the outlet avenues, at the height of one hundred and fifty or 
one hundred and seventy-five feet, we can understand why the 
main stream still went down the Merrimac, as the laud descended 
more rapidly in that direction. 

We conclude that the outlet made only small terraces, while 
the upper sands must be referred to the high water of the Pemi- 
gewasset. The connections through the several avenues would 
not be such as to carry detritus to the still water of the lake. 

5. In general, therefore, without pointing out further details, we 
may refer the origin of the Merrimac terraces to the action of 
the river alone without the necessary presence of the ocean. This 
conclusion agrees with the generalizations of Prof. J. D. Dana, 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 131 

respecting the origin of river terraces. The fluviatile origin of 
the Merrimac valley sands has been for many years a favorite 
topic of conversation with Hon. S. N. Bell of Manchester, N. H., 
elected to this Association in 1853. It was in consequence of 
suggestions from him that I was led to understand the proper 
source of the Merrimac sands, and to compare them with the 
scanty surface deposits about Winnipiseogee Lake: Mr. Bell also 
accompanied me in exploring the borders of the lake. 



Note upon the Cretaceous Strata op Long Island. By C. H. 
Hitchcock, of Hanover, N. H. 

Upon a geological map of the United States recently prepared 
by myself, with the cooperation of W. P. Blake for the western 
portion, and published in the third volume of the " Report of the 
Ninth Census," I have represented the north shore of Long 
Island as Cretaceous. *' The American Journal of Science and 
Arts'* in noticing this map (IH. Vol. vi, p. 66) recommends cer- 
tain improvements for future editions ; one of which is, " to take 
away the green color, which means Cretaceous, from the whole of 
the north side of Long Island, no facts making the region Creta- 



ceous." 



With attention thus pointedly drawn to the subject I have re- 
called the reasons for representing this portion as Cretaceous. 
Notwithstanding . the evidence is so probable in its favor, it is 
surprising to observe that mine is the first published map that 
colors this area correctly. It is represented either as Tertiary or 
alluvial upon the geological map of the " New York Geologists,'* 
1842, upon ray father's and Marcou's map of the United States, 
1853, upon H. D. Rogers' map, 1858, and upon Sir W. E. Logan's 
map of Canada and the adjacent portions of the United States, 
1868, the latter part having been prepared under the supervision of 
Prof. James Hall. 

W. W. Mather, in his report upon the Geology of the First 
District of New York, pp. 272, 273, states that what he has called 



132 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

" Long Island Division " must be Cretaceous. The following is 
his language : ^' It follows from these facts, that the lower part of 
the Long Island Division, embracing the white, mottled, red and 
pyritous ciajs, with their associated beds of gravel, conglom- 
erate and sand containing lignite, are geologically equivalent to 
the beds in New Jersey called by Prof. H. D. Rogers the ** Potter's 
clay formation," and to the lower division called by others the 
"greens and formation," "Ferruginous sand formation, Creta- 
ceous formation," etc. ; and that the overlying loams and clajs 
containing the green earth with associated sands, gravel, etc., are 
equivalent to the green marl deposit, or to the tertiary, or perhaps 
to both those periods." 

Prof. H. D. Rogers makes no reference to these rocks in his 
New Jersey Report. Nor does Prof. G. H. Cook, the present 
State Geologist, though he favored me with a letter affirming his 
belief in the Cretaceous age of this formation. An inspection 
of his map shows this division, called " Plastic clays," coursing 
from Wilmington, Del., to the vicinity of Philadelphia and Tren- 
ton, and thence direct to Staten Island. The strike prolonged a 
short distance impinges upon the west end of the Long Island 
Division. Hence fVom geographical distribution we should expect 
to find this Plastic clay prolonged into Long Island. 

Furthermore, both the Plastic clay and the Long Island Divi- 
sion contain much lignite, and are fresh water accumulations, 
while the Tertiaries are of marine origin. This feature will sep- 
arate the rocks under consideration from everything else. 

I have information that E. Lewis, Jr., of Brooklyn, L. I., has 
recently discovered Cretaceous fossils in this group ; which will 
soon be described in the Popular Science Monthly. Dr. Newberry 
has also discovered Cretaceous plants upon the island. I may add 
that I delivered a lecture^ in the winter of 1869, before the Long 
Island Historical Society upon the " Geological History of Long 
Island," in which the Cretaceous age of this clay and sand deposit 
was affirmed to be as stated above. The essential facts of this 
lecture were stated also before the Lyceum of Natural History in 
New York, the same week. 

Note.— While this paper Is passing through the press, I observe that Prof. Dana hat 
modified the statement quoted above in the October namber of the Journal, to the effect 
that the Beport of Prof. Mather affords a sufficient reason for the representation of tM 
Cretaceous upon Long Island. 



B. VATOBJlL histobt. 183 

ARTIFICIAL Shell Heaps op Fresh-water Mollusks. By C. A. 
White, of Branswick, Me. 

The characters of the Kjoekkenmoedding or shell ^eaps of 
marine coasts, both of Europe and America, arc too well known 
to need explanation in this connection, but the fact that similar 
accnmulations are common upon the banks of the interior rivers of 
the United States is not so well known. It is true, however, that 
Atwater, Brinton and Wyman have at diflTerent times published 
notices of artificial accumulations of the shells of fresh-water mol- 
lusks. Although Professor Wyman's observations were made with 
his usual great accuracy and care, the accumulations he described 
were so near the sea-coast (in Massachusetts and Florida) that 
the report he gave of them did not seem to attract that distinctive 
attention which they merited. Consequently it was then hardly 
suspected that the former aborigines of North America made 
habitual use of fresh- water mollusks for food. 

Observations made by the writer, during the five years just 
passed, along the Mississippi and its tributaries, in the states of 
Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Missouri and Indiana, establish a knowl- 
edge of the fact that shell heaps of the kind referred to are very 
common ; and that the mollusks, whose shells are thus accumulated, 
belong almost wholly to the family Naiades and mainly to the 
numerous species of Unio prevalent in those waters. 

In general character these fresh-water shell heaps resemble 
those of marine coasts but they are usually not so extensive. 
They vary in extent from a few bushels of shells to accumulations 
from fifty to a hundred yards long, four or five yards broad and 
from a few inches to a yard or two in thickness. Thej^ are usually 
located upon the immediate bank of the river, sometimes a little 
below and sometimes above the reach of the highest floods. 

Although many of these heaps have been examined so far as to 
determine their real character, only a few of therii have been exam- 
ined with care. 

The three most interesting of these were found near the villages 
of Keosauqua, Sabula and Bellevue, Iowa ; the first upon the 
bank of Des Moines River and' the other two upon that of the 
Mississippi. 

At the first named locality the shell heap rests upon the ordi- 
nan^ alluvial soil of the river bank and consists of shells of 



134 B. NATURAL HISTORT. 

about a dozen species of Unio intermixed with silt derived 
from the water of the river at the time of its high floods, which 
at intervals of a greater or" less number of years are known to 
cover the spot. All the species of mollusks found in the heap 
are now living in the river close by, just as they were living, 
without doubt, when the heap was formed. As they could be 
obtained only at the time of low water it was not necessary to 
carry them to higher ground. 

Upon digging into the heap, pieces of limestone from the cliff 
near by were found laid together, with evident traces of fire upon 
them and with charcoal and fragments of rude pottery scattered 
about them. Sharp flint flakes, flint an*owheads and one green- 
stone axe were also found in* the heap. 

The pottery was rudely ornamented by irregular and interrupted 
parallel lines made while the clay was soft, by some pointed instru- 
ment and by having been also impressed at different places 'by 
twisted strings. It is composed of coarse commdn clay intermixed 
with some sand and slightly burnt. 

The bones of the common deer ( Cervus Virginiana) and snapping 
turtle {Chelydra serpentina) were also found intermixed with the 
shells. The long bones of the deer were all broken and split in 
the usual manner, doubtless for the purpose of obtaining the mar- 
row. 

At Sabula ten species of Unio were recognized in the heaps, 
together with bones of the common deer, wild goose {Bemicla 
Canadensis)^ snapping turtle, soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx ferox)^ 
cat-fish (Pivielodus)^ sheep's-head (Atnblodon gninniens) and a few 
other undetermined fragments. 

Fragments of the usual coarse pottery were also found in the 
heaps here, the clay of which was intermixed with comminuted 
shells. One piece of it was ornamented by a spiral groove of 
several coils, making a figure of oval outline. The same species 
of Unio, and in about the same proportionate numbers as are found 
in the heaps, ma}^ now be obtained living from the river close by. 
The deer is still occasionally found near there, and the ponds and 
bayous still afford the same species of aquatic birds, reptiles and 
fishes, the remains of which are found in the heaps. 

At Bellevue eleven species of Unio and one of Alasmodonta 
were recognized in the heaps, all of which still live in the adjacent 
waters of the Mississippi, In these heaps were also found flint 



B. KATUBAL BISTORT. 135 

arrowheads, pieces of pottery the clay of which had been mixed 
with comminuted shells, and also bones of the deer and buffalo {Bos 
Americanus). 

The shell heaps both at Sabula and Bellevue are smaller than 
many others, but they afford some peculiarly interesting charac- 
teristics. These consist in traces of rude methods of cooking the 
unios and other articles of food, practised by those who accumu- 
lated the shell heaps. 

In the argillaceous soil upon the banks of the river numerous 
small pits were dug, about half a yard wide and of like depth. 
These are now found closely filled with shells among which are 
fragments of the bones of such animals as were also used for food. 
The sides and bottom of the pits, as well as some of the shells 
and bones they contain, show traces .of fire and pieces of charcoal 
were also found in some of them. The earth had evidently been 
heated by building a fire in the pits, the mollusks and other food 
then placed in them, then covered and the contents allowed to 
cook by the retained heat. The fragments of pottery found indi- 
cate that their vessels were of small size, and they were, in conse- 
quence probably driven to this and other rude methods of cookery. 
Such a method of cooking must have been very imperfect, and we 
find that the two valves of many of the unios found in the 
pits still remain together, the mollusks having never been eaten, 
indicating that the cooking was insufficient or that the supply of 
such food was too abundant to require economy. 

All the species of vertebrates, the remains of which are found 
in the fresh-water shell heaps, are occasionally or habitually used 
as food by civilized man, but not so with the fresh- water mollusks. 
The latter were, however, the chosen food of the people who accu- 
mulated the heaps. This is' evident from the fact, that they are 
not obtainable at the time of greatest scarcity of food for savage 
men, namely, in winter and early spring, but on the contrary 
they are more easil}*^ obtained at times when other food is j^lentiful. 
That other excellent food was obtained and eaten with the mol- 
lusks is proven by the presence of its remains, as stated, in the 
shell heaps. Those who accumulated the heaps seem to have had 
little or no choice among the difierent species of Uuio, since their 
relative abundance is about the same in the heaps and in the adja- 
cent waters, where they are now living. In short they seem to 
have eaten all mollusks indiscriminately, the few gasteropod shells 



186 



B. NATURiX HISTOBT. 



(Melantho) found in the heaps being in about the same rektiye 
abundance with those now living. No pipes nor fragments of 
any have been found in any of the heaps. 

The following table shows the species of moUusks and other 
animals, the remains of which were found in the heaps and pits at 
Eeosauqua, Sabula and Bellevue. 

Species Found in the Shell Heaps of Keosauqua, 

Sabula and Bellkvue. 



Sfecibs. 


Keosauqua. 


Sabula. 


Bkllktub. 


MdmmeUs, 


Bos Americanns, 






• 




Cerrus Yirginianus, 


* 




• 


Birds. 


Bernicla Canadensis, .... 








BepiUes, 


Chelydra serpentina, .... 


• 






Trionyx ferox, 








Fiihes. 


Pimelodiis sp., ....... 








Amblodon ginnniens, .... 










Melantho (Paladina) Integra, 5ay, 


• 




• 




Unio aesopus, <7reen, .... 


* 








*'■ anodontoides, Xea, . . . 


« 




• 




** crassus, Say; 


* 




• 




'* ebenus, Leoy 






• 




" gibbosos, Barnes, , . . 






• 




** nodosus, Barnes, . . . 


* 




• 


MoOuiki. , 


** oratns, .Say, 


* 




• 




" pllcatnfl, Sapy 


* 




• 


• 


** pastalosns, Lett, .... 
*' rectos, Lamarkf .... 


* 
« 




• 




" mgosus, Barnes, .... 


«. 




• 




" tnberculatus, Barnes, . . 


* 








<< nndatns, Barnes, .... 


* 




• 




« yentricosus, JBam««, . . 


« 




• 



The important question now arises, By what people were these 
shell heaps accumulated and what is their age ? Those of the 
interior are doubtless contemporaneous with those of the coast 
and all contained in, or connected with, both indicates that they 
were formed by people no farther advanced in civilization than 
those were who accumulated the Kjoekkenmoeddings in Europe, 
which are usaally referred to the Stone age. TVe know also that 
this was the real condition of the greater part of the savage tribes 
of North America at the time of its discovery by Columbus. 
Especially was that the condition of the tribes that occupied the 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 137 

region in which the shell heaps referred to in this memoir are 
found, as well as of those that then occupied the Atlantic coast. 
Therefore there can be little doubt that the greater part, if not the 
whole of the shell heaps of those regions, were formed by the peo- 
ple of the tribes referred to and their descendants, even down to 
the occupancy of the land by white people. It is true that the 
mounds of the probably more ancient '* mound builders" are often 
found in considerable numbers in the immediate vicinity of the 
shell heaps of the interior, and it is probable that that people may 
have commenced some of these accumulations, but we have thus far 
no evidence of it. No copper, nor other metal, has been found in 
connection with the shell heaps, nor anything else that suggests 
their origin by people different from those who occupied the coun- 
try at the time of the discovery by Columbus. 

From the fact that the more savage people change so little as 
regards their habits of life, very little evidence of the lapse of 
time can be gathered from the remains of their rude arts. There- 
fore it is difficult to form a definite opinion in regard to the age of 
these American heaps. The entire absence of all articles of civil- . 
ized manufacture, even those that savages most eagerly secure, 
seems to be very good evidence, however, that they are older 
than the date of the discovery. At Bellevue, Sabula and the 
Lower Rapids of the Mississippi also, oak and elm trees from 
two to two and a half feet in diameter were found growing in the 
soil that had accumulated upon the shell heaps. By counting the 
rings of annual growth of the tre^s, the age of the heaps upon 
which they grow is estimated to be not less than two hundred years. 
The condition of the shells in different heaps varied very much 
according as the soil covering them was clayey or sandy, the pres- 
ervation being better in the former. No evidence has been obtained 
that any perceptible geological change has taken place since the 
accumulation of the fresh- water shell heaps began, except the usual 
washing away of the river banks such as sometimes takes place 
within a very few years. 

The habitats, also, of the moliusks and other animals whose 
remains are found in the heaps, except such as has resulted from 
the occupation of the country by white men, remains unchanged. 
Therefore the conclusion as to their age is, that while some of 
the heaps may be, and probably are, very ancient, there has yet 
been no evidence obtained to prove them more than a few hundred 
years old. 



138 b. natural uistort. 

On the Geological Relations of the Iron Ores op Nova 
Scotia, By J. W. Dawson, of Montreal, Canada. 

The iron ores of Nova Scotia, long neglected, have recently 
begun to attract the attention of capitalists to an extent in some 
degree commensarate with their importance. The magnitude and 
variety of the deposits, the great richness of the ores, their prox- 
imity to the Atlantic and to great deposits of coal, are all features 
which give them very great economic value, and must eventually 
cause them to take no small part in contributing to the iron 
supply of the world. My purpose in the present paper is, with 
the aid of recent researches in which I have been occupied, to give 
a concise summary of the geological position and mode of occur- 
rence of the principal deposits, and more especially of those facts 
which have been developed since the publication of my "Acadian 
Geology." 

If we arrange these deposits in the first place under the two 
heads of Beds conformable to the stratification and Veins^ we 
shall find that the former occupy three distinct geological horizons 
— that of the Lower Helderberg or Ludlow in the upper part of 
the Silurian, that of the Oriskany at the base of the Devonian, 
and that of the Lower and Middle Carboniferous. The latter 
occur in altered rocks, which may be assumed to be of Silurian 
age, in the Lower Carboniferous, and at the junction of these two 
groups of rocks. We may shortly consider the deposits of these 
several kinds and ages in their order. 

I. Bedded Okes. 

(1) Great Hematite Bed of the Lower Helderberg Series. This, 
in so far as at present known, is most extensively developed in 
the vicinity of the east branch of the East River of Pictou, and 
on the upper part of Sutherland's River. Here the rocks which 
rise unconformably from beneath the Carboniferous beds of the 
Pictou coal-field consist, in great part, of gray and olive slates, 
usually coarse and unevenly bedded, and with occasional calca- 
reous bands, holding the characteristic fossils of the "Arisaig 
group," a series in Nova Scotia equivalent to the Lower Helder- 
berg of American geologists, though in its specific forms more 
nearly allied to the English Ludlow than to groups of this age on 
the great inland plateau of America. These beds are affected with 



B. NATUKAL HISTORY. 189 

slaty cleavages, highly inclined, much faulted, and folded in 
abrupt anticlinals, so that their detailed arrangement has not yet 
been satisfactorily traced. The great ore-band, which forms one 
of the most conspicuous marks for unravelling their complexities, 
has. been traced mainly along two distinct lines of outcrop, both 
somewhat curved and broken, seeming to lie on the opposite sides 
of ad anticlinal axis. It has also been recognized in two other 
localities where it must come up on distinct lines of outcrop, the 
precise relation of which to the others has not yet been ascertained. 

The ore bed is accompanied by a thick band of olivaceous slates, 
and beneath this there appears hard ferruginous quartzite which 
Dr. Honeyman compares to the Medina sandstone. Lower than 
this and possibly unconformable to it are black and greenish slates 
with bands of quartzite and soft chloritic and nacreous schists 
which as yet have afforded no fossils. They are associated with 
hard beds or masses of rock rising into some of the highest emi- 
nences, and which have usually been described as trap, but which 
seem to consist for the most paH of an indurated slaty breccia or 
conglomerate,' corresponding very nearly in character to the typi- 
cal graywacke of the older German geologists. These rocks may 
be of middle Silurian age, though possibly in part older, and we 
shall meet with them again in connection with the great vein of 
specular iron. 

The ore bed, where most largely developed, attains a thickness 
of about thirty feet, an4 in places where it has been opened up 
by exploratory works, it has been found to afford from ten to 
twenty feet in thickness of goo;l ore. This ore is a red hematite, 
sometimes compact and laminated, but more frequently of an 
oolitic character occasioned by the arrangement of the peroxide of 
iron in minute concretions enveloping grains of sand. By the 
increase of these siliceous grains it passes, in the poorer portions, 
into a sort of ferruginous sandstone. Similar beds of fossiliferous 
ore are well known to occur in the Clinton group of New York 
and Pennsylvania, and Prof. Hall informs me that they are found 
also in the Lower Helderberg series of New York. 

Along the different lines of outcrop above referred to, this bed 
has been traced for several miles, and being of a hard and resist- 
ing character, it rises into some of the higher elevations of the 
country. Though not one of the richest ores of the district, its 
great quantity and accessibility render it highly important for 



140 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

practical purposes. The anal3'^8e8 made of it show a percentage 
pf metal varying ft-om 43 to 54 per cent. The foreign matter is 
principally silica, and the proportions of phosphorus and sulphur 
are small — one of the specimens analyzed affording none whatever, 
another '22 phosphoric acid and '29 sulphur. These analj-^a 
were made at the instance of Mr. E. A. Prentice, now organizing 
a company to work this and other deposits in the district. The 
principal exposures of this bed are distant only twelve miles from 
the great collieries of the East River of Pictou, and less than ten 
miles from the Pictou and Halifax railway. This deposit was 
first described by Mr. R. Brown, in Haliburton's History of "Nova 
Scotia," 1829, and subsequently by the wi'iter in "Acadian Geol- 
ogy." More recently exploratory works have been carried on and 
a practical report made by Mr. G. M. Dawson, Associate of the 
School of Mines, London ; and the bed has been traced and col- 
lections of its fossils made by Mr. D. Frazer of Springville. 

(2) Hematite and Magnetic Iron of Nictaux and Moose River, 
This deposit takes us to the other extremity of Nova Scotia, and 
brings us a stage higher in geological time, or to the period of the 
Oriskany Sandstone. It would indeed appear that the conditions 
of ore deposit, so marked in eastern Nova Scotia in the upper Si- 
lurian, were continued in the western part of the province into the 
Devonian. In many specimens of the Nictaux ore the chief ap- 
parent difference as compared with that of Pictou is in the con- 
tained species of fossils. 

Where I have examined this bed, it appears to be six feet thick 
and enclosed in slaty rocks not dissimilar from those associated 
with the Silurian ore of Pictou. Recent explorations at Nictaux 
are said to have developed extensions of this deposit ; but I have 
no details of them. As rocks of the Arisaig group are known to 
underlie the Nictaux beds, it is not impossible that additional 
beds of ore may be found in these. The normal condition of the 
iron of the Nictaux bed is that of peroxide ; but locally it has 
lost a portion of its ox^'gen and has become magnetic. This I 
believe to be a consequence of local metamorphism connected 
with the immense granite dikes which traverse the Devonian rocks 
of this region. 

The Nictaux ore is more highly fossiliferous than tliat of Pictou, 
and contains a larger proportion of phosphate of lime. In the 



B. NATUBAL HISTORY. 141 

attempts hitherto made to work this ore, the distance from coal 
has been a main disadvantage, but the construction of the 
Windsor and Annapolis railway has diminished this. The Devo- 
nian beds holding this bed are described in "Acadian Geology." 
An analysis of a specimen made many years ago gave 55 per cent, 
of Iron. 

(3) Bedded Ores of the Carboniferous System. The most re- 
markable of these is a bed of crystalline spathic iron or siderit^, oc- 
curring in the Lower Carboniferous series, near Sutherland's River 
in the County of Pictou. As described by Mr. G. M. Dawson, who 
prosecuted works of exploration in it last year, it is a conformable 
bed, occurring in the Lower Carboniferous red sandstones, and 
varying from six feet six inches to ten feet six inches in thickness. 
It is accompanied with smaller bands of the same mineral, and at 
no great vertical distance from it is a bed of gypsum. Its mode 
of occurrence is on the whole not dissimilar from that of the non- 
fossiliferous sub-crystalline limestones which occur in some parts 
of the Lower Carboniferous series associated with the gypsum. 
This ore is a true spathic iron, granular and crystalline in texture, 
and, when unweathered, of a light gray color. It affords from 42 
to 43 per cent, of iron and contains from two to eight per cent, of 
manganese. This bed is only four miles distant from the "Vale" 
collierv, and is intended to be worked in association with the 
hematite already described, and with the other ores on the East 
River of Pictou possessed by the same proprietors. From the 
Report of Mr. Andrews on the second geological district of Ohio, 
it would appear that similar beds, though on a smaller scale, occur 
in the Lower Carboniferous series of that State. In Nova Scotia 
this bed is at present altogether unique. 

Clay ironstones occur in many parts of the Nova Scotia coal- 
field. In the workings of the main seam of the Albion mines, 
Pictou, considerable quantities of nodular black ironstone are ex- 
tracted, and will, no doubt, be utilized. In the beds under the 
main seam there are also clays rich in ironstone concretions. 
Beds with ironstone balls also occur in the measures north of the 
New Glascow conglomerate, and one of these is remarkable for 
the fact that the nodules were found by Dr. Harrington to contain 
nuclei of blende, a mineral otherwise unknown in the carbonife- 
rous of Nova Scotia. No attention has yet been given to these 



142 B. KA.TURAL HISTORY. 

ores as sources of iron, but it may be anticipated that a demand 
for them will arise in connection with the richer ores in the older 
formations. 

II. Veins of Iron Ork. 

(1) Great Specular Iron Veins of the Silurian Slates and Quart- 
zites. In a paper on the metamorphic and metalliferous rocks of 
eastern Nova Scotia in 1848,* I mentioned the fact that the in- 
land series of metamorphic rocks (bounding the coast series now 
known as the gold-bearing series) believed to be of Upper or 
Middle Silurian age, abound in veins of specular iron, associated 
with spathic iron and ferruginous dolomite, and occasionally with 
metallic sulphides, and I described some of these deposits. In 
the country eastward of Lochaber Lake, where this same forma- 
tion occurs, not only are numerous small veins of specular iron 
and carbonate of iron found in it, but a rich vein of copper pyrites, 
noticed in *' Acadian Geolog}-," has recently been opened up and 
found to be very valuable. 

In most parts of the region these iron veins, tjiough very nu- 
merous, are of trifling thickness : but in two localities they are 
known to attain to gigantic dimensions, rendering them of great 
economic importance. 

The earliest known of these was the great vein of the Acadia 
mine in the Cobequid mountains, discovered by the late Mr. G. 
Duncan, and on which I reported in 1845.. Ttiese hills consist on 
their southern side of parallel bands of olive and black slate with 
beds of quartzite, all very highly inclined- The iron vein is a 
great irregular fissure, extending for many miles pai'allel to the 
bedding, and apparently accompanying a band of quartzite. It 
contains in addition to crystalline and often micaceous 8i)ecular 
iron and magnetic iron, large quantities of a rich earthy red ore, 
which, from the crystalline planes which it presents, would seem 
to have been a carbonate of iron decomposed and oxidized. 
These iron ores are associated with large quantities of a crystal- 
line ferruginous dolomite, allied in composition to ankerite. This 
may be regarded as the veinstone to which the iron ores are sub- 
ordinate, and which in the thinner parts of the vein occupies 
nearly its whole breadth. At the outcrop of the vein it is in some 

♦ Journal of Geologioal Society of London. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 143 

places weathered to a great depth into a soft and very pure yellow 
ochre. Small quantities of sulphides of iron and copper and of 
sulphate of barium are occasionally present. In addition to the 
above, which may be regarded as the primary contents of the vein, 
there occur in some parts of it secondary deposits of concretionary 
limonite, which have of late years afforded a very largo part of 
the ore smelted by the Acadia Company. 

In some places the thickness of this vein has been found to be 
150 feet, with intercalated masses of rock, but it is very irregular, 
diminishing occasionally to mere strings of ankerite. It is re- 
markable that in the Cobequid mountains, which are cut by 
transverse ravines to the depth of about 300 feet, the vein does 
not appear to be well developed in the bottom of the ravines, but 
only in the intervening heights. At first I was disposed to ac- 
count for this by supposing that the deposit is wedge-shaped, 
diminishing downward ; but I have more recently been inclined 
to believe that the large development of the vein is dependent on 
differences in tlie containing rocks which have rendered them 
harder and more resisting at the points of such greater develop- 
ments. 

With respect to the age of these beds, they must be older than 
the Lower Helderberg rocks which, both at the eastern end of 
the Cobequids and at the East River of Pictou, rest upon them. 
They are on the other hand probably newer than the auriferous 
primordial rocks of the Atlantic coast. As they have afforded no 
fossils their age does not at present seem capable of more precise 
definition. With regard to the filling of the vein fissures, this, 
if coeval with the metamorphism of the containing beds or im- 
mediately subsequent thereto, would fall between the period of 
the lower Devonian and that of the lower Carboniferous, or within 
the Devonian age. The denudation connected with the Lower 
Carboniferous conglomerates and the fragments contained in these 
conglomerates, seem to imply that the ore-bearing slates were then 
in the same condition as at present. On the other hand the Lower 
Carboniferous sandstones themselves contain in places narrow 
veins of specular iron, which also occurs, as well as magnetic iron, 
in the fissures of the Triassic trap. 

On the west side of the East River of Pictou, there occur rocks 
precisely similar to those of the Cobequid range, of which indeed 
they may be regarded as an eastern continuation, and including 



144 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 



an iron vein which mnst be regarded as the equivalent of that of 
the Acadia mine, which it resembles perfectly in mineral character 
and mode of occurrence, differing only in the greater proportionate 
prevalence of the specular ore.*' 

In New Lairg, a few miles from Glengarry Station, the moat 
western portion of this vein known to me contains much ankerite, 
with strings of specular iron'; and in large loose pieces there are 
indications also of red ore which is not visible in place. Farther 
to the eastward on the west branch of the East River of Pictou, 
there appears a band of quartzite thirty feet thick filled with veins 
of Limonite ; but specular ore is not found at this place. Still 
farther to the eastward and near the east branch of the East River 
the specular vein attains a very large development, showing in 
some places a thickness of twenty feet of pure ore. Its course is 
S. 60° to 70° E. or neai-ly coincident with that of the containing 
beds ; and, as on the Cobequids, its attitude is nearly vertical and 
it appears to be thickest and richest in the rising grounds. In one 
very deep ravine the bed of quartzite usually associated with the 
ore seemed to be wanting, and the vein was represented by innu- 
merable strings of ankerite, forming a network in the slate. As 
in the Cobequid vein, masses of magnetic ore are occasionally 
mixed with the specular. To complete the resemblance, loJbse 
masses of limonite are found in the vicinit}"^ of the vein, giving 
rise to the expectation that a vein or veins of this mineral may be 
found to be .associated with the specular ore. The ores of this 
vein in Pictou county are nearly pure peroxide of iron, containing 
from sixty-four to sixty-nine per cent, of metal, and can be ob- 
tained an great quantity from the outcrop of the vein where it 
appears on the rising grounds. 




Ideal Section^ ahowing the general relations of the Iron Ores of the East Rwtr of Pictou. 

1. Groat bed of Red ilcmntite. 

3. Vein of Specular Iron. 

8. Vein of Limonite. 

(a) Older Slate and Qnartzite series, with Trap, etc. 
(6) Lower Helderberg formation and otlier Upper Silnrian rocks, 
(c) Lower Carboniferous of the East Branch of East River. 

*Thi8 vein was first described by the li^e Mr. Hartley in the Report of the Geo> 
logical Survey of Canada, 1871. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 145 

(2) Limonite veins of the East River of Pictou. The valley of 
the East River of Pictou above Springville is occupied by a nar- 
row tongue of Lower Carboniferous rocks, having at one side the 
slates containing the ore last mentioned, and on the other a more 
disturbed country already referred to as containing the great Lower 
Helderberg bed of hematite. It is highly probable that the river 
valley follows the line of an old pre-carboniferous line of fracture, 
denuded and partially filled with the Lower Carboniferous beds, 
including large deposits of limestone and gypsum. At the line of 
junction of the carboniferous and older rocks on the east side of the 
river, occurs the great limonite vein of the district, forming a vein 
of contact of exceeding richness and value. It follows the sinuosi- 
ties of the margin of the older rocks, and varies in thickness and 
quality in different places, apparently richest opposite the softer 
slates where these are in contact with a black manganesian lime- 
stone, which here as in many other parts of Nova Scotia forms 
one of the lowe'st members of the Carboniferous series. The ore is 
sometimes, massive but oftener in fibrous concretionary balls of 
large size, associated with quantities of smaller concretionary or 
"gravel"' ore. In some places the ore of iron is associated with 
concretions or crystalline masses of pyrolusitc and manganite. 

Denuding agencies in the post-pliocene period have removed 

« 

portions of the vein and its wells, and have deeply covered the 
surface in many places with debris. Hence the outcrop of the 
rein was originally marked by a line of masses of the ore too 
heavy to be removed by water. From the analogy of the other 
veins to be mentioned in the sequel I was led to believe that the 
source of these masses would be found in the Lower Carboniferous 
rocks, and so stated the matter in the first edition of "Acadian 
Geology" (1855). Subsequently, however, the vein having been 
exposed in sitUy and one wall proving to consist of metamorphic 
slate, it was described by Dr. Honej^man and by Mr. Hartley of 
the Geological Survey as,a vein in the Silurian rocks. Still more 
recently exploratory works conducted by Mr. G. M. Dawson, with 
the aid of Mr. D. Fraser, have clearly proved that the vein follows 
the junction of the two formations. The ore of this vein is of the 
finest quality, affording from sixty-two to sixty-five per cent, of 
metallic iron. The more productive portions of this vein, as well 
as of the specular vein in its vicinity, are in the hands of the par- 
ties alrea<1y referred to, in connection with the hematite bed. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXn. B. (10) 



146 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

(3) Limonite of Shuhenacadie^ Old Bams and Brool^dd, At 
the mouth of the Shubcnacadie River, the lowest Carboniferoas 
bed seen is a dark-colored lapainated limestone, in all prob- 
ability the equivalent of the manganesian limestone already 
referred to, as well as of the manganiferous limestone of Walton, 
the plumbiferous limestone of the Stewiacke, and the lower black 
limestone of Plaister Cove, Cape Breton.* This limestone, and 
the sandstones and marls overlying it, are traversed by large fis- 
sure veins, holding a confused aggregation of iron ores and other 
minerals, as limonite, hematite, gothite, sulphate of barium, cal- 
cite, etc., some of which appear sufficiently large and rich for 
profitable exploration. In the same formations, farther to the 
eastward, at Old Bams, similar veins are found to be largely de- 
veloped, and at Brookfield, fifty miles east of the Shubenacadie, 
and apparently near the junction of the Lower Cai'boniferous with 
older rocks, large surface masses of limonite appear to indicate an 
extensive deposit of similar nature, but which has' not, I believe, 
been yet so far opened up as to establish its practical importance. 

(4) Iron Veins of the Triassic Trap. Veins of magnetite and 
specular iron occur in several localities in the great beds of trap 
associated with the Triassic red sandstones of the Bay of Fandy^ 
but so far as known these ores are insignificant in quantity. 

It will be observed from the above notes, that while the iron 
vein of the Cobequid hills is at no great distance from the coal- 
field of Cumberland, with which it has now railway connection, 
the still larger and more important deposits of Pictou are very 
near to the extensive collieries of that district, and to railway and 
water communication, so that every facility appears to exist for 
their profitable exploration, and it may be anticipated that they 
will soon be rendered available for the supply of iron of superior 
quality, more especially to meet the large and increasing demand 
of the Dominion of Canada. 

* See Acadian Geology. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 147 



The Proximate Future op Niagara ; in Review of Prof. Tyn- 
dall's Lecture thereon. By George W. Hollet, of 
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

The distinguished scientist whose writings have charmed so 
many readers, and whose instructive and brilliantly illustrated lec- 
tures, during the last winter, charmed so many listeners — Prof. 
John Tyndall — in the closing paragraph of a lecture on Niagara, 
delivered before the Royal Institute after his return to England) 
speaks of the future of Niagara in these words: ''In conclusion 
we may say a word regarding the proximate future of Niagara. 
At the rate of excavation assigned to it by Sir Charles Lyell, 
namely, a foot a year, five thousand years will carry the Horse- 
shoe Fall far higher than Goat Island. As the gorge recedes 

• * * it will totally drain the American branch of the river, 
the channel of which will in due time become cultivatable land. 

• * * To those who visit Niagara five millenniums hence I 
leave the verification of this prediction." 

With these words for a text it is proposed to remark upon some 
points in the lecture which, as printed in the June number of the 
"Popular Science Monthly," contains thirty-nine paragraphs, 
taking them in reverse order, or from the end to the beginning. 

Let us first inquire how Sir Charles Lycll arrived at the con- 
clusion that the rate of excavation was a foot a year. In his 
" Travels in the United States," in 1841-2, vol. i, page 27, he 
says : — 

"Mr. Bakewell calculated that, in the forty years preceding 
1830, the Niagara had been going back at the rate of about a 
yard annually, but I conceive that one foot per year would be a 
much more probable conjecture" 

Thus we discover that the rate suggested was the result of a 
conjecture founded on a guess. From certain oral and written 
statements which the writer has been able to collect, he has, as 
elsewhere recorded,* made an estimate of the time required to 
excavate the present chasm-channel from Lewiston upward. In 
the last hundred and seventy-five years, certain masses of rock 
have been known to fall from the water-covered surface of the 

• In a work quoted by Prof. TyndaU entitied ** Niagara, its History and Geology, 
iBctdeDts and Poetry." 



148 B. NATURAL HISTOBT, 

cataract, and a Btatement as to the surface measure of each mass 
was made. In using these data it is supposed that each break 
extended to the bottom of the precipice, although the whole maas 
did not fall at once. Of course the substructure must have been 
worn out before the superstructure could have gone down. Fa- 
ther Hennepin, in his well known description of the locality as 
he saw it in 1678-80, says, "One may go down (on the Canada 
side) so far as the bottom of this terrible gulph. The Author of 
this discovery was down there the more narrowly to observe the 
fall of these prodigious cascades. From hence we could dis- 
cover a spot of ground (?) which lay under the fall of water 
which is to the east (American Fall) big enough for four coaches 
to drive abreast without being wet." Seven years later the Baron 
La Ronton, in reference it is supposed to the Canada side, says, 
" Between the surface of the water that shelves off prodigiously, 
and the foot of the precipice, three men may cross in abreast 
without further damage than a sprinkling of some few drops of 
water." We cannot assign less than twenty-four feet space to 
the " four coaches " moving abreast. The projection at the west- 
erly end of the water-covered surface of Table Rock has diminished 
but little, siuce three men could now go under the sheet abreast 
if they had a proper footing, whereas the over-hang on the Amer- 
ican side has almost entirely fallen, since there is now but a slight 
projection there of the surface rock. The huge pile of lai^ 
bowlders now lying at the foot of the precipice indicates the same 
result. Authentic accounts of similar abrasions are the following, 
namely : in 1818 a mass one hundred and sixty feet long by sixty 
in width ; in 1828 and 29 two smaller masses nearly equal in the 
aggregate to the last. Also in 1828 a huge mass, the top sur- 
face of which was called half an acre. In 1850 there fell a 
smaller mass about forty feet long and ten feet wide ; in 1852 a 
triangular mass the base of which was forty feet and its altitude 
three hundred, extending south from Goat Island out beyond the 
Terrapin Tower, and in 1871, from the west side of the inner curve 
of the Horseshoe, another piece about ten feet by forty. Here 
we have some proximate data on which to base our calculations. 
In addition to these it is supposed that there have been abrasions 
by piecemeal that were not noticed and that equalled all the 
others. 
Combining all these minor masses into one grand mass, and 



B. KATURAL BISTORT. 149 

• omitting fractions, "we find we have a magnificent bowlder con- 
taining twelve million cubic feet of rock. If this were spread 
over a snrface one thousand feet wide and one hundred and sixty 
feet deep, the average width though less than the average height 
of the falls below the feriy, it would cover it to the depth of 
seventy-six feet. This for one hundred and seventy-five years is 
four inches per year. At this rate to cut back six miles would 
occupy seventy-two thousand years, or twelve thousand years for 
a single mile, a mere shadow of time when compared with the age 
of the coralline limestone over which the water fiows. So, if our 
data are reasonably correct, more than twice as many millenniums 
as Prof. Tyndall has named will be consumed before his predic- 
tion can be fulfilled. 

The next point in our text relates to the '^ entire drainage of 
the American branch of the Niagara River the channel of which 
in due time will become cultivatable land." A consideration of 
some facts connected with the physical features of the river, 
which his short visit doubtless prevented Prof. Tyndall from as- 
certaining, will compel us to put less faith in this prediction than 
in the one we have just considered. They are as follows: the 
surface of the water at Gill Creek, two miles up stream, is, by 
actaal survey, fifty-two feet higher than the highest point of the 
falls below. The river just above the mouth of Gill Creek is 
twenty feet deep. Hence the bottom line of the river there is 
thirty-two feet higher than the top of the American Fall. It fol- 
lows that if this fall shall ever reach Gill Creek and the bed-rock 
shall prove snfllciently strong to maintain its position, the fall 
will be about fifty feet higher than it is now. 

Secondly, there stretches up from the head of Goat Island, 
ahout three-fourths of a mile, a rock bar, having about the same 
snrface level as the bed-rock of the island itself. Undoubtedly 
it was once covered with soil and formed a portion of the island. 
This bar projects above the foot of Grass Island which lies about 
midway between it and the American shore. Toward the Can- 
ada shore, and near the centre of the river, is another bar composed 
of rock, bowlders and gravel about the same length as the last, 
and stretching much farther up stream. These two bars form, as 
it were, a partition separating the currents flowing down from the 
channels between Navy and Grand islands and between this last 
and the American shore. This is one of the finest reaches in the 



160 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

upper Niagara. It is about three miles in width and flows on 
with a strong but unruffled current until it reaches the first break 
in the rapids above the falls. It is divided practically into three 
channels of nearly uniform depth, the difference in elevation 
between the two sides of the river having disappeared by the ris- 
ing of the dip of the bed-rock. The first channel comes from the 
south, between the Canadian shore and Navy Island ; the second 
and deepest from between this island and Grand Island, and the 
third from between Grand Island and the American shore. The 
water in the first channel, except in floods, passes down the Can- 
ada side. The other two channels are more or less blended 
and pass partly over the Canadian and partly over the American 
Fall. As has been before noticed, the rock bar stretching up from 
the head of Goat Island reaches above the foot of Grass Island. 
The channel inside of and next to Grass Island is deeper than 
that outside of it. The conformation of the bed of the river is 
such that the currents formed by these two channels unite and, 
diverging northerly, run diagonally toward the American shore, 
in which they have excavated quite a deep bay. From the foot 
of this bay is taken the water to supply the hydraulic canal which 
empties into the river half a mile below the falls. 

Now we must bear in mind a fact which Prof. Tyndall and all 
others, who have written or speculated upon the geological char- 
acter of the falls, seem to have passed without notice, namely : 
that whereas while they were below their present position they 
were constantly diminishing in height because they were receding 
with the dip of the bed-rock, now they are, so to speak, rising on 
the dip, the river making an acute angle with its former direction. 
By reason of this southwesterly declination of the bed-rock the 
surface of the water in the Horseshoe Fall, next to the Canada 
shore, is ten feet lower than that of the most northerly point of 
the American Fall. But with the change of direction in the chan- 
nel of the river, this difference is fast disappearing and will be 
entirely neutralized when the falls shall have reached a point a 
few rods above the mouth of Chippewa Creek, a mile from Table 
Rock. To this change of direction and this upward trend of the 
bed-rock we are indebted for the existence of the rapids above 
the falls, one of the finest features of the locality. At no point 
below their present position could such a prelude — musical as well 
as motioned — to the great cataract have existed, simply because 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 151 

the water above the precipice lay like the water in a mill pond 
above* its dam, over which it tamely falls to the level below. 
There were doubtless slight breaks in the current on the two sides 
of the river, produced by the suction of the shallow toward the 
deeper water in the centre of the stream. But they must have 
been tame and lifeless compared with the grand rush, tumult and 
roar of the present rapids. When these have vanished in the 
receding flood there can be no others that will equal tliem in 
length, breadth, beauty and power. The only reminder of them 
even, that can exist hereafter, will be seen by the traditional New 
Zealander who may stand on the dilapidated walls of Fort Porter 
and look upon the waters that will then rush down the slope of 
the corniferous limestone which forms the dam at the foot of Lake 
Erie. 

Finally, in reference to. this question of the " entire drainage" 
of the American channel, we have had a remarkable demonstra- 
tion of the entire improbability of its ever occurring. This dem- 
onstration was made on the 29th of March, 1848. The preceding 
winter had been intensely cold ; the ice formed on Lake Erie was 
unusually thick and covered nearly, if not quite, two-thirds of 
its surface. During the warm days of the early spring this great 
mass was, as is usual in such cases, loosened around the shores 
of the lake and detached from them. During the forenoon of 
the day named a stiff wind moved the whole mass up the lake. 
A little before sunset the wind chopped suddenly around and blew 
a gale from the west. This brought the vast field of ice back 
again with such tremendous force that it filled in the neck of the 
lake and its outlet so as to form a very effective dam, by which 
the outflow of the water was very greatly impeded. Of course it 
needed but little time for the falls to drain off the water below 
this dam. The consequence was that on the morning of the fol- 
lowing day the river was nearly half gone. The American chan- 
nel had dwindled to a deep and narrow creek. The British channel 
seemed to have been smitten with a quick consumption and to bo 
fast passing away. Far up from the head of Goat Island and out 
into the Canadian rapids and from the foot of the island out 
beyond the Terrapin Tower the water was gone. The rocks were 
bare, black and forbidding. The roar of Niagara had subsided 
almost to a moan. The scene was desolate and, but for its nov- 
elty and the certainty that it would change before many hours, 



152 B. NATURAX HISTOBT. 

would have been gloomy and saddening to those who witnessed 
it. Every person who has visited Niagara will remember a beau- 
tiful, broken jet of water which shoots up into the air from the 
Great Rapids about forty rods south of the. outer Moss Island, 
called, with a singular contradiction of terms, the ^^Leaping Rock." 
This rock was laid entirely bare, and the writer drove out with a 
horse and carriage across the rocky bed of the river, near to and 
above it. This extraordinary syncope of the waters lasted aU 
the day, and night closed over the strange scene. But during 
the night the dam gave way and the next morning the river was 
restored in all its strength and beauty and majesty, and the 
dwellers on its shores were glad to welcome its swelling tide once 
more. 

By this occtirrence the formation — the topography, so to speak — 
of the river bottom was revealed. A mile and a half above the head 
of Goat Island the waters were divided so as to form a huge T 
through both branches of which they flowed over the precipice 
below, thus showing that nothing less than an entire stoppage of 
the water can leave the American channel dry, simply for the rea- 
son that in the main stem of the Y it is as deep on the American 
as on the Canada side. 

But even if this portion of Prof. Tyndall's prediction should 
be verified, it is greatly to be feared that his " vision" of cultivat- 
able land in the bottom of the American channel after the Wkter 
has left it will prove to have been one with a most " baseless fab- 
ric." If the future possessor of that portion of the earth's sur- 
face should undertake, after it had been both over and under 
drained, to run his plough through it, he would not leave behind 
him, like a ship sailing in a starlit sea, a wake of phosphorescent 
illumination, but rather he would see before him an illumination 
resulting from the contact of rock and steel which might lighten 
his track in the darkest night. If Prof. Tyndall had found time 
to visit, on the Canada side, the cliff at the head of Foster's Glen 
or at the foot of the whirlpool, he would have had a "realizing 
sense" of what this kind of "farming" might be. One might 
more hopefully try to run his plough through the valley of Jehosh- 
aphat in ^front of the Beautiful Gate, where he might possibly 
disturb the mural covering of some long forgotten Israelite ; but 
in the dry bed of the Niagara he could disturb nothing but his 
own temper. 



B. KATURAIi HISTORY. 



153 



In the second paragraph preceding the one we have been dis- 
cassing Prof. Tyndall makes this remarkable statement, namely : 
"The river above the fall bends and the Horseshoe immediately 
accommodates itself .to the bending, following implicitly the di- 
rection of the deepest water in the upper stream ;" thus making 
the depth of water the master element in determining the direction 
of the chasm, and inferentially the rapidity of abrasion ; whereas 
the friability of the substructure, the greater or less induration 
and compactness of the bed-rock is the controlling factor in the so- 
lution of the problem. This is clearly demonstrated at the pres- 
ent time in the Horseshoe, Luna and American Falls. There are 
two notable angles of recession in the Horseshoe Fall. One of 
them lies in the midst of the deepest water with its upward direc- 
tion bearing nearly southeast. The other angle and the one that 
has receded farthest from the edge of the precipice lies just north 
of the deepest water, and its upward tendency is nearly northeast. 

The Cave of the Winds, under Luna Fall, is a deeper boring 
into the bed-rock than can be detected in any part of the Horse- 
shoe. Fifty years ago the deepest channel on the south side of 
and near to Goat Island was eight rods farther south than it is 
now. The water has cut down and carried away more than forty 
feet perpendicular depth of bowlders, cobble stones, gravel and 
earth, and made for itself a deeper channel than it ran in before. 
The little Horseshoe, as it is sometimes called, is the deepest 
reentering angle in the American Fall, while the deepest water on 
that fall pours over its angle or point of greatest projection, next 
to the American shore. Moreover by far the greatest abrasion 
known to have occurred within the historic period — that of the 
larger portion of Table Rock in 1850 — was a lateral one over 
which no water was running, nor had been for more than a cen- 
tury except over a small portion of its southerly end. 

If the substructure upon which the water lies or over which it 
falls were homogeneous Prof. Tyndall's dictum would be correct. 
But there are scarcely ten consecutive square rods of the river-bed 
that can be called homogeneous. 

With these facts before us we cannot resist the conclusion that 
it is the character of the river-bed, and not the depth of water, that 
solves the problem of recession, and that will determine both the 
proximate and distant future of Niagara, so far as its location is 
concerned. 



154 B. NATURAL HISTORT. 

" To complete my knowledge," says Prof. T., "it was necessary 
to see the fall from the river below it, and long negotiations were 
necessary to secure the means of doing so. The only boat fit for 
the undertaking bad been laid up for the winter ; but this diflS- 
culty * * * * was overcome." Two oarsmen were obtained. 
The elder assumed command and "hugged the cross freshets (?) 
instead of strikin^: out into the smoother water. I asked him why 
he did so, and he replied that the}'' were directed outward and not 
downward." If Prof. Tyndall had been at Niagara during the 
summer season he would have had the opportunity, daily, of seeing 
the fall "from below," and of going up or down the river on 
any day in a boat. All the boats (four) at the Ferry are "fit for 
the undertaking" and all of them are, very properly, "laid up in 
the winter," since they would be crushed by the ice if left in the 
water. Our oarsmen do not consider themselves very shrewd 
because they have discovered that it is easier to row across a 
current than it is to row against it. The party had an exciting 
and, according to Prof. T's account, a perilous trip. It w an 
exciting trip to a stranger, but the writer has made it so fre- 
quently that it has ceased to be a novelty. 

" We reached," he says, "the Cave (of the Winds) and entered 
it, first by a wooden way carried over the bowlders, and then 
along a narrow ledge to the point eaten deepest into the shale" 
He also speaks of the " blinding hurricane of spray hurled against 
him." This last circumstance probably prevented him from no- 
ticing the fact that no shale at all is visible in the Cave of the 
Winds. Its wall, from the top downward some distance below 
where he stood, is formed entirely from the Niagara limestone. 
But it is checkered by man5^ seams and so is easily abraded by 
the elements. The cave is the result. 

Without noticing other statements that will illustrate the bril- 
liant imagination of the distinguished " poet of science," and also 
the poetical license which is good-naturedly allowed to distin- 
guished travellers, we may be permitted to remark, in conclusion, 
that Prof. Tyndall's style is so vigorous, animated and poetical, 
that one may be excused for preferring to read T^'ndall's romanc- 
ing rather than the most realistic utterances of many of his 
brother scientists. 



B. NATURAL HISIOBT. 



155 




No. 
1« Sncpcnslon Bridge. 

3. Hydraalic CHnal. 
S. American Full. 

4. Uorsoslioc Fall. 
B* Goat laland. 



No. 
6. Moss Islands. 

10. Chippewa Creek. 

11. Grass Island. 
13. GIU Creek. 



No. 

U. Connor^s Island. 
14. Navy IsIniKi. 
1\ liiickliorn Island. 
16. Grand lalaud. 



156 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



On some Expansions, Movements and Fractures of Rocks, 
OBSERVED AT MoNsoN, Mass. By W. H. NiLES, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

In the " Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History," 
vol. xiv, 1871, there was published an account of '*Some Interest- 
ing Phenomena Observed in Quarrying." It was my object in 
that paper to give simply a preliminary account of the phenomena 
to be observed at Monson, Mass., rather than to inquire into the 
causes which produced them. Since that time the phenomena have 
increased in frequency and extent, and have thus given me some 
further acquaintance with the nature of the force producing them, 
and it is my object at this time to communicate to the Association 
some of these additional observations and conclusions. For a 
satisfactory statement of these, however, it may be important to 
refer briefly to certain observations which have already been re- 
corded. 

At the eighth meeting of this Association held at Washington, 
D. C, 1854, Prof. John Johnston of Middletown, Conn., read a 
" Notice of Some Spontaneous Movements occasionally observed 
in the Sandstone Strata in one of the Quarries at Portland, Ct,'' 
which was published in the Proceedings of that meeting. The 
movements were in one of the quarries which had been worked to 
a considerable depth. Whenever the workmen attempted to open 
the bottom stratum of the quarry by making a long easterly and 
westerly channel in the rocks, they found that before they were 
able to cut quite through the bed, the portion of the stone remain- 
ing at the bottom of the channel was "crushed to fragments with 
a loud report, by an enormous lateral pressure." The walls of the 
channels sometimes approached each other three-fourths of an inch. 
These movements, however, were perceptible only in northerly and 
southerly directions. Prof. Johnston's conclusions were as follow : 
" These facts I think plainly show that the strata of sandstone 
at this place are not at the present time perfectly at ease in their 
ancient bed, but that in some way they have received a disposi- 
tion to change slightly their position ; and it becomes an interest- 
ing question to determine the cause, a question, however, upon 
which I do not propose now to enter." 

So far as I am aware, this "Notice" of Prof. Johnston's is the 
only scientific record of such phenomena, observed at any locality 



B. NATURAL HISTORY, 167 

excepting Monson. It is true there have been verbal and news- 
paper reports of spontaneous explosions and fractures of rock at 
other places, but I do not know that they have received any scien- 
tific investigation. 

The quarry at Monson, Mass., where most of the phenomena 
occur, is the one owned and worked by W. N. Flint & Co. It ex- 
tends over an area of about five or six acres upon the gentle slope 
of a hill of moderate size.* The rock is gneiss, without any ap- 
parent planes of stratification, but with a distinct parallelism in 
the arrangement of the component minerals, that is, it has a schis- 
tose texture. Divisional planes, which are nearly parallel with the 
gently sloping surface of the hill, cut across the stratification and 
divide the rock into beds which vary in thickness from one inch 
and a half to five feet or more. These beds are very extensive 
and are not broken by au}'^ joints or other divisional planes. They 
lie, of course, nearly parallel with the surface of the hill and are, 
therefore, nearly horizontal in some parts of the quarry, while at 
some other places they have an inclination of about ten degrees. 

Expansion op the Rock: — One of the most interesting phe- 
nomena to be observed here is the expansion of the stone as it is 
broken either spontaneously or artificially from the rock. 

The quarrying is mostly done by driving wedges into small 
holes drilled into the upper surfaces of the beds, in long lines par- 
allel 'with the strike of the rock, thus splitting off stones of the 
required forms and sizes. Whenever a stone of considerable length 
is thus quarried from any entirely undisturbed portion of a bed it 
is found that the stone expands lengthwise, that is, with the strike, 
becoming slightly longer than the place on the edge of the bed 
from which it was broken. The most convincing examples of this 
movement are those where a long cleft has been made, liberating 
only one end of the stone, the other remaining attached to the bed 
by a perfectly solid connection. In such instances those parts of 
the drill holes seen on the side of the stone near its freed end are 
not directly opposite their respective parts remaining on the edge 
of the undisturbed bed, but they have moved from the attached 
end somewhat beyond them. As the bed and partly quarried 

* For a more detailed account of the position of the qnarry, the mode of working it 
and the pecnliar phenomena, see *' Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory," Tol. xiy, p. 80. 



158 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

stone are still solidly united at one end, it thus becomes clearly 
evident that either the stone must have expanded or that part of 
the bed must have contracted. That it is the expansion of the 
stone is proved by the fact that the freed end has moved from its 
original position upon the underljing bed. The amount of this 
expansion is best registered by the difference in position of the 
two parts of that drill-hole nearest the loosened end of the stone. 
In the autumn of 1869 a fissure of this kind, three hundred and 
fifty-four feet long, was made and then the amount of expansion 
was -one inch and a half. That there is an actual expansion of 
the stone is further demonstrated by the fact that the parts of that 
hole which is nearest the solid junction of the stone and the bed 
apparently perfectly accord in position, while the want of agree- 
ment increases regularly with the distance from the end of the fis- 
sure. 

These expansions are not mere occasional phenomena, but they 
occur whenever a perfect cleft of this kind is made in an entirely 
undisturbed portion of the' rock. Since attention was first drawn 
to these expansions, now nearly four years ago, they have appeared 
so continually in every part of this extensive quarry, and in all 
beds, those near the surface, as well as the deeper ones, that we 
may conclude that all the undisturbed rock there has this natural 
tendency to expand. These movements may be either up hill or 
down, but they are always in northerly and southerly directions, 
with the strike of the rock. I have made very careful examina- 
tions to see if there was a trace of any expansions in easterly and 
westerly directions, but have never seen the slightest indication of 
any. The bands of darker and lighter color caused by the schis- 
tose texture of the rock, which appear in any one bed, show no 
want of conformity with the parts of the same bands in the bed 
immediately below, even where there has been every opportnnity 
for a tranverse expansion. The cause of this expansive tendency 
of the rocks must therefore be attributed to some force which acts 
or has acted in only these two directions. This fact alone would 
seem to show that the expansions are not produced by changes of 
temperature or of humidity, for I can see no reason why these 
should affect the stone in only northerly and southerly directions. 
That the expansions have occurred during all conditions of the 
weather, warm and cold, wet and dry, is another proof that the 
cause is not to be sought in meteoric changes. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 159 

Another interesting feature is that when the fracture is suddenly 
and thoroughly made, the expansion takes place immediately, and 
sometimes the expansive force itself completes the desired work. 
Before the wedges were driven I have drawn lines across what was 
to be the quarried stone to the part of the rock to be left undis- 
turbed and then have carefully watched the operation. Under 
these circumstances I have seen the stone so suddenly spring into 
the elongated state that I am fully convinced that the rock there 
has by some means been laterally compressed in the beds, and 
that its elasticity or natural tendency to occupy its former space 
is always ready to expand it whenever an opportunity is presented. 
That certain beds of rock are by nature in a compressed state, 
and that they now possess an active expansive power, are I think 
demonstrated by the facts to be observed at Monson, and I believe 
that such a demonstration is new to science. 

Formation op Anticlinals : — Another instructive operation to 
be studied at Monson is the elevation of portions of the beds and 
the formation of anticlinals. Beds varj-ing in thickness from the 
thinnest to four feet or more are thus disturbed, but most fre- 
quently the thinner sheets. The amount of elevation varies from 
one-quarter of an inch to three or four inches. The span of the 
arch thus formed is sometimes fifty feet, while some are only three 
feet broad. Usually the thicker the bed the broader the arch. 
The crests of the anticlinal always trend in easterly and westerly 
directions, and as the elevating and plicating force must work at 
right angles to the axis of the elevation produced, the power 
which forms these anticlinals must, therefore, be one which acts in 
northerly and southerly directions. 

In the article on "Peculiar Phenomena observed in Quarrying" 
I considered the elevations as formed entirely by a lateral pressure, 
but subsequent observations have convinced me that the immedi- 
ate cause of most of them, and probably of all, is the expansion of 
the compressed rock. This is particularly apparent where thin 
sheets have been loosened from the upper surfaces of thick beds 
and formed into anticlinals. Usually at each base of the anti- 
clinal arch the edge of the folded sheet remains so closely attached 
to the underlying bed, that no lateral slipping of this edge upon 
the rock could possibly have taken place, nor could the bases of 
such an arch have approached each other, for the underlying rock 



160 B. NATUBAL BISTORT. 

with which they are united remains undisturbed. It is evident 
that a line drawn from a fixed point at one base to the crest, then 
downward to a fixed point at the other base, would be a longer 
line than a straight one connecting the two fixed points, and 
therefore, that portion of the rock which is elevated and plicated 
must have expanded. There are abundant evidences at the 
quarry, some of which will soon be presented, that this tendency 
of the compressed rock to expand is a power fully competent to 
form such elevations. While, therefore, a lateral pressure may 
have compressed the rock yet, here evidently, expansion is the 
immediate cause producing the anticlinals. 

We have become accustomed to consider the larger anticlinal 
and synclinal curves, and the contortions of strata in disturbed 
districts as produced entirely by an immense lateral pressure. 
But at Monson, to a certain extent we have the work actually in 
progress and we may calmly witness the plication of the beds. 
Besides the lateral pressure we find that the compression and the 
subsequent expansion of the rock are there important parts of 
the formative process. If now in our geological reasoning we 
interpret the past by the operations of the present, shall we not 
consider that the compression and the expansion of Pocks have 
exercised an important function in the more extensive elevations 
and plications and in the formation of mountain chains ? 

f'RACTUREs OP THE RocK : — Another result of this rock expan- 
sion is the formation of numerous cracks and fissures attended 
sometimes by violent explosions. These recently formed, or 
now forming cracks, are the most common and most constant 
evidences of this power. When a portion of the bed has been 
quarried in such a manner that the expansive power of the rock 
is concentrated upon the narrowed part of the bed, the rock is 
not usually strong enough to endure the enormous force, and in 
such cases it becomes fractured and sometimes considerably shat- 
tered. So great is the power that beds of three, four and five feet 
and even of greater thickness are rent, sometimes for a hundred 
feet or more. In the latter part of June, 1872, sa^'s Mr. A. T. 
Wing, there was a natural breakage which extended about two 
hundred and seventy-five feet, and was about seventy feet back 
from the working face and parallel with it. One end of the loos- 
ened mass remained solidly attached to the undisturbed rock, and 



A^ 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 161 

by its expansion about ten tbousand tons of rock were moved. 
Many other striking examples of the same movements might be 
given if it were necessary, and in most cases the expansion of the 
self-liberated stone is quite apparent, and the character of the 
fractures clearly shows that the power which produced them oper- 
ated in northerly and soiitherly directions only. 

These cracks and rents are more commonly formed slowly, but 
sometimes suddenly, attended not only by the breaking, shattering 
and even crushing of the solid rock, but by a loud report, and 
sometimes by the throwing of stones of considerable size for a 
short distance. On the morning of the eighteenth of June, of 
the present season, 1873, at about six o'clock, the engineer was 
startled by an explosion, and looking towards the quarr}- saw stones 
and other debris in the air being thrown to a considerable dis- 
tance. I visited the spot on the twentieth and found it lookino- 
much as though a small but powerful earthquake had taken place. 
A bed five feet four inches thick had been ruptured iu two nearly 
parallel fissures, each of which measured sixty-eight feet in length. 
Besides these the rock was otherwise much broken, and in places 
shattered and crushed, and some of the. liberated stones were 
thrown southward, but there were none thrown in any other direc- 
tion. These fractures were from eighteen to twenty-three feet 
from the working face of the bed.* There were \ery evident ex- 
pansions of the rock from tlie north, southward. Sounds of the 
cracking of rocks are now rather common at the quarry, noises 
which are somewhat similar to the cracking of the ice on a pond. 
The facts connected with these explosions make it evident that 
they are produced by the sudden yielding of the beds to the enor- 
mous expansive power of the rock. These movements are in many 
respects similar to some earthquakes. May not the same disturb- 
ing power produce some of the slight earthquake shocks in non- 
volcanic districts? 

Concerning the nature of the power which has compressed the 
rock, it is evident that it cannot be, nor can it have been any ver- 
tical force tending to elevate the rock, for any such upheaval 
would produce a tension of the beds rather than a compression. 

♦••Since this paper was read, but before going to press, another exploBion has taken 
place bj which a stone tweuty-three feet long, of an average width of two feet and 
more than two feet thick, was broken out of the bed, and had one end of it thrown more 
than two feet from the pUice in the bed from which it came. As this took place on quite 
a cold and cloudy day, it is evident that it could not have been caused by heat. 

A. A. A. S. VOL. XXU. B. (11) 



162 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Nor cau it be, as with the creeps in coal mines, the weight of 
overlying beds in the immediate vicinity, for the quarry has not 
been worked to a great depth, and these movements often take 
place in those beds immediately at the surface. 

But is this merely a local power, or is it a local manifestation of 
an extensive force ? Until observations have been made at many 
other localities it will be impossible to answer this question, bat 
a few thoughts upon the subject may not here be out of place. 
The geological structure of the hill is such as to make it possible 
as a mere local phenomenon. The general form of the hill approx- 
imates that of a much elongated and considerably flattened half 
dome. The trend of the hill, like that of the other ridges in the 
vicinity, is nearly north and south, that is, nearly parallel with the 
strike of the rock. The eastern side is very steep ; near the crest 
it is quite precipitous, and the edges of the beds appear from that 
side to form an immense arch. The western slope, near the 
southerly end of which is the quarry, is quite gentle excepting at 
or near the crest. If now we were at liberty to suppose that this 
arch of bedded rock has a tendency to sink or become flattened by 
its own weight or otherwise, then we could understand how the 
xock might be locally compressed in the directions of the trend of 
the hill. But I know of no evidence, nor yet of any facts other 
than the compression of the rock, that would even indicate that 
such a local subsidence is in progress. 

But it is a significant fact that the phenomena in the Connecti- 
cut valley sandstone at Portland, Ct., reported by Prof. Johnston, 
show that the disturbing force there worked in the same general 
directions. Whether the rock there was in the same compressed 
condition or not, the facts there observed did not definitely prove, 
but the phenomena were of the same kind as those occurring here, 
which as we know proceed from compression. But whether the 
forces manifested at these two localities, and in entirely difl(Brent 
rock formations, are distinct but of the same kind, or whether they 
are parts of one more extensive natural power manifesting itself 
only at these localities on account of the favorable conditions of 
the rock, we cannot now state. 

That similar movements have not been observed at intervening 
localities would be no argument against their being parts of one 
largely distributed force. Not only might such movements have 
occurred without having been observed, but the great extent of the 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 163 

bedsy not strata, at Monson, without any joints or fractures is a 
condition very favorable for the manifestation of any such force. 
But there are persons at other favorable localities now watching 
for similar manifestations, and if such appear they will be reported 
to me, when I hope to give the same study to the localities that I 
have to this one. I hope in this way, at length, to get at other 
facts which may give light upon the question, if not a solution to 
the problem. 



The Geology of Portland. By C. H. Hitchcock, of Hanover, 
. N. H. 

In obedience to the custom of presenting a sketch of the local 
geology at the meetings of the Association, I have made some 
special examination of the rocks about Portland. 

The earliest sketch of the geology of this neighborhood was 
published by my father, the late President Edward Hitchcock, in 
the Journal of the Boston Society of Natural History, vol. i, 1836, 
from observations made the previous year. He described the rocks 
by their lithological names, and represented them upon a map, 
with a section. These formations were grouped under two gen- 
eral heads ; first, Gneiss; second, Talcose slate. The former was 
r^arded as the older, corresponding in position and age with 
similar rocks in central Massachusetts. He called the clays ter- 
tiaiy, and was the first to describe the shell afterwards famous, 
Nucida PorUandica^ for a long time believed to be extinct. Dr. C. 
T. Jackson also made a few allusions to the geology of Portland in 
his Geological Survey. I am not aware of any other publications 
before my report as state geologist of Maine in 1861-2. In that 
report it is stated that evidence exists for regarding the Portland 
clays and sands as covered by ice-drift, at least in part ; but I did 
not commit myself to this view, not having examined the deposits 
critically and systematically. This view was upheld by my prede- 
cessors, in the use of the word tertiary, and by the unanimous 
belief of all the gentlemen with whom I came in contact in Maine. 



164 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

This view was contrary to what I had seen of deposits of the same 
character in the Champlain and St. Lawrence valleys, and there- 
fore I was not prepared to receive it without examination. This I 
have not been able to make till the present month, and the sequel 
will show that my first impressions were correct.* 

One of the most thorough memoirs relating to the geology of 
the surface deposits of this neighborhood appeared in the first 
volume of the memoirs of the Boston Societ}* of Natural History 
in 1865, by Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., of Salem, entitled "Obsena- 
tions on the Glacial Phenomena of Labrador and Maine." He 
describes minutely all the localities in Maine where the fossils had 
been found in the clay, and presented interesting generalizations 
respecting the history of the entire Post-Tertiary period. This 
paper will for a long time continue to be the great authority upon 
these subjects for this part of the world. 

I find also that Dr. T. Sterry Hunt has in some recent publica- 
tions referred to the talcose and micaceous rocks about Portland.! 
I understand from conversation with him, that he believes they are 
to be referred to the Iluronian, and that they are older than the 
White Mountain gneisses adjacent in Deering, Gorham, etc., be- 
cause the gneisses along the Grand Trunk Railway in Maine have 
low dips, while the green schists are commonly highly inclined. 

The general relations of the rocks in this vicinitv will be under- 
stood by an inspection of our large geological map of Maine. 
Only three distinctions appear upon it, viz: Gneiss, Huronian 
and Cambrian. The first occupies a position along the shore from 
Gorham to past the Penobscot River. The second is limited to 
the towns east of the Saco River, including the islands in Casco 
Bay, and not passing east of Harpswell. The third lies to the 
west and northwest of Portland. My general theor}- of the struc- 
ture is the following : The green schists were deposited in a basin 
of gneiss, now embraced between IIari)swell and Saco River, in 
one direction, and between Deering and Westbrook and some 
ancient rim fifteen or twenty miles out to sea. Originally these 
talcose rocks may have extended fifty or sixty miles out to sea, 
and the force of elevation has crowded the outer rim of ffneiss to- 
wards the interior, pushing up the schists into a highly inclined 
position. We have in the gneiss of Phippsburg and the Isles of 

•Preliminary Report upon Geology and Tnatiiral History of Maine, p. 275, lOT. 

t Presidential address at Indianapolis, p. 10. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 165 

Shoals, relics of the outer rim which borders the Huronian rocks 
on their ocean side. Before the submergence of the Gulf of 
Maine this ridge must have been prominent. The gneiss occupies 
a position along the shore from Gorham to beyond the Penobscot 
River, while the Huronian series is limited to Portland, and the 
towns east of the Saco River. 

This view of the stratigraphical relations of the rocks in this 
region is derived from personal explorations this season, in con- 
nection with five years' work on similar formations in New Hamp- 
shire. 

There is an interesting mass of granite to the west of Saco 
River in Biddeford, which is extensively used for building. It 
closely resembles the "Common or Franconia granite" of the 
White Mountains, which in my papers upon New Hampshire Ge- 
ology is refen'ed to the base of the Labrador System. It seems 
to have. been poured out like lava among the mountains, and to 
have filled up a hydrographic basin four or five hundred square 
miles in extent. Dr. T. S. Hunt regards this Biddeford granite 
as exotic* It seems to be surrounded by hard flinty slates. 

JTie Huronian System. The following are the groups of rock 
referred to this system about Portland. Circumstances prevent 
their delineation upon a map. 

Green unctuous schists, formerly called talcose, but now talcoid 
or hydro-mica schists (the ledges commonly exposed by excava- 
tions in the city limits are of this character ; they commonly 
dip N. 30° W., at a very high angle, standing nearly vertical) ; 
variously dark colored quartzites ; arenaceous mica schists ; plum- 
baginous slates ; py^ritiferous slates ; calcareous layers ; argillo- 
mica schists ; hornblende schists ; soapstone ; masses of chlorite, 
but rarely chlorite schists. 

A drive along the sea-shore in Cape Elizabeth will bring all 
these varieties to view. At Knightsville, on the right, are calca- 
reous layers ; on the left, soft schists. Passing the ridge be3"ond 
a church, we can see ledges of quartzite. These are curiously cut 
by joints, often but two or three inches apart. Thej'' are similar to 
the jointed seams which have cut across the pebbles in the conglom- 
erate at Newport, R. I. Next succeed hornblendic layers. Still 
farther along the outer coast line of Cape Elizabeth, one will see 

* Amer. Jour. Scl., Ill, vol. i, p. 85, 185. 



166 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

vai:ious varieties of mica, plumbaginoas, and pyritiferoos schists. 
At Great Pond the plumbaginous variety has in early times been 
dug into with the expectation of finding coal. I understand some 
imagine that coal can now be mined in this neighborhood. It 
should be stated plainly for the benefit of such persons, that ex- 
ploration for coal in quantity in this vicinity will be entirely futile. 
And if search were to be made for this valuable mineral, no rock- 
cutting would be necessary since the strata everywhere stand 
nearly upon their edges, and their contents can be perceived by 
examining the surface. 

An interesting variety of schist is that whioh splits up into 
pieces like rails. Some of them are ten feet long and are utilized 
by the farmers for fences, just like rails split from wood. 

The blackboard will show a roughly drawn section across the 
Huronian, from Deering to the Cape Light House. There are in 
this at least six folds of the strata. Supposing that Half Way 
Rock is gneiss, we have in that and the similar rocks at the Isles 
of Shoals relics of the outer rim of the rock which borders the 
Huronian series on their ocean side. Before the submergence of 
the "Gulf of Maine" this ridge must have been prominent, as it 
certainly was while these green schists were being deposited. 



o 

OB 
« O N OB ►» JS 



■^5 5 P g^SPo^^ 2 



a 






o 




Section from gape uqut to debiiino. 

I must here take issue with Dr. Hunt in respect to the relative 
position of the gneiss and green schists. Both of us agree in re- 
ferring the former-to the White Mountain series of New Hampshire, 
and the latter to the Huronian system of Logan, but he believes the 
latter is the older because the gneisses along the Grand Trunk 
Railway, in Maine, possess low dips, while the green schists are com- 
monly highly inclined. The following reasons favor our view. 1. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 167 

At the line of janction, as observed in Deering, the two groups of 
rock possess exactly the same inclination, of 60^ southeasterly. 
My father also remarked that on approaching the northern border 
of the green schists the dip decreased in pitch, corresponding with 
that of the gneiss. If in their natural position, therefore, the 
gneiss underlies the schist. 2. The discovery of the outer ritn 
from Phippsburg to the Isles of Shoals indicates a repetition of the 
underlying rock. 3. On comparing the similar rocks in New 
Hampshire, I find the upper and lower sides of the White Moun- 
tain series usually in contact with some other formation than the 
Huronian. Hence I should conclude, if the dip of the gneiss can 
be invariably established as lower, that it was formed, metamor- 
phosed and elevated before the depositicto of the Huronian s^'S- 
tem, and at the later period of elevation, the slates being more 
easil}* moulded, were forced into a more vertical position. 

Perhaps some one may object to referring this series of schists 
to the Huronian, on the ground that lithological resemblances are 
not of sufficient consequence to justify identification. Fossils 
may be said to be necessary for satisfactory correlation. 

The following are grounds for justification : 1. Logan, in 1855, 
described a system of rocks overlying unconformably the Lauren- 
tlan gneisses about Lake Huron, which were distinguished by 
means of lithological characters. All geologists, therefore, who 
use the name Huronian, of necessity practically adopt this prin- 
ciple, though perhaps insensibly. We do not claim that a talcose 
rock can never be found in any other system than the Huronian, 
nor that gneiss may never be interstratified with the hydro-micas. 
Professor Dana's recent paper shows that gneisses, quartzites and 
limestones are interstratified in the Lower Silurian of western New 
England. 2. The rocks of similar lithological characters are sep- 
arated from others in this instance by stratigraphy', and in no in- 
stance would we claim that mineral character is suflScient to 
distinguish systems without a stud}' of the relations of the strata. 
We may sometimes generalize, and believe that rocks of similar 
mineral character must be of the same age. but such speculations 
always provide for confirmation bj'^ a study of the strata. 3. It 
has got to be proved that one kind of rock can exist upon one 
side of an axis and another upon the opposite side, or, in other 
words, that a gneiss can dip down a valley and come up on the 
other side as a chlorite schist. The presumption from all study is 
against such a supposition. On the contrary, continuity of min- 



168 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



eral cbarr.cter indicates similarity of age till otherwise proved. 
The biirvU'u (H' proof is with our opponent. 

Cambrian, These rocks crop out in Saco, a dozen miles west. 
They are clay slates and indurated argillaceous schists, the latter 
having a northwest strike, while the rocks of the older series run 
northeasterly. These rocks are in character and position allied 
to the Cambrian Paradoxides slates of Massachusetts, and exist 
in immense mass along the coast of Maine west of Saco, and in 
New Hampshire. 

The slates in Saco are quarried for roofing purposes as well as 
slabs for sinks, billiard tables, etc. The Cascade Slate Co. have 
opened a ledge where a cliff of fifty feet altitude gives facilities 
for cleaving the strata. . There is no diflaculty in getting slabs 
ten feet long. Between the clay beds are harder strata with 
quartz veins carrying the mineral ankerite, I have found precisely 
similar veins in New Hampshire carrying gold, and presume the 
same mineral may be found in Saco, as well as in Portland. A 
geologist would have no reason to look for coal in this vicinity, 
but he would be justified in searching for the precious metal. 
This same view has been entertained by my father, Dr. Jackson, 
and Dr. Hunt. It should be said of the slates that the}- correspond 
in character with those at Brownsville, Monson, etc., in the Pis- 
cataquis region. As j'ou are aware these slates command in the 
market a higher price than those from Vermont and Pennsylvania. 
They may be worthy of attention on account of the proximity of 
the ledges in this neighborhood to the sea. 

In Windham there are two ranges of mica schist accompanied 
by scanty layers of siliceous limestone. The schist caiTies kya- 
nite and staurolite, and hence probably belongs to the Coos 
Group of New Hampshire. I have been informed by Mr. Gould, 
Secretary of the Society of Natural History, that this mica schist 
has a course of N. W. and S. E. If so, this is a test locality to 
determine the correctness of a position I have assumed, respecting 
the radical difference in age between the Coos and White Moun- 
tain groups. If we have here mica schists with a N. W. strike 
overlying the andalusite gneiss, there is the same unconformability 
which I have described as occurring in the White Mountains. I 
refer the lower division to a place beneath the Labrador series, 
and the upper slates to some undescribed position above the Lab- 
rador. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



169 



POST TERTIARY DEPOSITS. 

I have already indicated the opinion of my predecessors upon 
the matter of the succession of the Post Tertiary deposits. Re- 
cent examination has led me to assign a different order to them 
from that referred to, and I think all will admit that the evidence 
is satisfactory. 

The succession, as I read the strata, is as follows : 

1. The covering of this city and the whole surrounding country 
with an immense sheet of ice, which pushed towards the ocean, 
transporting bowlders and fragments of rock, rounding, scratching 
and polishing the ledges, or the Glacier Period, 

2. A period of submergence to the depth of forty or fifty feet, 
in which arctic mollusks inhabiting the deep water, say three hun- 

' dred feet, located themselves upon the very spot where we now 
stand. This is the period of the Leda Clay. 

3. Sands containing shells of animals living on the sea-shore, 
the highest of them about one hundred feet above tide water. 
This is the Saxicava Period. 

I proposed in 1861 the name of Champlain Period for the com- 
bination of the two just mentioned, — a term which has generally 
been adopted by American geologists. I first saw the distinction 
of lower and upper in the writings of Prof. C. B. Adams, in Second 
Annual Report upon the Geology of Vermont in 1846. 

The names Leda clay and Saxicava sands were proposed for the 
subdivisions by Dr. Dawson of McGill College, Montreal, who 
has distanced all other collectors of these Champlain fossils by 
the enormous number of species which he has discovered. He has 
more than doubled the lists as given by all previous observers. 

4. Over all these deposits, in the highest parts of the city, is a 
layer of j^ellow ferruginous gravel with rolled bowlders, usually 
two or three feet thick, but much greater on Bramhall Hill. As 
the highest part of Portland is about one hundred and sixty feet 
high, we are confident there has been a submergence great enough, 
since the Champlain Period, to cover entirely the city of Portland. 
To this we have heretofore given the name of Terrace Period. 

I will not detain 3''ou with the details which might be presented 
on this topic. I will rather give my theory of the position of 
these several layers, and leave to the members of the Association 
the pastime of visiting such of the localities as they may desire. 
I have colored one of the beautiful maps of the city made by the 



170 B. NATUEAL HISTOBT. 

Coast Survey, upon which you may see at a glance the localities 
of interest. In its preparation the members of the Society of 
Natural History have aided me. The catalogue of fossils from 
this vicinity was prepared by C. B. Fuller, and the specimens upon 
which the determinations are based can be seen in the Natural 
History collections in the room above. 

I will not raise the question whether Portland was more elevated 
than now in the glacial period. The general course of the stri» 
in this neighborhood is S. 15^ to 20'' E. There is a notable excep- 
tion near Blue Point, Scarboro, where they run S- 20** W. The 
latter may have been made by floating ice along the sea-shore in 
a time of submergence. I have measured a few of the courses, 
which I mention : 

Saco, slate quarry, S. 3** to 5** E. 

Blue Point, S. 20^* W. crossed by faint lines S. 10° E. 

West edge Cape Elizabeth, Saco road, S. 15° E. 

Evergreen Landing, Peak's Island, S. 10° E. 

East side of Peak's Island, S. 20° E. 

East side of Knightsville, running up hill transversely S. 5° E. 

Cape Light, south exactly. 

LOCALFTIES OP FOSSILS. 

Along east side of Munjoy's Hill, for four hundred yards between 
Eastern Promenade and Grand Trunk Railway. 

Portland Company's Works, St. Lawrence street. 

Adams street. 

Between Fore street and Custom House. 

Cove on Washington street opposite north end of Race Course 

From this point to Fox street. 

Between Washington and North streets. 

In an old pit on Congress street above Mountfort street. 

Almost anywhere north of Congress street between Alder and 
Anderson streets. 

Congress street north of Reservoir. 

Old slide next Canal, described by Mr. Morse. 

For two hundred yards at the foot of Emery street* 

Knightsville, nodules containing shells, fish, etc., very abun- 
dantly in Decring, Westbrook, Cape Elizabeth and Islands in 
Casco Bay. 

I will now give my reasons fqv saying that all these localities of 
fossils lie above the glacier drift. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 171 

Munjoy's and Bramhall hills are the true glacier drift. The 
large striated bowlders and accumulations of unmodified material 
abundantly present all the usual phenomena of this deposit. In 
every case the strata containing the fossils dip away from these two 
hills, the clay being lower down. This dip shows conclusively that 
the clay does not run under the bowlders, as at first sight one 
would imagine. I do not mean the smaller bowlders of the upper 
gravel, which cover everything — only the glaciated stones. 

Dr. Wood informs me that in an old excavation on Adams 
street, he saw the fossiliferous clays overlying the coarse drift for 
a considerable distance. 

Again, along West Commercial street, the clay has been entirely 
removed, and where fossils once existed only the underlying 
bowlder clay is now found. 

A section at the recent excavations at the race course shows the 
relative positions of the underlying drift, the fossiliferous sand and 
the superficial gravel. Those who desire to see these different 
members in contact should examine this locality. It is in these 
sands that Mr. Fuller found the clam or mussel shells lying in 
their native habitat. The siphon holes still remained — only sand 
had been silted into them from above. No fact could more clearly 
establish our view of the submergence of this part of the city. 

The immense sand and clay plains to the east and west of us 
seem to have been deposited at the same time with the upper 
ferruginous gravel, i.e., in the Terrace Epoch. The ferric condi- 
tion of the iron about Portland indicates that the water was not 
deep at that time. No fossils have yet been found in this, nor in 
the terraces in the vicinity. As some of the bowlders are two feet 
in diameter, it would seem as if floating ice may have been an 
agent in their transportation. This pebble bed may be regarded 
partly as older than the clays of Cumberland and York counties, 
and partly as representing the same period, the stronger current 
having carried the coarse materials across to the shallow water 
over what are now the heights of Portland. 

SLIDES. 

Several slides have been described in the clays about Portland, 
particularly on the Presumpscot River. 

The first one described (though not the oldest) occurred on the 
north bank of the Presumpscot River above Pride's bridge in 1831. 
An account of it was written by my father. 



172 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



The next occurred in June, 1849, on the southern bank of 
Stroudwater River, about five miles from Portland. Estimated 
size, seven acres. 

A third was described as occurring in November in 1868. This 
is above the slide of 1831, and much larger than any of the others. 

This and some older ones, not known to history, have been fully 
described by Prof. E. S. Morse in the Proceedings of the Boston 
Socifety of Natural History for 1869. The following descriptions 
of them, and the very interesting changes induced by them in the 
bed of Presumpscot river, are copied from his paper : 

There are traces of two slides of great magnitude, one of which 
has quite changed the former course of Presumpscot River. One 
of these slides occurred within the city limits of Portland, and has 
formed the abrupt embankment of Bramhall's Hill. Mr. C. B. 
Fuller and others have oftentimes remarked the evidences of a 
slide at this place. A few weeks since I made a special examma- 
tion of this spot, and all the characteristics of a land slide are as 
plainly seen as if the slide occurred ^^esterday. On looking down 
from the embankment, the lateral ridges are seen to front the em- 
bankment only. 

While examining this slide, my attention was attracted to the 
evidences of a river once nmning through Deering's Oaks and into 
Back Cove, showing clearly a broad river bed. As one passes 
over the Portland and Rochester railroad bridge, and examines the 
estuary across which the bridge is built, he cannot help remarking 
the evidences of the former presence of a river at that place, 
pouring into Back Cove. The traces of a terrace plainly exist. 
To the west of this region are scattered brickyards, and the whole 
surface is low and clayey, the surface sand being quite removed, 
and, as I believe, by a series of land slides. All these evidences 
prove that at one time a large body of water poured through this 
region, cutting out the long estuary called the "Fore River," pro- 
ducing the Bramhall slide, and at one time, on being turned aside 
through Deering's Oaks, assisting, at least, in wearing out the 
estuary called Back Cove. Certainly the Stroudwater River is too 
small a stream to have produced these results, since it has no 
natural reservoir, and drains but a small portion of country. My 
brother, who is quite thoroughly versed in the surface features of 
this region, concurs with me in the opinion that at one time the 
Presumpscot River flowed through these estuaries and originally 
formed the Fore River estuary. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 173 

An additional proof of this is seen in the traces of another slide 
of great magnitude, which wc believe first turned the Presumpscot 
River into its present course. The outlet of this slide is occupied 
by the village of Saccarappa. It will be noticed that this slide 
occurred on the south side of the river, at the precise angle where 
it would be expected, and is of sufficient magnitude to have pro- 
duced these results. And furthermore my brother has partly 
traced the old bed of the river, commencing soHth of Saccarappa 
and running through marshy land whose waters empty into Fore 
River. 

As to the evidences of the Saccarappa slide, they are of the 
most positive character. In the first place the village rests upon 
a level plain of clay, and bordering this on all sides is an embank- 
ment from ten to twenty feet in height. The upper portion of 
this depression has always been called by the inhabitants "War- 
ren's cellar," and indeed many have regarded this area as sunken 
land. In digging wells and sewers, trunks and branches of trees 
are met with at a depth of thirty feet from the surface. My 
brother sends me a birch stick, and says it was dug out at a depth 
of twelve feet from the surface, and about an eighth of a mile from 
the present bed of the river. A great man}" pieces of wood have 
been found in digging for a sewer ; some loam has been found, but 
not much. I saw one leaf that was dug out ; it was quite fresh. 

Another gentlemen informs me that he saw a number of leaves 
of the Ganltheria procumbens, which were still green, taken out at 
a depth of thirty feet. Some bones, presumed to be those of a 
bear, were also found. 

I think there are evidences of another slide running to the south 
of the Saccarappa slide, and if this is the case, it will lend addi- 
tional proof to the h^-pothesis that the river formerly had a south- 
erly course. 

I have rudely estimated the superficial area of the slide at one 
hundred and eightj'^-three acres. 

Prof. Morse also informs me that since his paper was published, 
Mr. Jonas Hamilton, while superintending the excavations for the 
Portland and Ogdensburg railroad engine house, came across sticks, 
leaves and all the debris of a land slide, at a depth of fourteen 
feet. This excavation was made on the site of the supposed 
Brarahall slides. This is important evidence of the correctness 
of the views advanced by Mr. Morse. 



1 



174 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



The following is a list of all the Champlain fossils that have 
been found in the vicinity of Portland by C. B. Fuller. 



YERTEBRATA. 



Two species of whale. 
Mallotus villosas. 
Scales of Rays. 
Teeth of Shark. 



CRUSTACEA. 

Cancer Irroratus Say. 
Hyas coarctata Leach. 
Bernhardus Streblonyx Dana. 
Balanus balonoides Linn. 

»* crenatus. 
Cythera leioderm a (Norman). 
Iutea(MUn.). 

MacChesneyi (Brady and Cross- 
key), 
emarginata (Sars). 
conciuna (Jones). 
Dawson I (Brady), 
limicola (Norman), 
cuspidata (Bi-ady and Crosskey). 
diinelmensis (Norman). 
Cytherldea papulosa (Bosquet). 

*" coi*nea (Brady and Robertston). 
Sorbyana (Jones). 
Williamsoniana? Bosquet. 
Loxoconcha grauulata (Sars). 
XeBtoleberis depressa (Sars). 
Cytherura nigresccns (Baird). 
" Sarsii (Brady). 

** oristata (Brady and Crosskey). 

•< striata (Sars). 

** granulata (Brady & Croeakey). 

" undata. 

Cytheropteron latisslmnm (Norman). 

** complanatnm (Brady and 

Crosskey). 
" nodosum (Brady), 

Sclerochilus contortus (Noiman). 
Paradoxostoma variabile (Baird). 



tt 



it 
a 
u 

(c 

li 
(I 



tt 



OTHER ARTICULATA. 



Nereis. 

Spirorbis spirellam. 



MOLLUSCA. 

Rhjrnchonella psittacea Gm. 
Terebralulina septentrionalis Coath. 
Ostrea borealls Lam. 
Pecten Islandicus Ch. 
Nucula antiqua Migh. 
Yoldia pygmaea Mund. 

" limatula Say. 
Purpura lapillus Lam. 
Tectnra testudmalis Stm. 
Leda glacialis Gray. 

'* tenuisulcata Couth. 
Hodiolaria nigra Gray. 
Hytilus edulis Linn. 
Cardium pinnatulnm Ca. 
Serripcs Groenlandicus, Ch. 
Cryptodon Gouldii Phil. 
Astarte semisulcata MolL 

" lactea Br. and Sow. 

** striata Leach. 



Mactra polynyma Stm. 
Macoma subulo^a Sprengl. 

'* fusca Say. 
Solen en sis Linn. 
Mya urenaria Linn. 
*' truncata Linn. 
Cyrtodaiia siliqua Sprengl. 
Suxicuva distorta Say. 

" arctica Linn. 
Thracia Conradi Couth. 

^' truncata Migh. 
Lyonsia arenosa. 
Pandora triliiieata Say. 
Pholas crispata Linn. 
Bulla occulta Migh. 
Cemoria noachina Linn. 
Margarita cinerea Cent. 
ApoiThais occidentale. 
Natica pusilla Say. 
'* clauBa Sw. 
Buccinum GrGonlandlcnm. 

'* undatum Linn. 

" ciliatum Fabr. 

*• Donovani Gray. 
Trophon scalariformis Stm. 

** clathratus Linn. 
Bela harpularia. 

" pleurotomaria Couth. 
Fusus tomatus Gould. 

*' decemcostatus Say. 
Trichotropis borealls Br. and Sw. 
Lepraiia hyaliua Linn. , 

*• variolosa. 

" BelUi. 
Tubnlipora. 
Membranipora. 



RADIATA. 

Echinarachinus parma Gray. 
Echinus granulatus Say. 



FORAMINIFERA. 

Lagena sulcata. 

semistriata. 

substriata. 

gracilis. 

clavata. 

globosa. 
Entosolenia squamosa. 
*^ caudata. 

** marginata. 

Lingnlina carinata. 
Polyraorphina lactea, yar. compressa. 
Nonionlna scapha. 

'* striato-punctata. 
Bulimina Aisiformis. 

** pupoides. 
Triloculina tricariuata. 

*' oblonga. 

Tnmcatulina lobatulina. 
Quinqueloculina seminolum. 
Dentallna subarcuata. " 

Textularia variabUis. 
Sperilina foliacea. 
Polystoraella nmbllicatnla. 
Patellina comigata. 
Globigerina buBoides. 
Bilocullna ringens. 



tt 

tt 

n 



J 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 175 

Dr. Packard, in his able memoir, points out the distribution of 
the marine aiiimals of our coast. The Arctic fauna is at present 
confined to the limits of North Greenland and about the pole at 
the isotherm of 0° C. This is succeeded by the Labrador or Syr- 
tensian fauna extending now as far as the mouth of the Bay of 
Fundy. Our present New England or Acadian fauna extends from 
the southern limit of the Syrtensian to Cape Cod, and also ap- 
pears in several places above the lower limit of the latter. The 
lower British Provinces exhibit one or the other of these faunas 
according to the presence of the polar current or the influence of 
the Gulf Stream. 

The fauna of Portland in the Champlain corresponded to the 
Syrtensian, or the colder one. It seems to have extended as far 
south as Gloucester or Cape Ann.* The northern limit of the 
Acadian fauna during the same period was near Point Shirley, 
Winthrop, Mass. Thus the cold was sufl^cient to bring the boreal 
life two and a half degrees farther south than it is found at the 
present day. 

Some have argued that the Champlain period is coeval with that 
of the glacier drift. I understand that the supposed superposition 
of bowlders at Portland and at Point Shirley is relied upon to sus- 
tain this view. I think I have shown clearly that all the bowlders 
over the fossiliferous deposits about Portland belong to the ter- 
race period. I judge the same to be true at Point Shirley, since 
Stimpson states the dip of the sands to be eighteen degrees. 
Hence, though we cannot reduce the number of periods by uniting 
the drift and Champlain, we establish the reality of their differ- 
ence ; and thus contribute to the advancement of truth. 

Note.— I wi]l here take occasion to correct an error in a paper read last year at 
Dabnqne upon **Becent Geological Discoyerles among the White Mountains.'' Upon 
page 146, line eight Arom the bottom for Cambrian read Pre-Cambrian. 

* Shaler, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., toI. xi, p. 30. 



176 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 



On the Question "Do Snakes Swallow their Young?** ByG. 
Brown Goode, ot AV'iisliiDgton, D. G. 

It has long been a popular belief that the young of certain 
snakes seek temporary protection from clanger by gliding doBH 
the open throat of the parent. This has been doubted by many 
naturalists, and the general disposition has been to class the belief 
among the popular superstitions. This paper is intended to sum 
up the evidence, which will show, it is hoped conclusively, that the 
popular idea is sustained by facts. 

Allusions to this habit are found as early as the sixteenth cen- 
turj\ In the "Faerie Quepne," Spenser describes Error in these 
words : — 

" But full of fire and greedy hardiment 

The youtlifuU knight could not for ought be Btaidc : 

But forth unto the dnrk^oin hole he went, 

And looked in : His glislring armor made 

A litlc gluomiug light, much like a shade; 

By whii-h he s-aw the ugly monfiter plaiue, 

Hall'e like a berpent horiibly dini'laide, 

But th' other hall'e did womans sliaiie rctnine, 

!Mobt loth6om, 111th ie. foulc and full of vile di^dainc. 

" And. ab she lay upon the durtie ground, 

Her huge long tude her den all overspred, 

Yet was in knots and many bonglites upwound, 

Pointed with mortall siting. Of her there bred 

A thousand yong ones which Phe dayly fed, 

Sucking upon her poibuous dug.s; each one 

Of guudrie shapes, yet all ill-favored : 

Soone as that uncouth liyht upon them ghone, 

Into her mouth they crept y and suddain all were gone. 

*' She poured forth out of her htliish sinke 
Hcrfruitjul cursed spawnv of serpents small, 
I>eforme«l mon-ter.-, Ibwle and blacke as iiikc 
Wliich swarming all about hie legs did cndl. 
And him enconibrd sore, but couhl not hurt nt all. 

" Her Fcattred brood, poono as their parent dearc 

They >»aw t-o rudely falling to the ground, 

GroningfuU deadly all with troublous A-arc 

Gathrcd themselves about her body round, 

Wtening tht ir wonted entrance to h-iref.nnd 

At her iride mouth; but, being there witli-tood. 

They flocketl all about her bleeding wound. 

And packed up their dying mothers bloud 

Making her death their life, and eke her hurt theirgood." 

L" The Faerie Qtt<?enc," 1500, Book 1, Canto l,vv. U. L"), 22 and 25.] 



I 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 177 

In Browne's "Vulgar Errors" may be found the following ac- 
count of the Viper: — "For the young ones will upon any fright 
for protection run into the belly of the Dam ; for then the old one 
receives them in at her mouth, which way, the fright being past, 
they will retume againe ; which is a peculiar way of refuge, and 
though it seems strange is avowed by frequent experience and 
undeniable testimony."* 

Gilbert White refers to the prevalent belief in this habit of the 
viper, and though rather inclined to favor it, he is evidently shaken 
in his faith by the adverse testimony of the Loudon viper-catch- 

ers.f 

M. Palisot de Beauvois, an eminent French naturalist, published 
in 1802 some very important observations on the rattlesnake, 
which will be quoted hereafter. 

S. John Dunn Hunter, an early traveller in the United States, 
says: — "When alarmed, the young rattlesnakes, which are gen- 
erally eight or ten in number, retreat into the mouth of the parent 
and reappear on its giving a contractile muscular token that the 
danger is past."| * A few years later a long discussion occurred 
in the *' Gardener's Chronicle" which, however, reached no satis- 
factory conclusion. 

In a note to the eighth edition of "Selborne," Sir William 
Jardine says: — "The question remains, we believe nearly as it 
did in White's time. The supposed habit is so much at variance 
with what we know of the general manners and instincts of 
animals, that without undoubted proof of its occuiTence we are 
inclined to consider it as a popular delusion. "§ 

In 1865 Mr. M. C. Cooke, editor of " Science Gossip," made a 
strong argument in the affirmative.) 

Mr. F. W. Putnam published in the year 1869f a very thorough 

*''Pbendodoxia Epidemica: or. Enquiries into very many received TeDents and 
commonly p^e^umed Truths. By Thomas Browne, Dr. of Physick.^' London, 1646, 
p. 143. 

f- The Nntural History of Selborne," 1789, Series 1, letter xvii ; Scries 2, letter xxxi. 

t" Memoirs of a Captivity among tlie Indians of North America,'' London, 1823, p. 
170; and " Xorlh American Review," 1826, pp. 6t, M-107. 

f ''Xntaral History of Selborne." London, 1863, p. fi8. 

I ** Our Reptiles," London, 1885, p. 68. 

V" American Naturalist," vol. ii, p. 173. To this article, which first interested me m 
the snbject, I owe many valuable suggestions. 1 am also indebted to Prof. 
Biird, to Prof. Theo. Gill, to Prof. W. N. Rice of Middlctown and to Mr. James Slmson 
of New York, who have called my attention to facts which would otherwise have es- 
caped my notice. 

▲. A. A. S. VOL. XXn. B. (12) 



178 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

discussion of the question.* He speaks of it as still unsettled 
and, though sympathizing fully with Mr. Cooke, asks for addi- 
tional proof. 

During the past year an animated discussion has been carried 
on in the London '' Land and Water." Mr. James Simson and 
others have argued for the affirmative but Frank Buckland, the 
editor, classes the belief among the numerous popular delusions 
and persistently refuses to believe until he or some other natural- 
ist has personally investigated the subject. 

The feeling of the majority of naturalists at the present time 
seems to be well expressed in these words: — '^The cumulative 
testimony of many witnesses would compel us to receive this 
supposed habit as an established fact, did not experience warn us 
of the extreme liability of untrained observers to be misled by 
preconceived opinions. The fact that no competent naturalist 
has found young vipers in the stomach or oesophagus of the 
mother raises a strong presumption, on the doctrine of probabili- 
ties, of its being a mere delusion. The habit moreover would be 
contrary to the ordinary laws of animal instinct which lead both 
parent and offspring to adopt the best available means for the 
preservation of the race.* 

Theorizing upon this question has proved useless, and it is ob- 
vious that it can only be settled by the statements of persons who 
have seen the act. Believing that none would be so likely to 
supply the desired facts as those whose vocation brings them into 
daily contact with snakes in their native haunts, I wrote a short 
note to Mr. Orange Judd, Editor of the "American Agriculturist/' 
which he kindly inserted in the issue of that magazine for Febru- 
ary, 1873. 

As a result over eighty letters were received, from persons in 
twenty-four states and provinces, almost every one containing 
valuable evidence. Many of the writers seem indignant that a fact 
BO well known to them should be questioned. On the depositions 
of these witnesses, together with those collected by diligent per- 
sonal inquiry, the case must rest. 

A farmer living in Mechanicsburg, Ohio, writes : — "In 18351 
saw on the bank of Deer Creek a large water-snake. I procured 
a pole for the purpose of killing her. One stroke slightly wounded 
her and she immediatel}' made for the water ; after she had swam 

•II i> » (Yorktown, Virginia) in " Land and Water," xt, p. 78, Feb. 1, 18TS. 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 179 

about her length she wheeled, placing her under jaw just out of 
the edge of the water, then opening her mouth to the fuUesf ex- 
tent. Some dozen young snakes, three to four inches long then 
seemed to run or rather swim down her throat, after which she 
clumsily turned in search of a hiding place. I opened her and 
found about twenty living young snakes, two or three seven or 
eight inches long." 

A gentleman in Georgetown, S. C, writes : — ''I had for several 
days noticed a verj'^ large moccason coiled around the limb of a 
small tree near the pond. 1 concluded to capture it and accord- 
ingly procured a large rabbit and placed it some way up from the 
pond to toll her away from the water. She soon came down and 
disappeared under a large log ; when next seen she was near the 
bait, having traced it along the log on its opposite side. When she 
had nearly swallowed the bait we made an advance ; quickly 
disgorging it she gave a shrill whistling noise, and five young 
snakes ran from under the log and ran down the throat of the old 
one. We cut off her head and found the five young, which made 
efforts to get away." 

A farmer in Rosendale, N. Y., writes : — *' I was one day mowing 
and coming close to a smooth flat rock, I thought I saw as many 
as a dozen snakes on it. I ran for a fork which was standing 
within a few yards and when I came back there was only one 
snake on the rock. I struck it on the back and seven snakes ran 
out of the mouth." 

A letter from Chesterfield, N. H., says : — ** 1 saw a striped snake 
on the hillside, and noticed something moving about her head, and 
counted twenty little snakes, from' one and a half to two inches 
long. I made a move and the old one opened her mouth and they 
went in out of sight. I stepped back and waited and in a few 
moments they began to come out. Then I made for the old snake 
and killed her and forced out several." 

A farmer in Newburyport, Mass., writes: — "Riding through a 
large com field, in the centre of which was a large shelving rock 
I observed on the top a curious commotion, but on near approach 
fouild nothing. My curiosity was excited, and the next day I 
repaired to the spot very cautiously, and on the top of the rock 
saw an enormous striped snake sunning herself, surrounded bv a 
bevy of young four to six inches long. After viewing them to 
my satisfaction I made a demonstration, and to my surprise the 



180 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

old snake opened her mouth very wide, the little snakes ran da?m 
her throat and then she disappeared in the shelving rock. I re- 
peated the experiment a number of days to the same effect.** 

The total number of testimonies in my possession is one hundred 
and twenty. Sixtj'-scven witnesses saw the 3^oung snakes enter 
the parent's mouth ; twenty-two of these heard the young warned 
by a whistle or hiss or click or sound of the rattles ; five were 
considerate enough to wait and see them reappear when danger 
seemed over ; one seeing the act repeated on several days. 

Three saw young snakes coming out of a large one's mouth, and 
not having seen them enter were naturally much astonished. Five 
struck the parent and saw the young rush from its mouth ; eighteen 
saw the young shaken out by dogd or running from the mouth of 
the dead parent. Thirty-six of those who saw the young enter 
the parent's mouth, found them living within its body. Only 
twenty of the sixty-seven allowed the poor, affectionate parent to 
escape. Thirty-three who did not see the young enter, found 
them living within the parent's body. Testimony of this charac- 
ter concerning the ovo-viviparous species is, however, to say the 
least, dubious. 

It may be objected that these are the testimonies of laymen, of 
untrained observers, of those who might be influenced in their ob- 
sei-vations by their prejudices. I reply that the letters are from a 
class of well-informed farmers, mechanics and business men, intel- 
ligent readers of a practical agricultural magazine. The act of 
swallowing the young is of such a character as to admit little room 
for error in the observations, and I find that, as a general rule, 
opinions on the subject are current only among those who have 
had it brought to their notice by their own experience or that of 
their friends. Due weight should be given to the wide distribu- 
tion of the witnesses, and the remarkable concurrence in their 
statements. 

Let us not, however, trust entirely to the statements of the un- 
trained observer. Says Mr. Cooke: — *' Clergymen, naturalists, 
men of science and repute, in common with those who make no 
profession of learning, have combined in this belief."* We^d 
the statements of gentlemen, the accuracy of whose observations in 
other departments of natural history would surely not be doubted. 
Prof. Sydney I. Smith, of the Shefifield Scientific School, saw a 

•<'0urReptUeB,»p.76. 



B. NATURAL HI8T0BT. 181 

ribbon-snake (Eutosnia aauritd), about two feet long, accompa- 
nied by two young ones of three or four inches ; on a hiss from 
the parent they disappeared down its throat. The parent was killed 
and two ran out of the mouth, while a third was found alive in the 
body. Dr. Edward Palmer, a well known traveller and collector, 
assures me that when in Paraguay with the " Waterwitch" expedi- 
tion, he saw seven young rattlesnakes {Caudisona terrified) run 
into their parent's mouth. After it was killed they all ran out. 
These snakes, parent and brood, are preserved in the U. S. 
National Museum, Washington. 

Rev. Chauncey L. Loomis, M.D., of Middletown, Conn., a keen 
and enthusiastic observer, saw a black snake {Coluber Alleghanien- 
818?) open its mouth, allow seven young ones to enter and then 
glide away. 

D. L. Phares, M.D., of Woodville, Miss., writes: — "A few 
years age a gentleman, directing some hands at work on my lawn, 
heard a low, blowing noise, and on looking saw a large water 
moccason {Toxicophia pisdvorusy I believe) and a large number of 
young hurrying to her head and disappearing so rapidly that he 
first thought they ran under her. He soon discovered that they 
went into her slightly opened mouth, which was held close to the 
ground till they had all entered. She then attempted to escape, 
but was cut in two with a hoe. We took from her a large number 
of young, eight or ten inches long." 

I might take from Mr. Cooke's work several statements equally 
to the point. I quote from the *' Zoologist" a note concerning the 
scaly lizard (Zootoca vivipara), which has an important bearing 
upon the question. Says the editor, Mr. Newman: — "My late 
lamented friend, William Christy, Jr., found a fine specimen of 
the common scaly lizard with two young ones ; taking an interest 
in everything relating to natural history, he put them into a small 
pocket vasculum to bring home, but when he next opened the vas- 
culam the young ones had disappeared, and the belly of the parent 
was greatly distended ; he concluded she had devoured her own 
offspring. At night the vasculum was laid on a table and the 
lizard was therefore at rest ; in the morning the young ones had 
reappeared and the mother was as lean as at first."* 

Mr. Putnam has kindly put into my hands a note from Thomas 
Meehan, of Philadelphia, containing strong affirmative testimody 

• *' The Zoologist," p. 2269. 



182 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

in the case of the Euglish viper as observed by him in the Isle of 
Wight ; also a note from Herman Strecker of Reading, Pa., who 
says : — " Some years ago I came across a garter snake {Eutcsnia 
aaurita) with some 3'oung ones near Ber. Soon as she perceived 
me she hissed and the j^oung ones jumped down her throat, and 
glided beneath a stone heap. Another time I caught a snake of 
the same species, but as I thought of immense size, which I took 
home and put in a cage ; on going to look at her some short time 
afterwards I discovered a great number of young ones (about 
thirty if 1 recollect rightly) and whilst I was still looking at the 
sudden increase, two more crept out of the old one's mouth, and 
finallv after a little while a third one did likewise." 

•Prof. C. F. Brackett, of Princeton College, sends me a note 
which, besides throwing light upon the question under considerar 
tion, gives a very interesting instance of hereditary instinct: he 
writes: — "About twenty-five years ago I saw the fcUowing 
things. A workman who was mowing in my father's hay-field 
came upon a moist, moss-grown knoll, and his scythe cleft off a 
portion of the thick moss and sphagnum and revealed several (at 
least a dozen, I should say) small soft bodies which he declared 
to be snakes' eggs. I at that time having no knowledge of such 
matters was incredulous, and proceeded to tear one of them open, 
when, to my surprise, there appeared a small, perfectly formed 
milk adder, which immediately assumed a pugnacious attitude, and 
brandished its tongue as defiantly as an old snake would have 
done. Other eggs were torn open with like results. Soon the 
old snake appeared and after endeavoring, apparently to encoarage 
the young family, thus suddenly initiated into the world, it put its 
mouth down to the ground, and every one that had been liberated 
from the egg voluntarily and hastily disappeared within the ab- 
domen of the old one (mother?). Last of all I put the point of a 
pitchfork through tlie old snake and fulfilled the scriptural in- 
junction of bruising its head, when with a pocket knife I opened 
the abdomen and found the young ones still active." 

The snake referred to by Prof. Brackett is apparently the 
common milk-snake {^Ophiholus triangulum). 

Col. Nicolas Pike, late U. S. Consul at the Mauritius, assures 
me that he has seen the garter-snake (Eutcenia sirtalis) afford its 
j'oung fixmily temporary protection in its throat, from which they 
were soon noticed to emerge. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 183 

Our last witness is one who appears to have been overlooked 
throughout this discussion, one whose statement, it would seem, 
ought of itself to have decided the question long ago. M. Palisot 
de Beanvois, an eminent French naturalist, member of the Institute 
and Councillor of the University of Paris, thus details an observa- 
tion made near the close of the last century : — '' When making my 
first excursion into the Cherokee country,* 1 happened, while bot- 
anizing, to see a rattlesnake in my path. I approached as softly 
as possible, but, just as I was about to strike, imagine my sui'prise 
to see it, after sounding its rattle, open a very large mouth and 
receive into it five little serpents, each about the size of a goose- 
quill. Astonished at this singular spectacle I retired some dis- 
tance and hid behind a tree. After some minutes, the animal, 
believing itself out of danger, again opened its mouth and allowed 
the little ones to escape. I advanced, the little ones retreated to 
their stronghold, and the mother, carrying her precious treasure, 
disappeared among the underbrush where I was not able to find 

her."t 

We have the opinion of Dr. Jeffries Wy man, | Prof. Gill and other 
physiologists, that there is no reason why the young snakes may not 
live for a time within the parent. It would be very difllcult to 
smother a reptile, even in such close quarters, and lizards, toads 
and snakes have often been rescued, unharmed, after a sojourn in a 
snake's stomach. It is a well known fact that living tissues are 
acted upon very feebly by the gastric juice. § 

The supposition that the serpents swallow their young for food 
is manifestly absurd, for the act is purely voluntary with the young 
snakes. K the habit is not protective in its design, it must be 
destructive to a degree that will in time exterminate the species 
which practise it. 

An analogous case is found among certain South American fishes 
of the genera Geophagus, Arius and Bagms^ the males carr^-ing 
the eggs in their mouths, depositing them in places of safety and 
removing them on the approach of danger.] 



*The Cherokees were at this time joint*owuer8 of the Rtates of Tenncseee, MiseiS' 
aippi and Alabiiraa, with the western portions of North Carolina and Georgia. 

tBeanvoi-*, '* Ob-icrvationfl sur le^ Serpens "in D.mdin's •• HiptoireNaturcUe, Gdn- 
eralo ct P irticuli^re des Reptiles*' Paris, An. Rep. xi (1803;, vol. v, p. 65. 

1** American Naturalist," vol. ii. p. 137. 

( Flint's " Physiology of Man," New York, 1871, vol. ii, pp. 275-282. 

llWyman, "Proceedings of the Boston Society of Xatnrnl History," vol. vi, p. 328, 
1858. "American Journal of Science and Arts," vol. xxvii, 1859, p. 11. GUnther 
"Catalogue of the Fishes In the British Museum," vol. v, 1864, p. 173. 



184 B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 

I have been told of two instances where a large snake was found 
to contain one of smaller size, wliich in its turn had within it a 
number still more diminutive. This may be easily explained by 
supposing the parent snake, after affording the usual protection to 
its young brood, to have been swallowed by some hungry reptile 
of larger size. 

The American Indians seem to have had some knowledge of 
this peculiar habit of the rattlesnake. Among the many legends 
collected by Maj. J. W. Powell, U. S. Geologist, in his researches 
among the Pai Utes, is one giving the origin of the echo. An old 
sorceress was suspected of wrong doing and was pursued by her 
enemies until in desperation she sought aid from her grandfather, 
"Takoa," the rattlesnake. His only resource was to open his 
mouth and allow the old witch to crawl in out of sight and out of 
danger. She was so well pleased with her safe retreat that she 
could not be induced to leave it, so the rattlesnake had to crawl 
out of his skin and leave her within. And there, say the Pai 
Utes, she remains to this day, and when any one calls she mock- 
ingly repeats their words from her hiding place in the cast off 
snake-skin. 

This curious tradition, even if it cannot be counted as evidence, 
shows in an interesting way the wide prevalence of this belief. 

There is much need of other observations, to determine what 
species of American snakes have this singular habit. Thirty-four 
of the observations relate to Evtcenia; the habit is probably 
shared by all the species, but is only well attested for the garter 
snake (EtUceniq, sirtalis) and the ribbon-snake (Eutcenia satirita). 
Seventeen refer to the water-snake {Tropidonotus stpedon). Nine 
refer to the banded rattlesnake {Caudisotia Jiarrida)^ two to 
the copperhead (Ancistrodon contortrix), three to the moccason 
{Ancistrodon piscivorus) and one to the massasauga {Crotalns ter- 
geminus). Does the habit extend throughout the Crotalidaf 
One instance is given for the blowing-adder (Heterodon plntyrhi- 
nos) and three for the mountain black snake {Coluber AUegha- 
niensis). Six relate to the so-called "black snake," but this name 
is too indefinite. With all deference to Mr. Buckland, I belicTe 
the case of the viper {Pelias herns) to be settled, as well as that 
of Zootoca, Whether the male snake ever protects the young in 
this way has not been observed. 

It is a noteworthy fact, which may or may not prove an im- 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 185 

portant one, that the snakes mentioned above are all ovo-vivip- 
arous with the exception of Ophibolus. There is nothing to 
indicate that the habit is shared by the oviparous snakes of the 
genera Liopeltis^ Oyclophiiy Storeria, DiadophiSy and Pityophis. 
The case of Bascajiion^ which is oviparous, is still quite prob- 
lematical, and it remains to be shown whether the ^^ black snake'' 
of my correspondents is Coluber Alleghaniensis^ or Bascanion cori" 
strictor, Mr. Gosse gives facts which make it seem quite proba- 
ble that the Jamaica boa {Childbothrus inomatus) may share the 
habit.* 

The breeding habits of North American snakes deserve careful 
investigation, as they are totally unknown in more than twenty- 
five of the genera. 



Circles of Deposition in American Sedimentary Hocks. 
By J. S. Newberry, of New York. 

At the meeting of the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, held at Newport, H. I., in 1860, having then 
just returned from the far West, where I had spent several years 
in geological explorations, I communicated to the Association the 
results of a study of the Cretaceous deposits in the area lying 
between Eastern Kansas and Indianola, Texas, on the 6ast, and 
the Colorado River on the west. In this region I found the base 
of the Cretaceous system composed of coarse sandstone, some- 
times a conglomerate, containing everj'where the impressions of 
Angiospermous leaves, and in many places heavy beds of lignite ; 
the equivalent of Meek and Hayden's No. 1 . Above this lies a 
laminated, impure limestone, containing as characteristic fossils, 
lonoceramua problematicus, Gryphcea Fitcheri, Scaphites larvcpfor^ 
mis, Ammonites percariiMtua^ etc., the series which corresponds 
to Meek and Hayden's No. 2 and No. 3. Above the last mentioned 

* "A Natnrallst's Sojoam in Jamaica,'' London, 18fil. pp. 818-23, 601. There is rea- 
•00 to 1)elieTe kbat some of the Eatasniaa, like the Bcaly lixard (^2kH>toca vipnra) are in 
tome instances oviparous, in others oyo-yiviparous, and this point should he kept in 
mind hi making obseryations upon that and other genera. 



186 B. NATURAL HISTOET. 

group is a heavy mass of calcareous strata, abounding in Ammo- 
niteSy ScaphiteSy and other well known and characteristic Creta- 
ceous mollusks. The fourth member of the series, best developed 
in and about the Rocky mountains, is formed by a group of 
calcareous sandstones and shales, with impressions of plants, 
sheets of lignite and some mollusks, such as characterize Meek 
and Hayden's No. 4 and No. 5. From this sequence of strata, I 
read the history of a submergence of the Triassic continent and 
an invasion of the sea which resulted, first, in the formation of a 
wide-spread sheet of beach sand and gravel, containing the tronks 
of trees, which had grown on a land surface in the vicinity of the 
localities where they are found. Second, a mixture of mechanical 
and organic sediments, constituting the off-shore deposits of the 
invading sea. Third, a great calcareous mass, the organic sedi- 
ments of the open sea during the long continued period of 
greatest submergence. 

Since the date of the presentation of the paper referred to 
above, my attention has been particularly directed to the study 
of the palaBozoic formations of the vallej'^ of the Mississippi. The 
result of such study has been to lead me to believe that each of 
the great palaeozoic systems represented on the eastern half of 
our continent, may be resolved into a circle of deposits similar in 
general character to that of the Cretaceous s^'stem. These views 
have been briefly set forth in the first volume of the Final Report 
of the Geological Survey of Ohio, but I now propose to present 
them somewhat more fully and connectedly for the consideration . 
of the members of the Association. 

Before attempting to analj^ze the composition of our different 
systems of sedimentary rocks, it is important that a few prelimi- 
nary facts and considerations should be stated, as they constitute 
the real premises from which our conclusions are to be drawn. 

First : the sea is the mother of continents. It is now universally 
conceded that with tlie exception of certain local fresh-water 
beds, all stratified rocks are sediments deposited from the waters 
of the ocean, and tliat wherever we now find these sediments we 
have in them proof that the sea has reached and flowed over such 
localities. 

Second : the composition of the geological column proves that 
repeated submergences of our own and other continents have 
taken place, and shows that what we call terra firina is rather a 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 187 

type of instability. Elevations and depressions of the sea level 
have been constantly going on in past ages, and are undoubtedly 
progressing at the present time, but so slowly that in the brief 
period of human life, or even of human history, the changes 
effected b}' them attract little attention. 

Third : the manner in which sedimentar}' strata are formed, and 
the action of the sea upon its shores, will be best understood by 
an examination of what is now going on upon our own and other 
coasts. By the action of frost and sun, ice, rain and rivers, all 
land surfaces are being constantly worn away, and the commi- 
nuted and dissolved materials are carried off to be deposited in 
the oceanic basin into which the rivers discharge themselves. 
Along the coast lines the shore-waves are constantly eating away 
the barriers against which they break. Nothing can resist their 
mechanical force, solvent power and incessant activity. The 
hardest rocks are in time ground up and comminuted by them, 
and the resultant materials are distributed along the ocean bed 
by the undertow according to their specific gravity or the minute- 
ness of their trituration.* 

The wash of the land which forms the mechanical or frag- 
meutal sediments, reaches but a limited distance from the shore. 
In the depths of the ocean organic sediments are accumulating, 
which are derived from the hard parts of the various organic forms 
inhabiting the open sea. This is the " ooze" brought up in all deep 
sea soundings, and is mainly composed of the carbonate of lime, 
.as it is for the most part made up of the shells of mollusks and 
foraminifera which have the power of drawing this substance from 
the ocean waters. On shores lined with coral reefs or composed 
of limestone rocks, even the mechanical deposits are calcareous. 
Coral-lined shores, too, are often increasing, as here the accumu- 
lation of material through the agency of polypes and other or- 
ganisms, is more rapid than its waste bj^ the mechanical or 
solvent power of the shore waves. These exceptions do not, 
however, affect the validity of the general rule which is here 
enu Delated. 

•Tlje power of water or a!r In motion to transport any homoj^eneous material is 
measured directly by the size of Its particles or maeBcs. According to the law of the 
ratio of ihe surface to solidity on spheres of different diameters, tlie ratio of surface to 
mass increac'es as the diameter is diminished. The tran8i)ortiug medium acts on the 
fiarface and its power increases as the relative surface increases. This accounts for 
the different transporting power of water on boulders, gravel, sand and clay, and 
Bhows why iron-filings are carried by the wind and cannon balls are not. 



188 B. KATUBAL HI8T0BT. 

We see, then, that the sediments deposited on every shore form 
two areas or belts, viz. : that nearest the land, where they 
are mechanical and graduate in fineness from the shore line to 
deep water ; and an area beyond the wash of the land, where cal- 
careoas and organic sediments are alone thrown down. Necessa- 
rily along the line of the. junction of these areas the sediments 
will be of a mixed character. The map of the sea bottom oflf onr 
Atlantic coast, made by Count Pourtales, beautifully illustrates 
the statements that have been made. On this map is shown a 
broad belt skirting the shore, where the sediment is mainly sand. 
Outside of this, a parallel belt, over which the sediments are 
calcareous. 

Fourth : if now an invasion of the continent by the ocean were 
to take place, such as have repeatedly occurred in past ages, the 
following sequence of phenomena would necessarily ensue. All 
portions of its surface must in succession be subjected to the 
action of the shore waves. • By their agency the solid and super- 
ficial materials lying above the sea level would be ground up and 
washed away, the greater part forming mechanical sediments and 
being distributed according to the law of gravitation, the soluble 
portions taken into solution and carried out to impregnate the 
ocean waters, and to supply material to the myriads of organisms 
that have the power to draw from this solution their solid parts. 
In the advance inland of the shore line the first deposit fVom the 
sea would be an unbroken sheet of sea-beach, composed of coarse 
sand and gravel, containing trunks, branches and leaves of trees, 
and other d6bris of the land. This sheet would cover the rocky 
substructure of all portions of the continent brought beneath the 
ocean. Over these coarser materials would be deposited a sheet 
of finer mechanical sediments, principally clay, laid down just in 
the rear of the advancing beach, and finally over all a sheet of 
greater or less thickness of calcareous material, destined to form 
limestone when consolidated, the legitimate and only deposit 
made from the waters of the open ocean. 

Fifth : in the slow retreat of the sea, at the end of a period of 
submergence, the land would be again covered with vegetation, 
creeping down from the highlands, if any such had remained un- 
covered ; where complete submergence had taken place, by the 
importation of a new flora, as the coral islands have been clothed. 
The receding sea would receive the drainage from the land — for 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 189 

the most part fine mechanical material, — and mingling this with 
the new calcareous deposits and the shore wash of older organic 
sediments would leave behind it a sheet of mixed material, me* 
chanical and organic, as the last product of this submergence. 

Sixth: when the sheets of sediment, the genesis of which we 
have been considering, were consolidated to rock — as they would 
generally soon be by pressure or by siliceous and calcareous solu- 
tions, — if they should be penetrated and examined they would be 
found to consist of, 1st, superficial materials, the product of sur- 
face erosion and washing ; 2d, a mixed mechanical and calcareous 
stratum containing shallow-water, marine or estuary organisms ; 
3d, a limestone containing the remains of all the inhabitants of 
the ocean which possessed shells or other hard parts ; 4th, a sheet 
or sheets of mechanical materials, once cla^s sand and gravel, 
now consolidated into shi^le, sandstone and conglomerate. All 
these strata wrmld rest upon the rock}' foundations of the conti- 
nent, the result of a previous submei:gence and representing an 
earlier geological age. The later strata would be found laid down 
over all the irregularities of the older surfjice ; and between the 
older and more recent rocks a break or want of continuity would 
be discovered and generally a want of harmony in their lines of 
deposition. 

Seventh : another invasion of the sea would leave similar rec- 
ords of a similar history, with this difference only, that the tribes 
of animals and plants inhabiting the land and water would, in the 
lapse of ages, have experienced marked changes. Perhaps in 
the interval the old fauna and flora would have entirely disap- 
peared ; 80 that the new sediments would include only relics of 
new races. 

Eighth : in the foregoing sketch an uninterrupted sequence of 
phenomena has been alone considered. When, however, during 
the invasion or recession of the sea the uniformity of the elevation 
or depression should be broken and oscillations of level ensue, the 
record would be considerably complicated, and we should have 
local alternations of land, shore and sea conditions, which would 
give us smaller circles within the great ones, and thin sheets of 
mechanical or organic sediments interstratified in any one of the 
great members of the series. 

Having thus briefly reviewed the conditions under which the 
different kinds of sedimentary strata are deposited, and having 



; 



190 B. KATUKA.L HISTORY. 

traced out the circle of deposits that would necessaril}' be formed 
in the submergence 'of a continent by the sea and the subsequent 
retreat of that sea, let us see how far we can trace a parallelism 
between the series of phenomena described and those presented 
by the strata composing our different geological S3'stem8. 

Tn the United States the geological column is composed of the 
following elements : at the base we have the Laurentian and Ho- 
ronian groups, forming the Eozoic system, and composed of crys- 
talline rocks, once limestones, sandstones, shales, etc., but now 
much metamorphosed and disturbed, and their fossils obliterated. 
These are the oldest rocks known, and when elevated they formed 
what we may call the Eozoic continent. Upon the Eozoic rocks 
we find, between the Atlantic and the Mississippi, the vari- 
ous strata which compose the palseozoic systems, the Lower Silu- 
rian, Upper Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous. Of these the 
Lower Silurian consists, beginning at the base, of, 1st, the Pots- 
dam sandstone^ generally a coarse, mechanical shore deposit ; 2d, 
the Calciferous sand-rock^ a mixed mechanical and organic sedi- 
ment, more sandy towards the east, more calcareous and magne- 
sian towards the west, which we must class as an off-shore deposit; 
3rd, the Trenton limestone group, consisting of the Ghazy, BinVs- 
eye, Black River and Trenton limestones ; a great calcareous mass 
full of marine organisms, including representatives of the sub- 
kingdoms of the Protozoa, Radiate, Mollusca and Articulata, but 
no remains of Vertebrates. This is plainly an open sea deposit; 
the different members of the limestone group representing epochal 
subdivisions of one great life period, and one great chapter in the 
history of the first submergence of the Eozoic continent, that of 
the long continued prevalence of marine conditions over all the 
area where this formation is now found ; 4th, the Hudson group,, 
consisting of shales and impure limestones, mixed mechanical and 
organic sediments, the deposits of a shallowing and retreating sea- 
This member completes the circle of the deposits of the Lower 
Silurian and ends the history of the first submergence of the 
Eozoic continent. 

The Upper Silurian system is composed at base of the Medina 
sandstone^ locally a conglomerate to which the term Oneida has 
been applied, a shore deposit corresponding to the Potsdam; 
above this, the Clinton groups which is composed of limestones 
and shales, and the peculiar Clinton iron ore, evidently an off- 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 191 

shore deposit ; still higher, the Niagara group; below, shal}', and 
showing a shallowing of the Clinton sea ; above, a great and wide- 
spread mass corresponding in position to the Trenton group of the 
Lower Silurian circle. This abounds in the remains of marine 
fossils, and is evidentlj' the sediment of the open sea of the Upper 
Silurian age. The inhabitants of this sea, judging from the re- 
mains they have left behind them, were generally distinct from 
those of the older Trenton sea, although a few species seem to have 
been common to both. In America we have as yet found no traces 
of Vertebrates in the sediments of the Upper Silurian sea, but in 
Europe some remains of fishes have been found at this horizon. 
The Niagara limestone is overlaid by the Salina and Helderberg 
groups. Of these the Salina is evidently the deposit from a shal- 
low and circumscribed basin like the Caspian, Dead sea or Salt 
Lake, where the salts held in solution, chloride of sodium, sul- 
phate of lime, etc., were precipitated by evaporation, with a con- 
siderable portion of introduced earthy matter. The Water-lime 
grovp^ which overlies the Salina and forms the base of the Helder- 
berg series, is an earthy magnesian limestone. It is best developed 
towards the west, while the Helderberg proper is thickest towards 
the east, showing an unequal tilting of the shallow oceanic basin 
in which these strata were deposited, and a gradual emergence of 
the land on the north and west. Notwithstanding some local 
irregularities of deposition, the Helderberg group corresponds in 
character and position with the Hudson of the Lower Silurian and 
completes the Upper Silurian series by a return to land conditions. 

The two circles of deposition which have been described are 
grouped together under the term Silurian, but as each is complete 
in itself and is a record of a totally distinct round of changes, 
and as the fauna of the two systems have almost nothing in com-, 
mon, it will, I think, be generally conceded that it was an error to 
combine them under one name ; and since they are as distinctly 
separated as are the subsequently formed systems, each of which 
has an independent title, that it would have been better to desig- 
nate the Silurian systems by totally distinct names.* 

The Devonian system is composed, at the base, of the Oriskany 
sandstone J a shore deposit, above which we have the Schoharie grit^ 

*ThG interests of science and the caase of justice would both be served if we could 
agree to call the Lower Silurian by Prof. Sedgwick'^ name. Cambriim, leaving Murchi- 
SOD adequate honor in retaining his names, Silurian and Devoniarif for the overlying 
systems. 



192 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

a mixed mechanical and organic, arenaceous and calcareons, sedi- 
ment, an oflf-shore formation ; then the Comiferous group, a inde- 
spread sheet of magnesian limestones, containing little earthy 
matter, abounding in marine fossils, and plainly the deposit of an 
open sea. In this sea the fauna was, with the exception of two or 
three surviving species, totally distinct from that which preceded 
it ; its chief characteristic being its various genera and species of 
fishes, many of which attained large size. The Corniferous lime- 
stone is overlaid by the Hamilton group, a calcareo-argillaceous 
mass consisting of alternations of shales and limestones, the 
shales thicker and more sandy at the east, limestone predomi- 
nating at the west. Including the Genesee and Huron shales, 
which properly belong to it, the Hamilton group presents all the 
main features, in character and position, of the Helderberg and 
Hudson, and is, as V believe, composed of the sediments of an 
oscillating, but on the whole shallowing and retreating sea. 

In all our works on geology the Portage, Chemung and CatskiU 
formations are included in the Devonian system, but in my judg- 
ment it would be better to consider the Portage sandstones — the 
upper half of the Portage group — as the true base of the Car- 
boniferous system. Drawing the line at this point, we find the 
Portage and Chemung forming an indivisible mass of mechanical 
sediments, which, both in fossils and lithologieal characters, con- 
trast strongly with the underlying Hamilton, and is evidently the 
record of a new era in the geological history of the continent. 
This new group I have called the Erie, and I think it will be 
found to belong, both by its fossils and its physical relations, 
rather with the Carboniferous than the Devonian system, and thus 
to correspond with the Potsdam, Medina and Oriskany beloi/. 
The CatskiU is a local and ill defined deposit which will probably 
prove to be the sediment of a fresh- water basin or a circumscribed 
bay in the land which formed the shore of the Carboniferous sea. 

Above the Erie and CatskiU we have the Waverly groups the 
equivalent of the "Vespertine" and ''Umbral" of Rogers, a mixed 
mechanical and organic, shore and off-shore deposit. Above this, 
and spreading over a great area towards the west, we find the Car- 
honiferoiis limestone, which is plainly, as I have elsewhere shown,* 
the sediment of an open sea caused by the gradual submergence 
of the central and western portions of the continent. 

* Geological Suryey of Ohio, toI. 1, p. 73. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 



193 



Overlying the carboniferous limestone are the Carboniferons 
conglomerate and the Coal Measures, both of which should, how- 
ever, be grouped together as the product of one epoch, and that 
of continental elevation, though of local subsidence. During the 
deposition of the Coal Measures there were numerous alternations 
of elevation and subsidence, the latter strongly marked in the 
coal basins proper, but as a whole it was a time of prevailing 
and increasing land conditions, so firmly established at the 
close of the Coal Measure epoch, that in the region between 
the Atlantic and Mississippi there has been no general submer- 
gence since. 



FLACB OT 
DBP081T. 


KIKDOF 
BRDIMBNT. 


COBBB8PONIHVO CIB9LE8 OF DEPOSITION. 


BetreatiBg 
Sea. 


Mixed. 


Hudson. 


Helderberg. 


Hamilton. 


Coal Measures. 


Open .Sea. 


Organic. 


Trenton. 


Klagara. 


Comiftroas. 


Carboniferous 
Limestone. 


Off Shore. 


Mixed. 


Calctferons. 


Clinton. 


« 

Schoharie. 


Wayerly. 


Shore. 


Mechanical. 


Potsdam. 


Medina. 


Oriftkanj. 


Erie. 



In the foregoing table the classification of the sediments which 
compose our palseozoic sj^stems is such as I think may be found 
illustrated in many localities, and yet I should be unwarranted in 
claiming that all the elements in the circles of deposition described 
aboTC can be recognized in the products of every continental sub- 
mergence. It will probably clarify and simplify the theory now 
advanced, to claim as the essential elements of each circle of depo- 
sition resulting from an invasion of the sea, but three distinct 
sheets of sediments, viz. : the mechanical, organic and mixed, the 
products respectively of the advancing, abiding and retreating 
sea. The lines of separation between these are more or less 
sharply defined according to the rapidity of the submergence, and 
the nature of the materials acted upon by the shore waves. 

Although the views advanced on the preceding pages have 
grown up from independent observations and were substantially 
embodied in the analysis of the Cretaceous and Triassic groups 



▲. A. A. s. VOL. xxn. B. 



(18) 



194 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

of the far West, presented by me to the American Association in 
1860, it is also true that '^Circles of Deposition" in sedimentary 
rocks have attracted the attention of many other geolc^ts. Sir 
Roderick Murchison, in his description of the Permian of Bassia, 
alludes to the fact that it consists of a trinity of strata — mechan- 
ical sediments above and below, separated by a limestone—jiut 
as in the Trias, which is composed of the Banter, the Mnschelkalk 
and the Keaper. Mr. Edward Hull has written quite lai^ely upon 
the subject,* proposing an arrangement of all the sedimentary 
strata in ternary series, a limestone being the centre of each trin- 
ity. In our own country the similarity in lithological diaracter in 
the elements composing our different geological systems has been 
referred to by Profs. Eaton, Hall, Huntf and Dawson.} Althongh 
constructed quite independently, the Circles of Deposition traced 
out by Hunt, Dawson and myself agree in all their more important 
features, and they may therefore be accepted as being in the main 
accurate representations of real facts in nature. My reading of 
these facts is, however, somewhat different from that offered by 
any of my colaborers. From the striking resemblance presented 
by the circles of deposition described, it is evident that they are 
the product of a common cause or series of causes ; in other words, 
that they are different expressions of one law (order of sequence) 
in the deposition of sediments. To define and explain that law is 
the chief object of this paper. 

In his description of the circles of deposition which he enumer- 
ates, Mr. Hull with great sagacity points out many interesting 
and suggestive features in their structure, such as their being 
composed of mechanical sediments above and below, separated by 
a limestone ; in the lateral reach of the strata the preponderance 
of limestone in one direction, of mechanical sedimehts in the 
other, etc., etc., but he offers no suggestion as to the causes by 
which these systematic phenomena were produced, except to des- 
ignate the mechanical sediments as the product of ^'epochs of 
Iscnd prevalence with movements ; " the calcareous sediments, the 
product of "sea prevalence with quiescence." 

* Jonmal of the Geological Society of London, toI. zrlli, p. 13S. Geological XtgA- 
zlne, Tol. ▼, p. 143. Qnarterly Jonraal of Soience, Tol. yi, p. 853. 

t Geology of Canada, 1868, p. 137. American Journal of Science (8 ae.)i ^ol- xzxf « 
p. 167. 

t Jonmal of the Geological Society of London, toI. zxU, p. Wi, Acadian G«olo8J« 
p. 130. 



B. NATURAL HI9T0BT. 195 

Prof. Dawson's oirdes are comfiosed of four elements each, as 
follows : 

4. '< Shallow, subsiding marine area, filling np with sediment. 

8. "Elevation, followed by slow subsidence, land-surfaces, etc. 

2. "Marine conditions ; formation of limestones, etc. 

1. " Subsidence ; disturbances ; deposition of coarse sediments." 

As I have remarked on a preceding page, we may locally have 
four or even more elements in a circle, but three are all that 
can be insisted upon as the necessary effects of the cause to which 
I attribute the phenomena we discover. That cause I claim to be, 
as will be remembered, an invasion of the sea and submergence of 
the land in each geological age, the spread of mechanical sedi- 
ments formed by shore waves over most of the area invaded ; then 
, the deposition on this sheet of mechanical material of a mass of 
greater or less thickness of calcareous sediments, the record of 
the quiet occupancy of the submerged area by the open sea ; and 
finally, mixed calcareoas and mechanical sediments deposited by 
the shallowing and retreating sea. 

In many instances we have circles within circles, as in the Ni- 
agara period with its several epochs, the Hamilton, the Coal 
Measures, etc. These subordinate cu*cles are proof of oscillations 
of level, t.e., alternations of shore and sea conditions. It is 
scarcely necessary to say to a geologist that in passing from the 
area of permanent land (land that was not submerged in any 
inundation), to the area of permanent sea (the area beyond the. 
reach of the wash of the land, where neither shore nor off-shore 
deposits were laid down, but only an unbroken series of lime- 
stones) , we shall get different sections at different points of obser- 
vation, the 'strata becomipg more calcareous in one direction, and 
more siliceous in the other. Hence we find the mechanical strata 
diminishing in force and finally thinning out completely as we 
recede from the old coast formed by the Canadian highlands, the 
Adirondacks and the Blue Ridge, toward the oceanic basin on the 
south and west. So on the eastern side of the continent the Palae- 
ozoic strata are nearly all calcareous in the Gasp6 district. It 
should be borne in mind also, as has been suggested, that local 
circamstances materially modified the record made by the invasion 
of the land by the sea. In some places the portion submerged 
furnished abundant material out of which gravel, sand and clay 



196 B. NATURAL BISTORT. 

beds were formed. In other Jocalities the shore waves beat on 
abrupt declivities of hard rock, perhaps in sheltered situations 
where little force was developed and little sediment produced. 
Here during the period of greatest submergence, limestone strata 
were deposited directly upon the clean, washed rocks, with no 
intervening sea beach. In the third place where the shore was 
formed of upheaved strata which were all calcareous, or where it 
was lined with coral reefs, even the mechanical sediments were 
calcareous. 

In some instances we have indisputable records of the progru- 
sive invasion of the land by the sea that subsequently produced 
the great calcareous sheet which forms the core and centre of the 
deposits of the age. Such a record is fhmished by the Carhonif- 
erous limestone in Ohio and Pennsylvania and by the Cfetaceoos 
formation of the far West. It was in the study of the latter that 
the writer derived his first idea of the explanation now offered 
of Circles of Deposition, and whatever may be thought of other 
circles, the history of that one is as clear and unmistakable as any 
page of print. The proof that the lower Cretaceous sandstone 
of the far West is an old sea beach, spread by the advance inland 
of shore waves is capable of demonstration. In my mind every 
great sandstone formation is of similar origin, and I can conceive 
of no other power by which these great sheets of mechanical mate- 
rial could have been so widely and uniformly spread. 



Remarks on Prof Newberry's Paper on " Circles of Deposi- 
tion," ETC. By T. Sterrt Hunt, of Boston, Mass. 

Dr. T. Sterrt Hunt, in expressing his great satisfaction at the 
exposition of Prof. Newberry, observed that beside the mechanical 
deposits from the retreating and advancing seas, and those of the 
open ocean, pure limestones, in great part made up of organic re- 
mains, must be considered the considerable areas of evaporating 
sea-basins giving rise to deposits of magnesian limestone with 
gypsum and salt, often destitute of animal life. In this way the 



B. KATUBAL HISTOBT. 197 

break between the Medina-Niagara fauna and that of the Lower 
Helderberg, or what he had spoken of in a recent paper as the 
third and fourth faunas, was marked. He showed that the Tren- 
ton, the Lower Helderberg, the Comiferous, and the Carbonifer- 
ous limestones, marked four periods of oceanic limestone deposits, 
and that the gypsum and salt of the Lower Carboniferous indicate 
a period like the Onondaga between the Niagara (itself magne- 
sian) and the Lower Helderberg. The rocks of the first fauna 
show a similar series, but in the Ottawa basin we have but an 
incomplete representation of them. The Calciferons sandrock of 
that series is however really a magnesian formation with gypsnm 
and brines. He showed that this law of cycles, first pointed out 
by Amos Eaton, and insisted upon by Hall, had been developed 
farther by the speaker in "The American Journal of Science" 
for March, 1863 (xxxv, 166), and in an address last year before 
the American Geographical Society, and published in the "En- 
gineering and Mining Journal" for Jan. 14, 1873, where the de- 
pendence of these periods of evaporation upon a climate of great 
dryness over eastern North America throughout the palaeozoic 
period had been insisted upon. 

The connection between evaporating sea-basins and the forma- 
tion of magnesian limestones was explained by referring to the 
speaker's researches published in 1859, in which it was shown by 
him that the formation of the carbonate of magnesia necessary 
for the production of dolomite and magnesian limestones requires 
the absence of chlorid of calcium from the waters in which it is 
deposited, whether this carbonate is generated by the reaction of 
bi-carbonate of lime on sulphate of magnesia, with the simulta- 
neous production, of g3rpsum, or by the intervention of bi-carbo- 
nate of soda. In both cases, as was then shown, isolated and 
evaporating basins are indispensable conditions of the deposition 
of the magnesian carbonate (Amer. Jour. Sci., xxviii, 170, 365). 
The legitimate deductions from this, as to the geographical and 
climatic conditions of regions during the formation of magnesian 
limestones, were further insisted upon by the speaker in a paper 
read before this Association in 1868, and published in t|ie ''Amer. 
Jour. Science" for November of that year, xlvi, 361, on ''The 
Geology of Southwestern Ontario. 

It was not, however, the speaker believed, until 1871 that these 
views found recognition among geologists, when Prof. A. C, Ramsay 



198 B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 

by his InveBtigations of the magneslan limestone of the Permian 
in England was led to reject as untenable the notion held by 
Sorby (and by others) that this was once an ordinary limestone 
of organic origin, subsequently converted into dolomite under con- 
ditions not yet explained, and to conclude that the carbonates of 
lime and magnesia of which it is composed had been ^^ deposited 
simultaneously by the concentration of solutions due to evapora- 
tion." To this view Bamsay tells us he was led by physical con- 
siderations, and by the depauperated condition of the organic 
remains contained in these strata, without being, at the time, 
aware that the speaker had twelve years previously announced the 
same conclusions with regard to all magnesian limestones, and 
established them on chemical grounds. IQuar. Jour, Geol^SoCy 
1871, p. 249.] 



The Ajcbbioak Musbuk of Natui^ Histobt in Centbal Pabx, 
New Yobk ; a sketch of its histobt, includinq a dbscbip* 

TION OF THE COLLECTIONS PABTICULABLT USEFUL TO AmEIUCAH 
NATUBALISTS, its EXTENT AND PLANS, AND THE CONVENIENCES 
IT WILL POSSESS FOB THE BENEFIT OF SCIENTIFIC MEN. Bj 

Albebt S. Bickmobe, of New York. 

ABSTBACT. 

Fob many years a large number of the generous and public- 
spirited citizens of New York had felt the need of a museum 
and library of natural history that would be on a scale commen- 
surate with the wealth and importance of our metropolitan city, 
and would encourage and develop the study of natural history, 
advance the general knowledge of kindred subjects, and to tiiis 
end fhrnish popular amusement and instruction. In 1868 a re- 
markable opportunity presented itself of securing a rare collection 
that would form an admirable nucleus for such a comprehensive 
museum. The most extensive dealer in specimens in the world, 
Edouard Verreaux, of Paris, suddenly died, leaving in the hands 
of his widow a collection, which, at the rates he was accustomed 



B. NATURAL HlflTOBT. 



199 



to sell specimens, would have brought over 500,000 francs, $100,- 
000 in gold. This great collection included the choicest specimens 
he had been able to obtain from every part of the world, particu- 
larly the £ast Indies and Australia. He had made extended ex- 
plorations in Africa himself, and had been aided largely in his 
researches by the French Government. Like most naturalists he 
found it an easy matter to exchange with his friends and thus 
enrich his own museum, but to get the requisite funds for carrying 
on his operations he was obliged to borrow of bankers and mort- 
gage his specimens. Dying suddenly he left the rich gatherings 
of an industrious lifetime seriously embarrassed with debt. This 
opportunity it was decided to try to improve, and a subscription 
of nearly $50,000 was at once made up as a beginning, and since 
that time about $100,000 has been contributed in money, though 
the present property of the institution, including the large dona- 
tions of specimens which have been steadily coming in, could not 
be replaced, nor could other as interesting and valuable specimens 
be obtained for less than $250,000. A rare and nearly complete 
collection of American birds and many fine birds of paradise and 
pheasants were first purchased of Mr. D. G. Elliot. While nego- 
tiations were about to be opened for the Yerreaux collections a 
second museum unexpectedly became available. Prince Maxi- 
milian of Neuwied on the Rhine above Bonn (not the Emperor 
Maximilian of Austria and Mexico) died, and the young son in- 
heriting the estate had no scientific taste and offered the results of 
his father's life-work for sale. The elder J^ince, who formed the 
collection, passed 1815, 1816 and 1817 exploring Brazil from Rio 
up to Bahia, and of course a large proportion of the great collec- 
tions he secured^ had never at that early date been seen by scien- 
tific men in Europe before, and were therefore types of new 
species. 

This collection the American Museum purchased entire. Such 
typical specimens are the desiderata the museum is specially ex- 
erting itself to secure for the benefit of the scientific students in 
onr land. An agreement was soon after made with Mme. Yerreaux 
by which all the choice specimens in her cabinet not contained in 
the Elliot and Maximilian purchases were selected for the museum, 
and all these specimens have been safely received from Europe 
and are now on public exhibition in Central Park. Large dona- 
tions of shells, corals and minerals have been received, and one 



200 B. NATCBAL HI8TOBT. 

collection of 20,000 insects. The liberal subscriptions Erst made 
induced the principal subscribers to act as trustees for the fand 
and property acquired by it, and by a special act of the Legislft- 
ture they were created a body corporate — they and their sacces* 
sors to have entire and unrestricted control forever over all the 
museum property. They have limited their number to twentj-fiye 
and the survivors fill every vacancy, thus securing a fixed policy 
and stable character to the institution. An arrangement has been 
made between the trustees and the Department of Public Parks 
in New York by which the city may fhrnish lands and buildings, 
while the collections are to be bought and cared for by monej'S 
contributed by the trustees themselves and the generous public. 
In pursuance of this plan, by which the authorities of the city 
and private citizens might cooperate toward the common end of 
establishing a large museum, $500,000 was appropriated by the 
city to commeuce a suitable thoroughly fire-proof edifice, and the 
Department of Parks was authorized to set apart so much of the 
public lands under their control as they might deem proper and 
necessary for the proposed structure and its future extensions. 
In accordance with this law, Manhattan square, situated between 
Eighth and Ninth avenues and Seventy-seventh and Eighty-first 
streets, and containing over eighteen acres, has thus been set 
apart by the Department and accepted by the trustees. Messrs. 
Vaux and Mould, architects of the Park, have designed a build- 
ing which may be put up in sections, and thus always be prac- 
tically complete and yet •ultimately occupy the whole area. (Here 
Professor Bickmore explained a number of large and elegant 
drawings of the. whole plan, which is three times as great as the 
British Museum, the largest institution of the kind in the world 
and very properly the pride of ervery Englishman.) The great 
object of the museum is twofold. First, to interest and instruct 
the masses which already throng its halls and occasionally nuno- 
ber over 10,000 in a single day ; and secondly, and especially 
to render all the assistance possible to specialists. These wants 
are shown to be amply met by the large, palatial saloons for the 
public, and over the whole building a high Mansard story, con- 
taining spacious and well-lighted rooms with every modem con- 
venience, where naturalists from every part of our country may 
pursue their favorite studies for any length of time, and be secure 
iVom all possible interruptions. The general arrangement of 



B. NATURAL HISTOBT. 201 

• 

cases adopted places them at right angles, and an ingenious device 
by Mr. Vaux admits light into the part next the wall by a slit 
through the wall. (This was shown in the drawing.) Contracts 
have already been matured, which oblige the contractors under 
the forfeiture of very heavy bonds to complete the walls, floors 
and roof, all except the interior finishing, by the Ist of November, 
1874, and the building will undoubtedly be ready for occupation 
In the spring of 1875. Professor Bickmore concluded by extend- 
ing, in the name of the trustees, a most cordial invitation to the 
members of the Association to visit the museum whenever and 
as often as convenient, and to avail themselves freely of any aid 
it may be able to offer them in their scientific labors. 



On the Effects of Certain Poisons on Mollusks. By William 
North Rice, of Middletown, Conn. 
The experiments referred to in this paper were made while the 
writer was employed as one of the assistants on the U. S. Fish 
Commission, in Portland Harbor, during the past summer. The 
immediate object was to discover some means of killing gastero- 
pods in a state of expansion, so as to obtain specimens exhibiting 
them in a somewhat life-like aspect. It was believed that, if such 
a method could be discovered, it would be of some value for pop- 
ular and educational museums. The species chiefiy experimented 
upon were Buccinum undatnm, Ilj^anassa obsoleta, Tritia tiivit- 
lata, Lunatia heros. Purpura lapillus, and Littonna palliata. 
The poisons employed were carbonic acid, sulphate of morphia, 
chloroform, chloral hydrate, sulphocyanide of potassium, cyanide 
of potassium, hydrocyanic acid, woorara, coniine, quinine, sali- 
cine, and santonine. Most of these are well known narcotics, and 
were, on that account, selected for experiment. Sulphocyanide 
of potassium has been said to act directly upon the muscular sys- 
tem, destroying the irritability of the muscles. Several of the 
vegetable alkalies were tried, it being kuown that some of that 
class of compounds are more fatal to some of the lower animals 



^ 



202 B. NATURAL HI8T0BT. 

than to man and other mammalia. The smaller epecies of idoU 
Insks were immersed in solations of the poisons employed. In 
the case of the larger species, the poisons were generally injected 
with a hypodermic sjringe. Carbonic acid was applied by poaring 
a bottle of soda water into the vessel containing the spedmens. 
Experiments were also tried of leaving the animals to die ia 
stale water, of putting them into f^sh water, and of gradnilly 
adding alcohol to the sea water in which they were contained. 

As regards the immediate object of the experiments, no very 
satisfactory result was reached ; and a leading design of this com- 
munication is to save others firom spending time and trouble in 
fruitless experiments. Perhaps the best results were obtained 
with hydrocyanic acid, some of the specimens treated with that 
poison dying in a very satisfactory condition. Some experiments 
with coniine also succeeded very well. The average results of 
the experiments with these poisons were not, however, materially 
better than those obtained by the simpler method of leaving the 
animals to die in stale water — certainly not enough better to 
make it worth while to resort to them. Some specimens of Buc- 
cinum undatum which died in stale water, remained quite well ex- 
panded, though the majority retracted the foot more or less com- 
pletely within the shell. In the case both of the animals which 
died in stale water and of those which were poisoned, it was fre- 
quently observed that, even when the body in general was consid- 
erably contracted, the foot being partly or almost completely re- 
tracted, the proboscis or penis or both were quite fiiUy extended. 
One specimen of Buocinum undatum, poisoned with hydrocyanic 
acid, not only extended the proboscis, but protruded the lingual 
ribbon. Fresh water, alcohol (however gradually added to the 
water in which the specimens were contained), chloroform, chloral 
hydrate, cyanide of potassium, quinine and santonine, produced 
complete contraction. 

Among the most interesting results of the experiments, was the 
observation that certain poisons which act with extreme violence 
upon the mammalia, are very feeble in their action on the mol- 
lusca. This is especially true of hydrocyanic acid and woorara. 
Specimens of Ilyanassa obsoleta, immersed in dilute hydrocyauic 
acid on Friday, showed somewhat feeble signs of life on the fol- 
lowing Tuesday. A specimen of Lunatia heros into which a 
quantity of woorara had been injected, was found the next day to 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 208 

show no sign of any injury. Indeed, both of these poisons seemed 
to produce death very little sooner than the animals would have 
died in stale water. The sudden introduction of a large amount 
of carbonic acid in the manner which has been described, seemed 
to produce no decided effect. On the other hand, chloral hydrate 
seems to be very suddenly fatal, the animals treated with it be- 
coming instantly contracted, and not resuming their activity when 
kept for a number of hours in sea water. Cyanide of potassium 
is similar in its effects, though not quite so instantaneously fatal. 
The effects of quininei are similar, though less energetic. Ghloro- 
form produces instantaneous contraction, and probably death ; but, 
as the animals treated with this poison were not afterwards kept 
for a time in pure sea water to give them an opportunity to revive, 
it is not certain that they were really dead. 



Calvert's supposed Relics of Man in the Miocene of the Dar- 
danelles. By George Washburn, of Constantinople. 



Communicated bt C. H. Hitchcock. 



Sir John Lubbock announced not long ago that Mr. Calvert had 
discovered evidence at the Dardanelles of the existence of man 
in the Miocene period. He reported that eight hundred feet below 
the surface there had been found several flint instruments ; bones 
split lengthwise, and especially a fossil bone upon which had been 
engraved a picture of a horned animal. The author, in company 
with Mr. Forbes, instructor in mathematics in Robert College, 
visited the spot last April, 4ind found Mr. Calvert engaged in 
mining and ready to aid them. The deposits were found midway 
between the Dardanelles and the plains of Troy. The hills rise 
abruptly about eight hundred feet above the Straits, and are cut 
by deep ravines which exhibit the formation. 

The lowest formation exposed at this point is a non fossil- 
iferous, argillaceous limestone, nearly white, of irregular thick- 
ness, and smooth, like pressed clay, on its upper surface. Above 






204 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

this are irregular beds of earth and clay of different colors ; next 
is a deposit of white sea-sand five hundred feet thick, which con- 
tains, at irregular intervals, pebble beds from one to four feet 
thick ; next is a bed of shell limestone at least one hundred feet 
thick. These shells are of the brackish water variety. Tchiha- 
theff, in his "Asia Minor" calls this Miocene. The fossils and 
flints were closely examined, and the investigators arrived at the 
conclusion that they were shaped by the action of water. Teeth 
of the mastodon and parts of tusks were found. The bones found 
were in so small fragments that it was not possible to determine 
them. Similar fragments of flint, exhibiting no other action than 
that of water, were found in abundance in a pebble formation near 
Dardanelles, and it was only a question of selecting Arom piles of 
stones those that happened to take a certain shape. 

Mr. Calvert has in his collection several bones split lengthwise 
with the marrow gone. This cannot be denied. But I doubt if 
such bones prove the existence of human beings. We found in 
the hole of a Jackal, on the plain of Troy, sheep bones which had 
also been split lengthwise, and inferred that if the bones were split 
they were the work of beasts. But it is very doubtfUl if the bones 
found by Mr. Calvert were broken in this way ; for we found that 
when one of the whole bones was dropped it broke lengthwise, and 
as all the marrow was gone it resembled the split bones found. 

The bone with the supposed engraving is a fragment about eight 
inches in diameter, shaped like a flattened sphere, one surface 
smooth, the other rough. It has been called the bone of a masto- 
don or of a Deinotherium, but is so small that it cannot be deter- 
mined. Mr. Calvert has had it about twenty j-ears, but only lately, 
since he read Sir John Lubbock's book on bones in France, has be 
distinguished the engraving upon it. The smooth surface has 
some fifty marks, more than half which are grouped in the centre. 
Taken individually they are peculiar and puzzling, but taken to- 
gether they can hardly represent a sketch of an animal, or show an 
evidence of design. We were unable to account in a satisfactory 
manner for the marks, but suggested they might have been pro- 
duced by worms when the bone was soft. We found the smooth 
upper surface of the underlying stratum of limestone was covered 
with exactly similar marks, many groups of which made more 
striking pictures than those found on the bone. One specimen is 
so marked that a vivid imagination can distinguish the picture of 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 205 

a wild boar with a spear in his side, with the Greek letter n most 
clearly cut by the side of it. No one would dream of attributing 
all the marks upon the rocks to design, and I think it equally 
unreasonable to attribute the similar, marks upon the bone to 
human agency. 

The author reports, therefore, in view of the facts mentioned 
above as to the flints, the split bones and the marks upon the fos- 
sil bone, that he believes that Mr. Calvert and Sir John Lubbock 
(who had never seen the specimens) are mistaken in the conclu- 
sions to which they have come ; and that they have not been able 
to find any evidence whatever at the Dardanelles in reference to 
the antiquity of man. 



Geology of the Northwest Part of Maine. By C. H. Hitch- 
cock and J. H. Huntington, of Hanover, N. H. 

The country alluded to in this communication is bounded on the 
east by Moosehead Lake, on the north by the west branch of the 
Penobscot River, on the west by the water-shed between the Ken- 
nebec and Chaudiere rivers, including the neighborhood of Lake 
Megantic ; on the south and southwest by the mountain range of 
which Mt. Bigelow is the culminating peak. It is partly Palae- 
ozoic, with an abundance of fossils, and partly Eozoic. It is of 
special interest because it is the district where the fossiliferous 
rocks are limited (in passing towards the White Mountains from 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence) by the older strata. It has been sup- 
posed by many that these Devonian fossiliferous strata passed by 
gradual metamorphism into crystalline rocks and that the gneisses 
of New England are to be regarded as altered Palfleozoic. The 
sequel will show that this position is not tenable — so far as can 
be judged from the rocks of this district. 

The fossiliferous rocks of this section were first pointed out by 
Dr. Jackson, who studied them particularly in the vicinity of 
Parlln Pond.* He mentions a locality half a mile north of Parlin 

* Third Annual Reporti p. 44, 1889. 



206 B. NATURAL HISTORY. 

Pond where he discovered a great number and variety of imprea- 
9ions in a bed of Graywacke. He Bpeaks of them as the most 
perfect casts of marine fossils that he had ever seen. He seems 
to have been led to the discovery by the numerous bowlders that 
have been scattered from this formation as far south as the outer 
island of Penobscot Bay in the mouth of the Kennebec. Dr. 
Jackson passed over Moosehead Lake ; then he followed Moose 
River up to the Canada road, which is some thirty miles from 
the lake; thence he went southward, after he had explored the 
country northward to the Canada line. In passing up Moose 
River he crossed the fossiliferous strata diagonally. He noticed 
obscure fossils iu the rocks at Lake Brassua and these are the 
only fossils he observed on Moose River, or on the lakes that are 
expansions of this stream. 

In 1861-62, one of us when engaged on the geological survey 
of Maine traversed hastily Moosehead Lake, then westward to 
the boundary along the west branch of the Penobscot ; and the 
Canada road from the Forks to the Chaudiere.* The upper 
section showed two Huronian areas overlaid by two bands of clay 
slates, the latter most likely of Upper Silurian age ; the other, 
the Canada road, exhibited at first strata, most likely Upper Si- 
lurian in age (possibly Huronian) overlaid by a band of Oriskany 
sandstone — to the west of which appeared first granite ledges, 
then the Upper Silurian strata, followed by the Huronian again 
extending into Canada.f The numerous fossils obtained at the 
first visit were named by Billings of Montreal, who recognized 
in them characteristic species of the Oriskany sandstone. Sub- 
sequently, the finding of the Fucoides Cauda-Galli made us 
believe the representatives of the Cauda-Galli grit appeared on 
Moosehead Lake.} 

In the hope of gaining some additional knowledge of the -rocks 
of this section, particularly in determining their extreme limit, J. 
H. Huntington spent a few weeks late last autumn in traversing 
the country from Moosehead Lake westward. Standing on the 
summit of Mt. Kineo and looking toward the southwest, we see a 
high ridge that is almost parallel with Moose River. This ridge 
is composed of a rock similar to that of Mt. Kineo. It has been 
described as a bluish homstone or flint, but it seems rather to be 

• Second Annual Report, p. 848, 1868. f /•'•> P- ^^ t I^-t P- SSI. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 



208 B. KATUEAL BISTORT. 

a feUite and although cut by many joints which make the strati- 
fication very obscure, yet it appears to have a northwesterly dip. 
On the west shore of Lake Brassua, probably two miles from the 
southern extremity of the lake, there is an outcrop of a dark 
colored shale ; and immediatel}' north, there is another outcrop of 
felsite. If we follow the line of the strike of the felsite of Lake 
Brassua, four miles S. W. of Parlin Pond, we find Bald Mt. with 
the ridges running W. and N. E. to be composed of a rock simihir 
to that of Mt. Kineo. So it is possible that the rock may be con- 
tinuous between these two points. 

The shores about the inlet of Lake Brassua are low, and the 
stream is quite sluggish until after you pass the little Brassoa. 
Perhaps three-fourths of a mile above this lake the stream 
becomes rapid, and outcrops of rock are frequent. The rock is a 
ferruginous sandstone cut by numerous joints, and the strata dip 
S. 20** E. 10°. The fossils are quite numerous and some of them 
very distinct. The following are the genera: Avicula, Modio- 
lopsis, Orthis, Leptoccelia, Flabellites, Spirifer, Fucoid. For the 
next three miles tl^e rock is a light brown sandstone, very hard, 
and in this we did not see any fossils. At the mouth of Stony 
Brook, a point some two miles from Long Pond, we found another 
fossiliferous band of rock. There the sandstone is compact, but 
it frequently contains fragments of slate an inch or more across. 
Thus it is evident that this rock is newer than the slates on either 
side. The dip of the rock here is S. 31** E. 2**. The fossils are 
not so numerous as in some other places, but they seem to be 
more generally distributed through the rock. This is the only 
locality where the coral Favosites is found. From this point to 
Long Pond the outcrop is the same compact brown sandstone that 
we had seen in several places between the little Brassua and the 
mouth of Stony Brook. Long Pond is nine miles in length, and 
is the longest of the numerous sheets of water which are expan- 
sions of Moose River. It varies in width from a quarter to a half 
mile. The first outcrop of rock on the south shore contains con- 
cretions of iron pyrites, but no fossils. About half-way up the lake 
the strata run diagonally across, and there are several outcrops 
of rock at some distance from the shore. Here there are a few 
fossils, but as they are on the perpendicular face of the ledges it 
is impossible to obtain specimens by ordinary appliances ; yet it 
gives us the means of the exact dip of the strata. Six miles fh>m 



B. NATURAL HISTORT. 209 

the outlet on the south shore there is quite an extensive outcrop 
of rock and an abundance of fossils. The dip of the strata here 
is S. 20"" £. 55^ The sandstone is of a lighter, color than that 
which is generally found farther east, and the strata dip at a 
greater angle. The fossiliferous portion of the rock is more 
argillaceous than the non-fossiliferous. 

Groing south across the strata to Mountain Brook, a stream 
ronning east from Owl's Head, there are a few fossils, but rather 
indistinct. The dip of rock here is S. 40^ E. 10°. In the south- 
east comer of Long Pond township, near Mud Pond, fossils are 
abundant. The dip is N. 8° W. 6**. The rock generally is of a 
brownish gray color, and nearly everywhere cut by joints ; so 
that where there are no fossils it is difQcult to recognize readily 
the position of the strata. Taking the fossil locality where the 
rock begins to dip north as the middle of the axis, we have by 
trigonometrical calculation the thickness of 2880 ft. for the Oris* 
kany sandstone. The rock northwest of the sandstone is in gen- 
eral an argillaceous schist, and dips toward the sandstone with 
little or no unconformability. If we follow Moose River above 
here we shall find a granitic gneiss. The first outcrop is on an 
island near the outlet of Wood Pond. The fossils from Parlin 
Pond are Strophomena magnifica^ Orthis muscidosa^ Bhynchonella 
oUata^ Benssdceria ovoidesj Leptoccdia flabellites, Spirifera arrecta 
and pyxidcUa^ ModiolopaiSy Cyrtodontay Avicula^ Murchisonia^ Or- 
thoceras and Dcdmanites epicrcUes. 

SECTION FROM LAKE HEGANTIC TO LEXINGTOK. 

The topography of the country from Lake Megantic to Lexing- 
ton, though nowhere very remarkable, possesses some points of 
Interest. Historically it is of note as the route pursued by 
Arnold in his expedition to Quebec in the autumn of 1775. That 
part of the route from Eustis to Lake Megantic is known only to 
lumbermen and trappers, and previous to our visit last autumn, 
the section, except the western border of Lake Megantic, had 
never been studied with reference to its geology. Lake Megantic 
is some sixteen miles in length and from two to five and a half 
in width. With the exception of a settlement at the east end 
there are only primeval forests with some openings made by the 
lombermen and accidental fires. In the vicinity of the lake the 
hills rise in gentle undulations and are covered for the most part 

▲•▲•A. 8. VOL. XXII. B. (U) 



210 B. NATUBAL HISTOBT. 

with a heavy growth of sprace, fir, maple or birch. Southward 
the hills rise to mountain heights. The mountain ridge forms a 
water-shed separating the waters of the St. Lawrence f^om those 
of the soutli and forming the boundary between the States and 
Canada. Two large streams, Victoria on the northwest aod Ar- 
nold on the southeast, flow into the lake. The outlet, the Cbao- 
diere, is on the northeast, a mile and a half ftom the northern ex- 
tremity. On the Arnold River and its tributary, and on the Spi- 
der River, the shores are low for several miles. The Spider 
widens into broad sheets of water, the most prominent of which 
are Rush and Spider lakes. At the head of Spider River the gap 
in the water- shed is lower than elsewhere for many miles on either 
side. Here was a depot of supplier during the boundary sarvey 
in 1844-5. The height of the maple and birch trees on land 
cleared then is from twenty to twenty-five feet. The outlook 
northward is apparently over an unlimited forest : six or seven 
miles southward it is obstructed by a range of high hills. Im- 
mediately south of the water-shed we come into Maine to the 
head waters of Dead River. Some four and a half miles from the 
water-shed are three branches that unite to form this stream. 
From Rush Lake passing over the boundary into Maine, not more 
than a mile and a quarter from the height of land, is a sheet of 
water nearly a mile in length, known as Arnold's Pond ; the out- 
let of which is the middle branch. Along the northeast branch, 
which rises opposite the mouth of Spider River are several bogs, 
one of which is a mile and a half in length. Here the stream 
widens so that boating is practicable to within two and one-half 
miles of Spider River, where there is sufficient depth of water to 
float a " birch." These branches of Dead River with their numer- 
ous lakes are included in a great basin, and the stream breaks 
through this basin in its southern border at the chain of lakes, 
which is an expansion of Dead River some seven or eight miles in 
length and at its greatest width perhaps a little more than a mile. 
Half-way down the lakes there is a high mountain ridge, much 
higher than the mountain sheets between Dead and Spider rivers. 
Along the south shore the rocks form precipitous heights, but on 
the north the rise is more gradual, yet there are many Jutting 
cliffs far up the side of the mountain. At the outlet there is a 
high ridge that extends along the south side of the stream ; but on 
the north the ridge recedes quite a distance from it. From the 



B. NATURAL HISTOKY. 211 

chain of lakes the stream, except for a short distance, for sixty 
miles, is navigable. At the long falls there is a carry of a mile, 
then dead water for five miles to the great falls, and from this 
point continuously rapid to the forks of the Kennebec. A large 
part of Eastis, Flagstaff and Dead river plantation is included in 
a great basin entirely surrounded by mountains. On the south is 
Mount Bigelow, a mountain ridge extending ten miles east and 
west. When it reaches R. 11 jt sweeps round to the north through 
L. 11, the same range. Then the ridge runs west to the long 
falls on Dead River. 

The rocks on a section from Lake Megantic to Lexington are 
as follows : at the north end of the lake there is a dark gray are- 
naceous schist that frequently contains iron P3rrites. On the west 
side of the lake and south of Victoria River there is a wrinkled 
argillaceous schist with a fossil brown slate having small cavities 
filled with a yellowish brown powder. The dip is S. 45® E. 70**. 
These rocks are referred to the Upper Silurian by Sir Wm. Logan 
and they extend down the Chaudiere River to St. Francis. South- 
west we have found them in Ditton and on the boundary of New 
Hampshire. Their eastern limit is near the head of Perry Stream. 
On their southern extension they pass into mica schist. Follow- 
ing the road parallel with the lake six miles from Lake Megantic, 
the rock changes and we have green chloritic schists, containing 
light green epidolitic nodules. The rock here dips N. 35® E. 36®. 
Farther up the lake we have line dark gray sandstones. These 
rocks were examined by Sir Wm. Logan on the lake shore, and 
by him they were referred to the Quebec group, and were supposed 
to underlie the wrinkled argillaceous schist just described. This 
seems quite probable from their relations elsewhere. We have 
the same succession of rocks in New Hampshire in the vicinity 
of Connecticut lake, and name the first Coos Group, the second 
Huronian. Near the boundary of Quebec and Maine and forming 
the water-shed between Chaudiere and Dead rivers, we have a 
band of granite, probably eruptive. Following the granite and 
extending along Dead Riveir for four or five miles we have a gran- 
itic gneiss, the strata of which are apparently horizontal. The 
high mountain ridge at the Chain Lakes is an eruptive granite, 
and this is followed near the outlet of the lake by a fine grained 
gneiss that dips 67® and 70® W., and probably extends two miles 
down the river. We then have for a quarter of a mile a granular 
talcoid schistose rock that dips 80® N. 20® W. This is followed 



212 B. KATUR^I. BI6T0BT. 

by an impure serpentine of a very dark green color, often asbest- 
iform in the joints and appearing to form a synclinal axis. It is 
followed on the southeast by a granular crystalline rock somewhat 
coarser than that on the northeast, but otherwise similar. This 
rock is so cut by joints that it is impossible to determine the dip, 
though the strike corresponds with the granular crystalline rock 
northeast of the serpentine. 

Leaving the river and following the old road, the next outcrop 
is a dark green crystalline rock succeeded by quartzite that dips 
63** S. 20® E. This is followed by a breccia composed of greenish 
slate, quartzite and serpentine, and also what appear to be red- 
dish grains of felsite. The breccia seems to be composed of 
rocks found on either side of it. It is followed on the southeast 
by a quartzite that dips 75® S. 30® W. At Eustis village, ex- 
tending a mile northwest and three and a half miles southeast, 
there is a band of tender fissile slate, generally of a greenish 
gray color, but having bands of light purple, and southeast of 
the village are bands of quartzite. This slate forms a distinct 
synclinal axis. On the Megalloway River we have granular schis- 
tose rocks, quartzites, serpentine and slate. The similarity of 
these to those on Dead River makes it quite probable that the 
latter are a continuation of the former. Between Eustis village 
and Mt. Bigelow, there is a greenish chloritic rock that seems to 
pass into porphyritic gneiss. This rock occupies a lai^e area in 
Dead River plantation and Flagstaff; since a similar rock was 
seen in Range 6, Lot 3, anct northwest at Attean and Wood ponds, 
a continuous band may extend thirty miles northward. There is 
a striking similarity in this rock to one found in Northumberland, 
N. H., and southward. Here, as at Littleton, N. H., there is a 
band of Helderberg limestone containing corals that are remark- 
ably distinct. The rock, where the fossils are most abundant, out- 
crops on an island in Flagstaff Pond. On the west peak of Flag- 
staff Mountain there is a band of limestone, but the fossils are 
very obscure. South of the green chloritic gneiss there is a mica 
schist or imperfect gneiss that resembles very closely the White 
Mountain series. On the west peak of Mt. Bigelow the dip is 50® 
N. On the ridge extending from Mt. Bigelow east, where the 
road passes over it in Range 11, No. 2, the rock is mica schist. 
It dips 60® N. 5® W., and carries an abundance of small crystals 
of andalusite. These rocks rest on a porphyritic gneiss that oat- 
crops a few rods south of the height of land. This gneiss resem- 



B. KATUBAL HI8T0BT.' 218 

bles the rock of the basin northwest in the valley, and is followed 
on the south in New Portland by a granitoid gneiss that resem- 
bles very closely that associated with the gneiss in the vicinity of 
the White Mountains. 

Adopting the conclusions derived ft*om our study of the rocks 
in northern New England, w^ think the porphyritic gneiss south 
of Mt. Bigelow is the oldest of all the rocks enumerated. The 
gneisses of Mt. Bigelow and the ridges eastward abound in crys- 
tals of andalusite, and appear to belong to the White Mountain 
series, and to rest upon the porphyritic variety. The series of 
chloritic and talcoid schists, (^uartzites and serpentines, appears to 
be still more recent and to be allied to the Huronian system. 
The granite and gneiss f^om the Lake outlet on the east to the 
Megantic basin on the west may be older than the Huronian upon 
both flanks. 

COKCLUSIOKS. 

Four important conclusions may be drawn from the distribution 
of the formations in northwestern Maine. 

1. The Oriskany sandstone reposes gently upon Eozoic gneisses 
— the first bearing scarcely more traces of alteration than the 
corresponding group in New York, while the second seems to have 
been metamorphosed and elevated before the Devonian formation 
was deposited. No further trace of this group has yet been found 
towards the White Mountains. It has been followed through 
Maine from one hundred and fifty to two hundred miles, and sim- 
ilar rocks are described in Nova Scotia by Dawson. It can, 
therefore, no longer be maintained with reason that these strata 
pass into New Hampshire in a metamorphosed condition. 

2. The Oriskany is several times thicker than in its extension 
in the interior and farther south in Pennsylvania. The greatest 
thickness mentioned by H.D. Rogers is five hundred and twenty 
feet, only one-fifth its dimensions in Maine. The greatest ob- 
served thickness in New York is only thirty feet. 

S. The discovery of new localities of Helderberg limestone 
indicates a wide-spread submergence of eastern America in Up- 
per Silarian and Middle Devonian times, of nearly fifteen hundred 
feet. These fossils have been detected, at Bemardston, Mass., 
Lyman and Littleton, N. H., Montreal, Lake Memphremagog 
and other localities to the northeast in Quebec Province, Eustis, 
Flagstaff and Spencer Mountain, in the field described above in 



214 B. KATUBAL HISTORY. 

Maine, and still greater developments in the northern part of 
Maine, too extensive to be specially mentioned ; hence, 

4. There must have been subsequently to the Helderberg, 
a period of elevation to bring New England to essentially its 
present position. Possibly this epoch may be indicated in the 
later elevating force seen upon Mt. Washington. The highly in- 
clined Helderberg strata at Littleton and Owl's Head, P. Q., cer- 
tainly bear witness to the exertion of a powerful elevating agency. 



Thb outer Cebbbbal Fissures of Mammalia (espeoiallt thb 
Carnivora) and the Limits of their Homology. By 
Burt G. Wilder, of Ithaca, N. Y. 

Naturally, human brains have been most extensively studied, 
and chiefly those of adults ; some have compared foetal brains with 
those of Quadrumana but the existing doubt and disagreement,* 
with the lack of any generally recognized basis for the determina- 
tion of fissural homologies, suggest the need of a different method 
of study ; and as the main object of this and the next paper is to 
throw doubts upon the value of current opinions respecting brains, 
it is proper to state the materials upon which my opinions are 
based. It will be understood therefore that, unless otherwise 
stated, my present generalizations are based upon these materials 
only, and are subject to revision when a larger number of speci- 
mens is at my disposal. 

Where but a single drawing or diagram was made, it generally 
represents the outer surface of the left side ; the second usaally 
the right side, or the upper (dorsal) surface ; and the mesial and 
ventral surfaces were added if their peculiarities required and time 
permitted. All of these drawings and diagrams were made by 
myself, and most of them were exhibited at the meeting. 

The varieties of dogs' brains will be given in the next paper. 

On the following page I give a list of original preparations and 
drawings of mammalian brains made since July, 1871, and forming 
the basis of this and the following paper. 

* A good example of this is stated by Ecker who Includes the anterior central lobt 
with the Arontal, while Gratiolet and Bischoff include It with the parietal. 

This note, with some other matter which delay In publication has permitted me to is* 
•ert, should bear date of December, 1873. 



B. KATCBAL HI3I0RT. 



M»c»cn» 

Cynocepbolas 

? 

CulH Aunlliarls 

CiiklB occideoMlie 

Tolpes folrus 

Fells catns, mr. domeBtlcaB., 

Pelia leo,t>ar. AMcaniia 

Felii leo, cor. AalatlcnB 

Hjonft TDlgarla 

DnnB Amerlcutu 

Piocjon lotor 

FnloTim NoTebOTBoenalB 

fins Kiolk 

Eqniu cabaUaB 

KqnDS 

Boi Uunu 

OtU arias 

tiapn Kgasma 

Capn agagrgs, mr 

Carlacna Virglnionas 

CuaelnaBoctrlBnug 

Uoa dCEonuuias 

Hoa miucDliis 

Fiber itlNUilcD 

Bclnrqi Budionloa 

CjnaiiiTf LadoTieiaana... . 
HeapvromfB leacopaa 

SeotoplUluafasRns.... 

Did«lphTi Vlrginlana 

Ganera, M ; Bp., SS : Var., 10-15. 



Wtaitfr-bced India iioakaj.. 

UoDker 

Domeatlc Dog 

Gray WoV. 

Red Fox 



Cat... 



Striped HyBQa.... 
Black Bbbi 



UdI«... 



Cashinere Goat 

Tvo-bamped Camol... 

BrafTD Bat 

Uoase 

Woodchni*^ 

Uasknt 

Bed Squirrel 

Prairie Dog. 

Deer Hooae 

Broim Bat 

OpoaBum 



216 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 



These specimens form part of a collection to illustrate the neu- 
rology and embryology of domesticated animals, which Professor 
Agassiz* authorized me to make for, and at the expense of, the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology in Cambridge.f 

It will be seen that the above list of one hundred and eightj- 
nine individuals includes about twenty-eight genera, represented 
by about thirty-two species, and about forty-five varieties, the 
numbers varying according to differing estimate of the Jiaxonomic 
relations of the individuals. 

The size of human brains, the expense of their preservation in 
numbers, the rarity of apes' brains, and especially of foetal speci- 
mens, together with the complexity of the fissural pattern which 
man and Quadrumana have in common with herbivorous mammals, 
are additional reasons for selecting other subjects. A simpler fifr 
sural pattern exists with the Camivora. Among these the wild 
Oanidce (fox, wolf and fennec) occupy a position midway between 
the Viverridce and Mustelidm on the one hand, and the domestic 
dogs, the Felidce, UrsidoB and Eycenidce^ on the other. That is, 
all the main fissures found in Camivora are present in the fox, 
but uncomplicated by contortions and by secondary fissures. 

Method op Preparation.!— The present paper treats only of 
those cerebral fissures which are visible from the outer side of a 
brain properly prepared. Heretofore all brains have been har- 

•since this paper was wiltten, he who inspired it has.finished his work in this worid. 
AM his student, his assistant and feUow-teacher, I cannot refrain ftom expressing my 
sense of bereavement. To me he was not only a jrreat naturalist; he was thb wisest of 
teachers and the kindest of fi-iends; whose criticism was a healthy stimulus and his 
praise a sweet reward. 

t Those who bear in mind that not a single brain was preserved ftom an entin 
menagerie which was suffocated in Boston about thirteen years ago, and that no simi- 
lar coUecUon exists in this country on account of ItA great cost in time, alcohol and 
means of displaying, will appreciate the extent of interest which Prof. Agassis felt la 
this special undertalcing; and while, as Professor in one institution, I must regret thst 
Jit ^ "''^ **^ "^ "^^""^ ^^"""^^ ^^^^^ ** ^°'' another, yet as it must be yean betore 
w^T^T*^'' *"^ ^"'®*' ""««"™ can command the means required Ibr such a special ool- 
th« i^-U*^ i^*^"'®^^ ^°'' ***® opportunity of using this material as it came tor 
Z«M« ?^^''° ° .™^ students, and by this kind of work, avoiding for a season, the 
flnslcui n^ff ?f7 *" ^I" "^^^ ""^ P^'P"^" ^'•^«°« *°d lecturing, to which the existing 
sor?contiT.« * " ""^ ^''"^^ °^ '^^ *^^""^« American University compel its Profts- 
thrdtwmnn^^^^ '^^^^^^'^ ~^^ ^' ""^^ ^ **^« impairment of Uieir powers, and 

^lirtmT^lrJ^^^^ '^"^ Institution to which they would rather devote aU 

ineir time, their energies and their enthusiasm. 

but I hTvrb^L'«\*J^**^ '*°"*r^' '°**^* ^ ^***^^ ^'^ P'~^ »* *»»• ^^ ^ ^ P^P^I 
™ method affects the result," that I wish to submit mine at the outset. 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 217 

dened while resting upon their base. They become nnnaturally 
flattened, and are then generally figured from above only. Like so 
many other methods borrowed from anthropotomy, the common 
manner of extracting the human brain is seldom applicable to those 
of animals ; the skull, as well as the brain, is more useful if ver- 
tically bisected, and this seems to be the only way of insuring the 
safety of the olfactory lobes and the appendicular lobule of the 
cerebellum ; the former are rarely figured of their full size (as, for 
example, in the cat and cheetah. Trans. Zool. Soc, toI. i, pi. xx), 
while the very existence of the latter seems often unsuspected 
even in those animals where, by extracting the brain after bisecting 
the skull, I have found it of great size. In a future communica- 
tion, I intend to illustrate this peculiar organ and make some 
remarks upon its connections, mode of formation, function and 
zoological significance. It is particularly large in the bear but 
small or wanting in the lion and in cats ; being often bulbous at 
its extremity, the utmost care must be exercised to avoid breaking 
the pedicel, and I have found it easier to effect the dislodgment 
by throwing air behind it with a small blow-pipe. Figure 1 rep- 
resents from below the left appendicular lobule (A L) of a 
Chinese dog ;* it seems to be a protrusion of a portion of one of 
the horizontal series of convolutions. 

I am inclined to think that in most cases, the way to preserve 
the entire brain in its natural form is to bisect it either before or 
after extraction, and to place each half upon its mesial surface in 
a flat-bottomed vessel of alcohol. As it rapidly loses weight in 
alcoholf and gains in water, and as handling out of these fluids 
is apt to distort it, I would recommend weighing each half of the 
head before and after extraction ; the difierence gives the exact 
weight of the brain ; but as the apparatus which I employ (a sort 
of adjustable *^ Mitre-box") does not as yet enable me to insure 
bisection on the middle line exactly, I have not /elt justified in 
comparing the two halves of brains together. If both hemispheres 
are to be preserved entire, the section should go rather to the left 
than the right of the middle line, in order to leave the mesial sur- 
face of the right hemisphere uninjured ; but if the right is to be 

* This and the oUier figures will be found at the end of next paper. 

fThe extent of this loss may be seen fi-om the following cases; a brain weighing 
,066. lost one-sixth of its weight in eighteen hours, and one«third in four days ; a brain 
weighing ,135. lost one twenty-fifth in sixteen hours and one-half its weight in two 
months; of course the rapidity of the loss will vary with the size of the brain, the 
amount and strength of the spirit and the frequency of its renewal. 



218 B. NATURAL HISTORT. 

dissected^ then the mesial surface of the left should be saved by 
carrying the section a little to the right ; of course, howeTcr, if 
there is certainty of the saw going just between the two, so mach 
the better. 

The pia mater should be removed before drawing; this is beat 
accomplished after the brain has shrunken a little in spirit, using 
a pair of fine forceps and fine curved scissors. 

If possible, both sides of a brain should be drawn ; but if only 
one, the left ; and with all Camivora (although not with all Eer- 
bivora), all the outer fissures may be seen in such a view; while 
this is not the case in the view from above, even when the brain is 
flattened. In drawing, each half should rest upon a slip ruled in 
square centimetres ;* if the brain is larger than that of a cat, the 
slip may be pinned upon a sheet of cork, and two or more threads 
stretched over the brain, coinciding with the lines hidden by it ; 
then the drawing may be made upon another ruled slip, with great 
accuracy ; the mesial, upper and lower surfaces of the brain may 
be drawn in like manner, though less easily ; and large diagrams 
may be accurately reproduced, by ruling cloth in squares ten, fif- 
teen or twenty times the diameter of the original drawing; the 
homologous fissures may be uniformly colored as in the diagrams 
exhibited ; Gratiolet, Owen and BischofT have colored homologoos 
folds, but it is obvious that the same end is more readily attained 
by coloring the fissures ; and that alterations are also more prac- 
ticable. 

It would certainly be an advantage to possess a cast of the cnr 
nial cavity for comparison with the brain; and all comparative 
measurements and weights should take into account the shrinkage 
of brains, and their loss of weight.f 

*I am happy to state that Mr. G«o. Wool worth Colton, the well Imown map-mtker, 
and a member of thia Association, has offered to prepare ruled paper of a size sad 
quality suited to this and other natural history purposes. 

It will be noted ttfat the perspective is ignored In drawings made by the ab0T« method; 
each flssuxe is represented as if at a point on a line perpendicular to the sarOlccon 
which the brain rests: a drawing in which this line should be perpendfcnlar to the 
eonvex turf act of the hemisphere would produce the effect seen in fig. 5, plate la. 

t When a brain is once thoroughly hardened in alcohol it may be kept in weaker 
spirit or dear water during examination; it rapidly shrinks stiU more in the air; I an 
conducting experiments to show how well and how long, hardened brains can be pie* 
seryed in a mixture of equal parts glycerine and water; which does not evaporate like 
spirit and, by Its greater specific gravity, avoids injurious pressure of the specimens 
upon each other or upon the vessel; the best way of keeping many brains fbr study li 
in a wide tin box two or three inches deep and cased in wood, with a glass cover; if 
each half of a brain is kept on its mesial surface, no injury can result. 



B. NATURAL BISTORT. 219 

The Cerebral Fissures. — More attention has been given to 
the folds (gyri, convolations, or anfractuosities) than to the fis- 
sures (furrows or sulci). But, whatever may be the manner of 
their formation, the latter really represent the location of the 
augmented gray, ganglionic or dynamic tissue more than the for- 
mer ; for, as a rule (the only exceptions being the points of oblique 
junction of two fissures), the contiguous walls of a fissure are 
nearer together than the two sides of either of the folds which it 
separates ; a line representing the fissure, therefore, indicates the 
location of a much larger bulk of gray matter than a line of equal 
width representing any part of the surface of the fold. 

Practically too the fissures are by much the easier to describe 
and designate, and it would be as hard to designate folds without 
first identifying fissures as to describe the countries of Europe 
without mentioning its rivers. The sides of a fissure are. usually 
near together and parallel, so that the fissure may be described or 
figured as a single line of certain direction; but the opposite 
borders of any one fold are rarely parallel throughout their whole 
extent. 

Moreover, the surface, which in one brain forms two folds, with 
an intervening fissure, may in another be one continuous fold. 
What shall it be called ? Relatively, at least, the surface of a con- 
toluted brain is the same as it was before the fissures appeared ; 
while the fissures are gradually introduced and are to a certain 
extent capable of identification ; and although they may be wholly 
due to a vertical elevation of the contiguous folds, yet it is the 
fissures and not the folds which can be said to increase, to connect, 
or to remain separate. Granting, then, that folds are the ulti- 
mate object of our study, fissures are first to be so thoroughly 
identified in all animals that when one of them or one of the folds 
is mentioned, there can be no doubt of its being recognized by all. 

Fissures may be studied in four ways : 

First: As to their general nature. 

Second: Singly, as to their special peculiarities. 

Third: As evidences of zoological afi^nities. 

Fourth : As indications of intellectual power. 

The last view will be considered in the next paper. According 
to the first view, we may at once separate three of Owen's fissures 
from the rest. The rhinoL is the line of separation between the 
olfactory crus or tract and the cerebrum proper. The median or 



220 B. NATUIUX BISTORT* 

inter-fiemispheral fissare divides the two cerebral hemispheres; 
and although in most Camivora the true fissures seem to be ar- 
ranged with some reference to it, and although it has clearly defined 
borders, yet neither of these features exists with Herbivora, The 
sylvian fissure marks the location of a kind of mound of cerebral 
substance, the '^ Island of Beil," and its manner of formation is 
somewhat peculiar, as shown Jiereafter. 

Formation of Fissures. — No one doubts that all brains, even 
the most deeply furrowed, were smooth at an earlier stage of 
development. This transformation, so far as the result is con- 
cerned, might be compared with the segmentation of an undivided 
yolk ; but probably the process is more often comparable with 
the formation of the primitive fUrrow ; and although they look 
like clefts or depressions in the brain mass, it is probable that the 
fissures are the result of a difference in the rapidity of growth of 
different parts; certain points or lines remaining relatively sta- 
tionary, and becoming the bottoms of depressions or fissures* 
Still I canno.t rid myself wholly of the idea that shallow fissures, 
at least, may be formed by direct d^reasion; and if Ecker is 
rightly translated he seems to have this view respecting all of 
them ; ^'Actual convolutions are formed in these districts only 
with the further progress of the formation of fissures (p. 14)- 
The formation of the convolutions is, of course, entirely depend- 
ent on the development of the fissures ; and in the regioaof the 
temporal lobe, in which the latter are most variable, the convolu- 
tions are so too" (p. 65). 

But on page fifteen, in contrasting the sylvian with other fissures 
he says that the latter *' originate simply from depressions or folds 
of the cerebral cortex." (The italics are mine). 

Now, as regards the aspect of the cerebral surface in the adnlt, 
it makes perhaps no great difference whether we speak of the fis- 
sures as depressions or the folds as elevations ; and the former is 
more natural on account of the greater extent of the elevated sur- 
faces ; so too in conversation it is easier to say that the sun rises 
and sets than that the earth revolves upon its orbit ; but in sci- 
entific language it would seem proper to speak according io the 
fact rather than the appearance. 

Undoubtedly one source of conftision is the indiscriminate use 
of terms signifying the transformations themselves and the condi- 



B. NATURAL HI8T0RT* 221 

tions reached thei^eby ; and we might avoid it by discriminating 
between appearance and aspect, formation and conformation, 
development and presence or existence, etc. 

As a single example of the looseness of our present expressions, 
on account of lack of definite information, Huxley (Comp. 
Anat. of Vertebrates, p. 492) enumerates among the distinctive 
features of the haman brain, ^^the filKng up of the occipito tempo- 
ral fissure," as compared with that of apes ; in its most UtercU 
sense this would imply that something JUled a previously existing 
fissure ; a little less literally, that the bottom of the fissure grew 
up to the surface of the adjoining folds, so that a foetal fissure did 
not exist in the adult ; and still again, and this would be a per- 
fectly legitimate interpretation, it might Indicate the fact, that a 
fissure which exists in apes did not exist in man in any stage ; 
but even this would be capable of at least two meanings, according 
as the readers believed, or not, in actual evolution. 

The formation of fissures seems to proceed very rapidly.* I 
have traced it in kittens of the same litter, killed at short intervals 
beginning at birth ; and even allowing for individual and sexual 
differences, it would appear that during the first week, a change 
may occur perceptible within six hours ; the most favorable fissure 
for this purpose is the frontal. 

The large superficial cerebral vessels often lie in the fissures ; 
but that this is merely a coincidence, and not a cause, is indicated 
by the frequent departure of these blood-pipes from their trenches ; 
the slight furrow which marks the course of a large vessel across 
a fold has generally a more regular form with better defined bor* 
jders. "Where the folds are much contorted as in man and most 
herbivora, as compared with their simplicity at an earlier stage, 
one can hardly avoid the conjecture that the folds are formed 
under pressure, and that the brain behaves much as would a piece 
of thick cloth crowded into a cavity. Still more suggestive of 
this idea is the lateral contortion of the median lobe of the cere- 
bellum in cats ; in the newly born kitten (Fig. 2, K), this is ver- 
tical in direction and presents few folds ; in all but one of the 
adult cats that I have examined, the median lobe appears, as in 
Fi^. 2, C, laterally contorted ; the progress of these remarkable 
changes will be fully illustrated on another occasion.f 

* As does the ^rolk segmentation wUh Turtles (Agassiz, Cont. Nat. Hist. U.S. 2,028). 

t Scker speaks (p. 10) of the ** formation of conTolutions as a necessary coneeqnenco 
of certain mechanical processes of the brain and skull/* but it is not clear how much 
influence is attributed to the latter by this expression. 



222 B. NATT7BAX HISTORT. 

Yet while we may recognize a sort of correlation between the 
existence of fissures and the need of enclosing a certain amoant 
of gray matter within a space which is represented by the cranial 
cavity, it by no means follows that osseous walls are the imme- 
diate and direct cause of the convolution ; much less does it follow 
that the particular direction of the fissures is occasioned by the 
ridges upon the inner cranial surface with which they coincide. In 
short, we may regard the size of skull and of brain as concomi- 
tants of the degree and character of fissuration without attempting, 
as yet, to assign to them the relation of cause and effect. It may 
not be proper to compare cerebral fissuration with the primitive 
formation of the encephalic lobes, but it is certain that this latter 
takes place independently of cranial circumscription, especially in 
many fishes where the cranial cavity far exceeds the brain mass ; 
and it would be interesting to ascertain whether this interspace 
exists in any of those fishes which, like ElaccUe^ present some cere- 
bral fissuration. At present the matter must be regarded as un- 
decided ; and the way to elucidate our own lack of information is 
to ask ourselves whether, in total absence of cranial walls, any 
cerebral convolution would be developed in the higher MammaUa. 

FissuRAL Homologies. — In order to describe the variations of 
fissures in different brains, they must first be identified. Although 
Owen has (Comp. Anat. of Vertebrates, vol. iii, pp. 114 to 143) 
undertaken to homologize the fissures of the higher mammalia 
(Oyrencephala) throughout, and has rarely admitted the liability 
of error (as on p. 117), yet the very completeness of his determi- 
nations throws doubt upon them in view of the lack of reference 
to individual peculiarities, and the renunciation of development as 
a guide to homology ; and it will be safer to keep in view the con- 
clusion of Gratiolet. (Mem. sur les plis cerebraux de I'homme, 
p. 10.) 

**It is sufficient to compare the brain of an ape with that of a camlTore 
or ruminant in order to show that in the different manmialian orders, the 
cerebral folds present very different arrangements. 

These differences are such that it would be imprudent to establish par- 
allel divisions and to search for homologies. In fact that search has no 
certain basis, and we do not hope to accomplish it in a moment." 

Criteria op homology. — Having no true structural features, 
they present, as tests of homology: 1. Powtion in relation to 



B. NATURAL HISTORY. 223 

internal structure (as the rhincU and sylvian). 2. Position in 
relation to other fissures so determined. In connection with this 
lattei* test, we must ascertain whether anything like transposition 
is possible ; this question will be raised in respect to special fis- 
sures. Their connections, branches, length, and general direction 
are probably of less value. Great aid is always to be had by 
comparison with simpler brains of allied species, or with the brains 
of yoong of the same species. The extent of variation in length, 
direction and connections, which may exist without invalidating 
their homology, is most readily seen by comparing the coitcs* 
ponding fissures upon the two halves of one brain (plate 3, figs. 
12, 13) ; it appears that a long fissure may be represented by 
several short and disconnected ones ; that branches may or may 
not exist at either end (these branches are almost invaiiably 
dichotomous) ; that two fissures wholly separate in the foatus, and 
in other species may unite either directly or by a branch. Good 
examples of this are the lateral and coronal fissures, which are 
perfectly distinct in the foetus in some adults, and on one side only 
of others, but which show a tendency to unite ; a marked con- 
stancy in the location and direction of a branch may, as in this 
case, indicate the point of union. Finally, with respect to several 
fissures, we must either deny a homology which would be other- 
wise unquestioned, or admit that in one species or on one side, its 
manner TO formation may greatly difier. This will be exemplified 
in connection with the special fissures in this and the following 
paper; for example the presylvian^ and the ectosylvian. While 
insisting, however, upon the provisional nature of many of the 
names which authors have given to the cerebral fissures of mam- 
mals, it is necessary to adopt some nomenclature in order to be 
understood, and in the present paper the names given by Owen 
will be employed with some modifications. 

Special Fissures. The Sylvian. — This is the most constant 
of all fissures ; there is no question respecting its existence or its 
name in all brains which are fissured at all.* 

Its length, direction, branches and connections vary consider- 

*0n this account I have not hesitated to mark this Assure upon all the flipires, $f 
bat since there is some doubt respecting the name or the nature of all othei' Assures, 
the letters designating them are placed outside of the figure, in order to alio .r revision ; 
most of the figures are shown white on a darlL ground; this will allow futuie alteration 
in the relative width of fissures in order to indicate their depth or relative constancy. 



224 B. KATUBAL HISTOBT. 

ably, but, as a rule, in the adult it forms a nearly straight fissure 
directed dorsad and backward, never reaching ihe dorsal margin of 
the hemisphere, and rarely if ever inclining forward, though gener- 
ally nearly vertical in HerbivorU. Its manner of formation is very 
peculiar, and may be readily traced in new bom or foetal kittens 
and puppies ; in these and also in the foetal wolf (fig. 6), there 
appears, where in the adult the sylvian is to join the rAtnd, s 
rounded elevation (which is probably homologous with the Insyk 
or Island of Reil, of anthropotomy) bounded above and behind by s 
shallow trench ; in front this island is apparently continuous with 
a narrow area of cerebral substance which still more anteriorlj 
broadens into that part which lies just behind the olfactory lobe; 
the primitive sylvian fissure is therefore an (3D-shaped depressed 
line whose posterior end joins the rhinal, and whose anterior end 
is turned upward ; by the gradual projection of the cerebral mass 
above this line, it overhangs the depressed tract, so that the ven- 
tral part of the curve reaches the rhincd fissure and coincides with 
it for a certain distance ; this portion I have ventured to call the 
basisylvian (Bs) ; by the growth of the mass before and behmd 
the semicircular area now left, and the final approximation of the 
walls, the Insula is at length wholly concealed, and the semicir- 
cular trench becomes a single fissure ; strictly speaking therefore, 
the sylvian is an arched fissure like thos^ which surround it {edo- 
sylviariy supersylvian and laJteral),* 

Presylvian (Ps.). — The anterior and ascending (dorsad) extrem- 
ity of the primitive sylvian seems to correspond with the "ascending 

*From a translation (Cerebral Conyolntions of Man) which has Just come into my 
hands, I find that Ecker of Freiburg, four years ago, observed the formation of the 
$lflvian fissure, and that some of his conclusions upon this and other points are neariy 
like my own. I am sure that Ecker will be only glad that another has reached similar 
results from different materials, for he employed human brains exclusively , while I 
have purposely discarded them for the simpler brains of CanUvora. Certainly he and 
all other honorable scientific men would accept the coUeotions and drawings made by 
me as evidence of my entire independence in the work; but for the satisftictioo of 
others, including the writer of an editorial in " The New York Evening Post" lor Aug. 
80, which directly chains me with unacknowletiged borrowing f^m Ecker, I tm com- 
pelled to state that to-day, Sept. 8, 1873, for the first time, have I learned the contents of 
Ecker's work. 

Moreover, while not questioning the correctness of Ecker's statement that in man 
" the whole hemisphere curves Itself in an arch, concave below, around the place of ea. 
trance of the cerebral peduncle ** (p. 13), it is proper to say that the brains of kittens and 
puppies examined by me do not confirm it; nor is it easy to see how so long a fissure 
as that of the bear could be formed in that way; it is evident that for the elncidation of 
this and many other points, we need a very extended scries of observations upon the 
developing brain of many animals. 






B. NATITBAL HISTORT. 225 

branch" (Ecker, fig. 1, S^') in its manner of formatdon, and 
in its relation to the sylvian; but the intervening space in all 
brains I have examined is so much larger than the "operculum" of 
anthropotomy that I hesitate to affirm it before observing its forma- 
tion in many intermediate species. Moreover, in a lion (fig. 18), 
there is a small fissure between the sylvian and what I take to be 
the presylvian^ which in some respects more nearly resembles the 
'*- ascending branch" in man ; while in a bear (fig. 10) and raccoon 
(fig. 11) there is a similar one in front of the presylvian^ which 
may be only a continuation of the slight upward curve at this 
point which the rhinal presents in many dogs. I would suggest the 
name presylvian^ at least for the fissure already described in C7ar- 
nivora. It is evidently the same which Flower refers to as super- 
arbitai (Anat. of Frotdes; Proc. Zool. Soc, 1869, p. 479), but there 
seem good reasons for regarding it as ideaUy, at least, a dismem- 
berment of the sylvian, I say ideally, for although generally so in 
fact, yet occasionally there is no connection whatever, and that 
which would in respect to position be called presylvian is an 
isolated fissure. This is the case on both sides of a raccoon 
(fig. II),* and on the left of an impure tan terrier dog; of the 
right of this brain I have no drawing, but think the union is as 
usual. This is certainly a point which should be clearly under- 
stood before we can be sure of the value of our determination ; at 
present I am not prepared to explain it. It will be noted also that 
in most d(^s and in the lion, the presylvian is not only very long, 
but apparently double, as if a special and independent fissure had 
become connected with its dorsal end ; whether this is the case 
can probably be decided by sections, for there is reason to think 
that an independent fissure is always deepest at its middle where 
it may generally be supposed to comnience ; and if the fissure in 
question is shallower at the point of suspected junction we may 
fairly conclude that it is really a coiiipound fissure. 

FROMTALf (F.). This fissure is