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GENER/tL LIBR/I RY of the 





^\;^V c\ \\& \ 

I-.JI ^ 








/ i_ 


























1888-*88 Sib J. W. Dawsoit, Kt. 

188^*84 L'honorjlblb P. J. O. Chautbau. 

188i-'86 Dr. T. Stebby Hvmt. 

1886-'86 Sib Daniel Wilson, Kt. 

1886-'87 , . . • MoNSiONOB Hamel. 

1887-88 Db. G. Lawson. 

1888-'89 Sib Sandfobd Fleming, K.C.M.O. 

188^*00 L*ABBÉ Casobain. 

VSX^Ièl Vbby Rev. Pbincipal Gbant. 

1891-92 . . , L*ABBi Laflahme. 

1892-*93 Sib J. G. Boubinot, K.C.M.O. 

189»-*94 Db. G. M. Dawson, C.M.G. 

189i-'95 ... Sib J. Maophebson LeMoinb, Kt. 

1895-*96 Db. A. a C. Selwyn, C.M.G. 

1806-*g7 . Most Rev. Abchbishop 0*Bbibn. 

1897-*98 L'honobablb F. G. BCabchand 

1898*99 . . T. C. Kbefeb, C.M.G. 

1899-1900 Rev. Pbofessob Clabk, D.O.L. 

1900-1901 L. Fbbohette, C.M.G., LL.D. 

1901-1908 Pbebident Loudon, LL.D. 

1902-1903 Sib Jambs A. Grant, K.aM.G., 

M.D., F.G.S. 
1903-1904 Lt.-Col. G. T. Denison, B.0,L. 

Fw Rules and BegtUatians of t?u Royal Society of CanadoL^ Revised to May 
2901, see beginning of Vol. VI. Trans. R. 8. 



r ' 


Inst of Officers of the Society for 19081904, I 

Lièt of Fellows and Corresponding Members 2-4 

List of Presidents B 


List of Fellows present at May meeting I 

Report of Council II 

1. Printing of Transactions II 

Accounts in 

2. Early delivery of Papers IV 

3. Illustrations V 

4. Copies of Transactions sent to the King YI 

6. Need of a Home VI 

6. Decease of Members — Sir John Bourinoty Dr. A. R. C. 

Selwyn, Dr. Douglas Brymner^ Hon. Joseph Royal^ 

Dr. MacCabe (with portraits) Vin 

7. Corresponding Members XI 

8. Members of Council XII 

9. Election of Fellows XII 

10. Associated Societies XIII 

11. Champlain Ter-centenary i XIV 

12. Bibliographies XV 

13. Preservation of Places of Scenic and Historic Interest XVI 

14. Time Reckoning XVII 

15. Meeting of the International Geological Congress XVIII 

16. The British World Telegraph Cable XIX 

17. Wireless Telegraphy XX 

18. The Transmission and Transformation of Energy XX 

19. Triangulation along the 98th Meridian XXI 

20. Marine and Lake Biological Stations XXTV 

21. Tidal Survey XXIV 

22. Ethnological Survey XXIV 

23. Archives XXVII 


24. Forestry X XVII 

25. Science Applied to Increasing Production XXvill 

26. Gommitteeon Geological Nomenclature XTTX 

27. Geographic Nomenclature XXIX 

28. International Congress of Americanists XXX 

29. Map of Canada XXX 


Resolutions adopted XXX 

Champlain Celebration Committee appointed XXX 

Reports of Associated Societies XXXI, XXXII 

Election of Corresponding Members XXXI 

Election of Member to Section III XXXI 

International Congress Committee appointed XXXII 

Election of Member to Section IV. XXXII 

Presidential Address .... XXXII 

Committee for the Nomination of Officers appointed XXXIV 

Geodetic Commission — Deputation appointed to wait on Govern- 
ment XXXIV 

Telegram to His Majesty XXXIV 

Reply XXX7I 

Telegram to Duke of Argyll XXXV 

Reply XXIVI 

Popular Lecture by Prof T. Wesley Mills XXIV 

Election of General Officers XXIVI 

Report of Committee on Historical Monuments and Sites XXXVII 

Votes of Thanks XXXVIII 

Report of Champlain Celebration Committee XL 

Resolution urging Erection of a National Museum ILI 

Condolences to Lady Bourinot ILI 

Report of Committee on Proposed Hydrographie Survey De- 
partment ILI 

Vote of Thanks to Acting Honorary- Secretary XLII 

Vote of Thanks to Honorary-Treasurer XLII 


Of First Section XXXVIIÏ 

Of Second Section XXXIX 

Of Third Section XLV 

Of Fourth Section XLIII 



A.— Pbbsidbntial Addbsss. 

Brain Power ; How to Preserve It. By Sir James Qrant^ 


B. — Mabinb and Lake Bioloqioal Stations of Canada. 

Atlantic Biological Station LXI 

éjjake Biological Station LXIY 

C. — Survey op Tides and Currents. 

Survey of Tides and Currents LXXI 

D. — Reports prom Associated Literary and Soientipio Societies 

in Canada. 

L The Natural History Society of Montreal LXXVII 

II. The Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Mont- 

real LXXIX 

III. La Société Littéraire de Montréal LXXXII 

IV. The Quebec Literary and Historical Society LXXXIU 

V. The Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society LXXXV 

VI. The Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club LXXXVH 

VII. The Hamilton Scientific Association .4 XCI 

VIII. The Entomological Society of Ontario XCII 

IX. The Natural History Society of New Brunswick ... XCV 

X. The Nova Scotian Institute of Science XCVIII 

XL The Nova Scotia Historical Society C 

XII. The Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute CI 

XIII. The Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society CII 

XIV. The Royal Astronomical Society of Toronto CIII 

XV. The Lundy's Lane Historical Society CIX 

XVI. The New Brunswick Historical Society CIX 

XVII. The Ontario Historical Society CX 

XVIII. TheWomen's Canadian Historical Society of Toronto CXI 

XIX. The Niagara Historical Society CXII 

XX. The Miramichi Natural History Association CXIV 

XXI. The Canadian Forestry Association CXV 

XXII. The Women's Canadian Historical Society of Ottawa CXTIII 

XXIII. The United Empire Loyalists* Association of Ontario 

{Head of the Lake Branch) CXIX 

XXIV. 7 he Botanical Club of Canada CXXI 




I. Découverte du Missimpi en 1669. Par Benjamin Sulte.... 3 

II. Un épisode de Vhistoire de la dîme au Canada {1705-1707). 

Par l'abbë Auguste Gosselin, docteur es lettres 45 

III. Les Intendants de la Nouvelle France. (Avec portraits et 

armoiries.) Par Bbois Bot 65 

lY. Mouvement intellectuel chez les Canadiens français depuis 

1900. Par Thonorable Pascal Poibieb 109 

Y. Le Père Sébastien Basics^ jésuite, missionnaire chez les 
Abénaquis, 1657-172^. Par N.-B. Dionnb, M.D., 
LL.D., Bibliothécaire de la Législature de la Pro- 
vince de Québec '. 117 

YI. Irenna la huronne. Pai: Pamphile LeMat 135 

YII. La Fontaine d! Abraham Martin et le Site de son Habita- 
tion. (Illustré.) Par P.-B. Casgeain, Québec 145 



I. The Evolution and Degeneration of Party. — A Study in 
Political History. By Beverend N. Burwash, 
S.T.D., Yictoria College, Toronto 3 

II. T?ie Lake of the Woods Tragedy (with Map). By Law- 
rence J. Burpee 15 

III. The Hon. Henry Caldwell, L.C., at Quebec, 1759-1810. By 

Sir James M. Lemoine, D.G.L 29 

lY. The Death of Dulhut. By William McLennan 39 

Y. The Gaelic Folk- Songs of Canada. By Alexander Fraser, 

Toronto, Ont 49 

YI. Totemism : A Consideration of its Origin and Import. By 
Charles Hill-Tout, Hon. Seci*etary Ethnological 

Survey of Canada, etc j61 

YII. A few remarks on ^^The Siege of Quebec " and the Battle of 
the Plains of Abraham, by A. Doughty, in collabora- 
tion with G. W. Parmelee ; and on the Probable Site 
of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham^ by A. Doughty. 

By P. B. Casgrain 101 

YIII. Intrusive Ethnological Types in BuperVs Land. By Bev. 

Dr. G. Brtoe 135 


IX. The Second Legislature of Upper Camda.— 1796-1800. By 

C. C. JAMI8, Toronto 145 

X. Acadian Magazines. By D. B. Jack 173 

XI. Latest Lights on the Cahot Controversy. CWith map.) By 

Bï. Bbvbuind Bishop Howlbt 205 

XII. The Copper Currency of the Canadian Banks, 18$7'1867. 

(Illustrated.) By R W. MoLaohlan 217 




I. On the Analysis of Cheese. (Diagram.) By Thomas Mao- 


II. The Bate of Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate under the 

Influence of Heat. (Diagrams.) By S. B. Chadset 15 

III. On the Resistance of a Hydrated Electrolyte, and the rela- 

tion to the Density 'Concentration Curve. (Diagrams.) 
By HowABD T. Babnes, D.Sc., Assistant Professor of 
Physics, and J. Gut W. Johnson, M.A., McOill 
University, Montreal • 31 

IV. On the Radioactivity of Metals Generally. (Illustrated.) 

By J. C. McLennan, Ph.D., Associate Professor of 
Physics, University of Toronto, and E. P. Burton, 
B.A., Fellow in Mathematics, University of Toronto 37 

V, The Oxalates of Bismuth. By P. B. Allan 45 

VL Researches in Physical Chemistry carried out in the University 
of Toronto during the Past Year. Communicated by 
Prof. W. Lash Miller 49 

VII. Note on the application of Fourier's Series to the determina- 
tion of the forms of Cams to fulfil given conditions of 
displacement, velocity and acceleration. By E. G. 
Cokeb, M.A., Cantab., D.Sc. (Edin.), Assistant Pro- 
fessor of Civil Engineering, McGill University, Mont- 
i-eal 53 

VIII. A Laboratory Apparatus for Applying Bending and Torsional 
Moments simultaneously. (Illustrated.) By E. G. 
CoKER, M.A., D.Sc, Assistant Professor of Civil 

Engineering, McGill University 59 

IX. Seismology in -Canada. (Diagram.) By E. P. Stupart 69 

X. Numerical Values of Certain functions involving e^. By 

W. Lash Miller, Ph.D., and T. B. Bosebrugh, MA. 73 




I. An Experimental Study an the Effect of the Blood-sera of 
Normal and Immunized Goats in Modifying the Pro- 
gress of Tuberculous Infection. By Albert Giobob 
NiCHOLLS, M.A., M.D., CM., Lecturer in Pathology, 
McGill University, and Assistant Pathologist to the 

Boyal Victoria Hospital, Montreal 3 

II. Notes on Tertiary Plants, (^With plates.) By D. P. Pbn- 


III. Notes on some Interesting rock-contacts in the Kingston Dis- 

trict, Ont By E. W. Ells, LL.D 1 

IV. An Attempt to classify Palœozoic Batrachian footprints. 

(J/Vith plates.) By Da. G. F. Matthbw 109 

V. Mineral and Grown Land Grants in Nova Scotia, By 

Edwin Gilpin, Jr., M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S.C 123 

VI. Drancis Bain^ Geologist. By Lawrence W. Watson, M.A. 135 

VII. A Submerged Tributary to the Great Pre-Glacial River of 

the Gulf of St. Lawrence. (With map.) By H. S. 

Poole, D.Sci, Associate of the Boyal School of Mines 143 

VIII. On the Relation of Moisture-content to Hardiness^ in Apple 

Twigs. By Frank T. Shutt, M.A., F.LC, F.C.S., 

Chemist, Dominion Experimental Farms, 149 

IX. Bibliography of Canadian Entomology for the Year 1902. 

By Bev. C. J. S. Bethune, D.CL 156 

X. Bibliography of Canadian Zoology for 1902, exclusive of 

Entomology. By J. F. Whiteayes 163 

• XL Botanical Bibliography of Canada for 1902. By A. H. 

MacKay, LL.D 169 

XII. Bibliography of Canadian Geology and Palœontology for the 
year 1902. By H. M. Ami, M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., 
of the Geological Sui"vey of Canada 173 

XIII. Some Aspects of the Development of Comparative Psychology. 

By Wesley Mills, M.A., M.D., etc.. Professor of 
Physiology in McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 189 

XIV. Descriptions of some New Species and Varieties of Canadian 

Butterflies. (With coloured plate and figures.) By 
James Fletcher, LL.D., F.L.S 207 




Portraits of Deceased Fellows — Sir John Boorinot, Dr. Selwyn, 

Dr. MacCabe, Dr. Brymner, Hon. Jos. Boyal VIII 


Seventeen portraits and armouries to illustrate Mr. Boy's 

paper on '* Les Intendants " 67 et seq. 

Two plans to accompany Mr. Casgrain's *' La Fontaine d'Abra- 
ham Martin " 147, 160 


Map to illustrate Mr. Burpee's " Lake of the Woods Tragedy" 16 

Map to accompany Bishop Howley's <' Cabot" 207 

Four plates to illustrate Mr. McLachlan's ** Copper Currency" 273 


One diagram to accompany Mr. Macfarlane*s paper on 

''Analysis of Cheese" 4 

Three diagrams to illustrate Mr. Chadsey's paper on '' Decom- 
position of Potassium Chlorate" 16 et seq. 

Three diagrams to illustrate Messrs. Barnes and Johnson's 

paper on "Besistance of a Hydrated Electrolyte" 31 et seq. 

Four diagrams to accompany Messrs. McLennan's and Bur- 
ton's paper on " Badioactivity of Metals '* 38 et seq. 

Four diagrams to illustrate Dr. Coker's paper on '' Torsional 

Moments" 60 et seq. 

One lithographed diagram to accompany Mr. Stupart's '* Seis- 
mology " 72 


One plate and twenty-nine figures to accompany Dr. Pen- 
hallow's " Tertiary Plants" 69 et seq. 

Three plates to illustrate Dr. Matthews' "Batrachian Foot- 
prints" Ill et seq. 

One map to accompany Dr. Poole's " Pre-Glacial Biver of 

Gulf of St. Lawrence" 144 

One coloured plate and two figures to illustrate Dr. Fletcher's 

"Butterflies" 207 


(WKDf GOTXBMOB-anrssAi. or OAifADA nr UBl) 

OKKICERS KOR 1903-1904. 



G.C.M.G., &c. 

Prbsidint— LT.-COL. G. T. DENISON, B.C.L. 

Vicb-Prbsidbnt— B. SULTE 

Honorary Secretary, DR S. R DAWSON 

Honorary Treasurer, DR. JAMES FLETCHER 


SEC. L — French Literature, History, and Allied Subjects. 


Vice-President, L. O. DAVID 

Secretary, LÉON GÉRIN 

SEC. II.— English Literature, History, and Allied Subjects. 

President, REV. DR BRYCE 

Vice-President, W. D. LIGHTHALL 


SEC. Ill — Mathematical, Physical, and Chemical Sciences. 

President, DR. ELLIS 

Vice-President,. PROF. RUTHERFORD 

Secretary, E. DEVILLE 

SEC IV. — Geological and Biological Sciences. 

President, DR G. U. HAY 

Vice-President, PROF. FOWLER 










^ The Council for 1908-1904 comprises the President and Vice-President of the 
Society, the Presidents, Vice-Presidents and Secretaries of Sections, the Honorary 
Secretary and the Honorary Treasurer, besides ex-Presidents of the Society during 
three years from the date of their retirement, and not more than four members 
of the Society who have formerly served on the Council, elected by the CounciL 


LIST OF MEMBERS, 1903-1904. 


Bbauchemin, Nérée, M.D., Yamachiche, P.Q, 

Bjtom, MoR L.-N., Archevêque de Québec, Québec, 

Bbllemarb, Raphael, docteur es lettres, Montréal. 

BouRASSA, l'abbjê Gustavb, L.S.T., D.J.O., docteur es lettres, MontrécU, 

Casorain, Vabbé H.-R, docteur es lettres, Qylbec (ancien président). 

Chapais, l*hon. Thomas, docteur es lettres, chevalier de la légion d'honneur 

de France, membre du conseil législatif, Québec. 
Charland, Fràre Paul-V., Couvent des Dominicains, Lewiaton, Me., U.S. A, 
David, L.-0., Montréal. 
DbCazes, Paul, docteur es lettres, Québec. 
DbCellss, A.-D., docteur es lettres, LL.D., Ottawa. 
Dionns, N.-E., docteur es lettres, Québec. 

Fabrb, Hector, C.M.G., officier de la légion d'honneur, Paria, France. 
Friîchettb, Louis, C.M.G., docteur en droit, docteur es lettres, chevalier de 

la légion d'honneur, Montréal (ancien président). 
Gagnon, Ernest, docteur es lettres, Québec. 
GéRiN, LÉON, Ottawa. 

GossELiN, L'ABBJÊ AuousTE, doctcur és lettres, St-Charlea de BéUechaase, P.Q. 
Lbgendbe, Napoléon, docteur és lettres, Québec. 
LeMay, Pamphile, docteur es lettres, Québec. 
LbMoine, Sir J.-M., Québec (ancien président). 
Paquet, Monsionor L. A., Québec. 

Poirier, Hon. Pascal, officier de la légion d'honneur, Shediac, N.B. 
Poisson, Adolphe, docteur es lettres, ArthaJ>askaville, P.Q. 
Prud'homme, Juge L. A., St. Boni/ace, Man. 
Richard, Edouard, ArthahaskaviUe, P.Q. 
RouTHiER, Juge A.-B., docteur en droit et es lettre;», Québec. 
Roy, Joseph-Edmond, docteur és lettres, Lévia, P.Q. 
SuLTE, Benjamin, Ottawa. 


Bryce, Rev. George, M.A., LL.D., Winnipeg, Man. 

BuRWASH, Rev. Nathaniel, S.T.D., LL.D., Chancellor of Victoria University, 

Campbell, Rev. John, LL.D., Presbyterian College, Montreal. 
Campbell, W. Wilfred, Privy Council Office, Ottawa. 
Clark, Rev. W., D.C.L.. LL.D., Trinity University, Toronto (ex-president). 
Dawson, S. E., Lit.D., Ottawa. 
Dbnison, Lt.-Col. G. t., B.C.L., Toronto. 
Drummond, W. H., M.D., Montreal. 
Harvey, Arthur, Toronto. 

HowLEY, Right Rev. Bishop M. F., D.D., St. John's, Nfid. 
LbSueur, W. D., LL.D., Ottawa. 
LiGHTHALL, WiLLiAM Douw, M.A., B.C.L., Montreal. 
LoNOLEY, Hon. J. W., LL.D., M.L.A., Halifax, N.S. 
McLennan, W., Montreal. 
Murray, George, B.A., Montreal. 


Murray, Rbv. J. Clark, LL.D., MoGlll University, MontrecU. 

O'Bribn, Most Rbv. Dr., Archbishop of Halifax, HcUifcuc, N.S,, (ex-president). 

Parkin, 6. R., C.M.6., LL.D., Toronto. 

Rbads, John, F.RS.L,, Montreal. 

Ross, Hon. Gbo. W., LL.D., Prime Minister of Ontario, Toronto. 

Scott, D. Campbell, Department of Indian Af&irs, Ottauxi. 

Scott, Rbv. Frederick George, Quebec. 

Stewart, George, D.C.L., LL.D., D.L., F.R.G.S., Qtiebec. 

Watson, J., M.A., LL.D., Queen's University, Kingston. 

WiLLisoN, John S., Toronto. 

WiTHROW, Rev. W. H., D.D., Toronto. 


Baillairgjê, C, C.E., Quebec. 

Baker, Alfred, M.A., University of Toronto, Toronto. 

Barnes, H. T., D.Sc., McGill University, Montreal. 

Bovey, H. t., M.A. (Cantab.), LL.D., D.C.L., M. Inst. CE, F.RS., McGill 

University, MontreaL 
Cox, John, M.A. (Cantab.), McGill University, Montreal. 
Dawson, W. Bell, D.Sc, Ma. E., Assoc M Inst. CE., Ottawa. 
Deville, E, Surveyor-General, Ottawa, 
Dupuis, N. F., MA., F.RS.E., Queen's University, Kingston. 
Ellis, W. H., M.D., Toronto University, Toronto. 
Fleming, Sir Sandford, K.C.MG., LL.D., CE., Ottaum (ex-president). 
GiRDWOOD, G. P., M.D., McGill University, Montreal. 

Clash AN, J. C, LL.D., Inspector of Public Schools for City of Ottawa, Ottawa. 
GrOODWiN, W. L., D.Sc, Queen's University, Kingston. 
Hamel, Monsignor, M. a., Laval University, Quebec (ex-president). 
Harrington, B. J., B.A., Ph.D., McGill University, Montrecd. 
Hoffmann, G. C, F. Inst Chem., LL.D., Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
Johnson, A., LL.D., McGill University, Montreal. 
EIeefbr, T. C, C.M.G., CE., Ottawa (ex-president). 
Loinx>N, J. T., M. A., LL.D., President of University of Toronto, Toronto (ex- 

Macfarlane, t., M.E., Chief Analyst, Ottawa. 
McGill, A., Assistant Analyst, Ottawa, 
McLennan, J. C, Ph.D., Toronto University, Toronto. 
Miller, W. Lash, Ph.D., University of Toronto, Toronto. 
McLeod, C H., M.E., McGill University, Montreal. 
Owens, R B., MSc, McGill University, Montreal. 
Rutherford, E., B.A. (Cantab), A.M., McGill University, Montreal. 
RUTTAN, R F., M.D., CM., McGill University, Montreal. 

Shutt, F. t., M.A., F.I.C, F.CS., Chemist, Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 
Stupart, R F., Superintendent, Meteorological Service, Toronto, 
Walker, J. Wallace, M.A., Ph.D., McGill University, Montreal. 


Adami, J. G., MA., M.D. (Cantab, and McGill), LL.D., F.RS.E, McGill Uni- 

verslty, Montreal. 
Adams, Frank D., Ph.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., McGill University, Montreal. 
Ami, Henry M., M.A., D.Sc, F.G.S., Greologlcal Survey, OttavKt. 
Bailey, L. W., M A., Ph.D., University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, 
Barlow, A. E., M.A., D.Sc, Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
Bell, Robert, B.Ap.Sc., M.D., LL.D., F.G.S., F.R.S., Geological Survey, OttavxL, 
Bethune, Rev. C J. S., MA., D.C.L., London, Ont. 


BuBOEBS, T. J. W., M.D., Montreal, 

CoLXMAN, A. P., M. A., Ph.D., University of Toronto, Toronto. 

Bllb, R. W., LL.D., F.6.S.A., Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

Fi^KtOHSEL, Jambs, LL.D., F.L.S., Dominion Entomologist, Ottatca, 

FowLEB, Jambs, m. A., Queen's University, Kingston, 

Gilpin, Edwin, M.A., F.G.S., Inspector of Mines, Halifax, 

Grant, Snt J. A., K.C.M.G., M.D., F.G.S., Ottawa (ez-president). 

Hay, G. U., ULA., Ph.D., St. John, N,B, 

Harrington, W. Hagub, P. O. Department, Ottawa, 

Laflammk, Abbé J. C. K., D.D., M. A., chevalier de la légion d*honneur, Laval 

University, Qtubec (ex-president). 
Lambb, Lawrbncb M., F.G.S., Greological Survey, Ottawa. 
Macallum, a. B., Ph.D., University of Toronto, Toronto, 
Magoun, J., M.A., F.L.S., Geological Survey, Ottaw€L. 
MaoKay, a. H., LL.D., B.Sc., Superintendent of Education for Nova Scotia 

Matthew, G. F., M.A., D.Sc, St. John, N.B. 
Mills, T. Wbslby, M. A., M.D., McGill University, Montreal, 
Venhaujow, D. p., B.Sc., McGill University, Montreal. 

PooLB, H. S., M. A., C.E., F.G.S., Assoc. Boy. Soc. of Mines, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
Pbincb, E. E., B.A., F.L.S., Dominion Commissioner of Fisheries, Ottawa 
Saundebs, W., LL.D., F.L.S., Director Dominion Experimental Farms, Ottawa 
Taylor, Rev. G. W., Nanaimo, B.C. 

Whiteayes, J. F., LL.D., F.G.S., Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
Wbioht, R. Ramsay, M.A., B.Sc., University of Toronto, Toronto. 

His Grace the Duke of Argyll, K.G., K.T., F.R.S., &c. 

Berthblot, Marcelin, Sénateur, Secrétaire Perpétuel de l'Académie des 
Sciences, Professeur au Collège de France, Paria, France. 

BoNNEY, T. G., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., London, England. 

Bryce, Rt. Hon. James, M.P., D.C.L., London, England, 

Claretie, Jules, de l'Académie française, Paris, France. 

Ganono, Dr. w. F., Northampton, Mass. 

Gravier, Gabriel, Rotten, France. 

Hector, Sir Jabies, K.C.M.G., F.R.S., Wellington, New Zealand. 

HiOGiNSON, Thomas Wentworth, LL.D. (Harvard), Cambridge, Mom. 

Mbtzler, w. h., Ph.D., F.R.S. Edin., Mathematical Professor, Syracuse 
University, Syracuse, N, Y, 

Osborn, Dr. Henry Fairfield, New York, N.Y. 

Parker, Sir Gilbert, Kt., M.P., D.C.L., London, England. 

ScuDDER, Dr. s. h., Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 


BouRASSA, Napoléon, iS^. Hyacinthe, P.Q. 

Callendar, Hugh L., M.A. (Cantab.), F.RS., London, Eng. 

Chapman, E. J., Ph.B., LL.D., London, Eng. 

Chbrriman, J. B., M.A., Ryde, Isle of Wight. 

Haanel, E., Ph.D., Superintendent of Mines, Ottawa. 

Kirby, W., Niagara, Ont. 

MacGreoor, J. G., M.A., D.Sc., F.RS., F.R.S.E., Edinburgh, Scotland, 

Mair, Charles, Prince Albert, N. W.T. 

OsLER, W., M.D., Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Robbrts, C, G. D., M. a.. New York. 




P. 214, Une 20 from top. for ** 32}^% «te," read ** 39>^% etc. 

^ vv^ cxicii imiiicb or were present 

later during the meeting: — 

List of Fellows Present. 

President, Sir James Grant, K.C.M.6. 

Acting Honorary Secretary, Dr. S. E. Dawson. 

Honorary Treasurer, Dr. James Fletcher. 

Section I. — Dr. Bellemarc, Abbé Bourassa, Hon. Thomas Chapais, 
L. 0. David, Dr. DeCelles, Dr. Frechette, Dr. Gagnon, Hon. Pascal 
Poirier, Dr. Poisson, Edouard Eichard, Benjamin Suite. 

Section II. — liev. Dr. Bryce, W. Wilfred Campbell, Dr. Dawson, 
Col. Denison, Wm. Lighthall, Most Rev. Archbishop O'Brien, D. C. 

Section III. — C. Baillairgé, Prof. Barnes, Dr. Bovey, Capt, 
Deville, Prof. Dupuis, Dr. Ellis, Sir Sandford Fleming, Dr. Girdwood, 
Dr. Glashan, Dr. Hoffmann, Dr. Johnson, T. C. Keefer, President 
]jOudon, Thomas Macfarlane, A. McGill, Prof. McLeod, Frank Shutt, 
R. F. Stupart. 

Section IV. — Dr. Adami, Dr. Ami, Kev. Dr. Bethune, Dr. Bur- 
gess, Dr. Ells, Dr. Fletcher, Sir James Grant, W. H. Harrington, 


Lawrence Lambe, Prof. J. Macoun, Dr. Matthew, Dr. Wesley Mills, 
Prof. Prince, Dr. Saunders, Dr. Whiteaves. 

Letters from absent Fellows, regretting their inability to attend, 
were received from: — 

Section I. — Monseigneur Begin, Dr. Dionne, Abbé Gosselin, 
Sir J. M. LeMoine. 

Section II.— Rev. Dr. Burwash, Arthur Harvey, Right Rev. Dr. 
Howley, Hon. Dr. Longley, W. McLennan, George Murray, Rev. Dr. 
Murray, John Reade, Rev. Frederick Scott, Dr. Stewart, Rev. Dr. 

Section III. — Prof. Cox, Dr. W. Bell Dawson, Dr. Goodwin, 
Monsignor Hamel. 

Section IV. — Dr. Adams, Dr. Bell, Dr. Hay, Dr. MacKay, Prof. 

Five newly elected Fellows were introduced and took their seats : 
Prof. Prince, Dr. Bellemare, Hon. Thomas Chapais, Dr. Gagnon, Dr. 

The Acting Honorary Secretary then read the 


The Council of the Royal Society of Canada have the honour to 
present their twenty-first annual report as follows: — 

1. Printing of Transactions. 

The eighth volume of the second scries is now complete and copies 
ore in the hands of members present. Great delay in commencing 
the work of printing was caused by the long illness of the late Honorary 
Secretary. Month after month his restoration to health was hoped 
for and it was only at the last moment that the council took the step 
of appointing the present secretary to act pro tempore until the honorary 
secretary should recover; or, in case of his death, until the next annual 
meeting. The appointment was miade on October 8th, 1902, under 
the provisions of Rule XIII. Very few of the papers were in the 
hands of the secretaries of sections and considerable delay and trouble 
had to be gone through before they could be got in and sent oflE to the 

The resolution adopted was as follows: 

"That in view of the much regretted illness of Sir John Bourinot, 
Dr. Dawson be appointed temporary honorary secretary; and that he 
be instructed to go on with the preparation of the next volume of 
Transactions on the lines adopted by the honorary secretary for the 
previous volumes.^' 


In accordance with this resolution the volume has been got out 
and is in your hands. 

The volume is an unusually large one. It consists of 164 pages 
of proceedings and 858 pages of Transactions in the four sections, or 
1022 pages in all. Theo:^ are 164 plates, maps and illustrations of 
various kinds, so that it will compare favourably with the largest of any 
of the preceding issues. The space devoted to bibliography adds appre- 
ciably to the cost of setting up in type, for such matter is more expen- 
sive to set than plain matter. The accounts have been carefully 
audited by experts and are given in the following financial statement: — 

Statement of Balance Carried over at Last Meeting. 

May 23 — Amount carried over $ 744 46 

June 3 — W. C. Bowles, clerical assistance $ 50 00 

Mortimer & Co., illustrations 38 00 

Taylot & Clark, printing 39 00 

Gazette Printing Co 400 00 

Grip Printing Company 177 46 

A. Frechette, translation 40 00 

$ 744 46 

Statement, July 1st, 1902, to May nth, 1903, 

Sept. —Government Grant on account $3,000 00 


Feb. 5— Government Grant, balance 2,000 00 

$5,000 00 

1902. Cr. 

Oct. 9 — W. C. Bowles, clerical services, balance 

due 25 00 

" 11 — Dominion Express Co 4 85 

" 11 — Grip Engraving Co., illustrations 20 04 

" 20 — Manufacturing Stationers Co., binding 

and distribution 846 19 

Nov. 24 — George Bristow, typewriting minutes 2 17 

" 24 — Grip Engraving Co., illustrations 67 50 

" 24 — ^Toronto Engraving Co., illustrations 99 45 

" 24— Mortimer & Co., illustrations 52 72 

" 28 — Gazette Printing Co., balance of last 

yearns volume 65 05 

Dec. 13 — Gazette Printing Co., on account 750 00 

$1,932 97 



Brought forward $1,932 97 $5,000 00 


Jan. 10 — Grip Engraving Co., illustrations 206 65 

" 10— Mortimer & Co., illustrations 33 68 

'' 10— Proof Beading— English 60 00 

" 10— Proof Beading— French 25 00 

" 10 — S. E. Dawson, to pay express charges and 

small accounts 5 42 

Feb. 2 — Gazette Printing Co., on account 500 00 

, Mar. 9 — Mortimer & Co., illustrations and cir- 
culars 19 73 

9 — Engrossing diplomas 2 50 

9 — Express charges 1 00 

« 9— C. P. B. Telegraph 65 

" 9 — George Cox, stamping and paper 6 00 

" 9 — Dominion Express Co 1 00 

April 7 — John Bobertson, storage of exchanges, etc 36 00 
" 21 — W. C. Bowles, clerical service, current 

year 60 00 

May 3 — Proof reading, balance in full 60 00 

** 6 — James Hope & Co., stationery 3 78 

" 6 — M. G. Bristow, typewriting 5 54 

" 6 — Manufacturing Stationers Co., Insur- 
ance, express, freight on delivery of 

Vols. 7 and 8 311 05 

" 6 — Gazette Printing Co., on account 800 00 

4,070 97 

Balance on hand $ 929 03 

2. Eauly Delivery of Papers. 

The society suffers detriment from the lateness of the publication of 
its Transactions, and that is the result of the late period at which the 
contributions are sent in. The papers are printed separately for mem- 
bers, and if the separates could be got out early it might suffice. The 
present volume suffered from the long illness of the late honorary 
secretary, and it was October 18 before papers began to come in for 
printing. But the difficulty has always existed, and a stricter observance 
of the rules is necessary. The regulations provide that the papers shall 
be sent, in the first instance, to the secretaries of sections who transmit 
them for printing to the honorary secretary as representing the council. 


It was ordered in fonner years that all papers should be sent in by 
August 1st. The printing committee was thus in a position to see what 
was before them and could apportion the amount of illustrations. It is 
often November or December before any idea can be formed as to the 
approximate size of the volume, and sometim^es members* complain if 
papers are not accepted in January. 

Thi«, however, is not so serious as the fact that the delay in getting 
out the volume prevents many good scientific papers from being sent in. 
If a paper contains an original contribution to science, or any newly 
observed fact, the delay in the issue of the volume imperils the claim of 
priority which authors so highly value. Such papers are moet desirable, 
but they are frequently sent to the scientific magazines where earlier 
publication can be had. If the separate parts could be got out more 
quickly their distribution would secure priority, but one paper runs over 
into a sheet with another and so a number of papers are locked up 
together, and the slowest man to read his proofs sets the pace for the 
whole series. 

There is little use in making new rules. The rules are suflScient if 
they are only carried out, and the council urges upon the members the 
necessity of sending in their papers to the secretaries of their respective 
sections and of sending them in earlier. The resolution fixing August 
1st as the latest date has not been carried out for many years, and the 
council recommends that August 1st be confirmed as the limit of time for 
receipt of copy for printing. They ask for the co-operation of every 
I'ellow in this required reform, for it is vital to the usefulness of the 
Transactions as a record of progress. The council will instruct the 
honorary secretary to urge this upon the contributors to the new volume. 

3. Illustrations. 

The number of illustrations is constantly increasing, and mu^t 
continue to increase with the multiplication of processes for reproduc- 
ing maps and drawings. But every illustration in a volume like the 
society's transactions should be original or, if a reproduction of some- . 
thing previously published, it should possess some special quality such 
as rarity to give it value. 

In preparing illustrations reference should also be had to the 
requirements of the various processes employed. If a photograph or 
drawing is sent in it should be clear and distinct or it cannot be satis- 
factorily reproduced. The cost of redrawing subjects from insufficient 
originals ought not to be thrown upon the society excepting in cases 
of unusual importance. 


4. Copies of Transactions sent to the Kino. 

The distribution of volume 7 was carried out in the usual way, and 
copies of volumes 6 and 7 handsomely bound were sent, through His 
Excellency the Governor-General, to the King, and His Majesty was 
graciously pleased to accept them. 

5. Need of a Home. 

The society is sadly in need of a fixed home where the volumes 
of Transactions may be accessible and where its papers may be kept. 
The exchanges and books from kindred societies now fill fifty-two cases, 
and are absolutely inaocessible, being stored away in a warehouse on 
Queen street. The volumes of Transaictions are mainly in Montreal. 
They are in cases and, as a precaution in case of fire, are divided 
between two warehouses. The number of volumes so stored is given 
in the statement below. The totals are given. Some are in sheets, 
some are sewed an-d some are bound. The volumes in sheets are bound 
as required. A few volumes on hand are half bound in morocco. 

Statement op Volumes on Hand. 





1— First Serles--4to 

2 " 


































3 " 


4 " 


5 " 

6 " 

7 " 


8 •* 


9 " 


10 " 


11 " 



12 " 

1— Second Seriea^Svo 

2 " 


3 " 



4 " 


5 " 



6 " 



7 •• 



6. Decease of Members. 

Once more with the recurring season the council has the 
melancholy duty of recording the losses whieh the society has sustained 
during the preceding year. The honorary secretary, Sir John Bourinot, 
the Honorable Josepdi Royal, Dr. Brynmer, Dr. Selwyn and Dr. MacCabe 
have passed from among us, and their names must now be entered upon 
the honoured record of brilliant men who have left the imprint of their 
influence in the records of their country. The names of all deceased 
members have in this volume been given at the end of the roll; and, 
as they are read name after name and their life labour rises before the 
memory, we must feel the high obligation we are under to carry on the 
work of literature and science in Canada on the lines they have laid 
down and in a manner worthy of such predecessors. 

The loss which the society has suffered by the death of the 
honorary l&ecretary, Sir John Bourinot, is irreparable. From the organ- 
ization of the society in 1882 he was its honorary secretary, and the 
>?ociety has had no other. He lived to superintend the publication of 
nineteen annual volumes of its proceedings and transactions. When 
the twentieth began to be prepared he was too ill to take a pari) ia it 
No one can sufficiently appreciate the attention he gave to the society's 
business and the interest he took in its work. His zeal was unflagging, 
and during the long series of years he had served as honorary secretary 
he had acquired such a knowledge of the society's work that the chief 
part of its administration had of necessity gravitated to him. He was 
personally in friendly relations with all the members and his wide 
acquaintance with all the literary men of Canadia was of great assistance 
to the society. It will be well nigh impossible to find a successor so 
perfectly suited as Sir John Bourinot for all the duties of honorary 
secretary. Not 'only did he serve the society in his official capacity, 
he enriched its transactions by many monographs of great value. His 
wide knowledge of all matters connected with the working of constitu- 
tional and representajtive gov^emments is displayed in contributions on 
the comparative politics of the great self-governing colonies of England, 
and his learning in political science is manifested in his comparisons 
of our system with the institutions of other free countries. Such 
studies as these may be supposed to follow from his position as clerk of 
the House of Commons; but he was also one of the chief scholars of 
Canada in all questions of Canadian history. His monograph on Cape 
Breton is really exhaustive and leaves no room for any one to follow 
him; and that on the builders of Nova Scotia is a model of painstaking 
labour and accuracy. No one unfamiliar with the details of the 


publication of the Transactionâ can have any idea o£ the amount of 
work he put into his contributions. 

His industry was incessant^ more so than the requirements of his 
health permitted. He found time to write a number of volumes which 
have not only been highly valued in Canada, but are much esteemed 
abroad. Among them is the history of Canada in the "Story of Nations 
Series^' and a volume on Canada under British rule in the " Cambridge 
University Series." This was his last published volume, and in many 
respects it is his best. 

The knowledge of parliamentary institutions which accrued from 
his oflScial position was supplemented by indefatigable study. The re- 
sult is apparent in the fact that his work on parliamentary procedure is 
the authority on such questions throughout the Dominion. It is not 
only conclusively quoted in all the legislatures of Canada, but is quoted 
as a standard reference in the legislatures of other colonies. On these 
and kindred subjects he was frequently invited as a lecturer before 
universities and societies in the United States as well as in Canada ; and 
wherever he went he did credit to his native country and to its rising 
literature. Many years must pass before his place can be filled. We 
deplore his loss for the sake of the Royal Society of Canada, and for 
ourselves, personally, we lament the loss of a friend. 

Dr. A. R. C. Selwyn, one of the original Fellows of the Royal Socie- 
ty of Canada^ for twenty-five years director of the Geological Survey of 
Canada, for eighteen years previous director of the Geological Survey 
of Victoria, Australia, and for seven years previous to that attached to 
the field staff of the Geological Survey of England and Wales, died in 
Vancouver, British Columbia, on the 19th of October, 1902, the result 
of a stroke of paralysis. 

At the early age of twenty-one, in 1845, he was appointed to a posi- 
tion on the Geological Survey of Great Britain, under Sir Henry de la 
Beche. His earliest work on the British Survey was under the imme- 
diate supervision of the distinguished geologist, A. C. Ramsay. He 
was one of that contingent of stratigraphical geologists under Ramaay 
who did so much to lay down the fundamental lines separating the 
various formations in th"»t wonderful compendium of geology that 
England has proved to be. 

In 1869 he was called to succeed Sir Wm. Logan as director of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, which position he held for twenty-five 
years. He leaves behind him a career full of usefulness to the Empire, 
for his work was performed not only in Canada, but in the Motherland 
and in two of her most prosperous colonies. 

Dr. Selwjn received many honours and occupied numerous dis- 
tinguished positions, in his capacity as head of the Geological Surveys 


A. R. C. SBLWYN. C.M.O., LL.D.. BTC. 





of Victoria and Canada. In both countries he emphasized the economic 
side of the science of geology and did much to encourage those under 
him to study and solve the complex problems of geological structure 
which presented themselves to him in his official labours. 

In 1877 the council of the Geological Society of London, award- 
ed him the Murchison medal for his eminent services in the field of 
geology, and^ in 1884, he received the Clarke gold medai from the 
Royal Society of New South Wales. In 1886 he was created a Com- 
panion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 

Since Dr. Selwyn's retirement in December, 1894, he resided in 
British Columbia. 

The name of Dr. Douglas Brymner will ever be associated with 
the Bureau of Canadian Archives which he organized and, for neariy a 
third of a century, administered to the satisfaction of the Government 
and the public. Before he assumed the duties of archivist in 1872, he 
had been an able and successful journalist. His best work in that 
capacity was done in collaboration with the late Honourable Edward 
Goff Penny, senator, in the oolunms of the Montreal Herald. As edi- 
tor of the Presbyterian, Dr. Brymner championed, during a critical 
period of its history, the cause of the Church «of Scotliand in Can-ada. 
He was a contributor to various periodicals, not only in prose but in 
verse; his translation of some of the Odes of Horace into the Lowland 
Scottish dialect having been conceded a high merit by good judges. Dr. 
Brymner was for some years a respected member and for a time pre- 
sident of the Press G^lery at Ottawa. As a journalist he was sincere- 
ly esteemed and honoured by his confrères. He was conscientious, 
patient and fair; and, in style, aimed at clearness and strength rather 
than brilliancy. For no consideration would he swerve in the slightest 
degree from his honest convictions, and no man was more painstaking 
in collecting and sifting the data on which his convictions reposed. 
Both by character and occupation, therefore, he was admirably fitted 
lor the position of archivist. 

Only thos-e who have followed his work year by year, from its 
inception to its close, can form a just estimate of its value or be aware 
of its profound and far-reaching significance. In the presidential 
address (Trans, for 1895), Sir James LeMoine gave an excellent résumé 
of the contents of the ajchives reports from 1873 until that year. If 
we except the special researches of the late Abbé Verreau, of the late 
Mr. Joseph Marmette and, after Mr. Mannctte^s death, of Mr. Edouard 
Richard, the heaviest labours as well as the supervision of the bureau 
devolved upon Dr. Brymner. How grave and difficult was the respon- 
ibility imposed upon him by the conditions of his appointment is 
known to those who can recall the state of our repositories at that 


time. The defects which his tour of inspection brought to light would 
have deterred a less earnest antiquary or a less faithful and energetic 
public senant from prosecuting the task. But he persevered. Pro- 
ceeding to Europe, he visited the documentary treasuries of the 
motherlands and quickly won the confidence of those in charge of 
them. In the organization of the bureau, therefore, no needed coun- 
sel or help was withheld. It was not long till historical inquirers in 
and out of Canada, recognized the worth of the new source of infor- 
mation. The yearly reports, at first hidden among the appendices to 
the Agricultural Blue Book, were widely sought, even before they had 
attained the distinction of separate publication. The correspondence 
became more and more voluminous, and Dr. Brymner and his assistants 
tried to meet every fresh demand on their time. Long before Dr. 
Brymner^s death, the archives report, sold at a nominal price, had come 
to be one of the most popular publications of its kind. It was in 
as high request in the United States as in Canada, and helped to create 
a new and fairer school of American historians. If the work of the 
department in future years can be rendered more effectual it will be 
cause for felicitation; but it will always remain to the credit of Dr. 
Douglas Brymner that he laid the foundation on which others must 
build, and that he set up a standard of official duty of which his own 
life was the model. 

The death of the Honourable Joseph Royal removes from us one 
of our most able writers. He was not a writer of books but he was in 
the front rank of French journalism. He was a frequent contributor to 
La Revue Canadienne and assisted at its foundation. He contributed 
also to other periodicals of high class. His first efforts appeared in 
La Minerve where so many leading lights in journalism commenced 
their careers. He founded UOrdre in 1858, and, thirty years later, 
in 1888, he was among the founders of Le Nouveau Monde. Later 
still on the opening up of the West he founded Le Metis at St. Boni- 
face in Manitoba. 

In Manitoba his influence was great and was always exercised in 
Ihe direction of peace and moderation. When he went there the fires 
of insurrection were scarcely cool. His incessant care whether as pro- 
vincial deputy or minister was always to conciliate strife and remove 
prejudice. He was a firm believer in the great destiny of the North- 
west, for he studied its resources and knew of whait he spoke and wrote. 
In 1890 he became lieutenant-governor of the Northwest Territories 
RTid in that high office he served for five years with appreciation and 
success, for it drew out his genial and conciliating character. 

On retiring from office he returned to the province of Quebec and 
tu the profession of journalism. His death was unexpected for his natu- 


I al vigour was scarcely touched by age and his many attached friends 
had expected a long continuation of his useful life. He had comple- 
ted a History of Canada from 1840 to 1865 — ^from the Union to Con- 
federation. Thofie who have seen it believe that it will take a high 
place in Canadian letters. 

Dr. MacCabe's death removes from among us one who had dur- 
ing many years been the host of the Royal Society within this build- 
ing. The society is indebted to him for the facilities for holding its 
meetings which it has long enjoyed; and for countless courtesies to 
individual members extending over many years. He was among the 
foremost of the leaders of education in the province of Ontario. Both 
in Canada as well as in his native Ireland, his life was devoted to teach- 
ing. He was trained in the Normal School of Dublin and from thence 
he went to the Catholic University. On coming to Nova Scotia in 1869 
he vrsLS appointed to the Normal School at Truro and on the opening of 
the present Normal School at Ottawa he was appointed as principal. He 
was an active participant in many educational and literary associations 
in the city and by the older members of the Royal Society his hospat- 
able annual welcome will long be remembered. 

7. Corresponding Members. 

Under No. 8 of the regulations the number of the corresponding 
members of the society is fix^d at a maximum of sixteen. The names 
of Professor Henry F. Osborn of Columbia University and Professor 
W. F. Ganong, of Smith University, Northampton, have been submit- 
ted and the council would recommend their election. 

Professor Osborn is a graduate of Princeton University, New 
Jersey, where he received the degree of Sc.D. Later he studied abroad 
at Oxford University and at Heidelberg, returning to occupy the Chair 
of Zoology at Princeton. For some years, he has been Da Costa Pro- 
fessor of Zoology at Columbia University, New York, and curator of the 
Department of Vertebrate Palaeontology of the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, and at present is also chairman of the New 
York Zoological Society. 

Professor W. F. Q^nong is a Canadian, bom of Loyalist stock at St. 
John, N.B. He graduated at the University of New Brunswick as B.A. 
in 1884. Went as student to Harvard University in 1885 and gradua- 
ted there as A.B. in 1887. He was appointed, first as assistant, andt 
then afi instructor in botany. In 1893-4 he studied in Munich and 
graduated as Ph.D. from the University of Munich in 1894. The same 
year he was appointed Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanic 


Garden of Smith University in Northampton, Mass., where he now 

Dr. Ganong has contributed a number of valuable papers to the 
transactions of the Roycd Society of Canada aa follows: — 

Vol. 5.—" Cartier's First Voyage.'^ 

Vol. 7. — "Cartography of the Gulf; Cartier to Champlain. 

Vol. 9.—" Site of Port La Tour." 

In the second series he has contributed: — 

Vol. 2. — "Place Nomenclature of New Brunswick." 

Vol. 3. — "Cartography of New Brunswick." 

Vol. 5. — " Historic Sites in New Brunswick." 

Vol. 7. — " Evolution of the Boundaries of New Brunswick." 

In the present volume is an exhaustive paper on De Monts' and 
Champlain's settlement on St. Croix Island in the winter of 1604:-5, 
and another paper is announced for the present session which will com- 
plete the series of New Brunswick monographs. 

Besides the above in Section 2 — he contributed in Section IV. — 
Vol. 8 — 1st series, a paper on " Southern Vertebrates on the Shores of 

He has also written " The Teaching Botanist," published by Mac- 
millan, 1899, and " A Laboratory Course in Plant Physiology," pub- 
lished by Holt in 1891. 

8. Members of Council. 

The time of some of the members having expired, the council, at 
a meeting on January 23pd, called Mr. T. C. Keefer and Dr. A. D. 
DeCelles to be members under the provisions of Hule 5. 

9. Election of Fellows. 

Nomination papers were sent out in regular course on March 15. 
The forms were in accordance with the rule adopted at last session and 
the names of three members only as proposers were attached to each 

In Section I. there were two vacancies. The following gentlemen 
have obtained a majority of the votes of the whole section. There 
were only two nominations. 

Monsignor Paquet. 

Hon. L. A. Prud'homme. 

In Section II. there were five nominations but only three vacancies. 
Mr. W. D. LeSueur has obtained the votes of a majority of the section. 



The others did not obtain a majority and the council therefore refers 
them back to the section for selection and reconunendaiion. 

In Section III. there were three nominations for one vacancy and 
none obtained the requisite number of votes. The names are therefore 
referred back to the section in like manner. 

In Section IV. there were two nominations and only one vacancy, 
but as neither name obtained the requisite number of votes the coun- 
cil refers the matter back to the section. 

10. Associated Societies. 

The customary invitations to attend the present meeting and 
report on the scientific and literary work of the year, were sent to 
the following Canadian societies, which have hitherto co-operated 
with the Royal Society: 


Natural History Society 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society . . . 

Microscopical Society 

Historique . . . 



Société Littéraire de Monti*éal. 

Literary and Historical Society. . , 

Geographical Society 

Institut Canadien 

Literarv and Scientific Society. . . 

Field Naturalists' Club 

Hamilton Scientific Association. 
Entomological Society of Ontario 

Canadian Institute 

Natural History Society of St. John, N.B. 
N. S. Institute of Natural Science. . . . 

Historical Society of Nova Scotia 

Natural History Society of B.C 

Wentworth Historical Society 

Elgin Historical and Scientific Society. 

Historical Society of Manitoba 

Botanical Club of Canada. 

American Folk Lore Society 

Historical Society , 

Royal Astronomical Society 

Lundy*s Lane Historical Society 

New Brunswick Historical Society . . 

Historical Society of Ontario 

Women's Canadian Historical Society of 


Niagara Historical Society 

United Empire Loyalists' Association of 


Women's Wentworth Historical Society. 

Natural History Association 

Peterborough Historical Society 

Canadian Forestry Association 

Women's Canadian Historical Society. . 
Hamilton Ladies' College Alumnae Asso 


Natural History and Antiquarian Society 

of P. E. Island 

Hamilton Astronomical Society 














St. John 



Victoria, B.C 

Hamilton, Ont..., 
St. Thomas, Ont. 


Halifax, N.S 




Niagara Falls. . . . 

St. John 


do .. 
Niagara . 








Charlotte town. 


Prof. T.Wesley Mills 
R. W. McLachlan 

Rev. J. L. Morin 
P. B. Casgrain 

H. H. Bligh 
W. T. Macoun 
Rev. Dr. Marsh 
Rev. Dr. Bethune 

Hon. Senator Ellis 
Dr. Ells 
Archbishop O'Brien 

Rev. Dr. Bryce 
Prof. Macoun 

R. F. Stupart 

Mrs. Ahearn 

E. Stewart 

Mrs. S. E. Dawson 

Lawr'ce W. Watson 
Rev. D. B. Marsh 



The council earnestly recommends to the consideration of the 
society the following letter received from Dr. W. P. Ganong. The 
event to be celebrated is the first settlement on the Acadian shore 300 
years ago, for, although the colony spent only one winter on St. Croix 
Island it was moved as a body to Port Royal on Annapolis Basin and 
even the timber of the building was removed. The event is no less 
than the beginning of Canada; for, from that moment, Ohamplain, the 
father and founder of Canada, took firm hold of this country and never 
ceased to hold it until his death. The settlement to be commemorated 
is also the first settlement by Europeans on this continent north of St. 
Augustine. It was in 1604, three years before the first permanent 
settlement at Jamestown in Virginia and sixteen years before the 
landing of the Pilgrim Fathers at Plymouth. It is a date ever to be 
remembered in the history of Canada and of North America. 

The council recommends that the whole matter be referred to a 
committee with instructions to report as soon as possible during the 
present session. 

Northampton, Mass., April 27, 1903. 
Dr. S. E. Dawson, 

Acting Honorary Secretary of the Royal Society of Canada, 
Ottawa, Canada. 
My dear Dr. Dawson: — 

If I understand aright, there is a strong movement in St. John, N.B., 
towards a fitting celebration In June, 1904, of the three hundredth anniversary 
of the discovery of the St. John River by de Monts and Champlain, and an 
important feature hoped for in the celebration is the presence of the Royal 
Society of Canada. It is most desirable from every point of view, not only 
that this celebration should be well carried out, but that the Royal Society 
should honor the city by its presence at that time and I trust both events 
will be brought to pass. In view of this possibility, I desire to call your 
attention to one possible feature of such a celebration which ought not to 
be omitted, namely, a visit to St. Croix— or Dochet— Island, the site of 
de Monts' settlement, the Importance of which in Canadian history it is 
not necessary here to emphasize. You will recall that de Monts and Cham- 
plain on June 24th discovered the mouth of the St. John and two — or possibly 
three — days later they reached St. Croix Island and established there the 
settlement whose history is the history of the beginning of the permanent 
settlement of Canada. It seems to me that a celebration at St. John which 
omitted a visit to this island would not only be historically incomplete, but 
would cause those interested to miss one of the greatsst attractions such 
an event could have. The island lies in a region of great natural interest 
and beauty, is easily reached from St. John, either by special steamer 
requiring a Journey of about four hours each way, or by rail from St. John 
to St. Stephen or St. Andrews and thence by a charming steamer route 
of a few miles to the island. There would thus be ample time in one day 
to make the excursion which naturally should come on the 26th of June, the 


probable date of its discovery. Furthermore, since the island, although 
historically a part of Canada is row politically a part of the United States, 
it would seem fitting that the Maine Historical Society, which would natur- 
ally to some extent be the host on such an occasion, the Royal Society of' 
Canada and the New Brunswick Historical Society, should, if possible, com- 
bine in a Joint visit to, and fitting ceremonies upon, the island. I am ven- 
turing myself, entirely informally, to call the attention of the officers of the 
Maine Historical Society to the approaching anniversary and the desirability 
of its celebration upon some such plan, but, of course, a more formal com- 
munication between the societies should take place as soon as practicable. 
It would form a pleasing feature of such a visit of the societies if some 
permanent memorial appropriate to the place could be left, a bronze tablet 
upon one of the rock surfaces of the island if nothing more. 

In the hope that this matter may seem to you of interest, and that it 
may be thought worthy of the attention of the Royal Society of Canada, 

I am, very truly yours, ' 

Wm. F. Ganono. 

Since receipt of the preceding letter, the following has been 
received from the Secretary of the Natural History Society of New 
Brunswick : 

St. John, N.B., May 11th, 1903. 
b. E. Dawson, Lit. D., 

Acting Honorary Secretary, Royal Society of Canada, 
Dear Sir. 

The Natural History Society of New Brunswick extends a cordial invita- 
tion to the Royal Society of Canada to hold its session in St. John in June, 
1904, on the occasion of the Ter-centenary of the discovery of the Harbour 
and River St. John by de Monts and Champlain in 1604. 

The date is the twenty-fourth of June, and if the Royal Society could 
arrange to hold its meeting on or about that date instead of in May, it 
would be more suitable, both on account of the more genial season and in 
agreement with the time set for the celebration. 

We have the honour to remain. 

Yours very sincerely, 

John V. Ellis, G. U. Hat, 

Président. Hecretary. 

12. Bibliographies. 

The compilation, by the four sections, of Annual Bibliographies of 
all publications issued during the previous year in their respective 
departments, has been the subject of many recommendations, and is 
now in a fair way to be carried out with regularity. Mr. Burpee has 
contributed an exhaustive bibliography of the English literature of 
Canada during the year 1901. In such a task it is hard to draw a pre- 
cise line, and, while the intention was to omit publications in the sciences, 
it is impossible to avoid overlapping in the case of popular books and 
articles in which literature and science are inextricably interwoven. 


Few can understand the length of time and the amount of patient 
labour involved in such a work as this. 

In science the division of labour, commenced last year, has been 
carried on. Dr. Whiteaves has continued his Bibliography of Canadian 
Zoology — excepting Entomology — and the Eev. Dr. Bethune has com- 
pleted the subject by a continuation of his Bibliography of Entomology. 
Dr. Ami has continued his work on Canadian publications relating to 
Geology and Palaeontology, and Dr. A. H. MacKay has done the same 
for Botanical science. The mathematical and physical sciences have 
not been touched at yet; nor has a commencement been made with the 
French literature of Canada. The Council hope that the first section 
will do something to bring annually under general notice the large 
mass of literature which, year after year, is published in Canada and 
not known as widely as it deserves. 

Even to one familiar with the literary and scientific work carried 
on in Canada, the amount of such work annually done by Canadians is 
surprising, when it is seen gathered together and at one view, as in 
these laborious bibliographies. 

13. Pbeservation of Places of Scenic and Histokic Interest. 

The Council are glad to present in the Transactions for this year 
tiie first fruits of the Committee on this interesting subject, suggested 
by the Council in 1901. The Honourable Senator Poirier, an Acadian 
0Î old French stock, has visited the ruins of the old French fortress of 
LouisLourg, and written a valuable monograph on the events which one 
hundred and fifty years ago attracted the attention of all Europe and 
America to that small point on our Acadian coast. It is a place of 
supreme historic interest, for thero was played the opening act of the 
Titanic struggle of France and England for the mastery of the Ameri- 
can continent. After a century and a half of neglect, the harbour is 
beginning to resume the importance which it merits, and industrial 
suctivity is effacing the scars of old conflicts; but so long as humian 
hearts continue to throb at the recital of deeds of noble daring, so long 
the memories of the moss grown casemates of old Louisbourg will con- 
tinue to be cherished. 

The Council have also to express their satisfaction at the defeat 
of the attempt made in Montreal to sweep away the old Chateau de 
Eamezay. The Legislature of Quebec was too proud of the memories 
of the French race in Canada to sanction such an act of vandalism 
as to destroy that witness, standing dumb and yet eloquent, of the deeds 
and sacrifices of long past years. The Council hopes that it may stand 
for many future years, so that when our grandchildren ask what means 


that quaint old building, they may be told that within its walls the 
destiny of Canada was fixed, in those far off days of trial, when their 
forefathers threw in, once for all, their lot with the British Crown and 
pledged a loyal faith which endures to this day. 

14. Time Reckoning. 

The completion of the Pacific cable is bringing appreciably nearer 
the adoption of one system of world time; or universal time referred 
to one meridian. Such a change is too subversive of all our habits of 
thought and forms of speech to be adopted, excepting very gradually. 
A very important step towards simplification, however, was taken by 
the Intercolonial Eailway on its completion in 1876, by introducing 
the twenty-four hour day. That system was adopted by the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, from its opening in 1886, for all points west of Lake 
Superior. It has become familiar to us; for the railways introduced 
the system into all the provinces of the Dominion, and it has extended 
to all the great transcontinental lines of this continent. 

In the same way five meridians of even hours have displaced the 
innumerable local times across this continent. That was a most im- 
portant step and it is now accepted as a matter of course. The 
transactions of this Society for 1886 contain a paper by Sir Sandford 
l<leming, setting forth, in detail, the advantages of reckoning by cosmic 
time and his presidential address in 1890, before the third section, con- 
tinued to advocate that great change, lie had thought it out long pre- 
viously and had prepared a paper for the meeting of the British Associ- 
ation as early as 1878, but could not obtain a hearing for his proposal; 
so visionary and Utopian did it appear to the officers of that influential 
scientific body. Change is rapid now, and the world cable brings us 
face to face with world time. Our thoughts, and of necessity our 
speech, have been moulded upon the isolation consequent upon distance 
in space. Rapid transit brought the reduction of all local meridians to 
five on this continent, but now a merchant in telegraphic communica- 
tion with Australia, will have to think not only of the time of the day 
from which his transaction is dating, but of the day itself. Gradually 
then, but with increasing rapidity, the change will probably come, mov- 
ing from five mieridians to one continental meridian, and at last to one 
prime meridian, from which all great transactions shall be dated. One 
such meridian has recently been adopted for that part of South Africa 
under British influence and, on the 28th of February last, the clocks in 
the Transvaal were advanced from 11.30 to midnight, to correspond 
with the meridian of 30 degrees East. That is very nearly the meridian 

Proc., 1003. 2. 


of Alexandria, the Nile valley and the Equatorial lakes — the meridian of 
the tides of civilization advancing northwards and southwards through 
the dark continent; so that we probably shall have in Africa the first 
instance of a continental meridian and a continental time. 

15. Meeting of the International Geological Congress. 

The Council has pleasure in announcing that the general secre- 
tary of this important association has written to express a wish exist- 
ing anuong its leading members to visit the Dominion of Canada and 
hold, at Ottawa, its triennial meeting in 1906. The Council has 
received the following letter from Dr. Eobert Bell upon the subject : 

Geological Survey, 

Ottawa, 15th AprU. 1902. 
Dear Dr. Dawson: — 

Dr. Diener, the general secretary of the organizing committee of the 
International Geological Congress, has written me as Acting-Director of 
the Geological Survey of Canada, that there is a general desire among the 
geologists of Europe, that Canada should send an invitation to the Congress 
to hold its next meeting (after the Vienna- meeting next August), in Canada, 
That would be in 1906, the meetings being held every three years. 

The geologists who attend the Congrress would like to come to this 
country very much, as it is so interesting geologically and there is so much 
of it. 

On receipt of Dr. Diener's letter, I wrote to Sir Wm. Mulock, Acting 
Mmister of the Interior, and I now enclose you a copy of my letter. He 
has replied that what the Government has done in previous cases was to 
grant a bulk sum to be placed in the hands of some organization to be 
spent for the benefit of the visitors. 

After consulting some of my colleagues and Mr. Macfarlane, who attends 
these meetings, we think the Royal Society of Canada would be the proper 
organization to take this matter up. As it \a too important a subject to 
spring it upon the Society after they have come to Ottawa, I thought the 
Council of the Society should be consulted as soon a.=^ possible, so that they 
might consider what steps to take. I therefore write you — as Honorary 
Secretary— in the meantime, so that you may think it over, and I will take • 
an early opportunity to confer with you about it. 

I am sure you will agree with me that Canada should not lose this rare 
opportunity of inducing this important body of scientific men to visit this 
country. It would be a pleasure and an honour to us to have them here, 
end their visit would result in great good to the Dominion. The King of 
Italy »at the first congress, and the Emperor of Russia at the last one, took 
the greatest personal interest in the meetings and so have the great men 
of all the countries when the congress have met. 

Yours very truly, 

Robert Bbu^ 
Dr. S. E. Dawson, 

Hon. Secy. Royal Society of Canada, 


The Council warmly recommends the subject to the favourable 
consideration of the Society and suggests that Dr. Bell's letter, with 
an enclosure of copy of a letter to the Hon. Sir Wm. Mulock, on the 
subject be referred to Section IV., with a request to nominate a com- 
mittee to take such action as will lead to the meeting of the Congress 
being held at Ottawa. 

16. The British World Telegraph Cable. 

Every loyal subject of the English Crown must feel intense satis- 
faction at the successful comfpletion of the Pacific cable from Van- 
couver Island to Fiji, Australia and New Zealand. With this feeling, 
which they share in common with all British subjects, the Society must 
acknowledge some additional pride, inasmuch as a Canadian, and one of 
their own colleagues, was the originator and moving spirit of the enter- 
prise, and has been continuously identified with its progress until its 
final success. The design of this great work presented itself to the mind 
of Mr. — now Sir Sandford — Fleming, when, as engineer-in-chief of 
the Government Pacific Railway^ he was surveying its route across the 
continent. It was a great idea, carried to completion by patience and 
perseverance. It was he who supplied the energy, made the calcula- 
tions, rallied its friends, overcame the hostility of competitors, inspired 
the necessary diplomacy, initiated and directed the essential surveys, and 
finally compelled into accord the hesitating Governments of Great 
Britain and the interested colonies. The result is that the longest of 
submarine cables is at work, and that Canada is not now at the end of 
a telegraphic cul-desac, but on a main line of communication. This 
is the first ocean cable owned and worked, not by joint stock companies, 
but by states', and those all British, while the magic band itself touches 
no foreign soil. It is in reality a thread of nervous life, throbbing 
round the Empire like the classic morning drumbeat of Britain encir- 
cling the world, but outstripping the sun with the speed of thought. 
We are familiar with the distances across the Atlantic, but the distances 
across the Pacific are l^ss generally known — they are : — 

Vancouver Island to Fanning Island 3458 miles. 

Fanning Island to Fiji 2043 " 

Fiji to Norfolk Island 981 " 

Norfolk Island to Queensland 837 '' 

Norfolk Island to New Zealand 519 ^^ 

7838 " 
Seven thousand eight hundred and thirty-eight miles owned and 
worked by the Governments of Great Britain and her greater colonies. 


There are few achivements of modern times so great, and few enter- 
prises which have been carried to successful completion against the per- 
sistent opposition of such powerful competitors, the smouldering 
hostility of powerful officials and the steady inertia of powerful 

17. Wireless Telegraphy. 

The success of Mr. Marconi's attempts to send signals across the 
Atlantic Ocean without wires is especially interesting to Canada, be- 
cause, when he was forbidden to conclude his experiments on the 
shores of Newfoundland, our Government, not being bound, as was 
cur sister colony, by an unexpired exclusive charter, gave a warm wel- 
come and gracious support to the inventor and projector. It was 
indeed the first among governments to make a considerable appropria- 
tion in aid of what was, at the time, experimental science. The dis- 
turbance in space needed to produce effects at a distance must increase 
with the mileage between transmitting and receiving stations, but 
the sending of news despatches from America to the London Times 
is a promise of further extension, and we must hope that neither the 
cost of generating the necessary power nor a confusing efEect when 
frequent wireless messages are crossing each other will interfere with 
t])e development of a system so scientifically interesting. The utility 
of wireless telegraphy in connection with lighthouse service and isolated 
stations is now fully established, while no steamship on the ocean 
need ever be out of touch with one or other shore. The value to 
meteorological science of regular and complete data from the mid- 
Atlantic, applied to weather predictions for Europe and to storm warn- 
ings from America for west-bound vessels, will be high. 

While it may, or may not, be true that, in cases of transmission 
over great distances, improvements are yet required in receiving cur- 
rents feeble from dispersion, we may hope that all such difficulties 
will disappear before the advancing march of science. 

18. The Transmission and Transformation op Energy. 

The wonderful advances of recent years in the transformation 
»nd transmission of energy bid fair to place Canada in the front rank 
of manufacturing countries. The St. Lawrence is a northern river 
and its valley cuts transversely to the heart of the continent across 
its axis. Nine-tenths of the water flowing through it comes in from 
a plateau about one thousand feet above the river level, extending 
from Labrador to the height of land between Lake Superior and the 
Lake of the Woods. The millions of horse powers which for 


innumerable ages have been flowing to waste, were the theme of 
the Presidential address of 1899, and every year they become more 
available by transformation into electrical energy and transmis- 
sion to indefinite distances for manufacturing purposes. Through 
the kindness of the citizens of Toronto the Royal Society had at 
Niagara Falls a grand object lesson. But all along the northern line 
of the basin of the great river of Canada are hundreds of small Nia- 
garas, sources of wealth which we have hitherto known only as weari- 
some portages — and the distance of these breaks in navigation is 
never farther than, even now, is within the limits of easy transmission 
of power. Such considerations as these, while encouraging and 
strengthening faith in our country, should warn us to guard jealously 
against any wasteful deforestation which may tend to impair the even 
flow of our northern waters. If Providence has held back from central 
Canada the gift of coal, with which the provinces of the extreme east 
and west are so richly endowed, there is an incalculable and perennial 
source of energy at our doors which every advance of science brings 
closer to us. 

19. Triangulation along the 98th Meridian. 

This work has been for several years the subject of much interest 
to the Society, and a committee was appointed to urge upon the Gov- 
ernment the importance of continuing the line northward through 
Canadian territory. A letter from Professor McLeod, at page xiv. 
of vol. 8 of the Proceedings, explains the matter fully. The subject 
was taken up again at the Toronto meeting and, at the instance of 
Section 3, a committee was appointed to press the importance of the 
matter upon the Government anew. The report of that committee 
is as follows: 

To the Council of the Royal Society of Canada, 
Memorandum : 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting of the Royal Society for 
the purpose of ascertaining what action, if any, the Government of Canada 
is willing to take in the direction of extending the triangulation system of 
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey into this country, as urged 
by the Royal Society in a memorial presented to the Governor-General-in- 
Councll in the year 1898, and to again urge the Importance of the work, have 
the honour to submit the following report: 

In December, 1898, the Royal Society brought to the attention of His 
Excellency the Govemor-General-in-Council a proposal by Dr. Pritchett, at 
the time Superintendent of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, 
to measure an arc along the 98th meridian from Acapulco. Mexico, to the 
shore of the Arctic sea in Canada. The measurement of the meridian had 
been in progress for some time as part of the general survey of the United 
States ; the object of Dr. Pritchett in urging its extension through Canada 


dnd Mexico was to provide data for the determination of the fl^rure and 
dimensions of the earth, and while from this point of view the work would 
be purely scientific, the Canadian portion of it would also be of erreat practical 
utility in forming the basis of a thorough geographical survey for the Dom- 
inion. The Government of Mexico had announced its readiness to undertaJce 
its part of the work; the successful execution of the project as a whole 
therefore, depended entirely on the co-operation of Canada. It was suggested 
by the Royal Society that a limited grant for this purpose would be regarded 
as a contribution to aid in the general researches of the nations of the world, 
while at the same time it would serve to inaugurate a very much needed work, 
and one of great practical importance to the future of the Dominion. 

The answer of the Government was that while they fully appreciated the 
importance of the project from a scientific and practical point of view, th«y 
were not in a position then to recommend the co-operation of Canada in the 
suggested work. 

During the five years elapsed since this memorial was presented to His 
Excellency the Govemor-General-in-Councll, the work has been more than 
half completed in the United States and the cost has been reduced to little 
more than $50 per mile of progress along the axis of the triangulation, this 
very low figure being due to exceptionally favourable circumstances and fur- 
nishing a probable lower limit of cost. In Mexico, the work has been pushed 
rapidly forward by the Mexican Geodetic Commission. The most difficult 
part of the triangulation, across the two main chains of the Grand Cordillera, 
has been completed and connected with the National Observatory at Tacu- 
baya. A preliminary survey for locating the triangles has been made as far 
ne Acapulco on the Pacific Coast, towards the south, and Tampico, on the 
Gulf of Mexico, towards the north. Director Angel Anguiano, under whose 
skilled guidance the work is being executed, expects to finish the triangrulatlon 
from Acapulco to Tampico in little more than a year, leaving only a short 
interval from Tampico to a point near Matamoros for completing the whole 
of the work in Mexico. 

While considering the advisability of again bringing this matter before the 
Government, it has occurred to your Committee that the time has arrived 
when the larger question of a Geodetic Survey as a basis for systematic 
surveys in Canada, should receive earnest consideration. In your memorial 
of 1898, it was represented that without such a basis, there is no finality in 
results; the same grround is being surveyed over and over again, as is the 
case in the Dominion, by the land surveyor, the geologist, the railway or 
canal engineer, the hydrographer, etc. For every new object a new survey 
has to be made. The labour and expenditure on these surveys would be 
considerably reduced and often entirely unnecessary, if we had a system- 
atic triangrulatlon carried out 9s in other countries. 

This fact has long been recognized in Europe, where every country has 
been accurately mapped. Outside of Europe may be cited the United 
States, whose triangulation is well advanced: India which offers a striking 
instance of extensive and well conducted surveys, the Cape of Good Hope 
and Natal, which have executed a joint triangulation of South Africa ; New 
Zealand, where triangulation has preceded all other surveys. It must not 
be supposed that there were no objections raised in these countries to the 
inception of the work; on the contrary, it was frequently opposed by those 
who did not understand its practical value, but their opinions changed after 


they had been in a position to appreciate its usefulness. Of the Survey 
or South Africa. Mr. David Gill, Her Majesty's Astronomer at the Cape, 
says : -— 

•* The influence of the Geodetic Survey has made itself felt by raising 
" the whole tone of survey operations in South Africa^ Strongly as it was 
• at first opposed and grudgingly as it waa maintained, its advantages are 
•• now fully acknowledged, and by none more warmly than the Survey or- 
•* Generals of the Cape Colony, Natal and Bechuanaland." 

There are few countries, if any, where the expenditure for surveys per 
capita of population is as large as it is in Canada. The Department of the 
Interior is subdividing lands in Manitoba, the Northwest Territories and 
British Columbia, the Greological Survey Department is surveying and 
exploring in all paits of the Dominion, the Department of Marine and 
Fisheries is making a hydrographie survey of our navigable waters, a mil- 
itary survey of the country is in course of execution under the direction of 
the military authorities, the Department of Public Works and the Depart- 
ment of Railways and Canals are also conducting extensive surveys. In 
these operations, ground already covered by one department is often gone 
over again by some other department. The same distribution and duplica- 
tion of work is repeated in each province, where almost every department 
01' the LfOcal Government and many of the great corporations are making 
surveys for some purpose or another. Were this great mass of information 
bound and connected together by a triangulation it would become possible 
to take a broad and comprehensive view of great questions affecting the 
country instead of considering them only under the few aspects presented by 
local surveys. That the practical value of accurate maps is not over- 
estimated by your Committee is shown by the experience of the British army 
in South Africa; millions in money and many valuable lives would probably 
have been saved, had accurate maps of the country been availabje. One 
of the first acts of the British Government after the war, and even while 
it was going on, was to commence an elaborate survey of the country. 

The Dominion of Canada, controlling an area surpassed only by that of 
Russia, but of which the greater portion is still unsurveyed, would be dis- 
tinctly benefited by a triangulation as a means for the extension of further 
surveys. The explorations incidental to the establishment of the triangles 
would afford an opportunity of collecting information for which any special 
demand may arise, such as the height of waterfalls and the volume of water, 
for determining their commercial value. 

While thus advocating a rational basis for the surveys made in Canada, 
your Committee is not blind to the fact that owing to the immense extent 
of the country and its sparse population, the question presents peculiar 
difficulties. Were it proposed to organize a Geodetic Survey on the same lines 
as in the small, thickly populated European states, the cost would probably 
De beyond the resources of Canada and the Government might well hesitate 
before undertaking a project of such magnitude. It is believed, however» 
that a scheme may be devised which, while within the means of Canada, will 
give to the country, or at least to its most populated parts, the benefits 
ot a Geodetic Survey. For this purpose, it is respectfully recommended that 
the Government be asKed to appoint a Commission to collect information, 
and to enquire and report upon the subject. With the material furnished 


by the Commission, the Government will be in a position to decide what is 
required in the interests of the country and for the development ;of its 

Respectfully submitted, 

C. H. McLeod, 
Henry T. Bovey, 
Sandford Fleming, 
E. Deville. 
Thos. C. Keeper, 
April 13, 1903. 

20. Marine and Lake Biological Stations. 

As will appear on page xli. of last years Proceedings, the Society 
passed a resolution upon this subject and ordered that a copy be sent 
t> every member of the Government and of Parliament. The Acting 
Honorary Secretary prepared a letter embodying the resolution and 
sent it out to the persons indicated. A number of acknowledgments 
have been received. 

In their report for 1895 the Council while transmitting a letter 
from Professor Knight, of Queen's University, invited the special 
attention of the Royal Society to the importance of instituting a zoo- 
logical laboratory at some place on the lakes or upon the seashore of 
the Dominion. The Government established a marine laboratory on 
the seashore in 1899 and its success has been recorded in the reports 
cf Council every year since then. The Council has now the pleasure 
of announcing that a similar laboratory was instituted in 1901 on the 
lakes under the supervision of the Dominion Commissioner of Fish- 
eries, but under the immediate direction of Dr. B. Arthur Bensley. 
The management is entrusted to a committee of members of the scien- 
tific faculties of the University of Toronto and the Council is indebted 
to Dr. Bensley and the Rev. Dr. Burwash, the chairman of the com- 
mittee, for a report upon its progress. 

(A report on the Atlantic Station from Professor Prince will be 
found in Appendix B. together with the above on Lake Huron). 

21. Tidal Survey. 

A full report of this service, by Dr. W. Bell Dawson, is given as 
Appendix C. 

22. Ethnological Survey. 

It will be seen on reference to pp. xiv. and xl. of last year's 
Proceedings that a Committee was appointed to initiate an Ethnolo- 
gical Survey of Canada on lines corresponding to those adopted in 
the United Kingdom and to continue similar work which had been 


carried on siiwje 1884 regai>ding the Northwestern Indians by a com- 
mittee of which the late Dr. George Dawson was chairman. 

As the nature of this work is set forth at length in the above 
indicated pages, the Council need not go over it again. The Commit- 
tee has made the following report: — 

Report of Committee. 

In accordance with resolutions passed at the Toronto meeting of the 
Royal Society in 1902, the Committee has taken measures to enlist the 
co-operation of the various provincial grovernments who are asked to con- 
tribute as follows : — 

Dominion $5,000 

Ontario 4,000 

Quebec 3,000 

New Brunswick 2,000 

Nova Scotia 2,000 

Manitoba 2,000 

British Columbia 2,000 

Prince Edward Island 1,000 

A memorial has been prepared and forwarded to representatives In the 
various provinces for presentation to the Premiers. Financial stringency has 
operated in two or three cases to delay favourable responses, but the Com- 
mittee is prepared to vigorously urge their claims at the flnst favourable 
opportunity. The Memorial is as follows : — 

Sir :— 

We have the honour to present for your consideration and that of your 
colleagues, the members of the Cabinet, the following report and resolution 
presented at and adopted by the Royal Society of Canada at its meeting held 
at Toronto on the 27th of May, respecting the urgent need of some systematic 
investigation of the Ethnology of this country, and on behalf of the Commit- 
tee of the Royal Society of Canada^ we would also venture to urge upon the 
Dominion Government and upon the various provincial governments, the 
enactment of such legislation as may be necessary to give force to the sug- 
gestions herein set forth. 

At the meeting of the RoyaJ Society of Canada, held at Toronto on the 
27th of May, the Council made the following report :— 

(So far as this report may be found at page xiv. of the Proceed- 
ings of last year it is not repeated here. The present memorial then 
goes on to say : — ) 

In vle»w of the presentation thus made by Council, the Royal Society then 
unanimously adopted the following resolution :— 

That " Hon. J. W. Longley, Sir James Grant, M.D., Dr. T. W. Burgess, 
Prof. John Campbell. Dr. George Bryce, Mr. W. Wilfred Campbell, and Prof. 


D. P. Penhallow as Chairman, be appointed as a Standing Committee of the 
Society to co-operate with the British Association Committee on an Ethno- 
logical Survey of Canada, and that they be empowered to take such steps 
as may be necessary to secure from the various provincial srovernments, as 
also from the Dominion Grovemment. the adoption of legislation relative 
to the establishment of Provincial Museums of Ethnology and the organiz- 
ation of a permanent Ethnological Survey of the entire Dominion." 

In order to give force- to the resolutions thus adopted by the Royal 
Society of Canada, and to provide that the work of investigation may pro- 
ceed with as little delay as possible, we would respectfully urge upon your 
Government the adoption of such measures as may be necessary to establish 
a Provincial Museum of Ethnology ; to appropriate the sum of 
annually for the prosecution of Ethnological research within the limits of 
3'our province ; to appoint a suitable representative to act as a member of 
the Central Con:mittee. who may or may not be a member of the 
present Committee of the Royal Society, and to empower the Central 
Committee to act on behalf of your Government with respect to : 1st. the 
direction and control of all matters relating to the scientific investigation of 
the Provincial Ethnology ; 2nd, the proper expenditure of such funds as 
may be voted for that purpose, and 3rd, a general oversight of the form- 
ation of museum collections under the special direction of such curator as 
may be appointed. If these conditions are fulfilled, the Committee would 
conduct the Ethnological work on the following lines : — 

1. A complete survey of each province would be made with respect to 
(a) The aboriginal or Indian population. 

(6) The white population. 

2. The work of the Committee will Involve the collection of data 
respecting : 

(a) Vital statistics, and statistics relating to movements and extent 

of population. 
(6) Physical types of the inhabitants. 

(c) Current traditions and beliefs. 

(d) Peculiarities of dialect. 

(€) Monuments and other remains of ancient culture. 
(/) Historical evidences of continuity of race. 

3. All Ethnological material will be deposited in the first instance in 
the museum of the province from which obtained. Duplicate material will 
be used for purposes of exchange, and also deposited in the British Museum 
or such other place as may be selected. 

In conclusion, we would respectfully refer to the very great energy with 
which the ethnology of Canada has been exploited for many years, under 
the direction of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, and the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History at New York. While wishing to accord 
all credit for the admirable and thorough way In which this work has been 
done, and to acknowledge the benefit which It must be to Canada, we never- 
theless feel strongly that such work should be initiated by ourselves and 
that whatever ethnological material of value may be derivable from our 


abori^nal people, should find a permanent place in our own museums, rather 
than In those of a foreifirn country. 

We therefore earnestly pray our petition may be grranted, and ever 

Your obedient servants. 

D. P. Penhaluow. 



James Grant, M.D., K.C.M.G. 

T. J. W. Burgess, M.D. 

John Campbell. 

George Brtce. 

W. Wilfred Campbell. 

It will be for the Society to take such further steps as may seem 

23. Archives. 

The office of Archivist, vacant by the death of the late Dr. Brymner, 
has not yet been filled and the report for the year 1902 has not yet 
been published. Mr. Edouard Richard, who ha^ been in France for 
five years, making researches, has returned and is preparing for pub- 
blication the results of his labours. Continuing the detailed report of 
1899, he has analyzed the documents he indicated in that report as to 
be found in the Ministère des Colonies, to which department all the 
documents formerly in the Archives de la Marine have been removed. 
Only a few volumes relating to Cavelier de La Salle and the posts on 
the Illinois remain to be analyzed. 

He found in the Archives Nationales and the Depot des Cartes et 
Plans in the Rue de l'Université, a rich collection of documents unex- 
plored and almost untouched. He was not eble to obtain permission 
from the French authorities to analyze, still less, to transcribe anything 
there. There are unsettled questions of diplomacy, rendering it unad- 
visable to open up these Archives for the present; but it may yet be 
possible, without throwing open these Archives to strangers, to obtain 
through the services of ofiScers of the French Civil Service, copies of 
many of the documents. Meanwhile, Mr. Richard is preparing for the 
press the results of his labours. They will require two volumes o^ 
about 500 pages each. 

24. Forestry. 

In the very first volume of the Transactions of this Society is a 
paper read, in 1882, by Dr. William Saunders, upon the value of our 
forests and the imperative need of taking immediate steps to prevent 


the deforesting of the country. Since then the Society has always kept 
the subject in view. In the last volume of the first series, is a paper 
read by Professor Macoun upon the same subject. In the first volume 
of the present series, is an earnest appeal from Section IV; and from 
time to time, resolutions have been passed and lectures have been 
delivered before the Society, urging the question upon the attention of 

Since 1882, the wood-pulp industry has developed with astonish- 
ing rapidity, and the manufacture has advanced into the front rank of 
industries essential to civilization. The sub-arctic forests of the 
northern regions, formerly considered valuel<?ss, have in consequence 
assumed importance, and many waste and rocky places, unsuited for 
agriculture, are beginning to take on a hitherto unsuspected value, by 
their suitability for successive growths of pulp-wood. It is fortunate 
for the Dominion, that the trees best adapted for this great industry, 
are the spruces and poplars of the northern forests. The possibilities 
of the development of this new and promising business are only now 
beginning to be evident. It is a promise of wealth from regions 
hitherto supposed to be valueless. 

The Council has great satisfaction in following the work carried 
on in the Northwest by the Superintendent of Forestry, a branch of 
the Department of the Interior inaugurated three years ago. The 
reports of this officer and his subordinates appear in the annual report 
of that department. A million and a quarter trees were this spring 
available at the different Experimental Farm stations for transplanting 
upon the plains ; and the notices of the fire-rangers are not confined to 
the limits of ordinary travel, but are posted all along the valley of the 
Peace River and far down the valley of the Mackenzie Eiver. So far, 
then, as the infiuence of the Dominion Government extends, strenuous 
efforts are being made to extend tree-planting upon the plains. How 
to check or prevent forest fires is an exceedingly difficult problem, but 
the Dominion and some of the Provincial Governments are alive to its 
importance. The whole subject has, within only a few years, sprung 
into the first rank of questions of public interest. The Canadian 
Forestry Association is doing most useful work by its intelligent scien- 
tific discussions and, as its membership extends over the whole Dom- 
inion, we may hope for great benefit to the country from its earnest 
efforts. Few questions are so important to the welfare of Canada. 

25. Science Applied to Increasing Production. 

The application of scientific principles and methods to agriculture 
proceeds steadily from year to year broadening its field of action. The 
work of the experimental farms increases in scientific interest and 


practical valus. The reports of its trained officers have been before us 
for many years, but familiarity should not blind us to the long and 
patient antecedent researches, the practical results of which alone we 
are apt to recognize. In addition, we have now in the Dairy Commis- 
sion, a movable agricultural college bringing home to our producers, 
by object lessons, model factories and lectures, the most approved 
methods and submitting them to actual working practice before their 
eyes. In this way, and by inquiring into the conditions and require- 
ments of distant markets and teaching our farmers to adapt themselves 
thereto, the value of our agricultural exports has increased to a sur- 
prising degree in the last few years. These results are not the less 
scientific because they are practical, and if in eight years the export of 
butter from the port of Montreal increased sixteen fold, the improved 
processes of production and transportation which caused so rapid a 
growth, were applications of scientific principles patiently investigated 
end carefully applied. 

A movement has been inaugurated and is gathering strength to 
introduce into rural schools, a knowledge of these principles. It is a 
promising and praiseworthy efifort, for it will tend to enliven with a 
new interest, the monotony of rural life and help to counterbalance the 
attractions which are drawing the youth into the cities. 

26. Committee on Geological Nomenclature. 

Referring to pages xxxix and xli of last year's Proceedings, it 
will be seen that the Committee on this subject was continued. A 
provisional report was then sent in and appears in the Proceedings. 
In continuing the Committee, power was given to add to their number. 
The Council has reason to believe that progress is being made, but 
no further report has been made. 

27. Geographic Nomenclature. 

The commission on Geographical Nomenclature appointed by the 
Dominion Government three years ago continues its useful work. In 
the Northwest its functions are most important in settling the many 
new place-names which are incessantly being added to the map. 

Most of these names are from the Indian languages. They were 
given by the Indians because of some marked physical feature which 
attracted their observant eyes. Indians are born geographers and the 
Commission is doing good service in preserving their significant names 
and fixing them on the map in intelligible orthography. 


28. International Conobess of Americanists. 

The meeting of this body was held in New York last October 
and, as its objects are specially within the scope of Sections I. and II. 
Section I. nominated MM. J. Edmond Eoy and Léon Gérin and the 
society appointed them delegates to attend as representatives of the 
Eoyal Society in response to an invitation received. Mr. Gérin was, to 
his great regret, unable to attend. The council has been informed that 
Mr. Eoy was present, but he has been absent in Europe for several 
months and no report has reached the council as yet. 

29. Map of Canada. 

The Council are glad to be able to report that the need of an 
accurate general map of the Dominion, pointed out in their Eeport 
of 1898, has been supplied. The Department of the Interior has 
issued, during the past year, such a map. It is engraved on copper 
in the best style and the work has been completely done in Canada. 

It was moved by Dr. Alex. Johnson, seconded by Thomas Macfar- 
lane, and carried: 

That the report of Council just read be adopted. 

It was moved by Professor E. E. Prince, seconded by E. F. Stupart, 
and carried: 

That the minutes and proceedings of the general meeting of 
1902, as printed in Volume VIII. of the Proceedings and Transactions, 
be approved and confirmed. 

Moved by Dr. Wesley Mills, seconded by Senator Poirier and 
resolved : — 

That the suggestion of Mr. Wilfred Campbell in'^gard to the 
report of the Council be referred to the sections for consiX^^^^^^ *^^ 
report at this meeting of the» Council. 

The meeting adjourned at 12 o'clock, and the sections ]^oceeded 
to organize in their respective rooms. 


The Society re-assembled at 2.30 p.m. ' 

The following newly elected Fellows were introduced and 
their seats: W. D. Lighthall, Dr. W. D. LeSueur, Dr. Adami. 
It was moved by Eev. Dr. Bryee, seconded by D. C. Scott : 
That the following be a committee to consider the question^ 
a fitting commemoration of the three hundredth anniversary of 
settlement of Champlain and De Monts on the coast of Acadial 


1604; together with the advisability of holding the next annual see-sion 
of the Society at St. John, New Brunswick, or other place. The 
Committee to report as early as possible at the present session. 

Hon. Senator Poirier, Mr. B. Suite, Sir Sandford Fleming, Dr. 
G. Matthew, Hon. Thomas Chapais. 

The following resolutions were then passed : — 

Moved by Sir Sandford Fleming, seconded by Thomas Macfarlane, 
and carried: 

That in accordance with the recommendation of the Council, Dr. 
Henry Fairfield Osborn be elected a corresponding member of the 

Moved by Thamas Macfarlane, seconded by Sir Sandford Fleming, 
and carried: 

That Dr. W. F. Ganong be elected a corresponding member of the 
Society in accordance with the recommendation of the Council. 

Capt. Deville presented the following report from Section III.: 

Ottawa, 19th May, 1903. 

Section III. has the honour to report that they have considered 
the election of a new member referred to them by Council and they 
recommend the election of Dr. J. C. McLennan, of Toronto University. 

E. Deville, 


Whereupon it was moved by Capt. Deville, seconded by Dr. John- 
son, and carried: 

That Rule 6 be suspended, that the report of Section III., just 
read, be adopted and that Dr. J. C. McLennan be elected a member 
of The Society. 

Delegates from Associated Societies were then called upon for 
their reports. The following were read: (N.B. — The reports of 
these Societies are printed together in Appendix D.) 

The Natural History Society of Montreal, by Prof. T. Wesley Mills. 

Société Litt/éraire de Montréal, par Eev. J. L. Morin. 

Ottawa Literary and SKîientific Society, by Harris H. Bligh, 

Nova Scotia Historical Society, read by Archbishop O'Brien in 
the absence of Hon. J. W. Longley. 

Women^s Canadian Historical Society of Toronto, by Mrs. T. 

Women's Canadian Historical Society of Ottawa, by Mrs. S. E. 


Natural History Society of New Brunswick, by Hon. Senator Ellis. 

The following report from Section IV. was then presented : 
That the members of Section IV. of the Royal Society cordially 
approve of the proposal embodied in the report of the Council to invite 
the International Geological Congress to hold their tenth meeting in 
Canada and recommend the appointment of the following Committee; 
with power to add to their number, to issue the invitation, wait on the 
Government regarding financial assistance and, generally, to make all 
the necessary arrangements for the proposed visit: 

Sir James Grant, Archbishop O'Brien, Sir Sandford Fleming, Col. 
G. T. Denison, Abbé Laflamme, Professor C. H. McLeod, Robert Bell, 
Hon. Mr. Longley, R. W. Ells, Mr. Poole, Prof. Adams, T. Macfarlane, 
Prof. Coleman, G. W. Taylor, J. F. Whiteaves, W. Saunders, A. H. 
MacKay, J. W. Bailey, G. F. Matthew, Hon. G. W. Ross, J. Willison, 
Dr. Frechette, Prof. Goodwin, Prof. Bryce, Dr. S. E. Dawson, Mon- 
seigneur Begin, President Loudon. 

Whereupon it was moved by Thomas Macfarlane, seconded by 
Dr. R. W. Ells, and carried: 

That the report of Section IV. on the proposed invitation to the 
International Geological Congress be approved, and the Committee 
named for making all the necessary arrangements appointed as fol- 
lows: — 

Sir James Grant, Archbishop O'Brien, Sir Sandford Fleming, 
Col. G. T. Denison, Abbé Laflamme, Prof. C. H. McLeod, Hon. Mr. 
Longley, Mr. Poole, Prof. Adams, Prof. Coleman, President Loudon. 

The Secretary, Mr. Lawrence M. Lambe, reported from Section 
IV. as follows: — 

Section IV. begs further to report the election of Dr. A. E. Barlow, 
of the Geological Survey of Canada, as a member of this Society to a 
vacancy in Section IV. 

At 3.15 p.m the Fellows adjourned to their respective sections. 

At 4.30 p.m. the Fellows and Delegates attended a garden party at 
the Central Experimental Farm, given by Mrs. Saunders in honour of 
the Royal Society. 


The President, Sir James Grant, K.C.M.G., delivered his presi- 
dential address at 8 p.m. in the Convocation Hall of the Normal 
School, subject: Brain Power and how to preserve it. The address 
was illustrated by a number of lime light lantern slides. 

For address, see Appendix A. 


Wednesday, (May 20.) 

The Society reassembled at 10 a.m. and the reading of the re- 
ports of Associated Societies was resumed. 

Eoyal Astronomical Society of Toronto, by R. P. Stupart. 

Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal, by R. W. 

Hamilton Scientific Association, by Rey. D. B. Marsh. 

Historical Society of Manitoba, by Rev. Dr. Bryce. 

Entomological Society of Ontario, by Rev. Dr. Bethune. 

It was moved by Dr. Fletcher, seconded by Prof. Macoun, and car- 
ried : — 

That the recommendation of Section IV. be adopted, and that 
Dr. Barlow be elected a Fellow of the Society. 

The following reports of Associated Societies were presented : — 

Literary and Historical Society of Quebec. 

Lundy's Lane Historical Society. 

United Empire Loyalists^ Association of Ontario — Hamilton 

Ontario His-torioal Society. 

Miramichi Natural History Association. 

Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute, St. Thomas. 

Nova Scotia Institute of Science. 

New Brunswick Historical Society 

Moved by Thomas Macfarlane, seconded by Abbé Bourassa, and 
carried: — 

That the subject referred to in the report of the Numismatic and 
Antiquarian Society of Montreal, and the remarks of Mr. Lighthall 
regarding the preservation of Canadian hi-storical monuments be 
referred to Sections I. and II. of the Society, for such resolutions and 
action they see fit to recommend that the Society should adopt. 

Dr. James Fletcher then made a verbal report of the work done 
during the past year by the Field Naturalists^ Club of Ottawa. 

T^e following telegram was handed in by the Hon. J. V. Ellis 
and, after being read to the Society, was referred to the Committee on 
the Champlain celebration: — 

St. John, N.B., May 19th, 1903. 
Senator J. V. Ellis, Ottawa. 

President Howe and Executive Historical Society desire you to 
represent that body in Royal Society. They join in invitation Royal 
Society to meet here next year. S. D. Scott, 

Proc., 1903. 8. 


The Committee on the nomination of oflScers was appointed as 
follows : — 

Moved "by Dr. Gird wood, seconded by Dr. Saunders, and carried: — 

That the following be a Committee for the nomination of oflacers 
for tEe ensuing year: Sir James Grant, Sir Sandford Fleming, Hon. 
Pascal Poirier, Dr. Burgess, Eev. Dr. Bryce, Archbishop O'Brien. 

It was moved by Prof. C. H. McLeod, seconded by Capt. Deville, 
and carried: — 

Resolved — In accordance with the recommendation of the special 
Committee appointed to report on the proposal to extend the triangula- 
tion of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey into Canada, that 
a Geodetic Commission should be appointed by the Government of 
Canada to consider the whole question of a triangulation survey for 
Canada, and that a deputation consisting of Sir James Grant, Sir 
Sandford Fleming, President Loudon, Mr. Keefer, Dr. A. Johnson. 
Prof. McLeod, with power to add to their number, be appointed to 
wait upon the Government with a view of urging the suggestion of the 

The President announced that the Premier, the Right Honourable 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, had consented to receive, at one o'clock, the Com- 
mittee of the Society upon the proposed visit to Canada of the Inter- 
national Geological Congress. 


The Society reassembled at 2.30 p.m. 

The President reported verbally the result of the interview with 
the Premier, which was generally to the effect that further informa- 
tion was desirable before any definite reply could be given, and that he 
would be glad if the Society would make more detailed representation. 

The President read the following telegrams and, the approval of 
the Society having been given, he despatched them by cable : — 

To His Gracious Majesty, 
The Bang. 

The members of the Royal Society of Canada, assembled at their 
22nd Annual Session, desire to tender their warmest congratulations 
en your restoration to health, and that your Most Gracious Majesty has 
been crowned and anointed King, over a united and prosperous 

J. A. Grant, 
To the Secretary, President. 

His Majesty's Household. 


To the Duke of Argyll. 

The members of the Royal Society of Canada, asBembled at their 
22nd session, desire to tender you their warmest thanks, as founder of 
this Society, which has contributed greatly to forward the scientific and 
literary interests of this Dominion. 

J. A. Grant, 

Mr. E. Stewart, Dominion Superintendent of Forestry, addressed 
the Society and made a verbal report from the Canadian Forestry 

The following letter from the Mayor of St. John, N.B., was 
handed in by Hon. Senator Ellis and referred to the Committee on the 
proposed Champlain celebration: — 

Mayor's Office, St. John, N.B., 
Hon. John V. Ellis, 18th May, 1903. 

President Natural History Society. 

Dear Mr. Ellis:— 

I understand that the Natural History Society is moving to get 
the Eoyal Society of Canada to meet in our city in late June, so as 
to hold its annual session here at the date of the ter-centenary of 
the discovery of Saint John river and harbour by Champlain. 

As Mayor of Saint John, I may assure you that all our citizens 
will be very glad, if the purpose which the Natural History Society 
has in view, can be accomplished, and that the Royal Society of Canada 
will be heartily welcomed to St. John by all classes in our community, 
at the date indicated, or at any otlier time they may be pleased to come. 

I am, 

Yours truly, 

Walter W. White, 

The meeting then adjourned until the following morning at 10 

From 5 until 7 p.m.. Lady Grant held a reception for the Fellows 
and Delegates. 


ProfesBor T. Wesley Mills delivered a lecture at 8 o^clock, in the 
Convocation Hall of the Normal School. Subject ^^ A chapter in the 
Physiology and Psychology of Music." Musical illustrations were 


given by Dr. T. Gibson and Mr. D. Heins, and a number of explanatory 
lime light slides were shown. 

After the lecture an ** At Home ^' of the resident Fellows was held 
in the Normal School Building. 

SESSION III. (May 21st.) 

The Royal Society assembled at 10 a.m 

The following telegram was read and referred to the Committee 
upon the proposed Champlain celebration: — 

St. John, N.B., May 2(>th, 1903. 

The President of the Royal Society of Canada, 

The New Brunswick Loyalists Society cordially invites the Royal 
Society of Canada to hold annual meeting for 1904 at St. John. 
Would suggest that if practicable date of meeting be arranged to 
include May 18th, the one hundred and twenty-first anniversary of 
landing of Loyalists or June 24th, ter-centenary of discovery River St. 

D. R. Jack (Historian) 
for OfRcers and Members of New Brunswick Loyalists Society. 

The following reply from the Duke of Argyll was also read: — 

Inveraray, May 2l8t, 1903. 
Congratulations and thanks. Sympathy for sufferers by fire. 


The reply from His Majesty the King was received after the meet- 
ing closed and is as follows: — 

London, May 25th, 1903. 
President Royal Society of Canada, 

I have the honour of submitting your telegram to the King and I 
am commanded by His Majesty to express his warm thanks to the 
members of the Society for their loyal congratulations. 


The Nominating Committee brought in the following report: — 
The Committee beg to recommend the following gentlemen to be 
ofiicers for the year 1903-4 : — 

President— Lt.-Col. G. T. Denison, B.C.L. 
Vice-President — ^Benjamin Suite. 
Honorary Secretary — Dr. S. E. Dawson. 
Honorary Treasurer — Dr. James Fletcher. 


The President put the names separately to the meeting. The 
report was adopted unanimously and he declared the above gentle- 
men elected. 

Mr. W. D. Lighthall from the Committee upon Historical Monu- 
ments and Sites read the following report: — 

The first and second sections of the Royal Society of Canada, in 
joint meeting, according to the resolution of the Society referring the 
subject to them, respectfully beg to recommend as follows : — 

1st. That the Society pass a resolution drawing the attention of the 
respective governments of the Dominion and the various provinces, as 
well as the municipal authorities, to the importance of preserving his- 
torical monuments, sites, buildings, archives and relics throughout 
Canada in view of the constant and increasing danger of their disap- 
pearance; and that the Honorary Secretary be requested to prepare 
printed copies of the resolution and cause it to be transmitted to the 
various authorities concerned and to the press. 

2nd. That the Society also pass a resolution praying the City Coun- 
cil of Montreal to apply the principle of the foregoing resolution 
specially to the case of the Chateau de Ramezay. 

The following resolutions were thereupon passed: — 

Moved by Honourable Senator Poirier, seconded by Duncan CL 

That the Royal Society of Canada, in annual meeting assembled 
at Ottawa, respectfully asks the attention of the Dominion Govern- 
ment and of the governments of the various provinces, as well as o£ 
municipal authorities, to the urgent importance of preserving historical 
monuments, sites, buildings, archives, and relics throughout Canada in 
view of the constant and increasing danger of their disappearance ; and 
that the Honorary Secretary be requested to prepare printed copies 
of this resolution and cause it to be transmitted to the various 
authorities concerned and to the press. 

Moved by Col. Denison, seconded by Benjamin Suite, and car- 
ried: — 

That a copy of the resolution of the Society relative to preserving 
historical monumentô be transmitted to the City Council of Montreal 
and that the Society pray the said Council to apply the principle of 
the said resolution specially to the case of the venerable Chateau de 

It was then moved by W. D. Lighthall, seconded by Rev. Dr. 
Bryce and carried: — 

That the council of the Society be instructed to study the subject 
of legislation for the protection and preservation of historical build- 
ings and objects with a view to the introduction of legislation through- 


out Canada on lines similar to that which is in operation in European 

Moved by Duncan C. Scott, seconded by Dr. William Saunders', and 
carried : — 

That a vote of thanks be presented to Dr. T. Gibson and Mr. D. 
Heins for their kindness in assisting at Dr. Mills^s lecture and to 
Messrs. Onne for the gratuitous use of a piano for the said occasion. 
A copy to be transmitted to the gentlemen concerned. 

Moved by Archbishop O'Brien, seconded by W. W. Campbell, and 
carried : — 

That the sincere thanks of the Eoyal Society be presented to 
Principal "White for his kindness in permitting the Society to hold its 
meetings in the rooms* of the Normal School Building. 


Mr. Benjamin Suite presented the following report from Section 
I. :— 

Société Royale, Section I. 

21 mai 1903. 

La section a Thonneur de faire rapport que durant les séances 
des 19 au 21 mai 1903, les membres dont les noms suivent étaient pré- 
sents et ont pris part aux travaux: — 

MM. Bellemare, Bourassa, David, DeCelles, Frechette, Chapais, 
Gagnon, Poirier, Poisson, Richard et Suite. 

M. P. B. Casgrain représentant la Société Littéraire et Historique 
de Qilébec, et le Révérend J. L. Morin, représentant la Société Lit- 
téraire de Montréal, ont aussi assisté à nos séances. 

Les travaux lus et recommandés pour l'impression sont les sui- 
vants: — 

Le père Sébastien Rasle, par le Dr Dionne. 

Livres Canadiens- français publiés de 1800 a 1900, par le Dr 

Découverte du Mississippi, par M. B. Suite. 

Les Intendants de la Nouvelle France, par M. Régis Roy. 

La Fontaine d'Abraham Martin, par M. P. B. Casgrain. 

La Dime au Canada, par l'Abbé Gosselin. 

Le Labrador, par TAbbé Gosselin. 

Irenna la Huronne, poëme, par M. LeMay. 

L'Acadie en 1749-1752, par M. Placide Gaudet. 

Le Mouvement Intellectuel chez les Canadiens-français, par l'Ho- 
norable Pascal Poirier. 

Monographie de Jean et Sébastien Cabot, par THonorable Pascal 


La Noblesse au Canada et en Acadie, par TAbbS Bourassa. 
Les oflBcers élu6' pour Tannée qui commence sont : — 
M. Poisson, Président. 
M. David, Vice-Président. 
M. Gérin, Secrétaire. 

Le tout respectueusement soumis, 

Pascal Poirier, Président. 
A. Poisson, Vice-Président. 
Benjamin Sulte, Secrétaire pro tem. 


Mr. W. W. Campbell presented the report of Section II. 

Section IL held five meetings. Officers elected: — 
President, Rev. Dr. Bryce. 
Vice-President, Mr. W. D. Lighthall. 

Secretary, Mr. W. Wilfred Campbell. 

Printing Committee: President, Secretary, Mr. LeSueur, Mr. 
Lighthall, Mr. D. C. Scott. 

New Members: This section has elected for membership this 
year Dr. W. D. LeSueur. 

In conjunction with Section I. this section has appointed a com- 
mittee to draft a resolution concerning the preservation of public monu- 
ments, etc. 

Thirteen papers were presented to the section. Several of them 
were read in full at the meetings. Among them was one of unusual 
interest: Several Ethnological Types of Rupert's Land, by Rev. Dr. 

The other papers were read by title or in part. A complete list 
of the papers presented are attached to this report. 

W. Wilfred Campbell, 


List of Papers. 

1. Latest Lights on the Cabot Controversy. By Right Rev. 
Bishop Howley, D.D., of St. John's, Newfoundland. 

2. The Col. Talbot Papers. By James H. Coyne, B.A. Pre- 
sented by W. Wilfred Campbell. 

3. The Copper Currency of the Canadian Banks, 1837-1857. By 
R. W. McLachlan, Montreal. Presented by Dr. S. E. Dawson. 

4. The Second Legislature of Upper Canada, 1796-1800. By C. 
C. James, Toronto. Presented by W. Wilfred Campbell. 


5. The Lake of the Woods Tragedy. By Lawrence J. Burpee. 
Presented by W. Wilfred Campbell. 

6. Several Ethnological Types of Eupert's Land. By Eev. Dr. 
G. Bryce, of Winnipeg. 

7. Evolution and Degeneration of Party in Politics — A Study in 
Political History. By Eev. N. Burwash, S.T.D., Toronto. 

8. A Few Eemarks on the Siege of Quebec and the Battle of the 
Plains of Abraham. By P. B. Casgrain, K.C., of Quebec. Presented 
by B. Suite. 

9. Lieut. Col. Caldwell, father of Sir John Caldwell. By Sir 
James M. LeMoine, D.C.L., of Quebec. 

10. A Monograph of the Historic and Physiographic Factors 
Determining the Distribution and Nationality of Settlements in New 
Brunswick. (Contributions to the History of New Brunswick, No. 6). 
By W. F. Ganong, M.A., Ph.D. Presented by Dr. S. E. Dawson. 

11. Death of Dulhut. By William McLennan, Montreal. 

12. The Gaelic Folk Song of Canada. By Alexander Fraser. 
Presented by W. Wilfred Campbell. 

13. Totemism. By Eev. Chas. Hill-Tout. 


The special Committee to which had been referred the letters and 
telegrams inviting the Eoyal Society to hold its next annual meeting 
at St. John, New Brunswick, on the occasion of the proposed Champlain 
ter-centenary, reported as follows: — 

That the most cordial thanks of the Eoyal Society be given now 
for the St. John, New Brunswick, invitations; and that it would be 
very gratifying to the whole Society to accept, provided that satisfac- 
tory arrangements can be made — meanwhile that the whole matter be 
referred to the Council with power to act as may seem best. 

On motion of Honourable Pascal Poirier, seconded by Sir Sand- 
fcrd Fleming, the report was adopted by the Society and the matter 
WÎIS left in the hands of the Council. 

Moved by Abbé Bourassa, seconded by Dr. Burgess: 
Tliat thanks be expressed by the Eoyal Society to all those who 
on the occasion of this annual meeting liave shown ho&pitality to the 
member.-; and that thanks be tendered particularly to the President 
and Lady Grant, to Dr. and Mrs. Saunders and to the resident Fellows 
in Ottawa. Carried. 

Moved by Dr. Ells, seconded by Dr. Ami: 

That the Eoyal Society in general session assembled hereby 
empower the General Committee appointed by this Society re the Inter- 


national Geological Congress to make all necessary arrangements re- 
specting the proposed visit of said Congress. Carried. 

Moved by Dr. Ami, seconded by Eev. Dr. Bryce, and carried: 
That the Ethnological Comimittee of the Royal Society be reap- 
pointed, with power to add to their number. 

Moved by His Grace Archbishop O'Brien, seconded by Rev. Dr. 
Bryce: — 

That the Royal Society of Canada assembled respectfully and 
strongly urge the Government of Canada to move promptly in the 
erection of a National Museum for the proper housing of the priceless 
collections already existing. 

The Royal Society would also suggest that provisions be made for 
proper accommodation for the meetings of this Society and of the valu- 
able library of the Society. Carried. 

Moved by Archbishop O'Brien, seconded by Sir Sandford Fleming, 
and carried unanimously : 

That the respectful condolences of the Royal Society of Canada 
be conveyed to Lady Bourinot on the death of her husband, who for 
so many years was its efficient Secretary, and also an expression of its 
sincere appreciation of liis services to the Society, together with the 
hope that she may be comforted and sustained in her grievous aflSic- 

As some papers remained to be disposed of in Sections III. and 
IV. final reports could not be presented before the close of the general 
meeting. On motion it was ordered that the reports should be sent to 
the Honorary Secretary and included in the minutes of the meeting. 

The Honorary Secretary called the especial attention of Fellows 
to Rule X. concerning the publication of papers, and pointed out that 
the law of the Society is that all papers shall in the first instance be 
.handed to the Secretaries of the respective sections, arid that from 
them such as are to be printed are sent to the Honorary Secretary. 

The Committee on a proposed Hydrographie Survey Department 
for the Coasts of the Dominion reported by Dr. Alex. Johnson, as fol- 
lows: — 

Royal Society of Canada, May, 1903. 

Report of Committee on proposed "Hydrographie Survey Depart- 
ment for the Coasts of the Dominion." 

Your Committee beg leave to report that, at an interview this 
morning, they were received most courteously by the Minister of 


Marine, and that the result of the discussion which then took place 
was most encouraging. 

It was pointed out that while the Dominion Government provided 
for the hydrography of the waters and rivers, it did nothing for the 
coast. The reason for this was that the Government depended on the 

A statement was presented showing on good authority that while 
the Admiralty was doing and would do work of an imperial character^ 
it could not possibly do local work. Its funds were insufficient. 

It is obviously difficult to draw a dividing line between what is 
imperial and what is local. 

The ilinister undertook to communicate with the Admiralty on 
the subject so as to settle what Canada must do for itself. The 
necessary steps could be determined afterwards. This the Committee 
consider a very important step in advance, and very encouraging. 

Captain Beriiier, who was present, was able from his personal 
knowledge to confirm the statement that the present charts were defec- 
tive. It is further encouraging to know that the Marine Department 
has purchased a special surveying vessel for the work of the "Tidal 
Survey .^^ This is in addition to a new vessel, the "Bayfield," purchased 
for the survey of the lakes and rivers. 

For Committee, 

A. Johnson, 

May 21, 1903. Chairman. 

Moved by Sir Sandford Fleming, seconded by Dr. Saunders, and 
carried : 

That the thanks of the Society are due to Dr. S. E. Dawson for 
his services in taking up the work of the Society and carrying it on 
as Acting Secretary' during the vacancy in the office caused by the 
death of the late Honorary Secretary. 

On motion of Col. Denison the thanks of the Society were ten- 
dered to the retiring President, Sir James Grant, for his services dur- 
ing the term of his office as President. 

Moved by W. W. Campbell, seconded by Archbishop O'Brien: 
That the thanks of the Society are due to the Honorary Trea- 
surer, Dr. James Fletcher, for his services during the long series of 
years he has filled that office. Carried. 

There being no more business before the Society in general ses- 
sion, the President declared the twenty-second meeting of the Eoyal 
Society to be closed. 



Section IV. has the honour to report that five highly interesting 
sessions have been held. The maximum attendance was thirteen mem- 
bers, with a number of visitors from other sections. Dr. A. E. Barlow 
of the Geological Survey, was recommended by the section for elec- 
tion to fill a vacancy in this section. Fifteen papers by members of 
the section were read by their authors either in extenso, in part or by 
title, whilst two papers were submitted by gentlemen not members 
of the Society — making in all seventeen papers before the section. 

A Committee was appointed to act in connection with the pro- 
posed visit of the International Geological Congress to Canada in 1906. 

A resolution was adopted, expressive of the desirability of a draft 
report of the Council being sent to the members of the Society in 
advance of the annual meeting. 

The section is unanimously of the opinion that the Government 
should be further urged to provide proper building accommodation 
for the Geological Survey Department. This matter to be referred 
to the general meeting of the Society for its consideration. 

The election of odicers for the ensuing year resulted as follows: — 

For President— Dr. G. TJ. Hay. 

For Vice-President — Prof. Fowler. 

For Secretary — Mr. Lawrence Lambe. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Lawbence Lambe, 
Secretary pro tern, 

Beport of the Sub-Committee ox the Xomenclatl're of 
Geological Fjormations ix Caxada. 

Ottawa, May 16th, 1903. 
A meeting of the Ottawa members of this Sub-Committee was held 
in March last, at which the subject was fully discussed. A circular, 
asking for comments on the scheme of Geological nomenclature, ertc., 
submitted by Dr. Selwyn, in 1881, to the Bologna Congress, and pub- 
lished in the Report of Progress of the Geological Survey of Canada 
for 1880-81-82, was dra\vTi up and sent to each of the specialists of the 
Geological Survey staff. The answers to this circular have not yet 
been fully considered, but, on the whole, they would seem to show that 
there is a general consensus of opinion that the time has come when Dr. 
Selwyn's scheme could be advantageously modified in accordance with 
the terminology adopted by the International Congress of Geologists. 


At a meeting of the Geological Society of America, held at Wash- 
ington in December last, it was arranged between Dr. Bell and Dr. 
Walcott, that a special Committee, to consist of Dr. Bell and Dr. F. D. 
Adams, for the Canadian Geological Survey, and another Canadian 
geologist yet to be selected, but not a member of the Geological Survey 
staff, to represent Canada, Prof. Van Hise and Dr. Keith, for th« 
United States Geological Survey, and Prof. Seaman, to represent the 
United States, be appointed to consider the nomenclature and classi- 
fication of the Pre-Cambrian rocks of North America. 

Signed on behalf of the Sub-Committee, 

J. F. Whiteaves. 

The following papers were read: — 

1. Eesults of some Experiments with Fertilizers on Important 
Farm crops during the past 15 years. By Dr. William Saunders. 

2. Bibliography of Canadian Geology and Palaeontology for the 
Year 1902. By Dr. H. M. Ami. 

3. Canadian Geological Chronograph: or the succession of Geolo- 
gical Forniaitions in Canada. By Dr. H. M. Ariii. 

4. Memoir of the late Dr. A. E. C. Selwyn, C.M.G. By Dr. H. 
M. Ami. 

5. An attempt to classify Paleozoic Batrachian foot-prints. By 
Dr. G. F. Matthew. 

6. Notes on Tertiary Plants. By Professor D. P. Penhallow. 

7. A submerged tributary of the great pre-glacial river of the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence. By H. S. Poole. 

8. Notes on some interesting Rock-contacts in the Kingston Dis- 
trict, Ont. By R. W. Ells, LL.D. 

9. Francis Bain, the Prince Edward Island Geologist. A sketch 
of his life and of the work accomplished in the study of the rock for- 
mations of his native province. By Lawrence W. Watson. Presented 
by Dr. R. W. Ells. 

10. Presidential Address to Section. Some aspects of the Evolu- 
tion of comparative Pathology. By Professor Wesley Mills. 

11. An experimental inquiry into the effects of the blood serum 
of normal and immunized goats upon tuberculous processes. By Albert 
George NichoUs, M.D. Presented by Dr. J. G. Adami. 

12. The complex pharyngeal teeth of Poronotus, with notes on 
the development of pharyngeal teeth in fishes generally. By Professor 
E. E. Prince. 

13. Description of two rare cases of Meristic Variation in the 
large claws of the lobster — illustrated with specimens. By Professor 
E. E. Prince. 


14. Bibliography of Canadian Entomology for the year 1902. By 
Keverend C. J. S. Bethune, D.C.L. 

15. Bibliography of Canadian Zoology for 1902, exclusive of Ento- 
mology. By Dr. J. F. Whiteaves. 

16. On the relation Of Moisture-content to hardiness in Apple 
Twigs. By Frank T. Shutt. 

17. Descriptions of some new species and varieties of Canadian 
Butterflies. By Jam^s Fletcher, LL.D. 


The third section held five meetings, the following members being 
present: C. Baillairgé, Dr. H. T. Barnes, Prof. N. F. Dupuis, E. 
Deville, Dr. W. H. Ellis, Sir Sandf ord Fleming, Dr. G. P. Girdwood, 
Prof. J. C. Glashan, Dr. G. C. HoflEmann, Prof. A. Johnson, T. Keefer, 
President J. T. Loudon, T. Macfarlane, Prof. C. H. McLeod, Prof. P. 
T. Shutt, R. F. Stupart. 

The election of a new member having been referred to the section 
by Council, Dr. J. C. McLennan, of Toronto University, was selected 
and his election confirmed by the Society. 

Eighteen papers, of which a list is appended, were read and dis- 
cussed before the section. 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are as follows: — 

President. Dr. W. H. Ellis. 

Vice-President. Prof. E. Rutherford. 

Secretary E. Deville. 

E. Deville, 


Papers Read before Section III. 

1. — *' On the Resistance of a Hydrated Electrolyte, and its Rela- 
tion to the Density-Concentration Curve." By H. T. Barnes, D.Sc, 
and J. Guy W. Johnson, B.A. 

2. — '" Description of Apparatus by the late Dr. Rudolph Koenig, 
of Paris, for the Projection of various Wave Movements." By President 
J. Loudon. 

3.— "The Radioactivity of Ordinary Metals." By Prof. J. C. 
McLennan, and E. F. Burton, B.A. Presented by President J. Loudon. 

4.—" The Formula of one of the Natural Sulphides." By Prof. 
E. J. Harrington. 

6. — " On the Radiation Correction in Methods of Calorimetry." 
By Howard T. Barnes, D.Sc. 


6.—" The North Pole of the Earth/' By C. Baillairgé, M.A., CE. 

7.—" The Oxalates of Bismuth/' By Dr. F. B. Allan. Presented 
by Prof. W. Lash Miller. 

8. — "Numerical Values of certain I "unctions Involving 6'*-" 
By Prof. W. Lash Miller and Prof. T. K. Roseburgh. 

9. — "Researches in Physical Chemistry carried out in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto during the past Year." By Prof. W. Lash Miller. 

10. — " The Application of Fourier's Series to the Determination 
of the Forms of Cams to effect given Displacements, Velocities and 
Accelerations." By Dr. Coker. Presented by Dr. Henry T. Bovey. 

11. — "A Laboratory Apparatus for applying Bending and Tor- 
sional Moments Simultaneously." By Dr. Coker. Presented by Dr. 
Henry T. Bovey. 

12. — " On the Analysis of Cheose." By Thomas Macfarlane. 

13.—" Seismology in Canada." By R. F. Stupert. 

14. — ^^^The Climate of the Canadian Northwest Territories." By 
R. F. Stupart. 

15.—" A Compensated Air Thermometer." By H. M. Tory, M.A., 
D.Sc. Presented by Prof. Cox. 

16. — " Composition of Coal from the Crow's Nest Pass." By W. H. 

17. — " A Study of the Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate by 
Heat." By S. E. Chadsey. Presented by Dr. W. H. Ellis. 

18. — " Note on an Apparently Accidental Formation of Frazil Ice 
in a Cryophorus. By Prof. John Cox. 



By Sir James Grant, M.D., K.C.M.G. 
President Royal Society of Canada 


I am confident I am expressing the sympathies and feelings of this 
large audience in the Capital of the Dominion of Canada, when I say, 
that we, one and all, rejoice that His Most Gracious Majesty, King 
Edward has been restored to health, and annointed King over a loyal 
and united Empire. 

Twenty-one years ago, at a meeting held at Government House, 
Ottawa, this Society was determined upon by Lord Lome, now Duke 
of Argj'll, and shortly afterwards called into action, with the late Sir 
William Dawson as first President. Since that date, the meetings with 
few exceptions, have been held at Ottawa, and the present records of 
the Society point to a widely diversified line of work, in its various 
departments, all of which gives undoubted evidence of intellectual 
development, of which any colony in the Empire might justly feel 
proud. The duty, which by the kindness of the Council of this Society, 
I am called upon to perform, I regret has not fallen into other hands. 
In accepting the task, 1 feel confident of the sympathy of my audience. 
It is a matter of satisfaction to know that the success of such meet- 
ings, does not depend on the occupant of the presidential chair, but is 
chiefly due to the eminent workers in the various sections of the 

The energy and marked ability of the late General Secretary, Sir 
John Bourinot, who since the incipient stage of development of the 
Society, brought to light facts of the greatest moment, as to men and 
measures, in all parts of our Dominion, redounding greatly to the 
credit of one, who by his painstaking research and scholarly attain- 
ments, has left an imperishable record on this continent. Edward 
Gibbon charmingly expressed the idea, that diligence and accuracy, are 
the only merits, which an historical writer can ascribe to himself. So 
in scientific research, like qualifications are cardinal qualities. To 
decide on the true significance of data, springing daily from the vast 
sources of scientific investigation the result of observations and experi- 
ments, a well balanced mind, and careful reflection are necessary, to 
winnow out the practical and useful, from the doubtful and uncer- 
tain. Investigation and experiment are widespread, and as to results, 
fortunately, there is greatly increased reliance. Doubt, says 
Thackeray, is always crying pshaw. 

Proc. 1908. 4. 


We must not begin by doubting, but by doing, and then sifting. A 
thousand doubters would not make a Lister, a Pasteur, or a Koch. 
Aristotle says, if you doubt you must doubt well, but to doubt well, 
you must first work well. I feel confident that one of the highest 
aspirations of this Society, is that its observations, from year to year, 
may fructify and extend into all lands, and the reciprocity of feeling 
and action aroused, strengthen the scientific and literary ties of the 
world. In this prospective development we must all endeavour to assist. 

The flame of science must burn within as a vestal fire. Drudgery. 
and long waiting for opportunity, are truly discouraging, but the 
Divine Spark will not disappear, while the investigator is true and 
honourable, and keeping such in view for pure purposes. As a rule 
lecturers are teachers in a sense and their work lives after them. 

Voltaire says of Virgil, that he was Homer's greatest achievement. 
Dante was Virgil's greatest light. In science we find precisely the 
same. The man passes away, but his work remains after him, and so 
in the records of our Society, we trust an influence will be exercised 
such as will redound to the credit of this Association. 

Our annual meetings present a feature of great interest in the 
reports of the Allied Scientific Societies throughout the Dominion. It 
is needless to say how welcome are the representatives, and how much 
we value their taking part in our discussions, and thus stimulating, in 
a most encouraging manner, the interchange of thought, which widens 
the area of scientific research. 

The subject which I have chosen for the present occasion is 
*^ Brain Power and How to Preserve It." In the days of the Ancient 
Greeks, the composition of the human body was in a measure defined 
b} Aristotle, as being composed of parts, diiTering from each other 
in form, consistency, colour and texture. In these diversified parts, 
brain and nerve tissues, are exceedingly important factors. Not, how- 
ever, until the concluding years of the last century, was an impetus 
given to anatomical research by the Hunters of England, the Meckels 
if Germany, as well as Cuvier and St. Hilaire of France, by whose un- 
tiring researches, the minute structure of animal tissues was placed on 
a more defined and uniform basis. In the past century, great light was 
thrown on the entire subject of general anatomy by Xavier Bichat, one 
of the most accurate observers in all France in the Napoleonic Era. 
The most remarkable advance, however, was made in the third decen- 
nium of the past century, by improving the methods of examining 
minute objects, by compound lenses. For more than a half a century, 
microscopes have extended the domain of biological science, as to bring 
within our comprehension, a clearly defined basis of human structure, 
such as could not fail to convey a tolerably correct idea of functional 


activity in the human system. In 1831, the celebrated botanist, Eobert 
Brown, announced for' the first time, that an aureola or nucleus was 
seen in many plants, and that this circular spot, wais present in each 
cell. In 1839, Theodore Schwann discovered that there was one uni- 
versal principle of development in the elementary part of organisms, 
consisting in tho formation of cells. This great advance in biological 
science is undoubtedly the most important feature of the past century, 
and one which has given an impetus to physiological investigations, of 
vast moment to th(î entire human race owing to the intiuence, tlius exer- 
cised on the progress of practical medicine. 

John Goodsir, the great anatomist of Edinburgh, announced iu 
3843, that the nucleus is the reproductive organ of the cell, and that 
new cells are formed from it, in fact, that an organic continuity existed 
between the mother cell and its descendants, through the nucleus. 
Virchow in his Cellular Pathology, 1858, maintained that in patlio- 
logical structures, there is actually no cell development de novo: 
Where a coll is found, there must have been a cell before, in fact, 
cell development is continuous by descent. 

In 184^3 John Goodsir established the principle that cells are 
the ultimate secreting agents. A nerve cell is not a secreting cell, 
however, like the general glandular cells of the system. Nen'o cells 
through the remarkable changes which take place in them, generate 
tl^at form of energy, known to exist as a special outcome of a nervous 
system and defined as '" Xerve Energy " or " Nerve Force." A nerve 
fibre is actually an essential part of the cell with which it is continuous, 
and the cell and nerve fibre associated make up what is termed a 
neuron, now known to play so important a role in the entire nen^ous 

The brain, like other parts of the body, may be in a state of 
activity, or of fatigue. When active, the nucleus increases in size, 
and when fatigued, the neucleus diminishes, and finally shrivels up, 
becoming in fact, useless, as far as functional activity is concerned. 
It is very remarkable that nerve cells have not the power of repro- 
ducing their kind, their especial power bemg closely connected with 
the evolution of nerve energy. This is a point on which I desire to 
place particular stress as once a portion of tha brain, or other nerve 
centre is destroyed, new brain material or a new nerve centre, cannot 
le produced, to replace the injured parts, as takes place in other por- 
tions of the human frame, where bones, tendons, and such like are 
injured, nature comes to the relief, by new tissue in every respect 
analogous to the part destroyed. This forms the key note to the 
subject matter in hand, and demonstrates beyond doubt, with what 
care and watchfulness, nerve tissue should be guarded, to retain 


intact, normal mental vigour and ordinary nerve power. Passing now 
from minute cellular facts to general principles, I am confident you 
will agree with me in the statement that " brains rule the world and 
the individual." The great problem of the present day, with which 
cur educationists as a whole, have to deal, in the midst lof |^ varied 
practical experience, is "how to build the best brains out of the 
material at our disposal." Not for men only but for women as well. 
The best possible brains for both sexes, is the surest way of strength- 
ening the fabric of our generation. As a good brain is required for 
the management of the home, as the guidance of the State, as in both 
sexes, the force evolved, more than any other force in the system, 
enables men and women, by interdependence and normal aptitude, 
to bear the burdens of life, and perform their duties and responsibil- 
ities with dignity, grace and home spun individuality. These are 
the peculiarities which make a people, and crown with success their 
cilorts in life. The great social problem of the present day, is " The 
Building of a Brain," and the influence exercised in this direction, 
devolves largely on our teachers, the very pioneers of our educational 
system. It must be built up with careful attention to the rest of 
the body, as no perfect brain, crowns an imperfectly developed body. 
As the brain furnishes the physical support of mental activity, it is 
reasonable to expect this will vary with the precise condition of thia 
organ. Excessive brain work tends to exhaust nervous energy, and 
at the same time lower mental power and efficiency. In children 
where the stock of brain vigour, is in proportion to structural develop- 
ment, the indications of fatigue, crop out much sooner, and it is 
exceedingly important, that brain energy should not be overtaxed, 
but rather in proportion to the normal supply. As Herbert Spencer 
has charmingly expressed it, " the development of the higher mental 
faculties is only safe, and in fact normal, when a firm basis of physical 
strength and well being has been laid down." To force on the func- 
tions in advance, is likely to endanger the very structure of the brain, 
and in time diminish seriously intellectual activity. Fabre tells us 
tliat " childhood is a time of endless learning," not of " endless cram- 
ning," and fortunately this view of the subject is gaining ground 
rapidly. Beecher said, the power of "doing, is education, not how 
much a man knows, but how much he can accomplish by putting his 
faculties into operation. Many know, and know, and know, and actu- 
ally keep on knowing until they have lost the power of doing; and so 
with eating, some go on eating and eating, until it takes the entire 
strength of the system to carry them along." So by excessive know- 
ledge, the mind is liable to grow stupid and fat. True education, 
sound brain culture, is the faculty of turning it to practical account. 


How absolutely useless is the man who knows everything and can do 
nothing perfectly , the very common sense being educated out of him. 
This is in fact almost a diseased state of mind, not likely to result 
in the highest achievements of either mental or physical development. 

This is a progressive age, an age of specialty, and when the 
natural bent of the youth's mind is known, greater excellence will 
be attained in the future life of the child, by directing education to 
meet natural capacity. As Gorst has well and ably expressed it, " The 
aim of education should be to get the best out of each individual, and 
not to obtain an average of mediocrity,'* " and that the enormous expen- 
diture of public money upon the production of machine made human 
automata, is sheer waste." Fortunately, a marked change for the 
better is now in progress in educational matters. Norman schools, 
manual training schools, such as introduced into Canada by Sir Wil- 
ham McDonald, and technical education as advocated by Andrew 
Carnegie all have their places, and exercise prudently, their power 
and educational influence. The kindergarten system, at the ages 
of six and seven years, as advocated by Fraebel and successors, in the 
primary grades of out public school system, is accomplishing much 
good, and safe educational work, intellectual and physical development, 
keeping pace with each other. 

Dr. Newsholme, Health Officer for Brighton, England, has recently 
pointed out, the lower a^e limit of children for school attendance. 
(Public Health Eecord, 1902.) Ihe chief plea is that children under 
five years of age should be excluded from public elementary schools. 
On the roll of infant schools in England and Wales, between the ages 
of two and three years, and four and five years, constituted in 1900, 
about 10-9 per cent of the total scholars of all ages in elementary 
schools, chiefly owing to the fact that many mothers engaged in other 
daily work, seek this method of being relieved of the charge of their 
children, for four or five hours daily. The occasional advice of school 
teachers, that the sooner children are sent to school, the better, leads 
to the same result. Premature school attendance is most decidedly 
ijijurious and gradually saps brain vitality, and followed, in time, by 
both mental and physical deterioration. Doubtless the first seven 
years of life are for growth, rather than for elaboration of structure 
and function, and by far the most important point is that a large pre- 
ventable loss of life is the result, of school attendance at ages under 
five years, the difficulty in the great proportion of the deaths com- 
mencing by the overstrain of the brain, in the very formative process 
oi thought. The important point is the death rate from communicable 
diseases under five years of age, is greater and the fatality more than 
in ages higher. Physical training and the cultivation of obser\'ation 


and discipline are precedent in the young child, but any serious attempt 
a*, intellectual education, before five years is contraindicated by the 
present knowledge of brain structure and function. 

Fortunately in Canada children rarely attend school before five 
cr seven years, and every degree of care and prudence are exercised, 
to guard the gradual development of intellectual activity. 

Nowadays we really want our young people trained, so as to 
become in every possible way, useful mcmb-Ts of society. Right 
judgment is only developed by discipline, ail of which springs from 
riethod and study. Xo educational trainiiiji, no turning over of the 
pabulum of thought, the brain, will at once fit a lad for any particular 
calling in life. The chief test of education is the outcome of bis 
life at maturity. This constitutes the practical examination of life, 
ard the practical verdict is the outcome at the period of manhood. 
Here we have the very process of development, and the result attained. 
This training is the actual building of a brain. It is difficult to give 
even an outline of the extremely delicate and complicated operation of 
the human brain, of which there are not two alike, in the entire human 
family, and yet we frequently expect equal results of brain power, 
contrary to the very gifts of natural capacity. Tlie school of life is 
the .one for which our young generation has to be fitted, and as Bishop 
Creighton, of London, has ably expressed it, the chief teacher is the 
actual experience which one undergoes. The best built brain is that 
which arouses some interest which will follow through life, and lead 
I'» results of a practical and telling character. Thus the mind becomes 
equipped so as to enable it tQ grapple succesjifully with the emergen- 
cies of life. This is, in fact, the ver}' basis of technical education, 
so much in keeping with the progress and general advancement of the 
iage. The indispensable object of education is to build a brain, and 
if possible, to build one strong and vigorous, guarding carefully sur- 
rounding circumstances, so that strength of body and strength of brain, 
may constitute the balance, so requisite for a useful and practical 

In brain weights and intellectual capacity, according to Esquiral, 
no size or form of head is incident to idiocy or to superior talent. The 
largest weight of brain known, is that of the Russian novelist, 
Turgenieif whose brain weighed, at the time of his death, (65 years of 
age) 71 ounces. The following celebrated group: — Jeffery, Thackeray, 
Cuvier, Combe, Spurzheim and Sir James Simpson, had brain weights 
from 54 to 58-6 ounces. A second important group of men of rare 
genius and marked ability, Hubert, Grote, Babbage, Leibey, Gull and 
Gambetta, had an average brain weight from 40 to 49 ounces. Colder 
climates appear to favour large l)rair.?, which may in a measure account 


for the marked intellectual activity of our Canadian people. The table 
of average brain weights of various nationalities, from Topinards and 
Manouvrier's Anthropological publications, produce evidence of greater 
brain weights in colder climates*. As proof of such, it is known that 
the colder air of the United States, produces larger brains in the 
negroes than the warm air of South Africa. Weighing the brain is 
the only certain method of settling its exact proportions. The fluid 
inside the skull, known as the cerebro-spinal, may occupy considerable 
space, in the cranial cavity, and a small brain may b^ present. It is 
not usual to find large brains, with small minds, in proof of which Dr. 
Sims (Popular Science Monthly, 1898) records 125 persons of ordinary 
or weak minds, whose brains were larger than those of many dis- 
tinguished and well-known men. Daniel Webster, Agazziz, Xapoleon 
I, Lord Byron, Baron Dupuytren and General Skoboleff of Eussia, 
world renowned men, whose brains weighed less than 53 ounces. In 
fact the prefccnt impression is, that very intelligent men do not differ 
greatly as to brain weights from the less gifted. Dr. Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, the well-known author of " The Professor at Breakfast Table^^ 
and a celebrated anatomist said " the walls of the head are double with 
a great chamber of air between them, over the smallest and most 
crowded organs. Can you tell me how much money is in a safe which 
has thick walls* by kneading the knobs with your fingers? So when a 
man fumbles about my head and talks about the organs of individuality, 
size, &c., I trust him as much as I should if he felt over the outside of 
my strong box, and told me that there was a five dollar bill under that 
rivet.'' Again, larger and complicated brain convolutions are by some, 
supposed to be associated with superior mental power. In the lower " 
animals such is not borne out. Rodents, such as beavers, rats and mice, 
have little brain and no convolutions and the beaver particularly 
exhibits great mechanical skill in the construction of dams and storing 
of food for the winter. The sheep has numerous convolutions in the 
brain with well marked evidence of great stupidity. Wagner of Got- 
tingen, states he has never seen examples of highly complicated con- 
volutions, even among eminent men whose brains he examined. Spe- 
cial mental gifts have not so* far been proved to be the result of many 

Again, we know that exercise and training strengthen the brain 
and inicrease its weight and size in man, of which Gladstone was a 
remarkable instance. All things considered, the prospect is that brain 
will still go on developing towards marked increased activity, and 
practical usefulness, in the genus homo. 

The physical aspect of the brain power presents many points of 
interest. We can observe and study the brain and determine upon 


what conditions this complicated organ acts, vigorously or otherwise? 
Is a good brain likely to accompany a good physique? It has been 
most conclusively pointed out that brain or marked ability in any par- 
ticular line of thought and action, is superior in size, weight and com- 
plexity of structure, to the ordinary brain. A popular idea is that 
brain must be developed at the expense of muscle and vice ver&a. Such 
views fortunately are not borne out by either science or history. Pro- 
fessor Beard's views on the longevity of brain workers is an important 
document. Take members of the cabinets of England and Canada, or 
the congress of the American Republic, the average in height, weight, 
girth and physical development generally, is most remarkable. The 
law of the dependence of mental activity, is in fact, closely allied to 
physical vigour. Lincoln, Conkling and Gladstone retained a quantum 
of physical power, each in a particular line, rail splitting, boxing and 
tree felling, and so with Tennyson, Beecher, Huxley and Webster, each 
had his day of physical training as well as of mental culture. With 
such evidences, is intellectual greatness the only thing worth striving 
for and physical prowess a matter of secondary consideration ? Gorging 
the brain in ordinary schools from six to nine hours daily, with only 
one to three hours* each day, in the open air, is really not likely to bring 
about such results as frequently sought after. With many years of 
practical observation on this point, I feel conifident the intellectual 
development and physical growth of the young generation around us, 
will be greatly promoted by four hours of exercise in the open air, and 
four hours of study, and the final results better in every particular, than 
by the system ntow in operation. The facts noted by Chadwick of 
England, of factory children are most valuable. The "half time 
system '' giving four hours of regular work in the factory, and four 
hours of study have been followed by remarkable results, in fact the 
progress in education is more marked than with children who spent the 
eight hours in study. The leaders in brain work in both England and 
the continent to-day, give three to five hours daily to the desk or 
laboratory. Such data point to the necessity of an equal exercise of 
mental and physical capacity, in order to build up successfully mental 
and physical power. The most precious truths, like the most precious 
mletals are in small space. All are agreed that the problems of the 
universe, so far as physiologists have been able to define them, are 
really locked in " the cerebral cell.'' This is an interesting time in the 
new life of our Dominion and the sports and games of university men, 
and young people generally, are such that we cannot agree in the idea 
that the reign of bone and muscle is over, and that the reign of brain 
and nerves, is taking its* place, even with the cerebral cell under lock 
and key. Many suits of armour in the tower of London, would not fit 


our youths of 18 to-day, and it is a well-known fact, that the stone cof- 
fins, sarcophagi, are fully half a head too short for our average Canadian. 
As to feats of physical prowess, such as football, hockey, running and 
leaping, our young athletes hold first rank, and such developed activity 
has not lessened their mental culture. Under such circumstances the 
brain is not a silent receptacle, but a " copious promptuary '' of learn- 
ing and device. Games, says Sir James Paget, are admirable, in all the 
chief constituent qualities of recreations, but besides this, they exercise 
a moral infiuence of great value in business or in daily work. Professor 
Sir Michael Foster in two recent Eede Lectures to the Eoyai Society, 
London, tells us, that even in muscular work, the weariness of the 
brain, like the work of the muscles, is accompanied by chemical change; 
that the chemical changes, though differing in detail, are of the same 
order, in the brain " as in the muscle/' " If there be any truth in 
what I have laid before you, (says Foster) the sound way to extend those 
limits, is not so much by rendering the brain agile, as by encouraging 
the humbler help-mates, so that their more efficient co-operation, may 
defer the onset of weakne&s.^' Games not only keep a man healthy, 
but encourage his work and give him a better knowledge of his 
associates. The Duke of Wellington truly said, the Battle of Waterloo 
was won in the playfields of Eton. Let games in the proper sense, be 
the recreation and not the business of life. Thus will brain power 
gain full force, and conduce to the success of the varied duties of life. 

After all, a young man with nothing but brains would be a poor 
object in life. It is the battle of ideas we require, and he who is 
not up to the mark, must eventually take a back seat. A combination 
of brain and muscle won the battle of Paardeberg which has placed 
Canada to-day in an honoured position throughout the civilized world. 

I have presented to you on the present occasion the known ground- 
work as to the best and safest means of preserving brain power, and 
^\ the same time, to so guard the complicated nervous machinery of 
the human system, as to preserve health and strength, and develop the 
pabulum of thought, to meet the wants and requirements of an exact- 
ing age. Owing to the progress in brain knowledge within the past 
thirty or forty years we look forward with great hopes to the outcome 
of this twentieth century, during which many of the principles pre- 
spnted on the present occasion will doubtless be established, on a sound 
and substantial basis. Throughout let that idea guide and direct 
our efforts with the hope that the charming words of Wordsworth 
L ay be fully realized : — 

** In the unreasoning progress of the world, 
A wiser spirit is at work for us, 
A better eye than ours." 




Atlantic Biological Station. 

The Marine Biological Station of Canada remained at Canso, N.S., 
for a second season, in accordance with the decision of the board of 
rranagement at their meeting held in June, 1901, at Canao. It was 
apparent to the board that a single season spent at a new location 
vas not sufficient to allow either of a thorough investigation of the 
biological features of the adjacent waters, or of the completion of 
icscarches carried on by the scientific staff of the station in each newly 
selected locality. Hence, as was found to be desirable at St. Andrews, 
Kew Brunswick, where the station commenced its important work, so 
at Canso, the location next chosen on the coast of eastern Nova Scotia, 
it was regarded as essential that the fishery investigations and cognate 
work should be continued a second year, before the removal of the 
Station to a new site was discussed and decided upon. The operations 
at Canso have been in the highest degree important and successful, 
and a second series of reports is almost ready for publication which 
>\ill embody more material, and be of no less practical significance 
than the first series published in 1901, and entitled " Contributions to 
Canadian Biology, being studies from the Marine Biological Station of 
Canada, 1901.^' 

Unfortunately the early months of the season were unusually 
stormy, and most unfavourable for pursuing investigations in the 
v/aters off Guysborough County and the Island of Cape Breton. The 
Director of the Station (Professor E. E. Prince) was, moreover, pre- 
vented by urgent departmental engagements from attending as usual, 
end aiding in carrying out the scheme of work which has been planned 
for the year. Fortunately, Professor R. Ramsay Wright, Assistant 
Director, was able to arrange for a lengthened stay and, indeed, spent 
the summer at Canso. Under his skilled and energetic guidance, a large 
amount of eminently successful and productive work was done. The 
laborious ^* Plankton '^ investigations commenced by Dr. Wright during 
the season of 1901 were assiduously continued until the close of the 
Station's operations last fall. The minute floating forms of marine 
life, which contribute so largely to the sustenance of young fishes in 
the sea, and which constitute the wonderfully varied and varying Plank- 
ton, have formed the subject of extensive and exhaustive studies in 
other countries, in Germany, France, Norway, the United States and 


the British Islands; but no systematic work of this kind has been 
attempted before in the Atlantic waters of Canada. Professor Wright's 
leport, now neariy ready for publication, will form a new and impor- 
tant contribution to fishery science and biological research on this 
continent. Again, the investigation conducted by Professor Knight, 
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, into the effects of sawdust and 
other pollutions in waters frequented by fish, wliich has been com- 
nienced at St. Andrews in 1900, were continued during the past year. 
The early portion of the work was carried on upon the seacoast adja- 
cent to the station; but in order to render the scope of the investigation 
as complete and inclusive as possible. Dr. Knight found it advantageous 
to pursue his further researches, upon these matters, in certain inland 
localities. He did not, therefore, occupy his accustomed table in tlie 
laboratory of the Biological Station during the season. The results 
cl his further experiments and observations in Ontario waters will 
form a desirable and necessary complement to the work carried in the 
preceding seasons at the station. That these results are of the highest 
public valuo and interest, it is hardly necessary to remark, and they 
sufBciently indicate how directly scientific work conducted by the staff 
cf the Station bears in: an economic and commercial sense upon ques- 
tions of vital moment to the state and the public at large. Of similar 
practical importance are the results of Professor Knight's able and 
laborious investigations on the effects of dynamite and similar explo- 
sives on fish life in the sea. The recent adoption of a method of 
killing fish by means of dynamite, especially in Bay of Fundy waters, 
renders Professor Knight's experiments extremely valuable, as the 
question is one of widespread and, indeed, international importance. 
Dr. Joseph Stafford, of McGill University, who has been untiring 
in his zealous work each season was again appointed to act as curator 
and general scientific aid in the station. In addition ix) pursuing 
\arious lines of zoological work Dr. Stafford continued his faunistic 
studies which has largely occupied him during the two previous years, 
and his preliminary list of species observed is ready for publication, 
while his report on some interesting parasites found upon fishes, etc., 
examined at the station has also been completed. Professor A. B. 
Macallum, University of Toronto, has followed upj his elaborate 
researches on the chemistry of Medusae and other marine animals in 
relation to their salt-water environment. Dr. Maeallum's report which 
is about ready for publication will be a notable scientific contribution 
in a difficult and profound field of investigation. Dr. A. H. MacKay, 
of Dalhousie University, Superintendent of Education for the Province 
cf Nova Scotia, again, occupied a research table for a portion of the 
season, and devoted special attention to those interesting inshore 


organisms known as the •* land Diatoms." His very thorough and 
masterly study of the Canso Diatomacoœ, shows that no less than 
seventy-three species are embraced in the collection made at the station. 

The f'tation welcomed several new workers, including Mr. F. R. 
Anderson, Mount Allison University, Saekvillc, N.B., and Mr. C. B. 
Kobinson, Pictou Academy, Pictou, N.S. Much valuable work was 
done by these gentlemen and by Mr. C. McLean Fraser, B.A., Assistant 
in the Biological Department, University of Toronto, and by Mr. 
George A. Cornish, B.A., Science Ma.ster, The Collegiate Institute, 
Niagara, Ont. The last named member of the staff has completed 
a descriptive account of the '* Fishes of Canso," and of those remark- 
ably interesting invertebrates, the marine Polyzoa, of which a variety 
oi" species occurred in the ncighbourjinod «»l' CvUi-o. Mr. Fraser devoted 
special attention to the llvùrozoa. ami ^Ir. Aiuleison studied the Hal- 
carids. Mucli collectin-r wa.< (l<»ne bv all, both insiiore work, and 
dredging in the open waters at various depths. 

Professor James Fowler, Queens University, Kingston, has pre- 
pared a report on the Flora of Canso, based on tlie observations and 
collections made by him during the station's first year on the Gu}-»- 
borough coast, while Professor Prince has ready for publication an 
account of the larval and post-larval stages of the Gaspereau or Ale- 
wife. This last report, and several others above-mentioned will pos- 
sess additional interest from the original drawings and illustrative 
pîates accompanying the descriptive text. 

The work of tho station would have been immensely aided if the 
staff had had at their disposal a small steamer suitable for marine bio- 
logical investigations. The lack ol' such a vessel adapted for dredging 
and deep-sea researches has considerably hampered the staff. It is 
hoped that such a vessel will be sanctioned by the Government and 
made available before the close of the coming season. In connection 
with this suggested vessel the advice and aid of tho Prince of Monaco 
las been sought. Plans and specifications were prepared last fall 
undier the instrumentality of Professor Ramsay Wright and in order 
that the steamer might be a^ well adapted as possible for marine 
n searches the advice of the Prince of Monaco is eagerly anticipated by 
the board of management on account of the Prince's unrivalled practical 
and scientific experience in deep-sea investigations in various parts of 
the world. 

It may be added that, early in 1903, it is intended to change the 
location of the station, and by moving it from Canso to Richmond 
J>ay, Prince Edward Island, open up a new and important fishery 
area. A suitable site inshore has been selected adjacent to the famous 
Malpeque oyster beds, and it is anticipated that the oyster and other 


fishery problems presented in this new area will afford the scientific 
staff increased opportunities for achieving practical results. The 
pioblems offered for solution are unquestionably of the utmost value 
to the country, as the oyster and lobster fisheries are of prime impor- 
tance. The fishery operations referred to, carried on in this portion 
of the Qulf of St. Lawrence are conducted in the waters close to the 
selected site on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

'.I'he Biological Station at the Mouth of the Qo-Home Eiver — 

Qeorgian Bay. 

This Station was established, under the sanction of the Dominion 
Government in 1901, by Sir Louis Davics, at that time Minister of 
Marine and Fisheries, with a grant of $1,500 per annum for equipment 
and maintenance. Its management is entrusted to a committee of 
members of the scientific faculties of the University of Toronto, of 
which the President of Victoria College is chairman. The work is 
under the supervision and approval of the Dominion Commissioner of 
Fisheries, Dr. Prince. 

The headquarters of the station is a permanent building located on 
Island 121 in Go-Home Bay. The floor space is divided into a large 
laboratory and four smaller rooms. The small rooms are used as 
director's room, store room, photographic room and museum. The 
large room is provided with work tables for biological investigation and 
for the plotting of the hydrographie survey and will furnish accom- 
modation for ten workers. The centre is occupied by a large table 
with zinc tray and sinks at either end, and aquaria of various sizes con- 
structed of glass and zinc. The station is also furnished with boat 
house, dock, boats, fishing and plankton nets, and also microscopes, 
glassware, reagents, and other apparatus for scientific investigation. 

A large hatching pond very favourable for the propagation of the 
small mouthed black bass has been prepared, and a large number of 
adult fish placed therein, whose habits are being «tudied during the 
spawning season of the present year. Other ponds are in course of 
construction and when complete will afford opportunity for the study 
of the more important species of fishes of commercial value. 

The primary object of the station is scientific work, but beyond 
^ts scientific value it is of great general value as a means of obtain- 
ing knowledge available for economic purposes. For the pursuit of 
this object the location affords unusual advantages. We have swamp 
and inclosed lake formations, with abundance of aquatic vegeta- 
tion in the inner waters, there being on one of the islands no 
less than seven small lakes. There are several inlets with clear water 
and sandy or gravelly bottom. A large number of outer reefs 


afford every variety and depth of rock bottom. Two large bays a mile 
or more in diameter, give ns quiet and deep interior waters, similar in 
character to the Muskoka Lakes, while the channel of the river gives 
us deep flowing water. As a foundation for accurate scientifie work, 
a preliminary hydrographie survey of the entire bay is being made, and 
meteorological observations are made and recorded. The survey, when 
complete, will give a full account of the depth of water, nature of bot- 
tom, currents, quality of water and lake tides, between island 108 and 
Split Bock, in front and eastward to the coast of the mainland and the 
mouth of the Go-Home river. The meteorological observations are 
also being extended to cover the whole year. The hydrographie work 
is under the direction of Professor C. H. Wright, B.A.Sc, of the 
Faculty of Applied Science, and the meteorological observations under 
the direction oi Prof. W. J. Loudon, M.A., of the Department of 
Physics of the University of Toronto. 

The biological work is under the direction of B. Arthur Bensley, 
B.A., PkD., of the Biological Department. Dr. Bensley has had the 
advantage of experience of this branch of laboratory work both in 
England and Germany, and his ability as a scientist and his broad 
grasp of the conditions and possibilities of the work, give the committee 
great confidence in the future success of the station. Dr. R. Ramsay 
Wright, the head of the Biological Department and Vice-President of 
the University of Toronto, has given most valuable assistance by his 
advice at the foundation of the station. Dr. Bensley has also been for- 
tunate in the choice of his subordinates. Mr. Anderson and Mr. Carr 
are enthusiastic scientists, with decided talents for the practical part of 
the work and a good deal of experience in field work in natural history. 
Mr. John Fenton, the caretaker, is a fisherman of more than ordinary 
intelligence and long experience in these waters. 

Thé following summary of the work already done or planned for, 
is furnished by Dr. Bensley. 

The biological work was directed towards the collection and identi- 
fication of the fishes of the region, this work being preliminary to the 
investigation of the various problems of a more economic bearing, and 
designed to be the subject of the first report. It is hoped that by the 
end of next season the collections will be complete, or nearly so, and 
the work will doubtless be of interest, not only to ourselves, but to the 
museum men of New York and adjacent states who are interested in 
the distribution of fishes. 

Last simmier what nets we had available were operated so as to 
get the specimens from as many environments* as possible, without 
reference to their value as food fishes. The same plan will be followed 

Proc 1903. 5. 




This Survey, under the direction of Dr. W. Bell Dawson, F.R.S.C., 
continues to make important contributions to the knowledge of our 
tides, both on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Canada. The prin- 
cipal tidal stations in the St. Lawrence and on the Atlantic, have been 
maintained in operation, and some progress has been made in the 
reduction of the results, as far as means have pennitted. 

On the Pacific coast, good progress has been made, both in the 
improvement of the tide tables through the analysis of further tidal 
record from the principal stations, and also in the establishment of 
addit^'onal tidal stations, to extend the information available. Obser- 
vations are being continued at Vancouver, and two new stations have 
been erected, one in Barkley Sound on the outer side of Vancouver 
Island, and the other at Port Simpson. It may be noted that on the 
Pacific coast, there is not only a large diurnal inequality, but also an 
annual variation. Hence, to make satisfactory comparisons, it is 
necessary either to have six months of continuous observation at any 
t\i'o localities, or to take four months at the four quarters of the year. 
The stations for which tide tables are calculated are Victoria, in Fuca 
Strait, and Sand Heads in the Strait of Georgia; and these are well 
situated for purposes of comparison. 

The SL Lawrence. — An important step in advanee has been m^de 
in the information supplied to aid navigation on the St. Lawrence 
route. A part of the tidal record from Father Point has been sub- 
mitted to harmonic analysis which enables tide tables to be calculated 
directly for that locality. The advantage of this step became appa- 
rent from the tidal observations of 1900 on the Lower St. Lawrence; 
as they showed that both tide and current in the open estuary below 
the Traverse, could better be referred to Father Point than to Quebec. 
So far, the Father Point tide tables have been calculated indirectly 
from Quebec, by means of a double series of variable differences. This 
elaborate method was devised to save the expense of analysis at an 
additional station. But it has now been ascertained that the com- 
plicated relation between the two places, is chiefly due to the river 
influence at the upper end of the run of the tide near Quebec; while 
the tide in the open estuary itself is vevy irregular. Hence, the tide 
tables calculated from the analysis, in conjunction with the other data 
which has been secured, will enable the turn of the strong tidal cur- 


rents of the estuary to be readily and accurately known from the tide 

Northumberland Strait, — In the present report of progress all the 
information yet obtained is summarized with regard to the tide and 
current in Northumberland Strait, and its relation to Cabot Strait, 
where the Gulf of St. Lawrence opens to the ocean. The levels of 
datum planes, heights of extreme tide, and the effects of wind dis- 
turbance, have also been carefully and fully worked out. These are 
of primary importance with relation to works of construction in the 
harbours of the Strait, «as well as for uniform reference levels in any 
future observations. 

St. Paul Island is the principal station to which the tides on the 
south-west side of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in the region of 
Northumberland Strait are referred; and comparative observations 
were taken on the two sides of Cabot Strait, to see whether a sufficiently 
constant relation could be established with St. Paul Island to enable 
either of these localities to be used to replace it as a reference station 
for the regions above referred to. The extreme exposure of St. Paul 
Island makes the gauge usually liable to accident; and once already 
it has been carried away, and twice afterwards it was partially wrecked 
by winter storms. 

The endeavour was first made to obtain comparisons with Sydney 
harbour and Port aux Basques on the two sides. The tide at Sydney 
has so unusual a character, with large secondary undulations, which 
are often one-third the height of the main tide, that it was quite 
unsuitable for comparison with St. Paul Island. After one complete 
nK)nth was secured at Sydney, the gauge was removed to Neil Harbour, 
a point on the Atlantic side of Cape Breton Island, as near to its nor- 
thern extremity as practicable. At Port aux Basques the unusual 
result was found that the two tides of the day are alternately earlier 
and later than at St. Paul Island when the moon^s declination is high. 
Accordingly, these observations brought out in the clearest light the 
pre-eminent advantage of St. Paul Island over the other localities in 
Cabot Strait, as a station to command the whole region under con- 
sideration. This advantage must depend largely upon its being situ- 
ated in deep water; the 100-fathom line being within three miles of the 
eastern shore of the island, on which the tide gauge is situated. It 
emphasizes also the importance of choosing strategic points as principal 
stations, whatever the exposure and the difficulties in maintenance may 
be, in preferenee to sheltered harbours where the tide itself is more 
irregular, owing to the shallower water or greater local interference. 

Current in Northumberland Strait, — Observations were taken on 
the north shore of Pictou Island, which is centrally situated in the 


eastern end of this strait. It was found that the variation in the 
difEeren<re of time between the turn of the current and the tide is 
large; as the turn may take place as much as two hours before high 
water or after low water. The greater part of the variation follows 
the change in the moon's declination; as this has been found from 
the first to be the ruling element in this region. This is very con- 
fusing to the mariner, as the turn of the current in relation to the 
tide is out of accord with the moon's phases, and has thus no fixed 
relation to the spring and neap tides. The greatest apparent irregu- 
larity is when the moon's declination is at its maximum; and this 
occurs sometimes at the spring tides and sometimes at the neaps. The 
ordinary navigator takes refuge in the conclusion that the currents 
are chiefly influenced by the wind. But these observations show that 
the apparent irregularities can be reduced to definite laws, which 
although complex, are strictly astronomical in character. 

Further observations, — Five summer tidal stations were erected last 
season with the object of obtaining tidal data as a basis for the inves- 
tigation of the current at the entrance to the Bay of Fundy, and in 
the bays on the south coast of Newfoundland. One of these was 
placed at Trepassey Bay, within sixteen miles of Cape Eace, the ex- 
treme south-eastern angle of Newfoundland. 

Levels and Datum planes, — This survey, as a branch of the Depart- 
ment of Marine, has for its primary object the determination of the 
time-relations of the tide, and the turn of tidal currents, for the infor- 
mation of mariners. The determination of levels is thus quite collateral 
to the object which the department has in view, but it was very evi- 
dent that a large amount of important information could be secured by 
taking more complete levels, and by establishing bench-marks at all 
tidal stations at which recording instruments were placed, even for a 
few months. The additional work involved was therefore undertaken 
from the outset. Eventually, as the observations are continued, the 
value of mean sea level, extreme tide levels, and other factors of 
importance, are determined with reference to this bench-mark. Such 
factors are of the highest value in city drainage works and harbour 
improvements. In certain rare instances, bench marks have been 
established by the Admiralty, which define the lower water datum of 
the charts. These are always taken advantage of, where they exist. 
When the height of the tide is referred to this datum level, it shows 
the depth available in addition to the chart soundings. 

A paper has been contributed to the Canadian Society of Civil 
Engineers, by Dr. W. Bell Dawson, entitled " Tide Levels and Datum 
Planes in Eastern Canada," in which values for mean sea level are 
given for Halifax, St. John, and Quebec, based upon several years of 


continuoufl observation in theee harbours. The height of extreme high 
and low water, and other tide levels, are given with reference to bench- 
marks, for a number of localities along the St. Lawrence, in the Bay 
of Fundy, and elsewhere. Although there is as yet no general system 
of levels in Canada, these results are of value locally in the meantime; 
and they also furnish a basis for any more extended geodetic levelling 
which may be undertaken. 




I. — From The Natural History Society of Montreal, through Prop. T. 

Wesley Mills. 

The ^Natural Histor}' Society of Montreal has the honour of submit- 
ting to the Royal Society the following report : The society's work 
during the past session has been of a very satisfactory character. The 
meetings have been better attended than usual and the papers read 
have been of more general interest. 

The monthly meetings were as follows : — 
Oct. 27. — " Some of the Mushrooms of Montreal, Edible and Poison- 
ous.^* (Specimens exhibited.) By the Rev. Robt. Camp- 
beU, D.D. 
Nov. 24.—'' Studies in the Life History of the Sea Urchin." Illustra- 
ted with lantern slides.) By Prof. E. W. MacBride, 
M.A., Sc.D. 
Jan. 26. — " Reptilia of the Island of Montreal.'' (Illustrated with 
lantern slides.) By J. C. Simpson, Esq. (of McGill 
Zoological Laboratory.) 
Feb. 19. — " Trematode Parasites of Man and the Other Vertebrates.*' 
(Illustrated with lantern slides.) By J. Stafford, M.A., 
Ph.D., Lecturer in Zoology, McGill University, and 
Curator of Canada's Marine Zoological Station. 
Mar. 30.— "The Lichens of the Island of Montreal." Rev. G. Col- 

bome Heine, M.A. 
Apr. 24. — ^^* Native Arsenic discovered in Montreal." Prof. Nevil 
Norton Evans, M.A.Sc. 
" Some Rare Nova Scotia Plants. Rev. Robert Campbell, 
M.A., D.D. 
Seven new members elected. 

The donations to the museum were not as numerous as usual. But 
the contributions to the library were more numerous than ever; so 


much 80 that it is contemplated to use a part of iihe basement and fit 
it up as a library and for other purposes. 

The visitors to the museum are increasing by leaps and bounds, 
and it is a matter for regret that we are not in a position to spend 
more money on it so as to make it more worthy the growing city and 
a credit to our numerous visitors. 

The Somerville Course of Lectures were of a medical character, 
which, as usual, appealed to good and attentive audiences. 

The following is the list : 

Feb. 19. — ^** General Structure and Functions of the Human Body,^^ 

- by A. T. Bazin, M.D. 
IdLar. 6. — ^^* Microscopic Structure of the Human Body,^* by Walter 

M. Fisk, M.D. 
Mar. 12.—" Food and Digestion,'' by J. L. Day, M.D. 
Mar. 19.—" The Blood and Circulation,'* by A. H. Gordon, M.D. 
Apr. 2.—" Senses of Man," by E. A. Kerry, M.D. 
Apr. 9. — ^* Germs in Health and Disease," by J. A. Williams, M.D. 

The Saturday afternoon talks to children were as popular as ever. 
The attendance proves that the subjects chosen have proved acceptable 
and should be the means of adding to the membership roll of the 
Society in the future. 

The following is the list of subjects and lecturers : — 

Feb. 28.—'' Why we Sneeze, Cough, Wink, etc" Wesley Mills, M.D. 
Mar. 7.—" Ants and th^ir Ways." J. G. McKergow, Esq. 
Mar. 14.—" The Earliest Spring Flowers." Rev. Robert Campbell, 

Mar. 21.—" Plant Fly Traps." Carrie M. Derick, M.A. 
Mar. 28.—" Some Sociable People." C. T. Williams, Esq. 
April 4.—" Story of a Frog's Life." J. C. Simpson, Esq. 
April 11. — " Transportation." George Hodge, Esq. 

Saturday afternoon rambles have commenced under the direction 
of Rev. Robert Campbell, the Witness having offered prizes for botany. 

Annual excursion to Piedmont well attended, but rained all day 
which rendered collecting impossible. 

Taken as a whole, the year's works may be considered as advancing 
and satisfactory. But we have to reiterate the fact that the good work 
is hampered by want of funds and space in the museum and still more 
so in the library. 


The Record of Science is still published, and, as far as possible, with 
original communications. This publication enables us to keep in touch 
witti kindred societies and is the means of adding to the library by 

The following are the present oflBcers: 

Patron — His Excellency the Governor-General of Canada. 

Hon. President — ^Lord Strathcona and Mount Eoyal. 

President— E. W. MacBride, M.A., Sc.D. 

Vice-Presidents— Frank D. Adam:?, Ph.D., F.R.S.C.; Rev. Robt. 
Campbell, M.A., D.D.; B. J. Harrington, Ph.D., F.R.S.C.; A. Holden, 
J. H. Joseph, Dr. T Wesley Mills, Prof. D. P. Penhallow, Hon. J. K. 
Ward, Hon. Justice Wiirtele. 

Hon. Recording Secretary — F. W. Richards. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary — J. A. U. Beaudry, C.E. 

Hon. Treasurer — Chas. S. J. Phillips. 

Hon. Curator — A. E. Noms. 

Members of Council — C. T. Williams, Chairman; J. S. Buchan, 
K.C., B.C.L.; S. Finley, Joseph Fortier, John Harper, Edgar Judge, 
H. McLaren, J. G. McKergow. 

Superintendent — Alfred Griffin. 

Mr. Alfred Griffin has proved himself the same efficient and oblig- 
ing Superintendent as in years past. 

II. — From The Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal, 
through R. W. McLaohlan. 

The Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal has the 
honour to report as follows: — 

The delivery of lectures and papers has been interfered with by 
the important building operations rendered necessary as hereinafter 
mentioned. However, at the regular meetings of the Society, which 
"were continued in a most interesting manner, and at which were read 
papers entitled: 

il. — ^^ Comments on an unpublished memoir written in 1837 by R. 
Carter on the miserable state of the currencies of the North 
American Colonies," by R. W. McLachlan. 

2.—" Les Décorations Pontificales,'' by P. 0. Tremblay. 

3. — ^^ Conmients on an unpublished deposition, made in 1838 by J. B. 

H. Brien, relating to the later phases of the Rebellion of 

1837,'' by Hon. Justice Baby. 


The additions, during 1902, to the Society's collection were: 

To the Museum: 

Indian Antiquities 10 

Other Antiquities, mostly Canadian 120 

Coins and medals 20 


To the National Gallery: 

Canadian Portraits 10 

Canadian Views 10 

Canadian Maps 10 

Foreign Views, etc 90 


To the Library: 

Books, a large part Canadian 1000 

Pamphlets 1500 

Documents 30 



A grand total of twenty-eight hundred items. But, besides this 
the Society has secured on loan a fine collection, numbering over five 
hundred pieces of Indian antiquities found in the South Western States. 
Many of them similar to those found in our own North- West. 

Last fall the east wall of the Elgin Gallery having been declared 
to be unsafe, had to be rebuilt. This is no part of the Château de 
Bamezay proper, but simply an annex, the superstructure of which 
was built under the administration of Lord Elgin. As this wall was 
being pulled down by the city's contractors the whole superstructure 
collapsed, and the Gallery had to be entirely built anew. The accident 
proved to be by no means an unmixed evil, for the Society has been 
able to remodel the building so as to make it more conformable to the 
use to which it was assigned, and now our portrait gallery has a most 
attractive home; and is one of the best of its kind on the continent 
'of America; with its well on to three hundred portraits of people all 
in some way or other connected with the history of Cana<la. 

This spring the Council made a demand for the concession of a 
piece of land in the rear for some civic purpose, offering in exchange 
a piece on the west side, together with a sum of .money for necessary 
repairs. This exchange has made it necessary the pulling down of 
another recent annex known as the court room. By this arrangement 
we expect to remove the library, now occupying the walls of the salon 


and other rooms, upstairs which will set free much space for displaying 
our Canadian veins. 

During the last session of our provincial parliament, an amendment 
was introduced into a bill for revising the charter of the City of Mont- 
Teal, which, by ordering the removal of all buildings, within certain 
limits, for the enlargement of the Bonsecours Market, involved the 
destruction of the Château de Eamezay, as it is well within the area 
mentioned. As this amendment passed the lower house without much 
opposition, the Society felt it to be necessary to oppose its enactment 
as far as the château was concerned. A deputation was therefore sent 
to Quebec to present the ca6« before the private bills committee of 
the Legislative Council. This presentation proved so eminently suc- 
cessful, that a clause was inserted in the charter exempting the Château 
de Eamezay from the proposed market extension. 

But the Society deeply regrets to state that a spirit of vandalism 
is abroad and that there are those who are filled with the desire to 
tear down anything old and historic simply because it is old; and to 
erect in its place some hideous modem monstrosity. 

The whole incident suggests action in the line of such a law as 
is in force in many European countries, for the preservation of all 
important historical monuments; making it a criminal offence to deface 
or destroy any thing that. may be declared to be of national interest. 
This Society would ask the Royal Society of Canada to take up this 
matter and have a bill presented to the proper legislative authorities 
on the lines of the best European law on the subject; and this Society 
pledges its active support in helping on the good work. If this be not 
soon done few, if any, historical buildings will be left in this country 
to save. 

The following are the officers of the Society for 1903 : 

President — Hon. Justice Baby. 

Vice-Presidents— R. Roy, K.C.; Judge L. W. Sicotte; W. D. Light- 
hall, F.R.S.C.; Dr. Louis Laberge, and Chas. T. Hart. 

Hon. Treasurer — George Dumford. 

Hon. Curator — R. W. McLachlan. 

Hon. Recording Secretary — C. A. Harwood. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary — S. M. Bayles. 

Hon. Librarian — Gonzalve Desaulniers. 

Members of Council — P. 0. Tremblay, J. B. Vallée, James Reid, 
Lewis Skaife, Eugène Lafontaine, K.C.; Ludger Gravel, J. C. A. Heriot, 
J.W. Domville, and G. N. Moncel. 

Proc. 1903. 6. 


III. — Rapport de la Société littéraire de Montréal par le 
Rev. J. L. Mobin. 

^ Notre Société, qui a terminé ce printemps sa dix-septième anné^ 
d'existence, continue à rallier dans ses rangs des Canadiens, des Fran- 
çais, des Suisses et même des Anglais qui tous sont dévoués au culte de 
la langue française et essaient d'en cultiver la littérature. 

Pour mieux y réussir on a eu l'idée cette année de changer un peu 
le programme de nos travaux. Jusqu'ici on choisissait, selon les caprices 
du sort, deux membres pour lire à chaque séance des études de leur cru 
et sur des sujets de leur choix, ou quelques pages d'un auteur favori. A 
cet article de notre programme nous avons ajouté un sujet général, qui 
doit être traité en collaboration, sur lequel chacun est appelé à exprimer 
ses opinions personnelles ou à faire connaître celles de quelque autre. 
Ces sujets généraux sont choisis dès l'automne et inscrits au programme 
de toute l'année avec les noms de deux ou trois membres qui sont chargés 
d'ouvrir la discussion. 

Victor Hugo nous dit dans Les Misérables que quelqu'un s'étant 
imaginé de substituer la gomme de laque à la résine dans la fabrication 
des jais anglais, ce tout petit changement opéra toute une révolution dans 
cette industrie de la petite ville de Montreuil-sur-Mer. La révolution 
n'a pas été moins grande dans notre société par suite d'un changement 
•de nature différente, mais qui de prime abord ne semble pas plus impor- 

Grâce à cette modeste innovation, notre petit cénacle s'est livré 
presque à chaque séance à des discussions générales pleines de vie et 
•d'intérêt, toujours animées d'ailleurs du meilleur esprit. Des voix se 
«ont fait entendre qui, jusqu'alors, étaient restées muettes, et nombre 
d'entre nous se sont livrés* à des études qu'ils n'auraient pas entreprises, 
n'eut été ce nouveau système. 

Il va sans dire que nous comptons y rester fidèles. 

Voici quelques-uns de ces sujets dont la discussion a défrayé plu- 
:sieur8 de nos soirées pendant l'hiver d'une manière aufe*si utile qu'a- 
^gréable : 

1. — Le féminisme a-t-il contribué au bonheur de la femme? 
2. — Est-il désirable d'adopter une langue universelle? 
3. — Quel rôle joue l'enfance dans la poésie? 
4. — Les femmes ont-elles fait preuve de supériorité dans le style épisto- 

laire ? 
S. — Quels sont les chefs et les principes de l'école parnassienne? 
6. — La comédie de mœurs comporte-t elle des enseignements utiles ? 

Les pays neufs ont-ils une artistocratie ? 
7. — Appréciation de l'œuvre poétique d'Alfred de Musset. 


Les travaux suivants ont aussi été lus devant notre société : 
'* La Musique en France/^ par Mad. Cornu. 
" Un Conte de Noël/' par M. Marc Sauvalle. 
" La phonétique," par M. le prof. Walter. 
" Etude sur Mad. de Maintenon," M. Morin. 
** Alfred de Musset, Fhomme et le poète," Mad. Sauvalle. 
**Le théâtre, au point de vue moral," M. le prof. Coussiiut. 
'* Les aventures de LuUi," par M. Em. Sandreuter. 
" Etude sur Max O'Eell," par M. le pasteur Duclos. 
" L'enfance dans la poésie," par M. Robert Smith. 
*' L'Aristocratie ancienne et nouvelle," par M. le pasteur Lafleur. 

IV. — ^From the Quebec Literary and Historical Society, through 
P. B. Casqrain. 

The year just closed has been an uneventful one for the Society. 

As recommended by the Council of the preceding year, applica- 
tion has been made to His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council 
for leave to change the rules requiring the stated meetings of the 
Council and Society to be held at fixed hours, in order that all CouncE 
general or annual meetings, may in future be held at such hours as 
may be found most convenient for the time being. 

The finances of the Society are improving. In addition to the 
generous donation of $100 by Mr. Wm. Price, mentioned in last year's 
report, we have to acknowledge an oflfering of $100 from Lt.-Col. P. 
Tumbull and Mrs. Turnbull and $50 from Mr. Archibald Campbell. 

The Society has to deplore the untimely death, amongst others, 
of two of the oldest associate members, the Hon. R. R. Dobell, whose 
earnest and cheery voice was more than once heard in our rooms. He 
was closely followed by his partner, Mr. Thomas Beckett, a firm sup- 
porter of our association. 

A special meeting was called a few months back to meet our 
Honorary President, Dr. James Douglas, LL.D., of New York, then 
on a visit to this city. Dr. Douglas took occasion to urge the Society 
to continue the publication of some of the invaluable MSS. in our 
archives, such as was the practice when he had the honour to preside 
over the Society. He suggested that an appeal be made to Col. Surgeon 
H. Neilson, grandson of the late Hon. John Neilson, as custodian and 
proprietor of the valuable Neilson papers; measures have been taken 
to carry out his views. 

Two highly instructive lectures were delivered in the rooms of the 
Society during the year just expired : Capt. Geo. D. O'Farrell, of the 
Marine and Fisheries Department at Quebec read a paper " Notes 


on the Lighthouses of the Province of Quebec/* which was illustrated 
by photographic views, and Dr. I. P. Whitney, Principal of Bishop's 
College, Lennoxville, delivered a scholarly lecture. Subject: "A 
Prophet of Imperialism, Sir John Seely.*' 

A patriotic idea has just taken form and has met with the approval 
of the Society: indicating to strangers by bronze tablets with suitable 
inscriptions spots rendered memorable by feats of arms and historical 
events, such as Sault-au-Matelot street, where Colonel Benedict Arnold 
was routed on the 31st December, 1775, and Pres-de- Ville, where his 
chief, Brigadier-General R. Montgomery, met death and defeat on the 
same day. 

The Society is indebted to Major William Wood, Past President, 
for a copy of Messrs. Doughty and Parmelee's elaborate work on the 
days of Wolfe and Montcalm, and to Lt.-Col. C. V. P. Townshend, of 
London, for a handsome copy of the Life and Letters of his distin- 
guished ancestor. Marquis of Townshend, who signed the capitulation 
of Quebec on the 18th September, 1759. 

The Society has to report a large addition of valuable works on 
history and science on the library shelves, which has materially increased 
the attendance of members. 

The winter course of lectures was duly organized. Mr. J. G. 
Scott, of the Quebec & Lake St. John Railway, an authority on Cana- 
dian railroads, lectured before the Society on : ** The Trans-Canada 
Railway," and the Rev. Frederick George Scott, P.R.S.C, read a paper 
on Milton. 

The financial statement showed the Society to be in a good 
financial standing. 

Officers for the ensuing year : — 

President — Sir James M. LeMoine (re-elected). 

Vice-Presidents — Messrs. J. Theodore Ross, Peter Johnston, 
Major W. Wood and Cyrille Tessier. 

Treasurer — ^Mr. James Ceggie. 

Corresponding Secretary — ^Mr. A. Robertson. 

Recording Secretary — Mr. J. F. Dumontier. 

Council Secretary — Mr. W. Clint. 

Librarian — Mr. F. C. Wurtele. 

Additional members of Council: — Mr. P. B. Casgrain, Mr. Arch. 
Campbell, Mr. D. H. Geggie, Mr. Simeon Lesage. 


V. — From The Ottawa Literary and Scientific Society, through 

H. H. Bliqh. 

Having heen appointed delegate of the Ottawa Literary and 
Scientific Society as its representative at the present session of your 
body, I have the honour to submit the following report: — 

During the past year our Society has continued its operations 
in the usual manner, and although it has not made any conspicuous 
departure nor added anything very remarkable to iîs history, the pro- 
gress has been satisfactory, the work has been continuous and regular, 
and the results have been sufficient to make us hopeful as to the future. 

Some of our members have felt the desirability of increasing the 
annual contributions to the funds with a view to the enlarging the 
work and scope of the Society, but up to the present time this advance 
has not been considered favourably by the majority. It has been con- 
tended, not unreasonably perhaps, that such a course would diminish 
our numbers owing to the inability or unwillingness of some to pay a 
larger fee, even though this should most certainly ensure larger, better 
and more satisfactory results. We are, therefore, for want of more 
funds obliged to continue our operations on practically the old and 
well established lines, not having the means to enlarge the scope of 
our efforts to that degree of efficiency and development that the mem- 
bers and friends of our Society most ardently desire. 

In addition to our yearly membership fee, I should not forget 
to mention the handsome grant of four hundred dollars annually from 
the Ontario Government and also the several considerable donations 
by prominent gentlemen who in the past have so kindly come to our 

The establishment of a public library in this city which has now 
become a settled fact, is a matter of most special interest to us as a 
Society. How far this will interfere with our future success remains 
to be proved. I have the boldness to submit that it should not inter- 
fere in the «lightest degree. It may as well be admitted, however, 
and it would be useless to deny that one of the most conspicuous phases 
of our Society is its library, and that one of the most prominent 
features of our library is its lending department. It may, therefore, 
be hastily argued, that the chief purpose of our Society will be supplied 
by a public library. I do not hesitate to say in this connection, that 
no public institution should detract from the interest in and welfare 
of our Society. Let it be kept in mind that our Society is a private! 
association, and that our librar}' is a private enterprise. Consequently, 
the difference between a public library and what we offer our mem- 
bers is so real and so clear, that the two objects can never be unified 
and need never conflict. They are distinct and separate. There is 


room for both in the same locality, and I shall be greatly disappointed 
if we are not able to hold our own in the future as in the past. Instead 
of being injured or annihilated, or absorbed by the public library, 1 
rather incline to the hope that the directorate of that institution will, 
if need be, give us their aid and offer us every encouragement, and 
judging from the personnel of the board of management, one of whom 
is our worthy librarian, I feel that my hope in this regard is more 
than justified. 

Let me also add, that although we have learned to depend so much 
on the attractions of our library for increase of membership and 
sustenance, it is not by any means the only element of our existence or 
claim to support, and if the time ever comes when our library, from 
any cause, should receive less attention and consideration than now, 
we could give more prominence to what may fairly be considered the 
real functions of a literary and scientific society, that is to say, in the 
words of one of my predecessors, "Such a Society should stimulate 
mental activity, original thought and independent research." 

Our lecture course for the year was as follows: — 

Nov. 21.— A Study of " The Man from Glengarry," Mr. 0. J. Jolliffe, 

Nov. 28.— " Purification of Drinking Water," Mr. A. McGill, B.A., 
B.Sc, F.E.S.C. 
" Original Poem," Mr. W. W. Campbdl, B.A., P.R.S.C. 
"Primitive Poetry; A Comparative Study," Mr. W. W. 
Edgar, B.A. 
Dec. 12. — "The Development of the Canadian Type of Character; 
Rev. S. Goldsworth Bland, B.A. 
Jan. 16.— "Social Settlements" (Illustrated), Mr. W. L. M. King, 

M.A., LL.B. 
Mch. 6. — " The Development of Responsible Government in Canada," 

Mr. W. D. LeSueur, B.A., LL.D. 
Mch. 20. — "The Poetry of Matthew Arnold," Mr. Benjamin Russell, 

LL.D., M.P. 
Mch. 27.—" The French Treaty Shore," Prof. Jean C. Bracq (Vassar 

The Hon. Chas. Pitzpatrick, K.C., was pre\'ented through pres- 
sure of work, from delivering his promised lecture on Lord Russell of 



Transactions No. 3 for 1901-02 have been recently published, and 
consists of 97 pages with an introduction by Dr. Morse the President, 
and the following valuable and interesting papers : — 

Metrology — Otto J. Hotz. 

Canadian Novels and. Novelists — Lawrence J. Burpee. 

Medem l^pes of Danger Warnings on the Sea-Coast — W. P. 

The Impeocancy of the King — Charles Morse. 

These transactions have been distributed to more than 200 
societies and public institutions, from which a large number of valu- 
able publications have been received in exchange and added to the 

The following oflBcers were elected by our Society at its last annual 
meeting, 24th April, 1903 :— 

President— H. H. Bligh, K.C., M.A. 

1st Vice-President— 0. J. JoUiffe, M.A. 

2nd Vice-President— Prof. E. E. Prince, P.E.S.C. 

Secretary — W. Hague Harrington, F.R.S.C. 

Treasurer — A. H. Whitcher. 

Librarian — 0. J. Klotz. 

Curator — Charles Morse, D.C.L. 

Committee— W. D. LeSueur, LL.D., Thos. Macfarlane, F.R.S.C., 
James Ballantyne. 

VI. — From The Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, through 
W. T. Macoun. 

The Ottawa Field Naturalists^ Club, unlike many scientific organi- 
zations which thrive for a short time and then die from lack of enthus- 
iasm among its members, or from some other cause, has been in existence 
for twenty-four years and is in better condition now than it ever was. 
With 262 members, a considerable number of whom take an active in- 
terest in the club, it has been again possible during the past year to do 
good work in the various branches of science which the club undertakes 
to investigate. 

Winter Soirées. 

Following the custom of other years, soirées were held during the 
winter months and the programme as arranged was as follows : — 

Dec 16. — ^President's Address : " The Functions of a Geological Sur- 
vey,'' by Eobt. Bell, M.D., LL.D., Sc.D. (Cantab.), F.R.S. 
Address of Welcome, by the Principal of the Normal School. 


"Some Ottawa Butterflies and Moths/^ by Dr. James 

Fletcher, illustrated by coloured lantern slides. 
Conversazione, with exhibition of Natural History objects 
and miscroscopic slides. 
Jan. 13. — "The Scenery of the Bocky Mountain Region/' illustrated 
by lantern slides, by Dr. R. A. Daly, of the Geological 
Report of the Geological Branch. 
Jan. 27.—" The Wood-pulp Industry of Canada," by Professor D. P. 
Penhallow, McGill College, Montreal, illustrated by 
lantern slides. 
Feb. 10. — "Nature Study in American Universities," by Dr. S. B. 
Sinclair, of the Normal School, Ottawa. 
Report of the Entomological Branch. 
Feb. 24.— "The Summer Climate of the Yukon and its Effects on 
Vegetation," by Professor John Macoun, of the Geological 
Report of the Botanical Branch. 
Mar. 10. — " Whales and Whale Hunting," illustrated by lantern slides*, 
by Professor E. E. Prince, Commissioner of Fisheries. 
Report of the Zoological Branch. 
Mar. 17. — (a) Annual Meeting. Reports of Council, Election of 
Officers, etc. 
(&) "Additional Notes on the Geology and Palaeontology of 
Ottawa," illustrated by lantern slides and specimens, 
by Dr. H. ^F. Ami, of the Geological Survey. 

All the lectures were delivered as arranged with the exception of 
the last two. Owing to the illness of Prof. Prince, his place was taken 
by Mr. Andrew Halkett, who used Prof. Prince's slides. On account of 
Dr. Ami being absent in England, his lecture was cancelled. The course 
throughout was very satisfactory and the audiences as a rule were good. 


During the spring and summer of 1902, two general excursions 
were held to Chelsea, P.Q., at which 250 and 200 persons attended. Six 
spring sub-excursions were arranged for but owing to wet weather only 
four were held. Several autumn sub-excursions were also made by 
members of the l)otanical and entomological branches. At these ex- 
cursions, addresses were usually given by leadors of the various branches. 
It is thought that such addresses given in the field, and relating prin- 
cipally to specimens collected, prove very helpful to the members. 


Work of the Branches. 

The work of the club is divided into seven branches relating respec- 
tively to geology, botany, entomology, conchology, ornithology, zoology 
and archaeology, and for each of these branches leaders are appointed 
every year. These leaders. are expected to do most of the field work of 
the club and to render as much assistance as they can at the excursions 
to those who are beginning the study of natural history. The botanical 
and entomological branches have been most active during the past year. 
Several new species of plants were discovered and many insects. Fort- 
nightly meetings of these branches were held during the winter and are 
still continuing. These meetings at which many interesting plants and 
insects have been examined and talked about and work outlined for the 
future, have proven very enjoyable. Good work was also done during 
the year by the geological, ornithological and zoological branches. The 
members of the zoological branch are working especially on the smaller 
mammalia and fishes. 

The Ottawa Naturalist. 

In March, 1903, Volume XVI of the Ottawa Naturalist, the official 
publication of the club was completed. During the year twelve num- 
bers were published containing 248 pages and four plates. Uncolourcd 
copies of the geological map of the city of Ottawa and vicinity were 
purchased from the Geological Survey Department for distribution with 
the December number to all Canadian members of the Club. The 
Naturalist was again edited last year by Mr. J. M. Macoun. 

The following are some of the more important papers published 
during the year : 

Birds of Sable Island, N.S.; Canadian Hummingbirds, by W. E. 

Five Xew Ranunculi; New Northwestern Plants, by Edw. L. 

Marl Deposits of Eastern Canada, by R. W. Ells. 

On the Nepheline Rocks of Ice River, B.C. ; Dr. Alfred R. C. 
Selwyn, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director Geological Survey of Canada, 1869- 
1894, by A. E. Barlow. 

On the Genus Arctophila, by Dr. Theo. Holm. 

Notes on some Fresh- water and Land Shells ; Description of a Fossil 
Cyrena; On the Genus Trimerella, by J. F. Wliiteaves. 

Notes on the Arboretum and Botanic Gardens, Central Experi- 
mental Farm, by W. T. Macoun. 

Notes on some Canadian Birds, by Wm. H. Moore. 

Nesting of Some Canadian Warblers (two parts) by Wm. L. Kells. 


Field Notes on the Geology of the country about Chelsea, Que., H, 
M. Ami. 

Observations on Animals Native in the Algonquin Park, by Andrew 

The Educational Value of Nature Study, by A. E. Attwood. 

Notes on the Size of Hawks' Eggs, by J. E. Keays. 

Contributions to Canadian Botany No. XVI, by James M. Macoun. 

Ottawa Satjrrinœ, A. E. Richard. 

Besides these there are numerous short papers on scientific sub- 
jects, reports of soirées and excursions and of the work done by the vari- 
ous branches of the club, and reviews of scientific books. 

At the annual meeting of the club held in March, 1903, the follow- 
ing officers were elected for 1903-1904 : 

Patron — ^The Right Honourable Earl of Minto, Governor-General 
of Canada. 

President — W. T. Macoun. 

Vice-Presidents — A. E. Attwood, M.A., Andrew Halkett. 

Librarian— S. B. Sinclair, B.A., Ph.D. 

Secretary — W. J. Wilson, Ph.B. (Geological Survey Dept.). 

Treasurer — A. Gibson (Central Experimental Farm). 

Committee — Dr. Jas. Fletcher, Mr. W. H. Harrington, Mr. F. T. 
Shutt, Miss M. McK. Scott, Miss A. Matthews, Miss R. B. McQueston. 

Auditors — J. Ballantyne, R. B. Whytc. 

Standing Committees of Council — Publishing — J. Fletcher, Miss 
M. McKay Scott, F. T. Shutt, W. J. Wilson, A. E. Attwood. 

Excursions — S. B. Sinclair, Andrew Halkett, W. J. Wilson, A. Gib- 
son, Miss Ruby B. McQueston, Miss Annie L. Matthews. 

Soirées — W. H. Harrington, J. Fletcher, A. E. Attwood, Andrew 
Halkett, Miss M. McKay Scott, Miss Ruby B. McQuesten. 

Leaders — Geology — H. M. Ami, W. J. Wilson, 0. E. LeRoy. 

Botany-nJ. M. Macoun, C. Guillet, D. A. Campbell, A. E. Att- 
wood, S. B. Sinclair. 

Entomology — J. Fletcher, W. H. Harrington, C. H. Young, A. 

Conchology— J. F. Whiteaves, R. Bell, F. R. Latchford, J. Fletcher. 

Ornithology — John Macoun, A. G. Kingston, C. Guillet, Miss G. 

Zoology— E. E. Prince, Andrew Halkett, W. S. Odell. 

Archaeology — T. W. E. Sowtcr, J. Ballantyne. 


VIT. — From Hamilton Scientific Association, through 

EeV. D. B. ilARSH. 

The Hamilton Scientific Society takes pleasure in presenting the 
following report: 

During the session just closed papers were read before the general 
Association on the following subjects: — 

1. — ^In his inaugural address the President, Mr. J. M. Dixon, treated 
of the "recent advancement made in chemical and physical 
2. — ^'^ Wireless Telegraphy,^' by Dr. Merchant, of London Normal 

3. — " Beminiscences of Nome and Romance of Placer Mining," by Mr. 

E. C. Murton, of Hamilton. 
4.— "The Mackenzie River District,''. by J. W. Tyrrell, CE., D.L.S., 

of Hamilton. 
6. — "Education versus Educational Theory," by S. A. Morgan, B.A., 
D. Paed., of Hamilton. 

Twenty new members were added during the year and the Asso- 
ciation is in a most flourishing condition. Our youngest section, the 
Astronomical Society, Adam Brown, Esq., honorary president; Rev. D. 
B. Marsh, B.A., ScD., president and founder, has been most active, 
having held fifteen meetings at which papers were read, of which the 
following are som© : — 

" Weather Forecasts," by R. F. Stupart, F.R.S.C, Director of 
Meteorological Bureau, Toronto. 

"Kelvin's theory of Ether as applied to the Stellar Universe," 
by Mr. J. R. Collins, Toronto. 

" The Moon," by G. P. Jenkins, F.R.A.S., of Hamilton. 

" Determining the length of light waves," by Professor C. A. Chant, 
M.A., Ph.D., of Toronto University. 

" The Planet Jupiter," by Rev. R. E. Brady, Hamilton. 

" The Determination of Time and the Transit Instrument," by 
Mr. F. L. Blake, O.L.S., D.L.S., Toronto. 

" Looking Up and Looking Down," by Mr. J. M. Williams, Ham- 

" The Planet Saturn," by Mr. William Bruco, Hamilton. 

" The Planet Neptune," by Rev. Dr. Marsh, Hamilton. 

"Is the Moon a Dead World?" by Mr. J. E. Maybee, F.R.S.C, 

The attendance of the public at these meetings has been most 
encouraging and this section \has done decidedly good work. 


The Camera Section, Mr. James Beirtram, president, continues to 
do active work. On May 24th last, the club held a pleasant outing 
to the Forks of the Credit. The members were divided in groups 
during the year, A. B. C. D. for the purpose of competition. The club 
contributed to the American Lantern Sade Exchange, a large and very 
fine set of slides. An annual exhibition and competition was held 
in March and was most successful. Frequent meetings were held at 
winch the attendance was large. The membership has continued to 
increase and interest in the work of the club is sustained. 

The Geological Section has quietly continued its good work 'of 
past years in the collection and distribution of fossils, and though small 
in numbers, its work is most permanent in character. 

Vin. — From the Entomological Society of Ontario, through the 
Bev. C. J. S. Bethune, D.C.L. 

In giving a report of the doings of the Entomological Society of 
Ontario for the past year — the thirty-ninth since its foundation — ^it 
will not be necessary to recount the various forms of work undertaken 
by its members, as these were fully described last year and no impor- 
tant changes have since been made in its methods of procedure. It will 
be suflScient to give some particulars respecting its publications and a 
brief account of the annual gathering of its members at the headquar- 
ters in London. 

The " Canadian Entomologist,*' the monthly magazine of the 
Society, is now in its 35th year of publication. The volume for 1902 
contains 339 pages, and is illustrated with three full-page plates and 
twelve figures from original drawings. The contributors number forty- 
seven and represent Canada, the United States, Germany and Bussia. 
The principal articles may be grouped as follows : — Descriptions of 
new genera, species and varieties in Lepidoptera by Prof. J. B. Smith, 
Dr. H. G. Dyar, Mr. Henry Bird, Prof. A. B. Grote and Mr. A. G. 
Weeks; Orthoptera by Messrs. E. M. Walker, A. N. Caudell and J. A. 
G. Behn; Hymenoptera by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, Messrs. W. H. 
Ashmead, E. S. G. Titus, Charles Bobertson, J. C. Crawford, W. H. 
Harrington, H. L. Viereck, and J. C. Bradley; Hemiptera-Hom optera 
by Prof. T. D. A. Cockerell, Messrs. E. D. Ball, G. B. King and E. M. 
Ehrhorn; Ncuroptera by Prof. J. G. Xeedham and Mr. X. Banks; 
Coleoptera by Prof. H. F. Wickham, and Mr. W. D. Pierce; Diptcra by 
Messrs. D. W. Coquillet and C. W. Johnson, and Prof. Cockerell; and 
Acarina by Mr. N. Banks. Forty-one new genera are described, 176 
new species and 12 new varieties and subspecies. 


Papers an Classification and Systematic Entomology; Notes on 
Lepidoptera by Mr. H. H. Lyman, Dr. H. G. Dyer, Professors Grote 
and J. B. Smith, and on the genus Catocala by Prof. 6. H. Frendh ; the 
Wasps of the Super-family Vespoidea by Mr. W. H. Ashmead; Ontario 
Acrididœ by Mr. E. M. Walker; Cocidœ by Mrs. Fernald; Bombidae by 
Prof. Cockerell; Halictinse by Mr. C. Robertson; Orthoptera by Mr. J. 
A. G. Behn; and an article on the scientific name of the Cherry Fruit- 
fly by Prof. M. V. Slingerland. 

Life histories are given with more or less completeness of the 
following insects : The Variable Cut-worm {Mamestra Atlantica)y by 
Dr. Fletcher and Mr. A. Gibson; Arctia virgo and phalerata and Pen- 
thina hebesana by Mr. Gibson ; several species of Hydrœcia, illustrated 
by a beautiful coloured plate, by Mr. Henry Bird ; Lycœna Scudderii 
by Mr. H. H. Lyman; C urethra Brakeleyi by Prof. J. B. Smith; Lyda 
fasciata by Mr. R. F. Pearsall; the egg of the Water-scorpion (Ranatra), 
by Mr. R. H. Pettit; and the larva of a Datana by Dr. Kunze. Collect- 
ing notes, containing observations of much interest, are given by Mr. E. 
F. Heath on Manitoban Lepidoptera; Mr. W. H. Harrington on Coleop- 
tera; Mr. E. D. Harris on Cincindclidœ; Mr. Geo. B. King, on Coccidae 
and the Rev. Dr. Fyles records the capture near Quebec of a Tortoise 
beetle new to Canada. 

Among the miscellaneous papers may be mentioned a discussion on 
Labels for specimens ; " What is a genus ?'' by Mr. H. H. Lyman ; 
" The Formation of Generic Names," by Prof. J. M. Aldrich ; " The 
Ecology of Insect Sounds," by Mr. Frank E. Lutz ; and an account of 
the changes in the Insect Fauna of Northern Illinois, by Prof. F. M. 

The thirty-ninth annual meeting of the Society was held in Lon- 
don at the end of October last. Its proceedings were opened by a con- 
ference on the Destructive Pea-weevil which has caused an immense 
amount of loss in the Province of Ontario during the last few years. 
The discussion was opened by Dr. Fletcher, who gave a full description 
of the insect and the ravages it commits, its distribution and the best 
methods of controlling it; other speakers were Prof. Lochhead, Mr. 
Pearce, Mr. Fisher, and Prof. James, Deputy Minister of Agriculture 
for Ontario. Resolutions were adopted regarding the diffusion of infor- 
mation among the community and requesting the Provincial Govern- 
ment to send a competent staff of men to the rural districts of the 
country whose duty it should be to give the farmers practical lessons in 
the best methods of eradicating the pest. 

Mr. George E. Fisher, the Provincial Inspector of Scale Insects, 
gave a report on the insects of the year in the Niagara and Hamilton 


districte^ and described his experiments with the lime and sulphur 
wash for the destruction of the San José scale, and their successful 

At a public meeting in the evening the Rev. Dr. Pyles read his 
presidential address on " Insect Life/' illustrated by a series of beau- 
tiful coloured diagrams that he had himself prepared; -and Prof. Loch- 
head gave a lantern lecture on " Some noted Butterfly-hunters and 
some common Butterflies.^' 

The proceedings at the several sessions of the meeting and the 
papers read are given in full in the thirty-third Annual Report of the 
Society, which was published by the Ontario Department of Agricul- 
ture in March last. It consists of 132 pages illustrated with 108 
engravings in the text and photogravure portraits* of Mr. E. Baynes 
Reed, one of the original members of the Society and for many years 
one of its most active oflScers, and of Mr. W. E. Saunders the present 
energetic Secretary. Reports are given from the various ofiBcers and 
sections and the branches at Montreal, Quebec and Toronto, and also 
from the North- West (Canada) Entomological Society. 

Among the papers read may be mentioned the valuable reports on 
the insects of the year in their districts by the directors, Messrs. C. H. 
Young, Ottawa; J. D. Evans, Trenton; E. M. Walker, Toronto; G. E. 
Fisher, Hamilton and Niagara; and J. A. Balkwill, London. These are 
supplemented by further notes on the season by Messrs. C. Stevenson, 
J. A. Moffatt, Prof. Lochhead and Dr. James Fletcher. Mr. Lyman 
•contributed a paper on the remarkable habits of the Archippus butter- 
fly and the points in its history on which further information is 
required. Dr. Fyles furnished an article on the Paper-making Wasps 
of Quebec; Mr. A. Gibson on *^ Some interesting habits of Lepidop- 
terous larvœ,** and an account of Semiophora Youngii, a new enemy of 
tamarac and spruce trees; Mr. Harrington, " Notes on Insects* Injurious 
to Pines ;^' Prof. Lochhead an illustrated "Key to Orchard Insects ;'' 
Mr. Moffat, " A Talk About Entomology;'' and Dr. Fletcher and Mr. 
Harrington the very valuable " Entomological Record for 1902.' 

Officers for 1902-1903. 

President — Professor William Lochhead, B.A., M.S., Ontario Agri- 
-cultural College, Guelph, 

Vice-President— J. D. Evans, CE., Trenton. 
Secretary — W. E. Saunders, London, 
Treasurer — J. H. Bowman, London. 

Directors — ^Division No. 1 — C. H. Young, Hurdman's Bridge. 
Division No. 2— C. E. Grant, Orillia. 


Division No. 3 — ^E. M. Walker, M.A., Toronto. 
Division No. 4 — G. E. Fisher, Freeman. 
Division No. 5 — J. A. Balkwill, London. 

Directors Ex-ofl5cio — (Ex-Presidents of the Society) — ^Professor 
Wm. Saunders, LL.D., F.E.S.C., Director of the Experimental Farms, 
Ottawa; Eev. C. J. S. Bethune, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S.C, London; James 
Fletcher, LL.D., F.E.S.C, F.L.S., Entomologist and Botanist of the 
Experimental Farms, Ottawa; W. H. Harrington, F.E.S.C., Ottawa; 
John Deamess, Normal School, London; Ilenry H. Lyman, M.A., 
F.B.G.S., F.E.S., Montreal; Eev. T. W. Fyles, D.C.L., F.L.S., South 

Librarian and Curator — J. Alston Moffat, London. 

Auditors — ^W. H. Hamilton and S. B. McCready, London. 

Editor of the Canadian Entomologist — ^Eev. Dr. Bethune, Lon- 

Editing Committee — Dr. J. Fletcher, Ottawa; H. H. Lyman, 
Montreal; J. D. Evans, Trenton; W. H. Harrington, Ottawa; Professor 
Lochhead, Guelph. 

Delegate to the Eoyal Society — Eev. Dr. Bethune, London. 

Delegates to the Western Fair — J. A. Balkwill and W. E. Saund- 
'Crs, London. 

Committee on Field Days — The Chairmen of the Sections and Dr. 
Woolverton, Messrs. Balkwill, Bowman, Law, Moffat, Eennie and Saun- 
ders, London. 

Library and Eooms Committee — Messrs. Balkwill, Bethune, Bow- 
man, Deamess, Moffa/t, and Saunders, London. 

IX. — From the Natural History Society of New Brunswick, through 

Hon. J. V. Ellis. 

On behalf of the council and members of the Natural History 
Society of New Brunswick, I have the honour to present the following 
report: — 

The work of this Society, during the year 1902-03, has been char- 
acterized with considerable vigour, especially along the lines of original 
investigation, in which some very satisfactory results have been attained. 

The main lines upon which the work of the Society has been car- 
lied on are as follows: (1) Investigations of its members in the various 
departments of work; (2) Lectures during the winter months on sub- 
jects based on the results of these investigations; (3) The publication 
of an Annual Bulletin, in which original papers and the results of these 
researches are published; and (4) Supplementary work of a more ele- 


mentary and popular character during the winter, such as a course 
of elementary lectures designed for young people, a course of after- 
noon lectures, under the auspices of the Juadies* Association; and the 
opening of the Societ/s museum during three afternoons of each week 
during the year for general visitors and the instruction of the pupils 
of the public schools. 

The enrolled membership of the Society is 170, embracing all 
classes of members. A modest income derived from the fees of mem- 
bers, interest on an investment, and a small yearly grant from govern- 
ment is suflBcient for the current expenses of the Society. 

Ten regular meetings have been held during the year at which 
the following papers were read: 

June 3. — '^ Reports of the Meeting of the Royal Society at Toronto,'* 

by G. U. Hay and G. F. Matthew. 
Oct. 7. — "Batrachians of the Carboniferous Age and their Tracks 

at the Joggins mines, N.S.,'' by G. F. Matthew, D.Sc. 
Nov. 4. — ^^* Mushrooms; their Structure, Habits and Uses (to be fol- 
lowed by a list)," by G. U. Hay, D.Sc. 
Dec. 2. — " Notes on the Geology of the Northern Highlands of New 
Brunswick,*' by Prof. L. W. Bailey, Ph.D. 
Jan. e.—{a) " The Parasite,'' Geo. G. Melvin, M.D. 

(b) " Some Rare Plants and their Habits," H. F. Perkins, 

Jan. 20. — Annual Meeting. President's Address. Election of Officers. 
Feb. 3. — (a) " The Borderland between Insanity and Crime," Hon. H. 
A. McKeown, M.P.P. 

(6) ^ Notes on New Brunswick Fishes," Chas. F. B. Rowe. 
Mar. 3.— (a) '' Wintering of Plants," J. Vroom. 

(6) " Notes on the Violets," J. Vroom. 
April 7.—" The Structure of the Common House Fly," W. H. Mowatt. 
May 5. — (a) " Birds and their Structure," A. Gordon Leavitt. 

(6) " Birds and their Nests," J. W. Banks. 

In addition to the above a valuable series of papers was contributed 
by Prof. W. F. Ganong on the " Physiography and Natural History of 
New Brunswick." 

The elementary course embraced talks and discussion on minerals, 
plants, birds and insects. 


The Thursday afternoon lectures before the Ladies' Association 
proved of great interest and attracted large audiences. The following 
were the subjects treated and the lecturers: 

Jan. 15.—" Thoreau/' Mrs. E. S. Fiske. 

22. — "Reminiscences of the American Museum," Mrs. G. F. 

29.— Children's Day. " A Talk on Insects," Mr; Wm. Mcintosh. 
Feb. 5.— "Wordsworth; A Nature Poet," Mrs. G. A. Hamilton. 
12. — " Coloiir in Nature," Miss A. Jack. 
19. — " A Prohisloric Mound in Ontario," Miss A. L. Hunt. 
2G.— Children's Day. "A Talk on Birds," Mr. A. Gordon Leavitt. 
Mar. 5.—" The Scientific Basis of Art," (illustrated). Miss M. Barry 
12. — "A Eamble in Switzerland," Miss Christine Matthew. 
19. — ^^ Nature Study in the Public Schools," Miss G. Murphy. 
2G. — Eeunion of Members. 

The following are the officers and committees of the Society lor 
the present year: 

Patron — His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor, Honourable J. B. 

Council for 1903— President, Hon. J. V. Ellis, LL.D.; Vice- 
Presidents, G. F. Matthew, H. G. Addy, M.D.; Treasurer, A. G. Leavitt; 
Secretary, G. U. Hay, D.Sc; Librarian, W. L. Ellis, M.D.; Curatora, 
S. W. Kain, J. W. Banks, Wm. Mcintosh; Additional Members, J. Eoy 
Campbell, James A. Estey, W. P. Hatheway. 

Associate Members' Branch — ^President, Mrs. G. F. Matthew; Vice- 
Presidents, Mrs. G. U. Hay, Mrs. H. G. Addy; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss 
Edith McBeath. 

Standing Committees — Archœology, S. W. Kain, Dr. A. C. Smith, 
Miss Jack; Botany, G. TJ. Hay, Prof. W. F. Ganong, John Brittain, 
James Vroom; Entomology, Wm. Mcintosh, A. G. Leavitt; Finance, 
A. G. Leavitt, J. Eoy Campbell, W. F. Hatheway; Geology, Dr. G. 

F. Matthew, Prof. L. W. Bailey; Lectures, Dr. G. U. Hay, Dr. H. G. 
Addy, Dr. G. F. Matthew; Library, Dr. G. U. Hay, Wm. Mcintosh, 
Dr. W. L. Ellis, Mrs. G. U. Hay, Mrs. W. F. Hatheway, Mrs. G. A. 
Hamilton; Microscopes, Dr. W. L. Ellis, Dr. G. G. Melvin, W. H. 
Mowatt; Ornithology, A. G. Leavitt, Wm. White, J. W. Banks; Press, 

G. XT. Hay, A. G. Leavitt, Wm. Mcintosh; Publications, Dr. G. F. Mat- 
thew, S. W. Kain, G. U. Hay, A. G. Leavitt; Rooms, Dr. H. G. Addy, 
Mrs. G. F. Matthew, Mrs. G. U. Hay, Mrs. W. S. Hall. 

Procl903. 7. 


Among the progressive measures that the Society has in view for 
the ensuing year are the following: (1) A scheme of affiliation by which 
natural history societies now in existence, and which may in future 
be formed in the province, may affiliate with the Natural History Society 
of New Brunswick as the parent society; (2) to join heartily in the 
movement to celebrate the ter-centenar}' of Champlain's discovery of 
St. John, and invite the Hoyal Society of Canada to meet here on that 
occasion; (3) to conduct a summer camp, or hold field meetings in 
places where profitable and interesting work may be carried on; (4) to 
urge upon the New Brunswick Government the desirability of marking 
the bounds and laying out the park and game preserve in the Tobique- 
Nepisiguit region. 

The Annual Bulletin which the Society has just issued, and which 
I have the honour to present to the Royal Society, contains a very full 
record of the results of the original work carried on by the Society 
during the year. 

X. — ^From the Nova Scotian Institute of Science, 
through Dr. R. W. Ells. 

The Nova Scotian Institute of Science, through its delegate, begs 
to submit to the Royal Society of Canada, a report on its proceedings 
during the past session of 1902-3. 

The following were elected officers for the year 1902-3 : — 

Presideni>— Henry S. Poole, Esq., A.R.S.M., F.G.S., F.R.S.C. ex- 
officio F.R.M.S. 

Ist Vice-President— F. W. W. Doane, Esq., CE. 

2nd Vice-President— Prof. E. McKay, Ph.D. 

Treasurer — W. C. Silver, Esq. 

Corresponding Secretary — A. H. MacKay, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

Recording Secretary — Harry Piers, Esq. 

Librarian — Harry Piers, Esq. 

Other Members of Council — M. Bowman, Esq., B.A.; W. L. Bishop, 
Esq.; Martin Murphy, Esq., D.Sc. ; W. McKcrron, Esq.; Prof, S. M. 
Dixon, B.A., B.A.I. ; Edwin Gilpin, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S.C; Alex. McKay, 

Auditors — Roderick McCoU, Esq., CE., and J. B. McCarthy, 
Esq., B.Sc. 

Parts 3 and 4 of volume X. of the proceedings and transactiona 
have been published and distributed during the year. 

The King's County branch of the Institute, Wolfville, N.S., 
organized May 29, 1901, under the presidency of Prof. E. Haycock, 


of Acadia College, has been actively working during the session and 
a number of papers were read at its various meetings. 

Meetings were held from November until May, 1903. The 
following papers were communicated during the session: — 
1.—" Presidential Address," by A. U. MacKay, Esq., LL.D., F.E.S.C. 
2. — '' Middleton Fungi, with general Kemarks," by li. E. Gates, Esq., 

of Mt. Allison University. 
3.—" Nova Scotian Fungi," by A. H. MacKay, Esq., LL.D. 
4. — " Gunfi and Gunnery," by Major English, R.A. 
5. — "The Swim Bladder of Fishes, a Degenerate Gland," by Prof. 
E. E. Prince, Commissioner and General Inspector of 
Fisheries, Ottawa. 
6. — " Colours of Animals, their nature and meaning," by Prof. E. E. 

Prince, Ottawa. 
7. — " The Meso-Carbonif erous Age of the Union and Riversdale For- 
mations of Nova Scotia, and their equivalents the Mispec and 
Lancaster Formations of New Brunswick," by Henry M. Ami, 
Esq., D.Sc, Ottawa. 
8. — "Note on Didyonema wehsteri/^ by Henry S. Poole, Esq., F.G.S., 

9. — " Exhibition and description of three abnormal specimens recently 
received at the Provincial Museum," by Harry Piers, Esq., 
Curator Provincial Museum. 
10.— "The Mira Grant," by Edwin Gilpin, Jr., Esq., LL.D., F.E.S.C, 

Inspector of Mines. 
11.— "The Yellowstone National Park," by Prof. J. E. Woodman, 

D.Sc, School of Mining and Metallurgy, Dalhousie College. 
12. — "Note on a Lichen-mimicking Caterpillar," by C. B. Eobinson, 

Esq., B.A., Pictou Academy. 
13._« Wireless Telegraphy," by Parker E. Colpitt, Esq., City 

14. — " Is there Coal under Prince Edward Island," by Henry S. Poole, 

Esq., F.G.S., F.E.S.C. 
15._« Geology of Moose Eiver Gold District, Halifax County, N.S.," 
by Prof. J. E. Woodman, D.Sc, School of Mining and Metal- 
lurgy, Dalhousie College. 
16. — " Analyses and Sections of Nova Scotian Coals," by Edwin Gilpin, 

Jr., Esq., LL.D., F.E.S.C, Inspector of Mines. 
17. — *^ Phenological Observations, Canada, for 1902," by A. H. MacKay, 

Esq., LL.D., F.E.S.C. 
18. — '' Botanical Notes," by A. H. MacKay, Esq., LL.D. 


19. — ^^Distribution of Fucils serratus in Nova Scotia/' by C. B. 

Robinson, Esq., B.A., Pictou Academy. 
The following papers were brought before the King's Couniy 
branch of the Institute during the session : — 
1. — "Objects and Aims of the King's Oounty Branch of the N.S. 

Institute of Science," by Prof. Ernest Haycock, Acadia 

College, Wolfville. 
2. — " Principles of the Dynamo," by Prof. F. R. Haley, Acadia Cdlege. 
3. — " Modem System» of Electric Lighting," by D. R. Munro, Esq. 
4. — " Adolph Loring and his specialty," by A. DeW. Barss, Esq., M.D. 
5. — " Coastal Erosion at Long Island, King's County, îf .S.," by Prof. 

E. Haycock. 
6. — " Ice-borne Sediment in Minas Basin, N.S.," by J. A. Bancroft, Esq. 
7. — " Teaching Material in Mineralogy recently added to Acadia College 

equipment," by Prof. E. Haycock. 
8.— "The Life History of the Bud Moth," by Prof. F. C. Sears, N.S. 

School of Horticulture. 

XI. — From the Nova Scotia Historical Society, through 
the Hon. J. W. Longley. 

This Society has had a flourishing season, no less than six papers 
on important historical topics having been read, as follows: 
November. — "Hon. Alexander Stewart," by Hon. Judge Townshend. 
December. — " Voyages of John Cabot," by Hon. Senator Poirier. 
January. — " Halifax during the Revolutionary War," by Miss Emily 

February. — " Howe as an Imperialist," by F. Blake Crofton, Esq. 
March. — " Journalism in the Maritime Provinces," by D. R. Jack, 

April. — " Mr. John Wiswall," by Rev. E. M. Saunders, D.D. 

The ter-ccntennary of the settlement of Port Royal is to be cele- 
brated in 1904 at Annapolis Royal, the arrangements for which have 
been entrusted to this Society. Invitations are to be sent to the gov- 
ernments of Great Britain, United States, France and Canada, to 
participate in this celebration, and to all historical societies in Canada 
and the United States. 

The officers of the Society for the year are: 

President— Hon J. W. Longley, F.R.S.C. 

Vice-Presidents — Hon. L. G. Power, Hon. Judge Town^^hend, A. 
H. McKay, LL.D. 

Corresponding Secretary — F. Blake Crofton, Esq. 


Eecording Secretary — ^W. L. Payzant, Esq. 
Treasurer — E. J. Wilson, Esq. 

Council — J. J. Stewart, Esq.; A. McMechan, Ph.D.; Eev. Dr. 
Saunders, and A. Frame, Esq. 

XII. — From the Elgiti Historical and Scientific Institute, through 
Dr. S. E. Dawson. 

This being the centennial year of the Talbot settlement, thei 
members have been chiefly engaged in preparing for the celebration 
to be held in St. Thomas, May 21st to 25th inclusive. 

The co-operation of the citizens generally has been secured and a 
general committee formed, with the Maj-or of the city as chairman. 

The chief event of the 21st of May, the day Colonel Talbot, the 
founder of the settlement, landed at Port Talbot, will be a banquet, 
to be held at the Grand Central Hotel in St. Thomas, under the auspices 
of the Institute, to which all members of the Dominion and Provincial 
Parliaments who represent any part of the original settlement, wardens 
of counties, and mayors of cities and towns within the same area are 
invited, as well as the councils of the county of Elgin and city of St. 
Thomas, and other guests. 

Subsequent days will be devoted to the opening of a new collegiate 
institute and armouries, pioneer and military processions, old boys' 
gathering, band concerts, illuminations, etc., and the erection of a 
cairn composed of stones representing each of the 29 townships em- 
braced in the original settlement, to be placed in position by the reeves 
and engraved with the names of the townships. This cairn is intended 
to form a permanent historical feature in the recently acquired muni- 
cipal park of St. Thomas. On the intervening Sunday, sermons appro- 
priate to the occasion will be preached in all the churches. About 
1,000 militia from Toronto, Chatham and St. Thomas take part in 
the celebration. 

On June 3rd and 4th, the Ontario Provincial Historical Society 
hold their annual meeting at St. Thomas, when a drive to the South- 
wold Earthworks and Port Talbot form part of the programme. 

The Ladies' branch has been active as ever and has planned a 
celebration in connection with the centennial celebration in St. Thomas, 
one interesting feature of which will be the entertainment of a gather- 
ing of the octogenarian ladies of the settlement. At the numerous 
meetings of the branch the following among other papers have been 

Papers on the six pioneer families of the Talbot Settlement. 
Papers on the different denominational churches. 


Papers on Governor Simcoe, Laura Secord, M. de Verchères. 

The chief work accomplished by the Society during the past year 
is the refitting of their vast and commodious apartments. They are 
handsomely and tastefully decorated and can compare favourably with 
any rooms of the same nature in the province. 

The officers of the Ladies^ Auxiliary are : 

President, Mrs. J. H. Wilson; 1st Vice-President, Mrs. James H. 
Coyne; 2nd Vice-President, Mrs. 0. Shea; Secretary, Mrs*. S. Silcox; 
Assistant Secretary, Charlotte S. Wegg; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. 
E. W. Gustin; Treasurer, Mrs. E. H. Caughell; Assistant Treasurer, 
Miss F. McLauchlin. 

Elgin Historical and Scientific Institute officers: 

President — C. 0. Ermatinger, Esq. 

Vice-President^-S. Silcox, B.A., D.Paed. 

Secretary-Treasurer — W. H. Murch, Esq. 

Assistant Secretary, Charlotte S. 'Wegg. 

Curator — ^Mrs. St. Thomas Smith. 

Editor — ^Frank Hunf, Esq. 

Council — Mrs. Gustin, Mrs. Cormack, Mrs. Griffin, Mrs. Jackson, 
Mrs. Wilson, Mr. Oakes, Mr. Coyne, Mr. McKay, Mr. Stewart. 

XIII. — Report of The Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society, 
through the Eev. Dr. G. Bryce. 

The Manitoba Historical and Scientific Society has now entered 
upon the 25th year of its history. During this quarter of a century, 
while it has witnessed the marvellous settlement of the province and re- 
markable growth of the city of Winnipeg, it has also sought to preserve 
the records and doings of the unique civilization which grew up under 
the care of the fur companies, to examine the ethnology of the Indian 
races of the west and to link harmoniously the new with the old. 

Ito arrangement with the city of Winnipeg by which it co-operates 
with the city in managing the Public Library and in opening its fine 
Reference Library of 10,000 volumes for the use of the citizens, still 
continues. At present the quarters are in the City Hall. 

During the past year, however, the city has purchased a suitable 
site for the new Carnegie Library, and during the present month 
accepted tenders for the erection of a commodious and handsome build- 
ing. This building to be erected at once will supply excellent accom- 
modation now denied in the City Hall. 

The Society has during the past year had a number of papers read 
by its members, among the more important being an elaborate account 
by retired Chief Trader McLean, of the Hudson's Bay Company, of the 


celebrated captivity of himself and his family for a number of weeks by 
the Fort Pitt Indians under Chief Big Bear in 1885. This will no 
doubt be published and will supply an interesting and comprehensive 
account of that portion of the North-West Rebellion. 

Another paper of importance was a collection of letters (1821-55) 
found in New York State, of the late Sheriff Alexander Ross, one of the 
original landholders of Winnipeg and whose family names are to be 
seen in a number of the names of Winnipeg streets to-day. A valuable 
paper on the " Perching Birds," of the neighbourhood of Winnipeg was 
^Iso read before the Society. In this connection it may be said that a 
Natural History Society has been started with much energy which will 
develop more fully that side of the societ/s work. 

In the printed annual report of the Society for the year, the practice 
is followed of giving short biographical sketches of members of the 
Society, or old settlers of note of the country, who have passed away. 
One of the most noted of this year is that of a past president of the 
Society, the late William Cowan, M.D., a distinguished Scottish phy- 
sician, who some forty years ago came in the service of the company to 
the posts on Hudson Bay. On being removed to the interior Dr. Cowan 
was given the important position of Master of Fort Garry. He was 
occupying this position in 1869, when Louis Riel, with his Metis fol- 
lowers seized Fort Garry. Dr. Cowan was a man of high character, of 
excellent parts, and held the respect of all the people. He was one of a 
sturdy band, of traders fast passing away — not we fear to have successors 
of the same type. 

In the enormous growth of the city, the Society is keeping in view 
the preservation of such memorials of the past as can be spared, and looks 
forward to decorating the eight or ten parks scattered through the city 
for which it is becoming famous, by busts or when possible, statues of 
such men as Sieur de la Verendrye, Sir A. Mackenzie, Lord Selkirk, Sir 
Geo. Simpson and others who have been famous in the history of the 
North- West. The finances of the. Society it may be stated are in excel- 
lent condition. 

XIV. — ^From the Royal Astronomical Society of Toronto, through 
R. F. Stupart. • 

At the twelfth annual meeting of the Society, which was well 
attended, the retiring President for the former year, G. E. Lumsden, 
F.R.A.S., delivered an address entitled, " Astronomical Notes of the 
past year in which he referred to observations of Nova Persei, the new 
star that had been first observed by Dr. Anderson, of Edinburgh, to 
blaze out in the constellation Persius in February, 1901. The star 


though faint, was still visible in a large telescope and the character of 
the nebula that surrounded it presented problems not easy for the 
theoretical astronomer to solve. Allusion was also made to the sun, 
including the results of the observations of the total eclipse on the 
18th of May; to the continued discovery of asteroids, and to the work 
which had been done upon Eros; to the Leonid showers of meteors, 
which, though not seen to advantage in Toronto, had evidently been 
well obfeerved at Winnipeg and at Echo Mountain, California; to the 
Cape Comet, the brightest which had appeared since 1882, to Encke's 
Comet; to the success achieved at Flagstaff Observatory in photograph- 
ing the Zodiacal Light; to the synchronism of auroral displays at the 
north and south poles, and to the investigations of Prof. K. A. Fessen- 
den, in regard to Gravitation. 

Referring to this, Mr. Lumsden said Prof. J. J. Thomson was able 
to show. Philosophical Magazine, April, 1881, that electrical charges 
increased the inertia of bodies. And, in Phil Mag,, Dec., 1899, that, 
linder special conditions the atom could, apparently, be split up into 
numerous parts called " corpuscles,'' the number in the hydrogen atom 
being of the order of at least 1000, and the corpuscles were electrically 
charged. With these two experimental results before him, Thomson 
then undertook a mathematical investigation to determine whether the 
" corpuscular '^ charges would be sufficient to account for the entire 
inertia of bodies, but was unable to make out corpuscular spaces and 
surfaces enough to accommodate more than a portion of the requisite 
charges. Here, Prof. Fessenden took up the work, and assuming the 
corpuscles to be vortices of a special form and orientated in a special 
way, appears to have found surfaces and spaces enough for electric 
charges sufficient to account entirely for the property known as " iner- 
tia '^ of bodies ; at the same time, he undertook to show thai these 
minute corpuscular charges would produce a change of density of the 
ether surrounding each particle, an effect akin to, though diflfering 
from, a magnetic " field '' extending outward indefinitely in all direc- 
tions and decreasing inversely as the square of the distance — producing, 
in a word, the effect known as gravitation, the velocity of which would 
be many times greater than that of light, viz., 10*°, but it may be asked. 
Does not^n electric charge need to be explained itself? Recent inves- 
tigations along these lines seem to point towards the conclusion that 
an electric charge, apparently, consists of a specialized strain, tension or 
pressure of the ether that may be isolated or stored on the surface of 
bodies or the particles of which bodies consist, the energy of which 
strain cannot be communicated to the normal ether except it be in a 
special condition. 


Mr. Lumsden also made reference to a communication from Mr. G. 
W. Bitchey/, optician at the Yerkes' Observatory, on the subject of 
constructing large telescopes, chiefly for photographic work. Mr. Bit- 
chey looked forward to the construction in the near future of a large 
reflecting telescope ten or twelve feet in aperture. Such an instrument, 
of fifty or sixty feet focal length, could, he contended, now be success- 
fully made, '^ without the slightest danger of failure," which, in a fine 
climate, would give results immeasurably beyond any attainable at 
present, adding that " in many kinds of work the two-foot reflector 
(of the Yerkes Observatory) usually surpasses the forty-inch refractor.'' 
This being so, he asked, " What would a ten or twelve foot do ?" 

At the meeting of January 15th, J. A. Brashear, F.B.A.S., Chan- 
cellor and Professor of Astronomy in the University of Western Penn- 
sylvania and Honorary Fellow of the Society, delivered a lecture on 
** The making of a Great Telescope." From the standpoint of a practical 
optician. Dr. Brashear explained the various methods of " figuring " 
and mounting the modern telescope and the difficulties to be encoim- 
tered and overcome in the work. 

Professor DeLury, of Toronto University, under the auspices of 
the Society gave a series of popular lectures in the University buildings 
on " The Cosmos as understood by the Ancients," " The development 
of the Copemican theory," " The Newtonian advance to Physical As- 
tronomy,'' " Special consideration of the Solar System," *' La Place's 
Nebular Hypothesis and Stellar Evolution." These lectures were 
uniformly well attended by the public and evidently appreciated by 
all who heard them. 

At the meeting of February the 25th Mr. J. E. Maybec presente<7 
sketches of regions of the moon s surface made by him at the telescope 
on February 19th, including Aristarchus, Herodotus and Sehroeter's 
valley. Attention was called to the observations of Gruithensen and 
Dr. Kline, who both claim that the region surrounded by the valley 
or rill is strongly green in tint. 

Eev. Bobt. Atkinson contributed a paper on "the Planets," illus- 
trating his remarks with lantern slides, and drawing attention to the 
features of particular interest from an observational standpoint. 

March 25th, Mr. A. F. Miller contributed a paper on " The 
Spectroscope in Astronomical Research." A description of the various 
methods of reaserch in this line was given. The investigation of sun 
spots, facula, and the corona were touched upon, and the value of the 
spectroscope in determining stellar motion in the line of sight, and for 
detectii^ certain binary-st^rs, a class of bodies which, but for the 
Bpectroscope, would probably have never become known. 


April the 8th, a communication from Prof. Campbell, director 
of the Lick Observatory, was received, relating to the method employed 
by Perrine to determine the non-polarity of light from condensations 
in nebula of Nova Persei, observed a few days before this date. It was 
explained that Perrine had interposed a double prism 3 inches in front 
of the photographic plate, and had rotated the prisms without getting 
polarization effects which should have shown if the light was reflected 
«nd not directly radiated. 

The paper of the evening was by Prof. G. F. Hull, of Dartmouth 
College, on " The Pressure of Light in its application to Astronomical 
Problems.^' It was pointed out that Maxwell had shown that according 
to the electro-magnetic theory of light, light should exert a pressure 
on unit surface equal to the energy of one unit of volume, divided 
by the velocity of light. This magnitude, as calculated by him, was 
BO small that little hope was held out of it ever being experimentally 
observed. Receat experiments by Dr. Hull and Professor Nichols 
Tiad given d-ecisive demonstration of the existence of this minute force, 
th« actual force observed agreeing with the calculated result to within 
5 per cent. A brief description of the apparatus was given. It was 
shown that on a body sufficiently small, the pressure due to the light 
of the sun would be greater than gravitative attraction, but there is a 
limit to this smallness. It was also remarked that velocity due to 
light pressure might be great, but it coul-d not equal the velocity of 
light itself. 

At the meeting of the 22nd April, Mr. Arthur Harvey made a few 
remarks regarding the value of the hand method of mapping the con- 
stellations. The President reported that the seismograph at the observa- 
tory had recorded a severe earthquake shock, accompanied by a sharp 
electrical disturbance on April 18th, at 4.38 p.m. The origin of the 
disturbance was afterwards found to be in Guatemala, the shock tak- 
ing place there about eleven minutes before it was recorded in Toron- 
to, and as the distance separating these two points is about 1,800 
miles, 11 minutes would represent a velocity of 2 J miles per second 
approximately. John A. Paterson, M.A., K.C., presented a paper 
•dealing with *^ The Apex of the Smrs way.'' The dilTorent methods of 
determining the direction of the Sun's motion in space were comment- 
ed upon and the most modern results presented, indicating apparently 
that the solar system is moving towards the vicinity of Vega, a bright 
star in the constellation Lyra, at the rate of about 10 miles per second. 

May 6th, Mr. F. L. Blake, of the Observatory staflf, described the 
transit instrument, also the chronograph and other instruments in 
use at the observatory for measuring and recording time. It was 
remarked that the mercurial pendulum is in use at the observatory in 


Toronto. Mr. Arthur Harvey spoke of " Solar Radiation/^ and appears 
to have been the first to establish the fact that the aurorae synchronize 
at the north and south simultaneously. 

May 21«t, Mr. 6. E. Lumsden read a paper on the subject of " Lunar 
Ring Plains.'' Attention was called to the fact, that on some por- 
tions of the moon, ring-plains occur with greater frequency than at 
others, and there appear to be vast differences in time as to the periods 
of their formation, some showing a perfect formation, whilst others 
are broken and worn away as if by the action of water or some other 
fluid at an earlier period of the moon's history. 

June 3rd, W. B. Musson read an exhaustive and carefully pre- 
pared paper on " Variable Stars," in which he drew attention to the 
main points of difference between variables of short and long periods 
and also stars of the Algol class. While there was little doubt that 
the variability of the latter class is caused by the eclipse of one body 
by another, the fluctuations of long period variables is still much of 
a mystery. It was mentioned that Prof. Chandler had confirmed his 
theory advanced in 1888, that Algol and its companion moved in an 
orbit about a third body. 

Mr. A. F. Miller spoke of his observations of the star (Y) Vir- 
ginus which in 1837 was known as a double not very far apart. Mr. 
Miller's observations had shown the components to be considerably 
separated now and their angular positions also greatly shifted. The 
components are now equal in brightness and colour though they have 
been known to vary in both particulars. 

September 9th, Mr. Andrew Elvins contributed a paper on " The 
cause of the 25-day period in the magnetic ' curve.' " 

September 23rd, Mr. J. H. AVetliorby contributed a paper entitled 
^' Astronomical Work for the Autumn." 

October 7th, Mr. Elvins and Mr. Miller rqwrtcd observations of 
comet "Perrine." The latter had examined its spectrum and had 
found it to be that of a hydro-carbon incandescent gaseous lx3dy. 

The paper for the evening was by J. R. Collins on ^' The Applica- 
tion of Kelvin's Theory of the Ether to the Stellar Universe." The 
necessity for supposing the ether to be rather of a continuous nature 
rather than consisting of discrete particles was pointed out and Kel- 
vin's theory of vortices in this continuous substance was applied to a 
finite universe and some interesting deductions dra\\Ti from the results. 
The ether of a finite universe of this kind would be expected to have a 
definite surface and bundles of vortices which would be conceived as 
forming matter, rushing against its interior surface would be thrown 
backward with the velocity with which they came. It was said that 


while any hypothesis dealing with the ultimate nature of ether and 
matter is put forth provisionfilly, Kelvin's concepts of it seem to have 
met with the most favour because of its simplicity and the facility it 
offers for explaining otherwise as yet unsolvable phenomena. 

October 21st, G. E. Lumsden presented his views relative to 
*' Ancient Lunar Coast Lines/' illustrated by numerous lantern slides. 

November 4th, W. P. King, CE., chief astronomer, Ottawa, con- 
tributed a paper on '^ Astronomy in Canada,*' dealing with the outlook 
for the work here and having especial reference to the new Government 
Observatory at Ottawa. 

November 18th, C. H. Chant, M.A., Ph.D., explained very fully 
the "New Developments in Wireless Telegraphy," with illustration of 
the different systems developed from their inception to the present 
time in connection with this interesting subject. Dr. Chant is some- 
what of an expert, having been engaged in investigating the nature of 
phenomena presented from a physical standpoint and hopes shortly to 
be able to demonstrate with some approach to precision the precise 
nature of the etherial disturbance taking place when a wireless mess- 
age is being transmitted. 

December 2nd, Mr. Arthur Harvey under the heading of " Vagaries 
of the Mariners' Compass," presented curves which he had plotted from 
records obtained at the observatory, showing apparently that the motion 
of the North Magnetic Pole is irregular and not uniform as ha^ gen- 
erally been supposed. 

December 12th, Mr. A. P. Miller read a paper on "Stellar Motions," 
the purport of which was to show in what way the various apparent 
motions might be so analyzed as to indicate the true movements of the 
stellar bodies in space. 

December 30th, election of oflBcers for 1903. 

List of Officers. 

Honorary President — The Hon. Bichard Harcourt, M.A., LL.D., 
K.C., M.P.P., Minister of Education. 

President— Mr. E. P. Stupart, P.R.S.C., Director of the Toronto 
Observatory and Superintendent of the Dominion Meteorological Ser- 

First Vice-President— Mr. C. A. Chant, M.A. (Tor.), Ph.D. (Har.), 
Lecturer in Physics*, Toronto University. 

Second Vice-President — Mr. W. Balfour Musson, 37 Yonge street, 

Treasurer — Mr. J. Edward Maybee, M.E., 103 Bay street, Toronto. 

Secretary — Mr. J. B. Collins, 131 Bay street, Toronto. 


Eecorder— Mr. John E. Webber, 6 Sultan street, Toronto. 

Librarian — Mr. Alfred McParlane, M.A., Canadian Institute. 

Curator— Mr. Robert Duncan, 516 Ontario street, Toronto. 

Council — The above officers, with the following members, con- 
Ptitute the Council of the Society :— Mr. A. F. Miller; Professor A. T. 
DeLury, B.A., and Mr. George Ridout, elected by the Society, and the 
following past pre&idents: Mr. Andrew Elvins, Mr. Larratt W. Smith, 
K.C., D.C.L., Mr. J. A. Paterson, M.A. (Tor.); Mr. A. Harvey, F.R.S.C, 
Honorary President and Director of La Institutio Solar Internacional 
Monte Video, Uruguay; and Mr. 6. E. Lumsden, F.R.A.S., and Membre 
de la Société Astronomique de France. 

XV. — From the Lundy's Lane Historical Society through 
James Wilson. 

I beg leave to report that in July, 1902, the Lundy's Lane His- 
torical Society published the fifth volume of "The Documentary 
History of the Campaigns on the Niagara Frontier in 1812-14 '' (pp. 
326), covering the period from January to June, 1813, collected and 
edited for the Society by Lieut.-Colonel E. Cruikshank. This volume 
contains nearly three hundred contemporary letters, documents and gen- 
eral orders transcribed from the original manuscripts preserved in the 
Archives of Canada, Great Britain and the United States, or in the 
possession of private individuals in these countries, who have generously 
permitted them to be copied for this purpose, and very few of which 
have appeared in print before. The sixth volume of the series, bring- 
ing the narrative down to 15th August, 1813, is now in the press and 
will be in readiness about July 1st, 1903. 

The Society desires to express its hearty satisfaction at the trans- 
fer of that portion of the Ordnance Lands Reserve upon which the 
ruins of Fort Erie are situated (rendered memorable in the annals of 
Canada by the siege operations in August and September, 1814), by 
the Government of Canada to the commissioners of Queen Victoria 
Niagara Falls Park to be suitably maintained by them. 

XVI. — From the New Brunswick Uistorical Society, through the 
Hon. J. V. Ellis. 

As delegate of the New Brunswick Historical Society, I have the 
lionour to present the following: 

Papers read during the winter session : 
Nov. 25. — ^Mr. Jonas Howe read a paper on the " Loss of the Birken- 
head," and the brave death of Lieut. Hàre, son of Capt. 


Charles Hare, R.N., of this city, who was one of the officers 
of the ill-fated vessel. 
Dec. 30. — ^Rev. Dr. Raymond read a paper on the " St. John River," — 
the ''Coming of the White Man." 
•Jan. 27. — S. D. Scott read a paper on " Cobbit's Ldfe in New Bruns- 
wick," with many interesting particulars of his life while 
stationed with his regiment at Fort Howe, St. John, N.B. 
(Feb. 24. — Mr. Scott read the conclusion of his paper on " Cobbit^s Life 

in New Brunswick." 
Mar. 31. — Clarenqp Ward read a paper on the " First Common Council 
of St. John, N.B., with extracts from the account book of 
George Leonard, the first Chamberlain of the city. 
For a considerable period the Rev. W. 0. Raymond has been engaged 
on behalf of the Society in arranging and editing a large amount of cor- 
respondence of the Hon. Edward Winslow, who was Muster-Master- 
Qeneral of the Loyalist forces during the Revolutionary War. These 
letters commencing in 1776 in New York and terminating in New 
Brunswick in 1820, contain an immense amount of valuable and inter- 
esting information, concerning the emigration and settlement of the 
great number of Loyalists who came to New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia on the termination of the war. 

The industry, learning and research given to the work by Mr. Ray- 
mond is beyond all praise. 

The whole correspondence has now been published by the Society in 
a volume of 800 pages, and is a most valuable contribution to the history 
of the time. 

The Society was aided in the publication of these letters by a grant 
from the Legislature of New Brunswick, and a contribution from the 
Winslow family. 

XVII. — From the Ontario Historical Society, through 
David Boyle. 

The last annual meeting of the Ontario Historical Society was 
held in the towns of Petorboro and Lindsay on the 4th and 5th of 
June, 1902, and was well attended by representatives from various parts 
of the Province and from Manitoba. Valuable papers were read during 
the sessions by Mrs. Fessenden " On the Monument that Failed '' 
(Montgomery Monument at Quebec), by Judge Dean of Lindsay on 
'^ Local Scenery and Historical Associations," by Miss Farmer on the 
"Fall of Acadia," by Mrs. Holden on the subject entitled "In the 
Heart of the Battle," by Mr. Hampden Bumham on "The Feud of 


the Huron-Iroquois, and by Mr. Yeigh on "Historic Land Marks in 
Ontario.'' Mr. James H. Coyne, who had been President since the 
foundation of the Society, retired, much to the regret of all the mem- 
bers, and was succeeded by Mr. C. C. James, Deputy Minister of 
Agriculture for Ontario. Members were conveyed by steamer from 
Lakefield, near Peterboro, to Lindsay, through the beautiful waters 
known as the Kawatha Lakes. In both times the inhabitants mani- 
fested considerable interest in the Society's work, and several new 
members were added to the roll. 

At the Easter meeting of the Ontario Educational Association the 
Society held a highly successful joint meeting with the Historical 
section of that Association. During the year the Society has seen 
the completion of the first volume of the Galinee Journal, translated 
and edited by James H. Co}-ne. Copies of these have been sent to 
all the members of the Society, and the outside demand has been 
lively. The Society has also to congratulate itself on the completion 
of the Simcoe statue, a work which had been hanging fire for several 
years until the Society undertook to see it completed. This statue 
will be unveiled in the presence of the Governor-General, Lieutenant- 
Governor, the Premier of Ontario, and other distinguished gentlemen 
on the 27th of this month. The membership of the Society numbers 
two hundred and eighty, including six honorary members, six corres- 
ponding members, and sixteen ex-ofhcio members. This membership 
extends from Halifax to Dawson, and is represented in all the terri- 
tories as well as in all the provinces of the Dominion. 

XVIII. — From the Women's Canadian Tlistorical Society of Toronto^ 
through Mrs. Ahearn. 

During the past year, the Society has held its regular monthly 
meetings, at which the following papers have been read : 

" Indian Summer in Prose and Poetry/' Miss Sara Mickle. 

" The Fall of Acadia," Miss E. Yates Farmer. 

"The Coronation Scenes in England," Miss M. A. Fitz-Gibbon. 

" Laying the Foundations of Ontario," Mr. C. C. James. 

"Lachine," Miss Blanche Macdonell (of Montreal). 

"The Visit of the Canadian Teachers to Winchester," Mrs. S, 
G. Wood. 

The Victoria Memorial Hall Fund has reached the sum of $2,676, 
and it is earnestly desired by all the members that steps should be 
taken towards securing a permanent place of meeting, where suitable 
tablets and records might be placed. It ia confidently expected that 
next year will see some satisfactory advance in this movement. 


Acting in concert with nearly all the historical and kindred 
societies throughout Canada, the Women^s Canadian Historical Society 
joined in protesting against the erection of a monument to General 
Montgomery, in the city of Quebec. Petitions were prepared by a 
committee appointed for that purpose and forwarded to His Majesty, 
to His Excellency the Governor-General, and to the Mayor of Quebec. 

The Society has to deplore the loss by death of two of the most 
influential and important of its honorary members — Sir John G. 
Bourinot, K.C.M.G., F.R.S.C., and Dr. Douglas Brymner, to both of 
whom we have been indebted at various times for invaluable help and 
suggestions freely given. 

In the death of Miss Seymour, late of Ottawa, the Society has 
lost one whose interest in historical work was great. She was, we 
"believe, the only one left who remembered the taking of York by the 
^American forces in the war of 1812. At the time our first Transaction 
was published, she was the only survivor of those who had worked 
the historic banner which it described. 

During the year fifteen new members have been added to our list. 

While something of real historic work has been accomplished by 
our Society in the past, we are hoping for more thorough and wider 
effort in the future. Especially do we hope for the establishment of 
a vigorous and enthusiastic national historical association. 

The following are the officers of the Society: 

Hon. President — ^Miss Mowat. 

President — ^Mrs. Forsyth Grant, 30 Nanton Crescent. 

1st Vice-President — Mrs. John A. Paterson. 

2nd Vice-President — ^Mrs. Willoughby Cummings. 

Treasurer — Mrs. C. D. Cory, 21 Prince Arthur Ave. 

Cor. Secretary — ^I^Iiss Jean Graham, 22 St. Mary Street. 

XIX. — From the Niagara Historical Society, through 
Miss J. Carnochan. 

In presenting the report of the Niagara Historical Society we have 
to record a year of progress, steady if not rapid. Each year seems to be 
marked by some special feature of growth. While our last report 
chronicled the placing of seven markers for historic spots, this year's 
record shows that a greater number of papers have been read at our 
meetings and that we have published two historical pamphlets instead of 
one as usual. No. 9 and 10 have been issued since our last report and 
when it is remembered that we arc only in the eightli year of our exist- 
ence, this may be taken as no mean record. 


Seven meetings were held from October to May, and the following 
original papers read: 

" A Wife's Devotion/* a Niagara heroine of 1837, by the President. 

" Value of an Historical Boom," by Eev. J. C. Garrett. 

*^ Two days in Quebec in 1838 and a day at the Falls in 1860 on the 

occasion of the King's visit," by W. Kirby, F.R.S.C. 
'"The Vicissitudes of the Niagara Library for Fifty Years," by the 


The number of members has slightly increased, numbering over 
fifty, more than half non-resident. We have published during the year 
No. 9 Diary of W. H, Merritt, Journal of Col. Glaus and letters of 
Chief Norton, by Col. E. Cruikshank, and No. 10, Inscriptions and 
graves in the Niagara Peninsula by the President. 

During the year a visit was paid to our Historical Room by permis- 
sion of the Minister of Education by Mr. David Boyle, Superintendent 
of Educational Museum, who gave many valuable hints and much help 
in classification. His report speaks of the great value of our collection 
and the impossibility were it destroyed of duplicating the articles, em- 
phasizing strongly the necessity of a good building, fire-proof, and easily 
accessible for a collection which is now of provincial value. On the 17th 
September, we paid our usual visit to the grave yards of the town as well 
as Butler^s to decorate the graves. Our collection is increasing, the room 
is open weekly and during the summer months, sometimes daily. Several 
interesting photographs of groups of articles were taken by Mr. Walker 
and Mr. Sherk, of Toronto. Many letters have been received asking 
information which we have frequently been able to give from our papers, 
documents^ etc. 

A tablet was placed on the Court House showing that it was built 
in 1847 for the United Counties of Lincoln, Welland and Haldimand. 

We exchange with twenty societies and have distributed six hundred 
of our publications during the year. In closing we would refer to the 
condition of the Military Reserves in Niagara. While Queenston Heights 
and Fort Erie have been placed in the hands of the Niagara Falls Park 
Commissioners for beautifying and preservation, we feel that the same 
is necessary with regard to Fort George, Navy Hall and Fort Mississagua, 
where soldiers of the King lie buried, where the first Parliament was 
held and the slave made free ; all lie neglected and falling to decay, other 
buildings have been burned, notably the Military Hospital and Com- 
mandants House. Navy Hall Inn destroyed. Powder Magazine in 
ruins, log buildings of Fort Mississagua removed, Navy Hall falling to 
pieces. It is earnestly hoped that all will unite to preserve what we have 

Procl903. 8. 


left of historic interest, in ground drenched with the blood of the heroes 
of the past, who so nobly stood for King and country. 

The following are the officers for the ensuing year : — 

Patron— W. Kirby, F.R.S.C. 

JVosidonl — Mrs. Carnochan. 

Yicc-President — H. Pafford. 

Secretary — A. Ball. 

Treasurer — Mrs. Manning. 

Editor and Curator — Miss Carnochan. 

Committee — Rev. J. C. Garrett, R. L. Barron, B.A., Rev. N. Smith, 
Mrs. T. F. Best, W. J. McClelland. 

Mon. Vice-Presidents — Mrs. Roe, Mrs. Clement, C. F. Ball. 

XX. — From ithe Miramichi Natural Historical Association, through 

6. B. Fraser. 

Another year of sustained interest and satisfactory progress has 
l)een added to the life of this young society. Thongh the list of mem- 
bers was somewhat reduced by removals, some new ones were added, so 
that the total membership remains about the same as it was last year, 
namely eighty-four. 

During the nine months comprising the Association's ye<ir, reguLr 
monthly meetings, and ten additional ones in the lecture season, were 
held, all of which were well attended. 

The growth of the museum has kept pace with the general pro- 
gress of the Society. Among the more prominent additions to the 
Department of Zoology, were mounted specimens of the cow moose, 
A, americanvs; Seal, F. vitulina; and Bldck Porpoise, P. communis. 

The list of mounted birds was enlarged, and several mounted fishes 
and a number of alcoholic specimens of reptiles, fishes, and various 
invertebrates were added. 

A largo collection of plants was made during the year, to be 
mounted when opportunity offers from time to time, and placed in the 
herbarium cabinet. 

Some interesting objects in archaeology were secured, and others 
donated, especially aboriginal stone implements of which the collection 
is quite extensive. A reference to the list of donations in Bull. No. 
III., published this year and a copy of which accompanies this report, 
will show the interest being taken in the work of the Association, by 
the public in general. Some of the articles in the Bulletin bear evidence 
of the original work being done by members of the Association in the 
study of algae, protozoa, and comparative zoology. Indeed the Asso- 


ciation has every reason to feel encouraged by the energy and earnest- 
ness its members arc showing. 

It is fitting that reference be again made to the death of the late 
patron of the Association, and perhaps the very words of the Coun- 
cil's report in Bull. No. III., best express the feelings of this Society. 
To quote : — " In presenting its third biennial report of the proceedings 
and condition of the Association, the Council would refer to the irre- 
parable loss that, in common with other scientific institutions in Cana- 
da and elsewhere, it sustained in the early and lamented death of its 
<]istinguished patron. Dr. G. M. Dawson, late director of the Greological 
Survey of Canada. The honour he conferred on the Association by 
-accepting the position was even exceeded by the warm helpful interest 
he took in its welfare ami progress; and hence its loss is more direct 
and personal than that of many institutions. He was one of Canada's 
most distinguished sons, into the short span of whose life was crowded 
a wealth of scientific research and labour, a harvest of patient investi- 
gation and discovery which would have done honour to the longest life. 
While the Association then mourns the death of its patron and will 
miss his guiding, inspiring, and generous spirit, it finds some consola- 
tion and no little pride in enrolling among its early friends and sup- 
porters, one whose memor}' will be ever dear to the scientific heart of 

The following are the oflScers for 1903 : — 

Patron — His Honour Lieutenant Governor Snowball. 

President— Philip Cox, Ph.D. 

Vice-Presidents — D. Ferguson, J. D. B. F. MacKenzie. 

Secretary — G. B. Fraser, 

Corresponding Secretary — Dr. J. McG. Baxter. 

Treasurer — George Stothart. 

Librarian — Miss Bessie M. Creighton. 

Curators — Geoffry Stead, James Mcintosh, Mrs. E. Flanagan, Miss 
Sutherland, Miss M. Flood. 

Additional members of the Council — J. L. Stewart, Miss Ida Havi- 
land. Miss K. J. B. McLean. 

XXI. — From the Canadian Forestry Association, through 
E. Stewakt. 

I have the honour in behalf of the Canadian Forestry Association 
to preeent the following report of the Association for the past year : 

This Association, which was organized in March^ 1900, has jkïw 
a membership of 450, of whom 17 are life members. 


The work of the Association is apparent in the increased interest 
shown not only by the public, as evidenced by the attention given 
to forestry by the press of the country but by direct legislation for 
the better preservation of our natural forests. The directors recognize 
that they are dealing with a subject of vast importance to Canada and 
they look with confidence to the future for greater attention and 
assistance on the part of the people in their work. 

In the last report reference is made to the setting aside of certain 
areas as timber reserves in the Railway Belt in British Columbia. 
These consist of the Long Lake Reserve southwest of Kamloops, and 
the Yoho Park in the Rocky Mountains. Tne Rocky Mountains Park 
has also been greatly enlarged and now embraces an area of about 
£,880,000 acres and. includes the whole of the upper valley of the Bow 
River. Reference is made to the good work resulting from the em- 
ployment of forest fire guardians as shown by the comparatively small 
loss of timber from fire where the system is in operation as compared 
with the destruction from this cause where such means are not adopted. 

The report refers to the work of co-operation with the farmers in 
forest tree culture on the treeless prairies of Manitoba and the North- 
West Territories which was started a couple of years ago by the Forestry 
Branch of the Department of the Interior. This work is assuming 
large proportions. Within the past two months over 900,000 trees^ 
and about 700 pounds of tree seed have been distributed to farmers 
ïn all parts of the country who had prepared their land to the satis- 
faction of inspectors employed by the department who had examined it. 

Mention is made of the growing interest in forestry, as evidenced 
by the recent action of the University of Toronto and of Queen's 
University at Kingston, looking towards the establishment of chairs» 
of forestry in those institutions. 

The last annual meeting of the Association was held at Ottawa 
bn the 5th and 6th of March last, at which papers on the foUowing^ 
subjects were read: 

" The Forests of New Brunswick,'^ by His Honour the Lieutenant- 
Governor of New Brunswick. 

'^A Report on the Conditions of Lumbering and Forestry in 
Western Nova Scotia," by F. C. Whitman, Annapolis Royal, N.S. 

" Forest Fires,'^ by W. A. Hendry, formerly Deputy-Commissioner 
of Crown Lands, Halifax, N.S. 

" History and Results of the Fire Ranging System in Ontario,'' 
by Aubrey White, Deputy Commissioner of Crown Lands, Toronto, Ont. 

"Forest Protection in the Railway Belt, British Columbia," by 
James Leamy, Dominion Crown Timber Agent, New Westminster, B.C. 


" The Forest Fires of 1902," prepared by instruction of the Asso- 

" Tree Planting in Mimitoba/' by A. P. Stevenson, Nelson, Man- 

" The Growth of Forest Trees in the Forest Belts and Arboretum 
o£ the Experimental Farm," by W. T. Macoiin, Horticulturist at the 
Experimental Farm, Ottawa. 

"Forestry Education," by Professor W. L. Goodwin, School of 
^Mining, Queen^s University, Kingston, Ont. 

" The Effect on Fish Life of Sawdust in Rivers," by A. P. Knight, 
Queen^s University, Kingston, Ont. 

On the evening of the 5th, an illustrated lecture on " Forest Trees 
iand Their Uses" was given by Professor E. C. Jeffrey, of Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass., in the Assembly Hall of the Normal 

The officers for the ensuing year are : 

Patron — ^His Excellency the Eari of Minto, Governor-General. 

Honorary President — William Little, Westmount, P.Q. 

President — Hiram Eobinson, Ottawa. 

Vice-President — Aubrey White, Deputy Commissioner of Crown 
Ijands, Toronto, Ont. 

Vice-Presidents for the Provinces and Districts — Ontario, J.^B. 
licWilliams, Peterborough, Ont.; Quebec, Hon. S. N. Parent, Premier 
of Quebec, Que. ; New Brunswick, His Honour J. B. Snowball, Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of New Brunswick, Fredericton, N.B. ; Nova Scotia, A. H. 
MacKay, LL.D., Superintendent of Education, Halifax, N.S.; Prince 
Edward Island, Rev. A. E. Burke, Alberton, P.E.I. ; Manitoba, Major 
Stewart Mulvey, Winnipeg, Man.; Assiniboia, J. S. Dennis, Commis- 
fiioner of Irrigation for the Canadian Pacific Eailway Company, 
Calgary, Alta.; Saskatchewan, P. G. Laurie, Battleford, Sask.; Alberta, 
William Pearce, Calgary, Alta.; Athabasca, F. D. Wilson, Fort Ver- 
milion, Atha.; British Columbia, Hewitt Bostock, Ducks, B.C.; Yukon, 
The Commission-er, Dawson, Yukon; Keewatin, the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man. 

Secretary, E. Stewart, Dominion Superintendent of Forestry, 
Department of the Interior, Ottawa. 

Assistant Secretary and Treasurer — B. H. Campbell, Department 
of the Interior, Ottawa. 

Directors — Wm. Saunders, LL.D., F.R.S.C, Director of Experi- 
mental Farms, Ottawa; Prof. John Macoun, F.L.S., F.R.S.C., Assistant 
Director of the Geological Survey, Ottawa; Thos. South worth, Director 
of Forestry, Toronto, Ont.; C. Jackson Booth, Ottawa; J. R. Booth, 


Ottawa; E. G. Joly de Lotbinière, Quebec, Que.; John Bertram, 
Toronto, Ont. 

XXII. — From the Women's Canadian Historical Society of Ottawa, 
through Mrs. S. E. Dawson. 

The following is a report of the work of the Women's Canadian 
Historical Society of Ottawa for the year 1902-1903. 

During the past year there have been eight executive and six gen- 
eral meetings. 

At the opening meeting in October last in place of the historical 
paper for that month Mrs. Aheam, the treasurer, consented to give the 
Society her impressions of Egypt gathered during a recent visit to that 

In November while the memories of the Coronation were still 
fresh in our minds the Society wished to have the pleasure of hearing 
an account of it from one who had actually witnessed the great proces- 
sion to Westminster Abbey and Mrs. J. Lyons Biggar gave a bright and 
graceful account of what she had seen, touching on many most interest- 
ing incidents the result of her own personal observation. 

The subject for December last was " Aylmer,^* a paper read by 
Miss Eead, showing much careful preparation and full of historical 

At the January meeting a very clever and scholarly paper was 
read by Miss Whiteaves on " The Women Workers of Ottawa,^' acquaint- 
ing us with many interesting facts. 

It was with intense interest that we listened in February last to 
Madame Pigeon^s paper on the " Indians of the Ottawa Valley,'^ full of 
poetic description of the Ottawa River scenery, aboriginal Indian cus- 
toms, characteristic legends, and history, /the fruit of many months of 
careful study and preparation. 

In March Mrs. D. H. Mcljean prepared and read the first of a 
series of articles on Canadian men of note. The subject of her sketch 
was the life of Sir James Macpherson LeMoine, D.C.L., a paper which 
gave us a very clear insight into the life, character and work of one of 
the most prolific writers on Canadian life and history. 

The Society intends to have these papers printed in the noxr 
volume of its Transactions so that the members as well as those 
interested in the Society and its aims may have the pleasure of reading 

A most enjoyable drawing room meeting was held in January last 
at the residence of Mrs. Aheam, at which Dr. Drummond read a num- 


ber of selections from his book of poems " The Habitant/' affording 
great pleasure to all who had the good fortune to be present. 

The Scrap Book Committee carries on a record of current history 
which in future years will be of much interest. 

The work has been progressing slowly during the year. The three 
books of the committee are the " Local Events " in Miss Masson's 
charge; ^' The Canadian Events/' in Miss Eva Read's care and the one 
devoted to *^ Ottawa/' that is the growth and improvement of the city 
itself, is kept by Miss Horsey. 

Clippings are all dated, the name of the paper from which they 
are taken insc rted, and they are kept safely in large envelopes until 
pasted in the books. 

Our President has during the past year kept the diary of " Cur- 
rent Events" which will be a record of the greatest interest a few 
years hence. In January last, Mrs. Kirwan undertook this work for the 
present year. 

Among the Society's treasures are the originals of the South 
African letters of Mr. Edward Holland, V.C, which he kindly present- 
ed to the library of the Historical Society. 

XXIII. — From The United Empire Loyalists' Association of Ontario, 
Head of the Lake Branch, through H. H. Kobertson. 

Your committee report that the progress of this branch of the U. E. 
L. A. of Ontario has been gratifying, the total moml)ership of the branch 
including families now being fifty-nine, exclusive of associate members. 
Changes have been made in the constitution of the general association in 
the past year as follows: — Amendment to article II, to add after the 
word " Members/' " Provided that branches may also choose an honor- 
ary president, second vice-presidents, a secretary and an assistant secre- 
tary, an executive committee of not more than six members, and a ladies' 
committee of not more than twelve. The presiding officer of the ladies' 
committee may also be a member of the executive committee.'' " Also 
that no person coming to Canada from the United States after the year 
3796 shall be considered a^' a U. E. Loyalist ancestor unless it can be 
clearly demonstrated that he or she was entitled to be so considered." 

A form of opening and closing meetings, and reception of members 
has also been adopted by the association all of which will be set forth in 
the forthcoming number of the Transactions now in the prcFS. 

The officers elected at the first meeting have remained for the year. 

During the year addresses have been delivered as follows : — 

On March 11th, by the President, " Reminiscences of the War of 


On April 8th, by the Secretary, " The Narrative of John Peters/' 
On May 13th, by Mrs. Powell, " À diary, descriptive of a canoe trip 
from Montreal to Detroit in 1783/* 

On June 13th, by H. H. Robertson, "Burgojme's Campaign and 
Loyal Americans." (Illustrated by lime light views.) 

On December 9th, Miss N. M. Clarkson, Honorary Secretary, read 
a paper by T. S. Arnold, entitled, " The Battle of the Thames and the 
l>eath of Tecumseh.*' 

On January 14th, 1903, by J. H. Smith, " History of Hamilton. '' 
It is the desire of your committee that every member of the associa- 
tion should furnish a paper in furtherance of its objects, "to preserve 
the history and traditions of the Loyalist families before it is too late.*' 
This can be done by every member contributing the narrative of his or 
her TJ. E. Loyalist ancestor, and it is to be hoped that the ensuing year 
will see additional contributions in this direction. 

Early in the year a complete set of the Transactions of the Associa- 
tion was donated to the Hamilton Public Library, and through the in- 
strumentality of the Association, copies of " The Settlement of Upper 
Canada," by Dr. Canniff ; " The History of the County of Dundas," by 
Croil, and of " Lunenburgh," or " The Eastern District," by the late 
Judge Pringle, of Cornwall, dedicated to the descendants of the U. E. 
Loyalists, were obtained and placed in the Hamilton Public Library. 

The importance of maintaining the historical branch of the 
Museum begun at Dundum is impressed upon the members of the As- 
sociation, and if an amalgamation of the various small collections oould 
be made at this central point, a really good museum would result. Steps 
should be taken to bring this about, and the good will of the Parks Com- 
mittee of the city obtained to that end. 

Officers for 1903 :— 

Honorary President — J. E. O'Rielly. 

President — His Honour, Judge Snider. 

Vice-President— S. F. Lazier, K.C. 

Vice-President— W. A. H. Duff. 

Honorary Secretary-Tre^asurer — H. H. Robertson. 

Committee— A. C. Beasloy, J. H. Smith, J. M. Dingwall, Edwin 
Mills, Justus Griffin, W. G. Moore. 


XXIV. — From the Report of the Botanical Club of Canada for the 

Year 1902-S. 

By the General Secretary, A. H. MaoKay, LL.D. 

The phenological tables compiled from the numerous reports of 
observers are this year more extensive than usual. Those who want 
fuller information, therefore, on such subjects as the officers, objects 
and (constitution of the Club, the schedules of objects for observation 
and the directions for observation and compilation, are referred to the 
report of last year, and of previous years. 

The first table contains the observations of the following members 
of the Club on the dates of the first appearances of the phenomena 
briefly indented only in the table, although precisely specified in the 
schedules for recording them. Their addresses and stations are as 
follows, in the order of the table : 

T. A. Good, Woodstock, New Brunswick ; J. M. Duncan, Charlotte- 
town, Prince Edward Island; John MacSwain, Charlottetown, Prince 
Edward Island; Dr. Cephas Guillet, Ottawa, Ontario; Mrs. Frank E 
Webster, Beatrice, Muskoka, Ontario; Dr. J. H. Elliott, Gravenhurst, 
Musfcoka, Ontario; T. E. Donnelly, Pheasant Forks, Assiniboia; Percy 
B. Gregson, Blackfalds, Alberta ; J. K. Henry, B.A., Vancouver, British 

The first column is the average of about 350 schedules of observa- 
tions made by as many of the public schools of the Province of Nova 
Scotia, and other active members of the club among whom -the fol- 
lowing have been sending in reports: Eev. James Eosborough, 
Muequodoboit Harbor, Halifax Co.; Miss Louise MacMillan, Sydney 
Mines, Cape Breton; Mrs. 6. Ormond Fqfrsyth, Pori; Hawkesbury, 
Inverness Co. ; and Miss Janet Keith Bruce Kelley, Yarmouth. 

The last column is the average of scattered observations from 
about ten observers in different parts of the south of British Columbia, 
five being from Vancouver Island or the coast, two from the dry belt, 
and three from the mountain belt. These observations were made on 
the schedule prepared and published by the Natural History Society 
of the Province, and were communicated to me by A. J. Pineo, Esq., 
B. A., of Victoria. 

A more detailed summary of the observations in Nova Scotia and 
British Columbia are given in the two succeeding tables. As the Nova 
Scotian phenochrons are based on about 350 schedules, it will be 
observed that, as a rule, a good many schedules are averaged for each 
of the ten meteorological or biological regions of the l:'rovince. The 
individual schedules are annually bound up into a volume which can 


be utilized by weather students in the future with every facility. There 
are already a number of such volumes in existence. And those of the 
last years have, to a considerable extent, been analyzed and compiled 
by a staff of specialists so as to give the phenochrons of the coast, low- 
land and highland belts of each county. These sheets are likewise 
being bound up in annual volumes. The Nova Scotian table published 
here is merely the most generalized average of averages. 

A close study of the tables showing individual observations, will 
create the impression that observers are not always in a position to note 
the phenomena of the seasons when they first appear. In this respect 
the observations conducted by the public schools are more accurate. 
For they are made by a large number of individuals travelling nearly 
every day to school and radiating from this central point of the com- 
munity for a distance generally of about two miles. As the teachers 
stimulate " observing " by noting the first one who brings evidence of 
the first appearance of a flower, etc., there is a great deal of com- 
petitive observation on the part of the young people. This not only 
makes the travelling to and from school more interesting; but is found 
to be a great aid to general "nature study." Accuracy is assured by the 
bringing of the specimen to the school room when practicable. 

But even in schools mistakes may occur through accident in 
recording, and sometimes from lack of sufficient knowledge of the 
natural history of the locality. In order to discover such mistakes, 
and to enable directions to be framied in order to minimize them, as 
well as for the purpose of studying and compiling regional phenochrons, 
the observation schedules filled in by the teacher of each school is sent 
to one of a staff of specialists. Their criticisms are annually puUished 
in the Journal of Education of Nova Scotia^ which also contains the 
names of observers and number of observations made in each of the 
fcchools reporting. Under the advice of the staff several changes were 
inade in the schedules issued after 1902. Next year this schedule 
may be given in full in my report, the observations contained in it being 
based on the same list 

The names and addresses of the Nova Scotian Phenological staff 
at present are as follows: 

C. B. Robinson, B.A., Science Master, Pictou Academy. 

E. J. Lay, Principal, Amherst Academy. 

J. E. Barteaux, Science Master, Truro Academy. 

Antoinette Forbes, B.A., Windsor Academy. 

Burgess McKittrick, B.A., Principal, Limenburg Academy. 

Minnie C. Hewitt, Limenburg Academy. 

G. R. Marshall, Principal, Richmond School, Halifax. 


Stanley C. Bruce, Principal, Shelbume Academy. 

A. W. Horner, Principal, Public School, Yannouth. 

In the western province western species or varieties have sometimes 
been observed instead of those of the schedule which is eastern in its 
complexion. In the most of these cases the western species is indicated 
by an index letter referring to a footnote under the tables. 

The oflBlcers of the Club are the same as last year. The exchange 
and determination of species can be most effectively made for members 
of the Club by James A. Macoun, M.A., Curator of the Herbarium, 
Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, to whom parcels of plants go 
tfree of postage. 

The address of the General Secretary of the Club is : A. H. 
MacKay, LL.D., Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

Blank schedules for the recording and repori;ing of phonological 
observations will be sent free to anyone making application. It is 
Tccommended that the observer keep the original schedule, sending 
the Secretary a true copy of it — ^at the latest by the end of the year. 



OasBBTATioir STATion—WHBv ViBtT Sbbv. 


Day of the jear 1909 oorre- 
tpondlng to the lm»t day of 
each month. 

Jan 81 July.... 919 

Feb 69 Aug 948 

March 90 8«pt.....978 

April... 190 Oct 804 

May.... 161 Not 884 

Jane. ...181 Dec 866 










— ^^ — 

















Ainu» inoana, WUld 

Popolni tramnloidai, Ms. 

Epig»a rapena, L 

Viola cnonllatai Gray .. . 
V.blanda, Willd 


168. • 
907 1 
148. U 
903 8 
23?. 7 























Aoer rabnua, L 


Hooatonia osndaa, L 

Sqaiietom arTeua, L, . . . . 

Erythroaiom Amar., Key. 
Hepatica triloba, Chaix.. . 

GopUi trifolia, Saliab 

Fragaria Virginiana, Mill 

" (fruit ripe).. 
Prunai Pennayl., L. 

" (fruit ripe).. 
Vacciniam Penn., Lam.. . . 

•• (fruit ripe). . 

Banunculua acrii, L 

B. repena, L 















































(3Untonia borealia, lUf . . . . 
Trillium erjthrocarpujn. . . 
Trientalii Ameri., Purah 
Cypripedium acaule. Ait. 

OaUa paluatris, L 

Amelanchier Canadeniia 

*• (fruit ripe) 

Bubua atrigoaui, Michx... 

(fruit ripe)... 

Bubua rilloaus, Ait 

" (fruit ripe). . . 




































* When becoming common. a Boaa blanda. h Cypripedium hirantum. 

c a. alnifolii. d Alnus rubra. « Viola paluatris. / a. macrophyllum. 

g Prunus emarginata. h Trientalis Earopasa. • Uubus apeoUbilia. j Bosa. k Oalypao. 



OBSKBVATioir STATion — Whxit F1B8T Suit. 



«pvDdïag tatim lAitâfti of 
ABch moDth- 

Jua Si Jvl;..... JlS 

F^b S9 Ad«. ., 3i9 

itinslL... B» Sep* 373 

ApTiL....liO Oot 3^4 

M»r 1^1 Ndï .... ss* 

Jane.,., l&l Bec.,.- Ut 


























KjdiuU gUtieft, Ail 

R. HTlgaitïfolÎAi Ij....,,. 

(friîit ripe). „ , 
SiijHnGhiym «nguvtifol 
LinDBft boTHtlii, ti, ..**.. 
Lintit» CanadflD., Dum, , 
HblDBiilIiai CrlitUpBiUlî, L 

BrunoUp vaïgarÎB, L ,. . . . 

fioHluddii, Ehrh, 

Hfpvnfimn perforstuip, Ll 

Trnnuft CAn»Btii {flultiï.) 

" (fraitrlpft),... 
0»t«gai Oirm^aatbi, L.- 
0. cooclnei^ |j« . , . ,. , * , , , , 



m, 5 

IBl 5 




166 s 
147 « 




















117 S 




































FTroA milita ffltilt'd) êfti-Ij 

*i l*t&.. 

HibM mbram (eullif .ted) 

(fridtrip*) ... 

E, BignuQ (eoltiTftled) .... 
'* Cfnittrîi^ej.... 

Soliuiam tubarotum, L, . . . 

Pblaam pîktQUir, L.. 

TrifollQm Mpenj, L, , 




























197, fi 







■ *" ■ " 



* When becoming common. 


a Bosa bland». 
l c« nutftAllii. 



Obkbtatiom Statioits— Whbv First Sxkh. 


Day of ihe year Jflna eorrfl- 
»poodhiA lo the lui day cf 

Jaa .... 31 Julj. ....ais 
K^b. S9 Auff,,.. 343 

April,,,. 120 t>ct., !i«4 

Mftj 1^1 Nov..,..,3« 

Juuti ...,161 Dec...., SeA 


















^ i 









h d, 

£ g 

62 Tritiaurn TalfTAFfi. 1. . 




Avstift latlvai Ij 









ïlarJii'it f^ll Iflafing of ine 

137, fi 







104 6 














FgLato-plauitti^ ** 

iifl 1 





.. . 








Haj^uttjng *■ 
GralDHiCiittiDff ** 

IflS s 










Potato-diggtng i- 
Opeaing of rt^^e** " 

25J9 3 




-3 7 







Opening of lake ■ *^ 

7i fi 







T««t mow to wbiUn gr'ad 

1(J« IÏ 







M. a 


" tq fly in air ., 

123. a 







Lakt »firLDg frciRt— h ■»!«., 

i4o ^ 













Water ib itfeamp— hlghait 








** ■* Id weal 

216. (J 

., . 

.. .♦ 



. ,. 



Uni autiiuiD fiott^boAr. . 










'* ** banl,. 

3*Û 3 








Pint mow to fly Id mlr. „ 


**.H ,* 







*' whlt#n ground. 










" rl«t*, 


364. s 









*' a. 

Tf 3 






. . ,. 

, ..« 




*' geeie "■ N.. 









** " 8h 

21 It a 






Meloipiia raaolala, Tfoftti, 

Bi 4 





* Wbcn becoming oommon. 



Obskbvatxok Stations — Whbh Fxbst Sxsy. 


flponding to the iMt dky of 
each aionth. 

Tan 31 July. .. ai2 

Feb 5î> Ang...„ 243 

March .. 90 Sept. ....UTA 

April ...120 Oct .SM 

May. 161 Nov.-, S34 

Jun*-. ...181 Deo 3B5 



M 1 






















Turd us migratoriui, North 
Jnnco hiemalia * ^ 
Actitie maonlaria <' 
Stumella magna ^' 

Dendrœca coronata •' 


Zonotrichia alba 

Troehilua colubria " 

Tyrannus Caroline diIi ^' 

Dolyohonyx oryzivomi. 
Spinis tri«tii < 

Setopbaga mticilla '' 

Ampclis cedrorum ** 

Chordellfls Viginianui '* 

Firtt piping of frog* 

Firtt app«aranoe or inaki^i 

7U 1 
X07 P 
103. Û 

laa « 
m S 

127 7 

13fi 7 
11. 1 

Iflt 7 














































Flowering and other phenochrons for each re^on of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compiled from 300 public 8chool observation scheduler» (Tin? phenochrons for 
each region (whicn are averages of many observ^atou^) btive the fracrions 

When Fibwt See^î— REoioxa, 


to tlie la«t dftf of ^weh io«atlk. 

Jim........ „. 51 July.. 3IS 

Peb 6» Anff .*« 

Mwroll . 90 B«iJt , ...373 

April laa Oot. . .SO* 

Miiy l&l Not ...SU 

Jane .... 381 Dv«, .* UC 




























FopuIuH tremuloidei, Michx. . 












KpEgH^ repenn, L — ....... 



88 90 









Viola cacullatat Gray 













V. blanda, Willd 













Act-T rubmm» L 



115 110 









Houatonia cœrulea, L . .* — 



127 130 







Equmetum arvense, L.. . . . . . 

122 4 


125 114 








Taraxacum oWclnaie, Weber 













Krythron \ am American u m. , . 
H*îpatiea triloba, Chaii...... 









117 4 







Coptis trifolla, Sali»b 

128 3 












Fraiçarïa Virginiana, filUL . . . 


























FrUDUs Pennsylvaulca^ L,,.. 













(fruit ripe)...... 

Yacclnium Penn. v. Can., Lam 

2211 1 






141 .0 
























Hanunculufi aeria^ L ......... . 













R. repens^ L ,...,,,......»..* . 













Clintonia borealls, Raf .... 











THUium erythrocarpum, Mich 













Trientalia ÂmeHcâHum,Purtih 













Cypripedium acaule. Ait. 













CfLlla oaJuittris. L. . ......... 









Amelanchier Canadensis, T. 


















, .. 






• Last year the date here thould have been 164 inatead of " 114,'* which wat a clerical error, 
t The '* 164 ** of latt year here shoold have been 168. 



Flowering and other phenochrons for each region of the province of Nova Scotia, 
oompTled from 300 public school observation wchedultfH, [The phenochrons for 
each region (which are averages of many obber valions) huve the fractions 

Whew BEcojuttro CohmQxV— Rf^nioNs. 

to tht Lui day al PBâb monlb^ 


April . . 

JUU«B. . ^ 















. âL Juif . 

. «a Auff . 

, «0 Bept , 

120 Oct , . 

.Ifil Not , 

ABl iHc-. 

. -373 

Alnus Incana, Willd 

Fopiilus tretnulotdesif Mlohx.. 
EpigfPA repenjt, L. . , . . . , . , . 

Viola eu eu lia ta» Gray 

Y.blanda, Wiïld,..,.. 

Acer rubriim, L. , 

Monatonla ca^rulea, h ........ 

Bquisetum arTenae» L, ...... . 

Taraxacum offlcinatet Webcr. 
Brythroiiium ÂmerLcatiU0i.. . 

Hepatica tr[loba^ Chaix 

Coptlstrîfolîa, Salbb 

Fragaria Virjfiniana, MilL... 

(fruit ripe) 

Prunus PenniylTanîca* L..., 

" (fruit ripe) 

Vaceinlum Penn,v,Can., Lu m 

(fruit Hpe) 

Banunculus acria, L 

R. rcpens, L. ...... 

Clin ton la boreal K Raf... .. 
Trîllîum crythrocarpum, Mich 
THen tal iii Amcrl ca nu m , Pum h 

Cj-^pripedium acaule, Alt 

Caîïa paJusliri»* L 

Âmetanchier Canadousi», T. 
" (fruit rip6>„,... 








S I I 




130 lis 

103 ini 







M 150 












1€3^ 08 














150 153 


140 150 

1301 141 







































Proc., 1908. 9. 



Flowering and other phenochrons for each regiaa of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compilecl from 300 public Rcliool obî*erv'Ation acliedule*. [The phenochrons for 
each reocion (which are average* of Timuy observAlionë) have the fractious 

When JFibst Seen— Rkoionh. 

tù the 1 Alt cUj a#«uh mautii. 








a* = 









■O c 


1 = 




Feb. H.* SB ÂQB- .*,,,.. «.ft43 




Mansh ......,, W Sept tTt 

AprU ..„1M Oot.„. SiH 

Mij .Wl Not.. SS4 

Jma*. ,.».... 181 Deo -.., IWft 



Rubiiâ strlgosuSf Michx 
















HubUB vtHoflUâ^ Ait, 

166 1 











(fruit ripe> 







Kalmia «lauca, Ait. . , <..-.. 

161 4 









K- anfçuHtlfoilaf L . .. . , . , . 









Comus Canaden&ist L 






















SiAjrinchiumangustifollum, . 

158. S 












Lloneea borealLs, L . ^ ^ . . ^ .. 

168 6 











Lioaria Canadenste, Dum 

Rhinanthuii Cri^tagaUl, L, . . 













Sarracc^nla purpurea, L 

Brunella vulgarian L.. . . . , , 

171 5 












BpilobJum anguatifoUum, L., 
Roaa lucida. Ehrh ., . 


lii s 









Hypi-rlcum perforatum, L.,.. 
LeOFitodon autumnale, L 













Prunmi Oemsus (cuiti v. ).,«.., 













(f ml tripe) 










CraUpgus Oxyacantha, L. . „ . . 












C, <:oc!Clnea» L. . . ... 

156 2 








Prunu« domestica (cultivated) 











Py rus malua (cultivated) early 


























Rïbea ru brum (cultivatt-d). . . . 

HI .9 























Flowerine and other phenochroiis for each region of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compiled from 300 public school observation schedules. [The phenochrons for 
each region (which are averages of many observations) have the fractions 

When Becoiono Common— Regions. 

Dftj of tfae J tat 1902 comipondiiiB 
to thfl Uit dar of flucb monih. 

Jin .,, SI JnJy, .,„,.,, 3ia 






— 1 
















r c 






F«b,*...^,,,,,, 6U Aug-. ,.,.^^K 343 



«■Wh ...,.„, {Ml Bftpl STB 

April.*,, lir) Oct. S&4 

May* .*...„.., Ifil Not ,,..,.,. 834 


jaoe ,,....1B1 Dfto. *, .»*aijs, 




Rubnfl strigostis, Michi- ..... 

160. fl 




(fruit ripe J.,..,.. 











Rubna viUosiii, Alt . , , 













K&lmia glauca, Ait 












K. angastifolia, L 













Camus Canadensis, L.. ..... 













(fruit ripe )• 









Sisyrinchium angustlfoJium. . 













LinnEoa boreaïift, T> 

m. 5 












Li nana Canadensis?, Du m ... 





. . .. 





Bhîtiantbus Oistagallî, L.... 

177. e 










Sarracenia purpurea, L 










Bmnellrt vulgaris, L 











Ëpilobium anguiftifoliutn, L. 








Roaa lucida, Ehrb. 








. * » . 




Hypericum perforatum, L.., 








Leontodon autumnale, L. . . . . 











Prunus Oem$utj (cultîv,) 













** (fruit ripe)., 





.. , . 







Crataegus Oxyacuntha» L 

104. e 











C< cocciuea, L 











PrunuË domes Uca (cultivated) 













Pyrus malus (cultivatodi early 

























Rîbes rubrum (cultivated),, . . 













'* (fruit ripe). 







. . . . 





Flowering and other phenochronn for oacli region of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compiled from 300 public Hchool observation schedules. [Th(« phenochrons for 
each region (which are averages of many observations) have the fractions 

When First Seen— Regions. 

Day rf the year 1902 corresponding 
to the last day of each month. 


Jan. . . . 
Feb ... 
May . . . 




























. 81 July 212 

. 60 Aug 248 

»o Sept 27S 

.120 Oct 304 

.161 Nor 834 

.181 Dec 3A6 

R. nigrum (cultivated) 

(fruit ripe) 

Sjringa vulgaris, L. (cultiv.), 

Solanum tuberosum, L 

Phleum pratense, L 

Trifolium repens, L 

T. pratense, L 

Triticum vulgare, L, 

Avena sativa, L 

Fagopyrum esculentum, L . 
Earliest full leaûng of tree.. . 
Latest •* " 

Ploughing (first of season)... , 
Sowing ** *• 

PoUto-planting " ... 

Sheep-shearing ** 

Hay -cutting •* .... 

Grnîncuttlng " 

Potato -d igjçî Hg * • 

Openincr of rivers ** 
Opening of lakes " 

Last snow to whiten ground., 

** to fly in air 

Last spring frost— hard 


Water in streams— highest... 
** ** lOWCHt.. . 






!.6| 166 

6 149 






21 168 

el 90 






3| 255 


9| 69 



























•a 9> 












136 137 


69 90 

1241 123 


142 139 


154 164 

80* no 

207i 245 













160 1621 172 


1201 105 
116i 115 
































112 101 

118 115 

119 109 


228 264 















187 ... . 
IW 192 









Flowerinfic and other phenochrons for each region of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compiled from 300 public school observation schedules. [The phenochrons for 
each region (which are averages of many observations) have the fractions 
omit ted J. 

Whkn Becoming Common— Regions. 

Day of the year tflOl eorrsipoadinB 
to til « lAit day af «afih m£>aui. 

jAfi..., Si July.. ilt 

F«b &a Aag.. .,«,.. ...143 

Mantb ,^» ,^, «0 e«^pt.....> ....371 

A.i>rtl.... ,...,. 110 Oet, SO* 

\fay .,»..... IM Ifi»T.,«.. .„,.S^4 

Jane, „.,., ..Ill Biro ....*... Mn 












Et nigrum (cultivated) 

** (fruit ripe). 

Syringa vuL, L. (cultivated). 

Solatium tuberosum, L 

Phleum pra tense, L^ . . , ■ ■ ■ 

TrifoJtum repens, L ., 

T. prabenae, L 

Tritlcum vutgare, L. . ...... 

Aveoft ftativA, L 

Fagopyrum osculentum, L. . 
Earliest full leaûngof tree... 
Latest " ** .,. 

Ploughing (first of season )* . . 

Potato-planting " 
Sheep-shearing ** 

Grain-cutting " 

Potafco-dïgglng " 

214 2 

210. S 


201 4 
238 3 


























2:i8 220 
2601 286 


147 151 
]6o 172 


166 168 

























21 B 


200^ 214 













Flowering and other phenochrons for each region of the province of Nova Scotia, 
compiled from 300 public school observation schedules. [The phenochrons for 
each region (which are averages of many observations) have the fractions 

When First Seen— Rkoions. 



tothfrlut dàj ûf iïaoli moatb. 

imn 31 Juif ai2 

Fteb..„ ûfl Aug ...., a« 

Mu^ , M Eept 17^ 

April. lao Oct. S04 

M»3P Ifil Ko* SM 

Juan .... „IS1 D«e .3«i> 














^ - 

"3 ei 




'o o 








FIrat antumn frost, ho«t 




















Fir»L snow to flj In air 













" whiten grounds» , ^ 













Clostingof Lakes.., 












" Rivers 












Wild ducks migrating, N 










































Melospîza fasciata, North 













Tardus migratorius ** -. , . 













Junco hiemalta " 

79. 1 











Acti tis m acu larla " 













Sturnel la magna *' .. . 











Ceryle Alcyon " 













Dendrceca coronata '* 

D*eestiva " „,_ 

140 £ 















Zonotricbia al ba " ..... 













Troch ilus colttbri * **..... 













Tyrannua Carolinenaia" ** . , . 





■ *4- 






Dolfcbonjxoryzi voma* * . , . , . 











Splnia triatig " 











Sctophnga ruticilla " 











Ampelia cedrorum " .»... 









Chordeilea Viginlanos " 








- . . , 





First piping of frog« 













Firwt appearance, snakes 









111 108 




g : 





















«4 ^ 







*do[s pmbôqo3 -g -g 




1 ■ 

qinog puF ^^uvH 1 








► ►^Œ^SfeSSoS 




puw qiiiowjui¥jL 'Ï 













3do[s 40.P SBJH "6 



pQ¥ paouinoïH '8 







puirx«jnBH g 





HîïiospmrwïuwH > 







ptnt «iiod^nuy *e 







'âjTiqudunq ptfv 
siiMTit) %a^qpqg 'g 














l«ua)9i \ 9 'Anil 

2 f*Q« |*CiKUip||i -g 

f- 'QJOq«AOO 


t}îllG^|Hra«f|SV|f 1 

pOTsifodvauv X 





i :^ 



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» ^ s 





pOV 1{lDOUlJVJ^ 'l — 


Hîr :SÇî 



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puB xv;!iwH "S 


^^5 iSèSîl 


=L =, ?, ^ - 

C pa« fîiiodvaâv *£ 

-Slinquauni pa« 



pu« qmouuvx 'I 1^ 









ex XX Vil 



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*m ." .«) «ffi^^ft . . . . *«aick4 -, -Y ». .^ . -13 *i^a^3 




ANNEE 1903 

SacnoN I, 1903 [ 3 ] Mémoiris S. R. C. 

I. — Découverte du Mississipi en 1659, 
Par M. Benjamin Sultb. 

(L»u le 20 mai 1903.) 

Sommaire: — 1G50, dispersion de -dix-sept bourgades de Hurons 
et des Outaouas de Manitoualine; les Hurons du Potun avec une tribu 
d'Outaouafi se réfugient à la baie Verte. — 1653, trois canota de ces 
gens vont par le nord et le Saint-Maurice jusqu^aux Trois-Rivières 
et annoncent quails veulent rouvrir la traite avec les Français. — 1654, 
ils descendent en bande sur le Saint-Laurent et repartent avec deux 
«Français; à Fautomne, les Iroquois attaquent leur fort dans la baie 
Verte. — 1655, les Outaouas et les Hurons du Petun traversent le Wis- 
consin et s'établissent sur le Mississipi, à l'île Pelée, dans le lac Pépin. 
^ — 1656, les deux voyageurs (noms inconnus) de 1654 reviennent de 
la baie Verte. — 1657, per crainte des Sioux, les Hurons du Petun 
remontent la rivière Noire et s'arrêtent non loin du lac Supérieur. — 
les Outaouas vont se fixer à Kionoonan, rive sud-est du lac Supérieur. — 
1658, les sauvages du lac Supérieur et de la baie Géorgienne étant 
descendus aux Trois-Rivières, Chouart et Radisson les accompagnent 
au retour et vont hiverner dans la baie Verte. Au printemps de 
.1659, tous deux se rendent en haut de la rivière aux Renards, chez 
les Mascoutins, où Chouart s^arrete tandis que Radisson descend la 
rivière Wisconsin, entre dans le Mississipi, visite le lac Pépin, l'île 
Pelée, puis explore les rivières de Test et de l'ouest, espérant décou- 
vrir le vrai pays du castor. Il pense que " la grande rivière '' aboutit 
au Mexique. Après quatre mois de courses, il retrouve Chouarii chez 
les Mascoutins et tous deux suivent la rivière aux Renards, revoient 
la baie Verte, entrent dans le lac Michigan, passent le détroit de 
Michillimakinac et arrivent au saut Sainte-Marie à l'automne. Au 
commencement de la saison des neiges*, ils sont à l'extrémité ouest du 
Jac Supérieur et vont durant l'hiver chez les Sioux au sud de Chagou- 
amigon. Vers le printemps de 1660, ils retournent au lac Supérieur, 
•prennent la rivière des Malomines et séjournent à la baie Verte jusqu'à 
la seconde moitié de juillet où ils partent pour le Canada. Ils décident 
que le Mississipi ne vaut pas le lac Supérieur pour le commerce du 


" Les Français ayant découvert ce pays firent savoir de nation en 
nation leur établissement. Les Algonquins demeuraient le long dej 
la rivière des Outaouas, au Nipissing, dans la rivière des Français et 
entre icelle et Toronto/ et les Hurons dans leur ancien pays/' 
{Mémoire de Nicolas Perrot, 9, 80.) 

Pour Tintelligence de ce qui va suivre mettons les choses soua une 
autre forme. 

La rive nord du Saint-Laurent> de Tadoussac à Montréal, était 
occupée par des tribus de langue algonquine : les Montagnais du Sague- 
(nay, qui se répandaient vers les Trois-Eivières; les Attikamègues du 
Saint-Maurice rôdant jusqu'à TOttawa, la baie James, le Saint-Laurent; 
les Algonquins de TOttawa dont le pays était aussi bien Machiehe et 
les Trois-Eivières. 

Ces derniers se subdivisaient en trois peuples localisés sur la rivière 
dite des Algonquins; J es Iroquets, ée Vaudreuil à la ville actuelle 
d^Ottawa; la Petite-Nation, à Papineauville; les Grands Algonquins, 
à 111e des Allumettes. Le nom de rivière des Algonquins disparut 
après 1650 parce que les Iroquois en avaient chassé tous les habitants. 
C'est à celte date que notre narration commence. 

Les indigènes du lac Nipisstng s'étaient vus décimés comme les 
autres en 1650; ceux qui restaient, réfugiés au nord, s'alliaient aux 
tribus de la baie d'Hudson. Nicolas* Perrot (p. 81) note que "les 
Nepissings tinrent ferme quelques années dans leurs villages, mais 
il leur fallut ensuite fuir dans le fond du nord à Alimebegon," cepen- 
dant le père Paul Ragueneau {Relation^ 1650, pp. 22, 26) dit que le 
massacre eut lieu au printemps de 1650 et qu^il en a relevé les traces 
au mois de juin suivant: "Le lac (Nepissing) que j'avais vu autrefois 
habité quasi tout le long de ses côtes, n'est plus rien qu'une solitude." 
La Relation de 1667, p. 24, porte que ces pauvres gens se réfugièrent 
"au lac Alimibegong qui n'est qu'à cinquante ou soixante lieues de 
la nier du nord.'^ C'est le lac Nipigon. 

Champlain, écrivant leur nom en 1613, l'épelle: Nébicerini, et 
ailleurs; Nipisierinij. Sagard en 1624 met: Epicerinys. Les Relations 
adoptent le plus souvent Nipdssiriniens, et parfois Bissîriniens — en 
langue algonquine: les Sorciers. Les Hurons les nommaient Squier- 
honons, Squekaneronons, AskicSaneronons, AskikSanchronons, Aski- 
quaneronons — ce qui veut dire encore les Sorciers. 
\ Les Algonquins de l'île des Allumettes ne les aimaient pas, non 
parce qu'ils étaient en rapport avec des influences diaboliques, mais à 
* Aujaurd'liui nous disons lajc Simcoe. 


cause de leur talent pour le négoce. Avant ranivée des Français, 
ces coureurs de bois faisaient la traite à de grandes distances au nord, 
à l'ouest, au sud. Ils entretenaient des rapports constants avec les 
Hurons de Penetanguishine, tout en disant que ces derniers avaient 
nK>ins d'esprit que les autres sauvages. On accorde aux Nipissiriniemj 
des facultés intellectuelles supérieures à celles de leurs voisins. Jean* 
Richer et Jean Nioolet vivaient parmi eux entre les années 1622 et 
il632. A partir de 1633 ou les voit à la traite des Trois-Rivières. Le€^ 
missionnaires, qui les fréquentaient depuis 1615, établirent chez eux 
la mission du Saint-Esprit en 1640 et celle de Saint-Pierre en 1648., 
•*^ C'est la nation que semble la moins éloignée de la foi, de tous cea 
peuples errants," disait le père Jérôme Lalemant dans la Relation de 
1642, p. 99. 

" Ils semblent avoir autant de demeures que l'année a de saisons." 
{Relation, 1641, p. 81.) Vivant de pêche, de chasse et de commerce^ 
ce devait être un ramas de gens du nord plutôt qu'appartenant à la 
.vallée de la rivière Outaoua. Ils parlaient un idiome algonquin, c'est 
pourquoi le père Paul Le Jeune étant aux Trois-Rivières, l'automne 
de 1636, et y recontrant des Nipissiriniens, dit: "Je fus consolé de 
voir qu'ils entendaient mon baragouin Montagnes." {Relation, 1636, 
p. 53.) Nous retrouverons ce peuple au cours de la présente étude. 

A la sortie de la rivière des Français, les Atchiligouans ou Achiri- 
gouans, de langue algonquine, avaient des rapports avec la tribu de^ 
Ataouabouskatouk du voisinage de la baie d'Hudson, et un certain 
nombre de ces derniers passaient les hivers sur la rive orientale dé la 
baie Géorgienne où demeuraient des petits groupes algonquins appelés, 
Outaoukamigouk, Sakahigmiriouek, Aoua&anik (Ouasouarini), At- 
chougue (Outchougai). La dispersion de 1650 n'empêcha point les 
Achirigouans de reprendre leur poste sur la rivière des Français et de 
continuer leur trafic avec les Cristinos Atouabouskatouk. 
I Sur la cote nord de la baie Géorgienne (district d'Algoma) un 
autre peuple de langue algonquine était surtout voyageur et guerrier. 
On les nommait Amikoués parcequ'ils se disaient descendants du Grand 
•Caator qui avait construit les chutes, les digues et les rapides de la 
rivière des Français. Sagard note que les Hurons appelaient le castor 
Tsoutayé, Toutayé, et les Montagnais, Amiscou; alors le nom des Amis- 
koués, comme l'écrit Perrot, est algonquin et signifie les Castors. On 
Jes qualifiait, en français, de Nez-Percés. Ils furent toujours bons 
amis de nos coureurs de bois. De 1633 à 1634 on les voit en guerre) 
contre les Puants de la baie Verte. Les hostilités recommercèrent 
en 1636. Ce peuple n'avait pas bougé du voisinage de la baie Géorgienne 
Jusqu^à 1650, où il prit l'habitude de se retirer dans l'intérieur une 
partie de l'année, par suite des maraudes des Iroquois. 


A la côte sud-ouest du district d'AIgoma il y avait, en 1640, les 
'Nikikouch ou Gens de la Loutre, les Michisaguek ou Mississakis ou 
iMissifisagués, tribu algonquine, '' fière et superbe," qui se retira au 
sud-est du lac Supérieur, à Kionkonan, en 1650. 

La carte de Dollier et Galinée, en 1669,^ indique la "rivière do 
Tessalon," comme aujourd'hui; plus à Test le mot " Mississagué " à 
la sortie d'un cours d'eau; ensuite viennent les rochers et les îles où 
La Potherie disaient en 1700 que les Gens de la Loutre vivaient soli- 
taires. Encore plus à Test il y a " AmikSe" près d'une rivière. Il 
faut conclure que les Sauvages de cette côte nord ne s'étaient dispersés 
que momentanément, puisque de tout temps leur habitat fut le même. 

" L'ancien pays des Hurons " (Perrot, p. 80) était, avant 1650, 
la baie de Penetanguishine, Natawasaga, ainsi que le lac Simcoe. 

Dès 1615 les Outaoua^ habitaient la grande île Manitoualine. 
C'était une nation amie de tous ses voisins, commerçante, voyageuse, 
peu adonnée à la culture, ayant quelques industries particulières et 
pas du tout belliqueuse. Elle parlait la langue algonquine. Les 
Iroquois l'enveloppèrent dans la disgrâce générale, car, depuis Michil- 
limakinac jusqu'à la rivière des Algonquins (l'Outaoua), tous les peuples 
furent balayés en 1650. 

Et même ces étonnants ravageurs entrèrent dans la rivière Sainte- 
Marie, décharge du lac Supérieur, où les Français avaient pénétré en 
il622 pour la première fois, et les Sauteux, gens assez braves d'ordinaire, 
crurent prudent d'abandonner leur pays, mais ils y retournèrent bien- 
«tôt. Nous continuerons de les appeler Sauteurs — ^avec Nicolas Perrot — 
quoiqu'on les trouve sous les noms de Pouitigoueieuhak, PahouitingS- 
achirini, Baouichtigouin, à l'origine, et, par la suite, Odgiboweke, 
Odjibewais, Ojibway, Chippeway.^ C'étaient des Algonquins. 
. Nous avons fait le circuit de la baie Géorgienne et parcouru la 
côte nord ; il reste un mot à dire des aborigènes du lac Huron. 

La destruction des dix-sept bourgades huronnes était complétée 
en 1650-51, ce qui "donna l'épouvante chez les Outaouas et leurs alliés, 
qui étaient au Sankinon à l'anse au Tonnerre, à Manitoaletz et Miohilli- 
makinac. Ils furent demeurer ensemble chez les Hurons, dans l'île 
que Ton appelle l'île Huronne." (Nicolas Perrot, p. 80.) Ceci demande 
explication. Au sud du lac Erié il y avait les Chats, qui n'émigrèrent 
nulle part mais furent anéantis sur place vers 1657. Les sauvages 
de " Sankinon et de l'anse du Tonnerre " (Etat du Michigan) n'étaient 
autres que les Mascoutins et il faut placer en 1656 leur abandon de 
ces lieux. Par conséquent, ils suivirent, à six ou sept années de dis- 

* Voir le bel ouvrage de M. James H. Coyne récemment publié par la 
Société Historique d'Ontario. 

' Ils appelaient le lac Supérieur KUcMffumi: les grandes eaux. 

[sulte] découverte DU MISSISSIPI EN 1659 7 

tance, les Outaouas d^ Manitoaletz (Manitoualine) qui avaient décampé 
en compagnie des Hurons du Petun en 1650. En outre, arrivant à 
rîle Huronne, à Tentrée de la baie Verte, les Mascoutins n*y trouvèrent 
ni les Outaouas ni les Hurons, qui étaient déjà partis pour Touest 
ainsi que nous le verrons bientôt. 

La dispersion des tribus huronnes avait eu lieu comme suit: la 
première bande se retira dans Tîle Saint-Joseph, à 7 lieues environ de 
Penetanguishine — en sauvage Ahoendoe, en anglais Christian ou 
jCharity Island — puis à Manitoualine ; ce devait être en 1649. La 
deuxième se rendit aux Iroquois, espérant être mieux traitée. Une 
.troisième, comprenant les Gens du Petun, s'enfuit à Tîle de Michilli- 
makinac, en 1651 probablement, mais, pourchassée par les Iroquois, 
elle recula jusqu'à l'île Huronne, baie Verte. La quatrième demanda 
asile à la nation du Chat qui parlait sa langue — tous furent massacrés 
ensemble. La cinquième bande descendit à Québec, en 1650, avec le 
père Paul Eagueneau, et y demeura. 

** Quand tous les Outaouas se furent répandus vers les lacs, les Saul- 
teurs et les Mississakis s'enfuirent vers le nord, et puis* à Kionconan/ 
faute de chasse." (Perrot, p. 85). 

" La défaite des Hurons se répandit chez tous les peuples voisins ; 
l^eflfroi s'empara de la plupart. Il n'y avait plus de sûreté à cause des 
incursions que les Iroquois faisaient dans le temps qu'on s'y attendait le 
moins. Les Nepiciriniens s'enfuirent au nord,^ les Sauteurs et les Mis- 
sîsakis avancèrent dans la profondeur des terres. Les Outaouaks et 
ceux qui habitaient le lac Huron se retirèrent dans le sud et, s'étant tous 
réunis, ils habitèrent une île qui porte encore le nom de l'île Huronne. 
Les Hurons s'y étaient placés les premiers." (La Potherie, II, 52). 

L'île la plus grande ^ qui se trouve à l'entrée de la baie Verte avait 
été occupée par les Poutéouatamis, lesquels demeuraient, en 1660, à 
quelques lieues dans l'intérieur de la baie, direction nord-ouest-ouest. 
Ces Poutéouatamis avaient été chassés du Michigan oriental par les Iro- 
quois avant 1634. , 

Parmi les bandes de malheureux proscrits dispersées un peu par- 
tout à l'aventure, il en est une que nous suivrons de préférence dans 
cette étude — la tribe des Hurons du Tabac, les Petuneux, de la côte est 
du lac Huron, réfugiés (1G51) dans l'île de Michillimakinac et, peu 

*■ Promontoire sur la côte sud du lajc Supérieur, à l'est: Kewana 

* Chez les Gens des Terres, ainsi nommés parce qu'ils étaient à égrale 
distance de la baie d'Hudson et des lacs Nipissing, Huron et Supérieur. 

* Elle a reçu le nom d'Ile Huronne bien que les Hurons n'y aient séjourné 
que deux an-s & peine. Ce doit être The first Landing I$le de Radisson, sur la- 
quelle on diapute depuis quinze ans. Nous en parlerons au printemps de 1660. 


après, à la baie Verte, connue alors sous la seule désignation de baie des 

" Les Tionnontatehronnons que nous appellions autrefois la Nation 
du Petun, de langue huronne, et les Ondataououat,* de langue algon- 
quine, que nous appelions les Cheveux Relevés, à cause que leur chevelure 
ne descend point en bas, mais qu'ils font dresser leurs cheveux, comme 
une crête qui porte en haut — ont quitté leur ancien pays et se sont 
retirés vers les nations plus éloignées, vers le grand lac que noua 
appelions des Puants/^ {Relation, 1664, p. 9.) 

Un parti iroquois fort de huit cents hommes s'avança, (1652?) 
jusqu'à nie Huronne qu'il trouva déserte, car les Hurons et les Outaouas, 
avertis du danger par les éclaireurs qu'ils avaient envoyés à la découverte, 
s'étaient "retirés au Méchingan où ils construisirent un fort, dans la 
résolution d'y attendre leurs ennemis, qui ne purent rien entreprendre 
pendant les deux premières années." (Perrot, p. 81). L'endroit de 
cette retraite est à la côte nord-ouest de la baie Verte, non loin de la 
ligne qui sépare le Michigan occidental du Wisconsin. Du temps de 
Perrot la division des Etats n'existait point. 

Il faut ici corriger une erreur qui s'est introduite chez les historiens 
et que l'on trouve exprimée comme suit dans un travail du juge John 
Law publié par la Société Historique du Wisconsin, III, 95, année 
1855 (voir aussi pages 112-13, 123-24, 508-9 du même volume) : "En 
1652, le père Dequerre, jésuite, partit de la mission du lac Supérieur et 
alla fonder une mission florissante aux Illinois, probablement celle de 
Saint-Louis où est situé Peoria. Il visita plusieurs nations des bords 
du Mississipi et fut tué au milieu de ses travaux apostoliques en 1661." 
Aucun religieux du nom de Dequerre n'est connu de ceux qui ont étudié 
les archives du temps. De plus, en 1652, il était impossible qu'il y eut 
des prêtres, ni aucun Français, dans ces régions. Ce faux renseigne- 
ment est tiré d'une liste du clergé commencée, il y a cent ans, par M. le 
grand-vicaire Noiseux et qu'il ne voulait pas publier, n'étant pas certain 
des faits qu^il y avait notés. On l'a cependant imprimée après sa mort 
Le juge Law dit, encore d'après Noiseux, que, "en 1657, le père Jean- 
<5harles Drocoux, jésuite, se rendit aux Illinois et retourna à Québec la 
même année," mais il n'y avait pas de missionnaire au Wisconsin en 
1657, et personne ne connaît le père Drocoux. 

* Les Puants, très féroces et assez nombreux, furent presque tous tués par 
les minois vers 1653. 

" Nicolas Perrot, qud eut des rapporta continuels avec eux, de 1663 & 
1700, les nomme toujours Outaouas. Ondataoua signifie, en langue huronne, 
les gens des bois. Les Hurons vivaient en plaine. 



Il y avait alors quatre ou cinq ans que' les Outaouas et les Hurons 
se trouvaient dépaysés et que leur commerce avec les Français ^ était 
anéanti. Cette considération les détermina à tenter un effort suprême 
pour se procurer des marchandises dont ils avaient grand besoin, ayant 
contracté Thabitude de s'en servir depuis plus d'une génération. *' Leur 
défaite ne faisait qu'augmenter le souvenir de se voir frustrés du com- 
merce des Français. Ils firent cependant des tentatives pour trouver 
encore des voies propres à continuer la première alliance. En effet, 
trois Outaouaks des plus hardis s'embarquèrent (1653) dans un canot 
et prirent le nord du lac Supérieur pour éviter de tomber entre les mains 
des Iroquois. Après avoir passé de rivières en rivières, de portages en 
portages, ils tombèrent dans celle des Trois-Rivièrcs qu'ils descendirent 
jusqu'à son embouchure, où ils trouvèrent un établissement français. 
Ils y traitèrent de leurs pelleteries. Les grandes fatigues qu'ils eurent 
pendant le voyage, les empêchèrent de reprendre la même route. Il s'y 
(aux Trois-Rivières) trouva, par hasard, quelques Algonkins qui se pré- 
paraient à remonter chez eux ; ils profitèrent de la même occasion, pas- 
sant par le véritable chemin (l'Ottawa) qui mène à Outaouak, ne mar- 
chant que la nuit de crainte de tomber entre les mains de leurs ennemis, 
et arrivèrent enfin à l'île Huronne au bout d'un an, avec l'applaudisse- 
ment général de leurs camarades qui avaient désespéré de leur retour.*^ 
(La Potherie, II, 52). L'auteur a l'air de croire que les Hurons et les 
Outaouas étaient encore à l'île Huronne en 1653, mais il paraîtrait que 
dès 1652, ils l'avaient abandonnée. 

Voici un passage du Journal des Jésuites qui complète ce renseigne- 
ment: "Le 31 juillet 1653, arrive (à Québec) un canot des Trois- 
Kivières, qui nous apporte la nouvelle de l'arrivée de trois canots du pays 
des Hurons, savoir : Aennons huron, MangSch nipissirinien, MatStisson 
que les Hurons appellent Ondatenront, EentaSai et Totraenchiarak, 
Andarahitronnons, et deux OndataSaSak, vel 8ta8ak (Outaouas) savoir: 
TeochiaSenté et Otontagonen; lesquels sept sauvages ont apporté nou- 
velles que toutes les nations algonquines s'assemblent avec ce qui reste 
de la nation du Petun et de la nation Neutre, à Atotonatendïé, à trois 
journées au-dessus du Sault Skiaté ^ tirant vers le sud. Ceux de la nation 

' 1^8 Hurons appelaient les Français "Agnonha, gens de fer ou qui se ser- 
vent de fer, ou le fer même, car ils nommaient quelquefois les haches agnonha,' 
qu'ils appellent autrement atouhoin," (Sagrard: Histoire du Canada, 1636, p. 221.) 

* Le saut Sainte-Marie. La carte de Sanson, 1656, porte à cet endroit le 
mot fikiaeronon, ce qui veut dire en langue huronne " la tribu de Skiae." 
Brûlé qui vit le saut en 1622, le mentionna à Champlain, c'est pourquoi la 
carte de 1632 l'appelle "Saut de Gaston/' en l'honneur du frère du roi Louis 



du Petun ont hiverné à Teatontoraï, les Neutres au nombre de 800 à 
Skentehiotc, vers Tetotchanontian, lesquelles deux nations se doivent 
rendre Tautonine prochain à Atatonatendïé, où dès maintenant ils sont 
mille hommes, savoir : 

400 Ondatonatendi. 

200 8ta8ak ou Cheveux Relevés. 

100 tant A8etatsi8aentronnons que de la nation d'Atoha8i. 

200 Enskiateronnons. 

100 tant A8echisaetronnons que Achir8achronnons. 

C'est Acha8i qui conduit toute cette affaire.'^ 

Est-ce lui qui parla d^une grande rivière située plus loin que la baie 
Verte et qui se décharge dans la mer? Marie de rinearnation men- 
tionne ce fait dans une lettre du 24 septembre 1654. C'est la plus 
ancienne notion du Mississipi, celle de Jean Nicolet exceptée. 


" Ce succès si favorable les obligea plus que jamais, et leurs voisins, 
à faire des parties de chasse. Ils descendirent ensuite (1654) en flotte 
chez les Français, sans se mettre en peine de tous les obstacles et de 
tous les dangers qu'ils pourraient courir. Ils y furent reçus avec agré- 
ment. On les régala; il y goûtèrent du pain avec délice, des pruneaux et 
autres choses qu'ils trouvèrent meilleures que leurs mets ordinaires. 
Après avoir commercé leurs pelleteries, Us s'en retournèrent chez eux 
ravis d'y trouver leurs familles fort paisibles." (La Potherie, II, 53). 

" Une flotte parut dans le lointain, qui descendait les rapides et les 
• chutes d'eau qui sont au-dessus de Montréal. On eut sujet de craindre 
que ce ne fut une armée ennemie, mais on reconnut aux approches que 
c'étaient des amis qui venaient de quatre cents lieues loin, nous apporter 
des nouvelles de leur nation et en savoir des nôtres. Les habitants de 
Montréal et des Trois-Eivièros eurent une double joie, voyant que ces 
canots étaient chargés de pelleteries que ces nations viennent traiter 
pour nos denrées françaises." (Relation, 1654, p. 9.) Le narrateur 
ajoute que ces sauvages, étaient ^"partie de la nation du Petun, partie 
Ondataouaouats," comme nous l'avons fait entendre plus haut. Ils 
étaient cent vingt hommes. En chemin ils avaient fait *' rencontre de 
quelques Iroquois Sonnontochronnons et de quelques gens de la nation 
du Loup/ alliés des Iroquois Anniehronnenô*, qui étaient à la chasse. 
Ils en firent treize de captifs, qu'ils ne voulurent point traiter dans les 
cruautés ordinaires, non pas même leur lier les bras ni les mains. Dieu 

^ Mahlagans, Mohicansw 

[sultb] découverte DU MISSISSIPI EN 1659 11 

adoucit les cœurs barbares quand c'est lui qui veut faire la paix. Cette 
troupe victorieuse, arrivée heureusement à Montréal, y ayant vu la dis- 
position des esprits et que tout tendait à la paix, fit présent de ses captifs 
à Sagochiendagethé, capitaine onnontaehronnon qui, de son gré, y était 
demeuré pour otage, attendant le retour du Français ^ amené captif. 
Ce ne sont que festins et que chants de joie, dans une douce impatience 
qu^on voit au plutôt ce retour. Là-dessus le Français arriva comme il 
a été dit au chapitre précédent. Les Iroquois onnontaehronnons qui le 
ramenaient nous firent voir que Dieu travaillait plus que nous à l'affer- 
missement de cette paix. Ils nous apprennent qu'uno nouvelle guerre 
leur était survenue qui les jette tous dans la crainte; que les Ehriehron- 

nons (nous les appelions la nation du Chat) arment contre eux 

que cette nation a poursuivi une de leurs armées qu'un de leurs 

plus grands capitaines a été pris .... que tout est en feu dans les 

quatre nations des Iroquois supérieurs Quelques Hurons qui se 

sont répandus partout lors que leur pays fut ruiné, se sont joints aux 
Chats et ont suscité cette guerre qui donne de la terreur aux Iroquois.'' 

La présence des Outaouas et des Hurons sur le Saint-Laurent 
ouvrait une ère nouvelle à l'ambition des marchands de fourrures et au 
zèle des missionnaires. On invitait les Français, de la part de nations 
presque inconnues, à parcourir l'ouest, le nord et le sud, leur promettant 
un trafic avantageux. Les pères jésuites entrevoient là une abon- 
dante moisson à recueillir pour le bien des âmes. 

La compagnie dos Cent- Associés qui avait la prétention d'être 
toute chose dans le Bas-Canada, mais qui, en réalité, n'était rien parce 
que ses affaires avaient toujours été mal conduites, s'effaçait presque 
entièrement en 1644 pour laisser le champ libre aune nouvelle organisa- 
tion aussi mal administrée que la première; de sorte que, en 1652, la 
banqueroute était aux portes. Alors une société de la Rochelle prit 
en main le commerce du castor, sans faire^ beaucoup mieux. Et la 
•guerre des Iroquois ne s'arrêtait pas! La colonie française, composée 
de sept à huit cents personnes, se voyait sur le point de retourner en 
France pour éviter un désastre général. Cette époque est désignée 
dans notre histoire comme " les tempsi héroïques." Nous étions une 
centaine de familles distribuées à Québec, Trois-Rivières, Montréal, et 
livrées sans protection à la rage des Iroquois, néanmoins, il y avait dans 
ces groupes des hommes assez intrépides pour aller à quatre et cinq 
tents lieues découvrir -des nations barbares et rapporter de leurs courses 
les précieuses dépouilles des hôtes des bois qui luttaient sur les marchés 
de l'Europe contre les produits des chasses moscovites. 

* Entre autres un jeune chirurgrlen enlevé le printemps de cette année par 
une troupe d'Onneyouts, près de Montréal. 


IVI. Jean de Laiizon, gouverneur général, envoya deux hommes 
avec les marchandises nécessaires pour la traite des pelleteries. Ils 
pâlirent avec les sauvages ci-dessus le 6 août 1654. Ce voyage marque 
dans l'histoire des découvertes de Touest. Nous ne connaissons pas 
les noms de ces couxeure de bois, mais il era (pprlé d^eux plus loin. 

L'opinion généralement reçue est que c'étaient Médard Chouart 
et Pierre-Esprit Eadisson. Comme ils reviendront dans ces pages, 
il faut voir quelle était leur situation en 1654, après quoi le lecteur 
portera son .jugement. Disons de suite que Chouart et Radisson nous* 
paraissent étrangers aux deux hommes dont il s'agit, toutefois c'est le 
moment de parler d'eux. 

Chouart était arrivé à Québec en 1642 ou 1643, âgé de dix-sept 
à dix-huit ans. Il entra au service des jésuites qui remployèrent dans 
les missions huronnes. Sur la fin de l'été de 1616 nous le voyons 
revenir en compagnie de Gilles Bacon, autre engagé des* jésuites, lequel 
était porteur d'échantillons de minerai et de pierres dont M. de Mont- 
inagny, gouverneur général, et d'autres personnes s'occupèrent, mais 
que les circonstances de temps ne permirent pas d'étudier à fond. On 
peut supposer que Chouart n'était pas étranger à ces découvertes de 
métaux. Quoi qu'il en soit, dans ses courses vers l'ouest, il avait dû 
apprendre quelque chose des Cristineaux ou Kilistinons qui habitaient 
entre le lac Supérieur et la baie d'Hudson. Dès le même automne 
de 1646, il repartait pour les grands lacs. A son retour, l'année sui- 
vante, il épousait, à Québec, Hilône Martin, fille du propriétaire des 
fameuses plaines d'Abraham. En 1649, il passa en France et en 
revint Tannée d'après, si Ton en juge par la naissance de son fiLgf 
Médard, en 1661, à Québec. Le Journal des Jésuites, du 16 juillet 
1653, le mentionne retournant d'un voyage en Acadie et l'appelle 
Groseilliers — première trace de ce surnom. 

Eadisson, âgé d'une vingtaine d'années, arriva de France au com- 
mencement de l'été de 1651 et se rendit aux Trois-Rivières, chez sa 
sœur Marguerite, femme de Jean Veron de Grandmesnil. Il devait 
avoir deux autres soeurs dans ce lieu : Françoise et Elisabeth, non encore 
mariées. Rien n'indique qu'il connût Chouart, dont l'épouse mourait 
è Québec cette même année. Notre jeune homme passa un an à 
se familiariser avec la vie du canotier et du coureur de bois, apprenant 
l'algonquin et le huron, deux langues mères répandues, à l'exclusion 
de toute autre, depuis Québec jusqu'à l'Ohio et au Wisconsin. Ses 
progrès furent rapides sans doute, car il était doué de talents d'assi- 
milation remarquables, avait de la lecture, la faculté d'observation 
et une excellente mémoire. Avec cela, méthodique et ayant beaucoup 
voyagé pour son âge. Robuste de corps, d'im esprit enjoué, brave, 
un peu gascon, circonspect, il offre un caractère à étudier, et sa longue 


carrière, ses aventures, ses écrits invitent à lui donner une place spé- 
ciale dans rhistoire qui nous occupe. 

Les Iroquois rôdaient toute Tannée autour des Trois— Rivières à 
cette époque. Un jour du mois de juin ou juillet 1652, Radisson, avec 
deux chasseurs, parcourait la banlieue et se trouvait seul un moment 
lorsqu'il se vit entouré d'une trentaine d'ennemis qui Tenlevèrent. 
Trois ou quatre semaines plus -tard, au même endroit, fut tué le 
gouverneur des Trois-Kivières avec xme vingtaine d'hommes (19 
août 1652). Le captif est entraîné sur la rivière Richelieu et 
subit le supplice des verges dans un village des environs d'Oswego, 
où ses ravisseurs le donnent à une famille iroquoise. Il déserte, 
se sauve jusqu'au lac Saint-Pierre, est de nouveau capturé, ramené 
au même village, tourm-enté par le feu, puis gracié et retrouve 
sa place ou milieu de ses " frères et sœurs." Ayant pris son parti de 
devenir sauvage, il accompagne une armée qui va en expédition vers 
Buffalo. Au printemps de 1653 il est chez les Tsonnontouans. En- 
suite il va à Orange (Albany) avec ceux qui portent des fourrures aux 
Hollandais (automne) et y rencontre le père Joseph Poncet racheté 
des Iroquois par le chef du poste. A peine retourné dans son village, 
la nostalgie le prend, il s'évade et revoit le fort Orange (29 novembre) 
d'où on l'embarque pour la Hollande. Le 4 janvier 1654 il est à 
Amsterdam et, vers le printemps, arrive à la Rochelle comptant sur 
un navire en destination de la Nouvelle-France. 

Dans la narration de ses voyages,^ il dit (p. 86) qu'il attendait 
à la Rochelle l'occasion de repartir pour le Canada et, sur ces motc, 
il termine son récit. La ligne suivante porte le titre de Second Voyage. 
Celui-ci débute euj disant qu'un bateau de pêche le prit, le 15 mai, en 
route pour Percé, et qu'il y arriva le 7 du même mois, ce qui n'est pas 
possible. Il doit y avoir un feuillet omis. Il ajoute aussistôt que, 
tinq jours après, il était à Québec. En quelle année ceci eut-il lieu 
et d'où venait-il? De l'Acadie probablement, car les vaisseaux de 
France n'arrivaient pas à Québec avant le 15 juin et même plus tard. 
Ce qui nous fait croire, en outre, que les vingt premières . lignes du 
second voyage ne sont pas la suite du précédent, c'est qu'elles se termi- 
nent par ces paroles : " The year before the French began a new 
•plantation in the upper country of the Iroquoits," et, comme ce nouvel 
établissement des Français, chez les Onnontagués, avait eu lieu l'été 
de 1656, il va de soi que Radisson reparut à Québec et aux Trois- 

* Publiée en 1885, pour la première fols par la Prince Society, de Boston. L'écrit 
est en angrlals, évidemment rédigé par Radisson, car il fourmille de phrases 
qui ont la forme française et de termes de coureurs de bois. Ajoutons qu'il a 
été anal lu par le coipiste et par i'édlteur. 


Eivières en 1657. Beste à savoir ce qu'il a fait du printemps de 1654 
au mois de juin 1657; il ne le dit nulle part 

En tous cas, lors de son retour aux Trois-ilivières, il a dû apprendre 
que son beau-frère, Jean Veron de Grandmesnil, avait été tué le .19 
août 1652, et que la veuve s'était remariée le 24 août 1653 avec 
Médard Chouart des Groseilliers; de plus, que Françoise, son autre 
sœur, avait épousé Claude Volant l'hiver de 1653-54. La troisième 
sœur, Elizabeth, se maria avec Claude Jutra le 20 novembre 1657, pro- 
bablement en sa présence. 

Puisque nous ne savons pas ce qu'était devenu Radisson du prin- 
temps de 1654 au mois de juin 1657, voyons si Chouart nous échappe 
également durant cette période. Le 24 février 1654, il est cité comme 
sergent-major de la garnison des Trois-Rivières. Le 19 mars suivant, 
aux Trois-Rivières, " madame Desgroseilliers " présente en cour une ré- 
clamation contre Mathieu Labat, sans doute en l'absence de son mari. 
Au même lieu, en 1655 "Marguerite Hayet,"^ paraît en cour "vu l'ab- 
sence de son mari." Le 9 septembre 1656, Chouart est parrain d'une 
petite sauvagesse aux Trois-Rivières. 

Donc, si l'on soutient que les deux hommes envoyés par M. de 
liauzon dans l'ouest, le 6 août 1654, et qui revinrent à la fin d'août 
1656, étaient Chouart et Radisson, nous ne pouvons pas produire un 
alibi, mais nous demandons sur quoi l'on se base pour affirmer un tel 
fait. Ce ne peut être qu'une supposition et, sur ce terrain, comment 
expliquer que M. de Lauzon ait fait choix de deux " voyageurs " aussi 
peu serviles que ceux-là? Ils n'étaient pas du parti du gouverneur, si 
nous entendons bien les choses de ce temps. Encore, pourquoi Radis- 
son, dans ses écrits, n'en parle-t-il pas? Tout oe que nous connaissons 
de lui donne à croire fermement que jamais, avant 1658, il n'a vu 
l'ouest — et pourtant il note que Chouart y était allé autrefois — du temps 
des jésuites chez les Hurons. Il ne cache point que d'autres Français 
avaient parcouru ces contrées. Pas un mot de lui-même à cet égard; 
il se présente là, comme chez les Iroquois en 1652, faisant son premier 
voyage et voyant partout du nouveau. Nous ne croyons pas au pré- 
tendu ou supposé voyage de Chouart et Radisson dans l'ouest, du mois 
d'août 1654 au ^nois d'août 1656. 


Suivons maintenant les sauvages partis du Saint-Laurent avec 
les deux hommes de M. de Lauzon, le 6 août 1654, et qui tous arrivèrent 
à la baie Verte chez les Poutéouatamis. 

' C'est le nom de la famille Ila41s»on. 


" Quelque temps après (ce retour) un de leurs canots donna avis 
d'une armée d'Iroquois qui était fort proche. L'alarme se répandit 
bien vite dans tous les lieux circonvoisins. Toutes ces nations se 
réfugièrent ^ chez les Poutéouatamis, qui étaient à un journée plus 
loin. Ils n'eurent pas de i>eine à faire un grand fort où elles se trou- 
vèrent à l'abri des Iroquois, en cas qu'ils voulussent y faire quel- 
qu'enterprise. Ceux-ci, qui avaient trouvé l'île Huronne q^bandonnée, 
poussèrent jusqu'aux Poutéouatamis, non pas comme des conquérants 
mais comme des suppliants qui imploraient leurs secours. En effet, 
la famine devint universelle parmi les Iroquois. Il se fit cependant 
un traité de paix^ de part et d'autre. Les Iroquois se flattaient qu'ils 
en viendraient tôt ou tard à bout, comme ils avaient fait des Hurona 
après une paix semblable à celle qu'ils avaient faite avec eux trois ans 
auparavant. Les Poutéouatamis les reconnurent dans cette conjecture 
pour les mitres de toutes les nations, ils ne cessaient point de les 
applaudir et de les lou«r de ce qu'ils avaient soumis les Hurons qui 
étaient les plus fiers et les plus redoutables. Ils ne voulaient pourtant 
pas sortir de leur fort, se contentant de leur envoyer des vivres dans 
leur camp. Peu s'en fallut que tous les Iroquois ne périssent dans 
un grand festin qu'ils leur avaient préparé, dont les viandes étaient 
empoisonnées. Une Huronne qui avait son fils prisonnier parmi les 
Iroquois leur en donna avis. Ce projet avorta, ceux-ci se retirèrent sans 
avoir pu réussir. Les uns retournèrent sur leurs pas et les autres 
suivirent le bord du lac Huron pour y trouver de quoi suT[)sister plus 
aisément." (La Potherie, II, 53-55.) 

Le récit de Perrot contient les mêmes faits avec quelques détails 
en plus. " Ils (les Iroquois) firent encore quelques efforts pour réussir 
et mirent en campagne une espèce de petite armée, afin de détruire les 
villages de ce nouvel établissement,^ qui avaient déjà beaucoup tra- 
vailler à défricher les terres. Ils eurent cependant assez de temps pour 
recueillir leur grain avant l'arrivée de l'ennemi, car ils avaient toujours 
soin de tenir du monde à la découverte pour n'être pas surpris, qui les 
découvrirent véritablement. Le^ îrroquois arrivèrent donc enfin un 
matin devant le fort qui leur parut imprenable. Dans cette armée il y 
avait plusieurs Hurons issus de ceux qu'on voulait attaquer et dont 
les mères avaient évité la défaite qui arriva lorsque les Iroquois furent 

* D'aiprès Perrot, p. 81, le déplacement dea réfugiés de rile Huronne pour 8e 
rendre àhez les Pou téouat amie aurait eu lieu en 1652, et il ajoute que lee 
Iroquois furent deux années sans reparaître. 

' De 1637 à 1697 il s'est écoulé soixante ans durant lesquels les Iroquois ont 
mâirocié ou consenti eoixante traités de ipaix aussitôt rompus que proclamés. 

• Non plu» l'Ile Huronne, mais le fort de» Poutéouatamis au nord-ouecpt de 
la baie Verte. 


dans leur ancien pays. L'ennemi manquait déjà de vivres, parce que 
dans la route qu'ils avaient tenue jusqu'alors, il ne s'était rencontré 
que très peu de bêtes. On parlementa et l'on proposa de traiter d'une 
paix ensemble: savoir que les Hurons qu'ils avaient dans leur armée 
seraient rendus; ce qui fut écouté et accordé. Pour conclure les pro- 
positions, on convint que six chefs entreraient dans le fort des Hurons, 
et qu'en, échange ils en livreraient six de leur côté en otage. C'est 
ainsi que la paix fut faite et arrêtée entre eux. Les Outaouas et les 
HuTons' firent présent aux Iroquois de quelques viandes, et en traitè- 
rent aussi avec eux pour des colliers de porcelaine} et des couvertes. 
Us demeurèrent campés plusieurs jours pour se refraîchir, sans* néan- 
moins entrer dans le fort beaucoup la fois, mais quelques-uns seule- 
ment, que les Outaouas tiraient par-dessus les palissades avec des 

"Les Outaouas firent savoir à l'armée des Irroquois, avant leur 
départ, qu'ils étaient dans le sentiment de leur faire présent à chacun 
d'un pain de blé d'Inde. Ils composèrent un poison pour y mettre. 
Quand ces pains furent cuits, ils les leur envoyèrent; mais une femme 
huronne qui avait son mari parmi les Iroquois, savait le secret et en 
avertit son fils; elle lui dit de n'en point manger parce qu'ils étaient 
empoisonnés. Son fils en donna sitôt avis aux Irroquois, qui en jettèrent 
à leurs chiens, dont ils moururent. Il n'en fallut pas davantage pour 
les assurer de la vérité de cette conspiration, et se résoudre à partir sans 
vivres. Ils résolurent de se partager en deux partis, dont l'un relâcha 
delà (mots illisibles)^ qui fut défait par les Saulteurs, Mississakis et les 
gens de la Loutre^ (qui veut dire en leur langue Nikikouet) dont il y 
en eut peu qui échappèrent. Le gros parti poussa plus loin * et se trouva 
en peu de temps parmi les buffles. Si les Outaouas avaient été aussi 
braves que les Hurons, et qu'ils les eussent poursuivis, égard à la disette 
où ils étaient, ils les auraient sans doute défaits; mais quand ils eurent 
(les Iroquois) abondamment de vivres, ils avancèrent toujours, jusqu'à 
ce qu'ils tombèrent sur une petite brigade d'Illinoëts dont ils défirent les 
femmes et les enfants; car les hommes s'enfuirent vers leurs gens qui 
n'étaient pas bien éloignés delà. Ils s'assemblèrent d'abord, et couru- 

^ Probableiment "delà, la ibale des. Puants, au lac Huron," où Us furent 

' Les Sauteux, du saut Sainte-iMarie, les Mississaguês et les Oens de la 
Loutre on Nikikouets, de la côte d'Algoma, nous sont connuis. Il ne paraît pis 
que les Amikoués ou Castors aient tformé partie de l'ejppéddtlon. La victoire 
mentionnée dans la Relation de 1671, p. 82, colonne 2, n'a !pas eu pour thé&tre 
le laiC Huron, mais le territoire des Amikoués, au nord-ouest de la baie 

» Au sud, chez les Illinois, par le lac Michigan. 


rent après les Irroquois qui ne s'en méfiaient pas; après les avoir joints 
la nuit, ils donnèrent dessus et en tuèrent plusieurs. D'autres villages 
lUinoëts qui chassaient aux environs, de distance en distance, ayant eu 
avis de ce qui se venait de passer, accoururent et trouvèrent leurs gens 
qui venaient de faire coup sur les Irroquois. Ils se joignirent ensemble, 
s'encouragèrent, et s'étant hâtés, attrapèrent rennemi, lui donnèrent 
combat et le défirent entièrement; car il y en eut très peu qui se rendi- 
rent à leurs villages. C'est la première connaissance que l'Illinoëts a 
eue de l'Irroquois et qui leur a été fatale (aux Iroquois) mais dont ils 
se sont bien vengés." (Perrot, 82-83). 

Eeprenons le texte de La Potherie, II, 55: "Les Iroquois se re- 
tirèrent sans avoir pu réussir. Les uns retournèrent sur leurs pas et les 
autres suivirent le bord du lac Huron ^ pour y trouver de quoi subsister 
plua aisément. Ces derniers se trouvèrent dans de vastes campagnes, 
où ils tuèrent quantité d'ours, de bœufs, biches, cerfs, chevreuils et toute 
sorte de gibier. Plus ils avançaient, plus ils rencontraient de ces ani- 
maux. Un Iroquois qui était écarté de ses camarades découvrit des 
pistes d'hommes et aperçut" presque en même temps de la fumée. Il en 
donna aussitôt avis aux autres qui reconnurent un petit village ^ d'Isli- 
nois. Ils donnèrent dessus sans trouver de résistance, n'y ayant que des 
femmes et des vieillards, le reste du village étant dispersé à la chasse. 
Un chasseur qui arriva le premier fut bien surpris de ne voir à sa ren- 
contre que des cadavres. Il en porta la nouvelle à plusieurs autres vil- 
lages voisins; l'on joignit en peu de jours les Iroquois. Les Islinois leur 
livrèrent combat, les défirent et ramenèrent tous les prisonniers. Les 
Iroquois n'avaient jamais été dans ces quartiers, mais toutes ces vastea 
campagnes ont été depuis le théâtre de la guerre." 

Des soixante bourgades, des vingt mille guerriers et des cent vingt 
mille âmes des Illinois il ne restait plus que deux ou trois bourgades en 
1658 — les autres avaient émigré de l'autre côté du Mississipi, dans 
llowa, poursuivis jusqu'au grand fleuve par les Iroquois. On voit que 
Perrot et La Potherie disent juste en faisant allusion aux malheurs qui 
résultèrent pour les Illinois de l'épisode de 1654. 

Xotre objet principal étant de suivre le groupe d'Outaouas et de 
Hurons du Petun qui se tenait dans la baie Verte, il faut voir leurs 
mouvements au cours des années 1654-57. Voici comment s'exprime 

* Il faut lire: lac des Illinois appelé Michigan. 

' Le copiste de Perrot a lu " brigrade." Ce doit être " bourgade " puisque 
La Potherie met " village." (Remarque du R. P. Tailhan.) 

Sec. I, 1903. 2. 


Nicolas Perrot, p. 85: "Les Outaouas, craignant de n'être pas assez 
forts pour soutenir les* incursions des Irroquois, qui étaient informés 
de Tendroit où ils avaient fait leur établissement, se réfugièrent au 
Mifisissipi, qui se nomme à présent la Louisiane." Mettons que ceci 
eut lieu l'automne de 1654 ^ ou en 1655, car on verra plus loin que la 
chose ne tarda guère. Le passage suivant entre dans certains détails 

" Ces peuples (Outaouas et Hurons) qui avaient été assez heureux 
d'éviter leur perte, jugèrent bien qu'il n'y avait pas grande sûreté de 
demeurer dorénavant dans un pays qui pourrait devenir la proie des 
Iroquois, quelque paix qu'ils eussent faite avec eux. Us se réfugièrent 
dans l'ouest,* chez des nations qui les reçurent favorablement. Ils s'y 
seraient établis s'ils ne s'étaient pas vus trop éloignés des Français, 
et s'il y avait eu des arbres pour faire des canots qui leur étaient absolu- 
ment nécessaires. Ils quittèrent ce pays et s'établirent sur le Mississipi 
qui les charma par la quantité d'ours, de biches, cerfs, chevreuils, eau- 
tors, surtout de ces bœufs qui ont le poil aussi fin que de la soie, dont 
on a fait des chapeaux il y a peu d'années en France, et de toutes 
sortes de gibiers dont les rivières et les campagnes, les forêts étaient 
remiplies." (La Potherie II, 55-6.) 

"Les Hurons de la nation du Petun appelée Tionnotanté, ayant 
autrefois été chassés de leur pays par les Iroquois, se réfugièrent en 
cette île si célèbre pour la pêche, nommée (Missilimakinac; mais ils 
u^'y purent rester que peu d'années, ces mêmes ennemis les ayant 
obligés de quitter ce poste si avantageux. Ils se retirèrent donc plus 
loin, dans les îles qui portent encore leur nomj et qui sont .à l'entrée 
de la baie des Puants; mais ne s'y trouvant pas encore assez en assu- 
rance, ils se retirèrent bien avant dans les bois ' et, de là, enfin choisi- 
rent pour dernière demeure Fextrémité du lac Supérieur,* dans un. 
endroit qu'on a appelé la pointe du Saint-Esprit." {Relation, 1672, 
p. 86.) 

Âmenaient-ils' avec eux les Français de M. de Lauzon, ou si ces 
deux hommes restèrent à la baie Verte? Cette dernière hypothèse 
nous semble la plus acceptable'* par le désir qu'ils devaient avoir de 

* Les êcrivainB du Wisconsin et du Minnesota disputent sur ces mouve- 
ments de la bande huronne-outaoualse, faute de connaître les faits dans leur 

' Au sud du lac *Surpêrleur. 

• Wisconsin et Mississi<pi, 1655-^. 

• En 1657. 

* La Relation de 165S, p. 21, dit qiue, & trods Journées par eau du bourer Saint- 
Mlotiel (Poutéouatamls) tirant dans les terres, est la nation des Maakoutensalc 
et des Outltchakouk. Les deux Français qui ont voyagé en ces contrées-là, 
disent Que ces peuples sont de très douce humeur." 


retourner chez eux en 1655. Quant à nos Sauvages, Perrot ajoute: 
" Ils montèrent ce fleuve ^ à douze lieues ou environ d'Ouisconehin 
(la rivière Wiaconsin) où ils trouvèrent une autre rivière qui se nomme 
des Ayoës (lowa à présent). Ils la suivirent jusqu'à sa source et 
rencontrèrent des nations qui les reçurent cordialement. Mais, dana 
toute rétendue du pays qu'ils parcouraient n'ayant pas vu de lieu 
propre à s'établir, à cause qu'il n'y avait du tout point de bois, et 
qu'il ne paraissait que prairies et rases campagnes, quoique les buflies 
et autres bêtes y fussent en abondance, ils reprirent la même route 
pour retourner sur leurs pas et, après avoir encore une fois abordé la 
Louisiane,^ ils montèrent plus haut. Il n'y furent pas longtemps 
sans s'écarter pour aller d'un côté et d'autre à la chasse: je parle d'une 
partie seulement de leurs gens que les Scioux rencontrèrent, prirent 
et amenèrent à leurs villages. Lee Scioux, qui n'avaient au<:*une con- 
naissance des armes à feu et autres instruments qu'ils leur voyaient, 
ne se servant que de couteaux de pierre de moulange et de haches de 
cailloux, espérèrent que ces nations nouvelles, qui s'étaient approchées 
d'eux, leur feraient part des commodités qu'ils avaient. Croyant qu'ils 
étaient des esprits parce qu'ils avaient l'usage de ce fer qui n'avait pas 
de rapport avec tout ce qu'ils avaient, ils les menèrent à leurs villages^ 
Bt puis les rendirent à leurs gens. 

" Les Outaouas et les Hurons les reçurent fort bien à lexir tour, 
sans néanmoins leur faire de grands présents. Les Scioux étant 
revenus chez eux, avec quelques petites choses qu'ils avaient reçues des 
Outaouas, en firent part aux autres villages leurs alliés, et donnèrent 
aux uns des haches et aux autres quelques couteaux ou alênes. Tous 
ces villages envoyèrent des députés chez les Outaouas, où, sitôt qu'ils 
furent arrivés, ils commencèrent, suivant la coutume, à pleurer sur 
tout ce qu'ils* rencontraient, pour leur marquer la joie sensible qu'ils 
avaient de les avoir trouvés, et les exhorter d'avoir pitié d'eux, en 
leur faisant part de ce fer qu'ils regardaient comme une divinité. 

'* Les Outaouas, en voyant ces gens pleurer ' sur tous ceux qui se 
présentaient devant eux en conçurent du mépris et les regardèrent 
comme des gens bien au-dessous d'eux, incapables même de faire la 
guerre. Ils leur donnèrent aussi une bagatelle, soit CDuteaux ou 
alênes, que les Scioux témoignèrent estimer beaucoup, levant les yeux 

^ Le MisaiJBSipi. La Mère de l'Inoarnation écrivait dès 1654: ** Des sauvaeres 
fort éloignés disent qu'il y a au-dessus de leur pays une rivière fort précieuse 
qui aboutit à une grande mer que l'on tient être celle de la Chintw" 

" La sortie du Wiaconsin. 

* Cette manière de (témoigner sooi admiration existait en Europe, au dire de 
madame d« Créquy. Vers 1760, deux Lithuaniens de nobles feumillee répan- 
dirent d'abondantes larmes, en présence de la société parisienne, en visitant 
les musées et les malsons princières. 


au ciel et le bénissant d'avoir conduit ces nations dans leur pays, qui 
étaient en état de leur procurer de si puissants moyens pour faire 
cesser leur misère. Les Outaouas, qui avaient quelques fusils, les 
tirèrent et le bruit qu'ils firent les épouvanta tellement qu'ils s'ima- 
ginèrent que c'était la foudre ou le tonnerre dont ils étaient maîtres 
pour exterminer ceux qu'ils voulaient Les Scioux faisaient mille 
caresses aux Hurons et Outaouas partout où ils étaient, leur marquant 
toutes les soumissions possibles afin de les toucher de compassion et 
d'en tirer quelque utilité, mais les Outaouas en avaient d'autant moins 
d'estime qu'ils insistaient à se tenir devant eux dans ces postures 

" Les Outaouas se déterminèrent enfin .à choisir l'île Pelée * pour 
s'établir; où ils furent quelques années* en repos. Ils y reçurent 
souvent le visite des Scioux. Mais un jour il arriva que les Hurons, 
'étant à la chasse, rencontrèrent des Scioux qu'ils tuèrent; les Scioux, 
en peine de leurs gens, ne savaient ce qu'ils étaient devenus; ils en 
trouvèrent, quelques jours après, les cadavres auxquels on avait coupé 
la tête. Ils retournèrent au village en diligence porter cette triste 
nouvelle et rencontrèrent quelques Hurons en chemin qu'ils firent 
prisonniers. Quand ils furent arrivés chez eux, les chefs les relâchè- 
rent et les renvoyèrent à leurs gens. Les Hurons, ayant assez d'audace 
pour s'imaginer que les Scioux étaient incapables de leur résister sans 
armes de fer et à feu, conspirèrent avec les Outaouas de les entre- 
prendre et de leur faire la guerre, afin de les chasser de leur pays et 
de se pouvoir étendre davantage «pour chercher leur subsistance. Les 
Outaouas et les Hurons se joignirent ensemble et marchèrent contre 
les Scioux. Ils crurent que, sitôt qu'ils paraîtraienl, ils fuiraient, mais 
ils furent bien trompés, car ils soutinrent leurs efforts et même les 
repoussèrent et, s'ils ne s'étaient retirés, ils auraient été entièrement 
défaits par le grand nombre de monde qui venaieni dos autres villages 
de leurs alliés à leur secours. On les poursuivit jusqu'à leur établisse- 
ment, où ils furent contraints de faire un méchant fort, qui ne laissa 
pas d'être capable de faire retirer les Scioux, puisqu'ils n'osèrent entre- 
prendre de l'attaquer. Les incursions continuelles que les Scioux 
faisaient sur eux les contraignirent de fuir. Ils avaient eu «connaissance 
d'une rivière qu'on nomme le rivière Noire; ils entrèrent dedans et, 

* Offrant une belle plaine sans arbres, â. trois lieues au-dessous de l'embou- 
chure de la rivière Sainte-Croix dans le MississipI, à l'entrée du lac Bonse- 
cours ou Pépin, appelé lac des Pleurs par Hennepin en 1680, parce que les 
Sioux pleuraient de ravissement â, la vue des articles de fabrique européenne 
qu'dl leur montrait. 

* Tout au plus de l'automne de 1655 à l'automne de 1657 ou même au prin- 
temps de 1658. 

[sultb] découverte DU MISSISSIPI EN 1659 21 

étant arrivés là où elle prend sa source, les Hurons y trouvèrent un lieu 
propre pour s'y fortifier et y établir leur village. Les Outaouas 
poussèrent plus loin et marchèrent jusqu'au lac Supérieur et fixèrent 
leur demeure à Chagouamikon/' * 

Récapitulons ce qui concerne les Outaouas et les Hurons du Petun: 

1651, ils laissent leurs pays pour s-e rapprocher du Michigan nord; 

1652, vont 11 l'île Huronne; 1653, reculent jusque chez les Poutéou- 
atamis au nord-ouest de la baie Verte; envoyent trois canots vers le 
Canada pour renouer des relations commerciales; 1654, vont traiter 
en Canada; retournent avec deux Français; leur fort de la baie Verte 
est menacé par les Iroquois; 1655, se dirigent aux sources de la rivière 
Wisconsin; descendent au Mississipi; passent deux ans à Tîle Pelée; 
1657, les Hurons se rendent aux sources de la rivière Noire pour y 
demeurer; les Outaouas s'avancent jusqu'au lac Supérieur et s'y fixent.* 


Que se passait-il, durant ce peu d'années, à l'égard des Iroquois? 
Ils étendaient leur puissance. La force et la valeur que ce peuple 
déployait à la pratique de la guerre provenait de son organisation, de 
sa discipline, de son esprit de suite, infiniment supérieur à tous ce qui 
se voyait chez les autres nations sauvages. Il tendait à dominer de 
vastes territoires afin de tenir dans sa main le commerce des f ourrurcB 
dont le débouché se trouvait, pour lui, dans les comptoirs hollandais, 
anglais et suédois des bords de l'Atlantique, par opposition aux Fran- 
çais du Saint-Laurent, aussi employait-il toute sa vigueur à se rendre 
maître du pays et du monopole qui devait résulter de ses conquêtes. 

Ayant tourné leurs vues du côté des grands lacs, les Cinq-Nations 
conunencèrent en 1654 à demander la paix avec la colonie française, 
prenant pour prétexte que les Eriés (les Chats) du sud du lac Erié 
leur faisaient la guerre à l'instigation d'une tribu huronne réfugiée 
chez eux. Les Eriés périrent tous dans cette lutte ou furent incor- 
porés à l'élément iroquois. Tout aussitôt, en 1656, les Français conclu- 
rent la paix et une colonie des nôtres alla s'établir chez les Onnontagués, 
comme marque de confiance dans le bon esprit des Cinq-Nations. 
Alors, les Miamis, situés près du lac Michigan, reçurent la visite dee 

* La Potherie II, 56, se borne à dire: " Lea Nadouays»iouz en avalent om- 
brage et en tuèrent plusieurs Ils furent encore contraints de quitter quel- 
ques années après ce pays si délicieux et vinrent demeurer <& Chagrouamikon, 
sur le lac Supérieur, où ils demeurèrent jusqu'à la paix des Iroquois (1670) avec 
les Français et toutes les nations, après laquelle ils se rapprochèrent de leur 
pays natal." 

* Il va de soi que d'autres petites bajides de Hurons et d'Outaousis circu- 
laient dans ces territoires indépendamment de ceux qui nous occupent icL 


destructeurs iroquois; ees pauvres gens se retirèrent (1657) dans la 
TOQée de ITllinois. Cotait au tour defe* Illinois à diapawdtre, aussi, 
dès 1666, on les voit s'éloigner deô* rives occidentales du lac Md-chigan 
pour prendre la route de l'ouest iet s'établir de l'autre côté du Mis- 
sissipi, dans Tlowa, qui avait été leur ancienne patrie et où ils vécurent 
quinze ou seize ans. Les Ejkapous du voisinage du Détroit s'étaient 
réfugiés, en 1653, à l'île Manitoualine ; de nouvelles incursions les 
repoussèrent plus loin et ils prirent refuge au Wisconsin. 

Les Gens du Feu, en langage huron-iroquois Atsistaguerhonon, 
étaient appelés Majskouteuch par les Algonquins, ce qui veut dire " habi- 
tante de la plaine." Atsista signifie le feu et ronon les hommes, tels que 
irini en algonquin et vir en latin. Ces Mascoutins sont mentionnés en 
1615 comme faisant la guerre aux Sauvages du nord du lac Huron, prin- 
cipalement les Outaouas de l'île Manitoualine, mais ces derniers s'enten- 
daient avec les Neutres (côte nord du lac Erié) qui harcelaient con- 
tinuellement les Mascoutins; cet état de choses se maintenait en 1646 
et ne finit qu'en 1650, lorsque lee Iroquois furent m«tttres du Haut- 
Canada. Sur la carte de Champlain (1632) la nation du Feu est placée 
à l'ouest de la ville actuelle du Détroit, en un lieu nommé ** Bistaguero- 
non." Ce peuple avait sa droite vers l'extrémité du lac Erié, tandis que 
sa gauche touchait à la baie de Saginaw. Nous sommes poriié à croire 
que l'on peut considérer les Mascoutins comme le principal peuple de 
cette région jusqu'au passage de Makinac. '^Cette nation du Feu est 
plus peuplée, elle seule, que tous ensemble ceux de la nation Neutre, 
tous les Hurons et les Iroquois ennemis des Hurons. Elle contient 
grand nombre de villages qui parlent la langue algonquine, qui règne 
encore plus avant" {Relation, 1644, p. 97-8). Le père Pierre Pijart, 
en mission dans la contrée des Hurons du Petun (vers Goderich) 
durant l'hiver de 1640-41, s'était assuré que les Mascoutins parlaient 
l'algonquin. Deux de ces Sauvages, pris à la guerre en 1646, dirent que 
leur nation n'avait jamais vu d'Européen. Les événements empêchèrent 
qu'on ne visitât jamais ces gens dans le Michigan. L'une de leurs 
tribus, les Ouchaouanag, est mentionnée en 1648, mais elle n'avait 
aucun rapport avec les missionnaires. Lorsque les Iroquois demandè- 
rent la paix aux Français, en JL656, c'était afin de se trouver libres du 
côté du Bas-Canada; aussitôt ils portèrent leurs armes au sud et c'est 
alors que les Mascoutins abandonnèrent leur patrie pour se réfugier vers 
l'Indiana et le Wisconsin. Sur sa carte de 1660, le père Ducreux les 
place encore derrière le Détroit, parce que ses renseignements à ce sujet 
dataient de cinq ou six années déjà. Le Relation de 1658, p. 21, dont 
la substance est de 1657 au moins, les montre un peu à l'ouest de Mil- 
iwaukee, où Badieson et Chouart les visitèrent en 1659. 


Ce balayage accompli, les Iroquois levèrent le masque et, en 1668, 
rompirent la paix avec les Français. 


A partir de 1650, les Hurons, Outaouas, Sauteurs, Mississagués, 
Amikoués, Atohiligouans, Nikikouëts et Nipissiriniens, fuyant la hache 
de Flroquois, portèrent dans la baie Verte, le Wisconsin, le Minnesota, 
la connaissance des armes à feu et de pluflieure ustensiles que, par le 
moyen de leurs pelleteries, ils avaient obtenus du Canada. Il s'établit 
des rapports entre ces peuples divers, même ceux du nord, et le saut 
Sainte-Marie avec la baie de Chagouamikon devinrent les centres du 
commerce. Les Sioux ne tardèrent pas à connaître l'existence des Fran- 
çais, en commençant par admirer les articles de traite dont leurs nou- 
veaux amis se servaient avec un orgueil et une ostentation qui les fai- 
saient passer pour des êtres supérieurs aux autres Sauvages. Enfin, les 
Hurons et les Outaouas, arrivant à Tîle Pelée, avaient découvert le Mis- 
fcissipi et n'en faisaient pas mystère. Dès 1656, à leur retour de la 
baie Verte, les deux traiteurs de M. de Lauzon devaient être en état de 
parler des "grandes eaux" dont Jean Nicolet avait fait mention vingt 
ans auparavant. 

L'action hardie des Outaouas et des Hurons rouvrant la toraite 
(1654) avec la colonie française ne fut pas répétée l'année suivante, 
mais, en 1656, lefe sauvages de la Baie renouvelèrent cet exploit, malgré 
les embuscades dans lesquelles ils auraient pu tomber. 

Puisque les Hurons du Petun et leurs amis les Outaouas rôdaient 
alors au Mississipi, quels étaient donc ces Sauvages de la Baie qui allè- 
rent en traite sur le Saint-Laurent avec les deux hommes de Lauzon ? 
Un mélange de nations — Sakis, Poutéouatamis, Malomines, Mantouek, 
tous de la Baie — ^des Sauteurs, Missis'sigués, Amikoués, etc., de la baie 
Géorgienne, sans oublier des Outaouas du saut Sainte-Marie qui nous 
paraissent avoir été les chefs de cette expédition. 

" Le sixième jour du mois d'août 1654, deux jeunes Français, pleins 
de courage, ayant eu permission de monsieur le gouverneur du pays 
(Jean de Lauzon) de s^embarquer (à Québec) avec quelques-uns de ce 

peuple (les Outaouas) firent un voyage de plus de cinq cents lieues 

Ils pensaient bien retourner au printemps de l'année 1655, mais ces 
peuples ne les ont ramenés que sur la fin d'août 1656. Leur arrivée a 
causé une joie universelle à tout le pays, car ils étaient accompagnés de 
cinquante canots chargés de marchandises que les Français vont chercher 
en ce bout du monde. Cette fiotte marchait gravement et en bel ordre, 
poussée par cinq cents bras sur notre grand fleuve, et conduite par au- 


tant d'yeux, dont la plupart n'avaient jamais vu les grands canots de 
bois, je veux dire les navires des Français. Ayant mis pied à terre au 
bruit étonnant des canons, et ayant bâti en un moment leurs maisons 
volantes, les capitaines montèrent au fort Saint-Louis pour aller saluer 
monsieur j( Jean de Lauzon) notre gouverneur, portant leurs paroles en 
la main : c'étaient deux présents, qui passent pour des paroles parmi ces 
peuples. L'un de ces présents demandait des Français pour aller passer 
l'hiver en leur pays ; et l'autre demandait des pères de notre compagnie, 
pour enseigner le chemin du ciel à toutes les nations de cas graai33 
contrées. On leur répondit à leur mode par des présents, leur accordant 
très volontiers tout ce qu'ils demandaient. Mais pendant que ceux qui 
sont destinés pour cette grande entrepris» se préparent, apprenons 
quelque chose de nouveau des deux pèlerins français et de leurs hôtes. 

" Premièrement, il est bon de remarquer que la langue huronne 
s'étend bien à cinq cents lieues du côté du sud, et la langue algonquine 
plus de cinq cents du côté du nord. Je sais bien qu'il y a quelque petite 
différence entre ces nations, mais cela consiste en quelques dialectes qu'on 
A bientôt appris et qui n'altèrent point le fond de ces deux langues. 
Secondement, il y a quantité de lacs au quartier du nord qui passeraient 
bien pour des mers douces, et le grand lac des Hurons et un autre 
(Supérieur) qui lui est voisin, ne cèdent point à la mer Caspie. En 
troisième lieu, on nous a marqué quantité de nations aux environs de la 
nation de Mer (les Puants de la baie Verte) que quelques-uns ont 
appelé les Puants, à cause qu'ils ont autrefois habité sur les rives de la 
mer qu'ils nomment Ouinipeg, c'est-à-dire eau puante. Les Liniouek 
(Illinois) qui leur sont voisins, sont environ soixante bourgades. Les 
Nadouesiouek en ont bien quarante. Les Pouarac (Sioux guerriers) en 
ont pour le moins trente. Les Kiristinons passent tous ceux-là en 
étendue: ils vont jusqu'à la mer du nord. Le pays des Hurons, qui 
n'avait que dix-sept bourgades dans l'étendue de dix-sept lieues ou en- 
viron, nourrissait bien trente mille personnes Disons en quatrième 

lieu, que ces deux jeunes hommes n'ont pas perdu leurs peines dans leur 
grande course; ils n'ont pas seulement enrichi quelques Français à leur 
retour, mais ils ont donné beaucoup de joie à tout le paradis, ayant 
baptisé et envoyé au ciel environ trois cents' petits enfants.'* {Relation 
1656, p. 39). 

M. Charles Aubert de la Chesnaye, agent de la compagnie de 
traite de Rouen, était à Québec depuis* une année. Dans un mémoire 
qu'il écrivit en 1696,* il raconte que les deux Français revenus en 
4656 des contrées de l'ouest rapportaient, chacun, pour quatorze ou 

^ Et non pas en 1676 comme il est dit êl la pa^re 245 du tome I des Documenté 
sur la Nouvelle-France. 


quinze mille francs de pelleteries, sans compter qu'ils amenaient avec 
eux des sauvages portant des pelleteries pour cent mille ecus. " Ils 
me firent procès, ajoute-t-il, pour s'exempter des droits du quari;, parce 
qu*il« disaient qu*on leur avait Tobligation d'avoir fait descendre 
une flotte qui enrichissait le pays." 

La Compagnie Rouen-la-Rochelle avait le monopole du commerce 
de la Nouvelle-France depuis 1654, mais elle était trop pauvre, et aussi 
trop peu entreprenante pour aller jusqu'au lac Supérieur chercher 
les fourrures que son privilège lui accordait à elle seule. C'étaient 
donc les particuliers qui pouvaient se charger des risques et des périls 
de ces sortes d'aventures* et, lorsqu'ils réussissaient, la compagnie exi- 
geait d'eux une remise de vingt-cinq par cent de la valeur marchande 
des peaux. Dans le cas qui nous occupe ici, les deux Français avaient 
été envoyés, équipés sans doute, par M. Jean de Lauzon, gouverneur 
général, et la chose paraîtra singulière qu'il refusât d'acquitter le 
droit légal du quart, mais souvenons-nouô" que Lauzon avait été l'âme 
des Cent-Associés ; que voyant approcher la débâcle financière, il s'était 
fait nommer gouverneur (1651) afin de rétablir la situation de la com- 
pagnie; que, en 1654, il avait fallu oéder le monopole de la traite à 
un syndicat de la Rochelle et de Rouen. Lauzon était donc simple 
gouverneur général et non plus direjcteur du commerce en 1654, lors- 
qu'il expédia ses deux hommes, aussi ne voulut-il pas reconnaître les 
prétentions des commerçants qui l'avaient supplanté. 

Le voyage de 1654-56, qui tira de l'ouest des masses de pelleterie 
et attira inmiédiatement le trafic des peuples de la baie d'Hudson chez 
les Outaouas du lac Supérieur, sans compter la participation de la baie 
Verte, n'aurait pas eu lieu sans l'initiative de Lauzon qui voulait se 
refaire de ses pertes d'autrefois! L'été de 1656, ce gouverneur re- 
tourna en France, de son propre mouvement, et son fils le remplaça 
tant bien que mal. 

"'L'an 1656, dit la Relation de 1660, p. 29, une flotte de trois 
cents Algonquins supérieurs^ venant ici en traite, nous donna espé- 
rance qu'en se jettant parmi eux nous pourrions remonter ensemblq 
en leur pays et y travailler au salut de ces peuples. Deux de nos 
pères s'embarquèrent pour ce sujet, toais l'un fut obligé de rebrousser 
chemin, et l'autre qui était la père Léonard Garreau fut tué (sur 
l'Ottawa) par les Iroquois." Médard Chouart devait être de ce voyage, 
d'après ce que dit son beau-frère Radiseon. Il aurait donc hiverné 
dans l'oueet. 

Les " chemine coupés par les Iroquois" depuis 1648 se rouvraient 
sous l'initiative des Outaouas et des Hurons et, par la suite, le com- 
merce des Français avec l'ouest ne devait se trouver interrompu ou 
* Baie Verte, saut Sainte-Marie, côte d'Algroma. 


gêné que rarement^ quand la situation du Bae-Canada entravait trop 
les affairée, ou lorsque les Iroquois se décidaient à frapper un coup 
quelque part. 

Ainsi donc, bientôt la grande traite de l'été descendrait du lac 
Supérieur, se joindrait aux gens de la baie Verte à la bouche de la 
rivière Sainte-Marie, passant par le nord de la baie Géorgienne, la 
rivière des Français, le lac Nipissing, la rivière Mattawun, et Fan- 
cienne rivière des Algonquins, pour arriver à Montréal, étant, par sa 
force même, à Tabri des attaques. 

De là vint cette habitude de qualifier la rivière abandonnée pas les 
Algonquins de " route des Outaouas '' — ce que Ton nomme à présent 
la rivière Ottawa.*' * Cependant le terme de ^' Grande Eivière '' a 
toujours été le plus populaire depuis près de trois siècles. Le père 
Allouez écrivait en 1667 {Relation, p. 17), que les Outaouas, ** pré- 
fendent que la grande rivière leur appartient et qu'aucune nation n'y 
peut naviguer sans leur consentement; c'est pour cela que tous ceux 
qui vont en traite aux Français (Montréal), quoique fort différents de 
nation, portent le nom général d'Outaouacs, sous les auspices desquels 
ils font ce voyage." 


Chouart a-t-il été dans Touest avec les sauvages qui y retournaient 
en 1656? Voyons d'abord la marche de cette caravane: "Les Outa- 
ouas descendirent en gros aux Trois-Bivières. On leur donna des 
missionnaires: les Hurons eurent le Père Garot et les Outaouas le 
P. Mesnard,^ avec cinq Français qui les accompagnèrent. Le Père 
Oarot fut tué par k bande du Bâtard Flammand, qui (le Père Garreau) 
s'était embarqué avec les Hurons (et fut tué) sur le lac des Deux- 
Montagnes, où il (le Bâtard Flamand) avait fait construire un fort; 
mais ayant laissé passer le gros des Outaouas et des Saulteurs, qui 
étaient bien meilleurs canotteurs que les Hurons, ils (les Iroquois) les 
joignirent quoique bien éloignés d'eux, les défirent et en prirent plu- 
sieurs. Les Irroquois et les Français étaient alors en paix. Le Bâtard 
Flammand fit transporter le corps du père à Montréal, qtii était alors 
déjà établi. On lui demanda, sitôt qu'il fut arrivé, pourquoi il avait 
tiré sur le père; il répondit que lui ni ses gens ne l'avaient pas tué; 
que c'était un Français qui, ayant déserté * de Montréal, était venu 
joindre son parti, dans le temps qu'il (le Bâtard Flamand) allait 

* De 1615 à 1700 on la voit désigrnée sous le nom de rivière des Prairies, voir 
la carte de Sanson, année 1650. 

* Non. C'était le père Dreuillette. 

■ Voir une note du Père Tailhan, p. 230 du mémoire de Perrot. 

[sultb] découverte DU MISSI8SIPI EN 1659 27 

dresser des embuscades aux Outaouas, qui voulaient monter la rivière 
des Prairies.^ Ce Français fut remis au gouverneur et passé par les 
armes,* faute d'exécuteur. Le Bâtard Flammand amena plusieurs 
prisonniers hurons, auxquels il fit brûler les doigts, sans aucune oppo- 
sition de la part des Français, et leur accorda la vie quand il les eut 
rendus dans son village. Ils n'oublieront jamais la manière dont .nous 
les avons abandonnés dans cette occasion à la discrétion de leurs enne- 
mis.'' (Nicolas Perrot, p. 84.) 

Comme le père Dreuillette, le frère Louis Le Boëme et les Fran- 
çais qui avaient persisté à les suivre jusqu'au-dessus de Montréal 
rebroussèrent chemin après l'attaque des Iroquois, devons-nous supposer 
que Chouart fut le seul à accompagner les sauvages dans leur pays, 
alors que nous ne savons pas même s'il formait partie du voyage? 

Ri-en ne nous induit à croire que les Outaouas et les Hurons 
descendirent au Saint-Laurent l'année 1657, de sorte que Chouart 
n'aurait guère eu occasion de retourner aux Trois-Rivières, s'il 
était parti pour l'ouest en 1656 ' — pourtant Radisson nous dit que son 
beau-frère et d'autres Français étaient revenus des lacs en 1657. 

La traite de 1667 se lit par le Saint-Maurice. Peut-être Chouart 
en était-il; cela justifierait Radisson. Voici ce que nous pouvons dire 
à ce sujet: Le 20 avril 1657, huit Français des Trois-Rivières, avec 
vingt canots d'Algonquins partaient par la rivière Batiscan, qui est à 
six ou sept lieues au-dessous de la ville. Us passèrent vingt-huit sauts 
en quatorze jours et arrivèrent au term« de leur course le 28 mai, après 
avoir recontré soixante-quartorze sauts ou portages; ils rentrèrent aux 
Trois-Rivières le 15 juillet,* chargés de castors. "Ils virent des 
Poisson-Blancs (Attikamègues) qui demandent à prier Dieu, des 
Agouing8i8ek et des Kiristinons, qui sont proches de la mer du nord." 
(Journal des Jésuites, 15 juillet 1657.) 

Le 17 novembre 1657, une chaloupe remplie de Sauvages arriva à 
Québec portant la nouvelle que plus de soixante canots chargés de 
pelleteries avaient abordé aux Trois-Rivières, qu'ils étaient en partie 
de la nation des Poissons-Blancs, et d'autres peuples plus au nord, 
dont quelques-uns n'avaient jamais vu d'Européens; ils étaient tous 
gens bien faits et de belle taille, mais d'une nature timide et peu 

^ C'était alors le noun de la rivière lajpipelée plus tard Ontaoua, et Ottawa. 
' Falllon: Histoire de la Colonie, JI, 257. 

• Ne 'POurralt-on offrir au lecteur le calcul suivant: Marie-Anne, fllle de 
" Mêdard Ohouard dit Des Oroizellers et Margruerite Haiets sa femme," née 
et baptisée aux Trois-Rivières le 7 août 1657, donne à penser que le père 
était en ce dernier lieu durant les mois de novem/bre-dêcembre 1656. 

• Le 18 juiUet 1667, Chouart est présent devant la cour, aux Trols-Riviêres. 
Le 6 octobre suivant, il est parrain d'Ignace Aubuchon. 


entreprenante. Us avaient été attaqués par les Iroquois, deux ou trois 
années auparavant, dans leurs bourgades, à la hauteur dies terres, et 
avaient cru prudent de se réfugier chez les autres nations plus éloignées. 
Pour aller à la mer du nord par le Saint-Maurice, la Relation dit que 
Ton va environ cent cinquante lieues, jusqu'au lac Ouapichiouanon ; 
de là on va trouver la baie des peuples nommés Kilistinons qui sont 
sur la mer du nord. Du lac Ouapichiouanon on descend aux Trois- 
JUvières en sept journées. " Maif» voici encore un nouveau chemin du 
pays des Hurons aux Trois-Rivières. " Sortant du lac nommé Tema- 
gami, c'est-à-dire eau profonde, que je crois être la mer Douce des 
Hurons et la source du grand fleuve Saint-Laurent; ayant fait quelque 
chemin sur ce grand fleuve, on traverse environ quinze lieues, par 
des petits ruisseaux, jusqu'au lac nommé Ouassisanik, d'où cort un 
fleuve qui conduit aux Trois-Rivières. C'est par ce chemin que vingt- 
cinq canots Nipisiriniens arrivèrent, il y a environ deux ans* (1666) 
chargés d'hommes, de femmes, d'enfants ot de pelleteries. Ils nous 
dirent qu'ils avaient trouvé partout de l'orignac ou des castors, ou des 
poissons, dont ils avaient fait leur nourriture. Ils nous aasuraient 
qu'il serait facile à nos Français, partant des Trois-Rivières, de se 
rendre dans un mods à la mer Douce des Hurons." ^ 

D'après notre manière de voir, Chouart a passé l'hiver de 1656-57 
aux Trois-Rivières; il a pu former partie de Texpédition sur le haut 
Saint-Maurice, du 20 avril au 15 juillet 1657, mais Radisson n'en était 
pas puisque, à la fin de juin ou au commencement de juillet, il s'embar- 
quait aux Trois-Rivières pour aller au pays des Iroquois (pages 87, 95, 
97 de sa narration) . 

Au mois de juin 1657 on organisait à Québec un envoi d'hommes 
pour renforcer la petite garrJson française établie chez les Onnontagués 
l'année précédente. Radisson se rendit à Montréal pour s'adjoindre à 
eux, car c'était l'endroit du rendez-vous général. H dit qu'il s'écoula 
quinze jours avant l'embarquement (26 juillet) et qu'ils partirent au 
nombre de quatre-vingts Iroquois, une centaine de Huronnes, dix à douze 
Hurons, vingt Français et deux pères jésuites. La route se fit par le 
Saint-Laurent. A Onnontagué le major Zacharie Dupuis et ses trente 
soldats avaient construit un fort, mais la situation était devenue des plus 
alarmantes. Dès l'automne (1657) on eut connaissance d'un complot 
pour massacrer les Français, lequel, toutefois, fut suspendu en apprenant 
qu'une cinquantaine d'Onnontagués allaient passer l'hiver à Québec. 
Le 20 mars 1658, Dupuis convoqua les Sauvages à un grand festin et, 
les ayant gorgés, on profita de leur sommeil pour déguerpir à la faveur 

* Journal des Jésuites, 17 novembre 1657; Relations, 1658, pp. 12, 20-21; 1660, 
P. 12. 


de la nuit aussi bien que d'une tempête de neige qui effaçait les traces 
des fugitifs. Ils étaient 53 hommes, dont 3 périrent dans le voyage. 
Badisson (pp. 126, 128, 130, 131, 133, 134) dit qu'ils furent six se- 
maines à descendre, puis il ajoute qu'ils arrivèrent à Montréal à la fin 
de mars, mais nous savons que c'était le 3 avril. 

La débâcle du fleuve avait lieu en ce moment. Peu de jours après, 
Badisson était aux Trois-Bivières. Chouart^ et lui résolurent d'aller à 
la découverte des grands lacs dont parlaient les aborigènes "et qui ont 
été vus, car mon beau-frère y a fait plusieurs voyages du temps que les 
pères jésuites demeuraient vers le lac des Hurons, sur le bord de la mer" 
(p. 134). Tout ceci est conforme à l'histoire, excepté la mer et ses 

Le mystère de l'ouest était déjà passablement débrouillé si l'on en 
juge par la lettre de la Mère de l'Incarnation du 24 septembre 1654, 
signalant le Mississipi, sans le nommer, et les Relations des pères jésuites 
de 1654 à 1658 énumérant les peuples lointains dont on avait connais- 
sance, toutefois, le marasme dans lequel végétait le Bas-Canada empê- 
ohait de donner suite au mouvement commercial inauguré par les Ou- 
taouas, les Hurons, les Sauteurs et les Nipissiriniens. M. Jean de 
Lauzon, dépité de ses insuccès, était retourhé en France Tété de 1656, 
laissant les affaires à un de ses fils qui les passa, l'année suivante, à M. 
d'Ailleboust, en attendant une décision de Paris. Le 11 juillet 1658, 
M. d'Argenson arriva, mais sans troupes, sans .argent, sans ressources* 
d'aucune sorte. Il ne voulut voir — avec raison — que la nécessité immé- 
diate d'entraver ou d'anéantir la puissance des Iroquois et il rédigea des 
mémoires dans ce sens — on les laissa dormir dans* les bureaux de Paris. 
L'amalgame ou replâtrage commercial -qui se nommait depuis trente 
ans les Cent- Associés, depuis vingt ans la compagnie Cheffault, depuis 
1644 la société des Habitants, depuis» 1655 le syndicat Bouen-Bochelle, 
tous rouages les uns dans les autres, ne valait absolument rien. 

Deux hommes surgirent à point pour créer un prestige français dans 
les régions de l'ouest. Nous allons les voir à l'œuvre. 


C'est à la mi-juin 1658,^ rapporte Badisson (p. 136), que Chouart 
et lui s'embarquèrent aux Troie-Rivières avec deux pères jésuites, vingt- 
neuf Français, et des Outaouas, Hurons, Amikoués, Sauteurs, qui re- 

* Le 12 avrU 1658, aux Trois-Rivlères, Il est parrain d'Ignace PeUerln dit 

" Morgruenite, flUe de Chauart, étant née aux Tno;8-Illvi ères le 16 avril 1659, 
nooB supposons que le départ ci-deasue doit plutôt compter du 15 JuUlet, au 
moment où M. d'Argenson venait d'arriver de France. 


tournaient dans leurs pays respectifs après la traite. Les "vingt-neuf 
gaillards ^^ se targuaient de faire un voyage de conquérants, de quoi 
Radi&son se moque avec entrain, disant que tout cela est fort bon lors- 
que Ton parle des dangers, des peines et des misères que Ton ne con- 
naît pas; il leur prédit qu'ils baisseront leur caquet une fois soumis* à 
répreuve, comme cela est arrivé (p. 141). 

On ne passa pas, malgré la coutume, par le bras de rivière qui 
baigne Fîle de Montréal au nord, car il fallait se rendre à la ville pour 
y prendre huit Outaouas et deux Français qui attendaient cette occasion. 
** Sans cela, nous serions allés par la rivière des Prairies.'* (p. 137). 

La rivière des Prairies poriait ce nom depuis quarante ans et, le 
plus souvent, on désignait ainsi toute la rivière àes Algonquins qui prit 
le nom de route des Outaouas vers 1670. Le hras àe cette rivière qui 
passe entre Fîle Jésus et la terre-ferme du nord et dont notre voyageur 
parle ici spécialement, porta aussi (1640) le nom de Saint-Jean, en hon- 
neur de Finterprète Jean Nicolet. 

Les Iroquois qui, depuis 1650, étaient maîtres de ces régions, en 
ayant chassé les Algonquins, ne tardèrent pas à se montrer dès que la 
flottille eut quitté le lac Saint-Louis pour se diriger à l'ouest. Au lac 
des Deux-Montagnes et aux approches du Long-Saut, il y eut des escar- 
mouches. Les sauvages agissaient sans' discipline, se débandaient, s'ex- 
posaient inutilement, de sorte qu'il en périt treize, tant tués que pri- 
sonniers. Les " gaillards," voyant cela, rebroussèrent chemin, laissant 
Ohouart et Eadisson seuls avec les Sauvages épouvantés (p. 141). 
Heureusement, les attaques ne se renouvelèrent pas et l'on parvint 
*^ in a place called the lake of Castors, which is some 30 leagues from 
the first great lake " (p. 143). Ce premier grand lac est la baie Géor- 
gienne. Dan§ un autre endroit de ses écrits (p. 90) notre voyageur 
observe : " Neere the lake of the Hurrons some 40 leagues eastward 
there is another lake belonging to the nation of the Castors, which 
is 30 miles about." C'est le lac Nipissing, qui portait les deux noms 
de Ca&tors et Sorciers à cause des Nipissirininens et des Nez-Percés ou 
Amikoués qui demeuraient dans son voisinage. Amikoué veut dire 
castor, aussi Nicolas Perrot et autres de la même époque les désignent- 
ils parfois sous ce nom. Pendus là, ils avaient fait soixante iportages 
depuis Montréal (p. 144) et ils prirent quelques jours de repos*, car il y 
avait abondance de poisson dans le lac. 

La décharge du lac des Castors, qui mène au lac Huron,» mesure 
trente lieues en longueur et compte huit chutes ou rapides, remarque 
Badisson (p. 144). Dans son voyage de 1661 (p. 186) il l'appelle la 
rivière des Sorciers, un nom connu depuis 1613, à cause des Nipîssiri- 
niens surnommés le peuple des Sorciers. Nous tenons à noter ces 
petits faits, comme aussi la mention des soixante portage, pour faire 

[8Ui;nij DÈC50UVERTE DU MI8SI8SIPI EN 1659 31 

voir que la route se fit par l'Ottawa et non pas par le Saint-Laurent,^ 
les lacs Saint-Prançois, Ontario et Erié, comme plusieurs le prétendent. 

A la sortie de la rivière des Sorciers ou des Français, la flottille 
se divisa en deux bandes: Fune de sept canots, allant vers la côte nord 
ou Algoma, où devaient s^arrêter les Amikoués, tandis que les gens 
du saut Saint-Marie et les Outaouas pousseraient plus loin pour se 
rendre chez eux; Tautre, composée de Hurons, inclinant au sud, en 
côtoyant les* rivages de la baie Goergienne. Avec ces derniers étaient 
Chouard et Radisson. "We saw by the way the place where the 
flfathers Jesuits had heretofore (de 1634 à 1650) lived, a delicious place, 
albeit we could but see it afarre oflE '' (p. 145). Une fois de plus, il 
faut reconnaître qu'il n'y a rien du lac Erié ou du lac Sainte-Claire 
dans ces descriptions. 

Nos deux explorateurs arrivèrent au village des Hurons qui étaient 
avec eux; c'était sur Tune des îles Manitoulines (p. 146). Ces familles 
huronnes avaient fui en 1650 de la baie de Penetenguishine pour ne 
pa6 être massacrées par les Iroquois. 

Chouart et Eadisson, apprenant qu'il y avait dans le voisinage 
un parti dlrcfquois, induisirent les guerriers hurons* à leur donner la 
chaese, ce qui eut lieu avec succès : " We gave them the assault when 
they least thought of it. We played the game so furiously that none 
escaped. The day following we returned to our village with 8 of our 
enemye dead and 3 alive. The dead weare eaten and the living weare 
burned with a small fire to the rigour of cruelties." (p. 147.) 

Aux îles Manitoualines il y avait des Cheveux Relevés ou Staring 
Hairs, comme Eadisson les appelle, mais il ne semble pas les appa^ 
Tenter avec les Outaouas, pourtant c'était la même nation. 

En visite chez ce peuple, nos voyageurs apprirent que les Poutéouar 
tamis, occupant le nord-ouest de la baie Verte, désiraient les recevoir, 
et ils se rendirent chez eux dans l'intention d'y passer l'hiver.^ Une 
ïois là, ils firent connaissance avec des Escoteckes * ou Nation du Feu 
peuples établis sur la rive sud-ouest de la rivière aux Renards, quelque 
part vers le comté de Green Lake, Wisconsin. Ce peuple avait 
été chassé dee environs du lac Sainte-Claire (côté sud) par les 
Iroquois, en 1666, et s'était rapproché du passage de Michilli- 
makinac, avait passé à la baie Verte et s'était enfin fixé à la rivière 
du Loup qui se déverse dans le lac Winnepagoes, en haut de la rivière 
aux Renards, à neuf milles du ooude de la rivière Wisconsin, et il 

^ Radiflflon dit que c'est le plus beau paye du monde (p. 150). 

* Radisson a dû écrire Mascotekes. Ce terme signifie terrain de plaine en 
langue algon<iuine. Les Hurons et les Iroquois les appelaient Atsistaghenron- 
non« ott Qens du Feu, et Ontaougannftia: ceux qui parlent mal. Les Français 
disaient Maskouteng, Macoutenks, Mascoutins. 


B*étendait jusqu'à Milwaukee et Chicago. En 1658 il comptait trente 
bourgades situées ^' au eud-ouest quart de eud, à six ou sept journées 
de Saint-Michel ^' (mission des Poutéouatamis).* En 1670-72, il était 
encore dans le même pays.* 

Au printemps de 1659, dit positivement Radisson, lui et Chouart, 
s'avancèrent jusqu'à ce peuple, qui leur parla des Sioux, et même des 
Christinos, nation errante des bords de la baie d'Hudson dont une 
partie passait leô hivers au sud du lac Supérieur, (pp. 146, 148-9.) 
L'objet de nos deux aventuriers étant de trouver le pays des fourrures 
par excellence, ils questionnaient les Sauvages et se faisaient raconter 
rétat des choses dans les contrées qu'ils n'avaient pas encore vues. 

Il faut omettre les réceptions enthousiastes des Cheveux-Relevés, 
des Poutéouatamis et des Mascoutins, pour s'en tenir à la pensée qui 
dominait nos explorateurs, c'est-à-dire la découverte de territoires de 
plus en plus vastes, contrées du castor et des belles pelleteries en 
général. Les Mascoutins offraient de les conduire jusqu'aux Christinos, 
mais Badisson (p. 149) observe que cela ne pouvait entrer que plus tard 
dans son programme : *' We desired not to goe to the North till we 
had made a discovery in the South, being desiroois to know what they 


Ici se pose un problème: savoir si Radisson est parti du village 
des Mascoutins pour se rendre au Mississipi. La narration qu'il donne 
de ce voyage se trouve intercalée, sans à propos, dans la descente de 
l'Ottawa en 1660 (p. 167-9) où elle est manifestement hors de place. 
Il y a un fait incontestable, c'est que le récit en question nous mène au 
grand fleuve; reste donc à savoir quand eut lieu le voyage. Nous ver- 
rons, par la suite, que ce devait être au printemps de 1659, puisqu'il 
n'y a pas moyen de le placer à une autre date durant les années 1658-60. 
On a voulu que ce fût durant l'hiver de 1659-60, alors que Chouart et 
Radisson exploraient le lac Supérieur et le pays des Sioux, mais, outre 
que la chose n'était pas possible sur les neiges, le Mississipi vu par 
Radisson était plus bas que le lac Pépin et il lui donne une largeur 
"comparable à notre Saint-Laurent" d'après la Relation de 1660, 
p. 12. Ce n'est plus le Mississipi des Sioux, qu'il eut toutefois occasion 
de voir six mois plus tard. 

Chouart ne fut pas du voyage, on ne dit pas pourquoi. Peut-être 
a-t-il alors exploré Milwaukee et Chicago, dont il n'était pas éloigné. 

^ Le nom était donné, nuais 11 n'y avait encore aucun missionnaire dans 

* Relations, 1632, p. 14; 1640, pp. 35, 98; 1641, p. 59; 1644, p. 98; 1647, p. 77; 
1658, p. 22; 1670, pp. 94. 97, 99; 1671, pp. 25, 42-5; 1672. p. 41. 


Au milieu des Mascoutins, Badisson a dû apprendre que la rivière 
Wiaconsiii avait servi de route aux Huxons et aux Outaouas pour se 
rendre à Toueet peu d^années auparavant^ de même aussi que les* Illi- 
niois, sauf une ou deux tribus, s'étaient réfugiés au-delà du Mississipi 
en 1666. Les Sauvages qui s'embarquèrent avec lui ne faisaient pas 
mystère de r-existenee du Misaissipi. Il a dû oonmaitre d'avanoe le lac 
Pépin et Tîle Pelée. Partant du voisinage du lac Winnipagoes on a 
moins de diflScultés pour rencontrer le grand fleuve qu'en allant à lui 
par le nord-ouest du Wisconsin. Le voyage avait lieu en canot, ce 
qui n'eut pas été possible au printemps de 1660, puisque nos voyageurs 
étaient alors au sud-ouest du lac Supérieur. La lacune d'avril-juillet 
1659, qui se trouve visiblement dans le récit de Radisson, doit être 
comblée par le passage inséré sans à propoe vers la fin de l'écrit, et qui 
paraît comme «'appliquant à Carillon, le Long-Saut, le lac des Deux- 
Montagnes, on ne saurait dire à quoi au juste, car le morceau arrive 
là par hasard. H est temps de le remettre à sa place. 

Eappelons-nous que, en 1634, Jean Nioolet s'était vu dans la même 
situation. Les indigènes lui expliquaient l'existence d'un poriAge, 
après quoi on entrait dans une rivière (la Wisconsin) qui, en trois jours^ 
conduisait aux "grandes eaux" et, sans y aller, al conjecturait que ce 
devait être la mer. Eadisson était mieux renseigné; il savait très bien 
qu'il allait visiter la vallée d'un grand cours d'eau et reconnaître les 
rivières qui s'y déchargent. Voici sa narration: 

" We weare 4 moneths in our voyage wthout doeing anything but 
goe from river to river. ^ We mett several sorts of people. We con- 
versed wth them, being long time in alliance wth them. By the 
persuasion of som of them we went into ye great* river that divides * 
itself e in 2, where the hurrons with some Ottanake * & the wild men 
that had warrs wth them had retired.^ There is not great difference 
in their language, as we weare told. This nation have warrs against 
those of (the) forked river. It is so called because it has 2 branches, 
the one towards the west,® the other towards the South, woh we believe 
ninns towards Mexico/ by the tokens they gave us. Being among 
these people, they told us the prisoners they take tells them that they 

^ Ce n'était pas un voyage en raquettes comme on le prétend dans quel- 
ques ouvrages. 

' Lie Père Allouez la nomme Misslpi en 1665; c'est la première mention du 

* La fourche du Mdssissipi et de la rivière Wieconsin ou du Missouri. 

* Radisson a dû écrire Ottauake. 

* Sur l'île Pelée, de 1655 ù 1657. 
" Ce serait le Missouri. 

' En 1673, Marquette et Jolliet faisaient le même rapport. 

Sec. 1, 1903. 3. 


!hav€ warrs against a nation, against men that build great cabbans, & 
have great beards & had such knives as we have had. Moreover they 
shewed a Dcead of beads & guilded pearls that they have had from 
that people, wch made us believe they weare Europeans. They shewed 
one of that nation that was taken the yeare before. We understood 
him not; he was much more tawny then they wth whome we weare. 
His arms & leggs weare turned outside; that was the punishment in- 
flicted uppon him. So they doe wth them that they take, & kill them 
*wth clubbs & doe often eat them. They doe not burne their prisoners 
!Bâ those of the northern parts. 

" We weare informed of that nation that live in the other river. 
These weare men of extpaordinary height & bignesse, that made us 
believe they had no communication wth them. They live onely uppon 
Come & CitruUes, wch are mighty bigg. They have fish in plenty 
throughout ye yeare. They have fruit as big as the heart of an 
Oriniak,^ wch grows on vast trees woh in compassé are three armefull 
in compassé. When they see little men they are aifraid & cry out, 
wch makes many come help them. Their arrows are not of stones as 
ours are, but of fish boans & other boans that they worke greatly, as 
all other things. Their dishes are made of wood. I have scene them, 
could not but admire the curiosity of their worke. They have great 
©alumetts of great stones, red & greene. They make a store of tobacco. 
They have a kind of drink that makes them mad for a whole day. 
fPhis I have not seene, therefore you may believe as you please. When 
I came backe I found my brother sick, as I said before.^ God gave 
tiim his health, more by his courage then by any good medicine, ffor 
our bodyes are not like those of the wildmen." (pp. 167-169.) 

L'allusion à Tile Pelée où les Hurons et les Outaouas s'étaient 
^retirés, et d'où ils étaient partis récemment, montre que Badisson est 
remonté au nord jusqu'au lac Pépin. Rien dans son texte ne donne 
à supposer qu'il ait séjourné en cet endroit. Il dit qu'il a employé les 
quatre mois allant de rivière en rivière. 

Le chemin de fer d'Omaha s'avance dans le Wisconsin jusqu'à la 
rivière Chippewa, à 40 miles du lac Rice, et cet endroit, qui va devenir 
un centre commercial, a été nommé Radisson en 1902. 

* Orlgnac est un mot basque pour désigner un grand cerf. Nous en avons 
fait orignal. 

" Page 158, mais ce passage, où 11 dit que Ohouart tomba malade, se trouve 
intercalé dans un endrofl (lui nous mène à l'été de 1661. H serait bon de voir 
le manuscrit original. 



La page 149 présente une contradiction flagrante. Kadisson 
déclare qn'il n'ira pas au lac Supérieur comme les Mascoutins le lui 
demandent, parce qu'il est décidé de voir le sud qui l'avait tenté et 
attiré jusque-là. A peine a-t-il fini cette explication, qu'il fait ses 
préparatifs pour aller au saut Sainte-Marie. Il y a évidemment un 
passage du manuscrit qui manque, et ce morceau se retrouve page 167 
où il arrive sans raison aucune en parlant du bas de la rivière Ottawa. 
Nous venons de le reproduire. Il dit que le voyage au Mississipi avait 
duré quatre mois, donc c'est en juillet 1659, après son retour du ^hs- 
sissipi, que Eadisson consent à suivre les Mascoutins vers le nord, ainsi 
qu'il se l'était toujours proposé. 

Il débute par ces mots: "They (les Mascoutins) told us that if 
we would goe with them to the great lake of the stinkings (la baie 
Verte) the time was come of their trafick, which was of as many knives 
as they could gett from the french nation, because of their dwellings 
which was att the coming in of a lake called Superior, but since the 
destructions of many neighboring nations they (les Français) retired 
themselves to the height of that lake (en effet, les traiteurs français 
s'étaient reculés jusqu'aux îles des Apôtres, au sud-ouest du lac Supé- 
rieur où étaient les Outaouas). We knewed those people well. We 
(les Français) went to them almost yearly, and the company that came 
up with us weare of the said nation, but never could tell punctually 
where they lived because they make the barre of the Christines from 
whence they have the Castors that they bring to the french." (p. 149.) 
Les Outaouae voulaient garder le monopole de la traite et ne répon- 
daient guère à ceux qui cherchaient à se renseigner sur leur nouveau 

Chouart et Eadisson paraissent avoir quitté le pays des Mascoutins 
en juillet 1659, puisque dans le trajet de la baie Verte, doi lac Michigan 
et du détroit de Michillimakinac Kadisson écrit quatre pages pour ex- 
primer son ravissement des beautés de la nature et parler des fruits qui 
couvrent les arbres (p. 150-153). Il ajoute: "Tihe summer passed 
away with admiration by the diversity of the nations that we saw, as 
for the beauty of the shore of that sweet sea." 

Arrivé au saut Sainte-Marie, il explique que les Mascoutins ayant 
terminé leur traite, voulaient le ramener chez eux, mais il était décidé 
de voir l-es Ohristinios (p. 153). Dumnt l'éfté, il observait au cours de 
sa narration (p. 152) qu'il n'avait encore rencontré aucun Sioux; que 
lui et son compagnon étaient résolus de ne retourner au Canada que 
l'année suivante (1660), et il ajoute qu'il proposa aux Hurons qui 
étaient avec lui d'aller visiter les réfugiés de leur race établis à sept 


ou huit journées ouest de la baie Verte, aux sources de la rivière Noire, 
après avoir alandoimé l'île Pelée sur le Missûsipi — ce qui ne fut pas 
accepté (p. 152). L'endroit en question est assez proche des sources 
de la rivière Wisconsin, à six journées (40 ou 50 lieues), sud du lac 
Supérieur. Ces Hurons réfugiés étaient comme nous l'avons exposé, 
les gens du Petun qui se tenaient, depuis 1650, avec nombre d'Outaouas, 
mais ces derniers n'avaient pas voulu s'arrêter aux sources de la rivière 
Noire (1667), ils s'étaient rendus à la Pointe, qui est une des îles des 
Apôtres dans le lac Supérieur, côté sud-ouest, dans la baie de Chagou- 


Au saut Sainte-Marie, Badisson note: "We found some frenoh 
men y^ came up with us, who thanked ufi kindly for to come & visit 
them.'* Cette expression "came up with us^' ne signifie pas qu'ils 
étaient venus ensemble du Bas-Canada l'année précédente, mais qu'ils 
accompagnèrent nos deux découvreurs, partant du saut Sainte-Marie 
jusque chez les Sioux (p. 165) à l'oueist du lac Supérieur, comme nous 
le verrons- bientôt. 

Les Panoestigonces * ou peuple du Saut avaient eu, les années 
dernières, une guerre cruelle contre les Sioux et, bien que très infé- 
rieurs en nombre, ils s'en étaient assez bien tirés, avec l'aide des Chris- 
tines, toutefois, (p. 164.) 

L'été qui venait de finir, les Christines avaient livré une grande 
bataille aux Sioux et voyant que la haine était encore vivace entre eux, 
Badisson et Chouart abandonnèrent l'idée de se rendre chez les Chris- 
tines pour les réconcilier avec leurs ennemis (p. 157). Ce voyage eut 
lieu en 1662 seulement. 

Durant son séjour au lac Supérieur, Badisson ne parle pas d'une 
visite qu'il aurait faite à la baie Verte en octobre; cependant lorsqu'il 
raconte son séjour dans le détroit de Michillimakinac, l'été précédent 
(p. 153), il donne une description de la baie et termine en disant que, 
au sujet des Sauvages de ces lieux, " I will spcake of their manners in 
my last voyage, which I made in October." 

C'est donc après cela qu'il partit du saut Sainte-Marie avec les 
Français qu'il y avait rencontrés, et s'avança jusqu'au fond du lac 
Supérieur, vit les Outaouas de la Pointe, et obtint des renseignements 
(du moins nous le croyons) sur la bourgade huronne établie aux sources 
de la rivière Noire qu'il aurait tant aimé à visiter. 

A ce propos il y a dans la Relation des pères jésuites de 1660, p. 27, 
un passage annonçant que la nation huronne du Petun, réfugiée à 60 

* Pawestlgoncee et Pawltagouek en al^ronquln. 


lieues ouest de la baie Verte, avait envoyé, en 1659, un de ses capitaines 
à Québec pour engager les Français à aller les voir, disant qu'ils se 
croyaient en sûreté au milieu de plusieurs peuples de langue algonquine, 
et sur cette nouvelle, deux Français se proposaient de faire le voyage en 
1661. A son tour, le Journal des Jésuites du V^^ août 1659 note ceci: 
" Arriva des Trois-Eivières un canot qui porta nouvelles que 33 canots 
étaient arrivés des terres, partie Attikameg, Piskitang; entre autres 6 
canots de la nation du Sault, Misisager. Lesquels six canots du Sault 
descendirent par les terres et y rencontrèrent les Poissons Blancs (du 
haut Saint-Maurice) y furent 5 mois en leur voyage. Ils demandent des 
français pour les escorter en leur retour." 

Ces deux expéditions de canots de traite n'ont pas été inspirées par 
Chouart et Radisson puisque ces deux hommes étaient chez les Mascou- 
tins au moment où les Hurons du Petun et les Gens du Saut partaient 
du lac Supérieur pour Trois-Rivières et Québec. 

Or, comm« le père Jérôme Lalemant déclare {Relation, 1660, p. 12) 
que nos deux voyageurs ont vu les Hurons de la rivière Noire, il nous 
faut placer cette visite à l'automne de 1659. 

Chouart et Badisson avaient rencontré au saut Sainte-Marie des 
Christinos ou Cris qui venaient trafiquer en ce lieu, selon leur coutume 
depuis deux ou trois ans, et les pelleteries qu'ils vendaient aux gens du 
saut étaient descendues sur le Saint-Laurent par les canots de la grande 
traite annuelle de ces sauvages et des Outaouas de la Pointe. 

Comme ou parlait des Iroquois qui pouvaient survenir à tout 
moment et attaquer le village du Saut, Chouart et Radisson s'étaient 
décidés à aller passer l'hiver chez les Sioux (p. 155) ^Vhere we weare 
well receaved. . . . Th wild Octauacks that came with us found some 

of their nations slaves, who weare also glad to see them There we 

passed the winter and learned the particularities that since we saw by 
experience." La saison des neiges s'écoula à la chasse. " We did what 
we could to have correspondence with that warlike nation and reconcile 
them with the Ohristinos." (p. 157.) 

Chouart et Badiséon hivernèrent de nouveau chez les Sioux en 1661- 
62, et plusieurs historiens ont confondu ces deux faits p3artaat biaa 
distincts l'un de l'autre. Les deux pages que Radisson consacre à son 
séjour dans cette contrée durant l'hiver de 1659-60, sont presque unique- 
ment remplies de descriptions de chasse; à part cela, il parle des Chris- 
tinos, mais rien des Ilurons de la rivière Noire, pas un mot du Missis- 
sipi. Il est possible que l'endroit central de ses courses fut Kathio, 
ville située sur la rive occidentale du lac Mille-Lacs; et, pour peu qu'il 
ait marché à l'ouest, il a dû rencontrer le fleuve, qui mesure de cent à 
deux'cents pieds de largeur dans cette direction. Peut-être aussi a-t-il 
fréquenté la région qui est au sud de la Pointe, alors il a pu voir les 


Hurons des sources de la rivière Noire. Si nous n'avions pas le résumé 
de ses confidences aux pèree jésuites de Québec, puis Texploration des 
mois d'avril-juillet 1659 au lac Pépin, Thivernement de 1659-60 près du 
lac Supérieur éveillerait moins Tattention. 


Voyons le retour des deux explorateurs : " Two years weare expired.^ 
Wee hoped to be att the 2 years end with those that gave us over for 

dead/' (p. 167) We made giidfts one to another, and thwarted a 

land of allmost 50 leagues before the snow was melted. In the morning 
it was a pleasure to walke, for we could goe without racketts. The 
snow was hard enough, because it freezed every night.^ When the sun 
began to shine we payed for the time past. The snow sticks so to our 
racketts that I believe our shoes weighed 30 pounds, which was a paine, 
having a burden uppon ous bajoks besides. We arrived, some 150 of 
us, men and women, to a river side,* where we stayed 3 weeks making 
boats«i Here we wanted no fish. During that time we made feasts att 
high rate. So we refreshed ourselves from our labours. In that time 
we tooke notice that the buds of trees began to spring, which made us 
to make more hast and be gone. We went up that river * 8 days till we 
came to a nation called Poutouatenick and Matouenock; that is the 
Scratchexs." There we gott some Indian meale & corn from those 2 
nations, which lasted us till we came to the first landing Isle.* There 
wo weare well received againe. We made guifts to the elders to encour- 
age the yong people to bring us downe to the ffrench. But mightily 
mistaken; ffor they would reply, "Should you bring us to be killed?" 
(pp. 157-8). 

^ Aux pages 134, 148, U dit qu'ils furent trois ans dans leur absence; pagre 
170 11 met trois ans et quelques mois. Il faut «e limiter à vingt-cinq mois, du 
départ des Trois-Rivières à la rentrée dans cette place. 

* Lie printemps de cette région se oomporte identiquement comme celui de 
Biontréal et Ottawa, quant à la date, à la neige, aux nuits froides et aux' 
éclats du soleil le jour. 

■ Xi'une des rivières qui tombemt au lac Supérieur, rive sud, probablement 
Nantounagan de la carte des jésuites, 1670-71; ô, présent Ontonagan. 

* En remontant le cours d'eau qui »e décharge au lac Suipérdeur, on arrive 
à une hauteur de ten>e et de l'autre pente coule une rivière qui se déverse 
dans la baie Verte. 

* Ceci ne laisse pas de doute sur l'Itinéraire en question. Les Poutéoua- 
tamis et les Mantoue vivaient au nord-ouest à la baie Verte. C'est par la 
rivière Malomine que nos voyageurs débouchèrent dans la Baie. 

■ Sans doute l'une des îles à l'entrée de la baie Verte. Nous dirons l'Ile 
Huronne déjà mentionnée. 


On craignait les Jroquois. Kadisson ajoute: "Our journey was 
hroakon till next year, & must per force," (p. 158). Mais cela signifie 
seulement que le voyage pouvait se trouver retardé d'un an — et il ne le 
fut pas puisque, sans expliquer pourquoi, à la page suivante, il dit qu'on 
se préparait à partir. Dans l'intervalle, Chouart avait amassé du blé 
d'inde, prévoyant la pénurie ordinaire dee vivres sur la rivière Ottawa. 
Tout ceci avait lieu à la baie Verte, croyons-nous, malgré que le texte 
des dernières douze lignes de la page 158 soit fort diffus; on y trouve 
même un passage qui paraîtrait se rapporter à l'hiver de 1658-59 chez 
les Poutéouatamis et qui parle de Chouard comme étant devenu malade. 
Peut-être que ( ette incommodité fut la cau^e qu'il n'alla point au 
Mississipi avec Radisson. 

Cet été, dit encore Radisson (p. 158), voyant que l'on ne partait 
pas pour le Canada, je m'employai à la chasse. Il dit vrai puisque le 
départ n'eut lieu que le 24 juillet. 

Brusquement, il annonce (p. 159) que 500 hommes voulaient 
s'embarquer. D'où provenait ce changement de résolution? Rien ne 
nous l'explique. Puis, au milieu des préparatifs de l'expédition, arrive 
cette note, qui met le désarroi parmi les sauvages : " When we weare 
ready to depart, heere comes strange news of the defeat of the hurrons, 
which news, I tJiought, would putt off the voyage." (p. 159). Voyons 
ce qui en était. Durant le mois de mai venait d'avoir lieu le siège du 
Long-Saut, sur l'Ottawa, quelques milles au-dessus de Montréal, où les 
Hurons, des Algonquiins et 17 Français oonumandés par Dolla-rd des 
Ormeaujc, avaient péri après une glorieuse défense de trois semaines qui 
dérangeait les plans de 700 Iroquois en marche contre Montréal. La 
nouvelle de ce fait d'armes* paraît avoir été connue à la baie Verte en 
juillet et. c'est à quoi notre explorateur fait allusion. La rivière Ottawa 
restait au pouvoir des Iroquois, comme elle l'avait toujours été depuis 
dix ans que les Algonquins en étaient partis sous le coup de la terreur 
inspirée par le bannissement des Hurons. 

Chouart et Radisson déployèrent toute leur éloquence pour en- 
traîner ceux qui avaient amassé des pelleteries afin d'aller les vendre 
aux Français, et il y en avait beaucoup (p. 162). Après de lonc:^ pour- 
parlers, bien des hésitations et un grand conseil, on décida rontreprise. 
Tout ceci nous paraît avoir eu lieu i^ur l'île Huronne.* Des émissaires 
ont dû être envoyés au lac Supérieur et à la côte du nord du lac Huron 
pour avertir ceux qui voudraient en former partie. La flottille se mit 
en route le 24 juillet, soit du détroit de Mchillimakinac, eoit de la 
bouche de la rivière Sainte-Marie et, à mesure que les nouveaux venus 

* Un grand débat sur ce point et d'autres, relativement à ritlnéraire de 
Radisson, occupe en ce moment les historiens de l'ouest. Voyez le Mémoire 
oflfScfel pufbliê en mars dernier par l'honoirable J. V. Brower, de Saint-Paul. 


s'ajoutaient à la bande, on suivait la côte du nord pour arriver à la 
rivière des Français, mais la crainte des Iroquois empêcha deux cents 
Sauvages de continuer la route, de sorte que soixante canots seulement 
risquèrent l'aventure. Lee 300 hommes de la troupe com'ptaient des 
Hurons, Amikoués, Algonquins, Outaouas, Panoéstigons, Nadouici- 
nagos, Ticaton (p. 16-1) qui tous étaient compris, dans le Bas Canada, 
sous le nom générique d'Outaouas. 

Jusqu^aux Calumets (p. 163) au-dessous de Fîle des Allumettes, 
tout alla bien; ensuite (au lac des Chênes) les ennemis les harcelèrent 
jusqu'à Montréal (pp. 1C3-7, 169-70) où nos voyageurs apparurent le 
19 août. 

Dans le récit de Radisson on aprend que le canot de Chouart 
versa, mais sans perdre un homme (p. 167). Par la narration du 
voyage de 1663 (p. 232) on voit que cet accident eut lieu au Long-Saut. 

A la fin de cette même page 167 se rencontre, sans avertissement, 
le rapport; de la découverte du Massissipi, Tété de 1659, et il se termine 
au milieu de la page 169. 

Autre remarque: On a vu que, le mois précédent, Badisson avait 
appris, à la baie Verte ou à Michillimakinac, la nouvelle du siège du 
Long-Saut. Il n^en dit rien à la page 167, mais il en a dressé Thistoire 
en détail, puisqu'il la place (p. 232) dans sa descente de l'Ottawa en 
1663. Cette action, dit-il, fut notre salut puisque, sans cela, nous 
tombions aux mains des Iroquois. Où il se trompe c'est quand il note 
que l'affaire avait eu lieu huit jours avant son passage; or il y avait 
au moins quatre-vingt-cinq jours, et même s'il a confondu 1663 avec 
1660, disons que, en 1663, il passât au Long-Saut le 22 juillet, ce qui 
donne encore soixante jours d'écart. 

• Après avoir chassé une bande d'Iroquois du Long-Saut, la flottille 
arriva à Montréal, où vingt Canadiens les attendaient avec un brigantin 
venant de Québec ou des Trois-Rivières. Après trois jours de repos, 
tous se mirent en Toute pour descendre le fleuve et, près de "la rivière 
des Prairies," à Repentigny, les Iroquois se présentèrent de nouveau, 
mais les petits canons du brigantin les tinrent eu respect (p. 169). 


Le Journal des Jésuites, à la date du mois d'août 1660, porte que 
" Les 8ta8at ostoient arrivés à Montréal le 19, qui en partirent le 22, 
& arrivèrent aux Trois-Kivières le 24, en partirent le 27. Ils étaient 
au nombre de 300. Des Grosiller estoit à leur compagnie, qui y 
estoit allé Tannée d'auparavant (non: en 1658). Ils estoient partis 
du lac Supérieur (p<as tous) 100 canots; 40 rebroussèrent chemin, & 60 
arrivèrent icy chargés de pelleteries pour 200,000 livres; ils en laissèrent 


pour 50,000 livres à Montréal, portèrent le reste aux Trods-Rivières. 
Ils vinrent de là en 26 jours, & furent deux moys à monter. Des 
Groeillers a hyveméà k naition du Bœuf/ qu'il fait de 4 mille hommes; 
ce sont les NadSesseronons sédentaires." 

" We came to Quebecq, where we are saluted with the thundring 
of the guns & batteryes of the fort, and of the 3 shipps that weaïe 
then att anchor, which had gone back to france without our castors 
if we had not come. We weare well traited for 5 dayes. The Gover- 
nor made guifts & sent 2 Brigantins to bring us to the 3 rivers, where 
wo arrived the 2°^ day of, & the 4^^ day they went away." (Radisson, 
p. 170). Chouart^ et Radisson rentrèrent donc aux Trois-Rivières le 
3 ou le 4 septembre, et les Sauvages en repartirent le 7. 

Nos deux voyageurs se reposèrent aux Trois-Rivièros le reste de 
Fannée (p. 172). Le 18 septembre 1660, dans ce lieu, Petrus Radisson 
est parrain de Marie-Jeamne Pellerin dit Saint-Amand. Ici, comme 
dans vingt circonstances faciles à citer, on voit que Radisson et Chouart 
étaient catholiques. 

La découverte du Mississipi en 1659 est réelle et prime toutes les 
autres, que Ton parle de La Salle en 1669 ou de Joll'iet et Marquette en 
1673. Elle a eu un retentissement a'-sez profond, tout d'abord. Sams 
la jalousie des marchands de fourrures, hostiles à Chouart et Radisson, 
cette route restait ouverte. L'aveuglement des traiteurs, le jeu des 
intérêts du moment suspendirent la suite des opérations qui devaient 
en découler. Les deux explorateurs, eux-mêmes, tournèrent le dos 
à toute entreprise de ce côté, parce que le pays des Christinos les 
attirait davantage. Désormais, leur but était la baie d'Hudson, et ils 
en donnèrent la preuve dans leur voyage de 1661-1663. Contentons- 
nous ici de faire voir l'étonnement de la petite population (à peine 
2,000 âmes) du Bas-Canada, en apprenant la découverte d'un nouveau 
fleuve Saint-Laurent. 

Rendu chez lui, aux Trois-Kivières, l'automne de 1660, Radisson 
(page 172) prétend qu'il ne dit rien à personne de la région du nord 
du lac Supérieur et il donne ses raisons pour cek " My brofclier and I 
considered whether we should discover what we have scene or not; 
and because we had not a full and whole discovery, which was that 
we have not ben in the bay of the north, not knowing anything but 
by report of the wild Christines, we would make no mention of it for 
feare that those wild men should tell us a fibbe. We would have 

* Le bœuf, en langue slouse, se dit Tatanga. (Radisson. 227, 246). 

* Le 25 février 1660, aux Trois-Rlvières. " M. Desgroseliers ", est parrain 
d'un Attdkamègrue baptisé par le père René Menard. Ce pouvait être Médard 
né en 1651, car on volt aux reglsrtre© de la paroisse des enfants de huit à dix 
ans pris comme parrains et marraines. 


made a discovery of it ourselves and have an assurance, before we 
should discover (disclosed) anything of it." 

A Québec, néanmoins, il s^était ouvert aux pères jésuites sur la 
question de l'ouest, du sud et du Mississipi. On a vu plus haut ce 
que le Journal des Jésuites en dit. Dans la Eelation de cette année 
1660, p. 27, le père Jérôme Lalemant donne d'autres détails qu'ils est 
bon de remarquer: "Une grande nation de quarante bourgs nonunée 
NadouechioSec noue attend depuis ralldance qu'elle a faite tout fiaîchc- 
ment avec les deux Français qui en sont revenus cet été. De ce qu'ils 
ont retenu de cette langue, nous jugeons assez qu'elle a la même 
économis que l'algonquino, quoiqu'elle soit diflférenite en plusieurs mots. 
Au couchant, tirant vers le nord, les Poualacs et autres nations aussi 
nombreuses que les précédentes, ou peu s'en faut, n'ont pas moins 
d'aflfection qu'elles à nous recevoir, et y sont tout à fait portées depuis 
la ligue offensive et défensive qu'elles ont faite ensemble contre Fen- 
neoni commun." 

La même BeJation, p. 9, est très précise: "Le lac que nous 
appelons Supérieur, à cause que étant au-dessus de celui des Hurons, 
il s'y décharge par un saut qui lui a aussi donné son nom .... 
porte plus de quatre-vingt lieues de long sur quarante de large en 
certains endroits .... Son rivage est bordé tout alentour de 
nations Algonquines, où la crainte des Iroquois leur a fait chercher 
un asile. Il est aussi enrichi dans tous ses bordages de mines de 
plomb presque tout formé, de cuivre si excellent qu'il se trouve tout 
rafiSné en morceaux gros comme le poing .... Les Sauvages 
qui habitent la pointe de ce lac ^ la plus éloignée de nous ont donné 
les lumières toutes fraîches et qui ne déplairont pas aux curieux, 
touchant le chemin du Japon et de la Chine dont on a fait tant de 
recherche. Nous apprenons de ces peuples qu'ils trouvent la mer de 
trois côtés : au sud, du côté du couchant et du côté du nord .... 
De ce même lac Supérieur, en suivant une rivière vers le nord, on 
arrive, après huit ou dix journées, à la baie d'Hudson .... Le 
lac des Ouinipegouek n'est proprement qu'une grande baie (l:i baie 
Verte) de celui des Hurons; d'autres l'appellent le lac des Puants, 
non qu'il soit salé comme l'eau de mer, que les Sauvages appellent 
oudnipeg, c'est-à-dire eau puante, mads parce qu'il est environné de 
terres ensouffrées, d'où sortent quelques sources qui portent dans ce 
lac la malignité que leurs eaux ont contractées aux lieux de leur nais- 

Le père Jérôme Lalemant, parti de Québec en juillet 1660, se trou- 
vait à trente lieues dans le Saguenay lorsqu'il rencontra un; sauvage 
ffiommé ASatanik qui venait d'arriver avec sa femme, après un voyage de 
* Les Outaouas et autres, de Chagouamigon. 

Lsultb] découverte DU MISSISSIPI EN 1059 43 

deux ans commencé à la baie Verte, continué le long du lac Supérieur, 
ensuite à la baie d'Hudson, puis au Saguenay. Il recueillit de sa bouche 
plusieurs renseignements sur les peuples de ces contrées {Relations, 1660, 
pp. 9-12). 

Il ajoute à ce récit d^autres observations: "A peine me fus-je rendu 
à Québec que j'y trouvai deux Français (Chouart et Radisson) qui ne 
faisaient que d'arriver de ces pays supérieurs, avec trois cents Algonquins 
dans soixante canots chargés de pelleteries. Voici ce qu'ils ont vu de 
leurs propre yeux: ils ont hiverné sur les rivages du lac Supérieur et 
ont été assez heureux pour y baptiser 200 petits enfants de la nation 
Algonquine, avec laquelle ils ont premièrement demeuré. Ces enfants 
étaient attaqués de maladie et de famine; quarante sont allés droit au 
ciel, étant morts peu après le baptême. Nos deux Français firent, pen- 
dant leur hivernement ^ diverses courses vers les peuples circonvoisins. 
Ils virent, entre autres choses, à six journées au delà du lac, vers le sud- 
ouest, une peuplade composée des restes des Hurons de la nation du 

Pétun,* contraints par l'Iroquois (en 1650) d'abandonner leur patrie 

ces pauvres gens s'enfuyant et faisant chemin par des montages et sur 
dcfe rochers, au travers decee grands bois inconnus, firent heureusement 
rencontre d'une belle rivière, grande, large, profonde (le Mississipi) et 
comparable, disent-ils, à notre grand fleuve du St-Laurent. Ils trou- 
vèrent sur ses rives la grande nation des AliniSek (Illinois) qui les 
reçut très bien. Cette nation est composée de soixante bourgades, qui 
nous confirme dans la connaissance que nous avions déjà de plusieurs 
milliers de peuples qui remplissent toutes ces terres du couchant. Nos 
deux Français continuant leur ronde furent bien surpris en visitant les 
Nadsechisec, (Sioux) ils virent des femmes défigurées et à qui on .avait 
coupé le bout du nez jusqu'au cartilage, de sorte qu'elles paraissaient en 
cette partie du visage comme des têtes de mort ^' .... Ils ont visité les 
quarante bourgs dont cette nation est composée, dans cinq desquels on 
compte jusqu'à cinq mille hommes Il y a une autre nation belli- 
queuse qui, avec ses flèches et ses arcs, s-'est rendue aussi redoutable 
parmi les Algonquins supérieurs que l'Iroquois l'est parmi les infé- 
rieurs, aussi en porte-t-elle le nom de PSalak, c'est-à-dire les guerriers. 
Comme le bois est rare et petit chez eux, la nature leur a appris à faire 

* Hiver de 1659-60, chez les Sioux. 

" Aux eou(PC€8 de la rivière Noire. Ce texte du Père L»alemant donne â. 
croire que la visite en question eut lieu durant l'hiver de 1659-60— et non pas 
l'automne de 1659 comme nous le pensions. 

" Dès 1622 Etienne Brûlé disait avodr vu, au lac Supérieur, des femmes 
dont le nez avait été coupé en punition de leur mauvaise conduite. (Sagard: 
(îrand Voyage au Pays des Hurons.) 


du feu avec du charbon de terre * et à couvrir leur cabanes avec des 

Charlevoix, écrivant beaucoup plus tard, s'exprime comme ceci: 
" Deux Français, après avoir hiverné sur les bords du lac Supérieur, avec 
un grand nombre de familles algonquines, eurent la curiosité de pénétrer 
plus avant dans l'ouest, et allèrent jusqu'aux Sioux/^ La révélation 
d'un grand, fleuve, pourtant consignée dans la Relation de 1660, lui 
échappe. Le R. P. Tailhan dit à ce propos: " Il se pourrait que, dans 
le Mississipi naissant et déguisé sous un nom sioux, nos deux voyageurs 
n'aient pas reconnu le fleuve large et puissant que les Hurons leur dé- 
signaient sous son nom algonquin. Dans ce cas, ils auraient, mais à 
leur insu, revu les premiers au XVIP siède, le Mississipi découvert au 
XVI« par Ferdinand de Soto." (Perrot, p. 238). 

Radisson avait très bien vu Tété de 1659, à la sortie du Wisconsin, 
" le fleuve large et puissant," dont il retrouva les sources quelques mois 
plus tard, durant Tliiver, au pays des Sioux. Cest le même que la Mère 
de l'Incarnation mentionnait en 1654 et c'est le fleuve "comparable à 
notre Saint-Laurent" que Eadisson décrit en 1660 au père Jérôme Lale- 

' En 1730, la Vêrendrye disait que ces sauvagres se chauffaient avec des 

SBcnoN I, 1903 [ 45 ] Mémoires 8. R. C. 

II. — Un épisode de VJiistoire de la dime au Canada (1705-1707). 
Par M. Tabbé Auguste Gosselin, docteur es lettres. 

(Lu le 20 mai 1908.) 

Je n'ai nullement l'intention de faire ici Thistoire complète de 
la dîme, ce qui serait long et fastidieux, mais seulement d'en raconter 
un épisode assez curieux, dont les détails, je crois, sont généralement 
peu connus. 

Il s'agit du procès des curés Boulard et DuFoumel, au Conseil 
Supérieur de Québec, fin de 1705 et commencement de 1706, des causes, 
des circonstances et des suites de ce procès. 

Comme préface de l'épisode, il convient, cependant, de rappeler 
en quelques mots les différentes phases qu'avait traversées auparavant 
la question de la dîme. 

L'institution de la dîme remonte à l'année 1663. Jusque-là, les 
missionnaires qui desservaient le pays avaient été entretenus aux frais 
des Compagnies qui jouissaient du privilège de la traite des pellete- 
ries, et par les dons volontaires des fidèles. 

Le premier évêque de Québec, M^ de Laval, ayant érigé, au 
mois de mars 1663, le séminaire de cette ville, et lui ayant attribué 
les dîmes qui pourraient être établies par le roi, Louis XIV confirme 
cette érection, au mois d'avril suivant, et ordonne "que toutes les 
dîmes, de quelque nature qu'elles puissent être, tant de ce qui naît 
par le travail des hommes, que de ce que la terre produit d'elle-même, 
se paieront de treize une, et seront affectées à l'entretien du dit sémi- 
naire," alors chargé de toutes les missions canadiennes. Il ajoute que 
le séminaire jouira " de la totalité des dîmes, grosses et menues, an- 
ciennes et nouvelles, de tous les fruits généralement quelconques, et 
sans aucune distinction, qui proviendront sur toutes les terres de la 
Nouvelle-France." ^ 

Cette loi ne fut pas sans susciter de vives protestations. On sait 
l'opposition que lui fit entr'autres le gouverneur Mésy.^ Los termes 
de la loi prêtaient, d'ailleurs, aux malentendus. M«^ de Laval dut 
expliquer que par le mot "travail des hommes" on n'avait voulu dire 
rien autre chose que "le labourage des terres," et qu'il ne s'ftgissait 

* Edii< (t Ordoniaices t. I. p. 3"). 

* Vie de Mgr tie Laval, t. I. p. c97. 


nullement d'exiger "la dîme des œufs, des choux, des planches, des 
cordes de bois,'' comme on en avait fait courir le bruit.^ 

Ce ne fut que dans l'automne de 1667 que la dîme commença à 
se payer régulièrement, et cela, grâce à un compromis étaWi par MM. 
de Tracy, Courcelles et Talon, de concert avec Ma^ de Laval et les 
prineipaux habitanits du pays.^ D'après ce eomipromis, la dîme étaiit 
réduite du treizième au vingt-sixième; mais les habitants étaient obli- 
gés de la payer en grain battu et bien vanné, rendu au presbytère: avant 
le règlement, les curés étaient obligée d'aller chercher leur treizième 
gerbe sur le champ. Le nouveau lèglement était pour vingt ans, 
sans préjudice au droit du clergé à la dîme au treizième, le terme expiré. 

Douze ans plus tard, le roi confirma l'institution de la dîme et 
le règlement de MM. de Tracy, Couroellea et Talon par son édit du 
mois de mai 1679 "concernant les dîmes et cures fixes.'" D'après 
oet édit, la dîme devait se payer aux curés d^office eux-mêmes, et non 
plus au séminaire de Québec. 

L'année suivante, à la demande d^un certain nombre de curés, 
M. de Francheville,* entre autres, qui ne voulaient pas s'embarrasser 
du soin de recevoir et de vendre leurs dîmes, sous prétexte "qu'ils 
étaient trop occupés à leurs fonctions spirituelles," le Conseil Supérieur 
ordonna qu'elles seraient affermées, et que si Ton ne trouvait pas 
d'enchérisseurs, il serait nommé une ou deux personnes pour les rece- 
voir et en rendre compte aux curés.' 

« « « 

H était entendu que la portion congrue de chaque curé devait 
être d'au moins 500 livres.* Si la dîme n était pas suflBsante pour former 

• Mandements des évêques de Québec, t. 1, p. 161. 

■ Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t, V, p. 184. 

■ Edits et Ordonnances, t. I, p. 23L 

• Prêtre canadien, né aux Trols-Rivlères le 14 juillet 1649. flla de Marin de 
Repentigrny, sieur de PranchevlUe, originaire de GrandanefOill. en Normandie. 
M. de Prancheville avait été ordonné prêtre le 19 septembre 1676. Mgr de 
Laval écrivait à son sujet en 1691: ** On Ta élevé tout petit au séminaire. Il 
y a bien quatorze ou quinze ans quMl est prêtre, ayant assez de vivacité 
d'esprit et d'aptitude pour les affaires. Je le fis promoteur (de l'offlcialité), 
et depuis ce temps nous l'avons envoya en divers endroits administrer des mis- 
sions ou cures. Il a été, entre autres, curé sept ans à l'île d'Orléans, où 11 
était encore lorsque je me suis démis: Jl administrait deux paroisses, Saint- 
Pierre et Saint- Paul, assez proches l'une de l'autre... C'est un sujet qu'il 
a toujours été nécessaire de maintenir dans un esprit d'humilité, ayant de 

son naturel beaucoup de disposition à s'en faire accroire " (Liettre de Mgr 

de Laval à M. de Brlsader, 17 avril 1691.) 

^' 'fugnncnts du Conseil Supérieur, t. II, p. 450. 

• La livre. & cette époque, valait environ trais francs. La portion con- 
grue était donc d'environ trois cents piastres. 


ce montant, on y ajoutait un sujplément qui devait être réglé par le 
Conseil, et payé par le seigneur et les habitants de la paroisse. Le 
plan n^était ni pratique, ni d^exécution facile. Aussi le roi finit-il par 
allouer une somme de 8,000 livres, à prendre sur le revenu public du 
pays, pour compléter, au besoin, les portions congrues des curés; et Tin- 
tendant, chaque année, rendait compte à la cour de la distribution des 
suppléments. M. de Champigny écrit au ministre le 24 octobre 1694: 

"Je vous envoie l'état de Temploi qui a été fait des 8,000 livres 
accordées par Sa Majesté pour partie de l'entretien et subsistance des 
curés. Sa Majesté doit être satisfaite de la conduite de M. TEvêque 
(Saint- Vallier), qui a pris soin d'augmenter le nombre des curés, afin 
de donner des secours spirituels à de pauvres peuples éloignés, qui n^en 
avaient que fort rarement, et d'établir des cures fixes en beaucoup 
d'endroits." ^ 

Tout alla bien durant qu'clques années; mais le roi, qui n'avait 
jamais assez d'argent pour ses guerres, menaça bientôt de retrancher 
les 8,000 livres, et d'abandonner le clergé aux seules ressources de la 
dîme. L'intendant, de son <îôté, ne manquait pas de lui faire à ce 
sujet de sérieuses représentations. Il écrit au ministre en 1697: 

" A l'égard des 8,000 livres que Sa Majesté accorde pour l'entretien 
des curés, il me paraît qu'il est d'une grande nécessité de continuer 
cette gratification, si l'on ne veut pas priver quantité de paroisses, où 
il y a très peu de dîmes, de secours spirituels.'* * 

Il ajoute Tannée suivante: 

" Il ne faut pas espérer que les curés puissent sitôt subsister sans 
le supplément dos 8,000 livres, à cause de la pauvreté de la plus grande 
partie des paroisses."^ 

M. de Callièree se joint à lui, en 1699, pour soutenir ses préten- 

^* Nous ne voyons aucune a/pparence de pouvoir sitôt retrancher les 
8,000 livres que le roi a la bonté d'accorder pour partie de la subsis- 
tance et entretien des* curés, car il y en a très peu qui puissent s'en 

"Le bien que fait Sa Majesté, ajoute-t-on Tannée suivante, de 
donner 8,000 livres pour partie de l'entretien des curés, est si néces- 
saire, que, s'il ne se faisait pas, il y aurait impossibilité absolue d'entre- 
tenir plus de huit ou neuf cures, tous les autres ne subsistant pres- 
que que par ce supplément, les dîmes n'étant pas encore considérables*. 

' Archives de la Marine, CJanada, CJorrespondance générale, vol. 13. 

• IMéL, VOL 15. 
■ Ihid., y<A, 16. 

• nid., vol. 17. 


Ainsi nous ne saurions nous dispenser de La supplier de continuer cette 
grâce si utile à la religion. '^^ 

Le nombre des paroisses augmentait^ et oependant la somme 
allouée pour les suppléments restait toujours la même: beaucoup de 
curés n'avaient de supplément que tous les deux ans. 

Enfin, vers 1704, Tallocation ayant été complètement retranchée, 
les curés, qui n'avaient plus de quoi vivre dans leurs missions, s'en 
allaient. MM. de Vaudreuil et Beauhamais écrivent au ministre le 19 
octobre 1705: 

"Les curés, n'ayant point leur supplément, abandonnent leurs 

Voilà quelle était, d'après les documents oflBciels, la situation du 
clergé canadien à cette époque. 

M*' de Saint- Vallier, alors absent en Europe, travaillait à faire 
remettre la dîme au treizième, suivant son institution première. Mais 
il avait peu de chances de réussir; et d'ailleurs, dans l'opinion d'un bon 
nombre de gens désintéressés, la chose n'était pas désirable : 

" M. l'Evêque de Québec n'entend pas les intérête de son clergé, 
en demandant que la dîme soit mise au treizième comme en France ", 
écrivait l'intendant Beauhamais.* 

Que faire ? Il fallait bien pourtant que le clergé songeât à 
se procurer une honnête subsistance. 

Le pays était dans une période de transition. Jusque-là, on avait 
négligé la culture de la terre et l'industrie; il y avait un retour vers un 
meilleur état de choses. L'intendant Raudot écrit au ministre en 1706 : 

"La colonie du Canada, après avoir coûté de grosses sommes à Sa 
Majesté, est d'une très petite utilité. Cela est jppovenu du libertinage 
'des habiitamte et du gros prix que valait le castor. Les habitants de ce 
pays commencent à présent à reconnaître l'erreur de tout ce qu'ils ont 
f:iit. Ils s'adonnent à la culture de leurs terres, à faire des chanvres 
et des lins, et, étant encouragés, ils feront, à la fin, de ce pays un pays 
utile à la France.* 

Un pays utile à la France ! Voilà bien ce que devait être le Ca- 
nada dans la pensée de ces fonctionnaires: un instrument pour faire la 
fortune de la mère-patrie ! Les Français, d'abord, les Canadiens en- 
suite ! La France soutire toutes les pelleteries du pays; et aux Cana- 
diens qui, pour les lui procurer, négligent leurs terres, courent les bois, 
s'amusent à faire la tradto, elle impose sos denrées, ses draps, ses pro- 

' md., vol. 18. 
» lUd., vol. 22. 
■ /6i(/., vol. 22. 
* lUd,, vol. 24. 


On venait d^apporter quelque tempérament à ce régime, et cela 
6iait réputé une grande faveur: 

" C'est une augmentation d'obligation que ce pays-ci vous a, écrit 
au ministre l'intendant Raudot, que la permission que vous donnez aux 
pauvres gens de faire de la toile et quelques mauvaises étoflEes pour se 
couvrir. S'ils n'en avaient pas fait un peu, la moitié des habitants 
seraient sans chemises. Ils ont tous besoin d'en faire, car l'on peut 
dire que dans ce pays-ci il n'y a personne de riche et à qui tout ne soit 
nécessaire pour pouvoir subsister."* 

Vraiment, si l'on ne connaissait la gravité de l'intendant Baudot, 
on serait tenté de croire qu'il y avait un peu d'ironie dans sa lettre. 

Quoi qu'il en soit, les curés canadiens jugèrent qu'ils devaient, eux 
aus&i, bénéficier du mouvement industriel qui commençait; et inter- 
prétant à leur avantage les termes de l'édit royal pour l'établissement 
de la dîme, ils décidèrent qu'il fallait réclamer " toutes les dîmes, de 
quelque nature qu'elles puissent être, tant de ce qui naît par le travail 
des hommes, que de ce que la terre produit d'elle-même . . . . , la tota- 
lité des dîmes, grosses* et menues, anciennes et nouvelles, de tous les 
fruits généralement quelconques, et sans aucune distinction, qui pro- 
venaient sur toutes les terres de la Nouvelle-France." Ils préten- 
daient avoir droit, par conséquent, à la dîme du lin, du chanvre, de 
la laine des moutons, des jardinages, des foins de grève et de prairies, 

Ces prétentions étaient d'autant plus graves qu'elles paraissaient 
contraires, au m-oins en partie, aux explications que M^^ de Laval avait 
données touchant la dîme, lors de son institution.* 

Qui osera, le ipremier, les formuler en public ? 

M. Boulard, curé de Beauport, s'en chargea, avec le concours de 
son voisin, le curé de l'Ange-Gardien, M. DuFournel. C'étaient deux 
prêtres d'un désintéressement reconnu, et que l'on ne pouvait, par con- 
séquent, soupçonner d'agir pour des motifs sordides. 

Le premier était théologal du chapitre, et appartenait au sémi- 
naire, dont il fut plus tard supérieur. Il devint aussi curé de Québec, 
et après la mort de M^^ de Saint- Vallier, gouverna le diocèse en qualité 
de vicaire capitulaire. M. DuFournel desservit l' Ange-Gardien durant 
plus d'un demi-siècle, et y mourut en 1757 à l'âge de 94 ans. 

* JMd., vol. 24. 

' Mandements des Evêqueê de Québec, t. I, p. 161. 

Sec. I, 1903. 4. 


Tous deux s'entendirent, dans Tautomne de 1705, pour rappeler 
fortement à leurs fidèles, au prône de leurs paroisses, la loi de la dîme; 
puis le dimanche 15 novembre, ils annoncèrent qu'à l'avenir ils exige- 
raient la dîme de tous les produits de la terre, du lin, du chanvre, du 
tabac, des jardinages, des foins de prairies, etc. 

S'attendaient-ils de faire admettre de suite leurs prétentions ? 
La chose n'est guère probable; mais ils voulaient remuer un peu l'opi- 
nion publique, faire soumettre leurs prétentions aux tribunaux, et éta- 
blir ce que nous appellerions aujourd'hui un test case. 

Le but qu'ils avaient en vue fut atteint. Leur prône fit sensation; 
on ne parlait que de cela au sortir de l'église: les commentaires ne ta- 
rissaient pas. A Beauport, surtout, où le seigneur Juchereau du Ches- 
r.ay ' faisait le l>eau et le mauvais temps, ces commentaires étaient par- 
ticulièrement désobligeants pour le clergé. 

Juchereau se trouvait justement à cette époque en guerre avec 
les Jésuites au sujet des limites de leurs seigneuries respectives;^ il 
était évidemment peu d'humeur à tolérer les empiétements des ecclé- 
siastiques. Dès le mardi suivant il montait à Québec chez son beau- 
frère,- le procureur-général D'Auteuil,*' et lui faisait part de ce qui 
s'était passé à Beauport et à l'Ange-Gardien le dimanche précédent. 
Il fut convenu qu'il n'y avait pas une minute à perdre et qu'il fallait 
immédiatement référer au Con&eil Supérieur les prétentions des curés 
Boulard et DuFoumel au sujet de la dîme. 

Mais comment faire ? Le Conseil avait pris ses vacances le 12 
octobre, "afin de permettre à chacun de faire sa correspondance pour 
la France avant le départ des derniers vaisseaux;" il n'était rentré aux 
afTnires que la veille, savoir, " le premier lundi d'après la Saint-Martin," 
et avait eu sa séance ordinaire.** D'Auteuil n'hésita pas, vu la gravité 
des circonstances, à le convoquer extraordinairement pour le lende- 
main, mercredi, 18 novembre. Il n'avait que l'après-midi du 17 pour 
préparer sa charge contre les curés Boulard et DuFoumel; mais il 
devait suppléer par son ardeur à la brièveté du temps; l'intérêt de la 
cause doublait son énergie. 

* Ignace Juchereau, fils de Nicolas Juchereau et de Marte-Thérôse 
Giffard. Il avait la seigneurie de son grand'père, Robert Qiffard. 

* L'ancienne fermie des Jésuites, dite de Sadnt-Ignace, à Beauport, appar- 
tient aujourd'hui au Séminaire de Québec 

■ D'Auteuil avait éixmsé en 1683 Marie-Anne Juohereau, veuve de Fran- 
cois Pollet de la Oombe. 

* Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t. V, p. 167. 


François-Madeleine Riiette D^Auteuil, procurenr-général du Con- 
seil Supérieur, était fils de Denis-Joseph, qui était venu au Canada en 
1651^ et avait été nommé conseiller au Conseil Supérieur par M. de 
Mésy et M^^ de Laval, lors de la création de cette cour souveraine en 

Denis-Joseph D^Auteuil était tout dévoué au clergé, et spéciale- 
ment aux jésuites. Il n^en fallait pas davantage pour qu^il fût peu 
goûté «de Frontenac; et Ton sait que celui-ci Tobligea un jour à s^ab- 
senter du Conseil * et à se retirer sur ses terres de Monceaux, ' à Sillery. 
L'attachement que Denis-Joseph D'Auteuil professait pour les jésuites, 
faisait dire à Frontenac: "Il est comme leur frère donné ;^^ et il ajou- 
tait: "Il vaudrait autant avoir mis dans le Conseil le Père supérieur 
des jésuites et le Père ministre que les sieurs de Villeray et D'Auteuil.^' * 

Cela n'empêcha pas la cour de confier à D'Auteuil, en 1675, les 
fonctions importantes de procureur-général; et il les remplit à la 
grafîde satisfaction de toute la colonie. 

Malheureusement il avait peu de santé; et dès l'année suivante 
l'intendant DuChesneau le voyant " fort incommodé de la poitrine et 
d'une fluxion sur les yeux, et appréhendant qu'il en mourût, ou qu'il 
tombât dans un état qu'il ne pourrait plus exercer sa charge," s'a- 
dressa à Colbert, et lui demanda de vouloir bien lui envoyer des lettres 
de provisions pour un substitut du procureur-général, laissant en blanc 
la place du nom, avec permission de la remplir, en cas de nécessité: ce 
qui lui fut accordé.*^ 

De son côté. Déni s- Joseph D'Auteuil, lorsqu'il avait accepté la 
charge de procureur-général, avait supplié le roi de vouloir bien en ré- 
server la survivance à son fils. 

Il continua à exercer ses fonctions jusqu'à sa mort, arrivée le 27 
novembre 1679 ; et c'est alors* que DuCheeneau se servant des lettres de 
provision que lui avait expédiées Colbert, alla trouver Frontenac, et lui 
demanda s'il ne trouvait pas à propos que l'on remplît le blanc avec le 
nom du fils de D'Auteuil, François-Madeleine. Le jeune homme 
n'avait pas "l'âge compétent pour exercer la charge de substitut, 
n'ayant pas encore vingt-deux ans." " Mais, disait DuChesneau, il tra- 
vaille sous son père depuis deux ans, et il est le seul dans le pays à 

^ Journal des Jésuites, p. 160. 

* Vie de Mgr de Laval, t. II, p. 165. 

' Ainsi appelées du nom de aa femme, Mlle de Monoeaux, Clalre-Fran- 
QOise, flUe de Jean du Clément du Vault, aeljffneur de Monceaux, et d'Anne 
Gasnier. Anne Gkuinier épousa en 1655 le procureur-général Jean Bourdon. 

* Manuscrits de la Nouvelle-France, 2e oérie, t. II, p. 69. 

* Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t. Ii;, p. 341. 


pourvoir de charge, qui ait fait son cours de droit, et qui soit reçu avo- 
cat en la cour du Parlement de Paris. ''^ 

Frontenac ne voulut jamais consentir à cette nomination. Le 
Conseil passa outre, et agréa que François-Madeleine D'Auteuil exer- 
çât les fonctions de substitut du procureur-général, bien qu'il n'eût 
pas encore Tâge voulu. 

La cour non seulement approuva cette nomination, mais Tannée 
suivante nomma le jeune D'Auteuil "conseiller de Sa Majesté. et son 
procureur-général en survivance de son père.*' 

Le nouveau procureur-général ne pardonna jamais à Frontenac 
Toppoeition qu'il en avait reçue en cette circonstance, et il le lui té- 
moigna en combattant souvent ses opinions au Conseil: "La fermeté 
de M. D'Autcuil, écrit quelque part Tabbé Verreau, était presque de 

Mais il n'en était pas, pour cela, plus favorable au clergé: au con- 
traire, en comparant sa conduite à l'égard des* ecclésiastiques avec^îelle 
de son père, on aurait dit qu'il voulait soutenir la contre-partie. Il en 
voulait surtout aux jésuites, qu'il accusait, bien injustement, de faire 
le commerce des castors chez les sauvages outaouais;^ et les difiScuItés 
que ces Religieux avaient avec son beau-frère, le seigneur de Beauport, 
n'étaient pas de nature à dissiper ses préjugés. 

Il arriva à la séance du Conseil du 18 novembre 1705, armé de 
pied en cap contre les curés Boulard et DuFoumel, et animé d'un zèle 
d'autant ,plus ardent pour la défense des intérêts populaires, que lui et 
ses proches avaient dans le pays de grandes propriétés foncières qu'il 
fallait protéger contre les envahissements de la dîme.* 

Etaient présents à la séance le gouverneur M. de Vaudreuil, les 
intendants Baudot, père et fils, et les Conseillers de Lotbinière, Du- 
pont, de Lino et Hazeur. 

Eefaisons le discours du procureur-général, d'après le compte- 
rendu de la séance, tel qu'il se trouve aux archives du Conseil Supé- 
rieur r*^ 

*' J'ai en avis hier, dit-il, que le curé de la paroisse de l'Ange-Gar- 
dien, en la seigneurie de Beaupré, et celui de Notre-Dame de Beau- 

* Ihid., p. 842. 

" Quelques notes sur Antoine de Lamotte de Cadillac. 

• Archives de la iMarine, Canada, Correspondance générale, vol. 22. 

• Il avait, entre autres propriétés, un flef d'une demi-lleue de front «rar 
le fleuve, entre le flef des Aulnets et celui de Port-Joly. (Edits et Ordon- 
nances, t. I, p. 449.) 

• Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t. V, p. 184, 


port ont, dans leurs prônes, dimancbe dernier et autres dimanches 
précédents, averti leurs paroissiens que dorénavant ils prétendaient 
qu^on leur payât la dîme non seulement des grains, comme il a été 
pratiqué jusqu'à présent, mais encore de tout ce que la terre produit 
[par la culture, ou saik culture, et des bestiaux, la dîme par conséquent 
des foins de bas ,prés, fruits, lin, chanvres, moutons et autres choses. 

" Ces propositions, ajoute-t-il, ont causé un grand murmure parmi 
les habitants, à la sortie de la messe, à cause de la nouveauté de la 
chose, nouveauté insupportable en ce pays, qui est déjà si difficile par 
la rigueur de son climat. 

" Les habitants sont à peine capables de payer exactement la 
dîme de leurs grains et de subvenir à leurs pressants besoins. Ils sont 
convaincus quails ne peuvent subsister à l'avenir, qu'en s'appliquant à 
élever des moutons, et à cultiver le lin et le chanvre. Depuis deux ans 
quails se sont mis à le faire, ils commencent à en ressentir les heureux 
résultats. Mais les prétentions et les exigences de leurs curés sont 
capables de les décourager, et même de les rebuter pour jamais.'^ 

D'Auteuil rappelle ensuite le règlement des dîmes, du 4 sepjtembre 
1667, établi par MM. de Tracy, Courcelles et Talon, "de concert avec 
M. de Laval, et après avoir entendu les plus notables du pays:^^ 

"Par ce. règlement, dit-il, il fut arrêté que les dîmes ne se paie- 
raient à Tavenir que des grains seulement, et à raison du vingt-sixième 
minot. ... Ce règlement resta au secrétariat de l'intendant Talon; et 
quoiqu'il ne parai&se pas, parce que la plus grande partie de ce secré- 
tariat a été dissipée, comme la plupart de ceux de ses* successeurs, il a 
été exécuté de bonne foi de part et d^utre; et il ne peut être nié, 
parce qu'il y a encore des personnes vivantes qui en ont eu parfaite 
connaissance, poxir y avoir été appelées.'' 

Le procureur-général rappelle encore l'édit de 1679; puis îl ajoute: 

" Lorsque Sa Majesté fit connaître ses intentions à M. le comte 
de Frontenac et à l'intondant DuChesneau au sujet de l'établissement 
des cures fixes en ce pays, ils eurent ordre de régler dans* une assemblée 
à quelle somme serait fixée la portion congrue de chaque curé; et elle 
le fut à 500 livres, outre les menus profits du dedans de l'église : et on 
estime qu'avec cette somme, outre leur subsistance et entretien, ils 
pourraient avoir un domestique pour les servir. . . . 

" H est incontestable que par le partage qui a été fait pour l'étendue 
de chaque cure ou mission, il y a peu de curés qui n'aient plus que la 
portion congrue, par les dîmes de grains seulement, comme elles se 
sont perçues jusqu'à présent. Et si l'on voulait y faire quelque change- 
ment, ce ne serait que pour donner du superflu aux curés, à la charge 
des peuples. 


" Les prônes des curés Boulard et DuFoumel sont une entreprise 
contre Tautorité séculière : il est important d'en empêcher la continua- 
tion, ainsi que les inconvénients qui en pourraient résulter." 

D'Auteuil concluait en priant le Conseil d'obliger les curés de 
Beauport et de TAnge-Gardien à venir /^ rendre compte de quelle au- 
torité ils avaient fait ces publications/' et de leur défendre, ainsi qu'à 
tous autres curés, " de rien innover par rapport au paiement des 
dîmes." Il priait également le Conseil " de défendre à tous les habi- 
tants de payer d'autres dîmes que celles des blés et de toutes sortes de 
grains, comme on avait toujours fait par le passé." 

Le Conseil donna raison au procureur-général sur toute la ligne, 
et rendit un arrêt obligeant les curés Boulaird et DuFournel à venir 
rendre compte de leur conduite, et leur défendant de rien innover 
dans la perception des dîmes. Cet arrêt leur fut signifié le 11 dé- 
cembre." Ils préparèrent immédiatement leurs mémoires et vinrent 
eux-mêmes les présenter au Conseil le 22 décembre suivant. Cee mé- 
moires furent communiqués au procureur-général, et le Conseil remit 
" au premier jour d'après les Rois " à rendre sa décision. 

Voici ce que contenaient en substance les mémoires de MM. Bou- 
lard et DuFournel: "Se croyant obligée d'expliquer aux fidèles les 
commandements de Dieu et de l'Eglise, ik avaient pris de là occasion 
de leur rappeler la loi des dîmes. Si dans le passé le clergé n'a pas 
réclamé toutes les natures de dîmes, ce n'a été que pour condescendre 
à la misère des temps. Lorsqu'on estima à 500 livres la partie con- 
grue des curés, il s'agissait de ceux qui se mettaient en pension; mais 
il était entendu que ceux qui tenaient maison avaient besoin de 300 
livres de plus pour un valet. D'ailleurs, dans les 500 livres on comp- 
tait 300 livres pour la nourriture, et 200 livres pour l'entretien: or le 
linge, les étoffes et le vin sont aujourd'hui à un prix exc^essif ; la dîme 
sur les grains ne peut sufiRre pour la partie congrue. Les habitants* 
ne trouvant pas la culture des grains assez payante, ont laissé leurs 
terres en prairies; d'autres y sèment du chanvre et du lin; et tout cela 
jprend la place du grain. Il y a des vergers de quarante arpents, que 
les propriétaires prétendent exempter de la dîme. Les arrêts de 
France ont jugé que la terre labourable étant convertie en vignes, 
oignons, raves, etc., les dîmes devaient s^y percevoir. ..." 

D'Auteuil répondit à ces mémoires à la séance du Conseil du 10 
janvier 1706: 

*' Les dîmes doivent se payer suivant l'usage, au lieu que les curés 
Boulard et DuFoumel les exigent comme les provinces de France les 
paient toutes ensemble. Un curé qui a 500 livres, avec les profits du 

^ Edité et Ordonnances, t. I, p. 309. 

[gosselin] un Épisode de uhistoire de la dîme se 

dedans de Téglise, a honnêtement de quoi vivre. Tous les vergers 
réunis, depuis Tadoussac jusqu^à Montréal, nord et sud, c'est-à-dire sur 
une étendue de cent quatre vingt lieues, ne contiendraient pas qua- 
rante arpents ensemble : la plainte des curés à cet égard est donc sans 
fondement. Il est vrai que les grains sont quelquefois à bas prix, mais 
alors Tabondance est une compensation. On donnerait volontiers à 
chaque curé fiOO livres et plus pour ses dîmes de grains: ainsi la nou- 
veauté qu'ils veulent introduire n'est que pour se donner du superflu." 

Il concluait à ce qu'il n'y eût aucune innovation dans la percep- 
tion des dîmes, " sauf aux curés, disait-il, qui n'auront pas un revenu 
suffisant, à se pourvoir pour le supplément conformément à l'édit de 

Le sort des curés Boulard et DuFournel était d'ores et déjà dé- 
cidé: leurs juges étaient tous de grands propriétaires, comme le pro- 
cureur-général lui-même, et intéressés comme lui à ce qu'il n'y eût 
aucun changement dans le paiement des dîmes. L'arrêt du Conseil, 
rendu le l*^*" février 1706, se lit comme suit: 

" Le Conseil a ordonné et ordonne que les dîmes seront levées et 
payées par les habitants aux sieurs Boulard, DuFournel et autres curés 
de ce pays, conformément à l'usage qui a été observé jusqu'à présent, 
et fait défense à tous curés de les demander, et aux habitants de ce 
pays de les payer autrement, jusqu'à ce que par le roi en ait été or- 

Il y avait appel au roi de cette décision: le clergé canadien en pro- 
fita. Dans sa requête, il renchérissait sur les prétentions des curés 
Boulard et DuFournel, et demandait que la dîme fût mise au trei- 
zième, suivant son institution première. Voici en substance cette re- 
quête : 

" Les soussignés, curés et missionnaires du Canada, persuadés de 
la protection de Sa Majesté pour l'Eglise de cette Nouvelle-France, et 
de son attention pour le soutien de ses privilèges, qu'Elle a toujours 
maintenus toutes les fois qu'on a voulu y donner atteinte, viennent 
avec confiance implorer l'autorité de Sa Majesté dans une affaire qui 
intéresse toute l'Eglise de ce pays, puisqu'il s'agit de la perception des 
dîmes, sans lesquelles elle ne peut subsister. 

"Le Conseil de Québec leur en interdit la jouissance, jusqu'à ce 
que Sa Majesté ait déclaré derechef ses intentions, quoiqu'Elle les ait 
formellement expliquées par son édit du mois d'avril 1663: "Toutes 
les dîmes, y est-il dit, de quelque nature qu'elles puissent être, tant de 
ce qui naît en Canada par le travail des hommes, que de ce que la 


terre produit d^elle-même, se paieront de treize portions une, et le 
clergé jouira de la totalité des dîmes, grosses et menues, anciennes- et 
nouvelles, de tous les fruits généralement quelconques, et sanB aucune 
distinction, qui proviendront de toutes les terres dans le pays de la 

" MM. de Tracy, Courcelles et Talon trouvèrent cela si nécessaire 
pour la subsistance des curés, qui d^ailleurs n^avaient aucun autre 
moyen pour vivre, quails firent un règlement, en 1667, pour Texécution 
de cet édit. Considérant l^état du pays, pour lor& encore très peu dé- 
friché et habité, le climat fâcheux, les saisons inconstantes, et les che- 
mins tout-à-fait impraticables, ils ordonnèreait que les dîmes se paie- 
raient de tout ce qui naît par le travail des hommes, et de tout ce que 
la terre rapporte d'elle-même, par les habitants, pures et nettes, et 
seulement de la 26« portion une, au lieu de la 13«, et cela pendant Tes- 
pace de vingt années, et jusqu'à ce que le pays fût en. état de souflfrir 
une plus forte imposition. . . . 

^* n ne peut faire aucun doute que les curés du Canada ne soient 
en droit de lever la dîme conformément aux édit et règlement ci-des- 
sus, et avec d'autant plus de fondement que Sa Majesté n'a rien or- 
donné par ses edits que de conforme à plusieurs autres qu'EUe a rendus 
pour tout le Royaume, en conséquence desquels les curés ont droit de 
percevoir les dîmes de toutes choses, et particulièrement de tout ce 
qui provient d'une terre qui a une fois rapporté une chose qui doit 
dîme. . . . 

" Si Sa Majesté permettait aux habitants de ne payer la dîme que 
des grains seulement, les curés seraient réduits à la mendicité, et se 
trouveraient hors d'état de desservir leurs cures, et même contraints 
de les abandonner," attendu que le peu de débit de ces grains fait que 
ces habitants ensemencent la plus forte partie de leurs terres de diffé- 
rentes denrées, et jpfarticulièrement de celles qui se vendent le mieux. 

" Les suppliants prient Sa Majesté de considérer que leur unique 
bien consiste dans la dîme, d'oii il faut qu'ils tirent leur nourriture et 
leurs habillements, qu'ils sont contraints d'acheter à un prix excessif, 
et jusqu'aux moindres choses de la vie, pendant que toutes les* denrées 
qui croissent dans le pays se donnent à un prix fort médiocre, faute de 
consommation, et qu'il serait juste qu'ils partageassent du moins avec 
les peuples qu'ils servent, les moyens de subsister dans ce que le pays 
peut produire. . . . 

*^La raison dont le Conseil de Québec s'est servi pour rendre son 
arrêt, c'est que les curés n'ont point prétendu jusqu'à présent per- 

* Cest ce que quelques-uns avaient déjà fait, au témot&nagre du gouver- 
neur et de l'Intendant, comme nous l'avons vu plus haut. 


cevoir la dîme de toutes les denrées, et qu'ainsi ils sont non recevables 
à demander aujoxird'hui une chose à laquelle ils n'ont jamais songé. 
Mais dans les commencements, toutes choses, à part les* grains, étaient 
de si peu de conséquence, qu'il ne valait pas la peine d'en demander la 
dîme: le lin, le chanvre, le tabac, les citrouilles et les autres denrées 
étaient encore inconnues, et les peuples étaient alors dans une si 
grande indigence qu'il était difficile à des missionnaires que la clharité 
amenait au Canada, de ne pas relâcher de leurs droits. Aujourd'hui 
que ces habitants sont si bien établis, il est juste qu'ils se soumettent 
à leurs obligations. 

" Un autre prétexte à la décision du Conseil, c'est la grande pau- 
vreté des peuples. Mais il e&t de notoriété publique que communé- 
ment il n'y a point d'habitants qui ne vivent sur leurs terres, en y 
prenant de la peine. Ils y trouvent presque toutes les nécessités de 
la vie, et même ordinairement assez abondamment. Ce sont les 
habillements qui leur coûtent le plus, et encore commeneent-ils à re- 
cueillir du lin, dont ils font quantité de toile, et à élever des moutons 
dont ils prennent la laine pour faire des étoffes; au lieu que les sup- 
pliants sont obligés d'acheter jusqu'aux moindres choses, et hors d'état 
de seqourir les pauvres. ..." 

En terminant sa requête, le clergé canadien suppliait le roi d'or- 
donner " que tous les' habitants du Canada possédant des terres seraient 
tenus de payer la dîme de treize portions une, savoir, de toutes sortes 
de grains, du lin, chanvre, tabac, citrouilles, fruits qui naissent sur les 
arbres, jardinages, foins, et généralement tout ce que la terre produit 
d'elle-même, et le tout sur le même pied."* 

* « « 

On ne peut douter que les missionnaires du Canada, en adres- 
sant cette requête à la cour, étaient en parfait accord avec leur évêque, 
M*' de Saint- Vallier, qui, connaissant bien leurs besoins et leur dénue- 
ment, travaillait lui-même à faire mettre la dîme au 13«.* Malheu- 
reusement le prélat était alors détenu prisonnier en Angleterre; il ne 
devait revoir la France qu'en 1709, et son diocèse qu'en 1713.* H ne 
pouvait donc guère s'occuper avec avantage de plaider la cause de son 
clergé auprès de la cour. 

Mais le clergé canadien avait à Paris un représentant autorisé, 
dans la personne de M. de la Colombière, l'un des trois grands vicaires 
— ^les deux autres étaient MM. de Maizerets et Glandelet — qui gouver- 

^ Edits et Ordonnances, t. I, p. 305. 

* Lettre de MM. de Vaudreuil et Beauhamais au ministre, Québec, 19 octo- 
bre 1705. 

•Ck)8selin, Le Vén, François de Montmorency- Laval, p. 383. 


naieut alors l'Eglise de Québec en Tabsence de Tévêque. M. de la 
Colombiore était passé en France en 1705, après le deuxième incendie 
du séminaire de Québec/ pour solliciter des eecours en faveur de cette 
institution. Il y avait aussi M. de Brisacier, supérieur du séminaire des 
Missions-Etrangères, auquel le séminaire de Québec était alors afiSlié, 
qui portait un vif intérêt à TEglise du Canada. M. de Brisacier écri- 
vait au ministre Pontchartrain le 4 avrii 1707: 

" Si M. D'Auteuil, procureur-général du Conseil de Québec, vous 
donne, monseigneur, quelques écrits' contre TEglise et les curés du 
Canada, sur le fait des dîmes, ordonnez, je vous prie, qu'ils nous soient 
communiqués, afin que nous puissions vous donner nos réflexions avant 
que vous décidiez. . . . '** 

D'Auteuil, en efl!et, se trouvait lui-même à Paris: il était passé 
en France dans l'automne de 1706, pour essayer de se justifier de très 
graves accusations qui pesaient sur lui par rapport à Taccomplissement 
de ses fonctions comme procureur-général. Il avait perdu la confiance 
du gouverneur et de l'intendant du Canada. Voici ce qu'écrivait à 
son sujet M. lîaudot, fonctionnaire "plein de justice et d'équité,^' au 
témoignage de M. de Vaudreuil :^ 

" Quand même, disait l'intendant, le sieur D'Auteuil resterait ici 
(au Canada), je ne pourrais pas me servir de lui. Il a quelque capa- 
cité; mais vous verrez, monseigneur, par la lettre que je me donne 
l'honneur de vous écrire au sujet de l'aflfaire du sieur Berthelot contre 
la Dame de I^a/orêt, qu'il n'a pas la jpjrobité qui convient dans ces sortes* 
d'affaires. . . . "^ 

Voilà l'adversaire contre lequel le clergé canadien allait avoir à 
défendre ses droits et ses prétentions, à la cour: un homme rusé, ha- 
bile, très capable, mais *^sans probité.^' Ce sont bien là les adver- 
saires les plus dangereux. 

D'Auteuil était appuyé dans ses prétentions par l'un des conseil- 
lers du Conseil Supérieur de Québec, François Aubert de la Chênaie," 
seigneur de Mille- Vaches, qui, lui aussi, était passé en France dans 
l'automne de 1706.® 

Le procureur-général dressa un long mémoire en réponse à la re- 
quête du clergé canadien. Voici on substance ce qu'il contenait: 

"Le règlement du 4 septembre 1667, dont l'original n'existe pas, 
mais qui ne peut avoir été autre chose que ce qui s'est pratiqué depuis, 

* Cet Incendie eut lieu le 1er octobre ljp5. 

' Archives de la Marine, Canada.. Correspondance générale, vol. 27. 

* Ihid., vol. 24. 

* Lettre de l'intendant Raudot au ministre. Québec, 2 novembre 1706. 

* La famlUe de la Chênaie étsAt alliée aux Juchereau. 

* Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t. V, p. 440. 


doit être la règle pour la perception des dîmes. Si elles ne sont pas 
snflasantes, le règlement de 1679 y a pourvu. Depuis Tarrêt du 23 
décembre 1680/ les curés ont trouvé plus d^avantage à faire eux-mêmes 
la perception de leurs dîmes; et il y a eu des années où quelques-unfe- 
d'entre eux ont produit jusqu'à 1500 et 2000 livres, même plus. En 
percevant eux-mêmes leurs dîmes, ils ont ôté au public la connaissance 
de la vraie valeur des dîmes, et ont pris plus hardiment le prétexte 
d'obtenir de Sa Majesté un supplément de 8000 livres. Pour re- 
prendre cette connaissance, il n'y a qu'à faire exécuter le dit arrêt du 
23 décembre 1G80;* et sïl se trouve que les dîmes ne soient pas suf- 
fisantes, les habitants fourniront le surplus sur le pied de 500 livres, 
que l'on a estimé devoir suffire pour leur portion congrue. 

" Quant à la plainte que font les curés que la dîme n'est levée qu'au 
26^, la charge de l'engranger et de la porter au presbytère est très* con- 
sidérable. D'ailleurs le défrichement des terres n'en peut pas porter 
une plus forte; et la dîme des marais desséchés ne devrait même se 
payer à l'avenir qu'au 50®. 

" Si les terres où l'on a semé du blé se mettent depuis en chanvre 
ou en lin, les curés en sont récompensés, parce que tous les ans on dé- 
friche plus de terre pour la mettre en blé qu'on ne sème de chanvre et 
de lin où il y avait eu du blé. 

"La volonté du Roi est que les curés aient ce qui leur est néces- 
saire, soit par les dîmes, soit par le supplément. Les seigneurs et les 
habitants veulent bien s'y conformer; mais les nouvelles dîmes que les 
curés veulent imposer sont sans nécessité, et ils ne les demandent que 
pour s'enrichir aux dépens des habitants. On doit donc les renvoyer 
à l'exécution de l'édit de 1679 et des arrêts du Conseil Supérieur 
rendus en conséquence, et leur défendre de rien innover, sous peine 
de grosse amende."^ 

On ne pouvait être plus captieux et plus habile. Rien, pour 
l'ordinaire, ne flatte davantage l'autorité que d'entendre dire que tout 
va à merveille, sous sa direction, qu'il n'y a rien à changer dans les 
edits et les règlements existants, que tout est pour le mieux dans le 
meilleur des mondes. Rien, en particulier, ne pouvait être plus agréa- 
ble à Louis XIV que d'apprendre, de la bouche d'un fonctionnaire 
canadien, que le clergé de son pays n'avait plus besoin des 8,000 livres 
qui avaient été accordées durant quelques années pour les portions 
congrues. Quelle bonne et heureuse réponse à ceux qui pourraient 

* Ihid., t. II, p. 450. 

* Par cet arrêt, les dîmes devaient être affermées au plus offrant et der- 
nier enchérisseur, et le prix donné aux curés. 

■ Edits et Ordonnances, t. I, p. 310. 


venir lui reprocher d'avoir retranché cette somine ! On se laisse 
d^ailleurs si facilement persuader que le clergé en a toujours assez, et 
même trop ! 

D'un autre côté, le dergé canadien avait peut-être mal choibi 
Toccasion de réclamer une augmentation de la dîme: le pays était 
réellement pauvre, ou plutôt, suivant l'expression de MM. de Vaudreuil 
et Baudot, "très gueux et très* dur ^' : 

^' L'on peut dire qu'il n'y a personne de .riche ici, écrivaient à la 
cour ces hauts fonctionnaires; et tous ceux qui y ont été peuvent vous 
asburer que ceux qui l'habitent ont bien de la peine à y avoir la nourri- 
ture et le vêtement." * 

Les missionnaires du Canada ne se contentaient pas de dem&nder 
la dîme au 13*^; ils réclamaient la dîme du lin, du chanvre, du tabac. 
Cela produisit une mauvaise impression: ils semblaient vouloir mettre 
des- entraves et nuire à des industries naissantes, que l'on avait eu 
beaucoup de peine à établir. 

On eut beau présenter à la cour des mémoires, bien motivés, en 
réponse à celui de D'Anteuil, l'arrêt du Conseil d'Etat fut contraire 
aux prétentions du clergé. Cet arrêt, rendu à Marly le 12 juillet 1707, 
se lit comme suit : 

" Sa Majesté, étant en son Conseil, sans fe^arrêter à la requête dee 
curés et missionnaires du Canada, a ordonné et ordonne que les arrêts 
du Conseil Supérieur de Québec des 18 novembre 1706 et 1** février 
1706 seront exécutée*, sauf aux dits curés et missionnaires à se pour- 
voir pour le supplément nécessaire, en exécution de l'article 4 de l'édit 
du mois de mai 1679." 

C'était laisser la dîme dans l'état où elle était depuis le règlement 
de 1667, et pour le supplément renvoyer le clergé devant le Conseil 
Supérieur lui-même. 

Le clergé canadien avait perdu sa cause, en apparence: en réalité, 
il avait gagné un point important, la confirmation solide et définitive 
de la loi de la dîme ; et cette loi, le peuple l'acceptait d'autant plus vo- 
lontiers qu'elle avait été adoucie en sa faveur, et qu'il avait lui-même 
gagné son point contre les prétentions du clergé. On lit dans une dé- 
pêche de MM. de Vaudreuil et Baudot au ministre: 

" Nous tiendrons exactement la main à l'exécution de l'arrêt que 
vous eûtes la bonté de nous envoyer l'année deïrnière au sujet des 
dîmes. Nous vous en remercions au nom de tous les habitants de ce 
pays, et vous supplions pour eux de vouloir bien toujours laisser les 
choses sur le même pied qu'elles sont. . . . "^ 

^ Lettre de MM. de Vaudreuil et Baudot, Québec, 14 novembre 1708. 
■ Arohiv€e de la Marine, Canada, Ckwrespondance générade, vol. 28. 


Le procureur-général D^Auteuil avait gagné sa cause contre le 
clergé canadien en général : il lui restait à faire faire la leçon au curé 
Boulard, en particulier, avec lequel lui et son beau-frère Juchereau de- 
vaient être passablement brouillés. La lettre suivante du ministre au 
"vicaire-général du Canada '^ fait voir que Inhabile procureur-général 
réussit encore sur ce point: 

" Dans le compte que j*ai rendu au Eoi de Taflfaire dee dîmes qui 
se lèvent en Canada, écrit le ministre, je n^ai pu me dispenser d^infor- 
mer Sa Majesté qu'un des curés de ce pays a eu rimprudence d'ajouter 
aux commandements de TEglise un septième commandement pour le 
paiement des dîmes, et qu'il y a même fait la matière d'un prône. 

" Sa Majesté m'a commajidé de vous écrire que son intention est 
que vous fassiez une forte réprimande à ce curé pour avoir abusé de 
son ministère en cette occasion, et que vous l'avertissiez que si pareille 
choee lui arrivait encore, elle le ferait punir. Je vous prie de me faire 
savoir ce que vous ferez sur cela, afin que j'en rende compte à Sa Ma- 

Voilà comment dans l'ancienne France, l'Etat s'immisçait dans* les 
affaires religieuses, dans ce qui regardait^ par exemple, la prédication 
et comment on traitait le clergé, à l'époque où le roi Très Chrétien se 
considérait vis-à-vis l'Eglise conmie 1'" évêque du dehors ! " 

Pour bien comprendre la lettre que nous venons de citer,* il faut 
se rappeler que la loi de la dîme existait alors en France comme au Ca- 
nada: elle y était même généralement plus rigoureuse; et c'était là 
comme ici une loi ecclésiastique, en même temps qu'une loi civile. 
C'était un commandement de l'Eglise; seulement, ce commandement 
n'était pas formulé dans les catéchismes français; on ne le trouve, par 
exemple, ni dans le catéchisme de Boesuet, dont nous avons une édition 
sous les yeux,* ni dans le catéchisme de Sens, qui était autrefois en 
usage au Canada. Il n'y avait dans les catéchismes français que six 
commandements de l'Eglise. 

M. Boulard, dans ses prônes sur la dîme, avait-il formulé le sep- 
tième Commandement de l'Eglise, tel que nous le récitons aujourd'hui, 
tel qu'il se lit dans nos catéchismes?* C'est possible: mais alors, il 

* Documents de Paris, Collection Moreau St-iMéry, Vol. 7, Lettre du 6 
Juillet 1707. 

' EUe n'a Jamais été publiée encore, du moins & notre connaissance. 

* Catééhiêfne du diocèse de Meaux, par Messire Jacques- Bénigne Bossuet, évêque 
de M eaux. Conseiller du Roy en ses conseils, ci- devant Précepteur de Mgr le Dauphin, 
premier aumônier de Madame la Dauphine. A Paris, chez Sébastien Mabre-Cramoisy, 
Imprimeur du Roy, rue Saint-Jacques, aux Vigognes. M, de, LXXXVII, 

• " Droits et dîmes tu paieras à rE«lise fidèlement" 


n'avait fait que donner une forme populaire à une loi déjà existante 
et reconnue de tout le monde. M^ de Saint- Vallier, du reste, venait 
de la formuler lui-même, quoique en termes un peu différents,^ dans 
le catéchisme qu'il avait publié à Paris en 1702,^ et nous ne voyons pas 
que le Boi l'ait réprimandé à ce sujet.^ Dans ce catéchisme il n'y a 
pas seulement sept commandements de l'Eglise, il y en a neuf: le hui- 
tième et le neuvième regardent les excommuniés.* 

Mf^ Briand fit publier, en 1777, une édition spéciale du Caté- 
chism-e de Sens pour son diocèse, et y fit quelques changements. 11 
y introduisit spécialement la formule du septième commandement de 
l'Eglise; et personne n'y trouva à redire, parce que cette formule 
n'était que l'expression d'une loi reconnue et entrée dans les mœurs. 

D'Auteuil, dans ses mémoires, n'avait pas ménagé le clergé du Ca- 
nada: il s'était montré injuste et perfide à son égard; et dans les dé- 
pêches qu'il adressait à la cour, comme procureur-général du Conseil, 
il n'était pas tendre pour les jésuites: on aurait dit qu^il affectait de 
se montrer aussi désobligeant pour eux, que son père leur avait été 
favorable. On lit, par exemple, dans une de ses lettres au ministre: 

" Ils ont assez de biens-fonds en ce pays : dans tous les quartiers 
on voit des seigneuries qui leur appartiennent. ..." 

11 les a^use non seulement de tenir magasin ouvert à Québec, 
mais surtout de trafiquer le castor avec les sauvages Outaouais: 

"Ils font le commerce aux Outaouais, dit-il, ou il se fait par leur 
moyen; c'est public, et tout le monde en murmure. On voit tous les 
ans les canots des jésuites revenir chargés de castors. Peut-on juger 
que ce soit d'autres qu'eux qui fassent ce commerce, pendant qu'il est 
défendu à tout le monde? '"* 

Le procureur-général avait le triste courage de chercher à discré- 
diter les jésuites, alors que lui-même était sous le poids de très graves 
accusations. Nous avons vu qu'il était passé en France pour essayer 
de se justifier. 11 ne put réussir. L'intendant Raudot n'avait pas 

* •* Hors les temps Noces ne feras: «paie la dîme jrustement." 

' Catéchisme du diocèse de Québec, par Monseigneur VlUustrissime et Révéren- 

diêsime Jean de la Croix de Saini-Vallier, Evéque de Qu€bec, en faveur 'des curés et 

des fidèles de son diocèse, A Paris, chez Urbain Coustelier, rue ISaint-Jacques, au 

Cœur bon. M. DCCII. 

■ Il est à noter, cependant, qoie .le volume ne porte pas le "Privilège du 


• " L<ee excommuniés fuieias, les dénoncés exipressément ; 

" Quand excommunié seras, fais-toi absoudre promptement." 

• Archives de la Marine, Canada^ Correspondance générale, vol. 22. 


craint de lui donner un certificat de manque de probité: D'Auteuil 
avait perdu la confiance du public. 

La cour révoqua sa commission de procureur-général, qui datait 
du 2 juin 1680/ et Tordonnance royale à cet effet fut envoyée aussitôt 
à M. de Vaudreuil, gouverneur du Canada, pour être enregistrée au 
Conseil Supérieur. On lit en effet dans les registres du Conseil, à la 
date du 21 novembre 1707: 

'^ Vu par le Conseil Tordre du Roi donné à Vercailles le 30 juin 
dernier, signé Louis, et jjlus bas Phelipaux, e»t scellé, par lequel il casse 
et révoque Maître François-Magdeleine-Rtiette D'Auteuil, son procu- 
reur-général en ce Conseil, et lui fait défense d'en faire à l'avenir les 
fonctions, et d'en prendre la qualité, à peine de désobéissance-, et 
enjoint à M. le Marquis de Vaudreuil, gouverneur et lieutenant-géné- 
ral en ce pays, et à MM. Raudot, intendants en oe icelui, de tenir la 
main à l'exécution du dit ordre, et de le faire enregistrer au greffe de 
ce Conseil, le Conseil, ouï et ce requérant M. Charles Macart, con- 
seiller, faisant les fonctions de procureur-général du Roi en ce dit Con- 
seil, a ordonné et ordonne que le dit ordre sera enregistré au greffe 
d'icelui, pour être exécuté selon sa forme et teneur. Raudot."^ 

Le conseiller Macart^ continua à exercer les fonctions de procu- 
reur-général, sans en avoir le titre, jusqu'au 17 ocrtobre 1712. A cette 
date, Mathieu-Benoit Collet, avocat au Parleanent de Paris*, arriva à 
Québec avec une commission de jp^xxîureur-général, et fut reçu et 
installé en cette qualité au Conseil Supérieur. 

^ Jugements du Conseil Supérieur, t. II, p. 422. 
• Ibid,, t, V, p. 704. 

■ C'était un marcftvand, dont la résidence étadt sur la place de l'égrllae de 
la Basse- Ville. 

Sbction I, 1903 [ 63 ] Mémoibbb S. R. G. 

III. — Les Intendants de la Nouvelle-France. 
(Notes sur leurs familles avec portraits et armoiries.) 

Par M. RÉGIS Boy. 

(PréBenté i>ar M. B. Suite et lu le 20 mai 1903.) 

I I r 

L'intendant, àe 1663 à 1760, a été Tun des premiers personnage© 
du pa}rs, car ses attributions lui valaient une autorité plus étendue que 
celle du gouverneur, qui suivait d'un œil jaloux la promulgation de 
ses ordonnances, croyant souvent y trouver un empiétement sur ses 
;prérogaiâves, et qui, alors, s'immisçait dans des choses où il n'avait 
aucunement droit, d'où surgissait des disputes, des querelles, se termi- 
nant par le rappel de l'un ou de l'autre, et parfois des deux. 

L'intendant, par sa commission royale, recevait la gérance des 
affaires civiles criminelles et de police. Il prenait connaissance de 
toutes les matières concernant le roi, et de toutes les difficultés s'élevant 
entre le seigneur et le censitaire. Ses agents, les sub-délégués déci- 
daient sommairement des petites causes, avec réserve d'appel à lui- 
même. Il jugeait aussi les affaires de commerce; en un mot, faisant 
en Canada les fonctions d'un juge-consul. La partie administrative 
du gouvernement lui était abandonnée, ainsi que celle des finances. 

Le gouverneur ne conserva qu'une espèce de veto sur certaines 
mesures civiles, joint au commandement militaire et la gestion des 
affaires extérieures, tel que l'entretien des relations avec les autres 
gouvernements coloniaux, les indigènes et la métropole, et encore, 
l'intendant remplissait-il avec lui cette dernière partie des fonctions 
administratives. (Grameau.) 

L'intendant avait donc une charge importante, et il fallait impé- 
rieusement que ce titulaire eut de l'expérience; et, de fait, il a toujours 
été choisi parmi les fonctionnaires royaux dans la mère-patrie. A peu 
d'exceptions près, l'intendant, tout en ayant la qualité précitée, avait 
surtout la bonne fortune d'être parent du ministre en faveur, ou d'une 
famille très en vue à la cour. 

Par les pages qui se succèdent, on pourra constater facilement quel 
lien consanguin unissait les uns aux autres njos intendants et les minis- 
tres, mais le tableau qui suit immédiatement ces lignes, donnera un 
aperçu général de nos notes sur les familles des intendants de la Nou- 

SecI, IQOa 6. 



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Louis Robert, premier intendant. 

Ouvrons n'importe quelle Histoire du Canada, à l'année 1663, et, 
au sujet de Tintendant que le roi venait de donner au pays, nous 
lisons invariablement dans chacune, à peu près dans les mêmes 
termes: — "Le 21 mais 1663, le roi nomma intendant, M. Robert, qui 
pourtant n'alla point en Canada." 

M. Robert, il est vrai, ne s'est jamais soucié d'entreprendre le 
voyage d'outre-mer pour occuper sa charge. Pourquoi? C'est oe que 
nous nous sommes demandés, et, après mûres réflexions, avec ce que 
nous connaissons de l'époque, nous nous sommes dits: — "La santé de 
M. Robert pouvait être une cause pour ne point sortir de France, ou 
bien, croyait-il réussir à s'acquitter des devoirs relatifs à l'intendance 
sans plus se déranger, les jugeant faciles à conduire, même de si loin, 
ou bien donc, il ne lui plaisait guère de se risquer à une dangereuse 
traversée pour aller vivre au sein de peuplades farouches et barbares." 

La dernière hypothèse doit prévaloir, selon nous, car la charge 
d'intendant, en France, était créée, surtout pour contrôler les actions 
et l'ofl5ce du gouverneur, lieutenant-gouverneur, ou d'autre premier 
officier de province, et le même motif fournissait à la colonie naissante 
ce fonctionnaire. 

Mais ce M. Robert, nommé ainsi tout simplement, qui est-il ? Quel 
est son lieu natal, et à quoi s'oocupait-H ? Sujet de peu d^importance 
peut-être pour l'histoire du Canada, mais sur lequel il fallait jeter ou 
vouloir tenter de faire un peu de clarté pour parfaire la série des 
monographies dies intendants de la Nouvelle-France, dans les lignes que 
BOUS nous étions tracées. 

Oameau accole au nom du premier intendant du Canada, le titre 
de conseiller du roi, ce qu'il a cueilli, sans doute, au tome I des Edits 


et Ordonnances. La cammiseioii de Robert comme intendant ne s'y 
voit point. A VOrdonnance du 21 mars 1663, révoquant les concessions 
non défrichées, le roi étant au ccŒJseil avec M. de Mézy, gouverneur, 
et révêque d« Pétrée, on lui ordonne do tenir la main à Fexécution 
ponctuelle du dit arrêt, etc. Toutes les personnes présentes au conseil 
apposent leur signature à ce document^ mais celle de Robert est absente. 

C'est tout ce qu'il y a, et avec d'aussi faibles données comment 
nous assurer de l'identité de notre perdonnage? Il faut avoir le goût 
et la persévérance d'un chercheur pour ne pas se rebuter. 

Les intendants, tant en France qu'en Canada, furent choisis parmi 
ceux qui avaient déjà eu quelque emploi au ministère public. 

Nos recherches à la bibliothèque du Parlement ainsi qu'au bureau 
des Archives à Ottawa, établissent positivement que M. Louis Robert 
fut notre intendant. 

Louis Robert, sieur de Fortelle, est l'homme du temps. Il est 
l'oncle du chevalier Edmé-Nicolas Robert, nommé intendant en 1724. 
Ce Louis Robert, baptisé le 22 février 1636, fut fait conseiller d'Etat 
le 22 septembre 1666; intendant à Bergues^ en 1667; deux ans plus 
tard à Dunkerque, et en Hollande en 1672. Il eut ensuite l'intendance 
des armées du roi en Italie, Candie et Hongrie — (selon D'Hozier) — 
mais d'après la commission de Robert que nous avons lue dans le volume 
1, F. 1656-1669, collection Moreau Saint-Méry, aux Archives d'Ottawa, 
il est dit que Robert venait de servir comme intendant des finances de 
l'armée en Italie et en Candie. Ce brevet est un modèle: il est long, 
clair et bien précis. Les commissions d'intendants à la Nouvelle- 
France, émis par la suite, n'ont jamais été aussi complètes et bien 
détaillées que celle-là. 

Enfin, Louis Robert reçut la présidence en la Chambre des Comptes, 
le 18 mai 1679. 

Il fut l'impassible exécuteur des ordres impitoyables de Louvois 
pour écraiser de contributions les peuples de Hollande, et de retour à 
Paris, avec le fruit de ses exactions, il aurait, dit-on, perdu toute sa 
fortune au jeu.* 

Son père, Nicolas, conseiller du roi, fut trésorier de France, au 
bureau des finances, à Riom. Un des frères de Louis fut docteur en 
Sorbonne (Gilles). Ses deux filles épousèrent, l'une, le marquis de 
Livri, premier maître d'hôtel du roi; l'autre, le comte Des Marets,' 
grand-fauconnier de France. 

Louis créa la branche de Fortelle, mais elle s'éteignit avec lui. 
Dans les preuves de noblesse de cette famille, enregistrées pardevant 
D'Hozier, juge d'armes de France, il est le VII® degré dans la filiation. 

* Colbert par Clément, tome XI, 1868. 

' La mère du comte s'appelait Marie Colbert, sœur du ministre. 




Nous avons remarqué que les nome favoris dans cette famille sont: 
Antoine, Edmé et Nicolas. 

Son anoblissement date de juillet, 1481, par Louis XI; Antoine 
Robert étant alors notaire et secrétaire de ce monarque. 

D'azur à trois pattes de griffon d'or, posées deux et une, formait 
leur blason. 


Jean Talon, deuxième intendant. 

Jean Talon fut de fait le premier intendant du Canada ; M. Louis 
Robert, sieur de Fortelle, conseiller du roi, nommé intendant du Ca- 
nada le 21 mars 1663, ne vint jamais au pays, et ne s'est troublé en 
aucune manière de cette charge que le roi lui donnait, n'ayant pas même 
assisté au Conseil d'Etat, de la date ci-haut, où étaient présents: le 


roi, eon ministre, M. de Mézy, M«^ de Laval, et les membres nouvelle- 
ment créés du Conseil Souverain de Québec. 

De plus, la lettre du Conseil Souverain, adressée à Colbert le 
13 juin 1664, semble indiquer qu'il n'y eut pas d'intendant de police, 
finances, etc., en Canada, avant Talon. 

Par lettres-patentes du 23 maïs 1665, Talon fut nommé intendant 
de la justice, police et finances "en les pays de Canada, Acadie, et 
Isle de Terreneuve, et autres pays de la France septentrionale." Cette 
commission royale fut enregistrée à Québec, le 6 juillet 1665. 

Comme il n'entre pas dans notre plan de parler de ce qu'à fait 
cet intendant, car cela ne serait que répéter nos bons historiens, nous 
allons passer outre et n'aborder que du nouveau, ou ee qui est générale- 
ment moins connu, ayant trait principalement aux choses en dehors de 
son administration. 

En novembre 1666, Talon rappelle au roi que son séjour avait été 
fixé à deux ans, et il demande son congé lorsque cette période serait 

Vers la fin de 1668, l'état de sa santé, des affaires de famille, et 
peut-être des difficultés avec le gouverneur, provenant moins de la 
diversité de vues que de la différence de caractère, engagèrent Talon 
à repasser en France pour remettre sa charge. Il siégea pour la der- 
nière fois de son premier terme, au Conseil, où il signa le procès- 
verbal de la séance, le 22 août 1668. 

Le 5 novembre 1668, le Conseil mande à Colbert que Talon va 
repasser en France, estimant sa saaité assez forte pour faire le voyage, 
et qu'il pourra l'éclairer sur les affaires du Canada. Le 10, Talon 
assiste à une séance du Conseil, et il est cité comme ci-de\'ant intendant. 

Le séjour de Talon à Paris ne fut pas inutile au Canada, car, s'il 
n'était plus l'intendant, il y avait toujours des intérêts de commerce 
considérables, et son influence à la cour n'était pas diminuée. Avant 
de passer au Canada, il avait rempli avec succès les différentes charges 
suivantes: en 1653, commissaire de l'aimée; intendant du Hainaut 
de 1655 à 1665. En 1651, on lui accorda de plus l'intendance voisine 
d'Artoib", et il fut choisi pour régler les limites de France et des Flan- 
'3 res. 

Mais on ne pouvait se passer de Talon au Canada, et sur la demande 
du roi (14 mai 1669), il consentit à retourner en Amérique. Le 22 
juin, le secrétaire de Talon, le sieur Patoulet, surveillait l'embarquement 
de troupes, etc., à La Rochelle, pour le Canada. L'armement de Talon 
en cette instance, évaluée à deux cent mille livres, après une navigation 
orageuse, se perdit dans un naufrage, sur les côtes du Portugal, où 
l'intendant faillit périr. Il s'embarqua de nouveau l'année suivante, 
et parvint à Québec le 8 août 1670, pensant encore faire naufrage près 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 71 

de Tadousac, où une tempête jeta son navire sur des roches et le mit 
sur le côté. 

Le 16 serptemibre, il faisait son entrée au Conseil, pour la première 
fois depuis son retour de France. 

Au printemps de 1670, durant Tabsenoe de Talon, le sieur Patou- 
let^ commença à faire travailler la brasserie, la bâtisee étant terminée 
et prête à fonctionner. 

Le 11 novembre 1670, Colbert lui fait avoir la capitainerie de 
Mariemont, en Hainaut. Le 14 mars suivant, Louis XIV le fit baron 
des Islets, en Canada. Cette même année, Talon fait son testament, 
instituant son légataire universel, Jean-François Talon, son neveu. 

M. De Courcelles ayant demandé son rappel,^ M. de Frontenac 
arriva en 1672, pour le remplacer. Sa réputation qui le précéda, fit 
désirer à Talon de remettre sa charge.® Il jugea la colonie trop petite 
pour occuper séparément deux hommes fort actifs et qui ne seraient 
pas disposer à dépendre Tun de l'autre, ni par conséquent agir avec ce 
concert qui exige des concessions réciproques. Il demande sa retraite. 
Le roi lui permit de rentrer en France à Tautomne de 1672. 

Le roi changea la baronnie des Islets en comté d'Orsainville, en 
mai 1675, étendant l'investiture à la postérité mâle et femelle, contre 
la règle générale, et les lettres-patentes atteetent le cas que le roi 
faisait de Talon, car elles exposent que sans cette extension à la posté- 
rité féminine. Talon n'aurait pas accepté cette faveur. Néanmoins, 
il offrit ce comté en vente à Tévêque de Québec, et le contrat fut ratifié 
par madame Talon et son neveu Jean-Framçois; cependant, lorsqu'il 
offrit au roi, en 1680, toutes ses propriétés du Canada, sans conditions, 
il demanda que le titre de comté donné à sa terre d'Orsainville, au 
Canada, fut transféré à sa terre de Locquignol, dans le Hainaut, qu'il 
avait reçu en don du roi, à son départ pour TAniérique. 

A son retour en France en 1672, Talon devint secrétaire du cabinet, 
puis valet de chambre du roi.* 

Le 13 novembre 1G80, Du Ohesneau fit l'inventaire des propriétés 
de Talon, au Canada: le maison de la brasserie; celle appelée Godefroy; 
celle présentement habitée par lui, M. Du Chesneau; un grand bâtiment 
situé à la Basse-Ville appelé le magasin, et la terre appelée d'Orsainville. 

^ Patoulet fut contrôleur de marine & Rochefort en 1673; commissaire- 
général au même port en 1676; Intendant aux Iles, de 1679-1683; intendant de 
marine à Dunkerque. Mort 8 avril 1695. (Voîhert par Clément, Tome III,) 

■ De Courcelles, gouverneur de Thlonville^ avant de l'être en Canada; en- 
suite commandant & Toulon. Il mourut le 24 octobre, 1698. (Colbert par Clé- 
ment, Tome III,) 

* Talon connaissait bien Frontenac, puisqu'ils étaient parents. 

* Colbert par Clément, tome II, 


En 1685^ le 15 mai. De Meulles, à la demande du ministre, estime 
la brasserie à huit mille livres; Talon en demandait quarante mille. 
L'intendant se proposait de prendre la brasserie pour le palais et les 
magasins. Tout en consentant à prendre les propriétés de Talon, le 
roi semblait trouver s'en évaluation élevée. 

Il parait que Talon, à ses heures, était poète. Il adressait quelque 
fois à la Mère Boulié de la Nativité des madrigaux et des épigrammes 
auxquels elle répondait sur-le-chAmp, en même style, et ces pièces 
étaient estimées de tous les connaisseurs. 

L'extérieur de Talon amnonçait son mérite. 

Nous donnons son portrait d'après une peinture de M. Hamel à 
rHôtel-Dieu de Québec. 

Les Talons de Paris blasonnaient: d^azur au chevron d^ argent ac- 
compagné de trois épis montants d'or, soutenus chacun d'un croissant 
montant d'argent 

Il y avait des Talons dans le Hainaut; c'était un rameau de la 
même famille, car ils ont presque les mêmes annoiriœ. Un Jean Talon 
a été échevin de Le Quesnoy (Hainaut), en juin 1698, et blasonnait: 
d'azur à trois croissants d'or chacun surmonté d'une étoile de même, et 
posés deux et un. 

Talon était parent des célèbres avocats-généraux de ce nom. Cette 
famille illustre dans la robe, suivant des Mémoires, tire son origine 
d'Irlamde, où l'on prétend qu'elle a possédé des terres et des places 

Jacques Warœus, dans ses Antiquités Irlandaises, marque qu'a 
TuUi-Félim Alfelah, sur la rivière de Slane, Simon Lombard et Hughes 
Talon fondèrent en 1314 un couvent de l'ordre des Hermites de Saint- 
Augustin. M. Allemand, avocat au Parlement de Paris, dans son 
Histoire Monastique d'Irlande, étend ce qu'avait écrit Warœus, et s'ex- 
prime ainsi : — " Dans le comté de Caterlog, à Tulli-Félim, autrement 
nommé Tollog ou Folaghe, petite ville sur la rivière de Slane, diocèse 
de Laghin, il y a eu un couvent fondé l'an 1314, par deux Français: 
Simon Lombard et Hughes Talon. H y a même aujourd'hui, dit-il, 
un augustin irlandais dans le grand couvent de Paris, nommé le père 
Talon, qui m'a assuré descendre de ce Hughes Talon, qui sur la fin de 
ses jours se fit augustin dans le même couvent qu'il avait fondé." 

Et M. Allemand continue : — " Je pourrai prouver dans peu que ce 
Talon était un des prédécesseurs de M. Tavocat-général Talon, si fameux 
aujourd'hui daGOs l'Europe." 

Le premier Talooi qui vint d'Irlande en France, pour s'y établir, 
où il fut colonel sous Charles IX, s'appelait Artus. Son fils, Jean, 
s'établit à Paris, où il fut nommé conseiller d'Etat, le 20 mars 1563. 




Marie-Suzanne Talon, fille d'Orner, troisième degré dans la généa- 
logie, morte le l*'' octobre 1653, était mariée à Louis Phélypeaux, 
seigneur de PontJchajrtrain, président en la Chaiflbre des Comptes, père 
du chancelier de Pontchartrain. 

Catherine, autre fille d'Omer,^ épousa, en 1642, Jean-Baptiste 
Le Picard. Elle eut trois filles; Fainée, Claire-Eugénie, fut la mère 
du chancelier d'Aguesseau. 

La dernière fille d'Omer épousa Pierre Bazin, grand'père de Far- 
chevêque de Rouen et de Jacques Bazin de Bezons, maréchal de France. 

D'un autre Omer (VI® degré) : Angélique-Louise devint la femme 
de Louis- Joseph de Montcalm, marquis de Saint- Véran, le 3 octobre 
1736.* Momtcalm fut maréchal de camp et commandant des troupes 
du roi au Canada. 

Ces alliances que je place sous vos yeux sont parmi les principales 
oontraotéee dans la famille Talon. Elles prouvent son influence. 

Pour concluer, disons qu^il y eut une branche cadette aussi im- 
plantée à Paris; sur cette branche, on trouve plusieurs Jean Talon, et il 
est fort probable que notre intendant y appartient.' 


Claude de Bouteroue, troisième intendant. 

Il n'y a pas long à dire sur cet intendant de la Nouvelle-France, 
car il a été très peu de temps au Canada, et comm-e deipuis longtemps 
cette famille est éteinte, nos recherches généalogiques n'ont pas été 
beaucoup fructueuses; cependant, voici ce que nous avons trouvé et 

* Omer, né vers 1559, à St-Questln, dans le Halnaut, entra au barreau 
de P&ris en 1613; nommé en 1631 avocat-général au Parlement. Mort, 29 dé- 
cembre 1652; a laissé des Mémoires estimés. (Colbert par Clément, Tome /, p. SL) 

■ BUe était peUte nièce de Jean Talon qui fut notre Intendant. (Ouénin, 
La Nouvelle-France, vol. II.) 

' Ces notes sont prises dans un Dictionnaire de la noblesse, par De La CAet- 
naife-Des-Bois et Badier, 3e édition, 1878. 


Nos historiens noua disent que ce gentilhomme vint remplacer 
Talon. Ils nous le donnent comme savant, poli et gracieux; mais qui 
ne pouvait surpasser, ou même, égaler son prédécesseur. 

La commission de Bouteroue à l'intendance du Canada date de 
St-6ermain-en-Laye, du 8 avril 1668, et fut enregistrée à Québec le 
22 octobre suivant. Il siège au Conseil Souverain, en première in- 
stance, le 7 septembre 1668, et en dernière, le 22 octobre 1670. Il oc- 
cupa donc cette charge juste Fespace de deux ans. 

Au départ de Talon, à Téchéance de son premier terme d'intendant, 
ici, jVL de Ressan, secrétaire de M. de Tracy, lieutenant-général du roi 
en Amérique, avait mis en jeu toutes ses influences pour obtenir le 
poste vacant, mais on ne lui crut pas assez de qualités — qualités inhé- 
rentes à tel office — pour le nommer, et ce fut Claude de Bouteroue, 
bien en cour, respecté de tout le monde, et très instruit, qui succéda à 

M. de Courcelles, le gouverneur, trouva que Fintendant dépendait 
trop de M^ de Laval et des jésuites, et la bonne entente entre ces deux 
hauts fonctionnaires étant en danger, le roi rappela M. de Bouteroue. 

Colbert, là-dessus, mandait à Courcelles, qu'avec le temps, il eut 
certainement mieux apprécié l'intendant; que M. de Bouteroue est en 
fort bonne estime à Paris, et qu^il aurait rempli dignement les fonctions 
de son emploi.^ 

Mademoiselle de Bouteroue qui était en Canada avec son père, 
fut marraine, «en 1670, du chef iroquois Garakonthié, à la conversion 
de cet homme. 

M. de Bouteroue vivait en 1677, à Paras, puisque Colbert, dans une 
lettre à Frontenac, dit qu'il vient de consulter Talon, Bouteroue et 
autres, sur le commerce de l'eau-de-vie avec les sauvages. 

Il mourut en 1680.^ 

Le père de notre intendant, qui avait aussi nom Claude, a été 
conseiller en la Cour des Monnaies. Il est Fauteur d^un traité sur les 
monnaies anciennes de France. Pierre Séguin, doyen de St-Gormain 
TAuxerrois, possédait un cabinet contenant toutes les monnaies an- 
ciennes de la France, en original, et c^est sur cela que travailla M. de 
Bouteroue pour la confection de son traité (1669). 

Bouteroue, père, mourut en 1674. 

Un sieur Bouteroue, lieutenant de l'Amirauté, à Dunkerque, reçut 
en 1675 une gratification du roi, de mille livres, en considération du 
travail qu^il venait de faire sur les monnaies anciennes et nouvelles 
du royaume. 

* Colbert à Courcelles, 15 mai 1669. 

* Béchard, Monoçraphies, page 46, 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 78 

Je sais que ce lieutenant de rAmiranté appartenait à la famille 
de ^intendant de la Nouvelle-France, mais je n^ai pu découvrir son 
preanier nom et établir son identité. 

Le nom de notre intendant s^orthographiait de deux façons: BotP- 
teroue, que nous oonnaissone, et Boutheroue, 

Un parent, Hector de Boutheroue, écuyer, sieur de Boumeuf, était 
co-propriétaire en 1665, du canal de Briare et du canal de la Loire à 
la Seine. 

Claude était qualifié chevalier, eft possédait la seigneurie d'Aiibigny. 

La famille comptait de bonnes alliances, entr'autres avec les Le- 
Clerc de Lesseville, de robe distinguée. 

Les Bouteroue étaient originaires de la Touraine. Ils blasonnaient : 
D'or, à la lande vairée d'argent et de salle, 

Nos premiers intendants, sans doute, sortaient de bonnes familles, 
mais ils étaient tous gens de robe ou fonctionnaires publics. Le pre- 
mier, Eobert, ne fut intendant que de nom; la perspective d'un vftyage 
vers dee contrées lointaines, peuplées de tribus cruelles et sanguinaires, 
avait de quoi l'effrayer. Et c'est pourquoi, probablement, il ne vint 
jamais au Canada. A son tour. Talon dut s'y prendre à deux fois pour 
faire un stage de quatre années. Qui se souciait beaucoup alors de 
passer à l'intendance du Canada? Il fallait une forte dose de courage 
pour entreprendre un voyage aussi long et dangereux; c'était un mois 
et plus sur l'océan, en butte aux tempêtes, aux corsaires, etc., puds, 
résidence dans un pays sauvage. 

Je ne crois pas que Bouteroue ait sollicité l'office d'intendant en 
la Nouvelle-France. On a dû le lui offrir. 

Après le deuxième terme de Talon, qui venait remplacer Bouteroue, 
il y a une période de trois ans, où le Canada n'eut point tel fonction- 
naire, ce qui me confirme dans mes déductions que nos premiers in- 
tendants n'ont pas couru après cette charge, pour employer une ex- 
pression répandue. 




Jacques Du Chesneau, quatrième intendant. 

Il y avait trois ans que le Canada n^avait pas d'intendant, quand 
M. Du Chesneau fut appelé à ce poste, en 1675. Sa oommiseion est 
du 30 mai, de cette année. M. Du Chesneau, depuis dix ou douze ans, 
était commissaire dans la généralité de Tours; à la date de sa nomi- 
nation à Fintendance du Canada, il était conseiller du roi, trésorier de 
France et général des finances de la Touraine, seigneur de la Doussi- 
mière et d'Ambault. 

Du Chesneau recevait douze mille livres par an d'appointements, 
comme intendant. De plus, pour les frais de son déplacement, il reçut 
trois mille livrée. 

Cette famille cet originaire de Touraine. Guillaume Chesneau, 
chevalier, seigneur des Breux, Montay et la Doucinière, échanson du 
roi, fils de Jean Du Chesneau, (chevalier des dits lieux; chambellan de 
Charles VII,) et de Bobine Fumée — qui eut d'Anne de la Lande, deux 
garçons. Nous avons relevé plusieurs alliances entre les maisons Voyer 
d'Argenson et de Fuanée. Dans la généalogie Fumée, Joan du Ches- 
neau, mari de Bobine, est qualifié seigneur des Pruneaux et de 

M. Bobert de la Lande, parent de Jacques du Chesneau, était d'un 
mérite si génémlement reconnu que le 9 mars 1646, il fut pourvu de 
la charge de sous-gouverneur de Louis XIV. 

Les influences en cour de Jacques étaient donc très fortes, et c'est 
ce qui explique comment il a pu rester sept ans en Canada malgré ses 
querelles avec ceux qui l'entouraient, et les réprimandes et les censures 
souvent répétées du ministre. Parmi les plus sévères, citons celles où 
Colbert (2 juin 1680) lui dit qu'il fera mieux de repasser en France et 
se retirer à Tours, s'il n'est pas résolu à exécuter ponjctuellement les 
ordres qu'il lui donme, et (du 2 mai 1681) l'avertissant de la part du roi 
que si son animosité contre M. de Frontenac ne cesse pas de suite, la 
première lettre qu'il recevra sera celle de sa révocation. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 77 

Son intendance, enfin, se termine le 9 mai 1682, et il repasse en 

Son fils, qui prenait le titre de chevalier, Tavait suivi en Canada. 

Les année de cette famille se formaient comme suit: — D'azur, 
semé de besants d'argent, au chevron d'or brochant sur le tout. 


Jacques de Meulles, cinquième intendant. 

Cet intendant n'a pas fourni une longue carrière en la Nouvelle- 
France (1682-86), et Thistoire est brève sur son compte. 

Durant la première partie de son administration, il fit bien tout son 
passible pour se conformer aux instruictions reçues de son auguste 
maître, le roi, et particulièrement de vivre en bonne intelligence avec 
le gouverneur et le clergé, mais ce n^était pas chose facile, et il fut 
sujet à réprimande et censure à ce titre, comme son prédécesseur. 

Mais, par exemple, on lui avait donné pour gouverneur du pays, 
un officier impossible à plaire; un homme qui, dans tous les emplois 
publics où il avait passé, souleva une juste indignation à cause de sa 
conduite; qui, en un mot, s'était acquis la haine générale.* Et, après 
Savoir essayé un peu partout, on Tenvoya au Canada. 

La nomination de M. de Meulles fut datée de St-Cloud, le premier 
mai 1682, et enregistrée à Québec, le 9 octobre suivant. 

Jacques de Meulles s'intitulait: chevalier, seigneur de la Source, 
et grand bailli d'Orléans. Sa femme, une demoiselle Bégon, était la 
sœur de Michel Bégon,* intendant à Eochefort, père de Michel Bégon, 
notre intendamt. Cette union le faisait cousin de la femme du ministre 
Colbert, fille de Charon de Ménars et de Marie Bégon. 

En 1661, Colbert envoya dans toutes les provinces des commis- 
saires choisie parmi les conseillers maîtres des requêtes. Il voulait 

* Antoine Le Fetovre de la Barre. Voir la correspondance de Colbert à 
Mazarln. et surtout la lettre du 16 octobre 1659. 

* M. Dudouyt h Mgr de Liaval, 26 mai 1682. 


connaître l'état du pays, ses forces, ses ressources, ses' besoins, etc. 
Charles Colbert, le frère du ministre, eut à visiter pour su part la 
généralité de Touis, dont FAnjou faisait partie. H fit cette visite en 
1664. Par ce rapport, le ministre devenait plus intime avec les aflEairee 
de son couâin. 

Dans son Mémoire sur la noblesse du Poitou, Charles Colbert dit: — 
*^ En la paroisse de Cerizay, eslection de Thouars, il y a le sieur François 
Meules, seigneur de la forest de Montpensier, qui réside en ea maison 
de la Roche-Cerizay, qui vaut quatre mille livres de rente; il a servi 
quelque temps en qualité de volontaire. C'est un homme docte et qui 
s'applique à écrire.''^ 

Ce François de Meules fut le père de Jacques, notre intendant. Il 
y eut en France une certaine zone, ou plutôt un coin du pays qui, plus 
que tout autre, a fourni des fonctionnaires éminents et des ofl&ciers de 
mérite à la Nouvelle-France, ayant pour foyer: Tours et Orléans 
comme extrême périmètres: les Lusignan, de Lantagnac, Alogny de la 
Groie, de Meulles, Bégon, Du Chesneau, Beauhamois, Robert, etc. 

J'ai trouvé que vers 1400, Pierre Flory ou Fleury, chevalier, sei- 
gneur de Bouille St-Paul, près Thouars, avait pour femme Françoise 
de Meulles, de Fraigne-Ohabot. 

Ce Flory ou Fleury avait trois sœurs, et l'une d'elles: Jeanne, 
épousa Eegnault de Meulles.* Ceci nous fait voir un peu l'antiquité 
de la maison des Do Meulles. 

L'alliance de Jacques de Meulles à mademoiselle Bégon, qui le 
rapprochait de Colbert, est la plus importante qu'il m'a été donné de 
relever. Elle en vaut beaucoup d'autres. 

Les de Meulles blasonnaient: d'argent à trois tourteaux de «oJfe, 
accompagnés de sept croix, ancrées de gueules, trois en chef, un, deux, un. 

De Meulles fut accusé de s'occuper de faire du commerce à son 
compte, par Denonville, maie La Hontan dit qu'il ne fit de tort à per- 
sonne ; au contraire, il procura du pain à mille pauvres gens qui seraient 
morts de faim sans son secours. — " Il a fort bien fait son devoir, étant 
très équitable et rendant bonne et prompte justice à tous ceux qui 
s'adressent à lui. Il est zélé pour la justice et punit le crime sans 
rémission." {Histoire de VHôtel Dieu de Québec) 

Dans son Mémoire au roi, du 26 août 1683, De Meulles disait en 
parlant du Canada : — ^^ On peut assurément trouver dans la France 
septentrionale des climats aussi variés qu'en Europe avec plus de belles 
terres. Il n'en tient qu'à Votre Majesté de jeter ici les fondements 
de la plus grande monarchie qui soit au monde." 

' Revue hiitoriqiu de la noblesse, vol. II, p. 149. 
" D'Hozler, Armoriai de France, VIII, p. 606. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 79 

Le 31 mai 1686, le ministre informait de Meullee que M. Bochart 
de Champigny était nommé pour le remplacer. Bochart arriya à Qué- 
bec en juillet 1686, et de Meulles en partit en la première semaine 
d^octobre pour retourner en France, où depuis je le perds de vue. 

Jean Bochart, sixième intendant. 

Le 24 avril 1686, le roi, étant alors à Versailles, nomme Jean 
Bochart intendant du Canada. Ces lettres-patentes furent enregistrées 
à Québec, le 23 septembre suivant, et, le lendemain,- le nouveau titu- 
laire siégeait ofiBciellement au conseil. 

Madame Bochart accompagnait son mari; elle retourna en France 
probablement en 1696 ou 1697, et revint en Canada en 1698, sur le 
vaisseau du roi. Le Poly. 

Le terme d'office de Jean Bochart couvre une période de seize 
aimées, et c'est le plus long stage qu'ait fait aucun autre semblable 
ofiûcier sous le régime français, en Canada. La chose est toute à son 
crédit et fait éloquemment son éloge. 

Jean Bochart était issu d'une famille originaire de Bourgogne, 
remontant à Guillaume Bochart, seigneur de Noroi, gentilhomme ser- 
vant du roi Charles VII, qui était de Vezelai. 

Le fils de Guillaume, Jean I, fut conseiller au Parlement de Paris 
en 1490. C'était un sage magistrat, et il fut préposé à la présidence 
de ce Parlement. 

Le fils de Jean eut une fille qui épousa François de la Porte. De 
cette alliance naquit Suzanne de la Porte, destinée à devenir plus tard 
la mère du célèbre cardinal Bichelieu. 

Jean II se signala au Parlement de Paris par un plaidoyer hardi 
qu'il prononça en présence de François I, touchant la Pragmatique 
Sanction contre le Concordat. 

Cette hardiesse lui fit des affaires à la cour. Il fut mis en prison, 
et n'en sortit que deux ans après à la prière du maréchal d'Annebaut, 
son ami particulier. Il épousa Jeanne Simon, nièce de Jean, évêque 
de Paris, qui lui donna sa terre de Champigny. 


La fiUe cadette de Jean II fut la bisaïeule du maréchal de la Meil- 
leraie. G^est au maréchal de la Meilleraie dont il avait à se plaindre 
qu'un gentilhomme breton disait : — " 8i je ne suis pas maréchal de 
France, je suis du bois dont on les fait! Av^si, le deviendrez-vous, lui 
dit De la Meilleraie, quand on les fera de bois.'^ 

Jean V fut surintendant des finances sous Henri IV. Après la 
mort de Jérôme d'Hacqueville, en 1628, Louis XIII mit M. de Cham- 
pigny à la tête du Parlement de Paris. 

Jean VI, qui fut Païeul de notre intendant, épousa Marguerite 
le Charon. Cette alliance le fait beau-frère de César, duc de Choiseul, 
pair et maréchal de France. Cette famille Le Charon porte jpiresque les 
mêmes armes que Le Charon, beau-père de Colbert, et je les crois 
parentes à un degré très rapproché. 

Le neuvième chaînon dans la filiation, et le huitième du nom 
Jean, c^est notre intendant. 

En 1699, il est administrateur conjoint de la colonie, le gouverneur 
étant mort. De Champigny voulut avoir la place, mais M. de Callières, 
plus puissant en cour, Femporta. 

En 1697, un fils de notre intendant — ce doit être Jean-Alphonse — 
servit à titre de lieutenant sur VAmphitrite, mais le premier mai 1698, 
le roi lui donna une commission de capitaine, à la place du sieur de 
L'Espinay. Le 3 mai 1700, le roi lui accorde une compagnie, et le 
18 mai 1701, le capitaine reçoit un congé de neuf mois. 

Au mois de mai 1701, le roi nomme Jean Bochart intendant de la 
marine au Hâvre-de-Grâce, poste vacant, que la famille de M. 
de Champigny avait demandé au roi. En 1702, il retourne en France, 
et son fils raccompagne, laissant sa place à M. de Courtemanehe.* 

Le 5 octobre 1702, le Conseil assemblé, Bochart remet son autorité 
d'intendant à François de Beauharnois et part aussitôt pour la France. 
Il mourut au Hâvre-de-6râce en 1720. 

Il avait époui)é Marie-Madeleine de Chaspoux,' dame de Vemeuil 
et du Plessis-Savari, (morte en 1718) et non pas, comme Font donné 
certains historiens, Madeleine Houel, veuve de Jean de Boissers." 

Madame de Champigny était cousine de Mfi^ de Laval au troisième 
degré.* Il parait qu'elle empêchait souvent la punition des coupables 
jugés par le Conseil Souverain. On s^en plaignit au ministre disant 
qu'elle agissait ainsi animée par des .principes- de charité mal entendue. 
Le ministre avisa l'intendant de se mêler de ces choses. 

* Rapport de M. Richard sur les Archives du Canada. 

* Fille de Jacques de Verneuil, trésorier de France, & Tours. 
' Edits et Ordonnances, I, p. 48. 

Histoire des Canadiens-Français, IV, p. 42. 

* Laval, par Oosselin, 1901, p. 426. 

[bot] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 81 

Notre intendant eut quatre enfants : ^ 

1<* Jean-Alphonse, prêtre, mort à Paris, 1723. 
2® Jacques-Charles, né 22 septembre 1712. 
3**, 4® Guillaume et Jean-Paul. 

Jacques-Chariee continua la lignée, et s^intitul€Lit seigneur de 
Champigny, de Noroi et de Poinci, marquis de Sainte-Marie, en Améri- 
que. Il fut gouverneur de la Mari;inique, où il mourut le 20 mai 1754. 
Sa femme était Marie-Madel^ne de Boisseret, fille de Louis, marquis 
de Sainte-Marie. Lee Boisseret étaient seigneurs d'Herblay. 

Il y eut deux autres' branches dans la famille Bochart sous le nom 
de Champigny; par Jean-Paul Bochart de Champigny, fils de Jean Vin 
(notre intendant) et par François Bochart, dit de Champigny, seigneur 
de Saron, second fils de Jean V. 

Blason : à^azur à un croissant d'or, abaissé sous une étoile de même^ 

Il y a encore des Champigny en France. 

* Dictionnaire de La Cheênaie-Deshois et Badier, 

Sec 1, 1903. 6. 



Fbancoib de Beauhabnaib. 

Dans les titres de la famille de ce nom Ton écrivait: Beauhamois, 
Beauhamoys, et de Beauhamois, C^eet ^ancienne orthographe; au- 
jourd'hui Ton remplace la lettre o par a. 

Cette famille originaire de rOrléanais nous intéresBe tout particu- 
lièrement, car elle nous a donné un intendant, de 1702 à 1705; un gou- 
verneur-général, de 1726 à 1747; et plusieurs autreB de ses membres 
sont venus demeurer en Canada, durant plusieurs années. 

Disons d'abord que cette famille, distinguée dans Tordre de la no- 
blesse par ses anciens services*, soit dans le mili'taire, soit dans la prin- 
cipale magistrature, a produit en original les titres justificatifs de ses 
filiations depuis François de Beauharnais, seigneur de Miramion, etc., 
auteur du VI® degré, et de plus une généalogie manuscrite dressée en 
1644, par Jacques Girault, célèbre avocat au siège Présidial d'Orléans, 
à l'occasion sans doute, de quelque partage, qui était alors en litige. 

Le premier Beauharnais enregistré dans cette filiation est Guil- 
laume, seigneur de Miramion et de la Chaussée. 11 épousa, le 20 jan- 
vier 1390, Marguerite de Bourges. 

Détail curieux à noter: son fils aîné fut l'un des témoins au procès 
fait ipour la justification de la Pucelle d'Orléans. 

Aignan de Beauharnais, fils de François, (VI« degré) épousa Mar- 
guerite de Choisy. Il eut un fils, qui se maria en 1645 avec Marie, 
fille de Jacques de Rubelles, conseiller et secrétaire du roi. Anne de 
Beauharnais, fille de François, devint la femme de Paul Phélypeaux, 
seigneur de Pontchartrain, le 11 juin 1605. C'est un parent du mi- 
nistre de ce nom. 

Marie-Anne, petite-fille de François II de Boauharnais (VII® degré) 
épousa, le 16 septembre 1683, son cousin Jean Phélypeaux, comte de 
MontHiéry, etc., et intendant de Paris. 

La trisaïeule du chancelier Séguier était une Beauharnais. 

Au moyen de ces alliances, et d'autres faites par la suite, les Beau- 
harnais acquéraient de l'influence. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FBANCE 88 

Michel de Beauhamais, fils de François II, fut prêtre et aumônier 
de Gaston, duc d'Orléans. 

Jean de Beauharnais, chef du VIU« degré dans la généalogie de 
la famille, fut secrétaire de la chambre du roi Louis XIII ; gentilhomme 
ordinaire de sa chambre, etc. C'est le grand'père de notre intendant et 
de notre gouverneur-général. 

François (IX® degré), père de nos fonctionnaires, est qualifié: che- 
valier, seigneur de la Boische, de la Chaussée, de Beaumont, de Beau- 
ville, etc. Il épousa, en septembre 1664, demoiselle Marguerite-Fran- 
çoise Pyvart de Chastullé. 

Voici la liste de leurs enfants: 

i° Jacques y capitaine au premier bataillon du régiment du Maine, 
tué au siège de Mayenne. 

2^ François de Beauharnais, qualifié chevalier, baron de Beauville, 
seigneur de la Chaussée, de Beaumont, etc., conseiller du roi en ses 
conseils, et intendant de ses armées navales, et qualifié aussi. Haut et 
Puissant Seigneur, dans les actes qui le concernent; fut successivement 
commissaire de la marine; commissaire des armées navales; intendant 
de justice, police et finances des pays de la Nouvelle-France, Acadie, 
île de Teireneuve et autres pays de la France Septentrionale, le V^ avril 
1702. Il est nommé à Tintendance générale de la marine en 1704, 
mais il ne partit du Canada qu^en Tautome de 1705. Le 1^ janvier 
1706, le voilà intendant de Tarmée navale du roi ' commandée par le 
comte de Toulouse. Le 2 avril 1707, par un brevet du roi, il obtient 
le " Port Maltais ", en Acadie, la rivière^ comprise, de quatre lieues de 
front sur deux de profondeur, tirant du côté de la Hêve,à Test, quart 
nord-est, avec les îles et ilettes adjacentes avec droit de haute, moyenne 
et basse justice, et le 25 juin, de la même année, cette terre est érigée 
en baronie sous le nom de Beauville. 

Le 1^' janvier 1710, il est intendant de la marine, ayant inspection 
générale sur les classes des ofl&cders, mariniers et matelots du royaume. 
Le 24 mars suivant, il passe intendant de la marine à Kochefort,^ puis 
intendant de la justice, police et finances de la généralité de La Bo- 
ohelle, le 30 du même moî^, et commissaire départi pour Texécution des 
ordres du roi dans le pays d'Aunis et îles adjacentes, et dans les pro- 
vinces de Saintonge et d^Angoumois ; intendant dee armées navales dans 
la mer Océane, et enfin, intendant général des armées navales, le 1*' 
avril 1739. 

Il avait épousé demoiselle Anne des Grés, morte sans enfants^ le 
24 septembre 1731, âgée de 63 ans. 

^ Succédant â, M. Ilerbaut tué dans un combat. 

' Il y est €ncM>re •Lnten<d<ainit en 1723. iJiapporl de if. Richard, sur les Archives), 



Cet intendant fit un court séjour en Canada. Il débarqua à Qué- 
bec le 29 août 1702.^ 

L'intendant de Beaubarnaie fit enregistrer sa commission datée à 
Versailles, le 1*' avril 1702, et parut ofiiciellement au Conseil à Qué- 
bec, le 5 octobre 1702. 

Il fit une traversée heureuse et très courte pour la saison dans la- 
quelle il était parti de Fran.ce. 

En chemin, le vaisseau qui le portait fit deux prises anglaises, Tune 
à k hauteur des Açores, et Tautre, sur le grand banc de Terreneuve. 

M. de Beauhamaifl parut pour la dernière fois sous le caractère 
d'intendant, au Conseil, le 17 septembre 1705; les messieurs* Raudots, 
see successeurs venaient de débarquer à Québec. 

Notre intendant mourut le 8 octobre 1746, âffé de 81 ans, après 
00 ans de service. 

S^ Jean François. 

4^ Notre gouverneur, Charles de Beauharnais, chevalier de la 
Boische, reçut le titre de marquis dans les provisions du roi le nom- 
mant au poste de gouverneur du Canada. En 1686, il fut admis dans 
les gentilhommes gardes de la marine, ensuite enseigne le l*' janvier 
1696. En 1697, il se rend à Brest, et s'embarque sur le Superbe, pour 
faire les fonctions de commissaire sur l'escadre du marquis de Nes- 
mond. Il passe capitaine d'une compagnie franche d'infanterie de la 
' Corr. Générale, Csun., Vol. XX, folio 106. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FKANCE 8e 

marine, le 18 janvier 1699; capitaine de frégate, 9 mai 1707; capitaine 
de Taisfeeau, 23 avril 1708; chevalier de Saint-LouiB et gouverneur 
du Canada, le 11 janvier 1726; comsmiandeur surnuméraire de Tordre 
militaire de Saint-Louie, le 22 mars 1732; chef d^eseadre des armées 
navales, le 1^ mai 1741, et lieutenant-général d^icelles, le 1^ janvier 

Il parvint à tous ces grades par ses services signalés, et donna des 
marques de la plus grande valeur dans toutes les occasions qui se pré- 

Il épousa, le 6 août 1716, Renée Pays, veuve de GaHchon, et 

de Pierre Hardouineau, seigneur de Laudianière, etc.* 

Il mourut le 12 juin 1749. 

6^ Claude de Beauhamais de Beaumont qui continue la lignée, 
formant le dixième chaînon ou degré, prit pour femme le 11 mai 1713, 
Eénée Hardouineau, fille de Pierre, et de Renée Pays. 

Si vous voulez vous égayer, établissez les nouveaux liens de parenté 
entre les deux frères Charles et Claude, causée par leurs mariages". 

Claude de Beauharnais de Beaumont vint en Canada. 

La sœur Juohereeu, dit dans son Histoire de VHôteUDieu, de Qué- 
bec: — " Le vaisseau du roi, le Héros, était proche; il était commandé jfar 
M. Beaumont, 'frère de M. de Beauhamais, ci-devant intendant du Ca- 

Dans le Bulletin des Recherches Historiques, de Levis, numéro d^oc- 
tobre 1897, à la page 156, M. Suite dit:* " Claude-Charles, autre neveu, 
etc, vint au Canada, et, en 1729, il obtint la seigneurie de Beauhamais." 
Ce ne peut être que M. de Beaumont, frère de notre intendant. Dans 
la généalogie de la famille que j'ai par devant moi, il n'y eut qu'un 
Claude, neveu de l'intendant François et du marquis Charles, et ce 
Claude fut comte et créa la seconde branche des Beauhamais. 

Nous en reparlerons dans un moment. 

Claude, frère de "François, fut lieutenant et capitaine, et vint en 
Canada. En 1703, il commandait la flute la Seine, ayant ordre de 
venir en Amérique prendre un chargement de mâts, pour la France. 

En 1729, il obtint la seigneurie de Beauhamais; il était alors lieute- 
nant de vaisseau. " On le retrouve avec le titre de chevalier de 
Saint-Louis (1740-1) et qualifié de Sieur de Beaumont, dit M. Suite. — 
Mais sans deute ! c'était son titre en propre, dans la famille. — M. 
Suite ajoute: — ^* C'est peut-être lui qu'on nommait également le che- 
valier de Beauhamais, et qui figure comme enseigne en pded^ en Ca- 
nada (1739)." C'est soit lui ou son fils, Claude. 

* D'Hozier, Armoriai de France, registre V, pp. 75-93. 

* M. Suite s'était informé en p£Lrtie dans Ferland et Daniel. 


6^ Guillaume de Beauharnais, chevalisr de Beau ville, servit 40 
ans dans le corps de la marine; fut feneeessivement gentilhomme garde 
de la marine, 1697; lieutenant d'infanterie au Canada, 1702;^ capitaine 
d^une compagnie du détachement de la marine, en Canada, le 1^' juin 
1704; blessé d^un coup de fusil au bras dans un combat naval, où il 
se trouva en 1705. Enseigne de vaisseau, le l®*" novembre 1705; aide- 
major des armées navales et du port de Rochefort, et capitaine d'une 
compagnie franche d'infanterie de la marine, le 20 avril 1711; lieute- 
nant de vaisseau, 1711; chevalier de Saint-Louis, le 23 décembre 1711, 
. reçu le 20 janvier 1724, (le 8 septembre 1723, il commandait la flute 
le Chameau); enfin, capitaine de vaisseau, le 10 mars 1734. Il finit ses 
jours à St-Domingue, Tan 1741. 

7° Jeanne-Elisabeth, mariée à Michel Bégon, intendant du Canada. 

8^ Anne. 

9"^ Catherine. 

Claude de Beaubanmis, chevalier de Beaumont, avons-nous dit, 
continue la descendance. 

De son mariage à Bénée Hardouineau, il eut: 

1® François. 

2^ Cîavde. 

François fut gouverneur des îles de la Martinique, Guadeloupe 
(1756), etc. Il naquit à La Rochelle, le 8 février 1714. Le roi érigea 
sa terre de la Ferté-Aurain en marquisat, et François prit le titre de 
marquis de la Ferté-Beauiharnais. C^était en récompense des services 
que cette famille avait rendus au roi. 

Son union avec sa cousine germaine, Marie-Anne-Henriette Pyvart 
de Chastullé, date du 13 septembre 1751. Il en eut: 

1** François, mort en bas âge. 

2° Un autre François, né à La Rochelle, le 12 août 1756. 

3® Aîexandre-FrançoiS'Marie, né à la Martinique, le 28 mai 1760. 

Claude, fila de Claude de Beauhamais de Beaumont, naquit à 
Rochefort, le 16 janvier 1717. Il fut pendant quatre ans comman- 
dant de Tartillerie en Canada (1745). C^est lui qu^on rencontre aux 
environs du Détroit en 1747, sous le nom de chevalier de Beauhamais. 

Ce Claude est le f^exû du nom, neveu de notre gouverneur, et, 
comme en 1729, il n^aurait eu que (douze ans, il est impossible que ce 
Boit lui qui obtint, à cette date, la seigneurie de Beauhamais, et qui fut 
en même temps lieutenant de vaisseau. C'était plutôt son père, qui 
portait le même noon. 

Claude, le jeune, en récompense de ses services fut coréé comte des 

^ II remplaçait M, de Sabrevcdâ. 




De son union à Marie- Anne-Françoise Mouchard, du 1*' mars 1753, 
nous comptons: 

l'' Claude, né le 26 septembre 1756. 

2^ Marie-Françoise, née le 7 septembre 1757. 

S^ Anne-Amédée, né le 8 janvier 1760. 

Alexandre-François-Marie^ vicomte de Beauhamais, épousa José- 
phine Tascher de la Pagerie, vers 1780, alors quVlle avait à peine douze 
ans. Leur fils naquit en 1781. On connait le sort glorieux et triste de 
cette femme. 

La famille de Beauhamais blasonne comme suit: D'argent à une 
fasce de sable, surmontée de trois merlettes de même. 

Devise : Autre ne sers. 

Le titre, par alliance, est tombé entre les mains d^une famille russe. 


Jacques et Antoine-Denis Baudot, huitième et nbuvièmb 


Cette famille est originaire d^Arnay-le-Duc, en Bourgogne. Ce 
village est tout près de Dijon, et sa population aujourd'hui ne dépasse 
pas quatre mille âmes. 

Le premier des Raudots qui vint se fixer à la Côte d'Or, y arriva 
vers 1360. Son fils fut à la tête d'une fonderie de canons pour Charies 
le Téméraire, duc de Bourgogne, puis inspecteur de son artillerie. 

C'est le 1^ janvier 1705 que le roi appela à l'intendance du Ca- 
nada, Jacques Baudot, et lui adjoignit en même tempe, pour assistant, 
son fils Antoine-Denis, pour servir au cas de maladie ou autre empê- 
chement du père, et surtout lorsque celui-ci serait absent et éloigné de 
Québec de plus de dix lieues. Ils avaient entrée, séance, voix et opi- 
nions délibératives, au Conseil Supérieur, avec cette particularité, ce- 
pendant, que si leurs voix se trouvaient conformes elles ne pouvaient 
compter que pour une. 


Jean Baudot, père de Jacques, possédait les seigneuries de Bazarne 
et du Coudray. Jean, par son mariage avec Marguerite Talon,^ s'ac- 
quérait ^influence de cette famille, ainsi que celle des Phélypeaux, 
comtes de Pontchartrain, et d'autres, assez importantes. 

Jacques naquit en 1647. Il passa successivement aux charges sui- 
vantes: conseiller au Parlement de Metz (1674), puis* à la Cour des 
Aides, à Paris (26 mai 1678). Ce fut avant de venir au Canada. 11 
était considéré bon juge, à Parie, mais ses affaires étaient en mauvais 
état, et c'est peut-être dans l'espoir qu'il y pourrait remédier que ses 
parents lui firent avoir l'intendance du Canada. 

Jacques Baudot était plein d'esprit, d'une conversation agréable 
et aisée, et pariait bien de toutes choses. Il possédait l'histoire de tous 
les pays, et s'entretenait familièrement avec tout le monde. Il aimait 
beaucoup la jeunesse, et lui procurait chez lui d'honnêtes plaisirs. Son 
divertissement ordinaire était un concert mêlé de voix et d'instruments. 

Le fils, Antoine-Denis (né en 1679) avait d'abord été conseiller, 
puis inàpecteur général de la marine à Dunkerque, avant d'être adjoint 
à son père. On avait bonne opinion de lui à la cour, car il parlait peu 
et paraissait sage. 

Ijcs deux intendants se partagèrent la besogne, et ils y allèrent de 
mains fermée', ce qui ne manqua pas de blesser quelques-uns de noa 
Canadiens, mais comme les deux fonctionnaires avaient bonne cause 
et comptaient de puissants protecteurs sur les marches du trône, leur 
triomphe s'assurait de suite. 

La sollicitude des messieurs Baudot pour l'avancement de la 
Nouvelle-France fut réelle et leur fit concevoir des projets grands et 
nobles, détaillés et raisonnes avec une précision admirable et appuyés 
de preuves solides. 

Ils s'intéressèrent fortement aussi au développement de l'agricul- 
ture, ainsi qu'à la police de Québec et de Montréal. 

Jacques Baudot avait en Canada un autre fils qui s'appelait 
Jacques-Denis Baudot de ChaJus, né en 1685. Il obtint pour lui, ainsi 
que pour son neveu Dusty, Sieur de Zély, une lieutenance (1707). Le 
10 mai 1710, le monarque accorda à ce fils cadet la première compagnie 
vacante au Canada, mais il est probable que lorsque le père retourna 
en France, l'année suivante (1711), son fils dût le suivre.* Jacques 

^ Orner Talon, intendant de la maison et affaires de M. le duc de Beau- 
port, était 6on frère. Denis Talon, avocat-grénéral au Parlement de Paris, se 
trouvait être son neveu. 

Le grrand'père du Comte de Pontchartraln, ministre de la marine, avait 
6pou9ê Marie Talon, cousine de Margruerite. 

* En 1713, 11 reçoit un brevet d'enseigne de vaisseau. L'année suivante il 
se noie à l'île de Sable. Il était alors capitaine. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 89 

avait demaadé au ministre de Pontchartrain d'être fait conseiller d'hon- 
neur en la Cour des Âides^ mais le ministre lui manda que cela ne se 
pouvait et qu'il lui ferait comprendre à son retour que cette grâce lui 
serait absolument inutile dans son état. Il ajoutait qu'il discuterait 
avec lui ce qui pourrait mieux lui convenir. De Pontchartrain, à la 
rentrée de Jacques en France, ne trouva mieux que de le prendre 
comme l'un de ees principaux commis. 

Il fut en outre conseilkr de marine, aa nomination datant de 1709. 

II mourut en 1728, âgé de 81 ans. 

Antoine-Denis, rappelé un an avant son père, fut nommé inten- 
dant-général des classes des matelots du royaume. Il fut en même 
tempe premier commis de la maison du roi, et directeur de la compagnie 
des Indes. Il succéda à son père comme conseiller de marine, position 
qu'il conserva jusqu'à sa mort, en 1737. 

Antoine ne laissa pas de postérité,^ et il nous est impossible d'an- 
noncer présentement si Jacques-Denis Baudot continua la descendance, 
ou si ce furent ses oncles, Jean-François et Louis-François; mais des- 
cendance il y a, puisque la famille existe encore de nos jours. Après 
la fin prématurée de M. Baudot de Chains, en 1714, nous trouvons Jean 
Baudot, seigneur d'Orbigny, qui acheta une «charge de secrétaire du 
roi. n restait alors seul de cette famille autrefois si nombreuse. Il 
eut un fils: Auguste, maire d'A vallon et député de l'Yonne, de 1816 
à 1832, année de son décès. Auguste avait trois fils: Jacques-Henry, 
Claude-Marie et Franco is- Alphonse. 

Quelques-uns de nos historiens connaissent la brochure de Claude- 
Marie Baudot, sur ses ancêtres: Jacques et Antoine-Denis; ils ont pu 
y cueillir beaucoup de renseignements sur ces ^^deiLx intendants de la 
NouveUe-France sous Louis XIV." Aujourd'hui nous avons pu donner 
d'autres détails supp émentaires, grâce à l'obligeance charmante du fils 
de François-Alphonse, M. Béné Baudot. 

Messieurs Baudot ont ix)ur armoiries: D'azur au chevron d'argent, 
chargé de trois trèfles de sinopU, et accompagné en chef de deux étoiles 
d'argent, et en pointe d'un croissint du même. (Annuaire de la no- 
blesse, 1873). 

* La sœur d'Antoine, Margruerlte-Françolse, a épousé, en 1705, Olaude- 
Marie de Girard, marquis d'iispeullles. Par cette union, la selgrneurie d« 
Bazarne, & 8 lieuee d'Avallon, passa aux (Messieurs Girard. M. le général 
fitarquis d'EspeuiUeti, auquel nous nous sommes adressés pour avoir, si possible, 
des inrormationA et les portraits de nos deux intendants, s'est donné beau- 
coup de peine pour noue être agrréable, mais ses recherohes parmi ses papiers et 
même à la Bibliothèque Nationale n'ont rien produit à. son regrret, car M. le 
marquis «'intéresse à, notre histoire: outre qu'il est parent de Messieurs Rau- 
dot, 11 est aussi arrière-petit -neveu du nmrquis de Montcalm. 




Michel Bégon, dixième intendant. 

La famille Bégon est noble et originaire de Blois, et fut Tune des 
plus considérables de ce pays, mais elle doit son principal lustre à 
Michel Bégon, troisièn^e du nom, qui s'est rendu reoommandable par son 
amour pour les Belles-Lettrée et par son zèle pour tout ce qui regarde 
le bien public. 

Ce personnage fut le père de Michel Bégon, intendant du Canada 
(1712-26). n vit le jour à Blois, le 26 décembre 1638.^ Sa première 
chaTge publique fut celle de garde-scel du préeidial de sa ville natale, 
puis il passa à la présidence de ce tribunal, en 1665. A cette époque, 
parmi les fonctionnaires royaux, une nouvelle figure prenait un relief 

^ D'après Colbert par Clément, tome III. pasre 220. il est né en 1628, et cela, 
s'accorderait mieux avec l'idée de son marlasre en 1648. 


brillant. Ce fut, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, le plus grand des ministres 
français. Michel (III) Bégon, dont la cousine, Marie Charon, avait 
épousé, en 1648, Colbert, devait bénéficier, cela se comprend, de cette 

Grâce à la protection du ministre, son parent, il change de car- 
rière, et le voilà bientôt (1677) trésorier de la marine, à Toulon d'abord, 
puis à Brest. Commissaire général de la marine en 1680. En 1681, 
il est nommé à Fintendance du Hâvre.^ Depuis quelque temps déjà, 
Colbert avait songé à son cousin Michel pour l'envoyer au Canada, et 
les provisions étaient remplies de son nom, mais le ministre changea 
d'idée, pour lui donner l'intendance des îles françaises, en Amérique 
(1 mai 1682), et ce fut le beau-frère de Bégon, M. de MeuUes, qui passa 
au Canada, au même titre.^ 

Aux Antilles, Michel III rétablit l'ordre et fit des règlements sages 
pour la justice et la police de cette colonie. 

En 1685, il retourne en France, s'en allant à Marseilles, à l'inten- 
dance des galères. Enfin, on le voit occuper successivement la charge 
de conseiller d'honneur à Aix (1686), d'intendant de la marine à Tou- 
lon, à Rochefort (1688),» et à La Rochelle. 

Pour terminer ces lignes sur Michel III, disons qu'il a acquis sa 
célébrité à cause de son ip^ÎMt de médailles, d'antiquités, d'estampes 
et de coquillages, recueillis dans les quatre parties du monde; par sa 
bibliothèque et pour avoir fourni à Perreault les matériaux pour 
VHîstoire des hommes illiLstres de France,^ 

Bégon mourut le 14 mars 1710, et fut enterré dans l'église des 
Capucins, à Bochefort. 

Cest de cet homjne illustre que naquit, vers 1674, Bégon (Michel 
IV), intendant du Canada, de 1712-1726. 

De son mariage avec Madeleine Druillon, Michel III a laissé: 

lo Afichel (IV du nom). 

2^ ScipiofirJérôme. 

30 Claude-Michel 

4^ et 5^ Deux filles religieuses. 

6® Madeleine, mariée en 1686 à Joseph d'Arcus&ia, d'une ancienne 
noblesse de Provence.'* 

* J. E. Roy, Notes sur l'Intendant Bégon, Bulletin des Recherches Histori- 
Ques, vol. rv, p. 265. 

' M. Dudouyt à Mgr de Laval, 26 mai 1682. 

• Il était à Rochefort en 1698. 

* Bibaud, Je, Panthéon Canadien, p. 27. 

• M. D'Arcussia mourut jeune, étant officier des g-alères du roi. lors du 
bomibardement d' Alicante. Il laissa deux fils. {Diet. LaChetnaye-des-Boiê, p. 


7^ Catherine^ mariée à Roland-Bamn de la Qulissaimière, lieute- 
nant général des armées du roi.^ 

S^ Agnès, mariée à Pierre-Alexandre de Foyal de Donnery, gou- 
verneur de Blois. 

Prenons d'abord Michel IV, c^est le premier en Ikte, et c'est lui 
qui nous intéresse plus particulièrement. Nous reviendrons à Scipion 
et à Claude ensuite. 

Michel Bégen, chevalier, «eigneur de la Picardière, Marbelin, St- 
Sulpice, Pommeraye, de la Sistière, de Sérigny, de Meunes, etc., était 
inspecteur général de la marine et ordonnateur au département de 
Bochefort, depuis 1707, sinon plus tôt, lorsqu'il fut nommé, le 31 mars 
1710, intendant de la justice, police et finances, au Canada, en rem- 
placement de ^IM. Baudot II était aussi confieiBer du roi en ses 
conseils et au Parlement de Metz, en Lorraine. 

Le décès de son père, arrivé le 14 mars 1710, retarda son départ 
pour le Canada. 

François de Beauharnais, qui avait été intendant du Canada quel- 
ques années auparavant, venait d'être appelé au ^poste de Bochefort 
(?4 mars 1710). Bégon le rencontra, fit aussi la connaissance des au- 
tres membres de la famille de Beauharnais, et Tannée suivante (1711), 
il épousa Jeanne-Elisabeth de Beauharnais, sœur des Beauharnais qui 
furent, Pun intendant, l'autre gouverneur de • la Nouvelle-France. 
Cette union ['apparentait avec les Phélypeaux, comtes de Pontchar- 
train, alors ministres (1696-1715).* 

Eégon partit de France en juillet, sur le HéroSy commandé par son 
beau-frère, le lieutenant Beauharnais de Beaumont. It mit pied à 
terre à Québec en 1712; sa femme l'accompagnait. Son frère Claude- 
Michel avait aussi fait la traversée, car le roi venait de lui accorder 
Texpectative d'une compagnie au Canada, pour la première vacance. 

Le 5 janvier 1713, le feu se déclara au palais de l'intendant, et 
If'lle fut la célérité des flammes, que Bégon et sa femme eurent peine 
à fie sauver. Madame Bégon, suffoquée par la fumée dans sa chambre, 
fat obligée de bri&er les carreaux de sa fenêtre pour avoir de l'air pour 
ri^irer. Deux de ses femmes périrent dans cette conflagration. 
Brisset, le valet de Bégon, voulant sauver une partie de la garde-robe 
de son maître, périt aussi. Son secrétaire se sauva nu-pieds, vers la 
rivière, en face, et se gela tellement qu'il en mourut quelques jours 
après, à l'Hôtel-Dieu. 

* On a souvent donné ce M. de la Gallssonniêre comme l'administrateur 
de la Nouvelle-France; mais le premier était le père, l'autre le fils. (Içnotus, 
La Presse, Montréal, 8 mars. 1902, et Can, Corr. Oen. F., vol. 93, p. 85), 

* Pour parenté entre Beauharnols et Phélypeaux, voir article sur François 
de Beauharnais. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOPVELLE-FRANCE 98 

Bégon perdit dans ce feu dès effets évalués à trois mille livres, et 
If 00 livres en monnaie de carte. 

Le palais fut ensuite reconstruit aux frais du roi sous la direction 
de Bégon. 

Pour l'indemniser de ses pertes, le roi lui fît une gratification de 
trois mille livres, répétée plusieurs années de suite.^ 

Bégon, il semble, a voulu, dans les premières années de sa charge 
an Canada, jouer un peu le rôle que devait pratiquer en grand, plus 
tard, le triste sire: Bigot! 

A la date du 17 juillet 1715, le ministre mandait au frère de Tin- 
tendant, à Tabbé Bégon, que: — " Il ne peut payer en argent les appoin- 
'• tements de son frère, mais par des assignations et des rentes, «^il y 
^' consent.* Il ne peut rien faire de mieux, et la conduite de son frère 
" au Canada ne mérite pas de faveurs. Il vient de toutes parts un 
"concert de plaintes contre lui d^une gravité exceptionnelle. 11 veut 
*• se rendre maître du commerce du Canada, ayant fait construire pour 
'" cette fin quatre vaisseaux à La Rochelle. Il (Bégon) a envoyé deux 
^•' navires aux Iles, chargés de blé et de farine, alors qu'il défend Fex- 
*' portation, causant par là une émeute à Québec. Il a fait sceller tous 
" les bluteaux des particuliers afin d'être seul à faire des farines. Il 
*'a vendu dos blés à 16 livres le minot qui n'aurient pas valu plus de 
*' 4, s'il ne s'en était pas rendu maître, et qu'il n'eût pas empêché tout 
* le monde d'en acheter. Il a voulu contraindre les marchands à 
^* livrer au sieur Haymard, son homme de confiance, des farines à 
'• trente livres le baril, alors que par l'augmentation dont il était lui- 
-même la cause, elles valaient 60 livres. Il se rend absolument maître 
"du commerce du Canada, et les gens sont perdus sans ressource, si 
'• on ne met un terme à son avidité. S'il revient encore des plaintes 
"aussi générales, û en informera le roi. Il espère qu'il s'appliquera 
" à réparer tout le mal qu'il a fait." 

Quatre jours auparavant, le ministre avait écrit à l'intendant dans 
le même sens. Il faut croire que cette admonition eut un bon effet, 
car il n'y eut plus de plaintes* semblables formulées durant la balance 
du terme que servit Michel (IV) en Canada. 

En 1724, M. Bégon reçoit l'intendance du Havre, en France. 

Le chevalier Edmé-Nicolas Robert part pour relever Bégon de 
charge, mais il tombe malade en route, et meurt en mer. 

En 1725, M. Guillaume de Chazelles est à son tour appelé à l'inten- 
dance du Canada, mais le vaisseau qui le porte, le Chameau, par une 

* Le mlntetre à Bégron, 16 juin 1716. 

* D'après procuration datée k La RocheUe, 10 juillet, 1712, l'abbé Béffon 
s'ocoupalt en France des intérêts de son aine. 


tempête, donne sur un récif, près d-e Louisbourg, et la perte est entière, 
corps et biens. 

Ces deux événements détenninent Michel Bégon à demeurer en- 
core quelque temps à Québec. Enfin, -en novembre 1725, M. Claude- 
Thomas Dupuy est nommé pour le remplacer; il arrive en août 1726 
à Québec. 

Le dernier procès-verbal des séances du Conseil Souverain, signé 
par Bégon, comme intendant, est daté du 15 avril 1726. Il s'embarqua 
pour la France le 16 octobre de la même année.^ Le 23 novembre sui- 
vant il mandait de Eochefort, au ministre, toute la joie qu'il éjpfpouvait 
de revoir son pays après une absence de quatorze ans. 

Le Havre-de-6râce est dans la Normandie. Quel stage Bégon eut- 
il à faire à cet endroit comme intendant ? Je n'en sais rien, mais en 
1737, et probablement avant, il était intendant de justice, police et 
ÛLances de la marine, au département de Normandie, avec résidence à 
Rouen, tel qu'il apjjert au contrat de mariage de sa fille: Jeanne-Elisa- 
beth, avec M. de Lorgeril. 

De son alliance avec Jeanne-Elisabeth de Beauhamais, Michel (IV) 
Bégon, eut, selon le Dictionnaire Généalogique de M^'' Tanguay: 

1^ Michel, baptisé le 10 mai 1713, à Québec H vécut à peine deux 
années (16 mars 1715); 

2® Un enfant né et décédé le même jour, 13 septembre 1714; 

3® Jeanne-Elisabeth, née le 27 août 1715, baptisée le 14 mars 
1717, à Québec, dans la chapelle du Palais. Parrain: messire Fran- 
çois Bégon, chevalier, conseiller du roi, grand'maître des Eaux et 
Forete de France, dôpaiiement de Blods et Berry, enj vertu de sa pro- 
curation passée au sieur Jean Martel, seigneur de la rivière St-Jean, 
Acadie. Elle épouse le 22 février 1737, Louis-François-Nicolas de 
Lorgeril, seigneur de Lorgeril et de Chalonge, etc. Elle mourut en 

1739, laissant une fille qui devint religieuse. Lorgeril se remaria en 

1740, avec Louise-Jeanne de Saint-Germain. 

40 Michel (V) né le 22 février 1717, baptisé le 28 de ce mois, par 
Mf^ de St-Valier, et filleul de M. de Vaudreuil, gouverneur. Nous re- 
parlerons de cet enfant plus loin. 

5° Marie-Madeleine, baptisée le 8 septembre 1718. 

6*^ Catherine, le 25 août 1719. 

7^^ François-Louis, le 23 février 1723, et inhumé deux ans plus tard, 
le l®*" mai 1725, dans l'église de Québec. 

8° Un dernier enfant, né et mort le même jour, 19 mars 1728. 

* Extrait du Journal des Jésuites, 1710-1769. Voir VAheUïe, vol. XI. 1878. 
Janvier, 19. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA KOUVELLE-FRANCE 9B 

L^intendant Bégon avait acheté le fief de Grand-Pré, situé à la 
Canardière. Il y fit bâtir une tannerie et des moulins. Il mourut en 

Scipion-Jérôme, le deuxième fils de Michel Bégon et de Madeleine 
Druillon, né à Brest, en 1681, mort le 28 décembre 1753;* docteur en 
théologie en 1708; abbé de St-Germain-de-Fleix en 1713; vicaire- 
général de révêque de Beauvais; conseiller du roi en son Conseil d^Etat; 
évêque-comte de Toul; prince du Saint-Empire. 

Claude-Michel Bégon, le troisième fils de Michel III, d'abord en- 
seigne des vaisseaux du roi à Rochefort; lieutenanit en 1714; capitaine 
de Compiègne, et obtint la Croix de St-Louis, en juillet 1718. 

Il fut gouverneur des Trois-Bivières. 

Claude-Michel naquit en 1683 et mourut à Montréal, le 1®' mai 

Le 19 décembre 1718, il avait épousé à Montréal, Marie-Elisabeth 
Eocbert,* fille d'Etienne Roebert, sieur de la Mirandière, lieutenant et 
iiigénieur, puis capitaine des troupes. 

Tanguay Heur donne: — 

1^ Marie-Catherine-Elisabeth, baptisée le 28 octobre 1719. Mariée 
k 17 novembre 1737, à Montréal, à Honoré de Villebois, sieur de la 
Rouvillère, ( onseiller du roi, etc. Elle fut inhumée à Montréal, le 21 
septembre 1740. 

2^ Marie-Louise-Geneviève, baptisée le 4 juin 1721, sépulture la 
3 janvier 1722. 

30 Claude, baptisé 6 juin 1724.3 

M. J.-Edmcnd Roy, dans son essai sur Bégon, publié dans le 
Bulletin des Eecherches Historiques, de Levis, vers la fin de son article, 
disait: "que Teveque-oomte de Ibul céda la collection d'étampes, 
médailles, etc., du collectionneur Michel Bégon, à son neveu, M, Bégon, 
conseiller honoraire au Parlement de Metz, et intendant de la marine, 
alors en résidence à Paris," et il posait la question, qu'il ne pouvait 
résoudre pour le quart d'heure : " Ce neveu était-il le fils de l'ancien in- 
tendant ou bien du gouverneur des Trois-Rivièrcs? " 

Nous répondons: — "Le fils de l'intendant," et nous ajouterons 
que Michel (c'était aussi un Michel) qui continue la descendance, fut 
intendant de la marine, à Dunkerque. Il prit pour femme, le 3 juin 
1743, Anne-Françoise de Pernot, morte le 4 août 1745, dont: 

Michel fVT) né le 28 juillet 1745— mort en avril 1747. 

* D'après le Dictionnaire de la noblesse, par De-la-Chesnaye-Des-Bois et 
Badler. Scipion-Jérôme avait 77 ans à sa mort. 

■ EUe retourne en France, en 1749, avec M. de la Gallssonnière, adminis- 
trateur du Canada, neveu de feu son mari. 

* II est garde du paviUon à Brest, en 1749, à, bord de la Diane, 


La fameuse collection de monnaies, étampes, etc., fut offerte à la 
biblitythèqne du roi par le neveu de Scipion-Jérôme : Michel V, fils de 
Initerdant du Canada. 

Une cousine de notre intendant épousa, le 29 novembre 1718, 
Joseph-Charles de Vimeur de Rochambeau. 

n y eut deux ou trois branches ou maisons connues sous le nom 
de Bégon : Bégon de la Rozière, Bouxière, etc., et, après examen de leur 
gtoéalogie, etc., nous sommes portés à croire que ces branches étaient 
du même tronc. 

Les Bégons blasonnent : " d'azur au chevron accompagné en chef de 
(Jeux roses et en pointe d'un lion, le tout Sor^^ 

Edmé-Nicolas Robert, onzièmb intendant. 

Le 22 février 1724, Edmé-Nicolas Robert, chevalier, conseiller du 
roi, en ses conseils, et au Grand Conseil, fut nommé intendant en rem- 
placement de M. Bégon. 

Le chevalier était issu de la famille Robert, originaire de TOrléa- 
nais et de Paris, dont les chefs eurent qualité de seigneurs de Ville- 
taneuse, de la Fortelle et de Pesselières.^ 

Antoine Robert, anobli en 1481 par Louis XI, est le premier degré 
généalogique enregistré par le juge d'armes de France. Il finit à 
Amboise, mais il eut son épitaphe posée au cinquième pillier de l'église 
^'t-Paul, à Orléans. 

Il eut postérité: c'est la branche de Villetaneuse. Louis Robert, 
que nous donnons comme premier intendant du Canada, était seigneur 
(le la Fortello; il n'eut que deux filles, bien mariées, dont une l'appa- 
Tenta à Colbert. 

Le chevalier Edmé-Nicolas appartenait à la branche cadette des 
Robert, de Pesselières. Vers 1716-18, il occupait une charge royale 
au port de La Rochelle. 

Tous les membres de cette famille ont été fonctionnaires publics, 
et il n'y a jamais eu de plaintes formulées contre eux durant leur 
terme d'oflSce. 

D'après l'inventaire des effets, que le chevalier Robert emportait 
avec lui au Canada, on con&taie que c'était un homme ayant assez 
d^aisance, et la composition de sa bibliothèque nous do^ne une opinion 
agréable de son érudition. 

^ D'Hozier, Armarial Général, Kegiatre III. 

[ri>y] les intendants de la NOUVELLE-FRANCE 97 

Le 18 juillet 1724, ses préparatifs de départ terminés, il fit ses 
adieux aux ministres. Le 24, il s^embarquait à La Rochelle sur 
îc Chameau, avec sa f ennne, Marie-Anne Picard de Mauny,i ^^ gon 
fils unique, Edmé-Antoine, âgé de onze ans. Son secrétaire, M. de 
Mousscau, et plusieurs domestiques raccompagnaient. Il avait fait 
embarquer plu5 de cent cinquante ballots * d'effets, comprenant tous ses 
TTieubles, sa garde-robe et sa bibliothèque. 

Depuis quelque temps M. Robert ne se sentait pas bien: pas assez 
mal cependant pour différer son voyage, et il s^embarqua, mais le soir 
du départ du navire, il empira et rendit l'âme. 

Le lendemain, son corps fut jeté à la mer, le vaisseau étant encore 
en vue des côtes. 

Madame Robert soutint cette affliction avec beaucoup de vertu et 
de force d'esprit. Madame de Vaudreuil, qui était à bord, fit tout ce 
qu'elle put pour adoucir les peines de la malheureuse veuve et la con- 
soler. Rendue à Québec, la femme du gouverneur manda au ministre 
cette nouvelle et le pria d'essayer d'obtenir pour madame Robert une 
pension considérable.' 

A Québec, madame Robert se retira à l'Hôtel-Dieu, refusant Ufl 
appartement au château, que M. de Vaudreuil voulait lui faire accepter. 

Le Conseil Souverain, par arrêt du 14 octobre, ordonna un service 
à la cathédrale pour le repos de l'âme de feu le chevalier Eobert. 

Afin de pouvoir faire l'inventaire des effets de l'ex-intendant, 
Bégon nomma le marquis de Vaudreuil, le commissaire-ordonnateur 
d'Aigrement, le procureur-général Collet, les conseillers Sarrazin, de 
Lmo, de Lotbinière et Lanouiller, pour élire un tuteur à Antoine, fils 
mineur du cnevalier. 

Madame Robert fut choisie tutrice, et M. Collet, subrogé-tuteur. 
L'inventaire se fit le 16 octobre. Madame Robert et son fils retour- 
nèrent en France, aux premiers jours de novembre, par le Chameau. 

Les armes du seigneur de Pesselières sont les mêmes que celles de 
la Port elle: D^azur à trois pattes de griffon ffor, posées deux et une. 

* D'Hozler place les Mauny en l'Orléanais et à Paris, tout comme les 

* Frontenac n'en emporta que 18, lorsqu'il vint à Québec. 

■ On avait déjà accordé 3,000 livres à DuCheeneau pour couvrir ses frais, 
de déplacement, ce qui motivait la supplique de madame de Vaudreuil. 

Sec. I, 1903. 7. 


Guillaume de Chazelles, douzième intendant. 

Le 2 novembre 1724, M. Bégon remerciait le ministre de l'avoir 
nommé intendant du Havre. 

M. de Chazelles vint le remplacer. Il s^emborqua, probablement 
à Rochefort, en juillet 1725, sur la flute le Chameau. 

Le vaisseau était un peu *en dehors de sa course, lorsqu'il arriva 
près deô côtes de FAcadie, la nuit du 27 au 28 août, lorsqu'un coup de 
vent du sud-est, très violent, le jeta sur les récifs de Tîle Porte-Nové, 
et le naufrage fut complet. Des pêcheurs vivant à Lorembec, vis-à- 
vis rîle, déclarèrent le lendemain n'avoir jamais vu tempête aussi 
eftrayante. L'île est située à neuf milles environ de Louisbourg. Le 
lendemain du sinistre, la mer jeta sur le rivage, au Petit Lorembec, les 
cadavres des passagers et de l'équipage du Chameau. Au nombre des 
premiers ramassés, il y avait M. de Chazelles ; M. Chaviteau, pilote du 
vaisseau, et l'un des plus pratiques dfe ces mers, au dire de Montcalm ;^ 
M. La Gesse, fils de Ramezay. Ces trois furent inhumés au Petit 
Lorembec. La commission de l'intendant ainsi que d'autres papiers 
vinrent à terre, et furent renvoyés en France. 

Le gouverneur de Louisbourg dépêcha aussitôt un petit bateau 
acadien à M. de Beauhamais pour l'informer du triste événement. 

* * * 

Il existait dans la Haute- Auvergne, jadis, deux îîefs importants, 
du nom de Chazelles: l'un, dans la paroisse d'Auriac, entre Bresle et 
Massiac, possédé de temps immémorial par la maison Chavagnac; l'au- 
tre est un chef -lieu de commune du canton de Ruines, près de Saint- 
Flour, et c'est vraisemblablement ce dernier qui a donné son nom à la 
famille de Chazelles, de noblesse d'ancienne extraction, qui fait l'objet 
de cette notice, qui est connue depuis Gérard de Chazelles, vivant en 
1266, et Pons de Chazelles, damoiseau, en 1286. 

Guillaume de Chazelles forme le huitième chaînon dans la filia- 
tion. Il était écuyer, conseiller du roi, lieutenant et magistrat en la 
* Journal de Montcalm, p. 46. 




viguerie royale de Boquemaure. Il épousa, le 26 octobre 1660, Jeanne 
de Zanobie, dont il eut: 

1® Jean-Pierre; 

2<^ Henri, mort en 1726, intendant du Canada.* 

3® François; 

4<> Jean; 

6® Guillaume, qui fut appelé à l'intendance du Canada, et périt 
en revenant en France,* sur le vaisseau du roi, le Chameau. 

6^ Jeanne.* 

Les Chazelles étaient d'Auvergne et de Languedoc, comtes de 
Chazelles et de Chusclan; barons de Lunac; seigneurs de la Boissiere, 
Luc, Bagnet, Poujols, Beauregard, Aillet, Eoche-Salesse, Courdes, 
Montirat, Rieux, etc 

Leurs annes sont décrites: D'azur à une tête de léopard S or, lam- 
passée de gueules; au chef cousu de gueules, chargé à dextre d'un croissant 
d'argent, et à senestre, d'une étoile du mime. 

Supports: Detuc lions. 

Couronne: de comte. 

Devise: Toujours prêt à servir, et à s'effacer qtmnd il a servi. 


Claude-Thomas DuPuy, treizième intendant. 

vV'-;;: -..vr^';-.'. '■■' ■■■ 





•■;•■•.';■■ -rv-.-^ 

■ ■•' 'v 

Du Puy mit pied à terre, à Québec, avec le marquis de Beauhamais, 
le 28 d'août 1726. Son brevet d'intendant est signé du 23 novembre 
1725. Son premier acte officiel au conseil est en date du 31 décembre. 

* Le généalogiste fait erreur ici. C'est Guillaume de Chazelles qui a été 
intendant; c'était mon opinion dès le Jour où J'écrivis cet article, mais je 
suis confirmé par une lettre de M. le baron Max de Finfe St-Pierremont, 
marié & une descendante des Chazelles: mademoiselle de Cacqueray-ValoUve. 

' n y a évidemment une tradition dans lia famille que l'intendant est mort 
en revenant en France. C'est ce que me dit mon aimable correspondant: mais 
la correspondance officielle du temps établit le contraire. 

* NohUiaire Universel, Vte de Ma^y. vol. II. p. 68. 1855. 


Claude-Thomas Du Puy, chevalier, était avocat au Châtelet de 
Paris; avocat général au Grand Conseil, conseiller du roi en ees Con- 
seils d^Etat et privé, maître des requêtes * en titre, et ensuite honoraire 
avant d'être transféré à la Nouvelle-Franjce. 

Sa commission est enregistrée à Québec le 2 septembre 1726. 

On peut bien dire, sans crainte d'être désapprouvé, que cet officier 
a été, de tous ceux de son rang, le plus prétentieux, orgueilleux, et le 
moins raisonnable connu dans notre histoire. Il suffit de lire l'ex- 
cellent article à^IgnotuSy dans La Presse, (Montréal) 19 octobre 1901, 
pour s'en convaincre. Lisez par exemple l'extrait qui suit: — "C'était 
"pourtant un homme intelligent, instruit, lettré, profondément versé 
" dans la science du droit, doué d'une perception nette et rapide, d'une 
^' elocution nerveuse et d'une rare facilité de plume. Mais ses talents 
** étaient déplorablement gâtés par son caractère. En effet, il était 
" auitoritaire, opindâtre, arrogant, entiché de sa personne, féru de l'idée 
" qu'il pouvait exceller en tout, violent et excessif, et capable de pousser 
" ses ressentiments jusqu'aux plus fâcheuses extrémités." Il fut bientôt 
en guerre avec quasi tout le monde: le gouverneur, l'évêque, et un 
certain nombre de prêtres. 

Le 28 mai 1728, madame Du Puy, venue de France avec son mari et 
son fils, jésuite, retourna en France. Elle précédait son mari de quel- 
ques mois. En effet, rappelé par son souverain, il prit passage pour 
la France, le 1*' octobre, laissant sea affaires privées, dans un état 
passablement embrouillé, aux soins de son fils, le jésuite. 

La famille est originaire de la Touraine, et est alliée aux .Fleury, 
parents avec M. de Meulles; aux Voyer d'Argenson; de la Trémouille, 
etc., qui à leur tour comptaient comme De Meulles: parenté avec Col- 
bert et Bégon; les Voyer d'Argenson: avec les Lusîgnan, Alogny de la 
Oroie, et de combien d'autres de ce coin de France, dont les noms sont 
familiers aux lecteurs de notre histoire. 

La maison est assez ancienne; nous en avons relevé des traces jus- 
qu'à 1330, lorsque Guillaume de Fleury épousa Jeanne Du Puy. 

Les armes enregistrées sont: D'or à un lion d^azur, armé, couronné, 
lam passé de gueules. 

^ Lee mailtres de requêtes avaient une Juridiction spéciale et sans appel, 
sur tous les officiera de la maison du roi. C*est ce que Ton appelait les r0- 
çuestes de Vhoêiél, 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 



Gilles Hocquart, quatorzième intendant. 

La famille Hocquart est originaire de la Champagne. Le Réthe- 
lois fut le berceau de cette illustre maison. Le 4 janvier 1536, elle 
prouve sa noblesse d'ancienne extraction devant les élus de Réthel. 

D'Hozier, juge d^armes de France, nous dit que le nom de cette 
famille est indifféremment orthographié dani» les actes qu^il a examiné* 
Hoear, Hocart, Hoocard, Hoccart, Hocquard, Hocquart et Hoquart. 
Cependant, il nous assure que les seigneurs de Montfermeil et de 
Coubron, quatrième branche des Hocart, établie à Paris, se sont fixés 
depuis 1644, à orthographier leur nom: Hocquart, 

La famille était ainsi divisée: 
I. Hocart, en Champagne. 


II. Hooaii, (Claude), de Ste-Ménéhould. 

m. Hocart, (François), seigneur de Feloourt. 

IV. Hocquart (Jean-Hyacinthe), chevalier, seigneur d'Essenlis et 
de Muscourt. 
V. Hocart, (Etienne), écuyer, sieur de la Motte. 

Gilles Hocquart descendait de la quatrième branche. Son père, 
seigneur d'Eascnlis et de Muscourt fut conseiller du roi en ses conseils, 
et intendant de justice, police et finances, de la marine, au départe- 
ment de Toulon, par provisions du 30 avril 1716. H mourut à Paris, 
le 17 octobre 1723, à Vage de 74 ans. Il eut quatorze enfants, dont 
cinq moururent en bas âge. 

Gilles était le troisième fils de Jean-Hyacinithe.* Il est qualifié 
de chevalier. Il fut d*abord commissaire de la marine et obtint du 
roi, le 8 mars 1729, une commission en qualité de commiseaire-général 
de la maidne et d'ordonnateur en la Nouvelle-Franoe pour fadre, au 
défaut de Tintendant, les fonctions qu'il serait en droit d'y faire lui- 
même, n arriva à Québec vers la fin d'août 1729, et se présenta au 
Conseil Souverain le 6 septembre suivant, pour faire enregistrer sa 
commission, afin d'agir comme intendant. Le 21 février 1731, il fut 
nommé à Versailles, intendant de la Nouvelle-France, etc. ; ce nouveau 
document fut présenté au Conseil le 20 août de cette année. 

Sous son administration, et malgré les embarras financiers de la 
mère-patrie, la colonie sembla prospérer. 

Hocquari; fut remplacé par Bigot. De retour en France, nous le 
retrouvons aussitôt intendant de Brest, (le 1** avril 1749), et plu6 tard, 
conseiller d'Etat (29 décembre 1763). 

En 1756, le général de Montcalm s'embarqua de France pour diri- 
ger les (xpérations militaires en Canada, contre les Anglais. H rap- 
porte dans son Journal (page 30), qu'à son passage à Brest, il y fut 
très bien reçu par M. le comte Du Guay, chef d'escadre qui commande 
la marine, et par M. Hocquart, intendant. . . . "Pour M. et madame 
"Hocquart, c'est un couple bien assorti; ce sont d'honnêtes gens, ver- 
" tueux, bien intentionnés, tenant une bonne maison. Aussi, M. Hoc- 
" quart a-t-il été vingt ans intendant en Canada, sans avoir augmenté 
" sa fortune, contre l'ordinaire des intendants des colonies qui n'y font 
" que de trop grands profits au dépens de la colonie." 

Hocquart épousa, par contrat du 23 août 1750, demoiselle Anne- 
Catherine de la Lande, fille de Claude de la Lande, oomte de Câlan, 
chevalier de l'ordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis. 

* Jean, alëul de Hyacinthe, épousa une demoiselle Colbert, lîlle du cousin 
du ministre: celui-ci assista au marlagre. Jean-Hyacinthe prit pour femme, 
le 10 décembre 1681, Marie-Françoise Michelet-du-Cosnler, flile de François 
et de Marie Talon. 

Hocquart de Benli*. fils de Jean, devint le premier commis de Colbert. 

[boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 108 

La sœur de Gilles se maria à Claude-François Le Tellier, brigadier- 
général des armées du roi. 

Au mois d'avril 1755, trois mille hommes formant six bataillons, 
et deux cents officiers avaient été embarqués à Brest, à destination de 
Québec et Louisbourg. L^escadre portant ces troupes comptait douze 
vaisseaux et deux frégates. Partie le 3 mai des côtes de France, elle 
passa aux abords de Terreneuve, à ,peu de distance de la flotte Anglaise, 
dont elle ne fut pas aperçue au milieu des brouillards, et gagna Qué- 
l>ec sans encombre. Seuls, trois navires : VAlcide, le Lys et le Dauphin 
Royal, qui s'étaient écartés du gros de la flotte, donnèrent, le 8 juin, 
dans l'escadre de Tamiral Boscawen, composée de onze vaisseaux de 
ligne et de plusieurs frégates. 

M. de Choiseul rapporte que M. Hocquart, qui commandait VAlcide, 
étant à portée de la voix du Dunkerqne, de soixante canons, fit crier en 
anglais: ^^ Sommes-nous en paix ou en guerre f On lui répondit: 
^^ Nous n^ entendons point,'^ M. Hocquart répéta lui-même la question 
en Français, le capitaine Anglais répondit par deux fois : " La paix ! 
la paix ! '' On oonnait ce qui s'ensuivit ; malgré que le capitaine 
anglais eut répondu: ^^ En paix !^^ VAlcide et le Lys n'en furent pas 
moins capturés après combat. 

Ce M. Hocquart (Toussaint), commandant VAlcide, était frère de 
Gilles. H fut chef d'escadre en 1761. Il naquit à Nantes et fut bap- 
tisé le 29 octobre 1700. Jean-Hyacinthe H<xxjuart de Montfermieil, 
neveu de Gilles et de Toussaint, fut tué durant l'action tci^haut men- 
tionnée. Ce M. de Choiseul avait épousé une Hocquart. 

Blason : De gueules à trois roses d'argent, posées deux et une. 

Les Hocquart de Turtôt, de nos jours, continuent la descendance. 




Francois Bigot, quinzième intendant. 



^pii;..^, . '■ ' :;iiii 

'T^ /nttlîf^ifftri 


François Bigot est né à Bordeaux le 30 janvier 1703. Son père, 
Louis-Amable Bigot, était conseilleur du roi au Parlement. La mère de 
François appartenait aux Lombard, famille très puissante dauB la Gu- 
yenne, d'où les ancêtres de notre héros tirent aussi leur origine. 

Bigot avait des influences éminentes à la cour; cela se comprend 
bien lorsque Ton sait qu'il était cousin du marquis de Puysieux et du 
maréchal D'Estrées.' Marie-Louise Bigot, fille d'Antoine, auditeur des 
comptes de Paris, était mariée (1697) au fils du comte de Sillery et de 
Catherine de La Rochefoucauld. Le fils de Marie-Louise: le marquis 
de Puysieux, fut ministre des affaires étrangères, secrétaire d'Etat, et 
membre du conseil de marine. Ce ministre eut une fille unique, qui, 
par dispense, épousa en 1744, I»uis-Charle6-César Le Tellier, comte 
puis maréchal d'Estrées. C'est le même que celui mentionné un peu 
plus haut. 

Le 9 septembre 1739, Bigot arrive à Louisbourg et prend charge 
du poste que le ministre vient de lui confier. Sa commission comporte 
les titres «uivants: Ordonnateur à l'île Royale, chef du Conseil Supé- 
rieur, et sub-délégué de l'intendant. 

En 1712, il fait le tour de Tîle pour en visiter les ports. En 1744, 
Bigot fait déjà des affaires à son compte. On avait appris à Louisbourg 
la déclaration de la guerre entre la France et l'Angleterre, plusieurs 
jours avant qu'elle parvint à Boston; les marchands armèrent aussitôt 
des corsaires, et Bigot, pour sa part, eut plusieurs bâtiments eii course. 
Cependant, il ne fit pas d'argent, cette fois-là. Voyant cela, il opta 
pour un autre plan, qui lui sonnt d'appronti&^age pour plus tard, alors 

* Diet. Généalogique.— La C*c«wayc-Z>c«-//ow.— Mais. Guénin, La Nouvelle- 
France, vol. II, p. 197; Gaxneau, Hist, du Canada, vol. II. p. 263; Montcalm au 
maréchal de Belle- Isle, 12 avril 1759, le disent proche parent de Puysieux et d'Ba- 
trêes, sans spécffler le degré. 

(boy] les intendants DE LA NOUVELLE-FRANCE 105 

qu'il serait intendant de la Nouvelle-France. Dans les derniers jours 
d^octohre 1744, la garnison de Louisbourg se révolta. Faute d^ouvriers, 
les soldats étaient chargés d^achever les fortifications. Il parait que 
l'on avait négligé de payer le supplément de solde que ce travail valait. 
Les soldats se plaignirent; ils murmurèrent sans être écoutés. Ils ré- 
solurent de se faire justice, et se révoltèrent ouvertement. Les sédi- 
tieux se choisirent de nouveaux officiers, s'emparèrent des casernes, 
établirent des corps de gardes, posèrent des sentinelles aux magasins 
du roi et chez Bigot, duquel ils demandèrent la caisse militaire, sans 
oser la prendre, cependant. Ils formulèrent après cela des plaintes 
très-vives contre les officiers et Bigot quails accusèrent de retenir une 
partie de levr paye, de leur habillement et même de leur subsistance, 
Bigot se hâta de les satisfaire sur quelques points, et tout Thiver, il 
employa cette tactique quand ils devenaient trop menaçants.* Fit-il 
autrement, à Québec, quand il eut le malheur d'y être ? 

Après la prise de Louisbourg, en 1745, il retourna en France, mais 
telle était son influence, en cour, qu'il obtint ses appointements pour 
1746 et 1747, tout comme s'il eut été en fonctions à File Royale. Puis, 
il s'en va faire un tour à Bordeaux et aux eaux de Bagnières, mais en 
partant pour ces deux endroits, il offre ses services au ministre, s'il a 
besoin de lui pour le Canada. 

En 1746 Bigot reçoit l'intendance de la flotte, placée sous les 
ordres du duc D'Anville, destinée à reconquérir l'île Royale. C'est 
Maurepas, ministre de la marine, qui le protège, et il devait y avoir 
certainement parenté entre les deux, car Bigot parle dans sa corres- 
pondance avec trop d'assurance à son égard pour les faveurs qu'il en 
peut tirer; nous ne comprenons pas que le ministre soit porté à tel 
point envers Bigot, à moins de quelque affinité consanguine. 

La commission d'intendant à la Nouvelle-France, de Bigot, est du 
l*' janvier 1748, et fut enregistrée à Québec le 2 septembre. Il arriva 
à Québec, par le Zéphir, le 26 août 1748. 

En 1748-49 il alla faire une promenade jusqu'à Louisbourg pour 
voir ce qu'il y aurait à faire afin de nuire aux Anglais. 

En octobre 1749, Bigot intercède auprès du nouveau ministre do 
la marine, Rouillé, comte de JoUy, pour son frère, enseigne de vaisseau. 
11 se plaint de ce que ce frère a été laissé trop longtemps sans promo- 
tion, et il ajoute qu'en 1740, quand des promotions ont été distribuées, 
il e^st persuadé que s'il eut été en France alors on n'aurait pas oubUé son 
parent. Tl demandait aussi des faveurs pour son neveu Reyûack,^ 
garde de la marine, à Brest, alors âgé de 25 ans, et pour son cousin 

* Gameau, Hist, du Canada, vol. II, p. 170. 

* Fils de la sœur de François Bigot. 


germain, M. Lombard, dont le père a servi au Parlement de Bordeaux. 
Bigot dépeint son cousin en disant quHl avait de r esprit et serait propre 
un jour à tout ce qu'on voudrait. Il écrivait cela à Tun des ministres 
du roi, sans se gêner, ce qui fait bien voir où les fonctionnaires du 
tempe en étaient. On a beaucoup blâmé Bigot pour le commence 
scandaleux qu'il a pratiqué en Canada, mais il avait de si beaux modèles 
à copier dans la mère-patrie, que nous ne lui en tiendrions pas rigueur 
autant, s'il se fut agit d^un autre paye que 1« nôtre. 

Il réprésente au ministre, (1749) qu^il a beaucoup perdu par la 
prise de Louisbourg, que see déplacements lui coûtent cher, et il vou- 
drait avoir une indemnité. Il profite aussi de Toocasion pour demander 
une augmentation dans ses appointements, ditant qu^il est déjà en 
avance sur sa paye d'un an, à cause du train de sa maison, qui doit faire 
autant que celle du gouverneur, car les officiers et les habitants en atten- 
dent autant. 

En 1750, Bigot s'est mis à Taise; il veut s'entourer d'amis, de con- 
génères, afin de pratiquer en grand son commerce de vol et de péculat. 
Il supplie le ministre de lui envoyer à Québec le sieur Vergor du Gham- 
bon, de Tîle Royale; il veut avoir comme premier commis, au Détroit, 
le sieur Landriève, qui est en France. 

En 1754, Tadministration de Bigot n'avait pas été populaire. On 
lui reprochait d'avoir trop favorisé see amib, d'avoir soutenu trop énergi- 
quement ceux qui avait accepté sa confiance, mais qui n'étaient pas 
assez honnêtes gens. Dans ces circonstances il crut bon de se montrer 
à la cour pour difesiper les soupçons qui auraient pu s'élever contre lui, 
et se fortifier pour l'avenir. Varin, une autre de ses créatures, le rem- 
plaça durant son absence. 

Le gouverneur même faisait le jeu de Bigot. On a été jusqu'à le 
soupçonner et l'accuser, mais il fut trouvé que M. de Vaudreuil n'avait 
pas trempé dans les machinations malhonnêtes de l'intendant. Le 28 
octobre 1755, le gouverneur mande au ministre qu'il est nécessaire de 
laisser M. Bigot en Canada; qu'on pourrait difficilement lui trouver un 

En 1757 les abus étaient déjà énormes*, et l'année d'après, les 
plaintes, les accusations se firent plus pressantes vers l'Europe. Il faut 
lire les lettres de Montcalm à ce sujet. On saisit bien les nuances qu'il 
met dans sa correspondance, et lorsque, outré de ce qui se passe sous 
ses yeux, et qu'il ne peut se contenir plus longtemps, il emploi un 
chiffre secret. 

Et le ministre (Berryer) dans sa dépêche du 19 janvier 1759, aver- 
tit Bigot que la fortune de ses adhérents, de ses créatures rend son 


administration suspecte. Plus tard (29 août) Berryer Taocuse de 
manque d'ordre et d'économie, ainsi que de péeulat. 

Que faisait Bigot de tout cet argent qu'il acquérait ainsi ? Il le 
dépensait follement, justifiant le proverbe: Bien mal acquis, etc. 
Durant le carnaval de 1758, il perdit au jeu plus de 200,000 livres. 

Aloins de deux ans après, la colonie succombait aux attaques inces- 
santes des troupes de TAngleterre. Dans cette ruine, l'intendant 
pensait sans doute enfouir toute trace de ses ténébreuses spéculations. 
Mais à son retour «n France, il fut incarcéré dans la Bastillo et y sléh 
jouma onze mois, pendant qu'on lui faisait son procès. Lorsqu'il en 
sortit, ce fut pour prendre le chemin de l'exil, car il était banni de 
France, pour toujours, et ses biens confisqués. 

Des contemporains de l'époque nous ont laissé le portrait physique 
et moral de Bigot. 

D était petit de taille, ^)ien fait, délicat, mais il avait le visage laid 
et couvert de boutons. Il aimait le jeu, le ftwte, et les femmes. Il 
était haut, dur, et de difiîcîle abord pour ceux qui lui déplaisaient; très 
judicieux dans les affaires qui ne heurtaient pas ses propres intérêts, et 
fort laconique dans ses réponses. 

C'était un homme aimable, dit Montcalm. 

Bigot blasonnait: De sable à trois têtes de léopard d^or. 

Section I, 1903 [ 109 ] Mémoibks S. R. C. 

IV. — Mouvement intellectuel chez les Canadiens-français depuis 1900. 
Par rhonorable Pascal Poibier. 

(Lu le 19 mal 1903.) 

H est décidément plus aisé de faire un règlement que de le suivre. 

Les statuts de notre Société prescrivent au président de chaque 
section " de préparer pour la réunion annuelle un discours sur les 
matières relevant de sa section '\ et je constate que bien peu d'entre 
ceux qui m^ont précédé ont satisfait à cette obligation de leur charge. 

Je ne dis pas ceci pour trouver en faute les présidents de la section 
française: je constate seulement que nous ne portons peut-être pas 
un intérêt suflBsant à notre Société Royale. 

Notre action sur les écrivains de notre pays est nulle, ou à peu 
près; nous ne donnons aucune orientation aux lettres canadiennes; 
comme corps répufté d^élite, nous ne dirigeons en aucune façon le mouve- 
ment intellectuel canadien. L^âmc canadienne flotte à côté de nous, 
sans être sollicitée par le faible sillage que nous traçons. 

Ne vous semble-t-il pas, messieurs, que le marquis de Lome, en 
fondant la Société Royale; que notre gouvernement, en la dotant, aient 
eu la pensée de faire autre chose qu'une synagogue stérile? N'avons- 
nous pas un rôle à remplir dans le drame intense qui se joue, au Canada, 
entre les différentes race**, et dont le dénouement final sera la dispa- 
rition de la nationalité française, ou la fondation d'une France nou- 
velle en Amérique ? 

Comme Français, comme catholiques, notre place est parmi les 
Latins. Notre mission évidente sur ce continent est d'y répandre les 
arts, la haute culture intellectuelle, la civilisation, l'âme splendide 
de la France. Il faut que nous tenions haut, en Amérique, le flambeau 
dont la Gaule, depuis Charlemagne, a illuminé l'Europe. Notre place 
est au premier rang, en plein soleil, en pleine lumière. Reléguée au 
second, nous périrons. Etre les premiers, au Canada, ou cesser d'être, 
telle est notre inéluctable destinée. 

Or le nombre nous échappe. La majorité numérique n'est plus à 
nous. Nous formons bien encore aujourd'hui le tiers de la population 
totale du Canada; mais au train où nous arrive l'immigration mondiale, 
nous n'en serons pas le quart dans vingt ans, et le cinquième dans 
quarante ans. 

Déjà nous avons à peu près perdu le Manitoba, où nous devrions 
être, où il nous eut été possible de rester, la majorité. 

Les Acadiens se maintiennent à grande peine, dans les provinces 
maritimes, livréa qu'ils sonit à une hiérarchie hostile et contrariés par 


elle dans les efforts légitimes quails font pour demeurer Français, et, 
par là mêmle, catholiques. 

Aux Etats-Unis, les nôtreb constituent une forte avant-gardfi ; 
mais réussiront-ils à faire plus qu'arrêter le flot envahisseur de 
Taméricanisme anglais? Seront-ils autre chose que la "levée'* qui 
barre le torrent? Se maintiendront-ils par kur seul eflfort? 

Il n'y a que la province de Québec où nous soyons numériquement 
les plus forts, où nous sommes les maîtres, où nous nous sentons sûrs 
de nous-mêmes. 

C'est donc autour de la province de Québec que nous devons nous 
grouper, comme autour d'un foyer réchaufCant et lumineux. Comme 
Athènes dan* la Confédération hellénique, la province de Québec doit 
être la première dans la Confédération canadienne, par les lettres, les 
arts, les sciences, la haute culture intelleotuelle et la direddon des 

Faisons donc sur nous-mêmes un examen sévère; étudions nous, sans 
parti pris de nous encenser stupidement ; examinons* notre outM- 
lage de combat intellectuel; passons en revue nos forces offensives et 
défensives, et pesons nos chances de succès ou de défaite dans la lutte 
de vie ou de mort nationale que nous avons à soutenir, au milieu des 
races qui nous entourent. 

Avançons-nous? Beculons-nous? 

La critique honnête et franche; l'exercice du droit de dire respec- 
tueusement la vérité aux hommes; de se la dire à soi-même; le courage 
de faire ses eoulpes, est le sel qui préserve de la corruption. Faisons 
ensemble notre coulpe. 

L'homme, l'Etat, les membres du corps social ou religieux qui ne 
. peuvent souffrir qu'on leur dise d'autres vérités que des vérités flat- 
teuses, qui préfèrent le mensonge louangeux à la vérité âpre et forti- 
fiante, sont en pleine décadenoe. - La paresse intellectuelle, et, le plus 
souvent, l'orgueil, sont assis à leur chevet de moribonds. 

Or, ,pour remplir les obligatione de ma charge de président de la 
section française, à notre Société Royale, j'ai repris la revue rétrospec- 
tive du mouvement intellectuel chez les nôtres, là où Va laissée M. 
Gérin, c'est-à-dire, j'ai remonté jusqu'au commencement de l'année 
1900, et j'ai comparé. 

Vous donnerai-je franchement les conclusions de mon enquête? 

Les progrès que nous faisons sont plutôt lents, et le terrain que 
nous gagnons ne nous donne aucune avance sur les autres nationalités. 
Le mouvement intellectuel, commencé parmi nous vers le milieu du 
siècle dernier, s'est plutôt ralenti. N'avançant pas, nous reculons. 

Dans les sciences nous demeurons où nous étions il y a cinquante, 
il y a vingt-cinq ans, au fin bas de l'échelle. Nous pouvons compter 

[poirikb] mouvement CHEZ LES CANADIENS-FRANÇAIS 111 

&ur les doigts d^une de nos mains le nombre total de ceux parmi nous 
qui pourraient occuper en Allemagne, en France, aux Etats-Unis, à 
McGill, ou dans les provinces-sœurs, une ohaire dans renseignement 
de rhiôtoire naturelle, de la géologie, d-e la minéralogie, d-e Pastrono- 
mie, de la paléontologie, de la botanique, de la biologie, de Tethno- 
logie, dee mathématiques, de la géographie, de la sociologie, de la 
chimie, de Thistoire, de la pédagogie. 

Et pourtatnit c'est aux sciences appliquées, c'est à la science, que 
nous devons tous les progrès dont se glorifie la civilisation moderne. 
Après la religion, c'est la science qui contient la plus grande somme de 
vérités qui se pudsse acquérir ici-bas. Elle affranchit l^homme, l'élève, 
l'éclairé, lui fait épelcr l'alphabet de la création. La science menait à 
Dieu, au moyen âge; mais aussi les premiers savants du monde se 
recrutaient, alors, dans les universités catholiques. 

En littérature, où nous sommes ai certains d'exceller, nous n'avons 
rien produdt, depuis deux ans et demi, qui se puisse préférer, par exemple, 
aux Anciens Canadiens de M. de Gaspé, à Jacques et Marie de Bourassa, 
ni, peut-être, aux romans historiques de Marmette. 

Dans le champ purement littéraire, il est même fort douteux que 
nous fassions, aujourd'hui, mieux que nos amds les Anglais. Qui 
opposerons-nous à leurs romanciers Roberts, Fraser, 0x1 ey, M^^* Wood, 
lipie Laut et Parker, pour ne nommer que les principaux? La répu- 
tation littéraire de quelques-uns de ces auteurs s'étend jusqu^aux Etats- 
Unis, jusqu'en Angleterre. 

Faisons avancer leis nôtres, tous ceux qui, depuis le commence- 
ment du siècle, ont produit une œuvre littéraire quelconque, et passons 
la revue de leurs ouvrages. Quelques-uns m'échappent, sans doute, 
mais c^est le petit nombre. 

Pêle-mêle ce sont : Uovhliée, par Laure Oonan; les Légendes Cana- 
diennes, par M. Rouleau; Deux récits, par M. Rousseau; Conteurs Canor- 
dienS'Français, par M. Massicotte; Mon premier péché, par Madeleine; 
Florence, par M. Girard; Soirées du Château de Ramezay, par l'Ecole 
littéraire de Montréal ; La vérité révélée, par M. Magnan; Claude paysan, 
Caràbinades, Les Ribaud, par le Dr Choquette; l'Etoffe du pays, 
par M. de Montigny; Le vieux muet, par M. Caouette; Mélanges poli" 
tiques et littéraires, par M. Marchand; Bleu-Blanc-Rouge, par Colom- 
bine; Uécrin précieux des Jeunes Mères, par M. St-Cyr; Précis de l'his- 
toire de la littérature française, par la Congrégation des sœurs de Sainte- 
Anne; Monuments du Mont Royal, par M. Joseph Bninet; Jésus-Christ, 
par l'abbé Nunésorais; La grande figure du prêtre, par le Dr Dionne; 
Une fleur canadienne, par M. Pampalon; Robert Lozé, par M. Errol 


Bouchette; Articles et études, et Mariages clandestins des catholiques, par 
l'abbé Auclair; Vengeances et fables, par M. Pamphile Lemay; La Noël 
au Canada, par Louis Frechette. 

Ce sont là de bons ouvrages, pour la plupart; quelques-uns même 
excellenits; mais en vérité ils ne rejettent pas dans lombre les produc- 
tions littéraires des meilleurs écrivains anglais contemporains du Canada. 

Nos publicistes, nos nouvellistes, forment une élite brillante. Sur- 
tout ceux de Montréal, des jeunes pour la plupart, manient une plume 
alerte et fa-oile. Ils n'ont pas, cependant, fait oublier Buies, Faucher 
de Saint-Maurice, Lusignen, Taché, Dessaulles, Chauveau, Aubin, 

Beaucoup de talent et quelque originalité; peu d'idées, s-ervies par 
trop peu de travail et d'études. 

Saluons l'entrée dans les lettres canadiennes de l'élément féminin. 
Nos plus gracieux conteurs, et, à l'occasion, les plus malins, sont au- 
jourd'hui des femmes, ce dont nos cœurs français se sentent doucement 

Le journal, qui, il y a vingt-cinq ans, fournissait à grand'peine le 
gîte, le couvert et l'apéritif à Provencher, à Oscar Dunn, à Cauchon, à 
Fabre, à de Celles, à David, à Beaugrand, à Gérin, à Laberge, paie 
aujourd'hui des rentes à Dansereau, à Tarte, à Langlois, à Tardivel, à 
Pacaud. Est-il pour cela mieux fait? Plusieurs en doutent, malgré- 
l'incontestable talent des rédacteurs de nos grands journaux contempo- 

Paulo majora canamus. Parlons poésie. Les muses canadiennes 
semblaient, depuis plusieurs années, assoupies parmi les sentes ombreuses 
de THélicon. Elles s'éveillent; et voici qu'elles accordent leur luth 
antique, dont elles accompagnent les chansons de Poisson, rêvant sous les 
grands pins d'Arthabaskaville, et les hymnes lyriques de Chapman, 
célébrant la France héroïque et les pures gloires du Canada. 

D'autres encore parmi nos poètes vont boire aux ondes troublantes 
de l'Hippocrène, cependant que les sœurs d'Apollon leur sourient. 

Leurs chants, toutefois, ne couvrent pas la grande voix de Cré- 
mazie, ni les éclats vibrants de Fauteur de la Légende d'un peuple. 

Dans le domaine de la poésie, je crois, cependant, que nous occupons 
toujours la première place, au Canada. 

En est-il de même de l'histoire ? Nous avions* Charlevoix, Fer- 
land, l'abbé Faillon, Suite, Casgrain, Edouard Richard, de Celles, Roy 
et Gameau. La plupart sont morts, les autres n'écrivent plus. Allons- 
nous vivre éternellement de leur gloire, à la façon dont les Espagnols 
vivent de la gloire du Cid et de Cervantes ? Rien n'est plus déprimant 
que de s'hypnotiser devantt un nom, et de se croire tous grands pad\îe 
que Tun des nôtres le fut. 


Le8 Anglais, M. Doughty, en collaboration avec l'honorable M. 
Chapais, M. Parmalee et M. Chambers, viennent de nous donner six gros 
volumes sur le siège de Québec et la bataille des Plaines d'Abraham. 

Leurs historiens se nomment Price, Dawson, Wilson, Weir, Hop- 
kins, Hannay, Kingsford et Boairinot — ces deux derniers viennent de 

Qu'avons-nous à opposer à ces ouvrages, d'un mérite inégal, il est 
vrai, mais dont quelques-uns ont une valeur très réelle? 

L'Histoire du Palais episcopal, par M.f^ Têtu; l'Histoire de Sainte- 
Foyty par l'abbé Scott; V Histoire des Ursulines des Trois-Rivières, 
Madame de Ste-Anne, par le père Charland, Labrador et Anticosti, par 
l'abbé Huard; Les exploits d' Iberville et la Monongohela, par Ed. Bous- 
seau; V Histoire de Saint-Luc, par l'abbé Moreau; Familles d'Yamc^ 
chiche, par F.-L. Desaulniers; l'Histoire de la paroisse de St-Liguori, par 
l'abbé Dugas; l'Histoire de Charlesbourg, par M. Trudel; l'Histoire du 
Séminaire de Nicolet, par l'abbé Douville; Sainte-Marguerite, par les 
Sœurs de la Miséricorde; Frontenac et ses Amis, par Ernest Myrand; 
Bases de l'Histoire d'Tamachiche, par Raphaël Bellemare; les Archives 
Canadiennes, par Edouard Richard; Noces de diamant de la Société 
Saint-Jean Baptiste, par M. H.-J.-J. Chouinard; Henri de Bernières, 
par l'abbé Goseelin; Louis Joliette, par Ernest GTagnon; Lettres sur l'Ile 
d' Anticosti, par M«f^ Guay; Une paroisse historique de la Nouvelle- 
France, par M. l'abbé Scott; Abrégé de Fhistoire du Canada, par les 
S(curs de la Charité; Petite histoire des Etats-Unis, par Sylva Clapîn; 
De la fondation du Collège de Bimousici et de son fondateur, par l'abbé 
Sylvain; Monographie de Saint-Ignace du Cap Saint-Ignace, par l'abbé 

C'est beaucoup, surtout comme quantité; mais ce n'est pas 
suffisant. Nous devons faire davantage et mieux encore. 

L'histoire est une fontaine de Jouvence, où les peuples vont puiser 
une étemelle jeunesse. La nôtre, sous bien des rapports, est incom- 
parable. Abreuvons-nous plus souvent à son onde. 

Les études sociales et économiques ne reçoivent pas* de notre part 
l'attention qu'elles méritent, et c'est un malheur. 

Par contre les questions de jurisprudence, de droit, de coutume, 
formant le thème de nombreuses études publiées dans nos revues de 
droit et dans des ouvrages et opuscules spéciaux. La basoche ne perd 
pas ses droits dans la province de Québec. 

Nos médecins n'écrivent guère le résultat de leurs expériences sur 
leurs semblables. Ils se contentent des expériences de leurs confrères 
étrangers. Ils guérissent leurs patients, et, au besoin, les enterrent, 
sans bruit et sans ddssertations. Des obituaires font le plus clair de- 
leur littérature. Ils se reposent en paix. 

Sec. I, 1903. 8. 


Un mouveanent de grande portée, dû à Tinitiative de TUniveisité 
Laval, a été inauguré depuis quelques années, et produit déjà de très 
excellents résultats. Je veux parler des cours de littérature française 
donnés à Montréal et à Québec par des maîtres français, en même temps 
que des concours littéraires ouverts à la jeunesse canadienne. Faisons 
venir de France ou d'ailleurs les professeurs de français qui nous 
manquent, en attendant que nous en produdsions nous-mêmes de 

A signaler aussi plusieurs conférences tout à fait remarquables: 
celle de M. Tardivel, par exemple, sur La langue française au Canada; 
celle de M. Nevers, Les Anglais et nous, et celles de M. Henri Bourassa, 
sur La Orande Bretagne et le Canada et sur le Patriotisme canadien- 

Que dirai-je de nos artistes, architectes, peintres, sculpteurs, 
chanteurs, musiciens? 

La jeunesse canadienne, celle du Bas-Canada, est la plus brillante, 
la plus étincelante, peut-être, qui soit au monde. Tous les talents 
s'y trouvent en puissance, y abondent, y éclatent spontanément; et 
cependant peu d'entre nos artistes arrivent à la grande gloire. C'est 
que nous n'avons pas d'école de beaux-arts, et que nos enfants, pour la 
plupart, sont trop pauvres pour aller étudier en Europe. Le Carnegie 
qui voudrait prendre soin de nos artistes en herbe, leur donner la cul- 
ture qui leur convient, serait plus glorieux que celui qui se charge de 
nos bibliothèque publiques. 

L(»s dramaturges français founiissent au monde son théâtre. Allons- 
nous sous ce rapport rivaliser avec nos cousins d'outre-océan Atlantique? 
On pourrait presque le croire au nombre des pièces qui ont été publiées 
et jouées durant les deux dernières années et demie. Tragédie en 
vers, Subercase, par le R. P. Brault; drame en vers, Veronica, par Louis 
Frechette; Levis, drame historique en vers, par l'abbé Marcile; Pour 
la Mairie, comédie en vers, par Arthur Geoffrion. 

En prose, le Drapeau de Carillon, par David; Hindelang et de 
Lorimicr, par Colombine; Les adieux du /7oc/e, par Madeleine ; Les houles 
de neige, par de Montigny. 

iSo.s auteurs dramatiques ne manquent certes pas de talent; mais 
peut-être l'expérience de la seène et des situations scéniques leur fait- 
elle quelque peu défaut. 

Il me reste à parler de l'éducation — écoles primaires, collèges ot 
couvents, écoles spéciales et écoles techniques. 

L'éducation c'est l'arme de combat. Chaque homme s'arme à sa 
taille, et chaque peuple selon ses nécessités ot ses lumières. Les 
Espagnols ont les canons se cliargeant par la gueule; les Chinois, les 
vieux mousquets du siècle dernier; les nègres d'Afrique, la pique et le 

[poiribr] mouvement CHEZ LES CANADIENS-FRANÇAIS 118 

javelot du moyen âge. Leurs années ne peuvent en aucune façon^ avec 
tout Théroïsme qui autrefois les rendait victorieuses, supporter le choc 
des bataillons modemee, armés de pièces perfectionnées. 

L'éducation secondaire ne diffère guère chez nous de ce qu'elle 
était il y a cent ans. Nous chargeons toujours nos canons par la gueule. 
Les flatteurs 

Présent le plus funeste 

Que puisse Caire aux rods la colère céleste, 

assurent aux autorités canadiennes, — et les mandarins du Céleste Em- 
pire tiennent le même langage à leur reine douairière — qu^il ne faut 
lien changer, rien ajouter aux anciennes méthodes, parce que ce serait 
de l'impiété. Or, les mandarins* mènent TEmpire du Milieu, autrefois 
le plus grand de toute la terre, à la désintégration; et nos tristes flat- 
teurs canadiens seront cause que nos corps enseignants, à qui le Ca- 
nada doit tant, douit le dévouement est digne de tant de respect, dont 
les cours d'études étaient certainement les plus forts en Amérique, il y 
a cent-cinquante ans, tomberont dans la déconsidération populaire, ai 
leur néfaste influence prévaut pluadeurs années encore. 

Ceux qui, parmi nous, aiment les congregations enseignantes à la 
manière et avec la virile sincérité dont Fénelon aimait Louis XIV et 
la royauté, sont comme lui renvoyés en disgrâce, s'ils ont l'audace de 
dire au roi qu'il n'est pas un dieu et que ses courtisans le trompent et 
le mènent à sa ruine. 

Et personne, au Canada, n'ose toucher à l'arche sainte de l'édu- 
cation secondaire et dire franchement la vérité. Il faut se taire ou 
flatter lourdement. 

Pour avoir eu la témérité d'écrire qu'un certain nombre, un trop 
grand nombre, de professeurs dans nos collèges n'ont pas la compétence 
requise pour enseigner ce qu'ils enseignent, et avoir proposé une certaine 
réforme de ce côté-là, j'ai été banni de la société des honnêtes gens; on a 
décrété que je suis un catholique dangereux; plusieurs estiment que je 
ne suis plus catholique du tout; un journal de Troôs-Rivièrcs a démontré 
que je suis un sectaire; et certain Recteur d'université, parfaitement 
estimable d'ailleurs, en séance publique de fln d'année, a prouvé, avec 
force palmarès et diplômes décernés honoris causa, que nos maisons 
d'éducation fourni-ssent le plus haut enseignement qui se donne aujour- 
d'hui dans le monde; que les mousquets qui ont fait nos pères 
vainqueurs à Sainte-Foye, sont plus efficaces que le fusil Lcbel; que les 
Canadiens doivent toujours en armer leurs enfants, et que moi, qui 
pense différemment, je pourrais bien ne pas être un honnête homme. 

Il est aussi malaisé, ici au Canada, de parier de réformes scolaires 
les plus nécessaires et les plus essentielles, qu'il est dangereux de parler 
de réformes politiques à la cour de la reine douaiirière des Fils du Ciel. 


Messieurs et chers collègues, je vous laisse, pour ce qu'elles valent, 
ces conclusions, qui sont honnêtes, si elles ne sont pas tout à fait 

Pouvons-nous, en notre qualité de membres de la Société Royale, 
faire quelque chose pour le progrès et Tavancement des nôtres? 
Pouvons-nous exercer une action utile sur le mouvement intellectujel 
canadien, dans le domaine des lettres, des arts, des sciences et de 
l'éducation ? 

Si nous le pouvons, nous le devons, cela dût-il nous causer quelque 
effort sérieux; dût-il en résulter quelque inconvénient personnel pour 

Section I, 1903 [ ^17 ] Mémoires S. R. C. 

V. — Le Père Bebastien Rasles, jésuite, missionnaire chez les Abénaquis, 


Par N.-E. Dionne, M.D., LL.D. 

Bibliothécaire de la Législature de la Province de Qu6bec. 

(Lu le 20 mai 1903). 

En 1894 paraissait à Albany, capitale de Fétat de New- York, un 
gros volume de 450 pages, intitulé : The Pioneers of New France in New 
England, par James Phinney Baxter, A.M., auteur de plusieurs autres 
ouvrages historiques d'une certaine importance. Ces écrits ont apporté 
à leur auteur de la notoriété et du prestige dans le monde américain. 
Son dernier, celui dont nous allons nous occuper, touche à un sujet 
essentiellement canadien. Malgré le titre général qu'il porte, il n'est 
en réalité qu'une relation détaillée de la vie du Père Sébastien Basles, 
jésuite célèbre qui, de 1689 à 1724, année de sa mort, consacra son 
talent, son énergie et son zèle d'apôtre à convertir les sauvages, et qui, 
après avoir fourni la plus laborieuse carrière, comme aussi la plus mou- 
vementée, fut tué par les Anglais, dans sa mission abénaquise de Nan- 
rantsouak, sur les bords de la rivière Kennebec. 

Cette mort tragique aurait pu amener des comjplications sérieuses, 
si le gouverneur de la Nouvelle-France l'eut voulu. Mais il resta plu- 
tôt dans l'indifférence, au grand regret des sauvages, qui avaient perdu 
Uur missionnaire en même temps que l'espoir de continuer à demeurer 
dans le pays de leurs ancêtres. La mission de Nanrantsouak finit donc 
avec la disparition du Père Sa^iles, et bientôt un grand gilence se fit dans 
ces contrées où les Abénaquis avaient vécu pendant de longues années, 
80 croyant maîtres chez eux. 

La mémoire du Père Easles serait vite tombée dans l'oubli, si des 
historiens, Charlevoix surtout, n'eussent conservé la tradition à son 
sujet. Cette tradition, respectable à tous égards, fut toujours res- 
pfctce, du moins dans les grandes lignes. Les historiens américains 
i/cnt guère contredit Charlevoix à venir jusqu'à l'apparition du livre 
de M. Baxter. Ce dernier a déployé tant de zèle et mis un si grand 
soin à parfaire son œuvre, que nous nous croyons justifiable de l'appré- 
cier à sa juste valeur, sans arrière pensée comme sans préjugés. 

Dans sa préface, M. Baxter commence par afiirmer, sans preuves, 
que le témoignage de Charlevoix ne vaut que ce que valent générale- 


nient les récits de voyageurs qui recueillent des notes ici et là, plus ou 
TQoins véridiques, les rédigent au hasard de la plume, et puis les lancent 
oans le publie sous forme de livre. Voilà une très grave affirmation, 
d^autant plus grave qu^elle s'adresse au plus ancien historien de la Nou- 
velle-France, à un écrivain des plus féconds et des plus érudits, à celui 
qui a été l^inspirateur de tous les historiens du Canada, des Etats-Unis, 
et même de France, qui se sont occupés des Canadiens-français. Person- 
nellement nous avions toujours été sous l'impression que le jésuite 
Charlevoix avait préparé son bel ouvrage sur le Canada avec le plus 
grand soin, ayant sous les yeux d'abondantes notes et une masse de 
documents propres à le guider dans l'élaboration de son œuvre. 
K'étions-nous pas justifiable de penser ainsi, quand tant d'écrivains, 
anglais et français, protestants et catholiques, l'avaient toujours cité 
ccmme un historien digne de foi, ou, sans le citer, lui avaient em- 
prunté, sans lui en donner crédit, une foule de détails qu'ils auraient 
toujours ignorés sans lui? 

Dans ce concert d'éloges nous omettrons systématiquement les 
écrivains français, dont l'autorité pourrait être suspecte à plusieurs, 
précisément à cause de leur nationalité. Tenons-nous-en donc aux 
auteurs anglais ou anglo-américains. Ouvrons John Gilmary Shea à 
la préface de son excellente traduction de Charlevoix. Que dit-il: 
** The history of New France, by Father Charlevoix, is too well known 
end too highly esteemed both for style and matter to need any explan- 
ation of its scope or object here. The praise of Gibbon will alone 
assure the English reader that as an historical work it is of incon- 
siderable merit." 

Nous n'avons pu retracer nulle part l'opinion de Gibbon dont parle 
ici Shea, mais il n'y a pas de doute que le célèbre historien anglais se 
prononce favorablement à l'égard de l'ouvrage de Charlevoix. 

Nous trouvons dans un ouvrage de date récente, intitulé : *T)iction- 
ary of American Literature," deux appréciations de VHûtoire de la Nou- 
telle-France, qui sont loin d'être malveillantes. La première est de 
l'red. W. Ilodge, du bureau ethnologique de Washington. Il s'ex- 
prime ainsi: "The author, a French Jesuit, well known for his monu- 
iricntal History of New France, was an acute observer. . . His Letters 
aie replete in valuable information regarding the Indian tribes and 
settlements visited, etc." 

La seconde est de M. Charles W. Colby, professeur d'histoire à 
l'Université McGill de Montréal : " Charlevoix, dit-il, had command of 
invaluable sources and shows undoubted cleverness." 

Voici une autre opinion provenant d'un historien fort distingué 
des Etats-Unis, Charles C. Smith, trésorier de la Société historique du 
Massachusetts, qui a contribué pour une si large part au grand ouvra^re 

Ldionni.] le Père Sébastien rasles 119 

de Justin Winsor: "Narrative and critical history of America/' 
"Among the later French writers the pre-eminience belongs* to the 
Jesuit Father, Pierre François-Xavier de Charlevoix, who had access 
to contemporaDeous materials, of which he made careful use; and his 
statements have great weight, though he wrote many years after the 
events he describes/' 

Qu'est-il besoin de multiplier les opinions sur le mérite et l'auto- 
rité du Père Charievoix, puisqu'il y en a tant qui l'afSrment et si peu 
qui s'inscrivent en faux ? M. Baxter a-t-il oublié que l'historien de la 
Nouvelle-France a résidé à Québec pendant plusieurs années, et qu'il a 
dû profiter de son séjour ici pour se renseigner le mieux qu'il a pu sur 
les événements de son temps? Soyons donc de bon compte, et don- 
nons à chacun son dû. L'autorité de Charievoix est indéniable, et la 
meilleure preuve que nous puissions en donner, est la persistance avec 
laquelle tous les historiens du Canada et même des Etats-Unis le citent 
Fons le contredire. 

Ce point établi, entrons sans plus tarder dans la vie du Père Rasles, 
que nous avons écrite avec la plus «étricte impartialité, oubliant pour 
le quart d'heure notre origine française et notre titre de catholique. 


Sébastien Rasles naquit à Pontarlier, dans la province de Lyon, 
le 4 janvier 1657. Il entra au collège des Jésuites à Dole, le 24 sep- 
tembre 1675. Après y avoir fait son noviciat, il fut nommé professeur 
de cinquième au séminaire de Carpentras, où il séjourna deux ans, 
puis il fut appelé à Nîmes, et successivement à Carpentras et à Lyon 
pour enseigner la théologie. De là il passa à sa troisième année de 
probation, et il partit pour le Canada le 23 juillet 1689. Pendant les 
vingt-quatre années qui précédèrent sa vie de missionnaire, le Père 
Kasles sut trouver assez de loisirs pour s'occuper de bonnes œuvres, et 
l'on cite entre autres, la congrégation des jeunes ouvriers et celle des 
portefaix de Lyon qu'il sut diriger avec un zèle admirable. "P:&r- 
Fonne qui ne vit en lui une âme d'apôtre," écrit le Père de Rochemon- 
icjx. " Dévouement, activité, vertu, santé de fer, il avait tout ce qu'il 
fsut pour réu:?sir dans les missions sauvages; aussi ne fut-on pas étonné 
dr le voir s'embarquer pour l'Amérique du Nord. Alors, on s'expliqua 
également pourquoi ce religieux, si avare de son temps, aimant l'étude 
et les œuvres de charité, faisait encore de la peinture et des ouvrages 
(!e tour: tout cela devait un jour servir au futur apôtre dans les forêts 
du Nouveau-Monde."^ 

Leê Jéêuites et la Nouvelle-France au XVIIe Siècle, vol. III. p. 470. 


Arrivé à Québec le 13 octobre, le Père Kasles fut aussitôt envoyé 
à la mission abénaquise de Saint-François de Sales * pour se mettre au 
courant de la langue de ces sauvages. " A mon arrivée à Québec, écrit- 
il à eon frère, je m'appliquai à apprendre la langue de nos sauvages. 
Cette langue est très difficile, car il ne suffit pas d'en étudier les termes 
et leur signification, et de se faire une provision de mots et de phrases, 
il faut encore savoir le tour et l'arrangement que les sauvages leur 
donnent, et que Ton ne peut guère attraper que par le commerce et la 
fîéquentation de ces peuples." 

Le Père Easles, doué comme il l'était d'une merveilleuse mémoire, 
eut bientôt fait de se familiariser avec l'idiome abénaquis, comme il 
apprit plus tard à parler avec correction l'illinois, l'outaouais et le 

Le 13 août 1691 le Père liasles quitta Saint-François de Sales pour 
83 rendre chez les Illinois qui venaient de perdre leur missionnaire. 
Arrêté pendant plusieurs mois à Michillimakinac, il arriva enfin à des- 
tination au printemps de 161)2. Dans une lettre à suu frère il nous 
fait connaître avec un grand luxe de détails les mœurs et coutumes de 
cce sauvages lointains au milieu desquels le père Marquette avait, dès 
1674, jeté la bonne semence. Le Père Easles ne demeura avec eux que 
perdant un an, après avoir opéré tout le bien que son ambition pour la 
conquête des âmes avait dû lui suggérer. 

En 1693, enfin, le Père Rasles fut appelé à prendre le chemin de 
la mission abénaquise de Xanrantsouak, petit village situé à six milles 
de Xorridgewock, presque vis-à-vis l'embouchure de la rivière Sandy, 
clans le Kennebec. C'est là qu'il pa^ïsera les trente dernières années 
de sa vie, avec ses chers Abénaquis, dont il avait déjà appris par rd'au- 
tre« missionnaires les excellentes dispositions à l'égard de la religion 
catholique et aussi des Français avec qui ils vivaient dans une douce 
alliance depuis de longues années déjà. Etant plus rapproches des 
centres anglais, les Abénaquis de Xanrantsouak entretenaient des rap- 
ports commerciaux plus fréquents et plus suivis avec les négociants 
de Boston qu'avec ceux de Québec. Mais ils n'allaient pas au delà, 
restant toujours attachés aux Français et à la religion qui était com- 
mune aux deux nations. Les Anglais, eux, voyaient d'un mauvais œil 
cette amitié; ils auraient préféré s'attacher une peuplade qui, par sa 
nature belliqueuse, pouvait décider du sort des armes entre les deux 
peuples rivaux du continent américain. Pour arriver à leur fin, ils 
eurent recours à divers moyens qu'il est bon de mettre au jour, afin de 

' Cette mission était à une Ueue et demie environ de Québec, dans les 
parages du saut de la Chaudière. Ole avait été ouverte durant l'été de 1683. 
et les jésuites l'avaient appelée Saint-Francois-d^-Sales. parce qu'ils en 
avaient conçu l'idée, le 29 Janvier, Jour où tombe la fête de ce saint. 

[dionnk] le Père Sébastien raslks 121 

mieux faire coir prendre la conduite du père Rasles au cours des événe- 
njents qui vont iuivre. 

Au moment même où le Père prenait possession de sa nouvelle 
fonction, les Abénaquis concluaient avec les Anglais fortifiés à Pema- 
quid un traité de paix, qui ne devait pas être de longue durée, car avant 
Fexpiralion d'une année, ils avaient fait irruption sur les établisse- 
ments de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. 

Au mois de novembre 1694, Bomaseen, chef des Abénaquis de 
Nanrant&ouak, accourait à Pemaquid, demandant à parler au capitaine 
March, commandant du fort. Il se déclara fort ennuyé des aggres- 
sions de ses congénères, et il assura March que son plus grand désir 
était d'y mettre un terme. March ne voulut pas Tôcouter, comme il 
aurait dû, et il fit arrêter Bomaseen puis" incarcérer à Boston comme 
traître et suspect. Quelque temps auparavant, les Anglais avaient 
pris quatre Abénaquis et les avaient mis à l'ombre. Cette conduite fut 
loin de rencontrer l'approbation générale. Hutchinson, le grand 
historien du Massachusetts dont l'opinion est assez accréditée, n'hésite 
pias à déclarer que ces actes de violence ne peuvent être excusés. " C'est 
une de ces actions, dit-ol, qui ont été la cause que les Anglais furent 
accusés d'injustice à l'égard des sauvages, en les provoquant ainsi à 
toutes les cruautés qu'ils ont commises pour se venger d'eux." 

L'exaspération des Abénaquis, à la vue de tant d'actes hostiles de 
la part d'une nation qu'ils détestaient d'avance, parvint bientôt à son 
comble. Témoin de ces faits, le Père Rasles aurait bien voulu faire 
consentir les sauvages à rester tranquilles, mais comment leur faire 
saisir que l'esprit de vengeance est indigne d'un bon chrétien, 
quand eux n'y voyaient qu'un acte de courage et même de vertu ? Tout 
de même il réussit à leur faire comprendre qu'il valait mieux attendre 
des circonstances ])lus favorables pour obtenir des Anglais ce qu'ils 
demandaient, c'est-à-dire la reconnaissance de leur droit à rester 
maîtres chez eux. 

Le traite de Riswyck, signé en 1698, vint jeter un peu d'eau froide 
sur les ardeurs guerrières des Abénaquis, bien qu'il ne réglât pas la 
sempiternelle question des limites de l'Acadie. Aux yeux des Anglais, 
le territoire habité par les sauvages de Nanrantsouak restait toujours 
attaché à leur domaine, tandis que les Français le réclamaient pour eux. 
Le fait est qu'il n'ap;partenait ni à l'une ni à l'autre des deux nations. 
Les Abénaquis prétendaient rester les maîtres du sol à titre de primi 
occupantis, de même que les Iroquois que personne n'avait encore trou- 
blés sous ce rapport parce qu'on les savait trop redoutables. Pourquoi 
l'Angleterre agissait-elle autrement à l'égard des Abénaquis ? Est-ce 
parce qu'ils étaient plus faibles, moins populeux? Quoique valeu- 
reux, les Abénaquis ne demandaient pas mieux que de vivre en paix 


avec leurs voisins, Français et Anglais, mais à condition que leurs terres 
ne fussent pas envahies par les étrangers. 

Neuf années s'étaient déjà écoulées depuis le jour où le Père Rasles 
avait mis le pied sur le rivage du Kennebec; son œuvre de missionnaire 
portait des fruits de salut, mais elle était sans cesse exposée à subir de 
terribles assauts. Le voisinage des Anglais était un danger constant 
pour la foi des Abénaquis; s'ils prêtaient allégeance à TAngleterre, 
c'eût été périlleux. Aussi préférait-il les voir rester en bons termes 
avec les Français, leurs amis de vieille date. En 1703, le gouverneur 
Dudley fit demander aux Abénaquis une entrevue à Oasco, afin de leur 
soumettre ses projets à leur égard. Il leur fixait la date du 20 juin. 
Ceux-ci consentirent, mais à la condition que le Père Rasles assisterait 
aux délibérations, afin, disaient-ils, que tout se passât sans préjudice à 
leur religion et au roi de France. Le missionnaire ne se souciait pas 
de prendre .part à cette conférence, ne fût-ce qu'à titre de témoin muet, 
car il savait d'avance qu'il n'en résulterait rien de bon pour ses ouailles. 
Cependant, de guerre lasse, il finit par consentir à les accompagner, 
suivant sa coutume. 

" Je me trouvai, dit-il, où je ne souhaitais pas être, et où le gou- 
verneur ne souhaitait pas que je fusse." De son côté le gouverneur 
avait eu la précaution de se faire accompagner d'un ministre de son 
culte. Son adresse aux Abénaquis est acquise à l'histoire. " C'est par 
ordre de notre reine, dit-il aux sauvages réunis, que je viens vous voir; 
elle souhaite que nous vivions en paix. Si quelque Anglais était assez 
imprudent pour vous faire du tort, ne songez pas à vous en venger, 
mais adressez-moi aussitôt votre plainte, et je vous rendrai une prompte 
justice. S'il arrivait que nous eussions la guerre avec les Français, 
demeurez neutres, et ne vous mêlez point de nos différends: les Fran- 
çais sont aussi forts que nous; ainsi, laissez-nous vider ensemble nos 
querelles. Nous fournirons à tous vos besoins, nous prendrons vos 
pelleteries, et nous vous donnerons nos marchandises à un prix modi- 

Puis, prenant à part le Père Rasles, le gouverneur anglais lui dit: 
^* Je vous prie, monsieur, de ne pas porter vos Indiens à nous faire la 
guerre." Ce à quoi le missionnaire répondit avec la plus ferme assu- 
rance: "Ma religion et mon caractère de prêtre m'engagent à ne leur 
donner que des conseils de paix." * 

C'était au tour des sauvages à prendre la parole. L'un d'eux 
s'avançant auprès du gouverneur, lui dit dans son langage à lui: 
" Grand Capitaine, tu nous* dis de ne point nous joindre au Français, 

■ Lettres édifiantes ei curieuses, écrites des missions étrangères, Paris, 1781, t. VI, 
pp. 202-203. 

* Ibidem, p. 203. 

[dionnb] le Père Sébastien raslks 128 

supposé (Jue tu lui déclares la guerre; sache que le Français est mon 
frère ; nous avons une même prière lui et moi, et nous sommée dans une 
même cabane à deux feux, il a un feu et moi Tautre. Si je te vois 
entrer dans la cabane du côté du feu où eet assis mon frère le Français, 
je t'observe de dessus ma natte, où je suis assis à Tautre feu. Si, en 
t'observant, je m'aperçois que tu portes une hache, j'aurai la pensée: 
que prétend faire l'Anglais de cette hache ? Je me lève pour lors sur 
ma natte, pour considérer ce qu'il fera. S'il lève la hache pour frapper 
mon frère le Français, je prends la mienne et je cours à l'Anglais pour 
le frapper. Est-ce que je pourrais vodr frapper mon frère dans ma 
cabane, et demeurer «tranquille sur ma natte ? Non, non, j'aime trop 
mon frère, pour ne pas le défendre. Ainsi je te dis, grand capitaine, 
ne fais rien à mon frère et je ne te ferai rien; demeure tranquille sur 
ta natte, et je demeurerai en repos sur la mienne." ' 

Ainsi finit cette conférence. L'Anglais s'en retourna chez lui sans 
avoir pu faire consentir les Abénaquis à rester indifférents dans les luttes 
qui pouvaient éclater d'un jour à l'autre entre les colonies française 
et anglaise d'Amérique. Le fait est que peu de temps après l'on apprit 
à Nanrantsouak par des suuvages de retour de Québec, que la guerre 
était allumée entre la France et l'Angleterre. Aussitôt les sauvages 
ouvrirent leur conseil, et après avoir mûrement délibéré sur ce qu'ils 
devaient faire, ils ordonnèrent aux jeunes gens de tuer les chiens pour 
le festin de guerre ;'ron ferait ce jour-là le recrutement des guerriers. 
Le festin eut lieu, et 250 Abénaquis s'engagèrent à prendre les armes 
contre les* Anglais. Puis tous coururent se confesser au père Rasles. 
'•Je les exhortai, dit-il, à être aussi attachés à leur prière que s'ils 
étaient au village, à bien observer les lois de la guerre, à n'exercer au- 
cune cruauté, à ne tuer personne que dans la chaleur du combat, à 
traiter humainement ceux qui se rendraient prisonniers, etc." 

Les 250 guerriers Abénaquis se dispersèrent ensuite sur le terri- 
toire anglais par groupes variables, et au jour fixé pour fra^p,per un 
grand coup, ils firent main basse sur les villages désignés d'avance, 
tuèrent deux cents personnes et ramenèrent cent cinquante prison- 

Pendant tout le temps que dura cette guerre néfaste, les Abéna- 
quis ne cessèrent pas de porter la désolation sur le territoire anglais, 
ravageant les villages, détruisant les métairies et les forts, enlevant les 
bestiaux et grossissant le chiffre de leurs prisonniers. 

Ces drames sanglants devaient susciter de terribles représailles de 
la part des Anglais. Durant l'hiver de 1705, le colonel Hilton, à la 
tête de 275 soldats munis de provisions pour trois semaines, furent 

*Ibid,, p. 204, Penihallow rapporte autrement cette entrevue. 


envoyés à Nanrantsouak pour s'emparer du père Easles et saccager le 
village. Les Abénaquis ayant eu vent de cette expédition, et se sentant 
incapables de résister à un ennemi aussi puissant, se sauvèrent dans les 
boiB, abandonnant leur viHage à l'ennemi. Celui-ci brûla Tegli&e, les 
cabanes et s'en retourna sans plus de succès. Le Père Rasles, de son 
côté, rapporte que les Abénaquis étaient absents de leur village, mais 
nullement par suite de la peur des Anglais. 

Le traité d'Utrecht signé en 1713 vint mettre fin à ces hostilités 
qui, somme toute, n'eurent d'autre résultat que de remettre en ques- 
tion les droits que possédait l'Angleterre sur l'Acadie et sur le terri- 
toire occupé par les Abénaquis. Au lieu de nommer des commissaires 
qui eussent fixé la ligne de démarcation entre les deux colonies, en con- 
servant les ancienncB limites, comme l'avait proposé le Père ■ Aubery 
dans ses Mémoires à la cour. Ton eut recours de part et d'autre au 
statu quo. C'était ouvrir la porte à de nouvelles contestations, qui ne 
pouvaient être réglées amicalement, chacune des colonies s'en tenant à 
ses vieilles prétentions. Les Abénaquis devaient souffrir de cet état 
de choses. 

Aux premières nouvelles de la paix, le gouverneur de la Nouvelle- 
Angleterre lit savoir aux sauvages qu'il désirait les rencontrer à Ports- 
mouth, afin de conférer avec eux sur la présente conjoncture des affaires. 
L'entrevue eut lieu à l'endroit fixé d'avance, à la date du 11 juillet 1713. 
Il leur parla comme suit : " Toi homme Xaranhous, je t'apprends que 
la paix ost faite entre le Roi de France et notre Reine, le Roi de France 
cède à notre Reine Plaisance et Port-Royal avec toutes les terres adja- 
centes. Ainsi, si tu veux, nous vivrons en paix toi et moi: nous y étions 
autrefois, mais les suggestions des Français te l'ont fait rompre, et 
c'est pour lui plaire que tu es venu nous tuer. Oublions toutes ces mé- 
chantes affaires, et jetons-les dans la mer, afin qu'elles ne paraissent 
plus, et que nous soyons bons amis." 

" Cela est bien, répondit l'un des sauvages, que les Rois soient en 
paix, j'en suis bien aise, et je n'ai pas de peine non plus à la faire 
avec toi. Ce n'est |>oint moi qui t« frappe depuis douze ans, c'est le 
Français qui s'est servi de mon bras pour te frapper. Nous étions en 
paix, il est vrai, j'avais même jeté ma hache je ne sais où, et comme 
j'étais en repos sur ma natte, ne pensant à rien, des Jeunes gens m'ap- 
portèrent une parole que le gouverneur du Canada m'envoyait, par la- 
quelle il me disait: mon fils, l'Anglais m'a frappé, aide-moi à m'en 
venger, prends ta hache, et frappe l'Anglais. Moi qui ai toujours écou- 
té la parole du gouverneur Français, je cherche ma hache, je la trouve 
enfin toute rouillée, je l'accommode, je la pends à ma ceinture pour te 
venir frapper. Maintenant le Français me dit de la mettre bas; je la 

Idionnb] le Père Sébastien rasles 128 

jette bien loin, pour qu'on ne voie plus le sang dont elle est rougie. 
Aînsi, vivons en paix, j'y consens. 

"Mais tu dis que le Français t'a donné Plaisance et Port Eoyal, 
qui est dans mon voisinage, avec toutes les terres adjacentes; il te 
donnera tout ce qu'il voudra, pour moi j'ai ma terre que le Grand 
Génie m'a donnée pour vivre : tant qu'il y aura un enfant de ma nation, 
il combattra pour la conserver/' 

Cette deuxième conférence n'eut pas de résultats plus heureux que 
la première pour les Anglais de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. Les Abénaquis 
consentaient bien à garder la plus stricte neutralité, tant qu'il n'y aurait 
pas de guerre entre leurs deux voisins d'origine européenne. Ils surent 
profiter de la suspens on d'annes pour rebâtir leur église que les Anglais 
avaient détruite. Ils s'adressèrent à Boston pour obtenir les ouvriers 
nécessaires. Informé de leurs démarches, le gouverneur leur fit dire 
qu'il bâtirait leur église à ses frais, s'ils consentaient à recevoir chez 
eux un ministre protestant et à renvoyer le Père Easles à Québec. IjCs 
sauvages refusèrent cette offre, en disant que le gouverneur français 
relèverait leur chapelle de ses ruines, s'ils lui demandaient cette faveur. 
C'est en effet ce qui eut lieu, et ils virent bientôt se dresser un temple 
d'assez bonne dimension que le Père Rasles, avec son talent universel, 
sut orner avec goût et même avec un certain luxe.* " J'ai bâti, dit-il 
dans une lettre à son neveu, du 15 octobre 1722, une église qui est 
propre et très ornée. J'ai cru ne devoir rien épargner ni pour la déco- 
ration ni pour la beauté des ornements, qui servent à nos saintes céré- 
monies: parements, chasubles, chapes, vases sacrés, tout y est propre, 
et serait estimé dans nos églises d'Europe. Je me suis fait un petit 
clergé d'environ quarante jeunes sauvages qui assistent au service divin 
en soutane et en surplis. 11 ont chacun leurs fonctions. . .. Le grand 
luminaire ne contribue pas peu à la décoration de l'église; je n'ai pas 
lieu de ménager la cire, car ce pays m'en fournit abondamment." 

La nation abénaquise était profondément chrétienne. Le Père 
Easles lui rend ce témoignage dans les lettres qui sont restées de lui. 
" Tous mes néo])hytes, dit-il, ne manquent pas de se rendre deux fois 
par jour à l'office, dès le grand matin pour y entendre la messe, et le 
soir pour assister à la prière que je fais au cou-cher du soleil. Comme 
il est nécessaire de fixer l'imagination des sauvages, trop aisés à se dis- 
traire, j'ai composé des prières propres à les faire entrer dans l'esprit 
de l'auguste sacrifice de nos autels; ils les chantent ou bien ils les réci- 
tent à haute voix pendant la messe. Outre les prédications que je leur 
faifi, les dimanches et fêtes, je ne passe guère de jours ouvriers sans- 
leur faire une courte exhortation. Après la messe, je fais le catéchisme 

• Francis raconte autrement Thlstodre de cette conatructlon, p. 242-243. 


aux enfante et aux jeunes gens: grand nombre de personnes âgées y 
assistent . . . . Le reste de la matinée jusqu'à midi est destiné à entendre 
tous ceux qui ont à me parler. C'est alors qu'ils viennent en foule me 
faire part de leurs peines et de leurs inquiétudes, ou me consulter sur 
leurs affaires particulières.. .. L'après-midi, je visite les malades et 
je parcours les cabanes de ceux qui ont besoin de quelque instruction 
particulière. S'ils tiennent un conseil, ce qui arrive souvent parmi les 
sauvages, ils me députent un des principaux de l'assemblée, pour me 
prier d'assister au résultat de leurs délibérations. Je me rends aussi- 
tôt au lieu où &e tient le conseil; si je juge qu'ils prennent un sage 
parti, je l'approuve; si, au contraire, je trouve à dire à leur décision, je 
leur déclare mon sentiment que j'appuie de quelques raisons solides, et 
ils s'y conforment. Mon avis fixe toujours leurs résolutions. Il n'y 
a pas jusqu'à leurs festins où je suis appelé." 

Le fait est que les missionnaires chez 'les «ppuplades abénaquises, 
jouirent toujours d'un grand prestige. Aussi méritaient-ils tous, sans 
en excepter un seul, qu'on les écoutât, qu'on leur obéît même dans les 
circonstances difiSciles de leur existence comme peuple. Leurs avis 
ou lours conseils étaient généralement marqués au coin de la plus pro- 
fonde sagci^se, parce qu'ils étaient désintéressés. Voili qui explique 
pourquoi les Anglais de la Nouvelle-Angleterre accusèrent toujours les 
missionnaires d'être la cause des malheurs qui leur tombaient sur le dos 
chaque fois que TAbénaquis déterrait sa hache de guerre. Ils en voulu- 
rent tout particulièrement au Père Sasles, rendu plus suspect que tout 
autre à raison de sa longue carrière comme missionnaire, et à raison 
surtout des circonstances qui voulurent que cette période de 1694 à 
1723 fut plus particulièrement mouvementée. Glissons, en outre, sur 
la question religieuse, sur la grande lutte du protestantisme contre le 
catholicisme, qui dans ces temps reculés, primait peut-être la ques- 
tion politique. Un jésuite était considéré par les sectes protestantes 
comme un homme hors la loi, un être à part, qu'on pouvait injurier, 
bafouer impunément.^ Le Père Kasles ne devait pas faire exception à 
la règle établie, et Ton verra plus tard comment on s'y prit pour lui 
enlever son autorité et le bâillonner à tout jamais. 

Persuadé maintenant que sa démarche auprès des Abénaquis avait 
abouti à un fiasco, le gouverneur Dudley résolut de changer de tacti- 
que. Il connaissait l'attachement de ces sauvages à leur progéniture, 
il leur envoya un ministre de son culte avec instruction d'ouvrir une 
école à Old-Town, sur les rives du Kennebec, et de pensionner les 
enfants aux frais de son gouvernement. C'était les prendre par leur 

' Un acte de la cour générale du Massachusetts, du 15 Juin 1700, chassait 
les jésuites de la province, à l'égal d'un Incendiaire, etc. 

[dionxe] le Père Sébastien rasles 127 

côté sensible, le cœur et la bourse. Le ministre-instituteur s^installa 
donc au milieu des sauvages, attendant la venue des élèves. Le recrute- 
ment marcha mal. Deux mois &''étaient écoulés et pas un seul enfant 
n^avait fait acte de présence. Pourtant le révérend M. Baxter — " c'était 
son nom — n^avait rien négligé pour réussir, d'autant moins que son 
salaire devait augmenter dans la proportion du nombre de ses élèves: 
présents, caresses, bons procédés de toute nature, rien n'y fit; les sauva- 
ges se montraient irréconciliables. Ne sachant que faire, il crut gagner 
son point en essayant d'endoctriner son entourage; il jeta le ridicule sur 
les dogmes de la religion et sur les pratiques des catholiques, comme la 
récitation du chapelet, le culte des images, etc. " Je crus, écrit le Père 
Basles, devoir m'opposer à ces premières semences de séduction. J'écri- 
vis une lettre honnête au ministre, où je lui marquais que mes chrétiens 
savaient croire les vérités que la Foi catholique enseigne, mais qu'ils ne 
savaient pas en disputer; que n'étant pas assez habiles pour résoudre les 
difficultés qu'il proposait, il avait apparemment dessein qu'elles me 
fussent communiquées, que je saisissais avec plaisir cette occasion qu'il 
m'offrait d'en conférer avec lui, ou de vive voix, ou par lettres." 

Le Père.Rasles composa donc un long Mémoire de près de cent 
pages, où il se faisait l'apologiste de la religion catholique, de ses dogmes 
et de son culte, et il le fit parvenir au révérend M. Baxter. Celui-ci 
quitta aussitôt Old-Town pour Boston, où il prépara avec soin sa ré- 
ponse. Le document est en latin,^ mais d'un latin vulgaire que le Père 
Rasles put sans doute comprendre suffisamment pour pouvoir réfuter 
les erreurs théologiques qu'il renfermait; il en fit part à son contradic- 
teur. Se sentant incapable de continuer la discussion, If. Baxter se 
contenta d'écrire au Père Kasles, l'accusant d'être un homme colère, un 
etçpit chagrin, etc. — beaucoup de personnalités, mais peu d'arguments 
à l'appui de sa thèse anticatholique. 

Malgré sa récente déconfiture, le gouverneur Dudley ne se tint pas 
pour battu/ Cette fois le danger pour les- Abénaquis allait prendre des 
proportions beaucoup plus grandes, parce qu'îls tombèrent dans le 
panneau de leur propre gré. Un marchand bostonnais leur ayant de- 
mandé la permission d'établir un comptoir sur les bords du Kennebec, 
ils y consentirent Fans refléchir aux conséquences. Bientôt il en arriva 

• Le révérend Joseph Baxter était né à Braintree, Mass., en 1676. De 1696 
à 1717, 11 fut recteur de l'église de Medfield, qu'il abandonna pour se rendre 
à Arrowsic, maintenant Georgetown, Maine. Il mourut en 1745. 

• Un latdniste distingué à qui nous avons communiqué les lettrée du révé- 
rend M. Baxter, nous écrit: " Somme toute, la latinité du ministre pro- 
testant laisse singulièrement à désirer, et sa lettre méritait pour la plupart 
des phrases qu'on y lit cette censure du Père Rasles: Tu anglice loqueris utendo 
verbis latinis. On y remarque plusieurs tournures anglaises, des fautes gixw- 
frtères contre la grrammaire, des termes impropres, etc." 


un second, et puis un troisième. Pincdement, ils devinrent si nombreux 
que lee Abénaquis commencèrent à s^alarmer, surtout lorsqu'ils s^aperçu- 
rent qu'ils érigeaient des petits forts pour se mettre en sûreté. Ils 
comprirent, qu'à la première occasion, il y aurait rupture de bons procé- 
dés et qu'une guerre pourrait surgir entre eux. Ils députèrent quel-, 
ques-unfl des leurs auprès du marquis de Vaudreuil, gouverneur de la 
Nouvelle-France, afin d'obtenir du secours des Français! Celui-ci, qui 
ne voulait pas prendre d'engagement en temps de paix, répondit évasive- 
ment qu'il leur fournirait des armes et des munitions. Mais les Abéna- 
quis insistèrent, et déclarèrent qu'ils* chafiseraient tous les étrangers. 
Français comme Anglais, si on les abandonnait à leurs seules ressources. 
Le gouverneur protesta alors '^qu'il marcherait même à leur tête, plutôt 
que de les abandonner à la merci des Anglais." Les délégués se reti- 
rèrent à demi-satisfaiite, n'ajoutant pas trop foi à la sincérité de M. de 
Vaudreuil ; la suite des événements devait leur donner raison. 

Peu de temps après, quelques Abénaquis étaient à trafiquer paisi- 
blement leurs pelleteries chez un négocient anglais, lorsqu'ils s'aperçu- 
rent que la maison était entourée d'une couple de cents hommes armés. 
" Nous sommes morts, s'écrie l'un d'eux, vendons cher notre vie." Et 
les voilà qui arment leurs fusils, prêts à faire feu contre ces ennemis 
redoutables. " Ne vous alarmez pas, répartit l'Anglais, nous ne vou« 
voulons pas de mal. Nous venons seulement vous prier d'envoyer à 
Boston quelques-uns de vos chefs pour y conférer avec le gouverneur 
sur les moyens" d'entretenir la ppix entre les deux nations." Toujours 
crédules, les sauvages députèrent quatre des leurs à Boston, et là on les 
fait prisonniers, au mépris du droit des gens*, car on était alors en pleine 
paix. Les représentations des Abénaquis n'eurent d'autre résultat que 
d'aggraver la situation; après leur avoir arraché pour deux cents francs 
de peaux de castor, comme rachat des prisonniers, le gouverneur n'en 
continua pas moins à les garder soi-disant comme otages. 

Les sauvages, de plus en plus irrités, auraient fondu comme des 
lions sur les colons anglais, si le missionnaire ne s'y était opposé dç 
toutes ses forces. Ils durent se contenter d'adresser au gouverneur de 
Boston une lettre-ultimatum, dont voici la substance: lo Les Abéna- 
quins ne peuvent comprendre pourquoi on retenait leurs députés dans 
les fers, après la parole qu'on avait donnée de les rendre aussitôt que 
les deux cents livres de castor seraient payées; 2o ils ne sont pas moins 
surpris de voir qu'on s'empare de leur pays sans leur agrément; 3o les 
Anglais devront en sortir au plus tot ou élargir les prisonniers; ils atten- 
dront leur réponse dans deux mois, et si, après ce temps-là, on refuse de 
les satisfaire, ils sauront bien se faire justice." 

[diommb] le Père Sébastien rasles 129 

Dudley répondit à cette sommation en s'emparant du jeune baron 
de Saint-Castin, dont la mère était Abénciquise, et en l^incarcérant à 
Boston, puis en mettant à prix la tête du père Rasles. " On était per- 
suadé à Boston, dit Charlevoix, que ce missionnaire serait toujours un 
obstacle invincible au dessein qu^on y avait formé àe s'emparer peu à 
peu de tout le pays qui sépare la Nouvelle- Angleterre de l'Acadie, parce 
qu'en maintenant avec soin les néophytes dans la foi catholique, il res- 
serrait de plus en plus les liens qui les unissaient aux Français. Après 
plusieurs tentatives, d'abord pour engager ces sauvages par les offres 
et les promesses les plus séduisantes à le livrer aux Anglais, ou du moins 
à le renvoyer à Québec, et à prendre en sa place un de leurs ministres^ 
ensuite, pour le surprendre et l'enlever; les Anglais, résolus de s'en dé- 
faire, quoi qu'il dût leur en coûter, mirent sa tête à prix, et promirent 
mille livres sterling à celui qui la leur porterait. Tout cela ayant été 
inutile, ils crurent enfin avoir trouvé une occasion de se saisir de sa per- 
sonne, vers la fin de janvier 1722." " 

Plus l'Anglais mettait d'acharnement à traquer le père Rasles, plus 
les Abénaquis lui montraient de dévouement. Un jour le bruit courut 
que les ennemis avaient envahi le quartier où logeait le missionnaire. 
Aussitôt les Abénaquis décident de les ohaaser et de les poursuivre 
jusque dans leurs derniers retranchements, dût-il leur en coûter la vie. 
Mais, comme c'était une fausse alerte, les «fauvages durent se calmer. 

De pareilles scènes se renouvelèrent souvent, et toujours les sauva- 
ges se montrèrent disposés à la défendre. Voyant qu'un jour ou l'autre 
il lui arriverait malheur, ils lui proposèrent de s'enfoncer plus avant 
dans les terres vers Québec. Il leur répondit: "Quelle idée avez-vous 
de moi ? Me prenez-vous pour uji lâche déserteur ? Hé ! que devien- 
drait votre foi, si je vous abandonnais ? Votre salut m'est plus cher 
que la vie." Au père de La Chasse qui, étant venu le voir, lui conseil- 
lait de prendre des mesures pour mettre sa vie en sûreté, il disait: 

" Mes mesures sont prises, Dieu m'a confié ce troupeau, je suivrai 
son sort, trop heureux de m'immoler pour lui." 

De son côté, le missionnaire, prévoyant le jour oii les Abénaquis 
seraient chassés de leur pays par les Anglais, leur exprimait ses craintes 
et les engageait à aller planter ailleurs leurs tentes. ^' Nous y consen- 
tirons, répondaient los sauvages, à la condition que tu nous accompa- 
gneras." " Impossible, je ne partirai pas, répliquait le Père, mon devoir 
est de rester ici, pour donner les secours de mon ministère aux infir- 
mes et aux vieillards. Je ne tiens pas à la vie; au contraire, je mourrai 
avec joie dans ce village, en remplissant les devoirs* que Dieu m'a im- 
posés. (Test d'ailleurs ce que je désire depuis longtemps. Quant à 

>• Charlevodx, II, pp. 380-381. 

Sec. 1,1903. 0. 


vous, rien ne vous' retient id. Fuyez, pour éviter une mort certaine." 
Plusieurs écoutèrent la vodx du miseionnaire, et émigrèrent vers Qué- 
bec en 1722. 

Vers ce tempe-là, les Anglais résolurent encore une fois de s'empa- 
rer du père Easles. Westbrooke, a la tête de deux cents hommes bien 
déterminés, arrive à Timproviste au village de Naniantsouak. Heu- 
reusement les Abénaquis ont ajp^ris l'appaiiition de la troupe ennemie, 
et ils se sauvent dans les bois^ car il leur est impossible de se défendre, 
la plupart d'entre eux sont à la chasse, et il ne reste au village que les 
femmes, les vieillards et les infirmes. Le père Easles se sauve avec eux, 
après avoir consommé les saintes espèces. Westbrooke arrive sur Fen- 
trefaite et se met à la poursuite des sauvages, qu'il ne peut atteindre. 
Le père Basics échappe comme par miracle à la vue des soldats qui, 
rendus à dix pieds de sa cachette, rebroussent tout-à-coup phemdn. 
Retournés au village, les soldats pillent l'église, la résidence du mission- 
naire, enlèvent ses papiers, son dictionnaire abénaquie, " et toutes les 
provisions qui leur tombent sous la main, puis ils s'en retournent dans 
leur pays. Mais comme il leur fallait à tout prix la tête du père Basics, 
ils organisèrent une nouvelle expédition qui, cette fois, devait réussir. 

Westbrooke part de Boston le 4 mars 1723, s'empare de Penfcagoët 
qu'il détruit de fond en comble, puis il se dirige sur Nanrantsouak, et 
essaie à deux reprises de s'emjparer du père Basics*. Alors on redouble 
ses forces. Une véritable armée s'organise à Boston et vient fondre à 
] 'improviste sur le village des Abénaquis, dans la nuit du 24 août 1724. 
Trop faibles pour se défendre, car ils ne sont 'qu'une cinquantaine de 
guerriers valides, ils se sauvent à travers les bois, emmenant les femmes, 
les vieillards et les enfants. Le bruit de la fusillade attire le Père 
Basics en dehors* de sa chapelle. En l'apercevant les Anglais jettent 
un grand cri de joie et font pleuvoir sur lui une grêle de balles. Il 
tombe au pied d'une croix qu'il avait fait planter au milieu du village. 

N'apercevant aucune résistance, les Anglais ' pillent les cabanes, 
profanent les vases sacrés, puis incendient l'église. Après avoir massa- 
cré quelques femmes et des enfants qui n'avaient pas eu le temps de 
fuir, ils quittent précipitamment le village, conmie pris d'une terreur 

Cent cinquante sauvages avaient échappé au massacre. Bevenus 
dans leur village que l'incendie avait ruiné, ils aperçurent bientôt le 

" Le manusc?rtt de ce dictionnaire, conservé à l'Université de Harvard, 
est un petit in-quarto, et fut iniiprinîé dans les Mémoires de T Académie Amé- 
ricaine des arts et des sciences, en 1833 (Vol. I, pp. 375 à 574.) Sur le pre- 
mier feuillet le Père Rasles avait écrit: " 1691. Il y a un an que Je suis parmi 
les sauvages, Je commenice à mettre en ordre en forme de "dictionnaire les 
mots que J'ai)iprends." Il l'avait donc commencé lors de son séjour & la 
mission de St-Francois de Sales. 

[dionne] le Père Sébastien basles isi 

cadavre du père Baales^ la chevdure enlevée, le crâne fracaesé, et tout 
le corps mutilé. Ils s'emparèrent de la précieuse dépouille, et Tenseve- 
lîrent à l'endroit même où, la veille, il avait célébré les saints mystères. 
Le Père Rasles était dans la soixante-septième année de son âge; 
il en avait consacré trente-quatre aux missions sauvages*. Avec lui s^é- 
teigidt la mission de Nanrantsouak. Les* Abénaquis se disperBèrent un 
peu partout, mais le gros de la nation vint échouer dans les missions du 
Canada, où ils s'unirent à leurs frères pour continuer à vivre chrétien- 
nement à l'ombre du drapeau de l'Eglise catholique. Leur foi ne s'est 
jamais démentie depuis cette époque, grâce au zèle des missionnaires 
qui ne ménagèrent rien pour leur ouvrir le Ciel. 


Il ne nous reste plus maintenant qu'à rapporter les divers témoi- 
gnages des écrivains qui ont mentionné dans leurs ouvrages le célèbre 
missionnaire jésuite. L'édoge est la note générale, bien que chez quel- 
ques-uns la louauge perde singulièrement de sa valeur à côté des criti- 
ques plus ou moins acerbes de sa conduite. Ainsi Francis Convers, eon 
principal biographe, après avoir ajouté à son nom les qualificatifs d'ambi- 
tieux, de partisan, d'autocrate, d'arrogant, de caustique, finit par la 
déclaration suivante: "Je ne puis analyser son histoire sans recevoir 
l'impression qu'il fut pieux, dévoué, un homm« extraordinaire. Nous 
avons devant nous un savant nourri au banquet de la science euro- 
péenne, accoutumé aux raflSnements de l'une des nations les plus culti- 
vées du vieux monde, qui dit adieu aux joies du foyer et aux attrac- 
tions de sa terre natale, pour passer trente-cinq ans de ea vie au sein 
des forêts, sur un rivage lointain, au milieu de sauvages dé- 
goûtants, seul, sans compagnon, si ce n'est les féroces enfants des bois. 
Avec eux il vécut comme un frère, comane un bienfaiteur, comme un 
ami; partageant leur sort," leurs coutumee, leurs besoins, leurs périls, 
les rigueurs du climat; tenant sa vie pour peu de chose dans l'accom- 
plissement du devoir, et la terminant victime des dangers auxquels il 
a dédaigné se soustraire. Il a fait tout cela dans le but d'amener au 
bercail de son église ces hommes primitifs, où ils devaient, d'ajpirès lui, 
apprendre à connaître le vérité et la lumière de la foi qui vient du 

Si, réellement, le Père Rasles était un homme aussi extraordinaire 
que l'a écrit Convers, comment pouvait-il être arrogant, autocrate, ambi- 
tieux, etc. ? Voilà un exemple de -cet illogisme qui caractérise les 
écrits de certains auteurs protestants lorsqu'ils- parlent des catholiques 
ou du catholicisme, sans les connaître. 


Francis prétend que le Père Easles se laissait guider dans ses actes 
par cet article de la théologie catholique, qui veut (\ue la fin justifie les 
moyens. M. Baxter lui-même semble vouloir insinuer la même chose, 
par le fait que Pon trouva dans les papiers du Père Rasles Fouvrage du 
Père Busembaum, intitulé : Medulla Theologicae Moralis, qui aurait émis 
une semblable opinion. Or, rien de plus faux: ni FEglise catholique, 
ni Busembaum, ni le père Ra&les n'ont professé une semblable doctrine. 
Du reste, le seul fait que Touvrage de Busembaum ait été trouvé dans 
la bibliothèque du Père Easles, n'est pas une preuve que celui-ci parta- 
geait toutes les opinions. théologiqueis de son confrère. 

Passons à d'autres témoignages. Le père de la Chasse, qui avait 
connu intimement le Père Rasles, en parle avec éloge : " 11 était infati- 
gable, écrivait-il, le 29 octobre 1724, à un religieux de son ordre, dans 
les exerdces de son zèle; sans cesse occupé à exhori^r les sauvages à 
la vertu, il ne pensait qu'à en faire de fervents chrétiens. Sa manière 
de prêcher, véhémente et pathétique, faisait de vives impressions sur 
les cœurs. . .. Il ne se contentait pas d'instruire presque tous les jours 
les €jauvages dans son église, il les visitait souvent dans leurs cabanes; 
ses entretiens familiers les charmaient; il savait les assaisonner d'une 
gaieté sainte qui plaît beaucoup plus aux sauvages qu'un air grave et 
sombre; aussi avait-il l'art de leur persuader tout ce qu'il voulait; il 
était parmi eux comme un maître au milieu de ses élèves. 

"Nonobstant les continuelles occupations de son ministère, il 
n'omit jamais les saintes pratiques qui s'observent dans nos maisons. 
Il se levait et faisait son oraison à l'heure qui y est marquée. Il ne se 
dispensa jamais des huit jours de la retraite annuelle; il s^était prescrit 
pour la faire les premiers jours du carême, qui est le temps que le Sau- 
veur entra dans le désert- . . . 

" La pauvreté religieuse éclatait dans toute sa personne, dans ses 
meubles, dans son vivre, dans ses habits. Il s'interdit, par esprit de 
mortification, l'usage du vin, même lorsqu'il se trouvait au milieu des 
Français; de la bouillie, faite de farine de blé-d'inde, fut sa nourriture 
ordinaire. Durant certains hivers, où quelquefois les sauvages man- 
quent de tout, il se vit réduit à vivre de glands; loin de se plaindre 
alors, il ne parut jamais plus content. . . . C'était lui qui cultivait son 
jardin, qui préparait son bois de chauffage, sa cabane et sa sagamité, 
qui rapiéçait ses habits déchirés, cherchant par esprit de pauvreté à les 
faire durer le plus longtemps qu'il lui était possible. La soutane qu'il 
portait lorsqu'il fut tué, parut si usée et en si mauvais état à ceux qui 
l'en dépouillèrent, qu'ils ne daignèrent pas se l'approprier, comme ils 
en eurent d'abord le dessein. Ils la rejetèrent sur son corps, et nous 
la renvoyèrent à Québec. 

[dionnb] le Père Sébastien rasles iss 

^* Autant il se traitait durement Ini-même, autant il était compa- 
tissant et charitable pour les autres. H n'avait rien à lui, et tout ce 
qu'il recevait, il le distribuait au&HÎtôt à ses pauvres néophytes. Aussi 
la plupart ont-ils donné à sa mori; des démonstrations de douleur plus 

vive que s'ils eussent perdu leurs parents les plus prochefe 

Vous jugez bien, mon révérend père, que ses vertus dont la Nouvelle- 
France a été témoin depuis tant d'années lui avaient concilié le respject 
et l'affection des Français et des eauvages. Personne ne doute qu'il 
ait été immolé en haine de son ministère et de son zèle à établir la vraie 
foi dans le cœur des sauvages. C'est l'idée qu'en a M. de Bellemont, 
supérieur du séminaire de Saint-Sulpice, à Montréal. Lui ayant de- 
mandé les suffrages accoutumés pour le défunt, à cause de la communi- 
cation de prières qui est entre nous, il me répondit, en se servant des 
paroles si connues de saint Augustin, que c'était faire injure à un 
martyr, que de prier pour lui. Injurium facit martyri qui orat pro eo." 

Cette lettre du Père de la Chasse, alors supérieur de la mission des 
jésuites, dans la Nouvelle-France, est un document important, pour ce 
qui regarde en particulier le caractère du Père Rasles, son genre de vie 
au milieu des sauvages. Or, il paraît évident, d'après lui, que ce mis- 
sionnaire était un saint, un apôtre, un homme de Dieu, un véritable 
ascète. Le langage de l'abbé Bellemont, sulpicien fort remarquable, 
confirme en tous points l'opinion du supérieur des jésuites. 

L'histoire Parkman ne fait que répéter en d'autres termes la véhé- 
mente diatribe de Francis à l'adresse du Père Rasles, mais il s'en tient 
là. Pas un mot d'éloge sur la vie édifiante du missionnaire des Abéna- 
quis. Pourtant sa renommée comme historien impartial n'eût paA 
Boufferi, s'il avait eu le courage de parler plus franchement, à l'instar 
de Francis. Tous deux s'accordent à dire, avec Baxter, que le Père 
Basics ne doit pas être considéré comme un martyr de la foi. Ils ont 
peut-être raison, mais leur appartient-il de décider une question dont 
ils ne peuvent être juges; ils n'ont ni mission, ni qualité pour cela, 
n appartient à l'Eglise catholique seide de statuer en la matière. N'em- 
pêche que les catholiques ont bien le droit de penser dans leur for inté- 
rieur que le Père Rasles fut un martyr dans le sens large du mot, martyr 
du devoir, martyr de son dévouement à la religion, martyr aussi do son 
patriotisme. L'histoire de sa vie est là pour le prouver. Qu'est-il 
besoin d'avoir recours aux légendes et aux fables inventées* jBur teon 
compte dans le but de le déprécier et même de l'avilir ? L'historien 
véridique et impartial ne peut puiser à ce fonds, parce qu'il est trop mé- 

X'accusation la plus sérieuse que M. Baxter porte contre le Père 
Basics, n'est pas neuve. H n'a fait lui-même que rééditer pour la cen- 


tième fois la vieille rengaine contre les miasionniairee de TAcadie, les 
Bigot^ les Thury^ quails poussaient les sauvages à faire la guerre aux 
Anglais^ à détruire leurs fermes^ et même à les occire eanjB mifléricorde. 
Qu^en savent-ils vraiment ? Est-ce parce que les gouverneurs de la 
Nouvelle-France entretenaient avec ces missionnaires une certaine 
correspondance, rendu nécessaire par les besoins d^information sur les 
agissements de ces peuplades dont ils avaient jusqu^i un certain point 
la charge et la direction comme catholiques ? Nous avons lu et relu ces 
lettres, et tout ce qui s'en d^age ^e sort pas du domaine général des 
recommandations au sujet des Âbénaquis et de Fimportance de conser- 
ver leur amitié. Il est facile de comprendre que les* gouverneurs comp- 
taient plus que sur une alliance stéiile avec ces sauvages qu'ils avaient 
maintes et maintes fois protégés; ils avaient besoin de leur appui pour 
soutenir les assauts répétés des Anglais. Le missionnaire était le seul 
homme qui pût réussir à réchauffer Famitié et à mainitenir une alliance 
dans toute son intégrité. Aussi s'y employait-il de grand cœur, croyant 
faire œuvre de patriotisme. Est-ce à dire pour cela que le mission- 
naire désirait la guerre et incitait les sauvages à rentrejprendre ? A 
quoi eût-il servi au Père Basics d'engager ses chers Abénaquis à lever 
la hache de guerre ? Eût-ce été dans le but de servir les intérêts de 
la religion ? Hélas I il ne le savait que trop bien: la guerre, pour les 
Indiens, n'était souvent qu'un prétexte pour assouvir leur soif de ven- 
geance, exercer leurs cruautés sans nom, tuer, piller, etc. La religion 
catholique ne pouvait bénéficier de ces scènes de carnage. L'Eglise a 
toujours eu horreur du sang, car sa mission en ce monde est toute de 
paix, d'harmonie et de charité. 

Le Père Rasles n'était pas un homme sanguinaire, comme quel- 
qu'un l'a représenté, aimant à faire le coup de feu contre l'Anglais. Il 
était prêtre et missionnaire tout d'abord. Ses supérieurs ne l'avaient 
pas envoyé à Nanrantsouak pour aider les Français dans leurs combats, 
mais pour s'occuper de l'avenir religieux des Abénaquis. Vivant au 
milieu d'eux comme un anachorète, il n'avait d'autre ambition que de 
sauver leurs âmes par la prédication de l'exemple et de la parole. H 
bâtit leurs églises, les décora de sa propre main, et travailla de toutes 
ses forces à adoucir leurs mœurs, à réformer leur éducation. Cette 
tâche était énorme. Eéussit-il à la remplir au gré de ses vœux ? Nous 
ne le croyons pas, car c'eût été miracle autrement, étant données les 
dispositions d'esprit de ces sauvages à l'égard des Anglais, qui représen- 
taient à leurs yeux un double ennemi, ennemis de leur religion et enne- 
mis de leur race. * 

SxcrioN I, 1903 I 135 J Mémoibu 8. K. C 

VI. — Irenna la huronne. 
Par M. Pamphile Le May. 

(L.U Je 9 mai 1903). 


Irenna la huronne, alerte, grorge nue, 

S'éIoi«me du wifiTwazn. Chaqiîe soir, quand la nue 

Plane conmie un oiseau dans l'air plein de frissons, 

Elle «e grlisse seule & travers les buissons; 

Effarée, elle fuit comme la biche souple. 

Ounis aime Irenna la huronne. 

— Un beau couple. 
Avalent dit les vieillards assis pour >le conseil. 

Ounis est un chasseur. Il voit, dans son sommeil. 
L'ours brun de la forêt et l'outarde des grrèves. 
Il volt des crfijies mus et du eancr dans ses rêves. 
Car il est un guerrier, un fils de sagamos. 

Souvent Irenna chante, et nul ne sait les mots 
Qui tombent de sa bouche aux heures de la jole^ 
Accroupi sur des peaux phis molles que la soie. 
Un Autmoin redouté vient d'annoncer & tous 
Qu'elle parle en secret aux puissants Manitous. 

— Les plaisirs de l'amour, le bonheur d'être mère 
•Couronneront bientôt sa jeunesse éphémère. 
Et ses pieds suivront loin l'homme qui la soumet. 
Ajoutent les vieillards fumant le calumet. 

—Quels sont les Manitous que sa prière Invoque? 
On ne la voit Ja*mais, ô sages! quand j'évoque, 
Pour savoir nos destins, les bienveillants esprits. 
Reprend TAultmoin. 

Et tous le regardent surpris. 

Au wigwam de la vierge, & la dernière lune, 
Ounis s'en est venu tout heureux, sur la brune, 
Apporter les présents: des castors, des vdsons.. 
Ils furent acceptés. Sans peur des trahisons, 
Ounds n'a pas revu sa douce fiancée. 
Ainsi le veut l'usage. 


Irenna, iMilancêe 
En Ba frêle pirocrue, au mouvement des eaux. 
Vient aborder la rive, et, dans les verts roseaux 
Son mocassin fleuri trace une longrue raie; 
Elle aemble inquiète. A sa hanche serrée. 
Une peau l'enveloppe avec un soin jaloux. 
Songe-t-elle au pOatoir ? son«e-t-elle ft l'époux ? 

Sous le dOme embaumé des résineuses pruches, 

S'assemblent, bourdonnant comme feraient des ruches. 

Les parents, les vieillards et les chasseurs amis. 

Pour la fête chacun dans son orsrueil a mis 

Des colliers à, son cou, 0ur sa tête des phunes. 

Csnnbales et tamtems, comme un concert d'enclumes. 

Font retentir les bols jusques au loin. Le feu 

Pour le feetln déjH s'allume. Et le ciel bleu 

Regarde s'élargir, à, travers la ramée, 

Le nuage mouvant de l'épaisse fumée. 

De sa hutte d'écorce enfin le jongleur sort, 

Ounls l'avait prié de conjurer le sort 

Et de paraître ensuite au milieu d^ convives. 

Ounls, pour inspirer des tendresses plus vives, 
S'est tatoué la face et les bra& Les stylets 
Ont ciselé ses chairs de dessins violets. 
Sous ces dessins grossiers que le caprice invente. 
L'amour a l'air féroce et le rire épouvante. 
C'est la beauté pourtant aux yeux de la tribu. 
La laideur, c'est cet homme et livide et barfbu 
Qu'apporta dans ses flancs une grande pirogue. 

— Moi, je sais composer une mortelle droguo. 
J'en remplirai ma coupe et j'Irai, sans trembler. 
L'offrir aux hommes blancs qui sont venus troubler 
Notre liberté chère et nos chères Ivresses ! 
Chante l'Autmoin cruel, en nouant à ses tresses 
Une plume d'aiglon qui tombait des vieux pins. 

— Où donc est la promise ? . . Et ses yeux sont-ils peints. 
Dit- Il encor ?.. Ses yeux, son épaule, sa gorge ? 

Le daim captif est là. C'est elle qui l'égorgé. 
Qu'elle frappe sans peur l'animal endormi, 
Et sans peur ses enfants frapperont l'ennemi. 

[LB may] IRENNA la HURONNE 137 

Irenna la huronne, alerte, gorge nue, 

S'approche du wtigrwam, maiis 11 est tard. La nue 

Redescend lentement dans Teir plein de frlsBons, 

Bile ee g'iiese seule à travers les buiSBone. 

D'où vient-elile ? Un bruit sourd monte sous les feuillafires. 

Son oou n'est pas orné de brillants coqulllaires... 

Quelque chose pourtant flotte à son sein bronzé; 

Bst-ce de cron amour le signe déguisé, 

Ou de la Robe Noire est-ce la médecine?... 

Les convives sont Ik. Son regtard les fascine. 

On dirait un serpent endormant les oiseaux. 

La ramure légère, enlagant ses réseaux, 
Au-dessus du wigwam s'arrondit conune une arche. 
Par un sentier de mousse Ounls s'avance. Il mar<âie 
D'un pas fiévreux, rapide, avec un air d'orguelL 
Il arrive et s'écrie, en franchissant le seuil: 

— A la danse ! au festin ! la volupté commence ! " 

Irenna paraît sourde à, cette véhémence. 

En va4n le fiancé l'Invite sur ses pas. 

Des pleure mouillent ses yeux, elle n'obéit pas. 

Ounls s'avance alors, mais la vierge recule,... 
Le jonigleur & ses dieux parle selon le rite. 
Tout-à-coup 11 s'écrie: 

— Arrachez de son oou 
Cet objet Inconnu qui vient on ne sait d'où... 
Le Manitou le veut ! " 

II clcune et gesticule. 
Ounls s'avance aJors, mais la vierge recule 

— Ce 'talisman nouveau, dit-elle, c'est la croix ! 
Je t'aime, tu le sais, et tu m'aimes, je crois. 
Ne te dôsofles pas. L'espoir que tu caresses 

Ne sera point qu'un rôve, Ounls, si tu t'empresses... 

Mais pourquoi ce frisson ou cet air abattu ? 

La "robe noire" attend, va donc, Ounls... Veux-tu? 




Les vieillards ont 8lég>é sous la forêt Dans l'ombre, 
liOin du " visacre pâle " ont siégé les vieillards. . . 
Les cruerriers iroquoto sont venus, en grand nombre, 
Suiprendre les hurons, pendant que les broulllardfl 
Tendent leur voile hiunJde autour de la bourgade. 
Sur les eaux, sous les bols, dans la lueur qui fuit. 
Glisse comme un serpent l'Infernale brigade. 
liUe guette sa ipnoie. O ! la sanglante nuit... 
La moK plane I 

L'Autonoin a prédit la victoire, 
n a parlé deux fois à, l'esprit des combats. 
Les " blancs " auront leur tombe id. Ce territoire. 
Depuis le lac sans fin jusqu'aux monts de lA-bas, 
Sst aux cbasseurs. Les " bdancs " et les htirons qu'Us aiment 
fieront tous égorgés. Les Hurons les premiers, 
CcLr ils déposent l'arc, fouillent la terre et sèment 
Des grains qui vont mûrir au milieu des fun^ers. 

Les bois sont endormis. Le Mbou solitaire, 
Seul aux cîmes des pins, ulule tristement. 

— O l'augure fatal ! ne va-t-U pas se taire ? 
Songe Ounis, le guerrier, qui marche lentement. 

Ounis souffre depuis qu'Irenna son amie 
A reçu le baptême et prie un Dieu nouveau. 
Sur son front désormais pèsera l'Infamie... 
Des pensers de vengeance échauffent son cerveau. 

— De quel d<roit ce Dieu-lià, gronde-t-il dans un rftle. 
Vient-il nous enlever les vierges de nos bois, 

J^ous ne lui volons ^pas ses femmes au front p&le?... 

Il erre ca et là, comme un fauve aux abois. 

Honteux de son échec, irrité de sa peine... 

Mais queUles sont ces voix qui chuchotent tout près? 

6ont-ce les guerriers morts qui lui soufflent la haine ? 

n veut boire du sang... Le sang qu'il aime. Après 

Il ira déterrer, lui, la hache de guerre. 

Bi les autres ont peur, qu'importe ? il ira seul. 

Le wigwam d'Irenna qu'il respectait naguère 

S'endormira ibientêt sous un sanglant linceul... 

Bt toujouis le hibou slnistrement ulule... 
Interrogeant la nuit de ses ardents regards, 
Ounis marche plus vite. Un feu maudit le brOle... 
Il est fou d'avoir eu pour elle tant d'égards. 

[LI mat] IRENNA la HUBONNE 189 

Ireium reposait mir aa couche de branchea 
Un an^e avec amour la proté^reait, ouvrant 
Au-deflBU8 de eon front ees ailes toutes blcmchee. 
Elle se dâlectait dans un rêve enivrant 

Jj&nge ne voit-Il pas la menace qui plane ? 
N'entend-ll pas un bTuIt paireil au flot montant ? 
Qui donc s'introduit HL, dune la chaste cabane? 
Un spectre s*est penché sur la vlergre. Hésitant, 
Il écoute pesser une haleine eanbaïunée. . . 
Ce srrand Esprit, ce Christ au séduisant appel, 
Ce I^eu qui lui ravit sa jeune blen-aimée, 
Va-t-il à, aon amour, va-t^l H son ecalpel. 
Cette nuit, la soustraire ? 

Elle est Ift sans défense. 
Le père est à la chasse em loin. L'obscurité 
Favorise l'audace et provoque l'offense. 
On fait nvieux ce qu'on fait dans la sécurité. 

Mais quel cii de fureur, quelle clameur immenee 

S'élève tout-4t-ooup dans la bourgade en paix ? 

Est-ce le cri de eruerre ? Il meurt et recommence 

Comme un éclat de foudre au fond des bois épais. 

Le féroce Iroquoie, brandissant la miassue. 

Sourit au sans: qui coule et foule aux pieds les morts. 

n frappe; il est partout et ferme toute issue. 

Bon bras est sans repos et son coeur, sans remords. 

OunJs s'est redressé pareil à la panthère; 
Aux appels des firuerriers Ounls a répondu... 

La vierge avait un soncre . . O ! le chaste mjrstère ! 
Aux clameurs des combats le sone^e s'est fondu. 



Lee cruerriers iroquoie reviennent de leurs courses. 

Ils chantent en vogruant, et vantent les ressources 

De cet esprit subtil qu'ils tiennent d'es aïeux. 

Ils traînent des captifs. Ils sont fiers et joyeux. 

Car toute la tribu va les aa>peler braves. 

Lfcs femmes, les enfants, avec les vieillards grraves. 

Vont descendre à la rive en fouie, au-devant d'eux. 

Leur bouche se contracte en un rire hideux. 

Car ils ont inventé de nouveUes tortures. 

Des cheveux tout san«rlants pendent ft leurs ceintures. 

Les cheveux des guerriers ennemis. 


Jjea canots 
Glissent sur le flot noir comme un vol de linots. 
Lie chef, de temps en temps, jette une cdameur craie 
En frappant rudement, du bout de sa pagaie. 
Un jeune i>rlsonnier â. ses pieds étendu. 
Le vainqueur n'aura pas lon^^uement attendu 
Pour voir mûrir ses plans et triompher sa ruse. 
Mais que n*a-t-ll fait plus ? Malntenajit il s'accuse 
De n'avoir pas versé tout le sang qu'lil rôvalt. 
Avait-il peur des Blancs ? Lies Blancs, oh ! s'il pouvait 
Pendre comme un troqpliée H sa ceinture fauve 
Leur courte chevelure ! Et, dans leur crâne chauve 
S'il pouvait au festin, boire leur sang tiédi ! 

Et longtemps les canots, dans un élan hardi. 
Emportant les vaincus et les fruits du piiUage, 
Ont tracé sur les eaux leur sinistre sillage. 
Ils arrivent enfin. Louant Areskoul, 
Le iguerrier dans les flots jette, tout réjoui. 
Le petun odorant qu'il offre en sacrifice. 

Le sachem Iroquois,— serait-ce un maléfice ?— 

Le sachem déjà vieux brûle pour Irenna, 

La fl>lle des hurons qu'un guerrier lui donna. 

Il brûle et veut l'avoir pour femme ou pour maîtresse. 

Elle viendra bientôt, en sa grande détresse. 

Pour la première fois au wdgwam d-u chasseur. 

C'est pour sauver Ounis. Elle se dit sa sœur... 

Tous les deux Ils mourront s'ils ne vivent ensemble. 

A la darté des feux la tribu se rassemble. 
C'est l'heure du supplice. Alors le sachem dit: 

— Jusqu'à l'autre soleil' il vous est interdit 
De tourmenter Ounis, le frère de ma femme. 
Pour les aiitres captifs nul tourment n'est infâme." 

— L'ardent foyer pétille et la chaudière bout. 

Au festin ! . . . . Les 'captifs sont là, rangés debout. 

Liés solidement au tronc rugueux du frône. 

Au festin ! .. .. Nous irons sur la sanglante arène, 

Et le hunon mourra déchiré par les fers. 

Les outTSigea anciens que nous' avons soufferts 

Seront vengea ! 

[le may] IRENNA la HURONNE 141 

Ainsi parle un jongleur immonde, 
Bt le festin commence. Et tout ce cruel monde 
Dédhdre de ses dents les morceaux de la chair. 
Et l'enivrant fumet monte lonertemps dans l'air 
Avec les ords de joie, & travers le bois dense. 
Puis au repas succède une inferna>le danse, 
La danse de la mort. 

— Le sais-tu, prisonnier, 
Le soleil qui se oouche est pour tod le dernier ? 
Nos dUens vont dévorer, cette nuit, ton cadavre. . . 
Guerrier, tu vas mourir ! gruerrier, la peur te navre ! 

Ils dansent en chantant ce sinistre refrain. 

Leur colère, bientôt, ne connaît plus de freln« 

Ils balancent les bras. Us agitent la tête, 

Ils poussent des clameurs comme des cris de bête. 

Devant les prisonniers ils passent tour à tour, 

Et leurs ongrles, aigus comme des becs d'autour, 

Les déchirent Ensuite, au signal, l'arc se bande, 

iE)t de cruels enfants, avec la noire bande, 

Sur ces nobles vaincus lancent des traits perçants. 

Et toujours garottes, les hurons Impuissants 

Jettent à leurs vainqueurs des regards pleins d'outrage. 

Le sang' qui coule aJlume une effroyable rage; 

C'est la pourpre sans prix dont le bourreau se teint. 

On attise la flamme au foyer qui s'éteint. 

Les femmes font rougir des Instruments de pierre 

Et brûlent en riant l'insolente paupière 

D'où sans cesse Jaiïlit le mépris. 

Les hurons. 
En des éclats de voix qui fpemiblent des clairons. 
Provoquent leurs bourreaux: 

— Bourreau, tu te relftches!... 
Oh ! quel bonheur ! nos yeux ne verront plus de Iftches ! 
Nos flls de vos aïeux ouvriront les tombeaux. 
Pour vous donner ensemible en pâture aux corbeaux !" 

Plus Ils narguent la mort, plus aussi le sang coule... 
Leur voix n'est plus qu'un râle et la vengeance est soûle. 

Parmi ces fiers mourants Ounls est oublié... 

n est demeuré seul k son arbre lié. 

Cest un malheur nouveau. Le supplice qui tarde 

Est souvent plus oruel qu'un prompt supplice. Il garde 

En son cœur uîlcéré rancune à son destin. 

S'il est sur le bûcher au lieu d'être au festin, 

Cest l'amour inconstant d'Irenna la chrétienne 

Qui l'a voulu... L'inf&me! Au moins qu'on la détienne! 

Qu'elle sache aa mort et ses ressentiments. 

Et qu'ensuite elle meure au milieu des tourments ! 


• rv 


L'ombre a xu>yê les hoia. Lie silence environne 
Xta caibane d'êcorce où la Jeune huronne, 
Captive pour toujours, pleure en ses longs enniils. 
E311e ira dans l'Instant, sous le voile des nuits, 
Pour de tristes amours co<iuetteKnent parée, 
Sous la tente du chef. Le ciel l'a séparée 
D'Ounis le beau guerrier qui possède son cœur. 
OunLa ne cacha point un sourire moqueur 
Quand elle lui pai^a du Christ et du baptême. 
<Maintenejit sur leur tête est tombé l'anathème, 
Puisque tous deux ils sont au pouvoir du vainqueur. 

Des voix hurlent Ift-bas, d'autres diantent en chœur. 
C'est le rugissement des 'bourreaux qui s'étonnent, 
C'est l'hymne de la moK que les captifs entonnent; 
Irenna, seule, pleure et maudit sa beauté. 

La haine épuise enfin toute sa cruauté. 

Tout bruit meurt. L'iroquols dort. Un rire farouche 

Comme un refiet d'enfer passe encor sur sa bouche. 

Mais le chef ne dort pas. JH espère, il attend. 

Un murmure, un frisson, un souffle qu'il entend 

Lui semblent le soupir de la superbe esclave. 

Et voiUL que s'allume une paupière cave; 
Au bord du lac dormant un spectre est descendu; 
Un cœur broyé géonit sur le bonheur perdu; 
C'est l'aKière Ondina qui cherche sa rivale. 
Le sachem ila renvoie, et, comme une cavale 
Que l'érperon de fer tourmente et fait hennir, 
La femme délaissée, â. l'amer souvenir 
•Se révolte et bondit. 

Les pénétrants arômes. 
Les chauds baisers des nids sous les sauvages dOmes, 
La tiédeur de la ibrlse et le caime des deux, 
Tout Invite à l'amour. 

Le chef est soucieux. 
Elle tarde à venir, la huronne captive. 
Aux douces voluptés son ftme trop rétive 
Hésite & se donner. . . N'a-t-elle donc pas bu 
La magique boisson du chef de la tribu ? 
Le Jongleur, à minuit l'a fadt sourdre du sable. 
Cette boisson qui rend l'amour Impérissable 
Le Sagamo l'a prise; il s'en est enivré, 
Et le feu court déjà sous son masque cuivré. 

[LI mat] IBENNA la HUBONNE 148 

Les cadsuvres eont llL Béantes, lee blessures 
Saignent encor. Lee loups font d'horrlbaee morsuree^ 
lis ont flalPê le sang et eont vite venus. 
Et des corbeaux nombreux sur lee os déjà nus 
Ouvrent leur sombre vol d'où tomibent des cr4s aigres. 

Ounis le prisonnier cherche quels ch€mts allègres 
Pour braver les bourreaux â. son tour U dira. 
Comme un tigre blessé riroquois bondira. 
Mais devant le héros ses Aireurs seront vaines. 
Le huron jettera tout le sang de ses veines, 
Comime un défi mortel, au front de ces vils chiens, 
Et, mort, 41 s'en Ira glorieux vers les siens. 

La huronne a passé sous da sombre ramure. . . 

6a joue a de l'éclat comme une poche mûre; 

Ses yeux, sous leurs cils noirs ont de fauves lueurs. 

Repus, lassés du mal, reposent les tueurs. 

Le wlgwam du sachem est ouvert. Le chef veille. 

n velHe en attendant la captive. O ! merveille ! 

Au bruit léger d'un pas, comme un timide daim, 

Lui, l'homme san^ruinalre, fl tressaille soudain ! 

Lui, le fauve pétri d'une sordide fange. 

Il sourit & l'amour comme ferait un ange ! 

La Huronne est venue... Elle est venue enfin! 
Le bonheur sera long. Des ivresses sans fin 
Vont remplir désormais l'ftme du fier sauvage. 
La captive oubliera les lunes d'esclavage. . . 

Le lac n'a plus de chants, le bois n'a plus d'échos; 
Tout dort, hormis les loups qui dévorent les os. 
A travers les vieux troncs épars dans la nuit noire 
Fasse ime forme svelte. Un long stydet d' ivoire, 
Un stylet qu'elle agite et serre dans sa main. 
Laisse tomber du sang le loncr de son chemin. 
Mie court au hasard et comme une insensée. 
Personne ne pourrait deviner sa pensée. 
Elle va répétant, dans sa course, des mots 
Qui tintent comme un glas aux voûtes de rameaux. 

Devant la mort qui vient Ounis est impassible, 

-Mais 11 entend son nom et tremble... (Bst-11 possible 

Qu'un autre infortuné vive encor près de lui ? 

C'est une ruse .... Oui, là, dans l'ombre une arme a lui I 

N'importe, il n'a point peur, il ressent trop de haine. 

L'arme se troanpe-t-elle?... Elle coupe sa chaîne!... 

Le malheureux captif reprend sa Hberté. 


Pour venger dl^mement sa race et sa fierté, 
La vierge avait tué le chef impur et traître. 

^le suivit les paa d'Ounds^ Toue deux au prêtre 
Ils vinrent, au retour, faire ces long» récits. 
Ounls avait des tons, des regards adouclA. 

— Baptlae-mod, fit-il» J'aiime un Dieu qui pardonne.' 

Le prêtre ddt: 

— <:;e Dieu l'un â. l'autre vous donne." 

Irenna, tout émue alors, le front penché. 
Murmura lentement: 

— Mon père. J'ai péché !" 

Section I, 1903 [ 146 ] MAmoires S. R. 

VII. — La Fontaine d^ Abraham Martin et le Site de son Haiitation. 

Par P.-B. Casgrain, Québec. 
(L.U le 20 imal 1903). 

Le nom d^ Abraham Martin dit Técossais, pilote royal du Saint- 
Laurent, nous reporte aux premiers temps de la colonie. Il figure dans 
le domaine de Fhistoire de Québer, comme tîn personnage un peu en 
vue sous le nom de Maistre Abraham, et depuis 1854 on Fa fait revivre 
inopinément à propos des Plaines d^ Abraham. 

On sait que le pilote abandonna la vie de marin poux se fixer à terre, 
et il s'établit à Québec, dans la banlieue, sur le penchant du coteau 
Sainte-Geneviève, à Tendroit qui fut connu dès lore et appelé depuis 
vulgairement Claire-Fontaine, 

Cette appellation continua après sa mort (1664) parmi ses héri- 
tiers, et même jusqu'après la conquête, alors que Tendroit devint com- 
munément nommé La Fontaine d^ Abraham Martin. 

Cependant cette fantaine ne nous paraît plus -oonnue aujourd'hui 
puisque on s'en enqudert pour la trouver, et que personoie ne répond 
à la question. Bulletin des Recherches Historiques, nov, 1902, question' 
904. La raison en est simple, c'est qu'elle a disparu de la vue depuis 
longtemps, pair un changement dans la voierie. Bile a été oubliée,, 
étant restée cachée sous une maison construite peu après la conquête. 

Et de même qu'il a fallu chercher pour découvrir la Fontaine de ^ 

Champlain, (Cf. Canada-français, vol, 1, p, 466), ainsi nous allons nous 
mettre en quête pour trouver l'endroit de celle d'Abraham Martin. 

Nous aurons en même temps* l'occasion de délimiter exactement, 
d'après la disposition actuelle du terrain, la pièce de terre qu'il possé- 
dait là, comme aussi de rappeler le nom véritable qu'elle portait et qui 
lui fut donné pour désigner son habitation. 

Dès 1645 il avait commencé à défricher sa pièce de terre, et en 
1648^ il avait déjà bâti sa maison et une grange; puis il compléta son 
défrichement en entier, que ses enfants ne purent cependant conserver 
plus de trois ans après sa mort (1664), faute de moyens. 

Cette propriété consistait en 32 arpents en superficie, et compre- 
nait deux lots* en bois, dont 20 arpents lui provenaient du chirurgien 

* L'acte de domation par Adrian (8Ù;J DuOhesne qui fut si&né dans cette 
maison l'Indique. 

' M. Doug'h'ty fait erreur en la divisant en 3 lots, et en disant 2 dona- 
tions, prenant la ratification pour une autre donation. The Siege of Quebec, 
vol, II, p. 290, 

Sec, I, 1003. JO. 



Adrian Duchesne^ à qui ils avaient été départis et cancédSs en roture 
par la Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France le 9 ' juillet 1637, et qui en 
avait obtenu la ratification par titre confirmatif de la compagnie, scellé 
de son sceau^ en date^ à Paris, du 5 avril 1639 ; et Duchesne lui en avait 
fait donation, à la suite d'une promesse verbale à cet effet qui remon- 
tait à 1645, par acte authentique passé à Québec, devant M^ Laurent 
Bermen, notaire royal, le 10 octobre 1648; titre qui fut dûment agréé 
et ratifié par la compagnie le 1«' février 1652. 

Et quant aux autres 12 aipents Martin les tenait aussi en roture 
et directement par don de la compagnie, qui les lui avait départis 
par le Sieur de Gand, son commis-général, ainsi qu'il est énoncé dans 
un procès-verbal de bornage et arpentage dressé le 4 décembre 1635 
^T Jean Bourdon, arpenteur royal, suivi de tradition et possession 
immédiates, mais sans autre titre que ce procès-verbal. Cependant 
oomme cette concession demeurait sujette à la chaxge stipulée et bien 
comprise d^en prendre ratification de la compagnie, laquelle s'était 
aussi réservé de donner les titres, honneurs et redevances, le titre de 
cette acquisition n'avait pas sorti son effet vis-à-vis d'elle et restait 
ainsi en suspens, jusqu'à Taccomplissement de ces formalités requises 
et exigées. Martin demanda donc, par après, la i«4^fication de cette 
concession, laquelle lui fut accordée par la compagnie le 16 mai 1650, 
sans autre 'désignation du fond que celle énoncée au procès- verbal ci- 
dessus, fixant la charge des redevances à douze deniers de cen^' par cha- 
cun arpent par an, comportant profit de lods-et-ventes, saisines et amen- 

Le tout fut vendu aux Dames R.R. Mères TJrsulines du monastère 
de St-Joseph de Québec, par les héritiers d'Abraham Martin et de Mar- 
guerite Langlois, aa femme, (au noanbre de cinq, dont l'un était encore 
mineur) parce que les bâtiments tombaient en ruines et la «terre restait 
en friche faute de moyens. 

Ces motifs sont ainsi exprimés dans le oontrat d'acquisition des 
Dames Ursulines passé en forme authentique devant M*" Duquet, 
notaire royal, à Québec, le 1«' juin 1667. 

Comme il n'est pas fait mention, parmi les titres de propriétés des 
vendeurs énumérés en cet acte, de celui en date du 4 décembre 1635, 
tel qu'on le voit énoncé et décrit dans le procès-verbal de l'arpenteur 
Bourdon, à cette date, pour servir alors probablement à l'effet de titre 
par interim et sauf ratification, il est à croire, comme on l'a dit ci-haut, 
que ce document n'aura pas sorti son plein effet, puisqu'on y a suppléa 
par le titre subséquent de 1650, couvrant d'abondant les droits du con- 
cessionnaire et comportant le vrai titre. 




Devenues adn&i propriétaires, les Dames XJisulines qui détenaient 
en simple roture, comme leurs auteurs, obtinrent ^érection en fief de 
cette petite étendue de terre, et on lui donna le nom de fief Saint- 
Joseph, feitué en la haute-ville et ahanlieue (sic) d'ieelle/ 

En cette qualité elles concédèrent en censive, le 22 mai 1762, à 
"Jean-Marie Déguise dit Flamand, marchand-tanneur, de Québec, 
"une pièce de terre faisant partie du dit fief, la dite pièce de terre 
" seize et située hors les murs de cette ville sur le chemin Saint-Jean, le 
" dit lieu nommé vulguerement {sic) Fontaine d'Abraham Martin, de 

^OM. l3^jf^**^ Kc^H^i ÂfcJctJLyr •/• 


iJLÉtê,J*.%n0^ -^ 

"la consistance de cent-vingt pieds de front sur le dit chemin Saînt- 
"Jean, sur quatre-vingt pieds de profondeur allant vers le coteau 
" Sainte-Geneviève, aboutissant la dite profondeur aux terres encore non 
"concédées, joignant au nord-est aux terres non concédées, du côté du 
" sud-ouest encore des terres non concédées/' 

Cette concession fut faite à charge annuelle et perpétuelle de six 
deniers de cens, quinze livres tournois de rente foncière, et soixante 
livres tournois de rente constituée. Le contrat tel que stipulé appert 

* Cf. Foi et hommayee des Ursulines, vol. I, 1ère partie, p. 297, 16(r7, Re»» 
des Fol et Hommaflres. 


au long daDS le procès-verbal de mesurage et bornage accompagné du 
plan figuratif y joint, dressé le même» jour, 22 mai 1762, par M^ Noël 
Levasseur, arpenteur royal, en forme authentique et signé des parties, 
afin de servir, en même temps, de titre à Déguise. 

Le plan figuratif indique "les bornes de la portion de terre et 
" fontaine vendues au dit Jean-Marie Déguise ;'' et sur Talignement nord 
du chemin St-Jean, est marqué Fendroit d'une fontaine se déversant 
vers le coteau, avec Tinscription "fontaine d'Abraham Martin, dis- 
" tante de la borne sud-ouest de vingt-huit pieds ;*' ainsi qu'on peut le 
voir sur le fac-similé du plan photographié que nous présentons. 

Plus tard Déguise désirant vendre se fit donner un titre plus effec- 
tif pour pouvoir transférer sa propriété, et les Dames Ursulines lui con- 
sentireut un contrat en forme probante, passé devant M*" Panet, no- 
taire,, le 28 septembre 1765; et à Tinistant le même notaire jacassa un 
second acte de vente par Déguise à Jean-Marie Liénard Durbois dit 
Mondor, maître-tanneur. La pièce de terre y est désignée tel que 
ci-dessus, au lieu vulgairement appelé Fontaine d'Abraham Martin, et 
" suivant procès-verbal et plan figuratif d'icelle faits par le Sieur Noël 
" le Buisson (Levasseur),* arpenteur, en date du 22 mai 1762, ensemble 
le procès-verbal d'alignement dressé par M*^ Lamorille, le 27 avril 

Le chemin Saint-Jean d'alors avait été ouvert par l'ordonnance du 
Conseil Souverain du 20 juin 1667. Il passait dans la cour de la maison 
de feu Abraham Martin, après avoir longé un petit coteau à gauche et 
traversait ensuite les terres tiu Sieur de Repcntigny et celles des Hospita- 
lières. Son parcours était irrégulier et suivait les aocidents du sol, 
comme le démontre l'angle prononcé de l'alignement du chemin sur le 
plan de Levasseur. Ce qui nous permet en même temps de fixer raison- 
nablement le site de la maison près de la Fontaine. 

Mondor disposa de 40 pieds de front sur la profondeur ci-dessus, 
du côté du nord-est, en faveur de Chs Trudel, et vendit l'emplacement 
des 80 pieds restant à Joseph Belo dit Larose, par contrat devant M*" 
Deschenaux, notaire, le 19 juillet 1784. 

Le même cens, les mêmes rentes foncière et constituée, appuyés 
suir cet emplacement et sa subdivision, conitinuent d'être perçus par les 
ci-devant seigneuresses du fief, sauf que les rentes sont devenues main- 
tenant rachetables à volonté deipuis l'abolition de la tenure seigneu- 
riale. C'est par ce moyen qu'on a pu identifier le site du terrain con- 
cédé en référant aux lots du Cadastre officiel du quartier Saint-Jean, 
n«» 3090, 3091 et 3092, appartenant à M. Hethrington, boulanger ; 

* Françoise Levasseur. veuve de Jean-Baptiate Gosset de dit duBuisson, 
avait épousé Pierre Buisson, de là le surnom. 


lesquels lots forment, avec celui voisin, n<> 3089, Tencoignure ouest de 
la rue Sainte-Geneviève, en montant du coteau pour joindre la rue 

La fontaine devait donc se trouver sur la propriété de M. Thomas 
Hethrington, n<> 366 de la rue. 

En effet, Mr. Hethrington, fils, a eu Tobligeance de nous donner, 
le 16 février dernier, les renseignements précis suivants: 

"La fontaine existait, dit-il, sous le mur de fondation de Tan- 
cienne maison où je suis né, et que nous avons rebâtie. Elle était cou- 
verte par une voûte en pierre, cintrée, large et assez haute pour y péné- 
trer facilement, comme je Tai fait souvent dans mon enfance. Cette 
voûte était appuyée sur un mur très épais qui existe encore sous le 
milieu de notre maison, à, une quinzaine de ffieds de Talignement actuel 
de la rue. L'eau se déversait vers le nord et coulait sans cesse, étant 
une source vive, très claire et très bonne. Lors de la pose des tuyaux 
de Faqueduc et du gaz le drainage qui en est résulté a diminué Teau. 
Dès avant la reconstruction, il y a une quinzaine d^années environ, la 
fontaine avait été comblée pour s^en débarrasser, parce que Teau était 
devenue mauvaise à cause du développement du faubourg au-dessus et 
de Finfiltration qui s^en était produite dans les terres mal égouttées 
alors. Cependant elle continue toujours à couler un peu, si bien qu^il est 
nécessaire d'entretenir un canal qui déverse dans Tégout inférieur de 
la rue.'' 

C'est à cause du redressement du chemin Saint-Jean et de l'aligne- 
ment donné à la rue par Lamorille que la fontaine s'en trouve ainsi éloi- 
gnée d une quinzaine de pieds, et l'emplacement a gagné d'autant en 
front vers la rue, où il fait presque angle droit maintenant : ce qui dé- 
montre combien le chemin caracoUait. 

D'après les énoncés qu'on lit aux actes cités, on voit que l'eau de 
la fontaine était abondante et servait à alimenter une tannerie, où il y 
avait aussi un moulin à tan et une boutique. Cette industrie ayant 
commencé là en 1762, a été continuée longtemps, même après 1784. 

Jetons maintenant un coup d'œil sur l'ensemble et les limites 
vraiee», aujourd'hui, des 32 arpents de terre d'Abraham Martin, qu'inci- 
demment il nous a fallu examiner. 

Comme l'exactitude historique et géométrique ne saurait être trop 
minutieuse dans ces recherches et exposés, examinons attentivement le 
plan délimitatif qu'en ont donné MM. Doughty et Parmelee, au vol. 
II, p. 298, The Siege of Quebec, etc., avec l'indication des limites com- 
prises entre les lignes " A.B.C.D." et marquées " Claire-Fontaine 
Street,'* " Ste-Geneviève Street '* et " St. John Street," avec une ligne 


pointillée^ près et au sud de la rue Saint-Jean^ pour indiquer la limite 

Il nous parait évident que ce qu'il nous ont présenté comme plan est 
^out au plus une copie d'une copie approximative faite par feu M. le 
chapelain Maguire et que s'est un dessin récent à ea face, et postérieur 
à la conquête à cause de l'écriture en anglais. On peut le regarder 
comme un simple croquis qui peut donner un atpearçu suffisant au lecteur 
pour localiser l'endroit; mais comme jp^an il est imparfait^ et ne montre 
aucime marque d'authenticité. Il ne comporte aucune signature, et n'a 
ni rhumb-de-vent, ni échelle, ni mesurage, et l'indication de la rue 
Claire-Fontaine y est erronée. 

Car il faut remarquer que quant aux dates qui nous occupent, 
savoir 1635 et 1667, la rue Claire-Fontaine n'existait pas là alors, ni 
depuis. Lorsqu'elle a été ouverte elle s'est arrêtée comme aujourd'hui 
à la rue Saint-Jean. 

La rue Sainte-Geneviève était de mêtaie inconnue de nom et de 
fait en ces premiers temps. 

Les tenants et aboutissants d'alors étaient du côté ouest, (N.N.O.). 
M. de Bepentigny (Pierre Legardeur), 1667 ; et en mars 1668, les reli- 
gieuses de ITTôtel-Dieu; de l'autre côté au nord-est les héritiers du dé- 
funt M. Couillard, représentant feu M. Hubou;* au sud M. de Villeray, 
et au bout vers le nord la commune (s'étendent au pied du coteau). 

En suivant une ancienne ligne fondamentale' de cette époque, la 
tirant droit dans le centre de la rue Claire-Fontaine et dépai«ant la rue 
Saint-Jean pour aller frapjper la cîme du coteau, on retrouve la ligne 
ouest, boane originaire des 32 arpents. Elle est devenue aujourd'hui 
une ligne imaginaire, mais divise encore les mêmes propriétés des TJpsu- 
lines de celles de l'Hôtel-Dieu. Elle est apparemment irr^ulière snr 
le sol à cause des oonstructione qui biaisent sur elle et y font des em- 
pièteuients réciproques, qui ont été accordés par de mutuels consente- 

Les autres bornes actuelles sont, vers le nord, la cîme du coteau 
Sainte-Geneviève, au sud-est, la rue Saint-Gabriel, et au nord-est la rue 
Sainte-Geneviève; lesquelles contiennent les 32 arpents. Voir notre 
plan bornes A.B.C.D. dressé par M. A. Taché, du bureau des Terres. 

Nous n'avons pu trouver dans les anciens titres et plans aucun in- 
dice que ces 32 arpents aient jamais porté le nom de Plaines cTAbrahàmy 

' Honorable homme, demeurant à la côte Salnte-Geneviêve, décédé le IS 
mai 1653. qui avait épousé «Marie Rollet, veuve de Louis Hébert. 

' Cette llfime part de la Grande- Allée, «ur le sommet de la côte à Per- 
rault, et suit le milieu de l'alifirneanent de la rae Cliaire-Fontaine, dnolt jusqu'à. 
la rivière Saint-Charles, au pied de la rue de la Couronne, et servait de ligne 
fondamentale de division des pix>priétés Jusque-là. EîHe coure 21**. ouest. 




appliqué spécifiquement à ce terrain d'environ 6 arpents de largeur sur 
environ 6 arpents de profondeur. Cette petite superficie ne comporte 


D^Abraham Martin 

T I 

^ùù ptmdt frmfiçmf* mu. jf* a m 


guère en elle-même ce qu'on entend en bon français, chez nous, par 
Texpression plaine, et encore moins de permettre d^employer le pluriel 
pour pouvoir dire les Plaines d'Abraham, en parlant de ce petit carré 
de terre. Ce que nous entendons clairement au pays par plaine, est 


une étendue plus ou moins considérable de terrain planche, s'étendant 
de tous côtés sur une surface généralement égale^ comme^ par exemple 
sur les hauteurs de Québec, le plateau dit des Hauteurs d'Abraham, à 
partir des Buttes-à-Neveu, entre Québec et Sîllery. H serait encoro 
plus difiBcile d^appliquer ce nom à la côte ou coteau Sainte-Geneviève, 
sur lequel est situé le terrain d^Âbraham Martin, à cause du manque 
absolu d^un même niveau; attendu que le versant du coteau va en pente 
rapide vers sa cîme. L'inclinaison forme là sur le coteau, rue Saint- 
RéaJ, une différence de 119.71 pieds avec le niveau de la rue Saint- 
Gabriel, c'est-à-dire une rampe de 1 dans 9 sur la profondeur des 6 

Quiconque croit qu'il pourrait y avoir là une plaine, n'a qu'à aller 
rhiver voir glisser les enfants dans les côtes des rues sur ce versant, et 
s'assurer de la vitesse prodigieuse de leurs traîneaux. De là probable- 
ment le nom si ancien de côte Sainte-Geneviève. 

Chose étonnante : Ce n'est que depuis 1854 (Doughty, The Siege of 
Quebec, vol. II, p. S98, citant Beatson), qu'on a fait la découverte que 
ce terrain a porté et doit porter le nom de Plaines d'Abraham, et était 
suivant MM. Doughty et Parmelee, *Hhe original Plains of Abraham.^^ 
(Id.y pp. 291, 806.) 

MM. Doughty et Parmelee à ce sujet s'appuient sur l'autorité de 
feu l'abbé Ferland, que le caipitaine Beatson a suivie et qui leur a été 
passée toute faite de ce chef, pour repéter tous quatre la même chose, 
sans plus ample examen. 

Eemontons aux sources pour contrôler d'abord l'abbé Ferland; ce 
que ces derniers n'ont pas fait et auraient pu faire aussi facilement que 
nous, en ce moment, d'une manière certaine et authentique, ayant eu 
en mains les mêmes pièces primitives et prenant la peine de les lire. 

Personne ne contestera que le coteau Sainte-Geneviève s'étend de- 
puis les murs, au nord de la porte Saint-Jean, jusque dans Sainte-Foye, 
formant le versant du côté nord-ouest du chemin Saint-Jean. Cest 
sur ce coteau et environ à 8 arpents des murs et juste au-delà de la roe 
Sainte-Geneviève qu'est situé le terrain de Maître Abraham. 

Il est facile de s'apercevoir que l'abbé Ferland n'a pas vu ou n'a 
pas pu examiner attentivement les pièces originaires qui se rapportent 
à ce terrain. Ainsi il n'aurait pas mis Marie, une autre fille, femme de 
Jean Cloutier, au lieu de Marguerite Langlois, comme femme d'Abraham 
Martin. Il n'aurait pas borné le terrain vers le sud à la rue Saint-Jean, 
qui n'existait pas alors, même comme chemin de son vivant,^ et il aurait 
vu que la limite de ce côté s'étend au-delà et jusqu'à la rue Saint-Gabriel 
d'à présent; il ne l'aurait pas borné à l'ouest à la rue Clairo-Fontaine qui 

* Il ne fut ouvert qu'en 16«7 par procès-verbal du Conseil Souverain. 


n'a jamais existé là et qu'il confond avec la rue Déligny^ qui^ dit-il^ passe 
comme ^*Claire-Fontaine" devant l'Egliee Saint-Jean; il aurait découvert 
que le terrain ne s'étend pas aussi loin de ce côté ; enfin il aurait lu claire- 
ment dans les divers titres cités, le nom distinct de Claire-Fontaine 
donné à ^habitation d'Abraham Martin et pas d'autre. 

Où e^t-ce que l'abbé Ferland a appris que le nom de ^^ Plaines 
" (T Abraham était autrefois appliqué à ce terrain, comparativement uni, 
" dit-il, qui s'étend du pied du coteau Saint-Louis jusqu'à la cîme du 
*' coteau Sainte-Geneviève?" Mais c'est là même le coteau Sainte- 
Geneviève, et connu comme tel et non autrement de tout temps. 

PoTir ceux qui ne l'ont pas à vue de nez comme nous, Bouchette 
doit être la meilleure autorité ; et si l'on veut référer à sa Topography of 
Canada, 1815, pp. J,S0'405, elle satisfera les plus incrédules, qui n» 
sont pas de Québec. D'ailleurs n'importe quelle carte de la ville indi- 
que ce coteau sous ce nom, à commencer par les plus anciennes, cellee 
de Villeneuve en 1685 et 1688. 

Les titres leb plus anciens désignent tous l'habitation d'Abraham 
Martin sous le nom de Claire-Fontaine. 

Nous allons établir qu'elle était connue comme telle, même de son 
vivant, et nommée ainsi par ses héritiers immédiats, et a continué telle 
par les Ursulines, leurs acquéreurs, qui ont toujours endossé tous 
leurs titres ^^acquisition de la terre de Claire-Fontaine/' jusqu'à au- 

De môme aussi d'après des anciens plans la terre de Martin est dé- 
signée Claire-Fontaine, Cf. Plan Levasseur, 1766, cités par Doughty & 
Cie, et autres plans. 

Mais ce qui va encore plus directement en preuve c'est le témoi- 
gnage ,par écrit des cinq héritiers Martin eux-mêmes, consigné dans les 
quittances respectives de leur part du prix de vente aux Ursulines. 

Ainsi dans deux actes passés à Montréal, devant M*™ Basset, no- 
taire royal, l'un du 3 juillet 1669, Nicolas Forget dit Despastys et 
Magdeleine Martin, sa femme, donnent quittance pour partie de leur 
part du prix ; *^ à cause de la vente faite aux dites Religieuses par leurs 
*' cohéritiers, de la terre Claire-Fontaine, située au dit Québec, et estant 
" de la succession des défunts Abraham Martin et Marguerite Langlois, 
"père et mère de la dite Magdeleine Martin;" Et l'année suivante, 
21 mai 1670, ils accusent " parfait paiement pour leur part et portion 
" qui leur était échue de la terre Claire-Fontaine,^' 

Dans une autre quittance de Messire Charlcs-Amador Martin, 
prêtre, par acte passé devant M*'* Becquet, notaire royal, à Québec, le 
16 août 1675, il reconnaît et ratifie comme fils et co-héritier d'Abra- 
ham Martin et de Marguerite Langlois, la vente faite aux TJrsulînes des 
"trente-deux arpents de terre scis en la banlieue de cette ville au lieu 


*' dit Clère (sic) Fontaine avec quelques vieux bâtiments tombés en 
"ruine;" et déclare être payé de sa part du prix de vente. 

Etienne Eacine, comme ayant épousé Marguerite Martin, co-héri- 
tière, reconnaît par acte devant le même Becquct, notaire, en date du 
11 janvier 1668, avoir reçu le reste de leur part de la vente '^ d^une 
" terre et habitation seize en la banlieue de Québec au lieu dit Claire- 
'' Fontaine.'' 

Jacques Raté, qui avait épousé (1658) Anne Martin, veuve de Jean 
Côté, aussi co-héritière, donne la même désignation Claire-Fontaine, 
dans la quittance du 14 janvier 1668, Becquet, notaire. 

Jean Gloutier, comme ayant épousé Tautre cinquième co-héritière 
Marie Martin, repète de même : " Une habitation seize près cette ville au 
lieu dit Claire-Fontaine," le 20 janvier 1668, devant le même notaire. 

Les Ursulines vendirent ensuite leur acquisition à Jean-Eustache 
Ijanouiller de Boisclair, contrôleur de la marine et des fortifications en 
ce pays, par acte devant Louet, notaire royal, le 26 avril 1726, la dési- 
gnant "trente-deux arpents de terre en superficie, "scitués en la banlieue 
**'de Québec, au lieu vulgairement nommé la Claire-Fontaine/' Cette vente 
fut résiliée par les pariies le 29 mai 1749, par acte devant M^** Bou- 
cault, notaire, et la Claire-Fontaine retourna encore, sous le même nom, 
aux religieuses; et le même jour elles consentirent à ce de Boisdair un 
bail à ferme d^une pari:ie du même terrain alors clos en pieux pour Tes- 
,pace de neuf années. Ce qui nous amène à l'époque de la conquête et 
de là nous arrivons, comme on Ta vu, à 1765 et 1784, sans changer de 

Il faudrait donc détruire cette chaîne de preuve d^abord, puis en 
produire à rencontre une autre de même valeur afin de justifier l'appel- 
lation des Plaines d'Abraham de Fabbé Ferland et celle d'Original Plains 
of Ahraliam de M. Doughty et consorts. 

D'après ces prémisses nous sommes fondés à conclure que: 

L'habitation d'Abraham Martin était de son temps bien connue, 
et nommée vulgairement Claire-Fontaine et pas autrement. 

Que cette appellation a subsisté après lui jusqu'à la conquête et ?. 
même été continuée jusqu^en 1784. 

Que la fontaine qui porte son nom était bien sur son terrain et est 
^celle que nous avons trouvée et indiquée. 

Que le petit carré de terre de 5 arpents sur 6, n'a jamais porté le 
nom de Plaines d'Abraham, nom qui n'a jamais, non plus, été usur])é par 
le terrain de Martin. 

Que de fait cet endroit ne peut pas former topographiquement ce 
qu'on ])cut appeler une plaine ou encore moins des plaines. 


Que le seul indice qui reste à ce sujet pour rappeler le nom et Thabi- 
tation d'Abraham Martin, eet le nom de la me Claire-Fontaine^ laquelle 
aboutit à ^encoignure sud-ouest du terrain primitif ; nom qui va dispa- 
raître pour être remplacé par celui d^avenue Perrault, suivant la ré- 
•cente ordonnance du conseil de ville. C'était ci-devant la route dite 
Claire-Fontaine, pour Touverture de laquelle les Dames Ursulines et de 
l'Hôtd-Dieu laissèrent chacune quinze pieds de terrain entr'elles en 
1790; et c'était aussi l'ancien chemin pour arriver sur les hauteurs du 
Cap, en montant de la vallée Saint-Charles par la côte d'Abraham. 
De là, probablement, (?) le nom de Hauteurs d^ihraham^ comme domi- 
nant le fond de terre qu'occupait Maître Abraham et par lequel on 

A l'époque de la conquête les Français les nommaient les Hauteurs 
de la ville, ou Hauteurs d'Abraham, et lee Anglais ont dit ^* The Heights 
of Abraham,'' en conséquence/ 

Jusqu'alors nous n'avons pu trouver nulle part, la désignation de 
Plaines d'Abraham, qui nous semble comparativement récente. Nous 
sommes enclins à croire que la partie si bien adaptée à un cliamp de 
courses, à raison de sa surface unie, et qui a été depuis environ un siècle 
(1780) en u?age comme tel^ a fait naître le nom do Plaines d'Abraham, 
(Cf. DcGaspé, ^Mémoires, p. 467) qui se restreint depuis longtemps à ce 
champ de courses. 

' En tous cas rien ne parait prouver que le nom du pilote écossais, 
pas plus que son terrain, ont servi à illustrer ce qui est connu aujourd'hui 
comme le champ de l)ataille des Plaines d'Abraham. Il est vrai que les 
Français en déroute et fuyant la poursuite des Anglais ont passé là, 
comme ailleurs, pour se sauver et ont même pu s'y défendre; ce qui 
n'ajoute pas plus d'importance à ce terrain qu'aux autres du voisinage 
et jusqu'à la rivière Saint-Charles. Le terrain de Martin se trouve en 
arrière de l'église Saint-Jean et à près d'un mille du champ de bataille, 
c'est-à-dire du monument de Wolfe. 

En écrivant une page d'histoire simplement sur la foi d'autrui et 
sans remonter aux sources et les étudier sérieusement pour s'assurer par 
soi-même, on s'expose à faire fausse route et à se voir appliquer l'adage: 
Quof Graecia mendax scripsit ! 

Il ne faut qu'un mauvais moment pour créer une erreur, et il faut 
des années pour la détruire. Et encore ! Témoin Kingsford et sa date 
de l'assaut Montgomery qui coure de par le monde. 

^ Open ground called the Heights of Abraham. Id. vol. VI, p. 27, Fragment 
cf tht i^iege, etc. Cf. aussi les divers plans anglais de l'époque. 





Section II., 1903 [ 8 ] Trans. R. S. C. 

I. — The Evolution and Degeneration of Party. — A Study in Political 


By Reverend Dr. N. Burwash, Victoria College, Toronto. 

(Read May 19th, 1903.) 

In all countries enjoying either a democratic or a constitutional 
form of government the political party plays an important part In 
primitive times a party formed around the person of a strong military 
leader was often the means by which the original liberty of the tribe or 
nation was lost and absolute government established. At a later period 
a revolutionary party was the means by which that liberty was regained. 
But in modem times the party is no longer an occasional or extraordin- 
ary agency, called into being at some great crisis, but a permanent and 
legally recognized part of the machinery of a free representative govern- 
ment. It is such to-day in Britain, in the United States of America, in 
Canada, in France and Germany and even in Japan. 

Tn these cases the party is not the volcanic outbreak of resistance to 
oppression, but is the result of the fact that the people have a voice in 
determining the various issues which arise in their history; that they 
are free to discuss these issues, and to form and express their opinions 
thereon; and that they can finally give force to those opinions at the 
polls. The party is the voluntary association of citizens by the help of 
which public questions are thoroughly discussed, public opinion formed, 
such opinion on the one side or other propagated and finally made effec- 
tive in legislation. Such association is absolutely necessary if publid 
opinion is either to be intelligently formed or effectively expressed. 

Our object in this study is not to follow the history of the various 
parties which have arisen in our own or any other country, or to trace 
their varying fortunes of ins and outs, or their changes of origin, growth 
and decay. It is rather to treat the party in politics as a species or type, 
and to determine the forces which contribute to its origin and healthy 
development. It is to study the laws by which those forces operate, as 
well as to follow the normal course of the development into the highly 
comjplex organism of the modern party. And it is finally to observe 
the evil influences which contribute to its decay and eventually result 
in its overthrow. 

The method of such a study must, of course, be inductive ; and as 
human nature is the same the world over, and the forces which govern 
the social or political evolution are universal in their operation, we may 


draw our examples from the histories with which we are all familiar^ 
those of Canada, Britain and the United States. 

The first fact that meets us, one that lies on the very surface of those 
historiée is, that a living party is created only by the occurrence of some 
new issue of considerable importance and always of widespread interest. 
We may adduce as examples the parties which divided the nation from 
Henry VIII. to Elizabeth, from James I. to Charles II., from James II. 
to George T. As during this period the constitutional liberty of Eng- 
land was only slowly taking form, the parties were largely revolutionary 
on the one side and absolutist on the other; but in eveory case the intense 
and persistent political life of the party was due to the importance of the 
issue involved and the widespread interest which consequently attached 
to it. Such issues occur only in the life of an active and progressive 
nation. Wherever the people have settled down into a stagnant tradi- 
tional life, without ambitions or new interests, and things go on as they 
were, there can be no new creation or birth of party. It is a ripe issue, 
involving large interests on the one side and the other, intelligently 
grasped by the people, that possesses this power of giving birth to party 
life. A merely speculative question cannot constitute such an issue. 
Academic disputes do not move the people. An issue or question enters 
the field of practical politics only when it has first entered into the in- 
dustrial, commercial, or political life of the people, or into their inter- 
national relations, and so forces itself upon their attention. We doubt 
whether a case can be found in which an abstract principle formed the 
basis of successful party life. The issue must take concrete form. We 
may even go further, and say that it must propose a positive course of 
action under the circumstances, a definite policy. It is more frequently 
on the policy or course of action to be pursued than on the end to be 
attained that party division of opinion arises. The deeper and more 
permanent party Unes, however, imply divergence of ends as well as of 
methods. The first party lines in the Province of Upper Canada were 
based on the divergence of Imperial and Colonial interests. The ques- 
tion was, should the country be governed from Downing street accord- 
ing to the ideas and convenience or interests of the Home Government? 
or by the voice of and in the interests* of its own electorate ? Such a 
divergence goes to the very basis of political life and creates a party 
Jine of division which may perpetuate itself through the entire national 

The issue which draws the line of division between parties must be 
important and permanent as well as practical. It must touch great 
common interests of the people, interests which are essential to their 
individual or united well being, and which are continuous in their char- 

[bubwash] evolution AND DEGENERATION OF PARTY 5 

acter. This is essential not only to the perpetuity of party life, but also 
to that force or energy which makes a party effective for its political 
function. A deeply earnest interest is necessary to strong healthy poli- 
tical life and even the most fiery or bitter party spirit is preferable from 
the moral point of view to apathy and consequent carelessness. Indif- 
ference is only less fatal to the welfare of the state than that selfish and 
corrupt individualism or sectionalism which makes the state the prey of 
the grasping and unscrupulous schemer. 

An issue which is strong enough to awaken and sustain a strong 
healthy political life will generally result in the creation of two parties. 
This is especially the case among the Anglo-Saxon peoples who form 
iheir opinions with great definiteness and force of character. The 
French people, with their more delicate logical distinctions, may shade 
off from the extreme right to the extreme left into five sections whose 
boundary lines are not very clearly defined. This certainly gives more 
scope for individualism in political life which when pure and healthy 
may be a very useful characteristic. But in Anglo-Saxon politics it has 
passed into a proverb that "Every question has two sides.'^ The two 
sides are not created by the abstract merits of the question itself; for 
could we at once apprehend the absolute truth of every question there 
would be but one opinion, and that the correct one. It is the slowness 
of the human mind to arrive at final truth that renders the conflict of 
party needful as the process by which that goal is reached ; and it is the 
characteristic one sidedness or imperfection of the human genius which 
determines its view, from this side or that side, of each individual ques- 
tion. This characteristic habit or attitude is probably more moral than 
intellectual, a matter of feeling rather than of judgment. On the one 
hand we have the conservative spirit, attached to things as they are, 
œutious and critical, averse to all change, a lover of the ancient, the 
venerable and respectable. On the other hand we have the progressive 
spirit, delighted with the new, with brilliant imagination portraying it in 
gay colours, venturesome and idealistic, keenly alive to all the imperfec- 
tions of the present order, and a worshipper of the millennial idea rather 
than that of hoary antiquity. Under the impulse of the one spirit pro- 
gress will be slow but safe and solid. Under the other there will be 
constant activity and movement, but not unfrequently mistakes. 

It is not necessary here to enter into the investigation of the various 
causes which produce this variety of mental attitude. Influence of phy- 
sical environment, hereditary proclivities, social environment, education, 
and social, religious or political institutions, all have their influence on 
the final result, which is the foundation imder the stimulus of some 
practical issue of two antithetic political parties. 


One of the early stages in the foundation of parties is the definition 
of policy, principles, or platform. For the purposes of the successful 
politician, the simpler and more epigrammatic this is the better. A 
policy or platform condensed into one or two high-flounding words is 
wonderfully effective. A policy which is lengthy or hard to understand 
will thereby work its own defeat. " Protection for our infant indus- 
tries,'* "A National Policy,'^ "No taxation without representation,'* 
" The United Empire," are familiar examples. This is but a case of 
the tendency in all ages of the popular mind to condense its' experience 
or .convictions into some pithy saying which »is the wit of one and the 
wisdom of many. The policy thus represents the fully conscious stage 
of political life, the (point at which the individual elements are not only 
uniting into a living organism, but the organism is becoming conscious 
of its own existence and character. 

Another of the early steps in the life of a party is leadership. Tn 
revolutionary parties this is naturally military in its character, and may 
often as the result of mere physical force change the character of the 
movement which it represents. A good example we have of this in the 
French Revolution and Napoleon. It began with the widest liberty 
as its watchword; it ended in the most extreme absolutism. Wash- 
ington gives us the finest example in history of a leader who never 
attempted to step aside from the end for whicà he was called to power. 

But the true constitutional leadership of party is that which aims 
at victory by intellectual and moral conviction and not by physical 
force. Such leadership demands a rare combination of natural endow- 
ments and acquired advantages. Wide knowledge, and strong under- 
standing, the gift of clear, forcible and persuasive speech, tact in deal- 
ing with men, all contribute to successful leadership. But probably the 
moral and social qualifications are even more important than the intel- 
lectual. Such a man must command public confidence, or even per- 
sonal affection. To this end the people ihust have come to know him, 
and he must have great power of moral or social attraction, a strong 
personality and personal influence. Kecent years have given us con- 
spicuous examples of such leadership — Gladstone, Disraeli, Lincoln, 
Bismarck, Sir John A. Macdonald, Sir Oliver Mowat. Such leadership 
is of immense immediate advantage to the cause of any party. And yet 
if the personal influence of the loader causes the people to lose sight of 
Ihe issue which is the true life of the party, the death of the leader 
may easily mean the disintegration of the party. In true healthy poli- 
tical life men should never overshadow the principles which they repre- 

The real business of the leader is to make the people understand 
the nature and importance of the principles which he represents and to 

[bubwabh] evolution AND DEGENERATION OF PARTY 7 

CO eate the enthusiasm for them which leads up to the necessary action. 
I' or this purpose leadership in our day has two most important instru- 
ments, the platform and the press. Of these the platform is the more 
immediately powerful. It brings into effective operation not only the 
rational considerations by which the party position or policy is «us- 
tiined, but also all the personal influence of the speaker, the force of 
liis emotional nature, his power to transmit this to his audience, in fact 
the influence of the orator, which was so exemplified in Demosthenies 
und Cicero. Added to this is the contagious enthusiasm of the audience 
itself, reacting again on the speaker, and arousing him to the veiy 
highest exertion of his powers. But if this is the more immediately 
powerful agency, the press is far more permanently and more safely 
influential in its results. It affords opportunity for calm consideration. 
That which it presents can be reconsidered at leisure and deliberately 
weighed apcurt from the tumult of an excited assembly. This is also 
true of the leader himself. In the calm quiet of his study he can come 
far nearer- to simple truth than under the excitement of the great 
public gathering. What he writes can be laid aside, reconsidered, 
improved, and finally presented as the very best. Nor is the process of 
selection confined to the man alone. The whole country will give its 
attention not to every one who writes, but to those who write that 
which is worth reading. To lead the people permanently to the truth 
the press has thus many advantages over the platform. And to these 
is to be added the fact that there is no limit to the constituency which 
i^ can reach. The physical strength of the greatest orator can reach 
crJy thousands where the press reaches millions. The creation of a 
party press becomes for these reasons one of the most important steps 
in its evolution. 

Following the process of development especially in modem times 
we are led next to the subject of party organization. This branch of our 
subject is capable of almost indefinite expansion. It is at the same time 
a point of great practical interest inasmuch as here first appear those un- 
healthy influences which lead rapidly to degeneration. 

The organization of a party may be of a very simple and of a per- 
fectly legitimate and useful character. If any body of citizens are to 
co-operate in the effort to bring their convictions and the reasons for 
them to the notice of their fellow citizens, some form of organization is 
for this pmrpose indispensably necessary. There must be a meeting to 
arrive at a common understanding of their fundamental principles. 
Such a convention must have a chairman and secretary. It is but a 
step from this to a permanent organization for the promotion of these 
principles. To this organization are attached local branches in all parts 
of the country. To employ the platform and the press in the work of 


this organization, it is often necessary to meet the expenses of speakers, 
writers and printing. All this is regarded as legitimate; but it is 
bringing ns nearer to the sources of danger. The introduction of funds 
and of paid workers may easily be perverted as we shall see presently. 
But thus far the fundamental purpose of the organization, the formation 
of intelligent public opinion is imquestionably both legitimate and use- 
ful. Another object of the organization of the party, the selection of 
the candidates who shall represent the party in the election contest, is a 
necessary function under a representative system. 

But when we turn to the next purpose for which party organization 
exists and for which it has of late years been greatly extended we have 
reached our most doubtful and dangerous ground. Is the personal can- 
vass either by the candidate or the party agents legitimate or in the best 
interests of a pure and free representative government? Every school- 
boy knows how ancient this practice is and how our very words "candi- 
date'* and " ambition '* have been derived from it. But even in Home 
did it not belong to the age of decline when the man sought the oflBce and 
not the oflBce the man ? 

Looking at it in our own day is the personal influence or solicitation 
of the candidate or of his agents at all a proper influence by which to 
secure votes ? If T vote for a man because he is my friend or has made 
himself agreeable, or has taken the trouble to ask me, and not because I 
have a clear conviction that he represents a right policy, am I not as 
unfaithful to my duty, as if I had voted because he slipped flve dollars 
into my hand ? It may be said that only by such a personal canvass and 
by great effort on election day can the full vote be polled. Granted, but 
is the vote polled by such methods of any real service to the country? 
Does it express any political responsibility or any intelligent or honest 
conviction? Should not all such persons be left to disfranchise them- 
selves ? But we will return to this point when we come to consider the 
degeneration of pariy in politics. 

The battle of party having been fought out at the polk, next pre- 
sents itself on the floor of the legislative assembly; and there also the 
political party has its course of development. 

Several important particulars differentiate this development from 
that of the party in the country, or among the electors. The result of 
the election contest has placed one party in possession of the offices of 
executive government, and has given them a certain priority in the pre- 
paration and presentation of legislation. The work of the governing 
party becomes thus constructive, that of the other critical. The work 
of criticism by no means excludes a positive policy directly opposed to 
that of the government, but the opposition are for the time being with- 


out the power of making that policy effective. They can present it and 
record their votes and reasons in its favour, but with a view to future 
rather than to present success. 

The issues on which the parties divide on the floor of the house are 
no longer confined to principles or matters of commanding importance, 
but are extended to minute and well defined legislative action. Many 
subjects of legislation are thus excluded from the category of party ques- 
tions and are left to the exercise of individual judgment. It is the pre- 
rogative of the Government to choose their ground in bringing forward 
their programme of legislation, leaving minor matters to individual 
action. But even after this elimination the field of party issues is 
greatly enlarged in parliament. The discufifiion of these issues in 
parliament has a twofold purpose, justification and conviction. 
Probably the latter purpose is subordinate. On all party questions, 
the position of the party is carefully considered and practically 
determined before the matter is discussed in the house. The speeches 
are not so much to change votes as to justify the position taken before 
the country. This is especially true of great issues which have already 
been explained and considered in caucus. Those items of legislation 
which are less essential to the party principles and policy may be left 
for open discussion. That a man should leave his party on a great issue 
becomes thus a most important matter in parliamentary history and is 
scarcely ever the result of a discussion or of parliamentary oratory. On 
the floor of parliament the party thus assumes its distinct function and 
develops its organization to meet the requirements of that function. 
The principal elements in this organization are the parliamentary leaders, 
the whips and the caucus. By means of the caucus the leaders consult 
the whole body of their followers on important matters of policy. The 
whips are the agency by which the whole force of the party is made avail- 
able for a division. Two leaders are recognized in the house, one of the 
government and one of the opposition, but under these are lieutenants 
who are intrusted with the defence of particular parts of the party policy 
as well as called upon for general support of the leaders. The members 
of the ministry holding seats in the house are, of course, identified with 
such leadership on the side of the government. 

The party thus fully formed and organized has a definite period of 
historic life often extending through several generations, and sometimes 
perpetuating by means of its organization a degenerate existence after 
its formative principles have ceased to have any living eflBcacy. 

Of the normal life of a party the living issue is the creative force, 
and this normal life is or should be governed by certain ethical prin- 
ciples. A man who takes upon himself the responsibility of being the 


representative of his party especially in parliament is believed to have 
done so from honest, intelligent, and well tried conviction. Loyalty to 
his party principles is on this account expected of him as a public duty. 
He can only honourably be released from the obligation by the resigna- 
tion of his position. In carrying fundamental principles into effect the 
individual member by his very union with the party submits his indi- 
vidual judgment as to ways and means to the decision of the majority. 
The very existence of party implies this distinction between principle and 
methods of its application. To change the principle is to reconstruct 
the party lines and leaves every man free. Compromise can only be 
applied to methods. 

On the other hand the party owes it to its members to allow large 
discretion in all matters not affecting its fundamental principles. This 
is one of the most notable features of English political life and is one of 
the most important characteristics of wise leadership. Parties organized 
under the vital influence of those far reaching forces which run through 
all (history, awake to all the new issues which arise in the course of 
national life and taking up a well defined position on those issues as a 
matter of honest conviction may perpetuate a healthy political life 
through many generations. But the secret of this perpetuation of a 
healthy party life lies in honest conviction. Any influence which brings 
about deviation from this, or which substitutes for this some other motive 
must eventually result in overthrow and is in itself a political corruption. 
The occasion for such degeneration to which we may now turn our atten- 
tion, arises from the fact that every issue which arises in political life in 
course of time reaches its solution. The whole truth probably lies with 
neither party. But even in the extreme case of one party altogether 
right and the other altogether wrong, there comes a time when the wrong 
is put right and so the issue ceases. But in the meantime the men who 
compose the party which thus has attained to victory are a well organized 
body of men accustomed to act together, and possibly in possession of the 
reins of government. If new issues have arisen which have been adopted 
into their party platform a healthy political life may be maintained. 
But if such is not the case, it will generally be found that the solution of 
the issue has brought about a nearly even balance of parties, now com- 
posed of the ins and outs. It is conceivable that the ins may maintain 
a pure political life by an able, wise, and honest administration of public 
affairs, the central motive being the highest interests of the country. 
The opposition may do the same by watchful, honest criticism of the 
measures and administration of their opponents, the same unselfish 
motive governing them. But in such an ideal state of affairs it will be 
seen that the real life of party has ceased to exist You have no longer 

[bubwash] evolution AND DEGENERATION OF PARTY 11 

two living parties divided by a clearly defined set of principles, but the 
organized bodies of two parties whose living spirit has passed away. One 
of these bodies is in possession, the other not, and the struggle between 
the parties may become a mere struggle for power, not for principle. 
The moment this becomes the case the door is open for the entrance of 
corruption on both sides of the house. Under these circumstances the 
best men may be proof against the malign influences ; but no party that 
the world has ever known has been so. So long as the party from honest 
conviction was engaged in contending for its principles, tïhis very con- 
tention, a pure motive, exerted a conserving influence. It kept the 
party pure. A man who is working from honest convictions will 
scarcely emiploy dishoneet methods. But when his principles have 
triumphed and when a generation succeeds to his place who have en- 
tered the organization by inheritan-ce and whose convictions have not 
been called out by clearly defined issues the salt which kept the mass 
pure has lost its savour. In the struggle for place and power, men 
enter the lists who are quite unscrupulous as to the means employed 
for the attainment of their end, and the true, healthy political party 
degenerates into a corrupt struggle for victory. 

It is no uncommon thing that in such oases the best men eschew 
political life and thereby the evil is rapidly increased. If the evil 
affected only one party the remedy would seem to be within easy 
reach. Turn the corrupt party out and bring in a better. But the 
form of political disease which we have been studying in almost every 
case affects both political parties alike, and effective remedy must be 
something far more radical than anything which can be brought about 
by the triumph of either party. 

Anotiher remedy apparently easily at hand is that all good men 
of all parties should forget the names, associations and conflicts of 
the past and unite for the puriflcation of political life. One of the 
most recent and apparently successful examples of this has been the 
overthrow of Tammany in New York. But reasonable and direct as 
such a course may appear it presents several serious difficulties if not 
radical defects. 

In the first place suoh a combination is not easily brought about. 
It requires something like the presence of a moral plague to awaken 
the body of even earnest and upright electors to action in such a case. 
Each party is wide-awake to the defects of its opponents and ready 
to denounce them most roimdly. But that is a very different thing 
from the breaking up of oM party lines, and associations and the con- 
struction of a new party for the purification of politics. 

Again, such a party once formed and installed in power by its 
very success has removed its own raison d'être. The evil which called 



it into being no longer exists, and only the remembrance of it remains 
to quicken the pulses of party life. I need not mention instances in 
our own political history which show us how quickly a great scandal 
as it appears at the time is forgotten. Energetic, permanent party 
life cannot be maintain^ on memory. A single generation at moat 
will serve to obliterate the keen sense of wrong and danger, and then 
for lack of living issues the evil will again creep in. 

The remedy which nature provide is the incoming of some new 
and important positive issue which creates anew a strong, healthy polit- 
ical life. Such an issue is very likely to arise out of the rashness and 
self confidence of the men whose corrupt course is degrading the 
political life. It is a fortunate thing for the country if they make 
such a mistake before the course of corruption has reached its extreme 
limit. Such questions as the cleigy reserves and responsible govern- 
ment are samples in our own country sixty or seventy years ago. They 
not only created a strong, healthy political life and brought to the 
front our best types of Canadian statesmen; but they also gave us a 
period of remarkable freedom from political corruption. 

But when in the enjoyment of a healthy and comparatively pure 
political life, can anything be done to secure its maintenance. This 
is a question of even greater importance than that of a cure. The 
solution of this problem must be sought at the very source of the evil. 
It is often said in a general way that we must raise the moral stan- 
dard, especially in the political field. This is quite true. The 
improvement of public sentiment, the quickening of public conscience 
are all important and needful works. But they can only be brought 
about by slow evolution. The life of a whole generation is needed to 
aocomplish even the least appreciable result. The downward move- 
ment in the field of politics is of a much more rapid character. It 
does not wait for a whole generation of citizens to become morally 
corrupt. It can find the material for its purpose, materies morbiy in 
any ordinary generation of men and if the circumstances are favourable 
its progress is very rapid. 

The first step in the course of political corruption is the substitu- 
tion of party or personal thirst for power for honest party or personal 
conviction as to principle. The next step plunges both politician and 
party into the corrupt and mercenary struggle for the loaves and fishes. 
The next step is not the securing of the regulation loaves and fishes, 
but the plundering of the oountry. if this process of degeneration 
is to be prevented we must guard the first step. Strong constitutional 
limitations must be placed on the personal and party ambition. The 
distinction must be clearly drawn between personal and party ambition 
and zeal for honest even though mistaken convictions. We cannot^ of 

[bubwash] evolution AND DEGENERATION OF PARTY 13 

course, read the hearts of men and human laws cannot control motives. 
"We can only deal with acts. The political activity that arises directly 
from zeal for convictions is limited to efforts to disseminate truth, by 
discussion, by voice and pen. The most radical and effective remedy 
that we can suggest for political corruption is to make all and every 
form of personal canvass or propagandism which goes beyond the public 
dissemination and discussion of opinions illegal. 

We are well aware of the objections which would be raised to such 
an election law. Political convictions are disseminated, not merely 
by the press and public meetings, but also by private discussion. 
Granted, and granted also that the private discussion of public affairs 
between individual citizens should not be in any way discouraged, but 
rather promoted, yet to exclude a mere personal canvass by the can- 
didate, to exclude house to house canvass by agents, and especially to 
exclude the introduction into a riding of outside people for such a 
canvass would imply no limitations of the individual liberty of the 
citizen and would remove the opportunity for a great deal that corrupts 
modem politics. 

R. S. C. 


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Qmmov II., 1903 [ 18 ] Trams. R. S. C. 

Il.—Th6 Lake of the Woods Tragedy. 
By Lawrence J. Burpee. 

(Communicated by W. Wilfred Oajnpbell, and read May 19, 1908.) 

All students of early Canadian history are of course familiar with 
the general outlines of that most tragic incident in the search for the 
Western Sea — the murder by the Sioux of the eldest son* of Pierre 
Gaultier de Varennes, the Sieur de Lavérendrye, with the Jesuit mis- 
sionary Âulneau, or Auneau^^ and a score of voyageurs, on an island in 
the Lrfike of the Woods. None of the English histories of French 
Canada, however, contain more than a parsing reference to the affair^ 
and the French-Canadian historiams are not much more explicit, with 
the exception of Benjamin Suite. It has, therefore, seemed worth 
while to bring together such evidence as is now available, — the original 
documents, whether in manuscript or print, — so that we may have 
before us, in convenient form, the fullest possible details of the 

The Sioux having done their work with characteidstic thorough- 
ness, no survivor remained of Lavérendrye's party to carry an authentic 
account of the matter to the nearest post; and the Indians themselves 
showed a perhaps natural reluctance to enter into details. Conee- 
quently, the evidence we have is more or less indirect and 

What may be considered the oflficial account is contained in a letter 
from the governor, Beauharnois, to the French Colonial Minister, 
dated 14th October, 1736.^' This is based on the elder Lavérendrye's 
report, and upon a statement made by one Bourassa,* a voyageur, who 
had met the same party of Sioux on the day of the massacre. 

^ The Sleur Vérendrye had four sons. The eldest, here referred to, was 
Jean-Baptiste, born at Sorel, in 1713. He had taken an active part, under his 
father's directions, in the search for the Western Sea. 

" For full particulars in regard to Father Aulneau, see The Aulneau Collec- 
tion, 1734-1745, edited by Rev. Arthur E. Jones, S.J., and published by St. 
Mary's Collegre, Montreal, 1893. As to the spelling: of the name, Parkman and 
most of the other historians spell it Anneau. Mr. Benjamin Suite says 
Auneau is the preferable spelling, but that Aulneau is almost equally good. 
There does not appear to be any sufficient authority for spelling it Anneau. 

■ Lettre de Monsieur de Beauha/rnols, à, Québec, le 14 octobre 1736. See 
Canadian Archives: Postes 4es Pays de l'Ouest, 1679-1759. (Vol. 16), F. 126, 
pp. 335-339. 

• It is difficult to place this man. He Is never referred to, except as one 
Bourassa. Mr. Suite is of opinion that he was probably a grandson of the 
first Bourassa, who came to Canada from France in 1684. See Tanguay. 


Beauhamois reports Lavérendrye's arrival at Fort St. Charles,* 
after an enforced wintering at Kamanistiquoya; the illness of 
Lavérendrye's nephew, La Jemeraye; and Lavérendrye's suggestion 
that a new post should he established to the south of Lac des Prairies, 
which was thought to be a very advantageous situation for the fur 
trade; and then he goes on to say: — 

"He (Lavérendrye) wrote me from the same idace (Fort St. 
Chaiies) on the 8th of the same month (June, 1736), and he informs 
me that the canoes had just arrived from Kamanistiquoya, and that 
they had not met the party which had left on the 5th for Mis- 
silimakinac, led by his eldest son, and amongst whom were Father 
Auneau and twenty-two hired men. He . . . conveys to me his fear 
thait this party was exterminated by the Sioux of the Prairie. 

"I have since learned, monseigneur, that the party had been 
totally destroyed by these Indians, and here are the particulars of the 
occurrence. You must remember, monseigneur, that during the year 
1734, Sieur de la Veranderie gave me a memorandum to be sent to you, 
which memorandum you approved last year, and in which he speaks 
to the Indians in the following terms: — "I am not opposed to your 
waging war against the Maskoutins Poiianes, your enemies/* In the 
same memorandum it is stated that he gave them his son to lead them.'* 

Lavéreiîdrye's son did accompany the Indians, in their expedition 
against the Maskoutins Poiianes, but only for a short distance, when 
he returned to the fort. The Maskoutins Poiianes, however, dis- 
covered his trail, and attributed to him the leadership of the hostile 
party. This, in the opinion of Beauhamois, was the immediate cause 
of the subsequent massacre. 

"After having carefully read," continues the Governor, "the 
memorandum of the Sieur de la Veranderie, I enquired from some 
old voyageurs who the Maskoutins Poiianes were. They told me that 
they were the Sioux of the Prairie. I immediately understood the 
misfortune which had taken place, and gave him (Veranderie) strict 
instructions not to send in the future any more French to war against 

^ In a letter from Father Auflneau to Father Boivln (Aulneau OoUeotUm, 
p. 72), he grives this description of Fort St. Charles: 

" It is merely an enclosure made with four rows of posts, from twelve 
to fifteen feet In helgrht, in the form of an obloncr square, within which are 
a few rough cabins constructed of logs and clay and covered with bark." 

Father Jones, who edits these letters, adds the followlngr footnote:— 

" The probable site of Fort St Charles was a feiw miles up the bay now 
known as ">No(rth-We«t Angle Inlet" At the entrance of this bay, which 
begrhis at Aimerlcan Point, lies Guoketê Island. The latitude of the fort would 
be about 49^ 6\ and its longitude west of Orreeniwi'oh 95^ i", or perhaps a few 
minutes further west." 

Fbukpkk] lake of the WOODS TRAGEDY 17 

this nation, nor to incite any Indians of his post to take part; that his 
orders were to maintain the Indians in peace, union and tranquility. . . 
"I made enquiries with regard to what took place, and learned 
that the Indians at the post of the Sieur de la Veranderie had fired 
upon the so-called Maskoutins Poiianes, who had demanded: "Who 
fired at us?" They answered: "The French." They immediately 
resolved to be revenged, and had recourse to all the usual means to 
carry out their intentions, notwithstanding the fact that the Sieur de 
la Veranderie had not been concerned in the affair. This act produced 
in fact the same effect as if he had been there himself. 

" At the beginning of the month of June last (1736), a party of 
Sioux of the Prairies, to the number of one hundred and thirty men, 
found the canoe of Father Auneau, in which was one Bourassa. They 
captured all the French, and tied the leader (Bourassa) to a stake to 
burn him. Fortunately for him he had a slave belonging to this 
nation, whom he had taken from the Monsonés. She said to her 
people : ^ My kinsmen, what are you about to do ! I owe my life to 
this Frenchman. He did nothing else but good to me. If you desire 
to be avenged for the attack which was made upon you, all you have 
to do is, to go a little further on and you will find twenty-four French- 
men, amongst whom is the son of the chief who killed your people.' 
They released Bourassa and his men, and went and totally exterminated 
the other party. 

"This is, monseigneur, an unfortunate affair, which may perhaps be 
the cause of the abandonment of all the posts in this (western) country.** 
This letter of Beauharnois', dated 14th October, 1736, was, as 
already stated, based partly upon a report from the elder Lavérendrye. 
Unfortunately, however, the report (mentioned in Beauharnois' letter 
as of date the 8th June, 1736), is not in the Archives at Ottawa, 
nor, indeed, does it appear to be extant elsewhere. Although I have 
made a most minute search through the calendars of French Colonial 
documents published in the Canadian Archives Reports, no reference 
can be found to it there. Parkman, in a footnote on page 33 of 
A Half Century of Conflict, Vol. II., gives the following original 
documents as bearing on the Lake of the Woods incident : — 
"Beauharnois au Ministre, 14 Octobre, 1736; Relation du Massacre 
au Lac dos Bois, en Juin, 1736; Journal de la Vérandrye, joint à lai 
lettre de M. de Beauharnois du Octobre, 1737." He, however, makes 
ne mention of Lavérendrye's letter to Beauharnois of 8th June, 1736, 
which would appear to have conveyed the first intimation of the mas- 
sacre, or rather Lavérendrye^s fear that such a massacre must have 
taken place, for as yet he had no direct proof of it. It is most 

Sec. II., 1003. 2. 


improbable that, if the letter of th-e 8tli June was among the docu- 
ments in the Colonial or other Archives at Paris, it would have escaped 
the notice of Parkman, and also of the late Mr. Marmotte and of Mr. 
Eichard, who, on behalf of the Canadian Archives, made exhaustive 
searches through the Colonial papers in the various departments of the 
French Government for anything that might have a bearing, direct or 
indirect, upon the history of New France. 

The other document mentioned as forming the basis of Beau- 
harnois* report — the Relation of Bourassa — is, however, in the 
Canadian Archives. It reads as follows: — ^ 

" A voyageur, Bourassa by name, relates that on, June 3rd, 1736, 
having set out the fifth (of the band) from Fort St. Charles, at the 
Lake of the Woods, for Michilimakinac, met the following morning, 
just as he was about to push off from shore, thirty canoes manned by 
ninety or a hundred warriors, who surrounded and disarmed him and 
his companions, and plundered their stores. When they had learnt 
from him that under the curtain* of Monsieur de la Véranderie's Fort 
there were five or six wigwams of Cristinaux, against whom they had * 
set out on the warpath, they released him, and departed with the inten- 
tion of capturing the encampment. They told Bourassa, however, to 
wait for them, and at their return they would restore his arms. This 
he did not think advisable to do; on the contrary, he hurried to 
Michilimakinac, while the Sioux, on their side, pushed on to Fort St, 
Charles, where they failed to find the five wigwams of Cristinaux who 
had decamped, so they retraced their steps. 

" Meanwhile, twenty voyageurs, who had lately arrived from Lake 
Alepimigon, were on their way to Michilimakinac. At a day^s journey 
from there (Lake Alepimigon)^ they were met by that same band of 
Sioux, who massacred them all. 

** Among the slain were the young Sieur de la Véranderie and 
Father Auneau, the missionar}\ 

* This document is entitled " Affaire du meurte de vinigt-un voyageurs 
arrive au Lac des Bois, au (mois de juin 1736.** A copy le anion«r the MSf?. in 
the Canadian Archives: Nouvelle France, Vol. 16. Postes des Pays de 
l'ouest, 1679-1759, pp. 340-343. 

* The curtain is the line of enclosure between two bastions. 

■The writer of this report was evidently somerwhat at sea as to his geo- 
graphy. A reference to the accompanying map will show that Liake Alepimi- 
gon (the modern Lake Nepigon) is north of Lake Superior, while the Lake 
of the Woods is a considerable distance to the westrward— certainly a number 
of days* journey as men travelled in those days. In any case, the voyageurs 
were travelling east, and therefore could not possibly have come from 
Lake Alepimigon to the Lake of the Woods. As a matter of fact, they had 
come from Fort St. Charles, on the western side of the Lake of the Woods. 

[bubpeb] lake of the WOODS TRAGEDY 19 

"Their bodies were discovered and identified by a party of 
Frenchmen who passed by the same place a few days later.* Their 
heads had been placed on robes of beaver skin, and most of them with 
the scalp missing. The missionary was kneeling on one knee, an arrow 
in his side, a gaping wound in the breast, his left hand resting on the 
ground and his right hand raised. The Sieur de la Véranderie was 
stretched on the ground, face downward, his back all hacked with a 
knife; there was a large opening in his loins, and his headless trunk 
was decked out with garters and bracelets of porcupine quills. 

"It will be only this year that we shall be in possession of the 
other particulcars of this unfortunate affair. 

"Some are of opinion that the Indians wished to wreak their 
vengeance more particularly on young La Véranderie, the son, who 
two years before had joined a war party of Christinaux against the 
Sioux. It would appear that in the council he Kad been proclaimed 
leader. Be that as it may, the young man had desisted and had not 
taken part in the hostilities. 

" According to Bourassa, the bulk of the attacking party was com- 
posed of the Prairie Sioux, of some Sioux of the Lakes and of 
Monsieur de la Sonde's post. The latter appeared well disposed 
towards the French; perhaps they were overruled in the affair of the 
Sieur de la Véranderie's murder. If the Sioux of the Lakes' conspired 
with the Sioux of the Prairies to shoot the French, then there is much 
to be feared for the Sieur St. Pierre, who is commandant at the post of 
the Sioux^ The Sioux nations are the fiercest of all the native tribes. 
They have been from time immemorial at war with the Cristinaux and 
the Assiniboels. These latter were originally from the same stock; 
they speak very nearly the same language, and yet they are irreconcil- 
able enemies. A circumstance which the same Bourassa reports is, 
that the Sioux complained to him that the French supplied the 
Cristinaux with arms and ammunition. The Cristinaux might as well 
complain of the French furnishing the Sioux with ammunition. 

" The Sieur de la Véranderie writes that, grief-stricken at the 
loss of his son, he intends placing himself at the head of the Cristinaux 
and Assiniboels, and of marching against the Sioux (an extreme 
measure and not to be recommended). He would do better to agree 
to give up the post of the Western Sea, or have another officer 

' Pierre Margry, in an article in the Moniteur (Paris, 1852), says that the 
discovery of the murdered man was made by Ave Canadian voyageurs, several 
days after the event. 

* Fort Beauharnols, situated on Lake Pepin, about forty miles south- 
east of the present city of St. Paul. 


appointed to relieve the Sieur de la Véranderie, who could undertake 
the task of conciliating all the tribes."^ 

Under date of the 14th October, ITS?, Beauhamois again writes 
the Colonial Minister,^ forwarding an extract from the Journal of the 
Sieur de la Véranderie, containing a fuller account of the circum- 
stances which led up to and surrounded the Lake of the Woods 
tragedy. The extract is as follows: — 

^'During the month of June, 1736, this officer held a meeting at 
Fort St. Charles, Lake of the Woods, as to the mode of obtaining pro- 
visions and ammunition, and it was resolved unanimously to send three 
canoes to Kamanistigoiiia and thence to Missilimakinac. To this end 
Sieur de la Véranderie distributed powder and bullets to those who 
were to take part in this journey, and Father Auneau, Jesuit, along 
with the eldest son of this officer, left on the expedition. 

" The officer in question received during the same month of June, 
a letter from Sieur Bourassa, informing him that having been met by 
the Sioux they pillaged all that he possessed, without, however, causing 
him any personal injury, and upon his asking these Indians why they 
were taking him in custody, being good friends and brethem, they 
answered that it was the custom of warriors not to recognize anyone 
on their path. 

" The party wîhich had gone to Kamanistigoiiia and Missili- 
makinac not returning when due, Sieur de la Véranderie sent Sieur 
Gras * with a canoe and eight men commanded by a sergeant, to go and 
meet the expedition, but the sergeant having returned on the same 
day, reported that those forming part of the expedition had been 
massacred; that the great majority of the bodies had been found 
decapitated, and lying in a circle one next to the other, the heads 
being wrapped in beaver skins. Amongst the dead were found Father 
Auneau and the eldest son of Monsieur de la Véranderye. An account 
of this adventure was given last year, thougà at that time it had n<>t, 
however, been confirmed. 

"During the month of August following, two Monsonis Indians 
having gone around the Lake of the Woods, found two canoes belong- 
ing to this party, with more than twenty Sioux canoes, fastened 
together two by two, and in which there was a great quantity of blood. 
The two Indians, moreover, found human limbs which had been buried 

^ This translation is taken from The Aulneau Collection. 

■ Canadian Archives MSS. Nouvelle France — Postes des Pays de l'Ouest. 
1679-1759 (F. 126). pp. 349-367. 

■ The Sieur Gras (or Lepras) mentioned here would appear to have been 
one of the sons of Jean de Gras (b., 1656), a merchant, of Montreal. This is 
the only family of the name mentioned by Abbé Tanguay in his Dictionnaire 
Généalogique. Mr. Benjamin Sidle Is of the same opinion. See Tangnay, p. 372. 

[burpbe] lake of the WOODS TRAGEDY SI 

iD the sand^ and this left no doubt that the Sioux had also lost some 
of their number. 

" The news of this adventure having got abroad, Sieur de la 
Véranderde was visited by delegates from liie Cris and Monsonis, who 
informed him that during the following autumn the chiefs of their 
nations would come to him in order that, with him at their head, the 
blood of his son and that of the other French that the Sioux had 
killed, might be avenged; to whidh MonsieuT de la Véranderie rerplied, 
thanking them and telling them that it would be necessary to await 
the orders of their father as to what course should be followed, and 
that after these had been received, he would inform them of it. 

" A few days afterwards the Cria and Assiniboels assembled at 
Fort Maurepas, and sent twelve of their number to Sieur de la 
Véranderie, to ascertain if it was his intention to go and avenge the 
death of the French, and especially of his own son, whom their nation 
had adopted as their chief; that they were still mourning his death: 
that a portion of their warriors would proceed to the point below the 
fort which is their common meeting place ; and that they had the hope 
of seeing him himself or one of his children at their head to march 
against the Sioux, or that at least he would send them a canoe with 
powder, bullets and tobacco. 

" Sieur de la Véranderie having held counsel with the great 
chiefs of the Monsonis and Cris, they commenced by bewailing the 
death (of the French), and the Indian chiefs proposed to Sieui' de ta 
Véranderie to send expeditions against the Sioux, but upion consider- 
ing that this would interfere with the autumn hunting, and also with 
the harvesting of the wild oats, and upon the representations of Sieur 
de la Véranderie, that owing to the limited number of canoes pro- 
visions were scarce, it was decided not to undertake the expedition. 
But this officer proposed at the same time to the chiefs of the two 
nations, to send word to the Monsonis of Lake Tekamamiouen to the 
effect that after having met together, they should go every year to 
meet the convoy of the French and escort it with fifty men, which 
they would furnish, in order that they might not be exposed to the 
insults of the Sioux. This was unanimously accepted and was carried 
out during the autumn of last ye^r. 

" Monsieur de la Véranderie, as a mark of gratiitude, gave to the 
chiefs of these two tribes a collar to be kept by them, the one given 
to the Monsonis, at Fort St. Pierre, and the one given to the Cris, at 
Fort St. Charles, Lake of the Woods. 

"This officer, moreover, promised to the Indians some tobacco, 
powder and also bullets, which would be delivered to them in the 
spring and autumn of each year. , 


"Towards the end of the month of September following, Sieur 
de la Véranderie received two ddegaites ocmiing from the Cris and 
Assiniboelfl, who asked him on the part of their nations, to send canoes 
to their tribes in order to supply their needs. This ofl5cer granted to 
the delegates a canoe manned by six men and under the command of 
one of his children, who was escorted by the Indians as far as Fort 
Maurepas, and he gave his son instructions for his guidance that he 
might acquire knowledge during his voyage. 

" One of the principal things which he recommended to him was 
to explore the Ouachipouannes, otherwise called the KoiiatheatteSi a 
white and civilized people who cultivate the land and live in forts and 
houses, and who, according to the knowledge of the Indians, lived at 
a distance of not more than one hundred and fifty leagues from Fort 
Maurepas; to induce these people to send to Fort Maurepas delegates 
of their nation, in order to form an alliance with the French; and to 
tell them that, when one of their number had come the winter before, 
the commandant had only been informed of the fact after his depar- 
ture, which had been for him a cause of sorrow as well as for the other 

" Sieur de la Véranderie added to these iustructi'ons to notify the 
Assiniboels and Cris to be at their fort during the month of January 
following, and that he would explain to them there the instructions of 
the Great Chief of all the French. 

"During the month of October following, a great number of 
Indians, Cris, Monsonis and Assiniboels, came to Monsieur de la 
Véranderie, and the ohief of the Cris, w^ho was the spokesman of these 
nations, after having shown how their tribes were sensible of the 
accident that had occurred to the French, proposed to him again to 
come at their head to avenge the dead. They represented that they 
were very sorry that their death had retarded the establishment of a 
fort which they had promised to them at the far end of Lake 
Ouinipigon, where they could have found the subsistence of their 

" The chief asked, lastly, that he would leave with them to spend 
the winter at Fort Maurepas one of his children, and to allow them to 
adopt his son the Chevalier as their chief, in the place of his brother 
whom they had lost." .... 

In the Collection Moreau St. Mcry, of the French Colonial 
Archives, there is a memoir of Lavérendrye, addressed to M. De 
Beauharnois, and dated, at Fort St. Charles, in 1737, which seems to 
cover generally the same ground and the same period of time as the 
extract from Lavérendrye's journal forwarded to Paris by Beauharnois, 
under date of the 14th October, 1737, quoted above. At the same 


time, the details are in many particulars so widely different, that it is 
almost impofesible to make the two accounts fit into each other. Pos- 
sibly if we had a full transcript of the Moreau St. Mery manu- 
script the difficulty might be lessened, but unfortunately a 
copy of this document ha& not yet been received in the Canadian 
Archives (in the original it covers 38 pages of Ms.), and all that we 
have to go on is a synopsis of the document in the Archives Calendar 
which is given here for purposes of comparison with the preceding 
document : — 

" Memoir of de la Véranderic to M. de Beauharnois,^ to be sent to 
the court. Has already sent an account of what occurred from the 
date of his departure from Montreal, in June, 1735, up to 2nd June, 
1736, the date of Sieur Bourassa's departure. Has since continued to 
keep up his journal with the saimo exacliitude. His two sons arrived 
that same diay from Fort Maurcpas, telling him the news of the death 
of his nephew De la Jenimcrayo, which happcn<?d on 10th May, at La 
Fourche des Koseaux, where they erected a cross. Being in want of 
merchandise and powder, he sent his eldest son with Père Auneau to 
Kaministiquia to meet the canoes from Michilimakinak. Letter from 
Bourassa pillaged by the Sioux. 17th June, arrival of Sieur Legras ^ 
with two canoe loads of goods. 20th June, arrival of 30 Cristinaux 
with furs, and news of the massacre of 21 men at a point seven leagues 
from the fort. 29th July, arrival of four Frenchmen. August 4th, 
arrival of four Crées, promising to help to avenge his son. Departure 
of his other son for Fort Maurepas, with Indians. September 17th, 
sent six men to disinter the bodies of Père Anneau and of hif," own son, 
which he caused to be buried in his chapel, with the heads of the other 
Frenchmen. October 15th, arrival of a large number of Indians. 
Their statements : " There are 800 Indians at la Pointe du Bois fort. 
They want to avenge his son and the other Frenchmen, and to have 
his second son for their chief. '^ His answer: Exhorts them not to 
go to war then. February 8th, 1737, leaves for Fort Maurcpas, with 
his two children, ten Frenchmen and many Indians. February 25th, 
arrival at Fort Maurepas. Decided to remove Fort Maurepas to the 
great Forks of Rivière Rouge, where the Assiniboels were awaiting 
him. Speaks of another great lake to the west, which is called the 
brother of Lake Ouinipigon, where there is an abundance of game. 
Sends a map of the country. General description of the country. 
March 11th, return to Fort St. Charles. June 3rd, departure for 
Montreal with 14 canoes laden with furs. June 25th, arrival at 

* Collection Moreau St. Mery, 1732-1740, Vol. 10, F. 12, Pol. 248. 
' See previous footnote in regard to Sieur Gras. Gras and IJegrras are 
evidently the same. 


Kaministiquia. July 22nd, arrivai at Michilimakinak. August 3rd, 
departure for Montreal/' 

In The Aulneau Collection are a number of letters bearing upon 
the Lake of the Woods massacre. They have jppxticular référence to 
the death of Father Auneau, or Aulneau as it is always here spelled. 

The first of these letters is from Father Nicholas de Gonnor ^ to 
a correspondent in France.* After some personal remarks he says: — 

" Another reason for writing you is, to beg you to break as gently 
as possible to Father Aulneau^s mother, the news of the death of her 
dear son, who, we have learnt but lately, was massacred last May by a 
party of wandering Indians, called the Sioux of the Prairies, while he 
was journeying from his own to another mission, with the intention 
of going to confession and of seeking advice on troubles to wihioh his 
extreme delicacy of conscience had given rise. He is universally 
regretted by both the members of the Society and by seculars, for he 
was universally esteemed. . . . 

"He was surprised with twenty other Frenchmen, but it is not 
known how they were put to death. No premonitory sign of distrust 
on the part of the Indians was noticed, nor were the victims tortured, 
as they are wont to be when prisoners are taken in battle. It is con- 
jectured that they were surprised while asleep, and received their death 
blow unawares. The heads of all were then severed from the bodies. 
" It is said, however, that from the position in which the Father^s 
body was found, he must have been on his knees when he was 
decapitated, and one of the party who found him took possession of his 
calotte, remarking that poor as he was, he would not part with it for 
a thousand crowns." .... 

In 1739, Father du Jaunay, writing from Michilimakinac to 
Madame Aulneau, adds the following particulars: — * 

" Ck)ncerning the circumstances accompanying the death of your 
dear son, here is wihat I have learnt from hearsay, and some of my 
sources of information seem trustworthy. 

* Father Kicolas de Gonnor, according to a (footnote at pag« 25 of The 
Aulneau Collection, belonged origrlnaUy to the Pzxyvince of Aquitaine. He was 
born Noveanber 19, 1691, and entered th»e Society of Jesus, September 11th, 
1710. He came to Cajiada In 1725. In 1727 he was sent to the Sioux mission, 
and afterwards he was stationed some time at Sault St. Liouis.. In 1749 he 
had returned to Quebec; thenoe he waa once more sent to the Sioux, where 
he was superior in 1752. He remained there until 1755, when he was trana- 
f erred to Montreal, and the followlngr year to Quebec, where he died, December 
16, 1759. Hia Indian name was tiarenhés. 

* The Aulneau Collection, pp. 87-89. 

■ The skull-cap sometimes worn by clergy of the Church of Rome. 

* Aulneau Collection, p. 110-111. 

[bukpm] lake of the woods TRAGEDY 28 

" In the first place, the majority of the Indiana implicated were 
averse to putting him to death. In the second place, it was through 
sheer bravado that a crazy-brained Indian set at naught the conse- 
quences which held the others in awe. 

" A third particular I have gathered is, that scarcely had the deed 
been perpeitrated, than a deafening dap of thunder struck tenrar into 
the whole band. They fled from the spot, believing that Heaven was 
incensed at what they had done. 

" Finally, that the portable chapel and, namely, the chalice, which 
was plundered, had fallen into the hands of a widowed squaw who had 
several grown-up son-s, the pride and wealth of the tribe. In a remark- 
ably short lapse of time, all, or nearly all of them perished in her 
sight. This she ascribed to the chalice, which her sons had given her; 
so she rid herself of it by throwing it into the river. 

"This,'' concludes Father du Jaunay, "is all I have been able 
to gather from the various accounts of the Indians. I met here with 
a native, who claimed to be a Sioux and to have been present at the 
massacre; but on being warned that he was an imposter, I did not 
think it proper to question him, trusting to time to throw more lighit 
on the occurrence.'* 

In the Archives of the Gesù at Rome is preserved the following 
letter, from Father Lafitau to the Father General at Rome. The 
letter is dated at Paris, April, 1738, and the original is in Latin: — ^ 

"As to what relates to Father Aulneau, nothing more has been 
learnt than what has already been written. He had followed an 
officer whom the Governor of New France had commissioned to dis- 
cover the way across the continent to the Western Ocean, as yet 
unknown from this side. He had reached the sources of the 
Mississippi and had penetrated further west. But, according to the 
custom of adventurers of that class, who are alive to their own 
interests which they consult* rather than the common weal, the party 
had, in barter, sold powder and other munitions of war to the tribes 
they met with. 

*' Some of the Indians, incensed at this species of traffic at which 
their enemies gained an advantage, took occasion of an expedition this 
officer had planned and had entrusted to his own son as leader, with 
Father Aulneau — ^who had a presentiment of his death, as his letters 
attest — to accompany him. 

"In fact, the savage band stole upon them unawares, and 
slaughtered them all. Father Aulneau received two thrusts of a knife, 
and was decapitated.^** 

^ The Aulneau Collection, pp. 91-92. 

• Father F. Nau, wxitlna: In 1788 to Father Aulneau's mother, said: "A 
party of Frenchmen had captured, last autumn, the murderer of our dear 


About thirty or forty years ago. Father Felix Martin, S.J., sought 
to glean some additional particulars of the massacre, and the result of 
his researches is summed up in the following note — found among his 
papers after his death : — ^ 

"We are not in possession of the details relating to Father 
Aulneau's family, education and vocation to the religious life. 

"He came to Canada in 1730, and six years subsequent to his 
arrival, he was chosen to accompany an important expedition of dis- 
covCTy westward, undertaken by Monsieur de la Véranderie. The 
latter commanded a party of twenty determined men, one of his own 
eons being among the number. 

"The explorers had reached the Lake of the Woods, and had 
landed on an island for their morning meal. Their camping fires, 
however, betrayed their presence to a band of Sioux warriors who were 
prowling about in the neighbourhood. 

" These Indians, notorious for their cruelty and for the implacable 
war they waged on all those who gave them umbrage, resolved to attack 
the French. They stealthily landed on the island without attracting 
notice, and rushed upon the explorers who were off their guard. Many 
were pierced with arrows or were felled with the tomahawk. Some 
sought safety in flight, only to perish in the waves. Father Aulneau, 
wounded by an arrow, fell upon his knees, when an Indian coming up 
behind him dealt him the death blow with his tomahawk. 

" All the baggage was pillaged, but the Indians dared not touch 
the body of the missionary. Three weeks after the occurrence, a party 
of Indians of the Sault (Sanleux), passing by the spot, found his body 
unmutilated. Not being able to dig a grave for it, as the island was all 
rock, they raised over the body a cairn one or two metres in height. 

"Mr. Belcourt,^ a missionary stationed at Pcmbino, in 1843, 
visited the place and saw the tumulus. Tie gathered on the very spot 
the tradition of the massacre from the lips of an Indian, whose father 
had helped to prepare a sepulchre for the missionary."' 

Father Aulneau, and intended to -brin-g him to the French settlements to 
make him undergo the penalties he so well deserved; tout Gk>d reserved to 

Himself the punishment of his crime Other heathen tribes rescued 

the Sioux prisoners from the hands of the French and sent them back to 
their homes." 

^ The Aulneau Collection, p. 90. 

■ Rev. G. A. Belcourt was a well-known missionary In the North-west 
He was a relative of the present Menvber of Parliajnent for OttaAva, of the 
samo na^me. 

■ I fear we cannot put much credence in this explanation of Father 
Martin's. From the very beginning he is inaccurate. Father Aulneau did 
not come to Canada in 1730. He landed on the 12th August, 1734. Father 

[bubpke] lake of the WOODS TRAGEDY 27 

A translation of Mr. Belcourt^s narrative will be found in the 
Minnesota Historical Collections. It is as follows: — 

" A tradition of the savages near the Lake of the Woods reports 
that the French travellers in passing were invariably accompanied by a 
missionary ; and that one of them was killed on this same lake, and his 
companions all either killed or drowned. The following is the manner 
in which they relate this occurrence: Early one morning, a French 
canoe manned with eight men left a trading house which the French 
had built about the middle of the Lake of the Woods, and stopped upon 
an island near to the last pass, to enter the river of Eainy Lake. The 
atmosphere was so still that the wind could hardly be felt. Having 
built a fire to take their repast, the smoke rose up and was perceived 
by a party of Sioux warriors who were approaching the same island by 
a branch of the river of Eainy Lake called the Road of War. These 
having landed on the opposite side of the isle uuperceived by the 
French, fell upon them unawares and massacred the missionary and 
some of his companions; the others throwing themselves into the water 
in order to cross over to some other islands were drowned. This event 
took place, according to the report of the savages, about the year 1750.^'^ 

In a long memoir, written at Quebec, and dated 31st October 
1744,* Lavérendrye once more refers to the Lake of the Woods 
tragedy, and this is the last bit of evidence which I have been able to 
gather: — 

" I had many people in the fort and no provision^, and this dete> 
mined me to send at once three canoes to bring us supplies and 
merchandise. The Reverend Father decided, on the spot, to go to 
Missilimakinak. He asked for my eldest son, as he hoped that his 
journey would be quick. It was not possible for me to oppose him. 
His resolution was absolutely taken. They embarked the 8th June, and 
were all massacred by the Sioux, seven leagues from the fort, by the 

Martin confuses Vérandry^'s generaJ expedition to the west with the parti- 
cular Journey on which the tragedy occurred at the Lake of fhe Wooda. 
This particular Journey was not In any sense exploratory. It was simply 
an expedition to Kamanistigotiia and Miasilimakinac for supplies. It was 
not commanded by Vérandrye the elder, who did not accompany it at all. 
The graphic account of the massacre which follows would be extremely 
valuaible and interesting if it were based uipon a more substantial foundation. 
The remaining particulars are more probably correct. 

* **>D€(partment of Hudson's Bay," by Rev. G. A. Belcourt. Minnesota 
HiatOTlcal Collections. Vol. II., 1850-1856, p. 212. 

' " Mémoire du Sieur de la Verendrye au sujet des Etablissements pour 
Itarvenir à la découverte de la mer de l'ouest, dont il a été chargé par 
M. le marquis de Beauharnois, Gouverneur général de la Nouvelle-France 
en 1731.** This documertt is published In Margry's Collection. It Is also In 
the Canadian Archives, 


worst of all treacheries. I have lost my son, the Reverend Father, and 
all my Frenchmen, which I shall lament all my life/* 

An examination of these various accounts will reveal a considerable 
diversity of opinion as to the circumstances which led up to and 
attended the massacre, and the causes which induced the Sioux to 
attack a parly of Frenchmen. Much of this disparity may be 
attributed to the radically different points of view of those whose 
evidence has been adduced; some of it is explainable by the fact that 
the various statements were written at widely different times and 
places. Making due allowance for these circumstances, and weighing 
carefully the evidence of the various witnesses, the reader will, I think, 
find it possible to extract from these various documents a fairly complete 
and accurate accounit of this most disastrous incident in the search for 
the Western Sea — ^the tragedy of the Lake of the Woods. 

SwnoN IL, 1903 [ 29 ] Tkans. R, S. C. 

III.— Tfee Hon, Henry Caldwell, L.C., at Quebec, 1769-1810. 
By Sir James M. LeMoine, D.C.L. 

(Bead May 19, 1903.) 

Capt. Hy. Caldwell servingr under WaWe, at Quei>ec .. .. 1759 

Commander of Brkiah Militia, at siege blockade 1775 

Called to Legislative Council 1782 

President Provincial Agricultural Society 1789 

Receiver-General for Canada 1794-1810 

In June, 1759, there landed in Canada from Admiral Saunders' 
fleet, a youthful British officer, destined to fill, at Quebec, a long, 
active and very distinguished career: Capt. Henry Caldwell of 
Colville's regiment, whose promotion dated from January, 1759. 

At the memorable fight of 13th September, 1759, on Abraham's 
Heights, the youthful captain, aged 24, acted as Assistant-Quarter- 
master-General to General Wolfe. His bravery brought him a step in 
rank; he became Major Caldwell, under which title were won his 
brightest laurels. A portion of the British forces, after the battle of the 
Plains, were recalled; the 78th Highlanders were disbanded in 
Canada ; the Major cast his lot for Canada and settled at Quebec. Major 
CaJdwell, by his active business habits, seems to have preserved the 
esteem of General James Murray, who remained in Quebec, as its first 
English Governor, unjtil 1766. 

A few years will elapse, and we will find the Major the trusted 
agent, and subsequently the lessee of the Generars extensive Canadian 
estates. Major Caldwell continued to fill military duties in the army 
of occupation until 1773, when Lord Barrington, Secretary of War 
allowed him to sell out. 

In virtue of a notarial deed of lease, bearing date 7th April, 1774, 
he was named agent and lessee of the great Seigniory of Lauzon, and of 
numerous other properties acquired by General Murray. The General, 
like many other distinguished British officers, had been bitten by the 
earth hunger, so prevalent in the first years of British rule. Many dis- 
tinguished Frenchmen the owners of large seigniories in Canada, 
resolved to return to Prance in 1760, such as those of Longueuil, 
the Seigniories of Lauzon, Terrebonne, Foucault, la Prairie, la Chenaye, 
Belœil, etc. 

Governor Murray was not by any means the only British officer 
craving for land; Sir Thomas Mills, Cramahé, Major Samuel Holland, 
Major Caldwell, Capts. Fraser, Nairne, Laughlin Smith, the Hales and 


others, invested large sums in real estate, near Quebec, in the early days 
of the colony, after the conquest. 

The dever Seignior of Lauzon had from the first been deeply 
impressed with the great possibilities which Canada, despite a severe 
climate, offered for agricultural, manufacturing and industrial pursuits. 

Voltaire's sneer, at the *' 15,000 acres of snow," if it ever came 
to the ears of the Major, evideritly had no terror for him. Let us 

A crisis in Canadian affairs was imminent in 1775; the colony had 
to fight for its very existence. Major Caldwell was just the man to 
come to the front and buckle on his sword; his zeal, devotion, undoubt- 
ed courage as Commander of the British Militia of Quebec during the 
fierce assault and blockade by Montgomery and Arnold, are matters 
of history. 

Caldwell had, in no small measure helped Guy Carleton in saving 
Canada to Britain. Recognition and reward were in store for him; he 
received and merited both. 

General Carleton selected Major Caldwell to be the bearer of the 
despatches, announcing the defeat of the invaders in 1775-6. 

Caldwell warmly recommended by Guy Carleton and Ool. Allan 
McLean, landed in England amidst public rejoicings, on the 15th June, 

Imperial Rome had a laurel crown for the trusty messenger bring- 
ing the news of a Roman victory. England, more practical, rewarded 
Major Caldwell, the bearer of the glorious tidings, with a gift in hard 
cash of £500 sterling, — the War Office made him a Lieutenant- 
Colonel, whilst the King, later on, named him a Legislative-Councillor, 
at Quebec. 

It is evident Caldwell's visit to London was far from being barren 
of results, so far as he was concerned. His merit, intelligence, hand- 
some person and happy address, secured to him some powerful friends, 
amongst others William Pitt, the son of the great Lord Chatham. The 
influence thus acquired, helped some ambitious plans he had previously 

He applied to the Lords of Commerce, for a grant of the Quebec 
and Levi ferry. They wrote on. the 8th April, 1777, to Governor 
Carleton, as to the propriety of granting a privilege, seemingly of con- 
siderable magnitude. The ferry service in summer was effected by 
canoes and "bateaux " who landed passengers and freight in the cul-de- 
sac (the Champlain market now occupies the site). In winter, access 
from Levi to the city, was had over the ice-bridge when it formed, and 
in canoes, when it; did not. 


Caldwell failed to succeed in this project; it was thought too 
important a monopoly to be given to one man, over sudh a large extent 
of the harbour. Caldwell, a brave, intelligent and ajnbitious mian, elated 
with past honours conferred, aspired to a high post. He applied for 
the position of Lt.-6ovemor, to be vacant by the return of Cramahé to 
England. Grenerai Haldimand, Governor of the colony, on being con- 
sulted replied to Lord Germaine, that though he acknowledged fthe 
fitness of Caldwell, still he preferred to see Col. Hamilton appointed 
to the position previously held by Cramahé, which was done. 

Col. Henry Caldwell, during his tenure of office as Legislative- 
Councillor, met with some contradictions and occasionally official 
reproof; one instance in point: a complaint had been made to the 
Colonel in 1782, about a captain of militia residing at St. Nicholas. 
General Haldimand, in a letter on the subject to Caldwell, took 
the militia-captain^s part. Caldwell complained and justly too, of 
favouritism having been shown to colonists, such as de Kouville and an 
other; his juniors in rank, being made full colonels over his head. 

Later on. Col. Caldwell, smarting under the sense of injustice 
that his military service was forgotten, resigned his commission as Lt.- 
Colonel — but his permanent appointment as Receiver-General, in 
1794 — allnyed his irritation, one is led to believe. 

Caldwell was the friend of progress; had introduced the latest 
machinery in his large grist-mills and saw-mills — and various 
improvements on the numerous farms he had acquired in the country, — 
in the system of tilling and fertilizing the soil, and improving the 
breed of cattle and farm stock generally. 

In the year 1789, he became president of the first Society of Agri- 
culture organized in Canada. On the 6th April of that year, the rank, 
fashion, nobility and clergy of all denominations, as well as com- 
moners, crowded the halls of the Chateau St. Louis, at the beck of Lord 
Dorchester to enter their names as subscribers to the Quebec 
Agricultural Society. The Governor-General, Lord Dorchester was 
named patron; Hon. Henry Caldwell, president, and the Hon. Hugh 
Fin] ay. Deputy Postmaster-General, secretary. 


The Roman Catholic Bishop of Quebec. Major R. Matthews. 

Chief Justice Wm. Smith. Capt. Rotson. 

Rev. Philip Toosey, Military Chaplain. Capt. Fraser. 

T. Monk, Attorney-General. Kenelm Chandler. 

John Blackwood. Peter Stewart. 

Matthew Lymburner. Malcolm PYaser. 

A. de Qaspé. Hon. Hugh Finlay. 
Obediah Aylwin. ** Thos. Dunn. 


Bishop Bailly, coadjutor. Hon. Eidward Harrlaon. 

Jenkins Williams. '* John Collins. 

Juchereau Duchesnay. " Adam Mabane. 

Dr. Mervin Nooth. •* J. C. de Lery. 

Isaac OiTden, Judge of Admiralty. " G. W. Pownall. 

Sir Thomas Mills. " Henry CaldwelL 

J. Arthur Coffin. " Wm. Grant. 

G. Taschereau. •• François Baby. 

Perreault, l'Aîné. " Samuel Holland. 

L. de Salaberry. •* George Davidson. 

Capt. St. Ours. •• Chs. de Lanaudlère. 

Rev. À. Hutoert, curé de Québec. " Liecompte Duprès. 
J. T. Cugnet. 

Messire Pauet, curé de la Rivièire 

Hon. Mr. Caldwell, on being elected president, addressed the meet- 
ing in eloquent terms, both in English and in French; twelve members 
were chosen as directors. The president dwelt forcibly on the modes 
of improving agriculture — the sowing of hemp to compete with 
foreign importation — amelioration of farm stock — planting of fruit 
trees — experiments in seed wheat — offering prizes and entering the lists 
himself as competitor; such were the doings of the enterprising *Tiauzon 
Farmer," backed by His Excellency, Lord Dorchester. 

One of the most important offices which had to be created in the 
colony after the conquest, was that of Receiver-General of the public 
dues, and of accounting for the same. 

The first incumbent was Thomas Murray. In those days the 
Receiver-General was not compelled to reside in the province. 
Absenteeism of high officials was in vogue. Sir Thomas Mills, 
recently landed from England, succeeded Thomas Murray, on 10th 
July, 1765. 

After a short residence here, he returned to London, leaving as 
his deputy a Mr. William Grant. The salary was insignificant, $800 — 
later on, increased to $1,600 ; a remuneration totally inadequate for the 
responsibilities and duties attached to this high office; the titular 
having to keep up \^nth the expenditure attending the high official 
circles of society, in which he was expected to move. It was, "however, 
said that the large sums ofl money passing through the hands of the 
incumbent — ^the absence of provincial control over his acts — possibly 
some additional fees of office, would afford the officer facilities to make 
the most of his position, by way of compensation for low sulary. 
William Granit soon gave cause for complaint; he refused to account 
for "receipt and expenditure'' to the Governor of the colony, alleg- 
ing that he was accountable to the imperial authorities only. General 
Haldimand appointed Col. Henry Caldwell, to take pro-tempore 


Grant's place in 1784, until the home authorities should be consulted— 
ordering Thos. Ainslie, collector of customs, at Quebec; Geo. Pownall, 
clerk of the court, and other public servants, to pay over to Caldwell 
only, the public moneys received by virtue of their respective office. 
The Coloners permanent appointment was gazetted in 1794. 

On the 28th February, 1801, Col. Oald-well purchased from Gen- 
eral James Murray, by the agency of Lt.-Col. Kobert Matthews in 
Ix>ndon, not only the lordly domain of Lauzon (whi-ch included the old 
pari-shes of Podnt Levy, St. Charles, St. Henri, part of St. Gervais, 
St. Nicholas), but also the seignioriefe* of Rivière du Loup, Madawaska, 
Foucault, on Lake Champlain, Sans Bruiit estate with Belmont manor, 
neaff Quebec, together with the fief of St. Foy and a house in St. John 
Street, Quebec. 

Price of sale, £10,180 sterling, payable in instalments. 

When taken in connection with other real estate purchased, Col* 
Caldwell then ranked with the greatest land owners in the province^ 
His speculations in, land were not always satisfactory. In 1788, 
he had applied, but in vain, to Lord Grenville to be comipenBated by 
the Crown for the loss of 20,000 acres of land which the verification 
of the boundary between Canada and the United States had lopped 
off, the 35,000 acres which hitherto had composed his seigniory of 
Foucault (Caldwell manor) on Lake Ohampladn; he petitioned, in con- 
junction with others, for Crown Lands from the British Government 
and was informed that each petitioner ought to make a separate request; 
thus were rewarded his military services ! 

The Hon. Henry Caldwell in the enjoyment of the perquisites 
of his exalted post of Receiver-General was dmwn deeper and deeper 
into land speculations and industrial schemes. The seigniory of 
Lauzon soon could boaêt of a splendid grist mill and saw-mills at 
St. Nicholas, Levi, Etchemdn. Roads were opened — bridges built — 
colonization promjoted. 

Belmont Manor,^ near Quebec — his elegant «home — the seat of 
generous hospitality, burnt in 1798, had been improved and rebuilt. 
Here continued to reside, courted and eeteemed, the hero of the two 
sieges, 1759 and 1775. Col. Caldwell, according to tradition, seems 
to have also been favoured with a handsome person. I well remember 
being told by the late Hon. William Sheppard, of Woodfield, near Que- 
bec, that le beau militaire was supposed to have been the hero in Mrs. 

^ Proprietors: Intendant Talon, 1670; Gen, James Murray, 1765; Hon. Henr^ 
CaldweU, 1801; Sir John Caldtoell, 1810; John W. Dunscomh, 185^, 

Sec II., 1903. 3. 


Frances Brook's novel, " The History of Emily Montague/^ and was 
meant for Ool. Elvers, the friend of ttio divine Emily. This was the 
first English novel written in Canada, in 1767. 

A great sorrow invaded, in 1804, the sweet retreait of Belmont 
Manor; the death, on the 19th February, at the age of 67 years, of 
the loved chatelaine^ Ann Oaldwell. This miwh esteemed lady was 
sister to the Lord Biâhop of Ossory, and of Baron Hamilton; she left 
an only son, John Caldwell. The learned Bev. Alexander Sparkes, 
who had landed at Quebec, in 1780, had been selected as the precep- 
tor to the only son of Ool. Oaldiwell; he found a bright aaid apt scholar 
in young John, who, after going through a course in the classics and 
in foreign languages, studied for, and was admitted in 1789, a member 
of the Quebec Bar; he also received a conumtkaaon in the Canadian 

Youmg Johm soon became hds father's factotum in the manage- 
ment of the seigniory of Lauzon, and other family estates in Canada. 
His sympathetic aoid kind treajtment of his father^s tenamtry, as well 
as his liberal views won him their oonfidence. In 1804, and again, in 
1809, he was deputed to parliament as member for the extensive 
county of Doixshester, whidh then comprised Lauzon, Ste. Marie and 
other large centres in the Beauoe district. 

In 1812 John Caldwell, who was ito become Sir John Caldwell 
by the death of aji Irish baronet, succeeded to hds fatber^s ofiSoe as 
Beceiver-Oeneral, accepting the onerous charge and its responsibilities. 
Col. the Hon. Henry Caldwell, expired at Belmont Manor, on the 
28iih May, 1810, aged 75 years. His remains were buried in the vaults 
of the Anglican Cathedral. 

Mr. Jos. Edmond Eoy, the historiographer of the Seigniory of 
Lauzon, published the olograph will of the Receiver-General, its* tenth 

Among other iprovisions in this lengthy document there are several 
legacies; to his wife, Mrs. Caldwell; to his brother, IVIajor-General 
Caldwell, serving in Portugal an annuity of £200 ; to the children of his 
younger brother Charles, a naval officer, who died in 1775; there are 
also legacies to Edward Bowen, attorney-geneiral, later on, chief- 
justice, who died at Quebec, in 1865; to Miss Margaret Coffin, Mrs. 
Alice Simpson, Miss Annabella Simpson, Miss Sarah Taylor, Miss 
Christian Nairn, Dr. James Davidson, William Hamilton, without for- 
getting the poor, whom he was in the habit of assisting each week in 
winter; to each the generous old man left 40 shillings. 

The warrior who, on so many occasions, had braved shot and 
shell, seems to have had a holy horror of being buried alive, judging 
from the text of his will, which I shall give, in Mr. Roy's French ver- 


sion: " C'est, de plus, ma volonté, si ma mort arrive en été, que mon 
corps demeure dans mon lit jusqu'à ce que Ton ne puisse plus long- 
temps supporter Fodeur. Si la mort a lieu en hiver, je désire que mon 
corps demeure ipareillemen.t dans mon lit cinq à six jours et que Ton 
fasse du feu dans la chambre, à moins que l'odeur ne puisse plus être 
supportée. C'est ma volonté que mon corps soit alors confié à la terre 
dans la voûte que j'ai fait construire dans le cimetière, à Québec." 

Belmont lines the St. Foy heights in a most picturesque situation. 
The view from the east and northwest windows is magnificently grand; 
probably one might count more than a dozen church spires glittering in 
the distance — in every happy village, which dots the base of the blue 
mountains to the north. In 1854, this splendid property was purchased 
by J. W. Dunscomb, collector of customs, Quebec ; he resided there and, 
about 1864, he sold the mansion and garden to the Roman Catholic 
church authorities of Quebec, reserving 400 acres. The old house, a few 
months later, was purchased by Mr. Wakeham. 

The first time our eyes scanned the silent and deserted banqueting 
halls of Belmont, with their lofty ceilings and recalling the traditional 
accoimts of the hospitable gentlemen, whose joviality had once lit up 
the soene, visions af social Ireland of Barrington's day floated uippeiv 
most in our mind. We could fancy we saw the gay roysterers of tim^s 
bygone; first, a fete champêtre of lively French officers from Quebec, 
making merry over their Bordeaux or Burgundy, and celebrating the 
news of their recent victories over the English at Fontenoy, LaufiEeld or 
Carillon to the jocund sound of Vive la France! Vive le Maréchal Saxe I 
à la Glaire Fontaine! etc., then. Governor Murray surrounded by his 
veterans, Guy Carleton, Col. Caldwell, Majors Hale and Holland, and 
some of the new subjects, such as brave Chs. de Lanaudière,^ compli- 
menting one another all round over the feats of the respective armies 
at the two memorable battles of the Plains, and all joining loyally in 
repeating the favourite toast in Wolfe's army British colours on every 
French fort, port and garrison in America.^ 

lioter on, at the dawn of the late century, a gathering of those 
Canadian barons, so well delineated by J. Lambert in his Travels in 
Canada in 1808, one week surrounding the board of this jolly Receiver- 

^ Chs. Tarieu de Lanaudière. Knigrht of St Louis, commanded a portion 
of th« Canadian miMtla at Carlllan, waa A.D.C. to Sir Guy Carleton— 
served In 1775 — accompanied the General to England, where Georgre III. 
rewarded !him; he was made Legislative Councillor and Deputy Postmaster 
General for Canada. 

• The sangruinary battle of Fontenoy, was fought on the 11th May, 1745. 
The battle of LauffeJd took place on the 2nd of July, 1747. The French 
victory at Carillon, in which the militia of Canada bore a conspicuous part 
was won near Lake George, 8th July. 1758. 


General of Canada at Belmont Manor; the next^ at Charleebourg, mak- 
ing the romantic echoes of Chateau-Bigot ring again with old English 
cheer and loyal toasts to '^ George the King '' I or else installing a 
** Baron '' at the Union Hotel, Place d'Armes, — and flinging down to the 
landlord, as Lambert says " 260 guineas for the entertainment/^ Ah I 
where are now the choice spirits of that comparatively modem day, the 
rank and fashion, who used to go and sip claret or ice cream with Sir 
James Craig at Powell Place (Spencer Wood). Where gone the Muirs, 
Paynters, Munros, Mathew Bells, de Lanaudières, Lymbumers, Smiths, 
Finlays, Caldwells, Percevais, Jonathan Sewells, TJniackes. Alas! like 
the glories of Belmont, departed — ^living in the chambers of memory 

This estate, which until lately, consisted of two hundred and fifty 
acres, was conceded, in 1649, by the Jesuit Fathers to M. Godfroy ; it ex- 
tended from the line of the Grande AUée to the Bijou wood. In 1670, 
it passed over to the famous Intendant Talon. Shortly after the 
conquest it was occupied by Chief Justice Gregory. In 1765, it was sold 
for £500 by David Ames of Montreal to General James Murray. 

We find that one of the first operations of General Montgomery, 
in 1775, wBs to take forcible possession of " General Murray^s 
house on St. Foy road f later on, the property came into the possession 
of Col. Caldwell. 

In the memory of Quebecers, Belmont manor must remain more 
particulariy connected with the Caldwell family — three generations of 
which occupied its specious halls, and where the Colonel expired, in 

Belmont manor is situated on the St. Foy road, on its north side, 
at the end of a long avenue of majestic trees, distant three miles from 
Quebec. The original mansion which was burnt down in 1798, was re- 
built by the Colonel, in 1800, on plans furnished by an engineer officer 
of the name of Brabazon. Col. Caldwell's gracious hospitality drew 
round his board some of the best known men in Quebec of the time, such 
as the gallant General Brock, John Coltman, William Coltman, the 
Hales, Foy, Haldimand, Dr. Beeby, of Powell Place, J. I>?ster, John 

In 1810, Col. CaldwelFs son John, accepted the succession, with its 
liabilities, then unknown — occupied, in summer, a handsome residence 
in the Seigniory of Lauzon, and was appointed Receiver-General to suc- 
ceed his father in 1812. 

In 1817, Belmont was sold to the Hon. J. Irvine, M.P.P. In 1833, 
the property reverted to Sir Henry Caldwell, son of (Sir) John Cald- 
well — Sir John continued to live at the magnificent summer residence 


he had built near the Btchemin river at Levi, — too lavish in his ex- 
penditure and unlucky in many of his innumerable milling operations, 
with heavy liabilities unprovided for. Sir John, on his dismissal from 
office in 1832 owed the Crown $100,000; this amount was subsequently 
repaid in full out of the revenues of the seigniory of Lauzon and other 
estates taken possession of by Government. He died at Bangor, U.S., in 

Works Consulted. 

The Titles and Plans of Belmont Estate were submitted to me by 
J. W. Dunscomb, Collector of Customs, Quebec, proprietor in 1865. 

"Maple Leaves'' for 1865; "Picturesque Quebec," 1882. 

Neilson's old Quebec Gazette, 1764-1810. 

Histoire de la Seigneurie de Lauzon, par Jos. Edmond Roy, 
M.S.R.C. As agent for this vast seigniory, he is in possession of its 
Titles and Papers. 

I seize on this opportunity, to acknowledge my great indebted- 
ness to Mr. Boy's elaborate work for dates and details. 

Sbction il, 1903 [ 89 ] Trans. R. S. C. 

lY.— The Death of DuViut. 
By William McLennan. 

(Read May 19, 1903.) 

The Anglo-Saxon constantly asserts with much self-satisfaction that 
ïVance is no colonizer and points his moral as he unfolds his tale of the 
fall of French Canada, or French India, with a description of the cor- 
ruption of the home government, the vileness of the colonial officials 
and the failure of the King to send help in the hour of need. The in- 
ference of course is that England succoured her colonies — and hence the 

The true reason of her failure was that France busied herself 
altogether too much over her distant settlements. She not only attempted 
to Older every detail of their internal government but even their policy 
towards their neighbours. She provided India, Canada and Louisiana 
with priests, soldiers and settlers. The officer Who had gained his 
pension and retirement was offered a seigneury with many dignities, the 
soldier found no difficulty in taking up a respectable farm from his old 
commander at a ground rent of a few sous for each acre. The King 
provided the start in life, even up to the important part of a wife with 
a modest dowry of provisions, clothes- and a few livres in good white 

Every officer who settled in Canada must needs have a title or at 
least his " lettres de noblesse '^ and these were bestowed with a gene- 
rosity which went far to make up the long despaired of arrears of pay. 

The home government curbed the governor, the intendant, the 
bishop, and invited all the tittle-tattle they could write of each other. 
Without a permission (congé) you could not return to France, you could 
not go into the English colonies to the south, least of all could you go 
into the woods end you could not even change your place of residence, 
say from Montreal to Quebec. Were you a soldier you could not marry 
without due submission to and permission from your colonel. Were 
you a tavern-keeper you must have your pewter-pots regularly stamped, 
must not open before a certain hour or close your door before another. 
If a " bon bourgeois '^ you had many duties from that of keeping your 
ways clean of weeds and briars before your gates to that of being in 
your own pew in the parish church, upholding your share of the many 
charities of the town and of taking your place in any expedition which 
might be put a-foot under proper authority against those cruel devils. 


the Iroquois, or against " our natural enemies those ambitious English 
of New York/^ 

Never was more anxious care and supervision expended over an only 
child ! 

For her part England allowed her infants to grow up without over- 
much supervision. Eoyal governors* were sent out, more or less adequa- 
tely supplied with means to carry out the system of the moment. But the 
mother country gave to her children no practical help or support. Her 
bantlings paddled about in water, hot or cold as they found it, and 
though in America they finally broke away from the maternal swaddling- 
bands yet they developed into a continent of English-speaking, English- 
thinking folk. 

France was too anxious, too ^^ motherly ^' to allow her children to 
Tx alk alone, and as' a result her name has disappeared from the map of 
North America; the one survival of her dream of empire remains only 
in the vague tradition of a peasantry bound in honourable loyalty to her 
old enemy. 

France had great dreams for America, for '^New France.'^ The 
sjpirit of adventure and conquest was a birthright common to all her 
sons. She sought again a " Nouvelle France '^ in the New World as she 
had in her struggle against the Eastern Empire in the Old. 

Think of her pretensions ! She had Canada and the St. Lawrence. 
She had Louisiana and the Mississippi. England had a narrow strip 
down the Atlantic coast between French Canada on the north and Span- 
ish Florida on the south ; the Alleghanies served as a western boundary 
which her colonists never reached during the first century of their occu- 
pation, and to the east was the sea, a barrier and yet a tie to " Home.*' 

Quebec in Frontenac's day held about 1,345 souls, Three Rivers 150, 
and Montreal 1,418. Westward from Montreal there were Forts Fron- 
tenac, Niagara and Detroit, besides some less important ones towards 
the north. 

From Detroit down to the present New Orleans there were cer- 
tainly not more than one hundred and fifty Frenchmen to hold this 
*^ New France *' for His Most Christian Majesty. This force was dis- 
tributed in about ten forts, or, more properly speaking stockaded posts, 
scattered along at various points between Detroit and the mouth of the 
MisÉÔssippi. The garrison of each, if complete, would consist of the 
commandant, his lieutenant, a storekeeper, a sergeant and ten soldiers — 
say from twelve to fifteen men in each. 

On its face the situation seems absurd, but Frontenac never 
dreamed of holding the country by means of the scanty help sent by the 

[m'lbnnan] death of DULHUT 41 

home govemment. His hundred and fifty men were simply so many 
representatives of the pomp and power of Old France, his reliance was 
on the friendly Indian tribes who occupied this long stretch of border 

Their all^iance was obtained partly by judicious attention and de- 
ference and partly by boldness through the medium of that large dass 
of wandering Frenchmen who were explorers, fur-traders and even cou- 
reurs-de-bois. In the first class we find such men as LaSalle, Dulhut, 
Péré, Perrot, Nicolet, Jolliet and others, all of whom were fur-traders 
(but, nota bene, licensed fur-traders, holders of congés, that is, permits 
to trade.) These men had an intimate knowledge of the savage and 
many of them had remarkable influence over the wildest tribes; it was to 
their personal influence that France secured and held eflEective allies 
along her ever-spreading borders. They conciliated the tribes, acted as 
intermediaries botween them and the governor, and, by just treatment 
and marvellous courage bound the Indian so firmly to France that she 
long held the West free from all intrusion. 

With the exception of the conspiracy of Pontiac, Canada has been 
spared the horrors and miseries of Indian warfare since the conquest. 
The wandering fur-trader and later the lonely settler in our Northwest 
lived out their lives amid native and exiled tribes without danger or 
even alarm, and this because England was wise enough, in Canada at 
least, to accept and follow up the conciliatory policy towards the Indian 
which France had so happily inaugurated. 

Apart from the explorers and licensed fur-traders, who were few in 
number, there was a surprisingly large body of men who had taken to 
the woods; some legitimately enough as voyageurs or employés, others 
simply for the love of the free, vagabond life, that curious desire of the 
return towards the savage. These were known as coureurs-de-bois; and, 
although a constant anxiety, they were at times an effective aid in the 
many expeditions set on foot by the ever-active government at Quebec 

Whether it was an expedition towards the West to overawe or 
combat unfriendly tribes, a raid to the North to surprise the English on 
the shores of Hudson^s Bay or a sea-flight with d'lbervUle to Newfound- 
land, Maine or Louisiana, the coureur-de-bois was ever ready to share 
in the adventure. Many of them lived the lives of outlaws with a price 
upon their heads and too many were merely wandering vagabonds, far 
below the Indian in every decency of life and honour. 

Coureur-de-bois was as bad a name as a man could well be called in 
Canada two hundred and fifty years ago, and this was the stigma which 
Dnchesneau, the intendant, tried to fasten upon Daniel de Greysolon, 
Sieur Dulhut, a man of the highest honour and unblemished life. 


Ten years ago I published in Harper's Magazine (Sept. 1893) what 
I then knew of this gentleman-adventnrer, explorer and fur-trader. 

He had Italian as well as French blood in his veins^ and was bom 
at St. Germain-en-Laye about the middle of the seventeenth century. 
He was ensign in La Compagnie Lyonnaise in 1657, and in 1664 waa 
a gendarme de la Garde du Eoy^ the King's Body Guard, which fixes his 
gentility beyond question, for one of the qualifications was the proof 
of the right to bear arms for two hundred years (deux oents ans de 

There can be as' little doubt as to his title of explorer. M. Henri 
Lorin in his admirable study on Frontenac says that Dulhut '^ is a dis- 
coverer of the same title as LaSalle.*' As to fur-trader, every one in 
Canada from the governor downwards, men, women, clergy and laity 
were, or wished to be engaged in thia extremely lucrative traflBc. 

When he came out to Canada I do not know, but he was* in Montreal 
before 1674. That year he sailed for France and was in time to play 
his part as squire to the Marquis de Laesay through that awful August 
day at SenefE on the bordera of Brabant. SeneflE is a name which 
arouses no remembrance in English breasts* to-day; but it was so close an 
affair between Condé and our Prince of Orange that it was doubtful with 
whom the advantage lay until Condé followed William and forced him 
to raise the siege of Oudenarde. The Hollanders and Spanish num- 
bered 90,000 and the French less, each side lost between seven and eight 
thousand men. Condé had three hor&es killed under him and as the 
young Marquis de Lassay had two horses killed and was thrice wounded, 
his squire, our M. Dulhut, must have seen very active service on that 
now almost forgotten day. 

It is a curious coincidence that the Recollet father, le révérend 
père Louis Hennepin, was at Seneflf that day looking after the wounded, 
shriving the dying. It is improbable there was any meeting then, but 
years afterwards Dulhut and Hennepin met on the upper waters of the 
Mississippi, when the j^riest waa in even greater danger than on the 
field of SenefE. 

Dulhut must have returned to Canada by the last vessels of that 
year and when we next hear of him he and his younger brother Claude 
Gr^ysolon de la Tourette had leased a modest property from Pierre 
Pigeon on the south-east comer of Notre-Dame and St. Sulpice (then 
St. Joseph) streets. 

The brothers had both friends and relations in Canada; their uncle 
Jacques Patron had apparently been in Canada since 1659; their 
brother-in-law, Louis Tayeon, Sieur de Lussigny, was an officer in Fron- 
tenac's guard; Alphonse and his more famous brother Henri de Tonti, 

[m*ijwnan] death of DULHUT 43 

the friend of LaSalle, were their cousins, and so apparently W8W De- 
lietto. The Tonti were sons of Lorenzo Tonti, the Neapolitan banker, 
who, when a refugee in France founded the Byetem of what we now 
know as Tontine Insurance. Delietto was an oflBcer in the French army. 

At that time there was no indication that Dulhut would become a 
wanderer. He had ample means, and, tired of lodgings, built for 
himself a hajidsome house with grounds running down to the river. 
Tîbe house stood on the northern side of the street across the foot of 
the present Jacques-Cartier Square, the gardens were behind and the 
lot between the street and the river was afterwards purchased to secure 
the view. Here he settled with his brother La Tourette and their fat 
and choleric friend Jacques Bizard, formerly captain of Frontenac's 
guard, now town-major. It certainly was a handsome establishment 
for a young man, probably the best in Montreal at that day and yet ere 
a year had gone Dulhut sold the place to his unole, Jacques Patron, and 
started for the West, "le pays d'en-haut.^' This was on the 1st Sep- 
tember, 1678, and he had with him, his brother La Tourette, six French- 
men and three slaves, probably Panis, presented to him by friendly In- 
dians, to serve as guides. 

That he had great personal courage perhaps counted but for little 
in a day when most men had to be brave. But Dulhut's courage w«fl 
not that of mere personal braving of danger, though no doubt he faced 
that often enough; it was the greater courage for duty's sake. When 
in command at one of his forts on Lake Superior in 1684, he actually 
puTSU/ed, captured, tried and convicted the Indian, murderers of two 
Frenchmen, and despite all the threats, lies and cajoleries of a powerful 
and hostile tribe of Indians, at the imminent risk of his life and at the 
risk of the life of every Frenchman in the Northwest, but simply be- 
cause he believed it his duty, replied to all the entreaties of the chiefs 
that had the culprits been prisoners of war he would gladly have released 
them but as murderers they must die. " It was a hard s-troke for them/ 
he says, " none of them believed I would undertake it.'' 

There was not another post within possible reach, but he held that 
the safety of every white man west of Fort Frontenac lay in his hand 
and though he had not more than forty-two followers in all, probably 
not more than half of whom were white, he marched his little force out 
of his fort to within two hundred paces of the Indian encampment, and 
there in the face of over four hundred sore and truculent savages he 
carried out the sentence to which their own chiefs had agreed. 

Thereafter there was no question of Dul hut's word in the North- 
west. The Indians both feared and trusted him, his friends loved him, 
he was generous in thought and act and no one speaks of him dispa- 



ragingly save the Intendant Duchesnean and LaSalle. But the inten- 
dant was a fK>or creature by nature and his position as an opponent to 
and spy upon the governor, no doubt^ must answer for many of his 
faults. Aff for LaSalle he was a silent, forbidding man, struggling 
against a load of debt and the constant dread of a withdrawal of court 
favour. Every man in the West who had any standing, with perhaps the 
exception of Henri de Tonti, he looked upon with suspicion as a possible 
intruder on his field. He would neither consult, advise nor co-operate 
and he went his lonely way until the horrible tragedy on the borders of 
Mexico ended his unhappy life. 

' With these two exceptions every one speaks* well of Dulhut: it is 
technically true that Frontenac imprisoned him, but when one reads that 
though he kept him within the bounds of the Château St. Louis he had 
a seat and cover for him each day at his own table; it is easy to see that 
it was only a device to keep him out of the clutches of Duchesneau, the 

He built the first po&t at Detroit, another at Kaministiquia (the 
present Fort William) on Lake Superior, another. Fort La Tourette on 
I-»ake Nepigon and for nearly thirty years* from 1678 to 1707 he was ex- 
ploring, trading and giving his best services to the Government to hold 
the Indians not only in check but to keep them loyal to France. He 
was the first to strike a blow after the awful massacre of Lachine by the 
Iroquois in 1689; a massacre believed to have been instigated by the 
English and which ushered in that long series of murderous raids which 
drew a line of blood from the banks of the Mohawk to the shores of 
Maine and was the beginning not of a seven but a seventy years' war 
which lasted until the capitulation of Montreal in 1760. 

Dulhut was the earliest explorer of the Northwest; he knew every 
stretch and bay of Lake Superior and much of the country to the North, 
he saw the upper waters of the Mississippi long before LeSueur made 
his famous journey from its mouth, he knew of the Great Salt Lake 
and only abandoned the journey there in order to save the Père 
Hennepin, who repaid him with grudging thanks and not a few lies. 
He held the wild tribes in effective subjeotaon and more than once led 
them as allies to the French. For this at the end of twenty years he 
received promotion, a captaincy in the colony troops which meant pay 
of about 1,000 to 1,200 livres a year. He* was heavily in debt and 
when his old uncle, Jacques Patron, died in 1691, he bequeathed all 
his property to La Tourette. Worse than this, he had been a life- 
long mart}T to gout; that he should have kept at his post so long 
under this most exquisite of tortures speaks volumes for his endurance. 

[m'lbnnan] death of DULHUT 48 

In 1695, through the intercessdon of the Iroquoise, Catherine 
Œtegahkotiita, he was relieved of his snfferingB for a term of fifteen 
months after twenty-five years of martyrdom with attacks that some- 
times lasted for three months without relief. In 1696 all are reported 
well at Fort Frontenac with the exception of Dulhut *' who is bnflfering 
from his gout/' 

The latest trace I could find of Dulhut when I wrote my first article 
was in 1707, when Tonti relieved him at Detroit, and then the brief 
m^ention of his death in Vaudieuil's letter of 1710, stating that he had 
died during the previous winter. 

I then accepted the general ojpihion that he had died somewhere in 
the West but last year a happy chance gave me the trace of his will and 
then I found that during the afternoon of the fourth day of March, 
1709, Maître Michel LePailleur, Royal Notary for the Island of Mon- 
treal, with his two witnesses went to the house of Charies Delaunay, 
master tanner, where in a lower room giving on St. Paul Street they 
found "Daniel de Grey&olon, escuyer, Sieur Dulhut, capitaine d'une 
compagnie des troupes du détachement de la Marine '' seated in his arm- 
chair much troubled by his gout, who, considering " there is nothing 
more certain than death or more uncertain than the hour thereof," re- 
quested Maître LePailleur to make his will. 

He commends his soul to God, to the Virgin, to St. Michael the 
Archangel and to all other Saints of Paradise. He wishes to be buried 
in the church of the Eecolletfc' (which stood untU 1866, at the corner of 
Notre Dame and St. Helen Streets). He makes legacies in favour of 
the EecoUets, the Sulpitians and the Jesuits. He leaves five hundred 
livres (equal to as many dollars of to-day) to Charles, the five-year old 
son of his landlord, as well as all his furniture and personal effects, and 
the residue of bis estate he bequeathes to his heirs-at-law in such pro- 
portions as his brother La Tourette may decide. 

He lived through that year, but when Maître LePailleur came again 
on the 12th February, 1710, accompanied by M. de la Chassaigne, for- 
merly governor of Three Rivers, Charles Le Moyne, Baron de Longueuil, 
Antoine Forestier, surgeon, and St. Olive, apothecary, they found poor 
M. Dulhut no longer able to sit up and very ill indeed. He then altered 
his will. He bequeathed three hundred livres over and above any wages 
which may be due at the time of his death to his valet La Roche ^^ for 
the great care and trouble he has had of him during his long illness.^' 
He leaves to Mme deLaunay and to her children all debts* due to him 
especially those due by her husband, and, repeating " Have pity upon 
me, God, according to Thy great mercy '* he signed before the notary 
and witnesses. 


He died during the night of the 25th-26th February, 1710. In the 
morning at eight o'clock, the Baron de Longueuil with Lienard de Beau- 
jeu and the Sieur de Blain come and seal up all papers, etc., and on the 
day following they again appear with Maître LePailleur and make a de- 
tailed inventory of all his effects ; of which the most interesting items are 
his diaries for 167P-1677-1678, and some others undated. None of these 
are known to-day and unless they were sent to his brother La Tourette, 
who had returned to Lyons, it is most unlikely that they will ever come 
to light. 

Slight aa this find may seem it gives us some valuable details of 
the personality of Dulhut. He held the lease of the ground floor of the 
house of Charles Delaunay, which stood on the lot now occupied by No. 
60 St. Paul Street, be had his valet, his silver forks and sjppons, his cane 
with its silver pommel and -chain, his big atlas and a ^^ History of the 
Jews'' in five volumes, probably Josephus, his sUk stockings*, his cra- 
vates and cuffs of fine muslin, three perukes, his S'carlet doak and his 
good brown suit, gold-laoed and with its buttons and button-holes em- 
broidered in gold, but everything much used as became a man who no 
longer moved abroad, whose days were passed at a window in summer 
and by the fire in winter. 

From his back windows he could look out on the broad St. Law- 
rence, that highway which had led him so many a weary league into the 
wilderness; from the front he could catch a glimjjse of the house and 
garden he had built and planted over forty years before and from which 
he had gone forth for some reason we cannot now discover. When he 
built it he was a man of about twenty-five ; he stood well with many 
powerful personages in France; in Canada he was an intimate friend of 
Frontenac, he was well-to-do, perhaps* wealthy; there is no hint of 
scandal or suggestion of any motive for his sudden departure. Surely 
there was some heart-break at the bottom of the whole story. 

His life from the day he left Montreal was of necessity one of hard- 
ship and loneliness. He was often for years together in the depth of 
the woods, " aux profondeurs des bois " as it was expressively desKribed 
in his day. 

When he returned to Montreal, a man drawing towards the allot- 
ment of three score and ten, for such rest and comfort as were possible, 
he had not a relative near him. His brother. La Tourette, had returned 
to France and was living in Lyons, so probably had his brother-in-law 
Lussigny and his cousin Delietto ; his unde. Patron, was dead, as was his 
cousin Henri de «Tionti, and Alphonse was stationed at Detroit. 

Apart from the dry bones of notarial documents and occasional 
and generally hostile mention in the reports of the intendant. 

[m'lennan] death of DULHUT '^^^^' R. 8- C. 

we have nothing from the hand of Dulhut saye hie memv/iu-i to the 
minister in 1697, and this will and its codicils; but even with this scanty 
material we can add to Vaudreuil's curt eulogy " he was a very honest 
man/' that he was a man of good judgment, of firm resolution, of strong 
faith and friendship, singularly modest in a day when self-assertion 
seemed a necessity for recognition; a man who under constant disap- 
pointment and great physical suffering was supported by a marvellous 
patience that endured untU the hour of his release. 



Section IL, 1903 [ 49 ] Tbamb. R. a C. 

Y.—The Gaelic Folk-Songs of Canada. 
By Alexander Fraseb, Toronto, Ont. 

(Communicated by W. W. Campbell and read May 20, 1903.) 

** Cànaln àlgh nam buadhan oirdheare, 
A b* fharsuln« cllù air feadh na h-B6rpa; 
Bithldh 1 fathaat mar a tholslch, 
Os ceann gacb cainnt 'na h-iuchalr eôlais." 

Translated: — 

" Strange mystic powers lie In that tongue, 
Whose praise through Europe wide has rung; 
As 'twas of yore In school and college, 
It shall be first —the key of knowledge." 

Two explanatory words may be allowed. 

1. By Gaelic is meant only that branch of the Keltic language 
whose home and chief habitat are the Highlands of Scotland. 

2. The field. It has been estimated that there is about a quarter 
of a million people in Canada who understand and speak the Gaelic 

No people are more devoted to their native language than the Scot- 
tish Kelts. They have cherished it and retained it through centuries of 
struggle and vicissitude, ab a precious heritage, and in the freer atmos- 
phere of to-day, the old vernacular holds its own against the encroach- 
ments of the language of commerce with equal success as in the olden 
time it did against the prejudices of alien educators and hostile law- 
givers. It has come down from sire to son on the plains of Canada with 
almost equal purity as in the glens and straths of Caledonia. 

" *S1 labhalr Padrlc 'n Innise Fall na Rlogh, 
'S aji faiglie caomh sin Colum nàomtha 'n I." 

" 'Twas it that Patrick spoke in Inis-Fayle, 
And saintly Calum lin lona's Isle." 

The printed literature of the Scottish Gael is not extensive, but a 
Gaelic liiterature there is, which will compare favourably with the litera- 
ture of many other countries, and, if taken with that of its kindred 
branches, is of very respectable proportions indeed. Probably four- 
fifths of it is poetry. The Kelts are a poetical people; the clansman 
lived in an atmosphere of poetry and romance; every village had itfr 
bard, every family its ready singer. The very vicissitudes of the people 

Sec. IL, 1903. 4. 


bred idealism and poetic fancy, and their mental pabulum was the song 
of the minstrel and story of the seanaohie. The scarcity, or entire ab- 
sence of books had the effect of quickening and strengthening the mem- 
ory, and the ordinary peasant could generally repeat a marvellous quan- 
tity of verse. Thus, folk songs passed from generation to generation, 
becoming sacred in the process, through tender associations dear to the 
heart of the emotional Gael. The epochs of song correspond to the 
great national movements which affected the condition or stirred the 
emotions of the people as a whole. Thus, the Jacobite risings of 1715 
and 1745 A.D., were followed by revivals of Gaelic song, the latter date, 
inaugurating what hafe been termed the Augustan age of Highland 
poetry, with its great names — Macdonald, Maclntyre, Buchanan, 
Mackay and Ross. Following the Jacobite defeat at Culloden came a 
period of unrest and change in the Highlands from which relief was 
sought in the new homes of America. Wave upon wave of emigration 
succeeded, until the landowners and government* became alarmed and 
enacted measures prohibiting the people to leave their native country. 
These measures, however, were relaxed and the mountaineers, by tens 
of thousands sought homes in Canada and in the United States. This 
was at a time when Gaelic poetry was at its best, and when the vanish- 
ing echoes of the Jacobite muse were re-awakened by the social 
uphe-aval caused by the depopulating of the glens. 

The clansmen carried with them not only the treasured songs of 
the past, but the warm verses wrung from the local bards by the sad 
scenes incident to the departure of whole country-sides of the native 
people, leaving nothing but desolation behind them ; and the songs, also, 
which many of those departing composed as " Farewells " to their native 
land. These songs abound. Many of them are of poetic merit, and are 
Gung in Canada even at the present day. Two of the most popular 
tunes played on shore as the emigrant ships weighed anchor were 
'• ^lacCrimmon's Lament '' and " Lochalx^r No More." The first is 
one of the most pathetic in Highland minstrelsy and its effect to-day is 
as great on a Gaelic-speaking Highlander as in the emigration days. 
MacCrimmon, was one of a famous family of pipers, which for genera- 
tions were retained by the chief of the Clan MacLeod, at Dunvegan 
Castle, Isle of Skye. They are supposed to have been originally from 
Cremona, Italy. The family held land from MacLeod, the son succeed- 
ing the father in possession and in the office of piper. The name of 
their farm was Boreraig, and here a piper's college was conducted to 
which the noblemen and gentlemen of the north of Scotland sent their 
young pipers to be instructed in bagpipe music, the ordinary term of 
apprenticeship being seven years. In 1745, ^[acLeod, of Dunvegan, 
espoused the side of the house of Hanover, in the Stuart rising. Mac- 


Crimmon, the hereditary piper, seems to have had a premcmition that he 
should fall in the war, and accompanied his chief reluctantly. On the 
eve of his departure he is said to have compos(»d the piobaireachd known 
as " M'acCrimmon's lament," and the Gaelic words which have been 
paraphrased by Sir Walter Scott, viz : — 


Bratach bhuadhail Mhte-Leoid o'n tùr nrhôr a* lasadh, 
'S luchd iomradh nan râmh grreasadh bhàrc thar a ghlas-chuan; 
Bogha, sgriath, 's claidheamih mûr, 's tuagrh gu leôn, eirm nam fleasgach, 
'S Mac-CriamthaLn cluich cuairt, ** Soraidih bhuan do Dhun Bheagrai-n." 

S^lan leis gach creig &rd ris 'bheil gairich ard-thonnan, 
Slan lels gach gleann fus 's dean cràc-dhaimh an langan; 
Eil€an Sgiathanaioh algh! slan le d'bheanntaibh 's guirm' flrich. 
Tillidh, cWi* fheutadh, MacLeoid, ach cha bheO do Mhac-Criomthaln. 

Soraidh bhuan do'n gheal-cheO, a tha comhdachadh Chuilinn, 
Slan leis gach blà-shùil, 'th'air an Dun, 's iad a' tuireadh! 
Soraidh bhuan do'n luohd-oiùil, 's trie 'chiilr sunnd orm is tiome— 
Shefrl Mac-Crlomthain thar sail, is gu brath' oha till tuUleadh. 

Nuallan allt' na piob-jnhoir a cluich marbh-rann an fhilidih, 

Agus deaxbh bhrat a bhâ.Ls mar fhalluing algr* uime; 

Ach cha mheataich mo chridh* is oha ragaich mo chulslean, 

Ged dh' fhalbham le m' dheOln, 's flos nach till mi chaoidh tuilleadh. 

'S trie a chlulnnear fuaim bhinn caoi thiom-chridh* Mhic-Criomihain, 
'N uair 'bhios Gaidheil a* falbh thar an fhairge 'g an iomain — 
O! chaomh thir ar graidh, o do thraigh *s rag ar n-imeachd; 
Och! cha till, cha till, oha till sinn tuilleadh. 

Translated hy !Sir Walter Scott: — 

MacLeod's wizard flag from the gT^y castle sallies, 
The rowers are seated, unmoored are the galleys, 
Gleam war-axe and broad-sword, clang target and quiver. 
As MacCrimmon plays. " Farewell to Dun vegan for ever! " 

" Farewell to each cliff, on which breakers are foaming; 
Farewell, each dark glen, in which red deer are roamdng; 
Farewell, lonely Skye, to lake, mountain, and river; 
MacLreod may return, but -luacCrimmon shall never! " 

•'Farewell the bright clouds that on Coolin are sleeping; 
Farewell the bright eyes in the fort that are weeping; 
To each minstrel delusion, farewell; and for ever — 
MacCrimmon departs, to return to you never! " 

'The Banshee's wild voice sings the death-dirge before me. 
And the paJl of the dead for a mantle hangs o'er me; 
But my heart shall not flag, and my nerve shall not quiver. 
Though devoted I go — to return again never! " 


7*00 ofi shaU the note of MaoCrimmon's bewailing 
Be heard when the Gael on their exile are saUinc:-- 
"Dear Land! to the shores, whence unwilling we sever 
Return — return — return, we shall never! " 

In the famous "Bout of Moy*' MacCrimmon fell, and his pre- 
monition was fnlfilleH. In Skye his death was mourned by his sweet- 
heart, who is made pathetically to lament his death, in the following 
lines which are those usually sung to the tune, " MacCrimmon's 
Lament '* : — 

Dh' ladh ceo man stûc mu aodann Chulainn; 
Gku' n d* sheinn a bhean shith a tonrann mulaid; 
Tha Aullean fform, ciûln, *b an Dun ri aileadh; 
O'n thriall thu bh'uainn, 's nach till thu tuille. 

Caia UU. cha till, cha Ull MacCriomthaln, 
An ooffadh no eith oha till e tutUe: 
Le airgiod no ni oha till MacCriomthaiin; 
Cha tin STU brath gu la na cruinne. 

Tha osag nan gleann gu fann ag imeachd 
Gach sruthan 's gach allt, gu niall le bruthtach, 
Th\a ialt nan speur feagh gheûgan dubhach; 
Ag caoidh gun d' fhalbh, 's nach till thu tuille. 

Cha Ull, oha till, etc. 

Tha'n fhairge fadheOidh, Ian brOin a's mulad; 
Tha'm «bata fo sbeOl, ach dhiult i siubhal, 
Tha gaire nan tonn, le Xuaim neoHsAiubhach, 
Ag radii gun d* fhalbh, 's nach tUl thu tuiUe. 

Cha till, oha till. etc. 

Cha duinnear do oheôl 's an Dun mu Cheasgair; 
No Mactalla na mùr, le mùdrn gr'a fhreagalrt: 
Gaoh fleacrgach a's oigh, gun cheOl gun bheaidradh, 
O'n thriall thu bh' ualnn, 'b nach till thu tuille. 

Cha Ull. oha Ull, etc 

Translated 6y Lachlan MacBean; 

O'er Coolin's faoe the night is creeping. 
The banshee's wail is round us sweeping. 
Blue eyes in Dun are sadly weeping. 
Since thou art gone, and ne'er returneart. 

The breeze of the bens is gently flowing, 
The brooka in the glens are softly flowing. 
Where boughs their darkest shades are throwing, 
Birds mourn for thee who ne'er returnest. 

It's dirges of woe the sea ia sighing. 
The boat under sail unmoved is lying. 
The voice of the waves in sadness dying 
Say thou art away and ne'er returnest 


We'll see no more MacCrLmmon's returning, 
Nor in peace nor in war is he returning:, 
Till dawns the great day of woe and burning:. 
For him, for him, there's no returning:. 

These verses loee much in Hie translation. In the original they 
are remarkable for beauty of diction and for the dejpth of tender 
feeling they express, and one can easily understand the enduring 
impression they would make upon the minds of sorrowing emigrants, 
especially when sung to one of the sweetest minor melodies in the 
treasury of Gaelic music. 

To this class belongs Evan MacCoU^s (a charter member of the 
Eoyal Society) "Beannachd Dheireannach an EUthirioh Ghailich/^ — 
" The Highland Emigrant's Farewell/' one of the best emigrant's songs 
in the language, the concluding lines of which are: 

Uair elle, 's gn bràth, 

Beannachd bhlà.th leat, mo dhuthaich! 
Qed nobh gu L*ath'-luain 

Falach-oualn ort bho m' shûil-sa, 
Gu deireadh mo ohualrt, 

Gearr no buan, bi'dh mi 'g: umud^, 
O! Ard'rlg:h nan dùJ, 

Beannaich duthaich mo g:hràidh! 

In this poem MacCoU describes his father's feelings, overcome by 
strong emotion as the mountain peaks of his native land recedes from 
his view, and in turning away after the darkness has closed the scene, 
the stem-visaged Gaol vows eternal devotion to his native land, and 
invokes a benediction upon its future. This poem, or song, composed 
to the tune, "Erin gu brath,*' has been sung in the Old Land and 
in Canada by at least two generations, separated by the wide Atlantic 
yet on both sides of the ocean, each remembering the close relationship 
betwixt them of kith and kin. 

When the Scottish Gael found a lodgement in Canada, the songs 
of his race were not forgotten. That body of song was the common 
heritage of the Kelt, the world over, but the soul of song did not Uve 
on the poetry of the past only; it found its muse in the dense forest, 
on the rivers and lakes, and at the happy firesides of the settlements. 
Here in Canada, therefore, Gaelic poems and songs were composed in 
the style of the older minstrelsy. Some of them can be compared 
to the popular lyricô of the Highlands. The themes varied with the 
glories of sea and land, the beauties of nature with her rich colourings 
and varying moods; the heroism and devotion of the women — of 
mothers and daughters who bore the hardships of colonization with 


courage and good cheer; the merriment of the home life, for alongside 
the hardships were situations which gave play to the lively wit and 
fancy of the buoyant Kelt, and these as weil as the loves of the swains 
and maidens furnished rich material to the bard. Every settlement 
had its poets, and the connection between the life and the lyrics of 
the people was well maintained. Thus, tihe labours of the day were 
lightened by song, in the melodious speech of the fathers; the idea 
of exile was softened and the land of adoption became more and more 
a real home like the native land. But that native land was not for- 
gotten, and " MecOrimmon^s Lament," or the " Emigiant^s Farewell " 
had still the power of awakening memories of the past : 

" Is trie mi culnrhneach air tte mo dhûthoihals, 

Air tir nam beanntan 's nan srleanntan ûrar; 
Air tir nan ag^maicheaji &rda, ruisgrte. 

Nan creagran corraoh, 's nan lochan dûg>horm." 

Translated: — 

'* Dear land of my fathers, my home in the HiiglUands, 
'Tis oft that I think on thy bonnie srreen glens, 
Th^ far-gleamingr lochs, and the sheer sided oorries, 
Thy dark-frown bng cliCCs, and thy glory of Bens! " 


"Is toigh leam a Ghaidhlig, a bardachd 's a ceOl, 
I0 trie 'thog i nios sinn 'n ualr bhiodhmaid fo leôn; 
'S 1 dh' ionnsalch sinn tra ajin an laithean ar n-Oig, 
'S nach fag sinn gu 'br&th gus an laidh sinn fo'n fhoid." 

Translated: — 

•* And the songs of the Gael on their pinions of flre, 
How oft have they lifted my heart from the mire; 
On the lap of my mother I lisp'd them to God; 
Let them float round my grave, when I sleep 'neath the sod." 

By the Eestigouche or th-e St. Lawrence the peasant-poet aat and 
mused upon the days of yore, and to the gathering neighbours poured 
an oblation to the manee of his forefathers, such as the beautiful 
'^ Canadian Boat Song/* said to have been translated from the Gaelic 
by Eari Eglinton: — 


" lAOben to me es wihen ye heard our father. 
Sing long ago the songs of other shores; 
Listen to me a»nd then in chorus gather. 
All your deep voices as ye pull your oars— 

Pair these broad meads, these hoary woods are grand» 
But we are exiles from our father's land. 


From the lone shelling of the misty island. 
Mountains divide us and the waste of seas; 
But still the blood is strong, our hearts are Highland 
And we In dreams behold the Hebrides. 

We ne'er shall tread 'the fanoy^aunted valley, 

Where, 'twixt the dark hills, creeps the small clear stream, 

In arms around the patriarch banner rally. 

Nor see the moon on royal tombstones gleam. 

Wihen the bold kindred, in the time long vanish' d. 
Conquered the soil and fortified the keep,^ 
No seer foretold the children should be banished, 
That a degenerate lord might boast his sheep. 

Come foreign irage! let discord burst In slaughter. 
Oh! then, for clansmen true, and keen claymore! 
The hearts that would have given their blood like water, 
Beat heavily beyond the Atlantic's roar. 

Fair these broad meads — those hoary woods are grand. 
But we are exiles from our father's land. 

There is doubt as to the authorship of this translation, some 
attributing it to Professor James Wilson; others to Hugh, 12tih Earl 
Eglinton, among whose papers it was found. In Maroh, 1896, I adver- 
tised in th€ Grlengarr}' newispapers for the original and received in 
reply five Gaelic songs purporting to be the original of the Canadian 
Boat Song, but 1 could not accept any of them as being genuinely such. 
It is curious that Moore's Canadian Boat Song should also have been 
a translation from an old French song, popular in Poiton, according 
to Ernest Gagnon, Quobec. 

Railing at his hard lot, a pioneer poet breaks out: 

"Oax^h ceum a shiubhlas sinn feadh na duth'chsa, 

Gur coille duth-ghorm i air fad, 

Tha ruith gu siorraidh gun cheann no crioch oir', 

Is beachainn fladihaich tha innte gu pailt'; 

Cha'n fhaic sinn fraoch ann a fas air aonaoh, 

Xa sruth a caochan ruith soilleir glan, 

Aoh bulg 'ua geoban 's na rathadan mora 

Na'n sluichd mhi-chomhnard le stumpan grroid." 

Fifty years later, however, this same poet catting his eye back, finds 
his muse is more cheerful. The log-houses are disappearing, so are 
the dcn^ forests, the fauna is less formidable, the roads are improved, 
the fields are beautiful, and if the heather and the golden broom are 
not seen on the sloping foot hills, the verdure is at least luxuriant and 
pleasant io the eye; and he feels no compunction in placing the new 
in favourable contract with the old. 


The Gael is iflftensely religiaue. He turns to verse for adequate 
utterance when profoundly stirred with sacred thoughts. At the 
time of the first emigration to Canada, Dugald Buchanan, the greatest 
religious poet of the race, flourished. His spiritual songs were seized 
with remarkable avidity and were known in every cottage in the Icuid. 
Seldom have religious verse in any language had such extensive cir- 
culation. Next to Holy Writ the early emigrant prized Buchanan, 
and many a log-^cabin in the bush, rang, on Sabbath-day, with the 
chorus of his hymns. Canadian editions were printed, and they are 
still in use by some who could not tell whether the author had lived 
in the eighteenth (as he did) or in the nineteenth century, or whether 
he was a native of Canada or of Perthahire, so thoroughly have these 
hymns become a part of the Canadian Gaelic folk-song. Buchanan 
chose subjects which gave soope to his powerful imagination. For 
instance: "The Greatness of God," "The Sufferings of Christ,'' "The 
Day of Judgment,'' "The Skull," "Prayer," etc. He was known 
among the litemry men of his time as a great poet. An account of an 
interesting interview between him and David Hume, the historian, has 
come down. These two were discussing the merits of some authors 
when Hume observed that it was impossible to imagine anything more 
sublime than the following lines, which he rejpeated: 

" The cloud-caipt towers, the gorgeous pal€uces, 
The solemn temples, the great globe itself. 
Tea. all which it inherits shaU dissolve. 
And like the baseless fabric of a vision — 
Leave «not a wreck behind." 

Buchanan admitted the beauity and sublimity of the lines, but, 
said, he could produce a passage more sublime, and repeated the fol- 
lowing verses : 

'^ And I saw a great white throne, and him that sat on it, from 
whose face the earth and the heaven fled away; and there were found 
no place for them. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before 
God: and the books were opened; and another book was opened, which 
is the book of life : and the dead were judged out of those things which 
were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea 
gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up 
the dead which were in them; and they were judged every man accord- 
ing to the works." 

Hume, it is said, admitted the superiority of Buchanan's quotation, 
as an example of the sublime in literature. 

After Buchanan came Patrick Grant, a sweeter, if a weaker poet. 
Grant's hymns have, from the time of their first appearance, been widely 
known and popuiar in Canada and are still read with pleasure and 


profit in the Gaelic settlements. One or two examples will show the 
bright spirit that pervaded them — a cdntrast to Buchanan's sombre 
earnestness : 


(1) '* Hark! Slon loud ring$ her King's hlgrh praises, 

She êings and raises her voice, 

His love to proclaim who came to aid her, 

Hiis name, who made her his choice. 

Hallelujahs prolong the son« that's «riven, 

Among wide Heaven's bright hoet. 

And those who while here, lies near to Jesus 

That dear sound pleases them most" 

Theee Mnee may also serve as an example of that assonance wbioh 
is characteristic of Gaelic v-ensification, — the " leonine rhyme.*' 

Translated :— 

(2) ** In ilka trial we hae tae bear 

We'll nestle near him, there's shelter there, 
For ill we trust Him, whate'er betide us. 
He'll save and guide us (for ever mair. 

His frien's on earth He will ne'er disclaim. 
But brln« wd' Joy a* that loe his name, 
Frae His dear presence nae mair tae sever. 
But share for ever His Liasting Hame. 

The year 1786 witnessed the arrival in Canada of a man of nota, 
whose life-work will not be forgotten among the Gki^el. Rev. Dr. James 
Macgregor, the Gaelic Hymnist was bom in 1759, at Portrmore, in 
Perthshire. He settled at Piotou as a missionary, and preached in 
Gaelic to the Highlanders. A talented and scholarly divine, he com 
posed hymns and religious poems which became popular among the 
Highlanders of Nova Scotia and Cape Breton. They were sung in 
almost every family, and the testimony of the early ministers of the 
Gospel in the Maritime provinces is to the effect that these poems made 
a deep impression on the people. While known, they were not widely 
used in Upper Canada, at least, I have n<Â been able to trace them 
much beyond the manses of the Gaelic speaking clergymen of Ontario, 
but MacGregor's collection sold well in Scotland and. in Nova Scotia. 
In the west Rev. F. J. MacLeod published a book of hymns and spir- 
itual songs, at Toronto, which found acceptance among the Kelts of 
northern and western On-tario — Vietoria, Grey and Bruce counties. 
A poet better known that Mr McLeod, was the Rev. Donald Monro, 
whose volume of Gaelic verses appeared in 1848, with an encouraging 
list of subscribers. Mr. Monro was a native of Kilmartin, Argyllshire, 
and settled in Glengarry in the forties, removing thence to the town- 
ship of Finch where he enjoyed a lengthened ministry. He died in 


February, 1867, in the 78th year of his age, but ■still lives in the well 
gotten up volume of Gaelic poetry which he gave to his countr3nn[ien. 
The popular songs of the people, however, muist be their love 
songB, and in this branch of the subject the Kelto-Canadian had a rich 
treasury. As the French-Canaddan inherited the folk-song of Old 
France, so the Gael -of Canada did the songs of the Scottish Highlands. 
Love songs live long. To-day can be heard songs crooned in Nova 
Scotia or in Ontario, whose origin is l'est in the mists of time, or of 
authors who lived many generations ago in Scotland. Sujch a song, for 
instance, is " Fear a Bhata,'* " The Boatman,^* one of the finest of our 
Gaelic love songs: 


** My friends oft tell me that I miist sever 
All thought of thee from my heart for ever; 
Their wordfl are idle— my passion's 9weUin^, 
Untanned as ocean, can brook no queUinfir. 

My heart is weary with ceaseless wailing. 
Like wounded swan «when her strenfrth is failing, 
Her notes of anguish the lake awaken, 
By all her comrades at last forsaken. 

Another example would be : " Ho ro mo nighean donn bhoidheach,*' 
eung by a chorus of children in Toronto not later than last June. The 
translation of a verse will show the intensity of the sentiment pervad- 
ing it: 

Translated : — 

•* O maid whoae face is fairest, 
The beauty that thou bearest, 
Thy witching «mile the rarest, 

Are ever with me. 

" Though far from thee I'm ranging 
My love is not estranging, 
My heart is sliU unchanging 

And aye true to thee. 

*• Thy smile Is brightest, purest, 
Best, kindliest, demurest. 
With which thou still allureat 

My heart's love to thee." 

But the settlers themselves and their descendants to the present 
time composed love songs which obtained popular recognition, many 
of whicJi have seen the light of the day on pages of books or j)eriodicals, 
but many, very many, sftill remain to be collected and preserved as 
interesting specimens of the Gaelic muse in Canada. 

Som<î of the better known Gaelic poets of Canada are: Dr. James 
Macgregor, Rev. D. B. Blair, Rev. A. MacLean Sinclair, Evan MacColl, 


Eev. Donald Monro, Eev. F. J. MacLeod, Hugh MacColl, Archibald 
MacKillop, A. Gordon, Alexander MacMillan, Hugh MacCorquodale, 
Neil Clark, Mrs. Angus MacKay, Mrs. McKenzie, Dr. J. MacLeod, 
Donald Grant, Donald Campbell, D. MacFarlane, Angus Canniohael 
(author of " Venus of the Gaol,*' etc.), James MacMaster, Miss Cath- 
erine Cameron, Mre. John MacDonald. 

Quite reoently, while on a visit in the county of Bruce, I came 
across a number of G«<elic songs composed by Mr. J. B. Macdonald, 
a respected citizen of Tiverton, a specimen veree of which I shall tran- 
scribe to show that patriotism and vitality still characterize the sons 
of Ossian: 

O, 's aim a'n America a tha mi an dr&sda, 

Fo dhùbhar na oollle nach teirlg gu bràth,— 

'S'n uaiT dh' fhalbhas an dùbhlachd 'ea thlonnd'as am biàths 

Bidih drisean 'us biùlan *s flùth'r orra fus. 

Ach's tniagh naoh robh mise 'n Tiridh mar bha, 
Ged bhithlnn gun sgUllinn dar ruiginn an traigh; 
Bu shunndach a bhithinn 'n uair dh' eireadh an Ian, 
Dol a dh* iarraidh nan siolag gu iochdar tralgh-bhaigih. 

Tirddh mo chrldhe, Tiridh mo ghaoll, 

Far am bithinn am mireag 'sa ruith air an raon*, 

'S bho 'na thug mi mo chùl ris do dhuthaich nan craobh, 

•S e dh* fhag mi fo mhulad nach grunnaich mi 'n caol. 

The Gael had his "Golden Age," and it was an age of poetry. 
Its traditions have floated down the cen-turies to our own times, and 
are met with in popular songs, one of which may fitly close this 

" Linn An Aioh **— *' The Happy Aob." 
Translated: — 

When all the bdrds in Gaelic sang, 

Milk lay like derw upon the lea; 
The heather into honey sprang, 
And everything was good and free. 

No tax or tribute used to fall 

On honest men, nor any rent; 
To hunt and fish was free to all, 

And timber without price or stent. 

There was no discord, war or strife, 
For none were wronged and none oppressed; 

But everyone Just led the life 
And did the thing that pleased him best. 


All lived in, peace, there was no sort 
Of prey or plunder, feud or flgrht; 

There was no need of any cooirt — 
Their hearts contained the law of rigrht. 

For fiTold or silver no one cared, 
Yet want and woe were never near; 

All had enou^rh, and richly fared, 
And none desired his neighbour's gear. 

Love, pity, and good-wUl were spread 
Among: the people everywhere; 

From where the momin? rises red 
To where the evening: shineth fair. 

When all the birds in Gaelic saaff. 

Section U., 1903 [ 61 ] Trans. R. 8. C. 

VI. — Totemism: A Consideration of its Origin and Import. 

By Charles Hill-Tout. 
Hon. Secretary of the Bthnolofirlcal Survey o£ Oancida, etc. 

(Communicated by Honorary Secretary and read May, 19, 1903.) 

Two years ago I had the honour to present to the Society a short 
paper on the subject of Totemism as it obtains in tribal society in 
British Columbia. 

The scope of the present paper is more comprehenfiive; it aims 
at a consideration of the subject from a general point of view. 

The doctrine of totemism has of late much exercised the minds 
of anthropologists^ and there has been a considerable increase in the 
literature upon it. This has not, unfortunately, resulted in an accept- 
able solution of the problem of totemism, but rather the reverse. It 
has brought out in a painfully clear manner that American and 
European students hold widely-differing views upon the subject, and 
appear to look at the question from a fundamentally different stand- 
point. Even their terminology seems to have little in common. 

TMs has apparently come about from the fact that students of 
this country have dealt with data drawn almost exclusively from Amer- 
ican sources, while those of Europe seem to have fixed their attention 
more particularly upon data gathered in Australia and other parts of 
the world. 

This would seem to suggest that the totemism of tribal man in 
America is different from that found among primitive peoples else- 
where. But this certainly cannot be the case. Totemism, wherever 
found, in its naked and virgin state, is demonstrably the outcome of 
the mind of savage man contemplating the relations existing between 
himself and his physical environment, that is of anthropopathic con- 
ceptions of the tmiverse, and in its fundamentals must (rf necessity 
be everywhere the same. The difference, if difference there be, will be 
found to lie partly in the attitude of the student himself and partly in 
the fact that too much stress has been laid by certain European ex- 
ponents of totemism upon subsidiary features of it, which, as I shall 
attempt to show, are not really -essential elements, but only, more or 
less, local adjuncts or accidents, which differ materially in number 
and character in different centres and among different peoples. If 
these concomitants of totemism, mostly social, be set aside and the 
underlying concept be regarded alone, totemism will be seen to be 
the same in all parts of the world. 


The American student may be said to possess a certain advantage 
over others in his study of the subject. Nowhere in the world has 
primitive man received such close and systematic study by trained 
observers as in this country, and nowhere can we find a wider or more 
varied range of culture than among the aborigines of this continent. 
Every condition of tribal society appears to exist here. There are 
tribes in the Matriarchal state, tribes under Patriarchal rule, and tribes 
in all stages of transition between the one and the other. He has, 
therefore, an ideal field for the study of primitive institutions and 
concepts and should, with due care, be able to arrive at the heart o-f 

I will, therefore, begin this consideration of the subject by a 
brief statement of what is regarded by leading American students as 
the doctrine of totemism. And as the late Director of the Bureau of 
Amerioan Ethnology, so recently as July last set forth briefly in an 
article in Man, what may be considered the prevailing view of the 
doctrine in this country, I cannot do bettea* than cite his statement 
of the case in his own words. He writes : " A group of Amorind 
tribes occupying a limited part of the Dominion of Canada and the 
United States are known as Algonquins; they belong to a distinct 
linguistic stock in which many languages are spoken. Among these 
tribes the word ^ totem ' or its variant is used, and those are the 
languages fram which the word comes. The word is derived from 
a root which signifies clay. Among the Algonquian tribes clay was 
used to paint the face and body with the heraldic devices [that is 
the totem symlx)ls] of a group of pej^ons .... The group is composed 
of such persons as reckon consanguineal kinship only through the 
mother; thus, the mother and her brothers and sisters and their 
mother with her brothers and sisters, belong to the group, and the 
kinship may be reckoned in the same manner through an indefinite num- 
ber of generations. This group we call a clan, but the Algonquians 
call it a totem, thus clan and totem are synonymous.... There are 
other tribes in which the clan group is replaced by what we call the 
gentile group. This group is like that discovered among the Latin 
tribes, and embraces those persons who reckon kinship through the 
father with his brothers and sisters, including their father and his 
brothers and sisters. Thus the mother^s group and the grandmother^s 

group are excluded When the second group is found we call it 

a gens. ... In America we call the name of the clan and also the name 
of the gens its totem, and totemism is considered a method of naming. 
Among some tribes the child on coming to puberty takes a new name, 

and this name is called its totem In every tribe among the 

Amerinds societies are organized, which we formerly called 'medi- 


cine societies^ and then ^religious societies'. . . . These societies 
are also named, and the names of the societies are their ix)tems, so 
that totemism pertains to individual names, to clan names, to tribal 
names, and also to society names. 

** The name which the individual assumes at puberty is the totem 
name of the individual; it is also the name of the thing for which the 
individual is najned. . . . When shamanistic societies are organized, 
their names are also their totems, and apply to the societies as well 
as to the things to whidi they are devoted. This is the Amerindian 
custom, and is also the custom of American students. 

'' In tribal society we find very interesting superstitions ajbout 
names, for the name is held to be an inherent attribute or property of 
the thing; again, the object from which the puberty name of the 
individual is taken becomes his tutelar deity. In like manner the 
totem name of the clan, the gens, and the tribe severally become 
tutelar deities of these bodies. Such are the customs and supersti- 
tions of the Amerinds about name^, and we call this doctrine of naming 

Now at first sight this " doctrine of naming " seems to be lacking 
in scientific precision. Indeed, Major Powell's critics have found 
fault with it upon this very ground. One of them says : " it is diffi- 
cult to see the advantage of a system of nomenclature where everything 
is called by the same name."^ Another says : **I must confess to feeling 
a little bewildered by this terminology and I venture to think it will 
not prove of much service in advancing our knowledge." ^ But this is 
not really the case. To regard it in this light is to fail entirely to 
appreciate the American point of view. 

To rightly comprehend how the word totem may logically and con- 
sistently include so many apparently diverse ideas we must examine into 
the nature of those ideas to see if they are really as diverse as they 
appear to l)e; and are not merely so many different expressions of a 
common underlying concept. 

Upon analysis we find the following elements comprised under 
this " doctrine of naming " : — 

{1. The name acquired by a person during the puberty ceremonials. 
2. The object or thing from which the name is taken. 
3. The symbol or representation of the object. 


The name of a group of people united by ties of consanguinity. 
The object from which that name is taken. 
3. The crest or kindred-symbol or representation of the object. 

' Man., 1902, Article 85. 

* Presidential address of Dr. A. C. Haddon before the Anthrop. Sect, of 
the B.A.A.S., Belfaat, 1902. 


C <2. 

The name of a ** medicine " or ** religious " society. 

The object or thing to which that society is devoted. 

The emblem, symbol or representation of that ol^ject or thing. 

Now a brief examination of these categories shows us that the 
same concept underlies them all. In each we have the same three 
elements: name, object, and symbol. In each the object is the source 
of the name, and in each the object is the same thing, viz., a tutelary 
guardian spirit. It is in thie concept of a ghostly helper or tutelary 
.spirit that we find the oonnecting link. This is the essential element of 
totemism. " This is totemism " in its pure and naked state, i.e., shorn 
of its social accessories. And in applying the same name to all three 
elements we are, as Major Powell has shown, but following the custom 
of liie natives themselves «nd regarding the subject from their point of 
view. In the Algonquian's mind, we may be sure there was no confusion 
in the application of the word totem to these several phenomena, for to 
him they were but different expressions of one and the same thing; nor 
need there be in the mind of the etudent when he has once rightly appre- 
hended the concept which underlies the term. 

In the philosophy of savage man the name of a thing is something 
more than a mere label, or mark of distinction; it is an essential part 
or attribute of the thing itself. It is of prime importance to appre- 
ciate this fact for a right understanding of it makes clear a good many 
strange and obscure customs and superstitions among primitive peo- 
ples. To adopt or receive the name of an animal or plant or other 
object, was in the mind of the savage to be endowed with the essence 
or spirit of that object, to be under its protection, to become one with 
it in a very special and mysterious sense. This becomes clear from a 
study of names and the customs and superstitions connected with 
them. Among these may be instanced the habit of avoiding personal 
names in direct address. Major Powell has recorded an interesting 
example of this. He was at one time travelling in company with a band 
of Kaibab Indianis, the young ohief of whom was known to white men 
by the name Frank. Major Powell sought on several occasions to learn 
his Indian name, but could not succeed. He then endeavoured to notice 
the term by which the chief was addressed by others of the tribe, but 
invariably some kinship term was employed. One day, however, the 
ohief and his wife quarrelled, and in her anger the wife called him 
Chuarumpik (" Yucca-heart ''). Later, Major Powell referred to the 
subject and questioned the chief about it, who explained and apolo- 
gized for the great insult his wife had heaped upon him by thus men- 
tioning his name, but said that she was excused by the great provocation 
he had given her. The "insult" lay in calling nim by his real or 
" mystery " najne. 


Everard F. im Thum gives tixe following account of the name 
syôtem of th© Indians of Guiana, " whioV' «ays Malloiy, " might haye 
been written with equal trutii about some tribee of North America ": — 
"The system under which the Indians have their personal names is 
intricate and difficult to explain. In the first place, a name, which 
may -be called the proper name is always given to a chUd soon after 
birth. It is said to be proper that the peaiman or medi<iine-man, 
should cîhose and give the name. . . . The word selected is generally 
the name of some plant, bird or other natural object. But these 
names seem of little use, in that owners have a very strong objection 
to telling or using them, apparently on the ground that the name is 
part of the man, and that he who knows the name has part of the 
owner of that name in his power.^ ! 

The close relation between the person and his name is again seen 
in the practices of shamans and witches. In their formulas relating 
to love and killing or maiming, the name of the victim or of the per- 
son whose affections it is desired to win, is always specifically mentioned; 
for the Indian believes that injury will result from malicious handling 
of his name as surely as from a wound inflicted on any part of his 
pliysical organism. " This belief," writes Mooney in his article on the 
' Saored formulas of the Cherokees,' ^ " was found among tihe various 
tribes from the Atlantic to the Pacific and has occasioned a number 
of curious regulations in regard to the concealment and change of 
names. Should his prayers have no apparent effect when treating a 
patient for some serious illness the shaman sometimes concludes that 
the name is affected and accordingly goes to water, with appropriate 
ceremonies and christens the patient with a new name. He then begins 
afresh using the new name." 

Teit, writing of the Thompson Indians says: "It is believed that 
all animals have names of their own which may be revealed by the 
guardian spirits. The knowledge of these names gives a person addi- 
tional power over animals. A man who, knowing the name of the 
grisly bear, for instance, addresses him, gains so much more power 
over him that the bear at once becomes gentle and harmless." ' 

In a note upon " The Eeligious Ceremony of the Four Winds or 
Quarters, as observed by the Santee Sioux," Miss Alice Fletcher 
remarks : 

"A name imiplies relationship, and consequently protection; 
favour and influence are claimed from the source of the name whether 

* Tenth Report of Bureau of American Bthnologry. 1888-89, pp. 44-5. 

* Seventh Anmial Report BureaAi of Amer. Eth., p. 343. 

■ The Thompson Indians of B.C. Memoirs of the Amer. Mus. of Na/t. 
Hist.. Vol. n, p. 355. 

Sec II., 1903. 5. 


this be the gene or the vision. A name therefore shows the affiliafcioia 
of the inidividual; it grades him^ so to speak, and he is apt to lean 
upon its implied power The personal name (and also the kin- 
ship term in some cases) among Indians therefore indicates the protect- 
ing presence of a deity, and must, therefore, partake of the ceremonial 
character of the Indian's religion/' 

The practice among some savages of interdianging names is 
founded upon the same or kindred beliefs. We also see another illus- 
tration of the same idea in the care and jealousy with which each 
family or clan guards and retains for its own peculiar use its own list 
of personal names. These names are regarded as peculiarly sacred, 
inasmuch as they are intimately connected with the lives and histories 
of their owners or their ancestors; and for an ouibsider to appropriate 
one of them would be the deadliest oflEence and would result in his 
speedy death. 

It is clear from the foregoing, then, that an object and its name, 
particularly when thjat object is a " mystery " object, was one and the 
same thing in the eyes of the savage and hence his calling them by 
the same name. 

And with regard to the third element of the categories, the symbol 
or representation of the object, it was the same thing. î»Jel8on informs 
us that the Eskimo possess masks representing their totem animals, the 
wearers of which are believed to become actually the beings repre- 
sented, or at least to be endowed with their spiritual essence.' 

Dorsey, writing in his " Study of Siouan Cults," concerning the 
origin of the buffalo and their ^^ mysterious " power says : " Therefore, 
when a man can hardly be wounded by a foe, the people believe that 
the former has seen the buffalo in dreams or visions and on that 
account has received mysterious help from those animals. All such 
men who dream of the buffalo act like them and dance the buffalo dance. 
And the man who acts the buffalo is said to have a real buffalo inside 
him and a chrysalis lies within that part of the body near the shoulder 
blade.'' ^ Similar views are held by the Salish tribes. 

Turner, writing of the religion of the Hudson Bay Eskimo, says: 
" The spirit [i.e., the tutelary guardian] is often in a material form in 
the shape of a doll carried somewhere about the person." * 

Lynd, writing of the Dakotas, says: "Frequently the devout 
Dakota will make images of bark or stone, and after painting them 
in various ways and putting sacred down upon them will fall down and 
worship before them, praying that all danger may be averted from him 

^ Eighteenth Annual Report Bureau of Amer. Eth., pp. 394-5. 

* Eleventh Annual Report Bur. Amer. Eth., 1889-90, p. 477. 

• Ibid,, p. 194. 

[hill-todt] T0TEMI8M : ITS ORIGIN AND^IMPORT 67 

and his. It must not be undersix)ad^ however^ that >the Dakota is an 

idolator. It is not the image that he worships^ but the spiritiial 

essence which is represented by that image, and which is supposed to be 
ever near it J' ^ 

The coast tribes of British Columbia hold similar views; and the 
accounts that have been given of fetishism in different parts of the 
worid everywhere reveal the same belief. The Polynesian taboo beliefs 
with iregard to certain objects being the shrine or haibitation of their 
gods is another illustration of this belief. On the island of Nukunono 
Fakaafo was a stone wrapped about with mattings and held so sacred 
by the natives that only the king durst view it, and even he only once 
a year w£en it assumed a fresh suit of matting. This stone or idol or 
fetish was termed by the natives the Tui Tokelau or Lord of Tokdau 
and was regarded as the personification of the god.* The Ark of the 
Israelites belongs to the same class of beliefs. 

It becomes clear then that in the mind of the savage the name of 
a thing, the symbol or representative of that thing, and the thing itself 
is all one and the same. They are to him only so many différent 
expressions of the same concept. Hence there is no inconsistency in 
his designating them all by a common name. 

To follow the Algonquian custom, then, and call the several ele- 
ments of our categories by one and »the same term is, I submit, neither 
illogical nor inconsistent. But in order that this may become the 
more apparent it may be well to consider here briefly the nature of this 
fundamental concept of primitive man of which totemism, in one form 
or another, is everywhere the outward and visible sign. For, as I 
remarked in my former paper, we can best apprehend the philosophy 
of savage customs and beliefs when we view things from the point of 
view of savage intelligence. 

A particularly suggestive and lujminous exposition of the mental 
attitude of the Zuni toward the universe is given by Cuahing in his 
article on Zuni fetishes in the Second Annual Eeport of the Bureau 
of Amer. Eth. As this report is now out of print, and as the Zuni 
savage does not differ greatly from other savages elsewhere, it will not 
be ouit of place if I cite a few pertinent passages from it. 

" The Zunis," he writes, " suppose the sun, moon and stars, the 
eky, earth, and sea, in all their phenomena and elements; and all inani- 
mate objects, as well as plants, animals, and men, to belong to one 
great system of all-conscious and inter-related life in which the degrees 
of relationship seem to be determined largely, if not wholly by the 
degrees of resemblance. In this system of life the starting point is 

» Minn, Hlot. Soc. OoU.. Vol. II, pt. 2, p. 67. 
• Turner, " 19 years in Polynesia." 


WAH, the moat finished yet th<e lowest organism^ at leasts the lowest 
beoaufie the most dependent and least mysterious. In just so f ar aa 
an organism^ actual or imaginary^ resembles his is it believed to be 
related to him and correspondingly mortal; in just so far as it is mys- 
terious is it considered removed from him^ further advanced, powerful 
and immortal. It thus happens that the animals^ because alike mortal 
and endowed with similar physical functions and organs are conaidereâ 
more nearly related to man than are the gods: more nearly related 
to the gods than is man because more mysterious^ and chairacterized by 
specific instincts and powers which man does not of himself possess. . . . 
In like manner the supernatural beings of man's fancy — the ^ master 
existences' — are supposed to be more nearly related to th'è person- 
alities with which the elements and phenomena of nature are endowed 
than to either animals or man; because like those elements and phe- 
nomena and unlike man and animals they are connected with remote 
tradition and, therefore, are considered immortal." 

To the above should be added the statement that all these beings 
are given by the Zunis the forms either of animals, of monsters com- 
pounded of man and beast, or of man. The animal gods comprise by 
far the larger class. 

Mrs. Erminnie A. Smith, writing in the same Eeport upon the 
''Myths of the Iroquois," remarks: "All the mysterious in nature, 
all that which inspired them with reverence, awe, terror, or gratitude, 
became deities or beings like themselves endowed with supernatural 
attributes, beings whose vengeance must be propitiated, mercy implored, 
or goodness recompensed." Biggs, writing on the Mythology of the 
Dakotas, remarks: "They pray to the sun, earth, moon, lakes, rivers, 
trees, plants, snakes, and all kinds of animals and vegetables — many 
of them say, to everything, for they pray to their guns and arrows — 
to any object artificial as well as natural, for they suppose that every 
object, artificial as well as natural, has a spirit which may hurt or 
help." ^ 

And Turner writes, concerning the beliefs of the Eskimo about 
Hudson's Bay: "All the affairs of life are supposed to be under the 

control of spirits, each of which rules over a certain element 

Each person is supposed to be attended by a special guardian who is 
malignant in character, ever ready to seize upon the least occasion to 
work harm upon the individual whom it accompanies." ^ 

Bearing in mind, then, this attitude of savage man towards nature, 
and his intense belief in the activity and omnipresence of the " ghosts " 
of things, it is not difficult to perceive how the totem concept was 

^ Eleventh Annual Rept. Bur. Amer. Eth., 1889-90, p. 434. 
• Ihid., p. 194. 


evolved. Surrounded as he felt himself with beings and agencies 
disposed rather to harm than to befriend him, and being unable by the 
limitations of his dmtelligence, to discern the true relations between 
causes and effects, he is led irresistibly to attribute all his blessings 
to friendly powers and all his ills to hostile ones. He assumes imme- 
diate causal relations where they do not exist, and not knowing or 
understanding the true causes of things takes for them some object in 
his immediate environment. 

*^ A Kaffir broke a piece off the anchor of a stranded vessel and soon 
lifter died. Ever after the Kaffirs regarded the anchor as something 
mysterious, divine, and did it honour by saluting it as they passed by, 
with a view to propitiate its wrath.'^ ^ 

The Yakuts, Wuttke informs us, first saw a camel duiring an out- 
break of smallpox and in oonsequenjce pronounced the animal to be a 
hostile deity who had brought the disease among th«m.' These are 
typical cases of the way in which the savage reasons. To the Kaffirs 
the anchor was clearly the cause of the man's death; and to the Yakuts 
the camel the cause of the smallpox. There was no dowbt in their 
minds. Did not the facts speak for themselves ? Another savage con- 
nects some obj-ect in his mind with certain good fortune that has 
happened to him, and thereafter that objecft becomes his fetish, his 
tutelary deity to be consnlted or appealed to in all ■emergencies. An 
American savage chose the crucifix and a little image of the virgin 
as his manitus af'ter he had found, as he believed, that they had pro- 
tected him on sundry occasions against the arrows of his enemies.'^ * 

It is then, in these beliefs common to savage man the world over 
that we find the raison d^êire of totemism, and under this term I include 
the kindred phenomena of fetishism; for the explanation of the one 
is the explanation of the other. Between the fetish so-<îalled and the 
totem, on its religious and magical sid-e, that is, in its essential char- 
acter, I can perceive no difference at all. They are equally the out- 
come of the anthropopathic apprehensions of the universe by savage 
man. So also is the Taboo, the religious ban of the Polynesians. 
Among American savages we find all three phases in various stages of 
development. In the list of personal totems of the Thompson Indians 
given by Teit in his Memoir on that tribe, and which I cited in my 
former paper, we find exactly the same objects, and they have the same 
characteristics as those which beoomie the fetish of the African savage. 
Waltz's definition of the fetisih is equally a definition of the personal 

^ Quoted by Schultze In his " Fetishism " from Alberti's, die Kaffern. 
* Wuttke, Gesch. d. H. I. 72, cited by Schults». 

" Charlevoix Journ.:U historique d'un voyage de l'Amérique Septentrionale, 
Paris, 1774, p. 887. 


Sulia of the Salish : A fetish, he says, is an object of religious vener lion 
wherein the material thing and the spirit withdn it are regarded as one, 
the two being inseparable. And for the matter of that so also is that 
given by Dr. Tylor. " Fetishism/^ he writes, is " the doctrine of 
spirits embodied in, or attached to, or conveying influence through cer- 
tain material objects."^ Indeed, if one sought to give a definition of the 
8uUa of the Salish, or the " waqube " of the Omaha and Ponka, it would 
be impossible to find a more exact definition than this of Dr. Tylor. 
The only diflEerence between the African fetish and the Sulia of the 
Salish, perceivable to the observer, is the manner in which they are 
severally acquired. Chance seems to be the chief factor in deteimin- 
ing the acquisition of the African fetish, whereas among the Salish, 
dreeims or visions are the usual source of their Sulia. This is also 
the manner of acquisition in several other North American tribes. 
But if the subject be regarded from a world-wide point of view we shall 
find that the totem or fetish is acquired in a variety of ways and that 
of these accidental coincidence determines a very large proportion. 
Among Noriih American savages the dream or vision is the usual way, 
but not exclusively so. Totems are also frequently acquired by their 
owners by direct and personal contact with the object when out hunting 
or fishing. The origin of many of the clan totems of the North-west 
Coast tribes are accounted for in this way. Some American tribes 
chose their personal totems by a method of divination. The fetish^es 
of the Zunis, which take the place of the Sulia of the Salish, are 
chiefly stone objects, and as the tutelary deities of the Zunis are mostly 
animals, these stone objects are the representations of tliem. The 
most highly-prized of them ^^ are natural concretions in which the evi- 
dent original resemblance to animals has been heightened by artificial 
means." All these fetishes are supposed to be either actual petrifac- 
tion of the animals they represent or were such originally. The Zunis 
say concerning them : " Whomsoever of us may be met with the light 
of such great good fortune may see (discover, find) them and should 
treasure them for the sake of the sacred (magic) power which was given 
in the days of the new. For the spirits of the Wa-ma-à-hâ-i still live, 
and are pleased to receive from us the Sacred Plume (of the heart — 
La-sho-a-ni), and sacred necklace of treasure (thlâ-thle-a) ; hence they 
turn their ears and the ears of their brothers in our direction that they 
may hearken to our prayers (aacred talks) and know our wants." ^ 
They are supposed to have originated in the following manner. In 
"the days of the new" the Sun- Father created from his own being 

^ " Primitive Culture " II, p. 132. 

* Zunl Fetiches. Second Annual Rep. Bur. Amer. Eth., p. 15. 


two children. These, perceiving the weakness of mankind, "the 
finished beings" of the earth, sought to protect them from the 
" animals of prey " and whenever they canne across in their wandering 
over the earth one of these animals, " were he a greajt lion or a mere 
mole," they struck hîm with the lightning of their magic shields and 
instantly he was sihrivelled and burnt to stone. Then they thus ad- 
dressed -them: " That ye may not be evil unto men, but that ye may 
be a great good unto them have we changed you into rock everlastingly. 
By the magic breath of prey, by the heart that shall endure forever 
within you, shall ye be made to serve instead of to devouir mankind."^ 

On the Isthmus of Tehuantepec when a child was about to be 
born the relatives drew on the floor figures of animals, one after another, 
and the one that remained when the infant was born became its totem. 
A somewhat similar custom prevailed, in Samoa. 

The difference, then, between the " totem " here and the " fetish " 
there is clearly seen to lie mainly in the way in which they are severally 
acquired. In character they are everywhere the same. 

It is not needful to dwell longer on this point. Already there is a 
pretty general concurrence of opinion among anthropologists that the 
fetish and the personal totem is one and the same thing; or, at any 
rate, that the two have their origin in the same animistic concept; 
the point in dispute is rather the relation existing between these 
and " clan totemism/' which we must now proceed to consider. 

In this country the majority of students hold the view that the 
" clan '' totem is but a natural development along social lines, of the 
personal totem. And not only the clan totem, but the society or 
fraternal totem as well. They are irresistibly led to this conclusion 
from the data before them. The attitude of the clansmen and of the 
members of a society to their respective totems is everywhere seen to 
be the same as that of the individual to his personal totem and the same 
relation exists between them. 

I pointed out just now in the analyp-îs of the elements which enter 
into American totemism that the three series or categories are intimately 
connected by the common underlying concept of a tutelar spirit or 
ghostly helper, which in the first case is confined to the individual, 
in the second to the clan or gens, and in the third to the society or 
brotherhood. Now, it appearo to me, that if we are able to discover 
a clear instance or two of a personal totem passing by inheritance to 
the family or relatives of its owner, and thus becoming a common, 
family totem, we shall be perfectly justified in assuming that the 
family totem may be enlarged into the clan or gens totem, inasmuch 
* ZunI Fetiches. Second Annual Kept. But. Amer. Bth., pi 14. 


as the clan or gens is but a group of families * connected by ties of 
consanguinity. The main objection brought against this view of the 
matter by Mr. Andrew Lang and others is that the personal totem is 
not transmissible or hereditable. But is not this objection contrary to 
the f actfi of the case ? We have abundant evidence to show that the 
personal totem is transmissible and hereditable. Even among tribes 
like the Thompson, where it was the custom for every one of both 
sexes to acquire a guardian spirit at the period of puberty we find the 
totem is in some instances hereditable. Teit says in his detailed accouait 
of the guardian spirits of the Thompson Indians, that " the toten^ of 
the shamans are sometimes inherited directly from the parents ;^^ and 
among those tribes where individual totemism is not so prevalent» as, 
for instance, among the coast tribes of British Coluambia, the personal 
totem of a chief or other prominent individual, more particularly if 
that totem has been acquired by means other than the usual dream or 
vision, such as a personal encounter with the object in the forest or 
in the mountains, is commonly inherited and owned by his or her 
posterity. It is but a few weeks ago that I made a special enquiry into 
this smbject among some of the Halkomelem tribes of the Lower 
Fraser. "Dr. George,^' a noted shaman of the TciFQe^Bk, related to 
m(! the manner in which his grandfather had acquired their family 
totem, the bear; and made it perfectly clear that the bear had been ever 
Fince the totem of all his granfather's descendants. The important 
totem of the Sqoiàqî which has members in a dozen different tribes of 
the coast and Lower Fraser Salish, is another case in point. It matters 
little to us how the first possessor of the totem acquired it. We may 
utterly disregard the account of its origin as given by the Indians them- 
selves, the main fact for us is, that between a certain object or being 
and a body of people, certain mysterious relations have been estab- 
lished, identical with those existing between the individual and his 
personal totem; and that these people trace their descent from and are 
the lineal descendants of the man or woman who first acquired the 
totem. Here is evidence direct and ample of the hereditability of the 
individual totem and Amerdcan data abound in it. 

Miss A. Fletcher in her close -and detailed study of the Omahas, was 
led to the conviction that the gentile totems of that tribe, and by impli- 
cation those of others of the Siouan stock, were derived from the per- 
sonal totems of leading members of the tribe. She writes: "As 
totems could be obtained but in one way — thro' the rite of vision — the 
totem of the gens must have come into existence in that manner and 
must have represented the manifestations of an ancestor's vision, that 
of a man whose ability and opportunity served to make him the founder 

^ I here of course use the terms " family " in Ita restricted sense as applied 
to the subdivisions of the clan and gens. 


of a family, of a group of kindred who dwelt together, fought together 
and learned the value of united strength/^^ 

Dr. JF. Boas vrss led to the same conclusion with regard to the 
totems among the Kwakiull Indians. He writes: "We have to deal 
here with the elementary idea of the acquisition of a guardian spirit 
which has attained its strongest development in America. Its specific 
character on the North Pacific Coast lies in the fact that the guardiattf 
spirit has become hereditary. This is the case among the northern tribes 
of British Columbia. It is also the case among the Kwafciutl and among 
the CJhinook.^^ 

En€dgn Nibleck arrived at similar conclusions with regard to the 
clan totems of the Haida-Tlingit. He writes: "From their natuire 
totems are in a state of fiux. Clans tend to become phratries, split up 
into suib-phratries, sub-phratries decay and finally disappear. An indi- 
vidual distinguishes himself, becomes wealthy and hence a leading man 
of the village. His totem or indeed, his individual crest or sub-'totem, 
may have been an obscure one. As he rises, its importance in the tribe 
rises with him. Under his successors the totem widens its numbers, 
influence, and finally eclipses other clan totems which eventually melt 
away or are incorporated with it. In thds evolution we see the sub- 
totem grow into the clan totem." ' 

And if I may be permitted to refer to my own work, I may state 
that I was led independently to form the same opinion from my study 
of the Salish tribes before I was even aware that others had come to 
this conclusion. 

This is likewise the view -taken by the officers of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology and, as far as I have been able to learn, that of the 
majority of students on this continent. 

There must be some force, I submit, in the evidence on this head 
whidi thus leads so many students, working independently of each 
other, to the same conduision. 

Some European students have clearly recognized this force. The 
author of " Totemism " in his consideration of Miss Fletcher's paper 
remarks in " Golden Bough," * " It is quite possible that as some good 
authorities incline to believe, the dan-totem has been developed out of 
the individuul totem by inheritantîe." 

Mr. N. W. Thomas is apparently inelined to go even further and 
take the same view as that suggested in my former paper, and more 

* The Import of the Totem. (Salem Press, Mass., 1897). 

■ The 0ocial orgranlzatlons of the Kwafciutl Indlane. Heport U.S. Nat 
Mus., 1895, p. 893. 

■ The Coast IncWaiur of Southern Alaska and Northern B.C., Wasii. 

* Golden Bough ill, ,p. 419. note 6. 


specifically dealt with here, but apparently from independent study of 
the subject, viz. : that *^ the basis of individual totemism seeons to be 
the same as that of f etichism/^ Elsewhere in «the same article he 
writes : " This view [i.e., of ihe indwelling obsessing spirit of the 
totem in its owner] suggests that the interpretation suggested for indi- 
vidual totemism can also be applied to clan totems/^ ^ 

And even Mr. Andrew Lang, writing in his recent paper on " The 
origin of Totem names and beliefs,^' remarks: "Though the attitude of 
a private person to his nagual, or of a magical society to its protective 
animal, may often closely resemble the attitude of the group to its 
hereditary totem, still the origin of this attitude may be different in each 
case." 2 Thus, while admitting the force of the evidence in this con- 
nection, he is led to explain it away or regard it as different, partly be- 
cause he is under the impression that the personal totem is not heredit- 
able, but more particularly because of a singular misconjception he has 
regarding the transmissibility of male property and rights under 
matriarchy. He argues thus: Totemism is a phenomenon peculiarly 
characteristic of tribal society under mother-right, and though it may 
occasionally descend to the later state of father-right, it rightly belongs 
to, and had its origin under, the former. Now, under these conditions 
descent is reckoned in the female line ; how then can a man become the 
founder of a family and transmit his personal totem to his children?*' 
These are not his actual words, but I think he will admit that they state 
his position accurately. Thus, in his criticism of " Miss A. Fletcher's 
theory,*' he writes : " The conclusion of Miss Fletcher's valuable essay 
shows at a glance that her hypothesis contains the same fundamental 
error as that of Dr. Wilken, namely the totem of the kin is derived from 
the manitu or personal friendly object of an individual, a male ancestor. 
This cannot, we repeat, hold good for that early stage of society which 
reckons descent in the female line, and in which ancestors do not found 
houses, clan names or totem-kin." And in writing of the view expressed 
by myself, he says : '' Mr. Hill-Tout has evolved a theory out of the 
customs of the aborigines of British Columbia, among whom ^the clan 
totems are a development of the personal or individual totem or tutelar 
spirit/ The Salish tribes, in fact, seek for ^Sulia, or tutelar spirits,* 
and these %ive rise to the personal totem,* answering to manitu, nyarong, 
nagnal and so forth. ' From the personal and family crest is but a step 
to tlie clan crest.' Unfortunately with descent in the female line, this step 
cannot be taken. Interesting as is Mr. Hill-Tout's account of the Salish 
Indians, we need not dwell longer on an hypothesis which makes village 
communities prior to the evolution of totemism.'' 

* Man, August, 1902, AiPt, 86. 

' Folk Lore. Vol. XIH. No. 4. Dec. 1902. 


I remarked juat now iihat the differenoe between the American 
and European views of the doctrine of totemiam was due partly to 
the attitude of the students. This becomes clear from the above 
citations from Mr. Langes article. He is unable rightly to appreciate 
the evidence brought together by American students in suppori; of 
the views herein set forth, because of certain prepossessions. One 
of these, as I have shown, is his belief that the personal totem 
is not hereditable, and the other is that group totems could nol 
have arisen from the pereonid totem as claimed by Miss Fletcher, 
myself, and other American students, because under mother-right men 
are never founders of families or clans or totems. The evidence which 
I oflEered of the evolution of family or group totems from personal 
totems, gathered with much care and caution by personal investigation 
among the Salish tribes, is summarily dismissed because these tribes are 
no longer under matriarchy. And in like manner Miss Fletcher's con- 
clusions based upon a close and sympathetic study of a Siouan people are 
set aside because the Omahas are under patriarchal rule. Whereas 
American tribal society abounds in data which show that, although group 
totemism did in all probability first appear in the admittedly eariier 
matriarchal state, it may and does arise under any and all conditions of 
savage society. The pari;icular f onn which totemism in any given tribe 
shall take depends entirely upon the social structure of that tribe. 
Under matriarchal conditions the social unit is the clan, and under 
patriarchal rule the gens. These severally occupy the place which is 
taken by the family group in later social organization. The clan and 
the gens totem, then, cleariy answer to the family totem of village 
society; or rather the latter answers to the two others and all arise in 
the same way. But whereas under the clan and gens organization the 
group-totem is necessarily confined to those social units, in village 
society with descent counted on both sides of the house it spreads outside 
of the family into the tribe at large or even beyond it; for here the factor 
of afiinity is operating as well as that of consanguinity. The main 
diflEerence, then, between the group-totem of village society and that of 
the earlier states of clan and gentile organization, lies in the fact that 
the totem-groups of matriarchy and patriarchy are formed, strictly, 
in theory at least> on consanguineous lines, while those of the village 
state include within them those connected by ties of aflBnity as well as 
those of blood."^ 

* We have been accustomed to regard the " village community " as the 
social unit of savages organized on the lines of the Salish peoples. Later 
and closer study of their social organization has led me to reject this view 
and regard the ** family " as the real social unit. This family is composed of 
the elements of the other two more primitive states, the clan and gens, and 


We have then a form of group-totemism for each stage of tribal 
society. Under mother-right with descent exclusively in the female line, 
we have what is commonly termed in this country "clan** totemism. 
Under father-right with descent exclusively in the male line, " gentile '* 
totemism, and in village society, like that obtaining among the Salish 
tribes with descent on either or both sides of the house, we have still 
another form of group totemism, which for lack of a better term I will 
provisionally call "Kin'' totemism. The aqoiaqi totem, already 
alluded to and described by me in my report to the Committee of the 
Ethnological Survey of Canada on the Halkomelem division of the 
Salish, is an illustration of this form. This totem is said to have origin- 
ated in the adventure of some woman with some lake "spirits,'' and by 
her marriage and that of her descendants has spread over all the 
Halkomô'lem tribes, and its members are now numbered by hundreds. 
I can perceive no diflEerence between this sqoiaqi brotherhood or kin- 
group and the clan groups of the northern Indians, except that in the 
latter case the group is theoretically composed of consanguineal relatives 
on one side of the house only, and in the former of the relatives on both 
sides of the house, affinitive ties being counted as well as consanguineous 

But to return to Mr. Lang's primary objection, that the evolution o£ 
the group totem cannot proceed from the personal, individual totem be- 
cause in the more primitive forms of society where totemism originated 
" male ancestors do not found houses or clan names," descent being on 
the female side. As Mr. Lang has laid so much stress upon this argu- 
ment and is able apart from it to appreciate the force of the evidence for 
the American point of view, if it can be clearly shown that his objection 
has no basis in fact, that his conception of the laws of inheritance under 
matriarchy is faulty, consistency must needs make him a convert to the 
American view. The singular error into which Mr. Lang has fallen is 
in overlooking the fact that male property and rights are as hereditable 
under mother-right as under father-right, the only difference being that 
in the latter case the transmission is directly from the father to his off- 
spring, and in the former indirectly from the maternal uncle to his 
sister's children. WTiat is there to prevent a man of ability under 
matriarchy from " founding a family,'' that is acquiring an individual 
totem which by his personal success and prosperity is looked upon as a 
powerful helper and therefore worthy of regard and reverence? Under 
niotluT-right the head of the clan, is invariably a man, the elder male 

includes the relations of both parents usually for six generations. Every 
tribe is composed of a greater or less number of these families, Just as the 
tribes where clan and gentile organization prevails are composed of a greater 
or less number of clans or gentes. 


relative on the maternal side; and the clan name is not so mudh the pro- 
perty of the woman as of her elder brother or her conventional ^^f ather/' 
that is her maternal uncle. The ** fathers ^' of the group, that is the 
maternal uncles, are just as much the heads and "founders of houses'^ 
and clans in the matriarchal state as under the more advanced state of 
patriarchal rule. And that they do found family and group totems the 
evidence from our northern coast tribes makes clear beyond the shadow 
of a doubt. 

The oft-quoted case of the Bear totem among the Taimâbeans is a 
case in point, and this is but one of scores that could be cited. The 
origin of this totem came about in the following manner: "A man was 
out hunting and met a black bear who took him to his home and taught 
him many useful things. After a lengthy stay with the bear the man 
returned home. All the people became afraid of him, he looked and 
acted so like a bear. Some one took him in hand and rubbed him with 
magic herbs and he became a man again. Thereafter whenever he went 
hunting his friend the bear helped him. He built a house and painted 
the bear on the front of it and his sister made a dancing blanket, the 
design of which represented a bear. Thereafter the descendants of his 
sister used the bear for their crest and were known as the Bear claii/'^ 

Who was the " founder of the family," here and the source of the 
clan totem? Clearly and indubitably the man; and so it invariably 
was as the study of the myths accounting for the clan totems plainly 
shows. It matters not, I may point out, that these myths may have 
been created since the formation of the clans to account for their origin, 
the point for us is that the man was regarded by the natives themselves 
as the " founder " of the family and clan. The founders of families 
and totem-crests are as invariably men under matriarchy as under patri- 
archy, the essential difference only between the two states in this regard 
being that under one the descent is through the " conventional father," 
under the other through the "real or ostensible father." Such being 
the case Mr. Lang's chief argument falls to the ground and the position 
taken by American students as to the origin of group-totems is as sound 
as before. * 

Having thus considered the American view of totemism and shown 
that the objections brought against certain features of it by Mr. Lang, 
and those who think with him, are groundless, we may now pass on to a 
consideration of the European view more particularly as set forth in 
recent publications in England. 

Taking these in the order of time we have first to examine the view 
or rather views held by Dr. Frazer, the author of " Totemism." 

* Fifth Report on the Physical characteristics, etc., of the N.W. Tribes of 
Can., B.A.A.S., p. 24. London, 1889. 


Writing in the Fortnightly Review for April and May of 1899, 
under the heading of ^'The oidgin of Totemism,^^ he remarks: "It 
may be well to begin by reminding the reader that a totem is a class of 
natural phenomena or material objects — most commonly a species of 
animals or plants — ^between which and himself the savage believes that 
a certain intimate relatdou exists. The exact nature of the relation is 
not easy to ascertadn; various explanations of it have been suggested, 
but none has yet won general acceptance.^ AVihatever it may be, it 
generally leads the savage to abstain from killing or eating his totem, if 
his totem happens to be a species of animals or plants. Further, the 
gi'oup of persons who are kin to any particular totem by this mysterious 
tie commonly bear the name of the totem, believe themselves to be of 
one blood and strictly refuse to sanction the marriage or cohabitation 
of members of the group with each other. This prohibition to marry 
within the group, is now generally called by the name of Exogamy. 
Thus to^temism has commonly been treated as a primitive system, both 
of religion and of society. As a system of religion, it embraces the 
mystic union of the savages with his totem; as a system of society, it 
comprises the relations in which men and women of the same totem 
stand to each other, and to the members of other totemic groups. 
And corresponding to these two sides of the system are two rough-and- 
ready tests or canons of toteanism; first, the rule that a man may not 
kill or eat his totem animal or plant; and second, the rule that he may 
not marry or cohabit with a woman of the same totem. Whether the 
two sides — the religious and the social — ^have always co-existed or are 
essentially independent, is a question which has been variously 
answered. Some writers — ^for examiple. Sir John Lubbock and Mr. 
Herbert Spencer, have held tJiat totemism began as a system of society 
only, and that the superstitious regard for the totem developed later 
through a simple process of misunderstanding. Others, including J. P. 
McLennan and Bobertson Smith, were of opinion that the religious 
reverence for the totem is original, and must, at least, have preceded 
the introduction of Exogamy." 

Now, on examining this view of totemism, we perceive that it differs 
from that given by Major Powell in several important features. First, 
great stress is laid upon the fact that a totem is always one of a class of 
objects and never an individual object; and herein Dr. Prazer distin- 
guishes between a " fetich " and a ^^ totem.'* That this distinction is 
more fanciful than real we have seen; we may, therefore, set it aside at 
once as not being an essential element of totemism. And secondly 

^ These remarks I need hardly point out after what has been said respect- 
Ing the unity of American opinion on totemism apply only to the European 


that totemiam before dt can be accepted as such, must bear upon it cer- 
tain signs manual, in other words, miiflt exhibit certain features of a 
prohibitory character which are regarded as its '* Tests ^^ or " Canons/' 
These are : 

1. The Canon of Exogamy. 

2. The Canon of TaJboo. 

According to the first, no man shall marry or cohabit with a woanan 
of his own toteim group; and under the second, members of a totem 
shall abstadn from killing or eating the totem object. Up to the pub- 
lication of Messrs. Spencer and Gillen^s important work on " Ths 
Natives of Central Australia"^ these canons were regarded by Dr. 
Frazer as the vital elements of totemism, sine qua non. Since his 
acquaintance, however, with the data therein presented, ho has been 
led to look with different eyes upon these " canons,^' and now appears 
doubtful of their force and validity, and in their place seems desirous 
of establishing a new " test," which may be termed the Canon of 

As we shall presently have to refer to these " doubtful canons '^ in 
cur consideration of Dr. Haddon's views, we need not stop to examine 
their validity here, but pass on to a consideration of the evidence upon 
which this later canon has been established. 

It appears that among the Central Australian tribes they have a 
ceremony which they call Intichiumay the object of which is " to pro- 
vide the community with a supply of food and all other necessaries by 
means of certain magical ceremonies, the performance of which is dis- 
tributed among the various totem groups.^^ From this custom or cere- 
mony Dr. Frazer h€LS been led to infer that the main object of totemism 
among the Central Australian tribes, and, by implication, all other 
totemic peoples, is to ensure the multiplication of the an i m «la or plants 
of the several totem species. For after dwelling upon the Intichiuma 
ceremonies he concludes thus : " Totemism among the Central Austra- 
lian tribes appears, if we may judge by the Intichiuma ceremonies, to 
be an organized system of magic intended to procure for eavage man a 
plentiful supply of all the natural objects whereof he stands in need. . . 
Have we not in these Intichiuma ceremonies the key to the original 
meaning and purpose of totemism among the Central Australian tribes, 
perhaps even of totemism in general.^' 

In suggesting this new view of the matter Dr. Frazer seems to have 
abandoned the position he formerly took with regard to this question. 
In his earlier writings he suggested something quite different from 
this. Then it was the ^'soul^x^' theory as it has been called. This 

^ Macmlllan & Co., London, 1899. 


View wae based on the idea common in Màrchen of an individual hiding 
his soul or spirit in some object or oUier^ and thus forming a 
mysterious and intimate connection betwieen himself and the object. 
'' Here was the link," reasoned Dr. Frazer, *' the relation between the 
individual and his tutelar spirit; here was the personal totem.'* This 
view had lihis much in common with the American view that it supposed 
the group totem to be a development from the personal totem, and here, 
at least. Dr. Frazer was on the right track. For to separate personal 
totesnism from group totemdsm as many European students are doing, 
and regard them as imrelated phenamena savoure it seems to me of any- 
thing but sound science. Dr. Frazer argued, and rightly we hold, that 
" the explanation which holds good of one kind of totem ought equally 
to hold good of the other'*; and hence he drew the deduction that a 
ckn or gens revered its totem and called itself after its name, because 
the members thereof were held to have their individual lives or souls 
boumd up with that of their totem. The dbvious objection, of course, 
to this explanation of totemism is, that this belief is found among 
so few savages who practise totemism. Dr. Frazer himaelf was con- 
scious of this objection but explains it away after this manner. "How 
close " he argues, " must be the concealment, how impenetrable the 
reserve in which he," (the savage) " hides the inner keep and citadel 
of his being. No inducement that can be oflEered is likely to tempt 
him to imperil his soul by revealing its hiding place to a stranger.'* 
The answer to this is, that the close study of the American savage, who 
almost everywhere holds totem notions, by experienced students like 
Gushing, Dorsey, Fletcher, Powell and others, must have revealed some 
signs of its existence if it had formed a part of his philosophy of life 
or lay at the root of totemism. The question has been studied too long 
and too carefully for this belief, if it had ever been entertained, to have 
escaped discovery. For even if it had, conceivably, been everyw^here 
systematically withheld by the natives from every white investigator 
who has ever gone among them, it must have been known to all Indians 
V lio held totemic notions. Yet, no Indian who has been weaned from 
the faith and practices of his fatiiers, or who has thrown off the old 
pagan habits and customs for those of civilized life, has ever told us a 
word about it. We have educated natives among us who are, equally 
with ourselves, keenly interested in the study of the customs and philo- 
sophy of their people, and it is not conceivable that they would know or 
learn nothing of such a belief, if it were the true basis and explanation 
of the totemism of their forefathers. This view, then, must have been 
set aside, even if its author had not discarded it, as he apparently has, 
on the ground that it is lacking in that feature which must necessarily 


characterize any theory that claims to be r^arded as the true explana- 
tion of totem habita and practices, viz., universal application. 

We need not, then, further consider this theory, plausible as it cer- 
tainly is, but return to Dr. Frazer^s later hypothesis based on the Canon 
of Provinder. Let us now see what these Intichiuma ceremonies are 
and in; what respect they differ from analogous ceremonies in this 

According to Dr. Frazer and the authors of " The Native Tribes of 
Central Australia/' they are magic rites which have for their object the 
increase of the totem animal or plant. Each clan is regarded as posses- 
sing direct control over the animal or plant whose name it bears; and 
this control is exercised for the express purpose of increasing the neces-- 
saries of life. Î 

Thus for example, *'when men of the emu totem desire to multiply 
emus they set about it as follows: Several of the men open veins in 
their arms and allow the blood to stream, on the ground till a patch- 
about three yards square is saturated with it. When the blood is dry it 
forms a hard surface, on which the men of the totem paint in white, red, 
yellow and black, a design intended to represent various parts of the 
emu, puch as the fat, of which the natives are very fond, the eggs in 
various stages of development, the intestines and the liver. Further, 
several men of the totem acting the part of ancestors of the emu clan, 
dress themselves up to resemble emus and imitate the movements and 
aimless gazing about of the bird; on their heads are fastened sacred 
i*ticks about four feet long and tipped with emu feathers, to represent 
the long neck and small head of the emu. 

There is no need to cite further examples. The ceremonies of other 
clan-groups are all similar in character though they may differ in detail 
from that described. Now those familiar with the " rituals " of Ameri- 
can tribes will see in these Australian ceremonies practices analogous to 
those found in this country. The elaborate Salmon ceremonies of the 
Pacific Coast tribes, for example, are parallel performances, and like the 
Inticlnumo, are carried out expressly for the purpose of securing a good 
" run " of salmon. The wild rice ceremonies or rituals of the Menomini 
or wild-rice people, the Eskimo deer ceremonies, the maize or corn cere- 
monies, the rain and hunt rituals of the Sia and Zunis, all have the same 
object, the increase of the necessaries of life. That the several totem 
groups should perform the ceremonies connected with their own totem 
object is exactly what we ought to find under the view of totemism here 
taken. We find the same division of ritual and privilege among Ameri- 
can tribes, though not everywhere so strongly developed and systematized 
perhaps as they are reported to be among the Central Australian peoples. 

Sec. XL, 1003. 6. 


There the " division of labour *' seems to have been specialized. This 
Mould appear to be tho only distinction between them and the cere- 
monies or rituals of ;our American "medicin-e*' or " religious *' 
societies. In all other respect they appear to correspond. 

Now, in this country we do not regard the practices of " medicine *' 
or " magic'* societies or totem groups, as the sum total of totemism, but 
only, as T have pointed out, as one feature of it, and that probably the 
latest in evolution ; and the chief objection in my mind against regarding 
the Intichiuma and similar ceremonies as the basis " and original mean- 
ing and purpose of totemism,*' is that this explanation of it does not go 
to the root of the matter, but still leaves us to show how the several clans 
or groups acquired this magic or religious power over the totem object- 
In short, while it gives us a plausible raison d'être for totemism, it fails 
entirely to tell us how it originated, or why it is the totem group is com- 
monly called by the name of the totem-object. 

Moreover, totemism rightly considered is not a set of practices or 
ceremonies, but clearly a belief, which is the efiBdent cause of these 
practices. Hence to attempt to judge totemism by ^^ canons" and 
" tests," is to regard the form or expression of the doctrine rather than 
the infoGTming principle or concept which underlies and prompts it, 
to take the shell for the kernel, and to open the door to endless diflfer- 
ences of opinion. For although the underlying principle of totemism 
is one and the some everywhere, its outward expressions or manifesta- 
tions are as numerous almost as the tribes among whom it is found. 
The only pos^ble way by which we can arrive at harmony of view 
in the matter is in the recognition of the psychic side or aspect of 
totemism a5 its really essential feature. When we have done this then 
we may profitably go on to study and examine the different local ex- 
pressions of tlie doctrine and note the various forms they assume in the 
different stages of social evolution. 

Dr. A. C. Haddon is the next exponent of totemism whose views 
we must consider. In his presidential address before the Anthropo- 
logical section of the B. A. A. S. at the Belfast meeting of last year, he 
r«: marks : '^ Tcteniism as Dr. Frazer and as I understand it in its fully 
developed condition implies the division of a people into several totem 

kins each of which has one, or sometimes more than one, totem. 

The totem i5 usually a species of animal, sometimes a species of plant, 
oecasionally a "natural object or phenomenon very rarely a manufactured 
object. Totemism also involves the rule of exogamy, forbidding mar- 
riage within the kin, and necessitating inter-marriage between the kins. 
It is essentially connected with the matriarchal stage of culture (mother- 
right), though it passes over into the patriarchal stage (father-right). 
The totems are regarded as kinsfolk and protectors and benefactors of 
the kinsmen, who respect them and abstain from killing and eating 


them. There is thus a recognition of mutual rights and obligations be- 
tween the members of the Mn and their totem. The totem is the crest 

or symbol of the kin To put the matter briefly^ totemism consists 

ol the following five elements: — 

1. Social organization with totem kinsmen and totem symbols. 

2. Reciprocal responsibilities between the kin and the totem. 

3. Magical increase or repression of the totem by the kinsmen.* 

4. Social duties of the kinsmen. 

5. Myths of explanation. 

Totemism is only one of several animal cults." 

It is plain that we are here dealing with a view of totemism that has 
little or nothing in common with the American view. The key to Dr. 
I i addon's position lies in the tail cf his definition. "Totemism," he 
affirms *'*is only one of several animal cults," and in accordance with 
this view he separates the various forms or local expressions of the 
totemic concept into distinct cults. He will have it that the personal 
and society totems are not features of *'true " totemism at all. Such 
a position is, of course, incomprehensible to American students, yet this 
is the view he informs us of Tylor, Frazer, Lang, Hartland, Jevpns, 
Durkheim and many other leading anthropologists. 

Now, it will be instructive to see how this view originated. It ap- 
parently arose from a misconception of the real character and purpose of 
totemism as that doctrine is held and understood by primitive man him- 
self. It appears to be founded upon the preconception of the savant 
rather than upon the real beliefs of the savage. Totemism has been 
regarded as a set or code of social rules and regulations rather than as 
the expression of man^s earliest religious feelings and sentiment. It has 
been confused with certain social customs and observances which have in 
part grown out of the totem concept, and in part have arisen quite in- 
dependently of it. This is clear from both Dr. Frazer's and Dr. Had- 
don^s definitions of totemism and from the fact that "element" after 
"element" and "canon" after "canon" has had to be abandoned as frosh 
facts have been gleaned from primitive life, and the student has been led 
to approach the matter from the point of view of the savage. The newer 
data gathered from the Central Australian tribcfs by Messrs. Spencer and 
Gillen are so strongly confirmative of the American point of view that 
Ahey compel the aibandoniment of the mod; important features or 
elements of totemism as it is commonly conceived by English students. 
This will manifest itself as we examine Dr. Haddon^s elements in 
detail which we may now proceed to do. 

First, as to "social organization with totem kinsmen and totem 
symbols." Dr. Haddon must pardon me if I point out that here at the 
* Dr. Frazer'» " Canon " of Provlnder. 


beginning his first element is based on an assumption which a close study 
of the subject makes it difficult to justify. It is assumed as an accepted 
and incontrovertible fact that the social organization of savage peoples 
into clan groups in the matriarchal stage has its foundation in totemism. 
But no proof hae been, or can be, given for this statement and such evi- 
dence as we can gather on the point leads to the opposite conclusion. All 
we certainly know of the earlier stages of human society is that hordes 
cr bands lived together under an organization which we call matriarchy 
or ^'mother-right;" that is kinship was traced through the mother only, 
the most obvious and the most certain form of relationship. Now, it is 
clear that the recognition of uterine ties must bind the mother to her 
offspring and them to her in cloeer bond than any other. Again, uterine 
brothers and sisters are a naturally defensive and co-operative group and 
spontaneously aid each other to avenge insults and redress wrongs. Here 
then, we protebly have the pristine unit of social organization. But 
the mother of this " family " is also uterine sister to other sisters and 
brothers; therefore her "family" is connected by ties of blood to other 
"families." Now, the aggregation of these blood-related "families" con- 
stitutes a wider group, and this is the clan of matriarchy. Clans are 
confessedly blood-related groups, and this bond or union is everywhere 
seen to be based on this kinship of blood. The formation of clans, th3n, 
has nothing to do with totems, and it is not the common totem, which is 
inherited from the founder of the clan, that makes the members of the 
clan kinsmen. Clans, then, are purely social groups held together by the 
common; tie of blood; and may, and most certainly do, exist cs such, 
apart from any totem concept. The totem is obviously a later feature, 
and is in no sense an essential part of the clan structure. So much is 
this seen to be the case that Dr. F. Boas,^ a most cautious and experi- 
enced investigator, has remarked that the earlier social grouping of the 
Kaida and Tlingit appears to have been on lines similar to the com- 
nunal organization of the more southern tribes, as the clans so fre- 
quently bear territorial names instead of totem names. Wemiaminow 
and Krause also noted that certain Tlingit clans were called after the 
localities where their communal houses stood. Indeed, it is a common 
practice with the Haida and Tlingit to call their clans after the names 
of their houses or the places where they are erected. And yet these 
tribes have a strictly matriarchal organization with group totems. It is 
not safe,, then, to affirm that totemism implies the division of a people 
into totem-kms; the kinship is not totemic but always consanguineous. 
Totemism per se has nathing to rio with clan ^tnicture. 

Another feature of element No. I is the rule of exogamy. "Totem- 
ism," says Dr. Haddon, " involves the rule of exogamy, forbidding mar- 
* See Fifth Report on N.W. Tribes of Canada, B.A.A.S., 1889. 


riage within the kin and necessitating inter-marriage between the kins.'* 
But is this really a feature of totemism ? It is true it has become in a 
measure associated with totemism, but is not this accidental ? Is it not 
because the endogamous or incest group is the same thing as the clan 
group? We have seen that the formation of the clan group was inde- 
pendent of totemism, and are we not thereby justified in inferring that 
the endogamous group, which is the same body, was equally independent 
of totemic concepts? Such evidence as we may gather on the point cer- 
tainly supports this view. Marriages among the tribes of America are 
universally regulated by customary law which appears to have had its 
origin quite apart from totemism. It appea:^ to be based on political con- 
siderations rather than upon any other. Marriage ties were bonds em- 
ployed to unite different clans into larger bodies such as the tribe. These 
bi'dics were primarily political corporations, their union having for its 
object a permanent alliance for offensive and defensive purposes. *'Make 
ye marriages with us: give your daughters unto us and take our 
daugliters unto you,^' said Hamor of old to Jacob, and we can wdl be- 
lieve that many Hamors before and since have uttered the same words. 
Agreements or treaties of this kind enforced for a generation or two 
crystalize into customary law which later may be thought to have received 
the sanction of the clan or tribal deities and so to have become sacred. 
But is this totemism? I cannot think so. If the canon of exogamy 
were of totemic origin, surely we ought to find a uniformity of practice 
and observance. But this is by no means the caee. American tribal 
society presents us with totem groups living under endogamous regula- 
tion and marrying strictly within the family or totem group. And the 
same thing is found in Australia. 

Messrs. Spencer and Gillen have shown that among some of the 
Central Australian tribes, totemism has no effect upon marriage or 
descent, a man being free to marry a woman of his own totem or any 
other as he desires or thinks fit, and his offspring may belong to either 
his own or his wife^s clan, or they may belong to neither, or part in one 
and part in another as fancy and circumstances shall dictate, and the 
traditions of these tribes *'seem to point back to a time when a man 
always married a woman of his own totem. The reference to men and 
women of one totem always living together in groups would appear to be 
too frequent and explicit to admit of any other satisfactory explanation. 
We n^ver meet with an instance of a man living with a woman who was 
not of his own totem."^ " Such traditions,^' remarks Dr. Frazcr in his 
conjiideration of Messrs. Spencer and G-ilten's work, "it is plain, fly 
straight in the face of all our old notions of totemism. Are we, there- 
fore, at liberty to reject them as baseless? Certainly not. Their very 
^ The Native Tribes of Central Awtralia, p. 419. 


discordance with the practice of the natives at the present day is the best 
guarantee that they contain a substantial element of truth. They 
could not have been invented to explain customs which they contradict. 
Every theory of Central Australian totennism [and I nmy add of any 
other totemism] must reckon with them; none can be satisfactory which 
does not show how the gulf between the present and past totemic system 
of the natives may be bridged/' ^ 

In this view of the matter I entirely concur with Dr. Prazer, and 
would here desire to point out to him that the American view of 
totemism offers the most satisfactory of bridges and reconciles without 
violence of «my kind, in the simplest and most eflfective manner this 
seemingly discordant feature of " Australian totemism.'' 

Dr. Haddon has of course confiidered these disturbing data from* 
Central Australia too; indeed, he has himself called attention to similar 
discordant practices among the Papuans and other Pacific Islanders. 
He remarks in this connection: — "Among some Papuans marriage 
restrictions are territorial and not totemic. Dr. Eivera has shown that 
in Murray Island, eastern tribe of Torres Straits, marriages are regu- 
lated by the places to which the natives belong. A man cannot marry 
a woman of his own village, or of certain other villages. ... A 
ffimilar custom occurs in the Mekeo district of British New Guinea, and 
it is probably still more widely distributed. I was informed by a mem- 
ber of the Yaraikanua tribe of Cape York, North Queensland, that 
children must take the 'land' or ' country' of their mother; all who 
belong to the same place are brothers and sisters, a wife must be taken 
from another ^ country'; thus it appears their marriage restrictions are 
territorial and not totemic. The same is found amongst the Kumai 
and the Coast Murriug tribe of New South Wales. . At Kiwai, in 
the delta of the Fly River, B.N.G., all the members of a totemic group 
live together in a long house which is confined to that group. I have 
also collected evidence which proves there was a territorial grouping 
of totemic clans among the western tribe of Torres Straits." 

But these practices, so discordant wibli the " Rule of Exogamy," do 
not affect Dr. Haddon in the same manner as they do Dr. Frazer. He 
si ill holds to his five " elements," and explains these breaches of his 
rule by regarding them as some of the steps by which the savage passes 
out of totemism.^ In offering this suggestion Dr. Haddon seems to 
have overlooked the evidence of those traditions of the Arunta, gath- 
ered by Messrs. Spencer and Gillen, which shows that in the early days of 
ihe tribe "a man always married a woman of his o\vn totem"; for it 

' Fortnightly Review, 1899, p. 656. 

* Goe Ihls remarks on this head in his Address, page 14. Transactions of 
Section H., Brit. Afisoc, Belfast, 1902. 


does not appear to me to be sueceptihle of such an explanation as he 
bas oflfered. 

EegBxddng, then, the evidence on this head from America, from 
Australia and from Torres Straits, British Guinea and the other Paci- 
fic centres, oflfered by Dr. Haddon himself, it seems to me impossiUe 
to maiutain that exogamy is a canon, rule, or essential element of 
totemism. The most that can be said for it is, that it is a fairly com- 
mon concomitant of it, and that it appears to have received the sanc^ 
tion of the totemic deity. But this we can satisfactorily account for 
without regarding it as an essential part of totemism. 

The common European view of exogamy seems to be the outcome 
of the theory of endogamy and exogamy first prof ounded by McLennan, 
tor following him others of the earlier writers on marriage customs in 
tribal society, "culled from the literature of travels a vast body of 
stories about taboos in marriage; and it was finally concluded that cer- 
tain tribes required their tribesmen to marry women who were foreigners 
and aliens. This was called exogamy. Then it was held that other 
tribes required or permitted their tribesmen to take wives within the 
tribe; and this was called endogamy. So an attempt was made to clas- 
sify the tribes of mankind, not only in America but elsewhere, into 
two groups, the exogamous and the endogamous. 

Now we understand that in all tribal society there is an endo- 
gamous, or incest, group, which we call the clan in savagery and the 
gens in barbarism; while, at the same time, the clansmen usually marry 
within the tribe by regulations which vary greatly from people to people. 
It seems that the ties of marriage are used to bind diflEerent peoples 
together in one larger group which we call the tribe, and that the clans 
of a tribe may at one time have been distinct tribes; that when tribes 
become weak or desire to farm permanent alliances with other tribes for 
ofl'ensive and defensive purposes, such tribes agree to become clans of 
a united body and by treaty confirm the bargain, by pledging not to 
msLvry within their own groups, but to exchange women with one 
another. . . . Such a bargain or treaty enforced for many generations 
as customary law, ultimately becomes sacred and marriage within the 
group is incest. Perhaps there is no people, tribal or national, which 
has not an incest group; so all peoples are endogamous as all peoples 
are necessarily exogamous.^'^ 

Such were the views held and expressed by Major Powell regarding 
the origin of endogamous and exogamous regulations, and in default of 
a better may well be accepted as the explanation most in harmony with 
the faicts of the case. 

* Sociology, or the Science of Institutions, W. J. Powell. Amer. Anthrop., 
pp. 703-4, N.S., I, 1899. 


Second. "Reciprocal responsibilities between the kin and the 
totem " — in other words " the totems are regarded as kinsfolk and pro- 
tectors, or benefactors of the kinsmen who respect them and abstain 
from killing and eating them." Here, Dr. Haddon is in some respects 
on safer ground. The totems are naturally, for obvious reasons^ treated 
with respect and regarded as the " protectors " or " benefactors " of the 
individual and the totem group. But when he claims that they are com- 
monly regarded as kinsfolk, using tliat term in its ordinary sense, and 
that the kinsmen refrain from killing and e;iting them, we have again 
what appears more like an over-Jhasty generalization of the savant rather 
than the actual belief and practices of the savage, and Dr. Haddon will 
find it extremely difficult to maintain this view in face of the array of 
opposing evidence which later ethnological research furnishes on this 
head. This is so strong, that from a consideration of a portion of it 
from one source alone — the Central Australian — Dr. Frazer has been 
led to set aside his Canon of Taboo and regard this rule of abstention as 
having no important bearing upon totemism, or at most to be only a 
later subsidiary feature of it. The traditions of the Arunta represent 
their ancestors as possessing and freely exercising the right to kill and 
eat their totem animals and plants, " as if this were indeed a functional 
necessity."^ And American data fully bear out the trutih and reliability 
of these traditions. Yet, Dr. Haddon makes no reference to these diis- 
corda-nces with his " elements '^ in his address, nor does his theory of 
totemism attempt to explain them, which, as Dr. Frazer has observed, 
every theory of totemism is bound to do. 

The study of this question of taboo from the point of view of 
American evidence, has led me to the conclusion that the practice of 
abstaining from killing and eating the totem object, when an edible 
one, arises in part only from the supposed relation existing betw^oon the 
totem and the possessor or possessors of it. It is seen to be mainly the 
outcome of the animistic philosophy of savage man and his belief regard- 
ing the animal and vegetal world. Among all American tribes, no 
matter what their social structure may })e — clan, gens, or village com- 
munity, we find numerous and curious rules and regulations and taboos 
regarding the slaying, gathering and eating of animals and plants, which 
are quite independent of totemism, the explanation of which becomes 
measurably clear to us, when we bear in mind the universal attitude of 
savage man towards the universe, as we have seen it revealed to us by 
Gushing and other sympathetic students of primitive life. 

The origin of these food taboos and restrictions arises primarily 
from the savage's strong belief in the " mysterious " powers of animals 
and plants; and the practice of them was originally, whatever it may 
* The Natives Tribes of Central Australia, p. 209. 

[hill-tout] T0TEMI8M : ITS ORIGIN AND IMPORT 89 

have been later, intended to propitiate them. This is clear frorai the 
f>tudy of the subject Among the Thompson Indians of British Colum- 
bia, at tribe where group-totemiam of any kind seems to be wholly 
unknown, we find numerous taboos relating to the killing and eating of 
animals and plants which differ in no essential from the so-called 
taboos of totemism. For example, when a lad killed his first deer 
he never ate it himself but always gave dt to the people to eat. When 
a hunter killed a deer it was said the rest of the deer would be 
well pleased if the hunter butchered the animal nicely and cleanly. 
To waste the meat of a deer displeased the animals who wouild not 
in consequence allow themselves thereafter to be «hot by the hunter. 
If a hunter was overburdened and had to leave behind some of th-e 
meat of the dieer, it was said that the deer were better pleased to 
have the meat of their fellow hung up in a tree rather than left on 
the ground. The intestines of the quarry which in some cases were 
not taken away by the hunter were collected and placed where the 
blood had been spilt while butchering. The whole was then coveoped 
with a few fir boughs, the hunter in t^e meantime bidding the deer 
not to be sorry at the death of their companion or because some* 
portion of its body had been left behind, since he had done his beert 
to cover dt up. If the hunter neglected to cover the remains it was 
believ-ed that the rest of the deer would feel sorry or angry and 
would cause him bad luck in hunting. If a deer-hunting party 
had bad luick they remained at Hiheir camp for a few days, 
sweat-bathing, singing and praying to their guardian spirit to give 
them success and also asking the deer to present themselves to be shot 
at. No hunter would give a deer's head to, nor would he eat with, a 
man who was the first or second born of a family. The deer, it was 
believed, would become very wild and difficult to shoot, if he did so. 
Deer meat was never taken in through the common door or entrance of a 
lodge because the common door was used by women. When the father of 
an adolescent girl began to hunt the deer always ran away from him. A 
bear hunter often addressed the prey and begged it to come and be shot at. 
The grizzly bear was asked not to be angry with the hunter nor to fight 
him, but rather to take pity upon him and deliver himself up to him. 
When a man killed a bear he and his companions with him painted 
their faces and sang the bear song. Sometimes he prayed also thank- 
ing the bear for letting himself be killed. When the flesh of the bear's 
head had been eaten the skull was tied to a small tree top and left 
there. If this were neglected the bears would take offence. Placing 
the heads of any large animal on trees or rocks was a mark of respect. 
A hunter never talked lightly or made fun of any animal he intended 
tc hunt or trap. He always spoke of it in respectful tones and said. 


*' 1 may kill it,** never, " I shall kill it/* All young people when eat- 
ing the first berries, roots or other products of the earth addressed a 
prayer to the Sunflower-Root, thus: — "I inform thee that I intend 
to eat thee. Mayest thou always help me to ojscend, so that I may 
always be able to reach the tops of mountains and may 1 never be 
dumsyl I ask this from thee, Sunflowier-Eoot. Thou art the 
greatest of all in mystery.*'^ These examples might be supplemented 
by scores of others from other American tribes. The taboos and restric- 
tion in food imposed upon menstruating women, upon widows, widow- 
ers and orphans, all belong to the same class and have a similar sig- 
nificance. The First Fruits ceremonies of the Fraser River tribes, the 
many customs connected with the salmon all show the same beliefs in 
the mysterious powers of animals and plants; and the various restric- 
tions or taboos all have the same object — the propitiation of the spirits 
or ghosts of the «mimais or plants. 

It is not in totemism qua totemism, then, that we should look for 
the explanation of taboos of this kind, but in the savage's general ani- 
mistic conceptions of nature. Theyi are the natural outgrowth of his 
• anthropopathic apprehension of things, and are only incidentally con- 
nected with totemism. 

With regard to the claims of kinship between the totem and the 
totem-group. Dr. Haddon seems to overlook entirely the large body of 
contrary evidence on this head gathered by Dr. Boas from the North- 
west tribes and by otlier students elsewhere. I do not see how any one 
familiar with the later American evidence in this connection can hold 
that the totem object is co-mmonly regarded by the totem-group as the 
ancestor and founder of their clan. I know this was the earlier view 
even of American students, but this has been generally modified by later 
and wider research. It is true the totems are usually addressed by the 
natives themselves as "grandfather" or " ^andmother,** but these 
terms, as most students are aware, among primitive races are more 
terms of respect than terms of relationship. When an Indian wishes to 
show regard to a person or an animal he always addresses him by a title 
indicative of superior age, such as elder brother, uncle, father, grand- 
father or the like. This custom I suspect, before it was properly under- 
stood, had a great deal to do with misleading unwary students, and 
possibly even the savages themselves, at times, into thinking that the 
tc>tem object was the ancestor and founder of the clan or gens. The 
true relation between the totem object and the totem-group will be 
invariably found to be the same as that existing between the individual 
and his personal totem — a relation of " mystery " not of blood. I 

* The Thomrson Indiana of B.C., by J. Talt. Memoirs of the Amer. Mus. 
of Nat. Hist.. Vol. II, p. 346, et seq. 


have already shown that the taking or assuming the name of a totem «or 
tutelary spirit implies relationship with it, but not that of ancestor and 

Third. Magical increase or repression of the token by the kins- 
men. This ifi an element added to totemism since the publication of 
Messrs. Spencer and Gillen's researches among the Central Tribes of 
Australia. It has reference to the Intichiuma ceremonies, the same 
that led Dr. Frazer to discard his " canons " of exogamy and taboo. 
We have seen that these ceremonies are peculiar to "religious" or 
" medicine " societies in America and constitute but a single aspect of 
totemism. They are not a feature of clan or gentile totemism at all 
from the American point of view, but like the taboos and restrictions 
we have just considered ai^ the natural outcome of savage philosophy. 
Major Powell has given a very lucid description of them in his paper 
on Sociology, which as it bears directly upon Dr. Haddon^s third " ele- 
ment'' I shall take the liberty of citing in part here. He remarks: — 
In savagery there are societies which are organized for the purpose of 
securing the co-operation of ghosts in the affairs of mankind. These 
societies are often called phratries or brotherhoods, and are the cus- 
todians of the lore of unseen beings. They occupy themselves with 
ceremonies and various practices intended to secure advantages and 
to avert evils which are attributed to multitudinous ghostly beings 
which are supposed to have tenuous bodi^ and, to live an occult and 
magical life as they take part in human affairs. Everything unex- 
plained is attributed to ghosts These phratries, which are orga- 
nized to obtain the «assistance of ghosts, develop periodical ceremonies 
which are designed to secure the annual productions of nature upon 
which human welfare depends. Thus the fishing tribes of the Paci- 
fic Coast that depend largely for their food on the coming of the salmon 
from the sea at stated times, have ceremonies designed to secure their 
coming; those that depend upon cereals, like wild rice, also have their 
ceremonies to invoke the aid of ghosts to bring abundant seed. In arid 
lands, where vegetation is so dependent upon rain, these ceremonies 
take the form of invocations for rain. Thus in every region of the 
United States periodical ceremonies are performed to secure harvests 
and supplies of game.* 

It will be seen from these citations that these ceremonies are no 
part of c'an totemism a î oni^ Amorican savages; and with all diiu respect 
to Australian students it is open to question whether the Intichiuma 
ceremonies are not best explained, ae Major Powell held, by regarding 
them as observances of ^^ religious," " medicine " or " magical '' 

* Sociology, or the Science of Institutions. Amer. An th., N.S.. I. 1899. pp. 


societies or brotherhoods rather than as observances, or ceremonies 
performed by the whole clans. 

Fourth. Social duties of the kinsmen, that is to say the kinsman 
looks to his brother kinsmen for sjrmpathy and assistance in trouble or 
need. Here again I am constrained to ask : " Is this totemism Î" As 
I have shown, the dan is a blood^oonneoted. group, and its members 
naturally and spontaneously aid and help one another. Tieir very con- 
nection prompts and suggests this. It is a world-wide universal 
practice, and I cannot see that totemism has anything to do with it. 
We find exactly the same custom prevailing among the " families '* of 
the Salish and other tribes whose organization is neither clannish, 
gentile nor totemic. Surely this " element " has the least right of any 
to be considered an essential feature of totemism. 

Fifth. Myths of explanation. Here again I fail to see why this 
should bei regarded as an "eleiment" of totemism, when» that which is 
much more characteristic of that doctrine — ^personal and society totems 
— are rigidly excluded in Dr. Haddon's definition. It is true most 
peoples have myths explaining or accounting for the origin of their 
totems, but I marvel that Dr. Haddon should daim these among his 
elements as they so invariably show that the group or dan totem was 
originally a personal or individual totem of the founder of the dan, a 
form or feature of totemism he ddiberately rejects. Moreover, myths of 
explanation are not peculiar to totemism, they run through the whde 
body of tribal habits, customs and beliefs, and the myths explaining the 
origin of totems differ in no essential from the myths explaining 
the origin of the tribe or cosmos. 

Thus, it is clear, there is little of totemism, when it is rightly re- 
garded, in Dr. Iladdon's five " elements "; from which it is seen that he 
has considered the social accessories and later accidents of totemism 
rather than the psychic content of the doctrine itself. That he, and those 
who hold like views with him, are justified in their position by the facts 
of the case, I cannot persuade myself, nor do I see that we arrive at any 
better understanding of the matter by setting up a form of so-called 
^^ true" or " typical " totemism, — which appears to me to be fashioned 
more after the preconceived ideas of a cultivated European than after 
the ideas of an American or Australian savage, — than by seeking to 
comprehend the principle or concept that lies at the base of the doctrine. 
To my mind, the apprehension of the effident cause of totemism leads 
to a better understanding of the doctrine in all its manifestations than 
any vision of totemism in its "fully developed condition," and I sub- 
mit that we may derive more profit from our consideration of the sub- 
ject when all "animal cults" are considered as only so many local phases 
or expressions of one and the same fundamental concept, as they de- 


monstrably are^ rather than as different and distinct cults, as Dr. 
II addon would have us regard them. To separate individual totemism 
from group or "typical" totemism seems to me to cut ourselves off 
from the very heart and root of the matter, from the only evidence that 
can possibly help us to understand the purpose and meaning of totemism. 
It is like asking the student of chemistry to be satisfied with his com- 
pounds and not seek to discover the elements that lie at their base. 

As Dr. Iladdon has informed us in his address that his view of 
totemism is that '^ understood by Tylor, Frazer, Lang, Hartland, Jevons, 
Durkheim and others," it becomes unnecessary to criticize the views 
of these gentlemen. We may at once pass on to examine the " sugges- 
tion concerning the origin of totemism " put forward by Dr. Haddon in 
the latter part of his address, and also the "guess" of Mr. Andrew 
lisng concerning "the origin of totem names and beliefs." ^ This 
*•' suggestion " of Dr. Haddon does not so much deal with the origin 
of totemism as I and other American students understand that doctrine, 
as with the origin of totem-group names. Thus, he remarks: "I take 
this opportunity to hazard a suggestion for a possible origin of one 
aspect of totemism. Primitive human groups, judging from analogy 
could never have been large, and the individuals comprising each group 
must have been closeiy related. In favourable areas each group would 
have a tendency to occupy a restricted range owing to the disagreeable 
results which arose from encroaching on the territory over which 
another group wandered. Thus it would inevitably come about that 
a certain animal or plant, or group of animals or plants would be more 
abundant in the territory of one group than in that of another. To 
take a clear example, the shore-foik and the river-folk would live mainly 
on different food from each other, and both would have other specialties 
than fell to the lot of the jungle-folk. The groups that lived on the 
seashore would doubtless have some natural vegetaiMe product to supple- 
ment their animal diet, but the supply would probably be limited alike 
in quantity and variety. Even they would scarcely have unlimited 
range of a shore line and there would be one group of shore-folk that 
had a specialty in crabe, another would have shad-beds, while a ttiird 
woidd own sandy shores which were frequented by turtles. A similar 
natural grouping would occur among the jungle-tolk: sago flourishes 
in swampy land, certain animals frequent grassy plains, others inhabit 
the dense scrub, bamboos grow in one locality, various kinds of fruit 
trees thrive best in different soils; the coastel plains, the foot hills, the 
mountains, each has its characteristic flora and fauna. There is thus 
no difficulty in accounting for numerous amall human groups, each of 
which would be largely dependent upon a distinctive food supply, the 

* Folk-Lore, Vol. Xni. No. 4. December 26tli. 1902. 


superfluity of wMch could be bartered for the superfluities of other 
groups .... Among the shore-folk the group that lived mainly 
on crabe and occasionally traded in crabs might well be spoken of as 
" crab men " by all groups with whom they came in direct or indirect 
contact. The same would hold good for the group that dealt in clams 
or in turtles, and reciprocally there might be aago-men, bamboo-men, 
and so forth. It is obvious that men who persistently collected or 
hunted a particular group of animals would understand the habits of 
these animals better than other people, and a personal regard for these 
animals would naturally arise. Thus, from the very beginning, there 
would be a distinct relationship between a group of individuals and a 
group of animals or plants, relationship that primitively was based, not 
on even the most elementary of psychic concepts, but on the most deeply 
seated and urgent of human daims, hunger.^^ 

The point that strikes one first in this suggestion is that it knocks 
all to pieces the " Canon of Taboo," which is included in Dr. Haddon's 
second ^^ element.'* Dr. Haddon is, of course, aware of this and explains 
it away by remarking that his suggestion " deals with incipient totem- 
ism " only. This again is, of course, an inconaprehensible position from 
the American point of view, but it serves admirably to show that English 
students regard the social concomitants of totemism as its essential 
features — a view, as I have shown, impossible to hold if we would rightly 
imderstand this phenomenon of savage life. 

Now the objections that arise in my mind as I consider this hy- 
pothesis are several and some of them deep-rooted. 

First, these names come from without; they are not taken or as- 
sumed by the groups themselves, but are applied to them by the neigh- 
bouring groups. And while we have numerous instances of nick-names 
being given both to individuals and tribes by their neighbours, I can 
recall no instance where these names have been recognized and adopted 
by the individuals or groups thus named. Endless tribes and division 
of this country have had names descriptive of their habitat, the food upon 
which they chiefly live, their mental or physical characteristics, etc., 
bestowed upon them; but in no case that I can discover have those 
names been recognized or adopted by the people themselves; and to 
apply these names to them to their faces is to deeply insult them and 
wound their self-respect. 

Secondly. If this were the true origin of group names we ought to 
find ample evidence of it in the names themselves. Now, a study of clan 
names as they obtain in America gives little support to Dr. Haddon's 
theory. For while they are generally called after the names of the ob- 
jects of the present environment of the clan or group or tribe, (and this 
is a highly significant fact which has been too much overlooked in our 

[hill-todt] TOTEMISM: its origin and import 98 

considérations of the subject), these objects are by no means commonly, 
such as are suitable for food, and Dr. Haddon's explanation of these 
does not appear satisfactory to me. 

Thirdly. As I have just pointed out, the names of totem groups 
are invariably found to be the names of the objects that are natural to 
the locality where the clan groups reside. Now we know from historical 
data, to say nothing of the tradition of the natives themselves, that a 
very general displacement of tribes has taken place all over the American 
continent, and this within comparatively recent times ; yet in every case, 
I believe I am right in saying, the totem names of both individuals and 
groups are names of objects characteristic of their present environment, 
many of which in numerous instances must have been quite unknown in 
the earlier habitat. What, then, is the legitimate conclusion deducible 
from these facts? Is it not that the names of some clan groups, at least, 
are comparatively modem and date at earliest from the first presence of 
the clan in its present territories ? This does not agree with Dr. Had- 
don's hypothesis which expressly supposes the totem names to have arisen 
in the earlier days of man's history, when he dwelt in small, more or 
less, isolated groups in restricted areas. But it appears to me to support 
strongly the view I have advocated, that totem groups and new clans 
may arise at any time in the history of tribal society, and that the per- 
sonal totem gives rise to the group totem. Tribes as a general rule in- 
crease in number, witih the lapse of time and new clans spring into exis- 
tence, after the manner of the Bear clan of the Tsimshian. How else are 
we to account for the presence of totem-group names which have clearly 
arisen since the settlement of the tribe in its present quarters, as they 
ore called by the names of objects known and common to their present, 
but not to their former place of residence. But these objections, strong 
as they are, I regard as comparatively minor. My chief and invincible 
objection lies in the total disregard of this hypothesis for the psychic 
factors of totemism, which my study of the question has compelled me 
to look upon as all-important and essential to the doctrine. I fail 
entirely to see how the evidence brought together by American and other 
students regarding savage man's mental attitude towards the universe 
can be set aside or neglected in any discufision of totemism. Life and 
nature are full of mystery to the savage from his birth to his death, 
but Dr. Haddon's theory wholly overlooks and ignores this and bases the 
origin of a doctrine which is confessedly full of "mystery'* upon the 
commonplace, unmysterious feeling of hunger. Again, I muet be par- 
doned if my personal knowledge of the workings of the primitive mind 
prompts me to say this ifl more the view of a cultivated European than 
that of a superstitious savage. It is altogether too matter-of-fact for 
the mind of primitive man, who sees in the commonest and simplest 


object before and about him an incomprehensible and awe-ooonpelling 
mystery. Toiemiam was bom. and cradled in the savage^s erver-preBent 
sense of m^-stery, whatxîver it may have since become, and any ihypo- 
thcBis which ignores this feature of savage life muflt necessarily fail 
in its purpose. In this all students of primitive philosophy will as- 
suredly agree. 

The objections I have urged against Dr. Haddon's " suggestion/' 
apply with equal or greater force to the " guess '^ of Mr. Lang, the 
jnain feature of which is, that the names are always given "/rom 
without/' Mr. Lang's line of argument is as follows : — " At first the 
human groups were ^ anonymous,^ that is bore no special designa- 
tions. Every group would speak of itself as ' the men,' while it would 
know neighbouring groups as Hhe others.' But this arrangement 
lacks distinctness. EacK group would need a special name for each 
of the neighbouring tribes." Mr. Lang does not mind how the name 
arifiee. It may be given in derision, or it may be based on some 
fancied or real group-traits of character, good or bad, or applied from 
any cause whatever, provided only that it come " from without/' This 
is the vital point of his theory. The main support Mr. Lang offers 
for this view, is gathered from the practices of modem English and 
continental villagers. T have to admit that he gives us much interest- 
ing information regarding the names of derision applied by the people 
of one village to those of another, but he fails entirely, as far as T 
have been able to see, to show us that these villagers called themselves 
by these terms, or recognized or admitted them in any way. I was my- 
self bom and bred in the west country and my recollection of these nick- 
names is that the boys of one village would fight with the boys of an- 
other just because they cast these names in each other's teeth. Mr. 
Lang gives us a lengthy list of these village names, of which the fol- 
lowing are examples: — 













St. Aldate'g 





Mules (formerly " rats ") 



But will Mr. Lang assure us that these villagers called themselves 
by these names, or adnuitted them as applicable to them for a moment? 
I think he will find that they are invariably indignantly repudiated by 
one and all. Mr. Lang cites the term " Eskimo " as another example. 


and remarks that this name wa6 applied to the Arctic races in America 
by the neighbourLng Indians; but Mr. Lang should Burely be aware 
that no Eslcimo native ever calls himself, or rather speaks of himself 
by this term, but always by hi*^ own name of Inuit or its equivalent. I 
could cite scores of cases of names applied by one Indian tribe to an- 
other, but I know of no single insitance where those tribes have ever 
adopted and assumed them, and the only evidence Mr. Lang hime^ 
offers that any of those sobriquets '^ stick '^ and become recognized and 
adopted by the people to wihiom they are ajpplied, is that drawn from 
the practice of schoolboys of the present day. He remarks: "Bach 
group would, I suggest, evolve animal and vegetable nicknames for 
each neighbouring group. Finally some names would ' stick,' would 
be stereotyped, and each group would answer to its nickname just as 
Pussy Monjcrief, or Bull-dog Irving or Piggy Praser or Cow Maitland 
does at «ihool." ' But even accepting this kind of evidence seriously, 
Mr. Lang forgets that the cases are not parallel. The schoolboy 
cannot help himself; when his seniors or his physical superiors addrefes 
him by his nickname, he has to answer to it or be kicked; but does the 
youth pride himself on his nickname and deeire that he shall be known 
in the family circle by it, and thereafter retain it ? Mr. Lang will 
jpardon me if I say that to my mind his hypothesis is truly a " guess " 
and nothing more- I am bound to remind him, too, that he found 
fault with the evidence Miss Fletcher, I, and other American students 
offered for the origin of group-totems taken from savage tribes im- 
measurably nearer to the primitive condition of mankind than his 
European villagers and Scotch schoolboys, and rejected it on the 
ground that these tribes had passed beyond the matriarchal state. 
What shall be said then for his main evidence, which is* drawn from 
modem English and Frendh villages and from schoolboys life ? Mr. 
Lang may .daim that he has offered evidence from American tribes 
under patriarchy, from the same stock, indeed', froon which Miss Flet- 
cher drew her evidence. But even granting the validity of this* evi- 
dence, or rather Mr. Lang's interpretation of it, which I am unable to 
do, as it appears to me to be founded upon a misconception, why, I 
would a9k, rfiould Mr Lan^ desire to refer to the customs of the Siouan 
tribes in support of his theory, and preclude Mias,* Fletcher or others 
from doing the same ? Of the two classes of evidence, the superior 
cogency of that of Miss Fletcher mu9t be apjpajent to anybody. 

Now I submit, in conclusion, that the view of totemism here advo- 
cated suggests at the same time an origin for totem group-names that 
does no violence to the modes of savage thought and reasoning, and 

* The origin ct Totesm Namea and Beliefs. Trans. Folk-Lore, Vol. VHI, No. 
A, 1902. p. 886. 

Sec II., 1908. 7. 


which is strictly in harmony with all lines of evidence upon the point, 
and may well be regarded as the true origin. We have seen that names 
mean vastly more to the savage than to ourselves. A name with him, 
as I have shown, is a "mystery '' thing, not a mere mark or label; and 
he who assumes or takes the name of a thing, animate or inanimate, 
animal, plant, object or element, is thought to partake of the nature 
of the spirit of that object, and to be bound to, or connected with, it in 
a very special and mysterious manner. As Miss Fletcher has shown, 
the personal totem name indicates the protecting presence of a deity 
or tutelar spirit and close connection with it; and as the attitude, as we 
have seen, of the member of a group towards the common totem is 
always the same as that of the individual to his totem, it may justly be 
inferred that the relation is the same and arose in like manner; and 
that the group name is the totem name of the ancestor who founded 
the family, group, or clan, and transmitted the totem or protecting pre- 
sence and powers of the turt;elar spirit. The character of the group- 
totem is everywhere seen to be the same as that of the personal totem, 
therefore, the explanation of the one may justly be regarded as the 
explanation of the other, more particularly, as I have shown that the 
personal totem undoubtedly does give rise to the family and group- 

If Dr. Haddon, Mr. Lang and other European anthropologists 
will study the nature and significance of nomenology as it is found 
among American tribesmen, I am fain to believe they will be led to 
lake the views here advocated. It may be observed that it is no argu- 
ment to urge that names are not regarded by savages in other countries 
as they are by the American tribesmen, for we are not at all certain 
that they are not, and the probability is that they are. Other savage 
races have not received the same close study as those of this continent, 
and it was not till students had spent many years of investigation 
among the American Indians, that they began to understand and per- 
ceive the deep significance names had for them. 

I desïire finally to ^say that I have been prompted to the writing of 
this paper by the desire to assist European studenjts of tobemism to 
understand better the view commonly held by American students; for I 
think it is clear from the criticisms upon Major PowelFs article in 
Man,^ that the evidence upon which that view is founded has not been 

* The purport of this article has been somewhat misunderstood. It was 
never intended aa a deliberate presentation of the views taken of totemlsm 
In America, but was written In consequence of, and immediately after, the 
appearance of Dr. Frazer's article on the discordant data from Australia In 
the Fortnightly Review for April and May, 1899, although not published till 
laat year In Man, and should be resuî In the light of that article. Its intention 
was ra;ther ,to ishow that when totemlsm ds rightly regarded as a system of 


duly appreciated by European anthropologists, nor received the con- 
sideration at their hands that it merits. Perhape I am preeumptuoufl 
in undertaking the taslc; but if a decade's contact with savage races and 
a close study of their habits, cus'toms and modes of thought be any 
qualification for the undertaking, I may, at least, claim that. 

naming, Ln the sense dn -wOiich the savage regards names, aind not as a system 
of social rules and regulations, as )held by most Buropean students, the data 
from Australian and other sources which oompeUed the majority of European 
anthropologists to reconsider their position, faJl naturally into place in the 
American conception of things, and cause no embarreuEBmen/t to the American 
student whatever; and in this, as I have tried to show, he was quite right 

SiCTiON IL, 1903 [ lOl ] Trans. R. 8. C. 

VII. — A few remarks on " The Siege of Québec ''* and the Battle of the 
Plains of Abraham, by A, Doughty, in collaboration with 0. 
W. Parmeke; and on the Probable Site of the Battle of the 
Plains of Abraham, by A. Doughty, 

By P. B. Casgrain, 
(Communicated by B. Suite and read May 19th, 1903.) 

Amidst the well deserved encomiums which have welcomed the 
recent publication of the above remarkable work on the Siege of Quebec, 
we have much pleasure to join in a cordial approbation. 

All students of Canadian history and, we may add, the English 
speaking people of the whole British Empire, ought to be thankful to 
the authors and to Mr. Doughty, in particular, for his diligent and suc- 
cessful researches, his arduous and unremitting labours, his skill and 
tact in finding and obtaining through high protection and influential re- 
commendations, ready access to many valuable documents deposited in 
public archives abroad, and in various private collections. He may also 
be congratulated, jointly with the editors, on the magnificent form in 
which he has been able to extend them to the literary world. 

The additional papers now published will throw further light on 
many details and incidents of the most important events which resulted 
in the conquest of " La Nouvelle-France," and secured against her the 
supremacy of England in the New World. 

The beautiful interesting six volumes now before us deserve more 
)than the cursory notices generally extended to new publications, with 
more or less appreciative truth or commendable sagacity and critical 
ability. They require a full and complete review by a learned and com- 
petent authority, and we frankly admit our incapacity to do so with ade- 
quate justice either to the authors or to the reader and public at large. 
Therefore we earnestly invite our learned men and scholars to a fair and 
Asound critical examination of the whole subject which is not yet ex- 
hausted as we shall see. 

They will thereby continue the praiseworthy and successful efforts 
of the authors to promote and perfect the knowledge of this eventful 

Their primary object, after a careful scrutiny of the new documents 
brought to light, would be to ascertain whether they are, as we have heard 
it alleged, subversive of our former acquired notions on the subject, and 
in what particulars ; or whether they do not generally confirm the lessons 
we have learned from the historians of the past. 


By passing through an impartial and judicious ordeal and scrutiniz- 
ing with a severe test the import and value of the divers documents and 
plans brought forth, and carefully comparing, analyzing and weighing 
what appears to be conflicting evidence, we may reasonably expect to de- 
finitely settle what little remains of diflBcult, obscure or doubtful points 
and debatable ground respecting this grand historic achievement. 

In the meantime we may be allowed to venture a few remarks on 
some particular data on which we happen to differ, as presented to us by 
Mr. Doughty and his collaborators; and we anticipate they shall not be 
constructed amiss. For be it well understood we have not the least idea 
of disparaging the value of the scholarly and elaborate production of the 
authors in its general embodiment, but it would be undignified and un- 
manly on our part, if by reaeon of the consensus of approval and praise 
we have seen and heard, we were to be thereby silenced, and deterred from 
expreesing our views when occasions arise for a reasonable criticism, 
based upon the very documents we have the opportunity of perusing for 
the first time. 

If, therefore, we should meet in the course of the narrative what 
may appear to us inaccurate, erroneous, or contradictory assertions or in- 
complete statements; one-sided appreciations, deductions and conclusions 
more or less venturesome; discrepancies and disagreements between the 
collaborators themselves, or between the proof and the suppositive or in- 
ventive process of the writers, — then we are bound to point them out for 
•the sake of historical accuracy; however supported they are by much 
display of learning, great skill, and nice ingenuity of exposition ; and we 
feel the more obliged to expose them because they are often rendered 
attractive by an agreeable style, presented in a handsome and appropriate 
garb, and adorned with artistic illustrations, all which tend to pre- 
possess, even captivate the superficial or unwary reader. 

In pursuing, for the present, a limited investigation and confining 
it to twx) ]:)rincipal poinUs, we sliall endeavour to carry it with due caution 
and discrimination, avoiding acrid or unnecessary disputations or petty 
criticisms. A temperate discussion, supported by well grounded con- 
siderations, tends more to display the literary value of the work and the 
attainments of Mr. Doughty personally. This course is rather compli- 
mentary than otherwise. 

We may premise by submitting that although we acknowledge the 
head author of this extensive publication to be a persevering and fortun- 
ate collector of precious historical documents, yet we cannot refrain from 
expressing our matured opinion that he and his contributors have not 
always shown a strong and sure grasp in handling them, and have been 
misled into some avoidable errors. 


For it looks most strange that with all the former known materials 
in hand and the accretion of the present documentary information re- 
ceived and at his early disposal, Mr. Doughty, in first instance and by his 
paper, should have woefully failed to arrive at a true and correct con- 
clusion on the main object of his contention, as to the battle of the Plains 
of Abraham, that is to say, the real position of the armies when ready to 
engage; and should have produced in support thereof a plan of the battle 
such as his Flan A^ by him affirmed, bona fide, to be then perfectly 

And what is more surprising is to see his collaborators, specially Mr. 
Chambers * having remained so long " blind " over palpable errors, ap- 
parent to the naked eye on this Plan A. 

This arraignment, improbable as it may seem at first, is nevertheless 
but too well grounded. 

It needs no further proof than the preliminary one drawn from the 
own showing of the four joint collaborators. For without disclaiming 
or in any way discarding the first plan and finding of Mr. Doughty, 
upon whose faith they assumed both to be accurate and «truatworthy, 
but, on the contrary extolling them as entirely reliable and conclusive, 
they now come out with a very different version and a totally changed 
plan of battle. 

This, of course, is a tacit but an unavoidable admission of the pre- 
vious mistake; which it would have been more proper to candidly 
acknowledge, as soon as it was perceived by them, particularly when they 
could not help seeing the utterly fake position given to both armies, 
since their attention was called to it by an article in the Quebec 
Morning Chronicle, August 4th, 1900. 

Otherwise, if these writers allow both plans and respective versions 
to sul)aist on the same footing and be reputed as equally true and cor- 
rect, the reader will remain at a loss to make a choice as to the one to be 
relied on ; or may be inclined a priori to reject both as antagonistic, be- 
cause they are drawn from the same materials and sources. 

Under the modest title " The Probable Site of the Battle of the 
Plains of Abraham,'* Mr. Doughty has determined positively this exact 
site according to his conception of it in 1899. 

In view of elucidating the two main objects and ultimate conclu- 
sions of his paper, that is to say : first, the disposition of the contending 
armies in battle array on the field, and secondly the complete elimination 
of the Race-course as part of that field, he has marshalled his evidence 
and arguments with such seductive ingenuity and consummate skill as to 

* Cf. (Quebec Morning Chronicle, April 2nd, 1900. Mr. Doughty*» able contribu- 
tion on the êubject; -also id.. May 3, 1903. ^orth American Notes and Queries, 
Jime, 1900, «and Aii«rU8t. 1900. 


present a prima facie apparently clear case and satisfactory as such even 
to many learned readers; until a closer exaimination revealed the total 
fallacy of the whole fabric and mode of exposition. 

In the meantime it was headlong asserted in the press by a 
correspondent, more bombastic in tone than perspicnous in discern- 
ment, that " he (Mr. Doughty), is absolutely satisfied that his conclu- 
" sicoifi are buttressed by truth and cannot be assailed."^ 

Certainly there is much that is plausible in the argumentation of 
the writer, and though we disagree with his solution on both points 
adverted to, his paper is singularly interesting to study, and deserved 
a better result, instead of being now discarded by him and meeting a 
disastrous failure as to the position of both armies, compared to which 
the small blunders he found in Hawkins are insignificant. 

The connection of this paper with the more complete work which 
is its legitimate and grown up offspring, is so close and direct that, far 
the sake of argument and comparison, they must be reviewed together 
and placed in juxtaposition. 

It would be more satisfactory ta us not to refer, in any way, to 
that paper, if we could pass over several material errors we see in it, 
and specially in the plan A, as mere oversights or inadvertences, 
had not Mr. Doughty isince reaffirmed in a deliberate manner 
their perfect truth and accuracy, being confirmed, as he alleges, by the 
further plans he had since received from Europe. 

And were it not also that the insertion of the same paper in the 
transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, was hastily put in before 
having been examined and discussed by the section; as explained by 
the Editor, who at first sight judged it " a paper of special value and 
must assist the student in coming to a correct conclusion." There it 
remains unchallenged, though admitted now to be erroneous. 

We are sorry to say we cannot fully commend the second version 
and plan, as being also correct, because the same course of reasoning 
has been partly followed; and they must also come to grief in part, 
but not to the same extent as the former, which caused us to stagger 
at first sight. 

We shall therefore take issue on the findings of Mr. Doughty on 
the two above mentioned points; and to avoid all misunderstandings, 
we shall quote his statements in his own words. 

He says in his paper, p. 410; note : 

1st. " Towards the close of my paper I mentioned that two impor- 
" tant d.ocumeiits relating to the battle were in Europe and that at the 

^ Cf. Quebec Morning Vhronwlc, April 2, 1900. ^orih American Notes and 
Queries, June, 1900, p. 15, and August, 1900, p. 93. 


" time of w riting I had not received copies. Since this paper ha** been 
" in the press I have received the two plans referred to, and they con- 
*' firm in every respect the accuracy of the positions established on plan 

According to this plan "the army was not at any 

time drawn up upon the ground forming the present race course/' 

2nd. " The condition of the ground now forming the race course 
"would have prevented operations there on the day of the battle.'^ 
Id., p. 418. And the same is repeated, Vol. II, p. 295, more 
emjphatically. "On the day od! the battle the ground known as the 
" race course was in such condition that it would have been impossible 
" for an army to have been drawn up there in the position indicated on 
" the several plans.*' 

"The ground now commonly known as the Plains of Abraham, 
*^ which has recently been acquired by the city for a park, formed no 
" port of the famous battle field of September the 13th, 1759.— Id., Vol. 
II, p. 289. 

To be brief let us point out the more striking errors of the plan 
" A,'' which crystallises the gist and purport of the whole paper, and 
then we shall put it in juxtaposition with the other plan, Vol. Ill, p. 
96, the new one preptired for and approved by the authors, drawn and 
supervised by the same draftsmen, MM. Vallée, Charest & St. Michel, 
to be the true and final criterion of the position, of the two standing 

The patience of the reader, if not of the earnest student, must 
necessarily be taxed by constant and tedious references to plans;, but 
this course is unavoidable in order to thoroughly understand the con- 
troverted points on this subject. 

Referring then to the said plan " A " — 

Ist. The spot where Montcalm is indicated to be in command, is 
next to impossible; topographically he is out of sight, as in a well, 
being at the foot of a hill and facing the rock called " La Roche Ber- 
nard '* on John street. 

2nd. His right wing is carried away down the St. Charles valley 
in Saint-Sauveur, reaching so far as tihe crossings of St. Monique and 
St. Luc streets, more than a mile from the site of the conflict on the 
Heights of Abraham. 

3rd. His left is too near the town, cannot see the enemy, and is 
too far from the edge of the cliff, not to be easily outflanked there. 

4th. The spot where Wolfe fell mortally wounded is carried much 
too far. He never reached there; this would be a quarter of a mile 


from the well known place where he died (the monument); whilst it 
ought to be only about 100 yards from it, when he was mortally wound- 
ed in front of the Louisbourg Grenadiers. 

5th. Wolfe^fi line in consequence is also too much advanoed; atnd 
in placing it on the slope from the eminence of the gaol towards the 
town, Mr. Doughty is unfortunately mistaken, for it should be IJie 
other slope from thence in the direction of the river, where the Louis- 
bourg Grenadiers and the Otway really stood according to all the plans. 

6th. The camp, after the battle, was entrenched between the gaol 
and Sillery and not between the gaol amd the town; all the maps agree 
on this point. 

The Chronicle, Quebec, Canada, Saturday, August 4, 1900, (see 
appendix "A^^), furnishes further details pointing out more fully 
these and other notable errors, which cannot be characterized and 
passed off ^^ a^ minor details," and though they were openly challenged 
and controverted in the press by the above article herewith produced as 
an appendix, they have remained unexplained and the objections raised 
thereto unanswered. 

These material mistakes having been so signalized were, of course, 
corrected by the second plan, but only in part, as can easily be ascer- 
tained by comparing both together. 

Now the task devolves upon us of challenging the accuracy of this 
last plan and of proving that it is also subject to further and important 
corrections, in order to arrive at the tnie dispositions of both armies, 
according to the best authorities on the subjoct, and moreover by 
means of the very plans we are furnished with in these volumes. 

Considering the marked discrepancies between the two final plans 
presented to us as the joint work of the above named experts and drafts- 
men; and considering that the latter is, as it purports to be, a new and 
peculiar one, that is to say, an average plan combined from and com- 
ipiled by careful measurements of all the numerous and different plans 
submitted to them, we have fair cause for feeling diffident, and find a 
double reason, in order to dispel our reasonable doubts, for examining 
very closely the mode of proceeding of these experts; and we are 
entitled to revise their finding and to ascertain the accuracy of their 
work. And we shall do so, even at the risk of bein/:^ taxed too sharp 
and severe a critic, because we are dealing in this instance more with 
these experts than with the historians themselves; and also for the 

Lcasqrain] remarks ON "THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC" 107 

reason that we .have a euflScient excuse for our criticism in trying to 
probe to the bottom the truth of historical facts.^ 

It must be self evident that from and out of the number of the dif- 
ferent plans of the battle submitted to us, one must be found more cor- 
rect than all the others, and this one we shall try to find and adopt as 
the most reliable, and in preference to the above average or composite 
plan, which we conceive hardly possible to be historically and topographi- 
cally correct for moving bodies, — though it may appear so approxima- 

Another inference follows; because the modiLs operandi conveys 
the implicit admission that none of them are really accurate, and in 
fact they all disagree more or less; therefore each one in particular is 
less reliable than the written and positive evidence of living witnesses at 
the time, who, being present, give their own true and precise relation of 
what they know and have seen, particularly those who have remained in 

After a close examination of all the plans produced by Mr. Doughty, 
we attach like him muich importance, as to the general position of the 
contending armies, to the plan to be found in Jefferys, p. 140, which 
he, Mr. Doughty, reproduced in hia paper, p. 304, and has copied from 
the same one engraved and published in 1760 for the same Jefferye. 
A view of the action is enlarged oh the rig-ht comer. 

This plan dated 5th September, 1759, drawn by a competent 
authority, a naval oflBcer, is the first of all, and is the official document 
sent to the Minister Pitt, with the subsequent additions thereto, giving 
a view of the action of the 13th. It was not forwarded with the first 
despatches, not being then ready, but was soon after put in charge by 
Moncton of Townsend, the officer of distinction who delivered it at 
London on the 30th November following. 

This plan was, with the additions, made immediately after the 
battle, to accompany the official report of the commanding officers of the 
navy and army, mus-t be presumed substantially true and reliable. 
The circumstances of the extension of time required and given to com- 
plete it, and the actual presence of the army engineers, such as MacKel- 
lax, Holland, Deblieg, Desbarres and Montrésor, all tend to confirm a 
full reliance to be placed on this plan. 

* " History Is a science which commits Itself to no conclusions, except 
•' such as the evidence before her warrants " 

" It le only recently, and most opportunely, that Professor Bury haa 
" strongly asserted the right of history to be treated as a science. That 1» 
** to «ay, that historians should follow methods which lead to scleatlflc 
" certainty." 

The Tablet, London, 13th June, 1903, p. 925. 


On this first branch of controversy, that is to say, the exact position 
of the two contending armies in line of battle and ready for action, we 
have three infallible and immovable land marks to work upon as certain 
and true basis. 

1. The Buttes-à-Neveu and the line of Montcalm thereon, formed 
en front de handière, that is a straight line of his regulara. 

2. The spot where Wolfe expired now marked by his monument. 

3. The othex spot, quite near, on the eminen-ce of the gaol, where 
he received the third and mortal wound. Moreover, we have the best 
of all the plans, the ground itself of the battlefield under our eyes, 
which hardly covers a square mile. 

It is easy to find the true direction of the bandière line. It runs 
from the west side of the Tower No. 2 on top of Perrault Hill, Buttes-à- 
Neveu, toward and close to the west side of the General Hospital, at an 
angle of 45® west, — ^according to the meridian line of Holland, without 
reckoning the 30' of its error at that time. 

The proof of this direction is clearly furnished by Mr. Doughty 
himself, from his own showing by his plans. 

Eeference being had; 

1. To JcfTerys' plan published in 1760, p. 140, and reproduoed by 
Mr. Doughty (Pa.per, p. 394) ; — it will be seen on the enlarged view, 
this line passes somewhat a little west of the General Hospital, as 
also on the British Museum plan, reproduced. Vol. II, p. 257, and Mr. 
Doughty carries it even more west on his plan "A,^* p. 378, of his paper; 
whilst on the other plan, also produced by Mr. Doughty and drawn for 
him by St. Michel, vol. 11, p. 96, this line of handière is carried east a 
distance of 233 yards, from the General Hospital, forming a wide gap 
between these two handière lines, measuring an angle of 28**, 20', 
between thorn. 

2. To the plan n^xt in date of publication, of Jefferys, geographer of 
His lyfajesty, draw^l from the original surveys made by the Engineers of 
the Army, vol. 11, p. 272, which is identical with the one published by 
Thomas Mante, in 1772, in his History of the late War in North America; 
— it will be seen that the French line runs exactly in the direction toward 
the General Hospital. 

3. To the large coloured and valuable plan, vol. 1, p. 264; — it will 
be seen that the P'rench handière is also exactly in line with the General 

4. The plan. Vol. Ill, p. 116, also shows the French line en 
handière, opposite the English army, in the enlarged view of their dis- 
position ; and also the same direction is given towards the General Hos- 
pital, though these buildings do not appear on the map giving, on a 
smaller scale, the position of both armies. 


5. The plan made in 1841 for Hawkins, in London, by James Wyld, 
geographer to the Queen; — the same formation of the French army 
is to be found. 

In fact all the other plans we have been able to examine do not 
materially differ on this point; and therefore we controvert thereon the 
finding of the experts and draftsmen of Mr. Doughty on both their plans, 
and declare them antagonistic and unreliable, so far. We shall adhere 
to the plans, as they stand, on that point, and discard the average plan. 

It is not supposed we are to be called on to prove the site of Wolfe's 
monument is the correct place where he died ; therefore we shall go on to 
fix the exact apot where he fell in front of the Bragg regiment and 
the Louisbourg-Grenadiers, on the eminence where the gaol is now 

Let us preface by adverting to Samuel Holland, assistant engineer 
and captain in the 2Dd Battalion of the Royal Americans, who waa at 
the baMe under Wolfe, also at Sainte-Foy, and at the siege of Quebec by 
Ijévis, where he replaced the engineer MacKellar, mortally wounded at 
the last battle. Holland remained at Quebec till he crossed to England 
in December, 1763.* He was there the guest of the Duke of Richmond 
during the ensuing winter, and in the spring, 1764, he returned to 
Canada with the rank of major (?) and the appointment as surveyor- 
general of the province. He became a legislative councillor and died at 
Quebec, December 28th, 1801, being 73 years of age. 

In his official capacity no one knew better than he the surroundings 
of Quebec and particularly the Heights of Abraham, which he had sur- 
veyed immediately after the taking of Quebec and resurveyed afterwards, 
as appears by the several plans from his office, and notably the one on 
the large scale of 200 feet to one inch, drawn by Wm. Hall and by him 
finished 1790, and where has been traced the meriddan line established 
by Holland in 1785. Holland is one of the army engineers referred 
to by Jefferys as above mentioned, and therefore may be taken as one 
of the best authorities as to the incidents of the battle of the Plains; 
and he knew exactly the spot where Wolfe was fatally wounded and 
the one near by where he expired. 

When he traced his meridian on the Plains, he chose Wolfe's re- 
doubt (called by that name on account of the ground where the hero had 
fallen), and he located the first meridian stone at the southwest angle of 
the redoubt, with the intention of determining and fixing, as we really 
believe, the very spot for the future. 

^ Cf. OaptaOn Bentick to Bouquet (in French), Jjonàxm, 7 Dec., 1763, BM. 
SU «61. 


And 80 far he has been BTiccesrful. For Boujchette, wlio had 
studied under thim and became his successor in oflSce, refera to the 
circumiBtance as follows: — 

"The four meridian stones fixed in 1790* by the late Major 
"Holland, then surveyor-general of Canada, are placed at convenient 
"distances from each other acroes the plains, they represent a line 
" astronomically north '' (variation since from 12** 35' W. to 17**, May, 
" 1903),*' and were established for the purpose of adjusting the instru- 
" ments used in public surveys of lands, one of them that stood in the 
" angle of a field redoubt where Grenieral Wolfe is said to have breathed 
" his last, has been greatly impaired by the pious reverence of curious 
^^ strangers, who, wishing to bear away a relic of anything from the 
"spot consecrated by the heroes death, have broken off pieces of the 
" stone placed there thirty (25) years after the event" Cf. Boiwhette 
Topography of Canada, 1815, pp. 466-67. 

The field book of Holland, if found, will ascertain his intention 
as to the first stone of his meridian at the time of that important 

The field books and joujmals were returned by Wm. Ohewett> 
Pennoyer, Bankin and others, and ought to be found in the Imperial 
Departments, London. 

For Holland,* as Engineer-in-Chief at Quebec, claimed a number 
of plans that had remained in England in charge of Major Desbarres, 
with whom he had left them in 1776, — on being ordered suddenly from 
London to Portsmouth, from which place he wrote for them, but with- 
out effect. Since which, ait different periods, he renewed his application 
but with no better result; and on the 10th of November, 1790, he sends 
a catalogue to enable His Majesty's minister to direot the transmission 
of such plans, etc., including ^ tliis meridian line. 

'■ The meridian of Holland must have been traced on or before 1785, 
since Jeremiah McCcirthy. land ©urveyor, says: " J'ai prit le rhumb-de-vent 
selon l«a véritable meridian (aie) de Monsr. S. Holland, Ecuier, arpenteur 
ÉTénéral, tiré proche de Québec." 

rrocéS'Vcrbal de bornage, Kivière-Ouelle, liS juillet 1786, This date of 1790 
seems to Imply that the four stones were either replaced by others or made 
more conspicuous than formerly. In adl cases the first duty of HoiUand in 
his official capacity (1764) would be to establish, to his satisfaction, a known 
meridian to work upon. Bouchette may perhaps fix that date, 1790, as the 
time the meridian was traced on the map at Its completion, 

■ Writlngr *to tihe Govemior, Lord I>orchester, Quebec, Noveoniber 1st, 1790, 
he represents that several of the principal and original plans and surveys 
of the Province were wantimg. They were left by him in the care of Major 
Desbarres In May, 1776. Within a late period many of these documents 
were returned and have remained dormant in boxes at Ottawa. 

■ ** Meridian lAne at Queft>ec (2 cop.), 4 chains to 1 Inch." Archives ^f 
Canada, Q., Vol. 4Q, p. 167, 119. 

[cabgrain] remarks ON "THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC" HI 

After Bomchette, we find in the same department, John Adams, 
E.M.S.D., re-affirming the statement relative to the position of this 
first stone, as being the place where Wolfe fell. On a plan made by 
him from actual and original survey, 1822, engraved by E. Bennett, 
Qu<îbec, and dedicated to Lord Dalhousie, there is marked in front of 
and the west side of the redoubt : " Wolfe's Redoubt near which he fell" 
Though the redoubt has disappeared its location ds well settled and 
known by the plans. It covered a part of the ground of the east wing 
of the gaol, a