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PROCEEDINGS 

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American Antiquarian 
Society 



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American Antiquarian 
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COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 



EDWARD E. HALE. CHARLES A. CHASE. 

NATHANIEL PAINE. CHARLES C. SMITH. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



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NEW SERIES, VOL. XVII. 



APRIL 190&— APRIL 1006. 




WORCESTER, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY 

1907. 



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CONTENTS. 



NoTB OF CoioarrBs of Publication 

EiBBATA 



SEin-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 26, 1905. 

FaOCMKDISQS AT THB MsSFmO 1 

Rbpobt of THB Council 11 

Obituaribs 12 

Embbgbnt Trba8ubt«St7fplj in MAsaACHusBTiB IN Eablt Datb, 

Andrew McFofland Davis 32 

A SCHBBOB FOB THB CONQUBBT OF CANADA IN 1746, VtCtOT HvQO 

PaUiiU 60 

jHBHIfT TaTLOR and RbUOIOUS LiBBBTT IN THB EnQLIBH ChUBCB, 

DarM Mmriman 03 

An Ancibnt Instancb of Municipal Ownbbbhip, Samnd UtUy, 126 

In Rb Thb Will of Thomas Horb 180 



ANNUAL MEETING, OCTOBER 21, 1906. 

Pbocbbdings at THB Mbetino 133 

Labor Oroanizateonb in Ancient, Mbdubval and Modbrn 

Tnos, CarroU D, Wright. ,\ 130 

Memorial of Gborqb F. Hoar, Edward E, Hale 152 

Obituarieb 167 

Report of thb Treasurer 168 

Report of the Librarian 175 

Gitebs Aio) Gnrre 190 

NoncB OF Yucatan with Some Remareb on its Water Sttfplt, 

DaM Caearea 207 

The Jackson and Van Buren Papers, WUHam MacDanald 231 

A Page of American History, Edward H, Thompeon 230 

Memoir of Henrt Hitchcock, John Oreen 253 



SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 25, 1006. 

PklOCBBDINaS AT THB MBBTINa 263 



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VI Contents. 

Rbpobt of the Council 200 

Alabama, Mibsibbippi and Tennxbbee Newbpapeb Files in the 

Library of the Sogwit 274 

Remarks on the Eablt American Enqrayinos and the Cam- 

BRiDOE Press Imfrintb, 1640-1692, in the Librart of 

THE American Antiquarian Socibtt, NatharM Pome . . 280 

Obetuabibs 290 

Columbus, Ramon Pane and the Beginnin€» of American 

Antbropoloot, Edward G. Bourne 310 

The Point of View in Hibtort, WUKam E. Foder 349 



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NOTE. 

The Boventeenth volume of the pj«ient series oontaiiui the records of 
the Proceedings of the Society from April 26, 1906 to April 25, 1906 
inclusive. 

The reports of the Council have been prepared by Samud UUey, Carroll 
D. Wright and Nathaniel F^une. 

Papers and communications have been received from Andrew MoF. 
Davis, Daniel Merriman, Victor H. Paltsits, Samuel Uttoy, Carroll D. 
Wright, David Gasares, William MacDonald, Edward H. Thompson, 
Edward O. Bourne, WDliam E. Foster, and Nathaniel P^dne. 

Olntuary notices of the following deceased members appear in this 
volume: Herbert B. Adams, Horatio Rogers, Sir John George Bourinot, 
Douglas Bi3rmner, Frank P. Goulding, Charles E. Adams, Heniy Hitch- 
cock, Stephen Salisbury, George F. Hoar, Louis A. Huguet-Latour, 
James H. Salisbury, Sefior Joaquin Htlbbe, James D. Butler and 
Samuel P. Lang^ey. 

COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION. 



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ERRATA. 

Page 15, line 28, for 1824 ^^^ 1836. 

Rige 16, line 33, for Puritana read Providence, 

Page 26, line 31, for DanielU'a read Danida's, 

Page 73, line 5, for Thomaa read Henry. 

Page 134, lines 18, 20, 22-24, 27, for Roundslay read Katofufey. 

Page 135, lines 6, 7, for Law AuodaUan of the UnUed States read Ameriean 

Bar AasodaUon. 
Page 136, line 20, insert WiUiam before iffmry. 
Page 156, line 29, for TTo^cott read Wolcott. 
Page 191, line 42, for Vinocradoff read Vinogradoif. 
Fafsd 194, line 40, or Hamilton, P. Walter read Hamilton, F. Walter. 
Page 243, line 29, for Chid read ChL 
Page 244, line 34, for May read Ay. 
Page 246, line 24, for Pinrus, read Pihibus. 
Page 257 line 2n for daye read years. 
Rige 312, line 4n omit TAs 2ate. 
Cover to Part 3 for Annual Meeting held in Woreeeter read Semiannual 

Meeting held in Boeton. 



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April, 1905.] Proceedings 



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PROCEEDINGS. 



SEMI-ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL 26, 1905, AT THE HALL OF 
THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY IN BOSTON. 



The meeting was called to order by the President, the 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury. 

The following members were present: — 

Edward E. Hale, Nathaniel Paine, Stephen Salisbury, 
Samuel A. Green, Edward L. Davis, James F. Himnewell, 
Edward H. Hall, Albert H. Hoyt, Charles C. Smith, Edmund 
M. Barton, Franklin B. Dexter, Charles A. Chase, Samuel 
S. Green, Andrew McF. Davis, Solomon Lincoln, Daniel 
Merriman, Reuben Colton, Henry H. Edes, George E. 
Francis, J. Phinney Baxter, G. Stanley Hall, Charles P. 
Greenough, Francis H. Dewey, Carroll D. Wright, William 
T. Forbes, George H. Haynes, Charles L. Nichols, Waldo 
Lincoln, Edward S. Morse, John Noble, Austin S. Garver, 
A. Lawrence Rotch, Samuel Utley, E. Harlow Russell, Ben- 
jamin T. Hill, Edmund A. Engler, Alexander F. Chamber- 
lain, William MacDonald, Roger B. Merriman, Victor H. 
Paltsits, Daniel B. Updike. 

The report of the Council was presented by Judge 
Samuel IFtlet and Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., 
of Cambridge. The latter read a paper, entitled, "Emer- 
gent Treasury-Supply in Massachusetts in Early Days." 

Judge WnxiAM T. Forbes of Worcester said, that in 
the records at the Registry of Deeds in Worcester, he 
1 



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2 American ArUiquarian Society. [April, 

found that Mr. Davis's ancestor, the first Isaac Davis 
in Worcester County, bought some real estate, the old 
Davis homestead, the consideration for which was so many 
ounces of plated silver. Judge Forbes enqiured whether 
that signified silver bullion, silver plate or plated silver. 
Mr. Davis thought there was no question that silver 
bullion was meant. 

G. Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, read a biography 
of his ''former colleague, and very near neighbor and 
friend,'' Herbert Baxter Adams, LL.D., of Baltimore, Md. 

The Recording Secretary reported that the Gotmcil 
recommended for election Deloraine P. Corey of Maiden, 
Mass., as a resident member, and Dr. £mile Levasseur of 
Paris, as a foreign member. Both gentlemen, on formal 
ballot, were declared elected members of the Society. 

In presenting a paper, "A Scheme for the Conquest of 
Canada in 1746," VicroB H. Paltshs of New York said: 
"I bring also the greetings of our associate, Wilberforce 
Eames, of New York, who was unable to be here, but 
wished me to extend his greetings to you. The subject 
of my paper is, 'A scheme for the conquest of Canada 
in 1746.' The allusions to it which are in print are quite 
inaccurate. I might say this study has its origin from an 
examination of the books and journals of the various 
legislative bodies, and extracts from the Public Record 
Office of London, and from official or semi-official contem- 
poraneous publications of the time." 

The Society next listened to a paper on, "Jeremy Taylor 
and Religious Liberty in the English Church," by Rev. 
Daniel Merriman, D.D., of Worcester. In presenting 
his paper. Dr. Merriman said: "It is perhaps proper to 
say that this paper was prepared at the earnest solicitation 
of our distinguished and beloved associate, the late Senator 



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1905.] Proceedings. 8 

Hoar. Mr. Hoar was himself a Puritan of Puritans, and 
as you all know, extremely jealous of their honor; his 
enthusiastic love of good learning, and fondness of poetry, 
and the literary and antiquarian charm connected with 
the established church led him to be insensibly intimate 
with the great worthies of the church, and also desirous 
of doing them entire justice. He desired very much him- 
self to present to this Society a paper on 'Jeremy Taylor 
and religious liberty in the English Church,' and that is 
the topic of the paper I am about to read." 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall: "There is one work of Jeremy 
Taylor to which my attention was called many years 
ago, in a rather singular way. I was studying at Baltimore 
what might be called the 'psychology of conscience,' and 
I was talking with the Bishop of Baltimore, and he said: 
'If you want to see the most moniunental work on con- 
science, if you want to see the work that has in it all the 
sugared-off results of the experiences of the Catholic con- 
fessional plus all those questions that arise in cases of 
Protestant scrupulosity, read Dr. Taylor's "Ductor Dubi- 
tantium." ' I got it many years ago, and made a very 
careful study of it, and it seems to me it is a work of very 
great significance. So I rise merely to ask the essayist 
whether in his very interesting paper he will not modify 
the statement which was in effect that this work had 
little significance and attracted small attention. If I 
remember aright, it was this work on which he bestowed 
more labor than on any other, keeping it by him many 
years. At a recent alienist conference, the statement 
was made that in this work alone we have one of the most 
acute studies of casuistry and ultra-scrupulosity ever 
made. Thus in the field of ethical aberrations this great 
work is of monimxental value. A brilliant French alienist 
said in substance last summer that he had heard that a 
Boston physician had invented the phrase 'New England 



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4 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

conscience/ but that the thing itself dated back to the 
'Ductor Dubitantium.' Every problem concerning the 
rectitude of this, that, or the other opinion on settled 
and controverted points, as well as on those of practical 
life and worship; — all these are discussed. It has been 
a great question to me — and I asked the Catholic Bishop 
about it, and he could throw no light on it— how it could 
be that a man of that tjrpe, living in that age, could seem 
to have got all the sugared-ofif results of the Catholic con- 
fessional boiled down into such a systematic treatise aa 
is there given. I think that this proposition of our French 
visitor last summer, indicates that whatever may be its 
faults, it is going to have a great historic significance. 
Senator Hoar was acquainted with this work, but I do 
not think even he appreciated its immense historical and, 
I might say for the psychologist, its profoimd scientific 
value." 

Dr. Merriman: ^'I am extremely glad that Dr. Hall 
has called attention to this work, and in reply to him 
let me say at once that if I were a professor of psychology 
I should probably be interested in the *Ductor Dubitan- 
tiimi.' A distinguished professor of church history has 
lately said: 'This is to me perhaps the most interesting 
book that Taylor wrote, and if I were to have a long im- 
prisonment, next to the Bible, I should wish to take it 
to my cell.' A man who has given attention professionally 
to the history of conscience, or to the study of the human 
mind, as Dr. Hall has, would be greatly interested in this 
book. It is one of the most significant evidences of the 
extraordinary minuteness and extent of Taylor's learning. 
But compared with his 'Life of Christ,' for example, it 
must be regarded as a highly technical and out of date 
treatise. This book was conceived very early in Taylor's 
career, and he had it on hand all his life. It was not 
printed until six or seven years before his death. While 



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1905.] Proceedings. 5 

the subject matter has long ceased to be of interest to 
the mass of people — so different is the twentieth from 
the seventeentiti century— yet to the philosopher, psycholo- 
^t or historian, it is of undoubted value.'' 

Vice-President Edward E. Hale said: "I want to 
thank the authors of the three papers we have heard, which 
I consider not only the most interesting, but perhaps the 
most important papers we have had at our meeting. Every 
one of them deserves a vote of thanks. 

''I happened to be intimately connected with the history 
of the French Fleet, which was alluded to in the paper by 
Mr. Faltsits, and it is a matter of surprise to me how it could 
have been so nearly left out of American literature, being 
of great importance in the development of the republic. 
What brought me into connection with it was something 
of local interest, the preservation of the Old South 
Meeting-house. When the great fire took place and 
swept away the most of commercial Boston, our friends 
at the Old South Meeting-house had a valuable piece of 
property, and they sold it for (400,000, and that $400,000 
had to be raised some way, and we were all very en- 
thusiastic in our wishes to preserve the old meeting-house. 
I met Henry Longfellow in the street one day, and I said, 
' Longfellow, you have got to help in preserving the Meeting- 
house.' He said, 'All right; how much do you want?' 
I said, 'How much? I want you to write us a poem.' 
He was very good-natured about it, and said, 'If the spirit 
moves, I will write the poem.' I was not quite satisfied 
with that. I said, 'The spirit must move, it has got to 
move, and I hope it will move,' and we parted. That 
week Longfellow wrote his ballad on the French Fleet, 
and, according to me, it is the best American ballad written. 
It is ascribed to Thomas Prince, the minister of the Old 
South. Longfellow has made a magnificent ballad out 
of it. I think I see gentlemen here old enough to have 



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6 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

heard traditions, — ^how Prince was praying in the pulpit 
when the tempest swept over the town, and shook the 
tower, and for our purposes destroyed the Fleet. 

But curiously enou^, that event' is almost omitted from 
the histories of New England. But a page or two is given 
to it in most histories, and I think this is the reason: Shir- 
ley was Governor here; and by the way, some of the young 
men who want to devote their time to some good work, 
should write the life of Shirley, which has never been 
written; one of the greatest men we have had. Shirley 
knew that the French King was going to revenge himself; 
so Shirley got his Council together, and sunk this vessel 
and that vessel in the harbor, and he proclaimed a Fast 
Day, and it was on that Fast Day that Prince was making 
this prayer in the Old South Meeting-house, But you 
may look through the Boston newspapers of that summer, 
and week after week, the papers published nothing about 
the French Fleet. Not an allusion to the fact that the 
army of the State was in Boston; not an allusion to the 
fact that the Council was in session, and I think that the 
historians of America read carefully through the news- 
papers of the time, and did not find anything about the 
French Fleet. What would have happened if anything 
had been printed about it, would have been that Shirley 
would have sent down to the newspaper office, and have 
thrown out the window every man who had anything to 
do with the publication of such a thing. There was nothing 
in the papers because they had a Governor who under- 
stood what war meant. The only reference to it is on 
the occasion of the death of Lady Shirley, — that "the body 
was accompanied by the train bands of the Province to 
her grave." That poor girl of twenty years accompanied 
by the train bands of tiie Province who were encamped 
on Boston Common! Why was the largest army that ever 
assembled in Boston, on Boston Common at that time? 
Why was it they accompanied this lady to her grave? 



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1905.] Ptoceedings. 7 

" Shirley did not mean that any notice of any preparation 
that he was making should get outside. This, you will 
say, is an old man's story; perhaps it is, but I throw it 
out as a hint. I was very much interested about this 
ballad of Longfellow's. I went up to the State library; I 
knew all the gentlemen there; I said, 'I want the Council 
Records of 1746.' They said, 'You are forgetting that we 
have not got the Council Records of 1746 here; the Council 
Records have never been in this room, but if you will 
come downstairs, I will give them to you.' We went 
downstairs to the Secretary of State's desk, and he opened 
this drawer and that drawer, and took out the Cotmcil 
Records of 1746. I said, 'Why are those tilings here?' 
He said, 'God knows, I suppose; I don't; ever since I 
have been Secretary of State, the Coimcil Records of 1746 
have been in this drawer, and they are here now.' I 
think those Council Records of 1746 were kept in some 
such private drawer, and had been until they were gotten 
out by me in 1891." 

A BALLAD OF THE FRENCH FLEET. 

L 
A VLBXT with flags arrayed 

Sailed from the port of Brest, 
And the Admiral's ship displayed 

The signal: " Steer south-west." 
For this Admiral d'Anville 

Had sworn by cross and crown 
To ravage with fire and steel 

Our helpless Boston Town. 

n. 

There were rumors in the street, 

In the houses there was fear 
Of the coming of the fleet, 

And the danger hovering near; 
And while from mouth to mouth 

Spread the tidings of dismay, 
I stood in the Old South, 

Saying humbly: "Letuspiay." 



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American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

III. 
"O Lord! we would not advise; 

But if, in thy providence, 
A tempest should arise 

To drive the French fleet hence, 
And scatter it far and wide, 

Or sink it in the sea. 
We should be satisfied. 

And thine the glory be." 

IV. 
This was the prayer I made, 

For my soul was aU on flame; 
And even as I prayed 

The answering tempest came. 
It came with a mighty power, 

Shaking the windows and walls. 
And tolling the bell in the tower 

As it tolls at funerals. 

V. 

The lightning suddenly 

Unsheathed its flaming sword. 
And I cried: " Stand still and see 

The salvation of the Lord! " 
The heavens were black with cloud, 

The sea was white with hail, 
And ever more fierce and loud 

Blew the October gale. 

VI. 
The fleet it overtook. 

And the broad sails in the van 
Like the tents of Cushan shook. 

Or the curtains of Midian. 
Down on the reeUng decks 

Crashed the o'erwhelming seas; 
Ah, never were there wrecks 

So pitiful as these I 

VII. 
like a potter's vessel broke 

The great ships of the line; 
They were carried away as a smoke, 

Or sank like lead in the brine. 
O Lord! before thy path 

They vanished and ceased to be. 
When thou didst walk in wrath 

With thine horses through the sea. 



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1905.] Proceedings. 9 

''An Ancient Instance of Municipal Ownership" was the 

title of a paper read to the Society by Hon. Samuel Utlbt, 

of Worcester, relating to an old quarry from which the 

inhabitants of Worcester have a perpetual right to take 

. stone. 

Mr. Samuel S. Green: "The Courts seem to have 
decided that the people of Worcester have a right to take 
stone from that quarry, hut I noticed that the late Andrew 
H. Green, whose land surrounded the quarry, and who 
claimed that he owned it, still felt that he had grounds 
for contention. Do you know what they were?" 

Mr. Utley: ''I do not. I have known of his threaten- 
ing, but I never knew of his bringing it to a conclusion. 
I rather thought it was more of a 'blufif game' than other- 
wise. I have talked with his lawyer, but of course counsel 
only tell what is known to have been done. Mr. Green 
long ago consulted Mr. Peter 0. Bacon and Senator Hoar, 
but as no action likely to bring on a trial on the merits 
has at any time been taken, it is perhaps fair to assume 
that counsel have not found sufficient grounds to advise 
such a course. The statutes of Massachusetts allow a 
man to prevent the acquisition of title by twenty years' 
use, by posting notices, and Mr. Green did this. I have 
an idea that it was a nuisance to him to have the quarry 
there. They blast very recklessly and throw rocks over 
the adj6ining premises, and probably any neighbor would 
be glad to get rid of it, but I have not been able to find 
that there is any ground for changing the legal conditions, 
as I have stated them.'' 

Mr. Henry H. Edes said: ''At our semi-annual meeting 
in 1900, our associate Mr. Samuel Swett Green read an 
interesting paper on the Craigie House. Toward the end 
of it he inserted in a footnote an extract from a paper 
read by Miss Alice M. Longfellow to the Cantabrigia Club, 



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10 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

in which she erroneously calls Dr. Andrew Graigie's bride 
'Miss Nancy Shaw/ Mrs. Craigie was Elizabeth Shaw, 
only chad of the Rev. Bezalid Shaw (H. C. 1762), of 
Nantucket, and cousin-gennan to Chief-Justice Lemuel 
Shaw. I call attention to Miss Longfellow's error in order 
that our Publications may contain an accurate statement 
of Mrs. Craigie's baptismal name.^ 

It was voted that the papers of the day be referred to 
the Conunittee of Publication. The meeting was then 
dissolved, most of the members repairing to the Hotel 
Somerset for lunch. 

CHARLES A. CHASE, 

Beoording Secnkay. 



1 In Volume VII. of the Pablio&tioiu of The Colonud Sodety of liaaMehvfette, in 
the Tnsaaotions at the stated meetinc in April, 1902, will be found eome reminie- 
eenoeB of Dr. Andrew Ckmipe of Cambridce, written by the late Mr. John Holmes 
(H. C. 1882). In the editorial notee appended to these reminiaoenoea are many in- 
teresting facts oonoeminc Dr. and Birs. Craigie. 



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1905.] Bqport of the Council. 11 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



The Council are glad to report that with one exception 
our ranks are unbroken by death. 

By vote of the Council the Treasurer, in consultation 
with the President, has been authorized to procure book- 
plates (with engraved portraits) of Isaiah Thomas, our 
founder and first president, and of our fifth president, the 
late Stephen Salisbury, and this is being done. 

Mr. Nathaniel Paine has completed the Contents of the 
Society's Proceedmgs 1880-1903, which was recently an- 
nounced, and it is in print ready for distribution. This has 
involved much labor and will be highly appreciated by all 
interested in that period. 

Our associate Mr. Andrew McFarland Davis has presented 
to the Society about three hundred and fifty copies of 
his book, ''The Confiscation of John Chandler's Estate," 
and about the same number of his work, ''Tracts Relating 
to the Currency, 1681-1720." The former of these publi- 
cations contains a review of the law relating to the confisca- 
tion of the estates of loyalists, and furnishes through 
copies of the papers in the Proceedings an object lesson 
for lawyers. The latter contains reprints of the pamphlet 
literature of the period on the Currency question. There 
is room enough on the shelves of the libraries of the country 
for all of these books, although it may take several years 
for them to find their ultimate destination. 

Dr. G. Stanley Hall has prepared a memoir of the late 
Prof. H. B. Adams, and Dr. Jameson has prepared memoirs 
of the late Sir John 0. Bourinot and Dr. Douglas Brymner. 



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12 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

Memoirs of Frank P. Goulding and of Judge Horatio Rogers 
have been prepared by the biographer. 

Herbert Baxter Adams was bom in Shutesbury, 
Massachusetts, April 16, 1850. He was the third son of 
his parents, who were both of Puritan lineage, which they 
traced in this country back to the second quarter of the 
seventeenth century. When his father died in 1856, the 
family moved to Amherst, from where, after a preliminary 
year at Phillips Exeter Academy, Herbert graduated in 
1872, as valedictorian of his class. No history, he tells 
us, was then taught at Amherst after the freshman year. 
During the latter part of his course he became much ab- 
sorbed in his duties as editor of "The Amherst Student," 
and planned a journalistic career until a lecture by President 
Seelye, reviewing the course of civilization and urging 
that history was "the grandest study in the world,'' to 
quote from Adams's note-book, caused him to resolve to 
devote himself to it. So, after teaching a year at Williston 
Seminary, Easthampton, as the successor of Dr. Charles 
N. Parldiurst, he went to Europe in the summer of 1873, 
settling finally in Germany and attending courses by 
Treitschke on politics, Ernst Curtius on Greek archaeology, 
Hermann Grimm on early Christian art, Lepsius on Egyp- 
tology, Droysen on the French Revolution, Enies on 
economics, and others. He was most influenced, however, 
by Blimtschli, who called him his favorite student, and 
he finally took his degree summa cum lavde at Heidelberg, 
July 14, 1876. 

Before his return he had been appointed fellow in history 
at the Johns Hopkins University, which opened that year. 
Here Dr. Austin Scott, Yale 1869, Bancroft's coadjutor 
in the revised edition of his " History of the United States," 
came on from Washington twice a week as head of the 
department to conduct an historical seminary. Here 
Adams prepared his first printed monograph entitled 
"Maryland's Influence in Founding a National Common- 
wealth." He also conducted a class of two members 
twice a week, and another of one once a week. In 1878, 
he accepted an invitation to become spring lecturer to 
the first three classes in Smith College. Meanwhile he 
was gradually promoted at Baltimore, and when Edward 



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1905.] Report of the Council. 13 

A. Freeman visited America in 1881, he spoke with warm 
praise of Adams's department as a yomig and growing 
school, devoting itself to the special study of local insti- 
tutions, as did James Bryce later. Re-enforced by their 
advice Adams conducted a sharp newspaper campaign, 
as a result of which the Legislature authorized the transfer 
of valuable colonial papers from the state archives at 
Annapolis to Baltimore, and their publication was begun 
at the state expense. In December, 1882, the valuable 
historic library of Bluntschli was presented by the German 
citizens of Baltimore to the University, and the depart- 
ment was then fitly installed in quarters of its own with 
Adams at its head. In 1884, he united with Justin Winsor, 
Andrew D. White, Charles E. Adams, and others in organiz- 
ing the American Historical Association, of which he 
at once became, and remained until his death, the secretary. 
His associates have repeatedly testified that the initiative 
and early direction of the society was mainly his. In 
1893, he publifihed in two large octavo volumes the life 
and writings of Jared Sparks. ''Sparks,'- says J. M. 
Vincent, "never threw away a letter, even if it was simply 
an invitation to a dinner." As his colleague during these 
years, I well remember the vast collection of files and 
cases which for years Adams spent his spare time in sifting. 
Dr. George E. Ellis said of this work in substance that 
it would have won from Sparks himself the warmest approval 
for ability, fidelity and good taste, and that this he con- 
siders the highest encomiimi for work of this kind. 

As early as 1882, Adams began the "Johns Hopkins 
Studies in History and Political Science,'' and these now 
represent a library of forty volumes. It was for this 
work that he deserves to be called in some sense the founder 
of a new American school of history. Nearly every graduate 
who entered his department, and sometimes even under- 
graduates, if they showed capacity, were encouraged to 
b^in at once to prepare themselves to write the history 
of whatever was of greatest value and interest within 
the field of their own knowledge and experience. Thus 
monographs multiplied upon the history of various states 
and territories, counties, cities, school systenjs, universities, 
history of industries, finance, taxation, charity, co-opera- 
tion, the Chinese in California, the Swedes in New York, 
the Dutch in Pennsylvania. His Japanese students wrote 



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14 American ArUiquarian Society. [April, 

of historical themes pertaining to their own country, and 
thus a great number of themes more or less local, perhaps 
involving summer excursions, the perusal of archives, etc., 
indispensable to the future historian, are to be found in 
this series. 

In 1887, he began to edit for the United States Bureau 
of Education a series of contributions to American educa- 
tional history, b^inning with a volume on the College 
of William and Mary, where existed the first school of 
history, politics and economics in this country. This led 
Adams to his plan for foimding in Washington a civil 
academy, which should be in matters of political science 
and civil service training what West Point and Annapolis 
are for military and naval education. In this series he 
also wrote the comprehensive memoir on '' Thomas Jefiferson 
and the University of Virginia," and on the "Study of 
History in American CJoUeges and Universities." Twenty- 
nine other educational monographs appeared. During his 
later years his interest more and more inclined in this 
direction, for he held that for a democracy education 
was the first of all duties. 

Prominent among his methods was that of very compre- 
hensive collections of clippings from the contemporary 
press likely to be of service to his own pupils or to the 
future historian. This work employed during his latter 
years the entire time of one or more assistants, so that 
his rooms became a source of supply and reference for 
those interested in any lines of historical inquiry which 
were to be continued to the present moment. Few have 
known so well how to use contemporary interests as incen- 
tives to historical research. 

Shortly before his death he undertook to collect the titles 
of all books and articles written by those connected with 
his department, during the twenty-five years of his adminis- 
tration of it. These are published in a memorial volume 
from the Johns Hopkins Press in 1902,^ and this bibliography 
alone comprises one himdred and sixty pages by one himdred 
and seventy men, eighty-two of whom became instructors 
or professors of history in various academic institutions. 
Among those in more or less pupilary relations to Herbert 

> Herbert B. Admma. " Tributes of Friends. With a bibliocnphy of the depart- 
ment of History, Politics end Eoooomies of the Johns Hopkins Unlyendty, 1879- 
1001." Johns Hopkins Press. BelUmore, 1002. pp. 67. 160. 



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1905.] Beport of the Council. 15 

Adams we may name Professor C. N. Carver, Davis R. 
Dewey of Ma^Ktchusetts Institute of Technology, H. B. 
Gardner of Brown, C. H. Haskins of Wisconsin, G. H. 
Haynes of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, J. A. James 
of the Northwestern, J. F. Jameson of Chicago, Professors 
Mitsukuri and Nitobe of Japan, E. A. Ross once of Stanford, 
Albert Shaw, Professor A, W. Small of Chicago, Woodrow 
Wilson, and others. 

Adams was an indefatigable worker, a hearty eater, 
took little exercise, was stricken down in 1899, with arterial 
sclerosis, and died at Amherst July 30, 1901, in the fulness 
of his power, a victim of overwork and insufficient attention 
to body-keeping. He was immarried and bequeathed his 
library and practically all that he possessed to the Univer- 
sity he had so faithfully served for twenty-five years. 
O^ers have excelled him in scholarship, produced works 
that are more monumental, perhaps had greater historic 
ability. But probably no teacher of history this country 
has produced has rendered so much personal service to 
so many young scholars, been more bdoved by them all, 
or has inspired the writing of so much local history, much 
of which has been rescued from oblivion, and stUl more, 
material hitherto stored up in archives and local records 
has been made generally accessible. 

G. 8. H. 

Horatio Rogers died in Providence, Bhode Island, 
November 12th, 1904, having been bom in that city May 
18th, 1824, where he resided all his life. 

He graduated at Brown University in 1855, attended 
Harvard Law School in 185&-1857, was admitted to the 
bar in 1858, and practised in Providence till 1873, having 
meantime served with distinction in the Civil war, in which 
he attained the rank of Colonel and Brevet Brigadier- 
General. On accoimt of ill health he resigned in January, 
1864, receiving hi^ praises for his services from General 
Franklin, and a' vote of thanks from the Bhode Island 
Assembly. 

Resuming the practice of his profession he became 
Attorney General of the state and was also a member of 
the city coimcil of Providence and of the Rhode Island 
Assembly. 

From 1873 to 1891 he engaged in cotton manufactures. 



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16 American ArUiquarian Society. [April, 

On May 27th, 1891, he became Associate Justice of the 
Supreme C!ourt of Rhode Island and held that office till 
1903, when he resigned it. 

In a brief tribute to him at his death Judge Tillinghast 
said, ''as a judge he fully exemplified those qualities which 
are the prime essentials in one who occupied this exalted 
position/' 

A ''man of large views, of ardent patriotism, of high 
ideas, of liberal culture, he naturally took a high rank 
as a moulder of public thought and a leader of men/' 

Several of his addresses have been published, among 
them one on the private libraries of Providence, one at 
the unveiling of the statue of General Bumside, one at 
the laying of the comer-stone of the new city hall and 
one on Mary Dyer of Rhode Island, the Quaker martyr, 
besides many contributions to periodicals; and much of 
the work of the Record Conmiission of Providence was 
under his supervision as chairman. 

In 1884 he published the Journal of Lieutenant James 
M. Hadden of Burgoyne's Army, which attracted wide 
attention, on accoimt of biographical and personal notes, 
which the New York Nation said made Buigoyne's officers 
as 'well known to us as those of the patriot army. 

For many years a member of the Rhode Island Historical 
Society, he was its president, 1889-1895. 

He became a member of this Society in 1882. 

Brief notices of him may be found in Lamb's "Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of the United States," Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia of American Biography," "The Historical 
Catalogue of Brown University," "The Providence Journal " 
November 13th, 1904, p. 17, line 1, 

A fine tribute to him is in the preface to the "Early 
Records of Puritans," volume 18, page viL 

B. IT. 

Sir John George Bourinot, who was elected a for- 
eign member of the Society in AprQ, 1893, died in Ottawa, 
Canada, on October 13, 1902. He was bom in Sydney, 
Cape Breton, on October 24, 1837. His father, Lieutenant- 
Colonel John Bourinot, vice-consul for France, was for 
several years a member for Cape Breton in the House of 
Assembly of Nova Scotia, and from the time of Canadian 
Confederation imtil his death a Senator of the Dominion 



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1905.] Beport of the OcuneU. 17 

of Canada. Senator Bourinot came of a Huguenot family 
from Normandy, which had settled in Jersey. His wife 
was Jane Mardiuill, dau^ter of Jiistice Marshall of Nova 
Scotia, and granddau^ter of a captain in the British 
army, of Irish descent. John George Bourinot was educated 
by the Rev. W. Y. Porter at Sydney, and at the University 
of Trinity College at Toronto. He then turned to jour- 
nalism, and became a parliamentary reporter and editor. 
In 1860, he established the Halifax Reporter, and was 
for some years its chief editor. From 1861 to 1867, he 
was the chief official reporter of the Asi^mbly of Nova 
Scotia. The confederation of Canada then taking place, 
he, in 1868, became shorthand writer to the Senate, thence- 
forward till his death residing in Ottawa. In 1873, he 
became second assistant derk of the House of Commons, 
and in 1879 firot assistant. From December 18, 1880, 
till the close of his life he was chief derk of that important 
legidative body. His chief work, an elaborate and standard 
treatise entitled. The Practice and Procedure of Parliament, 
vrith a Review of the Origin and Growth of Parliamentary 
Institutions in the Dominion of Canada, which first appeared 
in 1884, was the direct outgrowth of his highly efficient 
service in that responsible office. In 1882, when the 
Royal Society of Canada was founded, he was made its 
honorary secretary, and retained that office until his death, 
except that in 1891, he was made vice-president for one 
year, in 1892, president. To his energy, address and 
organizing capacity the Royal Society and the nineteen 
la^ volumes of its Transactions were greatly indebted. 
Sir John Bourinot took an active interest in public 
affairs, especially as a champion of Imperial Federation. 
For many years he was honorary corresponding secretary 
at Ottawa of the Royal Colonial Institute. From 1889 
to 1894, he was a member of the Executive Council of 
the Am^ean Historical Association, to whose Papers, 
Volume v., he contributed an historical review of the 
relations between Canada and the United States, and to 
its Annual Report of 1891, an extensive and interesting 
monograph on the history of parliamentary government 
in Canada. He was given the honorary d^ree of LL.D. 
in 1886, by Queen's College, Kingston, and that of D.C.L. 
in 1888, by Trinity College of Toronto and in 1890, by 
King's College, Windsor. He received the degree of 
2 



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18 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Docteur is Lettres from Laval University in 1893, and 
that of D.C.L. from Bishop's College in 1895. 

In 1890, the Queen created him a CJompanion of the Order 
of St. Michael and St. George. He was knighted in 1898. 
He was thrice married: in 1858 he was married to Delia 
Hawke, who died in 1860; in 1866 he was married to the 
daughter of the American consul at Halifax, Emily Alden 
Pilsbury, who died m 1887; thirdly m 1889 to Isabelle 
Cameron of Toronto. Lady Bourinot survives him. 

Keenly interested in bo^ the political and the literary 
development of Canada, Sir John Bourinot wrote much, 
and he was an ardent collector of books of both Canadian 
history and Canadian literature, forming an extensive 
and remarkably weUnselected working library. He was a 
tall, vigorous, genial man, with great powers of work 
and great enjoyment in it. His writings fall into two 
groups, one dealing with Canadian politics, the other with 
Canadian history. Of the former the chief, besides those 
already mentioned, were his Canadian Studies in Comparor 
live Politics (Montreal, 1890), and his How Canada is 
Governed (Toronto, 1895). TTie series of his historical 
writings began with one entitled, The Intellectual Develop- 
ment of the Canadian People: An Historical Review (Toronto, 
1881). It was an expansion of articles in the Canadian 
MorUMy, to which he was one of the chief contributors. 
A Bladcwood article, published shortly after, on the ''Ing- 
ress of the New Dominion," was characterized by the 
London Times as ''the best article that has yet appeared 
on the subject in a British periodical.'^ He also contributed 
to the Quarterly, Westminster and Scottish Reviews. In 
1886, Dr. Bourinot published an excellent general sketch 
of Canadian history, the volume Canada in the series 
called The Story of the Nations; in 1888, a Manual of the 
OonstitiUional History of Oqnada; and in 1900, in the 
Cambridge Historical Series, a small book on Canada 
under British Rule, interesting and workmanlike. But the 
most elaborate of his historical works were labors of love 
in the history of his native province, the first An Historical 
and Descriptive AccourU of the Island of Cape Breton (Mon- 
treal, 1892), eidiaustive in text and sumptuously embellished 
with maps and plans, and the last entitled Builders of 
Nova Scotia (Toronto, 1900). 

While not a profound historian, and somewhat too 



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1905.] RepoH of the Council. 19 

positive in the statement of political and historical opinions, 
Sir John Bourinot was an eager and capable student, an 
accomplished man of letters, a model of excellence as a 
public official, and an eminently useful citizen. 

J, F, J, 

Dr. Douglas Brymner, who was elected a foreign 
member of the Society in October, 1898, died in Ottawa 
on Jime 19, 1902. He was bom at Greenock, Scotland, 
on July 3, 1823, the fourth son of Alexander Brjrmner, 
a banker of that town, and of Elizabeth Fairlie, daughter 
of John Fairlie, a well-to-do merchant there. The father 
came originally from Stirling, where his family had long 
been prominent. He was a man of refinement and of 
unusual intellectual attainments, who instilled mto his 
children the love of letters and incited them to extensive 
reading. Douglas Brjmmer received a classical education 
at the Greenock Grammar School and then a thorough 
mercantile training. He engaged in business in Greenock 
on his own accoimt, but siterward took a brother into 
partnership. In 1853, he married Jean Thomson, daughter 
of William Thomson of Hill End, by whom he had nine 
children. One of his sons was till lately an official of the 
Bank of Montreal, another a prominent artist in that city. 
Mr. Brjoxmer retired from business in 1856, as the result 
of illness caused by too close application to his work. 
Restored by a year of rest, he removed to Canada in 1857, 
and settled in Melbourne, in the Eastern Townships. Here 
he was twice elected mayor without a contest, and without 
soliciting a single vote. Presently he drifted into journalism 
and literature. An active member of the Church of 
Scotland (though in his later years he adhered to the 
Chmrch of England), he had served frequently as a repre- 
' sentative elder in the Presbyterian church courts, and 
had written much on church topics. Early in the sixties 
he became editor of the Presbyterian, the official organ 
of his church in Canada, and associate editor of the Montreal 
Heraldf of which the illness of the chief editor often gave 
him principal charge. In 1870 and 1871, he was elected 
President of the Ptess Gallery of the House of Commons 
and of the Canadian Press Association. Possessing a 
large fund of caustic humor, he wrote in Scottish dialect 
a series of amusing letters under the assumed name of 



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20 American Antiqtiarian Society, [April, 

''Tummas Treddles/' an octogenarian weaver of Paisley. 
The first; on curling, appeared in the Montreal Herald, 
others, on various subjecte, in the Scottish American Journal 
of New York. At a later time he published translations 
of Horace into Lowland Scottish verse. 

But that which gave its distinctive Savor to all the 
later part of his life, and has made it approi»iate to com- 
mCTQorate him in the proceedings of an historical society, 
was his appointment, on Jime 26, 1872, as archivist of 
the Dominion of Canada, an appointment which, we are 
told, met with the approval of all parties. In this office 
Mr. Brymner performed services of incalculable benefit 
to all students of Canadian history and of many parts 
of the history of the United States. He was its first holder, 
and, as he said in an entertaining account of his labors 
which he wrote for the American Historical Association 
{Papers, Volimie III.), b^an work in 1872, "with three 
empty rooms and very vague instructions." His appro- 
priations were small, and for the first nine years he had 
not even a single clerical assistant. What he accomplii^ed 
under such conditions, working with great enthusiasm, 
energy and speed, is most astonishing, for it seems to be 
the literal fact that he created at Ottawa the largest and 
most important collection of manuscript historical material 
in the western hemisphere. At the time of his appoint- 
ment, the military correspondence of the provinces of 
Canada for a hundred years was packed up at Halifax, 
ready for transhipment to London, imder the orders of 
the War Office. Securing a reversal of this order and 
the transfer of the papers to Ottawa, he attacked them 
sic^e-handed, — eight tons of documents, between three 
himdred thousand and four hundred thousand in number, — 
and arranged them and caused them to be bound in nearly 
eleven himdred volumes. He procured copies from London 
of all the papers in the Haldimand and Bouquet Collections, 
and began a systematic cop3ring of all matter rdating to 
the history of Canada in the British and French archives. 
The results have been laid before the learned world in 
a most valuable series of annual reports. At first these 
formed part of the report of the Minister of Agriculture, 
Arts and Statistics. Since 1883 they have taken the 
shape of independent volxmies, presenting succinct calendars 
of large masses of papers, while a selection of the most 



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1905.] RepoH of the Council. 21 

important appeaxs printed in extenso. The report of 
1881 was so much esteemed by the British Public Record 
Office that it was reprinted entire in the next annual report 
of the Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records. 

Dr. Brymner was a kindly, genial man, with a shrewd 
Scottish humor. Modest and clear-headed, and closely 
devoted to a single great task, he made no attempt to 
write history. But he laid under great obligations a 
host of historical writers, and was regarded by them with 
great gratitude and esteem. In 1892 Queen's University 
gave him the d^ree of Doctor of Laws. 

J. p J. 

Frank Palmer Goulding was bom in Grafton, 
Massachusetts, July 2nd, 1837, and died in Worcester, 
Massachusetts, September 16th, 1901, having been a member 
of this Society since 1886. He was graduated from Dart- 
mouth College in 1863, studied law with Hon. George 
F. Hoar and in the Harvard Law School, was admitted 
to the bar in Worcester in 1866, and practised alone for 
a few months, but was soon taken into partnership by 
Hon. F. H. Dewey, who at once went abroad, leaving a 
laige and important business in the hands of the young 
lawyer. This partnership continued imtil 1869, when Mr. 
Dewey was appointed Justice of the Superior Comt. The 
firm of Staples and Goulding was then formed, lasting 
till 1881. Mr. Staples was in turn appointed judge, from 
which time Mr. Goulding remained alone in business. 

Soon after he left the law school Professor Washburn 
said to a Worcester friend, "I have sent a young man 
to Worcester who will be heard from." He b^an practice 
in the office of Hon. George F. Hoar, who employed him 
to aid in preparing some law questions for the Supreme 
Judicial C!oiut and arguing them there, in doing which 
he displayed such marked ability that the attention of 
Mr. Dewey, who was looking for a partner, was drawn 
to him, resulting in the connection above noted. This 
is an instance not so common in life as in story, of a yoimg 
man whose eminence is foreseen, and then assured, by a 
display of capacity on some important occasion. During 
his entire practice Mr. Goulding had abundant emplojnnent 
of the highest class, and for many years he had a business 
which has never been excelled in importance in the County 



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22 Ameincan Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of Worcester, and for the last few years he was retained 
throughout the state to a degree quite unusual in recent 
times. 

As a lawyer he ranked with the best in the state, was 
learned, able and eloquent, excelling particularly in clear- 
ness and force of expression. Several opportunities for 
judicial service were open to him, but he preferred home 
life and the practice of his chosen profession. Althou^ 
cheerfully doing his share of political work he had little 
liking for strictly political oflSce, but was for twelve years 
city solicitor, was once presidential elector, and served 
in the legislature as well as in the school board, and was 
one of the trustees of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute 
and also of Clark University, and occupied many positions 
of trust in the community. 

He delivered numerous local addresses, including one 
on the one himdred and fiftieth anniversary of the settle- 
ment of his native town, and he was to have delivered 
an address at the centennial in honor of Daniel Webster, 
at Dartmouth College, which came on September 24th, 
1901, just after his death. This was to have been accom- 
panied by the d^ee of LL.D., the announcement of 
which came too late for him to see. He was a close student 
of the classics, a lover of the best English authors, especially 
Shakespeare, and adorned his arguments with frequent 
quotations from the world of literature, including Persian. 
He also studied aatronomy, calling to his aid a fine telescope, 
which he had moimted at his house. 

Full notices of him may be foimd in the history of 
Worcester Coimty, published by Lewis & Co., volume 1, 
page 60; the Worcester Magazine of March, 1902, and 
in the New England Historical and Genealogical Rc^bter 
for April, 1903. 

s. u. 

Charles Kendall Adams was bom in Vermont, 
January 24, 1835, in Derby, a township on the eastern 
shore of Lake Memphremagog, bounded on the north by 
Canada, and hence known as Derby line. 

The parents of Charles Kendall were Charles and Susan 
Maria (Shedd) Adanjs. The father, bom at New Ipswich, 
on the southern line of New Hampshire, removed in 1832 
not long before the birth of his only son, to the north line 



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CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS. 



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1905.] jBepor/ of the Council. 23 

of Vermont. He came to Derby as a hatter and men of 
his trade were early settlers on every backwoods fringe. 
The reason was that furs, so needful in hat-making, not 
only for beavers but for other varieties, were most within 
reach of artisans who lived nearest himters, whether 
white or Indian. Before his boy had entered his teens Mr. 
Adams had become owner of a farm some two miles west 
of the village, and removing to a new home turned farmer. 

His new possessions lay along a lakelet a mile broad and 
three long. The story-and-a-haJf house stood between a 
maple grove and a rocky hill. Facing eastward it had in 
view the lake, the town centre and hi^ mountains beyond. 
As the climate was too cold for wheat and small grains, the 
chief industry was stock-raising, and principally sheep. 
Thus it is not unlikely that Charles, like the son of Jesse, 
grew up a shepherd boy, with enchanting outlooks and in 
an isolation which shielded his morals as savingly as did 
his father^s deaconship. It must have fostered originality 
more than could as much of school routine. There was 
no danger that "a lion would come and take a lamb out of 
his flock,'' but bears were not yet extinct in the highlands 
dose by. 

In 1855 Charles removed with his parents to Iowa. His 
father had purchased a farm in Denmark, a rural town 
which to this day remains without a railroad station, and 
is fifteen miles south of Burlington. Father and son were 
co-workers in the toil of tillage. The son naturally fell in 
love with a neighbor's daughter bearing his mother's name, 
Shedd, and it may be was of her kin. 

Charles was a six-footer and black eyed, but his eyelids 
had a drowsy droop which he never outgrew, and his 
make-up was rather uncouth. Knowing sheep well he 
had not learned how to cast those sheep's eyes which bring 
responsive and loving siddong looks. Failure here meant 
success elsewhere, for proof is positive that he was thus 
driven to the bittersweet medicine of Latin grammar in 
Denmark academy, then in the dew of its youth, though 
the oldest of its class west of the Mississippi, chartered 
years before Iowa had attained to statehood. The precep- 
tor of this lass-lorn lover has just written me: "He did 
not give promise of the career he attained. His mind was 
neither quick nor brilliant. He was slow both in bodily 
and mental traits. The boys caUed him ' dig.' It is no 



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24 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

wonder that when head of Cornell he was nicknamed 
Farmer Adams. But from the first his insistent and per- 
sistent toughness, diligent and dogged, fitted him to become 
an investigator." 

In 1857 Adams was admitted a freshman at Ann Arbor. 
Already past the midway of his twenty-third year, he was 
the oldest candidate among scores, and as probably the 
most wretchedly fitted, he must have been turned away 
from the threshold but for the redeeming habit of dig 
already characteristic, and which was foreseen to be full of 
saving grace. Such foresight was justified when he was 
honored with a second degree two years sooner than most 
who had entered with him. It had been justified long 
before when he had stood the test of library work and (rf 
elementary teaching. 

The greatest treasure, however, which the Iowa digger 
discovered in Michigan was Andrew D. White, who came 
to that university in the same year with Adams. The one 
was an unlicked cub and his years had been pent up in a 
dark den. The other, while no more than three years 
older, after graduating from Yale had served as an 
attach^ in our legation at St. Petersburg, and had studied 
at several European imiversities, mainly to mark their 
methods with a most observant eye, and with a determina- 
tion, in Bacon's phrase, t6 prick into the culture of his own 
coimtry the choicest flowers of whatever be could gamer 
up in tiie great elsewhere. Pity for Adams in the depth of 
destitution, beginning cultural endeavor at an age when 
his classmates were leaving it off, may have moved the 
professor to the first befriending of the freshman. Be this 
as it may, he had not long condescended before the feelmg 
»was borne in upon him that Adams would be invaluable, 
not only as follower but as fellow in heart and hand as to 
the educational crusade which had become the immediate 
jewel of his soul. 

Largely therefore was the hand of White discernible in 
the election of Adams as assistant professor in 1863, within 
seven years of his turning his face from the farm. History 
was the department of White, and Adams took his sug- 
gestions as a cat laps milk who cares not how much she 
wets her feet. Indeed Adams's own first earnings of daily 
bread had been in a library that was strongest in history, 
in the first elements of which his own teaching also began. 



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1905.] Jteport of the Counca. 25 

About 1867 Mr. White, who had become guide, philoso- 
pher and friend to Mr. Cornell in founding an institution 
which had no other aim than to incarnate the ideals of 
them both, and that so radically as was not possible in 
Michigan, was obliged to change his base. He was 
begged to name a successor, and his choice fell upon 
Adams as the man most after his own heart, and he 
stipulated on his behalf for a year abroad of studies 
preparatory. Accordingly, the professor elect lingered but 
never loitered in Paris, Berlin, I^ipzig, Mimich and Heidel- 
beig. His studies centered on educational systems, pre- 
eminently German. For ten years his convictions had been 
growing that our home plans cried aloud for reforming 
altogether, and that evolution or revolution must be 
inaugurated in the highest departments, and would thence 
go down as a pervading and permeating leaven to the lowest 
rootlets. 

One feature of German training which he admired was 
called the seminar — ^neither name nor thing known in his 
previous career. Originating in Leipzig, and there m 
linguistic specialties this innovation had expanded widely 
and variously, it gathered the elite — ^a tithe at most of a 
class — and tied them in a knot or wrestling-ring, where 
every member, thanks to the ''attrition of like minds'' 
force, perforce became a spontaneous co-worker in strenuous 
attainments undreamed of in the beaten paths of the other 
nine-tenths. On retiuning from Europe Professor Adams 
initiated, as he believed, the earliest American seminar, still 
however spelling the name with an additional syllable, 
while his vii^in experiment was, of course, historical. 

Known by its fruits, it outstretched widely and fast, till 
it was confessed worthy of all acceptation. It gave new 
meaning to the Hebrew locution which styles teachers and 
scholars wakers and answerers. As auxiliary to his special 
field of research, Mr. Adams wrote his '' Manual of Historic 
Literature," which sweUed to seven hundred pages without 
a superfluous line. It was dedicated to the partners in his 
pioneer seminar. 

This dedication was not penned till 1882. Seven years 
before he had dedicated to Mr. White an octavo of more 
than five himdred pages, concerning "Democracy and 
Monarchy in France, from the inception of the revolution 
to the overthrow of the second empire," treatises both of 



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26 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

which must remam an integral portion of our standard 
literature. 

But while loving and serving above all others his own 
province, Professor Adams had been instant in season and 
out of it that the entire University should lengthen its cords 
and strengthen its stakes. Ere long, that head-centre left 
no comer of the commonwealth unthrilled by an electrifying 
shock. Admitting students without examination only 
from schools which would conform their courses to its 
bidding, it was master of a leverage which lifted every high 
school yet higher. Its own instructions began from a 
higher coign of vantage, so that village Miltons ran less 
risk of dying mute and inglorious. 

But a university so broadening its curricula as to be 
worthy of its name by supplies for even the most modem 
demands, was an achievement undertaken in Michigan first 
among Western States, perhaps not later than in any State 
more eastem. While Eliot, president from 1869, bided his 
time waiting for a convenient season, seeds of several 
exotics sown in Ann Arbor had taken deep root and began 
to yield thirty-fold increase. 

In creating colonial colleges the chief end in view was to 
equip colonwl clergy. " School of the prophets" was an 
alternate name for Harvard. Broader needs were not yet 
felt, since pastors fed their flocks in much of law and 
medicine. '' There is substantial evidence," writes a town 
chronicler regarding a typical instance, " that Rev. John 
Campbell during his ministry which began in 1720, was 
acting and advising phjrsician to many of the families in 
Oxford, so that the profession proper had a limited patron- 
age there till after his death in 1761" (Daniells's Oxford, 
p. 254). Nor was his threefold service (for he was also a 
legal light) unusual. When I was at Salt Lake in Brigham's 
day, in visiting the University I wondered its local habita- 
tion was so small. Then said a fellow wayfarer, " What 
need of more? Sick here are healed by miracle, preachers 
are taught by inspiration, and lawyers are outiawed as 
sternly as lepers." Intensive rather than extensive was the 
culture of our primitive east. It was imitated, however; 
y^s, copied every jot and tittle in the infant west, and not 
least in state imiversities onward from the mother of them 
all in Ohio. 

Through the eighteenth century and half the next, higher 



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1905.] Beport of the Council. 27 

education had run along upon ecclesiastical lines. In 
several States a single denomination became pre-potent. 
In Massachusetts it was Congregational, Baptist in Rhode 
Island, Episcopal in New York, Quaker in Pennsylvania 
and Catholic in Maryland, each as to academic dealings, — 
with others, a water-tight compartment. Among the 
outcomes were lowered standards both of admission and 
graduation, with more superficial intervening requirements. 
Schools of highest name grew multitudinous, each despair- 
ing of a tenth either in endowment or in students attendant 
of what was indispensable for the doing of their appropriate 
work. Meantime, miracles new every morning, in chemis- 
try, engineering and sister sciences, steam and electricity, 
pervading daily life demanded the highest culture in colleges 
where the lowest was still declared enough. In such 
conditions the htmgry sheep looked up and were not fed; 
no wonder the percentage of collegians sunk down year by 
year. Sheep are simple, yet if they find no food convenient 
for them, will wander from their folds and flock-masters. 

In this exigency the first man to dedicate his fortune of 
a million and his talent which was worth far more to 
starting the first institution where, in his own words, 
"any person could find instruction in any study" was 
Cornell. The unique guide which he needed in laying his 
corner-stone his common sense, which was most uncommon, 
discovered in Andrew D. White, whom he " grappled to his 
soul with hoops of steel.'' Each of this pair was the half 
part of a supreme educator, and it is still doubtful which 
of them owed most to the other. White, whose richest 
spoil from study and travel abroad, was such an ideal as 
Cornell had the will but not the skill to actualize at home. 
White had tried his prentice hand at Ann Arbor in a posi- 
tion much above an apprentice. But true architects, like 
the grand apostle, prefer not to build upon another man's 
foimdation, and at Cornell millions lay at White's feet for 
the fulfillment of his educational dreams. He did not come 
there out of an Egyptian prison, like Joseph, yet must 
have entered Cornell exulting that his soul had elbow room 
as never before. His foimdations for after-coming master- 
builders are well described in words possibly borrowed from 
himself in a subsequent federal law, "while excluding no old 
classical or disciplinary studies, nor schools of law and 
medicine^ or science, it included co-education, optional 



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28 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

courses, normal schools and military tactics, with such 
branches of learning as relate to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts." On this system his energies, of whatever 
name, were concentrated for fifteen years m a focus which 
burned up all obstacles and illuminated Cornell's march to 
assured success. His vital strength being at last exhausted, 
or at least demanding a contrasting world of activity, he 
resolutely resigned while never more desiderated. He was 
urged to nominate a Cornell head, and to the surprise of 
many, his voice was at once for Adams. A few of his 
many words for him were: *' He is among the foremost of 
the men who have brought the University of Michigan up 
to its present condition. Hb character is of the Ughest, 
his scholarship deeply rooted and fruitful, his experience 
extensive and of the very kind we need, his power ol 
thought and utterance such as especially fit him for the 
work we offer, his executive ability fully demonstrated, his 
reputation among scholars, abroad and at home, of the very 
sort we should ask for; for years my mind has been turn- 
ing to him as the man of all men we could hope for, to 
carry on and enlarge the work we have begun, and I am 
opposed to any delay in choosing my successor." On the 
self-same day, when the Cornell Trustees heard these 
words, July 13, 1885, Mr. Adams was elected President, all 
but two of their fifteen votes being cast in his favor. 

For the next seven years the career of Mr. Adams at 
Ithaca was progress onward and upward on paths opened 
by his only predecessor, while he himself opened others of 
wider expansion. Explaining his processes is here impossi- 
ble, but a single result crowds a history into a sentence. 
Within his seven years the teaching staff grew from 54 to 
135, and the roll of students swelled from 573 to 1506, one- 
third of them in departments newly established. He had 
fulfilled the prophecy of his predecessor. The mantle of 
Ehjah had fallen on-Elisha, upon shoulders not imworthy. 

Nevertheless, in 1892 the health of Mr. Adams had be- 
come impaired, and the presidential duties through an 
amplified routine left him at most only scattered fragments 
of leisure — disjecta membra of time for either study or 
teaching, and he therefore laid down his sceptre, and then 
at once was doubly diligent as editor-in-chief of a Univer- 
sal Cyclopedia and other literary enterprises, — as a golden 
harvest of the wisdom and learning hived through many a 



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1905.] Beport of the Counca. 29 

studious year. Such a sabbath of his age, however, was 
no more than a brief dream. New greatness was thrust 
upon him, when the University of Wisconsin cried aloud, 
come thou and rule over us! Cornell was not of the Wis- 
consin State class in which he had been nurtured, and 
where he had chiefly taught,— the class coming nearest to 
all as endowed by all. It may be too that the new dignity 
was thrust upon him by the good genius— who knew him 
altogether and all along bad been the strategic Vcm 
Moltke of his pilgrimage and whose advice had always 
verified the proverb that lookers on at a game see more 
than the players, 

His acceptance of the Wisconsin call was Sept. 20, 1892, 
and he began service at once though not inaugurated until 
January 17, 1893. In Madison as elsewhere, it was his to 
know something of "the rough brake that virtue must go 
through, and ravenous fishes that a vessel f ollow which is 
new-trimmed.'' But his patient continuance in well-doing, 
and that still taught by former mistakes in the md put 
censurers to shame and crowned his presidency with laurels 
that will not fade. Proofs are abundant in authoritative 
prints of the institution for whose good he wore himself 
out, and fell with all his armor on. Under his administra- 
tion, post-graduates, of whom he foimd a score, added five 
scores to their elect few; the single thousand of students 
became 2600, while their teachers enlarged a census of 68 
to 180. All old buildings were improved, eight new ones 
added, above all the magnificent edifice, shared equally 
with the State Historical Society, through a well-matched 
marriage, was erected, costing three-fourths of a million 
and treasuring within its fire-proof walls one-third as many 
books, — open to all comers daily and far into the night. 
On the 450 acres which the academic grounds now embrace 
you can stand at no point where your eye will not behold 
some handiwork of Charles Kendall Adams: 

Si numvmtntum requiria circumapice. 

In the early autimm of 1900 his health became so 
enfeebled that he proposed resigning, but was offered a 
year's f urlou^ by the r^ents, who trusted that he would 
come back to his office with rejuvenated vigor. In previ- 
ous tours much of Europe had been traversed and he now 
with his wife sailed to the Riviera of northern Italy. Here 
his disease was arrested, nor did such a relapse occur as 



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30 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

obliged him to confess it incurable till his return to Madison 
in September, 1901. His resignation was written on 
October 11, followed quickly in California at Bedlands by 
struggles for recuperation, which ended in his death there, 
July 26, 1902. 

Education according to the creed of Mr. Adams is the 
best boon which one generation can bestow on that which 
follows it, and the fulness of his faith he showed throughout 
life and still more touchingly at his death. 

Having neither children nor needy dependants he be- 
queathed his all to education. His library of 2000 volumes 
fell to that of Wisconsin University, and with the books 
was* willed to that last scene of his mortal labor whatever 
he had stored for possible necessities of unregarded age in 
comers liurown. The total utmost of $30,000 he believed 
would prove the nucleus of fifteen schol^*ships, each a 
prize, drawing up some struggling scholar to itself and 
giving him a stand-point, or modus vivendi, from which he 
would mount yet higher. This bounty, the " all of his all," 
was clogged by no conditions except those which the 
authorities succeeding him should deem most sure to do 
most for that sort of scholarships which would rouse the 
lowest to a higher level and would uplift the very highest 
yet more high« 

At the Madison memorial obsequies of Adams, the closing 
words of President Wheeler from California University 
were: " He could suffer and repine not, for his heart was 
set to high and noble things, his vision reached behind the 
veil and many a time had he walked with God. Farewell! 
Faithful man, great heart, wise friend of education, fare- 
well." 

In the lottery of Kfe it was the good fortune of Mr. 
Adams to draw a prize in and with both of his wives. The 
dowry of the first, MA. Mudge, married in 1863, made 
possible that early year abroad, which waa to him nothing 
less than a new and nobler birth. After his return, her 
tactful and earnest efforts doubled his youthful reputation 
and usefuhiess. No sooner had thdr acquaintance begun, 
as they first met as fellow teachers, than her sweetness and 
light filled him with new ambitions. 

The second Mrs. Adams, bom Mary Mathews, for thir- 
teen years taught in the public schools of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
having commenced that labor elsewhere at the age of seven- 



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1905.] Report of the Cmncil. 31 

teen. As wife of Mr. Barnes, a man of large wealth, she 
had become interested in his benefactions to Cornell. After 
her marriage to Mr. Adams she became greatly beloved in 
Ithaca and thereafter in Madison. She stretched out both 
hands, never empty and always helpful, to scores whose 
pathway to culture was as her own had been, through a 
hedge of thorns. Her words, in season, made many weary 
ones of good cheer. When bidding Madison a farewell 
which she foreboded must be final, hers was the whole- 
souled spirit of that widow in the gospel whose gift was 
''all the living that she had" and whose two mites shall 
ring out music from the treasury of the Lord forever. 
Her 694 choice volumes she added to that Historical Library 
where readers daily must congregate. For founding an 
art-fund, she contributed her personal jewels, which had 
cost more than $4000, which had been so wisely bought 
that their avails yielded no fewer thousands. Two of the 
largest halls in the University Museum, she filled with 
objects of Ugh or curious art which had crowded her New 
York mansion. There were pictures, marbles, bronzes, 
malachite, ivories, embroideries, laces, tapestries, shawls, 
rugs, curios — whatever far beyond the sea had roused her 
craving, — ^whatsoever in the golden honeymoon she had 
freely received when the Barnes purse had been her cornu- 
copia she freely gave. The endowments established as their 
ultimate service by this married pair, lovely in life and in 
death not long divided, recall words with which a similar 
consecration far away and long ago inspired eloquent lips 
to exclaim: "Lisatiable benevolence! which not contented 
with reigning in the dispensation of happiness during the 
contracted term of human life, strained with all the reach- 
ings and graspings of vivacious mind, to extend the 
dominion of their boimty beyond the limits of nature, and 
to perpetuate themselves through generations of genera- 
tions, the guardians, the protectors and the nourii^ers of 
mankind." 

JAMES DAVIE BUTLER. 

Madison, Wis., Oct. 1, 1904, 

For the Council, 

SAMUEL UTLEY. 



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32 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



EMEBGENT TREASUBY-SUPPLY IN MASSACHUSETTS 
IN EARLY DAYS. 

BY ANDREW McFARLAND DAVIS. 



In the course of her career as colony, province and state, 
Massachusetts, in the effort to fill her treasury by other 
than ordinary means, has had two calamitous episodes, 
each caused by the emission of bills of public credit. The 
first of these was inaugurated during the administration 
of affairs by the temporary government organized after 
the overthrow of Andros, and was continued in the days 
of the province for a period amounting altogeth^ to a 
little over half a century. When Hutchinson and his 
followers, in 1749, were able, by a lucky chance, to secure 
a resumption of specie payments, through the appropria- 
tion for that purpose of the fund allowed by the British 
government for the reimbursement of the provincial expesur 
ditures in the Louisburg expedition, there were but few 
business men living who had seen a metallic currency in 
circulation in New England, and there must have been 
a great many tradesmen to whom coined silver was but 
an object of idle curiosity. 

The return to a specie basis, while it placed in the hands 
of the people enough silver— when combined with the 
additional coin let loose by merchants— to meet the needs 
of ordinary trade, carried with it inevitably, through its 
disarrangement of the circulating medium, the impending 
disadvantage of an empty treasury. This was met, when 
it occurred, by a recurrence to the policy of borrowing 
from the people on short terms, a method which had been 
establidied in the days of the colony. The process then 
resorted to was continued from year to year until May, 



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1905.] HmergerU Treamry^Supply in Mass. 33 

1775, when the printing-praas was again made use of to 
supply the treasury. The special subject which I have 
selected for our consideration today— Emeiigent Treasury- 
Supply in Massachusetts in Early Days— leads up to 
and would naturally include the transition to the methods 
employed after the establishment of the Commonwealthi 
but the limits necessarily imposed upon a paper of this 
sort preclude the pursuit of the topic beyond the retire- 
ment of the State's quota of the continental bills and 
the emission of state notes in place of the same, on the 
basis of forty for one, which was provided for by the 
General Assembly in May, 1780. 

The experience had been as I have indicated; first, 
nearly sixty years of borrowing, then sixty years of emitting 
denominational currency, then twenty-five years of borrow- 
ing. Following this came a little over two years of depen- 
dence upon bills of public credit, after which the State 
settled again upon the policy of borrowing, on interest- 
bearing notes. 

I have elsewhere described in great detail the features 
of the paper-craze, through which our forefathers passed 
in the first half of the eighteenth century. In what I 
have to say today I shall not trespass upon that ground 
more than is necessary to illustrate my topic, but the 
development of the facts connected with the emission of 
bills of public credit and treasurer's notes, for the supply 
of the State treasury, from 1775 to 1780, will enable me 
to round out the story of the participation of Massachu- 
setts in attempts to supply a denominational currency 
based solely upon government credit, down to the establish- 
ment of the Commonwealth. 

It is true that the legislation with reference to the 
circulating medium from the days of "Corn-Money" to 
the era of "Dollars" has been collated by Felt^ in his 
"Massachusetts Currency," and further that Mr. Charles 

>A]i Hutorioal Aeeonnt of Mmaehui^tto Ofmney* by JoMph B. Fdi. 
3 

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34 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

H. J. Douglass^ has in his "Financial History of Massa- 
chusetts" brought together the facts relating to the special 
subject under consideration and has also analyzed the 
colonial and provincial laws bearing thereon, thus smoothing 
the path for successors in this work and relieving them 
from prolonged study. Moreover, I myself, in the " Confis- 
cation of John Chandler's Estate," was compelled to devote 
a chapter to the consideration of the emissions of the 
revolutionary currency of the State, 1775 to 1778, in the 
vain hope of determining in "sterling,'' the various values 
assigned to Chandler's estate at different times in terms 
of "lawful money." My approach to the subject at that 
time, was, however, from a special point of view, and 
much was left to be said in order to complete the story 
of the currency emissions by Massachusetts. I trust, 
therefore, that I shall be able to make such use of the 
material at my command as to avoid the charge that 
the subject is too hackneyed for our consideration. The 
field is so important that pre-emption cannot be tolerated 
and so wide that it cannot be exhaustively covered by 
any two or three writers. 

Colony. 

When the group of colonists who bore with them the 
charter of the company arrived in Massachusetts and 
set up a local government under that instrument, they 
were necessarily compelled to meet the question. How 
should that government be supported? Taxation through 
the medium of the general court and the towns was the 
answer given, and in this solution of the question the 
settlers acquiesced. Then, as now, there were times when 
the treasury was empty, and then, as now, the government 
met outstanding obligations by treasury notes or by 



I Studies in History, Eoonomiea and PubUo Land, Cdiimbia CoUefe. Vol. I., No. 4. 



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1905.] JEmergent Trmsury'Sujpply in Mass. 35 

directly boirowing from those who were able to come to 
the rescue of the govermnent credit. 

While we have no record of any such proceedings in 
the first decade of the government, we nevertheless find 
that one of the duties prescribed for the Auditor-General 
in 1645 was to "examine all notes, bills and accompts 
upon w*^ the Country is to make payment or satisfaccon 
to any pson."* 

We might, perhaps, doubt whether the word "notes" 
actually referred to obligations given by the treasurer 
for money loaned or in settlement of debts incurred, were 
it not that entries in the records, shortly after the date 
of the Act quoted from, fully justify the proposition that 
the treasurer was in the habit at that time of supplying 
the treasury, and of meeting outstanding obligations of 
the govanment, in this manner. Thus at a session of 
the Court in November, 1646, we find the following 
entry: 

"Whereas, it appeares by a note, und' y^ Treasurers 
hand, y^ there is due to Rich'd Saltonstall, Esq', nyne 
pound, pt of a debt due to S' Rich: Saltonstall for amuni- 
tbn, Ac, A whereas he aflSrmes (w**^ we believe) y* he 
disbursed for y* Country, a good time since, some oth' 
monyes, y* C'u'te ord's hee shall have tenn pounds paid, 
in a small peece of ordinance (to be valued by y* Survey' 
Gen',) he rend' y* overplus (if any be) in ready mony."' 

It waa at this session that the general tax act was brought 
into shape and the fifystem for the assessment and appor- 
tionment of taxes for the general government which 
prevailed during the days of the colony was inaugurated.* 
The rates, even, were fixed, which were to govern from 
year to yeai^— a poll tax of one shilling and eightpence 
per person and a tax on real and personal estate of one 

iUMM. Cokmiia Raoordi, Vol. ni.. p. 64. 
> Md^ VoL n., p. 165. See also Vol. IIL. p. 88. 

• Ibid., VoL II., p. 178. A1k> raoorded in Vol. III., p. 88; Coloiiiml Lawa. 1660 
Ed., p. 14; Cotonial Law*. 1672 Ed., p. 23. 



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36 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

penny in every twenty shillings of assessed value. The 
system prevailed and the ''rate" remained the same, 
during the days of the colony, but as the functions of 
the government were magnified the treasurer was ordered 
to assess two rates or three rates, as the case might be, 
and during the Indian wars the assessment rose as high 
as ten of tiie rates fixed in 1646.^ 

Succeeding the entry of the tax act in the record, the 
following illustration of the method of raising emergent 
supplies occurs: 

"It is ord'ed, y* such Monyes as have been borrowed 
of div'se men by y* Co'te are to be & shaJbe, repaid y", 
by y* first of y* 2** M® next, in mon^, beav', or Wheate 
at 3. 8^-^bushell, A w*^ all, y* y* Treasurer may engage 
himselfe for satisfaction accordingly.'" 

With the growlli of the colony, accompanied as it was 
with increased expenditures and an enlarged field of 
operation for the treasurer, we find that such items as 
the payment of a debt of nine pounds with a piece of 
ordinance, if such incidents continued to occur, are elimi- 
nated from the records and as is natural, we discover 
some evidence of greater formality in effecting loans than 
the mere issuance from time to time by the treasurer of 
his notes. In August, 1661, the borrowing was put in 
the hands of a conmiittee of the general court* and the 
treasurer was authorized ''to engage in the name of the 
Court for theire repayment thereof, w^ due allowance 
for the same, to the satisfaction of such genf^ as shall 
make supplyes thereof in moneyes, here & in England, 
for the occasions aforeid.'' In December of that year 
the same course was followed, the action of the committee 
being at tiiat date "confirmed and allowed" in advance, 
and the treasurer ordered to "engage for the same."^ 

In August, 1664, the treasurer was authorized to borrow 

^lfa«. OoloDial Raoordi, Vol. V.. p. 81. ^Urid^ Vol. II.. p. 176. 
•/6ui., Vol. IV.. Pi. 9, p. 83. «/Htf.,p. 40. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury^Supply in Mass. 37 

on the best terms that he could, the specific sum of one 
hundred pounds,^ but in October, 1666, the following was 
the language used in the resolve passed for the purpose 
of raising money for the colony's use: 

''It is ordered that the Secretary and Treasurer shall 
signe all such orders as the (Tomitte impowred to raise 
money for the Country's use shall agree upon, & give 
them signed under their hands, in oMer to the raysing 
of the said money, & for the security of such as shall lend 
it"' 

In this case not only does a conmiittee intervene, but 
the secretary is associated with the treasurer in the sign- 
ing of the obligations to be issued by the colony. The 
fact that the amount to be raised was indeterminate may 
have been the cause of this imusual formality. 

The session of the court in which the forgoing order 
was recorded is nominally October 10, 1666,' but there 
is entered as though it constituted a part of the proceedings 
of the same session a copy of a letter ordered by the court 
to be written, which bears date October 24th. Following 
this letter in the record is an order authorizing Mr. Henry 
Ashcourt with others in London, to "take up upon loane 
to the value of one thousand pounds" — to the payment 
of which the court bound itself, the order closing in the 
following words: 

"And in testimony of this (Tourts obligation thereto, 
wee have appointed our Treasurer to signe this order 
as the Act of this Com-t, and that there be affixed the 
scale of the colony hereto." 

In April, 1668, the court recited that they had "passed 
an act whereby they have obliged the treasurer for the 
payment of a very considerable summe of money,"* and 
in case there should be any failure of the money coming 

>MaM.ColoiiialRcoord8, Vol. IV., Pt.2. p. 123. >/Md.. p. 328. •/Md..p. 329. 
*Ihid., p. 360. 



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38 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

from the expected sources the treasurer was authorized 
and empowered to borrow as much money at interest as 
the engagement of the court should require. 

In February, 1675-76, the court announced tiiat the 
country treasury was exhausted through disbursements in 
prosecuting the Indian war.^ As the war was still in 
progress and more money was needed, the faith of the 
colony was pledged to those who should make loans to 
the government. A receipt imder the hand and seal of 
the treasurer was to be sufficient evidence that the lender 
was entitled to the further security of the public and 
conunon lands and the interest of the colony in any con- 
quered lands. The treasurer was to arrange with lenders 
as to the time of their respective loans and the interest 
thereon. 

The close of the Indian war was followed by a period 
of relative quiet during which there was a great abatement 
of taxation and an apparent cessation of borrowing, al- 
though in February, 1683-84, the treasurer was ordered 
to "proems" one hundred pounds for a special purpose.' 
The fact tiiat borrowing had then practically ceased was 
perhaps demonstrated by the action of the court in May, 
1684, in ordering half a country rate to be collected, the 
same '' to be improved for emeiigent occasions, &c." This 
may indicate tliat the financial condition of the colony 
was such tiiat there was no longer need for resort to borrow- 
ing, or that the credit of the government was affected by 
the legal proceedings taken for the abrogation of the 
charter in England. The moderation of the rates at this 
period would seem to favor the former proposition. In 
any event, the days of borrowing as a colony were over, 
but the forgoing quotations from the records show tliat 
beginning with the recognition of certain treasurer's notes, 
for the execution of which no trace of authority is to be 
found, we from time to time find evidence of borrowing 

< Mbm. Colonua RMordii, Vol. V., p. 71. * Ibid., p. 482. 

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1905.] Emergent Treamry^Supply in Mom. 39 

by the treasurer and of his furnishing lenders with obliga- 
tions, such debentures being eniitted under varying degrees 
of formality, but with an evident recognition of the need 
for greater circumspection as the size of the loans increased. 

Prbbident and Council. 

The proceedings under the President and Council in 
the days of Dudley and Andros might, perhaps, be disre- 
garded altogether in this connection. The decision in 
the scire facias case had annulled the charter and the 
arbitrary form of government substituted in its place, 
carrying with it the claim on the part of many that all 
colonial laws had been abrogated, would probably have 
caused capitalists to hesitate before lending to an adminis- 
tration whose demands for recognition were based upon 
such obnoxious theories. The records of the council, 
both under Dudley^ and under Andros,' have been published. 
They contain no allusion to any other methods of raising 
money than by taxation, nor is there any indication in 
the discussions at a later date concerning the accounts 
of Wells and of Usher, treasurers during this period, of 
any credits due to unusual sources.* 

Provisional Government. 

It was during the brief life of the provisional government 
which assumed control on the arrest of Andros, that an 
entibrely new and theretofore unheard of method of supply- 
ing the treasury was inaugurated. 

A combined military and naval expedition was organized 
for the capture of Quebec and was dispatched upon its 
mission without any arrangements being made for payment 
of the wages of the soldiers and sailors or for the settlement 



iProoeadmci Mbm. HuH. Soo.. 2d Seria*. Vol. XIII.. p. 226. 
> ProoeedinflB Am. Ant. Soo., VoL XIII., Pt. 2, p. 239; Vol. XIU.. Pt. 8, p. 468. 
• See Aoto end RMolvet, Pror. of Mbm. Bay. Vol. VII., p. 645 el Mff. Coneult 
the Index for further t e l e r e u eee to thcee eoeoonta. 



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40 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of the expenses incurred in its preparation. The disastrous 
failure of the expedition prevented the colony from making 
payment out of the expected plunder from Quebec, and 
the ingenious scheme was resorted to, of adjusting these 
accounts by means of certificates of debt, issued by the 
colony, having different denominational values and capable 
of being used in lieu of money. 

Provincb. 

The provincial government continued to make use of 
this device during a period of a little over fifty years, the 
same being practically coincident with the first half of 
the eighteenth century. The method of proceeding, which 
soon became stereotyped, was to meet from year to year 
all outstanding debts and immediately impending obliga- 
tions of the government, by emissions of bills of public 
credit in the form of due bills. Accompanying each emis- 
sion was a pledge that the same amount of bills should 
be called in by tax at a specific future date. The taxes, 
therefore, of this period were laid, not for the purpose 
of meeting obligations or paying debts, but for the retire- 
ment of bills of public credit. The government, indeed, 
instead of being a borrower, became a lender, — not of 
money, but of bills, which were defined to be "in value 
equal to money." Loans were made to citizens, either 
direct or through counties or towns, from which positive 
gain was expected in the form of interest, and through 
which it was hoped that the disturbance to the circulating 
medium from the funding process, which took place annually 
when taxes were collected, would be lessened. These 
loans were called "banks." 

Such were the processes by means of which the colonists 
were accustomed to furnish supplies for the treasury in 
the days of the province; in fact, such only were the 
processes which were in vogue imder the second charter 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury^ Stypfply in Mass. 41 

from its arrival in 1692 down to 1750. The expenses of 
the Fhipps expedition had been met with ''Old Colony 
bills." The Hill and Walker expedition could not have 
gone forward except for the loans of province bills made 
to the Boston merchants. The chronic troubles with the 
eastern Indians and the expedition to Nova Scotia were 
all met through the same means, and, finally, the great 
coup of Shirley, the Louisburg expedition, was made 
possible through the power of the province to create bills 
of public credit at will. The marveUous, and almost 
incomprehensible success which attended this expedition 
was gained at the expense of the bankruptcy of the province, 
but the very fact that affairs in Massachusetts were so 
deplorable, compelled recognition on the part of the British 
government that this condition had been mainly brought 
about in securing for Great Britain a prize useless to the 
province, but of enormous value to the home government 
in the n^otiations through which the peace of Aix-la- 
Ghapelle was accomplished. Thus, an expedition b^un 
under circumstances which seemed capable of producing 
only military disaster, and conducted, so far as the finan- 
cial methods of the province were concerned, in a way 
that could lead only to ruin, through the extent of its 
success in the field and of the overwhelming bankruptcy 
which it produced at home, brought about the reimburse- 
ment of the province in coin, for expenditures made in 
bills of public credit, and gave opportunity for the resump- 
tion of specie payments. 

For upwards of fifty years the government had been 
exempted from the necessity of borrowing. The time had 
now come when the conditions were such that there would 
probably be a period each year when the treasury would 
be empty and so far as the immediate future was concerned, 
the situation was aggravated by the obstructions placed 
in the way of the redemption of the bills through the 
delays of collectors in remitting to the treasurer. 



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42 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"The bills being all exchanged by the sflver imported 
from England," says Hutchinson/ ''and provision made 
by law, that no bills of credit should ever after pass as 
money, there was a difficulty in providing money for the 
immediate service of government, until it could be raised 
by tax. Few people were at first inclined to lend to 
the province, though they were assured of payment in 
a short time with lawftil interest. The treasurer, therefore, 
was ordered to make payment to the creditors of govern- 
ment in promissory notes, payable to the bearer in silver 
in two or three years, with lawftil interest. This was 
really better than any private security; but the people, who 
had seen so much of tiie bad effects of their former paper 
money from its depreciation, cotild not consider this as 
without danger, and the notes were sold for silver at 
discount, which continued imtil it was found that the 
promise made by government was punctually performed. 
Prom that time lie public security was preferred to private, 
and the treasurer's notes were more sought for thaii those 
of any other person whomsoever. This was the era of 
public credit in Massachusetts Bay." 

In this paragraph Hutchinson sums up the situation 
in 1750 and epitomizes the story of methods of treasury- 
supply of the next quarter of a century. It will be observed 
that he indicates that the treasurer was ordered to give 
his notes, payable in silver. Such indeed was the practice, 
but it is not impossible that a part pf the distrust with 
which these appeals of the government for assistance 
were at first received was due to the fact that although 
it was ''Spanish milled dollars" that the government 
sought to borrow, the obligation which was at the outset 
offered to lenders did not contain a specific promise to 
pay in silver, or even in dollars, but the phraseology of 
the treasurer's receipt was couched in poimds. It was 
in June, 1750, that the first borrowing was effected, the 
alleged purpose of the loan being to defray the charges 
of tiie government.* The process was renewed in October 



^ Hutehinaon's mitory of Man., VoL III., p. 10. 

SAoti and RmoIvcs Provliioe Man. Bay, Vol. III., p. 513. 



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1905.] JEmergent Trectsury-Supply in Mass. 43 

of the same year, and this time the treasurer promised 
"to pay the same number of like dollars." 

In making these loans' the government could only learn 
by experience the size of the note, or as it was called in 
these acts "the treasurer's receipt/' which would meet 
with the most favorable reception. In June, 1750, the 
treasurer was ord^^ not to give his receipt for any less 
sum than £50. In October the lowest note was to be 
£5, and thereafter the miniTnum limit was generally fixed 
at £6. It may be inferred from this that dependence 
was placed upon the people ratiier than the capitalists. 

All of these notes bore interest, the rate down to 1765 
being 6% and after that 5%. The needs of the govern- 
ment in excess of the amount derived from the import 
and excise was very small, but the redemption of a large 
number of bills of public credit, which remained in circu- 
lation, had to be provided for, even after the application 
of the reimbursement fimds for this purpose and after 
the levy of a special tax to cover deficiencies. To retire 
these bills, special legislation was effected as late as 1754.^ 
Following this drain upon the people, outside the ordinary 
annual charges of the government, there came first the 
expenses caused by Indian troubles in Maine, and later 
heavy charges consequent upon the outbreak of hostilities 
between England and France. The annual contribution 
to the Crown Point and Canadian expeditions, which 
then ensued, led to a steady increase of the amounts 
borrowed by the treasurer. In 1768, they passed the 
£200,000 mark. In 1760, they reached the sum of £242,714. 
In 1765, after a brief period of decline, a second culmina- 
ing point of £197,000 was reached, after which the size 
of the loans steadily declined, until in 1771-1772, there 
was no borrowing at all. 

It was in 1765 that the rate of iuterest upon the loans 
was reduced. The province was then carrying a load 

'Aots and ResolTM Prov. Mam. Buy, Vol. ni, p. 717. 

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44 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of debt amounting to a little over £400;000, all of which 
would mature in the years 1766 and 1767. The secret 
of the credit of the government while stagg^ing under 
such a burden is to be found in two causes: First, 
the British government had followed the precedent estab- 
lished in connection with the Louisburg campaign and 
had reimbursed the colonies for certain of the expenses 
incurred in the Canadian expeditions; and, second, the 
province, now that the war was over, had ddiberately 
set to work to retire the outstanding treasurer's receipts, 
in annual instalments of such size that the tax levy would 
not cripple the resources of the province. 

In 1765, Governor Bernard wrote to the Lords of Trade 
relative to the provincial act for supplying the treasury 
with £197,000 through the treasurer's receipts : 

"The General Court reduces their debt by 50,000 pounds 
every year, and as they are obliged conformably to the 
Act of Parliament to confine their bills of Credit within 
2 years, they annually borrow a sum less by £50,000 than 
what will be due at the end of the year, by which the 
whole debt appears on the face of the Bill and is every 
year £50,000 less than the former."^ 

The reference by Bernard to the Act of Parliament 
gives a clue to the reason why no attempt was made to 
float a number of loans which should mature at different 
periods in the future and thus avoid the annual recur- 
rence to the borrowing process. The province was 
trammeled in this regard by the Act of 24th George II., 
Ch. 53, which restrained the colonies in the emission 
of bills of public credit. This law made void any Act 
of the Assembly, creating any paper bills or bills of credit 
of any kind or denomination whatsoever, except bills 
for the current service of the year where provision was 
made for their repayment withiD two years. It is true 
that under stress, the province had emitted treasurer's 

1 Quoted in Acts and RmoIvm Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 868. 

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1905.] EmergevU Trectsury- Supply in Mass. 45 

receipts, which ran for three years. This had been over- 
looked, but in 1775, the question was gravely discussed 
in the Privy Council whether certain of these treasurer's 
receipts which ran for two years and four days were not 
emitted in contravention of law.^ Hutchinson, in his 
"Diary," says regarding this transaction ."^ 

"I did not believe the obligations given by the Treasurer 
could be considered as the Bills of Credit intended by 
that Act'': and then adds: "for though they were assign- 
able, they passed as money between man and man in the 
Paper-Money Colonies," 

From which one might infer that they ought so to have 
been considered. 

Bernard's characterization of the treasurer's receipts as 
"biUs of credit," and this remark of Hutchinson brings 
us face to face with the close resemblance of the financial 
proceedings at this time, to those of the paper-money 
period. Then an emission of bills of public credit was 
made each year adequate to meet the requirements of 
the province. Simultaneously a future tax was ordered 
which was pledged for the retirement of the bills. Now, 
the province borrowed what it needed each year, giving 
the lenders interest-bearing treasurer's receipts in sums 
not less than £6, which were protected by a future tax 
pledged for their pajrment. The important points of 
difference between the proceedings at these different dates 
were: 1st. The reception of the treasurer's receipts was 
purely voluntary, while the bills of public credit were 
forced upon the people by their legal tender attribute 
and through the fact that they then constituted the only 
circulating medium; 2nd. The receipts bore interest and 
hence would be held in reserve by capitalists, thus rdeasing 
a corresponding amount of coin for circulation. Their 



1 Qootad from tlie paiMn of the Boerd of l^ftde in Aots and BmoItm Pro v. Mmm. 
Bay, VoL Vm P. 411. 
* Qoolad in Aota and RaaolTM PMt. Ifaaa. Bay, VoL V., p. 411. 



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46 American Anliquarian Society. [April, 

efifecty therefore, so far as they tended at this time to in- 
crease the circulating medium, was not disastrous, as 
would have been the case of interest-bearing notes in the 
days of paper-money; 3rd. The size of the minimum receipt 
was hi^ for ordinary purposes of circulation. We must 
not overlook the fact, however, that we are no longer 
dealing with times when the treasurer recorded that he 
had given his note for nine pounds. In 1765, Governor 
Bernard wrote: 

''This winter a gentleman who had acted considerably 
as a Banker, stop't payment for £170,000 Sterling."* 

Six pound notes were certainly not too large for the 
ordinary use of a gentleman who could fail for this sum, 
and if there were many more in Boston whose transactions 
were on a similar scale, it well may be that in certain 
channels these notes found circulation. Yet we must bear 
in mind that Hutchinson himself' said that: 

"From an aversion to silver currency, the body of the 
people changed in a few months, and took an aversion 
to paper, though it had silver as a fund to secure the value 
of it." 

Taking this into consideration, his qualification that 
these notes circulated "in the Paper-Money Colonies" 



1 Quoted in Asta uid ResdlTas Prov. Man. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 708. The amoQiit 
of ibis failuTB seema ineredibls, but I am aasurad by our aasociata, Mr. Hubert 
Hall, of H. M. Publio Record Offioe, that the letter ia oorreotly quoted la the Aota 
and ReaolTsa, Ao. Mr. Hall adds, " It appears that the person in question was a 
banker, and that explains mueh. It is said to have been like ' an earthquake ' in 
the town." 

Mr. H. £. Woods, the editor of the Historio Genealogieal Begiater, was kind 
enough to endeavor to identify the person of the bankrupt. He sends me these 
r eferenees from the House Journal : — 

Page 216, 6 Feb., 1766: "A petition of ereditors of Nathaniel Wheelwright of 
Boston, Merchant, who hath latdy stopped payment," ete. 

Pages 220-228. 7 Feb., 1766: "An Aet for protecting the person of Nathaniel 
Wheelwright, of Boston, Merdaant," etc. 

Mr. Woods also calls my attention to referenoes on pages 66 and 74 of ** Letters 
and Diary of John Rows, Boeton, Merchant, Ae.," which seem to identify Whed- 
Wright as the bankrupt in question. 

* Hutchinson's History of Mass., Vol. III., p. 0. 



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1905.] JEmergent T}rea8ury^l3upply in Mass. 47 

is emphasized and we may doubt if they fomid general 
circulation in Massachusetts. 

There were at least two attempts to raise money for 
the province by lotteries during this period.* The only 
gain that was proposed for the government out of these 
transactions was the temporary use of the prize money. 
The first of these' was in February, 1750-51. Eighty-nine 
hundred tickets were to be sold for three milled dollars 
each, thus producing, if sold, $26,700. Two thousand two 
hundred twenty-five prizes amoimting to $26,200 were 
to be distributed to the benefit tickets, one year after 
the drawing, and interest at 3% was to be allowed on the 
prize money. A tax for £8010 was ordered to be levied 
in February, 1751-52, thus furnishing a guarantee that 
the government would have the money to meet the prizes 
and pay the expenses of the lottery, while the treasurer, 
if the tickets were promptly sold, would in the meantime 
have had the use of the money for current expenses. 

This lottery shared the fate of many others. In the 
original act, the drawing was ordered to take place April 
18th, 1751, if five thousand tickets were then sold. This 
condition not having been complied with, the drawing 
was postponed to Jime 5th.' The stipulation as to the 
three milled dollars for each ticket was then altered and 
province bills and treasurer's warrants were made receivable. 
The interest on the prizes was raised to 6%. When the 
day for drawing in June came round, matters had not 
progressed much and again there was a postponement, 
this time to August 6th,^ at which time the commissioners 
were ordered to close up the affair no matter how many 
tickets had been sold. What the actual condition was 



> It will be vndentood, of ooune, that I datl in this paper only with lotteries 
wiiieh were ereeted for the benefit of the Txeasiiry of the Provinoe. There were 
several lotteries during this period whose purpose it was to raise money for some 
loeal object, lliese do not oonoem us. 

>Aete and ReeolTes Prov. Mass. Bay, VoL III., p. 089. '/Ud., p. 54A. 

</Md.,p.57S. 



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48 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

at that time is shown by authority to borrow £4545 or 
$15,150 conferred upon the treasurer in October/ Ap- 
parently, even with these two postponements, they were 
only able to sell tickets amounting to $11,550. 

In April, 1758, managers were appointed who were 
to devise and carry out a scheme for a lottery for raising 
and borrowing thirty thousand pounds.' The prizes were 
to be treasurer's receipts having about three years to 
run and bearing interest at 6%. This attempt was a 
complete failwe, and in October, 1759, it was ordered 
that thei money raised by the managers should be returned 
to "the possessors."* 

Thcyproceeds of the reimbursement for the Louisburg 
ftion were shipped to the province in 1749 by BoUan, 
province agent, exclusively in Spanish silver coins, 
vmh the exception of a proportionate amount of copper 
{0T small change. The form of the obligations, then 
epiitted by the treasurer, was governed by the situation 
iA 1750, and they were made payable in silver. This 
practice was adhered to until 1762. The Resumption 
lAoil^^pecifically provided that all debts, contracts and 
bargain^ were thereafter to be considered to be in silver 
at 6s^ 8d. an ounce and that full weight Spanish milled 
dollflxs were to pass for 6s. It was soon discovered that 
there was some English silver in circulation and further 
that there was more or less Portuguese gold. Consequently, 
there was an act* passed in 1750, fixing the rates at which 
such coins should be received in trade, the assertion being 
made in the preamble that they were being passed at 
a disproportionately high rate. Of this attempt to make 
the^ coins current at a lower rate than they naturally 
assiuned in the market. Professor Sumner says: 

''When the law . . . tried to keep them down by a 



^AeU and RmoItm Ptot. Van. Buy, Vol. ni., p. 89ft. 

s/Mtf.. VoL IV^ p. 88. s/Utf., p. 142. "/M., VoL III., pp. 488-484. 

• nrid,, p. 404. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury^ Supply in Mass* 49 

penalty for passing them at a higher rate, it only drove 
them out.'** 

Not long after the passage of this law the London market 
effected what the act of 1750 was impotent to accomplish. 

"Silver bullion," says Hutchinson,' "for a year or two 
past had advanced in price, in England, from 5s. 3d. to 
5s. 7d. an oimce. A greater proportion of silver than 
of gold had been exported, and people, who observed 
the scarcity of silver, were alarmed. A bill was brought 
into the house of representatives and passed, malang 
gold a lawful tender at the rates at which the several coins 
had been current for many years past.'' 

This was in 1762, and simultaneously with the passage 
of this act a new form of note was adopted payable in 
silver or gold." Bernard bears testimony to the cause 
for this legislation, saying that dollars were "transmitted 
to England, being the best specie for that purpose," and, 
again, that "the Province would have suffered very much 
if it had been obliged to make its payments in the tenor 
of ite bills."* 

In addition to the fact that there was a movement 
at this time of Spanish dollars towards the London market, 
there was simultaneously an imusual amount of Portuguese 
gold in circulation in the province; 10,424} Johannes 
and 1414^ moidores remitted by Bollan, on the Mercury, 
arrived*^ December 3, 1759; 28,528 Johannes and 3000 
moidores arrived on the Fowey, March 14, 1760.* These 
shipments had been made pursuant to specific instructions, 
but, in April, 1761, Governor Bernard called the attention 
of the assembly to the fact that the various expenses 
attendant upon the transportation of the specie amoimted 



1 Coin ShilUnc of lf«n. Bay, Yale Rev., Not. '98, p. 274. 
> Hutchinson's History of Mam., Vol. III., p. 90. 
•Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 516. 
« Letters quoted in Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 559. 
•Acts and Reeolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 347. •/Mtf., p. 438. 
4 



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50 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to upwards of ten per cent, of its value, while at the same 
time Boston merchants were shipping coin to London 
at a similar expense. He proposed, therefore, that the 
province thereafter, instead of causing these reimburse- 
ments to be remitted, should draw bills on the province 
agent and sell them to Boston merchants.^ Bollan esti- 
mated that this plan would save the province about seven 
per cent.' The obvious advantages to be derived from 
such a course led to its adoption. The bills were sold 
in 1761 for 136, in 1762 for 138, m 1763 for 136, in 1764 
for 135 and in 1765 for 135 New England shillings for 
100 sterling, thus confirming the judgment of Bernard.' 

During the remainder of Uie days of the province, there 
was nothing worthy of mention in connection with supplies 
for the treasury. The peace of 1763 had permitted affairs 
to assume their normal condition, during which the out- 
standing treasury receipts were redeemed and no new 
cause arose for the application of stringent methods in 
the way of raising money, so long as the chair of state 
was filled by a royal governor. The next occasion for 
an emergent supply arose under the second Provincial 
Congress, an elective body, which came into existence 
\mder the following circumstances. 

Provincial Congress. 

On the first of September, 1774, General Gage sent out 
his precepts for the election of representatives who were 
to be convened at Salem, October fifth. Notwithstanding 
the fact that by a proclamation issued September twenty- 
eighth, the General sought to prevent the very session 
for which he had issued this summons, the representatives 
elected in pursuance of these precepts, assuming that his 

1 Acta and Remlves Prov. Mass. Bay. Vol. IV.. p. 641. 
* Letter quoted in Acts and Reeolvee Prov. Haas. Bay. Vol. IV., p. 440. 
s Acta and Reaolvea Prov. Haaa. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 458. p. 581. p. 662. p. 720, p. 
806. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury- Supply in Mass. 51 

power of prorogation did not exist in anticipation of 
actual session, met at the appointed time, and the governor 
not being present, organized themselves into what they 
termed a provincial congress, for the purpose of considering 
the condition of public afifairs and of determining measures 
to promote the prosperity of the province.* On the tenth 
of December^ this body, being then in session at Concord, 
provided for its own dissolution and for the election of 
members to represent the towns and districts of the province 
in a second congress to assemble at Cambridge February 
first, next ensuing. The delegates elected in pursuance to 
this call were to remain in session until May twenty-ninth 
and no longer.' They met at the appointed time and 
held meetings first at Cambridge, then at Concord, then 
at Watertown. A third congress was convened at Water- 
town May thirty-first. The second congress had voted, 
April 1, that if writs were regularly issued for a general 
assembly, the towns ought to obey the precepts, but that 
the representatives then elected ought not to transact 
business with the mandamus coimcillors.^ The battle of 
Lexington rendered this session of the court impossible, 
and May 4th congress reconsidered this vote.* May 5th, 
it was resolved to call upon the towns to forthwith elect 
delegates to a third congress,* the one that convened as 
above. May 31st. It will be seen from the foregoing that 



* The attention of the student oucht, at this point, to be called to the function of 
the County Convention in preparing the people for a Provincial Cong rete and in 
determining them to make use of the Assembly already elected for that purpose. The 
pcDoeedinips of the various County Conventions, in the fall of 1774, are collated in 
Lincoln's Journals of the Provincial Congress, but apparently they are not given in 
full there. For a discussion of this question, the reader is referred to Vol. I., 
Transactions Colonial Society of Mass., pp. 163 tt, ssg. By meeting at Salem and 
adjourning to Concord as they did, the Assembly complied with the recommenda- 
tions of the different conventions, and thus had an expression of popular approval 
behind them. This was not, however, the full equivalent of a specific election to a 
provincial congress. 

'Journals of the Provincial Congress of Mass. Bay, p. 73. 

■The charter provided that the Qovemor should convene the General Court 
on the last Wednesday of May each year. 

4 Journals of the Provineial Congress of Mass. Bay, p. 116. 

» /Wd., p. 190. p. 192. • Ibid,, p. 196. 



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52 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the first provincial congress, as a representative assemblage, 
stands upon a different footing from the second and the 
third. Tlie steps taken in assumption of the powers of 
government originated within itself. Although an elective 
body of legislators, the members had not been chosen 
to serve in a provincial congress. With the second and 
third congresses the case was different. The delegates 
were elected by the people to represent them specifically 
in this way. This difference is fimdamental, and would 
justify the consideration of these congresses in two classes; 
the one self-created, the other deriving its origin from 
the people. For our purposes, however, we may treat all 
three as one stage in the process of the evolution of the 
state. 

The first provincial congress, when it severed its connec- 
tion with the administration of General Gage, very soon 
foimd that it was incurring expenses without funds at 
command to meet them. It was known that the assessors^ 
constables and collectors outside Boston were generally in 
sympathy with the movement in opposition to Gage and 
it was hoped that through them the needed funds could 
be obtained. A tax had been laid at the regular session 
of the assembly which was not yet collected. The assessors 
were, therefore, instructed to go ahead with the assess- 
ment. A receiver-general was elected and constables and 
collectors were urged to turn over to him public moneys 
then in hand or which should thereafter be received by 
them. From time to time efforts were made to compel 
these officers to comply with these requests, but that 
there was some reluctance on their part to do so may 
be inferred from the statement of the receiver-general on 
the twenty-fifth of April, 1775,* that he had received 
only £5000 where £20,000 was due. During the brief 
career of these congresses no direct tax was levied. They 
were not only without executive head, but they also lacked 

iJoumalB of the ProvinciAl Concreea of Mass. Bay, p. 161. 

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1905,] Emergent TrecLsury-Supply in Mass. 53 

the support of a council. For a time indeed it was thought 
possible that there might be another session of the general 
courts but the events which occurred on the 19th of April 
dissipated that expectation. They were, nevertheless, 
compelled to go ahead and inciu* debts, which in the coiu-se 
of time had to be met. The first congress made no effort 
to procure funds outside those remitted to the receiver- 
general in response to the call upon the collectors of taxes, 
but on the third day of May, 1775, the second congress 
voted to borrow £100,000 lawful money* and appealed 
to the continental congress to recommend the several 
colonies to give currency to the securities on which this 
sum should be raised. The form of note then prescribed 
was a promise in the name of "the colony,"* which was 
payable in June, 1777, in silver or gold with interest at 
six per cent. A minimmn limit' of £4 was set for the 
notes. May twenty-fifth,* the provincial congress issued 
an appeal addressed to the inhabitants of Massachusetts 
Bay to subscribe for these securities. 

On the twentieth of May,* funds being required for 
the advance pay for the army, it was voted to issue a 
sum not exceeding £26,000 in notes of a new form and 
of the following denominations: 20s., 18s., 16s., 15s., 14s., 
12s., 10s., 9s., and 6s. The notes were dated May twenty- 
fifth, 1775, and the form was a mere certificate that the 
possessor was entitled to receive from the treasury of 
"the colony '^ the designated sum in lawful money. May 
twenty-fifth, 1776, with interest at six per cent., the note 

iJoumalB of the Provinoial ConsreM of Mass. Bay, pp. 185, 186. In regard 
to this loan the Couneil in a measage to the House, in 1776, said: "The Treasurer 
in May, 1776, was directed by this State to borrow the sum of one hundred thou- 
sand poimds, lawful money, about seventy-five thousand of which he actually did 
boiTow." Records of the Council quoted in Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, 
Vol. v. p. 668. 

* In the 5th Volume of the Acts and Resolves of the Province of Mass. Bav. pp. 
505, 506, 507, Mr. Qoodell fives a clear account of these transactions and explains 
why "Colony" was used instead of "Province." 

■Journals of the Provincial Concresa of Mass. Bay, p. 187. 

« Ibid,, p. 256. 

■Journals of the Provincial Congress of Mass. Bay, p. 246. 



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54 American Antiquarian Society.' [April, 

in the meantime being receivable in all payments at the 
treasury, for its face value, without interest. It was 
provided that the notes should circulate in "the colony" 
without discount or abatement. 

Twenty-five thousand nine himdred ninety-eight pounds 
were then printed from the plates prepared for this emis- 
sion, and July seventh an additional sum of four thousand 
and two pounds, making in all thirty thousand pounds of 
these small notes. Three plates were prepared for this 
emission, each having thereon engraved bills amounting 
to forty shillings. TTiey were divided as follows:* 1st 
plate, lOs., 18s., 12s.; 2nd plate, 16s., 15s., 9s.; 3rd plate, 
20s., 14s., 6s.;' 5000 impressions from each plate being 
required to produce the £30,000. July first, 1775, Paul 
Revere was allowed fifty poimds " for procuring and engrav- 
ing four plates and printing 14,500 impressions of colony 
notes." The fourth plate must have been that from which 
the notes for the £100,000 loan were impressed. 

June fifth, 1775," a committee was appointed "to bring 
in a resolve for the purpose of giving a credit to the bills 
of all the governments on the continent." On the twenty- 
eighth of June a resolve was passed, making the notes 
and bills of this and the other colonies of the continent, 
except Nova Scotia and Canada, a legal tender. Thus 
was the way made easy for a new regime of paper money, 
toward which the provincial congress had nominally con- 
tributed,* when it was dissolved July nineteenth, £130,000, 
all in the form of interest-bearing securities payable in 
1776 and 1777, £100,000 in notes of £4 and upward, to 
be paid in silver and £30,000 in small notes payable in 
lawful money. The £30,000 was obviously intended for 



> Jouraalfl of the Provinoial Congress of Mass. Bay, p. 464. 

2 The reference in the Journals, ete., p. 297, to the plate containing the $20, $14 
aiid $6 notes is obviously a misprint or a clerical error. The plate must have been 
the 3rd Plate. 

> Journals of the Provincial Congress of Mass. Bay, p. 299. 

^ Attention ha« already been called to the fact that the receiver-general apparently 
received only £75,000 from the £100,000 loan. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury- Supply in Mass. 55 

local circulation, and it may be inferred from the appeal 
to the continental congress, May third, for aid in obtain- 
ing circulation for the securities of the colony, that the 
£4 notes also, notwithstanding their form, were expected 
to find some sort of cbculation. The debt thus incurred 
was assumed by the new government, which took charge 
of affairs when the third provincial congress dissolved. 

General Assembly. 

(At first Colony, then State.) 

May sixteenth^ in the days of the second provincial 
congress an application had been made to the continental 
congress for ''advice respecting the taking up and exercis- 
ing the powers of civil government." The answer which 
was communicated to the third congress suggested that 
a call should be made upon the inhabitants to elect repre- 
sentatives to an assembly; that the representatives thus 
chosen should elect councillors, and that the council and 
the house should exercise the powers of government.* 
Pursuant to these suggestions a new government styled 
a General Assembly, or General Court, still without an 
executive officer at the head, was inaugurated July nine- 
teenth on the dissolution of the third Congress. It must 
be borne in mind that the Charter of 1691* made the 
coimcil the executive head of the government in case of 
a vacancy in the offices of both governor and lieutenant- 
governor. Moreover, this contingency had occurred, in 
1714, when by failure to appoint a new governor within 
six months after the death of Queen Anne, Dudley's com- 
mission became void, and his coimcil, for a few weeks, 
assumed charge of the government.* 



^Jounuds of the Provincial ConRreM of Mans. Bay, p. 280. 
s/bul.. p. 359. 

s Acta and Resolves of the Prov. of Mass. Bay. Vol. I., p. 19. 
* Hutchinson's Hi^ry of Mass., Vol. II., p. 191. Palfrey's History of New Eng- 
land. Vol. IV.. p. 339. 



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56 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Again, when Lieutenant-Governor Phipps died in 1757, 
the council, for a short time, acted, as Hutchinson* phrases 
it, "in a two-fold capacity, as governor, and as the second 
branch of the l^islature," pending the arrival of Governor 
Pownall. Thus, it will be seen that, whatever the disad- 
vantages of this form of government, it was not entirely 
new to the people of Massachusetts. 

The first act of the "Coimcil and House of Representa- 
tives in General Court assembled" was to confirm the 
doings of the provincial congresses; the second was to 
respond to a suggestion of the committee of safety,' July 
sixth, 1775, and to provide that there should be forthwith 
stamped on copper plates bills of credit of the colony to 
the amoimt of £100,000 in sixteen different denominational 
values, running from one shilling to forty shillings.' The 
form of the bill of credit then emitted was in the nature 
of a certificate that the possessor would be paid the desig- 
nated sum in lawful money and that the bill would be 
received in all payments. The bills of this issue were to 
be retired according to their terms, £40,000 in 1778, 
£30,000 in 1779 and £30,000 in 1780. 

The action of the assembly in returning to the methods 
of the first half of the century and in the face of their 
recent experience, emitting bills of public credit* secured 
by the pledge of a future tax would be inexplicable if the 
situation of affairs were not borne in mind. It must be 
remembered, however, that as yet no tax-levy had been 
made by the new government; that Boston, the most 
important source of revenue, was in the hands of the English 
and that elsewhere in the colony, the imcertainty and 



1 Hutehinaon's History of Mass., Vol. III., p. 62. 

ajounuds of the ProvinoUl Congress of Mass. Bay, pp. 588, 589. 

* Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. IV., p. 416. In signing these bills red, 
blue and black ink was ordered to be used. Council Records quoted in Acts and 
Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 500. 

* There is one difference between the^ie bills and the bills of public credit emitted 
by the Province. Instead of being drawn up in the form of irredeemable due bilU, 
they contained a statement that by a given day the possessor should be paid. 



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1905.] Emergent Tredsury- Supply in Mass. 57 

disturbance caused by the collision with the crown, made 
it impossible to estimate closely the amount to be expected 
from such a levy. Moreover, the continental congress 
had settled the question as to the manner in which their 
own debts were to be met by making an emission of con- 
tinental currency on the twenty-second of Jime. If the 
thought had been entertained in Massachusetts of relying 
upon taxation and loans for supplies for the treasury the 
obligation to support these bills would have compelled 
the colony or state to accept a currency medium and to 
abandon all hopes of maintaining a specie basis. 

It would be a hopeless task to undertake a detailed 
analysis of the vast mass of material bearing upon the 
course taken by the general assembly in connection with 
the emission and retirement of these bills of public credit, 
or to attempt to account for the action of the various 
committees and public officers in their loyal efforts to 
sustain the credit of the continental congress. Mr. Goodell, 
with wonderful patience and industry, has collated in the 
notes to the chapters in the province laws devoted to the 
legislation of this period, copious extracts from the journals 
of congress; from the journals of the house; and from 
the coimcil records; reports of committees from the 
archives; and explanatory matter from newspapers, — in 
short, just what is required to comprehend the motives 
which prompted action from day to day. These notes 
separately published would make a good-sized volume. 
To them one can turn for an explanation of the legislation, 
if the preambles of the acts do not furnish a satisfactory 
clue. 

In 1775,* there were two emissions by the general assem- 
bly of bills of public credit of "the colony," £100,000 
August twenty-third, £75,000 December twenty-second, 
each set being in sixteen denominations, the first running 
from Is. to 40s., the second from 8d. to 48s. The bills were 

1 Acts and Resolves Piov. lleas. Bay, Vol. V., pp. 416 and 442. 

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58 American ArUiqtmrian Society, [April, 

to be received in all payments without discount or abate- 
ment. This practically should have made them a legal 
tender, but if doubts existed on the subject, they were 
cured in April, 1776,* by a section in the "Act to prevent 
the forging and altering bills of public credit, and for 
preventing the depreciation thereof and for making the 
bills of credit of the United Colonies and of this govern- 
ment a legal tender." The penalties for forging and 
altering and for receiving for a less sum than expressed 
in the bill, covered the emissions of the other colonies 
as well, but only the bills of the United Colonies and of 
this government were made a le^al tender. By resolve 
of the provincial congress, already quoted, the bills of 
the other colonies had been made a l^al tender. This 
resolve had been ratified by the present government. 
The legislation above referred to evidently was intended 
to discriminate against the legal tender function of the 
bills of other colonies, but it did not in words repeal the 
legislation which seemed by its terms to convey the same 
power to them. This was, however, specifically accom- 
plished May sixth, 1777,' when it was enacted that after 
July first next ensuing, no other bills than those of the 
United States and of this government should be a legal 
tender and the resolve of the Provincial Congress, making 
other bills a tender, was specifically repealed. 

June twenty-first, 1776," a third emission of *' Colony" 
bills was made. £100,000 were "printed" in twenty-foiu* 
denominations, running from threepence to forty-eight 
shillings. The form was new and stated that the bearer 
was entitled to receive by a certain date the designated 
sum in "lawful money." The bills were to be retired in 
1778 and 1779, and they were given the legal tender func- 
tion. Bills of the United Colonies and of this government 
were the only bills which could be received by collectors 



lAotfl and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay. Vol. V., p. 472. '/bid., p. 640. 
>/Wd., p. 547. 

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1905.] Emergent Treasury- Supply in Mass. 59 

of taxes in payment for the tax pledged as a fund for the 
retirement of these bills. 

After the Declaration of Independence the word "State" 
was substituted in the bills for " Colony." Funds were pre- 
scribed in each act, providing for the emission of bills, and 
both the legal tender clause and the discrimination against 
bills of other colonies in the description of bills to be received 
in the taxes laid for fimds were also as a rule, repeated. 

All the bills were made payable in lawful money. The 
emissions in 1776 were, £50,004, September 16th;* £50,004, 
October 29th,-' £20,034 December 6th;* all to be retu-ed 
in 1781; and £75,000, December 7th* to be retired, in 
1784. The word "dollars" appears in this last series, 
for the first time, upon the bills of public credit. This 
was the last emission of bills of public credit of upwards 
of six shillings in denominational value. Nearly two 
years after this, October thirteenth, 1778,^ an emission 
was made of small bills for the purpose of replacing by 
exchange the tattered fractional currency then in circula- 
tion. Twenty-eight thousand poimds small bills, of twelve 
denominations running from twopence to four shillings 
sixpence, were ordered to be struck ofif from the plates 
of the last previous emission. These were by their terms 
to be retired in 1784. Eight thousand only were emitted, 
when the assembly became impatient and on the twenty- 
sixth of January, 1779,* ordered the remaining £20,000 
to be printed. A new form was used for this £20,000. 
The bills ran in twelve denominations, from one shilling 
to five shillings sixpence and were by their terms to be 
retired in 1782. 

The reason for the stoppage of the emissions was to 
be found in the proceedings of the general assemblies of 
the New England States and of the continental congress. 
December twenty-fifth, 1776,' a committee appointed by 



lActa and Reeolves Prov. Man. Bay, Vol. V., p. 559. » /bid., p. 589. 
»/6ta.,p. 606. */6td.,p. 610. • /Wd.. p. 906. •/&«.. p. 921. T/wrf., p. 669. 



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60 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

the assembly met, in conference in Providence, similar 
committees sent by New Hampshire, CJonnecticut and 
Rhode Island. 

The Massachusetts committee was originally appointed 
to discuss what could be done to support the credit of 
the paper currencies in circulation and to control further 
emissions. The committee was afterward empowered to 
consider the subject of regulating embargoes and the 
price of goods. The *'Act to prevent Monopoly and 
Oppression" passed January twenty-fifth, 1777,^ embodies 
their report on the second part of their duties. So far 
as bills of public credit were concerned, they recommended' 
that the several states should desist from further emissions, 
should retire the bills already emitted, and should in future 
rely upon taxes and borrowings for terms not exceeding 
three years with interest not exceeding five per cent. In 
case of extreme emergency, the state was to reserve the 
right to emit bills bearing four per cent, interest, redeemable 
in three years or sooner. February fifteenth, congress by 
resolve disapproved of the interest-bearing bills, but other- 
wise conmiended the proposed action of the New England 
states. A new conference of committees from the same 
states to consider the same subjects was held at Spring- 
field, July 30th,' at which New York was also represented. 
This conference reported that the quantity of bills in 
circulation was excessive; that the bills of the several 
states and of the United States tended mutually to depre- 
ciate each other, and recommended that the several states 
should draw in their bills of public credit, except those of 
denominations below one dollar, and prohibit their further 
circulation after a fixed date. This proposition beiiig 
submitted to the general court of Massachusetts, it was 
found that there was then* outstanding £470,042 in bills 
of public credit not bearing interest, of which £30,962 

^ Acta and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V.. p. 583. Amended May 10. Ibid,, 
p. 642. Repealed October 13th. Ibid., p. 733. ^Ibid., p. 813. *Ibid,, p. 814. 
* Ibid., p. 816. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury- Supply in Mass. 61 

12s. 8d. were for sums less than one dollar. On the 
thirteenth of October/ an act was passed, calling in all 
the Massachusetts bills of credit not on interest, those 
emitted for small change excepted, and providing for the 
emission of £400,000 in interest-bearing notes of ten pounds 
and upwards, payable in 1781 and 1782, for purposes of 
exchange. Possessors were to have imtil January first, 
1778,* to effect the exchange, but after December first, 
it was made illegal to pass any bill of any of the states, 
in any pajnnent whatsoever, except the interest-bearing 
notes of this state. After the first of December, continental 
bills and Massachusetts interest-bearing notes were alone 
to constitute the currency of the state. The passage of 
this act produced a whirlwind of excitement and' the 
assembly was overwhelmed with remonstrances from the 
towns.' An address to the inhabitants of the state was 
prepared and after adoption by the representatives, a 
printed copy was sent to the selectmen of each town. 
This address, although rather lengthy, was an able discussion 
of the situation and pointed out in a convincing manner 
the futility of the objections which were interposed against 
this legislation. 

November twenty-second, congress approved the example 
of Massachusetts and reconmiended the other states to 
pursue the same course. 

When this act was passed there were in circulation 
£439,079 12s. 8d. in non-interest-bearing bills, in denomi- 
nations above the sum of one dollar. June ninth, 1779, 
a conmiittee reported that imder the provisions of the 



1 Aets and Rewdves Prov. Man. Bay. Vol. V., p. 734. 

> Tha time for exchanging these bills was repeatedly extended, the la«t period 
fixed being August, 1779. 

'One off the arguments against the transaction was, that it would be better to 
arrange for raising the money by a series of tax acts, rather than to burden the 
oountry with interest. To meet this proposition, towns having the ability to raise 
the required sum by taxation were authorised to do so. The sum raised could 
be conyerted into a Treasurer's note, which the town could hold, and thus avoid 
the burden of interest money. Acts and Resolves Pro v. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 
760. 



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62 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

act £337,378 15s. in interest-bearing notes had been 
emitted and that £337,249 19s. exchanged bills had been 
actually bumed. 

Up to that time there had been borrowed by the state 
on these interest-bearing notes, £606,400, of which £556,400 
was still outstanding, £50,000 of which did not mature 
until May, 1782. Most of these notes were for ten pounds 
and upwards and all bore interest at six per cent. It is 
true that the first two loans were put out at five per cent., 
but by subsequent l^islation the holders were given the 
benefit of the higher rate. Adding the £337,378, the 
amount of the notes given in exchange for the bills of 
public credit, there was outstanding in interest-bearing 
notes after this transaction, £893,778, which at the dis- 
count imputed to the notes in the scale of depreciation 
afterwards adopted made the silver value of the debt in 
October, 1777,* £325,010. This is based upon the assump- 
tion that the notes must practically have shared the 
degradation of the continental bills. The interest-bearing 
clause helped them somewhat, but with an allowance for 
accrued interest, their quotation must have been the 
same. 

From that date to May third, 1780, £1,847,850 were 
emitted of these notes. This does not include the notes 
issued January thirteenth, 1780,* for the balance due the 
state's quota in the continental army, for which taxes, 
amounting to £8,000,000 collectible in 1781-2-3-4-5, 
were pledged as funds. The notes for this emission' were 
drawn up in a special form with intent to make good to 
the officers and soldiers, the wages first promised them, 
r^ardless of the past depreciation of the currency or of 
any that might take place thereafter. To cover the ques- 
tion there was incorporated in the notes a clause through 
which the value was to be determined by taking for a 



>AetB and ReaolvM Prov. Man. Bay, Vol. V, p. 1413. 
^Und,, p. 1183. •Z&id., p. 1287. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury^ Supply in Mass. 63 

measure the prices affixed in the Monopoly Act of 1777, 
to Indian corn, beef, sheep's wool and sole leather. 

Methods were regulated for determining on this basis 
from time to time the relation of the currency to this 
standard. A clause in the form shows that when the 
notes were originally emitted, the current prices of the 
named articles were thirty-two and one-half times what 
they were when the Monoply Act was passed. If the 
£8,000,000 in funds represents the currency which was 
required to settle these balances, the actual amount involved 
in this transaction, on the basis of thirty-two and one-half 
for one, was £246,154. On the third of May, when the 
last emission of these currency notes was made, the state 
stood pledged to redeem £11,442,628, besides £28,000 m 
small change still in circulation, but at the ratio of forty 
for one, the recognized depreciation at that time, this 
represented only £286,740. 

May fifth, 1780, an act was passed in pursuance of a 
recommendation of congress, the purpo^ of which was 
to retire the state's quota of continental bills and furnish 
a new currency in place thereof. The state had yielded 
to congress the entire field in which to circulate its emis- 
sions of paper money and had retired its own bills of public 
credit. The emissions of the continental congress, never 
fully trusted, had fallen with each resort to tiie printing 
press until they were now admittedly worth only forty 
for one in silver. Having no power to raise money by 
taxation, congress had emitted these bills and had from 
time to time called upon the several states to retire by 
taxation certain amounts assigned to each. 

In 1775, Massachusetts was asked to care for $434,244^ 
in four equal annual pajnnents commencing November, 
1779. In 1777,' the amount to be raised for congress 
during the year was $820,000. In 1779," the quota was 



* FinAneial History of the United States, BoUes, p. 40. 

< Aets and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V.. p. 850. •/bid., pp. 033. 1034. 



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64 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

fixed in January at $2,000,000, but in May,* congress 
caUed for an additional tax of $6,000,000^ and in October' 
a monthly assessment of $2,300,000 to be remitted for 
nine months, was called for. 

The first of the monthly assessments was to be paid 
in February." On the twenty-thu'd of that month con- 
gress resolved to relinquish two-thirds of the quotas, but 
on the eighteenth of March voted to restore the full amoimt 
and to continue the assessments until April, 1781. In 
. this resolve congress stated that the bills were depreciated 
thirty-nine fortieths of their face value and provided that 
silver or gold would be received in payment of the quotas 
on the basis of one for forty. The extraordinary monthly 
assessment of fifteen million dollars on all the states was 
for the purpose of retiring the discredited currency, the 
maximum limit of which had been fixed at $200,000,000. 
In place of continental bills it was proposed that the states 
should emit interest-bearing notes payable within six years, 
in silver, at five^ per cent. These were to be guaranteed 
by the United States and were to be secured by taxes 
pledged as annual fimds for six years, each of one-sixth 
the total amount. For every twenty retired of the old, 
one of the new was to be issued, six-tenths for the use 
of the state, four-tenths for the United States. 

The act of May fifth, 1780, referred to above, was for 
the purpose of carrying out the foregoing recommendations. 
A tax was granted amounting to £5,600,000, or $18,666,666, 
which with a previous tax of the same session, would, it 
was averred, provide for the state's quota of the currency 
to be retired. This tax could be paid in silver, gold, or 
the new bills. Continental bills would be received at the 
rate of forty for one. Four himdred and sixty thousand 
pounds were ordered to be emitted in bills of the character 
above described, for the redemption of which certain 



I AeU And ReMlves Pror. Mam. Bay, VoL V.. p. 1079. » /6uf., pp. 1137, 129ft. 
•/Md., p. 1339. 



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1905.] Emergent Treasury^Supply in Mass. 65 

future taxes, payable only in coin or certain produce, 
were ordered to be levied. 

The tax for the retirement of the state's quota of the 
continental bills, amounting in round numbers to five 
million six himdred thousand pounds, was levied May 
fifth, 1780/ Collectors were authorized to receive one 
dollar in specie or one dollar of the new bills on interest 
in lieu of forty dollars of the bills then in circulation. The 
next tax, which was levied June fifth, for current state 
expenditures, was made payable in gold or silver coin, 
in bullion, or in certain articles at specified prices. On 
the twenty-ninth of September,' the Depreciation Act 
was i)a8sed. The preamble asserted that this was done 
in response to a recommendation of congress to the states, 
to revise the laws making continental bills a tender, and 
to amend them in the manner most conducive to justice, 
considering the present state of the paper currency. The 
scale ran from 105 currency for 100 in coin, January, 
1777, to 4,000 currency for 100 in com, April, 1780. As 
a matter of fact the resolve of congress in March, 1780, 
fixing the depreciation at that time at forty for one, had 
80 completely imdermined confidence in the bills that 
from that time on, no measure of their depreciation can 
be ascertained which can be regarded as accurate.' 

The last act^ published in the edition of the laws, known 
as the Acts and Resolves of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay, is a tax levy, of date of September thirtieth, of the 
same amoimt, character and purpose as that of May fifth, 



1 Acts and RmoItos Ptoy. Msm. Bay. Vol. V., p. 1202. > Ibid,, p. 1412. 

* House Dooument No. 107, 20th CongrMS, Washington, 1828. oontainu a letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting information relative to the amount 
of the Continental money and the depreciation of the same. Hie tables of depre- 
dation for the several states, show wirie differences. In Massachusetts the last date 
given is June. 1781, when the depreciation was given as 100 for 1. In New Jersey 
it was 150 for 1, in May, 1781. In Pennsylvania 225 for 1, in May, 1781. In 
Virginia 1000 for 1, in December, 1781. In North Carolina 725 for 1, in December, 
1781. 

«Act« and Reeolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 1421. 
5 



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66 American Antiqitarian Society, [April, 

1780. The final efifort of the general assembly — state — 
was in support of the confederation. 

There was one lottery, at least, created by the assembly 
which was connected with our subject. It was established 
by resolve and not by act, but we are put upon the track 
of it in the preambles to acts for the emission of notes to 
meet the prizes which had been awarded. The resolve of 
the general court establishing it was passed May first, 
1778,* and the purpose was to raise $750,000 for gratuities 
to officers and soldiers who had enlisted for three years 
in the continental army, before August fifteenth, 1777. 
In order to pay prizes of fifty dollars or upwards notes 
were emitted as follows: February eleventh, 1779, £21,450 
for tickets of first class;* April fourteenth, £81,570 for 
tickets of the second and third classes;* May third, 1780, 
£49,830 for tickets of the fourth class;* m all £152,850, 
or $509,500.* The total number of tickets in the four 
schemes amoimted to $950,000 and the blanks were fifteen 
per cent, or $143,000. 

Reference has been made to the passage of the Act 
to prevent Monopoly and Oppression.* Such acts as this 
are not directly in the line of our inquiry, but their passage 
indicates a condition of financial affairs and a stage of 
economic opinion which justifies, perhaps compels, their 
mention. The failure to limit prices by means of the 
act referred to led to the passage, February eighth, 1779,^ 



^Aots and RewlvM Proy. Maos. Bay, Vol. V., p. 983. * Ibid,, p. 920. 

• Ibid,, p. 950. * Ibid., p. 1103. « Ibid,, p. 1863 «( teq. • Ibid,, p. 588. 

7 Acts and RMolves Prov. Man. Bay, Vol. V., p. 024; p. 1118; p. 1307. Refer- 
enoe has been made to the Conferenoeii of Commitsioners from States at Providenoe 
and at Springfield. At the suggestion of Congress a conferenoe of Commissioners 
from all the Northern States was held at New Haven in January, 1778. The Com- 
missioners reported a scale of prices for labor, produce and manufactures which was 
adopted promptly by several states, but was still under consideration in Massachu- 
setts, when in June, 1778, Congress recommended the states that had adopted it to 
repeal the laws passed for that purpose. The legislation against forestalling was 
brought about by a recommendation from Congress, and although it did not tTCspass 
upon the laws of trade in the same way as the Act against Monopoly and Oppression 
and the Report of the Commissioners, still it was incapable of general enforcement. 
See Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 1012. 



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1905.] Umergent TrecLSUTy-^' Supply in Mass, 67 

of a temporary "Act to prevent Monopoly and Forestal- 
ling," the time limit of which was twice extended. This 
act was directed against speculation in food. June twenty- 
fourth, 1779/ an act was passed the purpose of which 
was to compel those who had more of the necessaries of 
life than they needed for their families to sell them to 
those that were in want of them, and to receive in pajnnent 
therefor continental bills, if offered. 

September twenty-third, 1779,' imder title of an act to 
prevent sundry articles bemg exported from this to the 
neighboring states, a temporary interstate embargo was 
laid on provisions of all sorts and on many other specified 
articles. This was enlarged in its scope by another act 
passed in October of the same year.' 

In December, 1779, it was voted to send some suitable 
person to negotiate a loan in Europe, and in January, 
1780, Jonathan Loring Austin was appointed for that 
purpose. Austin sailed for Bilboa, Spain, in the latter 
part of the same month, was captured by the English, 
taken to London and shortly thereafter was released, 
there being no evidence at hand against him. He proceeded 
to the continent, but, although he remained abroad upward 



> Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 1073. > thid., p. 1114. 

*Aots and Resolyes Pror. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 1116. This was the last staffs 
of the strucile against the rise in prioee eaused by the depreciated ourrenoy. A 
Convention was held in Concord, July 14th, 1770, which passed resolves for the 
purpose of appreciating the currency and lowering the prices of articles of con- 
sumption. They projected a scale for the limitation of prices, which was approved 
by the Assembly, but which could not then be put in force because the Assembly 
had in June resolved to lay an embargo on food, a method of procedure inconsistent 
with the oo-operation with other States required to make the limitations effective* 
A Convention of Commissioners of the N. E. States and New York was called at 
Hartford, October 20th. This Convention favored the limitation, but believed that 
all States a^ far westward as Virginia ought to join. The repeal of the Embargo 
Act was recommended. Congress, in No\ ember, approved the doings of the Hsrt- 
ford Convention and reoonunended the several States to pass laws for a general 
limitatif>n of prices. The Hartford Convention gave birth to a mors general 
Convention held at Philadelphia, in January, which passed resolves Complete 
eo-operation was difficult to secure, but June 17th, 1780, these Embargo Acts were 
repealed by Massachusetts. Acts and Resolves Prov. Mass. Bay, Vol. V., p. 1268 
stf saa. 



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68 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of a year, he was unable to accomplish the purpose for 
which he was appointed. 

In order to establish a credit upon which Austin could 
operate, a future tax was granted January eleventh, 1780, 
to be paid in bills of continental currency, equal in value 
to one hundred and fifty thousand pounds sterling. This 
was to be collected in such a way as seasonably to discharge 
the loan, but, as the loan was never obtained, the tax 
act merely stands as evidence of the attempt to secure 
the loan.^ 

The Commonwealth. 

The borrowings from the people on shori-term interest- 
bearing notes of small size did not cease with the change 
from the general assembly to the constitutional common- 
wealth in 1780. The great crisis in financial affairs was 
passed when the continental currency was discredited by 
the congress itself, and the attempt was made to secure 
its redemption by the states, on the basis of forty for 
one, but there still remained in the final days of the struggle 
much that was of interest. However valuable an investi- 
gation of these events might prove to be, the limits of 
this paper preclude their consideration today. 

^AtU and RbmIvm, Ptot. IIms. Bay, VoL V., p. 1167. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 69 



A SCHEME FOR THE CONQUEST OF CANADA 
IN 1746. 

BY VICTOR HUGO PALT8IT8. 



In the acquisition of the vast domain of Canada, by the 
treaty of 1763, Great Britain and her American colonists 
realized a hope long cherished. The proximity of the 
Canadians to the borders of New England and New York 
in particular, together with the French influence over the 
frontier Indians, had always been considered pernicious 
to the interests of these English colonies and threatened 
their ultimate destruction, unless ''some method were 
found to remove so bad a neighbour."* The reduction of 
this '' thorn in the sides " of the neighboring English colonies 
had been attempted, therefore, in 1690, under Sir William 
Phips, and in 1711, under Sir Hovenden Walker. Phips's 
expedition was an expensive undertaking; cost the province 
of Massachusetts Bay alone above fifty thousand pounds; 
wrought death among many of her chosen young men, 
by a malignant fever that raged in the camp, and ended 
ingloriously. The Bay government did not for some 
years recover from the shock. Walker's expedition was 
entered into with cheerfulness by the colonists, but it, 
too, proved a fiasco. Apart from the cost of expeditions 
in time of war, the garrisoning of the frontiers involved 
a great annual outlay. Jeremy Dunmier, in 1712, esti- 
mated the cost to Massachusetts for this maintenance as 
"Thirty Thousand Pounds communihuB annis^^ ' which 
would be spared, he said, if Canada were wrested from 
the French. 

> Mom. CouH Reeord§, SeriM 17. Vol. V., p. 499. In Mam. SUta House, oopi«d 
from Public Record Office. London. ^Man, Court Beeordt, Idem. p. 501. 



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70 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

From the treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, until the open 
rupture in 1744, a nominal peace reigned. The declaration 
of war between Great Britain and France in the latter 
year equally involved their colonial possessions in conflict. 
On June 17th, 1745, Louisburg, the richest American 
jewel that had ever adorned the French crown, capitulated 
to the daring of the New Englanders under General William 
Pepperrdl, aided by a fleet commanded by Commodore 
Peter Warren. The successful issue of this enterprise 
gave the English entire command of the Gulf of St. Law- 
rence, and thus enabled them to cut off Quebec from all 
hope of succor from France. It also facilitated the con- 
quest of Canada itself.* The victory was hailed with 
acclamation throughout the colonies, and a hope was 
expressed that no peace negotiations should ever be set 
on foot with France in which the restoration of Cape Breton 
should as much as be mentioned.' 

Tlie Canadians were apprehensive of a British invasion, 
but made vigorous preparations to repress it. They 
learned the English plans by means of scouting parties, 
from the English prints, and more particularly from the 
English colonists captured on the frontiers by their various 
incursions, and whom they held in confinement at Quebec.* 
While the English colonial governments were engaged in 
promoting levies, the Canadians sent a large detachment, 
of two thousand men,^ to take possession of the Acadian 
settlements in Nova Scotia, and succeeded in cutting off 
Governor Mascarene at Annapolis Royal from receiving 
intelligence for a period of six weeks. In France a formi- 



^ Memoin of the Prineipal Tran$actwni of the Laet War. Third edition, Boston, 
1768. p. 88. 

> Parker'B New York Poet-Boy, No. 164, for March 10th« 1746. The artide itaelf 
is dated December 28th, 1746. 

*The whole subject of rumors and French anticipatory action can be studied 
from N. Y. Col, Doce,, Vol. X.; and JovrwiL of Captain WiUiam Pote, Jr., New 
York. 1896. 

* Mascarene to Duke of Newcastle, November 12th, 1746. In Chalmere'e Papere 
relating to Canada, in New York Public Library. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 71 

dable squadron was mobilized at Brest, under command 
of the Duke d'Anville, consisting of eleven ships of the 
line, three frigates, three fireships, and two bombs, having 
on board 6,186 sailors; also twenty privateers, and other 
vessels of from ten to twenty-four guns each, which were 
also joined by fiftynsix sail of transports, laden with stores 
and provisions, and two tenders with artillery. ''The 
whole fleet consisted of ninety-seven sail, having on 
board the two battalions of the regiment Ponthieu, 
the battalion militia of Saumiir, the battalion of Fonte- 
noy le Comte and a battalion of marines, in all 3,500 
men, with 40,000 small arms," as well as equipment for 
the Canadians and Indians, who were expected to join 
them/ The Brest fleet was designed to reduce the English 
fort of Annapolis Royal and to recover Louisbiirg. Grave 
rumors were rife in New England that a descent would also 
be made upon Boston. D'Anville was heading for Nova 
Scotia, when a gale and thick fog separated his ships off 
Sable Island. Disaster followed in their track, and of the 
whole fleet of ninety-seven sail only fifty-six remained.* 
D'Anville died of apoplexy, his vice-admiral committed 
suicide, smallpox caused great mortality among the soldiers 
and seamen, the purpose of the enterprise was abandoned, 
and thus France was balked in her greatest naval expedi- 
tion to the coast of North America. 

In the English-American provinces an expedition against 
Canada was looked upon by some as a chance for ''fine 
plundering" '; while to others it appeared to afford ad- 
vantages "inconceivably great to the Crown of Britain."* 
Indeed, the original suggestions of October, 1745, compre- 
hended the enlistment of 20,000 provincials, who should 
be offered, as an inducement, "the plimder of the country; 



iRolt'f Impartial BeprmmUaHon, Vol. IV. (London, 1750), pp. 847,348. 

* For the details of this fleet eonsult Rolt, Vol. IV., pp. 346-852; a sood modern 
Boeount, varyinc somewhat from Rolt, is by Harry Piers, in Canadi4Mn Hittory 
Rmdino: St. John, N. B., 1000, pp. 68-74. 

« PMt^Bou, No. 178, for June 16th, 1746. « Idem, No. 178, for May 12th, 1746. 



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72 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

as well as the land of the Canadians/' In official quarters — 
and none the less among the populace — it was judged that 
the acquisition of Canada would secure the fish and fur 
trade, deprive the French of provisions and lumber for 
their sugar islands, greatly diminish the trade of France, 
secxu-e the English possessions in America— hitherto greatly 
incommoded, and put a halt to the building of French 
war vessels, then carried on in Canada/ Governor William 
Shirley, in his speech to the Coimcil and House of Repre- 
sentatives of Massachusetts Bay, June 28th, 1746, told 
them it was but folly to consider Nova Scotia in security 
so long as the French continued to be masters of Canada. 
In the loss of that province he discerned the most fatal 
consequences to Massachusetts "and all His Majesty's 
Colonies on the Northern Continent of America."' He 
but spoke the truth from a bitter experience. 

Soon after the conquest of Louisburg, Shirley was called 
there to quell the discontent which had arisen among the 
provincials. His mission accomplished, he returned to 
Boston early in December, 1745. But while at Louisburg 
he had concerted measures with Pepperrell and Warren, 
for an expedition against Canada the following year. The 
project was communicated to the Duke of Bedford, then 
at the head of the admiralty, and was well received. 

The fighting strength of all Canada, according to the 
best available information, was judged not to exceed 
12,000 men, inclusive of the regulars; and the resident 
Indian allies were computed to be about 900.* The winter 
of 1745-1746, intervened. On March 14th, 1746, the 
Duke of Newcastle wrote to the various American gover- 
nors, that ''should it be judged advisable to undertake 
any attempt upon the French settlements in the New 
World, they should take the proper measures for raising 

> Chalm^rt'a Papen, Canada. 

* Journal of the Repre$mlaii9e» of Man. Bay, 1740, p. 71 ; also the same in Man. 
CouH Rocorda, Series 17, Vol. V., p. 601. 

* Momov^ of Latt War, p. 60. 



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1905.] Scheme for Hie Conquest of Canada in 1746. 73 

a body of men for that purpose." * This was but the 
suggestion of a fact soon to follow. 

It is worth whfle to digress here, in order to observe 
the environment in England in which the plans for the 
expedition against Canada were matured. Thomas Pelham 
was nominally prime minister, but the parliamentary 
inSuaice and superior rank of his brother, the Duke of 
Newcastle, placed him practically on an equality in the 
cabinet. The broil of English politics was hot m the 
cauldron. On February 11th, 1746, Pelham had resigned, 
but was reinstated on the 14th of that ];nonth, after Gran- 
ville and Bath had failed to form an administration. This 
brought the two brothers, with their retinue of followers, 
back with increased power. "Pelham was a timid and 
peace-loving politician, without any commanding abilities 
or much strength of character." ' Lecky aptly remarks, 
that '' the Pelham Qovemment, though unsuccessful abroad, 
had acquired a complete ascendancy at home. The martial 
enthusiasm of the country had gone down, and public 
opinion being gratified by the successive deposition of 
Walpole and of Carteret, and being no longer stimulated 
by a powerful opposition, acquiesced languidly in the 
course of events. The King for a time chafed bitterly 
against the yoke. He had been thwarted in his favourite 
German policy, deprived of the minister who was beyond 
comparison the most pleasing to him, and compelled to 
accept others in whom he had no confidence. He despised 
and disliked Newcastle. He hated Chesterfield, whom he 
was compelled to admit to office, and he was especially 
indignant with Pitt, . . . whose claims to office Pelham 
was continually urging." • The perplexed monarch en- 
deavored to extricate himself from his embarrassments, 
but was immediately frustrated. England had for years 



> Chatmm^a Pap€r§t Canada. 

* Q. F. Russell Barker, in Diet, of Nat. Bioffnphy. Pelham died at London, 
Mareh 6th, 1764, and was succeeded by Newcastle. 
*Leek}r's Hittory of BngUmd in ths Eighteenth Century, Vol. I., p. 423. 



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74 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

scattered through Europe great subsidies, which increased 
her debt and impaired her prosperity, without signalizing 
any particular advantage/ Newcastle then, as later when 
he was prime minister, was ''the most remarkable instance 
on record in which, under the old system, great possessions 
and family and parliamentary influence could place and 
maintain an incapable man" in office.' ''George II. 
complained that he was unfit to be Chamberlain to the 
smallest Court in Germany, and he was the object of more 
ridicule than any other politician of his time; but yet 
for forty-six years he held high posts at the Court or in 
the Government. For nearly thirty years he was Secretary 
of State; for ten years he was First Lord of the Treasury. 
. . . Intellectually he was^ probably below the average 
of men, and he rarely obtainai full credit even for the small 
talents he possessed. He was the most peevish, restless 
and jealous of men, destitute not only of the higher gifts 
of statesmanship, but even of the most ordinary tact and 
method in the transaction of business, and at the same 
time so hiirried and undignified in manner, so timid in 
danger, and so shuffling in difficulty, that he became the 
laughing-stock of all about him." * ... " At the same 
time, though a great corrupter of others, he was not him- 
self corrupt," ^ presenting in his person a curious anomaly. 
Such was the statesman entrusted with the direct n^otia- 
tions with America for the conquest of Canada 

The apparent jealousy in England of the provincial 
prowess was expressed in the Duke of Bedford's written 
opinion of March, 1746. He said that no great reliance 
should be placed on the American troops, and feared, 
"after the experience we have had of them," "the Inde- 
pendence it may create in those Provinces toward their 
Mother Country when they shall see within themselves 
so great an Army possessed in their own Right by Conquest 



> Leoky. Vol. I., pp. 427, 428. > Leeky. Vol. II., p. 438. 
* Leoky, Vol. II., p. 439. « Leeky, Vol. II., p. 440. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 75 

of so great a Country." * He, therefore, wished to place 
the chief dependence on the fleet and army to be sent 
from England, and to look upon the Americans as useful 
only when joined with them. Meanwhile, not waiting 
for further instructions from England, the Bay govern- 
ment appointed commissioners, on February 12th and 
13th, who were to join with others at Albany, in a confer- 
ence with the Six Nations of New York, to urge the partici- 
pation of these Indians in the forthcoming project. The 
appointments, however, were not finally confirmed in 
Coimcil until July 16th. They were Jacob Wendell, 
Samuel Welles, Thomas Hutchinson and John Stoddard. 
On July 18th, Oliver Partridge was appointed to succeed 
Hutchinson, ''who excused himself from that service."' 

On April 9th, 1746, Newcastle despatched letters by 
the sloop of war Hickinghrook ' to the governors of all the 
provinces from New England to Virginia. The packet 
with the royal orders reached Governor Shirley on May 
26th, and he immediately forwarded the documents to 
the different governments by land expresses. He evinced 
his own interest by his personal correspondence, in which 
he urged co-operation. He was very zealous for the cause, 
and hoped that the Massachusetts Bay government would 
set a good example to the others.* The royal orders 
required the several governments to raise as large a body 
of men as the shortness of the time would warrant.* The 
King did not limit the number of men for each province, 
neither did he require special allotments; but he hoped 
and expected that the united levies would not be less 
than five thousand.* 

The scheme concerted in England varied very little 
from the suggestions which had been forwarded previously 

> ChfOmen** Paper; Canada, 

» MaA. Court TUcordt, Series 17, Vol. V.. pp. 306. 311, 600, 521. 

*Al0o spelled Hinchinbrook in Penn, Votet, Vol. IV., (Phila., 1774), p. 87. 

* Ma—. Journal, May 29th, 1746. 

» Chalmera'M Paper; Canada, April 9th, 1746. 

• Hutohinson's Hiet, of Ma—,, Third edition. Vol. II., p. 881. 



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76 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

from America. It was agreed that the land forces should 
be commianded by Lieutenant-General James Sinclair/ 
while Rear-Admiral Warren was to look after the royal 
fleet. The plan of operations was not made irrevocable. 
Sinclair, Warren and Shirley were entrusted with such 
alterations as circmnstances would require or good judgment 
might suggest. By the original instructions the companies 
raised in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland 
and Virginia were to rendezvous at Albany. The command 
of this contingent was given to William Gooch, lieutenant- 
governor of Virginia; but he pleaded indisposition, and 
declined to serve. Governor George Clinton, of New 
York, who was virtually responsible for the success of 
this part of the plan, appointed Lieutenan^Oolonel John 
Roberts as Gooch's successor.' From Albany these troops 
were to make a descent upon Montreal and lay waste 
the settlements on the upper St. Lawrence. 

The provincials of Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, 
Rhode Island and Connecticut were to rendezvous at 
Louisburg as soon as possible, where they were to await 
the arrival of General Sinclair, the eight battalions of 
regulars, and the fleet commanded by Warren. This was 
the main guard, which was charged with the capture of 
Quebec. While they proceeded up the St. Lawrence, the 
men at Albany were to march to Montreal. The blow 
was to be struck simultaneously. The plans were well 
laid, and gave every earnest of success.* 



iQen. James SinoUir (also written St. Clair), was the second son of. Henry, 
eighth Lord Sinolair. He entered the army at an early age, and rose in the ranks, 
becoming lieutenant-general on June 4th, 1740, and had command of the British 
troops in Flanders, prior to his appointment for this Canadian expedition. He 
died on November 30th, 1762, while governor of Cork, Ireland. 

* N, Y, Col, Doe:, Vd. VI., p. 314. Roberts was an experienced soldier, having 
served since the days of George I. He was also connected by his first marriage 
with the Earl of Halifax. 

* The material for a study of the scheme is ample. The chief sources are Chal- 
men'M Papon rdoHno to Canada, transcripts from original documents in the Public 
Record Office of England. These transcripts are now in the New York Public 
Library; Momoira of iho Lati War, p. 61; Rolfs Impartial Roproaontation, Vol. 
IV. (London. 1750), pp. 845, 846; Hutchinson's Hitt, of Ma—., Third edition. Vol. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 77 

So soon as the governors had received the Duke of New- 
castle's instructions of April 9th, they convened their 
several councils and legidatures, and urged immediate 
action. The whole number of fighting men within the 
participatmg colonies aggregated 340,000.^ It has ahready 
been observed that the packet from England reached 
Shirley on May 26th. He immediately communicated the 
correspondence to his House of Representatives, who on 
the 30th of the month passed the following vote, which 
was read and concurred in Goimcil and consented to by 
Shirley that same day. The tenor of that vote was this: 

*^ Whereas His Majesty has been pleased to resolve upon 
an Expedition against his enemies in Canada, which is appre- 
hended to be of great importance to His Majestys subjects 
in Great Britain as well as America; and notwithstanding 
the great difficulties and charges to which this Province is 
exposed by reason of the numerous attacks made on all parts 
of our Frontiers, which burthens are made much heavier by 
coming immediately upon the loss of so great a number of 
men as were killed and died in the late expedition against 
C3ape Breton; yet this House judge it to be their duty to 
contribute all in their power thereunto in humble confidence 
that- as His Majesty has determined upon it and recommended 
it to his Excellency the Governor to raise what men he can 
in this Province, with transports & provisions suitable, the 
charge thereof will be reimbursed by the Crown, the Costs 
and Difficulties whereof would otherwise be insupportable: — 

^^ Voted that there be granted as an Encouragement to a 
number of good and effective men not exceeding Three Thou- 
sand to enlist Yoluntiers into His Majestys service in the 
said Expedition against Canada, as a Bounty, Tliirty Pounds 
in Bills of Credit of the Old Tenour, and a Blanket, for each 
man, and a bed for every two men, the money to be paid 
upon Enlistment and the Blankets & Beds delivered on em- 
barkation. That as soon as may be a sufficient quantity of 
provisions be secured and a suitable number of vessels for 

II., pp. 380. 381; N. Y, Col. Doe:, Vol. VI.; manuseripta in Uia JfoM. Arehion, 
preaenred in the State Houae at Boston; and the printed VotoB, JoumaU and 
Recordo of the aeveral eolonies engaged in the expedition. 

> Chalmort'a Papon, Canada. From a liet sent by Shirley to Neweantle, in July, 
1746, exhibiting the available fighting strength of the nine eolonies engaged in 
the expedition, and showing how numy men were voted and raised or nearly raised 
at that time. 



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78 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Transports, as also a proper number of Chaplains, Ph3rsicians, 
and Surgeons, and a full supply of medicines, with all other 
conveniences for such as may be sick. 

" Voted also, that His Excellency the Governor be requested, 
by Proclamation, to publish the above said Encouragements 
mentioned in His Grace the Duke of Newcastles letter of the 
Ninth of April last." * 

On the same day the House voted and the Council con- 
curred, "that His Excellency the Governor be desired to 
appoint a day of Fasting and Prayer to implore the Divine 
Presence and Blessing on the intended Expedition against 
Canada." * Sunday intervened. On the next day, June 
2d, Shirley issued the following proclamation for raising 
troops, viz.: — 

"By his ExceUency WILLIAM SHIRLEY, Esq'. Captain 
General and Govemour in chief, in & over his Majestys pro- 
vince of the Massachusetts Bay in New England. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

"WHEREAS His Majesty has been graciously pleased to 
order a number of Troops under the Command of the Hon- 
ourable Lieutenant General S* Clair to proceed from Great 
Britain to Louisbourg, with a sufficient convoy of Men of 
War, and with them a great part of his Majest3rs Troops 
now in Garrison at Louisbourg, and also with such Troops 
as shall be Levied for that purpose in lus Majestys Colonies 
in North America to attempt the immediate Reduction of 
Canada; and has si^iified his Royal pleasure to me, as also 
to the Govemours of the several provinces A Colonies of 
Virginia, Maryland, Pensilvania, New Jersey, New York, 
Connecticutt, Rhode Island A New Hampshire, by I^etters 
dispatch'd from his Grace the Duke of Newcastle, That the 
necessary Dispositions should be forthwith made for the 
raising as many Men within this and the abovementioned 
Governments as the shortness of the time will admit for pro- 
ceeding on the said Expedition. 

"And Whereas the Great and Greneral Court of this province 
have with the utmost Chearfulness and unanimity. Voted to 
give all necessary & proper Encouragement for Three Thousand 



1 Maa; CouH Reeordt, Series 17. Vol. V.. pp. 426. 427. 
> Idem. p. 428. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1 746. 79 

Volnnticrs that shall inliat into his Majestys Service in this 
Expedition. 
''In Obedience therefore to his Majestjrs said Commands 
"I have thought fit with the Advice of his Majestys Council, 
to issue this Proclamation, in order to make known his Majestys 
gracious intentions & Declarations for the Encouragement of 
all able Bodied effective Men that are inclined to inlist them- 
selves into his Service in the said Expedition, together with 
the further Encouragement which is offered by this Government 
viz^ That the said Volimtiers will be imder such Officers 
as I shall appoint. That they will be immediately intitled 
to his MajestyB Pay, the Officers from the time they shall 
engage in his Majestys Service and the Soldiers from the 
respective days on which they shall be inlisted; That if provi- 
sion cannot be made of Arms & Cloathing for them, by reason 
of the shortness of the time, a reasonable allowance will be 
made them in money for the same; That they shall be intitled 
to a share of the Booty that shall be taken from the Enemy 
A shall be sent back to their several Habitations when this 
Service shall be over, imless any of them shall desire to settle 
elsewhere. And for the further Encouragement of all Volun- 
tiers that shall engage in this Service, It is provided That 
they shall recieve Thn*ty pounds in Bills of Credit of the old 
tenour, as a Boimty, as also for each Man a Blanket, k a 
Bed for every two Men; the said Bounty to be paid upon 
their Enlistment, and the Blankets & Beds at the time of 
their Embarkation or proceeding on the said Expedition: 
And that all such Vqlunticrs as shsJl proceed on this Expedition 
shall be Exempted from all Impresses for two Years after 
their Return. 

"Given at the Coimcil Chamber in Boston the second day 
of June 1746, in the Nineteenth Year of the Reign of our 
Sovereign Lord George the Second by the Grace of God of 
Great Britain, France A Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith 
4c». 

W. SHIRLEY. 
By order of his Excellency the Gk>vemour, 
with the Advice of the Council, 
J. WILLARD Sec'ry 

God Save the King 
A true Copy Examined ^ Sam Holbrook Dep. Sec'ry 
[Endorsed:] 

"His Excy Gov*. Shirley's Proclamation for raising 
.Troops for the intended Expedition ag^. Canada 
June 2*. 1746. " * 



1 Mau. Arehivet Vol. 72 (MUitary Series 6). pp. 718-72a 



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80 American AiUiquarian Society. [April, 

On June 3d a joint committee from the House of Repre- 
sentatives and the Council was chosen to provide ''a 
sufficient quantity of Provisions, a suitable number of 
vessels for transports, as also a proper number of Chaplains, 
Physicians and Surgeons, and a full supply of medicines 
with all other conveniences for such as may be sick." It 
was also urged that in procuring the provisions and other 
necessities, the preference should be given to the produce 
of the Bay government. The House selected the Speaker 
and Messrs. Welles, Hubbard, Skinner, Hall, Russell, 
Thomas Foster, James Otis, Col. Heath, and Captains 
Pickman and Partridge, to whom the Council added John 
Osborne, Jacob Wendell, Thomas Berry, Samuel Watts, 
Ezekiel Chever, James Bowdoin, John Wheelwright and 
Andrew Oliver.* Acts for supplying the treasury with 
large sums of money were enacted in June.' But at first 
the House hesitated in this policy, until urged by Shirley 
in vigorous language. In his message of June 10th, re- 
ferring to their vote "for stasring any further proceedings 
in relation to the providing Transports and other neces- 
saries for the troops," he said, "Gentlemen, this last Vote 
seems to me to confound and frustrate all your former 
proceedings, unless you have some other practicable methods 
in view . . . than I am at present apprized of. You 
are sensible. Gentlemen, the Transports and Provisions 
must be had some way or other; and if there be any other 
way in which you expect they will be provided, I think 
it is fit I should know it. We have already lost much 
time by this interruption, and I desire we may now retrieve 
it, by the most vigorous proceedings; or else the most 
proper season for action will be irreparably lost." • The 
objectionable "Order to the Committee of War above 
refer'd to, was withdrawn by the Direction of both Houses, 



> IfoM. CouH BMordM, Series 17, Vol. V., pp. 430, 431. 
3 Idem. pp. 438, 435, 436, 442, 444, 456, 463. 
* Mom. Court Reeordt, idem, pp. 445, 448. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 81 

and the Committee left to proceed according to their 
first Instructions." 

On June 14th, the following message from the House 
was sent to Shirley by tJie hand of Samuel Adams and 
others, viz,: — 

"May it please your Excellency. 
"It being represented that divers Children under sixteen 
years of age have been received and allowed to enlist in the 
Expedition against Canada, by the Officers who have Beatmg 
Orders, this House have thought it their duty to lay this 
grievance before your Excellency. They look upon this 
practice with greater concern, because it not only brings 
great distress and difficulty on Parents and Masters, but it 
is apprehended to be likely to be very pernicious, and should 
it become general, must be fatal to the important enterprize 
they are designed to serve. We are persuaded these things 
are done without your Excellenc)rs leave and knowledge; 
but as these complaints are become numerous and still increas- 
ing; We humbly request Your Excellencys interposition 
herein, that the Families to which such Children belong may 
live in quiet at home, & the Forces raising may go with strength 
and courage abroad."* 

To this complaint Shirley replied in a message, on June 
21st, in which he recommended the appointment of a 
Muster Master for reviewing the troops, to prevent misap- 
plication of the bounty and "inefifectiveness of those that 
are really enlisted." * 

The wages of the officers of the transports were according 
to the following rates: for masters of double decked vessels, 
five pounds per month; for masters of single decked vessels 
four pounds, twelve shillings and sixpence; for mates, 
four poimds; and for boatswains and carpenters of double 
decked transports, three pounds, ten shillings per month.* 

Each soldier was provided with a tin flask in which to 
carry water during marches, and was allowed for his billet- 
ing five shillings per week from the tune of his enlistment 



> Ma-. CouH Recorda. idem. pp. 464. 465. > Ibid,, pp. 479. 480. 
*Ibtd„ p. 624; e/. also with earlier roU, p. 490. 
6 



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82 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

until August 6th, except for such time as he should be on 
the march, when he would be allowed eighteen pence per 
day, "accounting twenty miles for one days travel." * 

The provisions for transports and soldiers were ordered 
to be kept apart and to be distributed equally under parti- 
cular supervision;' but the House unanimously non- 
concurred with the desire of the Ciouncil that "both Soldiers 
and Seamen be allowed Beer, Rum or Molasses, as will 
be most suitable to the season of the Year; and that the 
Committee of War provide accordingly." It is not clear 
whether ideas of economy or temperance were responsible 
for this ruffle of opposition. 

On June 28th, 1746, Shirley delivered to both Houses 
his most important speech in connection with this affair, 
and after its conclusion the "Great and General Court or 
Assembly" was adjourned until July 15th. Although 
quotations from it have already been given, it is reproduced 
here in all of its original quaintness, and worthily exhibits 
the spirit of the times. 

''Gentlemen of the Council & House of Representatives. 

"The present necessary business of the Court being so far 
dispatched as to admit of a short Recess, I have thought 
proper to adjourn you for some time, that so the Committee 
of War may have more leisure to make needful preparations 
for the Expedition, and the rest of the Members an opportunity 
to encourage and promote the Levies for the same in their 
respective Counties; which I accordingly now recommend 
to you as a matter of the greatest importance to His Majestys 
service and the general advantage of His Colonies in North 
America, & to the future prosperity of this Province in par- 
ticular. 

"The near situation of the French to our borders, and 
their influence over the Indians have alwa3rs been thought 
most pernicious to the interests of these Colonies and to 
threaten their final Destruction unless some method should 
be found to remove so bad a neighbour from us. And there- 
fore in every war with that Nation some design has been 
laid and attempts made for compassing this end. 



1 M<u%. Court Recorda, idem, p. 614. * Ibid., p. 491. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. ga 

''To demonstrate this to you I need only transcribe the 
following extract from the Late M'. Agent Dummers letter 
upon tlmt subject in 1712, in which he says, — ^'I am sure 
it has been the cry of the whole country ever since Canada 
was delivered up to the French, Canada est ddenda; they 
alwa]^ looked upon it as a Carthage to the Northern Colonies, 
which if they did not destroy it would in time destroy them. 
Of this they were so apprehensive in the year 1690, that 
th^ came unanimously into a great and expensive under- 
taking against it, under the command of Sir William Phips, 
but meeting with an unaccoimtable train of disappointments, 
returned without doing any thing. This enterprize cost the 
single Province of the Massachusetts Bay above fifty thousand 
pounds, which together with the loss of abundance of their 
chosen young men, by a malignant fever that raged in the 
Camp; and several disasters that happened in the way home, 
gave that Province so deep a woimd that it did not recover 
itself in many years after. However about five years agoe 
observing their French neighbours to increase and grow more 
and more formidable every day, they resolved to make them 
an other visit; but not thinking themselves strong enough 
to deal with Canada, they were content only to make an 
attempt on Port Royal, which was accordingly done, but 
most imhappily miscarried. Yet, far from disheartened by 
these misfortunes when Her Majesty about three years after 
signified her gracious intentions to reduce Canada and desired 
them to get ready their Quota, it cann't be expressed with 
what chearfulness they came into it. They raised their men 
immediately, cloathed them handsomly and disciplined them 
for the service, and had laid up Magazines of provisions both 
for their own and the Queens Troops then shortly expected. 
And, althd the Court altered their measures, did not proceed 
on that design, yet the Colonies and particularly New England 
were at near the same charge as if ^ey had. The next year 
they raised a body of Troops again, which commanded by 
Coll. Nicholson and joined by five hundred Auxiliaries from 
hence, made an other attack on Port Royal, and carried it, 
as every body knows. Thus that poor coimtry, exhausted 
by so many (and all but one fruitless) enterprises, besides 
the oppressions of a twenty years French and Indian War, 
that has lain heavy upon them, yet did this summer past 
furnish more than the Quota assigned them for this late fatal 
expedition. I shall add one thing more, that over and above 
these extraordinary articles, the standing yearly charge of 
the Province of the Massachusetts Bay to maintain their 
Barrier against the enemy, is Thirty Thousand Pounds cam' 



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84 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

munibua annia, which they would be eased if Canada were 
taken.' 

"Such, Gentlemen, have ever been the general sentiments 
and apprehensions of the People of New England concerning 
Ganadas remaining in the hands of the French; and I may 
add to M'. Dummers remarks, that we ought never to think 
His Majesty's possession of Nova Scotia in security, whilst 
the enemy is suffered to continue Masters of Canada; and 
should it ever be our misfortune to see that Province reduced 
by them and added to Canada, it requires no extraordinary 
share of penetration to discern what must be, in a short time, 
the fatal consequences to this and all His Majestys Colonies 
on the Northern Continent of America. 

"Through the signal favour of Divine Providence to us, 
Annapolis Royal was indeed in the year immediately preceed- 
ing the last, saved from falling into the enemys hands, and 
the last year the Fortress of Louisbourgh with the Island 
of Cape Breton and its Dependencies reduced to the obedience 
of His Majesty: an atchievement worthy of the English name, 
and which must always be remembered to the lasting honour 
of the Province that undertook it, and of their troops which 
so bravely executed it; yet these are but single steps towards 
procuring the lasting Welfare & Tranquility of these Colonies. 
For since the reduction of Cape Breton, I suppose we have 
had greater numbers of Indians continually harrassing us 
in all parts of our Frontiers, and have been obliged to keep 
more men in pay for our defence, than at any other time 
in former wars; and the ravages and cruelties of the enemy 
in murthering & captivating our People, driving them from 
their Settlements, killing their Cattle, destroying some thou- 
sands of acres of Grain upon the ground, depopulating almost 
a whole Country in one of the neighbouring Colonies, and 
putting us to an immense charge, with so little success on 
our side, as not in the least to dispirit the enemy; I say these 
things considered, if no other measures be taken but the 
carrying on such a defensive War, a few years continuance 
of that alone, must work the inevitable destruction of this 
Province. 

"And now Gentlemen, affairs being brought to this Crisis 
with us, and His Majesty having, in compassion to the dis- 
tressed circumstances of his good subjects of these Provinces, 
ordered so strong an Armament for the Reduction of Canada, 
at a time when he has so much occasion to employ both his 
land and sea Forces in Europe, justly expecting that we, 
who will reap so large a part of the happy fruits of its success, 
should join to the utmost of our power in promoting this 
great design, especially as His Majesty has been graciously 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 85 

pleased (besides all the other benefits allowed to our troops 
in the former Expeditions against Canada and Nova Scotia) 
to take upon himself the payment of & charge of cloathing 
the Forces in this Expedition; I say upon due consideration, 
I hope you will act your parts at this important conjuncture 
with Vigour and Resolution, not only in your Legislative 
capacity whilst you are together, but in the short time of 
your Recess among your neighbouring Towns in the Countrey, 
by encouraging the enlistments for His Majestys service in 
the present Expedition to the utmost of yoiu: power." * 

Since Massachusetts Bay took the lead among the colonies, 
an elaboration of her proceedings seemed to be pertinent. 
We turn now, yet with greater brevity, to observe what 
preparations were being made by the other governments, 
each of which gave special inducements, in one way or 
another, to favor an enlistment. 

New Hampshire voted to enlist one thousand men, 
though some authorities suggest that only five hundred 
took the field. Yet Governor Wentworth, in his requisi- 
tions to England for reimbursement, said his province 
raised seven hundred and thirty-three men, and that his 
Assembly had voted sixty thousand pounds for defraying 
expenses.* 

Rhode Island voted three companies of one himdred 
men each, inclusive of oflScers — a standard for companies 
required by the royal instructions — and gave a bounty 
to each man of fifty pounds, in bills of public credit of 
the old tenor; a suit of clothes valued at twenty-six 
pounds of the old tenor; "a small arm and cartouch box, 
over and above His Majesty's pay, and the share of booty 
taken"; also "tents for the land forces, and a suitable 
bed and blanket for every two men." She expended, in 
addition to the bounty, £76,083 lis. 4d., New England 
currency, which reduced to sterling, at the rate of £750 
currency for £100 sterling, equalled £10,144 19s. 6d.;* 



> McM. Court Records, idem, pp. 498-502. 

^CfuUmen^t Papert, Canada; Memoin of Last War, p. 62. 

»B. I. Roeordt, Vol. V.. pp. 172. 175, 177. 236. 



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86 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and was reimbursed to the sum of only £7507 4s. 3fd.^ 
In May, 1746, the Governor, Council and Representatives 
of Connecticut, in General Court assembled, voted to 
furnish "six hundred able-bodied effective men, or more 
if they shall offer themselves,^' but at the June session 
increased the number to one thousand men, inclusive of 
the officers. The bounty and other allowances offered at 
the May session were also materially increased in June; 
" for the encouragement of such men voluntarily to enlist 
themselves"; yet, in case the nimiber should fall short, 
the remainder were ordered to "be imprest to go into 
said service/' The war committees of the several towns 
were given additional instructions. Jonathan Trumbull 
and Hezekiah Huntington were appointed "to provide, in 
the best and most reasonable manner, such good fire-locks, 
cutlasses, cartouch-boxes and belts as may be wanted." 
Andrew Burr, Thomas Welles, Hezekiah Huntington, 
Gurdon Saltonstall, John Fowler and Jabez Hamlin were 
entrusted, as commissaries, "with full power by impressing, 
or otherwise, to provide sufficient transports for said troops 
and sufficient provisions at present for their subsistence 
five months from the time of their imbarkation, and also 
to provide cloathing, beds and other necessaries." * Officers 
were chosen for the regiment in May and June,' and it 
was ordered that proclamations be issued "for the keeping 
days of Fasting and Prayer to Almighty God, for his pro- 
tection, blessing and assistance in the expedition." ^ 

The regiment was at New London early in August, 
awaiting orders to embark for Louisburg; and when the 
Assembly observed at its October session that the late 
season of the year presaged a delay for some time to come, 
they voted " that his Honour the Govemour of this Colony 
be desired, and he is hereby desired, to advise the colonel 

^ Corretpondmce of th« Cclonial Oovemon of BhotU I§land. Edited by G. S. Kim- 
ball; Vol. II. (1903), pp. 08. 00. 

^PtMie Bocord9 of ths CoUmy of Conn., Vol. IX., pp. 211, 881, 282. 

« Conn. ony Roeordt, Vol. IX., pp. 218, 214, 286, 287. « Ihid., p. 210. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Uonqueat of Canada in 1746. 87 

or chief officer of tbe eaid raiment to offer a furlough to 
the said souldiers, that th^ may retire to their respective 
places of abode until they shall have his Majesties orders 
for musterii^ again/' ^ This order was carried out by 
Governor Law, but as late as the year 1750, this resolve 
caused some trouble by being ''interpreted as expressing 
disrespect to his Majest/s orders, and tending to disad- 
vantage the then intaided expedition/' It even threatened 
to jeopardize the reimbursement promised by the mother 
country, but the action of Connecticut, it is certain, was 
prompted by a desire to economize the Crown's expenses, 
as well as to sustain the welfare of the colony.' 

A census of New York, taken in 1746, shows that the 
white males between the years of sixteen and sixty numbered 
but 12,522, exclusive of Albany County, which could not 
be computed because of the enemy.* Nevertheless this 
province provided one thousand six htmdred men, and 
also four "independent" companies of one hundred men 
each. It also conciliated the Five Nations of Indians, 
through the instrumentality of Col. William Johnson, 
whom the Indians themselves had chosen to be their 
colonel.^ Governor Ginton was personally active in con- 
ferences with the Indians, but at the same time was at 
loggerheads with his Assembly, who made him much 
trouble. On November 9th, 1747, he reported to Newcastle 
that "about £55,000 sterl." would cover all expenses 
incurred and to be liquidated.* 

Lewis Morris, governor of New Jersey, died on May 
21st, 1746, whereby the government devolved upon the 
Honorable John Hamilton, the eldest member of the 
Council.* On June 12th Hamilton addressed the Council 



1 Conn, CoUmy Rteordo, id«m, p. 257. * Ihid., pp. 57ft, 576. 

*N. Y. Col. Doeo., VoL VI.. p. 892. New York's official aoUon in behalf of the 
■oheme ean be studied from Journal of the VoUo and Proceedingo of tiio Oonoral 
Aoatmbly of Now York, Vol. II. (New York. 1766). * Ihul., p. 870. 

* Ibid., p. 400. For muster roUs see, Soeond Anmual Ropori of tho SlaU HiUorian 
of Now York. Albany. 1807. pp. 617-680. 

• N. J. Votoo, of the siven date. 



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88 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and General Assembly and conunnnicated Newcastle's 
letter of instructions to Morris, relative to the intended 
expedition. He also forwarded immediately the remaining 
letters of the packet to the governor of Pennsylvania. 
The Assembly expressed themselves as grateful to His 
Majesty for his ''paternal Care/' as shown by the proposed 
expedition, which also proved to them that His Majesty 
was ''not unmindful of the Welfare and Preservation even 
of his remotest Subjects." * New Jersey voted five hundred 
men, and by its appropriations impaired its own treasury. 
Col. Peter Schuyler, who conamanded the New Jersey 
eompanies, also advanced some thousands of pounds "out 
of his own estate" to keep his men together.' But in 
doing so he reaped the displeasure of New York's governor, 
who bitterly complained to the mother country, asserting 
that Schuyler's action had caused desertions and mutiny 
among the unpaid provincials.' 

The Legislature of Pennsylvania was controlled by 
Quakers, who, while affirming allegiance to the King's 
conunands, so far as their religious persuasions woiQd 
permit, objected to being "concerned in war-like Enter- 
prises."* In this they were seconded by the German 
Mennonites, a sect of Pennsylvania pietists, who were also 
advocates of non-resistance. Governor George Thomas, 
therefore, raised four hundred men, without an act of 
government, and clothed, armed and equipped them on 
his own credit. 

Maryland voted, "to encourage 300 able bodied Freemen 
to enlist . . . and to transport them to the Place of 
Rendezvous," * who were ready for the field by July 25th. 
As no arms could be purchased in Maryland at the time, 
the House, to prevent delay, consented to supply "out of 



1 N. J. VotM, June. 1746. * Ibid,, June 13th, 1746, and Jan. 7th, 1748. 
«/fru2., Jan. 7. 1748; N. Y. CoL Doea., Vol. VI.. pp. 341. 349, 361, 867; Chai^ 
tnen'9 Paper; Canada, 

« Penn. Votet. Vol. IV. (Phila.. 1774). p. 38. 

* Maryland Voiea and Proceeding* of the Lower Houee of Aaeemhly, 



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1905.] 8chemefor the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 89 

the public Magazine of this Province, on condition of the 
like Quantity being again replaced for the Use of the 
Public," the following equipment: "300 Muskets, with 
Slings and Bayonets, 300 Cartouch Boxes with Belts, 6 
Drums, 9 Half Pikes, and 6 Halberts." * These things 
were accordingly removed from the public magazine, but 
had not been replaced as late as June 22nd, 1747, when 
the new governor, Samuel Ogle, was urged to remedy the 
condition. But Maryland rejected the request of Shirley 
for appropriations toward the conciliation of the Six Nations, 
in the following words: — 

"We have considered the Letters from Governor Shirley, 
laid before us by your Excellency, and cannot with any Colour 
of Reason burthen the People of this Province upon every 
Suggestion of private and unknown Persons, who would 
willingly provide for themselves; or of Governors of distant 
Provinces, who, no doubt, would ease those under their respec- 
tive Governments, at the Expence of others. The People 
of Maryland have lately been at great Charge in providing 
for, and sending to Albany, three hundred Men for his Majesty's 
Service; which, with the Consideration of a weighty public 
debt now due, will we hope render us excused on the subject 
Matter of those Letters; and the more so, as it is well known 
we can hardly find Means for the necessary Supplies of our 
own Domestic Aflfairs." * 

Maryland did not advance anything for the pay of her 
contingent, but voted £5399 19s. 8d. for levying and 
maintaining them in Maryland and transporting them to 
Albany with provisions.* 

Virginia, though given special honors, in the person of 
Governor Gooch, contributed a very unequal proportion. 
She could raise only one hundred men, and even they were 
not ready before the middle of August. In October, 
1746, this Virginian contingent still lay encamped within 
the fort at New York city, waiting to proceed to Albany, 



1 Maryland Vote*. * Ibid., June 26th, 1747. 

*Ihid., July 11th and Deo. 23d, 1747. It is not dear whether this U all that 
was expended. 



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90 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the place of rendezvous. A Virginian, referring to this 
tardiness, wrote: "If Glory cannot fire us, let Shame 
confound us: Hark, the distant March sounds Britons 
strike home, revenge, revenge your Countries Wrong. Either 
let us undertake this Glorious Cause with the true Spirit 
of a British Adventurer, or admit ourselves dwindled to 
meer Savages, hiding our Heads in Infamy, while our 
Neighbours share the Rewards and Honours due to Pa- 
triotism." * A New Yorker remarked that, "One would 
imagine the Honour of having their Govemour appointed 
General of the Forces, should have excited their Zeal and 
redoubled their Vigour, on this glorious Occasion''; and 
said they contributed "a small Nxmiber indeed, for a People 
who have assumed that vain Motto to their Arms of En 
Dat Virginia Quartam." * This government voted "a sum 
of money not exceeding four thousand pounds, towards 
defraying the expence of enlistiog, arming, cloathing, 
victualing, and transporting the Soldiers."* 

Meanwhile Massachusetts, led by the enthusiasm of 
Shirley, wrought strenuously for the success of the enter- 
prise. Hopes ran high. The men at Albany, Louisburg 
and in New England eagerly waited for the regulars and 
the fleet, since their arrival was to soimd the alarm for 
action. The Indian allies of New York thirsted for a 
chance to revenge themselves. In England a fleet and 
many transports had been collected at Portsmouth; but 
after several embarkations and debarkations, the British 
ministry altered the destination of the English regulars, 
for a descent on Brittany in France.* On May 30th, 1747, 
the Duke of Newcastle wrote to Shirley, directing that 



Virginia GaM§tte, nprinted in Pwker'i N. Y. Poti-^Boy, No. 18ft, for Au«u»t 
4th. 1746. 
'Parker't N, Y, Po9t-BoUf No. 190, for Sept. 8th, 1746. 

* Virginia AeU (WilliamBburg, 17ft2), p. 207; aUo in Hening's SiaiuiM o/ Fa., 
Vol. V. pp. 401-404. 

* Rolt, Vol. IV.. p. 346. See also reasons on last page of this monograph. 



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1905.] Scheme for the Conquest of Canada in 1746. 91 

the provincial forces be disbanded, as the following extract 
shows: — 

''His Majesty has been pleased to direct me to signify to 
you His Pleasure; that you should immediately appoint a 
Meeting with Ck)mmodore Knowles at such Place as shall be 
agreed upon, and consider with him the present State of 
Nova Scotia and Louisbourg, and take the proper Measures 
for the Defence of those Places. 

"It is His Majesty's Pleasure you should endeavour to com- 
pleat from out of the Americans which are now raised for 
His Majesty's Service, Sir William Pepperrell's Regiment, 
and your own. 

"lieutenant General Phillip's Be^ment, is, I am afraid, 
very weak; I will, however, send him His Majesty's Orders 
to send what Recruits can be got from hence: And you will 
also endeavour to have his Regiment compleated out of the 
Americans. 

"As it is His Majesty's Intention that the Americans should 
be inmiediately discharged, except only such few as are men- 
tion'd above, the Manner of discharging them, the Satisfaction 
for their Time, &c. must be left to Commodore Elnowles and 
yourself; the King however is perswaded you will do it as 
cheap as possible. 

"And as these American Troops have done Uttle or no 
Service hitherto, it is hoped they will not expect to be paid 
in the Manner they would have been, had they actually been 
employ'd on Service. And it seems highly reasonable, that 
such of these Troops as have remain'd in the Provinces where 
they were inlisted, should be contented with less Pay than 
such of them as may have marched into other Provinces. 

"When you and Mr. Knowles shall have met, and fully 
consider'd the Service to be undertaken, in the Manner above- 
directed, and shall have agreed what Numbers of Americans 
it will be necessary to keep in Pay for that Purpose, it is 
His Majesty's Pleasure, that you should procure an Account 
of the whole Expence incurred on Account of the American 
Troops, from the Time of their being levied, to the Time of 
their Discharge; and when the same shall be fully adjusted 
and Uquidated, you will transmit it to me, with the proper 
Vouchers, from the several Governors, that it may be laid 
before Parliament, to the End that Provision may be made 
for the Payment, And in the mean Time, in order to prevent 
any Complaint amongst the Men that have been inlisted, 
you will recommend it to the Governors of the Provinces 
where these Levies have been made, to procure Credit from 



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92 American ArUiqitarian Society. [April, 

the respective Assemblies for that Purpose; which His Majesty 
hopes may be done without Difficulty. . . . And as to 
the Americans in general, except only such as may be wanted 
for the Service above-mention'd, it is His Majesty's Pleasure, 
that you, in Conjimction with Commodore Knowles, should 
thank them in such Manner as you think proper, and imme- 
diately discharge them upon the best and cheapest Foot 
you can; and in Order thereto, you will consult with the 
respective Governors upon the Manner of doing it: And you 
will transmit to His Majesty, an immediate Account of what 
you shall do therein." 

In October, 1747, Shirley and Knowles issued a procla- 
mation, "that the King, finding it necessary to employ 
the greater part of his forces to aid his allies and to defend 
the liberties of Europe, had thought proper to lay aside 
for the present the intended expedition against Canada." ^ 

Even the desire of Shirley to use some of the men raised 
for a more modest expedition against Crown Point was 
doomed to fail. Thus ended a scheme which had been 
well-concerted, and which gave every promise of success. 
It had been entered upon primarily at the expense of the 
mother country, and failure to execute it proved a tremen- 
dous waste,' aggregating several millions of dollars, as 
reckoned by us today. 

^ Chalmen't Pav€n, The prodsmAtion is also printed in RM4frd9 of Rhode Idand, 
Vol. V. General Sinelair's foroee and Admiral Leetock't squadron were ready to 
sail for North America, but *' contrary winds " delayed them. Meanwhile Knowles 
had informed the Secretary of the Admiralty that Louisburg was **the most misenk 
ble ruinous place " he ever beheld. It was, therefore, considered unfit for winter- 
quarters for the English regulars, and Boston, suggested by Lestock as an altematiye, 
was not chosen, for reasons shown in the following extract from the joint letter of 
the Duke of Newcastle to Lestock and Sinclair, August 26tU, 1746, contempory 
transcript in N. Y. Public Library: *' His Majesty finding, by your former letters, 
that it would be impracticable for jrou to proceed this Season with the Squadron 
and Troops under your Command further than Boston, and being desirous that they 
shou'd be employed at present, in such manner as shou'd be most for His Majesty's 
Service, and consistent with the King's intention of sending them to North America, 
as early in the Spring, as the Navigation in those Seas will permit. The King has 
commanded me to acquaint you with his Pleasure, that 3^u shou'd forthwith sail 
with all the Ships and Transports that are design'd for North America, either to 
Port L'Orient, or to Rochefort, or to Rochelle, and endeavour to make Yourselves 
Masters of such of them as You shall think it most adviseable to attempt " [etc.], 

* An elaborate report of the respective claims by the colonies for reimbursement, 
dated February, 1740-1750, shows that the total sum charged was £273,139 Ish. 
Hid.; and the amount actually paid out at that time was £235,817 Ish. Choi- 
mer9*% Paper; A disoiuision of the expenses incurred by Massachusetts is given 
in Some Oheervatione RekUing to the PreaerU Circumetaneet of the Province of Aiaeea' 
chueetie Bay, Boston, 1750. This is a pamphlet of twenty pages. 



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1905,] Jeremy Taylor and Hdigious Liberty, 



JEEEMT TATLOB AND BELIGIOUS LIBEBTY IN 
THE ENGLISH CHUBCH. 

BY DANIEL MERRIMAN. 



The movements and personal influences which tended to 
the development of religious liberty in England in the 
Seventeenth Century were extremely complex and are 
difficult to trace. The establishment of the supremacy of 
the Sovereign, as the head of the Church, by Henry VIII. 
and the revival of learning in the Sixteenth Century, set 
in action ecclesiastical and political forces which in their 
peculiar interaction require more than three hundred 
years to work out their result. With the advent of Edward 
VI. the rising individuality in religion, nourished by the 
New Learning, proceeded swiftly to reforms for which 
the mass of the people were not ready. After the short 
and fierce Catholic reaction under Mary was over, during 
which the nascent Protestantism was put down in fire 
and blood, these reforming and liberalizing forces gained 
fresh headway; but though active, seething and showing 
abundant strength, they were kept in abeyance by the 
extraordinary statesmanship, tact and vigor of Elizabeth. 
Conformity was insisted upon mainly for political, rather 
than for religious causes. Punishment was dealt out alike 
to Papist and Non-conformist. No less than one huiijlred 
and eighty-seven persons suffered death under Elizabeth 
by the laws against Catholic priests and Catholic converts; 
and though in far less number Brownists, Separatists 
and Puritans were imprisoned and hanged with impartial 
severity. It is a mistake to suppose that all these were 
pure lovers of religious freedom, and were persecuted 



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94 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

accordingly. Many of them were simply disorderly and 
fanatical mischief-makers, impossible to be tolerated. 
Some, however, were thoughtftil and conscientious sup- 
porters, not only of religious but of civil liberty, far in 
advance of their times. For these England became a 
difficult place, and later going forth to Holland and America 
they gave to religious liberty at once its clearest definition 
and its most practical, though far from perfect realization. 

But these were only a fragment. Plenty of this leaven 
remained in England. In the subsequent reigns of James I. 
and CSiarles I. its effects were seen in struggles of the most 
complicated character which finally issued in the execution 
of the king, the advent of Cromwell, the profound lessons 
of Commonwealth and Protectorate, the restoration of 
the Monarchy, and the Toleration Act of 1689. In all 
this long struggle for religious freedom, Protestant dissent 
played the most important part. The Puritan occupied 
the most conspicuous position on the stage. He on the 
whole had the earliest and clearest vision, gave the most 
definite testimony, suffered, at the time, if we except the 
Catholics, the most privations, and in the retrospect has 
probably received rather more than his full measure of 
credit and glory. 

Especially have we in New England, rejoicing in our 
heritage, been disposed minutely to investigate and graphi- 
cally to make the most of the achievements of the Puritan 
party, both in England and America. This is entirely 
commendable. But something is to be said for those 
who from first to last remaincnl in the conmiunion of the 
English Church and did what they could to fight out the 
battle for religious freedom within her ranks. They 
played no small or unhandsome part in the great achieve- 
ment, though they have been comparatively overlooked. 
There was always an influential remnant of Churchmen, 
both lay and clerical, whose learning, social standing and 
sobriety of judgment gave them a conserving power which 



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1905 •] Jeremy Taylor and JReligiotis Liberty. 95 

in the net result had its value, as well as the more radical 
testimony of the Separatist. 

The English Church, during all the first part of this 
century, had a difficult task. Through its close connection 
with the State it was compdled to bear the odiimi of the 
weakness, folly and tyranny of the Sovereign. It had 
to defend itself against the intrigues and unscrupulous 
efforts of the Papacy to return to ecclesiastical and political 
power. It had to resist the general debasement of morals, 
the bold wickedness in high places and the scandalous 
degradation of ecclesiastical fimctions which followed the 
Reformation; and the very measures which it was obliged 
to take to accomplish these things, roused the suspicions 
and antagonism of the dissenting parties. It is only 
within comparatively recent years that the obstacles that 
beset the broad minded and conscientious Anglican divines 
of the reigns of James I. and Charles I. have begun to be 
appreciated, their services on behalf of toleration under- 
stood and justice done them. 

Among these true promoters of religious liberty in the 
English Chm*ch none occupies a more shining place than 
Jeremy Taylor "the Shakespeare of divines" of the Seven- 
teenth Century. His life and writings are so wrapped 
up with the movement of the times that they can best 
be considered together. 

The son of a barber, he was bom in August, 1613, in 
a house known as the '^ Black Bull" opposite Trinity 
Church, Cambridge. Harry Vane and Bishop Pearson 
were bom the same year; Richard Baxter two years, 
and Ralph Cudworth four years later. Milton and Fuller 
were each five; Roger WiUiams and Oliver Cromwell 
were each thirteen; and George Herbert and Isaac Walton 
were each twenty years old. Three years later Shakes- 
peare, and thirteen years later Bacon died. Taylor thus 
appeared almost in the centre of a notable group. 

A precocious lad, he was trained at Perse School, 



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96 Ameincan Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Cambridge, entered as a sizar at Gaius CoU^e at the age 
of thirteen, took his first degree at eighteen, was admitted 
to holy orders at twenty, and at twenty-one became M.A. 
and prselector in rhetoric. During his residence at the 
University, there were also there, Milton, Herbert, Puller, 
Crashaw, Henry More, Benjamin Whichcote and John 
Harvard, and he might have known any, or all of them. 
Accident gave him the opportimity to preach at St. Paul's, 
the pulpit of which had been glorified by the eloquence 
of the poet^preacher Donne, then three years dead, and 
where we are told that Taylor's "florid and youthful beauty 
and sweet and pleasant air and sublime and raised dis- 
courses" were "the astonishment and admiration" of 
his auditors. He was evidently the pulpit sensation of 
the hour. He thus attracted the attention of Laud, then 
as powerful Archbishop of Charles I., beginning to turn 
the relentless screws of "Thorough" church discipline 
upon all laxity and non-conformity. Laud perceived his 
talent, and after some delay secured his admission as 
Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, and later made him his chaplain. 
At Oxford he remained two years, falling under the influence 
of Chillingworth ^nd incurring suspicion of a tendency 
to popery through his intimacy with the Pranciscan Sancta 
Clara. In 1638 he was given by Juxon the comfortable 
living of Uppingham in Rutlandshire, still however keeping 
his fellowship at Oxford, where he had gained sufficient 
distinction to preach at St. Mary's, November 5, his first 
published sermon on the Gunpowder Plot, a labored, dry, 
scholastic dissertation with a fulsome dedication to Laud. 
He remained as parish priest at Uppingham for about 
four years, marry uig there Phcebe LangdaJe; when having 
been made Chaplain in ordinary to the King, the outbreak 
of the Civil War in 1642 led him to join Charles, probably 
at Oxford. Here by royal mandate he received the degree 
of D.D. and wrote his second work, " Episcopacy Asserted, " 
published late in 1642. Here too he began to receive 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 9^7 

the favor of Christopher, afterwards Lord, Hatton, who, 
Laud having been impeached and imprisoned, continued 
for several years to be his patron and to whom many of 
his books are dedicated. 

We now lose sight of him— pronounced loyalist and 
churchman — ^for about two years as he probably followed 
the disastrous fortunes and wanderings of the King, until 
we suddenly find him with Colonel Gerard a prisoner of 
the Parliamentary forces when that officer, in his attempt 
to relieve Cardigan Castle in Wales, was defeated February 
4, 1645. This was a good fortune for him and also for 
us. Liberated, as he says, ''by the courtesies of my 
friends, or the gentleness and mercies of a noble enemy/' 
he with two other royalist clergymen, for a time carried 
on a school for boys in Wales, and later was made private 
Chaplain by the genial and broad-minded Lord Carberry, 
who received him into his beautiful country estate, " Golden 
Grove," on the bank of the Towey in South Wales. Here 
"in a private comer of the world," secure from the terrible 
storms that were breaking over England, Taylor remained 
for about ten comparatively happy years, only occasionally 
disturbed by fears as some spray from the billows of the 
great civil conflict beat upon his refuge; and here he wrote 
his most celebrated works. He complains of the lack 
of books. We are glad of the lack, for it freed him from 
the excess of citation of authorities and quotations from 
the classics and gave liberty to his genius which now b^an 
to disport itself. His first book was "An Apology for 
Liturgy," a most lucid and heartfelt argument for the 
Prayer Book as against the Directory for Worship, set 
forth by the Parliament. It was dedicated to the King 
and published in 1646. This was followed in 1647 by 
"The Liberty of Prophesying," the most famous, though 
not the most popular of his books. Then came "The 
Great Exemplar," or "Life of Christ," not in the least 
a critical work, but really a series of glowing and exquisite 

7 



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98 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

discourses and prayers gathering about the chief events 
in our Saviour's life— a treatise in which the extraordinary 
power, imagination and beauty of the author's style begin 
to fascinate us. The best known of all his works, the '' Holy 
Living/' came next, followed by twenty-eight sermons, 
which were probably a long time in preparation, and in 
which his wonderftd gifts as a master of gorgeous, yet 
pure English are still fiuiJier displayed. One wonders 
where in this comer of Wales he got hearers for the music 
and throb of these glittering battalions of majestic sentences. 
The companion to "Holy Living," the "Holy Dying" 
appeared later, surpassing its predecessor in dignity of 
thought and brilliancy of expression; and to this succeeded 
another series of twenty-four sermons which, with the 
twenty-eight, already published, he caUed the Eniautos. 
In these last sermons Taylor attains his maximum of 
splendor. He moves with the ease, the exultation, the 
certainty of a sovereign in the treasure house of kings, 
and his spirit still thrills and rules us from his dusty pages. 
Hardly anything nobler exists in our noble tongue. 

A sermon on the death of Lady Carberry and a small 
tract entitled "Qerus Domini" came out in connection 
with these larger works, and in 1654, he published his 
"Real Presence of CShrist in the Blessed Sacrament," a 
controversial work, burdened with learning, which stirred 
up strife and is inferior to his other works of this period. 
A book that brought him into unpleasant prominence 
was "Golden Grove," a sort of catechism, or manual of 
creed, litanies, prayers and offices for the whole life of 
a Christian, which was published in 1655. His charming 
"Discourse on Friendship" followed, a pure piece of 
literary work worthy of Cicero, in which there is no sug- 
gestion of theologian or priest. Two treatises dealing 
with sin and repentance, called "Unum Necessarium" and 
"Deus Justificatus," in which he seemed to incline towards 
Pelagianism, and which stirred up fiu-ther hostility to 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 99 

him, came next and may possibly have been the cause 
of his arrest and short imprisonment in Chepstow Castle. 
If to these controversial books, we add one other, we 
shall complete the list of Taylor's chief productions. This 
is the "Ductor Dubitantium/' published, after long delay, 
in 1660, the longest, most ambitious, the most laboriously 
composed, by him the most highly regarded but perhaps 
the least valuable of all his works. It is a most prolix 
and attenuated analysis of cases of conscience, fiUed with 
odd learning and hairnsplitting distinctions, which had few 
readers when it was published, and in spite of a separate 
edition brought out in 1851, has few now, though it is of 
interest to those curious in such matters. 

There is one other book bearing the amusing title, ''A 
Discourse on Auxiliary Beauty, or Artificial Handsome- 
ness,'' published in 1656, which singularly enough has been 
persistently attributed to Taylor, but as all his biographers 
point out, entirely without adequate evidence. He may 
have had something to do with it, as a friend of the real 
author. 

During all this turbulent period from about 1645 to 
about 1655, he enjoyed the hospitable shelter of Golden 
Orove. It is sad that he could not have enjoyed it longer. 
He ventured occasionally, perhaps secretly, to London; 
he formed connections with Rushton, the famous publisher 
by whom his books were brought out; he secured the 
valuable friendship of John Evelyn, for whom he acted 
as confessor, with whom he often stayed and who greatly 
helped him; he found infrequent opportunities for preach- 
ing in St. Gregory, a little church near St. Paul's which 
Cromwell sometunes tacitly allowed to be used for Episcopal 
services. There is a legend that he had access to Charles 
during the last summer of the monarch's life when he was 
a prisoner of the Parliament, and that the King parted 
from him with affection, giving him his watch, now in 
the hands of one of Taylor's descendants and a ring set 



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100 American Antiquarian Society. [Aprfl, 

with a ruby and two diamonds owned by a Mrs. Roberts 
of New York. This is all possible, but rather imlikely, 
though of Taylor's personal devotion to Charles there 
can be no doubt. The King would scarcely bestow such 
tokens, except as he was looking forward to the end; and 
though Taylor was probably in London early in 1649, 
the King was so closely guarded that Taylor would hardly 
have been of the very few admitted to him. 

Later than this, Taylor's imwise use of Golden Grove, 
the name of his place of relative concealment, as the title 
of one of his books, in the preface of which he makes an 
indirect reference apparently to Cromwell as "the son 
of Zippor," caused his arrest and imprisonment, probably 
in the Tower, early in 1655, from which Evelyn's inter- 
cession procured his release. 

Taylor was now in circumstances of very great personal 
distress, to meet which he seems to have been naturally 
imfitted. The ejected Episcopal clergy were mostly poor 
and in hiding and they and their friends were objects of 
suspicion. For some reason Lord Carberry seems to 
have withdrawn his support and the shelter of his estate. 
Taylor poor, suspected, homeless, bereft of wife and some 
of his children who had died at Golden Grove, was depen- 
dent upon the sjnnpathy and bounty of Evelyn. In his 
extreme poverty he apparently had been helped by a 
Mrs. Joanna Bridges who, from imsubstantial stories, was 
thought by Bishop Heber to be a natural child of the 
King, and who had an estate at Man-di-nam, where she 
had perhaps cared for Taylor's surviving children. At 
any rate she became his wife, probably in 1666, and his 
fortunes began to mend. 

Through the influence of Evelyn, Lord Conway, "a 
pious and active Irish landlord, devoted to the Anglican 
Church and a convinced, though not fanatical loyalist," 
who had a magnificent seat at Portmore in "the woods 
of Ulster" in the northeastern part of Ireland, invited 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 101 

Taylor to be assistant lecturer in the parish of Lisbnm. 
There seems to have been a sort of collegiate church there, 
the vicar of which was an Independent preacher partly 
supported by Cionway. The place was not inviting, but 
there was no choice. Taylor's diflSculties in regard to 
stipend, serving under an Independent, etc., were partially 
removed and in 1658 he was installed as lecturer at Lisbum 
and probably (though it was ill^al), as private Chaplain 
to Conway, who treated him with much consideration. 
Cromwell had given him a passport and protection for 
his family, under his sign manual, and he had letters to 
powerful friends and supporters of the Parliament in 
Dublin. It is easy to see, however, that his position was 
extremely imcomfortable. The neighboring parishes were 
fiDed with fighting Presbyterian ministers who were in 
perpetual hostility to the Anabaptists, on the one hand, 
and the Episcopalians on the other. The death of Crom- 
well in 1658 gave them greater freedom and much of their 
wrath fell upon Taylor, who was deprived of his lectiu-e- 
ship, arrested and summoned to Dublin. He was shortly 
released and returned to Portmore, burying himself in 
his books and bnging for England. 

At the Restoration Taylor was in England, and on 
the 29th of May, 1660, took glad part in welcoming Charles 
II. He was now fortynaeven and perhaus the most bril- 
liant writer and preacher, if not one of the most distinguished 
men among the Episcopal clergy, and there seemed to 
be every reason to expect his appointment to one of the 
vacant sees in England. This would have been a fit and 
happy lot. Why we cannot discover, but he was sent 
back to Ireland as Bishop of Connor and Down, and later 
was made — not Bishop but administrator of the adjacent, 
but temporarily dismantled diocese of Dromore and Vice- 
Chancellor of liie University of Dublin. In the last office 
he was in his element. To the reorganization of the 
University, whose affairs were in the utmost disorder 



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102 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

through the disasters of the civil war, he gave himself 
with fervent zeal and conspicuous success. In his work 
as Bishop it was different. His diocese, today in the 
wealthiest and most cultivated part of Ireland, was then 
out of the way, seminsavage and fanatical. His parishes 
were filled with obstinate and bitter Presbyterians, angry 
at being disturbed, who denied his authority as Bishop, 
refused attendance upon his visitations and rejected 
scornfully all his overtures. He did not imderstand 
them, and they tormented him. It was a misfit all roimd. 
Like many a really sweet-natured man he seems to have 
had a vein of obstinacy and even of implacability, when 
goaded by senseless opposition. Worn out by the resis- 
tance of his "dour" Presbyterians, he invoked the secular 
arm, forced them out of their chwches, caused, at least 
indirectly, their imprisonment and severe handling, and 
brought from England a colony of Episcopal clergy to 
take their place. The Bishop had to fight his way to 
authority. It was a poor use to which to put so fine a 
tool. Curiously enough his eager intellectual activity, 
during these distractions, was displayed in the publica- 
tion of his "Worthy Communicant," one of the best of 
his devotional books; his "Dissuasive from Popery," 
really an appeal to the Irish people on behalf of Episcopacy, 
and his glowing sermon on tiie death of Archbishop Bram- 
hall. 

Meantime he seems to have been deserted, or at least 
forgotten by his English friends, Thurland, Hatton, 
Evelyn. They failed to respond to his earnest appeals. 
He wrote passionately to his old friend Sheldon, once of 
All Souls, now Archbishop of Canterbury, begging for 
some appointment in England — some translation to an 
English see. But it was all in vain. Whether his Irish 
Episcopal friends thought it was indispensable to have 
some one of his reputation in Ireland; whether the King 
for some unknown reason was secretly against him; whether 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Beiigums Liberty. 103 

he had acquired a reputation for vigor in administration 
and of breadth in theology which was inconvenient — ^we 
know not. He foimd himself irrevocably shut up in barbar- 
ous Ireland. In all this his circiunstances have a curious 
likeness to those of Edmund Spenser, near the close of 
his life. Cultured, sensitive, fond of friends, dependent 
for doing his best upon a congenial atmosphere, he felt 
his isolation, lost courage, hope and much of his sweetness, 
and in a measure ceased to be the Jeremy Taylor of the 
wonderful sermons of Golden Grove. There is a tradition 
that, in his distress, he caused his secretary to ooUect all 
the copies he could of his "Liberty of Prophesying" and 
bum them. It may well be true, for the principles of 
that noble book he had failed in practice to carry out, 
and though it had passed to a second edition, it is signifi- 
cant that he left it out of the list of his books which he 
gave to Graham for the library of Dublin University. 
Under these conditions, his health failed and he died at 
Lisbum August 13, 1667, just fifty-four years of age, 
practically a broken-hearted man. A few days before, his 
only surviving son, Charles, was buried at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster. Taylor's memory and grave were n^lected 
until 1827, when a tablet to hun was erected in the Cathe- 
dral Church at Lisbum, and in 1866, among some bones 
discovered in confusion in the Cathedral of Dromore, 
a skull larger than usual was foimd, and this, supposed 
to be Taylor's, was buried in the choir, and a brass tablet 
placed above it. 

Taylor was a handsome man, of sweet voice, gracious 
manners, and with a tinge of vanity in his personal appear- 
ance. He was profoimdly learned-— with the learning of 
his time — in theology, philosophy, history and literature, 
though far less so in science. Living in a period of the 
greatest political, ecclesiastical and theological upheaval, 
he was much of the time comparatively destitute of money, 
books and home; was harassed, imprisoned, and driven 



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104 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

about; yet such was his genius and facility of work, that 
his writings, some of them inmiortal, fill fifteen large 
octavo volumes, and his is one of the dearest names in 
English literature. 

He was not a deep or original thinker; not a philosopher 
or theologian of the first order, but, with a natural conser- 
vatism, possessed an astonishing insight into the meaning 
and moral availability of accepted truth. A strict church- 
man and loyalist he was rather latitudinarian in theology. 
He was not fond of music; did not believe in sprinkling 
in baptism; was a supporter of the confessional; thought 
it right for the unlawful proclamations and edicts of a 
true prince to be proclaimed by the clergy, and justified 
the killing of all a master's slaves if the master himself 
was murdered by one. In character he was ingenuous, 
piu'e, imselfish, a passionate lover of truth, full of charity, 
attached to the old, yet with broad vision and with a 
genius for religion, or perhaps one might say, for devout- 
ness; for all his writings, even his elaborate prefaces and 
dedications, and his polemical and casuistical treatises, 
have a wonderful and marked elevation of spirit, as if 
the author, though engaged in trivial definitions and 
controversies, naturally walked with God. 

Taylor wrote some poetry, mostly hymns; but cramped 
by the absurd metres which were the fashion of his time, 
his verse has relatively no value. His fame rests chiefly 
on his genius as a writer of resplendent prose, in which 
he has perhaps only one or two equals in the whole range 
of English letters. 

Here he has imquestionably suffered from his subject 
matter. He was first of all a clergyman, a preacher, a 
divine, a bishop, and people do not generally think of 
divinity as literature, or run to sermons for the pure pleasure 
of literary thought and expression; even in the Seven- 
teenth Century they did not; still less do they in the 
Twentieth. AU the more remarkable is it that Taylor, 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Rdigious Liberty. 105 

for the most part confining himself to theological, devotional 
and homiletical limits, achieved such literary distinction. 
He had not the weight of Hooker; nor the range, origi- 
nality, or poetic passion of Milton; nor the quaintness, 
wit and reckless good nature of Fuller; nor the terse and 
thoughtful statelmess of Bacon; but he has a lucidity, 
an ease, force and precision of movement, a light, sensitive 
and sometimes humorous touch, accompanied by a wealth, 
a fitness, a splendor of imagery which give him pre- 
eminence among them all. Cbleridge "used to reckon 
Shakespeare and Bacon, l^ilton and Taylor, four square, 
each against each." He spoke of Taylor's "great and 
lovely mind"; that "he was the most eloquent of divines; 
had I said of men, Cicero would forgive me and Demosthenes 
nod." Keble said of him "I confess I do not know any 
other author, except perhaps Hooker (whose subjects are 
so different that they will hardly bear comparison), worthy 
to be likened to him. Spenser comes nearest to his spirit 
in all respects. Milton is like him in richness and depth, 
but in morality seems to me as far below him as pride 
is before humUity." 

The best known and most widely circulated of Taylor's 
writings are his "Holy Living" and "Holy D3ring," and 
selected passages from his other devotional books, his 
life of Christ and his sermons. The mingled piety and 
music of these exquisite sentences still enthrall us and 
are good for the soul. But his "Liberty of Prophesying" 
is his most significant book, and the book which, because 
its appearance hit the right moment in one of the pro- 
foundest political, intellectual and moral struggles of the 
English race, gives him his greatest fame, though in point 
of his peculiar richness and beauty of style, it is inferior 
to much of his writing. 

The distinguishing trait of this learned, frank and lofty 
treatise is its grounding of liberty of religious opinion 
in charity, and in this respect it is a transcript of the pious 

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106 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

spirit of its great author. He urges tliat no other weapons 
be used in behalf of the faith than those which are suitable 
to the Christian warfare, such as "preaching and disputa- 
tion, charity and sweetness, holiness of life, assiduity of 
exhortation, the word of God and prayer. For tJiese 
ways are most natural, most prudent, most peaceable 
and efifectual. Only let not men be hasty in calling every 
misliked opinion by the name of heresy; and when they 
have resolved that they will call it so, let them use the 
erring person like a brother, nor co^ivince him with a 
gibbet, or vex him out of his imderstandings and persua- 
sions." He points out that ''few men considered that 
so long as men had such variety of principles, such several 
constitutions, educations, tempers and distempers, hopes, 
interests and weaknesses, d^rees of light and d^rees of 
imderstanding, it was impossible all should be of one 
mind. And what is impossible to be done, is not necessary 
it should be done. And therefore although variety of 
opinion was impossible to be cured (and they who attempted 
it, did like him who claps his shoulder to the groimd to 
stop an earthquake), yet the inconvenience arising from 
it might possibly be cured — ^not by uniting their beliefs — 
that was to be despaired of, — ^but by curing that which 
caused those mischiefs and accidental inconveniences of 
their disagreeing. For although these inconveniences which 
every man sees and feels, were consequent to this diversity 
of persuasions, yet it was but accidentally and by chance, 
inasmuch as we see that in many things, and they of 
great concernment, men allow to themselves and to each 
other a liberty of disagreement and no hurt neither. And 
certainly if (Uversity of opinions were of itself the cause 
of mischiefs, it would be so ever — that is, regularly and 
universally; but that we see it is not." "For," he con- 
tinues, "if it be evinced that one heaven shall hold men 
of differing opinions — if the unity of faith be not destroyed 
by that men call differing religions, and if an unity of 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 107 

Gbristian charity be the duty of ail, even towards persons 
that are not persuaded of every proposition that we believe, 
then I would fain know to what purpose are all those 
stirs and great noises in Christendom, those names of 
faction, the several names of chiu^es not distinguished 
by the divisions of kingdoms, which was the primitive 
rule and canon, but distinguished by names of sects and 
men? These are all become instruments of hatred, thence 
come schisms, and parting of communions, and then 
persecutions, and then wars and rebellions, and then the 
dissolutions of all friendships and societies. All these 
mischiefs proceed, not from this, tliat men are not of 
one mind (for that is neither necessary nor possible), but 
that every opinion Lb made an article of faith, every article 
is the groimd of a quarrel, every quarrel makes a faction, 
every faction is zealous, and all zeal is for God, and what- 
ever is for God cannot be too much. We by this time 
are come to that pass we think we love not God except 
we hate om* brother, and we have not the virtue of religion 
xmless we persecute all religions but oiu* own." 

He assumes that there must be some basis for the exercise 
of toleration, that the Apostles' creed was originated and 
laid down by the Apostles themselves as such basis, and 
tliat it contains all that is necessary to be believed imto 
salvation, and no more. ''The duty of faith is completed 
in believing the Apostles' creed." "Since it is necessary 
to rest somewhere, it is best to rest there where the Apostles 
rested." ''Not that it is unlawful for any wise man to 
extend his creed to anything which follows from these 
articles, but no such is fit to be pressed on others as an 
article of faith " — ^least of all by force. " For it is a demon- 
stration that nothing can be necessary to be believed 
under pain of damnation, but such propositions of which 
it is certain that God hath spoken and taught them to 
us, and of which it is certain that this is their sense and 
purpose." 



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108 American Antiquarian Society. [Apiil, 

With vast learning and acuteness he proves that persecu- 
tion by the Church was unknown during its eariier history; 
that it is impossible to establish any rule of faith more 
definite than the Apostles' creed, either from the Bible, 
tradition, decrees of councils, the fathers, the Pope, or 
the opinions of the Universal CJhurch. He vindicates the 
authority of reason. " No man may be trusted to judge for 
all others, unless this person were infallible and authorized 
to do so; which no man, or company of men is, yet every 
man may be trusted to judge for himself." He points 
out the folly, iniquity and uselessness of punishing by 
torture and death the holding of opinions which he has 
proved to be harmless and inevitable. ''No Christian is 
to be put to death, dismembered, or otherwise directly 
persecuted for his opinion which does not teach impiety 
or blasphemy. 'If it plainly or apparently brings in a 
crime and himself does act it or encourage it, then the 
matter of fact is punishable according to its proportion 
or malignity." He distinguishes ecclesiastical from secular 
authority, and shows that the secular governor has no 
right to pimish opinions, but only disturbance of the peace. 
"The ecclesiastical power which only is competent to take 
notice of such questions, is not of capacity to use the 
temporal sword, or corporal inflictions. The mere doctrines 
and opinions of men are things spiritual, and therefore 
not cognizable by a temporal authority; and the ecclesiaB- 
tical authority which is to take cognizance, is itself so 
spiritual that it cannot inflict any punishment corporal." 

He has a long section on the Anabaptists in which he 
argues with great subtilty on both sides of their position, 
and deals with them in great breadth and charity. "Their 
doctrine is wholly to be reproved and disavowed, but 
the men are to be treated with the usages of a Christian; 
strike them not as an enemy, but exhort them as brethren." 
"But for their other capital opinion that it is not lawful 
for princes to put malefactors to death, nor to take up 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 109 

defensive arms, nor to minister an oath, . . . it is not to 
be disputed with such liberty as the former." For " that 
prince or commonwealth l!hat should be persuaded by 
them would be exposed to all the insolences of foreigners, 
and all mutinies of the teachers themyselves, and the gover- 
nors of the people could not do that duty they owe to 
their people of protecting them from the rapine and malice 
which will be in the world as long as the world is. And 
therefore they are to be restrained from preaching such 
doctrine, if they mean to preserve their government; 
and the necessity of the thing will justify the lawfulness 
of the thing. If they think it to themyselves, that cannot 
be helped; so long it is innocent as much as concerns the 
public; but if they preach it, they may be accounted 
authors of all the consequent inconveniences and pimished 
accordingly. No doctrine tliat destroys government is to 
be endured." Here Taylor goes beyond the problem of 
mere religious toleration and with wonderful grasp and 
prevision lays down a broad political principle as sound 
and as vitally applicable to Twentieth Century as to 
Seventeenth Century issues. 

He has another long section in which he deals with 
equal breadth and charity with the Papists, concluding 
that so far as their doctrine is concerned "there is nothing 
in the foundation of their faith that can reasonably hinder 
them to be permitted; the foundation of faith stands 
secure for all their vain and imhandsome superstructures." 
"But if we consider their doctrines in relation to govern- 
ment and public societies of men, . . . such doctrines 
as these: the Pope may dispense with all oaths taken to 
God, or man; he may absolve subjects from their alle- 
giance to their natural prince; . . . heretical princes 
may be slain by their subjects; . . . now these opinions 
are a direct overthrow to all human society and mutual 
commerce, a destruction of government and of the laws 
and duty and subordination which we owe to princes; 



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110 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and therefore those men of Eome that ... do preach 
them cannot pretend to the excuses of innocent opinions, 
. . . for God hath not left those truths which are necessary 
for conservation of public societies of men, so intricate 
and obscure, but that every one that is honest and desirous 
to understand his duty will certainly know that no Christian 
truth destroys a man's being sociable and a member of 
the body politic, cooperating to the conservation of the 
whole as well as of itself." Dealing with the doctrine of 
transubstantiation he excuses Papists from the charge of 
idolatry in the celebration of mass and decides that this 
is not a sufficient ground for withholding toleration from 
them. In this respect he is more lib^ul than Milton. 
Considering terms of communion, he insists that chiux^hes 
ought to allow those to commune who agree with them 
in essentials, and he concludes his great discourse with the 
story of Abraham and the idolatrous traveler, a story which 
Franklin also quotes, though probably from another source. 
This singularly lucid, skilfully argued and comprehensive 
book was a bold utterance for the time, and though its 
main contentions have long since been accepted, it remains 
still attractive to the reader, a monument to the courage, 
insight and piety of the author and an evidence of the 
conscientious efforts of some Anglican divines of the Seven- 
teenth Century for the attainment of freedom in religious 
opinion. But the treatise has its limitations. Taylor 
conceived of toleration as the privil^e of those only who 
accept the Apostles' creed. His book is not a plea for 
universal religious liberty. While he did not deny the 
claim of those outside this pale to toleration, he did not 
assert it. What he thought should be done with Jews, 
Pagans and those who profess religions other than Chris- 
tianity, he has not told us. His principles, carried to their 
conclusion, would embrace these, but whether he thought 
of them, we do not know. The issue was not then sharply 
raised. 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Rdigiaus Liberty. Ill 

But with all this, coDsideriQg the time, it is a strikingly 
progressive book. Here was a man at the age of thirty- 
four, a follower and protege of the persecuting Archbishop 
Laud; separated from chosen friends and books; hiding 
from persecution in a comer of Wales; pronounced royalist 
and Episcopalian, writing this most charitable, learned 
and sustained argument for freedom in religion. 

England was in the throes of the Civil War. The King 
was a prisoner, now of the Parliament, and now of the 
army, which were craftily struggling against each other 
for the mastery. The Independents and Presbyterians 
were at one another's throats. The Presbyterian Directory 
of Worship was everywhere enforced; the use of the 
Prayer Book forbidden; and Episcopacy himted out of 
almost every parish and diocese in the land. The altars, 
beautiful sculptures, priceless stained glass, costly vest- 
ments and sacramentod vessels of church and cathedral 
were broken, trodden under foot, or carried off. The 
sacred buildings became stables and outhouses. The 
church revenues and lands were confiscated. No one 
could teach or preach without taking an oath to resist 
every sign of Popery or Prelacy. The Universities were 
presbyterianized, and toleration was scoffed at by thousands 
of voices as "the Devil's Masterpiece." "If the Devil had 
choice whether the hierarchy, ceremonies and liturgy should 
be established in the kingdom, or a toleration granted, 
he would choose toleration," said one speaker in Parlia- 
ment. "We detest and abhor the much endeavored 
toleration," said a meeting of the London ministers. The 
Presbyterians were more relentless than Laud. Even the 
Independents could expect no real liberty at their hands. 
Still in this uproar, this contention, this bitter struggle 
of faction, this "dyscrasy," as Taylor calls it, there was 
an earnest desire on the part of the best men to find some 
common ground, some accommodation in ecclesiastical 
matters; and it was without doubt in a desire to further 



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112 American ArUiquartan Society. [April, 

this, that Taylor published his book in June, 1647. But 
Episcopacy was at the moment trampled and torn imder 
the feet of contending sects who were npt disposed to 
listen to a plea from their common antagonist; and when 
at the Restoration the author and his chiux^h returned 
to power, both of them apparently forgot for the time the 
lessons of his book, which afforded such a platform for 
all parties. 

The book has however been given too much credit in 
some quarters. Bishop Heber for example calls it, ''the 
first public defence of tibe principles of religious toleration," 
''the first attempt on record to conciliate the minds of 
Christians to the reception of a doctrine which, though 
now the rule of action professed by all Christian sects, 
was then by every sect alike regarded as a perilous and 
pretentious novelty." This is an error, as we shall see. 
If he had said that the book was the first separate, distinct 
and comprehensive argument for religious liberty put 
forth by an Episcopalian he would have been nearer the 
truth. 

Mr. Gosse thinks that there is "an absolutely novel 
note in Taylor" in that he "first conceived of a tolera- 
tion not founded upon agreement, or concession, but upon 
a broad basis of practical piety"; and he says, "that it 
is not too much to claim for Taylor in the religious and 
intellectual order, something of the gratitude which we 
pay, or should pay to Sir James Simpson in the physical 
order"; that is, "for the blessed anaesthetics which this 
great innovator [Taylor] introduced into the practice of 
religious surgery." This gives a doubly false impression. 
Sir James Simpson was no more the first who introduced 
anaesthetics in surgery — ^being preceded by more than a 
year by Morton in this coimtry — than was Taylor to 
introduce toleration in religion, being anticipated, not 
only for generations before by a host of various productions 
of non-conformists, whose names shine like stars in the 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Beligums Liberty. 113 

story of this great struggle, but by the writings of a large 
number of thinkers and leaders in the Anglican Church 
itself. 

Perhaps one of the earliest of these to be mentioned 
is Richard Hooker, the first part of whose great work on 
Ecclesiastical Polity was published in 1594. Hooker's 
work is certainly not a plea for religious liberty. Certain 
phases of his masterly argument seem to give a basis for 
intolerance. On the other hand he affirms that many of 
the points in dispute between the Episcopalian and Non- 
conformist, in church government, were not fixed, but 
subject to changes a<^ording to circumstances; and when 
he deals with general principles he concedes much to the 
Puritan position. 

Before Hooker, Parker, the first Archbishop of Elizabeth 
(1559), though laying down no principle of liberty, practi- 
caUy showed a broad and tolerent spirit towards both 
Papist and Puritan; and his successor, the weaker Grindal, 
I bravely defended the "Prophesyings" which, inspired by 

I Non-conformity, sprang up outside of the r^ular estab- 

I lishment, until both the "Prophesyings" and the Arch- 

1 bishop were put down by the iron hand of the great Queen. 

Much later and more pronounced than these, however, 
is that profound thinker and logician, William Chilling- 
worth, 1602-1644, in his relentless pursuit of the truth, 
first Protestant, then Catholic, then Protestant again, who 
was at Oxford with Taylor, of whom he complains that 
''he wants much of the ethical part of a discourser and 
slights too much many times the arguments of those he 
discourses with." Perhaps the yomiger man listened with 
more attention than the older man supposed (they were 
eleven years apart), for CJhillingworth's great work, "The 
Religion of Protestants, a safe way of Salvation," published 
in 1637, to this day a marvel of grasp, acuteness and 
clear English, no doubt furnished Taylor with leading 
suggestions. Gardiner says concerning the "Liberty of 
8 



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114 American Antiquai*tan Society. [April, 

Prophesying" that "three-fourths of its argument was 
written under the influence of Chillingworth." Certainly 
the demonstration of the impossibility of finding any 
infallible authority in religion, with which a large part of 
Taylor's book is taken up, is set forth even more clearly 
by Chillingworth. Up to the date of Chillingworth's 
book no such thorough-going argument on behalf of the 
freedom of the individual reason from authority had ever 
been made, and as a necessary corollary of this, liberty 
of conscience was as a theory irresistibly demanded by 
the author as the right of the individual man. Chilling- 
worth says: "Seeing there are contentions among us, we 
are taught by nature and scripture and experience (so 
you tell us out of Mr. Hooker), to seek for the ending of 
them by submitting to some judicial sentence whereunto 
neither part may refuse to stand. This is very true. 
Neither should you need to persuade us to seek such means 
of ending all our controversies, if we could tell where to 
find it. But this we know that none is fit to pronoimce 
for all the world a judicial, definite, obliging sentence in 
controversies of religion, but only such a man, or society 
of men, as is authorized thereto by God. And besides, 
we are able to demonstrate that it hath not been the 
pleasure of God to give to any man, or society of men, 
such authority. And therefore, though we wish heartily 
that all controversies were ended, as we do that all sins 
were abolished, yet we have little hope of the one or the 
other, until the world be ended; and in the meanwhile 
think it best to control oxirselves with, and to persuade 
others to charity and mutual toleration, seeing God hath 
authorized no man to force all men to imity of opinion, 
neither do we think it fit to argue thus: to us it seems 
convenient there should be one judge of all controversies 
for the whole world, therefore God hath appointed one: 
but more modest and more reasonable to collect thus: 
God hath appointed no such judge of controversies, there- 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 115 

fore though it seems to us convenient there should be one, 
yet it is not so: or though it were convenient for us to 
have one, yet it hath pleased God (for reasons best known 
to Himself), not to allow us this convenience." (Page 138.) 
There is a firmness of tread here which is refreshing, 
even after two hundred and seventy years and which, 
though in that violent time it was realized and followed 
by comparatively few, only two editions of the book being 
published in 1637-38, yet later became the logical basis 
for a reasoned toleration. Again he writes: '^ Seeing 
falsehood and error could not long stand against the power 
of truth, were they not supported by tyranny and worldly 
advantage, he that could assert Christians to that liberty 
which Christ and his Apostles left them, must needs do 
truth a most heroical service. And seeing the overvaluing 
of differences among Christians is one of the greatest 
maintainers of the schisms of Christendom, he that could 
demonstrate that only those points of belief are simply 
necessary to salvation wherein Christians generally agree, 
should he not lay a very fair and firm foimdation of the 
peace of Christendom? Now the corollary which I con- 
ceive would produce these good effects is this: That what 
man or church soever believes the creed and all the evident 
consequences of it, sincerely and heartily, cannot possibly 
(if also he believes the Scriptm^), be in any error of 
simple belief which is offensive to God; nor therefore 
deserve for any such error to be deprived of his life, or 
be cut off from the (Christian Commimion and the hope 
of salvation. And the production of this again would 
be this, that whatsoever man or church doth for any error 
of simple belief, deprive any man, so qualified as above, 
either of his temporal life or livelihood, or liberty, or of 
the Chiurch's Communion, and hope of salvation is, for 
the first, imjust, cruel, and tyrannous; schismatical, 
presumptuous, and uncharitable, for the second." (Page 
268.) 



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116 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

These words, published by a great churchman, ten years 
before the ''Liberty of Prophesying"; seven years before 
Milton's monumental "Areopagitica"; and more than 
seven years before Roger Williams's " Bloudy Tenant of 
Persecution" saw the light, show that even in Episcopal, 
still more in dissenting ranks, Taylor was very far from 
being the first to argue for toleration. ChiUingworth was 
roimdly denounced by the Presbyterians for his liberality, 
and a Presbyterian minister, with extraordinary license, 
bitterly upbraided him at his fimeral, and threw into his 
open grave a copy of his book "The Religion of Protestants " 
"to rot with him," he said. 

But ChiUingworth was not the only Anglican that antici- 
pated Taylor in the plea for religious liberty. After two 
centuries and three quarters, our hearts warm to "the 
ever memorable John Hales," the "pretty little man, 
sanguine, of a cheerful countenance, very gentle and 
courteous, quick and nimble," who used to dress "in 
violet colored clothes," and as Dean of Windsor and Fellow 
of Eton lived in hiding for nine weeks on brown bread 
and beer at sixpence a week, keeping tiie keys and accounts 
of the school when both armies in the Civil War sequestered 
the rents. Secretary of tiie English delegation at tiie 
Synod of Dort, he tiiere learned enough to lead him, as 
he said, to "bid good night to Calvin." Friend of ChiUing- 
worth and Falkland, "nothing troubled him more than 
the brawls which were grown from religion, and he therefore 
exceedingly detested the tryanny of the Church of Rome, 
more for their imposing uncharitably upon tiie consciences 
of other men, than for the errors of their opinion; and 
he would often say that he would renoimce the Church 
of England tomorrow if it obliged him to believe any 
other Christians should be damned; and that nobody 
would conclude another man to be damned who did not 
will him so." (Clarendon, in Preface, Hales's Works, 
Vol. 1.) 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religious Liberty. 117 

His little tract '' Concerning Schisms and Schismatics/' 
written privately probably for ChiUingworth, and published 
without his consent probably about 1640, caused him to 
be summoned before Laud, who, in spite of Hales's latitu- 
dinarian views, seems to have treated him kindly. This 
tract declares that, ''it hath been the common disease of 
Christians from the beginning not to content themselvea 
with that measure of faith which God and the Scriptures 
have expressly afforded us, but out of a vain desire to 
know more than is revealed, they have attempted to 
discuss things of which we can have no light neither from 
reason, or revelation; neither have they rested here, but 
upon pretence of church authority which is none, or of 
tradition which for the most part is but a figment, they 
have presumptuously concluded, aiid confidently imposed 
upon others a necessity of entertaining conclusions of that 
nature, and to strengthen themselves have broken out 
into divisions and factions, opposing man to man, synod 
to synod, till the peace of the Church vanished beyond 
possibility of recall. Hence arose those ancient and 
many separations among Christians occasioned by Arianism, 
Eutychianism, Nestorianism, Photinianism, Sabellianism 
and many more, both ancient and in our times, which indeed 
are but names of schism, however in the common language 
of the prophets they were called heresies. For heresy is 
an act of the will, not of reason; and indeed is a lie and 
not a mistake. . . . But can any man avouch that 
Arius and Nestorius and others that taught erroneously 
concerning the Trinity, or the person of our Saviour, did 
maliciously invent what they taught, and not fall on it 
by error or mistake? Till that be done, and upon that 
good evidence, we will think no worse of all parties than 
needs we must, and take these rents in the Ch\u*ch to be 
at worst but schisms of opinion. In which case what 
we are to do is not a pomt of any great depth of under- 
standing to discover, so be distemper and partiality do 



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118 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

not intervene. I do not see . . . that men of different 
opinions in Christian religion may not hold communion 
in sacris and both go to one church. Why may I not go, 
if occasion requires, to an Arian Church, so there be no 
Arianism in theu* liturgy? And were liturgies and public 
forms of service so framed as that they admitted not of 
particular and private fancies, but contained only such 
things as in which all Christians do agree, schisms of 
opinion were utterly vanished." 

One is not surprised that Laud was disturbed by the 
following on conventicles. ''In time of manifest corrup- 
tion and persecution, wherein religious assembling is 
dangerous, private meetings however beside public order, 
are not only lawful, but they are of necessity and duty; 
else how shall we excuse the meetings of Christians for 
public service in time of danger and persecution, and of 
oiu^ves in Queen Mary's dajrs? And how will those of 
the Roman Church among us put off the imputation of 
conventicling who are known amongst us privately to 
assemble for religious exercises against establifi^ed order? " 

In his sermon at St. Paul's cross on ''Dealing with 
erring Christians," speaking of those who hold different 
views respecting original sin and predestination, Hales 
says: "Tlie authors of these conceits might both freely 
speak their minds and both singularly profit the Church; 
for since it is impossible when Scripture is ambiguous 
that all conceits should run alike, it remains that we seek 
out a way, not so much to establish a imity of opinion — 
which I take to be a thing likewise impossible — ^as to 
provide that multiplicity of conceit trouble not the Church's 
peace. A better way my conceit cannot reach with than 
that we would be willmg to think that these things, which 
with some show of probability, we deduce from Scripture 
are at best but our opinion; for this presumptuous manner 
of setting down our own conclusions under this high com- 
manding form of necessary truths, is generally one of the 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Religiov^ Liberty. 119 

greatest causes which keeps tlie churches this day so far 
asunder, whereas a gracioxis receiving of each other by 
mutual forbearance m this kind, might peradventure in 
time bring them nearer together. This peradventure, 
may some man say, may content us in case of opinions 
indifferent out of which no great inconvenience by neces- 
sary and evident proof is concluded; but what recipe 
have we for him that is fallen into some known and desperate 
heresy? Even the same with the former. And therefore 
anciently, heretical and orthodox Christians many times, 
even in public holy exercises, conversed together without 
offence.'' 

But Chillingworth and Hales were by no means the 
only Churchmen whose words and example were on the 
side of toleration both before and after Taylor wrote hLg 
book. It is easy to magnify the harsh dealing of the 
Established Church with the Catholics, the Non-conforming 
and the Independent parties before the Civil War and 
after the Restoration. There is plenty that soimds horrible 
in aQ this to our modem ears, unaccustomed to all eccles- 
iastical pimishments, and especially unused to the severe 
criminal code of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
The ecclesiastical machinery of oppression and persecution 
was no doubt vigorously worked, and when the Puritans 
and Presbyterians had the power, they knew perfectly 
well how to make return in kind. But those in the Church 
of whom Laud was the conspicuous representative, when 
they had the upper hand, were by no means the only 
influential factors in the Establishment. There were deep 
currents running the other way. There was always a 
thoughtful minority that testified for breadth and liberty. 
Not to speak of the liberal minded ecclesiastics who pro- 
tested against the severe measures with which Elizabeth 
forced conformity upon the people, there were men like 
the great scholar Archbishop Usher, who died m 1656, 
declared by even Presbyterian authority '' the most learned 



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120 Amet^ican Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and reverend father of oiir Church," who was universally 
beloved and who suggested a scheme for a '^ moderated 
episcopacy/' that attracted even the attention of Crom- 
well, and, but for the heated passions of the hoiu*, might 
have formed a workable basis for ecclesiastical imion. 

There were the divines of Oxford who in February, 
1644, brought forward the proposals of the so called 
"Treaty of Uxbridge," in which Charles and the Parlia- 
ment sought to find a groimd of acconmiodation, and 
the first article of which was, "That freedom be left to 
all persons, of what opinions soever, in matters of ceremony, 
and that all the penalties of the laws and customs which 
enjoin those ceremonies be suspended." 

It is said indeed that Charles was not sincere, that he 
did not intend to carry out these proposals. They at 
least were formulated in good faith by his theological 
counsellors; they anticipated the proposals made to him 
by the Army in 1647, and the Toleration Act of 1689, 
and the Oxford clergy who made them were the first 
persons, who, acting as a public body, made proposals 
tending to liberty of religious opinion and practice; but 
the Presbyterians were in no mood to listen to such propo- 
sitions. Among these clergymen — long a devoted follower 
and counsellor of the king-— was the gifted Henry Hammond, 
a profoimd scholar and a saintly man, whose "Practical 
Catechism'' and sermons, though he was a strong Chiu'ch- 
man, breathe a most tolerant spirit, and show that he 
understood the principles and was ready for measures of 
comprehension. 

There was Richard Baxter who, though at this time 
Churchman as he was, could not accept the extreme view 
of either party; critic both of the King and of Parliament, 
yet by his breadth and tact and evangelical zeal he con- 
trived to unite all the ministers of Kidderminster in 
practical serviceableness and charity through all those 
troublous times. There was the witty Bishop Hall of 



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1905,] Jeremy Taylor and Rdigioua Liberty. 121 

Norwich who long kept his place by his mingled piety 
and independence, and who though no Puritan told Laud 
that rather than be subject to ''the slanderous tongues 
of his informers, he would throw up his rochet." 

There was the rollicking, whimsical, yet able, and 
keennsighted Thomas Fuller (1608-1661), historian of the 
English Church, the most popular writer of his times, 
who, neither follower of Laud nor anything of a Puritan 
yet had appreciative words for the Separatists while yet 
loyal to the King. 

There was the true Churchman, but leader of the latitu- 
dinarian School of English Divines, Benjamin Whichcote, 
famous as preacher and Platonist, graduate of Enmianuel, 
the Puritan Collie of Cambridge, who distinctly favored 
the Puritan party during the Civil War. 

There was the saintly George Herbert, twenty years 
older than Taylor, keeping faith and hope and charity 
in his little church at Bemerton till his death, ten years 
before the Civil War, and writing his quaint poem on 
"Divinitie" whose breadth anticipates Taylor's book; and " 
again in his poem on the Militant Church describing the 
evils of the time he says: 

" Religion stands on tip toe in our land 
Ready to pass to the American strand/' 

as though he had sjrmpathy for the Puritans. 

And there was the brilliant Lucius Cary, Lord Falkland, 
who had not the firmness to act up to his lights, but who 
gathered about him at Great Tew near Oxford a congenial 
company of thoughtful liberty lovers, among whom were 
Hales and Cbillingworth. 

Of course such men as these do not represent the main 
trend of opinion in the Established Chiu'ch before or 
during the Civil War, but they show that Taylor had 
many forerunners and followers among genuine Churchmen, 
to say nothing of Dissenters; that the substance of his 



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122 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

book was foreshadowed by many Episcopal thinkers; 
and that he must have had many sympathizers in Episcopal 
ranks. 

The Non-conforming individuals and bodies certainly 
deserve great credit which has generally been acknowledged 
as the earlier and more pronoimced advocates of religious 
liberty in England. Their record in this respect is open. 
But it is important to remember that with Uie exception 
of a few individuals, their aim was to change tiie whole 
ecclesiastical policy of the state, and when it was changed, 
to govern it with as intolerant a hand as their predecessors. 
It is also important to bear in mind that the Established 
Church was by no means aU blind, or reactionary during 
this significant period, but that no small part of its cultiu'e, 
its learning, its wisdom and its piety was actively enlisted 
on the side of liberty of conscience and of opinion. 

Of course tiie enormous obstacle which hindered aU 
parties in the struggle towards the freedom which when 
in the minority, each in turn longed for, was the entire 
identification of CSiurch and State. Religion was politics 
and politics was religion. This was as true imder the 
Parliament as it was imder the King; as true of Presby- 
terianism as of Episcopacy. The control of the govern- 
ment was the aim, desired or dreaded which lay back, 
consciously or imconsciously, of almost every attempt to 
express or suppress religious opinion. It cannot be said 
that freedom was the direct object of any party. It was 
rather the incidental result of the quarrels of all parties. 
The fear of the establishment of popery by intrigue, con- 
stantly hung over the nation. Whichever party was in 
control — ^whether Charles or Cromwell, Laud or the 
Parliament, the Commonwealth or the Army — could for 
the time see little or nothing good in its opponents, and 
for the most part, when in power denied to others the 
very toleration for which, when it was oppressed, it had 
pleaded in vain. 



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1905.] Jeremy Taylor and Rdigimis Liberty. 123 

Thus dowly as the authority, in that time of violent 
transition, went revolving round from King and Bishop, 
to Conunonwealth and Protector, from the Presbyterian- 
ism of Parliament to the Independency of the Army, till 
it completed the circle and at the Restoration, came back 
to King and Bishop again, each party in turn experienced 
the dangerous responsibility of power and the miseiy and 
limitations of oppression, until the incon^tency and 
foUy of attempting to coerce religious opinion and prescribe 
religious won^p by a criminal code, gradually dawned on 
all hands, and liberty of conscience b^gan to be realized 
as the only possible remedy for abuses, toleration the 
only possible foundation for a Christian state and civiliza- 
tion. 

Of course it is the persecuted and not the persecutors — 
the imder, and not the upper dog in the fight— who see 
the beauty of toleration and discover the most potent 
arguments in its behalf. Hence it is generally among the 
Protestants; among the individuals and sects, who felt 
the impulse of the new learning and, beginning to exercise 
their newly foimd individualism and liberty, broke away 
from the established order and in consequence suffered 
for it — it is among these that we find the earliest and most 
pronounced advocates of freedom of religious opinion and 
action. They had little to lose. For tiie moment they 
did not have the responsibility of civil and ecclesiastical 
order, and the anxieties that always arise in connection 
with the practical solution of difficulties created by re- 
formers. 

Mr. Worley in his life of Taylor, properly remarks that 
the Liberty of Prophesying "would have been more valuable 
if it had been produced when the church was a persecutor 
instead of when she was persecuted '^ and it may be 
suggested that imder such circumstances probably Taylor 
would never have written it, inasmuch as when the Church 
came into power at the Restoration, he apparently found 



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124 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

it inconvenient to practise the theories which he had 
advocated in its weakness. 

Bishop Brooks in his little book on Tolerance somewhat 
too severely speaks of "the tolerance of Jeremy Taylor 
writing the Liberty of Prophesjring when the Parliament 
were masters in the Land" as "the tolerance of helpless- 
ness; the acquiesence in the utterance of error because 
we cannot help ourselves; the tolerance of persecuted 
minorities." (Page 20.) "The book is the book of an 
ecclesiastic. It deals with the impossibility of compulsion 
as if ; if it were possible, compulsion would not be so bad 
a thing." (Page 42.) 

This is hardly fair. Taylor points out as clearly as 
anyone can that, in the nature of things, "it is imnatural 
and unreasonable to persecute disagreeing opinions. Un- 
natural: for understanding being a thing wholly spiritual 
cannot be restrained, and therefore neither pimished by 
corporal afflictions. . . . You may as well cure the 
colic by brushing a man's clothes, or fill a man's belly with 
a syllogism." Yet we shall all agree vnth Bishop Brooks, 
when with great discernment, he remarks that " the Liberty 
of Prophesying had a place which neither of the other 
books [Williams and Milton], could have filled in En^ish 
life and literature and religion." 

So we leave the great Bishop of Connor and Down and 
his noble book, with the conmiendation, two centuries and 
a quarter later, of his scarcely less distinguished brother, 
the Bishop of Massachusetts. 



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1905.] Ancient Instance ofMunieipdl Ownership. 125 



AS ANCIENT INSTANCE OF MUNICIPAL 
OWNERSHIP. 

BT SAMUEL UTLET. 

On October 24, 1668, a committee of the General Court 
of Massachusetts Bay, after solemn consideration, reported 
that Worcester would support sixty families. A grant of 
land to several persons was made; the grantees organized 
as proprietors; after a number of ineffectual attempts, 
what is now r^arded as a final settlement was made in 
1713; and on June 14, 1722, an act of incorporation of the 
town was passed. 

Thus there were two corporations, one the proprietors 
owning the common and undivided land, and the other 
the town with the usual conditions attending mimicipal 
corporations. 

It appears by the records of proprietors, as published by 
the Worcester Society of Antiquity, p. 235, that on the 
" la43t tuseday of Sept. 1733," they " Voted that 100 acres 
of the pooreist land on mill Stone hill be kept Comon for the 
use of the town for building Stones." Tlius we have an 
attempt of the proprietors of a new town to establish 
municipal ownership in a stone quarry, 172 years ago; and 
it occurred to me that the Society might be interested in a 
brief notice of the history thereof. 

It is well established that proprietors, as well as towns, 
could in the early times, convey title to land by vote duly 
recorded in their records. 

On Feb. 27, 1750, a committee of the proprietors which 
had been appointed to sell common land, sold to Daniel 
Heywood all the common land on Millstone Hill, estimated 



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126 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to be 97 acres, it being the land referred to by the prior 
vote, this deed being probably made in ignorance of the 
earlier disposition thereof. This land was later conveyed 
to one Gleason, and doubt having arisen as to his title, he 
in 1763 sued his grantor, one Flagg, in the Superior Court of 
Judicature, which held, that the vote in question passed a fee, 
that Heywood and his heirs had no title, and gave judg- 
ment for Gleason against Flagg; and the proprietors settled 
with Heywood, but no deed seems to have been made that 
changed the original status. Thereafter the town assumed 
title, though not always insisting on it, to the, extent of 
bringing suit. They also had a survey made in 1765, and 
foimd 100 acres and 100 rods, and recorded a plan in the 
town records, giving boundaries in fuU. They forbade 
cutting wood, voted not to sell stones or the land itself, 
allowed the town of Shrewsbury to get stones for their 
meeting-house steps, appointed committees to care for the 
land and prosecute trespassers, which in one case seems to 
have been done, as the town discontinued the action, the 
defendant being David Chadwick, one of the persons inter- 
ested in the adverse title. At various times committees 
were appointed to examine the title, who reported that the 
town had a fee. 

In 1824 William E. Green, who held part of the Heywood 
title, cut wood on the premises, and the town brought suit 
against him for trespass. This case was taken to the Su- 
preme Judicial Court, and is reported in 2 Pick. 425. Each 
party claimed title by possession. 

The court held that the case of Gleason v. Flagg, m the 
Provincial Court, was not a bar, because the parties were 
not the same, and that plaintiff had no title by possession. 
It also held, that the town had not a fee in the land but 
only, in the language of the court, " good right to enter for 
the purpose mentioned in the grant, and if they at any time 
exceeded their legal rights," it did not avail them, in the 
absence of twenty years' exclusive possession. The court 



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1905.] Ancient Instance of Municipal Otmiership. 127 

said that the land is not ganted in express terms, but only 
a limited use for a particular purpose, and that a grant of 
mines does not carry the land. So judgment was for the 
defendant. 

For many years no act appears of record. 

In 1848, oiu* associate, the late Andrew H. Green, became 
owner of most of the premises, and in 1851 sued Samuel 
Putnam, who owned about ten acres of the balance, the 
case being reported in 8 Cush. 21. The case was submitted, 
on an agreed statement of facts, in which it appeared in 
detail, that defendant had taken stone for every conceivable 
purpose and had sold it to be used within and without 
Worcester in the same way, establishing the business of a 
quarryman on the premises for his own use and benefit. It 
also appeared, that for over fifty years other inhabitants of 
Worcester had gone there as they chose, cleared away wood, 
brush and soil, quarried stone which they furnished to such 
other inhabitants of Worcester as wanted it, claiming an 
interest in the places they had thus occupied, and selling 
them to others, stone being dressed on or near the place 
of quarry. 

The plaintiff dauned that the vote was a mere license, 
that not being recorded in the Registry of Deeds, it was 
revoked by a subsequent conveyance, that it only conveyed 
a life estate to the then existing inhabitants of Worcester, 
that it was for corporate purposes only, that defendant 
could not sell stone, that the use was strictly limited to 
building stones, and that hewing stone and getting out 
stone as a trade was not allowable. The question that the 
vote was vague and invalid, in not establishing boundaries, 
which was raised but not expressly decided in the earlier 
case, was not referred to. 

The court sustained the vote as a grant, saying that it is 
quite too late to question it, as the law is settled, that large 
tracts of land throughout the province were conveyed in 
the same way, the proprietors' books being the great source 



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128 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of title. It wa43 also held, that the town took the title for 
its present and future inhabitants, the court referring to 
commons, training fields and burial grounds as being held 
in a like manner, and that the use was not for building in a 
restricted sense, but, in the language of the court, '^ for all 
those structures and purposes for which such material in 
the progress of time and the arts may be made useful." The 
court also said: ^'it may be proper to add that the grant of 
the right to the stone carries with it, as a necessary incident, 
the right to enter and work the quarry and to do all that is 
necessary and usual for the full enjo3rment of the right, such 
as hewing the stone and preparing it for use." " The only 
limitation, as to the persons by whom the right is to be en- 
joyed, is that the stones shall be for the use of the inhabi- 
tants of Worcester." "Therefore whether it is quarried 
and prepared by the inhabitants for their own use, or by 
persons who, like the defendant, make it their business to 
procure it and get it ready for the use of others, it is equally 
within the terms of the grant, so long as the stone is ap- 
plied to the use of the inhabitants of the town." And this 
was true both of public and private use. 

Thus the rights of the city and its inhabitants, seem to 
have been fully established by the highest court in the state, 
and it only remains to be seen how the experiment has 
worked as a practical question. The owners of the fee have 
not found the condition satisfactory, and have in various 
ways tried to obstruct the use of the quarry, putting up 
gates, posting notices, threatening suits and otherwise, 
while the city, by votes of the city council has asserted its 
rights and those of its inhabitants, and has agreed to stand 
behind all persons that are in any way molested in exercising 
such rights; but I do not find anything that changes the 
condition as left by the case of Green v. Putnam, though 
some of the dealers running quarries there have of late taken 
leases from the owners of the fee. 

The stone is fuUy described in Perry and Emerson's 



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1905,] Ancient Iristance of Municipcd Otonership. 129 

Geology of Worcester, Mass., and in general terms is a 
granite which on exposure shows stains like iron rust. It 
is thought to be of great depth. It has cracks and cross 
cracks, which break it into irregular blocks. It is hard to 
cut, is located northwesterly of the Worcester Insane Hos- 
pital, on the top of a hill about three hundred feet above the 
Union railroad station and away from the city. The stone 
itself is not as attractive to all people as some of the many 
other stones with which it has to compete. Some of the 
large builders have quarries of tiieir own, located on the line 
of a railroad, and with their superior capital and enterprise 
are able to compete with a free quarry. Most or all 
quarries have what is termed refuse, consisting of stones 
with spots which are unfit for buildings or work in sight, 
but which are adapted for foundations and uses where such 
defects are not objectionable. These stones are already 
quarried, are in the way, and the owners are glad to dispose 
of them. These and perhaps other causes have resulted in 
a diminished use of this stone. 

But it stiU remains true, that stones cannot be sold in 
Worcester at a price that the inhabitants are unwilling to 
pay, rather than to resort to their own free, municipal 
quarries. As examples of buildings erected from this 
stone, the principal building of the Worcester Polytechnic 
Institute, the Worcester Normal School and the Worcester 
Insane Hospital may be mentioned, though the latter came 
from their own grounds, which adjoin the quarry. 

There is no novelty in the doctrine that there may be a 
separate ownership of land, and the mines thereon. (Wash- 
bum, Real Property, Vol. I., page 17.) In English law gold 
and silver mines belonged to the crown, as being necessary 
for coinage, and might be reserved in grants of land. In 
Kent's Commentaries, Vol. 3, p. 378, it is said that " it 
is a settled and fundamental rule with us that all valid and 
individual title to land within the United States, is derived 
from the grants from our own local governments or from 
9 

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130 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

that of the United States, or from the crown, or royal 
chartered governments established here prior to the Revolu- 
tion." 

In the charter of the colony of Massachusetts Bay, 
the land is described with the additional clause, ''and also 
all mines and minerals, as well royal mines of gold and 
silver as other mines and minerals, precious stones and 
quarries." 

At first the laws of the United States excepted minerals 
in the provisions for taking up land, but the occupants 
made miners' rules among themselves, which were recog- 
nized by the courts, on the fictitious ground of presuming 
a license from the government; so the public lost all rights 
therein. This in 1866 was regulated by statute. Had the 
doctrine of royal mines been applied to quarries of stone, 
coal, oil and other like substances, as the Proprietors of 
Worcester applied it to stone, a very different history might 
have been written. As it is, those proprietors made an 
early and successful solution of a problem which of late has 
much vexed the people of the civilized world. 



In Re 

Thb Will op Thomab Hobb. 

In justice to Mr. J. Henbt Lba of South Freeport, Me., and London, 
England, who translated and edited the Will as it appeared in our 
Proceedings of October, 1904, the Committee of Publication offer this 
statement. 

The whole mass of manuscript and correspondence on the subject 
had been delivered to our late Vice-President, Senator Hoab, in 
his lifetime, and he spoke upon the subject at the Meeting in 
October, 1903. After Mr. Hoar's death the material was handed to the 
committee by his private secretary. It is the rule to send proofs of 
aU papers to the authon or editors, but when the Proceedings for Octo- 
ber last were about to go to press there were special reasons for 
including the Hore will in that number. Although Mr. Lea was in 
London and could not see the proof, the matter was so carefully pre- 
pared and type- written that it seemed safe to entrust its supervision to 



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1905.J Ancient Instance of Municipal Ovonerahip. 131 

the committee, and it was not sent to Mr. Lea. As might perhaps be 
expected, some errors crept in from a misapprehension of the abbrevia- 
tions, which in Mr. Lea's eyes seemed very serious, and he has 
expressed his mortification and regret, in which the committee fully 
qnnpathiBe. 

The committee was much impressed with the woric of Mr. Lea, which 
showed great learning and much careful, diligent labor, and regret that 
it appeared in print without having had his revision. 



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"^ nu'iii.iu 




[(♦••J TTCVl 



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AiHiUm^t" 



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Oct., 1905] Proceedings. 133 






^^'- .(>.£. W^^' 




PROCEEDTimS. 



ANNUAL MEETING, OCTOBER 21, 1905, AT THE HALL OP THE 
SOCIETY IN WORCESTER. 



The meeting was called to order by the President, the Hon. 
Stephen Salisbury, at 10.30 a. m. 

The following members were present: 

Edward E. Hale, Nathaniel Paine, Stephen Salisbury, 
Samuel A. Green, Edward L. Davis, James F. Himnewell, 
Edward H. Hall, Charles C. Smith, Edmimd M. Barton, 
Franklin B. Dexter, Charles A. Chase, Samuel S. Green, 
Andrew Mc F. Davis, Daniel Merriman, William B. Weeden, 
Henry H. Edes, Edward Charming, George E. Francis, 
Edward H. Thompson, G. Stanley Hall, William E. Foster, 
Charles P. Bowditch, Francis H. Dewey, Carroll D. Wright, 
Henry A. Marsh, Frederick A. Ober, John Green, Rockwood 
Hoar, James L. Whitney, William T. Forbes, Leonard P. 
Kinnicutt, George H. Haynes, Waldo Lincoln, George P. 
Winship, Austin S. Garver, Samuel Utley, James W. Brooks, 
E. Harlow Russell, Benjamin T. Hill, Edmund A. Engler, 
George L. Kittredge, Alexander F. Chamberlain, William 
MacDonald, Edward G. Bourne, Alexander H. Vinton, 
Clarence W. Bowen, Francis H. Lee, Daniel B. Updike, 
David Casares, Deloraine P. Corey. 

Dr. Carroll D. Wright, in connection with the report 
of the Council, read a paper with the subject: "The History 
of Labor Organizations in Ancient, Mediaeval and Modem 
Times." 



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134 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Rev. Dr. Edward Everett Hale presented a memorial of 
the late Vice-President of the Society, Senator George 
Frisbib Hoar. In the course of his paper Dr. Hale 
said: — 

"When Mr. Thomas established this Society, there were 
not so many literary societies as there are now in the 
country, and a special Act was passed in the early days 
of this Society, giving the American Antiquarian Society 
any or all papers printed by the government, so that 
anybody who is in Washington and wants to rake up 
something, has the power and privilege of looking back to 
this old statute, which is just as much a law of this coimtry 
as any law; and they can make any arrangement they 
choose about the method of distributing the documents, 
but this American Antiquarian Society by law has the 
right to anything which the government of the United 
States prints." 

Dr. Hale read a sonnet written by Rev. Dr. Roimdslay, 
of Great Britain, on hearing of the death of Senator Hoar. 
In speaking of Dr. Roimdslay, Dr. Hale remarked: — "We 
were at a public dinner party, when Mr. Hoar said, 'I 
must go down and speak to R&u n A jbty, for I brought him 
here.' I said, 'Who is Rdwidslay?' He said, 'If you 
don't know Rmifidday, you don't know the first poet in 
Great Britain.' Mr. Hoar always spoke well of the people 
he liked, but I believe he was right in this instance. I 
went down and shook hands with HotthdlAa^ and he said 
at once: 'Mr. Hale, you have a first-rate ballad of Paul 
Revere; why isn't there a ballad to the other man, the 
man who went out and roused the country — DorseyV I 
said, 'If the first poet in England asks me that question; 
I will say that as soon as he will write me the ballad,we 
will print it; but I warn you not to let the public know 
what you have said to me, because if you do, you will have 
six himdred letters the day after tomorrow from the diflFer- 



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1905.] Proceedings. 135 

ent DorseyS; for they are very sensitive on the subject, 
and are eager to have a ballad written.' So it has always 
been a joke between us as to when he would write the ballad, 
which he has never done." 

Dr. John Green, of St. Louis, read a sketch of Henry 
Hitchcock, LL.D., late president of the Law Association of 
the United States, and a former resident of Worcester. 

The treasurer, Nathaniel Paine, presented his report. 
He announced that the Society had received from the estate 
of the late Andrew H. Green, the legacy left by him, which 
after deducting the inheritance tax amounts to $4,839.45. 

The report of the Librarian was read by Mr. Edbiund 
H. Barton. 

The report of the Council being now before the Society, 
it was voted that the Society accept the same, and that it 
be referred to the Committee of Publication. 

On a ballot for President forty-two ballots were cast, all 
for the Hon. Stephen SAUssimT. 

Dr. Hale said: 

"Every gentleman here who is interested in Revolutionary 
history has used the marvellous reproductions which Mr. 
Stevens made. I have received from the representatives of 
Mr. Stevens's estate a very careful catalogue of the immense 
index of those documents. It is understood that this 
index contains the documents of England, France, The 
Hague and Spain, and that it is now offered for sale in this 
country. I suppose that the cost of pwchasing will be 
very considerable, but a good many of us who have been 
interested in that literature hope to bring something to 
bear in Washington this winter looking towards an appro- 
priation with which to purchase the index for the Library 
of Congress." 



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136 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Mr. Andrew McFariand Davis said in reference to the 
subject: ''I was in London and wanted to get a copy of the 
documents mentioned in the English Historical manuscript 
collections. I gave a memorandimi to Mr. Stevens of the 
documents, and he agreed to get a copy and send it to me. 
After I got home I received a copy, but instead of its coming 
from the office referred to, it came from the collection of 
Lord Lanpdowne. Of course I was not satisfied that I 
had gotten the copy that I wished, but by some curious chain 
— I do not know how it occurred — ^he had given me through 
his index an exact copy of the docimients I wanted, pro- 
cured from another source. It seems there were duplicates 
at these two places." 

At the suggestion of Dr. Hale, it was voted that the 
Coimcil be requested to xmite with other literary bodies in 
securing this manuscript index. 

The Recording Secretary annoimced that the Council 
recommends for election to the Society the following gen- 
tlemen: — 

Henry Holmes, of Washington, D. C. 
Clarence S. Brigham, of Providence, R. I. 

Those gentlemen were duly elected by ballot. 

Dr. Samuel A. Green, from a committee appointed to 
nominate the other officers, reported the following list: 

Vice-Presidents, 
Edward Everett Hale, D.D., of Roxbury, Mass. 
Samuel Abbott Green, LL. D., of Boston, Mass. 

Council: 
Sabhtel Swett* Green, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Edward Liv^ingstgn Davis, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Granville Stanley Hall, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
William Babcock Weeden, A.M., of Providence, R. I. 



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1905.] Proceedings. 137 

Jabies Phinnet Baxter, latt.D., of Portland, Me. 
Carroll Davidson Wright, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Edmund Arthur Engler, LL.D., of Worcester, Mass. 
Andrew McFarland Davis, A.M., of Cambridge, ^Mass. 
Elias Harlow Russell, of Worcester, Mass. 
Sabhtel Utlet, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass 

Secretary for Foreign Correspondence. 
Franklin Bowditch Dexter, Litt.D., of New Haven, 
Connecticut. 

Secretary for Domestic Correspondence. 
Charles Francis Adams, LL.D., of Lmcoln, Mass. 

Recording Secretary. 
Charles Augustus Chase, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 

Treasurer. 
Nathaniel Paine, A. M., of Worester, Mass. 

Committee of Publication. 
Edward Everett Hale, D.D., of Roxbury, Mass. 
Nathaniel Paine, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Augustus Chase, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Charles Card SMrrn, A.M., of Boston, Mass. 

Auditors. 
Augustus George Bullock, A.M., of Worcester, Mass. 
Benjamin Thobaas Hill, A.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

Biographer, 
Samuel Utley, LL.B., of Worcester, Mass. 

The Recording Secretary was instructed by unanimous 
vote to cast a single ballot in favor of the report of the 
nominating committee, which he did, and the above list of 
officers was duly elected. 



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138 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The President said:— 

''Among the gentlemen present with us today, who have 
come from a great distance, is our associate Mr. David 
Casares, A.M., of Merida de Yucatan, Federal Inspector 
of the raih-oads in that state, and a Commissioner of Public 
Construction. I will ask Mr. Casares to address the 
Society." 

Mr. Casares read a paper entitled, ''Yucatan and its 
Water Supply." 

"The Jackson-VanBuren Papers" was the subject of a 
paper by Prof. William MacDonald of Brown University. 

Mr. Edward H. Thompson, United States Consul to 
Yucatan, presented the next paper, entitled: "A Page from 
American History." 

On motion of Dr. S. A. Green, it was voted that the 
papers which have been read be presented to the Committee 
of Publication, and that the thanks of the Society be ex- 
tended to the authors, and especially to the two gentlemen 
from Yucatan. 

The meeting was dissolved at two o'clock. The members 
present repaired to the house of President Salisbxtrt, 
where lunch was served. 

Attest: CHARLES A. CHASE, 

Recording Secretary. 



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1905.] Labor Organizatioaa. 139 



LABOR ORGANIZATIONS IN ANCIENT, 
MEDIAEVAL AND MODERN TIMES. 



BT CABROLL D. WRIGHT. 



At the kind suggestion of President Salisbury^ I present 
a brief paper on Labor Organizations in Ancient, Mediseyal 
and Modem Times. 

I do not propose to discuss such organizations in detail, 
but principsJly to show the difference in character at differ^ 
ent times, and also wherein they were similar. Unfortun- 
ately the history of such organizations in ancient times is 
exceedingly meagre. It was not the habit of writers to 
make much mention of the interests of labor or how the 
lower orders earned their hving or conducted their affairs. 
It was quite natural perhaps when historians were record- 
ing the events of administration, of wars or of great racial 
changes, to omit the consideration of what then seemed 
the lesser affairs of life, but a great deal has been unearthed 
by modem archseologists from inscriptions on slabs and 
monimients, which throws some Ught upon this subject of 
labor organizations and which helps us to understand the 
slow development of the workingman through the ages. 
The slabs containing the inscriptions have been Ijdng with- 
out observation, some on their original sites, others in 
museums. However, they have been recorded, catalogued 
and numbered; but their importance has been httle imder- 
stood or little considered. This, in connection with the 
lack of interest on such subjects, accoimts in a way for 
the meagre history. 

Mr. C. Osborne Ward, for a long time an associate of 
mine in the Department of Labor at Washington, worked 



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140 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct,, 

many years in translating old accounts in Greek and Latin, 
in studying inscriptions and their translations, his devotion 
resulting in the publication of a history of the ancient 
working people. 

We all understand the modem labor organization, or 
think we do. We certainly imderstand that it exists, but it 
exists in various forms, chiefly as the trade union, which is 
a society of working people usually pursuing the same 
occupation, the society being organized for the purpose of 
mutual help in providing for sick and death benefits and 
sometimes out-of-work benefits; but chiefly it is organized 
to resist the attempts to reduce wages and to insist upon 
higher wages, fewer hours of labor and improved conditions 
of shop work. The Unions sometimes have insurance features 
attached to them and for many years have paid out large 
sums of money in this way. They attempt to regulate the 
business in which the members are engaged. Until quite 
recently the trade imion, consisting of workers in one craft, 
cared nothing for the interests or welfare of the workers in 
other crafts, but now, through the sympathetic strike, one 
trade imion is quite likely to take part in the conflicts 
between the members of another union in an entirely differ- 
ent occupation and their employers. 

Other labor organizations are broader, more philosophical, 
like the Knights of Labor, an organization dating from 
1869. This body not only strives for the usual purposes 
of trades imions, but goes beyond by its endeavors to 
unify wage-earners without regard to the trades followed. 
The proposed aim of this body is to secure the fullest 
enjoyment of wealth which they claim is created by workers. 
These two types are characteristic of all labor organizations. 
The one primarily is selfish, looking to the interest of its 
own craft, the other is broader, more philosophical, looking 
to the interests of all crafts. It is not strange that the 
first succeeds and the latter practically fails. Perhaps in 
another state of society the broader basis will win. 



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1905.] Labor Organizations. 141 

Until a very few years ago modem trades unions were 
supposed to be the direct outcome of the guilds of the 
middle ages. All writers, or nearly all, took this view, 
and undertook to accoimt for the origin of modem organ- 
izations by tracing the development of the medieval guilds 
to modem times. It is now seen that these modem 
imions are not direct descendants of the craft-guilds of the 
middle ages, and there is no evidence that they are such 
descendants; all the historical proof seems to be the other 
way. 

Perhaps the earliest writer to make this distinction was 
Brentano, in his Guilds and Trades Unions, where he says : 
''These guilds were not imions of laborers in the present 
sense of the word, but persons who, with the help of some 
stock, carried on their craft on their own account." It is 
probably nearer the truth to conclude that through the 
varjdng and ephemeral organizations of wage-earners and 
joiuneymen which existed 300 or 400 years ago, and which 
were composed solely of wage earners, these modem imions 
have taken their roots. Yet this direct connection does 
not have historical coniBrmation, for such associations were 
condemned by the law and there was too close a resem- 
blance between them and the guild system which preceded. 
The best that can be said is that there was a class of 
employees in England who neither strove to become masters, 
nor were in condition to seek controlling influence, who first 
started the trade imion idea. 

The 18th century saw a persistent development of the 
capitalist employer and a decreased ability on the part of 
the worker to own and control the material and tools of 
his especial trade. Perhaps it was the factory system as 
much as any other element that developed the modem 
trades union, because while, before the inauguration of 
the factory system, the workingmen and their employers 
lived and worked in very close personal relationship, under 
the factory system this relationship was lost in large degree. 



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142 American Antiqyarian Society. [Oct., 

The employer, instead of having his joiuneymen and appren- 
tices around him and feeding them at his own table, became 
the employer of himdreds, and now of thousands, thus 
severing that close personal relation of the olden time. 

Trades unions sought to take the place through their 
organizations of that relationship, to protect their members 
against what they considered the encroachments of capital, 
to look after the welfare of members in various ways, and 
through organization to be in a position to resist or enforce 
demands. True it is that these organizations have become 
powerful, and in this country alone constitute at least ten 
or twelve per cent of the wage-earners of the coimtry, 
and they number now probably two million members. 
This proportion of the total is a little larger in this coimtry 
than in England or on the Continent. 

The whole history of the development of trades unions 
is interesting as an economic and social study and they 
are exercising a great influence in the conduct of modem 
industry. In a nutshell, the modem labor organization of 
whatever character is composed of wage-eamers only. 
The members pay dues and receive such benefits as may 
accme. 

The mediaeval guild was an entirely different aflfair. It 
may have spnmg from some form of ancient organization, 
but in its more essential elements it did not. Mediseval 
conditions originated in German conditions, adapted, how- 
ever, and moulded by the Roman civilization, but wherever 
the Germanic element exercised any influence, whether in 
Germany, England, France, Italy or Spain, the tribes of 
Germany that carried that influence found some sort of a 
labor union and in some sense inherited them. Notwith- 
standing this the guild of mediaeval days was more thor- 
oughly German than Roman, for the Roman guilds were 
made up more essentially of slaves, as we shall see, while 
the guilds of the middle ages foimd their membership among 
the free men, but in their composition they were not what 



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1905.] Labor Organizations. 143 

we tinderstand as trades imions, although they resembled 
them. 

The name itself is somewhat significant, being derived^ 
so it is supposed, from the Anglo-Saxon word gylden or 
gildan, meaning "to pay," for a very important feature of 
the guilds was the contribution by or assessment of its 
members. Curiously enough the word signified any kind 
of an association, without reference to its purpose, where a 
common fund was created through individual contributions 
of members. But it is certain, in accordance with all 
modem authorities, that these early guilds had no connec- 
tion with trade or industry; they were social, sometimes 
protective, sometimes poUtical and almost unanimously 
composed of a religious spirit. As Gierke puts it: "The 
old Germanic guild embraced the whole man and was 
intended to satisfy all human purposes; it was a imion such 
as exists today only in our towns or cites. It answered 
at the same time religious, moral, social, economical and 
poUtical purposes." This might apply to our early town 
settlements in New England. 

Some of these guilds were social and charitable. Growing 
out of them or existing with them were the guilds-merchant 
and the craft-guilds. The earlier of these were the guilds- 
merchant, securing great power and sometimes constituting 
the governing force of towns, but the craft-guilds gained 
in strength and ultimately took the place of the guilds- 
merchant. It is with the craft-guilds that we have to deal. 

Brentano, in his History of Guilds and Trades Unions, 
argues that they were associations of craft-guilds to protect 
themselves from the "Abuse of power on the part of the 
lords of the town who tried to reduce the free to the depend- 
ence of the unfree." This view is not generally supported. 

Dr. Cunningham, in his History of Industry and Com- 
merce, took the groimd that these guilds were "called into 
being not out of antagonism to existing authorities, but as 
new institutions to which special parts of their own duties 



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144 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

were delegated by the borough officers or the local guild- 
merchant," while another authority, Prof. Ashley, late of 
Harvard University, takes the ground that they were self- 
governing bodies of craftsmen, more or less under municipal 
control but without force. He thinks they are in no case 
to be identified with modem trades unions. In fact, author- 
itative writers, as already indicated, have taken that view. 

While the guilds-merchant may be designated as mono- 
poUes in traffic, the craft-guilds certainly were monopolies 
in production. They were organizations of employers and 
had charge of trade in cities. No one could carry on any 
trade, either in the city or its surroimdings, imless he became 
a member of the craft-guild. While the social features, 
consisting of gatherings, processions, feasts, etc., were an 
important element in the guilds, they also provided for 
assistance to the needy and for the conmion welfare; but 
these features were insignificant in the constitution of the 
craft-guilds. Their true significance was economic not 
social, and thus they have been confoxmded with modem 
trades unions. To secure membership there must be a full 
knowledge of the details of a trade, for the principal 
provisions of the craft, as indicated, in fact the very soul 
of its existence, consisted in regulations relative to the 
excellence of products and the capacity of workmen. 

Much good resulted from these guilds, such as the pro- 
hibition of night work or sales by candle-light. They also 
were important in the cathedral building ages, the religious 
features of the guild, with the skill it could command, giving 
it large influence. They developed the apprenticeship, 
system, but the guilds were not a monopoly in one sense . 
for any one could become apprentice and the niunber was 
limited only by the abiUty of the master to support them, 
or by considerations of a public nature. The appreiitice 
formed a part of the master's family; he was to keep his 
master's secrets, doing no injury or committing waste on 
his goods; he was not to frequent taverns or to betroth 

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1905.] Labor Organizations. 145 

himself without his master's permission, or to mingle in 
any way with lewd women.* 

All disputes were settled primarily by the wardens of 
the guilds, some of whom were chosen from the ranks of 
the joiuneymen themselves. The joiuneyman was protected 
against exactions on the part of an unscrupulous master, 
so conflicts in interest were unknown. The joumejrman 
always looked forward to the period when he would be 
admitted to the freedom of the trade. There was no 
insuperable obstacle thrown in the path of the workman; 
the time was the period of supremacy of labor over capital, 
and the master himself worked. 

These mediaeval guilds expanded were really composed 
of masters and men to a certain extent; certainly all had to 
be members of or workers in a trade. There were journey- 
men's societies contemporaneous with the guilds, such as 
fraternities of servants and others. The unions weje 
everywhere confined to the youths who gradually became 
masters and were then enrolled as full members of the 
craft-guild proper. These unions were therefore fitting 
schools for the guilds, but as time went on there was a 
change and the guilds became wealthy and powerful, and 
thus secured the hatred of the people, and their downfall 
came at various dates in difTerent countries but from the 
early to the middle part of the 17th century. 

There is little or no similarity between these guilds and 
modem labor organizations, except in so far as the guilds 
and the modern trades unions seek to regulate the appren- 
ticeship system and to seciu-e to the masters in some respects 
aid and assistance. Their antagonism lies in the fact that 
the guild served to seciu^e for the master the labor of the 
apprentice for a very long time at a very low rate of wages 
or for no wages at all, to keep down the wages of the jour- 
neyman and to keep down competition by limiting the 
number of masters. 



•Sellgmao : MedlSByal OnUds of Sngland. 



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146 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

That such unions or organizations or associations have 
had an existence is well known to historians, but, as I 
have intimated, they have not been understood or very 
carefully studied. But the fact is-* established that they 
existed, and they were very largely impregnated with 
some reUgious cult. They shaped their course from that 
of the aristocrats who worshipped the shades of their ances- 
tors. The workingmen, however, in their unions had their 
patron gods. 

Like all history, the facts concerning early organizations 
are nebulous and hazy, so the date of the first labor organ- 
ization cannot be given. It is certain, however, to have 
been at a very iearly date, for Plutarch in his Theseus relates 
that as early as 1180 B. C. there arose a demand from the 
common people to be allowed to enter into the Eleusinian 
mysteries. The workingmen complained that they were 
excluded from the aristocratic reUgious rites, their employ- 
ers, the aristocrats of the time, taking the groimd that 
these workingmen had no souls. Thus the workingmen's 
thought came strongly into view at that early day, and it 
resulted in the organizations of the time. 

Trades unions were common in Solon's days. The 
twelve tables of the Roman law distinctly specified the 
manner of these organizations. References may be found 
in the time of Joshua (1537-1427 B. C), to trades unions, 
and those of us who are members of the most ancient but 
now speculative trade imion and are master workmen, are 
familiar with those of the time of Solomon and know how 
Hiram of Tsrre, the architect of the Temple of Jerusalem, 
organized his workmen. He had with him 3200 foremen 
from Tyre and 40,000 free artificers, but Phidias it is said 
employed 50,000 unionist craftsmen ten years in designing 
and completing the Parthenon. 

Mommsen relates that in the time of Numa Pompilius 
there were innumerable communal associations. These 
organizations consisted mostly of freed men, but it is diffi- 



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1905.] Labor Organizations. 147 

cult to leam just what inspired them. The right of organ- 
ization in very ancient time extended all over Europe, so 
far as is known. Numa Pompilius tolerated these organi- 
zations; in fact he ordered that the entire working popula- 
tion be distributed into eleven guilds. Mommsen does 
not quite agree to this, although it is given on the authority 
of Plutarch. Mommsen concludes that there were eight 
classes, but the distinction is of no consequence for the 
purposes of this paper. 

The trades were distinct and covered all the arts of 
antiquity. During the reign of Nimia the trades unions 
made great advancement; skilled workmen were required 
during all the war-like times, and the workers had their 
golden era, so far. as ancient times are concerned. The 
distinct character, however, remains an tmwritten page, 
but the right of combination continued for over 600 years, 
there being no interruption until 58 years before Christ. 
Then it was that the industrial population of Rome was 
considered outcast, and being well organized they exerted 
considerable, even powerful, poUtical influence. 

King Numa, while not originating the union of the trades 
at Rome, permitted and encouraged what ahready existed. 
The Collegium was a positive trade union, originally created 
for the purpose of mutual aid and protection. A trade 
union of today, while protective, also performs the function 
of an aid society, as insurance, biuial fimds, sick funds, 
etc., and this was true in Niuna's time. So the collegia, 
while maintaining their economic or trade union purpose 
of securing mutual advantages in trade relations, some- 
times passed for reUgious institutions. Sometimes the 
burial society was distinct and had a name of its own. 
This was true of the early Greek unions, and those who ate 
at a common table were burial societies, ship carpenters, 
boat makers, millers, firemen, wine dealers, etc., etc. These 
collegia were f oimd in the Roman Empire, Asia Minor, the 
Greek Islands, Spain and Gaul, as well as in Greece and 



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148 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct.^ 

Rome, and they were established in England by the Romans 
and thus probably gave rise to the mediaeval guilds. 

Ward, to whom I have referred, gives a list of thirty-five 
trades unions existing at one time under the law of Constan- 
tine. All the stone cutting, mason work, everything in 
the way of art was done by the unions. The victualing 
systems were carried on by unions, as well as the manu- 
facturing trades. There were also unions of players among 
the Greeks and the Romans. We have heard sdmething 
of the influence of St. Crispin in this commonwealth. They 
had a powerful trade union in the olden time. The story 
of the origin is too long to be repeated, but it grew out of 
the persecution of two brothers named Crispin and Cris- 
pinian. These Crispins offended by embracing Christianity, 
settled in Soissons and preached by day and made shoes 
in the evening. They were finally executed by Maximian, 
but they had first foxmded the order of Crispins which 
exists at the present time. 

There was a remarkable and curious trade union of 
patch-workers and junkmen or rag-pickers. This is shown 
by inscriptions to have existed. The image makers are per- 
haps among the most interesting in ancient history. These 
organizations worked for the gods, the Pagan objecting to 
the new reUgion because Christianity repudiated idolatry. 
Thus they fought Christianity because it interfered with 
idol, amulet, palladium and temple drapery manufacture. 

The trades imions were organized of skilled workers, 
and they directed their talents to the protection of the 
Pagan priesthood with its innumerable images and Pagan 
worship. It is remarkable that most of the work in the 
times of which we are speaking was performed by trades 
unions instead of isolated individuals, as in our modem 
age. The ancient people were then fairly prosperous both 
during war and peace. All labor was humiliating, and 
this made it easier for the governing powers to encom-age 
trades imions, for the State was their great employer. 



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1905.] Labor Organizations. 149 

It is quite evident that the labor organizations of ancient 
times had a good effect in an economical way, but the 
members were branded by the political and religious jeal- 
ousy of Paganism as wretches, so they could take no part 
in any poUtical question by which the system of organi- 
zation could be developed, all the power being in the 
employers. Those who gave up Paganism saw in the birth 
of Christianity a new source or a new power for the develop- 
ment, and it is now contended that Christ himself was a 
member of a trade organization of some kind, and that he 
sought to regenerate the earth or to bring heaven on earth 
through such organization, by removing the humiliation 
under which the laborer worked, bringing him to reaUze the 
social results of developed organization and thus enabling 
him to see that his true salvation depended upon Ufting 
himself out of the cramped conditions in which he lived. 
All agree as to what Christ sought to do on earth, but all 
will not agree that he used for his means the trade organi- 
zations of his day, although he may have been a member of 
one or more of them. Coming as he did from the ranks of 
labor it is reasonable to suppose that he worked with them 
in their organizations. 

From this brief statement relative to trades unions in 
ancient times, it is seen that they more nearly resembled 
the modem trade union than the mediseval organizations, 
for the ancient unions were economic in their purposes, 
regulating or seeking to regulate, conditions of labor and 
the control or monopoly of trades. This allies them more 
closely with the modem trades unions. 



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150 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



GEORGE P. HOAR. 



BY EDWARD £. HALE. 



The President of the Society has asked me to prepare a 
paper for our records, on what 1 will call the literary life 
of Senator Hoar. By this the President and I both mean, 
some notice, however brief, of his literary and historical 
interests. Of these he never lost sight even in the darkest 
gloom of the great political questions of half a century. 
He says himself in a sentence which is pathetic, ''Down to 
the time when I was admitted to the bar, and, indeed for 
a year later, my dream and highest ambition were to spend 
my life as what is called an office lawyer, making deeds, 
and giving advice in small transactions. I supposed I was 
absolutely without capacity for public speaking." 

So little does a man know himself. So Uttle does a young 
man forecast his own future. I can remember those days. 
And I know how sincere this statement of his is. He really 
thought that he could not speak extemporaneously, and 
yet I lived to hear him make some of the most quick retorts 
which were ever listened to in either house of Congress. 

He says, "I expected never to be married; perhaps to 
earn twelve or fifteen hxmdred dollars a year, which would 
enable me to have a room of my own in some quiet house 
and to collect rare books which could be had without much 
cost." 

It was at that early period that I first knew him and 
from that early period till he died, I may say that we were 
near friends. I have a certain right, therefore, to speak 
of the underlying tastes and principles which asserted 



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1905.] Memorial of Mr. Hoar: 151 

themselves in the fifty-five years of life which followed on 
his entrance at the bar. I remember hearing someone 
laugh at the advice which he gives to yoimg men who 
would prepare for public life. Some one had asked what 
was the best training for a public speaker, and quite im- 
consciously Mr. Hoar replied that if a yoimg man wanted 
to be a public speaker he would do well to read the Greek 
orators in the original language. There is something a 
little droll in the thought of such advice as given to what 
the public calls a "rail splitter" or a "bobbin boy." But 
he said it perfectly unconsciously. I suppose he was think- 
ing of his own young life and he knew very well that what 
Mr. Adams calls the Greek fetish is a fetish very easily 
conciliated. I remember him the first winter he was in 
Worcester, as preferring to read Plato in the original to 
going into the pleasant evening society of the town, so that 
it was with some little difficulty that we yoimgsters made 
him take his part in social entertainments. Almost to the 
day of his death he maintained such early studies, which 
were, indeed, no longer studies. 

By the kindness of Mr. Rockwood Hoar, I have here his 
unpublished translation of Thucydides. When of late years 
you called upon him of a sudden at his own home, you 
were as apt as not to find him standing at his desk and 
advancing that translation by a few lines, or revising it. 
Indeed, he reverenced the masters in whatever line of lit- 
erature or life. You never met him but he surprised you 
by some apt quotation, perhaps from somebody you had 
never heard of, and it seems to me fair to say that the 
wide range of such reading is to be remembered at once 
as cause and effect in that simny cheerfulness, confidence, 
and coiu*age which everyone has noted who has attempted 
to give any analysis or discussion of his character. 

As I have spoken of the translation of Thucydides, I 
ought to say that I do not believe he had any thought of 
publishing it. He did not mean to throw discredit in any 



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152 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

way upon the translations which existed. But rather, he 
meant, if I may use the phrase, to bind himself to the de- 
termination that he would once more read Thucydides 
and would read him carefully. I do not know, — ^I wish 
someone would tell us, who first called Thucydides's history 
''the hand book of statesmen." Within inteUigible limits, 
I think, perhaps, 'Mr. Hoar would have accepted that 
phrase. In making one more version into English of the 
great historian, however, he was working to please himself, 
without any care or thought as to whether his work was 
or was not a better Uterary work than Jowett's or Dale's, 
or any other translator's. I like to say this because there 
was not in him the least of that eagerness to have every- 
thing published which is one of the superficial absurdities 
of our time. 

With such tastes and habits he was glad to accept the 
invitations which he received right and left to address the 
literary societies of the colleges. A collection of such ad- 
dresses, many of them elaborate in their detail, would in 
itself make a very interesting volume of the history of the 
higher education. I have an address at Amherst on the 
"Place of the College Graduate in American life," with 
the date of 1879. In an address before the Law Class of 
the Howard University he spoke on ''The Opportunity of 
the Colored Leader." At the anniversary of the Yale Law 
School he spoke on the "Function of the American Lawyer 
in the Founding of States." 

His addresses at Plymouth on Forefather's Day, his 
Eulogy on Garfield, delivered in this city, his address on 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of Worcester, his address 
at the dedication of the PubUc Library in Lincoln, Massa- 
chusetts, his address on Robert Bums, his address on Emei 
son, are to be spoken of as studies of permanent value 
When in 1888 the state of Ohio celebrated its own centen 
nial, Mr. Hoar was very properly requested by the author- 
ities in Ohio to deliver the oration as representing the State 



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1905.] Memorial of Mr. Hoar. 153 

of Massachusetts, whose colony under Manasseh Cutler 
founded the City of Marietta. I had the pleasure of hear- 
ing that address. To this moment it is a great historical 
monument of a great occasion. 

I have asked the Society to print as a matter of public 
convenience the titles of the 193 speeches and addresses 
which are contained in the sixteen volumes in his own 
library, a list which has been furnished us by the kindness 
of his son. 

Of his papers read before this Society, the memory is 
fresh in the minds of all of us. He loved the Society and 
never forgot its work or its interests; and the broad national 
views which his Ufe in Washington enabled him to take of 
the whole country gave him an opportunity tb serve us in 
a thousand ways which were not open to other men. 

Every such word of his in education or in history, is 
an original study and he is sure to go to the foundations. 
One of the representatives of Massachusetts in speaking of 
him before the House of Representatives cites the modest 
phrase of Mr. Webster, who says that the only genius 
he was aware of was a genius for hard work, and he appUes 
that phrase to Mr. Hoar. It is a happy statement and it 
ought to be added that Mr. Hoar's literary work always 
seems to be spontaneous, or to be amusement or play. In 
general, the same remark would apply to it all which I 
have made of his Thucy^des. In truth, he loved what we 
call study, and though no man was more social or welcomed 
a visitor more cordially, yet from one end of the year to 
another he would have been happy if he were alone with 
his books. 

We remember here how often he gave dignity, and even 
solemnity, to om* proceedings by his careful references to 
the work of the English divines. Our friend, Dr. Merri- 
man, at our last meeting reminded us in the careful study 
which he made of Jeremy Taylor, of one of Mr. Hoar's 
suggestions. There is a very pathetic anecdote of a sacred 



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164 American ArUxqwrian Society. [Oct., 

pilgrimage which he and Mrs. Hoar made to the parsonage 
of the poet Herbert. And if I have a right to say it, I 
will say, that no man among us had a more careful knowl- 
edge of the Puritan leaders in the seventeenth century, or 
of the really devout scholars in the Church of England in 
the next century. In the very last interview I had with 
him, he recalled some verses of Dr. Watts which are omitted 
in most of our hymn books. This might have happened 
with a superficial reader, but when with his own care he 
repeated the words, you could not but remember that from 
Milton to Montgomery he was familiar with all the sacred 
poets of English literature. 

One instance out of a himdred will serve to illustrate 
the course of his life. In the year 1882, with his life in 
Washington full of the public duties of a hundred acquaint- 
ances which pressed upon a leading member of Congress, 
his attention was arrested by Mr. Dwight's report of Stev- 
ens's index on the Franklin Papers. I happen to speak of 
this detail because I was in Washington at the moment 
when that report was brought before the Library Commit- 
tee. Mr. Hoar acquainted himself with every detail of the 
curious history of those papers and explained them before 
the joint Library Committee of which he was a member. 
He compelled the attention of leading members to the 
subject, he followed it from day to day, — ^I might say, from 
horn* to hour; and eventually secwed the grant which was 
necessary for the purchase of the papers, which now make 
a possession so valuable to the Library of Congress. I have 
a thousand times had occasion to use those papers and I 
never do so without thinking of the man who could stop 
in what are called larger interests to see that such a detail 
was attended to. 

No one visits the ancient University of William and Mary 
at Williamsburg without observing the reverence and affec- 
tion with which the gentlemen there speak of his friendship 
to their college. In the Civil War the Peninsula of Vir- 



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1905.] Memorial of Mr. Hoar. 155 

ginia, as John Smith calls it, was almost of course the scene 
of the most critical military operation. Rightly or wrongly, 
I do not pretend to know, the army of the North destroyed 
the principal building of the University. It was natural that 
after the return of peace, the friends of William and Mary 
College should think that they had a rightful claim on the 
government different from that of most of the sufferers by 
the rough hand of war. Who should present that claim 
before the country? The Philistines of whatever type 
would not have thought that this yoimg anti-slavery mem- 
ber from Massachuseets, whose public life had begun and 
continued because he hated the institution of slavery, whose 
own father and sister had been turned out of Charleston by 
the authorities by a genteel mob in that city, that he should 
have been the person to be the champion of William and 
Mary College, and should compel, so to speak, the govern- 
ment to restore to it the property which it had destroyed. 
But Mr. Hoar imdertook that special service in face of the 
difficulties which seemed insoluble. Separate claims for 
separate losses in a struggle for four years were looked 
upon rightly with dissatisfaction, not to say intolerance. 
All the same he meant that this claim should be Ustened to 
and if I may use our vernacular, he " put it through." 
It was because it was just, — it must be acceded to. 

When in this city, we heard the distinguished senator 
from Virginia, Mr. Daniel, pronounce his admirable eulogy 
upon his long-time comrade in the Senate, we had a good 
opportunity to see how great is the worth of manhood in 
public Ufe. A great leader of men said to me in 1904 in 
the Senate Chamber, that I should find very Uttle poUtics 
in the Senate. He meant that man with man, the Sena- 
tors of the country are Unked together by ties much closer 
and more dear than those which are made by the mere 
mechanics of superficial poUtics. 

When Mr. Hoar graduated at Cambridge his Commence- 
ment part was a review of Daniel Boone's hfe. The subject 



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156 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

itself showed the direction which his thought and study 
had ah-eady given to his life. And as one reviews the 
extraordinary range of his public writings, accurate as they 
are and profound at once, one understands the interest 
which the whole country took in him. Our associate, Mr. 
Paine, has made a collection of nearly five thousand metaio- 
rial publications which have expressed the sorrow of a 
nation for his death and its gratitude for his life. I am 
not sure, but I believe, that if we had asked him which 
enterprise of his long life gave him the most pleasure in 
recollection, — ^I do not mean for its intrinsic importance, 
but for the dramatic associations of the whole event, — he 
would have said it was the recovery of Bradford's manu- 
script by the state of Massachusetts from its hiding place 
in London. When he was talking with the Bishop of Lon- 
don about this precious document, the Bishop said that 
he had never understood what was the value which 
belonged to it. 

"Why," said Mr. Hoar, "if there were in existence in 
England a history of King Alfred's reign for thirty years, 
written by his own hand, it would not be more precious 
in the eyes of Englishmen than this manuscript is to us." 

After this appeal, which quite surprised Dr. Temple, the 
endless difficulties of English law and custom were all 
overcome successively; and on an august occasion, the 26th 
of May, 1897, the General Court of Massachusetts received 
the precious volume at the hands of Mr. Bayard, the first 
American Ambassador in London, on his return from 
his duty there. Governor Walcott received the book to 
become henceforth the property of the Conmionwealth, and 
Mr. Hoar made one of his most interesting addresses as he 
followed along its history. The Commonwealth thus owes to 
him this most precious memorial of its birth, and, as I say, 
I think he would have said, that no act of his had given 
him more pleasure than the effort which was crowned that 
day. Indeed, the history and principles of the foimders of 



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1905.] Memorial of Mr. Hoar. 157 

New England and of their successors were woven in with 
all his life, nor have we ever had a scholar who devoted 
to them such unremitting interest or who had more reason 
to be proud of his personal connection with the fathers. 

In reviewing Mr. Hoar's life, as a friend of education, 
of literature, and of history, or in general of scholarship, 
it is interesting to remember that the first President of 
Harvard College, whom the college herself had educated, 
was his ancestor, Leonard Hoar. He had had the advan- 
tage of both English and American training, and was loved 
and honored in the old country which still seemed home 
to half the colonists. The general Court, in their grant to 
the College, was accustomed every year to make the grant 
on condition that Dr. Hoar be the man chosen for the 
vacant President's place. "A scholar and a Christian, a 
man of talent and of great moral worth. " 

I have been told that in his physical aspect Senator Hoar 
reminded men of the pictures and busts of his distinguished 
grandfather, Roger Sherman. He had respect, amounting 
to veneration as well as love, for Sherman, and in one very 
instructive paper he showed with great pride from the 
journals of the Constitutional Convention what was the 
masterly honor of Sherman in leading the way in each of 
its most critical decisions. 

The Senator was by no means a Dry-as-Dust annalist. 
He comprehended thoroughly the principles and determina- 
tions of the fathers; and in all his study and all his work, 
he showed his determination that those principles should 
be carried out without fear or hesitation. He studied the 
history of the past with no idolatry of ancient method or 
monument, but always looked forward to the future with a 
determination that the eternal principles of the reign of 
God should be central in the government of the years 
which are before us. 

I am fortunate in being able to read to you a sonnet 
which his friend, Dr. Rawnsley, sent me after he received, 



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168 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in his happy home at Keswick, the tidings of Mr. Hoar's 
death. I remember that the Senator when he introduced me 
to Dr. Rawnsley called him the first Uving poet in England. 
At this October meeting of ours in Worcester, for a gen- 
eration at least, the members of the society will remember 
the cordial welcome whicl^ the Council and every member 
always received at his happy home. One recalls with grat- 
itude that great principle of history which in early life 
he announced so well himself. "At bottom the reason 
men form governments, and the object for which govern- 
ment is to be sustained is that men may live in happy 
homes. ^' Whoever speaks or writes of the charm, itself 
indescribable, in* this well-balanced life, remembers the 
cordial and complete sympathy of his wife, and that affec- 
tionate, and even ingenious cooperation of her life with 
his which showed itself whether in the detail of daily 
ministry or in constant inspiration; — sympathy and coop- 
eration such as women only are able to conceive. 

SENATOR HOAR 

IN MEMORIAM 

You of the spirit fresh with May-flower dew, 

A Pilgrim Father faithful to the end. 

Stout-hearted foe and truest-hearted friend. 
Who never trimmed your sail to winds that blew 
With breath of popular favour, but foreknew 

Storm followed sun, and knowing, did depend 

On One behind all storm high aid to lend. 
And from Heaven's fount alone your wisdom drew: 
Farewell! in these illiterate later days 

We ill can spare the good gray head that wore 

The honour of a nation. Fare thee well. 
When Justice weary of men's warlike ways 

And Freedom gains Love's height, they there shall spell 

Your name in golden letters. Senator Hoar. 

H. D. RAWNSLEY. 



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1905.] Speeches and Addresses of George F. Hoar. 159 



SPEECHES AND ADDRESSES OF GEORGE F. HOAR. 



VOLUME I. 



1. L^slative Power Under the CoDstitution. Report of the Special 

(x>inmittee, March, 1857. 

2. Petition to annex pajt of the Towns of Bolton and Beiiin to Hud- 

son. Arf^ument for Remonstrants, 1867. 
8. Free Pubbc Library, Worcester. Seventh and Eighth Annual 
Reports. 

4. Claims of the Free Institute of Industrial Science upon the Com* 

monwealth. Ai||;\mient before Committee on Education of the 
Legislature of Mass.. February, 1869. 

5. Woman's Right and the Public Welfare. Remarks before a 
Special Committee of the Legislature, 1869 



Vir^'nia. admission of. Speech in the H. of R, June, 1870. 
National Economy. Speech in H. of R, Februaiy, 1870. 



6 

7. 

8. Mission to Rome. Remarks in H. of R, May, 187d. 

9. Universal Education a National Concern and a National Necessity. 

Speech in H of R. June, 1870. 

10. General Howard, Chaiges against. Report of the Committee on 

Education and Labor, H of R, Jul^ 1870. 

11. National Education. Speech in H of K, February, 1871. 

12. General Howsurd and the Freedmen's Bureau. Remarks in H of 

R, February, 1871. 

13. Powers of the American Constitution for the Protection of Civil 

Liberty. Speech in H. of R, March, 1871. 

14. Universal Education the only Safeguard of State Rights. Speech 

in H. of R, Januaiy, 1872. 
15 John Cessna vs. Benj. F. Meyers. Report of Committee on Eleo 
tions, H of R, February, 1872. 

16. College of William and Mary. Speech in H of R, February, 1872. 

17. Grant and Wilson Club, Organization of. Address i^ Worcester, 

August, 1872. 

18. Bowen vs. De Large. Report of Committee on Elections, H of R, 

January. 1873. 

19. Woman Suffrage Essential to the True Republic. Address at 

Boston, May, 1873. 

20. Union Pacific Railroad Company, Affairs of. Report of Select 

Committee, H of R, February^ 1873. 

21. Interstate Commerce. Speech m H of R, March, 1874. 

22. ColWe of William and Maiy. Report of Committee on Education 

and Labor, H of R, March, 1876. 

23. Jurisdiction m Impeachment. Argument before U. S. Senate, May, 

1876, 

24. Political Condition of the South. Speech in H of R, August, 1876. 



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160 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

25. Presentation of the Statues of John Winthrop and Samuel Adama. 
M Speech in H of R, December, 1876. 

26. Counting the Electoral Votes. Speech in H of R, January, 1877. 

VOLUME n. ' 

1. Charles Sumner. Article in North American Review, Jan.«Feb., 

1878. 

2. Conduct of Business in Congress. Article in North American 

Review, Febniaiy, 1879. 

3. Condition of the South. Report of the Special Committee in H 

of R. 

4. State Republican Convention, Mr. Hoar, President. Speech, 

September, 1877. 

5. Republican State Convention, Worcester, 1879. Speech 

6. Suffrage under National Protection. Speech in Senate, Februaxy, 

1879. 

7. Threatened Usurpation. Speech in Senate, March 25, 1879. 

8. Geneva Award. Speech in Senate, March, 1880. 

9. Senate Bound by its own Judgments. Speech in Senate, May, 

1880. 

10. The Place of the College Graduate in American Life. Address 

before the Social Union at Amherst College, July, 1879. 

11. Constitutional Amendment, Female Suffr^. Report of Senate 

Committee on Privileges and Elections, ^bruary, 1879. 

12. Asbuiy Dickins, Report from Committee on Clamis, November, 

1877. 
70. Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Republican Party. September, 
1879. 

VOLUME III. 

1. Samuel Hoar, Memoir of. 

2. James A. Garfield. Eulos^ bv G. F. H. 

3. President Garfield's New England Ancestiy. 

4. James A. Garfield Memorial Observances. 

6. The Appointing Power. Article in North American Review. 

7. The Function of the American Lawyer in the Founding of States. 

An Address before the Graduatinj; Class of Yale CoUege, 1881. 

8. The Lincoln Library, Dedication ot 1884 

9. Our Candidates and Cause. Remarks in Tremont Temple, Jidy 15, 

1884. 

VOLUME IV. 

1. Geneva Award. Speeches April and March 1880. 

2. A National Bankrupt Law. Speeches in June and December, 1882. 

3. Alexander H. Bullock, Memoir of. 

4. Relation of National Government to Domestic Commerce. 

5. Alleged Election Outrages in Miss. Report of Committee on 

Privil^res and Elections, May, 1884. 
38. Benjamin Franklin, Purchase of Papers of. May, 1882, Conmiittee 
on Libraiy. 

59. River and Harbor Bill, Analysis of. August 12, 1882. 

60. Chinese Immigration. Speech, March, 1882, in the U. S. Senate. 



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1906.] Speeches and Addresses of George F. Hoar. 161 

VOLUME V. 

1. Two Hundredth Aimiveraaiy of the Naming of Woroester. Octo- 

ber, 1884. 

2. 0bli«ttioii8 of New England to the County of Kent. Paper read - 

belore the Antiouarian Society^ 1885. 

3. Two Hundred ana Fiftieth Anniversary of Concord. September 

12, 1885. 

4. Samuel Head vs. Amoekeag Mfg. Co. and Aigument in same. Briefii 

for Defendant, October, 1884. 

5. Rdation of National Government to Domestic Commerce. Speech 

in the Senate, July 1, 1884. 

6. Annua) or Biennial Elections, Which ? Speech at Massachusetts 

aub, 1886. 

7. Prof. Wiley Lane, Obituary Addresses at Funeral of. March 3, 

1885. 

8. The Senate and the President. Speech in the Senate, June 30, 

1886. 

9. Interstate Commerce. Speech in the Senate, Januaiy 14, 1887. 
Atlantic and Pacific Ship-Railway. Speech in the Senate, Fel^ 

ruary, 1887. 

VOLUME vn. 

1. John G. Whittier. Remarks before Essex Club, November 12, 

1887. 

2. Gov. Washburn. Address. November 1887. 

3. The Founding of the Northwest. Oration at Marietta, O., April, 

1888. 

4. Fisheries Treatv. Speech in Senate, July, 1888. 

5. Harrison's Welcome to Harvard. Speech in Tremont Temple, 

November 2, 1888. 

6. Report of the Proceedings of the Harvard Republican Meeting, 

Tremont Temple, November 2, 1888. 

7. The Constitutional Remedy. Speech, 1888. 

8. Jubilee Banquet of Home Market Club. Speech, November 15, 

1888. 

9. Completion of the National Monument to the Pilgrims. Speech 

at Plymouth, August 1, 1889. 

10. Are the Republicans in to Stay? Article in North American 

Review of 1889. 

11. Speech at Ratification Meeting, Music Hall, October 15, 1889. 

VOLUME vni, 

1. Shall the Senate Keep Faith with the People? Speech, August 

1890. 

2. Senate Resolution Relating to a Limitation of Debate. August. 

1890. 

3. Amendment to the Resolution of Mr. Quay. August 19, 1890. 

5. Montana Election Cases. Report of Facts and Speeches on same, 

1890. 

6. Order Reported from Senate Committee on Privileges and Elec- 

tions to Omit from the Congressional Record certain words^in 
the Report of Senator Call's Kemarks, Februaiy 20, 1890 



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162 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

VOLUME IX. 

2. GharieB Devens, Heniy M. Dexter and Edward I. Thomas. Before 

Antiquarian Society, April 29, 1891. 

3. Government in Canada and the United States Compared. Anti- 

quarian Society. April 29, 1891. 

4. Home Market CIud Meeting, November, 1891. Speech of Mr. Hoar. 

5. Railroad Problems. New York Independent, 1891. 

6. Speech at Cambridge, October 7, 1891. 

7. Speech at Great Barrington, October^ 1891. 

8. Tiie Fate of the Election Bill. Magasme Article 

9. Reasons for Republican Control. Magazine Article 

10. If Crime Rule our Elections, the Republic Cannot Live. Speech, 

December, 1890. 

11. Constitutional Limit of the Taxing Power. Speech, January, 

1893. 

12. Election of Senators 1^ Direct Vote of the People. Speech, 1893. 

21. Speech at Vice-President Morton's Testimonial, 1891. Old Age 

and Immortality. 

22. One Hundredth Anniversary of the Worcester Fire Society, Janu- 

ary 4, 1892. 

VOLUME X. 

1. Charles Sumner. Magazine Article. 

The Riffht and Expediency of Woman Suffrage. Article in Cen- 
tury Magazine. 

2. Address o! Mr. Hoar^ President, etc.. Fifteenth Meeting of the 

National Conference of Unitarian and other Churches. Seuratoga, 
September. 1894. 

3. Platform Aaopted by the Republican State Convention of Massa- 

chusetts, 1894. 

4. Daniel Webster. Speech in the Senate on the Receiving of the 

Statues of Webster and Stark, December, 1894. 

5. Gold and Silver. Speech, August, 1893. 

6. Sectional Attack on Northern Industries. Speech, May, 8 1894. 

7. A New England Town. Speech, June, 1894. 

8. Ebcecutive Usurpation. Speech, December 6 and 11, 1893. 

9. Colloquy with Mr. Villas. Speech in Senate, December 6, 1893. 

10. Executive Usurpation. Speech, December 20, 1893. 

11. Dinner Commemorative of Charles Sumner and Complimentary to 

Edward L. Pierce, December 29, 1894. 

12. Address to Law Class, Howard Universi^, 1894. 

13. Speech at the Dedication of the Haston Free Public Library, No. 

Brookfield, September 20, 1894. 

VOLUME XI. 

1. Address at the Opening Exercises of Clark University, October 2, 

1889. 

2. The Further Mission of the Party. Article in the Republican Party. 

3. Oration at the Fiftieth Anniversary of the New England Histono 

Genealogical Society, April 19, 1895. 

4. Improvement of Boston Harbor. Address at Fifteenth Annual 

Bfmquet of Boston Merchants' Association, November 15, 1895. 



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1905.] Speeches and Addresses of George F. Hoar. 163 

5. Popular Discontent with Representative Government. Inaugural 

Address before the American Historical Association, Decembei 
27, 1895. 

6. Oration at the Two Hundred and Seventy-fifth Anniversary of 

the Landing of the Pilgrims, December 21, 1895. 

7. Protection to Wool, Bi-metallism and the Republican Party. Speech 

in the Senate, February 26, 1896. 

8. Orderly and Decorous Conduct of Foreign Relations. Speech, 

Maich 11, 1896. 
^. The Senate. An Article published in the Youth's Companion, 
November, 1890, and reprinted by the Senate. 

VOLUME XII. 

1. The Charro of Packing the Court, etc.. Refuted. Letter to Boston 

Herald, November, 1896. 

2. The Life of Roger Sherman, Book*notices of. 

3. McKav V. Kean. Aigument for Petitioner, October, 1895. 

4. Has the Senate Degenerated? Article in the Forum, April, 1897. 

5. Statesmanship in England and in the United States. The Forum, 

August, 1897. 

6. General William Cogswell, Life and Character of. Senate, Febru» 

aiy 8, 1897. 

7. Oregon Case. Report of Committee on Privileges and Elections, 

June 25, 1897. 

VOLUME XIII. 

1. William Whitney Rice. A Biographical Sketch. 

2. Francis Amasa Walker, Proceedings of a Meeting heldin Com- 

memoration of. 

3. American Antiquarian Society, Proceedings of the. October 21, 

1897. 

4. Bradford Manuscript, Return of the. 

5. Ashley B. Wright. Memorial Addresses in the Senate by Messn. 

Hoar, Morgan, Hawley and Lodge. 

7. Sound Money for the People, The United States a Government 

Providing, Janua^ 26, 1898. 

8. War—Justice and Blumanity. Not Revenge, The Only Justfication 

for. In the Senate, Ap>ril 14, 1898. 

9. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, April 27, 1898. 

VOLUME XIV. 

1. Hawaii. In the Senate, JxAj 5, 1898. 

2. Dangers of Colonial Expansion. In New York Independent, July 

7. 1898. 

3. Relation of the American Bar to the State. Address Delivered 

at the Tenth Annual Meeting of the Virginia State Bar A^KKsia- 
tion, July, 1898. 

4. Same, in Viiginia Law Resister, August, 1898. 

5. Quality of our Honor. Speech at Opening of Clark University 

Summer School. July 13, 1898, and Open letters to Prof. Norton. 

6. Rufus Putnam, Founder and Father of Ohio. Address at RutUnd, 

September 17, 1898. 



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164 American AtUiqvarian Society. [Oct., 

7. Bradford ManuBcript, Account of Part Taken by American Anti- 
quarian Society in Return of, to America. 

VOLUME XV. 

1. Four National Conventiona — Some Political Remihiscenoea — 

Daniel Webster. Scribner's Magazine. 
3. Life of Sumner by Edward L. Pierce — ^Wilmot Proviso — John Davia. 

RemariES before American Antiquarian Society in Proceedings, 

October. 1893. 

6. Latin ana Greek in our Colleges. New York Independent, March 

16, 1899. 

7. Speech at Banquet of the New England Society of Charleston, S. C, 

December 22, 1898. 

8. Kettle Brook Water Cases. Aiigument in, Januaiy 2, 1899. 

9. Philippine Islands. No Constitutional Power to Conquer Foreign 

Nations, etc., In Senate, January 9, 1899. 

10. Philippine IslsJids, Letter from Hon. Georse F. Hoar regarding, to 

Hon. Geone S. Boutwell and others, March 29, 1^. 

11. Justin Morrifl, Memorial Address in the Senate. 

12. Isham G. Harris. Memorial Address in the Senate. 

13. Our Duty to the Philippines. New York Independent, November 

'9, 1899. 

VOLUME XVI. 

1. The Philippines. Speech in reply to Senator Beveridge in the 

Senate, Jan. 9, 1900. 

2. Our Duty to the Philippines. Letter by Senator Hoar, Januaiy 

11, 1900. 

3. Shall we Retain the Philippines. In Collier's Weekly, February 

3 1900. 

4. The Philippines. Speech in the Senate, April 17, 1900. 

5. The Conquest of the Philippines. Extracts from Speech of April 

17 1900. 

6. The 'Lust of Empire. Speech April 17, 1900. Published by Tucker 

Publishing Co. 
8. Vacancies m the Senate. Right of Executive to Appoint in all 

Cases during Recess of Legislature. In the Senate, March 2, 1900. 
9 Harvard College Fifty-eight Years Ago. In Scribner's Magazine, 

July, 1900. 

10. Alumni Dinner, Speech at. Harvard Graduates' Magazine, Sept- 

ember, 1900. 

11. Party Government in the United States. International Monthly, 

October, 1900. 
13. President McKinley or President Bryan. North American Review, 

October, 1900. 

Bradford Manuscript. Speech, 1897. 

Cushman K. Davis. Adaress in Seoate, 1897. 

Fifteenth Massachusetts RM;iment, Excursion of the — and its 

Friends to the Battlefields ofGettysbuif^, Antietam, Ball's Bluff 

and the City of Washington, D. C, Sept. 14-20, 1900. Addresses 

by Hon. George F. Hoar at Gettysbuig and Antietam. 
Harvard Alumni Dinner. Hon. Georee F. Hoar, '46. President of the 

Association of the Alumni. Also Address at the opening of the 

Ebrvard Union, 1901. 



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1905.] Speeches and Addresses of Oeorge F. Hoar. 165 

Thamaa H. Benton and FranciB P. Blair, Proceedings in Congress upon 
the acceptance of the statues of. Address, 1900. 

John Sherxnan. Article in New York Independent, November 1, 1900. 

Gantennial Celebration of the Establishment of the Seat of Government 
at the City of Washington. Closing Address by Hon. George F. 
Hoar, in tne Hall of the House of I^presentatives ,Deoember 12, 
1900. 

Address delivered before the Senate and House of Representatives and 
invited guests on Februaiy 21, 1901, in response to an invitation 
of the (Ssneral Court. 

Robert Bums. An address delivered in Tremont Temple W Hon. 
George F. Hoar on March 28, 1901, before the Bums Memorial 
Association of Boston. Also reprinted in Scotland. 

Oratoiy. Article in Scribner's Magazme, June^ 1901. 

Some Famous Orators I have Heira. Article m Scribner's Magasine, 
July, 1901. 

First Parish in Concord. Dedication of the Restored Meeting House of 
the. Address, Thursday, October 3d, 1901. 

Webster Centennial of Dartmouth College, The Proceedings of the. 
Speech, 1901. 

Charies Allen. Address delivered before the Annual Meeting of the 
American Antiquarian Society, October 30, 1901. 

Jonas G. Clark, Founder ol Clark University. Some Considerations 
Relating to the Will of. Hon. Georj^e F. Hoar, February 14, 1902. 

Bi-Centennial of the Frst Parish in Framingham, Services at the. Ad- 
drees, October 13, 1901. 

Election of Senators by Direct Vote of the People. Speech, Tuesday, 
March 11, 1902. 

An Attempt to Subjugate a People Striving for Freedom^ Not the Amer- 
ican Soldier, Responsible for Cruelties in the Philippine Islands. 
Speech in the Senate, May 22, 1902. 

The Coimecticut Compromise. Address before the American Antiquar 
rian Society, October 21, 1902. 

Banquet of the New England Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 
Speech, December 22, 1902,. 

A Regulation of Trusts and Corporations Engaged in Interstate Com- 
merce. Speech in the Senate, January 16, 1903. 

Birthday of Washington, Exercises in Commemoration of the. Address 
at the Union League Club, Chicago, Febmary 23, 1903. Also 
speech at the post prandial exercises in the evening. 

Inauguration of President Carroll D. Wright, Clark University, Woroe»> 
ter, Mass. Address, October 9, 1902. 

Emerson Centenary. Address at the Memorial Exercises in the Meeting 
House of the First Parish in Concord, Mass., on Monday aftei^ 
noon, May the 25th, 1903. 

Answer to Carl Schurz's Brooklvn Address of August 5, 1884. 

Jeremiah Evarts Greene. Adaress before American Antiquarian So- 
ciety, February, 1903. 

First Parish in Concord, Dedication of the Restored Meeting House of 
the. Thursday, October 3, 1901. Address. 

Briff.-General Rufus Putnam. Article in Wisdom, October, 1902. 

Peaoodv Education Fund. Proceedings of the Trustees at their Forty- 
nrst Meeting in New York, October 1, 1902. Report of Hon. 
George F. Hoar for the Committee on the legal aspect of the 
Nashville Property. 

Horace Gray, Memoir. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, Second Series, Volume XVIII, pages 
165-187. 



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166 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Panama Canal. Speech in the United States Senate, Monday, Febmaiy 

22, 1904. 
The First Schoolhouae in Worcester and John Adams, Schoolmaster. 

Address at the unvefling of the tablet upon the site of the aehool- 

house, May 23, 1003. 
John Bellows. Memorial Sketch in Proceedings of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, October 21, 1903. 
Thomas Jefferson. Address delivered at the Banquet of the Thomas 

Jefferson Memorial Association, Hotel Barton, Washington, D. 

C, April 13, 1903. 
American dtizenship. Address delivered at the Forty-third Annual 

Commencement of the State University of Iowa, June 17, 1903. 
Horace Gray, In Memoriam. Saturday, December 13, 1902. 
Character of Washington. His last public utterance, June 17, 

1904. 

Senator Hoar delivered an extended address upon Rufus Putnam 
at Sutton, Putnam's birthplace, in the early summer, in May or eariy 
June, repeating substantially his earlier Putnam address. A little 
later, before tne Court, he delivered a eulogy upon his friend Col. 
E. B. Stoddard. Neither of these addresses were printed. 



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1905.] Obituaries. 167 



OBITUARIES. 

Louis Adofphe Hug^uet-Latour died in Montreal, 
Canada, in May 1904, having been a member of this 
Society since 1861. He belonged to the family "De Vaslois 
de Vdois Ville." His occupation was that of a Notary 
which in Canada is an important office. His interest in 
historical matters was shown in the publication of Annals 
of the conspicuous events in the History of Canada. 

Some pamphlets ftom his pen with reference to the 
CathoUc Church were published, and were so highly con- 
sidered that the late Pope Pius X made him a Knight of 
the Holy Sepulchre. 

No extended notice of him has come to my attention. 

8. u. 

James Henry Salisbury died at his summer home 
at Dobbs Ferry, N. Y., Aug 23, 1905. 

He was bom in Scott, Cortland Co., N. Y., Oct. 13, 1823; 
graduated at the Polytechnic Institute of Troy, N. Y., in 
1846 and at the Albany Medical College in 1850. In addi- 
tion to the degrees thus obtained he also rieceived that of 
LL.D., from Union College and Amity College of Indiana. 
He became a member of many learned societies, including 
this Society, which he joined in 1862. Much of his work 
was in the line of microscopic investigation, the results of 
which were published in the transactions of the American 
Association for the Advancement, of Science. 

The germ theory received his early attention, his discov- 
eries therein being also published. He practised as 
a specialist in the causes and treatment of chronic dis- 
eases in Cleveland Ohio and in N. Y. City. He was the 
author of numerous books and pamphlets, including about 
seventy-five monographs, many of which related to his 
therapeutical discoveries. 

A good notice of him and his work may be found in the 
National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 8, 469. 

8. ir. 



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168 American AtUiquarum Society. [Oct, 



EEPORT OP THE TREASURER. 



Tbb Treasurer of the American Antiquarian Society herewith 
submits his annual report of receipts and expenditures for the 
year ending October 10, 1906. 

The legacy from the late Andrew H. Green of New York, of 
$5,000, amounting, less the inheritance tax, to $4,839.45 has 
been received since the April meeting of the Society. 

The total of the investments and cash on hand October 

10, 1905, was $156,972.68. It is divided among the several 

funds as follows: 

The Librarian's and General Fund, $87,272.89 

The Collection and Researoh Fund, 16,719.84 

The Bookbinding Fund, 7,710.77 

The Publishing Fund, 81,81140 

The Isaac and Edward L. Davis Book Fund, . . 14,048.26 

The Lincoln Legacy Fund, 6,645.60 

The Benj. F. Thoukas Local History Fund, .... 1,180 98 

The Salisbury Building Fund, 6,870.65 

The Alden Fund, 1,000.00 

The Tenney Fund, 5,000.00 

The Haven Fund, 1,616.40 

The George Chandler Fund, 466.44 

The Francis H. Dewey Fund, 4,588.97 

The George E. Ellis Fund, 16,487.99 

The John and Eliza Davis Fund, 8,681.62 

The Life Membership Fund, 2,400.00 

$156,789.71 

Income Account, 912.88 

Premium Account, 270.59 

$156,972.68 

The cash on hand, included in the following statement 
is $7,196.85. 



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1905.] Report of the Treasurer. 169 

The detailed statement of the receipts and disbursements 
for the year is as follows: 

1004. Oct 7. Balance of cash as per last report, $ 801.69 

1906. '* 10. Income from investments to date, 8,850.20 

** For life membership, 60.00 

" For annaal assessments, 170.60 

*« Sale of publications, 210 00 

** Premium on securities sold, 618.33 

** Notes and securities paid or sold, 8,743.75 
From the Est of Andrew H. Green, 4,830.46 

Sundry Items, 217.41 



$24,600att 



By salaries to October 10, 1006, $4,103.58 

Publication of Proceedings, e/c, 882.03 

Books purchased, 532 56 

For binding, 50.70 

For heating, lighting and telephone, 85.70 

Invested in stocks and bonds, 0,820.76 

Premium on stocks and bonds, 116.44 

Insurance, 276.20 

Repairs on Buildings, 171.66 

For coal, 200.23 

Incidental Expenses, 056.12 



$17,303.07 
Balance of cash October 11, 1005, 7,106.36 



124,600.82 

CONDTTIOTX OF THB SbTSBAL FuKDB. 
Tke Librarians and General Fund. 

Balance of Fund, October 7, 1004, $34,586.48 

Income to October 6, 1004, 1,720.82 

Transferred from Tenney Fund, 250.00 

*' AldenFund, 60.00 

From Life Membership Fund, 117.50 

From Salisbury Fund, 216.14 

From Estate of Andrew H. Green, 4,830.46 

From Other Sources, 60.00 

$41,848.80 
Paid for salaries and incidental expenses, .... 4,576.50 

Balance October 10, 1005, $87,272.80 

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170 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Bright forward^ . , . $37,2724{9 

Th€ ColUction and Research Fund. 

BalADoe October 7, 1904, $17,029.98 

Income to October 6, 1904, 851.49 

$17,881.42 
Bzpenditnre from the Fund for ealaries And 

incidentals,...*. 1,162.08 

Balance October 10, 1905, $16,719.84 

Th€ Bookbinding Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904 $7,482.20 

Income to October 10, 1905 871.60 

17,808.80 
Paid for binding, efo 98.08 

Balance October 10, 1905 $7,710.77 

The Pvibliehing Fund, 

Balance October 7, 1904 $81,061.75 

Income to October 10, 1905 1,558.08 

$82,614.88 
Paid on account of publicationB, 808.43 

Balance October 10, 1905 $81,811.40 

The leaac and Edward L, Davie Book Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1004 $13,400.68 

Income to October 10, 1905 670.00 

$14,070 68 
Paid for books purchased 22.42 

Balance October 10, 1905 $14,048.26 

T?ie Lincoln Legacy Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904 $6,829.15 

Income to October 10, 1905 8 16.45 

Balance October 10, 1905 $6,645.60 



Carried forward^ $114,207.76 

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1905.] Report of the Treasurer. 171 

Brought forward, . . . $114,207.76 

The Benjamin F, Thomas Local Hietory Fund. 

Balmnce October 7, 1904 $1,167.00 

Income to October 10, 1005 57.85 

$1,214.85 
Paid for local histories 83.87 

Balance October 10, 1005 $1,180.08 

The Salitbury Building Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1004 $5,480.35 

Income to October 10,1005 278.00 

$5,758.35 
Paid for repairs, etc 387.80 

Balance October 10, 1005 $5,870M 

The Alden Fund. 

Balance October 7. 1904 $1,000.00 

Income to October 10, 1005 50.00 

$1,050.00 
Transfered to Librarian's and General Fund, 50.00 

Balance October 10, 1005 $1,000.00 

TJie Tenney Fund, 

Balance October 7, 1904 $5,000.00 

Income to October 10, 1905 250.00 

$5,250.00 
Transferred to Librarian's and General Fund, 250.00 

Balance October 10, 1905 $5,000.00 

The Haven Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904 $1,564.50 

Income to October 10, 1905 78.22 

$1,642.72 
Paid for books 27.32 

Balance October 10, 1905 $1,615.40 

Carried forward $128,824.69 



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172 American ArUiqiicarian Society. [Oct., 

Brtmghb fanvard $128,324.09 

The George Chandler Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1004 $476.75 

Income to October 10, 1905 23.83 

$500.69 

Pal d for books 44. 16 

Balance October 10. 1905 $456.44 

The Francis H. Dewey Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904, $4,346.98 

Income to October 10, 1906, 217.34 

$4,564.32 
Paid for books, 25.35 

Balance October 10, 1905, $4,588.97 

The George E, EUis Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904, $16,910.26 

Income to October 10, 1906, 795.50 

$16,705.76 
Paid for books, 267.77 

Balance October 10, 1905, $16,487.99 

The John and Eliza Davie Fund 

Amount of Fund, October 7, 1904, $3,476.48 

Income to October 10, 1905, 173.82 

$3,650.25 
Paid for books, 18.63 

Balance October 10, 1906, $8,631.62 

The Life Membership Fund. 

Balance October 7, 1904, $2,350.00 

Income to October 10, 1905, 117.50 

Life Membership, 50.00 

$2,517.50 
Transferred to Librarian's and General Fand, 117.50 

Balance October 10, 1905, $2,400.00 

Total of the sixteen fnnds, $155,789.71 

Balance to the credit of Income Account, . . . 912.38 

" Premium Account,.. 270.59 

October 10, 1906, total, $156,972.63 

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1905.] Report of the Treasurer. 173 

Statement of the Invsstmehtb. 

G^^^^^ Amount 

Stocks. invested. 

Fitcbburg National Bank, $600.00 

Nat. Bank of Commerce, Boston,. 8,200.00 

Old Boston National Bank, dOO.OO 

Quinsigamond Nat Bank, Wore, . 1,200.00 
Webs. A Atlas Nat. Bank, Boston, 1,800 00 

Worcester National Bank, 1,600 00 

Worcester Trust Co., 675.00 

Fitchburg R. R. Co., Stock, 5,000 00 

Northern (N. H.) R. R. Co., Stock,3,000.00 
Worcester Gas Light Co., " 900.00 

West End St Ry. Co. (Pfd.) " 1,250.00 
N. Y., N. Haven & Hart. R. R., »* 9,867.61 
Wore. Ry. & Investment Co., ** 10,000.00 

Boston Tow Boat Co., " 1,000.00 

Boston & Phila. Steamship Co.,** 2,000.00 
Atchi8iin,Top.& Santa F^ R.R.," 700.00 

Mass. Gas Light Co., Pfd ** 2,900.00 

Am. Telephone &Telegraph Co.," 3,100.00 
Old South Building Trust, . . . . " 1,000.00 

$49,592.61 $45,150.00 $59,715.00 



Par 


Market 


Value. 


Value. 


$600 00 


$900.00 


8,200 00 


4,672.00 


300 00 


812 00 


1,200 00 


1,800 00 


1,800 00 


2,192.00 


1,600.00 


8,200 00 


800.00 


675 00 


5,000 00 


6,750 00 


3,000.00 


4,900 00 


800 00 


2,250.00 


1,250 00 


2,200 00 


5,500 00 


11,270 00 


10,000.00 


8,400.00 


1,000.00 


950.00 


2,000.00 


2,000.00 


1,100.00 


1,144.00 


3,500.00 


2,600.00 


2,000.00 


2,500.00 


1,000.00 


1,000 00 



Bonds. 

Atchison, Tope. & Santa F^ R. R. Co., 

Gen. Mortgage, 4 per cent . . . . $1,540.00 $2,000.00 $2,000.00 

A d Justable, 4 per cent, 885.00 1,000 00 1,000.00 

Kan. City, Ft. Sc. & Gulf R. R., 8,300.00 3,300.00 3,597.00 

Chicago A East. III. R. R. 5 per cent., 10,000.00 10,000.00 11,400.00 

City of Quincy Water Bonds, .' . 4,000.00 4,000.00 4,040.00 

Congress Hotel Bonds, Chicago, .... 5,000.00 5,000.00 5,000.00 

Low.,Law.<fe Hav. St. Ry. Co., 5 per ct. 8,620.00 9,000.00 9,118.00 

Wore. & Marl. St. Ry. Co., 5 per cent. 3,000.00 8,000.00 8,000.00 

Wilkes Barre & East.R.R.Co.,5 per ct. 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,130.00 

Eilicott Square Co., Buffalo, 5 per ct 5,000.00 5,0^0.00 5,250.00 

Wore. & Web. St Ry. Co., 5 per cent 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,100.00 

American Tel. & Tel. Co., 4 per cent. 7,000.00 7,000.00 6,600.00 

Crompton* Knowles Loom Works,. 4,000.00 4,000.00 4,v00.00 

Union Pacific R. R. Co., 4 per cent. . 6,000.00 6,000.00 6,000.00 
Chicago, Cincinnati A Louisville 

R. R., 4i per ct 3,000.00 3,000.00 2,955.00 



Carried forward, $114,937.61 $111,450.00 $127,970.00 

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174 American Antiqyarian Society. [Oct., 

Brought forward, |114,987.61 |111,460.00 $126,106.00 

Hoosier Equipment Co., 6 per cent, 4,000.00 4,000.00 4,000.00 

P^re Marquette R. R. Co., 5,000.00 5,000.00 5,000.00 

Southern Indiana R. R. Co., 2,000.00 2,000.00 1,845.00 

Lake Shore, Michigan South. R.R.CO. 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 

nUnois Central R. R. Co., 2,000.00 2,000.00 2,000.00 

$120,937.61 $126,450.00 $140,950.00 
Notes secured by mort of real estate 19,800.00 19,800.00 19,800.00 
Deposited in Worcester savings banks, 88.67 88.67 88.67 

Cash in National Bank on interest,. . 7,196.85 7,196.85 7,196.85 

$156,972.68 $158,485.02 $167,979.02 
WoBCSBTKB, Mass., October 5, 1905. 

Respectfully submitted, 

NATff L PAINE, 

Treaturer, 



The undersigned, Auditors of the American Antiquarian Society^ 
hereby certify that they have examined the report of the Treasurer, 
made up to October 10, 1905, and find the same to be correct and prop- 
erly vouched; that the securities held by him are as stated, and that 
the balance of cash, as stated to be on hand, is satisfactorily 

accounted for. 

A. G. BULLOCK. 

B. T. HILL. 
October 19. 1905. 



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1905.] Report of the lAbrarian. 175 



REPORT OF THE LIBRARLAJf. 



OxTR mission as a learned Society possessed of a library 
rich in many departments, has been followed quietly but 
industriously during the past year. There has been an 
increase in the number of scholars engaged in important 
historical and antiquarian research as well as of those whose 
genealogical and biographical studies have been pursued 
primarily with a view to admission into the various patriotic 
societies of the day. Oiu* attic hall, and newspaper room 
have received partial relief by the disposal of a large mass 
of duplicate imboimd newspapers. This clearance was not 
made until they had been freely offered to other institu- 
tions. There has been but one change in the working force 
of the library.* 

By direction of the President, a liberal contribution of 
oiu* duplicate American Uterature has been made to the 
Mimicipal Library of Prankfort-on-the-Main, "An institu- 
tion which with more than 300,000 volumes ranks among 
the most important hbraries of Germany." His Honor, 
the Mayor of that city, Dr. Adickes, in his official application 
writes: "This American Section will be especially devoted 
to the philosophical, historical, judicial, political, industrial, 
commercial and sociological literature of the United States. 
Such an American Section of the Municipal Library of 
Frankfort would be extensively used by the widest circles, 
as this hbrary is open to everyone free of charge, and its 
large reading room is always available to the pubhc. " This 
National Society has acted favorably upon many like appeals. 



* Upon the death of Mr. Alexander S. Harrin. our faithful janitor rinoe 
Deeember 4, 1899, he was Bucoeeded.by Mr. Jamee E. Fenner on May S, 1906. 



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176 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The book-plate for our Qvil War literature of 1861-1865, 
suggested in my last report, has been secured. It is happy 
in design and execution. The outer frame work holds an 
inner frame of lighter construction which contains the 
following: John and Ehza Davis Fund Founded 1900. 
Beneath this inscription are the portraits of Mr. and Mrs. 
Davis, and in the panel below, the seal of the Society, to 
which has been added 1812 the date of the incorporation. 
The engraved plate authorized by the Council for general 
library use, is a model of good taste and excellent work- 
manship. Within the upper half of a Gothic frame, appear 
the portraits of ''Isaiah Thomas, President 1812-1831" 
and "Stephen Salisbury, President 1854-1884" surmounted 
by the seal of the Society. Below are shelved folio and 
octavo books, with opened specimens of early imprints and 
manuscripts. At the base of the arch is "Ex Libris Amer- 
ican Antiquarian Society — Founded 1812." 

A visitors' book has been opened with a view of securing 
information for our own use, and for the use of others when 
deemed expedient. It contains the date, name, residence 
and remarks, and is intended for discriminating use by 
those members and others whose researches are being 
pursued from time to time in our treasure-house. 

Our copy of "The Story without an end, translated from 
the German of Carov6 by S. Austin, with Preface and Key 
by A. B. Alcott": 18'', pp. 123, Boston 1836, contains the 
suggestive entry by my honored predecessor: — "Samuel 
Foster Haven 1837. The first book he learned to read through, 
himself." The reference is to his only child and namesake 
whose painstaking work on our "Ante Revolutionary List 
of Publications in the United States" is gratefully recalled. 
In the preface to the second edition of our founder's History 
of Printing, Dr. Haven pays a just tribute to his son which 
should appear as a preface to the separately printed copies 
of the pre-revolutionary list. Thus their memorial char- 
acter would be preserved and the father's desire carried 



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1905.] Report of the Librarian. 177 

out. The Edgnatures 1-45 sent by our distinguished librarian 
to such friends as John R. Bartlett, George Brinley, James 
Lenox and J. Hammond Trumbull were forwarded with 
promise of title page and preface. Dr. Trumbull's 
interleaved copy with many additions ^corrections and notes 
has answered the questions of many scholars since its 
arrival here in 1898. 

Of Harvard College theses before the Revolution we 
have — and greatly desire any others to add to this remark- 
able file :— 1720, 1722, 1723, 1725-1727, 1730-1732, 1737-1751 
1753-1756,1758-1763,1765-1773. The Essex Antiquarian 
lacks volume I, numbers 1 and 2; and The Spirit of 76, 
volume I, numbers 4, 7, 8, 10 and 12; volume II, number 3; 
volume III, niunbers 3, and 5-12; volume IV, numbers 2-7 
and 12. Oiu* file of the annals of the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company lacks 1660, (1672 is imperfect), 
1676, 1691, 1695, 1698, 1699, 1700, 1701, 1702, 1704, 1705, 
1708, 1720, 1765, (1767 is imperfect), 1788, 1791, 1795 and 
1851. Thus twenty sermons appear to be wanted, two of 
which are needed to replace imperfect ones. I append a 
bibliographical note — ^not in Sabin — ^relative to the sermon 
of 1675. It was preached by Rev. Samuel Phillips of 
Rowley but not printed. In the year 1839 the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company reprinted as one of their 
series, an artillery sermon preached in 1675 by Rev. John 
Richardson of Newbiuy. A line title thereof follows: — 

The I Necessity | of a | well Experienced Souldiery. | Or | 
A Christian Commonwealth ought to be well | Instructed 
and Experienced in the | Military Art. | Delivered in a 
Sermon, upon an | Artillery Election, | Jime the 10th, 1675.| 

I By J. Richardson of Newbury. | Psal. 144:1 

Jer. 43 .... I Boston: Reprinted by Company vote, 
1839, 1 By J. Howe, No. 39, Merchants Row. On the reverse 
of the title page is printed the following paragraph: 

"The original printed Discourse from which this is a 
reprint, was found among the papers of the late Dr. Osgood, 



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178 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

of Medford, and was presented at their last anniversary^ 
with others of more recent date, to the Ancient and Hon- 
orable Artillery Company by his son, David Osgood, M. D., 
of Boston, to whom the Company present their respects 
and thanks." Puzzled by the state of the case, I wrote 
to Capt. Albert A. Folsom — perhaps the highest 
authority — to which he repUed on November 8, 1882: 
"The Richardson sermon doesn't come in at all. Note 
on title page it was deUvered June 10, 1675. The iSrst 
Monday of June would hardly come on the 10th. Why 
the Company printed it in 1839, I can't imagine. Vote 
may have been taken at dinner time!" 
I submit the following supplementary information: — 

PhOadelphia, Pa., 

April 22d, 1905. 
Dear Mr. Barton: — 

I have received the Prooeediiura of the October meetinc 
and am glad to find by vour report (pp. 331-332), that you have acquired 
nnce I wrote my "Paul Revere's Portrait of Washington/' a copy of 
Weatherwise's Ahnanac for 1781, with the ''beautiful copperplate" 
frontispiece, although I regret that the last line is clipped from the 
"explanatory text'' as with it Revere's name may have gone. I have, 
however, had my ascription of authorship confirmed by a grand-daughter 
of the engraver, whicn I am sure your Society will be glad to know, 
as the ioUowing letter shows: — 

Boston, Jan. 16th, 1904. 
Dear Sir:— 

Please excuse my carelessness in not acknowled^png 
your kindness in sending me the photograph of Paul Revere's Washing- 
ton, for which I thank you. I have no question that it is his, as, when 
I was a child my father always carried one of the heads in his watch, 
which had a double case. Of course, I cannot be positive, but both my 
sisters and I remember his disappointment, sixty years ago, at losing it, 
when the watch was returned from being repaired without the engravmc, 
which we had frequently opened the outer case of the watch to look 
at. The wreath surrounding the head was all cut off, to fit the inside 
of the cover. Yours sincerely, 

Maria A. Revkrb. 
You are at perfect liberty to print this in your Proceedings as a supple- 
ment to what you say on the subject. I am, 

Faithfully, 

Chas. Hknrt Hart. 

The sources of gifts for the year ending October 15, 
number four hundred and eight, namely: from forty-eigjit 
members, one hundred and forty-three persons not mem- 
bers, and two hundred and seventeen societies and insti- 



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1905.] Report of the Librarian. 179 

tutions. We have received from them thirty-four himdred 
and seventy-nine books; eleven thousand seven hundred 
and thirty-two pamphlets ; seventeen bound and one himdred 
and fifteen volumes of imbound newspapers, two himdred 
and ten maps; one hundred and sixty-one portraits; eighty- 
six engravings; one framed and twenty-six imframed 
photographs; three proclamations; three manuscript vol- 
imies; two book-plates and a collection of articles for the 
Cabmet; by exchange, eighteen books and ninety-four 
pamphlets; and from the bindery twenty-six volumes of 
magazines; — a total of thirty-five himdred and twenty- 
three books, eleven thousand eight hundred and twenty-six 
pamphlets, seventeen bound and one hundred and fifteen 
volumes of unbound newspapers, etc. 

The generous gift of our associate Mr. Andrew McFarland 
Davis was mentioned in the last report of the Council. 
It includes about three hundred and fifty copies each of 
his "Confiscation of John Chandler's Estate;" and "Tracts 
relating to the Currency of the Massachusetts Bay 1682- 
1720" which was carefully edited by him. The receipts 
from the sale of these remainders will be credited to the 
John and Eliza Davis fund. 

With the usual gift from Hon. Edward L. Davis, we 
received the following suggestive letter from Hon. George 
Bancroft, written less than a year before his death at the 
ripe age of four score and ten: 

*1623 H street, Washington D. C. 25 Feb., 1889. 
£. L. Davis, Esq., 
My dear Mr. Davis: — 

I am most sensibly mteful to you for the gift of an excel- 
lent photograph of the house in which I was oom. My memory is fresh 
as to the house, the rooms within, the garden with its few but excellent 
peach trees, and my old age is gladdened by the care that friends in 
Worcester now keep up a faithful friendship for their forerunner who 
was bom in the last century and is perhaps now the oldest of those 
who first opened their eyes to the light in the village now one of the 
largest of our cities. Ever most truly and gratefully yours, 

Geo. Bancroft. 

On August 11, 1886, President George F. Hoar deposited 
copies of letters from Attorney-General Levi Lincoln, Sr., 



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180 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

to Preadent Thomas Jefferson, and on the 19th of the same 
month directed the librarian to endorse thereon, "To be 
the property of the American Antiquarian Society unless 
recalled during the life-time of Mr. Hoar." These letters, 
which are numerous, cover the period from 1801 to 1809 
inclusive. See also in the librarian's report of October, 
1902, Mr. Hoar's letter of Jime 30, 1902 by which he presents 
his valuable Phillipine collection, retaining only a life 
interest therein. 

Hon. Rockwood Hoar has presented a copy of his father's 
"Autobiography of Seventy Years," to which has been 
appended type-written Errata and in which the corrections 
have been made with the pen. 

Two early accoimt books received from Rev. Henry F. 
Jenks are supposed to have belonged to the Himtoon family 
of Canton, Massachusetts. 

The gift of Dr. George L. Kittredge of his "The Old 
Farmer and his Almanack" contains a full length reproduc- 
tion of our portrait of Robert B. Thomas which now 
presides over the lobby containing our almanacs, registers 
and year books. 

Dr. Joseph F. Loubat has added three Central American 
codices to those already received from him. 

None of the rarities offered by Prof. Thomas in the 
following letter had been collected by the Mathers or by 
our founder. They were gratefully accepted. 

Haverforo, Pa., 

May 1, 1905. 
My dear Mr. Barton: — 

A year or so ago I promised to send the Librarian 
of the American Antiouarian Society a collection of the works of Henzy 
More, the Cambridge rlatonist. It has so happened that owing to the 
fact of their being packed awav I have only come across them in the last 
few days. I subjoin a list of books which I shall be glad to give the 
Society if they wish them. I hardly need sa^ that some of them are 
scarce. I secured them when I was engaged in study on the Mystics. 
I also offer another folio which is mteresting on account of the edition. 

Very sincerely, 

Allbn C. Thomas. 



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1905.] Repcrrt of the Libranan. 181 

Works by Henry More, the Platonist. 

Psychosoia, a poem, Cambridge, 1647 — Bm.4to. 
On the Immortality of the Som, 12mo., London, 1669. 
M^tery of Iniquity, fol. London, 1664. 
Divine Dialogues, 12mo., London, 1668. 
Tetractys Anti-Astrologica, 4to., London, 1681. 
Theological Works, fol., London, 1708. 
Philosophical Works, fol., London, 1712. 4th edition. 
Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum, fol. vellum, Argentorati (Straas- 
buig) 1702. 

Mr. Henry P. Upham has remembered the Society by 
sendmg it the seven volume edition of the Journal of 
the Lewis and Clark expedition, edited by our associate 
Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites. 

Mrs. Warren F. Draper has contributed a mass of litera- 
ture, chiefly educational; and the product of her late hus- 
band's press at Andover, Massachusetts. 

A list of the articles bequeathed to the Society by the 
late Mr. Charles E. French of Boston will be foimd appended 
to this report. The letters which relate thereto bear dates 
26 June and 12 July, 1905. The executors report that 
"A cash bequest will be attended to later." 

A set of The Harvard Graduoies^ Magazine has been 
received from Dr. Warren R. Oilman who will continue to 
add the same to our rare collection of College literature. 

The closing of the printing office of Charles Hamilton — 
our printer since 1869 — ^has brought to us from the estate 
an accumulation of their imprints of many years. After 
adding much valuable historical material to our own shelves^ 
we have acted as distributing agent of the remainder. 

Mrs. Samuel Foster Haven as executrix of the estate of 
Dr. Haven has transferred to the Haven Alcove the two 
hundred volumes which constituted the remainder of his 
valuable library. She has not only waived a life interest 
therein but has also made a contribution of early American 
imprints from her own library. 

Mrs. William W. Johnson's gift of bound volumes of 
Vermont, Massachusetts and New York newspapers has 
strengthened our files of the early nineteenth Century. 



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182 American Antiqiuirian Society. [Oct., 

Mr. Franklin P. Rice, Editor, has provided us with a 
much needed extra set of his rare "Worcester Births, 
Marriages and Deaths;" and "Worcester Town Records, 
1801-1848." 

The mass of material sent to us by the widow of Mr. 
Caleb A. Wall, has filled many gaps in our departments of 
slavery, rebellion, local history, broadsides, etc. Mr. Wall's 
manuscripts and newspaper clippings, which relate chiefly 
to Worcester and Worcester Coimty, were transferred, with 
the approval of the library committee to the Worcester 
Society of Antiquity. One of the minor, undated broad- 
sides gives the following information: 

EXCHANGE HOTEL. 

HILLSBORO' STREET, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 



REGULATIONS. 



Guests should register their names before being assigned 
to rooms. 

Full Board will be charged until the room is vacated 
and settlement made. 

Persons having no baggage must pay in advance. 

Guests inviting others to eat with them should report 
them at the office. 

Full Board charged for children occupying seats at the 
first table. 

For all Meals sent to Rooms, or out of time, fifty per 
cent extra will be charged. 

Regular Boarders are required to pay in advance. 

The Proprietor will not be responsible for Money, Valuables 
or Baggage, unless specially deposited for safe keeping. 

Guests will please report at the office, any neglect or 
inattention of servants. 



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1905.] Report of the Librarian. 183 



RATES OF BOARD. 



Per Day, either in Bacon . 
" ^" " Lard . 
" " Butter, 
" " Flour, 
" " Currency, 
Single Meal or Lodging, . 



10 lbs. 
10 " 
6 •' 
30 " 
$40 
$10 



BCEAL HOURS. 

Breakfa43t 8^ Dinner 1 Tea 7 

W. H. CUNINGGIM, 

ProTprieiCT. 



.Clerk. 



Mrs. George M. Woodward, by a large gift of American 
magazines, has helped to complete many sets. 

The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions has presented the original passport given by the Sultan 
of Tm-key to the Rev. Rufus Anderson, an honored, early 
missionary of the Board. One of Worcester's leading 
Armenians has kindly translated this interesting manuscript 
broadside : 

Mb. Anderson, eminent in learning and a nobleman of America, 
in company with an indigenous servant and interpreter, has made appli- 
cation to US through the United States embassy, for a written pecmit, 
to enable him to travel by land and sea towards Bc^root, holy Jerusalem, 
holv Damascus and Cairo of Egypt. 

During his travels to and from these places, all the der^, students 
and governors, members of councils and all others in authority in those 
states, must honor and protect the said nobleman, that he may return 
safe and thus our royal command be carried out. 

The servant who accompanies him is not one of those who takes 
an assumed name nor he dress in European attire, but is, nevertheless, a 
true American. 

During their sojourn in Constantinople or in their travels in the 
above mentioned places, whenever they may tarry and on their return 
and whenever requested and in accordance with my Royal commands, 
their necessities should be obtained and delivered to them and payment 
be demanded for them. Never to annoy or discomfort them but give 
them due respect and protection. 

Dated 1260 Mohamedan era 

1844 Christian era 

Literally translated from the orignal by Michael H. Topanelian. 

Worcester, Mass., A. D. 1905. 



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184 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

We make special acknowledgment of the many biblio- 
graphical aids supplied by the Library of Congress through 
Dr. Herbert Putnam, its efficient head. 

The first twenty volumes of the '^ Michigan Pioneer and 

Historical Collections" were received from our late associate 

Hon. James V. Campbell of Detroit, upon application of 

the librarian. Volumes 21-32 have reached us with the 

following gracious letter: 

Lanbinq, Mich.. December 2, 1904. 
I have your letter ot Nov 29th. We will 
send you by expreas the volumes of the Pioneer and Historical Colleo- 
tions, which are necessanr to complete your file. We are very fflad to 
do this as a tribute to toe memory of our honored and reverea Jud^ 
Gampbdl. In the books we are about to send you will notice vol. 30 is 
lackmg. This volume has not yet been published. 

Very truly yours, 

BIAHY C. SPENCER, 

State LOmiinan. 

The Worcester County Law Library Association has 
thoughtfully furnished a framed photograph of their Vinton 
portrait of the Honorable George F. Hoar. It has been 
placed in the office with the portraits of the other Preei- 
dents of the Society. 

Two copies of the rare volume two of our ArcfuBologia 
Americana have been secured by purchase, both containing 
manuscript notes. The brief ''notes and queries" in one 
copy are by the late Judge ffiram W. Beckwith of Dans^ 
viUe, Illinois, from whose library it was obtained. The 
otlier copy is backed in gilt, Archsologia | Americana ] 2 | 
Synopsis of] Indian Tribes; and upon the fly-leaf in ink 
''Mr. Schoolcraft | St. Mary's | with Mr. Gallatin's respects." 
At Uie end of the Synopsis Mr. Gallatin has added extra pages 
419-422 in print, the first two pages containing " Supplement- 
ary Cherokee Transitions, " with notes by Mr .Gallatin and the 
Rev Mr. Worcester: the others marked "JSrroto and Correc- 
tions" are followed by a note of the Publidiing Committee. 
Not only are the Errata double in number but they do not 
wholly agree with those in the regular issue. There are 
also some erasures which are not noted even in Mr. Gallatin's 



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1905.] Report of the LOyrarian. 185 

revised Errata. All changes in the text have been made 
with ink, by the author. The present interest in Indian 
linguistics is perhaps a sufficient excuse for this brief state* 
ment, to which the spedal attention of our associates, 
Drs. Hale and Chamberlain is called. 

We have been able from time to time to throw light 
upon the evolution of the American public library. The 
social libraries, lyceums, reading clubs, village libraries, etc., 
suggest some of the early forms taken by this important 
movement. The brief official record of the ''Boarding- 
House Library" estabhshed at Worcester in the year 1817, 
is here preserved. The minor entries of the clerk and 
treasurer, which are for the years 1817-19, 1821 and 1822, 
relate to the purchase of books with the receipts therefor, 
and the pasnnent of dues. The agreement, which contains 
nineteen signatures, is apparently in the handwriting of 
Isaac Goodwin clerk — an honored member of this Society 
for twenty years and of its Coimcil from 1825 until his 
death in 1832. Following is the compact: 

"C. C. Pleas, Worcester, December term, 1817. 

The subscribers, members of the bar of the County of 
Worcester, desirous of purchasing a small number of useful 
law books for their mutual accommodation, during the 
sitting of the Coin-ts in Worcester, agree to pay into the 
hands of such person as a majority shall designate as their 
treasurer, the simi of fifty cents each at the present term, 
and twenty-five cents at each of the succeeding terms of the 
C. C. Pleas for the year next ensuing the date hereof and 
for such further time as two thirds of the members for the 
time being shall agree upon, to be appropriated for the 
purchase of the books aforesaid. 

And they hereby mutually agree each for himself with 
all the others that the books to be pm^chased as afore- 
said shall be kept in the town of Worcester at the house 
occupied by a majority of the members of this Asso- 
ciation as a hoarding house, and shall not be carried 
therefrom on any occasion unless by the permission of 
such majority. 



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186 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

And they severally agree as aforesaid, that if any 
one of the members of this Association shall voluntarily 
leave the said boarding house he shall be considered as 
having relinquished his interest in said books for the 
benefit of those who may remain, and for such others 
as may be admitted parties to this agreement in manner 
hereafter provided. 

And it is furthur mutually agreed, by the parties afore- 
said that no person other th£«i the original parties to 
this agreement shall become members of this Association 
without the consent of a majority of the members for the 
time being, and paying to their treasurer two thirds of 
the sum that shaU have then been paid by each of the 
original members. 

Worcester, Deer. 11, 1817." 

I present the following letters from our Associate Dr. 

Kingsbury : — 

Waterbubt, Conn., Oct. 11, 1904. 
Edmxtnd M. Barton, Esq., Librianan, etc., 
Dear Sir:— 

There is, or was a few yeans since, a word in common use 
in Eastern Massachusetts, to wit "Comwallis,'' in regard to the origin 
of which, as it was there used, I have been much puzzled. 
I think I first saw it in Hosea Biglow's letter where he says, 

"Didn't we have lots of fun, you'n I an' Ezry HoUis, 
Down to Waltham Plain last fall, a havin' the Comwallis?" 

*nd in the Article "Cambridge" in the " Fireside TraveQer" Lowell says, 
"The Comwallis had entered upon the estate of the old Guy Fawkes 
procession, confiscated bv the Revolution," from which I judee that the 
Comwallis' was a burlesque military performance, like what we in 
Connecticut used to call "The Invincibles," and which I think was 
sometimes called the "Antiques and Horribles," this evidently being a 
play on the title of the "Ancient and Honorable" Artillery Company 
of Boston. 

I cannot leam that the name 'Comwallis' was used in Westem Massa- 
chusetts, but lately to my great surprise, I came across it used in Eastern 
New York with apparently the same sense that it had in Eastem Massa- 
chusetts. 

In the diary of a Connecticut boy, Daniel Gamsey, of Waterbury, 
then about 21, kept while visiting, or tem|>orarily residing, at New 
City, now the shire town of Rockland County in the State of New York, 
unaer date of Nov. 6, 1781, he writes: "went through Warwick, where 
was an ox roasting for the Comwallis. A huge number of misses, 
women and children gathered around it and amons them many fashion- 
able ladies, all very earnest and much excited.'' 

I had supposed that the name Comwallis was a post-revolutionaiy 
title ffiven to this sham military performance as a slur on the military 
abiUties of the defeated general, but this use of the word in a way that 



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1905.] RepoH of the Librarian. 187 

shows it to be apparently a phrase of common usage certainly points 
to an earlier introduction, whether its use spread from New York to 
Massachusetts or vice'^^>er8a there is nothinji here to indicate, although 
this application of the word seems mora l&e a piece of Massachusetts 
humor. Comwallis's defeat at Yorktown was less than three weeks 
before the date above given in the diaiy, hardly more than time for the 
news to have reached that point and certainly not long enough for the 
word to have been applied to this use and adapted as a part of the ver- 
nacular. All this points to some earlier date and apparently to some 
specific occasion as having given rise to the application of the word in 
this sense. 

Mr. James L. Whitney of the Boston Library, to whose attention I 
called the phrase, suggests that as Comwallis luid been in the country 
five or six yn^rs the name may have been first applied on some previous 
occasion. This is plausible; but when and why? There is just a possi- 
bility that this New York State celebration was one of a number imme- 
diately following Comwallis's capture, and that there was genuine rejoic- 
ing, of which Comwallis's defeat was the occasion, and that afterward 
the celebrations, while retaining the name, lafised in dignity until they 
became a mere burlesque. Indeed, on reflection this appears to me a 
quite probable solution. But I would like either a connimation or a 
confutation. 

It has occurred to me that there might exist in your library some 
material known to you which would throw some light on the question. 
If not I leave it as a nut to be cracked by students of "words and their 
usee." TrulyyouTB, 

FREDEMCK J. KINGSBURY. 

Oct. 21, 1904. 
My Dear Mr. Barton: — 

I have another note in Gamsey's diary concerning 
his visit to Warwick, via.: "Nov. 6, Thro. Warwick, where great number 
of people gathered for public rejoicing for the taking ol Comwallis, 
and whole ox a roasting." This shows that my conjecture as to the 
use of the word in that place was correct, but leaves us in the dark as 
to how the Massachusetts use came about. 

Yours truly, 
FREDERICK J. KINGSBURY. 

Mention of the Comwallis is to be found in Senator 
Hoar's "The Life, of a Boy Sixty Years Ago." See The 
Youth's Companion of March 10, 1898. After quoting 
three verses from Lowell's famous ballad "The C!ourtin'" 
he writes: "We did not have fire-places like this in my 
father's house although they were common in the farmer's 
houses roimd about. We ought to have had the old King's 
arms. My great-grandfather, Abijah Kerce of Lincok, 
was at Concord bridge in the Lincoln Company, of which 
his son-in-law, Samuel Hoar, was lieutenant. He had 
been chosen Colonel of the regiment of the Minutemen 
the day before, but had not qualified and had not got his 



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188 American AiUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

accoutrements; and so went into battle armed with nothing 
but a cane. He crossed the bridge, and from one of two 
British soldiers who lay wounded and dying, took a 
cartridge-box and musket, which he used during the day 
and preserved for many years. I suppose it was the first 
trophy of the Revolution. A great many years afterward 
one of the neighbors borrowed the musket of my uncle to 
take to a Comwallis and it was lost and never recovered. 
I would give its weight in gold to get it back. " Five years 
later in his *' Autobiography of Seventy Years" volume I., 
page 55, Mr. Hoar writes: *'But the great day of all was 
called Comwallis, which was the anniversary of the capture 
of Comwallis at Yorktown. There were organized com- 
panies in imiform representing the British army and an 
equally large nimiber of volunteers generally in old fashioned 
dress, and with such muskets and other accoutrements as 
they could pick up, who represented the American Army. 
There was a parade and a sham fight which ended as all 
such fights, whether sham or real, should end, in a victory 
for the Americans, and Comwallis and his troops were 
paraded, captive and ignominious. I quite agree with 
Hosea Biglow when he says, 'There is fun to a Comwallis 
though; I a'int agoin* to deny it.' " 

Perhaps the latest contribution is from our \nice-President 
Hon. Samuel A. Green, in his Historical Address delivered 
at Groton, Massachusetts, July 12, 1905 on the celebration 
of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement 
of the town. On pages 32 and 33, Dr. Green says: "Akin 
to the subject of military matters, was a custom which 
formerly prevailed in some parts of Massachusetts, and 
perhaps elsewhere, of celebrating occasionally the anniver- 
sary of the surrender of Yorktown, which falls on October 
17. Such a celebration was called a "Comwallis;" and it 
was intended to represent in a burlesque manner, the 
siege of the town, as well as the ceremony of its surrender. 
The most prominent generals on each side would be per- 



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1905.] Report of the Librarian. 189 

sonated, while the men of the two armies would wear what 
was supposed to be their peculiar uniform. I can recall 
now more than one sham fight that took place in this town 
during my boyhood. In 10 Gushing, 252, is to be found a 
decision of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts 
enjoining a town treasurer from paying money that had 
been appropriated for such a celebration. 

''James Russell Lowell, in his Glossary to the Biglow 
Papers, thus defines the word, Comwallis: 'a sort of muster 
in masquerade; supposed to have had its origin soon after 
the Revolution, and to commemorate the surrender of 
Lord Comwallis. It took the place of the old Guy Fawkes' 
procession.' Speaking in the character of Hosea Biglow, 
he asks, 

"Recount what fun we had, you'n I n' Elzry HoUis, 
Up there to Waltham plain last fall, along o' the OomwaDisr' 

"He further says in a note: 4 hait the sight of a feller 
with a musket as I du pizn but ther is fun to a comwallis 
I aint agoin' to deny it. ' 

''The last Comwallis in this immediate neighborhood 
came off about sixty years ago at Pepperell; and I remember 
witnessing it. Another Comwallis on a large scale occurred 
at Clinton in the year 1853 in which uniformed companies 
of militia took part. On this occasion the burlesque display, 
both in nimibers and details, far outshone all former attempts 
of a similar character, and like the song of the swan, ended 
a custom that had come down from a previous century. 
At the present day nothing is left of this quaint celebration 
but a faded memory and an imcertain tradition.* " 

Respectfully submitted, 

EDMUND M. BARTON, 



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190 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 



GIVERS AND GIFTS. 



FROM MEMBERS. 

Baldwin, Simeon E., LL.D., New ELaven, Conn., — His "The American 

Judiciary." 
Barton, Edmund M., Worcester. — Two magazines, in continuation. 
Baxter, Hon. J. Phinnet, Portland, Me. — His Addreas before the 

American Institute of Instruction, July 10, 1905. 
Bourne, Edward Q., Ph.D., New ELaven, Conn. — ^Three of his own 

publications. 
Butler, James D., LL.D., Madi8on,Wi8. — ^Three of his own publications. 
Chase, Charles A., Worcester. — Four books; and sixteen pamphlets. 
CoRET, Delorainb P., Msldsn. — "In Memory of Elisha Slade Converse.'' 
Davu, Andrew McF., Cambridge. — Seven hundred and seventy books; 

and one hundred and eighty-seven pamphlets. 
Davu, Hon. Edward L., Worcester. — Seventeen books; ninety-seven 

pamphlets; and a manuscript letter. 
Dexter, Franklin B., Litt.D., New Haven, Conn;— His "Abraham 

Bishop'of Connecticut and his Writings"; and Kirkland and Kennedy's 

Historic Camden. 
Foster, William E., litt.D., Providence, R. I.— Tributes to Hon- 

Horatio Rogers. 
Francis, Georoe E., M.D., Worcester. — ^Three early American imprints. 
Oilman, Daniel C, LL.D., Baltimore, Md.— Two of his own publi- 
cations. 
Green, Hon. Samuel A., Boston. — Five of his own publications; 

thirty»two books; sixty-eight pamphlets; three proclamations; and 

"The American Journal of Numismatics," in continuation. 
Green, Samuel S., Librarian, Worcester. — His report of 1903-1004 as 

Librarian of the Worcester Free Public Library. 
Hale, Rev. Edward E., D.D., Roxbury.— "The Monthly Weather 

Review;" and United States Weather Bureau maps, in continuation. 
Harden, William, Savannah, Ga. — His Historical Sketch of the South 
Presbyterian Church of Savannah, Georgia; and Edward J. Harden's 

"Notes of a Short Northern Tour." 
Hoar, Hon. George F., Worcester. — ^Ten books; and one hundred 

and fifty pamphlets. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 191 

Hoar, Hon. Rogkwood, Worcester. — Geoige Frisbie Hoar's "Auto- 
biography of seventy years;" "Hymns of the Spirit/' and a photo- 
graph. 

HuNTiNOTOK, Rev. WiLUAM R., D.D., New York.— His "A Day's 
Journey away from Christ." 

Jenkb, Rev. HsNRT F., Canton— Two account books of early date. 

Kingsbury, Hon. Frederick J., Waterbuiy, Conn. — ''Genealogy 

of the Descendants of Henry Kingsbury." 
KiTTREDOB, George L., LL.D., Cambridge — His "The Old Fanner 

and his Almanack/' and two heliotypes. 

Leon, Nicolas Ph.D., Mexico, Mex. — ^Two of his own' publications. 
LouBAT, Joseph F., LL.D., Paris, France. — ^Three volumes of Central 

American codices; and five pamphlets. 
Matthews, Albert, Boston. — His "Term Lynch Law;" and his "Joyce 

Junior." 
Mead, Edwin D., Boston. — His "Suggestions to put the Mayflower on 

the Massachusetts state seal;" and four pamphlets. 

MooRE, Clarence B., LL.D., Philadelphia, Pa. — His "Urn-burial in 
the United States." 

Nichols, Charles L., M. D., Worcester. — ^Thirteen selected books. 

Noble, John LL.D., Editor, Boston. — "Records of the Court of Assi^ 
tants of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay 1630-1602 Vol. 2. 

Paine, Nathaniel Worcester. — Four of his own publications; three 
books; one hundred and thirty-nine pamphlets; seventeen photo- 
graphs; eight portraits; eight engravings; and three early bankbills. 

Paltoits, Victor H., New York. — ^Two of his own publications. 

Peet, Stephen D., Ph.D., Ediior, Chicago, IlL»His ««American Anti- 
quarian and Oriental Journal," as issued. 

RrssELL, £. Harlow, Worcester. — His "George Frisbie Hoar, 
1826-1904." 

Sausburt, Hon. Stephen, Worcester. — ^Eight books; four hundred and 
forty-six pamphlets; and six files of newspapers, in continuation. 

Stebbens, Rev. Calvin, Framingham. — His Tribute to George Frisbie 
Hoar. 

Thomas, Allen C, Haverford, Pa. — Seven of the works of Henry 
More published 1647-1712; and "Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum," 
1702 

Upham, Henrt p., St. Paul Minn. — ^The "Original Journals of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition" in seven volumes; and six historical 
pamphlets. 

Utlet, Hon. Samuel, Worcester. — Six historical pamphlets. 

ViNOCRADOFF, Pavel G., Oxford, Eng. — His "The Growth of the Manor." 



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192 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Wauler^ Hon. JoBXPH B., Concord, N. H. — His "New Hampdiire fi^w 
Provincial Congreases, July 21, 1774-Januai7 5, 1776." 

FROM PERSONS NOT MEMBERS. 

Albrbe, John, Swampsoott. — ^Two of his own publications. 

Ames, John G., Compiler^ Washington, D. C. — "The Comprehensive 

Index to Govenunent Publications 1881-1893," in two volumes. 
Anagnos, Michael, Boston. — ^Two of his addresses. 
Ater, Miss. Mart F., Boston. — Her "South Meeting House Bostoo 

(1669-1729.") 
Babine, Alexis V., Washington, D. C. — "The Yudin Libraiy 

Krasnoiarsk." 
Baker, ^^nrt M., Concord N. H. — His "New Hampshire in the struggle 

for Independence." 
Barrt, Phillips, Brookline. — His "Traditional Ballads in New England/' 
Barton, F. MacDonald, West Newton.— "The Albemarle," as issued. 
Beale, Charles C, Boston. — His "Marcus T. C. Gould Stenographer," 

three phonographic pamphlets; and one book-plate. 
Beer, Wiluam, New Orleans, La. — ^Two pamphlets. 
Beveridoe, Hon. Albert J., Indianapolis, Ind. — His ^'Tribute to the 

American Woman Frances E. Willard." 
Bishop, Henrt F., New York,— Two pamphlets. 
Blagkiston's Sons, and Company, Philadelphia, Pa. — "The Medical 

Book News," as issued. 
Blake, Mis. Joseph, Andover. — Forty-two selected books. 
Blodget, Hon. Walter H., Mayor, Worcester. — ^His second Inaugural 

Address, 1905. 
Boston Book Company. — "The Bulletin of Bibliography," as issued. 
Brigham, Clarence S., Providence, R. I. — ^His Report on the Archives 

of Rhode Island. 
Bryant, H. Winslow, Portland, Me. — "Historical Sketch and Roster 

of the Aroostook War, 1839." 
BuLLARD, Rev. Henry, D.D., St. Joseph. Mo.— His "Proof that the Bible 

is the Woid of God." 
BuLLARD, Rev. Henry N., Ph.D., EdUor, Mound City, Mo.— "The 

Invitation" as issued. 
Bullock, Mrs. Mary Chandler, Worcester. — "Peter Chandler, a 

biographical sketch and his Diary." 
Canadian Year Book Company, Toronto, P. Q. — ^The Canadian Year 

Book for 1905. 
Chadwick, Jambb Read, M.D., Boston.— His "Brief Sketch of the life 

of James Read"; and his "Cremation of the Dead." 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 193 

Chandler, Hon. William E., Concord, N. H. — Bib "The New Histoiy 

of Concord N. H. and its Historians." 
Clark, John C. L., Lancaster. — Photograph of the Memorial to John 

Presoott at Lancaster, erected by Mrs. Roger Wolcott, 1903. 
Clarke, Mrs. Henrt, Worcester. — Fifteen books ; and four bound volumes 

of "The Youth's Companion." 
Cogswell, Miss Mart L. T., Worcester. — ^Two of her own publications; 

one scrap-book; ninety-two pamphlets; three broadsides; two portraits; 

with manuscript notes and newspapers relating to the political Cam- 
paigns of 1876-78. 
Collamer, Newton L., Washington, D. C. — Numbers of "The Histor- 
ical Bulletin." 
CoxmiNB, Rev. Edgar M., Secretary , Thomaston, Me. — Minutes of the 

Maine General Conference, 1904. 
Cratib, Wilber F., EdUor, Washington, D. C— Numbers of "The 

Twentieth Century Quarteriy." 
Cromack, Irwin C, Boston. — "List of maps of Boston published 

subsequent to 1600." 
Cunninghau, Henrt W., Editor , Boston. — "Journal of Lieut.-CoL 

Joseph Vose, April-July, 1776." 
Cutler, U. Waldo, Editor, Worcester. — Selections from the writings of 

Benjamin Franklin. 
CtriTER, William R., Wobum. — "Captain Edward Johnson of Wobum 

Mass. and some of his Descendants." 
Davieb, Rev. Thoiiab F., Jr., EdUor, Worcester.— "The Parish," as 

issued. 
Davis, Capt. George E., Burlington, Vt. — "In Memoriam, Emma 

Augusta Davis." 
Davib, Walter A., City Clerk, Fitchburg.— City Documents, 1904. 
Davis, Miss Zaidee S., New York.-~"Notices of Prof. Edwin H. Davis 

Archaeologist." 
De Rennb, Wtmberlet J., Savannah, Qa. — Catalogue of books in his 

library relating to the history of Georgia . 
Dickinson, G. Stuart, Worcester. — Scott's Standard Postage Stamp 

Catalogue, 1905. 
DicKXNBON, Thomas A., Worcester. — ^His book-plate. 
Draper^ Mrs. Warren F., Andover. — Five books; seven himdred and 

sixty«-six pamphlets; seven portraits; four photographs; three maps; 

and parcels of newspapers. 
Dtj BoBE, Joel C, Editor, Birmingham, Ala. — Numbers of "Tlie 

Gulf States Historical Ma^uine." 
Ebtabrook, Mis. D. Frances, Boston. — Five Worcester programmes, 

1855-1861. 



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194 American Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

EsTABROOK, Mrs. D. Franklin, Worcester. — "The New England 
Chronicle or the Essex Gazette/' of February 8, 1776. 

EsTBB, Rev, David F., Hamilton, N. Y. — ^Two early American 
imprints. 

Field, Edward, Commiaaioner, Providence, R. I. — "The Early Reoords 
of Providence," Volume 18. 

Forbes, Miss Katharine M., Worcester. — Her book-plate. 

Ford, Worthinoton C, Washington, D. G. — ^Two of his own publica- 
tions. 

Fox, Irving P., Business Manager^ Boston. — "The Church Militant/' 
as issued. 

French, Charles E., — Bequest of Two Marble Roman bas-reliefs, 
fractured; a manuscript calendar of vellum, rolled on wooden handle; 
a collection of copper coins, including about one thousand copper cents 
and half cents; a package of fractional currency and rare coins; a 
piece of Plymouth Rock; a beam from the old Hancock House, 
Boston; a package of scraps from the Bfiles Standish house in Dux- 
bury; and an ancient Egyptian vase. 

Frowde, Henry, London, Eng. — ^"The Periodical," as issued. 

Ganong, William F., Ph.D., Editor, Northampton. — Smethurst's "A 
Narrative of an Extraordinary Escape out of the Hands of the Indians 
in the Gulph of St. Lawrence." 

GiLMAN, Warren R., M.D., Worcester. — Two books; and one hundred 
and fifty pamphlets. 

Gocher, William H., Hartford, Conn. — ^His "Wadsworth and the 
Charter Oak." 

Golden Rule Publibhino Company, Boston. — "The Christian En- 
deavor World," as issued. 

Goldie, Mrs. George E., Ayr, Ontario. — "The Association Record/' 
in continuation. 

Green, James, Worcester. — Six books; one hundred and eighty 
pamphlets; and "The Banker and Tradesman/' in continuation. 

Green, Mrs. James, Worcester. — Forty-one pamphlets; and "The 
Spectator," in continuation. 

Greene, Mrs. Richard W. Worcester. — ^Tribute to Hon. John D. 
Washburn, by Rev. William R. Huntington, D.D. 

Hamilton, Charles, Estate of, Worcester. — One hundred and tl^irteen 
books; forty-four hundred pamphlets; and one hundred and twenty- 
five portraits. 

Hamilton, P. Walter, Worcester. — Fifty-three books; and fifty-nine 
pamphlets. 

Harriman, Frederick W., D.D., Secretary, Windsor, Conn. — ^Diocese 
of Connecticut Convention Journal, 1905. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 195 

Hart, Charles H., Philadelphift, Pa. — His "Some Notes Concerning 

John Nonnan Engraver." 
Haven, Mrs. Samuel F., Executrix^ Worcester.— Two hundred selected 

volumes. 
Hewett, Georoe F., Worcester. — ^Three views of early Worcester. 
Hitchcock, Edward, LL.D., Amherst. — ^Two pamphlets. 
HoLBROOK, Levi, New York. — ^Two pamphlets relating to the American 

Revolution. 
HoppiN, Mrs. Georoe S., Worcester. — Forty-four selected books. 
HouoHTON, Mifflin & Company, Cambridge. — Fiske's "New France 

and New England;" and "The Riverside Bulletin," as issued. 
Howland, Miss Frances E., Worcester. — ^Three engravings 
Huhner, Leon, New York. — ^Two of his own publications. 
Johnson, Mrs. William W., Worcester. — Six bound volumes of Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts and New Yoric newspapers 1813-1841. 
Johnston, Richard H., Washington, D.C. — Babine's "The Yudin 

Library." 
Jones, Rev. Henrt L., D.D., Wilkes-Barre, Pa.— His "Looking Back 

Thirty Years." 
Kelly, Miller, Washington, D.C. — His "As to the Leopard's Spots, 

an open letter to Thomas Dixon Jr." 
Lane, Wiluam C, Cambridge. — His Seventh Report as Librarian 

of Harvard University. 
Lewis, Homer P., Superintendent Worcester. — ^Report of the Public 

Schools of the city of Worcester, 1904. 
Lincoln, Mrs. Winslow S., Worcester. — ^Eighteen books; eleven hun- 
dred and forty-four pamphlets; and parcels of newspapers. 
Logan, Walter S., New York. — His "The Lawyer as an Artist." 
Longman, Green & Company, New York. — "Notes on Books," as 

issued. 
Luey, William D., Worcester. — One pamphlet. ' 

MacMillan Company, New York. — "The Monthly List." 
Melcher, Mrs. Ellen Stevens and Mr. C. Ellis Stevens, Author, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. — "The Stevens Genealogy; Some Descendants of 

Fitz Stephen Family." 

litESSENOER Printing and Publishing Company, Worcester. — 'The 

Messenger," as issued. 
Mitchell, J. Alfred, CUy Auditor, Boston. — His Report, 1904-1905. 
MooRE, Mrs. B. Neely, Columbia, S. C. — Her paper on "The Mechlen- 

beig Declaration of Independence, 1775." 
MuNSON Steamship Company, New York. — "The Cuba Bulletin," as 

issued. 



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196 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

MxTRRAT, Thomas H., Boston. — Hib ''Booklet of Information regarding 

the American Irish Historical Society." 
New York Evknino Pobt Printing Compant, — 'The Nation/' as 

issued. 
North, Samuel N. D., Washington, D. C. — His History of the News- 
paper and Periodical Press in the United States, 1884. 
NuTT, Charleb, Worcester. — ^Two pamphlets; and nimibers of the 

"Massachusetts Spy." 
Ojeda, Luis Thater, Santiago de CMe. — His "Catalogue biografioo 

de la casa de Thayer de Braintree." 
Parker, MoasB G., Lowell. — His "In Memoriam Citizen Soldiers of 

Dracut Mass. who served in the war of the American Revolution, 

1776-1783." 
Parmlt, Randolph, New York. — 'The Pannly Family, its origin and 

its Name"; and "In memoriam Wheelock Hendee Pbrmly." 
Penafiel, Antonio, Director, Mexico, Mex. — Two statistical docu* 

ments relating to the Republic of Mexico. 
Porter, V. M., Secretary, St. Louis, Mo. — "Official Report of the 

Universal Congress of Lawyers and Jurists, St. Louis September, 2^ 

30, 1904." 
Pratt, Mrs. Julia A., Prattville, Ala. — "Hon. Daniel Pratt: a Bio- 
graphy." 
Putnam, Rev. John J., Worcester. — His ^'Emphatic Scripture the 

Essence of Revelation." 
Reed, Georoe B., Boston. — ^His **Sketch of the Life of Hon. John Reed 

of Boston, 1722-1749." 
Review of Reviews Book Company, Harrisbuig, Pa. — Numbers of 

"The Country Calendar." 
Retnolds, Mrs. Henrt A., Worcester. — Seventy pamphlets; and "The 

Simday School Times," in continuation. 
Rice, Franklin P., Editor, Worcester. — Worcester Town Records, 

1801-1848; and Worcester Births 1714-1848 Marriages 1747-1848; 

and Deaths 1820-1848. 
Ripley, Miss Hannah, Norwich, Conn. — ^Norwich and Worcester 

Raihxmd Badge of November 18, 1835. 
RoBiNBON, Mrs. Charles, Lawrence, Kansas. — Ptek's Semi-Centen- 

nial of Lawrence Kansas. 
Roe, Hon. Alfred S., Worcester. — One book and one hundred and 

aizty-eight pamphlets. 
RoTTTLEDGB, AND SoNB, GsoRGE, London, Ei^. — ^Numborsof "The Book 

Budget." 
Sabine, John D., Washington, D. C. — ^His "The Funily and Desoendanti 

of Rev. John Sabine." 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 197 

Sanford, Geobgb L., Worcester. — One pamphlet. 

Saxe, James A., Worcester. — ^Two historical pamphlets. 

ScHUTusR, Phiup, New York. — Bayard Tuckennan's "Life of Qeneral 

Philip Schuyler, 1733-1804." 
Sentinel Phinting Company, Fitchbuig. — "The Fitchbuig Weekly 

Sentinel," as issued. 
Shaw, Jobeph A., Worcester. — ^Three books; and nineteen pamphlets. 
Slafter, Rev. Edmttnd F., D.D., Boston. — ^His "The Character and 

History of the Book of Sports, 1618-1643." 
Smith, Jonathan, Clinton. — His "Some Features of Shays* Rebellion." 
SpraiT op 76 Publishing Company, New York. — "The Spirit of 76," 

as issued. 
Spooner, Mrs. Jennie C, Barre. — "The Barre Gazette," as issued. 
Stewardson, Rev. Langdon, C, Ph.D., Geneva, N. Y. — His Report of 

1904 as President of Hobart College. 
Stoddard, Mrs. Elijah B., Worcester. — ^Thirty-two selected books. 
Straus, Oscar S., New York.— His "The United States and Russia: 

their historical Relations." 
Swan, Robert T., CommiMioner, Boston. — His Seventeenth Report 

on the custody and condition of Public Records. 
Tappan, Miss Eva M., Ph.D., Worcester.— "English Ancestry of the 

Toppan or Tappan Family; and Genealogy of the March Family." 
Taft, Miss Anna J., Worcester.— A complete file of "The Weekly 

Calendar,"of St. John's Church Worcester. 
Taft, Mrs. Calvin, Worcester. — ^Two pamphlets. 
Taylor, John P., Andover. — ^His "In Memoriam Warren F. Draper." 
Telegram Newspaper Company. — "The Worcester Daily Telegram" 

and "The Sunday Telegram," in continuation. 
Thomas, Cyrxts, Ph.D., Washington, D. C. — Four of his own publioar 

tions. 
Thompson, Eben F., EdUor, Worcester. — "The Character of Washing- 
ton, last public utterance of George F. Hoar, with other speeches." 
TooKER, Mr. William W., Sag Harbor, N. Y.— His "Some Powhatan 

Names." 
Tucker, Miss Arabella H., Compiler, Worcester. — Record of the Grad- 
uates of the State Normal School at Worcester, Massachusetts, 1904. 
Turner, John H., Ayer. — "The Groton Landmark," as issued. 
Van Horn, Rev. J. Francis, D.D., EdUor, Worcester.— "The Old South 

Record," as issued. 
Wall, Mrs. Caleb A., Worcester. — Fourteen hundred and ten books; 

forty-eight hundred and six pamphlets; twelve volumes of bound and 

parcels of unbound newspapers. 



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198 Ameri4Xin Antiquarian Society, [Oct., 

Ward, George O., M.D., Worcester— Hap of Worcester County, 1857. 
Wells, Charles T., Hartford, Conn.— "Year Book of the First Church 

of Christ in Hartfoid, 1904." 
Wesbt, Joseph S., and Sons, Worcester. — ^Eight books; seven hunp* 

dred and seventy pamphlets; sixteen portraits; seventy-five heiiotypes; 

and two maps. 
Whitgomb, Miss Mart G., Worcester. — ^Twelve pamphlets. 
White, Mrs. Caroline E., Editor, Philadelphia, Pa. — "The Journal of 

ZoOphily," as issued. 
White, Rev. Euot, Secretary, Worcester. — Journal of the Fourth 

Annual Meeting of the Diocese of Western Massachusetts. 
Williams, Walter, EdUor, St. Louis, Mo. — "The State of Missouri; 

an Autobiography." 
Wire, George E., M. D., Worcester. — Five books; and ninety-eight 

pamphlets. 
Woodward, Mrs. George M., Worcester. — One hundred and seventy-> 

one numbers of American magazines. 
Worcester Gazette Company. — "The Worcester Evening Gazette," 

as issued. 
Wtman and Gordon, Worcester. — ^Their "Biographical Sketches/' 

as issued. 

FROM societies AND INSTITUTIONS. 

Abbot Acadebtt, Andover. — Nimibers of "The Abbot Courant." 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. — Publications of the 

Academy, as issued. 
Academy of Science of St. Louis. — Publications of the Academy, as 

issued. 
Aluance Scientifique Universelle, Paris, France. — Five pamphlets. 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences. — Publications of the 

Academy, as issued. 
American Anti-Vivisection Society. — The Twenty-second Annual 

Report. 
American Baptist Missionary Union. — "The Baptist Missionaiy 

Magazine," as issued. 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. — The 

Annual Report 1904, and a manuscript broadside. 
American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. — Publica- 
tions of the Society, as issued. 
American Geographical Society. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
American Historical Association. — ^The Annual Report, 1903. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 199 

Amebican Irish Historical Socibtt. — ^PublioationB of the Society, as 

issued. 
American Library Association. — Publications of the Association, as 

issued. 
American Oriental Societt. — ^Publications of the Society, as issued. 
American Philosophical Socistt. — Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
American Seamen's Friend SoasiT. — "The Sailon llagazine," as 

issued. 
American Statistical Association. — Publications of the Association, 

as issued. 
Andover Theological Seminary. — ^The Seminary Catalogue, 1904-1905. 
Army War Colleqb Library. — ^Library publications, as issued. 
Australian Museum. — Publications of the Museum, as issued. 
Bay State Historical League. — One pamphlet. 
BiBUOGRAPHicAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA. — The Circular of infonAation 

and constitution. 
BiBLioTECA Nazionalb Centralb di Firensb. — Library publications 

as issued. 
Boston Board of Health. — Publications of the Board, as issued. 
Boston Cemetery Department. — ^The Annual Report, 1904-1905. 
Boston, City of. — ^Three volumes of City documents for 1904. 
Boston City Hospital, Trxtstbes. — The forty-flrat annual report. 
Boston Port and Seamen's Aid Society. — ^The Thirty-eighth Annual 

Report. 
Boston Public Library. — Library publications, as issued. 
Boston Registry Department. — ^Two volumes of Boston Records. 
Boston Transit Commission. — ^The Tenth Annual Report. 
Boston University.— The Annual Reports, 1903-1904. 
BowDOiN College. — Publications of the Collie, as issued. 
Brockton Public Library. — Library publications, as issued. 
Brookline Public Library. — ^The Forty-eighth Annual Report. 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. — Publications of the 

Institute, as issued. 
Brooklyn Public Library^ — ^The Library publications, as issued. 
Brown University. — ^The University Catalogue 1904-1905. 
Buffalo Public Lij^rary. — ^The Eighth Annual Report. 
Bunker Hill Monxtment Association. — Publications of the Asso- 
ciation, as issued. 
Bureau of American Ethnology. — Publications of the Bureau, as 

issued. 



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200 Arnerican Antiqiuirian Society. [Oct., 

CaLIFOBNIA SOdSTT OF THE SONS OF THB AUEBICAN RbVOLUTION. — 

"Constitution, By Laws and Membership." 

Cambridge Antiquaiuan Societt. — ^Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
Canadian iNSTrruTB. — ^Publications of the Institute, as issued. 
Cabneoib Free Librabt, Allegheny, Pa. — ^The Fourteenth Annual 

Report. 
Carnegie Instttuteon. — ^Publications of the Institution, as issued. 
Chautauqua Institution. — ^Numben of "The Chautauqua Quarterly." 
Chicago Historical Societt. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
Children's Hospital, Boston. — ^The Thirtieth Annual Report. 
Church of the Holt Cross, Boston. — ^Memorial Volume of the on^ 

hundredth anniversaiy Celebration. 
Cincinnati Public Librart. — Library publications, as issued. 
Clark Universitt. — ^Eight of the Univeraity Publications. 
Colgate Universitt Librart. — ^Library publications, as issued. 
Colonial Societt of Massachusetts. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Colorado College. — Publications of the CoUege, as issued. 
Columbia Universitt. — ^'The Political Science Quarterly," as issued. 
Connecticut Historical Societt. — ^Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
Connecticut State Librart. — Sixteen state documents; and three 

proclamations. 
Crescent Democratic Club Librart, Baltimore, Md. — Catalogue 

of the Library. 
Davenport Academt of Sciences. — Publications of the Academy, 

as issued. 
Datton Public Librart and Mxtseum. — ^The Forty-fourth Annual 

Report. 
Dedham Historical SoasTT. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
Detroti Public Librart,. — ^The Fortieth Annual Report. 
Deutsche Historische Gesellbchaft fur den District Columbia. — 

Publications of the Society, as issued. 
Enoch Pratt Free Librart, Baltimore, Md. — ^The Nineteenth An- 
nual Report. 
Essex Institute. — ^Publications of the Institute, as issued. 
Faiemount Park Art Association. — ^The Thirty-third Annual 

Report. 
Field Columbian Mubbum. — ^Publications of the Museum, as issued. 
Fitchburo Public Librart. — ^Ubnuy publications, as issued. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 201 

Forbes Librabt, NorthamptoiL— The Ninth and Tenth Annual 
Reports. 

Gkoorafhical Socistt of Pmr.Angf.yifTA — Publications of the So- 
ciety, as issued. 

Geological Surybt of Canada. — ^Reports of the Survey, as Issued. 

Groton Public Librart.— The Fifty-first Annual Report; and an 
Historical sketch of the Library. 

Hamilton College. — Nineteen early publications of the American 
Antiquarian Society. 

Hartford Board of Trade. — ^The Seventeenth Annual Report. 

Hartford Theological Seionart. — Publications of the Seminary, 
as issued. 

Harvard Colege Class of 1803. — ^Report of the Secretary 1803-1903. 

Harvard UNivER8iTT.~Tbe Univenity Catalogue 1904-05; and the 
Quinquennial of 1905. 

Haverhill Public Library. — ^Libraiy publications, as issued. 

Helena Public Library. — Library publications, as issued. 

Historical Department of Iowa. — ^The ''Annals of Iowa," as issued. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. — Publications of the Society, 
as issued. 

HisTORiscHER Verein Der Oberffalz Und Regenbburg. — Publica- 
tions of the Society, as issued. 

Hyde Park Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as 
issued. 

Illinois State Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as 
issued. 

International Bureau of American Republics. — ^"The Monthly 
Bulletin," as issued. 

Jersey City Public Library. — ^The Fourteenth Annual Report. 

John Crerar Library, Chicago, 111. — ^The Tenth Annual Report. 

Johns Hopkins University. — Publications of the University, as 
issued. 

Lancaster Town Library. — ^The Forty-second Annual Report. 

Leicester Public Library. — ^The Annual Report, 1905. 

Leland Stanford Junior University. — Publications of the Univer- 
sity, as issued. 

Library- of Congress. — Nineteen bibliographical publications. 

Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. — Publications of the 
Society, as issued. 

Lynn Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 

Maine Historical SoasTY. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 

Maryland Historic^ Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 



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202 American Antiqmrian Society. [Oct., 

BlAflSACHUBETTB, CoMMONWXAivTH OF. — ^Fifty-five books; and twenty^ 

five pamphlets. 
Massachusetts General Hospital. — ^The Ninety-fiist Annual Report. 
Massachusetts Grand Lodge of Ancient Free and Accepted 

Masons. — Proceedings of the Grand Lodge, as issued. 
Massachusetts Historical Societt. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Massachusetts Infant Asylum. — ^The Thirty-eighth Annual Report 
Massachusetts Medical Societt. — ''Medical Communications" of 

the Society, as issued. 
Massachubbttb Metropolitan Water and Sswbraob Board. — The 

Fourth Annual Report. 
Massachusetts Single Tax League. — Publications of the League, 

as issued. 
MassACHUSETTB State Board of Health. — Publioations of the Board, 

as issued. 
Massachusetts State Normal School at Worcester.— The Gat* 

alogue and Circular, 1905. 
Massachusetts Woman's Relief Corps. — Journal of the Twenty-fifth 

Annual Convention. 
Michigan State Library. — Eight volumes of the Michigan Pioneer and 

Historical Society, collections, to complete set. 
Minnesota Historical Societt. — Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
MoHONX Lake Conference. — ^The Conference Reports, as issued. 
MxTSEO Nacional de Mexico. — Publications of the Museum, as issued. 
MxTSEUM OF Fine Arts, Boston. — Catalogue of the Exhibition of eaiiy 

engraving in America. 
National Association of State Libraries. — Proceedings and Ad- 
dresses, 1904. 
National Board of Trade. — Proceedings at the Annual Meeting, 

1905. 
National Irrigation Congress. — Proceedings of the Twelfth Congress. 
National Shorthand Reporter's Association. — Proceedings of the 

Sixth Annual Convention. 
Newark Free Public Library. — The Sixteenth Annual Report. 
Newberry Library, Chicago, HI. — ^The Report of 1904. 
New England Historic Genealogical Society. — Publications of 

the Society, as issued. 
New England Society of Cincinnati. — ^The Year Book of 1904. 
New Hampshire Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 203 

New Haven Colony Historical Sogiett. — PublicatioDB of the Sooi* 

ety, as issued. 
New Jeiusst Historical Societt. — PublicatioDs of the Society, as 

issued. 
New London County Historical Society. — Publications of the 

Society, as issued. 

New York Academy of Sciences. — Publications of the Academy, as 

issued. 
New York, City of. — One pamphlet. 
New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. — Publications 

of the Society, as issued. 
New York Historical Society. — ^Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
New York Public Library. — Libraiy publications, as issued. 
New York State Hospital for the Care of Crippled and Deformed 

Children. — ^The Fourth Annual Report. 
New York State Library. — ^Thirty-five volumes of State Documents. 
Oberlin College Library. — ^The Annual Report, 1904. 
Ohio State Archjbological and Historical Society. — PubUcations 

of the Society, as issued. 
Old South Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
Oneida Historical Society. — ''Tribute to General Charies W. 

Darling"; and Year Book No. 10. 
Oregon Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
Park College, Parkville, Mo.— "The Park Review," as issued. 
Pbabody Education Fund Trustees. — Proceedings Januazy 24, 1905. 
Peabody iNSTrruTE OF the Cnr of BAi/rmoRE. — ^The Thirty-eic^th 

Annual Report. 
Peabody Museum of American Archeology and Ethnology. — 

Publications of the Museum, as issued. 
Pennsylvania Society, New York. — ^The Year Book, 1905. 
Perkins Instttution and Massachu se tts Asylum for the Bund. — 

The Seventy-second and Seventy-third Annual Reports. 
Phillipinb Islands Ethnological Survey. — ^Two reports. 
Portland Board of Trade. — "The Board of Trade Journal," as issued. 

Portland Commercial Club, Portland, Oregon. — Literature relating 
to the Lewis and Clark Centennial and Oriental Fair. 

Pratt Institute Free Library. — ^Library publications, as issued. 

Providence Pubuc Library. — ^An early edition of Rasselas. 

Public Library of Western Australia. — Library publications, as 
issued. % 



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204 American Aviiqwirian Society, [Oct., 

Public Opinion Club, New York. — "Public Opinion/' as issued. 
QuiNABAUO Historical Sociarr. — Publications of the Society, as 

iflsued. 
Records of Past Exploration Socivit. — Numbers of the Socie^s 

publications. 
Reform Club, New York. — ''Sound Currency/' as issued. 
Repubuca Mbxicana. — Six Census Reports. 
Robinson Familt Genealogical and Historical Association. — 

"The Robinsons and their Kin-Folk/' second series, 1904. 
RoTAL Academy of Belles-lettres, History and Antiquities, 

Stockholm, Sweden. — Publications of the Academy, as issued. 
Royal Historical Society, London, Eng. — Publications of the 

Society, as issued. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. — Publications of the 

Society, as issued. 
Royal Society of Canada. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
St. Louis Mercantile Library Association. — ^The Fifty-ninth Annual 

Report. 
St. Louis Pubuc Library. — ^The Annual Report, 1903-1904. 
Salem Public Library. — Library publications, as issued. 
ScRANTON Public Library. — ^The Fourteenth Annual Report. 
Smithsonian Institution. — Publications of the Institution, as issued. 
Sociedad Geoorafica db Lima. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 
SociETii DEB Americanistes de Paris. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Socixri: D' Archeolooie de Bruxelles. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Socisri: Archeologique de Touraine. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Socisri: db Gbographie, Paris, France, — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
SociErii HisTORiQUE DE MONTREAL. — Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
Society Nationai.e des Antiquaires de France. — ^Publications of 

the Society, as issued. 
Society of Antiquaries of London. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Society of the Army of the Potomac. — Report of the Thirty-fiixth 

Annual Reunion. 
Society of Colonial Wars in the District of Columbia. — ^The 

R^ter for 1904. 
Society for the Suppressing of Vice. — ^Twelve pamphlets. 



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1905.] Givers and Gifts. 205 

SoxTTH Cabolina HiBTOBicAL SoGiBTT. — Publications of the Society, 
as issued. 

SoxTTHERN HISTORICAL SoGiETT. — PubUcatioDS of the Society^ as issued. 

Springfield drr Librart. — Libraiy publications, as issued. 

State Charities Aid Association of New York. — ^The Thirty- 
second Annual Report. 

State Historical and Natural History Societt of Colorado. — 
Publications of the Society, as issued. 

State Historical Society of Iowa. — Publications of the Society, 
as issued. 

State Historical Societt of Wisconsin. — ^Publications of the 
Society, as issued. 

Stracxtsb Public Library. — ^The Annual Report, 1904. 

United States Cobimissioner of Patents. — His Report for 1904; 
and ''the Official Gazette," as issued. 

United States Department of Commerce and Labor. — Publications 
of the Department, as issued. 

United States Department of the Interior. — ^Twenty volumes. 

United States Department of State. — ^Twelve [Department pub- 
lications. 

Unit!ed States Naval Academy. — The Annual Report, 1904-05. 

United States Superintendent of Documents. — ^Two hundred and 
eighty-two books; and two himdred and seventy-two pamphlets. 

United States Treasury Department. — ^Two pamphlets. 

United States War Department. — One volume. 

Universidad de la Plata. — Publications of the University, as issued. 

University of California. — Publications of the University, as issued. 

University of Chicago Library. — ^Two pamphlets. 

University op Illinois. — Publications of the University, as issued. 

University of Missouri. — Publications of the University, as issued. 

University of Pennsylvania. — ^Three University publications. 

University of Toronto. — Publications of the University, as issued. 

University of Vermont and State Agricultural Coixeoe. — ^The 
Catalogue, 1904-05. 

Vermont Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 

Vermont State Library. — "Rolls of the Vermont Soldiers in the 
Revolutionary War 1775-1783," 

ViNELAND Historical and Antiquarian Society. — ^Publications of 
the Society, as issued. 

Virginia Historical Society. — Publications of the Society, as issued. 

Wesleyan University. — Publications of the University, as issued. 



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206 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Wbbt Virginia Historical and Antiquarian Socibtt. — PublicationB 

of the Society, as issued. 
Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters. — Publications 

of the Academy, as issued. 
Wisconsin State Historical Societt. — Publications of the Society, 

as issued. 
Worcester Board of Heai^th. — Publications of the Board as issued. 
Worcester Board of Overseers of the Poor. — The Annual Report. 

1904. 
Worcester Board of Trade. — "The Worcester Magazine," as issued. 
Worcester CmLDREN's Friend Societt. — ^The Fifty-sixth Annual 

Report. 
Worcester, Citt of. — Five volumes of City documents to complete 

set. 
Worcester Citt Hospital. — ^The Thirty*fourth Annual Report. 
Worcester Coitntt iNSTrrunoN for Savincm. — Five files of financial 

periodicals, in continuation. 
Worcester Countt Law Librart. — The Libraiy report of 1905; a 

framed 'photograph of Vinton's portrait of Hon. Geoige F. Hoar; 

twenty-six books; two himdred and thirty-one pamphlets; three por- 
traits; two maps; "Public Opinion" for 1904; and the ''Boston Daily 

Advertiser," in continuation. 
Worcester Countt Mechanics Association. — ^Eighty-four numbers 

of Magazines; and eighteen files of newspapers, in continuation. 
Worcester Fire Societt. — Rules and Regulations of the Society, 

1893. 
Worcester Free Pubuc Librart. — Sixty-four books; four hundred 

and thirty pamphlets; two himdred and two maps; and eighty-seven 

files of newspapers, in continuation. 
Worcester Parks Cobimission. — ^The Annual Report, 1904. 
Worcester Societt of Antiqt7Itt. — ^Publications of the Society, as 

issued. 
Yalb Universftt. — Publications of the University, as issued. 
York Pubuc Librart. — ^The Twelfth General Report. 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 207 



A NOTICE OF YUCATAN WITH SOME 
REMARKS ON ITS WATER SUPPLY. 



BY DAVID CASARES. 



As I do not pretend to offer these remarks as the result of 
serious scientific research of my own, but rather as more or 
less well compiled information gathered from such sources 
as I have had within my reach, to which I will try to add 
something of my own observation, I deem it necessary to 
precede them by a short notice of the coimtry they refer to. 
The peninsula of Yucatan is the most southern country 
of North America, projecting northward from its extreme 
point and forming the eastern side of the Mexican Gulf, 
which is barred on all sides but this one, where two outlets 
are foimd, the northern one between Florida and Cuba, and 
the southern between this island and Yucatan, the extreme 
point of which at the northeast is Cape Catoche, only a 
hundred and fifty-three miles from Cape San Antonio on 
the opposite coast of Cuba. This narrow passage^ 
Humboldt presumes was made by the eruption of the sea 
into the Gulf. It is situated between 18^ and 21® 32' 
North latitude and 6° 37' and 12® 6' longitude east of Mexico. 
The situation of Yucatan gives it great advantages to com- 
municate with other countries, its extensive coasts being 
bathed on the north and west by the Mexican Gulf, and 
on the east by the Carribean Sea, while on the south it is 
boimded by Guatemala. These advantages are greatly 
dimished, however, by our want of good ports. Campeche 
on the bay of the same name has a very shallow bottom, 
and so is the case with Celestim and Puerto de la Asension. 
Sisal, our port for foreign commerce imtil 1871, and Pro- 



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208 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

gresOy our present port, besides being but a little better 
off in that respect, are without protection from storms. 

The area of the peninsula according to the most accepted 
computations is 8,363i square leagues, equal to 146,825 
square kilometers==56,739 miles. This land to which histo- 
rians have ascribed different names as those of Ulmnilkutz 
and XJlumilceh, the land of wild turkies and deer, and 
Yucalpeten (the neck of the peninsula), was most probably 
called Mayab, land of the Mayas. The Spaniards on their 
first arrival in 1517 called it Yucatan, and from that date, 
through the conquest, and through the colonial government, 
and for thirty-seven years after our independence, that 
name was applied to the whole peninsula as one com- 
mimity; but in 1858, the district of Campechc towards the 
southwest, became a state imder that name, and very lately 
in 1903 the general government declared the eastern sec- 
tion which had just been wrested from the Indian rebels 
who possessed it for over fifty years, a federal territory 
imder the name of Quintana Roo, one of the most illus- 
trious foimders of the Mexican Independence, bom in this 
state. The English colony of Belice fills the southwestern 
comer of the peninsula. 

This is now politically divided thus: the state of Yucatan 
covers an area of about 18,018 square miles and has a popu- 
lation of about 315,000 inhabitants, that dwell in seven 
cities, 14 villas, which may be called towns, 157 villages, 
and 2493 rural establishments spread over 16 partidos, 
which may be called districts; Merida, Progreso, Tixcocob, 
Motul, Hunucma, and Acanceh, first group; YzamaJ, Temax 
and Sotuta, the centre group; Maxcanu, Ticul, Tekax and 
Peto, the southwestern group; and Espita, Valladohd and 
Tizimun, the eastern. 

The state of Campechc comprises the five partidos of 
Campeche, Carmen, Hecelchakan, Champoton and Chenes, 
that contain two cities, 8 villas, 25 villages and 350 hacien- 
das, ranchos and small plantations, spread over 19 ^^ sq. miles. 



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1905.] Yiicatan Water Supply. 209 

The Quintana Roo territory was formed by sections of the 
partidos of Valladolid, Tizimim, Sotuta, Tekax and Peto, 
and it has about 8,000 inhabitants, the capital of which is 
Chan Santa Cruz, the old headquarters of the rebels for 
half a century, at the distance of 220 miles from Merida, 
with a few small seaports. 

The colony of British Hondm-as, the boundary lines of 
which were definitely settled by the Spenser-Mariscal treaty, 
has about 5,000 inhabitants dwelling in the capital Belize 
and in a few towns and rural establishments. 

The aspect of the country is that of a long extended 
plain that goes on rising gradually from the water's edge 
to the foot of a ridge called the Sierra, which begins seven 
miles from the town of Maxcimu, in the western part of the 
state, and follows a winding course to the east and the 
southeast for the distance of ninety miles, and after leav- 
ing on its northern slope the picturesque towns of Muna, 
Ticul, Oxkutzcab and Tecax disappears near Kambul 
in the district of Peto. This Sierra is called Puc in 
Maya; its maximum height is 500 feet above the sea level, 
and is a rocky and barren structure from its beginning 
to about six miles before Tecax,' where a stratiun of rich 
vegetable soil begins to appear. 

There is another branch of hiUs forming a broken chain 
that starts at a short distance from the coast, below the small 
town of Seybaplaya in the bay of Campeche, some of the 
peaks of which attain a considerable height. This runs par* 
allel to the searside for a short distance, then it turns round 
forming a sort of amphitheatre where the city of Cam- 
peche is beautifully situated, after which, following a north- 
em direction by the sea-side for two miles beyond, it turns 
to the northeast, goes on crossing the district of Hecelchakan 
and after following its course to the east and southeast, it 
approaches the lake of Chichankannab, near the end of the 
first ridge. From this point this range takes a southern 
course in a broken line, and goes to join the great chain 



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210 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

which under the different names of Rocky mountains, 
Sierra Madre, and Andes are the backbone of the American 
continent. This system is not a continuous chain like the 
first ridge. It is formed by a series of high hills or peaks 
called UitzeS; which are separated by narrow valleys the 
surface of which is at least as high as that of the first Sierra, 
and they are covered by a thick bed of vegetable soil, proper 
for the cultivation of com, sugar-cane, tobacco and most 
tropical plants. 

The plain that we mentioned as stretching from the north 
coast to the foot of the first Sierra, and as being of cal- 
careous formation comprises several zones or belts. The 
first one extends over a great part of the peninsula from 
the viQage of Buctzotz in the district of Temax, about fifty- 
four miles to the northeast of Merida, to the district of 
Hecelchakan in the state of Campeche. This belt rests on 
a bed of hmestone covered by a thin layer of vegetable 
soil and comprises the district of Merida, Acamceh, Yzamal, 
Maxcanu and part of Hecelchakan. Here com, beans, and 
other articles of food, cattle and horses were raised to some 
extent, but now hemp, for which the soil is very well adapted, 
is raised on a great scale, and that has not only saved this 
state from poverty, but it has made of it one of the most 
prosperous of the Mexican confederacy. Prom Buctzotz 
eastward to Yalahau and from Hecelchakan to Campeche, 
the ground though still stony is good for the cultivation 
of sugar-cane, rice, etc., and improves as we advance, the 
soil becomes more moist and the woods are thicker and 
higher. 

On all sides of these tracks, that is, from Yalahau on 
the northeastern coast to Bacalar on the southeast, 
and from Campeche to Champoton in the west and to the 
Sierras in the south, the soil attains all the luxuriance and 
richness of the tropics, and while all the produce of those 
regions can be got there, magnificent forests of a great 
variety of trees cover also those extensive grounds. 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 211 

The lands around Ticul are of an intermediate quality, 
between these and those of the north, and they are still 
better from Tekax and Peto to Chichankanab and Saban. 

If we draw a cross section or profile from the port of 
Progreso through Merida, Ticul, and Tzibalchen to the 
southern boimdaries of the peninsula and Guatemala, we 
find first a very narrow strip of sand along the shore, then 
a belt of moving monticules of sand from three to eight 
hundred yards wide covered by a thin coating of thorny 
weeds and small palm trees, bordered by long patches of 
salt beds. Next comes the Cienega, a marshy kind of 
stream with a bottom of white mud, full of water weeds, 
two or three miles wide, dry in the dry season, with a nar- 
row thread of water in the centre, and overflowed in the 
rainy season, where some islets called Petenes are found 
here and there, and also interrupted now and then by a 
peculiar kind of stream called Ojo-de-agua (water-holes). 
Next comes the Savana or prairie from a mile to a mile and 
one-half wide, which gradually disappears, giving place to 
a very stony formation called Tzekel, poorly covered by 
thorny shrubs, some lonely palm trees and wild hemp plants. 
This rough stony bed extends for about eight miles 
changing then to a better soil upon which Merida stands 
over 28 feet above the sea level and 28 miles from Progreso. 
The ground goes on rising with a smooth grading for eigh- 
teen miles more, at the end of which the surface becomes 
more and more rugged, so that in the railroad Unes, cuts 
fifteen feet high are formed. For six miles before getting 
to Ticul, the approach to the Sierra is known, the layer of 
earth growing thicker and the color of it changing to a 
darkish red. 

Two miles from the city of Ticul, the foot of the Puc is 
reached, the ascent to the sunmiit of which is a mile long, 
its height being four himdred feet above the level of the 
plain. The descent on the opposite side is at most one- 
fourth the ascent, coming down then to a high table land 



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212 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct. 

that stretches from the west of Santa Helena to the borders 
of Chichankanab Lake over an area twenty-five miles wide 
from north to south. Here the most magnificent ruins of 
the country are foimd: Uxmal, Santana Tabi, San Fran- 
cisco, etc., which afford a wide field of study to the scientific 
man and interest to the mere tourist. Bordering this sec- 
tion on the south the broken chain of hills called Uitzes 
within the limits of the inhabited sections of the peninsula, 
the line of which may be traced through the villages of 
Tzibalchen, Yturbide Xul Becanchen. 

Beyond this line an extent of land supposed to be of no 
less than eight thousand square miles, stretches to the pro- 
vince of Peten in Guatemala, covered by a thick and unin- 
habited forest only crossed by three paths that start from 
Campeche and Bacalar to the Lake of Peten, through sta- 
tions placed far from each other. 

Now if we examine a map of Yucatan, we see that from 
the Champoton River that empties into the Campeche Bay, 
on the south end of the western coast to the Manatin river 
that empties into the Ascension Bay, about the middle of 
the opposite coast, there is no river or stream whatever 
worth the name, they are only small inlets of the sea or 
cuts made by the heavy showers of the rainy season. The 
Champoton River has a course seventy-five miles long, from 
Lake Jobonochac and is navigable by small craft of from 
10 to 15 tons for the distance of 15 miles inland. The 
water courses of the eafitem coast are of little importance, 
even those of San Jose and Hondo that water the extreme 
southern portion. As for the Nohbecan (the great stream 
in Maya) the Pocayxim, the Palizada and some brooks, 
they are only profitable to a small section of the south- 
western corner of the peninsula. 

Yucatan is very poor in lakes, those only that deserve 
that name are the Laguna de Chechankanab (small sea) 
about 20 miles in length by less than three wide; that called 
Ocon from which the Manatin River takes its course 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 213 

seventy-two miles from Ascension Bay, and that of 
Jobonochac. 

We will finish this notice of the physical conditions of Yu- 
catan with some remarks on its dimate. 

From the observations taken in the observatory of the 
State Literary Institute, I find that in 1903, the lowest 
temperature taken was 7®. 2 Centegrade— 44°. 96 F. on 
several days in December, and the highest 39** C. — 102°.2F. 
on the 19 of April, though on the very first of that month 
the minimum registered was 13''.3 C— SS^'.S F. The high- 
est monthly average was 29®.l C— 80^.38 F. in Jime; and 
the lowest, 21°.6 C— 70°.08 F. in December. The average of 
the minimum noted in the whole year was 17® .60 C— 62®. 
69 F. and the average of the maximum 32®.9 C. — 91®.22 F. 

In 1904, the lowest temperature was that of 7®. 2 C. on 
the 15th and 16th of January and February—44®, 96 F. and 
the highest on the sixth day of May, 38® 4 C.-lOl®. 12 F., 
though the thermometer went down several times that 
month to 23®, C.—76®. 8 F. The highest average was 
28®, C— 82®, 4 F., both in May and June; and the lowest 
in February 22®, 9 C— 73®, 22 F. The average of minimum 
temperature registered the whole year was 17®. 8 C.—68®,1F; 
and the average maximum 97®, 34 F. These differences 
between the highest and the lowest temperatures are ex- 
plained by the fact that the heat always diminshes in the 
night and the early mom. 

An idea of the mortality of the coimtry can be had by 
these numbers: on an average of 315,000 inhabitants, 3,768 
deaths were registered in one quarter of a year from the 
first of July to the 30th of December, 1903; 2,975 from 
the first of October to the 31st of September; 2,470 for the 
first quarter of 1904, and 2,960 in the second, up to the 30th 
of June. The lowest number of deaths registered was that 
of 808 in March, and the highest 1,348 in July and August. 

The cases of yellow fever we have are generally from im- 
portation, and they are fatal mostly to Mexicans of the hig^ 



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214 American Antiqiuman Society. [Oct., 

table lands of the interior and to Europeans. From the first 
of January to the 31st of March, 1904, we had 24 cases, of 
which 14 were cured and 10 fatal. In the second quarter of 
the year those numbers were 38, 17, and 21 respectively; and 
in the third they were 17, 9, and 8. As a consequence of 
the strong sanitary measures taken by our present admini- 
istrations both local and federal, that scourge has almost 
wholly disappeared, and to such an extent that during the 
worst months of this year from May to August we did not 
have a single case in a period of a himdred days. 

We only have two seasons : the rainy season begins about 
the end of May and lasts till the end of November. Show- 
ers are very frequent and heavy during the first three 
months and go on slacking in number and intensity toward 
the end. The dry season lasts the rest of the year, March 
and April being conmionly the driest months, during which 
all vegetation is laid waste and the air is suffocating, not 
only on account of the natural heat of the season but also 
Ijecause during those months they biun the cornfields that 
are to be sown at the beginning of the rainy season. The 
scene then changes rapidly, the leaves renew their verdant 
hue, and the wild flowers balm the air. 

We have no earthquakes as our groimd is not volcanic; 
but we felt something like it two years ago in Merida and 
Progreso. 

From the general description and notice of the physical 
conditions of Yucatan and such as I have been able to give 
in a condensed form, it is easily understood that the water 
supply, not only for the common needs of life but for those 
of agriculture and all kinds of industries, is a question of 
paramount importance in the country. I will now try to 
show how this sine qua non desideratum of life and work 
has been provided by a merciful nature. But before going 
further into the bottom of the subject, I must state that I 
agree withJStephens and other explorers who think that at 
least the northeastern portion of the peninsula was, in a 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 215 

former period, covered by the sea. That conclusion they 
draw from the lowness of the coast, from the fact that 
marine shells are found in the calcareous rocks, whenever 
they are bored to dig a well; and that these shells are also 
foimd at the bottom of caverns far from the sea incrustated 
in the solid rock, and from the fact that the sea is constantly 
and perceptibly receding from the coast. In the first zone, 
potable water of more or less good quality is found within 
15 miles inland, a little brackish and hard by the seaside, 
but improving as you go on, and good for domestic 
purposes. In Merida, the wells are 27 feet deep and there 
the water is pure enough and no other was used imtil 
cisterns began to be built on a great scale. Following 
the rule that the farther you go inland the deeper 
the wells and the purer the water, and that the wells are 
28^ inches deeper per mile, we find that within that dis- 
tance of 40 to 60 miles from the seacoast their depth ranges 
from 40 to 60 feet. At the first Sierra in Muna, Ticul, and 
Tekax they are 90 feet deep. Beyond the first Sierra in the 
region of fine rich lands, once the seat of flourishing cities, 
the ruins of which are silent witnesses of the high degree 
of civilization acquired by departed races, and where thriv- 
ing haciendas and ranchos have them within their borders, 
the wells are from 200 to 240 feet .deep. In all the area 
comprised between the Pucs on the north and a line that 
may be drawn from Muna to Calkini in the west, and from 
there to the southeast through Santa Helena, Uxmal, San- 
tana and San Francisco to the Sierra of the Pucs back 
again. To the south of this line going into the region of 
the Uitzes, the few wells that are found there are very 
deep. Among the most remarkable ones we may mention, 
is that of Sabachg nine miles to the south of Tabi, dug in 
the neighborhood of the ruins of that name in the centre 
of a region where water was not to be found miles around. 
A hat or a very light object thrown into the well at cer- 
tain hours of the day will be thrown out again. 



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216 American Ardiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The little town of Xul, which means the end, uUima 
thule, a curate whom Stephens knew, dug a well 200 feet 
deep, in the thirties of the last century at the cost of $1,500, 
an enormous sum in those days. Fifteen miles to the 
southwest of Sabacchg is the hacienda Yaxchg, half-way 
between Santa Helena and Bolonchen, 27 miles apart, the 
noria (well) of which is 240 feet deep, was the only source 
of water supply of this kind for over two thousand souls 
that lived in the place and its neighborhood before the In- 
dian war of 1848, when that part of the country was laid 
waste by the rebel Indians. On the way from Hecel- 
chakan to Bolonchen you find MontebeUo, a rancho that 
has a well 270 feet deep, and farther to the southeast Chic- 
muc with one 312 feet deep, Yalmon with one 468 and 
Uechil with another about the same. 

Then comes the town of Bolonchen in the neighborhood 
of which is the famous cave called Xtacumbilxunan. In 
that same neighborhood there is an old noria or well, the 
digging of which had probably been given up many years 
ago. The government of Campeche ordered the continu- 
ation of the work, and water was found four hundred 
thirty-two feet imderground, but it affords a very meagre 
supply. The wells of Yalnom and Uechil, in the very heatt 
of the Uitzes country, were bored by drilling carried on 
by a scientific method and the water is hauled out by pow- 
erful pimips. The deepest well now in use is that of the 
rancho Polyuc, about fifteen miles south of San Antonio, 
a station on the Merida and Peto railroad, ninety-three 
miles from Merida. This was also drilled by modem scien- 
tific methods, and water was foimd at the depth of 552 feet, 
through various layers and strata of earth, conmion rock, 
clay, flint and granite. The work went on steadily for four 
months and its cost amoimted to fourteen thousand doUars, 
Mexican money. Still we read in Stephens's most interest- 
ing work, of wells that had to be given up at the depth of 
600 feet in those high regions. To finish this part of my 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 217 

subject, I will mention a row of ancient wells that are 
found along the road from Teabo to Chacksinkin, about 
seventy miles to the southeast of Merida, that are said to 
have been dug without boring through the rock, but simply 
by digging the earth that filled the crevices to the depth 
of ninety feet. It is also worthy of remark that in the 
town of Chapab in the region called Sierra-Baja, because the 
ground rises some fifty feet above the level of the plain 
on which Merida and the centre districts stand, the wells 
are only eighteen feet deep; and those of Sotuta in the 
centre of the state are twentynseven feet deep. Both places 
are built on low patches of ground. 

If we were to depend on the wells only for the supply 
of water, the greater part of our peninsula could not be 
inhabited, but fortunately there are other sources provided 
by nature, such as the Sartenejas, the Aguadas, the Ojo- 
de-agua and the Cenotes. 

The Sartenejas are natural hollows or cavities found in 
our rocky groimds. They get full of water in the rainy 
season, and their supply holds out for some time into the 
dry season, as there are many of them and their dimen- 
sions sometimes are five and six yards long, two to three 
wide, and two to three deep. They afford considerable 
help to places where water is scarce, and some small ranches 
have no other source. Near Xul there is a sarteneja 90 
feet in circimiference and 10 deep. 

The Aguadas are much more important than the sarte- 
nejas, and they are very numerous, and often of con- 
siderable size. They can be classified in two groups, natural 
and artificial. The first group follows the broken line that 
can be traced from the district of Tizimin in the northeast, 
and goes through those of Espita, Yxamal, Sotuta, Acanceh, 
Ticul, Maxanu and Hecelchakan towards Campeche. They 
are mostly mere pools of imwholesome water deposited over 
a muddy bed, with organic substances in suspension and of 
a dark bluish color. They are full during the rainy season; 



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218 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in the dry eecuson their level generally goes down, some 
become dry altogether, but many of them hold out all 
through it. The decomposition of organic matter they 
contain, has a very unhealthy influence on the air of their 
surroundings where paludism is very common, and the 
aguadas are generally only good for cattle to drink. They 
are seldom over one himdred feet wide, though some are 
much larger and there is one named Yalahua in the dis- 
trict of Acanceh, near Homun, that is seven himdred yards 
across, which never g^ts dry. 

The artificial aguadas are found in the high hilly ground 
of the interior at the bottom of the basins formed by the 
hills, where the rain water comes naturally to be depos- 
ited. Some have a bottom made out of stones and some 
have not such stones, and they are of all sizes — ^true works 
of art they are — that show the ingenuity and attainments 
of their builders. The bottom is made with large blocks 
of stone with a plain surface several layers deep, and so 
set alternately as to cover the joints, which are in most 
cases filled with clay, though this material is not always 
found in their vicinity. In the centre of the best built 
aguadas, ancient wells are found from four to five feet in 
diameter with their sides made of smooth stones put to- 
gether without mortar, and aroimd their margin there are 
several hundreds of pits called Casimbas. The water filters 
into the wells and pits and when the supply that fills the 
aguada is exhausted, these casimbas come to the rescue. 
These bodies of water are so considerable that in years of 
protracted drought, not only the population of the ranchos 
nearby, but also that for miles around get their supply from 
them. The following description of one of these cxirious 
water works differing somewhat from the common type, 
made by the acute observer mentioned before (Stephens), 
gives a good idea of them: 

''Near the rancho Jalal, between Becanchen and Tekax, 
near Macoba, there is a picturesque aguada of a differ- 



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1906.] Yucatan Water Supply. 219 

ent construction from the others, which was discovered 
while digging holes in search of water. It had a 
square platform at the top and beneath was a round well, 
faced with smooth stones, from 20 to 25 feet deep. Below 
this was another square platform, and xmder the latter 
another well of less diameter, and about the same depths 
The discovery of this well induced further excavations 
until upwards of forty wells were foxmd, differing in 
character and construction. Those were all cleared and 
the whole aguada repaired, since which it furnishes a sup- 
ply during the greater part of the dry season, and when 
this fails the wells appear and continue the supply until 
the rain comes on again." 

The Ojos-de-agua, or water holes, are f oimd on the northern 
coast, though that section is the most barren, being as we said 
before, a wide extended plain of limestone formation, in spite 
of which the supply of water is more abtmdant here. The 
character of these remarkable phenomena is thus described 
by Humboldt, though he did not see them and obtained 
his information from other sources: "On the northern 
coast, at the mouth of the Lagartos River, at four hxmdred 
miles from the shore, some springe of sweet water ooze 
out through the salt water. They are called Bocas (mouths) 
of Conil. It is probable that hydrostatic pressure 
forces the sweet water to rise above the salt water after 
breaking the banks of calcareous rocks, through the fissures of 
which they have run thither." These Ojos-de-Agua, water 
springe, are not rare along the coast. In the neighborhood 
of Chubuma they are very numerous and so they are in 
other places. I lately saw two very remarkable ones, one 
of them by the little port of Yalahau, 194 miles east of 
Progreso, and another one near Chiquila Beach, some eight 
miles farther on. This is now of great use, its waters being 
carried by means of powerful machinery, pumps and pipes, 
three miles inland to feed the great deposits of a sugar 
plantation, where water is scarce and of bad quality. 



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220 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

The Cenotes are not only the most curious and remark- 
able phenomena that make the study of this coimtry inter- 
esting, but they are the best gift that nature could bestow 
upon it as a compensation for the want of lakes and rivers, 
partaking as they do of the character of caves and springe, 
or as most people think, of subterraneous rivers. They were 
called cenotes by the Spaniards from their Indian name, 
Tzonot, and may be classified into two groups. The first 
is found in the western section, and the second one in the 
eastern section of the country. The former are great cav- 
erns with imposing, yawning mouths that open into great 
chambers with high fantastic looking vaults, from which 
hang enormous stalactites formed by the filtration of water. 
From these chambers, halls, or vestibules winding passages 
branch off in every direction. These are generally dark, 
but they are sometimes lighted by some body of light that 
comes from above, and they lead generally down to the 
deposits in the deep recesses of the cave. In these cenotes, 
the stalactites and stalagmites are more niunerous and 
varied, and a soft noise is produced by the constant falling 
of a drop of water, that like a crystal thread comes down 
quietly and steadily right into the great cistern or basin 
formed by the calcareous sediment, where these drops 
keep an everlasting cool and clear delicious liquid. 

Among a great number of these caves, we may mention 
that of Talchaquillo, not far from the ancient capital city 
of Mayapan. Here the water rises in level during the 
rainy season, and goes down in the dry season; but they 
never disappear altogether. Beautiful specimens of these 
natural and useful curiosities are those of Loltun (the flower 
cave), near Oxkutzcab and Sajcabha (white earth water), 
near Tekax, both of which are said to be about a mile long, 
but they have never been thoroughly explored. In the 
district of Chenes (the wells), there are several of them. 
In a place called San Jose, six miles from Noh-Yaxch£, 
there is a regular grotto at the bottom of which very good 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 221 

sweet water is found. And fifteen miles from Tzitbalchen, 
there is a small borough called Cumpich, inhabited wholly 
by Indians, that get their water from a grotto with an 
obUque entrance, at the bottom of which going down a 
ladder, there is what seems to be a natural spring known 
for ages. But the most remarkable of these caves are 
those of Xcoh and Chack, and more than all of them is 
that of Xtocumbil-Xunam, which is a perfect wonder. That 
of Xcoh, three miles from Santa Helena, formerly called 
Nohcacab, is in all ways remarkable. A popular tradition 
made it marvellous with the Indians, who asserted that 
there were to be found in its winding passages and cham* 
bers, sculptured figures, a great square adorned with col* 
umns that upheld a vaulted roof, a great polished table 
and more interesting than all these, a covered way to Mani, 
twenty-seven miles away. As it is, as you go through 
crooked passages, so low at times that you have to crawl 
to get on, as you cross large chambers and go over a feeble 
set of poles, put up for a bridge over a yawning chasm, and 
up steep rickety ladders until you get to the water basin, 
you meet many objects that an excited imagination easily 
takes for sculptured figures and the like. 

There are two things that call your attention in this 
descent several himdred feet long. For about a third part 
of the distance a strong current of wind takes away your 
breath. And next there is all along a track some three 
inches deep, that Stephens rightly conjectures could not 
be easily cut by the foot-step of a straggling population, 
but by the constant treading of the inhabitants of the city, 
whose ruins are found in the neighborhood without any 
visible means of supply of water. As to the passage that 
leads to Mani, that is stopped by the natural closing of the 
rock. The cave of Chack, a little farther from Nohcacab, 
is on the western slope of the first sierra. This has also 
precipitous descent through perpendicular holes, caverns, 
chasms and dark passages, to which you go down by nine 



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222 American ArUiqitarian Society. [Oct., 

different ladders to the bottom, where a deposit of cold 
water is at last found, at a distance of two hundred feet 
from the groimd in a vertical line, and about five hundred 
from the mouth of the cave. This descent is so fatiguing 
and dangerous that as an exception to what is seen every- 
where else, only men and never women go down to take and 
carry out the water. The so-called wells of Bolonchen and 
Becanchen, constitute a singular phenomena. The town 
of Bolonchen belongs to the Chenes district and is ninety- 
four miles from Merida and forty-five from Campeche. That 
name means ''nine wells," which are found within the 
public square, and they seem to be but holes in the rock 
or circular deposits with an interior connection with one 
another, getting their supply by the filtering of rain water 
from some unknown source, from which it goes slowly to 
these deposits that are found only a few feet from the 
ground, and where water holds out seven or eight months in 
the year. Becanchen is a town thirty-one miles from 
Merida. Its name means ''well with a current," and it is 
situated at the bottom of one of the table-lands of the 
second cluster of hills. Several wells are found 
in the plaza or public square, the surface of which is a 
ledge of stone and as the bottom and sides are of solid 
rock, the waters that filter through the fissures of the ground 
are kept there for a long time. In the dedivity of the 
hill below the square, the stream that gives the name to 
the town gushes from the rocks filling the basin beneath 
with clear water. These wells are true oases in these dry 
and high groimds.. I said that the cave or Cenote of 
Xtacumbil-Xunan, near Bolonchen is a perfect wonder, 
and so it is. That name means "the hidden lady," refer- 
ring to a popular legend. 

Entering a rude, lofty and abrupt opening under a bold 
ledge of overhanging rock, you go into a wild cavern, which 
on advancing becomes darker, but after going down two 
rough ladders, you get to the brink of a great perpen- 



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1906.] Yucatan Water Supply. 223 

dicular descent^ where there is a thkd ladder ninety feet 
long that leads to the bottom and where a great body of 
light comes from the sm'face of the ground 210 feet above. 
StiU going down this immense chamber where gigantic sta- 
lactites and great blocks of stone assume all kinds of shapes, 
through crooked and dark passages, sometimes so steep that 
you have to go up four rude ladders more, branching off in 
different directions, you get to seven deposits of water, 
called each by the name that pretends to show its pecuUar 
quality, at the oblique distance of about fourteen hundred 
feet from the mouth of the cave, and at a perpendicular 
depth of four himdred and fifty. These basins are called 
Putzulha (water that runs away), Chachao-ha (red water), 
Sallab-ha (spring water), Akab-ha (dark water), Choco-ha 
(warm water), and Chimes-ha from the name of an insect 
that is foimd there. When the supply of water in the wells 
of the town failed, the whole population had no other 
source but that, and they inaugurated the season of 
this painful task by a great feast held during one day 
each year in the spacious hall at the foot of the great 
ladder. 

The second group of cenotes are f oimd scattered over the 
eastern part of the peninsula, starting beyond Acanceh and 
stretching to the. district of Sotuta, Ticul and all the eastern 
districts. They are much more numerous in the three first 
that were mentioned. They are immense circular holes 
from sixty to two himdred feet in diameter, with a per- 
pendicular depth of from fifty to one hundred feet with 
rocky sides that go to the bottom, where great deposits 
of water with a current are foimd. The bottom is not 
always reached and their level does not change. Not infre- 
quently a small kind of fish called bagre is foimd there 
also. They all have a name, according to the habit of the 
Indian of giving one to natural objects of all descriptions, 
and as a general rule, it is a compound word that ends with 
the syllable ha (water) more or less well expressed, and 



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224 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

that of some quality that they ascribe to it, as for instance, 
Chochola (brackish water) Yaxcaba (water on green soil) 
and that name is the same one as that of the place where 
they are found, chiefly in rural localities. Mr. Molina, in 
his remarkable history of the discovery of Yucatan gives 
the names of thirty-four cenotes that were best known 
before the conquest; but there are a great many more of 
tliem: viz. Yazcaba, Tabi, Chizama, etc. Among the most 
noted I will mention two in Valladolid, over one of which 
the old convent was built; that of Yaxcabah right in the 
middle of the plaza, sixty feet from the surface of the ground, 
and with a body of water fifty feet deep, and that of Tabi, 
of which our historian, Cogolludo, speaks of the appearance 
of a fine palm tree when the rays of the sun struck full 
into the surface of the water. This is also in the plaza of 
that Uttle village once famous for a beautiful church now 
going to ruin. Finally I will mention the far renowned 
cenotes of Chichen-Ytza, visited by Bishop Landa in 1560, 
only eighteen years after the foundation of Merida, by Go- 
golludo and by all the archsologistsand travellers who have 
come since then to study our stately and magnificent ruins. 
The first cenote, and the one nearest the cluster of the 
ruined buildings is like all of this group, a great hole with 
rocky perpendicular sides on which a steep winding path 
leads to the water's edge, a path that seems to be artifi- 
cial. Somewhat different from others of the same character, 
this cenote is oblong, about three hundred fifty feet in 
length and one hundred fifty wide and its sides rise 'sixty 
odd feet from the surface of the water. 

The sacred cenote which to this day is held in admira- 
tion and awe, not only by the Indians but by most people 
that visit it, is about four hundred fifty feet north of the 
Castillo, the superb structure which standing over a lofty 
terrace in the shape of a pyramid, overtowers the plain 
and catches your eye as you approach the field of ruins. 
A paved way several inches high leads to it, through a 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 226 

thick forest. According to Mr. Thompson's* measurements 
this famous piece of water is some hundred and fifty feet 
in diameter, the surface of the water is seventy feet below 
the ground, while its depth is forty feet and the thickness 
of the layer of mud that is found there is thirty feet. The 
water is of a greenish hue, due probably to its great depth 
and to the shadow reflected on its surface by the trees that 
grow on the brink of the cenote, giving it a savage, mourn- 
ful appearance enhanced by the associations recalled by a 
small temple that stands on the very brink, and which 
was probably connected with the superstitious and barbar- 
•ous practices for which this mysterious well was used. In- 
deed it was a place of pilgrimage for the ancient Mayas, a 
holy place which with the sanctuary of Kabul in Yzamal, 
and that of Cozumel, connected by well built causeways that 
traversed the country, some vestiges of which still exist, 
was held in great veneration; and to these they repaired 
when a public calamity threatened the land, as the loss of 
the harvests, a long drought or impending war. The pil- 
grims came not only from other places of the penin- 
sula but also from the neighboring provinces of Tabasco, 
Chiapas and Guatemala. The pilgrimage was carried on 
with great solemnity, and all along the way they went on 
visiting the old temples they foimd and carried their offer- 
ings, consisting not only of the richest objects they could 
get, but also of animals and human beings, preferring for 
the sacrifices the most healthy, vigorous and handsome, 
which were probably whirled down from the little temple 
already mentioned. Some fragments from Landa's work will 
illustrate our subject : ''After the Spaniards went away, as the 
supply of water failed in the land, and because they had 
spent all their coin during the invasions, a great starvation 
ensued, and the Xius, Lords of the Mani, decided to ofFer 
solemn sacrifices to their idols, taking male and female 

*Mr. Edward H. Thompeon, United States Consul at Meriden, author of '*A 
P«g» of History" in this number of the Prooeedin^i. 



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226 American ArdiquarUm Society, [Oct., 

slaves to throw into the well of Chichen-Ytza; and aa they 
had to go through the town of the Cocomes, their capital 
enemies, whom they thought would renew their old griev- 
ances in such a crisis, they sent a message begging them to 
go through their land, and the Cocomes betrayed them, 
complying with their request." Paragraph XIV, 80th 
page. On page 158 he says, ''They held Cozumel and the 
well of Chichen-Ytza in the same veneration as do pilgrims 
now Jerusalem and Rome, and so they used to visit them, 
carrying their offerings chiefly to Cozumel, as holy places, 
and when they could not go they sent them." Again I 
copy this from page 344. "They had the habit then of 
throwing into this well living men as sacrifices to their gods 
in time of drought, and they thought that these would not 
die though they never saw them again. They used also to 
throw precious stones and the things they most prized. 
Just on the brink of the well there is a small building where 
I found all kinds of idols in honor of all the gods of the 
land like the Parthenon in Rome; " What Landa, Cogolludo 
and all other writers had narrated from mere heresay, one 
of the distinguished members of this Society, Mr. E. H. 
Thompson, has had the satisfaction to realize, bringing to 
light the truth of those statements, by diligent and intelli- 
gent work, the results of which I will not mention as that 
grateful and honorable task belongs exclusively to him. 

The general beUef is that these cenotes, at least those 
that belong to the second group, are subterraneous rivers, 
as it appears by the current of their waters, their level, 
their great supply, which does not seem to diminish, and 
which is probably fed by sources and streams of an origin as 
little known as the currents themselves. There is, neverthe- 
less, a phenomenon noted in this country that may perhaps 
explain their origin, and that is the great sewers called 
Xuches in Maya, f oimd chiefly in the second region of the high 
hills. These Xuches, the surface of which keeps closed dur- 
ing the dry season by a layer of thick chalky earth, in a thick 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 227 

compact mass, which in the rainy season is softened by the 
great quantity of water that overflows the low plains, the 
fissm*es are opened and the waters rush into them, carrying 
all that comes in their way. These bottomless sewers are 
fomid in great nmnbers in the districts of the eastern por- 
tion of the peninsula and in those of Sotuta and Bacalar; 
and it is to be deduced that these subterraneous rivers are 
fed by them, that they keep on their. course to our low 
coasts, and that they are the sources of those springs of 
sweet water like the ones of Conil and of many other 
places. The words quoted are a resum6 of the explanation 
given by Messrs. Regil and Peon in a good statistical work 
published in 1853. Some think that these cenotes have 
their source among the moimtains of Chiapas and Guate- 
mala. May it not be also that those that have no current 
are the outlets of great subterraneous lakes, some of which 
are connected with one another? The satisfactory solution 
of this puzzling question will not probably be found till 
the geological study of the country is carried to a greater 
extent. So far we have only the data got by boring in 
search of an artesian well in the city of Merida in 1864, and 
carried on afterward to the depth of eight hundred feet, 
and the data acquired by Mr. Agnew, manager of the gas 
company of Yucatan in another quarter of the same city, 
where he drilled to the depth of 2,240 feet, which opera- 
tion gave him very curious and imexpected results. 

The question of the supply of water of most of the ancient 
cities is still a matter of study. The Chaltunes or cisterns 
found in their neighborhood, do not seem to be of suffi- 
cient capacity, being as they are subterraneous dome- 
shaped structures, those found at Uxmal with mouths but 
eighteen inches in diameter, which increase to 7 feet, 6 
inches below in the body of the cistern, and 10 feet 6 inches 
perpendicular from the mouth. 

Of the great cisterns that are to be found in many quar- 
ters where water is scarce, the most remarkable are those 



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228 American Antiquarian Society . [Oct., 

built by the curate of Rodriguez in Xul, and are of a more 
modem construction. Mr. E. Ancona and other historians 
conjecture that the frequent migrations of the Mayas and 
most of the wars the different tribes waged against each 
other were caused by the want of that element. 

The process by which water has been hauled from the 
bowels of the earth like that of all new countries in their 
evolutions towards progress, is the same one with some sUght 
difference. In the first place we ought perhaps, to mention 
the primitive well, older than Jacob, as we learn among other 
sources from the beautiful story of the woman of Samaria, 
in which the traditional bucket and rope are used. When 
the wants are greater and the depth of the well is consid- 
erable, they have a horse to haul out the buckets; and 
when the requirements are greater still, as those of an 
hacienda, the noria, a Moorish apparatus, is needed. This 
noria is a rudimentary, rough, wooden machine, set over 
the mouth of the well, the horizontal section of which is 
about eight feet by three, made up of two wheels, the ver- 
tical one has a cage for a felley formed by arms that engage 
with those of the horizontal wheel, and drive it, while a 
string of buckets of different kind of material, such as 
leather, the bark of trees, or tin, hung over the felley of the 
horizontal wheel, follows the rotation of both of them, 
imparted by a lever attached to the top of the hub of the 
vertical wheel, and pulled by a horse, makes them go roimd 
the well and carries the water out. This noria gives good 
service where there are no pumps and it only wants a horse 
to pull the lever. 

Haciendas that have a population of one himdred souls 
and some two himdred head of cattle and horses only need 
one. Uayalceh, where they have about a thousand animals 
to water and a population of over one thousand, more than 
half of whom go to get their supply there, have two 
norias constantly at work, and that is all they want. For 
the last forty years, steam pumps are foimd in almost all 



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1905.] Yucatan Water Supply. 229 

haciendas of any importance, and for the last ten or fifteen 
yetu^, wind mills of which there was only one in the coun- 
try in 1882, mmiber now over twelve himdred in Merida 
alone, and their use extends rapidly. 

I beg your pardon, gentlemen, for bringing these remarks 
to an end by saying a few words in favor of my coxmtry, 
impelled by the love that all men feel for their native land. 
In spite of the obstacles and difficulties I have mentioned, 
and perhaps owing to these very causes, the state of Yu- 
catan, with a population of 315,000 inhabitants, thinly 
spread ov^ an extensive territory, has accomplished a 
fair share of work in the way of progress. Yellow fever 
has been almost completely expelled from its borders. 
Education has been promoted as much as its financial con- 
ditions allow. With a budget of $2,653,996, Mexican 
money, there are 343 public schools, both day and evening, 
paid by the State treasury at an expense of $291,052. 
There are also a large number of boys' and girls' private 
schools, besides those paid for by the municipalities. The 
pubUc schools of Merida number thirty-five. With the in- 
creased budget now in preparation for the next year, those 
numbers are to be increased. A model school house for 
those of that city was inaugurated last September at a cost 
of $100,000 M. c, and appropriate buildinge for the same 
purpose are to be erected in other localities. Benevolent 
institutions have strongly enlisted public attention, and next 
January the President of the Republic is to inaugurate among 
other works, an Insane Asylum and a great Hospital that has 
twenty-eight separate pavilions, built and furnished in 
accordance with the latest requisites of medical science. 
A portion of the streets of Merida have been paved with 
bricks, but generally with asphalt, not only the central 
ones, but also some in the suburbs. Electric lights began 
to be used in 1884. Our means of communication have 
been improved, and there are now six different raUroad 
lines with an a^regate length of over 550 miles; and tram- 



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230 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct.^ 

ways for public and private use are very numerous and of 
a very considerable aggregate length. The first telegraph 
line was laid in 1865. Now they run from Merida to Cam- 
peche and to all the chief towns, to the frontiers of the 
State and to Mexico by the intermission of cable. The 
telephone is very widely used. Besides the two lines owned 
by two companies, there are many private lines. The rail- 
roads of course have their own telegraph and telephone 
service. A line of meteorological observatories has been estab- 
lished over the whole state with a full equipment of the 
most modem instruments. The central station is in Merida, 
and there is one in the chief towns of the other districts. 
986,655,683 kilogranmies of merchandise were imported in 
the year 1903 from foreign ports to the amoimt of $7,011,553, 
and 67,377,714 kilogrammes worth $18,729,644 were im- 
ported from domestic ports. During that year the exports 
amounted to 100,883,683 kilogrammes worth $37,497,169, 
in which numbers hemp coimts for 93,058,666 kilogrammes 
worth $33,331,157 Mexican money. In 1904 we exported 
606,008 bales of hemp, weighing 97,205,649 kilogrammes on 
board 167 steamers, which hemp was estimated at the 
value of $32,022,563. Of those 606,008 bales, 509,634 
weighing 81,093,418 kilogrammes were exported to the 
United States. Finally a concession for the water supply 
of the city of Merida has been granted to an American 
company that has already begun work. 



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1905.] The Jackson and Van Buren Papers. 231 



THE JACKSON AND VAN BUREN 
PAPERS. 



BY WILLIAM MAC DONALD. 



I HAVE lately had occasion to examine the papers of Jackson 
and Van Bnren in the Library of CongresS; and the president 
of this Society adjudged that some remarks about those 
collections would be appropriate for this meeting. 

The Jackson papers are known as the Montgomery Blair 
collection. They were presented to the Library in 1903 
by the family of Montgomery Blair, who received them 
from the Jackson heirs. I do not know entirely the history 
of the Jackson papers, but enough to suggest that it is an 
interesting one. I remember the late Senator Hoar saying 
a few years ago, speaking of these papers, that when 
he was a member of the Senate Committee on the Library, 
there were brought to the rooms of the Committee at the 
Capitol two tnmks, said to contain the papers of Andrew 
Jackson. The trunks had been removed temporarily from 
a building in Washington in which they had been stored for 
some time, and the custodians, being in doubt as to the 
safest disposition to make of them, had placed them tem- 
porarily in the Capitol in the custody of the Senate Library 
Committee, or some member of it. The Senator told how 
he opened one of the tnmks, and discovered that the papers 
were neatly arranged in bimdles; and having a curiosity to 
examine some of them, he took up the one lying on top, 
and read, endorsed in Jackson's handwriting upon the out- 
side of it, "General Pakenham's plan of the battle of New 
Orleans, picked up on the field." 

Mr. Worthington C. Ford, custodian of the manuscripts 



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232 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

in the Library, is my authority for saying that the Jackson 
papers were turned over by Jackson himself to Amos 
Kendall, Postmaster-General in Jackson's administration, 
to be used in the preparation of a biography of Jackson. 
From those papers Kendall selected sudi as he desired to 
use, but the whole collection in his hands was destroyed in 
a fire, which consumed Kendall's library. 

The Jackson collection is very large, extending to a great 
many hundreds, perhaps thousands, of papers. At the 
time I examined it, somewhat less than a year ago, the 
papers had not been calendared, although a calendar was 
in process of preparation; and the papers were roughly 
classified by years, arranged in the admirable style with 
which everyone is familiar, in the Library. 

The Van Buren collection is also very extensive. It is, 
however, only one of two existing collections of Van Buren's 
papers ; another still remains in private hands. This one came 
to the Library through Mrs. Thompson Van Buren. Neither 
this collection nor the one still in private hands was used 
by Mr. Shepard, the author of the biography of Van Buren 
in the American Statesmen Series. The collection which 
is still in private hands, . I understand is inaccessible to 
students. It is to be hop^ that it will eventually pass 
into the hands of the Library. 

The most important portion of both collections is the 
correspondence. The Jackson papers are evidently frag- 
mentary, there being large gaps in the whole collection. 
The Van Buren collection is more orderly, having apparently 
been selected with care by Van Buren himself from the 
papers he desired to preserve. Of the two collections, the 
Van Buren collection is far the richer, although there are 
many Jackson letters in the Van Buren collection and some 
Van Buren letters in the Jackson collection. The Van Buren 
collection contains in the neighborhood of three hundred 
letters, many of them confidential, between Jackson and 
Van Buren. 



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1905.] The Jackson and Van Buren Papers. 233 

In looking over these papers, I noted a few of the sub- 
jects to which they relate, and I here suggest a few of the 
points that will have light thrown upon them whenever 
these papers shall be made available through publication. 

One of the first things that attracted my attention was 
the bearing of the papers on Jackson's alleged illiteracy 
and lack of education. It has not been an uncommon 
charge of Jackson's biographers that he was an unlettered 
person; that he did not write his own state papers, and 
that at the best he furnished perhaps ideas and invigora- 
tion, but relied upon friends like Kendall, James A. Hamilton 
of New York, Isaac Hill of New Hampshire, and others to 
write the papers for him. Jackson's handwriting is immis- 
takable, and while there are few of his great State papers 
in either of these collections in his own handwriting, those 
papers preserved being obviously copies, there are fragments 
enough to lead me to the conclusion that not only the 
ideas, but the essential language of all of Jackson's more 
important papers are his own. He was illiterate, but 
certainly not uneducated. No more than most men, 
perhaps, did he always spell correctly. His punctuation 
is sometimes astray, and as he evidently wrote in a hurry, 
we find lapses of grammar and rhetoric which would be 
repaired by revision. But I think the evidence is strong 
that the essential thoughts and phraseology of his more 
important writings are distinctly his, and no one's else. I 
see no reason to believe, from examination of those papers, 
that his State papers underwent any more or different 
revision, or were prepared in any different way, than the 
State papers of most of our Presidents. 

The most interesting single paper which I had occasion 
to note is a document which is filed with the papers of 
October 1828, but imdated. It is unmistakably in Jack- 
son's handwriting, and is headed, '' Memorandum of points 
to be considered in the administration of the government." 
It bears every evidence of having been written before 



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234 American ArUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

Jackson took oflSce as President, though whether or not it 
should be assigned to October, or to a date subsequent to 
the election, I cannot determine. The "points" are ex- 
tremely interesting. They are as follows: 

"1. A strong constitutional Attorney-General. 

"2. A genuine old-fashioned Cabinet, to act together, 
and form a coimsel consultative. 
'3. No solicitors to be appointed. 

'4. No members of Congress, except heads of depart- 
ments, or foreign ministers to be appointed. 

"5. No foreign minister to be rejected without the 
Senate, etc. 

'^6. The public debt paid, and the tariff modified, and 
no power usurped over internal improvements. 

"7. A high-minded and enlightened principle in the 
administration of the government, as to appointments 
and removals. 

''These things will give a brilliant career to the adminis- 
tration. " 

Some of these ''points" are peculiarly interesting, when 
we recall the things which Jackson did, or sought to doi 
and the things which he was said to desire to do. We 
know, for example, that he had difficulty with his Cabinet, 
and that it was twice reconstructed during his two terms 
of office. The first Cabinet crisis over the Mrs. Eaton affair 
has become famous in our annals; yet in one of his letters, 
April 26, 1829, before his Cabinet was entirely complete, 
he declares it to be one of the strongest that has ever been 
in the United States. 

Prof. Sumner, in his "Life of Jackson," has, I believe, 
taken the position that when Jackson dismissed his Cabinet 
and acted independently of it, he not only did not usurp any 
authority, but reverted to the original theory of the Cabinet, 
namely, that the Cabinet was simply a body of heads of 
departments whom the President mi^t consult if he chose, 



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1905.] The Jackson and Van Buren Papers. 235 

but whose suggestions he was in no way bound to follow. 
In this "Memorandum of points," however, we have Jack- 
son's declaration that he desired a ''genuine old-fashioned 
Cabinet, to act together and form a counsel consultative." 
What the original theory of the Cabinet was seems to me 
to be difficult to say, for the reason that, under the Con- 
stitution, the Cabinet has no existence as such; but 
Jackson at the outset evidently regarded it as a body of 
advisers. 

Then we have the wide-spread criticism of Jackson for 
his appointments and removals. The "memorandum of 
points" contains certain significant declarations in view 
of his actual policy. "No solicitors to be appointed" 
evidently means that none who solicit office shall be ap- 
pointed; whereas we know that Jackson was hardly installed 
before almost anybody who solicited an office was appointed, 
even if someone had just previously solicited it and received 
it. "No members of Congress except heads of departments 
and foreign ministers to be appointed." We know that 
Jackson was charged with appointing more members of 
Congress to office than any previous President. "A high- 
minded and enhghtened principle in the administration of 
the government as to appointments and removals." I 
am imable to find that Jackson expressed any regret for any 
demoralization in the administrative branch of the govern- 
ment which resulted from the wholesale removals, or from 
the appointment of unfit men. So far as he expressed 
himself on that point at all, he seems to have felt that his 
course was justified. 

I came upon a letter of Van Buren's in the collection, in 
which he states that the appointment of Swartwout as 
Collector of the Port of New York, was made against Van 
Buren's decided and earnest remonstrances; and there are 
other letters that go to show that representations were 
made to Jackson concerning the unfit character of certain 
office appointees. 



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236 American Antigvarian Society. [Oct., 

There is also an interesting matter which Jackson several 
times refers to, namely, his view that a defalcation in 
accounts or financial irregularity of any sort must debar 
anyone from the public service. An interesting letter to 
Van Buren in September, 1829, in reference to Lewis Cass, 
who, it was rumored, was to be removed from oflSce, 
states that Jackson had no idea of removing Cass, unless 
in the settlement of his accounts he should be proven a 
defaulter, adding, "You know the rule is, friend or foe, 
being a defaulter must go. " There are several other letters 
in which Jackson makes similar statements. An undated 
memorandum of March 31, 1829, in reply to a letter from 
Van Buren, in which Jackson holds that the late removals 
of comptrollers had been made in the interests of honesty, 
adds: "The people expect reform; they shall not be dis- 
appointed; but it must be judiciously done, and upon 
principle. " 

I observed no particular reference to the "great debate" 
in the Senate between Webster and Hajme. There are, 
however, a number of letters between Jackson and Hayne 
referring to the nullification situation in South Carolina; 
papers which show that Jackson was watching closely the 
movements in that State, and that there could have been 
no possible excuse for anyone in South Carolina to have 
imagined that Jackson would sit quietly by and allow 
South Carolina to leave the Union without a protest. One 
very interesting entry is a letter written by Jackson to 
Joel R. Poinsett, who was the active leader of the Union 
party in South Carolina at that time, and who kept up a 
correspondence with Jackson and others at Washington. 
Writing on the ninth of December, 1832, the day before 
the great proclamation to South Carolina was issued, Jack- 
son states that in "forty days from the date of my orders," 
if force should become necessary, "I will have forty thous- 
and men in the State of South Carolina" to put down 
resistance and enforce law. 



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1905.] The Jackson and Van Buren Papers. 237 

There are a number of entries with reference to internal 
improvements, though they do not make wholly clear 
Jackson's attitude, which indeed never became quite clear 
on that subject; and a very interesting entry, in a memo- 
randum to Van Buren, at the time when the negotiations with 
Great Britain for the removal of duties on the West Indian 
trade were in progress. We have been commonly told, 
in accounts of that episode, that Jackson sent a representa- 
tive to Great Britain to say that conditions had changed 
in the United States, that there had been a change in public 
opinion, and that he was prepared to negotiate with Great 
Britain if Great Britain would meet him half way; and that 
Great Britain took the proper stand, and the trade was 
opened. Jackson was willing to negotiate, but took care 
also to be ready for contingencies. In a commtmication 
to Van Buren, April 10, 1830, Jackson directs the latter to 
"let a commimication be prepared for Congress recom- 
mending a non-intercourse law between United States and 
Canada, and a sufficient number of cutters commanded 
by our naval officers and our midshipmen made revenue 
officers, and a double set on every vessel." In six months, 
he concludes, Canada and the West Indies will "sorely 
feel" the effects of such vigorous action. 

The Jackson papers mak^ some additions to our know- 
ledge about the removal of the deposits. Van Buren had 
written to Jackson to express the hope that he would consult 
with the Attorney-General about the legality of trans- 
ferring the deposits. Jackson replies that he has consulted 
the Attorney-General; and we have Taney's letter assuring 
Jackson that he is authorized to proceed, and adding: "I 
am fully prepared to go with you firmly through this business, 
and to meet all its consequences. " The letter is endorsed on 
the back in Jackson's handwriting: "To be filed with my 
private papers — as evidence of his virtue, energy and worth. " 

I have only to add, in closing this very brief allusion to 
these papers, that the Jackson and Van Buren papers, taken in 



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238 American ArUiqucarian Sodeiy. [Oct., 

connection with the Poinsett papers now in the possession 
of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, and the lately 
published Calhoun correspondence edited by Prof. J. F. 
Jameson for the American Historical Association, make it 
possible to re-write much of the history of the Jackson and 
Van Buren period. I suspect that when this history is 
re-written, it will be found that most of the older accounts 
are in need of substantial correction. 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 239 



A PAGE OP AMEKICAN HISTORT. 



BY EDWARD H. THOMPSON. 



The field whereon occurred the events which this paper 
chronicles is the whole Peninsula of Yucatan. The chief 
actors in these events are the descendants of the indomitable 
Maya race, that once made this peninsula the centre of a 
civilization, the descendants of the invading Spaniards who 
cut short the life of that civilization^ and a band of strangers 
from the North. These last were the tjrpe of men that first 
tamed the wilds of Canada, made known the virgin richness 
of New England, settled Kentucky, and later drove the 
wedge of civilization into the unknown West. 

At the time these events occurred, that called into play 
these three factors of humanity, the methods of commimi- 
cation throughout the peninsula were of a mediseval char- 
acter. Native runners and vaqueros on horseback furnished 
the only means of rapid commimication, while litters, man 
carried, the saddle, or the strange two-wheeled volan coche, 
drawn by three mules, furnished the means of rapid transit 
to the fortunate ones who could command such conven- 
ience. All others who travelled either went on foot or rode 
on the springless, brakeless, sideless carreta, drawn by six 
mules, that carried the heavy freight between the larger 
cities. In those days, many of the larger towns were not 
connected, even by a wagon road. A narrow, winding mule- 
path was the only connection with the outside world, and 
during the long night hours the hoarse cry of the arrieres, 
urging on the pack mules, was constantly heard. 

There were revolutions in those days; sometimes, indeed, 
there were even revolutions within the revolution itself. 



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240 American AfUiquarian Soddy. [Oct., 

But strangely enough, with all this seething and foaming 
of heated blood and boiling ambition, as if clarified by it, 
there was evolved a spirit of letters among the cultured 
minds on the Peninsula, that has never been equalled 
before or since. Eligio Ancona, the novelist and historian, 
whose hatred of the Catholic religion was only equalled by 
his benevolence to some of its strongest adherents, Cresencio 
Carrillo, Bishop of Yucatan, whose hatred of atheism was 
only equalled by his benevolence toward some of its follow- 
ers, Justo Sierra, Asnar Contreras are names of this epoch 
that still ring clear in Yucatan today. 

The white Yucatecon of that day, whether hidalgo or 
artizan, was no degenerate. As a type he was generous 
but individually rather slow to arouse, passionate in the 
mass, hospitable and patriotic, although the patriotism of 
many was the loyalty to their leaders rather than devotion 
to the cause. They knew how to fight and they fought 
-well, as the troops from Mexico, when arrayed against 
them, found out. Thus, man to man, native white against 
native red, the odds were not unequal. Today Yucatan 
has rapid trains, telegraph and telephone, well paved streets 
and all the most advanced ideas of the twentieth century. 

Modem Yucatan finds it hard herself to realize that such 
events as are described herein have taken place within her 
borders and within the memory of men still living. 

During the middle part of the last century, events were 
taking place in Yucatan that, had they happened in other 
lands or at other times, would have become subjects of epic 
poems. But the place of happening was on a distant, 
ragged edge of the American continent, more unknown, 
perhaps, to the average American of those times, than is 
the darkest spot of the Dark Continent to the citizen o{ 
today. Then, too, the time of happening was during one 
of those strange periods of world ferment, when each great 
nation was busy making its own history and had but littie 
inclination to scan the minor records of its neighbors, near or 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 241 

distant. Mexico herself was yet panting and heaving with 
the effects of her own struggles and in no condition to aid, 
while the United States was in the delirium of the gold 
fever, and besides, events were gradually shaping themselves 
that, later, were to lead to the war of the rebellion. Thus 
it was that when the "Sovereign State of Yucatan" was 
called upon to witness the death struggle between her white 
and her red-skinned children, she vsioly called upon the 
outside world for aid and was finally compelled to rely 
upon such efforts as her patriotic sons could make. 

It was during this life and death struggle between the 
two races that a page of American history became inter- 
calated in the history of Yucatan, and though so saved, 
yet practically lost. It is the purpose of the writer to restore 
this page, a stirring record of deeds of valor and bizarre 
bravery of a band of American citizens, to its proper place 
in American annals. (That we may see clearly and with 
imderstanding read this page, we must have before us a 
synopsis of the events leading up to the actions that it 
. records.J c^^^ 
(T'"^ VProm 1506 to 1519, various Spanish adventurers, Solis, 
Cordoba, Grijalva, and Cortes, had skirted the coasts of 
Yucatan and had at various times sought to make the 
land their own. Each time the assembled natives, well 
drilled, well armed for those times, and well led, received 
them so sturdily that the adventuresome strangers were 
very well content to betake themselves to their ships again 
while they were yet able, the more so as it at last became 
apparent that the conquest, even when made, offered them 
but Uttle glory and still less gold, two things greatly sought for 
by these Castilian adventurers. Finally, in 1527, the hidalgo, 
Francisco de Montejo, came and spied out the land. By 
some occult process of reasoning he found it good. He 
struggled mightily at the task but died before he could 
prove his reasoning good, and his son took up the task 
that his father had turned over to him some time previous 



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242 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

to his death. The younger Montejo worked at it diligently, 
masterfully, as a smith works over refractory metal. The 
native Mayas were like very refractory metal, but the 
younger Montejo was like a very clever smith, and he foimd 
the flux that enabled him to make them like a molten, 
plastic mass under his manipulation. Then he kneaded 
and pounded and pressed them until they were moulded to 
his liking. To be sure, when he and his immediate suc- 
cessors had called their work well done there were many 
natives less in the land, but even then the Mayas outnum- 
bered their conquerors by several hundred fold and only 
stem measures and the memory of merciless reprisals kept 
the conquered natives down. On the whole they kept 
them down below the danger mark, but the Maya race of 
Yucatan was seemingly a far more virile race than the 
natives of Cuba so quickly exterminated by the Spaniards, 
and despite their subjugation and the servile condition of 
even the highest among them, they not only increased in 
numbers but actually enforced their language upon their 
conquerors. Today, he who lives in Yucatan, outside the 
greater cities and cannot speak the native tongue, is like 
one apartj Y U. j^ 

^ Among the Mayas of every province, since the earliest 
days, there has been one of power and prominence, either 
by the inheritance of a noble family name or by a force of 
nature and strong will. When the Spanish laws came into 
force and being, they left, to such of these Maya chiefs as 
evinced desires to do the bidding of these laws, a shadowy 
vestige of their old time power. These men, known then 
as now among the natives by the native title of Batabf were 
called by the Spaniards for some curious reason by the 
Haytian term of Cacique. Batab or Cacique, they were 
obeyed most implicitly by the native people, who were thus 
by their influence made better citizens and servants. But 
from this class of natives, bom to command and strong in 
will power, were to come, in later years, the leaders destined 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 243 

to lead the rebellious natives to many fearful victories over 
the descendants of the hated white invaders. 

At the time of Stephens's famous visit to Yucatan (183ft- 
1841) the native race was still in the sullen apathy of the 
conquered towards the conquerors. There was an apparent 
tranquility over all the Peninsula. Travellers could and 
did journey from Bacalar to Valladolid and from Valladolid 
to Merida without danger to life and without more discom- 
forts than was incident to the rigors of the sim, the presence 
of irritating insects and the primitive ways of conveyance, 
This apparent quiet was not the tranquility of contented 
prosperity but the sullen constraint, and beneath that 
deceptive calm was a deep^seething hate that only needed able 
leaders and a favorable opportimity to find vent and over- 
whelm the land in a carnage as terrible as that of the Sepoys 
in Eastern India. Able leaders were ready, planning, 
scheming, resourceful, patiently biding their time and oppor- 
tunity. 

About fifty miles to the south of Valadolid was (in 1847) 
the old rancMof Tihum. No one knows its age or origin, 
and it may well have been a native ranch before the con- 
quest. Great trees were grown up around it, trees that 
may antedate the Conquest. Neither the Government or 
the Church had more than a vague knowledge of its exist- 
ence, and no chapel or cross was ever found within its 
confines. No one knows what idolatrous rites had taken 
place within the darkness of its hidden history. Within 
the safe confines of this ranch, three powerful Caciques of 
Yucatan, Ay, the Cacique of Chichimila, Cedlio Chid the 
ferocious, tigerish cacique of Tepich and Jacinto Pat, the 
astute and able cacique of Tijosuco, together with others 
of lesser note, plotted and planned. Here, imder the dark, 
noisome shade of the great trees was brewed the venom 
of the secret rebellion against the white race, a rebellion 
that was destined to last for half a century and to reduce the 
population of Yucatan from 531,000 souls in 1847 to 312,000 



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244 American Antsquartan Soctety. [Oct., 

in 1900. Strange as it may seem^ the white population 
of Yucatan went on their accustomed ways with an incred- 
ible sense of security. Although events that should have 
warned them were not lacking, few or no attempts were 
made to assuage the many real and some fancied wrongs 
against the native race. On the contrary, with strange 
obsession various local magnates by high-handed and 
arbitrary measures actually seemed to invite the outbreak. 

THE WAR OF THB RACES BEGINS. 

Don Miguel Bivero, an old planter, Uving on his plantation 
"Acambalam/' some thirty miles from ValladoUd, was a 
victim to insomnia and was accustomed to take long noc- 
turnal strolls about his plantation. While thus occupied 
he noted, night after night, large bodies of Indians stealthily 
passing his ranch, going with the quick native trot, toward 
Calumpich, the principal ranch and abiding place of Jacinto 
Pat, the Cacique of Tijosuco. Distrustful of the cause, he 
sent a faithful native servant to join one of these bands as 
they passed and learn what it all meant. The servant soon 
came back and reported that there was to be a great uprising 
of the Indians all over Yucatan, and that these they saw 
were carrying provisions and powder and shot to Calumpich 
to be kept hidden until ready for use. Finding his fears 
only too well founded, Rivero fled with all his family to 
Valladolid and there gave his fateful news to the authorities. 
Even while the authorities were taking the declaration of 
Rivero an urgent communication came from the judge in 
the town of CUchimila, the town of which the native Manuel 
Ay was Cacique, informing them that Manuel Ay, while 
imder the influence of liquor had revealed the fact that a 
general uprising of the natives was about to take place. 
With these facts before them the local authorities and the 
general government acted with great but belated energy. 
May was arrested and, confessing his part, was at once 
executed. But the time for the revolution had so nearly 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 246 

come that when Pat and Chi heard of their fellow conspi- 
rator's capture, which they did with marvellous quickness 
by the means that the natives know so well how to use, 
''the grapevine telegraph," they at once gave the signal 
and immediately wails of human suffering and despair rose 
all over the country. It is useless to go into detail; from 
now on, burned villages, outraged homes, and bloody work, 
not wholly on the side of the Indians, make a long and 
evil list not good to look upon and one that I shall leave 
with pleasure. 

The rebellious natives seemed for a while unconquerable; 
their savage ferocity and valor seemed irresistible. The 
long highway from Valladolid to Merida was thronged 
with constant streams of weary pilgrims striving to reach 
safety. At times the natives would plunge with the ferocity 
of demons upon these throngs of panic-stricken pilgrims, 
and at otfair times they would most strangely refrain from 
bloody deeds when they might easily have worked a fiendish 
will had they so desired. It is supposed that Jacinto Pat, 
the most humane of the rebellious chiefs, held back his 
band from useless rapine and slaughter, while Cedlio Chi, 
a human tiger, lost no time to glut his appetite for outrage 
and bloodshed. For a time it seemed as if the rebellious 
natives would indeed make good their threats and drive 
the white men into the sea. Town after town, city after 
dty, fell by the torch and mascab of the triumphant 
Mayas. 

From bleeding Yucatan went up a bitter wail for succor. 
Commissioners were sent to Mexico, to the United States, 
and even to the island of Cuba, asking for aid. At last, 
in very desperation, she was willing to sacrifice her dear 
bought independence to save her actual existence, and the 
authorities of the United States were informally consulted 
on that delicate point, but the opinions given were so unani- 
mously against the probabilities of success on that line that 
the project was given up. 



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246 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

But while the United States could not and would not 
interfere in the matter officially, it has been stated by 
those who were at the time in a position to know, that all 
possible aid and encouragement, short of actual and direct 
oflSdal aid, was given them in this their hour of need. How 
much or how little truth there is in this statement is not 
for me to say at this time, whatever I may discover and 
make public at a later date. Suffice it now to say that 
in the year 1847 a well drilled, well armed and perfectly 
uniformed force of nine hundred and thirty-eight men 
disembarked at the then port of Sisal, from sailing vessels 
hailing from New Orleans, and were at once ordered to 
Merida, where they went into barracks on the site of what 
is now the Suburban Police Station, at Santiago Square. 
From there they went, as ordered, to the front, and most 
of them to their death, for I am told that of the nine hun- 
dred and thirty-eight that disembarked at Sisal, only eleven 
lived to reach the United States. 

Prom now on I shall quote the statements of active 
participants on both sides of the struggle, statements made 
to me personally and noted down with great care. Two 
of the survivors of the Americans, Edward Pinkus and 
Michael Foster, were yet living in Merida during my 
remembrance. Of these two, one, Pinrus, has since died 
and the other, Foster, still lives but with impaired mind. 
Fortunately, before the one had died and the other had 
lost his intelligence, I had improved a favorable oppor- 
tunity and had obtained from them statements as given 
below. 

Edward Pinkus was bom, he told me, in Warsaw in 1820; 
he came to America at an early age and in due time be- 
came a full American citizen and s^ enthusiastic admirer 
of our American institutions. He was with General Scott 
throughout the Mexican war. After peace was concluded 
he returned to the United States, where he lived imtil 
summoned by his old officer, C!ol. White, of the Southern 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 247 

Rangers, to serve as his adjutant on an expedition against 
the rebellious Indians of Yucatan. After the Rangers 
were formally disbanded (death had practically disbanded 
them some time before), Pinkus, wounded and sick nigh 
unto death, returned to Merida. There he was tenderly 
nm^d back to life and health by the lady, a native of 
Merida, whom he afterward married. Afterward he went in 
and fought against the French by the side of Juarez. When 
peace was again declared he returned to Merida and started 
what was then the finest tailoring establishment in the 
province. He lived to see his sons grow up to be men of 
influence and respectability in the community. H^ died 
in 1904, indirectly from the woimds received in th^' fights 
with the Indians. I now give his direct, personal state- 
ment: — 

''I came over as Adjutant to Col. White, commanding 
Southern Rangers. Our officers were Col. White, Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Linton, Captain Smith and Captain Daws. 
Captain Daws came over first with two hundred men and 
Colonel White came over some time after, but Colonel 
White was in full command. We were in all nine hundred 
and thirty-eight men and, of all these fighting men, only 
eleven Uved to reach the United States again. Our first 
fight with the Indians was at Sacalum and they beat us 
bad, for they fought like devils, but the second time they 
attacked us, at nine o'clock that same night, we beat them 
badly. I, with a part of our force was in Tijosuco when 
it suffered the great siege, and there we lost a great many 
men and officers. In the battles of Bacalar, in the three 
battles of Chan Santa Cruz, at Tabi, Peto and, most of all, 
at Calumpich, we lost most of our men. I was wounded 
three times. Captain Daws was one of those who lived to 
return to the States. When I was in San Francisco in 1890 
I saw him there. He was short and fat but a good officer 
and very brave." 

Michael Foster, the second and last known survivor of 
the fighting Americans in Yucatan, was bom in Philadel- 
phia in 1823, and is now eighty-two years old. He was. 



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248 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

as he frankly states, of a roving, incorrigible disposition 
and apparently was given by the authorities the alternative 
of joining the expedition to Yucatan or going to prison. He 
enlisted and served with White until the rangers were dis- 
banded, when he married a native of Yucatan by whom he 
had one son, Carlos Foster, still living. 

Michael Foster was, at the time of making his statement, 
in 1904, clear in intellect but had almost forgotten his 
native tongue. He spoke the Spanish and the native Maya 
tongue with far greater facility than he did the English 
language. His statement is as follows: 

"I came to Yucatan with Colonel White. We disem- 
barked at Sisal and then marched on to Merida. There 
we executed the Cacique of Santiago; he was shot in the 
yard of the Santiago Police Station where we were in bar- 
racks. During the battles of Peto and Ichmul we lost 
many of our men. At Santa Maria we lost fortynseven 
and at Tabi thirty-six, but at Calumpich nearly three 
himdred of our bravest men were kiUed. The Indians 
there played us a trick; they made concealed pitfalls in the 
path and placed sharp pointed stakes at the bottom; then 
they appeared and dared us to come on; we rushed after 
them with hurrahs and many of our men fell into the pits; 
we lost many men that day but we killed a great many 
more of the Indians than they did of our men. Pinkus 
and myself are now the only ones left and I guess that we 
will go soon too. I am over eighty and have lived hard all 
my life." 

General Naverrette, an old Indian fighter of Yucatan, 
whose scarred body bears witness to his valor, stated to 
me as follows: 

"Colonel White was my friend and so was Captain Daws; 
both were brave men and strict disciplinarians. The men 
they commanded were brave men and died valiantly, 
almost to a man. They suffered their greatest losses at 
the siege of Tijosuco and the battles of Calumpich." 



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1905.] A Page of American History. 249 

I will now give the statements of those who actually 
fought against those men and, right here it may be well to 
note two interesting facts, that by a curious coincidence 
make me, perhaps, of all living persons, the only man 
who could produce these statements. Several years ago, 
while on an exploration into the then almost unexplored inte- 
rior, I chanced upon an aged native working his milpa alone. I 
spent some time in the neighborhood investigating a hitherto 
unknown ruined group, and during a part of this time he 
worked for me. Being conversant with his language, 
although a stranger, gave him confidence in me to the extent 
that he told me his Ufe history. He had been one of the 
Sublevados and had fought in the battles of Tabi and Ichmul 
against the white strangers. Afterwards, when the great 
war chief, Cresencio Poot, was traitorously killed by an 
under chief, Aniceto Dzul, he, too, fled with other adherents 
of Poot, in fear of his life. Since then he had lived alone 
and in constant fear on one hand of the white men and on 
the other of the Indians. Upon my next return to Merida, 
I interested the Governor in his story and was to bring 
him back with me to Merida, guaranteeing him safety and 
good treatment. But when I went back on my next trip, 
no traces of him personally could be found, although his 
gun and his hammock were in their accustomed place. It 
seems most probable that he was killed, either by some 
poisonous reptile, a jaguar, or perhaps by some roving band 
of the Sublevados, his former companions. 

The second interesting fact is that Leandro Poot, the 
younger brother of the former war chief of the rebellious 
Mayas, is now and has been for several years a dweller 
upon my plantation of C!hichen. We have had many hours 
of pleasant and interesting conversation and the statement 
he gives was in this way obtained. 

Dionisio Pec, the solitary maker of milpas made his 
statement as follows, and I have tried as far as was possible 
to preserve his style of making it in the vernacular. 



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260 American AtUigyarian Society. [Oct., 

"Among those who fought us at Ichmul and Tabi were 
strange white men, 'Dznlob.' They fought like very brave 
men and caused us many deaths. We had guns and powder 
from Belize but we had few balls and so we often had to 
use small stones; also we made balls of red earth, well 
mixed with honey and hard dried in the sun. These balls 
made bad wounds and hard to heal. The stranger white 
men fought close together and for that reason it was easy 
to kill them. But they were brave men and laughed at 
death and before they died they killed many of our men." 

Statement of Leandro Foot, giving Cresendo Foot's 
accoimt of the battle with the stranger white men: 

"I was then young and not in the councils of those who 
conunanded in those days, but I well remember the tales 
told me of the strange white men. When the strange white 
men came up against our people we were perplexed and 
did not know what to do. Our quarrel was not with them 
and they spoke the language of Belize, and Belize was not 
against us, so we wmted to see what was meant. Then 
some of om* people who came over to us from the white 
man's side, told us that these big stranger white men 
were friends of the white man of T'Ho (Merida) and had 
come to help him kill us. Then we fought them, but we 
had rather they had not come, for we only wanted to kill 
those that had lied to us and had done us great harm, to 
us and to our families, and even these we had rather send 
away across the water to where their fathers came from, 
and where they would cause us no more harm. It is finished. 
We fought them and we fought the white men from T'Ho 
and from Sacci (Valladolid) too, and we killed both the 
stranger white men and the white men from T'Ho and 
those from Sacci. It was easy to kill the stranger white 
men, for tbey were big and fought in line, as if they 
were marching, while the white men from T'Ho and Sacci 
fought as we do, lying down and from behind the trees 
and rocks. 

"But these white men were very brave. Their captain 
was very brave. My brother said he was the bravest man 
he ever saw. So brave was he that my brother said he 
very fooUshly spared his life once when he could easily 



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1906.] A Page of American History. 251 

have shot him. My brother admired a brave man, but he 
said that he was fooUsh that he did not shoot the captsdn 
when he had the chance, for it is a man's duty to kill his 
enemy. But all the people said that the stranger white 
men were the bravest men they ever saw. They laughed 
at death and went toward it with joy, as a yoimg man runs 
to a handsome woman. When first we met the stranger 
white men, they had built up, right in our path, a strong 
fence of thick tree trunks and behind that were the stranger 
white men and in the woods on each side were the white 
men from T'Ho and Sacci. Some of the stranger white 
men were clothed in uniform, the kind they always wore, 
while others were naked to the waist, with a red cloth tied 
around their heads and their swords buckled about their 
waists. Their big bodies were pink and red in the sunlight 
and from their throats came their strange war cry, Hu-Ha! 
Hu-Ha! (evidently a Hurrah). They were brave men and 
shot keenly. Some of them were such good shooters that 
no man could hope to escape when once they pointed at 
him; no, whether he ran or walked or crawled, it made no 
difference unless he could hide behind a tree before the 
shot was fired, and even then some of those who reached 
the tree were dead as they fell behind it, for the balls had 
found them, even as they ran behind it. 

"So for a time we greatly feared these strange white 
men and only sought to keep out of their reach. Had they 
stayed behind their defences and only used their guns as 
they could use them, no one knows what might have hap- 
pened, for our people were so scared of the big, pink-skmned 
men with their terrible cries and their death shots, that 
they could not be made to stand up against them. But 
the stranger white men were too brave, for they threw 
their Uves away, and when they found that we did not 
come up to them, they jumped over the wall that they 
had made and came to seek us. We hid behind the trees 
and rocks, wherever we could, that they might not see us, 
and so, one by one, we killed them. They killed many of 
us but we were many times their numbers and so they 
died. Brave men, very brave. Some died laughing and 
some with strange words in their own tongue, but none 
died cowardly^. I do not think any escaped. I think they lay 
where they died, for in those days we had no time to eat or 
to sleep or to bury the dead." 



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252 American AtUiquarian Society. [Oct., 

This can but serve as a simple brief made record of an 
interesting event gone by. The true record, replete in 
date and detail, must come later when time and circum- 
stance permit the labor and fulfilment of the perfected 
work. 



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1905.] Henry Hitchcock. 2S3 



HENBY HITCHCOCK. 



BY JOHN GREEN. 



In the early autumn of 1848, a serious young man, mature 
beyond his years, was inducted as assistant teacher in the 
classical department of the Worcester Classical and English 
High School, of which Nelson Wheeler was master and 
William E. Starr was assistant master. His engagement in 
Worcester was the outcome of a close friendship formed at 
Yale College with his classmate, Dwight Foster, afterwards 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Massachusetts and a Coim- 
cillor of this Society. For a sketch of his earlier life, and 
for the principal facts and dates in his subsequent career, 
the writer is indebted to the authors of the excellent Memo- 
rial printed in the proceedings of the meeting of lawyers at 
St. Louis, Missouri, held March 22, 1902.* 

''Henry Hitchcock was a great grandson of Ethan Allen, 
of Revolutionary fame. His paternal grandfather, Samuel 
Hitchcock, bom in Massachusetts, was a member of the 
Vermont Convention which ratified the Federal Constitution, 
was Attorney-General of that State and later a United 
States District Judge and Circuit Judge. His father, 
Henry Hitchcock, bom in Burlington, Vermont, in 1791, 
removed to Alabama, where, between 1819 and 1839, he 
was successively Attorney-General, United States District 
Attorney, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Ala- 
bama. Judge Hitchcock married Anne Erwin, of Bedford 
Coimty, Tennessee. Of that marriage Henry Hitchcock, 
the subject of this memorial, was bom at Spring Hill, 

•HiroQch tho ooiirt«iy of Oeorfo Collier Hitoheook, Esq., a oopy of tho i»roeeed- 
ings of this mestiog. containing an excellent reproduction of a urte photograph of 
Mr. Hitchcock, is presented for preeerration in the Librery of the Society. 



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254 American Antiqyarian Society. [Oct., 

near Mobile, Alabama. His father died in 1839, at Mobile. 
His mother went with her son to live at Nashville, Tenn. 
At the age of seventeen, he was graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Nashville, and entered Yale Collegp. He was 

graduated from Yale at nineteen, with honors 

His Alma Mater [in 1874] conferred upon him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws." 

For a year he helped to mould the character and develop 
the rudimentary scholarship of the pupils assigned to his 
classes in the Worcester High School — ^made up mainly of 
those taking courses preparatory for college, including 
several now officers and members of the American Anti- 
quarian Society. His thoroughness as a teacher, his con- 
scientiousness in the performance of duty, his high ideals, 
inculcated by word, impressed by example, are remembered 
by his old pupils. Exceptionally accurate as a student, 
he felt keenly the discovery of any lapse or shortcoming 
in the line of his work; but his ingrained honesty excluded 
conceit, and his acceptance of a new fact or a new concep- 
tion was unreserved. Not many years ago, in a conversation 
with the writer, he recalled his first interview with a dis- 
tinguished member of the Worcester School Committee, 
the Rev. Seth Sweetser, to whom had been entrusted the 
congenial task of testing his attainments in mathematics. 
Dr. Sweetser put the question: — "What do you understand 
by a minus quantity ?" The examiner's definition of a 
miniis quantity as "something to be substracted"* com- 
mended itself to the quick intelligence of the candidate, 
and was never forgotten. A too implicit trust in the 
universality of a rule in prosody once betrayed him into 
the commission of the scholastic sin of a false quantity, in 

*The writ«r is reminded by a CounoiUor of this Society that in algebra the nsns 
of addition and subtraotion stand for something done, rather than for some^unc 
to be done. In the t«rt books in general use sixty years ago, the formulation « 
rules to be oommitted to memory counted for muoh more than the enunciation of 
principles. The writer is indebted to another honored Councillor for the story 
of the illuminating disooverv made, in after years, by an old-time alumnus of the 
BoMton Latin School, that the Latin language was not founded on a code of rules 
such as he had painfully memorised from the pages of the Latin Grammar of Andrews 
and Stoddard. 



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1906.] Henry Hitchcock. 256 

a Roman proper name. A boy of fourteen, ignorant of 
the rule but relying on a somewhat retentive ear, ventured 
to call the misplaced accent in question, and was suppressed 
by a prompt citation from the grammar. Silenced but 
unconvinced, the boy had recourse to the lexicon, and, 
producing the newly discovered authority, asked for a 
rehearing of the case. The error was gracefully acknowl- 
edged, and a retraction of the hasty ruling was made to 
the class at its next meeting. The incident begot a liking 
for the boy, which ripened later into a lasting friendship; 
to the boy it revealed the sterling honesty of the teacher, 
and led up to an enduring trust in the man.* 

From Worcester "Mr. Hitchcock returned to his home 
in Nashville, Tennessee,! and entered upon the study of 
law in the office of William F. Cooper, afterwards Chan- 
cellor and Judge of the Supreme Court of Tennessee"; 
two years later he removed to St. Louis, Missouri, where he 
was admitted to practice. 

"In 1862 he was editor of the St. Louis Intelligencer, a 
newspaper of Whig affiliations, and was a delegate to the 
National Convention at Baltimore, which nominated Gen- 
eral Scott for Preeddent." 

In 1868 he joined the Republican party to which he 
maintained a steadfast allegiance until his death. 

"In 1860, on the eve of the Presidential election, he 
made his first poUtical speech, advocating the election of 
Abraham Lincoln." A visit which he had made early in 
this campaign, to Springfield, Illinois, and the profoimd 
impression made on him at the time by the personality 
of Mr. Lincoln, are said to have afforded the basis in fact 
for an impqrtant chapter of the story entitled 'The Crisis,' 
by Mr. Winston Churchill. 

*Thi8 incident of school life wm recalled frequently by Mr. Hitchcock In after 
years: it is mentioned here as an illustration of nobility of character firmly 
established in youth and exemplified throughout a long and honored career. 

tFor the principal facts and dates the writer has drawn, in most eases vertofim. 
upon the memorial in which they are reproduced from an earlier sketch printed 
in a volume entitled "Prominent St. Louisans." 



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256 American Antiqiuirian Society. [Oct., 

"In February, 1861, he was elected a delegate from St. 
Louis to the Missouri Convention, called under authority 
of the Act of the General Assembly, .... 'To consider 
the then existing relations between the Government of the 
United States, the People of the different States, and the 
Government and People of the State of Missouri; and to 
adopt such measures for vindicating the sovereignty of the 
State and the protection of its institutions as shall appear 
to them to be demanded."' 

"Mr. Hitchcock and only five other members of that 
Convention were Republicans. He was, from the assem- 
bling of the Convention till its final adjournment, ... an 
active and potent advocate of 'Unconditional Union,' and 
of the abolition of slavery in Missouri. On March 13, 
1861, ... he spoke with great force and effect in favor 
of the State's furnishing men and money to coerce the 
seceding States. ... In July, 1861, he voted for the 
ordinance which declared the offices of Governor, lieuten- 
ant Governor, and Secretary of State vacant, and instituted 
a provisional State Government .... At the final 
session of that Convention, in June, 1863, he made an elab- 
orate speech, advocating the emancipation of slaves in 
Missomi." 

"In after years Mr. Hitchcock deplored what he regarded 
as his mistake in not entering the volimteer service, in 1861. 
That was his desire; but his friends, and especially his uncle, 
Ethan Allen Hitchcock, a Major-General of Volunteers, 
insisted that his value to the cause of the Union would be 
greater as a member of the State Convention than in the 
field." 

"Mr. Hitchcock once said: 'I reluctantly acted on this 
advice, but year by year regretted it more, till in September, 
1864, before the fall of Atlanta, and when the issue of the 
war still seemed doubtful, I applied in person to Secretary 
Stanton for a commission, and obtained one; not in the 
hope at that late day of rendering military service of any 



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1905.] Henry Hitchcock. 257 

value, but simply because I could not endure the thought 
of profitmg, in safety at home, by the heroism of others, 
and of having no personal share in the defence of my country 
against her enemies in arms. '* He was appointed Assistant 
Adjutant-General of Volimteers, with the rank of Major, 
and in October, 1864, was assigned to duty on General 
Sherman's staff, at the latter's request. . . . July 23, 
1865, he was honorably mustered out of service." 

From 1865 Mr. Hitchcock devoted himself continuously 
to the law.- His career as a lawyer roimded out the full 
term of fifty years. He rose to the highest rank in the 
estimation of those best qualified to judge him — ^his col- 
leagues of the Bar. 

"As a lawyert he achieved a national reputation for 
ability, learning, integrity, and power. . . . His concep- 
tions of the lawyer's fimctions and duties were exalted. As 
a lawyer he was broad, accurate, intense; ... He was 
a force in the administration of justice." 

"No other man at the bar occupied exactly the same 
position that Mr. Hitchcock did.| He stood for those 
things which, say what we may, are still held in the very 
highest estimation by the lawyers as well as by the com- 
munity at large. He stood for the open and candid and 
forcible upholding of the right as against the wrong. As 
a lawyer he stood as an example and exemplification of 
what a l&wyer's life and attitude should be, not merely to 
the bar, not merely to his chents, but more important still to 
his country at large and to the community in which he lives." 

"As a jurist, Henry Hitchcock was of national reputa- 
tion. § He brought to the practice of the law not only a 

* These words of Mr. Hitchoock, quoted from tlie Memorial, recite, prsotically 
iterbatim, what he said a few days ago to the writer of this sketch. No one who 
knew Mr. Hitchcock can doubt that his acceptance of a civic career during the 
critical period in Missouri meant the sacrifice of personal inclination to imperative 
puUic duty. The real and continuing dangjsr to which he had so feariessly 
exposed himself at home would seem not to nave been regarded seriously by him, 

tQuoted from the Memorial. 

IQuoted from remarks by Judge Jacob Klein in calling to order the meetiBg 
of Lawyers held in St. Louis. March 22, 1002. 

JFrom remarks by Mr. G. A. Finkelnburg, for seven years Mr. Hitchcock's 
partner in practice, now United States District Judge. 



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258 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct., 

profound knowledge of the law itself, but a wealth of schol- 
arly attainments and literary embellishments rarely foimd 
in the busy practitioner of the present day. And with all, 
and, perhaps, above all, Mr. Hitchcock never failed to 
remember that one of the highest duties of a lawyer is to 
aid the courts in a correct and righteous administration of 
justice. ... As a citizen, his lofty sentiments, and above 
all his indomitable courage of conviction, made him one 
of those heroic characters in our civic and political life 
which are as rare as they are valuable." 

"Mr. Henry Hitchcock* was a lawyer of the t3rpe of Pym, 
and Maynard, and Somers, and Adams, and Jefferson. He 
devoted himself to his profession, not merely as a business, 
but as a public duty. . . Active as he was in his pro- 
fession, . . . active as he was in the public life of his time, 
. . . active as he had been during the Civil War and in 
what led up to it, . . . there never was reproach upon his 
character. He bore a good repute among men; . . the 
repute of respect, which he had even from those to whom 
he was most earnestly opposed." 

''In 1859 he was chosen and to the end of his life con- 
tinued a Director of Washington University [in St. Louis]. 
For [fifteen] years, to the time of his death, he was \^oe- 
President [of the Board]." 

''In 1867 Mr. Hitchcock took prominent part in founding 
the St. Louis Law School [the Law Department of Wash- 
ington University]. He was for the first three years Dean 
of the School, " and for many years a member of its Faculty. 

"In 1878, with three other eminent members of the pro- 
fession, he imited in a call for a convention of lawyers at 
Saratoga, which resulted in the formation of the American 
Bar Association. ... In 1880 he was President of the 
St. Louis Bar Association. . . In 1881 he was President 
of the Civil Service Reform Association of Missouri. He 
was then and until his* death a member of the National 



*From remarks by Mr. Frederic W. Lehnuum, of the St. Louii Bar. 



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1905.] Henry Hitchcock. 259 

Civil Service Reform League, and was always an earnest 
worker in the cause of Civil Service Reform. In 1882 he 
was President of the Missouri Bar Association. From 1889 
till the time of his death he was one of the trustees of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, appointed by the will of [its 
foimder] Mr. Henry Shaw. In 1889 he was President of 
the American Bar Association, and in 1901 was chosen one 
of the Trustees of the National Institution established [at 
Washington, D. C] by Andrew Carnegie." 

"Mr. Hitchcock's great reputation beyond as well as in 
Missouri brought him invitations to deUver addresses 
before many learned bodies. . . In 1879 [he read a paper] 
before the American Bar Association on 'The Inviolability 
of Telegrams'; in 1887, before the New York State Bar 
Association, on 'American State Constitutions,' and in the 
same year, before the American Bar Association, upon 
'General Corporation Laws'; he deUvered an address before 
the ^Political Science Association of the University of Mich- 
igan on 'The Development of the Constitution of the United 
States as influenced by Chief Justice Marshall'; at the 
Centennial Celebration of the Organization of the Federal 
Judiciary, on 'The Supreme Court and the Constitution;' 
in 1897, before the National Civil Service Reform Leaguei 
on 'The RepubUcan Party and Civil Service Reform.'" 

Mr. Hitchcock impressed all who came in contact with 
him as an exceptionally serious and self-contained man. 
To those who knew him as a young man he appeared shy 
and reserved. Throughout life he was regarded, even by 
many who thought they knew him, as cold and unsympa- 
thetic. He did not wear his heart upon his sleeve for daws 
to peck at. Devotion to his life work was the keynote to 
his character; he sought necessary relaxation in varied 
reading, which covered the entire domain of the best litera- 
ture. He kept up his classical studies to the end, and 
took especial delight in the perfect diction and broad human- 
ity of his favorite poet, Horace. 



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260 American Antiquarian Society. [Oct,, 

Integer viUie eceleriaque purua 

depicts truly the sterling quality of the man who, in the 
words of his sometime associate in practice,* ''carries with 
him the admiration of all lawyers, the esteem of all good 
citizens, and the love and affection of those who had an 
opportunity of associating more intimately with him in 
his private life. " 

Odi profanum vulgua et arceo 

voices his innate aversion to whatever he regarded as low 
or imworthy. 

Justum et tenacem propositi virum 
turn civium, ardor prava jvberUium, 
non vuUtia inetantts iyranni 
mentequatit eolida 

describes without exaggeration the ''moral courage and 
fideUty to conviction [of the citizen who] was sure to tread 
wherever his sense of duty pointed the way";t who "con- 
sidered and determined his course of action . . . from 
the standpoint of duty, . . . never stopping to debate, 
either with himself or with others, the question of whether 
his advocacy or condenmation of a measure would have 
an imfavorable effect upon his own interests, "t 

It was the privilege of comparatively few to know Mr. 
Hitchcock intimately in his home life. In the company 
of a few chosen guests, gathered at his table, he appeared 
at his best — ^the affable, courteous and refined gentleman. 
"With tactful and engaging manner, carrying the conver- 
sation and causing all to follow, with the brilliancy of his 
conversation, roaming from grave to lighter moods, replete 
with reminiscences and anecdote, with humorous disquisit- 
tions upon topics of the day and Uterature, who would 
not bear cheerful testimony that he was the incomparable 
host?"— § 

BeatuB .... procul negotiis.** 

*Hoii. G. A. Finkdnburg. 

tFrom remarks by Mr. E. H. Kehr, of the St. Louis Bar. 
^Memorial. 

{From remarks by Mr. Henry T. Kent, of the St. Louis Bar. 
**Mr. Hitehcoek oontributed a rendition, in Enclish verne, of the seoond Epode of 
Horaee, printed, after his death, for the Bibliophile Society of Boston. 



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1905. Henry Hitchcock. 261 

The maxim— Whatever is worth doing is worth doing 
well — ^was accepted by Mr. Hitchcock as an axiom; it was 
his constant and sure guide in college; he insisted on it 
with his pupils in the Worcester High School; it dominated 
his life. His industry was untiring. He had a remarkably 
acciu'ate and retentive memory. He was phenomenally 
quick and sure in grasping facts and principles. His reason- 
ing was clear and convincing. His judgment was not likely 
to be questioned. He was a fluent and persuasive speaker; 
a perspicuous, forceful and elegant writer. A patrician 
by birthright, his natural bent was confirmed by association 
with men of kindred instincts. He beUeved in government 
by the people, but a personal study of the ways of profes- 
sional politicians early convinced him that they were not 
for him. A Republican from 1858, he was loyal to the 
principles and a power in the higher councils of the party. 
He believed in his party as the exponent of political doctrinci 
and in public office as a trust. By temperament and train- 
ing he was eminently fitted for the highest legislative or 
judicial positions; but in Missouri the judiciary is elective, 
and his personality was not such as to appeal to party 
managers. Moreover, he was not of the dominant party 
in the state at large. 

''As a citizen he occupied a poation almost unique.* 
Brave to the uttermost in upholding and defending what 
he considered right and good in the administration of 
public affairs, he never wavered in the conscientious per- 
formance of every duty which citizenship in a republic 
imposes on the individual . . . His active participation 
in political discussions marked the deep rooted sincerity 
of his nature and convictions, and showed that he considered 
and determined his course of action . . . from the stand- 
point of duty, . . . duty to advocate and stand for that 
which was right, and to oppose and condemn that which 
was wrong from the standpoint of morals." 

^Quoted from the Memorial. 



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262 American Antiquarian Society. Oct., 

In 1857, Mr. Hitchcock married Mary Collier, of St. 
Louis. Mrs. Hitchcock and two sons bom of this union, 
Henry and George Collier, survive him. 

Mr. Hitchcock was bom on July 3, 1829, and died on 
March 18, 1902. He was elected a member of the 
American Antiquarian Society in 1882. Engrossing 
interests with which he had become identified made it 
impracticable for him to attend its meetings or to con- 
tribute to its work. 

It was the privilege of the writer to sit under Mr. Hitch- 
cock as a pupil in the Worcester High School, and to know 
him again as a trusted friend from 1866. The limits of 
•this sketch do not permit an adequate presentation of the 
man as he was in life and as he lives in memory. 



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PROCEEDINGS 



"^ .iimnuj ^iiliqui:^ n; '^onm 



ifiinjAL MEETING HELD m ^iOHCE3^ 



m. 




WCh 






. PRIVfT?; 



It fit If f ri«^ iytt*^n^rT^ 4 in-n» p»ffli» 




April, 1906.] ^^ffF(^ingfirKi;^y 263 



PROCEEDINGS. 



8EMI-ANNX7AL MEETINO, APRIL 25, 1906, AT THE HALL OF 
THE MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETT IK BOSTON. 



Vice-president Hon. Samuel A. Green of Boston occupied 
the chair. 

The following members were present: 

Nathaniel Paine, Samuel A. Green, Edward L. Davis, 
James F. Hunnewell, Edward H. Hall, Charles C. Smith, 
Edmund M. Barton, Samuel S. Green, Henry W. Haynes, 
Andrew McF. Davis, Solomon Lincoln, Daniel Merriman, 
William B. Weeden, Henry H. Edes, A. George Bullock, 
G. Stanley Hall, William E. Foster, Charles P. Greenough, 
Edwin D. Mead, Charles Francis Adams, Francis H. Dewey, 
Calvin Stebbins, James L. Whitney, George H. Haynes, 
Waldo Lincoln, John Noble, George P. Winship, Austin S. 
Garver, Samuel Utley, Edward H. Gilbert, E. Harlow 
Russell, Benjamin T. Hill, Edward G. Bourne, Anson D. 
Morse, Deloraine P. Corey, Clarence S. Brigham. 

In the absence of the Recording Secretary, Mr. Edmund 
M. Barton was chosen as Secretary pro tem. 

The report of the Coimcil was read by Nathaniel Painb, 
A. M. It was accepted and referred to the Committee of 
Publication. 

A Memorial of the late President of the Society, the Hon. 
Stephen Salisbury, prepared by Rev. Edward E. Hale, 
D. D., was read by Mr. Samuel S. Green. 



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264 American AfUiqtuirian Society. [April, 

The Council presented for election to membership the 
name of Frederick Lewis Gay, A. B., of Brookline, lilassachu- 
setts. A ballot was taken, and Mr. Gay was duly elected. 

Andrew McFarlakd Davis, A. M., reported as follows: 
''While this ballot is being taken, I would like to take the 
opportimity to report that as a delegate of the Society 
appointed in the absence of the other officers from Wor- 
cester, by the senior member of the council, I attended 
the Franklin bi-centenary exercises of the American Philo- 
sophical Society at Philadelphia which covered four days 
last week. The extent of the preparations was something 
remarkable, and the expenditure of money was great. 
Marvellous executive capacity was displayed in all the 
arrangements, to carry out which the State of Pennsylvania 
had appropriated twenty thousand dollars. I do not 
intend, however, to go into the affair in any detail at this 
time, but simply wished to have it placed in the record 
that we were represented there, and that every courtesy 
was extended this Society. '^ 

Mr. Samuel S. Gbeen called attention to that part of 
the report of the Coimdl relating to the real estate devised 
by Mr. Salisbury. On his motion, the Hon. Solomon 
Lincoln and Mr. Green were appointed a committee to 
prepare a vote with reference to it. 

The Society listened to a paper by Prof. Anson D. Morse 
of Amherst College on ''The Principlesof Thomas Jefferson.'' 
Prefacing his paper. Prof. Morse said: "All of us have 
noted that appeal to the principles of Thomas Jefferson is 
frequently made in support of hostile policies, and it 
becomes therefore an object of some importance to try to 
find out what these principles really are. This suggested 
to me the study and the outline of the results which I 
wish to lay before you. The study is larger in its material 
than I had supposed it to be, and the results are less definite 



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1906.] Proceedings. 265 

than I hoped that they would be; and I can report, in 
general, progress rather than dependable conclusions. 
And I would ask of members of the Society as a special 
personal favor wherever the method pursued, which will 
be indicated clearly, and wherever the conclusions indicated, 
seem to vary from those which you would employ, and 
those which you yourselves have reached, if you would very 
kindly let me know of the differences, it will help me in the 
completion of this study, which I hope in the end to make 
complete and thorough. '' 

Mr. Solomon Lincoln: "I should like to offer the 
following vote and I have a word of explanation before 
I reach it. It relates to the property given to the Society 
by Mr. Salisbury, and it is obvious that in dealing with 
real estate, some formal action and vote of the Society 
will ultimately be necessary; and it is equally obvious that 
the Society as a body cannot deal with negotiations of 
purchases and sales. Therefore I offer this vote: 

"Voted, that the Coimcil have authority to deal with 
the real estate devised to the Society by its late President, 
either by way of sale, exchuig?, or otherwise, and to pur- 
chase other real estate with the proceeds of the sale of the 
devised property if sold; the action of the Council to be 
ratified by such further and formal action of the Society 
as may be necessary to perfect the title to any real estate 
sold or acquired under the provisions of this vote. " 

After some discussion a vote of the society was taken on 
the action proposed by Mr. Lincoln, and it was unanimously 
adopted. 

A paper dealing with the ancient customs and beliefs of 
the time of Columbus, was prepared and presented by Prof. 
Edward G. Bourne, of Yale University. 

Mr. Andrew McF. Davis: "I should like to ask Prof. 
Boiune whether in the accoimt of the arrival of the clothed 
strangers, there was either any intimation of where they came 



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266 Ameiican Antiquarian Society. [April, 

from, or any description of the clothing which they wore, or 
whether they arrived by sea. That would probably be 
so, but whether there was any distinct evidence in the 
tradition of the method of their arrival?" 

Prof. Bournb: "Apparently not. I read all there was. 
It is possible the story might have originated through 
some stray vessel of some Central Americans, who were 
clothed, coming to the island, and that may have given 
the start to it." 

Mr. Davis: "The question might arise whether it was 
connected with the various traditions relative to the arrival 
of clothed strangers running all through the accounts of 
the Indians of North America, given by priests and travel* 
lers. In studying those things, we have to consider first 
the influence of the white man on the traditions, and second, 
the influence of the writer himself, on the story which he 
records. Obviously, there are many reasons why the 
Spaniard should distort and falsify events, but here you 
are getting back behind all possible influence by whites 
upon events, and here you have nothing to deal with but 
the writer himself. Everywhere in the Northwest, even 
up in the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay there were stories 
current of the arrival from the west of strangers in curious 
clothes. The accoimts of the Indians were necessarily 
ambiguous as to where this event took place. From some 
of them it might be inferred that it was the Great Salt 
Lake. From others that it was the Gulf of California — or 
perhaps the Oregon Coast. These stories I collated in 
my discussion of the Journey of Moncacht-Ap6 which I 
read before this Society April 25, 1883. Even though 
we do not find any direct connection between these storiea 
and the book referred to by Prof. Bourne, even though 
they are widely different, there is a possible foundation, 
for the whole upon the same basis; this may be the same 
tradition that is foimd among all our Northern Indians,. 



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1906.] Proceedings. 267 

of the arrival of foreigners upon the coast, which you run 
across even up to Hudson's Bay." 

Mr. William E. Fostbe, of Providence, R. I., read a 
paper entitled, "The Point of View of History." 

Mr. George P. Winship, of Providence, in connection 
with Mr. Foster's paper, read some extracts from the cor- 
respondence of Mr. WiUiam Palfrey, who in 1762 was 
clerk in a store in Boston. 

The meeting was dissolved, and many of the members 
repaired to the Hotel Somerset for limcheon. 

Attest: EDMUND M. BARTON, 

Recording Secretary pro tempore. 



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268 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL. 



As provided by the by-laws, the Council of the American 
Antiquarian Society herewith submits its semi-annual 
report for the six months ending April 23, 1906. 

Since the last meeting of the Society, we have sustained 
a great loss in the death of our honored President Stephen 
Sdisbury, who, after a brief illness, died at his home in 
Worcester, November 16, 1905. 

He was apparently in his usual good health at the time 
of our annual meeting the last of October, and he enter- 
tained the members at his home in his customary hospitable 
manner. A special meeting of the Council was at once 
called at widdi appropriate eulogistic remarks were made 
by Vice-Ptesident Green and other members present, which 
have been printed and sent to our members. 

The Council suggests that it would be most fitting that 
some permanent memorial of our late President should 
be placed in our building, perhaps a bust, medallion, or a 
portrait in oil, thus showing our recognition of his valuable 
services to tiie Society. 

Ever smce Mr. Salisbury became the President of the 
Society, he has taken the most active interest in its affairs 
and was familiar with all details of its management, and 
by those who have been most intimately connected with 
him in its administration, his loss is most keenly felt. That 
the future of the Society and its welfare was in his mind 
is manifested by his generous remembrance of it in his will. 
The following extracts from that document are given in 
order to place on record this substantial evidence of his 
thoughtful and practical interest in the future of our Society. 



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1906.] Report of Council. 269 



"1 



40. I give and bequeath to the American Antiquarian 
Society, tb^ estate upon Lincohi Square, known as the 
SaUsbuiy Mansion Estate, containing some twenty-four 
thousand four hundred and fifty (24,450) square feet of land 
to be used by the said Society as the location of a new 
library building, or in such manner as may best further 
the purpose of the library and collections. 

''11. I give and bequeath to the American Antiquarian 
Society of Worcester, aU my books, all of my private library 
and the Greek and Maya antiquities collected by me, and 
* those now deposited in cases in the Antiquarian Hall, the 
furniture previously loaned to the Society and the sum of 
Two hundred thousand (200,000) dollars." 

The library of Mr. Salisbury now in process of removal 
to our Hall will add several himdred volumes to our collec- 
tions and it is quite probable that many may prove dupli- 
cates of those now on our shelves. Owing to the present 
crowded condition of the alcoves it may be considered 
advisable to authorize the Library C!ommittee to sell or 
exchange such duplicates, where they are not of special 
antiquarian or historical value. 

TUs question of the disposition of the duplicate material 
in our present building is fast becoming a matter for serious 
consideration and more discrimination must be used in 
the future and only volumes of special interest and value 
purchased. The additional room leased by the Council on 
Simmier street for the storage of newspapers not often 
called for is now about full and the need of additional space 
to properly care for our rapidly increasing treasures will 
soon become apparent. 

The Council would call special attention to our valuable 
collection of manuscripts and recommend that a competent 
person be employed to arrange, classify and catalogue them. 
Our late President was much impressed with the importance 
of this and had expressed himself in favor of such a course, 
as has also our associate J. Franklin Jameson of the Carnegie 
Institution, who expressed his willingness to aid in any way 
in his power. It seems quite probable that a great deal 



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270 American Antiqiuirian Society. [April, 

of valuable historical matter would be brought to light as a 
result of such action, some part of which should be printed 
by the Society. At any rate it would seem worth while to 
appoint a committee to investigate this department and 
report to the Council the result of such investigation. Not- 
withstanding this part of the Society's collection is not 
yet catalogued some use of it has been made by 
historical students, but a good catalogue would not only 
make it of more practical value to such students, but add 
to the reputation of the Society as a place for study and 
research. William lincoln made a report for the Coimcil in 
1830 in which he refers to the Society's manuscripts as being 
rare and curious, and urg^s members to explore their garrets 
in search of old papers to add to the collection, the response 
to which undoubtedly added many valuable manuscripts. 
The Society has ah^ady published from the manuscripts 
in their possession : 

" The Diaries of John Hull, Mint-Master and Treasurer of the Colony 
of Massachusetts Bay," with a memoir l^ Samuel Jennison and notes 
by Edward E. Hale. Archsologia Americana, Vol. Ill 

"A Short Discourse of a Voyage made in ye yeare of our Lord 1613 
to ye late discovered Gountrye of Greenland; and a breife discription 
of ye same countrie, and ye Gomodities yer raised to ye Aduentureis." 

This was published by the Antiquarian Society in Vol. IV. of Arch»> 
ologia Americana, with an introduction and notes by Samuel F. Haven. 
Fifty copies were also printed in separate form. 

''Note-Book kept by Thomas Lechford, Esq., Lawyer, in Boston, 
Massachusetts Bay, from June 27, 1638, to July 29, 1641." Edited l^ 
Edward Everett Hale, Jr. ViTith a sketch of the life of Lechford l^ 
J. Hammond Trumbull. LL.D. Archsologia Americana, Vol. Vn. 

''The Diary of ChristopherColumbus Baldwin, Librarian of the American 
Antiquarian Society, 1820-1835, with an introduction and notes by 
Nathaniel Paine, A.M.," ViTorcester, 1901. 

The diary of our first president, Isaiah Thomas, is 
in process of publication, one volume being ah^ady in print, 
and it is expected that the material for the second volume 
will soon be in the hands of the printer. 

Attention is called to the fact that Mrs. Reynolds our 
Librarian's assistant has prepared for the Alabama Depart- 



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1906.] Report of CouncU. 271 

ment of Archives and History, a list of the newspapers 
printed in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee, 
which list has been printed in the Gulf States Historical 
Magazine. As this list is not likely to come to the notice 
of many of our members it is suggested that it be printed 
with the "Proceedings" for their benefit.^ 

The Collection, and Research Fund, so termed since 
April 1858, founded by the receipt of S5000 from the 
estate of Isaiah Thomas and now amounting to over $16,000, 
was given for the purpose of using the income in exploring 
ancient monuments of this coimtry and to aid in increasing 
the library and cabinet. It is suggested that as but little 
of the income has been used in the past for the study and 
exploration of ancient monuments an appropriation 
might be made for a special paper to become a part of 
another volume of the Archseologia Americana. 

Reports of the Treasurer and Librarian are now presented 
only at the Annual Meeting but the Council report both 
these departments to be in good condition at this time, 
and that there have been large additions to the library 
and cabinet. The general appearance of the interior of 
our building has been greatly improved within the last six 
months by judicious cleaning and painting by our new 
janitor. 

As the real estate bequeathed to the Society by Mr. Salis- 
bury came into its le^ possession immediately after the 
probating of the will, the income derived therefrom, amount- 
ing to about $365 on the first of April, has been credited to 
the Society by the Executors. This income for the year from 
the property as it is now rented will amount to a little less 
than $1000 out of which the taxes and running expenses 
must be deducted. The Salisbury Mansion lot contains 
24,450 square feet and is assessed for about $37,000. While 
a valuable property, it is not, on account of its location, 
adapted for building purposes for the Society and it should 

iThis list ia given at the eloae of the report of the Council. 

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272 American Antigmrian Society, [April, 

either be sold or exchanged for laad more favorably located 
for our uses. This matter might be put into the hands of 
our Finance Committee with power to act, if thought 
expedient by the Society. 

The death of our President caused a vacancy on the 
Library Committee which has been filled by the appoint- 
ment of Mr. Waldo Linooln. 

Besides that of the President the Council regrets to 
announce the death of James D. Butler, LL. D., of Madison, 
Wisconsin, who died November 20, 1905 at the age of 91 
years, and of Samuel P. Lan^ey, D. C. L., of Washington, 
D. C, who died at Aiken, S. C, Febniary 27, 1906, notices 
of whom will be presented by our biographer. 

By the original Act of Incorporation of the Antiquarian 
Society, which was approved by Gov. Caleb Strong, October 
24, 1812, it was provided ''that the annual income of any 
real estate by said Society holden, shall never exceed the 
sum of fifteen himdred dollars, and that the personal estate 
thereof, exclusive of books, papers and articles in the 
Museum of said Society, shall never exceed the value of 
seven thousand dollars." 

In February, 1894, by request of the Society, the following 
amendment was made to its Act of incorporation: 

An act to authorize the American Antiquarian Society 
to hold additional real and personal estate. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The American Antiquarian Society is hereby 
authorized to hold real and personal estate, in addition to 
books, papers and articles in its cabinet, to an amount 
not exceeding five himdred thousand dollars. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. 

Approved February 26, 1894. 

This act made legal the holding of property heretofore 
acquired and also provided for expected additions. 

Since the passage of this amendment a general law has 
been enacted: "Revised Laws, Chapter 125, Section 8," 



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1906.] Report of CauncU. 273 

which provides that ''Any corporation organized under 
general or special laws for any of the purposes mentioned 
in Section 2 . . . (Educational, Charitable, Antiquarian^ 
Historical, Literary or Scientific) may hold real and personal 
estate to an amount not exceeding one million five hundred 
thousand dollars . . . •" 

For the Council, 

NATHANIEL PAINE. 



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274 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



NBWSPAPBE FILES. 



ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI AND TENNESSEE NEWSPAPER FILES 
IN THE LIBRARY OF THE AMERICAN ANTIQUARIAN 
SOCIETY, WORCESTER, MASS. 
Blaxslbt. 

Thx Blakklbt Sun, and Alabama Advertzskr. s. w. 
Mar. 23, 30, 1819. 

Cahawba. 

Alabama Statb Gazettb. w. Apr. 28, BCay 12, 1825. 
Cahawba Press and Alabama Intelliqencer. w. July 17, 1819; 

July 15, 1820. 
Cahawba Press and Alabama State Intelliqencer. w. 

Mar. 19, BCay 14, 1825. 

Claiborne. 

Alabama Courier. Mar. 19, Apr. 9, July 9, Aug. 20, 1819. 

Claiborne Gazette, w. BCar. 19, 1825. 
Decatur. 

Southern Meteor. Vol. 2, No. 2, Apr. 1878. 

EUFAULA. 

The Eufaula News. Feb. 11, 1868. 
Gadsden. 

Stiff's Radical Reformer, w. Dec. 4, 1853-Jan. 21, 1854. 
melted into the 
Radical Reformer, w. Feb. 25^ Mar. 4, 1854. 

Hunts viLLE. 

HUNTBVILLE DaILT INDEPENDENT. July 11, 1867. 

Alabama Repubucan. w. Apr. 18, 1818; Apr. 3, 1819. 
Marion. 

The Howard Collegian, m. Aug. 1881. 
Marion Junction. 

The Priss. Vol. 1, No. 2, Apr. 76 (amateur) 32«. 
Mobile. 

Mobile Litsrart Gazette, w. Devoted to Literature, Science, 

Mondity, and Genend Intelligence. Aug. 9, 1839. 
The Mobile Mercantile Advertiser, s. w. Dec. 18, 22, 1835; 

Jan. 5, 29, 1836. 
The Weeelt Mercury. Nov. 27, 1865. 

Mobile Evening News. July 2, 1862; Aug. 20, 1863; May 28, 
June 10, 1864. 



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1906.] Newspaper Files. 275 

Mobile Evknino Nxwb (Railroad £ditioxH-3 p. u.) d. Sundinr 

excepted. July 10, 15, 16, 18, 1862; Aug. 12, Oct. 8, 22, 1864. 
MoBiuD MoBNiNO NxwB. May 27, 1865. 
Mobile Adtkrtibxb and BjosmrmE, d. t. w. and w. June 16, 

July 10, 1862; Feb. 14, July 27, 31, Aug. 3, 13, Sept. 18, Oct. 16, 

21, 22, 25, 26, 1864. 
Mobilb Ck>iafSBCiAL Rboibtbb. w. May 12, 19, 26, 1832. 
Mobilb Ck>iocsBCiAL Rboibtsb and Patbiot. 8. w. Dec. 7, 

1832-Mar. 21, 1835. 1 voL 
Mobilb Daily Coiocbbcial Rboibteb and Patbiot. Sept. 7, 1839. 
Thk Daily Rboibtbb. dem. est. 1821. Sept. 1, 1886; Sept. 1, 1887. 
Mobilb Etbning Telbgbafh. June 2, 1862; June 8, Nov. 17, 1864« 
Mobilb Daily TmiB. Published morning and evening. Nov. 21, 

1865. 
Mobilb Daily Tbibunb. Mar. 8, 1861; June 29, July 8, 1862; 

June 5, July 13, Aug. 7, 14, 17, 21, Oct. 23, 1864; Apr. 7, 10, 1868. 

montgoioeby. 

Advkrtibbb and State Gazbttb. Nov. 24, 1852. 

MoNTGOMKBY Daily Advertibeb. July 9, 1862; Feb. 18, 23, 24. 
Mar. 1, 16, 1864. 

Planter's Qazettb. est. 1830. Apr. 27, 1830; Jan. 3, 1832. 

Montqomeby Republican, w. Apr. 29, 1825. 

State Sentinel— Extra. (Daily State Sentinel. 1867.) 
Selma. 

The Daily Mibsissippian. Aug. 29, 1863. 
Tuscaloosa. 

Tuscaloosa Qazbtte. w. Oct. 17, 1878. 

Alabama iNTELuaENCEB and State Rights Expositor. Dec. 5, 
1835. 

The Meteor. Vol. 1, No. 1, 1872; Vol. 2, No. 6, Oct. 1873; Vol. 4, 
No. 16, Apr., 1876. 

Spirit or the Aoe. w. May 23, 1832. 

State Rights Expositor and Spirit of the Age. Sept. 14, 1832. 
Union Springs. 

Union Springs Times, w. Feb. 20, 1867^ 



MISSISSIPPI. 
Canton. 

Canton Herald, w. BCay 30, 1838. 
Carrollton. 

Mississippi Democrat, w. Dec. 22, 1848. 
CSharlebton. 

The Tallahatghian. w. Feb. 16, 1867. 
Corinth. 

The Young Reader. Mar. 15, 1877 (amateur) 8^. 
Holly Springs 

The Mississippi Times. Jan. 18, Feb. 1, Apr. 20, 1854. 



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276 American Andjuarian Society. [April, 

BuirrsviLLv. (BCimmppi Territory, now in Alabama.) 

Madison GAmrB. w. Oct. 19, 1813 
Jackbok. 

Ths Daily MmaiasiPFiAN. Jane 20, 21, July 6, 1862. 

MsaiDIAN. 

Ths DaQiT Glabion. Aug. 80, 1863. 
Natghu. 

Thk Webklt Chroniglx. July 6, Sept. 7, Oct. 12, Nov. 2, 16* 
Deo. 14, 28, 1808; Jan. 11, 25, Feb. 22, Mar. 1, Apr. 5, May 6, 

13, June 3, 17, 1809; May 28, June 26, July 2, 16, Aug. 13, 27, 
Sept. 10, Oct. 8, Nov. 5, 12, Dec. 31, 1810. Jan. 7, 21, 28, Feb. 

11, Mar. 4, Apr. 8, 1811. 

SoirrHKBN Galaxy, w. June 12, Dec. 13, 1823. 

Natchss Gacvttb. 8. w. and w. Aug. 5, 10, 17, 26, 31, Sept. 

2, 7, 9, 14, 1808; July 28, 1813. 
The Natchss Gashttb and Missnaippi GnnERAL Adybbtibbb. w. 

June 20, 27, July 4, Aug. 1, 16, 22, Sept. 6, 26, Oct. 10, 31, Not. 

14, Deo. 26, 1811; Jan. 9, Feb. 13, Mar. 6, 26, Apr. 2, May 7, 
1812. 

MiBSiasiPPi Hbbald and Natchbe Gity Gaskith. Jan. 14, 21, 

1803; May 19, 23, 28, 30, 1804. 
MiBSiBBipPi Hkrald and Natchbe Gaksttb. Mar. 26, 1807. 
Miasiasippi Hkrald and Natchbe Rbpositoby. JvHj 18, 1803. 
Thb MiasuBiFPi Mbsbbnobb. w. Sept. 7, Oct. 12, 19, 26, Not. 

2, 9, 23, 30, 1804; Jan. 18, 26, Feb. 8, Mar. 16, 29, Apr. 26, 

June 7, July 19, Aug. 16, 30, Sept. 6, Oct. 29, Nov. 6, 1806; 

June 2, 16, July 7, 14, Sept. 22, Nov. 26, 1807; Mar. 24, July 7, 

1808. 
Thb MiasmsiPPLAN. w. Dec. 22, 29, 1808; Jan. 19, Feb. 2, Mar. 

9, 16, 23, May 1, 16, 29, Aug. 14, 1809; May 14, June 4, Aug. 20, 

27, Sept. 10, 1810. 
MiBSiBfiiPFi Rbpubucan. w. Apr. 23, May 20, 1812; Oct. 20, 

1813; Jan. 26, 1814; May 24, 181 J; Apr. 9, 1818; liar. 23, 1819. 
Thb WABHrnoTON Rbpublican and Natchbs Intbluobncbb. w. 

July 31, Sept. 11, 1816; June 14, 1817. 

Ship Island. 

Nbwb Lbttbb. Extra. May 2, 1862. (amateur) 8^ 

ViCXSBURO. 

Thb Daily Oitizbn. July 2, 1863. (The last newspaper published 
in Vicksbuig. Mississippi, on the day preyious to the surrender 
of the Gonfederste forces under Genml Pemberton, to the Union 
forces under General Grant.) 

ViCKBBUBQ Rbqibtbb. d. and w. Jan. 2, 1828; Dec. 17, 1836. 

YicKSBUBO Rbpubucan. s. w. and w. June 12, 26, 28, July 9, 

12, 16, 18, 26, 30, Aug. 2, 9, 13, 20, 23. 27, 30, Sept. 3, 6, 10, 13, 
17, 20, 24, Dec. 31, 1867; Jan. 14, Mar. 31, 1868. 



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1906.] Newspaper FiJes. 277 

TENNESSEE. 

Athens. 

Thst Athens Republican, w. July 12, 26, Sept. 13, 27, 1867. 

The Watchman. July 9, 1642. 
Bristol. 

Bristol Qazefte. w. Mar. 24, 1864. 
Carthage. 

Carthaob GAZsrrrE. w. Aug. 13, 1808; Aug. 20, 1816; July 1, 1817. 

Western Express, w. Nov. 21, 1803. 
Chattanooga. 

"JiwncE." w. Deo. 24, 1887. 

The Chattanooga Daily Rebel. Deo. 17, 1862. 

Chattanooga Republican, w. Apr. 13, 1800. 

The Tradesman. Aug. 1, 16, Sept. 15, Oct. 1, Dec. 16, 1881; Aug. 
1, 16, Sept. 1, 15, Oct. 1, 1882. 

Clarkstille. 

United States Herald. Aug. 11, 1810. 
Clinton. 

Clinton QAsnrE. w. Mar. 30, 1888. 
Columbia. 

The Dede Farmer. May 28, 1868. 

Columbia Herald, w. May 12, 1866. 
Dresden. 

Tennessee Patriot, w. Oct. 16, 1839. 
Fateiteyillb. 

Standard of the Union. Nov. 3, 1837. 

QrEENVIUiE. 

American Economist and East Tennessee Statesman, w. 
Apr. 30, 1825. 

Jonesborough. 

The Union Flag. (Extra.) Feb. 18, 1870. 
Knoxville. 

The Southern Citizen, w. June 3, 1858. 

The Enquirer, w. Mar. 12, May 7, June 25, July 16, Aug. 6. 

20, Sept. 24, Oct. 8, 22, 29, 1828. 
Knoxtille Gasbtte. w. Dec. 7, 1793: July 31, 1794; Apr. 24, 

July 17, Oct. 23, Nov. 20, Dec. 4, 1795; May 2, 1796. 
Wn^ON's Knoxville Gazette. June 22, 1808. 
Knoxville Register, w. Sept. 7, 21. 1816; May 4, 1819; Feb. 

11, 18, 25, Mar. 4, 1825; Aug. 1, 1832; Nov. 17, 1859. 
The Knoxville Tribune, d. and w. Nov. 25, 1888; Aug. 16, 

1806. 
Western Centinel. w. Mar. 11, 1809; June 30, July 14, Sept. 

8, 1810. 
Brownlow's Knoxville Whig. w. Dec. 19, 1866. 



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278 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Knoxvilud Collbgs. 

Thb AimoRA. m. Apr., 1800. 
Lawrkncsbubg. 

LAWRaNCEBiTRO Prus. w. June 7, 188^Aug. 2, 1882, Aug. 15- 
July 18, 1883; Aug. 1, 1883-Aug. 21, 1884; Sept. 4, Oct. 16, 
Oct. 30, Nov. 13-Dec. 18, 1884; Jan. 8, 1885-lCar. 12, Mar. 2&- 
May 7, May 21-July 23, Aug. 27, Sept. 10-Sept. 24, Oct. 15, Oct. 
22, Nov. 5, 1885. 

Loudon. 

Thb Rbpublican Fabmxb. Nov. 10, 1881. 
Mabtvillb. 

Thb East Tennbsbbean. Oct. 26, 1855. 
Memphis. 

Thb Memphis Daily Appeal. June 21, 1862. 

The Daily Memphis Avalanche. Sept. 1, 1882; July 28, 1887. 

Memphis Bxtlletin. w. Feb. 24, 1860. 

The Chickasaw. May 1, 1878. (amateur) 12^. 

Memphis Mobnino Post. d. Jan 28, 1866. 

Memphis Price Cubbent. w. Mar. 2, 1861. 

The Tidal Wave. Apr., 1878. (amateur) 12*». 

Voice of Tbuth. Apr. 6, 13, 1878. 

M'MlNNVILLE. 

Mountain Echo. w. Jan. 5, 1816. 
Nashville. 

The Daily Amebican. Oct. 5, 1876. 

National Banneb. w. Jan. 13, 1826; July 18, 25, Aug. 1,22,29, 

Sept. 5, 17, Oct. 31, 1829. 
The National Banneb and Nashville Wmo. w. Aug. 11, 18, 

Sept. 22, 29, Nov. 10, 24, Dec. 8, 29, 1827; Jan. 5. 19, Feb. 2, 

16, 23, Mar. 8, 22, Apr. 19, 26, May 3, 10, 23, June 7, July 11, 

Aug. 9, 16, 30, Sept. 6, 20, Oct. 4, 18, 25, 1828; Mar. 25, 1831. 

continued as: 
Republican Banneb. d. Feb. 18, 1866. 
The Tennessee Baptist, w. Aug. 9, 1851; Mar. 10, 1855. 
Thb Clabion. w. Feb. 16, Mar. 8, 1808. 
The Dbmocbatic Clarion and Tennessee Gazette, w. Aug. 

10, Sept. 21, 1810. 
The Clabion and Tennessee Gazette, w. Feb. 16, Apr. 6, 1813. 
The Nashville Clabion. w. Feb. 28, Mar. 7, 1821. 
Nashville Examineb. w. Sept. 29, Oct. 20, Nov. 3, 10, 24, 1813; 

May 4, 25, 1814. 
The Tennessee Gazette, w. Aug. 26, 1801. 
Tennessee Gazette, and Mebo Distbict Advertiseb. June 13, 

July 20, 1804. 
SouTHEBN Lumbebman. 8. m. Aug. 15, Sept. 15, Oct. 2, 1882. 
Nashville Republican, w. Nov. 6, 1824. 
Nashville Repxtblican and State Gazette. Oct. 27, 1830. 
Impabtial Review and Cumbbbland Reposttoby. w. Jan. 18, 

25, Feb. 8, Aug. 16, 1806. 



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Newspaper Files. 279 

Thb Rbvibw. w. Nov. 10, 24, Dec. 1, 16, 29, 1809: Jan. 11, 
18, Feb. 2, 23, Mar. 30, Apr. 6, 27, June 1, 8, 29, July 6, 27, 
Aug. 10, 31, Sept. 14, 21, Oct. 6, 12, 26, Nov. 16, Deo. 7, 14, 1810. 

Wbsklt Union and Amxbican. w. May 21, 1860. 

Thb Nashvillb Daily Union. May 27, July 26, 1862. 

Thb Nashvillb Wmo. Mar. 8, 1814. 
Nabhvillb, Tbnn., and Louibvillb, Et. 

Nashvillb and Louisvillb Chbibhan Advocatb. w. 
Mar. 29, 1850; Nov. 30, 1854. 

Pabib. 

Pabib Rbpublic. June 9, 1854. 
Pulaski. 

Tbnnbbsbb Bbacon and Fabmbbs' Advocatb. w. June 23, 1832 
Shbbwood. 

Thb HBLPma Hand. m. Dec. 1885; Feb., July, Sept., Oct., 1886. 
Jan.,Oct., Dec., 1887; Mar. May, June, 1888. 



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280 American Antiqyarian Society. [April, 



REMARKS ON THE EARLY AMERICAN 

ENGRAVINGS AND THE CAMBRIDGE 

PRESS IMPRINTS (1640-1692) 

In the Library of the American Antiquarian Society. 



BY NATHANIEL PAINE. 



"A Descriptive Catalogue of an Exhibition of Eariy En- 
gravings in America/' given at the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts in the winter of 1904^, suggested to the writer an 
examination of the engravings hanging on the walls of 
Antiquarian Hall at Worcester. As a result of this exam- 
ination it was found that over two hundred engravings, 
lithographs and other works of a similar nature were sus- 
pended from the walls and alcoves, some of which were of 
more than ordinary interest, and it is proposed to call atten- 
tion to a few of these which are of special value on account 
of their rarity. Of these perhaps the most interesting are 
the mezzotint portraits of four Indian chiefs engraved by 
J. Simon. 

The late John R. Bartlett in a notice of these prints gives 
the name of the engraver as John Simmonds, but the name 
on the prints is very clearly J. Simon. There was a John 
Simon who came to London in the reign of Queen Anne, 
who was an engraver of some merit and may have engraved 
them, but in the only biographical notice of him that has 
come to my notice no mention is made of these prints. It 
was in 1710 that Major Peter Schuyler took four Indian 
chiefs to England where they created quite a sensation. 
They were received with great ceremonies by the Queen 



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1906.] American Bnffravings and Cambridge Imprints. 281 

and the Indians presented her with a set of wampiun. The 
original paintings were said to have been painted for the 
Queen« 

The engravings were published by subscription in Novem- 
ber, 1710, and are now quite rare. 

Those owned by the Society are in good condition and are 
as follows, all having the imprint: 

J Verelst, Knx. and J Simon, Pecit. 

Printed & sold by John King at ye Globe in ye Poultrey, 
London. (Size of plates 15J x lOi in.) 

Tee Yee Neen Ho Ga Ron 
£mperour of the Six Nations 

Sa Ga Yeath Qua Pieth Ton 
King of the Maquas 

Ho Nee Yeath Tan No Ron 
King of the Generethgarich 

Eton Oh Koam 
King of the River Nation 

Another series of mezzotints are nine engraved by Peter 
PeUiam (bom in England in 1684) who came to Boston in 
1726-1727 and died there in 1751. His principal work was 
in the mezzotint style and he engraved a large number of 
portraite of men of celebrity. Among them one of Charles 
the First after Kneller, Peter Paul Rubens, Oliver Grom- 
well and others of like note. 

Pelham was the earliest mezzotint engraver in New Eng- 
land, he was also a painter, and one of his portraits, that of 
Cotton Mather, is in the hall of the Antiquarian Society. 
The first mezzotint engraving made in New England was 
without doubt Pelham's print from the Mather portrait. 
From the following advertisement in "The Boston Gazette 
and Weekly Journal" of Tuesday, September 20, 1748, it 
appears that he had other occupations than that of painter 
or engraver. 



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282 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"Mr. Pelham's Wntinz and Arithmetick School, near the Town House 
(during the Winter) will Be open ham Candle Li^^ht till nine in the Even- 
mg as usual, for the benefit of thoee Employ'' in Business all the Day: 
and at his Dwelling House near the Quaker Meetmg in Lindeil's Row. 
All Persons may be supplied with the best Virginia Tobacco, cut, spun 
into the best Pigtail, and all other sorts, also Snuff at the cheapest 
Rates." 

In another issue of the Gazette of an earlier date he 
announces: 

" At Mr. Pelham's House near the Town Dock is to be sold sundzy 
sorts of Household Goods (for Gash) veiy Cheap^ he having Intention to 
break up Housekeeping. M. B. Attendance will be nven from Eight 
tfll Twelve o'clock eveiy morning, but not after that Hour on account 
of his preparing for his School in the Afternoon, which continues to keep 
as heretoiore." 

Pelham married in 1748 Mrs. Mary Singleton, widow of 
Richard Copley, and her son John Singleton Copley, the 
eminent portrait painter resided with her. 

In the "Boston News Letter" for September 17*^ 1751, 
Pelham advertises the print of Thomas Hollis. 

"To be sold, at his home near the Quaker Meeting House, a print in 
Meszotinting of Thomas Hollis, late of London, Merdiant, .... 
done from a curious whole length Picture by Joseph Hig^imore in Lon* 
don, and placed in the Ckill^ge Hall in Cambridge. A& sundzy other 
Prints at said Pelham's." 

In the exhibition at the Museum of Fine Arts about 
twenty of his portraits were on exhibition; of these the 
American Antiquarian Society has the following: 

The Reverend Charles BrockweU. A: M. \ Late of Cathor 
rine Hall in Cambridge, his Majeebies Chaplain in Boston 

N: E. I P. Pelham pinx: et fecit 1750 Sold by P: 

Pelham in Boston — | 

Mather Byles A. M. et V: D. Af. | EcclesuB apud Bostonum 
Nov-Anglorum Pastor. \ P. Pelham ad vivum pinx. A fecit. \ 

The Reverend Henry Caner. A: M. \ — Minister of Kings 

Chapel Boston. — | /: Smibert pinx: P: PeUum 

fecit. 1760 Sold by P: PeOum in Boston. \ 

The Reverend Benjamin Colman D. D. \ J. Smibert Pinx. 
P. Pelham Fecit. \ 1735.| 



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1906]. American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints. 283 

The Reverend TimoOvy CvOer. D. D. \ — of Christ Church 

BaOon N-E. \ P. Pelham pinx: et fecit. 1760. Sold by 

P: Pelham in Boston — | y. 

Thomas HoUis late of London Mercht. a most generous 
Benefactor \ to Harvard College, in N. E. having founded 
two Professorships and ten \ Scholarships in the satd Oottegef 
given a fine Apparatus for Experimmtal \ Philosophy, dt 
increased the library vnth a large Number of valuable Books 

Ac. I Jos. Highmore pinx. 1722. 06: 1731. JEU 

71. P: Pelham db origin: fecit et excudt. 1761. | 

Sir William PepperreU Bart, Colonel of one of his Majesty's 
Regiments — | of Foot, who vxis Lieutenant Oeneral and 
Commander in Chief of the American — | Forces Employed 
in the Expedition against the Island of Cape Breton which 
was I happily Reduced to the Obedience of his Britanick 
Majesty June the 17, 1746 — | /: Smibert Pinx: | . . . | P; 
Pelham fecit et ex.: 1747. | 

Jno: Greenwood Pinx. P. Pelham fecit, j Thomas 

Prince A. M. \ Quintus EcdesuB Australis Bostonii Navcmr 
glorum Pastor, e CoUegii Harvardini \ CantabriguB Ovratoribus. 
Samudis Armigeri Filius et Thomce AM. denaH Pater \ 
Printed for & Sold by J. Buck, at ye Spectacles in Queers 
street Boston. 1760.| 

The Reverend Joseph Sewall D. D. \ J. Smibert, Pinx. 
P. Pelham Fecit. I 



Other Pelham prints on exhibition at the Art Museum 
were portraits of Cotton Mather, Rev. William Hooper, 
Thomas Prince, Gov. William Shirley and Rev. John 
Moorhead. 

Mr. Frederick L. Gay of Brookline has had twelve of 
the Pelham prints reproduced in faoHsimile, (only sixty 
of each being printed) for private distribution, and all 
were marked as issued by the Pelham Qub to mdicate 
that they were not originals. 

Another engraving of great interest, and rarity is 
entitled: 



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384 American Antiqu4irian Society. [Aprils 

A South East ^w of ye Great Town of Boston in New 
En^and, America. It is dedicated 

"To Peter Faneuil, Eigq., This Prospect of the Town of 
Boston is Humbly Dedicated, 

By Your Most obedt. Humble Serv'. 

William Price. 1743." 

It is a large engraving printed in three sections^ the whde 
measuring 23) by 28) inches. The original of this view 
was engraved at Iiondon in 1725 by John Harris from a 
drawing by William Burges and was dedicated to Gov. 
I^ute. The only known original is said to be in the British 
Museum; a copy was in Boston it is said in 1830 in the City 
Hall but disappeared at the time the building was taken 
down. The engraving owned by the Antiquarian Society is a 
reproduction of the original with changes to bring it up to 
date 1743 at which time it was printed by William Price, 
Printer and Map seller in what is now Washington Street 
and Comhill Court. Five copies of this are now known, of 
which that of this Society is believed to be in the best condi- 
tion. The other four copies are owned by the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, Boston Public Library, Dr, James B. 
Ayer of Boston, and Herbert Coles of Brookline. 

John Harris the engraver of the original is probably the 
one mentioned in the Dictionary of National Biography as an 
engraver of works on Architecture who flourished from 1680 
to 1740. He engraved '' The Encampment of the Royal Army 
on Hounslow Heath in 1696," and also one, ''Ships of the 
Royal Navey " both of which are scarce. Mr. Justin T'Wnsor 
believed the drawing for the origmal was made by William 
Bm-ges and sent to England to be engraved under Price's 
direction. 

There is also a very poor copy of Bakewell's View of New 
York in 1746, taken from the Burges's View of 1717. The 
only known copy of the original is an imperfect one belong- 
ing to the New York Historical Society which has been 
reproduced on a small scale in J. Fiske's Dutch and Quaker 



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1Q06.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints. 285 

Colonies and in Valentine's Manual of the Corporatiop of 
New York for 1849. 

The Bakewell reproduction is very rare and most of the 
copies now known are in poor condition. The full title of 
this print is: 

"A South Prospect of ye Flourishing City of New York 
in the Province of New York, North America", 

It is dedicated ''to His Excellency Sir George ClintoU; 
Esq., Captab-General & Governor in chief of the Province 
of New York and Territories thereon depending in America. 
This South Prospect of New York is most Humbly dedicated 
by Your Excellency's most Humble and Obt. Serv*." This 
Bakewell published March 25, 1746. 

Other framed engravings are General Washington. 
Painted by G. Stuart, 1797. Engraved by C. Goodman 
4 R. Piggot. Published by W. H. Morgan, No. 114 Chest- 
nut St. Philadelphia, 1818. 

Thomas Jefferson, President of the United States, Pub- 
lished by W. H. Morgan, Philadelphia. 

John Quincy Adams, President of the United States. 
Pamted by T. Sully. Engraved by A. B. Durant. Published, 
Oct. 6, 1826 by W. H. Morgan, 114 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. 

James Monroe, LL.D., from a painting by King. Engraved 
by Goodman & Piggot who were pupils of David Edwin. 

The Landing of Christopher Columbus on the morning 
of October 12, 1492. From a painting by E. Savage. 
Engraved by David Edwin, Philada. Published by E. 
Savage, Jan' 1", 1800. Edward Savage who was bom in 
Princeton, Mass., in 1761, and died there in 1817, was 
not only a painter and publisher, but also an engraver. 
Edwin was an Englishman who came to Philadelphia in 1797 
and engraved till 1830. This is considered one of his best 
works and is rare. 

Thomas Jefferson. R. Peale Pinx, D. Edwin, Sc. Pub- 
lished by J. Savage, 1800. James Savage was a copper- 
plate printer and publisher in Philadelphia. 



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286 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Oliver H. Perry, Esq., of the United States Navy, after 
Waldo, D. Edwin, So. 

His Excellency John Adams, President of the United 
States of America. Dedicated to the Lovers of their 
Country and Firm Supporters of the Constitution. En- 
graved by H. Houston. Published by D. Kennedy, 228 
Market St., Philadelphia. 

Joseph Sewall, D.D., Pastor of the Old South Church, 
Boston, Ob. 27, June, 1769, aet. 81. Engraved and sold by 
Nat. Hurd, Boston, 1768. 

The Rev^ Jonathim Mayhew, D. D., Pastor of the West 
Church in Boston. Richard Jennys, Jr., pinx't & fecit. 
Printed and Sold by Nat. Hurd, Engraver on ye Exchange. 

Mr. Samuel Adams. J. Mitchell pinx't, Saml Okey Fecit. 
Printed by and for Chas. Reak & Saml Okey, Newport? 
Rhode Island, April, 1775. 

Rev. Mr. William Welsted, of Boston in New England, 
Aet. 58. 1753. Half length to left, wig, bands, &c. J. S. 
Copley pinx't et fecit. Printed for & sold by Stepn Whit- 
ing at ye Rose & Crown in Union Street, Boston. This is the 
only known engraving by Copley, the noted portrait painter. 

A colored reduced reproduction of an engraving of the 
Battle of Lexington by Amos Doolittle has lately been 
received. The original was one of four engraved by Doolittle 
after a visit to Lexington and Concord. 

''In the New Haven Company that set out for Cambridge 
on the 20 April, 1775 were Mr. Earle,^ a portrait painter, 



^ Ralph Earle, son of Ralph and Phebe (Whittemora) Earle, born May 11. 1701, 
in Leioester, liaas.; married, about 1773. Sarah Gatoe; died August 16, 1801, in 
Bolton, Conn. Amonc bis vratka were two fulMencths of Preaident Timothy 
Dwight, and many portraits which might have been found at Northampton or 
Springfidd. He executed, from sketches taken upon the spot, four historical paint- 
ings, believed to be the first historical paintings ever executed by an American 
artist. One, the battle of Lexington; one, a view of Concord, with the royal troops 
destroying the stores; one, the battle of the North Bridge in Concord; and one, the 
south part of Lexington where the first detachment of British troops was joined by 
Lord Percy, These paintings were engraved and published by Amos Doolittle of 
New Haven, Conn. 

This account is taken from Emory Washburn's History of Leicester, and from 
Dr. Pliny Earie's **Ralph Earie and his Deeoendants." Ralph, the painter, was in 
the sixth generation from the first Ralph. 



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1906.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprinis. 287 

and Amos Doolittle, on engraver. Mr. Earle made four 
drawings of Lexington and Concord, which were after- 
wards engraved by Mr. Doolittle. The plates were about 
12x18 inches in size." 

In "The Connecticut Journal" of Dec. 13, 1776, is the 
following advertisement: — "This day published. And to 
be sold at the store of Mr. James Lockwood, near the 
college in New Haven, four different views of the battles 
of Lexington and Concord, &c. on the 19 April, 1775." 
Two of these prints which are now very rare were on exhi- 
bition at the Museum of Fine Arts. 

An interesting colored print is a picture of the Boston 
Massacre supposed to have been a copy of Bevere's well 
known print, reproduced in London. 

At the top of the print is this inscription. 

"the fruits of arbitrart power or the bloodt mas- 
sacre, PERPETRATED IN KING STREET, BOSTON ON MARCH 
5™* 1770 IN WHICH MESS"^ SAM^ GRAT, SAM^ MAVERICK, 
JAMES CALDWELL, CRISPUS ATTUCKS, PATRICK CARR WERE 
KILL**' SIX OTHERS WOUNDED, TWO OP THEM MORTALLY." 

At the bottom: 

"how long shall THET utter and speak hard THINGS 
AND ALL THE WORKINGS OF INIQUITY BOAST THEMSELVES; 
THEY BREAK IN PIECES THY PEOPLE, O LORD AND AFFLICT 
THINE HERITAGE. THEY SLAY THE WIDOW AND STRANGER 
AND BfURDER THE FATHERLESS — ^YET THEY SAY THE LORD 
SHALL NOT SEE NEFIHER SHALL THE GOD OF JACOB REGARD 

rr. "—P«aZm XXIV. 

There are also many hundred engraved portraits in 
portfolios, some of which are very rare. Mention is made 
of a few of them. 

George Washington, President of the United States. Bust 
in oval. Savage, pinx't. (William) RollinsonSc (1760-1848. 

George Washington, Esqr., President of the United States 
of America. From the original Picture. Painted in 1790 
for the Philosophical Chamber of the University of Cam- 



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288 American AntiqtMfrian Society. [Aprils 

bridge in Massachusetts. Publlsb^^ Feby 7, 1792, by E, 
Savage (1761-1817) No. 29 Charles Street Middx. Hospital. 

His Excellency Elbridge Gerry, LL.D., Govemour of 
Massachusetts, Boston. Engraved by J(ohn) R(ubenfl) 
Smith (1770-1849) A Published, July 4th, 1811. 

John Adams, Resident of the United States. (Full bust 
to right, head facing.) On a ribbon, ^'Millions for our de- 
fence, — ^not a cent for tribute." A new display of the United 
States. Wholesale by Amos Doolittle— 1754-1832. 

Cieneral Gates. From the Original Rcture in the posses- 
sion of Eben' Stevens, Esq'. Painted by Stuart. Eugraved 
by CJomelius Tiebout, 1777-1830. 

There are also portraits by Revere, Doolittle, Hurd, 
Norman and Harris, in the Royal American Magazine, 
Massachusetts Magazine, Boston Magazine, and in the 
Polyanthus. 

In a notice of the Society prepared by the writer about 
thirty years ago a list was given of the portraits in oil then 
on our walls. As there have been some additions and changes 
since, a revised list is now given. 

PortraiU. 

Ibaiah Thomas, LL. D., founder and fint president of the American 
Antiquarian Society, 1812-1831, author of "The History of Printing," 
Ac. Bom Jan. 10, 1749, O. S.,; died April 4, 1831. Painted from life 
hf E. A. Greenwood. 

Thomas Lindall Winthbop, LL. D., second president of the Antir 
quarian Society, 1831-1841 and Lieut. Governor of Massachusetts, 1826- 
32. Bom in New London, Conn., March 6, 1760; died Feb. 22, 1841. 
Painted by Thomas Sully. 

John Dayib, LL. D., fourth president of the Antiquarian Society, 
1863-1854, and Governor of Massachusetts, 1833-35, and 1840-41. 
Bom in Northborough, Mass., Jan. 13, 1787; died April 19, 1854. 
Painted by Edwin T. Billings, from a daguerreotype; also a crayon 
portnkit, life size. 

Stephen Salisbury, President of the American Antiquarian Society 
from 1854 to 1884. Painted by Daniel Huntington. 

Rev. Aaron Bancroft, D. D., minister in Worcester, Mass., 1786- 
1839. Vice-president of the Society, 1816-31. Bom in Reading, Mass., 
Nov. 10, 1755; died in Worcester, Aug. 19, 1839. Painted l^ Alvan 
Fisher. 



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1906.] American Sngravings cmd Cambridge Imprints. 289 

Chr]»tofhxb CohVUBVB BAXiDWiN, Llbfaiian of the Society, 1827-30. 
Bom August 1, 1800; <iied August 20. 1835. Pamted by Chester 
Hardiiig. 

Samubl Fobter Havxn, Ubiariaa of tb^ Antiquarian Society from 
1838 to 1881. Painted l^ Geoige A. Custer. 

Rev. William Bsntlet, D. D., minister in Salem, 1783. Councillor 
ol the Society from 1812 to 1819. Bom in Boston, June 22, 1759; died 
in Salem, Dec. 29, 1819.. Copied from a portrait in Salem and presented 
by friends in that city. 

Edward D. Bangs, Secretaiy of State, Bfass., 1825-36. Coimcillor of 
Antiquarian Society, 1820-1824. Bom in Worcester, Mass., Aug. 22, 
1790; died in Worcester, April 3, 1838. 

Rev. Incrxasb Mather, D. D., president of Harvard College 1685-^ 
1701. Bom in Dorchester, Mass., June 21, 1639; died Aug. 23, 1723. 
Painted from life. This and the four following were presented to the 
Society by Mrs. Hannah Mather Crocker, of Boston. 

Rev. Cotton Mathkr, D. D., minister in Boston, 1684. Bom Feb. 12, 
1663; died Feb. 13, 1728. Painted and engraved by Pelham. 

Rev. Richard Mathbr, minister in Dorchester, Mass., 1636-69. 
Bom in England, 1596; died in Dorchester, April 22, 1669. Painted, 
from life. 

Rev. Samxtxl Mather, D. D., son of Cotton Mather. Bom Oct. 30,. 
1706; died June 27, 1785. Painted from life. 

Rev. Samuel Mather, son of Richard Mather. Bom in England,. 
May 13, 1626; died in Dublin, Ireland, Oct. 29, 1671. 

Rev. Francis HiGomaoN, first minister of Salem, Mass. Died i^ 
1630. Artist unknown. 

John Rogers, probably the minister at Ipswich, who died in 1745. 

John Endboott, Governor of Massachusetts Bay. Bom in Dor-^ 
ok«8ter, England, 1588; died March 15, 1665. Painted from an original, 
by Southland, of Salem, Mass. Presented to the Society by Hon. 
William C. Endicott, of Salem. A memorial of Qov. Endecott 
was communicated to the Society, at the meeting of October 21, 1873, 
by President Salisbury. Another portrait of Gov. Endecott, painted 
much earlier came from the estate of Rev. William Bentley. 

John Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts, for thirteen years, 
between 1629 and 1648. Bom in Groton, co. Suffolk, England, Jan. 12, 
1588; died March 26, 1649. Said to have been painted from life. Alsa 
a bust of John Winthrop carved in wood by Samuel Mclntiro of Salem, 
received from the estate of Rev. William Bentley. 

William Burnet, Colonial Govemor of New York and New Jersey, 
1720; of Massachusetts and New Hampshiro, 1728. Bom 1688; died 
in Boston, Sept. 7, 1729. 

Rev. Thomas Prince, minister of Old South Church, Boston, 1718-58. 
Bom in Sandwich, Mass., May 15, 1687; died in Boston, Oct. 22, 1758. 

Rev. Ellis Grat, minister of the New Brick Churoh in Boston. Bom 
1717; died 1753. 



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290 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Charlxb Paxton, loyalist, Commiiwioner of the CuBtomB at Boston. 
Bom 1704; died in England, 1788. Supposed to have been painted Yij 
Copley. 

John Chandler, "the honest refugee," Sheriff, Judge of Probate 
and Treasurer for the County of Worcester. Bom in New London, 
Conn., 1720; died in London, Eng., 1800. 

John Mat, of Boston, in his uniform as Colonel of the "Boston Regi- 
ment of Militia." Bom in Pomfret, Conn., Nov. 24, 1748; died in 
Boston, July 13, 1812. Painted by Christian Gullager, A. D. 1789. 
Presented by Mary D. and C. Augusta May. 

Hannah Aoahb, author of History of New England, Ac. Bom in 
Medfield, Mass., 1755; died in Brookline, BCass., Nov. 15, 1831. Painted 
l^ Alexander. Presented by Heniy W. Miller. 

John Lkvebbtt, Govemor of Massachusetts, 1673-78. Bom 1617; 
died March 16, 1679. 

CoLUMBT». A copy from an original by Francesco Maisuoli (Pai^ 
miganino), in the Royal Museum at Naples. Painted by Antonio 
Scaixlino. Presented by Hon. Ira M. Barton. 

VBSPUcnTS. From an original by Parmigianino, at Naples — Scardino. 
Presented by Hon. Ira M. Barton. 

Jambb Suujvan, Govemor of Masschusetts. Portrait in wax. 

Alxxander Von Humboldt. Painted by Moses D. Wight. 

Calvin Willabd, High Sheriff of Worcester County from 1824 to 
1844. Painted by William WiUard. 

John Bubh of Boylston, Mass., formerly a large owner of real estate 
in Worcester. Two portraits, one taken at the age of 40 and another 
at 60 jrears. Also portraits of his first wife Charity Piatt, and of his 
third wife. Abigail Adams. 

Among the books lately purchased by the society is one 
entitled. 

THE CAHBRIOaB PRESS, 1638 — 1692. A HISTORT OF THB FIRST PRINl^ 
INQ PRESS B8TABLIBHED IN ENGLISH-AMERICA, TOOBTHER WITH A BIBLIO- 
GRAPHICAL LIST OF THE ISBUEB OF THE PRESS. BT ROBERT F. RODEN, 
NEW YORK, DODD, MEAD, AND COMPANY, 1905. 

This volume gives an interesting account of the first print- 
ing press established in New England, with notices of the 
earliest and rarest of the production of Stephen Daye, 
Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson. 

The bibliographical list gives the titles of over 200 of the 
imprints from the Cambridge press and it is gratifjring to 
know that the Antiquarian Society have a fair representa^ 
tion of them in its library. Over forty of these early imprints 
have entirely disappeared the titles only being known. 



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1906.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints. 291 

Of the remaining publications which are now known of, the 
Society has about seventy as follows: — 

1640 

The I Whole I Booke of Psahnes | Faithfully | Tranalated into 
Fngliah I Metre. ] Whereunto is prefixed a discourse de | clarinff not 
only the lawfullness^ but also | tne necessity of the heavenly Ordin- 
ance | of singing Scripture Psalmes in | the Gnurches of | God. 

At top of first pace of the preface, in handwriting of Dr. Thomas, 
"This is a copy of tne first Book printed in British America. It was 
printed at Cambridge, N. E.. 1639." In a different handwriting, "It 
was not completed at press till 1640." On fly-leaf at the end is the fol* 
lowing MS. : "After advertising for another copy of this book, and 
making enquiry in many places in New England, Ac, I was not aole to 
obtain, or even to hear of another. This copy is therefore invaluable, and 
must be preserved with the neatest care. It is in the original bindhiff. 
Sept. 28, 1820. Imperfect, title page and last leaf missing. I. T. [homa^^' 

1649. 

A I Platform of | Church Discipline | Gathered out of the Word 
of God: I And agreed upon by the Elders: J And Messensers of the 
Qiurches | Assembled in the Synod at Cambndge | in New<%ngland. | 
To be j>resented to the Churches and GeneralT Court [ for their oon- 
sideration and acceptance, I in the Lord. | The Eu^th Moneth. 
Anno 1649. | Printed by S. G. at Cambridge in New-Kngland, | ana 
are to be sold at Cambridge and Boston J Anno Dom: 1649. 8m. 
4to. pp. (12), 29, (2). 

1656. 

MDCLVI. I An | Ahnanack J for the Year of | Our Lord | 1656. 
Being first after Leap-year, and I from the Creation 5588. | Qy T. 8. 
Philomathemat: || Cambndg | Printed by Samuel Green. 1656. 
16mo. pp. (16). 

1657. 

An I Ahnanack | For the Year of | Our Lord | 1657. | Bems the 
Second after Leap-year. | 1^ S. B. Philomathemat :|| Cambndg. | 
Printed by Samuel Green 1657. 16mo. pp. (8). 

A I Farewell Exhortation ITo the (Jhurch and People J of Dor- 
chester In J New-England, I But | not imusefull to any others, that 
shall heediully Read | ana Improve the same, | as | Containing 
Christian and serious Incitements, and | persuasions to the Study anS 
Practice of Seven principal | Dutyes of great Importance for the 
Glory of God, and tne J dalvation of the Soul, and therefore needfull 
to be Seriously | considered of all in these declining times, | By 
Richard Mather Teacher to the | Church above mentioned. | Printed 
by Samuel Green at Cambridg in I New-England 1657. 8m. 4to. pp. 
(4), 27. 

1660. 

The I Book of the General | LAWS AND LIBERTYES | (}on- 
ceminff the Inhabitants of the | Massachusetts, collected out of the 
Records of | The General Court, for the several Years | Wherein they 
were made and | Estaldished [ And | Now Revised by the same 
Court, and disposed into an | Alphabetical order, and published by 
the same | Authority in the General Court hdaen ] at Boston, in 



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292 American Antiqtiarian Society. [April, 

May I 1649. | Cambridge, | Printed according to the Order of the 
General Court. | 1060 4to. 

1661. 

The New | Testament J of Our | Lord and Saviour I Jesus Christ. 
\ Translated into the | Indian Language, | And | Ordered to be Printed 
oy the CommissionerB of the United Colonies | in New^EnshuMi, | At 
the Chai||», and with the Consent of the | Cobporation in England | 
For the Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Induins I in New- 



England. II (Jambridg: I Printed by Samucd Green and Marmadnke 
Johnson. | MDCLXI. 

Second title: Wusku ] Wuttestamentum | Nul-Lordumun | Jesus 
Christ I Nuppoquohwussuaeneumun. 

1662. 

Ahnanack for 1662, title-page wanting: 12 pp. Mardi to February, 
MDCLXII.;2pp. "The primum mobfle" and "Ne^ " ' .-,..'.. 



'The Phaethontick." 16mo. pp. (14). 



^ew England Zodiate.' 



Propositions | Concerning The | Subject of Baptism | and | Con- 
sociation of Churches, | Collected and Confirmed out of the Word of 
God, I By A I Synod of Elders | And | Messengers of the Churches | 
in Massachusets-Colony in New-En(dand | A^mbled at Boston, 
according to Appointment of the | Honoured General Court, | In 
the Year 1662. | Printed by S. G. for Hezekiah Usher at Boston in I 
New-England, 1662. Sm. 4to. pp. (16), 32. 

1663. 

MDCLXIII. I An | Almanack | of | The Ccelestial Motions for the 
year of the | Christian ^ra | 1663. ] Being (in our Account) Bissextile, 
or Leap-year, ] and from the Creation 5612. | Cambridge: | Printea 
by S. Green and M. Johnson. 1663. 16mo. pp. (16). 

Another Essay For the | Investigation | Of The Truth | In answer 
to two Questions Con | ceming I. The Subject of Baptism, J II. 
The (yonsecration of Churches. | By John Davenport, | Cambridge, 
Printed by S. Green, | and M. Johnson. | 1663. Sm. 4to. pp. (87). 

The I Holy Bible: | Containing The | Old Testament i And The 
New. J Translated into the | Indian Langua^, | And | Ordered to 
be Prmted by the Commissioners of the Umted Colonies | in New- 
England, i At the Charge, and with the Consent of the | Corporation 
in England | For the Propagation of the Gkwpel amongst the Indians J 
in New-England. || Cambridge: 1 Printed by Samuel Green and 
Marmaduke Johnson. MDCLXIII. 

The Indian title is: 

Mamusse J Wunneetupauatamwe I Up-Biblum Gk>d | Naneeswe 
I Nukkone Testament | JECah wonk Wusku Testament. | Ne quo^- 
kinnumuk nashpe Wuttinneumoh Christ | noh Asoowesit ] John 
Eliot. I (Cambridge: Printeuoop nashpe Samuel Green Kah Manna- 
duke Johnson | 1663. 

A I Discourse | about | Civil Government | in a New Plantation | 
whose Design is | Religion. I By John Cotton, Cambridge. Printed by 
Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson MDCLXIII. 

1664. 

MDCLXIV. I An | Almanack | OF | The Ckslestial Motions for 
the Year of the | Christain Mn \ 1664. ] Being in our Account first 



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1906.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints. 293 

from Leap-year, | and from the Creation 5613. | By Israel Chauncy. 
Cambridge, || Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson. 1664. 16 mo. 
pp. (14). 

A I Defence | of the | Answer and Aismnents | of the ] Synod | 
met at Boston in the year 1662. Togetner with an answer to the 
Apologetical Preface set before that essay | Cambridge: S. Green and 
Marmaduke Johnson, 1664. 

The Sincere Convert. | By Thomas Shepaid. H Cambridge: J Samuel 
Green and Maimaduke Jomison, 1664. 12 mo. pp. 188. Title page 



Three Choice and Profitable | Sermons | upon Severall Texts of Scrip- 
ture. I By John Norton, || Cambridge: | Printed by S. G. and M. J. 1664. 

1665. 

MDCLXV. I An | Ahnanack | OF | Ccelestial Motions for the 
Year of the | Christian Epocha | 1665. | Being in our Account second 
from Leap- | year, and from the Creation 5614. J By Alex. Nowell, 
II Cambridge: | Printed by Samuel Green. 1665. i6mo. pp. (16) 

Manitowompae | Pomantamoonk: | Sampwshanau j Christianoh 
Uttoh Woh an | Pomantog. Wussikkitteahonat | God: I [Two 
lines from I. Tim. 4, 8 in the Indian language.] jj Cambridge: j Pnnted 
in the Year 1665. Sm. 8vo. pp. 400. 

This is the first edition of Lewis Baylv's " Practice of piety'' (abridged) 
translated into the Indian language by John Eliot. 

1666. 

1666. I An J Almanack j or j Astronomical Calculations lOf the 
most remarkable Celestial Revo- I lutions &c, visible in our Horizon. 
Together with the Scripture and Jewish | Names (wherein though we 
agree not with j their Terms, yet we follow their Orider) J for the ensu- 
ing Year 1666. || Cambridge: | Printed Anno Dom. 1666. 16mo. pp. 
(S). 

1667. 

1667 I An I Almanack | For I The Year of our Lord | 1667. . 
Being in our accoimt Bissextile, or Lieai> j year: and from the Creation 
5616, [ By Samuel Brakenbury Philomath. || Cambridge: | Printed by 
Samuel Green 1667. 16mo. pp. (16). 

1668. 

MDCLXVIII I An j Almanack I OF j The Ccelestial Motions for 
the Year of J the Christian Epocna | 1668. | Being in our account 
first from | Leap-year, and from the Oeation | ^17. By Joseph 
Dudley Astrophil. || (Cambridge: j Printed by Samuel Green 1668. 
16mo. pp. (16.) 

Gods I Terrible Voice j In the | City j of j London | Wherein 
you have the Narration of the I Two late Dreadful Judgements of | 
Plague and Fire, | Inflicted by tne Lord upon that City; [ The former 
in the Year 1665. the latter in the Year 1666. I By T. V. I To which 
is added, j The Generall Bill of Mortalitv, J Shewing the Number of 
Persons which died in eveiy Parish of all | Diseases, and of the Plague, 
in the Year abovesaid. j Printed l^ Bfarmaduke Johnson 1668. Sm. 
4to. pp. (32). 

The I Rise, Spring | and Foundation | of the j Anabaptists | or Re- 
baptised of our Time. | Written in French by Guy de Bores, 1565. 



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294 American ArUiguarian Society. [April, 

And Translated by J. S. || Cambridge. | Printed and to be sold faj 
Mannaduke Johnson, IQ6S. 12 mo. pp. (4) 52. 

Wine I For | Gospel Wantons: |^ Or, | Cautions f| Aeainst | 
Spirituall Drunkenness. I Beins the brief Notes of a Sermon freached 
at I Cambridiee in New-England, upon a Day of Publick Fasting | and 
Prayer throu^out the Colon^r, June 25, 1645, | in reference to the sad 
estate of the Lords i People in England. | By that Reverend Servant 
of the Lord, | Mr. Thomas Shepara deceased, | Sometimes the Pastor 
of the Church of Christ there. | [Three lines from Jer. vii. 12: two lines 
from Hosea iv. 4.] | Imprimatur, Charies Chauncy, John Sherman | 
Cambridge: Printed in the Year 1668. Sm. 4to. pp. (15). 

1669. 

1669 I An I Almanack I Of | Ccelestiall Motions | For: the Year 
of the Christian ^ra, | lo69. T Being (in our Account) second after 
Leap- I year, and from the Creation I 5618. | By J. B. Philoma- 
themat. H Cambridge: | Printed by S. Q. and M. J. 1669. 16mo. pp. 
(16). 



The I Indian Primer: | or | The 1 way of training up of our | Indian 
Youth m the «>od | Knoiriedge of Gk>d. in the | Knowledge of the 
Scriptures I and in an ability to Reade. | Composed b^ J. £. || (In 
the Indian language) || Cambridge: | Printed 1669. (This copy is quite 
imperfect). 

New-England's J Memoriall: | or | A Brief Relation of the most 
Memorable and Remarkable | Passages of the Providence of God, 
manifested to the | Planters | of | New-Ensland in America: | With 
special Reference to the first Colony thereof. Called | New-Flimouth, 
etc. By Nathaniel Morton, Secretary to the Court for the Jurisdiction 
of New-Plymouth. | . . . || Cambridge: | Printed by S. G. andM. J., 
for John Ysher of Boston, 1669. 4to. pp. (215). 

A True and Exact | Relation J of the Late | Prodigious Earth- 
quake & Eruption | of | Mount iE«tna, | Or, Monte^ibdlo; | As it 
came | In a Letter written to His Majesty from Naples | By the Rig^t 
Honourable J The Eari of Winchilsea. ] Published bf Authority, | 
Cambridge: [ Printed by S. G. and M. J. 1669. 4 to. pp. (19). 

1670. 

1670 An Abnanack | OF | CcBlestiall Motions | For the Year 
of the Christian ^ra, I 1670. | Being (in our Account) third after 
Leap- J vear, and from tne Oeation | 5619. | By J. R. || Cambridge: ' 
rinted m " " 



Printed by S. G. and M. J. 1670. 16mo. pp. (16). 

Balm in Gilead | to heal I Some Wounds. | By Thomas Walley, 
g Cambridge: | Printed by S. G. and M. J., 1670. 12 mo. pp. (5) 3-20. 

The I life and Death | of | that Reverend Man of God, I Mr. 
Richard Mather. || Cambridge. | Printed by S. G. and M. J., 1670. 

New England's | True Interest I not to lie. I By W. Stoughton. 
II Cambridge: | Printed by | S. G. and M. J., 1670. 

1671. 

Almanack for 1671. Title-page wanting; 12 pp. March to February; 
at the bottom of each of the twelve pages ofcalendar are 8 lines of poetry. 

Nehemiah | on the j Wall | in Troublesome Times, i Qy Jonathan 
Mitchell. II Cambridge: j Printed by S. Green and M. Johnson 1671. 



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1906.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints, 295 

A I Platfoim I of Church Discipline. || Cambridge: | Printed by 
Mannaduke Johnson 1671. 

A Serious I Exhortation | to the | Present and Succeeding | Gene- 
ration I in I New-England. I By Meazar Mather. || Cambridge: | 
Printed by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, 1671. 

1672. 

An I EPHEMERIS | Of The | Coelestiall Motions for the Year of 
the I Christian Epocha | 1672. | By Jeremiah Shepard. Printed l^ 
Samuel Green. 1672. 16mo. pp. (16). 

The I Book of General | Laws | of the Inhabitants of the Jurisdic- 
tion of I New-Plymouth. || Cambridge: | Samuel Green 1670. 

The General | Laws | and | Liberties | of the | Massachusetts I 
Colony: | Revised and Re-printed. || Cambridge: | Samuel Green 1672. 

Peace | The End of the Perfect and IJprigh, [sic] \ Demonstrated 
and usefullv Improved in a | Seimon, 1 ^reached upon the Occasion 
of the Death and Decease of that I Piously Affected^ and truly Religious 
Matron, | Mrs. Anne Mason: | By Mr. James Fitch, Pastor of the 
Church of Christ at | Norwich. || Cambridge: | Printed by Samuel 
Green. 1672. Sm. 4to. pp. (2), 13. 

The I Spouse of Christ | Coming out of affliction, leaning upon 
Her J Beloved: | Or, A | Sermon I Preached bj | Mr. John Allm | 
The late Reverend Pastor to the Church of Chnst at Dedham. Cam- 
bridge: I Printed by Samuel Green: and are to be sold | l^JohnTappin 
of Boston. 1672. Sm. 4to. pp. (4), 11. 

1673. 

1673 I An I Almanack I Of | Coelestial Motions of the Year of the 
J Christian ^ra. I 1673. | Being second after Leap-year and from J 
the Creation, | 5622. By N. H. || Cambridge: | Printed by Samuel 
Green. 1673. 16mo. pp. (16). 

New-England Freemen J Warned and Wanned | to be Free 
indeed, | etc. By J. O. [John Ozenbridge.] || Cambridge: | Samuel 
Green 1673. 16 mo. pp. (6) 48. 

New-England | Pleaded with, | and pressed to consider the things 
which I concern her | Peace. | By urian Oakes. || Cambridge: | 
Samuel Green. 1673. 12 mo. pp. (6) 64. 

Wo to Drunkards. I Two Sermons. | By Increase Mather. || Cam- 
bridge: I Printed by Mannaduke Johnson. 1673. 12 mo. pp. (4) 34. 

1674. 

The I Chy of Sodom | Enqvired Into: i Upon Occasion of I The 
Arraignment and Condemnation | Of I BENJAMIN GOAD, \ For 
his Prodigious Villany, | Together with | A Solemn Exhortation to 
Tremble at Gods Judgements. J and to Abandon Youthful Lusts. J By 
S. D[anforth] || Cambridge: (Printed by Mannaduke Johnson, 1674. 
4to. pp. (4), 26. 

An I Exhortation | unto | Reformation, | Amplified. By Samuel 
Torrey, || Cambridge: | Marmaduke Johnson, 1674. 12 mo. pp. (8) 44. 

Souldiery Spiritualized, | Or | the Christian Souldier | Orderiy, 
and Strenuously Engaged in the | Spiritual Warre, | And So fighting 
the good Fight: | Represented in a Sermon Preached at Boston in j 
New England on the Day of the Artil- | lery Election there, June 1, 



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296 American Antiqyarian Society. [April, 

1674. J By Joshua Moodey Pastor of the Church at | Portsmouth in 
New-England. | Cambridge: | Printed by Samuel Green, 1674. 4to. 
pp. (2)r&r47. 

The Unconquerable | all-conquering | & j more | then | conquering J 
Souidier. By Urian Oakes. || Cambridge:! Samud Green, 1674. 12 
mo. pp. (6) 40. 

1675. 

1675 I An I Almanack | Of i Coelestial motions for the Year of 
the I Christian jEra, I 1675. I aemg (in our Account) Leap-Year,| 
and from the Creation 5624. | By J. Foster. | Printed by Samuel Green 
1675. 16mo. pp. (16). 

A Discourse | Concerning the Subject of Baptisme, | By Increase 
Mather, g Cambridge: j Samuel Green, 1675. 12^ mo. pp. (4) 76. 

The I First Principles | of | New-England, | Concerning the Sub- 
ject of Baptisme | Communion of Chiuches. ^ Increase Mather, | 
Onmbridge: | Samuel Green, 1675. 12 mo. pp. (8) 40, 7. 

Several | Laws A Orders | Made at the Sessions of the General | 
Court I Held at Boston the 13*^ of October 1675. As also at the 
Sessions | of Court held at Boston the 3* of November 1675. | And 
Printed by their Order, | Edward Rawson Seer. pp. 25-28. 

1676. 

1676 I An I Almanack [ Of | Ccelestial Motions of the Sun and 
Planets, Iwith some of their principal Aspects. | For the Year of the 
Christian JSra, | 1676. | Being in our Account the first after Bis- | sex- 
tile or Leap-year and from the Creation, 5625. By J. S[heiman.] H Cam- 
bridge: I Printed by S. Green 1676. 16mo. pp. (16). 

1677. 

1677. I An I Almanack | Of | Oslestial Motions of the Sun and 
Planets, Iwith some of their principal Aspects | For the Year of the 
Christian Mm \ 1677. | Being m our Account the second after I Leaj^ 

rear and from the Creation, 5626. By J. S [heiman.] || Camoridge: 
Printed by S. Green 1677. 16mo. pp. (16). 

1678. 

Pray for the Rising Generation, | Or A | Sermon | Wherein (Sodly 
Parents are Encou- I raged, to Pray and Believe J for their Children. 
I Preached the third day of the fifth Month, 1678. | Cambridge: | 
Printed by Samuel Green, and sold by | Edmund Ranger in Boston, 
1678. 16mo. pp. (4), 23. 

1680. 
The New Testament. Translated into the Indian Language. 
WUSKU. I Wuttestamentum | Nul-lordumun | Jesus Christ. 
Nuppoquohwussuaenenmun. || Cambridge, | Printeid for the Right 
Honourable | Corporation in London, for the | propagation of the 
Gospel among the In^ | dians in New-En£^and. 1680. || Cambridge: 
I Samuel Green, 1680. 

1682. 

An I Ephemeris | of | Coelestial Motions, Aspects, I Ac. For the 
year of the Christian Aera 1682. | By W. Brattle Philomath. | Cam- 
bridge: I Printed by Samuel Green 1682. 16 mo', pp. (14) 9. 



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1906.] American Engravings and Cambridge Imprints. 297 

A I Seasonable Discourse I Wherein | Sincerity A Delight | in 
the Service of God J is earnestly pressed upon | Professors of Itoligion. 
Delivered on a Public Fast, at Cambridge in | New-England, f By 
the Reverend, and Learned Urian Oakes, | Late Pastor of the Church 
there and Praesident of I Harvard CoUedge. | Cambridge: | Printed 
by Samuel Green 1682. Sm. 4to. pp. (6), 23. 

1685. 

The New-Ensland | Almanack! For I The Year of our Lord 
1685. I And of the World 5635. | Since the plantini; of Massachusetts 
1 Colony in New-Ensland 58 | Since the found, of Harv. Coll. 44. By 
s. D. Philomath. | Printed by Samuel Green, sen. Printer to Harvud 
I Colledge in New-England. A. D. 1685. 16mo. pp. (17). 

Mamusse | Wunneetupanatamwe I Up-Biblum God | Naneeswe | 
Nukkone Testament | Kah Wonk I WUSKU Testament. | Ne quosh- 
kinnumuk nashpe Wuttinneumoh Christ | noh asoowesit I John JBUiot, 
I NahohtcBU ontchetcs Printeuoomuk, || Cambridge: | Printeuoop 
nashpe Samuel Green. MDCLXXXV. Second Edition of the entire 
Bible. 

1689. 

Samp¥nitteahae | Quinnuppekompauaenin. | Wahuw6mookoggus- 
semesuog SampwuttealUM J Wunnamptamwaenuog, i Mache wussuk- 
htimun ut En^lish-M&ne Unnontoowaonk nasphpe I N^ muttto-wun- 
ne^ntie Wuttmneiunoh Christ | Noh asoowesit | Thomas Shepard | 
Qumnuppenumun en Indiane Unnontoowaonganit nashpe | Ne 
Quttianatamwe wuttinneumoh Christ | Noh assowesit | John Eliot. ] 
Kah nawhutche ut aiyeuongash ogp^uasemese ontcheteanun | Nashpe 
Grindal Rawson. || Cambridge: | Pnnted by Samuel Green, in the Year 
1689. Sm. 8vo. pp. (2), (2), 161. 

This is Bir. Shepard's "Sincere Convert." 

1691. 

Tulley. 1691. | An | Almanack | For the Year of our Lord, | 
MDCXCI. I Being Third after Leap-year: and | From the Creation 
I 5640. By John Tulley. J| Carnhndjie: J Printed by Samuel Green, 
and B. Green. I And are to be Sold, by Nicnolas Buttolph, at Gutteridg's 
Coffee-House m Boston. 1691. 16mo. pp. (16). 

Nashavanittve Meninnttnk \ Wutch | Mukkiesog, | Wussesftmumun 
wutdi &ogkodtunganash I Naneeswe Testamentsash; | Wutch | 
Ukkesitchippoooiu'anoo. Ukketeahogkounooh: | Negonile wussuk- 
humtin ut EnglisnmAnne Unnon- | toowaonganit^ nashpe ne dnue. 
wunnegeniie | Nohtompeantog. | Noh asoowdsit | Jonn Cotton. | 
Kah yeuyeu qushkinmunun en Indiane | WuimaunchemoolUe 
Nohtompeantog ut kenucke | Indianog. | Mukkiesog, ' | Nashpe | 
Grindal Rawson, || Cambridge: | Printeuoop nashpe Samuel Green 
kah [ Bartholomew Green. 1691. 8vo. pp. 13. 

This is John Cotton's Spiritual Milk for Babes drawn from the 
Breasts of both Testaments, for the Nourishment of their Souls. 

1692. 

Tullev, I 1692. | An | Almanack | For the Year of our Lord, | 
MDCXCII. I Being Bissextile or Leap-Year, ] And from the Creation, 
I 5641. By John Tullev. H Cambrid{ro: I Printed by Samuel Green, 
& Bartholomew Green, [ for Samuel Phillips, and are to be Sold | at 
his Shop at the West end of the | Exchange in Boston. 1672. 16 
Mo. pp. (24). 



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298 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Dr. Samuel A. Green^ in his List of Early American 
Imprints, in the library of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, gives the titles of sixty-five that are in Roden's 
list and also three not given there. These are: 

1S57. 

The Life and Death of that deeerFedhr Famoos Mr. John Cotton, the 
late Reverend Teacher of the Church of CJhriBt at Boston in New England. 
Collected out of the WritingB and Infonnation of the Rev. Mr. John 
I^venport of New-haven, the Rev. Mr. Samuel Whiting, at Ljmne, the 
pious widow of the Deceased, and others: and compiled by his unworthy 
Successor, John Norton. Cambridge: Printed by S. Qreen, 1667. 

1662. 

"Anti-Synodalia Scripta Amerkana. | Or, | a Proposal of the Judg- 
ment of the Dissenting Me^ I seugers of the Churches of New*Eng)and 
Assembled, | bv the Appointment of the General Court, | March 10, 
1662, whereof there were several I Sessions afterwards. I This Script or 
Treatise, b^Gods Providence, falling into | the handset a Friend to the 
Truth, and the Contents thereof, etc., | was puUished for the Churches 
good, although without any Com- | mission from the Dissenting Brethren; 
which th^ are desired not to | be offended with. | Wherein there is an 
Answer to the Arguments alleadged by the Synode." 



1670. 
Viris Authoritate Praedpuis Prudentia Celeberrimis | 

die nono Seztilis Anno M. DC. LXX. 



Viris Authoritate Praedpuis 1 
[Imprint at foot of pagej 
Cantabrifloal Nov-Angliae d 



Broadside,Folis. 

The Historical Society list contains about thirty not in 
the Antiquarian Society Library. 

The Lenox Library of New York has fifty-nine of the 
imprints of the first Cambridge Press including one not 
mentioned by Roden; of those in the Lenox Library, 
twenty-six are not in the Library of the Antiquarian 
Society. 

^ Dr. Green's oriciiud lift printed in 1895 contained the titles of over three hundred 
early Americen imprints, printed in the United States before 1701. Four sup- 
plementary lists increased this list to about four hundred. 

Mr. Paine's list with later additions contained over one hundred and fifty titlea 
printed previously to 1701 that were not in that of Dr. Green. 



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1906.] Obitmries. 299 



OBITUARIES. 

The unexpected death of the President is a great grief 
to the Antiquarian Society. Honourable Stephen Salis- 
bury was bom in Worcester, March 31, 1835. He was 
the only son of our first President Salisbury and bore his 
name. This name, indeed, perpetuated the name and 
honour in the life of Massachusetts for several generations 
known. 

The grandfather of our late President established him- 
self in Worcester in 1767, forming a partnership known as the 
firm of Samuel and Stephen Salisbury. They were closely 
connected with the firm of Sewall and Salisbury in Boston, 
who for the last years of the eighteenth century and the 
first part of the nineteenth century were prominent in the 
foreign commerce and domestic trade of Massachusetts. 
It was this first Stephen Salisbury who built the house 
now occupied by the Hancock Club, at the north end of 
the Main Street in Worcester, the house which becomes 
the property of the Antiquarian Society under the will of 
its late President. 

The late Stephen Salisbury was educated at our own 
public schools. He went to Harvard College in the year 
1852, where he graduated in the year 1856. 

He studied law at the Cambridge Law School and was 
admitted to the Bar, but in his active life he gave most 
of his time and energy to the public duties which in his 
sense of duty belonged to a man of large property in a 
dty like Worcester. And in interpreting those duties he 
was always proud and glad to take the largest view. 

I think it is not improper in this connection to repeat 
an anecdote of his father which I heard in the year 1846 



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300 American Aniiqvarian Society. [April, 

when the son was but eleven years old. At a town meet- 
ing in Worcester some complaint was made of the injustice 
of maintaining a high school of the first grade, as the 
town did then, and has done ever since. The father of 
this child of eleven joined in the discussion to urge the 
importance of the school and its necessity. The town, 
true to its tradition and its future, voted the appropriation. 
It was said at the time that Mr. Salisbury's tax applicable 
to the maintenance of the school amounted to one quarter of 
the tax levied on the whole conmiunity. Even Philistines 
might be made to feel that in his generous care for the town 
and city of Worcester Mr. Salisbury has repaid the pecimiary 
obligation which he thus owed to it for his education. 

Mrs. Salisbury, his mother, who was Miss Rebekah Scott 
Dean, of Charlestown, New Hampshire, a lady in everyway 
charming, died when he was only eight years old. But to 
her and to his father he owed an education admirably well 
conducted, of which the fruits may be seen everywhere. In 
the last long interview which I had with him he said with 
great earnestness that what he noticed in the educational 
systems of modem times was a certain failure to impress 
the idea of duty. "When I was a boy", he said, "I was 
trained to do my duty if I could find what that was. " This 
was the central thing. Greek, Latin, Mathematics, botany, 
paleontology, or the correlation of forces, — ^whatever the 
boy's study, — was to be made subservient to the business 
of doing his duty. It seems to me worth while to put 
this axiom of his on record as a fair statement in short 
of his solution of the problem of Life. 

I suppose that he himself could not remember the first 
time when his father took him into the old Antiquarian 
Hall, so attractive in every sense. • With dear Mr. Haven, 
so fondly remembered by the older members of the Society, 
the boy would have been intimate in a moment. 

And from that time till he died our rooms were as much 
a part of his home as was the house in which he slept at 



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1906.] ObUiuiries. 301 

night. May one be permitted to say that there is a sort 
of endosmose in which the sentiments and habits soak into 
the life of a person so fortunately brought into what we 
like to call the atmosphere of books? The life of Harvard 
College in those days, though nothing to what it is now, 
was still important enough to continue habits and to widen 
interests which were thus formed. I may say that without 
knowing it the father was training the son to be an inval- 
uable president of the Antiquarian Society. 

I never heard him say so, but I suppose that the friend- 
ship which he formed in college with our distinguished 
associate Senor Casares gave him the first interest which 
he had in the states and provinces of Central America. In 
his college days under the lead of Squier, Stephens, and 
Catherwood, the people of the United States were beginning 
to learn more thoroughly what Humboldt and the early 
writers had forewarned them of, the mysteries of the 
archffiology of those regions. As early as 1876 Mr. Salis- 
bury contributed to our cabinet and to our printed pro- 
ceedings the results of his studies and explorations in that 
quarter. The connection with those regions is now so 
close that we may hope that they will never be lost sight of 
and that the Society will always hold the honourable place 
which imder his lead it has taken in the studies of the 
early history of the Continent. 

But his tastes and studies were by no means confined 
to archaeology. The Natural History Society of the City 
of Worcester, the Horticultinral Society, the Society of 
Antiquity, the Art Museum, the Public Library, all the insti- 
tutions of public education, — ^indeed every organization 
which looks to the Larger Life was sure of his active support. 

He was a cordial friend and fellow worker with Dr. 
Alonzo Hill, Mr. Hall, and Mr. Garver, successive ministers 
of the Second Church, and in the work of that Religious 
Society. Almost of course he was a prominent member 
of the direction of the Peabody Fund in maintaining the 



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302 American Antiqyarian Society. [April, 

Peabody Museum at Cambridge. Almost of course he 
was sent by his district to the State Senate as often as he 
could give so much of his time to their work in the public 
service. 

The Council and the Society are glad to place on record 
the tmanimous testimony of gratitude of its members. 

EDWARD E. HALE. 



Stephen Salisbury president of this society, died at 
his home in Worcester, Nov. 16th, 1905. 

At a meeting of the coimcil held soon after his death, 
remarks were made by several of the members, in which 
Mr. Salisbury's life and character were fully described, 
an account of which meeting has been published by the 
society. 

Rev. Dr. Hale has prepared a tribute which will be pre- 
sented at this meeting. 

The newspapers of Worcester have published elaborate 
notices of him. It only remains for the biographer to 
state a few of the important events of his life. 

These are, 

Bom in Worcester March 31st., 1835. 

Graduated from Harvard University 1856. 

Travelled abroad 1856-58 and in 1888. 

Studied m BerUn and Paris 1856-58. 

Graduated from Harvard Law School 1861. 

Visited Yucatan 1861. 

Admitted to the bar 1863. 

Member of the Common Council of Worcester 1864-5-6, 
being its Resident 1866. 

Member of the Mass. Senate 1893-4-5. 

Visited Yucatan and other parts of Mexico and also 
Cuba 1885. 

Member of this society 1863-1905. 

Member of its council 1874r-84. 

Vice-President 1884-58. 

President 1888 till death. 

His life was passed in Worcester and he was connected 
with its institutions and organizations, business, educa- 
tional, artistic, philanthropic, social, in numbers literally 
too numerous to mention. He declined all fiu'ther poli- 



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1906.] Obituaries. 303 

tical honors though it was made clear to him that he could 
at any time be mayor of Worcester, or member of congress. 
Several original papers as well as some translations of those 
prepared by other members 'have been presented to this 
society and its cabinet and library have received numerous 
and valuable contributions from him. As president his 
interest as shown by great and constant labors as well 
as gifts is familiar to us all. The large bequest made in 
his will is appropriately communicated to the society 
in the report of the council. 

An authentic notice of Mr. Salisbury may be found in 
The History of Worcester County published by Lewis in 
1889, Vol. 2, Page 1676. S. U. 

Senor Don Joaquin HubbCr a biographical notice by 
Professor Rodolf Menendez, Director of the State Normal 
School of Yucatan. 

The free and sovereign State of Yucatan, which since 
the year 1821, is an inte^gJ part of the Mexican Confederacy, 
has produced very remarkable men in all the paths of himian 
activity. 

In politics, in civil and reli^ous government, in the 
science of war, in that of law, in history, in archseology, 
in literature, in public education, etc., etc., Yucatan has had, 
and has to this day conspicuous representatives who could 
be the ornament and pride of any society whatever, either 
in America or in Europe. 

We could with pleasure mention some illustrious names; 
but the nature and prescribed extent of this paper 
forbids it and our purpose now is that of bringing forth 
the personality of a son of Yucatan who is worthy of esteem 
and respect for more than one reason, as he left strong 
traces of his life in the records of modem democracy. 

We refer to the Engineer Senor Joaquin Hiibbe who 
passed away in this city on the 31st of December, 1901, 
to the general grief of lus fellow citizens. 

At the close of the first quarter of the 19th century 
Doctor John Hiibbe, a native of Hamburg, established 
his home in Yucatan. He came with a well deserved repu- 
tation before him and he soon won the regard of the people 
of the country, which he made his own by raismg a family. 
He married in Campeche, the distinguished lady, Senora 
Gertrudis Garcia Rejon and from their union the subject 



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304 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

of this Memoir was born on the first of January, 1832, at 
the city of M^rida, where his parents happened to be at 
the time, and he was baptized on the fourth of the same 
month in our Cathedral called Emeritense. 

The future Engmeer was but nine years old when he had 
the misfortune of losing his father in the city of Campeche, 
on the 5th of June, 1842, in the prime of life, as he was 
then only forty-two years old. 

The bereaved mother soon made up her mind to settle 
in Merida for the purpose of devoting herself to the educa- 
tion of her children. We may mention by the way that 
this noble matron lived until the 28th of Jime, 1884, when 
she ended a life remarkable by the virtues of an excellent 
wife and model mother. 

Senor Joaquin Hiibbe acquired the first notions of edu- 
cation in Campeche at the reputed school of the enlightened 
French Professor Monsieur GUbeau. His mother afterwards 
wished him to go to a good school in the United States 
under Mr. Thebaud's guardianship, having spent the years 
1844 and 1845 with his family. He showed there a very 
brilliant disposition to study and when this fact came to 
the knowledge of his paternal grandfather who lived in 
Hamburg, he expressed the wish of calling him to his side, 
to which request his mother agreed to comply and Senor 
Hiibbe ended the course of his preparatory studies in the 
aforesaid German City, and subsequently began the study of 
Civil Engineering, a profession which we may here state 
could not at that time be studied in this country. During 
the whole course of his studies he distinguished himself for 
his good behaviour and noteworthy laboriousness. His 
assiduity was crowned at last by success and he got his 
diploma of a Civil Eiigineer in 1857. 

He had hardly gone through the scientific course of his 
profession when he was called to be a member of a Technical 
Commission that had the charge of building a railroad in 
the British Possessions in InSa, and of other works in 
Lower Egsrpt. When these works were finished he returned 
to Yucatan at the end of the year 1858, and began immedi- 
ately to practise hia profession. 

oil the 21st of August, 1859, he married the honorable 
young lady, Dona Joaquina Peon, who was his happy 
companion until her death in 1879, leaving him the sooth- 
ing duty of devoting himself to their many children. 



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1906.] Obituaries. 305 

Prom the very moment that Sr. Joaquin Hiibbe landed 
on our shores to the time of his death, he lent very important 
services to the State. He was in constant intercourse with 
the most distinguished and influential men of the com- 
munity who acknowledged his talents and worth. The 
country was then going through an extremely difficult and 
precarious stage of existence. The social war, that is the 
uprising of the Indians against the white population, had 
burst in 1847, bringing ruin and desolation over the whole 
country. Revolutionary movements followed each other in 
vertiginous cycles not only in this State, but in the whole 
nation, and discord lifted her dismal torch on all quarters* 
Tlie thffee years' war of the Reformation, the Frendi Inter- 
vention and the war against the exotic empire of Maximilian 
of Hapsburg rebounded with great shock in Yucatan. 

After the restoration of the Republic in 1867, and later 
on after the so-called Fuxtepec Revolution hc^ed by 
General Porfirio Diaz, not only the state of Yucatan, but 
the whole country went into a period of order and general 
reconstruction. 

The wide range of Sefior Hiibbe's information, his knowl- 
edge of foreign languages, his excellent traits of character^ 
his unfailing honesty and activity were fully appreciated 
by all the succeeding administrations, even by that of the 
Imperial Commissary Senor Salazar Slarregui. So it was 
that at different times he was charged with offices of the 
highest importance and honorability. 

As a member of several political Commissions, as Director 
general of Public Works, as President of the City Coimcil 
of M6rida, as member of the Governor's Coimcil, which isr 
now extinct, as Deputy to the State Legislature, and as 
Secretary of State during the administration of our great 
historian Seiior Eligio Ancona, and other public offices^ 
Senor Joaquin Hiibbe displayed his rare gifts as a hi^ 
minded patriot and prominent statesman as well as his 
ardent love for his native soil. But the greatest glory of 
this meritorious citizen he acquired as a public writer, it 
being a great pity that his various writings should not have 
been collected. His historical treatise on British Honduras, 
called the Belice Colony, made a great impression not only 
in Yucatan, but also in the Capital of our Republic and in 
foreign countries. In that study the rights of Mexico to 
the country beyond the Hondo River are fully proved by 



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306 American Antiqvanan Society. [April, 

authentical documents. Not a few Yucatecan periodicals 
have filled their pages and columns with articles that 
appear subscribed by Sefior Joaquin Hiibbe, especially the 
''Eco del Comercio" in its first epoch. This paper was 
foimded by the diligent publisher, Don Manuel Heredin 
Arguelles and Senor Hiibbe was its chief editor. His 
writings were always attractive and interesting by their 
easy and genial style, discreet, fuU of meaning and always 
tending to the general welfare of the community. The 
ideas that sprang from his pen were highly characteristical 
and imposed themselves into the pubUc minds. His great 
general information as well as his great proficiency on 
various matters enabled him to take hold of the most useful 
and transcendental questions on political economy, the 
relations and equilibrium of the European nations and those 
of America, as well as questions about commerce, agricul- 
ture, local industries and the like. He paid paramount 
attention to the raising of hemp, the chief and almost only 
source of wealth in the State of Yucatan. The magnificent 
and wonderful ruins that are scattered over all the surface 
of our Peninsula engaged his attention and they are indebted 
to him for very mature considerations. Material and scien- 
tific progress in all their manifestations foimd in him a 
ready, enthusiastic and learned worker, who labored always 
in the most imselfifh manner. His clear sight was always 
intent upon all progress in the various administrative 
branches of government and upon all those that in any way 
led to the improvement of the commonwealth. So did 
Senor Hiibbe imderstand and practise patriotism, without 
ostentation or vanity. 

To end these lines which we have gladly written as an 
humble tribute we render to the man of whom we were 
sincere admirers while we edited the "Eco del Comercio," 
in the offices of which we worked for a long time by his 
side, we may add that Senor Joaquin Hiibbe was a member 
of several societies, both European and American and that 
he constantly held correspondence with respectable men 
abroad. We may also say that in politics his ideas were 
moderate and that thou^ his religious principles were not 
in perfect accordance with those of the very great majority 
of his fellow citizens, he was always respectful of those 
that held them sincerely; as a public officer he was faithful 
and zealous in the fulfilment of his duties, as a citizen he 



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1906J ObUuaries. 307 

was honorable to the whole extent of the word; and in 
private life he was a perfect gentleman. 

He was positively a conspicuous man and by no means 
could he be counted among the anonymous crowd. He was 
an honor to his country and for that reason his memory ought 
not to be cast into oblivion to which not imfrequently public 
indifference has condemned imhappily that of many of our 
fellow citizens of eminent merits and of unquestionable deserts. 

He did his duty as a good man toward his family, toward 
his country and toward humanity. 

(SijTned) RODOLF MENENDEZ. 

MERroA, April 10th, 1906. 

This notice was written at the request of the undersized by Professor 
Rodolfo Menendez, a colleague of Seflor HUbbe at a time, and one who 
has been for a long time an enthusiastic and indefatigable promoter 
of public education. The paper has been translated from the original 
Spanish into Eiijglish by me, the underdgned, who has the honor of 
communicatinjg it to the American Antiquarian Society in due fulfil- 
ment of a wish entertained by our veiy much lamented friend, and 
never to be foigotten late President of the Society. 

DAVID CASARES. 

MERn>A, Yucatan, April 12th, 1906. 

James Davie Butler died in Madison, WHs., Nov. 20th; 
1905. He was bom in Rutland Vt. Mar. 15th, 1815, 
graduated at Middlebury College in 1836 as salutatorian, 
was one year in Yale Theological Seminary, returned to 
Middlebury College for five terms as tutor, and in 1840 
finished his theological course at Andover Theological 
Seminary, remaining as Abbot resident till 1842, when he 
went abroad with Ftof . E. A. Park for about one and one- 
half years, and on his return prepared a number of descrip- 
tive lectures one or another of which were delivered over 
three hundred times in or near New England. 

He was Professor in Norwich University 1845-7, in Wabash 
College 1854-8, in Wisconsin University 1858-67, was pastor 
of Congregational Churches in Wells River, Vt., 1^7-51, 
in South Danvers now Peabody, Mass., 1851-2, and in (Sn- 
cinati, 0., 1852-5. Since 1858 his residence has been 
Madison, Wis. 

He was a great traveller, going into all sections of this 
coimtry as well as making four journeys to Europe and 
going aroimd the world at seventy-six years of age. 

Middlebury College conferred the degree of LL.D., 
upon him in 1863. 



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308 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

In 1845 Dr. Butler married Anna Bates, daughter of 
President Bates of Middlebury College, who died in 1892. 
They had four children who survived him. 

He wrote letters for the New York Observer during his 
first foreign tour and made similar contributions to lead- 
ing papers during his other journeys. 

For the New York Nation he was a contributor for twenty- 
five years, his articles in all numbering over 250, the last 
one written when he was nearly ninety. He also wrote on a 
great variety of widely differing topics in which he displayed 
the same activity as in his travels. 

He was connected with the Wisconsin State Historical 
Society as curator and Vice President from 1867 to 1900, 
and maintained his interest in it till his death, having 
been very influential in giving it its high standing in 
the coimtry and of which he said, it ''has been the thing 
for which I have cared most." 

Of him the New York Nation said "his saturation with 
the language of Shakespeare and of the Greek authors 
oozed up in his writings giving a characteristic quaintness 
to his style". 

Our associate Mr. R. G. Thwaites, said of him "as for 
his imiform kindness of temper, his fair frank estimate of 
things they charmed us all. To our 'grand old man ', age 
broi^t no narrowness of view, no tendency to cynicism, 
no crabbedness of soul; he was to the last, mellow, open 
hearted, responsive to the best impulses of his day. " 

He became a member of this society in 1854, standing 
third in seniority at his death, and showed his interest in 
it by constant letters and gifts, delivering a paper on the 
Copper Age in Wisconsin, in 1877, on The New Found Journal 
of Qiarles Floyd in 1894 when he was in his eightieth 
year and sent a short notice of A Brewster Autograph in 
Wisconsin for the meeting in April 1902. He also prepared 
an exhaustive and touching memorial of his long time friend 
the late Charles EendaU Adams, which was presented to 
the society in April 1905, when he was past ninety. 

Full notices of him may be found in the New York Nation 
of Nov. 30th, 1905, and the Wisconsin State Journal, pub- 
Ushed in Madison, of the date of Nov. 21st, 1905, and in 
the Proceedings of the Wisconsin State Historical Society. 
He inspired great affection in all who knew him and wUi 
be long missed by a wide circle of friends. 



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1906.] Obitmries. 309 

Samud Pierpont Langky was bprn in Roxbury, now 
Boston, Aug. 22d, 1834, and died at Aiken, S. C, Feb. 27th, 
1906, his residence for many years having been in Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

He was Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution from 
1887 till death. He was an architect and civil engineer and 
attained great distinction as an astronomer and physicist. 

Many American and Foreign colleges and imiversities 
conferred degrees upon him and he was a member of 
numerous learned societies. He joined this society in 1888. 

S. U. 



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310 American AiUiquarian Society. [April, 



COLUMBUS, BAMON PANE AND THE 

BEGINNINGS OP AMERICAN 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

BT EDWABD GATLORD BOUBNB. 

About three weeks hence on May 20th will be celebrated 
the 400th anniversary of the death of Columbus. Appar- 
ently little notice will be taken of this anniversary in the 
United States. To the American people at large the event 
of supreme interest in the career of the Admiral is, of course, 
the discovery of the New World, and the quadricentenary 
of that was celebrated with an elaboration which naturally 
precludes any considerable expenditure of effort and enthu- 
siasm within the same generation in commemoration of the 
death of the discoverer. Yet this anniversary should not 
pass unnoticed, least of all by a learned society devoted to 
the study of American antiquities, for Christopher Columbus 
not only revealed the field of our studies to the world but 
actually in person set on foot the first systematic study of 
American primitive custom, religion and folklore ever under- 
taken. He is in a sense therefore the foimder of American 
Anthropology. This phase of the varied activities of the 
discoverer has received in our day little or no attention. 
To all appearances it is not even mentioned in Justin Winsor's 
six hundred page biography. Such neglect is owing in part 
to the discredit that has been cast upon the life of Columbus 
by his son Ferdinand in consequence of which its contents 
have not been studied with due critical appreciation. 

In Ferdinand's biography of his father, commonly referred 
to imder the first word of the Italian title as the Historic, 
are imbedded not a few fragments of Columbus' own letters 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 311 

and other documents not commonly reproduced in the selec- 
tions from his writings. To two such documents as present- 
ing the evidence of Columbus' interest and efforts in the 
field of American Anthropology I invite your attention 
this morning. 

The first contains the discoverer's own brief summary of 
what he was able to learn of the beliefs of the natives of 
Espafiola during the period of his second voyage, 1493 — 96, 
and the record of his commissioning the Friar Ramon Pane 
who had learned the language of the islanders, '^ to collect all 
their ceremonies and antiquities." The second is Ramon's 
report of his observations and inquiries and is not only the 
first treatise ever written in the field of American Antiqui- 
ties, but to this day remains our most authentic record of 
the religion and folk-lore of the long since extmct Tainos, 
the aborigmal inhabitants of Hayti. 

The original Spanish text of these documents is no 
longer extant and, like the Historie which contains them, they 
are known to us in full only in the Italian translation of 
that work published in Venice in 1571 by Alfonso Ulloa. 

The observations of Columbus first referred to were 

recorded in his narrative of his second voyage which we 

possess only in the abridgments of Las Casas and Ferdinand 

Columbus. Both of these authors in condensing the origmal, 

incorporated passages in the exact words of the Admiral, 

and it is from such a passage in Ferdinand's abridgment 

that we derive the Admiral's account of the rdigion of 

primitive Hayti. Ferdinand writes: "Our people also 

learned many other things which seem to me worthy to be 

related in this our history. Beginning then with rdigion I 

will record here the very words of the Admiral who wrote 

as follows:" 

"I was able to disoover neither iddatiy nor any other sect among 
them, although all their kings, who are many, not only in Espafiola but 
also in all the other islands and on the main land* each have a house 
apart from the village, in which there is nothing except some wooden 

*I. e. Cubft. whieh CdumbiiB believed to be the main land. 

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312 American ArUiqvurian Society. [April, 

images carved in rdief which are called cemia* nor is there anything 
done in such a house for any other object or service except for these 
cemis, by means of a kind of ceremony and prayer which they go to 
make in it as we go to churches. In this house they have a finely wrought 
table, round like a wooden dish in which is some powder which is placed 
k^ them on the heads of these cemi8 in perfonning a certain ceremony; 
then with a cane that has two branches which they place in their nos- 
trils they snuff up this dust. The words that they say none of our people 
understand. With this powder they lose consciousness and become 
like drunken men. 

They give a name to this figure, and I believe it is that of a father, 
grandfather or of both, since they have more than one such, and some 
more than ten, all in memoiy, as I have said, of some one of their ances* 
tors. I have heard them praise one more than another, and have seen 
them show it more devotion and do more reverence to one than another 
as we do in processions where there is need. 

Both the Caciques and the peoples boast to each other of having 
the best cemis. When they go to these cemia of theirs and enter the house 
^^re he is they are on their guard with respect to the Christians and 
do not suffer them to enter it. On the oontraiy, if they suspect they 
are coming, they take the cemi or the cemis away and hide them in the 
woods for fear they may be taken from them; and wbaX is more laugh- 
able they have the custom of stealing each other's cemis. It happened 
once, when they suspected us, that the Christians entered the said 
house with them and of a sudden the cemi gave a loud ciy and spoke 
in their language from which it was discovered that it was artfully con- 
structed because being hollow, they had fitted to the lower part a trum- 
pet or tube which extended to a dark part of the house covered with 
leaves and branches where there was a person who spoke what the 
Cacique wanted him to say so far as it could be done with a tube. Where- 
upon our men having suspected what migjbt be the case, kicked the 
cemi over and found the facts as I have just described. When the 
Cacique saw that it was discovered by our men he besought them urf^ 
ently not to say anything to the Indians, his subjects, nor to others 
because k^ this deceit he kept them in obedience. 

This then we can say, there is some semblance of idolatry, at least 
among those who do not know the secret and the deception of their 
Caciques because they believe that the one who speaks is the cemi. In 
general all the people are deceived and the Cacique alone is the one 
who is conscious of and promotes their false belief by means of which 
he draws from his people all those tributes as seems good to him. Like- 
wise most of the Caciques have three stones to which they and their 

^Ullo* in hifl Italian ^yea this word in various forma e. g. cemi, dmit cimini and 
eimiehe. The oorreot form ia emni with the 'accent on the laat syllable. Laa Caaaa 
says, "Estas — ^Uamaban cemt, la ultima silaba luenga y aguda." Docs. In^litoe para 
la Historia de Espafia, LXVI, 436. The late J. Walter Fewkee published an 
article with illustrations "On Zemes from Santo Domingo" in the American Anthro- 
pologiat. lY, 167-175. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 313 

peoples pay great reverence. One ihey say helps the com and the vege- 
tables that are planted; another the chfld-bearing of wcnnen without 
pain; and the third helps by means of water (i. e. rain) and the sun 
when they have need of it. I sent three of these stones to your Highness 
by Antonio de Torres* and another set of three I have to bring with me. 

When these Indians die they have the funerals in different ways. 
The way the Caciques are buried, is as follows. They open the Cacique 
and dry him by the fire in order diat he may be preserved whole, (or, 
entirely). Of others they take only the head. Others are buried in 
a cave and they place above their head a goiurd of water and some bread. 
Others they bum in the house where they die and when they see them 
on the point of death they do not let them finish their life but strangle 
them. This is done to the Caciques. Others they drive out of the house; 
and others they put into a hamaea, which is their bed of netting, and 
put water and bread at their head and leave them alone without return- 
ing to see them any more. Some again that are seriously ill they take 
to the Cacique and he teUs them whether they ought to be stranded or 
not and they do what he commands. 

I have taken pains to leam what they believe and if they know where 
they go after death; especially from Caunabo, who is the chief king 
in Espafiola, a man of years, of great knowledge and veiy keen mind; 
and he and others replied that they go to a certain valley which eveiy 
principal Cacique bcdieves is situated in his own country, affirming 
that there they find their father and all their ancestors; and that they 
eat and have women and give themselves to {deasures and recreation 
as is more fully contained in the following account in which I ordered 
one Friar Roman (Ramon) who knew their language to collect all their 
ceremonies and their antiquities although so much of it is fable that 
one cannot extract anything fruitful from it beyond the fact that each 
one of them has a certain natural regard for the future and believes in 
the immortality of our souls. ''t 

Then follows in Ferdinand's biography a transcript of 
this "Account by Friar Roman (Ramon) of the Antiquities 
of the Indians which he as one who knows their language 
diligently collected by command of the Admiral." Before 
describing Friar Ramon's work I will present what little 
information in regard to him that I have been able to find. 

The historian Las Casas knew Ramon Pane and tells 
us in his Apologetica Historia that he came to Espafiola at 
the beginning with the Admiral^ which must mean on the 

^Antonio de Tonvs aet forth on the return voyafe here referred to February 2, 1404 . 
fBUlorU, Ed. 1571. folioa 126-126. 

tLee Geeaa. Apologetic HUloria. Dooe. In41 para U Hiat. de Eapalla, LXVI, 
486-86. 



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314 American AtUiqiMrian Society. [April, 

second voyage in 1493 as there were no dergy on the first 
voyage. Later he says he came five years before he him- 
self did which would be in 1497.* This second statement is 
erroneous for Columbus, as has just been seen, reports the 
result of his labors in his own account of his second voyage 
which he drew up in 1496. Las Casas also says that Biunon 
was a Catalan by birth and did not speak Castilian perfectly 
and that he was a simple-minded man so that what he 
reported was sometimes confused and of little substanccf 
The Admiral sent him first into the province of lower MaQo- 
rix whose language he knew and then later, because this 
language was spoken only in a small territory, to the V^a 
and the region where King Guarionex bore sway where he 
could accomplish much more because the population was 
greater and the language diffused throu^out the island. 
He remained there two years and did what he could accord- 
ing to his slender abilities.^ 

To Peter Martyr who r^td and abstracted his treatise, 
he is merely ''One Ramon a hermit whom Colon had left 
with certain king? of the island to instruct them in the 
Christian faith. And tarrying there a long time he com- 
posed a small book in the Spanish tongue on the rites of 
the islands." § 

These few references are all the contemporary information 
to be derived about Ramon Pane outside of his own narrative. 
This little work which I have called the pioneer treatise in 
American Antiquities has come down to us as a whole, as 
I have said, only in the Italian translation of Ferdinand 
Columbus's life of the Admiral. By one of the mishaps of 
fate the translator transformed the author's name from 
Ramon Pane into Roman Pane, and under that disguise he 
appears in most modem works in which he appears at all. 
But the testimony of Las Casas who knew him and of Peter 

*Lm Gmm op. eiL 473. 

fLM 0mm, op. di. 476. 

tibid. 436. 

fPetar Martyr. De BsbuB Ocoanieit. ed. 1674. p. 102. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 315 

Martyr who used his work in Spanish is conclusive that his 
name was Ramon. Ramon^ toO; is a common Catalan 
name. Such few writ^B on early American religion and 
folk-lore as use his work directly resort either to the Italian 
text or some of the translations or to Peter Martyr's epitome 
in the 9th book of the first of his decades of the Ocean. 
Few, if any; make a critical comparison of these two forms 
of his work and none so far as I know have supplemented 
such a comparison with such of the material in Las Casas's 
Apohgeiica HisUrrUi as was derived from Ramon's work in 
the origmal. 

The interest and importance of the subject justify it 
seems to me a critical study of Friar Ramon's work as the 
earliest detailed account of the l^ends and rdigious beliefs 
and practices of the long gince extinct natives of Hayti. 
The range of its contents is considerable. It contains a 
cosmogony, a creation legend, an Amazon l^end, a legend 
which offers interestmg evidence that syphilis was an indi- 
genous and ancient disease in America at the time of its 
discovery, a flood and ocean legend, a tobacco legend, a 
sun and moon legend, a long account of the Hay tian medicine 
men, an account of the making of their cemis or fetishes, of 
the ritualistic use of tobacco, a current native prophecy of 
the appearance in the island of a race of clothed people 
and lastly a brief report of the earliest conversions to Chris- 
tianity in the island and of the first native martjrrs. 

To facilitate a study of this material in its earliest record 
I have translated Ramon's treatise from the Italian, 
excerpted and collated with it the epitomes of Peter Martyr 
and Las Casas and have prepared brief notes, the whole 
to form so far as may be a critical working text of this source 
for the f olklorist and student of Comparative Reli^on in 
America. The proper names in each case are given as in 
the 1571 edition of tiie Historie. Later editions of the Italian 
and the English version to be found in Churchill's Voyages 
(vol. n.) and Pinkerton's Voyages (Vol. XII) give divergent 



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316 American AiUigiuirian Society. [April, 

forms. At best the spelling of these names offers much 
perplexity. Ramon wrote down in Spanish the soimds he 
heard, Ferdinand, mifamiliar with the sounds, copied the 
names and then still later Ulloa equally unfaTni1ia.r with 
the originals copied them into his Italian. In such a process 
there was inevitably some confusion of u and n and of u 
and V, (Spanish b.) In the Italian text v is never used, 
it is always u. In not a few cases the Latin of Peter Martyr 
and the Spanish of Las Casas give us forms much nearer 
those used by Ramon than the Italian. 



LIST OF MODERN WORKS DEALING DIRECTLY 
WITH THE TREATISE OF RAMON PANE OR 
PARTICULARLY SERVICEABLE IN THE 
STUDY OF IT. 

Bachiller t Morales, Antonio. Cuba Primitiva: Origen, Lenguas, 
Tradiciones e Historia de los Indies de las Antillas Mayores y las Lucayaa. 
2nd. Ed. Habana, 1883. The fullest study of the subject with full 
vocabularies of extant aboriginal words and a dictionary of historical 
names and traditions. Contains also a translation of the part 
of Ramon Pane's treatise that relates to primitive religion and 
folklore. 

Babtian, Adolf. Die Culturiftnder des Alten America. 2 vols. 
Berlin, 1878. The second vol. with the flub-title, Beitrftge zu Geschidit- 
lichen Vorarbeiten auf Westlicher Hemisph&re, devotes a chapter, pp. 
285-314 to the Antilles. It consists of rough notes assembled from 
Ramon Pane and Peter Martyr and other writers relating to the religion 
and folklore of the aborigines of the Antilles. 

Bloch, Dr. IwAN. Der Ursprung der Syphilis. Eine medizinische 
und Kultuigeschichtiche Untersuchimg. Erste Abteilimg, Jena, 1901. 
An elaborate critical and historical study which definitely establishes 
the American origin of Syphilis. The evidence from Ramon Pane is 
discussed on pp. 201-204. 

DouATy Leon. Affinit^s lezicologiques du Haitian et du Maya. 
Congrte International des Am^canistes. Compte Rendu de la 10^® 
session. Stockholm 1897, pp. 193-206. Reproduces in parallel columns 
with the corresponding Maya words the Hasrtian vocabulary compiled 
by the Abb6 Brasseur de Bourbourg. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 317 

DouAT, Leon. Etudes Etymologiques but L'Antiquit^ Am6ricaine. 
Paris, 1891. Etymological interpretation of proper names in Hayti 
and the non-Carib Antilles, pp. 26-30. 

Ehbenrsich, Pattl. Die Mythen mid L^genden der Sadamerikanis* 
chen Urv6lker mid ihre Beziehmigen zu denen Nordamerikas mid der 
alten Welt. Berlin 1895. Supplement bu Zeitschrift far Ethnologie 
1905. The author of this very valuable introduction to the comparative 
study of American Mythology has used Ramon Pane only in Peter 
Martyr's abstract. 

GtLU, FiLiPPO Salvadorb. Saggio di Storia Americana o sia storia 
Natural, Civile, e sacra de regni e delle provincie Spagnuole di Terra- 
ferma nell' America Meridionale. Roma MDCCLXXXII, 3 Vols. In 
vol. 3, pp. 220-228 is a vocabulary of the Haytian language compiled 
from Oviedo, Peter Martyr (Ramon Pane) Acosta and other writers. 
This vocabulary is scnnetimes reproduced l^ later writers with revisions. 

LoLLis, CsBABB DB, BD. Raccolta di Documenti e Studi. Pub. 
dalla R. Commissione Colombiana, etc. Roma, 1892. Parte I, vol. 1, 
213-223 oontams text of Ulloa's Italian translation of Ramon Pane 
with an apparatus criUeVia, 

MartiuBjDr. Carl F. Ph. v. Beitrflge zur Ethnographic und Sprach- 
enkunde Amerika's sumal Brasiliens. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1867. Vol. 
n, pp. 314-18, contains a Latin-Taino vocabulary based chiefly <m 
Rafinesque's collections. 

Montbjo t Roblbdo, Dr. Bonifacio. Prooedencia Americana de 
las Bubas. Actas del Congreso Intemadonal de Americanistas, 4' Reunion. 
Madrid, 1881, pp. 334-419. Evidence from Ramon Pane discussed pp. 
358,360. 

Mueller, J. 0. Geschichte der Amerikanischen Urreligionen, Basel, 
1855. pp. 155-185 are devoted to the religion of the non-Carib aborigines 
of the West Indies. 

Peschel, Obcar. Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen, 2** 
Aufl. Stuttgart, 1877. On pp. 147-48 the cosmogony of the Hasrtians 
is briefly described. 

Rafinebqub, C. S. The American Nations; or Outlines of their 
General Histoiy, Ancient and Modem, etc., etc. Philadelphia, 1836, 
pp. 162-260. Interesting linguistic material with much highly fantastic 
conjectiire. 



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318 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

TREATISE OF FRIAR RAMON* ON THE ANTIQUI- 
TIES OF THE INDIANS WHICH HE AS ONE 
WHO KNOWS THEIR LANGUAGE DILIGENTLY 
COLLECTED BY COMMAND OF THE ADMIRAL. 

I Friar Ramon a poor Hermit of the Order of St. Jerome 
by command of the illustrious lord, the Admiral and 
^ceroy and governor of the Islands and of the main land 
of the Indies, write this which I have been able to learn 
and to know of the belief and idolatry of the Indians and 
how they worship their gods. Of which matters I shall 
give an account in the present treatise. 

Each one in praying to the idols which he has in his 
house, and which are called by them cemisf worships in 
his own fashion and superstition. 

They hold that he is (as) in heaven immortal and that 
no one can see him, and that he has a mother and that he 
had no beginning, and this [god] they call locahuuague 
Maorocon,t and his mother they call Atabei, lermaoguacar, 
Apito and Zuimaco which are five names.§ Those of whom 

*Tlw oorreet form of tibe name hM been substituted for the eommon form Roman. 

tCemini is the form used in the text and may haTe been invented by UUoa as an 
Italian plural. Las Casas writes: "These they CBnerally call Cemi the last syllable 
lone with the acute accent" Docs. In^. de Espafia. LXVI, 486. 

|Las Casas, op. cU. 484, gives the name Yocahu Vacua Maorocoti. It differs only in 
the last syllable from the Italian text which may be rewritten as Jocahu vacue Maor- 
ooon. Peter Martyr has loeauna Guamaonooon. This has been acoepted by nuxlem 
writers as the correct form e. g. BachiUer of Morales. Cvba Pritmt6»a, 167 and I/4on, 
Douay, kiudeB htymologiquea, 27. As Las Casas lived many years in Espafiola, 
his authority should be carefully considered. Las Casas, op. eU. p. 476 mentions a 
Osmi whose name was Yocahuguama. 

iPeter Martyr gives the five names as Attabeira, Mamona, OuacanpiCa, liella and 
Girimasoa. The Itslian text of Ramon is here apparently corrupt as it gives only 
four names and calls them five, lieUa is omitted from the list and the first three of 
the names is given by Peter Martyr, Attabeira, Mamona, Quacaripita appear as 
Attabei, lermaoguacar, Apito. Apparently in Ramon's MS. the second name was very 
illegible. By dividing the names differently we see that the trouble mainly lies there. 
Attabeira, Mam6na, Gucaripita, 

ra I mam<hia| 
Attabei, lerf mao | guacar, Apito, 

Las Casas read it. "Atabex y un hermano Guaca" conjecturing that what UUoa 
copied as lermao was hermano, "brother." The whole psseage is "The people of this 
island of Espafiola had an assured faith and knowledge of one true and only God 
who was inmiortal and invisible, whom no one can see, who had no beginning 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Antkrapology. 319 

I write this are of the island Espafiola; because of the other 
islands I know nothing never having seen them. Like- 
wise they know from what direction they came and whence 
the sun had his origin and the moon and how the sea was 
made and whither the dead go. And they believe that 
the dead appear on the roadways when one goes alone, 
wherefore when many go together they do not appear to 
them. All this those who have gone before have made 
them beUeve, because these people know not how to read 
or to count beyond ten. 

CHAPTER I. 

From what direction the Indians have come and in what 
manner. 

Espafiola has a provinoe called Gaanau* in which there is a mountain 
which is called Oantaf where there are two caves, the one named Caciba- 
giagua and the other Amaiuna.) From Cacibagiagua came forth the 
laiger part of the people who settled in the island. When people were 
in these caves watch was kept by night and the care of this was given 
to one whose name was Marocael;§ and him, because one day he delayed 
to come back to the door, the sun carried off. And when it was 
seen that the sun had carried him off they closed the door; and so 
he was changed into stone near the door. Next they say that others 
going off to fish were taken by the sun and they became trees, called by 
them Iobi,|| and otherwise they are called mirabolans. The reason 
why Maro<»el kept watch and stood guard was to watch in what direction 
he wished to send or to divide the people, and it seems that he delayed 
to his own greater hurt. 



whoM dweUinc plaoe and habitation is heaven, and they named him Yocahu Vagua 
Maoroeoti. . . . With this troe and eatholio knowledge of the true God they 
mini^ these errors to wit, that God had a mother and her brother Guaoa and 
others of this sort." Does. Ined. LXVI. 484. 

^Caunana in Peter Bfartyr. 

tCauta in Peter Martyr, and the oorreot form. 

tCasibaxBcaa and Amaiauna in Peter Martyr who says in Decade yii, ohap 8, 
that in the ancestral lore of the Haytiana the island was viewed as a great monster 
of the female sex and that the great cave of Guaooaiarima was her organs of genera- 
tion— Cf. Peschfll, ZeUaUer der BfUdeckungen, 147 and Ehrsnreich, Dm Mythm und 
Leoend&H der SudamerikaniBt^en UrvoUem', 38. 

IM a c hochael in Peter Bfartyr. This is apparently the oonect form. Cf . Baehiller 
y Morales. 816. 

Illobo (Jobo, or hobo). The name of this tree and fruit is still in use in Santo 
Domingo, Baehiller y Morales, 800. 



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320 American Anliquarian Society. [April, 

CHAPTER n. 

How the men were divided from the women. 

It came to pus that one man ithom name was Guagugbna* said to 
another wham name was Giadiuuai]a,t that he should go to gather 
an herb caDed digo with which they deanae the body when they go to 
wash themedves. He went before day, (but) the son aeiied him on the 
way and he became a biid which ongB in the moniing like the ni^tin- 
gale and is caDed Ciiahuba Ragiad Guagugiona seeing that he whom 
he had sent to gather the digo did not return resolved to go out of the 
cave Cacibagiagua. 

CHAPTER m. 

That Guagugiona resolved to go away in anger, seeing that those 
whom he had sent to gather the digo for washing themsdves did not 
return; and he said to the women ''Leave your husbands and let us go 
into other lands and we will cany off enou^^ jewds. Leave your sona 
and we will cany only the plants with us and then we will return for 
them." 

CHAPTER IV. 

Guagugiona set forth with all the women and went off in search of 
other lands, and came to Matinino} where he left the women; and he 
went away into another region caUed Guanin and they had left the little 
children near a brook. Then when, hunger b^gan to trouble them, it 
is related, that they wailed and called upon their mothera who had gone 
off; and the fathers were not able to give hdp to the children calling 
in hunger for their mothers, saying "mama" as if to speak, but really 
asking for the breast.f And wailing in this fashion and asking for the 
breast, saying "too, too,"| as one who asks for something with great 
longing, and veiy urgently, th^ were changed into little animals. 



^Vacuonioiut in Peter Martyr. BadhiUer y Moralee, thinka the proper form la Qnar- 
goniona. See hie dieeuMioii of thie and the two followinc nameB, Cvba Frimtiiiva, 276* 

tThia name is omitted in Peter Martsrr. 

tUmially identified with Martinique. This paaaace is oonvinoing evideooe that 
the Amaion lefende in Ameriea were indiflenoiis and not transmitted there or dev»> 
loped by the misapprehensions of the first disooverers. Ehrenreieh is oonrinoed 
that these legends are indigenous althoui^ he does not refer to this evidenee. See 
his Mythen und Leoenden, 65. Columbus eariy and frequently heard of the island of 
Matinino which was inhabited only by women. 

%La tetta. Apparently the Italian text.used by the translator of the Endub version 
of the HiatorU read "la Urra" in this paasace for it is there rendered "to bes of tha 
earth"! 

IIToa, toa. in Peter Martyr. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 321 

after the fashion of dwarfs* (frogs) which are called Tonaf because of 
their asking for the breast, and that in this way all the men were left 
without women. 

CHAPTER V. 

And later on another occasion women went there from the said Island 
Espafiola, which formerly was called Aiti, and is so called by its inhabit 
tants; and these and o^er islands they called Bouhi.} And because 
they have no writing nor letters they cannot give a good account of what 
they have learned from their forbears; and therefore they do not agree in 
what they say, nor can what they relate be recorded in an ordeily fashion. 

When Quahagiona went away, he that carried away all the women, 
he likewise took with him the women of his Cacique whose name was 
Anacacugia, deceiving him as he deceived the others; and, moreover, 
a brother-in-law of Guahagiona Anacacuia,§ who went ofif with him went 
on the sea; and Guahagiona said to his brother-in-law, being in the canoe, 
see what a fine eobo is there in the water and this echo is the sea snail, and 
him peering into the water to see the eobo Guahagiona his brother-in-law 
seized :by the feet and cast into the sea; and so he tookall the women 
for hiinself , and he left those of Matinino (i. e. at Matinino) where it is 
reported there are no people but women to-day. And he went off to 
another island which is called Guanin| and it received this name on 
account of what he took away from it when he went away. 

CHAPTER VI. 

That Guahagiona returned to Oanta, (Cauta) mentioned above, 
whence he had taken the women. They say that being in the land 
whence he had gone Guahagiona saw that he had left in the sea one woman, 
and that he was greatly pleased with her and straightway sought out 
many washes (or washing places) to wash himself being full of those 
sores which we call the French disease-IT She then put him in a Guanaro 

*Nan$, Th« ocurect reading is rane, "frocB," u m>p6an in Peter Martyr and from 
the oontezt. 

tUUoa's micraadinc rone as imnm may have misled him in the latter part of the 
sentence. The venion in Peter Martyr makes mueh better sense. BaehiUer y 
Morales, questions the enstenoe of suoh a word as Tona, p. 843. Brasseur de Bom* 
bonrg oonjeetnred that Toa may haTe meant "frog" as well as "breast." 

tApparently in the sense of homes or dweUing places. Buhi or Bohio ofdinarily 
means cabin. 

{The punctuation follows the text of the original. Perhi^s it should be. 
Guahagiona, Anacaeuia, making the second name that of the brothei^in-law. 

\\Ouamn means an inferior kind of gold. 

ITThat Ramon Pane, before 1406, should have recorded this legend of the culture 
hero Guahagiona (Ouagugiona, Vaguoniona) is oondusiTe eridence that Syphilis had 
eodsted in the^West Indies long before the arrival of the Spaniards—Cf . Iwan Bloch 
Dsr Urtprung dm" SvpkOU, 203-206. The name mat Franetm is no doubt XTUoa's 
translation of fas bubtu, the Spanish name of the disease. 



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322 American Antiqtuirian Society. [April, 

which means a place apart; and so he was healed of these sores. Then 
she asked pemussion of him to go on her way and he gave it to her. 
This woman was named Quabonito; and Quahagiona changed his name 
and thenceforward he was called Biberod Quahagiona. And the woman 
Guabonito gave Biberod Quahagiona many ^icamrM* and many cSbef 
to wear tied on his arms. Because in those countries eoUcibit are of 
stones like maii>le and they wear them tied on the arms and on the neck 
and the guanitu they wear in the ears making holes wbeai they are 
children; and th^ are of metal as it were of a florin. And the beginnings 
(the originators) of these guanine th^ say were Quabonito, Albeborad, 
Quahagiona, and the father of Albeborad. Quahagiona remained in 
the land with his father whose name was Hiauna, his grandson (figliuolo) 
on his father's side (i. e. Quahagiona's son) was named Hia Quaili Quanin 
which means grandson of Hiauna; and thence thereafter he was called 
Quanin and is so called to-day. And since they have no letters nor 
writings they cannot relate well such fables nor can I write them welL 
Wherefore I believe I shall put down first what should be last and last 
what should be first. But all that I write is related by them as I write 
it and so I set it forth as I have understood it from the people of the 
countiy. 

CHAPTER VII. 

How there were women again in the island of Alti which 
18 now called Espafiola. 

They say that one day the men went ofif to bathe and being in the water, 
it rained heavily, and that they were very desirous of having women, 
and that oftentimes wbeo. it rained, they had gone to search for the 
traces of their women nor had been able to find any news of them, but 
that on that day while bathing, they say, they saw fall down from some 
trees and hiding in the branches a certain kiiui of persons that were not 
men nor women nor had the natural parts of the male or female. They 
went to take them but they fled away as if they had been eagles,! (eels) 
wherefore they called two or three men by the order of their cacique, 
since they were not able to take them for him in order they th^ might 
watch to see how many there were and that they might seek out for 
each one a man who was Caracaracol because they have their hands 
rough, and that so th^ held (could hold) them tightly. They told 
the Cacique that there were four, and so they brou^^t four men who 
were Qaracaracoli. This Caracaracol is a disease like scab which makes 
the body very rough. After th^ had caught them they took counsel 



* Jewels of guanin. 
tBeftds. 

tStrinci of beads. BmohiUer y Monlee, 261. 

lAauOt. Read anguiUe, "eels." A mistake of the transiator UUoa. Peter 
Martyr has angttilUu whieh is undoubtedly the right word. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 323 

together over them what they could do to make them women sinoe 
they did not have the natund parts of male or female. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

How they found a device to make them women. 

They sought a bird which is caUedlnriii, inandent times Imriie Cahu- 
uaial, which boras trees and in our language is caUed woodpecker (pico). 
And likewise they took these women without male or female oigsns 
and bound their feet and hands and took this bird just mentioned and 
bound him to the body and he thinking that they were logs b^gan to do 
his accustomed task pecking and boxing in the place where the natund 
parts of women are wont to be. In this fashion, then, the Indians say 
that they had women according to what the ddest men relate.* Since 
I wrote in haste and did not have paper enough I could not put down 
in its place that which by mistake I transferred to another place, but 
notwithstanding that I have in reality made no mistake since they 
believe it all as has been written. 

Let us turn now to that ^diich we should have recorded first, i. ctheir 
belief as to the origin and beginning of the sea. 

CHAPTER IX. 

How th^ say the sea was made. 

There was a man called Qiaiaf whose name they do not know and his 
son called Giaiaei ^diich means son of Giaia. This Giaiael wishing to 
slay his father, he sent him into eodle where he remained banished four 
months, and then his father slew hun and put his bones in a gourd and 
fastened it on the roof of his cabin where it remained fastened some 
time. And it came to pass that one day Qiaia, longing to see his son, 
said to his wife, ''I want to see our son Qiaiel; and she was pleased at 
that; and he took down the gourd and turned it over to see the bones 
of his son, and from it came forth many fishes large and small Where- 
fore, seeing that the bones were changed into fishes they resolved to eat 
them. One day, therefore, they say that Qiaia having gone to his 
CamekiXf which means his lands that were his inheritance there came 
four sons of a woman whose name was lUba Tahuuaua, all from one 
womb and twins; and this woman having died in travafl they opened 
her and drew out these for sons, and the first that they drew out was 
Garacaracol which means scabby. This GCtfacaracol had the name 
§. The others had no name. 

•Cf. Ehrsnraioh, MvAtn uni L$tfendtn, Bid for lome aiudogoiis lefondi. 
flaiA in Peter Hftrtyr. 

tUsed by Ulloa m an ItaliAn plural of the Haytian eanueo, tiuduk idot or farm. 
IDimiiian is apparently the name omitted; see next chapter. 



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324 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 



CHAPTER X. 

When the four bods, all bom tc^ther, of Itiba Tahuuaua who died 
in travail with them, went to lay hold of the gourd of Qiaia where his 
sonAgiael* was who was changed into a fish; and none of them ventured 
to lay hands on it except Dimiuan Garacaracol who took it from its 
place and all satisfied themselves with fish; and while they were eating 
they perceived that Giaia was coming from his farms, and wishing, 
in this haste to fasten the gourd to its place again they did not fasten 
it well and so it feQ to the groimd and broke. They say that 
so great was the mass of water that came out of the gourd that 
it filled the whole earth, and with it issued many fish, and from 
this according to their account the sea had its beginning. These 
then departed from thence and found a man whose name was GoneL 
And he was dumb. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Of the things which befel the four brothers when they 
fled from Giaia. 

Now these (brothers) as soon as they came to the door of Bassamanaco 
And perceived that he carried Cazzabi,t said, "Ahiacauo Guarocoel" 
which means "let us know this our grandfather." In like manner, 
Demiuan Garacaracol seeing his brothers before him went within to 
eee if he could have some Gazzabi. And this Gazzabi is the bread that 
is eaten in the country. Garacaracol having entered the house of Aiam- 
Auacot asked him for Gazzabi which is the bread above mentioned; 
and he put his hand on his own nose and threw at him a guanguaioi 
hitting him in the back. This guangvaio was full of cogioba| which 
he had had made that day; the cogioba is a certain powder which they 
take sometimes to purge themselves, and for other effects which you 
will hear of later. They take it with a cane about a foot long and put 
one end in the nose and the other in the powder, and in this manner 
they draw it into themselves through the nose and this purges them 
thoroughly. And thus he gave him that gtian^uaio for bread, . IT 

.and went off much enraged because they asked him for it. 



*Giaiael. 

tCaaeava. 

IThis name b&kob to be compounded of part of BaasamanMO and Ahiaeaoo. 
Bachiller y Morales in his Tenion substitutee the latter for it in the form 
Ayacauo. 

f Defined by Brasseur de Bourbourg, as a bac for holding tobaooo. 

IITobaooo. Las Casaa uses the form Cohoba. On the various native words for 
-tobaooo see a valuable art, by Dr. A Ernst. On the Etymology of the toord Tobaeeo. 
The American Anthropologist, II, 133-141 (1889). 

ir**E Cirtose pan." These words I have not been able to explain. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 325 

Caracaraool after this returned to his brothers and told them what 
had happened to him with Baiamanicoel* and of the blow that he hit 
him with the guanguaio on one shoulder and that it pained him very 
much. Then his brothers looked at his shoulder and saw that it was 
much swollen. And this swelling increased so much that he was like 
to die of it. Wherefore they tried to cut it and could not; and taking 
a stone axe they opened it and there came out a live turtle, a female; 
and so they built their cabin and cared for the turtle. Of this I have 
not heard (or understood) anything else, and what we have written was 
of little profit. And further they say that the sun and the moon came 
out of a cave which is situated in the country of a cacique named Mauda 
Tiuueit and the name of the cave is Giououauat and they hold it in 
high regard, and it is all painted in their fashion without any figure, 
with many leaves and other things of that sort, and in this cave there 
are two cemis, of stone, small about a foot high with their hands tied, 
and they looked as if they sweated. These cemis they hold in great 
regard, and when it did not rain they say they went there to visit them 
and suddenly it rained. And one of these cemis is called by them 
Boinaiel§ and the other Maroio.| 

CHAPTER XII. 

What they thmk as to how the dead go wandering about 
and as to what manner of folk they are and what they do. 

They believe that there is a place whither the dead go which is called 
Coaibai and lies in a part of the island called Soraia.f The first man 
that was in Coaibai was, they relate, one whose name was Machetaurie- 
Guaiaua, who was the lord of this Coaibai, the home and dwelling place 
of the dead. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Of the shape which they say the dead are. 

They say that during the day they are shut in, and by night they go 
out to walk; and they eat of a certain fruit which is called guabazssa^^ 
which has the flavor of (the Quince)tt That by day they are . ... 



♦Still another variant of the name Baasa-Manaoo. 

tHaohinneoh in Peter Bfartyr. Baohiller y Morales thinks the form in the text 
should be llanaia Tiunel. 

tlouanaboina in Peter Martyr. 

IBinthaitel in Peter Martyr. 

HMarohu in Peter Bfartyr. 

fSoraia means "west", BachiUer y Morales. 

**Ouannaba in Peter Martyr and apparsntly the conect form. BachiUer y Mondes 
identifies it with the fruit called Quanabana. 

tfThe gap in the Italian text has been supplied from Peter Martyr. 



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326 Ammcan Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and at ni^t tbey are changed into fruit,* and they have feasts and go 
with the living, and to know them they follow this practice, they touch 
their beQy and if they do not find the navel they say that he is aperito 
which means dead. Because they say the dead have no navcL And 
so sometimes they are deceived when they do not give heed to this; 
and they lie with some woman from Gomboi, (Coaibai)t and when 
they think they have them in their arms, they have nothing because 
they disappear in a trice. This belief they hold in this matter to the 
present day. If the person is alive they call the spirit (Soeis, and after 
death th^ call (it) Opia. The Qoeis they say appears often both in 
the form of a man and in the fonn of a woman. And they say that 
there was a man that wished to contend with it, and that clinching it, 
it disappeared, and that the man thrust out his aims in another direction 
over some trees to which he hung. And this they all believe both smaU 
and great and that it appears to them in the form of father or mother, 
or brothers or parents and in other fonns. The fruit vduch they say 
the dead eat is of the sise of a quince. 

These dead do not appear to them in the day time, but always by 
night, and therefore with much fear do they venture to go forth alone 
at night. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Whence they derive this and who keeps it in such credit. 

There are some men who practise among them and are called Bohuti,) 
and these go throu^^ many deceits as we shall relate further, to make 
them believe that they talk with those (spirits) and that they know 
everything that is done and their secrets; and that when they are ill 
th^ take away the evil; and thus they deceive them, because I have 
seen part of it with my own eyes, althou^^ of the other things I will 
relate only what I have heard from many especially from the principal 
men with whom I have had to do more than with others; because these 
believe such fables more firmly than the others; because like the Moors 
th^ have their laws reduced to ancient songs; § by which they are 
ruled as the Moors are by their scripture. And when they wish to sing 
these songs of theirs, they play upon a certain instrument which is called 
maiohavaUfl which is of wood and hollow, strongly made and veiy 
thin, an eU long and a half an ell in breadth, and the part where it is 
played is made in the shape of the pincers of a farrier, and the other 



^Tlie rqpetiticm hen of the first sentence with a variation eltocether imooneilable 
with the context shows that the text is corrupt. 

fBachiller y Hoiales thus corrects the text. 

tBoitius in Peter Martyr and froMgus and Ukiqus in Las Cases, see Docs. InM. 
LXVI. 486, 488. 

fOriedo gives an account of these artytoa as they were called. 

ilBrasseur de Bourbours giyes this word as Maiouauan and defines it as a sort of 
drum. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology, 327 

part is like a club. It looks like a gourd with a long neck; and they . 
play this instrument, which has so loud a sound that it is heard a league 
and a half. To this sound they sing the songs which they learn by heart; 
and the principal men play it who have learned from childhood to sound 
it and to sing by it acooiding to their custom. Let us now pass on to treat 
of many things relating to other ceremonies and customs of these heathen. 

CHAPTER XV. 

The observances of these Indian Buhuitihu, (Bohuti) 
and how they practice medicine and teach the people and 
in their cures they are oftentimes themselves ti^en in. 

All or the majority of the people of the island of Espafiola have many 
eemis of different kinds. One has the bone8K)f his father and his mother, 
and kindred and ancestors; (and there are others) which are made of 
stone or of wood. And many have ihem of both kinds; some (those) 
which speak; and others (those) which make the things grow which 
ihey eat; and others which bring rain; and others which make the winds 
blow. These simple-minded ignorant people believe these idols, or to 
speak more fittingly these devils, do these things not having knowledge 
of our holy faith. When one is ill they bring the Buhuitihu (Bohuti) 
to him as a physician. The physician is obliged to abstain from food 
like the sick man himself and to play the part of sick man which is done in 
this way which you will now hear. He must needs purge himself like 
the sick manandtopuigehimself he takes a certain powder called co^ko6a* 
snuffing it up his nose which intoxicates them so that they do not 
know what they do and in this condition they speak many things inco- 
herently in which they say they aie talking with the cemia and that 
by them they are informed how the sickness came upon him. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

What these Buhuitihu, (Bohuti) do. 

When they go to visit a sick man before th^ set out from their cabins 
they take some soot from pots or pounded charcoal and blacken the face 
to make the sick man believe what seems good to them as to his ailment; 
and then they take some small bones and a little flesh and wrapping it 
all tc^ether in something so that it won't drop, put it in the mouth, 
the sick man having been already purged with the powder as we have 
said. The physician then goes into the cabin of the sick man and sits 
down and all are silent; and if there are children there, they put them 
out in order that they may not hinder the Buhuitihu (Bohuti) in his 
duties; nor does any one remain in the cabin except one or two of the 
principal men. 

*Tobaooo. 



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328 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

And thus being alone they take some herbs of the Gioia* . . . 
broad and another herb wrapped in a leaf of an onion half a quarter 
long; and one of the above-mentioned Gioia is what they all usually 
take. And crumbling it with their hands they make a paste of it and 
then put it in their mouths by night to make them vomit what they 
have eaten, in order that it may not hurt them; and then they begin to 
sing the above-mentioned song. And lighting a torch ihey take that 
juioe. This done at the b^jnning, and waiting somewhat the Buhuitihu 
(Bohuti) rises and goes towazd the sick man who is seated in the middle 
of his cabin as has been said and turns him around twice as he pleases. 
Then he stands before him and takes him by the legs feeling his thighs 
and running his hands down to his feet, then he draws him hard as if 
he wished to puU something o£f; then he goes to the entrance of the 
cabin and closes the door, and speaks saying "Begone to the mountains, 
or to the sea or whither thou wilt/' and blowing like one who blows 
in winnowing he turns around again and puts his hands together 
and doses his mouth and his hand shake as if he were very cold, and he 
blows on his hands and then draws in his breath again like one who is 
sucking the marrow from a bone and he sucks the sick man on the neck, 
on the stomach, shoulders, jaws, breasts, belly and many other parts 
of the body. This done they begin to cou|^ and to make faces as if 
they had eaten something bitter, and he spits into his hand and draws 
out that which we mentioned which he had put in his mouth either at 
his own cabin or on the way, either a stone or meat or a bone, as has been 
said. And if it is anything eatable, he says to the sick man, "Take 
notice! You have eaten something which has brou^^t on this iUness 
which you suffer from. See how I have taken out of your body what 
3rour cemi had put in your body because you did not say your prayers 
to him or did not build him some temple or give him something from. 
your possessions." And if it is a stone he says, "keep it safe." And 
sometimes they are convinced that these stones are good, and that 
they help women in labor, and they keep it very carefully wrapped in 
cotton in little baskets and give them to eat what they eat themsdves, 
and ihey do the same to the cemia -winch, they have in their cabins. 
Upon solenm days when they bring out much to eat either fish, meat, or 
bread or anything else, they put everything in the cabin of the eemis 
that the idd may eat of it. 

The next day they take all this food to their own cabins after the 
cemi has eaten. And so may God help them if the cemi eats of that; 
or of aiqrthing else, the said cemi being a dead thing made of stone or 
wood. 

•BaehJUer y HoraleB thinlu the worda textual oror for the form eogieba uaed aboye, 
eh. zi, yet see below eh. zvii where it is deeoribed and aoother name Zaohon ia men- 
tioned. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 329 

CHAPTER XVII. 

How sometimes these physicians are deceived. 

When they have done what has been deeoribed and still the dok man 
dies, if the dead man has many relatives or was lord of a village (oastella) 
and can resist the said Btdhvitihu (Bohuti) which means physician, 
(because those who have little power do not venture to contend with 
these physicians) he who wishes to do harm to him does this. Wanting 
to know if the sick man died through the fault of the physician or whether 
he did not do what was prescribed, th^ take an herb called gueio which 
has leaves like basil, thick and brcMui (and it is called also another name 
Zachon.) They take the juice of this leaf and cut the nails of the dead 
man and cut off the hair on his forehead, and they make powder (of 
them) between two stones, which they mix with the juice of the afore* 
said herb, and they pour it into the dead man's mouth or his nose and 
so doing they ask the dead man if the physician was the cause of his 
death, and if he had followed the regimen (or diet). And they ask him 
this several times until he speaks as plainly as if he were alive, so that 
he answers all that they ask of him, saying that the Buhuitihu (Bohuti) 
did not follow the regimen, or was the cause of his death that time. 
And they say the physician asks him if he is alive or how it is that he 
speaks so plainly; and he answers that he is dead. And when they 
have learned what they want, they return him to his grave from which 
they took him to learn from him what we have described. They also 
proceed in another way to learn what they want. They take the dead 
man and build a big fire, like that with which a oharooal-bumer makes 
charcoal, and when the wood is become live coals they place the body 
into this great fiery mass and then cover it with earth as the charcoal* 
burner covers charcoal and here they let it lie as long as they please. And 
as it lies there th^ ask him questions as has already becoi said of the 
other method. And he replies that he knows nothing and they ask 
him this ten times and then he speaks no more. They ask him if he is 
dead; but he does not speak more than these ten times. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

How the relatives of the dead man take vengeance when 
they have received an answer by means of the drench. 

The relatives of the dead man get together some day and wait for the 
Buhuitihu (Bohuti) and beat him with clubs till they break his l^gs, 
his arms and his head so that they fairly bray him as in a mortar, and 
they leave him in that condition believing that they have killed him. 
And they say that by night there come many snakes of different kinds 
which lick the face and the whole body of this physician who has been 



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330 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

left for dead as we said and who remains so for two or three days. And 
while he stays there in that condition they say that the bones of his 
lags and aims unite and knit together and he gets up and walks leisurely 
in the direction of his cabin. And liiose that see him ask him saying: 
''Were you not dead?" and he answere that the cemia came to his assist- 
ance in tiie form of snakes. And the relatives of the dead man, greatly 
enraged, because they thought they had avenged the death of their 
relative, seeing him alive grow desperate and tiy to lay hands on him 
to put him to death; and if they get hold of him again they gouge out 
his eyes and crush his testicles, because they say that none of these 
can die no matter how much he is beaten if they do not take away his 
testicles. 

How they leam what they want from him they bum and 
how they take vengeance. 

When they uncover the fire the flmoke that comes from it rises tiU 
they lose si^t of it, and it gives forth a shrill ciy as it comes from the 
furnace, then turns down and enters the cabin of tiie BuhinHhu, (Bohuti) 
or physician, and that veiy moment he falls sick if he did not follow the 
diet (or regimen) and he is covered with sores and his whole bo4y peels, 
and thus th^ have a sign that such a one did not observe the diet and 
that therefore the sick man died. Wherefore they tiy to kill him ashas 
been described in the case of the other. 

Theee then are the spells which they are wont to use. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

How they make and keep cemis of wood and stone. 

Those of stone (wood?) are made in this fashion. When someone is 
going along on a journey he says he sees a tree which is moving its roots; 
and the man in a great fright stops and asks: ''Who is it?" And he replies 
''My name is BukuUihu* and he will teU you who I am. " And the man 
goes to the physician and tells him what he has seen; and the enchanter 
or wizard runs inmiediatdy to see the tree which the man has told him 
of and sits down[by it, and he makes cogioba as we have described above in 
the stoiy of the four.f And when the cogioba is made he stands up on 
his feet and gives it all its titles as if it were some great lord, and he 
asks it: "Tell me who you are and what you are doing here and what 
you want of me and why you have had me called. Tell me if you want 
me to cut you or if you want to come with me, and how you want me to 
cany you, and I will build you a cabin and add a property to it." Then 



*The text is erroneouB. It ahouki be "Call the Bohuti" as appears from Lav 
Cttsas's quotation of^the same passase Does. In^. LXVI, 436. 

tSee aboTe ch. zi. Las Cases describes in detail the prooess of ''making oohoba'' 
which he says he had seen many times. Docs. InM. LXVI, 469-71. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology, 331 

that tree or cemi becomes an idol or devil, replies to him teUing him the 
shape in 'vdiich it wants to be made. And he cuts and makes it in the 
shape it has directed; builds its house for it, and gives the property 
and many times in the year makes eogioba for it. This eoffioba is to pray 
to it and to please it and to ask and to learn some things from the eemif 
either evil or good, and in addition to ask it for wealth. And when 
they want to know if th^ will be victorious over their enemies they 
go into a cabin into which no one else goes except the principal men; 
and their chief is the first who begins to make eoffioba, and to make a 
noise; and while he is making eogioba, no one of them who is in the 
company says anything till the chief has finished; but when he has 
finished his prayer, he stands a while with his head turned (down) and 
his anns on his knees; then he lifts his head up and looks toward the 
sky and speaks. Then they all answer him with a loud voice, and wbea 
ihey have all spoken giving thanks, he tells the vision that he has seen 
intoxicated with the eogioba which he has inhaled through his nose, 
which goes up into his head. And he says that he has talked with the 
cemi and that they are to have a victory; or that his enemies will fly; 
or that there shall be a great loss of life, or wars or famine or some other 
such thingi which occur to him who is intoxicated to say. Consider 
what a state their brains are in, because they say the cabins seem to them 
to be turned upside down and that men are walking with their feet in 
the air. 

And this eogioba they make for eemia of stone and of wood as well 
as for the dead as we have described above. 

The stone eemis are of several kinds. There are some which they 
say the physiciaDS draw from the body and the sick believe these are 
the best to help women with child to be delivered. There are othen 
that speak which are shaped like a laige turnip with the leaves spread 
on and as long as caper bushes. These leaves generally are shaped 
like an elm leaf; others have three points, and they believe that they 
make the Oiuea (Yucca?) to grow. Their roots are like a radish. The 
leaf of the giviola for the most part has six or seven points. I do not 
know with what to compare it because I have never seen anjrthing like 
it in Spain or in other countries. The stslk of the giuea is as tall as a 
man. Let us now speak of their belief relating to the idols and eemia 
and of their great delusions derived from them. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Of the Cead, Bugia and Alba,* of which they relate that when there 
were wars he was burnt by them and then washing him with the juice 
of the giuea his arms grew again and his eyes were made anew and his 
body grew again. 

The giuea was small and with water and with juice as mentioned above 
they washed it in order that it should become big. And they say that 

^Alternate nameg of Baidnuna nwntioiied just below. 

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332 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

it made those 31 who had made this cemi because they did not bring it 
giuca to eat. This eemi was named Baidrama;* and when some one 
was sick th^ called the BvhviHhu (Bohuti) and asked him whence 
came this illness; and he replied that Baidnona had sent it because 
they had not sent him (something) to eat by those who had charge of 
his cabin. This the BvhuUihu (Bohuti) said the cemi Baidrama had 
told him. 

CHAPTER XXI. 

Of the cemi of Guamorete. 

They say that -whim they built the house of Quamorete irho was 
a principal man, they put there a cemi that he had on top of his house. 
This cemi was called Gorooote; and once when they had wars, the enemiee 
of Guamorete burned the house where this cemi Gorooote was. At 
that time they relate that he rose up and went away a oroas-bowdiot 
from that place to near a water. And ihey say that when he was above 
the house by njght he came down and lay with the women, and that 
then Guamorete died, and that this cemi came into the hands of another 
cacique and that he continued to lie with the women. And they say, 
besides, that two crowns grew on his head. Wherefore they said: (of 
some one) ' 'Since he has two crowns, certainly he is the son of Gorooote.'' 
This they believed very positively. This cemi came into the poosofloion 
later of another cacique named Guatabanez and his place was named 
Giacaba. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

Of another cemi whose name was Opigielguouiran,t and a principal 
man had him whose name was Gauauaniouaua, and he had many subjects. 

This cemi Opigielguouiran, they say, had four feet like a dog's, and 
he was of wood, and that oftentimes by night he went out of the house 
into the woods whither they went to seek him, and ^enhe was brou^^t 
back to the house they bound him with cords; but he went away again 
to the woods. 

And when the CJhristians came to this island of Espaliola they say 
that he broke away and went into a swamp and that they followed 
his tracks but never saw him nor do they Imow anything about him. 
I deliver this just as I received it. 



*Las Gmm. LXVI. 471. givM this name asVaybnun*. Hia venidn of the story 
ia dearer than the Italian text of Ramon Pane. 

) fEpilecuanita in Peter Martyr. Accepted by BaehiUer y M<ffalee as undoubtedly 
the proper form, the name in the text being obrioualy eomipted. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 333 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

Of another cemi called Gnabancex. 

This cemi Guabanoez was in the countiy of a great cacique, one of 
the chief ones, named Aumatex. This cemi is a woman and they 
say there are two others in her company. One is a crier, the other 
the gatherer or governor of the waters. And when GKiabanoez is angiy, 
they say, that she raises the wind and brings rain, and throws down 
houses and shakes the trees. This cemi they say is a woman and was 
made of stone of that countiy. The other two cemis that are with her 
are named, the one Guatauua, and is a crier or prodaimer and by order 
of Guabanoez makes proclamation that all the other cemia of that 
province shall help raise a high wind and bring a heavy rain. The other 
is named Coatiischie ^dio, they relate, gathers the water into the valleys 
between the mountains and then lets them looBb to destroy the oountiy 
This they are positive about. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

Of what they believe about another cemi named Faraguuaol.* This 
cemi belongs to a principal cacique in the island of Espafiola, and is an 
idol, and they ascribe to him several names and he was found as you 
will now hear. 

Th^ say that one day in the past before the island was discovered 
they know not how long ago, when going hunting th^ found a certain 
animal and they ran after it and it broke away into a ditch. And 
looking for it they saw a beam which seems alive. Thereupon the 
hunter, seeing it, ran to his lord who was a cicique and the father of 
Guaraionel and told him what he had seen. Th^ went there and found 
the thing as the hunter had said. And they took the log and built a 
house for it. And they say that it went out of the house several times 
and went to the place whence they had brou^t it, not exactly to the 
same place but near there; because the lord just mentioned or his son 
Guaraionel sent out to seek it they found it hidden; and that another 
time they bound it and put it in a sack, and notwithstanding it was 
bound in this way it went off as before. And this (stoiy) this ignorant 
people accept as a positive certainty. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

Of the things which they say were uttered by two of the leading 
caciques of the island of Espafiola; the one named Cassiuaquel, father 
of the above-mentioned Guarionel; the other Gamanaooel. 



^BaohiUtf y Morales tbinki this iMine should be written Tencabeol. 



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334 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

And (to) that great lord who they say is in heaven, as in the beginning 
of the book is written, (they say of) this Gaizzihu,* that he there made 
a fast which all of them keep together, for they are shut up six or seven 
dajrs without eating anything except the juice of herbs with which 
they also wash themselves. After this time is finished, they begin to 
eat something which gives them nourishment. And in the time that 
they have been without food through the weakness which they feel in 
the body and in the head they say they have seen something peritaps 
desired by them, for they all keep this fast in honor of the cemi that 
they have in order to know if they will obtain a victory over their ene> 
mies or to acquire wealth or for anything else they desire. And they 
say that this cacique afiirmed that he had spoken with Gioeauuaghamaf 
who had told him that whoever remained alive after his death should 
enjoy the rule over them only a short time, because they would see 
in their country a people clothed which was to rule them and to slay 
them and that they would die of hunger. At first they thought these 
would be the Ganibales;} but reflecting that they only plundered and 
fled they believed that it must be another people that the cemi spoke 
of. Wherefore they now believe that it was the Admiral and the people 
he brou^t with him.§ Now I want to tell what I have seen and what 
took place, when I and the other friars went to Castile and I, Friar 
Ramon a poor hennit stayed behind) and went off to the Magdalena to 
a fort which Don (Christopher Columbus, Admiral, viceroy and governor 
of the islands and of the main land of the Indies by conmiand of King 
Don Ferdinand and of the (iueen Donna Isabella. I being in that fort 
with Artiaga (Arriaga) appointed captain of it by order of the aforesaid 
viceroy Don Christopher Columbus it pleased Ckxi to enlighten with the 
light of the Holy Catholic Faith a whole household of the principal 
people of that province of Magdalena. This province was called Maro- 
risIT and the lord of it was called Guauauooonel, which means son of 
Guauaenechin. In the aforesaid house were his servants and favorites 
who had for a surname Giahuuauariii. They were in all sixteen persons 
all relatives, and among them five brothers. Of these one died, and the 
other four received the water of holy baptism. And I believe that 
they died martyrs, for so it appeared in their death and in their ccmstancy. 
The first who received the death or the water of holy baptism was an 
Indian called Guaticaua** who then received the name of John. This 



*Tliu sentenoe is apparently eorrupt. The oonieetural inMrtioiu are based on 
Las Casas's epitome of the same story. Docs. In^. LXVI, 473. I take Csisiiiiaqiiel 
and Caiisihu to be the same. 

fYocahucuama in Las Casas, op. ciL 475. 

f'That people whom we now call Garibes but whom they then and we called Gani- 
bales" Las Casas op. cU. 475. The words are etymologically the same. 

f A very interesting legend of a prophecy of a clothed conquering race. Possibly 
the attribute of clothing may haye been based on rumors of the Mas^as or the Astecs. 

IIThe text is confused. Probably it means simply at the time when the other 
friars went to Castile. 

infa<;orix. Las Casas, Docs. InM. LXVI, 436. 

**Guaicauanu is the form given a page below. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 335 

was tbe fiist Christian who suffered a cruel death; and surely it aeems 
to me that he died the death of a martyr. For I have heard from some 
who were present at his death that he said Dio Aboriadacha, Dio Aboria- 
dacha,* which is to say: "I am a servant of Qod." And in like manner 
died his brother Antony and with him another saying the same thing. 
All those of this household and peo^de attended me to do whatever I 
pleaaed Those that were left alive and are living to-day are Christians 
through the means of Don Christopher Columbus, viceroy and governor 
of the Indies; and now the Christians are many more in number through 
the grace of Qod. 

Let us now velate what befel us in the idand (piovinoe) of Magdalena. 
When Iwas there in Magdalena thesaid Lord Admiral came to the assist- 
ance of Aniaga and some Christians who were besieged by enemies, 
the subjects of a principal cacique named Caouabo (Caonabo). The 
Lord Admiral told me that the language of the province Magdalena 
Maioris (MaQorix) was different from the other, and that the speech 
there was not understood throughout the land, and that therefore I 
should go and reside with another principal Cacique named Guarionex, 
lord of a numerous people whose language was understood eveiywhere 
intheland. So l^ his conunand I went to reside with the said Guarionex. 
It IB true, that I said to the lord governor Don Christopher Columbus: 
^'My lord, why does your lordship wish me to go and live with Guarionex 
when I know no language besides that of Maroris? (Ma^orix) Let 
your lordship permit that some one of these people of Nuhuird, who 
then were Christians and knew both languages, go with me." This 
he granted me and UAd me to take whomever I pleased. And God in 
his goodness gave me for a companion the best of the Indians and the 
one most experienced in the Christian faith. Later he took him from 
me. God be praised who gave him and took him away, whom I truly 
regarded as a good son and a brother. And he was that Guaicauand 
who afterwards was a Christian and was called John. 

Of what befell us there I, the poor hermit, shall not relate anything, 
nor how we set forth Guaicauanti and I and went to Isabella and waited 
for tbe Admiral till he returned from the relief of Magdalena. As soon 
as he arrived we went where the lord governor had ordered us in company 
with one Juan de Agiada (Aguada) who had charge of a fort which the 
said governor Don Christopher Columbus had built, half a league from 
the place where we were to live. And the aforesaid lord Admiral com- 
manded the said Juan di Agiada (Aguada) that he should give us to eat 
from the store that was in the fort. This fort was called Conception. 
We then were with that cacique Guarionex almost two years giving 
him instruction all the time in our holy faith and the customs of Chris- 
tians. In the beginning he showed a good will and gave us hopes that 
he would do everything we wished and of desiring to be a Christian, 
asking us to teach him the Lord's Prayer, the Ave Maria and the Creed , 

*Tlus |>hraM one the Tery few extant belonsing to the Taino or Haytian languace 
is liven by Lae Cane ae "D%o9 nabcria daea." op- dL 475. 



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336 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and all the other prayers which pertain to the Christian. And thus 
he leaned the Lord's Prayer and the Ave Maria, and the Greed. And 
many of his household learned the same. And every morning he said hia 
prayers and he made his household say them twice a day. But later 
he became offended and gave up that good plan through the fault of 
some other principal men of that countiy, ^o blamed him because he 
was willing to give heed to the Christian law, since the Christians were 
bad men and got possession of their lands l^ force. Therefore they 
advised him to care no more for anything belonging to the Christians, 
but that they should agree and conspire together to slay them, because 
th^ could not satisfy them and were resolved not to tiy in any fashion 
to follow their ways. For this reason he broke off from his good intention, 
and we, seeing that he had broken away and left what we had taught 
him, resolved to depart thence and go where we might be more successful 
in teaching the Indians and instructing them in the matters of our faith. 
And so we went to another principal cacique who showed us good will 
saying that he wished to be a Christian. This cacique was called Mauiatud. 
Accordingly, we set out to go to the said Mauiatu^'s countiy: I Friar 
Ramon Pane, a poor hermit, and Friar Juan Boigognone of the order 
of St. Francis and John Matthew the first that received the water of Holy 
Baptism in the island of Espafiola. 

On the second day after we departed from the village and habitation 
of Guarionex to go to the other cacique named Mauiatud the people 
of Guarionex built a house near the house of prayer in ^diich we left 
some images before which the catechumens were to kneel and pray and 
to console themselves. And they were the mother, and brothers and the 
relatives of the aforesaid John Matthew, the first Christian. Later 
seven others joined them and then all of that family became Christiana 
and persevered in their good intentions, according to our faith; so that 
all that family remained as the guardians of that house of prayer and 
some lands that I had had tilled. 

Now these being left to guard this house the second day after we had 
gone to the aforesaid Mauiatu^, six men went into the house of prayer 
which the aforesaid catechumens who were seven in number had chaige 
of, and l^ order of Guarionex told them that they should take those 
images which Friar Ramon had left in the custody of the catechumens, 
and rend them and break them in pieces, since Friar Ramon and his 
companions had gone and th^ would not know "vdio did it. Therefore 
these six servants of Guarionex went there and found six boys watching 
over this house of prayer fearing what happened later; and the boys 
thus instructed said they were unwilling th^ should come in, but they 
forced their way in and took the images and carried them off. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology, 337 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

What became of the images and the miracle God wrought 
to show his power. 

When th^ came out of the house of prayer, they threw the images 
down on the ground and covered them with dirt and then made 
water upon them saying: "Now your fruits will be good and great." 
And this because they buried them in a tilled field saying that the fruit 
would be good which was planted there, and this all in mockery. And 
when the boys saw this that had chaige of the house of prayer l^ com^ 
mand of the catechumens they ran to their elders who were on their 
lands and told them, that the men of Quarionex had torn the images 
to tatters and mocked them. And when they understood the matter 
from them they left their woik and ran ciying out to give an account 
of it to Don Bartholomew Columbus who was then governor in place of the 
Admiral his brother, who had gone to Castile. He as lieutenant of the 
viceroy and governor of the islands had the offenders tried and the truth 
being made known he had them publicly burnt. All this did not deter 
Guarionez and his subjects from the evil design they had of slaying 
the Christians on the day appointed for bringing in the tribute which 
th^ payed.* But their conspiracy was discovered, and thus they 
were taken on the same day on which th^ were going to cany it into 
effect. Still they persisted in their plan and putting it into operation, 
they killed four men and John Matthew chief derk and Anthony his 
brother who had received Holy Baptism. And th^ ran to where they 
had hidden the images and tore them in pieces. Some days later the 
owner of that field went to dig agis which are roots like turnips and some 
like radishes. And in the place where the images had been buried 
two or three agis had grown one through the middle of the other in the 
form of a cross. Nor was it possible for any man to find this cross, but 
the mother of Guarionez found it who was the worst woman I knew 
in those parts. She thought this a great miracle and said to the com- 
mander of the fort Conception, "This miracle has been shown l^ God 
where the images were found. God knows why." 

Let us now relate how the first Christians were converted who received 
Holy Baptism and how much it is necessary to do to make all Christians. 
And truly the island has great need of people to punish the chiefs when 
they will not suffer their peo^de to hear the things of the Holy Catholic 
Faith, and to be taught in it, because they are not able and do not 
know how to speak against it. I can affirm this with truth because it 
has cost me much labor to know it and I am certain that it will be dear 
from what we have said of this to point. A word to the wise is enough. 

The first Christians then in the island of Espafiola were those of whom 
we have^spoken above, i. e. Gianauuariu in whose family there were 

*Cf. LMlCasM. HiBioria cb Jaa /imKm H. 144-«. 

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338 American Antiqyarian Society. [April, 

seventeen personB who all became Ghristianfl, as soon as they understood 
that theze is one God idio has made all things and created heaven and 
earth, without any further arguments or controversy because they 
easQy believe. But with others both force and inteUigenoe must be used, 
because they are not all alike. Because if these had a good beginning 
and a better end there will be others ^dio will begin wdl and then will 
laugh at what has been tau^t them. For such force and punishment 
axe neoessaiy. 

The first that received R6ty Baptism in the islaad of Espafiola was 
John Matthew ^dio was baptised on the day of St. Matthew the Evan- 
gelist (September 21) in the year 1496, and later all his family; where 
there have been many Christians and there would be more if tliere had 
been someone to teach them and to instruct them in the Holy Catholic 
Faith and people to hold them in cheek. 

And if any one should ask idiy I make this so easy a matter I say 
it is because I have seen the eKpeiiment tried especially in the case of 
a pcineipal cacique Mahuuiatiuire who has continued now for three 
years in his good purpose saying that he will be a Christian and have 
but one wife because they used to have two or three and the principal 
ones ten, fifteen or twenty. 

This is what I have been able to understand and to learn as to the cus- 
toms and ceremonies of the Indians of Espafiola, with all the pains I 
have taken wherein I expect no spiritual or temporal advantage. 

May it please our Lord if this is useful to his government and service 
to give me his grace to persevere; and if it must fall out otherwise, may 
he take away my understanding. 

The end of the work of the poor hermit Ramon Pane.^ 



AN EPITOME OF THE TREATISE OF FRIAR RAMON 
INSERTED BY PETER MARTYR IN HIS 
DE REBUS OCEANICIS ET NOVO ORBE. 

DECADE I. UB. IX. 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

The translation is that of Richard Eden, as revised by Michael Lok, 
and published in Hakluyt's Voyages, London ed. 1812. Vol. v. 209ff. 
I have compared the translation with the original, restoring some 
slight omissions and correcting some errors. E. Q. B. 

Our men therefore were long in the Hand of Hispaniola, 
before they knew that the people thereof honoured any 
other thmg then the lightes of heauen, or hadde any other 

^HiftoTM. Ed. 1571. folios 12&-145. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 339 

religion: but when they hadde beene longe conuersaunt with 
them, and by vnderstanding their language, drew to a further 
f amiliaritie, they had knowledge that they vsed diuers rites 
and superstitions: I haue therefore gathered these fewe 
thinges following, omitting the more trifling matter, out of a 
booke written by one Ramonus [Ramon] an Heremite, whome 
Colonus [Coliimbus] hadde left with certayne kinges of the 
Ilande to instruct them in the Christian faith. And tarry- 
ing there a long time he composed a small book in the 
Spanish tongue on the rites of the island. And because in 
manner their whole religion is none other thing then idola- 
trie, I will be^in at their idoUes. It is therefore apparant 
by the images which they honour openly and conunonly, 
that there appeare vnto them in the night seasons, certayne 
phantasies and illusions of euil spirites, seducing them into 
many fonde and foolish errours for they make certaine 
images of Gossampine cotton, folded or wreathed after 
thdr manner, and hard stopped within. These images 
they make sitting, muche like vnto the pictures of spirits 
and deuilles which our paynters are accustomed to paynt 
vpon walles: but forasmuch as I my selfe sent you foure 
of these Images, you may better presently signifie vnto 
the king vour vncle, what manner of things they are, and 
howe like vnto paynted deuilles, than I can expresse the 
same by writing. These images, the inhabitauntes call 
Zemes, whereof the leaste, made to the likenesse of young 
deuilles, they binde to their fordieades when they goe to 
the warres against their enemies, and for that purpose haue 
they those strings hangmg at them which you see. Of 
these, they beleeue to obteyne rayne, if raine bee lacking, 
likewise fayre weather if they are in need of sunshine: for 
they think that these Zemes are the mediatours and messen- 
gers of the great God, whom they acknowledge to be onely 
one, etemall, without md, omnipotent, and inuisible. Thus 
euery king hath his particular Zeme, which he honoureth. 
They call the etemall God by these two names, locauna. 



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340 American Antiqiuinan Society. [April, 

Guamaonocon, as their predecessoures taught them, affirm- 
ing that hee hath a mother called by these fiue names : 
that is, Attabeira, Mamona, Guacarapita, Bella, Guimazoa. 
Nowe shall you heare what they fable on the earth as touch- 
ing the][originall of man. There is in the lande, a region 
<^ed Caunana, where they faine that mankinde came first 
out of two caues of a moimtaine: and that the biggest sorte 
of men came forth of the mouth of the biggest caue, and 
the least sort out of the least caue. The rocke in the which 
these caues are, they call Cauta. The greatest denne, 
they name Cazibaxagua, and the lesse Amaiauna. They say, 
that before it was lawful for men to come foorth of the 
eaue, the mouth of the caue was kept and watched ni^tly 
by a man whose name was Machochael: this Machochael^ 
departing somewhat farre from the caue, to the intent to 
8ee what things were abroad, was sodenly taken of the 
sunne, (whose sight he was forbidden) and was turned 
into a stone. They fayne the like of diuers others, that 
whereas they went forth in the night season a fishing so 
farre from the caue, that they could not retume before the 
rismg of the sunne (the which it was not lawfull for them 
to behold) they were transformed into Myrobalane trees, 
which of themselves grow plentifully in the Hand. They 
said furthermore, that a certayne ruler called Vaguoniona, 
sent one foorth of the caue to goe a fishing, who by like 
chance was turned into a Nightingale, because the simne 
was risen beef ore hee came agajne to the caue: and that 
yeerely about the same time that he was turned into 
a bird,* he doth in the night with a mourning song 
bewayle his misfortune, and call for the helpe of his 
maister Vaguoniona: And this they thinke to bee the cause 
why that bird singeth in the night season. But Vaguon- 
iona, being sore troubled in his mind for the losse of his 
familiar friend whom he loued so entirely, leauing the men 
in the caue, brought forth only the women with their suck- 

*By a curious error Lok ha» "bridge" instead of "bird". 

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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 341 

ing children; and leaning the women in one of the Ilandes 
of that tract, called Mathinind, he caryed the children 
away with him; which poor wretches oppressed with famine, 
faynted and remayned on the banke of a certaine ryuer; 
where they were turned into frogges and cryed toa, toa, 
that is mamma, mamma, as children are woont to cry, for 
the mothers pape. And heereof they say it commeth that 
frogges vse to cry so pitifully in the springtime of the yeare: 
And that men were scattered abroade in the caues of 
Hispaniola without the companie of women. They say 
also, that Vaguoniona himself being accustomed to wander 
in diuers places, and yet by a speciall grace neuer trans- 
formed once, descended to a certayne faire woman, whom 
he sawe in the bottome of the sea, and receiued of her 
certayne pibble stones of marble (which they called Cibas) 
and also certayne yellowe and bright plates of lattin which 
they call Guaninos. These necklaces to this day are had 
in great estimation among the kinges, as goodly jewelles 
and most holy reUques. 

These* men which we said before were left in the caves 
without women, went forth in the ni^t (as they say) to 
wash themselves in a pond of rain water and saw a far off 
by the way a great multitude of certain beasts in shape 
somewhat like unto women, creeping as thick as ants about 
the myrobalane trees; And that as they attempted to 
take these beasts, they slipped out of their hands as they 
had been eels. Whereupon they consulted, and determined 
by the advice of the elders, that all such should be sou^t forth 
among them, as were scabbed and leprous, to the intent 
that with their rough and hard hands, tiiey might the easier 
take hold of them. These men, they call Caracaracoles: 
And sent them forth a hunting to take their beasts. But 
of many which they took, they could keep but only four: 
and when they would have used them for women, they found 

*T1m two legradi that follow of the nmlring of women and of the m^Mng of the 
M* were omitted by Lok althouch tmnelated by Eden. Eden's Tenion moderniied 
hae been inserted here. 



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342 American AnHqvarian Society. [April, 

that they lacked woman's priuities. Wherefore calling the 
elders again to counsel to consult what were best to be done in 
this case, their advice was that the bird which we call the 
Pye, should be admitted with his bill to open a place for 
that purpose, while in the meantime these men called 
Caracaracoles, should hold fast the women's th^s abroad 
with their rou^ hands. Full wisely therefore was the pye 
put to this office, and opened the women's priuities, and 
hereof the women of the Island have their origb and off- 
spring. But now do I cease to marvel that the old Greeks 
did fable and write so many books of the people called 
Myrmidones, which they said to be engendered of ants or 
pismires. These and such like, the sagest and wisest of 
the people, preach continually to the simple sort, and 
rdiearse the same as most holy oracles. But it is yet more 
childish [rather, more sober] that they fable as touching the 
original of the sea. For they say that there was once in 
the Island, a man of great power, whose name was laia; 
whose only son being dead, he buried him within a great 
gourd. This laia, grievously taking the death of his son, 
after a few months, came again to the gourd: The which 
when he had opened, there issued forth many great whales 
and other monsters of the sea: whereupon he declared to 
such as dwelt about him, that the sea was enclosed in that 
gourd. By which report, four brethren (borne of one woman 
who died in her travail) being moved, came to the gom-d in 
hope to have many fishes. The which when they had 
taken in their hands, and espied lata coming, (who often- 
times resorted to the gourd to visit the bones of his son) 
fearing lest he should suspect them of theft and sacrilege, 
suddenly let the gourd fall out of their hands: which being 
broken in the fall the sea forthwith broke out at the rifts 
thereof, and so filled the vales, and overflowed the plains, 
that only the mountains were uncovered, which now contain 
the islands which are seen in those coasts. And this is the 
opinion of these wise men as concerning the origin of the sea. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 343 

But nowe (most noble prince) you shall heare a more 
pleasaunt fable. There is a certa3me caue called louana- 
boina, in the territorie of a certayne king whose name is 
Machinn^ch: This caue they honour more religiously then 
did the Greekes in time paste, Corinth, Cyrrha, or Nysa, 
and haue adoumed it with pictures of a thousand fashions. 
In the intranee of this caue they haue two grauen Zemes, 
whereof the one is called Binthaitel, and the other Mar6hu. 
Being demanded why they had this caue in so great reuerence 
they answered earnestly, because the sunne and the moone 
came first out of the same to giue light to the world: they 
haue religious concourse to these caues, as we are accustomed 
to goe on Fylgrimage to Rome, or Vaticane, Compostella, 
or tiie Lords Sepulchre, Hierusalem, as most holy & head 
places of our religion. They are also subject to another 
kind of superstition : for they thinke that dead folks walke 
in the night, and eate the fruite called Gvannaba, vnknowne 
vnto Ys, & somewhat like vnto a Quinse: affirming also 
that they are couersant with lining people: euen in thdr 
beddes, and to deceiue women in taking vpon them the 
shape of men, shewing themselves as though they would 
haue to doe with them: but when the matter conuneth to 
actuall deed, sodainly they vanishe away. If any do suspect 
that a dead body lyeth by him, when he f eeleth any strange 
thing in the bed, they say he shall bee out of doubt by feeling 
of the bellie thereof; affirming that the spirites of dead men 
may take vppon them all the members of mans body, sauing 
onely the nauel. If therefore by the lacke of the nauel he 
doe perceiue that a dead body lyeth by him, the feeling 
(contact) is immediately resolued. (relaxed) They bdeeue 
verily, that in the ni^t, and oftentimes in ther ioiuneies, 
and especially in common and hig|h wayes, dead men doe 
meete with the lining: Against whom, if any man bee 
stout and out of feare, the fantasie vanisheth incontinently: 
but if anie feare, the fantasie or vision dooth so assaulte 
him and strike him with further feare, that many are thereby 



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344 American AntiquaHan Society. [April^ 

astonyshedy and haue the lynunes of their bodies taken. 
(Rather, arc completely unnerved). The inhabitauntes 
beeing demanded of whom they had those vaine superstitions 
they aunswered, that they were left them of thdr forefathers, 
as by descent of inheritance, and that they haue had the 
same before the memorie of man, composed in certaine 
rimes and songes, which it was lawfull for none to leame, 
but onely the Idnges sonnes, who committed the same to 
memorye because they had neuer any knowledge of letters. 
These they sing before the people on certaine solemne 
and festiuall dayes as most religious c«*emonies: while in 
the meane time they play on a certaine instrument made of 
one whole peece of wood somewhat holowe like a timbrel. 
Their priestes and diuines (whom they call Boitii) instructe 
them in these superstitions: These priestes are also phisi- 
tions, deuismg a thousand craftes and subtilties howe to 
deceiue the simple people which haue them in great reuerence 
for they perswade them that the Zemes vse to speak with 
them familiarly, and tel them of things to come. And if 
any haue ben sicke, and are recouered they make and beleeue 
that they obteined their health of the Zemes. These 
Boitii bind themselves to much fasting, and outward dean- 
linesse, and purginges, especially when they take vpon them 
the cure of any prince, for then they drinke the powder of a 
certaine herbe by whose qualitie they are driuen into a fury, 
at which time (as they say) they leame many thinges by 
reuelation of the Zemes. Then putting secretely in their 
mouthes, eyther a stone, or a bone, or a peece of flesh, they 
come to the sick person commaunding al to depart out of 
that place except one or two whom it shall please the aicke 
man to appoynt: this done, they goe about him three or 
foure times, greatly deforming their faces, Upps, and nos- 
thrils with sundry filthy gestures, blowing, breathing, and 
sucking the forehead, temples, and necke of the patient, 
whereby (they say) they drawe the euil ayre from him, and 
sucke the disease out of the vaynes; then rubbing him. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 346 

about the shoulders, thighes and legges, and drawing downe 
their handes close by his feete, holding them yet faste 
togeather, they runne to the doore being open, where they 
vndose and shake their hands, affirming that they haue 
driuen away the disease, and that the patient shall shortly 
be perfectly restored to health. After this comming be- 
hinde him, hee conueigheth a peece of fleshe out of bis owne 
mouth like a iu^eler, and sheweth it to the aicke man, 
saying ,"Behold, you haue eaten to much, you shall nowe 
bee whole, because I haue taken this from you." But if he 
entend yet further to deceiue the patient, hee perswadeth 
him that his Zeme is angry, eyther because he hath not 
builded him a chappell, or not honoiu^ him religiously, 
or not dedicated vnto him a groue or garden. And if it so 
chaimce that the sicke person die, his kinsfolks, by witch- 
crafte, enforce the dead to confesse whether he died by 
naturall destiny, or by the negligence of the Boitius, in 
that he had not fasted as he should haue done, or not minis- 
tred a conuenient medicine for the disease: so that if this 
phisition be found faultie, they take reuenge of him. Of 
these stones or bones which these Boitii cary in their mouthes, 
if the women can come by them, they keepe them reli^ously, 
beleeuing them to be greatly effectuall to hdpe women 
traueUng with childe, and therefore honour them as they do 
their Zemes. For diuers of the inhabitantes honour Zemes 
of diuers fashions: some make them of wood, as they were 
admonished by certaine visions appearing vnto them in 
the woods: Other, which haue receiued aunswer of them 
among the rockes, make them of stone and marble. Some 
they make of rootes, to the similitude of such as appeare to 
them when they are gathering the rootes called Ages, 
whereof they make their bread, as we haue said before. 
These 2iemes they beleue to send plentie & fruitfulnes 
of those rootes, as the antiquitie beleued such fa}n:ies or 
spirits as they called Dryades, Hamadryades, Satyros, 
Panes, and Nereides, to haue the cure & prouidence of 



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346 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

the sea, wckkIs, springes, and fountaines, assigning to euery 
thing their peculiar goddes; Euen so doe the inhabitants of 
this Hand attribute a Zeme to eu^y thing, supposing the 
same to giue eare to thdr inuocations. Wherefore, as 
often as the kings aske counsell of thdr SSemes as concern- 
ing their warres, increase of fruites or scarcenes, or health 
& sickness, they enter into the house dedicate to their 
2iemes, where, snufiing vp into thdr nosthryles the pouder 
of the herbe called Cohdbba* (wherewith the Boitii are dry- 
uen into a furie) they say that immediately they see the 
houses turned topede turuie, and men to walke with thdr 
heeles vpward, of such force is this pouder, vtterly to take 
away al sence. As soone as this madnesse ceasseth, he 
embraceth his knees with his armes, holding downe his 
head. And when he hath remayned thus awhile astony- 
shed, hee lifteth vp his head, as one that came newe out of 
sleepe: and thus lookin vp toward heauen, first he fumbleth 
certaine confounded wordes with himselfe, then certayne 
of the nobilitie or chiefe gentlemen that are about him (for 
none of the common people are admitted to these mysteries) 
with loude voyces giue tokens of reioicing that hee is retiuned 
to them from the speech of the Zemes, demanding of him 
what he hath scene. Then hee opening his mouth, doateth 
that the Zemes spake to him during the time of his trance, 
declaring that he had reuelations either concerning victorie 
or destruction, famine or plentie, health or sdcknesse or 
whatsoeuer happeneth first on his tongue. Now (most 
noble Prince) what neede you hereafter to marueyle of the 
spirite of Apollo so shaking his Sibylles with extreame 
furie: you hadde thought that the superstitious antiquitie 
hadde perished. But nowe whereas I haue declared thus 
much of the Zemes in general, I thought it not good to let 
passe what is sayde of them in particular. They say there- 
fore that a certaine king called Guamaretus, had a Zeme 
whose name was Cor6chutus, who (they say) was oftentimes 



*Tobaeoo. 



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1906.] Beginnings of American Anthropology. 347 

wont to descend from the highest place of the house where 
Guamar^tns kept Mm close bound. They affirme that the 
cause of this his breaking of his bandes and departure, was 
eyther to hide himselfe, or to goe seeke for meate, or else 
for the acte of generation: and that sometimes beeing 
offended that the King Guamar^tus had bin negligent and 
slacke in honouring him, he was wont to lie hid for certaine 
dayes. They say also, that in the kinges village there are 
sometime children borne tiauing two crownes, which they 
suppose to be the children of Coroch6tus the Zeme. They 
faine likewise, that Guamar^tus being ouercome of his 
enemies in battayle, and his village with the palace consumed 
with fire, Coroch6tus brake his bandes, and was afterwarde 
founde a furlong of, safe and without hurte. He hath also 
another Zemes called Epil^uanita, made of woode, in 
shape like a foure footed beast: who also is sayde often- 
times to haue gone from the palace where hee is honoured, 
into the woodes. As soone as they perceiue him to bee 
gone, a great multitude of them gather together to seeke 
him with deuout prayers: and when they haue founde him» 
bring him home rdigiously on their shoulders to the chappell 
dedicated vnto him. But they complaine, that since the 
conmdng of the Christian men into Uie Ilande, he fled for 
altogether, and coulde neuer since be foimde, whereby they 
diuined the destruction of their coimtry. They honoured 
another Zeme in the likenesse of a woman, on whom waited 
two other like men, as they were ministers to her. One of 
these, executed the office of a mediatour to the other Zeme, 
which are vnder the power and commaimdement of this 
woman, to raise wyndes, cloudes, and rayne. The other is 
also at her commaundement a messenger to the other 2iemes, 
which are ioyned with her in gouemance, to gather together 
the waters which fall from the higih hills to the valleies> 
that beeing loosed, they may with force burst out into great 
floudes, and ouer flowe the coimtrey, if the people do not 
giue due honour to her Image. The remameth yet one thing 



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348 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

worthy to be noted, wherewith we will make an end of this 
booke. It is a thing well knowne, and yet freshe in memorie 
among the inhabitants of the Hand, that there was sometime 
two kings (of the which one was the father of Guarionez, 
of whom wee made mention before) whiche were woont to 
absteine fine dales together continually from meate & 
drinke, to know somewhat of their Zemes of thinges to come^ 
and that for this fasting bemg acceptable to their Zemes, 
they receiued answere of them, that within few yeeres there 
shoulde come to the Hand a nation of men couered with 
apparell, which shoulde destroy all the customes and cere- 
monies of the Hand, and either slay all their children, or 
bring them into seruitude. The common sort of the people 
vnderstoode this oracle to be ment of the Canibaies, & 
therefore when they had any knowledge of their conmiing, 
they euer fled, and were fully determined neuer more to 
aduenture the battayle with them. But when they sawe 
that the Spanyardes hadde entred into the Ilande, consult- 
ing among themselues of the matter, they concluded that 
this was the nation whiche was ment by the oracle. Wherein 
their opinion deceiued them not, for they are nowe all subject 
to the Christians, all such being dsyne as stubemdy resisted : 
Nor yet remayneth there anie memorie of their Zemes, for 
they are all brought into Spajme, that wee might bee certy- 
fied of their illusions of euill spirits and IdoUes, the which 
you your selfe (most noble Prince) haue scene and felt when 
I was present with you. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 349 



THE POINT OF VIEW IN fflSTORY. 

BY WILLIAM B. F09TSB. 

What is history? Is it, essentially, science; or is it, 
essentially, literature; or must we make a still different 
answer to the question? 

Although the problem involved in these questions is by 
no means new, it has hardly ever been discussed with 
greater earnestness than in our own day, nor has it perhaps 
been discussed with greater frequency than during the last 
twenty-five years. During this period have appeared 
the various publications by the German historian, Lam- 
precht, relating to history, including his latest volume of 
lectures,^ which has been translated into English under 
the suggestively interrogative title: — ^''What is history?" 

The literature of the subject, as a whole, is most volum- 
inous;^ and the answers to this very question, direct or im- 
plied, are bewilderingly diverse. In the Eighteenth Century 
Montesquieu seemed to conceive of history as based very de- 
cidedly on physiography, or the study of the earth's surface.' 

^Lta mp tB d U, Eaii Modeme GmdkdchUmimmBtibait. Fraibwi im Bniagau 
H. Heyfelder. 1905. This is tmulmted into EncUah imdar the foUowint title: 
"What is hiftory? Five leoturae on the modern soienoe of history. T^andated 
from the German by E. A. Andrews;" New York. The Maffmillan Go., 1906. 

Khx the literature of the subjeot, in general, a yery useful "Bibliography of the 
study and teaehing of history" has been prepared by James Ingersoll Wyer, Jr., and 
published in the "Annual report" of the American Historiesl Association, 1899, ▼. 
1, p. fifil^ld. There should also be noted the more than one hundred citations 
included in the "Notes" appended to Lord Acton's inaugural leoture at Cambridge, 
on "The atudy of history." (p. 76-142), London: MacmiUan A Go., 1896; also Dr. 
William Preston Johnston's paper on " Definitions of history, " in the "Annual report" 
of the American Historical Association, 1896, p. 46-68. Other enumerations of 
writers who have defined history will be found in Dr. Robert Flint's "History of the 
philosophy of history," pt. 1, (1894), New York; C. Seribner's Sons, p. 8-12. 

See also p. r-viu of Dr. O. Stanley Hall's "Methods ol teaching history," (Ed. 
1886), for brief references. 

sSee Books 14-18 of "L'esprit des lois," first published at Paris in 1748. 

A recent volume of much interest, by H. B. Gtoorge, discusses "Hie relations 
of geography and history." Oxford University Press, 1901. 



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350 American Antiquarian Society. [April/ 

The late John W. Draper/ an American historian, 
apparently sympathized with this view, extending 
it also to physiology, or the study of the hmnan 
body. The famous English historian, Freeman, defined 
history as ''past politics," and politics as "present history."* 
This is a view of the subject which appealed also to another 
recent English historian, Lecky.^ Two eminent econ- 
omists, writing respectively in England and America, 
(Thorold Rogers and Seligman), emphasize its connection 
with economics.^ History is definitely included imder 
sociology by a very eminent English scholar, Frederic 
Harrison.^ A historian's conception of history is em- 
bodied in an incidental remark of the late Judge Chamber- 
lain, in 1887, as follows: ''the record of impartial judgment 
concerning the motives and conduct of men, of parties, and 
of nations, set forth in their best light."^ It is interesting 
also to notice the views incidentally expressed by men 
whose fields of study are somewhat remote from history. 
For instance, it is closely connected with the human will, 
by Dr. Hugo Miinsterberg,^ in one of his brilliant psy- 

*Bir. Drmper's views are embodied not only in his "History of the Amoioso 
Oivil War." (New York, Harper A Bros., 1867-70, 8 ▼.). but in his "Hirtoryof the 
inteUectual development of Europe. " (New York: Harper A Bros, 1861, 2 ▼.) 

'JPrasmon, Edward Aucustus. Lectures to American audiences. (Pub. 1882), 
p,207. Compare also his "Methods of historical study." (1886), p. 44. lliis view 
was also held by Herbert B. Adams. See the Johns Hopkins University studies in 
historical and political science, v. 1, p. 12. 

•L&cky, William Edward Hartpole. Political (Tlie) value of history. New York: 
D. Appleton A Oo. 1893. [Delivered as an inaucural address at Birmingham, 1892.1 

*Roger§, James Edward Thorold. Economic (The) interpretation of history. 
New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1888. 

SMifman, Edward R. A. £ioonomio (The ) interpretation of history. New 
York: Macmillan Oo., 1902. 

*" History is only one department of sociology, just as natural history is the 
descriptive part of biology." At p. 138 of Bir. Harrison's volume, "The mean- 
ing of history and other historical pieces, " London: Macmillan A Oo. 1900. 

'"Papers" of the American Historical Association, v. 8. (1888), p. 63. Beprinted 
in the volume "John Adams," etc., by Mellen Chamberlain, Boston; Houghton, 
Mifflin A Co., 1898, p. 139. 

Another definition of history is given by our associate. Mr. James Phinney 
Baxter, as follows: "The orderly expression of great forces whose continuity of 
action gives it unity." ("Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society," Oct. 
21. 1899, new series, v. 13, p. 142.) 

T**This whole mighty Bystem of will-reference is what we call human history." 
Hugo Miinsterberg's "The eternal life," Boston: Houghton, MiflUn, A Co.. 19(tf. p. 38. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 351 

chological studies; while, in some recent Lowell Institute 
lectures on literature, by George Edward Woodberry,* it 
is connected with "race-power." Nor should it be forgotten 
that there are those who regard history as an art. But 
without further enumerating these very diverse views, 
we may notice that there are few among them which come 
with so much surprise to a reader who is without special 
training in history, as that of Lamprecht, already cited 
above. This eminent German historian, after a careful 
sm^ey of the entire field, declares deliberatdy : "History 
in itself is nothing but applied psychology." Page 29. 
("Geschichte ist an sich nichts als angewandte 
Psychologic." Page 16.) It is small wonder that 
one of the reviewers of Lamprecht, after devoting 
three pages to a consideration of the book, closes 
by asking:— "What is history?" or, rather, "Where is 
history?"* 

And yet, diverse as are these points of view, much the 
greater part of the discussion which has been carried on, 
in English, at least, has been a dispute as to whether history 
ought to be written from the "literary" point of view or 
from tibie "scientific" point of view; and on this question 
the divergence of opinion is idiarp indeed. On the one hand, 
it is argued, sometimes seriously, and sometimes in a very 
charmingly hiunorous vein,' that the literary point of 
view is the only point of view, and that the dull facts of 
history must be dressed up. "A distinguished author," 
says Mr. William C. Todd, in a recent article,* once said 
to the writer that "it was not right to turn a man out into 

V* History is so muoh of past eoqiMrieiioe as abides in rmoe-nMmory; and undarliea 
Taee4itflrature in the same way that a poet's own experience underlies his ezpree- 
sion of life." In "The torch — eight lectures on race power in literature," New 
York: MoClure, Phillips, A Co., 1905, p. 88. 

*Dr. Asa Currier lUton, in the American Historical Review. Oct., 1906, t. 11, 
p. 121. 

*For an admiraUe discussion of the subject with a humorous appreciation and 
lightness of touch almost worthy of Charies Lamb, see "The gentle reader." by* 
Samud M. Crothers, Boston: Houghton, Bfifflin, & Co., 1903, particularly, his chapter 
entitled "That history should be readable." 

«New En^and Historical and Qenealogical Register, April, 1890, t. 44, p. 172. 



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352 American Antiqtuman Society. [Aprils 

the world naked— he should be dressed up." Appaiently 
some history is written on precisely this principle. 

At the other extreme will be found the eminent English 
scholar, Professor John Bagnall Bury, who, in his recent, 
inaugural address, took occasion to remark severely: 'It 
has not yet become superfluous to insist that history is a 
science, no less and no more."* "When this," he adds,, 
"has been fully taken to heart, though there may be many 
schools of political philosophy, there will no longer be 
divers schools of history."* It is quite evident that the 
adherents of these two extremes can hardly hope to find 
themselves assenting to each other's declarations. Sa 
irreconcilable, indeed, are they that one is almost forced 
to inquire whether some different point of view is not 
possible, — a tertium quidy so to speak. 

NEED OF DEFINTTION. 

We know that some difficulties result from inadequate 
definition. If, as has already been stated, history is some- 
times defined as literature and sometimes as science, let 
us define, if possible, these terms themselves. It is, in 
in some sense, a misfortime that both of these words have 
been laid hold of, in our complex "mother tongue," to 
express widely varying concepts. As a consequence, the 
attempt to make either one of them fit some definitely 
specified set of ideas, rather than another, may sometimes 
leave the impression of using terms loosely. Still, the 
following definitions are submitted as perhaps covering 
the requirements. 

Literature, on the one hand, may be regarded as something 
vital and noteworthy, not only in its content, (which may 
be either a thought, or a principle, as well as an event), 
but also in its verbal form. But literature, in order to 

*At p. 7 of his "InAucural lecture," as RegiuB Profeasor of Modem History at 
the University of Cambridge, Jan, 26, 1003, Oambridge: Univenity PreaB, 1008. 

'Ibid. It is not straoce that so extreme, not to say dogmatic a deliverance^ 
has called forth spirited protests. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 35» 

possess vitality, must deal with actual; living realities, — 
with hfe ia some shape, and most commonly with the 
life of man. Moreover, in attaining the verbal form which 
is required, it will naturally possess "style." By this is 
not necessarily meant a florid or an obtrusive style. In 
other words, it does not call for "purple patches." 

Science, on the other hand, may be regarded as dealing 
with certain definite data, by means of systematically 
reasoned processes, whether deductive or inductive, and 
as making use of rigid methods of verification, in order to 
exclude all data which are untrustworthy. It follows 
from this, that in the work of the scientific historian there 
is no place for "guess-work" on the one hand, nor for 
"rhapsodies" on the other. It does not follow from this, 
however, that "the scientific use of the imagination" is 
not allowable. It is not merely allowable but even indis- 
pensable, provided that it is accompanied by verification,, 
and it is a necessary part of historical science, quite as fully 
as of physical science, where Mr. Tyndall^ so convincingly 
advocated it. 

If now we inquire as to the materials, the methods, 
and the aims, of the historian, on the basis of the definitions 
just given, we may perhaps put the case as follows. 

The "scientific historian," so-called, in the use of the 
materials of his history, will be liberal in the extreme, in 
extending the scope of the inquiry so as to include not 
only narratives of wars, of peace, of government, and of 
the minuter features of every-day life, but he will also be 
rigid in the extreme in rejecting certain definite data 
which appear not to have the requisite body of proof in 
their favor. "Facts", — ^and nothing else,— will be insisted 
on, as the appropriate materials for history.^ 

The "literary historian," on the other hand, will be likely 
to claim the right to deal not only with facts, but with ideas^ 

^"Fncments of sdenoe," (Am. ed.). New York: D. Appleton A Co^ 1888, p. 125. 
*To quota from Ranks: — **Ieh will nur wagfin wie es eicentlieh ge w m e n ist."' 
Cited by Bury, at p. 18 of bia "Inaucural leotvre," 1003. 



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354 American ArUiqiuman Society. [April, 

thoughts, fancies, and impressions, maintaining that under 
some conditions he will find in such a field as this the closest 
approach to a truthful reproduction of his subject. 

The scientific historian will insist on submitting all of 
his data, and all of his processes, to verification, unhesi- 
tatingly casting away whatever does not endure this test. 
So far as the formal organization of his material is con- 
cerned, he will at least aim to present a logical chain of 
reasoning, even if he does not go so far as to insist on reduc- 
ing the successive steps in the process to mathematical 
formulae. 

The literary historian, on the other hand, is inclined to 
attach less importance to formal processes. While he 
would hesitate to go to the extreme of non-logical methods, 
he will usually prefer that the "skeleton" of reasoned 
processes should lie below the surface, rather than on the 
surface. 

The scientific historian urges the necessity of approach- 
ing the treatment of any historical incident absolutely free 
from pre-possession, from pre-judgment, or prejudice, or 
from pre-conceptions of any kind. He maintains also that 
the treatment must be absolutely "colorless/'^ so far as 
concerns the presence, in his own mind, of sympathy, of 
advocacy, of partisanship, of emotion, or of human feeling 
generally. In other words, the temper and the treatment, 
instead of being subjective, must be purely objective. 

The literary historian, on the other hand, while admitting 
that a historian who should, as a matter of fact, be absolutely 
divested of all human feeling, in approaching a historical 
subject, would be an interesting phenomenon, maintains 
that, imder existing conditions, this is probably an im- 
possibility. He therefore maintains that a recognition of 
this fact is safer, in the end, than the assimiption of an 
unrealizable ideal. He maintains also, that in going to 

^See the oonoideration daewhere in thu paper, (p. 386), of this quality, (that of 
beiog oolorien), as advocated by Ranke. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 366 

the extreme of "objective" treatment, one runs the risk 
of presenting perhaps as distorted a picture, as in going to 
the extreme of subjective treatment. 

The scientific historian conceives of motive only to put 
it imder the ban. He maintains that the only defensible 
position is that of "history for the sake of hidtory/' rather 
than that of history as a means to an end, however laudable. 
If the historian may be conceived of as holding opinions, 
they must be those only which he finds that he can, at the 
close of his prolonged study of the problem, deduce from 
the data which have been brought forward. In entering 
on the study of the problem, however, the shell of no tor- 
toise should be barer of hair than his own mind should be 
bare of opinions, on either side. It should, in fact, be an 
absolute blank. He furthermore maintains that, whether 
or not a history, when complete, is interesting to the reader 
or not, is no concern of his. His business is with the facts 
alone. He maintains that to recognize any such motive 
as that of presenting the facts in an attractive form^ is 
not only aside from his real province, but is likely 
to prove a most dangerous and misleading factor in 
the treatment of the subject. His duty is to get 
the facts included as a part of the permanent record 
of history, and then trust to time to bring about their 
general acceptance, in the light of an extended examination 
of the subject. 

The literary historian, on the other hand, while admitting 
the danger attaching to pre-conceived ideas, nudntains 
that it is sometimes the obvious duty of a man who has 
already made up his mind in regard to some occurrence, 
to set down an orderly narrative of the events connected 
with it. He also maintains that the writer who fails to 
present his facts in such verbal form as to carry conviction 
to his readers falls short of his duty, whether in history, 
in science, or in literature. 

^"Drened op" — to quote from the langunge already oited above, (p. 851). 

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356 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

The scientific historian is satisfied to toil for months 
without reaching definite results. He maintains that one 
of the greatest perils in historical narrative is the conf oimd- 
ing of "absolute proof" with what is only "a high degree 
of probability." 

The literary historian, on the other hand, holds that in 
Ms general summing up it is perfectly legitimate to cite 
those data which are only "probable'V along with those 
which are certain, — ^provided always that this distinction 
is made perfectly clear to the reader. 

Along some such lines of distinction as those above 
indicated would run the division between the varying 
points of view of the two schools of historians. And yet, 
as every student of history knows, a comparative study 
of individual historians does not reveal a cleavage so simple 
•and so imvarying as that above indicated, but rather an 
inextricably mixed condition of things. One of the com- 
plications is frequently to be noted when the same writer 
has published both a work of historical narrative proper, 
sad an extended discussion of the ideal "point of view" in 

^An eifeotive proteBt oao apparentiy be made agiiiwt this pontioiL, (the dtiat 
of "probable eyidenoe,") even by thoie writers ^o admit in other ways the foroe 
-of the "literary" point of view, on the ground that it fails to distingiiiwh between 
the conditions ezisting in the case of human conduct and those which govern in the 
iraminc of a historical narratiye. 

Bishop Butler, (in his "Analogy of religion, natural and revealed, to the 
-constitution and course of nature." first published in 1736), has convincingly shown 
that "probable evidence," as distinguished from "demonstrative" evidence, must 
frequently be aoc^ted in lieu of ansrthing else, in deciding on the steps to be takeo« 
in the practical affairs of life. Long after him, Mr. Gladstone, in his pi^er on "The 
law of probable evidence and its relation to conduct," (published under the title of 
'"Probability as the guide of conduct," in the Nineteenth Century, May, 1879, v. 
Z, p. 008-34, and afterwards reprinted in his "Oleanings of past years," Am. ed., 
▼. 7, p. 153-00), re-enforced the same view, and included some additional argu- 
ments in favor of it. Both of these writeis succeed in convincing the candid 
reader that "probability is the very guide of life. " (Gladstone, p. 84.) 

But the essential difference between the case of the man who uses "probable 
evidence, " in shaping his course of action, and one who uses it in shaping a historical 
narrative is, that the former has no option, while the latter has. In other words, 
a historian is at perfect liberty not to act on the basis of insufficient evidence, and 
.simply omits all reference to it; and the careful historian will follow this course. Tlie 
instructive instance cited from Mr. Samuel Rawson Gardiner's experience, (at page 
891, below), in which he decided, after long-continued examination of certain papers, 
that they were "unavailable for historical purposes," (Eni^ish Historical Review, 
-v. 1, p. 620), is worthy of imitation by all other historians. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 357 

-writing history. Under these circumstances, it is by no 
means an unheard of occurrence when such a writer is 
iound strongly emphasizing the need of non-partisan 
treatment in historical composition, while, at the same 
lime, his own historical work reveals a distinctly partisan 
point of view. And this helps to show us the futility of 
jmy very rigid system of applying the labels, "literary" 
-and "scientific." 

It is true that time, place, and condition need to be taken 
into account, in passing judgment on a historian, particu- 
larly in regard to what may be considered the conditions 
inherently favorable for accuracy. While history, like 
natural science, has been essayed by both ancient and 
modem writers, at successive stages of the world's develop- 
ment, one can hardly judge Herodotus, writing in the fifth 
•century before Christ, by exactly the same canons as in 
the case of James Anthony Froude, writing in the nine- 
ieenth century after Christ. 

Moreover, the historian's own relation to the event needs 

to be taken into accoimt. Perhaps the bearing of this 

principle on the question at issue may best be seen from its 

operation in the case of biography, which is, after all, a 

form of history. Imagine, for instance, that a poet and 

artist such as the late William Morris has died, and that a 

biography of him is needed. In course of time, a "Life" 

of William Morris, in two voliunes, by John W. Mackail,^ 

.makes its appearance. What are the curcumstances imder 

which this work has been prepared? This is a question 

-which is very satisfactorily answered, from Mr. Mackail's 

•^'Preface" where we read as follows: "When the task 

^f writing the life of Morris was placed in my hands, his 

family and representatives gave me unreserved access 

to all the materials in their possession. To them, 

And more especially to his executors, Mr. F. S. Ellis 

Wadbotl, John William, life of WiDiain Morrifl. London: Tiongmitnii, Green 
'S Co.. 2 T. 1809. Mr. MMkaU was appointed Troimmx of Poetry at Oxford, Feb. 
?0, 1006. 



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358 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

and Mr. S. C. Cockrell, I owe my best thanks for tiieir 
friendly help."* 

So far as it goes, this represents ideally favorable con- 
ditions, as regards the materials of the work, but this is not 
all. We know, from other sources, that the author of 
this biography is a scholarly writer, a careful student, one 
who is accustomed to wei^ historical evidence, a man of 
sane and well-balanced judgment, a man who is not swayed 
by strong prejudices in either direction, but one who is 
prepared to judge sympathetically the various episodes of 
Morris's career. In fact, after an exhaustive examination 
of the himdreds of biographies of the Englishmen of Morris's 
time, we mi^t perhaps safely place Mackail's life of Morris 
almost at the head of the list, as representing the maximum 
of favorable conditions, so far as accuracy is concerned. 
From this as a maximum, we may find the lives of 
various other Englishmen ranging, by almost imper- 
ceptible gradations, down to the minimum of favorable 
conditions. 

A distinctly less favorable condition is found when the 
Inographer, although belonging to the same century with 
the subject of the biography, is of a different nationality, 
and when he speaks a different language. Thereby will 
result, even if not always perceptible to the biographer, a 
very decided veil of obscurity, in not a few instances, 
between the writer and his facts. 

But suppose that this veil of obscurity is one of time, 
rather than of place, and that the biography of one of 
the main actors in the events of the ei^teenth century 
is to be written by a writer living in the Twentieth Century. 
A very decided handicap is inevitably occasioned by this 
separation in time, owing to the gradual disappearance of 
the data needed by the biographer. 

What says Ulysses, in Shakespeare's ''Troilus and 
Cressida"? 

■ ■■ 'IF ■ 

>Maokaa's Life of Wmiam MorriB, T. 1. p. vu. 

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1906.] The Point of View in History. 359 

"Time hath, my lord, a wallet at his back. 
Wherein he puts alms for oblivion."^ 

In few things is this tribute to oblivion so palpably in 
evidence as in the details which one needs in constructing a 
biography, and which, Uttle by little, disappear from the 
knowledge of living men. Ahnost every succeeding year, 
in such a case, witnesses the dropping into this ever hungry 
''wallet," of some dearly prized item of information. The 
papers of the subject of the biography are in the posses- 
sion, we will suppose, of some one of his descendants, who 
decides to remove to another state, and who, being unable 
to add this to the other burdens of removal, sells the whole 
to the junk-dealer. Or the papers may be consigned to 
the furnace by some servant with a genius for cleaning up, 
— such a one as the ingenuous maid who could not read and 
who, when taxed with having thrown away certain papers, 
frankly confessed that she had done so, but, — she trium- 
phantly explained, ''I kept all the clean papers. Them as 
I throwed away had ink-marks all over them." 

Lastly, there is a decided difference of conditions under 
which the task of the biographer or historian is imdertaken, 
so far as the writer's temperament or mood are concerned. 
Instead of being entered on in a calm and dispassionate 
mood, it is taken up, rather, as a polemical movement, by 
some writer warped by prejudice, wholly out of S3rmpathy 
with the subject of his biography, and desiring only to 
''tread him under," so to speak. A case in point is the 
volmne entitled "The character of Thomas Jefferson, as 
exhibited in his own writings," by Theodore Dwight, 
published in Boston, by Weeks, Jordan & C!o., in 1839. 
Or, on the other hand, the "prejudice," or pre-judgment, 
embodied in the book is a blind and unreasoning feeling 
in favor of the hero of the book, instead of against him. 
Nevertheless, it is prejudice, in the one case as in the 
other, and serves to nullify the value of the work. 



^"TroihiB and GrMrida." aet 8. scene 3. lines 145-46. 



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360 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Besides these differences in condition, based upon personal 
and individual considerations, there may be differences 
whidb vary with successive decades, or even centuries. 
It would be interesting to know whether the conditions 
are more favorable at present, for the production of the 
ideal history, than they were in former times, as regards 
adequate materials, accuracy, freedom from prejudice, etc. 

MATERIALS FOR THE HISTORIAN. 

If the question be raised as to materials, it seems plain 
that, in mere mass, they are certainly greater, both as a 
whole and on any given subject, than one himdred years 
ago. One need not go from home to find an illustration, 
not only of mass, but of extreme value, in the case of the 
John Garter Brown Library, with its thousands of titles of 
Americana, merely, — all of them antedating the year 1800. 
The invention of printing has had its bearing on the field of 
historical literature, as elsewhere, swelling the mass in an 
almost cumulative manner. Scarcely less influential in 
this direction has been the tendency towards the cheapen- 
ing of printing processes. One hundred years ago, a man 
who had something to say on a historical subject might 
well hesitate before incurring the expense of committing 
it to print. Now, if the bulk of our historical literature 
be any guide, he hesitates no longer, — ^unfortunately for 
the public, — or in so few instances that they may be re- 
garded as negligible. 

Moreover, besides the individual and fragmentary contri- 
butions to the subject, there has now for a long time been a 
systematic organization of historical publication. Scat- 
tered throughout this coimtry, — and also throughout the 
European countries, — ^are hundreds of "historical societies." 
nearly all of which are started on a career of publishing, 
with at least one annual volume to their credit. From a 
considerable number of imiversities and colleges also, 
there is now issuing a steady stream of "publicationa" or 
"contributions," devoted to history. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 361 

There has been a noteworthy increase, during the past 
fifty years, in the printed voliunes of records, issued by 
the various record commissions, or ''rolls commissions," 
or document conmiissions, of this and other countries, 
and including those of state or provincial, and municipal 
governments, as well as of national governments. The 
present condition of the originals of these records is even 
more gratifjdng. Within the period referred to, the art of 
fire-proof construction has made important advances, so 
that these manuscript records are everywhere coming to be 
housed in safe and durable quarters, where they can be 
readily consulted. To feel that we have a reasonable 
assurance of the indefinite preservation of these records is 
one of the most substantial gains of the last half-century. 

It is of course true that, the greater the mass of materials, 
the greater is the need of sifting it, to discover that which 
is really serviceable. Year by year, the processes of 
minuting, indexing, and cataloguing these stores of docu- 
ments have made it possible to refer to some given document 
with less loss of time than ever before; and yet there is an 
enormous mass which these indexing processes have not 
yet touched. 

While, the mass of historical materials has thus been in- 
creasing, there has everywhere been an unparalleled activity 
in developing and improving methods of historical study. 
An extraordinary amount of attention has been bestowed 
not only on the best methods of teaching history to child- 
dren in the secondary schools, but to those who are study- 
ing these subjects in colleges and universities, especially 
when they are planning to devote the subsequent years of 
their life to the teaching or writing of history. Methods 
like these have long been very vigorously prosecuted on 
the other side of the water, — and especially in Germany. 
It was some time, however, before this coimtry felt the 
full force of this noteworthy development. There are few 
more instructive voliunes, as throwing light on this very 



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362 American Antiqtuirian Society. [April, 

development, than the one entitled ''Methods of teachmg 
history/' edited by our associate, President G. Stanley 
Hall, with papers by a number of separate writers. This 
work has passed throu^ two editions, namely, that of 
1884, and that of 1886.^ A later volume, of much interest 
and significance, is the one entitled ''Essays on the teach- 
ing of history",' written by nine English teachers of 
history, — ^for the most part at Oxford and Cambridge, — 
including, among others, so eminent names as those of 
Maitland, Poole, Cunningham, and Ashley. This work, 
projected by the late Lord Acton, was published in 1901, 
after his death. It is easy to see that, during the period 
referred to, there has been gradually incorporated into 
the every-day routine of the colleges and universities, 
not only the "seminary" method, so-called, but also 
the "laboratory" point of view, as it may well be 
called. This is indeed at the present time the normal and 
obvious view of historical study, instead of being the 
exceptional view. It is widely, or rather, universally, 
recognized that the historian's labor, in tiie gathering of 
data, must be comprehensive, long, patient, and well- 
directed. These data must then be carefully grouped and 
classified, since an undigested mass of unrelated facts is an 
offence to any true historian. And, finally, these data 
must be subjected to rigid analyses and tests, before being 
accepted; and this is taken to be quite as much a matter 
of course as if it were an instance of substances for analysis 
in a chemical laboratory. 

Within recent years also, those who have occupied 
important chairs of history, both in this country and in 
Great Britain, have taken occasion to publish their views, 
for the enlightenment not merely of their own pupils, but 



^"Methods of teaohins history," by Andrew D. White, and others. Vol. 1 of 
the "Pedagosieal library," edited by G. Stanley Hall. 2d ed.. Boston: D. C. Heath 
A Go.. 1886. 

'"Essays on the teaching of history," edited by W. A. J. Archbold, Cambridcr. 
at the University Press, 1901. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 363 

of the intelligent public, at large. The list of names of 
the men who have held the position of Regius Professor 
of Modem History, at Oxford and Cambridge respectively, 
since 1850, is a most striking one,^ and there are few 
among them who have not, in one way or another, put on 
record their ideas of the way in which history ought to be 
written.* The list of published ''inaugural addresses" 
which have marked the occupancy of these two chairs, at 
Oxford and at Cambridge is a noteworthy one, and is, 
approximately,' as follows: 

At Oxford. 

1. Vaughan, Heniy Halford. Two general lectures on modem 
history, delivered on inauguration. Oxford: J. H. and J. Parker. 1S49. 

2. Smith, Goldwin. Inaugural lecture, in 1859. Printed at p. 5-44 
of his volume, "Lectures on the study of hi8toiy",(Am. ed.), New Yoric: 
Harper A Bros., 1875. [Published in London by J. H. A J. Parker, 1861.] 

3. Stvbl>8, William, [afterwards Bishop of Oxford.] Inaugural 
address, Feb. 7, 1867, printed at p. 1-25 of his volume, "Seventeen 
lectures on the study of medieval and modem history and kindred sub- 
jects", Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1886. 

4. Freeman, Eklward Augustus. Office CThe) of the historical 
professor. Inaugural lecture delivered Oct. 15, 1884. London: Mao- 

^Below is giTBii » taUe ihowinc the suooMnve oooopanto of both the Oxford 
and Cambridfe chain for the past fifty-six yean: 

The followinc penone have held the position of Begiiis Prafessor of Modem 
History at Oxford sinoe I860:— 

1. Henry Halford Vauchan. Appointed in 1848 Continued till 1858. 

2. Goldwin Smith. Appointed in 1809. Continued tiU 1866. 

8. William Btubbs, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. Appointed in 1866. Con- 
tinued tiU 1884. 
4. Edward Augustus Freeman. Appointed in 1884. Continued till 1892. 
6. James Anthony Froude. Appointed in 1892. Continued till 1894. 

6. Frederick York-PoweU. Appointed in 1894. Continued till 1904. 

7. Charles Harding Firth. Appointed in 1904. Continued to the present time. 
The following persons have held the position of Begius Professor of Modem 

History at Cambridge since I860:— 

1. Sir James Stephen. Appointed in 1849. Continued till 1860. 

2. Charics Kingsley. Appointed in 1860. Continued tiU 1869. 

8. Sir John Robert Seeley. Appointed in 1869. Continued tiU 1895. 

4. Lord Acton. Appointed in 1895. Continued till 1902. 

5. John Bagnall Bury. Appointed in 1902. Continued to the present time. 
*Tlie name of Samud Rawson Gardiner narroidy escaped being in this list. 

The position was offered to him in 1894, but was declined. 

*That here are omissions is very probable, even with utmost care to include 
all. The inaugural address of Mr. Froude, at Oxford is noticeable by its absence- 
The term of office of Dr. Thomas Arnold, at Oxford, antedated the period referred to, 
(1841-42). His "Inaugural lecture." (1841). is at p. 25-9*" of his "Introduetory 
lectures." (Am. ed.) New York: D. Appleton A Co., 1846. 



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364 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

miUan A Ck>., 1884. [Also printed at p. 1-40 of hk volume, "The 
methods of historical study/' London: Macmillan A Ck>., 1886.] 

5. Firth, Charles Harding. Plea (A) for the historical teaching 
of history. Inaugural lecture delivered on Nov. 9, 1904. Oxford: 
darendon Press, 1905. 

At Cambridge. 

1. K%ng$ley, Chailes. Inaugural lecture, 1860. Chapter 1, (p. ix* 
Ivi), of his volume, The Roman and the Teuton — a series of lectures 
before the University of Cambridge. Cambridge: University Press, 1864- 
ft 2. SeeUy, Sir John Robert. Inaugural lecture, 1869. The teach* 
ing of politics. Printed at p. 306-35 of his volume, "Roman imperial- 
ism and other lectures and essays", Boston: Roberts Bros. 1871. [Pub* 
lished in London by Macmillan A Co., 1870.] 

3. AcUm, Richard Maximilian Dalbeig-, Baron Acton. Lecture (A) 
on the study of histoiy, delivered at Cambridge, June 11, 1895. Lon- 
don: Macmillan A Co., 1895. 

4. Btary, John Bagnall. Inaugural lecture delivered in the Divinity 
School, Cambridge, on January 26, 1903, Cambridge: Universi^ 
Press, 1903.' 

In this country a scarcely less notewortliy series of 
expositions of historical method is to be found in the 
"President's addresses", delivered in successive years, before 
the American Historical Association. These addresses, the 
most of which have been printed in full in the American 
Historical Review, or in the "Annual report" of the Associa- 
tion, have been delivered by such men as Andrew D. White, 
George Bancroft, and others. 

These addresses may be foimd in print, as follows: 

Address of Andrew Dickson White, as President of the American 
Historical Association, Sept. 9, 1884, "On studies in general histoiy 
and the histoiy of civilization'', in "Papers" of the American Historical 
Association, vol. 1, p. 49*72. 

^A recent addren, of muoh interest, on the tencihing of history is that of Pro f es s or 
Charles Oman, Chichele Professor of History at Oxford, delivered Feb. 7, IfXM. and 
published durinc the present year, by the Clarendon Press, Oxford. The recom- 
mendations of both Firth and Oman are examined in a very incisive review, in the 
Nation, May 10, 1906. v. 82, p. 388-«9. 

There are other notable addresses which mi|^t be cited in this connection, as, 
for instance, John Stuart Mill's Inaugural address as Rector of the University of 
St. Andrew's, Feb. 1, 1867, printed at p. 332-407 of v. 4 of the American reprint 
of his "Dissertations and discussions," New York: H. Holt A Co., 1874; and W. E. 
H. Lecky's "Presidential address," on "The political value of history," befoiv the 
Birmingham and Midland Institute, Oct. 10, 1892, reprinted in this country by 
D Appleton A Co., New York, 1893, (67 pages). 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 365 

That of Andrew Dickson White, Sept. 8, 1885, on "The influence of 
American ideas upon the French Revolution", (read only by abstract 
and so printed), in "Papers", vol. 1, p. 429-33. 

That of Qeoiige Bancroft, April 27, 1886, on "Self-government", 
in "Papers", vol. 2, p. 7.13. 

That of Justin Winsor, May 21, 1887, on "Manuscript sources of 
American history; — the conspicuous collections extant", in "Papers", 
vol. 3, p. 0-27. 

That of William Frederick Poole, Dec. 26, 1888, on "The eariy North- 
west", in "Papers", vol. 3, p. 277-300. 

That of Charles Kendall Adams, Dec. 28, 1889, on "Recent historical 
work in the colleges and universities of Europe and America", in 
"Annual report" of the American Historical Association, 1889, p. 
19-42. 

That of John Jay, Dec. 29, 1890, on "The demand for education in 
American history," in "Annual report", 1890, p. 15-36. 

That of William Wirt Henry, Dec. 29, 1891, on "The causes which 
produced the Virginia of the Revolutionary period", in "Annual report" 
1891, p. 15-29. 

That of James Burrill Angell, July 11, 1893, on "The inadequate 
recognition of diplomatists by historians", in "Annual report", 1893, 
p. 13-24. 

That of Henry Adams, (read in his absence), Dec. 26, 1894, on "The 
tendency of history", in "Annual report", 1894, p. 17-23. 

That of (George Frisbie Hoar, Dec. 27, 1895, on "Popular discontent 
with representative government", in "Annual report", 1895, p. 21-43. 

That of Richard Salter Storrs, Dec. 29, 1896, on "Contributions 
to our national development by plain men", in "Annual report", 1896, 
vol. 1, p. 37-63. 

That of James Schouler, Dec. 28, 1897, on "A new federal conven- 
tion", in "Annual report", 1897, p. 21-34. 

That of (George Park Fisher, Dec. 28, 1898, on "The function of the 
historian as a judge of historic persons", in "Annual report", 1898, p. 
13-33. [Also issued separately, as a pamphlet.] 

That of James Ford Rhodes, Dec. 28, 1899, on "History", in "Annual 
report", 1899, p. 45-63. [Also printed in the Atlantic Monthly, vol. 
85, p. 158-69.] 

That of Edward Eggleston, (read in his absence), Dec. 27, 1900, on 
"The new history", in "Annual i«port", 1900, p. 35-47. 

That of Charles Francis Adams,' Dec. 27, 1901, on "An undeveloped 
function", in "Annual report", 1901, vol. 1, p, 49-93. [Also in 
American Historical Review, vol. 7, p. 203-32.] 



^Very tugiestive comment on historical methoda is also to be found in Mr. Adwns's 
address on "The sifted grain and the grain sifters," delivered at Madison, Wis., Oct. 
19 1900. American Historical Review. Jan.. 1901. v. 6. p. 197-284. See also Mr. 
James F. Rhodes's paper. **Conoeming the writing of history." in the ** Annual 
rsport" of the American Historical Association, 1900. v. 1, p. 48-66. 



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366 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

That of Alfred Thayer Mahan, Dec. 26, 1902, on " Subordination in 
historical treatment", in "Annual report", 1902, p. 49-63. [Also in 
Atlantic Monthly, vol. 91, p. 289-98, with title, "The writing of 
histoiy.'T 

That of Henxy Charies Lea, Dec. 29, 1903, on "Ethical values m 
histoiy", in "Annual report", 1903, p. 55-69. 

That of Goldwin Smith, Dec. 28, 1904, on "The treatment of histoiy", 
in "Annual report", 1904, p. 65-78. [Also in American Historical 
Review, vol. 10, p. 511-20.] 

That of John Bach McMaster, Dec. 26, 1905, on "Old standards of 
public morals", in American Historical Review, (April, 1906), vol. 11, 
p. 515-28. 

It can hardly be said then that there is any dearth of 
exact and careful instruction; on the one hand, or of thought- 
ful and suggestive discussion, on the other hand, on 
this subject of historical method and point of view. Why 
then have we not, at the present time, at least an approxi- 
mation to absolute perfection, in the historical writing of 
our day 7 That we have not, is too obvious to need extended 
proof, further than a glance through the critical reviews 
of the current historical publications, or, better still, 
through the books themselves. Chiefly, it may be answered 
does this result from the limitations of human nature. 
Given, — a young man who has before him a collection of 
historical materials of the widest range; who has been 
carefully instructed by an enlightened and skilful teacher 
of history; who has served an extended apprenticeship 
in the actual "laboratory work" in history at the university; 
and who, finally, is deeply interested in the study. Have 
we any absolute assurance that he will not, after he goes 
out into the world, and begins his life-work, as a writer of 
history, put forth some imworthy piece of work? Un- 
happily, none. Two drawbacks to be most carefully 
guarded against, (as persistently reinvading), are constitu- 
tional inaccuracy and traditional prejudice. 

A TERTIUM QUID. 

It has already been suggested, above, that there may 
possibly be a ''tertium quid^\ — some point of view which 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 367 

avoids the extreme of the "literaxy" and "scientific" 
advocates, respectively. 

This, in short, is the view of the case which has evidently 
appealed most strongly to Mr. Firth, the English historian, 
in his recent very suggestive address on historical method.^ 
The author is the present Regius Professor of Modem 
History at Oxford,* and the adddress cited was delivered 
as his inaugural lecture, November 9, 1904, imder the 
title of "A plea for the historical teaching of history." 
The language of the title, by the way, is avowedly bor- 
rowed' from one of the letters of his distinguished pre- 
decessor in the same chair. Dr. William Stubbs, Bishop 
of Oxford.* 

Men "give opposite answers," says Mr. Firth, "accord- 
ing to their conception of the methods and the objects of 
the historian. One tells us that history is a science, noth- 
ing more and nothing less," (Professor J. B. Bury, p. 7)i 
"another that it is an art,^ and that one only succeeds in it 
by imagination. To me truth seems to lie between these 
two extremes. History is neither, but it partakes of the 
nature of both."* 

Acting on the above suggestion, we shall first interrogate 
the literary conception of history. We shall note down in 
what ways this is favorable, and in what ways unfavorable, 
to the historical treatment which is required. We shall 

^Fir^ dufflM Henry. "Flea (A) for Um historical teaching of history." Lon- 
don. 1004. 

*See chronological lists of "Begius Profeaaors of Modem History," above, (p. 
363, fooi-note 1.) 

•Firth's Plea, p. 32. 

«At p. 264 of W. H. Hutton's "Letters of William Stabbe. Bishop of Oxford." 
London: Constable. 1004. 

'Mr. Firth in using this language plainly oonceives of **art" as the antipodes 
of " science," in the dispute which is under consideration. Other -writers, in treat- 
ing of the antipodes of science regard it as "literature. " In either case the contrast 
is a sufficiently sharp one; and indeed literature itself may not inappropriately be 
conceived of as a form of art. It surely partakes of the characteristics of art, in 
its capacity for eflfeetive condensation. "M. Angelo, " remarics Dr. C. A. L. Richards, 
** defined sculpture as 'the Art that works by force of taking away.' The art of 
literary style works in a similar fashion," [The Dial, Chicago, March 1, 1803, v. 
14, p. 140.1 

•Firth's "Flea," p. 8. 



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368 American ArUiqtuarian Society. [April, 

next interrogate the scientific conception of history. Under 
this, likewise, we shall note down in what ways this point 
of view is favorable to our design, and in what ways un- 
favorable. We shall then briefly suggest what is possible 
in the way of utilizing the best of each. 

This comparison might almost be characterized as one 
between conditions involving the taking of a broad view 
and conditions involving a deep or profoimd view. It is 
to be regretted that these should ever be regarded as 
incompatible with each other, but it may be said that each 
of the two has an ''atmosphere," so to speak, in which 
certain tendencies are natural and easy, not merely to 
the favorable but to the unfavorable conditions which 
belong with it. In other words, each of these two points 
of view "has the defects of its qualities." 

THE LITERART POINT OF VIEW. 

On the one hand, literature, as has already been indi- 
cated above, deals with something vital in thought and 
also with the verbal form in which the thought is presented. 

It would be easy to misconceive of the literary point of 
view as applied to historical treatment, as being the dis- 
tinctively "easy" method. Few things could be further 
from the truth. So long as it is difficult to attain a true 
perspective and a right proportion in art, so long as it is 
difficult to use the imagination freely and yet not indis- 
criminately, so long will the ideally proper utilization of 
literary principles in historical writing be a difficult attain- 
ment. 

Even the very phraseology, (the words "style" and 
"literary principles"), may be the subjects of misappre- 
hension, for few things, tmfortunately, are more common 
than the confoimding of "style" with "fine writing," 
technically so called. When we find ourselves compelled 
to admire the telling and efifective form in which a passage 
has been cast, in the histories of the English historian^ 
Green, or the American historian, Parkman, this favorable 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 3e» 

impression is due to no "purple patches," — no extraneous 
matter piled on, — ^no superfluous adjectives. On the 
contrary, it is the absence of these, and the spontaneous 
but effective telling of the story with no waste of words,, 
which command equally our attention, our interest, and 
our admiration. When, moreover, we find writers like 
Professor H. Morse Stephens^ or Professor Frederick York- 
Powell, emphatically tabooing "style" in historical com- 
position, one cannot help thinking that it is the "over- 
loaded style" which they have in mind, and not style, 
per se, for seldom will one find so admirable instances of 
effective style as in some of their own pages. Witness the 
following, from Professor York-Powell: — 

"Whether we like it or not, histoiy has got to be scientifically studied,, 
and it is not a question of style but of accuracy, of fulness of observa- 
tion and correctness of reasoning, that is before the student. Huxley 
and Darwin and Clifford have shown that a book may be good science 
and yet good reading. Truth has not alwasrs been found repulsive 
although she was not bedizened with rhetorical adornments; indeed, the 
very pursuit of her has long been recognised as arduous but extremely 
fascinating."* 

If the writers of the scientific school continue to decry 
style in sentences which possess so forcible and telling a 
style as the foregoing, readers will not quarrel with them 
as to terms. You may call it style or not, but, whatever 
it is, it is forcible, and also convincing. 

FAVORABLE ASPECTS OF THE "UTERARY SIDE." 

It is true, as has been indicated by York-Powell, that 
the fimdamental consideration, from the literary side, is 
the play of the imagination; and the most of us will agree 
that there is no completely satisfactory piece of historical 
work in which this has been wholly neglected. Mr. George 
M. Trevelyan, who, like Mr. Firth, has questioned the 

'"It is not bis business to bave » style, "(i. e., tbe bistorian), says Mr. Stepbens. 
at p. 08 of "Counsel upon tbe reading of books," (edited by Henry Van Dyke), 
Boston: Hougbton MiflSin A Co.. 1901. 

*Frederidc York-Powell, at p. vi of Lanj^ois and Seignobos's "Introduction 
to tbe study of bistory." New York: H. Holt A Co., 1898. 



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370 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

extreme poeitions of Professor Bury, has remarked in a 
recent review, that ^^imagination is yet more necessary 
for the historian/' [than for the economist], ''if he wishes 
to discover the causes of man's action not merely as a 
bread-winning individual, but in all his myriad capacities 
of passion and of thought. The man who is himself devoid 
of emotion or enthusiasm can seldom credit, and can never 
understand, the emotions of others, which have none the 
less been a principal part in cause and effect."^ 

But an almost equally important point in favor of the 
''literary" view of the matter is concerned with the question 
of proportion. No history, indeed, is ideally satisfactory 
in which the perspective is distorted, or in which the em- 
phasis is wrongly placed. Some historians have violated 
this principle in their selection of a field of study, but the 
error has more commonly occurred in dealing with the 
details within any given field of study. 

Mr. Freeman and others of his school of historical writ- 
ing, industrious though they were, have laid themselves 
open very palpably to this objection, of violating the sense 
of proportion. Two of the characters introduced into Fred- 
erick Harrison's very diverting dialogue, or conversation, on 
points of view in history,* say things which have a direct 
bearing on this question of proportion and perspective. 

One of these imaginary characters, (all of whom are 

introduced as Oxford "history men"), demurring at the 

depreciating view embodied in this statement, gives some 

definite details as to the methods of historical study in his 

own department; and his statement recalls the proverbial 

expression, that "One cannot see the wood for the trees." 

In answer to a question, he says : 

"I have not reached the Nonnan Conquest yet," * * * "for we have 
been ten years over the Old-English times; but I hope to get down to 
Eadweard" [apparently, Edward III], "before I leave the college."* 

^LiTinC Ace, ▼. 240. p. 106-97. 

>"The history schools." at p. 118-38 of his volume *'The meaning of history 
and other essays." New York: The Haemiilan Co.. 2d ed.. 1000. 
'Harrison's **The meaninc of history," p. 131. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 371 

And he also remarks: 

"Well," * * * "for the last three terms we have been on the West- 
Saxon ooina^, and the year before that I took up the system of frith 
borrow."* 

Obviously a student working under this kind of leader 
would have to look elsewhere for any such thing as '^his- 
torical perspective;" and yet historical perspective is a 
very essential prerequisite of a work of history. For a 
historical treatise ou^t to be on a somewhat hi^er plane 
as regards perspective, than, for example, a daily newspaper. 

What may be called a kindred topic is that of interest. 
Probably that view of history will hardly be likely to 
meet with general acceptance, which argues that it is of 
no consequence whether the work of history, when once 
written and published, possesses sufficient interest to get 
itself read. Whether we agree that the essential value 
of the history of the past is that of supplying a light on the 
present and future, or not, it is easy to see that a light which 
does not shine is fruitless and ineffectual. 

Nor does it need a great amoimt of argument to show 
that, even if arranged in logical order, it ought not to offend 
by excessive iteration. It is well known how annoying an 
offender the English historian, Freeman, was in this respect, 
not only in his published voltunes, but in his spoken lectures. 
In the recently published "Letters" of Dr. William Stubbs, 
the late Bishop of Oxford and eminent historian, there is 
evidence that this little failing of Freeman was by no 
means imnoticed by his brother-historians. In a letter 
written to Freeman in 1879, Stubbs urges the historian of 
the "Norman conquest" to make a certain annoimcement 
in regard to a previously published statement, "but", he 
adds, "without iteraiing anything"; and it is amusing to 
notice that he thought it worth while to imderscore the 
word, "iterating."* 

^Ibid., p. 131. For "frith borrow," eee Muxray's New EDgUah dictionary", 
under "Frithborh," v. 4. p. 655. 

'Letters of Willuun Stubbs. Bishop of Oxford, 1826-1001, edited by William 
Holden Button. London: A. Constable. 1004. p. 182. 



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372 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Moreover, it is important, from the ^^literary" side, that 
the materials should be, so to speak, digested. One of the 
differences between the type of work known as ''annals" 
■or "jottings," on the one hand, and the "history," properly 
so called, on the other hand, is that the latter is something 
more than the disorderly assemblage of isolated facts. It 
is even more than the careful and orderly assemblage of 
the facts such as an apprentice at the business of historical 
investigation might bring together on occasion. There is 
perhaps no one who has more lucidly or more convincingly 
stated exactly what the historian's duty is in this matter 
than President Woodrow Wilson, of Princeton, in his 
exposition of educational mefthods. 

In his chapter on "The truth of the matter", (in the 
volume, "Mere literature"), he thus states the case:^ 

"It 18 in this that the writing of histoiy diffen, and differs very radi- 
<€aUy, from the statement of the results of original research. The writing 
-of histoiy must be based upon original research and authentic record, 
but it can no more be directly constructed by the piecing together of 
•bits of original research than l^ the mere reprinting together of state 
docimients. Individual research furnishes us, as it were, with the 
private documents and intimate records, without which the publio 
.archives are incomplete and unintelligible." 

But the need of digesting the materials of history is one 
which applies even to such data as arguments, as well as to 
iacts. In other words, while it is sometimes fitting that 
a work of history should embody argumentation, it ought 
to be what may perhaps be called "implicit" argumentation 
rather than explicit argvimentation. Any writer may 
-easily satisfy himself as to the great advantage which the 
former possesses, in point of effectiveness, by taking a 
«hain of arguments which stand in rigidly logical form, 
.and translating them into narrative form. The first 
attempt may perhaps not give precisely the result desired. 
Nevertheless, by writing and re-writing his narrative, test- 

^WiUon, Woodrow. Mere literature. Boeton: Houghton, MiflSin* A Co., 
11806. p. 171. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 373 

ing it each time with the definite questions which would 
naturally be asked by an opponent, imtil he finds that 
they are all represented in the narrative, he will secure 
the form required. It needs little to convince one that 
the reader is more likely to yield assent to the truth 
when presented in this form, than when repeated challenges 
to his pre-conceived opinions are flaunted in his face, in 
the shape of bald arguments. 

UNFAVORABLE ASPECTS OF THE "LTTERARY SIDE." 

There is, however, something to be said as to the limita- 
tions and dangers of the literary point of view, as well as 
its strong points. One of these is the failure to be sure that 
verification shall always follow the exercise of the imagma- 
tion. A writer who should habituate himself to this 
faulty method will come in time to be imaware that any- 
thing is wrong with his reasoning or his conclusions. But 
this will inevitably lead to reckless, imcritical, and seriously 
misleading statements. Some luxuriant specimens of 
this imbridled use of the imagination will be found in 
newspapers, and more of them in "prospectuses" and real 
estate advertisements. 

The "literary" point of view is sometimes also foimd asso- 
ciated with extreme negligence in quoting a statement, 
simply through imderestimating the importance of the 
manner as compared with the matter. It has sometimes 
been claimed that a chronic tendency to mis-statement is a 
disease; and it certainly is found repeatedly where there 
is no deliberate attempt to deceive. And yet, even if it 
is a disease, it is a misfortune that our history should be 
written by men who are afliicted with it. There is scarcely 
one of the Nineteenth Century historians in whom this 
tendency has been so glaringly exemplified, as the late 
James Anthony Froude.^ 

^nie faot that a yoliime bouinc tha expraaslve titto, *' FrondAoity, " by J. J. 
ThonuM, should have been put in printp in 1889. in ord«r to oonfute Mr. Froude, it 
in itMlf ■igniftimnt. 



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374 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

One of the failings of excessive leaning towards the 
"literary" view is the failing for picturesqueness. To 
quote the expressive phrase already cited above, this leads 
to a feeling that the narrative must be "dressed up." What 
could be more picturesque than Weems's George Washington 
story: — "I can't tell a lie, Pa; you know I can't tell a lie. 
I did cut it with my hatchet."^ Or the "cabbage story" in 
which Washington's name was spelled out by the growing 
plants?* And yet even Jared Sparks, whose position in 
regard to some questions of editing' would be regarded 
as somewhat uncritical, in our day,^ strongly protested 
that he had "very little confidence in the genuineness or 
accuracy" of the statements of this flighty Virginia par- 
son.^ He regarded this and other books by Weems, not as 
biographies, but as "novels, foimded in some parts on facts, 
and in others on the suggestions of a fertile imagination."* 

Mischief is also sometimes caused by a mistaken seeking 
after s}rmmetry, or consistency; and sometimes also by a 
tendency to resort to analogy imduly. It may be said of 
analogy, as of fire, that it is a good servant, but a bad 
master. The principal objection to be brought against 
this tendency is that it saddles a man with "a fixed idea." 
At present, for instance, the whole civilized world is look- 
ing on with breathless interest, at the upheavals in Russia; 
and some of us are re-reading our Carlyle's "French Revo- 

t*«The Life of George Waahington, " by liMon Lock Weems, PhiladeKphia. 
1800. Later edition published by Joseph AUen, 1837, p. 14. 

>Ibid.. p. 15-18. 

"Somewhat full opportunities for reviewing the voluminous literature oonneeted 
with the discussion of Sparks's methods will be found in the references given in Herbert 
B. Adams V The life and writings of Jared Sparks." Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, ft 
Co., 2 v.. 1803, particularly at p. 479-606 and 612-13 of v. 2. and at p. xxvii-zlvii 
of V. 1; and also in Justin Winsor's "Narrative and critical history of America," 
Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, ft Co.. v. 8, (1880). p. 417-20. 

*The modem or current point of view is well embodied in the four-page leaflet 
ssued in 1006 by the American Historical Association, comprising " Suggestions 
for the printing of documents relating to American history," prepared by Edward 
O. Bourne, Chairman of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, Worthington C. 
Ford, of the Library of Oongress, and J. Franklin Jameson, of the Carnegie Institute 
at -Washington. 

•Adams's "Jared Sparks." v.' 2, p. 617. 

•Ibid., p. 519. . 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 375 

lution." It is all very well to read this study of revolution 
in a coimtry like France, provided that we do not go to 
the length of looking for the re-appearance of all the suc- 
cessive stages in the drama now enacting in this other 
country. It is doubtless true that more than one of the 
various traits, events, and circumstances observed in the 
French experience, either has been reproduced in the 
Russian experience, or may be at some time in the near 
future. And yet, because of this very fact, that the analogy 
seems to hold in these few instances, it is all the more the 
duty of the historian to guard against hasty generalizations 
as to the remainder of the instances. Suppose, for example, 
that some leader in the Russian government should lend an 
ear to advisers who should dwell upon the analogy of the 
former great catastrophe to the present experiences. Sup- 
pose, moreover, that they should not only base predictions 
and inferences on these analogies, but also definite measures 
of repression. The probability is by no means a remote one, 
that in this way, injury and suffering might be inflicted on 
many entirely innocent men and women. 

There is perhaps no more effective way of studying the 
limitations and tendencies of the "literary" view than in 
the person of a "literary historian." Macaulay, for ex- 
ample, is pre-eminently entitled to such a designation, for 
his place in English literature is well assured, whatever may 
be the ultunate decision as to his position as a historian. To 
an exceptionally wide range of knowledge, improved by a 
university education, he added an extraordinary range of 
reading, and a memory which was nothing short of phenom- 
enal. That his work is not wholly fr ee from inaccuracy^ is 

lA novel wa«m if advanced by a recent eisaywt, to account for the criticMm 
which has been directed, largely within the laet thirty yea«. MSainat the mat^ 
wd the method of Macaulay. hirtory. namely, the fact that it ha. ~«« «»der the 
^eervation of a much wider circle of reader, than i. curtomary with luetonan.. 
-^Stubb.. Freeman. Hallam. Gardiner, do not have a. many ^^^^^^^ " 
llie^ulay iediU ina mea^ire. at leart, to the fact that they have not one fiftieth part 
6^^ «ideiB;and thelreader. whomithey have belong to certain general cUuhc 
rThe^t^ of Macaulay." by Henry^D. Sedgwick. Jr.. m tii. Atlantic, Aug.. 
law V 84, D 167. Reprinted in hi. "Eway. on great writer.," Boeton: Houi^iton. 
mffin AOo^. 1908. at p. 139-07. but with eonrideraUe addition, and change) 



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376 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

perhaps not surprising, when this wide range, just men- 
tioned, is considered. Yet the more serious fact is 
that he did not approach his task with an absolutely 
open mind, that his mental attitude sometimes shows not 
merely prejudice but malignity;^ and that he was not 
always magnanimous enough to correct an obvious 
error.* In repeated instances also, more important con- 
siderations were sacriiBced, in his narrative, to pictur- 
esqueness. And yet when all is said, the fact remains that 
he is a very great historian, and will always have a strong 
hold on the interest of the reader.' 

An equally instructive instance is found in the case of 
James Anthony Froude.'* He resembles Macaulay in 
making a successful appeal to the interest of the reader. 
Moreover, if Macaulay is sometimes open to the charge of 
overloaded rhetoric, Froude was the master of an ex- 
quisite Fjnglish style. There is, however, no other EngUsh 
historian against whom the charge of inaccuracy has lain 
so heavily. Examples are foimd in all of his writings, but 
perhaps an instance in his volume on "Erasmus''' shows it 
in as striking a manner as any other. In a single paragraph 
of only eighteen lines, (in 'which there are sixteen state- 
ments), relating to Reuchlin, (says a writer in the 

^Aa in the Mao Vey Napier "Correspondenoe," p. 110; also in TVevelyan's 
"life and Letters of Lord Ifaeaulay." y. 1, p. 218. 

*Aa in the William Penn inatanoe. and other instances oited in John Facet's 
"The new examen," Edinbuish: W. Blackwood A Sons. 1861. 

*"It has been objected to Ifaeaulay that he is a stranger to the methods and the 
spirit of what has been called the critical school of history. He is a picturesque 
narrator, but not, in the sense of that school, a scientific historian." (Sir Richard 
C. Jebb's "Macaulay.— a lecture delivered at Cambridge on August 10, 1900," Cam- 
- bridge: University Press, 1000, p. 12-13. One other important limitation is pointed 
out by Mr. James Cotter Morison. "Macaulay," he says, "never fully appreciated 
the force of moderation, the impressiveness of calm under-etatement, the penetrating 
power of irony." Morison's "Macaulay", ("English Men of Letters") New York: 
Harper A Bros., 1882, p. 120. 

*An interesting volume published within the last twelve months is devoted to 
an extended study of this historian, namely, "The life of Froude," by Herbert Paul* 
New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1006. Heretofore the most extended eTsmination 
of his life and work had been the more than one hundred pages devoted to him in 
Sir John Skdton's "Table-talk of Shirley," Edinburgh: W. Blackwood A Sons. 
1806, p. 110-24. 

*Froude, James Anthony. Life and letters of Erasmus. New York: C. Sorib- 
ner's Sons. 1804. See p. 182 of this edition. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 377 

Quarterly Review, in 1898),* there is "one, and only one 
correct statement". The other fifteen are incorrect. "In 
the case of Mr. Froude", says the reviewer, "the problem 
ever is to discover whether he has deviated into truth."* 
Mr. Harrison complains' that "this severe judgment" is 
true not only of Mr. Froude's transcription of documents, 
but of his lack of precision in his use of language in general, 
and of his want of "minute fidelity of detail."* 

There is, however, this additional cause for apprehension, 
on the part of a reader of Mr. Froude, that in his case the 
inaccuracy was ingrained, if not constitutional.^ Still 
further, while this inaccuracy is acknowledged and even 
insisted on, by his most sympathetic biographers,* Mr. 
Froude himself seemed scarcely aware^ of this limitation. 
Moreover, his inaccuracy has repeatedly taken the pecu- 
liarly dangerous form of confusing the references to his 
sources. "He had," saysMr. Lang, "an unfortunate habit of 
publishing, between marks of quotation, his own risumi of 
the contents of a doctunent. In doing so he would leave 
out, with no marks of omission (....) passages which 
he thought irrelevant, but which might be all-important 



^Quarterly Review, July. 1898, v. 188. p. 1-30. 

>Ibid., p. 3. 

•"The hutorioal method of J. A. Froude," by Frederic Hairieon, Nineteenth 
Century, Sept.. 1808. ▼. 44, p. 373-86; reprinted in his volume. "Tennyson, Ruakin, 
MiU, and other literary estimates. " New York: The Maemillan Co., 1000, p. 221-41. 
See p. 240. 

*An almost equally serious indictment of Froude, so far as regards details, is 
found in the article on "Modem historians and their methods," by H. A. L. Fisher, 
in the Fortnightly Review, Dec. 1, 1894, v. 62, p. 816. Compare also Langlois and 
Seignobos's "Introduction to the study of history," p. 126. 

*This defect was intensified by the faultyZmethods.of his early education. "The 
standard of scholarship, " sajni Mr. Paul, "at Buckfastleigh was not high, and Froude'i 
scholarship was inexact." (Paul's "Froude," p. 10.) 

•Both Mr. Paul and Mr. Lang. See Paul's "Froude", p. 23, 03, 334; also p. lOr 
above dted. 

Mr. Lang, in his keen examination of "Freeman versus Froude," pauses to 
remark sadly: "Next, Mr. Froude, with all his diligence and learning, really was 
inaccurate." (Gornhill Magasine, Feb., 1906, v. 02, p. 253.) 

*Mr. Lang quotes Mr. Froude as having "acknowledged to five real mistakes 
in the whole book, twtlve voJumet, " out of those attributed to him; and then adds: 
**But if the critics only found out *five real mistakes,' they served the author very 
iU." (Ck>mhill Magasine, Feb., 1006. v. 02. p. 267-68.) Mr. Lang then goes on, (p. 
268-63), to enumerate instance after instance. 



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378 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

to the sense."^ Mr. Froude has the distinction of having 
used original sources on a larger scale than any preceding 
English historian.* Yet this distinction is largely dimmed 
by his faulty method of transcribing documents. His 
eccentricity in this respect has led to the disparaging 
comment that ^'A historian is not always known by the 
archives whose company he keeps."' His method, instead 
of being objective, was subjective* in the highest degree. 
He usually wrote as an avowed advocate.* He "could 
not write," says Mr, Paul, "without a purpose, nor forget 
that he was an Englishman and a Protestant."* Instead, 



>Comhm MacuiiM. Feb., 1000, v. 92, p. 254. 

*Th« fint ToLuine of hit "Hittory of Engbuid" w»b imbliahed in 1842. 

'It JB alao Twy well cfaenoterued in nn arrmiang skit by Frederic Harriion wideh 
created "ineztinguiehable laushter," at Oxford inore than a doaen yean aco. Hue 
firet appeared under the title of "The rosral road to history. — ^An Oxford dialogoe," 
in the Fortnightly Beview, Oct. 1, 1803, and waa afterwaida rq;>iinted, (with the 
title, **The history achooli"), in Mr. Harrison's Tolnme, "The mfiwing of history," 
London: Maemillan ft Co., 1900, p. 118-88. One of the oharaeteis is oonsumed 
with laughter at the fact that Mr. Flroude has gi-ren citations of the documents 
at Simancas: — ^**SinianoasI FtuBUl Oh, ohi Simancas indeed! where, what, how 
much? iHiat volume or triiat bundle, what page and what folio? Mas. penes 
me — is a very convenient reference, but historians require a little more detail than 
this." (Harrison's "Hie meaning of history," p. 128. 

*His words, (as printed in one of his latest volumes), axe worth rq;>roducing. 
"I do not pretend," he says, "to impartiality ... In every ooodusion 
which we form, in every conviction which is forced upon us, there is still a subjective 
dement," (Froude's "Divorce of Catherine of Aragon," London: Longmans, Qreen ft 
Co., 1891. p. 18. Quoted in E. Q. Bourne's "Essays in historical oritidsm," New 
Yoric: C. Scribner's Sons, 1901, p. 296-00.) 

Such frankness is commendable; and yet, as Mr, Lang reminds us, Mr. Fronde 
apparently did nothing to neutralise his bias. "Instudying the personal aspects of 
history," says Mr. Lang, Froude "not only had a bias, but he cultivated and cher- 
shed his bias. Now every historian, every man, has a bias; but he may get the 
better of it, as did Mr. Oardinar and Sir Walter Scott, of aU our British historians 
the most scrupulously fair and sportsmanlike. Scott was a bom Tory, or even 
Jacobite. Mr. (Gardiner was, I believe, a Liberal from the cradle. But yon cannot 
discover their party in their historical works." (Oymhill Magasine. Feb. 1900, 
V. 92. p. 263.) 

The judicial point of view apparently did not appeal to him. "He was,'* 
says Mr. Paul, "an advocate rather than a judge." (Paul's "Froude," p. 92.) It 
is as an advocate, somewhat grimly to be sure, that he makes his appearance in the 
pages of his "History of England, "ifwhen, in chronicling the order of "The King*! 
royal Majesty." (in the 22d year of Henry VIII, 1681) "that the said Richard Rouse 
■hall be therefore boiled to death, without having any advantage of his dergy," 
be characterises the spirit of this inhuman action as "a temper which would keep 
no terms with evil." (Froude's "History of England," (Am. ed.). New York: 
Scribner, Armstrong, ft (^., v. 1, p. 287.) Compare also the Edinburgh Review, 
(Am. ed.). v. 108, p. 119-20. 

^Paul's Froude, p. 229. 



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1906.] The PoirU of View in History. 379 

theref ore, of entering on his study of this tangled subject 
with an open mind,^ — a peculiarly necessary condition 
when religious questions are concerned, — ^he carried an 
unyielding prejudice with him from the start. It was 
thus^ (says his biographer, Mr. Paul), that, ''in his zeal to 
justify the penal laws against the Catholics, Froude 
accepted without sufficient inquiry evidence which could 
only have satisfied one willing to believe the worst."' 

It was Mr. Froude's fortune, during his lifetime, to have 
as an antagonist another well known English historian, 
Edward A. Freeman; and, considering the decidedly vul- 
nerable nature of Mr. Freeman's] historical work and 
procedure, it may be considered to be Mr. Froude's great 
good fortime, that he is even now brought into comparison' 
with that writer, now that both are dead. The "Tu 
quoque" argument is an effective one for the time being. 
Time, however, sifts all things, and sooner or later each 
historian will stand on his own merits. 

FAVORABLE ASPECTS OF THE "SCIENTIFIC SIDE." 

Having examined both the favorable and unfavorable 
aspects of the "literary" point of view, it is now in order 
to interrogate the "scientific" point of view in the same 
way. 

Science, as has abready been stated, is concerned with 
the ascertainment of facts, by systematic processes, accom- 
panied by rigid verification. 

'An open mind has not tXwmyB been sufficiently yalued in religious disoussion. 
'*As regards religious questionst" says President Faunoe, of Brown Uniyenity, 
*'there are various spedfie subjects, on which men may differ, but the really funda- 
mental difference is tha>t between the man with the open mind and the man with the 
dosed mind." 

•Foul's "Froude." p. 229. 

"See chapter 5 of Paul's Tolume. ("Froude and Freeman); also Andrew Lang's 
article. "Freeman verms Froude," already dted, (Comhill Magasine, Feb.. 1906. 
Y. 92, p. 261-63.) This enmple has been very generally followed by the writers of 
the more or leas critical notices of llr. Paul's book, in England and in this country, 
so much so that one would almost suppose that it is Mr. Freeman whose life and writ- 
ings were in question. A somewhat different point of view is taken by Qoldwin 
Smith, in his artide on "Froude" in the Atlantic Monthly, May. 1906. v. 97. p- 
680^7. 



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380 American Antiquarian Society. [Aprili 

The fundamental conception, in history, from this point 
of view, is that of passing upon the facts of history with 
the critical discrimination of a judge, rather than with 
the partisan ardor of an advocate. It is, in brief, the 
"judicial" view of history. Its aim is to state "the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth." Its spirit 
has been well expressed in these words of the German 
historian, Ranke, already quoted: — "Ich will nur sagen wie 
es eigentlich gewesen ist." Its desire for the truth is well 
embodied also in these words of Professor H. Morse Ste- 
phens: "The aim of the historian is to discover the truth 
with regard to the past, as far as his limitations allow, and 
having so far discovered it to narrate the truth without 
obtruding his own personality or his own ideas more than 
his weak humanity makes inevitable."^ "It is a hard 
enough and a difficult enough task that the modem 
historian sets before himself. Truth is a very imapproach- 
able mistress". * * * • "It is disheartening and heart- 
breaking to the historical student to know how little the 
most accomplished and hard-working historian can do 
towards building a palace in which Truth may live."* 

The scientific point of view will of course operate to put 
the writer on his guard against the subjective treatment 
of history, as opposed to the purely objective treatment- 
To Ranke, the great German master of historical writing 
in the last century, — even though such writers as 
Lamprecht are now succeeding to his supremacy, — we 
owe some of the most emphatic statements of this doctrine; 
and they are embodied especially in a noteworthy address 
on Ranke by his pupil, Dr. von Sybel, published in the 
Historische Zeitschrift in 1886. 

"A subjective element/' says Dr. von Sybel, ''always tends to mingle 
itself with the historian's conception, after eveiy narrative; and it is the 
problem of historical investigation, by eliminating this, to hold up the 
true picture of the thing itself." ("In diese seine Auffassung mischt sich 

^In "Counad upon the reading of books/' p. 92-03. 
>Ibid., p. 93. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 381 

aber nach aller Erfahrung stetsein subjektives Element, unddureh deesen 
AuBscheidung des wirkliche Bild dee Tbatbestandes lu eihalten ist die 
AuQgabe der historischen Kritik.")^ 

With the action of every-day life there is inextricably 
mingled a large share of ''likes and dislikes." There are 
few, however, who would wish to see these reproduced in 
the printed volumes which form our libraries of history. 
Hasty and impulsive utterances therefore will be carefully 
eliminated from his narrative by the judicious writer^ 
however naturally they may occur to his mind.^ It is a 
great art to obtain the proper position of unbiased judg- 
ment in these cases, — of complete "detachment",' to use 
the phrase of the late Lord Acton, who was himself an 
admirable embodiment of this ideal, in his historical 
work. 

The question of prejudice is occasionally of far-reaching 
importance, — particularly when its existence is unsuspected 
or, possibly, ''subliminal." "Know thyself" is an injimc- 
tion which all of us would gladly comply with, if possible. 
And yet, who of us can be sure that, even in the matter of 
underlying prejudices, one can really know himself? The 
man of today lives in an atmosphere, — so far as likes and 
dislikes, or thoughts and beliefs are concerned, — ^which is 
partly created by the general level of public opinion in the 
person's own community; partly by the person's own 

'"Gedaehtniarede auf Leopold v. Ranke," by Heinrich von Sybel, in Histo- 
risehe Z«it8chrift. v. 66, (1886). p. 474. 

'And yet it is not an unprecedented oceunenee for utterances like these to fet 
into print under the fuise of history, as in the case of the bulky Tolume of more 
than 750 paces, by the late Gen. John A. Logan, published under the title of "The 
great conspiracy, " in 1886. Of this work, a reviewer in the Nation, (June 3, 1886, 
V. 42, p. 476), writes: "It is not a history, although it purports to be one. It is 
rather what might be called a narrative stump speech, with no limitation as to time 
of delivery, except the orator's good pleasure or fatigue. " In his excited peroration, 
the author passes from Italics to small capitals, and from these to capitals, under the 
influence of the strong feeling, — not to say "prejudice," — which animates the book, 
as follows: "Like the Old Man of the Sea, they are now on top, and they mban to 
KXEP THXBB IF THEY CAN." ("The great conspiracy," by John A. Logan, New 
York: A. R. Hart ft Co., 1886, p. 674.) 

*8ee Lord Acton's "Lecture on the study of history," (inaugural lecture at the 
University of Cambridge, 1806). p. 4. Elsewhere in the same lecture, he commends 
in Ranks what Michelet calls "le d^nteressement des morts." p. (61). 



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382 American Antiqiuman Society. [April, 

immediate enviromnent; more by tradition, perhaps: 

but even more by heredity. 

The work of one other eminent German authority is 

partially accessible to English readers, namely, that of 

Johann Gustav Droysen, whose "Grundriss der Historik," 

(1868), was translated into English by Dr. E. Benjamin 

Andrews, under the title of ''Outline of the principles of 

history", Boston; Ginn & Co., 1893. The translator cites, 

(p. vni), as one of the reasons why, in his judgment, 

such a treatise is needed, in English, as follows: 

"In most directionB one finds a stronger leal for the knowledge of his* 
tory than for the understanding of history. We are so busy at gathering 
facts that no time is left us to reflect upon their deeper meaning. Too 
many who wish to be oonsidered historians seem hardly leas enthusiastic 
over the history of some town pump, provided it is 'fresh' and 'written 
from the sources/ than over tluit of the rise of a constitution." 

In 1889 appeared a comprehensive treatise by Ernst 
Bemheim, entitled ''Lehrbuch der historischen Methode, 
mit Nachweis der wichtigsten Quellen und Hiilfs- 
mittel zum Studium der Geschichte," published at Leipzig, 
by Duncker, (2d edition in 1894). An equally noteworthy 
volume, in another language, appeared in 1898, namely, 
"Introduction aux etudes historiques," by C.V. Langlois 
and C. Seignobos, Paris; Hachette et Cie. In the same 
year appeared the English translation, "Introduction to 
the study of history," (by Langlois and Seignobos), 
translated by G. G. Berry, and containing a preface by 
the] late Regius Professor of Modem History at Oxford, 
Frederick York-PoweU. New York; H. Holt & Co. The 
subjects are treated with great acuteness, (as in the 
chapter on "The negative internal criticism of the good 
faith and accuracy of authors", (p. 155-90), and with 
characteristic French lucidity. 

One of the latest of these admirably comprehensive 
European studies appeared in 1903, namely "Die Wert- 
sch&tzimg in der Geschichte; eine kritische Untersuchung," 
by Arvid Grotenfelt, Leipzig: Veit & Co. 



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1906.] The PoirU of View in History. 383 

Although this work^ is published in the German language, 
the learned author is a lecturer on psychology at the 
University of Helsingfors, in Finland. In the chapter, 
''Die Ausscheidung des Bedeutsamen", typical instances 
of recent and contemporary historians are examined, in- 
cluding Ranke, Buckle, Lamprecht, etc., p. 129-75.^ 

It is an interesting fact that the latest historian of Rhode 
Island' has incidentally indicated, by a statement, in one 
of his letters, that he is thoroughly in accord with the prin- 
ciple above cited, from Dr. von Sybel. Mr. Richman's 
statement is as follows: 

"The nanutive part waB finiahed before I b^gan to group the philoso- 
phy therein. I finiehed the narrative, and then, on revising it, b^gan to 
understand its philosophical signifioanoe. This so struck me that I went 
back over my work, and, without bending it at all, merely pointed out 
its teaching. This, it seems to me, is exactly what the historical inves- 
tigator should do— study his facts, and then^ if he finds meaning therein, 
announce it."* 

Nor must the historian's attitude be that of imdervaluing 
the effort required; for a fimdamental principle is a 
constant recognition of the difficulty of getting at the 
truth of any occurrence. It must be assumed, at the out- 
set, that the testimony will vary, and will vary very widely. 

In Browning's ''The Ring and the Book", we have the 
story told of the self-same thing, by all of the various 
parties to the transaction, respectively. We have the 
story as told by Coimt Guido Franceschini, who has been 
accused of committing the murder. There is also the 
narrative of the priest, Giuseppe Caponsacchi. There is the 

^Beviewvd in the Athrasum, (London), Manh 12. 1904, p. 888-34. 

'An admirable ▼olume which doea not porport to be a oomprehenaiTe traatiae, 
bttt merely "Eansrs in hiatorieal criticism," was published by our associate, Profeasor 
Edward Q. Bourne, in 1901. as one of the "Yale Bicentennial Publications." 

*Riekmant Irving Bodine. Bhode Island: its making and its meaning. 2 v. 
New York: Q. P. Putnam's Sons, 1902. 

nhis extract from Ur. Richman's letter is printed in the Nation, Feb. 6, 1908, 
▼. 76, p. 110. It is noteworthy that this book cannot in any way be traced to 
"ancestor worship. The author was bom in Iowa, nearly a thousand miles away 
from Rhode Island, and had never been in [Rhode Island] until he came there to 
begin his investigations. Among his ancestors there is not a single Rhode Island 
family, and not even a single New England family. " 



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384 American Antiqvarian Society. [April, 

narrative of Pompilia herself, as told in the interval between 
her striking down and the drawing of her last breath. 
There are also the statements presented by the counsel for 
the defendant and the public prosecutor respectively. 
There are also three most ingenious and skilful attempts 
at expressing the "public opinion" of Pompilia's com- 
mimity, as we may call it, (in some ways the most difficult 
of all the narratives), entered under the head of "Half- 
Rome," "The other half-Rome," and "Tertium quid". 
There is, moreover, the review of the whole case, by the Pope, 
minutely examining every detail, and reaching conclusions 
in a most judicial manner. And thus Browning places 
before us in an almost incredibly illuminating manner^ 
what he calls 

'*pure crude fact 
Secreted from man's life, when hearts beat hard/'^ 

This has an especially important bearing on that phase of 
the historian's work which deals with the examination of 
other men's testimony, rather than with the gathering of facts 
at first hand. Specific instances of historical sifting of testi- 
mony will be brought imder consideration, later. 

One of the first things to which the historian needs to 
turn his attention in his examination of the medium through 
which his information or material reaches him, is the 
question of prejudice. It is of vital consequence to him 
to know whether the facts have reached him distorted by 
prejudice, and colored by excited feeling. Obviously the 
writer who is setting down a dispassionate narrative 
of religious history, in using the inmiense mass of "con- 
troversial" or ''polemical" pamphlets which strew the 
shore of literature like driftwood, must start by recogniz- 
ing the existence of the "odium theologicum," and do his 
best to exercise a wise discrimination. As with religion, 
so with politics. About 25 years ago the late Alexander 
Johnston published what was at once recognized as a 

^Browninff'B "The Ring and the Book," book 1« lines 95-9% 

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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 385 

"colorless"^ work on American politics.^ How notable 
an achievement it was, to present a colorless narrative of 
the seething mass of heated and prejudiced American 
politics, any one who has searched through a large collec* 
tion of American pamphlets will easily recognize. 

There is another aspect of the matter which must give 
us pause. It is that of the tendency of perhaps the typical 
liberal or imprejudiced man to be slightly deficient in some 
one direction. Like Achilles, who was vulnerable at the 
heel alone, there is, in the case of these men who are broad 
and liberal minded, on the whole, some one subject on 
which they develop astonishing antipathies. It is surely 
not in the nature of man to be absolutely perfect; and the 
imperfection of human nature will assert itself, do what one 
will. But we need to guard most carefully against the 
penetration of this prejudiced view into history, and to be 
able to recognize it and be on our guard against it when it 
has, by any means, penetrated into this field.' 

There are some who affect to underrate the objectionable 
features of prejudice, and even to glorify what is regarded 
as ''a wholesome prejudice."* None the less, however, 
the existence of prejudice is a deplorable thing, — ^not to 
say, detestable, — ^in even an ordinary individual, guiltless 
of any attempts to write history or any other form of 
literature. In a historian, however, it is nothing less than 
shocking; and the instances which are on record, as well 



^In thJB term, "colorleaa," lies a concise ohanoteriiation of the point of view 
of the hiBtorianB who look to Ranke aa their master. **Ranke," says L<nxl Acton, 
**is the representative of the ace which instituted the modem study of history. He 
taught it to be critical, to be colorless, and to be new." "Lecture on the study of 
history," p. 48) 

VoAfiston, Alexander. History of American politics. New Yoik: Henry 
Holt A Co., 1880. 

*" Improvement," nys John Stuart MiU,(in his St. Andrew's "Inaugural address, "' 
Feb. 1, 1867), "consists in bringing our opinions into nearer agreement with facts; 
and we shall not be likely to do this while we look at facts only through glwsses col- 
ored by those very opinions." Mill's "Inaugural address." p. 25, (reprinted at p. 
340 of V. 4 of his "Dissertations and discussions," New York: H. Holt ft Co.. 1874.) 

*A writer in the Athennum, (Nov. 4, 1006, p. 603), mildly protests, and perhaps 
Justly, against that perversion of impartiality iduch may be described as "inhuman.'^ 
But these instances axe certainly rare. 



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386 American Antiquarian Society. [Aprils 

authenticated, of deep and implacable prejudices, on the 
part of men of the highest order of historical talents, such 
as Macaulay^ and Freeman,* are an impressive testimony 
to the possibilities which exist, of perverting history. It is 
bad enough to find so low a conception of history as that 
which regards it simply "as a club," with which to thump 
those unpleasant people who do not agree with us, on the 
part of individuals and historical societies whose oppor- 
timities for developing a more enlightened view have been 
limited; but to find a similar failing, in the case of the 
more enlightened leaders, is inexpressingly depressing. 
Again, the critical student of history needs to be able to 
discern whether the writers whose historical discussions 
are imder criticism can properly distinguish between 
matters of fact and matters of opinion. Strange as it may 
seem, this is a failure which is not imcommon. 

It is, however, the judicial element which is fundamental, 
in any scientific view of history. The historian is expected 
to be something more than the witness, offering testimony, 
and presenting it in a confused and unintelligent manner. 
He is expected to be something quite the reverse of the advo- 
cate, presenting a one-sided view of the case. On the con- 
trary, it is the procedure on the bench which supplies the 
closest analogy to the aims and methods of the con- 
scientious historian. 

We may here perhaps appropriately consider for a 
moment an interesting paradox of judicial experience, 
namely, that it is sometimes the special pleaders at the 
bar who, on being elevated to the bench, become distin- 
guished as among the most ' 'judicial" of judges. And in- 

^**See whethflr I do not dust that variet'i jaoket for him in the uBzt number 
of the Blue and Ydlow, I detest him more than eold boiled veal." In such a 
Christian temper wrote Biaoaulay to his sister, in 1831, of a contemporary statesman 
and litttoiteur, John Wilson Croker. (Trereiyan's "Life and letters of Lord Maeaa- 
lay," (Am. ed.), New York: Harper ft Bros.. 1875, v. 1, p. 218.) 

'"I shall embowel James Anthony Froude." These are the words in which 
Mr. Freeman (leefully notes down the faot of an error diBoovered in a volume of 
Froude, as scribbled on the margin of his own copy. (Mr. Lane in ComhiU, Feb., 
906, ▼. 92, p. 263.) 



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1906.] The Povni of View in History. 387 

deed there is one curious and instructive phase of this 
experience, namely, when such a judge finds himself called 
upon to pass mental judgment on an advocate who is disposed 
to press his argument too far. It is, of course, the duty of 
the advocate to be in a certain sense ''a special pleader," 
and his obligations to his client make it necessary that 
he shall select and arrange his facts so skilfully as to 
produce great weight in favor of his client, in the minds of 
the jiuy, of the audience, and,— I may add, — of any judge 
who has not known these ways of special pleaders, ''at 
first hand." But as the advocate goes over this ground, 
the judge can say to himself, — "There he is again with his 
flimsy reasoning. What rot! Does he really think that 
he can pull the wool over anybody's eyes?" When, there- 
fore, the judge comes to the summing up of the case, in 
his own mind, he gives no more weight to this plea than it 
actually deserves; and he thus is able to protect the in- 
terests of the public. 

Still further, although the judge may from time to time 
feel impatience at such extreme presentations of the case 
by an advocate, he is, on the whole, by no means averse to 
seeing an argument pushed to the extreme, so that one 
can really see ''all that there is in it." In other words, he 
knows the value of having the case thoroughly "threi^ed 
out," as the phrase runs. Probably in thus getting a 
case "threshed out," there is inevitably a certain amount 
of injustice done, to the interests of one side or the other, 
by thus going to the extreme. But probably, also, there 
will not be, in our time at least, a method of legal procedure 
which will come nearer than this to meeting the needs, 
and fulfilling the interests of the entire community, — ^in 
spite of all its drawbacks. And, so far as the judge him- 
self is concerned, while he will sometimes involimtarily 
exclaim against the absurdity of some claim, he will at 
other times have to acknowledge to himself: "Well, now, 
I never should have thought of that I" 



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^88 American Antiquarian Society, [Aprils 

To all this, the procedure of the historian, in his critical 
•examination of the writings of other authors, supplies a 
close analogy. If he should be .making an exhaustive study 
of some given subject, he can hardly afford to pass over 
without examination even the most foolish of the books 
and pamphlets on the subject; — and there are some sub- 
jects which prove to be very prolific in foolish pamphlets. 
The analogy, as I have said, is a close one; and yet there is 
one particular in which it apparently does not quite hold; — 
the fact that, as Mr. Harrison has reminded us,^ ' 'cross- 
examination* is impossible or, at least, difficult to the 
historian." 

What would one not give for the opportunity to put the 
necessary questions, which, in the hands of a skilful cross- 
examiner, would cause the facts to leap to light! Such, for 
instance, as in Mr. Charles E. Hughes's examination of the 
Vice-President of the New York Life Insurance Company, 
resulting in the quite reluctant testimony of the witness, 
that a certain loan was made Dec. 31, 1904, and repaid 
five days later, Jan. 5, 1905, — ^after the occasion for making 
an official report had passed.^ 

And yet, even though all the parties to the transaction 
are themselves dead, and although the events may be those 
of four centuries ago, an at least approximately useful 
result may follow from the prolonged and detailed discus- 
sion of the subject in print by those who hold opposing 
views in regard to it. 

THE ''squire papers." 

In this, as in other fields of study or thought, we may best 
learn from a specific instance. One of the most judicial of 

iHarriflon'i "The meanins of history," p. 134. 

'"Croos-examination, neyerthdefls, would be invaluable to the writer who has 
to set down accurately any set of facts, historical or otherwise; and any historian 
can find suggestions of value in such a work as **The art of cross-examination," 
by Mr. WeUman. "People," says Mr. Wellman, "as a rule do not reflect upon their 
meagre opportimities for observing facts, and rarely suspect the frailty of their own 
powers of observation," (At p. 27 of "The art of cross-examination," by Francis 
JL. WeUman, New York: The Macmillan Co., 1903.) 

'Reported in the daily newspapers of Sept. 28, and Sept. 29, 1906. 



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1906.] The Taint of View in History. 389 

our modem historians was the late Samuel Rawson Gar- 
diner, the eminent English writer who so admirably covered 
the period of the Stuarts and the Commonwealth.* The 
opportunity presented itself to him, to resort to a process 
analogous to cross-examination, when he came to that 
precise portion of his narrative which is covered by the 
so-called "Squire papers". 

Let me interrupt the order of this paper for a moment, 
to explain briefly what these "Squire papers" were, which 
had the interesting fate of being presented to the con- 
sideration of Carlyle in 1847, and of Gardiner m 1885,— 
their authenticity having been questioned in each instance. 
Samuel Squire, whose name has become associated with 
these documents, was one of the soldiers of Oliver Cromwell, 
These thirty-five letters, purporting to have been written 
by Cromwell himself, belong to the years 1641-45.* 
They were brought to Carlyle's attention in 1847, two 
years after his work on "Oliver Cromwell's letters and 
speeches" had been published in 1845, and it was William 
Squire, a descendant of Samuel Squire, who placed them 
in his hands. Whatever examination of the letters was 
imdertaken ended in their being accepted as genuine by 
Carlyle; and they were printed as an appendix to one of 
the volumes, (vol. 2), of Carlyle's "Oliver Cromwell's 
Letters and Speeches", when this work went through a 
later edition, in 1857. The controversy then slept for 
many years, till it was precipitated again by a discussion 
in the Academy, (the English critical journal), in regard 
to the date of death of Cromwell's son.^ The discussion, 
however, almost immediately shifted to the broader 
question of the genuineness of the Squire papers, and was 

^When Ifr. Gardiner died, in 1002, his seriefl of Tolumee oovering the history of 
Engbuid in the Seventeenth Century, extended from 1607 to 1656, (published between 
1869 and 1901.) 

*To be found in print, in Fraser's Magaiine, Dec., 1847, v. 36. p. 631-54; Littell's 
Livinc Age, Jan. 29. 1848, v. 16, p. 214-24; in Chapman A Hall's "People's edition" 
of Carlyle's "Oliver Cromwell's Letters and Speeches," ed. of 1857, v. 2, p. 261-96; 
also in later editions, as in the "Centenary edition", ▼. 7. (1897), p. 338-76. 

•Letter of S. R. Gardiner. Academy. Biaroh 14, 1885. v. 27, p. 188. 



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390 American AiUiquarian Society. [April, 

continued, (first in the pages of the Academy, and later in 
the pages of the Englidi Historical Review), for the next 
two years; in other words, from March 14, 1885, to April, 

1887. There were several correspondents who participated 
in the discussion, but it was, after all, chiefly instructive for 
the contributions made to it by three eminent men. These 
were Mr. William Aldis Wright, the acute Shakespearian 
critic; Mr. Walter Rye, an eminent authority on public 
records; and Mr. Gardiner himself. Mr. Wright was in- 
clined to the belief that the papers were genuine, and that 
they were trustworthy material for any historian who 
should use them. He showed no heat in his argument, 
and, while falling into some errors himself, pointed out 
very lucidly several which were made by his opponents. 
Although Mr. Wright's argument was conducted with 
much ability, an impartial review of the whole subject, 
after the lapse of about twenty years, leaves the impres- 
sion that, on the whole, the truth was on the other side, — 
or at least not on his side. In the second place, Mr. Rye 
held the view that the papers were not genuine; — a position 
which he argued with much heat. Although some of the 
positions which he maintained are those which have come 
to be accepted, it is probable that, at the time, he occasion- 
ally did more damage to his side than real service, through 
his dogmatic attitude, and his hot-headedness, which led 
him, in more than one instance, into situations from which 
he extricated himself with great difficulty. While these 
are qualities which cannot commend him, yet it ought to 
be said, — parenthetically, — that Mr. Rye had certain other 
qualities which do commend him, including a strong sense 
of humor. I cannot resist the temptation to cite a 
striking instance of this, taken from the preface to 
a volume, (on another subject), which he published in 

1888. He writes as follows: ''That I must have made 
innumerable omissions and mistakes I know well 
enough; but I ask my readers to be merciful, and to 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 391 

send me, more in sorrow than in anger, their corrections 
and additions."^ 

Lastly, Mr. Gardiner, although frankly avowing his 
position at the beginning of the discussion, as that of dis- 
satisfaction with the evidence in favor of the Squire papers, 
was plainly in search, throughout the entire correspondence, 
of the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. 
During the discussion, even he was led into some untenable 
positions, from which he inmiediately withdrew when 
these were shown in their true light. On the whole, how- 
ever, his letters succeeded in laying bare the weak points 
in the Squire papers; and these were not few. It is 
significant, that his letters had the effect of drawing 
the comments of the other parties to the discussion in 
such a way as to exhibit, — for him, and for any one 
else interested in the subject, — nearly every conceivable 
phase of it; and in this way he secured what was ana- 
logous to the effect of cross-examination, in court. When 
Mr. Gardiner reached his final conclusion, this conclusion 
proved to be an eminently judicial one. He expressed no 
judgment whatever as to whether the Squire letters had 
been, on the one hand, forged throughout, or whether, on 
the other hand, they were genuine letters which had been 
recklessly tampered with. To use his own language, the 
papers were "unavailable for historical purposes."* This 
question was, after all, his chief concern; and it is 
an interesting fact that in the two volumes' of his 
great work which cover any part of the period in ques- 
tion, (1641-45),^ no mention whatever is made of the 
''Squire papers" in the text, or in the index, or any- 
where else. 

*Rv€t Walter. Reoords and ntotd ttmnhmg: a guide to the teiiealocut and 
topographer. Publiahed in the United Statei, by CupplM A Hnrd , Boston, 1889, 
p. ii. 

*S. B. Gardiner, in Enfjieh Historioal Review, July, 1886, ▼. 1, p. 620. 

**'The faU of the monarchy of Gharlei I," v. 2, 164(M2, (pub. 1882) and the 
"Hictory of the great Civil War," v. 1 1642-44, (pub. 1886). 

*The earliest letter of the thirty-five is dated "March, 1641," and the latest 
"March 8. 1646." 



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392 American Antiqmrian Society. [April, 

To one who is unfamiliar with historical investigation 
and its methods, this may perhaps seem a ''lame and 
impotent conclusion", but not to the real historian, — 
certainly not to Mr. Gardiner himself. ''Art is long", 
declares the poet, in the well-known lines, but so also is the 
art of historical investigation; and some of its fimdamental 
prerequisites, as illustrated in this instance of Mr. Gardiner, 
are patience, restraint, and scrupulous regard for the truth. 
Indeed, it is not an imcommon experience for the historian 
to have to be content, (as the late Sir Leslie Stephen has 
so well put it,) "to toil for hours with the single result of 
having to hold his tongue."^ It is certainly better to 
discover definitely that there is no evidence, than to assume 
the existence of evidence and to be obliged to retreat from 
this assumption, later. 

The result reached in Mr. Gardiner's^ case, besides 
being one which accords with the judicial view of historical 
method, accords with much of the experience which awaits 
any man who undertakes to carry the judicial temper into 
every-day life. For instance, we will suppose that you 
meet an acquaintance on the street, who is laboring under 
great excitement. ' 'Well, " you say, ' 'what has happened?" 
"Great heavensi", he cries, "Did you ever see such injus- 
tice! I have just taken a civil service examination, and 
failed to pass. But th€n, everybody knows that a man of 
my politics stands no chance whatever." And plainly he 
expects you to believe that that is actually the cause. As a 
matter of fact, you neither believe it nor disbelieve it. The 

^Sttphmi, Sir Lcdie. Studiea of a biognphfir. v. 1. (1898). p. 22. 

'It is lignifiimnt that althoush Mr. Oardiner has an exalted opmion of Carlylo'i 
"monunwiital work," he has found oooaaion to distrust his editorial methods. Com- 
menting, in 1901, on one of Cromwell's letters, Mr. Gardiner writes: '*Oari3rle here, 
as in so many other plaoes, amends the text without warning." (Qardincr's *'Hi»- 
tory of the Commonwealth and Protectorate," v. 3, p. 27.) As Spenser has been 
called **the poet's poet," so Qardiner may periiaps be called ''the historian's 
historian," so strikingly do his qualities of caution, aocuraoy, candor, and 
sanity appeal to one who writes history. Mr. James F. Rhodes, for instance, 
in a brief but significant appreciation of Gardiner, in the Atlantic, remarks: *'We 
know the history of Eni^d from 1603 to 1656 better than we do that of any other 
period of the worid; and for this we are indebted mainly to Samuel Rawson Gardi- 
ner." (Atlantic Monthly, May, 1902. r. 89. p. 701.) 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 393 

statement is held in your mind, (just as some substances are 
held undissolved in water), because you have not the 
necessary data which would lead to any opinion on the 
subject on one side or the other. 

The determination of motive constitutes one of the 
most perplexing of all the problems which a judge is ever 
called upon to solve; and the same thing is true of the 
judicial historian. It is true that one of the first questions 
which the judge is actually obliged to ask himself, in consid- 
ering the action of a party to a lawsuit, and also one of the 
first questions which the historian is obliged to ask himself, 
in studying the career of a character in history, is this: — 
"What was the motive in the case V ' This is a question, more- 
over, which, if asked by a conscientious judge, is put with 
an absolute recognition of the fact that the complexity of 
conditions may possibly make this attempted interpretation 
of motive not only difficult but misleading. The judge 
consequently, in his consideration of the defendant's case, 
mentally takes up one motive after another, bringing them 
all to as rigid a test as possible, in connection with what is 
known of the man's actions, and dropping the hypothesis 
whenever it is not found to stand the test. In other words, 
the judge's aim, or imderlying principle, must be this: — 
* 'All that there is in it " ; and it will necessarily be embodied 
not only in the complete ''threshing out" which the case 
gets in court, but in that even more difficult and more deter- 
mined canvassing which it gets in the judge's own mind, in 
the mental review and analysis which he gives it. In the 
case of a conscientious judge, determined to hold, as his own 
opinion in the matter, nothing which will not stand the 
uttermost test, it may well be imagined how exhaustive, — 
nay, how exhausting, — ^must be the mental processes re- 
quired. There is a most skilful portrayal of such a judge, 
in one of Anthony TroUope's less important stories of 
English life. This story is "John Caldigate," published 
in 1879; and it is, on the whole, a most disagreeable and 



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394 American Antiquarian Society^ [April, 

depressing piece of literary work. Yet in his chapter on 
"Judge Bramber", TroUope has admirably set forth what 
must be the ideal mental attitude not only of the impartial 
judge, but of the conscientious historian as well. Judge 
Bramber had great difficulty in getting into his mind a 
conception of that view of the case which the reader knows, 
(from the previous chapters of the book), to be the true 
one, because it is really a very unusual and improbable 
point of view, on the part of the defendant. The judge's 
wrestling with the case is a long, determined, and painful 
one. Yet he finally does reach this view of the case, and 
renders his decision. In other words, he satisfies himself 
that in this particular instance the unexpected and the 
improbable could occur, — ^and did occur. 

As in Biblical criticism, so in historical criticism, both 
the higher criticism and the textual criticism have their 
place. As an instance of textual criticism, in the discus- 
sion of the "Squire papers" abeady referred to, may be 
cited the letter^ in which Cromwell wrote the date, — ^if he 
did actually write this letter, — as "Christmas Eve." At 
first sight, this would appear to be conclusive evidence 
against the genuineness of the letter. Would so uncom- 
promising a Puritan as Cromwell, use a prohibited expres- 
sion like this, in the thick of the Puritan conflict? Mr. 
Gardiner, writing in the Academy, asks, with rather telling 
effect, — "What would a collector of autographs of the 
twentieth century say if he were asked to buy a supposed 
letter of Simeon or Wilberforce, dated 'The Nativity of 
the Blessed Virgin Mary' 7"' Mr. Wrigjht, in the same 
journal, two weeks later, remarks sagaciously: "An Act 
of Parliament can do much, but it cannot eradicate a 
long-standing personal habit;"^ and this is a consideration 
which ought to give us pause when we are imduly hasty 

KSvlylo'i "Olivar Cromwell." (People's editioii), London: Chapnum A Hall^ 
▼. 2, p. 288. Abo, in the **Centenaiy edition." London: Chi^nuuk A Hall, t. 7» 
(1897), p. 367. The year of this letter is 1643. 

"Aeademy, liarch 28. 1885. t. 27. p. 224. 

•Aeademy. April 11, 1885. t. 27. p. 260. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 395 

in accepting a conclusion, simply on the basis of some 
textual detail. Nevertheless, in this particular instance, 
there is a significant, and perhaps conclusive, phase of the 
subject which is cited by Mr. Gardiner, as follows: — 
''Christmas Eve, too, in 1643 of all years, when the obser- 
vance of Christmas was for the first time forbidden in Lon- 
don, Christmas Day having in 1642 fallen on a Sunday.''^ 
One of the distinctively ''textual" studies which was con- 
nected with the investigation of the "Squire papers" was 
concerned with the Puritan names. In particular, it 
related to the Christian names of the rank and file of 
Cromwell's army, which have been conmionly supposed 
to be Old Testament names, — and very grotesque ones at 
that. This impression, widespread as it is, does not stand 
the test of investigation; but it has been due very largely 
to the use of such names in historical novels, such as Scott's 
"Woodstock", and in some of the dramas of the Restoration 
period, as well as to some unfounded statements in Hume 
and other historians. It needs to be said also that the 
most uncouth of all these names, "Praise-God Barebone," 
was an actual name, (though the best authorities agree 
that the names which have traditionally been associated 
with his sons were imaginary, — ^namely, "Christ-Came- 
Into-The-World-To-Save-Bare&one", and "If-Christ-Had- 
Not- Died-Then-Thou-Hadst-Been- Damned-Bardwme ) . * 
And yet "Praise-Grod Barebone" was not a representative 
instance, but an exceptional instance. One of the most 
painstaking and thorough studies of this subject was made 
by Mr. Edward Peacock, an English antiquary, about ten 
years before the "Squire" discussion just referred to, — 
namely in the Academy in 1875. Mr. Peacock selected his 
names from various representative sources, in the Seven- 
teenth Century and in the Nineteenth Century, respectively; 
but usually from enrollment lists. He thus obtained a 

^Aoadamy. ICarch 28. 1886, ▼. 27, p. 224. 

*Artiele, "Barbon," or "Barebone," in "Diotionary of national biography/' 
▼ 3. (1885), p. 161-53. by A. B. QroMrt. 



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396 American Antiquarian Society. [April| 

total of 3|207 names. Having done this, he sifted out 
from each of the two sets of lists the Old Testament names; 
and, to the great smprise of most of those who had followed 
his studies, it was found that the percentage of Old Testa- 
ment names was not very much greater in the wars of the 
Commonwealth than in our own time. For instance, 
comparing roll for roll, he finds 76 Old Testament names 
in one of these Seventeenth Centiuy lists. But he also 
finds as many as 55, in a Lincolnshire list of 1852.^ 

This being the case, what is the percentage of Old Testa- 
ment names to be found in the lists included in the alleged 
Squire letters? They are found there, as Mr. Peacock 
shows us,* in so overwhelming a percentage as to place it at 
once in strong contrast to such other lists of the Common- 
wealth period as have been preserved. This very fact 
invites suspicion. ''It is, however," says Mr. Peacock, 
''quite reasonable to suppose that a forger who believed 
that Biblical names were very common in the Puritan 
armies, when manufacturing lists of names, should have 
used such names freely."' 

One has only to ask this question, however: — "Who 
gave these Cromwellian leaders their Christian names?" 
They certainly did not name themselves. Had they done 
so, their names would doubtless have been emphatically 
of the Old Testament type, (as in fact were the names 
which they themselves gave to their sons). But, on the 
contrary, the names given to these Parliamentary fighters,- 
men who were then from forty to sixty years of age, — ^were 
^ven to them back in Queen Elizabeth's reign, when it 
was still the natural and obvious course to name a boy 
Henry, or Richard, or Walter, in most instances, rather than 
Zebediah, or Jonadab, or Maher*Shalal-Hash-Baz. A 
crafty fabricator, who should aim to place his fabrications 
beyond suspicion, by the choice of Christian names, is 

^Aouiemy. July 24, 1876, t. 8. p. 02. 
*Aead«my, April 18. 1886, t. 27, p. 276. 
•Ibid. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 397 

quite likely not to have been crafty^ enough to avoid this 
kind of contingency. It is another case of 

"the engineer 
Hoist with his own petaid.''* 

DIFFICULTIES OF EXACT NAKRATION. 

In those cases where the historian is obliged to draw an 
inference, there are plenty of chances that he will be in 
some way tripped up. One of the most subtle of these 
mishaps is due to the fact that the major premise itself 
stands for a pure assumption. Were it not for this, the 
inference drawn would be beyond challenge. For example, 
some historian of modem Europe might have framed such a 
syllogism as this : — Major premise: The French Revolution 
was a world-wide calamity. Minor premise: The tendencies 
in Hungary and Poland in 1850 are a reproduction of the 
spirit of the French Revolution. Condusion: Therefore 
the tendencies in Hungary and Poland in 1850 presage a 
world-wide calamity. Far more common, however, is 
that type of logical miscarriage which grows out of a wrong 
conclusion from the premises, — ^in other words, a ''non- 
sequitur." Mr. Crothers has so delightfully treated this 
subject, in his recent article, "How to know the fallacies,"' 
that they need not be enumerated here. 

Above all things, discrimination is necessary. Whether 
delivered from the bench, or formulated by a historian, a 
decision ought to be based on logical inferences, if possible; 
and yet it is undeniable that inferences are too often 
drawn from very slender data. A defect of some 

^A aimilar inttanoe. of work which waa dever, but not quite dem enough, ia 
to be aeen in oonneotion with the fabricated "Gape-Fear Mercury, " which waa very 
skiUfuny ezpoaed by A. 8. Salley. Jr.. and Worthington C. Ford. (**Dr. S. Millincton 
Miller and the Mecklenburg Uedaration"). American Historical Review, April, 
1906, T. 11, p. 648^68. 

*Below are given referenoee, approxunately complete, to this entire discussion, 
1885^7, begun in the pages of the Academy, and transferred to those of the En^ish 
Historical Review, as soon as that began publication, in 1886. 

Academy, ▼. 27, p. 188, 206-7, 224-25, 243, 250-61, 275, 276, 205, 312-13. 331. 

English Historical Review. ▼. 1, p. 311-48, 517-21, 744-56; ▼. 2, p. 142-48, 342-43. 

•Atlantic Monthly, Nov., 1005, v. 06, p. 617-28. Reprinted in his volume, "The 
pardoner's wallet," p. 82-118. Boston: Houghton. Mifflin, db Co., 1005. 



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398 American ArUiguarian Society. [April, 

kind, either in one of the premises or in the other, or in the 
conclusion, has been repeatedly found to impair the validity 
of such logical reasoning. A writer having stated one of 
his premises will sometimes proceed to the next one by 
saying: ''We may perhaps venture to assume", etc., the 
sad truth being that in many instances one ought not to 
''venture to assume". The main danger, however, seems 
to lie in drawing the conclusion; and the tendency to a 
' 'non sequitur " is quite too common. It is as if one should 
say: "The sky is clear this morning." "Moreover, I see an 
automobile coming up the street." ' 'Therefore it will rain be- 
fore night." The writer would find it hopelessly difficult to 
explain why this conclusion follows, from these premises, but 
no more difficult than the writers of some historical studies. 
Partly in the same line of thought as this, is this other 
general principle, that one may possibly be too much under 
the influence of some proverb or aphorism, of wide accepta- 
tion, and thus run the risk of doing injustice alike to a 
writer and to a historic character. One such proverbial 
idea is expressed in the classical quotation, "Ex pede 
Herculem". While it is true that in a large number of 
instances an opportunity to view a part, gives one a correct 
idea of the whole, yet the instances which constitute an 
exception to this rule are so recurrent and so important, 
that every historian needs to be on his guard in this matter. 
The treatment of a historic character like Cromwell is a case 
in point. Few things are more striking, in the historical 
literature of the past twenty-five years, than the extent 
to which the later historians have refused to set him down 
as wholly base, or hypocritical, while fully recognizing 
those elements in his make-up and career which deserve 
such a characterization.^ 

^A oaae in point is the American stateemAn, Gouvemeur Morris, oonoemint 
whom President Roosevelt, in his interesting life of Morris, has aeutely remarked, 
(p. 801): — *'There are. however, very few of our statesmen whose eharactera can 
be painted in simple, uniform colors. " . . . "Nor is Morris one of these few. His 
place is alongside of men like Madison, Samuel Adams, and Patrick Henry, who 
did the nation great service at times, but each of whom, at some one or two critical 
junctures ranged himself with the forces of disorder." 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 399 

Another instance, (which is equally striking, partly 
because it belongs in a wholly different region, so far as 
the sympathies and prejudices of those who read history 
in a partisan way are concerned), is that of Mary, Queen 
of Scots. It is a fact of no little significance, that, the more 
recent the publication of a book on this subject, the more 
likely it is to be a non-partisan and judicial study of her 
career and qualities, doing full justice to the counts both 
for and against her. One of the latest of these studies, 
that of Mr. Andrew Lang, ("The mystery of Mary Stuart"), 
published in 1904, is noteworthy from the fact that the 
author has, in at least one instance, (where the genuine- 
ness of a letter is disputed), actually put himself in the 
place of the accused, and has tried to see what kind of a 
letter one would necessarily write under the ^ven con- 
ditions. 

And yet, instructive as this instance of Mary, Queen of 
Scots is, in the way of illustrating non-partisan treatment, 
it is discouragingly instructive in the light which it sheds 
on the question whether, — to fall back on another familiar 
aphorism, — ''Time does really bring all things to light." 
Mary Stuart has now been dead more than three hundred 
and twenty-five years, and yet are we in a position to say 
that we know the absolute truth in regard to the disputed 
points in her career? One might almost accuse her bio- 
grapher, Chalmers, of undue optimism in the use which 
he has made (in its English translation), of the Latin 
aphorism, "Veritas filia temporis."^ 

What has been said thus far naturally serves to emphasize 
the fact that extreme discrimination is necessary, on the 
part of the historian whose point of view is the judicial one. 
He is not permitted to assume, without verification, the 



***Jii0t who is responsible for the very queetionjible Latinity of this phrese, (an 
English translation of which is plaoed on the reverse of the title-page of vol. 1, in 
the En^ish edition of Chahneri, and on the title-page itself in the American reprint), 
is not dear. It is dted as a proverb from the Spanish, in King's Qaasioal and foreign 
quotations," p. 564. 



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400 American ArUiquartan Society. [April, 

impeccable character of any body of so-called evidence, no 
matter how prepossessing may be its antecedents. We 
have aheady seen that this remark applies to the question 
of the use of records and archives. It also applies to the 
question of first-hand or second-hand testimony, — ^whether 
in the field of biography or of history proper. 

One may not even conclude too hastily that when we 
have the testimony of a witness who was himself a partici- 
pant in the transaction, the exact truth is assured. But 
the application of this principle to history yields quite as 
interesting results as in the case of biography. As has been 
shown above, a historian who writes in another century 
from that' of the historical character who is described, does 
so at a certain disadvantage; and so does one who writes in 
another country and using a different language. Still 
further, even supposing him to be a contemporary of his 
hero, he may not have been brought into dose enough re- 
lations with the events described. Imagine, for instance, 
two works, each of which is entitled "A history of the 
Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment of Volunteers, in the 
War of the Rebellion", one of which is written by an officer 
who served in that regiment, and the other by a man who 
never went outside of New England during the entire 
four years of the war. Can any one hesitate for a moment 
as to which of the two is entitled to credence? And yet, 
the very sharpness of this contrast, in favor of the actual 
participant, and his facilities for presenting a narrative 
which should be accurate, may serve to blind one to the 
fact that even this position does not and cannot guarantee 
uttermost accuracy in every detail. This is a lesson which 
has been learned very gradually, since the close of the 
American Civil War, and especially since the United States 
Government has been putting into print the "Official 
records of the War of the Rebellion", reproducing the 
exact text of the despatches, reports, orders, and other 
official papers, on both sides. It was at first thought by 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 401 

some writers, and very naturally, that here at last was an 
end of controversy, in view of these oflSdal statements; but 
historians like our associate, Mr. James F. Rhodes,^ who have 
been going over this period, (and even more, the military his* 
torians, like the late John C. Ropes),' have found it any* 
thing but a clear case, or a foregone conclusion. If the 
question should be, what went on in the ''Seven Days^ 
Battles" before Richmond, (June 25-July 1, 1862),9 the 
conscientious historical student is plunged at once into 
the examination of a mass of conflicting statements; and 
the problem is made all the more formidable by the evident 
absence of any attempt to deceive, on the part of any of 
the writers, — each one telling the story with utmost 
sincerity, as it appeared to him, but telling a story which 
disagrees with almost every other story. 

Still, — the reader is inclined to ask, — ^if we confine our 
attention to some one detail out of the entire mass, will 
not the participant then be able to give us an absolutely 
trustworthy account? 

It so happens than an incident of precisely this kind 
came under my observation several years ago, in conversa- 
tion with our associate, Mr. 'V^iUiion B. Weeden; and it 
impressed me so strongly, that I asked Mr. Weeden, who had 
given me the narrative verbally, to write it out for me; and, 
complying with this request, he has given it to me as follows : 

Dear Mr. Foster. Providence, May 15th, 1896. 

The incident, of which we were speaking, occurred in this wise. 

At the battle of Gaines' Mills,* I was Chief of Artillery in the First 
Division of Porter's Fifth Corps. A part of my own Batteiy under Lieut. 

^BhodM, James Ford. History of the United States, from the Compromise of 
1860. New Yoik: Haiper db Broe., t. 9-6, pub. 1806, 1899. 1904. 

"ilopet, John Codmaa. Story of the Civil War. New York: Q. P. Putnam's 
Sons, 1894. 3 ▼. See diserepaneies dted at p. 298 of t. 2. More than a doaen years 
before, Mr. Ropes had pnUished "The army wider Pope," New York: C. Scribner's 
Sons. 1881. 

*As an example of the "Offieial records" being dted on both sides of a puisling 
question, see Rhodes's note on this campaign. ("History of the United States," ▼. 
4. p. 48.) 

«The battle of Gaines's Mills, (during these same "Seiren Days" before Rich- 
mond), was fought, June 27-28, 1862. 



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402 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

Buckley was posted with Gen. Martindale's Brigade at a crucial point 
of our line. The guns were well served and did considerable execution. 
I went down several times to look after them in a general way. The 
musketry firing from the enemy was heavy and the pressure of battle 
was very severe. Once the colors of a rebel regiment charging, were 
knocked over by a case shot from our guns. Then the firing from both 
artilleiy and infantry was so well concentrated, that the enemy could 
not recover his colors, but they were brought in by our infantry, after 
he was beaten back. 

The Fourth Michigan Regiment was on the right of these guns. This 
corps had been much associated with us, and we were all very friendly. 
Talking over the battle next day with some of the officers, they were 
very cordial in appreciating the handling of our guns. Then they made 
this astonishing statement. "When you came into the battery and 
sighted the guns yourself, the e£fect was tremendous". I never once 
aimed a gun in any action. If I had done so, it would have interfered 
with the excellent gimners, who served the pieces. These Michigan 
officers were probably within one hundred feet; certainly they were not 
two hundred feet away from the gtms. 

The incident is a fair illustration of the constant tendency of wit- 
nesses, to idealise action and innocently to create acts, which they 
think they see. Truly yours, Wu. B. Wbsden. 

It is almost startling to reflect how near this myth in 
embryo came to being embodied, as actual history, in some 
one of the printed narratives of the war, if Captain Weeden 
had not been alive to negative it. 
. It is not strange that, with all the attention which has 
been paid to this phase of the subject, the suggestion 
should have arisen that, while there may be a condition of 
things in which the letter of the narrative is accurate, while 
it is wholly inaccurate in spirit, there may also be a condi- 
tion of things in which the reverse is the case. In other 
words, the letter of the narrative may be inaccurate, but 
the spirit of it accurate.^ This claim has been made for 
various historical writers; and among them, for Thomas 
Carlyle. 

To illustrate the bearing of this su^estion, let us consider 
an imaginary case, in real life. We will suppose that a 

^The other ride of the case ia mneaented in Macaulas^a auppodtion that there 
might perhaps be **a history in which every particular incident may be true," but 
which "may on the whole be false." Macaulay's "Critical, historical, and miscel- 
laneous essays." (Am. ed.)* Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, & Co., t. 1, p. 425. 



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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 403 

messenger boy is sent from a drug-store on Boylston Street 
in Boston, with a bottle of medicine, to a house on Dana 
Street in Cambridge. The messenger actually does deliver 
the medicine, but it is first mislaid by the servant, and then, 
after repeated telephoning to the drug-store for the missing 
medicine, the servant remembers it, and hands it over. 
The necessary explanation is then made all around, and 
the unfortunate messenger boy is completely exonerated, 
but not until after, in his confusion, he had made, — quite 
unintentionally, — an extraordinary series of statements of 
things that were not so. Here is the messenger's statement : 

"I went to Copley Square, and when a Harvard Square car came along, 
I got on, and the dock said a quarter before eleven. There was a lady 
sat next alongside of me, and so I thought I would ask her about how 
to find the place. I will tell you what she looked like. She was tall, 
and she had on a blue dress, and she was holding a mufif, and her name 
was Miss Williams, she said. She took and looked at the name on the 
parcel, and, said she, 'I can tell you just how to go there, because, don't 
you see, I live close by there myself.' So at Dana Street the conductor 
let me off, and there was the house all right, and when I rang the bell 
there was a man came to the door, and I handed over the parcel to him, 
and came along back." 

This is the messenger's statement. Now what are the 
facts? Nearly every separate item in the entire list is 
misstated; for, like some historians, he seemed to have an 
actual genius for inaccuracy. 

The car which he took was not a Harvard Square car 
but a Mount Auburn car. He took it, not at 10.45, but 
at 11.45. The lady next to him was dressed, not in blue, 
but in brown. She was not tall, but rather short. She 
did, however, carry a muff, as he stated. Her name also 
was Williams, as he stated, but not ''Miss", but ''Mrs." 
It was Dana Street at which he left the car, but it was a 
maid who answered the door-bell, rather than a man. 

But what of it? The essential thing to be noted is, that 
the messenger actually did deliver the medicine at the 
right house, in proper season, as he said he did. These 
other details may have some very slight importance, but 



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404 American ArUiqvarian Society. [April, 

they do not relate to matters in which the purchaser of the 
medicine felt the slightest interest. So long as he had the 
medicine, what did it matter to him whether the messenger 
had come over in a Harvard Square or a Mount Auburn car? 

Now this entirely imaginary instance finds a close 
parallel in a somewhat well known passage of French 
history. It is that section* of Carlyle's extraordinary 
work on ''The French Revolution" in which the royal 
flight is narrated. On the 21st of June, 1791, Louis XVI, 
the Queen, and the entire royal family, made their 
escape from Paris. The whole distance which they trav- 
ersed was about one hundred and fifty miles,* namely, 
from Paris to Varennes, a small town in the East of France. 
Of this piece of description. Professor H. Morse Stephens 
says: "This narrative is so vivid that the very wheels of 
the yellow berline in which the royal family travelled may 
be almost heard upon the roads of France."' Since the 
suggestion had often been made that this narrative was 
apparently incorrect in detail, it occurred to an accom- 
plished English historical scholar, Mr. Oscar Browning, 
to make as thorough an examination of this narrative as pos- 
sible. This he did, about twenty years ago, (in fact traversing 
a large portion of the route personally, in a tricycle, — ^namely, 
the portion from Chalons to Varennes,* — apparently, in the 
autumn of 1885.) The result is embodied in his volume, 
•''The flight to Varennes, and other historical essays."^ 

His conclusions are thus simuned up: The reader, he 
rsays, "will discover that almost every detail is inexact, 
some of them quite wrong and misleading. This is the 
danger of the picturesque school of historians. They will 
be picturesque at any price."* Carlyle places the distance 



^Namely. "Book IV, VaranneB." 

*Broumino, Oscar. "FUgjbt (The) to Varennes, and other hietorioal eanjfs.'^ 
^London: Swan Souneuechein, 1892, p. 16. 

**'Counflel upon the reading of books " p. 01. 
*A diBtanoe of forty-nine mflee. 
•Brownins'fl *'Fli«}it to Varennee," p. 1-76. 
-•Browning's •'Ibid.."* p. 76. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 405 

at sixty-nine miles instead of one hundred and fifty .^ He 
describes the streets by which they left Paris, giving a 
wholly incorrect route.' He miscalculates the speed of 
their carriage.' He mistranslates from the French,^ as 
to the costume of one of the characters. 

The curious fact is that Mr. Browning, after having 
made this very skilful expos^, remarks that Carlyle's nar- 
rative ''in its broad outlines is consistent with the truth."^ 
Possibly this is so, and yet if this principle were to be taken 
as of universal application, the result would be plainly mis- 
leading. In other words, there is one important difference 
between the case of the messenger boy and the case of the 
historian. The druggist who had sent the boy may be con- 
ceived of as placing too confident a reliance on the proverbial 
expressions, 'Talsusinuno — ^falsus in omnibus," and the like. 
He may therefore, after detecting the messenger in saying 
that he took a Harvard Square car when he should have 
said a Mount Auburn car, continue to urge; "You have 
been false in one thing. You have therefore been false in 
all. I will not believe that you delivered the package." 
And in thus urging he would have been plainly in the 
wrong. But the essential thing to remember is that it is 
the business of the messenger to deliver the package, and 
he did it. It is the business of the historian to tell a 
straight story. Does he do it? 

Let us return once more to the conception of history as 
written from a judicial point of view, (as above indicated), 
and imagine a judge whose duty it is to listen to all kinds 
of evidence. So far as the judge himself is concerned, it is 
plainly his busmess to hear everything, but not necessarily 
to believe everything that he hears. The arguments 
brought forward by counsel with fluent tongues are spoken 
in the hearing of the jury, the spectators, and the public 

^Browninc's "fli^t to Varemies," p. 16. 
"Ibid., p. 60-61. 
•Ibid., p. 16-17. 
«Ibid.. p. 70. 
■Ibid., p. 62. 



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406 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

generally; and in them the ingenious orator will often find 
a soil quite favorable to the growth of the ideas which he 
fain would sow. Not so, however, with the "stony ground' ' 
represented by the judge, in many instances. Let us sup- 
pose, for example, that the judge, before taking his seat on 
the bench, had been eminent as a corporation counsel, 
knowing corporation law down to his finger-ends. Not 
long after he has taken his seat on the bench, a case is 
heard before him, which is from beginning to end a question 
of corporation law; and it requires but little effort for the 
judge to see which side has the right of it. It so happens, 
however, that this is the side which has the weaker counsel; 
and the judge consequently is in a position where his mental 
comments, from beginning to end, in regard to that side 
of the suit which in reality has the stronger case, are such 
as these: "What absurdity!" "The worst I ever heard!" 
"To expect any one to listen to that!" "A child only ten 
years old would know better!" And yet, this judge, 
because he has a judicial mind, is not swept off his feet, 
and made to believe the opposite of the truth, by the mere 
accident of the best coimsel being on the wrong side. But, 
on the other hand, the general public is quite liable to be 
swept off its feet, in this way. The American public, in 
particular, dearly loves a brilliant debater, and, even if 
convinced, down deep in its heart, of the truth of the 
opposite side, is not above yielding itself up, mind and soul, 
to the "taking" argument. 

In this particular, as in so many others indicated above, 
it is the historian's duty to exercise discrimination, and a 
critical judgment. It will sometimes be the case, in 
going through a considerable mass of publications deal- 
ing with a given subject, that he will say, mentally: — "Yes. 
I see what the data are, which you are dealing with, but I 
do not draw the same conclusions from them that you do." 
It is here that a broad and generous equipment is of special 
service to a historian; for, if he should not approach the 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 407 

subject with the same signal advantage that the judge had, 
who comes to the hearing of a corporation case after hav- 
ing made corporation law his specialty when a practising 
attorney, he will sorely need the unerring insight and the 
firm grip on underlying principles which will compensate 
for the absence of any previous experience. 

UNFAVORABLE ASPECTS OF THE "SCIENTIFIC SIDE." 

like the literary side, the scientific side also has "the 
defects of its qualities". A very fundamental one is con- 
cerned with the very phraseology which is used. It is 
claimed, for instance, that there can be no "science of 
history", properly so called, because there can be no abso- 
lute prediction. This is forcibly stated by Ooldwin Smith 
in one of his recent addresses, as follows: 

"The ctGwn of sdenoe is predictioiL Were histoiy a ecienoe, it would 
enable ub to predict events. It is needless to say that the forecast of 
even the most sagacious of public men is often totally at fault with 
regard to the immediate future. On the brink of the great Revolutionaiy 
ware Pitt looked forward with confidence to a long continuance of peace. 
Palmerston, if he was rightly reported, deemed the cause of German 
unification hopeless at the moment when Bismarck was coming on the 
scene and unification was at hand." ^ 

The fundamental reason, of course, for this limitation, 
is the human factor, connected as it is, with the problem of 
free will. This is by no means a new subject. In fact, the 
very writer who has just been quoted, — Ooldwin Smith, — 
was lecturing on this problem at Oxford more than 
forty years ago.* In this problem, however, there are two 
somewhat distinct phases. The first one is connected with 
the familiar question of "necessitarianism" according to 
which man is conceived of as "an automaton". On this, 
in particular, Ooldwin Smith has expressed himself in a 
very suggestive way, as follows: 

*Ameri«ui Histocieal Reriew, ▼. 10, p. 014. 

^"Leetaras on tha study of history, dalhrmd in Oxford, 1850-61." New York: 
Harper db Broe.. 1870. Another early diaeuaaion of the aabjeet by Ooldwin Smith 
ia hia lecture on "The atudy of hiat<Mry," delivered at Cornell Uniyeraity, in 1860. 
piinted in the Atlantio Monthly. Jan. 1870. ▼. 26, p. 44-66. 



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408 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

"In habitual and commonplace actioofl we are not conscioiu of the 
Yolition unless our attention is specially called to it." "But alwa3rB/' 
he adds, there are "two elements" present, — ^the "volition/' on the one 
hand, and "the antecedents or motive," on the other hand; "and upon 
the presence of the volition depend our retrospective judgments on our 
own actions and our judgments on the actions of our neighbors." * * * 
"Huxley, biased by physical science," (sajrs Mr. Smith), "took at one 
time the extreme necessarian view. But if I mistake not, he had latterly 
ceased to feel so sure that man was an automaton which had automati- 
cally fancied itself a free agent but had automatically come back to 
the belief that it was an automaton."^ 

The other phase of the subject is connected with the fact 
that no room is left for individuality. Most teachers find it 
an impressive fact that, with all the effort to plan our 
systems of education on a general scale, there are continu- 
ally found individual instances for whose peculiar needs no 
direct provision has been made. The problem is a perplex- 
ing one, for it is not always possible to command the re- 
sources for an individual treatment of the individual child. 
If not, the child, by some form of repression, is smoothed 
down, so to speak, (or rather, crowded down), to the 
general level. Nor is this experience confined to children. 
More and more, as our present-day tendencies to consolida- 
tion and uniformity develop, the individual everywhere 
feels the pressure of what the poet has called ''the world's 
rough hand." 

It need hardly be added that in this respect the usage of 
society is closely in accordance with that which Tennyson, 
in ''In Memoriam", has attributed to Nature herself: 

"So careful of the type she seems, 
' So careless of the single life/'' 

An even more subtile application of this principle lies 
in the interpretation of motive. "Judge not, that ye be not 
judged", is still sound doctrine, as it was twenty centuries 
ago; and yet judges on the bench, and judicial historians 
everywhere, as well, are constantly obliged to pass judg- 

^American Historic*! Review, v. 10, p. 512. 
•Section 66. 



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1906.] The PairU of View in History. 409 

ment, as to the motives which probably led to the actions 
in question. Since this is inevitable, perhaps the most 
that can be hoped for is that they shall invariably recognize 
that "the exceptions, " as well as "the rule, " are sometimes 
to be reckoned with. There are few men who have lived 
in this world for many years with a fairly observing habit 
of mind who have not been forced to take note, time after 
time, that it is the unexpected that has happened. Even 
from the point of view of simple mathematics, this is by no 
means incomprehensible. Let us say of some occurrence, 
as, for instance, the passing of a St. Bernard dog, in the 
crowded throng which surges past the comer of Broadway 
and Canal Street, in New York, that the probability, or 
chance, is only as one in ten. Very well then. Even in 
that case, some dog must be this one in ten. Or suppose 
it is only one man in twenty who stands six feet in height. 
Even then some one must be that twentieth man. It is no 
more strange that you should be the one than that some 
one else should be. 

The influence of this same indisposition to conceive of 
the "exceptional instance" is felt also in ethical fields. 
Given, a historical character to be studied and analyzed, 
whose associates and whole environment were obviously 
characterized by low moral standards. In that case it is 
only by a distinct effort of mind, that we are prevented 
from concluding, off hand, that the person in question was 
swayed by the same low motives. Nevertheless, this 
kind of "snap judgment" cannot be regarded as either 
just or sane. Let us apply the principle to our case. The 
future student of social conditions in the years 1900 to 
1906, in this country, will perhaps be impressed by nothing 
more strongly than this, that in these years "graft" was 
widenspread, and pervasive. Let us suppose, then, that 
the student, in unearthing various papers, comes upon the 
existence of you or of me, and sets us down as tarred with 
the "graft" taint, because of our living in this age. Would 



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410 American AtUiquarian Society. [Aprils 

anyone enjoy this prospect? Indeed, one does not always 
have to wait for the ''snap judgment" of posterity in 
such a matter as this, for it is not unheard of to find the 
''contemporary judgment", expressed somewhat as follows: 
"Well, every man has his price." In this way, the matter 
may perhaps best be broi^t home to us, so as to lead us 
to appredate the rights of the minority, (the "twentieth 
man", so to speak), to a sqiiare deal, or, in other words, to 
a fair judgment, on an independent bads; 

Great is the wisdom of "Poor Ridiard, " and it has great 
merits, as summing up the condensed thou^t of the 
majority of men. And yet this "proverbial" wisdom of 
the centuries may sometimes be a tyrannous judgment. 
With the fable of the fox and the "sour grapes" ring^ig 
in his ears, not only has an individual sometimes been 
compelled to take his appointed course in the face of almost 
certain misconstruction, but nations also have been com- 
pelled to do the same. A historian who has occadon to 
record the struggles of small nations with great ones will 
do well to look carefully into this phenomenon. 

There is another bearing of the sdentific view of history 
which demands our attention,— namely, the fragmentary 
and unsatisfactory nature of a large portion of the "mater- 
ials of history". Mr. Firth for instance, who has already 
been quoted above, remarks: "Often the really condudve 
document is missing; we know that something happened^ 
but the piece of evidence which would explain why it 
happened is non-existent, and the precise dgnificance of 
the fact becomes a matter for inference or conjecture. 
Sometimes a whole series of docmnents dealing with a 
particular episode has perished by accident or design, and 
shreds or patches of evidence must be collected from diff- 
ferent sources to supply its absence."^ 

Again, it seems probable that an extreme view of tho 
sdentific treatment of history may tend to defeat its owa 



^Firth's '*A pka for the historidJ teaohiiiff of biatory." p. 10-11. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 411 

purpoae. In other words, while the primary purpose of 
science is practical, — the adaptation of means to ends, — 
the treatment may be so conducted as to lead to no end. 
Here, for instance, is the uncompromising statement of 
the purpose of the scientific school of history, as found in 
the pages of one of its latest advocates, — Professor Bury, of 
the University of Cambridge : — 

"The gathering of materials bearing upon minute local events, the 
collation of MSS. and the r^gistiy of their small variations, the patient 
drudgeiy in archiyes of states and municipalities, all the microscopic 
research that is carried on by annies of toiling students — ^tt may seon 
like the bearing of mortar and brick to the site of a building which has 
hardly been begun, of whose plan the labourers know little. This woric, 
the hewing of wood and the drawing of water, has to be done in faith — 
in the faith that a complete assemblage of the smallest facts of human 
histoiy will tell in the end. The labour is performed for posterity — 
for remote posterity; and when, with intelligible scepticism, someone 
asks the use of the accumulation of statistics, the publication of trivial 
records, the labour expended on minute criticism, the true answer is: 
'That is not so much our business as the business of future generations. 
We are heaping up material and arranging it, according to the best 
methods we know; if we draw what conclusions we can for the satis- 
faction of our own generation, we can never foiget that our work is to 
be used by future ages. It is intended for those who follow us rather 
than for ourselves, and much less for our grand-children than for gener- 
ations very remote' "^ 

While there is something very noble in all this work of 
self-abnegation, yet it must be admitted that it is sadly 
destitute of the hope of an assured fruition. As Mr. 
Trevelyan has forcibly put it, in his trenchant comment 
on Mr. Bury's address: "The readers of books will pass 
by, ignorant of the hidden treasure, till, after long cen- 
turies of toilsome and useless accumulation, the unwieldy 
and neglected mass at length perishes, like the unopened 
books of the Sibyl. "• 

It is edgnificant that all of the various dissentients 
from the ultra-scientific view of Mr. Bury, (including 

iBury's ''loMicuna iMtnn." 1908, p. 81-82. 

***Tbe lateil view of history," by Goor«B IfMftolay Trarelyui, in ladapendaat 
B«new. Loodon, reprinted in Ltrinc Acs, v. 340, p. 107. 



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412 American Antiquarian Society, [April, 

Butcher,* Trevelyan, Falkiner,* Firth,' and others), ascribe 
the difficulty and the danger above referred to, to the delib- 
erate elimination of style from the narrative. And they 
consequently regard the restoration of style, — or, at least, of 
life, of vitality, of something intimately concerned with 
the passion and movement of human life, — ^as being the 
most promising way out of the difficulty. 
Frederic Harrison also puts the case very lucidly: — 

"There ib more to be said for literaiy fonn in historical compodtion 
than the present generation is wont to allow. Abstracts of complicated 
documents with abundant archsological setting do not need any liter- 
ary form,(nor can they endure such setting any more than grammars, 
dictionaries, or catalogues of microscopic entosoa. But all compila- 
tions of original research not fused into the form of art, remain merely 
the text-books of the special student and are closed to the general 
public. They have a purely esoteric yalue for the few, however pro- 
found be their learning, however brilliant the discoveries th^ set forth. 
Perhaps no historian in this centuiy has exercised a more creative force 
over modem research than Savigny; but his great historical work is a 
dosed book to the general public as much as is his purely l^gal work. 
Now, it is the public vdiich histoiy must reach, modify, and instruct, 
if it is to rise to the levd of hmnane scienoe and be more than 
pedantic antiquarianism. And nothing can reach the public as history, 
unless it be oiganic and proportioned in structure, impressive by its 
epical fonn, and instinct with the magic of life. 

The colossal monuments compiled by Muratori, Perts, and Migne 
are invaluable to the scholar, and so are CaUUoguea of the Fixed Stare to 
the astronomer, or the NattUcal Almanac to the seaman. But to any 
but professed students of special subjects, the only real kind of histoiy 
is a reduced miniature of the vast area of actual events, in such just 
proportion as to leave on the mind a true and memorable picture. A 
real histoiy (and of a real histoiy, the Decline and Fall is, at least in 
literaiy conception and fAsxi, the ideal type) must be so artfully balanced 
in its proportion that a true impression of the crucial events and dom- 
inant personalities is forced into the reader's brain. It has to be what 

^ButAgr, Samiiel Henry. Hairard lecturM on Greek rabjeete, London: 1004, 
p. 261-42. "We eannot lifhtly eocept the eugieetion," SKye Mr. Buteher, "that 
hietory ahould emancipate herself from literature." Pace 261. 

^FaOnner, C. Litton. Literature and history. Monthly Review, LondoUt 
reprinted in Lirinc A«e, June 4, 1904, ▼. 241, p. 621-28. "If the whole workshop of 
historical research is not to become a Tast lumber-room, it is time that some at least 
among the leaders of Engtish historical learning should reeognise the saving grace of 
style as the graat antiseptic not only of literature but of history. " (Page 627.) 

•Among other articles, should be dted a very trenchant article in the New York 
Evening Post, Deo. 19, 1908. 

See also Mr. Firth's "Flea for the historical t4!iaching of history," above eited. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 413 

a scientific globe or map is to our earth — a true copy reduced to accurate 
proportion and of dimensions measurable by the ordinaiy eye. Truth 
of proportion is far more essential than any accuracy of detail. Falsity 
of proportion is a blunder far more misleading than any meagreness of 
local definitioiL To confuse the observer with a wilderness of details^ 
and still more to mislead him by falsifying the relative nature of men 
and of things — this is to make a caricature, not a picture, a fancy sketch 
not a chart. It will be as fatal to the reader as Ptolemaic maps were to 
the early navigators. A histoiy wherein the pursuit of trivial facts is 
carried to confusion, and where the sense of faithful proportion is 
ruined by antiquarian curiosity, is little more than a comic photograph 
as taken in a distorted lens. The details may be accurate, curious, 
and inexhaustible; but the general effect is that of preposterous in- 
version. We learn nothing by the process. We are wearied and 
puszled."* 

Under the head of the scientific historian, as well as the 
literary historian, we may learn from a specific instance. 
The late Edward A. Freeman was a notable example of the 
virtues, and the limitations as well, of this view of the 
matter. Mr. Freeman was a scholar of exceptional erudi- 
tion and of minute and precise knowledge in his own fields. 
Althou^ his work was based more largely on printed 
materials than on unpublished documents, his industry 
was extraordinary, and his research untiring. His remark- 
able equipment, however, did not save him from serious 
error, nor from well-founded charges of inaccuracy.* 
Nor can it be said that his mental equipment was an ideal 
one for a historian. Besides his tendency to iteration, 
akeady referred to in these pages,' he had an imperfect sense 
of historical perspective.^ Still more serious was the very 
evident prejudice which repeatedly disfigures his pages, — 
a defect which is even more marked in a ''scientific his- 
torian" than in a ''literary historian." In controversial 
writing, he invariably appears at his worst, and sometimes 

^HitfriKm'8 "Tennyson, Ruakin, and MDI, " etc.. p. 222-23. 

'As A typical instance, see the ezhaosti-ve article by J. H. Bound, on **Mr. Free- 
man and tlie battle of Hastings," in the Eni^ish Historical Review, April, 1894, 
T. 9. p. 209-60. Compare also Paul's "Froude," p. 171-64. 

•Pages 870-71. 

**' Freeman,'' says Frederic Harrison, "was an indefaticable inquirer into eariy 
records, but he muddled away his sense of proportion. " ("The meaninc of history, '' 
p. 136.) 



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414 American Antigvarian Society. [April, 

seems to have parted company with all sense of candor or 
fairness, as when making Mr. Froude a target for every 
variety of attack.^ By the irony of fate, this very excess 
of violence on Mr. Freeman's part has in the last few 
months been turned by more than one reviewer to Mr. 
Fronde's credit. While Mr. Froude by himself offers 
much that is vulnerable to the critic, a comparison' of 
Froude with Freeman is often greatly to the advantage of 
the former. In spite of all his limitations, Mr. Freeman 
has rendered enormous service, not only by his historical 
narratives, but by his discussion of underljring historical 
principles; and his volume on ''The methods of historical 
study" cannot be safely neglected by any one who takes 
up the study of history.' 

THE ESSENTIALS SUMMARIZED. 

Briefly sunmiing up the principles of historical narration, 
the ideal historian, it will be seen, must unite the some- 
what varied and opposite qualities above indicated. He 
must be at once accustomed to use his imagination, follow- 
ing it, however, by rigid verification, and also accustomed 
to sift all facts from a judicial point of view. He must see 
that his narrative possesses proportion and historical 
perspective, while, at the same time, he aims at historic 
detachment. 

THE QUESTION OP "MATERIALS FOR HISTORY." 

In a rapid summary of those points which belong to the 
ideal conception of history, it is plain that the judicial 

^"Mr. Fteeman," BBya Andrew Lane, **MtuAlly objeeti to the oopioas um 
lUAde of ibe new materiale" [by Mr. Froude] **m 'often utterly weerisomel' He 
even speaks as if the dates of despatches were unimportant." (Comhill ICasasinef 
Feb., 1906, v. 92, p. 261-62.) For a referenee to the discussion, (disastrous to Mr. 
Freeman), in 1879, see Paul's ''Froude," p. 182-84. 

*8ee p. 879 of this paper. 

'Although published eight years ago, the most judicial of the attempts at summing 
up the work of these two great men, Froude and Freeman, is that of BCr. Frederic 
Harrison. He published in the Nineteenth Century, Sept., 1898, his careful study 
of "The historical method of J. A. Froude, (v. 44, p. 372-86); and in the same journal, 
Nov., 1898, "The historical method of Professor Freeman," (v. 44, p. 791-806). 
These papers are reprinted at p. 221-67 of his srolume. "Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill 
and other Uterary estimates." (1900). 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 415 

point of view ia "the point of view" in history, pre- 
eoiinently. 

And yet when we are confronted with the immense mass 
of material under any given historical topic, and recognize 
how small a percentage of the whole has any ri^t to bear 
the epithet '^ judicial," we may be for the moment puzzled. 
Only for a moment, however, because we can, (still follow- 
ing the analogy of the court of law), describe all of this 
less acceptable portion as '^materials for history." In 
just this same way, all the papers which are introduced in 
connection with the trial of a case in court are materials 
for the final decision, including the documents of various 
kinds, the correspondence, the stenographic report of the 
testimony, and the pleas made by the counsel. In the 
domain of history, as has been noticed, we have not only 
the documents and correspondence, but also the '^ annals," 
painfully compiled by rude and unpractised hands, and 
also the various ''pleas, " (more or less consciously partisan) 
known as "memoirs," "vindications," "apologjLes," etc. 
These occupy the field until the coming of some historical 
work which shall sum up the substance of them all, pre- 
senting in an adequate manner what they expressed only 
inadequately. 

As in all questions of "names and things, " discrimination 
in this matter is usually difficult and sometimes dangerous. 
We shall be content, in ordinary conversation, at least, to 
adopt the conventional designation, "historian", as apply- 
ing to the writers of all alike, rather than assume a ped- 
antic attitude, — ^just as one does not quarrel with the census 
enumerator who, with unconscious humor, perhaps, would 
affix the same label, "pianist", alike to Paderewski, and 
to some half-fledged pounder of the keys who rents an 
office for instructing pupils. 

Nor must we forget that some of these "memoirs" which 
fall short most flagrantly, of the judicial standard, — and 
indeed because of thus falling short of it, — ^have a value of 



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416 American Antiquarian Society. [April, 

their own as ''human documents." So unrestrained, so 
genuine, so natural, so lifelike, is their picture of the event 
or period, that one's heart almost goes out to them in read- 
ing them. 

Our own literature, fortunately, is full of these biogra- 
phies, and autobiographical memoirs, whose very charm 
is in their subjective character, and their freedom from 
self-consciousness. 

Othello's last injunction to his two friends ran thus: — 

"When you shall these unlucky deeds relate, 
Speak of me as I am; nothing ertenuate, 
Nor set down au^t in malice."^ 

And when, says Agnes Repplier, he thus implored them, 
''he offered the best and most comprehensive advice which 
the great race of biographers and memoir writers have ever 
listened to and discarded." She adds: "For half truths", 
"those broken utterances which come bubbling up the well 
from the great unloved goddess whom we all unite in hold- 
ing below the water, there are no such mediums as the 
memoir and the biography ."■ 

It is evident that the impulse to find enjoyment as well 
as information in the mass of historical literature which 
the world has seen gradually accumulating, is a deepnaeated 
one. But so also is the impulse to find in it instruction, — 
wisdom, guidance, a lesson for the future. That there is 
risk, not to say peril, in such a tendency as this, no one who 
has made himself familiar with the scientific point of view 
in history can for a moment doubt. For example, one feels 
like asking: "If history "teaches", what does it teach, — 
and how?" "How can one be assured of the correctness 
of the supposed lessons, or inferences?" Assuredly, the 
pages of history are full of erroneous inferences. Doubt- 
less also there have been many instances of "disputed" 
inferences. To this day, there are two different schools 

^ShakeapMtfe's "OtheUo." Aot. 6. leene 2. Uhm 414-KS. 
**'GottDBel upon Um rMdinc of books." p. 07^08. 

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1906.] The Paint of View in History. 417 

of interpretation, so far as the ''lessons" of the IVench 
Revolution are concerned; and each of the opposite schools 
is quite sure that the other is alarmingly wrong. 

Perhaps a question which goes to the root of the matter 
is this; — ''Should the lesson be an explicit one, or merely 
implicit?" Should it be driven in, — almost "rubbed in'V 
one might say, — or should it be left there to be discovered 
by any reader who is in possession of his reasoning powers? 

The sober second thought will point to the latter.^ 

AI/TERNATIONS OF OPINION AS TO THE POINT OF VIEW. 

No one who examines critically the body of historical 
literature from century to century, — and from decade to 
decade, — can fail to be impressed by the extent to which 
it has reflected the tendencies of the time. A writer who 
should have published his history in the early part of the 
Nineteenth Century could hardly fail to be influenced by 
the theories of natural rights, which were universally 
discussed at that period. Likewise, one who wrote during^ 
the later years of that century would necessarily be influ- 
enced, and most profoundly, by the doctrine of evolution. 

But there are also tendencies to be observed, — or rather 
violent oscillations from one extreme to the other, — so far 

^An uuJocoui qvMtkm is that whieb relatfls to *'«thiosl Tallies in history." On» 
ykm, (namely, that the historian should take aeoonnt of these data), is held hr 
Mr. Goldwin Smith and Lord Aeton. 

"Tlie treatment of history," by Goldwin Smith. (President's addrees to the 
American Histoncal Assooation, Deo. 28. 1004), Ameriean Historical Rericfw, AprQ, 
1905, ▼. 10, p. 511-20. 

**A leetore on the study of history," (inaucural lecture at the University of 
Cambridge, June 11. 1895), by Lord Acton, London: Macmillan A Co.. 1806, p. 
68-78. 

On the contrary, Mr. Lea and the late Bishop Crei^ton hold that history should 
be little more than a photograph of what took place, not considering whether it ought 
to have taken place, 

"Ethical values in history," by Henry Charles Lea, (President's address to the 
American Historical Association, Dec. 20, 1008), American Historical Review^ 
Jan.. 1004, v. 0, p. 288-40. A somewhat kindxvd subject is treated in the 
''President's address in 1005, by John B. McMaster, on "Old standards of pubUc 
morals," American Historical Review. Aprfl. 1006, v. 11, p. 515-28. 

"Historical ethics," by the Rt. Rev. liandell Creighton, late Bishop of Lon- 
don, printed posthumously, (under the direction of his widow), in the Quarterly 
Review. July. 1005, v. 203. p. 82-46. (Reprinted in the Living Age, Aug. 20, 1005, 
V. 246. p. 515-24; and in the (3hurchman. Sept. 0. 1005. r. 02. p. 384-85). 



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418 American ArUiqiiarian Society. [April, 

as regards the holding of one or another of the two views 
of history, considered above. At one time, the pendulum 
swings towards the literary view of the subject. At another 
time, it swings far in the other direction, towards the 
scientific view. One needs scarcely to raise the question 
as to which of the two views is now in the ascendant. In 
fact, there has seldom been a time when the pressure has 
been so emphatically in favor of the scientific view. So 
completely is this tendency in control, that more than one 
scholar has raised his voice in lamentation at the passing 
of the literary standard and literary point of view,^ ap- 
parently fearful that these may be crowded off the scene 
altogether. That there has been, says a recent writer, 
''a decline in historical writing, as judged by the canons of 
great literatm^, some might possibly deny, but the most 
of us would readily concede." * * * With the great works 
of history, those ''produced during the last quarter-century, 
while almost legion in number, are in but very few cases 
even comparable as pieces of literary art. They may be 
and without doubt frequently are, better histories, but 
they are certainly not so good literatm^".* 

It is quite likely that the true state of the case does not 
call for extreme concern or anxiety. Not to speak of the 
fact that the swingmg of the pendulum can almost always 
be relied on to correct a tendency which runs to an extremey 
it is to be remembered that there was really very much 
from which an extreme reaction was needed, in the vogue 
which has been enjoyed, in the past, by varieties of histor- 
ical writings which were superficial in treatment, partisan 
in tone, and prejudiced in motive. It must also be remem- 
bered that the present and recent emphasis on the scien- 
tific point of view was really nothing more than natural, 
in view of the profound influence of the doctrine of evolu- 

^It is not always from this preeise point of view that the subject is oonsidered. 
There is a rery thoughtful article on ** History and materialism." by Alfred H. 
Lloyd, in the American Historical Review. July, 1906. v. 10, p. 727-W). 

*F. A. On, in the Dial, April 1. 1902. v. 82, p. 233. 



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1906.] The Point of View in History. 419 

tion^ on all fields of Nineteenth Century thought.* Still 
further, it should be borne in mind that we are just now in 
possession of great masses of hitherto unused historical 
materials, in the record offices and archives of almost every 
civilized nation, cidling for the application of scientific 
methods to reduce it to order and system. Until more of 
an impression has been made upon this undigested mass 
than has as yet been made, we are scarcely likely to see the 
domination of the scientific view very materially diminished. 
There is one final reflection which claims oiu* attention. 
There are duties in regard to historical narratives which 
concern the reader of history, as well as the writer of 
history. Let us return for a moment to the analogy of 
the court of justice, above referred to. Of those who deal 
with the evidence brought into court, we have already 
named the counsel. In accordance with what is expected 
of him, he presents his case, in the style of an advocate, 
and an extremist. The second to be noticed is the judge, 
who tries the case, and seriously, carefully, logically, 
arrives at his conclusion. But, lastly, there is the jury» 
We sometimes speak of "the verdicts of history"; but 
verdicts are rendered, not by the judge, but by the jury, 

^llie doetrine oi eTolntion indeed has had, upon this whole rabjeet of bietorieal 
interpratation, an inflwenoe not even sret fully eomprehended in this eountry. In 
Oemany, the revolution iHiieh has been goinc on during the last qnarter-eentury» 
as to historical method, has repieeented a eonfliot betwee n the positions taken bjr 
Banke and thoee taken by Lampreeht. "Hie new history," sasrs a writer in the 
Ameriean Historical Review, — "and here lies its really fundamental feature—holds 
to the prinotple of deseribing the human past from the point of view of rationat 
evolution." He adds that it asks not "Wie ist es eicentUeh geweeenT" (as Ranks 
did), but tmther "Wie ist cs eicentlich sswordenr" (Article by Earle W. Dow» 
•'Features of the new history," in American Historical Review, April, 1808, ▼. 8. 
p. 448.) A very enlightening view of Lamprecht's relation to recent historical 
discussion in Germany is to be had from W. E. Dodd's article, "Kari Lampreeht 
and Kulturgeaohiehte," in Popular Science Monthly, Sept.. 1903, ▼. 68. p. 418-24. 
See also the reviews of Lamprecht's "Deutsche Oeschichte." by James Tut, in the 
Sni^ish Historical Review, July, 1802. ▼. 7, p. 647-80, and Oct., 1808, ▼. 8. p. 748-60 
Also the leview of his "What is historyt", (by "A. G."), in the En^ish Historical 
Review, July, 1005, ▼. 20, p. 604. 

*"To trace causes and effects" says Mr. William R. Thayer, "had long been 
their purpoee," [i. e., that of the historians]; "now they saw that the principle of 
growth or development, was itself the very rudder of causation." (" P roce e dings"^ 
of the Maesaohusetto Historical Sodety. May 11, 1006, at p. 280 of t. 10, of the 2d 

».) 



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420 American ArUiquarian Society. [April, 

If the jury is not enlightened, and is perverse or prejudiced, 
the case receives a serious setback, — ^at least temporarily. 
If now we apply the analogy to the field of historical 
writing, we may assume that the coimsel is represented by 
the average historical writer, usually prejudiced and un- 
critical. The judge is represented by the exceptional or 
judicial historian, sound in judgment, sane in tone, and 
fully able to sum up the case in a comprehensive manner. 
But, in the last place, the jury is represented by the great 
public, in all civilized countries, among whom some- 
thing analogous to ''public sentiment" maJces itself mani- 
fest, and is modified, more or less profoundly, from decade 
to decade. Since, therefore, it is the business of some to 
write history, soberly, it likewise falls to the lot of others 
to read history, sanely.^ 

K>iie of ibe latest additions to the literature of historical method is the 2d yolume 
of the proeeedincB of the *'ConcKss of arts and science — ^UniTersal Ebcposition, St. 
Louis. liNM," edited by Howard J. Roters, Boston: Houghton, Mifflin, A Co., 1908. 
At p. 1-1A2 of this Tolume, under the sub-headinc, ''Historical soienoe," are Taluable 
papers by Woodrow Wilson, William M. Sloane, Jomes H. Robinson, Karl Lampreeht, 
and John B. Bury. 

Throughout the foot-notes to the foregoing paper, the aim has been to cite the 
feferenoes in a somewhat detailed form, as an aid to the bibliographical study of the 
subject. Tlie writer has reoeived muoh Taluable assistance from Miss Mabel B. 
Emerson, of the Beferenee Department of the Providence Public Library, in eon- 
nection with the bibliographieal citations. As already stated above, Mr. J. I. 
Wyer. Jr.'s ''Bibliography/' at p. ftS»412 of v. 1 of the "Annual report" of the Ameri- 
can Historical Association, for 1899, is invaluable, for the material published up to 
(hat year. 



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NOTE. 

Prof. Anson D. Morse of Amherst has found it unpossible 
to get ready for publication hb paper "The Principles of 
Thomas Jefferson/' which he read at the April meeting. It 
will appear in a later niunber of the Proceedings. 

For Committee of Publication, 

Nathaniel Paine, 
Charles A. Chase. 



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INDEX. 



Adama, Gharies, brief sketch of, 

22,23. 
Adams, Charles Francis, 365. Re- 
elected Secretaiy for Domestic 

Correspondence, 137. 
Adams, Charies Kendall, 13, 308. 

Memoir of, by James D. Butler, 

22-31. 
Adams, Mrs, Charles Kendall, 

brief sketch of, 30, 31. 
Adams, Herbert B., 2, 11, 850n., 

374n. Memoir of, by G. Stanley 

Hall, 12-15. 
Adams, John, Pn9, of the U. 8., 

286, 288. 
Adams, Samuel, 286. 
Alabama, list of newspaper files 

printed in, in the Library of the 

Society, 274, 275. 
Alden Fund, 168. Condition of, 

171. 
Allen, Ethan. 253. 
American Antiquarian Society, 

new book-plate, 11. Right of, 

to anything prmted by XJ. S. 

Soveinment, 134. Disposal of 
uplicate unbound newspapers 
of, 175. Contribution to munici- 



book-plate, and engraved book* 
plate for ceneral use, 176. Visi- 
tor's boolc, t&. Vote adopted 
by, regardmg the real estate 
devisea bv Stephen Salisburv 
to, 265. Loss to, by death 
of Mr. Salisbury, 268. Be- 
quest to, from Mr. Salisbury, 

269. List of Mss. published br, 

270. Income from real estate 
bequeathed to, by Mr. Salisbuiy, 

271. 272. Amendment to Act 
of Incorporation of, %b. "Re- 
marica on the eariy American 



Engravings and the Cambridge 
Press Imprints. (1640-1692) m 
the Library of", paper by Na- 
thaniel Paine, 280-298. Revised 
list of portraits belonging to, 
288r-290. 

American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreim Missions, 183. 

American Historical Association, 
orsanization of, 13. list of 
''Residents' addresses" before, 
364-366. 

Ancient and Honorable ArtiUeiy 
Company, sennons of, in the 
Libraiy of the American Anti- 
quarian Society, 177. 

Ancona, Eludo. 240. 

Anderson, Rums. 183. 

Andrews, E. Benjamin, cited, 382. 

Androe, Sir Edmund, 32, 39. 

Anglerius, Peter Martyr d', 315, 
dl8n.-323f»., 325n., 326n., 382n. 
Cited, 314. Epitome of the 
treatise of Friar Ramon inserted 
by, in his De Rebus OoeanioeB 
et Novo Orbe, 338-348. 

Annual meeting of the Society, 133. 

Anthropology, ''Columbus, Ram- 
on Pane and the beginning of 
American Anthropology," paper 
by Edward G. Bourne, 310-^48. 

Anville, Nicolas de la Roche- 
foucauld, Due d\ destruction of 
fleet commanded by, 71. 

Ashcourt, Heniy, 37. 

Auditors, see Bullock, A. Geoige, 
and Hill, Benjamin T. 

Austin, Jonathsji L., appointed 
to negotiate a loan in Europe, 67, 
68. 

Ay, Manuel, 243, 244. 

B. 

opy of 

view of New York in 1746, 284, 
285. 



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428 



American Antiquarian Society. 



Bancroft, Geoige, 365, Letter from, 
to Edward L. Davis, 179. 

''Banks," meaning of term, 40. 

Bartlett, John R., 177, 280. 

Barton, Edmmid M., 135, 267. 
Submits his Report as librarian, 
175-189. Chosen Secretary pro. 
tem., 263. 

Baxter, James Phinney^ re-eiected 
a Councillor, 137. His definition 
of history, 350fi. 

Bayard, Thomas I\. 156. 

Beokwith, Hiram W., 184. 

Bedford, Duke of, cited, 74, 75. 

Bernard, Sir Francis, 44-46, 49, 50. 

Blair, Montgomery, his collection 
of Jackson papers, 231. 

BoUan, William, 48-50. 

Bookbmding Fund, 168. Condition 
of. 170. 

Book-plates, 1 1 . Description of John 
and Eliza Davis Fund book- 
plate, and engraved bookplate 
for gDneral use, 176. 

Boston, Ma88.y effort to raise monev 
to preserve the "Old South 
Meetinf^ House," 5. Account of 
the Price map of, 284. 

Boston Massacre, colored print 
of, 287. 

Boston Museum of Fine Arts, 280. 
List of Pelham portraits exhibited 
at, 282, 283. 

Bourinot, John, 16. 

Bourinot, John G., 11. Memoir 
of, by J. Franklin Jameson, 16- 
19. 

Bourne, Edward G., 265, 374n., 
378n., 383n. Answers Mr. 
Davis, 266. Paper by, on "Co- 
lumbus, Ramon Pane and the 
beginnings of American An- 
thropolojnr", 310-348. 

Bradford Manuscript, 156. 

Brentano, Lujo, his "Guilds and 
Trades Unions" cited, 141, 143. 

Bridges, Mn, Joanna, 100. 

Brixfaam, Clarence S., elected a 
Member. 136. 

Brinley, George, 177. i 

Brockwell, i20V. Charies, 282. 

Brooks, Phillips, Bishop, cited, 
124. 

Browning. Oscar, 404n., 405n. His 
"The flight to Vaiennes" cited, 
404, 405. 

Browniiu^, Robert, 383, 384. 

Bryce, James, 13. 



Brymner, Alexander, tribute to, 

19. 
Biymner, Douglas, 11. Memoir 

of, by J. Franklin Jameson, 19- 

21. 
Bullock, A. George, re-elected an 

auditor, 137. Certificate as 

auditor, 174. 
Bury, John B., 367, 41 In. Cited, 

352, 370, 411. 
Butler, James D.. memoir of 

Charles Kendall Adams by, 21-31. 

Death of, announced, 272. Obit- 
uary of, by Samuel Utj^ey, 307, 

308. 
Byles Rev. Biather, 282. 

C. 

Cambridge Press Imprints, "Re- 
marks on the Early American 
Engravings and the Cambridge 
Press imprints (1640-1692) m 
the Library of the American 
Antiquarian Society", paper by 
Nathaniel Paine, 280-289. 

Cambridge University, ^ng.. names 
of men who have held tne posi* 
tion of Regius Professor of 
Modem Historv at, 363n., 364n. 
List of published inadigural 
addresses at, 364. 

Campbell, James V., 184. 

Canada, "A Scheme for the Con- 
quest of. in 1746," paper by 
Victor H. Paltsits. 69-92. Ar- 
chives of, collected by Douglas 
Brymner, 20. 

Caner, Rev. Heniy, 282. 

"Cape Fear Mercury", 397n. 

Carlyle, Thomas, 374, 404. Accepts 
the Squire papers as genuine, 
389. 

Camwe, Andrew, 259. 

Carrilk), Cresencio, Bishop of Fvca- 
tan, 240. 

Casares, David, 138, 301. Paper by, 
on "A notice of Yucatan with 
some remarks on its water sup- 
ply '' 207-230. Translation by. 
of Prof. Menendez's biographical 
notice of Joaquin HObbe, 303- 
307. 

Casas, Bartolom^de Las, 313. Cited, 
314, 318 n., 319f». 

Cass, Lewis, 236. 

Cenotes, description of, 220. Most 
remarkable examples of, 221-223. 



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Index. 



429 



Sacred cenote, 224-226. Gen- 
eral belief r^rding. ib, 227. 

Chamberlain, Alexander F., 185. 

Chamberiain. Mellen, 350, «&. n. 

Chandler, John, 34. 

Chandler Fund, 168, Condition of, 
172. 

Charles I. of England, 94-96. Le- 
gend of his gifts to Jeremy 
Taylor. 99, 100. 

Chase, Chaiies A., 138. Re-elected 
Recording Secretaiy, 137. Re- 
elected a member of the Com- 
mittee of Publication, i&. 

Chi. Cecilio, 243, 245. 

Chillingworth, William, 113, 116, 
117. 119. Cited, 114, 115. 

Churchill, Winston, 255. 

Colerid|;e, Samuel T., 105. 

Collection and Research Fund, 
16a Condition of, 170. Sug- 
gestion as to use of, 271. 

Collegium, onginal purpose of, 147. 

Colman, Rev, Beniamm, 282. 

Columbus, ChriBtopher, 285. "Co- 
lumbus, Ramon Pane and the 
beginning of American anthro- 
pology," paper by Edward G. 
Bourne, 310-348. 

Colmnbus, Ferdinand, 310, 314. 
Hi8.^"Histoire '' cited, 311-313. 

Committee of Publication, state- 
ment of, in regard to the Will 
of Thomas Hore, 130, 131. Note 
by, [421]. 

Connecticut, part taken by, m 
scheme for conquest of Canada 
in 1746, 86, 87. 

Contreras, Asnar, 240. 

Cooper, William F.j 256. 

Copley, John S., his engraving of 
Rev, William Welsted, 286. 

Corey, Deloraine P., elected a 
Member. 2. 

Cornell, Alonzo B., founding of 
University by, 25, 27. 

Cornell University, founding of, 
27. Elects Chas. Kendall Adams 
president, 28. Growth of, t&. 

^'Comwallis", meaning of term 
asked for, 166, 187. Mention 
of, i6,— 189. 

Cotmcil of the Society, Semi- 
Annual Reports of, 11-13, 268- 
273. Vote of, 136. CaUa atten- 
tion to the Society^ mss., and 
need of their being catalogued, 
269, 270. Announces death of 



James D. Butler, and of Samuel 
P. Langley. 272. 

Councillors, election of, 136, 137. 

County Convention, function of, 
51n. 

Craigie, Andrew, 10, tb, n. 

Craigie, Mrs, Andrew, lOn. Bap- 
tismal name Elizabeth, not 
Nancy, 9, 10. 

Creighton, Kt. Rev, Mandell, Bishop 
of London, 417n. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 100, 101. Au- 
thenticity of the "Squire papers" 
questioned, 389-391. Criticism 
of Squire papers, 394, Christian 
names of rank and file of his 
aimy, 395. 

Cunningham, William, 143. 

Cutler, Rev, Timothy, 283. 



Daniel, John W., 155. 

Davis, Andrew McF., 1, 2. His 
nft to the Society, 11, 179. 
With Samuel Utley presents 
the Report of the Council, 11-31. 
Paper by, on "Emeigent Treas- 
uiy Supply in Massachusetts 
in Early Days," 32-68. Speaks 
of English Historical ms. collec- 
tions, 136. Re-elected a Coun- 
cillor, 137. Report as delegate 
to Franklin bi-centenary at Phil- 
adelphia, 264. Inquiiy of, 265, 
266. Speaks of traditions rela- 
tive to arrival of clothed strangers 
among the Indians, tb., 267. 

Davis, Edward L., re-elected a 
Councillor, 136. His gift to the 
Society. 179. 

Davis, Mrs, Eliza, 176. 

Davis, Isaac, 2. . 

Davis, John, 176. 

Davis Book Fund, Isaac and 
Edward L., 168. Condition of, 
170. 

Davis Fund, John and Eliza, 168, 
179. Condition of, 172. Descrip- 
tion of book-plate of, 176. 

Depreciation Act, passage of, 65. 

Dewey, Hon, Francis H., 21. 

Dewey Fund, 168. Condition of, 
172. 

Dexter, Franklin B., re-eleeted 
Secretaiy for Foreign Corres- 
pondenoe, 137. 

Doolittle, Amos, 286, 287. 



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430 



American AiUiquarian Society. 



Draper, John W., 350, «&. n. 
Draper, Mrs. Warren F., 181. 
Dudley, Joseph, Oov, of Mass,, 30. 
Diunmer, Jeremy, citcid, 60. 
Dwight, Theodore, his 'The char- 
acter of Thomas Jefferson," 350. 
Dsul, Aniceto, 240. 

E. 

Eames, Wflberforoe, sends greet- 
ings to the Society, 2. 

Earle, Ralph, short account of, 
286, t5. n., 287. 

Eden, Richard, 338. 

Edes, Henry H., calls attention to 
Miss Longfellow's error in regard 
to Mrs. Craigie's name, 0, 10. 

Eliot, Charles W., 26. 

Ellis, George E., 13. 

Ellis Fund, 168. Condition of, 172. 

Emerson, Benjamin K., 128. 

Emerson, JIfm Mabel E., 420 n. 

Enfl^er, Edmimd A., re-elected a 
^uncillor, 137. 

Essex Antiquarian, numbers lack- 
ing of, 177. 

Evelyn, John, 00, 100, 102. 



Freenum, Edward A., 13, 350, «&. n., 
370, 370. Failing of, as his- 
torian. 371. Critiscim of, 413, 
414. t&. n. 

French, Charles E., his bequest to 
the Society, 181. 

French Fleet, histoiy of the 
ballad of, 5, 6. The ballad, 
7, 8. 

Froude, James Anthony, 386 n,, 
373, tb. n. Illustrations of his 
inaccuracy as a historian. 376- 
370. Comparison of, with Mr. 
Freeman, 414. 



Fairiie, John, 10. 

Felt, Joseph B., 33, <b. n. 

Fenner, James E., 175 n. 

Finkelnburg, Gustavus A., 257 n., 
260 n. His tribute to Heniy 
Hitchcock cited, 257, 258, 260. 

Firth, Charles H., 367 n., 410, i&. n. 
Cited, 367. 

Fiske, John. 284. 

Folsom, Albert A., his letter of 
Nov. 8, 1882, cited, 178. 

Forbes, William T., remarks by, 
1, 2. 

Fold, Worthmgton C, 231, 374 n., 
807 n. 

Foster, Dwight. 253. 

Foster, Michael, 246, 247. State- 
ment of. 248. 

Foster, William E., 267. Paper 
by, on "The point of view in 
hkory," 340-420. 

FrankfortK>n-the-Main, g^ft to the 
Municipal Library of, from the 
American Antiquarian Society, 
175. 

Franklin, Benjamin, report of bi- 
centenary of, at Philadelphia, 264. 



, Gen. Thomas, 50. 
ktin, Albert, 184. 

Gardiner, Samuel R., 356 n., 375 n., 
378 n., 380 vl, 300, 301 n., 302, 
ib, n. Questions authenticity 
of Squire papers, 380, Conclu- 
sions reached by, 301, 305. 

Garver, Austin S., 301. 

Gates, Horatio, 288. 

Gay, Frederick L., elected a Member 
264. Reproduction of Pelham 
prints by, 283. 

Gfmeral Assembly, inauguration of, 
55. Bills of credit emitted by, 
56-50. 

George 11., of England, dted, 74. 

Geny, Elbridge, 288. 

Gihnan, Warren R., 181. 

Givers and gifts, list of, 100-206. 

Gooch, William, 76, 88. 

Goodwin, Isaac, 185. 

Goulding, Frank P., 12. Memoir 
of, by Samuel Utley, 21, 22. 

Green, Andrew H.,127. Reinarks on 
his ownership of the stone quany, 
0. Receipt of legacy from, to the 
Society announced, 135. Amount 
of legacy from, 168. 

Green, John, 135. Tribute to 
Heniy Hitchcock l^, 25^-262. 

Green, Samuel A.. 138, 268, 280, ib, n. 
Re-elected a Vice-President. 136. 
Reports list of officers oi the 
Society, ib, 137. His Address 
at Groton cited, 188, 180. Pre- 
sides at meeting, 263. 

Green, Samuel S., 0, 263, 264« 
Asks what rig^t Andrew H. 
Gieen had to Mfllstone Hill 
quany, 0. Re-elected a Council- 
lor, 136. Of committee to pre- 



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pare vote with reference to 
bequest from Mr. Salisbuiy, 264. 
Green, William £., 126. 



Hale, Edwaid £., 136, 185, 263. 
Speakfl of the destruction of the 
French Fleet and tells why 
Heniy W. Longfellow wrote 
his ballad on the French Fleet, 
5-7. Speaks of the right of the 
Society to anything which the 
government of the U. S. prints, 
134. Tells of meeting Rev. Dr. 
Rawnsley, tb., 135. Speaks 
of index to Stevens facsimiles, t&. 
Re-elected a Vice-President, 136. 
Re-elected a member of the 
Committee of Publication, 137. 
Memorial of Georse F. Hoar by, 
150-158. Memorial of Stephen 
Salisbury by, 299-302. 

Hales, John, 116-119. 

Hall, Edwaid H., 301. 

HaU, G. Stanley, 211, 349n., 362n., 
Speaks of Jeremy Taylor's 
"Ductor Dubitantiuna." 3, 4. 
Memoir of Herbert B. Aoams 
by. 12-15. Re-elected a Coun- 
cillor, 136. His methods of 
teaching histoiy, 862. 

Hall, Hubert, cited, 46n. 

Hamilton, Charles, gift from the 
Estate of, 181. 

Hamilton, James A., 233. 

Hamilton, John, 87, 88. 

Hammond, Henry, 120. 

Harris, Alexander S., 175 n. 

Harrison, Frederic, 377, ib, n., 
413n., 414n. Cited, 370, 371, 
378n., 412, 413. 

Hart, Charles Heniy, letter of 
Aprfl 22. 1905, 178. 

Harvard College, list of pie-Revo- 
lutionaiy theses of, in Library of 
the Society, 177. 

Haven, Samuel F.,LL.D., 176, 181, 
300. 

Haven, Samuel F., Jr., tribute to, 
from his father, 176. 

Ha^en, Mrs, Samuel F., transfers 
the remainder of Dr. Haven's 
libraiy to the Socie^r, 181. 

Haven Fund, 168. Condition of, 
171. 

Hayne, Robert Y., 236. 

Haynes, George H., 15. 



Heber, Reginald, Btahop, cited, 112. 

Heywood, Daniel, 125, 126. 

Hin, Alonso, 301. 

HiU, Benjamin T., rOi^lected an 
auditor, 137. Certificate as audi- 
tor, 174. 

HiU, Isaac. 233. 

Histoiy, 'The point of view in 
histoiy" paper by William E. 
Foster, 349-420. 

HitchoodE, Ethan A., 256. 

Hitchcock, Geoige C, 253 n., 262. 

Hitchcock, Heniy, 135. Tribute 
to. by John Green, 253-262. 

Hitchcock, Heniy. 262. 

Hitchcock, Samuel, 253. 

Hoar, George F., Hon., 3, 4, 9, 21, 
130, 134. His interest in Jeremy 
Taylor, 3. Memorial of, by 
.Edward E. Hale 150-158. 
"Senator Hoar Li Memoriam" 
sonnet by H. D. Rawnsley, «&. 
Speeches and Addresses of, 159- 
166. Letters deposited by, in 
the Society's care, 179, 180. 
Photograph of the Vinton por- 
trait of, 184. His "Life of a 
' Boy Sixty years Ago," cited, 
187, 188. His Autobiography 
cited, ib. Remarks on Jackson 
papers, 231. 

Hoar, Leonard, 157. 

Hoar, Rockwood, 15L His gift 
to the Society, 180. 

HoUis, Thomas, 283. 

Holmes, John, 10. 

Holmes, WilUam H., elected a 
member, 136. 

Hooker, Richard, 113, 114. 

Hore, Thomas, statement of Com* 
mittee of Publication regarding 
the will of, 130, 131. 

Htlbbe, Joaquin, biographical no- 
tice of, by Rodolf Menendei 
and translated from the Spanish 
into English by David Casares. 
303-307. 

Hdbbe, John, 303, 304. 

Huguet-Latour, Louis A., obituaiy 
notice of, bv Samuel l/tley, 167. 

Hutchinson, Thomas, Gov, ofman,^ 
32. Cited, 42, 45, 46, 49, 56. 



Lidian Chiefs, account of messotint 
portraits of, belonging to the 
Society, 280, 281. 



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American ArUigtuirian Society. 



J. 

Jackson, Andrew, Pres, of the U.S,, 

"The Jackson and Van Buren 

papers/' paper by William Blac- 

Donald, 231-238. 
James I., of England, 94, 95. 
Jameson, J. Franklin, 11, 15. 238, 

209, 374n. Memoir of John G. 

Bourinot bv, ld-19. Memoir of 

Douglas firynmer by, i6.~21. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Pres, of the U. S,, 

180, 265, 285. 
Jenks, Heniy F., his gift to the 

Society, 180. 
Johns Hopkins Studies in History 

and Pohtical Science, 13. 
Johnson, Mrs. William W., her 

gift to the Society, 181. 

K. 

Kehr, £. H., 260n. Cited, 260. 
Kendall, Amos, 233. Burning of 

Jackson papers while in posses* 

sion of, 232. 
Kent, Henzy T., 260fi. Cited, 260. 
Kingsbuiy, Frederick J., letters 

from, asking for meaning of 

teim ''ComwaUis," 186, 187. 
Kittredge, George L^ presents copy 

of his "The Old Fanner and his 

Ahnanack," 180. 
Klein, Jacob, 257n. ated. 257. 
Knights of Labor, proposed aim 

of, 140. 



"Labor oiganizations in ancient, 
medisval and modem times," 
paper by Carroll D. Wright, 
13^149. 

Lampreoht, Kari, 349, %b. n. Cited, 

Lanf, Andrew, 377n., 379n., 399. 
His criticism of James Anthony 
Froude, 377, 378. Cited 414n. 

Langley, Samuel P^ death of, 
announced, 272. Obituaiy of, 
by Samuel Utley, 309. 

Laud, William, Archbishop, 96, 97, 
111, 117-119. 121. 

Lea, J. Heniy, statement of Com- 
mittee of Ftiblication regarding 
his editing "WiU of ^mas 
Hore," 130, 131. 

Leolqr, William £. H., 350, <b, n. 



His "Hwtory of England" cited, 
73, 74. 
Lehmann, Frederic W., 258n. 



Cited, 258. 

Levasseur, Emile, elected a foreign 
member, 2. 

Librarian, see Barton, Edmund M. 

Librarian's and Genend Fund, 168. 
Condition of, 169. 

Libraiy of Congress, "Jackson and 
Van Buren papers" in, paper l^ 
William MacDonald, 231-238. 

Library of the Society, report of 
the Librarian, 175-189. Sources 
of gifts to, 178, 179. Remainder 
of Dr. Haven's library trani^ 
ferred to, 181. Mr. Waldo Lin- 
coln appointed member of 
Library Committee, 272. List 
of Alabama, Mississippi and Tenn- 
essee newspaper files in, pre- 
pared by Mrs. Maiy R. Reynolds, 
274-279. 

Life membership fund, 168. Con- 
dition of, 172. 

Lincoln, Abraham, Pres. of the 
U. S., 255. 

Lincoln, Levi, Attomeu^eneral, 179. 

Lincoln, Solomon, of committee 
to prepare vote with reference 
to bequest from Mr. Salisbuiy, 
264. Vote ofTered by, 265. 

Lincoln. Waldo, appointed member 
of Liorary committee, 272. 

Lincohi, William, 270. 

Lincoln Legacy Fund, 168. Condi- 
tion of, 170. 

., John A., review of his 
le Great Conspiracy," 381n. 

Lok, Michael. 338. 

Longfellow, Miss Alice M., 9, 10. 

Longfellow, Henry W., why he 
wrote the ballaa of the French 
Fleet, 5, Ballad by, 7, 8. 

Lotteries, attempts to raise money 
by, 47, 48, 66. 

Loubat, Joseph F., his gift to the 
Society, 180. 

Louisbuig, Cape Breton, capitula- 
tion of, 70. 

Lowell, James Russell, his defini- 
tion of word "Comwallis," 189. 

M. 

Macaulay, Thomas B., l-ord. his 
style as historian, 375, %o. n. 
376, *. n. 



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433 



MaeDonaldjWilliam, 138. Paper 

by, on 'The Jackson and Van 

Buien papers/' 231>238. 
MaekaQ, Ji^rn W., 357n. Cited, 

357, 358. 
McBfaster, John B., 417n. 
Martyr, Peter, aee Anglerius, Peter 

Martyr d'. 
Maryland, part taken by in scheme 

for conquest of Canada in 1746, 

88,89. 
MasBachu8etts,"Emeimit Tftamuy- 

Supplyin, in EarlyDays," paper 

by Andrew MoF. Davis, 82-48. 
MassachusetU Historical Sooiety, 

298. 
Biayhew, Beo. Jonathan, 280. 
Members, names of those present 

at meetings, 1, 188, 263. Elec- 

tk>n of, 2, 136, 264. 
Menendes, Rodolf , biomphieal no- 
tice of Joaquin Habbe by, 303- 

307. 
Merriman, Daniel, 153. States that 

his paper was prepared at the 

solicitation of Senator Hoar, 2, 3. 

Reply to Dr. Hall, 4. 5. Paper 

by. on "Jerem^r Taylor and 

religious liberty in the English 

Church," 93-124. 
Mississippi^ list of newspaper files 

printea m, in the Libraiy of the 

Society 274, 275. 
Monroe, James, Pns. of the U. S., 

285. 
Montejo, Francisco de, goes to 

Yucatan, 241. His work carried 

on by his son, 242. 
Morris, Lewis, Gin, of New Jersey ^ 

87. 
Morris, William, 357, ib, n., 358, 

ib. n. 
Morse, Anson D., prefatory remarks 

to his paper, 264, 265. Reason 

why his paper is not published, 

[421J. 
Municipal ownership, an ancient 

instance of, paper by Samuel 

Utley. 125-130. 
MOnsterberg, Hugo, 350. 

N. 

Naverrette, Gen., statement of, 

248. 
New Hampshire, men enlisted 

from, for conquest of Canada, 

in 1746, 85. 



New Jersey, part taken by, in scheme 
for conquest of Canada In 1746, 
87, 88. 

New York, part taken W. in scheme 
for conquest of Canada in 1746, 
87. Copy of Bakewell's VIeW 
of New Yoric aty, 284, 285. 

Newcastle, Duke of, see Pelham, 
Thomas, Duke of NewcaeUs, 

Newspapers, list of Alabama, I" 
sippi, ana Tennessee newnap 
files in Ubnoy of the -* ' 
274-279. 



Oxford UniverBity, list of puUisfaed 
inaugural addr e s ses at. 363, 864. 
Names of men who nave held 
the position of Rogius Profeii 
of Modem History at, 363fi. 



Paine, Nathaniel, 11, 135, 263. 
Re-elected Treasurer, 137. Re» 
elected a member of the Com- 
mittee of Publication, ib. His 
collection of memorials of Senator 
Hoar, 156. Submits his Report 
as Treasurer, 16^174. Semi> 
Annual Report of the Council 
by, 268-273. "Remaiks on the 
eariy American engravings and 
the Cambridge Press Imprints 
(1640-1692) m the Libraiy of 
the American Antiquarian 
Society" paper by, 280-289. 

Palfrey, WiUiain, 267. 

Paltsits^ Victor H., 5. Remarks 
on his paper, 2. Paper by, on 
"A scheme for the conquest of 
Canada in 1746," 69-92. 

Pane, Ramon, ''Columbus, Ramon 
Pane and the beginnings of 
American ^Anthropology" paper 
b:^ Edward G. Bourne, 310-348. 
List of modem works dealing 
directly with the treatise of, or 
particularly serviceable in the 
studv of it, 316-317. Treatise 
of Friar Ramon on the Anti* 
quities of the Indians whidi he, 
as one who knows their language, 
diligently collected by command 
of the Admiral, 318-338. 

Paul, Herbert, his "Life of Froude," 
376n., 379n. 76. cited, 378, tb. n., 
379. 



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434 



American Antiquarian Society. 



Peacock, Edward, results of his 

study of Ghristian names, 395, 

396. 
Pec, Dionisio, 249. Statement of, 

250. 
Pelham, Heniy, 73, 74. 
Pelham, Peter, engravinf^ by, in 

the Library of the Society, 281- 

283. 
Pelham-Holles, Thomas, Dnke of 

Neuxxutle, 73-75, 77. 88. Letter 

to Gov. Shirley cited, 91, 92. 
Pennsylvania, part taken by, in 

scheme for conquest of GiuuMla 

in 1746. 88. 
Pepperrell, Sir William, 70^ 283. 
Pernr. Joseph H., description of 

Millstone IliU by, 128, 129. 
Perry, Oliver, 286. 
Phips, Sir William, results of 

expedition under, 69. 
Pierce, Abijah, 187, 188. 
Pinkus, Edward, 248, Short sketch 

of, 246, 247. 
Poinsett, Joel R., letter to, cited, 

236. 
Poot, Cresencio, Chief, death of, 

249. 
Poot, Leandro, Chief, 249. His 

account of the battle with the 

white men, 250, 251. 
Powell, Frederick York, 369n. 

Cited, 369. 
Price, William, short account of 

his "South East View of ye 

Great Town of Boston in New 

England, American," 284. 
Prince, Rev. Thomas, 5, 6^ 283. 
Provincial Cozigress, oiKamzation 

of, 50, 51. Efforts of, to raise 

mon^, 52-55. 
Publishing Fund, 168. Condition 

of, 170. 
Putnam, Herbert, 184. 
Putnam, Samuel, case- of Green v. 

Putnam, 127, 128. 

R 

Raleigh, N. C. regulations and 
rates of boanl at the Exchange 
Hotel in, 182, 183. 

Rawnsley, H. D., 157. Tribute to, 
134. His Sonnet "Senator Hoar 
In Memoriam," 158. 

Revere, Maria A., her letter, 178. 

Revere, Paul, supplementaiy in- 
formation relative to his portrait 



of Washington, 178. Colored 

print of his Boston Massacre, 287. 
Rcjoiolds, Mrs. Mary R., 270, 271. 

List of Alabama, Mississippi and 

Tennessee newspaper files pre- 
pared by, 274-279. 
Rhode Island, part taken by, in 

scheme for conquest of Canada 

in 1746, 85, 86. 
Rhodes. James F. 401, i&. n. 
Rice, Franklin P., his gift to the 

Society, 182. 
Richardson, Rev, John, line title 

of sermon by, with explanatory 

note, 177, 178. 
Richman, Irving B., cited, 383. 

Tribute to his work, 383n. 
Rivero, Don Miguel, discovers uprii^ 

ing of Indians of Yucatan, 244. 
Roden, Robert F., 290. 298. 
Rogers, Horatio, 12. Memoir of, 

by Samuel Utley, 15, 16. 
Roosevelt, Theodore, Free, of U. S., 

cited, 398». 
Ropes. John C, 401, %b, n. 
Russell, E. Harlow, re-elected a 

Councillor, 137. 
R^re, Walter, 391n. Participates 

in discussion of "Squire papers," 

390, 391. 



S. 



Salisbury, James H., obituary of, 
by Samuel Utley, 167. 

Salisbury, Stephen, Senior, 299. 

Salisbury. Hon, Stephen, 11, 176, 
299. Anecdote of, 300. 

Salisbunr, Stephen, 1, 133, 139, 
263, 264. Re-elected President, 
135. Remarks by, in introduc- 
ing Mr. Casares, 138. Vote 
acfopted by the Society regard- 
ing real estate devised by, 265. 
Death of, announced, 268. 
Special meeting of the Council 
on death of, ib. His will cited, 
269. Income from real estate b^ 

Sueathed to Society by, 271,272. 
[emorial of. by Edward E. Hale, 

299-302 Obituary of, by Sam- 

uel Utley, 302,303. 
Salisbury Building Fund, 168. 

Condition of, 171. 
Salley. Alexander S., Jr., 397n. 
Schoolcraft, Henry R., 184. 
Schuyler, Col. Peter, commands 

the New Jersey companies, 88. 



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Takes four Indian chiefs to 

England, 280, 281. 
Semi-fumualmeetingsof the Society, 

1,263. 
Sewall, Rev. Joseph, 283, 286. 
Shaw, Misa Elizabeth, 10. 
Shaw, Henry, 259. 
Shepaid, Edward M., 232. 
Shennan, Roger, 157. 
Sheiman, WmiaQi T., 256. 
Shirley, William, Oav, of Mass,, 

41,72,75-77,89.90. Why there 

are 410 records ot the destruction 

of the French Fleet by, 6, 7. 

Proclamation issued by, 78, 79. 

Urges conquest of Canada, 80. 

Message sent to, 81. His speech 

to the ''Great and General Court," 

82-85. Letter to, from Duke 

of Newcastle cited, 91, 92. 
Sierra, Justo. 240. 
Simon, J., his portraits of four 

Indian chiefs, 280, 281. 
Smith, Charles C, rejected a 

member of the Committee of 

Publication, 137. 
Smith, Goldwin, 407. Cited, 408. 
Sparks, Jared, ''life and writings" 

of, 13. 
Spencer, Mary C, letter from, 184. 
"Spirit of 76," numbers lacking of, 

177. 
Squire. Samuel, 389. 
Squire, William, 389. 
Squire papers, brief explanation of, 

389. Controversy regarding 

390, 391. Further remarks on, 
394, 395. 

Stanton, Edwin M. 256. 
Staples, Haznilton B., 21. 
Starr, William E., 253. 
Stephen, iStr Leslie, 392n. Cited,392. 
Stephens, H. Mlorse, 369, 404. 

ated, 380. 
Stevens, Benjamin F., Index to his 

"Facsimiles^" 135, 136. His 

Index of Franklin Papers, 154. 
Strong, Caleb, Gov. of Mom., 272. 
Stubbs, William, Bishop of Oxford, 

371 n. Cited, 371. 
Sumner, William G., cited, 48. 
Sweetser, Rtv, Seth, 254. 
Sybel, Heinrich von, 381n., 383. 

Cited, 380, 381. 

T. 
Tainos, religion and folk-lore of, 



311-313. 
Taylor, Jeremy. 2 Remarks on his 
"Ductor Dubitantium," 3, 4. 
"Jeremy Taylor and religious 
liberty in the English Church" 
paper by Daniel Merriman, 93- 

Temple, Frederick, Arctbuhap of 

Canterbury, 156. 
Tennessee, list of newspaper files 

printed in, in the Library of the 

Society. 274, 275. 
Tenney Fund, 168. Condition of, 

171. 
Thomas, Allen C, letter from, 

with list of books for the Society, 

180, 181. 
Thomas Oov, George, 88. 
Thomas, Isaiah, 11, 134. Diary 

of, in process of publication, 

270. Collection and Research 

Fund founded by bequest from, 

271. 

Thomas, Robert B., 180. 
Thomas Local History Fund, 168. 

Condition of, 171. 
Thompson, Edward H., 138, 225, 

ib. n. Cited, 226. Pai)er by, 

on "A page of American history," 

239-252. 
Thomson, William, 19. 
Thucydides. translation of, by 

George F. Hoar, 151, 152. 
Thwaites, Reuben G., 181. His 

tribute to James D. Butler cited, 

308. 
Tillixurhast, Pardon E., his tribute 

to Horatio Rogers, cited, 16. 
Todd, William C., cited, 351, 352. 
Topanelian, Michael H., 183. 
Treasurer, see Paine, Nathaniel. 

"Treaty of Uxbridge," 120. 
Trevelyan, George M., 369. 
Trollope. Anthony, 393, 394. 
Trumbull, J. Hammond, 177. 

U. 

Ulloa, Alfonso, 311. 

Universitv of Wisconsin, srowth 
of, under Pres. Adams, 29. 

Upham, Henry P., his gift to the 
Society, 181. 

Utley, Samuel, 1, Remarks on 
Andrew H. Green's right to 
the stone quarry, 9. With 
Andrew McF. Davis presents 
the Report of the Council 11-^1 



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American ArUiquarian Society, 



Memoir of Horatio Rogers by, 
15, 16. Memoir of Frank P. 
Goulding. by, 21, 22. Paper 
by, on "An ancient instance of 
municipal ownership," 125-180. 
Re-elected a Councillor, 137. 
Re-elected Biographer, t&. Obit- 
' by 167, 302, 307-309. 



V. 

Van Buren, Martin, 'The Jackson 

and Van Buren papers," paper 

by William MacDonald, 231-2S8. 
Van Buren, Mrs. Thompeon, pre* 

•ents Van Buien papers to Li* 

braiy of Congress, 232. 
Verelst, J.. 28^ 
Vioe-Preddents, see Hale. Edward 

E., and Green, Samuel A. 
Vincent, John M., 13. 
Vinton, Frederic P., IBL 
Viiginia, part taken by, in scheme 

for conquest of Canada in 1746, 

89,90. 

W. 

Walker, Sir Hovenden, 69. 

WaU, Caleb A., 182. 

WaU, Mrs. Caleb A., her gift to the 

Socie^, 182. 
Waid, C. Osborne, 139, 140, 148. 
Warren, Sir Peter, 76. 
Washington, Geoige, Prw. of the 

U. 8., 178, 285, 287. 
Webster, Darnel, 236. 
Weeden, William B., re-elected a 

Councillor, 136. His letter to 

Mr. Foster, 401,402. 
Weeme, Mason L , 374, %b, n. 



Welsted, Rev. William, 286. 
Wentworth, Benning, Uov, of N, H,, 

85. 
Wheeler, Ndson, 253. 
Wheelwright, Nathaniel, 46 n. 
White, Andrew D., 13. Friend of 

Chas. Kendall Adams, 24. Names 

his successor at University of 

Michigan, 25. His influence at 

ComeD, 27, 28. 
Whitney, James lu, 187. 
William and Maiy College, 14. 156. 
Wilson, Woodrow, 372 n. Cited, 372. 
Winship, Geof^e P., 267. 
Winsor, Jiwtin, 18, 310, 874 n. 
Wolcoit, Roger, 156. 
Woodbeny, Qeoige £., cited, 851. 
Woods, Heniy £., 46 n. 
Woodward, Mrt, Geoige M., her 

gift to the Society, 183. 
Worcester, Mass. ^'An ancient 

instance of municipal ownership," 
" " " Utlqr, 125-130. 



record of the "Boanliqg 
House library" in, 185, 186. 

Wrii^t, Carroll D., 133. Re- 
elected a Councillor, 137. Paper 
by, on "Labor oiganizations in 
ancient, mediaeval and modem 
times," 139-149. 

Wright, WiUiam A., 890, 394. 

Wyer, James I., Jr., 420 n. 

Y. 

Yucatan. "Notice of Yucatan 
with some remarks on its water 
supply," paper by David Casares, 
207-230. '^ page of American 



histoiy," paper 1^ Edward H. 
Thompeon, 239-252. 



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