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PROCEEDINGS AT THE UNVEILING
John Robinson Memorial Tablet
IN LEYDEN. HOLLAND, JULY 24, 1891,
UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CONGREGATIONAL
CHURCHES OF THE UNITED STATES. CV^x-^^-^aXu_ t>^
Thomas Todd, Printer. Omgregatioiial House, i Somerset St
JOHN ROBINSON MEMORIAL TABLET.
On Friday, July 24, 1891, a bronze tablet in
honor of Rev. John Robinson, pastor of the church
of the Pilgrim Fathers during their residence in
Leyden, Holland, 1 608-1 620, was unveiled in that
city. It had been erected by the National Coun-
cil of the Congregational Churches of the United
States of America, in accordance with the action
of the Council on the subject at its session in
1877, at Detroit. A committee representing the
Council had charge of the exercises.
Early in the afternoon a procession was formed
at the Hotel du Lion (T Or^ and moved to the
St. Peter's Church, on the outer wall of which is
the tablet, and opposite to which is the site of the
dwelling in which Pastor Robinson lived and the
Pilgrims were accustomed to worship. The pro-
cession was headed by Rev. C. R. Palmer, D.D.,
and Rev. Morton Dexter, representing the Com-
mittee of the National Council, and Principal A.
M. Fairbairn, D.D., representing the invited guests.
On arriving at the church, where a large company
had assembled — including delegations from the
International Council of Congregational Churches
which had just closed its sessions in London, the
Congregational Union of England and Wales, Yale
University and Mansfield College, Oxford, and also
many of the citizens of Leyden, not less than seven
hundred in all — the dedication exercises were held.
Among those presei\t were Rev. F. A. Noble,
D.D., Rev. A. H. Ross, D.D., President W. F.
Slocum, Rev. T. T. Munger, D.D., Rev. Burdett
Hart, D.D., Rev. I. C. Meserve, G. Henry Whit-
comb, Esq., Samuel Holmes, Esq., and the Hon. S.
R. Thayer, United States Minister at the Hague,
from the United States ; Rev. Alexander Mackennal,
D.D., Rev. John Brown, D.D., Rev. D. B. Hooke,
Rev. G. S. Barrett, Rev. J. W. Harrison, and Mr.
Henry Spicer, from England ; and Rev. Thomas
Roseby, LL.D., Principal A. Gosman, and Mr.
Josiah Mullens, from Australia, as well as' repre-
sentatives of the city of Leyden, its Ecclesiasti-
cal Commissioners, its University, various religious
bodies, and the military regiments there stationed.
As Prof. G. E. Day, D.D., the Chairman of the
Committee of the National Council, was unable to
be present, Rev. C. R. Palmer, D.D., acted in his
behalf. At the appointed hour, two o'clock, Dr.
Palmer, accompanied by his daughter, Miss Edith
B. Palmer, Rev. Morton Dexter, and Rev. Alexander
Mackennal, D.D., ascended the platform, and called
the gathering to order. Mr. Dexter then read the
following historical statement, which had been pre-
pared by Professor Day:
For the information of the company present, the fol-
lowing statement is made concerning the tablet in memory
of the Rev. John Robinson, now about to be unveiled.
For the last twenty-six years the inscription, " On this
spot lived, taught, and died John Robinson, 1611-1625,**
has marked the site of the dwelling of the revered pastor
of the first settlers of New England ; but beyond this, it
has been felt that some fuller expression of the honor in
which his name is held by the numerous churches in the
United States which accept the principles of ecclesiastical
polity which he maintained and defended, is due to his
memory. Accordingly, at the meeting of the National
Council of the Congregational Churches of the United
States in Detroit in 1877, the following resolution was
Resolved^ that the Council heartily accept the suggestion of the
fitness and propriety of looking forward to the erection in some suit-
able place in the city of Leyden, Holland, of a monument to the
memory of John Robinson, whose name will ever head the list of
the pastors of the Congregational churches of the United States,
and that a committee of seven be appointed to take measures thereto,
with full power, when they shall see the way clear, to go forward and
erect the same as a tribute to his memory.
The Committee consisted of the Rev. Drs. H. M. Dex-
ter, S. C. Bartlett, and G. E. Day, and Messrs. Alpheus
Hardy, A. S. Barnes, E. W. Blatchford, and S. S. Smith.
The places of Messrs. Hardy, Barnes, and Smith, subse-
quently made vacant by death or resignation, were filled
by the appointment of the Rev. Drs. J. K. McLean, C. R.
Palmer, and W. A. Robinson. Dr. Dexter, to whose warm
interest in the proposed memorial its successful execution
is largely due, died in November, 1890, only a short time
before the final arrangements were completed, and was
succeeded by his son, the Rev. Morton Dexter, who was
appointed Secretary and Treasurer of the Committee.
The time required for determining the kind of monu-
ment to be erected, and for settling several connected
questions, far exceeded what was originally anticipated.
Many of the plans proposed were found to be impractica-
ble or open to serious objections ; but, after a special visit
to Leyden by two members of the Committee, it was finally
decided that a bronze tablet occupying the niche or recess,
about seven feet high by six wide, on the outside of that
part of St. Peter's Church directly opposite the site of
Robinson's dwelling, would exactly meet the conditions
required. It would indicate in general the place of his
burial, and at the same time be near to the place where
the Pilgrim Fathers assembled for religious worship and
to the famous University, to the privileges of which he
was admitted, and on the records of which his name may
now be seen.
To the application made to the Ecclesiastical Com-
missioners in charge of the church buildings in Leyden
for permission to place the proposed tablet in this recess,
a courteous and favorable answer was returned, coupled
only. with the reasonable condition that the inscription
should be submitted for their approval.
The tablet, which was cast in bronze, together with
the raised letters, in one solid piece — the largest, with
a single exception, ever made in America — is the work of
the Henry Bonnard Bronze Co., of New York.
In accordance with a suggestion of Mr. A. S. Barnes,
a figure of such a vessel as that in which the Pilgrim
Fathers were borne to New England stands at the head
of the tablet, with the inscription, "The Mayflower, 1620."
The inscription itself, which covers, so far as the space per-
mits, the most important points in the life of Robinson,
and his connection with th^ first settlers of New England
and the Congregational churches of the United States, is
as follows :
IN MEMORY OF
REV. JOHN ROBINSON, M.A.
PASTOR OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH WORSHIPING OVER AGAINST
THIS SPOT, A.D. 1609-1625, WHENCE AT HIS PROMPTING
THE PILGRIM FATHERS
TO SETTLE NEW ENGLAND
BURIED UNDER THIS HOUSE OF WORSHIP, 4 MAR. 1626
AET. XLIX YEARS.
IN MEMORIA AETERNA ERIT JUSTUS.
ERECTED BY THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE CONGREGATIONAL
CHURCHES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
A.D. 1 89 1.
The fund in payment for the tablet and its erection
in Leyden was raised by the voluntary subscription of
pastors and members of Congregational churches in the
By vote of the Committee a special invitation to attend
the exercises at the unveiling of the tablet has been ex-
tended to all universities and theological seminaries in
sympathy with Congregationalism, to the members of the
International Council of Congregational Churches in Lon-
don, to the Congregational Union of England and Wales
and other gentlemen in Great Britain, to the Ecclesiastical
Commissioners having charge of the church buildings in
Leyden, to the magistrates and pastors of the city, the
professors and students of the Leyden University, and to
the citizens of Leyden generally. To the Rev. Charles
R. Palmer, D.D., pastor of the First Congregational Church
in Bridgeport, Conn., has been assigned the duty of com-
mitting this monument to the memory of Robinson and the
Pilgrim Fathers to the care of the authorities in Leyden,
and of explaining the grounds on which the memory of
Robinson and the Pilgrim Fathers is cherished by the
Congregational churches in all parts of the world.
Rev. Alexander Mackennal, D.D., one of the
representatives of the International Congregational
Council, then ofifered the following prayer :
Almighty God, the God of our fathers and the God
of us their children, we beseech Thee to look upon us as
we are gathered here today, and to fill our hearts with
thoughts of Thy goodness and with gratitude for the
men whom Thou hast given to us. O Thou who Thy-
self art Love, and out of whose love comes eternal right-
eousness, we bless Thee for the men of old who have
been Thy servants — interpreters of Thy holy will, inter-
preting to the churches which have come to them the
mind, the authority, the rule of Jesus Christ our Lord.
Especially we beseech Thee as we are gathered here to-
day as the spiritual children of Thy servant whose name
is upon our lips and in our hearts, that we may be filled
with the spirit that animated him, the spirit of loyalty to
Jesus Christ, fidelity to conscience, and a profound devot-
edness to Thy holy will. Give to us also, we beseech
Thee, the sweetness which characterized him, so that
while we witness to the truth we may witness to the
truth of love. Make us zealous for the honor of Thy
name and the glory of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the
world, and for the unity of Thy people. And grant that,
as a result of this gathering today, the fellowship of Thy
servants in Christ Jesus may be more fully apprehended ;
and, as we apprehend the fellowship of Christ Jesus, let
all other fellowships disappear, let all names become un-
known but the name of Him Whom we trust, Whom we
love, and Whom we serve — even the name of Christ Jesus
our Lord — -for Whom we bless Thee, Thine unspeakable
gift — in Whose words we further pray :
Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy
name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth,
as it is done in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread.
Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them that trespass
against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us
from evil ; for Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and
the glory, for ever and ever. Amen.
Dr. Palmer next announced the formal unveil-
ing of the tablet, and Miss Palmer at once let fall
its canvas covering, revealing it to sight, although,
still partly hidden by the three national ensigns
which drooped above it. Meanwhile a military
band in attendance played the appropriate air,
Integer Vita. Miss Palmer then raised the Dutch
flag to the top of its pole, the band giving the
Dutch national anthem," Wien Neerlandsch Bloed ;'^
next the American flag — its stafif being in the
center and higher than the others — while the
band played " The Star Spangled Banner ; " and
finally the English flag, while the band rendered
" God Save the Queen," the assembly applauding
Dr. Palmer then announced that the remain-
ing ceremonies would be held within the church,
and the procession was re-formed as before and
entered the building, the band again playing Integer
VitcSy which the organ within took up as the pro-
cession appeared. After the audience had seated
itself, the following familiar hymn, by the late
Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D., was sung by the con-
gregation, the orgjin accompanying :
O God, beneath Thy guiding hand
Our exiled fathers crossed the sea ;
And when they trod the wintry strand,
With prayer and psalm they worshiped Thee.
Thou heardst, well pleased, the song, the prayer ;
Thy blessing came ; and still its power
Shall onward through all ages bear
The memory of that holy hour.
Laws, freedom, truth, and faith in God
Came with those exiles o'er the waves ;
And where their pilgrim feet have trod,
The God they trusted guards their graves.
And here Thy name, O God of love.
Their children's children shall adore.
Till these eternal hills remove.
And spring adorns the earth no more.
Dr. Palmer then ascended the pulpit and deliv-
ered the following address :
My Countrymen^ Brethren of England, Representatives of
the Churches, the University, the City of Ley den; Ladies
and Gentlemen ; most heartily do I greet you.
Heaven smiles upon us today ! The fair and peaceful
morning, the soft and genial air, the cloudless sky, the
bright sunshine, bespeak the favor of Providence under
which we have assembled to celebrate the performance
of a filial duty and to honor the memory of a great and
good man. Beneath the ensigns of three nations, repre-
senting widely separate homes ; with one heart and con-
scious of the sympathy of multitudes that are far away,
we unite in these simple services of commemoration and
dedication, under the benediction of the God of our
fathers, tl^e God of their children.
Standing where we do, on a spot so historic in this
famous city, on the soil of this illustrious Commonwealth,
thoughts of the past come unbidden. Remembrance of
the changes and the conflicts through which the evolu-
tion of Western Civilization has marched enchains us.
To many stirring recollections the special purpose of our
assembling forbids expression. But of one movement we
cannot help speaking — a mighty movement, the thrust of
which has given direction to the history of nearly four cen-
turies — the persistent, the ever intensifying and expand-
ing struggle of men for personal liberty. The primary
impulse of this movement was religious. It was the logi-
cal outcome of that insurrection of the human conscience
which we call the Reformation. That which conscience
demands, no power, ecclesiastical or political, provincial
or imperial, autocratic, aristocratic, or democratic, can for-
ever withhold. The wills of individual men may be sub-
dued ; their hearts may be broken ; their lives may be
embittered or extinguished ; generations may be bound
in fetters or led to the slaughter ; nationalities may be
extirpated ; but the moral sense of mankind is irrepres-
sible. It triumphs at last and reigns. A monk's asser-
tion, against Pope and Emperor, of the rightful independ^
ence of the human soul in matters of religion, made
necessary in due sequence a reconstruction of society, of
which the end is not yet. The awakening in men and
women of the sense of personal right, and of convictions
of public duty, put enough passion into their hearts, and
iron into their blood, to make them heroes ; to render
them intolerant of wrong, and to mass them against the
most formidable intrenchments of injustice, however de-
fended. The development of the spirit thus generated
has overturned, or brought to terms, the thrones of
Europe, and filled America with free peoples. The world
has become too wise to attempt to suppress it.
In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the seeds of liberty
which a divine enlightenment had been scattering broad-
cast in England for fifty years began to germinate, to take
root and to grow. Nowhere can these seeds be discov-
ered so readily as in the convictions of the advanced
Puritans. Their watchword was reformation, but the real
outcome of their conflict with repressive power was to be
religious and political freedom for untold myriads. We
are bound to remember this day the particular shape this
conflict assumed. Hundreds and thousands of Christian
people, in whose hearts there burned a passionate desire
for a spiritual church and an unadulterated gospel, felt
constrained to renounce the national church of England.
They believed the further reformation of religion to be
imperatively needful. Hopeless of seeing this effected
within the national church — because the Episcopal party,
who could promote it, would not, and the Puritan party,
Presbyterian in its preferences, who would promote it,
could not, and the two parties were in irreconcilable
antagonism — they resolved upon "reformation without
tarrying for any." They separated themselves from the
church by law established, and at the cost of everything
which men hold dear, organized, by covenant with God and
each other, what we know as Congregational churches,
on what they conceived to be New Testament principles.
Like other third parties, they were subject to ill will from
both sides. They offended the party within the church
which was zealous for further reformation, no less than
the opposite party who believed reformation had already
gone too far. To go forth, therefore, was to challenge
well-nigh universal execration. The step exposed them
to be hunted as malefactors, to be persecuted, imprisoned,
plundered, banished, executed. But forth they went, and
the future vindicated their self-sacrifice and their faith.
They became by the act the vanguard of advancing
Christendom. Their heroic struggles, their unconquer-
able resolution in all this experience, make the period
forever memorable. Nor did they struggle, dare, and en-
dure, to no purpose. Posterity owes to them what it
enjoys of religious liberty. Those Separatist commun-
ions were the pioneer free churches. By them was it
distinctly perceived that a man's right to a sacrament was
grounded not in his citizenship, but in his character and
his confession of Christ. By them was definitely asserted
the right of Christian men to freedom of faith and wor-
ship. By them was confidently claimed the non-dependence
of the churches organized by Christian men and women
upon priest or prelate, magistrate. Parliament or Lords in
Council, Miter or Crown. In the end of the sixteenth
century these rights were asserted. In the end of the
seventeenth, they were extorted from reluctant rulers.
In the end of the eighteenth, there stood secure, beyond
the seas, free churches in free States. In the closing
decade of the nineteenth, men are agitating for the Fed-
erative Union of Free Churches ; holding Ecumenical
Councils of Free Churches ; and looking hopefully for
the reunion of Christendom upon democratic principles.
To the Christian peoples belongs the future ; to the
flocks, not to the would-be keepers, nor yet to the wolves.
And of this majestic, resistless movement of the Chris-
tian world toward the liberty which is in Christ, we see
the beginnings in that heaven-inspired separation of three
hundred years ago!
In the autumn months of 1575, when this movement
was but incipient, a man was born, destined in his less
than fifty years of life to play an important part at the very
center of it — John Robinson, the pastor of the Pilgrim
Church. His birthplace, it is believed, was Gainsborough-
upon-Trent, in Northwestern Lincolnshire, in which town
the family enjoyed some local prominence. Of his par-
ents, his childhood, his youth, we know nothing. His first
distinct emergence is in his matriculation as a student in
Corpus Christi College, in Cambridge, when he must have
been close upon seventeen years of age. His name is still
legible upon the college register. There he spent the
years from the autumn of 1592 to 1600, taking successively
the degrees of B.A. and M.A., and in 1599 winning a fel-
lowship. Naturally enough his university life was by no
means apart from the fierce discussions of this time. We
know from various sources a good deal of the excitements
which entered into it. Cambridge was full of Puritanism,
and the disputes about it waxed hotter as the years went
on. His sympathies led him into the Puritan party, and
we know something of the men with whom these sympa-
thies would ally him. Doubtless here the substratum of
his theological opinions was deposited ; but there is abun-
dant evidence that they grew with his growth, expanded
with his knowledge, and received ever fresh accretions
while he lived. His years of academic study and disci-
pline were laborious and fruitful, and made of him for his
time a ripe scholar and a close reasoner.
When he left Cambridge, in 1600, he became engaged
in the work of the ministry in or near Norwich, very prob-
ably as a curate. His Puritanism was so pronounced that
the bishop of the diocese, who had been the master of
Corpus Christi College during Robinson's residence, and
knew him well, suspended him ; and upon his continuing
to preach in Norwich to a congregation of Puritan wor-
shipers, subjected him "to great disturbance and afflic-
tion,'*' and excommunicated his followers. He strongly
preferred to retain his place in the national church, and,
as he himself tells us, long resisted the conviction that
his position was untenable. But in 1603 James I suc-
ceeded Elizabeth, and in the course of a year the situation
became distinctly worse. In 1604 he saw no alternative
but separation at any cost, and went to Cambridge to re-
sign his fellowship and cast in his lot with those to whom
reformation was dearer than the church of their fathers,
than home or country, estate or life. To do this, he natu-
rally went northward. At Gainsborough, his native town,
centered the most considerable body of Separatists in the
kingdom. Its members were drawn from a large area,
extending into three counties. It had been organized
some two years before, its members covenanting together
"to walk in His ways, made known or to be made known
unto them, according to their best endeavors, wfiatever it
should cost them'* Here Robinson found Brewster, and
others of the Pilgrim Fathers of the future, and here he
made the acquaintance of the estimable woman who after-
wards became his wife, Bridget White. In 1606 the church,
having become so large as to be too conspicuous, and sub-
ject to persecution from every side, divided into two for
greater convenience and safety. The majority retained
the organization, and in the same year removed to Amster-
dam. The rest became the historic church at Scrooby,
meeting there in William Brewster's house. Richard Clyf-
ton was chosen pastor, and John Robinson teacher, of
this body. For a year these devoted and resolute souls,
in spite of many cruel hardships, baffled the malice of
their enemies, but at last saw no hope but in emigration
to Holland, and upon this they resolved. The plan was
easier to conceive than to execute. Their opponents had
as little disposition to suffer them to depart in peace, as
to let them alone. It were untimely to rehearse here the
long story of their exodus. Their repeated attempts to
migrate in a body, their arrest in each, their harsh treat-
ment, their detentions, their perils, their sufferings, their
losses, it is painful to recall. At length, in couples, in
small groups, or one by one, the fugitive church evaded
pursuit, and gathered in Amsterdam in 1608. But their
difficulties were not yet over. The refugees collected in
that city were many, and among them there were already
discernible discordant elements. Robinson and his friends
foresaw the coming conflicts, and felt that for themselves
and their company Amsterdam was not the place. They
resolved upon another removal, " even though it should be
to the prejudice of their outward estate." Wise were
they in this new sacrifice, and happy was its sequel. In
1609 they made application to the authorities of the city
of Leyden for permission to settle there, "to the num-
ber of one hundred, or thereabouts.'* On the 12th of
February this application was granted, and in that spring
season the removal was effected. Clyfton electing to
remain in Amsterdam, Robinson became the leader and
afterward the pastor of the church. At last, then, in
Leyden — "a fair city," "of a sweet situation," they
thought it ; a city at that time of a hundred thousand
inhabitants — we see the hunted church, with none to
molest or make afraid, locate themselves as best they
could, and address themselves to the task of making a
living by industry, and of governing their households in
the fear of God. This task was the harder that most of
them had been agriculturists, and now had trades to learn.
But they were full of faith and of energy, and gradually
their sterling worth won appreciation, and they found
well-wishers and friends. In this and in their political
obscurity was their safety. In January, 161 1, Robinson
and others purchased the house which then stood oppo-
site this edifice, and when possession was acquired, made
it the home of his family and the meeting-place of the
church. In the spacious grounds in the rear of it, more-
over, were built twenty-two cottages for his fellow exiles.
In this situation he studied, wrought, and faithfully min-
istered for the remainder of his life, and here were pre-
pared for their great adventure the goodly company of
stout hearts and devout spirits who in 1620 set out for
the founding of New England. Before that date the
church was above three hundred in number, and in the
archives of Leyden is the record that no complaint had
ever been lodged against any one of them. .
Upon his church, upon the community of Leyden,
upon his generation, and through the Pilgrim Fathers
upon the future of New England and of the United
States, and even upon the England which had driven
him from her shores but which he never ceased to love,
John Robinson made an enduring, an indelible impression
— an impression not rationally to be accounted for save
in one way: it must have been the impress of a grand
personality, grand in its moral, its intellectual, its spiritual
resources. Of what sort was this pastor of the Pilgrims i
What do we know of the man, of his make-up, his char-
acteristic spirit, his gifts, his power ?
No likeness of him exists ; no description of his per-
sonal appearance. Not a single sermon of his has come
down to us. Yet in the testimonies of Bradford and
Winslow ; in various utterances of friends and foes ; in
these three volumes of his collected works which we are
this day to present to the University of Leyden, we have
no limited means of taking the measure of the man
as he was. In this University founded in the year in
which he was bom, yet already renowned when he came
hither, he became affiliated September 5,- 1615; and in
it he gained a high reputation as a theologian and an
enviable repute as a man. In public disputation, after
the fashion of the day, he was the chosen champion of
Orthodoxy against Episcopius, and won laurels for his
cause and distinguished honor for himself. By his preach-
ing and his publications he became widely known in
Holland and in England, and his reputation has endured.
Competent critics have mentioned his " Essays, or Obser-
vations, Divine and Moral," in connection with the more
famous "Essays'* of Bacon, as "weighty with thought, rich
in knowledge of mankind . . . sparkling with a kind of
grave wit, and admirable for the best qualities of style."
Of his controversial works, one of these critics — Dr.
Leonard Bacon — recorded this judgment: "They show
great familiarity with the Scriptures, great common sense
in interpretation, a habit of logical exactness and acute-
ness, a practical ability in dealing with the profoundest
themes in theology." Such facts would indicate to us
one ranking among the leaders of men in intellectual
power and culture. All the testimony points the same
way. In the opinion of his Anglican opponents he was
" a man of excellent parts, and the most learned, polished,
and modest spirit that ever separated from the Church of
England." His friends and followers naturally speak still
more positively. Bradford says he was " a man not easily
to be paralleled." Winslow says "he was much esteemed
and reverenced of all who knew him, and his abilities were
acknowledged both of friends and strangers." Mr. Mot-
ley, in his " Life of John of Bameveld," says of Robinson,
"He was a man of learning, eloquence, and lofty intel-
lect." Beyond question this was the conviction of his
contemporaries, and must be accepted as the verdict of
history. He must be credited with a vigorous understand-
ing ; with solidity of judgment, strong common sense, un-
usual aptitude for afifairs; with well-disciplined powers,
with scholarly culture and accomplishments, with extraor-
dinary intellectual honesty, with both readiness and self-
control. Nor was this all This large-minded man was
also large-hearted — a loving and a love-winning man.
" He was much beloved of his people, and as loving was
he unto them." ' His care of them was most paternal
and most comprehensive. He was wholly devoted to their
religious interests, and "helpful of their outward estates."
He had a benign and gentle spirit, great amenity of man-
ners, and singular tact. He was sociable, affable, and
conciliatory. He had a remarkable skill in harmonizing
differences and settling disputes. He added to a tender
conscience, and an acute moral sense, unusual consider-
ateness of the scruples of others. In his day controversy
was merciless, and its masters were unsparing in personal
vituperation and abuse ; controversy was a public duty,
and enlisted men's passions like internecine war. But
forcible as are Robinson's controversial works, one is
struck with their comparative freedom from the wrath
and bitterness so characteristic of the period .Evidently
he loved not strife and debate, and never lost, when borne
into them, the temperance, the deliberateness, the loyalty
to truth and the remembrance of charity which lifted
him above all merely personal contests. Bradford tells us
of Robinson : " He was never satisfied in himself until he
had searched any cause or argument he had to deal in to
the bottom ; and we have heard him sometimes say to his
familiars ' that many times, both in writing and in dispu-
tation, he knew he had sufficiently answered others, but
not himself.' He was ever desirous of any light, and the
more able, learned, and holy, persons were, the more he
desired to confer and reason with them."
His most imposing virtue, perhaps, was his catholicity —
his large tolerance. In this he outran his time. Dr. Bush-
nell declares him two whole centuries in advance of his
age. The statement seems scarcely extravagant. He was
a Separatist on principle ; or, as he says, " on most sound
and irresistible convictions ;" and yet, contrary to the ori-
ginal Separatist theory, advocated putting a wide differ-
ence between renouncing a falsely organized church, and
renouncing the ministers and members thereof, who were
in the judgment of charity Christian people. He saw no
reason to withhold private and unofficial communion with
these, or to disallow the hearing of godly ministers preach
and pray in their own pulpits in the national church. He
also favored full communion with the Reformed churches
of France and Holland, and the interchange of members
with them. And this large catholicity grew upon him to
the end. If this does not seem to us a very wonderful
liberality, it was extremely wonderful in its own day, and
in its wide contrast with the Church of England itself.
It was the recognition of this contrast which made Mr.
Motley say of Robinson's Farewell Address to the Pil-
grim Fathers, that "for loftiness of spirit and breadth of
vision it has hardly a parallel in that age of intolerance."
Nor was .this liberality of Robinson a mere sentiment.
It was a matter of principle. He instilled it into the
minds of his people. He urged it upon their hearts and
consciences. He infixed it there as an abiding conviction.
They carried it with them to Plymouth. It became char-
acteristic of the Plymouth Colony as contrasted with that
of Massachusetts Bay. Not among them was Roger Wil-
liams forbidden to worship, or banished the soil. Not
among them were enacted the New England Tragedies.
History abundantly attests this abiding fruitage from the
magnanimity of John Robinson, and his wise and most
It is a mark of the greatness of this venerable man,
that while the sturdiness of the convictions, and the reck-
lessness of cost or sacrifice under the stress of convictions,
which made him a Separatist, are beyond question, he has
been distinctly recognized as one of the most conserva-
tive of Separatists, and as the reformer of Separatism. He
was free from fanaticism. He never fell into, he never
sympathized with, the extravagances into which many
good men among his contemporaries were led. So far as
the Separatists, by reason of the force of the impulse to
which they had yielded, tended to extremes, he was dis-
tinctively a reactionary. If in the earlier years of his
ministry he was led by the intensity of his convictions
into any narrowness of view, it is apparent that every
year led him further from everything of the kind, and
that by the force of the better reason he carried men
with him into the eillargement he himself had experienced.
And to him more than to any other man of his age is
traceable that ultimate development of true liberality and
charity toward all, which is the glory of modem Congre-
What Robinson's religious character was appears from
the testimony of those who knew him best, from the rever-
ence in which he was held of all his people and the good
report he obtained of those among whom he sojourned,
and from his writings, especially his "Essays," and his
letters. In this way we learn that he was characterized
by a profound and spiritual piety; an intense loyalty to
Christ as in all things his Master and Lord ; singular
reverence for the Scriptures as the rule of faith and con-
duct ; an unconquerable trustfulness, giving him courage,
fortitude, and assurance of the future ; strong religious
affections and unfailing sympathies ; openness, frankness,
transparent sincerity ; an abhorrence of cant, pretense, and
indirection ; an exemplary walk and a scrupulous vigilance
of himself ; and his saintly spirit shone ever more brightly
until the last. His decisive personal influence was largely
founded in his conspicuous righteousness, fidelity, and
Doubtless many of us will recall, at this point, an esti-
mate of John Robinson by one of the most competent
and careful students who ever investigated his history.
It is the tribute of him who of all men, could the desires
of his brethren have been gratified, should have lived to
stand here today and dedicate a memorial in which he
was so deeply interested. I mean my distinguished and
lamented kinsman. Dr. Henry Martyn Dexter. It were a
grave omission not to repeat in this hour his well-consid-
ered and most forceful words : " That [ John Robinson]
was a good man, whose lustrous character was dimmed
by no stain of indiscretion, roughened by no hardness of
spirit ; who forsook all to follow what to him was Christ ;
who had large faculties, and used them at his best discre-
tion well for God and his fellows ; and who deserves the
world's grateful and unqualified respect — no faithful stu-
dent of his life and writings will deny. . . . Piety, learning,
energy, catholicity, and faith in the future, in the first
generation of the seventeenth century, would have saved
any man from mediocrity. The final judgment of devout,
scholars must decide they made John Robinson great.*'
The time came, as we all know, when Robinson and
Brewster were convinced that duty to themselves, their
children, and the kingdom of Christ, demanded the under-
taking of a new emigration, to a land where they could
be Englishmen and yet be free ; where they could perpet-
uate their own traditions, their own language, their own
faith ; and where, please God, they might " lay some good
foundation, or at least make some way thereunto, for the
propagating and advancing the gospel of the kingdom of
Christ in those remote parts of the world — yea, though
they should be but even as stepping-stones unto others
for the performing of so great a work.'* Dr. Bushnell
calls these adventurous spirits " great in their unconscious-
ness ; '* aye, but they were also great by reason of that of
which they were conscious, the inspiration of a great task,
the prompting of a great calling, the dim but fascinating
presentiment of a destiny of transcendent import to man-
kind. Into the history of that immortal adventure we
cannot go at this time ; but it is part of John Robinson's
record that he incited, promoted, counseled, and directed
it, from its inception to its execution, and hoped to join
the colony in due time, until he was summoned to a better
When, two hundred and seventy-one years ago this
very week, the 22d of July, he returned to his home
yonder, not without sadness of heart, after witnessing the
embarkation at Delftshaven, he doubtless felt that much
remained to be done here, and he had visions of a home
beyond the seas. But anxieties, hopes deferred and at
length rebuffed, domestic sorrows, and many discourage-
ments awaited him, to chasten, but never to break his
dauntless spirit. In less than five years his ministry was
ended, for God took him. Unlooked for came the last
messenger, but he was not unready. On the 4th of March,
1625, followed by the congregation, the ministers of the
city, the University, and a sympathizing community, his
remains were borne to their resting place beneath this
ancient church, " amid lamentations for the loss that not
alone his own communion, but all the churches of Christ
had sustained." Yet although his life was ended, his
work had but begun, and the abiding fame of it was un-
suspected of men. Not only has that fame continued —
its splendor has increased with every generation. And
now at length we, descendants of the Pilgrim Fathers,
proud of their blood and their faith, messengers of five
thousand churches and of uncounted Christian citizens in
the Great Republic, are here to call to remembrance his
inestimable services to Truth, to Liberty, to Civilization, to
Christ's Eternal Kingdom, and by this tablet, which we
are now solemnly to dedicate, to perpetuate that remem-
brance to coming generations. Fitly will it stand here,
a silent but eloquent memorial, telling to listening pos-
terity its story of faith and patience, of fortitude and
magnanimity, of heroism and triumph ! Yet it will not
be John Robinson's grandest monument. That is the
Great Republic itself, spanning the Western Continent,
rising conspicuous among the nations, cherishing the ex-
alted consciousness that in its broad area, and in its
intense life, civil and religious freedom far transcend-
ing the fathers' aspirations reigns universal, unassailable,
enthroned in the hearts of ever-multiplying millions.
We do not wonder if Leydeners love their fair and
famous city. We do not wonder if they take pride in
their renowned University, itself a monument of the hero-
ism of their fathers, and of an almost miraculous deliver-
ance from their ruthless besiegers. But they must indulge
us in the cherishing of a deep and tender interest in these
scenes so familiar to them, which we can hardly imagine
that they share. We come hither as to a venerated shrine.
We find sacredness in these streets, and take pleasure in
these stones. Here our fathers in a time of sorest need
found a welcome refuge; a respite from cruel persecu-
tions ; an opportunity to house their hunted families and
earn the bread their country denied them ; liberty to labor,
to love, to worship, and to learn ; to fulfill their vocation of
Christ; to gather wisdom, and energy, and courage for
their great mission over the wide Atlantic to New Eng-
land's rugged shore. Not without regrets did they leave
this " goodly and pleasant resting place,'* but the beckon-
ing of their destiny they could not resist. Dear and lov-
ing were the friends they left here, to meet them next in
heaven. Tenderly they remembered Leyden. And here
the dust of Robinson remains. These memories endear
to us, and will endear to our posterity, the very name of
Leyden. Long may its ancient towers salute the sun that
rises, and be gilded by the sun that sets ! Long may it
flourish, foster learning, and rejoice ! Happy and hoilor-
able be its future years ! Often shall the western breezes
bear to it the benisons of the children, of the Pilgrims !
In closing, there come to me recollections of the part-
ing counsels of Robinson, spoken over yonder ' the night
before the embarkation. I seem to catch the lingering
' Uncertain, but probable.
echoes of the words reported to us by Winslow. Let us
listen for a moment : " I charge you, before God and his
blessed angels, to follow me no further than I have fol-
lowed Christ ; and if God shall reveal anything to you by
any other instrument of his, to be as ready to receive it
as ever you were to receive any truth by my ministry.
For I am very confident the Lord hath more truth and
light yet to break forth out of his Holy Word. . . . But
withal take heed what you receive for truth, and well ex-
amine and compare it with other Scripture before you
receive it. For it is not possible that the Christian world
should come so lately out of such thick anti-Christian
darkness, and the full perfection of knowledge break forth
at once.'* Such was the spirit of this man of God, this
apostle of liberty, this leader of his age ; so radical and so
conservative ; so modest, so hopeful, so cautious. Wise be-
yond his generation, or his century, indeed ! Wise enough
to counsel even us, his remote ecclesiastical descendants ;
bidding us to be fixed in faith, free in the thinking which
faith inspires, hospitable to the truth which God reveals
through faith-inspired thought, tenacious of truth approved
through past experience of its spiritual force. What can
we counsel better than this in our own place and time ?
The words in which he indicated to the Pilgrim Fathers
their path across the ocean into the fateful future — the
path which was to prove to them the way of greatness and
of glory — still indicate to us the way into a future of ever
expanding and ever brightening enlightenment, and in-
spire us with assured expectation of still grander triumphs
of Christianity and of human freedom, and a larger, fuller,
richer life for ourselves and for our posterity !
To Dr. Palmer's address, although delivered in
English, unwavering attention was given to the end.
When he had concluded, Rev. F. A. Noble, D.D.,
took his place in the pulpit, and offered the dedi-
catory prayer in these words:
Almighty and most merciful God, our Heavenly Father,
in the name which is above every name we draw nigh unto
Thee, that we may acknowledge our dependence upon Thee,
and render thanks for all Thy manifold loving-kindnesses.
In all, and over all, Thy wisdom is manifest in the varying
providences in which the world has been set forward in
truth and in righteousness. Thou dost call great men and
they answer Thee, and great events turn upon the issues
which Thou Thyself hast determined. He whom we call
the Father of the Faithful heard Thy voice and did Thy
bidding. The great law-giver became Thy servant, and
the leader of Thy chosen people out of their bondage into
liberty, and through his lips came the commandments for
the moral government of mankind. Through all ages the
apostles and prophets have beheld the visions Thou hast
placed before them, and have fallen into obedience to Thy
divine will. We thank Thee for all of them, for the brave
words they have spoken, and for the brave deeds they have
done* Especially do we thank Thee for the gift of this
man whose memory is to be perpetuated in part by the
tablet unveiled today, in the midst of the community where
so much of his life was lived, where so many of his words
were spoken, where so much of his self-denial was prac-
ticed, and where he illustrated the grace of God in Christ
so eminently. We thank Thee for the rare endowments
which Thou gavest him ; for all the intellectual capabilities ;
for his moral qualities ; for his spiritual insight and over-
sight ; for his apprehension of the truth ; for his fidelity to
conscience ; for his patience ; for his love, and for his wise
and sweet shepherding of the souls which came within the
circle of his speech and influence. We thank Thee for
those particular qualities he possessed by which he was en-
abled to become the leader of the people out into a larger
place ; by which he could discern the needs of the times ;
by which he could do the work committed to his hands,
so that in after centuries those who came after him should
see that he was the inspirer and organizer of the great
religious movement which was to include all mankind in
its benefits ; whereby he could withhold his followers, even
though he himself had passed away, from giving his name
to the body he had called into existence, that all glory
might be given to Him who is Head of the Church, so
that the name of Christ might still be the name above
every name. We beseech Thee to receive at our hands
the dedication of this tablet which we bring in consecra-
tion to this great man's memory, and through him to the
Lord Jesus Christ who called him into His precious service.
Grant that we today in our own behalf, and in behalf of
those we represent, may catch such inspiration from this
service that Christ shall seem nearer and dearer to us, and
it shall be a greater joy to work in the service of Christ,
to witness for the truth, and to aid in winning souls into
His kingdom. Grant that we may feel how empty this
ceremony would be if in unveiling this tablet — that the
memory of this great servant of Jesus Christ may have
further perpetuation — we did not come into completed
consecration to the service of our Lord. May we catch
his spirit today; may it be within us to work with the
spirit in which he wrought. May his mind, in so far as
it was a mind in Christ, be in us, and may we plant our-
selves in a firm footing on the truths he apprehended and
which were so precious to him. May the Word of God be
the word of man, and may we hold the truths fast and
be prompt to receive any new light which shall break forth
from the Word of God, and so may this body of Christians,
which worships and works in the Congregational way, be
quickened and brought into higher loyalty to Christ. We
thank Thee for this hour, and we thank Thee that Thou.
didst put it into the hearts of Thy servants to accomplish
this pious work. Help us to cherish the memory of those
whom Thou hast called away from us, to remember those
who have thus wrought, those who are unable to be with
us, but who are with us in spirit ; and help them to feel
that wherever they are, they have helped to bear witness
to the truth. May Thy Spirit descend upon us, and grant
that in all our hearts there may be such a working of the
Divine Spirit that we may be called into loyalty to Jesus
Christ ; that conscience may have new dominion over us ;
and that we may work with new heart to bring all men
everywhere into the faith and fellowship of the Son of
God. We ask it in the name of Him who loved us with
infinite love, and who gave Himself to die for us on the
cross, and who is the risen Redeemer. May He pour in
His Divine Spirit upon our lives, that we may work day
by day and live in Him and in the Spirit, to Whom be
praise evermore. Amen.
Dr. Palmer then formally consummated the
dedication of the tablet in the following sentences:
Now, therefore, we, Samuel C. Bartlett, Eliphalet W.
Blatchford, George E. Day, Morton Dexter, John K. Mc-
Lean, Charles Ray Palmer, and William A. Robinson, by
authority to us intrusted, in the name of the National
Council of the Cougregational Churches in the
United States of America — delegates from the Con-
gregational Union of England and Wales and from the
International Council of Congregational Churches lately
assembled in London, together "with representatives of
Yale University, the University of Leyden, and Mansfield
College in Oxford, present and assisting — do solemnly
set apart and dedicate this Bronze Tablet, which we have
erected, to the perpetuation of the venerable and sacred
memory of the erudite scholar, the devoted minister, the
saintly man, whose name it bears — John Robinson, M.A.,
the Pastor of the Pilgrim Church, the projector and spirit-
ual father of the Plymouth Colony ; and we declare this
dedication duly and irrevocably accomplished. And for
the grace vouchsafed to that blessed man, and to our
forefathers, and to us their descendants and fellow ser-
vants — to God Almighty, the Father, the Son, the Holy
Ghost, we give praise now and evermore ! Amen.
Turning to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners
of the city of Leyden, he also addressed them
To the Honorable^ the Ecclesiastical Commissioners.
Gentlemen : This tablet, which we have brought
from our far away home and dedicated to the perpetual
remembrance of John Robinson, we now take pleasure in
committing to your honorable keeping. We heartily thank
you for the gracious permission to erect it here. We
thank you also for the kindly sympathy with us in our
filial purpose, manifested by your presence with us today.
To you, and to your successors forever, we now convey
and deliver this memorial in which we feel so deeply
interested, assured that our trust is by you cordially
accepted, and that it will be safe in your hands. Receive
with it, gentlemen, assurances of the highest considera-
tion on the part of ourselves and of the churches and
institutions we have the honor to represent ; and also of
our best wishes and our prayers for the peace and prog-
ress of the churches of Leyden, and of all the churches
of this ancient and honorable realm.
Several responses to this address were then
made. The first speaker was Mr. E. van den
Brandeler, who spoke in Dutch as follows :
Very Reverend Gentlemen: The Ecclesiastical Com-
mission of the Netherlandish Reformed Church, which
I have the honor to represent on this occasion, tender to
you their thanks for the manner in which you have per-
formed an act of filial regard, in doing which neither
pains nor expense have been spared. You have not been
deterred by the distance from crossing the ocean and com-
ing to us in order to devote this hour to an impressive
ceremonial. We are proud to see this elegant and at the
same time simple monument which adorns our church.
Tell it far and wide, gentlemen, on your return to the
New World, that in the Netherlands, also, hearts beat at
the memory of John Robinson. He was a great man, who
bravely strove for his faith, and labored with unsparing
self-sacrifice to promote the religious welfare of his con-
gregation. It is appointed to man once to die. Even
great men die ; but the memory of the righteous is blessed
forever. The Ecclesiastical Commission regard it as a
sacred duty to hold this monument in honor, and gladly
take it under their protection.
The next speaker was the Burgomaster of the
city of Leyden, Mr. E. M. De Laat de Kanter.
He also spoke in Dutch, and as follows:
Ladies and Gentlemen : The celebration in which we
here unite has rather a religious than a civil character, yet
it is not exclusively religious. It commemorates the time
when the Pilgrim Fathers settled in Leyden, and the wel-
come they received from the authorities and citizens. All
this has not been forgotten, but is gratefully remembered
by their posterity. The visits so often made to the old
memorial stone show that the memory of all this survived
in their hearts. The sphere of our city government is
different from that of the Ecclesiastical Commission. All
that we, on our part, can do, is to see that the memorial
tablet is treated with proper regard by our people. There
is no reason to fear the contrary. We are living no longer
in a time of religious animosity, when men hate and despise
each other for differing in opmion. I am reminded by this
occasion of the time of persecution which made the coming
of your ancestors to this land both desirable and neces-
sary. It is not so very long — not more than half a cen-
tury — since the principle of entire religious freedom has
been recognized. At heart it was held by our people, but
the abolition of the laws which interfered with it was
forgotten. It was only when dissenters were persecuted
more on "account of the law than on account of their opin-
ions, that those laws were abolished. And now I assure
you that, so far as it depends upon the executive authority
of the city of Leyden, the memorial tablet shall be safe with
us. If the memory of Robinson was honored by us before,
it will be none the less now that this monument is erected.
As you return to your own country, present to your people
the assurance that we shall ever think of you, your pos-
terity, and your ancestors, with respect. The memory of
the Pilgrim Fathers has now once more been revived by
this memorial tablet. In Leyden it shall be safe.
The representative of Leyden University, Prof.
A. Kuenen, D.D., spoke first in Dutch. Said he:
In the name of the Leyden University, which in the
absence of the Rector Magnificus I have the honor to
represent, I thank the Committee for having invited us
to be present at this ceremony. In doing so they have
met a wish which we cherished ; perhaps I ought to say
they have recognized what we might claim as a right.
Wherever honor is paid to the memory of John Robinson,
the Leyden University may not be wanting. The orator
of the day has reminded us that Robinson, although the
years of his college life had long passed, was registered
here at his own request as a student in theology. His
object certainly was not simply to enjoy the privileges
which were then accorded to the members of the Univer-
sity. No ; it was because he was heartily in sympathy
with the view of Christian truth which was zealously and
ably defended by the majority of its professors, and wished
to share in their scientific life. It is testified of him that
he took part also in the controversy of those days. Sev-
eral of the Leyden professors were among his friends, and
when, in 1625, his remains were buried in this very church
edifice, representatives of the University were among the
Since that sorrowful day more than two centuries and
a half have passed ; but yet — we have the evidence of it
before us — John Robinson is living on in the grateful
remembrance not only of his spiritual descendants, but of
the whole North American people. We esteem it a priv-
ilege to join by our presence in the beautiful tribute now
paid to his memory. Opinions and forms pass away, but
the principle represented so well by Robinson and his con-
gregation remains eternally true, and claims our entire
sympathy. For conscience' sake they left their native
country and sought refuge here. They made every sacri-
fice for the liberty of serving God in accordance with their
own convictions, and therefore they receive only what is
their due in the place of honor they hold in the period of
history anterior to the existence of the North American
Republic. The memorial tablet, consecrated by a grateful
posterity to their leader, Robinson, honors and adorns our
city. But beyond this it may be added that in Leyden,
which owes its flourishing state and its University to its
struggle for freedom, and in near proximity to the Univer-
sity whose vital principle is and will ever be liberty, this
monument has found its appropriate place.
And now, having spoken in Dutch, as became the
representative of a Dutch university, I beg to add a few
words in English :
Ladies and Gentlemen : When you have gbne back to
America, tell your countrymen that the citizens of Ley den
and the membe rs of its University are proud to possess in
the midst of us the monument you have dedicated today,
and that we like to consider it as a pledge of the future
lasting friendship of both the countries — America and our
Fatherland — whose early history, as that monument testi-
fies, is so closely identified. Tell them that we say that
in that monument we have a pledge of hearty cooperation
in the common love for civil and religious freedom.
The closing speaker was Rev. A. M. Fairbairn,
D.D., principal of Mansfield College, Oxford Uni-
versity, England. His address was as follows:
It is as a connecting link between Holland and Amer-
ica that I am called to stand here. The American people
are still English, and for the English people Holland has
done many services of the kind she rendered when she
gave to John Robinson a home. Your victory was ours ;
if defeat had come tp you in the struggle with Spain,
we could never have prevailed. The event which distin-
guished your town and founded your University, your
delivery from your city's great besiegement, saved our
freedom. On your soil, though for our common good, our
Sidney shed his blood. Here, when once you had won your
freedom, you gave a hospitable home to all who had need.
Our fugitives learned from your Mennonites the principles
of the toleration they returned to teach to their own people.
Our Ames, your Amesius, forsook his own home, took part
in your high debate at Dordt, and settled as professor at
Francker. Later Thomas Goodwin and Philip Nye found
here a home, and learned the principles of freedom and
independency which they returned to argue for in the
Westminster Assembly. Your hospitable welcome was
not denied to the men who found the England of the
Commonwealth an uncongenial home, while your Salma-
sius in stately Latin defended our king and accused our
people, and our Milton in still statelier Latin defended
our people and accused our king. Here, too, came our
Scotch Covenanters and waited through evil days for the
brighter times that were to dawn. On the walls of your
library stands a tablet which tells that the dust lies here
of John, Earl of Loudoun, one who contended and suf-
fered much in our stern Northern wars. In the same
period Gilbert Burnet, later a prelate of the English
Church, helped to make a happier home for your William
and our Mary, and to prepare your prince to become our
king. And near his court lived a quiet scholar, John
Locke, who used the leisure of his exile to write certain
letters on toleration, which did much to create a broader
freedom in our land. And in the century that followed,
when to our fathers the English universities were closed,
the learning that enabled Lardner to write his Credibility
of the Gospel History^ and Neale his History of the Puri-
tans, was obtained here.
Our peoples, then, have lived in closest terms of inter-
course. You have been generous in your hospitality to
our persecuted men and causes ; and it is to me a proud
privilege to be allowed to stand here and confess our
obligations. Long may our peoples, our faiths, and our
churches live together in holy and beautiful friendship,
and be united in their common and faithful service of
freedom, civil and religious ! By these we stand, and the
name we have this day honored sanctions and consecrates
our common and mutual love !
At the end of these addresses the audience
sang Mrs. Hemans' hymn :
The breaking waves dashed high
On a stem and rock-bound coast,
And the woods against a stormy sky
Their giant branches tossed ;
And the heavy night hung dark
The hills and waters o'er,
When a band of exiles moored their bark
On the wild New England shore.
Not as the conqueror comes.
They, the true-hearted, came ;
Not with the roll of the stirring drums,
And the trumpet that sings of fame ;
Not as the flying come,
In silence and in fear —
They shook the depths of the desert gloom
With their hymns of lofty cheer.
Amidst the storm they sang,
And the stars heard and the sea ;
And the sounding aisles of the dim woods rang
To the anthem of the free.
The ocean eagle soared
From his nest by the white wave's foam,
And the rocking pines of the forest roared —
This was their welcome home !
What sought they thus afar ?
Bright jewels of the mine ?
The wealth of seas, the spoils of war ?
They sought a faith's pure shrine !
Aye, call it holy ground.
The soil where first they trod !
They have left unstained what there they found —
Freedom to worship God.
After the singing, Dr. Palmer concluded the
exercises with the benediction.
The Committee of the National Council can-
not close its report without putting on record an
expression of its appreciation of the valuable assist-
ance rendered by Professor J. F. Weir, of the School
of the Fine Arts in Yale University, in the selec-
tion of the style of the tablet and the design of
the " Mayflower ; " by Mr. E. F. Aucaigne, connected
with the Henry Bonnard Bronze Co., of New York,
in his intelligent and sympathetic superintendence
of the construction and shipping of the tablet ; and
by Mr. F. de Stoppelaer, of the famous publishing
house of E. J. Brill, of Leyden, through his manifold,
unwearied, and indispensable cooperation in respect
to the reception, erection, and dedication of the
For the Committee.
George E. Day.
Charles Ray Palmer.
Subscribers to the John Robinson Memorial Fund.
r Mr. Eugene F. Aucaigne, New York
Mr. Henry Baldwin, New York . . . .
Prof. Simeon E. Baldwin, New Haven^ Conn, .
Mr. A. S. Barnes's children, by Dr. Charles R. Palmer,
Hon. E. W. Blatchford, Chicago^ III,
Brooklyn (N. Y.) Congregational Club, by Richard
S. Barnes, Treas
Hon. Peter Burns, Syracuse^ NY,
Mr. Samuel B. Capen, Boston^ Mass,
Clinton (Conn.) Congregational church, by Rev.
Thomas A. Emerson
Connecticut Congregational Club, by L. W. Ripley,
Treas. (to complete the sum of $400 contributed
by members of the Club) .
Dea. Alexander L. Cum mock, Lowell^ Mass.
Rev. E. Curtis, Buffalo, NY, ...
Mr. Frederick A. Cushman, New York ,
Mr. Charles W. Cushman, Philadelphia, Penn,
Prof, and Mrs. James D. Dana, New Haven, Conn,
Prof. George E. Day, New Haven, Conn,
Mr. George Denison, yamaica Plain, Mass,
Prof. Franklin B. Dexter, New Haven, Conn,
*Rev. Henry M. Dexter, D.D., Boston, Mass,, by
Rev. Morton Dexter ....
Mr. Thomas Doane, Charlestown, Mass,
Dea. John Dunn, Syracuse, NY, ,
Rev. Henry Fairbanks, D.D., St, Johnsbury, Vt,
Mr. Edward Ferris, New York
Rev. Frank S. Fitch, Buffalo, N Y,
Mrs. William Fitch, New Haven, Conn, .
Glastonbury (Conn.) Congregational church, by W
Rev. William E. Griffis, D.D., Boston^ Mass, .
Mr. W. C. Hamilton, Fond du Lac^ Wis,
Mr. Hamilton A. Hill, Boston^ Mass.
Mr. Reuben Hutchinson, Lowell^ Mass,
Mr. Leonard A. Jenkins, New York
Mr. E. A. Jewell, Hartford^ Conn. .
Mr. Charles L. Lovering, Taunton^ Mass
Dea. Sewell G. Mack, Lowell^ Mass.
Mr, Roland Mather, Hartford^ Conn.
New York Congregational Club, by Dea. J. H
Rev. E. M. Packard, Syracuse^ N. Y.
Rev. A. F. Pierce, Middletown^ N. Y.
Rev. William A. Robinson, D.D., Horner^ N. Y,
Mrs. Sarah B. A. Robinson and daughters. Wash
ington, D.C. ,
Dea. Jacob Rogers, Lowell^ Mass. .
Rev. A. Hastings Ross, D.D., Port Huron, Mich.
Rev. Edward A. Smith, Hartford, Conn. .
Rev. R. S. Storrs, D.D., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Mrs. Susan M. Sturges, Mansfield, O.
Mr. Ezekiel H. Trowbridge, New Haven, Conn.
Rev. George Leon Walker, D.D., Hartford, Conn.
Mr. Stephen A. Walker, Hartford, Conn. .
Prof. Williston Walker, Hartford, Conn. .
Wethersfield (Conn.) Congregational church, by Rev
Wm. H. Teel
Mr. G. Henry Whitcomb, Worcester, Mass,
Mr. William H. White, Lowell, Mass.
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